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THE NEW DEAL FINE 
ARTS PROJECTS 

A Bibliography, 1933-1992 



by 

Martin R. Kalfatovic 







The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 

Metuchen, NJ., & London 

1994 



a 



British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data available 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 



Kalfatovic, Martin R., 1961- 

The New Deal fine arts projects : a bibliography, 1933- 
1992 / by Martin R. Kalfatovic. 
p. cm. 

Includes indexes. 

ISBN 0-8108-2749-2 (acid-free paper) 

1. Federal aid to art — United States — Bibliography. 
2. Art — Conservation and restoration — United States — 
Bibliography. 3. New Deal, 1933-1939. I. Tide. 
Z5961.U5K36 1994 
[N8837] 
016.3530085'4— dc 20 93-31 1 16 

Copyright © 1994 by Mardn R. Kalfatovic 
Manufactured in the United States of America 

Printed on acid-free paper 



To Mary 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Acknowledgments yii 

A New Deal Fine Arts Project Chronology ix 

Listof Abbreviations and Acronyms xix 

Introduction: A Silver Lining to the Great Depression xxi 

Annotated Bibliography 

1933-1934 1 

1935 28 

1936 48 

1937 78 

1938 115 

1939 158 

1940 190 
1941-1943 213 
1944-1969 241 
1970-1974 272 
1975-1979 290 
1980-1985 309 
1986-1992 336 

APPENDIX A: Who's Who in the New Deal Fine Arts 

Projects 367 

APPENDIX B: Exhibitions of New Deal Art, 1934-1990 374 
APPENDIX C: Section Competitions, October 16, 1934, 

to July 1943 417 

APPENDIX D: WPA/FAP Community Art Centers 441 

APPENDIX E: PWAP Regions and Regional Directors 446 

APPENDIX F: Legislation for a Permanent Art Project 448 

Author Index 451 

Subject Index 467 

About the Author 505 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Thanks to the staff of the Archives of American Art, past, 
present, and future, without whom research on the New Deal 
art projects would be a much more difficult task. 

Thanks also to the staff of the Library of Congress. 

A very special thanks to the inter-library loan librarians of 
Arlington Public Library, particularly Sally Dewey; and at 
The Catholic University of America, Ann Hiller, for finding 
all those obscure master's theses and endless rolls of micro- 
film. 

And thanks to my wife, Mary, for putting up with having 
every museum visit turned into a game of "who's who in the 
New Deal." 



Vll 



A NEW DEAL FINE ARTS 
PROJECT CHRONOLOGY 



1929 

October 1929 

Stock market plunge heralds beginning of the Great 

Depression 



1932 



November 1932 

FDR elected President 



1933 



March 20, 1933 

FDR inaugurated 

May 9, 1933 

The artist George Biddle writes to FDR urging the imple- 
mentation of a Federal program to support the artists of 
America 

May 12, 1933 

Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 approved; creates 
the Federal Emergency Relief Administration with Harry 
L. Hopkins as administrator 

June 1933 

Procurement Division created within the Treasury Depart- 
ment 

ix 



X The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

November 9, 1933 

President Roosevelt, by executive order, creates the Civil 
Works Administration under which the PWAP was initiated 

December 8, 1933 
PWAP initiated 



1934 

February 1934 

Artists' Union formed to protect and forward the rights of 
the artist 

April 24-May 20, 1934 

"National Exhibition of Art by the Public Works of Art 
Project" opens at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washing- 
ton, DC 

May 20, 1934 

PWAP terminated; projects already begun continue under 
various funding schemes until July 1935 

October 16, 1934 

Section of Painting and Sculpture created by order of 
Henry Morgenthau 

November 1934 

First issue of Art Front 



1935 

May 6, 1935 

Executive Order 7034 creates the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration 

July 25, 1935 

TRAP established with WPA funds 



Chronology 



XI 



August 2, 1935 

Federal Project Number One announced; Holger Cahill 
named national director of the FAP 

August 29, 1935 

First Federal monies allocated to Federal One 

November 26, 1935 

Administrative Order No. 35 issued by Hopkins; the order 
exempts up to 25% of Federal One employees from 
meeting relief requirements (the rest of the WPA is limited 
to 10% non-reUef employees) 

December 27, 1935 

Federal Art Project Gallery opened in New York City 



1936 

June 30, 1936 

Employment on Federal One peaks at 44,797 

July 1936 

Jacob Baker, assistant head of the WPA and active pro- 
moter of Federal One, resigns; Ellen S. Woodward replaces 
Baker 

August 1936 

Colonel Brehon B. Somervell named head of WPA in New 

York City 

September 14-October 12, 1936 

"New Horizons in American Art" opens at the Museum of 
Modern Art 



December 1, 1936 

Protesting changes in the FAP, artists riot in New York City; 
219 arrested 



xii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1937 

January 1, 1937 

Sirovic h l)ill, H.J. Res. 79, introduced 

August 16, 1937 

Coffee bill, H.R. 8239, introduced 

November 1937 

Harlem C^ommunity Art Center opens 

1938 

January 21, 1938 

Revised Coffee bill, H.R. 9102, introduced, Pepper bill, S. 
3296, introduced; in Senate 

June 15, 1938 

Sirovich bill (H.R. 671) tabled by a vote of 195 to 35, 
effectively killing it 

June 27, 1938 

Administrative Order No. 62 cuts monthly wages on Fed- 
eral One (average wage in New York City goes from 
$103.40 to $96.00) 

July 1, 1938 

TRAP discontinued 

October 1938 

Section of Painting and Sculpture renamed Section of 
Fine Arts 

December 1938 

Hopkins resigns as head of WPA to become Secretary of 
Commerce 

Ellen S. Woodward resigns as head of Women's and 
Professionals' Projects 



Chronology xiii 

December 24, 1938 

Francis C. Harrington named as head of WPA 



1939 

January 3, 1939 

Florence Kerr named head of Women's and Professionals' 
Projects 

April 4 through October 15, 1939 

"Frontiers of American Art," opens at the M.H. de Young 
Museum in San Francisco 

July 1, 1939 

FDR's Reorganization Plan takes effect transferring the 
Works Progress Administration to the newly created Fed- 
eral Works Agency and renaming it the Work Projects 
Administration 

Under the same Reorganization Plan, the Section is trans- 
ferred from the Treasury Department to the Federal 
Works Agency 

July 31, 1939 

General Letter No. 278 demands that all WPA Federal One 
projects have non-WPA sponsorship and changes their 
name to the WPA Arts Projects 

September 1939 

World War II begins in Europe; in the United States, 
governmental activity begins to shift from relief to defense 

November 2-21, 1939 

Section art show: "Exhibition: Painting and Sculpture 
Designed for Federal Buildings" at the Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, Washington, DC 

September 1939 

New York World's Fair, a major showcase of WPA/FAP and 
Section work, opens 



xiv The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

December 17, 1939 

Death of (Congressman William I. Sirovich, staunch sup- 
porter of the New Deal art projects and sponsor of fine arts 
legislation 



1940-1945 

February 10, 1940 

Operating Procedure No. G-5 puts the WPA/FAP under 
the Division of Community Service 

September 30, 1940 

Francis C. Harrington dies; replaced as head of WPA by 
Howard O. Hunter 

November 25-December 1, 1940 

"National Art Week" sponsored by the Section and WPA/ 
FAP 

December 7, 1941 

Attack on Pearl Harbor draws the United States into World 
War II 

February 10, 1942 

Division of Community Service (under which the WPA/ 
FAP was operating) becomes the Service Division 

April 18, 1942 

Service Letter No. 3 discontinues nearly all WPA/FAP 
activities 

January 27, 1943 

Death of Edward Bruce 

June 30, 1943 

All arts projects of the WPA officially come to an end with 
the termination of the WPA 

July 1943 

Section ceases to operate 



chronology xv 

February 1944 

Hundreds of WPA/FAP canvases sold by the pound to a 
New Jersey junk dealer as surplus material 

June 1944 

Tax Payer's Murals, first dissertation on New Deal art 
projects after their completion, written by Erica B. Ruben- 
stein at Harvard University 

April 12, 1945 

Death of FDR 



1946-1960 

January 29, 1946 

Death of Harry L. Hopkins, former WPA administrator 

1950 

Publication of Erwin O. Christensen's The Index of American 
Design 

May 31, 1960 

Death of Forbes Watson 

Julys, 1960 

Death of Holger Cahill 



1961-1970 

September 16-October 7, 1961 

"Art of the Thirties" at Smolin Gallery, New York; first 
exhibition of New Deal art since the end of the projects. 

1962 

Archives of American Art acquires the papers of Edward 
Bruce, laying the groundwork for its massive documenta- 
tion of the New Deal art projects 



xvi The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1963 

Archives of American Art begins major collection project 
of material related to the New Deal art projects 

July 9, 1963 

"The U.S. Government Art Project: Some Distinguished 
Alumni" opens at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art; 
first major exhibition of New Deal art 

April 6-May 13, 1966 

"Federal Patronage: 1933-1943" exhibition of New Deal 
art at the University of Maryland organized by Dr. Francis 
V. O'Connor begins a major reevaluation of the New Deal 
art projects 

1969 
Francis V. O'Connor publishes Federal Support for the Visual 
Arts 

1969 to 1985 

Major phase of New Deal art project scholarship, that of 
documenting the projects and locating works of art, docu- 
ments, and artists involved on the various projects; exhibi- 
tions and monographs reintroduce the public to this "art 
for the people" 



1973-1990 

1973 

Francis V. O'Connor publishes Art for the Millions, a collec- 
tion of essays planned by Holger Cahill for publication in 
1936 

1979 

Karal Ann Marling's "New Deal Iconography" in Prospects 
among the first to initiate second phase of New Deal art 
project scholarship, that of interpreting, aesthetically, so- 
cially, and semiotically, the meaning of the art works 



Chronology xvii 

produced; Marling expands this in Wall to Wall America 
(1982) 

1980 

First pubhcation (on microfiche) of the complete collec- 
tion of Index of American Design 

1982-1983 

In honor of the 50th anniversary of the Roosevelt Adminis- 
tration, many museums and galleries hold New Deal art 
project exhibitions 

1989-1990 

The National Endowment for the Arts faces cutbacks and 
has its existence threatened for many of the same reasons 
the New Deal art projects were gutted 50 years earlier in 
1939 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND 
ACRONYMS 



AAA Archives of American Art (Smithsonian 

Institution) 

AAPL American Artists' Professional League 

AIA American Institute of Architects 

B/W Black and white illustration 

CWA Civil Works Administration 

DAI Dissertations Abstracts International 

FAP Federal Art Project 

FERA Federal Emergency Relief Administration 

FMP Federal Music Project 

FTP Federal Theatre Project 

FVO See Entry #1335 

FWA Federal Works Agency 

FWP Federal Writers' Project 

GPO General Printing Office 

GSA General Services Administration 

HARPURS Harpur's Index to Master's Theses in Art 

HMSG Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

(Smithsonian Institution) 

IAD Index of American Design 

MAI Masters Abstracts International 

MCDONALD See Entry # 1334 

MET CAT Library catalog of the Metropolitan Museum 

of Art 

MOMA Museum of Modern Art 

NCFA National Collection of Fine Arts 

(Smithsonian Institution) ; Later NMAA 

NMAA National Museum of American Art 

OCLC Online Computer Library Catalog 

PWA Public Works Administration 

PWAP Public Works of Art Project 

xix 



XX 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Section Treasury Department Section of Painting and 

Sculpture (later, Section of Fine Arts) 
TDAP Treasuiy Department Ait Projects (covering 

both the Section and TRAP) 
TERA Temporary Emergency Relief Administradon 

TRAP Treasury Relief Art Project 

VF Verdcal File 

WILCOX See Enuy # 0134 

WPA Works Progress Administration (after 1939, 

Work Projects Administration) 
WPA/FAP General term covering all art projects of the 

WPA, 1935-1943 



INTRODUCTION: 

A SILVER LINING TO THE GREAT 

DEPRESSION 



Prelude 

When in October 1929 the New York Stock Exchange 
plunged dramatically and heralded the start of the Great 
Depression, artists soon felt the impact of this financial 
calamity. Former patrons quickly turned their fiscal attention 
to their own increasingly desperate situation. Even more 
than before, art was seen as a luxury America could not 

afford. 

As the economic crisis worsened, President Hoover's at- 
tempts to assuage the damage to the nation's economy met 
with litde success. By the time the 1932 election rolled 
around. Hoover stood little chance of re-election. 

When FDR was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, American 
artists had no promise of assistance. Their plight was so 
precarious that Audrey McMahon (director of the College 
Art Association and editor of its journal Parnassus) felt 
compelled to ask "May the Artist Live?"i McMahon an- 
swered her own question with a qualified yes. Drawing from 
the examples of community and state relief projects for 
artists in New York, McMahon asked for more of the same. 
Additionally, she called for a concerted national effort to aid 
the American artist, both for his/her own good and the good 
of America: 

In all industries we are making use of our national 
resources, to aid our own people. Let us make use of the 
talents of our own artists. Let us aid ourselves and our 
children to a better and clearer understanding, and 
thus improve the condition of the community, keep 

xxi 



xxii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

unemployed boys and girls constructively occupied, 
beautify our public buildings, put teachers into our 
neighborhood houses and schools. Let us banish apathy 
and misunderstanding and open our minds to an ap- 
preciation of the beautiful. Let us so condition our- 
selves that it may be said of us by posterity that this was 
an era of cultural development. And let us help the 
American artist to live.- 

In just a few months, and after prodding and prompting 
from a number of quarters, FDR's New Deal made its first 
effort to include the American artist. 



Uncle Sam: Patron of the Arts 

The New Deal created not one, but four art projects: three 
distinct and one related. The Public Works of Art Project 
(PWAP) , the WPA's Federal Art Project (WPA/FAP) , and the 
Section of Painting and Sculpture (the Section) were sepa- 
rate entities with little or no overlapping of functions. The 
Treasury Relief Art Project (TRAP), though administered by 
the Section, was funded with WPA monies and generally 
employed Federal Art Project or Section artists. 

The distinctions were not always clear to the public even at 
the time. In our own era they have become even more 
blurred as the passing years have stirred the New Deal's 
alphabet soup into an incomprehensible goulash of initials 
and acronyms. A later statement by McMahon claimed that 
the projects were "one and the same thing. "^ However, this 
was not so; each of the New Deal art projects was a distinct 
entity with its own rules, regulations, and goals. 



Biddle, Bruce, and the PWAP 

CREATION OF THE PWAP 

The younger artists of America are conscious as they 
have never been of the social revolution that our coun- 
try and civilization are going through; and they would 



Introduction ^^"* 

be eager to express these ideals in a permanent art form 
if they were given the government's co-operation. 

George Biddle was already an established artist when he 
wrote the above to the newly elected FDR in 1933. Biddle was 
a graduate of both Harvard and Groton, as was FDR. Though 
it has been debated whether this nudge from a schoolboy 
acquaintance sparked FDR's interest in providing some sort 
of Federal assistance to the American artist, FDR's quick 
response ("It is very delightful to hear from you and I am 
interested in your suggestion")^ as well as the enthusiasm 
both he and Eleanor Roosevelt expressed for the art projects 
indicate that Riddle's suggestion fell on fertile ground. 

Whether it was Biddle 's prompting or that and a combina- 
tion of other factors, on November 29, 1933, Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury Lawrence W. Robert, Jr., invited 
Frederic A. Delano, Charles Moore, Rexford Tugwell, Harry 
L. Hopkins, Henry T. Hunt, and Edward Bruce to serve on a 
committee known as the Advisory Committee to the Treasury 
on Fine Arts. First meeting on December 8 at Edward Bruce's 
Washington home with all the members of the committee as 
well as Eleanor Roosevelt and an impressive list of the 
directors of America's foremost museums present, the Com- 
mittee soon drew up a working plan for an effort to assist 
America's artists. 

By five o'clock that afternoon, the foundations of the 
Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) as well as its basic 
operating procedure were settied upon. Being a governmen- 
tal agency and bound by the red tape such an association 
entails, among the first acts of the PWAP were the hiring of 
clerks, accountants, and disbursers. All was not bureaucracy, 
however, and within four days of the founding of the PWAP 
(on December 12, 1933) , the first of the allocated 2,500 artist 
slots were being filled. 

EDWARD BRUCE AND THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PWAP 

If George Biddle was an instigator of the plan of the PWAP, 
Edward Bruce brought about its reality. Bruce, a lawyer and 
business executive, had abandoned his private practice for a 



xxiv The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

career in public service. A respected artist by 1933, Bruce was 
able to bring the varying sensibilities of the artist, the lawyer, 
the businessman, and the politician together for the 
advancement of the PWAP and later the Section.^ 

The PWAP divided the country into 16 regions, each one 
of which was supervised by a Regional Committee, usually 
chaired by a prominent figure in the art world (see Appendix 
E for a list of the regions and the chairmen). 

From December 11, 1933, through June 30, 1934, the 
PWAP employed a total of 3,749 different artists. The total 
cost of the PWAP was $1,312,177.93 of which $1,184,748.32 
(90.29%) went to artists' salaries. 

In April and May of 1934, a huge display of PWAP work was 
exhibited at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington. The 
exhibition consisted of 511 items (out of 15,663 completed) 
including eight large murals, seven galleries of oil paintings, 
two more of watercolors and prints, a number of sculptures, 
a selection of Indian arts (rugs, paintings, pottery), and a 
sampling of modern crafts. 

The exhibition was an almost unanimous critical success. 
Mary Morsell commented in Art News that "the work of many 
of the P.W.A.P. artists seems to show a certain psychological 
relief and gratitude for this opportunity to paint without the 
subconscious necessity of following and anticipating the 
latest trends in modern style. "^ Large crowds filled the 
galleries at the Corcoran and Edward Bruce 's PWAP ap- 
peared to be one of the early successes of the New Deal. 

CONTROVERSY 

The PWAP was not without controversy. Much of the trouble 
centered around the hiring practices of the PWAP offices in 
New York City. Juliana Force, director of the Whimey Museum 
of American Art, was first attacked by more conservative artist 
organizations (such as the Society of Mural Painters and the 
American Artists Professional League) for promoting "mod- 
em" art at their expense; more radical elements accused her 
of ignoring radical and militant artists. By early January 1934, a 
series of misunderstandings and confrontations between Force 
and the radical artists led to skirmishes with the police and 



Introduction^ xxv 

eventually forced Force to move the PWAP's New York office 
from the Whitney Museum. 

Though stylistic controversies did occur within the PWAP, it 
was thematic content and the politics of the artists themselves 
that were most controversial. They would continue to dog all 
government sponsorship of the arts down to the present. 

The Coit Memorial Tower in San Francisco was completed 
in 1933 and in the early months of 1934, the PWAP was 
commissioned to decorate the interior with murals. When 
journalists inspected the murals before the opening, it was 
noticed that many of the panels contained such "un- 
American" images as portrayals of radical union leaders, 
Communist literature in library and newsstand scenes, and a 
red star. 

After much heated debate and a flurry of memos between 
Washington and San Francisco, the Tower eventually opened 
to the public a few months late with only the red star 
removed. 

END OF THE PWAP 

Funding for the PWAP was limited. Though there were a 
number of protests by artists and others to continue the 
PWAP, on June 30, 1934, the project came to an end. 
Lawrence W. Roberts, Jr., Assistant Secretary of the Treasury 
in his final Report on the PWAP concludes his comments thus: 

It [the PWAP] has enriched the country to an extent 
that cannot be estimated, and taught us definitely that 
some organization like the Public Works of Art project 
will always deserve the support of an enlightened gov- 
ernment.^ 



The Section of Fine Arts 

CREATION 

Perhaps to prove itself an enlightened government, the 
Roosevelt Administration soon found a governmental body 



xxvi The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

capable, if not always willing, to inherit the brief legacy of the 
PWAP. Through one of those odd quirks of administrative 
bureaucracy, the United States Treasury Department 
(through its Procurement Division and that divisions' 
predecessors) had been responsible for all Federal architec- 
ture since the eighteenth century. This set-up made the 
Treasury Department responsible for the construction of all 
Federal buildings, including local post offices throughout 
the counti'y. 

With the memory of the success of the PWAP and contin- 
ued calls for further governmental sponsorship of the arts, 
the Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morganthau Jr. (on 
October 16, 1934) established the Section of Painting and 
Sculpture.* 

FUNDING AND ADMINISTRATION 

The Section, as it came to be known, was administratively 
placed in the Procurement Division Public Works Branch 
(after July 1, 1936, the Public Buildings Branch) of the 
Treasury Department. The Procurement Division had been 
created in 1933 in an attempt to simplify government con- 
tracting by bringing the architecture, engineering, and sup- 
ply aspects of the Federal government under the control of a 
single Director of Procurement. That the decoration of 
Federal buildings would be another key element, just like the 
design or engineering of the buildings, was the logic of 
placing the Section within the Procurement Division.^ 

The Section's administration was full of familiar faces from 
the days of the PWAP: Edward Bruce was the new director of 
the Section; Edward Rowan was named assistant director; 
and Forbes Watson was appointed as advisor. 

The primary function of the Section was to 

be directed toward the selection of art objects of high 
quality for the decoration of public buildings in those 
cases where funds for this purpose are available. The 
cooperation of people throughout the country inter- 



*In October of 1938, the Section of Painting and Sculpture was renamed the Section 
of Fine Arts. 



Introduction xxvii 

ested in art will be sought, and the artists of the 
communities selected will be encouraged to submit 
their works for acceptance. . . . The quality of the work 
will be the test in all cases.^^ 

Relief, it should be noted, was never among the stated goals 
of the Section. Unlike any of the other New Deal art projects, 
the Section was concerned only with an artist's ability and not 
his financial status. 

It was Edward Bruce 's initial goal to have the Section 
supported through money that had already been appropri- 
ated. Existing rules set aside up to 1% of the cost of Federal 
buildings for decoration. The Section was to use this money 
to commission artists to adorn Federal buildings with murals, 
sculpture, and other "art objects." As it turned out, the 1% 
figure was more often a hope than a reality for most Federal 
construction. Bruce spent much of his time fighting with 
architects, planners and Treasury officials for his funds. ^^ 

COMPETITIONS AND COMMISSIONS 

To parcel out the commissions for the work that would be 
generated by this funding, the Section began a series of 
competitions that would be its hallmark and distinguish it in 
concept from the WPA/FAP. 

Not all Section work— and in fact only a small percen- 
tage* — ^was actually commissioned by competition. A great 
deal of Section work was actually completed by artists who 
were chosen directly by the official staff of the Section or by 
commissions appointed by Section officials. 

The competitions, which were announced in the Section's 
irregularly issued Bulletin,'''' were not usually open to the 
general artistic public. Most of the competitions were re- 
stricted in some way. Many of the competitions were by 
invitation only; others were open only to artists who lived in a 
particular state or region. ^^ 

The competitions did give the Section a great deal of 



*The Section held just over 200 competitions, but awarded in excess of 1,300 

commissions. 

**Twenty-four issues of greatly varying length were issued on a very irregular 

schedule between 1934 and 1941. 



xxviii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

The competitions did give the Section a great deal of 
publicit)'. Announcements of the competitions and the win- 
ners were often reprinted in the art press and even occasion- 
ally in the general press. 

Though the Section did sponsor a single competition for 
water colors, a number of sculptural competitions, and a few 
miscellaneous competitions, the vast majority of the competi- 
tions were for murals that were to be installed in public 
buildings. Post offices and courthouses in small, medium, 
and large cities and towns across the country were filled with 
Section murals, in most cases to the great delight of the 
townspeople. 

Litdeton, Colorado; Salina, Illinois; Fort Scott, Kansas; 
Deer Lodge, Montana; Hot Springs, New Mexico; and 
Boone, North Carolina, are just a few of the communities 
that received Section murals. 

In the fall of 1939, the Section held its most ambitious 
competition when it announced the "48 State Competi- 
tion." The goal of the Section in this competition was to 
place a Section mural in every state of the union. The 
competition was a huge success on nearly every level, garner- 
ing the Section a large spread in Life magazine with illustra- 
tions of every winning mural. '"^ 

The Section would also become responsible for decorating 
the huge expanses of new Federal buildings that were being 
created in the Federal Triangle of Washington, DC. The 
Federal Triangle, bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue on the 
north. Constitution Avenue on the south, and 15th Street on 
the west, was planned in the 1920s and 1930s as a great 
enclave of Federal buildings. Located here were the Depart- 
ment of Justice, the Internal Revenue Service, the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, the Federal Trade Commission, and the 
Post Office Department (since relocated), most of which 
were decorated with Section-commissioned art. 

The Section also ran a competition for other agencies. 
The US Maritime Commission and the New York World's 
Fair were beneficiaries of this program. A competition con- 
ducted by the Section for the Treasury Department in the 
spring of 1938 resulted in a bit of art that has touched nearly 
every American since that time. The competition, which 



Introduction ^^^^ 

closed on April 15, 1938, was for a new five-cent piece to 
replace the buffalo nickel. The winner of the competition 
was Felix Schlag, who created the Jefferson nickel, which has 
been in circulation ever since. 

"DEMOCRATIC" ART 

The work championed by the Section aspired to be both 
"democratic" as well as of the highest quality. Artists who 
could create the high quality art demanded by the Section 
were sometimes not interested in putting in the time and 
effort required to plan for a Section commission when there 
was the possibility the design would be turned down or 
changed. At other times, the "democratic" art created by 
Section artists was criticized by the art establishment, or even 
the Section itself, for being too radical or even un- 
American.^'* 

Often at odds with the WPA's own Federal Art Project, 
great changes awaited both art projects when 1939 came 
around. 



The Treasury ReUef Art Project (TRAP) 

The Treasury ReHef Art Project (TRAP) mingled the 
commitment to the highest artistic standards as advocated by 
the Section and the relief element that distinguished the 
WPA's Federal Art Project. 

Begun on July 25, 1935, with $530,784 in WPA funds 
allocated to the Treasury Department, the TRAP was envi- 
sioned by Edward Bruce as a vehicle to put the best and 
neediest artists to work decorating Federal buildings. 

Though the TRAP was strictly a relief project, with the 
artists having to meet the various income and employment 
standards set by the WPA, Bruce made certain that the 
program was kept small enough so that only the highest 
quaUty artists would be employed. The TRAP always em- 
ployed only a small number of artists and at its height had 
only 356 workers. ^^ 



XXX The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Headed by the artist Olin Dows, who was assisted by Henry 
LaFarge, Cecil Jones, and Alice Sharkey, the entire project 
was overseen directly by Bruce. The TRAP produced work, as 
did the Section, primarily for Federal buildings; owing to its 
iniique position, however, it also undertook a nimiber of 
special projects. Amongst the most important of these special 
projects was creating murals and sculpture for housing 
projects constructed under the Public Works Administration 
in New York, Boston, Chicago, Washington, Camden, and 
Cleveland. ^^ 

Though generally a successful program, the financial 
situation in 1938 was not conducive to the continuance of the 
TRAP and it came to a close on June 30, 1938, after allocating 
a total of $771,521.^7 



The Works Progress Administration's Federal Art 

Project 
BEGINNINGS 

On May 6, 1935, Executive Order 7034 issued by FDR 
created the Works Progress Administration. With the exam- 
ple of the PWAP as a semi-relief project for ardsts, Harry L. 
Hopkins of the WPA announced on August 2, 1935, the 
creation of the WPA's Federal Project Number One. Federal 
One, as it came to be knov^n, provided for the direct relief 
employment of creative people in four categories: theatre 
arts (the Federal Theatre Project), literature (the Federal 
Writers' Project), music (the Federal Music Project), and the 
visual arts (the Federal Art Project). 

The purposes and functions of the Federal Art Project 
(WPA/FAP) was clearly stated a number of times: 

The primary objectives of [the Federal Art Project is] to 
consen'e the talent and skill of artists who, through no 
fault of their own, found themselves on the relief rolls 
and without means to continue their work; to encour- 
age young artists of definite ability; to integrate the fine 
with the practical arts and, more especially, the arts in 
general with the daily life of the community.'^ 



Introduction xxxi 

The Works Progress Administration itself was created with 
the idea of providing work relief to the American population 
unable to find employment in their professions. It was only 
logical that artists too should find a home in the WPA. Once 
the idea of work relief for the American artist had been 
broached at the WPA, artists found the first of their many 
friends in the person of Jacob Baker, the WPA's assistant 
administrator. 

Jacob Baker almost at once began drafting a plan for the 
relief of artists funded through the WPA, and on September 
30, 1935, the basic outline of the plan — ^which eventually 
became Federal One — ^was issued in Supplement #1 to the 
Bulletin #29, a publication of the WPA. 

Federal One was placed under Baker's control, and on 
August 2, 1935, the four national directors of the four 
projects were announced: Hallie Flanagan for the Federal 
Theatre Project; Nikolai Sokoloff for the Federal Music 
Project; Henry Alsberg for the Federal Writers' Project; and 
Holger Cahill for the Federal Art Project. ^^ 

HOLGER CAHILL 

Born Sveinn Kirstjan Bjarnarson in Snaefellsnessysla, Ice- 
land, on January 13, 1887, Holger Cahill moved with his 
family at an early age first to Canada and later to South 
Dakota. 

He lived in poverty for most of his childhood, and when he 
was eleven, his father deserted the family. With his mother ill, 
Cahill was sent to live with another Icelandic family fifty miles 
away. Treated badly, he ran away to Canada at age thirteen 
and worked at a wide variety of jobs until his late teens. 
Cahill — still Bjarnarson — eventually decided on a writing 
career and rode a freight train to New York City where he 
took night courses in journalism at New York University. 

Changing his name, he worked for a number of suburban 
New York papers and took more courses at Columbia Univer- 
sity, and became influenced by the work of the philosopher 
John Dewey. Building up a series of friendships with his 
Greenwich Village artist-neighbors, Cahill began to write 
about modern art. In 1922, at age thirty-five, he joined the 



xxxii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Newark Museum working under John Cotton Dana on the 
iiuiseum's modern art and folk art collections. 

hi 1932, he became exhibitions director at the Museum of 
Modern Art and was soon a well-known authority on Ameri- 
can art. hi addition to organizing a number of important 
exhibitions at the Newark Museum and the Museum of 
Modern Art, Cahill was writing novels and short stories 
{Profane Emih, his first novel, appeared in 1927; numerous 
short stories had appeared in Scnbner^s Magazine, The Ameri- 
can Mercury, and others). In 1935, he had just begun to 
devote his energies full time to writing fiction when he was 
called upon to direct the WPA/FAP.-*^ 

ADMINISTERING THE ARTS 

For the first year of its existence, the projects of Federal 
One led a charmed life. As "Federal" projects, they were 
directed from the Washington headquarters of their national 
directors, answering in effect only to Harry Hopkins and 
FDR. "Federal" projects differed from other WPA projects, 
which had to have a base of local support and would be 
subject to much more local control. 

In November 1935 Federal One projects were made ex- 
empt from the general WPA rule that 90% of all employees 
be eligible for relief. Instead, the Federal One projects were 
required to have only 75% of their employees as relief 
eligible. In other WPA projects, exemptions were used to 
hire administrators and other specialized help. Federal One, 
however, often used its exemptions to hire better artists or to 
keep good artists once they no longer qualified for relief. 
Though the exemptions were eventually retracted, the grant- 
ing of such exemptions was one of a number of special 
considerations received by Federal One. 

Among these special considerations. Federal One was also 
exempt from the usual WPA regulations concerning pay 
caps, working hours, and scheduling, all in the name of their 
nature as "professional" projects.'-^ 

During this first year, the administrators of Federal One, 
on all levels, were able to operate fairly independently from 
the other WPA administrators, from the Washington offices 
to the local offices. Due to a number of complaints from the 



Introduction - xxxiii 

state WPA administrators, however, this was changed in July 
1936, when Jacob Baker resigned from the WPA and Federal 
One was placed in the newly created Division of Women's 
and Professionals' Project under the supervision of Ellen S. 
Woodward. This reorganization made the Federal One Pro- 
jects more acceptable to the state administrators of the WPA 
and made for smoother operations on all levels. ^^ 

FUNDING 

The WPA — and thus the Federal One projects — ^was never 
funded by statute, but by annual appropriations acts (Emer- 
gency Relief Appropriations Act of 1935, 1936, etc.); for this 
reason it was essentially held hostage to the whims of the 
president and Congress and was in constant threat of termi- 
nation.^^ 

A peculiarity of the structure of Federal One was that since 
the projects were sponsored directly by the WPA their 
budgets — unlike other WPA projects that were sponsored by 
state, local, or other federal agencies — ^were submitted, 
through Harry Hopkins and Ellen Woodward, directly to the 
President for examination and approval. 2"* 

Though the exact funding procedures for Federal One 
varied, it was not until 1939 that any major changes occurred. 
The projects were officially reorganized in that year and were 
required to have local sponsorship. 

PURPOSES AND FUNCTIONS 

The WPA/FAP rated employees (in accordance with WPA 
guidelines) as "Professional and Technical" (including art- 
ists, teachers of art, photographers, lecturers, and research 
workers) ; "Skilled" (same as the above, but at a lesser level of 
quaUty); "Intermediate" (the above, but in need of a great 
deal of guidance and supervision); and "Unskilled" (all 
others needed by the WPA/FAP, but generally not artists, 
e.g., messengers, gallery attendants, and handymen) .^^ 

Throughout the life of WPA/FAP, most workers — ^well 
over 65%— were "skilled" and the WPA/FAP had the high- 
est level of "Skilled" of Federal One.^e 

Of course, the methods of classifying artists was never 
satisfactory and often the subject of controversy. In the end, 



xxxiv The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

the c iassification of artists was defined by the Federal Art Project 
Manual lo be 

based upon information furnished by the artists and on 
the qualit)' of work submitted. Major consideration 
should be given to professional background, experi- 
ence, quality of work performed, and present ability to 
perform work.'-' 

Those in the administration, and even FDR himself, 
seemed to view Federal One primarily as a social service 
experiment in bringing art to the people. The nadonal 
directors and the artists themselves, however, viewed Federal 
One as a way to create art. This led to a number of problems 
in the arts projects. If art was funded only in those areas 
where the best (and, this being a relief project, neediest) 
artists were found, the projects would be concentrated in the 
major cities of the east and west coasts and Chicago. 

On the other hand, if the money was equally allocated 
across the country, the number of artists able to create works 
of a high quality would be severely limited. 

One possible solution would have been to distribute the 
needy artists from the major cities to those areas that were in 
need of professionally trained and skilled artists. This plan 
would have accomplished two goals; the first, to have some of 
the nation's best artists flung into a new environment that 
could stimulate their talents; and second, through contact 
with these mostly proven artists, men and women throughout 
the country would be stimulated into engendering an even 
better "American" art. 

Two equally insurmountable problems faced this solution. 
The first is that by the rules of the WPA, workers could not, 
with few exceptions, be moved from one region of the 
country to another. The second problem, perhaps more 
difficult to solve than the first, was that most of the artists had 
no desire to leave the urban milieu that most of them had 
consciously sought.^^ 

This does not mean that good artists did not exist in the 
hinterlands or that the WPA/FAP did not try to find them. 
During the life of the WPA/FAP, every state had the opportu- 



Introduction xxxv 

nity to receive funds for art projects and WPA/FAP activities 
of some kind took place in each of the forty-eight states.^^ 

ACCOMPUSHMENTS 

The public's new awareness of art, its place in everyday 
life, is reflected in the work produced by the painters, 
sculptors, muralists, and graphic artists of the WPA 
Federal Art Project who have brought into salience the 
multifarious aspects of the American scene. A richer 
significance has been given to the lives of those who 
have come closer to art through the works produced 
and presented by the WPA Federal Art Project and to 
those who have experienced the stimulation of creating 
it themselves .... For the first time, government 
patronage in art has been initiated without the binding 
red tape which makes some "official art" a useless, 
ineffective expression. Government patronage of the 
WPA Federal Art Project enables the artists of the 
country to continue the practice of their art and the 
development of their skill. ^^ 

To fulfill the promises made in the above statement, the 
WPA/FAP divided its activities into a number of clearly 
defined areas. A brief overview of the major activities and 
accomplishments of these areas follows. 

EASEL DIVISION 

Largest single employer of artists, the easel division of the 
WPA/FAP was responsible for the creation of oil paintings, 
watercolors, and gouaches.^^ 

The control of easel painters was one of the stickiest 
problems to face WPA/FAP administrators. How could any- 
one expect true artists to punch a clock and turn in paintings 
on demand? And where were the artists to work? Should they 
work at home in their own studios? Or should they work in 
some kind of central facility? 

One answer was given in an early publication of the 
WPA/FAP: 

It should not be necessary for artist to leave their work 
to make formal appearance before timekeepers. This 



xxxvi The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

kind of interruption seriously interferes with creative 
work and is entirely unreliable as a check on the time 
the artist has actually worked.'*' 

None of these questions were easily answered, and the 
above answer, so certain, would be changed over and over 
again in the coming years. 

Still, in the eight years of the WPA/FAP, artists working in 
the easel division were able to create 108,099 oils and 
watercolors, a remarkable achievement. "^'^ 

Completed easel works were disposed of in a process called 
allocation. In allocating works, the WPA/FAP placed the 
works created for it on permanent loan to publicly supported 
institutions such as libraries, schools, and museums. Many of 
these works are still located in the institutions they were 
allocated to. Sadly, some institutions, considering the work 
to be "only WPA," discarded the works or allowed them to 
deteriorate. 

SCULPTURE 

Like artists in the easel division, sculptors on the WPA/ 
FAP were expected to complete works either in their own 
studios or in studios run by the WPA/FAP. Over the course of 
its history, the WPA/FAP employed about 500 sculptors.^'^ 

Total sculptural work completed for the WPA/FAP 
amounted to a total of 17,744 items.''-'' These sculpture went 
into public buildings, public parks, zoos, botanical gardens, 
and public fountains.''^ 

Sculpture is a much more expensive medium than easel 
work and this is one reason for the smaller number of artists 
employed and works produced. Additionally, newer, less 
expensive materials were often used. Though such tradi- 
tional materials as marble and cast bronze were used in some 
WPA/FAP works, there was also widespread usage of cast 
concrete and wood carving. 

MURALS 

The most picturesque and dramatic of all the projects 
are, of course, those devoted to murals, since they are 



Introduction xxxvii 

most widely seen by the general public and most widely 
commented upon.^^ 

Murals, created by the WPA/FAP for federal and quasi- 
public buildings, were spread throughout the nation. 
Though the number of murals eventually created was small 
in comparison to either the easel works or sculpture — 2,566 
murals were completed by the end of the project^^ — their 
impact on the public's perception of the WPA/FAP, and 
indeed of all the New Deal art projects, was enormous. 

WPA/FAP murals were generally quite popular with their 
intended public, though, as with the Section, there were 
disputes over subject matter and artistic technique. Still, 
throughout 

the life of the project requests consistently outran the 
project's abilit)' to fulfill them, and at the close of the 
Federal Art Project a backlog of orders had been 
accumulated that would have occupied its workers for a 
considerable time.^^ 

Though accounting for only a small fragment of the entire 
artistic output of the WPA/FAP, the mural division will 
forever be remembered in the public mind as the primary 
achievement of the entire project. 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

The contributions to graphic arts by the WPA/FAP far 
outnumber the over 240,000 prints made from over 11,000 
designs.^^ Though these figures in themselves are quite 
amazing, two events stand out. The first is the creation of an 
entirely new printing process, the carborundum print tech- 
nique created by Dox Thrash and others in the Philadelphia 
projects of the WPA/FAP. Using carborundum as a grinding 
agent to prepare engraving plates, the artists were able to 
achieve new levels of shade and tone in their prints. 

The second contribution was the virtual rediscovery of the 
silk-screen printing process. Though the silk-screen process 
had been invented in the late nineteenth century, it had 
been little used in the creation of fine arts. 



xxxviii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Anthony Velonis, who joined the WTA/FAP's poster divi- 
sion in 1935, made a number of technical and artistic 
improvements in the silk-screen process. Under his direc- 
tion, the Silk-screen Unit of the WPA/FAP's Graphics Divi- 
sion was formed in 1938. Velonis was also the author of 
Technique of the Silk-screen Process, a publication of the WPA/ 
FAP that was distributed in the thousands, promodng the 
technique to other ardsts and the general public.^' 

PHOTOGRAPHY AND FILMS 

Most photography completed for the WPA/FAP was for 
strictly documentary purposes. Photographers took pic- 
tures of WPA/FAP work being done, of the artists at work, 
and of teachers working with students. Literally thousands 
of photographs of this kind were taken, providing an 
invaluable record of the work and accomplishments of the 
project."*- 

In addition to this purely documentary photography, 
however, there was artistic photographic work done on the 
WPA/FAP. Perhaps the best known, as well as the most 
important, was a project begun in 1935 in the New York 
office of the WPA/FAP. 

The project, undertaken by the photographer Berenice 
Abbott, came to be called Changing New York. Abbott 
traveled throughout the city, taking pictures of immigrant 
neighborhoods, shop signs, docks, and many other scenes 
of the city that were passing away. The results of this 
project were exhibited in the Federal Art Gallery in New 
York City and the Museum of the City of New York; later, 
selected images from the project were published in book 
form. The images have had numerous showings since and 
stand as an important artistic portrayal of New York City in 
the 1930s. 

In addition to these still-photography projects, the WPA/ 
FAP made a number of films. WPA/FAP film crews worked 
on a number of documentary subjects including mural and 
mosaic makings, as well as subjects far removed from the art 
world like dysentery and syphilis.'*-^ 



Introduction xxxix 

TECHNICAL PROJECTS 

The WPA/FAP worked vigorously to improve the technical 
side of the artistic profession. Testing paints and materials 
and doing other research work, the technical projects of the 
WPA/FAP did much to establish standards for artists' materi- 
als throughout the United States. 

The Federal Art Project's Paint Testing and Research 
Laboratory in Massachusetts was jointly sponsored with Har- 
vard University's Fogg Art Museum. The work done by this 
laboratory on pigments was eventually adopted, with modifi- 
cation, by the Bureau of Standards.^"* 

Other work on canvas adhesives was done for the WPA/ 
FAP in New York by Raphael Doktor and published as a 
popular pamphlet {Technical Problems of the Artist: Canvas 
Adhesives, 1939) by the WPA/FAP. 

ART EXHIBITIONS 

Operating under the direction of Mildred Holzhauer, art 
exhibitions of the WPA/FAP took a number of forms. The 
first was the circulation of WPA/FAP exhibitions to locations 
throughout the country. This program brought the work of 
WPA/FAP artists to the American people in department 
stores and hotels as well as more traditional venues such as 
museums, art centers, and galleries. By August of 1938, 

the Federal Art Project reported that it had, since 
January, 1936, circulated 228 exhibitions to its arts 
centers and other places, had presented 1,116 individ- 
ual showings, and had included in these exhibits some 
8,000 works of art.45 

The other form of exhibition organized by the WPA/FAP 
were its own Federal Art Galleries. A number of Federal Art 
Galleries were set up, including large, active ones in Boston, 
Chicago, and Philadelphia. By far the most prominent and 
successful Federal Art Gallery was in New York City. 

The Federal Art Gallery in New York City acted as "a show 
window for the numerous enterprises of the WPA Federal Art 



xl The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Project.""**' Opening in December 1935, the galleiy put on 
forty major exhibitions in just under four years before 
closing in the spring of 1939. Originally located on East 38th 
Street, it was a sign of the galler\''s growing importance that 
during the summer of 1937, it moved to West 57th Street, 
"art gallery row," and home to the most powerful and 
influential art galleries in New York City."*^ 

Though exhibitions in such traditional modes as easel 
paintings, sculpture, and mural sketches were the gallery's 
mainstays, it also branched out and exhibited work done by 
children on the WPA/FAP as well as an exhibition, "Art in 
the Making," that explored just how the artists created works 
of art."*^ 

Unfortunately, the Federal Art Galleries ceased to operate 
with the reorganization of the WPA/FAP in late 1939, and 
many of the exhibition projects were terminated. 

ART EDUCATION 

The education of the American public was one of the most 
important goals of the organizers of the WPA/FAP. Believing 
that the reason Americans did not buy more art, buy more 
American art, or become artists was that they lacked an art 
experience, the WPA/FAP sought to remedy the situation in 
two ways. 

The first was through the exposure of the public to art. 
This was the job of the WPA/FAP artists who, by creating art, 
would give the public art to see. Additionally, through its 
Federal Art Galleries and Community Art Centers, the WPA/ 
FAP would created locations in communities across the 
country where original works of art would be seen, in many 
cases for the first time. 

But this was just one part of the program. The other was 
the instruction of hundreds of thousands of Americans, the 
young and the old, in creating their own art: 

No phase of its work is of greater social significance than 
its teaching. Hundreds of highly trained teachers of art, 
displaced by depression economy, are holding classes in 
boy's clubs, girl's service leagues, in schools after hours, 
in churches and settlements.'*^ 



Introduction xli 

In 1939, 19% of the employees of the WPA/FAP were 
involved in educational services. Many of these teachers were 
also artists, and through their jobs on the WPA/FAP were not 
only able to survive, but to impart their expertise to the next 
generation. ^^ 



THE INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGN 

Perhaps the most massive and ambitious undertaking of 
the Federal Art Project was the Index of American Design 
(IAD). Artists employed on the IAD, using a number of 
techniques but primarily watercolor, rendered a diverse 
number of items of folk art, crafts, and decorative art (from 
textiles, to wooden Indians, to silverware, to children's toys). 
Tagged with information about the original objects, the 
renderings were sent to Washington where together they 
constituted a record of American design for the use of 
craftspeople and historians. 

When Holger Cahill came to head the Federal Art Project 
in October 1935 the ideal of collecting the documentary 
evidence of American design, folk art, and decorative arts 
found an enthusiastic and knowledgeable patron. 

Cahill may rightly be called one of the first scholars of 
American folk art. In his early days at the Newark Museum, 
he organized two important shows of folk art ("American 
Primitives," 1930, and "American Folk Sculpture," 1931). 
During his career as exhibition director at the Museum of 
Modern Art, he prepared the book-length catalog American 
Folk Art (1932) to accompany the exhibition of Abby Aldrich 
Rockefeller's collection of folk art. His encouragement of 
the IAD was not surprising. 

The idea of the Index of American Design cannot be 
claimed by any one person, of course. In addition to a 
number of European efforts to chronicle their nations' 
contributions to craft and design, the 1930s saw such Ameri- 
can efforts as the Denver Art Museum's recording of Native 
American design, the Department of Interior's Historic 
American Buildings Survey, and the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion's Historic American Merchant-Marine Survey. 



xlii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

But the real seed from which the IAD grew came from 
Romanajavity, head of the New York Public Library's Picture 
Collection. In the spring of 1935, Javity. and Ruth Reeves, a 
textile designer and painter, discussed the need for a com- 
prehensive record of American design. For funding, Reeves 
approached Frances Pollak, head of Educational Projects for 
the New York City Emergency Relief Administration who saw 
it as the perfect solution for the relief employment of 
commercial artists. The idea circulated through the agencies 
of government relief, but without an appropriate agency to 
handle the project, the idea of the IAD remained in the 
planning stages until October 1935 and the creadon of the 
Federal Art Project. 

Meeting on December 7 and 8, 1935, the national staff of 
the Federal Art Project reformulated the basic plan of the 
New York idea into what became the LAD. Indian arts were 
eliminated from the plan under the assumption that such 
work had been done in the past and was continuing to be 
carried out by ethnologists. Likewise, architecture and ma- 
rine engineering were left out since these were being cov- 
ered by the Historic American Buildings Survey and the 
Historic American Merchant-Marine Survey. The subject of 
the IAD was to be, in Holger Cahill's words, "limited to the 
practical, popular and folk arts of the peoples of European 
origin who created the material culture of this country as we 
know it today"^^ 

The IAD was based in Washington as a program of the 
Federal Art Project. Constance Rourke was named nadonal 
editor and Ruth Reeves, national co-ordinator (Adolph Cook 
Glassgold replaced Reeves in the spring of 1936 and was in 
turn replaced by Benjamin Knotts in 1940). Research staffs 
were set up in Washington and New York. Since the prime 
objective of the IAD was to record design throughout the 
nadon, research staffs were set up in the individual states. By 
the time the IAD was terminated in early 1942, thirty-five 
states had set up IAD projects. 

By January 1936, the first Manual of the Index of American 
Design W2is printed. In it, the Federal Art Project outlined 



Introduction xliii 

the scope of the new activity, its purpose, plan of 
organization, methods of recording, research, classifica- 
tion and filing, together with specimen copies of data 
sheets to accompany each drawing.^^ 

The activity that was the IAD was carried out in the 
following manner: the state research staffs would make a 
survey of the material in local history museums and private 
collections, selecting objects to be recorded and verifying 
their authenticity. Each object was then analyzed by a re- 
search supervisor and such information as maker or manu- 
facturer of the object, materials used, owner and location of 
object, date of creation, place of creation, and its name were 
recorded on a data sheet. The object was then assigned to an 
artist for rendering. Though various watercolor techniques 
were the primary media for IAD artists, oil paintings, pen and 
ink, scratchboard, and (in a few instances) photography were 
used. The data sheets prepared earlier were then pasted to 
the back of the finished rendering and the complete plate 
sent to Washington. 

Though it quickly became one of the most staunchly 
defended and widely praised programs of the Federal Art 
Project (in a review of a show of IAD plates, the reviewer 
noted that "no other phase of the entire Federal Art Project 
has engaged the unanimity of praise or has been as free from 
criticism as the Index of American Design, "^^) the IAD did 
not meet with immediate and universal acceptance. Many 
wondered whether the IAD could be more quickly and 
efficiently carried out using only photography. To this Hol- 
ger Cahill replied: 

The camera, except in the hands of its greatest masters, 
cannot reveal the essential character and quality of 
objects as the artist can. Problems of distortion and of 
lighting are difficult. The camera cannot search out the 
forms of objects deeply undercut or modeled in high 
relief, match color as closely as the artist, or render the 
subtle interplay of form and texture which creates the 
characteristic beauty of so many products of early Amer- 



xliv The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

ican craftsmen. Color photography approximating the 
qualit)' of Index drawings is an expensive process with 
many problems which have not been fully solved. The 
color photograph is perishable, while water color is one 
of the most durable of art media. '^ 

To which he added, on a more practical note, that the 
Federal Art Project, and thus the IAD, was primarily a relief 
program, the purpose of which was to create work for 
artists. 

A second criticism came from the artists themselves. Be- 
cause the concept of the IAD was a faithful and exact 
rendering of an object, there was no room for creative 
expression or inventive uses of color and form. Though 
Cahill claimed that the artists "discovered that documentary 
art may become a free creative activity even within severe 
discipline and limitations,"^^ Elzy J. Bird of the Utah LAD 
perhaps gives a more accurate view^ of the artists' feelings: 

When I became director of the project I had been 
working on an Index plate and I remember the amount 
of sweat that went into the finished product. Most of the 
artists seemed to feel as I did, that it was merely copy 
work and didn't give them free rein to anything creative 
.... I remember one artist doing a remarkable textile 
piece — just one. He said he'd sooner starve than do 
another. ^^ 

Fittingly, a large number of IAD plates were created by 
commercial artists and craftspeople — the same men and 
women who created the objects their descendants were now 
recording for the LAD. By the end of the programs, approxi- 
mately 800 artists had created over 15,000 plates — a figure 
made more impressive when one considers the amount of 
research that was also involved in each plate. 

With the winding down of the New Deal art projects and 
the termination of the LAD at the onset of the American entry 
into the Second World War, the question arose as to the 
disposition of the thousands of plates created by the IAD. 
Holger Cahill believed that they should be made available for 



Introduction xlv 

study by designers and students of design and he favored the 
placing of the IAD in a museum setting. To this end, Cahill 
had custody of the IAD transferred to the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in New York in March of 1942. 

Not all quarters agreed with this plan, however, and 
Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish (who as early as 
November of 1940 discussed the deposit of the IAD at the 
Library of Congress) ^^ lobbied vigorously to have the IAD 
deposited in the Library of Congress. Even though the 
Library of Congress had at the time, and continues to have, a 
vast collection of art works and non-traditional library mate- 
rial, Cahill did not feel it was a suitable location for the IAD. 
Even after the transfer of the IAD to the Metropolitan, 
MacLeish pressed General Fleming, director of the Federal 
Works Agency and Cahill' s boss, to have the IAD located 
permanently in a national collection. Fleming eventually 
agreed and at the start of 1944 the IAD was transferred again 
to the National Gallery of Art in Washington. ^^ The IAD 
found a permanent home at the National Gallery and resides 
there today, the drawings 

stored on shelves alphabetically under about 600 entries 
ranging from 'Advertisement for Branding Irons, 
Adzes, Altars, Amana, Ammunition Bags, Anchor Links, 
Andirons, Animals, Apple Peelers,' etc. to 'Whirligigs, 
Windlasses, Wreathers, Wrenches, Writing Desks, 
Yokes, Zoar.'^^ 

From its inception, Holger Cahill envisioned the IAD as a 
tool of the designer to be made available in schools, libraries, 
and museums. From the start, attempts were made to repro- 
duce the plates using color lithography and hand-colored 
linocuts and thus make them more widely available. No 
cost-effective method was ever realized during the life of the 
IAD, and it was not until 1950 when Erwin O. Christensen of 
the National Gallery of Art published a necessarily small 
selection (about 350 plates) in The Index of American Design. 
Grouping the plates under such colorful subjects as "Our 
Wide Land," "The Years Pass," and "About the House," 



xlvi The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Christensen's work drew nearly undiluted praise for itself 
and the IAD. 

Twenty-five years later the National Gallery of Art and 
Chadwyck-Healey finally realized Cahill's dream by publish- 
ing the entire IAD collection of 15,000 plus plates on color 
microfiche. Edited by Sandra Shaffer Tinkham, the fiche 
were grouped in ten collections, including "Toys and Musi- 
cal Instruments," "Domestic Utensils," and "Utopian and 
Religious Communities" and could be acquired separately. 

The collection again received nearly universal acclaim, but 
one review — though admitting the technical excellence of 
the fiche project — questioned the research value and rele- 
vance of the IAD in our own time, consigning the LAD to the 
fate of a mere historical curiosity and relic of 1930s enthusi- 
asm.*^*^ 

COMMUNITY ART CENTERS 

One of the primary goals of the Federal Art Project was to 
reinvigorate the artistic life of all Americans. One of the 
"problems" seen by many administrators of the Federal Art 
Project was that the big cities were draining native regional 
America of its best talent, thus creating two problems: loss of 
art for the people and a lack of nativist/ regional influence on 
the art'sts. 

The draining off of America's best talent from the 
native soil of the small town to the strange pavements of 
the big city . . . has inundated certain sections of 
America and left others high and dry as potential 
cultural wastelands.*' • 

Thus, "to correct this inequal distribution of cultural 
advantage,"*'^ the Federal Art Project organized what it 
termed community art centers to provide the public with the 
option not only to view art in the form of locally produced 
and nationally organized exhibitions, but also to actively 
participate in crafts and the fine arts. 

Beginning in January 1936, the Federal Art Project, pri- 
marily through the efforts of Daniel S. Defenbacher, began 
to open community art centers throughout the nation. 



Introduction xlvii 

Working in conjunction with local people, Defenbacher and 
the WPA/FAP had opened thirty-eight Community Art Cen- 
ters, mostly in the South and West, by October of 1937.^^ 

Perhaps the most prestigious of the community art centers 
was the Harlem Community Art Center which opened in 
November 1937. The opening ceremony was attended by 
Eleanor Roosevelt and hundreds of prominent artists of all 
races. In addition to a number of successful exhibitions, the 
Center was known for its art classes run by, among others, the 
African-American artist Gwendolyn Bennett.^^ 

The community art centers, though usually organized by 
the Federal Art Project, had to have the support of local 
sponsors. The local sponsors could consist of specially 
formed community committees or be already existing organ- 
izations.^^ 

Defenbacher and the administrators of the community art 
centers felt that 

the aesthetic experience put in motion by the object of 
art is the same aesthetic experience that in varying 
degrees pervades a broad range of human activity. As 
medicine influences our diet, our clothes, and our 
habits, so art influences our dress, our conduct, and our 
environment.^^ 

The purpose of the FAP's community art centers was to put 
"art in action" so that the "average man" can recognize 

the uses of art in life — as an object for aesthetic enjoy- 
mient and guidance; as an action for the professional, 
the avocationalist, the spectator, the consumer, the 
industrialist, and the citizen. ^^ 

To reach these goals, the activities in a community art 
center included instruction in arts and crafts, lectures (both 
locally organized and those arranged by state or Federal 
offices) , exhibitions of locally produced art as well as circulat- 
ing exhibitions,^^ meeting places for clubs such as "Index of 
American Design Discussion groups. Sketch Clubs, Junior 
Gallery and School Clubs, Craft Clubs of various kinds, 
etc."69 



xlviii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

The community art center program had its share of 
troubles. Often, existing cultural institutions felt competi- 
tion from the centers, even though all attempts were made to 
assuage these fears. '*^ Well over a hundred community art 
centers were eventually created (see Appendix D for a list), 
mostly in the smaller towns and cities of America. The list of 
the locations rings with the quintessential sound of the 
American small town: Topeka, Sunflower County, Salem, 
Anderson County, Laramie, Ottumwa. 

After Federal founding was cut off, many of the art centers 
continued to function with local support and became estab- 
lished and successful cultural focuses of their communities, 
the Sioux City Community Art Center being one of the most 
prominent examples that continues in existence today. 



"Be it Enacted . . . .": Legislating a Permanent New 
Deal for the Artist 

When discussing the New Deal art projects, it must be 
remembered that the projects were without any legislated 
permanence. The PWAP was from the start a purely tempo- 
rary project and this impermanence carried over into the 
Federal Art Project. Though the Section was more firmly 
imbedded in the Federal bureaucracy, as later events would 
show, the lack of any legislated niche would lead to the quick 
and unobstructed termination of the program. 

The fiscal instability and inherently temporary nature of 
the projects led many in the arts to press for permanent, 
legislated Federal support for the art projects the govern- 
ment had undertaken. 

A FALSE START 

Congressman William L Sirovich (D-NY) was the first to 
attempt such legislation. On March 18, 1935, Sirovich intro- 
duced H.J. Res. 220, a resolution providing for the establish- 
ment of a "Department of Science, Art, and Literature." The 
resolution was in many ways a manifesto on what government 



Introduction xlix 

support for the arts should be. It stated that "in art there are 
two elements, one in which the expression sought is for 
beauty, irrespective of utility, and the other in which utilities 
are beautified. "^^ To serve these two elements of art as well as 
to serve the sciences, a new Federal Department would be 
created. 

Sirovich's department would have been a cabinet level 
position, and in effect, the secretary of the department would 
become the nation's "Minister of Culture." The proposed 
department would take over and consolidate most of the 
various departments, bureaus, and offices of the Federal 
government dealing with the arts. 

Assisting the secretary would be three undersecretaries, 
one each for science, art, and literature. The new depart- 
ment would be housed in a suitable building on Capitol Hill 
that would architecturally be keeping with "the beauty of art, 
the dignity of science, and the vision of literature. "^^ 

Hearings were held by the Committee on Patents (of 
which Sirovich was the chairman) in April and May 1935. 
Sirovich brought in a number of people from the arts and 
sciences to testif)^ in favor of the resolution. Gutzon Borglum 
sculptor of Mount Rushmore; Anthony J. Atchison, an artist; 
Edward Bruce, of the recently created Section of Painting 
and Sculpture; and Bruce's boss. Admiral Christian J. Peo- 
ples, director of the Treasury Department's Procurement 
Division. 

Nearly everyone was strongly in support of the resolution. 
Borglum gave close to sixteen pages of purple prose in its 
favor. Bruce and Peoples were more reticent in their support, 
and though supporting the resolution, firmly advocated 
keeping the Section within the Treasury Department. 

After the hearings, Sirovich's department never received 
any active support outside Congress — or in it for that mat- 
ter — and the resolution died in committee. 

The time was not quite right. Soon after the hearings on 
the Sirovich resolution, the WPA/FAP was set up within the 
Works Progress Administration. The Section's program of 
adorning Federal buildings was functioning with great suc- 
cess as part of the Treasury Department. Little need was seen 
for Sirovich's Department. 



1 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

THE FEDERAL ARTS BILL 

By January 1937, the New Deal art projects had been 
successful for a number of years, but they were also encoun- 
tering a series of crises. Though the Section was experienc- 
ing few problems, the entire WPA was facing financial cuts. 
The WPA/FAP was being criticized for its supposed Left 
Wing ties. The time to establish the New Deal art projects as 
a permanent Federal presence seemed to have come. 

Thus, on January 5, 1937, Sirovich again introduced a 
resolution (H.J. Res. 79) that would, again, attempt to create 
a Department of Science, Art, and Literature. H.J. Res. 79 was 
a word-for-word copy of Sirovich's resolution of 1935. For a 
second time, the resolution was sent to the Committee on 
Patents, and hearings were held in February 1938. Again 
Sirovich called on a long list of artists and celebrides for 
support of his proposed Department. 

COFFEE AND PEPPER 

By February 1938, Sirovich had some competition in 
establishing a national arts department. On August 16, 1937, 
James M. Coffee (D-WA) introduced H.R. 8239, "A Bill to 
Provide for a Permanent Bureau of Fine Arts."^-^ Like the 
earlier Sirovich resolutions, the Coffee bill was couched in 
terms of rhetorical eloquence: 

During the entire history of our Nation and up to the 
time of the creation of [the Federal Arts projects], the 
arts were the jealously guarded possessions of the few 
and were not made available to the majority. Works of 
art were confined to privately incorporated museums, 
difficult to visit, and to the completely inaccessible and 
private collections of wealthy patrons.'^ 

The bill goes on for another full page or so praising the 
work of the Federal Arts projects (art, theatre, music, and 
literature) before getting down to the business of establish- 
ing a Bureau of Fine Arts. 

Unlike Sirovich's Department of Science, Art, and Litera- 
ture, Coffee's bureau would be an independent bureau, and 



Introduction " 

not a cabinet-level position. All the duties and functions 
presently carried out by the WPA's Federal One would be 
transferred to the Bureau. Additionally, all 

artists employed upon Federal projects . . . shall con- 
tinue in such employment without interruption under 
the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Fine Arts. The Bureau 
shall immediately increase the number of artists em- 
ployed ... by a minimum of 20 per centum.'^^ 

Other sections of the bill defined the administrative na- 
ture of the Bureau and the tenure, vacation time, and sick 
leave for its artist/ employees. 

The Coffee bill, as originally written, embraced fully the 
WPA's arts projects and received support from various artists' 
unions. For this very reason, criticism from the arts establish- 
ment—which was already dissatisfied with the WPA/FAP and 
the concept of Federal support for the arts— did not want to 
see any further promotion of the arts along the lines of the 
WPA's Federal One projects. 

Thus, on January 21, 1938, Senator Claude Pepper (D-FL) 
and Congressman Coffee introduced the same bill into their 
respective houses of Congress — Pepper's S. 3296 and Cof- 
fee's H.R. 9102. 

The Coffee-Pepper bill as it came to be known, was 
identical to Coffee's eariier bill in intent and purpose. A 
number of significant changes were made in the wording of 
the various sections to make the bill more palatable to the 
more conservative elements of the Congress and the arts 
community. 

Chief amongst these changes was that the new Bureau of 
Fine Arts would not take a// artists employed by Federal One, 
but instead, the new Bureau would accept only those "who 
are competent to carry out the objectives of this Act."'^^ 
Neither would the Bureau be able to increase the number of 
artists employed by the WPA by 20%, but would be encour- 
aged to "employ as many more artists as possible in order to 
carry out the purposes of this Act."'^'^ Still other minor 
changes were made in the structure of the bureau in an 
attempt to conciliate those opposed to the bureau. These 
changes, however, served to alienate the more radical sup- 



lii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

porters of the original (Coffee bill who found the Coffee- 
Pepper version weaker and less supportive of artists. 

As in most cases, however, the middle way pleased no one, 
and the Coffee-Pepper bill seemed to be headed for the quiet 
demise that faces most legislation — death in committee. But 
it did not quite turn out that way. 

SIROVICH'S LAST STAND 

Seeing his hopes for his own Department of Science, Art 
and Literature fading and the Coffee-Pepper Bureau of Fine 
Arts suffocating from criticism from all sides, Sirovich intro- 
duced H.J. Res. 671 on May 4, 1938. A jury-rigged vehicle 
nailed together from the least objectional aspects of Si- 
rovich's original resolution and the Coffee-Pepper bill, H.J. 
Res. 671 called for the creadon of a Bureau of Fine Arts in the 
Department of the Interior "for the promotion of art and 
literature. "^^ 

The resoludon allowed for the transfer of ardsts from the 
WPA's Federal One, but only after a number of criteria had 
been met. Addidonal artists could be hired, but only with the 
authorization of the Secretary of the Interior. 

On June 15, 1938, HJ. Res. 671 came to the floor of the 
House of Representatives. Congressman Sirovich delivered 
an impassioned and eloquent plea for the Bureau of Fine 
Arts: 

There exists in our country potentialities for the devel- 
opment of a great culture. This is an important part of 
our national wealth, and it must be safeguarded and 
fostered. It is the function of democratic government to 
secure the benefits of education and cultural enlighten- 
ment for all the people. By so doing, it guarantees the 
perpetuation of democracy.^^ 

Unfortunately, other distinguished members of the House 
were more in the mood for slapstick humor than great 
culture. Congressman Harold Knutson informed the House 
that a puppeteer is one who "raises puppies;"^^ Congress- 
man Taylor of Tennessee added that though no specific 



Introduction liii 

provision had been made for Charlie McCarthy, the 
Congressman was confident that Charlie "is able to take 
care of himself and not be "dependent upon Federal 
charity. "^^ 

Congressman Dewey Short, after a long mocking mono- 
logue, informed the House that 

Milton never wrote his Paradise Lost until he was blind. 
Beethoven never wrote his Moonlight Sonata until he 
was deaf. Mozart struggled through poverty to render 
his immortal masterpieces. Subsidized art is no art at all. 
Anyone who has ever graduated even from a grade 
school knows this.^^ 

The debate continued on for a little over an hour. Finally, 
it was moved that the resolution be tabled, effectively killing 
it. When the vote was tallied, there were 195 in favor of 
tabling it and 35 against. Sirovich's plans, as well as those of 
Congressman Coffee and Senator Pepper, had come to 
naught. 

TWO ADDITIONAL ATTEMPTS 

The year 1937 would also see two other attempts to 
create some type of fine arts establishment within the 
Federal government. On the same day that Sirovich intro- 
duced H.J. Res. 79, Allard H. Casque (D-SC) would intro- 
duce H.R. 1512, a bill to establish a National Bureau of 
Fine Arts in the Department of Interior, the primary duty 
of which would be to collect "such statistics and facts as 
should show the condition and progress of the fine arts 
and the cultural development in the several States and 
Territories."^^ Casque's vision for a National Bureau of 
Fine Arts was conceived on a small scale, with the commis- 
sioner of the bureau serving primarily as a presidential 
fact-finder. 

A few months after the Casque and Sirovich bills, on 
August 3, 1937, James P. McGranery (D-PA) introduced H.R. 
8132, a bill to establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of 
Education, Department of Interior. McGranery's Division of 



liv The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Fine Arts, would, be responsible for collecting (as in 
Casque's bill) 

statistics, data, and information, and conduct surveys 
and studies, relating to education in the fine arts, 
including music, art, and dramatic art and speech, and 
to disseminate such information relating thereto as will 
promote education in the fine arts."^ 

McGranery, however, was a bit more generous monetarily. 
His bill stated that $100,000 be authorized for the mainte- 
nance of the division; Casque's bill only called for $17,000 in 
salaries for four staff people. 

Neither bill received any serious attention and both died 
in Committee. Though this would be Allard Casque's only 
entry in the arts bill derby, McCranery would try three more 
times with slightly modified versions of his bill.* 

ONE LAST TRY 

Though both Sirovich and Pepper had their plans for a 
Bureau of Fine Arts defeated in 1938, they both were to try 
one last time in 1939. 

On February 3, 1939, Sirovich introduced H.J. Res. 149, a 
word-for-word reintroduction of H.J. Res. 671. The resolu- 
tion was sent to the Committee on Patents, but Sirovich's 
death on December 17, 1939, stopped all action on the 
resolution and it never left committee. 

Senator Pepper introduced S. 2967 on August 5, 1939, to 
create a Bureau of Fine Arts. The proposed Bureau would 
reside in the Federal Security Agency and "establish and 
maintain a fine-arts program for the benefit of the people of 
the United States. "^^ Though the Bureau was ordered to 
"employ as many artists and incidental craftsmen as are 
necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act,"^^ no men- 
tion was made of the WPA/FAP. 



*H.R. 2319, 76th (1), introduced January 11, 1939; H.R. 600, 77th (1). introduced 
Januarv' 1, 1941; and H.R. 900, 78th (1), introduced January 8, 1943. Like his first 
bill, none of these ever left committee. 



Introduction *^ 

CONCLUSION 

As the recent example of the National Endowment of the 
Arts has shown, governmental support for the creation of art 
continues to be a controversial issue, still open to charges of 
radicalism and triviality. 

In the heated atmosphere of 1937-1938, when the very 
foundations of the New Deal were beginning to be chal- 
lenged, any attempt to make permanent the projects that 
were seen by many to be the essence of New Deal "boondog- 
gling" were sure to be met by failure. 

Congressman Sirovich, from New York City and himself a 
playwright, failed to realize that his fellow congressmen and 
many citizens could not see that cultural subsidies were as 
important as farm subsidies. 

Likewise, Congressman Coffee and Senator Pepper saw 
the arts ennobling the common man while at the same time 
glorifying the artist. It must have been quite a disappoint- 
ment to find the common man did not want to be ennobled 
and the art world was ungrateful. 

With the defeat of the Fine Arts legislation of 1937-1939, 
the path to the eventual dissolution of the New Deal art 
projects was made easier and an important chapter in their 
history closed. 



The Artist in the 1930s 

THE AMERICAN MIUEU 

One of the primary reasons for the creation of the New 
Deal art projects was the promotion and cultivation of 
"American" art. This same idea was regularly used to defend 
and expand the projects. Art critics had regularly and vigor- 
ously debated the notion of an "American" art since the turn 
of the century. Whether such a thing even existed, how best 
to nourish and promote it, or if it was even worth encourag- 
ing were popular topics in the art press. Further controversy 
was certain to ensue when the New Deal art projects were 
suddenly thrust into this already heated environment, pro- 



Ivi The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

jects whose stated purpose was the glorification and funding 
of American art. 



THE AMERICAN SCENE 

An American art clearly did exist by the 1930s, and all its 
major themes and currents found expression — to a greater 
or lesser extent — in the various New Deal art projects. Two 
particular aspects of American art, one societal and the other 
aesthetic, shaped the artistic production of New Deal artists. 

Though the Armory Show of 1913 had introduced Ameri- 
cans to "Modern" and "Abstract" art, by the 1920s, a new 
movement, the American Scene, had come to dominate 
American art. A precise definition of "American Scene" 
does not seem possible. To some critics the term covers only 
the idyllic rural works of artists like John Steuart Curry, Grant 
Wood, and other artists frequently labeled Regionalists. The 
critic Matthew Baignell, however, in his work, American 
Scene,^^ takes a more expansive view and includes those 
artists included under the rubric of Social Realists — artists 
such as Ben Shahn, Moses and Raphael Soyer, William 
Gropper, and George Biddle. 

The fact that artists in the two groups often hated one 
another and carried on heated public debates on the merits 
of their own and the flaws of their opponent's works matters 
litde to Baignell. He emphasizes in such shared notions as 
the rejection of elitist attitudes toward art and the portrayal 
of the common man in heroic settings.^^ 

REGIONAUSM 

Though it is reasonable to include both groups under some 
common term, there were extreme differences. The Regional- 
ists were mosdy from the Midwest and utilized a "comfed 
iconography and an illustrative style . . . [that] rapidly became 
the guilty secret of post war, jet-set aesthetics. "^^ 

This style, relying as it did on themes drawn from Ameri- 
can myths and folklore, was well suited to the goals of Edward 
Bruce's Section. Additionally, many of the artists, such as 
Curry and Thomas Hart Benton, were established artists who 



Introduction Ivii 

could meet the Section's stringent requirements for "qual- 

* ... 9 5 

ity. 

SOCIAL REAUSM 

The Social Realists had a much diflferent agenda as they 
portrayed American life. Coming from or working in an almost 
exclusively urban environment, Social Realists were sur- 
rounded by the despair of the urban poor, the jobless millions, 
and bread lines. Their work was affected by the Socialist and 
Communist ideas of left-wing thinkers of the time and inspired 
by the work of the modem Mexican mural painters Jose 
Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Diego Rivera 
who sought to bring depictions of the underclass into their art. 
This commitment to radical change and leftist thought by the 
Social Realists was used by critics of the art projects to label the 
artists themselves, the WPA/FAP, and the whole idea of 
Federal support for the arts as "un-American." 

ABSTRACT ART 

Though there were always some abstract works done on 
the projects (particularly in the easel division of the WPA/ 
FAP) , only a few names stood out. Burgoyne Diller (head of 
the New York City mural project) , Arshile Gorky, and Stuart 
Davis were amongst the few major abstract painters to con- 
tinue their work in the face of Regionalism and Social 
Realism. In later years, such well-known abstract expression- 
ists as Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko would have their 
roots in the WPA/FAP revealed. 

By the final years of the projects, influence of both the 
Regionalists and the Social Realists had waned while that of 
exiled European artists like Andre Breton, Max Ernst, and 
Yves Tanguy gave a more international outlook to the Ameri- 
can art world and paved the way for the establishment of New 
York City as the post-war capital of the art world.^^ 

COMMUNISTS AND UNIONS 

The radicalization of the American artist — most visible in 
the work of the Social Realists — became a major factor in the 



Iviii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

life of the New Deal artist, particularly in urban centers and 
New York City. 

Radical artists had been joining the Communist Party for 
years and forming their own left-wing organizations since the 
early 1930s. Unemployed artists in New York City began 
organizing in the early days of the New Deal and after a 
number of name changes, the Artists' Union was formed in 
February 1934.^' 

The Artists' Union and its official organ. Art Front, had an 
active love-hate relationship with the New Deal art projects. 
Members of the Artists' Union regularly picketed, sat-in, 
wrote letters, and published cartoons against those who 
sought to cut back or eliminate the projects, particularly the 
WPA/FAP. At the same time they railed against real and 
exaggerated deficiencies and slights. 

With the threat of war growing in Europe by the late 1930s, 
the activities of the Artists' Union and other organizations 
like the American Artists' Congress or publications like the 
New Masses were unable to hold the attention of either the 
public or those in power. Indeed, critics of the art projects 
used the left-wing activities of many of the New York-based 
artists to attack not only the WPA/FAP, but the entire WPA 
and New Deal. 

Changes of a radical nature were soon coming to the New 
Deal art projects, but they were not the radical changes many 
of the artist had hoped and fought for. 



1939: The World Turned Upside Down 

UP TO NOW 

Though the New Deal art projects had been loudly criti- 
cized by certain camps since their instigation, through the 
support and influence of those in power, they had weathered 
the relatively minor cutbacks and adjustments that had been 
made in the first years of their existence. It appeared that an 
active support for the arts would become a continuing, if not 
permanent, aspect of the Federal government. 



Introduction "^^ 

But 1939 was not to be a good year for Federal support of 
the arts. The defeat of the various Federal Arts Bureau bills 
of the previous year meant that the projects of Federal One 
would continue on a year-to-year, dollar-to-dollar basis. 
With no permanent base of support, William I. Sirovich 
and Claude Pepper would again introduce bills to make 
the art projects permanent, but the bills would go no- 
where. With Sirovich's death in December 1939, support 
for the existing art projects, not to mention the hope for a 
permanent fine arts project, lost a major voice on Capitol 
Hill. 

CHANGES ON THE HORIZON 

The New Deal had already brought sweeping changes to 
the way the United States did business. In 1937, FDR sought 
to solidify these changes with a massive and radical reorgani- 
zation of the Federal bureaucracy. With his landslide victory 
in the 1936 election behind him, FDR thought he could get 
what he wanted. It was not to be, and a number of events, 
including the "Roosevelt Recession," FDR's Supreme 
Court-packing scheme, and vague fears in Congress of the 
President's growing power served to defeat the plan. 

On April 3, 1939, however, a far less dramatic series of 
changes known as the Reorganization Plan of 1939 took 
effect, with a major impact on the arts projects of the Federal 
government. 

THE FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY 

The reorganization plan created an entirely new Federal 
agency known as the Federal Works Agency (FWA). The 
FWA, under the leadership of John Carmody, absorbed both 
the Treasury Department's Section of Fine Arts and the 
entire WPA, including the Federal Art Project. 

The most drastic changes occurred to the WPA. No longer 
an independent agency, it was now just one of many agencies 
within the FWA. Additionally, to reflect a growing concern 
over achieving tangible results for the hundreds of millions 



Ix The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

of dollars being spent, the name of the WPA was changed 
from the Works Progress Administration to the Work Pro- 
jects Administration. 

With FDR's close friend and advisor Harry Hopkins no 
longer in charge of the WPA (having left in December 1938 
to become Secretaiy of Commerce) and its submersion 
deeper in the Federal bureaucracy, the WPA and the art 
projects became less visible to those in power at both ends of 
Pennsylvania Avenue. 

EFFECTS ON THE FEDERAL ART PROJECT 

The two most drastic changes to occur to the arts projects 
were the total elimination of the Federal Theatre Project 
(long the target of red-baiters and conservatives), and the 
elimination of Federal sponsorship of the projects of Federal 
One. 

The provision of the Emergency Relief Act of 1939 man- 
dating local sponsorship of the arts projects was thought by 
many to be the death knell for the three remaining projects 
of Federal One. Though all would survive, they would be in 
much changed circumstances. 

Again, a name change reflected the changes. The projects 
of Federal One were now known as the Arts Projects of the 
WPA, wdth the name of the sponsoring state added. Thus, in 
New York, the WPA/FAP now became known as the WPA Art 
Program/New York.* 

Because the Federal government no longer provided most 
of the money for the art projects, the state and other funding 
agencies were now determining the nature of the projects. 

Artists continued to be employed; in some cases total 
employment actually rose. Throughout the coimtry murals 
continued to be painted, sculptures created, and work on the 
LAD continued. However, the primary focus of new WPA/ 
FAP was in the community art centers and art education, less 
controversial and more easily quantifiable projects. 



*This name change has lead to the present day confusion as to what to call the 
projects of the WTA. Following the convention established by Francis V. O'Connor, 
the term "WPA/FAP" is used for all the fine arts projects under the WPA and 
succeeding agencies, 1935-1943. 



Introduction Ixi 

Many artists who would later become well-known were 
dropped from or voluntarily left the WPA/FAP at this time. 
In later interviews with artists who served before and after the 
reorganization, the sense that things had changed for the 
worse was a frequently expressed sentiment. 

During the period of transition, Holger Cahill was on a 
leave of absence from the WPA/FAP, working on the exhibi- 
tions of American art at the New York World's Fair. Though 
the national directors of the four other projects of Federal 
One would leave their posts permanently within months of 
the reorganization, Cahill would return from his sabbatical 
and oversee the eventual termination of the WPA/FAP. 

EFFECTS ON THE SECTION OF FINE ART 

At the Section, changes were much less obvious. Edward 
Bruce had spent much of 1938-1939 in trying to have the 
Section made an independent agency housed in a proposed 
new Smithsonian Gallery of Art. When the proposed Smith- 
sonian Gallery of Art became lost in the gathering war 
clouds, the Section had no choice but to become part of the 
FWA.92 

Outwardly, moving the Section from the Treasury Depart- 
ment to the FWA appeared to have no effects. Competitions 
continued to be organized; murals continued to be commis- 
sioned and painted in Federal buildings and post offices. 

The real survival of the Section, however, depended on the 
notion of patronage. When the Section was located in the 
Treasury Department, Edward Bruce could count on the 
artistic and political patronage of both the Treasury Secre- 
tary Henry Morgan thau and his wife, as well as the President. 
John M. Carmody, administrator of the FWA, lacked Morgan- 
thau's interest in art, and FDR, his time increasingly occu- 
pied by events in Europe, could find less and less time for his 
old friend Bruce's project.^^ 

Bruce's fear that having both the WPA/FAP and the 
Section in the same agency would lead to the eventual 
elimination of one or the other as superfluous, never came 
true. World War II would eventually terminate both pro- 
jects.^^ 



Ixii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

THE END 

The start of the war in Europe in 19S9 had already begun 
to cut into Federal support for both relief and the arts. With 
the entiy ol the United States in late 1941, cuts to both relief 
and art programs accelerated. At the same time, the New 
Deal art projects tried to find themselves a new niche in a war 
environment. WPA/FAP artists were taught camouflage tech- 
niques, and the Section commissioned easel paintings for 
militan hospitals. Yet none of these attempts would stave off 
the fuiai termination of either project. 

THE WPA/FAP 

After Pearl Harbor, the survival of the V\TA itself and the 
art program in particular became tenuous. Between March 
1942 and July 1943 (when the WPA was finally liquidated), 
the WPA/FAP went by a number of different names, includ- 
ing the Graphic Section of the War Services Division, the 
Graphic Section of the Division of Program Operations, and 
the Graphic Phase of the War Services Project.^'' 

Administration officials promised Congress that the WPA 
would be eliminated by the end of June 1943. FWA adminis- 
trators carried out this promise, and with the termination of 
the WPA, the WPA/FAP, now nearly unrecognizable, ended 
with it. 

In those last months as the WPA/FAP quickly came to an 
end, administrators hastily began to allocate the remaining 
works at a frantic pace. By some error, hundreds of canvases 
stored in a warehouse in New Jersey were declared to be 
surplus government property and sold by the pound to a 
junk dealer. Among the artists included in the junk sale were 
Mark Rothko and Jackson Pollack.^^ 

THE SECTION 

The Section too had been struggling because of the war. 
Though Edward Bruce had attempted to make his agency 
relevant to the war effort by conducting competitions for art 
to be places in military hospital and to raise funds for the Red 



Introduction 1^^" 

Cross, his efforts to have the Section create posters for the 
war effort and at enrolling the Section in the Office of Facts 
and Figures work of creating propaganda posters came to 
nothing.^^ 

The Section struggled along for most of 1942 and the 
beginning of 1943. Edward Bruce continued to fight for the 
Section, but it was a hopeless cause. He suffered a heart 
attack in 1942 and on January 27, 1943, died. With him died 
the Section of Fine Arts. 



Documenting the New Deal Art Projects 

In 1936, Audrey McMahon predicted. 

Nothing is to be gained by the separate consideration of 
these various programs. It is safe, I believe, to prophesy 
that retrospectively they will be envisaged by art histori- 
ans as one and the same thing.^^ 

Though most art historians are able to distinguish between 
the relief projects of the WPA/FAP and the commission-driven 
projects of the Treasury Department, the public at large tends 
to lump them— plus a great deal of non-govemment-produced 
art of the 1930s— all together as "WPA art." 

This blurring of the lines between the projects both in 
their own time and in our own adds to the difficulty in 
finding the source documents of the projects. 

THE POWER OF THE MIMEOGRAPH 

The alphabetical bureaus of the New Deal, and especially 
the art projects, utilized the mimeograph machine as at no 
other time in history. The use of the mimeograph freed the 
various agencies of the New Deal art projects from using 
precious funds for printing and allowed newsletters, exhibi- 
tion catalogs, technical circulars, summary reports, and a 
host of other "printed" material to flow from the offices of 
art project administrators and participants in a seemingly 
unrelenting — and untraceable — stream. 



Ixiv The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Adding to the difTiculty in tracking the pubHcations is the 
plethora of sponsoring bodies. At various times, the Works 
Progress Administration; the Work Projects Administration 
of the Federal Works Agency; the Section of Painting and 
Sculpture of the Treasury Department; the Section of Fine 
Arts of first the Treasury Department and later the Federal 
Works Agency; the Public Works of Art Project of the 
Treasury Department; and various state offices of the WPA 
Art Program all contributed to the creation of these records. 

Since many of these documents were not considered 
"official" government documents, 

Publications prepared by this project [the Federal Art 
Project — though the same may be said for the Treasury 
Department projects] during the period of this catalog 
have been issued for the use of regional offices or have 
been sponsored and published by agencies other then 
Federal and therefore are not considered Government 
publications and are not entered in the 74th Document 
catalog.^^ 

THREE-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT 

Though the New Deal art projects made a lot of polidcal 
noise and created works of art that were seen by milHons, in 
the vast budget of the United States, they were for all intents 
and purposes fiscally invisible. 

In 1938, for example, total expenditures for all the art 
programs of the WPA accounted for only 0.3% of the WPA's 
budget. '^*^ Comparable figures could be shown for the Treas- 
ury Department projects. 

Thus, when seeking information on the projects in such 
documents as Congressional hearings, agency budgets, and 
legislation, the art projects are often afforded only a single 
line, or at most a paragraph or two. 

THE ARCHIVES OF AMERICAN ART 

Since 1962, the Archives of American Art (AAA) of the 
Smithsonian Institution has assiduously tracked the records 
of the New Deal art projects. The AAA has microfilmed the 



Introduction Ixv 

relevant materials in the collections of the National Archives 
and Records Agency and has collected the personal papers 
and documents of artists and administrators of the projects. 
The collections thus assembled by the AAA are without a 
doubt the starting point for any in-depth research on the 
New Deal Art Projects. 

THE WILDERNESS YEARS 

In their time, the New Deal art projects received extensive 
coverage from both the art press as well as the popular press. 
With the end of the projects, coverage naturally decreased. 

Throughout the 1940s and early 1950s, the projects are 
rarely mentioned in an art world concentrating on the latest 
trend, Abstract Expressionism. What coverage there is of the 
projects tends to dwell on the Index of American Design, 
particularly after the publication of Edwin O. Christensen's 
Index of American Design in 1950. 

Small exhibitions of New Deal art were held at the Smolin 
Gallery in New York City in 1961 and 1962. In 1963, "The 
U.S. Government Art Projects: Some Distinguished Alumni" 
was held at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art. This 
show, organized by Dorothy C. Miller, Holger Cahill's widow, 
for the Museum of Modern Art, was the first to reintroduce 
the public to the New Deal art projects. 

THE FLOODGATES OPEN 

In 1966, Francis V. O'Connor of the University of Mary- 
land organized "Federal Art Patronage 1933 to 1943," at the 
university's art gallery. This, the first large-scale exhibition of 
New Deal art in nearly a quarter century, proved to be a 
turning point. 

Soon, dissertations, thesis, monographs, articles, and exhi- 
bitions on the New Deal art projects were pouring forth from 
the nation's universities and museums. 

Much of the early work on the projects concentrated on 
simply explaining what the projects were and what they did. 
Detailed explications of the bureaucracy of the projects were 
given and lists of artists and works compiled. 



Ixvi The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

This first generation of New Deal art project scholars, 
though interested in the art itself, were most often con- 
cerned with simply telling the public that it did exist. By the 
early 1980s, however, a second generation of scholars began 
to look at New Deal art and ask what it meant. Karal Ann 
Marling in her book Wall to Wall America (on the Treasury 
Department murals) was among the first to examine the 
iconography of New Deal art. 

With this latest scholarly advance. New Deal art now moves 
out of the realm of mere curiosity and can join the main- 
stream of American art. 



Coda 

On March 15, 1944, the American Artists' Professional 
League, long an opponent to the government's art pro- 
grams, gleefully proclaimed in an editorial in Art Digest, 
"WPA-RIP!" 

The editorial came about ten months after the last of the 
New Deal art projects was officially terminated and just over 
eleven years since Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated. In 
his memorable inaugural address March 4, 1933, Roosevelt 
told Americans that 

a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of 
existence, and an equally great number toil with little 
return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark 
realities of the moment .... Happiness lies not in the 
mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achieve- 
ment, in the thrill of creative effort. The joy and moral 
stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the 
mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days will be 
worth all they cost us if they teach us that our true 
destiny is not to be ministered unto but to minister to 
ourselves and to our fellow men.'^^ 

"... the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative 
effort" — the New Deal art projects cost a total of 50 million 
dollars over a period of nearly eleven years, an average of less 



Introduction Ixvii 

than 5 million dollars per year. In comparison to the expen- 
ditures made in other relief efforts this was a bargain. 

Perhaps no Michelangelos or da Vincis were discovered 
by the New Deal art projects. No Sistine ceilings were 
created to adorn the Federal buildings in Washington or 
the thousands of post offices and courthouses across Amer- 
ica. Still, established and respected artists were given 
publicly visible commissions by the Federal government 
via the Section. 

At the same time, the Federal Art Project did, in Audrey 
McMahon's words, "let the artist survive." Artists like Jack- 
son Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, Lee Krasner, 
Berenice Abbott, Ben Shahn, Jacob Eainen, and many more 
later well-known and successful artists were employees of the 
WPA/FAP or the Section at a time when employment of any 
kind was hard to find. 

In that time many thousands of artists were employed, 
many tens of thousands of works were created, a number of 
which even the most virulent critic must admit to be, if not 
the greatest expression of the creative spirit, at least a 
document of the creative spirit of American art at a particular 
time in the nation's history. 

May the artist live? For a brief time, the Federal govern- 
ment said yes and backed that affirmative answer with Fed- 
eral dollars for the good of the artists and the enjoyment of 
the American people. 



References 

Allyn, Nancy Elizabeth. Defining American Design. A History of the 

Index of American Design, 1935-1942. MA Thesis, University of 

Maryland, 1982. 
Ames, Kenneth L. "Review of The Index of American Design." foumal 

of the Society of Architectural Historians 4:1 (March 1982): 68-69. 
Baigell, Matthew. The American Scene: American Painting of the 1930's. 

Praeger: New York, 1974. 
Biddle, George. An American Artist's Story. Little, Brown, and Co.: 

Boston, 1939. 



Ixviii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

"Bureau of Fine Arts." Congressional Record 83 (June 15, 1938): 

9490093, 9496-99. 
Cahill, Holger. The Reminiscences of Holger Cahill. Transcript of 

interviews conducted by the Oral History Office of Columbia 

University in 1957. (#1281 in bib.). 
Christensen, Erwin O. The Index of American Design. Macmillan: New 

York, 1950. 
Coffee, John M. A Bill to Provide for a Permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. 

H.R. 8239, 75th Congress, First Session (August 16, 1937). 
. A Bill to Provide for a Permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. H.R. 9102, 

75th Congress, Third Session (January 21, 1938). 
Dows, Olin. Goruemment in Art; the New Deal's Treasury Art Program. A 

Memoir by Olin Dows. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, 

1963[?]. 
Federal Art Project. Federal Art Project Manual. Federal Art Project: 

Washington, 1935. 
. The Federal Art Project throughout the Nation: A Summary. FAP: 

Washington, April, 1939b. 

Federally Sponsored Community Art Centers. FAP: Washington, 



1937. 

40 Exhibitions at New York 's Federal Art Gallery. A Preview of the 



Future. FAP: New York, 1939a. 

Purposes, Functions and Techniques, Federal Art Project Exhibi- 



tions, Works Progress Administration. Federal Art Project: Washing- 
ton, 1936[?]. 

. Report on Art Projects. Federal Art Project: Washington, 1936. 

New Jersey. The Federal Art Project in New Jersey. The WPA 



Federal Art Project. Summary of Activities and Accomplishments. New- 
ark, 1935 [?]. 

Casque, Allard H. A Bill to Establish a National Bureau of Fine Arts. 
H.R. 1512, 75th Congress, First Session (January 5, 1937). 

"Index of Design; Exhibition at R.H. Macy's." Art Digest 12 (July 
1938): 34. 

Marling, Karal Ann. "Foreword," pp. vii-xiv. In Regionalist Art, 
Thomas Hart Benton, John Steuart Curry, and Grant Wood: A Guide to 
the Literature, by Mary Scholz Guedon. Scarecrow Press: Metu- 
chen, NJ, 1982. 

McDonald, William Francis. Federal Relief Administration and the Arts: 
The Origins and Administrative History of the Arts Projects of the Works 
Progress Administration. Ohio State University Press: Columbus, 
1969. 

McGranery, James P. A Bill to Establish a Division of Fine Arts in the 
Office of Education, Department of Interior. H.R. 8132, 75th Con- 
gress, First Session (August 3, 1937). 



Introduction Ixix 

McKinzie, Richard. The New Deal for Artists. Princeton University 

Press: Princeton, NJ, 1973. 
McMahon, Audrey. "May the Artist Live?" Parnassus (October 

1933): 1-4. 
. "The Trend of the Government in Art" Parnassus 8 (January 

1936): 3-6. 
Monroe, Gerald M. The Artists' Union of New York. Ed.D. disserta- 
tion. New York University, 1971. 
Morris, Richard B., ed. Great Presidential Decisions. Fawcett: New 

York, 1969. 
Morsell, Mary. "Selected Works of PWAP Project at the Corcoran." 

Art News S2 (May 5, 1934): 3, 14. 
O'Connor, Francis V., ed. Art for the Millions. New York Graphic 

Society, Ltd.: Greenwich, CT, 1973. 
. Federal Support for the Visual Arts: The New Deal, Then and 

Now. New York Graphic Society: New York, 1969. 
Pepper, Claude D. A Bill to Provide for a Bureau of Fine Arts. S. 2967, 

76th Congress, First Session (August 5, 1939). 
Public Works of Art Project. Report of the Assistant Secretary of the 

Treasury to Federal Emergency Relief Administrator. Government 

Printing Office: Washington, 1934. 
Sirovich, William I. A Joint Resolution to Create a Bureau of Fine Arts in 

the Department of Interior. H.J. Res. 671, 75th Congress, Third 

Session (May 4, 1938). 
"Speaking of Pictures . . . This is Mural America for Rural 

Americans." Life7 (December 4, 1939): 12-13, 15. 
Tinkham, Sandra Shaffer, ed. The Consolidated Catalog to the Index of 

American Design. Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ; Chadwyck- 

Healey: Cambridge, England, 1980. 
US Congress. House of Representatives. A Joint Resolution Providing 

for the Establishment of an Executive Department to be Known as the 

Department of Science, Art, and Literature. Hearings held April-May, 

1935, House of Representatives, Committee on Patents. H.J. Res. 

220, 74th Congress, First Session. Government Printing Office: 

Washington, March 18, 1935. 
US Superintendent of Documents. Catalog of the Public Documents of 

the 74th Congress. Government Printing Office: Washington, 1935. 
White, John Franklin, ed. Art in Action. American Art Centers and the 

New Deal. Scarecrow Press: Metuchen, NJ, 1987. 
Whiting, Philippa. "Speaking About Art." American Magazine of Art 

28 (April 1935): 230-33. 
Whitney Museum of American Art. Treasury Department Art Projects. 

Sculpture and Paintings for Federal Buildings. Whitney Museum of 

American Art: New York, 1936. 



Ixx The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Works Progress Administration, lyivenlory. An aftpraisal of the results 
oj the Works Progress Administration, Washington, DC. Government 
Printing Office: Washington, 1938. 



Notes 

1. McMahon (1933), pp. 1-4. 

2. Ibid., p. 4. 

3. McMahon (1936), p. 3. 

4. Biddle (1939), p. 268. 

5. Ibid., p. 269. 

6. McDonald (1969), p. 360. 

7. Art Neivs (May 5, 19S4), p. \4. 

8. Public Works of Art Project (1934), p. 9. 

9. Whitney Museum of American Art (1936), introduction. 

10. Whiting (1934), p. 569. 

11. McKinzie (1973), p. 37. 

12. Ibid., p. 54. 

13. L?/^ (December 4, 1939), pp. 12-13, 15. 

14. McKinzie (1973), p. 60. 

15. McDonald (1969), p. 117. 

16. Dows (1963?), pp. 20-23. 

17. McDonald (1969), p. 370. 

18. Federal Art Project (1936), p. 3. 

19. McDonald, p. 130. 

20. Cahill (1957), ff. 

21. McDonald (1969), p. 184. 

22. Ibid., p. 171. 

23. Ibid., pp. 203-4. 

24. Ibid., pp. 208-9. 

25. Federal Art Project (1935), pp. 3-4. 

26. McDonald (1969), p. 389. 

27. Federal Art Project (1935), p. 5. 

28. McDonald (1969), pp. 185-86. 

29. Ibid., p. 385. 

30. Federal Art Project. New Jersey (1935?), p. 7. 

31. McDonald, p. 424. 

32. Federal Art Project (1935), pp. 22-23. 

33. McDonald, p. 105. 

34. Ibid., pp. 430-31. 

35. Ibid., p. 105. 

36. Federal Art Project (1936?), p. 3. 



Introduction Ixxi 

37. Federal Art Project (1936) , p. 6. 

38. McDonald, p. 105. 

39. Ibid., p. 430. 

40. Ibid., p. 105. 

41. O'Connor (1973), p. 294. 

42. McDonald, p. 458. 

43. Ibid., p. 459. 

44. Ibid., p. 460. 

45. Ibid., p. 476. 

46. Federal Art Project (1939a), p. ii. 

47. Ibid., p. 3. 

48. Ibid.,p.S2. 

49. Federal Art Project (1939b), p. 3. 

50. Ibid., p. I. 

51. Christensen (1950), p. xii. 

52. Ibid. 

53. Art Digest 12 (July 1938), p. 34. 

54. Christensen (1950), pp. xiv-xv. 

55. Ibid., p. xiii. 

56. Ibid., p. xiv. 

57. Allyn(1982),p. 39. 

58. Ibid., pp. 42-43. 

59. Tinkham (1980), p. 2. 

60. Ames (1982), pp. 68-69. 

61. White (1987), p. 2. 

62. Federal Art Project (1937), p. 1. 

63. Ibid., pp. 1-2. 

64. McDonald, p. 413. 

65. Federal Art Project (1937), p. 6. 

66. O'Connor (1973), p. 224. 

67. Ibid., p. 226. 

68. Federal Art Project (1937), pp. 15-16. 

69. Ibid.,p.25. 

70. White (1987), p. 7. 

71. US Congress. House of Representatives (1935), p. 1. 

72. Ibid., p. 2. 

73. H.R. 8239,p. 1. 

74. Ibid. 

75. Ibid., p. 5. 

76. H.R. 9102, p. 4. 

77. Ibid. 

78. H.J. Res. 671, p. 1. 

79. Congressional Record (June 15, 1938), p. 9,492. 

80. Ibid., p. 9,496. 



Ixxii The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

81. Ibid.,p.9A97. 

82. Ibid. 

83. H.R. 1512, p. 1. 

84. H.R. 8132, pp. 1-2. 

85. S.2967, p. 1. 

86. Ibid., p. 3. 

87. Baignell, p. 13. 

88. Ibid., p. 59. 

89. Marling, p. vii. 

90. McKinzie, pp. 107-8. 

91. Monroe, pp. 39-52. 

92. McKinzie, pp. 44-45. 

93. Ibid., pp. 45-46. 

94. Ibid., p. 45. 

95. O'Connor (1969), p. 130. 

96. Newsweek (March 6, 1944), pp. 96^97. 

97. McKinzie, pp. 49-50. 

98. McMahon (1936), p. 3. 

99. US Superintendent of Documents, p. 3,187. 

100. Works Progress Administration, p. 81. 

101. Morris, pp. 410-11. 



1933-1934 



0001 McMahon, Audrey. "May the artist live?" Parnassus 5 
(October 1933): 1-4. 

Calling for Federal aid to artists, McMahon outlines the steps 
taken in New York for artists. B/W illustrations of work done 
by artists in New York. Written before PWAP began. 

0002 "American artists and the NRA code of fair competi- 
tion." Commercial Artist lb (December 1933): 249-50. 

NOT SEEN. 

0003 Howard, Henry T. "The Coit Memorial Tower." The 

Architect and Engineer of California and the Pacific Coast States 
115 (December 1933): 11-15. 

NOT SEEN. 

0004 "Millions for laborers, not one cent for artists." 
American Magazine of Art 2^ (December 1933): 521-22. 

Call for relief efforts to be expanded to include artists. 

0005 "CWA art project." Art Digest 8 (December 15, 1933) : 
31. 

American Artists Professional League's (AAPL) digest of 
what the CWA has planned. Includes a full outline of the 
basic premises of the art project. 

0006 "Federal funds available to museums in new ways." 
Museum News 11 (December 15, 1933): 1-2. 

Explanation of the ways that governmental funds will be 

1 



2 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

available to museums through the PWA. Includes partial text 
of the announcement. 

0007 "Jobs for artists." Art Digest 8 (December 15, 1933): 
6-7. 

HariT L. Hopkins of the Federal Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration (FERA) announces plans to give 2,500 artists jobs 
through the PWAP. Discusses the setting up of regional 
committees and includes comments by a number of people 
on the pros and cons of government involvement in the arts. 

0008 "Federal art plan to pro\ide funds for needy artists." 
Art News 32 (December 16, 1933): 1, 3-4. 

Announcement of the creation of the PWAP; the appoint- 
ment of Juliana Force as New York director; and lists the 
other regional committees being formed. 

0009 "Latest data on CWA plan." Art News 32 (December 
16, 1933): 10. 

Latest news on the PWAP; text of remarks by: Edward Bruce, 
Forbes Watson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Rexford G. Tugwell, 
Francis Henry Taylor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, and Juliana 
Force. 

0010 "The Public Works of Art Project." Art News 32 
(December 16, 1933): 10. 

Editorial cautiously endorsing the PWAP. "The mere forma- 
tion of a Public Works of Art Project is a epoch making event 
in America" (reprinted in November 1977 Art News See 
1439). 

0011 Beer, Richard. "Voice from the country." Art News S2 
(December 23, 1933): 14. 

Satiric ardcle; Beer "converses" with a woman from Kansas 
on the idea of the PWAP, the woman feels artists should paint 
boxcars so people everywhere could really see the art they 
create. 



Annotated Bibliography 3 

0012 "Government and art." Art News 32 (December 23, 
1933): 10. 

Editorial on the PWAP; fears the effects of throwing large 
sums of money at artists without a good plan; feels federal 
money should be spent on adornment of public buildings. 

0013 Morsell, Mary. "Inquiring reporter goes forth on 
mural interview." Art News 32 (December 23, 1933): 12. 

Satiric article; Morsell asks the man on the street his response 
to the PWAP; tongue in cheek account as she "talks" to the 
New York Public Library's lions. 

0014 "Row follows allotment of relief funds to painters." 
Newsweek 2 (December 23, 1933): 30. 

Announcement of PWAP plans and how some have found 
that the administrators chosen are too biased towards mod- 
ern art. 

0015 "Government aid to artists." Literary Digest 116 (De- 
cember 30, 1933): 22. 

Brief note on the creation of the PWAP; how it will work; the 
formation of the regional committees; and a comment by 
Forbes Watson. 

0016 "Jobless artists score PWA charging bias in selec- 
tions." ArtNews32 (December 30, 1933): 6. 

Summary of New York Times account of artists accusing 
Juliana Force of favoritism in PWAP hiring. 

MONOGRAPHS 

0017 Public Works of Art Project. "Civil works administra- 
tion to employ artists on Public works of art." In U.S. Federal 
Emergency Relief Administration. Press Release no. 464. Mimeo- 
graphed, issued December 11, 1933. 9 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. 



4 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0018 Public Works of Art Project. "[Press release], no. 1." 
Mimeographed, issued December 19, 1933. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. 



0019 Roosevelt, Franklin D. Executive Order No. 6420B. 
November 9, 1933. 

With this Executive Order, FDR established the Federal Civil 
Works Administration under which the PWAP was eventually 
formed. 



1934 

0020 "Art for PWA." Architectural Forum 60 (January 1934, 
supplement): 24. 

Announcement of the formation of the PWAP; lists members 
of the advisory committee. 

0021 "Public Works of Art Project." Carnegie Magazine 7 
(JanuaiT 1934): 245-46. 

Note on the creation of the PWAP; how it v^ll work and what 
projects it will undertake. B/W photograph of Edward Bruce, 
Forbes Watson, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Lawrence W. Roberts. 

0022 Watson, Forbes. "The Public Works of Art Project: 
Federal, Republican or Democratic?" American Magazine of 
Art 21 (January 1934): 6-9. 

Watson defends the early work of the PWAP and makes the 
claim that though geniuses may not be created by the 
truckload, a few great works of art will come from the project; 
includes a map of the PWAP regions. An excellent article. 

0023 Watson, Forbes. "The USA challenges the artists." 
Parnassus 6 (January 1934): 1-2. 

Forbes Watson recounts the foundation of the PWAP and his 
association with it; explains that it is wonderful to bring art to 



Annotated Bibliography 5 

the people. "We are obliged either to say that geniuses are 
century plants or to say that lilacs don't count. The Public 
Works of Art Project takes the broader point of view. It 
believes that the artist is not the rare blossom that blooms 
once in a hundred years and it also believes that the life of 
the spirit may quite well be carried on by men whose names 
will not go down permanently in history," p. 2. 

0024 "CWA can aid museums." Art Digest 8 (January 1, 
1934): 15. 

Summary of a Museum News piece on how museums can take 
advantage of CWA and FERA projects. 

0025 "CWA murals in Dallas." Art Digest 8 (January 1, 
1934): 29. 

Alexander Hogue and Jerry Bywaters collaborate on nine 
PWAP murals in the Dallas City Hall. 

0026 "CWA project. ' ' Art Digest 8 (January 1 , 1934) : 8-9. 

Summary of early PWAP work. Joseph A. Danysh of the San 
Francisco Argonaut discusses how the art projects are to 
employ artists and not to simply put them on relief. Includes 
a list of the official personnel (non-artists) in the sixteen 
regions of the project. 

0027 "Edna Reindel, one of first picked by CWA." Art 
Digests (January 1, 1934): 19. 

Edna Reindel is named as one of the first artists hired by the 
PWAP. B/W illustration of work by Reindel. 

0028 "For living artists." Art Digest 8 (January 1, 1934) : 14. 

Open letter signed by many artists and headed by Leon Kroll 
asking the art world to supplement the CWA project with 
additional funds. 

0029 "Portentous project." Art Digest 8 (January 1, 1934): 
3-4. 



6 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Editorial praising the efforts of the government to support 
the arts. 

0030 " [Plan of relief for unemployed artists.] " New Repub- 
lic 11 (January 3, 1934): 209. 

Editorial praising the formation of the PWAP: "In setting up 
the organization through which its plan of relief for unem- 
ployed artists is to be carried out, the administration has 
acted with an intelligence unusual in governmental dealings 
with art and artists." 

0031 "Public art project." Commonweal 19 (January 5, 
1934): 257. 

Note on the creation of the PWAP. "We have lately spoken 
from our hearts about the misanthropy and aridity that 
distinguishes so much of our native secular art, and we hope 
this trend, sometimes dubiously distinguished as 'modern,' 
will not characterize these works supposedly done for the 
public as well as the artists. Perhaps the latter with a few 
regular meals in prospect will see something in the American 
scene other than jazzmania,' unflattering likenesses of sub- 
way crowds already sad enough, barren-looking farms and 
distorted women." 

0032 "New court house in New York gets first murals under 
CWAplan." Art News 2>2 (January 6, 1934): 17. 

County Court House in New York gets first PWAP mural; the 
mural will be created by PWAP artists after old sketches by 
Attilio Pusterla recently discovered. 

0033 "PWAP active in New England." Art News 32 (January 
13,1934): 11. 

Forty-four New England artists on PWAP payroll; list of New 
England regional committee. 

0034 "The art project." Art Digest S (January 15, 1934): 30. 
Weekly column by the American Artists Professional League 



Annotated Bibliography 7 

(AAPL); brief summary of the PWAP and a plea to keep it 
free of government interference. 

0035 "CWA peril." Art Digest 8 (January 15, 1934) : 6. 

Junius Craven of the San Francisco News warns artists in the 
PWAP that they must succeed or the public will turn against 
them. 

0036 Danysh, Joseph A. ' 'Dejected genius: American art or 
bust." Art Digest 8 (January 15, 1934): 7. 

Summary of Danysh's article in the San Francisco Argonaut. A 
"creative" writing piece in dialogue form where Danysh 
criticizes the haste in which artists and projects were chosen 
in the CWA project. 

0037 De Kruif, Henry. "The New Ideal." Art Digest 8 
(January 15, 1934): 24. 

A plea by the artist Henry De Kruif for an American art 
commensurate with the greatness of America. Mentions the 
Mexican government's art project. 

0038 "Directors names for CWA art project in sixteen 
districts." Museum News 11 (January 15, 1934): 2. 

List of the regional directors names by the PWAP. 

0039 "Judgement pending." Art Digest 8 (January 15, 
1934): 4, 32. 

Editorial on the complaints of artists who were not selected 
in the first round of PWAP projects. Description of the 
protests by the Unemployed Artists' Association. Comments 
by Juliana R. Force, chairman of the New York Regional 
Committee. 

0040 "PWA officers view one of first works done under 
project." Art Digest 8 (January 15, 1934): 7. 

Officers of the PWAP gather around one of the first works 
completed under the project (an illustration of the National 



8 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Archives building under consU"uction by Dorsey Doniphan). 
Illusuated with a photograph of the officers gathered around 
the work. 

0041 "White Plains CWA unit." Art Digest 8 (January 15, 
1934): 8. 

Mrs. Chester G. Marsh, director of the Westchester Work- 
shop, announces the creation of a CWA unit. 

0042 Bruce, Edward. "Public Works of Art Project — 
address by Edward Bruce." Congressional Record 78 (January 
17, 1934): 765-67. 

Address by Edward Bruce to the Cosmopolitan Club of 
Washington, DC, on the PWAP; read into the Congressional 
Record by Senator Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas. Bruce 
describes the PWAP and reads letters from artists on the 
project praising what it has done for them. Bruce concludes: 
"If we can, through this project, develop the love and the 
wish for beauty, an intolerance for the ugliness in our lives 
and our surroundings, a demand for slum clearance, a 
hatred of the utter drabness of the average city and village in 
this country, especially in its outskirts, we may be building 
better than we know, not only spiritually but materially. It 
may form the stimulus and create a demand for an America 
beautiful, and such a demand is what everyone is seeking to 
lift us out of the depression," p. 767. NOTE: Reprinted as a 
separate document by the US GPO, 1934 (8 pp.). 

0043 "PWAP projects in New Jersey." Art News 32 (January 
20, 1934): 19. 

Beatrice Winser, Chairman of the Northern New Jersey 
PWAP, announces committee members and list of New 
Jersey projects. 

0044 Weaver, John Henry. "Plan for Public Works of Art." 
Art News 32 (January 20, 1934): 17. 

Letter to the editor; Weaver, founder of Art Interests, the 
Artists' Cooperative, feels the public should be more in- 



Annotated Bibliography 9 

volved in choosing artists for PWAP; this will increase their 
interest in the art done. 

0045 "New England quotas of employed artists has been 
reached." ArtNews?>2 Qanuary 27, 1934): 11. 

Frances Henry Taylor announces that the New England 
region PWAP allotments have been filled; comments by 
Forbes Watson that the PWAP may be extended. 

0046 "What price public art? Speculation over results." 
Literary Digest 1 1 7 (January 27, 1 934) : 20. 

Comments by local papers (Baltimore Sun and Troy Times), 
Harry W. Watrous (president of the National Academy of 
Design), and Jo Davidson (sculptor) on the creation of the 
PWAP. Davidson comments on fears about an 'official art': 
"Official art! What was Greece, what was Egypt, what was 
India? Wasn't that official art? Did it matter to the artists of 
India that Buddha had to be pictured with definite, immuta- 
ble gestures?" Illustrated with a cartoon depicting the "mod- 
ern artist" getting all the PWAP commissions while "conser- 
vative artist" sits on the sidelines. 

0047 Public Works of Art Project Bulletin 1 (February 1934) : 7 
pp. 

Edited by Ann Craton, the first of two {See 0053) PWAP 
Bulletins contained an introduction by Edward Bruce to the 
PWAP and a note by Edward Rowan. 

0048 7\rmitage, Merle and Thomas Carr Howe, Jr. "Public 
works of art project." California Arts and Architecture 45 
(February 1934): 20, 30. 

