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Digitized by 


39^ Ji 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 


pigitized by 



Digitizecl by LaOO^lC 








7le d^arent Sdences and Art8 are digested into the Form of distinct Treatiees or Systems ; 

Inclodiog the i ' 






Including also , 





voL. xxn. 

""" ' ^ — ■ • ' '■• I -^'^ 




R. Moriion, Print«r« Ptitb. 


Digitized by VjOOQ lC 

Digitized by 


4.. jih* i 

r . . V c 


." rr. 

S tj ft 

O of tbe &inily \ f Be name which one hai 
^Mi^Yethe ChH(H4fVn;lme.— Mjiny which 
■w«m EogUO^ |oined with the Iriih acAiatt 
t!« k»g, tskmg dif tKcm' Irim h^iN and cnitom^ 
rf »fcicfc (b(t be nrt>IV of f he/^itamr/ tbat end hi 
«• u iieraan« Shlniit, and MangaD. SpenJ^:^ 
^ «*fe heir Dot oiAy of hii brothcr*! kiiig- 
te, bat of bla ^irttle^ and haughty thod^hti» 
H^r^/antamt M(o of BiirlMro£Diy begati ta 
*^ to ihe emptre. ^<>/fr».-^The epithet» of 
P«*tBnH flKmfieur ikileaa 1« bf opimoD) Si^m 
a lie aatwrt of /ufmamef. Pope^ a. An appcJlt* 
^ added to tbc erl ginftl name«^ • 

Witiiel^ m»y . . t 

)Vr^Mtfnr CdrlolMai t tbe pain^l (ervicrf 

Tk atrcoie daMgcrt; > and the dropn df bb^ 

&ed ibr ny tlHmlilefa codntry, are requked 

^withlhtH/iifmame,< ^ Sbak.* 

L. $i7tffaiif \n that Wbich ia added to the pro« 

■^«■le for diitiiigiiiihthg peHbns and familie8. 

^ *« originUly -di<linf!liiOied Atrni sunamE} 

"^ dsnotes the naroe 'i^ thtf jfhp or pro^nit«*r i- 

-'^UMdĕnald and Acherf/<mt are finname9 ex- 

^^theJmt^I^mtkliibe/tmd/Robertt The 

*«riyWiMtr» aftaii> froni /*/% /V. h^e^ or tipon) 

^i «MBi aaaiM', 6gn{licd*fome name Ali^added 

^ lAe proper Mcn^ ro niilinguiih the irtdividoa]« 

"* Aitscerses Lonji^hnmtuss Harokl' BartjfboU 

^sitt Cammre. From thia it M evidtm» that 

^Jimame waa a /tumame^ but ^rY/ttrkahe 

-"•* oot & trmmme, Jn modtrn tkne» they are 

^**^ CMMmdcd ; aml as Ihere iti ^dw little- 

^cmto pfvfer«e the diitib^on, Dr Johniba 

^')<ciefted che mc/tt^Jrname altogether ; whett- 

** ^ocTtamlyclJd «rroog» for he has ritaiiMei worda 

'^•oieoblblctc. SccKame. Sumamei have 

^^ntrodoced among moit nations bnt anrobg 

^•otat a "tery carly pcriod. They feerti to 

'^*n forTBcd «t firfl by addinp the name of tbe 

**^tj liwr of tbc Ibn. Amoag thc Wcbrcws, 

V^XX1L PaRX 1. 

8 U R - 

f ■> - ' ' ' 1. . ■ 

Calrl) rs denoihinatect thfrfdn'6f i^hafineht aoJ * 
Jo(htia the fon of Niin. %m ii is eTident Ihat , 
tfafefe wet« not uled ai JwrnMsk BT^n fi> latea^ 
our Saviour*i tlme the Jewi liad no regilarhK 
abiiy /umamei. Some had nicknntmei^ or perronal 
epithetK from accidentil or «baraaerimc^i 'drw 
enmitances, ai Simon Peter\ yridas LeUMs; J^ 
Jkph Barjabru ^Jhts, Jwias I/earktl &Ci 0dt 
notic (>f thefe were ^ertd^taryy a» ail iurnanHt^ 
pit>t>erty are. J/carht ift thought b^ foMe coii*' 
iHtHitaton to have betU a n«me^taKM'bf 'Juilwi 
fro»n hi« landed prot>erfyi We aditllt Ihjrtia^ll 
n«tton>i< wlrtlc mi^h had tttit htte lilrhe] it W&^tilllat^ 
t0 drftingu$Bi th^m» by mentionin^ Ihc nim^o^ 
Vheir ^atherit That the ancien^iO^elii, as* w(4la^* 
Hie JeWidtdfoM^evid^t from4heirery'firft!Kneof 
thetliad: h^ti^mtUijiit^Sisi ««Acbhl^i thc'toof 
Prteus/* * Thii perbapji gavls rtle •»= furriartlei^i 
which at taA becam^ commbr^- ^^t rnoft m^ 
tkini. Theold Norttiini ul^d^/:^ w^itch figniftea 
/on ; as Fit%Jberhertf tit^/immoni^ the /<m o/ Het' 
b^rti thc >» o/ Shrron* Tbe lri(H * iifed 0, or 
Qti ^S''^/'^* ^»**^ itr*iirufed in many partn 
of Scotland r^heconypiler^i Ynatkmalgreatira^d-' 
tDothei- boalted thai ih6 had^tao oj^es: &NeaU 
0*Donnefi 8ie. therefore fli?«^ t^e f^andfon <^_ 
Neal and i/ DĕnalA^ The Sc%iih' HlgWaadeni 
ebployed Mae\ as Maedimai^i^i^/onc/ DoMd» 
The Saatoti» afd«i^d the WordyW to the cikl of tbe * 
fatherVname; ai WMcmJon, -The Romanip-c-* 
ntraity hadthree nAn9fc#i*bften ^«r^^r^ht. TThc 
firft called ' pranoytitn knlVered^to oiir CbHltraii 
name, and Wai imc^nded to dUtitrguiCh tbtinHtri- • 
doala of the faroily ; the id c?X\t^ ttomen corref^ 
ponded to the word clart in 9crottand> and waa 
^tven to all thofe wbo were fprung from tbe famc 
(lock ; the ^d called cnnemien eapfe(n:d the par- 
ticular brancK of the tribt* or clan frdm which an 
- individual wa* fprung. Thuii Publius Gorntl^u» 
Scipi'U PnLUtu corrffpord-d toour nanoei John, 
RoUrty and William : CorncUuj Wai thc oamc of 
A tic 

Digitized by 


S U R ( * ) 5 U 

thc clan or tribc, as CamplSeU was forincrly the ipg the p to the fathcr's 

namc of all thc Dukc of Argyle's cHtnts, and 

Dougiaa of thc rctaincrs of thc Dtikc of Hamil- 

ton'8 progcnitor». Sttpitt bctng added^ convcytd 

thi» information^ that P^iblius» who Was of the 

tribi' of tbc Cornclii, was of thc family oF that 

Scipiu, who lcd ahout hn agcd bitnd fathcr^and 

namc : thus Evcn sjT 
Ricc bccomĕ« Ev:m Ptice ; GTiARn ap Hbwei» 
Griffin PotuJ^h — Wc arc told» furnanic8 werc ud-" 
known in SWedcn till tyij^ aod tKat thscommon 
ptopk' orthrit^cOuntry ufc noiU to tbig day ; and^ 
that the fame . is the cafc with t^c ^uigar '&\^y 
Poitrs', ahd j^jhemians. Many ^wtiamer werc 

becamcayr^o or^^ii^to him. But thcy had alfo d(>ubtlcfa^originaliy bcttowed on account of tbe 

" ' ' qiialitie9of mind^aaBc^/^ /fen(;r, il^^^/^: fomefor 

the qxialftic3 oi^ boiy, as Stronj^^ Lo^tt, Sbotti. Sic» 
But thc grcateft number of &rname8 w<fKe bop- 
rowcd from thc damcs of places; and not a- 
ftw fr6m thc couoC^y at laree; a» S^tiy Saot- 
landy B/tsi(fin tngHs^ England; Wales, fVelfi!i Ire- 

the AgMome»i which was gcncraily per/otmi^ 
thougU f>mciimc« hcrcdl^ary;! atid was dcnvcd 
from fome parttcu4ar circttTntt^anee or accident 
happcning to individuaU. 8cc Aa^iOMtN ahd 
COONOMSHw Du Ch^fne ob^en^a, that j^rnamcs 
werc unknown in Prancc beforc ^9%, Whcn thc 

lorda to K^meihc njimei of tb«tT de-. ia>vh &c, x:iimjeiifevstbatlhcrri'» not ariJMge 
roefne!»^Camdc«^R5feu<t*wf iti^were^Mtttikcn* iiiNo^ 4i^ it« iiame to fbmc 

up in Englaod, a littU before the conqueft, undtr family in England. H« mcntions as cramplcs 
IL Edward thc O ftnftflgr.riwit4wadd% «iwMrtH^ ^4!mrf ^^ ^ ^ ^ nĕ ĕ i ' ^ ttki ^ mr titmr, tTarrcih 
wcre never fully cftabh{hcd among tbc common &c. They werc introduccd with Wil«iam L Se- 

pcople lill thc timc of Edward'lJ. y «j^* thcn they 
wcre Taricd with tb« Aitherli name ;. if thc father, 
€. gr^ was called KicbarJ^ or Rogert thc fon was 
called IiUbardfoftt otHod^oH ; but from that timc 
thcy wcrc fettledrforoe lay, by adho^ pariiamcot. 
The oldtft furnames are thofe wc find in Dbmtf- 
day-book, moft of tMm takcn ix^m placcs, with 
the addition oide; as Gpdefridu8 de Manncviira, 

▼cral hav^ bef n dCrivcd*from placcs in the Nc-thcr- 
land^, as Gaunt^ Tou naj^ GranMfon / a d many 
from the names of towns aiid viliagcs in Englaod' 
a«i Scotland^j as ft^entnvofth; Markhan^ Murraj^. 
yiiferdten', Miny havc bccn formcd frora thc 
names of animals.. as £/o»> Dog^ Hog^ Cĕckt taP' 
men^ <Scc man]| jTom ilcgctabies, and mincrals, 
&c. OthtrA (ii^c formtcl from Ajch a vailety of 

Wytcr^s**» VefnQ6,iJS^%ft/^Qyly, &c. Othcra ao^entrtliat it would^bc iriAmE tcrpBtictilar 
^«pa their f;|thfr8i ^<* j?/w*.. a0.QiiUclrpmj^/i>a, isw,.thi?rr, After theMi?Cfivai .of lcarnmpi. whcn 
Oi^rni^j; ^t^ (r^pg^ir pAkci,^^» £uoo JDo^ moA? J^Mropcaa auihon .wrotc in Latin, it wa^ a* 
;bi^fV J&^MtioiuSj^^/c^rii», d«flc^tU9.C>rM/r very gehcral praaicc to ' J^limac their furnaaic«v 
4^ '^But .rhd ia^Or peopk are nottd &m{^iy by. eiiVen,by adding a Latr^t UApmstioa to<tf»em» or 
tht3tir^Chrift^7;^tf^Q8» iwuhout any fui;namcri.. l>y f .cpmpkrtc^iajiOatio^toWhi^ of^R.dirgiiifi:d 
S^c?,tJl««)ii tbf5rjiierc,ftrft intro/iuctd. into gijot- thc.^n cntnrdy, , 'Jhuh J\tatf«i^ Ho(fiiakf author pi 
Ijiilj in tjje^fVc..of,Wii^am tlic^on^uerg^^^ a iUtio I^^^Jonary^ n^A^d b\n>Q l^ ]^anci/cm pt 

^iiSfi^i^w\^^ accoatp|UM€4^(^^r Atiieling wbco^ Sjnera QMtrcMf I^rkwood^aod ituddiman,viii tbtir 
bt:8s4*^9i^^^^ngdtm.^Thcie hadthcirpi^ Juatin Grammarst caltcd' thtm^Wes Kirk*ufodMs^ 
W.^Wm^ ^MMo^hrtis^' i^iU^ -^» *<^^* ^^^J^iMimanniu^;. aod ^n JoJate as thc c«d of 
^g:tfc^.pa||#qlj! ^, bcf9ft tienB ;. wbfcb.mal»ii l*ft ccntury,X)r Prown, m his S^ementa ^AUdidiue^ 
ittinpbaWcitbat theiii^fwf^c8 b^bqfRd<rritod ftylpd bimftlf yocww Brrn^^; whciioe thc cpi- 
4l<»nAiiU)c l^Mo^a; whjch thar ai^eft^ oc the>y) thet SR^NONrAM wa« applied to his dodcinc» and* 
tA^plWv£ti hid^r^ypAiii&di JSut Si^ttiih bift9rian«; his folIowtr8. But jurname^ otlgHt lu^Ycr to be 
ipcnl,t»9 ibmf fticj»a#«8 m; Si(^ptl»d a^ipacb «aiw traydated ; 9nd ChrJA^ao; nlunc s alway^^ough t, cx- 
>|cr ^rjoda \\ an^^^racc^ thc furname o( Aftw^w; ccpi whcn borrowed fropn Jurnoi^t. Sf?t Lours . 
tr^ »-n»tu^ S^ ^J^ .«^feAw l^i^tbat of Af4*q ♦j^ ^i^jia^m*, ^i ^ Ijwmmmr. fr. fronv 

gregor IromidiHHb^i^ 'b«ft4rd of siT. fiffS9rf thtt 
^reat, who boĕb reigped in Xbe|l^ century. (Sec 
ScoTbANm § IX. '^od r^)*. ^ome antiquarie8 
datc theorigin of )the./fmaiuc of Graibam [o cariy^ 
;^ thc fth ceatury, frqm on^^raitam, a S«ottiih. 
hcror . whO' icaped^ Qvef . and dcmoitftKd part of 
Antoinnu6^8 way,tb9ncc'cj^tlc(i ORi^HAM^jB Dyicsv 
(See.SiQOTi.AND, $)ri>*>', A^d ii 19 ccnain ibat ia. 
K«nneth IKi tioije, ip SojO^ thc gr^ot meri hadibcr^ 
g^u^n to call thcir lan4^ by thrir own ti^nnes, a/id 
ioon^t^» ^h^ ^r^rjomi bvanchc8^thttir JamihcB' 
took thcir fi|mafittc» fron[V.tbcfe cj^at€4f«>.iQtbcr««i 
aa fumamc8 4o^c^ft«d|.*took tthcir aamcs d^om* 
tbcir:ofiT0C9, M,Strwartu fro9 thetr buTiiier^ 48/ 

thcnpun^] To namc by au. originai apprllatioa 
addcd tothe name^-^AootW ihavl. /rmiJMr bim- 
felf bythe name of Kracl., ^«Iin s^ — Fyr«cu«, 
only famou^for ciounte(fiBiiing cat^cn pitchers^ 
-wsAjSrnamed Rupographu'»*' Peaci^am^ — 
Hpw bci y»r»a»iVof Africa, dimif8'd 

In hi8 prlmc youth thc fair Iberian maid. Mi/t^ 
— God coriimandedman what wasgood; butthe. 
dcviJ Curn^^d \l cvU. South^ 

SUROE. ; or SoaoB, \i\ iOand in tbe North 

SUROY,.) Scs^ op ihe caaft of Korway : a^^ 
miles ioiig, and % ^toiA^ Lon, 40» o.J^Fcrro. 
Lat. 7Q»34- N, j /; 

♦.raSyiiPAS^. V.a.I>n>^r, Frcnchv}. T<> 

Stmtbt,Xajioft ^c. othcTS from their complex»©ni. exccl ; t<^exctcd.: ^) go ^yo •4M.cxccUtfOCC. — 

or iUture* as Bi^tpkt Whittt Rtd^ Bro^um^ JLongM^ 
Skortt &c. It wa long bct^orc any fumames 
worc u(cd io Wale^s cxccpt thfit of fon, as E^uan 
ap Ricef £van tbĕ fon of Ricc ^ David ap Ho^vei, . 
Davtd thc fon of Howcl : but nunjy of tbem have 
at 'cngth fonped,(ieparatc furriafDC8,aa thc £ni:lilb 
a!iw Scots, by leayiog out tbc a h\ ap^ «nJ join- 

Tljc thmate'8 dtlicatc# 
. Pertilc the iflt*r the teinplc mm^/arpqffimg 
Thc «j9i^n9oo praite it bearti. < Shakm. 

. P> by what namc, for ihou abore all therc, 
SurpaJj^Ji far my naming ! Mi/tan • 

-rAc.hili"», iii ilrcnpth aa4 couraec />*rpaj/ed tb« 
rcik of thc Grcc an army. prj-irii.-^ 

Digitized by 


S U R ( 

Aiiyii^*ftitejH|e^wl;9 ? 
Wbofe bci«'Dly lonb bcr €ellowt dia Jumafs. \ 

«-Uoder or netr Hic Hae «re mGWntaitis, which^ 
for bi^iirii ^ «ninber, J^rfmf^ thdfe oiP cohlcr 
cofi«ne«, a% much ai tbe beit therr/itf;^a^thiit 
3oftlK)(ccountriet. ff6odward, *' * f 

* S^kPASfiABtE. adj. \UMfiirpofi a(fd,«ilr.] 
Tl« mar be mceaed. !)$&. * 

* SOtLfJkSSiHG* /MrtidpaladJ. iftam/urpafi.] 
EkA« b m bigb ^cfttt^^ 

' 6 »Im» ! thjit with/urpa^it^ glory .crflwa'd, i 

• took'ft liocn tby ible dooitniou likr tbe ^nd 
X)fthftocwworli. . jlf//lrbii) 

r^u mirade* provcd hiiri -to l>? fcnt from .God,* 
bjtMyiv7^«f goodners^heyd^dionlhatid to 
toc •««(*. dakm^, 

•«mPASSINGLY. a:^. lfrom/u;yi5^;fP.] In 
awrynoK^ntmjiiTrer. i>U. • • ** - 

(r.)^ Wl^ioe. it. / (/W^i^, iiarpm, fY. 
ji^IB^am^ Lat.]" Xhe white gaVb which 'the 
dBCr n^ ih tbe^ afts of ^ffiftratton.-rJt wiH 
^^yt^ib^^l/Ikr of buiiii(itydver ri)e black gown 
<tfibif hcan. *A<ii.— Thc cmdtu» gabiniis is a 
i9«f ganBenty oot bnrdie t /iirpltĕe^ which «was 
latbmi aboat tbe midd.e with a girdle. Add^. 

(t.)Sv&rLic€« B^Ctn. 5S, etery mimOer lay- 
io|fbrQiib'te7iTaycrf, or mini<tenn|j 'the Tacra- 
WH or other ntea of tbe chnrch, flmll wear 

• ^rccAtaiidcomely iorplire with neem, to be 
ro»i<Jed at the cbtm ot thc ptrith. ^nt by t 
&I-C 1. ttd 11 and 14 Ckr. 4l. the e4rb prc- 
We<f bf aA of parlitment, in thc ad ycar of 
^E4ward'Vf« is enjoined; j*nd tbia re^nires 
t^iudie (tyiog or ingiiig 6f matina and jcren 
^^ btptiztog tnd burying, tbe mini^er in pa^. 
nA<dnnztet «iH cbtpeis ihalt Dfe a ifbfplirf. 
'Aad !■ jM ctthednl -cburcbee and.-cotlegesy the 
>fcUcacoB, detn» proToAs, mttteri, prebendt- 
tiei, ad iA\tm% being grtdutte^» m^ ufe io 
^ciqir, befidettlieif rurpitces, ^uch hooda ts 
PittaD to tbeir^ieyantl de^rret. 9yt in all otber 
1*>e»eiefy mioi^^ ihtll be at libcrty to ufe t 
*Tfcc nr ooC. For the boly ^kHttmaTHon thb 
T^wt appoiMtt while A(^ putin, which dfffert 
*«tfcefirpficc in betni^ ^loie-AeeTedy witb it 
**»2L5[ ^**P*» 8fe AtB. 

* SnCTODS. ) «./ (^ aod^Ki I Prench.} 
^V&PLQBAGE.{ A rtipermnnertry pm; Qf- 

•Bplai; wbat reinaint wben o(e is fati8fied.^ 

If tbet tbee M my offered grtce to ufe, 

Tikc wbst tfaoo4>leafe^ tll \\M/^rfdufagc. 

'n^jo* bave-Tooeb£ifM my podr bonie io 

^ ii \^jba eift»n grace. Sbakif^ 

T^ta ilic pricSe of com ftlleth« men gi^e <Wcr 
rfi» tiBage. GBrvqi;.-*We mtde i ^blttnce ib 
%^toJ«idfty, Chatbir Ib^mtll tn agiutionr 
^^^fV^fi tf hf agi of t&t whicb tbe tmbient 
j^ttmt to luNc nkoot the tdi^dle ^en of a 
^^*»*! dty, aboTC whal it hatb 1» tbe^rit part. 
?^ TV oPccrt (pcnt tllt 4b as there was no 
^J2|f»i df ttcalbre. iMfWf.— AO tbtt /ttr/itf. 
^y «f atf«;|fice it owiof oot to the lorc ot tnitb. 



7 »./ \Jurprifii Pimch ; fifO!h 


5 ) S W B 

ktng'Utawnrctt thcAtte^oC bei r fg ^ eif>tinawarc>. 
— Parcnta ihould ^ttk heedfiHiy tl^ wtity>x. 
cure5 of thcir childrcn»' cTp^caUy tt fMddtin8 And 
fitrpri/atj. H^gtion,-^ .. ,. - ,...'> 

Thn let hiit 4Dnpoiifb > :: « 

X.cft, wiifuly traoigniirM)^ <be prcteod -^ 

&uPĔ'^iJai, :iiiiadmoinfli'd, -ittitorew^rnM. Mili. 
— ^lYc* afide tbc taMrp <rf St Jtgo and {?t BDmin. 
go' iin Hitpaniola, iB/urpri/a rathcr than cncoun- 

tcct. ;9^c^^ »- * 

ThU ftraoge Aij^r^putlhe-knrght/. .t ^^ 

And wrat^ful fq«i*re.iiito t hiight; MuMihraA 
— t vaft <l>flrertncfl faeti&«en then, a>Ya(t 
tF bctwecn/irr;^rf/r;tod Irl poipofc. Soiak.^^ 
whqfe tboughtt are^mpioycd inthcj^eli^hty^ctres 
of empi^e, the lu^s tcScyc bim ti^nii the/ira 
/ri^j andmtchmttii^nb of licc^thjl Oi^n. Ikntĕ^ 
Maftf. t. A diih, 1 ruppoCe^ wbich bas nothtn^t 
<ii U.— : 

Fe^xjnFe«far ctrting trijea in dirKuife' 
-|Oftbatftntaltioltdtft fonrie.cah>ir/i^. JSng. 
3. Sodden con6ffioo or perplcxity. v -. 

t T0 ScLM-tisR. ir.^. {/inpritt Prench^ froni 
/</;^>/wufnc.} ^.To take onawares; to Xdi upoa 
uncapeitcdly-— • * ., ,^.; 

* The ctMe of Wicdoera wili [urphft, ^bak. 
r j^feover whc/d the ftatet/irq^. M. ^<ptfwn 

^Bid hcr wcnibew^re, 

- Xeft, by 4bme ^ah' appeatine ^od/urpri/J, . . 

.^he diatte faWe. t rj' , . • MsUon^ 

A weaker nwy/jrfjiri/e,>Ittftrong^ ^kc. P^pe. 

) Who cMi Ipcak 

The mioskd paliont W^tjkrpripd hi> hetttH ' 

^. To tftonilh bjr Ibmethiing 'wondeyful.— Pcopid 
were oot ftf much frigbted tt>r^^rk^iat.the :t)ig* 
nelk of tbe canoel. USJIrange. 3.Toeorrfii£e or 
5crplex fofnethiitgTfiKlden.^ 

-Up he Atrtn, difeoTef'd tnd Jkrpri^U. 'MHi^ 
"^SUKPUSmO.Jtaniicipal^. [frxm/urprifi.] 
vWonderful^ raHing fuddeiir woiKler .or oonceni^ 
-*V^he-greateft adiQn8..Qf a cc^lebrttod peclbn^ 
4iowe«er/<y^rf^if jT tod ecti«on4itaT3b are nompic 
^than what are expeiftcd from him. SpeBaior. 

9» SWPR1S(NGLY. a(g. rkom JkrpriJ^g.] To 
a dcgrec that raife8 wonckr t in a: manner tbt^ 
Faife« woiider. lf oDt of JthofetQQ tbouCin<), wc 
iiiould ttke thc inea that tceeniploycd ih i^lick 
'bulinef«, ^thc number of ihofe wj^o ^coiatA will bc 
Jtirp^gi/Wit^t. Addifin^ 

* §URQU£DRY. •./. i>r^nd eyider^ old Er. 
tothink.p GTcr.weeiting pride:; iniblentcc. Ob- 
:ibkte.— - » * 

Trtii8fbnn'4 to£ftrfor theirix)ldyi<r7fM^« 

lCen nay oot themiehrtt •their own good 
Eattoi, withoot foft)cd Kidjurwaed^^ th^m. 
^iniRATTE. ^cShuil. 
•j9imR£BirrT|^R. «./ (In Itw. A fecond 
•rebottcr} an^prcr to;f rebiittec A Urtt in tbc 

* SIJRREJOIN9£R.if./X/anvy(Wfir^,French. 
In law.] A fecoQd dcibicc of the'plaintift^8 ao- 
tion, oppoite to the rejoiader af the defendant» 
^ich tbe dtiliana ctil rnr>iM«rif. Mailey. 

(1.) • 8URRENDER. StrtRtHDay. /p./XfrQfl| 
^ wb.] s. Tbe aaof yicldijig.^ 
A % 

Digitized by 


$ H R 

^ " - "Ooi^neral mot^r» -wlth cyet 
Of«<w»jiigal a^ra^ion onrcprpy^d, 
And mtck/urrjtpubr^ >Klf-einbraciiig leanM 
On our firft fath$;r. Mik^m. 

»— Having mudcrcd up ali th^ force§ hc couJd, he 
prcparps f Op ^^tAirr^^diir, * W(^0dwar4-'*^ 

• Would l^iTC up A/rick unto^C^iar^s han(*f* ' 

* 1 - Jddi/bm 

ft. Thc aa of rcfigning or givin| up to another.^ 
lf opr fathfer cirrya^**^^^*?^*'''^"*^** difpofition 
m hc1)car8, this i^it/urmdtr of hii wtil but of. 
lind nn, SM.-^Th^i hopc quicy y vantfhcd upoo 
tbC uodoubtcd intieiHgeiicC of that^nruler, Cla» 
r«^x^/-*-WcftiouldhaTCinadcan tuMict fiirrtndrjf 
of ouriclvc8 to. God. Bnayi o/ Pietjf.-^ln paffing * 
ihingaway bydecd of gift, arc rct|uircd a /«r- 
^rwi^.onthcgiw'8f^rt of all the ptopcrty bc 
bas in it: apd to the makinpof i^thing iacred» thi» 
/urrendert by its ri^bt o«:ner ia iicccfi*ar|c. S^B. 

- (i.) SunaENOER, in commoo law, 4s a dccdor 
inttrumcnt, teftifyiR^ that thc partkular tcriaot of 
kndi aridtcncmcnti, forlifc or ycar», doth fq|fi' 
pently.pontot aon agr^c. that he who hat thc 
pext or;mi|^ediate rcmainder or revcrfionthcrrof| 
ihan hayc thc prcfeiit:cftat^ of thc iimc i« poATc^- 
rKWf ^ndlhat hp hcrcby yields and giw op thc 
Amc to him, fo t|wt the cftatc for lifc or ytars 
roay mcrgc or dfDwn t^y tnutual aprccn^cnt ©♦ fhc 
parUil. Qf furrtn^er8 thcrc are threc kmds ; a 
SwTonder propcriy tikcn M common hw ; a fur. 
rfnderof copyhoid or cnfloi«ary t ftratc8 ; and a 
furrentler improp^ry taken, aaof a d^ed* a pateht, 
^c. Tbc firft 18 thc ufual furrcndcr, and it i8 n- 
(ually diTiW^d biio that in decd, «nd tbat in law, 
^' (3.>8uini«K0«!tt in dc«^, »» that whicb t8 tcal- 
ly. roade iKrcaprtr» worda in wnting, whcrc thc 
words of thc Icirce to thc lcAbr pror c a fufficicnt 
aiftnt ti> ibitendw h«r eftatc back again. 
' (4.) fivR*«^JfpK», in law, h that WrougHt bf o. 
peration af theiaw, and whicb 18 not adi»«l.~A« 
if a man havc i^ 1caf« of for \\fe or year*, 
«nd dnring thc tertn hf acccpts a new. l^afc ; thia 
aa i8, in law, a furrendcr pr the fon«er, 
' ' (5.) SirtigEiiiyiii of a bankrupt. 8ce C©m- 


<6.) SuiiR^H-DKi^ OT' Copviu>»08 wtbc yicWmg 
%ip <rf th« eftaTe,bt>ihetenimt into thc band» €f 
the lord,'f6r fucfe purpofcr na arecxprrflred in thc 
furrcndcr ; a» to thc |ifc and bchoot of A and hia 
^firk,^othipufe of bis own .wiH.arid Ihe likc. 
TWs Whod of conweyance ia fp riTcotial tb the 
nature 6f a copyhoia cftate, ihat it c^niKJt pdS^ 
Uy bc tran8fcmd by any other tiTwanoey No 
.feoffment, fine, or recpvery (in thc kmg 8 courts) 
iMKh anyttperationnpDnit, If 1 would etthange 
a copybold with anothcr, | cannot doit by an or 

4 ) 8 u. a 

ycars to the £unt pcrCo^ for t^e -(mt thing U a 
furrendcf tn kiin.of the fir^ patent. to Rfp/66. 
If an oBicer for !ifc acccpts ot anothcr grant of ihc 
fame ofiicCk it n m Uw a> furrender «^ tbf firft 
grant ; but if fttch «n p(nc«r lake« another gran( 
o( theTimc o&stito hfmfcif and j^nothtr, it m^y 
be otherwife. „ . - 

(l.) ^ Tf SpieiiBii»«R. V. a.[/urrendre9 0\d Pr.J 
i.Toyiclfi up; to dfilivcr vp>~Sokmn dtdica- 
lion ot thc churcbcn fcrvC'alfo to /ttrreti^er up 
that rigbt which othcrwi(e thcir Ibundcrs might 
have in tbcni. theker, — Krcai thofc ^ants, and 
wc arc rcady io/urrauter ours. J)avenmnt. a. Tf 
deliver up an enemy ; fomctimc8 wtlh tr^ tmpU- 
tkal.--. ' 

Rtpc: agc badc himy«rrwiwfrr Ute, . . 

^is life and long good fortuoc unto foa1 fatc. ' 

I Fairjb^^ 

r— He willing to /urrender up th^ caftle, trorbadc 

bia (bldicrs to have any talk wjtb the ^hny. 

KmoiUs.^ •. • . 

• SUrrenderup to me thy captivcbr^th. A)rXf. 

(t«) * 7o !$nRR£liDER. tr. «. To )^icKI ; lof ivf 
onc*« felf up. — ' 

This migbty Arphimcdts ioo/urremiers^ i>nw, 

^ Giemv9iie* 

^SURRENDRY. See Su^rempbr, $ x. 

• 8URREPTION. «. / [Mrepa^j^ Lalin.) 
Sndden and unpcrcciyed invafion or ?ntrufion.-^ 
Sins compatibicwiih a regemrate eftate, arc ^ 
ot a fuddcn [urreHton^ Hammond^ • 
. (l.) • SUKHEPTITIOUS. a^,'. [/urreptiths^ 
Latin.] Done by ftca|th ; gottcrn i^ produccd 
fraudulently.--Scaligcr hath noT traoA^^tcd ti»c 
firft^ perhaps fuppofing \i /urrepiitioki. Snwn. — 
Thc MaPorite^ iumbered not only^ the lcd^ions 
aod Unestbut ctcn thc word^^and letters of thc 
Crtd Teftament, thc bcitcr to ie^urc it.frofn/tfr- 
reptitious pra^ icc*. Gov. 0/ tiie Tonguej-r^A COTT^ 
copy of tli^ Dunciady th$ nuny ^trrt^t^io^ onct 
haYcrender^d nccellary. Letter to PuSi. , 

' (l.) SffRR€#TlTlOV8. Sce SUBR.BrTIT10V«. 

• SURREPTJTIOUStY. a^^. iii>fmjurfxpti' 
tiouj.] By ^calth ; fraudkilcnt]y.-rThi>u bAft got 
it more /urreptii9p»jixxhffiu he dii(l«'4n4 witli .lef| 
efte^. G9v p/tiie Tongue., 

SURREY. Sec Suri^y. 
t tWKHOGATE. n./. [/urrog^s.ljitwJ A 
deputy ; a dclesatc ; tbc dcputy-of aq ccclefi«fti« 
cal judge. » . - 

• 7<ct SuRtOGATE. V. a, [JurrogOi Latin.] Tc 
pHt in the placc of anothcr. _ 

(i.) ♦SURROGATION. n./ [/urrogatio, Lat: 
The ad of puttif>g in anotherU plac^ 

(a.) SuRROCATioii, \n law. Sce,-3uB8iOGA< 
T«0N. * . 

> ro SURitOUNP. V. a. {/u^nder, Fr.l T^ 

dinaTYdccd of e?chanM at thfei:omn»ii.Uw,1>ut ^nyiron^ t*enfompaftrtoencloie oipaU fid«»,-l 

we mnft futrcnder lo 4cach othf r^a ofe, aHd thc 
Jord wiH adinit*U8 a^cbTdingHr. Jf r*»onid dc- 
^itc ft copyhotd, 1 rtw« furTcnrifr it tp ^hc ttfc of 
iny laft will and teftarocttt ; atid in my will I aittft 
fl?P!krit my iniehtion*, mnd na&nc a d^i^e, frhp 
yvill thcn bc cntitkd tn admiffion. 


Pffice8; Aiftirr»»dcr may bc madc of letlcM 
Aatent to the king, fo that hc inaygyaAt lbeeftalc 
to >vhoiD |ic pl<a(r8, *c. fnd a \^^A V^%ff^ W. 

YcDing mof)fter8 that witb 'Cej^cielt cry 
Surrouud me, as thoi^ ^weft; . % MUt9s{ 
CMd an4 wr-4^ring dairk , , 

Surrp^t^c. Milf0m 

l^a^ an||el8^fccn 
'Twii^t «pp^t ncth^r, anijkrtrotitnd^g' fn^ 

. , V , Jl^Uton 
— ^Tbc bodic8 ihzX/urround U8 diycrfely afrc<^ ou 
«rgan8>' /«ocAf. •: ' ./ 

Ah) SyKMr,4 ^oR&ty;of 5Dgl«n^WhCTnded o 

Digitized by 


S U R f $ y ^ S U R 

Ibc W. bj Eeikibire aiKl HampOiirei oo thc S. by (j ) Svmoott, anotbcr riirer of HiodooAa^; 
St^Eo, 00 tbc £• by Kent» oo tbe N. by Middle^ in Guzerat, which runs into tbe Indian Ocean» 4# 
k%, iiijm wb«ch it tt partcd by the Thamcs; niieii SW. of Junagtir. 