Explanation of the PWAP by Armitage (regional director for 
Southern California) and Howe (vice-chairman, Northern 
California, Nevada, and Utah) ; they discuss what the PWAP 
will do, and what type of projects it will undertake in their 
respective regions. Photographs of Eleanor Roosevelt, Law- 
rence W. Roberts (Assistant Secretary of the Treasury), 
Edward Bruce, and Forbes Watson. 



10 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0049 La Follette, Suzanne. "Government recognizes art." 
Scribner's Magazine 95 (February 1934): 131-32. 

General article on government patronage of the arts, praises 
the formation of the PWAP. Gives a good background sketch 
as to the artistic reasons the PWAP was created. 

0050 "Murals by the day." Arts and Decoration 40 (February 
1934): 46-47. 

A bit of backhanded praise of PWAP works, claiming that 
unlike other government commissioned art work (examples 
given include the high prices paid for nineteenth century 
murals in the Capitol) , these are so cheap, they can just be 
painted over if no one likes them in a few years: "If now the 
government sets a few thousand mural painters and easel 
painters and etchers of the American scene to work at $35 or 
$40 a week, the taxpayer will be more willing to have the 
space repainted if it does not stand the test of time." 

0051 Rowan, Edward. "Will plumber's wages turn the 
trick?" American Magazine of Art 27 (February 1934): 80-83. 

Primarily a list of PWAP works undertaken; includes a 
photograph of PWAP administrators accepting one of the 
first works finished. 

0052 Wessels, Glenn. "Value received." Art Digest 8 (Febru- 
ary 1, 1934): 22. 

Comments by Wessels from the San Francisco Argonaut 
discussing an exhibition of PWAP works at the De Young 
Museum (San Francisco). Claims a bright future for the 
project. 

0053 Public Works of Art Project Bulletin 2 ( March 1 934) : 8 pp. 

Edited by Ann Craton, the second of two (See 0047) PWAP 
Bulletin contains the text of Edward Bruce's comments at an 
address at the New York City Municipal Gallery and reports 
from the various PWAP regions. 



Annotated Bibliography 11 

0054 Bruce, Edward. "Implications of the Public Works of 
Art Project." American Magazine of Art 27 (March 1934): 
113-15. 

A brief history of the inception of the PWAP; Bruce praises 
the quality of work done under PWAP and sees it as invigorat- 
ing local talent and living proof of the wonders that the 
democratic patronage of art can accomplish. 

0055 "New Jersey PWAP extends time limit for artists' 
work." ArtNewsS2 (March 10, 1934): 11. 

Beatrice Winser of the Northern New Jersey PWAP an- 
nounces that employment will continue till May 1, 1934, in 
New Jersey. 

0056 Force, Juliana R. "Art appreciation beUeved ad- 
vanced by CWA project." ArtNews32 (March 17, 1934): 11. 

Force claims PWAP has increased art appreciation in the 
general public. "It will prove to the individual that all good 
art is not expensive, and that the average person can afford 
and should own works of art." 

0057 "Exhibition of work by PWA artists." Minneapolis 
Institute of Art Bulletin 23 (March 24, 1934): 63-64. 

Account of "Exhibition of Paintings, Water Colors, and 
Sculpture by Artists Enrolled in the Public Works of Art 
Project" (March through August 1934) at the Minneapolis 
Institute of Art. Includes a partial list of artists. 

0058 "Prophet without honor." Art News 32 (March 24, 
1934): 10. 

Editorial critical of the mixing of relief and art in the PWAP; 
still, cautiously hopeful for the future. 

0059 "PWAP artists show their work in group exhibit." 
Cleveland Art News 32 (March 24, 1934): n.p. 

NOT SEEN. 



12 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0060 "PWAP criticized in local press." Art News 32 (March 
24, 1934): 10. 

Report from the New York Herald Tribune critical of PWAP; 
includes response by Juliana Force claiming she showed no 
favoritism in hiring; and letter from William Zorach saying 
he received no money from PWAP. 

0061 Eglinston, Laurie. "Whitney Museum falsely identi- 
fied with relief work." Art Neius 32 (March 31, 1934): 3, 
19-20. 

Critical of artists protesting the PWAP in front of New York 

regional director Juliana Force's museum, the Whitney. 

Major part of article is comments by leading figures of the art 

world on PWAP; included are: 

John Taylor Arms, President of the Society of Etchers; 

Edward Bruce, PWAP; 

Sarah E. Cowan, Secretary, American Society of Miniature 
Painters; 

Francis S. Dixon, Secretary, Artists' Fellowship; 

John Ward Dunsmore, Secretary, Artists' Federation of the 
City of New York; 

George Pearse Ennis, AAPL; 

Emily A. Frances, President of Contemporary Arts; 

Anne Goldthwaite, Chairman, American Print Makers' Soci- 
ety; 

Edith Halpert, Downtown Galleries; 

Alexandrina Robertson Harris, National Association of 
Women Painters and Sculptors; 

Selma Roller, Grand Central Art Galleries; 

Leon Kroll, Chairman, American Society of Painters, Sculp- 
tors and Gravers; 

Robert W. Macbeth, Macbeth Galleries; 

Audrey McMahon, College Art Association; 

Leonora Morton, Morton Galleries; 

Dorothy Paris, Eighth Street Gallery; 

Ernest Peixotto, President, National Society of Mural Paint- 
ers; 

Frederic Newlin Price, Feragil Galleries; 

Mary Turlay Robinson, Argent Galleries; 



Annotated Bibliography 13 

Manfred Schwartz, Gallery 144 West 13th Street; 
Harry W. Watrous, President, National Academy of Design; 
plus remarks from other societies too loosely organized to 
make a joint statement. 

0062 "Artists work for the government." Studio 107 (April 
1934): 221. 

Brief note on the formation of the PWAP. 

0063 Breeskin, Adelyn D. "Exhibition of Public works of 
art project for Maryland." Baltimore Museum of Art News-Record 
5 (April 1934): 2. 

Brief account of "Exhibition of Public Works of Art Project 
for Maryland" (1st three weeks in April) at the Baltimore 
Museum of Art. Thirty-plus artists, all from Maryland, repre- 
sented. 

0064 Brodinsky, Ben P."CWA art brightens schools." School 
Arts 19 (April 1934): 160-61. 

Explanation of how the PWAP has used artists for educa- 
tional purposes; some examples of educational projects. 
B/W illustrations of murals. 

0065 "Public Works of Art Project. ' ' Kansas City Art Institute 
Bulletin (April 1934): 1-2. 

Note on the purpose and functions of the PWAP; note on the 
exhibition of local PWAP artists' work: " [Public Works of Art 
Project Exhibition] " at the ICansas City Art Institute (April 1 
through?, 1934). 

0066 "Public Works of Art Project Exhibition." Cincinnati 
Museum Bulletin. 5 (April 1934): 63. 

Entry in exhibition schedule noting the exhibition, "Public 
Works of Art Project Exhibition" would appear at the mu- 
seum April 13-29, 1934. 

0067 Watson, Forbes. "Steady job." American Magazine of 
Art 27 (April 1934): 168-82. 



14 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

"The government's methods of employing the American 
artist should be continued by artists and laymen in their 
future financial relationships," p. 169. Watson makes a call 
to private industry to stay a factor in the art world. Many B/W 
illustrations of works. 

0068 ' Tragedy. ' ' Art Digest 8 (April 1 , 1 934) : 3-4, 1 1 . 

Editorial stating that 50,000 people claim to be artists but 
only 1,000 to 2,000 deserve the name. Since the PWAP 
cannot employ them all, those dissatisfied "artists" are 
ruining it for the real artists. Includes the text of Juliana 
Force's (Chairman of the New York Regional Committee and 
director of the Whitney Museum) remarks on temporarily 
closing the WTiitney (where the PWAP New York offices were 
located) due to threats by artists. 

0069 "Official reports on artists' relief work." Art News 32 
(April?, 1934): 11, 15-16. 

Selected texts of speeches by Juliana Force, Forbes Watson, 
John S. Ankeney, Grace Gosselin, Leon Kroll, Charles J. 
Kraemer, Jonas Lie, Raymond W. Houston, and Audrey 
McMahon given at the College Art Association meeting, 
March 30, 1934, on the subject, "The Community Recog- 
nizes the Artist." 

0070 "PWAP art work recently exhibited in middle west." 
Art News 32 (April 14, 1934): 17. 

Notice of exhibits of PWAP work at Minneapolis Institute of 
Arts (partial list of artists; favorable comments) ; and Kansas 
City Art Institute. 

0071 "John Cunning discovered." Art Digest 8 (April 15, 
1934): 14. 

Review of a show by John Cunning at the Kleemann- 
Thorman Gallery (New York City) that included work he had 
done for the PWAP. 



Annotated Bibliography 15 

0072 "Let us judge the results." Art Digest 8 (April 15, 
1934): 31. 

Editorial by the AAPL asking for support of the PWAP (slated 
to close down April 28, 1934). 

0073 "Showdown." Art Digest 8 (April 15, 1934) : 3-4. 

Editorial apologizing for the strident tones of earlier (See 
0068) editorial, "Tragedy." Includes details on how a contin- 
uation of the PWAP is coming up for review. 

0074 "Public works of art exhibition." Minneapolis Institute 
of Art Bulletin 2S (April 28, 1934): 85-86. 

Review/comments on "Exhibition of Paintings, Water Col- 
ors, and Sculpture by Artists Enrolled in the Public Works of 
Art Project" (March through August 1934) at the Minneapo- 
lis Institute of Art. Includes some comments, mostly favor- 
able, from visitors. 

0075 Watson, Forbes. "Artist becomes a citizen." Forum 91 
(May 1934): 277-79. 

Essay by Watson on the nature of the PWAP, feeling that it 
should not be a simple relief project, but rather a project to 
raise the dignity of the American artist. 

0076 Boswell, Peyton. "Adjudged." Art Digest 8 (May 1, 
1934): 3-4. 

Editorial on the exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art 
(Washington, DC) of PWAP art. Includes some statistics: 
15,000 artworks acquired for $1,408 million; employed 3,521 
artists. Feels that overall the government received a good 
deal. 

0077 Boswell, Peyton. "A plague — " Art Digest 8 (May 1, 
1934): 4, 12. 



16 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Editorial apologizing further for the "Tragedy" (See 0068) 
editorial. Includes the full text of a "Resolution Passed by the 
Artists Committee of Action for the Municipal Art Gallery 
and Center (April 17, 1934)," condemning the Art Digest 3.nd 
Peyton Boswell for the "Tragedy" editorial. 

0078 "PWAP wins praise at its 'preliminary' hearing in 
Washington." Art Digest 8 (May 1, 1934): 5-6, 32. 

Edward Bruce comments on Corcoran Gallery of Art show of 
PWAP art. B/W illustrations of works by Gerald Foster, Xavier 
Gonzales (mural on which he was assisted by Rudolph Staffel 
and John A. Griffith), Schomer Lichtner, Malvin Gray 
Johnson, Dorothy Gilbert, Glenn Wessels, and Thomas Savage. 

0079 Morsell, Mary. "Selected works of PWAP project at 
the Corcoran." Art News 32 (May 5, 1934): 3, 14. 

Favorable review of "National Exhibition of Art by the Public 
Works of Art Project" at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. "The 
work of many of the P.W.A.P. artists seems to show a certain 
psychological relief and gratitude for this opportunity to 
paint without the subconscious necessity of following and 
anticipating the latest trends in modern style," p. 14. De- 
tailed critiques of many of the works. 

0080 "Paintings chosen by the President." Art News 32 
(May 5, 1934): 17. 

A list of the thirty-two PWAP works selected from the "Na- 
tional Exhibition of Art by the Public Works of Art Project" at 
the Corcoran Gallery by FDR to hang in the WTiite House. 

0081 "PWAP murals to be completed." Art News 32 (May 5, 
1934): 5. 

Announcement by Edward Bruce that all PWAP artists work- 
ing on murals will be paid until the work is done, though at a 
reduced rate. 

0082 "PWA art government officials take sides in aesthetic 

war." Newsweek3 (May 5, 1934): 37-38. 



Annotated Bibliography 17 

Account of the struggle between Edward Bruce of the PWAP 
and the architects of the Post Office Building on the style of 
the mural to be installed. Recounts the story of Gilbert 
White's Agriculture Building mural and the controversy the 
mural's conservatism aroused. Brief mention of PWAP exhi- 
bition at the Corcoran Gallery. 

0083 Adams, Katherine Langhorne. "Uncle Sam becomes 
an art patron." Literary Digest U7 (May 12, 1934): 42. 

Favorable review of "National Exhibition of Art by the Public 
Works of Art Project" at the Corcoran Gallery (DC). B/W 
illustration of work by Julius Bloch. 

0084 " 'Beyond their intelligence.' " Art Digest 8 (May 15, 
1934): 10. 

Louise Pershing did a mural in the Dormont, PA, school that 
was so controversial that the local PTA claimed it was unfit for 
children. Said Pershing: "I consider it a compliment that the 
people of Dormont feel they cannot accept my mural. That 
shows it is beyond their intelligence and understanding." 

0085 Boswell, Peyton. "Questionings." ArtDigestS (May 15, 
1934): 3-4. 

Discussion of Gilbert White's mural for the Agriculture 
Building and whether "Classical" representation is a valid 
visual vocabulary in the 20th century. 

0086 "Keep PWAP alive!" ArtDigestS (May 15, 1934): 30. 
AAPL editorial pleading to keep the PWAP alive. 

0087 "PWAP gets the credit." Art Digest 8 (May 15, 1934) : 8. 

Brief notice from the Philadelphia Public Ledger th^it interest in 
American art has been so stimulated by the PWAP that the 
Philadelphia Museum of Art extended a show of American art. 

0088 "PWAP vindicated." Art Digest 8 (May 15, 1934) : 7. 

Summary of reviews of "National Exhibition of Art by the 
Public Works of Art Project" at the Corcoran Gallery. 



18 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0089 "Public Works of Art Project — address by Edward 
Bruce." Congressional Record 78 (May 22, 1934): 9227-28. 

Extension of remarks by Sen. Frederic C. Walcott of Con- 
necticut reprints a speech by Edward Bruce to the American 
Association of Adult Education (May 21, 1934) that gives a 
general accoimt of the PWAP. NOTE: Reprinted as a sepa- 
rate document by the U.S. GPO, 1934 (9 pp.). 

0090 Buchalter, Helen. "Uncle Sam's art show." New Re- 
public 79 (May 23, 1934): 43-44. 

Fairly favorable, but with reservations, review of "National 
Exhibition of Art by the Public Works of Art Project" at the 
Corcoran Gallery. 

0091 "Art as public works: Washington exhibition." Scho- 
lastic 24 {May 26, 1934): 14. 

Note on "National Exhibition of Art by the Public Works of 
Art Project" at the Corcoran Gallery; mostly excerpted text 
from other sources by Edward Bruce and Edwin Alden Jewell 
of the New York Times. B/W illustrations of two murals. 

0092 Biddle, George. "Art renascence under federal pa- 
tronage." Scribner's Magazine 95 (June 1934): 428-31. 

Editorial preface includes the text of Biddle's letter to FDR, 
and FDR's reply. In this important article on the PWAP, 
Biddle describes the project, gives a brief history of art in 
America, and praises the Roosevelt Administration for hav- 
ing the courage to inidate such a program. "As long as we 
have a President who has recognized the necessity of art in 
life, and among his administradon's leaders who are intelli- 
gently putting that recognition into pracdce, the govern- 
ment has paved the way for a national revival in American art, 
and the artist need not feel too gloomy about the future 
ahead of him," p. 431. 

0093 Kellogg, Florence Loeb. "Art becomes public works." 
Survey Graphics 23 (June 1934): 279-82. 



Annotated Bibliography 19 

A laudatory look back at the PWAP. Includes excerpts from 
comments by artists: " 'Never in my career,' to quote from 
one letter, 'have I experienced such a lift as I feel now in my 
work for the government. No newspaper criticism, however 
kind, no exhibition of my work, no scholarship, no patron- 
age, has fired me as does this project,' " p. 282. B/W 
illustrations of works by Millard Sheets, Julia Eckle, E. Dewey 
Albinson, Julius Bloch, Tyrone, and Robert Tabor. 

0094 "Report of work in New Haven district of Connecti- 
cut. ' ' Yale Associates Bulletin 6 (June 1934): 29-3 1 . 

NOT SEEN. 

0094a "A referendum on the desirabihty of an under 
secretary of arts in the Federal government." Art Digest 8 
(June 1,1934): 31. 

Editorial by the AAPL on a referendum it sponsored amongst 
its members on a Federal bureau of art; reprints a number of 
comments on the proposal, including one critical of the 
PWAP. 

0095 "Philadelphia holds museum exhibition of PWAP 
work." Art News 32 (June 16, 1934): 15. 

Favorable review of an exhibition of forty-two PWAP works at 
the Philadelphia Museum of Art; partial list of artists. 

0096 Biddle, George. "Mural painting in America." Ameri- 
can Magazine of Art 27 (July 1934) : 361-71. 

Biddle traces the history of mural painting, from the earliest 
times, in the United States, the Mexican experience, and the 
recent PWAP murals. B/W illustrations of classic and recent 
murals. 

0097 "Public Works of Art Project." Cincinnati Museum 
Bulletin. 5 (July 1934): cover, 67-71. 

Announcement that William M. Milliken has been named 
regional director of the PWAP for the midwest; list of other 



20 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

regional directors. B/W illustrations of works by Paul Craft, 
Mathias J. Noheimer, and William Gebhardt. 

0098 Stanley-Brown, Katherine. "Department of fine arts, 
USA." Forum92 (July 1934): 56-58. 

Essay supporting the concept of a Department of Fine Arts; 
no specific reference to the PWAP, but implied. 

0098a "Results of the League's referendum on the desira- 
bility of an under-secretarv' of fine arts in our Federal 
government." Art Digest 8 (July 1, 1934): 31. 

Final results of the AAPL's referendum on a Bureau of Fine 
Arts (5^^ 0094a) . The AAPL's members came out in favor of a 
such a bureau; further note in article is critical of lack of 
support shown by the PWAP of the AAPL's activities. 

0099 "Communist propaganda in three of the frescos by 
artists of Public Works of Art Project in the Coit Memorial 
Tower, San Francisco." California Atis and Architecture 46 
(August 1934): 4. 

Editorial claiming some of the murals in the Coit Tower are 
Communist propaganda; the writer feels that the artists have 
been given a great opportunity by the government and 
should be giving "loyal support to that government, do their 
best work for it, and thereby increase the possibility of the 
government's being able, through popular appeal by the 
people, to continue and enlarge the work it has undertaken 
on behalf of the artists." 

0100 "Appraising the PWAP." Art Digest 8 (August 1, 
1934): 30. 

AAPL editorial reports that Gilbert White says that the PWAP 
failed to create good art. White thinks it was a bad idea of 
FDR to choose thirty PWAP works for the White House. 

0101 Seeley, Evelyn. "Frescoed tower clangs shut amid 
gasps; revolutionary scenes in the Coit memorial on San 



Annotated Bibliography 21 

Francisco's Telegraph hill." Literary Digest 118 (August 25, 
1934): 24, 31. 

Good account from the time of the controversy surrounding 
the Leftist nature (real and imagined) of the PWAP murals 
done for the Coit Tower. Seeley likes the murals. Photograph 
of the Tower and an illustration of a mural by John Langley 
Howard. 

0102 "Denver Art Museum notes." Western Artist 1 (Sep- 
tember 1934): 4. 

Note that forty-seven of Lester Varian's prints of Colorado 
scenes done for the PWAP will be given to the Denver Art 
Museum. 

0103 Roosevelt, Eleanor. "The new governmental interest 
in the arts." American Magazine of Art 27 (September 1934, 
supplement) : 47. 

Speech by Eleanor Roosevelt at the 25th Annual Convention 
of the American Federation of the Arts (held in New York 
City, May 16, 1934). Roosevelt praises the PWAP and com- 
ments on the Corcoran show. 

0104 Rowan, Edward B. "Art exhibits for schools." School 
Life20 (September 1934): 2, 9. 

Rowan explains to educators how to get PWAP works for 
exhibition in their schools. Describes the five exhibits that 
the PWAP has available for circulation through the American 
Federation of Arts. B/W illustration of work by Nancy May- 
bin Ferguson. 

0105 Biddle, George, et al. "Public Works of Art Project: a 
New Deal for the artist." American Magazine of Art 27 (Septem- 
ber 1934, supplement): 29-34. 

Proceedings of the 25th annual convention of the American 
Federation of Arts. Transcriptions of sessions for Tuesday, 
May 15, and Wednesday, May 16, 1934, held at the Corcoran 
Gallery, Washington, DC. Speakers included George Biddle, 



22 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Forbes Watson, and William M. Milliken. Subject of the 
speakers' talks centered on the good work the PWAP was 
doing. 

0106 "Indiana's own PWAP." Art Digest 9 (October 15, 
1934): 7. 

Indiana forms its own version of the PWAP with Wilbur D. 
Peat as chairman. 

0107 "Judges fear laughter." Art Digest 9 (October 15, 
1934): 20. 

Two Clearwater, FL, judges ordered a mural by George Hill 
depicting nude bathers on a Florida beach and five other 
murals created under the PWAP to be removed from their 
courthouse. 

0108 "National Art Week." ArtDigest9 (October 15, 1934): 
30, 29. 

AAPL editorial on its National Art Week which was praised by 
the PWAP. 

0109 "A store's gesture." Art Digest 9 (October 15, 1934): 
23. 

Wanamaker's Department store organizes an art exhibition 
in its New York and Philadelphia stores inspired by the 
PWAP. 

0110 "PWAP work considered in relation to Newark Mu- 
seum." Art News S3 (October 20, 1934): 9. 

Note on the exhibition of thirty works in various media at the 
Newark Museum; statement by Bernice Winser on the ac- 
complishments of the PWAP; partial list of artists and cri- 
tiques of a number of the works. 

0111 Comstock, Helen. "Public works of art project." 
Connoisseur 94 (November 1934): 334, 337. 

Brief explanation and praise of the PWAP; gives some 
statistics. 



Annotated Bibliography 23 

0112 "For a federal permanent art project." Art Front 1 
(November 1934): 1. 

Call for a permanent federal art project; lists how Artists' 
Union will fight for the project. 

0113 Gridley, Katherine. "If this be art." Art Front 1 (No- 
vember 1934): 2. 

Mocking article on the New Deal and art. 

0114 "Nation buys art." Arts and Decoration 42 (November 
1934): 31. 

Commentary on the PWAP; it did some good work, encour- 
aged young painters (examples include Mildred Jerome, 
Frank Mechau, Charles Kassler, Helen Dickson, and Millard 
Sheets) who painted people and landscapes. 

0115 "National art exhibit." Design 36 (November 1934): 
32. 

Brief comments on "National Exhibition of Art by the Public 
Works of Art Project" at the Corcoran Gallery, April 24 
through May 20, 1934. Includes brief history of PWAP and 
text of comments by Edward Bruce. 

0116 Watson, Forbes. "Innocent bystander; Museum of 
modern art exhibition of the work done under the Public 
Works of Art Project." American Magazine of Art 27 (Novem- 
ber 1934): 601-606. 

Comments on the PWAP works on view at MOMA. Watson 
praises Alfred Barr for taking the show. Also includes a review 
of Edward Bruce's show at Milch Galleries (NYC). 

0117 Whiting, F.A., Jr. "Further answer." American Maga- 
zine of Art 27 (November 1934): 569-70. 

Editorial praising the creation of the Section. 

0118 "Cost— $1,312,177. Worth???" Art Digest 9 (Novem- 
ber 15, 1934): 12. 



24 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Statistics on the PWAP: 3,749 artists employed; $1,312,177 
spent; 15,660 works created; 3,800 oil paintings; 2,900 water- 
colors; 1,000 etchings; and 600 sculptures. 

0119 Ryder, Worth. "PWAP in Berkeley." San Francisco Art 
Association Bulletin 1 (December 1934): 2, 4. 

Brief description of three PWAP projects in Berkeley; in- 
cludes biographies of the three artists (E. Sievert Weinberg, 
Sargent Watson, and Marian Simpson) involved. 

0120 Boswell, Peyton. "Uncle Sam's Plan." Art Digest 9 
(December 1, 1934): 3-4, 18. 

Praise of the announcement by Edward Bruce that a Section 
of Painting and Sculpture will be created within the Treasury 
Department. Includes a list of objectives of the Section. 

0121 "Bruce as painter emerges from PWAP toil." Art 
Digest^ (December 1, 1934): 7. 

Review of show of Edward Bruce at Milch Galleries (NYC) . 
Bruce was an artist as well as in charge of the PWAP and the 
Section. B/W illustration of work by Bruce. 

0122 "Murals for Los Angeles." Art Digest 9 (December 1, 
1934): 29. 

Nelson H. Partridge of the PWAP regional committee in 
California urges the formation of a California State Art 
Project similar to Indiana's (5^^0106). Partridge claims Los 
Angeles is a great place for murals. 

0123 American Art Annual 31 (1934). 

Overview of the year in art, covering the PWAP and Section 
(pp. 6-8) . Also, entry listing the staff and purpose of the 
Section (p. 60). 

EXfflBITIONS 

0124 Los Angeles Count)' Museum. The Public Works of Art 
Project: 14th Region — Southern California. Los Angeles County 
Museum: Los Angeles, 1934. 8 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 25 

Exhibition, March 1934. Checkhst of 217 works in all media 
done by member of the 14th region of the PWAP (Southern 
California) . Brief text describes the purposes and functions 
of the PWAP. B/W cover illustration by Stanislaw Szukalski. 

0125 Public Works of Art Project. National exhibition of art by 
the Public Works of Art Project, April 24, 1934, to May 20, 1934, at 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington. Washington, DC, 1934. 
30 pp. 

Exhibition, April 24 through May 20, 1934. Catalog of 504 
works in all media (murals, paintings, graphics, photo- 
graphs) . Foreword by Edward Bruce. Indexed by region. 

0126 National Museum. Smithsonian Institution. ' ' [Exhibi- 
tion of the works produced in Washington, Maryland, and 
Virginia, Public Works of Art Project.]" Invitation card. 
NMAA/NPG Library VF. 

Exhibition, May 6 through 13, 1934. No catalog for show. 



MONOGRAPHS 

0127 Alsberg, Henry G. America fights the Depression. A 
photographic record of the Civil Works Administration. Coward- 
McCann: New York, 1934. 160 pp. 

Includes a section of photographs of artists at work on the art 
projects. Grant Wood, J.J. Greitzer, Zacrer Consulex, Mi- 
chael Sarisky, Andy Tsihnahjinnie, Peter Bloom, Gale Stock- 
well, and Maurice Glickman. Introduction by Harry L. 
Hopkins; includes text of executive order creating the CWA. 
Alsberg later became head of the FWP. 

0128 Public Works of Art Project. Indiana authors; original 
woodblock prints. PWAP: Bloomington?, 1934?. 7 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITE IN OCLC. "Portfolio includes portraits of 
George Ade, Albert J. Beveridge, Theodore Dreiser, Me- 
redith Nicholson, James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington 
and Lew Wallace." 



26 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0129 Public Works of Art Project. Pictures selected by the 
President. GPO: Washington, DC, 1934. 1 p. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN U.S. GPO, Catalog of the Public 
Documents of the 73rd Congress (1937). 

0130 Public Works of Art Project. Regional map of the United 
States. PWAP: Washington, DC, 1934. 21.25 X 16 inches. 
Positive photostat. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. 

0131 Public Works of Art Project. Report of the Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury to Federal Emergency Relief Administrator. 
Washington, DC, 1934. 89 pp. 

Excellent resource for the study of the PWAP. Includes a list 
of all PWAP administrative personnel, and names and ad- 
dresses of PWAP artists. Includes a photograph of regional 
and national staff plus numerous B/W illustrations of works. 

0132 Public Works of Art Project. Santa Monica Library 
murals. PWAP: Los Angeles, 1934. 16 pp. 

Guide to the murals created in the Santa Monica Public 
Library by Stanton Macdonald-Wright for the PWAP. The 
murals were begun February 8, 1934, under the PWAP and 
completed August 25, 1935. B/W illustrations of the murals. 
Mcdonald-Wright was assisted by Henry Hibbard and Fred 
Bessinger, primarily with technical details (preparing can- 
vases, etc.). 

0133 US Congress. The statutes at large of the United States of 
America from March 1933 to fune 1934. Vol. 48, part 1, pp. 
200-10. GPO: Washington, DC, 1934. 

48 Statute Chapter 90, Title II (June 16, 1933) "PubHc Works 
and Construction Projects" is the law under which the PWAP 
was put into effect. No specific mention of the PWAP. 

0134 Wilcox, Jerome Kear, comp. Guide to the official publica- 
tions of the New Deal administrations. American Library Associa- 
tion: Chicago, 1934. 113 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 27 

In addition to a list of the art project parent organizations, 
Wilcox provides brief sketches of the agencies; covers period 
March 1933 through April 15, 1934. NOTE: Supplement 
covering April 15, 1934, through December 1, 1935, issued in 
1936 (183 pp.) and second supplement, covering December 
1, 1935, through January 1, 1937, in 1937 (190 pp.). 



1935 



0135 Witte, Ernest F. "The Nebraska FERA art exhibit." 
Nebraska History Magazine 16 (January-March 1935): 57-60. 

Account of an exhibition of PWAP work at the Nebraska 
State Historical Society October 4-5, 1934; includes list of 
twenty-eight artists and sixty works. Explains what the PWAP 
was about. u, 

0136 "Artists' Union Federal Art Bill." Art Front 1 (January 
1935): 2. 

Text of a bill proposed by the Artists' Union for a Federal 
Art program. "It incorporates much of the PWAP on a 
more inclusive scale, and summarized the several plans 
that have been advertised from time to time by the Artists' 
Union." 

0137 "New frescoes in the Southwest." Survey Graphic 24 
(January 1935): 23-25. 

Primarily B/W illustrations of murals by Victor Higgins, Emil 
Bisttram, Bert G. Phillips, and Ward Lockwood for the Taos 
County Court House, Taos, NM (a PWAP project). 

0138 Watson, Forbes. "Art and government in 1934." 
Parnassus 1 (January 1935): 12-16. 

Good account by Watson of his work with the PWAP; humor- 
ous at the expense of the Civil Servant. Discusses the Section 
and how it differs from the other art projects. B/W illustra- 
tions of works by Vinal Winter, Rinaldo Cuneo, Ben Knotts, 
Anne Guy MacCoy, Ben Shahn. 



28 



Annotated Bibliography 29 

0139 "What now, Mr. Bruce?" Art Front I (January 1935): 3. 

An article critical of Edward Bruce 's and Forbes Watson's 
plans for the Section. 

0140 The Commercial Artists Section of the Artists' Union. 
"What is rock-bottom?" Art Front 1 (February 1935): 2. 

Proposed program for commercial artists; support for the 
Federal Art bill. 

0141 "H.R. 2827." Art Front 1 (February 1935): 3. 

Discussion of H.R. 2827, an unemployment insurance bill; 
comments on Federal Art bill proposed by Artists' Union. 

0142 Jourdan, Albert. "Sidelights on othergraphers and 
photographers." American Photography 29 (February 1935): 
98-107. 

Jourdan, photographer-in-chief for a PWAP region (in 
charge of photographing the works of art created) , makes a 
case for classifying photography as an art (as the "othergra- 
phies" of printing and drawing are arts). Includes a repro- 
duction of a letter from Edward Bruce to Jourdan on the art 
projects. 

0143 "Exhibition of mural painting contrasts early style 
with new." Art Digests (February 15, 1935): 12. 

Showing the history of wall decoration in the United States, 
an exhibition at the Grand Central Art Galleries (NYC) show 
included work by PWAP artists. The mural by PWAP artist 
Louis G. Ferstadt (illustrated in B/W) for the Abraham 
Lincoln High School in Brooklyn, NY, was the centerpiece of 
the show. 

0144 "Calm after the storm." Art News 33 (February 23, 
1935): 8. 



30 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Editorial critique of the PWAP, particulariy the mural project; 
mixed encouragement of the concept of federal patronage. 

0145 Alexander, Stephen. "Art: mural painting in Amer- 
ica." New Masses 14 (February 26, 1935): 28. 

Alexander feels that there was no freedom of expression for 
the PWAP artists and thus they never were able to create truly 
revolutionary works. 

0146 Burck, Jacob and Aaron Berkman. "Revolution in the 
art world." American Mercury M (March 1935): 332-42. 

Burck argues for the proletarian art, such as was done by the 
PWAP and Section; Berkman is against such art. 

0147 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Section of Painting and Sculpture 1 (March 
1,1935): 10 p. 

General introduction on how the Section will operate. An- 
nouncement of 13 competitions: 
Washington, DC, Post Office Building, $95,128; 
Washington, DC, Department of Justice, $75,000; 
Bridgeport, CT, Post Office, $2,120, (later won by Arthur S. 

Covey and Robert Lynn Lambdin) ; 
Louisville, KY, Marine Hospital, $1,925 (later won by Henrik 

Martin Mayer) ; 
Merced, CA, Post Office, $1,450 (later won by Dorothy 

Puccinelli and Helen K. Forbes) ; 
Ravenna, OH, Post Office, $778 (later won by Clarence H. 

Carter) ; 
Springfield, OH, Post Office, $960 (later won by H.H. 

Wessel) ; 
Wichita, KS, Post Office, $1,880 (later won by Richard Haines 

and Ward Lockwood) ; 
Beverly Hills, CA, Post Office, $2,980 (later won by Charies 

Kassler) ; 
Barnesville, OH, Post Office, $1,296 (later won by Michael 

Sarisky) ; 
Cleveland, OH, Post Office, $3,400 (later won by Jack J. 

Greitzer) ; 



Annotated Bibliography 31 

Portsmouth, OH, Post Office, $4,158 (later won by Clarence 
H. Carter and Richard Zoellner); 

Lynn, MA, Post Office, $3,712 (later won by William Rise- 
man). 

0148 "Last frontier; mural panels by V. Hunter for the new 
courthouse at Fort Sumner." Survey Graphic 24 (April 1935): 
175-77. 

Primarily B/W illustrations of the mural for the Fort Sumner 
Court House (TX) by Vernon Hunter. 

0149 Pearson, Ralph M. "Renaissance in American art." 
Forum93 (April 1935): 202-204. 

Pearson feels that public support for the arts — particularly 
the New Deal projects — is leading the way in a Renaissance of 
American art. 

0150 "Wages for artists." Art Front 1 (April 1935) : 3. 

Editorial complaining of the low wages paid artists on the 
projects; calls for more federal aid to the arts. 

0151 Whiting, Philippa. "Speaking about art." American 
Magazine of Art 28 (April 1935): 230-33. 

Praise for the founding of the Section, covering how now the 
government can truly support the arts and not just provide 
relief: "The Government, however, answers that its artists are 
workers and citizens, not incompetents for whom no one but 
the Government itself has any use," p. 231. 

0152 "U.S. projects." ArtDigest9 (April 1, 1935): 7, 29. 

The Section announces jobs for decorating the Department 
of Justice and Post Office buildings in Washington. Expendi- 
ture will be $170,128 and twenty-two painters and ten sculp- 
tors will be chosen. The advisory committee is named. An 
overview of the program is included as well as a list of 
regional projects. 



32 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0153 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin of the Section of Painting and Sculpture 2 
(April 1,1935): 14 pp. 

List of the winners of the Department of Justice and Post 
Office Buildings competitions as well as the manner in which 
they were selected; also includes a list of suggested topics 
they will work on. Announcement of ten competitions: 
Pittsburgh, PA, Post Office and Courthouse, $9,850 (later 

won by Howard Cook, Kindred McLeary, and Stuyvesant 

Van Veen); 
Philadelphia, PA, U.S. Custom House, $4,890 (later won by 

George Harding) ; 
New London, CT, Post Office, $4,437 (later won by Thomas 

La Farge) ; \ 

Hempstead, NY, Post Office, $4,425 (later won by James 

Brooks) ; 
New Bern, NC, Courtrooms of the Post Office, $3,129 (later 

won by David Silvette) ; 
Norristown, PA, Post Office, $1,950 (later won by Paul Mays) ; 
Stockton, CA, Post Office, $1,138 (later won by Frank 

Bergman and Moya Del Pino) ; 
Newark, NJ, Post Office and Courthouse, $6,500 (for statue, 

later won by Romuald Kraus) and $1,920 (for a mural, 

later won by Tanner Clark) ; 
Chattanooga, TN, Post Office and Courthouse, $1,500 (later 

won by Hilton Leech) ; 
Freehold, NJ, Post Office, $882 (later won by Gerald Foster) . 

0154 "U.S. projects." ArtDigest9 (April 15, 1935): 16. 

List of competitions opened for local art projects run by the 
Treasury Department. 

0155 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin of the Section of Painting and Sculpture 3 
(May-June 1935): 16 pp. 

Reprints some of the testimony of Christian J. Peoples 
(Director of Procurement), Edward Bruce, and Louis A. 
Simon (Supervisory Architect, Department of the Treasury) 
before the Committee on Patents, 74th Congress, 1st Session 



Annotated Bibliography 33 

on the proposed Bureau of Fine Arts (5^^0213). Announce- 
ment of fifteen competitions: 
Buffalo, NY, Marine Hospital, $2,800 (later won by William B. 

Rowe) ; 
Carthage, IL, Post Office, $470 (later won by Karl Kelpe); 
Dubuque, LA, Post Office, $1,925 (later won by William Bunn 

and Bertrand Adams) ; 
East Alton, IL, Post Office, $360 (later won by Francis Foy) ; 
East Moline, IL, Post Office, $560 (later won by Edgar 

Britton) ; 
Fairfield, IL, Post Office, $240 (later won by William S. 

Schwartz) ; 
Gillespie, IL, Post Office, $320 (later won by Gustaf 

Dalstrom) ; 
Holyoke, MA, Post Office, $2,400 (later won by Ross Mof- 

fett) ; 
Jackson, MS, Post Office and Courthouse, $4,450 (NO 

AWARD); 
Jeannette, PA, Post Office, $925 (later won by T. Frank 

Olson) ; 
Melrose Park, IL, Post Office, $650 (later won by Edwin B. 

Johnson) ; 
Mohne, IL, Post Office, $1,100 (later won by Edward Mill- 
man); 
St. Johns, OR, Post Office, $1,050 (later won by John Balla- 

tor); 
Vandalia, IL, Post Office, $750 (later won by Aaron Bohrod). 

0156 "Boon-doggling." Art Front 1 (May 1935): 3. 

Editorial critical of those who call the art projects "boon- 
doggling." 

0157 "Competition with-out pay." Art Front 1 (May 1935): 
3. 

Critical of Section process which forces artists to work on 
competition entries for which only the winners receive 
payment. 

0158 "Nobody loves him." Art Front 1 (May 1935): 3. 



34 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Highly critical article of Jonas Lie, member of Municipal Art 
Commission and no friend of the projects. 

0159 "30,000 more jobs." Art Front 1 (May 1935): 1. 
Call to increase work relief for artists. 

0160 Weaver, John Henry. "Practical plan for public works 
of art." Design 37 (May 1935): 35. 

Due to the dissatisfaction expressed by PWAP artists. Weaver 
(founder of Art Interest, Artists' Cooperative, and the Career 
Clinic) suggests local jurisdictions (press, public, museums, 
schools, libraries, etc.) vote on the worth and value of art; he 
feels this will increase the public 's^nterest in art. 

0160a "Art and nation; hearings on establishment of a 
department of science, art and literature." Art Digest 9 (May 
7, 1935): 7. 

Note on the hearings held on H.R. Res. 220 in Washington. 
(5^^0213). Reprints some of the testimony of Edward Bruce. 

0160b Boswell, Peyton. "Secretary of arts." Art Digest 9 
(Mayl5, 1935):3-4, 10. 

Boswell editorializes in favor of H.J. Res. 220, the creation of 
a Department of Science, Art and Literature. 

0161 "Let us work together for a division of portraiture in 
our federal government." Art Digests (May 15, 1935): 31. 

AAPL editorial to include a portraiture division in the 
Section. 

0162 Boswell, Peyton. "American 'Annual.' " Art Digest 9 
(June 1935): 3-4. 

Boswell reprints C.J. Bulliet's comments from the New York 
Daily News on Boswell 's article on American art from the 
Encyclopedia Americana Annual in which Boswell wrote exten- 
sively on the PWAP. 



Annotated Bibliography 35 

0163 "Murals, murals everywhere, for felons, students — 
and art critics." ArtDigest9 (June 1, 1935): 10. 

Overview of the mural projects and the criticism and contro- 
versy they caused. B/W illustration of work by Moses Soyer. 

0164 "Our government in art." Milwaukee Art Institute 
Bulletin^ (June 1935): 3. 

Announcement of exhibition of PWAP work from nine 
regions, "Our Government in Art" (June 6-30, 1935). Lists 
two Milwaukee artists included (Peter Rotier and Richard 
Janson) . 

0165 Sizer, T., "Art project for Connecticut." Yale Associates 
Bulletin^ (June 1935): 60-62. 

NOT SEEN. 

0165a Watson, Forbes. "The innocent bystander." Ameri- 
can Magazine of Art 2S (June 1935): 371-74. 

Watson, himself a strong supporter of the Section and PWAP, 
is highly critical of H.J. Res. 220, the establishment of a 
Department of Science, Art and Literature; Watson fears it 
will regiment art. 

0166 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin of the Section of Painting and Sculpture 4 
(July-August 1935): 16 pp. 

Statements by Edward Rowan and Olin Dows on the progress 
of the Section; note on the division that would become 
TRAP; biographies of previous competition winners Charles 
Kassler, Robert Lynn Lambdin, Arthur Covey, Paul Mays, 
Clarence H. Carter, Henrik Martin Mayer, William Riseman, 
and Michael Sarisky. Announcement of three main and four 
auxiliary competitions: 

Ames, lA, Post Office, $1,300 (later won by Lowell Houser); 
Cresco, lA, Post Office, $500 (later won by Richard Haines); 
Harlan, LA, Post Office, $480 (later won by Richard Gates) ; 
Independence, lA, Post Office, $450 (later won by Robert 
Taber) ; 



36 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Hagerstown, MD, Post Office, $2,700 (later won by Frank 

Long); 
Hyattsville, MD, Post Office, $620 (later won by Eugene 

Kingman) ; 
LaFayette, IN, Post Office and Courthouse, $700 (later won 

by Hendrik Martin Mayer) . 

0167 Davis, Stuart. "We reject — the art commission." Art 
Front 1 (July 1935): 4-5. 

Davis gives a history of the Riker's Island Penitentiary (NYC) 
murals by Ben Shahn which the New York City Municipal Art 
Commission rejected because of their "psychological unfit- 
ness." Davis is critical of Jonas Lie, chairman of the commis- 
sion, a painter, and president of the National Academy of 
Design, calling him a "Fascist Censor." B/W illustration of 
Shahn 's mural. 

0168 Pearson, Ralph M. "Impotent America; the trouble 
with the arts." Forum94 (July 1935): 34-37. 

Essay explaining how anti- or unbalanced intellectualism in 
America has inspired poor government sponsored art; cites 
the Section's Post Office and Justice Department murals as 
examples of this poor work; includes a number of other 
examples from other areas of the arts. 

0169 "Morals in murals." Art Front 1 (July 1935): 3. 

Editorial commenting that only bad murals will meet with 
official approval. Ben Shahn, Lou Block, and Louis Ferstadt 
are listed as artists who did good work that was not liked. 

0170 "$19-$94 or fight." ArtFront 1 (July 1935): 3. 

Editorial commenting that artists must unionize to keep 
government wages at adequate levels. Brief history of relief 
wage scales. 

0171 Bruce, Edward. "Art and democracy." Atlantic 
Monthly 156 (August 1935): 149-52. 



Annotated Bibliography 37 

An excellent statement of Bruce 's beliefs on what the govern- 
ment should do for art, what a democracy means to the artist, 
and what America means. A description of what the PWAP 
was and what the Section will become. "What we need is not 
official art, pompous art, but the fostering and cultivation 
throughout the country of the creative spirit which is ready to 
spring up everywhere," p. 152. 

0172 Davis, Stuart. "The artist of today." Magazine of Art 28 
(August 1935): 476-78, 506. 

Overview of the work of the Artists' Union; brief comments 
on its relationship to the New Deal art projects. 

0173 "Paint, time, and talent working." Literary Digest 120 
(August 24, 1935): 22. 

Account of the Section murals in New York schools. B/W 
illustration of mural by Eric Mose. 

0173a Watson, Forbes. "Comments and criticism." Ameri- 
can Magazine of Art 2^ (August-September 1935): 489-91. 

Watson reprints the mostly negative readers' reactions to H.J. 
Res. 220, a Department of Science, Art and Literature. See 
a/50 0165a. 

0174 "With the artist." Western Artist 2 (September 1935): 

7. 

From Santa Fe the news is that forty-five paintings done by 
Navajos, Pueblos, and Kiowas were sent to the Section in 
Washington; from Taos, Emil Bisttram, E.L. Blumenschein, 
Kenneth Adams, Herbert Dunton, Victor Higgins, and Ward 
Lockwood are involved in Section competitions. 

0175 U.S. Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin of the Section of Painting and Sculpture 5 
(September 1935): 20 pp. 

Statement by Edward Bruce on the Section; biographies of 
Jack J. Greitzer, Richard Haines, Ward Lockwood, Gerald 
Foster, George Harding, Richard Zoellner, Tom La Farge, 



38 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

and James Brooks; instructions on how to apply for TRAP 

projects. Announcement of one competition: 

Summit, NJ. Post Office, $1,450 (later won by Fiske Boyd). 

0176 Grafly, Dorothy. "Who is an artist?" Art Digest 9 
(September 1,1935): 25. 

Dorothy Grafly of the Philadelphia Inquirer claims that PWAP 
and other projects did not find the best people for the jobs 
done. 

0177 Millier, Arthur. "Murals and Men." Art Digest 9 (Sep- 
tember 1, 1935): 6. 

Arthur Millier's view of the government's murals; he gives 
advice to modern day muralists. 

0178 "Murals, murals in every post office, but what do they 
express?" ArtDigest9 (September 1, 1935): 7-8. 

Overview of the Section's Post Office mural projects. B/W 
illustrations of works by Paul Mays and Tom La Farge. 

0179 "Relief for Artists." Art Digests (September 1, 1935): 
11. 

Announcement of the Treasury Relief Art Project. The TRAP 
will employ 400-500 artists. Though relief is still the major 
goal the TRAP will also have quality art as a motive. 

0180 "Uncle Sam as a patron of the brush, lyre, pen and 
mask." Newsweek^ (September 21, 1935): 40. 

Announces the creation of Federal One; lists the four direc- 
tors for FAP, FMP, FWP, FTP. 

0181 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin of the Section of Painting and Sculpture 6 
(October-November 1935): 16 pp. 

Note on the functions of TRAP; biographies of the winners of 
the Post Office Building competition Stirling Calder, Arthur 
Lee, Berta Margoulies, Oronzio Maldarelli, Attilio Piccirilli, 



Annotated Bibliography 39 

Concetta Scaravaglione, Carl L. Schmitz, Sidney Waugh, 
Heinz Warneke, Gaetano Cecere, Alfred D. Crimi, Carl Free, 
Frank A. Mechau, and William C. Palmer. Announcement of 
one competition: 

Rochester, NY. Post Office, $2,210 (later won by David 
Granahan) . 

0182 Schwankovsky, Frederick J. "A mural in search of a 
wall." California Arts and Architecture 48 (October 1935): 15, 34. 

History of the PWAP mural done for the Frank Wiggins 
Trade School, Los Angeles, in 1934 by Leo Katz. Due to the 
controversy surrounding the center panel which portrayed a 
man torn between good and a very graphic depiction of evil; 
ironically calls for artist to depict only what is good and ideal 
in life. An excellent article on the controversies that became 
tied up in the government work. B/W illustration of the 
controversial section of the rather excellent mural. 

0183 "With the artist." Western Artist 2 (October 1935) : 5. 

From Boulder, the University of Colorado opens an exhibi- 
tion of prints by PWAP artists; from Colorado Springs, Frank 
Mechau is placed in charge of the Section's work on govern- 
ment buildings in Denver. 

0184 "Call for an American Artists' Congress." New Masses 
17 (October 1,1935): 33. 

Primarily a discussion of why an American Artists' Congress is 
needed; New Deal art projects are only mentioned in pass- 
ing. 

0185 "Wright's huge mural, 200 figures, is in place." Art 
DigestlO (October 1, 1935): 7. 

Stanton Macdonald-Wright completes a mural for the Santa 
Monica Library. Includes commentary on the mural and an 
illustration. 

0186 "Federal pulmotor for the arts." Literary Digest 120 
(October 12, 1935): 24. 



40 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Brief account of the activities of Federal One; all four 
projects (FAP, FMP, FTP, and FWP) are discussed. 

0187 "Federal art project is outlined in detail by its supervi- 
sors; with a list of the members of the national committee." 
Art News M (October 19, 1935): 13. 

Excellent outline of the FAP as proposed by Holger Cahill 
and Audrey McMahon; list of national committee members. 

0188 "Frank Mechau Colorado artist wins at Chicago." 
Western Artist 2 (November 1935): cover, 15-16. 

Note that Frank Mechau has won a Section competition for 
the Post Office Department building in Washington. B/W 
illustration of work. 

0189 "New federal art shown, Washington, D.C." American 
Magazine of Art 28 (November 1935): 690, 700-701. 

Review of Treasury Department show at the Corcoran Gallery 
(Washington, DC, October 29, 1935 ff.); includes a partial 
list of artists and the jury. 

0190 "Watkins and Bear regional WPA art directors." 
Museum News 13 (November 1, 1935): 2. 

C. Law Watkins and Donald Bear are named regional directors 
of the FAP; names of the other regional directors also given. 

0191 "Artists get their own New Deal; commissions for 
murals and statues in new post office at Washington." Literary 
Digest 120 (November 2, 1935): 22. 

Account of the first Section contest for the Post Office 
building in Washington. B/W illustrations of works by Alfred 

D. Crimi, Stirling Calder, and Sidney Waugh. 

0192 "Postal art test winners named." Art News 54 (Novem- 
ber 16, 1935): 23. 

Announcement of Section winners for Post Office murals 
and sculpture; list of jury members. 



Annotated Bibliography *1 

0193 Danysh, Joseph A. "WPA assists San Francisco Art- 
ists." San Francisco Art Association Bulletin 2 (December 1935): 
4. 

Explanation of how the FAP will operate in the San Francisco 
area. 

0194 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin of the Section of Painting and Sculpture 7 
(December 1935): 18 pp. 

Reprint of statement by Olin Dows to the Mural Painters 
Association on what the Section and TRAP are doing; list of 
all Post Office and Justice Department Building winners; list 
of fourteen TRAP projects underway with a description of the 
projects and a list of the artists; biographies of Dorothy 
Puccinelli, Helen Forbes, John R. Ballator, David Silvette, 
Howard Cook, Kindred McLeary, Ross Moffett,and William 
B. Rowe. 

0195 "Federal winners." Art Digest 10 (December 1, 1935): 
26. 

Winners of the Post Office and Justice Department mural 
competitions are announced. Includes a list of the winners 
and jury members. 

0196 Hopper, Inslee A. "America in Washington; designs 
to be executed under the supervision of the Section of 
Painting and Sculpture." American Magazine of Art 28 (De- 
cember 1935): 719-25. 

Further review of the Corcoran Gallery show of Section 
mural work; very highly praised. Includes B/W illustrations 
of works. 

0197 "Mechau mural is feature of exhibition inspired by 
PWAPwork." ArtDigestlO (December 1, 1935): 13. 

In a group show of painters associated with the PWAP at the 
Midtown Galleries (NYC) through December 9, 1935, a work 
by Frank Mechau (illustrated) is focused on. 



42 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0198 "US projects gave artists a chance to spread them- 
selves." Newsweek^ (December 7, 1935): 29. 

Brief account of the Section, specifically Section artist Wil- 
liam C. Palmer ("supervising [artist] of the New York WPA 
project"]. Photograph of Palmer. 

0199 "WPA to offer gallery tours." Art News 34 (December 
7, 1935): 5. 

FAP to organize a program of tours of art galleries to be 
called Art Gallery Tours; supervised by Lincoln Rothschild. 

0200 American Art Annual "52 (1935). 

"The Federal Government and Art," by F.A. Whiting (pp. 
5-10) covers organization and operations of the Section and 
TRAP; gives a hst of projects contemplated or begun. Staff 
and purposes of the Treasury Department Art Project (Sec- 
tion and TRAP) given on p. 71. 

EXfflBITIONS 

0201 Public Works of Art Project. Catalog of exhibits. United 
States Department of Labor. Washington: GPO, 1935. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, 1935?. Checklist of 150 works on loan from the 
PWAP to the Department of Labor; these works were shown 
in the PWAP's Corcoran show (5^^0125). 

0202 Grand Central Art Galleries. Mural painting in Amer- 
ica. Grand Central Art Galleries: New York, 1935. 3 pp. 

Exhibition, February 14 through 16, 1935. Checklist of works 
in show. Includes a selection of photographs of PWAP 
murals. 

0203 Federal Art Gallery. Mural Sketches. 1935. 

Exhibition, December 27, 1935, through January 11, 1936. 
No catalog. CITED IN 40 Exhibitions at the New York Federal Art 
Gallery, (&^0915). 



Annotated Bibliography 43 

MONOGRAPHS 

0204 Federal Art Project. The Federal Art Project. A summary of 
activities and accomplishments. New York, 1935?. Mimeo- 
graphed. 6 11. 

.A number of these "surveys" were published during the 
lifetime of the FAP, both by the national and regional offices. 
The general tone and purpose was to present an upbeat, 
enthusiastic endorsement of the FAP. 

0205 Federal Art Project. The WPA Federal Art Project. A 
summary of activities and accomplishments. New York, 1935?. 
Mimeographed. 5 11. 

A number of these "surveys" were published during the 
lifetime of the FAP, both by the national and regional offices. 
The general tone and purpose was to present an upbeat, 
enthusiastic endorsement of the FAP. 

0206 Federal Art Project. Federal Art Project manual. Wash- 
ington, DC, 1935. 23 pp. mimeographed. 

The perfect example of the Federal bureaucracy at work. 
Detailed explanation of the structure of the hierarchy of the 
FAP; definitions of what constitutes an art "project," defini- 
tions of skill levels for workers (who can be an "artist," who is 
a "technician," who is "unskilled"); copies of employment 
forms and instructions for filling out the paperwork required 
for timekeeping, disposal of art works, and supervision. 

0207 Federal Art Project. New Jersey. The Federal Art Project 
in New Jersey. The WPA Federal Art Project. A summary of activities 
and accomplishments. Newark, 1935?. Mimeographed. 8 11. 

A good review/ summary of the FAP activities in New Jersey. 

0208 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1935, pp. unknown. 

NOT SEEN. 



44 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0209 Public Works of Art Project. Twelve examples of Navajo 
weaving from drawings cut on linoleum blocks. Santa Fe, NM, 
1935. 11; 12 plates. 

Ruth Connely of the PWAP and the New Mexico Relief 
Administration did 12 linocuts to "provide colored prints for 
use by the United States Indian service, in encouraging a 
revival of the order designs in Navajo weaving, as a part of its 
broad program in Indian arts and crafts" [from accompany- 
ing mimeograph]. Each plate is dated on verso "1934." 
Plates 1-6 are from designs at the Laboratory of Anthropol- 
ogy and Indian Arts Fund in Santa Fe; Plates 7-8 are from the 
American Museum of Natural History (NYC); and 9-12 from 
private collections. In portfolio. 

s_ 

0210 Roosevelt, Franklin D. Executive Order No. 7034. May 6, 
1935. 

Under the authority of the "Emergency Relief Appropria- 
tion Act of 1935," approved April 8, 1935 (Public Resolution 
No. 11, 74th Congress), FDR issued Executive Order 7034 
which established the Works Progress Administration under 
which the FAP was created. 

0211 Treasury Department. Procurement Division. Public 
Works branch. Section of Painting and Sculpture. Operating 
plan of the section of painting and sculpture. Washington, DC, 
1935. Mimeographed. 2 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. 

0212 US Congress. House of Representatives. A joint resolu- 
tion providing for the establishment of an Executive department to be 
known as the Department of Science, Art, and Literature. H.J. Res. 
220, 74(1), 1935. 3 pp. 

Joint Resolution introduced March 18, 1935, by William I. 
Sirovich that would have created a Cabinet position of 
Secretary of Science, Art and Literature. First important 
attempt to make the New Deal art projects a permanent, 



Annotated Bibliography *5 

legislated part of government. See 0213 for hearings on the 
resolution. Never reached the floor. 

0213 US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee 
on Patents. Department of Science, Art, and Literature. Hearings 
held April 15, 16, 23-25, May 14, 21, 1935. 74(1). GPO: 
Washington, DC, 1935. 404 pp. 

Hearings held on H.J. Res. 220. Near universally favorable 
testimony for William I. Sirovich's proposed Department of 
Science, Art, and Literature. Those testifying from the field 
of fine arts were: Gutzon Borglum (sculptor, pp. 155-71); 
Anthony J. Atchison (painter and sculptor, pp. 198-202); 
Edward Bruce (pp. 21-28, 54-67; Bruce makes some interest- 
ing comments, though he favors the resolution, he makes it 
plain that the Section should not be included in the new 
Department); Christian J. Peoples (pp. 171-79; like Bruce, 
Peoples makes it clear the Section does not belong in the 
proposed Department) . 

0214 Works Progress Administration. WP-7, August 2, 1935. 
WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 1 p. 

"WPA Sponsored Professional and Service Projects." This 
document announces the creation of the Federal One pro- 
jects to all state WPA administrators, signed by FWP assistant 
administrator. REPRINTED IN: Pt. 7, p. 6. of US Works 
Progress Administration. Digest of Publications Released by the 
Works Progress Administration and the National Youth Administra- 
tion. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. Various pagination. 

0215 Works Progress Administration. WPA-60, September 28, 
1933. WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 1 p. 

"Nation-wide Arts, Music, Theatre and Writing Projects." 
This document announces the creation of the Federal One 
projects and names each unit's director to all state WPA 
administrators, signed by Harry L. Hopkins. REPRINTED 
IN: Pt. 8, p. 9. of US Works Progress Administration. Digest of 



46 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Publications Released by the Works Progress Administration and the 
National Youth Administration. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. 
Various pagination. 

0216 Works Progress Administration. Professional and Ser- 
vice Projects, Bulletin No. 29, September 4, 1935. WPA: Washing- 
ton, DC, 1935. 

WPA issued bulletin defining the basic operating procedures 
of the Federal One projects. REPRINTED IN MCDONALD, 
pp. 130-31. 

0217 Works Progress Administration. Letter. WPA-60. Sep- 
tember 29, 1935. WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 

General instructions for state WFA administrators regarding 
Federal One; signed Holger Cahill. REPRINTED IN MC- 
DONALD, pp. 131-32. 

0218 Works Progress Administration. Professional and Ser- 
vice Projects, Bulletin No. 29, Supplement No.l, September 30, 
1935. WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 1 p. 

"WPA Sponsored Federal Project No.l — ^Art, Music, The- 
atre, and Writing." This document announces the creation 
of the Federal One projects. REPRINTED IN: Pt. 3, p. 6. of 
US Works Progress Administration. Digest of Publications 
Released by the Works Progress Administration and the National 
Youth Administration. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. Various 
pagination. 

0219 Works Progress Administration. Administrative order 
no.35, November 26, 1935. WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 1 p. 

"Exemptions of Certain Works from the 90% Rule." This 
document states: "Jacob Baker is authorized to exempt any 
unit of the WPA sponsored Federal Project No.l and O.P. 
12-141, Treasury Relief Art Project, from the 90% rule and to 
permit the employment of up to 25% of the workers on such 
units without regard to the relief requirement." RE- 
PRINTED IN: Pt. 2, p. 5. of US Works Progress Administra- 
tion. Digest of Publications Released by the Works Progress Adminis- 



Annotated Bibliography 47 

tration and the National Youth Administration. WPA: 
Washington, DC, 1936. Various pagination. 

0220 Works Progress Administration. Adjustment order 
no. 13, Decembers, 1935. WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 1 p. 

"Adjustment of Personnel on the Federal Art Project of the 
Works Progress Administration Sponsored Federal Project 
No.l." This document states: "Not less than 75% of all 
workers on the Federal Art Project shall be taken from the 
public relief rolls in the states listed herein." REPRINTED 
IN: Pt. 1, p. 2. of US Works Progress Administration. Digest of 
Publications Released by the Works Progress Administration and the 
National Youth Administration. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. 
Various pagination. 

0221 Works Progress Administration. Adjustment order 
no. 14, Decembers, 1933. WPA: Washington, DC, 1935. 1 p. 

"Adjustment of Personnel on O.P. 12-141, Treasury Relief 
Art Project." This document states: "Not less than 75% of all 
workers on the Treasury ReUef Art Project, O.P. 12-141, shall 
be taken from the pubUc relief rolls. The Chief of TRAP will 
be responsible for keeping the records of relief and non- 
relief personnel of this project." REPRINTED IN: Pt. 1, p. 2. 
of US Works Progress Administration. Digest of Publications 
Released by the Works Progress Administration and the National 
Youth Administration. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. Various 
pagination. 



1936 



0222 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 8 (Janu- 
ary-February 1936): 35 p. 

Overview of Section accomplishments; list of thirty-seven 

approved projects and thirty TRAP projects just undertaken; 

amusing comments by Reginald Marsh on his work for the 

Section; biographies of Edgar Britton, Moya Del Pino, 

Frances Foy, and W. Vladimir Rousseff. Announcement of six 

competitions: 

Bronx, NY, Post Office sculpture, $7,500 (later won by Henry 
Kreis and Charles Rudy) ; 

Washington, DC, Justice Department, Three additional mu- 
rals, $2,000 (later won by John R. Ballator, Emil 
Bisttram, and Symeon Shimin); 

Iron Mountain, MI, Post Office, $620 (later won by W. 
Vladimir Rousseff) ; 

Huntington Park, CA, Post Office, $950 (later won by Nor- 
man Chamberlain); 

International Falls, MN, Post Office, $1,440 (later won by 
Lucia Wiley) ; 

Hudson Falls, NY, Post Office, $710 (later won by George 
Picken). 



0223 McMahon, Audrey. "The trend of the government in 
art." Parnassus d) (January 1936): 3-6. 

McMahon feels that government patronage of the arts has 
been a good thing and hopes that the government will stay a 
permanent patron. An excellent article on what the projects 
were doing. "Nothing is to be gained by the separate 
consideration of these various programs. It is safe, I believe, 

48 



Annotated Bibliography 49 

to prophesy that retrospectively they will be envisaged by art 
historians as one and the same thing," p. 3. B/W illustrations 
of works by Lucienne Bloch, Seymour Fogel, Moses Soyer, 
James Penney, Concetta Scaravaglione, Beniamino Bufano, 
Frank Mechau. 

0224 "25% non-relief." Art Front 2 (Januar)^ 1936) : 4. 

A cry to repeal the "pauper's oath" — the requirement that a 
certain percentage of FAP workers meet a relief needs test; 
report on the FAP's announcement raising from 10% to 25% 
the number of artists that must meet the relief requirements 
to be in program; article calls for a 100% exemption from a 
needs test. 

0225 "Federal artists; commissions awarded to 19 sculptors 
and 44 painters." Art Digest 10 (January 1, 1936): 21. 

Section awards commissions to nineteen sculptors and forty- 
four painters. List of artists and juries included. 

0226 "Government buys Cassidy's 'Breaking Camp.' " Art 
Digest 10 (January 1, 1936): 17. 

A painting by Gerald Cassidy, who died in 1934 while 
working for the PWAP in New Mexico, is purchased for the 
Department of Interior building in Washington. 

0227 "WPA gallery opens." Art Digest 10 (January 1, 1936): 
10. 

The Federal Art Gallery of the FAP opens at 7 E. 38th Street 
(in mid-December) ; will show artists associated with the FAP, 

0228 "Murals on view at city gallery, by artists working on 
the Federal Art Project since 1934." Art News 34 (January 11, 
1936): 14. 

Favorable review of "Mural Sketches" at the Federal Art 
Gallery; partial list of artists. 

0229 Taylor, Francis Henry. "American artist: 1935." Atlan- 
tic Monthly 157 (Februar)^ 1936): 182-88. 



50 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Taylor writes on the concept of government as patron, 
feeling that it should do more to help the young artist; looks 
towards the future as a good time for the artist if the 
government continues its patronage so that in another dme 
there will have been developed a body of artists nurtured on 
government patronage. 

0230 Clements, Grace. "Natural organization." Art Front 2 
(February 1936): 2, 14-15. 

Writing from Los Angeles, Clements praises the formation of 
the Artists' Union and hopes to do the same on the West 
Coast. Decries censorship in the PWAP and is critical of the 
needs test for artists in federal programs. 

'"\ 

0231 "Design laboratory, New York." American Magazine of 
Art 29 (February 1936): 117. 

Note on the Design Laboratory at 10 E. 39th Street in New 
York City, a program of the FAP. " 'It is a free school for 
instruction in industrial design, graphic arts and fine arts,' " 
according to Design Lab brochure. 

0232 "For a permanent art project." Art Front 2 (February 
1936): 3. 

Editorial demanding a permanent fine arts project. "Politi- 
cal speeches and tram-rides are not the answer to our 
problem. What we want is a permanent Federal Art Project." 

0233 "July 1st, 1936." ArtFront2 (February 1936): 3-4. 

The title is in reference to the date the FAP was to be 
terminated; urges Congress to extend the FAP. 

0234 Groschwitz, Gustav von. "Making prints for the U.S. 
government; W.P.A. graphic arts project in New York City." 
Prints 6 (February 1936): 135-42. 

Discussion of the Graphics Division of FAP; how prints are 
actually made; detailed comments on the work of a number 
of artists. B/W illustrations of prints by Harold Le Roy 



Annotated Bibliography 51 

Taskey, Mabel Dwight, Albert Abramovitiz, and Albert J. 
Webb. 

0235 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects ^ (March- 
April-May 1936); 24 pp. 

Notes on the TRAP projects; biographies of Bertrand R. 
Adams, Aaron Bohrod, Fiske Boyd, William Bunn, David 
Granahan, Lowell Houser, H.H. Wessel, and Ray Boynton. 
Announcement of seven competitions: 
Santa Barbara, CA, Post Office sculpture, $3,900 (later won 

by William Atkinson) ; 
Decatur, IL, Post Office, $7,050 (later won by Edgar Britton, 

Mitchell Siporin, and Edward Millman); 
Somerville, MA, Post Office, $2,000 (later won by Ross 

Moffett) ; 
Arlington, NJ, Post Office, $2,350 (later won by Albert 

Kotin); 
Binghamton, NY, Post Office, $3,900 (later won by Kenneth 

Washburn) ; 
North Philadelphia, PA, Post Office, $5,300 (later won by 

George Harding) ; 
Petersburgh, VA, Post Office, $4,700 (later won by William 

Calfee and Edwin S. Lewis) . 

0236 "The public use of art." Art Front 2 (March 1936): 
3-4. 

Notice of the opening (in December 1935) of the Federal Art 
Gallery (NYC) ; urges the creation of a permanent art project. 

0237 Watson, Forbes. "The return to the facts." American 
Magazine of Art 29 (March 1936): 146-53. 

A polemic in favor of Realism and "democratic" art and 
against Academicism and abstract effetism; explains how the 
work of the PWAP, FAP, and the Section show the vigor of 
Realism. Watson feels the FAP art is a great improvement 
over work done earlier in the century. An excellent summary 
of the beliefs of one of the important administrators of the 
art projects. Many B/W illustrations of works. 



52 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0238 "With the artist." Western Artist 2 (March 1936) : 17-18. 

From Albuquerque, Dorothy Stewart was chosen for the FAP 
mural project at the Little Theatre Building in Albuquerque, 
assisted by Samuel Moreno; from Salt Lake City, in early 
March there will be an exhibition of about 20 FAP artists in 
the State Capitol. 

0239 "Index of American Design planned by WPA." Mu- 
seum News 13 (March 1, 1936): 4. 

Note that the FAP will begin the IAD. 

0240 "Government inspiration; with colored supplement, 
'Mural painting in the United i^tates.' " Time 27 (March 2, 
1936): 42-43. 

Overview of the mural work done under the New Deal 
projects; includes photographs of artists at work and a color 
supplement reproducing the murals of Daniel Boza, Gerald 
Foster, Frank Mechau, Douglas Crockwell, Kenneth Adams, 
and John Steuart Curry. 

0241 Sayre, A.H. "Federal art project costume exhibition at 
R.H. Macy& Company." Art News 34 (March 7, 1936): 9. 

Exhibition of costumes from all periods of American history 
held jointly by the FAP and Macy's Department store in New 
York City; costumes from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
the Cooper Union, Museum of the City of New York, and the 
Brooklyn Museum. 

0242 "WPA opens fourteen art galleries in South." Museum 
News 13 (March 15, 1936): 1, 4. 

Note that the FAP is opening fourteen art galleries in the 
South; call to donate publications to these new facilities. 

0243 "The 40,000 lay-off threat." Art Front 2 (April 1936): 
3-4. 

Critical of plans to lay off 40,000 of the WPA's workers in the 
New York area. 



Annotated Bibliography 53 

0244 Friedman, Arnold. "Government in art." Art Front 2 
(April 1936): 8-10. 

Paper read at the American Artists' Congress; gives history of 
the art projects with guarded praise. 

0245 "Harlem hospital murals." ArtFront2 (April 1936): 3. 

Critical of racist criticism ("Too much Negro subject mat- 
ter") of murals for the Harlem Hospital; urges greater 
presence of African-Americans in the art projects. 

0246 K., J. "The project graphic show." Art Front 2 (April 
1936): 12. 

A highly favorable review of "Graphic Prints" at the Federal 
Art Gallery (NYC); includes a list of artists participating. 
"Out of such exhibitions will mature culture develop." 

0247 "Sidney Waugh: Stage Driver, U.S.P.O. (1789-1836), 
detail." American Magazine of Art 29 (April 1936): cover. 

Reproduction of a detail of Sidney Waugh's "Stage Driver, 
U.S.P.O. (1789-1836)," done for the Post Office Building, 
Washington, DC, for the Section. 

0248 "Treasury Department." Western Artist 2 (April 1936) : 
27. 

Announcement of five Section competitions. 

0249 "WPA art work shown in museum," El Palacio 40 
(April 15, 22, 29, 1936): 92-94. 

Account of exhibition of FAP work shown in the Museum of 
New Mexico (Santa Fe). Partial list of artists included. 

0250 Danysh, Joseph A. "The Federal art project." San 
Francisco Art Association Bulletin 3 (May 1936): 2, 4. 

Explanation of the FAP, both its creative and educational 
aspects, with some statistics of its implementation in the Bay 
Area. 



54 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0251 Godsoe, Robert Ulrich. "Another project graphics 
show." Art Front 2 (May 1936): 15. 

Favorable review of "Graphic Prints" at the Federal Art 
Gallery (NYC); list of artists and work. 

0252 "Mass meeting." Art Front 2 (May 1936): 3. 

A call for artists to fight for the preservation of the FAP. 

0253 "Modern history of art." Art Front 2 (May 1936): 4. 

Artists picket the FAP's NYC headquarters; highly critical of 
Audrey McMahon. 

0254 "Towards permanent prdjects." Art Front 2 (May 
1936): 5. 

Editorial in favor of a federal art bill; reprints important 
sections. 

0255 ' 'With the artist. ' ' Western Artist 2 (May 1 936) : 1 7. 

From Deming (NM), Lew Tree Himmun will do a FAP 
mural for the WPA office in Denver; from Gallup, J.R. 
Willis will do a Section mural for the Gallup High School; 
and from Taos, Gene Kloss, Regina Tatum Cooke, Pa- 
trocino Barcla, and Gisella Lacher exhibit Section work at 
the Santa Fe museum. 

0256 Angly, Edward. "Not boondoggling." Art Digest 10 
(May 1,1936): 13,17. 

Excerpted from the New York Herald-Tribune. Angly claims 
that the work done under government auspices has been 
good: "Unlike the amateur leaf rakers and snow shovelers 
and those who scrape the lateral roads of a nation in the 
name of work relief, a P.W.A.P job for an artists usually 
evokes arduous labor," p. 17. 

0257 Hartmann, Sadakichi. "Misapplied relief?" Art Digest 
10 (May 1,1936): 12, 28. 



Annotated Bibliography 55 

Essay by Hartmann expressing his belief that good art cannot 
be done under the circumstances that the government is 
commissioning it. A good analysis of the issue. 

0258 "Data on projects." Art Digest 10 (May 15, 1936): 6. 

Statistics on the FAP from Audrey McMahon. McMahon feels 
that private industry is doing little to absorb artists into the 
work force. 

0259 Mumford, Lewis. "The art galleries." New Yorker 12 
(May 16, 1936): 44. 

Note on the Federal Art Gallery (NYC) and the exhibition of 
prints on display. "Politics aside, such an exhibition gives an 
answer to a question that might be asked about our artists as 
well as our children: why keep them alive?" p. 44. 

0260 Limbach, Russell T. "Art: Artists Union convention." 
New Masses 19 (May 19, 1936): 28. 

Brief note on the Federal Art Bureau bill in article primarily 
about the Artists' Union convention. 

0261 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 10 (June- 
July-August 1936): 20 pp. 

Note on the upcoming Whitney Museum and Corcoran 
Gallery shows of Section work; note on the Delaware Swedish 
Tercentenary Commemorative Coin competition; excerpts 
from "Fresco Painting Today" by Lewis Rubenstein, re- 
printed from American Scholar; biographies of Simkha Simk- 
hovitch, Stuart Holmes, Charles Turzak, Henry Kreis, Char- 
les Rudy, Henrietta Shore, H. Louis Freund, Aldis B. Brown, 
Frederick A. Brunner, Walter Gardner, Tanner M. Clark, 
Kenneth Callahan, Glady Caldwell, Charles Campbell, Nor- 
man Chamberlain, Grant W. Christian, and Thomas Don- 
nelly. Announcement of two competitions: 
San Pedro, CA, Post Office, $4,900 (later won by Fletcher 

Martin); 
Fort Scott, KS, Courthouse, $2,600 (later won by Oscar 

Berninghaus) . 



56 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0262 "Federal arts project holds national exhibition." 
Western Artist 2 Qune 1936): 16. 

Favorable review of "National Exhibition. Mural Sketches, 
Oil Paintings, Water Colors and Graphic Arts. Federal Art 
Project" at the Phillips Collection (Washington, DC). 

0263 Godsoe, Robert Ulrich. "Another project graphic 
show." Art Front 2 Qune 1936): 15. 

Favorable review of FAP show "Exhibition of graphic prints, 
etchings, lithographs, wood cuts" at the Federal Art Gallery 
(NYC); includes a list of artists in show. 

0264 "Mass meeting." Art Front 2 (June 1936): 3. 

Editorial urging artists to unite to protest proposed FAP cuts; 
specifically suggests writing Congress, the press and WPA; 
organizing actions to expand FAP; holding a mass meeting in 
Madison Square; and sending a delegation to Washington. 

0265 ' ' Modern art history. ' ' Art Front 2 (June 1 936) : 4. 

Account of a delegation of 37 artists that went to the FAP 
headquarters in New York on May 13, 1936, to ask for jobs; 
but are turned away by Audrey McMahon. Eventually they 
occupied her office and had to be removed by the police. 

0266 ' 'Treasury Department competitions. ' ' Western Artist 2 
(June 1936): 16,23. 

Announcement of six Section competitions. 

0267 "With the artist." Western Artist 2 (June 1936) : 10. 

From Santa Fe it is announced that Emilio Padilla has 
completed a wood carving for the FAP. 

0268 "Organize against lay-offs." Art Front 2 Quly-August 
1936): 3. 

Editorial comparing FAP layoffs to Hitler's tactics; proposes 
plans to protest layoffs. 



Annotated Bibliography 57 

0269 "With the artist." Western Artist 2 (July-August 1936): 
11-12, 17. 

From Denver, Louis Ross has completed models of Indian 
houses for the Denver Museum of Art for the FAP; from Taos, 
Emil Bisttram wins Section mural competition; and from 
Cheyenne, Bob True works on FAP project for the Cheyenne 
High School. 

0270 "Cream of Project; at the Duncan Phillips memorial 
gallery, Washington, DC." ArtDigestlO (July 1, 1936): 23. 

Review of show at the Phillips' Collection (June 15 through 
July 5) of 100 FAP works selected by Duncan Phillips. 
Includes a partial list of artists. 

0271 "Muralist! Designs invited for north Philadelphia 
post office." ArtDigestlO (July 1, 1936): 23. 

Section mural competition announced for Philadelphia post 
office; list of jury members. 

0272 "WPA rainbow: artists and sculptors rise from obscu- 
rity to Washington display." Literary Digest 122 (July 4, 1936): 
23. 

Highly favorable review of "National Exhibition. Mural 
Sketches, Oil Paintings, Water Colors and Graphic Arts" at 
the Phillips' Collection (June 15 through July 5) of 100 FAP 
works selected by Duncan Phillips. B/W illustrations of works 
by Samuel L. Brown and Michaell Siporin. 

0273 "Two lithographs." NewMasses20 (July 7, 1936): 13. 

Two lithographs by Elizabeth Olds done for the FAP ("Bro- 
kers," and "Miss Manchester's Musical Program for Home- 
less Men"). 

0274 Rourke, Constance. "Artists on relief." New Republic 
87 (July 15, 1936): 286-88. 

Rourke praises Holger Cahill and the FAP administrators he 
selected; she feels the FAP is destined for greatness. "A 



58 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

flexible and well organized movement has been brought into 
existence, proceeding from a concept of art not as a posses- 
sion of the few but as a free impulse that should have a large 
and natural place in our society for pleasure and use," p. 288. 

0275 Whiting, F.A. , Jr. ' 'New Horizons. ' ' American Magazine 
of Art 29 (August 1936): 493. 

Praises the art projects and mentions "National Exhibition. 
Mural Sketches, Oil Paintings, Water Colors and Graphic 
Arts" exhibition at the Phillips' Collection; expects great 
things from upcoming "New Horizons" show at MOMA. 

0276 "WPA takes stock at Washington; Phillips memorial 
gallery exhibition." American Magazine of Art 29 (August 
1936): 504-506,550. 

Review of "National Exhibition. Mural Sketches, Oil Paint- 
ings, Water Colors and Graphic Arts" at the Phillips' Collec- 
tion (Washington, DC); preview of MOMA "New Horizons" 
show. Primarily B/W illustrations of works in shows. 

0277 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 11 (Sep- 
tember 1936-February 1937): 19 pp. 

Comments on the Corcoran and Whitney shows of Section 
work; text of FDR and Henry Morgan thau's remarks at the 
opening of the Corcoran show. Competitions announced: 
San Antonio, TX, Post Office, $12,000 (later won by 

Howard Cook) ; 
Phoenix, AZ, Post Office, $6,800 (later won by LaVerne 

Block and Oscar Berninghaus) ; 
Wilmington, DE, Post Office, $1,900 (later won by Albert Pels 

and Harry Zimmerman) ; 
Miami, FL, Post Office, $3,800 (later won by Denman Fink in 

a second competition); 
El Paso, TX, Court House, $3,700 (later won by Tom Lea). 
Biographies of Kenneth M. Adams, Conrad A. Albrizzio, 
Richard Brooks, William H. Calfee, Xavier Gonzales, Paul 
Manship, Edward Millman, Brenda Putnam, Louis Slobod- 
kin, Robert Tabor, and Kenneth Washburn. 



Annotated Bibliography 59 

0278 Noble, Elizabeth. "New horizons." Art Front 2 (Sep- 
tember-October 1936): 7-9. 

Favorable review of "New Horizons" show at MOMA, but 
feels the artists need more freedom. B/W illustration of work 
by Karl Knaths. NOTE: "Elizabeth Noble" was the pseudo- 
nym used by Elizabeth McCausland when writing for Left 
Wing journals. 

0279 "Treasury art projects exhibition at Whitney mu- 
seum." Western Artist 3 (September-October 1936): 15. 

Review of "Treasury Department Art Projects: Sculpture and 
Painting" (October 6 through November 6, 1936) at the 
Whitney Museum. 

0280 "Two Treasury mural competitions." Western Artist 3 
(September-October 1936): 25. 

Announcement of two Section competitions. 

0281 "With the artist." Western Artist 3 (September- 
October 1936): 9. 

From Taos, Joseph Fleck completes the Raton Post Office 
mural for the Section. 

0282 ' 'Five more WPA art galleries in south. ' ' Museum News 
14 (September 1,1936): 2. 

Note that new FAP art galleries have opened in Jacksonville, 
FL; Miami, FL; Greenville, SC; Lynchburg, VA; and Greens- 
boro, NC. More are planned for Mississippi, Georgia, and 
Arkansas. 



0283 Marshall, Margaret. "Art on relief." Nation 143 (Sep- 
tember 5, 1936): 271-75. 

Praises the FAP for bringing real art to the average American 
in his/her school, home, through art education, and local 
museum. B/W illustrations of works by Ralph Austin, Lester 
O. Schwartz, Gene Kloss, Nan Lurie, John Gross-Be ttelheim. 



60 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0284 "Relief work." Time28 (September 21, 1936): 42-43. 

Mixed review of "New Horizons in American Art" at MOMA; 
finds the show to be generally mediocre, but praises Pa- 
trocino Barcla's (photograph of the artist) work highly, as 
well as that of the IAD and the children's sections. 

0285 Kaufman, Sidney. "The fine arts." New Masses 20 
(September 22, 1936): 29. 

Notice that "New Horizons in American Art" will open at 
MOMA. 

0286 Mumford, Lewis. "The art galleries." New Yorker 12 
(September26, 1936):57. 

Mumford expresses his enthusiasm for the FAP on the event 
of MOMA's "New Horizons in American Art" exhibition. 

0287 Genauer, Emily. "New horizons in American art." 
Parnassus 8 (October 1936): 2-7. 

A favorable review of the "New Horizons" show at MOMA 
that expands into a treatise on government and art. An 
attempt to express the "man on the street" view to art. B/W 
illustrations of works by Concetta Scaravaglione, Hester 
Miller Murray, Samuel L. Brown, Andre Rexroth, Mike 
Mosco, Karle Zerbe. 

0288 McCausland, Elizabeth. "Lithographs to the fore." 
Prints 7 (October 1936): 16-30. 

Overview of the lithography process; covers the contribu- 
tions of the FAP Graphics Division to the recent develop- 
ments in lithography. B/W illustration of print by Arnold 
Blanch. 

0289 Rohde, Gilbert. "The Design Laboratory." American 
Magazine of Art 29 (October 1936): 638-43, 686. 

Excellent account of the FAP's Design Laboratory in New 
York City; shows the practical side of F.\P work. Illustrated 
with B/W photographs of the lab and work done there. 



Annotated Bibliography 61 

0290 Schack, William. "Lost chapter in New York history: 
Blackwell survey of New York, 1860-1864." Landscape Archi- 
tecture27 (October 1936): 12-17. 

Article on the discovery of the Blackwell plan of gardens for 
upper Manhattan by the Historic Gardens Unit of the IAD; 
B/W illustrations of the plans. 

0291 "Western work praised." San Francisco Art Association 
Bulletins (October 1936): 5. 

Ernest Peixotto, WPA administrator and muralist, on a swing 
through California in September, praises the work being 
done in California by FAP artists. 

0292 Works Progress Administration. Division of Women's 
and Professional Services. Federal Art Project. Bi-Monthly Bulle- 
tin 1 (October 1, 1936). 23 pp. 

Includes "Excerpts from ten reviews by leading American 
critics of the 'New Horizons in American Art' show at the 
Museum of Modern Art"; the ten critics were Lewis Mum- 
ford, Malcolm Vaughn, Carlyle Burrass, Melville Upton, 
Edward Alden Jewell, Walter Rendell Storey, H.I. Brock, 
Jerome Klein, William Gepmain Dooley, and Emily Genauer. 
NOTE: No other issues located. 

0293 "Are they Bona Fide?" Art Digest 11 (October 1, 
1936): 7. 

Edmund H. Levy, department administrator of New York 
City's WPA project is appointed to determine if workers on 
the arts projects are qualified for the work they are doing. 

0294 "Meet Uncle Sam, world's greatest collector of a 
nation's art." Art Digest 11 (October 1, 1936): 5-6. 

A summary of reviews of "New Horizons in American Art" 
show at MOMA where nearly 500 FAP works were shown. 
B/W illustrations of works by Jack Levine, Karl Kelpe, Arnold 
Wiltz, Mick Arsena. Also discusses the mural project and the 
IAD. 



62 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0295 "Oh, Jimmy can draw! He's gonna be a artist if the 
WPA keeps up." Art Digest U (October 1, 1936): 7. 

A cartoon by Wortman reprinted from the New York World 
Telegram, August 11, 1936. 

0296 Davidson, Martha. "Government as a patron of art." 
Art News 35 (October 10, 1936): 10-12. 

Reviews of "New Horizons in American Art" at MOMA, and 
"Treasury Department Art Projects: Sculpture and Painting" 
at the Whitney. Praises the "American-ness" of the works in 
the shows: "In both exhibitions it is evident that the roots of 
this new art are in its own soil," p. 12. B/W illustrations of 
works by Concetta Scarvaglione, John Ballatar, Alfred Crimi, 
Paul Cadmus, Michael Von Meyer, and Heinz Warneke. 

0297 BuUiet, CJ. "Day after next: 'New Horizons in Ameri- 
can art' " ArtDigestU (October 15, 1936): 23. 

Reprint of, and critique, of Bulliet's comments in the Chi- 
cago Daily News where he expresses fears that the FAP will 
lead to a regimentization of American art. Critical of the 
MOMA "New Horizons" show. 

0298 "Politics prevail?" Art Digest (October 15, 1936): 13. 

Glenn Wessels of the San Francisco Argonaut complains of 
the low salaries paid to FAP artists. 

0299 "Uncle Sam faces new test of his connoisseurship in 
art." ArtDigestU (October 15, 1936): 9, 29. 

A review of the Whitney Museum of American Art's show of 
works from the U.S. Treasury Department's Art Program. 
"Presents Uncle Sam as the discerning connoisseur rather 
than the benevolent patron — art for beauty, not reliefs 
sake." B/W illustrations of works by Reginald Marsh, William 
Zorach, and George Biddle. 

0300 ' 'A silver lining to the depression; workers in Treasury 
art project refurbish federal buildings." Literary Digest 122 
(October 17, 1936): 22. 



Annotated Bibliography 63 

Favorable review of "Treasury Department Art Projects — 
Sculpture and Paintings for Federal Buildings (October 10 
through November 6, 1936) at the Whitney Museum. A good 
account of the Section is included. 

0301 Binsse, Harry Lorin. "WPA art exhibit." America 56 
(October 24, 1936): 71. 

Mixed review of ' 'New Horizons in American Art' ' at MOMA, 

0302 Kaufman, Sidney. "The fine arts." New Masses 21 
(October 27, 1936) : 27-28. 

In an article about Living American Artists, Inc., New York, 
Kaufman says, "One of the most astounding facts in the 
current political campaign is the failure of Landon to jibe at 
W.P.A. support of artists: less than thirty years ago an admin- 
istration that thought artists needed to live would have been 
laughed out of office." 

0303 Tsis.' "The U.S. Federal art project." Builder 151 
(October 30, 1936): 823. 

Comments on the government art projects from a British 
point of view. The pseudonymous author feels that the 
aesthetic and relief goals of the projects are antagonistic, but 
praises the educational aspects of the FAP and comments on 
the possible applications in Britain; he also feels that the FAP 
administration is too reactionary. "The failure in democracy 
to-day is that it despises what it cannot understand, and 
values only at is own level. It has not that wider sense of 
responsibility to value what is above itself. And the danger in 
the Federal Relief Scheme is that without this understanding 
it may be captured by the wrong people." 

0304 Benson, E.M. "Art on parole." American Magazine of 
Art 29 (November 1936): 709, 770. 

Benson is critical of some of the mediocrity he's seen in 
mural projects (too many Pony Express riders and back- 
woodsmen "emasculate" the spirit of American art), still he 
feels hopeful for the future of the FAP. Includes a list of 



64 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

artists Benson feels are doing good work. An excellent 
critique of the projects. Illustrated with many B/W photo- 
graphs of works. 

0305 Noble, Elizabeth. "Official art." Art Front 2 (Novem- 
ber 1936): 8-10. 

Review of "Treasury Department Art Projects — Sculpture 
and Paindngs for Federal Buildings" at the Whitney Museum 
(NYC); critical of work, feels it to be retrogressive. NOTE: 
"Elizabeth Noble" was the pseudonym used by Elizabeth 
McCausland when writing for Left Wing journals. 

0306 Breuning, Margaret. "Exhibition consisting of work 
executed under the Treasury Qepartment art projects." 
Parnassus 8 (November 1936): 25-27. 

Review of "Treasury Department Art Projects — Sculpture 
and Paintings for Federal Buildings" at the Whitney Mu- 
seum, enjoys the social realism of the works. B/W illustra- 
tions of work by Helen Sardeau. 

0307 "Owned by the United States government." Survey 
Graphic2b (November 1936): 616-17. 

Primarily B/W illustrations of FAP works by Gregario 
Prestopirio, Jack Greitzer, Samuel J. Brown, Raymond Bre- 
inin, and Ralf Henricksen. 

0308 "Sculpture and paintings for federal buildings; exhi- 
bition at Whitney Museum of American Art." Pencil Points 17 
(November 1936): 623-32, 638. 

Descriptive article, mostly B/W illustrations of works, of 
"Treasury Department Art Projects — Sculpture and Paint- 
ings for Federal Buildings," at Whitney Museum, 

0309 "Voice of art; provisions of a bill providing for a 
Federal Bureau of Fine Arts, prepared for presentation to 
Congress." ArtDigestll (November 15, 1936): 6, 15. 

Summary of the Fine Arts Bureau bill prepared by the Artists' 
Congress of Chicago; includes full text of the proposed bill. 



Annotated Bibliography 65 

0310 "Child art." Life 1 (November 30, 1936): 44. 

Reproductions of watercolors done by children under the 
FAP. Illustrations of work by Alphonse Basile, Donald Lig- 
uore, Tiberio Benevento, and Louis Novar. 

0311 "The artist must survive." Art Front 3 (December 
1936): 18. 

Announcement of planned demonstration of support for the 
FAP to take place at the Daly Theater (NYC) ; includes a list of 
speakers. 

0312 "Curtailment." Art Front "^ (December 1936): 3. 

Editorial questioning why the FAP is being cut; claims it is 
politics and not money behind the cuts. 

0313 Holme, B. "New Horizons in American art." Studio 
112 (December 1936): 347-50. 

Generally favorable review of "New Horizons in American 
Art" exhibition. B/W illustrations of work by Frede Vidar, 
Adolf Dehn, Thomas Hart Benton, Karl Kelpe, Louis Gug- 
lielmi, George Constant,and Wanda Gag. 

0314 "Junipero Serra." California Arts and Architecture 50 
(December 1936): 6. 

The FAP sculpture of Junipero Serra by John Palo-Kangas is 
unveiled in front of the Ventura County Courthouse; photo- 
graph and caption only. 

0315 Kiesler , Frederick T. " Murals without walls. ' ' Art Front 
3 (December 1936): 10-11. 

An account of Arshile Gorky's murals for the Newark Airport. 
B/W illustration of work. 

0316 Pearson, Ralph M. "The artist's point of view." Forum 
96 (December 1936): 293. 

Article in support of the New Deal art projects, glad they are 
going out to the people: "Art is being pulled out of the 



66 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

studio, the museum, and the pink tea. It is at work in 
buildings. It is being used!" B/W illustrations of work by 
George Biddle and Marion Greenwood. 

0317 Rothman, Henry. "WPA poster show." Art Front 3 
(December 1936): 17. 

Review of "Posters" show at the Federal Art Gallery (NYC). 
B/W illustration. 

0318 Sears, Arthur W. "A revival of mosaics sponsored by 
the Federal Art Project." California Arts and Architecture 50 
(December 1936): 2-3,5. 

Explanation of how mosaics are dpne, why they are popular 
in California and a discussion of some examples (Marian 
Simpson, Maxine Albro, and Helen Bruton); photographs of 
the mosaicists at work. 

0319 Weinstock, Clarence. "Public art in practice." Art 
Fronts (December 1936): 8-10. 

A dissertation on the nature of public art; states, "The art 
projects, ostensibly devoted to the widest communication 
between the artists and the people, have actually been bound 
by the philistine opinion of the Administration that public 
art must be confined to murals and canvases in official and 
semi-official places," p. 8. 

0320 " Brewing storm over nation-wide pruning. ' ' Art Digest 
11 (December 1, 1936): 11. 

After Holger Cahill announced a 20% cut in the FAP, the 
Artists' Union issued a statement that "only permanent 
government art projects can provide a culture commensu- 
rate to the wealth and needs of America." Additional com- 
ments by J.B. Neumann, art lecturer, and Harry Gottlieb, 
president of the Artists' Union. 

0321 Butler, Harold E. "Fore-doomed? Movement for a 
Federal bureau of fine arts in Washington." Art Digest 11 
(December 1,1936): 25. 



Annotated Bibliography 67 

Butler, dean of the College of Fine Arts, Syracuse University, 
comments on the proposed Federal Bureau of Fine Arts. 
Critical of the proposal's concentration on the visual arts, 
pointing out that the WPA Arts Projects took in all aspects of 
creativity. 

0322 "Don't sell out relief." Nation 143 (December 12, 
1936): 691-92. 

Editorial decrying the cuts in the WPA, particularly those to 
the art projects. "It is ironic commentary on the state of our 
civilization and on the high-sounding words of President 
Roosevelt that when prosperity comes in at the door, how- 
ever fleetingly, an important cultural development is thrown 
out the window," p. 692. 

0323 "Out-of-town galleries follow customers to New 
York." NewsweekS (December 12, 1936): 30. 

Note that Hudson D. Walker's Minneapolis gallery keeps an 
eye on the work of FAP artists for good prospects. 

0324 "Project artists score." Art Digest 11 (December 15, 
1936): 23. 

At the Fourth International Exhibit of Etchings and Engrav- 
ings at the Art Institute of Chicago, 11 of the 193 prints are 
from artists associated with the Graphic Arts Division of FAP. 
Comments by Audrey F. McMahon. 

0325 "Relief riots." ArtDigestU (December 15, 1936): 13. 

Account of the December 1, 1936, riot that erupted between 
artists protesting WPA layoffs and police at the New York City 
FAP offices, leading to the arrest of 219 artists. Includes 
statements by Audrey F. McMahon (FAP New York office 
director) and Elmer Englehorn (business administrator of 
the WPA Arts Projects) . Artists Philip Evergood and Helen 
West Heller contribute statements. Full text of the Executive 
Board of the Artists' Union of New York City included. From 
the New York Herald Tribune. 



68 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0326 "Stieglitz is blunt." Art Digest 11 (December 15, 
1936): 10. 

Desire Weidinger, an FAP art lecturer, and twenty-five listen- 
ers arrived at Alfred Stieglitz 's gallery, An American Place. 
Stieglitz criticized the concept and politics of the FAP, and 
commented on the work of Georgia O'Keeffe and Diego 
Rivera. Taken from the New York Herald Tribune. 

0327 "Underground art." Art Digest 11 (December 15, 
1936): 12. 

The Artists' Union proposal that FAP artists create work for 
New York City's subways is commented on by the New York 
Times Herald, New York Post, and New York Sun. 

0328 Draper, Theodore. "Roosevelt and the WPA." New 
Masses2l (December 22, 1936): 14-16. 

A discussion of WPA funding cuts in the context of specific 
cuts to Federal One. A long and passionate description of 
police beating up artists sitting in at the WPA New York 
Headquarters is used to gain support. 

0329 Mumford, Lewis. "Letter to the president; on the arts 
projects of the WPA." New Republic 89 (December 30, 1936): 
263-65. 

Elegant, if a bit purple, plea by historian Mumford to FDR to 
keep the four projects of Federal One alive: "These projects 
have given the artist a home; and they have planted the seed 
of the fine arts, hitherto raised under glass in a few metropol- 
itan hothouses, in every village and byway in the country, 
renovating soils that have become sour with neglect, and 
opening up new areas for cultivation," p. 264. 

0330 American Art Annual 33 (1936). 

"The Year in Art," (pp. 5-8) praises the government's 
increased role in the art world; overview of major govern- 
ment art programs. List of Treasury Department Art Project 
administrators and its organization, p. 73. 



Annotated Bibliography 69 

0331 ' 'The WPA art project. ' ' Rochester Memorial Art Gallery. 
AnnualReport. 24 (1936-1937): 12-13. 

Note that Isabel C. Herdle has been the Rochester FAP 
director since February 1936; has employed ten artists on five 
projects. 

EXHIBITIONS 

0332 Federal Art Project. Purposes; mosaics at the University of 
California art gallery. San Francisco, 1936. 7 pp. 

Exhibition, 1936? Held at the University of California, 
Berkeley Art Gallery and the M.H. de Young Museum in San 
Francisco. NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

0333 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of graphic prints, etchings, 
lithographs, wood cuts. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1936. 1 p. 

Exhibition, April 30 through May 13, 1936, extended 
through June 25, 1936. No catalog found, invitation to 
opening (1 sheet) in AAA. 

0334 Federal Art Project. Southern California. The Federal 
Art Project. Southern California. Los Angeles Museum: Los 
Angeles, 1936. 1 sheet pamphlet. 

Exhibition, June 5 through 30, 1936. Checklist of 190 works 
from all media. Brief description of FAP and the mural 
project in Southern California. Illustrated with a woodblock 
print by Viktor Von Pribosic. 

0335 Federal Art Project. National exhibition. Mural sketches, 
oil paintings, water colors and graphic arts. Federal Art Project. 
Phillips Memorial Gallery. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. 9 pp. 

Exhibition, June 15 through July 5, 1936. Press release issued 
by office of Harry Hopkins; gives a description of the exhibi- 
tion and a list of the seventy-eight works in the show organ- 
ized by state of origin. 

0336 Federal Art Project. Drawings for Index of American 
Design. Federal Art Project: New York, 1936. 3 pp. 



70 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition, June 20 through July 15, 1936, at the R.H. Macy & 
Co., New York City. Text discusses the purpose of the IAD 
and mentions that many of the plates will appear in House and 
Garden {See 0661). No checklist. FOUND IN AAA Reel 
1085.467-69. 

0337 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of oil paintings. Federal 
Art Gallery: New York, 1936. 4 p. mimeographed. 

Exhibition, June 26 through July 24, 1936. CheckUst of 79 
works. 

0338 Museum of Modern Art. New horizons in American art; 
with an introduction by Holger Cahill. Museum of Modern Art: 
NewYork, 1936. I7lp. S 

Exhibition, September 14 through October 12, 1936. "New 
Horizons in American Art," a show of 435 works from all 
aspects of the FAP (including a rotating selection of plates 
from the LAD) was one of the most important and influential 
exhibitions of Federal art work in its time. After opening at 
MOMA, the show traveled throughout the United States 
receiving generally favorable reviews; Cahill 's introduction 
became one of the most cited references to the purposes and 
functions of the FAP and still reads well as an essay on 
American art. Introduction by Holger Cahill also printed as a 
20-page mimeographed booklet. 

0339 Section of Pain ting and Sculpture. Treasury Department 
Art Projects sculpture and paintings for Federal buildings. October 
sixth to November sixth, 1936. Whitney Museum of American 
Art: NewYork, 1936. 22 pp. 

Exhibition, October 6 through November 6, 1936, Whitney 
Museum of American Art. Catalog of 166 works, mostly 
mural sketches. Includes an excellent history of the Treasury 
Department projects by Forbes Watson. Numerous B/W 
illustrations. 

0340 Federal Art Project. Exhibition by teachers of the Federal 
Art Project. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1936. 6 11. mimeo- 
graphed. 



Annotated Bibliography 71 

Exhibition, October 19 through November 6, 1936, of work 
by instructors of the FAP's art instruction program. Checklist 
of 175 works. "The art teachers of the WPA Federal Art 
Project instruct children in fine and applied arts in schools of 
the Board of Education and in settlement houses. This 
exhibition shows the teachers' work which is executed dur- 
ing the time allotted them each week for research at home," 
p. 1 (explanatory note). 

0341 University of California, Berkeley Art Gallery. Exhibi- 
tion of Federal Art Project Work. UC Berkeley Art Gallery: 
Berkeley, 1936. 7 pp. mimeographed. 

Exhibition, November 1 through 27, 1936. Checklist of 
ninety-two works. Includes general comments on the FAR 
and text on the FAP mosaics in the Art Gallery designed by 
Florence Swift. 

0342 Section of Painting and Sculpture. Treasury Department 
Art Projects. Painting and sculpture for Federal buildings. Corco- 
ran Gallery of Art: Washington, 1936. 16 pp. 

Exhibition, November 17 through December 13, 1936. 
Checklist of over one hundred works from the TDAP. "The 
present exhibition consists of characteristic examples of the 
various phases of work done under the TDAP program." 
Introduction by Forbes Watson. 

MONOGRAPHS 

0343 American Artists' Congress. First American Artists ' Con- 
gress. American Artists' Congress: New York, 1936. 104 pp. 

Proceedings of the American Artists' Congress held in New 
York City February 14-16, 1936. Paper entitled "Govern- 
ment in Art," delivered by Arnold Friedman (but written 
with Jacob Kainen, Louis Ferstadt, and Ralph M. Pearson) is 
critical of the Section and claims much more must be done 
for the artists of America. 

0344 Architectural League of New York. Catalogue of the 
fifty-first annual exhibition. The League: New York, 1936. 



72 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

NOT SEEN. Some FAP works were shown. 

0345 Bruce, Edward and Forbes Watson, Art in Federal 
buildings: an illustrated record of the Treasury Department's new 
program in painting and sculpture. Volume 1: Mural designs, 
1934-1936. Art in Federal Buildings: Washington, DC, 1936. 
309 pp. 

An important work by the two top administrators of the 
Section project. The book is a large folio with numerous 
reproductions of work accomplished under the Section. A 
full account of the Section projects through 1936. Numerous 
illustrations. No second volume ever published. 

0346 Federal Art Project. Federal 4^rt Project; a summary of activ- 
ities and accomplishments. New York, 1936? 19 11. mimeographed. 

Description of the FAP projects and plans. NOTE: A number 
of publications came out under this or similar titles, usually 
with no date; the text is usually quite similar with some 
figures updated; dating is based on internal evidence. 

0347 Federal Art Project. General rules for all drawings and 
special projects. Washington, DC, 1936. Mimeographed. 9 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. "Includes general rules, 
rules for special subjects, preferred layouts and quilt stan- 
dards (illustrated)." 

0348 Federal Art Gallery. Guide to the Federal Art Gallery. 
Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1936? 13 11. mimeographed. 

Brief description of the Federal Art Gallery (NYC); primarily 
a description of the art techniques used on the FAP. 

0349 Federal Art Project. Index of American Design. Washing- 
ton, DC, 1936? Mimeographed. 22 pp. 

Brief guide to the functions and purposes of the IAD. 

0350 Federal Art Project. Index of American Design reference 
bibliography of illustrated books. Washington, DC, 1936. Mimeo- 
graphed. 17 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 73 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. 

0351 Federal Art Project. Manual for the Index of American 
Design. Supplement No.l. Washington, DC, 1936. Mimeo- 
graphed. 2 pp. 

Dated March 9, 1936. Further instructions on the operation 
of the IAD. 

0352 Federal Art Project. Manual for the Index of American 
Design. Supplement No. 2. Washington, DC, 1936. Mimeo- 
graphed. 2 pp. 

Dated March 30, 1936. Further instructions on the operation 
of the IAD. 

0353 Federal Art Project. The old merchant's house. Architectural 
Section, New York City Unit, Index of American Design, a Federal Art 
Project. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. 9 pp. mimeographed. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

0354 Federal Art Project. Purposes, functions, techniques, Fed- 
eral Art Project exhibitions, Works Progress Administration. Wash- 
ington, DC, 1936? 18 p. 

Scope and activities of the FAP; includes a list of definitions 
of art techniques. 

0355 Federal Art Project. Report of the Winston-Salem Art 
Center. April 15, 1936. FAP: Winston-Salem, NC, 1936. 20 pp. 

Report of the FAP's community art center in Winston-Salem, 
NC. Text by Daniel S. Defenbacher, State Director of the FAP 
in North Carolina. Includes a calendar of events as well as 
general information on the art center. FOUND IN AAA Reel 
1085.95-117. 

0356 Federal Art Project. Report on art projects . . . February 
15, 1936. Washington, 1936. 18 pp. mimeographed. 

Part I covers the formation of the FAP; part II is a preliminary 
survey of the FAP. The report states that 4,300 artists have 



74 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

been employees, 327 projects have been approved, 125 
murals in New York have been assigned, plus a plethora of 
other facts and statistics. "Artists, like all other professionals 
and skilled workers, want a job to do. And if the result of their 
activity is a better America, a more complete and well- 
rounded life for the community, they as well as the Federal 
Government have the satisfaction of supporting, in one of 
the richest fields of culture, an enterprise worthy of the best 
the creative workers of America can give," p. 18. 

0357 Federal Art Project. "The story of Richmond Hill, " a 
mural in the Richmond Hill branch of the Queens Borough library. 
FAP: New York, 1936? Mimeographed. 3 pp. 

Description of the FAP mural in the Richmond Hill Library 
(Queens, NY); plus a brief life of the artist, Philip Evergood. 

0358 Federal Art Project. Supplement no. 1 to the Federal Art 
Project manual. Instructions for the Index of American Design. 
Washington, DC, 1936. 11 pp. mimeographed. 

Definition and scope of the LAD, how to assign work to artists, 
examples and instructions on filling out the required paper- 
work. Includes sample forms. 

0359 Federal Works Progress Administration. Negro Pro- 
ject Workers Annual Report 1937. FWPA: Washington, DC, 
1937.24 pp. 

A general report on African-Americans and work relief, a 
brief note is included on their achievements on Federal One, 
including the FAP. Text by Alfred Edgar Smith. Cover 
illustration by FAP artist Samuel Brown. FOUND ON AAA 
Reel 1084.572-96. 

0360 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1936, pp. unknown. 

NOT SEEN. 

0361 National Park Service. Report of Field Division of Educa- 
tion, National Park Service, San Diego photographic unit, with 



Annotated Bibliography 75 

cooperation of Federal Art Project, San Diego, California, May 1, 
1936-November 1, 1936. San Diego, 1936? 1 v. (unpaged), 
mounted photographs, mimeographed text. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

0362 Raleigh Art Center. First yearbook of the Raleigh Art 
Center. WPA: Raleigh, NC, 1936. 15 pp. 

Summary report of the Raleigh (NC) Art Center, a FAP 
organized project. Foreword by the State Director, Daniel S. 
Defenbacher. Yearbook includes a full list of staff (indicating 
their race); a calendar of events; other events and lectures; 
future plans for the center; and letters of commendation. No 
more may have been published. 

0363 US Federal Emergency Relief Administration. The 
Emergency Work Relief Program oftheF.E.KA.: April 1, 1934-July 
1, 1935. GPO: Washington, DC, 1936. 125 pp. 

Pp. 103-16 cover the arts projects under the supervision of 
FERA — primarily the completion of work begun under the 
PWAP; includes B/W photographs of artists at work. 

0364 Works Progress Administration. Digest of Publications 
Released by the Works Progress Administration and the National 
Youth Administration. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. Various 
pagination. 

Reprints or cites a number of WPA documents; principally 
official publications (5^^0214, 0215, 0218, 0219, 0220, and 
0221). Additionally, there is a hst of telegrams sent regard- 
ing the arts projects (September 12, 13, and November 5, 
23, 1935) in part 10), and part 11 notes that WPA FAP 
procedures are covered in Series E-9 of the regulations 
manual. 

0365 Works Progress Administration. Government aid during 
the depression to professional, technical and other service workers. 
WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. 75 pp. mimeographed. 

Covering all the "white collar" relief projects of the WPA, 
this report includes excerpts from newspaper account of the 



76 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

FAP and an overview of the FAP and the other projects of 
Federal One; pp. 23-26 devoted to the FAP. "The federal art 
project has already brought about a healthier psychological 
attitude among artists, who now feel themselves to be, as 
never before, a normal part of society," p. 26. Also includes 
excerpts from articles in the popular press on the FAP: pp. 
55-56, Philip Wright, "Lyman Soules' sculpture first in local 
art show," from the Kalamazoo Gazette (n.d.), about how 
WPA artist Lyman Soules has won a local prize; pp. 57-59, 
Edward Angly, "WPA art not 'terrible things' on walls of city 
buildings, but good works experts say," from the New York 
Herald-Tribune (March 15, 1936), about the praise the FAP 
mural projects have received; p. 60, "Visitors turn critics at 
WPA art exhibit," from the New York Times (April 10, 1936), 
a review of the opening show at the Federal Art Gallery 
(NYC); pp. 66-67, William Germain Dooley, "Government 
in art business makes its bow," from the Boston Evening 
Transcript Magazine (March 28, 1936), a review of the open- 
ing of the Federal Art Gallery (Boston) . 

0366 Works Progress Administration. Operating procedure 
No. W-1. Issued December 14, 1936. 

Superseded earlier rules defining the structure of Federal 
One. CITED IN MCDONALD. 

0367 Works Progress Administration. Principal addresses. 
Conference of state directors. Division of Women's and Professional 
Projects. WPA: Washington, DC, 1936. 207 pp. 

Conference held May 4-6, 1936 in Washington for top WPA 
officials. Holger Cahill spoke on behalf of the FAP on May 5, 
1936 (pp. 118-27), explaining what the FAP was and giving 
examples of the projects it had done and hoped to do. 

0368 Works Progress Administration. Report on the Works 
Program. GPO: Washington, DC, 1936. 106 pp. 

Pp. 33-34 cover the F7\P with a healthy dose of statistics; B/W 
photographs of artists at work on a mural. 



Annotated Bibliography T^ 

0369 Works Progress Administration. Timberline Lodge. 
WPA: Portland, OR, 1936? 13 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

0370 Works Progress Administration. New York. Quarterly 
report on Women 's Service and Professional Projects for the period 
December 1, 1935 to March 1, 1936. GPO: New York, 1936. 293 
II. Mimeographed. 

Statistics on the FAP in New York. Pp. 22&-27 cover the FAP: 
the FAP employed 1,962 people during this period; 350 on 
mural projects; 208 on easel works; 446 on art education; 28 
at the Design Laboratory; 59 in the poster division; 37 in 
photography; and 209 on the IAD. A total of 7,550 people 
visited the Federal Art Gallery (NYC) . 



1937 



0371 "Congress to push drive for federal arts bill." Ameri- 
can Artist (Artists' League) 1 (Winter 1937): 1. 

Comments on the need for a federal arts bill and the actions 
presently being taken in Congress to pass one. 

0372 "Destruction of art — ^American style." American Ariist 
(Artists' League) 1 (Winter 1937): 2. 

Note on the destruction of a mural by Allen Flavelle in the 
Glenn Dale Tuberculosis Sanitarium (MD). Ordered de- 
stroyed by Dr. Daniel Leo Finucane. 

0373 "Mural battle raises question of democratic proce- 
dure." American Artist (Artists' League) 1 (Winter 1937): 3. 

Comments on Rockwell Kent's struggle with the Section over 
his mural for the Post Office Building in Washington. 

0374 Dows, Olin. "Bruce: an appraisal." Magazine of Art 30 
(January 1937): 6-12. 

Dows covers Edward Bruce 's life both as an artist and as 
administrator of arts projects. Illustrated with B/W photo- 
graph of Bruce and his work; one color illustration of his work. 

0375 "Federal index." Antiques 31 (January 1937) : 9-10. 
Editorial praising the IAD and hoping that it will not be cut. 