- ' " SUKS^VUTTY, arivcrofHindooftan, which 

whencc it had tbe name of Sutb-nj from tbc Sax 
»0«, i.#. tbe coimtry on tbe S. fide of thc ri«er. 
It ii jg iniieA loog from £• to W. 17 bit)ad 
troi^ N. to 6. and 1 1« io ctrcumCereiict. It con- 
taiu ij bttodiedi, 140 pafi(he% of wbicb 35 are 
fieanf9s xj markct towBi» 450 vi]lagcst and 
191,000 acret. It icndi 14 mcmbert to parlia- 
mcnt, of wbom two aie firom cacb of thc foUow* 
iogborougbt, viz. Soutbwark» Blechinglcy, Ryc* 
gate, Guildford» Gatton, Haacmcre, and two f6r 
tU coaoty. Tbc ut towMrdt the middlc, which 
C0D6iU moALy of hUit aod beatb, it iharp« bat 
pure aad wbolcfomc» About tbe ikirtDy wbere it 
II more lcvcl, and thc ibil richer, thc air is milder» 
lad alib laiabriotit. lo tbc middlc partt tbc foti 
t* bwiCD io gcoeral ; but towardt thc e^tremitieB, 
and whrre thc country i« opcn and cbampaign» it 
i*fniitful in graTA and com, parttcuiarly 00 tbcS« 

&Uc in HoknĔlalr, ifl which mcadowt, woodt» and profped.-* 

runt into tbc Puddar» td mtles W. of Pattun. 

SURTAINYILLE, a town ot Erance, m the 
dep. of tbe Channel ; la miict SSW. of Cherburg; 
and 1.^4 W. of Valogne«. 

• SURTOUT. n. /. LPrench.l A large coat 
wotn ovcr all tbe reil. — 

Tht /urtakt^ if abroad you wcar» 
RcpcU the rigour of tbc air. Priow» 

— Sir Roger was fdrccd to wcar h/urtout of oiled 
cloth, by wbtch meanA bc camc bome pretty 
clean, excrpt wbere tht/urtcMt wat a little icanty. 

• To SURYENE. V. tf. l/yrwnirt Fr.] To fii* 
pervene ; to comc at an additioo.— Hippocratoi 
mentiont a fuppuratioa that /urvenij lcthargict* 

' SURYEY. n.j: [fronr the verb.] i. Yicwj 

tm ficldt, are agrecabiy imermixcd. Tbc foil ia 
lUbtety fenilc along tbc Thamct, cfp^cia11y to« 
piiis Loodoo, whcrc it greatly cootributct to 
liiiotaiii picoty tn the lx>ndon markctt. It baa 
^rctal rirers, abouoding with iOi ; thc chtcf arC 
tW Wj%, i^ Molc, and thc Wai dle. 3j the re« 
P^ oi tbe popolation of Englaod* gtvcn m to the 
Hooie of CtNpmona, Junc 16» 1801« Surry coo* 
Uacd, at (bat period» 45f5.l5 bou^; i^^ti^a 
Baict; aud ^|»|i4 fcmak«; in all, a67^tSS 
ImIi. ^ 

(i.)Sua«T, a coiti^y of N. Carolinay inSaliT- 
bay ^t&nCk» boundcd qn thc N. by Yirginia ; £. 
I9 Stokct, SW. by Ireitcin and W. by Wilkct 
<Wtictk It contaiacd 4693 dtiscn^ in 17951 aud 
MAa*tt. It baa an iroo mami^itdttre on the 
^Qftbc Yadkin. 

U.) StiaoY» a county of Virgima, boooded on 
tbe N. by thc n«cr Jaract and Charict^y coun* 
>T : £. by the lOe of Wigbt» S. by Sptt^mpion» 
*84 W. by Prioce Ocorg c^t oounty. |t it 40 
Ai«< kmg» aod 15 broad* and, in 1795« coBU4oed 
Itjedtiacntt and 3097 Oant. 

U-) SoaaT» a town of New Hamplbire ; 71 
»aKW. of Botoo, aod 160 NNE. of New 

SUkSEE, a town of tbe Hehrettc republic» in 

Hcr (Urt in all thcir v»1kjiirwjt» Mitonl 

Under bi« proud^^ipi^ the city Het. Deabamt 
O'erlooka tbe ncigbboura witb a wide /urvty. 

a. S«perintendknice. 3. Mcnfuration« 

• 7o SuRVEY. V. «. \/urveoir^ old Prcnch.] 
I. To o«er!ook $ to hat e uuder tbc view ; to vicw 
at from a bighcr placc.—» 

Rouud oc /urveytt andwcll might wberc be 
So high above. Mikon. 

-^arch oot bit bottom» bot yirrwr; blt ihorc. 


%. Tp otericc at ooe in authority. 3. To view aa 

euamining. — , 

The buibandman^t felf came tbat way, 

Of cultom Xo/urvey his ground. Spe^/en^ 

£any abroad be did thc worldyiirtM^. ^alier. 

AU palc and fpeccklcft, he/urvey^d nie round. 

4. To meaAire and eftimate land or buildings. 

SURVEYING, »./. the art of meafuring Umd ; 
tbal '\%f af taking thc dimenGont of any trad of 
ground, layii^ down thc Tamc in a map or draught« 
and linding thc contcnt or area thereuf. Sce Gto* 


ti.) • SURVEYOR. «./. [from/iin^.l i- A^ 

i^castoo of Luccroct on lake Stmpacb ; 13 nuiet oreriieer ; onc placed to fuperintcnd othert. — 

^^•o^Luecnie, aod s6 £. of Solcore. 

SCntSKGI, a towo of Riiffia, io Archaogeli 
U» mik% £SE. of ArcbangcL 

i«-j • 5URSOLID. ••/. llo algebraj The 
"vtk omltipiicatiott or power of any mMnbcr 
«^^Hctcr takctt M tbe root. Tre^amo. 
, U.) SvatoiriDf or SuaDEsoLiD, in arithmetiC| 
«^ tilcd tkefiftkj0wer o/a mumSer. 
Jl*}* SuaaoLiD PaoBLBM. n,/. (in mathemaK 
») Tbat «hich caonot be rdbWcd but.hf 
^^ Qf a htgbcr nalnre than a cooick Mkm* 

U.) SDRSOOTY, a Jtowo of Hiodooftaa, ia 
*^\ 114 milca NW, #f OelhL 

Wer't not madnefR then, 

To make the fox/urvtyor of the fotd ? Sbah 
-^Btihop Fqx wat not onl jr a grave ;counfcllor^ 
bitt aUb a good /wnii9«r of workt. Bae^n. a. i^ 
Bieafurer of land.— 

Q}xt^ioDjkrvejftrst know oiir o%b dUte, 

How able tiadi a work to undergo. SbaH^ 

-^Dcccmpeda srat a mcafiirin^ rod for ta)dng tbt 
4ifncofiofva •£ biiildinga ; froii) hence came decKi]»^^ 
ptdMtOTtf for a>ir<w /iw» uded by Ctccra jlrhutb.' 

(a.) SoaTSTOEiaalib uied for a perfon wb» 
baa thc overfif hl and care of confid c rab l c workai^ 
laadit or.tbekike. 

. ,_, ^ (3.) SuRTiToa likewrfe denotet a gaugcr; aMb 

«-) luaiooTY, a n?er of Hindooftan, in Dei- -a peribn wboimtbct mapt ai landt. 
^«kich^ Uie Cagsin 105 milci NW.-oT < ^80RV£YORSHU^ii./lfrom>r»v^.] Tb» 
J*. ItMoteoC thcr AKrririf€t«of4hefii- officc o£ a ibntayor. •» ^ 

" ' ^ff9 9ffB,Ym(^^*^[Jwvmr%tMStcodk^ 


Digitized by 


^o o^^look ; to havc tn Ticw ; to funrcy. 

Lifted high above this«arth1ytnafs« 
; Which \\/yrvumj}d, S^fer. 

* 5» SURA^iy-Ĕ. 'W. n. [jypervhfo, J^tin ;yi^* 
^«p^ir» Fr«} a« T*« iivr aft€r tbe death af aho- 
ilberc^ .. . ' ' • 

ni iiTlure her €f 
..iier wi^owhood, be it that {hcJiimuitVfj me, 
In all my lands and leafcs whaUue'vt;r. SJM^ 
ThQfc tbat /urvinjef let Home jcward with 
4o\c. ^iMI^. 

Ttiy p1eafurc,_ 
Whicb ^Whcn no other cnemy /amkiet, 
:Stiilconqut«r9 «11 tbe con<fueroH. Denbam» 
s. To rivc aftcr any thinp. — Now tharhc 18 dead« 
^ immort aI f aiitie Jtirv$vetb- Spenfifr, — 
^ Thc lo«rc of hoilcs, wbich thcy had aiirc, 
And care of cbari<)t8^ftcr death Juna^ve. 

<r*The rbapfodie8, c^d ihe chiraAcrilticks, 
wottld ncvcr hav<r J^m:nied tbe $rft rdition^ tf 

r « y s- tj R 

Not vf«e that pcriod ciyoytng as much m^re time W 

proportian to tb^it iiamhertas tbole^ho ^all^thort 
of it enjoj Wfi. Thus, fi|ppoling 4^ pcrton»' aliiv 
ah 40 yeat6 of a^e, and tjiat oiie will die eyeijr 
^car till they aie a4 dead in 46 jrear8^-4iaif^«46 0» 
a5 wiU i>e thc evepe^tien of edch .of tbem. U lil» 
'dc Moivrc'« bypotbctii wtrc true, tliat mcB ai^- 
ways decre8fc in an arithiDeucal pnogiei&Oia, the 
eicpc^ation of a Jingle It^ ie.alwa^s iMilf its com* 
plcnient, and tbe ejcpcAation pf two joint Uvea 
one tbird of tbeir comraon complcment. By tht 
eompUr^ent af'^4^e in mcant wbat it wants of M^ 
wbich 14. dc Moivie malLCft the boundary Ot bu^ 
man tife. Thu&4f he 50, tbc £6mpleincnt 
of hi« li£c is '^. Thus, fq|>pof|ng a maii 40» bii 
Cifpe^tion woold be %y^ the barf of <6, bia conw 
plemcnt ; the cxpeaation of Cwo joirit ji¥CB, «acjb 
^, wouid be J5 ycArs4 montba, ortthethwdpact 
'of,46. The number ^xprefljDg tiie cKpe^ation^ 
multipKcd by the^numbttr of bngle^ joint lites» 
(of whicKit is tbe \^peCtation,} added anmiaily 
,to a fociety, giTes tbe WEbolc ^umbcr (iving to^ 

tbey had not difcC(visrrd ib ftroi\g a .tin^rc Qf thor, to ^hicb fucb ao anntial addition wouid i» 

inbdelity. Wt^- 3« To rtmain alive.<*l> limc gia^n* Tbu&, ftoce a|L, or the third of 57,4» 

No loiis^r now that golden agcappcara^ tbc-cKpeitatioii of t w« joiitt lives, pihak commojp 

When patriarch.wits/iir^M/Wathouikndycan^ agcisa^^ 10 marrtage« every ycar bcWcen pcf- 

I^ow kngl^<4cf fkmc,'our.:£eooQd liiesyas left« . foii8of thi« age wouldiri 57 yc^s ^ow to m^ 

Pt>pe, 4ime8 i-^ror 380 mariiagca^ alwaysouRing toge* 

~ S0RVIV£R. /r./.«tfrora,/S(n;Hv.] One Wb« tber. And 600? tbe expe^ationH>f a fin^e4ife ia 

wtlivc8 anothrr. 

Thb^/tniwr bound 
In 61iai obli^'ation| f6i-Yomc tern\| 
To do obfcquio|us forrow.. Shak. 

'— Althoug h fomc died, the niuriber k^ fiirwfers 
lftuft ftill \>t vci y prcat. Brown, — 

From \kti/iuy^vers 1 xoUld ncitbing )eai^< 

always balf ita complcmeiit, ^ 5^ J^J 9o 6ng«e 
pcrlooa ad^cd aanualiy to a^owi^ wtliincrcaie t^ 
%o titnes ^*5, or ^70 ; and «^cniArnved at tbi^ 
numbor^ tbc death» cvcry year willju^ cqual the 
accc^kon^y and 116 farther iRcreafe be p^ble. It 
aopeara from ben^, tbat the pai tlcular propor» 
tion tbatbcc6meiextind<^tcry Ycar» oot of tbe 
Denhanu whole «miioiber tconftantly cxifting to^ther of fin«- 
— Hcr maicfty isiicir .»0 ihe j/«rwwr of tbc latc glc or jomt \vttfh mui^, ^^l^arcyer iliif niintber tm- 
]king« S<wift, ' ^ dergoes no vanation, be csadly •tbe^lame With tb^ 

Cx.) * SURyiy^SHll?. ^. /. ihom /ur^nwr.'] esoraation of ihoie livcf>,' at tbe tame when ibeir 
Thc<ftateofoutlivriiganothcr.^Suchoffice»grarit- cxiftence coremcnded.* T^^t wa» It-^ound tha^ 
rd in«ever(ton wcrc void, unlcfs wbcrc the grai^ a i^th part,of all thc matriagea amonp anytedic^ 
tias becn by/am«v#]r^, Ayi^. • t ofiiien, wholc numbcrado not vary, )Eirc diirol>r» 

(a.^ SuR.vivBftsH'ir. Scc £uavnrbRVHir. cd evcr.y ycar by^bc^Seatbs of cithcr tbe huibanH 

SUR!VI V.OR, j9. /. in law, fignifics tbe longeft or wife, it wouid appear^t 19 waa» at the tinns 

3iver of joint tcnants or^o^ anytiRro^ccfons jouit» 
i^ intcrdArd in A tbing. 

(i.) SURVIVORSHIP, itf./ isthat fa-anch of 
matbematics wbicb trcats ot rcverfion'8 payablc» 

tbey werc contra^ed, tbr €X(>edation af tli^Ie 
marriages. ' In Itke numBer^ #at it ^Dnnd in a ib» 
cicty, limited to a inced numbcr of membcrs^tbait 
a i^tb part-dics anauall<t otit of <^ wbolc ntini» 

providtd one or more particular pcribna forviw her of mpdmbers, k' wonld appear tbat i€ wm 

ccrtam otbcrs. By «everftonB are meant paymcntt '*■ ' ^-^— ^t i.r_ _^ ^t-_^: 1. — 

jiot tOwtaAce place tUl fomc-futuFc peripd. Sunri- 
yorftnp form8 one«of the moft diiBcuk and com* 
plicated parts of thc doMne *of Tevcidiona aod 
i.iFB anNUiTiEt. It has bccn very>fully treated 
49f by Mr TMtHnas $impfon in his.£k^ £x§fcifiuf 
«nd brought to atftate of ^fcfttcm by^DrPirice 
4ind Mr Mor;^an, wbo b«ftowed a^rcat^ealoT at% 
tention on tbis^uljc/it, (^ce AiiNuiT4ca.) Tbecak 
«euhitiooa arefoanded ontbeexpedatioo of livea«t 
4iffcrent agea» deduced from tables fbrmcd firom 
Mla«if mortaiity, 4>f whioh fee 4cveral «sampiea 
tmder the articlc Mortalicy, § 3 — 7. By tbfc 

tbcir common efcpcftadon of life at thetime the^ 
^cred. JSo WkjtmiSt^ 'were it foiiod in any lowi» 
or diCirid, whcre tbJC' mimber of bgrtbs and iMii-». 
«la.arC'Oqual, ihat a lotb or joth part of tbe in. 
iiabitaBtl die an^ually» 4t woukl appear that %m 
or 50 was the ejcpe^atioii xyf a diild yiA bom m 
jtbattown or diftiiA. TbeCe cypeaationa, there* 
fore9 for all Gngie Irrcs, are eaiily found hj a tA- 
ble of 'obfervatiQiM, fhowkig tbe Dombcr tbat die 
aoniially at aH aget out of a given mimbet' atli^e 
at tbofe ages4 and tbe geacrat mk ibr tbia' pxat^ 
pofe is, to dividc tbc fum of all the livin|^ io tli4 

, , ^ , , table, at the 4ige whofe txpedation ia required^ 

^k p e 9aih!f 9f4ife ia raeant the inean time that any and at all greatcr ages» by the fom tlf ^l tliat«<lie 

^ngle or joint iive8 at a giverk ageia^oundtoeon- -amluaily at t)uft age and abo^e 4t ; or, wbidi as 

tili^e ; tbat ia» tbe numbcr 'of years whidii taking thc 4aAic» by the Buixibcrt{in tbe TaUe) oithe H. 

<me with another, they adtuaHycBJoy» and ma^ Jving at tbat age ; aml balf anity Aibtraded itoiti. 

|^«imidcicdaa^C.o&ei9oyios^<U6Gr'wbolur* tbe ^uotieat wili bc tbc re^iilred expe^«tiot^ 

Digitized by 


S U R ( f l^ a R 

f^ m Or HAti-iY^s TablBi tn the «tick cttrenie (Ma|:t.ther«M.aisiii(taot retinbtipa'!»' 

AivuiTiBs, i^A, II. tlie (um of all the llying «t tho dccreafii of tbe ^obAbilttks of life,. JJpoa^ 

^aad upwards U «0,714* wbioh,<lifided b^r j^t tbe wbole^ thcreforev it appeart that» accbrdmg' 

^ tttmber Utiog at tb^ a^e of »e, «Rd haaf unity tO'>the Blreilaw Tablcyiatid fiipp(iflog no widowt 

bbtraiaed froo the qttotieiit, gitcs 34^15 for the tiMnarry^ the number ipomred after it fome«rka$ 

(s^tioiioC 3fo. Ir calctilating:. the v^ue or 9reaterthflji-halfthenttilUKriof ehefocicly'; bal^ 

npeaition of joint limi M. Di- Moiyre iiell into accordmg to tbe Londo» Table» a. good^ dcai 

wms mAticn. which we nccd not cnumcratt ; gr«ater« This» bowei^., hi» becn dctcr/niocd oi> 

^ Df PHcc and Mr Mbrgam haive givCn • tablea af tkk€ i«ippo6tioD thatr thc hulbands and wiics arc oc' 

Uk rahie of U^ea^ not foandedit w any Jhpotibe/im cqua^ agea|. aad: ih^ thcn t^^e i« ao equ*l chance 

ktdcdaced finom bilir of mortality. .Mr-Mor* Who Aall dte firftv . Bttt in^ ceal^ hulbamis aro 

piiiiaa hkrw:C giM rules for caiculating v.iIoca generaUy older than wivc% and oaalcs hav6 beeit 

of iirei in thi»i»aoner. Dr.PHcct in the .^d efi«T fouod to di« foQncr thao iiemaict, as appoara ini* 

ia the firft tohime of hi» Trmtife m kewijf$mny Gonteitabl|rlrom» (evcml of the tables in Dr Piicc^ 

hyngata, ba* allb givea propcr n^ca fQr calCttta^ TCrdttti/a m Rnt^rjimi* It is tberefore mow thaH 

^ tbde va)ue8, the moil important of whtchare an equal chapcc that the hu^band wiU die. 'beloft 

cniprehcodrd in the ^llowingpArdKraphs. , hia wiCck Thi^ will mcrea(e conAdcrabl)^ thodu^ 

(>.)SiiftVfvoasHi»i CAs^ 9 or. I. Suppote aitt ration bf (\irvivoflbip on,thm t>art}of thc womeny 

af<D]rhcdaitn fo erticriAto a fbcic4y in or-^ to ^ad conjequently the tnambCr which we havc bccD 

pnmde tnmtities for their widowa, aod that it ts |nqwriOK fkfter^. TJic coarria^ pf widowa wiU di<r 

ioitcd to a cotaia number of mcmbcra, and con* o)iniib< Um number-, but* not £0 mbch as the uthctf 

tiaUy keptiip>to that ntamber^.tbe admiONMi cauica wiil inoaea^ it. tX. lfthoibcictf compre^ 

if oeiir membcrs as the old «mca are loti; it isol hcndala.i(.lroniAtfaRf fira all tbc mamed pcopl» 

iaporuncet m tbc firit p lacc, to knowthe num- of aH ages iO' nnyi town, Qf ..among- atvf olat^ o£ 

krcfankHnUittfi thaC aft<r fome time wiU come people vfhfitt thA nu(Qbcra alwaya contidlie thd 

•poB dif cftabliiYia>ent« Nbw ioce ev<ry mar^ iamc« thc whok cptlcdivs bodjr of membcrs wiil 

n^gt ptocJucea etthcr a widoia or widower ; aod ^ at thcir greateik age at the time of theeUabliib^ 

&Boeai] DiarrtRges takcn togct^cr woidd pnoducc tncnt Qf tbc rocicty } andtibr.numboc of ' wtdow^ 

a» nwy widows aa widoweror wtre ev«7K ma« Wft evcry ycv wiil at a modium be always tho 

aad bn wi£r ol ibc T^OK agCr aod the cbaace cr €itpc« The nMubrr of widowa will inercaic coo^ 

|flaf vfech ihAll die ^^ \ it ia e^ideiit» that thc Itouaily ooi thc fpcf(ty». till as many die oiT everf . 

oaaibcr of widowa that .bavc evcr cxificd in the year aa artaddedc Tbi^ ?f\\\ o&t bc tiil. tbc wholb 

•arld, V8uid io- tbit caib be equal to half thA ^oile^e b(|dj;.cif widowa are at their greateiti 

teabtr o/ marriagea» Aod What would taJM ago, or till tbere aeeamong them thctgreatiBA pi;lii 

tia, io tbc worid muft aUb» on the fame fuppat Hblc inumber of the oldcll widiowa ; aod thercforG 

^i, take place in thia fQCfcty« In other wordat 9P>( ti4 there haa been time lor an accenion tothe 

wy o^ber peribo rn Cuch a fociety leavin|r » wi* oidoll «wdows frQ«i thc you{»gcfl part.' Lct Ui>fo» 

^ tbcrr muit, ariic from it a Aumbes o£ wii thc iake o^ gwicr prcciBon,. d^^idc' thc whoic 

^< equai to half ils own number. But tbi^ oMdium of widows that corae on every ycario^! 

^sot detcrmine what oumbcr, aU li«ing ^Hwk^ U>p. d^Scrc^t GUnea ace^rdiog to their diHcrcaH 

^ t^ &ne titoe^ tbc focicly may expikl wtlji jageSt«tWd j^^poie fome. torbct lcft at s^ ycars ofi 

caaie to he conCUntly gpon it». It ia» theicfor^^ '^agtr iome at 46* fon)e at 3^. and* lomc at 46. 

°«el^4ry U» detcmthne how leng the duration oC 'f^^m^'999^ con(Unti|l.)t lifi; tpgethciv deriYed) 

^vurflifp betwecii pcribna c^ equal agcs wiiL bc 600^ the i|rft oLifv wall oome to their grcatcit 

<*B9ircd witb tbc duratioo of marriagc. And agf r 4^4 fP! ^ nMueimum^ in. 50 ycars, fuppofiiig^ 

^tntth ia^ that, lbppofi»g tbe pcebabiliUcs Qf wit;h lyt dc^ M^iTrc» 96 io< bc the utmoft extei>c 

^Wdecrtafc uni£ormly, the formei» i9{Cqu4l to* of.Ufc* Tbe ihmc^wUi^h^ppcn^to the rccond cUls 

^[^cr; akid c6iiiitqueatly that t^ numi^ of in ^ yea»*, iin4 to tbe third in 50 y<ars, But 

^*^miis^ (or which la t-hc famc, iuppofiog Qo>fe- the wholc body oompoied of the(e clanVs will oot 

^ aurnagca) of widowa and widowcrs alitrc comt to a madejm^tm tiil thc iaiic bappeos to the 

^^Wv whuah win-anfe fh>m- 9nf given flet of fQunh or youngea clafa ; th^c is, not tid tbe end: 

*"Qi onwiagca coottaotly kcpt upv will bc eotial of 6c yeaife.> Aftcr thia the atTairs of the facict)f wilL 

Utke vhol« nambcr of marHagcs; or halt of becom^e (Utiooary, and the number cf annu^tant» 

^(tiicnambrr of widows in particuUr) equal lipon 1% of,ail ages will keep always ncarly tbe 

^^ the numbcr of Tiarriag^es. «Ii^w it app«arf tiast,. UL ,U a fbc«cty begioA with its-complett^ 

t^ * Got town» the dccrcarc in the pK^bili» number of mcmbcrst b^t at ihe (ame time. admit^ 

^^ iiCei» ia fa^ ncarly uri^or«a. Aecordiog' nbnc above a partic^lar agr^ If, forinfVaace, it 

^ t^ fir<flaw Tab!e of Obtcrvatioa, (fec A»* bcgtnS' with aoo-mcmbera all undcr 50, and after« 

"^mia, $ed, TL) ;^ia-«.»ft the ikme numbcrs die w^irda liinita i^<:lf to thia Qumbcr,»and kceps it up 

^ ror fnm ao yvars«Qf agc to 77> Aftcr tbisr by ad^i^ttiag cvcry year, at ail a^ea betwccn 26. 

*^&wer dic, and thc rate of dccreafe in thc and 501 ncw membcra aa old onea drop 00*; in tlni 

P>Qk^iea cf litc u retardcd» But thia devia- oafe, the poriod ncocITary to bnng the maximunt> 

^feoorthe hypotHffigisinconfidcrable^anditS' of aAouitants will bc julL doublcd* To dcter* 

^ is tHc preicnt aSty. is to render the dura- mine thc rum that ev(;ry individual ougbt to p.17 

^ ^ iiirttvoHbip lonjjer than it would other- in a Gnglc prcfcnt paymcnt, in ordcr to intiJe hU 

JJiJJ^- Ascord^ng to-thc London Table of Ob- widow to a ccrtain- nnnuity tor her life, lct in 

""««0^0« nambcM dyin*^ c#ery yoar begin.ta (4jppofe the anuuily 3-I. peratiruiTiy a«ui Uic rati 

^*^ti* ^ ^ycats of agc ; 4:»d Troo;^ i.cnct U> oC ii*ccieitX ur i^j^tcut, k u* wvivi«ii , t^.»t th.; 

Digitized by 


suR r«^ suit 

nla^ otihA an escpcaatioir is 'dilBBrdb^ accord* fire gnin^ts 6r .fi$ per mmm^f i«<5*ti mlttptiid 

ins to the diSeiect x^li.of the p«irchafer»^ and by 9*81 the ▼akie of tbe joint 4ivef ) 51^55 } which^ 

the proportion of tfae;age of the wife to that of Aibtra^ed firom tQVi \* mm -4^5* ^he aiifweri 

the hulDand. X<et .U!<^then-fuppofeY 'that every V< If a fV)ei«ty takes m £\ the marria^ amoitg 

pcrioorio Aich k Iboiecr it of tbe (^me agc «ritb 
hit w)itf and that one with another all the tnern* 
bert whea they cnter may bc^ reckoD^d 40 yeart 
of age» ag many entoring aboTc thit age a» below 
tt. ' It has been dctnonftrated by M. de Moivre 
and Mr SiE^iplbny that the Taloe of an annuity on 
the joint continnance of tny twn liyety TobtraAed 
lirom the «akie o^ an annuity on the life ra e«peAa« 
tion» givef the true preient value of annuitv ort 

perfonfi of a particular pre{ieflion within a given 
diitrtAt and fttb$edt tbem for pespetuity to accr* 
tain cqual and common tax or aontMl' paymentti 
in order to provide iifr annuitict for all the wi> 
dows that ihall reCblt from theie^iiarriages; fince« 
st tbe commeticement of fadi an cihibhihtiinit» 
all the oldeft» at wcN at the youasett, marria^ 
are to be entitlcd equally to the plbpofed beneitiri 
a much greattr number of *annuftantt will coroe 

what may happen to remain of the latter of the inMncdiately npoo it than WMihl' eome npoi» any 

two Ibnui after theother. (See Ani*vitiss. $e3. t 
Tahl» IL and 8ea. II. T^ihUs, UU IV, and V.)' In 
the pref6nt cafe» the valae af the annuity to be 
cnjoyed during tbe joint continu.ince of two livet, 
cach 40, it by Table Ili 9-^26; ^iccording to the 
pcobabilitiei of life io tbe^abltr of ObTer^ationtt 
Ibrmcd by Dr iialley from the bUlt-o^ mortality 
of BreAaw tn Sltelia. The VAhie of a Angle life 

Bmilar cftabliihment which limited ttfeif in tbo 
adm*ifion of membert to p«^ont not eKceeding ^ 
given age. Thtt wsll check that accumuiiit^on 01 
money which Ihould take* place at fit1^ ih order 
to produce an income eqiial to the^dilbur^einentl 
Bt the time when the numb^r of annuitantt comet 
to a maximum \ avki therefore will be « partic«laf 
burden Obo» the eftab!ilhm)tnt \tf itM intooy . Fbt* 

4oyeart of age» at given by M. de Moi^rera^gree- thit' (bme cot»penfation muft W providl»d ; and 

ably to the iame^tablcy it ij^io; and thc f»jrmer the equitable method of providing it ip, by h^ty* 

lubtradcd from the latter, leavet 3*37, or^the ing HncB Cit the beginning of thc eftabliftimcnt oi< 

Ime mimber of yeart purchare, which ou^ht to cTtry tneffiber<e«(^eding a gtren age, proportkMK 

be paid for aoy given aAnui4fy to be er^oyed ed tG thcnuraber of year» which he hits'tived be<» 

by^ perfon 40 yeart of age, prOvided he fOYvi vitft yond rhat age. But if fuch linet cannot be )eviedi 

aoother ' pcrfon of the fame age, fAtereft "beirtg; and, tf every pajhnent muft be e^bal «nd conHhon^ 

FecJconcd at four per cent per ammm, < The- an* whatever dtfpar»ty tkei^ may be in Iheiriilue of llie 

nuity^ thercforfy being 50 1. thc pieftnt vt*«e<rf rBpcdations of diilerent membert, the fto^'itftift 

it it 30 multipUed by 3*^/, or i6f 1« t^. IV. If» bereduced toonecommono^e, anfwertng a« oMi-J 

inftead of a fing?e pi^fent payment; itr^is thought ly at poAiMeto Hiedirad^antBge, and payaHI^'%iy 

preferabte to make atinual paytticnts durili^ the every member at ihe time wben tbe eftabltOHtfenf - 

marriage ; what thefe anniia) paymentt ou|jht to begiM. Afterehit, the citbtiihment will brtlii 

be it eafily determined by finding what aitnuat famewith6rtethatt«ket4]ponita[1lattheiin[^tht!f 

paymentt during tvro joint livc« of given ilget marry; tod the tax' or annual pa^yment of ewr|| 

are equivalent to the valuc Of ChcMYcHlonkr^ Mi^ member ade^uatc to itt itipport will be thc knmm 

Bttity in prefent money. Suppoie» at beforc, that paymcnt durttig' marriagc due from perfWnt'^T ^ 

Ihe joint live» are each 40, aiid tbĕ i^tcrtiottaiy ttjrrry at the fliean age«t whieh, upon«n airen 

aimuity 36 1. pet* am$am/ ' An atinihal paVfn«nt d^ all mjlnriaget.may^be conftdiered as comntcnb 

rrog thecontinuancc of two fach liv^ ^ woi^ The finet tob^'paid at firft are» for ^wy paj 

(according to Table II.) 9'8* year»'' puW!h«<ii' cuUn-mcmber, thc Cartie with the diilereiitrb' 

The annual payment ought to be ftidk »^ being 
multiplied by 9*81, wiil producc lO^^L thc pte* 
lent valtte of the aanuity in onc paytnent. Di(« 
vide thcn 101* x by 9*8«, and 10*3 tbe 'quotient 
will be the annual *payment. Tbit method of 
calqulation fuppofet that the firft annual pay- 
ment is not to be made tlll the end of a year. 
If it is to bt m.ide immediately, the va1ae of 
thc jdint live«i will be incretled one vear*t pur- 
cbale; and, therefbre, in ordcrto find the annual 
paymentt required, tbe value of a prefcnt Bnglc 
payment muft be dividcd by thc vahic of the 
joint livet increafed by uniiy. If tbe fociety 
prcfer paying part of thc value in a prefcnt tingle 
payment on admiAion, and tbc reft in annua( 
payments ; and if thcy fix thcfe annual paymentt 
at a particular fum, tb^ prefent iingle paymertt 
paid on admiAton i;! found by fubtra^ng tbe va« 
lu- of the annu^l paymcnt during the joint Mvet 
t'rofr\ the wbolc preicnt valne of the annuity in 
one paym-nt. Suppofe, for inAance, the annual 
p;iy!ncnta to be fiKed at fivc guinea«, thc anuutty 
to bc 30 1. the rate of intcreft four pcr cent, and 
rhe joint Uve« each 40 ; thc vilue of the annuity in 
onc preftnt fingie paymcnt is ifVi U The value of 

twcen the value of the eiCpc^ation to him at hl 
pr«fent age, and what woul(l haVc been itt vale 
f o him had the fcheme begun at thc tkne he ma 
ried. Or, the^ are, ^oi* the whole body of tncn 
bcrt, the<diflferctic^ between tbe v»lhe of the con 
mon expe^afion, to pcrfon8 at thc Wan a^e i 
all manied per^ons taken tog:etheras ihey cxift 
the world, and to perforv« ai ihat ^gevrhich it \ 
be deemed their mean age when thry marry* VI 
Suppoie wc wiih to know the prefer.t valu'<: of j^ 
annuity to be enjoyed by onc life, ftH* what «^c^ 
happrn to feniain of it beyond '4ini)ther tife j ^4 
a givcn tcrm ; thw isi provlded both livck contS 
nuc from thc prefent time to (he cnd of a gtveii 
term of years; the method of citlcuUting is thnt 
Pind the value of the annttity for two livcs, 
greater by the givcn term of years than thc gir^o 
livc^ ; difcount this value for the given tcrm ; and 
tben moltiply by thc probability, ^hat ttic two 
given litet fhall both continue the given term ; 
and thc produ^ wtll bc the anfwer. Thui, ict 
the two livc8 be each 30, thc term feven teart, 
Ihe annuity 10 1. intercft tor four pcr ccnt. Thc 
given livtrF, fncreafed by reven year«, bfCome «ri»i h 
37. THe Vfttuc of two joint l!vc«,.eacb 37, ij; (ty 

^ TA»Lk 

Digitized by 



♦ilBLE IV. Showikc the rlLUE qf s^ 
joiNT LiYES, aecording to tbe ?&( 


coile3ivefyf reckonms htter^ at 4 per v^ 
Btf!prence of o» 6» is» and 

Digitized by 


s u R r 1 

creafed by unity, and twicc the pcrpetuity the 
rcf«:rved quotient, initead of being fubtra<fted 
frofn twice the pcrpetuity, muft be addcd to it, 
and the fum, not the difference, multiplied by 
thc pcrpetuity increafed by unity. Bxample, Let 
thc joint live8 propofed be a female life agt-d lo» 
and a male life aged 15 ; and let the tabic of ob- 
fcnraticns betheSwedentablc for livc8 in gcneral, 
and the rate of interelt 4 per cent. Twicc the 
cKpc^ations of the two lires are 90*14 and 83'i8. 
Twice thc expcAation of the oWeft life, increaftd 
by unity, and twice thc perpctuity, is 134*28, 
which lciTeiis by 90*14 (twice tbc expe<5tation of 
Ihe youngclt life), leavc8 44*14 for thc Tcfervcd 
remainder. This remaindcr multiplicd by 14*045. 
(thc value of an annuity ccrtain for 83*28 ycar»), 
and tbe produdt divided by 83*28 (twicc the ex- 
pedation of the oldeft life)» give9 12*744» tbe quo« 
ttent to be rcferved ; which fubtra^ed from double 
the perpetuity, and the remainder (or 37*255) 
multipUed by the pcrpetuity increafed by unity 
(or by 26) givc9 968*630, which divided by 90*14 
Ctwice the cxpeftation of the youngeft Iife) and 
the quotient fubtradted from the perpetuity, wc 
have 14*454 for the rtfquired value« The vaJue of 
an annuity certain, when thc niimber of ycars is 
a whole number with a firadion addcd (as will be 
commonly tbe cafe) may be beft compiited in the 
following manner. In th*s example the nunaber 
of ycars is 83*28. The valuc of an annuity ccr- 
tain for 83 ycars is .24*035. The famc value for 
84 years is 24*072. Thc dilTerence betwceo thefe 
two valuea is 0*37 ; which difterence multiplied 
by '28 (the fra^ional part of the number of ycars), 
ancl tbe produ^ ('0103) added to tbc leaft of thc 
t«*o value8, will give 24*045 the value for 83*28 
years. GeneralRuh. Call.the corredt value (rup- 
pofcd to bc compuled for any rate of intereft) tbc 
firft va1ue. Call the value deduced (by the pre- 
ccding problcma) from the expe<ftations at the 
Cime rate of imereft, the fccond value. Call the 
valuc deduced from the expedtations for any o- 
ther rate of intereft the third value. . Then the 
difterencc between the firft and fecond value8 ad- 
ded to or fubtradted from ihz third value, juft as 
the firft b grcater or lef9 than the fecond, will bc 
the value at the rate of interett for which the 
third value has bcen deduced from ihe expeda- 
tions. The following example8 wi!l make this 
pcrfec*tly plain. Eseamp^e I. In the two laft tables 
the corrc<a valuc8 are given of two joint livc8 a- 
.TionE: mankind at iarge, without dlftinguilhing 
lictween males and fcma!es, according to the Swe- 
iLn obfer^ation8, reckoning the intercft at 4 pcr 
Ci nt. I^t it be required to find fronn thcfcvalues 
ihe values at 3 pcr cent, and lct the ages of the 
i ^int Uv€8 be fuppofcd 10 and 10. The corre^t 
v,ilue table IV. (rcckoning intcrcll at 4 per cent), 
is ir'z4T. The cxpeftation of a life aged 10 is 
,4i*^7- The value dcduced from this expedtation 
<\x 4 per cent, by I4*539. The valuede- 
duc^^d by the fame problem from thc famc expcc- 
tition at 3 per cent is i6'8o8. The dilTcrcncc be- 
Iwtcn the firft and fccond values is 1*602, which, 
nidcd to the third value (thc firft being greatcr the fecond), makca 18-410, the value requir- 
e^. Example II. Let the valuc be required of a 
U-gle malc life aged xo, at 3 pcrccnt intcrcft, 

o ) S U R 

firom the c6rrc£t value at 4 per.ccnt, accordingto 
the Swedcn obfcrvations. Firft, or corrcdt valuer 
at 4 pcr ccnt, (by tablc III.) is 18*674. Thc 
cxpe^ation of a male Ufe agcd 10 is 43*94» 
The fecond value (or tbe value deduced fi^om 
this cxpe^ation by prob. I-) is 17*838. Thc ^d 
yalue (or tbc value dcduced from thc fame cx 
pci^ation at 3 per cent) is 21*277. The diC- 
ference lytwccn tbe tirft and 2d is '836 ; wbich 
(fince the firft is grcatcr than tbe 2d) muft be ad- 
ded to the third ; and tbe fum (that is, 2^*113) 
will bc the value required. Tbe ^d value, at 5 
per cent, is 15*286; and tbe dilTcrcnce added to 
15*286 makcs x6'X22 the valuc of a malc life agcd 
10 at 5 per ccnt according tothe Swedco obfer«t- 
tions. Tbc exa^ value at 5 per cent is (by tablc 
III.) 16*014. Again: Thc diffcrcncc betwcen 
X 6*0 14 (tbc corrc<5t value at 5 pcr ccnt), and 
15*286 (thc Talue at thc (amc intcreft dcduced 
from the crpcdation), is '728 ; whicb, addcd 
(bccaufe the firft value is greatcr than the fc- 
cond; to 13.335 (the value deduced at 6 pcrcent 
from thc exp©6tation) gives X4*o63, thc value of 
thc (ame life, reckoning intercft at 6 per ccnt. 
Thcfe dcdu^ions, in the cafc of finglc livc8 par- 
ticularly, are fo cafyy and givc the true yalues ib 
nearly, that it will be fcarcely evcr necellary to 
calculate the exa<ft values (according to any giveQ 
obfervations) for more tban one rate of intercft. 
If, for inftance, tbe corrcA values are computcd 
at 4 per ccnt, according to the obfcrvation8, tbe va- 
luc» at 3, 3^ 4%, 5, 6, 7 or 8 pcr ccnt may bc dedu- 
ecd fi*om them by the preceding rulcs as occafion 
may require, without rouch labour or any dan- 
ger of confiderabIe crrors. The valuea thus de- 
duced will fcldom difter from the true yalues fo 
much as a tcnth of a year*8 purchafe. Thcy will 
not gencrally difter more than a 2oth or jotb of a 
ycar's purchafc. In joint lives they will diffcr 
IcCs tban in fingle livt8, and thcy will come e- 
qual1y near to onc another whatcver the rates of 
intereft are. Thc preceding tablcs fumlih the 
means of detcrmining the cxadt di^crences bc- 
twcen the yalucs of annuitics, as thcy are made 
to depcnd on the furvivorlhip of any male or fe- 
m<tl live8 ; which hitherto has becn a J^/Uerettum 
of confiderable confequcnce in the do^ine of 
life-annuitie8. What has madc this of confe- 
qucncc is chicAy the multitudc of focietie8 lately 
cftabhftied in^this and foreign countrics for pro- 
yiding annuitics for widows. Thĕ gcneral rule 
for calculaling from thcfe tablcs thc value of fuch 
annuities is thc following. Ru!e^ " Find in tablc 

III. the value of a female Ufe at thc agc of the 
wifc. From this valuc fubtra<5t thc value in table 

IV. of the jolnt continuance of two live8 at the 
agcs of tbe huft>and and wife. The remainder 
wiU bc the value in a fingic prcfent payment of 
an annuity for the life of ihe wife Ihould (he bc 
Icft a widow. And thts 1aft value dividcd by tbc 
valuc of the joint 1ive8 increafcd by unity, will 
l>c thc valuc of thc fame annuity in annual pay- 
ments during thc joint livc8, and to commence 
imrocdiately." Example. Lei thc age of thc wifc 
bc 24. and of tbc hulband 30. The valuc in 
tablc III. (rcckoning intereft at 4 per ccnt) of a 
female lifc aged 24,1« I7*a5»« Thc value in table 
IV. of two joiut livc8 ag^ 24 and jo, \% i3*455t 


Digitized by 


S U S ( i 

mhkh rubtraAed from X7*252 lcave9 3'797> thc 
nluc io a fiiglc pTcTent paymcnt of an annuity of 
1 1. for thc ltfc of thc wifc aftcr thc hulband ; that 
it, for tbc lirc of thc widow. Thc annnity, tbcrc- 
forf, bciog fuppofed ao I. it« Taloe in a finglc pay- 
mcBt i« 20 muitfpltcd by 3*797, that is, 75'94 1. 
And tbif laft value dividcd by 14*455 (that is» 
hj the Taluc of thc joint livc8 incrcafcd by uui- 
ty\ gifc8 5*15, thc Taluc in annual paymcnts be- 
pnnjiif immediatcly, and to bĕ continucd du- 
nop thc joint Htc» of an annuity of ao I. to a 
wifc agcd 24' for her lifc, after her huiband a- 

SURUNGA, or Suisju, a fea-port town of 
Japao, io tbc ifie of Niph^m, and carpital of a pro- 
wcc fo named ; 170 milca E. of Meaco. 

StrRWlLlSia, a towti of Lithuania, in the 
late ptUtinate of Wilna, now annexed to PruAia : 
j6 milcs SSE. of Wilna. 

(1.) SDRY, or SuRY em Vaux, a town of 
fr»cc, in tbe dep. of the Cher : .? miies N. of 
Sacerre, and 13 NE. of Henrichmont. * 

\t.)8utY LE CoMTAL, a town of Prance, in 
thedcp. of tbe Rhone and LoJre: 6 miles SE. of 
Mb!!tbrifoo, and la NW. of St Eticime. Lon. 
ai. 51. E. Pcrro. Lat. 45. 31. N. 

SDRYA, the orb of the Am pcrfonified and a- 
<ioftd bya fed of Hindoot a« a pod, likc thc 
tbc Phoebus of Greecc and Rome. The fed 
«bo pay him particular adoration are called Sau^ 
ras» Thcir poctt and paintcrs dcfcribe his car as 
drawT» by (cTcn green hoHes, procecded by Arun, 
orthe Da^f who ads at his chariotrer, and fol- 
loYtd by thoufafKU of genii woHhipping him and 
nodoUting hia praiTes. He has a multitude of 
Bines, and aonong them la epithets or titlc<t, 
which dcnotc htt di(Hnd powcrs in each of the 
ij nmths; and hc is belicTcd lo ha^e defcended 
^?<intiit)y from bis car in a human (hape, and to 
ba»e kft 1 racc on carth, whoare equa'.ly renown- 
^ m the Indian (torict with the Heliadai of 
Gretce: it is Tcry (ingular, that hii two fofi8 call- 
^ Jlf3f'mam and A/winieumarath in the dual, 
^koold be confidcrcd as twin-brothcrs, and paint- 
«d ftc Catlor and Pollus; but they haTc cach 
*^cbraAer of Afculapiu8 among the gods, and 
?»«W5cTed to haTc been bom of a nymph, who, 
" tte form of a mare, was impregnated with fun- 

WtZEE, a town of the HclTctic republic iit 
Liwi, ocar lakc Sempach, 5 milcs S. of Lucern. 

SURZUR, a town of Erance, in the depart- 
B04 of Morbihan ; 6 miles SE. of Yannes. 

(L) SUS, or Suz, or Soust In geo^aphy, a 
X^^nxt of Africa, telonging to Morocco; 
IwwJed 00 thc N. by Mount Atlas ; E. by GcAi- 
^ ; i by tbe C&nd^ of Numidia and Sus ; and W. 
Htbf Oecan. It ie a level ferti]e country, a- 
■*»*diiig ja com, fn(;ar-canefl, dates, &c. In 
^ BOttntamt tfae kihabitants are free and go- 
tenied by tbclr own chtef8, or fcheik8. Taro- 
•«T 14 tbe captcal. (Brookes.) But thc rcr. C. 
^iwdl makes Da^h it§ boundary on thc E. 
»* Aw ON tbc S. He adds, that Aguadir, To- 
*^ TiCEirT, and MtssA are aIfo among its 

. /J*-. *tJs. Suz, or 50CI/, a riTerof Africa, wbich 
nki froB Monmt Atla^ io thc cmpire of Moroc- 

I ) s u s 

co, bounds the aboTc proTincc, to which it giTcs 
n^mc, on the S. and falls into the Atlantic Occan, 
nc^r S^nta Cruz. ^ 

(IIL) Sus, the HoG, in «oology, a genus bf 
quadrupcds belonging to thc clafs of m/imm^ 7^ 
and order of heliu^. Thcrc arc four cutting tecth 
in the upper jaw, whofe points conTcrge ; and, 
for the mo(t part, (ix in the lower jaw, which 
itand forward8. Thcre arc two tuAcs in cach jaw, 
thofe in the upper jaw being (hort, while thofe of 
the under jaw arc long, and extend out of the 
mouth. The fnout is prominent, moTcablc, and 
has the appearance of haTing becn cut oiT, or 
truncatcd. The feet are armcd with divided or 
cloTcn hoof8. There are (\x fpecie8 ; 

I. Sus iETHiopicus, tbeBttgaUoi or Etbiopian 
ijog, has no foreteeth, but fmall tu(ks in the low- 
er jaw, Tcry large ones in the upper, in old boara 
bending towards the forehead in form of a femi- 
circle: nofc bioad, dcpre^Tcd, and almod of a 
horny hardncfs : head Tcry largc and broad : be- 
neath each eye a hoHow, formed of loofe Ikin, 
very foft and wnnkled ; undcr thefe a great lobe 
or wattle, lying almo(t horizontal, broad, Aat» 
and rounded at the end, placed fo as to intcrcept 
the Tiew of any thing below from the animal. 
Betwcen thefe and the mouth on each (idc, therc 
is a hard caHous protuberance. Tbe mouth is 
fnDall: (kin duiky : bri(tles difpofed in farcicult, of 
about (iTc each ; longe(l between the ears and on 
the beginning of the back, thinly difperfed on the 
re(t of thc back. Ears large and (harp pointed, 
infide lined with long whiti(b hair» : tail (lcnder 
and flat, not reaching lower than the thigbs, and 
is coTcred with hairs difpofed m faibiculi. Body 
longer, and lcgs (hortcr, than in thc common 
fwine : its whole length 4 fect 9 Inchcs ; height 
before, 2 feet % inches :^ but in a wild (tate, it 
grows to an enormous Bec. Thefe animals inha- 
bit the hotteit parts of Africa, from Senegal to 
Congo, alfo thc idand of MadagAicar. Thcy ajc 
Tcry ficrce, a^iTc and fwift ; they will not brced 
with thc dome(tic fow. They burrow under 
ground, into which they dig with rurpriBng ex- 
pedition. BuAbn confound8 ihis, with the Afri- 
can, . 

*. Sus Apricanus, tlie A/rican bog^ has only 
% fore treth in tbc upper jaw, and 6 in thc lower ; 
on each (ide 6 grinders. Tbe body is covercd 
with Tcry Idng and fine briftles ; the tail reachcs 
to the fir(t joint of the hind leg ; is Tcry (lender 
and ends in a large tuft: thc head is long; nofe 
Acndcr; the upper jaw extcnding far beyond the 
lower; the cars narrow, ercA and poruted, with 
Tcry long briAles at the cnd. They.inhabit Afrt- 
ca, flrom Cape Yerd to the Cape of Good Hope. 

3. Sus babyrussa, the Indian bog, h;is 4 cut- 
ting tecth in the upper, fix in thc lower jiw; tcn 
grinders to each jaw ; in thc lower jaw two tulks 
pointing towards the eyes, and (landing near 8 
inchcs out of their fockets; from two fockcts on 
thc outfide of the iipper jaw two other tecth, 
1% inches long, bending Iike homs, thcir cndf) al- 
rooft touching thc forehead: cars fmall, crea, 
iharp-pointed : along the back are fome weak 
briAles; on ihc re(t of the body only a fort of 
wool, fuch as is on lambs : the tait long, ends in 
a tuft| aod ii oftcn twiited : thc body plump and 
B a ^ t fquare. 

S U S ( 1 

fquare. It inhabit^ Buero, a ffrall ifle near Am- 
boina; ?6 alfo found,in C^l^-bcs, but nettbtr on 
the continent cf A(ia nor Afnca. Tbey are fomc. 
tiraes kept tame in thc Indi^in lAes: Iive in hcfrd«»: 
h^ve a,very quick fcem: fecd op herbs and ltavcs 
pf trces ; never ravage {scirdcns likc other fwinc : 
thcir fle(h weil taded. Whep purfurd and dnv<rn 
to cstrcmitlcs, thcy rufli) inta the (ea, fwim vtiy 
wcll, and cvendive and paT* thus from iAc to ifle. 
Jn the forcft8 they cftcn reft their heads, by book- 
ing thcir uppcr tu&s on foincbouph. Thc tuAts, 
from their form, arc ufelcf8 in fisht. 

4. Sus PoRCUg, tbe Guhtea Ha^i has no brif- 
^es; thc hindcr J>art of th£ back 18 covtrcd with 
jong haijrs ; ttic tait h Ibng: and naked ; and bjings 
down to the ground ; thc cars are longiAi and 
much pointed ; thc bo<Jy is" covercd w'»th Ibort 
ii:\d ihining red ha;rs. Tbid fpecic8 inhabit Gui- 
nca. There is a variety calicd ihc Siantr/e ifOg. 
Bot!) arc fnQal!cr than thc commun hog. 

j. Sus ScapFA, t&t eommon bog^ having the 
body covcFcd with bridlrs ; two largc tceth above 
aod bdow. There arc 4 varictic^ : 

i. Sus ScROjrA DOMBSTicus, tbe domejiic /&o^, 
has thc ears lohg^ iharp-pointedy and Oouching ; 
thc colour gcnerally whrte, fomctimc5 mixed with 
otber colours. \t\ a tamc ftate it is univcrfal ; cx- 
cept in tbe frigid zonc8, apd in Kamtfchatka, 
whcre^thc cold is very fevcrc. Sincc its introduc 
Jion into America by tbe European^, it abcunds 
to exccf8 in the bpt and tpmperatc parts. Of all 
nuadrtjpeds, the hog is thc moA. rudc and brutaU 
'All hisbabits are grofs; all )iis appetTtes are im- 
purc ; all his fei)(aVion8 are conAucd to a hirious 
lufl, ^nd a brutal gluttony. He dcvours indilcri- 
iliinatcly cvcry tbiTg tbat com<:8 in bis way, evcn 
bis own progcny the roomcnt aftcr Iheir birth. 
Thia voracroufr;ef!^ fcemp a proctcd fro»ti thc pcr- 
petual cravings of his (tomach, which \i of an im- 
moUeratc nze ; and the groflnef8 of bis appctitcs, 
it i*t probable, arifc8 from the bluntiicfs of hia 
f-nfcs of tafte and 6f feeling. Thc rudencf8 of the 
hair, the hardnc.f8 of the ikin, and the thickncf8 
Qf tbe fat, rcnder thcfe animals Ief8 fen&ble to 
biows. Mice have*been known to lodge upon a 
)u)g's badc, and to eat his f)cin and iat, without 
lvi« Aiowing any' fnark6 of feelfng. Thc other 
fenfe8 of the bog ace yery good. It i» wcll knowii 
to thc bumcrs that the wiUl boar hcars andfmcl!s 
at a grcat diltance ) for, to Ajrprife liim, thcy are 
obliged to watch him in 6icnce during the ni|:ht, 
and to place themfelve8 oppofite to the wind, 
tbat be may not perceiye the fmeil, whicb ncver 
fail8 to make hiiA turn back. Thc parts of this 
animal arc |incly adapted to its way of life. As 
\X& method of fecding is by turning op tne eartb 
with its nofc for roots of diilcrent kinds, fo it bas 
^ more pronc form than otber animals ; a Itrong 
brawny p^ck ; eycs fmall, and placed high in the 
hcad ; a iong fnout, nofe callous and tougb, ahd 
.i<)uick fenfc of fmcUing to tr4ce out its food. Its 
}4it^ftin68 fcavc a (Irong rticmblance to thoie of 
tbe human {pccirs. ^otwithitanding its powerii 
of motion, it is by nature iiupld, ina^ive« apd 
drowfy ; .mucb inclincd to incrcafc in fat, which 
IM <iifpofe<l io a dilfcrent manner froitj that of o* 
thcr an»m;»U, aud forms a rcgular coat ovcr thc 
\v^Ic f)^ Jy» Ic is rcillefs at a changci)f wc^thcr^ 

tt ) S U 3 

and in high wind» i» ^m agitatcd an to ron Tiolcnt* 
ly, fcreaming horribly at tbe fame time: it is fond 
of wailowiiig rn ihc dirt, citbcr to cool its furfeit- 
(hI body, or to dcftroy tbc licc, ticks, aod otber 
infe6ts with which it is .infcfted. Its diiea^esgc- 
ncrally arif. from fi>ul fceding and intempcrancc \ 
fuch at mc^iAe^, ioipoAhumes, and ^crophola. 
Thcfc are btft prrvenicA by kecpii>g the ammals, 
a*» thc aocents Arongly rccommcnded, very clpn 
in their ftifs; ailowing tbcm, air^ excrcile, and a 
fufliciency of water. linnacus obfcrve8, that its 
fl-fli is whol:ffome food for athlctic hpnftitution<', 
or thole that ufc much cxcrcife ; bjit bad for fuch 
as lead a Adcotary lifc: it is, howevcr, of moft 
\2n5vcrfal.ufe ; and fiurn^flies numberlefs matetials 
for cprcurif-n. The boar, or male, is cbo(cn wilh 
^ rcat carc, when intcndcd for propagation ; and 
18 thus crpploycd from tbc agc of two to five 
ycars, and thcn either fold or fatted. Tbc malcs 
not allottcd tothis ufe arecaftratcd, fometime<% at 
tl^c agje of fix wceks', fometime8 fix months ; and 
thcn fed to a great fi2e titber for falc or £6r ufc. 
S0W8 are kept for brccd gcnerally from one yca|r 
okl jo 7, and ^re thcn fatted. They have com- 
monly inorc grtarc on.their intettincs tban hogs, 
thefc being faUert on their backs. Ariftotlc fay!», 
tbat hogs in general |i»c ap years ; and adds, that 
l>oth males and femalc8 are fcrtile tili thcy amve 
at i|. They can cngend^r at ^ or \% month«; 
but it is bcttcr to rjeftrain them tiil thty be \% 
roonths or two ycars. Thc firft littcr of tbe fow 
i8 not numcrous^ andt whcn only onc year x>ki, 
hcr pigs are weak, and evcn irepcrfe^. Shc may 
bc fair1 to bf in feafon at all times. Though im- 
prcgnated, flie folicit8 thc approach of the roak, 
which is an cxcefs among animals ; far almoft e- 
vcry othtr fpfcies refufc the malc aUcr couccp* 
\ion. Thc ardoyr of thc fow, thougb almoft prr- 
pctual, is howcver marked by paroxyfmft and im- 
roodcratc mov^mcnts, which always tcrminatc by 
her wallowing in the roirc. Sbe, at the ianic 
thne, cmits a tbltk wbitifli Auid. She pocB 4 
montha with young ; bringt forth in the begin- 
ning of the fitth ; and foon aftcr folicit« tbc male, \% 
impr^rgnated a ad timc, and thus brinpa^orth twice 
a-ycar. Only 8 or 9 of the liltcr are kcpt ; thc 
rcit are fold.. la 15 days, pigs are excellant fo<)d. 
Thc flcfti of all tbc diAirrcut fpecic8 of fwine, and 
at all agcs, is a vcry fubftaotial and agrecablc «li- 
rocnt ; and iu tbeir propcr fcafonsy the diArercnt 
fort8 of provifions thus fupplied are all of them 
vcry falcablc. Thc fltfli was much morc in fa- 
vcur with our anccttor^ than ^ilh us; though 
BRAWN has ftill many admirers, is mac^e iii ibe 
greatcA perfedion, and conAdcrcd as a rarity pe- 
culiar to tbis country. Pork, though it mi|;bt 
bc wjftly prohibitcd ia fomc warm countric^, is 
found equally nuintiyc atid fiiluury herc. As fuoh 
it fi*rniflie» a Ycry large proportion cf tbat fQod 
which is vendcd in our markcts. It takes f4lt 
bc-ttcrandlLeeps, tban tbc flcih of any <>. 
thcr aniroal, and thc confuTnption of it is prodigt* 
QU9 whcn picklcd or faUed, more c^cially in our 
toreign garrifonsand in tbe fca fervice*' Oqt ba- 
con U diAcrcntly curcd, fo as loreadcr tt accept* 
ablc to all p;ilatc6; and our hams are not at all 
infrrior to thofc of othcr countrici , Frdh pork 
fcU:i ncai ly as dear a^ bctf ^ the l4rd brings dou- 
; ble 

Digitized by 


S U S ( t 

bk or trtple tbe prtcr ; the blood, tbe intettinett, 
tbeleet,aad tbe tongue» are all prq>ared as food. 
The ht oi tke inteitincs and wcb, wbich difers 
hm CDoimoa lard, ii ctnployed for grraiiog axle8 
d «bttW, and fur many othcr purpofts. Sicirts 
2jt «ade of tbe ikin ; and biruibes, prncilKi &€« 
of tbc briitlc?. The duog is reputed r.cxt in valuc 
to tbat of Aieep. Mr Worlidge propoicA that 
firiDe Oiouki hc tamed into a cloie wcll pa^ed, 
ud planted with i^ns» piilf«f, aud roots, ou 
vbidi tbry may ^eed, and hy thcir trampHng aod 
(bardtKig raife a great qttaittity of eaceilcDt fkal. 
Nr Mortimer aiTures ua that fome, on poor light 
(h^ laod tn Stafibrdihire, f{)w a fma1I whtte 
po, wltich tbcy never reap, tMit turn in fo mauy 
bositocat them as thcy think thty wtll fAt; and 
tbaethey iic day and ni^tt and tbcir dung will 
Ib cDnch the land, that tt will bring a good fward 
o^ it, aiid will graze many yearn afterwarda. 
Oaroldlniibandmeii tiad ao ill opinion of this 
^OB^ u fQppuiing it bred weeds. In fome phi- 
oi tbcy waih with bogs dung for want of ioap ; 
vbicbanfwers tolerably wcU, if the lioen hangs 
^ csougb in the alr to become thoroughiy 
ircrt. The fnoat of an old boar in thc only part 
tU is cfteemcd ; but every part of the caUrated 
»d yoitng boar, pot eaceeding one year fcd, 
nakci ddicatc eating. The pork of the domef- 
te boar is woric tkan that of the wild boar ; and 
it cao ooljr he rendcred fit for eating by caAration 
Xid {ittenbg. 

n«SusScaorA Dom. Moiiun6uluS| the 5of- 
tt^-^t^Uog, haa irndiTided hoots on ail the feet, 
>wlpdGeablc« the common kind in cvery thing 
(ttr. Tbey inbabtt Upfal in SArcdcn and othcr 
P^; aad anr meationed by thc ancients. 

ut' Si7i ScaoT A DOM. SiNENSts, the Cbineje 
%»taJtbe baac ^mpft naked and the beity 
haogiBg dowsi to the ground ; thc lcgs arc ihort, 
»d tbc tail ibort and penduldus. Thcy are com- 
M 01 ditna, tbe iilands io the Indian Ocean, 
«d Sonth Sea» and in New Gainea. They are 
^^^'tjtttcd in Piiropey and are much more cleanly 
tiwfcceoaimbfl bog: tbe flefli' is whiter and 
•^l^r tiroury. 

^•Sui ScaoTA Fi9izs, the WtUHcg^ is of a 

w^bnaded coloor, and beneath -the briitles is 

a feDft jbort hair ; the cars ihort and a tittle rouod- 

«> It Jsfoand wild io moitparts of £urope. In 

^iaRftsof Sootb America therearc vaft droves. 

''to derive ttieir ongin from thc ^uropcan kind 

^'•P^d loto a ftate ot natare : and are what Mr 

^*>croft, jn bts hiitory of Gobtna, defcnbes as a 

J*t>CBlar fpecies by the namc of Warrir. They 

*^*Bt bear esccffive cold ; inhabit wopded coun- 

^2» a»d arc ^ery fwift. jn Amcrtca thcy are 

*^ by cleariog the country of rattkfnakes, 

^JiAthey dc«oar without danger. Tbe cxUr- 

***■■• of itt body it very uovirtcldy : yet, by thc 

»«»fth ol tts tcndoBSt tbe wild boar is enablcd 

^^M bm thc honters with amazing agility : the 

■*toe 00 tbc fect of tbis animal prrvents its 

■JJ^ whiie tt deiceiids d«cliviticf, and muft t>c 

'Ijt»^ ufe vrhcn poribcd. As td thc age of 

™*aiBals, it it iaid thc hfc of the wild boar 

U^ c«ended to »5 or 30 ycam, The ilefti of 

'^•id boar «raacfteemed a great delicacy by thc 

**^ Rofluo9. Thc wiid ibw, which crery 

3 ^ s u s 

way rcfemble$ the domeftic ktnd, producei on1f 
oncc a year. Thts diiTcrenie in fcrtility is pro- 
bably owing to want of nouriihmcnt, and the ne- 
cciBty of iuckiiog her pigs much looger than the 
domcftfC fow, which is ncver ailowcd to nurfe her 
young at>ove i^ days or threc wceks. Thc wiid 
bv)ar was formerly a native of Engi^d, as appear« 
from the laws of Hoel Dha^ who permittcd his 
grand huntfman to chace that animal frcm the 
roiddk of Novcmt)cr to th« t)^inT>ing of Dcccm- 
bcr. WJiliam I. puntihrd witn the lofs of thetr 
eyes any that were convidled of killing thc wild 
t>0)ir, thc ftag, or the rottuick ; aod Fttz-Stephca 
tcits us, that the vaft foreft that in bis time grew 
on the R iidc of Londo0f was tbe retreat of Uags» 
falfow-deer, wild boars, andbulli>. Cbailcs I. turi>- 
ed out wttd boars in the New Foreft,'Hamplhire, 
bot they werc deftroycd in the civil wars. On the 
contincnt the wild boar is bunted with dogs, or 
kill^d by furpriie during tbe night, when the mooa 
iliines. As he runs ilowly« leave6 a ftrong odour 
kHrhtod htm, and defend8 himfetf againft the dogs, 
aud ofteD wounds them dangerouily, hnc hunting 
do^s are unncceCTary, and would havc their nole 
fpoiled, and acqaire a tul)it,of moving Aowiy by 
huottn^ him. Maftilfs, with very little training^ 
arc fufRcient. Tbc oIdeft» which are known by 
thc tra^ of thcir fect, ihould oniy be attacked : 
A young t)oar of thrcc years old is diilicult to 
hunt down; bccauiie he runs very£ar withuut ftop« 
pf ng. But the oidcr l>oar8 do not run far, aliow 
the dogs to run near, ^nd oiten itop to repcl 
tbem. During the day, he commoniy rematns in 
his foil, which is in tlie moft fequeftrated part of 
the woods. He comes out in the night in queft 
of food. In fummer, when the grain is ripc, it is 
eafy to furprife him among the cuhivated hcklst 
which he frcqucat8 every night. As foon as he is 
' ilain, th«-bunter8 cut off his tefticles, the odour 
of which is fo ftroog, that in a few bours it would 
infcd the whole flcih. The ancients caitrated 
thc young boars which they could carry o^^i-oia 
their mothcrs, and retomed them to tbc woods» 
i^herc they grew fat, and their pork was much 
bcttcr than that of domcftic hogs. 

6. Sus Tajassus, thc Tajassu, I^cary, or 
Me^ican Hojg, with 4 cutting teeth abovc, and fiz 
below : two tuiks in each jaw ; thofe in the upper 
jaw pointing down, and little apparent when thc 
mouth is ihut ; the others hid : length ftom nore 
to the end of thc rump about three feet : head not 
fo taper as in «^ommon fwine : cars Oiort and e- 
rea : covered wttb brirtles, ftronger than 
tbofe of the £uropean kind, and morc liltc thofer 
of a hcdgc-hog ; tbey arc duiky, furrounried witK 
rings of white , thofc on thc t<>p of the ntck and 
back are near 5 inchcs long ; ihortrr t>n the fi:!e^ ; 
thc bcliy a.moft nakcd ; from thc ibouldera to the 
breaft ts a band of white : no tail : on thc lower 
part of thc back is a gland, opcn at the top, dif- 
charging a fetid ichorous liquor ; this has bcen by 
miftakc callcd a ir€wv/.— Inhabits the holtcft parta 
of South America, and fome of thc Antillcs : tiycs 
in the foreft8 on the mouotains: is not fond of mir<; 
or marihy placcs: leis fat than the common hog. 
Thefe animals go in great drove8. Thcy are very 
fiercc, and will fight ftoutly witb thc bcafts of 
prcy ; tbc jagiuri or Amehcao leopard, is their 

^ inortal 

Digitized by VjOOQ lC 

S U S ( I 

mortal cnetny ; often the body of that animal is 
fbuDd with feveral of thefe hogs (laiii in combat. 
Dogs wiU fcarce attack this animal : if wounded, 
it will tum on thc huntera. They feed on fruit8 
and roots ; aIfo on toads and all manner of ler- 
pents» which they hold with their fore-teet, and 
Ikin with great dcxterity. Tbe flef1i is reckoncd 
very good food ; but ali writers agree that thc dor« 
lal gtand muit be citt out as foon as the animal h 
killed, or thc flefh wiil become fo inftited as not 
10 be eatabie. Tbe Jndian name of this fpecie8 \% 
faqmraSf whence ts derivcd that ofprcary, 

(I.) SUSA, or Shu&han, the ancicnt royal re- 
Adence of . the kings of PerHay built by Darius 
Hyftafpi9, accordingto Pliny ; though hc probab- 
ly only rcltorcd it, bcing a very ancient city, 
iounded by TiTHONtJS, thc father of Memnon« 
It was in comp;ff8 120 ila^ia, of an oblong tqua- 
drangular fonn, with a citadel calied Memnoneimu 
In Scnpture it is called S4f usha^n^ the royal ata- 
dt\ from thc great number of lihcs growmg in 
tbat diftrid ; (Atbenaus ;) fituate on the river U- 
lai, or Eulasus : (Danlel;) Snfa was thc wintcr, 
as Ecbatana was the fummcr, refidencc of thc 
kings of Pcrfia. (JCtnophont Strabo^ Plutarch,) 
Uere the kings kept tbcir treafure ; and AIexander 
found immenfe richcs in it. (Herodotus.J It is 
now cailed SusTER. 

(1.) SusA, in modcm geogmphy, a ftropg 
town of thc Prcnch empirc, in the departmcnt of 
Doria, and latc marquifate of Suia, wtth a fbrt, 
feated on thc Doria, and calicd the key of Italj, as 
being thc chief paAage out of Prancc into Italy. 
It bas a triumphal arcb, ereded in honoiir of 
Augudus. It^was taken by the Prcnch in 1690, 
but rcilored in 1696, again in 1704, but rcitured 
10 the D. of Savoy in 1707. It wat taken by thc 
prcnch rt^pubiicans, on thc aid May, 1800. (See 
Su2A, N^ 3.) It is .-^o milcs NW. of Tunn, and 
25 N£. of Bnan^on. Lon.y.s^.E. Lat.45.20. N. 

(3.) SusA, a ci-dcvant marquiiate of Piedniiont» 
Bow included in the Prcnch empire, and depart- 
ment of Doria. Susa was thc capital. SceSu- 

2A, N*» ». 

(4.) SusA» or SuzA. Sec SuzA. 
(5.}SusA» a town of Perfia, in.Choraian: 60 
milcs NNW. of Hcrat. 

• SUSCEPTIBILITY. «./. [kom fufceptibU:\ 
Quality of admitting ; tendency to admit. — Thc 

fufceptibil$tf of thofc inAuences, is tbe gcncral pro- 
vidential law whereby other phy^cal beings are 
goTcrned. Hale. 

• SUSCEPTIBLE. aslj\ [fufceptihle, Fr. Prior 
has accentcd this improperly on the tiril fyllablei] 
Capable of admitting difpofed to admit. — Ile 
mouided him platonically to his own idea, be- 
caufe hc found him fufeeptible of good ^om. 
tTotton. — In tbcir tctidcr years thcy are more /15/^ 
seftibie of virtuous impreilions than afterward8. 
UBJirange, — Childrcn'd minds arc narrow, and 
ufuahy fufceptibie but of onc thougbt at once. 

Blow with cmpty words iht fufeeptible flame. 


• SUSCEPTION. «./. \fufceptus, Latin.] Ad 
of taking. — ^A canon, promoted to boly ordtis, 
before he ib of a lawfiil age for ih^ fvfcfption of or- 
ders» ihaU baTC a ? oice m the cbaptcr. Ayltffe* 

4 ) s u s 

• SUSCEPTIYE. adj, [from fufceptui, Lat.] 
This word is more analogical, though lei^ uCed 
ihnn /ufceptibie.] Capable to admit.— Since our 
nature is {o^u/ceptiw of cnrours on a»l fides, it is 
fit wc ibould hafc notices gi^cn us bow (ar oiher 
perfon8 may bccomc the caufcs of falfe judgments. 

SUSCHANABAD, a town of Pcrfia, in Mc- 
zanderan : 60 milcH S. of Perabad. 

• SUSCIPiENCY. «./. lfrom fttfcipient.] Rc- 
ception ; admiiTion. 