0376 Gorelick, Boris. "The artists begin to fight." Art Front 
3 (January 1937): 5-6. 

Text of a speech delivered November 30, 1936, at the Wash- 
ington Irving High School in support of the FAP. 
78 



Annotated Bibliography 79 

0377 Harrington, M.R. "Federal art exhibit at museum." 
Masterkey 11 (January 1937): 23. 

Account of exhibition at the Southwest Museum (Los Ange- 
les), from December 1, 1936 to an unknown date, of paint- 
ings, costumes, figures, maps, and photographs done by FAP 
workers on Native American subjects. 

0378 Payant, Felix. "Index of American Design." Design 38 
(January 1937): 1. 

Editorial outlining the purpose of the IAD; feels it is a 
wonderful project. 

0379 Pearson, Ralph M. "The artist's point of view." Forum 
97 (January 1937): 53. 

As FAP funds are being cut, Pearson advocates expanding 
the art project to include requests by non-Federal organiza- 
tions to supply decoration. B/W illustration of work by Frank 
Mechau. 

0380 Boswell, Peyton. "Your voice is needed." Art Digest II 
(January 1,1937): 3-4, 22. 

Boswell criticizes the presence of non-artists in the FAP who 
are padding the rolls and taking work away from legitimate 
artists. He is also critical of Audrey F. McMahon (FAP New 
York City office director) and the methods used to choose 
artists. The control by "artists' unions" of the FAP in New 
York and Chicago is also criticized. 

0381 "No social protest." Art Digest 11 (January 1, 1937): 
21. 

Coverage of the Downtown Gallery (NYC) show of FAP artist 
David Fredenthal. The Downtown Gallery attempted to give 
commercial access to the works of FAP artists. Fredenthal' s 
show included drawings, watercolors, and tempera studies. 
B/W illustration of one of Fredenthal' s works. 

0382 " 'Prints for the people' reveal work of WPA in 
graphic media." ArtDigestW (January 1, 1937): 23. 



80 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Review of the show "Prints for the People," at the Interna- 
tional Art Center (NYC) held January 4-31, 1937. Included 
250 prints by 238 artists of the Graphic Arts Division. In- 
cludes a briejf history of the Graphic Arts Division. 

0383 "The New Deal decorated the old deal's buildings." 
Life2 (January 4, 1937): 4-8. 

Photo essay on the Section's work of adorning government 
buildings with murals; color illustrations of works by Henry 
Varnum Poor, Reginald Marsh, and George Biddle. 

0384 "He worked at night." Art Digest 11 (January 15, 
1937): 12. 

Review of show at Hudson D. Walker Gallery (NYC) of the 
works of William Waltemath (an FAP artist who did these 
works at night) . Includes a brief biography of the artist. 

0385 Broun, Heywood. "Laurels for the living." Nation 144 
(January 30, 1937): 128. 

Article critical of the lack of support given living artists; 
claims the New Deal art projects have done the best job yet; 
critical of Andrew Mellon's gift of the National Gallery of Art, 
saying an equal effort should go to living artists. 

0386 K, J. "Abraham Harriton." Art Front 3 (February 
1937): 12,19. 

Review of Abraham Harriton 's show at the ACA Gallery 
(NYC) ; one work in show depicts FAP artists being arrested, 
"219 Arrested," illustrated on p. 12. 

0387 Kiesler, Frederick T. "Architect in search of ... ; 
exhibition of works produced by Federal Art Project and 
Treasury Relief Art Projects." Architectural Record 81 (Febru- 
ary 1937): 7-12. 

Facetious review of "New Horizons in American Art" at 
MOMA and "Treasury Department Art Projects — Sculpture 
and Paintings for Federal Buildings" at the Whitney. 



Annotated Bibliography 81 

0388 "For a permanent project." Art Front 3 (February 
1937): 3-5. 

Editorial demanding the continuance of the art projects. 
Comments on the Artists' Union rally of December 1, 1936, 
for the FAP; coverage of the January 9, 1937, artists' parade 
for the FAP. An excellent article in support of the art projects 
with a strong leftist slant. B/W photographs of the rally and 
parade. 

0389 Ludins, Ryah. "A child's point of view." Art Front 3 
(February 1937): 16-17. 

Review of the Federal Art Gallery's (NYC) show of children's 
work. Praises the FAP education program and comments on 
children and art. B/W illustration of work by Louise Rauso. 

0390 "New York landscape." Art Front 3 (February 1937): 
18. 

B/W illustration of "New York Landscape," a woodcut by 
Fred Becker; from "Prints for People" show. 

0391 "Question and answer." Art Front 3 (February 1937): 
9-12. 

The results of a questionnaire sent to FAP mural artists on 
their opinions on theory, education, technique, and policy. 
Adapted from a questionnaire used by Herbert Read to query 
British artists. Detailed responses of Philip Evergood, Bal- 
comb Greene, and Helen West Heller included. B/W illus- 
trations of works by Fritz Eichenberg and Abraham Harriton. 

0392 Steinbach, Sophia. "Community art through federal 
sponsorship; WPA Federal Art Project." Design 38 (February 
1937): 5, 35. 

Good account of children's and adults' education programs 
run by the FAP. Photographs of children in art classes. 

0393 "Pericles and FDR." ArtDigestU (February 1, 1937): 

24. 



82 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

A New York World Telegram review of "Treasury Department 
Art Projects. Painting and Sculpture for Federal buildings" 
at the Corcoran Gallery; compares FDR to Pericles. 

0394 "Review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 
1934-36r ArtDigestU (February 1, 1937): 31. 

Review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 1 934-1 936 by 
Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson {See 0345); mostly quota- 
tions from the work. 

0395 Keyes, Helen Johnson. "American folk art redis- 
covered." Christian Science Monitor Weekly Magazine (February 
3, 1937): 8-9, 15. 

General account of the activities of the IAD. Illustrations of 
IAD plates. 

0396 "$30,000 for murals. Treasury department art pro- 
jects." ArtDigestU (February 15, 1937): 8. 

Announcement of one national and four regional mural 
competitions. The national competition was for the San 
Antonio Post Office and courthouse; regional competitions: 
Phoenix Post Office, Wilmington, DE, Post Office, Miami 
Post Office, courthouse, and custom building, and the El 
Paso courthouse. Reginald Marsh and Ward Lockwood were 
on the selection committee. 

0397 Rugg, Harold. "Government and the arts." Scholastic 
30 (February 20, 1937): 17-19. 

After a brief account of the PWAP, Rugg discusses all of 
Federal Project One; basic discussion of issues for school 
children. B/W illustrations of mural by James D. Brooks. 

0398 Mac-Gurrin, Buckley. "Art stuff." Script 17 (February 
27, 1937): 20. 

Very favorable comments on the FAP show at the Stendahl 
Galleries in Los Angeles. 



Annotated Bibliography 83 

0399 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 13 
(March-June 1937): 21 pp. 

Technical note on the installation of murals. Competitions 

announced: 

Apex Building, Washington, DC, $22,800 (later won by 

Michael Lantz) ; 
Postage Stamp design, $500 (later won by Elaine Rawlinson) ; 
Dillon, MT, Post Office (later won by Elizabeth Lochrie). 
Biographies of Byron B. Boyd, Albert Pels, Herman E. 
Zimmerman, Oscar E. Berninghaus, Tom Lea, LaVerne 
Black, Edmond Amateis, Knud Anderson, William Atkinson, 
George Biddle, and Louis Bouche. 

0400 Gosliner, Leo S. "New Horizons." California Arts and 
Architecture b\ (March 1937): 7. 

Very unfavorable review of "New Horizons in American Art" 
at the Palace of the Legion of Honor (SF) . "Currently, within 
the walls of the Legion, are 'New Horizons,' a survey of WPA 
art — horizons, which are too obscured and bleak — horizons 
befogged with lack of clarity, understanding or feeling." 

0401 Lamade, Eric. "Letter to the Editor." Art Front 3 
(March 1937): 15. 

A report from Oregon that the Oregon State Capitol may be 
decorated by non-union artists. 

0402 "Local WPA project exhibition." Portland Art Museum 
Bulletin^ (March 1937): 7. 

Exhibition ("Local WPA Project," February 2, 1937, through 
?) of the work of three local WPA artists, C.S. Price, Darral 
Austin, and Aimee Gorham. B/W illustration of one of 
Austin's works. 

0403 "National conference of Artists' Union held in Balti- 
more, January 16, 1937." Art Fronts (March 1937): 6. 



84 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Account of the Artists' Union meeting in Baltimore; the FAP 
was one of the major topics discussed; the FAP's failure to 
give jobs to all unemployed artists or provide culture to local 
communities. 

0404 ' 'New horizons in American art." Portland Art Museum 
Bulletin 4: (March 1937): 1-6. 

Review/ account of "New Horizons in American Art' ' (March 
24 through April 21, 1937); explanation of what the show is 
about. Numerous B/W illustrations of works. 

0405 "No firing!" Art Front "^ (March 1937): 3. 

Editorial demanding that FDR keep faith with his election 
promise to not cut any WPA programs. 

0406 Whiting, F.A., Jr. "Review of Art in Federal Buildings: 
Mural Designs, 1934-36:' Magazine of Art ?,0 (March 1937): 
182. 

Very favorable review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 
1934-1 936 by Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson (5^^0345). 

0407 "WPA competitions." Professional Art Quarterly 3 
(March 1937): 25. 

Announcement of Section competitions; Department of 
Interior, San Antonio Post Office, and Phoenix Post Office. 
NOTE: title incorrect, the competitions are Section, not 
WPA. 

0408 "Federal competition." Art Digest U (March 1, 1937): 
6. 

Nationwide competition for the mural on the walls of the 
Department of Interior's auditorium announced. Prize 
worth $5,500. Judged by the staff of the Section of Painting 
and Sculpture. 

0409 Adlow, Dorothy. "Beauty for America's walls; murals 
for Procurement Division." Christian Science Monitor Weekly 
Magazine (March 10, 1937): 4. 



Annotated Bibliography 85 

An account of the life and work of Harold Weston, who 
worked for the Section; general overview of the Section and 
its work. B/W reproductions of Weston's work. 

0410 "Silt or mud? New Horizons in American Art, Federal 
art project exhibition organized by the Museum of Modern 
Art." ArtDigestU (March 15, 1937): 13. 

Summary of California reviews of the "New Horizons" show 
as it stops at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in 
San Francisco. West Coast reviews were mixed. 

0411 "Paul Cadmus of Navy fame has his first art show." 
Life 2 (March 29, 1937): 44-47. 

In an article about Paul Cadmus' exhibition at the Midtown 
Galleries (NYC), mention is made of the controversy sur- 
rounding his PWAP work, "The Fleet is In." Photograph of 
Cadmus and the work. 

0412 "The Artists' Union builders of a democratic cul- 
ture." Art Front 3 (April-May 1937): 3-4. 

Explanation of the Artists' Union's role in the art projects 
and its fight to save them; claims more work needs to be 
done; an excellent statement by the Artists' Union on its 
place in the history of the art projects. 

0413 Bennett, Gwendolyn. "The Harlem Artists' Guild." 
Art Front 3 (April-May 1937): 20. 

An account of the Harlem Artists' Guild's attempts to in- 
crease the African-American presence in the art projects. 
B/W illustration of work by Harry Gottlieb. 

0414 Godsoe, Robert Ulrich. "A project for the people." 
Art Front 3 (April-May 1937): 10-11. 

Text of a speech delivered to the New York Artists' Union. 
Deals primarily with the Artists' Union's Public Use of 
Art Committee. Calls for an enlarged easel project in the 
FAP. 



86 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0415 Klein, Jerome. "Recent fine prints." ArtFrontS (April- 
May 1937): 24. 

Favorable review of "Recent Fine Prints" at the Federal Art 
Gallery (NYC). Praise for the FAP. 

0416 Vane, Peter. "Big words by bigwigs; what art officials 
think about while the artist fights for a permanent project." 
ArtFrontS (April-May 1937): 5-7, 26-31. 

An often biting and unfair account of those who ran the 
various art projects including Edward Bruce, Olin Dows, 
Edward Rowan, and Forbes Watson; very supportive of Hol- 
ger Cahill and his work on the FAP. ' 'It is our purpose here to 
examine the developments in Government policy in relation 
to the support of art since the time of the first venture [the 
PWAP]." A very important piece. B/W illustrations of work 
by Dan Rico, Herbert Kallen, and Earl Baizerman. 

0417 "American arts and crafts from colonial times to the 
dawn of the 20th century." Design 38 (April 1937): 36b-36c. 

Account of LAD exhibited at the Federal Art Gallery. 

0418 Lindeman, Eduard C. "Farewell to Bohemia." Survey 
Graphic 26 (April 1937): 207-11. 

An exhaustive paean to the democratization of art thanks to 
Federal Project One. "American artists have come out of the 
alleys of Bohemia and are now trudging the highways of the 
American continent," p. 207. An excellent article. Illustrated 
with a number of B/W works (no artists mentioned). 

0419 Rourke, Constance. "Index of American Design." 
Magazine of Art SO (April 1937): 207-11, 260. 

Good overview of the LAD, its nature and the work done. 
Illustrated with B/W plates from LAD. 

0420 "Cadmus, satirist of modern 'Civilization.' " Art Digest 
11 (April 1,1937): 17. 

Review of Paul Cadmus' show at the Midtown Gallery (NYC). 



Annotated Bibliography 87 

Review mentions Cadmus' association with the PWAP; show 
includes five works done for the FAP, 

0421 "Hired by Uncle Sam: twelve painters and three 
sculptors to execute decorations for the new building of the 
Interior department." Art Digest II (April 1, 1937): 12. 

Twelve painters and three sculptors win Treasury Depart- 
ment art division competition. 

0422 "Exhibit reflects success of graphic project." Art 
Digest 11 (April 15, 1937): 25. 

Review of "Recent Fine Prints," a show of eighty-three works 
of the FAP's Graphic Arts Division at the Federal Art Project 
Gallery (NYC) . B/W illustration of a work by Chuzo Tamatzo. 

0423 Federal Art Project. Federal Art Project Bulletin (May 
1937): 25 pp. 

Mimeographed bulletin that from its California orientation 
seems to have been done for the California FAP. General 
description of the FAP with statistics on its accomplishments 
in California. "Federal Art Project Murals in Administration 
Building on Government Island" by Charlotte Morton. 
Notes on the following upcoming exhibitions: 
"Index of American Design," Los Angeles Exposition Park, 

June through July 11, 1937; 
"General Exhibition," Oregon State Museum Association, 

Salem, June 15 though 22, 1937; 
"General Exhibition," San Mateo Library, June 15 through 

22, 1937; 
"Exhibition of Wood Carvings by Patrocino Barcla," Palace 

of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, May 24 through 

June 4, 1937; 
"Exhibition of Four Mural Panels by Arthur Murray," San 

Francisco Museum of Art, May 25 through June 4, 1937; 
"Exhibition of Lithographs," Glendora Public Library, June 

1 through July 1,1937; 
"California Index of American Design," San Francisco Pub- 
lic Library, through June 3, 1937 and then traveled to 

other California sites. 



88 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Discovered in the AAA. No other issues located. 

0424 Graeme, Alice. "Water colors of the Virgin Islands; 
Treasury department art project." Magazine of Art 30 (May 
1937): 301-305. 

The Section sent Mitchell Jamieson, Robert Gates, and Steve 
Dohanos to the Virgin Islands to do some work. Graeme has 
a favorable impression of what they did. Includes a brief 
biography of each artist. Illustrated with B/W illustrations of 
each of their works. 

0425 Naylor, Blanche. "Play method produces good de- 
sign; children's work develops individuality." Design 39 (May 
1937): 8-9. ^ 

Good account of art training for children by FAP. Photo- 
graphs of children at work. 

0426 " Review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 1 934- 
36.'" Architectural Forum && (May 1937 supplement): 30, 83. 

Very favorable review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 
1 934-1936 hy Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson (5^^0345); 
B/W illustrations of works by George Biddle, Edward Mill- 
man, and Richard Zoellner. 

0427 "The summer exhibition." Springfield Museum of Fine 
Arts Bulletin ?> (May 1937): 1-2. 

Note on exhibition, "Federal Art in New England, 1933- 
1937" (August 1 through September 12, 1937) of FAP work 
by New England artists. Includes a partial list of artists. 

0428 "Unemployed arts; WPA's four arts projects: their 
origins, their operation." Fortune 15 (May 1937): 108-21. 

Short history of all four arts projects (music, theatre, writing, 
and art); covers IAD; generally full of praise, finding no 
boondoggling. "Granted that the Arts Projects are good, are 
they that good? The answer is fairly clear. As relief projects 
they are definitely very good. They have not only carried 
40,000 artists but they have permitted those 40,000 artists to 



Annotated Bibliography 89 

share in one of the most thoroughly useful and exciting jobs 
ever done in America." Numerous B/W and color photo- 
graphs of artists and their works. 

0429 "Congress aftermath." ArtDigestU (May 1, 1937): 11. 

A comparison of the American Artists' Congress First Na- 
tional Members' exhibition and the "New Horizons in 
American Art' ' show. 

0430 ' ' Culture for America is under fire — an editorial. ' ' Art 
Front 3 (June-July 1 937) : 3. 

Editorial protesting the $750,000 cut in the WPA. Decries the 
"emasculation and demolition of the first and brilliant 
beginnings in the building of a truly democratic culture for 
our country." 

0431 "James D. Brooks." Art Front 3 (June-July 1937) : 6. 

Illustration of James D. Brooks' FAP mural, "Acquisition of 
Coney Island" from the Woodside Library, Long Island. 

0432 K., J. "Project painters in union shops." Art Front 3 
(June-July 1937): 17. 

Easel painters in the FAP display of non-project work at the 
New School for Social Research (NYC) . Includes a partial list 
of participating artists. 

0433 "Letters." Art Front 3 (June-July 1937) : 5. 

Letters to the editor by Philip N. Yountz, Harry Overstreet, 
Alfred H. Barrjr., and Ford Madox Ford in defence of the art 
projects and against the proposed cuts. 

0434 "Some letters received by the committee." Art Front 3 
(June-July 1937): 7, 17-18. 

Letters from the following: 

Helen Hall (President of the Board of Directors of the 

National Federation of Settlements) feels the FAP has 

done so well, it must continue; 



90 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Robert Kohn (former head of the National Housing Com- 
mission and president of the American Association of 
Architects) feels art projects should not be cut due to 
prosperity; 

B.F. McLaurin (International Field Organizer, Brotherhood 
of Sleeping Car Porters) the Brotherhood of Sleeping 
Car Porters goes on record as supporting the art pro- 
jects; 

Jacob Rosenburg (President, local 802, American Federation 
of Musicians), thanks the Artists' Union for help in 
setting up the FAP show it held; 

John Dewey expresses support of projects; 

William Zorach calls for support of FAP sculpture projects 
and art in New York's subways; 

Michael Quill announces supportof the Transport Union for 
the art projects. 

0435 "To the American people." Art Front 3 (June-July 
1937): 5. 

Open letter signed by fifty artists, politicians, critics, and 
others protesting cuts in all the federal art programs. 

0436 "Index of American Design: a portfolio." Fortune 15 
(June 1937): 103-10. 

Primarily color reproductions of plates from the LAD; brief 
text. 

0437 "Four years of federal art in New England. ' ' Art Digest 
11 (June 1,1937): 9. 

Review of a "Federal Art in New England" originating at the 
Addison Gallery, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, of FAP 
works from the New England area. B/W illustration of work 
by Jack Levine, 

0438 Friend, Leon. "Graphic design." Professional Art Quar- 
terly 3 (June 1937): 8-13. 

Account of what the world of graphic design is doing; brief 
mention of the FAP program; numerous B/W illustrations of 



Annotated Bibliography 91 

work by Nan Lurie, Adolf Dehn, Raphael Soyer, Elizabeth 
Olds, Bernard P. Schardt, and Boris Gorelick. 

0439 P., N.H. "Review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural 
Designs, 1934-36.'"' California Arts and Decoration 51 (June 
1937): 38-39. 

A well-written, informative review of Art in Federal Buildings: 
Mural Designs, 1934-1936 by Edward Bruce and Forbes 
Watson {See 0345); makes note of the California artists 
mentioned in the book. 

0440 Schoonmaker, Nancy. "Sawkill experiment." Maga- 
zine of Art 2,0 (June 1937): 370-73. 

The Sawkill Painters and Sculptors, a group of artists who 
attempted to create an artists' group outside the FAP, are 
profiled. 

0441 "Yankee painters on federal projects." Art News 35 
(Junes, 1937): 15. 

Very favorable review of "Federal Art in New England" at 
Addison Gallery, Phillips Academy (Andover, MA). B/W 
illustrations of works by Karle Zerbe and John Steuart Curry. 

0442 Von Wiegand, Charmion. "The fine arts." New Masses 
24 (June 15, 1937): 29-30. 

In a report on art sales in Greenwich Village, Von Wiegand 
notes that the number of painters hawking their works on the 
streets is "proof that the W.P.A. Federal Art Project has not 
been able to take care of all the artists, and that further 
curtailment would cause havoc among those who have in the 
last years had a small measure of security." 

0443 Section of Painting and Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury 
Department of Fine Arts Program 14 (July 1937-January 1938) : 33 
pp. 

Seven competitions announced: 

Dallas, TX, Post Office, $1,000 (later won by Peter Hurd); 
Miami, FL, Post Office, $3,650 (later won by Denman Fink); 
Bronx, NY Post Office, $7,000 (later won by Henry Kreis) ; 



92 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Worcester, MA, Post Office, $2,400 (later won by Ralf Nickel- 
son); 

Vicksburg, MS, Court House and Post Office, $2,900 (later 
won by H. Amiard Oberteuffer) ; 

Forest Hills, NY, Post Office, $2,250 (later won by Sten 
Jacobsson); 

Nickel Competition, $1,000 (later won by Felix Schlag) . 

Biographies of Ernest Blumenschein, Anne Goldthwaite, 

Rockwell Kent, Leon Kroll, William McVey, John Steuart 

Curry, Boardman Robinson, and Paul Sample. 

0444 Calverton, V.F. "Cultural barometer," Current HistoTy 
46 (July 1937): 90-95. 

Overview of American art history followed by a report on the 
good deeds being done by the FAP; includes some comments 
on the "New Horizons" show. B/W illustration of works by 
James Michael Newell and Jared French. 

0445 "Wooden Indians." Coronet (July 1937) : 86-94. 

B/W and color reproductions of 8 LAD plates depicting 
wooden Indians. 

0446 "Art project cut." Art Digest \\ (July 1, 1937): 16. 

A 25% cut in the arts projects is announced. The visual arts 
section will go from 2,083 to 1,558 artists with those on the 
project longest the first to go. Comments by Audrey McMa- 
hon and Harold Stone (project administrator). 

0447 "Kohn for WPArts." Architectural Foram 67 (July 1937 
supplement): 12. 

Robert D. Kohn, former head of the ALA, speaks out in favor 
of the FAP. B/W photographs of various FAP administrators. 

0448 "Prodigious." ArtDigestW (July 1, 1937): 17. 

Superlative statistics of the FAP in New York: 200,000 posters 
created and 7,620 other works of art. 

0449 "Trying their wings; exhibition of adult education art 
division." ArtDigestW (July 1, 1937): 23. 



Annotated Bibliography 93 

Account of the "Fourth Annual Exhibition of Student Work 
by the Art Division of WPA — ^Adult Education Program of the 
New York City Board of Education," 200 exhibits on display 
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Burton J. Jones, organ- 
izer. 

0450 Von Wiegand, Charmion. ' 'The fine arts. ' ' New Masses 
24 (July 6, 1937): 30-31. 

Description of and praise for the FAP's Design Laboratory in 
New York City. Describes an exhibition of the students' work 
at the Design Laboratory. Notes that due to cutbacks in the 
FAP, private funding is taking over the work of the Design 
Laboratory. 

0451 "Governmental vandalism." New Republic 91 (July 14, 
1937): 265-66. 

Editorial claiming governmental cutbacks and dismissals at 
the FAP are vandalism of the worst sort; calls for a permanent 
art bureau. 

0452 McCausland, Elizabeth. "Save the arts projects." Na- 
tion 145 (July 17, 1937): 67-69. 

Call to save all aspects of Federal One; urges the creation of a 
permanent art bureau. 

0453 "Gentle Hogarth." Time 30 (July 26, 1937) : 46. 

Article praising the mural work of the FAP and Section. Finds 
the work of James Daugherty (B/W illustration of a work) 
particularly interesting; compares him to Hogarth. 

0454 Von Wiegand, Charmion. ' 'The fine arts. ' ' New Masses 
24 (July27, 1937): 29-31. 

Very favorable review of "Pink Slips Over Culture" at the 
ACA Gallery (NYC) . Includes a partial list of participating 
artists. 

0455 "Acknowledgments." Antiques 32 (August 1937): 
frontispiece, 57. 



94 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Editorial thanking the IAD for help in creating a map of New 
York State glass works. B/W illustration on frontispiece. 

0456 "Recent murals by eight American painters." Ameri- 
can Architect and Architecture (August 1937): pages unknown. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Crum {See 1048). 

0457 "Jason Herron." California Arts and Architecture 52 
(August 1937): 6. 

B/W photograph of Jason Herron's "Modern Youth," a 
monumental sculpture for the Belmont High School, Los 
Angeles; a FAP project. 

0458 Clough, F. Gardner. "Mess of pottage?" ArtDigest 11 
(August 1,1937): 16. 

A letter to the Art Digest by Clough critical of the FAP. 
"American artists, in the minds of many sideline observers, 
are by their association with WPA, in grave danger of being 
unsmocked and dishonored: WPA is social security if it is, but 
would money — money security — guarantee any high- 
minded, honest-talented creation of great art?" 

0459 "Pink slip waifs." ArtDigestU (August 1, 1937): 14. 

Review of "Pink Slips Over Culture," an exhibition of works 
by seventy artists dismissed by the FAP at the ACA Gallery 

(NYC). 

0460 "Rescued by WPA." ArtDigestU (August 1, 1937) : 18. 

Two murals first done by two unknown Italian artists years 
before in the Indianapolis courthouse are being saved by 
Harold McDonald under the auspices of WPA project fore- 
man Bernice Hamilton. 

0461 Halpert, Edith. "American folk art painting." Design 
39 (September 1937): 9. 

In commenting on children's art in general, Halpert (who 
was involved in the FAP as well as the Downtown Gallery, 



Annotated Bibliography 95 

which actively supported New Deal artists), discusses the 
FAP's role in children's art. 

0462 "A la Thomas Moran; WPA painters sent to Alaska." 
ArtDigestU (September 1, 1937): 15. 

Summary of a report in the New York Herald-Tribune that 
Harold L. Ickes (Secretary of the Interior) was sending twelve 
FAP artists to Alaska to paint landscapes for the Department 
of Interior at a cost of $26,800. 

0463 "Art notes." California Arts and Architecture 52 (Sep- 
tember 1937): 7. 

Note that Olinka Hrdy does a sculptural facade for the Santa 
Monica High School Auditorium; praise of and description 
of the project. 

0464 Cahill, Holger. "Mural America." Architectural Record 
82 (September 1937): 63-68. 

A brief history of American murals and a summary of FAP 
mural work and activities; primarily illustrated; B/W illustra- 
tions of work by Eric Mose, Edward Millman, Mitchell 
Siporin, Watt Davis, Max Spivak, Karl Knaths, Rainey Ben- 
nett, and Lucienne Bloch. 

0465 Harrington, M.R. "The national park service art 
project." Masterkey 11 (September 1937): 65-67. 

Account of the work done for the Southwest Museum (Los 
Angeles) by the FAP in conjunction with the National Park 
Service. Project in effect from April 1936 through July 10, 
1937. 

0466 "Answer to Washington." Art Front 3 (October 1937) : 
3-5. 

Editorial protesting FAP cuts; praises project for stimulating 
a "broad and progressive movement in art." Lends support 
to H.R. 8239, the Bureau of Fine Arts bill. 

0467 "Blanche Grambs." Art Front 3 (October 1937): 6. 



96 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

B/W reproduction of Blanche Grambs's aquatint "Mood." 

0468 Carroll, Gordon. "How the WPA buys votes." Ameri- 
can Mercury 42 (October 1937): 194-213. 

Virulent attack on the WPA and Federal One; though mostly 
critical of the FTP, Carroll feels the whole WPA is a ploy by 
FDR to build a Democratic machine or open America to 
Communism: "Thousands of words have been written in the 
past three years about the manner in which the Comrades 
have taken over [Federal One Projects] as open or covert 
mediums of Soviet dogma," p. 203. 

0469 Cunningham, Ben. "The artist, the art project and 
the public." San Francisco Art Association Bulletin 4 (October 
1937): 1,5. 

Cunningham feels that the projects are enabling the 
government to acquire much great art, that artists love to 
work for the project and that the public is learning to like 
art. B/W illustration of work by and photograph of Ber- 
nard Zakheim. 

0470 "Flag waving vs. art." Art Front S (October 1937): 3-4. 

Protest against the firing (due to a new law) by the FAP of 
alien artists. Specifically mentions muralist Emmanuel Ro- 
mano. 

0471 "H.R. 8239." Art Front S (October 1937): 5-9. 
Full text of H.R. 8239. 

0472 Hugh-Jones, E.M. "Art and the community; what 
Americans are doing." London Mercury 36 (October 1937): 
542-47. 

Hugh-Jones covers the activities of Federal One for a British 
audience. Full explanation of the project. Highly favorable. 

0473 Jewell, Edward Alden. "Tomorrow inc." Parnassus 9 
(October 1937): 3-7. 



Annotated Bibliography 97 

Comments on the coming New York World's Fair; includes 
statements by Audrey McMahon and Holger Cahill on FAP 
contributions to the Fair. B/W illustration of work by Eric 
Mose. 

0474 Labaudt, Lucien. "An American renaissance." San 
Francisco Art Association Bulletin 4 (October 1937) : 2. 

Artist, frescoist Labaudt, compares the projects to the works 
sponsored by the Church during the Renaissance; feels that 
government has not limited artists, but rather artists create 
better art when working within guidelines. 

0475 Morsell, Mary. "California mosaicists." Magazine of 
Art 30 (October 1937): 620-25. 

Morsell states that California art has come of age under the 
FAP and is bringing forth vibrant mural work. Covers a 
number of projects in Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
"Project murals in California have proved conclusively that 
mosaics may, like murals, be a democratic art form," p. 622. 
B/W illustrations of works by Helen Bruton, Florence Swift, 
Maxine Albro. 

0476 "New horizons in American art." Milwaukee Art Insti- 
tute Bulletin 12 (October 1937): 2. 

Review/ account of "New Horizons in American Art" (Octo- 
ber 8 through November 7, 1937); explains what the show is 
about and quotes from Holger Cahill's introduction to catalog. 

0477 "One of the largest true frescoes." California Arts and 
Architecture 52 (October 1937): 7. 

B/W photograph with caption of mural by Frank Bowers and 
Arthur Ponier for the Ruth High School, El Monte, CA. 

0478 Weber, Max. ' 'Weber to Roosevelt. ' ' Art Front 3 (Octo- 
ber 1937): 6-7. 

Letter from Max Weber (National Chairman of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Artists) to FDR asking him to protect aliens 
from FAP dismissals. 



98 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0479 "Children's art gallery under WPA open at Washing- 
ton." Museum News 15 (October 1, 1937): 1. 

Note that the FAP's Children's Art Gallery has opened in 
Washington under the direction of Mary Steele. 

0480 L., J. "Sculpture in American folk art; exhibition, 
Downtown gallery." ArtNews36 (October 2, 1936): 15. 

Favorable review of "American Folk Art; drawings of objects 
displayed by the Index of American Design," at the Down- 
town Gallery (NYC), September 28 through October 9, 1937. 
Forty-seven works in various media plus IAD plates. 

0481 "America's newest big citygets free hospital art." Life 
3 (October 11, 1937): 40-42. 

Photo essay on William C. Palmer's FAP work for Queens 
General Hospital. Notes that sketches for the murals are on 
display at Midtown Galleries. Color reproductions of murals. 

0482 Boswell, Peyton. "Resolution 79; with comment." Art 
DigestU (October 15, 1937): 3, 17. 

Editorial on H.J. Res. 79 introduced by William I. Sirovich of 
New York on the creation of a Department of Art, Science, 
and Literature. Full text of H.J. Res. 79 on p. 17. 

0483 Dungan, H.L. "Leaf raking/Art project; exhibition, 
California Palace of the legion of honor." Art Digest 12 
(October 15, 1937): 12-13. 

Examples from the US Treasury Department's art project are 
on exhibit at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. 
Summary of reviews from California papers. Mural sketches 
and sculptures were included in exhibit. 

0484 Millier, Arthur. "Millier advocates federal art pro- 
gram — 'when relief need wanes.' " Art Digest 12 (October 15, 
1937): 12. 

Arthur Millier of the Los Angeles Times feels artists should 
get relief only until they are financially better off; the 



Annotated Bibliography 99 

government should continue to commission art. Includes a 
list of artists he likes. B/W illustration of San Francisco mural 
by Edith Hamilton. 

0485 "Murals in the making." Art Digest 12 (October 15, 
1937): 11. 

FAP mural sketches by William C. Palmer for "History of 
Medicine" to be places in the Queens General Hospital 
are on display until October 26 at the Midtown Galleries 

(NYC). 

0486 Parker, Thomas C. "Community art centers." Mu- 
seum News \b (October 15, 1937): 7-8. 

The text of Parker's paper given at the American Association 
of Museums meeting (May 3-5, 1937) in New Orleans. 
Parker (assistant to Holger Cahill) explains the goals and 
plans of the FAP's community art centers. 

0487 "A shy artist paints bold murals. James Daugherty's 
favorite subject is America." Life 3 (October 25, 1937): 
48-50. 

Photo essay on the work of TRAP artist, James Daugherty. 
Color and B/W reproductions of his work. 

0488 Davidson, Martha. "WPA art marches on; federal 
patronage justifies itself." ArtNeu)s?>^ (October 30, 1937): 11. 

Announcement of the move of the Federal Art Gallery and 
the "New Horizons in American Art" show; look back at 
three years of federal art. B/W illustrations of works by 
Ruffino Tamayo and Zoltan Hecht. 

0489 "Elizabeth Olds." Art Front 3 (November 1937): 
cover. 

B/W reproduction of Elizabeth Olds's FAP work, "Bike 
Race." 

0490 "H.R. 8239— an editorial." Art Front 3 (November 
1937): 3-4. 



100 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Editorial proclaiming that the Fine Arts Bureau is a fitting 
successor to the FAP. 

0491 "It is consistent with democratic government." Art 
Fronts (November 1937): 4. 

Text of a CIO conference endorsing H.R. 8239 and praising 
the FAP. 

0492 Leboit, Joseph and Hyman Warsager. "The graphic 
project: revival of print making." Art Front 3 (November 
1937): 9-13. 

Article proclaiming that the Graphic Division of the FAP is 
stimulating print making in America; praises the many prints 
exhibits done by projects. B/W illustrations of prints by Nan 
Lurie, Chet La More, and Will Barnett. 

0493 Rogers, Bob. "Artists congress news." Art Front 3 
(November 1937): 9, 11. 

Rogers comments that the FAP is responsible for finding new 
paths in American art and must continue. 

0494 "American art week." Art Digest 12 (November 1937): 
32. 

AAPL editorial on American Art Week. States that Wyoming 
is the first to have a state WPA art project relating to 
American Art Week. 

0495 ' 'WPA gallery in New York opened. ' ' Museum News 1 5 
(November 1,1937): 5. 

Announcement that the FAP opened the Federal Art Gallery 
in New York at its new location on October 11, 1937. 

0496 Bo swell, Peyton. "Regarding resolution 79." Art Digest 
12 (November 15, 1937): 3-4. 

Summery of letters received on William I. Sirovich's H.J. Res. 
79 (5^^0556). 



Annotated Bibliography 101 

0497 "California tries new mural medium." Art Digest 12 
(November 15, 1937): 8. 

Alameda County Courthouse murals designed by Marian 
Simpson (executed by Gaetano Duccinii) will be done with a 
special new inlay mosaic method. 

0498 "Mother and child classes." Art Digest 12 (November 
15, 1937): 8. 

Note on that mothers in FAP classes at the Queensboro Art 
Center in New York may bring new children and enroll them 
in pre-school classes. 

0499 "On changing chiefs." Art Digest 12 (November 15, 
1937): 6. 

The Post Office Building mural by Rockwell Kent showing 
Alaskans and Puerto Ricans with the motto (in an Alaskan 
language) "Let's change chiefs," causes controversy. Post- 
master James A. Farley wants the words removed, Kent 
refuses and Farley insists that it be done and deducted from 
his pay. 

0500 Kent, Rockwell. ' 'The artist tells the whole story. ' ' New 
Masses25 (November 16, 1937): 6-11. 

Rockwell Kent gives his side of the controversy surrounding 
his Section mural for the Post Office Building. Kent supports 
his argument with letters and documents from Section 
officials. B/W illustration of the mural. 

0501 Rourke, Constance. "Traditions for young people." 
Nation 145 (November 20, 1937): 562-64. 

In a review of children's literature, Rourke, who worked on 
the LAD, describes how IAD will help make older traditions 
accessible for today's children and future generations. 

0502 Noble, Elizabeth. "The fine arts." New Masses 25 
(November 30, 1937) : 27-29. 



102 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Favorable review of "Changing New York" at the Museum of 
the City of New York. Comments on the social content of the 
photographs and the nature of photography as an art. 
NOTE: "Elizabeth Noble" was the pseudonym used by 
Elizabeth McCausland when writing for Left Wing journals. 

0503 "Exhibition of the work of the Rochester Federal arts 
project." Rochester Memorial Gallery of Art. Gallery Notes. (De- 
cember 1937): 3. 

Account of FAP activities in the Rochester area, presently 
under the directorship of Erik Hans Krause. Announcement 
of exhibition of ten Rochester FAP artists, "Representative 
Exhibition of the Work of the Rochester Federal Arts Pro- 
ject" (December 3, 1937 through January 2, 1938). 

0504 "George Biddle — art and propaganda." Rochester Me- 
morial Gallery of Art. Gallery Notes. (December 1937): 5. 

George Biddle to speak on December 13, 1937 at the Gallery 
("Art and Propaganda") on his work for the Section at the 
Department of Justice building in Washington. 

0505 McCausland, Elizabeth. "Color lithography." Prints 8 
(December 1937): 71-80, 120. 

After a discussion of color lithography, McCausland explains 
the work done in this process by the WPA/FAP Graphics 
Division; includes a list of color lithographs done on the 
project in NYC. B/W illustrations of work by Chet Le More, 
Hyman Warsager, and Emil Ganso. 

0506 Reeves, Ruth. "Untangling our art traditions." School 
Arts2>1 (December 1937): 101-105. 

A full account of the IAD with B/W illustrations of plates. 

0507 "Review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 
1934-36.'' Pencil Points 18 (December 1937 supplement) : 42. 

Favorable review of Art in Federal Buildings: Mural Designs, 
1934-1 936 by Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson (5^^0345). 



Annotated Bibliography 103 

0508 Whiting, F.A., Jr. "Vandalism at Glenn Dale." Maga- 
zine of Art^ (December 1937): 745-46. 

Murals by Alan Flavelle in the Glenn Dale Children's Tuber- 
culosis Sanatorium (MD) are ordered destroyed by sanator- 
ium administrators (including Dr. Daniel Leo Finucane) 
because they just do not like them. Whiting also brings up 
the fate of murals by Bernice Cross, which are also in danger. 

0509 "WPA Federal Art Project." Direction 1 (December 
1937): 13. 

Four photographs of children in FAP art classes. 

0510 "Uncle Sam settles." Art Digest 12 (December 1, 
1937): 12. 

Rockwell Kent mural at the Post Office Building in Washing- 
ton is paid for by the government. The Puerto Rican senate, 
however, feels it is an insult to the island. 

0511 Gold, Michael. "No more nudes, no more fish." New 
Masses'2,b (December 14, 1937): 18-19. 

Amusing parable/fable of one Cadwalader Bones, an artist 
who has his consciousness raised when his marine paintings 
no longer sell to the wealthy once the Depression hits. Taken 
on by the FAP, he paints what he really wants to paint, and 
when better times come and his marine paintings are wanted 
again, he is able to turn down the offers of easy money 
because soon H.R. 8239 will pass, creating a permanent 
Bureau of Fine Arts which will allow him to continue to paint 
his scenes of social realism. Full text of the bill follows. 

0512 Boswell, Peyton. "Government and art." Art Digest 12 
(December 15, 1937): 3. 

Report on H.C. Dungan, art critic of the Oakland Tribune 
who is against the Federal Art Bill. 

0513 "Dodgson notes American's 'vigorous output.' " Art 
DigestU (December 15, 1937): 24. 



104 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Note/review of Review of Fine Prints of the Year 1937 by 
Campbell Dodgson. Eight prints of the Graphic Arts Division 
and three by artists associated with the FAP projects are 
represented in the book. Illustration by Fritz Eichenberg. 

0514 "WPA internationalists." Art Digest 12 (December 15, 
1937): 25. 

The FAP is represented by thirty-nine printmakers at the Sixth 
International Exhibition of Lithography and Wood Engraving 
at the Art Institute of Chicago. Complete list of artists. 

0515 Wechsler, James. "Record of the boondogglers." 
Nation 145 (December 25, 1937): 705, 715-17. 

Praise for the activities of Federal One. 

0516 American Art Annual M (1937-1938). 

The most extensive coverage in the American Art Annualyet of 
the government art projects. Florence S. Berryman in 
"Treasury Department Art Projects" (pp. 9-11) covers the 
Section and TRAP; in "Federal Art Project" (pp. 11-14) she 
covers the FAP; and in "Federal Arts Bills" (pp. 14-15) she 
covers the attempts to make the art projects permanent. Staff 
and the administration of the FAP are listed on pp. 75-77 
and those of the TDAP on pp. 86-87. 

EXfflBITIONS 

0517 Garfield Park Art Gallery. Sculpture and paintings for 
Federal buildings for the Treasury art projects. Garfield Park Art 
Gallery: Chicago, 1937. 

Exhibition, 1937. NOT SEEN. CITED IN Smith, Clark Som- 
mer (&^1311). 

0518 International Art Center. Prints for the People. Interna- 
tional Art Center: New York, 1937. 18 pp. 

Exhibition, January 4 through 31, 1937. Checklist of 212 FAP 
prints. Foreword by Gustave von Groschwitz. NOTE: small 
size format. 



Annotated Bibliography 105 

0519 Index of American Design. Index of American Design 
exhibition, January 21 February 10, 1937, Fogg Museum of Art, 
Harvard University. Fogg Art Museum: Cambridge, 1937. 28 pp. 

Exhibition, January 27 through February 10, 1937; checklist 
of 114 IAD plates on exhibit at the Fogg Museum; B/W 
illustration on cover. Text by Constance Rourke. 

0520 Federal Art Project. Boston. Mural studies. Federal Art 
Gallery: Boston, 1937. pamphlet. 

Exhibition, February 16 through March 13, 1937. Checklist 
of forty-nine mural sketches. 

0521 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of oil paintings by artists 
in the easel division of the U.S. Works Progress Administration 
Federal Art Project. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1937. 1 p. 

Exhibition, February 23 through March 23, 1937. Catalog 
not seen. Invitation to opening (1 page) in the AAA. 

0522 Marshall Field and Company. National Exhibition Index 
of American Design. Marshal Field: Chicago, 1937. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, March 15 through April 3, 1937. No checklist; 
text discusses the IAD. 

0523 Federal Art Project. Recent fine prints: lithographs, etch- 
ings, drypoints, monotypes, wood engravings: made by artists in the 
Graphic Arts Division of the Works Progress Administration Federal 
Art Project. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1937. 10 pp. 

Exhibition, March 30 through April 27, 1937. CheckUst of 
eighty-three works; foreword by John Taylor Arms. 

0524 Works Progress Administration. Federal art in New 
England, 1933-1937. Arranged by the officers of the Federal art 
projects in New England in cooperation with New England muse- 
ums. With a history of the Art projects in New England by Richard C. 
Morrison. Washington, DC, 1939. 64 pp. 

Exhibition, May 22 through June 23, 1937, at the Addison 
Gallery, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA. Checklist of 111 



106 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

works. Numerous B/W illustrations of works. Includes statistics 
on completed projects in New England. Essay by Richard C. 
Morrison traces the history of the FAP in New England. 
Traveled to the following sites in New England: Springfield 
Museum of Fine Arts (August 1 through September 12, 1937); 
Worcester Art Museum (September 18 through October 10, 
1937); Wadsworth Atheneum (October 16 through November 
14, 1937); Gallery of Fine Arts, Yale University (November 20 
through December 11, 1937); Currier Gallery of Art, Manches- 
ter, NH (January 8 through February 6, 1938); L.D.M. Sweat 
Memorial Art Museum, Portiand, ME (February 12 through 
March 6, 1938) ; and Robert Hull Flemming Museum, Burling- 
ton, VT (March 12 through April 3, 1938). 

0525 Citizens' Committee for Support of the WPA. An art 
and theatre for the people. ACA Gallery: New York, 1937. 1 large 
folded sheet. 

Exhibition, July 19 through 31, 1937 at the ACA Gallery 
(NYC) ; checklist of sixty-eight paintings and ten sculptures; 
excerpts from Ford Madox Ford's radio talk in support of the 
WPA and from Lewis Mumford's New Republic article (See 
0329) ; other text in support of WPA. Printed on pink paper 
(symbolizing the "pink slips" given to artists). 

0526 Federal Art Project. All-California process exhibition. 
Sculpture, mosaics, lithographs, murals. Stendahl Galleries: Los 
Angeles, 1937. 1 sheet pamphlet. 

Exhibition, August 2 through 31, 1937. Checklist of fifty-five 
artists; exhibition of how works of art are created that took 
place at the Stendahl Galleries which donated the space to 
the FAP. "Intended to give a clear understanding of various 
techniques employed by the Project artists and a glimpse of 
the complicated processes which are involved in the comple- 
tion of public works of art." 

0527 ACA Gallery. 4 out of 500 artists dismissed from WPA. 
ACA Gallery: New York, 1937. 1 sheet. 

Exhibition, August 30 through September 11, 1937; checklist 
of twenty-eight works (seven FAP) from four artists Qacob 



Annotated Bibliography 107 

Kainen, Katherine Von Minckwitz, Louis Nisonoff, and Gyula 
Zilzer) ; text is a letter sent by Max Weber to FDR in support of 
WPA/FAP. Printed on pink paper (as in "pink slip" to artists). 

0528 The Downtown Gallery. Index of American Design, WPA 
Federal Art Project. Downtown Gallery: New York, 1937. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, September 28 through October 9, 1937. Check- 
list of 94 items (47 IAD paintings and photographs and 47 
original works of folk art) . 

0528a Renaissance Society of the University of Chicago. 
[Index of American Design Exhibition]. October-, 1937. 1 
sheet. 

Exhibition, October, 1937 of IAD works. 1 page sheet an- 
nouncement of exhibition. No checklist. FOUND IN AAA 
reel 2401.823. 

0529 Federal Art Project. Watercolors and drawings. Federal 
Art Gallery: New York, 1937. Mimeographed. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, October 12 through 30, 1937. Checklist of 100 
works. Foreword by Audrey McMahon. Includes quotations 
from Holger Cahill, Lewis Mumford, John Taylor Arms, and 
Jerome Klein in support of the art projects (from published 
sources) . 

0530 Federal Art Project. Pennsylvania. Posters and prints. 
WPA Federal Art Project, Pennsylvania. Sponsored by the Chester 
County Art Association and the School Board of West Chester. 
Chester County Art Association: Chester County, PA, 1937. 4 
pp. pamphlet. 

Exhibition, October 30 through November 14, 1937. Check- 
list of fifty-seven works of posters and prints; IAD plates also 
on display. 

0531 Federal Art Project. Regional art exhibition. Federal Art 
Gallery: New York, 1937. 1 p. 

Exhibition, November 10 through 24, 1937. Work by artists 
of New York State (none from NYC) and New Jersey. Catalog 
not seen. Invitation to opening in AAA. 



108 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0532 Federal Art Project. Exhibition. Posters and art processes, 
methods, materials and tools in sculpture, graphic art, fresco and 
poster processes. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1937. 1 p. 

Exhibition, December 1 through 20, 1937. Catalog not seen. 
Invitation to opening in AAA. 

0533 Pennsylvania State Museum. State Museum exhibition. 
Privately printed: Harrisburg, 1937? 6 pp. 

Exhibition December 17, 1937, through January 13, 1938 
(years are estimated). List of artists, no works given. 

0534 Federal Art Project. Children's art. Federal Art Gallery: 
New York, 1937. Mimeographed. 1411. 

Exhibition, December 23, 1937, through January 8, 1938. 
Checklist of 361 works (artist, age, school attended) by 
hundreds of the over 30,000 that partook of the New York 
City FAP children's art program. "The teaching staff of the 
WPA Federal Art Project is adapting democratic principles to 
art instruction" (foreword). 

MONOGRAPHS 

0535 Cahill, Holger. American design, an address by Holger 
Cahill, made at the opening of the exhibit "Old and New Paths in 
American Design," at the Newark Museum, November 6, 1936. 
Newark, 1937. 19 pp. 

Text of remarks by Holger Cahill at the opening of the 
exhibit, "Old and New Paths in American Design" at the 
Newark Museum; Cahill discusses the work of the LAD and 
the origins of the FAP. 

0536 Federal Art Project. Art as a function of government. 
WPA: Washington, DC, 1937. 32 pp. 

An excellent essay on the relationship of art and state in 
other countries, in the United States (including an historical 
survey) , and a description of the FAP. Includes charts show- 
ing foreign spending on the arts. 



Annotated Bibliography 109 

0537 Federal Art Project. A Community Art Center for Harlem. 
FAP: New York, 1937. 9 pp. 

Description of what the FAP hopes to accomplish with the 
Harlem Community Art Center. FOUND IN AAA Reel 
1085.167-77. 

0538 Federal Art Project. Federal Art Project; a summary of 
activities and accomplishments. New York, 1937? 12 11. mimeo- 
graphed. 

Description of the WPA/FAP projects and plans. NOTE: A 
number of publications came out under this or similar titles 
usually with no date; the text is usually quite similar with 
some figures updated; dating is based on this internal evi- 
dence. 

0539 Federal Art Project. Federally sponsored community art 
centers. [WPA Technical Service Art Circular #1]. Washing- 
ton, DC, 1937. 49 11. Mimeographed. 

A good explanation of the function and purposes of the 
FAP's community art centers ("to provide the public with 
opportunities to participate in the experience of art [and] 
also provide useful work for unemployed artists," p. 1). An 
outline of how to set up an art center is included. Examples 
of forms needed are included. 

0540 Federal Art Project. Public response to a federal arts 
program. Washington, DC, 1937?. 6 11. mimeographed. 

Excerpts of remarks (all favorable) from a wide range of 
critics and artists on all aspects of the arts projects (writers', 
theater, music, art) . 

0541 Federal Art Project. Report on art projects. FAP: Wash- 
ington, DC, 1937. 18 pp. Mimeographed. 

Revised version of the i?^j&ort issued in 1936 (&^0356). Covers 
the scope of the FAP (teaching, painting, mural work, 
sculpture, etc.) ; why the FAP exhibits work, and a description 
of the techniques used by FAP artists. Dated December 13, 
1937. 



1 10 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0542 Federal Art Project. Report on Federal Art Project activities 
through March 31, 1937. FAP: New York, 1937. 5 11. 

Summary of FAP activities through March 31, 1937. 

0543 Federal Art Project. New York City. Federal Art Centers 
of New York. FAP: New York, 1937? 8 pp. 

A brief overview of art in America and the functions of the 
FAP. Brief description of what the FAP art centers do, 
particularly in New York City. Brief descriptions of the four 
art centers in New York: Contemporary Art Center; Brooklyn 
Community Art Center; Harlem Community Art Center; and 
the Queensboro Community Art Center. FOUND IN AAA 
Reel 1085.19-27. 

S 

0544 Federal Art Project. Users ' manual for Federal Project No. 
1. WPA: Chicago, 1937. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN The Federal Art Project in Illinois {See 
1658). Dated December 15, 1937. 

0545 Federal Writers' Project. New Mexico. Calendar of 
events. Federal Writer's Project: Santa Fe, 1937. 32 pp. 

Calendar of cultural events in New Mexico illustrated with 
twelve woodblock prints by Manville Chapman of the FAP. 

0546 Hailey, Gene, ed. California art research. WPA: San 
Francisco, 1936-37. 20 volumes. 

California Art Research, the fruit of WPA Project 2874, was a 
massive undertaking to compile a history of art in California 
from the earliest times to the present. Done under the 
auspices of James B. Sharp (WPA Coordinator for California) 
and Joseph A. Danysh (FAP Regional Director), Hailey 
compiled a number of monographs on California artists 
(mostly from San Francisco), unfortunately, the project was 
terminated before completion. Still, the results are an invalu- 
able tool for researchers of California art and artists. Volume 
20 includes an account of Meixine Albro who worked on art 
projects. See 1624 for a recent microfiche update of the 
project. 



Annotated Bibliography 1 1 1 

0547 Hamlin, Gladys E. Mural paintings in Iowa. MA Thesis, 
Columbia University (MO), 1937. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

0548 Kopenhaven, Josephine. A design for a mural painting 
for the post office and customs house, San Pedro, California. MA 
Thesis, University of Southern California, 1937. 

NOT SEEN. 

0549 Lindin, I. and Archie Thompson. Bishop Hill Colony. 
Index of American Design: Chicago, 1937. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Smith, Clark Sommer (See 1311). 

0550 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1937, n. p. 

NOT SEEN. 

0551 Roosevelt, Franklin D. "A letter of appreciation for 
the WPA, January 11, 1937, to the Speaker of the House," pp. 
660-67. In The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt, V.5. Random House: New York, 1938. 721 pp. 

Letter praising the WPA; in the Note to the letter, FDR 
appends statistics on the WPA including the FAP. 

0552 Rosenwald, Janet. Early American decorative art. Index 
of American Design: New York, 1937. 40 11. 

Historical overview of the decorative arts (ceramics, costume, 
furniture, glass, metalwork, pewter, silver, and textile and 
textile handicrafts) in the United States. Includes suggested 
further readings. 

0553 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to 
establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. H.R. 8132, 75(1). 3 pp. 

Introduced by James P. McGranery on August 3, 1937, the 
bill would create a Division of Fine Arts within the Office of 
Education in the Department of Interior. The purpose of the 



112 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Division would be to "collect statistics, data, and informa- 
tion, and conduct surveys and studies, relating to education 
in the fine arts, including music, art, and dramatic art, and 
speech, and to disseminate such information relating thereto 
as will promote education in the fine arts," pp. 1-2. No 
mention of the WPA cultural projects. Sent to the House 
Committee on Education, Never left Committee. McGranery 
introduced this bill with minor variations three more times 
(5^^0935, 1123, and 1205). 

0554 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to 
establish a National Bureau of Fine Arts. H.R. 1512, 75(1). 3 pp. 

Introduced by Allard H. Casque on January 5, 1937, the 
bill would create a National Bureau of Fine Arts within the 
Department of Interior. The Bureau would collect "such 
statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress 
of fine arts and the cultural development in the several 
States," p. 1. No mention of the WTA cultural projects. 
Sent to the House Committee on Education. Never left 
Committee. 

0555 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to provide 
for a permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. H.R. 8239, 75 ( 1 ) . 7 pp. 

Introduced by John M. Coffee on August 16, 1937, the bill 
would create a Bureau of Fine Arts. All present WPA cultural 
activities would be transferred to the new Bureau and be 
increased by 20%. Also known as the "Fine Arts Act." Sent to 
the Education Committee. Bill latter was modified and 
became H.R. 9102 {See 0780). The preamble to the bill 
expresses the concept of "art for the people" that was one of 
the major goals of Federal One (kept in H.R. 9102) : "During 
the entire history of our Nation and up to the time of the 
creation of these projects [Federal One], the arts were the 
jealously guarded possessions of the few and were not made 
available to the majority. . . . The enjoyment of culture has, in 
the county's past, been predicated too much on the ability of 
the individual to pay," p.l. 



Annotated Bibliography 113 

0556 . US Congress. House of Representatives. A joint resolu- 
tion providing for the establishment of an executive department to be 
known as the Department of Science, Art and Literature. H.J. Res. 
79, 75(1). January 5, 1937. 6 pp. 

Introduced by William I. Sirovich on January 5, 1937, the bill 
would create a Department of Science, Art and Literature 
with Cabinet status and transferring all present WPA cultural 
activities to the new department. Sent to the Committee on 
Patents. Never left Committee. See also 0783 for Congres- 
sional hearing related to the bill. When the Coffee-Pepper 
bill failed, a modified version of it and this bill became H J. 
Res. 671. 

0557 US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee 
on Appropriations. Emergency relief appropriations act of 
1938. Hearing, May 5-6, 1937. GPO: Washington, 1937. 
377 pp. 

Pp. 293, 309-11 cover the testimony of Harry L. Hopkins on 
the value of the FAP; consists mostly of statistics. 

0558 Works Progress Administration. The Builders of Timber- 
line Lodge. WPA: Pordand, OR, 1937. 29 pp. 

Text by the WPA FWP on Timberline Lodge. B/W copies of 
prints by FAP artists Martina Gangle, H.S. Sewall, and Vir- 
ginia Darce. 

0559 Works Progress Administration. Color schemes of the 
bedrooms at Timberline Lodge. WPA, Oregon, 1937? 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Timberline Lodge: A Love Story {See 
1605). Workbook of color coordination schemes for the 
bedrooms at Timberline Lodge. Only known copy in the 
Multnomah County (OR) Library. 

0560 Works Progress Administration. Handbook of procedures 
for state and district Works Progress Administration. GPO: Wash- 
ington, DC, 1937 (revised April 15, 1937). Loose-leaf. 



1 14 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Chapter IX, Section 6 (3 pp.) covers the procedures for 
Federal Project No. 1. How the projects are organized plus 
special regulations, procedures, features of employment, 
and financial procedures are covered. 

0561 Works Progress Administration. Historical map of the 
old Northwest Territory. WPA: Marietta, OH, 1937. Map. 

Done with the assistance of the FAP. NOT SEEN. CITED IN 
OCLC. Facsimile reprint, 1987. 



1938 



0562 "Expanding educational opportunities." The Ameri- 
can Teacher 22 (January-February 1938): 16-17. 

Call for support of the Coffee fine arts bill (H.R. 8239) ; ' 'The 
scale of culture has been adjusted to greater accuracy" by the 
FAP and should be made permanent. 

0563 Danysh, Joseph A. "Trends in modern art." California 
Arts and Architecture b?> (January 1938): 7, 40. 

Explanation of the FAP (IAD, children's programs etc.) and 
how it is encouraging art of all types in California. 

0564 "Index of American Design." Rochester Memorial Gal- 
lery of Art. Gallery Notes. (January 1938): 3. 

Explanation of the IAD, selected plates of which are now on 
display at the Gallery ("Index of American Design," January 
7 through February 6, 1938) . Associated gallery talk by Mabel 
Truthen Wright on January 6, 1938. 

0565 "New horizons in American art." Rochester Memorial 
Gallery of Art. Gallery Notes. (January 1938): 2. 

Explanation of "New Horizons in American Art" to be exhib- 
ited at the Gallery January 7 through February 6, 1938. Asso- 
ciated Gallery talks by Isabel C. Herdle on January 1 and 30. 

0566 "Personalities and art news." Direction 1 (January 
1938): 30-31. 

Note on the opening of the Harlem Art Center; mainly 
photographs of work by Nathaniel Dirk and Louise Brann. 

0567 Randolph, A. Philip. "Harlem's art center." Art Digest 
12 (January 1,1938): 15. 

115 



116 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Harlem Community Art Center (270 Lenox Avenue) spon- 
sored by the FAP and the Harlem Citizen's Sponsoring 
Committee opened December 20, 1937. Includes the text of 
the comments by A. Philip Randolph, president of the 
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and chairman of the 
Harlem Citizen's Sponsoring Committee. 

0568 Woodward, Ellen S. "WPA museum projects." Mu- 
seum News 15 (January 1, 1938): 7-8. 

Account by WPA administrator Woodward of what the WPA 
has done for museums; nothing specifically on the FAP. 

0569 "A woman photographs the face of a changing city." 
Life 3 (January 3, 1938) : 40-45. , 

Photo essay utilizing Berenice Abbott's FAP photographs of 
New York City. 

0570 "Bruce honored." Art Digest 12 (January 15, 1938): 6. 

Edward Bruce, father of the PWAP, chief of the Section, is 
given the Friedsan Medal of the Architectural League of New 
York for outstanding achievement in the decorative arts. 

0571 "Maintain the arts projects." Publishers Weekly 133 
(January22, 1938): 301. 

Call to keep Federal One alive; mostly concerned with the 
FWP. 

0572 "Federal bureau of fine arts." Magazine of Art 31 
(February 1938): 118-19. 

Comments on H.R. 9102 (a revised version of H.R. 8239). 
Includes a summary of H.R. 9102; urges American Federa- 
tion of Arts members to read the bill and let their legislators 
know how they feel about it. 

0573 Steinbach, Sophia. "Community art through federal 
sponsorship; WPA federal art project." Design 38 (February 
1938): 24-25,35. 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

A good account of the adult and children's education 
projects of the FAP. Photographs of art students at work. 

0574 "Thirty thousand children paint." Design 38 (Febru- 
ary 1938): 2. 

Photograph of a child in a New York City FAP art class with 
caption "Thirty thousand children paint." 

0575 "WPA art comes to Harlem." Architectural Foram 68 
(February 1938 supplement): 8. 

Account of the opening of the Harlem Community Art 
Center- B/W photographs of those attending the openmg: 
August Savage (artist); Asa Philip Randolph (labor leader); 
Holger Cahill, and James Weldon Johnson (poet). 

0576 Boswell, Peyton. "Rule by minority; Coffee and Si- 
rovich bills." Art Digest 12 (February 1, 1938): 3. 
Comments on H.R. 9102 (establishment of a Federal Arts 
Bureau) by Peyton Boswell, and a summary of comments by 
others. 

0577 "Color lithography." Art Digest 12 (February 1 , 1938) : 
24. 

Review of "Printmaking— a new tradition" at the Federal Art 
Gallery (NYC) . Sixteen prints in show. Includes a list of the 
artists. 

0578 "Olin Downes speaks against the passage of the 
Coffee bill." ArtDigestU (February 1, 1938): 17. 

OUn Downes, music critic for the New York Times, comments 
on H.R. 9102. He fears there will be too much control of the 
arts by the government and the hiring of unqualified people. 

0579 "Re: the Coffee bill." ArtDigest 12 (February 1, 1938): 

16. 

Comments by Dorothy Grafiy, of the Philadelphia Record on 
H.R. 9102. Grafly has mixed feelings about the bill. 



118 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0580 Noble, Elizabeth. "The federal arts bill." New Masses 
26 (Februarys, 1938): 17-18. 

Favorable comments on S. 3296 and H.R. 9102 (Bureau of 
Fine Arts bills); gives a partial list of organizations and 
individuals supporting the bills. B/W illustration of "Negro 
Children" by Joseph Leboit of the FAP. NOTE: "Elizabeth 
Noble" was the pseudonym used by Elizabeth McCausland 
when writing for Left Wing journals. 

0581 "Bills would create arts bureau or department of 
science and art." Museum News 15 (February 15, 1938): 4. 

Note on the bills introduced to create a Bureau of Fine Arts 
(S. 3296, H.R. 9102, and H.J. Res. 79). 

0582 "Coffee-Pepper bill; text." Art Digest 12 (February 15, 

1938): 22. 

Full text of H.R. 9102, the Coffee-Pepper bill. 

0583 "Fine arts federation opposes Coffee bill." Art Digest 
12 (February 15, 1938): 12-13. 

The Fine Arts Federation of New York officially comes out 
against both the Coffee-Pepper and Sirovich Fine Arts Bu- 
reau bills; the Federation feels the bills will be a permanent 
Relief for artists. 

0584 "Taylor's suggestion." Art Digest 12 (February 15, 
1938): 22. 

Henry White Taylor, editor of the Philadelphia Art News, 
points out weaknesses in the Coffee-Pepper bill; he is against 
it in principle. 

0585 Tobias, Beatrice. ' ' [Cartoon] . ' ' New Masses 26 (Febru- 
ary 15, 1938): 27. 

Cartoon of an artist and a woman with the caption: "Darling, 
promise me you'll never let the Pepper-Coffee bill regiment 
your art." 



Annotated Bibliography 119 

0586 "Theatrical and music fields support Coffee." Art 
DigestU (February 15, 1938): 12-13. 

Support for the Coffee-Pepper bill comes from the theatre 
and music fields. 

0587 "Subway art." New Masses 26 (February 22, 1938): 21. 

Photo essay on the effort by the United American Artists and 
the New York FAP to put art in the subways. B/W illustrations 
of work by Helen West Heller, Ben Karp, Max Ratskor, 
Joseph Ringola, and Ruth Cheney. 

0588 Coffee, John M. "The permanent Federal Bureau of 
Fine Arts." Congressional Record. Appendix 83, pt. 9 (February 
24, 1938): 818-21. 

John M. Coffee comments on the Coffee-Pepper (H.R. 
9102) bill as well as William I. Sirovich's H J. Res. 79 calling 
for a permanent Fine Arts Bureau to replace Federal One. 
"Art is no longer a matter of soUtude or sequestration; no 
longer a matter of the wealthy patron financing a museum; 
it becomes now the urgent need of society and the concern 
of its well-being," p. 819. Includes a list of the bills' 
supporters. 

0589 "Bread and circuses and other things: $9,000,000,000 
in work relief." Life 4 (February 28, 1938): 41-46. 

Photo essay on the accomplishments of the WPA; p. 43 has a 
photograph of Timberline Lodge; p. 45 has "work of art, 
Washington," and "art studio, Richmond, VA." 

0590 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 15 (March 
1938): 11 pp. 

Special issue devoted to the competition for the mural for 
the US Government Building at the New York World's Fair 
(worth $10,000) ; competition for murals later won by George 
Harding and James O. Mahoney; sculpture competition won 
by Harry P. Camden. 



120 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0591 "American stuff." Direction 1 (March 1938): entire 
issue, 128 pp. 

Special issue entitled "American Stuff consisted of writings 
by members of the FWP and eight prints by members of the 
FAP (William S. Schwartz, Dorothy Rutka, Albert Webb, 
Richard Hood, Isami Doi, Gene Kloss, and Fred Becker). 
Editor, Harold Rosenberg. 

0592 Bennett, Charles Alpheus. "Index of American De- 
sign and what it suggests." Industrial Education Magazine 40 
(March 1938): 87-91. 

Overview of the LAD and how it is of use (and will be of 
greater use in the future) to the education of designers. B/W 
illustrations of IAD plates. \ 

0593 Biddle, George. "Federal arts bill snag; Coffee- 
Pepper bill." Magazine of Art ?>\ (March 1938): 156, 187-88. 

Comments on H.R. 9102 (Coffee-Pepper bill); feels the bill 
will create a permanent relief project which will not be good 
for art; Biddle does agree in principle with it, however. 
Includes a self-portrait of Biddle. 

0594 "Bill to provide for a permanent bureau of fine arts." 
Magazine of Art ^\ (March 1938): 190, 199. 

Full text of the Coffee-Pepper bill, H.R. 9102. 

0595 Holme, B. "Government and art." Studio \\b (March 
1938): 160-62. 

Explanation of the FAP and the other government projects; 
meditation on the future. "At this time it is expected that the 
most ambitious cultural scheme that any government has 
ever attempted will either become permanent or terminate 
altogether," p. 161. B/W illustrations of work by Dennis 
Bernardinelli and Edward Laning. 

0596 "Fine arts federation opposes Coffee-Pepper and 
Sirovich bills." Magazine of Art "il (March 1938): 173-74. 



Annotated Bibliography 121 

The Fine Arts Federation of New York comes out against the 
Coffee-Pepper bill (H.R. 9102). Gives a chronology of the 
bills. 

0597 "More competitions." Art Instruction 2 (March 1938) : 
31. 

Announcement of Treasury Department competitions for 
thirteen murals in the Bronx Central Post Office and one 
sculptural project in Forest Hills Post Office. 

0598 Taylor, Francis Henry. "Pork barrel renaissance." 
Magazine of Art 31 (March 1938): 157, 186-87. 

Comments on H.R. 9102 (Coffee-Pepper bill); cautious 
praise of FAP, but totally against the bill, feeling it will 
increase the bureaucracy. Taylor believes that a Federal Art 
Bureau will be of use only if totally divorced from the concept 
of relief. Includes a photograph of Taylor. 

0599 Boswell, Peyton. "Quantitative culture; Coffee- 
Pepper bill." ArtDigestU (March 1, 1938): 3. 

Editorial on the nature of the Coffee-Pepper bill (H.R. 
9102); an answer to critics by Boswell of his stance on the bill. 

0600 "Re: Coffee-Pepper; Federal arts committee replies to 
H.W. Taylor." ArtDigestU (March 1, 1938): 14. 

Statement by the Federal Art Committee responding to 
Henry White Taylor's {See 0584) criticism of the Coffee- 
Pepper bill. 

0601 "Two years of the WPA." Art Digest 12 (March 1, 
1938): 9. 

Summary of WPA report of October 1937; gives statistics on 
WPA art projects. 

0602 "US competitions, with list of competitions now 
open." Art Digest 12 (March 1, 1938): 11. 

List of Treasury Department Art Projects now open for 
competition. Six mural competitions listed. 



122 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0603 "Uncle Sam sums up; complete summary of 186 paint- 
ing and sculpture projects executed from its inception 
through January 4, 1938." ArtDigestU (March 1, 1938): 22, 31. 

Summary of 186 projects; lists only completed projects; many 
have full costs listed. 

0604 Boswell, Peyton. "Where credit is due." Art Digest 12 
(March 1,1938): 3. 

In praise of Edward Bruce on the occasion of his receiving 
the Friedsan Medal (5^^0570). 

0605 Davidson, Martha. "Artists of lUinois on the federal 
payroll; exhibition. New York Federal Art Gallery." Art News 
36 (March 5, 1938): 14. 

Favorable review of Federal Art Gallery show, "Illinois Fed- 
eral Art Project." B/W illustration of work by William S. 
Schwartz; partial list of participating artists. 

0606 Boswell, Peyton. "Philadelphia steps in; Philadelphia 
writes own Federal arts bill." Art Digest 12 (March 15, 1938): 3. 

Boswell's comments on a group of Philadelphia artists who 
wrote their own version of an arts bill; though presently 
unsponsored in Congress, they hope to find one. 

0607 "King succeeds MacGurrin." Art Digest 12 (March 15, 
1938): 14. 

Southern California FAP chief Buckley MacGurrin resigns; 
replaced by Albert Henry King. 

0608 Lewis, R. Edward. "O' both your houses! Coffee- 
Pepper bill." ArtDigestn (March 15, 1938): 10. 

R. Edward Lewis, art critic for the Philadelphia Inquirer, 
criticizes both pro- and anti-Coffee-Pepper bill people since 
they have both lost sight of the larger issue. Art. 

0609 "Pepper-Coffee bills." Art Digest 12 (March 15, 1938): 
33. 



Annotated Bibliography 123 

AAPL editorial critical of H.R. 9102 (creation of a Federal Art 
Bureau) . 

0610 "From left and right; excerpts of articles by F.H. 
Taylor and G. Biddle in the Magazine of Art.'' Art Digest 12 
(March 15, 1938): 11. 

George Biddle, comments on the arts projects from the Left; 
F.H. Taylor, from the Right. Articles appear in March 1938 
Magazine of Art {See 0593) . 

0611 "The battle goes on." American Artist (Artists' League). 
2 (Spring 1938): 1. 

Article criticizing the cuts and attacks on the FAP coming 
from Washington. 

0612 "News from the branches." American Artist (Artists' 
League). 2 (Spring 1938): 4-5. 

News from New Orleans, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, New York 
City, Los Angeles, Baltimore branches of the Artists' League; 
discusses various FAP and American Artists' Congress issues. 

0613 "Toward a democratic culture." American Artist (Art- 
ists' League). 2 (Spring 1938): 1, 3. 

Update on the status of the federal arts bills. 

0614 Benson, Elmer A. "Federal arts bill." Design 39 (April 
1938): 2. 

Statement of support for the Federal Arts bill (H.R. 9102) by 
Elmer A. Benson, governor of Minnesota. 

0615 "Black art: paintings by Negroes." Direction 1 (April 
1938): 16-17. 

Praise for the creation of the Harlem Art Center; mostly 
illustrations. B/W photographs of work by Vertis Hayes, 
Henry Holmes, and Palmer Hayden. 



124 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0616 Evergood, Philip. "Should the nation support its 
art?" Direction 1 (April 1938): 2-7. 

Evergood calls for governmental support of the arts; 
everyone should support the Federal Arts Bill. B/W illustra- 
tions of works by James Guy and Louis Guglielmi. 

0617 "Jobless find outlet in ceramics." American Ceramic 
Society Bulletin 17 (April 1938): 181-82. 

Survey of FAP ceramics projects from throughout the coun- 
try; lists a number of the projects and ardsts. B/W photo- 
graphs of ceramics. 

0618 Kellner, Sidney. "Federal Art Project posters develop 
art form." Signs of the Times (April ^938): n.p, 

NOT SEEN. 

0619 "WPA art exhibit." Chicago Art Institute Bulletin 32 
(April 1938): 58. 

Note on upcoming exhibition ("Art for the Public by 
Chicago Artists") of FAP work from Illinois artists; a 
description of what will be in the show. Exhibition to take 
place July 28 through October 9, 1938, at the Art Institute 
of Chicago. 

0620 "WPA Federal Art Project." Current History 48 (April 

1938): 68-71. 

Account of the FAP, explaining its purpose and extolling its 
virtues: "The work of the Project will outlive the cause that 
made it possible." Numerous B/W illustrations. 

0621 "Clearing the air; Federal arts committee willing to 
compromise." Art Digest 12 (April 1, 1938): 26. 

Letter from Stevens Maxey, executive secretary of the Federal 
Art Committee saying that the Committee is willing to 
compromise on the Coffee-Pepper bill. 

0622 "Federal sculpture." ArtDigest 12 (April 1, 1938): 10. 



Annotated Bibliography 125 

Review of "Sculpture" at the Federal Art Gallery (NYC). 
Seventy^ works by fifty-six sculptors. Favorable. 

0623 "WPA opens forty-eighth federal art center at Sioux 
City." Museum News 15 (April 1, 1938): 1, 4. 

Sioux C\Vf Alt Center opens on February 20, 1938. Also notes 
that Butte, MT, has plans for an art center; other proposed 
sites include Spokane, WA; Salem, OR; Sacramento, CA; 
Long Beach, CA; Poughkeepsie, NY; and Key West, FL. 

0624 Frost, Rosamund. "Political and architectural monu- 
ments by WPA sculptors." ArtNews?>^ (April 2, 1938): 8, 22. 

Favorable review of "Sculpture" at the Federal Art Gallery. 
B/W illustrations of work by Maurice Glickman, Max Baum, 
and Cesare Stea. 

0625 Brenner, Anita. "America creates American murals." 
A^^ York Times Magazine (April 10, 1938): 10-11, 18-19. 

Note on the creation of murals by the FAP for the New York 
World's Fair. Numerous B/W illustrations. 

0626 Boswell, Peyton. "You who oppose — ." Art Digest 12 
(April 15, 1938): 3. 

Boswell asks that those who oppose the Coffee-Pepper bill 
come up with something better. 

0627 "If not Pepper-Coffee bill, what?" Art Digest 12 (April 
15, 1938): 33-34. 

AAPL editorial asking for something better than the Coffee- 
Pepper bill. 

0628 Binsse, Harry Lorin. "Government as patron of fine 
arts." America b9 (April 23, 1938): 71. 

Binsse praises the relief efforts of the FAP, but feels the 
government should not act as "fairy godmother to a lot of 
untalented escapists who get self-satisfaction from smearing 
paint on canvas." Against a permanent art project. 



126 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0629 ' 'Attorney General of the United States. ' ' Life 4 (April 
25, 1938): 38. 

B/W photograph of Attorney General Homer Stille Cum- 
mings sitting in his "Mussoliniesque" office under the 
Section mural "Triumph of Justice" by Leon Kroll. 

0630 Bell, Phihp. "An art gallery for children in Washing- 
ton." Journal of the Education Association of the District of 
Columbia (May 1938): n.p. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MILDRED BAKER PAPERS, AAA. 

0631 Reeves, Ruth. "American art in American life." Pro- 
gressive Education 15 (May 1938): 402-404. 

Reeves explains how introducing children to art has been 
one of the greatest accomplishments of the FAP since, by 
bringing art to areas of the country where art is looked on as 
suspect, it will create a generation that will be less likely to 
feel this way about art. B/W illustrations of work by children. 

0632 Parker, Thomas C. "Artist teaches." Progressive Educa- 
tion 15 (May 1938): 387-92. 

Excellent account of the educational programs of the FAP by 
Parker (Assistant National Director of the FAP) . Covers both 
the programs to encourage children as creators and viewers 
of art. Photographs of children looking at art; B/W illustra- 
tions of work by children (Ann Michalov, Mike Mosco, 
Hyman Doreman, Aaron Goodelman, A. Cocchini, and 
Stanford Fenelle) . 

0633 Cooper, Charlotte Gowing. "Ceramics in the Federal 
art project in Ohio." Design 40 (May 1938): 10. 

Explanation of the ceramics aspect of the FAP by Cooper 
(director of the FAP, Ohio); includes section on how ceram- 
ics are made. 

0634 Hutson, Ethel. ' 'Against the federal art bill. ' ' Art Digest 
12 (May 1,1938): 4. 



Annotated Bibliography 127 

Ethel Hutson's, secretary/ treasurer of the Southern States 
Art League (SSAL), letter commenting that the SSAL is still 
against the Coffee-Pepper bill. 

0635 "Continuing opposition to the Pepper-Coffee bill." 
Art Digest 12 (May 1, 1938): 33. 

AAPL editorial asking readers' help in killing the Coffee- 
Pepper bill. 

0636 Boswell, Peyton. "Treasury department competi- 
tions." ArtDigestU (May 1, 1938): 3. 

Boswell urges all artists to enter the various Treasury compe- 
titions; gives a partial list of past winners to prove that there is 
no favoritism or prejudice. 

0637 "Syracuse gets a Coye, 'Pearl from WPA oyster."' Art 
DigestU (Mayl, 1938): 7. 

Lee Brun Coye, discovered by the FAP, has a work, "Just 
across the street," bought by Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts. 
Includes a brief biography of Coye. 

0638 "WPA sculptor wins." ArtDigestU (May 1, 1938): 7. 

Thomas G. Lo Medico, a FAP artist, is the winner of the 
Metropolitan Life insurance company's $8,000 commission 
for the Metropolitan exhibition at the New York World's 
Fair. Includes a brief biography of Lo Medico. Honorable 
mention went to William Van Beek (also an FAP artist) and 
Albert Wein. 

0639 Boswell, Peyton. "Logical and fair to all." ArtDigest 12 
(May 15, 1938): 3. 

Boswell proposes eliminating all direct governmental sup- 
port for the arts and replacing it with a tax deduction for all 
art work produced by living American artists. 

0640 "WPA and culture: arts projects covering US near 
third birthday." Newsweek 11 (May 30, 1938): 20-21. 



128 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

General praise for Federal One on its third birthday. 

0641 Douglas, Elizabeth A. "A WPA experiment at Haw- 
thorne." Art and Artists of Today 6 (June-July 1938): 17. 

Eighteen paintings by pupils of the Hawthorne School 
(taught by FAP teachers) are on display at the New School for 
Social Research. Douglas feels the art education aspect of the 
FAP is a success by all measures. 

0642 Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel. "Freedom of expression." 
Art and Artists of Today 6 (June-July 1938): 3. 

Comments on the Coffee-Pepper bill; includes a list of 
suggestions on how bill could be improved. 

0642a "Federal Art Project in Laguna." The Western Woman 9 
(June 1938): 44. 

Sketch of the life of Virginia Woolley, official in charge of the 
FAP in Laguna Beach, California. B/W reproduction of one 
of her paintings. 

0643 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 16 (June 
1938): 8 pp. 

Second special issue devoted to the competition for the 
mural for the US Government Building at the New York 
World's Fair (worth $10,000). 

0644 "From our foreign correspondent, Washington, 
DC." Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. Journal. 15 (June 
1938): 136-38. 

A discussion of the mural work done under all the federal 
projects; explanation of how the Section works and an 
overview of mural painting in America. Compares the work 
of N.C. Wyeth and George Biddle (one illustration of each of 
their murals) , finding that of Wyeth extremely old fashioned. 

0645 "Medical murals." Direction 1 (June 1938): cover, 
14-15. 



Annotated Bibliography 129 

Photo essay on murals with medical themes in hospitals by 
Eric Mose and Ruth Egri (Lincoln Hospital, NYC), and 
Rudolph Crimi (Harlem Hospital). Cover photograph of 
Mose at work. 

0646 Parker, Thomas C. "Children's Federal Art galler- 
ies." Democratic Digest 15 (June 1938): 12-13. 

Overview of FAP children's programs. Focuses on the open- 
ing of the Children's Art Gallery in Washington. B/W 
photographs of children in Gallery. 

0647 "Proposed fine arts bureau brings stormy discus- 
sion." Architectural Record 83 (June 1938): 72. 

Report on proposal for a Fine Arts Bureau (Coffee-Pepper 
and Sirovich bills) . 

0648 "The Bronx — a typical Treasury competition." Art 
DigestU (June 1, 1938): 26. 

Ben Shahn and Bernada Bryson are announced as the 
winners of the Treasury competition for the Bronx Central 
Post Office. Includes a list of seventeen others who will do 
other Post Office murals around the country. B/W illustra- 
tion of the Shahn/Bryson mural designs. 

0649 "New fine arts bill before Congress; with text." Art 
Digest 12 (June 1, 1938): 10-11. 

Full text and comments on H.J. Res. 671, a quickly and 
greatly revised version of the Coffee-Pepper bill introduced 
by William I. Sirovich. 

0650 Boswell, Peyton. "Why not for art?" Art Digest 12 
(June 1,1938): 3,8-9. 

A further explanation/defense of Boswell's plan for tax 
breaks based on the purchase of art works by living American 
artists {See 0639); includes a selection of letters supporting 
his plan. 

0651 "Federal art project murals." Pictures on Exhibit 1 
(June 1938): 10-11. 



130 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Praise of FAP murals being shown at the Federal Art Gallery 
(NYC) in "Murals for the Community." B/W illustration of 
work by Anton Refregier. 

0652 Marin, C.S. "The campaign for the Federal Arts Bill." 
The Communist 17 (June 1938): 562-70. 

Marin urges enthusiastic support for the various Federal Arts 
bills coming before Congress that would make the projects of 
Federal One permanent. Cites numerous statistics showing 
the good work they are doing. 

0653 "More praise for the 'Index."' Art Digest 12 (June 1, 
1938): 14. 

Review of show of IAD works at the San Francisco depart- 
ment store, the Emporium. Highly praised by Alexander 
Fried of the San Francisco Examiner. 

0654 "'Projects' murals avoid 'sweetness and light.'" Art 
Digestif (Junel, 1938): 15. 

Review of "Murals for the Community" at the Federal Art 
Gallery (NYC) . Includes a partial list of participating artists; 
mixed reviews. B/W illustration of work by Philip Guston. 

0655 Lowe, Jeannette. "New murals for US communities." 
Art News ?>^ (June 4, 1938): 15, 19. 

Favorable review of "Murals for the Community" at the 
Federal Art Gallery. B/W illustrations of works by Francis 
Criss and Louis Schanker. 

0656 "Print processes in a show by WPA artists at Brooklyn 
museum." Art News 2>^ Qune 4, 1938): 17. 

Favorable review of "Color Prints in Various Techniques by 
Four Young WPA Artists" at the Brooklyn Museum; covers 
the color lithographs in the show as well as the work the 
WPA/FAP is doing; B/W illustration of work by Russell 
Limbach, three other artists are: Augustus Pech, Louis 
Schanker, and Hyman Warsager, 



Annotated Bibliography 131 

0657 "Bureau of Fine Arts." Congressional Record S?) (June 
15, 1938): 9490-93, 9496-99. 

Transcription of the House of Representative's floor debate 
on H.J. Res. 671, the Bureau of Fine Arts legislation. After a 
stirring speech by William I. Sirovich, opponents of the 
legislation rise up to mock and deride the very idea of the US 
government having any type of permanent support for the 
arts. After well over an hour of arts bashing, the resolution is 
tabled by a vote of 195 to 35. 

0658 "Cultural front. ' ' Direction 1 (July-August 1938) : 26. 

Notes on the FAP art classes for children; that two FAP artists 
from New Jersey are having non-FAP work shown; that Macy's 
is showing IAD plates; that twenty-five sculptures have been 
allocated to the Mount Morris Hospital; that the ACA Gallery 
will show New Deal work in August; and that the Federal Art 
Bill was defeated. 

0659 Public Use of Arts Committee. "An open letter to the 
American public." Direction 1 (July-August 1938): 14-15. 

Call to defend the Federal One from wage cuts that are to 
take effect July 1, 1938. B/W photographs of various Federal 
One projects. 

0660 Biddle, George. "Notes on fresco painting." Magazine 
of Art SI (July 1938): 406-409. 

Treatise on fresco painting from earliest times to the present 
Section work. Includes Biddle 's comments on the subject 
matter of the Justice Department's frescos. Illustrated with 
B/W photographs of Biddle 's Justice Department work. 

0661 Cahill, Holger and Rita Wellman. "All America issue; 
historic examples from the Index of American Design." 
House and Garden 74 (July 1938) : 13-43. 

Brief text on what the IAD is by Holger Cahill; explanation of 
individual plates by Rita Wellman; complete list of artists who 
worked on the LAD; numerous B/W and color plates. 



132 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0662 "Camden wins federal contest, Slobodkin second." 
Art Digest 12 Quly 1, 1938): 11. 

A Treasury Art project jury selected John Poole Camden 
(illustration of work) for a $5,000 commission for World's 
Fair sculpture. Second place won by Louis Slobodkin (illus- 
tration of work). Includes a list of honorable mentions. 

0663 Hartmann, Sadakichi. "Era of whitewashing?" Art 
Digest 12 Qulyl, 1938): 6. 

Reprint of Hartmann's letter to the New York Herald-Tribune; 
a satirical letter mocking the overly narrative/historical na- 
ture of post office murals. An excellent bit of commentary. 

0664 "Index of design; exhibition at R.H. Macy's." Art 

Digestl2 (July 1,1938): 34. 

Review of LAD works on display at Macy's department store in 
NYC. 

0665 "Second report on the Treasury art projects." Art 
Digestl2 (July 1, 1938): 22-23. 

Complete summary of 243 Treasury Department art projects 
complete as of January 4, 1938. Most are murals and sculp- 
ture. 

0666 "Sirovich bill ridiculed!" Art Digest 12 (July 1, 1938): 
17. 

HJ. Res. 671 tabled on June 15, 1938 by a vote of 195 to 35. 
Includes comments by Sirovich; a good summary of the 
debate; some critics of the bill simply mocked it, others 
feared it would increase the bureaucracy. 

0667 "US offers its finest mural plum." Art Digest 12 (July 1, 
1938): 14. 

Edward Bruce announces Treasury Department art project's 
$10,000 competition of murals in the US government's build- 
ing at the World's Fair. B/W rendering of the space in the 
building the mural will go. Includes a list of jury members. 



Annotated Bibliography 133 

0668 Boswell, Peyton. "A mural problem." Art Digest 12 
(July 1,1938): 3, 14. 

Boswell comments on the lack of press coverage of the 
competition for the mural project for the US building at the 
World's Fair; finds it a symptom of decline in general 
interest. 

0669 "Early American designs copied, indexed, and dis- 
played after roundup by WPA." Newsweek 12 (July 4, 1938): 
28. 

Brief account of the IAD and how department stores around 
the country will be displaying plates. B/W illustrations of 
plates. 

0670 "Federal Art Project exhibit at the Art Institute of 
Chicago." Art Institute of Chicago. Weekly News Letter. (July 16, 
1938): 1. 

Notice that "Art for the Public" will soon be coming to the 
Art Institute. 

0671 "Mr. Stokes and the WPA; New York Public Library 
panels." TimeS2 (July 18, 1938): 22, 24. 

Account of how Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes (architect and 
President of the New York City Art Commission) succeeded 
in persuading the Board of the New York Public Library to 
accept the WPA and Edward Laning as the artistic forces to 
paint murals in the Library. B/W photograph of Laning. 

0672 "The Federal art exhibit." Art Institute of Chicago. 
Weekly News Letter. (July 30, 1938): 1-2. 

Brief comments on "Art for the Public" at the Art Institute. 

0673 Berdanier, Paul F. "Social justice, bah." Magazine of 
Art SI (August 1938): 492, 494-95. 

Letter to the editor commenting on George Biddle's earlier 
article on frescos {See 0660). Very mean-spirited letter lash- 
ing out at FAP (Biddle's work actually done under the 



134 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Section), Biddle, Communism, and anything else Berdanier 
can think of. "When will the American public have satiation 
of this orgy of disgusting, horrible, madhouse creations? 
From the Renaissance to Whistler, art improved; then it 
began to deteriorate until the stuff called art is nothing but a 
bad copy of the lowest Congo Negro symbolism lacking, 
however, a reason for being," p. 495. See 0691 for Riddle's 
reply. 

0674 DriscoU, H.Q. "Government art today." San Francisco 
Art Association Bulletin b (August 1938): 1. 

Survey of government and art in other countries; mixed 
feeling about "state paternalism" in American art. B/W 
illustration of work by Dorothy Puccinelli. 

0675 "Federal art; mosaic completed on the north facade 
of the Long Beach municipal auditorium." California Arts 
and Architecture bAi (August 1938): 7. 

Brief note on the FAP mosaic at the Long Beach Auditorium. 
Original sketch by Henry A. Nord; mosaic design by Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright and Albert King. Includes photograph of 
the finished work. 

0676 Piper, Natt. "Mosaic tile mural for the Long Beach, 
California auditorium." Pencil Points 19 (August 1938): 495- 
98. 

Step-by-step process of the creation of the FAP mosaic at the 
Long Beach Auditorium. Original sketch by Henry A. Nord; 
mosaic design by Stanton Macdonald-Wright and Albert 
King. Includes photographs of the finished work and the 
mosaic process. 

0677 "Chicago examines WPA federal art now in its 
third — 'Balanced' — phase." Art Digest 12 (August 1, 1938): 
5-6. 

Review of "Art for the Public by Chicago Artists" at the Art 
Institute of Chicago; includes 368 works. B/W illustrations of 



135 
Annotated Bibliography 

work by Norman McLeish, Todros Geller, and William S. 
Schwartz. 

0678 "Defeat for fine arts bill." Art Digest 12 (August 1, 
1938): 33. 

AAPL editorial praising the defeat of the Fine Arts Bureau 
bill. 

0679 "Harlem goes to Chicago." Art Digest 12 (August 1, 
1938): 6. 

Note on the exhibition of forty works done by children and 
adults at the Harlem Community Art Center at the Chicago 
YWCA through August 20, 1938. 

0680 "'Pink smoke."' Art Digest 12 (August 1, 1938): 17. 

Los Angeles Times critic Arthur Millier criticizes FAP consul- 
tant Emanuel Benson for being critical of Leon Kroll and 
others, as well as general leftist leanings. 

0681 "Sacramento's center." Art Digest 12 (August 1, 
1938): 6. 

Opening of a Federal Art Center in Sacramento, California. 

0682 "WPA man awaited since Whistler." Art Digest 12 
(August 1,1938): 10. 

Note that Edward Laning has been given the job of painting 
the murals for New York Public Library that have been 
waiting for the right painter since Whistier. Includes a brief 
bioeraphy of Laning; a history of the project; and a compari- 
son to the Boston Public Library's great murals. B/W illustra- 
tion of a mural panel. 

0683 "WPA teachers show." ArtDigestU (Augustl, 1938): 

18. 

Notice of a show by FAP art teachers ("Art Teacher's 

Division") from the New York project at the Federal Art 

Gallery (NYC). One hundred works in show. 



136 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0684 "Some more about the federal art exhibit." Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. Weekly News Letter. (August 7, 1938): 1-2. 

Text of newspaper reviews and telegram from Eleanor 
Roosevelt on the "Art for the Public" show at the Art 
Institute. 

0685 "Chicago project: WPA show at the Art Institute." 

Time 32 (August 8, 1938): 34. 

Favorable review of "Art for the Public' ' at the Art Institute of 
Chicago. "Possibly just as influential on Chicago's WPA 
painting are certain restrictions on subject matter imposed 
by the assistant to the national director, shrewd, brown-eyed 
Mrs. Increase Robinson. They are: no nudes, no dives, no 
social propaganda." B/W illustrations of work by Mary 
Anderson, Edouard Chassaing, and Joseph Christian Leyen- 
decker. 

0686 "The federal art exhibition." Art Institute of Chicago. 
Weekly News Letter. (August 13, 1938): 2. 

Comments from Time magazine (See 0685) on "Art for the 
Public" at the Art Institute. 

0687 "The Index of American Design." Art Institute of 
Chicago. Weekly News Letter. (August 13, 1938): 2-3. 

Explanation of the LAD section of the "Art for the Public" 
show at the Art Institute. 

0688 "Cultural front." Direction 1 (September-October 
1938): 28. 

Note that "Art in Democracy" is the subject of a series of 
weekly radio shows created by the FAP and aired over WEVD 
Fridays at 8:45 pm. 

0689 US Treasury Department. Section of Painting and 
Sculpture. Bulletin. Treasury Department Art Projects 17 (Sep- 
tember 1938): 17 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 137 

List of runners-up in the competition for the US Govern- 
ment Building, New York World's Fair competition. Seven- 
teen competitions announced: 

Salina, KS, Post Office, $7,000 (later won by Carl Mose); 

Evanston, IL, Post Office, $8,800 (later won by Armia A. 
Scheler) ; 

Burbank, CA, Post Office, $1,900 (later won by Barse Miller) ; 

Bethesda, MD, Post Office, $1,000 (later won by Robert 
Gates) ; 

East Detroit, MI, Post Office, $650 (later won by Frank 
Cassera) ; 

Jasper, IN, Post Office, $650 (later won by Jesse H. Mayer); 

St. Paul, MN, Post Office, $650 (later won by Don 
Humphrey) ; 

Marion, LA, Post Office, $650 (later won by Dan Rhodes); 

Dear Lodge, MT, Post Office, $675 (later won by Verona 
Burkhard) ; 

St. Louis, MO, Wellston Post Office, $1,220 (later won by 
Lumen Winter) ; 

New Rochelle, NY, Post Office, $2,300 (later won by David 
Hutchinson) ; 

Burlington, NC, Post Office, $1,900 (later won by Arthur 
Bairnsfather) ; 

Medina, OK Post Office, $730 (later won by unknown) ; 

Salem, OR, Post Office, $2,300 (later won by Andrew Vin- 
cent); 

Mayaguez, PR, Post Office, $2,000 (later won by Jose 
Maduro) ; 

Wentatchee, WA, Post Office, $2,600 (later won by Peggy 
Strong) ; 

Wausau, WI, Post Office, $1,600 (later won by Gerrit Sin- 
clair) . 

Biographies of Boris Gilbertson, Erwin Springweiler, Amy 

Jones, Tom Lea, Alexander Sambugnac, Romuald Kraus, 

Nicolai Cikovsky, Denman Fink, Peter Hurd, Sten Jacobsson, 

Ralf E. Nickelsen, Henriette A. Oberteuffer, Ben Shahn, and 

Bernarda Bryson. 

0690 Adams, Grace. "The white collar chokes." Harper's 
Magazine 177 (September 1938): 474-84. 



138 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

General, mostly negative, article on the WPA professional 
projects; brief discussion of the FAP on pp. 477-78. 

0691 Biddle, George. "Social justice, bah; reply." Magazine 
of Art 31 (September 1938): 545-46. 

Riddle's reply to the letter to the editor by Paul S. Berdanier 
{See 0673). Explains the mural subjects were suggested by 
Judge Harold M. Stephens and approved by the Attorney 
General and Supreme Court justices Harlan J. Stone and 
Stanley Reed. 

0692 Gardner, Albert Teneyck. "Art for the public; exhibi- 
tion at the Art Institute of Chicago." Magazine of Art 31 
(September 1938) : 526-33, 550. 

Highly favorable review of "Art for the Public" at the Art 
Institute of Chicago of Illinois FAP work. Includes list of all 
artists in show. B/W illustrations of many of the works. 

0693 "Index of American Design." Design 40 (September 

1938): 3-6. 

Good, enthusiastic account of what the LAD is and does. 

0694 "Looking for fire." Art Digest 12 (September 1, 1938): 
19. 

Paul Edwards, NYC FAP administrator, proposes investigat- 
ing all artists on projects for Communist sympathies. 

0695 "WPA's premier at Chicago institute." Art News 36 
(September 1938): 10. 

Very favorable review of "Art for the Public — by Chicago 
Artists" at the Art Institute of Chicago. B/W illustrations of 
work by Todros Geller and Julio De Diego. 

0696 "Youth is served at children's art gallery." Mayflower's 
Log- (September 1938): n.p. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MILDRED BAKER PAPERS, AAA. 



Annotated Bibliography 139 

0697 "In the business district." Time 32 (September 5, 
1938): cover, 35-38. 

Account of the FAP's Community Art Centers; biographical 
sketch of Holger Cahill and the work he has done for the 
FAP. Color photograph of Cahill on the cover. B/W photo- 
graph of FAP Assistant Director Thomas C. Parker, and 
miscellaneous B/W photographs of art centers. Important 
article for the biographical information on Cahill. 

0698 "National director of the WPA gives statistics." Art 
Institute of Chicago. Weekly News Letter {Se^icmbeY 10, 1938): 1. 

Holger Cahill gives a talk at the Art Institute of Chicago in 
conjunction with the "Art for the Public" show; reprint of 
selected remarks. 

0699 ' 'Artists in every state eligible; Section of Painting and 
Sculpture announces fifteen competitions." Magazine of Art 
31 (October 1938): 598. 

Announcement of fifteen Section competitions. 

0700 "Brockton's art project." Recreation 32 (October 
1938): 395. 

Under director Daniel M. Creedon and instructor Sidney V. 
Wright twenty artists created a FAP mural for Brockton, MA. 
Brief account of how the mural was done and other FAP 
projects in Brockton. B/W illustration of the mural. 

0701 Calverton, V.F. "Cultural barometer." Current History 
49 (October 1938): 45-46. 

General account of Federal One; defends the arts projects 
from attacks calling them Communist; very litde on FAP. 
B/W illustration of work by William Palmer. 

0702 "Chicago's art for the public. The WPA show. A rev- 
elation in its scope." Pictures on Exhibit 2 (October 1938): 8-9. 

Favorable review of ' 'Art for the Public" at the Art Institute of 
Chicago. B/W illustration of work by Edward Millman. 



140 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0703 "Federal arts: boondoggle or renaissance." Arts in 
Philadelphia 1 (October 1938): cover, 4-7, 29-31. 

History of the FAP in Philadelphia (and the rest of Federal 
One); interviews many Philadelphia project administra- 
tors. B/W illustrations of work by Thomas Flavel and 
Michael Gallagher. Cover illustration of FAP stone cutting 
room. 

0704 "Index of American Design." Design 40 (October 
1938): 7-10. 

More enthusiasm for the IAD (5^^0693). 

0705 "Students present mosaic panels to school." San 
Francisco Art Association Bulletin 5 (Octdber 1938): 5. 

Six mosaic panels are given to the Oakland High School on 
September 30, 1938 by the FAP; design by Joseph Sheridan, 
executed by Clifford Pyle. 

0706 "Surprising World's Fair mural awards." Magazine of 
Art SI (October 1938): 594. 

Mixed review of the winners of the New York World's Fair 
competition for the WPA building. Praises winner George 
Harding, but does not like the work of James O. Mahoney. 
Feels the work of runner-up Kindred McLeary was better. 
B/W illustrations of the three works. 

0707 Toomey, Anne. "Uncle Sam, art patron." Southwest 
Review 24 (October 1938): 57-61. 

Overview of the PWAP and the Section. Concentrates on the 
work done in Texas. B/W illustrations of works by Frank 
Mechau and Jerry Bywaters. 

0708 "Ah! That ivory tower; exhibition at the Chicago Art 
Institute." ArtDigestU (October 1, 1938): 18-19. 

Summary of reactions to FAP exhibition at the Art Institute 
of Chicago. 



Annotated Bibliography 141 

0709 Boswell, Peyton. "Two Dictators meet." Art Digest 13 
(October 1,1938): 3. 

Editorial on C.J. Bulliet, who labeled the FAP a failure; 
Bulliet drew criticism from the Left for mentioning Hitler 
and Stalin together. Boswell praises Bulliet for his stance. 

0710 "Columbus: WPA showing at the state fair." Art News 
37 (October 1,1938): 18. 

Charlotte Cowing Cooper, Ohio WPA director of the FAP, 
has eighteen oils by twelve Ohioans and a number of water- 
colors on display at the Ohio State Fair; includes a list of 
artists and works; also on display were a nurriber of IAD 
plates. 

0711 "Harding and Mahoney win mural awards — and the 
flood descends." Art Digest 13 (October 1, 1938): 8-9. 

George Harding and James Owen Mahoney win competi- 
tion for US Government building's mural at World's Fair; 
selection brings on a flood of criticism. Illustrations of 
designs by both artists. Also includes a composite photo- 
graph by Frank Reilly created to show how unoriginal 
Mahoney's work was. 

0712 "Hear ye, Buckeyes! Mural competition for the deco- 
ration of the Medina post office." Art Digest 13 (October 1, 
1938): 11. 

Announcement of a Section mural for Ohio Post Office; 
done tongue in cheek, asking artists to avoid the Pony 
Express theme since the public is tiring of it. 

0713 "Project's art caravan." Art Digest 13 (October 1, 
1938): 14. 

Truck carrying FAP work from New York City goes on a 
nationwide tour; Judson Smith travels with the works to 
lecture in local communities. 

0714 "WPA art centers opened at Salem, Spokane, Sacra- 
mento." Museum News 16 (October, 1, 1938): 1, 4. 



142 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Note that FAP art centers have opened in Salem (June 1938) ; 
Sacramento (June 1938): and Spokane (September 29, 
1938) . Lists of staff and how they will be funded. 

0715 "WPA children." Art Digest 13 (October 1, 1938): 16. 

Demonstrations of arts and crafts by children (done under 
the auspices of the FAP) take place in Central Park. 

0716 "WPA lecturers give art courses at Philadelphia." 
Museum News 16 (October 1, 1938): 2. 

Note that WPA employees (possibly FAP workers) will give 
free public lectures at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

0717 "Carved in wood." Art Digest 13 (October 15, 1938): 
17. 

An exhibition at the Clay Club (NYC) includes the work of 
FAP artist Thomas Gaetano Lo Medico; includes an illustra- 
tion of his work, "Shopping." 

0718 "New York art project moves." Art Digest 13 (October 
15, 1938): 10. 

Headquarters of the NYC FAP moves from 42nd Street to 1 10 
King Street in Greenwich Village. Includes a description of 
the new space. 

0719 "200 of the 61,174 prints done under the WPA in 
Washington." ArtDigestlS (October 15, 1938): 25. 

Exhibition at the US National Museum (Smithsonian Institu- 
tion) of 200 WPA prints shown through October 30, 1938. 
Organized by the National Collection of Fine Art (Smith- 
sonian Institution). Includes B/W illustration by Michael 
Gallagher. 

0720 "Washington: new techniques in WPA graphic arts 
show." Art News 37 (October 15, 1938): 18. 

Favorable review of "National Exhibition of Two Hundred 
Prints by Graphic Artists" at the US National Museum 



Annotated Bibliography 143 

(Smithsonian Institution) under the auspices of the NCFA. 
Includes excerpts from Holger Cahill's opening remarks; 
B/W illustrations of work by Minetta Good. 

0721 "US Government and Bellevue hospital exhibit art of 
insane patients." Lifeb (October 24, 1938): 26-27. 

Account of the FAP art classes at Bellevue Hospital. Com- 
ments from Dr. Karl M. Bowan, chief psychiatrist, on the 
project. Numerous illustrations of the patients' work. See 
0759 for exhibition catalog. 

0722 "American painting comes of age." Lifeb (October 
31, 1938): 27-38. 

Photo essay on the history of American art; includes work by 
Fletcher Martin ("Trouble in Frisco," p. 30) a "discovery of 
the US Government." 

0723 Rothschild, Lincoln. "Art and democracy: Edward 
Laning's ElUs Island murals." Direction 1 (November- 
December 1938): 14-15. 

Account of the creation of Edward Laning's murals for Ellis 
Island. B/W illustrations of the murals. 

0724 "Cultural front." Direction 1 (November-December 

1938): 28. 

Note on a benefit dance to support the Harlem Art Center to 
be held November 12, 1938; note on the "Four Unit Exhibi- 
tion" being held at the Federal Art Gallery (NYC) . 

0725 "Competitions for thirteen mural and two sculpture 
projects." Pencil Points 19 (November 1938, supplement): 38. 

Announcement of fifteen Section competitions. 

0726 Dows, OHn. ' 'Art for housing tenants. ' ' Magazine of Art 
31 (November 1938): 616-23, 662. 

Excellent account of the use of FAP work in Harlem tene- 
ments. Numerous B/W illustrations of the work (many works 



144 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

of sculpture); feels the tenements project is a good idea and 
needs to be expanded. 

0727 Hood, Richard. "Carborundum tint: a new print- 
maker's process." Magazine of Art SI (November 1938): 643, 
670-71. 

Discussion of the new copper plate intaglio printmaking 
method developed by the Philadelphia print department 
of the FAP. A good explanation of the process. B/W 
illustration of a work by Michael Gallagher done with the 
process. 

0728 "In the business district." Reader's Digest 33 (Novem- 
ber 1938): 99-100. 

Abridged version of "In the Business District" in Time {See 
0697). 

0729 "Mural competition." San Francisco Art Association 
Bulletins (November 1938): 2. 

Section mural competition for Burbank Post Office an- 
nounced. 

0730 ' ' Mural for Texas post office. ' ' San Francisco Art Associ- 
ation Bulletin 5 (November 1938): 1. 

B/W illustration of mural for a Texas post office by Victor 
Arnautoff; caption and quote from a letter from Edward 
Rowan to Arnautoff praising the work. 

0731 Stanton, Gideon T. "Art in the WPA." Arts and 
Antiques (New Orleans) (November 1938): n.p. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MILDRED BAKER PAPERS, AAA. 

0732 "Thirteen mural competitions and two sculpture 
competitions for post offices." Architectural Forum 69 (No- 
vember 1938, supplement): 78. 

Announcement of fifteen Section competitions. 



Annotated Bibliography 1*5 

0733 "Treasury's Section of Fine Arts." Magazine of Art 31 
(November 1938): 658. 

Excerpt from a Washington Post editorial in praise of Henry 
Morgenthau for making the Section permanent. 

0734 "Treasury sets up permanent art unit." Art Digest 13 
(November 1,1938): 13. 

Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury, approves of 
the creation of a permanent Section of Fine Arts. 

0735 Boswell, Peyton. "Uncle Sam is satisfied." Art Dig-^^n 3 
(November 1,1938): 3. 

Boswell comments favorably on Edward Bruce 's announce- 
ment of the Section of Fine Arts to be made permanent 
under the auspices of the Treasury Department. 

0736 ' 'Artists wanted column; competitions announced for 
13 mural and two sculpture projects by the Section of 
Painting and Sculpture." Art Digest IS (November 15, 1938): 
16, 28. 

The Section announces thirteen mural and two sculpture 
projects in the following states: Kansas, Illinois, California, 
Maryland, Michigan, Indiana, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, 
Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, 
Washington, and Wisconsin. Includes all facts necessary to 
enter. 

0737 "Contemporary American art at World's Fair: the 
plan." ArtNewsSi (November 19, 1938): 21. 

Announcement of the plan for art works to be displayed at 
the New York World's Fair; under the direction of Holger 
Cahill. 

0738 Grow, M.E. "Men of the arts in Philadelphia: George 
T. Biddle." Arts in Philadelphia 1 (December 1938): 11-12. 



146 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Profile of George Biddle; includes an account of his contact- 
ing FDR about Federal support for the arts; a summary of his 
work on the Section. 

0739 McCausland, Elizabeth. "Murals from the Federal art 
project for the World's fair." Parnassus 10 (December 1938): 
8. 

Preview of mural work by FAP that will appear at the World's 
Fair. Includes a list of artists. B/W illustrations of works by 
Abraham Lishinsky and Witold Gordon. 

0740 "WPA posters make commercial art history." Design 
40 (December 1938): 9-10. 

Good account of the poster project^ of the FAP and its 
director, Richard Floethe. Illustrated with reproductions of 
four posters. 

0741 "WPA art center opened in Salt Lake City." Museum 
News 16 (December 1, 1938): 1-2. 

Salt Lake City Art Center opened in November 1938. Note 
that the Laramie, WY, Federal Art Center opened in 1936 
and has had an average of 2,800 visitors per month. 

0741a "Fine arts bureau?" Art Digest 13 (December 15, 
1938): 11. 

Comments on the various plans (including the Coffee- 
Pepper bill) for a proposed Bureau of Fine Arts; supports the 
plan put forward by Walter Damrosch {See 0766) . 

0742 "Buffalo: WPA show of Americana drawings." Art 
News 37 (December 31, 1938): 19. 

Favorable review of LAD plates at the Albright Art Gallery 
(Buffalo). 

0743 Foley, John P. and Anne Anastasi. "Work of the 
Children's Federal Art Gallery." School and Society 48 (Decem- 
ber 31, 1938): 859-61. 



Annotated Bibliography 147 

Good description of the work being done at the Children's 
Federal Art Gallery in Washington (opened November 11, 
1937). Includes a description of the types of exhibits done 
and praises the work the FAP has done with and for children. 

EXHIBITIONS 

0744 Index of American Design. National Exhibition, Index of 
American Design, Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration. Stix, Baer, and Fuller: St. Louis, 1938. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, January 3 through 22, 1938; brochure to accom- 
pany exhibit of IAD plates; text by Holger Cahill discusses the 
IAD. 

0745 Works Progress Administration. An exhibition of selected 
skills of the unemployed. As demonstrated on WPA non-construction 
projects. WPA Division of Women's and Professional Services: 
Washington, DC, 1938. 28 11. 

Exhibition, January 10 through 31, 1938, in the US National 
Museum (Smithsonian Institution). Exhibition of a wide 
range of "white collar" activity of the WPA; includes items 
from the FAP, IAD. CheckUst of 207 items. 

0746 Federal Art Project. Printmaking, a new tradition. Fed- 
eral Art Gallery: New York, 1937. 12 pp. 

Exhibition, January 19 through February 9, 1938. Text by 
Russell Limbach, Gustave von Groschwitz, and Carl Zigros- 
ser; checklist of 150 prints including 23 color lithographs. 
B/W illustration of work by Isaac J. Sanger. 

0747 Federal Art Project. Illinois Federal Art Project Exhibition. 
Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1938. 1 p. 

Exhibition, February 16 through March 12, 1938. Catalog 
not seen; forty artists represented. Invitation to opening in 
AAA. 

0748 Federal Art Project. Exhibition. Sculpture. Federal Art 
Gallery: New York, 1938. 1 p. 



148 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition, March 23 through April 16, 1938. Catalog not 
seen (foreword by Girolamo Piccoli). Invitation to opening 
in AAA. 

0749 Federal Art Project. Exhibition: easel and water-color. 
Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1938. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, April 27 through May 11, 1938. Checklist of 
ninety-six works from the FAP easel project. Explanation of 
what the FAP in New York does; foreword by Robert M, 
Coates. "The foundation of the WPA Federal Art Project is 
perhaps the first time in Western history that the Govern- 
ment itself, as a democratic mass expression of the people's 
will, has set itself up on a large scale and in a remarkably 
liberal fashion as a patron of native, contemporary art." 