• SUSCIPIENT. »./ [fufcipiens, Lat.] Onc 
who takcs ; onc tbat admits or receivc8. 

» To SUSCITATE. v. n. [fufciter, Prench; 
fufcito<t Lat.] To roufe ; to escitc— It concurreth 
but unto predifpofed cATcds, and only fufcitates 
thofc form8 whofe detcrminations are leminal. 

• SUSCITATION. «./. [fufcitation, Fr.from 
fufcitate.] Thc ad of roufing or excitipg. 

SUSDAL, a town of RuiTia, in Yolodimtr, ca- 
pital of a duchy fo namcd, with an archbiihop's 
fcc ; featcd on thc Khafma, 90 milc« N£. ot Mol- 
cow. Lon. 40. 25. E. Lat. 56. 16. N. 

^SELL, a town of HoIAcin ; % miles £S£. of 

SUSIANA, or Chusistan. SccChusistak. 

,( I.) ♦ SUSPBCT. part. adj. [fufpea, Fr.] Doubt- 
ful. — Sordid interctts arc not hkc to rcader your 
rt^oti% fi(fpea or partial. GlanioiUe. 

• SuspBCT. if./. [from the vcrb.] Sufptcion; 
ima^tnation without proof. Obfolcte. — 

No fiancy nune, no otber vnongfu/pe3. Sidney. 
Thc ialc of oAices and towns in Prancc, 
If they were known, as i\)tefufpea is great, 
Would makc tbce quickly bop Mrithout a head. 

My moft worthy maAcr, in wbofe brealt 
Doiibt 2Lndfufpeay alas I are plac'd too late, 
You ihould have feaT.'d falfe ttmes. Shak. 

— There bc fo many falfe prlnts o^ prai^c» that a 
man may juftly hbld a fufpeS. Bacon. — ^Nothing 
raore jcalous than a favounte towards the wain- 
\t% time 2x\Afufpea of fatiety., WoUon. — / 
Thcy might hold fure intciligcncc 
Among tbcmfelvc6, witbout/<^d5. Daniel. 
— lf the king ends the diHerences, and takcs away 
iht/ufpea. Suckling. 

O.) * 7o SusPtjCT. n}.4t. {fufpicio^ fufpeaum^ 

Lat.] To imagine with a degrec of icai' and jea- 

Ioufy what is not known. — Nothing makes a man 

fhfpea much, more than to know little. Baeon. — 

Let us not thcn fufpea our happy ftate. 

0, To imagine guilty without proof. — Many poets 
rtAyfufpea themfelvc8 for tbc parttality of parents 
to thcir youngcA childiicn. Dr^ J^.— Somc would 
pcrfuade us tnat body and extenfioii are the fame 
thingt which change the fignification af words* 
which I would noi fufpea thcm.of. Loeke. 3. T« 
hold unccrtain ; to doubt. — I hayc no manncr of 
realon io fufpea thc truth. Addijbn.. 

(2.) • 7o SusptCT. n}. tt. To imagine guih.— 1 
lf lfufpea wMat caufe, let me bc your jeflL Shak. 1 
SUSPBNCE. Sec Suspejjsb. 

• To SUSPEND. V. a. [fufpsndre, Prcnch ; /W/^ 1 
pendof Lat.] i. To haiigi to makc to hang by any 


Digitized by 


5 U S ( 

'Twiit two eqoal armicB £ite 
St^ds oocertain vidory. Donne, 

— It is reported by RuSinus, that in the teinple 
ci Serapis there was an iron chartot /aJPended by 
Wttoaes; wbich Aones reroovedy the cbariot 
feU and wai daihed to pieces. Brĕwn. a. To make 
to depend apoo. — God bath in the fcripture /u/'- 
fnied tbe promire of etemal life upon this con* 
ditioo^obedience aod holineiB of Hfe. TUiot/on. 3. 
To iotenupt $ to make to ftop for a time. — 
The barmony 
Si^eadtd bell, aod took with raTilhment 
Tbc thronging audience. Milton. 

Tbe goard nor fights nor Oiet ; their fate fo 
At W!t]vfpends thdr courage and their fear. 


Oor \xntfu/^ded » we negk^ the fair, 

For wbom we bum'd. GrawuUie, 

3.Todday; to hinder from proceeding. — Su/ 

^porindignation agaioftmy brother. Sbakr^ 

Godlirey wiiely did bis gnatju/^nd,' Fairfi 

l/u/pend their doom. Milton, 

Tbe rcafoos for /u/pending Uie play were iU 

fouoded. Dryden» 

-Thii fB tbe hioge on whicb tums the liberty of 

intcBc^l beings, that tbey c2Ln/Ufpend this pro- 

icadioo io particuUr caies. Locke. 5. To keep 

oodetemuned. — ^A man may /ujpend bis cboice 

^bemgdetermincd fbr or againft tbe thing pro- 

pQ6d. Ucke. 6. To debar for a time from the exe- 

cmioo of an olBce or enjoyment of a revenue.— 

9<^ oicn ihould not be /tUpended from the exer- 

ciieof tlicir mtoiAry. Sandtr/m, — The biibop Qf 

^^»^wufummoned for ootyi^/^^Msg^DrSharp. 

. (i.) SOSPENDED, pari, adi, [from /u/pend,] 
io medtdoc, ftopt ; intcrruptedt; cbieAy ufcd of 

(>.)SufPENOBD AMiMATiON» that ft^te of ao 
«Mnai in which all the fundion8 of life are fo 
coiDpletdf ftopt ond interrupted, tbat itis bardiy 
P«ftWc to diicover any Sgn of life, or difference 
V^alateof deatb ; wbilc yct the principle of 
Ji^ renttist aod is recbverable, if proper meaos 
Wb^ Xl)2t fwalk>ws, marmots, and many 
^amoials^l into this torpid ftate naturally 
**i»«»dly,,is a £ad well koown in natural hif. 
JJT' (8ce HiauNDO, N® a. and 16. ; Mus, § 
/ILK*^— ,^,. ;ind SwALLOW.) Thc artificial 
«misciiCT of 3 flics, too, by thc celebrated 

15 ) s u s 

time (jpent in waiting for the chanee of reco^ery, 
at leaft till the moft indubitable 6gns of mortiBc^ 
tion appear on the corpfe. But tbe beft pbyfi- 
aans fay, tbat all the uiuai figns of death,except 
abfolute morti/ication^ are vcry uncertain. Cold* 
nefs, ftifinef8, heavioef8 of tbe body, even a hvid 
colour, or ycilowne^s of the viiage, does not af- 
fure dlAblution. See Interment, $ 4 — 7. 

(i.) ♦ SUSPENSE. adj, \Ju/pen/us, Lat.] i. Held 
£jrom proceeding.— 

Sttfpen/e in beav'n 

Held by thy voice. Miiton, 

a. Hcld in doubt ; hcld in cxpeftation.— The feU- 
iame orders allowed, but yet eftabliihed in more 
wary ^nd /u/pe/i/ie manncr. .Hooier,-^ 

This faid, he fat : and expedation held 

H18 looks /u/penfe, Milton, 

(2.) ♦ SusPENSB. n,/, \/u/pem^ Fr. /u/pen/ust 
Lat.] X. Uncettainty ; delay of ccrtainty or dc- 
termination ; tndetermination.— Thcir good ;ifiec- 
tion towards the churcb is acceptable : but tbe 
way they prelcribe us to preferve it by muft reft 
in/u/per^e, Hooker,^ — 

Such true joy*6/u/penfe 

What dream can I preicnt to rccompenTe ? 

Ten days the prophct in/u/pen/e remained. 

%, A&. of withholding the judgment. — In pfopo- 
titions, wbere tbere are pruof8 as confiderable on 
the contrary fide, /u/henje or difl*ent are often vo- 
luntary. LocAe, — ^Whatever necefiity determinea, 
to thepurfuit of rcal biif8, the fame neceAity efta-' 
bliibes /ufpen/e9 deiiberation and fcrutioy. J^ocA^. 
3. Stop m the midft of two oppoOtes. — 

A coo\/u/pe*i/e from pleafure or from pain. 


(3.) SuspENSE, in mufic. See Suspenuon, 

(x.) • SUSPENSION. n. / [/ufpenfion, Fr. 
from/u/pend.] i. AA of making to hang on aoy 
thing. a. Ad of making to depend on any thing. 

3. Adt of delaying. — 
With thouiand vows and tears we ihould bave 

That fad decrce fufpen/ion to hAve wrougbt. 

4. Adt of wiihholding or balancing thc judg- 
ment. — In his Indian rcUtions, wherein aie con- 
tained incredible accounts, hc is furely to bc rrad 
Wilh /u/penjion. Bro*wn. — The mode of Ihe will, 
which anCwers to dubitation, may be called /u/' 

^mmu», by expofing them to the rays of penfion. Gre^. 5. Interruption ; tcmporary cct 
wlcn, 17 months after they had becn drowned 
^ *iac io Prance, is a fadt equally wcll known. 
^t&ckoman fpecieaalfo there have occurred frc- 
^■«■t caies of fufpended animation 5 fomc of 
•^ kife been tieneouny rccovered, before in- 
^*«tf bot many more, it is to be feared, havc 
"f«^lowcd to perifii, from the hurry and prc- 
JJ^ian with wbich funeraU are generally con- 
f^ in raoft countries. The difccrnible dif- 
^gp bctweco tbc end of a weak life and the 
^'■■ncemcnt of drath are fo fmali, and the un- 
2**^of Ihe figns of the lattcr is fo grcat, in 
5^ fyncope aiMl fufpended animation, as 
^^'^'owkdgcd by the beft medical writers an- 
2J**d«odem, tbat too much caution cannot 
^ Wmcd m all fiich cmergeocies, nor too much 

fation. — Nor was any thing donc for thc bettct 
adjulling tbings in thc tiroe of that /ujpenjion,. 
Clarendon, 6. Temporary privation of an omce ; 
as, tbe clerk incurred fufpenfion. 
(1.) SuspENSioN, in Scots law. Sce Litw, Pnrt 

m. ch. 111. sea. III, $ 5. 

(3.) SusPCNStoN, or SusPENSE, in mufic, is 
produced by Suppojition^ and is nearly thc fame. 
(Sce SupposiTioN, ^ 1.) It conhds in retaiiiing 
as many m poAible of the founds in a preccding 
chord that thcy may be heard in that whicb (iic- 

(i.) • SUSPENSORY. adj. [/u/pen{oire, Vx.fu/- 
penfU$% Lat.]' That by which a thing hangs. — 
Thcrc are fcvcral niTrtK peculiar to brutcs .which 


Digitized by 


S U S ( 1 

tre iw^ting in iwiis as thc feTcnth or fuJ^enfory 
BEMiicle of the cyc. Rny. 
(2.) Suspensort-Bag. Scc SuRgery, Indfx, 

• SUSPICION. ». /. [fufpieion, ?r.fujfki9. Lat.] 
The adt of fuipf^i»g ; imaginatton of fomcthii(g 
iil without proof. — Th\% fufpieion jMifo for thc 
hoggini (hrcwditeCs of hcr brain, and Mopfa for a 
vcry onlikuly envy Aumblcd npon. Sidnej,Suf' 
peions amongft thoughts Are Itkc bats amongH 
birds, thcy cver fly by twilight. Baeon. — 

Sufpicion all or lives ihall bc ftuck full of cyc». 

Though wifdom wake, fufpicion Oceps 
At wifck>m'8 eate. MHton, 

• SUSPICIOUS. adj. [furpieiofMi, Lat.) i. Iti- 
ciineJ \o fufpe<5t, irclincd to ihrtJiginc ill without 
pro-f.--N<<lurc itfclf, after it ha?* donc an it jury, 
wi!l for cvcr bc fufpiciouj. ^outh. «. Indic;tttng 
fufpicicjn or fcar. — \ wife man will find ns to bc 
Togues by our face^; wc harc ^fu/pidoiUf fearfuh 
crtnrtraincd countcnance. Swift> 3. JUablc to 
f«Ipicion; eiving rcaCon to imagtnc iU. — Thcy 
wcrc cxceec*ing forward t» traducc him as an au- 
thor of fufpic!ous innovations. Hocken^ 

1 fpy a Mackytt^>ft-/Vtf/ thrcat'ninfr cJoud. Sbak. 
— Author? iTcfufpiciouSi nor grcedily to bc fwal- 
lowcd, who pretcnd to dt)iver antip^thics fym- 
pathies, and thc occult abftn]fities of thiugs. 
Bro<wn. — 

Privatc, un^Aivc, calm, contenipIattTc» 
Littlc/p^irwwj to Xfiy king. Afilton. 

— M^ny mifchievous iiiftdt9 arc daily at work, to 
make pcoplc of vcc\ii fu^ichij cf cach othcr. 

• SUSPICIOUSLY. aJv. [frQm fufpiciom.] 
1. With fufpicion. a. So as to raifc fu(ptci«n. — 
■ — His guard cntcring thc placc, found Plangus 
witb his fword in his hand, but not nakcd, but 
ftandinp/ii^iVitfa^ enouRh. Sidnef. 

• SUSPICIOUSNESS. n.f Tfrom /a;j>iww.] 
Tcndcncy to fufpicion. — To makc my eftatc 
known fpcmed impoITible, by reafon of i\\€jufpici' 
mfnefs of Mifo. SiJnej. 

• SUSPIRATION. n. f [fupi-atio, from fuf 
piroy Lat.] Sigh ; a(fl of fctchmg the breath dcep. 

Not cnftomary fuit8 of folemn black, 
Nor y^mdy fufpiration of forcM breath. Shak^ 
— In. dcep fufpirations wc take morc larpc gulps 
of air to cool our hcart, o^ercharged with love or 
forrow. More. 

• To SUSPIRE. V. n. {fufiiro, Lat.] 1. To 
iigh ; to fctch the breath decp. 1. It fccms in 
8bakefpeare to mean only, to begin to breath ; 
perhaps mtrtiken for re^pire. 

Sincc thc birth of Cain, thc firft malc chitd, 
To him that did but yefterday yw)^/rr, 
Therc was not f ich a gracious crcaturc bom. 

SUSQUEHANNAH, thc largeft rver of Pm- 
faWania, formed by thc junAion of tlie E.and W. 
branchcs of Lake Otfcgo. It is navigablc for 5 
miles abovc its mouth, by ve(rel8 of too tons* It 
rroAcs the linc of divifion betwccn New York and 
Pcnfylvania 3 timc» in a S. by W. courfc : thcn 
at thc W. cnd of Pcter'8 Mountain turnsS. by E. 
into Maryland, and after dividing York and Lan- 
carter countics, f;<lls into Chcfapcak Bay, by a 
moutb I J miles !^idc, It rcccivc8 ihc Swatant, 

6 > S U 8 

and i9connc<flcd witbtheScHUYLKiLLbyaanal 
80 miles Inng. Sec Swatara. 

SU8SAC, a town of Praucc in thc departmcnt 
of the Uopcrr Yicnne ; 1$ milc» SE. of limoges. 

SUSSETH, a town of Ocrmany, io Croatia, 
^''ated oti thc Sultz. 

(i .) SUSS£X» a county of Eogland, fo named 
from tts fitualion in refprift of thc other Saxcm«, 
and called Suj/exf i. c. thc couotry of the South 
Saxoiis. ItisboundedbyHimpibireontheW.the 
B.'iti(h channcl on the S. Surry on the N. and Kent 
on the £. It is 65 miics tong, 30 broad, and 1 70111 
circunB^crcncc. It is divtdcd into 6 tapej^ and tbefe 
iiuo 65 hundrcdR, in wbich are 349 pAriihes of 
which 123 arc vicaragc8, onc city, 16 inarkct- 
towns, 1,140,000 acres* and aboot 1 20,000 fotils. 
Na rctum waa madc to Parliamcnt of its popuU- 
tion in 1801. But \he cattle were enummted, 
and Mnountd to 60,885 black cattle, aod 549,991 
ibcep, deer, goats, and pigi. It has fiew gbod 
ports, though ,\i lics along thc chamirl for 65 
miles, which is its grcateft leogtb, thc coaft bcing 
cncumbcrcd in maoy pUces witb rocks; and 
where more opcn, fach quantitie9 of faod 
arc thrownupnn it by thc fouth-wcft wiods, and 
the harbours fo choaked up, that thcy will not 
admit veftei8 of any great dTanght or buiden. The 
county U well watcred by thc river8 Amn, Adar, 
Oiife, Rotbcr, Lavint, Cuckmeer, AOiburo, and 
Aitcn, whicb aU rifc and fall into tbe fca wtthin 
thc coonty, and by wbicb it is wdl fuppUed with 
fi(h, as wcU as hom the iea. Hencc difterent 
plaoes of tbc county are famed for diffcrent forts 
of fifii, as the Arun for muUetH, which cnttr it 
from tbe fea in fummer in Ihoals, and by iecding 
upon a particuiar kind of hcrb bccomc cKttemcly 
delicious ; Cbichcfter f6r lobRers, ScUey for coc- 
klcs, A-nb^rly for trouti, Palboroogh for eels, Rye 
f(^r herrings and thc county in gencral for carp^ 
ThcHiir, as wcll as theibil, tavarioo8 in difterent 
parts of thc cotmty. Upon the coaft thc air ii 
aguiib, upon the hiUs and downs pleaCunt and 
whoiefomc ; but fomewhat moiil: and foggy io tb^ 
tnlleys^ thc foil being deep and rich, aad the vc 
getation in /ummcr very vigorous. Thc dowoi 
in fome places are vcry fcrttie in com and grafs 
in othcrs they feed preat Aocks of ihcep, who<< 
flefti and wool arc very fine ; but Qf thc Uttcr 
grcat quanttty is clandefttneIycxportedtoFranc< 
In thc Weald and thc vaUcys the roads are vci^ 
dccp. In the north quarter arcmaoy «roods, an 
fome fofefts in othcr placcs ; whence thc kingl 
yards are fupplicd with the largeft and beft timbC 
in England, befide wbat is nadc into charcoal an 
Ct>nfumed in the iron-works ; for on tbc caft fiti 
is plenty of iron orc, with (urnaces, forge8, at 
miils for manufa^ri|)g it. The gunpowder < 
this county cxccls that of any other. fV3beatea\ 
brcd in this ihire are no bigger tbao a lark^ but i 
moft an cntire lomp of fat. That part now ci 
led the tnUl or tTeaU of Suflex, was ancientiy 
mere dcfcrt for hops and deer, of grcat cxtc4 
taking in a part of Kcnt and Surry ; and waa ci 
led AndereJa SU^y Coid Andredt and Jmirad/kvl 
from An-lcrida and adjoiiiing city. This county 
in the home ctrcuit and diocefc of Chiccfler, al 
fend8 aS mcmbcrs to parliament, viz, two for i 
county, two for tbe ctty of Chicbetter, and t\ 


Digitized by 


S U S *" »7 

tich fvr Horihim, Lcwcs Brambcr, Eaft GTin- j 
^aU Midhurtt, Shorchim, SUiniiig* Arunckl, 
Hi^Un*», Ryc, Winchtlfea, arwi Sciford; of 
which tbc four Uft arc cinqucport6. 

[i.) SussEi, an cxten(ivc mariciroc coanty of 
tbc Unitcd Statrs, in Dcuware ; boundcd on the 
N. by Kcnt county, N£. by Delaware Bay, E. 
bf thc Athotic ; S. and W. by MiryUi»)d. It is 
Dcal^ r^u^r^r, bcing 44 miics iong, and 43 broad. 
U 1795, it contained 16,465^1 citizen<, and 4>0)5 
Hwei, Thc Unds arc moftly low, landy and bar- 
rtD. GiotGETowN is tbc capitapl. 

(j.)SossEx, a targe and mountainous countjr 
rfNcw Jcricy, 6} milc« tong^, and aa broad. It 
iiboundcd on tbe NE. by Ncw York ; SE. by 
Hirm and Haaterdon countics ; W. and N. by 
tbcDdawarc, whtcti fcparatcft ic from Northamp- 
ton couaty in Pcnnlytvania. , It i* divided hito 
utownihip^; named Grecnwicb , Oxford, Manf- 
SdJ, Krtowiton, Sandyfbon, Wantagc, Hardydon, 
Moctigtic, WalUach, Ncwton, Indepcndence, and 
Hirdwickc. Tbe populatioii, in 1 795, was 
i9^icitizcns, and 439 navc!>. Itabouuda with 
min« of iron orc> and manafaftores of pig and 
bv noa arc carried on in it. Newto/t 18 th^ ca- 

(4.)Sus8£X, a county of Yirginia, hounded on 
tbc N. by Princc Ot;orge's county, NE. by Sur- 
ry, Southampton, SW. by Dm^iddie, aod 
W. byOrcciifvillc countics. It is «5 milcR long, 
tnd 15 broad. In 1 795, thc total poputation was 
io^;4; reoBaing of 5,16? citiasen», and 5,387 

) s u t 

To (\xffeT ; to bcir as inHi^edl^ 
You ih^\\/uftaiH morc new diferaces* 4^ai4 
Wcre itl thought death menacM would eorut^ 
ThiB my attempt, I \^ou\d /t^ain alone ' 
Tbe wririt, and not perfuade thec. Milto4* 

• SUSTAINABM. ttd/. {/att/tetutbtt, Pr. from 
fu/^mn\ That jnay bc fuftiincd. 

• SUSTAINER; n./i \itoVDL f\jfiain\ 1. On^ 
that props ; one that fiipport8. 2. Ooe that iyf« 
£cr» 5 a fuffercr. — 

Thy fc*Jf !'.aft zfufiainer bccn 
Of mnch affli£tion in my caufe. Ci^dpmttH* 

• SUSTENANCE. »./. [/^fiefiame, Prencb.] 
i: Suoport ;—Scarcciy ailotiinnghintt-i* 
{nii dt /u/hraance of lifc. 5ft^r>— Thtfe arc untii 
one cnd fundry mcans ; a$ for i\xt/Uflknante of ouf 
iKHticB many kinds of food. Ho^er.^U thtti 
thc bonour of your daugtiter oH grcater m<H 
mcnt to ber, tban to my dau«btcr hcr^s wholk 
/ujlcnanct it was .* Addijw. %. NccclTancii of Iift j 
yiauals,— The cxpcrimcnt coft him. hts Ufe ioi 
want of /u/lenance. L* B/traage.^Ttit ancient^ 
were invcnt(>rs of all arts ncctlTary to life Md 
/u/tenante. Tempte^ , 

• SUSTENTATION. 1». /i [/ujlentdtion. ^ti 
fTom/uflente,Liit.] i. Support ; prelcrvation from 
faiHog. — Thefc ftrcams ooce taifcd • aboVe ih^ 
earth, have thcir afccnt and /ujlerttati6ti aloft pro^ 
motcd by ihe air. BdjU. 1. \J(t of ♦iauaii.— -A 
tcry abitemious anlmal, by rea^on crf itB frigidity 
and latitancy In the winter, will long fttb6ft 
witbdut a viribic /ujieniatidn. Bro<u?n, ^. MaiH- 

iliTej, It has a cotirt houfc, whcre tbc county , tcnance } fupport of lifc. — When thcre bc great 

occiio^ arc hcld ihc ift Thurl*. of evcry month 

• n SUSrAIN. V. a. [/0ifteHii't Pr. /u/iirte9, 
Lit.] I. To bcar ; to prop \ to hoid up.— The 
l^rp^iod lightne(« of hcr wingt and tail/tf^0i^ 
ier witbout »alTitude. Mire.^ 

y^in i< thc force of raan^ 
Tocmrti ihe pilt;irs that the |>i.e /ii>/<fi/fi Drjd, 
%. Tofapport j tcr kccp from finking undcr cvil. 
— Thc hngular cxccllcncy of thm dciign, will 
>lm the patieocc, and animate the induftry of 
hia wtw ihaU undcrtikc it« Holder.—U he havc 
00 conrfart;ible e^pcdtations of anothcr lifc to 
./«tebim ondcr thc evil8 in this world, he is of 
»3c:t«ure3 thc moft^ifv^rabie. Tiilet/oH. 3. To 
»«tiin ; to keep. — 

What fodd 
^\ hc coavey up thither to fu/lain 
HiioicUand army ^ Milton. 

Sbe tbc body doth fii/faln and cherilh. J)avies, 
My Ubour w\[\/ujiutn mc; • Mi/ton 

Aioais of peep'c, which |o on to populatc, with-* 
out forcfecin^ mcana of ixfc and Ju/leniatUn ^ it i« 
of necclBty tbat once in an age they difchargc si 
portton of thcir peoplc upon othcr nations. Baeon* 

SUSTER, an ancicnt city af Pcrfia, thc capital 
of Chuliitan, anciently called Su.'a, (See St7SA^ 
N'' 1.; It ban manufadtures of aiks, ^uA*» anU 
rich clotbs. It lics 18$ miles S W. of lipahan, or ad 
Grattwell fays 150, and xoo N. of BaiTora^ Lor« 
51. 19. E. Lat.31. i5iN. 

SUSTEREN, a town i>f the pPcnoh cmpirej in 
thc depJlrtme«»t of the Roer, and latc duchy oi 
Julicrs : 1 miles ffom thc Maefc,- and 11 S. dt 
Kurcmond. Lon. j. 50. E. Lat. 50. 56. N. 

SUSTEIIS, an illand in thc North Sra, on tb^ 

aft o* N»rway : 11 miles SE. of Ton(bcrg. 

♦ SUSURRATION. H./ [(rom /u/Urroi LatJ 
Whifpcr • foft murmur. 


SUTCLIFF, Mattbew, an Engli/h divihc,' Who 

4- To Mr> ; to rciicvc : to afflft.— Thcy chargcd^ Houhlhcd in thc end of the i6th century. Hc he- 

'< 'bcr to mrcat far him nor any wuy/ufiain hira, 

Hi*r-fla, who feck thc tyrant Xo/u/iain^ 
Hc dnortu to dcath: Drjden*s JRneid, 

i- To bcar ; to endurc.-*- 
C«iCcyx then/tt^^m to ieavc his wifc ? Dfjd, 
ftaUTumuf tben fuch tndlcfi td\\/u/lain. 

— Tbcm»dftaiid9 conc<5tcd within hcrfcif, ani 
i^mt the ibock. Addi/on. 6; To bcar witbout 

^— • 

wh 1 li^iiot ai no brario 
^ w morul can /uftain, H^aller. 

^i.XXU. PartL 

camc Dcan ot Esetcr, aod pubiilbcd ievcrat con' 
troVcrnal Tradt^ ; th»chicf of wbich i», A Tred'* 
ti/e an Ecc^/ia/iicdl Di/cipiinĕ. Lond. 1591 ; 4to. 

• SUTE. nj'. [ior/uitt,] Sort. 1 bvlicvc only 
mifpnntcd.-^Thi9 wc conccivc that thcy arc no: 
of ont fute. Hookrr. 

SUTEMA, or SutaMor, a towil of Afrlcai Iri 
the kingdc-m of Tomano. 

SUTERRA, a town of Sicily^ in thc tallcjr of 
Matara ;, 6 miiis NNE. of Girgcnti. 

SrH-iUStlN, a tovr n of Oihaburg ; t iRilca 
SSW. of Olnaburp. 

^i.; SUTilERLAND, otic of the moft northcrljr' 

Digitized by 


S U T r i8 

counties of SootJbod. Indndin^STRATkMArERK^ 
jCwbich iec) it bordera oa Caitbnvrii to the N. and 
J^£* ts.biunded by the occJin on the K. th< 
county-of •Affyrt.on.the>W. Rof» on thc S. iind 
ky thc Gcimnn ica o& tht £. and SE. It Itrercht» 
Ahi)tit 7£) miks in Icngth,.2iul .40 in breadth v is 
gciTcraUy hillyy thougk ia inany pc^rts arablc\ 
^CW fmall rivtrs rcpictc with fllh# and 
^y 60 lal^cA* thc habiutt<^ of various Ei2i».fwAos» 
ducks, gccic, 3cc. Onc of thc laiiec&t)^ tbcfc Ib 
L^cbjhln, (Scc LocHsHiNc) ' Somc of tbcm are 
ioteHpcticd wltbimall verdaiitiflandf» which in 
I^DcnttktH' yi«fld a very agrreab.e pruCpe^t. Onnhc 
*^otxift are m^any commndiuu^ barbouia; all the 
ijaysTwarm with fi(h;^Qd thc mulclc^ produce 
-^1116 ?aluabic pcaris. . Suthcrhind afibrds iroi^ 
ikxnc« fre^ftoiH;) and flatc» io . abf mdance ; alfo 
4uarr4C8 of macble» and nunes Qf coai» tboug^i the 
pcoplc uic turf and piat for fuc). Lead. orc» iita- 
,9Fcgnatcd 3^itb fiiver> and eveafbme gold» bare 
^en £oundr withciyllals and pcbble% &Ca. Thc 
dtr Ja.ft> tcin$>cratc^ and^the foil lo good, that^ 
j^Pon haiB becn btought to perfc^:n. hlany part« 
of the country are remarkably fn*itful in corn^ 
and <J« patturjige is exccllcnt eterywherc. Be- 
iWcp X grcat Tordts^thcrc krt mauy fmaller woee^p 
^B.Sutherland, abouodirg with deer and otbct 
gamc. On the hilU arc fed numeroua Hocki af 
ilicep and black catile ; fmall,yctfwcetandjuicy, 
.There is one turd pcculiar ft> thia ibire, cadril 
knagt whiph rclcmblea a. parrot, and digs its neft 
.ntittr it3 beak in the trunks of oaks. Tbe H, pact, 
called 3tra%hnavernt anJ icparated from tbe rctt 
by a ridge of mountamt, b b^undcd on tiie N.> 
by the Dcucaiedonian itdit on the W. by thechan- 
iiel caUcd thc Mincbf on the £. by Caitbnf Is, aod 
on the S^ by AlTynt. T|^c kngth of it, from^. to 
W. amount$ to 34. miie& \ but the brc^h frnm 
K. to 9. does not csKCsd 12 ia fonae placrs» k 
ia very hilly ; and the motintains are fo.high^ that 
tbe.£how rc.Tjains on tbe tff^ of them tiU mid- 
fumrocr. It ia watercd by N.AV£aN, wbcnce its 
name. Ilere arc fevcrat woods, frequentcd by 
deer and otber ^amcr which are hunted. kon 
mmes have becn wprked «n fome pUccs* but t& 
Q0 great advautage. Straithnavcrn has many frefh 
water lakes ^ tbe chicf of which are.Loch Navem 
and Loch Lycl.: thcre are fcveral iflands on the N. 
coait; and in tbe coaatry are 'monumentt of 
Ti^ries obtaioed qver the Daoes or othcr (breigii 
invader«t. Sutherland boaits of fofBc tnwoe, and a 
ffreutnumbcrof ^illagcs. Tbc peoplc arenumcrous, 
hardy, bold, aod cntcrptinng ^courtcousto dran- 
Iters, checr^l». opcn» trogat» aitd induib-ioits. 

) S U T 

(a.J 9UTH£RiAND PoiHT, thc 9. point of thc 
emtraiicc into Botany Bay ; fo namcd from Porhy 
Sutherlaad one of Captam Co^tc's mcn, buiied 
tbcrf in 1770. , 


• SUTLER. «. /- {/ortUr^ Dutch;^^/^, 
GerRran.] A man tbat lells proviliona and li- 
jquor io a camp. — 

I ibaU>//^r bc 

Uiitc» the camp. Shak 

. Scnd to tht /utler*j. Brj^en. 

SUTORS o» Cromajity,. 4 rocky ppomotw 
i<vie8 ol ^Gotlandt one on each fide ot tbc opcn* 
Uig of thc Fritb of CRaMAKTY. 

SUl KI, cf Jtaly^ in Patrimonio, with 
a bilhop'« fee ; oo t}:c Puzzolo»,ftirrouiidcd with 
rocks; 24 m'Cct 3NW. of Roroe. Lcn. i». 15. E. 
Litt. 4»< xo. N. Jt was anctcotly caltcd 

SUTJUUM, » famoU8 ciiy, ard ao anticnt 
colony of the Romar^s, tbc key of Etruna ; foiin(W 
:c«l about 7 ycnTS after tbc Ukii>g ©f Rome by the 

SUTTEE. in lodian theolopy, the 6th and high- 
cft beaveu ; tbc rciideocc of Erama. 3cc Gen- 


SUTTICO, or Sbtrico, a town of Africa, in 
.ih<;' kh>|tdom ot Woclly. 

(i.) SUTTON, Thomas, Efq ; founder of the 
Cb^itcr-boufe« WAS bom at K.naith mLincoloibire, 
^n 1532« of jtn ancient and gcntecl family» He 
wa» educated at £ton, andCambridge, aod Audied 
tbc bw iD Linco)n'ii lUn ; but p<^rit:rred traveUing, 
'artd, during bis abitoce, his fatbcr died, and lett 
him a largeyfo|tt^flr*^ On his reiurn, hc became 
l:*crctary to thc eprl ot' . Warwick and his brothet 
the earl ot Lcic^cr. By thc fonn«r, in 1569, bc 
tM8 appokiied' maiter oi the ordnance at Bcr- 
wic1(-;.And^rtinguiihing htmfelf (greatly on the 
rebellion: wbich brokc 6ut in thc north, hc ob- 
ta ntda patent for tbat oilicc for life. Ue was one 
. of the cbtef8 o€ thoie 1500 men wbo maicbtd tnto 
Scotland. by ordcr of Q. £hzabcth, to afiift tht 
rcgtnt, Morton, in 1.573. Hc ptirchaCcd tbe ma- 
nov8of Gateihead and Wickbam^ which, pro- 
ducing cual mincs, became to bim a Iburce of ex- 
traordinary wcalth. Scon aitrr this» be roarrtcd 
a rich widow, wbo brougjit him a* coa6dĕrabk 
eiiatc;: and commcncing mercbant, ricbcs^Aowed 
in to oim. He was liloewifc a commiilioner f>r 
priaes, and^ took a Spaniih ihip worth 20,000 !• 
His whole fortune, at bia deatb, was ia land 
5,000 1. a-year ;. iii monty above 6o,oeol.v the 
greatdl eitatc thcn in thc poiTcAion of atjy pri- 
vate frcntlcman. He livc-d wttb great munilicencc 

Thcy, aa well as tbeir ncighbours of Qdi\hnt(9p* and hoi^itality v but loiing bis lady in t6g%, he 

fpeak the language* and \^ar thc garb^ uicd in 
the Lowlands of Scotland. Thcy carry on a coiv 
riderable fabnon^ftihery, They drive a traAic 
witb tbejr black cattle, iheep, and hor^ss, at tbe 
netghbouring fair8 ; but export theircoro, barley, 
ialt,_coa], /almon» falted bcef, butter, checfc, 
wobl, Acins, hidcs, and talluw. Hcre are provi- 
Gons of all (brts ijt plenty ; and £0 cheap through 
all this CG^unty, that a ^enticman may k^p boule 
aQdUvcmuch morc furoptuoufly for 200 i. a-year 
than for three times the money io the foutb of 

rctired from the world, and, having no ilTuc» he 
purcbalisd of the Earl ef Suifolk H6<umrd Hou/ct 
or i\\t Gharter-bou/ei near SmithHcld, for 13,000 L 
wherc he founded the preltnt bofphal, in i6ify 
for the rcltef of poor roen and children, He 
died Dec. ii- 161 1, at Hackney, agcd 79. Hta 
body was conveyed to Cbriit-churcb, and therc 
dcpofitedy till i.6r4, when it wan removed to tbe 
cbartcr-houic, and interred in the chapet under a 
magniHcei^ tomb. 