0750 Federal Art Gallery. Boston. Exhibition. WPA Prints, 
Water colors. Federal Art Gallery: Boston, 1938. 4 pp. 

Exhibition, May 10 through 28, 1938. Checklistof 100 works. 

0751 Federal Art Project. Murals for the community. Federal 
Art Gallery: New York, 1938. Mimeographed. 21 pp. 

Exhibition, May 24 through June 15, 1938, at the Federal Art 
Gallery, NYC. More of a guide than an exhibition catalog. 
The booklet describes twenty-five selected murals in the 
greater New York area. Text by Lillian Somons. 

0752 Index of American Design. Drawings for the Index of 
American Design. Federal Art Project: New York, 1938. Mimeo- 
graphed. 2 pp. 

Exhibition, June 21 through July 15, 1938, at Macy's Depart- 
ment Store. No checklist, just a brief description of the IAD. 

0753 ACA Gallery. 1938 Dedicated to the New Deal. ACA 
Gallery: New York, 1938. 24 pp. 

Exhibition, July, 1938; catalog of twenty-one works, many 
done for the FAP; (B/W photographs of works taken by Mark 
Nadir) ; text signed H. Baron, comments on the success of the 
FAP and the need for it to continue. 



Annotated Bibliography 149 

0754 Federal Art Project. Chicago. Summer print show. Fed- 
eral Art Gallery: Chicago, 1938. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, July 11 through August 12, 1938. Checklist of 
forty-one items. 

0755 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of work by teachers in art 
teaching divisions. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1938. 1 p. 

Exhibition, July 20 through August 11, 1938. Catalog not 
seen (text by Alex R. Stavenitz). Invitation to opening in 
AAA. 

0756 Chicago. Art Institute. Art for the public by Chicago artists 
of the Federal Art Project Works Progress Administration. Art 
Institute: Chicago, 1938. 16 pp. 

Exhibition, July 28 through October 9, 1938. Checklist of the 
373 objects from all aspects of the FAP in this important show 
of work by Illinois artists. Introduction by Daniel Catton 
Rich. Includes the schedule of gallery talks on FAP subjects. 

0757 Federal Art Project. East side — west side. Federal Art 
Gallery: New York, 1938. 9 pp. 

Exhibition, September 20 through October 11, 1938. Check- 
list of 291 photographs (listed only by photographer, not 
title) of both creative work and illustrative material (for FWP 
work etc.). Foreword by Ralph Gutieri (head of Photography 
Division). 

0758 Federal Art Project. Paintings, prints, sculpture, murals. 
Four unit exhibition. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1938. 1 p. 

Exhibition, October 21 through November 11, 1938. Works 
from four divisions of the FAP (Easel Painting, Graphic Arts, 
Sculpture, and Mural Division). Catalog not seen. Invitation 
to opening in AAA. 

0759 Federal Art Project. Exhibition: art and psychopathology. 
fointly sponsored by the psychiatric division Bellevue Hospital and 

the Federal Art Project, Works Progress Administration. Federal Art 
Project: New York, 1938. 9 pp. 



150 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition, October 24 through November 10, 1938. Check- 
list of 106 works in all media by patients in Bellevue's 
psychiatric division; arranged by mental illness. Text by Alex 
R. Stavenitz (head of Art Teaching Division, FAP). 

0760 Federal Art Project. Regional poster exhibition. Federal 
Art Gallery: New York, 1938. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, November 18 through Decembers, 1938. Check- 
list of 122 posters from New York City, New York State, and 
New Jersey. 

0761 Federal Art Project. Allocations Gallery, District of 
Columbia. Federal art. Allocations Gallery: Washington, DC, 
1938. Silkscreened and mimeographed. 3 11. 

Exhibition, December 10 through ?, 1938. Small pamphlet 
describing the purpose and functions of the Allocations 
Gallery (for WPA artists from Washington to display their 
work so that tax-supported institutions could select it for 
permanent loan). Attractive little pamphlet with silk- 
screened cover. 

0762 Federal Art Project. Exhibition. Paintings, prints, mu- 
rals, sculpture, crafts by children. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 
1938. 6 1. Mimeographed. 

Exhibition, December 22, 1938, through January 10, 1939. 
Checklist of 21 1 works by children of the New York City FAP. 
Foreword by Victor E. D'Amico. 

0763 Spokane Art Center. Modem design in everyday life. 
Spokane Art Center: Spokane, WA, 1938. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, December 22, 1938, through January 22, 1939. 
Exhibition of everyday objects (coffee pots, radios, cars, 
kitchens, etc.) showing the effects of modern design. "The 
premise of this exhibition is that each new era in history is 
inevitably accompanied by a new approach to design," 



Annotated Bibliography 151 

MONOGRAPHS 

0764 Art in Federal Buildings, Inc. Art guides. Number 1. A 
guide to the painting and sculpture in the Justice Department 
Building. Washington, District of Columbia. Art in Federal 
Buildings, Inc.: Washington, DC, 1938. 27 pp. 

Well done little guide to the art work (primarily Section 
work) in the Justice Department Building. B/W illustrations 
with explanations of work by Emil Bisttram, Boardman 
Robinson, C.P. Jennewein, John R. Ballator, Symeon Shimin, 
George Biddle, John Steuart Curry, Louis Bouche, Leon 
Kroll, Maurice Sterne, and Henry Varnum Poor. 

0765 Art in Federal Buildings, Inc. Art guides. Number 2. A 
guide to the painting and sculpture in the Post Office Department 
Building. Washington, District of Columbia. Art in Federal 
Buildings, Inc.: Washington, DC, 1938. 32 pp. 

Well done little guide written in a guided tour style to the art 
work (primarily Section work) in the Post Office Department 
Building. B/W illustrations with explanations of many of the 
works. 

0766 Damrosch, Walter. Proposed plan for the establishment of 
a Federal Bureau of Fine Arts. New York, 1938. 7 pp. 

Damrosch, a well-known conductor, offers an alternative 
plan to the defeated Coffee-Pepper bill for a Bureau of Fine 
Arts. Found on AAA reel NDA 1.79-83. 

0767 Federal Art Project. A brief outline of the Federal Art 
Project of the Works Progress Administration. Washington, DC, 
1938. 3 pp. pamphlet. 

Brief, concise history of the FAP. 

0768 Federal Art Project. Mosaic, Long Beach California 
Municipal Auditorium. Long Beach, 1938? 3 mounted plates, 
51 cm. 



152 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

0769 Federal Art Project. Portfolio of Spanish Colonial design 
in New Mexico. Federal Art Project: Santa Fe, NM, 1938. 40 pp. 
50 colored plates. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MOMA CATALOG. Limited edition 
of 200 portfolios of Spanish Colonial design in New Mexico 
as recorded by the IAD. 

0770 Federal Art Project. The WPA Federal Art Project. A 
summary of activities and accomplishments. FAP: New York, 1938. 
24 pp. Mimeographed. 

Description of the FAP projects and plans. NOTE: a number 
of publications came out under this or similar titles usually 
with no date; the text is usually quite similar with some 
figures updated. 

0771 Federal Art Project. New York City. Art in a democracy. 
Sponsors, friends and members of the Federal Art Project, Works 
Progress Administration. New York, 1938. 57 11. 

Program for a dinner in honor of the FAP held in New York 
city. Program includes a summary of the project by Audrey 
McMahon, a list of the speakers, a description of Federal 
One, and a detailed description of the FAP. 

0772 Federal Art Project. New York City. Program of the 
Federal Arts Projects for the City of New York, June 23-July 1, 1938. 
WPA: New York, 1938. 10 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. "Prepared for the 1938 
convention of the National Education Association." 

0773 Federal Writers' Project. Massachusetts. An almanack 
for Bostonians. "Being a truly amazing and edifying compendium of 
fact and fancy, designed primarily for the delectation of those who 
live within the shadow of the Bulfinch dome, but one which may be 
used with profit and pleasure by dwellers in the outer darkness of 
Cambridge, Somerville, Chelsea, Newton, and even more out landish 
places, the whole compiled in a most prim and scholarly fashion by 



Annotated Bibliography 153 

workers of the Federal Art Project in Massachusetts; Poor Richard 
Associates, sponsor. " M. Barrows and Company: New York, 
1938.120 pp. 

Just what the title says; "delineator" of the art work that 
graces the pages is Curtis Smith Hamilton of the FAP. 

0774 Federal Writers' Project. New York City. Birds of the 
world. An illustrated natural history. Albert Whitman and 
Company: Chicago, 1938. 205 pp. 

Ornithological book illustrated with small print designs (of 
birds, naturally) between the chapters by Ad Reinhardt. 

0775 Federal Writer's Project. San Francisco. Almanac for 
thirty-niners. ]a.mes L. Delkin: Stanford University, 1938. 127 
pp. 

Almanac written by the FWP and illustrated by Lloyd Wulf of 
the FAP. 

0776 Hart, Henry. Philadelphia's shame; an analysis of the 
un-American administration of the Federal Art Project in Philadelphia. 
Friends of Art and Education: Philadelphia, 1938. 15 pp. 

A highly critical phillipic against Mary Curran, FAP Regional 
Director, Pennsylvania. Hart accuses her of a multitude of 
sins including favoritism, dictatorship, and anti-unionism. 
"The evidence presented herewith should leave no doubt in 
the mind of any unbiased person that the Philadelphia 
W.P.A. art project has been inhumanely, inefficiently and 
illegally administered by the Regional Director for Pennsyl- 
vania, Miss Mary Curran, and that she should be dismissed 
immediately" (inside cover) . 

0777 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1938, pp. 529-34. 

General overview of the New Deal art projects for the year 
1934. 

0778 1938: Prints by artists of the Federal Art Project. Private 
printing: New York, 1938. Spiral bound calendar. 



154 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Calendar for 1938, "Printed through the courtesy of a 
private sponsor," with twelve prints by FAP artists and a color 
lithograph by Russel T. Limbach. Found on AAA reel NDA 

14.1078-1090. 

0779 Treasury Relief Art Project. Artists on relief. GPO: 
Washington, DC, 1938? 

NOT SEEN. 

0780 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to 
provide for a permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. H.R.9102 75(3). 6 
pp. 

Introduced January 21, 1938, by Rep. John M. Coffee, the bill 
would create a Bureau of Fine Arts. Senate version of the bill 
(S. 3296) sponsored by Claude Pepper); this revised version 
of Coffee's earlier H.R. 8239 became known as the Coffee- 
Pepper bill. Sent to House Education Committee. Never left 
committee. 

0781 US Congress. House of Representatives. A joint resolu- 
tion to create a Bureau of Fine Arts in the Department of Interior. 
HJ. Res. 671 75(3). 7 pp. 

Introduced May 4, 1938, by Rep. William I. Sirovich, the bill 
would create a Bureau of Fine Arts under the Department of 
the Interior. Sent to Committee on Patents. This was a 
last-ditch attempt by the supporters of a Bureau of Fine Arts 
to get a bill passed. When the Coffee-Pepper bill died in 
committee, Sirovich brought out this plan which modified 
some of the more troublesome passages in the Coffee-Pepper 
bill. The bill stated that "Resolved . . . that it is the policy of 
Congress to encourage the development in our country of 
cultural institutions as an important and integral part of the 
national life and history in order that our people now and in 
the future will have the benefits arising from the develop- 
ment of talented cultural personalities and institutions native 
to our country and its people," p.l. The bill allowed for the 
transfer of the WPA cultural activities to the new bureau, and 
created a director of the bureau and five assistant directors 
(for theatre, literature, music, graphic and plastic arts, and 



Annotated Bibliography 155 

dance) . On June 15, 1938, however, the bill was tabled in the 
House by a vote of 195 to 35 to the accompaniment of jeers, 
jokes, and laughter. Sirovich attempted to create the Bureau 
one last time in 1939 {See 0937), but died before any action 
was taken. 

0782 US Congress. House of Representatives. Creating a 
Bureau of Fine Arts. House Report 2486 75(3). 2 pp. 

House report issued May 26, 1938, making minor adjust- 
ments in William I. Sirovich's H.J.Res. 671. Committee on 
Patents unanimously accepts the revised version and sends it 
to the full House. 

0783 US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee 
on Patents. Department of Science, Art and Literature. Hearings 
held February 7-11, 1938. GPO: Washington, DC, 1938. 282 
pp. 

Hearings held on H.R. 9102 and H.J. Res. 79. Witnesses, in 
favor of the bill (unless otherwise noted) included A.F. 
Brinckerhoff (President of the Fine Arts Federation and 
against the Bill), Holger Cahill, Bernard Godwin (artist), 
Chet La More (artist), Rockwell Kent, Martin Popper (Fed- 
eral Arts Committee, General Counsel), and Ellen S. 
Woodward. 

0784 US Congress. Senate. A bill to provide for a permanent 
Bureau of Fine Arts. S. 3296 75(3). 10 pp. 

Introduced January 21, 1938, by Senator Claude Pepper, the 
bill would create a Bureau of Fine Arts, absorbing all present 
WPA cultural activities. Senate version of H.R. 9102 spon- 
sored by John M. Coffee; a duplicate of Coffee's bill; known 
as the Coffee-Pepper bill. Sent to Senate Committee on 
Education and Labor. Never left committee. See 0786 for 
hearings on bill. 

0785 US Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. 
Work relief and public works appropriation act of 1938. Hearing, 
May 16, 1938. GPO: Washington, DC, 1938. 327 pp. 



156 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Inserted statements by Martin Popper (representing the Arts 
Union Conference), Rep. William I. Sirovich, and Marvic 
Mclntyre (Secretary to the President) regarding the FAP (pp. 

252-54). 

0786 US Congress. Senate. Committee on Education and 
Labor. Bureau of Fine Arts. Hearings on S. 3296, February 28, 
March 1-2, 1938. GPO: Washington, DC, 1938. 217 pp. 

Testimony by a number of art professionals from all fields 
(music, theatre, fine arts, writing) in favor of a Bureau of Fine 
Arts. Fine arts representatives were: Stuart Davis for the 
American Artists' Union, Jeffery Norman for the National 
Society of Mural Painters, and Waldo Pierce a painter. 
Testifying against the bill was Gutzon Borglum, creator of the 
Mount Rushmore memorial. A number of WPA and FAP 
administrators (Thomas C. Parker, Lawrence S. Morris, and 
Ellen S. Woodward) also testified. Claude Pepper chaired the 
Subcommittee. See also 0784 for the text of the bill. 

0787 Works Progress Administration. Handbook of procedures 
for state and district Works Progress Administration. GPO: Wash- 
ington, DC, 1938. Looseleaf. 

Chapter IX, Section 6 (3 pp.) covers the procedures for 
Federal Project No. 1. How the projects are organized, 
special regulations, procedures, features of employment and 
financial procedures are covered. NOTE: FAP regulations 
did not change since 1937 edition of Handbook (&^0560). 

0788 Works Progress Administration. Index of American De- 
sign manual. [WPA Technical series. Art circular #3]. WPA 
Division of Women's and Professional Services: Washington, 
DC, 1938. 38 pp. 

Detailed, step-by-step instructions for supervisors and work- 
ers on how the IAD works; includes instructions on filling out 
forms (plus an appendix with the forms) , how to prepare the 
plates, how to select material, and suggestions on how to 
render the objects. 



Annotated Bibliography 157 

0789 Work Progress Administration. Inventory. An appraisal 
of the results of the Works Progress Administration, Washington, 
D.C., Harry Hopkins, administrator. WPA: Washington, DC, 
1938. 100 pp. 

Informative, publicity work, illustrating, in words and pic- 
tures, the accomplishments of the WPA through October 1, 
1937. Pp. 79-82 cover the FAP. Notes that the "fine art" 
projects account for only 3% of WPA expenditures. P. 91 
includes FAP statistics. B/W photographs of artists at work. 
NOTE: pp. 79-82 also published separately by the GPO as 
"American art, work that is being done by the WPA artists." 



1939 



0790 "Cultural front." Direction 2 (January-February 
1939): 26-27. 

Note that the FAP will be reduced in size; that there will be a 
new attempt to create a Federal Art Bureau; and that Eliza- 
beth Olds of the FAP Graphics Division won an award in 
Philadelphia. 

0790a Hamlin, T.F. "Federal arts bill, 1939." Pencil Points 
20 (January 1939): 9-10. 

Comments on the Bureau of Fine Arts bills of 1939. 

0791 Payant, Felix. "Art teachers in public schools should 
support and sponsor important art program." Design 40 
(January 1939): 1. 

Editorial in support of FAP art education programs. 

0792 Petersen, William J. "The territorial centennial of 
Iowa." Iowa Journal of History and Politics 37 (January 1939): 
3-51. 

A note on p. 31 mentions the work done by the FAP in 
supplying a mural and photographic exhibit on livestock 
production for the Iowa Centennial. 

0793 "Treasury as an agent." Fortune 19 (January 1939): 
126. 

As part of a longer article on the functions of the Department 
of Treasury, the Procurement Division (which oversaw the 
Section) is discussed. Calls the governmental art produced 
by the Section "Lively, full of local significance." 

158 



Annotated Bibliography 159 

0794 Boswell, Peyton. "Some friendly advice: defence 
against threat to kill the cultural phase of the Works Progress 
Administration." ArtDigestU (January 1, 1939): 3. 

Boswell' s proposals on how to best save the art projects; his 
suggestions include the following: deciding if the project is 
for the sake of relief or art; if for art, then remove the relief 
element; eliminate politics and controversy; continue public 
exhibitions; and encourage private patronage. 

0794a "The Bureau bills." Art Digest 13 (January 1939) : 9. 

Comments on the various plans (including the Coffee- 
Pepper bill) for a proposed Bureau of Fine Arts; supports the 
plan put forward by Walter Damrosch {See 0766) . 

0795 "WPA art report." Art Digest 13 (January 1, 1939): 15. 

Summary report by Harry L. Hopkins of five years of WPA art 
work. 

0796 "WPA supervisors." Art Digest 13 (January 15, 1939): 
8. 

List of the supervisory staff of FAP with full tides. 

0797 "Don't burn the books! Protest cuts in WPA arts 
projects: a survey." New Masses ^0 (January 24, 1939): 14-16. 

Comments by Stanley M. Isaacs (President of the Borough of 
Manhattan), Donald Ogden Stewart (President, League of 
American Writers), Bennett A. Cerf (pubHsher), Muriel 
Draper (writer), Robert M. Coats (art critic), Edward C. 
Aswell (publisher), John Howard Lawson (playwright) , Whit 
Burnett (editor), Sylvia Sidney (actress), Franchot Tone 
(actor), George Seldes (writer), Carl Randau (newspaper- 
man), Arthur Kober (playwright), and Louis P. Birk (editor) 
on the importance of Federal One and why it should be 
saved. Cartoon by Mischa Richter showing a "Capitalist" 
dropping a bomb on the temple of the arts projects with the 
caption "First Objective." 



160 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0798 US Treasury Department. Section of Fine Arts. Bulle- 
tin. Section of Fine Arts 18 (February 1939): 20 pp. 

Note on the history of the Section; note on the non-Section 
competition to design the new gallery of art for the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Competitions announced: 
St. Louis, MO, Post Office, $29,000 (later won by Edward 

Millman and Mitchell Siporin) ; 
Los Angeles, CA, Post Office and Courthouse, $7,200 (later 

won by James Hanson); 
Amarillo, TX, Post Office, $6,500 (later won by Julius 

Woeltz) ; 
Wilmington, NC, Post Office and Courthouse, $2,300 (later 

won by William Pfehl) ; 
Poughkeepsie, NY, Post Office, $4,200 (later won by George 

Klitgaard and Charles Rosen) ; > 
Baron, KY, Post Office, $740 (later won by Frank Long). 
Biographies of David Hutchinson, Jesse Hull Mayer, Gerrit V. 
Sinclair, and Richard Zoellner. B/W illustrations of work by 
Mitchell Jamieson, Wendell Jones, Ethel Magafan, Henry 
Varnum Poor, Peter Hurd, Clay Spohn, Joe Jones, and 
Rainey Bennett. 

0799 Pemberton, Murdock. "Painting America's portrait; 
mural art in this country." Travel72 (February 1939): 6-13. 

Pemberton explains the purpose of the FAP in creating 
murals throughout the country and acts as a tour guide to 
some of his favorites across the nation; praises the "Ameri- 
can-ness" of the subjects of the murals; numerous B/W 
illustrations of murals. 

0800 "Artists in a democracy; federal art projects of New 
York City, Wisconsin and New Mexico." Progressive Education 
16 (February 1939): 105-15. 

Statements by ten people associated with the FAP as artists, 
administrators, and advisors on the project. Statements in- 
clude general praise for the FAP, statistics, and comments on 
the specific state projects. B/W photographs of works by 
Edwin S. Knutesen and Alonzo Hauser. 



Annotated Bibliography 161 

0801 Judd, Maurice B. "Art and the doctors." Hygeia 17 
(February 1939): 135. 

B/W reproductions of five FAP posters created to fight 
cancer. Notes that these may by purchased from the Treasury 
Department for 20-35 cents each. 

0802 "WPA prints." Art Digest 13 (February 1, 1939): 31. 

Notice of Federal Art Gallery (NYC) show, "99 Prints" by 
WPA/FAP artists; includes a list of outstanding prints from 
the show. 

0803 "CIO shows its teeth." Art Digest 13 (February 15, 
1939): 6. 

Announcement of an exhibition to be held by the Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) at the Brooklyn 
Museum May 19th to September 1939, that will be open 
only to union artists; specifically excludes non-union WPA 
artists. "All American artists are eligible to submit prints 
for this exhibition except non-union artists employed on 
the Federal Art Project, WPA." See also 0810 for more on 
this issue. 

0804 "13 million for WPA arts. ' ' Art Digest 1 3 (February 15, 
1939): 21. 

Notice that WPA spent $13,825 million on art according to 
Agnes S. Cronin, administrative assistant for the WPA. 

0805 "WPA muralist gets into trouble by copying from 
photographs." Life 6 (February 27, 1939): 62-63. 

Photo essay on Jared French's WPA work for the New York 
State Vocational Institution in West Coxsackie, NY, for which 
he copied the figures from art anatomy books. 

0806 "A mural and a show." New Masses 30 (February 28, 
1939): 14. 

Note on William Cropper's mural for the Department of 
Interior ("Building a Dam"). B/W reproduction of sketch of 



162 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

the mural. Also comments on an unrelated show of Crop- 
per's work at the ACA Gallery. 

0807 "Minnesota artists' union." Direction 2 (March-April 
1939): 14-15. 

A mostly illustrated account of the Walker Art Gallery and 
FAP's attempt, in conjunction with the Minnesota Artists' 
Union, to open a community art center. B/W illustration of 
works by Bill Norman, Jeanne Taylor, Syd Fossum, and Olaf 
Aalbu. 

0808 Hunt, Edwyn A. "Henrietta Shore, artist." California 
Arts and Architecture bb (March 1939): 7. 

Discussion of the life and work of Henrietta Shore, including 
her Section work on the Santa Cruz Post Office murals; B/W 
illustration of the Santa Cruz Post Office mural. 

0809 "A portfolio of toy banks." Coronet (March 1939): 
10-14. 

B/W and color reproductions of IAD plates depicting toy 
banks. 

0810 "CIO pulls in its horns." Art Digest 13 (March 1, 1939): 
12. 

The CIO retracts its earlier statement on its print show {See 
0803) , and opens it to all artists, unionized or otherwise. 

0811 "Federal art friends." Art Digest 13 (March 1, 1939): 
12. 

FDR asks Congress to reinstate $150 million cut from WPA. 
Friends of the Federal Art Project seeks to keep it alive; 
includes address to join the Friends of the Federal Art 
Project, c/o Grace H. Gosselin, secretary. 

0812 "From the ringside." Art Digest 13 (March 1, 1939): 
17. 

Note on the controversy surrounding Jared French's FAP 
mural for the New York State Vocational Institution in West 



Annotated Bibliography 163 

Coxsackie, NY, entitled "The Tropics." French had copied 
models in an art textbook for the mural, and now Audrey 
McMahon of the New York FAP does not think the mural will 
be used. 

0813 "Project artists show paintings in minor key in New 
York." Art Digestif (March 1, 1939): 12. 

The third annual exhibition of paintings done by regional 
FAP ("Work of New Jersey Artists. Plates from the Index of 
American Design. Painting and Sculpture") artists is held at 
the Newark Museum; includes seventy-six artists; mixed re- 
views. Includes a B/W illustration of work by Dennis Burling- 
ame. 

0814 "Providence: watercolor renderings of American 
crewel embroidery." ArtNews37 (March 4, 1939): 17-18. 

Favorable review of a show of IAD textile plates at the 
Museum, School of Design, Providence (RI) . Full account of 
the textiles represented. 

0815 "How to paint a fresco." Newsweek (March 13, 1939): 
37-38. 

Note on the FAP film. The Technique of Fresco Painting, and a 
description (illustrated with B/W photographs from the 
film) on fresco techniques. 

0816 Watson, Forbes. "New forces in American art." 
Kenyon Review 1 (Spring 1939): 119-34. 

Overview of the New Deal art projects; defends the programs 
as a way to encourage the creation of art by a wider spectrum 
of the population. A very good article. B/W illustrations of 
works by William Cropper and Ward Lockwood. NOTE: 
Reprinted in condensed pamphlet form by the Government 
Printing Office (1939, 13 pp.). 

0817 Levitas, Louise. "Cafeteria society; from Creenwich 
Village nickel night life to WPA and $23.86 a week." Scribner's 
Magazine 105 (April 1939): 14-15, 42-43. 



164 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Levitas (a FAP art model) reminisces about artists organizing 
for Federal support; she is a bit rueful about the passing of 
the old radical days now that all the Village artists are drawing 
a regular government salary. Interesting. 

0818 "A portfolio of hitching posts." Coronet (April 1939): 
11-14. 

B/W and color reproductions of LAD plates depicting hitch- 
ing posts. 

0819 "'Fascist!' cries Burg." Art Digest 13 (April 1, 1939): 
14. 

Copeland Burg of the Chicago American calls the art of the 
FAP fascist in the sense that it is goverriment dictated. 

0820 "Frontiers of American art." Art Digest 13 (April 15, 
1939): 24. 

Notice of FAP show, "Frontiers of American Art," opening at 
the De Young Museum (San Francisco). 

0821 "Third report." Art Digest 13 (April 15, 1939): 21. 

List of 110 commissions done through July 1, 1939. Com- 
piled with the assistance of Edward Bruce and Forbes Wat- 
son. 

0822 "WPA Federal Art Project." Direction 2 (May-June 
1939): 16-17. 

Works by FAP artists done for the New York World's Fair; 
photographs of art and artists at work. B/W illustrations of 
works by Eric Mose (misprint, actually Seymour Fogel), 
Philip Guston, and Cesare Stea. 

0823 Cahill, Holger. "American art today." Parnassus 11 
(May 1939): 14-15,35. 

Comments excerpted from the introduction to "American 
Art Today" catalog to the show of the same name at the New 
York World's Fair. 



Annotated Bibliography 165 

0824 "Frontiers of American art at the M.H. de Young 
memorial museum." Magazine of Art ?>2 (May 1939): 309-10. 

Note on the "Frontiers of American Art" exhibition at the 
M.H. de Young museum (San Francisco). 

0825 Kerr, Florence. "Leisure-time activities and the WPA 
Federal Art Projects." Childhood Education 15 (May 1939): 
388. 

Editorial praising the work of Federal One, particularly its 
work with children. "Experience under the Federal Art 
Project has revealed that the imagination of children finds 
fresh and spontaneous expression in murals, painting, sculp- 
ture, print-making and the arts and crafts." 

0826 Morsell, Mary. "Murals enliven school walls with vivid 
tales." Nation's Schools 23 (May 1939): 22-25. 

Morsell explains how to get a mural for your local school, 
describes the murals created as vigorous and thematically 
interesting, and gives a selection of ones she thinks are 
particularly good. B/W illustrations of murals by Russell 
Spekman, Ann Michalov, Ralf Hendricksen, Karl Kelpe, and 
Emanuel Jacobsen . 

0827 "Portfolio of wood carvings." Coronet (May 1939): 
98-102. 

Color reproductions of LAD plates depicting various forms of 
wood carvings. 

0828 "Review. Changing New York.'" Architectural Forum 70 
(May 1939, supplement): 20. 

Favorable review of Changing New York by Berenice Abbott 
and Elizabeth McCausland. 

0829 "$29,000 federal mural competition." Architectural 
Record 85 (May 1939): 10, 12. 

Announcement of Section competition for St. Louis Post 
Office mural and others. 



166 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0830 Weisenborn, Fritzi. "Lauds federal art." Art Digest 13 
(May 1,1939): 17. 

Fritzi Weisenborn, critic for the Chicago Times, praises the 
FAP. 

0831 "What of federal art?" Art Digest IS (May 1, 1939): 16. 

Excerpted from article by Lee G. Miller in the New York 
World-Telegram expressing the fear that a new bill spon- 
sored by Senator Byrnes (D, SC) that will require the states 
to help pay the costs art projects will go through, killing 
them off. 

0832 Broun, Heywood. "Save the arts projects." NewRepub- 
lic99 (May 10, 1939): 17. ^ 

Critical attack on the cutbacks made to Federal One and the 
Congressional investigatory committee looking into WPA 
projects led by H, Ralph Burton. 

0833 "Middletown: prints and paintings of the WPA pass in 
review." Art News 37 (May 13, 1939): 17-18. 

Favorable review of show of eighty prints and eighteen oils on 
exhibition at the Davidson Art Rooms, Olin Memorial Li- 
brary, Wesleyan University, CT; partial list of artists. 

0834 "Federal art on parade in San Francisco." Art Digest 
13 (May 15, 1939): 5-6. 

Highly favorable review of "Frontiers of American Art" at the 
De Young Museum (San Francisco). Includes B/W illustra- 
tions of works by Julian Levi, Edward Millman, Robert 
Russin. 

0835 Boswell, Peyton. "Frontiers of American art." Art 
Digest 13 (May 15, 1939): 3. 

Editorial in praise of the show, "Frontiers of American Art" 
at the De Young Museum (San Francisco). Boswell praises 
the carrying of FAP art to the West Coast. 



Annotated Bibliography 167 

0836 "Making a wood engraving; Lynd Ward explains 
process of how it's done." Newsweek 13 (May 15, 1939): 31. 

Lynd Ward of the FAP Graphics Division gives the step-by- 
step process of creating a wood engraving. 

0837 "To paint pageant of America for Lz/^." Art Digest 13 
(May 15, 1939): 16. 

Edward Laning, a FAP artist, is chosen by Lz/^ magazine to do 
a painting in its art program. B/W illustration. 

0838 Starobin, Joseph. "The United States arts projects." 
New Masses ?>l (May 16, 1939): 12-14. 

Intelligent, well-written defense of Federal One during the 
Congressional investigation of the WPA. Cartoon by Mischa 
Richter showing a large fish being dropped on a temple 
labeled Federal Art Projects with the caption "Congressman 
Woodrum Investigates." 

0839 Rugg, Harold. "Creative America today: American 
artists working at the American problem." Scholastic 34 (May 
20, 1939):13s-15s. 

General views on "art" in America; some discussion of the 
New Deal Art Projects as being a good idea. 

0840 "The Federal arts projects have become the focal 
point for the continuing attack on the standards and meth- 
ods of relief symbolized by WPA." Nationl4:S (May 27, 1939): 
602-603. 

Editorial calling for protection of the arts projects, adding 
that under local sponsorship they would lose their vitality. 
"Nobody loves an artist. Ridiculing him or condescending to 
him is an old American pastime. Let any politician point to 
an artist drawing government money with which to draw 
pictures and the stage is set for loud laughs," p. 602. 

0841 "Federal art activity." Arts in Philadelphia 1 (June-July 
1939): 17-18. 



168 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Note on the attempts by the Philadelphia art world, particu- 
larly the Citizens Art Committee, to save the FAP. Describes 
the work done by the FAP in Philadelphia. 

0842 US Treasury Department. Section of Fine Arts. Bulle- 
tin. Section of Fine Arts 19 (June 1939): 30 pp. 

Note on the number of competitions completed; note on 
how the "48 State Competition" will be run; drawing of the 
proposed location in each of the 48 Post Offices of each 
mural in the "48 State Competition." 

0843 "Convincing WPA achievements in five artistic de- 
partments." ArtNews37 (June 10, 1939): 17. 

Favorable review of "Functions of the Art Project" at the 
Federal Art Gallery. 

0844 "Back to pamphleteering." New Masses 32 (June 27, 
1939): 8-9. 

Reproduction of six of the twelve cartoons published by the 
American Artists' Congress (See 0907) defending the FAP. 
Text describes the pamphlet and compares it to those done 
in the past to promote causes. Cartoons by Abe Ajay, Hugo 
Gellert, David Fitzpatrick, John Groth, A. Birnbaum, and 
Maurice Becker are reproduced. 

0845 "Cultural front." Direction 2 (July-August 1939): 20- 
21. 

Note on Edward Laning's work appearing in Life. 

0846 "Save the Federal Arts Projects." Direction 2 Quly- 
August 1939): inside front cover. 

Editorial calling readers to save Federal One from budget 
cuts. 

0847 Larson, Cedric. "The cultural projects of the WPA." 
Public Opinion Quarterly 3 (July 1939): 491-96. 



Annotated Bibliography 169 

Summary overview of the Federal One projects with statistics; 
calls for support of HJ. Res. 149 (creating a Federal Arts 
Bureau) . 

0848 Whiting, F.A. "Artists' ambition." Magazine of Art 32 
(July 1939): 389. 

In praise of the projects, but feels care should be taken in 
carrying them out. "Relief, in its application to art, creates 
for those in the business of applying it, obligation of high 
order. The possibilities of maladjustment, of undermining 
real artists by supporting false ones is serious." 

0849 Hamlin, Gladys E. "Mural painting in Iowa." Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics "il (July 1939): 227-307. 

A very thorough history of murals in Iowa; only a short 
section on the New Deal mural projects in Iowa. Condensed 
version of the author's thesis (5^^0547). 

0850 "Treasury contests." Art Digest 13 Quly 1, 1939): 31. 

Section announces the nationwide "Forty-eight State Com- 
petition." 

0851 "Drastic changes loom for WPA art project." Art 
Digest 13 (July 1, 1939): 8-9. 

A bill in Congress will drastically cut WPA art funding. 

0852 "WPA." New Masses 32 Quly 4, 1939): 18-19. 

Editorial protesting government cuts to the WPA; in inset 
box, describes the successes of the FAP and other WPA 
projects. 

0853 Binsse, Harry Lorin. "Art: dubious to the value of the 
project." America 61 (July 22, 1939): 359. 

An article critical of the FAP, feeling that the FTP to be a 
much better idea. "There is something almost beyond com- 
prehension in the idea of subsidizing several thousand men 
and women to make easel paintings. It is something like 



170 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

subsidizing a request of people to 'loaf and invite their souls.' 
For most easel painting is exactly that." 

0854 "Incalculable record." Magazine of Art 32 (August 
1939): 460-71, 494-95. 

A plea (heavily illustrated in B/W photographs of works) to 
save the FAP; gives a number of reasons to save it. Includes a 
bibliography of articles in the Magazine of Art and other 
locations of articles on FAP. 

0855 "Mural competition." San Francisco Art Association 
Bulletin 6 (August 1939): 3. 

Section announces the "Forty-Eight State" competition. 

0856 Salomen, Samuel. "The Red's mess on WPA." Na- 
tional Republic 2S (August 1939): 15, 32. 

In a reactionary right-wing attack on the WPA — particularly 
the Art Projects — a photograph of WPA/FAP artists march- 
ing in a "Communist May Day Parade" is shown. 

0857 "WPA restricted." Art Digest 13 (August 1, 1939): 19. 

Announcement that all artists on WPA projects for more 
than eighteen months will be automatically dropped; if they 
are still in need of relief after thirty days, they will be eligible 
to reapply; 75% of New York City artists will be affected. 

0858 "Cultural front." Direction 2 (September 1939): 20- 
21. 

Notes on Gwendolyn Bennett (director of the Harlem Art 
Center) and Augusta Savage (sculptor and former director of 
the Harlem Art Center) being named as outstanding Negro 
women; and that the visitors to the World's Fair have voted 
on their favorite FAP mural. B/W photograph of Leo Lance's 
photo-mural at the World's Fair. 

0859 "Participation — keynote of the Federal Art Project." 
Direction^ (September 1939): 12-13. 



Annotated Bibliography 171 

Photo essay on the FAP's art classes, calling them one of the 
most important aspects of the FAP. B/W photographs of art 
classes. 

0860 Sterner, Frank W. and Rutherford J. Gettens. "Stan- 
dard for artist's materials; paint testing and research labora- 
tory." Magazine of Art ^2 (September 1939): 518-20, 545. 

Detailed, technical account of the Paint Testing and Re- 
search Laboratory of the WPA/FAP. Illustrated with B/W 
photographs of the lab. 

0861 ' 'Approved by John Q. Public." Art Digest 13 (Septem- 
ber 1, 1939): 12. 

Philip Guston's mural at the WPA building at the World's 
Fair is chosen as most popular outdoor mural; Anton Re- 
fregier's work is chosen as best indoor work. Results obtained 
from a popularity contest sponsored by the Mural Artists' 
Guild and voted on by World's Fair attendees. 

0862 Klein, Jerome. "Art." Direction 2 (October 1939): 
19-20. 

Comments that the morale of the artists on the WPA/FAP 
has been lowered by cuts and threats of cuts; Klein feels that 
artists must fight to gain back what was lost them as well as for 
peace at home and Europe. 

0863 "Large commission; St. Louis mural commission 
awarded to Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin." Magazine 
ofArtS2 (October 1939): 594-95. 

Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin win the Section com- 
petition for the St. Louis Post Office; includes list of jury 
members. B/W illustrations of works by both. 

0864 "Sculpture for the pubHc schools: from the New York 
and Illinois art projects of the WPA." Survey Graphics 28 
(October 1939): 607-609. 

Primarily photographs of sculpture by Ruth Nickerson, Lou- 
ise Pain, Joseph Nicolosi, Hugo Robus, Joseph Fieri, 
Rudolph Herr, and Romuald Kraus. 



172 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0865 "Millman and Siporin win $29,000 federal competi- 
tion for St. Louis." Art Digest 14 (October 1, 1939): 12. 

Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin win Section competi- 
tion for St. Louis Post Office mural. B/W illustration of works 
by both artists. 

0866 "Pigment standard." Art Digest 14 (October 1, 1939): 
34. 

The Paint and Testing Research Laboratory of the Massachu- 
setts WPA/FAP defines pigment standards. 

0867 "Murals of Oregon embellish its new capitol." Life 7 
(October 14, 1939): 45-47. 

Photo essay on murals in the OregorDJState Capitol done by 
Barry Faulkner and Frank H. Schwarz. 

0868 "Albert Reid paints old cattle country for Sulphur, 
Oklahoma, post office." ArtDigestU (October 15, 1939): 18. 

Reviews of mural by Albert Reid for the Sulphur, OK, Post 
Office. 

0869 "Project sponsors." Art Digest 14 (October 15, 1939): 
21. 

The WPA/FAP, with the help of local sponsors, will continue 
at 90% of its former level says Florence S. Kerr, Assistant WPA 
Commissioner, despite cuts. 

0870 "Uncle Sam hires Woeltz; mural panels in the Amar- 
illo (Texas) post office." ArtDigestl4 (October 15, 1939): 13. 

Julius Woeltz is hired by the Section to do murals in the 
Amarillo, Texas, Post Office. Includes a list of eleven others 
who received Section commissions. 

087 1 ' 'Western watercolorist; a young man goes East and gets 
his first big showing." Newsweek 14 (October 16, 1939) : 42. 

Byron Randall, who received his first art education at the 
Salem Art Center, is now getting his first one-man show at 



Annotated Bibliography 173 

the Whyte Gallery in Washington. B/W illustrations of his 
work. 

0872 US Federal Works Administration, Section of Fine 
Arts. Bulletin. Section of Fine Arts 20 (November 1939): 18 pp. 

Note on the Corcoran Gallery exhibition of Section work by 
Forbes Watson; note on Mitchell Siporin and Edward Mill- 
man's mural for the St. Louis Post Office; texts of the speeches 
given by Senator Robert M. La Follette and Edward Bruce at 
the opening of the Corcoran show; very brief biographies of 
each of the winners of the "48 State Competition." Competi- 
tion for the New Orleans, LA, Post Office (worth $14,000) 
announced (later won by Armia Scheler and Karl Lang) . 

0873 ' 'Art. ' ' Arts in Philadelphia 2 (November 1 939) : 25-26. 

Note that the Pennsylvania Art Project/WPA has just issued a 
pamphlet, Art in Use (5^^0919), that describes the Project's 
accomplishments. Praises the work of the Project artists. 

0874 "Crafts." Arts in Philadelphia 2 (November 1939) : 26. 

Note that some LVD plates will be exhibited at the Philadel- 
phia Museum of Art as part of an exhibition of folk art. B/W 
illustration of an IAD plate. 

0875 "Cultural front. ' ' Direction 2 (November 1939) : 20. 

Note that from November 11-22, 1939 there will be an 
exhibition WPA/FAP work done by children held at the 
Whitehall Ferry Terminal (NYC). 

0876 McMahon, A. PhiHp. "Changing New York; photo- 
graphs by B. Abbot, text by Elizabeth McCausland. Review." 
Parnassus 11 (November 1939): 42. 

Favorable review of Changing New York (1939) by Berenice 
Abbot and Elizabeth McCausland. 

0877 "Forty-eight state competition; winning sketches ex- 
hibited at Corcoran gallery." Magazine ofArtS2 (November 
1939): 659-61. 



174 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Winners of the Section's "48 State Competition" shown at 
the Corcoran Gallery (Washington, DC). 

0878 "New York: report on WPA art project." Art News 38 
(November 11, 1939): 14. 

Announcement that Brehon Somervell, WPA Administrator 
for New York City, released a report summarizing four years 
of WPA/FAP work; includes a summary of statistics from the 
report. 

0879 "Winners in government's 48-states competition 
shown at Corcoran." Art Digest 14 (November 15, 1939): 12. 

Summary of reviews of a show of Section's "48 State Competi- 
tion" winners at the Corcoran Gallery (Washington, DC). 
B/W illustration of work by Peter Hurd. 

0880 "Fifth anniversary." Time M (November 13, 1939): 
52-53. 

Overview of Section work; mixed review of "Exhibition: 
Painting and Sculpture for Federal Buildings" at the Corco- 
ran Gallery (Washington, DC). B/W photograph of a mural. 

0881 "Muralists' work for the federal Maecenas; exhibition 
at the Corcoran gallery." Art News 38 (November 25, 1939): 
14. 

Favorable review of "Exhibition: Painting and Sculpture for 
Federal Buildings" at the Corcoran Gallery (Washington, 
DC). B/W illustrations of work by David Martin and Edward 
Millman. 

0882 "Art for the people." Arts in Philadelphia 2 (December 
1939): 28. 

Praise for, and list of accomplishments of the Pennsylvania 
Art Project/WPA. B/W photograph of Stewart Wheeler at 
work on a mural. 

0883 Whiting, F.A., Jr. "Five important years." Magazine of 
Art ^2 (December 1939): 676-82, 729. 



Annotated Bibliography 1^5 

Overview of the work done by the Section in the past five 
years. "The Section's program, though born of the emer- 
gency, settled down to a job of longer range," p. 677. Praises 
the "American-ness" of Section work. B/W illustration of 
work by Symeon Shimin. 

0884 "Forty-eight state mural competition winners. ' ' Archi- 
tectural Forum 71 (December 1939): 40. 

Complete list of the winners of the "48 State Competition." 

0885 "Mural awards." Pencil Points 20 (December 1939, 
supplement) : 42-44. 

Winners and runners-up in the Section's "48 State Competi- 
tion." 

0886 "Save the Index of American Design!" Antiques 36 
(December 1939): 278. 

Plea to keep the IAD alive. "The aesthetic wealth of this 
country has received less Governmental attention than the 
Japanese beetle." 

0887 "New York WPA art project gives up gallery." Museum 
News 17 (December 1, 1939): 2. 

Note that the WPA/FAP/NY is closing the Federal Art 
Gallery; includes a list of the committee members of the 
WPA/FAP/NY. Includes statistics of the FAP/NY (136 mu- 
rals; 9,766 easel paintings; 1,909 sculptures; 48,816 prints; 
2,378 print designs; and 718,189 students in art classes) . 

0888 "Speaking of pictures . . . this is mural America for 
rural Americans." Life 7 (December 4, 1939): 12-13, 15. 

Photo essay on the Section's "48 State Competition." Small 
reproductions of each of the winners (artist and site identi- 
fied). 

0889 Boswell, Peyton. "Smoke before fire." Art Digest 14 
(December 15, 1939): 3. 



176 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

While praising Edward Bruce and his work on the Section, 
Boswell speaks of rumors of Bruce's resignation. 

EXHIBITIONS 

0890 De Young Memorial Museum. Frontiers of American art. 
Works Progress Administration, Federal Art Project. De Young 
Memorial Museum: San Francisco, 1939. Ill pp. 

Exhibition, April 11 through October 15, 1939. Checklist of 
403 works from all aspects of FAP. One of the most important 
FAP shows; essay by Thomas C. Parker, Numerous B/W 
illustrations. 

0891 Federal Art Project. 99 prints. Federal Art Gallery: 
New York, 1939. 1pp. 

Exhibition, January 24 through February 7, 1939. Catalog 
not seen (foreword by Lynd Ward, head of the Graphics 
Division, FAP). Invitation to opening in AAA. 

0892 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of Negro cultural work on 
the Federal Arts Projects of New York City Art-Music-Writers-Theatre- 
Historical Records. FAP: New York, 1939. 4 p. Mimeographed. 

Exhibition, February 10 through 24, 1939. Exhibition held 
at the Harlem Community Art Center of work by all 
branches of the WPA's Federal One. Includes work from 
the FAP's painting and sculpture divisions and by children 
taught in the art teaching division. Found in AAA reel 
1085.153-156. 

0893 Federal Art Gallery. Exhibition. Oils, gouaches, watercol- 
ors. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1939. 9 11. 

Exhibition, February 14 through March 9, 1939. Checklist of 
seventy-six works by FAP artists on exhibit at the Federal Art 
Gallery. Includes a statement by Max Weber on the FAP. 
Foreword by Philip Evergood, George Pickens, and Murray 
Hartman on works in the show. 

0894 Federal Art Project of New Jersey. Work for New Jersey 



Annotated Bibliography 177 

artists. Plates from the Index of American Design. Painting and 
sculpture. Newark Museum: Newark, NJ, 1939. 20 pp. 

Exhibition, March 9 through April 16, 1939 at the Newark 
Museum. Checklist of 162 works from all media. List of 
FAP/NJ committee members. Brief introduction by Arthur 
F. Egner, chairman of the committee. 

0895 Federal Art Gallery. Exhibition of plates for the Index of 
American Design. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1939. 18 11. 

Exhibition, March 15 through 31, 1939. CheckHst of 188 
plates from the IAD. Foreword by Lincoln Rothschild (acting 
head, NY Unit of IAD). 

0896 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of art suitable for alloca- 
tion. Painting, sculpture, prints, posters. Russell Sage Founda- 
tion: New York, 1939.611. 

Exhibition, March 27 through April 21, 1939. Checklist of 
159 works from all media on exhibit at the Russell Sage 
Foundation, New York. 

0896a Exhibition, April 1 1 through October 15, 1939 at the 
M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, See 0890. 

0897 Federal Art Project. Exhibition of photographs. Changing 
New York, Berenice Abbott. Federal Art Gallery: New York, 1939. 
Ip. 

Exhibition, April 12 through 22, 1939. Exhibition to accom- 
pany the publication of Changing New York by Abbott and 
Elizabeth McCausland (5^^0906). Catalog not seen. Invita- 
tion to opening in AAA. 

0898 Federal Art Project. Art in the making. Federal Art 
Gallery: New York, 1939. 1 p. 

Exhibition, May 3 through 21, 1939. Catalog not seen. 
Invitation to opening in AAA. 

0899 Federal Art Project. Functions of the Project. Federal Art 
Gallery: New York, 1939. 1 p. 



178 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition, May 23 through June 24, 1939. Catalog not seen. 
Last exhibition at the Federal Art Gallery, New York City. 
Invitation to opening in AAA. A lecture series, "2 Outstand- 
ing Art Events," was organized with this show. The first, 
"Meet the Artists," held February 27, where twelve artists 
discussed how they created their work; and "The Armory 
Show — 25 Years Later" brought together a number of artists 
who exhibited in the show that first brought "modern" art to 
America. 

0900 New York World's Fair. American art today. National 
Art Society: New York, 1940. 30 pp. 

Exhibition, June 1, 1939 to ?, 1940. Checklist of 1214 works 
from around the country, many FAP works, on display at the 
New York World's Fair. ^ 

0901 Federal Art Project. Illinois. Exhibition of painting. 
Federal Art Gallery: Chicago, 1939. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, June 22 through July 22, 1939. Checklist of 
fort^'-one works. 

0902 Federal Art Project. Exhibition. Oils, watercolors, prints 
and sculpture by artist teachers of the art teachers' division. Federal 
Art Gallery: New York, 1939. 5 pp. 

Exhibition, August 1 through 23, 1939, at the Federal Art 
Gallery, New York. Checklist of 132 works in a variety of 
media by teachers in the teachers' division of the FAP. 
Foreword by Alex R. Stavenitz. 

0903 Los Angeles County Museum. Southern California art 
project. Los Angeles County Museum: Los Angeles, 1939. 16 
pp. 

Exhibition, September 1 through October 8, 1939. Checklist 
of 267 works from all media (plus IAD and children's work). 
Foreword by Stanton Macdonald-Wright (state supervisor. 
Southern California FAP). Numerous B/W illustrations of 
works. 



Annotated Bibliography 179 

0904 Federal Art Project. Illinois. Print show. WPA Illinois 
Art Gallery: Chicago, 1939. 2 pp. 

Exhibition, September 5 through 30, 1939. Checklist of 
thirt)^-one items. 

0905 Public Buildings Administration. Section of Fine Arts. 
Painting and sculpture designed for Federal buildings: exhibition, 
The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Section of Fine 
Arts, Public Building Administration, Federal Works Agency: 
Washington, DC, 1939. 26 pp. 

Exhibition, November 2 through 21, 1939 at the Corcoran 
Gallery of Art (DC) of the winners of the "Forty-Eight State 
Competition." CheckUst of 455 works (includes names 
and addresses of all artists plus a ballot for the visitor to 
vote for his/her favorites) broken down as follows: winners 
(1-49); selections of submitted works (50-170; 208-291); 
Missouri Post Office winner (171-72); selections from the 
St. Louis Post Office competition (173-207); designs for 
the Interior Department building (292-97); Seminole, 
Oklahoma Post Office (298); no item 299; New York 
World's Fair sculpture (300-330); work for foreign build- 
ings. New York World's Fair (331-33); sculpture for the 
Interior Department building (335-37); miscellaneous 
Federal sculpture (338-46); and miscellaneous Federal 
murals (347-456). 

MONOGRAPHS 

0906 Abbott, Berenice and Elizabeth McCausland. Chang- 
ing New York. E.P. Dutton: New York, 1939. 206 pp. 

Crowning achievement of the FAP's photography section; 
Abbott's ninety-seven B/W views of New York are stunning, 
capturing many aspects of the city during the period 1936- 
1938. McCausland's brief notes on the photographs are 
enlightening. Reprinted in 1973 as New York in the Thirties 
(Dover: New York, 1973), changing only the title, the page 
layout from portrait to landscape, and putting the text on the 
same page as the photograph. 



180 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0907 American Artists Congress. 12 Cartoons defending WPA 
by members of the American Artists' Congress. American Artists' 
Congress: New York, 1939. 12 pp. 

Biting, satirical, political and often relevant cartoons defend- 
ing the FAP. Cartoons by Abe Ajay, Maurice Becker, 
A. Birnbaum, Victor Candell, R.D. Fitzpatrick, Hugo Gellert, 
William Groper, John Groth, William Hernandez, Herb 
Kruckman,Jack Markow, and Anton Refregier. 

0908 Biddle, George. An American artist's story. Boston: 
Little, Brown, and Co., 1939. 326 pp. 

Autobiography of George Biddle, the man who suggested to 
FDR that some type of relief program be inaugurated for 
artists. A fellow student of FDR's at Groton, Biddle tells his 
life story through 1939 with vigor and zing. In addition to his 
role in persuading FDR to support artists, he tells of his work 
on the Section (Biddle did a number of Federal murals) and 
his battle for the Fine Arts bureau. The chapter, "Art and Its 
Social Significance" covers his life 1933-1939. B/W photo- 
graphs and illustrations of his works. Biddle quotes from his 
letter to FDR of May 9, 1933: "The younger artists of America 
are conscious as they have never been of the social revolution 
that our country and civilization are going through; and they 
would be eager to express these ideals in a permanent art 
form if they were given the government's co-operation," p. 
268. 

0909 Doktor, Raphael. Canvas adhesives. [Technical Prob- 
lems of the Ardsts, #2] . WPA: New York, 1939. 19 pp. 

Detailed procedures for the preparation of canvases for 
mural work. Attempts to clear up problems artists face when 
mounting canvas murals on walls. Step-by-step process de- 
scribed clearly in words and diagrams. 

0910 Emple, Adam. Art lectures to the blind. WPA Women's 
and Professional Division: Jacksonville, 1939. 45 11. 

Six lectures written and delivered by Emple on sculpture, 
graphic arts, ceramics, etchings, watercolors, and oil painting. 



Annotated Bibliography 181 

0911 Federal Art Project. California's medical story in fresco. 
An illustrated account of the fresco decorations on the wall ofToland 
Hall, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco. San 
Francisco, 1939. 24 pp. 

Descriptions of the murals in Toland Hall, University of 
California Medical Center, San Francisco done by Bernard 
Zakheim and Phyllis Wrightson. B/W illustrations of selected 
panels. 

0912 Federal Art Project. Federal Art Project; a summary. New 
York, 1939? 18 11. Mimeographed. 

Description of the WPA/FAP projects and plans. NOTE: A 
number of publications came out under this or similar titles 
usually with no date; the text is usually quite similar with 
some figures updated; dating is based on this internal evi- 
dence. 

09 1 3 Federal Art Project. The Federal Art. April 1, 1 939. FAP: 
New York, 1939.511. 

Summary of FAP activities through April 1, 1939, with a New 
York focus. 

09 14 Federal Art Project. The Federal Art Project throughout the 
nation. April 1, 1939: a summary. FAP: Washington, DC, 1939. 
1011. 

Summary of FAP activities through April 1, 1939. 

0915 Federal Art Proj ect. 40 Exhibitions at New York 's Federal 
Art Gallery. A preview of the future. Federal Art Project: New 
York, 1939. 40 11. 

Chronological list of all forty exhibitions to take place at the 
Federal Art Gallery, December 27, 1935, through May 23, 
1939. Important document for the study of the Federal Art 
Gallery. Text by Robert M. Coates and Lillian Semons. 

0916 Federal Art Project. "My People, " drawings, lithographs 
and etchings by Kaethe Kollwitz, from the collection of Erich Cohn, 
New York, assembled and circulated by the Federal Art Project, Works 



182 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Progress Administration. Washington, DC, 1939. 9 11., mimeo- 
graphed. 

Catalog of thirty works by Kaethe Kollwitz (a German artist 
exiled by Hitler) . Includes a biography of Kollwitz. 

0917 Federal Art Project. Teaching art to the community: 23 
selected murals. WPA Federal Art Project of the New York 
World's Fair: New York, 1939. Pages unknown. Mimeo- 
graphed. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN FVO (SEE 1335). 

0918 Federal Art Project. New York City. Murals by Anna 
Negoe. Education of youth in science and art, Lancaster high school, 
Lancaster, New York. WPA Art Project: New York, 1939. 15 11. 

Brochure to accompany the mural ' 'Education of Youth in 
Science and Art," by Anna Negoe in the Lancaster (NY) 
High School. Most of text is biographies of the famous 
personages depicted in the mural. Brief note on nature of 
the FAP. 

0919 Federal Art Project. Pennsylvania. Art in use. A brief 
survey of the activities of the Pennsylvania art project of the Works 
Projects Administration. WPA: Philadelphia, 1939. 8 11. 

Summary of all activities of the WPA/FAP in Pennsylvania; 
list of murals completed and planned in the State; list of 
institutions receiving FAP works; mentions the invention of 
the carborundum print was made by Pennsylvania FAP. 

0920 Federal Art Project. Southern California. Historical 
murals in the Los Angeles County Hall of Records, Supervisor's 
Hearing Room. FAP: Los Angeles, 1939. 28 pp. 

Brochure to accompany the ten WPA/FAP murals done by 
Buckley MacGurrin, Charles Hulbert Davis, Ben Messick, 
Lorser Feitelson, Helen Lundeberg, Marius Hansen, Kather- 
ine Skelton, and Albert Rader. Detailed explication of the 
murals accompanied by B/W illustrations of the murals and 
photographs of the Hall of Records. Maps of the room 
showing location of each mural. 



Annotated Bibliography 183 

0921 Federal Art Project. Southern California. San Diego 
Civic Centre fountain and Donal Hord, sculptor. Federal Art 
Project of Southern California: San Diego, 1939. 23 11. 

Account of the building of the fountain for the San Diego 
Civic Centre by Donal Hord, a WPA/FAP project. Introduc- 
tion by Stanton Macdonald-Wright, State Director for the 
FAP/Southern California. B/W photographs of the artist 
and the creation of the fountain. 

0922 Federal Art Project. Southern California. Southern 
California creates. Federal Art Project Southern California and 
US Work Projects Administration: Los Angeles?, 1939?, 27 11. 

Overview of the work of the FAP in Southern California with 
reports from the following: Stanton Macdonald-Wright 
(overview); Lorser Feitelson (murals); Rene Van Neste; 
Robert Boag (mosaics); Sherry Peticolas (sculpture); Edwin 
Nahr (lithography); Paul Park (photography); Earle William 
and Arthur Vermeers (models); Christine Mayard (chil- 
dren's education); and Warren W. Lemmon (IAD). Numer- 
ous B/W illustrations. 

0923 Federal Writers' Project. Nevada. Calendar of annual 
events in Nevada. Federal Writers' Project: Reno, NV, 1939. 32 
pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. Illustrated by Federal Art 
Project workers. 

0924 Federal Writers' Project. New York City. Reptiles and 
amphibians. An illustrated natural history. Albert Whitman and 
company: New York, 1939. 253 pp. 

Popular account of reptiles and amphibians; illustrated with 
prints of reptiles and amphibians between sections of the 
work by Ad Reinhardt on behalf of the NYC WPA/FAP. 

0925 Index of American Design. Folk arts of rural Pennsylva- 
nia, selected by the Index of American Design, Pennsylvania, n.p., 
1939. 1 p. 15 color plates. 



184 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MOMA CATALOG. "This portfolio is 
selected, adapted, and compiled from original sources by 
Frances Lichten and Austin Davison II. Printed through the 
courtesy of a private sponsor." 

0926 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1939, pp. 529-34. 

General overview of the New Deal art projects for the year 
1939. 

0927 New York World's Fair. American art today. National 
Art Society: New York, 1939. 342 pp. 

Guidebook to the American art pavilion at the New York 
World's Fair. "American Art Today," an essay by Holger 
Cahill, describes the exhibition whrch included a number 
of New Deal artists; Cahill mentions the projects in the 
essay. 

0928 Overmeyer, Grace. Government and the arts. W.W. 
Norton and Company: Washington, DC, 1939. 338 pp. 

Excellent coverage of the New Deal art projects and the 
environment from which they arose. The first part of the 
work gives an historical sketch of art patronage throughout 
time around the world. The second part covers the PWAP, 
WPA/FAP, and the Section with many facts and figures. The 
numerous details on US legislation regarding the fine arts 
are good, but Overmeyer is a bit off on some of her bill 
numbers. The appendix summarizes government support 
for the arts in 58 countries. 

0929 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Master prints 
from the John Frederick Lewis collection of the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts. WPA: Washington, DC, 1939. 22 pp. Mimeo- 
graphed. 

Catalog of sixty Old Master prints from the PAFA exhibited 
under the auspices of the WPA/FAP. Introduction by Holger 
Cahill. 



Annotated Bibliography 185 

0930 Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Only where men are free can 
the arts flourish and the civilization of national culture reach 
full flower," Radio Dedication of the Museum of Modern 
Art, New York City, May 10, 1939," pp. 335-38. In Public 
Papers and Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, V.8. Macmil- 
lan: New York, 1941. 635 pp. 

During the radio broadcast dedication of MOMA, FDR 
praises the work of the WPA artists: "I think the WPA artist 
exemplifies with great force the essential place which the arts 
have in a democratic society such as ours," p. 337. 

0931 Seeley, Sidney W. WPA art in America, regional study of 
Michigan. MAThesis, Syracuse University, 1939. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN HARPUR'S #718. 

0932 Sorell, V.A., ed. Guide to Chicago murals: yesterday and 
today. Council on the Fine Arts: Chicago, 1939. Pages un- 
known. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN The Federal Art Project in Illinois (SEE 
1658). 

0933 Treasury Department. Final report. Treasury Relief Art 
Project. Treasury Department: Washington, DC, 1939. 54 pp. 
Mimeographed. 

Complete list of artists employed by TRAP and list of pro- 
jects. Five pages of narrative history of the TRAP. LOCATED 
IN THE AAA, Reel DCl 15.625-676. 

0934 US Congress. The statutes at large of the United States of 
America, Vol. 53, Part 2, 76th (1). GPO: Washington, DC, 
1939. 

53 Statute Chapter 252, "Work Projects Administration" 
(pp. 927-29) creates the Work Projects Administration from 
the Works Progress Administration and transfers the latter' s 
functions to the new office under the direction of the Federal 
Works Agency effective June 30, 1939. "Reorganization Plan 
No.l," (pp. 1423-1430): Section 301 creates the Federal 



186 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Works Agency; Section 303(b) transfers the PubUc Buildings 
Administration (the Section's division) from the Treasury 
Department to the FWA; Section 306 creates the Work 
Projects Administration from the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration and transfers it to the FWA. No specific mention of 
the arts projects. 

0935 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to 
establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. H.R. 2319, 75(1). 2 pp. 

Introduced by James P. McGranery on January 11, 1939, the 
bill would create a Division of Fine Arts within the Office of 
Education in the Department of Interior. No mention of the 
WPA cultural projects. Sent to the House Committee on 
Education. Never left committee. McGranery introduced this 
bill with minor variations two more times {See 1123 and 
1205). 

0936 US Congress. House of Representatives. Investigation 
and study of the Works Progress Administration. Pt. 1. Investiga- 
tive hearing, April 11, 17, 18, May 1, 2, 8-11, 15, 16, 18-20, 
22, June 5-8, 13, 1939. 1357 pp. 

A massive document (a second, multi hundred page part was 
published that contains no references to the art projects) 
covering every aspect of the WPA. Pp. 184-87, 1344-50 deal 
with the FAP. Covers mainly the projects in New York City 
and state (investigated by H. Ralph Burton), and Illinois 
(investigated by J. McTigue; other testimony by George B. 
Thorp, Illinois state FAP director) . 

0937 US Congress. House of Representatives. A joint resolu- 
tion to create a Bureau of Fine Arts in the Department of Interior. 
H.J. Res. 149, 76(1). 7 pp. 

Introduced by William I. Sirovich on February 3, 1939, and 
sent to the House Committee on Patents. Essentially an 
unrevised version of H.J. Res. 671 (&^0781), the resolution 
went nowhere and Sirovich died ten months after its intro- 
duction. 



Annotated Bibliography 187 

0938 US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee 
on Appropriations. Further additional appropriations for work 
relief and relief fiscal year 1939. Hearings, March 15-17, 20, 21, 
1939. GPO: Washington, DC, 1939. 311 pp. 

Testimony by Florence Kerr (pp. 124-27) on the Division of 
Professional and Service Projects of the WPA; includes com- 
ments on the FAP. Statistics cited on p. 181 show that 
$3,638,619 was spent on the FAP between July 1, 1938, and 
February 28, 1939. 

0939 US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee 
on Appropriations. Work relief and relief for fiscal year 1940. 
Hearings, May 12, 23-27, 29, 31, June 3, 1939. GPO: Wash- 
ington, DC, 1939. 586 pp. 

Testimony by Francis C. Harrington (p. Iff) discussing 
appropriations for the WPA for FY 1940. Harrington avoids 
direct answers to questions such as this one by Congressman 
Clifton A. Woodrum of Virginia: "I would like to ask you. 
Colonel, what consideration is being given by the W.P.A., for 
instance, to this sort of situation, where you have in these 
white-collar projects and professional projects people for 
whom obviously there will never be any demand in industry 
when good times come. For instance, I am thinking of 
professional musicians, actors, and actresses of the mediocre 
class, and maybe artists and people of that kind that, even 
with the return of normal conditions, can never hope that 
there will be much chance of a place for them in private 
employment," p. 84. 

0940 US Congress. House of Representatives. Subcommit- 
tee of the Committee on Appropriations. Additional appropri- 
ations for work relief and relief fiscal year 1939. Hearings, 
January 6, 9-10, 1939. GPO: Washington, DC, 1939. 228 pp. 

Hearings on appropriations bill HJ.Res. 83, 76(1). Pp.l09- 
113 relate to the FAP. Col. Francis C. Harrington (WPA 
Administrator) and Agnes S. Cronin (Administrative Assis- 
tant for the Division of Women's and Professional Projects, 
WPA) testify on behalf of the FAP. Includes statistics on the 
FAP (showing 5,000 employed on art projects as of Decem- 



188 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

ber 24, 1938). Rep. Clifton A. Woodrum (VA) asks the 
questions. 

0941 US Congress. Senate. A bill to provide for a Bureau of 
Fine Arts. S. 2967, 76(1). 3 pp. 

Introduced on August 5, 1939, by Claude Pepper, this bill 
would have created a Bureau of Fine Arts within the Federal 
Works Agency. Sent to the Finance Committee. "The Com- 
missioner of Fine Arts shall employ as many artists and 
incidental craftsmen as are necessary to carry out the pur- 
pose of this Act," p. 3. No specific mention of the New Deal 
art projects. The bill never left Committee. 

0942 US Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. 
Additional appropriations for work relief and relief , fiscal year 1939. 
Hearings, January 16-18, 1939. GPO: Washington, DC, 1939. 
284 pp. 

Hearings on appropriations bill H.J.Res. 83, 76(1). Pp. 
16-22, 183 relate to the FAP. Col. Francis C. Harrington 
(WPA Administrator) and Agnes S. Cronin (Administrative 
Assistant for the Division of Women's and Professional 
Projects, WPA) testify on behalf of the FAP (as well as the 
other projects in Federal One) . Includes statistics on the FAP 
($22 million will be needed to run all four art projects in the 
coming year). Sen. Millard E. Tydings (MD) asks the ques- 
tions: "Do you not think that these cultural fields, while they 
are of great value to the country, may be overpopulated and 
we may lean a bit over in providing employment to keep alive 
the cultural side of the Nation in that respect?" p. 16. 

0943 US Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. 
Work relief and public works appropriation act of 1939. Hearing, 

June 20-22, 1939. GPO: Washington, DC, 1939, 351 pp. 

Hearings on H.J. Res. 326, 76(1). Col. Francis C. Harrington 
again testifies on behalf of the WPA. Pp. 95-98 includes 
comments on the FAP (as well as the other Federal One 
projects — concentrating on the proposed elimination of the 
theatre project) ; statistics brought forward show that in FY 
1939, $5,000,442 was spent on art projects and that the FAP 



Annotated Bibliography 189 

employed 4,624 people (as of June 7, 1939). On pp. 333-34, 
Basom Slemp, a citizen from Wise County, VA, testified on 
the good things that the FAP was doing. Senators Millard 
Tydings (MD), Alva B. Adams (CO), and Carl Hayden (TN) 
ask questions. 

0944 US Public Buildings Administration. Guide to murals 
and sculpture in Washington, DC. Federal Works Agency: 
Washington, DC, 1939. 9 pp. 

Excellent little guide to the artwork of Washington's Federal 
buildings; gives artist, medium, and location. Maps. 

0945 Works Progress Administration. Assigned occupations of 
persons employed on WPA projects. GPO: Washington, DC, 1939. 
73 pp. 

Report through November 1937, includes a number of 
fascinating statistics. FAP statistics include: 4,019 artists out of 
89,347 professional and 1,566,830 total WPA employees 
(.39%); 917 of the artists are women (22.8%); New York City 
has the most artists, 1,688 (1.2% of WPA workers in New York 
Cit)'; 1,296 are men and 392 are women). Statistics are 
broken down for each state. 

0946 Works Progress Administration. Handbook of procedures 
for state and district Works Progress Administration. GPO: Wash- 
ington, DC, 1939 (revised April 15, 1937). Looseleaf 

Chapter IX, Section 6 (3 pp.) covers the procedures for 
Federal Project No. 1. How the projects are organized, 
special regulations, procedures, features of employment and 
financial procedures are covered. NOTE: FAP regulations 
did not change since the 1937 edition of the Handbook (See 
0560). 



1940 



0947 Bywaters, Jerry. "Toward an American art." Southwest 
Review 25 (January 1940): 128-42. 

Giving an overview of American art history, Bywaters, himself 
a WPA/FAP artist, comments on the New Deal art projects 
and praises the contributions of the Community Art Centers. 
B/W illustrations. 

- s_ 

0948 "Ernest Hamlin Baker's Mural for Wakefield, RI post 
office." American Artist 4 (January 1940): 18-19. 

Three B/W illustrations of Ernest Hamlin Baker's mural for 
the Wakefield, RI Post Office (preliminary sketches and final 
version) . 

0949 Klein, Jerome. "A developing American art." Direc- 
tion 3 (January 1940): 13, 28. 

Comments that the WPA/FAP has helped to develop an 
"American art," but that recent cutbacks have hampered its 
growth. Governmental patronage has been much more suc- 
cessful than that of the rich and privileged class at fostering a 
democratic art. 

0950 ' ' New York City WPA Art Project. ' ' Direction 3 (January 
1940): 14-17. 

Summary of and contents of, Audrey McMahon's four-year 
report on the New York City WPA/FAP. B/W illustrations of 
work by Cesare Stea, Elliot Means, Beatrice Mandelman, 
Richard Sussman, Ruth Gikow, Max Baum, Walter Quirt, 
Axel Horr, Ruth Cheney, Harry Gottlieb, and David Fein- 
stein. 
190 



Annotated Bibliography 191 

0951 Hammer, Victor. "Architrocities; public buildings 
not planned for murals." Art Digest 14 (January 1, 1940): 11. 

Victor Hammer, a Viennese artist, praises Section work, but 
criticizes official Washington buildings as being too much 
exterior with not enough planning of the interior spaces. 

0952 "Minneapolis opens art center built around Walker 
Gallery." Newsweek 15 (January 15, 1940): 34. 

Note on the opening of the Walker Art Center in Minneapo- 
lis. Praises its collection. 

0953 Hornaday, Mary. "Everybody's art gallery." Christian 
Science Monitor Weekly Magazine (January 20, 1940) : 7. 

Popular account of the Section's Post Office mural projects. 
B/W illustrations of works by Reginald Marsh and Kindred 
McLeary. 

0954 Morrison, Richard C. "Town art centers." Holland's, 
the Magazine of the South (February 1940): 12, 35. 

Good, brief account of the activities of the WPA/FAP's 
community art centers in the South. B/W photographs of 
activities in the art centers. Lists the addresses of nine art 
centers in the South. 

0955 "One out of three." Art Digest 14 (February 1, 1940): 
16. 

The Whitney annual includes 81 (out of 245) works from 
artists associated with WPA/FAP. Includes complete list of 
artists. 

0956 US Federal Works Agency. Section of Fine Arts. 
Bulletin. Section ofFine Arts 21 (March 1940): 16 pp. 

Introduction by Edward Bruce to the functions of the Sec- 
tion; letter to Edward Bruce from Henry Varnum Poor; text 
of "The Meaning of Social Security" by A.J. Altmeyer. 
Competition announced for six projects for the Social Secu- 
rity building in Washington, a sculpture competition worth 



192 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

$8,000 (later won by Robert Cronbach), and five mural 
competitions worth $3,520, $5,280, $2,700, $5,000, and 
$8,000 (later won by Ben Shahn, Philip Guston, Gertrude 
Goodrich, and Seymour Fogel). Also announced, a project 
for the US Maritime Commission to decorate US ships worth 
$1 ,330 (later won by Adelaide Briggs, Ada Cecere, Willem de 
Kooning, L. Gardner Orme, Jean Swiggett). 

0957 "Four WPA posters." Design 40 (March 1940): 17. 
B/W illustration of four WPA/FAP posters. 

0958 McCausland, Elizabeth. "Mural designs for federal 
buildings; exhibition, Whitney Museum." Parnassus 12 
(March 1940): 32, 34. 

Favorable review of "Mural Designs fojb Federal Buildings" at 
the Whitney Museum; works exhibited were the winners of 
the "Forty-Eight State Competition" sponsored by the Sec- 
tion. McCausland favors the continuance of the Section. 

0959 "The Section of Fine Art." New York Artist 1 (March 
1940): 5, 14. 

Critical of a show of Maurice Sterne's mural work for the 
Department of Justice in New York City, the writer takes the 
opportunity to comment on the various art projects, calling 
pay too low and the tie to relief harmful. 

0960 L., J.W. "New mural designs for federal buildings at 
Whitney museum." ArtNewsSS (March 9, 1940): 17. 

Favorable review of "Mural Designs for Federal Buildings" at 
the Whitney. B/W illustration of work by Barse Miller. 

0961 "Critics evaluate federal murals at the Whitney mu- 
seum." ArtDigest 14 (March 15, 1940): 8-9, 29. 

Summary of reviews of mural sketches at the Whitney Mu- 
seum. Includes B/W illustrations of works by Edgar Britton, 
George Harding, Mitchell Sioporin, Ward Lockwood, Kin- 
dred McLeary, Howard Cook. 



Annotated Bibliography 193 

0962 "Silkscreen." NewMassesM (March 26, 1940): 29-30. 

In a review of a silkscreen show at Weyhe Gallery, the author 
comments on how the WPA/FAP, and Anthony Velonis in 
particular, brought the process to the world's attention. 
Includes a quote from Velonis' s booklet (See 1 125) on the silk 
screen process. 

0963 McCausland, Elizabeth. "Art project work exhibited 
at Museum of Modern Art." Parnassus 12 (April 1940): 39. 

Review of traveling show, "Traveling Exhibition of Contem- 
porary American Art" now at MOMA; show includes easel 
paintings and watercolors from the WPA/FAP projects; in- 
cludes a partial list of exhibiting artists. 

0964 "Federal competition announced." San Francisco Art 
Association Bulletin 6 (April 1940): 3, 5. 

Announcement of three Section competitions. 

0965 "Four American traveling exhibitions." Museum of 
Modem Art Bulletin. 7 (April 1940): 4-5. 

Account of four shows with WPA/FAP connections organ- 
ized by MOMA and set to travel. "Face of America" (21 
paintings); "Mystery and Sentiment" (18 paintings); "35 
Under 35" (35 paintings); and "Jennie Lewis" (litho- 
graphs) . Includes a list of all artists represented in the shows 
(but no breakdown as to who was in which) . B/W illustration 
of work by Joseph Hirsch. 

0966 "Pennsylvania WPA art project." Pennsylvania School 
Journal 88 (April 1940): 271-72. 

Account of the Pennsylvania WPA/FAP, what it does, and 
instructions on how school administrators can get their 
schools involved in the project. Photograph of Joseph Hirsch 
and Stewart Wheeler working on murals. 

0967 Smith, Margery Hoffman. "Timberline lodge, a recre- 
ational hotel on the slopes of Mt. Hood." School ArtsS9 (April 
1940): 262-64. 



194 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

A good account of the construction of the Timberline Lodge 
(a WPA project to build a resort hotel on Mt. Hood, Oregon; 
the lodge was completely decorated by WPA/FAP artists) . A 
description of some of the decorative details. Photographs of 
the lodge. 

0968 "These diverse states: mural designs for new post 
offices; winning sketches." Suruey Graphic 29 (April 1940): 
251-53. 

Primarily illustrations of the winners of the "Forty-eight State 
Competition." Included are B/W illustrations of work by 
Edmund D. Lewandowski, Fletcher Martin, Avery Johnson, 
Stuart R. Purser, Alton S. Tobey. Barse Miller, David Stone 
Martin, and Lorin Thompson, Jr. 

0969 "Bufano's pink slip." ArtDigesi\4: (April 1, 1940): 13. 

Beniamina Bufano, a San Francisco sculptor, was fired be- 
cause of his plan to portray a CIO leader in his frieze for the 
George Washington High School. 

0970 "More silk screen." New Masses 35 (April 2, 1940): 31. 

Notes on a silk screen print show ("Exhibition of Silk Screen 
Prints) at the Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, IL, (through 
March 31, 1940, later traveled) assembled by Elizabeth 
McCausland that contained work by WPA/FAP artists 

0971 "US competitions: decorations for Social Security 
building and the President Andrew Jackson." Art Digest 14 
(April 15, 1940): 12. 

The Section announces a competition for the SS President 
Jackson and the Social Security building in Washington. 

0972 "Competitions for the decoration of the President 
Andrew Jackson and Social Security building." Art News 38 
(April 20, 1940): 20. 

The Section announces a competition for the SS President 
Jackson and the Social Security building in Washington. 



Annotated Bibliography 195 

0973 Thomas, Elbert D. "Addresses in honor of American 
artists who contributed towards decorations in Federal build- 
ings." Congressional Record Appendix S (April 29, 1940): 2476- 
79. 

Inserted remarks by Thomas. Full text of remarks by Edward 
Bruce, John M. Carmody, John Dewey, Summer Welles 
(Under-Secretary of State), Senator Robert M. La Follette, 
and Henry Morgenthau during an NBC radio broadcast on 
April 25, 1940, praising the Section. Dewey's remarks are of 
particular interest: "The work is significant both as a symbol 
and as an actual force in inspiring and directing activities 
which will extend as time goes on far beyond what is done in 
post offices and other public buildings. As a symbol it is an 
acknowledgment from official sources, with the active en- 
couragement of persons high in Government, of the impor- 
tance to our Nation of the development of art and of ability 
to enjoy art products," p. 2477. 

0974 Ward, Lynd. "The union in the contemporary art 
world." New York Artist 1 (May-June 1940): 4-6. 

"The existence of the project is a phenomenon that must, as 
time goes on, loom increasingly larger on the cultural 
horizon," p. 4. Ward claims WPA/FAP is very important and 
that it owes its existence to the Artists' Union. Covers 
concepts of artist/patron and the role of the Artists' Union 
in creating the project. B/W illustrations of works by Paul 
Lucker, Tschashasov, Willard Hirsch, and Morris Neuwirth. 

0975 Klein, Jerome. "Art." Direction 3 (May 1940) : 12-14. 

Comments on MOMA's four traveling exhibitions of WPA/ 
FAR art. B/W illustrations of work by Charles Campbell, 
Joseph Hirsch, and O. Louis Guglielmi. 

0976 "Mural paintings and sculpture in the Social security 
building and President Andrew Jackson." Architectural Forum 
(May 1940 supplement): 60. 

The Section announces a competition for the SS President 
Jackson and the Social Security building in Washington. 



196 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0977 Laning, Edward. "Murals for the central building." 
Bulletin of the New York Public Library 44 (May 1940): 393-94. 

Brief descriptions of Edward Laning' s WPA/FAP murals for 
the New York Public Library (unveiled by Mayor LaGuardia 
on April 22, 1940). B/W illustrations of the murals. NOTE: 
Reprinted as a four-page pamphlet entitled "The Mural 
Paintings of Edward Laning in the New York Public Library" 
in 1963. 

0978 Payant, Felix. "Handcrafts." Design 41 (May 1940): 5. 

Brief account of the IAD's efforts to record American ceram- 
ics, textiles and furniture. 

0979 "Work projects show at the Brooklyn museum and 
Brooklyn botanic gardens." Brooklyn Museum Bulletin 1 (May 
1940): 2. 

Note on the exhibition, "This Work Pays Your Community" 
(May 17 through June 9, 1940) at the Brooklyn Museum. 
Show will contain work from all aspects of relief work, 
including WPA/FAP. 

0980 Boswell, Peyton. "Art at the fairs." Art Digest 14 (May 
15, 1940): 3. 

Boswell comments on "Art in Action," a program of WPA/ 
FAP artists at the San Francisco World's Fair where a mural 
designed by Herman Volz will be created. Some comments 
on the WPA/FAP work on exhibit at the New York World's 
Fair. 

0981 Cahill, Holger. "American art today and in the world 
of tomorrow." Art News 38 (May 25, 1940, supplement): 
49-51. 

Cahill's account of the WPA/FAP work on exhibit at the New 
York World's Fair; numerous B/W illustrations 

0982 "Pittsfield: exhibit of WPA art. ' ' Art News 38 (May 25, 
1940): 14. 



Annotated Bibliography 197 

Favorable review of an exhibition of forty-two oils done by 
artists on the Massachusetts WPA/FAP at the Berkshire 
Museum (Pittsfield, MA) ; partial list of artists. 

0983 "American Negro exposition." Direction 3 (Summer 
1940): 14. 

B/W illustration of work by Vertis Hayes of the WPA/FAP 
done for the Harlem Hospital on exhibit in Chicago (July 4 
through September 2, 1940). 

0984 Biddle, George. "Art under five years of federal 
patronage." American Scholar 9 (Summer 1940): 327-38. 

Important article by Biddle covering the Section, WPA/FAP, 
and National Youth Administration. He praises all the pro- 
grams, but fears for their future; claims the projects are 
responsible for the surge in the popularity of art in America. 
Of the projects: "[they are] democratic, social and anony- 
mous rather than aristocratic, aesthetic and snobbish. I am 
not concerned with moral values but curious about the art 
trend in America," pp. 327-28. 

0985 "Cultural front." Direction 3 (Summer 1940) : 53. 

Note on the "American Art Today" exhibition of WPA/FAP 
work at the World's Fair; and that the WPA Art Project 
Teaching Division is holding some new classes. 

0986 "Art project highlights living American art at New 
York fair." Art Digestif: (June 1940): 10-13. 

Favorable review of "American Art Today" at the World's 
Fair, a changing exhibit of WPA/FAP work. B/W illustrations 
of work by Concetta Scaravaglione, Abraham Herriton, 
Jenne Magafan, Robert Archer, Manuel Tolegian, Roff Be- 
man, Cameron Booth. 

0987 "Arts." Arts in Philadelphia 2 (June 1940) : 27-28. 

Note that the Pennsylvania Art Project/WPA has 294 employ- 
ees as of June 1940. B/W photographs of IAD artist at work 
on an IAD plate. 



198 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

0988 Boswell, Peyton. "Project comes through." Art Digest 
14 (June 1940): 3. 

Editorial praising the work of art project artists included at 
the Contemporary American Art Galleries at the World's 
Fair. 

0989 Devree, Howard. "I.B.M. and WPA at the fair." Maga- 
zine of Art 3S (June 1940): 367-69, 384-85. 

Mixed review of WPA at New York's World Fair. "Little of the 
work is definitely bad; much of it is very good indeed," p. 
384. Praises IAD and mural work. B/W illustrations of works. 

0990 "Art: American art today." Time 35 (June 10, 1940): 
55. ^ 

Comments on the "American Art Today" exhibition at the 
New York World's Fair; finds the WPA art lacking, but the 
IAD to be a good idea. 

0991 Velonis, Anthony. "Silk screen process prints." Maga- 
zine of Art 33 (July 1940): 408-11. 

Velonis gives a full account of the silk screen process he 
helped to revive while on the WPA/FAP. B/W illustrations of 
works by Hyman Warsager, Elizabeth Olds, Anthony Velonis, 
and Harry Gottlieb. 

0992 Watson, Jane. "New carborundum print develop- 
ments." Magazine of Art 33 (July 1940): 438-39. 

Notes on the further developments of the carborundum 
print process (i.e. color prints) developed by the WPA/FAP. 

0993 "StaHn in a stove." Time 36 (22 July 1940) : 42. 

Report on August Henkel's WPA/FAP mural for Brooklyn's 
Floyd Bennett Field, one of whose figures bore a striking 
resemblance to Joseph Stalin. The mural was ordered re- 
moved by New York WPA administrator Colonel Brehon 
Somervell. Henkel said of Somervell: "Somervell's a soldier 



Annotated Bibliography 199 

and doesn't understand what culture is." Article comments 
on Henkel's radical past. B/W illustration of mural. 

0994 "First competition for American ship decoration." 
Magazine of Art S3 (August 1940): 483, 488. 

The Section announces a competition for the SS President 
Jackson. 

0995 "[Floyd Bennett Air Field.]" National Republic 28 
(August 1940): 10. 

Two B/W illustrations of August Henkel's WPA/FAP mural 
for the Floyd Bennett Airfield in Brooklyn with the caption: 
"Taxpayers paid for these two Communist murals at Bennett 
Air field by W.P.A. artists — recently burned because of public 
indignation." NOTE: The National Republic W2is an extreme 
Right Wing publication that could condemn the FAP in an 
article like this and then praise the LAD in the next {See 
0996). 

0996 Sherman, Allan. "From cellar to museum." National 
Republic 28 (August 1940): 13, 31. 

Article praising the work of the IAD; describes in detail the 
IAD's work on recording display signs. B/W reproductions of 
LAD plates. 

0997 Watson, Jane. "Federation conference passes resolu- 
tion stressing importance of government art projects." Maga- 
zine of Art 33 (August 1940): 478-79. 

Text of a resolution passed by the American Federation of 
Arts calling the projects "of such importance in American 
life as to be a necessity in carrying on a full national 
experience," p. 478. 

0998 Boswell, Peyton. "The case of the bitten hand." Art 
Digest 14 (August 1, 1940): 3. 

August Henkel's mural for Brooklyn's Floyd Bennett Field is 
said to contain obvious Communist images and was de- 



200 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

stroyed; Boswell argues that Henkel should not have done 
such a work, and besides, it was just plain bad to begin with. 

0999 "Rising patriotism brings mural purge." Art Digest 14 
(August 1,1940): 19. 

A discussion of August Henkel's mural at the Floyd Bennett 
airport in Brooklyn recently destroyed for its Communist 
content. 

1000 Cameron, Donald. "History in cloth." Design 42 (Sep- 
tember 1940): 22-24. 

LAD works to preserve narrative textile designs. B/W illustra- 
tions of the textiles. 

1001 Davis, Maxine. "American Renaissance." Coronet 
(September 1940): 127-31. 

Overview of the work of the Section, concentrating on the 
personality of Edward Bruce. 

1002 "Nineteen to decorate liners." Art Digest 14 (Septem- 
ber 1940): 17. 

Section artists to decorate new fleet of President line cruise 
ships. Includes a list of the artists selected. B/W illustration 
of work by Andre Durenceau. 

1 003 Payant, Felix. "Handcrafts today. ' ' Design 42 (Septem- 
ber 1940): 5. 

Editorial praising the efforts of the art projects to preserve 
and promote handcrafts. 

1 004 ' ' Realism in the WPA: murals in California. ' ' Art Digest 
14 (September 1940): 18. 

Stanton Macdonald-Wright, head of the Southern California 
WPA/FAP, introduces new mural material suitable for mod- 
ern buildings; will help architects accept murals in their 
work. Comments by Arthur Millier of the Los Angeles Times. 



201 



Annotated Bibliography 

1005 "Rediscovered miniatures; art treasures in New Or- 
leans discovered and catalogued by Delgado art project." 
Design 42 (September 1940): 4. 

The Delgado Museum in Louisiana working with the WPA/ 
FAP discovered a number of early American miniatures. 

1006 Watson, Jane. "Government competitions; War de- 
partment building in Washington; water colors for marme 
hospital; Marian Anderson mural; Los Angeles." Magazine oj 
Art 33 (September 1940): 543-44. 

Announcement of the Section competitions listed in the 
tide. 

1007 US Public Buildings Administration. Federal Works 
Agency. Section of Fine Arts. Bulletin. Section of Fine Arts 22 
(September 1940): 19 pp. 

Introduction on the operations of the Section by Edward 
Bruce. Winners of the competition to decorate the SS 
President Jackson and five other ships: SS President Jackson: 
Adelaide Briggs, Jean Swiggett, William [sic] de Koonmg, 
Ada R. Cecere, and Lydia Gardner Orme; SS President 
Garfield: Esther Bruta, R. Phillips Sanderson, Edmund I 
Lewandowski, Harry Simon, and Maxine Seelbmder; SS 
Monroe: Hildreth Meiere, R. Philhps Sanderson, David 
Swasey, Allen D. Jones, Jr., and Philip Guston; SS President 
Adams: Philip Guston, Jean Swiggett, James L. McCreery, 
Musa McKim, and Cleveland Bissell; SS President Hayes: 
Aldren A. Watson, Bernard Perlin (two items), Elsa V. Shaw, 
and Karl Baumann; SS President Van Buren: Tom Dietrich, R. 
Phillips Sanderson, Edmund J. Lewandowski, Musa McKim, 
and Philip Guston. Five new competitions announced: 
Carville, LA, Watercolors for Marine Hospital; $6,000 for 200 

works plus $3,000 for 100 more for rest of the nation; 

closes 11/15/40; 
Marian Anderson Mural, Department of the Interior; $1,700 

(later won by Mitchell Jamieson), closes 12/2/40; 
Los Angeles, Mural in the Terminal Annex, $14,400 (later 

won by Boris Deutsch and Archibald Garner), closes 

12/3/40; 



202 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Mural, War Department Building, $12,000 (later won by 

Seymour Fogel), closes 4/1/41; 
Sculpture, War Department Building, $24,000 (later won by 

Earl Thorp and Henry Kreis), closes 5/1/41. 

1008 "Parker made director of Arts Federation." Museum 
News 18 (September 1, 1940): 2. 

Thomas C. Parker, deputy director of the WPA/FAP, resigns 
to become director of the American Federation of Arts. 

1009 Andrews, Paula. "Colonel Somervell's Kulture." New 
Masses36 (September 17, 1940): 15. 

Critical attack on the outrageous acts by Colonel Brehon 
Somervell (NYC WPA Supervisor) against the WPA/FAP. 

1010 "New York library waits 40 years for these murals." 
Life 9 (September 30, 1940): 64-66. 

Photo essay on Edward Laning's murals for the New York 
Public Library. Gives a history of the project. Color photo- 
graphs of the artist at work and of the completed murals. 

1011 Boswell, Peyton. "Fletcher Martin, painter of memo- 
ries." Parnassus 12 (October 1940): 6-13. 

In an article on Fletcher Martin, Boswell comments on 
Martin's association with the WPA/FAP and Section (in- 
cludes a list of his Section assignments) . B/W illustrations of 
his works. 

1012 Davis, Maxine. "New American art; public buildings 
afford opportunity for artists to record local history." Reader's 
Digest 37 (October 1940): 107-109. 

Explanation of the Section and portrait of Edward Bruce. 
Reprinted from Coronet, September 1940 {SeelOOl). 

1013 Jones, Wendell. "Article of faith." Magazine of Art 33 
(October 1940): 554-59. 

Jones's comments on what it is like to be an artist in the world 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

of the Depression and war. B/W illustrations of Post Office 
murals. 

1014 Klein, Jerome. "What is happening on the Art Pro- 
ject?" Direction^ (October 1940): 17. 

Comments on Brehon Somervell's attacks on the WPA/FAP; 
also, a comment supporting the WPA/FAP by Eleanor 
Roosevelt (written at the request by the editor oi Direction) on 
cuts to the WPA/FAP. 

1015 "Artists to judge Project artists." Art Digest 15 (Octo- 
ber 1, 1940): 8-9. 

Brehon Somervell, NYC project administrator, creates an 
advisory committee to judge WPA/FAP artists. 

1016 Boswell, Peyton. "Impending tragedy; WPA projects 
maybe discontinued." Art Digest 15 (October 1, 1940): 3. 

Boswell favors continuing the WPA/FAP and feels that 
cutting them off would be a national tragedy. 

1017 Boswell, Peyton. "More art, less politics; Col. Brehon 
Somervell's plan of advisory committee of established artists 
to help lift the aesthetic level of the Federal art project in 
New York city." Art Digest lb (October 1, 1940): 3. 

Editorial on Brehon Somervell's plan to raise the aesthetic 
level of the WPA/FAP in New York City; Boswell agrees with 
Somervell in principle, but feels the various factions of the 
New York art world would undermine the committee. 

1018 "Kreis gets $9,000 job." Art Digest 15 (October 1, 
1940): 22. 

Harry Kreis get the $9,000 commission for the Section mural 
project of the War Department building; includes a brief 
biography of Kreis. 

1019 "Oklahoma litho annual." Art Digest 15 (October 1, 
1940): 21. 



204 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Nan Sheets, director of the Oklahoma WPA/FAP Art Center, 
directs the Oklahoma lithography exhibit. 

1020 "On losing sleep; Cronbach won the Social Security 
building competition." Art Digest 15 (October 1, 1940): 7. 

Robert Cronbach, wins the Social Security building competi- 
tion; includes a brief biography. 

1021 Reeves, Ruth. ' ' Murals. ' ' Architectural Record 88 ( Octo- 
ber 4, 1940): 73-76. 

Account of mural design in modern America; comments on 
the wonders and technical innovations brought about by the 
government art projects. Numerous B/W illustrations of 
murals. 

1022 "Activities in Oklahoma." Art Digest 15 (October 15, 
1940): 33. 

AAPL praises Nan Sheets' work at the Oklahoma WPA Art 
Center. 

1023 "Wanted: 300 watercolors for the walls of a Louisiana 
marine hospital." ArtDigestlb (October 15, 1940): 13. 

Section announces a watercolor competition for a Louisiana 
marine hospital; includes list of jury members. 

1024 "Federal competitions." San Francisco Art Association 
Bulletin 7 (November 1940): 4. 

Announcement of five Section competitions. 

1025 "First water color competition to decorate the Marine 
hospital at Carville, La." Parnassus 12 (November 1940): 34. 

Section competition for watercolors announced; includes a 
list of jury members. 

1026 Klein, Jerome. "Art." Direction 3 (November 1940) : 15. 

Comments on how the Artists' Union is fighting for the 
continuation of the WPA/FAP. 



Annotated Bibliography 205 

1027 Mayor, A. Hyatt. "Prints by living Americans." Bulle- 
tin. Metropolitan Museum of Art 35 (November 1940, supple- 
ment): 14-20. 

Notes on an exhibition of prints at the Metropolitan (No- 
vember 25 through December ?, 1940) containing a number 
of PWAP and WPA/FAP works. Discusses the nature and 
purpose of the government art projects. B/W illustrations of 
a number of works. 

1 028 "Murals at the Whitney. ' ' Pictures on Exhibit 4 (Novem- 
ber 1940): 16-17. 

Review of M^itney show of murals, "Exhibition by the 
National Society of Mural Painters" (through November 20, 
1940) that include a number of Section works. 

1 029 " Science and the artist. ' ' Design 42 (November 1 940) : 
15-16. 

The Technical Division of the New York City WPA/FAP 
works to solve technical problems for artists; Raphael Doktor, 
working for project, is a big help to artists. 

1030 "Detroit auto workers love Roosevelt for more than 
WPA murals in Union Hall." Life9 (November 4, 1940): 32. 

Photograph of auto workers in front of an unidentified WPA 
mural. NOTE: part of an article on the 1940 elections. 

1031 "Shahn best of 375; mural competition for corridor 
of the Social Securit)^ building." Art Digest 15 (November 15, 
1940): 8. 

The Section chooses Ben Shahn from 375 entrants to do 
Social Security building mural. List of honorable mentions 
included. 

1032 "Somervell to rejoin army." Art Digest 15 (November 
15,1940): 15. 

Brehon B. Somervell will rejoin the army, stepping down 
from his position as administrator of the New York City WPA 



206 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

office. Oliver A. Gottschalk will take over as acting adminis- 
trator. 

1033 "WPA advisory group to raise the artistic level." Art 
Digest 15 (November 15, 1940): 15. 

Excerpted from Emily Genauer's article in the New York 
World Telegram; the WPA advisory group in NYC does a good 
job of raising the aesthetic level of work done in the NYC 
WPA/FAP. 

1034 "WPA moderns at Lincoln." Art Digest 15 (November 
15, 1940): 27. 

Exhibit of surreal and abstract prints done for the New York 
City WPA/FAP NYC at Lincoln School of the Teacher's 
College; includes list of artists and prints. 

1035 Biddle, George. "You can't ... let them eat art." 
California Arts and Architecture 57 (December 1940): 20, 40. 

Biddle comments on his Harper's article (August 1940, noth- 
ing on New Deal art); B/W illustration of his work and 
photograph of Biddle. 

1036 "Edmond Amateis and his sculpture for the Philadel- 
phia post office." American Artist 4 (December 1940): 4-8. 

Detailed account of how Edward Amateis went about doing 
his mural for the Philadelphia Post Office; B/W illustrations 
of the work. 

1037 Klein, Jerome. "Art." Direction 3 (December 1940): 
2. 

Comments on National Art Week and the contributions 
made by the WPA/FAP; derogatory comments about Brehon 
Somervell's aesthetic sense. B/W illustrations of work by 
Peter Busa and Marion Greenwood. 

1038 "Peixotto passes." Art Digest 15 (December 15, 1940): 
9. 



Annotated Bibliography 207 

Ernest Clifford Peixotto, muralist, died December 6, 1940; 
worked for WPA/FAP. 

1039 "US buys 300 pictures; list of watercolors bought for 
hospitals." ArtDigestlb (December 15, 1940): 27. 

Complete list of 300 watercolors bought by the Section to be 
given to hospitals. Each cost $30; over ten thousand artists 
submitted works; includes list of jury. 

EXfflBinONS 

1040 National Gallery of Canada. Ottawa. Exhibition of 
mural designs for Federal buildings for the Section of Fine Arts. 
National Gallery of Canada: Ottawa, 1940. 26 pp. 

Exhibition, April 19 through May 6, 1940. Checklist of 149 
works. Winning entrants in the "Forty-eight State Competi- 
tion." Text by Forbes Watson and Edward B. Rowan. Expla- 
nation of how the competitions of the Section are run. B/W 
illustration on cover. 

1041 Section of Fine Arts. Mural designs for Federal buildings. 
Federal Works Agency: Washington, DC, 1940. 26 pp. 

Exhibition, no dates or site(s). Checklist of seventy-nine 
works from the "Forty-eight State Competition." Text by 
Edward Bruce. B/W illustration of work by Howard Cook. 

1042 Federal Art Project. Paintings, sculpture, Index of Ameri- 
can Design plates, posters [and] prints. Exhibition by artists of the 
New York city Art Project, Work Projects Administration arts 
program, from fanuary 8 to January 30, 1940, at the American 
Museum of Natural History, Education hall. New York, 1940. 16 
pp. 

Exhibition, January 8 through 30, 1940. Foreword by Charles 
Russell. Catalog ojf thirty-eight prints and twenty silkscreen 
posters. NOT SEEN. CITED IN Arts in America. A Bibliography. 
Bernard Karpel, ed. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washing- 
ton, DC, 1979 (entry L65c). 



208 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1043 Whitney Museum of American Art. Loan exhibition of 
mural designs for Federal buildings from the Section of Fine Arts. 
Whitney Museum: New York, 1940. 9 pp. 

Exhibition, February 27 through March 17, 1940. Checklist 
of 114 works from the Section's "Forty-eight State Competi- 
tion" selected from those exhibited at the Corcoran Gallery. 
Introduction by Forbes Watson. 

1044 Springfield Museum of Fine Arts. Exhibition of silk 
screen prints. Springfield Museum of Fine Arts: Springfield, 
MA, 1940. 3 pp. 

Exhibition, March 12 through 31, 1940. Checklist of fifty- 
nine prints by twenty-four artists; nearly all done by artists 
associated with the WPA/FAP, but done in off hours; 
most for sale. Exhibition organized by and text in catalog 
by Elizabeth McCausland. Cover silk screen by Pauline 
Stiriss. 

1045 Museum of Modern Art. Four American traveling shows 
in collaboration with the Works Progress Administration Art Project. 
MOMA: New York, 1940. 

Exhibition, April 3 through May 1, 1940. Checklist of the 
exhibition. Shows later traveled. NOT SEEN. CITED IN 
MOMA LIBRARY CATALOG. 

1045a April 19 through May 6, 1940. "Exhibition of mural 
designs for Federal buildings for the Section of Fine Arts." at 
the National Gallery of Canada; See 1040. 

1046 New York City WPA Art Project. One hundred watercol- 
ors. An exhibition by artists of the New York City Art Project Work 
Projects Administration Arts Program. WPA: New York City, 
1940. 5 p. Mimeographed. 

Exhibition, June 27 through July 19, 1940. Checklist of 100 
works shown at Tudor City in NYC. 

1047 Walker Art Center. An exhibition of "unpopular" art. 
Walker Art Center: Minneapolis, 1940. 12 11. 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

Exhibition, November 7 through December 29, 1940 at the 
Walker Art Center of a wide range of items (Chinese bronzes. 
Oceanic carvings, Aztec masks, etc.). CheckUst of twenty- 
three items (seventeen illustrated). "Unpopular" (accord- 
ing to the text) because they provoke annoyance or ridicule 
or because they are rarely seen. Introduction by LeRoy 
Davidson. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1048 Crum, Priscilla. American mural painting. MA thesis. 
Western Reserve University, 1940. 88 pp. 

Part I is a general overview of the history of mural painting in 
America; Part II covers the work of the Section in great detail. 
Good summaries of the Section's Bulletins are included. 
Close readings of a number of murals is done as well as an 
analysis of the "48 State Competition." Plates. 

1049 Department of State. Conference on inter-American rela- 
tions in the field of art. Analysis and digest of the conference 
proceedings. Department of State: Washington, DC, 1940. 32 
pp. Mimeographed. 

Summary of conference held in Washington October 11-12, 
1939 to discuss the interchange of art ideas and information 
in the Western Hemisphere. Those associated with the New 
Deal art projects taking part in the conference were: George 
Biddle, Edward Bruce, Holger Cahill, Stuart Davis, William 
Milliken, C. Adolph Glassgold, Adrian Dornbush, Rockwell 
Kent, Ruth Reeves, Audrey McMahon, Edward B. Rowan, 
and Thomas Parker. Dornbush discussed the role of WPA/ 
FAP handicrafts; Glassgold discussed how to make the IAD 
more available to Latin American nations. Many of the others 
discussed the WPA/FAP as an important American point of 
contact for other nations' art programs. 

1050 Federal Art Project. The carborundum print. WPA: 
Washington, DC, 1940. 16 11. Mimeographed. 

"WPA Technical Series. Art Circular, no. 5." Step-by-step 
procedure on how to create a carborundum print. The 



210 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

carborundum print was a new printing process created by 
Dox Thrash, Michael J. Gallagher, and Hubert Mesibov (the 
first two are responsible for the carborundum print, the 
latter for the color carborundum print) of the Pennsylvania 
WPA/FAP. Includes a foreword by Francis C. Harrington. 

1051 Federal Art Project. Fresco painting: a circular presenting 
the technique of fresco painting. Federal Art Project: Washing- 
ton, DC, 1940. 19 pp. Mimeographed. 

"WPA Technical Series. Art Circular, no. 4." Detailed de- 
scription of the processes and techniques of fresco painting. 
Includes a sixteen-item bibliography. 

1052 Index of American Design. Carved ornamentation of the 
California mission period. WPA: Los Angeles, 1940. 20 11. 

Edited by Lanier Bardett. NOT SEEN. CITED IN Mission 
motifs: a collection of decorative details from old Spanish missions of 
California {See 1053). 

1053 Index of American Design. Mission motifs: a collection of 
decorative details from old Spanish missions of California. Index of 
American Design: Los Angeles, 1940. 14 pp. 24 plates. 

Decorative details from twelve missions from San Miguel 
Arcangelin the north to San Diego de Alcalain the south are 
reproduced in line drawings by the Southern California IAD, 
Includes a brief account of the art work at each mission and 
how the survey was done. Drawings by Dana Bartlett and Hal 
Blakeley. Edited by Lanier Bartlett. 

1054 King, Albert H. Mosaic and allied techniques. Southern 
California Art Project: Los Angeles, 1940. 70 pp. 

The first part of this work is a description of mural tech- 
niques, a history of mosaics from the earliest times, and a 
survey of the theories of the symbolism used in mosaics. The 
second part is heavily illustrated (B/W and color) and 
depicts the step-by-step process used to create mosaics. An 
example of the wonderful technical monographs issued 
under the auspices of the WPA/FAP. 



Annotated Bibliography 211 

1055 McDermott, W.L. Art and government. MA Thesis, 
University of Pittsburgh, 1940. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN HARPUR'S #800. 

1056 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1940, pp. 475-81. 

General overview of the New Deal art projects for the year 
1943. 

1057 New York City WPA Art Program. "Flight, " a mural by 
James Brooks for the Sea Plane Terminal Building, Municipal 
Airport, La Guardia Field. WPA: New York, 1940. 5 pp. Mimeo- 
graphed. 

Pamphlet to accompany Brooks's WPA/FAP mural at La 
Guardia airport. Description of the mural panels. 

1058 Thomas, Elbert Duncan. Addresses in honor of American 
artists who have decorated Federal buildings. GPO: Washington, 
DC, 1940. 11 pp. 

"Extension of remarks of Hon. Elbert D. Thomas of Utah in 
the Senate of the United States, Monday, April 29, 1940" 
reprinted from the Congressional Record. Remarks by Thomas, 
Edward Bruce, John Dewey (professor), Henry Morgenthau, 
John M. Carmody (head of the FWA) , Sen. Sumner Welles, 
and Sen. Robert La Follette. Broadcast over the NBC Radio 
network, April 25, 1940. See 0973 for Congressional Record 
citation. 

1059 US Commission of Fine Arts. The Commission of fine 
arts. Thirteenth report, January 1, 1939 to December 31, 1939. 
GPO: Washington, DC, 1940. 159 pp. 

Various Section projects in the District of Columbia are 
covered on pages 52, 53, 57, 65-72, and 76. B/W illustrations 
of work done. 

1 060 Vanderkooi, Fanny Bowles. The WPA Federal Art Project, 
its contribution to the American people. MA thesis. Universit)^ of 
Southern California, 1940. 115 11., plates. 



212 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

History and background of the WPA/FAP; overview of gov- 
ernment art patronage. Vanderkooi analyzes the social con- 
tributions of the WPA/FAP to American life, she feels that 
the WPA/FAP was a positive, democratic contribution to 
American cultural life. 

1061 Work Projects Administration. WPA Art Program, a 
summary. WPA: Washington, DC, 1940. 14 pp. 

NOT SEEN. 

1062 Work Projects Administration. New York City. The story 
of the recorded word; murals by Edward Laning for the New York 
Public Library. WPA: New York, 1940. Mimeographed. 8 pp. 

Account of how Edward Laning' s murals for the New York 
Public Library came to be; a brief biography of Laning; and a 
description of the murals. ^ 

1063 Work Projects Administration. Ohio. Regulations relat- 
ing to the operation of the Ohio WPA Art Program. Federal Works 
Agency: Columbus, OH, 1940. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN RLIN. 

1064 Writers' Program. Oregon. Timberline Lodge; "a year- 
around resort. " Mount Hood National Forest. A description of the 
completed structure, art work and furnishings. Compiled by workers of 
the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the state of 
Oregon. Sponsored by Timberline Ski Club. Oregon, 1940. 20 pp. 

Promotional pamphlet for Timberline Lodge (dedicated by 
FDR September 28, 1937). B/W photographs of various 
sights in and around the Lodge. Includes a section on the 
WPA/FAP art work done there. 

1065 Writers' Program. Wisconsin. The Rhinelander Logging 
Museum. Rhinelander Logging Museum: Wisconsin, 1940. 47 
pp. 

History of the Rhinelander Logging Museum (Wisconsin) 
illustrated with unsigned block prints of logging scenes by 
the Wisconsin WPA/FAP. 



1941-1943 



1941 



1066 "Boris Deutsch wins $14,000 competition for decora- 
tion of the Terminal annex in Los Angeles." Art Digest 15 
(January 15, 1941): 21. 

Boris Deutsch wins Section competition; includes a brief 
biography of Deutsch and a list of runners up; B/W illustra- 
tion of work by Deutsch. 

1067 "A nation in murals." Christian Science Monitor Weekly 
Magazine. (January 18, 1941): 8-9. 

Coverage of a symposium sponsored by the National Society 
of Mural Painters at the Architectural League of New York to 
discuss the state of mural painting in the United States. 
Covers the New Deal art projects' mural works. Numerous 
illustrations of murals. 

1068 Hellman, Geoffrey. "Roosevelt." Life 10 (January 20, 
1941): 66-73. 

A comment on p. 72 of this article by FDR on a Section work 
in Poughkeepsie post office mural. Comments on Edward 
Bruce by FDR. 

1 069 ' 'America sees itself in new government murals. ' ' Life 
10 (January 27, 1941): 42-46. 

Photo essay on New Deal murals and Edward Bruce. 

1070 De Brossard, Chandler. "Mural design for American 
ships: a Federal Art Project." Studio 121 (February 1941): 
61-63. 

213 



214 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Extensive report on the Section competition for decorating 
US ships; excellent article on this little known competition; 
B/W illustrations of the work done by James L. McCreery, 
Jean Swiggett, Bernard Purlin, R. Phillips Sanderson, Elsa V. 
Shaw, and David Swasey. 

1071 Shanafelt, Clara. "February heroes for the collector." 
Antiques ?>9 (February 1941): 69-71. 

George Washington and Abraham Lincoln in decorative arts; 
B/W illustrations from the IAD. 

1072 Boswell, Peyton. " 'Life' goes to Washington; ten of 
the 1,125 murals commissioned by the government." Art 
Digest 15 (February 1, 1941): 3. 

Editorial praising the Section and L2/^ magazine; January 27, 
1941, issue of L?/^ reproduces 10 of 1,1,25 murals done for the 
government. 

1073 "WPA art classes in New York city." Art Digest 15 
(February 1, 1941): 29. 

Art teaching division of the NYC WPA/FAP announces that 
in 1940, 26,000 classes were held with attendance of over 
300,000. 

1074 "Art and museum projects of WPA reaches total of 
forty-eight million." Museum News 18 (February 15, 1941): 2. 

Note that through June 30, 1940, the WPA has spent 
$19,833,228 on its museums projects and $24,653,151 on the 
WPA/FAP. An additional $3,819,487 was provided by local 
sponsors. 

1075 "Competitions." Art Digest 15 (February 15, 1941): 

28. 

List of two Section competitions; War Department mural and 
War Department sculpture; includes a list of the jury. 

1076 Rich, Daniel Catton. "Art museum and the commu- 
nity art center." MuseumNews 18 (February 15, 1941): 10-12. 



Annotated Bibliography ^15 

Text of paper given by Rich at the American Association of 
Museums meeting in Detroit (May 22-24, 1940) on the 
relationship between the WPA/FAP's community art centers 
and local museums. 

1077 Federal Works Administration. Section of Fine Arts. 

Bulletin. Section of Fine Arts. 23 (March 1941): 7 pp. 

List of sixteen competitions; list of two hundred winners of 
the Marine Hospital competition. 

1078 Heineberg, Dora Jane. "The technique of wood 
sculpture demonstrated by William Zorach." Parnassus 13 
(March 1941): 107-110. 

Step by step process, illustrated by photographs, of how to 
carve wood. William Zorach demonstrates the procedure on 
"Man-made power," a teakwood panel for the door of the 
Greenville, TN court house; includes comments by Zorach. 

1079 "Museum WPA work places under Holger Cahill." 
Museum News 18 (March 15, 1941): 1. 

Note that the museum projects of the WPA will be consoli- 
dated with the WPA/FAP under Holger Cahill; no changes in 
plans are foreseen. 

1080 Cahill, Holger. "The Index of American Design." 
P.M. 7 (April-May 1941): 33-48. 

NOT SEEN. 

1081 "Competitions amplified." Magazine of Art 34 (April 
1941): 221-22. 