(2.) SuTTON, Samucl, was born at Alfretlon 
in Dcrbyihire, and goiog into tbe army !erved t:n^ 

Digitized by 


S U W ( I 

ĕer f^c dnkc of Marlborough in Q9^' Annc*s 
wan Wiih grcat credit. He afrcrward& camc to 
Loti *rn, cnmmcncrd brcwcr, «id kcpt a coffct- 
bouic in AId<frfgate-tlrcct, which was well frc- 
ouci»»td by thc I<»amcd mcn of, that time, by 
which Mr Sutton wan much refpf^ed as a miti. 
(^Arong natur^i p^rt8 and tincii|^ivatc<t gcnms, 
Ab^Hit 1740 he fchrmed a very"fimp!c ar«(f n,itural 
ocrh -d for extra^ing thc foul ;tir Irom thc Welld 
i*flhips hf pipcs coianut^cating^with thc firc- 
j:'j oof thc coppcrs ; which opcr«t^d as long as 
izy firc w-45 ki*ot burnin^ (or the <hip*6 ufe. He 
togt ou: 3 patent in 1^44, to fecuvc thc proSts of 
ki«TnvcTi;ion; and Jied 1751. 

(:.) SiTTOw, a town of England, in^C^m* 
hrkJgeih»rc, SW. of Ely, and 14 mi'es from 
kndjr. Hiere anttquities have bt^en found*. 

'4-) SuTTOM, a towWhip of M.»frK:hufett«<, in 
Worcctta" county» 33 milci SW. of Bofton ; con- 
tumnir 2642 crtt7.ent in 1795. 

(?.) SuTTON CoLEri£LD,a towTi of England, 
«•Wrwickrhire, with a marltet on Monday, j 
»ar»N. r>f Birmingham, 14 NW. of W;»rwick, 
tJid III NW. of Londoii. Lon. i. 40. W. Lat. 
51. »9 N. 

SgTroii's Atn-riPES. Sec Aih-pipc». 

(i.)»SUTURE. «./. [/utufyf, Lat.] i. Aman- 
iKr«fewicg or ttitchirir, p^rticularly of ilitch- 
iof wooids,— Wound^ if hcld in clofe contadl 
for (omc tircc, rcunitc "by i» ofcul»t4on; to main- 
t«in th» Stnation, fcvcriil fort«» of Jhtures havc 
boMmentcd; thorr now cbicAy detcMbed arc 
tk iatcrraptrd, thc glow^ thc ^uift'd, the 
•«'•M.aod the dry/niures^ bwt th« iiHcrroptrd 
*>it*iftcd arc alnroA thc only uf^ful oncs. Sbarp, 
1 li^trrts a par^icular «rticuiation : thebonrs of 
rtecrttittm arc joincd to. onc anotber by foor 
J^U' Gmcj.-^The Jtttures of ttvc ikra arc a- 
k<*fted i^ old age. Arhutbnot. 

(».) SuTtiii, iu anatomy^ 5ce A«iatomy, 

(3) SuTU&E, in furgery, See SjyRtSERT, 

Sl/VARROF, •)Alexandc3', Count Rtm- 

SinrOROP, r NiKSKJ, a late cminent gc- 

WWARIIOW, or C ncral in thc Ruffiaft fcr. 

.tJWOROW, J^ice. Hi^ fom1ly was an- 

«*w »d rcfpcdable^ but bcing £ir from afflucnt, 

*<* thnr proprrtjr Ijing at thc Tcry cKtremity of 

Witempire, th« uibjeA of tWt mcmmr wfk% thc 

^o* thc ^mi^ that eirer waf at co«rt. He waa 

*"" ™ «730. His fathcr had deltitied hlm for 

^law but hJt tnclination lcd him to thc pTofef- 

«*tif afoW(cr ; and In 1741'hc was cnrollcd >% 

»ftSHer ta thc gts^rds of St imonow. ijc wHs af. 

|CTwardf a corporal, thcn a frncant, and in 1754» 

«^Bttcd t%c goardi with thc br^vJet of Ltcute- 

^ io tbc ami^. He tnade his firft campaign In 

•»7ycar« «rar againft the Prtrtnans, in 1759, ^*^- 

Jl^opon adual fervicc under Pri«cc Wolgon* 

**• lo 1761, hc was ordercd' on (er^ce iu th« 

H*« huops under Ocn. Berg j and wrth the rank 

o*iLicmeoa«t co!oncl hc pciformcd prodigies 

*J^«ur. At thc pcacc of 1762, hc reccircd 

°2 Ihc cmprrTs a coloncl'i» commiAion, writtdn 

||J*fctrown hrand; and bcingadTanocd, in 1768, 

^^ nnk of btsgadicr, hc wai^ 1n NoTcmber, 

^***tdtorcpatttoHicfjront»cr6ofpolaiKl. Tht 

9 > S '*U w 

objc^ olF theEmpref!»i at this time,^ was tf6 fab-' 
due the Polilh conftder-itc?, and to pofle(s hcrfelf 
of certain protinccs of th^t ill.^Atcd kingdOln. 
How completc^ ftic and her two alHes, ihc Em- 
-p^tist ni Gtrmany and tlic Kin^; of PruAia, fuc- 
cecded in thtir cntcrp'iJ(«», lias bccn relatcd undcf 
PolAko, i it; — a6. Here wc nted only obfcnre^ 
that thc fucceirc8 of tbe Rufl5 ms wcrechf'fty ow- 
it}\* \o fhr miHraryJkill of Suworow. In i77o>,hc 
^ad bccn piomotcd to th»? rank of M^jorgeneral; 
aml tor h% cicploits in tnc Potifh, the Eift- 
prefs coniwcd itpon himj at diATcrcnt tlmcrs; .!h« 
Orders of St Anne, St Gcnrgc, and A4cxAndcr New- 
iy. Aftei pcrforming fomt important <crvice8 
on fhc froiiticr8 of .Sv^ed<^d, Suworow was or- 
dcred in 1773, to jtin the army in Mttldavia, nn- 
dcr pieidmaiihal Ronf»ai.ibW; and thcnc hc b*-* 
gan that faccefsriilcarecr, whith foon madc bis 
namc a ttrr-dr to thc Turks. fti3 firft cxploil 
was thc taking of*TvHTXiiCRY. During the rf* 
mainder of ttvc n^r, 'whSch wj|« (hort, Suwornw 
was con^tanny^ cngagcd,:ai)lt conft^ntly'fuc€e(sful. 
JEarly in 1774, hc wnsJ-promottd to the r.iiilc of 
Licot. Gcn. ard on the i»th Juae, hcdefca»edfhtf 
Tutks in a gieat b.Vttle. S<V>o^aller this^l^tory, 
pcJicc wls conclndiid, rtrrd Suworow wascairedio 
Mofcow to qiieli tllc reMliort of tht 0>ffiic Pi^al- 
f€beff. For tcweral years afrcr thi^. Suwo^oW waS 
CmployCd in thc CrimcJt, on thc K^uHin; :;|nd rf- 
gaiT:ft thc Nogay Taltars, in a ftrvi?e, whteh', 
though it was of 'the utmoA imporiarK!c to tlie 
£mprefs and requ rc4 all hia addrcfs, t^niih«d 
no opportunities for that w\mderfui ^^omptitudĕ 
and refoilrce which bad d»ar»^crifed hwmore abi 
tive campaigDS. In the cnd of r^t^, Suworow 
wa* p»o.iiotcd to thc rank bf Gcneral in Chicf | 
and, at tlie breakvA|g out of tbc war with thc Turka 
in 1787, he madc a moft mafterly defcncc of 
Kinburni a place of ItttteAircn^th, bat rreat hfi» 
4iortancc, as it it fitt»ated at ihe momh of tb* 
Dnicper, opp^^te to Oczakow« For hit zeal 
wnd abditSi*fl ^n this occahoh, rtte- £mprcfs ho- 
noarcd hbn M-jtb thc ordcr of !ft Andrc^. At 
thc ficgc of Qc;l^;kow, Suwbro^, who comiaand- 
ed th^ leit wing bf the army undcr Princc PbtH^ni*. 
kin, rcceited a dangcrous woiund in the i>e*:k, 
which- wat followed by fo fmart a ftver, that, 
for famc rimc his fifc wa* clefpain:d of ; but.^jre- 
fcrring rcgimcn to mcdicine, his hcalth was gra- 
doally rjecltabii(l)cd. 111^789, he was appoint- 
edto commandthc army.which wat to eo-ope. 
rate wiih thc Pnnce *of Saic-Cobourg in Wala^ 
chia; and, by marcbes df inco4|tcivablc rapidity, 
be tvtce, in a tno<rthsv prc<erved thc army of 
that JPrince froni deltmdbrou. Puttti^ himfelf at 
tb« hea4 eH 8000 Ru^ans, ami iitcra^ runnhtg 
40 tbc aid 6f his idly, Uc ^^me up>witb theTurka 
in timc to eharpr the faie of the day at tbe battle 
of torhani, iwbich was faiight 6n'fbe 9tft of ^'^ 
ly ; and agam at Rtmmit whioh, wi(1i'7oo6 rocn, 
bc had reached wTih* equal ' celcrtly, hc ^ined, 
on the 2%d Scpt. in conjua^on wiih the Prhfic^, 
£me of the grcateil ridh^ritrthat have etcr bapi> 
atcbiCTcd. No quatter was gitcn to the Tut^kt; 
^tld on tlns^ accpunt tbe RuiTKin Ocnct al bas bcen 
charged srtili 'Tavage ftrocity:' Thc taking of 
ienJer and Bi/gr9uk were theimmediate confe- 
auincct^or tht iridory of Rymnik ; and fo fcnfi* 
• Ca ble 



5-u w r .?o ) 

blc WA^ the Einp, Jafeph JI, how much th^r miii- ter of t[\f 

tary ikill af Suworow bad iconiributcd to tb»l yi^r 

tory^ tbal be crcatcd bjm a Cpunt of thc Jloman 

pmplrc, and apcompanicd thc dipioma witha vrry 

Aattcrjag Icttcr. Similar honoiirs were con^^t^rrt^ 

lippn him by Cathcrinc IJ. who fcnt hira the dipio. 

jpnn q{ Coun^ ot thc cmprnc of.Ruflia, wiih tlic 

title of HjfHnH/^t^nd thc order of St Andrcw, 

In autumn 1790, hr; tpoU IfmaiIow, ^fier b«ing 

(iercnded hy the Turks at ap eitpence ot 331000 

menkilledpr danperouAy woundedj 10,000 ta- 

kc» prifoncr» ; belide» 6000 womcn and cbildrtn, 

and ^ooo Chrii^ians of Moidayia, who fell »n one 

g^neral manUcre. Peace b«^ing conc^ude^l with 

the Turks in X>ec. 1791, no evtnt8 occurred fr6m 

that period to call forth the talent3 of Suworow 

tilti794; when muljniee having broken out a- 

inong the Bolifh troops in the trvice Qf Kunia, 

^nd the Emprrf8, wjth Iier t^yot allies baving le- 

f«lved on tbe ad partitiun of Ppland^ Snworow 

received orders, in JViay, to procped into Rcd 

J<ruflia, ^rith a corpa of J^^ooo mcn> at|dtodifarm 

»il thc Bu|ifli troops in that proyjncc» This fcr» 

wice hc foon pcrformed,r ^i^^rming in ltfs ihan a 

fortnight 8000 1»en. "difpcrfed ovcr a country of 

Msp miles in cirp«it. Soon afterwardR h^ was or- 

dercd to marqh itJto RoUnd ; the King of Prufli;| 

having raifc4 the iiege'»^^ Warlaw, and thc Em* 

prefH pcrceiving th^tt mor.e vigorou< meafuirR we^^c 

pcccAary %o accompilh J cjr dtfigp , Un^cr ibi; 

articlc PoL'ANl>f J 2U 16, we have given a de» 

tailcd accgunt Qf his route to Warriw, SuAice it 

s. u ,z 

Gen. Pri^ce John Prcrorowdti, by 
yvhoni he had two chiHrpn, now iivinp : Nai,»iid, 
marritd to Gui. Count Nicolas Zubow; «nd Ar- 
CadiuF Q>unt Sunorow, a youtb of promilinp a- 
biiitcs^ who accninpanitd his tather in bis march 
from Jtaiy into Sw4t7.tiiHnd. 

SUYATYN. a town of thc ci-dcvant Pt^iard, 
.in thc rew Anitrian province of (iaiicia, tonBCi' 
ly Red K'jflia,; 44 milc*^ 8E. of Halic/. 

SUZ, or Sus. SccSps, N'' I, ai d H, 

(i.) SUZA, SusA, or Souse, a lown of Afn. 
c;i, in the kinpdcim of Tuiiis, nrar tbc E. ci';»ft; 
reniarkabie for its anticjiiities, rclics oi a»cici't t- 
difices, granatepilUr?, mbttrranean houfc8,batb, 
Scc. It i«» fuppofed to have been oi»f ot thofc ci- 
tje« which fubmittcd to Caefar, in h»s rr.arch Uj 
Rufpina, It is llill thc chicf cf Tuois fcr 
jincns, oil, and othcr j and «s of cohfcqucnce 
one of tbc richeft towii4 in the.kin^dom. It W$ 
24 milcR E. of Oaiioan, a d 54 S. of Tunis, 

,(»-)SuzA, or SusA, a ti-tjcvant marijuifatc of 
Italy, in thc late Picdmoi«tci<, row anntxcd to 
tq the Ercnch empirc, and includcd in the dr-r 
p)rtment Qf Doria. li is 30 miles lon^ , 10 broad, 
and js wattred by Ihc Doria .tnd the Cinifcib. 
The^chiet townsare 8uzA (N''^.) Giavcaua> or 
Javenn3, Avipli.ina and Nov*iitfe. 

(j.) SuzA,,or SusA, a town ot thc Frenchcmr 
pirc, iti thcdfpartmejvt of thc Doria, and latcc^pi- 
tal <.f the marquifalc. Sc^SusA, N'' a. Tothe 
accoupt iherc givtn, we have lo a'ld, that it wa» 
a!'cietitly <alle(l Segusjo, or Sei^ujiumt or Sfguf' 

so add, tbat he in thecourfc of avcry few months, Jfno ; (Sec Sp.gusiOr) and thcpeople Segx;siani. 

pvcrturnednhc kirtgdoPP, Jind republic of Pol^nd, 
For this fervice Cathflr»ne promotea him to the 
fank of Eield-mai:flia,l,GencraI, loading him w^th 
jwel^, and pre^cnting him wilh an eltate of 7000 
pea/itnu in thc diJ^tii^ of K^bin, \yhicfc had bccu 
the f5^cnc of bis fir/l batile i# tho campaigu. From 
thc ftibjugjktion of Polancj w« hcar little more of 
^uworow tiU he.entereri ijpon hiq gre«t-qare^r in 
Itai y^l pfhi^eijplQits tber^ ^«'here, toufe hts awn 
?vord5^ he deftroycd armics and overturncdftate8, 
vie have given a ivW account undcr thc articlc 
Rtfo^ution, N° VI» J 3^-740 5 41—44. Paul 
t<fwarded him by cpratmg him a Pjincc by the 
i itle , of Prwrf Smt/oro^wt halij^i ; but h^ ga ve hi m 
a vcry dit^irent reception whert he rct^ntd into 
the Rufr>an dominions at the bead f^( his vcleran 
and vi^oriou8 band«. ^cwould not.fechi.n, and 
^Hfitivcly forbad hi? appcarance at court. To 
thc mcirenger who biought thc orHer,:jic gavf,.a 
purfe of moncy, turned his carriage ajiotbpr >vAy, 
0nd drove to a wr>odcn l^ufc, at j^ difianre /rojn 
X\^ 90urr, aUd^ffororbi5 former fricndH, .t^rhrrc 
\he €onmt&j^r (/ tkc^ l^ut-hu t^ f^plfA» mk i^ 
Pttnr^ fftuhlicnns% idicd, «Imolt unaiittridcd, on 
thtt J8th of Mali i^oo» Thc^ fovereigtH Avbo tht^s 
<lH|^raced him at tbe ead of hi8life, gaye him a 
;^acni%ttit fuf>er^i i . \x\ bi? perfon $uworo>y wa^ 
;^»|*.i-cpnfidersibiy' eyceeding fwc fcct, and fuu 
^^^dted' His coutrtenancp waa ftcrn ; bv\t ampng 
Uii> 'frimd8 his ma^^ner» wcre^ pIeafaot, and bin 
^ilpoOdon» werc kind. His tempcr wa? naturai- 
iy violcnt; but.that violeiice hc la^^rcd m^ctl to 
iioodpratc^ thOUgh l^c was neycr aok. o«)mplctfcIy 
tocstinguilh tt.*.ili« was a JUiorari a man of 
^'icn^e, and a poet > Jn it-j^ bc*mafric4 a^ugd; 

}t vva;i thc capktal of the kingdom of Cottitut and 
ins chief Llace of refidericc. Being fcated on thc 
front'crs o^ anci^nt Ganlorold Fr^nce» and ci- 
deva%t S4Voy, it h^s been f'ftcn plt^nc^ertd^ It 
lyas facked by the Gaul^ undcr Bienrius; by tk 
Cartl.aKi^i^ns uudcr |ianiiibal; by thf^ Romati 
UPrder FIaviu8 Yale.ns, thc fiicn<1 of Vijle'l«u^; by 
the foldier8 of Cot'ftantinc thc Great, aftei-lhc (^C: 
fc£it of W^^Jcntius; and aftcrward*i ^ucceiTweiy 
by the Yandah, Gothp, LomhardM and Sar^iccos; 
and laft of alJ, it wa« pltindeid, burot, and raztd 
by the bloody Fre<}trick BarbaroiTa. It was htld 
aR a maiquifaie by the d^fccndanti ot^Charicmagnt, 
and fcfl t8 the hcufe of Savoy, by the raarri- 
a^e of thc duke with Adtlaide, daughtcr and 
beirefa of the lad marquis. Jt has a cUadel, j 
cl^urchef, and a triiimphal arch, ere^cctin honour 
Mf Augullu$> \l 16 lca^d on tht Doria, at the 
fopt of tl.e AIps. 

8UZAJ>'I>IK, §Ttatown of Prance, jn the dtp. 
of Maine, and ci^devao| province fo ^iamed. It 
has a connderable paper mAniilj^^ur)^, «md, lirs 
:^4 mi'e$ \Veft of Minn. 

S\}Z\0f a town of Port^gal, i^ Beiraj ai 
m\\f^ N£. of New BrHganzj4 

SU'/fAKAi a town ot thf new k^ngdom of Ira- 
ly, in the dcp. gf thc Mincip, diltridt and latc du- 
vhy of M^ntua ; 14. mi'es S, o^ ^antua.. 

StTZAVIN» a t<ivvn pf Perfia, in thc provincc 
of Ir^c : 90 milc« E. of Amadan. 

SUZAY, a to^^n Qf Ff ancc, in thc department 
of thc Enre ; <4'milcs EN£. of Grand ^ndel^s. 

SUZDAL, a town of KuAia, iu Yolodirojr, 24 
mi>e8NN{:. of Yolodimir. It fcero8 to he the 
{dmc vfith Jys^A V ^ctcr thc 9^^^^ ^^«r ditorc- 

Digitized by 


S W A /2 

ia; bts fmprtfi, £udoxia, confined her in the 
oocTect U St Ba61 in this town. : 

(j.)Si;ZE, Iknrieite De Colicni, Cotintefs 
of,diiipUcrcrthccelebra!td Mdr(hal DcColig- 
>u a rrcDch bdy cminent f<jr htr poctical abili- 
tKi She marricd firft Thoma!».lf;»miUon, a Scot- 
"S nohkman, and aflcr hi^ dcaiK ihe Count h^ 
tpie, wKo w.^s aifo of as il!uftriou9 [atr ily. But 
tM 2d marriajre proTcd unhappy, and endrd in a 
Jp^r-inoo. Siic wrote a grcat nuoiber of Poemj^ 
■ ljch«rcre much admir d ; and werc collc<^e<l 
id pfifli<rd with thoie of Pellisson and Madam 
s^i'MiV, at TrcYou6» in 1725, limo. She dicd* 
u id;^. 

.1,' Si'ZE, a r'tpfr <'f thc HcWetic rcpubHc, 
Y^tci) nmg into Lake Bicniie» about a milc bclow 
?v ro^p cf lJ'rnoe. 

.j.)Sf2E, a towti of Pranccj in the dep. of 
t>f:S*r:c: 9 roiks SW. ot Man.*, and ii N. of 
D k. 
U- SciE La Rousse, a town of Prance, in 
t*t (icp. of ilie Dromc : 18 miks S. ,of Montc- 

•SWAB. n.f \Jwahbi/h, Swcdifh.l A kind 
r/iTiop to clcan Aoors. 

• r» SwAB. -p. a. \f1vebban9 Saton.] To clean 
«CD A mop. It i^ now ulcd chicHy at fca,— > 
Hc ma^^e h'vm fwab the deck. Sba^uelocA. 

•SWABBER. »./. L/«;fl^^r, Dutch.] A fwecp- 

"nc maftcr, the J^-wabbtr, thc boatfwain and I^ 
Lc«'d Man, Mcg« anJ M^rrian, and Margrry. 

-^ii any thinp wanting to the extravapance of 
i'i d<4ci.cra?e age, but thc ms^king a tarpaw- 
J3 'r<l ^kuahber t hc hcro* of a tragedy ? Dennisi 
>IVAB1A. S<cr Suabu^ 
'SWADDLE. «./. lfrom the verb.] Cloatha. 
^asdround the huKiy. — I bcgged them to un- 
«■i^inc: 00, ro, fjiy thcy ; an<i upon that car- 
^ 1* to onc of thcir houfcs, and put mc to 
t^ ii al) m y fttvaddU s , Addijon, 

*fiSwADDHt, V. o- [favedanf^%Qi\,] i. To 
^^s\ !o bind in c'othcs, gentrally ufc4 of 
Lsii^ ncwbcrn children. — 

iwdMed SLi ncW'born in lable (hrouds. 


Clnth« are takcn from a chctt of fweetp, 

^^f\saddU infftTits. . Herbert» 

"'^ ^^vaddled rnc up, in my mghtgown with 

^^^t ptcci of lincn.. Addi-tn» a. To beat 5 to cud- 

PJ- A low ludicrous word. — 

CTcat oa thc bcnch, gteat in the iaddle, 
T^at cou.d as wcH.bind o'tx^%f<waddle. Hudth^ 
•SWADDLINGBAND.) n.hfTomf<waddlfA 
*SwAi>ou>iGCi.OTH. ^ Cloth wrappcd 
•SvAi>DLiNGCLOUT. j rouod si Dcw-born 

froiii tbcncc a fairy thce unwccting reft, 
T^ as thoo flcpt'ft in tcader f<waddlirtgband. 

-Tbat greal baby yon icc therc \% not yet out of 
^^^ J^^UMg-cI^mts. SJbaA.-^The f*waddiiffgbandj 
*"«p«rplc, wrought with gold. Drjden* 
^^ADyNGBAR, a town of Ircland, in Ca- 
^ tnftcT; 74 rnilci froin Dublin. It has a cc- 
^^^^nuA mina^ fpriiig with|n balf a mile. 

I > a w A 

SwADMNGC(>TF, a town of England, hi Dcr- 
byUjire, SE. of Burton upon Trcnt. 

SW.\FFHAM, a town of EngUnd, in Norfolk, 
one of the bcft in thc county, with 30© houfe«^ 
f^atcd on a hi!l;-with a markct on Saturday; 15 
miies SJi. of Lynn, 34 NNK. of Newmarkct, and 
94 NE. of London. Lon. o. 46. E. Lat. $%, 4». N. 

♦ipj SWAO. V. «. \Jij(an, S»xoi) 'y /weigia^ 
inan<fK'k.1 To liiik doM?n by ita wetght ; to hang 
h.e3vy. — They arc more apt, in J^agging dowo» 
to picrce with their point»*, lVotton. — Hc hath a • 
lonp fin upon his baclc, and another anfwering td 
it on his be!ly j by which he is the b<tter kept 
uprijjht, or from fwai;^ging on his fKle«J. Gre*w. 

• To SWAGE. [Irom ^JJ^ge.] To cafc5 

to foften ; to mitigate.— ' » 

Apt words have powV tofqoage 
The tumors of a troubltd mind. Milton. 

Nor wanting pow*r to mit»gate ^ndfwaget 
AngniOi, and duubty and ftr;tr. Mt/ton, 

I'd Ani fi)me !nterval<!, whcn my poor hcart , 
- ShpuHyw^^r itfelf. . Ot<waf» 

♦ To SWAGGER. v. ». {/wadderen, Dutch,. 
to makc a noife ; /wegan, S4Xon.] To htuftcr ; 
to bully ; to bc turbukntly and tumuItiiouAy prou<L 
and inG>lent. — Drunk ? f<}uabble ? /w^j^^r .^ aiwl 
difcourfe fuftian with onc'» owo ihadow ? Sbak. 
— A rafcai that f<wa^ger'd with me laft night.. 
SfMk. — Thc lclTer li/.c of mortaU l ->▼€ to f<wagger 
foT opinionn. Ghnvi/Ie.^M^ny fuch alTts in thc 
world hufF, loi>k Wi)i, ftare, drrf<, c(Kk, and /wag' 
gfr at thc iame noify r^te. V E/irangei — 

He chuck'd, 
But/if%,^crV like a lord. Dryden, 

— The ignorant think there is fomething more 
than ordinary in > f<ii>ag^ering maii. Tillot/on,-^ 
To^be grcat, is not to be Aarchcd, ani formaI» 
«>^ fupcrciliouii ; to f<wagger at our footmcn, and 
browbeat <nir inferiors. Collter on Pride. — What a 
pteafurc ia it to be vn5l()riou8 in a caufc ? to f<wag* 
ger at the bar ? Arbuthnot. 

♦ SWAGGERER. «. /. (from /<wagger. A 
bhiftcrcr; a bully; a turbuient noify fcllow.— 
He'8 no fwaggerer, hnftef8 ; a tame cheater : y<iJi. . 
may ftrokc him as gently as a puppy greyhound.' 

• * SWAGGY. adj (from f<wag.] Dependent 
by it» wcight. — The bcavcr is cailed animai vcn- 
tncofumf from his f<waggy and pTomincnt bcliy» 

• SWAIN. »./ (/w/ii, Saxon and Runick.] i^ 
A young man, — 

Whofe fellow(hip CcemM far unfit for war- 
\\)Ltf<wain. . Spenfer* 

1. A country fer?ant employed in huibandry.^ 
Ir were a happy lifc 
To bc no bcttcr tban a homelyy^M. Sbak. 
3. A paftoral youth. — ' 4 

Bkfif<wainj ! wbofe nymphs in ev'ry grace. 
BIeft nymphs ! wbofe fwainj thoCe graces line 
fo wcil. Pope» 

Lcave the mcer country ta mecr country 
/<wainj. Harte. 

(i.) • SWAINMOTE, n.f [j<wainnfotus, U«7 
Lat.] A court touching mattcrs of thc foreft^ 
kcpt by thc chartcr of the (oreft| tbrice 10 tb^ 


Digitized by 


S W- A ( i 

yew/ TbVrtourt ot/wojrtTnu is as incl(!^nt to a 
fv.rtft, as the court of picpowdcr is to a fair. Thc 
/•wtiinmote 1« acourt of freeho!dcr« within tht fo- 
rc ft» CcMaW. 

ta.) SWAlKMr^TB. SeC F<^REST Coudt S. 1 

(i.) SWALE, a riTcr of Ertgland, m Yorkrtiirc, 
whichrif<f8 on tJic conhncs c>f Wcdmorcland, nnd 
running S£.'pafl<;fi Richmoiid and Thir(k#and 
ialla into thc 0'jfc nt-ar Barrow-bnd;rc. 

(i .) SwALE, East, a r'ver of England, tn Kent, 
iht E. branch of thc Medwat, whijh branchcn 
o^io the right, and iiidn Ibuth of tY)c «n.ind of 
Shcppcy, and jdins thc Thanic» bclowr Shell- 


(3,) SwALi, West, anot^cr ri^cr of Kcnt, tfic 
maio Hream of the Medway, which nins duc N. 
ai)d faIU into tbc Th^mcs at Sre£kk£ss. Scc 
Mkdway. ' • 

* To SWALB. Ti? SWEAL. 1;.^. 1/t/V^^?;7, SaX. 

XO tiidj^.l To wafkc or blaarc away ; to nVclt; 
as' tbe eandti fw;^l#s. 

•'SWALLET. «./. Amopgthc tin-mmcrs, wa- 
tcr brcakmp in upon th^ miners ;*t work. Bailcy, 

(1.)^ SWALLOW. »./. [/<waU<mf^ Sax. hi- 

ruttdo,] A fraa'l bird of pauape; or, as f6mcfayi 

a bird that liea Uid and riccp» in thc wi' ter.— Th« 

/walUw follows not fommcr morc wilHbgly than 

we yuur lordihip. Sbak^—* 


That rom^ bcforc tHe /hi?alhw dares. Shak. 
— Thc /wal!o<ivs make of celandine, and the lin- 
nct of cuphraha, More, — 
, Swailozos Acc^ foar ^i^h and Tport In air. Gaj. 

(».) SwALLOw, in omithology. (Scc Hih;k- 
IK).) Concernmg thefe birds, a qucftion has oft 
brcn difcufled, What becomcs of tbcm m win* 
tcr ? Upon th»« fubjed thcrc arc threc opinions. 
Sookc fay that they migrate to a warmer dimatc; 
fomc that thcy rctire to hoH«»w trees and cavcms, 
wherc thcy Hc in^ a torpid tt^tc ; and olhcrs irf. 
firm that thcy lic in thc fa!re ftate in the bottom 
of lakcs, and undcr the icc. Thc firft opinion i« 
rttpported by MarSgH, Ray, Willouphby, Catcf. 
by, Rcamur, Adanfon, Buffbn, Scc. The tiril and 
, id opinions are both adoptcd by Pennant and" 
White. The ^d is fana«oned by Scbacffer, Hcvc- 
]iU8, Dcrham, Klcin, EIKs, Linnzus, Kalm : and 
the ad and .^d have bcen lliongly dcfendcd by* 
t^ Hon. D^inc^ Barrington. Thore who afi. 
fert that fwallows mlgrate to a warmcr coantry 
in wtntcr, arguc% Tliat many birds migratc, Is a 
faa fully proved by thc obfervatTOnd of natoral 
hiftovians. (Scc Mioiiatiok, § t.) Is it not morc 
probablc, th*:^refore that fwaUow8, which difap. 
pear regtilj»rly ctcry feafon, retirc to f(f>roc other 
coiintry, than that thcy lie in a ftatc of torpor in 
CATcm? or Iakf S ? But this «rpinion is foundcd on 
fafts. We oficn fee Ihem c«lt<rAed m great AockA 
09 chorcbcS, rncks, and trces, ibowt the timt- whto 
thcy arjmally difappear. The dirc6^ion of thcir 
flight ha« bccn ob^crrcd to bcto tbc fouthward. 
Mr White, thc inpenious htdorian of Sclbornc, 
travcl1ingi}earthccoaftof thc Britilh Cliannel oi»c 
moming carly, faw a flock of fwallow8 take their 
<!epartur^ with an caCy and placid flight towards 
thc fca. ^Mr Laflceyof Exeter obfenrcd the di- 
fedion which a flock of fwallows took in autumn 
1793. On thc %%d Srpt. about 7 A. M. thc wind 


a ) 8r W A 

being calWly, accorapatiied with a cold drrraling 
rnin, Mr Laikey'8 hOiife was cntirdy coverfd 
with hoMfc fwanows. At interval8 largc flork« 
arriyed and joined the Train body, a-.)d at thcirat- 
rTTAl an unulual chirpirig coTumcnccd. Thc appcar- 
ancc of thc wboi^ comp.iny was fo lethargic, th^t 
hc foiind it an cafy matter to citch a confider- 
ablc numhcr of them, which hc kept in a room 
ail that day. Byheating thc roo n thcy iiU re- 
vi^d : hc opcoed four ot' tHcm, and fonnd their 
ftomachs cjbite f«U. The main body occapicd 
thc houfe top all day, except for two hourg. A- 
bout half an honr af^er 9 A. M; thc 13^, there 
was a great commotion, with vcry loud c^irpin^, 
and within a frw minutes aftei-, the wholc mul- 
titudc took thcir Arght, in a SE. dirc<5tion, ^a^ing 
afccnded to a great height in thc atmofphcre. Hc 
lct go tbe hlrdt? which bc had cangJit, at cerfVtn 
ihr e^ln till four oVlock, and ihey all fled towatd 
the famf quarter. Thcy havc alf > becn foun4 on 
their pal?ajic at a great diftancc from land. Mr 
Adanfon informs us ihat aboat ?o leagucs from 
thc coaft of S-negal 4 fw;illow8 feltlcd upon thc 
ihip on the 6th 0<^t>ber; that thcfe Wrds werc 
taken ; and that he knew th^m to bc European 
fwallow3, which, he conje^tnrcs, wcrc retomiTig 
to thc coafl of Afric.i. Sir Charlep Wagcrfays,« Re. 
ttrrning home, in fpring, a» I c^me into found- 
ings in otir ch^nnel, a preat flock of fwallow« came 
and fcttled on all my rigging; cvery rope was co. 
vered, they hung on onc anothcr likc h fwirm of 
bccs; the dcck^ and canring were Ailcd with 
thcm. Thcy fccmed almoll famiflied and fpent, 
and werc only fcathcrs and bonc» ; bot, bring tc. 
cmitcd with a n»ght*STelV, took thcir ATght ?n thc 
moming." This vaft fatiguc provc8 that tbeir 
journcy muft have bceii vcry grcat, conCdcring 
tlieir amazing Twif\ncfs, in all probabtiity thcy 
had croAcd thc Atlantic occan, and wrrc rctum- 
ing from thc fhores of Senegal, or othcr parts of 
Atrica ; fo that this acomnt from that tnoft a^le 
and honcft feamcn, confirm8 the latcr infbrmation 
of Mr Adanfon. Mr Bmcc atfo mentions 19 his 
travc!s, that m AbyAin^a, thcrc is a great vanety 
of fwailow8 ; but " thofe that are common inli». 
ropc appear in pafl*agc at thc vcry fcafoi» wben 
they tTikc tht ir A.ight from thcncc. Wc faw the 
greJiteft pm of thcm tn thc ifland of Maruah, 
w^ere they lightcd and tarricd two day^, and 
thf n proccedcd with moon Hght to the SW." Mr 
Kahn acknohirlcdgc», that iit croAinR thc Atlarttic 
f rom Europc a fwaIlow lightcd on thc Ihip OQ tlie 
$d Scpt. whcn it had «paAed on!y two ^ds of the 
occan. Stncc, thcreCbrc, fwallows bave becn iccn 
aJTembled in grcat (locks in antumn Aying pff 
in company towards. ^^uthiern climcs^ ftticc thcy 
havc becn fout«f both fn thcir pnAagr from 
Europc and rcturning again, can therc hc nny 
doube of their annual migration ? (8ec Msgra* 
rtOK, § a.) Thc id notion (fay8 Mr PBnnaf»t] 
has grcat antiquity on its fidc. Ariftotlf ajid Ph< 
ny fay, that fwalloW8 do not rcmore vcry fai 
from tbcir fummcr habHatipn, but wrntCT- in th< 
hollows of rocks, and dnring that timc loic thci 
fcathcr8. Of latc fcvcral procHPs ba^clieeii brougn 
of fomc/pccie8 baving bccn difcovcred in « tt>rpn 
ftatc. Mr Collmfon meniions thrcc gcntlcmcn 
cye.witncircs to Qttfl|bcrtof fand martint bciii^ 