Announcement of Section competitions throughout the 
country. 

1082 "Index of American Design show." Brooklyn Museum 
Bulletin 1 (April 1941): 2. 

Announcement that sixty plus plates from the IAD will be on 
display from April 23 through May 18, 1941 at the Brooklyn 



216 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Museum ("Index of American Design Show"). Demonstra- 
tions by artists of how they create the renderings will be done 
during the run of the show. 

1083 "WPA art center opened by Chicago Negro commu- 
nity." Museum News 18 (April 1, 1941): 1,4. 

Note that the Southside Community Art Center (an exhibi- 
tion gallery and art-and-crafts school) opened in Chicago, 
December 15, 1940. 

1084 Federal Works Administration. Section of Fine Arts. 
Bulletin. Section of Fine Arts 24: (May 1941): 5 pp. 

List of fourteen competitions. 

1085 Alsberg, Henry G. "What about the Federal Arts 
Projects?" Decision (May 1941): 9-16,. 

Alsberg, former director of the FWP, is extremely critical of 
the destruction of the projects of Federal One. Seemingly 
critical of Holger Cahill for his staying on after the 1939 
reorganization of the arts projects (the directors of the FTP, 
FWP, and FMP all left soon after the reorganization). 

1086 "Kindred McLeary." Magazine of Art 34 (May 1941): 
cover. 

Detail of Kindred McLeary' s mural for the War Department 
building. 

1087 Watson, Jane. "Water colors for hospitals." Magazine 
of Art M (May 1941): 240-45. 

Section watercolor competition for works to be bought and 
given to hospitals are on display at the National Gallery of Art 
from Mary 15 to June 4, 1941. B/W illustrations of a number 
of the works. 

1088 "Mrs. Force attacks WPA project art; Waylande Gre- 
gory answers." Art Digest 15 (May 1, 1941): 9, 24. 

Juliana Force, director of the Whitney Museum (and former 
PWAP official) , claims that WPA/FAP is lowering the quality 



Annotated Bibliography 217 

of art produced; Waylande Gregory, an artist, rebuts her 
claims. 

1089 New Yorker 11 (May 17, 1941): cover. 

Cover illustration by Virginia Snedeker depicting a New Deal 
muralist at work on a post office mural. 

1090 "Government art shown at the National Gallery." Art 
News 40 (June 1941): 34. 

Favorable review of "An Exhibition of Two Hundred Ameri- 
can Water Colors" at the National Gallery of Art. B/W 
illustration ofworkbyJ.R. Sorby. 

1091 Puccinelli, Dorothy. "Murals by Clay Spohn." Califor- 
nia Arts and Architecture 58 (June 1941 ) : 16. 

Brief note and comments on the mural work of Clay Spohn; 
B/W illustrations and photographs. 

1092 Watson, Jane. "War in stone; sculpture groups for 
War Department building." Magazine of Art 34 (June 1941): 
325. 

Section competition for sculpture commented on. B/W 
illustration of Jean de Marco's relief on p. 327. 

1093 "Project defense work: art decorations for the Pri- 
vates' Club at Fort Ord." Art Digest 15 (August 1, 1941): 13. 

The Northern California WPA/FAP is given the task of 
decorating the Privates' Club at Fort Ord. 

1094 "WPA covers the country: projects, commissions." Art 
News 40 (August 1941 ) : 25. 

Comments on James Brooks's mural "Flight" at the Marine 
Terminal, La Guardia Airport (NYC) ; general comments on 
WPA/FAP. 

1095 Sacartoff, Elizabeth. "WPA's first-class posters make 
first-class salesmen." P.M. 7 (August 17, 1941): pp. unknown. 



218 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

NOT SEEN. 

1 096 Byrne, Barry. ' ' WPA art exhibit in New York. ' ' America 
65 (August 23, 1941): 557. 

Unfavorable review of IAD show at the Metropolitan. Gener- 
ally critical comments on the New Deal projects. "The 
purpose that animates this W.P.A. art promotion is merely to 
extend into the Government-dominated area of national life 
the self-conscious, culture-seeking attitude that has been 
typical of clubwomen's activities." 

1097 ["Photograph of WPAmural in Union Hall"]. LifeU 
(August 25, 1941): 68. 

Photograph of an unidentified mural in a Union Hall. 

1098 "Amateis and De Lue do government reliefs at Phila- 
delphia court house." Art Digest 15 (September 1, 1941): 8. 

Section assigns Donald De Lue and Edmond Amateis to do 
reliefs at the Philadelphia Court House; B/W illustrations of 
work; list of jury members. 

1099 "Art in defence." Art Digest 15 (September 1, 1941): 
21. 

WPA/FAP artists in Florida will be doing work on military 
projects such as decorating barracks. 

1100 B.,D. "WPA art in us." Art Ar^5 40 (September 1941): 
22. 

Comments on "Work in Use" exhibit of WPA/FAP alloca- 
tion to the Metropolitan Museum; approximately 100 works; 
praises art to the people. 

1101 Rowan, Edward. "American renaissance." Maritime 
Art2 (October-November 1941): 15-17. 

"Substance of an address delivered at the Conference of 
Canadian Artists." A bit of boosterism for the arts projects by 
Rowan. "I think our greatest importance has been in the fact 



Annotated Bibliography 219 

that we have taken the artists out of their ivory towers; we 
have encouraged them to cut their hair, to put both feet on 
the ground and to meet the public," p. 16. B/W illustrations 
of work by Victoria Hundey and Edward Laning. 

1102 L., J.W. "Passing shows: watercolors." Art News 40 
(October 1941): 21. 

Unfavorable review of "An Exhibition of Two Hundred 
American Water Colors" at the National Gallery of Art. 

1103 "WPA muralists exhibit." Art Digest 16 (October 1, 
1941): 7. 

Chicago's WPA Art Craft Project muralists show at the South 
Side Community 7\rt Center; includes comments by Edgar 
Britton, mural division supervisor. 

1104 "Government winners of competitions for Social Se- 
curity building. War Department building and Manchester, 
Ga. post office." Art Digest 16 (October 15, 1941): 20. 

List of winners (Gertrude Goodrich, Jerome Snyder, Earl N. 
Thorp, Erwin Springweiler) with brief biographies, and 
runners up in Section competitions; includes a list of the jury 
members. 

1105 Watson, Jane. "Woodstock to San Francisco; Re- 
fregier to decorate San Francisco post office." Magazine of Art 
34 (November 1941): 490, 494. 

Section competition for the Rincon Annex of the San Fran- 
cisco Post Office awarded to Anton Refregier. 

1106 "Refregier wins $26,0000 mural commission." Art 
Digestl6 (November 1, 1941): 14. 

Anton Refregier wins Section commission for the San Fran- 
cisco Post Office Rincon Annex; includes a brief biography. 

1107 "$26,000 commission for Refregier." Art News 40 
(November 15, 1941): 8. 



220 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Section competition for the Rincon Annex of the San Fran- 
cisco Post Office awarded to Anton Refregier. 

1108 "WPA prizes and who won them; competition at the 
Penn State College." Art News 40 (November 15, 1941): 9. 

List of various art project competition prizes and winners. 

1109 Zigrosser, Carl. "The serigraph, a new medium." 
Print Collectors Quarterly 28 (December 1941): 443-77. 

A history of the serigraph (silk screen print) and the role of 
the WPA/FAP (particularly Anthony Velonis) in bringing it 
to the world's attention. Comments on Velonis' s work as a 
printer (B/W illustrations of his work) and writer. Includes 
comments on the FAP's poster work. 

1110 American Art Annual 3b (1941-1942). 

"Government Art Projects" (p. 15), covers the Section and 
the WPA Art Program (formerly FAP) ; good coverage of this 
important transitional time for the art projects. On pp. 89-91 
the staff of the WPA/FAP are listed. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1111 Illinois Art Project Gallery. The artist in defense. Illinois 
Art Project Gallery: Chicago, 1941. 

Exhibition, 1941. NOT SEEN. CITED IN Smith, Clark Som- 
mer (5^^1131). 

1112 Section of Fine Arts. Exhibition of photographs of murals 
and sculpture. Section of Fine Arts: Washington, DC, 1941. 10 
pp. 

Exhibition, 1941; location unknown. Exhibition of twenty- 
eight photographs of murals and sculpture done over that 
past six years of the Section. Checklist of twenty-eight items. 
Location of exhibition unknown. 

1113 Section of Fine Arts. Watercolors for decoration. Section 
of Fine Arts: Washington, DC, 1941. 8 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 221 

Exhibition, 1941; location unknown. Exhibition of se- 
lected watercolors from competitions for the Public 
Health Service Hospital (Lexington, KY) and Fort Stanton 
(NM) Hospital. Checklist of 100 works. Location of exhibi- 
tion unknown. 

1114 Associated American Artists. Exhibition of children 5 art, 
by students in the classes of the New York City WPA art project, 
Associated Artists Galleries. Associated Artists Galleries: New 
York, 1941.711. 

Exhibition, April 21 through May 1, 1941. NOT SEEN. 
CITED IN NYPL. 

1115 National Gallery of Art. An exhibition of two hundred 
American watercolors. National Gallery of Art: Washington, 
DC, 1941. 12 pp. 

Exhibition, May 15 through June 4, 1941. CheckHst of 200 
works created for the Section. Text by David E. Finley 
(director of the NGA), Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson. 
NOTE: Also published as a 10-page mimeograph by the 
Section of Fine Arts, Public Buildings Administration, Fed- 
eral Works Agency. 

1116 Metropolitan Museum of Art. 'As we were"; an exhibi- 
tion of plates from the Index of American Design. Metropolitan 
Museum of Art: New York, 1941. 8 11. 

Exhibition, June 9 through 30, 1941. Checklist of 100 IAD 
plates. 

1117 Whitney Museum of American Art. Exhibition of two 
hundred watercolors from the national competition held by 
the Section of Fine Arts. Whitney Museum: New York, 1941. 9 
pp. 

Exhibition, September 16 through 30, 1941. Catalog of 200 
works selected from Section competition. Text by Forbes 
Watson (on the show) and Edward Bruce (on the Section). 
NOTE: This is the same show that appeared at the NGA {See 
1115). 



222 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

MONOGRAPHS 

1118 Art Week, Committee of Federal Agencies for. Na- 
tional report, Art Week. "American art for every American home. " 
November 25th to December 1st, 1940. WPA: Washington, DC, 
1941.22 pp. 

The WPA/FAP and the Section were among the Federal 
sponsors of Art Week. Report includes a list of events, 
objectives, plans, list of state committees, and letters of 
commendation from notable Americans. 

1119 Bell, Bernard C. Some WPA activities recorded in watercolor 
painting. MA thesis, Ohio State University, 1941. 40 11. 28 plates. 

Interpretation of various WPA projects in photographs, 
statistics, and watercolor paintings; text includes a history of 
the WPA with some information on Federal One. 

1120 Index of American Design. Decorative art of Spanish 
California. Selected by the Index of American Design, Southern 
California Art Project. Los Angeles, 1941? 1 1. 12 colored plates. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN NYPL CATALOG. "Mounted illust. 
and letterpress on verso of each plate." 

1121 Meeks, Oliver G. The Federal art program in Oklahoma 
(1934-1940). MAThesis, University of Oklahoma, 1941. 170 
11. Plates. 

Excellent inventory/ study of Federal artwork (PWAP, WPA/ 
FAP), both murals and sculpture. Lists the works done by 
each project with a brief history of the work and a biography 
of the artist (most works are illustrated with B/W plates). 
Also includes an account of the Oklahoma Art Center, 
Oklahoma City with a list of exhibitions held there, January 
1936 through February 1941. 

1122 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1941, pp. 516-24. 

General overview of the New Deal art projects for the year 
1941. 



Annotated Bibliography 223 

1123 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to 
establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. H.R. 600, 77(1). 2 pp. 

Introduced by James P. McGranery on January 3, 1941, the 
bill would create a Division of Fine Arts within the Office of 
Education in the Department of Interior. No mention of the 
WPA cultural projects. Sent to the House Committee on 
Education. Never left Committee. McGranery introduced 
this bill with minor variations one more time {See 1205). 

1124 US Congress. House of Representatives. Subcommit- 
tee of the Committee on Appropriations. Work relief and relief 
for fiscal year 1941. Hearings held March 26, 1940. USGPO: 
Washington, DC, 1941. 1261 pp. 

Testimony by Francis C. Harrington (pp. 448-49) and 
Florence Kerr (pp. 587-90) on the WPA/FAP. The two WPA 
administrators discuss the increased local sponsorship of 
WPA/FAP activities. Tables show that there were 5,226 
workers employed on the WPA/FAP on January 3, 1940 as 
compared to only 4,629 on June 30, 1939, the last day of 
Federal sponsorship. 

1125 Velonis, Anthony. Techniques of the silkscreen process. 
[Technical Problems of the Artist #6]. WPA Education 
Program: New York, 1941. 2 v. (36 pp.). 

One of the most popular publications of the WPA/FAP, 
Velonis gives step-by-step instruction on how to create a silk 
screen print. Illustrated with drawings and B/W photographs 
of the processes and examples. 

1126 Work Projects Administration. Manual of rules and 
regulations. GPO: Washington, DC, 1941. Looseleaf, 4 vol- 
umes. 

Volume 1 gives a good, clear history of the WPA and a 
chronology of the legislation affecting the agency; Section 
I.G.OIO gives the telegram code words for the FAP (1935 = 
VALID; 1936 = VIGIL; 1937 = VATIC; 1938 - SWAIN; from 
1939 there were no more); Section 2.9.025-026 (Operating 



224 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Procedure E-9, Appendix A), "Articles for Art and Museum 
Projects," covers the "rental or purchase of property and 
impersonal services" of items related to the art projects; 
Volume 3 covers the general rules all WPA employees must 
conform to; Volume 4 covers the general financial regula- 
tions of the WPA. 

1127 Work Projects Administration. Oklahoma. News 
flashes [of the Oklahoma WPA art center]. Oklahoma City, 1941-. 
Reproduced from typewritten copy, monthly. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN WILCOX. 

1128 Work Projects Administration. Pennsylvania. Folk art 
of rural Pennsylvania. Selected by the Index of American Design, 
Pennsylvania art project, Work Projects Administration. Philadel- 
phia, 1941?. 1 p. 15 colored plates. 

Silk-screened prints of folk art designs selected from IAD 
plates; descriptive letterpress. 



1942 

1 1 29 "Prize-winning design for Canastota post office mural 
competition." Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts Quarterly. 3 (Janu- 
ary-February-March 1942): 11. 

Alison Kingsbury (illustration of work) wins the Section 
competition for the Canastota Post Office mural; selected 
from ninety-three entries. 

1130 "Artists invited to submit work for selection and 
possible purchase." Art Digest 16 (January 1, 1942): 11. 

Section asks for works to be used for propaganda purposes; 
desires works that "clarify the American Public's knowledge 
of war and defence efforts"; $2,000 has been set aside for 
such purchases. 

1131 Watson, Jane. "Red cross challenges the artist." Mag- 
azine of Art ?)b (February 1942): 75. 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

Section sponsors a poster competition for the American Red 
Cross. 

1132 "Creative talent mobilized." Design 43 (March 1942) : 
5. 

Explanation of how WPA/FAP art workers are turning to war 
work. 

1133 Durney, Helen. "WPA camouflage class." Design 43 
(March 1942): 27. 

Account of how the WPA/FAP in New York City is teaching 
camouflage classes; summarizes Homer Saint-Gauden's arti- 
cle, "Concealment Methods" from the Military Engineer, on 
what camouflage is. 

1134 Whiting, F.A., Jr. "Call to action; pictures of national 
defense and war activities from the national competition." 
Magazine of Arfib (March 1942): 96-101. 

The Section along with the Office of Emergency Manage- 
ment sponsors a competition to produce posters suitable for 
propaganda purposes. 109 works were selected from 2,582 
entered. Lists jury members. Selected works shown at the 
National Gallery of Art from February 2, 1942, forward. B/W 
illustration of works. 

1135 "Laning completes New York library murals." Art 
DigestlQ (March 1, 1942): 16. 

Edward Laning completes murals in the New York Public 
Library begun in 1938. 

1136 "War art in Capital." Art Digest 16 (March 1, 1942): 

18. 

National Gallery of Art shows work chosen in a national 
competition sponsored by the Section and Office of Emer- 
gency Management; includes list of jury members and artist. 

1137 ' 'American prints between two world wars. ' ' Art Digest 
16 (March 15, 1942): 24. 



226 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Review of "Between Two Wars" at the Philadelphia Museum 
of Art; includes a number of works by WPA/FAP artists. 
Includes B/W illustrations of work by Peggy Bacon and Lewis 
Daniel. 

1138 "Post office panel installed." Art Digest 16 (March 15, 
1942): 17. 

Terra cotta panel by Helen Wilson installed by the Section at 
Lowvill, NY, Post Office. 

1139 O'Connor, J., Jr. "American watercolor exhibition on 
circuit." Carnegie Magazine 16 (April 1942): 17-18. 

Account of the Section competition to supply water colors for 
a hospital in Louisiana. One hundred of the works went to 
the hospital and two hundred others went on tour. Exhibit 
will be at the Carnegie Institute thi'ough March 12, 1942. 
B/W illustration of work by Charles Thwaites. 

1140 Goeller, Charles L. "Home defense." Magazine of Art 
35 (May 1942): 190. 

Letter to the editor. Goeller claims that Gilmore D. Clarke is 
out to depose Edward Bruce as head of the Section. Calls on 
artists to support Bruce. Lists the evil doings of Goeller. 

1141 "Quality of mercy; Red cross posters. ' ' Magazine of Art 
35 (May 1942): 182, cover illustration. 

Seventy works of 2,038 are selected in Section competition in 
support of Red Cross. 

1142 "For the Red Cross." Art Digest 16 (May 15, 1942): 9. 

National Gallery of Art exhibits Section works commissioned 
to benefit the Red Cross; seventy works in show. 

1143 Taylor, Francis Henry. "Suspension of the WPA mu- 
seum project." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 37 (June 
1942): 164-65. 

Announcement of the suspension of the WPA museum 



Annotated Bibliography 227 

project; Taylor tells what it was and thanks the WPA for what 
it did for the Metropolitan. 

1 144 "200 American watercolors from government compe- 
tition." Baltimore Museum News 4i (June 1942): 45-46. 

Note on "200 American Watercolors" (Section works) on 
exhibit at the Baltimore Museum of Art (June 5-28, 1942); 
B/W illustration of work by Paul E. Fontaine. 

1145 Boswell, Peyton. "Metropolitan adopts the Index." 
Art Digest 16 (July 1, 1942): 3. 

Editorial by Boswell praising the Index of American Design; 
claims the IAD alone was worth all the money spent on 
government art projects. 

1146 "Metropolitan takes over Index of design." Antiques 
42 (July 1942): 42-43. 

Brief note announcing that the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
is taking the IAD over. 

1147 "[Anton Refregier]." New Masses 44 (August 11, 
1942): 29. 

B/W illustration of the Section mural by Anton Refregier 
done for the Plainfield NJ, Post Office. Notes that the murals 
and sketches are on exhibit at ACA Gallery (NYC) through 
August 14, 1942. 

1148 MacHarg, Katherine. "Clay of your community; art 
center, Duluth, Minnesota, a WPA art project." School Arts 4:2 
(September 1942): 30-31. 

Children at the Duluth Art Center under the auspices of the 
Federal Arts Project of Minnesota do clay sculpture; B/W 
photographs of the clay works by the children (Clarice Bonk, 
Donald Olson, and Fay Eilers) and a description of the 
classes. 

1149 "Metropolitan museum to carry on WPA index." 
Museum News 20 (September 1, 1942): 1. 



228 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Note that the Metropolitan Museum will take over the IAD. 

1150 Berryman, Florence S. "Guns and brushes; art pro- 
jects of the US armed forces." Magazine of Art 35 (October 

1942): 214-17. 

Overview of art works being done for the war effort, 
primarily by the Section. B/W illustrations of works and 
photographs. 

1151 Berryman, Florence S. "Recent achievements under 
Section of Fine Art: Federal Trade Commission Building, 
War Department Building, Social Security Building." Maga- 
zine of Art ?>b (October 1942): 224. 

Two recently completed Section projects; Michael Lantz wins 
the competition for Federal Trade Commission building; 
Seymour Fogel that for the fresco of the Social Security 
building. B/W illustration of a work by each artist. 

1152 Colby, Merle. "Emblems of America." Magazine of Art 
35 (October 1942): 204-207. 

IAD plates on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
("Emblems of Unity and Freedom"); designs from the IAD 
showing American eagles, flags. Liberty, and other emblems 
of America. B/W illustrations from IAD. 

1153 "History of Missouri." Pictures on Exhibit 6 (October 
1942): 8-9. 

Brief account of Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin's 
mural for the St. Louis Post Office. 

1154 "Mural commemorates man's conquest of air." Art 
Digestll (October 1, 1942): 11. 

Summary of reviews of James Brooks's mural, "Flight," for 
the La Guardia Marine Air Terminal just completed. Com- 
ments by Edward Alden Jewell of the New York Times who 
feels it was one of the best murals done under the art 
projects. B/W illustration of mural. 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

1155 "Missouri: new murals show its history." Life 13 (Oc- 
tober 12, 1942): 70-81. 

Photo essay on Section murals by Edward Millman and 
Mitchell Siporin done for the St. Louis Post Office. Mostly 
B/W and color reproductions. 

1156 "Gay Victorian designs at Met; exhibition entided 'I 
remember that.'" ArtDigest 17 (October 15, 1942): 17. 

Favorable review of "I Remember That,' ' a show of IAD work 
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Comments by Edward 
Alden Jewell of the New York Times. 

1 157 "Millman and Siporin recount Missouri; history in St. 
Louis murals." ArtDigest 17 (October 15, 1942): 12-13. 

Hiffh praise for murals completed for the St. Louis Post 
Office by Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin. B/W illus- 
tration of the murals. 

1158 "Emblems of unity and freedom." Antiques 42 (No- 
vember 1942): 262. 

Note/review of "Emblems of Unity and Freedom" at the 
Metropolitan. B/W illustrations from accompanying book- 
let. 

1159 "Remember that? I remember that; exhibition at the 
Metropolitan." ArtDigestll (December 1, 1942): 15. 

Review of the catalog accompanying the "I Remember That" 
exhibition at the Metropolitan. 

1160 Boswell, Peyton. "WPA honorably discharged." Art 
DigestM (December 15, 1942): 3. 

Editorial praising the work done by the WPA/FAP. Despite 
some drawbacks and problems in the programs, Boswell 
hopes government support of the arts will be encouraged 
after the war. 



230 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

EXHIBITIONS 

1161 Metropolitan Museum of Art. Emblems of unity and 
freedom. Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 1942. 32 pp. 

Exhibition, 1942. Booklet to accompany exhibition of IAD 
plates illustrating American symbols such as the flag. Liberty, 
and eagles. Text signed by Holger Cahill. 

1162 Metropolitan Museum of Art. '7 remember that," an 
exhibition of interiors of a generation ago. The Index of American 
Design. Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 1942. 21 pp. 

Exhibition, 1942. Booklet to accompany exhibit IAD plates 
showing recreations of Victorian and Edwardian interiors. 
B/W illustrations. Text by Benjamin Knotts. 

1163 Howard University Art Gallery, Exhibition of mural 
sketches commissioned by the Government of the United States for 
Federal buildings. Lent by the Section of Fine Arts, Public Buildings 
Administration, Federal Works Agency. Howard University Art 
Gallery: Washington, DC, 1942. 4 pp. 

Exhibition, April 15 through May 17, 1942. Checklist of thirty 
items. Text by Forbes Watson on how the Section works. B/W 
illustration by Peter Hurd. 

1164 Mexico. Departamento de Informacion para ed ex- 
tranjero. WPA exposition de trabojos del programa de arte de 
Pennsylvania, Palcio de bellas artes de Mexico; catalogo, Depar- 
tamento de informacion para el extranjero, Secretaria de relciones 
exteriores. Cooperativa talleres grafico de la nacion: Mexico 
City, 1942. 16 pp. 

Exhibition, April 20 through 25, 1942. Checklist of 107 
works; selected B/W illustrations. Brief overview of the 
project. Biographic entries on Aharon Ben-Samuel, Isaac 
Lizschutz, Isidore Possof, and Herschel Levit. 

1165 Whitney Museum of American Art. Between two wars. 
Prints by American artists 1914-1941. Whitney Museum of 
American Art: New York, 1942. 



Annotated Bibliography 231 

Exhibition, March 3 through 31, 1942. CheckUst of 261 
prints. Exhibition included a number of works by the FAP. 
Brief introduction by Carl Zigrosser mentions the impor- 
tance of the WPA/FAP to graphic art in the United States. 
B/W cover illustration. 

1166 Downtown Gallery. Paintings, cartoons, photographs of 
the St. Louis Post Office murals by Mitchell Siporin and Edward 
Millman. Downtown Gallery: New York, 1942. Pamphlet. 

Exhibition, October 13 through 31, 1942. CheckUst of thir- 
teen photographs of the murals, nine oil sketches, and an 
unspecified number of drawings of the St. Louis Post Office 
murals by Edward Millman and Mitchell Siporin, a Section 
project. Color reproduction on the cover. Includes a reprint 
of the editorial from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch (June 14, 
1942) praising the murals. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1167 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1942, pp. 399-403. 

General overview of the New Deal art projects for the year 
1942. 

1168 Roosevelt, Franklin D. "The President declares that 
WPA has earned an 'Honorable Discharge' and announces 
discontinuation of WPA projects. Letter to Federal Works 
Administrator, December 4, 1942," pp. 505-16. In Public 
Papers and Addresses of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, V.ll. Harper 
and Brothers: New York, 1950. 552 pp. 

FDR calls the WPA a "job well done, but done." In the Note 
to the letter are the final statistics on the WPA projects. 

1169 US Congress. US Statutes at Large V. 56, pt. 1, pp. 
634-45. Chapter 479, Section 1. 

The final gasp of the WPA: Section 1(h) gives the final 
extension of the WPA until June 30, 1943. Signed into law, 
July 2, 1942. 



232 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1 170 US Congress. House of Representatives. 77th (2) . H.J. 
Res. 324, Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1943. GPO: 
Washington, DC, 1942. 

Bill extending the operations of the WPA until June 30, 1943. 
Introduced into House June 9, 1942 by Rep. Joseph Cannon; 
passed House June 11, 1942 (279 to 52); passed Senate June 
25, 1942 (by resolution); signed into law July 2, 1942 (Public 
Law 651; 56 Stat. 479). 

1171 US Congress. House of Representatives. Subcommit- 
tee of the Committee on Appropriations. Work relief and relief 
for fiscal year 1942. Hearings held May 21, 1941. USGPO: 
Washington, DC, 1941. 466 pp. 

Testimony of Howard O. Hunter (Acting Commissioner of 
the WPA) and Florence Kerr (pp. 190-92, 262-63) defending 
the WPA/FAP against Congressmen Clifton A. Woodrum (of 
Virginia) and J. William Ditter (of Pennsylvania). Congress- 
man John Taber of New York: "A lot of them [workers of the 
WPA] get jobs who have no ability along those lines, and the 
same way with art, music, and that sort of thing"; to which 
Hunter responded, "I think our writers' and art projects are 
substantial and stand up well in public opinion" p. 190. 

1172 Work Projects Administration. Furniture designed and 
executed for Timberline Lodge, Mt. Hood National Forest under the 
direction of Margery Hoffman Smith, Assistant State Director of the 
Division of Women '5 and Professional Projects. WPA: Mt. Hood, 
OR?, 1942. 2 V. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Timberline Lodge: a Love Story {See 
1605). One copy in the Multnomah County (OR) Library. 



1943 

1173 "Federal murals to honor the Negro." Art Digest 17 
(January 1, 1943): 9. 



Annotated Bibliography 233 

Section announces a competition to record the contribu- 
tions of Black Americans to American history in the Recorder 
of Deeds Building (Washington, DC). Includes a list of 
possible subjects and jury members. 

1 174 "Edward Bruce." Magazine of Art 36 (February 1943) : 
69. 

Obituary of Edward Bruce (died January 27, 1943). Praises 
his work on the Section as well as his own art. "The loss of 
Edward Bruce will be seriously felt in all the fields in which he 
has distinguished himself." 

1175 "Gifts from WPA projects." El Palacio 50 (February 
1943): 43-44. 

Account of how the Museum of New Mexico became the 
recipient of WPA/FAP works on the shutdown of the project. 
A brief description of the contents of the allocation. 

1176 Boswell, Peyton. "Ned Bruce passes." Art Digest 17 
(February 1, 1943): 16. 

Boswell praises the work of Edward Bruce (died January 27, 
1943) both as artist and administrator in this obituary. B/W 
photograph of Bruce. 

1 177 ' 'Exhibits for circulation. ' ' Museum News 20 (February 
15, 1943): 1-2. 

Note that the Metropolitan is offering twelve different exhib- 
its of IAD plates for circulation. 

1178 "Personals." Museum News 20 (February 15, 1943): 3. 

Obituary of Edward Bruce (died January 27, 1943). NOTE: 
Obituary prints the incorrect date of January 26, 1943. 

1179 "Died." Architectural Forum 78 (March 1943): 118. 



234 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Obituary of Edward Bruce (died January 27, 1943). Includes 
B/W photograph of Bruce. 

1179a Knotts, Benjamin. "Hand to work and hearts to 
God." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin n.s. 1 (March 1943): 
231-36. 

Discussion of Shaker art to accompany exhibit, "Shaker 
Craftsmanship" (March 22, 1943 through ?) at the Metropol- 
itan (Shaker art plus IAD plates) ; B/W illustrations of plates. 

1180 "Guston's Social Security mural." ArtNews4:2 (March 
1,1943): 8. 

Philip Guston completes his Section mural for the Social 
Security Building (Washington, DC) . 

1181 "Austere beauty: Shaker art; exhibition of Index of 
American Design drawings and photographs at the Metro- 
politan." Antiques A^ (April 1943): 188-89. 

Brief account of the Shakers; relation of IAD plates on 
display at the Metropolitan based on Shaker designs. B/W 
reproductions of LAD plates. 

1182 "Mural winners of competition for the decoration of 
the Recorder of Deeds building." Art Digest 17 (April 15, 
1943): 24. 

Announcement of winners in Section competition for murals 
on Black history in the Recorder of Deeds Building (Wash- 
ington, DC). Winners were Herschel Levitt, Carlos Lopez, 
Martyl Schweig, Maxine Seelbinder, Ethel Magafan, Austin 
Mecklam, and William Edward Scott. Many of the works of 
the winners and runners-up will be on display at Howard 
University (Washington, DC). 

1183 "Landscapes by Olaf Krans, showing daily activities of 
the Bishop Hill pioneers." Design 44 (May 1943): 17. 

Illinois IAD project has rendered sixteen objects from the 
daily life of the Bishop Hill pioneers (a Shaker-like sect); 
article primarily concerned with landscapes by the artist Olaf 
Krans also in the show, not an WPA/FAP artist. 



Annotated Bibliography 235 

1184 Whitehill, Virginia N. "American circus carving." 
Magazine of Art 36 (May 1943): 172-75, cover illustration. 

Examples of circus art preserved in the IAD. B/W illustra- 
tions of LAD plates. 

1185 Rothenstein, John. "State patronage of wall painting 
in America." Studio 126 (July 1943): 1-10. 

Positive account of the PWAP and Section work in the US 
written for a British audience. Numerous B/W and color 
reproductions of murals. 

1186 "Index of American Design to go to National Gal- 
lery." Antiques 44 (August 1943): 87. 

Brief note on the transfer of the IAD from the Metropolitan 
to the National Gallery of Art. 

1187 "Is a WPA mural inviolate — or whitewashable." Art 
Digest 17 (August 1, 1943): 18. 

Emerson Burkhart's mural, "The Citizen," created for the 
Columbus Central High School, painted over in 1938, is in the 
news again as the Columbus Art League tries to get it restored. 
Includes comments from local artists and community leaders. 

1188 "MetropoHtan Museum of Art custodian of the WPA 
index." Liturgical Arts 11 (August 1943): 76. 

Brief note on the IAD at the Metropolitan, what it is, and a 
recommendation for clergy and seminarians to visit it. 

1189 "WPA's record: Index of American Design trans- 
ferred to National Gallery." Art News 42 (August 1943): 36. 

Announcement of the transfer of the IAD from the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art to the National Gallery of Art. 

1 190 ' 'Another WPA mural disappears. ' ' Art Digest 1 7 (Sep- 
tember 1943): 17. 

Report by Fritzi Weisenborn of the Chicago Times on the 
destruction of WPA murals; specifically comments on a 



236 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

mural by Rudolph Weisenborn (husband of Fritzi) whose 
mural "Steelworkers" (B/W illustration) has been de- 
stroyed. 

1191 Boswell, Peyton. "Threat of the whitewash brush." Art 
Digest 17 (September 1943): 3. 

When efforts are made to restore a mural by Emerson 
Burkhart that was covered over a few years earlier meet with 
controversy, Boswell questions whether it is right to white- 
wash any work of art; his answer is no, no matter how bad the 
work may be thought to be at the moment. 

1192 "Threat of the whitewash brush." Art Digest 17 (Sep- 
tember 1943): 16. 

A pair of editorials on the Columbus Central High School 
mural by Emerson Burkhart whitewashed soon after its 
completion; present attempts to have it restored are meeting 
with controversy. Albert Sterner is in favor of leaving it 
covered; Leon Kroll wants to save it. 

1193 "National Gallery of Art gets Index of design." Mu- 
seum News2l (September 15, 1943): 1. 

Philip B. Fleming, administrator of the Federal Works 
Agency, announces that the National Gallery of Art will be 
the custodian of the IAD: "It seems to be fitting that this 
important work, of great interest to all Americans . . . should 
ultimately be located in Washington." 

1193a Biddle, George, et al. "Government and the arts." 
Harper's Magazine 187 (October 1943): 427-34. 

General comments on the role of government in the arts; 
calls for the formation of some type of Federal bureau of arts. 

1194 Boswell, Peyton. "Remembering Ned Bruce." Art 
Digest 18 (October 15, 1943): 3. 

Obituary for Edward Bruce who had died the previous 
winter; 124 artists donate small works for the Edward Bruce 
Memorial Collection in the Hollywood (FL) Hospital. 



Annotated Bibliography 237 

1 1 95 ' ' WPA prints for the Met. ' ' Art Digest 1 8 (November 1 , 
1943): 13. 

Exhibition of 133 WPA/FAP prints at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art selected from more than 1,700 given to the 
Met by the WPA. 

1 196 Boswell, Peyton. ' 'A federal art bureau. ' ' Art Digest 1 8 
(November 15, 1943): 3. 

Editorial on George Riddle's proposal for a postwar Federal 
Art Bureau; Boswell comments on the WPA/FAP experience 
and past Federal Art Bureau attempts. 

1197 Davis, Stuart. "What about modern art and democ- 
racy? with special reference to George Biddle's proposals." 
Harpers Magazine 188 (December 1943): 16-23. 

Davis feels that the New Deal Art Projects — particularly the 
Section — effectively censored the arts by promoting Region- 
alism and Social Realism at the expense of abstract art. 
Critical of Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson. 

1198 Boswell, Peyton. "The government and art." Art 
Digest\8 (December 1, 1943): 3. 

Summary of readers' comments on Boswell's earlier editorial 
on the proposal for a Federal Art Bureau {See 1196). 

1198a Bridaham, Lester B. "Federal art bureau?" Art Digest 
18 (December 15, 1943): 3. 

Peyton Boswell reprints a letter from Lester B. Bridaham on 
how the government should handle postwar support for the 
artist. Cites experience with WPA/FAP and feels more of an 
effort should be made to support the consumption of art 
rather than its production. See also 1196 and 1198. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1199 Howard, Donald S. The WPA and Federal relief policy. 
Russell Sage Foundation: New York, 1943. 879 pp. 



238 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Excellent account of the many and varied activities of the 
WPA; art projects are covered briefly on pp. 140, 236-40, and 
319. 

1200 Index of American Design. Index of American Design 
study series. Prepared and executed by the New York City WPA Art 
Project. Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 1943? 5 
cases of mounted color plates (52 cm). 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MET LIBRARY CATALOG. "The 
plates are original water colors executed by members of the 
project. Mounted leaf of introductory text accompanies each 
case of plates. 

) 

1201 Metropolitan Museum of Art. Pennsylvania German 
designs, a portfolio of silk screen prints. The Index of American 
Design, the National Gallery of Art, research by the Pennsylvania 
WPA art project. Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 
1943. 8 pp. 20 plates. 

Large size (36 X 28.5 cm) silk-screen prints of Pennsylvania 
German designs with descriptive letterpress. An early at- 
tempt to mass produce LAD plates. Text by Benjamin Knotts. 

1202 Miller, Dorothy Canning. "Painting and sculpture." 
In Collier's Yearbook 1943, pp. 410-16. 

General overview of the New Deal art projects for the year 
1943. 

1203 Miller, Dorothy Canning. The United States government 
art projects: a brief summary; excerpted from annual articles on 
painting and sculpture prepared by Dorothy C Miller for Collier's 
Yearbook. Museum of Modern Art: New York, 1943? 18 pp. 
Mimeographed. 

Reprint of the general overviews of the New Deal art projects 
from Collier's Yearbook for the years 1935-1938, written by 
Dorothy Canning Miller, who was, besides a noted art critic, 
the wife of Holger Cahill. 

1 204 Section of Fine Arts. Public Buildings Administration . 



Annotated Bibliography 239 

Final report. Section of Fine Arts, Public Buildings Administration. 
GPO: Washington, DC, 1943. 31 pp. Mimeographed. 

Complete list of Section artists with date of work, cost, media, 
and location. Done with a state-by-state breakdown. Available 
on AAA reel NDA 18.623-553. 

1205 US Congress. House of Representatives. A bill to 
establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. H.R. 900, 78(1). 2 pp. 

Introduced by James P. McGranery on January 8, 1943, the 
bill would create a Division of Fine Arts within the Office of 
Education in the Department of Interior. No mention of the 
WPA cultural projects. Sent to the House Committee on 
Education. Never left committee. 

1206 US Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. 
Independent offices appropriation bill for 1944. Hearings, January 
8, 11-15, 18-20, 25, 1943. GPO: Washington, DC, 1943. 1299 
pp. 

Hearings on appropriations for 1944, 78th Congress, 1st 
session. Philip B. Fleming, administrator of the Federal 
Works Agency (testifying on pp. 371-81 on the status of the 
WPA) , assures Congress that the WPA will soon cease to exist: 
"I can assure you there will be no such thing as the Work 
Projects Administration appearing any place after the 1st of 
July," p. 372. 

1207 US Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. 
Second deficiency appropriation bill for 1943. Hearings, January 
5, 21, 1943. GPO: Washington, DC, 1943. 105 pp. 

Hearings on appropriations for 1943, H.R. 3030, 78th Con- 
gress, 1st session. Philip B. Fleming, administrator of the 
Federal Works Agency (testifying on pp. 4-25), outlines the 
orderly dissolution of the WPA. Includes the text of a letter to 
Fleming from FDR dated December 4, 1942, expressing his 
wish that the WPA cease to exist in as many states as possible 
by February 2, 1943, and everywhere else as soon as possible: 
"With the satisfaction of a good job well done and with a high 



240 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

sense of integrity, the Work Projects Administration has 
asked for and earned an honorable discharge," p. 6. 

1208 Work Projects Administration. New York. Final report 
of the Work Projects Administration for the city of New York, 1935 to 
1943. WPA: New York, 1943. 271 pp. 

Narrative account of the WPA in New York City. Pp. 229-32 
cover the "Cultural Programs," merely a brief note on the 
arts programs; the WPA/FAP barely mentioned. "As a result 
of the favorable attention attracted by public murals, art 
exhibitions, and sculpture done by the art project, thousands 
of Americans, not only in New York, but all over America, 
began to see their country with new eyes and to take their 
first interest in the art of their own country," p. 231. 



1944-1969 



1944 

1209 Cahill, Holger. "WPA: a defense of the art project." 
The League (Winter 1944-1945): 12-13. 

General defense of the WPA/FAP in answer to a recent Life 
article on the disposition of the WPA/FAP canvases (See 
1218); includes numerous statistics. 

1210 Cahill, Holger. "Art goes to the people in the United 
States." Canadian Art 1 (February-March 1944): 102-107, 
129-31. 

Overview of the WPA/FAP; discussion of "popular" art in 
America and the democratization of art under the projects. 
B/W illustrations of work by John Palo-Kangas, Louis Gug- 
lielmi, Edgar Britton, Maxine Albro, and Primo Caredio. 

1211 "Pennsylvania German designs. Review." American 
Artists (February 1944): 36. 

Brief, favorable review of Pennsylvania German Design. A 
Portfolio of Twenty Plates in Full Color from the Index of American 
Design (Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 1944). See 
1201. 

1212 Boswell, Peyton. "Art by the ton." Art Digest 18 (Feb- 
ruary 15, 1944): 3. 

Editorial on a junk dealer (Henry C. Roberts) selling art 
produced for the government under WPA/FAP. The works 
were sold when the government no longer wanted to pay rent 
for their storage. 

241 



242 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1213 "End of the project." Art Digest 18 (February 15, 
1944): 7. 

Vivid account of the selling by the truckload of WPA/FAP art 
works to junk dealer Henry C. Roberts because government 
did not want to pay storage costs. Michael Zaga, an artist, 
carried away many works; the WPA headquarters office 
claimed the sale was legal, but refused further comment. 

1214 "Cut-rate culture; relics of the WPA art project." Time 
43 (March 6, 1944): 56. 

Account of the selling by the truckload of "unallocatable" 
WPA/FAP work by the government; much of it purchased by 
Henry C. Roberts, a junk dealer. B/W photograph of Roberts 
with some of the works. 

1215 "WPA and the junkie." Newsweek 23 (March 6, 1944): 
96-97. 

Account of the selling by the truckload of "unallocatable" 
WPA/FAP work by the government; much of it purchased by 
Henry C. Roberts. B/W photograph of Roberts with some of 
the works. 

1216 G.,J. "Accepted by the Met: WPA artists." Art Digest 18 
(March 15, 1944): 7. 

Notice of Metropolitan accepting twenty-eight WPA/FAP 
works; fourteen presently on display until May 28, 1944. 

1217 Reid, Albert T. "WPA— RIP!" ArtDigestlS (March 15, 
1944): 28. 

AAPL editorial crowing over the dismantling of the art 
project. "The WPA Art Project is now quite properly in- 
terred. Its old clothes have been sold to the second-hand 
man and all that is needed now is the fumigator " 

1218 "End of WPA art, canvases which cost government 
35,000,000 dollars are soldforjunk." Lz/^16 (April 17, 1944): 
85-86. 



Annotated Bibliography 243 

Photo essay on the sale of WPA/FAP art. B/W illustrations of 
work by George Nesin, Palmer Hayden, Jovan de Rocco, Phil 
Bard, Feinsmith, P. Gerchik, Anton Refregier, and Alice Neel. 

1219 "American prints by WPA artists." Portland Museum 
Bulletin & (September 1944): 1. 

Announcement of exhibition ("American Prints by WPA 
Artists,") September 10 through September 24, 1944, at the 
Portland Museum of Art; exhibit consisted of WPA/FAP 
prints allocated to the museum. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1220 Rubenstein, Erica Beckh. Tax payers' murals. Ph.D. 
dissertation, Radcliffe College (Harvard University), 1944. 
4211. 

One of the earliest critical/historical works on the Federal 
government's art sponsorship, Rubenstein traces the history 
and development of the art projects (1933-1943), covers the 
mural projects in great detail, and analyzes the public's 
reaction to the work done for the government. 

1221 US Commission of Fine Arts. The Commission of fine 
arts. Fourteenth report, January 1, 1940 to June 30, 1944. GPO: 
Washington, DC, 1944. 110 pp. 

Section project for Recorder of Deeds building in Washing- 
ton covered (p. 59) ; discussion of the committee's visit to the 
Edward Bruce memorial exhibition at the Corcoran on 
September 17, 1943 (p. 40). 



1945 

1222 "Contemporary cottons by Lucy Baker based on 
plates of the Index." Magazine of Art ?)d> (April 1945): 142-43. 

B/W illustrations of crewel work by Lucy Baker based on 
LAD plates; IAD is a basic source for textile designs that can 



244 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

be used well into the twentieth century according to the 
author. 

1223 Cahill, Holger. "Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Maga- 
zine of Art 38 (May 1945): 163. 

Appreciation/obituary of FDR by Holger Cahill; praises 
FDR's role in the art projects and how he kept censorship 
out of them. "He would make it possible for American 
artists to direct their talents and energies towards the 
whole people because he believed in encouraging the 
creation and enjoyment of beautiful things we are further- 
ing democracy itself." 

1224 Cahill, Holger. "Artists in war and peace." Studio 
(July 1945): 1-16. 

Excellent article by Cahill on the history of the art projects, 
their context in American art history, and the transition to a 
war environment; good coverage of the art/state issues. 
"One great thing the WPA did for artists, aside from giving 
them employment and maintaining their morale through 
the depression years. It accepted the thesis that the fate of 
the arts is as legitimate a concern of government and of the 
communit)^ as a whole as is education, since the arts should 
be an integral part of any educational system," p. 14. 
Numerous B/W and color illustrations. 

1225 "Another Bureau of Fine Arts." Art Digest 20 (Decem- 
ber 1, 1945): 32-33. 

AAPL editorial against any kind of Federal fine arts bureau. 

1226 Berryman, Florence S. "Government in art." Ameri- 
can Art Annual 36 (1945): 11-12. 

Coverage of the transition of the art projects to war work. 
MONOGRAPHS 

1227 ACA Gallery. 61 and 63. ACA Gallery: New York, 1945. 
15 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 245 

A brief history of ACA Gallery (NYC); comments on a 
number of New Deal artists who exhibited there as well as 
three exhibitions ("Pink Slips Over Culture," "4 Out of 500 
Artists Dismissed from the WPA," and "1938") linked with 
the New Deal projects. 

1228 Willard, Irma Sompayrac. US government sponsorship of 
art 1933-1943. Survey and report on documents in the National 
Archives, Washington, DC. Art Archives report. Washington, DC, 
1945. 19 11. Mimeographed. 

Part I is a brief outline sketch of the government art projects 
describing how to use the records of the period and how they 
are organized. Part II is a detailed description of the records 
at the National Archives relating to the art projects. A good, 
though dated, source. 

1229 Wish, Harvey. Contemporary America. The national scene 
since 1900. Harper and Brothers Publishers: New York, 1945. 
657 pp. 

Devotes one small section to the New Deal art projects (pp. 

548-51). 



1946 

1230 Argul, Jose Pedro. "Arte norteamericano; los muralis- 
tas de Franklin Delano Roosevelt." Anuario Plastica (1946): 
170-73. 

NOT SEEN. 

1231 Cahill, Holger. "Can art survive with its present 
patronage?" ALA A^^5l (1946): 1-3. 

Excerpts from Holger Cahill's talk at the 3rd Forum of the 
ACA-American League of Artists Art Lecture Series at the 
ACA Gallery on February 15, 1946. Cahill discusses the 
present situation of governmental patronage in context of 
the New Deal experience. 



246 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1232 "WPA prints in Newark." Art Digest 20 (February 15, 
1946): 20. 

Fifty prints on exhibit at the Newark Museum (NJ); Adolf 
Dehn, Emil Ganso, Stuart Davis, and Arnold Blanch are 
among those represented at a print exhibition in Newark, 
NJ. 

1233 "Iowa: it's not art; WPA mural at Iowa state fair 
grounds." Newsweek2^ (July 15, 1946): 31-32. 

Account of how a 1939 mural done for the Iowa State 
Fairgrounds by Howard Johnson and Dan Rhodes was cut up 
for scrap lumber on the orders of State Fair manager Lloyd 
Cunningham. Said Cunningham: "It wasn't art. It was WPA . 
. . and an insult to Iowa farmers because it showed them as 
club-footed, coconut-headed, barrel-necked, and low- 
browed. Besides, plywood is rare and costs a lot today," p. 32. 
B/W photographs of a section of the mural and cut-up 
sections of it used for other purposes. 

1234 "Museum pieces, homemade." Time AS (August 12, 
1946): 59. 

Announcement of a display of 1 1 1 IAD plates at the NGA. 
B/W illustrations of LAD plates. 

1235 "Index of American Design." Antiques 50 (November 
1946): 307. 

Editorial on the IAD; brief, concise history of the IAD. 
MONOGRAPHS 

1236 Bourne, Francis T., assisted by Betty Herscher. A 

preliminary checklist of the central correspondence files of the Work 
Projects Administration and its predecessors: 1933-1944. National 
Archives: Washington, DC, 1946. 65 pp. 

Guide to the document collections of the WPA in the 
National Archives. A useful guide for finding public docu- 
ments. 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

1237 Perkins, Frances. The Roosevelt I knew. Viking Press: 
NewYork, 1946. 408 pp. 

Excellent first hand account of life in the Roosevelt Adminis- 
tration by his Secretary of Labor. Pp. 75-76 discuss the New 
Deal Art Projects; Perkins commenting on FDR's taste in art: 
"The pictures he selected from the art project for his office, 
while not the worst in the collection, were certainly not 
good," p. 76. 



1947 

1238 Christensen, Erwin O. "American popular art as 
recorded in the Index of American Design." Art in America 35 
(July 1947): 199-208. 

Full account of the IAD; B/W illustrations of plates. 

1239 Gotheim, Frederick. "Eternal art and the bureau- 
cratic fiux." Right Angle 1 (August 1947): 3. 

Commenting on the murals in federal buildings, Gotheim 
feels that the interiors of the buildings do not correspond to 
their exteriors, rendering the murals ineffective; this is just 
his main criticism, however. "To paint for the transitory 
values of bureaucracy would kill all that is great and enduring 
in art." 

MONOGRAPHS 

1 240 Federal Works Agency. Final report on the WPA program, 
1935-1943. GPO: Washington, DC, 1947. 145 pp. 

An excellent work that clearly summarizes the multitudinous 
works of the WPA from its foundation May 6, 1935, through 
June 30, 1943, when it officially closed down. Short section 
on the WPA/FAP (proving what a small percentage of the 
total relief effort it actually was) gives some interesting 
statistics: 25,068 people took WPA/FAP art classes; 21,765 
IAD plates were created; 2,566 murals were created; 108,099 



248 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

easel works done; 11,285 fine print designs; and 17,744 
sculptures. 



1948 



1241 Perkins, Frances. "An experiment in art." Right Angle 
2 (April 1948): 1-2. 

Reminiscence by Perkins on a display of PWAP art in the 
Interior Department building in March 1937. 

1241a Hitchcock, George. "The un-American murals." 
Masses and Mainstream 1.8 (October 1948): 34-41. 

Discussion of Refregier's PWAP murals for the Rincon An- 
nex of the San Francisco Post Office. 



1242 Goodrich, Lloyd. "Federal government and art." 
Magazine of Art 41 (October 1948): 236-38. 

Account of Federal art patronage; some comments on the 
New Deal projects. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1243 Christensen, Erwin O. Popular art in the United States. 
Penguin Books: London, 1948. 30 pp. 30 plates. 

Thirty-two illustrations from the IAD with an introduction 
and text by Christensen. First major publication on IAD. 

1244 Kitchen, Elizabeth F. The influence of syndicate art on 
government subsidized murals in the US. MA Thesis, Yale Univer- 
sity, 1948. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN HARPUR'S #1335. NOTE: Yale 
University has no evidence of this thesis. 



Annotated Bibliography 249 

1949 

1245 "We're all Christians." Time 56 (May 9, 1949) : 63. 

Account of the adventures incurred by Section murals exe- 
cuted by Harold Black and Isabel Bates. They were delivered 
in 1942 to the Salina, KS, Post Office they were commis- 
sioned for, but the murals lay rolled up in the basement since 
their arrival. When postmaster Robert Pafford opened them 
in 1949, he didn't like them and planned to destroy them. 
Ernest Dewey of a nearby town, Hutchinson, offered to take 
them for the Hutchinson Library. All parties concerned are 
still debating what to do with them. Said one Hutchinson 
resident: "If the Government did it, it ain't art." B/W 
illustrations of the murals. 

1245a Robinson, Amy. "Refregier paints a mural." Artnews 
48 (October 1949): 32-34, 55-56. 

Discussion of Anton Refregier' s PWAP murals for the Rincon 
Annex of the San Francisco Post Office. B/W photographs of 
the murals and Refregier at work. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1246 Index of American Design. Arts and crafts; a bibliogra- 
phy for craftsmen by the National Gallery of Art, Index of American 
Design, in collaboration with the Federal Security Agency, Office of 
Education, Division of Vocational Education. National Gallery of 
Art: Washington, DC, 1949. 80 pp. 

Bibliography compiled for craftsmen by the National Gallery 
of Art's Index of American Design curatorial staff; no other 
connection to the New Deal art projects. 

1247 Pietan, Norman. Federal government in the arts. Ph.D. 
dissertation, Columbia University, 1949. 305 pp. 

Covering all the art projects (Federal One), Pietan's work is 
primarily an historical survey of what preceded the Federal 



250 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

One projects; what Federal One accomplished; and what the 
future of government sponsorship of art holds. Includes a list 
of WPA Community Art Centers. 



1950 

1248 Green, Samuel M. "Plan for the Index of American 
Design." College Art Journal \Q (Fall, 1950): 18-22. 

Explanation of the IAD and its history; discusses a project in 
Maine to revive the IAD within Maine (Maine Index of 
Design) . 

1249 "Review. The Index of American Design by Erwin O. 
Christensen." Art Quarterly 13 (Autumn 1950): 357. 

Brief, favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen (5^^1256). 

1250 Langsner, Jules. "Review. The Index of American Design 
by Erwin O. Christensen." Arts and Architecture 67 (October 
1950): 41-42. 

Mixed review of The Index of American Design by Erwin O. 
Christensen (5^^1256). 

1251 "Index of American Design at the Whitney." Art 
Digest2b (October 15, 1950): 13. 

Circulating exhibition curated by Erwin O. Christensen of 
100 plates from the LAD arrives at the Whitney (later, Toledo, 
Carnegie Institute, and Baltimore Museum of Art; another 
version of the show will travel to the Art Institute of Chicago, 
Los Angeles, Dallas, and St. Louis) . Includes a history of the 
IAD; B/W illustrations of LAD plates. 

1252 Bird, Paul. "Put the Index to work." Art Digest 25 
(November 15, 1950): 5. 

Editorial in praise of the LAD and Erwin O. Christensen's 
book on it {See 1256) ; Bird hopes that more of the IAD will be 
published. 



Annotated Bibliography 251 

1253 F., H.L. "Review. The Index of American Designhy Erwin 
O. Christensen." Art News 49 (December 1950): 9. 

Highly favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen {See 1256). 

1254 K., S. "Review. The Index of American Design by Erwin 
O. Christensen." Architectural Forum 93 (December 1950): 
136. 

Brief favorable review of The Index of American Design by Erwin 
O. Christensen (5^^1256). 

1255 "Playthings from the Index of American Design." 
Antiques 58 (December 1950) : 468-69. 

Color plates of toys from the LAD; explanation of the IAD. 
MONOGRAPHS 

1256 Christensen, Erwin O. The Index of American Design. 
Macmillan: New York, 1950. 229 pp. 

First attempt to publish (selections) the IAD; a good re- 
source for the study of the IAD illustrated in B/W and color. 
Superseded by the microfiche edition of the complete IAD 
(See 1495). Excellent introduction by Holger Cahill. 

1257 Levitt, Marilyn M. The Federal art projects. A study in demo- 
cratic patronage. MA thesis, Syracuse University, 1950. 120 pp. 

Covers all of Federal One. WPA/FAP section deals primarily 
with murals, sculpture, and art education. Levitt finds much 
to praise about the project and government patronage of the 
arts in general. Includes the partial results of a survey she did 
of twenty-two artists involved with the WPA/FAP (valuable 
work) ; plates. 

1258 Roosevelt, Elliott, ed. F.D.R His personal letters. Duell, 
Sloan and Pearce: New York, 1950. 2 v. 

Two bits of correspondence in FDR's letters are of interest to 
those studying the New Deal arts projects. The first is a letter 



252 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

to Edward Bruce from October 2, 1941 (p. 1221) in which he 
praises the work of the Section in bringing art to the people. 
The second is an exchange between FDR, Winston 
Churchill, and Bruce. On December 23, 1941, Bruce asked 
FDR to invited Churchill to lunch with him as he was a fellow 
painter (text of letter); on February 2, 1942 FDR wrote to 
Churchill regarding Bruce 's lunch invitation to Churchill; 
unclear if Churchill ever made the lunch (pp. 1284-85). 

1259 Skaug, Julius. The Mobridge murals. Mobridge Tribune: 
Mobridge, SD, 1950? 11 pp. 

Pamphlet to accompany the Section mural in the Mobridge 
Municipal Auditorium (subject: Indian themes) done by 
Oscar Howe. B/W illustrations of the mural. Publication date 
sometime in the 1950s. 



1951 

1260 Filler, Louis. "Arts and the man." Midwest Journal 4 
(Winter 1951/52): 112-22. 

Highly favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen (See 1256) that segues into an excellent 
essay defending the WPA/FAP. 

1261 Barbeau, Marius. "Review. The Index of American De- 
signhy Ervfin O. Christensen." Canadian ArtS (Spring 1951): 
137-39. 

Highly favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen (5^^1256). 

1262 Green, Samuel M. "Review. The Index of American 
Design by Erwin O. Christensen," Magazine of Art 44 (May 
1951): 198. 

Highly favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen {See 1256). 



Annotated Bibliography 253 

1263 O'Connor, J. "Exhibition at the Institute." Carnegie 
Magazine25 Qune 1951): 186-88. 

Note on an exhibition ("Index of American Design") of IAD 
plates at the Carnegie Institute, June 17 through July 8, 1951. 
Includes a description of the exhibition and the purpose of 
the IAD. 

1264 "Review. The Index of American Design by Erwin O. 
Christensen." StudioU2 (November 1951): 160. 

Highly favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen {See 1256). 

1265 Webster, J. Carson. "Review. The Index pf American 
Design by Erwin O. Christensen." College Art Journal 10 
(Winter 1951): 206-207. 

Highly favorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen {See 1256). 



1952 

1266 Watson, Ernest. "A question of democracy." American 
Artist 16 (May 1952): 3, 57-58. 

Editorial criticizing the attempt to remove Anton Refregier's 
Rincon Annex murals. 

1267 Filler, Louis. "American 'art history' and contempo- 
rary creation." College Art Journal \2 (Fall 1952): 42-52. 

Comments on The Index of American Design and Popular Art in 
the United States by Erwin O. Christensen {See 1256). Good 
early article on rediscovery of IAD and art project material. 
REPRINT from Midwest Journal 4 (Winter 1951-52): 112-22. 

1268 Cowdrey, Mary Bardett. "Review. The Index of Ameri- 
can Design by Erwin O. Christensen." Art Bulletin 34 (Septem- 
ber 1952): 245-46. 



254 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Very unfavorable review of The Index of American Design by 
Erwin O. Christensen {See 1256). 



1953 

1269 Scoon, Carolyn. "Review. The Index of American Design 
by Erwin O. Christensen." New-York Historical Society Quarterly 
37 (January 1953): 94-95. 

Favorable review of The Index of American Design by Erwin O. 
Christensen {See 1256), by Scoon, who had worked on the 
New York IAD. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1270 Firm, Ruth M. Art in a democracy: 1900-1950. MA 
Thesis, Columbia University, 1953. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN HARPUR'S #2039. 

1271 US Congress. House of Representatives. Joint resolu- 
tion directing the Administrator of General Services to remove the 
mural paintings from the lobby of the Rincon Annex Post Office 
Building in San Francisco, California. H.J. Resolution 211 (83rd 
Congress, 1st Session). GPO: Washington, DC, 1953. 

Resolution introduced by Hubert B. Scudder (CA) on March 
5, 1953 to remove Anton Refregier's murals from the San 
Francisco Rincon Annex Post Office as they are "artistically 
offensive and historically inaccurate." A nasty litde invective 
against Communists. See 1272 for hearings on this resolution. 

1272 US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee 
on Public Works, Subcommittee on Public Buildings and 
Works. Rincon Annex murals, San Francisco, California (83rd 
Congress, 1st Session). GPO: Washington, DC, 1953. 

Hearings on H.J. 211 {See 1271). One of the most fascinating 
documents to come out on the New Deal art projects in 



Annotated Bibliography 255 

the 1950s. Rep. Hubert B. Scudder (CA), acting on the 
behalf of some of his constituents, introduced legislation to 
remove Anton Refregier's Section murals from the Rincon 
Annex Post Office in San Francisco. In addition to numerous 
letters and testimony from various patriotic groups de- 
manding the removal of the murals (on rather vague 
grounds) there is a strong show of support for the murals 
from artists' groups. Scudder questioned Refregier's citizen- 
ship (he had become a citizen in 1930) , brought up his ties to 
the Communist Party, and, in the most dubious part of his 
investigation, questioned the life-styles of the three jury 
members who chose Refregier. Jurors Victor Arnautoff and 
Arnold Blanch were both shown to be subversive with ties to 
Communist organizations. The third member of the jury, 
Philip Guston (who voted against Refregier's design) , had no 
record. Scudder also gives a detailed analysis of the murals 
showing him to have not only no aesthetic sense, but little 
historical knowledge either. Rep. John F. Shelley (CA) count- 
ers with a rebuttal to Scudder's analysis of the murals. List of 
groups and individuals who have expressed opposition or 
support for the murals included. 



1954 

Nothing 

1955 

1273 "The angry art of the Thirties." Fortune 51 (March 
1955): 88-91. 

Brief overview of the New Deal projects; primarily illustra- 
tions; not all New Deal art. Illustrations of work by Reginald 
Marsh, Philip Evergood, James N. Rosenberg, William Crop- 
per, Alexandre Hogue, Ben Shahn, Max Weber, O. Louis 
Guglielmi, Jack Levine, and Anton Refregier. 



256 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1 274 New York Public Library. Art Division. A group of mural 
paintings executed under the auspices of the United States Works 
Progress Administration; photographs. Arranged by the Art Division 
of the New York Public Library. New York, 1955. 4 11. 123 plates. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN NYPL. 

1274a Kent, Rockwell. It's me, O Lord: the autobiography of 
Rockwell Kent. Dodd, Mead: New York, 1955. 617 p. 

Autobiography of Rockwell Kent. Kent includes a description 
of his impressions of the New Deal art projects and includes 
a long account of the controversy that surrounded his own 
Section mural for the Post Office Building. NOTE: Re- 
printed by Da Capo Press in 1977. B/W illustrations. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1275 Skull, Carl. The development of the community art center in 
form and function. Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 
1955. 

NOT SEEN. 



1956 

1276 Geist, Sidney. "Prelude: 1930's." Arts 30 (September 
1956): 49-55. 

Geist states that though the WPA/FAP did not create any 
great artists or styles (except for a "heavy mural style") , it did 
let mature artists continue to work and young artists to keep 
doing what they were doing; critical of social realism; praises 
Jose Clemente Orozco and Diego Rivera; includes B/W 
illustrations. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1277 Osborne, David S. Mural projects of the United States 
Government in the Bay Area of Northern California. MA thesis. 
University of California, Berkeley, 1956. 76 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 257 

History of the New Deal art projects both nationally and in 
Northern California; philosophical analysis of the projects; 
technical and artistic analysis of major works in Northern 
California; and a checklist of all Bay Area murals the author 
located. 

1278 Purcell, Ralph. "New stirrings." In Government and 
art. A study of the American experience, pp. 46-80. Public Affairs 
Press: Washington, DC, 1956, 129 pp. 

Chapter 3: "New Stirrings," pp. 46-80, provides a good over- 
view of the various art projects from a still recent point of 
view. 



1957 

1279 Harrison, John M. "Creativity: the state's role; review 
of Government and Art by Ralph Purcell." Saturday Review 40 
(February 2, 1957): 14-15. 

Favorable review of Purcell' s works {See 1278). B/W illustra- 
tion of work by Edward Laning. 

1280 Christensen, Erwin O. "Index of American Design; 
opportunities for research." College Art Journal 17 (Fall 1957): 
61-67. 

Overview of IAD and its present state at the NGA. B/W 
illustrations of IAD plates. 

1281 Cahill, Holger. The reminiscences ofHolger Cahill. Tran- 
script of interviews conducted by the Oral History Research 
Office of Columbia University in 1957. 629 pp. (Microfiche 
edition issued in 1975.) 

Interviews conducted April-June 1957 by Joan Pring. Invalu- 
able source of information on the life of Holger Cahill. 
Cahill discusses his entire life, his work on the New Deal art 
projects (pp. 314-477), his work in American folk art, the 
disposition of the IAD, and a number of other topics. 



258 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Outspoken and direct, the reminiscence is full of anecdotes 
and stories. 



1958 

1282 Baugh, Virgil and W. Lane Van Neste. Preliminary 
inventories. Records of the Public Buildings Service, RG 110. 
National Archives: Washington, DC, 1958. 108 pp. 

Pp. 28-41 of this guide to records in the National Archives 
covers the art projects of the Treasury Department. 



1959 

Nothing 

1960 

1283 Beckh, Erica. "Government art in the Roosevelt era; 
an appraisal of federal art patronage in the light of present 
needs." College Art JoumanO (Fall 1960): 2-8. 

Good overview of the art projects; covers attempts to form a 
Bureau of Fine Arts (Coffee-Pepper bill) ; a critique of the 
projects in light of the present art/government situation. 
B/W illustrations of works by Ben Shahn, Anton Refregier, 
Rico Lebrun, Philip Guston, Stuart Davis, and Jack Levine; 
and photographs from the era. 

1284 "Holger Cahill." ArtNewsm (September 1969): 7. 
Obituary of HolgerCahill (died July 9, 1960). 

1285 "Obituaries." Arts 34 (September 1960): 11. 

Obituaries of Holger Cahill (died July 9, 1960) and Forbes 
Watson (died May 31, 1960). 



Annotated Bibliography 259 

1961 

1286 Shaffer, Helen B. "Government and the arts." Edito- 
rial Research Reports, no. 5 2 (August 2, 1961): 561-78. 

Review of the history of the New Deal art projects in the 
context of contemporary legislation on the arts. Good, brief 
overview of PWAP, WPA/FAP, and Section. 

1287 C, L. "Paintings from the WPA." Art News 60 (Sep- 
tember 1961): 14. 

Brief, favorable review of "Art of the Thirties" (September 
16-October 7, 1961) at Smohn Gallery (NYC); partial list 
of artists and works; B/W illustration of work by Mark 
Rothko. 

1 288 Tillim, Sidney. ' 'Art of the Thirties — review of Smolin 
Gallery exhibit, September 16-October 7, 1961." Arts Maga- 
zine S6 (November 1961): 38-39. 

Favorable review of "Art of the Thirties" (September 16- 
October 7, 1961) at SmoHn Gallery (NYC); calls for a 
full-scale exhibition of New Deal project art work to all for a 
true appraisal of the work. 

1289 Strobridge, Truman R. "Art documents in the Na- 
tional Archives." ArtJoumal2l (Winter 1961-62): 105-106. 

Brief but good description of the WPA, WPA/FAP, Section, 
TRAP, PWAP records and how to use them at the National 
Archives; official papers of Edward Bruce and Edward Rowan 
also mentioned. 



1290 Billington, Ray A. "Government and the arts: the 
WPA experience." American Quarterly 13 (Winter 1961): 
466-79. 

Survey of the work of Federal One. Includes an overview of 
Federal support for the arts before the 1930s. 



260 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

MONOGRAPHS 

1291 Refregier, Anton. "A national arts program is 
needed," pp. 69-87. In Public Ownership in the USA: Goals and 
Practices, edited by Helen L. Alfred. Peace Publications: New 
York, 1961.238 pp. 

Excellent essay on government sponsorship of the arts; 
Refregier covers the attempts to create a Federal Bureau of 
Fine Arts, Federal One, the Section, and the controversy 
surrounding his own Rincon Annex mural project. "No- 
where in the western part of the world, during the depression 
period of the thirties, did there exist such a concrete exam- 
ple of the vast energy of the cultural worker, and the hunger 
for culture on the part of the population of the United States, 
as was demonstrated by the Federal Arts Program," p. 71. 
Also discusses present governmental activity in art patronage. 
Also printed separately as Government sponsorship of the arts 
(Peace Publications: New York, 1961. 10 pp.). 



1962 

1 292 ' ' WPA paintings in New York. ' ' Art Journal 2 1 ( Spring 
1962): 206. 

Review of "Art of the 30's" (September 25-October 13, 
1962) at the Smolin Gallery (NYC); includes a very brief 
history of the New Deal art projects. 

1293 "Growth of archives." Archives of American Art Journal 
2 (June 1962): 1,6. 

Announcement of the acquisition of the papers of Edward 
Bruce; explains Bruce's association with the projects and 
description of the papers. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1294 Smolin Gallery. Art of the 30's. Smolin Gallery: New 
York, 1962. 1 sheet pamphlet. 



Annotated Bibliography ^^^ 

Exhibition, September 25 through October 13, 1962. Check- 
list of fifty works. Notes that children's WPA art work will also 
be shown and an art class will taught by Sid Gotcliffe. 



1963 

1295 Dows, Olin. "The New Deal's Treasury art programs. 
A memoir." Arts in Society 2 (1963-64) : 50-88. 

An excellent introduction to the Treasury Department's art 
programs. Dows covers all the projects, both Treasury and 
WPA, but focuses on the Treasury programs on which he was 
intimately involved. Detailed portrait of how the Treasury 
programs were run on a day-to-day basis with numerous 
anecdotes and interesting stories. Numerous B/W illustra- 
tions. Includes a very abbreviated list of artists participatmg 
in the Treasury projects. Later reprinted in The New Deal Art 
Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs by Francis V. O'Connor {See 
1367). 

1296 Goodrich, Lloyd. "The government and the creative 
artist." AFA Quarterly 1 (1963, #1): 40-47. 

General discussion of government and art with some back- 
ground on the New Deal art projects. 

1 297 ' 'WPA and after. ' ' Newsweek 62 (August 5, 1963) : 66. 

Review of "The US Government Art Projects: Some Distin- 
guished Alumni" at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art 
(DC). Comments by Jack Tworkov and Theodor Rozsak on 
the New Deal art projects and how they lead to Abstract 
Expressionism. B/W illustrations of work by Jack Tworkov. 

1298 Fuller, Mary. "Emblems of sorrow: the WPA art pro- 
ject in San Francisco." Artfomm2 (November 1963): 34-37. 

An excellent article on all the New Deal art projects in San 
Francisco; includes a partial list of artists who worked in San 
Francisco. B/W illustrations of works by Reuben Kadish, 



262 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

David Slivka, Lucien Labaudt, Shirley Triest, George Post, 
and Dong Kingman. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1299 Washington Gallery of Modern Art. The US Govern- 
ment Art Projects: some distinguished alumni. Washington Gal- 
lery of Modern Art: Washington, DC, 1963. 1 p. 

Exhibition, July 9 through August, 1963. Invitation in 
NMAA/NPG Library VF. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1300 Bernstein, Joel. Government subsidization of art during 
the New Deal. MA thesis, University of Wyoming, 1963. 100 11. 

Excellent coverage of the PWAP and the WPA/FAP. Bern- 
stein covers with clarity and detail the founding of both 
projects and the major work both did. Concludes that the 
projects were good ideas, but failed because they were 
lumped together with Public Works instead of under an arts 
oriented agency. 

1301 Dows, Olin. Government in art; the New Deal's Treasury 
Art program. A memoir by Olin Dows. University of Wisconsin 
Press: Madison, 1963? 40 pp. 

Excellent memoir by Dows on each of the four art projects 
(PWAP, Section, TRAP, WPA/FAP), but concentrating on 
the first three. Dows explains how each was run, and how the 
artists and juries were chosen. Includes a partial list of artists 
associated with the Treasury art projects. REPRINTED in Arts 
in Society and Federal Support for the Visual Arts {See 1295 and 
1367). 

1302 Feldman, Francis T. American painting during the Great 
Depression, 1929-1939. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York Univer- 
sity, 1963. 289 11. 

Good overview of the state of American painting during the 
Great Depression; discusses the three major art movements 



Annotated Bibliography 263 

(Social Realism, American Scene, and Abstraction); good 
overview of the New Deal art projects. Pp. 66-83 devoted to 
"Federal Assistance to Art." Examines the work of a number 
of individual artists, many of whom worked on New Deal art 
projects. 

1303 Searle, Charles F. Minister of relief, Harry Hopkins and 
the Depression. Syracuse University Press: Syracuse, NY, 1963. 
286 pp. 

Good account of the career of Harry L. Hopkins and the 
WPA, but no mention of the art projects. 



1964 



1304 Woolfenden, William E. "The New Deal and the 
arts." Archives of American Art Journal 4 (January 1964): 1-5. 

Description of the plans by the Archives of American Art to 
document federal patronage of the arts; includes a list of 
people planned for oral history interviews, future goals, list 
of papers to be microfilmed, and list of artists and others 
whose papers the AAA presently has. Illustrated with photo- 
graphs of project era. 

1305 "Edward Millman, 1907-1964." Art Journal 24 (Fall, 
1964): 40. 

Obituary of Edward Millman (administrator of the PWAP 
and WPA/FAP) ; reprinted from the New York Herald Trib- 
une, February 14, 1964. 

1 306 ' 'Federal art project. ' ' Archives of American Art Journal 4 
(October 1964): 6. 

Announcement of the acquisition by the Archives of Ameri- 
can Art of National Archives records relating to the WPA/ 
FAP, 1935-1941. 



264 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

MONOGRAPHS 

1307 National Gallery of Art. Index of American Design. 
Traveling exhibitions and color slides. NGA: Washington, DC, 
1964. 8 pp. 

Pamphlet that briefly describes the IAD and how to arrange 
for an exhibition of plates or to borrow slides. Thirty pre- 
packaged IAD exhibitions and twenty-three slide sets are 
described. FOUND IN AAA Reel 1086.239-47. 



1965 

1308 Smith, Sherwin D. "Boondoggle that helped 38 mil- 
lion people." New York Times Magazine (May 2, 1965): 37, 68, 

72, 74, 76. 

General article on the WPA; WPA/FAP covered on p. 74. 
B/W photographs. 

1309 McCoy, Garnett. "A preliminary guide to the collec- 
tions of the Archives of American Art." Archives of American 
Art Journal 5 (June 1965): 3-4. 

In collection guide, the following records relate to the 

federal art projects: 

"Edward Bruce (1879-1943) Papers, 12,000 items." 

"Olin Dows Papers, 200 items." 

"Edward B. Rowan Papers, 2,500 items." 

"PWAP, TRAP, Section, FAP, 80,000 items." 

"Forbes Watson Papers, 8,000 items." 

Also includes a list of taped interviews relative to the New 

Deal. 

1310 McCoy, Garnett. "Poverty, politics and artists 1930- 
1945." Art in America 53 (August-September 1965): 88-107. 

After a brief introduction to the various art projects, the 
majority of the article is made up of excerpts from letters. 



Annotated Bibliography 265 

diaries, memoranda, and so on, from artists and administra- 
tors of the projects. Included are George Biddle, Edward 
Bruce, Reginald Marsh, Ben Shahn, Burgoyne Diller, Henry 
Varnum Poor, and Louise Nevelson. B/W illustrations of 
works and photographs of artists at work. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1311 Smith, Clark Sommer. Nine years of federally sponsored 
art in Chicago 1933-1942. MA thesis, University of Chicago, 
1965. 80 11. 

An excellent account of the art projects in Chicago; covers all 
aspects of the development of the art projects including the 
formation of the Chicago WPA/FAP and a thorough cover- 
age of mural, easel painting, and design work. Includes a list 
of murals completed in Illinois. 



1966 

1312 Randle, Mallory B. "Texas muralists of the PWAP." 

Southwestern Art \ (Spring 1966): 51-70. 

Invaluable article on PWAP mural activity in Texas. Includes 
a detailed account of PWAP murals in Texas Post Offices, 
libraries, high schools, and colleges. Includes a city-by-city 
inventory of PWAP murals. B/W and color illustrations of 
murals by Douthitt Wilson, Granville Bruce, Jerry Bywaters, 
Alexandre Hogue, John Douglass, Otis Dozier, Olin Travis, 
and Thomas Stell. 

1313 Stevens, Elizabeth. "The thirties revived, 'Federal Art 
Patronage, 1933-1943'; WPA art in Maryland." Artforum 4 
(June 1966): 43. 

Mixed review (Stevens liked the concept of the show, but felt 
the works themselves were not that good) of "Federal Art 
Patronage, 1933-1943" at the University of Maryland, cu- 
rated by Francis V. O'Connor. Detailed critiques of Individ- 



266 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

ual works. B/W illustrations of works by Jackson Pollock, 
George Biddle, Adolph Gottlieb, Seymour Fogel, Ad Rein- 
hardt, Fletcher Martin, Emil Bisttram, William Gropper, and 
Symeon Shimin. 

1314 "New Deal art at University of Maryland." Art Journal 
26 (Fall 1966): 74-76. 

Review of "Federal Art Patronage: 1933 to 1943" at the 
University of Maryland, curated by Francis V. O'Connor. 
Eighty-three paintings, mural studies, sculpture and LAD 
plates. B/W illustrations of works by Symeon Shimin, William 
Gropper, Ben Shahn, George Biddle, Fletcher Martin. 

1315 Humphrey, Hubert H. "Four decades of art and the 
federal government." Arts 41 (December 1966): 6-7. 

Sen. Humphrey recounts briefly the history of Federal art 
projects in the 1930s and 1940s and relates them to the 
present. B/W illustration of work by James Brooks. 

EXfflBITIONS 

1316 O ' Connor, Francis V. Federal art patronage 1 933-1 943. 
University of Maryland: College Park, 1966. 60 pp. 

Exhibition, April 6 through May 13, 1966. O'Connor's exhi- 
bition awakened art historians and the general public to the 
riches of New Deal art. After this exhibition, the floodgates of 
scholarship began. Checklist of eighty-three works; excellent 
introductory essay. B/W illustrations of works. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1317 Wahl, Jo Ann. Art under the New Deal. MA thesis, 
Columbia University, 1966. 80 11. 

Covering all aspects of New Deal art (PWAP, Section, WPA/ 
FAP) , Wahl attempts to dispel the notion that New Deal art is 
"bad" art. Good, early critical work on the period. Plates. 



Annotated Bibliography 267 

1967 



1318 Bendiner, Robert. "The thirties: when cuUure came 
to main street." Saturday Review bO (April 1, 1967): 19-21. 

An excellent article on the Federal One projects; covering all 
the projects of Federal One, concentrating on the FWP. 

1319 McCoy, Garnett. "Preliminary guide to the collec- 
tions, part 2." Archives of American Art Journal 7 (June 1967): 
18. 

Additions to previous Hst {See 1309); acquisitions relative to 
the federal arts projects include list of tape recorded inter- 
views and list of artists, many of whom had project connec- 
tions, 

EXHIBITIONS 

1320 YM-YWHA of Essex County, New Jersey. WPA artists: 
then and now. YM-YWHA: West Orange, NJ, 1967. 9 pp. 

Exhibition, October 29 through November 26, 1967. Brief 
introduction by Mildred Baker; twelve brief "reminiscences" 
by WPA/FAP artists; checklist of eighty works, forty from the 
thirties and forty recent works. B/W illustrations of works by 
Arshile Gorky, Paul Cadmus, Moses Soyer, O. Louis Gug- 
lielmi, Hugo Robus, and Reginald Marsh. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1321 Contreras, Belisario R. The New Deal Treasury Depart- 
ment art programs and the American artist, 1933 to 1943. Ph.D. 
dissertation, American University, 1967. 389 11. 

An excellent and thorough account of the various Treasury 
Department programs; explores the involvement of Edward 
Bruce and the nature of relief versus Art; brief coverage of 
other art projects. Plates. 



268 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1322 Freedman, Elizabeth L. Federal patronage and the fine 
arts. Senior thesis, Bryn Mawr College, 1967. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1323 Mavigliano, George T. The Federal Art Project: A govern- 
mental fiilly? MA Thesis, Northern Illinois University, 1967. 

NOT SEEN. 

1324 Randle, Mallory Blair. Murals and sculpture of the Public 

Works of Art Project and the Treasury Section in the Southwest. MA 
thesis, University of Texas, 1967. 223 11. 

Good overview of the PWAP and Section in the Southwest; 
bulk of the thesis is a catalog of sculpture and murals done by 
the two divisions in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Okla- 
homa, and Texas. Includes details about each work. Plates. 

1325 Rose, Barbara. "The thirties: reaction and rebellion." 
In American art since 1900: a critical history, pp. 114-154. New 
York: Praeger Publications, 1967. 320 pp. 

Good account of the artistic milieu from which the govern- 
ment art projects were created. Reprinted in 1975. 



1968 



1326 O'Connor, Francis V. "New Deal murals in New 
York." Artfomml (November 1968): 41-49. 

O'Connor covers all aspects of New Deal mural work in New 
York. B/W illustrations of murals by Kindred McLeary, Ben 
Shahn, Peter Blume, Edward Laning, Marion Greenwood, 
James Brooks, Moses Soyer, Philip Guston, and Reginald 
Marsh. 

EXHIBrnONS 

1 327 Milwaukee Art Center. Midwest — the 1 930s. Milwaukee 
Art Center: Milwaukee, 1968. 25 pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 269 

Exhibition, March 1968. Text by Ronald C. Stokes. NOT 

SEEN. 

1327a McKinzie, Richard D. The New Deal for artists: Federal 
subsidies, 1933-1943. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, 1968. 331 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN DA/ 30/03A, p. 1113. Covering the 
WPA/FAP and Section, McKinzie gives a good overview of 
the New Deal art projects. See also 1377 for the book that 
came out of this dissertation. 



1969 



1328 O'Connor, Francis. "New Deal art projects in New 
York. American Art Journal \ (Fall 1969): 58-79. 

Explanation of the projects and what was done; complete list 
of Section and TRAP commissions in New York State; a good 
source for statistical information. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1329 Columbia Museum of Art. Art under the New Deal. A 
selection of paintings, graphics and mural sketches produced under 
Federal W(yrk Relief programs from 1933 to 1943. Columbia 
Museum of Art: Columbia, SC, 1969. 13 pp. 

Exhibition, February 12 through March 10, 1969. Brief 
introduction and checklist of sixty-eight works. B/W illustra- 
tions of works by Peter Blume, Millard Sheets, Yasuo 
Kuniyoshi, and Lee Allen. 

1330 Manhattanville College Art Gallery. WPA sculpture. 
Manhattanville College Art Gallery: Purchase, NY, 1969. 

Exhibition, March 10 through April 11, 1969. NOT SEEN. 

1331 Westby Gallery. Glassboro State College. Graphic art of 
the Depression era: WPA 1935-1943. Westby Gallery: Glassboro, 
NJ, 1969. 3 pp. 



270 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition, November 5 through 25, 1969. Checklist of 
thirty-six works from the National Museum of American Art. 
Text by Lynd Ward. NOTE: This show was organized by Jacob 
Kainen of the NMAA and was shown there October through 
December 1968 (no catalog). 

MONOGRAPHS 

1332 Carr, Eleanor M. The New Deal and the sculptor: a study 
of Federal relief to the sculptor on the New York City Federal Art 
Project of the Works Progress Administration, 1935-1943. Ph.D. 
dissertation, New York University, 1969. 246 pp. 

Study of the WPA/FAP's work with sculptors in New York 
City. NOT SEEN. CITED IN Z)A/ v.30/08a, p. 3389. 

1333 Kunkel, Gladys M. Mural paintings of Anton Refregier in 
the Rincon Annex of the San Francisco Post Office. MA Thesis, 
Arizona State University, 1969. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1334 McDonald, William Francis. Federal relief administration 
and the arts; the origins and administrative history of the arts 
projects of the Works Progress Administration. Ohio State Univer- 
sity Press: Columbus, 1969. 869 pp. 

Originally compiled at the termination of the WPA, the work 
was not published until 1969. One of the most authoritative 
sources for the study of the administrative complexities of 
the federal art projects (includes all non-fine art projects). 
Well stocked with statistics, figures, and tables, McDonald 
also reproduces or quotes from numerous hard to find WPA 
administrative orders, internal memos, and other such docu- 
ments. A book that must be at the side of every researcher of 
the New Deal art projects. Critics of the work who find it 
heavy reading have no appreciation of the difficulty in 
making administrative histories clear, let alone entertaining. 

1335 O'Connor, Francis V. Federal support for the visual arts: 
the New Deal and now; a report on the New Deal art projects in New 
York City and State with recommendations for present-day Federal 



Annotated Bibliography 271 

support for the visual arts to the National Endowment for the Arts. 
New York Graphic Society: Greenwich, CT, 1969. 227 pp. 

The major study of the projects (with emphasis on New York 
State and City) , covering all aspects of Federal involvement 
in the fine arts; full of statistics, reports, lists of artists, and 
other important information. Reprints O'Connor's essay 
from his 1966 exhibition catalog. See 1316. Reprinted in 1971 
with an updated bibliography. 



1970-1974 



1970 

1336 Carr, Eleanor. "The New Deal and the sculptor: a 
study of Federal relief to the sculptor on the New York City 
Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration, 
1935-1943." Marsyas 15 (1970-1971): 114. 

Note on the author's dissertation of the same title. 

1337 Morgan, Theodora. "Federal support for the arts — a 
once and sometime thing." National Sculpture Review. 19 
(Summer 1970): cover, 6, 30. 

Brief mention of the projects in the context of today's 
government funding the of arts; B/W illustrations of works 
by Edmond Amateis and William M. McVey and photo- 
graphs. 

1338 Bernstein, Joel H. "The artist and the Government: 
PWAP." Canadian Review of American Studies 1 (Fall 1970): 
100-115. 

An excellent, clear and concise overview of the PWAP dis- 
cussing all the major points, criticisms, controversies, and 
accolades. 

1339 Craig, Lois. "Beyond 'leaf-raking:' WPA's lasting leg- 
acy." City (National Urban Coalition, Washington, DC) 4 
(October-November 1970): 23-29. 

Though primarily on the WPA in general, Craig's article does 
cover the WPA/FAP and IAD; B/W and color photographs; 
illustration of work by Stuart Davis. 

272 



Annotated Bibliography 273 

1340 Laning, Edward. "Memoirs of a WPA painter," Amer- 
ican Heritage 21 (October 1970): 38-44, 56-57, 86-89. 

Excerpts from Edward Laning's memoir in Francis V. O'Con- 
nor's New Deal Art Project: Anthology of Memoirs (See 
1367). B/W and color illustrations of works by Laning, 
Burgoyne Diller, Charles Campbell, Boris Gorelick, Mark 
Rothko, and Jackson Pollock. Includes a nice, large section 
of illustrations of murals selected by Francis V. O'Connor. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1341 University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. WPA + 35: Mil- 
waukee handicrafts project retrospective exhibition January 4-30, 
1970. University of Wisconsin: Milwaukee, 1970. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, January 4 through 30, 1970. Text by Elsa Ulbricht 
covers what the Milwaukee Handicraft Project was (WPA 
Project #11 70 ran from November 6, 1935, through 1943 and 
had Wisconsin artists creating contemporary crafts — it was 
not, technically, an art project). Exhibit included a number 
of works done, 1935-1943. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1342 Terkel, Louis (Studs). Hard times; an oral history of the 
Oreat Depression. Pantheon Books: New York, 1970. 462 pp. 

One of the classic works on the Depression, Terkel devotes 
only a brief section to the New Deal art projects. Robert 
Gwathmey and Knud Anderson reminisce about the period. 



1971 

1343 Kainen, Jacob. "Prints of the thirties: reflections on 
the Federal Art Project." Artists Proof \\ (1971): 34-41. 

Excellent overview of printmaking in the 1930s with empha- 
sis on the Graphics Division of the WPA/FAP; B/W illustra- 
tions of works by Louis Lozowick, John Gross-Bettelheim, 



274 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Werner Drewes, Jackson Pollock, Stuart Davis, Arshile Gorky, 
and Louis Schanker. 



1344 "WPA art: rescue of a US treasure." US News and 
WorldR£port70 (June 21, 1971): 75-78. 

Excellent account of the GSA program to record and pre- 
serve New Deal art. Numerous B/W photographs of art 
works, then and now. 

1345 Freeman, Richard B. "Damaged murals." Art Journal 
31 (Winter 1971-72): 178, 180. 

Report on "Western Pennsylvania," a Section mural done by 
Niles Spencer for the Aliquippa (PA) Post Office, which was 
damaged in removal. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1346 Goode, James M. Smithsonian Associates' tour of the 
sculpture, murals, and architectural features of the Federal Triangle. 
Washington, DC, 1971. 26 pp. Typescript. 

Tour guide to the sculpture, mural, and architectural fea- 
tures of the Federal Triangle; includes many WPA/FAP and 
Section works. Map. 

1347 Marling, Karal Ann. Federal patronage and the Woodstock 
colony. Ph.D. dissertation, Bryn Mawr College, 1971. 587 11. 

An exhaustive study of the interrelations of federal patron- 
age and the independent artists' colony of Woodstock in 
New York. Includes a history of the Woodstock colony and an 
overview of all the federal art projects; also a checklist of 
Section murals completed by Woodstock colony artists. Cov- 
ers the "effects of government art programs of the period 
1933 to 1943 upon the Woodstock art colony, Ulster County, 
New York" (preface) . Plates. 

1348 Monroe, Gerald M. The Artists' Union of New York. 
Ed.D. dissertation. New York University, 1971. 270 11. 



Annotated Bibliography 275 

The Artists' Union was one of the important backers of the 
WPA/FAP; Monroe gives a brief history of the WPA/FAP 
and other art projects before covering in detail their 
relationship to the Artists' Union. Also details the Artists' 
Union support and fight for the various fine arts bills of the 
1930s. 



1349 Petravage, Jacqueline. An introduction to the New Deal 
art projects and the work section in Wyoming, n.p., 1971? 35 11. 

Narrative account of a number of mural and sculpture 
projects in Wyoming. Good introduction to the projects and 
their implementation in Wyoming. 

1350 Werthman, Jean. The New Deal Federal Art Projects. 
Ph.D. dissertation, St. John's University, 1971. 265 pp. 

Survey of government support for the arts and the reactions 
by artists, politicians, and citizens to the projects. NOT 
SEEN. CITED IN DAI v.33/022a, p. 713. 



1972 

1351 Osnos, Nina Felshin. "New Deal for New Deal art." 
Art in America 60 (January 1972): 19. 

Report on the Government Services Administration's Na- 
tional Fine Arts Inventory (a project to locate New Deal art in 
Federal buildings including Post Offices) and the Smith- 
sonian Institution/National Collection of Fine Art's Register 
of New Deal Art (a project to locate and preserve WPA/FAP 
1935-1943 art, assisted by Francis V. O'Connor). 

1352 Davidson, Marshall B. "The WPA's amazing artistic 
record of American design." American Heritage 2S (February 
1972): 65-80. 

Good, well-illustrated (all color) account of the IAD. 5^^1354 
for part 2 of the article. 



276 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1353 "GSA launches survey of federally-sponsored art." 
Progressive Architecture 53 (February 1972): 31. 

Report on GSA plan to inventory vs^ork created for the 
government, 1933-1943. 

1354 Davidson, Marshall B. "The legacy of craftsmen." 
American Rentage 23 (April 1972): 81-96. 

Continuation of Davidson's article on the IAD {See 1352). 
Numerous color reproductions of the IAD plates. 

1355 Rosenberg, Harold. "Profession of art; artists during 
the Depression." New Yorker 48 (June 3, 1972): 85-91. 

The eminent art theorist Rosenberg discusses the New Deal 
art projects. Covering all the projects, he feels the notion of 
"art for the people" to be a sham and that art can never be a 
profession and still be Art. A thought-provoking, though 
negative, critique of the New Deal art projects. "How shallow 
were the roots of art as a profession in nineteen-thirties 
America was dramatically demonstrated by the rapid drying 
up of the Art Project with the start of the defence program 
and their rapid closing down after Pearl Harbor," p. 90. 

1356 Carr, Eleanor. "New York sculpture during the fed- 
eral project." ArtJoumalSl (Summer 1972): 397-403. 

Good overview of the New York sculpture projects of the 
WPA/FAP. Includes a detailed analysis of a number of works. 
B/W illustrations of works by a number of sculptors. 

1357 Yasko, Karel. "Treasures from the Depression," His- 
toric Preservation 24 (July 1972): 26-31. 

Excellent account of the Treasury projects and the GSA plan 
to catalog and preserve the New Deal works; Yasko directed 
the GSA project. B/W and color illustrations of works by 
Henry Bernstein, Frank Mechau, Edward Laning, William 
Cropper, Stuart Davis, Heinz Warneke, and Symeon Shimin. 

1358 Monroe, Gerald M. "The Artists Union of New York." 
ArtJoumalS2 (Fall 1972): 17-20. 



Annotated Bibliography 277 

Good account of the pressure exerted by organized artists to 
get jobs, higher wages, and exemption from relief work. 
Monroe points out that artists received the highest WPA 
wages and had generous exemption from the relief require- 
ments; concentrates on the Artists' Union. 

1359 Ajay, Abe. "Working for the WPA." Art in America 60 
(September-October 1972): 70-75. 

Memoir by Abe Ajay, who worked on the WPA/FAP's Graph- 
ics Division project. He looks back at this as a good time in his 
life; a time when artists were brought together; Ajay saw no 
political problems in the projects. Ends with a call for a 
program to document WPA work and halt its deterioration. 
Ajay remembers nothing wrong and none of the troubles: 
"Like sex, art is best learned about in the gutter or behind 
the barn from those who make it. Leaving the place of 
WPA/FAP in art history entirely to the art historians is not 
the peachiest idea in the world," p. 75. B/W illustrations of 
the works of Arshile Gorky, Stuart Davis, and Philip Ever- 
good. Photographs of various artists at work. 

1360 "Review of The New Deal Art Projects: An Anthology 
of Memoirs by Francis V. O'Connor." American Artist 36 
(September 1972): 66-67. 

Highly favorable review of O'Connor's important book; 
reviewer draws some analogies between the 1930s and the 
1970s. 

1361 Harrison, Helen A. "American art and the New 
DeaV Journal of American Studies. 6 (December 1972): 289- 
96. 

A very general overview of the New Deal art projects by 
Harrison, an American living in Great Britain. 

EXHTBinONS 

1362 Illinois. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. 
University Galleries. WPA revisited, an exhibit: art works from 
the permanent collection of University Galleries, Southern Illinois 



278 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

University at Carbondale, Mitchell Gallery, February 1 through 
Fehmary 28, 1972. The Galleries: Carbondale, IL, 1972. 
24 pp. 

Exhibition, February 1 through 28, 1972. Checklist of fifty- 
five works from the Illinois WPA/FAP on permanent loan to 
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Selected works 
from catalog are illustrated in B/W. Three brief essays 
("Thoughts for the Present," by Evert A.Johnson; "Some 
Thoughts for the Future," by Ernest L. Grauber; and "A 
Matter of History: New Deal and the Arts," by George J. 
Mavigliano) . 

1363 Kingsbury, Martha. Art of the thirties; the Pacific Northwest. 
University of Washington Press: Seatde, 1972. 95 pp. 

Exhibition, April 1972. Covering all aspects of art in the 
Pacific Northwest during the 1930s, the show includes 289 
works from all media (many WPA/FAP works) . B/W illustra- 
tions of many works in exhibition. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1364 Clapp, Jane. Art censorship: a chronology of proscribed 
and prescribed art. Scarecrow Press: Metuchen, 1972. 582 
pp. 

Chronological list of cases of art censorship; lists the major 
cases involving New Deal art. 

1365 Curtis, Philip Campbell. Phoenix Art Center, W.P.A. Art 
Program, 1937-1940. Phoenix, 1972. 185 photos on 24 sheets 
and 4 pp. text. 

"Photographs of art work and activities of the Phoenix Art 
Center. Accompanied by a 4-page history of the Phoenix Art 
Center program, 1937-1940, by Philip C. Curtis." NOT 
SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1366 Hornung, Clarence Pearson. Treasury of American de- 
sign; a pictorial survey of popular folk art based upon watercolor 
renderings in the Index of American Design, at the National Gallery 
of Art. Abrams: New York, 1972. 2 v. 



Annotated Bibliography 279 

A handy, profusely illustrated guide to the IAD; organized by 
subject. Introduction by Holger Cahill reprinted from Index 
of American Design by Christensen (See 1256). 

1367 O'Connor, Francis v., ed. The New Deal art projects. An 
anthology of memoirs. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washing- 
ton, DC, 1972. 339 pp. 

One of the single most important works on the New Deal art 
projects (primarily WPA/FAP) ; a collection of memoirs by 
those who administered the projects and created art on the 
projects. "The first attempt to publish in depth the recollec- 
tions of artists and administrators who worked on the New 
Deal art projects of the 1930's," p. 2. Includes brief biogra- 
phies of the contributors. Memoirs by: 
Olin Dows, "The New Deal Mural Projects"; 
Audrey McMahon, "A General View of the WPA Federal Art 

Project"; 
Edward Laning, "The New Deal Mural Projects"; 
Joseph Solman, "The Easel Division of the WPA Federal Art 

Project"; 
Robert Cronbach, "The New Deal Sculpture Projects"; 
Jacob Kainen, "The Graphic Arts Division of the WPA 

Federal Art Project"; 
Lincoln Rothschild, "Artists' organizations of the Depres- 
sion Decade"; 
Rosalind Bengelsdorf Browne, "The American Abstract Art- 
ists and the WPA Federal Art Project"; 
Olive Lyford Gavert, "The WPA Federal Art Project and the 

New York World's Fair, 1939-1940"; 
Marchal E. Landgren, "A Memoir of the New York City 

Municipal Art Galleries, 1936-1939." 
Book concludes with a roundtable discussion with McMahon, 
Landgren, Gavert, and O'Connor talking about various aspects 
of the project. 

1368 Petravage, Jacqueline. A study of three New Deal art 
projects in Wyoming: their administration and their legacy. MA 
Thesis, University of Wyoming, 1972. 107 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 



280 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1973 

1369 Marling, Karal Ann. "Unhallowed museum of Cleve- 
land art." Cleveland I (February 1973): 100-102. 

Popular account of the New Deal art projects in Cleveland, 
particularly the mural projects. B/W illustration of work by 
Ora Coltman. 

1370 "Dall "progressive era" al New Deal, la questione di 
Muscle Shoals." Casabella 41 (May 1973): 35-43. 

NOT SEEN. 

1371 Dieterich, Herbert R. and Jacqueline Petravage. 
"New Deal art in Wyoming: some case studies." Annals of 
Wyoining45 (Spring 1973): 53-67. 

Overview of all New Deal art projects in Wyoming, with 
details on six Section projects assigned to Eugene Kingman, 
Louise Ronnebeck, Verona Burkhard, Manuel Bromberg, 
George Vander Sluis, and Gladys Fisher. Most of the authors' 
information is drawn from official correspondence between 
the artists and Section officials. 

1372 Harney, Andy Leon. "WPA handicrafts redis- 
covered." Historic Preservation 25 (July 1973): 10-15. 

History of the WPA handcrcifts projects (including Timberline 
Lodge in Oregon) ; B/W photographs of some of the projects. 

1373 Monroe, Gerald M. "Art Front." Archives of American 
ArtJoumal\33 (1973): 13-19. 

Full account of the radical left magazine Art Front published 
by the Artists' Union and which carried many articles on the 
projects. B/W photographs. 

1374 Evett, Kenneth. "Back to WPA; Federal Art Project." 
New Republic 169 (November 24, 1973): 21-22. 

Using Francis V. O'Connor's Art for the Millions {See 1378) 
as a touchstone, Evett praises the WPA in its ability to unify 



Annotated Bibliography 281 

artists and calls for some type of similar project for today's 
artists. "While I hope we will be spared the pious pronounce- 
ments and heavy visual exhortations of the WPA, a revived 
interest in the social force of art could now lead to a strong 
new manifestation of the age-old exchange between art and 
life," p. 22. 

1374a Bernstein, Barbara. "Federal art: not gone, just 
forgotten." Chicago Tribune Magazine (December 2, 1973). 

NOT SEEN. Reprinted by the Public Art Workshop as a 
six-page pamphlet in 1973. A brief discussion of the Illinois 
WPA/FAP. 

1374b Mathews, Marcia M. "George Biddle's contribution to 
Federal art." Records of the Columbia Historical Society 49 
(1973-74): 493-520. 

Overview of George Biddle's artistic career; focuses on his 
contributions to the PWAP and the Section. B/W illustra- 
tions of Biddle's mural work for the Department of Justice. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1 375 Kent State University. Division of Art History. New Deal 
federally sponsored works of art: Ohio post office murals. Kent State 
University: Kent, OH, 1973. 4 pp. 

Exhibition, 1973 (no dates). Checklist of sixty-nine photo- 
graphs of post office murals (from all projects) in Ohio. Brief 
text by Paul Kalinchak on the history of public murals in Ohio. 

1376 Illinois State Museum. Federal art patronage: art of the 
1930s. IlHnois State Museum: Springfield, 1973. 

Exhibition, October 28 through December 9, 1973. Catalog 
by Robert J. Evans. NOT SEEN. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1377 McKinzie, Richard D. The New Deal for artists. Prince- 
ton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1973. 203 pp. 



282 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

An excellent account of the formation and operations of the 
various federal art programs. One of the best-researched and 
most important works in the field. Illustrated with many B/W 
reproductions of works as well as photographs of artists and 
administrators. 

1378 O'Connor, Francis V., ed. Art for the millions; essays from 
the 1 930s by artists and administrators of the WPA Federal Art 
Project. New York Graphic Society: Greenwich, CT, 1973. 
317 pp. 

An important collection of essays on New Deal art. Originally 
planned as a national report on the WPA/FAP by Holger 
Cahill in 1936, the process of collecting and editing the 
essays was drawn out for a number of years; plans were made 
to have the book published commercially in the later 1930s, 
but these fell through. With the termination of the WPA/ 
FAP in 1943, the manuscripts lay forgotten amongst the 
papers of Cahill until they were eventually resurrected and 
edited by O'Connor. O'Connor also includes an excellent 
essay on the history of the WPA/FAP. Included are a fore- 
word by Cahill adapted from a speech given in 1938. Appen- 
dices list the complete manuscripts planned for Art for the 
Millions (the present edition is incomplete and also contains 
condensed or amalgamated versions of some essays; others, 
whose existence is known of, were lost over the years) . The 
contents are as follows: 

Evergood, Philip, "Concerning mural painting," pp. 47-49; 
Norman, Geoffrey, "The development of American mural 

painting," pp. 50-55; 
Goodwin, Jean (Ames), "California mosaics," pp. 56-59; 
Newell, James Michael, "The evolution of Western Civiliza- 
tion," pp. 60-63; 
Siporin, Mitchell, "Mural art and the midwestern myth," pp. 

64-67; 
Knaths, KLarl, "Mural education," pp. 67-68; 
Diller, Burgoyne, "Abstract murals," pp. 69-71; 
Gorky, Arshile, "My murals for the Newark Airport: an 
interpretation," pp. 72-73; 



Annotated Bibliography 283 

Hiler, Hilaire, "An approach to mural decoration," pp. 

74-75; 
Bloch, Lucienne, "Murals for use," pp. 76-77; 
Quirt, Walter, "On mural painting," pp. 78-81; 
Piccoli, Girolamo, "Report to the sculptors of the WPA/ 

FAP," pp. 82-87; 
Cashwan, Samuel, "The sculptor's point of view," pp. 88-89; 
Smith, David, "Modern sculpture and society," pp. 90-92; 
Gershoy, Eugene, "Fantasy and humor in sculpture," pp. 

92-93; 
Gregory, Waylande, "Planning a public fountain," pp. 94- 

95; 
Hunter, Vernon, "Concerning Patrocinio Barela," pp. 96- 

99; 
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, "Sculpture in Southern Califor- 
nia," pp. 100-103; 
Hord, Donal, "Symphony in stone," pp. 104-06; 
Bufano, Beniamino Benvenuto, "For the present we are 

busy," pp. 107-112; 
Guglielmi, O. Louis, "After the locusts," pp. 113-15; 
Bloch, Julius, "The people in my pictures," pp. 115-16; 
Levine,Jack, "Some technical aspects of easel painting," pp. 

117-20; 
Davis, Stuart, "Abstract painting today," pp. 121-27; 
Sommer, William, "Some of my working methods," pp. 

128-31; 
Trentham, Eugene, "Golden Colorado," pp. 132-33; 
Bear, Donald J., "Easel painting on the WPA/FAP: a state- 
ment and a prophecy," pp. 133-37; 
Warsager, Hyman, "Graphic techniques in progress," pp. 

138-41; 
Olds, Elizabeth, "Prints for mass production," pp. 142-44; 
Limbach, Russell T., "Lithography: stepchild of the arts," 

pp. 145-47; 
Eichenberg, Fritz, "Eulogy on the woodblock," pp. 148-50; 
Dwight, Mabel, "Satire in art," pp. 151-54; 
Velonis, Anthony, "A graphic medium grows up," pp. 154- 

56; 
Jacobi, Eli, "Street of forgotten men," p. 157; 



284 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Abbott, Berenice, "Changing New York," pp. 158-62; 
Rourke, Constance, "What is American design?" pp. 165-66; 
Glassgold, C. Adolph, "Recording American design," pp. 

167-69; 
CorneHus, Charles, "The New York Index," pp. 170-72; 
Smith, Gordon M., "The Shaker arts and crafts," pp. 173-75; 
Floethe, Richard, "Posters," pp. 176-78; 
Graham, Ralph, "The poster in Chicago," pp. 179-82; 
Federal Writers' Project, "The builders of Timberline 

Lodge," pp. 183-89; 
Gettens, Rutherford J., "The materials of art," pp. 190-93; 
Marantz, IrvingJ., "The artist as social worker," pp. 196-98; 
Jones, Lawrence A., "The New Orleans WPA/FAP project," 

pp. 198-99; 
Ogburn, Hilda Lanier, "Puppetry as a teacher," pp. 199- 

201; 
Stavenitz, Alexander R., "The therapy of art," pp. 201-203; 
Clapp, Thaddeus, "Art within reach," pp. 204-207; 
Bird, ElzyJ., "Birth of an art center," pp. 208-209; 
Hayes, Vertis, "The Negro artist today," pp. 210-12; 
Bennett, Gwendolyn, "Harlem Community Art Center," pp. 

213-15; 
Sutton, Harry H., "High noon in art," pp. 216-17; 
Morris, Carl, "The Spokane WPA Community Art Center," 

pp. 218-20; 
Curtis, Philip C, "The Phoenix Art Center," pp. 221-22; 
Defenbacker, Daniel S., "Art in action," pp. 223-27; 
Morsell, Mary, "The exhibition program of the WPA/FAP," 

pp. 228-31; 
Ludins, Eugene, "Art comes to the people," pp. 232-33; 
La More, Chet, "The Artists' Union of America," pp. 236-38; 
Wolff, Robert Jay, "Chicago and the Artists' Union," pp. 

239-42; 
Heiberg, Einar, "The Minnesota Artists' Union," pp. 243- 

47; 
Davis, Stuart, "American Artists' Congress, pp. 248-50; 
Rothschild, Lincoln, "The American Artists' Congresses," 

pp.250-52; 
Gellert, Hugo, "Artists' Coordination Committee," pp. 254- 

57; 



Annotated Bibliography 285 

Smith, E. Herdon, "The organization of supervisors of the 
WPA/FAP," pp.257-58; 

McMahon, Audrey, "The WPA/FAP and the organized art- 
ist," pp.259-60; 

Greene, Balcomb, "Society and the modern artist," pp. 262- 
65. 

1379 Shapiro, David, ed. Social realism: art as a weapon. 
Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.: New York, 1973. 340 pp. 

An excellent collection of essays on Social Realism; a number 
of the essays deal with aspects of the New Deal art projects. 

1380 Stott, William. Documentary expression and thirties Amer- 
ica. Oxford University Press: New York, 1973. 361 pp. 

Covering all aspects of documentary expression in the 1930s, 
pp. 102-118 are most relevant to the New Deal art projects. 
An excellent book on the 1930s. B/W illustrations of works 
by James Michael Newhall, Emanuel Jacobsen, and Edgar 
Britton as well as of various thirties images. 



1974 

1381 Sokol, David M. "Government support of the arts, a 
survey, part I." American Art Review 1 (January-February 
1974): 81-86. 

Brief overview of the projects; discussion of the relationship 
between TRAP and WPA/FAP. B/W illustrations of works by 
William Cropper and Paul Cadmus. NOTE: No second part 
published. 

1382 Monroe, Gerald M. "Artists as militant trade union 
workers during the Great Depression." Archives of American 
ArtJoumall4 (January 1974): 7-10. 

Good account of Artists Union; brief section on its associa- 
tion to project artists. B/W illustrations. 



286 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1382a Scoon, Carolyn. "Review of C.P Hornung's Treasury 
of American design; a pictorial survey of popular folk art based upon 
watercolor renderings in the Index of American Design, at the 
National Gallery of Art.'' New-York Historical Society Quarterly 58 
Qanuary 1974): 67-68. 

Favorable review of Hornung's selections from the Index of 
American Design {See 1366). 

1383 Baldwin, Carl. "Review of Documentary Expression 
and Thirties America, by William Stott." Artforum 12 (March 
1974): 67-68. 

Generally favorable review of Stott's book {See 1380) . 

1384 Carr, Eleanor. "Review of The New Deal Art Projects: 
An Anthology of Memoirs, by Francis V. O'Connor." Art 
Bulletin 56 (March 1974): 147-49. 

Favorable review of O'Connor's important book {See 1367). 

1385 Green, Christopher. "Review of New Deal Art Pro- 
jects: An Anthology of Memoirs, by Francis V. O'Connor." 

Burlington Magazine 116 (March 1974): 166. 

Favorable review of O'Connor's important book {See 1367). 

1386 Monroe, Gerald M. "The New Deal for artists." 
Journal of American History 60 (March 1974): 1178-79. 

Favorable review of McKinzie's overview of the New Deal art 
projects (5^^1377). 

1387 Dennis, James M. "Government art: relief, propa- 
ganda, or public beautification? [Review of The New Deal for 
Artists, by Richard D. McKinzie] ." Reviews in American History 
2 (June 1974): 275-82. 

In an extended (and favorable — ^with reservations) review of 
McKinzie's book {See 1377), Dennis takes the opportunity to 
give an overview of the secondary literature of the New Deal 
art projects as well as a comparison of the WPA/FAP and the 
Section, 



Annotated Bibliography 287 

1388 Federal Art Patronage Notes 1 (September 1974): 4 
pp. 

First issue of a newsletter edited by Francis V. O'Connor 
covering both contemporary and historical issues of Federal 
art patronage. Notes on three exhibitions: "Federal Art in 
Cleveland: 1933-1943" at the Cleveland Public Library (Sep- 
tember 16-November 1, 1974; extended to December 27, 
1974); "New Deal Art: California" (a forthcoming show at 
the De Saisset Art Gallery); and "Art in New Mexico: the 
Depression Years" at the Museum of New Mexico (February 
18-April22, 1973). 

1389 Marling, Karal Ann. "WiUiam M. MiUiken and federal 
art patronage of the Depression decade." Cleveland Museum 
Bulletin 61 (October 1974) : 360-70. 

Excellent account of the life and career of William M. 
Milliken (regional director for the PWAP, advisor for WPA/ 
FAP and TRAP, and director of the Cleveland Museum of 
Art) ; covers his life before, during, and after his association 
with federal art patronage. Numerous B/W illustrations of 
works and photographs. 

1390 Monroe, Gerald M. "The '30's: art, ideology and the 
WPA." Art in America 63 (November-December 1974): 64- 
67. 

An excellent article that examines the role of the Communist 
Party among WPA/FAP ardsts and the Ardsts' Union. B/W 
photographs of ardsts. 

1391 "Review." Federal Art Patronage Notes 1 (December 
1974-Januaryl975):2. 

Favorable review of "Federal Art in Cleveland: 1933-1943." 
B/W illustration of work by Kalman Kobinyi. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1392 Marling, Karal Ann. Federal art in Cleveland, 1933- 
1943; an exhibition, September 16 to November 1, 1974, the 



288 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Cleveland Public Library. Cleveland Public Library: Cleveland, 
1974. 125 pp. 

Exhibition, September 16 through November 1, 1974. 
Checklist of the exhibition of 442 works from all the arts 
projects at the Cleveland Public Library; essay includes a 
summary of the effects of the Depression on Cleveland and 
traces the history and organization of the projects. Numer- 
ous B/W illustrations of works. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1393 Baigell, Matthew. The American scene: American painting 
of the 1930's. Praeger: New York, 1974. 214 pp. 

Basic, well-illustrated work on the Ameridan Scene painters 
of the 1930s. Covers all the New Deal art projects as well as 
non-project works. Numerous B/W and color illustrations. 

1394 Blumberg, Barbara Marilyn. The Works Progress Admin- 
istration in New York City: A case study of the New Deal in Action. 
Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1974. 623 pp. 

Covers all aspects of New Deal activity in New York City; some 
coverage of Federal One. NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAI v. 
35/ 10a, p. 6624. 

1395 Donaldson, Jeff Richardson. "306" — Harlem, New 
York. Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1974. 334 
pp. 

Comments on African-American participation in the WPA/ 
FAP, particularly the Harlem Art Workshop. NOT SEEN. 
CITED IN DAI V. 35/lOa, p. 6595. 

1396 Hall, Daniel August. Federal patronage of art in Arizona 
from 1933 to 1943. MA thesis, Arizona State University, 1974. 
211 11. 

Detailed coverage of all aspects of Federal art in Arizona, 
1933 to 1943. Hall feels the greatest achievement of the 
projects in Arizona was the founding of the Phoenix Art 



Annotated Bibliography 289 

Museum and in raising the art consciousness of Arizonans. 
Includes an appendix of original documents regarding the 
arts projects in Arizona; lists as many of the art works created 
as he could find. 

1397 Rogers, Kathleen Grisham. Incidence of New Deal art in 
Oklahoma: an historical survey. MA Thesis, University of Okla- 
homa, 1974. 115 11. 

Concentrating on the mural projects and the Federal Art 
Centers in Oklahoma, Rogers gives an overview of the 
projects in Oklahoma, a description of typical mural themes 
(cowboys and Indians); an excellent account of the Okla- 
homa Art Centers which were among the most active in the 
country. Includes a list of all Oklahoma murals with their 
condition cited. 

1398 Sherwood, Leland Harley. The Federal sponsored Com- 
munity Art Centers of Iowa as part of the New Deal. Ph.D. 
dissertation, Indiana Universit)^, 1974. 212 pp. 

Describes the WPA/FAP's Community Art Centers in Iowa, 
focusing on their educational activities; feels the programs 
were good and useful. NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAI v. 38/08a, 
pp. 4581-82. 

1 399 Spurlock, William H . Federal support for the visual arts in 
the state of New Mexico: 1933-1943. MA Thesis, University of 
New Mexico, 1974. 11511. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1400 Tritschler, Thomas Candor. The American Abstract 
Artists 1937-1941. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1974. 144 pp. Plates. 

Complete history of the American Abstract Artists (AAA) 
group which included a core group of artists who had worked 
on the WPA/FAP. Extensive commentary on the relationship 
of the AAA and the WPA/FAP, particularly through the 
activities of Burgoyne Diller of the New York WPA/FAP. 
Good coverage of the WPA/FAP work on the Williamsburg 
Housing Project murals in New York City. 



1975-1979 



1975 

1 40 1 ' ' WPA: it wasn ' t all leaf-raking. ' ' Newsweek 85 (January 
20, 1975): 57. 

Note on the contributions of the WPA to American life. "The 
great bulk of WPA money was spent on construction, but many 
of the agency's most lasting contributions were in the arts." 

1402 "What's the best investment?" Dun's Review 105 (May 
1975): 41-45, 92. 

In an article on investments, John Train, an investment 
counselor, comments: "WPA art, right now, if you know what 
you're buying, could probably do well. But to buy it, you 
would have to find it — and that might require tearing down a 
post office wall in Bangor," p. 92. 

1403 Sherman, Randi E. "New Deal sculpture and ceram- 
ics in Cleveland, 1933-1943." American Art Review 2 Quly- 
Augustl975): 107-19. 

Account of ceramic and sculpture programs in Cleveland 
under the PWAP and WPA/FAP. Illustrated with a number of 
B/W and color photographs of ceramic and sculptural 
works. 

1404 Key, Donald. "Milwaukee's art of the Depression 
era. ' ' Historic Messenger of the Milwaukee County Historical Society 
31 (Summer 1975): 38-49, cover. 

Excellent account of the New Deal art projects in Milwaukee; 
mentions the Milwaukee Handicrafts Project. Numerous 
artists mentioned. B/W illustrations of work by Schomer 
290 



Annotated Bibliography 291 

Lichtner, Robert Schellin, Paul Sand, Francis Scott Bradford 
Jr., and a photograph of Robert Von Neumann. 

1405 Dawson, Oliver B. "Ironwork of Timberline." Oregon 
Historical Quarterly 76 (September 1975): 258-68. 

Historical account of the ironwork done at the Timberline 
Lodge (a WPA project done on Mt. Hood, Oregon) by 
Dawson (who worked on the Lodge) . B/W photographs of 
the ironwork. 

1406 Matthews, Jane De Hart. "Art and the people: the 
New Deal quest for a cultural democracy.'" Journal of American 
History 62 (September 1975): 316-39. 

A description of the struggle in the New Deal art projects 
between high art and an art that was acceptable to the 
people; Matthews feels that cultural democracy was only 
partially realized in the projects. 

1407 "Portrait of the artist as a civil servant." The Economist 
256 (September 20, 1975): 76. 

In commenting on the CETA program of job training, the 
brief article gives an overview of the WPA/FAP and Section. 
B/W illustration of the WPA/FAP mural for the WPA Build- 
ing at the New York World's Fair. 

1408 Werner, Alfred. "WPA and social realism." Art and 
Artists 10 (October 1975): 24-31. 

After a brief history of the projects from a British point of 
view, Werner comments on the reciprocal relationship of 
social realism and the projects. B/W illustrations of works by 
Ben Shahn, Raphael Soyer, Jack Levine, and Louis Lozowick. 

1409 Jewett, Masha Zakheim. ' 'The murals in Coit Tower. ' ' 
California Living (December 14, 1975, newspaper supple- 
ment): 30-34. 

Detailed description of each of the twenty-five murals in San 
Francisco's Coit Tower. Illustrations of each panel and 
photographs of many of the artists at work. 



292 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1410 Federal Art Patronage Notes 1 (Winter 1975/Spring 
1976): 4 pp. + 14 pp. supplement. 

Notes on "WPA/FAP Graphics" (Smithsonian Institution 
traveling show opening at Timberline Lodge, OR, May 1, 
1975); the publication of New Deal Murals in Oklahoma {See 
1426); "Accomplishments: Minnesota Art Projects in the 
Depression Years" at the Universit)^ of Minnesota; and "New 
Deal Art: California" at the De Saisset Art Gallery and 
Museum. Supplement is a report on "Fine Arts and the 
People" the New Deal Culture Conference held at Glassboro 
State College (NJ), October 31 to November 2, 1975. In- 
cludes a summary of conference proceedings. 



MONOGRAPHS 



\ 



1411 Berman, Greta. The lost years. Mural painting in New 
York City under the WPA Federal Art Project, 1935-1943. Ph.D 
dissertation, Columbia University, 1975. 427 11. 

An excellent dissertation on the WPA/FAP mural projects in 
New York City. Covers technical, aesthetic, and political areas 
of the murals' creation. Berman concludes that the WPA/ 
FAP work in New York laid the groundwork for the emer- 
gence of the Abstract Expressionists and the leadership of 
New York in the postwar art world. NOTE: Printed by 
Garland Publishers in 1978 as part of their "Outstanding 
dissertations in the fine arts" series. 

1412 Forest Service. Timberline Lodge. Department of Agri- 
culture: Washington, DC, 1974. 52 pp., 19 11. of plates. 

NOT SEEN. CITE IN OCLC. 

1413 Harrison, Helen Amy. Social consciousness in New Deal 
murals. MA Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, 1975. 
344 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 



Annotated Bibliography 293 

1976 

1414 O'Connor, Francis V. "Economy of patronage: 
Arshile Gorky on the art projects." Arts 50 (March 1976): 
94-95. 

Excellent account of Arshile Gorky's work on the arts project, 
summer 1937 to July 2, 1941. Gorky was assigned to the mural 
division, but spent nearly all his time on easel painting. Lists 
his total salary on projects: $7,356.15. Illustrated with B/W 
photographs of Gorky at work. 

1415 ' 'When art was fun and fabulous. ' ' City of San Francisco 
10 (February 4, 1976): entire issue. 

Special issue of City of San Francisco dedicated to the New 

Deal projects. 

Hinckle, Warren. "Art for the Millions: A Pictorial Survey," 
pp. 16-19. Introduction to the special issue plus numer- 
ous photographs of various works. 

"The WPA and the Great Coit Tower Controversy: The 
Artists look Back," pp. 20-23. Reminiscences by artists 
involved with the Coit Tower project. 

Gelber, Steven M. "The Irony of San Francisco's 'Commie 
Art': an Artistic and PoHtical Appraisal," pp. 24-41. 
Excellent account of the Communist controversy sur- 
rounding the Coit Tower project and other Bay Area 
WPA/FAP projects. 

O'Hanlon, Richard. "Benny Bufano's Boffo WPA Years," pp. 
42-43. Illustration of works by, and brief biography of, 
Beniamino Bufano. 

"Guide to Bay Area WPA Art," p. 44. List of WPA art in the 
Bay Area. 

Hinckle, Warren. "Editorial: Renaissance in the Mission," p. 
45. A comparison of WPA/FAP murals and present-day 
murals done in San Francisco's Mission District. 

1416 "Interview: Burgoyne Diller talks with Harlan Phil- 
lips." Archives of American Art Journal!^. 2 (1976): 14-21. 



294 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Burgoyne Diller, Head of the Mural Division in NYC (1935- 
1942) and champion of abstract artists, discusses his associa- 
tion with the WPA/FAP; B/W photographs. Reprinted in 
Archives of American Art Journal 30.1-4 (1990): 27-34. 

1417 Monroe, Gerald M. "Mural burning by the New York 
City WPA." Archives of American Art Journal 16.3 (1976): 
8-11. 

Good account of the Red scare issue in the WPA/FAP 
projects; discussion of the role of Brehon Burke Somervell, 
NYC administrator of the WPA and firm hater of Commu- 
nists; B/W illustration of the Floyd Bennett Field mural by 
August Henkel. 

1418 Berman, Greta. "Does 'Flight' have a future?" Art in 
America 64 (September-October 1976): 97-99. 

Discusses James Brooks' mural "Flight" at the La Guardia 
Marine Air Terminal (completed 1942) painted over in 
1955. Includes a biography of Brooks, a history of the mural 
and an analysis of the work. B/W photographs of the mural 
and Brooks at work. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1419 International Exhibitions Foundation. American tex- 
tiles lent by the National Gallery of Art from the Index of Ameri- 
can Design. International Exhibitions Foundation, 1976, 
4 pp. 

Exhibition, 1976. Fifty works shown. NOT SEEN. 

1420 De Saisset Art Gallery and Museum. New Deal art, 
California. De Saisset Art Gallery and Museum, University of 
California: Santa Clara, CA, 1975. 172 pp. 

Exhibition, January 17 through June 15, 1976. Excellent 
introduction to New Deal art in California. Checklist of 288 
works from all aspects of federal art patronage. Introduction 
by Francis V. O'Connor; essay, "The New Deal and Public Art 
in California" by Steven M. Gelber. Appendices include a list 



Annotated Bibliography 295 

of videotape projects (artists' interviews, visits to sites) done 
for exhibition research, list of sites photographed for exhibi- 
tion research, and list of murals created in California with 
full information (location, condition, etc.). Numerous B/W 
illustrations. 

1421 Vassar College Art Gallery. Seven American Women: the 
Depression decade. Vassar College Art Gallery: Poughkeepsie, 
NY, 1976. 40 pp. 

Exhibition, January 19 through March 5, 1976. The seven 
women are: Rosalind Bengelsdorf Browne, Lucienne Bloch, 
Minna Citron, Marion Greenwood, Doris Lee, Elizabeth 
Olds, and Concetta Scaravaglione. Catalog of seventy-seven 
works from all media. Organized by Helen A. Harrison; essay 
by Karal Ann Marling. Numerous B/W illustrations of works. 

1422 New Muse Community^ Museum of Brooklyn. The 
Black artists in the WPA 1933-1943. New Muse Community 
Museum of Brooklyn: Brooklyn, NY, 1976. 18 pp. 

Exhibition, February 15 through March 30, 1976. Exhibition 
consisted of thirty-two works by fifteen artists. Curated by 
Charlene Claye Van Derzee and George Carter. Catalog of 
the thirty-two works plus selected B/W illustrations. Brief 
introduction. 

1422a Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota. 

Accomplishments: Minnesota art projects in the Depression 
years: essay and catalog. Tweed Museum of Art: Duluth, 1976. 
39 11. 

Exhibition, April 28 through May 30, 1976. Catalog of 88 
works. Includes brief biographies of each of the 29 artists 
represented. Excellent essay by Nancy A. Johnson on the 
New Deal art projects in Minnesota. 

1423 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
WPA/FAP graphics. SITES: Washington, DC, 1976. 23 pp. 

Exhibition organized by SITES to travel throughout the 
country during May 1976-1977. Consisted of 72 works plus a 



296 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

process portfolio of twenty-nine prints. Introduction by 
Francis V. O'Connor. B/W illustrations. 

1424 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
WPA/FAP Graphics handbook. SITES: Washington, DC, 1976. 
47 pp. 

Education handbook to accompany above exhibition. Text 
by Kathy L. Bell and Regina L. Lipsky. Includes suggestions 
on how to display the exhibition, public programs to stage, 
etc. 

1425 Allan Frumkin Gallery. Berenice Abbott photographs: 
Changing New York. Allan Frumkin Gallery: Chicago, 1976. 
Pamphlet. ( 

Exhibition, October 8 through November 6, 1976. 
MONOGRAPHS 

1426 Calcagno, Nicholas A. New Deal murals in Oklahoma. A 
bicentennial project. Pioneer Print: Miami, OK, 1976. 52 pp. 

List of known New Deal murals in Oklahoma; brief biogra- 
phies of the artists and notes on the works. B/W and color 
illustrations of some of the murals. 

1427 Meltzer, Milton. Violins and shovels: the WPA arts pro- 
jects. Delacorte Press: New York, 1976. 160 pp. 

A pleasant-to-read, anecdotal narrative of the projects of 
Federal One. B/W photographs and illustrations of works by 
Raphael Soyer, Lucienne Bloch, Symeon Shimin, Louis O. 
Guglielmi, Karl Knaths, Robert Cronbach, Concetta Scarav- 
aglione, and Will Barnet. 

1428 O'Neal, Hank, et al. A vision shared, a classic portrait of 
America and its people. St. Martin's Press: New York, 1976. 309 
pp. 

Primarily illustrated with photographs by FSA workers, there 
is a section on Ben Shahn's photographs of artists at work. 
Additional text by Bernarda Bryson Shahn. 



Annotated Bibliography 297 

1429 Rowin, Fran. Federally sponsored murals in Florida post 
offices during the Depression. MA thesis, University of Miami, 
1976. 166 pp. 

Detailed account of the mural work done in Florida post 
offices done under the Section. Fourteen locations identi- 
fied; works of Denman Fink, Edward Buk Ulreich, Charles 
Rosen, George Snow Hill, Lucille Blanch, Charles Herdman, 
Elizabeth Terrell, Charles Knight, Pietro Lazzari, Thomas 
Laughlin, and Stevan Dohanos illustrated (B/W) . 

1430 Truman, Priscilla. WPA murals. MA Thesis, University 
of California, Riverside, 1976. 

NOT SEEN. 

1430a Solman, Joseph. "Review of New Deal for Art: The 
Government art projects of the 1930s with examples from New York 
City and State.'' PrintReviewl (1977): 92-93. 

Favorable review of Park and Markowitz's book {See 1569); 
B/W illustration of a Harry Gottiieb work. 



1977 



1431 "Extensions downtown." New Yorker 53 (February 28, 
1977): 24-25. 

At the "W.P.A," a restaurant in SoHo, Harry Gottlieb, David 
Margolis, Augustus Goertz, and Sarah Berman Beach gather 
to discuss their work for the New Deal art projects. 

1432 "Preservation notice." Federal Art Patronage Notes 2 
(March 1977): 4. 

A request for readers to ask that preservation action be taken 
on Ben Shahn's mural in the Bronx Post Office; two small 
B/W photographs showing its poor condition {See 1435) . 

1433 "30's arts projects on German TV." Federal One 2 
(April 1977): 4. 



298 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Note on the production of four one-hour documentaries 
(Bread and roses: a New Deal for the arts, 1935-1943) on the 
Federal Project One (one for each project) made for Ger- 
man TV. 

1434 "Un protagonista del New Deal: Rexford G. Tugwell 
(1891-1979)." Casabella^b (April 1977): 44-47. 

NOT SEEN. 

1435 "Preservation note. ' ' Federal Art Patronage Notes 2 (May 
1977): 1,4. 

Note that the Ben Shahn mural in the Bronx Post Office will 
be repaired {See also 1432). 

1436 Marling, Karal Ann. "New Deal ceramics: the Cleve- 
land workshops." Ceramic Monthly 2b (June 1977): 25-31. 

Good account of one of the lesser-known aspects of the 
WPA/FAP, the ceramics program. Illustrations of a number 
of the finished works by the following artists: Alexander 
Blazys, George Vander Sluis, Henry Olmer, Le Roy Flint, 
Emily Scrivens, Henry Keto, Edris Eckhardt, Frank Gentot, 
Woodhull Homer, John Tenkacs, and Louis Regalbisto. 

1437 Berman, Greta. "Walls of Harlem." Arts 52 (October 
1977): 122-26. 

Account of six African-American artists (Charles Alston, 
Vertis Hayes, Georgette Seabrooke, Sara Murrell, Selma Day, 
and Elba Lightfoot) who worked on murals at the Harlem 
Hospital in 1936. Berman explains the controversy over the 
works (murals included "too much Negro subject matter" 
according to hospital administrators) ; a critique of the works; 
general information on Blacks on the art projects; and a plea 
to save the murals. 

1438 Griffin, Rachel. "New peak at Timberline." Craft 
Horizons 37 (October 1977): 14-17. 

Timberline Lodge in Oregon was decorated by WPA/FAP 
artists in the 1930s; Griffin explains why and discusses 



Annotated Bibliography 299 

restoration efforts; comments on recent exhibition of con- 
temporary crafts to help fund the restoration. B/W illustra- 
tions and photographs of the lodge and its decorations (the 
works of Virginia Darce, Florence Thomas, and O.B. Dawson 
shown) . 

1439 "Federal art plan to provide funds for needy artists." 
Art News 1^ (November 1977): 156. 

Reprint of Art News article from December 16, 1933 {See 
0010). 

1440 Herman, Greta. "Review of The New Deal for Artists, 
by Richard D. McKinzie." Art Bulletin 59 (December 1977): 
653-54. 

Mixed review of McKinzie's important book {See 1377); 
Berman finds no fault with his history, but feels he lacks the 
critical art historical skills to write about the actual work 
created under the projects. 

EXHIBITIONS ^ 

1441 Vassar College Art Gallery. Woodstock: an American art 
colony 1902-1977. Vassar College Art Gallery: Poughkeepsie, 
1977. ca.200 pp. 

Exhibition, January 23 through March 4, 1977. Catalog of 
seventy-seven object and art works. Text by Karal Ann Mar- 
ling discusses briefly the relationship between the Wood- 
stock colony and the New Deal art projects, particularly the 
PWAP. B/W illustrations. 

1442 Park, Marlene S. and Gerald E. Markowitz. New Deal 
for art; the Government art projects of the 1930's with examples from 
New York City and State. Gallery Association of New York State: 
Hamilton, NY, 1977. 172 pp. 

Exhibition, January 25 through February 13, 1977 (Tyler Art 
Gallery, SUNY College of Arts and Sciences) . Catalog of a 
traveling exhibition (seven other sites) of 147 works and 
artifacts from the arts projects; many B/W illustrations; essay 



300 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

covers the history of the various projects, particularly in New 
York. 



1443 Park, Marlene S. and Gerald E. Markowitz. New Deal 
for art; the Government art projects of the 1930's with examples from 
New York City and State. Gallery Association of New York State: 
Hamilton, NY, 1977. 16 pp. 

Separately published checklist to accompany above exhibi- 
tion; B/W illustrations, other text. 

1444 The Studio Museum in Harlem. New York/Chicago: 
WPA and the Black artist. Studio Museum in Harlem: New 
York, 1978. 24 pp. 

Exhibition, November 13, 1977, through January 8, 1977. 
Checklist of sixty-one works from all media. Essay on the 
nature of the work of African-American artists from New York 
and Chicago WPA/FAP projects by Ruth Ann Stewart. B/W 
illustrations of sixteen works. 

1445 De Cordova Museum and Park. By the people, for the 
people: New England. De Cordova Museum: Lincoln, MA, 
1977. 91 pp. 

Exhibition, September 25 through November 27, 1977. 
Detailed catalog of 117 works with brief biographies of the 
artists. Includes a memoir by Charles H. Sawyer of his 
involvement as WPA/FAP administrator in New England. 

1446 Joe and Emily Lowe Gallery. The mural art of Ben 
Shahn: original cartoons, drawings, prints and dated paintings. 
Joe and Emily Lowe Gallery: Syracuse, 1977. 24 pp. 

Exhibition, September 28 through October 20, 1977. Check- 
list of fifty-four works (twenty-seven original works, twenty- 
five photographs of murals, and two slides of murals) cover- 
ing the mural work of Ben Shahn. Includes a chronological 
Ust of the murals of Shahn (five of which were PWAP/Section 
productions) . Numerous B/W illustrations. 



Annotated Bibliography 301 

1447 Parsons School of Design. New York City WPA art: then 
1934-1943 and . . . now 1960-1977. NYC WPA Artists: New 
York, 1977. 101 pp. 

Exhibition, November 8 through December 10, 1977, 65 
artists ( 1 30 works) one from their WPA period and one more 
recent work; four essays by Norman Barr, Audrey McMahon, 
Emily Genauer, and Greta Berman. Checklist of exhibition 
also published separately in pamphlet form. 

1448 New York Public Library. WPA prints. NYPL: New 
York, 1977. 7 11. Reproduced from typescript. 

Exhibition, November 18, 1977, through February 28, 1978. 
Typed checklist of seventy^-two WPA/FAP prints from NYPL 
collections. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1449 Blumberg, Barbara. "Unemployed artists and the 
WPA," in The New Deal and the unemployed. The view from New 
York City, pp. 183ff. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press; 
London: Associated University Press, 1977. 

Chapter 8 covers all aspects of the art projects; calls the art 
projects "most daring and humanizing segments of the New 
Deal employment relief effort." B/W photographs of artists 
at work. 

1450 Pound, Beverly Anne. The Federal Art Project mural 
paintings of San Francisco. M. A. Thesis, Lone Mountain 
College, 1977. 92 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1451 Retson, Nancy. The Federal Art Project in Wisconsin 
i956-i 959. MA Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1977. 77 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1452 Weir, Jean Burwell. Timberline Lodge: a WPA experiment 
in architecture and crafts. Ph.D. dissertation. University of 
Michigan, 1977. 841 11. 



302 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Full account of Timberline Lodge, Mt. Hood, OR. NOT 
SEEN. CITED IN DAI v. 38/1 la, p. 6363. 



1978 

1453 "Preservation notice #2. " Federal Art Patronage Notes 3 
(Spring/ Summer 1978): supplement. 

Request for readers to protest the proposed removal of 
Anton Refregier's Rincon Annex Section murals. 

1454 Dennis, James M. "The mural projects of Grant 
Wood." TheIowan26 (Summer 1978): 22-27. 

Good account of the production of Grant Wood's PWAP 
murals for the Iowa State Library (Ames) . Numerous illustra- 
tions of the murals. 

1455 Freidman, Jeannie. "WPA poster project: when gov- 
ernment sponsors art." Print 32 (July-August 1978): 68-73. 

Good analysis of the poster division of the WPA/FAP from a 
graphic artist's point of view. Numerous B/W and color 
reproductions of posters. 

1456 Monroe, Gerald M. "Artists on the barricades: the 
militant artists union treats with the New Deal." Archives of 
American Art JoumallS.S (1978): 20-23. 

Coverage of the Artists' Union protests for the continuation 
and expansion of the WPA/FAP. B/W photographs. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1457 Wichita Art Museum. New Deal art in Kansas. Wichita 
Art Museum: Wichita, KS, 1978. 13 pp. 

Exhibition, April 4 through May 21, 1978. Catalog of fifty-five 
items from all the New Deal art projects. Exhibit co- 
sponsored by the Office of Museum Programs, Curriculum 
Services Division, Wichita Public Schools. B/W illustrations 



Annotated Bibliography 303 

of work by Margaret Whittmore, William J. Dickerson, Ted 
Hawkins, and Mary Huntoon. 

1458 Emily Lowe Gallery. Hofstra University. Art for the 
people— New Deal murals on Long Island. Emily Lowe Gallery, 
Hofstra University: New York, 1978. 60 pp. 

Exhibition, November 1 through December 31, 1978. Cata- 
log of thirty-seven (illustrated) works on exhibit plus a list of 
murals still extant on Long Island. Includes essays by the 
following: Gerald Markowitz ("A Case Study in Conserva- 
tion: Max Spivak's Murals of Puppets and Circus Characters 
in the Children's Room of the Astoria Branch of the Queens- 
borough Public Library"); Marlene Park ("The Preservation 
of Public Art: Problems and Proposals"); Greta Berman ("A 
Study of Four Murals"); David Shapiro ("New Deal Murals 
and the Tradition"); a reprint of Francis V. O'Connor's essay 
from Federal Support for the Visual Arts {See 1335); and 
Helen Harrison ("Toward a 'Fit Plastic Language': Six mu- 
ralists of the New York World's Fair") . 

1459 NO ENTRY 

1460 Newark Museum. Murals without walls; Arshile Gorky's 
aviation murals rediscovered. Newark Museum: Newark, NJ, 
1978. 96 pp. 

Exhibition, November 15, 1978, through March 11, 1979. 
Exhibition of sketches, photographs and restoration mate- 
rial from Arshile Gorky's murals for the Newark Airport. 
Includes the following essays: Arshile Gorky ("My Murals 
for the Newark Airport: an Interpretation"); Francis V. 
O'Connor ("A Note on the Texts of Gorky's Essay"); 
Francis V. O'Connor ("Arshile Gorky's Newark Airport 
Murals; the History of their Making"); Frederick T. Kiesler 
("Murals Without Walls: Relating to Gorky's Newark Pro- 
ject" reprint of Art Front article, 5^^0315); Ruth Bowman 
("Arshile Gorky's 'Aviation' Murals Rediscovered"); and 
Jim M. Jordan ("The Place of the Newark Murals in 
Gorky's Art"). 



304 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

MONOGRAPHS 

1461 Griffin, Rachel and Sarah Munro. Timberline Lodge. 
Friends of TimberUne: Portland, OR, 1978. 89 pp. 

Excellent picture book account of Timberline Lodge, Mt. 
Hood, OR. Essays on the history and architecture of the 
lodge by Sarah Munro; on the arts and furnishings by Jean 
Weir; and on the lodge's restoration by Rachel Griffin. 
Illustrated with a number of B/W photographs of the lodge. 
Includes a complete inventory of the original and restored 
furnishings as well as biographical sketches of the artisans. 

1462 Sahadi, Natasha. Works Progress Administration /Federal 
Art Project, Federal Project One. Art Education projects and pro- 
grams. MA Thesis, University of Toledo, 1978. 13 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1463 Shealy, Oscar. Defining the role of the Federal government 
in the support of art. MA Thesis, San Diego State University, 
1978. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 



1979 

1464 Marling, Karal Ann. "A note on New Deal iconogra- 
phy: futurology and the historical myth." Prospects 4 (1979): 
420-40. 

Marling applies Erwin Panofsky's iconographical theories to 
the study of New Deal art; she feels Social Realism to be an 
imprecise form and that the New Deal murals were the best 
expression of New Deal art. Numerous B/W illustrations of 
works and photographs of the artists. NOTE: Also reprinted 
in the 4th Annual of American Cultural Studies (Burt Franklin 
and Company: New York, 1979). 



Annotated Bibliography 305 

1465 Chadwyck-Healey, Charles. "The reproduction of vis- 
ual material on microform: our first five years and the 
future." Microform Review 8 (Summer 1979): 180-82. 

Chadwyck-Healey discusses a number of microforming pro- 
jects his company has been involved with, including the soon- 
to-be-published Index of American Design project. 

1466 Gelber, Steven M. "Working to prosperity: Califor- 
nia's New Deal murals." California History 58 (Summer 
1979): 98-127. 

An excellent overview of the New Deal art projects in 
California, including critical and public response. Gelber 
covers the major controversies (the Rincon Annex murals, 
the Coit Tower murals, and Leo Katz's mural for the Frank 
Wiggin's Trade School in Los Angeles). Numerous B/W 
photographs and illustrations of works. 

1467 "New Deal art projects: selected bibliography." Fed- 
eral Art Patronage Notes 3 (Summer 1979): 1-3. 

41-item selected bibliography with brief annotations. 

1468 Gurney, George. "Sculpture and the Federal Trian- 
gle." National Sculpture Review 28 (Fall 1979): 18-23, 28. 

Discussion of NCFA exhibition of the same title (October 26, 
1979-January 6, 1980); Gurney explains how the exhibition 
came about and discusses his research methodology. B/W 
illustrations. 

1469 Park, Marlene. "City and country in the 1930's: a 
study of New Deal murals in New York." Art Journal 39 (Fall 
1979): 37-47. 

Park compares and contrasts the mural work done by the 
WPA/FAP and Section in New York City and New York State 
on grounds of themes, style, and execution. B/W illustra- 
tions of murals. 



306 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1470 Berman, Greta. "Murals under wraps." Arts 54 (Sep- 
tember 1979): 168-71. 

Essay on the significance of murals to the pluralism of the 
1930s; includes a defence of the "WPA style"; decries the 
destruction and/or degeneration of murals; deals specifi- 
cally with certain painted over murals. Illustrated with B/W 
photographs of murals. 



1471 Taylor, Joshua C. "A poignant, relevant backward 
look at the artists of the Great Depression." Smithsonian 10 
(October 1979): 44-53. 

Excellent article on the social, economic, and artistic forces 
that created the projects; covers all aspects of federal patron- 
age of the visual arts and comments on the three exhibitions 
at the Smithsonian Institution on New Deal art {See 1460, 
1475, and 1476) ; profusely illustrated with color reproduc- 
tions of works. 

1472 Jackson, David. "Black artists and the WPA." Encore 8 
(November 19, 1979): 22-23. 

Good, popular account of the African-American experience 
in the WPA/FAP. B/W and color illustrations of works by 
Eldzier Cortor and Jacob Lawrence. 

1473 Paul, April J. "Byron Browne in the thirties: the battle 
for abstract art." Archives of American Art Journal 19.4 (1979): 
9-24. 

Good account of the work of Byron Browne's work for the 
WPA/FAP. Paul also covers struggles of abstract artists in the 
New Deal projects for acceptance. Drawn from her MA 
thesis, Byron Browne: A Study of His Art and Life to 1940. 

EXfflBITIONS 

1474 Mecklenburg, Virginia M. The public as patron. A history 
of the Treasury Department mural program illustrated with paint- 



Annotated Bibliography 307 

ings from the collection of the University of Maryland art gallery. 
University of Maryland: College Park, MD, 1979. 118 pp. 

Exhibition, 1979. Overview of the projects; exhibit includes 
finished murals and sketches from Section commissions; 
checklist of 1 20 works plus brief biographies of the artists and 
comments on the works. 

1475 National Collection of Fine Arts. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Prints for the people. Selections from New Deal graphics 
projects. NCFA: Washington, DC, 1979. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, September 14 through December 2, 1979. 
Checklist of sixty-seven works. Text by Janet A. Flint. B/W 
illustrations. 

1476 National Collection of Fine Arts. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. After the Crash. NCFA: Washington, DC, 1979. 5 pp. 

Exhibition, October 24, 1979, through January 13, 1980. 
Checklist of thirty-four works from all media. Text by Sara 
Hutchinson. B/W illustration of work by James N. Rosen- 
berg. 

1477 National Collection of Fine Arts. Sculpture and the 
Federal Triangle. NCFA: Washington, DC, 1979. 21 1. 

Exhibition, October 26, 1979, through January 6, 1980. "A 
walking tour of the Federal Triangle"; covers Section work in 
the Federal Triangle. To accompany an exhibition at the 
NCFA. Text by George Gurney. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1478 Blumberg, Barbara. The New Deal and the unemployed. 
The view from New York City. Bucknell University Press: Lewis- 
burg, 1979. 332 pp. 

Chapter 8, "Unemployed Artists and the WTA," covers all 
aspects of the arts projects; Blumberg calls the arts projects 
the "most daring and humanizing segments of the New Deal 
employment relief efi"orts." B/W photographs of artists at 
work. 



308 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1479 Bruner, Ronald Irvin. New Deal art works in Colorado, 
Kansas and Nebraska. MFA Thesis, University of Denver, 1979. 
108 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MAI 18/03, p. 170. 

1480 Tolbert, Bernice. A critical study of Black artists who 
participated in the WPA program. MA Thesis, Case Western 
Reserve University, 1979. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1481 Wyman, Marilyn. An annotated research bibliography on 
the Federal Arts Projects, 1934-1943. MA Thesis, University of 
Southern California, 1979. 124 11. 

Brief overview of the New Deal art projects followed by an 
annotated bibliography (arranged alphabetically). Exhibi- 
tion catalogs and government documents not annotated; no 
index. 



1980-1985 



1980 

1482 Harrison, Helen. "John Reed Club artists and the 
New Deal: radical responses to Roosevelt's 'peaceful revolu- 
tion.' " Prospects 5 (1980): 241-68. 

Examines the role of New Deal artists in John Reed Clubs 
and the Communist Party. B/W illustrations of works by 
Bernarda Bryson Shahn, Louis Lozowick, Paul Meltsner, 
William Cropper, Anton Refregier, Ben Shahn, Hugo Gel- 
lert, and Jacob Burck. 

1483 Sundell, Michael C. "Berenice Abbott's work in the 
1930's." Prospects 5 (1980): 269-92. 

Good coverage of Berenice Abbott's photographic work for 
the WPA/FAP. Illustrated with 60 B/W examples of her work. 

1484 Tonelli, Edith A. "The avante-garde in Boston: the 
experiments of the WPA Federal art project." Archives of 
American Art Journal 20:1 (1980): 18-24. 

Excellent account of how Boston's conservatism in the art 
field made it a fruitful area for WPA/FAP experimentalism as 
previously underrepresented artists were given a forum for 
their work; many B/W photographs and illustrations. NOTE: 
This article was reprinted in Archives of American Art Journal 
30:1-4 (1990): 41-47. 

1484a Jones, Dan Burne. "The murals of Rockwell Kent." 
The Kent Collector 7 (Summer 1980): 3-16. 

Full discussion of the Section murals of Rockwell Kent. 
Includes an account of his controversial mural for the US 

309 



310 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Post Office Department. Reprints New Masses article of No- 
vember 16, 1937 {See 0500). B/W and color illustrations of 
murals. 

1485 Bush, Donald. "New Deal — Southwest: Phoenix Art 
Museum." ArtweekW Qune 21, 1980): 3. 

Favorable review of the catalog and exhibition, "The New 
Deal in the Southwest; Arizona and New Mexico," May 24 
through July 13, 1980. 

1486 York, Hildreth. "The New Deal art projects in New 
Jersey." New Jersey History 9S (Fall-Winter 1980): 133-74. 

Excellent account of the New Deal art projects in New Jersey 
(tied in to Rutgers show. See 1549). Includes a list of resident 
New Jersey artists who worked on the projects; list of New 
Deal murals, reliefs, and public sculpture in New Jersey. B/W 
illustrations of work by Louis Lozowick, Gerald Foster, Tan- 
ner Clark, Arshile Gorky, Alex Monastersky, Michael Lenson, 
and Waylande Gregory. 

1487 Dieterich, Herbert R. ' 'The New Deal culture projects 
in Wyoming: a survey and appraisal." Annals of Wyoming b^ 
(Fall 1980): 30-44. 

Covers the two Federal One projects active in Wyoming (FAP 
and FWP) ; Dieterich feels the WPA/FAP created a base of art 
appreciation in Wyoming. Surveys the other art projects' 
activities and finds that there was only minimal PWAP work 
in Wyoming, no TRAP work, but a substantial amount of 
WPA/FAP and Section activity. B/W illustrations of work by 
Ernest E. Stevens, Lynn Fausett, and Virginia Pitman. 

EXfflBITIONS 

1488 Bermingham, Peter. The New Deal in the Southwest, 
Arizona and New Mexico. University of Arizona: Tucson, 1980. 
67 pp. 

Exhibition, January 18 through February 15, 1980, at the 
University of Arizona Museum of Art. Checklist of seventy- 



Annotated Bibliography 311 

nine works. Good account of New Deal projects in Arizona 
and New Mexico. Numerous B/W illustrations and photo- 
graphs. Show traveled to Northern Arizona University Art 
Gallery, Flagstaff March 27 through April 28; and Phoenix 
Art Museum May 24 through July 13. 

1489 Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum. Wisconsin's New 
Deal art. The Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum: Wausa, 
WI, 1980. 32 pp. 

Exhibition, January 19 through February 24, 1980, represent- 
ing fifty-four Wisconsin New Deal artists from all projects; 
checklist of works, many B/W and color reproductions. Brief 
essays by Karel Yasko and Mary Michie, covers the contribu- 
tion of Wisconsin State WPA/FAP director, Charlotte Par- 
tridge. 

1490 Robeson Gallery. New Deal art, New Jersey. Robeson 
Gallery Center, Rutgers in Newark and City without Walls Gallery, 
Newark, March 26-April 20, 1980, New Jersey State Museum, 
Trenton, May 3-July 20, 1980. Newark Museum: Newark, NJ, 
1980. 76 pp. 

Exhibition, March 26 through April 20, 1980, at the Robeson 
Center Gallery and City without Walls Gallery, Newark, NJ. 
Checklist of ninety-two works in the exhibition, a number 
illustrated in B/W. Text by Hildreth York. Includes a list of 
completed New Jersey murals. Show traveled to the New 
Jersey State Museum, Trenton, May 3 through July 20, 1980. 

1491 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Remember- 
ing the thirties: public work programs in Illinois, a traveling 
exhibition. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Ur- 
bana, 1980. 19 pp. 

Exhibition, Fall 1980 through Spring 1981. Traveling exhibi- 
tion organized by the Department of Urban and Regional 
Planning at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 
Covers all aspects of relief projects in Illinois; pp. 12-17 cover 
the art projects, TRAP, and Section. B/W illustrations of 
works by Mitchell Siporin, Charles White, Charles Umlauf, 
Freeman Schoolcraft, and Edgar Britton, 



312 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1492 Chrysler Museum. Portrait of New York: Berenice Abbott. 
Chrysler Museum: Norfolk, 1980. Pamphlet. 

Exhibition, October 17, 1980, through January 1, 1981. 
Checklist of forty-three photographs from Abbott's WPA/ 
FAP years. Six B/W photographs. 

1493 Neue Gesellschaft fur Bildende Kunst. Amerika: Traum 
und Depression, 1920/1940. Neue Gesellschaft fur Bildende 
Kunst: Berlin, 1980. 544 pp. 

Exhibition, November 9 through December 28, 1980, at the 
Akademie der Kiinst (Berlin). Checklist of 1080 objects 
(paintings, prints, photographs — hundreds of the objects 
are FSA photographs, objects such as FWP books, etc.). Of 
the number of essays in the catalog on American life and 
culture during the Depression, three deal most directly with 
the New Deal art projects: Joshua C. Taylor's "Kunst und 
uffentlichkeitin Amerika," pp. 12-20; Thomas Ferguson's 
"Von Versailles zum New Deal. Der Triumph des multina- 
tionalen Liberalismus in Amerika," pp. 436-51; and Francis 
V. O'Connor's "Entwicklungsgeschichte der Projecte zur 
bildenden Kunst im New Deal 1933-1943," pp. 452-63. 
Numerous B/W photographs and illustrations. Show trav- 
eled to the Kunstverein (Hamburg) January 11 through 
February 15, 1981. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1494 Howe, Carolyn. The production of culture on the Oregon 
Federal Arts Project of the Works Progress Administration. MA 
Thesis, Portland State University, 1980. 210 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN MA/ 19/03, p. 276. 

1494a The people and the land: the California post office murals. 
Merrillville, GA: Interphase Two Productions, 1980. 13 11. 50 
slides. 1 cassette tape. 

Audiovisual package describing California Post Office mural 
projects. 



Annotated Bibliography 313 

1495 Tinkham, Sandra Shaffer, ed. The Consolidated catalog 
to the Index of American Design. Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ; 
Chadwyck-Healey: Cambridge, 1980. 800 pp. 

Full, detailed index to the microfiche edition of the IAD. 
Indexed by date of manufacture; name of maker; place of 
origin of original work; date of rendering; the artist who did 
the rendering; and the LAD accession number. See the 
following ten entries for details of the microfiche collection. 

1496 Index of American Design. Catalog of textiles, costume, 
and jewelry in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck-Healey: 
Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 122 pp. 

Part 1 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1497 Index of American Design. Catalog of the art and design 
of Utopian and religious communities in the Index of American 
Design. Chadwyck-Healey: Cambridge; Somerset House: Tea- 
neck, NJ, 1980. 80 pp. 

Part 2 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1498 Index of American Design. Catalog of architecture and 
naive art in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck-Healey: 
Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 

Part 3 of microfiche edition of the LAD. 

1499 Index of American Design. Catalog of tools, hardware, 
firearms, and vehicles in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck- 
Healey: Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 

Part 4 of microfiche edition of the LAD. 

1500 Index of American Design. Catalog of domestic utensils 
in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck-Healey: Cambridge; 
Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 

Part 5 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1501 Index of American Design. Catalog of furniture and 
decorative accessories in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck- 



314 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Healey: Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 76 
pp. 

Part 6 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1502 Index of American Design. Catalog of wood carvings 
and weathervanes in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck- 
Healey: Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 

Part 7 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1 503 Index of American Design. Catalog of ceramics and glass 
in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck-Healey: Cambridge; 
Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 100 pp. 

Part 8 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1504 Index of American Design. Catalog of silver, copper, 
pewter, and toleware in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck- 
Healey: Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 32 
pp. 

Part 9 of microfiche edition of the LAD. 

1505 Index of American Design. Catalog of toys and musical 
instruments in the Index of American Design. Chadwyck-Healey: 
Cambridge; Somerset House: Teaneck, NJ, 1980. 44 pp. 

Part 10 of microfiche edition of the IAD. 

1506 Lawson, Richard A. and George J. Mavigliano. FredE. 
Meyers, wood-carver. Southern Illinois University Press: Car- 
bondale, 1980. 151 pp. 

Fred E. Meyers (1910-1950), a wood-carver, worked for the 
WPA/FAP from 1939-1942. Good account of his career; 
includes a catalogue raisonee of his work. Numerous B/W 
photographs of the carvings. 

1507 Melville, Annette, compiler. Special collections in the 
Library of Congress. Library of Congress: Washington, DC, 
1980. 464 pp. 

"Work Projects Administration Poster Collection" section 
describes the collection of 250 WPA/FAP posters in the 



Annotated Bibliography 315 

collection of the Library of Congress; and mentions the large 
collection of WPA/FAP prints in the Library of Congress's 
Prints and Photographs collection. 



1981 

1508 Bystryn, Marcia N. "Variation in artistic circles." 
Sociological Quarterly 22 (Winter 1981): 120-32. 

Bystryn analyzes the interaction of three artistic circles active 
in the 1930s: the American Artists' Congress, the American 
Abstract Artists, and the Surrealists. Examines how they grew 
out of interaction of a number of artists while they were in 
the WPA/FAP. Stuart Davis and Arshile Gorky are discussed. 
An interesting article examining the effects of the WPA/FAP 
on the sociological interaction of artists in the 1930s. 

1509 Chadwyck-Healey, Charles. "America: culture and 
society: defining and describing a visual archive." Microform 
Review \Q (Summer 1981): 159-61. 

Text of Charles Chadwyck-Healey' s talk at the ARLIS/NA 
conference on February 25, 1981, describing the fiche edi- 
tion of the IAD and three other microform projects of 
Chadwyck-Healey. 

1510 Harrison, Helen A. ' 'Subway art and the Public Use of 
Arts Committee." Archives of American Art Journal 21 '.2 (1981): 
3-12. 

Interesting article on the Public Use of Art Committee in 
New York City and its efforts to have the WPA/FAP create art 
for the New York City subway (very little was ever done) ; B/W 
illustration of work by Anton Refregier. NOTE: This article 
was reprinted in Archives of American Art Journal 30:1-4 
(1990): 61-70. 

1511 Miller, Lillian B. "Review of Index of American Design 
microfiche." Microform Review 10 (Summer 1981): 192-93. 



316 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Favorable review of the microfiche edition of the IAD {See 
1495ff) ; Miller finds the fiche well done and useful. 

1511a Whitney Museum of American Art. American art of the 
1930s. Whitney Museum of American Art: New York, 1981. 29 
pp. 

Exhibition, 1981-1983. Essay by Patterson Sims. Checklist of 
eighty-two works. Catalog to accompany a traveling exhibi- 
tion organized by the Whitney Museum of American Art of 
works from its collection. Numerous B/W illustrations. Trav- 
eled to ten sites around the country: Cedar Rapids Art Center 
(October 4 through November 29, 1981); Ackland Art Mu- 
seum, The University^ of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
(December 16, 1981 through February 7, 1982); The Art 
Gallery, The University of Maryland at College Park (Febru- 
ary 24 through April 18, 1982); San Antonio Museum of Art 
(May 5 through June 27, 1982); Phoenix Art Museum (July 
14 through September 5, 1982); Minnesota Museum of Art, 
St. Paul (September 22 through November 14, 1982); Co- 
lumbus Museum of Art (December 4, 1982 through January 
15, 1983); The Boise Gallery of Art (February 17 through 
April 3, 1983) ; Edwin A. Ulrich Museum of Art, Wichita State 
University (April 20 through June 12, 1983); and the Whit- 
ney Museum of Art, Fairfield County, CT (July 8 through 
August 31, 1983). 

EXfflBITIONS 

1512 Baltimore Museum of Art. WPA prints from the 1930's. 
Baltimore Museum of Art: Baltimore, 1981. 6 pp. 

Exhibition, 1981. Thirty-one works shown. Text by Jay M. 
Fisher. NOT SEEN. CITED IN RILA. 

1513 National Museum of American Art. Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Perkins Hamly: from the Index of American Design. 
NMAA: Washington, DC, 1981. 15 pp. 

Exhibition, October 16, 1981, through February 15, 1982 at 
the NMAA. Checklist of twent)^-nine IAD plates (most illus- 
trated in B/W) done by Perkins Harnly for the IAD. Includes 



Annotated Bibliography 317 

a brief biography and photograph of Harnly. Text by Vir- 
ginia Mecklenburg and Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, 

1514 ACA Gallery. Social art in America 1930-1945. ACA 
Gallery: New York, 1981. 61 pp. 

Exhibition, November 5 through 28, 1981. Catalog of 118 
works (many by New Deal artists or done on the projects) , all 
illustrated (B/W and color) . Essay by Milton Brown on the 
art of the thirties. 

1514a Crosby, Patricia Dunn. The New Deal art projects in 
Louisiana. MA Thesis, Tulane University, 1981. 311 11. 

NOT SEEN. 
MONOGRAPHS 

1515 Kornfeld, Paul Ira. The educational program oftheFederal 
Art Project. Ed.D. dissertation, Illinois State University, 1981. 
191 pp. 

Historical study of the WPA/FAP's educational programs 
and their influence on art education in the US. The author 
felt that though the impact of the WPA/FAP was minimal 
due to its brevity, it still made an important contribution. 
NOT SEEN. Cited in DAIy. 42/05-A, p. 1913. 

1516 Scheinman, Muriel. Art collecting at the University of 
Illinois: a history and catalogue. Ph.D. dissertation, University of 
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 592 pp. 

Appendix B lists the ICrannert Art Gallery's (University of 
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) collection of WPA/FAP art 
works. NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAI v. 42/02-A, p. 433. 

1517 Tonelli, Edith Ann. The Massachusetts Federal Art Pro- 
ject: a case study in government support. Ph.D. dissertation, 
Boston University, 1981. 410 pp. 

A study of the WPA/FAP and its contributions viewed 
through the contributions of Holger Cahill. Looking care- 
fully at the Massachusetts and New England manifestations 



318 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

of the WPA/FAP, Tonelli feels that Cahill's personality 
played a vital role in the shaping of WPA/FAP policy. 



1982 

1518 Meyers, John, "A letter from the publisher." Tm^ll9 
(February 1, 1982): 3. 

In an issue devoted to FDR, Meyers discusses the WPA/FAP 
association of Alice Neel, w^ho did the cover portrait of FDR 
for this issue. 

1519 Ames, Kenneth L. "Reviev^ of The Index of American 
Design.' ' Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 41 
(March 1982): 68-69. 

Review of the microfiche edition of the IAD {See 1495ff). 
Ames finds the project well done, but questions its interest 
and value to today's designers or material historians: "Today 
we can see the Index as a relic of the Depression, as history. 

1520 Narber, Gregg R. and Lea Rosson De Long. "The 
New Deal murals in Iowa." Palimpsest m (n.3 1982): 86-96. 

A good account of the Iowa mural projects under WPA/FAP, 
PWAP, and the Section. Numerous B/W and color illustra- 
tions of works by Richard Haines, Marion Gilmore, Orr 
Fisher, Harry D. Jones, Criss Glassell, John Bloom, William 
Henning, Tom Savage, Robert Tabor, and Herbert O. Myres. 

1521 Brown, Milton W. "New Deal art projects: boondog- 
gle or bargain?" Art News ^\ (April 1982): 82-87. 

Brief outline of the history of the projects; traces the reac- 
tions to the projects in later years; Brown feels that FDR was a 
motivating force behind the projects even though he did not 
do that much to support them; in the final verdict. Brown 
feels the projects were more bargain than boondoggle. B/W 
and color illustrations of numerous works. 



Annotated Bibliography 319 

1522 "Conference on New Deal culture." Federal One 7 
(May 1982): 1-7. 

Account of the conference held on New Deal culture at the 
National Archives and George Mason University, October 
15-17, 1981. Papers presented dealing with the fine arts 
projects were: "Meaning and Motif in the Arts of the 1930's" 
by Karal Ann Marling; "Craft Arts in the New Deal Art 
Programs" by Hildreth York; and "Visual Arts of the 1930's" 
by Sue Ann Kendall. In the same issue is a note on the 
founding of the Institute on the Federal Theatre Project and 
New Deal Culture at George Mason University and on two 
films, "Artists at Work" and "The New Deal for Artists." 

1523 Berman, Greta. "Abstraction for public spaces, 1935- 
1943." Artsb^ (June 1982): 81-86. 

Excellent account of abstract murals done under the art 
projects; account of Burgoyne Diller, head of the New York 
City^ mural division who encouraged abstract art. Illustrated 
with numerous B/W photographs of murals. 

EXHIBrnONS 

1524 National Museum of American Art. Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Roosevelt's America: New Deal paintings from the Na- 
tional Museum of American Art. NMAA: Washington, DC, 1982. 
Pamphlet. 

Exhibition, January 9 though September 26, 1982. CheckHst 
of seventeen New Deal paintings from the collection of the 
NMAA. Brief text by Virginia Mecklenburg covering the 
history of the various New Deal art projects and the collec- 
tion at the NMAA. 

1525 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Smith- 
sonian Institution. Five distinguished alumni: the WPA Federal 
Art Project. An exhibition honoring the Franklin Delano Roosevelt 
centennial Hirshhorn Museum: Washington, DC, 1982. 8 
pp. 



320 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition January 21 through February 22, 1982, consisting 
of contemporary work by five artists (Ilya Bolotowsky, Alice 
Neel, James Brooks, Willem de Kooning, and Ibram Lassaw) 
who had worked on one of the Federal art projects. Checklist 
of fifteen works; includes comments by each artist on their 
involvement in the projects. Other text by Judith Zilczer. 

1526 University of Maryland. Art Gallery. The spirit of the 
thirties: selections from the collection of the University of Maryland 
gallery. University of Maryland: College Park, MD, 1982. 42 pp. 

Exhibidon, February 24 through April 8, 1982. Checklist of 
eighteen works (many New Deal art project works, but others 
included); B/W illustration of most. Essay on how the 
university acquired the works and brief history of the art 
projects. 

1527 Muhlenburg College Center for the Arts. Can you 
spare a dime'?: art of the WPA era. Muhlenburg College Center 
for the Arts: Allentown, PA, 1982. 

Exhibition, February 28 through April 6, 1982. Catalog by 
Linda Weintraub. NOT SEEN. 

1528 National Museum of American Art. Berenice Abbott: the 
20's and the 30's. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, 
DC, 1982. 22 pp. 

Exhibition, June 4 through August 29, 1982. Catalog of 
fifteen works (not all WPA/FAP). Introduction by Barbara 
Shissler Nosanow. Exhibition first shown at the International 
Center of Photography, November 22, 1981, through Janu- 
ary 10, 1982 (no catalog). 

1529 Museum of the Borough of Brooklyn at Brooklyn 
College. Brooklyn themes: art in the years of Roosevelt and La 
Guardia. Museum of the Borough of Brooklyn: Brooklyn, 
1982. Pamphlet. 

Exhibition, October 26 through December 7, 1982. Illus- 
trated brochure with text by Shelly M. Dinhofer. B/W 
illustrations. No checklist. 



Annotated Bibliography 321 

MONOGRAPHS 

1530 Allyn, Nancy Elizabeth. Defining American design. A 
history of the Index of American Design, 1933-1942. MA Thesis, 
University of Maryland, 1982. 96 11. 

A history of the IAD, specifically how the IAD interacted with 
antique collectors and creator of decorative arts; a good 
section on the trials and troubles of the eventual allocation of 
the LAD plates first to the Metropolitan and then the NGA. 

1531 Bloxom, Marguerite D. Pickaxe and pencil: references for 
the study of the WPA. Library of Congress: Washington, DC, 
1982. 87 pp. 

Far-ranging but superficial survey of references on all aspects 
of the WPA. Individual chapters on the WPA/FAP as well as 
the WPA/FAP in relation to the other art projects of Federal 
One (music, theatre, and writers). Brief annotations. A good 
introduction to the other projects of the New Deal. 

1532 De Long, Lea Rosson and Gregg R. Narber. A catalog 
of New Deal mural projects in Iowa. Des Moines, 1982. 80 pp. 

Detailed, comprehensive account of New Deal murals in 
Iowa. Full history of a number of the murals. Illustrated with 
B/W photographs of artists at work, various Depression 
scenes, and mural reproductions. List of extant and de- 
stroyed murals in Iowa. 

1533 Desjardijn, D. En de kindertjes de moeders. Stachelswine: 
Amsterdam, 1982? 32 pp. 2 11. of plates. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1534 Marling, Karal Ann. Wall-to-wall America: a cultural 
history of Post Office murals in the Great Depression. University of 
Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1982. 348 pp. 

Dealing only with the Post Office work of the Section, 
MarUng explains in a clear, narrative prose the multi-layered 
relationships between the artist, the public, and the artist's 
governmental patron. An excellent and important work for 



322 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

placing the work of these New Deal artists in the broader 
context of 1930s America. Numerous B/W illustrations. 

1534a Mecklenburg, Virginia. "Federal art projects," pp. 
30-35. In FDR, the intimate presidency: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 
communication, and the mass media in the 1 930s: an exhibition to 
commemorate the 100th anniversary of the birth of the 32nd 
President of the United States, January 1982. Bruton, Elsa M., ed. 
National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion: Washington, DC, 1983. 64 pp. 

Essay on the nature of the New Deal art projects. Primarily 
B/W illustrations of artists at work on murals and the murals 
themselves. LAD mentioned on p. 37. 

1535 Wyman, Marilyn. A New Deal for art' in Southern Califor- 
nia: murals and sculpture under government patronage. Ph.D. 
dissertation. University of Southern California, 1982. 564 11. 

Good, basic coverage of the New Deal art projects; Wyman 
attempts to define New Deal art in a Southern California 
context. Includes a catalog of New Deal murals and sculpture 
in Southern California. Plates. 



1983 

1536 Hagerty, Donald J. "Hard times, new images: artists 
and the Depression years in California." Pacific Historian 27 
(Winter 1983): 11-19. 

Overview of the artistic milieu in California during the 
Depression. Discussion of the work of the New Deal art 
projects in California. Artists Maynard Dixon and Millard 
Sheets discussed. B/W illustrations of their works. 

1536a Swain, Martha H. "The forgotten woman: Ellen S. 
Woodward and women's relief in the New Deal." Prologue 15 
(Winter 1983): 201-13. 

Profile of Ellen S. Woodward, overseer of the WPA/FAP. 
B/W illustrations. 



Annotated Bibliography 323 

1537 "Busy doing nothing: the story of government job 
creation." The Heritage Foundation; Policy Review (Spring 
1983): 87ff. 

NOT SEEN. 

1538 Rhoads, William B. "The artistic patronage of Fran- 
klin D. Roosevelt: art as historical record." Prologue 15 
(Spring 1983): 5-21. 

Tracing the origins of FDR's aesthetic tastes, Rhoads dis- 
cusses his influence on the Section's Poughkeepsie Post 
Office project (it being near his home, FDR made a number 
of suggestions) . Rhoads claims that FDR saw art purely as an 
instructional or educational tool to illustrate history and not 
the expression of imagination. B/W illustrations of work by 
Olin Dows and Gerald Foster. 

1539 Ducato, Theresa and John C. Carlisle. "Forgotten 
images of America: post office murals." Historic Preservation 
35 (May-June 1983): 48-51. 

Account of John C. Carlisle (a professor at Purdue) who 
travels the country photographing New Deal post office 
murals. Numerous color photographs of the murals by 
Carlisle. 

1540 Stretch, Bonnie Barrett. "American art: a New Deal 
for WPA prints." Portfolio — The Magazine of the Fine Arts 5 
(May-June 1983): 27. 

Note on the NYPL's exhibition of over 1,200 WPA prints {See 
1545); comments by Mary Ryan (of Mary Ryan Gallery) and 
Ellen Sragow (an art dealer), that WPA/FAP prints are 
increasing in value. B/W illustration of work by Will Barnet. 

1541 "50th anniversary decade: 1982-93." Federal Art Pa- 
tronage Notes 4 (Summer 1983): 1-8. 

Call to commemorate the upcoming fiftieth anniversary of 
New Deal culture; includes a chronology of New Deal culture 
projects in tabular form. Also adds twenty items (pp. 4-5) to 
the selected bibliography published earlier {See 1467). 



324 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1542 Cole, John Y. "Amassing American 'stuff.' " Quarterly 
Journal of the Library of Congress 4:0 (Fall 1983): 356-89. 

Covering all of Federal One, this profusely illustrated article 
(B/W and color illustrations of works by Yasuo Kuniyoshi, 
Doris Spiegel, and Raphael Soyer) is a good introduction to 
WPA/FAP (and Federal One) material at the Library of 
Congress. Cole tells the interesting story of then Librarian of 
Congress Archibald MacLeish's unsuccessful attempt to gain 
possession of the L\D at the end of the WPA, 

1543 Gambrell, Jamey. "An art of protest and despair." Art 
in America 71 (December 1983): 92-99. 

Review of "Social Concern and Urban Realism: American 
Painting of the 1930's" (shown at Gallery 1199, NYC; Boston 
University Art Gallery, Boston; and others) curated by Patri- 
cia Hills. Includes a brief history of art projects and the social 
milieu of the 1930s. Work other than WPA/FAP artists 
included. B/W illustrations of many of the works in the show. 

1544 Greer, Nora Richter. "Nurturing the heritage of WPA 
art." AIAJoumal72 (December 1983): 26-27. 

Account of the GSA inventory of New Deal art under the 
direction of Karel Yasko; mostly illustrated with a good 
selection of murals. William Cropper, Gertrude Goodrich, 
Symeon Shimin, Emil Bisttram, George Biddle, Harry W. 
Scheuch, Glenn Chamberlain, George Grooms, Nicolai 
Cikovsky, and Orr C. Fisher. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1545 New York Public Library. Stokes Gallery. FDR and the 
arts. The WPA art projects. New York Public Library: New York, 
1983. 16 pp. 

Exhibition, January 1 through March 31, 1983. Brochure to 
accompany an exhibition that covered all aspects of New 
Deal support for the arts. Includes a section on the WPA/ 
FAP, the WPA/FAP graphics division, and one on Berenice 
Abbott's Changing New York. B/W photographs of the era, 



Annotated Bibliography 325 

and illustrations of works by Fred Becker, Will Barnet, Julia 
Rogers, and Berenice Abbott. 

1546 ACA Galleries and A.M. Adler, Fine Art, Inc. Joseph 
Solman: work of the thirties. ACA Galleries and A.M. Adler, Fine 
Art, Inc.: New York, 1983. 32 pp. 

Joint exhibition held March 5 through 26, 1983 at the two 
galleries. Introduction by Greta Berman. Joseph Solman was 
an important artist as well as editor oi Art Front; he worked in 
the Easel Division of the WPA/FAP from 1935-1941. Numer- 
ous B/W and color illustrations of his work. 

1547 Illinois State Museum. After the Great Crash: New Deal 
art in Illinois. Illinois State Museum: Springfield, 1983. 32 pp. 

Exhibition, April 3 through May 29, 1983. Illustrated catalog 
(B/W) of eighty-five works in all media and all projects. Text 
by Maureen A. McKenna. An extensive, though incomplete, 
list of artists who worked on New Deal art projects in Illinois. 

1548 Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts. UCLC. Beren- 
ice Abbott: Changing New York. Grunwald Center: Los Angeles, 
1983. Pamphlet. 

Exhibition, September 27 through November 13, 1983. 
Checklist of eighty photographs. Text by Lucinda H. Gedeon 
and Celia A.Johnson. 

1549 The Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers 
University. Harry Gottlieb: the silkscreen and social conscious of the 
WPA era. Rutgers University: New Brunswick, 1983. 28 pp. 

Exhibition, November 6 through December 31, 1983 at the 
Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum (January 8 through 
February 12, 1984 at the Sordoni Art Gallery, Wilkes Col- 
lege) . Checklist of thirty works. Essays by Gregory Gilbert and 
Sheryl Conkelton cover Harry Gottlieb's work both as a 
graphic artist and as a radical member of the WPA/FAP 
artists' cadre. Includes an interview with Gottlieb. B/W and 
color illustrations. 



326 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

MONOGRAPHS 

1550 Baer, Lynne. William Cropper's "Construction of a Dam": 
a case study of a mural. MA thesis, University of California, 
Davis, 1983. 11811. 

Very detailed account of William Cropper's mural, "Con- 
struction of a Dam," for the Department of Interior Build- 
ing. Brief biography of Cropper, account of the Section, and 
a detailed study of the mural. Plates. 

1551 Contreras, Belisario R. Tradition and innovation in New 
Deal art. Bucknell University Press: Lewisburg, 1983. 253 pp. 

Revision of the author's dissertation {See 1321). One of the 
best works on the contributions of Edward Bruce and Holger 
Cahill to the success and personality of the New Deal art 
projects. 

1552 Jewett, Masha Zakheim. Coit Tower, San Francisco. Its 
history and art. Volcano Press: San Francisco, 1983. 136 pp. 

Indispensable guide to Coit Tower and its New Deal associa- 
tions. Complete history of the Tower (built in 1933); the life 
of its unwitting creator, Lillie Coit (who left money to create 
a memorial to San Francisco's firemen); and a detailed 
account of the creation of the PWAP murals that decorate its 
interior. A detailed analysis of the murals, their creation, the 
controversy that surrounded them (fears of Communist 
influences on the artists and in the murals led many to call 
for their destruction); brief biographies of the twenty-six 
artists involved in the project; and the story of the later 
deterioration and neglect of the murals and their present 
restoration. B/W and color photographs of artists at work on 
the murals as well as a complete photographic survey of the 
murals. 

1 553 Kays, Judith S. Easel paintings from the Federal Art Project 
allocation of the San Francisco Museum of Modem Art. MA Thesis, 

John F. Kennedy University, 1983. 155 11. 12 plates. 



Annotated Bibliography 327 

Excellent, in-depth study of the WPA/FAP allocation of easel 
paintings to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Kays 
gives the history of the allocation as well as specific informa- 
tion on every artist and work. Includes checklist of an 
exhibition, "The WPA Allocation: Easel Paintings from the 
Federal Art Project" at the San Francisco Museum of Mod- 
ern Art (March 5 through September 8, 1983, curated by 
Kays). B/W and color plates of works and installation photo- 
graphs from exhibition. Appendix of photocopied docu- 
ments relating to the allocation. 

1554 National Museum of American Art. Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Descriptive catalogue of paintings and sculpture of the 
National Museum of American Art. G.K Hall and Company: 
Boston, 1983. 304 pp. 

"Index of New Deal Works," pp. 295-304 is a checklist of 
New Deal works in the collection of the NMAA as of October 
31, 1982. Includes work from PWAP, Section, WPA/FAP, and 
the Civilian Conservation Corps. Citation includes artist, 
title, medium, and project of origin. 

1555 Schrader, Robert Fay. The Indian Arts and Crafts Board: 
an aspect of New Deal Indian policy. University of New Mexico 
Press: Albuquerque, 1983. 364 pp. 

Brief comments on attempts to integrate Native Americans 
into the PWAP, Section, and WPA/FAP. 

1556 Scott, Barbara Kerr and Sally Soelle. New Deal art: the 
Oklahoma experience; 1933-1943. Cameron University: 
Lawton, OK, 1983. 24 pp. 

Full coverage of all New Deal art projects in Oklahoma. 
Good account of Native Americans as artists and subjects. 
Includes a list of known murals. B/W illustrations of work 
by Richard West, Derald Swineford, Acee Blue Eagle, 
Stephen Mopope, Jules Struppeck, Dorothea Stevenson, 
Arthur Van Arsdale, Robert Shead, Ila McAfee Turner, 
and Jose Rey Toledo. 



328 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1984 

1557 Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. "A case study in the 
politics of culture: the Federal Art Project in Iowa." Upper 
Midwest History 4: (1984): 29-38. 

Good coverage of all the New Deal art projects in Iowa; good 
account of the Sioux City^ Art Center. 

1558 Meixner, Mary L. "Lowell Houser and the genesis of a 
mural." Palimpsests^ (January-February 1984): 2-13, cover. 

Account of the life and work of Lowell Houser, an Iowa artist 
who later moved to San Diego; covers his association with the 
PWAP and Section. 

1559 Saxe, Myrna. "The transfer and conservation of the 
Long Beach mosaic." APT Bulletin 16 (1984, no. 2); 26-31. 

Interesting account of the saving of the WPA/FAP mural by 
Stanton Macdonald-Wright, Henry Nord, and Albert H. King 
when the Long Beach Auditorium was demolished in 1975. 
The mosaic was kept in storage until 1982 when it was moved 
to a new location. Photographs of the operations to save and 
move the mosaic. 

1560 "Letter from Holger Cahill to Edgar P. Richardson 
on Federal patronage of the arts." Archives of American Art 
Joumal24 (n. 3 1984): 22-23. 

Text of letter from Holger Cahill to Edgar P. Richardson 
dated June 30, 1954, "setting the record straight" on the 
WPA/FAP. 

1561 Maviglione, George. "Federal Art Project: Holger 
Cahill's program of action." Art Education 37 (May 1984): 
26-31. 

Description of how Holger Cahill utilized the aesthetic ideas 
of John Dewey in running the WPA/FAP. B/W photographs 
of WPA/FAP activities. 



Annotated Bibliography 329 

1562 Kiehl, David W. "American printmaking in the 1930s: 
some observations." Print Quarterly 1 (June 1984): 96-100, 
105-11. 

Overview of American printmaking activities of the 1930s, 
with a concentration on the work of the WPA/FAP Graphic 
Division. B/W illustrations of work by Kalman Kobinyi, 
Blanche M. Grambs, Reginald Marsh, Jacob Kainen, Ida 
Abelman, and Florence Kent. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1563 Allyn, Nancy E. The Index of American Design. National 
Gallery of Art: Washington, DC, 1984. 32 pp. 

Brochure, illustrated with B/W and color reproductions of 
plates, to the IAD collection at the National Gallery of Art. 

1564 Beckham, Sue Bridewell. A gentle reconstruction: Depres- 
sion post office murals and Southern culture. Ph.D. dissertation, 
University of Minnesota, 1984. 331 pp. 

A detailed account of mural work in the South. "This is the 
story of the South as recorded in those murals and in the 
mostly white Southern reaction to them," p. 3. Plates. See also 
1648. 

1565 Boyens, Charles William. The WPA mural projects: the 
effects of constraints on artistic freedom. Ed.D. dissertation, 
Columbia Teachers' College, 1984. 224 pp. 

Postulates that censorship, both overt and implied, by the 
administrators of the projects made it impossible to create 
great mural art. Particularly critical of the Treasury Depart- 
ment programs, which Boyens finds reactionary. 

1566 Cohen, Paul. Timberline Lodge: the manifestation of a 
culture. Completed as course work for Reed College, 1984. 
2811. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Timberline Lodge: A Love Story (See 
1605). 



330 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1567 Forest Service. Timberline Lodge: an expression of hope 
and purpose. Department of Agriculture: Washington, DC, 
1984. 12 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITE IN OCLC. 

1568 Lang, Sherryl P. The New Deal art projects: a comparison 
of the ideas of Edward Bruce and Holger Cahill as seen in the Section 
of Painting and Sculpture and the Federal Art Project. MA Thesis, 
Virginia Commonwealth University, 1984. 99 11. 

Compares roles of Holger Cahill and Edw^ard Bruce in the 
New Deal art project. 

1569 Park, Marlene and Gerald E. Markowitz. Democratic 
vistas: Post offices and public art in the New Deal. Temple 
University Press: Philadelphia, 1984. 247 pp. 

The authoritative treatise on the Section and its work in not 
only the nation's Post Offices, but other federal buildings. A 
complete history of the Section and its relation to the other 
projects, biographies of the principle administrators, analysis 
of the content of Section art and movements that influenced 
it (American Scene, Regionalism) , and an account of how 
the Section operated. The authors praise the work of the 
Section and its contribution to American art. Numerous 
B/W and color illustrations. 

1569a Soelle, Sally. New Deal art projects in Oklahoma, 1933- 
29^3. MA Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1984. 101 11. 

NOT SEEN. 

1570 Stein, Pauline Alpert. A vision of El Dorado: the Southern 
California New Deal art program. Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA, 
1984. 439 pp. 

Covering all the New Deal art projects in Southern California 
(and the four projects of Federal One), Stein concludes that 
the projects had a meritorious effect on the creation of an 
indigenous Southern California art style. NOT SEEN. CITED 
IN DAIv. 47/01-A, p. 293. 



Annotated Bibliography 331 

1571 Vasaio , An tonio . The fiftieth anniversary of the US Depart- 
ment of Justice building, 1934-1984. GPO: Washington, DC, 
1984. 106 pp. 

Excellent account of the Department of Justice building and 
the Section murals inside. Pp. 64-99 deal exclusively (with 
numerous illustrations) with the murals done by Boardman 
Robinson, Maurice Sterne, Emil Bisttram, John Ballator, 
Symeon Shimin, George Biddle, Leon Kroll, John Steuart 
Curry, Henry Varnum Poor, and Louis Bouche. Each mural 
entry includes a biography and photograph of the artist. Also 
includes a reproduction of the famous letter from George 
Biddle to FDR calling for Federal aid to artists. 



1985 

1572 Rose, Barbara. "Life on the project." Partisan Review 
52 (n. 2 1985): 74-86. 

A good, scholarly account of the lives of abstract painters on 
WPA/FAP work; concentrates on the lives of Jackson Pollock 
and Lee Krasner. A fascinating overview of the projects and 
the influence of the Communist Party on the artists. 

1 572a " Review of Democratic Vistas: Post Offices and Public Art 
in the New DeaV Journal of American History 72 (September 
1985): 440-41. 

Overall favorable review oi Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 

1572b Norman Turano, Jane van. "Review of Democratic 
Vistas: Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal. ' ' American Art 
Journal 17 (Spring 1985): 90-1. 

Positive review oi Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 

1573 "The political economy of art in 1985." The Economist 
294 (March 9, 1985): 93ff. 

NOT SEEN. 



332 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1574 Vlach, John Michael. "Holger Cahill as folklorist." 
Journal of American Folklore 9^ (April-June 1985): 148-62. 

Excellent biographical sketch of the life of Holger Cahill, 
concentrating on his activities to increase the visibility of 
folk art. Good discussion of his role as director of the 
WPA/FAP in relation to folk art, particularly as it relates to 
the IAD. 

1575 "WPA art, who owns it?" Maine Antique Digest 13 (May 
1985): 35d. 

Discussion of the WPA/FAP and how the General Services 
Administration still considers the art created to be US 
Government property. "Scattered they may have been, but 
now the G.S.A. is attempting to rectif)^ that, and if you own a 
W.P.A. painting or print, you may find that ownership in 
question." B/W illustrations of works by Francis Dunham 
and Hirshel Abramson, 

1575a Blakey, George T. "Review oi Democratic Vistas: Post 
Offices and Public Art in the New Deal.'" Register of the Ken- 
tucky Historical Society 83 (Autumn 1985): 376-77. 

Positive review of Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 

1576 Burden, Florence Canfield. "New Deal artist Ernest S. 
Stevens." Nelrraska History 66 (Fall 1985): 224-33. 

Brief biography of Ernest S. Stevens (1872-1938) who 
worked for both the PWAP and the WPA/FAP; in the 
WPA/FAP, he first worked as an artist, and later, director of 
the Torrington (CT) Federal Art Gallery. Includes a list of 
major holders of his work. B/W illustrations of his works and 
a portrait photograph of Stevens. 

1576a J., F. "Review of Democratic Vistas: Post Offices and 
Public Art in the New Deal.'' American Artist 49 (November 
1985): 34. 

Positive review of Democratic Vistas {See 1569). Color repro- 
duction of work by Natalie Smith Henry. 



Annotated Bibliography 333 

1577 Malone, Molle. "Unseen and unsung artists." Artweek 
16 (November 30, 1985): 6. 

Review of exhibition at the Oakland Museum of thirty 
WPA/FAP lithographs by West Coast artists. B/W illustration 
of work by Hilaire Hiler. 

1578 " [Watonga post office, pt.l] ." Federal One 10 (Decem- 
ber 1985): 3. 

Note on how Cheyenne Indians protested their depiction in 
the Watonga Post Office mural done by Ethel Mahier in 1941 
(5^^1594, 1598). 

EXHIBITIONS 

1579 Nebraska State History Society. Depression era art at the 
State Museum of History. State Historical Society: Lincoln, NE, 
1985. 

Exhibition, 1985. NOT SEEN. 

1580 University of Michigan. Museum of Art. The Federal Art 
Project: American prints from the 1930s in the collection of the 
University of Michigan Museum of Art. University of Michigan 
Museum of Art: Ann Arbor, MI, 1985. 220 pp. 

Exhibition, June 28 through July 31, 1985. An essential work 
for the study of New Deal printmaking; consists of 1 63 works 
in all print media from all projects; introduction by Christine 
Nelson Ruby; numerous B/W illustrations. 

1581 Fowler, Harriet W. New Deal art: WPA works at the 
University of Kentucky. University of Kentucky Art Museum: 
Lexington, KY, 1985. 119 pp. 

Exhibition, August 25 through October 27, 1985, of fifty 
artists. Excellent, brief biographies of the artists and critiques 
of the works. Essay is an overview of the projects. B/W 
illustrations. 

1582 Wooden, Howard E. American art of the Great Depres- 
sion: two sides of the coin. Wichita Art Museum: Wichita, KS, 



334 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1985. 152 pp. 

Exhibition, October 27 through December 1, 1985, at the 
Wichita Art Museum. Checklist of 131 artists represented by 
163 works, many B/W illustrations. Good historic and aes- 
thetic account of the projects. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1583 Gurney, George. "The Final phase and the new 
direction: the Section of Painting and Sculpture," pp. 291- 
411, in Sculpture and the Federal Triangle. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press: Washington, DC, 1985. 464 pp. 

Excellent coverage of the Section's work on the Federal 
Triangle of government office buildings in Washington; 
particularly the Federal Trade Commission Building, at the 
apex of the Triangle. 

1584 Lawson, Alan. The cultural legacy of the New Deal, pp. 
155-86. In Fifty Years Later: the New Deal evaluated, edited by 
Harvard Sitkoff. Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 
1985. 240 pp. 

Covers all aspects of New Deal cultural projects, specifically 
Federal One, setting them against an ideological back- 
ground. 

1585 Lucie-Smith, Edward. ' 'Patronage of the arts in Amer- 
ica." In Art of the 1930s — the age of anxiety, pp. 248-54. New 
York: RizzoU, 1985. 264 pp. 

Brief overview of government and the arts in the 1930s; good 
perspective on the arts projects in a global setting. B/W 
illustrations of works. 

1586 McKinzie, Richard D. "Federal Art Project," pp. 
128-29. In Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. An 
Encyclopedic View. Edited by Otis L. Grahan, Jr. and Meghan 
Robinson Wander. G.K. Hall: Boston, 1985. 483 pp. 

General overview of the WPA/FAP; B/W photographs of 
objects and artists at work. 



Annotated Bibliography 335 

1587 Townsend, Helen Ann Beckstorm. Ideology and govern- 
ment participation in the arts: the Federal Art Project in Tennessee. 
Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1985. 272 pp. 

Discussing the changes in American culture during the 
1930s, Townsend analyzes the ideology of the Tennessee 
WPA/FAP, 1935-1939. NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAIw. 46/08- 
A, p. 2448. 

1588 Wells, Richard D. Elizabeth Green: a patronage portrait. 
Ph.D. dissertation. Saint Louis University, 1985. 

Analysis of the art patronage of Elizabeth Green in relation 
to the St. Louis art community. Her attempts to persuade 
Holger Cahill and the WPA/FAP to take a greater interest in 
Missouri is explored. NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAIv. 46/12-A, 
p. 3764. 

1589 Willett, Ralph. "Naive, human, eager and alive: the 
Federal Art Project and the response from magazines," pp. 
177-93. In Nothing else to fear: new perspectives on America in the 
thirties. Baskerville, Stephen W., editor. Manchester Univer- 
sity Press: Manchester, England, 1985. 294 pp. 

Interesting discussion of the coverage of the WPA/FAP in 
the popular press {Time, Life, The New Republic, etc.), the art 
press {Art Digest, Art News, etc.), and the radical press {Art 
Front) . Postulates that the WPA/FAP had generally unfavor- 
able press everywhere but in the more radical or Left Wing 
publications. 

1 589a " Review of Democratic Vistas: Post Offices and Public Art 
in the New Deal.'' American foumal of Sociology 92 (1): 233-35. 

NOT SEEN. 



1986-1992 



1986 



1590 Harris, Jonathan. "Art, histories and politics: the New 
Deal art projects and American modernism." Ideas and 
Production 5 (1986): 104-19. ^ 

Excellent theoretical article placing the New Deal art pro- 
jects in the context of the later developments of American 
modernism and Abstract Expressionism 

1591 Cohen, E.L. "Miami murals." Interior Design bl (Janu- 
ary 1986): 220-23. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Art Index. 

1592 Dubin, Steven C. "Artistic production and social 
control." Social Forces ^4: (March 1986): 667-88. 

Comparison of the New Deal art projects and the Compre- 
hensive Employment Training Act (CETA) art programs. 
Dubin is particularly interested in the issues of censorship 
and social control of the artist. 

1593 "Exhibits." Federal OneU (April 1986): 6. 

Note on "The New Deal in Philadelphia: Work by and for the 
People" at the Philadelphia National Archives (through July 
1986); and on a Norwalk, CT, effort to raise $250,000 to 
restore a Depression-era mural in the town. 

1593a Schneider, Eric. "Review of Democratic Vistas: Post 
Offices and Public Art in the New Deal.'' Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography 110 (April 1986): 304-305. 
336 



Annotated Bibliography 337 

Positive review oi Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 

1594 "Watonga's day in the sun, pt. 2." Federal One 11 
(April 1986): 7. 

Further account of the Watonga mural protests {See 1578, 
1598). 

1595 Greengard, Stephen Neil. "Ten crucial years: the 
development of United States sponsored artist programs, 
1933-1943: a panel discussion by six WPA artists.'' Journal of 
Decorative and Propaganda Arts 1 (Spring 1986): 40-61. 

Panel discussion introduced and edited by Greengard on 
March 30, 1985 in Miami, FL. Artists taking part were: 
Gustave von Groschwitz, Jerry Roth, Riva Helfond, Harold 
Lehman, Minna Citron, and Harry Gottlieb. A fascinating set 
of first-hand accounts of the WPA/FAP and Section. Includes 
audience questions. 

1595a O'Connor, Francis V. "Review of Democratic Vistas: 
Post Offices and Public Art in the New DeaV Winterthur Portfolio 
21 (Spring 1986): 94-96. 

Extremely negative review of Democratic Vistas {See 1569); 
O'Connor raises a number of points regarding the state of 
New Deal art project scholarship in the course of his review. 

1596 De Noon, Christopher. "WPA posters." Communica- 
tion Arts Magazine 2^ (May/June 1986): 60-69. 

Good introduction to the work of the poster unit of the 
WPA/FAP; description of the contributions of project 
supervisor Anthony Velonis. Seventeen illustrations of 
WPA/FAP posters. See 1622 for De Noon's book on the 
same subject. 

1596a Kwolek-Folland, Angel. "Review oi Democratic Vistas: 
Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal. ' ' Journal of the West 25 
(July 1986): 88. 

Positive review oi Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 



338 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1596b American Art Notes from Janet Marqusee Fine Arts (Au- 
tumn 1986): entire issue, 8 pp. 

The Janet Marqusee Gallery in New York City is dedicated to 
art of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. In this issue, the following 
New Deal artists have brief biographical sketches and illustra- 
tions of their works: Judson Smith, David Fredenthal, George 
Melville Smith, Theresa Bernstein, Amy Jones, Mitchell Si- 
porin, Edward Millman, and Robert Ryland. 

1596c Kahler, Bruce R. "Review of Democratic Vistas: Post 
Offices and Public Art in the New DeaV Illinois Historical Journal 
79 (Autumn 1986): 214-15. 

Positive review oi Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 

1597 De Noon, Christopher. "Social messages (graphic 
artists of the WPA.)" Industrial Design 33 (September- 
October 1986): 56-59. 

Brief text describing the WPA/FAP poster project. B/W and 
color reproductions of WPA/FAP posters. See 1622 for De 
Noon's book on the same subject. 

1598 "Watonga mural controversy, pt. 3." Federal One 11 
(November 1986): 3. 

Brief account of the controversy surrounding the Section 
mural by Edith Mahier in Watonga, OK {See 1578, 1594). 

1599 Williams, Reba and David Williams. "The early his- 
tory of the screen print." Print Quarterly 3 (December 1986): 
287-321. 

Good historical account of the WPA/FAP's work with the silk 
screen. Most of the article is a list of American silk-screen 
artists. Numerous B/W and color illustrations of works (few 
FAP). 

EXHIBITIONS 

1600 Burke, Dan E. Utah art of the Depression. Utah State Art 
Collection: Salt Lake City, 1986. Ill pp. 



Annotated Bibliography 339 

Exhibition, May 2 through July 27, 1986, at the Chase Home 
Liberty Park, Salt Lake City. Checklist of sixty-three works 
(color illustrations) plus a selection (B/W illustrations) of 
works owned by the State of Utah, but not in the exhibition. 
Includes biographies of the artists; list of Federal work in 
Utah; and an "Inventory of PWAP, WPA/FAP Artists and 
Organizations that Acquired Artwork." 

1601 Washburn Gallery. 50 years ago: WPA/AAA. Washburn 
Gallery: New York, 1986. 32 pp. 

Exhibition, November 4 through 29, 1986. Brief text on the 
abstract WPA/FAP murals done at the Williamsburg Houses 
public housing project (Bronx) by Ilya Bolotowsky (color 
cover reproduction). Catalog is made up of B/W reproduc- 
tions of the American Abstract Artists (AAA) works which 
first shown at the same time. 

1602 Phantom Gallery. WPA art, New York City, 1935-1943. 
Phantom Gallery: Los Angeles, 1986. 20 pp. 

Exhibition, November 5, 1986 through ?. Checklist of works 
by nine artists (Joseph Solman, Joseph Delaney, Joseph 
Wolins, Norman Barr, Lucia Satemime, Charles Keller, Jules 
Halfant, Seymour Franks, and Riva Helfond). Numerous 
B/W and color reproductions. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1603 Burke, Dan E. Utah art of the Depression. MA Thesis, 
University of Utah, 1986. 100 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. 

1604 Doty, Ann V. New Deal art projects in Michigan: art in 
public policy. Michigan, 1986. 38 11. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN OCLC. "Course work completed for 
history 770." 

1605 Gleason, Catherine, ed. Timberline Lodge: a hue story. 
Friends of Timberline: Government Camp, OR, 1986. 128 pp. 



340 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Good account of Timberline Lodge, Mt. Hood, OR. Essays 
on its history and arts by Gideon Bosker, Terrence O'Don- 
nell, Patricia FaiUng, Jane Van Cleve, Jack Mills, Tom McAl- 
lister, Lute Jurstad, and Sarah Munro. Illustrated with a 
number of color plates. 

1606 Look, David W. and Carole L. Lerrault. The Interior 
Building, its architecture and its art. US Department of Interior, 
National Park Service: Washington, DC, 1986. 201 pp. 

Chapter 8, "Murals and Sculpture" (pp. 110-71), covers the 
numerous Section murals and sculpture in the Interior 
building. Includes brief biographical sketches of the artists 
and a bibliography on each work. Numerous B/W photo- 
graphs of the art work. 

1607 Rosenzweig, Roy, ed. Government and the arts in thirties 
America. A guide to oral histories and other research materials. 
George Mason Press: Fairfax, VA, 1986. 329 pp. 

Thorough and informative guide to archival resources of 
documents related to the New Deal arts projects. Detailed 
guide to the Archives of American Art's New Deal collection 
(perhaps the single greatest collection of such documents) . 

1608 Ruby, Christine M. Nelson. Art for the people: art in 
Michigan sponsored by the Treasury Section of Fine Arts, 1934 to 
1943. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan, 1986. 474 pp. 

A basic introduction to the New Deal art projects; in-depth 
account of the Section, particularly its activities in Michigan; 
and a summary of the public's reaction to the work. Includes 
a list of Section post office murals in Michigan. Plates. 

1609 US Public Buildings Service. GSA list of New Deal art in 
museums. GSA: Washington, DC, 1986. 295 11. 

Computer printout of New Deal art in public buildings as of 
1986; alphabetical list of artists; other information includes 
title/date of work, city/state where located, address of work, 
status (size and medium). Note: This is a draft version of the 
list located in the NMAA/NPG Library, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. 



Annotated Bibliography 341 

1610 US Public Buildings Service. GSA list of New Deal art in 
state offices. GSA: Washington, DC, 1986. 110 pp. 

Computer printout of New Deal art in state offices as of 1986; 
geographical list of works (state/city/ artist); other informa- 
tion includes tide/date of work, city/ state where located, 
address of work, status (size and medium). Note: This is a 
draft version of the list located in the NMAA/NPG Library, 
Smithsonian Institution. 



1987 

1611 Ickstadt, Heinz. "The writing on the wall: American 
painting and the Federal Art Project." European Contributions 
to American Studies 12 (1987): 221-47. 

NOT SEEN. 

1611a American An Notes from Janet Marqusee Fine Arts (Win- 
ter 1987): entire issue, 8 pp. 

The Janet Marqusee Gallery in New York City is dedicated to 
art of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. In this issue, the following 
New Deal artists have brief biographical sketches and illustra- 
tions of their works: Mitchell Siporin, Theresa Bernstein, 
George Picken, and Andree Ruellan. 

1612 Fraden, Rena. "Feels good, — can't hurt — Black rep- 
resentation on the Federal Arts projects.'' Journal of American 
Culture 10 (Winter 1987): 21-29. 

Discussion of the role of African-Americans on the New Deal 
Art Projects; concerned mostly with the FWP and FTP, 
though some mention of how African-Americans portrayed 
Black life on the WPA/FAP. 

1613 Harris, Jonathan. "State power and cultural dis- 
course: Federal Art Project murals in New Deal USA." Block 
13 (Winter 1987/1988): 28-42. 



342 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

A "hegemonic discourse" reading the WPA/FAP mural 
work as an attempt to recreate the artist as a meaningful 
player in American society, i.e. the Artist as Citizen. Concen- 
trates on work done in hospitals, prisons, schools, and 
housing projects. An excellent example of the theoretical 
work now beginning to be done on the New Deal art projects. 
Numerous B/W illustrations. "Within this hegemonic dis- 
course, art, with its therapeutic application in institutions 
and detachment from both the modernist coterie and aca- 
demic establishment, would assist in the building of Amer- 
ica's future. The community of practitioners and consumers 
of art would have an 'appreciation' of it based on far more 
than 'passive visual perceptions' or 'instruction in history 
and aesthetics.' It would be based rather on art's practiced 
capacity to unify both individual bodies and souls as well as 
the corpus constituting American as Nation," p. 42. 

1614 Masters, Greg. "From the 1930s-40s; Fifty years ago: 
WPA/AAA." Arts 61 (February 1987): 106. 

Favorable reviews of two exhibitions: "From the 1930s-40s" 
at the Ellen Sragow Gallery (NYC, October 25 to November 
30, 1986), which dealt with the social realism side of the 
WPA/FAP; and "50 years ago: WPA/AAA" at the Washburn 
Gallery (NYC, November 4-29, 1986), an exhibit of abstract 
works from project artists. Includes a brief history of the art 
projects and an B/W illustration of a work by Arshile Gorky. 

1615 McKinzie, Richard. "Review of Democratic Vistas.'' 
American Historical Review 92 (February 1987): 236. 

Favorable review of Democratic vistas. Post offices and public art 
in the New Deal {See 1569) by Marlene Park and Gerald E. 
Markowitz. 

1615a Larson, Kay. "Up against the walls." New York (Feb- 
ruary 2, 1987): 46-51. 

Covering murals throughout New York City, special attention 
is paid to New Deal mural work. Attempts at rescue and 
restoration of the murals are detailed. Color illustrations of 



Annotated Bibliography 343 

murals by James Brooks, Ben Shahn, Lucienne Bloch, and 
Ernest Fiene. 

1616 Olin, Dirk. "Fifty years later, the Government reissues 
WPA art." Washington Post Magazine (February 15, 1987): 
36-38. 

Description of the plans of the Government Services Admin- 
istration to issue WPA/FAP works in poster for the decora- 
tion of federal buildings. "Soon, the GSA is officially hoping, 
federal employees will beaver away beneath works by artists 
who proved too controversial for the skittish McCarthy era," 
p. 38. Illustrations of work by Stuart Davis, William E.L. 
Bunn, and Moses Soyer. 

1616a American Art Notes from Janet Marqusee Fine Arts 
(Spring 1987): entire issue, 8 pp. 

The Janet Marqusee Gallery in New York City is dedicated to 
art of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. In this issue, the following 
New Deal artists have brief biographical sketches and illustra- 
tions of their works: James Penney, Robert Lepper, Thomas 
Donnelly, Emil Bisttram, Nicolai Cikovsky, and James Baare 
Turnbull. 

1617 Vishny, Michael. "On the walls: murals by Ben Shahn, 
Philip Guston, and Seymour Fogel for the Social Security 
building, Washington, DC." Arts^l (March 1987): 40-43. 

History of the projects; detailed description and high praise 
of the murals by Ben Shahn, Philip Guston, and Seymour 
Fogel for the Social Security building in Washington, DC. 
B/W illustrations of the murals. 

1617a Gore, Deborah, ed. "Regionalist art and literature." 
The Goldfinch: Iowa History for Young People d, (April 1987): 25 
pp. 

NOT SEEN. Special issue of young persons' magazine de- 
voted to regionalist art and the New Deal art programs in 
Iowa. 



344 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1618 Chilcoat, George W. "Visualizing the 1930s in the 
classroom: Depression pop art." Social Studies 78 (no. 3 
1987): 109-113. 

Brief explanation of the New Deal art projects as the author 
goes on to offer practical suggestions for the teaching of the 
history of the Great Depression in the classroom via the 
creation of graphic images by the students. 

1618a Clarke, Orville O. "Social statements in art: WPA 
murals." Antiques and Fine Art (December 1987): cover, 
54-59. 

Comments in the mural work of the Mexican Mural School 
in California and its relation to the New Deal murals there. 
Notes on the various New Deal fine arts projects and their 
relationship to social issues of the time. Reproductions of 
work by Douglas Parshall, Anton Refregier, Milford Zornes, 
Bernard B. Zakheim, and Fletcher Martin. 

EXfflBITIONS 

1619 Anchorage Museum of Art and History. Works Progress 
Administration's Alaska art project 1937. A retrospective exhibition. 
Anchorage Museum of Art and History: Anchorage, 1987. 47 
pp. 

Exhibition, March 10 through August 31, 1987, at the An- 
chorage Museum of Art and History. Checklist of fifty-three 
works. Good account of the WPA/FAP in Alaska. Show 
traveled to two other Alaskan sites (University of Alaska 
Museum, October 31 through December 13, 1987, and the 
Alaska State Museum, January 1 through March 5, 1988). 
Curated by Lynn Bintek, Karl E. Fortress, and Merlin F. 
Pollack. 

1620 Hudson River Museum. The graphic art of Harold Faye. 
Hudson River Museum: Yonkers, NY, 1987. 32 pp. 

Exhibition, July 26 through October 18, 1987. Checklist of 
forty-three lithographs and drawings (fifteen illustrated — 
many done for WPA/FAP). Harold Knickerbocker Faye 



Annotated Bibliography 345 

(1910-1980) worked in the FAP Graphics Division 1935-39. 
Includes a brief biography. Text by Ron Netsky, Grant 
Holcomb, and Jan S. Ramirez. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1621 Lujan, Joe Roy. Dennis Chavez and the Roosevelt era, 
1933-1945. Ph.D. dissertation, 1987. 586 pp. 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN Z)A/ 49/06-A, p. 1497. 

1622 De Noon, Christopher. Posters of the WPA. Wheatley in 
association with the University of Washington Press: Los 
Angeles, 1987. 175 pp. 

Invaluable guide to the poster work done by all segments of 
the WPA. Hundreds of, mostly color, reproductions of the 
full variety of posters done by the various WPA projects (for 
the FTP, FAP, education, medical information, etc.). Addi- 
tional text by Francis V. O'Connor (reminiscing about dis- 
covering a cache of WPA posters at the Library of Congress), 
Anthony Velonis (who was responsible for the revival of the 
silk-screen process as an art form), Richard Floethe (in 
charge of the poster division), and Jim Heiman. 

1623 Foresta, Merry and Pete Daniel, Maren Stange, Sally 
Stein. Official images: New Deal photography. Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press: Washington, DC, 1987. 196 pp. 

"Art and Document: Photographs of the Works Progress 
Administration's Federal Art Project," by Merry Foresta, pp. 
148-193, covers both the artistic and documentary pho- 
tographic work of the WPA/FAP. The rest of the book is 
devoted to other aspects of New Deal photography. Photog- 
raphers illustrated are: Le Roy Robbins, David Robbins, Max 
Yavno, Sol Horn, Arnold Eagle, Berenice Abbott, Edward 
Weston, Cyril Mypass, Mark Nadir, Andrew Herman, Leo 
Lance, Sol Libsohn, and Helen Levitt. 

1624 Hailey, Gene, ed. and Ellen Schwartz. California art 
research. Laurence McGilvery: La Jolla, CA, 1987. 12 micro- 
fiche plus pamphlet. 



346 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Microfiche edition of Hailey's monumental work on Cahfor- 
nia artists (See 0564); additional comments, a history of the 
work, and bibliography by Schwartz. 

1625 Hubbard, Carole Ann Challberg. Roots of African- 
American art: the early years through the 1930s. Ph.D. disserta- 
tion, Pennsylvania State University, 1987. 143 pp. 

Briefly covers the role of the WPA/FAP in the art education 
of African-Americans and its role in sustaining and encourag- 
ing them in their art. NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAIv. 49/04-A, 
p. 705. 

1626 Kyvig, David E. and Mary-Ann Blasio, compilers. New 
Day/New Deal: a bibliography of the Great American Depression, 
1929-1941. Greenwood Press: New York, 1987. 306 pp. 

Excellent, though non-annotated, bibliography of all aspects 
of the Great Depression. Includes a small section on the arts 
projects. Good reading for background sources on Depres- 
sion. 

1627 Schnee, Alix Sandra. John Cotton Dana, Edgar Holger 
Cahill, and Dorothy C. Miller: three art educators. Ed.D. disserta- 
tion, Columbia University Teachers College, 1987. 234 pp. 

Examines the role of Holger Cahill, Dorothy Miller, and 
John Cotton Dana in art education. 

1627a US General Services Administration. Federal Art, por- 
trait of the nation: presenting a new portfolio of public art in two 
specially prepared poster series, to celebrate the golden anniversary of 
the New Deal arts program and the silver anniversary of the General 
Services Administration's art-in-architecture program. Washing- 
ton: GSA, 1987. 1 sheet [8 p.]. 

Pamphlet to accompany poster sets (one with three posters, 
one with five) of New Deal art. NOT SEEN. 

1628 Wheat, Ellen Harkins. Jacob Lawrence. Ph.D. disserta- 
tion, University of Washington, DC, 1987. 477 pp. 

Covers Jacob Lawrence's career in the WPA/FAP in the larger 



Annotated Bibliography 347 

context of his entire career (not primarily WPA/FAP informa- 
tion) . NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAI v. 48/12-A, p. 3000. 

1629 White, John Franklin, ed. Art in action. American art 
centers and the New Deal. Scarecrow Press: Metuchen, NJ, 1987. 
195 pp. 

Excellent collection of essays on the WPA/FAP's local art 
centers, perhaps the most "democratic" aspect of the art 
projects. Illustrated with B/W photographs of the centers. 
Appendix lists the WPA Community Art Centers and Exten- 
sion Art Galleries. Contents: 
"The Walker Art Center: A Crowning Achievement," by J.F. 

White; 
"The Federal Gallery System in Oklahoma: A Successful 

Experiment," by Nicholas A. Calcagno and Barbara K 

Scott; 
"Design for Democracy: The People's Art Center in St. 

Louis," by Martin G. Towey; 
"The Spokane Art Center," by Sue Ann Kendall; 
' 'A WPA Art Center in Phoenix: 1 937-40," by Daniel A. Hall; 
"Chicago's South Side Community Art Center: A Personal 

Recollection," by Margaret Goss Burroughs; 
"The Utah State Art Center," by Dan E. Burke; 
"North Carolina's Community Art Centers," by Ola Maie 

Foushee; 
"Community Art Centers and Exhibitions," by Mildred 

Holzhauer Baker. 



1988 

1630 Barrett, Catherine. "The writing on the wall." Art and 
Antiques (March 1988): 90-99, 124-125, 128. 

Discusses the poor conditions of many murals and includes 
reminiscences of mural artists (B/W illustrations of works by 
Saul Levine, Clarence Carter, Bernarda Bryson Shahn, Paul 
Cadmus, Mitchell Siporin, and Ethel Magafin.) 

1631 Mahoney, Robert. "Painting America: mural art in 
the New Deal era." Arts Magazine %2 (March 1988): 95. 



348 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Favorable review of "Painting America: Mural Art in the New 
Deal Era," a joint exhibition (March 2-April 9, 1988) by 
Janet Marqusee and Midtown Galleries. B/W illustration of 
work by Robert Lepper. 

1631a Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. "The WPA Arts Pro- 
jects in Texas." East Texas Historical Journal 26.2 (1988): 3-13. 

Discussion of all the Federal Arts projects (FAP, FWP, FMP, 
and FTP) in East Texas. 

1632 Marling, Karal Ann. "Painting and place: Frederick 
C. Knight in Scranton." Journal of Decorative and Propaganda 
Arts 8 (Spring 1988): 26-39. 

Good account of the life and work of Frederick C. Knight, an 
artist who had worked on the PWAP, WPA/FAP, TRAP, and 
Section. Numerous B/W and color reproductions of his 
works. 

1633 Phagan, Patricia E. "Images of the 1930s: WPA 
prints." Bulletin of the Georgia Museum of Art IS (Spring 1988): 
1-32. 

Exhibition checklist/catalog of ninety-eight prints from the 
WPA/FAP Graphic Division (exhibition held April 30 
through July 18, 1988 at the Georgia Museum of Art) ; text by 
Patricia E. Phagan. Numerous B/W illustrations of prints. 

1633a Batchen, Geoffrey. "Review of Official images, New 
Deal photography.'' Afterimage 15 (April 1988): 17-18. 

Generally favorable review of Official images, New Deal photog- 
raphy {See 1623). Included B/W illustrations. 

1634 McElvaine, Robert S. "Art for our sake: the demo- 
cratic vision of the WPA poster." Washington Monthly 20 (May 
1988): 55-57. 

Favorable review of Posters of the WPA by Christopher De 
Noon {See 1622); continues with a discussion of the WPA/ 
FAP's poster projects. Number of B/W and color illustrations 
of posters. 



Annotated Bibliography 349 

1635 C, K "Review of 'Painting America: Mural Art in the 
New Deal Era.' " Southwest Art (June 1988): 22. 

Very brief review of exhibition and catalog for "Painting 
America: Mural Art in the New Deal Era," a joint exhibition 
(March 2-April 9, 1988) by Janet Marqusee and Midtown 
Galleries. Primarily a discussion of projects, little on show or 
catalog. 

1636 Pontello, Jacqueline M. "Special Delivery: murals for 
the New Deal era." Southwest Art 18 (June 1988): 32, 34, 36. 

Overview of New Deal mural projects produced to accompany 
National Museum of American Art's exhibition, "Special De- 
livery: Murals for the New Deal era," (See 1636). Color repro- 
ductions of work by Rockwell Kent, Jenne Magafan, Woodrow 
Crumbo, William E.L. Bunn, and Oscar Galgiani. 

1636a Clarke, Orville O. "New Deal artist," Pomona College 
Today (Fall 1988): 18-21. 

Profile of Pomona College alumnus Milford Zornes. Zornes 
created Claremont (CA) Post Office mural for the TRAP. 
Illustrations of the mural and a contemporary photograph of 
Zornes in the post office. 

1636b Collins, Amy Fine. "Jacob Lawrence: art builder." 
Art in America S2 A (1988): 212-14. 

Brief discussion of Jacob Lawrence's career as a New Deal 
artist. Illustrations of Lawrence's work 

1637 Kidd, Stuart. "Redefining the New Deal: some 
thoughts on the political and cultural perspectives of revi- 
sionism." /owrTia/ of American Studies 22 (December 1988): 
389-415. 

In the third section of his review of the recent trends in New 
Deal scholarship, Kidd looks at the cultural achievements of 
the period. Brief account of the WPA/FAP and the Section; 
does not seem to consider the fine art projects important to 
New Deal culture. B/W illustration of work by George 
Biddle. 



350 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1637a Cusick, Nancy. "Women artists of the New Deal: 
National Museum of Women in the Arts, [exhibition re- 
view]." Women Artists News 13 (Winter 1988-1989): 29-30. 

Review of "Women artists of the New Deal" at the National 
Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC {See 1643). 
B/W illustrations. 

EXfflBITIONS 

1638 National Museum of American Art. Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Special delivery. Murals for the New Deal era. NMAA: 
Washington, DC, 1988. Pamphlet. 

Exhibition, January 15 through September 11, 1988. Pam- 
phlet to accompany exhibition. Brief account of the New 
Deal art projects, Federal patronage and the mural project. 
Text by Virginia Mecklenburg. B/W detail of mural byjenne 
Magafan. 

1639 Midtown Galleries. Painting America. Mural art in the 
New Deal era. Midtown Gallery: New York, 1988. 39 pp. 

Exhibition, March 2 through April 9, 1988. Fort)^-six artists 
represented; brief biographies and notes on the works. B/W 
and color illustrations of works. Includes a brief introduction 
on the history of federal art patronage and the mural projects 
by Janet Marqusee. 

1640 Francey, Mary. Depression printmakers as workers: re- 
defining traditional interpretations. Utah Museum of Fine Arts: 
Salt Lake City, UT, 1988. 83 pp. 

Exhibition, May 1 through June 12, 1988. Twenty-three 
artists represented — most were WPA/FAP, by fifty-one 
prints; includes brief biographies; B/W illustrations of works; 
checklist of exhibit. Traveled to the Boise Art Museum 
(September 1 through October 23, 1988). 

1641 The Heckscher Museum. Berenice Abbott's New York. 
Photographs oftheBO's and 40's. Heckscher Museum: Hunting- 
ton, NY, 1988. Pamphlet. 



Annotated Bibliography 351 

Exhibition, September 10 through October 30, 1988. No 
checklist. Text by Pat Ralph. A number of B/W photographs 
reproduced. 

1 642 Sioux City Art Center. New Deal art of the upper Midwest. 
An anniversary exhibition. Sioux City Art Center: Sioux City, 
LA, 1988. 40 pp. 

Exhibition, October 8 through December 31, 1988. Checklist 
of seventy-five works in various media, forty-one prints, twelve 
posters and a number of FSA photographs. History of the 
Sioux City Art Center (one of the few WPA/FAP art centers 
still extant) ; includes B/W illustrations of a number of works 
in the exhibition. Essays by Lea Rosson De Long, Michael 
Gontesky, and Julie D. Nelson. 

1643 Harrison, Helen A. and Lucy R. Lippard. Women artists 
of the New Deal era. National Museum of Women in the Arts: 
Washington, DC, 1988. 40 pp. 

Exhibition, October 18, 1988, through January 8, 1989. 
Checklist of seventy-nine prints and drawings, primarily from 
the collection of Ben and Beatrice Goldstein. Good essay on 
the role of women in the New Deal art projects. Numerous 
B/W illustrations of works. Includes an interview with Ben 
Goldstein. 

1643aa Tweed Gallery. For a permanent public art: WPA 
murals in the Health and Hospitals Corporation 's collection. New 
York: Tweed Gallery, 1988. 32 pp. 

Exhibition, December 5, 1988, through January 25, 1989. 
Catalog of sixty-six murals commissioned through the WPA/ 
FAP for New York City hospitals. Essays by Gladys Pena, 
Barbara Hager, and Alan Farancz; interview with mural artist 
Axel Horn; introductions by Edward I. Koch and Jo Ivey 
Boufford. Numerous B/W and color illustrations of the 
murals (including those not included in the exhibition). 
Brief biographies of the four mural artists included in the 
exhibition (Abram Champanier, Charles Davis, Axel Horn, 
and William Palmer) . 



352 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1643a Markowitz, Gerald and Park, Marlene. "Not by 
bread alone: Post Office art of the New Deal." Timeline 6.3 
(1989): 2-19. 

Discussion of the role of local history in the Section's post 
office mural work. B/W illustrations. 

1643bb American Art Notes from Janet Marqusee Fine Arts 
(Winter 1989): entire issue, 8 pp. 

The Janet Marqusee Gallery in New York City is dedicated to 
art of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. In this issue, the following 
New Deal artists have brief biographical sketches and illustra- 
tions of their works: Sarah Blakeslee, Otis Oldfield, Ernest 
Fiene, Emil Ganso, and Albert Pels. 

1643b Mullen, Michael. "Democratic Vistas, [review]." An- 
nals of Iowa 4Q (Winter 1989): 619-20. 

Favorable review oi Democratic Vistas {See 1569). 



1989 

1644 Herzfeld,John. "Medical recovery." ArtnewsSS Qanu- 
aryl989):14. 

Description of the discovery and restoration of William 
Palmer's WPA/FAP mural, "The Development of Medi- 
cine," lost since 1954 in a forgotten storage site at the 
Queen's General Hospital. Color illustration of mural 
detail. 

1644a Loughery, John. "National Museum of Women in 
the Arts revisited." Woman's Art Journal 10 (Spring-Summer 
1989): 52-53. 

In a review of exhibits at the National Museum of Women in 
the Arts, Loughery includes a discussion of the exhibition, 
"Women artists of the New Deal era: a selection of prints and 
drawings, ' ' ( See 1 643) . 



Annotated Bibliography 353 

1644b O'SuUivan, Thomas. ' 'Joint venture or testy alliance? 
The Public Works of Art Project in Minnesota, 1933-34." 
Great Plains Quarterly 9.2 (1989): 89-99. 

Detailed discussion of the PWAP and its work in Minnesota. 
B/W illustrations of work. 

1645 Carlisle, John C. "The big picture: murals in post 
offices across Texas are reminders of earlier hard times." 
Texas Monthly 17 (August 1989): 94-103. 

Excellent pictorial account of New Deal art project murals 
throughout Texas. Numerous color illustrations of murals. 

1645a American Art Notes from Janet Marqusee Fine Arts (Au- 
tumn 1989): entire issue, 8 pp. 

The Janet Marqusee Gallery in New York City is dedicated to 
art of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. In this issue, the following 
New Deal artists have brief biographical sketches and illustra- 
tions of their works: Saul Berman, Saul Levine, and Simka 
Simkhovitch. 

1645b Gutman, Judith Mara. "The worker and the ma- 
chine: Lewis Hine's national research project photographs." 
Aftenmagell (September 1989): 13-15. 

Overview of Lewis Hine's documentary photography for the 
WPA/FAP. B/W illustrations. 

1646 Forbes, Malcolm. " '. . . Nothing will destroy our 
culture while people are free to create . . .' " Forbes 144 
(October 2, 1989): 20, 262, 264. 

Interview with James F. Cooper, editor of American Art 
Quarterly, by Malcolm Forbes. Cooper briefly discusses how 
the WPA/FAP was an important force in 1930s art world: 
"[the projects] ... in the arts began as a relief measure 
initiated by the Roosevelt Administration during the Great 
Depression. Much of the important art of that era was 
created by the WPA projects. ' ' 



354 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

EXHIBITIONS 

1647 Lehman College Art Gallery. Black printmakers and the 
WPA. The Lehman College Art Gallery, CUNY: Bronx, NY, 
1989. 35 pp. 

Exhibition February 23 through June 6, 1989. Checklist of 
exhibition, fifty-two works by twenty artists; includes a brief 
history of African-American printmaking. Curated by Leslie 
King-Hammond. Good exploration of the opportunities 
created by the WPA/FAP for African-American artists as well 
as examples of the discrimination practiced against African- 
Americans. 

1647a Washington County Museum pf Fine Arts. WPA 
prints: Washington County Museum of Fine Arts, April 1-30, 
1989. Hagerstown, MD: The Museum, 1989. 36 pp. 

Exhibition, April 1 through 30, 1989. Essay on WPA/FAP 
prints by Erik S. Nord. Checklist of seventy-seven prints from 
the collection of the Washington County Museum of Fine 
Arts. B/W illustrations of thirty-one prints with brief biogra- 
phies of the artists. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1648 Beckham, Sue Bridewell. Depression post office murals 
and Southern culture: a gentle reconstruction. Louisiana State 
University Press: Baton Rouge, 1989. 338 pp. 

Excellent account of the Section Post Office murals in the 
South. Beckham analyzes the murals in a Southern context. 
Includes an appendix that lists the locations and present 
disposition of most Section work done in the Southern and 
Border states. Numerous B/W illustrations. 