Digitized by 


SrmnontoiicWSon ihe Rhine, in Mmh 1761. . wcd wWi 

AiMltfaf Hon.]!)aine9Bamn{tton eommunicated the 

Mlowidg f/id, 00 tbe authority i)f the late Lord 

fleibavee, Thit oumbcrt o^ fuallowa h;ivc be^n 

tonnd in old dry wa;i« and m faiid hillt iMtar 

ijk LordJhip's icat m Eail Lotbian ; froffl yeffr to 

jrar; and tb^ whrn thcy were cspoicd to the 

«f»th of I fivc thcy rcinwi. Wc ha*e hcard 

of rbc£une asMal dilcoTcncs ncar Morpcthy in 

I^ortbDmbcrtand. Othtrs pro?e thc 

thoie birdt in a torpid ftate dming winter. PikH, 

2a!bccba<kycii0s of SuHci; as was Tccn on the 

fitl of a grf;it fr;ign)cnt fomc ycars ago» s. In a 

dccajrtd boltow ircc that mm ciH tiown, ocar 

D.>I^Ui, in McrionctMhirc. y In a cliA^ ,ncar 

Wbitbj, Yotklhirc ; whcre, on diggif«g out a fat, 

9kk boibcla of fwailowt wcrc fcmnd in n torpid 

cooditioo. 4. Thc ret. Mr Conway of Sychton, 

F1intfliifc, « fcw yein ago, oit loc^ing down an 

«d lfjd m/oc in t^ county, obfcnrcd numbcrs 

o( f«allo«s ^ingtng to the tiabcrs ot rhc (haft, 

Mo{ty aflecrp; aod 00 Hinging (bmc gravel on 

tbwtbey joA movcd, but ncvcr attemptcd to fly : 

tbiiwat tctweco Ail Saint» and Chrirtih^s. From 

^ W A 

ice, I ordetod the fl(!ii?fmcn to -#fh 
tberein, and in myprcftnccfct€ral fwallowft wcrc 
taLcn, which thc fi(bcrmcn threw in ^ignin ; bnt 
onc 1 tool; up to myfcl% brought It bome, fite 
miHti fFom thncc, and k rcvivcd, bat died about 
an h>bm after. Thcie arc fadt8 ftttcftc4 by pcople 
of the h«ghcft quality. it w thercfore incorTtcf* 
tably truc, th;»t fwallowa rctirc in th^ northcm 
conntritB, dufinfr wintcr, mto th^^atcr, and ^^y 
thcrc in a torpid llatc till the rrturn of warmtli 
revivc9 them again in fpHnp. The fwa]lowft-in 
Sp;iin, Italy, Prancc, and pcrhapA fomc fi^m En^y 
land, rcmoYc tb wtrracr climatcc v fome EDgliSi 
oncs, and fomc in Gcrmanyand othcrmild couii- 
tnc« rctire into cleft6 and holcfl in rocks» and re- 
main there in a tor|Ad ftate. |n tbs coldcr northcra 
countics the fw;it1ow8'iQuncrfc in thc ^, in lakci;^ 
and riters; aitd rcmain in a torpid ftate, «ndcr 
icc, 6ortRg winceir. • It is-objt^tH), Wliy d^ not 
rapacious %/h, ahd aquatic ^uadrupcds 9nd birds». 
dev6or thefc fwattow« ? The anfwcr n obwou^ ; 
fwatlow9 €hoofe only fucb pHiccs in the water for 
thclr wintcr rctreat as arir near rccds and rulbcn ; 
fo that linking down thctc bctwccn thcm and their 

^athek fi&Sf we muft coneTmdCi tbst one part of rooia thcy are iccured againit thetr cncinics. Ab 

tbc ^walloir tribc migratc, and that othem have 
tbeir waktrrqaartef t ne^r home. Thc 3<i oprnioo 
»tba(of Mr Kalrn» who pleads for thcir knmcr. 
&0O it iratcr; aml meDttona the fo1(owing f2L&$ : 
" Dr Wallcriun, ihe cclcbrated Swcdtfh chcmttt, 
9*km «, Tbat he bas Ibcn, more than once, 

^b. He had (cen a fwaUow caught dnrirg 
»i«er€Btof a lake with a nct, drawn as h com- 
■«> in toithcm countric«, undcrtbc icc; this 
M*as brooght into a warm room» remcd, llut- 
^(nnf abouC, and foon after died. Mr Klein, ap- 
pliedto matiy farmer« gcncral of the king of 9mf- 
^'•dostans who lia^ great Ukcc in their di£. 
^^ the fiibery in thcm bcmg a part of the re- 
M the i>eople that were quefttone%i 

bo thc argumcnt takcn from thcrr bcirg fo long^ 
under watcr without cotTttptionk there ts a real 
diAcrcnce betwecn animals lulibcated in water 
aod antmals being lorpid thcrein. Natural hif* 
tory ought to bc ftudicd as a coUedioh of fti€^ 
, Thcrearc l\vc ^de8offwallow8 whieh vifitBri- 
Mkm aiicDbling on a reed tiH they were all taiii during fummer: the common fwaIlow, the 
BMKricd aod wcDt to the bottom ; this bcing ibartin,(anilmarttft,iwift, andgoAt-fucker. i.The 
yretedcd by a dir^ of a quartcr of an hour*8 common l\frallow ir^^ucnts, almod cvef y part of 

' ' * - - jIj^ ^,^ contioent; bein^ known (fay8 B^ La^ 

tham) irom Norway to the Cape nf 6k>od Hope 
on the one #dc, and from Kamtfchatk;T to lii- 
dia and Japan on the otbcr. ft h aifo found in alt 
.part6 of N. Ameriea, and in fcverai Wcft hidiair 
ifland8. In Europe it difappcar8 during wintcr, 
It appears generally a Tittle after thc vcmaF cquU 
nos ; but rathcr earlicp ki tbe ibuthcni» and later 

^_ , . . in the northcm latit«dc8. It adhcrcs to the ulbal 

B^iftdaviti opoa oatb before the magiArates. ^rea^onswith mucb regnlarity.. }n the^arm (pring 
i-Theaother of tbe coiiiitef8 of Lehndorf faid, of 1774 they appcaredno carlier than uriiai. They 
^fc< bad Cectt a bunHle of (waliows brought rcmafn in lome warm coantrics thc who^c year, 
"<*flleiViibe-tiair (a lakc communicot^ng with Kolbca aiTUrci Sw that thrn is thc cafe at the Cape 
**^cat Pillau-^ which, when brought ioto a of Good Hope. Some birds of this fpccie9 live» 
■^totrty warm room, revivcd and Auttcrcd a- durlng wintcr, evfn in Europc ; e.g^ on the coaft 
^ t Coaot Schilcbcn gave ari inftroment on of Genoa^ t. The mariins arc alfi) widely diffufed 
taapedpapcTy knpopting, thlt by fifhhig on the through thc old coiltincnt. 3. Thc fand martms 
wbelongtag to liii cltatc of Gcrdaucn in win- are foiind in cvcry part of Europc, and oftch 
*cri be itw fcveFal fwaIlow9 cauiiht tn thc net, fpend the wintcr in Maita. 4^ Tiie /w5^ vifit» 
^of wbich he teok up in his hand, brought it the whole continent of Europe r bas aUb bcen ob- 
■toi^ann rnoia, whcre it liy about an bour, ici»vcd at thc Ckpcof Good Hope, and in Caro- 
J^^beiranto ftir, and half an hour aftcr ii lin^ in North America. y. Thc g<kit /ttcieri are 
** 8bo«t itk ibe roo»^.'* Mr Kiatm mcntion^ fi- not ^ery common, yet arc found tn cvcry coun^ 
*3v ifidavitt madc by four farmcr8t and at try bctwecn Swcden and Africa : aIfo in India. 
**•**! *• ythly, lcan reckon mvfclf (Tays oiir Mi- M^rkwick of eat8field, ncar ^ttle in SoAc^,. 
•^) HMr thc ere.witncilci of thi» oarados ha^drawn up an accurate tablc, eapciluig thc day 

of t^ month 011 which tbe migratopy birds ap- 
peitred in fpring, and dif;tppcarcd in autumn, for 
i6 years fpom 1766 to 17S3, at CatsSeld. Were 
tablcs of thc famc bind made in evcry differcnt 
country, particularly within thc tpnid zonif, it 

^ . _.., would bc cafy to dvterminc thc qucfiion whrch 

*^Jfct&mc forcnoon thcy dicd, ard I had t^cm,. wc havc bten coaftdcrfng. To many, n ihjps, it 
^■«•ted, ia my hand. Iii Jan. 1^34, bcing co- may ojt appcar of fo muck^ im; «rt.incc as tft be 


V) amg tbe eye^witncilci of thi» paradox 
^l^linl btftory. In ^735, bcing a boy, J faw 
^^ IwaUowi Krooght in wintcr by t^be iWhcr- 
■■fcwi tbcTittola to my fathcr*8 houfe ;. whcrc 
^^ tbcoi were brooght into a warm room, re- 
2*^ i*tw aboot. t faw tbcm fevcral timejr 
*^«B the wan^ftovc, and I rreolledl well, 

Digitized by 


S W A - ( 24 

%90Tih the labour. But tbc inquiry mttft be high- 

ly gratifying to cvcry mind that admirts thc wif. 
, dom of thc Grcat Archit^^ of naturc. Thc in- 
.(tin<ft pf the fwal)ow is indccd wondcrfu1 : it ap- 

pcars amoog us ju(l at the timc whco infe^s bc- 
.come Dumcrous; and it coatinucs with u$ doriog 

tbe hot wcathcr, to prtvcnt thcm froro muit«piy^ of grolTnc^s or of foiIy. 

iog too much. It di^appcars whcn th(fc inleds Swallow'& tail, in fortification| is a iinglc 

arc no longcr«troubicfomc. It is Qcvcr fot)nd in tcnai]lf, which is narrowcr towardstheplacethui 

iolitudc ; it is tbc frtcnd of man, and always takes toward thc countr^ 

up it8 reGdcncc with us, to protcdl us from bcing 
. annoyed with fwarm8 of infc^f. 

(3.)* iSwALLOw. »./. [from thc verb.] Thc 

throat ; yoracity. — Had tbis man of mcrit and 

monification becn called to account for his un- 
'^o^lyJkuaJiow, in gorging dowo the citatcs of plant 

hciplelB widows and orphapt» he would havc told (2.) SwALLOW-woaT, in botany, 

thcm tbat it was ail for charitablc ufc8. Soutb. , riAs. 
(4.) SwALLOw, in geograpby».an iOand in thc SWALLY» a town of Hindoftan, in the Oe- 

S. Paciic Ocean» 'difcovcrtd by Roggcwins in can, and provincc of Camha^, witU a goodhac- 

17*1. Lon. i6a. 30. Et of Parf$. Lat. 10. o. S. bour ; la or 15 milcs NW. of Surat- Lon, 7», 15. 
(5.) SwALLOW 34Y» a bay 011 thc N. coatt of E. Lat. 21. 18. N. 

Egmont lAandy between Haoway*s Point and SWALM, a town of thc Prer^ch Ĕ:ppire, in 

SwALLOWPoi.MT, N® j, thc dep/trtmcnt of thc Rocr, and cidevant pn>. 

(6.)SwALLow Is.LiyND, onc of QaEEN Char- vincc of Oucldcrlaiid ; 4^ miics N. of Rurc* 
-L0TTE*8 IsLANOs m thc South Sca ; about 18 ^* 

iniics long. Lop. 164* 58. £. Lat. 10. 8. S. 
(7.) SwALLow PoiHT, a capc on thc N. coAft 

of Egmont liland in tbc S. PaciBc Occan. Lon. 
. 164* 46. £. Lu. 10. 4a. S. t 

• To SWALLOW. V. a. l/<welganf Sax. /w^lgen^ 

Dutch.] |. To takc down the throat.- 

) S W A 

CorrQption^a/^(H(/V what the libcral kmd 
Of bounty foittcrM. Tbom/on. 

7. To cngrofK ; t<i ergage complctcly.— The pncft 
and the prophct arc /wnHowd up of wine. Ut, 

8. Swallow impiies, m ail its fi^uratiye (enicti 
fomc naufcou9 or contemptuous idea, fomcthing 

(i.) * SwALLOWTAiL. »./. A fpccie< of wil- 
low.— Thc ihininj wiUow they call /wallwutad 

0».) SwALLOW-cAiL is a fpecics of Salii. 

(l.) • SwALLOWWORT. n, /. [a/clepias,] A 

Sec AscLi- 

(1.) ♦ SWAM. Tbc prcterite oi/whn. 
(a.) SwAM, in geography, a tbrt at thc mouth 
of the Mcdway, ncar Shecrnef8. Sce Med^wat, 

SWAMMERDAM, John, a cclcbratcd natur«\ 

philofopbcr, wa* thc (bn of John James Swammer. 

Capital crimcs Qhfi^'d$ /waIIow*J, and di- dam, an apoihccary and Camous naturalt(lof Am* 

. geCtedy ftcrdam, ^ndbornini637. Hi8f^thcriiltendeilhim 

Appear before u« ? SbaA, ^or thc church» and wiih tbis vicw had him in 

-^Mcn muft/tuA//0«; down opinions, as (iily pco- ftru^cd in Lntin andOrcck; but-hc prefcrrd 

ple do cmpincks pills. LocAe, u To rcceivc phyCc. Bcjng kept at homc tiil be (hould engajN 

without cKamination. — ^Judgc of it as a matter of in thit ftudy, hc wis oftcn eiuplpycd in clcAnin^ 

rea^on, and not /^umIIooju it as a matter of feiith, hi« fathcr'8 cunoaties and putting cvcry thtui 

Lofke> 3. Toengrofs: to appropriatc : dftenwith in ordcr. This infpir<rd him with an carlytart 

9p cmpbatical— Far be it from' me» Hiat I Aiould /or natural hi(toryi (0 that hc foon began t< 

Jwallow up or deftroy. * &i»i.— Homer has /«;a/- «nakc a collc^ion of his own, When grown up 

/o^i/^i/ii^ the honour of thofc whofuccecded him. he atteoded to his anatomical and mcdical fti 

Pope, 4« To abforb ; tp take in 5 to fink io any dics ; but, fpcnt part of ibe d:*y and the night i 

abyfs; tocngulpb: with «p.— .difcoTcring, catchmg, and cx.4mioing th,: Byin 

Thc ycfty wavea infcA8» in Holland, Gucldcrland, and -Utrcch 

Confound And /^umliow navigation up. Sbak, Thus initiatcd tn natural hiftory, he weut to tfc 

I may be piuckM into the A(Mi//o<zi/iffj^ womb uniwlity of Leydcn in 1651; and in i66j w 

Of this decp pit, poor Badianut»' gravc. Sbak, admiitcd a candid^tc of phyt^c* Whnc Itudyir 

^Dcath \s/fiuailQ(iv*d up in viftory. i Cor, \y»SA» anatomy, bc cowlidtied how ilic parts of thc b 

— If the carth open her moiilh SLnd/<ivaiiow them dy, prcpared by diflV(5tion, cou d be prefcrvcd t 

vpt ye (hall uudcrftand that thcfc mcn have pro- iinatomical demoi.^ration ; and hc fucc«edf d 

voked the Lord. Numl», xvi. — hc had done bctore in hii nicc contnwances i 

In bog8,/<«;fi//«K4;V w/ and loft, ^ Milton, diiTcAing the mmutcCk i- fcfls. He theii wcnt 

— Hc hid mauy things from us, not that tbcy Prapce, w^trc Iie fpcntll)fne time at Saumur^A! 

'would /waiiow up our undcrttandin^, but divcrt bccame acquaintcd with fcveral lcHrncd mcn. 

our attcntion from wbat is morc importanu De* 
€aj o/Piety- — 

Nature would abhor 
To bc forccd back again upon herfeif, 
And like a wbirlpool/u;a//o<u; hcr pwn ftreams. 

Should not tbe fad ocQ2i^\oii /<waIIofw up 
My otbcr cares, and draw thcm all into it ? 

5.T0 occupy. — The necrnary prov»fi m tor l»re 
/kuaJiowj thc grcatert parc oi thcir 6. To 
lciz< aud ivafte.^ 

1667 be rciurncd to Leyden, anrj took hi» dtgi 
of M. D. Iii i66g, tbe^gr-iJiii L'. of Tuibany l 
)ng in Holland, catne to view tbe mulcuro of c 
author and his tather; and Swammerdam m? 
fomc anatomical di(rc^«on8 of inl'ei5\s in bts p 
fenc^. Hc wii.') ftruck withadmiration at tii^ ^r 
ikill inmana^'agthem;and proving that the futi 
buttcrAy lay with a»l ita parts neatly fo*«ied u^ 
a caterpillar, by remoYing the intct»utncMi &« Aud 
hibiting all itR pnrts, howevtr ounute, with. inc 
dible ingeiMiity, by inilrument^ of mco-^crW? 
lincnclk. Tiic Oukc oncred l«iai 4 2,roo iioi 

Digitized by 


S W A 

( «5 ^ 

S W A 

forkii coUe^iont oo condliion of liis removing 
Ihrm ioto Tu/caoy, and rcfiding at tbe court ^ 
plorcACc; but Swaiu&erdam declincd* in 1663, 
bc pubiiOicd a Getural Htftory qf UJeSs. AboiK 
tbit tioe» biA fi«tber, ofictidcd «it his n«glcding 
thepridice of phydc, woul*l ncither Aipply htm 
witb aoney nar cU^thes. Tbis retiuccd bim to 
{aiic difficuUies. In 1675 he pubiilhed his Hif- 
t9rj 9f tbe Ef»bemerai ; aod bif faiber dying tn 
1676, ic(t him a fortiine; but he dicd in 1681, 
apei only 45. Gabius traoA itcd ail hi« works 
frua tbc Datcb into l^tin« from wbich thcy 
wRc traBOated into £nfiliih« in foliOj in. 1748. 
Sec Amatomy, ImdeM. BccrhaAve wrote bis lite. 

(!.)• SWAMP. 11. /. [Jkuamms^ Goth. f<wam, 
Saxao( Jtmmm, lOaudick; /kuamme, Dutch ; 
^tm^, l>mi(b;/wam^ Swedi&.j A marih; a 
baf; a^co. 

(i» ).) SwAMP» in geography. Sce Dismal, 

(4*)SwAMP, Great Dismal. Soc Djimal» 

•SWAMPy. 4uiJ4[^omfwamp.] Boggy ; fen. 

Svamfy fcnt brave dcftruAive myriads. 

SWAMSCOT9 or EiETCJt» or Greai River, C 
nftrof Ncw Hampfbirc, wh'ch rife« in CbeiVer 
cottDty, aod altrr ruoning tbro' SaodowUt Pop- 
lia, Btcntwood. nmi grcat part of Eiceter iown-« 
flup% darioj^ which courrc it turne nuoy mtJIs, 
iiiUowacaUraA jaroods high, and joim the 
tJdefnifD PiscATA<2UA barboor, in tbe center of 
Ybe townihip of £xeter. A iauli riTcr iaili itito 
it,ibttleabo>f« £xetcr. 

(!.)• SWAN. «./ [/woM, Sax. faam, Daoi(h ; 
^Mo, Durcb ; ^^ata, Lalin.] The jwm is a 
tv|r w^tcr-lowi, tbat has a long neck, and is 
nrf white, eiLcepting whci) it is young. Its leg« 
«id iDTt aic bUck^ as is ito bill, which ia like tbat 
of a gooie, but (boietbing jrounder, and a tittle 
bookid Jt the lonrer eod of it : tbe two 6des be- 
^tt^ eyes arc black and ihining itke ebony. 
9^BĔu lie «nogs like iails, wbich catch tbe wind, 
blbttbey arc drivto aloog in tbe water. Tbey 
U opao bertM and (bme fort of grain like a 
fMfri and ibsic mtc laid to bave lived 300 ycars.' 
Tkor ii a fpecica of fwans with tbe ^athcrs of 
^ iieadt, towards tbe breaft, marked at tbc 
<^ wiib a ^old cokNir incUning to red. Tbc 
te 'n tcckooed bf MoCes amoni^ tbe^ unclean 
c>atBicii btit it waa^ con(ecratcd to ApoU 
btbegod of miirick, bccaufe it wa« f.iid to fiof 
liclodioui^ wbcn it was near expiring ; A tradi- 
hat, gcocrAlly received, but fabuU>o«. Caim^. — 
Coxpine hcr facc wiih fome tbat 1 ibali 
Aad l will make tbce think thy/waa a crow. 

Let ouGck ibiiod, wbile bc di>tb make his 
• cbnice; 
tSea i£ bc lofc, be makes stJkvanA\]LC end. 

A jvring fouDd refu1ts, acd minglo in tbe 

lAcllMit of y«Mjii remurm'nng to tbe Aood^. 


— The idea, whlch an Bogliihman (Sgnifiesby the 
name/taww, is a whitc colour, long necki black 
bcak, biack lcgs, and whole feet, and all tbeic 
of a certtio fite, witb a powcr of fwimaHng i» 
the watcr, and making a certain kind of noife« 

(a.) SwAN. Sce Ana», § i^, N<> 1. Aod i. U 
h now arcertatred, bcyond the poilibiltty of doDbt^ 
tbat tberc are black/wans^ of cquftl Ti^c, aod tbe 
fHme habitude<i, w ^h thc (99mafM)B wbitefwan8of 
this in nd. Thcic fawip k 4vc bcen iccn cbicAy in 
Kew HoiUnd; aod Captain Vancoufer, whe« 
tbcrc, (aw|ri.vcral of them io Ycry ilately attitndes 
fivimming oa the water, and, when llyiBg» dif» 
coYcring the undcr part of thctr 4!vingA afkl 
brcails to be white. Black fwan4 werc likc- 
wi<C fcco in Ncw H jlJa^nd by CJoy. PhitipSr Capt* 
Whiie, and by a Dutch navigator, fo long ago at 
in 1697. Gov. Pbiiips dcicnbcs tkc bjask (wan at 
a vrry noblc bird, largcr tban the comn^^H fwanf 
and cqually beautiful in form. N^r Whtte n)deed, 
iA)%f liiat its (\zc is not quite cqiial to.tb^ of thc 
JSaropean fwati ; but bot|i agrec wilb Capt. Yanr 
c »uver 10 mcntioning fome white fcatbers w itt 

(3^5-) SWAJJ» SWEYN, St;£V0, OrSWENO, I. 

n. anrl lU. ^ kings of Dcnmark. Sce D|^nma&k> 
$ j; England, § x6— 18| and Sweno. 

(6.) SwAN IsLAND, ai) iOaod of tbc United 
Stdtcs, in Mjine, in tbc Kcticb^ck, mucb £re» 
quentcd by Swan« ; 4 milct S. of PouoalCburg. 

(7.)8wANlsLAND,ani{laodQf Jrdap^.ml^gb 
8trangford, Down county, ocar Down I^atrick. ; 

(8.) SwAN La«e, a lake Df Cau^t i7j,mUet 
NNW. of Qu€boc. 

SWANAGE Bay, a bay o£ ibe Bngimi.Chtn-r 
nel, 00 the coaH of DorchciWr» S. cl Studtand 

SWANEMOTE, n./. JSce FoafitT-Coi^itTf# 
and SwAiNMOTB. 

SWANNANO, a river of TeoAcOee, tibc £• 
bcad-water of Prcncb Broad River. 

SWANPAN» <Mr Ckiiiefe ABACuSt an ioitny- 
ment for pcrformiing arithmciical operatsons» de- . 
fcribcd by Du Halde in his Uiitory of Cbida* It 
it compofcd of a ffiuill boacd, croiTed wiih xo or 
12 parallcl rods tr wirct, eack.ikrnjig witb itory 
b.)llii, which arc fo r]ivLi1cd by a .partitioo in the 
middtc, that two atc oa one &dc of it, aflfd five 
on the othcrt The two in the tipper part ttatid 
eacb for five ututSr and each of thc fivc in the 
lower part iot ooe. *^ In joinmg and feparating 
thefe balfs, they reckon muchat wedo witb coun* 
ters ; but, acoosdiog to our author, more expc- 
ditiouily than Europcaot do cven Wkh Sgures.** 
Tbis i» hardly crcdibhr; but tf all tbc Cbinele 
wcightt and mca&ircs bc dcctmn^ly divided, it i^ 
<afy to conceive how ^omputation mav be made 
by tbis indrument very expcditioui}y. See Blino 
$ 15-18. 

SWANSBpROUGH, a city of N. Cardinc, 
thc capital oT Wilmington didri^, aod of OnOuw 
GOUDty. It has a court*houfe, aod a court is bc Id 
in '\U thc %A lAonday in Jan. April, July and 06. 

SWANSCOMB, a fmaU town of England, in 

Kcot, % milcs W. by 3. ai GravefeQdt mcmora- 

b!c iox bci* g thc piace, where the Keati^ path- 

D ots 

Digitized by 


S W A (36 

ots, with boughs in their haodt like a moTing 
wood, furprifed Wiliiam tbe Conqueror; and 
tbrowing down their boughs, threatened to give 
him battle, if he did not agree to fecure tbem in 
•ail their aocient cuitoms, nghts and francbifet ; 
to wbich Wi^iam immcdiately coDfented, in con- 
fequence of whicb they ftill retain Gavel-kind and 
other ancient priYileges» enjpyed by tbc Saxont. 
(See Gayel-kind.) There are relict of Daniih 
campt and fortt near it. 

(1.) SWANSEA, *or Swanset, a populout 
trading town of S. Walet, in Glamorganthire» on 
a bay fo named (N^ 3.) with a good barbour at 
the mauth of tbe'Tawy, wbence it it alfo named 
Mer^^atwy, It hat a great trade, io coalt, pot- 
tcry, copper and lead, wbich are fmelted from 
tbe ores, and fent to Ireland, Bhftol, and t^ S. 
of England, to whicb (hipt are conftantly failiug. 
In 1768, ^94 vefleU failed from this port^ ton« 
nage ^0,631: in 1791, tbe number of ihipt wat 
1677, containihg 74^926 tone: in Sept. 1799, the 
fhips hdd increafed to «,590, and the tontiagc to 
134,264 tons. It \\M markcts on Wed. and Sat* 
and it famed for (hip building. It hat aa ancient 
caltlc and a churcbet ; and joins with Cowbridge 
f nd otber towns» in fending a member to Parlia- 
fnent* It it goYemed by a port-reeve, a chief, 
II aldermen, % cbancellors, and 60 couociUors. 
It is »5 milet WNW. of Cowbridge, $$ E. of 
Uaverford Weft, and 205 W. of London. Lon. 
4. o.W. Lat.51. 38.N. 

(s.) Swansea, a town of MaiTacho^etts, on 
tbe Taunton ; 36 milet S. 6f Bofton. 

X^.] SWANSEA Bay, a bay of S. Wales, on the 
Briftol Cbaonel, at the mouth of thc Tawy, on 
the c<^aft of Swansea, N** i. 
'• SWANSEY. See Swai^sea, N^ i. 

SWANSHALES, a town of Sweden, in W. 
GotbhtTid : 15 milct WSW. of Linkioping. 

• SwANSKiN. »./. \Jiwan and^'if.1 A kiod of 

) S W A 

SWARLAN, a rTver of Sweden in Neric ; 
wbicb runs into Lake Hielmas, rear Orebro. 

• S WARM. ». /. [/wearm^ SaxOn ; J^ttrm^ 
Dutcb.] X. A great body or numbcr of bees, or 
othcr fmall animals, particularly tbofe of beei 
that migrate from thc hive. — 

hjwarm of bees tbat cut the liquid iky. 

a. A moltitude; a crowd. — 

From ihisjkuarm of fair advaotage8| 
You gripM the gtneral fway. Sbak, 

— If we could number up thofe prodigiousy^an»/ 
that had fettled tbemfelve8 in every part of it, 
they would amoimt to more tban oao be fouod« 

Thh/iwarm of tbemes that (ettiet 00 my pen, 
Which I, iike fummer flics, fhake oS^agaio, 
Let others ling. Twng. 

* Tb SwARM. V. tf. [fivearmanf Saxon;/tvfr« 
men^ Dutch.] x. To rife as bees in a body» and 
quit the hive. — 

Some Iband tbe tmropet for the reft io/warm» 

S*warm*J on a rotten itick the bees I ^py^d. 

— When beet hang in /warming time, they wiil 
prefently rife. Mortimer. a. To appear in muhi- 
tudct ; to crowd ;• to throng. — 

Thc mercileft Macdonel, 
The muUiplying villame8 of oatore 
I>o /<waHn upon. Sbak. 

Our fuperfluout laCoueys, and our peafantSf 
Who in uaneceA^ry aaionyot/arm 
About our iquaret of battle. Sbak, 

What a moltitude of thoughtt ^ onee 
AwakeaM in mc /warml M^ton, 

In crowdt around the^^nmn^ people join. 

3. To be crowded; to be over-nin; to be 
thronged.— Throughout all Ireland, everyplace 

foft Aannel, imitatingv for warmth thc down of a /<warms with foldiert. Spen/hr. — Her lowcr region 
fwan. ywiirOTi withallfortof fbwl. fldw/.— Thofedayt 

/*warmedif'\Xh fable8. Brown. — 

L\{t/<warmj with ills, the boldeft tre afraid. 
Wbere tben it fafety fbr a tender maid ? Tomg* 

4. To breed multitudes. — 
Not fo ihkk/warmed once the foil 

Bedro)>p'd with blood of Gorgon. MHton. 

5. It is ufed in converfatiolf for climbing. a treei 
by embracing it with tbe armt and iegs. 

• SWART. SwARTH. adj, [/<wartjf Go- 
thick; f<weartf Sax. /iwartf Dutch.] x. Black; 
darkW brown ; tawney. — 

A nation Arange, with yi\h%t /wart, Spen/er. 
A man 
Of/u;£ir^/fr compIexion. Spen/ef. 

l wat black zxiA/<wart befoTe. Sbak, 
No goblin» or /<wart fairy 6f tbe mincy 
Halh hurlful power o'er true virgioity. MUton. 
1. In MUton it leems to fignify gloomy ; malig- 

Ye valleyt low, 
Oo whofe fre(h lap Xht/<wart ftar fparcly looks. 

♦ To SWART. V. a, [from the noun.l To blac- 
ken ; to dulk. — The heat of thc fun may /<wart 
a living part. Bacon, 


SWANWICH, a town of Dorfct{hire, in Pur- 
beck ifle : a milet from London. 

* ^WAP. adv, [ad /mpaf to do at a fnatcb, 
lilandick.] Haftily ; with haity violence : as, he 
did \X/<wap, It iccmt to t>e of the lame origioal 
with/uY^. A low word. . 

♦ To SwAP. V. a, To cscbange. Sec To^ 

* SWARD. «./. [/<wardf SwediAi. i. The ikin 
of bacon. 1. The fur£acc of thc ground : whence 
/^reeh /kvardf or green f<word, — Water, kept too 
long, looienRand foften8tbeyqvon/. Note on Tuffer* 

Tbe noon of night was paft, and then the foe 

Camc dreadlef6 o'cr,tbe level /<ward, A. PhiUips, 

-^To plant a vi.|Lyard in Joly, when the carth is 

?ery dry and coiiibuftible, plow up tbe f<wartbi 

ar.(l burn it. Mortimer: 

♦ S\VA!<E. The preterite oi/wear. 
SWARKSTON, atown of England, in Derby- 

fl)ire, on thc road froro Derby to Alhby dc ia 
Xi)ucb ; wbich has a bridge over the Trent, with 
39 archcs, fuppofed to be the longeft in Europc, 
t xcf pt tbat of £fzek, in Hungary. (Sec £szek.) 
Jt cKtends acrof8 thc meadows about a mile ; but 
ihc battlementt are low. 

Digitized by 


S W A 

SWARTA, a town of Swedea» in Sudcrman 
Uod : 4 miles M£. of Nykioping. 

SvAAT-BsGGEii, a mountiin of Sweden in 
Dalecarlia» aboandtng with iron ore. See Irom» 

SWARTEBERG, a town of Sweden, in W. 
GothUod ; i8 miles NW. of Uddevalla. 


•SWARTHlLt.tfiw.[from/iwif^.l BIacfc. 
Jy; do&Uyi tawnily, \ 

• SWARTHINESS. «. / [from /wartfy.] 
DarkDefa of complexion ; tawniner». 

• SWARTHY. aJJ. [Sce Swart.] Dark of 
cx>mp*czion; bJack; do&y; tawney.— 

Tbe AiMtiti^ Afnc^B complain. Ra/common, 
— la tbe torrid climate« the common colour is 
bbck QtJvHtrtby. Hak.'^ 

Het^/wartijy Cbarlcs appears. AdM/on. 

ThGT/wartbj boft« would darken all our 

plains. Addi/on. 

SWARTOW, a rivcrof Germany, in Holftein; 

whicb jotnt thc Trate, 3 miiei N. of Lubeck. 

SWARTSLUYS, a town and fort of the Bata* 
Tias rqHiblicy in the de p. of Yflcl, and Ute prov. 
tji OreryAel, oc the Yccht, in a mariby country ; 
dcieaded bf 5 baftiont. It is »8 miles W. of 
CoTordcB, and n N. of ZutpbcR. 

(1.) • SWASH. «./. [A ca^t word.] A Bgure, 
whoie circumfcrence it not round, but oval ; and 
wboie moldiogt lie not at right anglet, but oblique 
to tbe axit of thc work. Mox(m, 

(!•) • SwASH. «./ (from the Tcrb.] Impttlfi:of 
watcr Aowing wjth Tiolence. Dis, 

• 7o SwAt». 9. 0. To make a great clatter or 
M&: m^KOCt/^waJbhuckUr* Not in uCe. — 

We^ bavc 3L/waJliing and a martial outlide. 


^Gregorjt rcmcmbcr thy /wapnng blow. Sbak. 

SwAsn-BUCKLER, j»./ \S<uja/b and buekler,] A 

▼ais-gkmooa Tword-player ; a Yapouring fellow. 

• SWASHER. j». / lfrom /wafi;.] One who 
aakct a (how of Talour or force of arms. Obfo- , 
ktcj— I baTC oWenrcd thcfe three/u/a/&^ri ; threc 
lacb aatickt do not amount to a man. Sbak, 

{u) SWATARA, or Sweta^a, a narigable 
rmr 0f PenofyWania ; whicb riret in Broad Moun- 
taia, Berkt county; thence running S. by W. 
patti Ckroitgb tbe Blue Moontain, and reccivei 
ehe Ltttlb Swatara; (N® a.) thence tuming 
SW. by S. reccit ct the Qmtc^lnllat a navigable 
rTYcr : aad p«flfing by Huroempwn, fallt into the 
SutitocHAAaA below Middletown. A canal was 
begoD in 179^9 and fince AniOied* which connedt 
tkii rrfrr witb the Schuylkill, and the Tuc- 
riHOCKEa ; a didancc of ncar 80 milet. 

(t ) Swatar A9 LiTTLE, a fmall riTcr of Pcnn- 
ffHBHa; wbich runt into ihe Swatara at 

27 ) 

S W A 

• SWATCH. «. / A fwathe. Not in ufc.— 
BarUc* m/watebes ttiay ^W it thereby. Tujer. 

• SWATH. «./ l/wade^ Dutch.] 1. A linc 
^ gra(t cot down by the mowcr.— 

Gra£Ec, lately in/watbejt it meat for an ox. 

TV ftrawy Grcekt, Jipc for hit edge» 
f«t4ow« bcfore bim, like thc momcr*$ /watb. 


— If it lie thick in the /watbt ncither air nor run 
can paf8 frecly thro* it. Mortimer a. A continued 
q3antity.— Anaffe^ionM af8, that cona (late with- 
out book, and uttcrs it by great /watbs, Shak, 
3. [Spedan, to bind, Saxon.l A band •, a.fillct.— 
An Indian comb, adorned with finc itrawa laid 
alon^ the lidcs, and lapped routld about it in fe- 
veral didin^ /watbs, Grew.—Long pieces of lincn, 
tbey fotded about me, 'till they had wrapped nie 
io above 100 yards of /watb, Guardkin, 

• roSWATHE. V. n. [/wedan, Saxon.] To 
bind, as a child with bands and rollers,— 

• Hc had two fonr; the eldcft threC years old, 
V th* /watbing cloaths the other. Sbak, 

— Tbcir children are nc^cr/qvatbed. Abhpt,'^ 

$<watb'd id ber lap the boki nurfe bore bim 

out. Dryden, 

Matter^s fcet m/<watb'd no longer. Prior. 

SWATKA, a town of Bohemia, in tljc circlc 

of Chrudim : 8 miles W. of Politzka. 

SWATTERAGH, a town .of Ireland, in thc 
county of Dcrry, and provincc of Ultter. 

SWAYESEY, a fmaU town of England, in 
Cambridgcihire : SE. of St Ive8. 

• SWAY. j»./ [from the verb.] i. The fwing 
or fwccp of a wcapon.— 

To ttrike with huge two4iandedyiwiy. Milt. 
•• Any thing moTing with bulk and power.-*- 
Arc not you movM, whcn all the /<way of 
Shakes like a thing unHrm ? Sbak. 

3. Wcight ; preponderation ; caft of the baTance.— 

When to advance, or ftand, or tum they^oy 
Of battlc. MUton. 

4. Power; rule; dominion.— Thit wat but to 
plcaTc thc minds of the people, to thc end they 
might think their own /waj (omewbat. Hooker,^ 

Thc /twaj^t revenue, execution of th* beft, 
BeloYcd fon8, be yours. Sbak* 

Her fathcr counts it dangerout 
That ihe ihouk) give her forrow fo muchyatMr;. 

Each tbinks a world too little for his/toaj. 

When vice preyails» and impioua men ocar 
The pon of honour is a pnTate ftation. Mdi/ 

5. InAuence ; dircdion ; weight on one fide.— 
In the end, very fcw cEceptedy all became fub- 
jcdtothe/u>a/oftime. Hock. — ^An evil mind in 
authority doth not only follow the /<way of the 
defirc8 alrcady within it, but frameB to itfelf new 
defires. Sidney,~^ 

Thc branchcB bcnd before their twcepy/cway. 


• (1.) To SwAY. V. a. [/cbweben^ German, ti 
moYc.J ^. To wavc in thc hand ; to move or 
wield any thing maATy : as, to {nvay the fceptre. — 

HeaTybammers on thc wcdge 2xcfway'd. 

%. To biaf8 ; to direft to either fidc.— 

Hcav*n fbrgivc them, that fo much baTc 
Your majefty'8 good tboughtB away firom me. 

I took your bandi : but waBt indced» 
SwyU from thc point. Sbak^ 

P 1 BowIb 

Digitized by 


S W E ( t 

BowU lun iTiij by bcm^ mad^ 
On purpofe faKc, and to ^c/tiu/ty^J. Hudih-as. 
*— Lel not tctnporal ar.d Httlc aodyi^ntages Aew?j> 
you agamft a more durablc inttrcft. Tiiiotfon, 
Tj. .To govern ; to rulc \ to overpower ; to inflj- 
^ncc. — 

The lAdy's mad ; yet if 'twerc (o^ 

Shc cauld r\oXfivay her hourc. Shi^k, 

The will of man is by his reaTon 7w«)'^«^. Sb, 

On £ujrope tber^ccj and wber.e Rome wa6 to 


Thc world. MiltoH. 

A gentle nymph, not far from hcncc, 
That with moUt curb pways the fmooth Setcni 

^abrina is her namc- Miiton. 

Take hecd lcft ^paffion f<way 
Thyjudgmeot. ^tlton, 

— ^The judgment i9 J<wajed by paAJon. GIanv.'- 
^TIhs waa the racc 
tofwaj the world. Dryden, 

Wlth poweTful fpectb. Dryden. 

p- AU l^ fway*d by part icular maUce. Da^enant. 
(«.) f To SwAY. V. «. i. To hang hta»y ; to 
bc drawn by weighjt.— Th< halance Jways on our 
part. Baeon. %. To havc*weight ; to havc influ- 
encc. — ^The e^tample of fun'1ry churche^ doth 
f<way much. Hooker. 3. To bear rute; to go- 

The mind l/way by, and thehcart I bear. SJb. 
Had^ft tbou/«iAirVaa ktngs Ojould do, 
Thcy never thcrr had fpri'n«. Sbak. 

r-Aged tyranny/wA/i not as it hath powcr, biit 
as it i« fuffercd. fAfl^*— 

There let him ^ill vidor f<way. Milton. 

♦ToSWEAL. «eeroSwALE. 
<x.) • To SWEAR. V. K. pretcr. f<wore or 
fware\ p.vt. paA*. f<ujom. {^waran^ Gothick, 
(weriant Saxon ; fwee!ren^ DutcH.] i. To ob- 
Xcft fomefuperk)r po««^er; to utter an path.— Jf 
A m 'X\f<wear an oath to bind his fouI, hc ihali not 
break hi« word. Nwn.^ 

Sayageilndiansyw^^/Jr by Anna'» name . Tickel. 
%, To declarc or promife upon oath. — 

Wc Aiall haveold ywMr/»?. Sbak. 

I gavc my lbve ^a ring» and made him /wiar 
Never to part with it. Sbak. 

^Whcn lfwearf it h irrcvocable. 5^«^.— Jacob 
fn<^ff<wear tome ; and hcy«Mir^untohim. G>w.-^ 
llc/warehc had rathcr lofc all his ^athcr^e imnges 
Ihan that tablc. Peacbam; 3. To give cvidcncc 
upon oath.— 

Corrupt* mtnds procure knaves as corrupt 
To /wear againft you ? Sbak. 

4. To obtcft the grcat namc profancly.— Bccaufe 
Xfif<wearing thc Und moumeth. Jer.-- 

Swear not. Sbak» 

— N-mc fo ncarly difpofed to fcoffing at rdigion, 
i« thoTc who have accuftomed themfelvca to 
fwear on trifling occaAons. Tiiiotjhn,^ 

Tcich thc neighb'ring cchocB how iofkvear. 

, Toung, 

(1.) * To SwBAlt. n). a. i. To put to an oatTi ; 

■ to hind by an oath adminiftercd.— Mofcr8 had 

Oraitly /wom the cbildren of Ifraei. Ex. xiii. 19. — 

i ctin fv?lm like a duck, V\\\xfkoom. Sbok.-- 

i Itt m<f<wear yoti all to fccrccy. Dtyden. 

8 ) S W E 

a. To dcclarc upon oath ; a«, he huore treaon d- 
gainfi his /riend. 3. To obteft by an OAlh.-^ 
King', thoa fiiweareft by f hy g«Kl* in va»n. ^bak. 
• SWEARER. «./. {from /war,] A wrrtch 
who oblcfts the great namc wantonly and pro- 
fane!y. — 

Who muft hnpg tVcm ? 

W*^y, ihc honcft mcn ! 

— ^Thcn thc J»ar« artd fwarers arc fc<)lp ^for therc 
are liars and /wea^ers enow to bcat thc honcft oien 
and hang tbcm up. Sbtak. — 

Thc cbcap/iw^^r^r through his open nuict 
Lct» his foul run foT ndug^it. Herbert. 

— Of all mc9 a phi)ofopher Iboald bt iiofwearer. 
Ĕrowi.-^lt \% the opinion of our moft refined 
f<wearerst that thc famc oath cannoi, conEttcintly 
with true politcncf9. bc rcpeatcd* abovc nine 
ti.tses in the fame compAny. Swft. 
SWEAKl^G.part. n.Jr. See Oath. 
it.) • SWEAT. «. /. [fweat^ Saxon;/«;«f, 
Dutch.] I. Thc matter fvacuated at thc porcsby 
hcat or labour. — S<u;eflt is ialt in tafte; forthat 
part of thc nourtOimcnt which i« frclh and fwett, 
tumeth into biood and flefli ; and thcywe^ii 
that part whjch is exccnicd. Bacon. — Soiie in- 
fcn6b)c effluvmm, cxhaling out pf thc ftonc, 
comci to be chcckcd and condcnfcd hy the air, 
as it h.ippen8 to f<weat on, thc ikint of animali. 

Soft on thc flow'ry bcrb I iband mc laid 
In hsi^y fcweat. Milton, 

A QMf4ueat Aands in drops on cv'ry part. 

'^Sweai U produced by changing thc balance bf- 
twccn the Auids and fo1td?» in which hcaith cod« 
fift8. Arbutbnot. %. I^bour ; toil ; drur^ptry.— 
This painful labour of abridging was not rafyt bat 
a niattcr oi f<weat and watching. % Mae. li. a6.-^ 
The field 
To labour calis ub, now yNiih/weat impoaM. 

What from Johnfon'8 oil fiT^fkveat did flow; 

3. Evaporati<:a of moiftun?.-*Thofc that arc \<\ 
be kcpt arc not to bc thraAied *tiH ^arch, thal 
they havc had a thorough f<weat in ihe mor 

(1.) SwEAT. Sec Amatomy, IndeM, and Pi* 
SMRATiON, § 1. The cxcef8 of fwcat dric8 ar^ 
weakens the body, deprive8 thc humours of thd 
watery parts, and inducc<i the blood to an inflani 
matory and atrabiliary difpofition. A fuddc 
fupprc(rion of it wiH hurt as wdl Ai a Aipprd 
fion of pcrlp^ratiop. In cafcs of cxcrilivc iWcal 
i.'.g, from hani hbour, many pcoplc ruin tht 
he;Htb ♦or |ifc,and fomettme»cven bnng 00 fadd(! 
dcath, by too (iiddcnly expo(lng thcmfctvcfi to col 
iir, taking cold drinkr., &c. In all cafe« of d 
ccirive perfpiration, the moft fpecdy and cATcdu 
aiHidotc againft ail dangeious confcquencc8 is 
glaf8 of fpirit8, nnd keeping modcratcly warm l 
thc pcrlpiration wear gradually off. All pcrfoj 
cxpofcd by their d«ily labour to cxGcflive fwca 
ip^, ihf5uM wtar flanncl ncxt thcir Ikin. 
, (l.) ♦ To SwEAT. 1;. n. prcteritc^<'#, fnveatei 
particip. pafl". /it;ftf/^, [from thc noan.] i. 1 
bfe moiit om thc body with hcat or labour. — 
Wbyfrj;eat thcy undcr burthcns ? Sba 

I — ^Mittrc 

Digitized by 


S W E 

r «9 > 

S W E 

— Miire^ Pafc it thc door, /lueatlng aiMJ b!ow 
ittg, jnd lookiog wildly. Sbak. — 

Withfuch iQ agony, hc/<u>rii/«ccsdirgly. 

— There rcipncd in ihc C!ty a difcafe thcn n«*w : 
whicii, of thc accidcnti and ma^ncr tbctcof thcy 
oOed i\^f<wfating fickucft. Bacon, — •' 

Swn^u^ bcncath a lbicld's tinruly wcight. 

1. To totl ; to hbour ; to drudpc. — 

How thc drudpinp goblin /kueat/ Milton* 
Toplcalc you, hc'd havc thc \iOtXifnveat, 

3. Tocmit mo^lturc. — Wainfcot« ^^tyW /tweat fo 
ttothcymo with watcr. Airo/i.— In cddcYcn- 
iaplhcre will bc a molRurc cr/weating upon thc 
ftooI. MtrUmr. 
(i) • 79 SwiAT. V. a. I- To as fwcat.— 

Grcalc thit^ J^ueaten 
RroiB the murthcrcr*« gibbct . Sbak, 

Porhirothc rich Arabia/:t?M/ihcrgum. Drjd. 
t.Tofflake tofwtat. 

• 8WEATER. ». /. lfrom/wtf/.] Onc^who 

(i.) 8WEATING. part. n.f. Scc Swbat, f %. 

ti.)SwEiTiNG S1CKNESS9 a dilbrr^cr which 
appraredio England about 7481; aitd was by 
fofcigoen callcd the Bngli/b fiueat. It returncd 
«ain m 14S5 5 thcn in 1^o6 ; aftcrward& in iji?. 
h appearcd again in 1518» or 15391 at which tiuic 
aloBc it fj^ad itfclf to thc Nctberiands and Gcr- 
woy : ) circumftancc whtch ihowa thc impro- 
prirty of caJlitig it the Bngli/b /weatj in Latin, 
Mbt Atg^ttmu ; bcBdcK, ScnncrtUAtakcs noticc, 
tHtt it Iprrad as far as Dcnmark, Noiway, and 
Praact. It ragcd again in 1548. And thc laft 
rttnr8of it in London was in 155 1, whcn it wa« 
ioTioleot M in onc day to takc off iio of thc in- 
bibitinti of Wcftmtnftcr. Some were fcized 
*bro9d, ind ctit oflr in thc road, otbcrs «it homc. 
Soae whcn awakc, otbcr» when faft aflccp. Somc 
Atd in » momcnt, antl othcrs in onc, two, thrcc, 
iwr, or more hours aftcr thcy bcgan to fwcat. 

• SWEATY. aJ/. [from jitteat.] u Co?crcd 
^fwe«; moift wi(h fwcat.— Thc rabblemcnt 
^•wl lod c]ap'd their chop*d hands, and thrcw 
■?^ABea^oight-cap». Sbak. — 

^/aeatj reaper from hid tillagc brougH^ 

M-Mu, Milton. 

*• Coiififtingof fweat. — 

Ko Qoifomc whitF«, or/tueatj fteam8. Sftvift. 
J^labarioas; toi!fomc-— 

Thofe who labour 

TV hoeatj fbrgc. Prior. 

SWEDE. ». /. A fiative of S^emn. 

(i.)SWEDEN, one of the inoft northcrly king- 
**i of Europr, lying b§twcm Lnt. 55® 20 
f* H' soTN. aod bttwten ii«* and 32° E. of 
***Dt. On thc S. it is boundcd by thc Baltic, 
«•theN. hy OaoiOi Lapland, on thc E. by Muf- 
^i ted 00 the W. by the mountain^ of Nor- 
••Tibciiig 800 milcs in lcnglh, and 350 iii 
"^. Stockholm 18 tbc capital. 

(M 9wioin, ancient history or. Thc 
Jjrbitory of Swcdcn is no Jefs invohcd in fa- 

"■^thaathit of moft othcr nations. Alftcdiu3 
^^^iicbronological lift of 149 monarchBof Swe- 
^ te Maoog, the Ibs of Japhct^ and 

grandfon of Noah, who, he rays, bcgan to rcign 
in Swedtn ard Gothland, A. M. 1745» 88 ycara 
aftcr thc flood, to Q.'ChriOina, in 1633. Othcrs 
aflirm, that ancicnt Scandinayia was firft go- 
Ycrncd by judgcs cleftcd for a ocrtain lime by ih-c 
toicc of thc pcople. Among thcfc temporary 
piinccs thc country was divKied, until A. M. 
ao54, when Eric I. was raifed to tbc Aiprcmc 
power, with thc prcrogativcs ot all thc t^-mporary 
magirtratcs united in his perfon for life. From 
thi"* ^cry carly pcriod till 1366 of thc Chriftian 
cra, tbc hirtorits of Swcdcn preCtnt us with no- 
thing but what is c omraon to all nations in thcir 
early periods,viz. lhetndlcf« combats and mafla- 
crcs of barbarians, tending to no other pnrpofc 
than thc cffufion of blood, and thc tcmporary ac- 
quifition of alittlc territory. At this time, bow- 
CTcr, Albert of Mecklenburg,.haTing concluded a 
pcacc bctwten Sweden and Denmark, which bad 
br^en at violctit war for fome timc bcfore, wat 
proclaimcd king of Swcden. 

(3.) SWEDEN, CLIMATE 0F. ScC } 6o. 

Thc pcacc aboYc mentloncd, ($ a.) was of Aiort 
duration, bcing broken in 1368 ; on which Albcrt 
entcrcd intoan offcnfive and defcnfifc lcaguc with 
thc earl of HotAcin, the Jutland nobility, thc 
dukcs of Slcfwick, Mccklenburg, and thc Hanfe 
Towns, againft the kings of Denmark and Nor- 
Way. Aibcrt provcd very fuccc(sful againft Wal- 
dcmar king of Denmark at that timc, drif ing him 
cntiicly out of his dominions ; but hc himfclf was 
dcfcattd by thc king of Norway, wbo laid fiegc to 
his capital.. Soon aftcr this, a ncw treaty of peace 
was concludcd, by which Albert was allowed to 
enjoy the crown of Swedcn in pcace. Howtver, 
having formcd a dtfign of rcndcring himfclf abfo- 
lutr, he fdi undcr thc difpleafurc of his fubje^s, 
and Margaret of Norway was proclaimcd quccn 
of Swcdcti by thc malcgontcnts. A war immc- 
diatcly cnfued, in which Albcrt was dcfeatcd and 
takcn pnfoncr ; but as the princcs of Mcckicn- 
burg, ihe earls of Holftein, and thc Hanfc Towns, 
cntercd into a leaguc in his favour, thc war wat 
fo far from being extinguiftied by this cvent, that 
it ragcd with more fury than evcr. At length, in 
X394» the contcnding parties came to an accom- 
modation. AJbcrt was fct at libcity, on condi- 
tion that hc Aiculd in 3 ycars furrcnder to Marpa- 
ret all pretcnfions to the city of StockHolm ; and 
the Hanfc Town«i cngaged to pay 60,000 n^.atlrs 
of filvcr in cafc of Albcrt'8 breach of faiih. Not 
long aftcr this, Eric the fon of Albrrt died ; ard 
he, haying no oiher child, did not th?nk it worth 
his whilc to contend f .r the kinpdom of Swe- 
den : hc therrforc acquicfced in the prctC!^fions 
of Marparcl, and paffcd the re.r.aindcr oi his days 
at Mecklcnburg. Margaret ditd in 14 11, or 1415. 
See Denmark, f 5, 6.; and Margarpt, N** 4. 


TiLL THE death oj Charles VIII. Margarct 
was fuccccdcd by Eric XIII. of Pomerania. This 
princc*s reign was cruel and oppreflive to the lail 
dcgrec. The peopl^; wcrc rumcd by t*axcs; and 
thc Dancs being evcry whcrc prcfcrrcd to tbe of. 
fice8 of powcr, committed thc grcatcft cruchies. 
Thc ^onfcqucncc of this wa« a rc? olt ; and 


Digitized by 


S W E 


Charles Canutron, grand marcrchal of Swcden 
nnd governor of Pinland» baving joined the maie- 
contentSy was declared commandcr in chief of 
their army. £ric was now fonnally depored» and 
commenced pirate : Canutfon was cbofcn regent : 
but beginning to opprefs the people, and afpiring 
openly at thc crown, the Swedea and Danes re- 
^volted ; in confeqiience of which a revolution 
took place, and Chridopher duke of Bavaria, ne- 
phew to £ric, was chofen king of Denmark, Swe- 
dcn, and Norway, in 1441. On the acccffion of 
the new prince, complaints againft CanutCon were 
brought from all ^uartcrs ; but, through thc in- 
tereft ef4u8 fricnda» he cfcaped puf)i(hmcnt ; and 
in 1448, ChftftQphcr having died after a tyranni- 
cal reign of 5 ycars, he was raifed to thc thronc 
by the namc of Charles VIII. Howcvcr, the king- 
domi of Denmark mid Norway refufed to own 
alkgii^cc to bim ; upon wbich a war immediately 
commenced. In 1454 peacc was conduded, aud 
Denmark for the prcrent frccd from thc Swcdiih 
yoke. Neithcr did Cbarles VIU. long cnjoy thc 
crown of Swcden. Having quarreHcd with the 
archbiOiop of Upfal, tbe latter formcd fuch a 
ih-ong party that the king couid not redd him. 
CbriAian I. king of Dcnmark, wat called to thc 
throne of Swedoi; and, in 1459, ^^^^ ^^^ u"*- 
ted the thrce kingdoms. But having begun to 
opprefs bis fubjedt8 in an arbitrary mannery hc 
' was foon after obligcd to retirc to Denroark in 
J465. Katil bi(hop of Linkioping, who had drivca 
otit thc king, took upon himfelf thc oiSce of re* 
l^ent. NcKt ycar Chriliian returned with a 
powerful army ; but w^» defeatcd. Thc people 
then recalled Charle<« ; but he, on his acccAiont 
having oiTended Bp. Katil, was by him defcatcd, 
and obli^ed to renoiincc bis right to the crown. 
After this thc kingdom was rcnt into fa£tions; 
bctwecn wbom thc moft cruel civil wars took 
place, until 1476« when Cbarles was again rccaU 
led, and enjoyed the kingdom, though not witb- 
out opooBtion, till his deat)i, in 1470. 


NoBiLiTY. Thc confufion in which thc Swe- 
diih aiTairs had been fo loqg involvcd did not ccafe 
on the death of Cbarles. Cbriftian again invaded 
^wcdcn ; but was defeated by Steno Sturc, nc- 
phew of thc latc king. After this thc kingdom 
remai-icd in peacc till 14B79 when thc Ruilians in- 
vaded Carclia, committing cvcry ,wbcrc thc 
grcatcft ravagc8. Thcfc wcrc foon driven out: 
but in 1497, a ruptarc bappcning bctwccn Sturc 
and thc fen»te, an offer was made of thc Swedifh 
crown to Jobn king of Dcnmark, wbo rcadily ac- 
cepted the offer^ and was crowiicd accordingly ; 
but no fooncr was he fcatcd'on thc thronc than 
be became odious to ths Swedcs, from his parti- 
ality to thc Danes. In a (hort time he fet out for 
Dcnmark, lcaying 'his qucen with a ftrong garri- 
f »n fn tbc citadcl of Stockholm. He was rio 
/ooncr gone than the capttal was invefted ; and 
ihough the qucen made a noble defcnce, (he was 
obliged to capituUte, on condition of being aU 
Jowed to pafs inlo Denmark. All tbe garrifon 
wcre made prifoners of war, and the quecn was 
conhned in a monaftery till 149^* The SwcdUh 

( 30 ) 

S W E 

afrairs continucd to be involved in the (amedreadt 
ful confnfton until 1520, whcn a great revolutioaf 
was|eftcdcd by Gustavu8 Vasa, thc fon of 
Eric Vafa, a noblcman of tbc firft rank, who re« 
- ftorcd thc kingdom to its libcrty, aod laid tb$ 
foundation of its futnrc grandeur. Thc occaGo4 
of this grcat rcvolution was as follow8 : In i$ii^ 
Chridian II. king of Dcnmark invadcd Swedeni 
with a dcfign to fubdue thc wholc country;but 
being defeatcd with grcat lofs by young Sten< 
Sture, tben regcnt, hc fct lail for Denroark. Bu 
mecting with contrary winds, hc made fevcrat 60 
Tccnts on the SwcdiAi coaft, which he ravage( 
with aU thc fury of an inccnlcd barbarian. Th| 
inbabitants howeyer, bravcly dcfcnded them^eWe^ 
and Chriftian was rcduccd to thc utmoft diftrefs| 
onc half of his forces having perid^cd with huH 
ger, and thc other bcing in thc moft immincn 
danger by tbc approach of a rigoroui wintcr. H 
tben thought of a ftratagcm, which had aloK^ 
proved fatal to tbc rcgcnt ; for having invitcd \M 
lo ^ conference, at which hc defigncd citber t] 
aflraflinatc or takc him prIfoncr, Sturc was aboii 
to comply, had not thc fcnatc, who fQfpcded th 
plot, interpofcd and prcvcotcd him, Chrifti4 
thcn offered to go in pcrfon to Stockholm to coo 
fer with Sturc, upon condition that fix hoftag4 
Aiould be fent in bis rooro. This was accordinj 
ly done ; but' the wind liappcning then to proi 
favourablc, he fct iail f«r Denmark with the bo 
tages. Next year hc rcturned ; and having draw 
Stnre into an ambulh, thcrcgcnt rcccived 
wound of whicb hc died foon ancr. The kin| 
dom bcing thus left without a head, matters fo< 
came to the moft defperatc crifis. Thc am 
dift)andcd itfelf; aod tbercnate» inftcad oftakii 
propcr mcaCurcs to oppQfc thc cncmy, fpent tbi 
timc in idlc dcbatcs. pbriftian in thfi rocao ' 
advanced into thc heart of the kingdpAi, deftroyr 
ing evcrf thing with firc and fword!; but on bis 
arrival at Stragncz, bc ^anted a fufpcnfion Qf 
arms, to givc tbc pcople timc todelipcratc on 
tbeir fituayon, and to ,re0eA cthat {thĕy mij^bt 
cafily get rid bf thcir troubks by .ele^ing him 
king. This thcy accordingly did ; kndXhnftiap 
proved onc of thc moft bloody tyrants that cver 
fat on the throne of any 4cingdom. Imrocdiately 
aftcr his coronatio8,hcgavc grand chtertainmenti 
for three daye; during wbich timc he proieded 
the diabolical defign of cstirpating atonce aU the 
Swcdifti nobiiity, and adually cxecutcd iboTC 60 
pcopleof tltc firft rank. Innumerablcotbcr cruclttes 
were committed. At laft bc departcd for Den- 
mark, ordering gibbets to bc crcAed» and caufing 
thc pcafanta to bc banged on them for tbe Hight* 
cft offences, as hc pa^Ted alon^ ; and at Jcncop- 
ing bc caufcd two boys to bc whippcd to deatb. 


feat of thb Danbs by gustayus Yasa. 
This monftrous cruclty, inftead of fccurin^ him 
on the thronc, exafpcrated the whole nation a- 
gainft him. Gu8tavus Vasa was among the 
hoftage8 whom Chrrftian had perfidiouflY carried 
to Denmark in 1519. Largc promifes tiadbcm 
made to r^concilc him to Chriftiao, and t^reats 
had bci n ufcd for the famc purpofe, but all in 
vain. Banncr, a Daniih noblcman, prfvailed on 
tbc ktng to put bia ioto his hands» to try wbeth^ 


Digitized by 


S W E r 3 

ircotid prrTm3 upon hitn to cbange bis fenti- 

Ms. Tbe king, howcTcr, told BanDery tbat he 

Offtpi^ 6000 crownt in ca(e tbe prifoner (hould 

uke hjj eicape. Banoer generouflf alTented ; 

udhariog brought thc noble prironer to his for- 

tJth of C^ in JotUndy foou allowed bim all the 

tterty bc could cle&re> and otberwile heaped fa« 

i«n Bpoo bcm. All thit» bowever, could not 

cni^piiih hit reoicinbrancc V tbe cruelties of 

Cln£afl, aad the defire be bad of being Tenrice- 

lik to hii coontry. He tberefore determined to 

aokt kis dcape. With mucb difficulty, and un- 

dcrianotisdifg:uilcs« he cfreded bis efcapc, whicb 

Baaer was no Iboner acquainted witb, th;m he 

fe oit ifter hrm, and found him at Lubec. He 

TeproKbed him a« migrateful and treachcrous^ 

W be «ai foan appeaicd by tbe arguments urged 

iff Cottarat, and by the proroife he made of in- 

6auaijmg him for the lofs of bis ranibm. Upon 

ItiiliaBcr retumed, gi^ing ont that be could 

Bol W bit prifonerk Cbrtftian, enraged at bit 

daKordcrcd Otbo hit gcncr<il to do bis utmoft 

tomtbim. GuftaTUs>pp1icd to tbe regency for 

aABptocooTcy him to Sweden, but tbe captain 

iteatd 1 drfferent courlcy and put bim on ihore 

•ear Gdmar; a city hitbcrto garrifoned by the 

troopi ol^ChrilUna, widow of the regent. When 

Gstoni arrircd, he made birofelf known to the 

COttiBor and tbe principal oScers of the garri- 

6», «bo wcrc moHly Germanp, and bis fellow- 

UdKn b thc late adminittrator^s army. He flat- 

tcTod bimlelf that his birtb, bis merit, and his 

cTwcdSoM, would immediately procure him tbe 

^ammaad. But thcy feeing bim witbout troops 

a4«tthoot attendants» tbreatened to kiil or hc- 

tn^liBi, if he did not ioftant1y quit tbe city. 

mtdiĔippointcd» Guftavu8 departcd witb grcat 

c^cidition : and bis arnval bcing known, he was 

^pb ferccd to have recourfe to diiguife to con- 

<ei hiMfLtf from thc Daniih emiflaxies who were 

■ feschofbim. In a wairgon loaded with hay, 

fee paff:d tbrough evcry qtiarter of the Daniih 

*a^. aad at laft repaired to ao old family caitle 

* Sadermania. From hence he wrote to bis 

eoCJfying his return to Swcden, and be- 

tbcm to aAemble all their force8 to break 

fikc enemy's army into Stockholm, at 

ite um bc6cged ; but tbey, too, refufed to em- 

^^mia bazardou8 and defperate an attempt. 

^ 4txt applicd to the peafant9 ; but they alfo 

«'^«W ro engage. At lcngtb, after feverai vain 

>peiBpu to throw bimfelf into Stockhoim, and 

<^£ippoiiitcd io all hii hopes, be deterii\jned to 

'toit to ihe Dalecarlians. Attended by a peafant, 

t. «kom bc was known, he travelled in difguife 

Broagh SDdermania, Nericia, and Wettermania, 

«£« SStcr a laborioos and painful journey, ar- 

'^ CB tbe mountains of Dalecarlia. Scarce had 

^ ^Oidted his joumey, when he found himfelf 

'eicned bjr his companion and guide, Who car- 

'^d cM with him all thc money he had provided 

^ b« iaUHence. Thus forloin, deilitute, half 

be cotercd anoog the minen^, and 

t Uke a flave under giound : con- 

tnittl he was difcovered accidentally by a 

Baa, hls acquaintance, in the neighbour. 

-nd, who olKrred bim an afylum in bis houfe. 

T^ hc joyfoll7 accepted ^ but finding it impof* 

I ) S W E 

fiblc to make him take arms in hls behalf, be Aed 
to tbe bpuie of ohc Pcterfon with whom he had 
formerly' fcrved. This laft provfd a traitor to 
his fricnd, and Guftavus would have been deliver- 
ed to the Danes, had he n\:>t rcceived timeous 
warning from thc wife of his hoft« By her advicc 
he took refuge with a clergyman, who ihut bim 
up in an apartment adjoiuing to the church, and 
counfclkd him to apply at once to thc peaianti 
at an approaching annual feftival. Thcy liitened 
to him witb enthufiafm, and hc inftantly led 
them againft the go^ernor^s caftle; whicb he 
f ook by aiTaolt, and put the garrifon to the fword. 
This Snconfiderable enlcrprife was attended with 
the moft happy confequence6. Great numbers 
of tbe pcafants flocked to bis ftandard ; fome of 
the gentry openly efpoufed bis caufe, and others 
fupplied bim.with money. Chriftian was foon ac- 
qoainted with what had paAcd ; but defpiGng fuch 
an inconfiderable enemy, he feht only a Aender 
detachment under the command of one Soren 
Norby, to aili^ bis adhercnts in Dalecarlia. Guf- 
tavu8 advanced with about jooo mcn, and de« 
feated a body of Danes commanded by onc Me- 
leen ; but he was ftrenuoufly oppofed by the 
archbiihop of Upf3l> who raifed numcrous torces 
for king Chnftian. The fortune of.Guftavu8, 
howcver, ftill prevailed, and the arcbbiihop was 
defeated with great lo^s. 


TiON 0F GusTAvus I. KiNG. Guftavus then 
laid fiege to Stockholm ; but his force being too 
incorfiderable for fuch an undertaking. hc waa 
forced to abandon it with lofs. This check did , 
not prove in any confiderable degree detrimental 
to the aiTairs of Guft?iyu8 ; the pearants from all 
parts of the kingdom Abckcd to his camp, and he 
was jomed by a reinforcement from Lubec, 
Chriftian, unable X6 fupprcfa the revol^, wreakcd 
his vengeance on the mother and fifters of Gufta- 
vu8, wnom he put to death with tbe moft excru- 
ciating tormcnts. Several other Swediih ladics 
he caufed to be thrown into the feaj after having 
impo^ed qn thcm the inhuman taik or making thc 
facks into wbich they were to bc inclofcd. His 
barbanties ferved on.y lo makc his c*nemic8 morc 
refolute. Guftavu8 having aiTembled the AAtcs 
at Wadftena, he w.»8 unanimouAy chofen regent, 
the diet taking an oath cf Bdelity to him, and 
promifing to aflift him to the utmoft. Iiaving 
thus obtaincd the fan^ion of legal authonty, he 
purfued his'advantagcs againft tbe Dares. A body 
of troops appotnted to throw fuccour8 mto Stock- 
holm werc totally cut in pieces ; and the regen^ 
fending fomc troops into Pinland, ftrurk thc 
Danes there with fuch tcrror, that the arehbiAiop 
of Upfal, togcther with Slahorp ar.d Baldenacker 
thc DaniAi govemors, flcd to Denmark. Hc then 
ftnt expref8 orde rs to all his governor8 and Qf- 
Accrs in Pinland and Swedcn to mniTacre tbc 
Swediih gentry without diftinAion. The Swedea 
madc reprifals by ipaAacring all the Dancs they 
could find ; fo that the wholc ccunlry was tiUed 
with bloodihed and Aaughter. In the mcan timc 
Guftavu8 had laid fiegc to the towns of Calmar, 
Abo, and Stcckholm ; but Noiby obliged him to 
raife all of them with lofs. Guftavus, in rcver^e, 
laid fiegc to the capital a tbird timC) and pctition- 

Digitized by VjOOQ lC 

S W E ' /-3 

rd thc rcgency of Lubcck for a fqU!adron of (hipt 
aod othcr fuccour9 for carryiiig on thc fiegc. 
This WA» complied with, but on very haid con- 
ditions, viz. that Gu(lavus Ihould oblige hicnfeift 
in thf narrc of ihc ilatcs; to pay 60,000 mtrrks cf 
filver as the cxpcncc of thc armamcnt ; that, until 
tbe kingdom fhuu!d be in a cundition to pay that 
fum, thc Lubcc merchants trading lo Swedcn 
ihould be cxempted from ail dutics 00 imports or 
export9 ; that ait other nations (hould bc prohi- 
bitcd from trading with Swedcn, and that fuch 
tralHc ihould bc decmed illicit; that Gu(lavus 
Ihould neitber concludc a peace, nor cvcn agree 
to a truccy with Dtnmark, without the concur- 
rencc of thc rcRcncy of Lubec ; and that in care thc 
rcpubiic (hould be attacked by CbrKUan, be (houid 
entcr Denmark at the hcad oiF ao,ooo mcn. Upuo 
t!'*rfe hard termsdid Gu(lavudobtain alii(lancefrom 
thc regency of Lubec; nor did^hi^^ dear-bougbt 
alUes prove vtry faithful. Tbey did not iodced 
go over to Ihe cnemy ; but in a fca-fight, whcrc 
the Danes werc entircly in the powcr, of their 
cncmies, thcy fuffcred them to ercapt,when their 
wbole forcc might have been entircly dcAroyed. 
Thi« treachery bad well nigh ruined the aiTairti of 
Guftavu^ fGr Norby was now making prcpara- 
tions cffr<ftually to rclicvc Sloekhoim ; in which 
he probabiy would have fucGeedcd : but at thia 
critical period pews arrived tbat thc Daucs had 
uoanimouAy rcvolted, ^nd driven Chriftian from 
thc thronc ; and that ihe king had rctired into 
Germany, in hopes of being reftored by the arms - 
of his brothcr-in.Iaw, the cT.peror, On hcarir.g 
tbis ncws, Norby retircd with his wholc flcet to 
the iiland of Gothland, Icaving but a (Tcndergar- 
rifon in Calmar. Gu(lavus did not fail to im- 
prove this opportunity to his own advantage, ^ nd 
quickly roadc himfclf mafter of Calmar. Mcan 
timc Stockholm continued cIofeiv invcftcd ; but 
Guftavu8 protradted thc fie^c untll he (houid gct 
bimfclf eledcd king. Havmg for this purpofe 
called a general dict, fhe firft ftep was to fill up 
the vacancy in thc fenate occafioned by thc maf- 
Cacres of Chriftian. Guftavus had the addrefs to 
gct fuch nomin«tcd as werc in his intcrcA ; and of 
confcqucnce the alTcmbly was no fooner mct» 
than a (pccch was niaic,containing the highcft cn- 
comiums on Guftavus, rettingforth in tbe ftrong« 
e(r lipht the many cmincnt f:frvicc8 hc had done 
for his couiitry, and concluding that . the ftatcs 
would (how themfelve9 c^ually ungrateful aud 
blind to their own iniercft, if thcy did not imme- 
diatcly elcd him king. This propo^ai wasacccd- 
ed to by Turh tumuUuous acclamations that it 
was intpoAiibic to coUctt thc vote5;.fo that Guf- 
tavu8 himfcif ai ktipwlcdgcd, that their affc^ian 
excceded his mcrit, and was morc agrccabie to . 
bim than tbc eftcd8 of thcir gratitudc. 