1649 Carraro, Betty Francine. A regionalist rediscovered: a 
biography of Jerry By waters. Ph.D. dissertation. University of 
Texas at Austin, 1989. 485 pp. 

Biographical account of Williamson Gerald (Jerry) Bywaters 
(1906-1989), who worked on six mural projects in Texas. 



Annotated Bibliography 355 

NOT SEEN. CITED IN DAIv. 50/1 1-A, p. 3633. 

1650 Hurlburt, Laurance P. The Mexican muralists in the 
United States. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque, 
1989. 320 pp. 

Excellent history and critique of the Mexican muralists (Jose 
Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera, and David Alfara Siqueiros) 
work in the United States and the affect they had on 
WPA/FAP and Section muralists. B/W and color illustra- 
tions. 

1 65 1 McDermott, Inez. The Rincon Annex murals: content and 
controversy. MA Thesis, Boston University, 1988. 

NOT SEEN. 

1652 Rubin, Cynthia Elyce. ABC Americana from the National 
Gallery of Art. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: San Diego, 1989. 30 
pp. 

ABC book illustrated with plates from the LAD. Excellent 
color reproductions of the IAD plates. 

1652a Villeponteaux, Mary Alline. The New Deal: art and 
democracy. MA thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and 
State University, 1989. 100 11. 

1652b Anderson, Elizabeth. "Depression legacy: Nebraska's 
Post Office art." Nebraska History 71.1 (1990): 23-33. 

Discussion of Section Post Office murals in Nebraska. B/W 
illustrations of murals. 

1652c American Art Notes from Janet Marqusee Fine Arts 
(Spring 1990): entire issue, 32 pp. 

The Janet Marqusee Gallery in New York City is dedicated to 
art of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. In this issue, the following 
New Deal artists have brief biographical sketches and illustra- 
tions of their works: Emil Bisttram, James Daugherty, Emil 
Ganso, Simka Simkhovitch, Mitchell Siporin, and Anthony 
Sisti. 



356 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1652d Brigham, David R. "Bridging identities: Dox Thrash 
as African American and artist. ' ' Smithsonian Studies in Ameri- 
can ArtA.^ (1990): 27-39. 

Discussion of the WPA/FAP work of Dox Thrash. B/W 
illustrations. 

1652e Evans, Ingrid. "Ben Cunningham (1904-1975)." 
Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 33.2 (Summer 1990): 149- 
53. 

Brief discussion of the life and career of Nevadan Ben 
Cunningham, muralist for the PWAP Coit Tower project and 
later administrator of the Northern California WPA/FAP. 

1652f Growdon, Marcia Cohn. "Robert Cole Caples 
(1908-1979)." Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 33.2 (Sum- 
mer 1990): 158-61. 

Brief discussion of the life and career of Robert Cole Caples, 
Nevada artist and administrator of the Nevada WPA/FAP. 

1652g Yox, Andrew P. "An American Renaissance: art and 
community in the 1930s." Mid-Amenca12.2 (1990): 107-18. 

The contributions of the New Deal Art Projects are covered 
in a general discussion of the art community of Muncie, IN, 
during the 1930s. B/W illustrations. 

1652h South, Will. "The Federal Art Project in Utah: out of 
oblivion or more of the same?" Utah Historical Quarterly 58.3 
(1990): 277-95. 

Detailed discussion of the WPA/FAP in Utah. The career of 
Utah WPA/FAP Elzy J. Bird is covered. B/W illustrations. 

NOT SEEN. 



1990 

1653 "Wilfrid Berg." American Libraries 21 (July/ August 
1990): 628. 



Annotated Bibliography 357 

Color photograph of Wilfrid Berg completing a mural at the 
Hackley PubHc Library (Muskegon, WI) that he had begun 
for the PWAP in 1934. 

1653aa "New Deal art brought culture to postal lobbies: 
extensive collection still provides enjoyment to customers 
throughout the nation." Buckslip 18 (September 1990): 6-7. 

NOT SEEN. 

1653a Rosenzweig, Roy and Barbara Melosh. "Government 
and the arts: voices from the New Deal era." Journal of 
American History 77 (September 1990): 596-608. 

Overview of oral history projects relating the Federal One. 
Includes a description of the work done on the New Deal art 
projects and a survey of the existing literature. Description of 
the New Deal oral history collections of the Archives of 
American Art and George Mason University. B/W illustra- 
tion of cartoon by William Gropper. 

1653b Clarke, Orville O. "Visions of our past." Southern Cal- 
ifornia Home and Garden (November 1990): 55-61, 90-91. 

Overview of New Deal art project contributions in Southern 
California. Concentrates on public art contributions of the 
Section, TRAP, and PWAP. Illustrations of works by Belle 
Baranceanu, Donal Hord, Gordon Grant, Ray Strong, Mayn- 
ard Dixon, Edward Biberman, George Stanley, Paul Julian, 
Boris Deutsch, Arthur Ames, and Jean Goodwin, 

1654 "WPA artist completes mural." Federal One 15 (No- 
vember 1990): 5. 

Note on Wilfrid Berg completing a mural at the Hackley 
Public Library (Muskegon, WI) that he had begun for the 
PWAP in 1934. 

1654a Brooklyn Museum. The Williamsburg murals, a redis- 
covery: five monumental works from the 1 930s by Ilya Bolotowsky, 
Balcomb Greene, Paul Kelpe, and Albert Swinden. Brooklyn 
Museum: Brooklyn, 1990. 1 folded sheet. 



358 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Exhibition, March 30 through ?, 1990. Installation relating 
the abstract murals done by the WPA/FAP for the Wil- 
liamsburg Housing Project in Brooklyn. Text by Barbara 
Dayer Gallati. NOT SEEN. 

1654b Associated American Artists. The people work. Associ- 
ated American Artists: New York, 1990. 16 pp. 

Exhibition, June 6 through 29, 1990. Sale exhibition of 
ninety-three prints depicting images of Labor; many done on 
the WPA/FAP. Introductory essay by Roberta Lehrman 
places the prints in their New Deal art project context. 
Numerous B/W and color illustrations of the prints. 

EXfflBITIONS \ 

1655 South Carolina State Museum. New Deal art in South 
Carolina: government-supported images from the Great Depression. 
South Carolina State Museum: Columbia, 1990. 86 pp. 

Exhibition, June 16 through October 14, 1990. Exhibition 
included FSA as well as WPA/FAP and Section work exe- 
cuted in South Carolina. Curated by Lise C. Swensson. 
Additional text by Susan Giaimo Hiott, Sue Bridwell Beck- 
ham, and F. Jack Hurley. Index of South Carolina New Deal 
artists. Numerous B/W and color illustrations. 

1656 Michael Rosenfeld Gallery. Figures of speech: social 
realism of the WPA era. Michael Rosenfeld Gallery: New York, 
1990. 5 pp. typed checklist. 

Exhibition, October 9 through November 17, 1990. Check- 
list of fifty-seven paintings. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1657 Berman, Avis. Rebels on Eighth Street: Juliana Force and 
the Whitney Museum of American Art. Atheneum: New York, 
1990. 572 pp. 

Excellent biography of Juliana Force. Extensive coverage of 
her tenure as New York regional director of the PWAP. 



Annotated Bibliography 359 

Force's relationship with Edward Bruce as well as her later 
criticism of the WPA/FAP are also discussed. 

1657a Carlton-Smith, Kimn. A New Deal for Women: women 
artists and the Federal Art Project, 1935-1939. Ph.D. disserta- 
tion, Rutgers — The State University of New Jersey, 1990. 347 
pp. 

In depth discussion of the participation of women in the 
WPA/FAP in New York City. 

1657b Clarke, Orville Oliver. Milford Zomes' Treasury Relief 
Art Project murals for the Claremont, California, United States Post 
Office. MA Thesis, California State University, Fullerton, 
1990. 188 pp. 

Brief history of the New Deal Art Projects, specifically the 
TRAP. Detailed study of Milford Zorne's TRAP murals in the 
Claremont, CA, Post Office. Includes tables showing Section 
mural and sculptural projects by thematic subject and state. 
B/W illustrations of Zorne's murals. 

1657c Euler, Susan Ray. Art for a democracy: the WPA's art 
education programs in Minnesota, 1935-1943. Ph.D. disser- 
tation, University of Minnesota, 1990. 335 pp. 

A general overview of the WPA/FAP program with special 
emphasis on the work done by WPA/FAP education pro- 
grams in Minnesota. 

1657d Friedlander, Sue. Broome County, New York's gov- 
ernment sponsored Post Office murals of the 1930s. MA thesis. 
State University of New York, Binghamton, 1990. 

NOT SEEN 

1658 Mavigliano, George J. and Richard A. Lawson. The 
Federal Art Project in Illinois, 1933-1943. Southern Illinois 
University Press: Carbondale, 1990. 257 pp. 

In depth study of the WPA/FAP in Illinois with a full 
background of art relief programs in the state. Covers the 
careers of the three State WPA/FAP directors (Increase 



360 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Robinson, 1935-38; George Thorpe, 1938-41; and Fred 
Biesel, 1941-43). Appendices list all WPA/FAP artists work- 
ing in Illinois; all WPA/FAP public sculpture in Illinois; all 
murals in the state; renderings done for the IAD in Illinois; 
weekly WPA/FAP employment quotas for Illinois; and WPA/ 
FAP job classifications and salaries for artists. An excellent 
example of documenting the New Deal art projects. Numer- 
ous B/W illustrations of works and photographs of artists at 
work. 

1658a Megraw, Richard. The uneasiest state: art, culture and 
society in New Deal Louisiana, 1933-1943. Ph.D. dissertation, 
Louisiana State University, 1990. 444 pp. 

Thorough examination of the FAP/WPA and Federal pa- 
tronage in Louisiana. Covers all four of the Federal Arts 
Projects. Good overview of the work in the state. B/W 
illustrations. 

1659 Phagan, Patricia. New Deal art in Georgia: a guide to post 
office murals and sculpture. Georgia Museum of Art, University 
of Georgia: Athens, GA, 1990. 8 pp. 

Useful guide to Section murals in Georgia. Introductory text 
describes the nature of the Section in Georgia; guide lists 
Section art work in thirty-four cities. Brief biographies of 
artists included. B/W illustrations of work by Jack McMillen, 
Arthur E. Schwartz, Georgina Klitgaard, Orlin E. Clayton, 
and Carlo Ciampaglia. 



1991 

1660 Harris, Jonathan. "Nationalizing art: the community 
art centre programme of the Federal Art Project 1935- 
1943." Art History 14 (June 1991): 250-69. 

Theory-filled overview of the Community Art Center project 
of the WPA/FAP and its overall relation to the goals and 
agendas of the New Deal. 



Annotated Bibliography 361 

1661 Belong, Lea Rosson . ' ' Review of The Federal Art Project 
in Illinois: 1935-1943r Annals of Iowa 51 (Fall 1991): 219- 
20. 

Review of The Federal Art Project in Illinois: 1935-1943 {See 
1658). 

1662 Motian-Meadows, Mary. "Western visions: Colorado's 
New Deal Post Office Murals." Colorado Heritage (Autumn 
1991): 15-35. 

Detailed discussion of the creation and preservation of TRAP 
and Section murals in Colorado. B/W illustrations. 

1663 Clarke, Orville O. "Of murals, messages and memo- 
ries." Los Angeles Times Magazine (October 13, 1991).: 28-29. 

Brief essay on New Deal murals in Southern California. Color 
reproductions of works by Paul Julian, Suzanne Miller, 
Haldane Douglas, Ray Strong, Caspar Duchow, and Edward 
Biberman. 

1664 DiMichele, David. "Back in the bad old days." Artweek 
22 (November 28, 1991): 10-11. 

Review of exhibition, "Federal Art in Long Beach" at the 
FHP Hippodrome Gallery (5^^1671). 

1665 "Newly published book studies gender in New Deal 
art." Federal One 16 (December 1991): 3. 

Review oi Engendering culture: manhood and womanhood in New 
Deal public art and theatre (See 1672) . 

1666 Garvey, Timothy J. ''Review of The Federal Art Project in 
Illinois: 1935-1943.'" Illinois Historical Journal 84 (Winter 
1991): 287-88. 

Review of The Federal Art Project in Illinois: 1935-1943 {See 
1658). 

1667 Reid, Robert L. "Review of The Federal Art Project in 
Illinois: 1935-1943.'" Journal of American History 78.3 (De- 
cember 1991): 1131-32. 



362 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Review of The Federal Art Project in Illinois: 1935-1943 {See 
1658). 

EXmBITIONS 

1668 Associated American Artists. Federal Art Project: NYC: 
WPA. Associated American Artists: New York, 1991. 8 pp. 

Exhibition, June 11 through July 3, 1991. Sale exhibition of 
prints from the WPA/FAP, 1935-1943. Checklist of seventy- 
six prints with numerous B/W illustrations. Exhibition or- 
ganized by Roberta Lehrman. 

1669 Francey, Mary. American women at work: prints by women 
artists of the nineteen thirties. Utah Museum of Fine Arts: Salt 
Lake City, 1991.50 pp. 

Exhibition, June 23 through August 4, 1991. Brief essays by 
Francey and Ellen Sragow discuss the role of women in the 
New Deal art projects, particularly the WPA/FAP. B/W 
illustrations of works by, and brief biographies of, Ida Abel- 
man, Lucienne Bloch, Helen Green Blumenschein, Minna 
Citron, Mabel Dwight, Wanda Gag, Riva Helfond, Barbara 
Latham, Doris Lee, Beatrice Mandelman, Kyra Markham, 
Claire (Millman) Mahl Moore, Elizabeth Olds, Betty Waldo 
Parish, Lucia Autorino Salemme, Bernarda Bryson Shahn. 
Checklist of fifty-five prints. 

1670 Milwaukee Art Museum. 30s America: prints from the 
Milwaukee Art Museum. Milwaukee: The Milwaukee Art Mu- 
seum, 1991. 30 pp. 

Exhibition, September 27 through December 8, 1991. Exhi- 
bition of 1930s era prints, including WPA/FAP works, from 
the collection of the Milwaukee Art Museum. Essay by 
Terrence L. Marvel discusses American printmaking in the 
1930s, including the contributions of the WPA/FAP. Check- 
list of forty prints. B/W illustrations of sixteen prints. Exhibi- 
tion traveled to three additional Wisconsin sites: Rahr West 
Art Museum, Manitowoc (July 7 through August 25, 1991); 
Leigh Yawkey Woodson ^t Museum, Wausau (January 11 
through March 1, 1992); and the Bergstrom-Maler Museum, 
Neenah (March 15 through May 10, 1992). 



Annotated Bibliography 363 

1671 FHP Hippodrome Gallery. Federal Art in Long Beach: a 
heritage rediscovered. FHP Hippodrome Gallery: Long Beach, 
1991.48 pp. 

Exhibition, September 29 through December 21, 1991. Exhi- 
bition of photographs, prints and artifacts relating to the 
WPA/FAP activities in the Long Beach, CA, area. Detailed 
descriptions of eight projects. Artists profiled include: 
Suzanne Miller, Stanton Macdonald-Wright, Olinka Hrdy, 
Jean Swiggett, Ivan Bardett, Carlos Dyer, Arthur Ames, Jean 
Goodwin, and Grace Clemens. Full account of the Long 
Beach Municipal Auditorium mosaic. Text by Douglas 
Hinkey covers history of New Deal art projects in general as 
well as in California and the Long Beach area. Numerous 
B/W and color illustrations, a map to New Deal art in the 
Long Beach area, and a list of lost art. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1672 Melosh, Barbara. Engendering culture: manhood and 
womanhood in New Deal public art and theater. Washington: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991. 297 pp. 

Explores the depiction of gender in Section projects and 
Federal Theatre productions. Extensive appendix updates 
Park and Markowitz's {See 1569) inventory of Section pro- 
jects. Numerous B/W and color illustrations. 

1673 Patrick, Stephen A. Wendell Cooky Jones: the Johnson City 
Post Office mural. MA thesis, East Tennessee State University, 
1991. 

NOT SEEN. 

1674 Emerson, Kimberly Marie. Guidelines for the rehabil- 
itation of Depression era post offices in Oregon. MA thesis. Univer- 
sity of Oregon, 1991. 289 pp. 

Guidelines for the preservation and rehabilitation of Section 
murals in Oregon Post Offices. Includes case studies of the 
Post Offices in Bend, Coos Bay, and Eugene. 



364 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1675 Tyler, Francine. Artists respond to the great depression and 
the threat of Fascism: the New York Artists ' Union and its magazine 
"Art Front" (1934-1937). Ph.D. dissertation, New York Uni- 
versity, 1991.427 pp. 

An extended examination of the role of the Artists' Union 
and its journal, Art Front. Includes a discussion of the WPA/ 
FAP and Section and coverage of these New Deal art projects 
in Art Front. 

1676 Westphal, Ruth Lilly and Janet B. Dominik, editors. 
Am£rican scene painting: California, 1930s and 1940s. Irvine, 
CA: Westphal Publishing, 1991. 238 pp. 

General overview of California art in the thirties and forties; 
frequent mention of the New Deal art projects. B/W and 
color illustrations. 



1992 

1677 Melosh, Barbara. "Public art and the democratic 
spirit: a guide to Washington's New Deal masterpieces." 
Washington Post Magazine (January 12, 1992): 1, 17-21. 

Guide and discussion of the Section's mural and sculptural 
work in the Federal buildings of Washington. Color illustra- 
tions of the work of William Cropper, George Biddle, Carlos 
Lopez, Emil Bisttram, Seymour Fogel, Ben Shahn, and 
Michael Lantz. 

1678 Friedman, Martin. "Citywide WPA Arts Festival be- 
gins in Cleveland this month," Federal One 17.1 (March 
1992): 5. 

Brief note that the "Cleveland Festival of the WPA: the 
Golden Years of Federal Support to the Arts," will be held 
March 5 through June 27 and will include a display of 
WPA/FAP graphics at the Cleveland Public Library and a 
reunion of Cleveland WPA/FAP artists. 



Annotated Bibliography 365 

1679 Vishny, Michele. "Lucienne Bloch: the New York City 
murals." Woman's Art Journal 13 (Spring-Summer 1992): 
23-28. 

NOT SEEN. 

1680 Marling, Karal Ann. "Review oi Engendering Culture: 
manhood and womanhood in New Deal public art and theater.'' Art 
in America 80 (April 1992): 43, 45, 47. 

Generally favorable review of Engendering Culture: manhood 
and womanhood in New Deal public ari and theater {See 1672); 
B/W illustration of work by Sally F. Haley. 

MONOGRAPHS 

1681 Desalvo, Lora B. A more abundant life for all: the murals 
of Massachusetts. MA thesis. Boston College, 1992. 101 pp. 

Written text to accompany an MA thesis film. Examination of 
Section murals in Massachusetts. 

1682 Janet Marqusee Fine Arts. James Daugherty, 1887-1 974: 
American modernist; works on paper from the New Deal era. New 
York: The Gallery, 1992. 16 pp. 

Sale catalog of works on paper by James Daugherty. Text by 
Janet Marqusee. B/W and color reproductions of works by 
Daugherty, 

1683 Lloyd, Lucille. "California's name": three WPA-sponsored 
murals. Sacramento: California State Senate, 1992. 28 pp. 

Discussion of three WPA/FAP murals in California. Re- 
searched and written by Kathy Humphrey. 

1684 New Mexico. Secretary of State. Discover New Mexico's 
New Deal treasures. Santa Fe: Office of the Secretary of State, 
1992. 32 pp. 

Pamphlet to accompany a 1992 state-wide celebration of New 
Deal art work in New Mexico. City-by-city guide to New Deal 
art (primarily Section murals) in the state. Includes a list of 



366 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

WPA/FAP artists who worked in the state. Essay by Sandra 
D'Emilio. B/W and color illustrations of work by Russell 
Vernon Hunter, Emil Bisttram, Lloyd Moylan, William P. 
Henderson, and Howard Schleeter. 

1685 Trebel, Darren Paul. Anton Refregier's murals in the 
Rincon Post Office Annex, San Francisco: a Marxist history of 
California. M.A. Thesis, University of Virginia, 1992. 91 11. 

Brief overview of the life and career of Anton Refregier. 
Discussion of the Social Realism movement. Detailed ac- 
count of the creation and controversies surrounding Re- 
fregier's PWAP murals in the Rincon Post Office Annex, San 
Francisco. B/W illustrations of the mural panels. 

EXHIBITIONS 

1686 Michael Rosenfeld Galleries. The WPA Era: Urban 
views and visions. New York: The Galleries. 16 pp. 

Exhibition, May 12 through June 27, 1992. Checklist of 
twenty-six works; text by Francis V. O'Connor. Color illustra- 
tions. 



APPENDIX A: 

WHO'S WHO IN THE NEW DEAL FINE 

ARTS PROJECTS 



Alsberg, Henry G. (1856-1956). Well-known writer and 
editor, Alsberg became national director of the Federal 
Writers' Project in 1935. Resigned in 1939. 

Baker, Jacob (1895-1945). Administrator of the Federal 
Emergency Relief Administration and later of the WPA, 
Baker was one of the principal architects of Federal One and 
the WPA/FAP. Internal politics and personality conflicts 
shortened his tenure on the project he created (1935-1936). 

Bennett, Gwendolyn (1902- ). Artist employed on the 
PWAP (1934) and WPA/FAP (1935-1941); director of the 
Harlem Community Art Center (1937-1940). 

Biddle, George ( 1 885-1 973 ). Artist. A friend of FDR' s since 
their days at Groton and Harvard, Riddle's letter to the 
president calling for relief for artists is considered the seed of 
all the New Deal art projects. Biddle completed a number of 
works for the Section. 

Bruce, Edward (1880-1943). Businessman, lawyer, banker, 
artist, and head of the Section of Fine Art. Though he 
showed an early aptitude for art, Bruce established a success- 
ful career as a businessman in the Far East. Then at age 42 he 
left the Far East and his business career to study painting in 
Italy. After three years of study with Maurice Sterne, he 
returned and embarked on a successful career as a painter. 
In 1933, he was instrumental in the creation of the PWAP 
and was named its chief. Actively working for a successor 

367 



368 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

organization, he oversaw the creation of the Treasury De- 
partment's Section of Painting and Sculpture. Fighting for 
the integrity and vision of the Section through its various 
name and administrative changes sapped Bruce 's strength, 
and he died of a heart attack in early 1943. 

Cahill, Holger (1887-1960). Born Sveinn Kristjan Bjarnar- 
son in Iceland, at an early age Cahill' s parents brought him 
to North America. To escape a difficult childhood, Cahill left 
home at thirteen, working on ranches, railroads, and as a 
merchant marine. Deciding to become a writer, he moved to 
New York City. He took journalism courses at New York 
University at night and made friends with artists in his 
Greenwich Village neighborhood. In 1922 he joined the 
Newark Museum; in 1932 he became exhibitions director of 
the Museum of Modern Art. While at MoMA, Cahill organ- 
ized a number of important exhibitions of American folk art. 
A writer of fiction since the 1920s, Cahill published novels 
and short stories as well as doing museum work until 1935 
when he was chosen as the National Director of the Federal 
Art Project (1935-1943). Upon leaving the WPA/FAP, he 
resumed his writing career. 

Carmody, John Michael ( 1 88 1-1 963 ). As first administrator 
of the Federal Works Agency (July 1, 1939), Carmody over- 
saw both the WPA/FAP and the Section. 

Coffee, John Main (1899- ). Democratic representative 
from Washington (1937-1947). Coffee was responsible for 
the Bureau of Fine Arts legislation of 1937-1938. 

Davis, Stuart (1894-1964). Artist. Davis was an outspoken 
advocate of government aid for artists as well as an avid 
proponent of nonrepresentational art. Davis expressed his 
views in the magazine Art Front 2ind other publications. 

Defenbacher, Daniel S. (1906- ). State Director of the 
WPA/FAP in North Carolina (1935-1936). After successfully 
developing the community art center concept in North 
Carolina, in 1936 Defenbacher was named Assistant to the 



Who's Who 369 

National Director in charge of Community Art Centers. In 
1939 he resigned to become Director of the Walker Art 
Center in Minneapolis. 

Dows, Olin (1904-1981). Artist and art administrator. 
Dows was director of the Treasury Relief Art Project (1935- 
1938) and an important aide to Edward Bruce. His memoirs 
are a good source of information on the TRAP and Section. 

Flanagan, Hallie (1890-1969). National director of the 
Federal Theatre Project (1935-1939). 

Floethe, Richard (1901- ). Graphic artist and Head of the 
New York City WPA/FAP Poster Studio (1936-1943) . 

Force, Juliana (1876-1948). One of the prime movers and 
shakers of the Whitney Museum of American Art (c.l913- 
1948) , Force was named New York Regional supervisor of the 
PWAP (1933-1934). Her administration of the project was 
controversial. 

Harrington, Francis Clark (1887-1940). A member of the 
US Army Corps of Engineers (1909-1935), Colonel Harring- 
ton was named Assistant Administrator of the WPA in 1935; 
he was named Administrator in 1938 when Harry L. Hopkins 
left the WPA. His position was retitled Commissioner when 
the Works Progress Administration became the Work Pro- 
jects Administration. 

Hopkins, Harry Lloyd (1890-1946). A social worker, 
Hopkins was appointed director of the Federal Emergency 
Relief Administration in 1933. With bold plans and unfailing 
energy, he quickly took over the massive Federal relief 
efforts, culminating in the creation of the WPA in 1935. In 
December 1938, he was named Secretary of Commerce and 
held the post for two years. A close friend of FDR, Hopkins 
helped manage his 1940 campaign and was tapped to lead 
the Lend-Lease program with the United Kingdom in 1941. 
Throughout the war, Hopkins remained FDR's closest advi- 
sor. 



370 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Hunter, Howard Owen (1896-1964). Hunter was successor 
to Francis C. Harrington as Commissioner of the WPA (acting 
Commissioner, 1940; Commissioner, October 1941-1943). 

Ickes, Harold Le Clair (1874-1952). An important member 
of the New Deal, Ickes, as head of the PubHc Works Adminis- 
tration (1933-1938) oversaw the construction of biUions of 
dollars worth of Federal buildings, many of which were 
adorned with New Deal art. 

Kainen, Jacob (1909- ). Painter, printmaker, and art histo- 
rian, Kainen was an employee on the New York City WPA/ 
FAP during the 1930s. After moving to Washington, he 
became a curator in the Graphic Arts department of the 
Smithsonian Institution and later head 6f the graphic arts 
department of the Smithsonian's National Collection of Fine 
Arts where he assisted in the collection of New Deal art. 

McGranery, James Patrick (1895-1962). Democratic repre- 
sentative from Pennsylvania (1937-1943). McGranery intro- 
duced a number of unsuccessful bills attempting to create a 
Federal art presence. 

Macdonald-Wright, Stanton (1890-1973). Artist and arts 
administrator. Macdonald-Wright worked on mural projects 
for the PWAP in Santa Monica and then went on to become 
state director of the WPA/FAP for Southern California 
(1935-1943). An important proponent of the nonrepresen- 
tational styles of art on the New Deal projects. 

M cMahon, Audrey. Art critic and administrator; McMahon 
was director of the College Art Association and editor of its 
journal, Parnassus. From the onset of the Depression, McMa- 
hon worked for artists' relief and in 1935 was named as 
director of the New York City WPA/FAP. A tireless supporter 
of the artist, McMahon fought cuts to the WPA/FAP, but was 
unable to please all her critics. 

Miller, Dorothy Canning (1905- ). Art historian and critic. 
Miller, a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, married 



Who's Who 371 

Holger Cahill in 1938. She was responsible for the first major 
exhibition of New Deal art since the close of the projects in 
1963 ("The U.S. Government Art Projects: Some Distin- 
guished Alumni" ) . 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. (1891-1967). Secretary of the 
Treasury (1934-1945), Morgenthau and his first wife Elinor 
(d. 1949) were great supporters of the arts. A good friend of 
FDR's since the 1920s, Morgenthau was a direct line to the 
president from Edward Bruce 's Section until the Section was 
placed under the Federal Works Agency (1939). 

O'Connor, Francis Valentine (1937- ). Art historian. 
O'Connor's work in the mid-1960s was responsible for resur- 
recting interest in the New Deal art projects. A writer and 
editor of a number of works on New Deal art, O'Connor has 
also contributed to numerous exhibition catalogs. 

Parker, Thomas C. (1905-1964). Assistant Director of the 
WPA/FAP (1935-1940). During the critical 1939-1940 pe- 
riod, Parker served as acting director while Holger Cahill was 
on sabbatical to work on the New York World's Fair. Parker 
left the WPA/FAP to become director of the American 
Federation of Arts (1940-1952). 

Peoples, Christian J. Director of the Treasury Depart- 
ment's Office of Procurement. Peoples was Edward Bruce 's 
direct supervisor. 

Pepper, Claude Benson (1900-1989). Democratic senator 
from Florida (1936-1950). Pepper was a strong supporter of 
the New Deal arts projects. The Coffee-Pepper Federal 
Bureau of Fine Arts bill (1937-1938) would have perma- 
nently established governmental support of the arts. Pepper 
returned to Congress as a Democratic Representative from 
Florida in 1963 and served till his death. 

Roberts, Lawrence W. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, 
Roberts was one of the principal instigators of the PWAP. He 
wrote the comprehensive final report of the PWAP in 1934. 



372 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Roosevelt, Franklin D. (1882-1945). It took some time for 
FDR's promise of a New Deal to eventually reach America's 
artists, but when it did, it was on a scale never before seen in 
governmental patronage of the arts. Key advisors, including 
Henry and Elinor Morgenthau, George Biddle, Edward 
Bruce, and FDR's wife Eleanor were able to convince or 
cajole him into action on behalf of the nation's creative 
talent. 

Roosevelt, Eleanor (1884-1962). A frequent speaker or 
guest at important gatherings or exhibition openings, 
Eleanor Roosevelt gave generously of her dme and prestige 
to the New Deal arts projects. 

Rothschild, Lincoln (1902-1983). Artist and art administra- 
tor. Director of the Index of American Design (1937-1941). 

Rowan, Edward Beatty (1898-1946). Art administrator. 
Rowan and Forbes Watson were second in importance to 
Edward Bruce at the Section. Working closely with Bruce on 
all aspects of the program, Rowan oversaw much of the daily 
work of the Section. 

Sirovich, William Irving (1882-1939). Democratic repre- 
sentative from New York City (1927-1939). Medical doctor, 
lecturer, playwright, and editor as well as statesman, Sirovich 
was responsible for a number of important pieces of legisla- 
tion that attempted to make permanent the projects of the 
WPA's Federal One. A strong supporter of the WPA/FAP, his 
death stilled an important voice in the Congress for the arts. 

Sokoloff, Nikolai (1886-1965). National director of the 
Federal Music Project (1935-1939). 

Somervell, Brehon Burke (1892-1955). A graduate of West 
Point (1914) , Somervell quickly found his niche transporting 
supplies to American troops during World War I. Working 
on a number of engineering and supply projects after the 
war, he was named head of the New York City WPA in 1936. A 
tough administrator and no friend of the arts, Somervell's 



Who's Who 373 

tenure was marked by controversy, protest, and, on the part 
of the artists, unbridled hatred. His cutting of wages and 
employment allotments and the destruction of a WPA/FAP 
mural at Floyd Bennett Field for supposed Communistic 
propaganda made him an easy target for the artists. He 
returned to military duty in November 1940. 

Thrash, Dox (1892-1965). Thrash, an African-American 
artist working for the Philadelphia office of the WPA/FAP, 
was responsible for the development of the carborundum 
print process. 

Velonis, Anthony (1911- ). Graphic artist. Velonis was 
largely responsible for the birth of the silk-screen process 
(serigraphy) as a medium for the fine arts. Working in the 
poster division of the New York City Graphics Division of the 
WPA/FAP (1935-1939), Velonis and the artists who worked 
with him created some of the finest work of the New Deal art 
projects. His pamphlet. Technical Problems of the Artist: Tech- 
nique of the Silk-Screen Process, was one of the most popular 
publications of the WPA/FAP. 

Watson, Forbes (1880-1960). Art critic and administrator. 
Watson was one of Edward Bruce 's closest advisors on the 
Section. His numerous articles in the art and popular presses 
reinforced the Section's image as the "quality" federal art 
program. 

Woodward, Ellen Sullivan (d. 1971). Joining the FERA in 
1933, Woodward took over control of Federal One from 
Jacob Baker in July 1936 and remained in charge of the 
projects through December 1938. Woodward was responsi- 
ble for overseeing the restructuring of Federal One as the 
needs and goals of the WPA as a whole were modified. 



APPENDIX B: 

EXHIBITIONS OF NEW DEAL ART, 

1934-1990 



The following list includes only those exhibitions for 
which either a catalog/ checklist was located or a mention 
was made of in the form of a review, or note in another 
publication. Exhibitions held at the Community Art Centers 
are not noted unless they were nationally organized or of 
some other note. Needless to say, there are have been many 
more small local shows of New Deal art — both at the time and 
now — for which documentation was not located. Numbers in 
bold refer to items in the bibliography. 



1934 

February 1934 

' ' [Exhibition of PWAP Work] ' ' 

M.H. de Young Museum, San Francisco 

0052 

March 1934 

"The Public Works of Art Project: 14th region — Southern 

California" 
Los Angeles County Museum 
0124 

March 1934 

" [PWAP Art Exhibition] " 

Cleveland Art Museum 

0059 



374 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 375 

March-August 1934 

"Exhibition of Paintings, Water Colors, and Sculpture by 

Artists Enrolled in the Public Works of Art Project" 
Minneapolis Institute of Art 
0057, 0070, 0074 

First three weeks in April, 1934 

"Exhibition of Public Works of Art Project for Maryland" 

Baltimore Museum of Art 

0063 

April 1-?, 1934 
" [PWAP Art Exhibition] " 
Kansas City Art Institute 
0065, 0070 

April 13-29, 1934 

"Public Works of Art Project Exhibition" 

Cincinnati Museum 

0066 

April 24-May 20, 1934 

"National Exhibition of Art by the Public Works of Art 

Project" 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 
0076, 0078, 0079, 0080, 0082, 0083, 0088, 0090, 0091, 0115, 

0125 

May 6-13, 1934 

"[Exhibition of Works Produced in Washington, Maryland, 

and Virginia, PWAP] " 
National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 
0126 

June 1934? 

" [PWAP Art Exhibition] " 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 

0095 



376 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

October 1934? 

" [PWAP Art Exhibition] " 

Newark Museum 

0110 

October 4-5, 1934 

' ' [PWAP Art Exhibition] " 

Nebraska State Historical Society 

0135 

November 1934? 

' ' [PWAP Art Exhibition] ' ' 

Museum of Modern Art, New York City 

0116 

1935 

1935? 

" [PWAP Art Exhibition] " 

Department of Labor Building, Washington, DC 

0210 

February 14-16, 1935 

"Mural Painting in America" 

Grand Central Art Galleries, New York City 

0143, 0202 

June 6-30, 1935 

"Our Government in Art" 

Milwaukee Art Institute 

0164 

October ?, 1935 

" [PWAP Print Exhibition] " 

University of Colorado, Boulder 

0183 

October ?, 1935 

' ' [Exhibition of Section Work] ' ' 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 377 

Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 
0189, 0196 

December 27, 1935-January 11, 1936 
"Mural Sketches" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0203, 0228, 0915 



1936 

1936? 

"[Purposes; Mosaics at the University of California Art Gal- 
lery]" 
UC Berkeley Art Gallery and M.H. de Young Museum 
0332 

January 16-28, 1936 

"Creative Work of Artist-Teachers" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0915 

February 2-15, 1936 

"Easel Paintings" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0915 

February 19-29, 1936 
"Graphic Prints and Water Colors" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0246, 0251, 0259, 0915 

March 1936 

' ' [Federal Art Project Exhibition] ' ' 

Museum of New Mexico (Santa Fe) 

0249 



378 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

March 1936 

" [Federal Art Project Exhibition] " 

Salt Lake City State Capitol 

0238 

March 4-13, 1936 
"Paintings by Children" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0915 

March 18-April 4, 1936 
"Joint Project Exhibition" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0915 

April 9-20, 1936 

"Sculpture" 

Federal Art Project Gallery, New York 

0915 

April 30-May 13, 1936, extended through June 25 
"Exhibition of Graphic Prints, Etchings, Lithographs, Wood 

Cuts" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0263, 0333, 0915 

May?, 1936 

" [Section Exhibition] " 

Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe 

0255 

May 25-June 12, 1936, extended to June 25 
"Index of American Design" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0915 

June 5-30, 1936 

"The Federal Art Project. Southern California" Los Angeles 

County Museum 
0334 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 379 

Junel5-July5, 1936 

"National exhibition. Mural Sketches, Oil Paintings, Water 

Colors and Graphic Arts. Federal Art Project" 
Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, DC 
0262, 0270, 0272, 0275, 0276, 0335 

June 20-July 15, 1936 

"Drawings for Index of American Design" 

R.H. Macy and Company, New York 

0336 



June 26-July 24, 1936 
"Second Easel Paintings, Oil" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0337, 0915 

July 19-August 26, 1936 

"Water Colors and Drawings from Easel" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0915 

September 14-October 12, 1936 
"New Horizons in American Art" 
Museum of Modern Art 

0278, 0284, 0285, 0286, 0287, 0292, 0294, 0296, 0297, 0301, 
0313, 0338, 0387, 0429, 0444, 0488 

October 6-November 6, 1936 

"Treasury Department Art Projects Sculpture and Paintings 

for Federal Buildings" 
Whitney Museum of American Art 
0261, 0279, 0296, 0299, 0300, 0305, 0306, 0308, 0339, 

0387 

October 19-November 6, 1936 

"Exhibition by teachers of the Federal Art Project" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0340, 0915 



380 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

November 1-27, 1936 

"Purposes; Mosaics at University of California Art Gallery" 

M.H. de Young Museum and UC Art Gallery, Berkeley 

0341 

November 11-December 4, 1936 

"Posters" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0317, 0915 

November 17-December 13, 1936 

"Treasury Department Art Projects. Painting and Sculpture 

for Federal buildings" 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 
0261, 0342, 0393 ^ 

December 1-?, 1936 

" [Federal Art Project Exhibition] " 

Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 

0377 

December 11-24, 1936 

"Resettlement Administration Photographs" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0915 



1937 

1937? 

"Sculpture and Paintings for Federal Buildings for the 

Treasury Art Projects" 
Garfield Park Art Gallery, Chicago 
0517 

January 4-31, 1937 
"Prints for the People" 
International Art Center, New York City 
0382, 0518 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 381 

January 4-20, 1937 
"Children's Paintings" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0389, 0915 

January 26-February 18, 1937 
"Second Sculpture Exhibition" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0915 

January 27-February 10, 1937 

"Index of American Design" 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 

0519 

February 1937 

" [Federal Art Project Exhibition] " 

Stendahl Galleries, Los Angeles 

0398 

February 2-?, 1937 
"Local WPA Project" 
Portland (OR) Museum of Art 
0402 

February 16-March 13, 1937 
"Exhibition. Mural Studies" 
Federal Art Gallery, Boston 
0520 

February 23-March 23, 1937 

"Exhibition of Oil Paintings by Artists in the Easel Division of 
the U.S. Works Progress Administration Federal Art Pro- 
ject [Third Easel Exhibition]" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0521, 0915 

March 1937 

"New Horizons in American Art" 

Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco 

0400, 0410 



382 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

March 15-April 3, 1937 

"National Exhibition, Index of American Design" 

Marshall Field and Company, Chicago 

0522 

March 24-April 21, 1937 
"New Horizons in American Art" 
Portland (OR) Art Museum 
0404 

March 30-April 27, 1937 

"Recent Fine Prints: Lithographs, Etchings, Drypoints, Mon- 
otypes, Wood Engravings: Made by Artists in the Graphic 
Arts Division of the Works Progress Administration Fed- 
eral Art Project [Exhibition of Recent Fine Prints] " 

Federal Art Gallery, New York " 

0415, 0422, 0523, 0915 

May 12-June 9, 1937 

"Photography Division of Federal Art Project" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0915 

May 15-June 15, 1937 

"Exhibition of Wood Carvings by Patrocino Barcla" 

Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco 

0423 

May 22-June 23, 1937 
"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 
Addison Gallery, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA 
0437, 0441, 0524 

May 24-June 3, 1937 

"Exhibition of Lithographs and Water Colors of San Fran- 
cisco Golden Gate Bridge" 
Emporium Department Store, San Francisco 
0423 

May 24-June 4, 1937 

"Exhibition of Four Mural Panels by Arthur Murray" 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 383 

San Francisco Museum of Art 
0423 

?-June 3, 1937 

"California Index of American Design" 

San Francisco Public Library 

0423 

June ?-July 11, 1937 
"Index of American Design" 
Los Angeles Exposition Park 
0423 

June 1-July 7, 1937 
"Exhibition of Lithographs' ' 
Glendora Public Library, CA 
0423 

June 3-15, 1937 

"General Exhibition" 

Oregon State Museum Association, Salem 

0423 

June 15-22, 1937 

"General Exhibition" 

San Mateo Public Library, CA 

0423 

July ?, 1937 

"Fourth Annual Exhibition of Student Work by the Art 

Division of WPA — ^Adult Education Program of the New 

York City Board of Education" 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 
0449 

July 31-August 14, 1937 
"Pink Slips Over Culture" 
ACA Gallery, New York 
0454, 0459 



384 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

August 1-September 12, 1937 
"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 
Springfield (MA) Museum of Fine Arts 
0427, 0524 

August 2-31, 1937 

"All-California Process Exhibition. Sculpture, Mosaics, Lith- 
ographs, Murals" 
Stendahl Galleries, Los Angeles 
0526 

August 30-September 11, 1937 

"4 Out of 500 Artists Dismissed from WPA" 

ACA Gallery, New York 

0527 ^ 

September 18-October 10, 1937 
"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 
Worcester Art Museum, MA 
0524 

September 28-October 9, 1937 

"American Folk Art Sculpture; Drawings of Objects Dis- 
played by the Index of American Design" 
Downtown Gallery, New York 
0480, 0528 

October 1937 

" [Index of American Design Exhibition] " 

Renaissance Society of the University of Chicago 

0528a 

October 8-November 7, 1937 
"New Horizons in American Art" 
Milwaukee Art Institute 
0476 

October 12-30, 1937 
"Water Colors and Drawings" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0529, 0915 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 385 

October 16-November 14, 1937 
"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 
Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, CT 
0524 

October 30-November 14, 1937 

"Posters and Prints. WPA Federal Art Project, Pennsylvania" 

Chester County Art Association, PA 

0530 

November ?, 1937 

"Changing New York" 

The Museum of the City of New York 

0502 

November 10-24, 1937 
"Regional Art Exhibition" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0915 

November 20-December 11, 1937 

"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 

Gallery of Fine Arts, Yale Universit)', New Haven, CT 

0524 

December 1-20, 1937 

"Exhibition. Posters and Art Processes, Methods, Materials 

and Tools in Sculpture, Graphic Art, Fresco and Poster 

Processes" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0532, 0915 

December 3, 1937-January 2, 1938 

"Representative Exhibition of the Work of the Rochester 

Federal Arts Project" 
Rochester Memorial Gallery of Art, New York 
0503 

December 17, 1937-January 13, 1938 (years are estimated) 
"State Museum Exhibition" 



386 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg, PA 
0533 

December 23, 1937-January 8, 1938 
"Children's Art" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0534, 0915 

1938 



January 3-22, 1938 

"National Exhibition, Index of American Design, Federal 

Art Project" 
Stix, Baer, and Fuller, St. Louis c 

0744 ^ 

January 7-February 6, 1938 
"New Horizons in American Art" 
Rochester Memorial Gallery, Rochester, NY 
0564 

January 7-February 6, 1938 

"National Exhibition, Index of American Design, Federal 

Art Project of the Works Progress Administration" 
Rochester Memorial Gallery, Rochester, NY 
0564 

January 8-February 6, 1938 

"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 

Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, NH 

0524 

January 10-31, 1938 

"An Exhibition of Selected Skills of the Unemployed. As 

Demonstrated on WPA Non-Construction Projects." 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 
0745 

January 19-February 9, 1938 
"Printmaking, A New Tradition" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0577, 0746, 0915 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 387 

February 12-March 6, 1938 

"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 

L.D.M. Sweat Memorial Art Museum, Pordand, ME 

0524 

February 16-March 12, 1938 
"Illinois Federal Art Project" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0747, 0915 

March 12-April 3, 1938 

"Federal Art in New England, 1933-1937" 

Robert Hull Flemming Museum, Burlington, VT 

0524 

March 23-April 6, 1938 

"Sculpture" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0622, 0624, 0748, 0915 

April 27-May 11, 1938 
"Exhibition: Easel and Water Color" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0749, 0915 

May 10-28, 1938 

"Exhibition: WPA Prints, Water Colors" 

Federal Art Gallery, Boston 

0750 

May 24-June 15, 1938 
"Murals for the Community" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0651, 0654, 0655, 0751, 0915 

June ?, 1938 

"Color Prints in Various Techniques by Four Young WPA 

Artists" 
Brooklyn Museum 
0656 



388 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

June 21-July 15, 1938 

"Drawings for the Index of American Design" 

R.H. Macy and Company, New York 

0664, 0752 

July 1938 

"1938 Dedicated to the New Deal" 

ACA Gallery, New York 

0658, 0753 

July Il-Augustl2, 1938 
"Summer Print Show" 
Federal Art Gallery, Chicago 
0754 

July 20-August 11, 1938 ■ 

"Exhibition of Work by Teachers in the Art Teaching Divi- 
sion" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0683, 0755, 0915 

July 28-October 9, 1938 
"Art for the Public by Chicago Artists" 
Art Institute of Chicago 

0619, 0670, 0672, 0677, 0684, 0685, 0686, 0687, 0692, 0695, 
0698, 0702, 0708, 0756 

?-August 20, 1938 

" [Harlem Community Art Center Show] " 

YWCA, Chicago 

0679 

August 16-September 8, 1938 
"New York and New Jersey Artists" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0915 

September 20-October 11, 1938 
"East Side— West Side" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0757, 0915 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 389 

October ?, 1938 

" [Columbus: WPA Showing at the State Fair] " 

Ohio State Fair 

0710 

October 7-30, 1938 

"National Exhibition of Two Hundred Prints by Graphic 

Artists" 
National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
0719, 0720 

October 21-November 11, 1938 

"Paintings, Prints, Sculpture, Murals. Four Art Exhibition of 

the Federal Art Project' ' 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0724, 0758, 0915 

October 24-November 10, 1938 
"Exhibition: Art and Psychopathology" 
Harlem Community Art Center 
0759 

November 18-December 8, 1938 
"Regional Poster Exhibition" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0760, 0915 

December ?, 1938 

"[Index of American Design]" 

Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo 

0742 

December 10-?, 1938 

"Federal Art" 

District of Columbia Allocations Gallery 

0761 

December 22, 1938-January 10, 1939 

"Exhibition: Paintings, Prints, Murals, Sculpture, Crafts by 
Children" 



390 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0762, 0915 

December 22, 1938-January 22, 1939 
"Modern Design in Everyday Life" 
Spokane Art Center, Spokane, WA 
0763 



1939 

January 24-February 7, 1939 

"99 Prints" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0891, 0915 ^ 

February 10-24, 1939 

"Exhibition of Negro Cultural Work on the Federal Arts 

Projects of New York City Art — Music — Writers — ^Theatre — 

Historical Records" 
Harlem Community Art Center 
0892 

February 14-March 4, 1939 

"Exhibition of Oils, Gouaches, and Water Colors" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0893, 0915 

February 20-March 11, 1939 

"American Hands in Action" 

E.F. Wahl Department Store, Duluth, MN 

1410 

February 22-March 8, 1939 
" [Graphic Works: WPA/FAP] " 
Duluth Art Center 
1410 

March ?, 1939 

"[Providence: Watercolor Renderings of American Crewel 
Embroidery]" 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 391 

Museum, School of Design, Providence, RI 
0814 

March 9-April 16, 1939 

"Work of New Jersey Artists. Plates from the Index of 

American Design. Painting and Sculpture" 
Newark Museum 
0813, 0894 

March 15-31, 1939 

"Exhibition of Plates from the Index of American Design" 

Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0895, 0915 

March 27-April 21, 1939 

"Exhibition Suitable for Allocation. Painting, Sculpture, 

Prints, Posters" 
Russell Sage Foundation, NY 
0896 

April 4-October 15, 1939 
"Frontiers of American Art" 
M.H. de Young Museum, San Francisco 
0824, 0834, 0835, 890 

April 12-30, 1939 
"Changing New York" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0897, 0915 

May ?, 1939 

" [Middle town: Prints and Paintings of the WPA Pass in 
Review] ' ' 

Davidson Art Rooms, Olin Memorial Library, Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, CT 

0833 

May 3-21, 1939 
"Art in the Making" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 

0898, 0915 



392 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

May23-June24, 1939 
"Functions of the Project" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0899, 0915 

June 1, 1939-late 1940 
' 'American Art Today' ' 
New York World's Fair 

0737, 0739, 0822, 0823, 0858, 0861, 0900, 0927, 0980, 0981, 
0985, 0986, 0987, 0989, 0990 

June 22-July 22, 1939 

"Exhibition of Painting" 

Federal Art Gallery, Chicago 

0901 ^ 

August 1-23, 1939 

"Exhibition: Oils, Watercolors, Prints and Sculpture by Artist 

Teachers of the Art Teachers' Division" 
Federal Art Gallery, New York 
0902, 0915 

September 1-October 8, 1939 
"Southern California Art Project" 
Los Angeles County Museum 
0903 

September 5-30, 1939 

"Print Show" 

WPA Illinois Art Gallery 

0904 

November 2-21, 1939 

"Exhibition: Painting and Sculpture Designed for Federal 

Buildings" 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 
0879, 0880, 0881, 0905 

November 11-22, 1939 

" [Exhibition of WPA/FAP Work Done by Children] " 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 393 

Whitehall Ferry Terminal, NYC 
0875 



1940 

1940 

"Mural Designs for Federal Buildings" 

Location Unknown 

1041 

January 8-30, 1940 

"Paintings, Sculpture, Index of American Design Plates, 
Posters [and] Prints. Exhibition by Artists of the New York 
City Art Project, Work Projects Administration Arts Pro- 
gram" 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York 

1042 

February 27-March 17, 1940 

"Loan Exhibition of Mural Designs for Federal Buildings 

from the Secdon of Fine Arts" 
Whitney Museum of American Art 
0958, 0960, 0961, 1043 

March ?, 1940 

"Exhibition of New Color Prints" 

Weyhe Gallery, New York 

0962 

March 12-31, 1940 
"Exhibition of Silk Screen Prints" 
Springfield (MA) Museum of Fine Arts 
0970, 1044 

April 1940 

"Mystery and Sentiment" 

Museum of Modern Art, New York City 

0965, 0975, 1045 



394 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

April 1940 

"Face of America" 

Museum of Modern Art, New York City 

0965, 0975, 1045 

April 1940 

"Jerome Lewis" 

Museum of Modern Art, New York City 

0965, 0975, 1045 

April 1940 

"35 Under 35" 

Museum of Modern Art, New York City 

0965, 0975, 1045 

April 19-May 6, 1940 ' 

"Exhibition of Mural Designs for Federal Buildings for the 

Section of Fine Arts" 
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa 
1040 

May ?, 1940 

"[WPAArt]" 

Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, MA 

0982 

May 17-June 9, 1940 

"This Work Pays Your Community" 

Brooklyn Museum 

0979 

June 27-July 19, 1940 

"One Hundred Watercolors an Exhibition by Artists of the 

New York City Art Project" 
Tudor City [exhibition space] , New York 
1046 

?-November 20, 1940 

"Exhibition by the National Society of Mural Painters" 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City 

1028 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 395 

November ?, 1940 

"[WPA Modern Art]" 

Lincoln School of the Teacher's College, New York 

1034 

November 7-December 29, 1940 
"An Exhibition of 'Unpopular' Art" 
Walker Art Center, MN 
1047 

1941 



1941 

"The Artist in Defense" 

Illinois Art Project Gallery, Chicago 

nil 

1941 

"Exhibition of Photographs of Murals and Sculpture" 

Location Unknown, Section of Fine Arts 

1112 

1941 

"Watercolors for Decoration" 

Location Unknown, Section of Fine Arts 

1113 

April 21-May 1,1941 

"Exhibition of Children's Art, by Students in the Classes of 

the New York City WPA Art Project" 
Associated Artists Galleries, New York 
1114 

April 23-May 18, 1941 

"Index of American Design Show" 

Brooklyn Museum 

1082 



396 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

May 15-June4, 1941 

"An Exhibition of Two Hundred American Water Colors" 

National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 

1087,1090,1102,1115,1142 

June 9-30, 1941 

"As We Were" 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 

1116 

September ?, 1941 

"Work in Use" 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 

1100 

September 16-30, 1941 

"Exhibition of Two Hundred Watercolors from the National 

Competition Held by the Section of Fine Arts" 
Whitney Museum of American Art 
1117 



1942 

1942 

"I Remember That; An Exhibition of Interiors of a Genera- 
tion Ago" 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 
1156,1159,1162 

March 3-31, 1942 

"Between Two Wars" 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City 

1137 

April 15-May 17, 1942 

"Exhibition of Mural Sketches Commissioned by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States for Federal Buildings. Lent 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 397 

by the Section of Fine Arts, Public Buildings Administra- 
tion, Federal Works Agency" 

Howard University Art Gallery, Washington, DC 

1163 

April 20-25, 1942 

"WPA Exposition de Trabajos del Programa de Arte de 

Pennsylvania' ' 
Palcio de bellas artes de Mexico, Mexico City 
1164 

June 5-28, 1942 

"200 American Watercolors" 

Baltimore Museum of Art 

1144 

?-August 14, 1942 
" [Anton Refregier] " 
ACA Gallery, New York 
1147 

October 13-31, 1942 

"Paintings, Cartoons, Photographs of the St. Louis Post 

Office Murals by Mitchell Siporin and Edward Millman" 
Downtown Gallery, New York 
1166 

?-November 10, 1942 

"Emblems of Unity and Freedom" 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 

1152,1158,1161 



1943 

March 22-?, 1943 

' ' Shaker Craftsmanship' ' 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 

1179a, 1181 



398 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1944 

September 10-24, 1944 
"American Prints by WPA Artists" 
Portland (OR) Museum of Art 
1219 



1946 



February?, 1946 
"WPA prints in Newark" 
Newark Museum 
1232 



1950 

October ?, 1950 

" [Index of American Design] " 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City 

1251 



1951 

Junel7-July8, 1951 
"Index of American Design" 
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 
1263 



1961 

September 16-October 7, 1961 
"Art of the Thirties" 
Smolin Gallery, New York 
1287, 1288 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 399 

1962 

September 25-October 13, 1962 

"Art of the 30s" 

SmoUn Gallery, New York 

1294 



1963 

July 9-August, 1963 

"The U.S. Government Art Projects: Some Distinguished 

Alumni" 
Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, DC 
1297, 1299 



1966 

April 6-May 13, 1966 
"Federal Patronage: 1933-1943" 
University of Maryland Art Gallery 
1313, 1316 



1967 

October 29-November 26, 1967 
"WPA Artists: Then and Now" 
YM-YWHA of Essex County, NJ 
1320 



1968 

March 1968 
"Midwest— The 1930's" 



400 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Milwaukee Art Center 
1327 

October-November, 1968 

"Graphic Art of the Depression Era: WPA 1935-1943" 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1331 



1969 

February 12-March 10, 1969 

"Art Under the New Deal. A selection of Paintings, Graphics 

and Mural Sketches Produced Under Federal Work Relief 

Programs from 1933 to 1943" 
Columbia Museum of Art, SC 
1329 

March 10-April 11, 1969 

"WPA Sculpture" 

Manhattanville College Art Gallery, Purchase, NY 

1330 

November 5-25, 1969 

"Graphic Art of the Depression Era: WPA 1935-1943" 

Westby Gallery, Glassboro, NJ 

1331 



1972 

February 1-28, 1972 

"WPA Revisited, an Exhibit: Art Works from the Permanent 
Collection of University Galleries, Southern Illinois Uni- 
versity at Carbondale, Mitchell Gallery" 

University Galleries, Southern Illinois University at Carbon- 
dale, Mitchell Gallery 

1362 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 401 

April 1972 

' 'Art of the Thirties; the "^ icific Northwest' ' 

University of Washington, Seattle 

1363 



1973 

1973 

"New Deal Federally Sponsored Works of Art: Ohio Post 

Office Murals" 
Kent State University, OH 
1375 

February 17-April 22, 1973 

"Art in New Mexico: The Depression Years — Federally Spon- 
sored Art in New Mexico, 1933-1943" 
Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe 
1388 

October 28-December 9, 1973 
"Federal Art Patronage: Art of the 30's" 
Illinois State Museum, Springfield 
1376 



1974 

September 16-November 1, 1974 

"Federal Art in Cleveland, 1933-1943; An Exhibition" 

The Cleveland Public Library 

1388, 1391, 1392 



1976 

1976 

"American Textiles Lent by the National Gallery of Art from 
the Index of American Design" 



402 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

International Exhibition Foundation 
1419 

January 17-June 15, 1976 

"New t)eal Art, California" 

De Saisset Art Gallery and Museum, Santa Clara, CA 

1388, 1410, 1420 

January 19-March 5, 1976 

"Seven American Women: The Depression Decade" 

Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, NY 

1421 

February 15-March 30, 1976 

"The Black Ai-tists in the WPA 1933-1943" 

New Muse Community Museum of Brooklyn 

1422 

April 28-May 30, 1976 

"Accomplishments: Minnesota Art Projects in the Depres- 
sion Years" 
Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota 
1410 

May 1976-1977 
"WPA/FAP Graphics" 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service [nu- 
merous sites across the US] 
1410, 1424 

October 8-November 6, 1976 

"Berenice Abbott Photographs: Changing New York" 

Allan Frumkin Gallery 

1425 

1977 



January 23-March 4, 1977 

"Woodstock: An American Art Colony 1902-1977" 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 403 

Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, NY 
1441 

January 25-February 13, 1977 

"New Deal for Art; The Government Art Projects of the 

1930's with Examples from New York City and State" 
Tyler Art Gallery, State University of New York College of 

Arts and Sciences, Oswego, NY 
1442, 1443 

September 25-November 27, 1977 

"By the People, for the People: New England" 

De Cordova Museum, Lincoln, MA 

1445 

September 28-October 20, 1977 

"The Mural Art of Ben Shahn: Original Cartoons, Drawings, 

Prints and Dated Paintings" 
Joe and Emily Lowe Gallery, Syracuse, NY 
1446 

November 8-December 10, 1977 

"New York City WPA Art: Then 1934-1943 and . . . Now 

1960-1977" 
Parsons School of Design, New York City 
1447 

November 13, 1977-January 8, 1978 

"New York/ Chicago: WPA and the Black Artist" Studio 

Museum in Harlem 
1444 

November 18, 1977-February 28, 1978 

"WPA Prints" 

New York Public Library 

1448 



1978 



April 4-May 21, 1978 
"New Deal Art in Kansas' 



404 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Wichita Art Museum 
1457 

November 1-December 31, 1978 

"Art for the People — New Deal Murals on Long Island" 

Emily Lowe Gallery, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 

1458 

November 15, 1978-March 11, 1979 

"Murals Without Walls; Arshile Gorky's Aviation Murals 

Rediscovered" 
Newark Museum 
1460 

1979 ^ 

1979 

"The Public as Patron: A History of the Treasury Department 
Mural Program Illustrated with Paintings from the Collec- 
tion of the University of Maryland Art Gallery' ' 

University of Maryland Art Gallery 

1474 

September 14-December 2, 1979 

"Prints for the People: Selections from the New Deal Graph- 
ics Projects" 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, DC 

1471, 1475 

October 4-November 25, 1979 

"Murals Without Walls; Arshile Gorky's Aviation Murals 

Rediscovered" 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington, DC 
1460, 1471 

October 24, 1979-January 13, 1980 
"After the Crash" 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 405 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1471, 1476 

October 26, 1979-January 6, 1980 

"Sculpture and the Federal Triangle" 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1468, 1477 



1980 



January 18-February 15, 1980 

"The New Deal in the Southwest, Arizona and New Mexico" 

University of Arizona, Tucson 

1488 

January 19-February 24, 1980 

"Wisconsin's New Deal Art" 

The Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum, Wausaw, WI 

1489 

March 26-April 20, 1980 
"New Deal Art, New Jersey" 

Robeson Gallery Center, Rutgers in Newark, and City with- 
out Walls Gallery, Newark 
1490 

March 27-April 28, 1980 

"The New Deal in the Southwest, Arizona and New Mexico" 

Northern Arizona University Art Gallery, Flagstaff 

1488 

May 3-July 20, 1980 

"New Deal Art, New Jersey" 

New Jersey State Museum, Trenton 

1490 



406 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

May24-Julyl3, 1980 

"The New Deal in the Southwest, Arizona and New Mexico" 

Phoenix Art Museum 

1485, 1488 

Fall 1980-Spring 1981 

"Remembering the Thirties: Public Work Programs in Illi- 
nois, a Traveling Exhibition" 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 
1491 

October 4-November 29, 1981 

"American Art of the 1930s" 

Cedar Rapids Art Center, LA 

1511a S 

October 17, 1980-January 1, 1981 
"Portrait of New York: Berenice Abbott" 
Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, VA 
1492 

November 9-December 28, 1980 

"Amerika: Traum und Depression, 1920/1940" 

Akademie der Kunst, Berlin, Germany 

1493 



1981 

1981 

"WPA Prints from the 1930's" 

Baltimore Museum of Art 

1512 

January 11 -February 15, 1981. 

"Amerika: Traum und Depression, 1920/1940' 

Kunstverein, Hamburg, Germany 

1493 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 407 

October 16, 1981-February 15, 1982 

"Perkins Harnly: From the Index of American Design" 

National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1513 

November 5-28, 1981 

"Social Art in America 1930-1945" 

ACA Gallery, New York 

1514 

November 22, 1981-January 10, 1982 
"Berenice Abbott: The 20's and the 30's" 
International Center of Photography, New York 
1528 

December 16, 1981-February 7, 1982 

"American Art of the 1930s" 

Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at 

Chapel Hill 
1511a 



1982 

January 9-September 26, 1982 

"Roosevelt's America: New Deal Paintings from the National 

Museum of American Art" 
National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1524 

January 21-February 22, 1982 

"Five Distinguished Alumni: the WPA Federal Art Project. 

An Exhibition Honoring the Franklin Delano Roosevelt 

Centennial" 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 

Institution, Washington, DC 
1525 



408 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

February 24-April 8, 1982 

"American Art of the 1930s" 

The Art Gallery, The University of Maryland at College Park 

1511a 

February 24-April 8, 1982 

"The Spirit of the Thirties: Selections from the Collection of 

the University of Maryland Gallery' ' 
University of Maryland Art Gallery 
1526 

February 28-April 6, 1982 

"Can You Spare a Dime?: Art of the New Deal Era" 
Muhlenberg College Center for the Arts, Allentown, PA 
1527 > 

May 5-June 27, 1982 
"American art of the 1930s" 
San Antonio Museum of Art 
1511a 

June 4-August 29, 1982 

"Berenice Abbott: the 20's and the 30's" 

National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1528 

July 14-September 5, 1982 
"American Art of the 1930s" 
Phoenix Art Museum 
1511a 

September 22-November 14, 1982 
"American Art of the 1930s" 
Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul 
1511a 

October 26-December 7, 1982 

"Brooklyn Themes: Art in the Years of Roosevelt and La 
Guardia' ' 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 409 

Museum of the Borough of Brooklyn 
1529 

December 4, 1982-January 15, 1983 
"American Art of the 1930s" 
Columbus Museum of Art 
1511a 



1983 



January 1-March 31, 1983 
' 'FDR and the Arts. The WPA Art Projects' ' 
New York Public Library, Stokes Gallery 
1540, 1545 

February 17-April 3, 1983 
"American Art of the 1930s" 
The Boise Gallery of Art 
1511a 

March 5-26, 1983 

"Joseph Solman: Work of the Thirties" 

ACA Galleries and A.M. Adler, Fine Art, Inc., New York City 

1546 

April 20-June 12, 1983 

"American Art of the 1930s" 

Edwin A. Ulrich Museum of Art, Wichita State University 

1511a 

May 5-September 8, 1983 

"The WPA Allocation: Easel Painting from the Federal Art 

Project" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 
1553 

April 3-May 29, 1983 

"After the Great Crash: New Deal Art in IlUnois" 



410 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Illinois State Museum, Springfield 
1547 



July 8-August 31, 1983 

"American Art of the 1930s" 

Whitney Museum of Art, Fairfield County, CT 

1511a 

September 27-November 13, 1983 
"Berenice Abbott: Changing New York" 
Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, UCLA 
1548 

November 6-December 31, 1983 

"Harry Gottlieb: the Silkscreen and Social Conscious of the 
WPAEra" 

The Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers Univer- 
sity, New Brunswick, NJ 

1549 



1985 

1985 

"Depression Era Art at the State Museum of History" 

Nebraska State History Society 

1579 

June 28-July 31, 1985 

"Federal Art Project: American Prints from the 1930s in the 
Collection of the University of Michigan Museum of Art" 
University of Michigan Museum of Art 
1580 

August 25-October 27, 1985 

"New Deal Art: WPA Works at the University of Kentucky" 

University of Kentucky Art Museum 

1581 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 411 

October 27-December 1, 1985 

"American Art of the Great Depression: Two Sides of the 

Coin" 
Wichita Art Museum 
1582 



1986 

May 2-July 27, 1986 

"Utah Art of the Depression" 

Chase Home Liberty Park, Salt Lake City 

1600 

October 25-November 30, 1986 

"From the 1930s-40s" 

Ellen Sragow Gallery, New York 

1614 

November 4-29, 1986 
"50 Years Ago: WPA/AAA" 
Washburn Gallery, New York 
1601, 1614 

November 5-?, 1986 

"WPA Art, New York City, 1935-1943" 

Phantom Gallery, Los Angeles 

1602 



1987 



March 10-August 31, 1987 

"Works Progress Administration's Alaska Art Project 1937. A 

Retrospective Exhibition" 
Anchorage Museum of Art and History 
1619 



412 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

July 26-October 18, 1987 

"The Graphic Art of Harold Faye" 

Hudson Rjver Museum, Yonkers 

1620 

October 31-13, 1987 

"Works Progress Administration's Alaska Art Project 1937. A 

Retrospective Exhibition" 
University of Alaska Museum 
1619 

1988 

January 1-5, 1988 

"Works Progress Administration's Alaska Art Project 1937. A 

Retrospective Exhibition" 
Alaska State Museum 
1619 

January 15-September 11, 1988 

"Special Delivery. Murals for the New Deal Era" 

National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC 
1636, 1638 

March 2-April 9, 1988 

"Painting America: Mural Art in the New Deal Era" 

Janet Marqusee and Midtown Galleries, New York 
1631, 1635, 1639 

April 30-July 18, 1988 

"Images of the 1930s: WPA Prints" 

Georgia Museum of Art 

1633 

Mayl-Junel2, 1988 

"Depression Printmakers as Workers: Re-defining Tradi- 
tional Interpretations" 
Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City 
1640 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 413 

September 1-October 23, 1988 

"Depression Printmakers as Workers: Re-defining Tradi- 
tional Interpretations" 
Boise Art Museum, ID 
1640 

September 10-October 30, 1988 

"Berenice Abbott's New York. Photographs of the 30's and 

40's" 
Heckscher Museum, Huntington, NY 
1641 

October 8-December 31, 1988 

"New Deal Art of the Upper Midwest. An Anniversary Exhibi- 
tion" 
Sioux City Art Center, lA 
1642 

October 11, 1988-January 28, 1989 

"Prints, Drawings and Paintings" 

US General Services Administration, Region 3, Philadelphia 

1593 

October 18, 1988-January 8, 1989 

"Women Artists of the New Deal Era" 

National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC 

1637a, 1643, 1644a 

December 5, 1988-January 25, 1989 

"For a permanent public art: WPA murals in the Health and 

Hospitals Corporation's collection" 
Tweed Gallery, New York 
1643aa 



1989 



February 23-June 6, 1989 

"Black Printmakers and the WPA" 



414 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

The Lehman College Art Gallery, CUNY, Bronx, NY 
1647 

April 1-30, 1989 

"WPA prints: Washington County Museum of Fine Arts" 

Washington County Museum of Fine Arts, Hagerstown, MD 

1647a 



1990 



March 30-?, 1990 

"The Williamsburg Murals, a Rediscovery: Five Monumental 

Works from the 1930s by Ilya Bolotowsky, Balcomb 

Greene, Paul Kelpe, and Albert Swinden" 
Brooklyn Museum 
1654a 

June 6-29, 1990 

"The People Work" 

Associated American Artists Gallery, New York City 

1654b 

June 16-October 14, 1990 

"New Deal Art in South Carolina: Government Supported 

Images from the Great Depression" 
South Carolina State Museum 
1655 

October 9-November 17, 1990 

"Figures of Speech: Social Realism of the WPA Era" 

Michael Rosenfield Gallery, New York 

1656 



1991 

Junell-July3, 1991 

"Federal Art Project: NYC: WPA" 



Exhibitions of New Deal Art 415 

Associated American Artists, New York 
1668 

June 23-August 4, 1991 

"American women at work: prints by women artists of the 

nineteen thirties" 
Utah Museum of Fine Arts 
1669 

July 7-August 25, 1991 

" '30s America: prints from the Milwaukee Art Museum" 

Rahr West Art Museum, Manitowoc, WI 

1670 

September 27-December 8, 1991 

" '30s America: prints from the Milwaukee Art Museum" 

Milwaukee Art Museum 

1670 



1992 

January 11-March 1, 1992 

" '30s America: prints from the Milwaukee Art Museum' 

Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum, Wausau, WI 

1670 

March 5-June 27, 1992 
" [WPA/FAP Graphics] " 
Cleveland Public Library 
1678 

March 15-May 10, 1992 

" '30s America: prints from the Milwaukee Art Museum' 

Bergstrom-Maler Museum, Neenah, WI 

1670 

May 12-June 27, 1992 

"The WPA Era: Urban views and visions" 



416 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Michael Rosenfeld Galleries, New York City 
1686 

September 29-December 21, 1991 

"Federal Art in Long Beach: a heritage rediscovered" 

FHP Hippodrome Gallery, Long Beach, CA 

1664, 1671 



APPENDIX C: 

SECTION COMPETITIONS, 

OCTOBER 16, 1934, TO JULY 1943 



List of mural and other competitions conducted by the 
Section. Date given is the closing date for the competition. 
All competitions are for murals in post office buildings 
except where noted. Eventual winner (s) of each competition 
are noted when known. Compiled from Archives of Ameri- 
can Art Reel NDA 18, frames 654-66 and Section Bulletins 
#1-24. 

Please note that a number of Section commissions were not 
assigned via competition, but by direct selection of the artist 
by the Section. These Section works are not included in this 
list. 

Items marked with an asterisk (*) were part of the "48 State 
Competition," a nationwide competition to ensure that at 
least one Section mural was in every state of the Union. 

ALABAMA 

October 2, 1939* 

Eutaw 

Robert Gwathney 

ALASKA 

October 27, 1941 

Anchorage, Post Office and Court House 

Arthur Kerrick 

Richard Haines 



417 



418 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

ARIZONA 

April 4, 1937 

Phoenix, Post Office and Court House 

LaVerne Block 

Oscar Berninghaus 

October 2, 1939* 
Safford 
Seymour Fogel 

ARKANSAS 

October 2, 1939* 

Paris I 

Joseph P. Vorst ^ 

CAUFORNIA 

March 18, 1935 
Beverly Hills 
Charles Kassler 

February 15, 1939 
Burbank 
Barse Miller 

December 3, 1940 

Los Angeles Terminal Annex 

Boris Deutsch 

Archibald Garner 

August 1, 1939 

Los Angeles Post Office and Court House (Sculpture) 

James Hanson 

October 2, 1939* 
Los Banos 
Lew E. Davis 

October 30, 1935 
Merced 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 419 

Dorothy Puccinelli 
Helen Forbes 



January 15, 1937 
San Pedro 
Fletcher Martin 

July 15, 1936 

Santa Barbara (Sculpture) 

William Atkinson 

May 1,1935 
Stockton 
Moya del Pino 
Frank Bergman 

October 1, 1941 

San Francisco, Rincon Postal Annex 

Anton Refregier 

COLORADO 

May 15, 1941 
Denver, South Denver 
Ethel Magafan 

October 2, 1939* 
Littleton 
John Fraser 

CONNECTICUT 

April 1,1935 
Bridgeport 
Arthur Covey 
Robert Lambdin 

October 2, 1939* 

Hartford, East Hartford Branch 

Alton S. Tobey 



420 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

June 1, 1935 
New London 
Tom La Farge 

September 5, 1941 
Southington 
Ann H. Spencer 

DELAWARE 

October 2, 1939* 
Selbyville 
William Calfee 

April 10, 1937 ^ 

Wilmington 

Albert Pels 

Harry Zimmerman 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

January 15, 1938 

Federal Trade Commission Building (Sculpture) 

Michael Lantz 

April 30, 1937 

Interior Department Building 

Louis Bouche 

October 15, 1936 

(September 15, 1935 competition closed without a winner 

chosen) 

Justice Department Building 

John Ballator 

Emil Bisttram 

Symeon Shimin 

September 15, 1935 

Post Office Department Building (Murals) 

Aldred Crimi 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 421 

Karl Free 
George Harding 
Doris Lee 
Ward Lockwood 
William Palmer 
Frank Mechau 



September 15, 1935 

Post Office Department Building (Sculpture) 

Stirling Calder 

Gaetano Cecere 

Chaim Gross 

Arthur Lee 

Orensio Maldarelli 

Berta Margoulies 

Attilio Piccirilli 

Concetta Scaravaglione 

Carl Schmitz 

Louis Slobodkin 

Heinz Warneke 

Sidney Waugh 

September 3, 1940 

Social Security Building (Sculpture) 

Robert Cronbach 

October 15, 1940 
Social Security Building 
Ben Shahn (Lobby) 
Philip Guston (Auditorium) 

September 1, 1941 

Social Security Building (Cafeteria) 

Gertrude Goodrich 

October 15, 1940 

Social Security Building (Front Lobby) 

Seymour Fogel 



422 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

April 1, 1941 

War Department Building (Front Keyblocks) 

Henry Kreis 

August 9, 1940 

War Department Building (Relief) 

Jean de Marco 

September 17, 1941 

War Department Building (Two sculptural groups) 

Earl Thorp 

FLORIDA 

October 2, 1939* 
DeFuniak Springs 
T.I. Laughlin 

May 23, 1941 
Lake Worth 
Joseph D. Myers 

March 10, 1937 

Miami (competition #1) 

NO AWARD 

May 2, 1938 

Miami (competition #2) 

Denman Fink 

GEORGIA 

October 2, 1939* 
Conyers 
Elisabeth Terrell 

HAWAH 

October 25, 1941 

Honolulu, SchefField Barracks (Sculpture) 

Roy King 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 423 

October 25, 1941 
Lihue (Sculpture) 
Marguerite Blasingame 

roAHO 

October 2, 1939* 
Kellogg 
Fletcher Martin 



ILLINOIS 

June 15, 1935 
Carthage 
Karl Kelpe 

June 15, 1935 
East Alton 
Frances Fey 

June 15, 1935 
East Molina 
Edgar Britton 

June 15, 1935 
Fairfield 
William Schwartz 

June 15, 1935 
Gillespie 
Gustaf Dalstrom 

June 15, 1935 
Melrose Park 
Edwin B.Johnson 

June 15, 1935 
Moline 
Edward Millman 



424 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

June 15, 1935 
Vandalia 
Aaron Bohrod 



June 15, 1935 
Wood River 
Archibald Motley 

October 1, 1941 

Chicago, Uptown Station (Ceramic mural) 

Henry Varnum Poor 

October 1, 1936 
Decatur 
Edgar Britton 
Mitchell Siporin 
Edward Millman 

March 1, 1939 
Evanston (Sculpture) 
Armia A. Scheler 

October 2, 1939* 

Hamilton 

Edmund H. Lewandowski 

INDIANA 

November 30, 1939 

Jasper 

Jessie A. Mayer 

September 1, 1935 
Lafayette 
Henrik M. Mayer 

October 2, 1939* 
Spencer 
Joseph Meert 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 425 

IOWA 

November 1, 1935 

Ames 

Lowell Houser 

November 1, 1935 
Harlan 
Richard Gates 

November 1, 1935 
Cresso 
Richard Haines 

November 1, 1935 
Independence 
Robert Tabor 

October 2, 1939* 
Corning 
Marion Gilmore 

July 15, 1935 
Dubuque 
Bertrand Adams 
William E.L. Bunn 

February 1, 1939 

Marion 

Dan Rhodes 

KANSAS 

January 15, 1937 

Fort Scott 

Oscar Berninghaus 

July 15, 1941 
Hutchinson 
Lumen M. Winter 



426 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

April 4, 1939 
Salina (Sculpture) 
Carl Mose 

October 2, 1939* 

Seneca 

Joe Jones 

May 1,1935 

Wichita 

Ward Lockwood 

KENTUCKY 

September 15, 1939 

Baron 

Frank Long 

October 2, 1939* 
Hickman 
William E.L. Bunn 

April 15, 1935 
Louisville 
Henrik M. Mayer 

LOUISIANA 

November 15, 1940 
Carville (Watercolors) 
300 works selected 

October 2, 1939* 
Kunigo 
Laura B. Lewis 

March 1, 1940 

New Orleans, Federal Office Building (Sculpture) 

Armia Scheler 

Karl Lang 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 427 

October 1, 1941 

New Orleans, Municipal Hall 

Jules Struppeck 

MAINE 

October 2, 1939* 
Dover-Foxcroft 
Barrie Greenbie 

MARYLAND 

November 30, 1939 
Bethesda 
Robert Gates 

October 2, 1939* 
Elkton 
Alexander Clayton 

December 1, 1935 
Hagerstown 
Frank Long 

December 1, 1935 
Hyattsville 
Eugene Kingman 

MASSACHUSETTS 

July 15, 1935 
Holyoke 
Ross Moffett 

April 15, 1935 

Lynn 

William Eiseman 

October 1, 1936 
Somerville 
Ross Moffett 



428 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

October 2, 1939* 
Stoughton 
Jean Watson 

May 2, 1938 

Worcester 

RalfNickelson 

MICfflGAN 

June 2, 1941 

Birmingham ^ 

Carlos Lopez 

September 15, 1941 

Detroit, Jefferson Station (Sculpture) 

NO AWARD/SUSPENDED 

September 15, 1941 
Kalamazoo (Sculpture) 
NO AWARD/SUSPENDED 

October 2, 1939 
Grand Lodge 
James Calder 

November 30, 1939 
East Detroit 
Frank Cassara 

MINNESOTA 

January 2, 1936 
Rochester 
David Granahan 

October 2, 1939* 
St. Paul, North Street 
Don Humphrey 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 429 

February 1, 1939 
White Bear Lake 
Nellie Best 

MISSISSIPPI 

August 15, 1935 

Jackson, Post Office and Court House 

NO AWARD 

February 15, 1936 

Jackson, Post Office and Court House 

Simka Simkovitch 

October 2, 1939* 

Leland 

Stuart R. Purser 

June 1, 1941 
Newton 
Mary Beggs 

May 14, 1938 

Vicksburg, Post Office and Court House 

H. Amiard Oberteuffer 

MISSOURI 

October 2, 1939* 

Jackson 

James B. Turnbull 

September 1, 1939 
St. Louis 
Edward Millman 
Mitchell Siporin 

February 1, 1939 

St. Louis, Wellston Station 

Lumen Winter 



430 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

MONTANA 

February 15, 1939 
Deer Lodge 
Verona Burkhard 

September 1,1937 

Dillon 

Elizabeth Lochrie 

June 29, 1941 

Glasgow , 

Forest Hill 

NEBRASKA 

October 2, 1939* 

Schuyler 

Philip Von Salton 

NEVADA 

October 2, 1939* 
Yerrington, Post Office 
Adolph Gotdieb 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

October 2, 1939* 

Milford 

Philip Von Salton 

NEW JERSEY 

September 3, 1936 
Arlington 
Albert Kotin 

October 2, 1939* 
Bordentown 
Avery Johnson 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 431 

May 10, 1939 
Freehold 
Gerald Foster 

June 30, 1935 
Newark (Sculpture) 
Romauld Kraus 

July 26, 1935 
Newark (Mural) 
Tanner Clark 

June 15, 1941 
North Bergen 
Avery Johnson 

October 5, 1935 
Summit 
Fiske Boyd 

NEW MEXICO 

October 2, 1939* 
Hot Springs 
Boris Deutsch 

NEW YORK 

September 1, 1936 
Binghamton 
Kenneth Washburn 

August 1, 1936 
Buffalo, Municipal Hall 
William Rowe 

September 16, 1941 

Canastota 

Alison N. Kingsbury 



432 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

October 2, 1939* 

Delhi 

Mary Early 

February 21, 1938 

Flushing, Forest Hills Postal Station (Sculpture) 

Stenjacobsson 

June 1, 1935 
Hempstead 
Pepino Mangravite 

December 1, 1939 
New Rochelle 
David Hutchinson 

May 15, 1936 
Bronx (Sculpture) 
Henry Kreis 

January 15, 1938 
Bronx (Mural) 
Ben Shahn 

April 1,1939 
Poughkeepsie 
George Klitgaard 
Charles Rosen 

NORTH CAROLINA 

October 2, 1939* 

Boone 

Alan Thompkins 

February 1, 1939 
Burlington 
Arthur Bairnsfather 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 433 

July 1,1935 
New Borne 
David Silvette 



September 10, 1941 
Statesville (Sculpture) 
Sahl Swars 

June 15, 1939 
Wilmington 
William Pfehl 

NORTH DAKOTA 

October 2, 1939* 
New Rockford 
Eduard B. Ulreich 

OHIO 

Mayl, 1935 
Barnesville 
Michael Sarisky 

October 2, 1939* 
Bridgeport 
Richard Kemah 

April 1, 1935 
Cleveland 
Jack Greitzer 

May 15, 1941 
Cuyoga Falls 
Clifford James 

December 1, 1939 
Medina 
Richard Zoellner 



434 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

May 15, 1935 
Portsmouth 
Clarence Carter 
Richard Zoellner 

April 3, 1935 
Haveman 
Clarence Carter 

April 15, 1935 

Springfield 

H.H. Wessel , 

OKLAHOMA 

May 15, 1941 
Channa 
Richard West 

October 2, 1939* 

Purcell 

Fred Conway 

OREGON 

October 2, 1939* 

Burns 

Jack Wilkinson 

July 1,1941 
Eugene 
Carl Morris 

February 15, 1939 

Salem 

Andrew Vincent 

June 15, 1935 
St. Johns 
John Ballator 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 435 

PENNSYLVANIA 

July 15, 1935 
Jeannette 
Alexander Kestallow 

October 2, 1939* 

Noreer 

Lorin Thompson 

April 1, 1935 
Norristown 
Paul Mays 

October 1, 1936 
North Philadelphia 
George Harding 

May 15, 1935 

Philadelphia Customs House and Appraisers 

George Harding 

July 1,1935 

Pittsburgh, Post Office and Court House 

Howard Cook 

Kindred McLeary 

Stuyvesant Van Veen 

May 15, 1941 

Pittsburgh, Squirrel Hill Postal Station 

Alan Thompson 

March 4, 1941 
York (Sculpture) 
George Kratina 
Carl Schmidt 

PUERTO RICO 

February 1, 1939 
Maygues 
Jose Maduro 



436 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

SOUTH CAROUNA 

October 2, 1939* 

Mullins 

Lee Gatch 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

October 2, 1939* 
Flandroom 
M.E. Ziegler 

TENNESSEE ^ 

May 27, 1935 

Chattanooga Post Office and Court House 

NO AWARD 

November 20, 1936 

Chattanooga Post Office and Court House 

Hilton Leech 

October 2, 1939* 

Lensix City 

David Stone Martin 

TEXAS 

August 15, 1939 
Amarillo 
Julius Woeltz 

May 2, 1938 
Dallas 
Peter Hurd 

April 2, 1937 
El Paso 
Tom Lea 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 437 

October 2, 1939* 
Lampasas 
Ethel Edwards 

May 24, 1941 
Longview 
Thomas M. Stoll 

May 14, 1937 
San Antonio 
Howard Cook 

UTAH 

October 2, 1939* 
Helper 
Jenne Magafan 

June 14, 1941 

Provo 

Everett Thorpe 

VIRGINIA 

September 10, 1941 
Harrisonburg 
William Calfee 

October 1,1941 
Newport News (Sculpture) 
Mary B. Fowler 

September 20, 1936 
Petersburg 
William Calfee 
Edwin S. Lewis 

October 2, 1939* 
Phoebus 
William Calfee 



438 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

WASHINGTON 

October 2, 1939* 
Shelton 
Richard Haines 

February 15, 1939 
Wenatchee 
Peggy Strong 

October 15, 1941 

Yakima (Sculpture) 

Robert Penn S, 

(Contract postponed due to WW II) 

WEST VIRGINIA 

October 2, 1939* 
Mannington 
Richard Zoellner 

WISCONSIN 

October 2, 1939* 

Shelton 

Charles W. Thwaites 

June 9, 1941 

Milwaukee, West Allis Branch 

Frances Foy 

November 30, 1939 

Wausau 

Gerrit Van W. Sinclair 

WYOMING 

October 2, 1939* 

Greybull 

Manuel A. Bronberg 



Section of Fine Arts Competitions 439 

Competitions Conducted 
for Other Agencies 

December 17, 1935 

Poster Competition, Treasury Department 

Lawrence Wilbur, 1st 

David Granahan, 2nd 

Sebastian Simonet, 3rd 

April 15, 1938 

Jefferson Nickel 

Treasury Department, US Mint 

Felix Schlag 

June 1, 1938 

New York World's Fair (Sculpture) 

Harry P. Camden 

September 1, 1938 

New York World's Fair (Mural) 

George Harding 

James O. Mahoney 

December 2, 1940 
Department of the Interior 
Marion Anderson Mural 
Mitchell Jamieson 

June 1, 1940 

US Maritime Commission 

Murals aboard the S.S. President Jackson and 4 other ships 

{Monroe, Van Buren, Garfield, and Hays) 

Adelaide Briggs 

Ada Cecere 

Willem de Kooning 

I. Gardner Orme 

Jean Swiggett 

January 15, 1942 

Office for Emergency Management 

109 watercolors, drawings, and prints purchased 



440 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

January 15, 1942 

American Red Cross 

Office for Emergency Management 

109 watercolors, drawings and prints purchased 

March 18, 1942 

American Red Cross 

71 watercolors, prints, and drawings purchased 

March 1, 1943 

Recorder of Deeds Building (Washington, DC) 

Herschel Levit 

Maxine Seelbinder "t 

Ethel Magafan 

Carlos Lopez 

William Scott 

Martyl Schweig 

Austin Mecklem 



APPENDIX D: 

WPA/FAP COMMUMTY ART CENTERS 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Extension Gallery 

Healey School Art Gallery 

Mobile 

Mobile Art Center, Public Library Building 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix Art Center 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Children's Art Gallery 
FLORIDA 

Bradenton Art Center 

Coral Gables Art Gallery, Coral Gables, Extension Gallery 

Daytona Beach Art Center 

Jacksonville Art Center 

Jacksonville Beach Art Gallery, Extension Gallery 

Jacksonville Negro Art Gallery, Extension Gallery 

Jordan Park Negro Exhibition Center, St. Petersburg 

Key West Community Art Center 

Miami Art Center 

Milton Art Gallery, Milton, Extension Gallery 

New Smyrna Beach Art Center 

Ocala Art Center 

Pensacola Art Center 

Pensacola Negro Art Gallery, Extension Gallery 

441 



442 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

St. Petersburg Art Center 

St. Petersburg Civic Exhibition Center 

Tampa Art Center 

West Tampa Negro Art Gallery 

ILLINOIS 

South Side Community Art Center 

IOWA 

Mason City Art Center 

Ottumwa Art Center S, 

Sioux City Art Center 

KANSAS 

Topeka Art Center 

MINNESOTA 

Walker Art Center 

MISSISSIPPI 

Delta Art Center, Greenville 
Oxford Art Gallery 
Sunflower County Art Center 

MISSOURI 

The Peoples' Art Center, St. Louis 

MONTANA 

Butte Art Center 
Great Falls Art Center 



WPA/FAP Community Art Centers 443 

NEW MEXICO 

Gallup Art Center 
Melrose Art Center 
Roswell Museum Art Center 

NEW YORK CITY 

Brooklyn Community Art Center 
Contemporary Art Center 
Harlem Community Art Center 
Queensboro Communit)' Art Center 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Cary Gallery, Extension Gallery 

Crosby-Garfield School, Extension Gallery 

Greenville Art Gallery 

Meedham Broughton High School, Extension Gallery 

Raleigh Art Center 

Wilmington Art Center 

OKLAHOMA 

Oklahoma Art Center 

Extension Galleries: 
Bristow Art Gallery 
Claremore Art Gallery 
Clinton Art Gallery 
Gushing Art Gallery 
Edmond Art Gallery 
Marlow Art Gallery 
Okmulgee Art Center 
Sapulpa Art Gallery 
Shawnee Art Gallery 
Skiatook Art Gallery 
Will Rogers Public Library 



444 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

OREGON 

Curry County Art Center (Grand Beach) 
Grande Ronde Valley Art Center 
Salem Art Gallery 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Somerset Art Center 

TENNESSEE 

Anderson County Art Center , 

Hamilton County Art Center ^ 

LaMoyne Art Center 
Peabody Art Gallery 

UTAH 

Utah State Art Center 

Extension Galleries: 
Cedar City Art Exhibition Association 
Helper Community Gallery 
Price Community Gallery 
Provo Community Gallery 

VIRGINIA 

Big Stone Gap Art Gallery 
Children's Art Gallery (Richmond) 
Lynchburg Art Gallery 

Extension Galleries: 
Alta Vista Extension Gallery 
Middlesex County Museum (Saluda) 

WASHINGTON 

Spokane Art Center 

Extension Galleries: 
Lewis County Exhibition Center (Chalhalis) 
Washington State College (Pullman) 



WPA/FAP Community Art Centers 445 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Morgantown Art Center 
Parkersburg Art Center 
Extension Gallery: 
Scott's Run Art Gallery 

WYOMING 

Laramie Art Center 

Extension Galleries: 
Casper Art Gallery 
Lander Art Gallery 
Newcastle Art Gallery 
Rawlins Art Gallery 
Riverton Art Gallery 
Rock Springs Art Gallery 
Sheridan Art Gallery 
Torrington Art Gallery 



APPENDIX E: 

PWAP REGIONS AND REGIONAL 

DIRECTORS 



Region 1 : New England States l 

Francis H. Taylor 

Region 2: New York City and State 
Juliana Force 

Region 3: Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey 
Fiske Kimball 

Region 4: District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia 
Duncan Phillips 

Region 5: Georgia, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, 
and Florida 
JJ. Haverty 

Region 6: Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama 
Ellsworth Woodward 

Region 7: Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa 
Louis La Beaume 

Region 8: Pennsylvania (west of the Susquehanna River) and 
West Virginia 
Homer St. Gaudens 

Region 9: Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and Michigan 
William Milliken 



446 



PWAP Regional Divisions 447 

Region 10: Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
Walter Brewster 

Region 11: Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South 

Dakota 

George L. Williamson 

Region 12: Texas and Oklahoma 
John S. Ankeney 

Region 13: New Mexico and Arizona 
Jesse Nusbaum 

Region 14: Southern California 
Merle Armitage 

Region 15: Northern California, Nevada, and Utah 
Walter Heil 

Region 16: Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana 
Burt Brown Barker 



APPENDIX F: 

LEGISLATION FOR A PERMANENT ART 

PROJECT 



Thirteen attempts were made during the course of the 
New Deal art projects to create some type, of permanent art 
division within the Federal government. 

March 18, 1935 

H J, Res. 220, 74th Congress, First Session 

William I. Sirovich (D-NY) 

A joint resolution providing for the establishment of an Executive 

department to be known as the Department of Science, Art, and 

Literature. 
(Hearings held April-May, 1935, House of Representatives, 

Committee on Patents) 

January 5, 1937 

H.J. Res. 79, 75th Congress, First Session 

William I. Sirovich (D-NY) 

A joint resolution providing for the establishment of an executive 

department to be known as the Department of Science, Art and 

Literature. 

Januarys, 1937 

H.R. 1512, 75th Congress, First Session 

Allard H. Casque (D-SC) 

A Bill to establish a National Bureau of Fine Arts. 

August 3, 1937 

H.R. 8132, 75th Congress, First Session 

James P. McGranery (D-PA) 

A bill to establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. 

448 



Legislation for a Permanent Art Project 449 

August 16, 1937 

H.R. 8239, 75th Congress, First Session 

John M. Coffee (D-WA) 

A bill to provide for a permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. 

January 21, 1938 

S. 3296 75th Congress, Third Session 
Claude Pepper (D-FL) 

A bill to provide for a permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. 
(Hearings held February-March, 1938, Senate, Committee 
on Education and Labor) 

January 21, 1938 

H.R. 9102 75th Congress, Third Session 

John M. Coffee (D-WA) 

A Bill to provide for a permanent Bureau of Fine Arts. 

February 7-11, 1938 

Hearings held on H.R. 9102 and HJ. Res. 79 
US Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Pat- 
ents 

May 4, 1938 

HJ. Res. 671 75th Congress, Third Session 
William I. Sirovich (D-NY) 

A joint resolution to create a Bureau of Fine Arts in the Department 
of Interior. 

May 26, 1938 

House Report 2486 75th Congress, Third Session 
U.S. Congress. House of Representatives 
Creating a Bureau of Fine Arts. 

January 11, 1939 

H.R. 2319, 75th Congress, First Session 
James P. McGranery (D-PA) 

A bill to establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. 

February 3, 1939 

HJ. Res. 149, 76th Congress, First Session 

William I. Sirovich (D-NY) 



450 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

A joint resolution to create a Bureau of Fine Arts in the Department 
of Interior. 

Augusts, 1939 

S. 2967, 76th Congress, First Session 

Claude Pepper (D-FL) 

A bill to provide for a Bureau of Fine Arts. 

January 3, 1941 

H.R. 600, 77th Congress, First Session 

James P. McGranery (D-PA) 

A bill to establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. 

January 8, 1943 

H.R. 900, 78th Congress, First Session 

James P. McGranery (D-PA) 

A bill to establish a Division of Fine Arts in the Office of Education, 
Department of Interior. 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Note: Numbers refer to entry numbers, not book pages. 



A.M. Adler, Fine Art, Inc., 

1546 
Abbott, Berenice, 0906, 

1378 
ACA Gallery, 0527, 0753, 

1227, 1514, 1546 
Adams, Grace, 0690 
Adams, Katherine Langhorne, 

0083 
Adlow, Dorothy, 0409 
Ajay,Abe, 1369 
Alexander, Stephen, 0145 
Allan Frumkin Gallery, 1425 
Allyn, Nancy Elizabeth, 1530 
Alsberg, Henry G., 0127, 

1085 
Altmeyer, A.J., 0956 
American Artists' Congress, 

0343, 0907 
American Artists' Professional 

League, 0034, 0072, 0086, 

0100,0108,0161,0609, 

0627, 0635, 0678 
American Federation of Art- 
ists, 0997 
Ames, Kenneth L., 1519 
Anastasi, Anne, 0743 
Anchorage Museum of Art 

and History, 1619 
Anderson, Elizabeth, 1652b 
Andrews, Paula, 1009 
Angly, Edward, 0256, 0365 
Ankeney, John S., 0069 



Architectural League of New 
York, 0344 

Argul, Jose Pedro, 1230 

Armitage, Merle, 0048 

Arms, John Taylor, 0061, 
0523 

Art in Federal Buildings, Inc., 
0764, 0765 

Art Institute of Chicago, 
0756 

Art Week, Committee of Fed- 
eral Agencies for, 1118 

Associated American Artists, 
1114, 1654b, 1668 

Aswell, Edward C, 0797 

B.,D., 1100 
Baer, Lynne, 1550 
Baigell, Mathew, 1393 
Baker, Mildred Holzhauer. See 

also Holzhauer, Mildred 
Baldwin, Carl, 1382 
Baltimore Museum of Art, 

1512 
Barbeau, Marius, 1261 
Barnett, Catherine, 1630 
Baron, H., 0753 
Barr, Norman, 1447 
Bartiett, Lanier, 1052, 

1053 
Batchen, Geoffrey, 1633a 
Baugh, Virgil, 1282 
Bear, Donald J., 1378 



451 



452 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Beckh, Erica, 1283. See also 

Rubenstein, Erica Beckh 
Beckham, Sue Bridewell, 

1564, 1648, 1655 
Beer, Richard, 0011 
Bell, Bernard C, 1119 
Bendiner, Robert, 1318 
Bengelsdorf, Rosalind, 1367 
Bennett, Charles Alpheus, 

0592 
Bennett, Gwendolyn, 0413, 

1378 
Benson, E.M., 0304 
Benson, Elmer A., 0614 
Berdanier, Paul F., 0673 
Berkman, Aaron, 0146 
Berman, Avis, 1657 
Berman, Greta, 1411, 1418, 

1437, 1440, 1447, 1458, 

1470, 1546 
Bermingham, Peter, 1488 
Bernstein, Barbara, 1374a 
Bernstein, Joel H., 1300, 

1338 
Berryman, Florence S., 

1150,1151,1226 
Biddle, George, 0092, 0096, 

0105, 0593, 0610, 0660, 

0691,0908,0984,1035, 

1058,1115,1193a 
Billington, RayA, 1290 
Binsse, Harry Lorin, 0301, 

0628, 0853 
Bintek, Lynn, 1619 
Bird, ElzyJ., 1378 
Bird, Paul, 1252 
Birk, Louis P., 0797 
Blakey, George T., 1575a 
Blasio, Mary-Ann, 1626 
Bloch, Julius, 1378 
Bloch, Lucienne, 1378 
Bloxom Marguerite D., 1531 
Blumberg, Barbara Marilyn, 

1394, 1449, 1478 



Boag, Robert, 0922 
Bosker, Gideon, 1605 
Boswell, Peyton, 0076, 0077, 
0120, 0160b, 0162, 0380, 
0482, 0496, 0512, 0576, 
0599, 0606, 0626, 0636, 
0639, 0650, 0668, 0709, 
0735, 0794, 0835, 0889, 
0980,0988,0998,1011, 
1016, 1017, 1072, 1145, 
1160,1176,1191,1194, 
1196,1198 
Boufford, Jo Ivey, 1643aa 
Bourne, Francis T., 1236 
Bowman, Ruth, 1460 
Boyens, Charles William, 

1565 
Breeskin, Adelyn D., 0061 
Brenner, Anita, 0625 
Breuning, Margaret, 0306 
Bridaham, Lester B., 1 198a 
Brigham, David R., 1652d 
Brodinsky, Ben P., 0064 
Brooklyn Museum, 1654a 
Broun, Heywood, 0385, 

0832 
Brown , Milton W. , 1514, 

1521 
Browne, Rosalind Ben- 
gelsdorf. See also Ben- 
gelsdorf, Rosalind 
Bruce, Edward, 0042, 0054, 
0061,0078,0089,0171, 
0345, 0956, 0973, 1041 
Bruner, Ronald Irvin, 1479 
Buchalter, Helen, 0090 
Bufano, Beniamino Benve- 

nuto, 1378 
Bulliet, Charles Joseph, 0297 
Burck, Jacob, 0146 
Burden, Florence Canfield, 

1576 
Burke, Dan E., 1600, 1603 
Burnett, Whit, 0797 



Author Index 



453 



Burroughs, Margaret Goss, 

1629 
Bush, Donald, 1485 
Butler, Harold E., 0321 
Byrne, Barry, 1096 
Bystryn, Marcia N., 1508 
Bywaters, Jerry, 1096 

C, K., 1635 
C, L., 1287 

Cahill, Holger, 0338, 0367, 
0464, 0535, 0661, 0774, 
0823,0927,0929,0981, 
1080,1161,1209,1210, 
1223, 1224, 1231, 1281, 
1560 
Calcagno, Nicholas A., 1426, 

1629 
Calverton, V.F., 0444, 0701 
Cameron, Donald, 1000 
Carlisle, John C, 1539, 1645 
Carlton-Smith, Kimn, 1657a 
Carmody, John M., 0973, 

1058 
Carr, Eleanor M., 1332, 

1336, 1356, 1382 
Carraro, Betty Francine, 

1649 
Carroll, Gordon, 0648 
Carter, George, 1422 
Cashwan, Samuel, 1378 
Chadwyck-Healey, Charles, 

1465, 1509 
Chilcoat, George W. , 1618 
Christensen, Envin O., 1238, 

1243, 1280, 1256 
Chrysler Museum, 1492 
Citizens' Committee for Sup- 
port of the WPA, 0525 
Clapp,Jane, 1364 
Clapp, Thaddeus, 1378 
Clarke, Orville O., 1618a, 

1636a, 1653b, 1657b, 1663 
Clements, Grace, 0230 



Clough, F. Gardner, 0458 
Coates, Robert M., 0749, 

0797, 0915 
Coffee, John Main, 0471, 

0555, 0582, 0588, 0594, 

0780 
Cohen, E.L., 1591 
Cohen, Paul, 1566 
Colby, Merle, 1152 
Cole, John Y., 1542 
Collins, Amy Fine, 1636b 
Columbia Museum of Art, 

1329 
Commercial Artists Section of 

the Artists' Union, 0140 
Comstock, Helen, 0111 
Conkelton, Sheryl, 1549 
Contreras, Belisario R., 

1321, 1551 
Cooper, Charlotte Gowing, 

0533 
Cornelius, Charles, 1378 
Cowan, Sarah E., 0061 
Cowdrey, Mary 

Bartiett, 1268 
Craig, Lois, 1339 
Craton, Ann, 0047, 0053 
Craven, Junius, 0035 
Cronbach, Robert, 1367 
Crosby, Patricia Dunn, 

1514a 
Crum, Priscilla, 1048 
Cunningham, Ben, 0469 
Curtis, Philip Campbell, 

1365 
Cusick, Nancy, 1637a 

D'Amico, Victor E., 0762 
Damrosch, Walter, 0766 
Daniel, Pete, 1623 
Danysh, Joseph A, 0026, 

0036, 0193, 0250, 0563 
Davidson, Jo, 0046 
Davidson, Le Roy, 1047 



454 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Davidson, Marshall B., 1352, 

1354 
Davidson, Martha, 0296, 

0488, 0605 
Davis, Maxine, 1001,1012 
Davis, Stuart, 0167,0172, 

1197, 1378 
Dawson, Oliver B., 1405 
De Brossard, Chandler, 1070 
De Cordova Museum and 

Park, 1445 
Defenbacker, Daniel S., 

0355, 0362, 1378 
De Kruif, Henri, 0037 
De Long, Lea Rosson, 1520, 

1532, 1642, 1661 
D'Emilio, Sandra, 1684 
Dennis, James M., 1387, 

1454 
De Noon, Christopher, 

1596, 1597, 1622 
Department of State, 1049 
De Saisset Art Gallery and Mu- 
seum, 1420 
Desalvo, Lora B., 1681 
Desjardijn, D., 1533 
Devree, Howard, 0989 
Dewey, John, 0434, 0973, 

1058 
de Young Memorial Museum, 

0890 
Dieterich, Herbert R., 1371, 

1487 
Diller, Burgoyne, 1378 
DiMichele, David, 1664 
Dinhofer, Shelly M., 1529 
Dixon, Francis S., 0061 
Dodgson, Campbell, 0513 
Doktor, Raphael, 0909 
Dominik, Janet B., 1676 
Donaldson, Jeff Richardson, 

1395 
Dooley, William Germain, 

0365 



Doty, Ann v., 1604 
Douglas, Elizabeth A., 0641 
Downes, Olin, 0578 
Downtown Gallery, 0528, 

1166 
Dows, Olin, 0166, 0194, 

0374, 0726, 1295, 1301, 

1367 
Draper, Theodore, 0328 
DriscoU, H.Q., 0674 
Dubin, Steven C, 1592 
Ducato, Theresa, 1539 
Dungan, H.L., 0483 
Dunsmorfe, John Ward, 0061 
Durney, Helen, 1133 
Dwight, Mabel, 1378 

Eghnston, Laurie, 0061 
Egner, Arthur F., 0894 
Eichenberg, Fritz, 1378 
Emerson, Kimberly Marie, 

1674 
Emily Lowe Gallery, Hofstra 

University, 1458 
Emple,Adam, 0910 
Ennis, George Pearse, 0061 
Euler, Susan Ray, 1657c 
Evans, Ingrid, 1652e 
Evans, Robert J., 1376 
Evergood, Philip, 0616, 

0893, 1378 
Evett, Kenneth, 1374 



F., H.L., 
Failing, 
Farancz 
Federal 

0600 
Federal 

0750 
Federal 

0754 
Federal 

0203, 



, 1253 

Patricia, 1605 
, Alan, 1643aa 
Art Committee, 

Art Gallery (Boston), 

Art Gallery (Chicago), 

Art Gallery (NYC), 
0332, 0333, 0334, 



Author Index 



455 



0335, 0336, 0337, 0348, 
0893, 0895 

Federal Art Project, 0204, 
0205, 0206, 0332, 0333, 
0334, 0335, 0336, 0337, 
0340, 0346, 0347, 0349, 
0350,0351,0352,0353, 
0354, 0355, 0356, 0357, 
0358, 0423, 0526, 0529, 
0531, 0534, 0536, 0537, 
0538, 0539, 0540, 0541, 
0542, 0544, 0746, 0747, 
0748,0749,0751,0755, 
0757, 0758, 0759, 0760, 
0762, 0767, 0768, 0769, 
0770, 0891, 0892, 0896, 
0897, 0898, 0899, 0902, 
0911,0912,0913,0914, 
0915, 0916, 0917, 1042, 
1050, 1051 

Federal Art Project (IL) , 
0901,0904 

Federal Art Project (NYC), 
0543,0771,0772,0918, 
1046, 1057 

Federal Art Project (PA) , 
0530, 0919 

Federal Art Project (Southern 
California), 0920,0921, 
0922 

Federal Works Agency, 
0956, 1077, 1084, 1240 

Federal Writers' Project, 
1378 

Federal Writers' Project (MA), 
0773 

Federal Writers' Project (NV) , 
0923 

Federal Writers' Project (NYC), 
0774, 0924 

Federal Writers' Project (OR) , 
1064 

Federal Writers' Project (San 
Francisco) , 0775 



Federal Writers' Project (WI), 

1065 
Feitelson, Lorser, 0922 
Feldman, Francis T., 1302 
Ferguson, Thomas, 1493 
Ferstadt, Louis, 0343 
FHP Hippodrome Gallery, 

1671 
Filler, Louis, 1260, 1267 
Finley, David E., 1115 
Firm, Ruth M., 1270 
Fisher, Jay M., 1512 
Flint, Janet A, 1475 
Floethe, Richard, 1378 
Foley, John P., 0743 
Forbes, Malcolm, 1646 
Force, Juliana R., 0056, 0069 
Ford, Ford Madox, 0433, 

0525 
Forest Service, 1412,1567 
Foresta, Merry, 1623 
Fortress, Karl E., 1619 
Foushee, Ola Male, 1629 
Fowler, Harriet W., 1581 
Fraden, Rena, 1612 
Frances, Emily A, 0061 
Francey, Mary, 1640, 1669 
Freedman, Elizabeth L., 

1322 
Freeman, Richard B., 1345 
Freidman,Jeannie, 1455 
Fried, Alexander, 0653 
Friedlander, Sue, 1657d 
Friedman, Arnold, 0244, 

0343 
Friedman, Martin, 1678 
Friend, Leon, 0438 
Frost, Rosamund, 0624 
Fuller, Mary, 1298 

G.,J., 1216 

Gallati, Barbara Dayer, 

1654a 
Gambrell,Jamey, 1543 



456 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Gardner, Albert Teneyck, 

0692 
Garfield Park Art Gallery, 

0517 
Garvey, Timothy J., 1666 
Gasque, Allard H., 0554 
Gavert, Olive Lyford, 1367 
Gedeon, Lucinda H., 1548 
Geist, Sidney, 1276 
Gelber, Steven M., 1415, 

1420, 1466 
Gellert, Hugo, 1378 
Genauer, Emily, 0287, 1447 
Gershoy, Eugene, 1378 
Gettens, Rutherford J., 0860, 

1378 
Gilbert, Gregory, 1549 
Glassgold, C. Adolph, 1378 
Gleason, Catherine, 1605 
Godsoe, Robert Ulrich, 

0251, 0263, 0414 
Goeller, Charles L., 1140 
Gold, Michael, 0511 
Goldthwaite, Anne, 0061 
Gontesky, Michael, 1642 
Goode, James M., 1346 
Goodrich, Lloyd, 1242, 1296 
Goodwin, Jean (Ames), 1378 
Gore, Deborah, 1617a 
Gorelick, Boris, 0376 
Gorky, Arshile, 1 378, 1 460 
Gosliner, Leo S., 0400 
Gosselin, Grace, 0069 
Gotheim, Frederick, 1239 
Graeme, Alice, 0424 
Grafly, Dorothy, 1 76, 0579 
Graham, Ralph, 1378 
Grahan, Otis L.,Jr., 1586 
Grand Central Art Galleries, 

0202 
Grauber, Ernest L., 1362 
Green, Christopher, 1385 
Green, Samuel M., 1248, 

1262 



Greene, Balcomb, 1378 
Greengard, Stephen Neil, 

1593 
Greer, Nora Richter, 1544 
Gregory, Waylande, 1378 
Gridley, Katherine, 0113 
Griffin, Rachael, 1438, 

1461 
Groschwitz, Gustav von, 

0234, 0518, 0746 
Grow, M.E., 0738 
Growdon, Marcia Cohn, 

1652f 
Grunwald^X^enter for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, 1 548 
Guglielmi, O. Louis, 1378 
Gurney, George, 1468, 1477, 

1583 
Gutieri, Ralph, 0757 
Gutman, Judith Mara, 1645b 

Hager, Barbara, 1643aa 
Hailey, Gene, 0546, 1624 
Hall, David August, 1 396, 

1629 
Hall, Helen, 0434 
Halpert, Edith, 0061, 0461 
Hamlin, Gladys E., 0547, 

0849 
Hamlin, T.F., 0790a 
Hammier, Victor, 0951 
Harney, Andy Leon, 1372 
Harrington, Francis C, 1050 
Harrington, M.R., 0377, 

0465 
Harris, Alexandrina Ro- 
bertson, 0061 
Harris, Jonathan, 1590, 

1613, 1660 
Harrison, Helen A, 1361, 

1413, 1421, 1458, 1482, 

1510, 1643 
Harrison, John M., 1279 
Hart, Henry, 0776 



Author Index 



457 



Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe, 

1513 
Hartman, Murray, 0893 
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 0259, 

0663 
Hayes, Vertis, 1378 
Heckscher Museum, 1641 
Heiberg, Einar, 1378 
Heineberg, Dora Jane, 1078 
Hellman, Geoffrey, 1068 
Hendrickson, Kenneth E., 

Jr., 1557, 1631a 
Herscher, Betty, 1236 
Herzfeld,John, 1644 
Hiler, Hilaire, 1378 
Hinckle, Warren, 1415 
Hinkey, Douglas, 1671 
Hiott, Susan Giaimo, 1655 
Hirshhorn Museum and 

Sculpture Garden (Smith- 
sonian Institution), 1525 
Hitchcock, George, 1241a 
Holcomb, Grant, 1620 
Holme, B., 0313, 0595 
Holzhauer, Mildred, 1320, 

1629 
Hood, Richard, 0727 
Hopkins, Harry L., 0795 
Hopper, Inslee A., 0196 
Hord, Donal, 1378 
Hornaday, Mary, 0953 
Hornung, Clarence Pearson, 

1366 
Houston, Raymond W., 

0069 
Howard, Donald S., 1 199 
Howard, Henry T., 0003 
Howard University Art Gallery, 

1163 
Howe, Carolyn, 1494 
Howe, Thomas Carr, Jr., 

0048 
Hubbard, Carole Ann Chall- 

berg, 1625 



Hudson River Museum, 

1620 
Hugh-Jones, E.M., 0472 
Humphrey, Hubert H . , 1315 
Humphrey, Kathy, 1683 
Hunt, Edwyn A., 0808 
Hunter, Vernon, 1378 
Hurlburt, Laurance P., 1650 
Hurley, F.Jack, 1655 
Hutchinson, Sara, 1476 
Hutson, Ethel, 0634 

Ickstadt, Henry, 1611 
Illinois Art Project Gallery, 

nil 

Illinois State Museum, 1376, 
1547 

Illinois. Southern Illinois Uni- 
versity, Carbondale. Univer- 
sity Galleries, 1362 

Index of American Design, 
0519, 0744, 0752, 0925, 
1052,1053,1120,1132, 
1246, 1497, 1498, 1499, 
1500, 1501, 1502, 1503, 
1504, 1505 

International Art Center, 
0518 

International Exhibitions 
Foundation, 1419 

Isis, 0303 

J., F., 1576a 

Jackson, David, 1472 

Jacobi, Eli, 1378 

Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art 
Museum, Rutgers Univer- 
sity, 1549 

Janet Marqusee Gallery, 
1596b, 1611a, 1616a, 
1643bb, 1645a, 1652c, 1682 

Jewell, Edward Alden, 0473 

Jewett, Masha 

Zakheim, 1409, 1552 



458 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Joe and Emily Lowe Gallery, 

1446 
Johnson, Celia A., 1548 
Johnson, Evert A, 1362 
Johnson , Nancy A. , 1 422a 
Jones, Dan Burne, 1484a 
Jones, Lawrence A, 1378 
Jones, Wendell, 1013 
Jordan, Jim M., 1460 
Jourdan , Albert, 1 42 
Judd, Maurice B., 0801 
Jurstad, Lute, 1605 

K., J., 0246, 0386, 0432 
K., S., 1254 
Kahler, Bruce R., 1596c 
Kainen, Jacob, 0343, 1343, 

1367 
Kalinchak, Paul, 1375 
Kaufman, Sidney, 0285, 

0302 
Kays, Judith S., 1553 
Kellner, Sidney, 0618 
Kellogg, Florence Loeb, 

0093 
Kendall, Sue Ann, 1522, 

1629 
Kent, Rockwell, 0500, 

1274a 
Kent State University, Division 

of Art Histor)^, 1375 
Kerr, Florence, 0825 
Key, Donald, 1404 
Keyes, Helen Johnson, 

0395 
Kidd, Stuart, 1637 
Kiehl, David W., 1562 
Kiesler, Frederick T., 0315, 

0386, 1460 
King, Albert H., 1054 
King-Hammond, Leslie, 

1647 
Kingsbury, Martha, 1363 
Kitchen, Elizabeth F., 1244 



Klein, Jerome, 0415, 0862, 

0949, 0975, 1014, 1026, 

1037 
Knaths, Karl, 1378 
Knotts, Benjamin, 1162, 

1179a, 1201 
Kober, Arthur, 0797 
Koch, Edward I., 1643aa 
Kohn, Robert, 0434 
KoUer, Selma, 0061 
Kopenhaven, Josephine, 

0548 
Kornfeld, Paul Ira, 1515 
Kraemer, Charles J., 0069 
Kroll, Leon, 0061,0069 
Kunkel, Gladys M., 1333 
Kwolek-Folland, Angel, 

1596a 
Kyvig, David E., 1626 

L.,J., 0480 
L.,J.W., 0960, 1102 
Labaudt, Lucien, 0474 
La Follette, Robert M., 0973, 

1058 
La Follette, Suzanne, 0049 
Lamade, Eric, 0401 
LaMore, Chet, 1378 
Landgren, Marchal E., 1367 
Lang, Sherryl P., 1568 
Langsner, Jules, 1250 
Laning, Edward, 0977, 1340, 

1367 
Larson, Cedric, 0847 
Larson, Kay, 1615a 
Lawson, Alan, 1584 
Lawson, John Howard, 0797 
Lawson, Richard A, 1506, 

1658 
Leboit, Joseph, 0492 
Lehman College Art Gallery, 

1647 
Lehrman, Roberta, 1654b, 

1668 



Author Index 



459 



Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art 

Museum, 1489 
Lemon, Warren W., 0922 
Lerrault, Carole L., 1606 
Levine,Jack, 1378 
Levitas, Louise, 0817 
Levitt, Marilyn M., 1257 
Lewis, R. Edward, 0608 
Lie, Jonas, 0169 
Limbach, Russell T., 0260, 

0746, 1378 
Lindeman, Eduard C, 0418 
Lindin, I., 0549 
Lippard, Lucy R., 1643 
Lipsky, ReginaL., 1424 
Lloyd, Lucille, 1683 
Look, David W., 1606 
Los Angeles County Museum, 

0124, 0903 
Loughery,John, 1644a 
Lowe,Jeannette, 0655 
Lucie-Smith, Edward, 1585 
Ludins, Eugene, 1378 
Ludins, Ryah, 0389 
Lujan, Joe Roy, 1621 

McAllister, Tom, 1605 
Macbeth, Robert W., 0061 
McCausland, Elizabeth, 

0288, 0452, 0505, 0906, 

0958, 0963, 1044 
McCoy, Garnett, 1309, 1310, 

1319 
McDermott, Inez, 1651 
McDermott, W.L., 1055 
McDonald, William Francis, 

1334 
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, 

0903, 0922, 1378 
McElvaine, Robert S., 1634 
McGranery,JamesP., 0553, 

0935, 1123, 1205 
Mac-Gurrin, Buckley, 0398 
MacHarg, Katherine, 1148 



McKinzie, Richard D., 

1327a, 1377, 1586, 1615 
McLaurin, B.F., 0434 
McMahon, A. PhiUp, 0876 
McMahon, Audrey, 0001, 

0061, 0069, 0223, 0529, 

0771, 1367, 1378, 1447 
Mahoney, Robert, 1631 
Malone, Molle, 1577 
Manhattanville College Art 

Gallery, 1330 
Marantz, Irving J., 1378 
Marin, C.S., 0652 
Markowitz, Gerald, 1442, 

1443, 1458, 1569, 1643a 
Marling, Karal Ann, 1347, 

1369, 1389, 1392, 1421, 

1436, 1441, 1464, 1522, 

1534, 1632, 1680 
Marqusee, Janet, 1639, 1682 
Marshall Field and Company, 

0522 
Marshall, Margaret, 0283 
Marvel, Terrence L., 1670 
Masters, Greg, 1614 
Mathews, Marcia M., 1374b 
Matthews, Jane De Hart, 

1406 
Mavigliano, George T., 

1323, 1362, 1506, 1561, 

1658 
Maxey, Stevens, 0621 
Mayor, A. Hyatt, 1027 
Mecklenburg, Virginia M., 

1474, 1513, 1524, 1638 
Meeks, Oliver G., 1121 
Megraw, Richard, 1658a 
Meixner, MaryL., 1558 
Melosh, Barbara, 1653a, 

1672, 1677 
Meltzer, Milton, 1427 
Melville, Annette, 1507 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 

1116,1161,1201 



460 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Mexico, Departamento de In- 

formacion para ed ex- 

tranjero, 1164 
Meyers,John, 1518 
Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, 

1656, 1686 
Michie, Mary, 1489 
Midtown Gallery, 1639 
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 

0208, 0360, 0550, 0777, 

0926,1056,1122,1167, 

1202, 1203 
Miller, Lee G., 0831 
Miller, Lillian B., 1511 
Millier, Arthur, 0177, 0485, 

0680 
Mills, Jack, 1605 
Milwaukee Art Center, 

1327 
Milwaukee Art Museum, 

1670 
Monroe, Gerald M., 1348, 

1358, 1373, 1382, 1386, 

1390, 1417, 1456 
Morgan, Theodora, 1337 
Morgenthau, Henry, 0973, 

1058 
Morris, Carl, 1378 
Morrison, Richard C, 0524, 

0954 
Morsell, Mary, 0013, 0079, 

0475, 0826, 1378 
Morton, Charlotte, 0423 
Morton, Leonora, 0061 
Motian-Meadows, Mary, 

1662 
Muhlenburg College Center 

for the Arts, 1527 
Mullen, Michael, 1643a 
Mumford, Lewis, 0259, 

0286, 0329, 0525 
Munro, Sarah, 1461, 1605 
Museum of Modern Art, 

0338, 1045 



Museum of the Borough of 
Brooklyn at Brooklyn Col- 
lege, 1529 

Nahr, Edwin, 0922 

Narber, Gregg R., 1520, 
1532 

National Collection of Fine 
Arts (Smithsonian Institu- 
tion), 1475, 1476, 1477 

National Gallery of Art, 
1115, 1307 

National Gallery of Canada, 
Ottawa, ' 1040 

National Museum (Smith- 
sonian Institution), 0126 

National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art (Smithsonian Insti- 
tution), 1513,1528,1554, 
1638 

National Park Service, 
0361 

Naylor, Blanche, 0425 

Nebraska State History Soci- 
ety, 1579 

Nelson, Julie D., 1642 

Netsky, Ron, 1620 

Neue Gesellschaft fur Bil- 
dende Kunst, 1493 

New Mexico, Secretary of 
State, 1684 

New Muse Community Mu- 
seum of Brooklyn , 1 422 

New York Public Li- 
brary, 1274, 1448, 1545 

New York World's Fair, 0900, 
0927 

Newark Museum, 1460 

Newell, James Michael, 
1378 

Noble, Elizabeth, 0278, 
0305, 0502, 0580 

Nord, Erik S., 1647a 

Norman, Geoffrey, 1378 



Author Index 



461 



Norman Turano, Jane van, 

1572b 
Nosanow, Barbara Shissler, 

1528 

O'Connor, Francis v., 1316, 
1326, 1328, 1335, 1340, 
1367, 1378, 1388, 1410, 
1414, 1423, 1458, 1460, 
1493, 1595a, 1686 
O'Connor, J., Jr., 1139, 

1263 
O'Donnell, Terrence, 1605 
O'Hanlon, Richard, 1415 
Ogburn, Hilda Lanier, 1 378 
Olds, Elizabeth, 1378 
Olin, Dirk, 1616 
O'Neal, Hank, 1428 
Osborne, David S., 1277 
Osnos, Nina Felshin, 1351 
O' Sullivan, Thomas, 1644b 
Overmeyer, Grace, 0928 
Overstreet, Harry, 0433 

P., N.H., 0439 
Paris, Dorothy, 0061 
Park, Marlene S., 1442, 

1443, 1458, 1469, 1569, 

1643a 
Parker, Thomas C, 0486, 

0632, 0646, 0890 
Parsons School of Design, 

1447 
Patrick, Stephen A. , 1673 
Paul, April]., 1473 
Payant, Felix, 0378, 079 1 , 

0978, 1003 
Pearson, Ralph M., 0149, 

0168, 0316, 0343, 0379 
Peixotto, Ernest, 0061 
Pemberton, Murdock, 0799 
Pena, Gladys, 1643aa 
Pennsylvania Academy of the 

Fine Arts, 0929 



Pennsylvannia State Museum, 

0533 
Pepper, Claude, 0582, 0594, 

0784, 0941 
Perkins, Frances, 1237, 

1241 
Petersen, William J., 0792 
Peticolas, Sherry, 0922 
Petravage, Jacqueline, 1349, 

1367 
Phagan, Patricia E., 1633, 

1659 
Phantom Gallery, 1602 
Piccoli, Girolamo, 0748, 

1378 
Pickens, George, 0893 
Pietan, Norman, 1247 
Piper, Natt, 0676 
Pollack, Merlin F., 1619 
Pontello, Jacqueline M., 

1636 
Pound, Beverly Anne, 1450 
Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, 

0642 
Price, Frederic Newlin, 

0061 
Public Buildings Administra- 
tion, 0905 
Public Use of Art Committee, 

0659 
Public Works of Art Project, 

0017,0018,0125,0128, 

0129,0130,0131,0132, 

0201,0209 
Puccinelli, Dorothy, 1091 
Purcell, Ralph, 1278 

Quill, Michael, 0434 
Quirt, Walter, 1378 

Raleigh Art Center, 0362 
Ralph, Pat, 1641 
Ramirez, Jan S., 1620 
Randau, Carl, 0797 



462 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Randle, Mallory Blair, 1312, 

1324 
Randolph, A. Philip, 0567 
Reeves, Ruth, 0506,0631, 

1021 
Refregier, Anton, 1291 
Reid, Albert T., 1217 
Reid, Robert L., 1667 
Renaissance Society of the 

University of Chicago, 

0528a 
Retson, Nancy, 1451 
Rhoads, William B., 1538 
Rich, Daniel Catton, 0756, 

1076 
Robeson Gallery, 1490 
Robinson, Amy, 1245a 
Robinson, Mary Turlay, 

0061 
Rogers, Bob, 0493 
Rogers, Kathleen Grisham, 

1397 
Rohde, Gilbert, 0289 
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 0103, 

0684 
Roosevelt, Elliott, 1258 
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 0019, 

0210,0551,0930,1168 
Rose, Barbara, 1325, 1572 
Rosenberg, Harold, 0591 
Rosenberg, Harold, 1355 
Rosenburg, Jacob, 0434 
Rosenwald, Janet, 0552 
Rosenzweig, Roy, 1607, 

1653a 
Rothenstein,John, 1185 
Rothman, Henry, 0317 
Rothschild, Lincoln, 0723, 

0895, 1378, 1367 
Rourke, Constance, 0274, 

0419,0501,0519,1378 
Rowan, Edward B., 0051 , 

0104,0166,1040,1101 
Rowin, Fran, 1429 



Rubenstein, Erica Beckh, 

1220. See also Erica Beckh 
Rubenstein, Lewis, 0261 
Rubin, Cynthia Elyce, 1653 
Ruby, Christine M. Nelson, 

1653 
Rugg, Harold, 0397, 0839 
Russell, Charles, 1042 
Ryder, Worth, 0119 

Sacartoff, Elizabeth, 1095 
Sahadi, Natasha, 1462 
Salomen, Samuel, 0856 
Sawyer, Charles H., 1445 
Saxe, Myrna, 1558 
Sayre, AH., 0241 
Schack, William, 0290 
Scheinman, Muriel, 1516 
Schnee, Alix Sandra, 1627 
Schneider, Eric, 1593a 
Schoonmaker, Nancy, 0440 
Schrader, Robert Fay, 1555 
Schwankovsky, Frederick J., 

0182 
Schwartz, Ellen, 1624 
Schwartz, Manfred, 0061 
Scoon, Carolyn, 1269, 1382a 
Scott, Barbara Kerr, 1556, 

1629 
Searle, Charles F., 1303 
Sears, Arthur W., 0318 
Section of Painting and Sculp- 
ture, 0147, 0153, 0155, 
0166,0175,0181,0194, 
0211,0222,0235,0261, 
0277, 0339, 0342, 0399, 
0443, 0590, 0643, 0689, 
0798, 0842, 0872, 0905, 
0956,1007,1041,1112, 
1113, 1204 
Seeley, Evelyn, 0101 
Seeley, Sidney W., 0931 
Seldes, George, 0797 
Semons, Lillian, 0751, 0915 



Author Index 



463 



Shaffer, Helen B., 1286 
Shanafelt, Clara, 1071 
Shapiro, David, 1379, 1458 
Shealy, Oscar, 1463 
Sherman, Allan, 0996 
Sherman, Randi E., 1403 
Sherwood, Leland Harley, 

1398 
Sidney, Sylvia, 0797 
Sims, Patterson, 1511a 
Sioux Cit)' Art Center, 1 642 
Siporin, Mitchell, 1378 
Sirovich, William I., 0212, 

0482, 0556, 0649, 0781, 

0937 
Sizer, T., 0165 
Skaug, Julius, 1259 
Skull, Carl, 1275 
Smith, Clark Sommer, 1311 
Smith, David, 1378 
Smith, E. Herdon, 1378 
Smith, Gordon M., 1378 
Smith, Margery 

Hoffman, 0967 
Smith, Sherwin D., 1308 
Smithsonian Institution Trav- 
eling Exhibition Service, 

1423, 1424 
Smolin Gallery, 1294 
Soelle, Sally, 1556, 1569a 
Sokol, David M., 1381 
Solman, Joseph, 1367, 1430a 
Sommer, William, 1378 
South Carolina State Museum, 

1655 
South, Will, 1652h 
Spokane Art Center, 0763 
Springfield Museum of Fine 

Arts, 1044 
Spurlock, William H., 1399 
Sragow, Ellen, 1669 
Stange, Maren, 1623 
Stanley-Brown, Katherine, 

0098 



Starobin, Joseph, 0838 
Stavenitz, Alexander R., 

0755, 0759, 0902, 1378 
Stein, Pauline Alpert, 1570 
Stein, Sally, 1623 
Steinbach, Sophia, 0392, 

0573 
Sterner, Frank W., 0860 
Stevens, Elizabeth, 1313 
Stewart, David Ogden, 0797 
Stewart, Ruth Ann, 1444, 

1447a 
Stott, WilHam, 1380 
Stretch, Bonnie Barrett, 

1539 
Strobridge, Truman R., 

1289 
Studio Museum in Harlem, 

1447a 
Sundell, Michael G., 1483 
Sutton, Harry H., 1378 
Swain, Martha H., 1536a 
Swensson, Lise C, 1655 

Taylor, Francis Henry, 0229 
Taylor, Henry White, 0584 
Taylor, Joshua C, 1471, 

1493 
Terkel, Louis (Studs), 1342 
Thomas, Elbert Duncan, 

0973, 1058 
Thompson, Archie, 0549 
Tillim, Sidney, 1288 
Tinkham, Sandra Shaffer, 

1493 
Tobias, Beatrice, 0585 
Tolbert, Bernice, 1480 
Tone, Franchot, 0797 
TonelU, Edith Ann, 1484, 

1517 
Toomey, Anne, 0707 
Towey, Martin G., 1629 
Townsend, Helen Ann Beck- 
storm, 1587 



464 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Treasury Department. See also 
Section of Painting and 
Sculpture 

Treasury Department Art Pro- 
ject, 0779 

Trebel, Darren Paul, 1685 

Trentham, Eugene, 1378 

Tritschler, Thomas Candor, 
1400 

Truman, Priscilla, 1430 

Tweed Gallery (NYC), 
1643aa 

Tweed Museum of Art (Uni- 
versity of Minnesota) , 
1422a 

Tyler, Francine, 1675 

US See also under the individ- 
ual agencies 

US Commission of Fine Arts, 
1059, 1221 

US Congress, 0133, 0934, 
0936,0937,1169 

US Congress. House of Repre- 
sentatives, 0212, 0553, 
0554, 0555, 0556, 0780, 
0781,0782,0935, 1123, 
1170,1205 

US Congress. House of Repre- 
sentatives. Committee on 
Appropriations, 0557, 
0938, 0939, 1206, 1207 

US Congress. House of Repre- 
sentatives. Committee on 
Patents, 0213, 0783 

US Congress. House of Repre- 
sentatives. Committee on 
Public Works, 1272 

US Congress. House of Repre- 
sentatives. Subcommittee of 
the Committee of Appropri- 
ations, 0940, 1124, 1171 

US Congress. Senate, 0784, 
0941 



US Congress. Senate. Commit- 
tee on Appropriations, 
0785, 0942, 0943 

US Congress. Senate. Commit- 
tee on Education and La- 
bor, 0786 

US Federal Emergency Relief 
Administration, 0363 

US General Services Adminis- 
tration, 1627a 

US Public Buildings Adminis- 
tration, 0944 

US Public Buildings Service, 
1609, 1610 

University of California 
(Berkeley Art Gallery) , 
0341 

University of Illinois at Ur- 
bana-Champaign, 1491 

University of Maryland (Art 
Gallery), 1526 

University of Michigan (Mu- 
seum of Art), 1580 

University of Wisconsin, Mil- 
waukee, 1341 

Van Cleve, Jane, 1605 
Vanderkooi, Fanny Bowles, 

1060 
Van Derzee, Charlene Claye, 

1422 
Vane, Peter, 0416 
Van Neste, Rene, 0922 
Van Neste, W. Lane, 1 282 
Vasaio, Antonio, 1571 
Vassar College Art Gal- 
lery, 1421, 1441 
Velonis, Anthony, 0991, 

1125, 1378 
Vermeers, Arthur, 0922 
Villeponteaux, Mary Alline, 

1652a 
Vishny, Michael, 1617, 
1679 



Author Index 



465 



Vlach, John Michael, 1574 
Von Wiegand, Charmion, 
0442, 0450, 0454 

Wahl,JoAnn, 1317 
Walker Art Center, 1047 
Wander, Meghan Robinson, 

1586 
Ward, Lynd, 0891, 0974 
Warsager, Hyman, 0492, 

1378 
Washburn Gallery, 1601 
Washington County Museum 

of Fine Arts, 1 647a 
Washington Gallery of Mod- 
ern Art, 1299 
Watrous, Harry W., 0046, 

0061 
Watson, Ernest, 1266 
Watson, Forbes, 0022, 0023, 

0067,0075,0116,0138, 

0165a, 0173a, 0237, 0339, 

0342, 0345, 0816, 1040, 

1043,1115,1163 
Watson, Jane, 0997, 1006, 

1085, 1092, 1131,1105 
Weaver, John Henry, 0044, 

0160 
Weber, Max, 0478, 0527 
Webster, J. Carson, 1265 
Wechsler, James, 0515 
Weinstock, Clarence, 0319 
Weintraub, Linda, 1527 
Weir, Jean Burwell, 1452, 

1461 
Weisenborn, Fritzi, 0830 
Wellman, Rita, 0661 
Wells, Richard D., 1588 
Wells, Summer, 0973, 

1058 
Werner, Alfred, 1408 
Werthman,Jean, 1350 
Wessels, Glenn, 0052, 

0298 



Westby Gallery (Glassboro 

State College, NJ), 1331 
Westphal, Ruth Lilly, 1676 
Wheat, Ellen Harkins, 1628 
White, John Franklin, 1629 
Whitehill, Virginia N., 

1184 
Whiting, FA., Jr., 0117, 
0275, 0406, 0508, 0848, 
0883, 1134 
Whiting, Philippa, 0151 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, 1043,1117,1165, 
1511a 
Wichita Art Museum, 1 457 
Wilcox, Jerome Kear, 1 34 
Willard, Irma Sompayrac, 

1228 
Willett, Ralph, 1589 
William, Earle, 0922 
Williams, David, 1599 
Williams, Reba, 1599 
Wish, Harvey, 1229 
Witte, Ernest F., 0135 
Wolff, Robert Jay, 1378 
Wooden, Howard E., 1582 
Woodward, Ellen S., 0568 
Woolfenden, William E., 

1304 
Works Progress Administra- 
tion (after 1939 Work Pro- 
jects Administration) , 0214, 
0215,0216,0217,0218, 
0219,0220,0221,0292, 
0359, 0364, 0365, 0366, 
0367, 0368, 0369, 0370, 
0524, 0558, 0559, 0560, 
0561,0745,0787,0778, 
0779,0780,0781,0782, 
0783, 0784, 0785, 0786, 
0787, 0788, 0789, 0945, 
0946, 1061, 1062, 1063, 
1126,1127,1128,1172, 
1208. See also Federal Art 



466 



The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 



Project; Federal Writers' 

Project 
Wright, Philip, 0365 
Wyman, Marilyn, 1481, 

1535 

Yasko, Karel, 1357, 1489 
YM-YWHA of Essex County, 
New Jersey, 1320 



York, Hildreth, 1486, 1490, 

1522 
Yountz, Philip N., 0433 
Yox, Andrew P., 1652g 

Zigrosser, Carl, 0746, 1109, 

1165 
Zilczer, Judith, 1525 
Zorach, William, 0434 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Note: Numbers refer to entry numbers, not book pages. 

Aalbu, Olaf, 0807 

Abbott, Berenice, 0569, 1483, 1545, 1623 

Abelman, Ida, 1562, 1669 

Abraham Lincoln High School (NYC), 0143 

Abramovitiz, Albert, 0234 

Abramson, Hirshel, 1575 

Abstract Art, 1411, 1416, 1523, 1572, 1590, 1601, 1614 

Abstract Expressionism, 1411, 1572, 1590 

ACA Gallery (NYC) , 0386, 0454, 0459, 0524, 0527, 0658, 0753, 

1147, 1227, 1231, 1514, 1546 
Adams, Alva B., 0943 
Adams, Bertrand R., 0155, 0235 
Adams, Kenneth M., 0174, 0240, 0277 
Addison Gallery (MA) , 0437, 0441, 0524 
African-American artists, 0359, 0413, 0892, 0983, 1 173, 1378, 

1395, 1422, 1437, 1447a, 1472, 1480,1612, 1625, 1628, 1647, 

1652d 
Agriculture Building, Department of, 0082, 0085 
Aid for artists, 0150 
Ajay, Abe, 0844, 0907, 1359 
Akademie der Kunst (Berlin) , 1493 
Alameda County Court House (CA) , 0497 
Alaska, 0462, 1619 
Alaska State Museum, 1619 
Albinson, E. Dewey, 0093 
Albright-Knox Gallery (NY), 0742 
Albrizzio, Conrad A., 0277 
Albro, Maxine, 0318, 0475, 0546, 1210 
Allen, Lee, 1329 
Allocation Gallery (DC), 0761 
Alston, Charles Henry, 1437 
Amateis, Edmond Romulus, 0399, 1036, 1098, 1337 



467 



468 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

American Abstract Artists, 1367, 1400, 1601, 1614 

American Artists' Congress, 0183, 0243, 0309, 0343, 0429, 0612, 

0844, 0907 
American Association of Adult Education, 0089 
American Association of Museums, 0486, 1076 
American Federation of Artists, 0103, 0104, 0105, 0478, 0572, 

0997 
American Indians. See Native Americans 
American Institute of Architects, 0447 
American Museum of Natural History (NYC), 1042 
American scene, 1393, 1617a, 1569 
Ames, Arthur, 1653b, 1671 

Anchorage Museum of Art and History (AK), 1619 
Anderson, Knud, 0399, 1342 
Anderson, Mary, 0685 
Archer, Robert, 0986 
Architectural League of New York, 0570 
Archives of American Art (Smithsonian Institution), 1293, 1304, 

1306, 1309, 1653a 
Arizona, 1365, 1396, 1485, 1488 
Arnautoff, Victor Michail, 0730, 1272 
Arsena, Mick, 0294 
Art Front, 1373, 1675 

Art in Federal Buildings (Review) , 0394, 0406, 0426, 0439, 0507 
Art Institute of Chicago, 0324, 0619, 0670, 0672, 0684, 0685, 

0686, 0692, 0695, 0698, 0702, 0708, 0756 
Art instruction, 0064, 0104, 0340, 0392, 0425, 0721, 0791, 0859, 

0902, 0917, 0922, 0985, 1073, 1148, 1462, 1515, 1618, 

1627 
Art Interests, the Artists' Cooperative, 0044, 0160 
Artists' League, 0612 
Artists' Union, 0112, 0136, 0138, 0172, 0230, 0260, 0320, 0327, 

0380, 0387, 0403, 0412, 0414, 0423, 0439, 0475, 0498, 0509, 

0527, 0546, 0572, 0574, 0631, 0632, 0683, 0807, 0974, 1026, 

1348, 1358, 1378, 1382, 1390, 1456, 1675 
Associated American Artists, 1668 
Atchison, Anthony J., 0213 
Atkinson, William, 0235, 0399 
Austin, Darral, 0402 
Austin, Ralph, 0283 

Bacon, Peggy, 1137 
Bairnsfather, Arthur, 0689 



Subject Index 469 

Baizerman, Earl, 0416 

Baker, Ernest Hamlin, 0948 

Baker, Lucy, 1222 

Ballator, John R., 0155, 0194, 0222, 0296, 0764 

Baltimore Museum of Art, 0063, 1144, 1512 

Baranceanu, Belle, 1653b 

Barcla, Patrocino, 0255, 0284, 0423 

Bard, Peter, 1218 

Barnet, Will, 0492, 1427, 1540, 1545 

Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 0116, 0433 

Bartlett, Dana, 1053 

Bartiett, Ivan, 1671 

Basile , Alphonse , 0310 

Bates, Isabel Miriam, 1245 

Baum, Max, 0950 

Baumann, Karl, 1007 

Beach, Sarah Berman, 1431 

Bear, Donald, 0190 

Becker, Fred, 0390, 0591, 1545 

Becker, Maurice, 0844, 0907 

Bellevue Hospital, 0721 , 0759 

Belmont High School (Los Angeles) , 0457 

Beman, Roff, 0986 

Benevento, Tiberio, 0310 

Bengelsdorf, Rosalind, 1421 

Bennett, Gwendolyn, 0858 

Bennett, Rainey, 0464, 0798 

Ben-Samuel, Aharon, 1164 

Benson, Emanuel, 0680 

Benton, Thomas Hart, 0313 

Berdanier, Paul F., 0691 

Berg, Wilfrid, 1653, 1654 

Bergmann, Frank Walter, 0153 

Bergstrom-Maler Museum, Neenah (WI), 1670 

Berkeley (CA) , 01 19, 0332, 0341 

Berkshire Museum (MA), 0982 

Berman, Saul, 1645a 

Bernardinelli, Dennis, 0595 

Berninghaus, Oscar, 0261, 0277, 0399 

Bernstein, Henry, 1357 

Bernstein, Theresa, 1596b, 1611a 

Bessinger, Frederic, 0132 

Biberman, Edward, 1653b, 1663 



470 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Bibliographies, 0134, 1246, 1467, 1481, 1531, 1626 

Biddle, George, 0092, 0299, 0316, 0383, 0399, 0426, 0504, 0644, 

0673, 0738, 0764, 0908, 1049, 1194, 1310, 1313, 1374b, 1544, 

1571, 1637, 1677 
Biesel, Fred, 1658 
Bird, ElzyJ., 1652h 
Birnbaum, A., 0844, 0907 
Bishop Hill Colony, 0549, 1 183 
Bissell, Cleveland, 1007 
Bisttram, Emil James, 0137, 0174, 0222, 0269, 0764, 1313, 1544, 

1571, 1616c, 1652c, 1677, 1684 
Black artists. S^^ African-American artists 
Black, Harold, 1245 

Black, La Verne, 0399 v 

Blakeley, Hal, 1053 
Blakeslee, Sarah, 1643bb 
Blanch, Arnold, 0288, 1232, 1272 
Blanch, Lucille, 1429 
Bloch, Julius, 0083, 0093 

Bloch, Lucienne, 0223, 0464, 1421, 1427, 1615a, 1669, 1679 
Block, Lou, 0169 
Bloom, John Vincent, 1520 
Bloom, Peter, 0127 
Blue Eagle, Acee, 1556 
Blume, Peter, 1326, 1329 
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, 0174, 0443 
Blumenschein, Helen Green, 1669 
Bohrod, Aaron, 0155, 0235 
Bolotowsky, Ilya, 1525, 1654a 
Bonk, Clarice, 1148 

"Boondoggling," 0156, 0428, 0515, 1339, 1401, 1521, 1537 
Booth, Cameron, 0986 
Borglum, Gutzon, 0213, 0786 
Boston, 1484 

Boston University Art Gallery, 1543 
Boswell, Peyton, 0077 
Bouche, Louis, 0399, 0764, 1571 
Bowan, Karl M., 0721 
Bowers, Frank, 0477 
Boyd, Byron, 0399 
Boyd, Fiske, 0175,0235 
Boynton, Ray, 0235 
Boza, Daniel, 0240 
Bradford, Francis Scott, Jr., 1404 



Subject Index 471 

Brann, Louise, 0566 

Breinin, Raymond, 0307 

Briggs, Adelaide, 0956, 1007 

Brinckerhoff, A.F., 0783 

Britton, Edgar, 0155, 0222, 0235, 0961, 1101, 1210, 1380, 1491 

Bromberg, Manuel, 1371 

Bronx Post Office, 1432, 1435 

Brooklyn, 1654a 

Brooklyn Museum, 0241, 0656, 0979, 1082 

Brooks, James D., 0153, 0175, 0397, 0431, 1057, 1094, 1315, 1326, 
1418, 1525, 1684 

Brooks, Richard, 0277 

Broome County (NY) , 165 7d 

Brown, Aldis B., 0261 

Brown, Samuel L., 0272, 0287, 0307, 0359 

Browne, Byron, 1473 

Browne, Rosalind Bengelsdorf. 5^^ Bengelsdorf , Rosalind 

Bruce, Edward, 0009, 0021, 0048, 0081, 0082, 0091, 0120, 0121, 
0138, 0142, 0171, 0213, 0374, 0416, 0570, 0604, 0667, 0735, 
0821, 0889, 0973, 1001, 1012, 1049, 1068, 1141, 1174, 1176, 
1178, 1179, 1194, 1197, 1221, 1258, 1289, 1293, 1309, 1310, 
1321, 1657 

Bruce, Granville, 1312 

Brunner, Frederick A., 0261 

Bruta, Esther, 1630 

Bruton, Helen, 0318, 0475 

Bryson, Bernada, 0648, 0689, 1428, 1482, 1630, 1669 

Bufano, Beniamino Benvinuto, 0223, 0969, 1415 

Bulliet, Charles Joseph, 0709 

Bunn, WiUiam Edward Lewis, 0155, 0235, 1616, 1636 

Burck, Jacob, 1482 

Burg, Copeland, 0819 

Burkhard, Verona, 0689,1371 

Burkhart, Emerson, 1187, 1191, 1192 

Burlingame, Dennis Meighan, 0813 

Burton, H. Ralph, 0936 

Busa, Peter, 1037 

Bywaters, Jerry, 0025, 0707, 1312, 1649 

Cadmus, Paul, 0296, 0411, 0420, 1320, 1381, 1630 

Cahill, Holger, 0187, 0217, 0274, 0320, 0416, 0473, 0476, 0575, 

0697, 0698, 0720, 0728, 0737, 0783, 1049, 1085, 1284, 1285, 

1560, 1561, 1574, 1588, 1627 
Calder, Stirling, 0181,0191 



472 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Caldwell, Gladys, 0261 

Calfee, William, 0235, 0277 

California, 0122, 0124, 0132, 0193, 0250, 0291, 0314, 0318, 0332, 

0334, 0607, 0642a, 0681, 0729, 0808, 0903, 0920, 0921, 1004, 

1052, 1053, 1054, 1093, 1120, 1277, 1298, 1333, 1388, 1409, 

1415, 1420, 1466, 1494a, 1535, 1536, 1558, 1559, 1570, 1624, 

1652e, 1653b, 1663, 1676, 1683 
Callahan, Kenneth, 0261 
Camden, John Poole, 0590, 0662 
Campbell, Charles, 0261, 0975, 1340 
Candell, Victor, 0907 
Caples, Robert Cole, 1652f 
Carborundum prints, 0727, 0992, 1050 
Caredio, Primo, 1210 ^ 

Carlisle, John C, 1539 
Carmody, John M., 0973 
Carter, Clarence Holbrook, 1 47, 1 66, 1 630 
Cassidy, Gerald, 0226 
Cecere, Ada, 0956, 1007 
Cecere, Gaetano, 0181 
Censorship, 1364 
Ceramics, 0617, 0633, 1403, 1436 
Chamberlain, Glenn, 1544 
Chamberlain, Norman Stiles, 0222 
Champanier, Abram, 1643aa 

Changing New York (Review) , 0828, 0876, 0897, 0906 
Chapman, Manville, 0545 
Chassaing, Edouard, 0685 
Cheney, Ruth, 0587, 0950 
Chicago, 0380,1311,1447a 
Children and art, 0284, 0310, 0340, 0392, 0425, 0461, 0479, 0498, 

0509, 0534, 0572, 0574, 0631, 0632, 0645, 0658, 0679, 0696, 

0715, 0743, 0825, 0875, 0892 
Childrens' Art Gallery (DC) , 0479, 0630, 0645, 0675, 0696, 0743 
Christian, Grant Wright, 0261 
Chrysler Museum ( VA) , 1 492 
Churchill, Winston, 1258 
Ciampaglia, Carlo, 1659 
Cikovsky, Nicolai, 0689, 1544, 1616a 
Cincinnati Museum, 0066 
Citron, Minna, 1421, 1595, 1669 
City Without Walls Gallery (NJ) , 1490 
Civil Works Administration (CWA) , 0005, 0009, 0017, 0024, 0025, 

0026, 0027, 0036, 0038, 0041 



Subject Index 473 

Claremont (CA) , 1 636a, 1 657b 

Clark, Tanner, 0153, 0261, 1486 

Clarke, Gilmore D., 1 141 

Clay Club (NYC), 0717 

Clayton, Orlin E., 1659 

Clemens, Grace, 1671 

Cleveland, 1678 

Cleveland Public Library, 1 397, 1 678 

Cocchini, A., 0632 

Coit, Lillie, 1552 

Coit Tower, 0003, 0099, 0101, 1409, 1415, 1466, 1552, 1652e 

College Art Association, 0069 

Colorado, 0102, 0183, 0255, 0269, 1479, 1662 

Coltman, Ora, 1369 

Columbia (SC) Museum of Art, 1329 

Communism, 0099, 0101 , 0468, 0673, 0680, 0692, 0701 , 0856, 

0995, 0998, 0999, 1271, 1272, 1390, 1417, 1482, 1572, 1675 

Community Art Centers, 0362, 0486, 0539, 0543, 0623, 0681, 

0697, 0713, 0741, 0947, 0954, 1019, 1022, 1076, 1083, 1121, 
1127, 1148, 1247, 1275, 1365, 1378, 1397, 1398, 1629, 1660 

Comprehensive Employment Training Act (CETA) , 1407, 1592 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) , 0803, 0810, 0969 

Congressional Record, 0042, 0089, 1 058 

Connecticut, 0094, 0165, 1593 

Connely, Ruth, 0209 

Constant, George, 0313 

Consulex, Zacrer, 0127 

Cook, Howard, 0153, 0194, 0277, 0961, 1041 

Cooke, Regina Tatum, 0255 

Cooper, Charlotte Gowing, 0710 

Cooper, James F., 1646 

Cooper-Union (NYC), 0021 

Corcoran Gallery of Art (Washington, DC) , 0076, 0078, 0079, 

0080, 0082, 0083, 0088, 0090, 0091, 0103, 0105, 0115, 0125, 
0188, 0196, 0201, 0261, 0277, 0342, 0393, 0872, 0879, 0880, 
0881,0905,1221 

Cortor, Eldzier, 1472 

Cosmopolitan Club (Washington, DC) , 0042 

Costumes, 0241 

Covey, Arthur Sinclair, 0147, 0166 

Coye, Lee Brown, 0637 

Craft, Paul, 0097 

Craton, Ann, 0047, 0053 

Craven, Junius, 0035 



474 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Creedon, Daniel M., 0700 

Crimi, Alfredo De Giorgio, 0181, 0191, 0296, 0645 

Criss, Francis H., 0655 

Crockwell, Douglass, 0240 

Cronbach, Robert, 0956, 1020, 1427 

Cronin, Agnes S., 0804, 0940, 0942 

Cross, Bernice Francine, 0508 

Crumbo, Woodrow, 1636 

Cummings, Homer Stille, 0629 

Cuneo, Rinaldo, 0138 

Cunning, John, 0071 

Cunningham, Ben, 1652e 

Cunningham, Lloyd, 1233 

Curran, Mary, 0776 ^^ 

Curry, John Steuart, 0240, 0441, 0443, 0764, 1571 

Dalstrom, Gustaf, 0155 

Dana, John Cotton, 1627 

Daniel, Lewis C, 1137 

Danysh, Joseph A, 0025, 0036 

Darce, Virginia, 1438 

Daugherty, James Henry, 0453, 1652c, 1682 

Davidson, Jo, 0046 

Davis, Charles Holbert, 0920, 1643aa 

Davis, Stuart, 0786, 1049, 1232, 1283, 1337, 1343, 1357, 1359, 

1508, 1615 
Davis, Watt, 0464 
Dawson, O.B., 1438 
Day, Selma, 1437 
Decorative arts, 0552 

De Cordova Museum and Park (MA), 1445 
De Diego, Julio, 0695 
Defenbacher, Daniel S., 0362 
Dehn, Adolf, 0313, 0438, 1232 
De Kruif, Henry Gilbert, 0037 
Delaney, Joseph, 1602 
Delgado Museum (LA), 1005 
Del Pino, Moya, 0153, 0222 
De Lue, Donald, 1098 
De Marco, Jean An toine, 1092 
Democratic Vistas (Review), 1430a, 1572a, 1572b, 1575a, 1576a, 

1589a, 1593a, 1595a, 1596a, 1596c, 1615, 1643b 
Denver Art Museum, 0102 
Departmento de Informacion para ed extranjero (Mexico 

City), 1164 



Subject Index 475 

De Rocco, Jovan, 1218 

De Saisset Art Gallery (CA) , 1420 

Design Laboratory, 0231 , 0289, 0450 

Deutsch, Boris, 1007, 1066, 1653b 

Dewey, Ernest, 1245 

Dewey, John, 0434, 0973, 1561 

de Young Museum (CA) , 0052, 0332, 0820, 0824, 0834, 0835, 

0890 
Dickerson, William J., 1457 
Dickson, Helen, 0114 
Dietrich, Tom, 1007 

Diller, Burgoyne, 1310, 1340, 1400, 1416, 1523 
Dirk, Nathaniel, 0566 
District of Columbia, 0126,1677 
Ditter, J. William, 1171 
Dixon, Maynard, 1536, 1653b 

Documentary Expression and Thirties America (Review) , 1383 
Documentary films, 1433,1522 
Dohanos, Stevan, 0424, 1429 
Doi, Isami, 0591 
Doktor, Raphael, 1029 
Doniphan, Dorsey, 0040 
Donnelly, Thomas, 0261,1616a 
Doreman, Hyman, 0632 
Douglas, Haldane, 1663 
Douglass, John, 1312 

Downtown Gallery (NYC), 0381, 0480, 0528, 1166 
Dows, Olin, 0166, 0194, 0416, 1295, 1309, 1538 
Dozier, Otis, 1312 
Drewes, Werner, 1343 
Duccinii, Gaetano, 0497 
Duchow, Caspar, 1663 
Dungan, H.C., 0512 
Dunham, Francis, 1575 
Dunton, William Herbert, 074 
Durenceau, Andre, 1002 
Dwight, Mabel, 0234, 1669 
Dyer, Carlos, 1671 

Eagle, Arnold, 1623 
Eckhardt, Edris, 1436 
Eckle, Julia, 0093 
Edwards, Paul, 0694 
Egri, Ruth, 0645 
Eichenberg, Fritz, 0391, 0513 



476 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Eilers, Fay, 1148 

Ellen Sragow Gallery (NYC) , 1614 

Ellis Island, 0723 

Emergency Relief Act (1935), 0210 

Emergency Relief Act (1938), 0557, 0785 

Emergency Relief Act (1939), 0938, 0940, 0942, 0943 

Emergency Relief Act (1940), 0940, 1124 

Emergency Relief Act (1942), 1171 

Emergency Relief Act (1943), 1170 

Emporium Department Store (CA), 0653 

Engendering Culture (Review) , 1665, 1680 

Englehorn, Elmer, 0325 

Evergood, Philip, 0325, 0357, 0391, 1273, 1359 

Executive Orders, 0019, 0127, 0210 

Exhibitions (Non-New Deal Art), 0071, 0087, 0109, 0116, 0121, 
0143, 0197, 0344, 0384, 0386, 0411, 0420, 0429, 0432, 0454, 
0459, 0514, 0524, 0527, 0535, 0641, 0656, 0717, 0753, 0763, 
0803, 0955, 0959, 0962, 0970, 1028, 1044, 1047, 1100, 1137, 
1147, 1165, 1221, 1227, 1341, 1511a, 1514, 1526, 1528, 1543, 
1546, 1549, 1601, 1620, 1640, 1641, 1656, 1669, 1670. Seealso 
New Deal Art (Exhibitions); Index of American Design 
(Exhibitions); Section of Painting and Sculpture (Exhibi- 
tions) ; WPA/FAP (Exhibitions) ; and individual museums or 
galleries 

Farley, James A, 0499 

Farm Security Agency (FSA), 1428, 1623, 1642, 1655 

Faulkner, Barry, 0867 

Fausett, Lynn, 1487 

Federal Art Bureau (General) , 0094a, 0098, 0098a, 0140, 0141, 
0232, 0236, 0254, 0259, 0260, 0263, 0309, 0321, 0371, 0451, 
0773, 0774, 0775, 0923, 0924, 1193a, 1198a, 1225 

Federal Art Bureau (1935-38, General) , 0516, 0578, 0606, 0608, 
0613, 0621, 0625, 0626, 0642, 0647, 0658, 0766; Criti- 
cism, 0165a, 0173a, 0512, 0578, 0584, 0600, 0634, 0635; 
Praise, 0511, 0580, 0586, 0616, 0652; HJ. Res. 220 
(1935), 0155, 0160a, 0160b, 0165a, 0173a, 0212, 0213; H.J. 
Res. 79 (1937), 0482, 0496, 0556, 0581, 0583, 0588; HJ. 
Res. 671 (1938), 0649, 0657, 0666, 0678, 0781, 0782, 0783; 
H.R.1512 (1937), 0554; H.R.8132 (1937), 0553; 
H.R.8239 (1937) , 0466, 0471 , 0490, 0491 , 051 1 , 0555, 
0562, 0572; H.R.9102 (1938), 0572, 0576, 0578, 0579, 
0580, 0581, 0583, 0584, 0585, 0586, 0588, 0593, 0594, 0596, 
0598, 0599, 0600, 0608, 0609, 0614, 0625, 0626, 0634, 0641, 



Subject Index 477 

0741a, 0780, 0783; S.3296 (1938), 0580, 0581, 0583, 0584, 
0585, 0586, 0784, 0786 

Federal Art Bureau (1939-43, General) , 0790, 0790a, 0794a, 
1196, 1197; HJ. Res. 149 (1939), 0847, 0937; H.R.2319 
(1939), 0935; H.R.600 (1941), 1123;H.R.900 
(1943), 1205; S.2967 (1939), 0941; 

Federal Art Galleries (General) , 0242, 0282, 0348 

Federal Art Gallery (Boston) , 0520, 0750 

Federal Art Gallery (Chicago) , 0754 

Federal Art Gallery (NYC), 0203, 0227, 0228, 0236, 0246, 0251, 
0317, 0333, 0337, 0340, 0348, 0370, 0389, 0415, 0417, 0422, 
0488, 0495, 0521, 0522, 0523, 0529, 0531, 0534, 0577, 0605, 
0622, 0624, 0651, 0654, 0655, 0683, 0724, 0746, 0747, 0748, 
0749, 0751, 0755, 0757, 0758, 0760, 0762, 0802, 0812, 0843, 
0886, 0891, 0893, 0895, 0897, 0898, 0899, 0902, 0915 

Federal Art Project. SeeWPA/FAP 

Federal Art Project in Illinois (Review) , 1 661 , 1 666, 1 667 

Federal Arts Committee, 0600, 0621 

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) , 0007, 0131, 
0363 

Federal Music Project, 0180 

Federal One, 0180, 0186, 0214, 0215, 0216, 0217, 0218, 0219, 

0397, 0418, 0428, 0452, 0472, 0515, 0560, 0570, 0640, 0659, 
0701, 0797, 0825, 0832, 0837, 0846, 0847, 0943, 1085, 1247, 
1257, 1290, 1318, 1427, 1462, 1487, 1531, 1584, 1612, 1631a, 
1641, 1658a, 1672 

Federal Theatre Project, 0180, 1672 

Federal Trade Commission Building, 1151 

Federal Triangle (Washington, DC), 1346, 1468, 1477, 1583 

Federal Works Agency (FWA) , 1 193, 1206, 1207 

Federal Writers' Project, 0180, 0545, 0558, 0571 , 0591 

Feinsmith, 1218 

Feinstein, David, 0950 

Feitelson, Lorser, 0920 

Fenelle, Stanford, 0632 

Ferguson, Nancy Maybin, 0104 

Ferstadt, Louis, 0142, 0169 

FHP Hippodrome Gallery, 1664, 1671 

Fiene, Ernest, 1615a, 1643bb 

Fine Arts Bureau (Proposed) . See Federal Art Bureau 

Fine Arts Federation of New York, 0583, 0596 

Fink, Denman, 0277, 0443, 0689, 1429 

Finucane, Daniel Leo, 0372, 0508 

Fisher, Gladys, 1371 



478 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Fisher, Orr Cleveland, 1520, 1544 

Fitzpatrick, David, 0844 

Fitzpatrick, R.D., 0907 

Flavell, Thomas, 0703 

Flavelle, Alan Page, 0372, 0508 

Fleck, Joseph Amadeus, 0281 

Fleming, Philip B., 1 193, 1206, 1207 

Fieri, Joseph C, 0864 

Flint, Le Roy, 1436 

Floethe, Richard, 0740 

Florida, 0107, 1099, 1429, 1591 

Floyd Bennett Field (NY) , 0993, 0994, 0995, 0998, 0999, 1 41 7 

Fogel, Seymour, 0223, 0822, 0956, 1151, 1313, 1617, 1677 

Fogg Museum (Harvard University) , 0519 -^ 

Fontaine, Paul E., 1144 

Forbes, Helen K., 0147, 1094 

Force, Juliana, 0008, 0009, 0016, 0039, 0060, 0061, 0068, 1088, 

1657 
Ford, Ford Maddox, 0433 
Fossum, Syd, 0807 

Foster, Gerald, 0078, 0153, 0175, 0240, 1486, 1538 
Foy, Frances M., 0155, 0222 

Frank Wiggins' Trade School (Los Angeles) , 0182, 1466 
Franks, Seymour, 1602 
Fredenthal, David, 0381, 1596b 
Free, Carl, 0181 
French, Jared, 0444, 0805, 0812 
Frescos, 0477, 0660, 0673, 0815, 1051 
Freund, Harry Louis, 0261 
Fried, Alexander, 0653 

Gag, Wanda, 0313,1669 

Galgiani, Oscar, 1636 

Gallagher, Michael, 0703, 0719, 0727, 1050 

Gallery, 1199,1543 

Ganso, Emil, 0505, 1232, 1643bb, 1652c 

Gardner, Walter Henry, 0261 

Garfield Park Art Gallery (Chicago) , 0517 

Garner, Archibald, 1007 

Gates, Richard F., 0166 

Gates, Robert Franklin, 0424, 0689 

Gebhardt, William Edwin, 0097 

Geller, Todros, 0677, 0695 

Gellert, Hugo, 0844, 0907, 1482 



Subject Index 479 

Genauer, Emily, 1033 

Gender studies, 1672 

Gentot, Frank, 1436 

George Mason University, 1653a 

George Washington High School, 0969 

Georgia, 1659 

Gerchik, P., 1218 

Gikow, Ruth, 0950 

Gilbert, Dorothy, 0078 

Gilbertson, Boris, 0689 

Gilmore, Marion, 1520 

Glassell, Criss, 1520 

Glassgold, C. Adolph, 1049 

Glenn Dale Tuberculosis Sanitarium (MD) , 0372, 0508 

Glickman, Maurice, 0624 

Godwin, Bernard, 0783 

Goertz, Augustus Frederick, 1431 

Goldthwaite, Anne, 0443 

Gonzales, Xavier, 0078, 0277 

Good, Minnetta, 0720 

Goodelman, Aaron J., 0632 

Goodrich, Gertrude, 0956, 1104, 1544 

Goodwin, Jean, 1653b, 1671 

Gordon, Witold, 0739 

Gorelick, Boris, 0438, 1340 

Gorham, Aimee, 0402 

Gorky, Arshile, 0315, 1320, 1343, 1359, 1414, 1460, 1486, 1508, 
1614 

Gosselin, Grace H., 0811 

Gotcliffe, Sid, 1294 

Gottlieb, Harry, 0320, 0413, 0950, 0991, 1430a, 1431, 1549, 1595 

Gottschalk, Oliver A., 1032 

Government patronage, 0330, 0360, 0430, 0536, 0595, 0610, 

0616, 0639, 0650, 0674, 0738, 0928, 1055, 1060, 1110, 1197, 
1198, 1199, 1202, 1203, 1220, 1226, 1228, 1231, 1242, 1244, 
1247, 1257, 1270, 1278, 1279, 1283, 1291, 1301, 1302, 1315, 
1322, 1334, 1337, 1347, 1377, 1380, 1381, 1408, 1463, 1517, 
1585, 1587, 1607, 1621; Praise, 0418, 0474, 0949; Criti- 
cism, 0257, 0385, 0416, 0484, 0673 

Government Services Administration (GSA), 1344, 1351, 1353, 
1357, 1544, 1575, 1609, 1610, 1616 

Graphic Arts, 0234, 0246, 0251, 0273, 0288, 0324, 0328, 0329, 

0382, 0438, 0492, 0505, 0513, 0514, 0577, 0656, 0719, 0720, 
0727, 0746, 0754, 0802, 0833, 0836, 0891, 0962, 0970, 0991, 



480 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

1019, 1027, 1034, 1044, 1050, 1109, 1125, 1165, 1232, 1331, 
1343, 1367, 1378, 1423, 1424, 1448, 1475, 1512, 1540, 1562, 
1577, 1580, 1599, 1623, 1640, 1642, 1643, 1644a, 1645, 1647, 
1647a, 1648, 1668, 1669, 1670, 1678 

Grafly, Dorothy, 0579 

Grambs, Blanche, 0467, 1562 

Granahan, David Milton, 0181,0235 

Grand Central Art Galleries (NYC) , 0143, 0202 

Grant, Gordon, 1653b 

Green, Elizabeth, 1588 

Greene, Balcomb, 0391, 1654a 

Greenwood, Marion, 0316, 1037, 1326, 1421 

Gregory, Waylande De Santis, 1088, 1486 

Greitzer, JackJ., 0127, 0147, 0175, 0307 S^ 

Griffith, John A, 0078 

Grooms, George, 1544 

Cropper, William, 0806, 0816, 0907, 1273, 1313, 1357, 1381, 
1482, 1544, 1549, 1653a, 1677 

Gross-Bettelheim,John, 0283, 1343 

Groth, John August, 0844, 0907 

Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts (UCLA) , 1548 

Guglielmi, O. Louis, 0313, 0616, 0975, 1210, 1273, 1320, 1427 

Guston, Philip, 0654, 0822, 0956, 1007, 1 180, 1272, 1283, 1326, 
1617 

Guy, James, 0616 

Gwathmey, Robert, 1342 

Haines, Richard, 0147, 0166, 0175, 1520 

Haley, Sally F., 1680 

Halfant, Jules, 1602 

Hall, Helen, 0434 

Halpert, Edith Gregor, 0461 

Hamilton, Bernice, 0460 

Hamilton, Curtis Smith, 0773 

Hamilton, Edith, 0484 

Hammer, Victor, 0951 

Hansen, Marius, 0920 

Hanson, James, 0798 

Harding, George, 0153, 0175, 0235, 0590, 0706, 0711, 0961 

Harlem Artists' Guild, 0413 

Harlem Community Art Center, 0537, 0566, 0567, 0575, 0615, 

0679, 0724, 0892, 1378 
Harlem Hospital (NYC) , 0245, 1437 
Harnly, Perkins, 1513 



Subject Index 481 

Harrington, Francis C, 0939, 0940, 0942, 0943, 1 124 
Harriton, Abraham, 0386, 0391 
Hauser, Alonzo, 0800 
Hawkins, Ted, 1457 
Hayden, Cari, 0943 
Hayden, Palmer C, 0615, 1218 
Hayes, Vertis, 0615,1437 

Health and Hospitals Corporation's collection, 1643aa 
Hecht, Zoltan, 0488 
Heckscher Museum (NY) , 1641 
Helfond, Riva, 1595, 1602, 1669 
Heller, Helen West, 0325, 0391, 0587 
Henderson, William P., 1684 
Henkel, August, 0993, 0995, 0998, 0999, 1417 
Henning, William Edwin, 1520 
Henricksen, Ralf Christian, 0307, 0826 
Henry, Natalie Smith, 1576a 
Herdle, Isabel C, 0331, 0565 
Herdman, Charles, 1429 
Herman, Andrew, 1623 
Hernandez, WilHam, 0907 
Herr, Rudolph, 0864 
Herriton, Abraham, 0986 
Herron, Jason, 0457 
Hibbard, Henry, 0132 
Higgins, Victor, 0137, 0174 
Hiler, Hilaire, 1577 
Hill, George Snow, 1429 
Himmun, Lew Tree, 0255 
Hine, Lewis, 1645b 
Hirsch, Joseph, 0965, 0966, 0975 
Hirsch, Willard Newmann, 0974 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (Smithsonian Institu- 
tion), 1525 
Hogue, Alexandre, 0025,1273,1312 
Holmes, Henry, 0615 
Holmes, Stuart, 0261 
Homer, Woodhull, 1436 
Hood, Richard, 0591 
Hopkins, Hariy L., 0007, 0335, 0795, 1303 
Hord,Donal, 0921,1653b 
Horn, Axel, 1643aa 
Horn, Sol, 1623 
Horr, Axel, 0950 



482 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Houser, Lowell, 0166, 0235, 1556 

Howard, John Langley, 0101 

Howard University Art Gallery (Washington, DC) , 1 163, 1 182 

Howe, Oscar, 1259 

Hrdy, Olinka, 0463, 1671 

Hudson River Museum, 1620 

Hunter, Howard O., 1171 

Hunter, (Russell) Vernon, 0147, 1684 

Huntley, Victoria Ebbels Hutson, 1101 

Hun toon, Mary, 1457 

Hurd, Peter, 0443, 0689, 0798, 0879, 1 163 

Hutchinson, David, 0689, 0798 

Hutson, Ethel, 0634 

Ickes, Harold L., 0462 

IlHnois, 0544, 0605, 0619, 0670, 0677, 0684, 0685, 0686, 0692, 

0695, 0698, 0702, 0708, 0747, 0756, 0864, 0901, 0904, 0932, 
1083, 1103, 1111, 1311, 1374a, 1376, 1491, 1516, 1547, 1658 

Illinois State Museum, 1376, 1547 

Index of American Design (Exhibitions), 0417, 0423, 0480, 0519, 
0522, 0528, 0528a, 0530, 0564, 0653, 0658, 0664, 0669, 0687, 
0742, 0744, 0752, 0812, 0814, 0874, 0895, 1082, 1096, 1116, 
1152, 1156, 1158, 1159, 1161, 1162, 1177, 1179a, 1181, 1234, 
1251, 1263, 1306, 1419, 1513. See alsoNew Deal Art (Exhibi- 
tions) 

Index of American Design (General) , 0395, 0419, 0436, 0445, 

0455, 0506, 0549, 0564, 0592, 0661, 0669, 0692, 0788, 0987, 
1000, 1049, 1052, 1053, 1071, 1080, 1120, 1128, 1146, 1149, 
1186, 1188, 1189, 1193, 1200, 1201, 1222, 1235, 1238, 1243, 
1256, 1280, 1281, 1339, 1352, 1354, 1465, 1495, 1509, 1534a; 
Accomplishments, 0290, 0350, 0353, 0769, 0925, 0978; 
Administration, 0347, 0349, 0351, 0352, 0358, 0378; Crea- 
tion, 0239, 0535; Illustrations, 0445, 0506, 0809, 0818, 
0827, 0925, 1071, 1200, 1211, 1255, 1366, 1382a, 1495, 1496, 
1497, 1498, 1499, 1500, 1501, 1502, 1503, 1504, 1505, 1652; 
Praise, 0284, 0375, 0378, 0436, 0501, 0704, 0886, 0996, 
1145, 1252. See alsoWPA/¥AP 

Index of American Design (1950, Review), 1249, 1250, 1252, 1253, 
1254, 1256, 1260, 1261, 1262, 1264, 1265, 1267, 1268, 1269; 
(1980, Review), 1511, 1519 

Indiana, 0106, 0128, 0460, 1652g 

Intellectualism, 0168 

Interior Building, Department of, 0226, 0407, 0408, 0421, 0806, 
1007, 1241, 1550, 1606 



Subject Index 483 

International Art Center (NYC), 0382, 0518 
Iowa, 0547, 0623, 0792, 0849, 1233, 1398, 1454, 1520, 1532, 1557, 
1558, 1617a 

Jacobsen, Emanuel, 0826, 1380 
Jacobsson, Sten, 0443, 0689 
Jamieson, Mitchell, 0424, 0798, 1007 
Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum (NJ) , 1549 
Janet Marquess Gallery (NYC), 1631, 1635 
Jennewein, Carl Paul, 0764 
Jerome, Mildred, 0114 
Jewell, Edward Alden, 1 154, 1 156 
Joe and Emily Lowe Gallery (NY) , 1446 
John Reed Clubs, 1472 
Johnson, Avery Fischer, 0968 
Johnson, Edwin B., 0155 
Johnson, Howard, 1233 
Johnson, James Weldon, 0575 
Johnson, Malvin Gray, 0078 
Johnson City (TN) , 1673 
Jones, Allen D., Jr., 1007 
Jones, Amy, 0689,1596b 
Jones, Burton J., 0449 
Jones, Harry Donald, 1520 
Jones, Wendell Cooley, 0798, 1673 
Julian, Paul, 1653b, 1663 

Justice Building, Department of, 0152, 0153, 0168, 0194, 0195 
0504, 0629, 0660, 0764, 0806, 1374b, 1571 

Kadish, Reuben, 1298 

Kainen, Jacob, 0527, 1562 

Kallem, Herbert, 0416 

Kansas, 1457, 1479 

Kansas Art Institute, 0065, 0070 

Karp, Ben, 0587 

Kassler, Charles, 0114, 0147, 0166 

Katz, Leo, 1466 

Keller, Charles, 1602 

Kelpe, Karl, 0155, 0294, 0313, 0826 

Kelpe, Paul, 1654a 

Kent, Florence, 1562 

Kent, Rockwell, 0373, 0443, 0499, 0500, 0783, 1049, 1274a 1484a 

1636 
Kent State University, 1375 



484 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Kerr, Florence S., 0869, 0938, 1124, 1171 

Keto, Henry, 1436 

King, Albert, 0607, 0675, 0676, 1589 

Kingman, Dong M. , 0607, 1 589 

Kingman, Eugene, 0166, 1371 

Kingsbury, Alison Mason, 1 129 

Kleemann-Thorman Gallery (NYC), 0071 

Klitgaard, Georgina, 0798, 1659 

Kloss, Gene, 0255, 0283, 0591 

Knaths, Karl, 0278, 0464, 1427 

Knight, Charles, 1429 

Knight, Frederick C, 1632 

Knotts, Ben, 0138 

Knutesen, Edwin B., 0800 w. 

Kobinyi, Kalman, 1391, 1562 

Kohn, Robert D., 0434, 0447 

KoUwitz, Kaether, 0916 

Kooning, Willem de, 0956, 1007, 1525 

Kotin, Albert, 0235 

Krasner, Lee, 1572 

Kraus, Romuald, 0153, 0689, 0864 

Krause, Erik Hans, 0503 

Kreis, Henry, 0222, 0261, 0443, 1007, 1018 

Kroll, Leon, 0028, 0443, 0680, 0764, 1192, 1571 

Kruckman, Herb, 0907 

Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1329,1542 

Kunstverein (Hamburg), 1493 

La Farge, Thomas, 0153, 0175, 0178 

La Follette, Robert M., 0973 

La Guardia Airport, 1057, 1094, 1 154, 1418 

Laguna Beach, CA, 0642a 

Labaudt, Lucien, 1298 

Labor Building, Department of, 0201 

Lacher, Gisella Loeffler, 0255 

Lambdin, Robert Lynn, 0147, 0166 

Lancaster (NY) High School, 0918 

Lance, Leo, 0858, 1623 

Landon, Alf, 0302 

Lang, Karl, 0872 

Laning, Edward, 0595, 0671 , 0680, 0723, 0837, 0977, 1010, 1062, 

1101,1135,1279,1326,1357 
Lantz, Michael, 0399, 1151, 1677 
Lassaw, Ibram, 1525 



Subject Index 485 

Latham, Barbara, 1669 

Laughlin, Thomas, 1429 

Lawrence, Jacob, 1472, 1628, 1636b 

Lazzari, Pietro, 1429 

Lea, Tom, 0277, 0399, 0689 

Leboit, Joseph, 0580 

Lebrun, Rico, 1283 

Lee, Arthur, 0181 

Lee, Doris, 1421,1669 

Legislation (Miscellaneous) , 0133, 0140, 0934. 5^^ also Federal 

Art Bureau; Emergency Relief Act 
Lehman, Harold, 1595 
Lehman College Art Gallery, 1647 
Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum (WI) , 1489, 1670 
Le More, Chet, 0492, 0505, 0783 
Lenson, Michael, 1486 
Lepper, Robert, 1616a, 1631 
Levi, Julian, 0834 
Levine,Jack, 0294, 1273, 1283, 1408 
Levine, Saul, 1630, 1645a 
Levit, Herschel, 1 1 64, 1 1 82 
Levitt, Helen, 1623 
Levy, Edmund H., 0293 
Lewandowski, Edmund D., 0968, 1007 
Lewis, Edwin S., 0235 
Leyendecker, Joseph Christian, 0685 
Library of Congress, 1507,1622 
Libsohn, Sol, 1623 
Lichtner, Schomer Frank, 0078, 1404 
Lie, Jonas, 0158,0167. 
Life, 0837, 0845 
Lightfoot, Elba, 1437 
Liguore, Donald, 0310 
Limbach, Russell T., 0656, 0778 
Lincoln Hospital (NY), 0645 
Lincoln School (NY) , 1034 
Lishinsky, Abraham, 0739 
Living American Artists, Inc., 0302 
Lizschutz, Isaac, 1164 
Lochrie, Elizabeth, 0399 

Lockwood, Ward, 0137, 0147, 0174, 0175, 0396, 0816, 0961 
Lo Medico, Thomas Gaetano, 0638,0717 
Long Beach (CA), 1671 
Long Beach Auditorium (CA) , 0675, 0676, 0768, 1664, 1671 



486 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Long, Frank, 0166, 0798 

Lopez, Carlos, 1182,1677 

Los Angeles, 0457 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 0124, 0334, 0903 

Louisiana, 1005, 1025, 1139, 1514a, 1658a 

Lozowick, Louis, 1343, 1408, 1482, 1486 

Lucker, Paul, 0974 

Lundeberg, Helen, 0920 

Lurie, Nan, 0283, 0438, 0492 

MacCoy, Anne Guy, 01 38 

McCreery, James L., 1007,1070 

McDonald, Harold, 0460 

Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, 0132, 0185, 0675^0676, 1004, 1559, 

1671 
MacGurrin, Buckley, 0607, 0920 
MacLeish, Archibald, 1542 
McKim, Musa, 1007 
McLaurin, B.F., 0434 

McLeary, Kindred, 0153, 0194, 0706, 0953, 0961, 1086, 1326 
McLeish, Norman, 0677 
McMahon, Audrey, 0187, 0253, 0258, 0265, 0324, 0325, 0380, 

0446, 0473, 0771, 0812, 0950, 1049 
McMillen,Jack, 1659 
McTigue,J., 0936 
McVey, William M., 0443, 1337 

Macy's Department Store (NYC) , 0241, 0336, 0658, 0664, 0752 
Maduro , Jose , 0689 
Magafan, Ethel, 0798, 1182, 1630 
Magafan,Jenne, 0986, 1636, 1638 
Mahier, Ethel, 1578, 1598 
Mahoney, James Owen, 0590, 0706, 071 1 
Maine, 1248 
Maldarelli, Oronzio, 0181 
Mandelman, Beatrice, 0950, 1669 
Manhattanville College Art Gallery (NY) , 1 330 
Manship, Paul, 0277 
Margolis, David, 1431 
Margoulies, Berta, 0181 
Markham, Kyra, 1669 
Markow,Jack, 0907 
Marsh, Mrs. Chester G., 0041 
Marsh, Reginald, 0222, 0299, 0383, 0396, 0953, 1273, 1310, 1320, 

1326, 1562 



Subject Index 487 

Marshall Field and Company (Chicago) , 0522 

Martin, David Stone, 0881 , 0968 

Martin, Fletcher, 0261, 0722, 0968, 1011, 1313, 1618a 

Maryland, 0063, 0126 

Massachusetts, 0700, 0750, 0773, 0982, 1517, 1681. 5g^ also New 

England 
Maxey, Stevens, 0621 
Mayer, Henrik Martin, 0147, 0166 
Mayer, Jesse A., 0689, 0798 
Mays, Paul Kirtiand, 0153, 0166, 0177 
Means, Elliot, 0950 
Mechau, Frank Albert, 0114, 0181, 0183, 0188, 0197, 0223, 0240, 

0379, 0707, 1357 
Mecklam, Austin Merrill, 1182 
Meiere, Hildreth, 1007 
Mellon, Andrew, 0385 
Meltsner, Paul, 1482 
Mesibov, Hubert, 1050 
Messick, Benjamin Newton, 0920 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 0638 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 0241, 0449, 1027, 1096, 1100, 1116, 

1143, 1146, 1149, 1152, 1156, 1158, 1159, 1161, 1162, 1188, 

1189, 1177,1181,1195,1216 
Mexican mural movement, 0037, 1276, 1618a, 1650 
Mexico, 1164 
Meyers, Fred E., 1506 
Michael Rosenfield Gallery (NYC) , 1656 
Michalov, Ann, 0632, 0826 
Michigan , 093 1 , 1 604, 1 608 
Midtown Gallery (NYC), 0197, 0411, 0420, 0481, 0485, 1631, 

1635, 1639 
Midwest U.S., 1327,1642 
Milch Gallery (NYC), 0116, 0121 
Miller, Barse, 0689, 0960, 0968 
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 1627 
Miller, Lee G., 0831 
Miller, Suzanne, 1663, 1671 
Millier, Arthur, 0177, 0680 
Milliken, William M., 0097, 1049, 1389 
MiUman, Edward, 0155, 0235, 0277, 0426, 0464, 0702, 0798, 0834, 

0863, 0865, 0872, 0881, 1153, 1155, 1157, 1166, 1305, 1596b 
Milwaukee, 0164 
Milwaukee Art Institute, 0476 
Milwaukee Art Museum, 1670 



488 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Milwaukee Handicrafts Project, 1404 

Minnesota, 0057, 0323, 0807, 0952, 1148, 1378, 1422a, 1629, 
1644b, 1657c 

Minnesota Institute of Arts, 0057, 0070, 0074 

Missouri, 1588, 1629 

Mobridge Municipal Auditorium (SD), 1259 

Modern Art, 00 1 4, 003 1 , 0085 

Moffett, Ross E., 0155,0194,0235 

Monastersky, Alex, 1486 

Moore, Claire (Millman) Mahl, 1669 

Mopope, Steven, 1556 

Moreno, Samuel, 0238 

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., 0733, 0734, 0973 

Morris, Lawrence S., 0786 

Mosaics, 0318, 0332, 0475, 0497, 0526, 0675, 0676, 0705, 0768, 
1054, 1378, 1559 

Mosco, Mike, 0287, 0632 

Mose, Carl, 0689 

Mose, Eric, 01 75, 0464, 0473, 0645 

Moylan, Lloyd, 1684 

Muhlenberg Gallery Center for the Art, 1527 

Municipal Art Commission (NYC), 0158, 0167 

Mural Painters' Association, 0194 

Murals, 0025, 0032, 0050, 0064, 0081, 0082, 0091, 0096, 0107, 

0122, 0132, 0137, 0143, 0148, 0163, 0173, 0177, 0178, 0240, 
0247, 0315, 0345, 0383, 0399, 0423, 0453, 0460, 0464, 0548, 
0648, 0651, 0655, 0663, 0691, 0700, 0751, 0799, 0808, 0826, 
0849, 0909, 0911, 0917, 0920, 0932, 0951, 1004, 1013, 1021, 
1030, 1048, 1062, 1066, 1067, 1072, 1089, 1091, 1097, 1220, 
1230, 1239, 1241a, 1244, 1245, 1245a, 1274a, 1277, 1324, 
1325, 1333, 1340, 1367, 1375, 1378, 1411, 1417, 1426, 1430, 
1446, 1454, 1466, 1470, 1484a, 1494a, 1520, 1532, 1534, 
1534a, 1535, 1539, 1558, 1564, 1565, 1569, 1615a, 1618a, 
1630, 1631, 1639, 1643a, 1643aa, 1652b, 1653aa, 1654a, 
1657d, 1659, 1662, 1673, 1674, 1677, 1679, 1683 

Murray, Arthur, 0423 

Murray, Hester Miller, 0287 

Murrell, Sara, 1437 

Museum of Modern Art, 0116, 0275, 0276, 0278, 0284, 0285, 

0286, 0287, 0292, 0294, 0296, 0297, 0313, 0337, 0387, 0930, 
0963, 0965, 0975, 1045 

Museum of New Mexico, 0249, 1 1 75 

Museum of the City of New York, 0241 , 0502 

Museum of the Borough of Brooklyn, 1529 



Subject Index 489 

Mypass, Cyril, 1623 
Myres, Herbert O., 1520 

Nadir, Mark, 0753, 1623 

National Academy of Design, 0167 

National Archives, 1228, 1236, 1282, 1289, 1607 

National Art Week, 0108, 1037, 1118 

National Collection of Fine Arts (Smithsonian Institution) , 0719, 
0720, 1475, 1476, 1477. 5^^ a/50 National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art 

National Gallery of Art, 0385, 1087, 1090, 1102, 1115, 1136, 1142, 
1189, 1186, 1193, 1234, 1246, 1280, 1306, 1419 

National Gallery of Canada, 1 040 

National Museum (Smithsonian Institution), 0126 

National Museum of American Art, 1513, 1524, 1528, 1554, 1636, 
1638. See a/50 National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Museum of Women in the Arts (Washington, DC), 
1637a, 1643, 1644a 

National Park Service, 0465 

Native Americans, 0174, 0209, 1555, 1556, 1578, 1594, 1598 

Nebraska, 1479, 1575, 1579, 1652b 

Nebraska State Historical Society, 0135, 1579 

Neel, Alice, 1218, 1518, 1525 

Negoe, Anna, 0918 

Nesin, George, 1218 

Neumann, J.B., 0320 

Neuwirth, Morris, 0974 

Nevada, 1652e, 1652f 

Nevelson, Louise, 1310 

New Deal Art (General), 1273, 1286, 1289, 1296, 1300, 1304, 

1305, 1309, 1317, 1318, 1325, 1328, 1334, 1344, 1349, 1350, 
1361, 1367, 1377, 1393, 1394, 1396, 1402, 1406, 1407, 1431, 
1471, 1514a, 1521, 1534a, 1541, 1542, 1544, 1551, 1569, 
1569a, 1570, 1618, 1627a, 1652a. 5^^ a/50 Section of Painting 
and Sculpture; WPA/FAP; Index of American Design; Pub- 
lic Works of Art Project 

New Deal Art (Analysis and Criticism) , 1355, 1464, 1508, 1522, 
1534, 1538, 1568, 1584, 1587, 1589, 1590, 1595, 1613, 1637, 
1643a 

New Deal Art (Exhibitions), 0366, 1327, 1363, 1375, 1376, 1388, 
1391, 1392, 1410, 1421, 1423, 1424, 1441, 1442, 1457, 1458, 
1471, 1475, 1476, 1485, 1488, 1489, 1490, 1491, 1493, 1511a, 
1524, 1525, 1527, 1529, 1545, 1547, 1579, 1582, 1593, 1631, 
1635, 1636, 1637a, 1638, 1639, 1642, 1643, 1655, 1664, 1671. 



490 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

See also Exhibitions (Non-New Deal Art) ; Index of American 
Design (Exhibitions); WPA/FAP (Exhibitions); Section of 
Painting and Sculpture (Exhibitions) 

The New Deal Art Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs (Review) , 1 360, 
1384, 1385 

The New Deal for Artists (Review) , 1 386, 1 387, 1 440 

New England, 0034, 0045, 0427, 0437, 0441, 0524, 1445. See also 
the individual states 

New Jersey, 0043, 0055, 0110, 0206, 0531, 0760, 0812, 0894, 1486, 
1490 

New Mexico, 0174, 0209, 0226, 0238, 0255, 0267, 0269, 0281, 
0545, 0769, 1388, 1389, 1391, 1392, 1403, 1436, 1684 

New School for Social Research, 0432, 0641 

New York (City) , 0370, 0380, 0569, 0587, 0713> 0760, 0772, 0857, 
0878, 0886, 0914, 0950, 1009, 1014, 1017, 1029, 1032, 1114, 
1200, 1208, 1332, 1335, 1336, 1394, 1400, 1411, 1416, 1417, 
1442, 1443, 1447, 1449, 1447a, 1478, 1510, 1523, 1529, 1602, 
1615a, 1643aa, 1657b, 1679 

New York (State), 0032, 0041, 0173, 0531, 0742, 0805, 0864, 1068, 
1073, 1129, 1138, 1325, 1328, 1347, 1356, 1458, 1469, 1657d 

New York City Municipal Art Gallery, 0053, 0077, 1 367 

New York Public Library, 0013, 0671, 0682, 0977, 1010, 1062, 
1135, 1274, 1448, 1540, 1545 

New York State Vocational Institution, 0805, 0812 

New York World's Fair. 5^e World's Fair, New York (1939-40) 

Newark Airport, 0315, 1460 

Newark Museum, 0110, 0535, 0894, 1460 

Newell, James Michael, 0444,1380 

Newspapers: Baltimore Sun, 0046; Boston Evening Tran- 
script, 0365; Chicago American, 0819; Chicago Daily 
News, 0297; Chicago Times, 0830, 1190; Kalamazoo Ga- 
zette, 0365; Los Angeles Times, 0484, 0680; New York 
Daily News, 01 62; New York Herald-Tribune, 0060, 0256, 
0365, 0462, 0663, 1 305; New York Post, 0327; New York 
Sun, 0227; New York Times Herald, 0327; New York 
Times, 0016, 0091, 0365, 1 154, 1 156; New York Trib- 
une, 0326; New York World Telegram, 0295, 0393, 0831, 
1033; Oakland Tribune, 0512; Philadelphia Art 
News, 0584; Philadelphia Inquirer, 0176, 0608; Philadel- 
phia Public Ledger, 0087; Philadelphia Record, 0579; Saint 
houis Post-Dispatch, 1166; San Francisco Argonaw^, 0026, 
0036, 0298; San Francisco Examiner, 0653; San Francisco 
News, 0035; Troy Times, 0046; Washington Post, 0733 

Nickelson, Ralf, 0443, 0689 



Subject Index 491 

Nickerson, J. Ruth Greacen, 0864 

Nicolosi, Joseph, 0864 

Nisonoff, Louis, 0527 

Noheimer, Mathiasjohn, 0097 

Nord, Henry A. , 0675, 0676, 1 589 

Norman, Bill, 0807 

Norman, JefFery, 0786 

North Carolina, 0355, 0362, 1629 

North Carolina Medical Center, 091 1 

Northern Arizona University Art Gallery, 1488 

Novar, Louis, 0310 

Oakland High School, 0705 

Oakland Museum, 1577 

Oberteuffer, Henrietta Amiard, 0443, 0689 

O'Connor, Francis V., 1313, 1351 

Official Images, New Deal Photography (Review) , 1 633a 

Ohio, 0633, 0710, 0712, 1187, 1192, 1369, 1375, 1388, 1389, 1391, 

1392, 1403, 1436 
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 0326 
Oklahoma, 0868, 1019, 1022, 1121, 1127, 1397, 1426, 1556, 

1569a, 1594, 1598, 1629 
Oldfield, Otis, 1643bb 

Olds, Elizabeth, 0273, 0438, 0489, 0790, 0991, 1421, 1669 
Olmer, Henry, 1436 
Olson, Donald, 1148 
Olson, T. Frank, 0155 
Oral History, 1653a 

Oregon, 0401, 0402, 0867, 0871, 1494, 1674 
Orme, L. Gardner, 0956, 1007 
Orozco, Jose Clemente, 1276, 1650 
Overstreet, Harry, 0433 

Padilla, Emilio, 0267 

Pafford, Robert, 1245 

Pain, Louise, 0864 

Palace of the Legion of Honor (CA) , 0400, 0410, 0483 

Palmer, William C, 0181, 0198, 0481, 0485, 0701, 1643aa 

Palo-Kangas,John, 0314, 1210 

Pan Pacific Exposition (San Francisco, 1939-40) , 0980 

Panofsky, Erwin, 1464 

Parish, Betty Waldo, 1669 

Parker, Thomas C, 0697, 0786, 1008, 1049 

Parshall, Douglas, 1618a 



492 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Parson's School of Design, 1447 

Partridge, Charlotte, 1489 

Partridge, Nelson H., 0122 

Peat, Wilbur D., 0106 

Pech, Augustus, 0656 

Peixotto, Ernest Clifford, 0291 , 1038 

Pels, Albert, 0277, 0399, 1643bb 

Penney, James, 0223, 1616a 

Pennsylvania, 0052, 0084, 0271 , 0530, 0533, 0703, 0776, 0873, 

0882, 0919, 0925, 0966, 0987, 1108, 1128, 1164, 1201, 1211, 

1345, 1593 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 0929 
Peoples, Christian J., 0155, 0213 
Pepper, Claude, 0786 "^-' 

Perkins, Frances, 1237 
Perlin, Bernard, 1007 
Pershing, Louise, 0084 
Pfehl, William, 0798 
Phantom Gallery (Los Angeles) , 1602 
Philadelphia, 0716, 0727, 0776, 0841, 1036, 1098 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, 0087, 0095, 0716, 0874, 1137 
Phillips, Bert Greer , 0137 
Phillips, Duncan, 0270, 0272 
Phillips Memorial Gallery (Washington, DC) , 0262, 0270, 0272, 

0276, 0335 
Phoenix Art Center, 1365, 1378, 1629 
Phoenix Art Museum, 1488 
Photography, 0142, 0361, 0569, 0792, 0897, 1425, 1483, 1492, 

1528, 1544, 1623, 1645b 
Piccirilli, Attilio, 0181 
Picken, George Alexander, 0222, 1611a 
Pierce, Waldo, 0786 
Pitman, Virginia, 1487 
Pollock, Jackson, 1313, 1340, 1343, 1572 
Ponier, Arthur, 0477 

Poor, Henry Varnum, 0383, 0764, 0788, 1310, 1571 
Popper, Martin, 0783, 0785 
Pordand Art Museum, 0402, 0404, 1219 
Portraiture, 0161 
Posse I, Isidore , 1 1 64 
Post, George, 1298 
Post Office Building, 0082, 0152, 0153, 0168, 0181, 0188, 0191, 

0192, 0194, 0195, 0247, 0373, 0499, 0500, 0509, 0765, 0957b, 

1274a, 1484a 



Subject Index ^^^ 

Posters, 0532, 0618, 0740, 0760, 0801, 1095, 1131, 1455, 1507, 
1533, 1596, 1597, 1616, 1622, 1634 

Posters of the WPA (Review) , 1634 

Prestopino, Gregorio, 0307 

Price, C.S., 0402 

Printmaking. See Graphic Arts 

Public Use of Art Committee, 0414, 1510 

Public Works of Art Project (PWAP) , 0046, 0048, 0049, 0053, 

0061 0065, 0072, 0075, 0077, 0086, 0089, 0093, 0103, 0105, 
0111, 0114, 0115, 0118, 0123, 0127, 0131, 0138, 0142, 0144, 
0146, 0160, 0162, 0171, 0209, 0237, 0303, 0397, 0707, 0928, 
1185 1312, 1324, 1338, 1374b, 1555, 1644b, 1657; Accom- 
plishments, 0026, 0029, 0030, 0034, 0035, 0040, 0047, 
0051, 0053, 0056, 0067, 0131; Controversies, 0016, 0039, 
0060, 0061, 0082, 0084, 0099, 0101, 0107, 0182, 0411, 1241a 
1245a 1652e, 1685; Creation, 0005, 0007, 0009, 0012, 
0014, 0015, 0017, 0020, 0021, 0022, 0023, 0031, 0036, 0041, 
0042^ 0044, 0045, 0048, 0062, 0092; Criticism, 0058, 0060, 
0068, 0073, 0100, 0113, 0144, 0176, 0230 

Public Works of Art Project (Exhibitions) , 0052, 0057, 0059, 

0063, 0065, 0066, 0070, 0074, 0076, 0078, 0079, 0080, 0082, 
0083, 0088, 0090, 0091, 0095, 0103, 0104, 0110, 0115, 0116, 
0124, 0125, 0126, 0135, 0164, 0183, 0201, 0202, 1027, 1241 

Puccinelli, Dorothy Wagner, 0147, 0194, 0674 

Purlin, Bernard, 1070 

Purser, Stuart Robert, 0968 

Pusterla, Attilio, 0032 

Putnam, Brenda, 0277 

Pyle, Clifford Colton, 0705 

Queen's General Hospital (NYC), 0481, 0485, 1644 
Quill, Michael, 0434 
Quirt, Walter, 0950 

Racism, 0245 

Rader, Albert, 0920 

Rahr West Art Museum, Manitowoc ( WI) , 1 670 

Randall, Byron, 0871 

Randolph, Asa Philip, 0567, 0575 

Ratskor, Max, 0587 

Rauso, Louise, 0389 

Rawlinson, Elaine, 0399 

Read, Herbert, 0391 



494 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Recorder of Deeds Building (Washington, DC), 1173, 1182, 1221 

Red Cross, 1131,1141,1142 

Reed, Stanley, 0691 

Reeves, Ruth, 1049 

Refregier, Anton, 0651, 0907, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1147, 1218, 

1241a, 1245a, 1266, 1271, 1272, 1283, 1453, 1482, 1510, 

1618a, 1685 
Regalbisto, Louis, 1436 
Reid, Albert, 0868 
Reilly, Frank Joseph, 0711 
Reindel, Edna, 0027 
Reinhardt, Ad, 0774, 0924, 1313 
Relief (Artists', general), 0001, 0004, 0028 
Relief (General), 0159, 1070, 1334, 1439 
Relief for Museums, 0006, 0024, 0568 
Rexroth, Andre, 0287 

Rhinelander's Logging Museum (WI), 1065 
Rhode Island, 0948 
Rhode Island School of Design, 0814 
Rhodes, Dan, 0689, 1233 
Richardson, Edgar Preston, 1560 
Richmond Hill Colony, 0357 
Richter, Mischa, 0797, 0838 
Rico, Dan, 0416 
Rikers Island, 0167 
Rincon Annex (San Francisco Post Office) , 1 105, 1 106, 1 107, 

1241a, 1245a, 1266, 1271, 1272, 1333, 1453, 1651, 1685 
Ringola, Joseph, 0587 
Riseman, William, 0147, 0166 
Rivera, Diego, 0326, 1276, 1650 
Robbins, David, 1623 
Robbins, Le Roy, 1623 
Roberts, Henry C, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215 
Roberts, Lawrence W., 0021, 0048 
Robeson Gallery Center (NJ) , 1490 
Robinson, Boardman, 0443, 0764, 1571 
Robinson, Increase, 1658 
Robinson, Joseph T., 0042 
Robus, Hugo, 0864, 1320 
Rochester (NY), 0331 

Rochester Memorial Art Gallery, 0503, 0504, 0564, 0565 
Rogers, Julia, 1545 
Romano, Emanuel, 0470 
Ronnebeck, Louise, 1371 



Subject Index 495 

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 0021, 0048, 0684, 1014, 1534a 

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 0092, 0100, 0129, 0326, 0393, 0405, 0468, 

0478, 0527, 0738, 0908, 1030, 1064, 1068, 1069, 1207, 1223, 

1237, 1258, 1518, 1521, 1525, 1534a, 1538 
Rosen, Charles, 0798, 1429 
Rosenberg, James N., 1273 
Rosenburg, Jacob, 0434 
Ross, Louis, 0269 
Roszak, Theodore, 1297 
Rothko, Mark, 1287, 1340 
Rothschild, Lincoln, 0199 
Rousseff, W. Vladimir, 0222 

Rowan, Edward Beatty, 0166, 0416, 0730, 1049, 1289, 1309 
Rowe, William B., 0155, 0194 
Rudy, Charles, 0222, 0261 
Ruellan, Andree, 1611a 
Russell Sage Foundation (NY) , 0896 
Russin, Robert I., 0834 
Rutgers University Art Gallery, 1490 
Ruth High School (El Monte, CA) , 0477 
Ruth, Jerry, 1595 
Rutka, Dorothy, 0591 
Ryland, Robert, 1596b 

Saint-Gaudens, Homer, 0009 ,1133 

Saint Louis Post Office, 1153, 1155, 1157, 1166, 1588 

Salemme, Lucia Autorino, 1602,1669 

Sambugnac, Alexander, 0689 

Sample, Paul, 0043 

San Diego, 0920 

San Francisco, 0052, 1241a, 1245a, 1298, 1415, 1450, 1532, 1553 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1553 

San Francisco World's Fair. SeePsun. Pacific Exposition 

Sand, Paul, 1404 

Sanderson, Raymond Phillips, 1007, 1070 

Sanger Isaac J., 0746 

Santa Fe Museum, 0255 

Santa Monica High School, 0463 

Santa Monica Public Library, 0132, 0185 

Sardeau, Helene, 0306 

Sarisky, Michael A., 0127, 0147, 0166 

Satemime, Lucia, 1602, 1669 

Satire, 0011, 0013, 0113, 0387, 0511, 0663, 0712 

Savage, Augusta Christine, 0575, 0858 



496 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Savage, Thomas Michael, 0078, 1520 

Sawkill Painters and Sculptors, 0440 

Sawyer, Charles Henry, 1445 

ScaravagUone, Concetta Marie, 0181, 0223, 0287, 0296, 0986, 
1421, 1427 

Schanker, Louis, 0655, 0656, 1343 

Schardt, Ber nard P. , 0438 

Scheler, Armia A., 0689, 0872 

Schellin, Robert, 1404 

Scheuch, Harry William, 1544 

Schleeter, Howard, 1684 

Science, Art, and Literature, Department of. See Federal Art 
Bureau 

Schlag, Felix, 0443 '-^. 

Schmitz, Carl Ludwig, 0181 

Schoolcraft, Freeman, 1491 

Schwartz, Arthur E., 1659 

Schwartz, Lester O., 0283 

Schwartz, William Samuel, 0155, 0591, 0605, 0677 

Schwarz, Frank Henry, 0867 

Schweig, Martyl, 1182 

Scott, William Edward, 1 182 

Scrivens, Emily, 1436 

Scudder, Hubert B., 1272 

Sculpture, 0152, 0192, 0208, 0222, 0225, 0235, 0272, 0314, 0345, 
0360, 0365, 0421, 0434, 0457, 0463, 0480, 0483, 0525, 0526, 
0532, 0541, 0550, 0590, 0597, 0603, 0622, 0624, 0638, 0658, 
0662, 0665, 0725, 0726, 0736, 0748, 0758, 0777, 0825, 0864, 
0887, 0892, 0910, 0922, 0926, 0944, 0956, 0969, 1007, 1036, 
1056, 1075, 1078, 1092, 1122, 1167, 1202, 1203, 1240, 1257, 
1314, 1324, 1330, 1332, 1336, 1356, 1367, 1378, 1468, 1535, 
1659, 1677 

Sea, Cesare, 0822, 0950 

Seabrook, Georgette, 1437 

Section of Painting and Sculpture (later, Section of Fine 

Arts), 0139, 0147, 0183, 0198, 0200, 0211, 0330, 0345, 
0383, 0409, 0516, 0644, 0734, 0735, 0793, 0956, 1001, 1012, 
1028, 1040, 1048, 1056, 1059, 1072, 1122, 1134, 1150, 1151, 
1167, 1202, 1203, 1274a, 1295, 1321, 1324, 1327a, 1334, 
1345, 1357, 1374b, 1377, 1534, 1555, 1564, 1569, 1571, 1583, 
1595, 1608, 1648, 1643a, 1652b, 1655, 1659, 1672, 1681; 
AccompUshments, 0281, 0603, 0665, 0777, 0821, 0842, 
0880, 0883, 0926, 0944, 0948, 0953, 0984, 1138, 1204; 
Competitions, 0147, 0152, 0153, 0154, 0155, 0166, 0168, 



Subject Index 497 

0174, 0175, 0181, 0188, 0191, 0195, 0222, 0224, 0248, 0261, 
0266, 0271, 0277, 0280, 0396, 0399, 0407, 0408, 0443, 0590, 
0597, 0602, 0636, 0543, 0662, 0667, 0668, 0689, 0699, 0706, 
0711, 0712, 0725, 0729, 0732, 0736, 0798, 0829, 0842, 0863, 
0865, 0868, 0870, 0871, 0872, 0956, 0964, 0971, 0972, 0976, 
1006, 1007, 1018, 1020, 1023, 1024, 1025, 1031, 1039, 1066, 
1075, 1077, 1081, 1084, 1087, 1092, 1098, 1104, 1105, 1106, 
1107, 1112, 1113, 1115, 1117, 1129, 1130, 1136, 1141, 1142, 
1173, 1182; Controversy, 0163, 0499, 0500, 0508, 1274a, 
1453, 1651; Creation, 0117, 0120, 0123, 0908 1374b; Criti- 
cism, 0157, 0158, 0168, 1069, 0416, 0959, 1197, 1239; 
Forty-Eight State Competition, 0842, 0850, 0855, 0872, 
0877, 0879, 0888, 0905, 0968, 1040; Maritime Commission 
Competition, 0956, 0971, 0972, 0976, 0994, 1002, 1007, 
1070. See alsoNev^ Deal Art; Praise, 0151, 0316, 0733, 0735, 
0815, 0951, 0973, 1101, 1140, 1185 

Section of Painting and Sculpture (Exhibitions), 0188, 0196, 

0255, 0261, 0272, 0279, 0296, 0299, 0300, 0305, 0306, 0308, 
0339, 0342, 0387, 0393, 0483, 0517, 0872, 0879, 0880, 0881, 
0905, 0958, 0960, 0961, 1040, 1041, 1043, 1102, 1136, 1139, 
1342, 1144, 1163, 1166, 1182, 1474, 1477 

Seelbinder, Maxine, 1007, 1182 

Shahn, Ben, 0138, 0167, 0169, 0648, 0956, 1031, 1273, 1283, 

1310, 1326, 1408, 1428, 1431, 1435, 1446, 1482, 1615a, 1617, 
1677 

Shahn, Bernada Bryson. S^^Bryson, Bernarda 

Shaw, Elsa Vick, 1 007, 1 070 

Shead, Robert, 1556 

Sheets, Millard Owen, 0093, 0114, 1329, 1536 

Shelley, John F., 1272 

Sheridan, Joseph, 0705 

Shimin, Symeon, 0222, 0764, 0883, 1313, 1357 

Shore, Henrietta Mary, 0261 , 0808 

Siqueiros, David Alfara, 1650 

Silvette, David, 0153, 0194 

Simkhovitch, Simkha, 0261, 1645a, 1652c 

Simon, Louis A., 0155 

Simpson, Marian, 01 19, 0318, 0497 

Sinclair, Gerrit V., 0689, 0798 

Sioux City Art Center, 1 642 

Siporin, Mitchell, 0235, 0272, 0464, 0798, 0863, 0865, 0872, 0961 , 
1153, 1155, 1157, 1166, 1491, 1596b, 1611a, 1630, 1652c, 

Sirovich, William I., 0212, 0213, 0482, 0641, 0657, 0782, 0785, 
0937 



498 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Skelton, Katherine, 0920 

Sisti, Anthony, 1652c 

Slemp, Basom, 0943 

Slivka, David, 1298 

Slobodkin, Louis, 0277, 0662 

Smith, George Melville, 1596b 

Smith, Judson Dejonge, 0713, 1596b 

Smithsonian Institution, 0719, 0720, 0745, 1471 

Smolin Gallery (NYC) , 1 287, 1 288, 1 292 

Snedeker, Virginia, 1089 

Snyder, Jerome, 1104 

Social Realism, 0237, 1379, 1408, 1413, 1654b, 1656 

Social Security Building, 1020, 1031, 1104, 1151, 1180, 1617 

SoHo, 1431 

Solman, Joseph, 1546, 1602 

Somervell, Brehon Burke, 0878, 1009, 1014, 1015, 1017, 1032, 

1037, 1417 
Sorby, J. Richard, 1090 
Soules, Lyman, 0365 
South Carolina, 1655 
South Carolina State Museum, 1647, 1655 
Southern Illinois University, 1362 
Southern States Art League, 0634 
Southern U.S., 0242, 0282, 1564 
Southwest Museum (Los Angeles) , 0377, 0465 
Southwestern U.S., 1324 
Soyer, Moses, 0223, 1320, 1326, 1616 
Soyer, Raphael, 0438, 1408, 1427, 1542 
Spekman, Russell, 0826 
Spencer, Niles, 1345 
Spiegel, Doris, 1542 
Spivak, Max, 0464 
Spohn, Clay, 1091 
Spokane Art Center, 0763, 1 378 

Springfield Museum of Fine Arts (MA) , 0427, 0970, 1 044 
Springweiler, Erwin Frederick, 0689, 1104 
Staffel, Rudolph Henry, 0078 
Stanley, George, 1653b 
Steele, Mary, 0479 
Stell, Thomas, 1312 
Stendahl Galleries (CA), 0398,0527 
Stephens, Harold M., 0691 
Sterne, Maurice, 0764, 0959, 1571 
Sterner, Albert Edward, 1192 



Subject Index 499 

Stevens, Ernest S., 1487,1575 

Stevenson, Dorothea, 1556 

Stewart, Dorothy, 0238 

Stieglitz, Alfred, 0326 

Stiriss, Pauline, 1044 

Stockwell, Gale, 0127 

Stokes, Isaac Newton Phelps, 0671 

Stone, Harlan J., 0691 

Stone, Harold, 0446 

Strong, Peggy, 0689 

Strong, Ray, 1653b, 1663 

Struppeck, Jules, 1556 

Studio Museum in Harlem, 1447a 

Supreme Court, 0691 

Sussman, Richard, 0950 

Swasey, David, 1007, 1070 

Swift, Florence, 0475 

Swiggett,Jean, 0956, 1007, 1070, 1671 

Swinden, Albert, 1654a 

Swineford, Derald, 1556 

Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, 0637 

Szukalksi, Stanislaus, 0124 

Taber,John, 1171 

Tabor, Robert, 0093, 1 66, 0227, 1 520 

Tamatzo, Chuzo, 0422 

Tamayo, Ruffino, 0488 

Taskey, Harold Le Roy, 0234 

Taylor, Francis Henry, 0009, 0045 

Taylor, Henry White, 0584, 0600 

Taylor, Jeanne, 0807 

Tenkacs,John, 1426 

Tennessee, 1587, 1673 

Terminal Annex (Los Angeles, CA) , 1066 

Terrell, Elizabeth, 1429 

Texas, 0148, 0707, 0729, 0870, 1312, 1631a, 1645 

Textiles, 1222 

Thomas, Florence, 1438 

Thompson, Lorin Hartwell, Jr., 0968 

Thorp, Earl Norwell, 1007 

Thorp, George B., 0936, 1104 

Thorpe, George, 1658 

Thrash, Dox, 1050, 1652d 

Thwaites, Charles Winstanley, 1139 



500 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Timberline Lodge, 0369, 0558, 0559, 0589, 0967, 1064, 1 173, 

1372, 1378, 1405, 1410, 1412, 1438, 1452, 1461, 1566, 1567, 
1605 

Tobey, Alton S., 0968 

Toledo, Jose Rey, 1556 

Tolegian, Manuel J., 0986 

Train.John, 1402 

Travis, Olin, 1312 

Treasury of American Design (Review) , 1 382a 

Treasury Relief Art Project (TRAP), 0166, 0175, 0179, 0181, 

0194, 0200, 0221, 0235, 0487, 0516, 0779, 0933, 1295, 1301, 
1328, 1357, 1367, 1389, 1636a, 1657b, 1662 

Triest, Shirley, 1298 

True, Bob, 0269 -v 

Tschashasov, 0974 

Tsihnahjinnie, Andy, 0127 

Tugwell, Rexford G., 0009 

TurnbuU, James Baare, 1616a 

Turner, Ila McAfee, 1556 

Turzak, Charles, 0261 

Tweed Caller)^ (NYC) , 1 643aa 

Tweed Museum of Art (University of Minnesota) , 1422a 

Tworkov,Jack, 1297 

Tydings, Millard E., 0942, 0943 

Tyrone, 0093 

Ulreich, Eduard Buk, 1429 

Umlauf, Charles, 1491 

Unionism, 0170, 1367 

United American Artists, 0587 

University of Arizona Art Gallery, 1 488 

University of Colorado, 0183 

University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), 1491, 1516 

University of Kentucky, 1581 

University of Maryland Art Gallery, 1313, 1314, 1316, 1474, 1526 

University of Michigan Museum of Art, 1580 

University of Washington, 1363 

University of Wisconsin, 1341 

Utah, 0741, 1600, 1603, 1629, 1652h 

Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 1 669 

Van Arsdale, Arthur, 1556 
Van Beek, William, 0638 
Vander Sluis, George, 1371, 1436 



Subject Index 501 

Van Veen, Stuyvesant, 0153 

Varian, Lester E., 0102 

Vassar College Art Gallery, 1 421 , 1 441 

Velonis, Anthony, 0962, 0991, 1109, 1596 

Vidar, Frede, 0313 

Vincent, Andrew, 0689 

Virgin Islands, 0424 

Virginia, 0126 

Von Groschwitz, Gustave, 1595 

Von Meyer, Michael, 0296 

Von Minckwitz, Katherine, 0527 

Von Neumann, Robert, 1404 

Von Pribosic, Viktor, 0334 

W.P.A. (Restaurant, NYC), 1431 

Walcott, Frederic C, 0089 

Walker Art Gallery, 0807, 0952, 1047 

Walker, Hudson D., 0323, 0384 

Waltemath, William, 0384 

Wannamaker's Department Store (Philadelphia), 0109 

War Department Building, 1007, 1018, 1075, 1086, 1104 

Ward, Lynd, 0836 

Warneke, Heinz, 0181, 0296, 1357 

Warsager, Hyman J., 0505, 0656, 0991 

Washburn Gallery (NY), 1601, 1614 

Washburn, Kenneth, 0235, 0277 

Washington (DC). 5gg District of Columbia 

Washington (State), 1363, 1629 

Washington County (MD) Museum of Fine Arts, 1647a 

Washington Gallery of Modern Art, 1 297, 1 299 

Watkins, Charles Law, 0190 

Watrous, Harry Willson, 0046 

Watson, Aldren A., 1007 

Watson, Forbes, 0009, 0015, 0021, 0045, 0048, 0138, 0416, 0821, 

1197,1285,1309 
Watson, Sargent, 0119 
Waugh, Sidney, 0181,0191,0247 
Webb, Albert]., 0234, 0591 
Weber, Max, 1273 
Weidinger, Desire, 0326 
Wein, Albert, 0638 
Weinberg, Emily Sievert, 0119 
Weisenborn, Fritzi, 0834, 1190 
Weisenborn, Rudolph, 1190 



502 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Wells, Summer, 0973 

Wesleyan University, 0833 

Wessel, H.H., 0147, 0235 

Wessels, Glenn Anthony, 0078, 0298 

West, Richard, 1556 

Westby Gallery (Glassboro State College) , 1331 

Weston, Edward, 1623 

Weston, Harold, 0409 

Weyhe Gallery (NYC), 0962 

Wheeler, Stewart, 0882, 0966 

White, Charles, 1491 

White, Gilbert, 0082, 0085, 0600 

Whitehall Ferry Terminal (NYC) , 0875 

Whitney Museum of American Art, 0061, 0068, 0261, 0277, 0279, 
0296, 0299, 0300, 0305, 0306, 0308, 0339, 0387, 0955, 0958, 
0960, 0961, 1028, 1043, 1117, 1164, 1511a, 1657 

Whittmere, Margaret, 1457 

Whyte Gallery (Washington, DC), 0871 

Wiley, Lucia, 0222 

Williamsburg Housing Projects (NYC), 1400, 1601, 1654a 

Willis, J.R., 0255 

Wilson, Douthitt, 1312 

Wilson, Helen, 1138 

Wiltz, Arnold, 0294 

Winser, Beatrice, 0043,0055,0110 

Winter, Lumen, 0689 

Winter, Vinal, 0138 

Wisconsin, 1065, 1404, 1451, 1489, 1653, 1654, 1670 

Woeltz, JuUus, 0798, 0870 

Wolins, Joseph, 1602 

Women, 1672 

Women Artists, 1421, 1637a, 1643, 1644a, 1657a, 1669 

Wood, Grant, 0127, 1454 

Woodrum, Clifton A, 0838, 0936, 0939, 0940, 1171 

Woodside (NY) Public Library, 0431 

Woodstock Colony (NY) , 1347, 1441 

Woodward, Ellen S., 0783, 0786, 1536a 

Woolley, Virginia, 0642a 

Work Progress Administration (WPA; after 1939, Work Projects 
Administration) , 0243, 0364, 0365, 0366, 0367, 0405, 
0430, 0551, 0589, 0601, 0787, 0789, 0795, 0804, 0851, 0852, 
0945, 1126, 1169, 1170, 1208, 1236, 1240, 1301, 1308, 1334, 
1339, 1401 



Subject Index 503 

World's Fair, New York (1939-40) , 0473, 0590, 0625, 0638, 0643, 
0662, 0667, 0668, 0689, 0706, 0711, 0737, 0739, 0822, 0823, 
0861, 0900, 0927, 0980, 0981, 0985, 0986, 0987, 0989, 0990, 
1367, 1407, 1458 
WPA/FAP (Exhibitions), 0203, 0228, 0238, 0246, 0249, 0251, 

0259, 0262, 0263, 0270, 0272, 0275, 0276, 0278, 0284, 0285, 
0286, 0287, 0292, 0294, 0296, 0297, 0301, 0313, 0317, 0332, 
0333, 0334, 0335, 0337, 0338, 0340, 0341, 0377, 0382, 0387, 
0389, 0390, 0398, 0400, 0402, 0404, 0410, 0415, 0422, 0423, 
0427, 0429, 0437, 0441 , 0444, 0449, 0476, 0481 , 0485, 0488, 
0502, 0503, 0518, 0520, 0521, 0522, 0523, 0524, 0526, 0527, 
0529, 0530, 0531, 0532, 0533, 0534, 0565, 0577, 0605, 0619, 
0622, 0624, 0651, 0654, 0655, 0670, 0672, 0677, 0679, 0683, 
0684, 0685, 0686, 0692, 0695, 0698, 0702, 0708, 0710, 0719, 
0720, 0724, 0745, 0746, 0747, 0748, 0749, 0750, 0751, 0754, 
0755, 0756, 0757, 0758, 0759, 0760, 0761, 0762, 0802, 0812, 
0820, 0823, 0824, 0833, 0834, 0835, 0843, 0875, 0890, 0891, 
0892, 0893, 0894, 0896, 0897, 0898, 0899, 0900, 0901, 0902, 
0903, 0904, 0915, 0963, 0965, 0975, 0979, 0980, 0981, 0982, 
0983, 0985, 0986, 0989, 0990, 1027, 1042, 1045, 1046, 1087, 
1090, 1103, nil, 1114, 1164, 1195, 1216, 1219, 1232, 1287, 
1288, 1292, 1294, 1297, 1299, 1313, 1314, 1316, 1320, 1329, 
1330, 1331, 1362, 1388, 1422a, 1445, 1448, 1447a, 1460, 
1492, 1512, 1540, 1548, 1553, 1577, 1580, 1581, 1602, 1619, 
1633, 1647, 1647a, 1654b, 1668, 1686. Se^ fl/50 New Deal Art 
(Exhibitions) ; Index of American Design (Exhibitions) 
WPA/FAP (General), 0206, 0233, 0250, 0312, 0322, 0331, 0346, 
0365, 0367, 0379, 0391, 0403, 0446, 0451, 0466, 0488, 0516, 
0536, 0543, 0563, 0595, 0688, 0713, 0790, 0794, 0817, 0831, 
0840, 0857, 0862, 0928, 1009, 1016, 1037, 1049, 1056, 1060, 
1122, 1167, 1168, 1175, 1199, 1202, 1203, 1210, 1212, 1218, 
1224, 1229, 1281, 1308, 1313, 1314, 1323, 1327a, 1332, 1334, 
1335, 1339, 1342, 1359, 1367, 1374, 1377, 1378, 1555, 1560, 
1561, 1565, 1572, 1575, 1586, 1595, 1611, 1613, 1646, 1653a, 
1655, 1658; Accomplishments, 0199, 0204, 0205, 0206, 
0258, 0307, 0354, 0356, 0368, 0370, 0448, 0462, 0465, 0538, 
0541, 0542, 0601, 0620, 0726, 0767, 0770, 0771, 0772, 0777, 
0778, 0789, 0795, 0804, 0815, 0860, 0866, 0873, 0878, 0882, 
0886, 0912, 0913, 0914, 0926, 0938, 0940, 0945, 0954, 0984, 
1029, 1061, 1074, 1079, 1109, 1119, 1132, 1133, 1183, 1184, 
1245; Controversy, 0265, 0267, 0325, 0328, 0387, 0470, 
0478, 0508, 0790, 0812, 0969, 0993, 1187, 1190, 1191, 1192, 
1209, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1417, 1418, 1437, 1456, 1470; 



504 The New Deal Fine Arts Projects 

Creation, 0180, 0187, 0190, 0193, 0218, 0219, 0535; Criti- 
cism, 0224, 0252, 0267, 0292, 0297, 0298, 0304, 0319, 
0326, 0380, 0416, 0458, 0468, 0628, 0673, 0680, 0690, 0709, 
0776, 0853, 0856, 0936, 1014, 1088, 1096, 1217, 1233, 1245; 
Praise, 0223, 0229, 0237, 0243, 0251 , 0263, 0274, 0282, 
0303, 0311, 0322, 0329, 0376, 0387, 0415, 0428, 0433, 0434, 
0435, 0442, 0444, 0447, 0466, 0469, 0472, 0491, 0492, 0493, 
0511, 0540, 0551, 0562, 0598, 0611, 0620, 0800, 0811, 0815, 
0830, 0844, 0848, 0852, 0854, 0930, 0949, 0987, 0997, 1003, 
1014, 1026, 1030, 1033, 1160; Regulations, 0219, 0220, 
0221, 0320, 0366, 0796, 0869, 1008, 1032. Seealsolndex of 
American Design; New Deal Art 

Wright, Mabel Truthen, 0564 

Wright, Sidney v., 0700 -^. 

Wrightson, Phyllis, 0911 

Wulf, Lloyd, 0775 

Wyeth, N.C., 0644 

Wyoming, 0269, 0494, 1349, 1368, 1371, 1487, 1578 

Yasko, Karel, 1544 

Yavno, Max, 1623 

YM-YWHA of Essex County, New Jersey, 1320 

Yountz, Philip N., 0433 

Zaga, Michael, 1210 

Zakheim, Bernard Baruch, 0469, 0911, 1618a 

Zerbe, Karl, 0287, 0441 

Zilzer, Gyula, 0527 

Zimmerman, Harry, 0277, 0399 

Zoellner, Richard Charles, 0147, 0175, 0426, 0798 

Zorach, William, 0060, 0299, 0434, 1078 

Zornes, Milford, 1618a, 1636a, 1657b 



ABOUT THE AUTHOR 



MARTIN R. KALFATOVIC (BA, MSLS, The Catholic Univer- 
sity of America) is the Information Access Coordinator for 
the Smithsonian Institution Libraries and formerly a librar- 
ian at the National Museum of American Art/National 
Portrait Gallery. He is the author oi Nile Notes of a Howadji: A 
Bibliography of Traveler's Tales from Egypt, from the Earliest Times 
to 1918 (Scarecrow Press, 1992) and co-author of the forth- 
coming Travels to India, Antiquity through 1761 (Scarecrow 
Press) .