0F Gu&TAVus l. Ouftavu8 on bis clcAion was 
urgcd to havc tlie ccrcmony of his coronation im- 
mediately pertormed ; but the king baving fome 
dwHgns on thc clcrgy, did not think proper to 
comply.with thcir rcqueft, an he would have becn 
obliged to takc an oath to preferve them in tbcir 
ri^hts and pririlcges. indccd he had not becu 
long fcated on the throiie bcfoic bc incurredthe 
difplcafiirc of that bo<^y ; fi>r having large ar- 

2 ) S W E 

rcarsdue to the army, with othcr iacumbraoces 
Gufta\us found it pcceffary to raiC: latgc contri 
butions ou the ctergy. On this he was accufc< 
of avaricc and hcrefy be^ore the popc's nuncio 
Guftavud dcfcnded himfclf againft thcfe accui^ 
tions ; and foon a**ter /howed a great partialit 
for the do^rincs of Luther^ which by ihii tim 
had bten prcachcd and rcccivcd by many pcopl 
in Swcdcn. This cmbroilcii bim morc tbau cvc 
with tl;v: clcrgy ; and it foon appearcd,tbateitb< 
Guftavu8 mu(t refign his thronc, or thc der| 
(iimc part of the power tbcy had affumcd. Mil 
ters were drivcn to cxtrchMtic5 by ibt king% i\ 
lowing thc icriptures to 'be traoOdtcd imo t^ 
Swcdilb laoguage. In 1596, the king, findin 
them cntering into a combiiation againtt tbc r^ 
formifts, weiit to Upfa], and publicly dcclarc 
his rclblution of rcducing the numbcr of oppre 
five and idle monks and pricft8, wbo, uodcr tl 
prctence of rcI*gion, iattcned 00 tbc fpoils of t^ 
ii)duftrioui' people. At laft, taking advaQtafe ^ 
thc war bctwcen the pope Jind Charks V. « 
Spain, he dcclared him(elf to be of tbe rcforiDe 
rcligioo, aud eAablid^ed it throughout hts doa 
nions ; and at the fame timc, to humblc the arr< 
gauce of tbe ccclcfia(Ucs, hc gavc thc icnatorstj 
prccciency of theai, and m maoy othcr rcfpfC 
degraded them from t*ie dignitics they foriner| 
cnjoycd. For fon« tia\e tbe (latcs hcfitated \ 
fupponing the king in bis work of rcfQrmafioil 
infomuch, that at laft be tbneatened to rcGgo t| 
kingdom, wblchy he faid> was duomed to p^ 
petual flavcry eitber to Jts temporal or fpirit&| 
tyrants. Oo this the Aates came tnto bis me 
furcg, aod rctrenched tbe privilcgcfl of t|>c ecd 
fiaftic8 in the nianner he propoTed* Scvcral i 
turbanccs, however» enfued. An impoftor, wl 
pretcndcd to be of tbe family of Sture, the fom\ 
regent, having claimrd the throncy the Dalcd 
lians rcYoItcd in his favour ; but 00 the approA^ 
of a powcrful army fcnt by GuftaniSy thcy w 
mittcd. SooD after9 Lutberan profcfibr8 we 
eftabliftied in every diocefe ; upon whiib a n^ 
rebcilion eiifued* At tbe head of tbis jvas Tbu 
Johanfon, who hajl married tne king^a fifter. S 
veral of the nobility joined him ; aod the kiog 1 
Denmark acccdcd ta their cau^e» thinking, | 
means of tbcfe diftorbancc8, to reusite thc th^ 
kingdoms of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, 
formerly. But Guftavus prevailed» aod the i 
bcls were obliged to take refuge io Denmark. 
frc(h accident, howevcr, had like to havecmbr(| 
cd mattcrs worfe than bcfore. The fubfidy grai 
eU to the rcgency of Lubcc was ftill due; a| 
for the payment of it the ftatcs granted to ^ 
king ail thc ufcJef8 bells of the churcbes and ul 
nalieries. The people were ihocked at tbel 
crilcge; and tbe Dalecarliaos again betook thcj 
felvc9 to arms. Intimidatcd, bowever, by t 
couragc and vigorous condud of the kuig, tb 
again fubmiUed, and wcre taken into favo< 
But traoauillity was not yct reftore4> Chrifti 
baving cftabliflied a powcrfu1 intcre^ in Norw^ 
once more made ao attempt to recover his kiij 
doms, and was joioed by tbe Dalccarlians ; \\ 
bcing defeated by the SwediOi iOrccs, be y\ 
forced to neturo to Norway , where» being oblig 
to capitulate with tbe Daniili gcncralsi be « 

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S W E ( 

krpt pnToneral! his lifc. Id 15421 Gaftavu8 ha- 
tmg happtly cilncated hlmf:U" c»ut of all his 
troaMes, pretailed on thc (tstcs to malce the 
crown bcrcdiuiry in hii famiiy; aUcr which he 
applicd himfclf to the cncouragcm-nt of learning 
i^td commcrcc. A trcaty was fet on foot for a 
mamig: bctwccn hU eldell fon £rie and Eli^a- 
beth qanrn of £ng!and. The prioce^s brothcr, 
dukc Jobn^ wcnt ovcr to Engiand, and rc(idcd for 
(bcnctimc at thc court of London with grcat fplcn- 
door. Hcrctumcd fuli of c^pr^ations of fuc- 
cdi ; but bringing with him no Turt of proof8 in 
wriHDg, his f\thcr fnon pt;rceived that he had 
beni tbc dopc of £iizabcth's tupcHor policy. 
Bowerer, at ltft he aliowtd Princc £ric to go in 
perioo to Enirland ; but bcfore he could cmbark^ 
thedeatb of Guftavus in 1569, madc hira iay 
i&di ail thoaghts of thc V(iyage and marriagc. 


iirios orEn ic XIV. Guftavus VHfa was fuc- 
ettded by his fon Eric XJV. Thc new king waS 
1 naa poAciTed of all the estcrior ornanQent8 
«Kid) gife anair of digoity to the perfon ; but he 
lud seithcr rhc prudtnce nor the pcnctralion of 
fci«/athcr. Hc created tbc firft r*obility that ^cre 
CPtrtnown in Swcdcn ; which he had no fooncr 
«tothan bc quarrclkd wiih thcm, by pai^ng 
fonic ads which thcy thought dcr )gatory to thcir 
bomjor and dignity. The wholc courfe of his 
rtico was difturbcd by wars with Denmark, and 
dtrpates witb his own ruhjcds. In the former he 
wu ttaCortunate, and towards thc lattcr hc bc* 
baicd wTth ihe grcatcTl cruelty. At laft, by thc 
tonnent^ of his owo confcicnct:, it is faid, hc run 
a^ He afterwards rccovcrcd his fcnfc<», but 
w»<ldbroncd by his brothcra ; cf whom Dake 
Jisbn, vbo had been hitherto kept pi ifoncr by 
£nct iocceedcd him in thc kingdom. 


^'«AaLts IX. This rcTolulion took place in 
15^ hat wiih oo grcat advantage to Swcdcn. 
^^^^imtts about religion bctwecn the kiug and his 
tjratber, aod wars with Mufcovy, thnrw raatters 
^tbcatiBoft confuQoa. At Uft princc Sigi^» 
*«l,thc king'6 fon, was chofep kiug of Pi)land, 
*toprofcd the fourcc ot much iroube to thc 
^t^ (Sce PoLAND, § 19.) Jn 1590 king 
•'<A« <ficd : and as Siui^mund was at a diftance, 
«▼OTthing Ml into ihc utmoft confufion ! the 
trniary was plundcrcd, and ihe wardrobc quite 
«»ilcd,beforc cvtrn dukc Charlcs cuuld comc to 
*ocUiol]B to take thc atlminiftra»ion into his 
^S nnti} kirg ^lgifmund Ihould rcturn. Thi-», 
«>*c^cr, W23 far from hcing the greatcft dif«iftcr 
*bidi bcfd thcnation at thii time. It wafi known 
^ ttc tang bad cmbraccd the Popiih rcli. 
lP««.4fidit was With good rcar»n fufptacd that 
^«■jwid atttinpt to rcftorc it upon his an ivsl in 
^•J^eiu Stgirmond alf(> wa* obiigcd, on lcaying 
"^d, lo promiic that he would ftay no loi.gcr 
«awedcn thio was nccciTary to regUlatc his 
*»*. Thcic circumilances ferved to allciiare 
•^■»dsof tbc Swcde» from thcir foVcrcign cVcn 
■Jt thcy law bim ; and the univerfai diAatistac- 
■»»»ii*crcafcd, by (ceing him attcndcd, on his 
JJWiB Swedcn, in 1593, by Ma.afpina the 
?•»» nu. cio, to whom he UJaJc a prciciu ol 

33 ) S ^ Ĕ^ 

30,000 ducatsto dcfray thc espences o^ hls jofiN 
ncy to Swcden. What thc pcoplc had forcfeeil 
was toQ wcll verificd : thc king rcfuf6d to con^ 
firm thc Protcftants in their religious priviicges^ 
and (howcd fucb partiality on all otcations to the 
Papift8, that a party was formed againft him ; at 
the hcad of wbiirh was dtike Charles his uncle^ 
Rcmonftrances, aUcmpanied with thrcats^ took 
placc oit both fidts v aud at an iiitervicw betwcca 
the king and Chaclcs, tlie difpute Would have 
cnded iu blows, had thcy not bccn partcd by fomt) 
of thc nobility. This, howevcr, inade iuch aa 
imprcdipn upon Sigilinund, that hc was apparcnt* 
ly rcconciled to his brothcr, and promifcd tci 
coropiy with the inclinationH of thc pcople ia 
cvcry rclpeit, though without any inclination to 
perforoi what hc promilcd. Thc agrcement, ini 
deed, was fcarce ma-1e, bcfore Sigiiinuod, con<' 
ccivcd the horrid dcHgn of murdering his uncle a( 
the Italian comcdy adted the night attiir his Coro- 
nation. The dukc, howc^cr* haiing notitc or 
the plot, avoidt(i it. This enragcd ihc king i'o 
much, that hc refolved to accompliili hb defiga 
by force ;'and thcrcforc commanded a Poliih ar- 
my to march towards the frontiers bi Sweden^ 
where they committcd all thc ravages that coald 
be cxpcded from an enragĕd and crucl cnemyi 
Complaints were roade by tht Proteftant clcrjry 
to thc fitnate t but ho other reply waspade theni^ 
than that they /hould abftain trom thcrc bittcr 
invedlives and reproaches^ which hcld provokcd 
tbe CathoHcs, until the king's depariufe ) at 
which time they would be at morc hbcrty* ici 
1595 Sigifrau:*d fct fail for Danliic, lcavingthe 
adminit^alion in the hands of duke Charlcs. 
Thc confcqucnce of this wasj that tht diiTcntions 
whi<!h had alrcady takcn place bc^ing continuaDy 
increafed by the obftinacy of the ki-g, dukd 
Charles aiTumcd thc fovercign powcr^ and iii 
1604 Sigifmund was formaily depofcd, and hi^ 
unclc Charles IX. railcd to thc throne. Ile prOved 
a wifc and brave princci rcftonng the tranquilliiy 
of the kingdpm, aud carrying on a war with vi. 
gour againft Poland aod Dcnmark. Hc clicd m 
x6ii, leaving thc kingdom to his fon^ the cclc^ 
bratcd Oustavus AdolphIjs. 
(12.) Swe£)en, history oP, till tme cap- 


Thouph Charics lXi by his wifc ard vigoroL'< 
condu^) had io a grcat mcafurc ret^icvcd the at" 
fairs of Swcdcn, thcy wcrt ftill in a vcry difagrec- 
ablc ntuation. The finances of the kingdom wcrc 
entii cly drained by a icricS of wars aud revoiu-» 
ti^ms ; powcrtul armics wcrc preparing in jDen- 
mark, Poland, and Ruilia, whilc thc dwedifh 
troops werc not only infcnor in nMmber to tbc;;' 
cncmics, but thc governmciit was deftitatc of re-' 
fourcc8 for thtir paymcht. Thooph the SwtdilH 
law rcquii^d ihn ihe prtncc ihould have attaintd 
hls iSth ycar btfoic he was of agc, yct fuch ftr»k- 
Mig markB uf thc grcat qualities of Ouftavus ap^ 
pcafcd, that hc was allowcd by thc hates to takrf 
upon hiin ihe adminiftration cten befcrc this carly 
pcriod. Hjs firft a€l was to n:funic a l tht: cri)wn 
grants, that he might bc thc bcttcr ablc to cariy' 
on tbc wars in which he was ur.avoidablr cin 
gagcH ; nnd to fill all placet, bulli civii ^ikI m?*i^ 
tary, •.vhli pcifw>ns gi mcn^ M thc hcad ;;f do* 
£ inti«iv 

Digitized by 


S W. E 

ineftic ard forcign affairi was placcd cbanccllor 
OxcDfticmi a pcrfon every way cqual to thc im- 
portant truft, and the choolin); of whom imprcf* 
fed roankind with tbc higheft opimon of ihc 
young monarch'ft pcnctration and cfipaciry. Soim 
afte*r his accediont Guftavu9 rccciYcd an cmbany 
from Jamcs I. of Briuin» cxhorting him to m;)ke 
pcacc with hU neighbours. Tbit was feconded 
by another from HolUnd. But as the king per- 
ccived that the Daniih monarch intemlcd to take 
cYery opportunity of cruthing bim» hc refolvtd to 
nA wilh fucb vigour, as mipht convinre him that 
hc was not eatily to bc ovc:rcome. Accordmgly 
hc brokc into Dcnmark with thrce diiTercnt ar- 
nies at npcc; and though thc caemy'g fupcri» 
ority at fea gavtf thcm grcat advantagts, and thc 
numbcr of thc king'8 cncmits diftradcd bi^ at- 
tention, hc carried on tbc war with fach fpirity 
that in 1613 a peace was concluded upon ggod 
terms. Tbis war bcing 6ni(bed, the king applicd 
himfc]f to civil polity, and madc fomc reforma- 
tions in thc lawi of Swcden. tti 16 15, h(iftilities 
vrerc commcnccd againft Kuili;i, on account of 
thc rcfufal of that court to rcftorc fomc money 
which had bccn formcrIy lent thcm. Thc kmg 
cntcrcd lagria, took KexhoIm by ftorm, and was 
laying ficgc to Plcfcow, >»bcn, by thc mcdiation 
of Jamss I. pcacc was concludrd, on condition 
uf tbe RuAians repaytng the money, and yielding 
t'o Swcden fome part of thcir tcrritory. In this 
and thc formrr war, notwithftanding thc ihort- 
iurfs of tbeir duration, Guftavus learntd the ruai- 
nieots of thc military art for which he foon be* 
camc fo famou3. In one campaign, he not oniy 
Ic^rntd, bnt improvcd, all the military ifiaxims 
ef La Gardic, a cdebrated gcneral, brought thc 
Swcdifti army in gtncrai to a more fteady and re- 
gular difciplmc than formerlyhad bren exercifcd, 
and fcrmed and fcafoned an invinciblc body of 
Fmlaader8y who had afterwards a vcry connder- 
able (hare in the yiAories of the Swcdes. Peace 
was no fooncr concludcd wiih RuAia, th.iu Guf- 
tavu8 was crowncd with great (blemnity at Up- 
fai. Soon after tbis,. Guftavu8 ordcrtd hia geite* 
ral La Gardie to acquaint thc Poliih commandcr 
Codrkowitz> that as the trucc bctwecn the two 
kingdoms, whicb had been concluded for twd 
ycarS) was now cxpircdy hc dcfired to bc ccrtain- 
ly informed whethcr hc was to expc A peacc or 
war f:om his maftcr. In thc mean limc, having 
borrowcd moncy of thc Dutch for thc rcdcmp- 
tion of a town from Dcnmark, he bad an intcr- 
view on thc froniicr8 with Chriftian IV. At this 
intcrvicw, thc two monarchs conccivcd the 
utmoft eftcem and friend{hip for cacb other ; and 
Guftava8 obtained a promife, that Chriftian would 
not afBft Sigifmund in any dcBgns he might havc 
againH Swedcn. In the mcan tlme, receiving no 
fatiffadory anfwcr from Poland, Giiftavu8 began 
to prcparc for war. Sigifmand cntercd into a 
negotiation, and madc fomc pretendcd concef- 
fionH, with a ricw to {Azc Guftavu« by trcach- 
ery ; but thc latter haviag intimation of hi» de- 
iign, the whole negotiation was cban.iied into re- 
proaches and tbreats on the part of Guftavu<(. 
Immcdiatcly after this, Ouftavu8 made a tour in 
difguife through Gcrmany, and married Eleonoia 
jlic daughter of the ElcAor of Brandcnburgh. Hc 

( 34 ) 

S W E 

then refolve1 ttt entcr heartily into awarwitli 
Poland ; and with this vicw fet fail for Riga» with 
a great fleet, which carried »0,0.0 tncn. Thc 
placc was well fortified, and defcn<Jed by a b(K^f 
of vetcrans enthu(iiftically attached to Sififmunii; 
but it was carricd after a fiege of iix wcck^, ac- 
companitd by much defperAte Bghting. 


After thc rcdn^ion of Riga, thc Swcdiili 
monarch entcred Courland, wbere he re<*uced 
Mittau ; but ccdcd it again on tbe conclufioacf 
a truce for onc year. Sigtfmond, howem, no 
foonerhad timc to rccover bimfclf,tfian hc began t.i 
form new entcrprifes againft thc Swcdcs^ in Pruf- 
Cu ; but Guftayu8 fetting £iil witb hia whtilc Acct 

!br D-inr^ick, wherc thc king of Poland then re- 
ided, fo broke his racaTures, that hc wai obligctl 
to prolmg the truce for another year. Sigif- 
mund, howrvcr, was not yct apDnfcdof thc daa- 
ger he was in, and rcfufcd to liften to any lcmu 
of accommodit!on : upon which Guftavu*i rntcr- 
mg Livonia, dtfcated tbe Politti gcncral, and took 
Dorpt, Hockenhaufen, and fevcral othcr pUcci 
of icfs importanc^ ; after which, entering Lithu* 
ani.-), he took thc city bf Birfcn. Notwithftand- 
ing thia fucccf8, Guftavu8 propoied peace oo the 
fame equitable terms as befbre ; but Sigifmund 
was ftili mfatuatec1 with the hopes tbat, by mcani 
of the empcrur of Oc^rmany, he Oiouid be able to 
conquer Sweden. Guftavus finding htm inflex- 
iblc, refoived to pulh his good fortunc. His ge- 
ner^i^ Horn and Thurn defeated tbe Polcs in Sc- 
migallia. Guftavu3 himfelf with 150 ihips fet iail 
f<9r PrnAia wherc be Undcd at Pulaw. Tbiii place 
was immediatciy dclivcred up to bim : as were 
alfo Braunft)^rg, Fr.iucnberg, Elbing, Maricn- 
burg, Mcw, Dirfchau, Stum, Chriftburg, 6lc, Si- 
gifmund, atarmci at the great ^uccelTes of Gu(U< 
vuit, fcnt a body of forccs to oppofc him, and to 
prevent Dantzic from falling mto his hands. In 
this be waa attended witb as bad fuccelii as be* 
fore. His troops were defeatcd befure Maricn* 
burpi Mew, and DiHchau; and in May i687r 
Guftavu8 arnvcd with frefti forcc8 before Dant- 
zic, which hc woul.l probably have carricd, hid 
hc ROt becn woundcd in tbe belly by a cannon- 
ihot. Thc,l^oIc8 in thc mean timc recovcrc4 
Mcw; an^l thc Statcs of HolUnd fent ambaiTa» 
dors to ^ediatc a peace betwecn tbe two crowni. 
Sigifmund, bowcver, depcndmg upon thc affift. 
ance of ihe empcror of Germany and king of 
Spain, detcrmined to hcarken to no terms» and 
refoIvcd to make a winter campaigr. ; but Gufta- 
vu8 was (o wrll intrenched, and all his fofts were 
fo ftrougIy garrifoncdy tbat the utmoft cfforts oi\ 
the Polcs were to no purpofe. Dantzic 10 tbe 
meau time madc fuch a dcfperatc rcftftance as 
grcatly irrttated Guftavu8. In a fea engagcment 
thc SwcdiOi fleet dcfeatcd that of tbe eneroy ; aftrr 
which Guftavii8, having blocked up thc harbour 
wtth his flcct, puHied his advancc8 on the lard 
fidc with incredible vigour, He inade a furprif. 
ing march over a moraf8 15 milcii broad, afiifted by 
bridge-H of a pccujiar conftruCtion, orcr wtiich be 
carried a fpecic8 of light cannon inventfd by bim- 
felf. By this uiiexpcd)ed manoeu^re he got the 
coauaaud of thc cuy in fuch a manoer, thAt thc 


Digitized by 


S W E 

< 35 

S W E 

f afrif<5n wcrc on the point of furrcndcring, when, 
by i tuiiden rwcll of thc Yidula, the Swediih 
«crks «CTC ruincJ, and the king was obliged to 
raitr »ac fivgc. In olhtr refped9, howcver, tbc 
iSm oi GuIUtus wcnt on with thcir urual good 
iinuiK» His gcncral Wningcl defeatcd thc Polc§ 
tctorc Brodntti; and at Sium the kirg gaincd 
aasihcrand more cor.ndcrablc vi<^ory in prrfon. 
b addition to tbcfc misfortune8 of the Poirt, a 
inaMM md piaguc ragcd in thrir c^tmp, fo that 
t q wcrc at latt obligcd to confent to a trui^c f4ir 
UiU4rs to Juat 1635. CuiUvus rcAorcd fome 
ruc-, hut kcpt tht port and citadrl of Mc- 
rci, the iurbour of Pillau, the towo of Elbing, 
£ri<.lbirg,aoirfUth^the had conquere<l in Livonia. 


or CuMT TiLLY BY CusTAYus. Guftavu« 
briu^ thos bitiiight the w;ir with Polaud tu an 
kooowablcc^icluGony began tothiuk of refcnt* 
iAf tbc conduA of tbc emperor in niCAing his 
«nsiciind opprtHing tbc Piottitant ttates, Bc- 
brctmbaiking in fucb an important undertaking, 
it vat DcccAary tbat be iYiould conlult thc dict. 
I4 tbi»thcpropnety of engriging m a war with 
(kroiiij was warmly dehated ; but after much 
ai^crcitioi, Goflavus in a very nob!e fpeech deter- 
B ocd tik matter, and fct forth in fuch tirong tcrms 
tk tirtuoa* motives by which hc was a^uated» 
that tkc whole aAcmbiy weptt ani cvcry thing 
w»|rutcd which hc couid rcqijire. It was m)t 
<)>fiaik ibr Guitavufl to begin bia expcdition. 
Hii troops amountcd to 601000 rrtn, harden<:d 
^r>iacccffion of fcvere campainns in Ruilia, Fio- 
>»d,LnMiia, and PruiBa. His fltctexceedcd yo 
^S cirryiog irum 20 to 40 gunt^, and manntd 
«(h 4)00 mariners. EmbarkinK his troops, hc 
'**W tt Uicdom on the »4th 0? June iJSOt thc 
^apmaliti havirf eracuAted ;^1 the fortrcfic« 
|^poflcflcd tbcre ; and tbe ii)e of Rugen had 
^«k iure rcduced by gcneral tcfly> »n order to 
kweaictrcat if fortune (hould prove unfavour^ 
^ PJbg the fntht Guitavus itormcd Woi- 
pA »d SDotbcr ftroog fortrcfvin thc neighl>our- 
«^ iaring general Banmer with a gamfon fur 
'^Wtsoc of thefc coDquciti. He tbcn proceed- 
^AtoSietiio ; wbich wa^» no f<>oner invrfled than 
J2"^«ed to reccirc a Swed-ih garrifon, and thc 
tH Miadcd thc duke of Pomcrania to enter 
B^isaiuaoce wtth biim In conftquencc of thit 
^ S«edi(h troopc were rcceivcd into feveral 
^^of Pbroerania ; and ihe mo/t biiter enmKy 
^Pte between the Impenaliits and Pomera- 
pw» each rcfufiag the othcr quarter. Thefe 
'***^ of Guftavuf ftnirk thc empirc with con- 
^^l"'^; for bcing alrcady overwhelmed with 
^*fleBfioiw, tbcy wcre in no condition to rc- 
*« » inpetoottt an cnemy. At this time a]fo 
2 '■pttiaiiits wcrc witbont a generaly but at 

* ww Tdly was fixcd upon» and inveilcd 
«otkedigBity of Picld Manfchal. In the mean 
J*« the kiog bcihg reinforced by a conbdcrable 
J^of troopj iii pitiiand and Livonia undcr Gu» 
■^•Hom, de€eated the ImpcnabAs before Grif. 
*^^;takiiig the placc foon aitcr by aiTault. By 

* •d ibiBr otbcr conqueftt bc opentd a paf. 
ytmo LuiatJa aod Silefia ; but in tbc mean 
?*ffot TUly cqt oflf aoop Swrdcs at New 
^""ki^y owias to thc obftiiiacy of thcir comt 

mander Kniphaufen, who bad orders to eracuate 
the plact and join thc main «rmy. This advan- 
tagt, however, was foon overbaianced by thc con^ 
qucft of pranktort on ihe Oder, which Guftavu8 
took by aiTault, making thc whoie garrifon prifoi.- 
tris. Thu<i he commandcd thc nvers Elbc and 
Oder on both (ides« and had a fatr paiTagc not 
only to thcfe countric^, but alfo to SaXDny ard 
thc domirvions of thc hoiifc of Auftria. Soon af- 
ter tbis, Gultavus laid liege to L^ndil^erg, which 
be took by a(r«)ult ; thtHigh the oumber of foI- 
dieri hc bad witb him was fi> inconiidcrable, tbat 
hc had tboughts of ftnding to thc main army for 
a rcinfv)rcemtnt btforethe prirontrs ihould march 
out, being apprthtn(ive that they might givc him 
Kittle in tht opcn iitkl, thougb they could not 
dcfcni themitWts behiiid walls. About this time 
the Prot<.ftant prinCcs hcld a diet at Leipiic; to 
which Guftavus fcnt dcputies, and condu^ted 
his ntgociattons with fucb addrtrs, as tcndtd 
greatiy to promote his iiittrtft'!. Immcdiattly af« 
ttr this be reduced GripCwaldt and with it all 
Ptimerania. Thcn marching to Curtrow, he re- ' 
ftored thc dukes of Mccklcnburg to thtir domi- 
nions. Utrc thc Imperialifts had tyraunizcd m 
fuch a manner that Guftavu8 was received as the 
dtlivcrer of tbe people ; and the ctrtmony of thc 
d'ukt's inaugtiration was performtd with great (b. 
lemnity. All this time count Tilly was employtd 
tn the fitgc of Magdeburg ; but now, bcing a- 
larmed at the rtptated nicceiTcs of thc Swcdet, bc 
ltft Pappenhtim witb part of the army bcforc 
tbat city, whilc he marched witb the rcft into 
Thuringia» to attack tbe landgrave of Htire-Ca^ 
fe] and the elcAor of Saxony. Aiter a moft ob- 
ftin;|te defence, Magdcburg lell intot|)e hands of 
Pappenhtim, where hc committed all imagmablc 
crucltie^. Gui)avu8 formed a plan of rtcorering 
the city ; but reiinquiibing it, bc ordcred Bannitr 
to attack HavelibuTg ; which was donc witb foch 
rcrolution» that tbe place was forred in a few 
bours, and all thc f arrifon madt prifoner8. Wer> 
btn was next oKiiged to fubmit afttr an obftinate 
^onAi^, in >yhich many ^"11 on both fidcs. Thefe 
Aiccciles ob«iged count Tilly to attempt in per* 
fon to check the progrefs of tht Swcdcs. He de* 
tacbcd the vangtiard of his army, coippofed of the 
Aowtr of the impcriai cavalry, withm a ftw milet 
of the SwcdiAi camp. An adinn enfuedt in which 
Bemftein the imperial general was defi;ated ^nd 
killcdy with 1500 of his men, Guftavu8, after this 
advant9gt» plat.ed himfelif in a fituatinn fo much 
fupcriorto his tnemies, that count Tilly wasfired 
with indignation, and marched up to tbe Swediih 
lines to give him battle. Guftavu8 kept within 
his works, and Tilly attacked his camp, tbough 
almoft impregnably fortified, keeping up a 
moft tcrrible tire fr<>m a battcry of 32 pieces of 
cannon; which, howevcr, produced nooiher ef- 
fe6t, than obliging the Swedifti monarch tp draw 
up hii army bchind the wajls of Werben. Till^ 
had placed his chitT hopcs in bring able to nait 
up the cnemy't cannon, or ftt irre to their camp 
in divetsquarlers; after which ht propofrd making 
his grand attack. With this vicw liebril>ed fomc 
prfontr8; but ^hey betrayed him, and told hi8 
defign tp Guftavu8. The king ordtrcd fircs to bc 
light^d ia di^crcnt parts of his carop^ aod his foN 
£ % dien 

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S W E 

<!terl trt Imitatc the t\o\(c of a tumultucws dif- 
-ordcr.y Tabble. This had th? dcfired cfft&, 
-Thc cpunt lcd hi» army to thc breach madc by 
thc C^nnon ; whcrc he wag reccivcd with fuch a 
Vol!cy of grapc-(hnt as cut ofF thc firft linc, and 
put thc who^e body in diforder, fo th»t thry 
could never bc brought hack to thp ch^irjrc. In 
this confufion thc impe-ria! arnny was .Ttac^ed by 
BauditKcn, and, aftcr an obftin.^tc conAidl, o- 
JjltRcd to quit thc Acld. 


ry^THE Imperialists at Leipsic. Soon 3ftcr 
this a^ion thc quccn ^rriycd at thc cJimp with a 
reinforcemcnt of 8000 mc^' ; at thc famc timc a 
♦rcaty was concludcd with Charles 1. of EngUnd, 
1>y wbich that monarch ailowcd thc mar |nl« of 
Jiamilton to rairc 6: c^ irch tor thc fcrvicc ot Gu- 
ftavu9. Thefc auxii!.iri^-b wcre to be condu<^^ed 
to thc main army hy^ body of 4C00 Swtdt «; and 
Vcre in cvcry thine to obey thc kinj: whi'e he 
■was pcrfonaIly p«cfrnt, but in hjs abrcnce werc 
f o be fubieA to the order<» of the marqui^. With 
thefe troopp thc k»ng "had refoIve4 to make a di- 
^erfir»n in ijrcmen ; but thc marquis jindini;' ii im- 
poA^ble for 'him to rfrc<5^ a jun<aion with the Swc- 
clilh army, rcfolved without drbarkmg hif» tro- ps, 
40 ftccr his coarfe for thc Odcr, and land at Ufe- 
f1om. Ouftavu« was vcry much di^plraed at 
findin^ his prrjje^ thus di^conctrtcd j howevcr, 
nakingj thc beft of thc cxiftinjr circumOanccs, hp 
pommanded thc BritiOi tjroops to n^ on thc O- 
dcr inftcad of thc Welcr. 1 he nimibcr ,pf thw 
Itttle army w^8 t:xaffnified cxcecdingly by rcport, 
inTomuch tbnt count Tilty had fomc thnughts of 
Tnar(!hing ajrainft thcm with hn whoJ^ forfT ; but 
f>n the deparMire of the marqiiis for 8ilefia, hc 
teinforccd thc army in that rountry with a largc 
^etachmcnt, wbich was thoUpht to pont^ibutc not 
a iittlc to thc dcfcat he foon after reCcivcd. Ever 
<in€Cth<» Iat« a^ion, Guftavus had kept withln hiij 
intrenchmcnts, where hii» army was well pro^i-iled 
ivifch cvcry thing. TiHy made fcvefal ^«ttempts to 
1arprifc or draw him to an engagcmcpt; but find- 
ing all his cndeavours fruit!cip5, hc maiched tnto 
tiaKony and laid ficge to Lcipfic. This precipi- 
tatc meafurc proved highly advantageou8 to thc 
^wediih monarch ; as thus thc elcdtor, ^h^ had 
^ccn wavering in hi«?'refohjtion«, was nowobiipcd 
to have tecourfc to ihc Swedcn, to prcfcrve him- 
fclf from litter dcftn)^ion. A treaty ofl^cnfive and 
c1einfive was immediatcljr concludcd wtth * Gu«- 
itrruB t and thti cle^or wiUingly p romif(pd cvery 
^hing that was requircd of him ; and anrionjr thc 
rrft, that not only thc princc his (on, but hc him- 
f.If fti:mld rcfidc in thr» Swcdi(h CATip, and cn- 
cipc his rifc ahd fortune in the common caufe. 
Tirty, in the nrtean ttme carricd fire and fword 
Jnto tbc unhappy elc;5^oratc. At the head of in 
army 0^44*000 veteran^, he fumrr.oncd I^ipficto 
r^rrender; dcnouf»cirg the f^mc vcngCance apain(t 
ir a« had bcen eKecut«i on M.^gdtburg, in c^fe of 
ti !efufAl. By tbis the governor wa« To muchin*. 
timid.ited, t'»at he i-^ttantly fubmittcd ; and al(> 
{urre^dcrcd* thc caftlc of PaA^enbcr^, which was 
in a condition to h3ve ftood dut till the arriva1 of 
the Swedifh armr. Thc cle^or. enraged at thc 
\o(^ of thcfc valiiablc places, orr^rcd his army to 
join the Swedes with 4^ cspcditioo» ^md prcfi*;d 

( 36 ) 

S W E 

thc king fo warmly to engage, that at hf! bf 
yiclded to his defire. On the ^th Sept. i6.'ii, Gu- 
ftavu8 gaincd the celebratcd battlc of Leiplic, in 
which 7POO r.nperi.alifts lay drad on the fieid of 
battic ; 4000 werc takcn prifontr? ; a finc tram of 
artillery was loft, and upwards of ico ftandar<*v, 
cnfign8, and nther mihlary trophi^s. Ou thif oc- 
cafion, thc Scots repirrcnt in thc Swcdilh fenice 
firft prai^i^ei the mcthod of firing in platoon«i; to 
which fome afrribe tf.e aftoniftifrent and confu. 
fian that appeared in thc Imperial army. 


iictrated in»o FtaT>ronia, where h^ rrdoctd ihc 
fort of WoRKBURG and othcr placte. Tilly hav. 
ing colleCted \m fc;4ttcrcd troops, which forfrrd 
an army ftill f«jpcrior to that ot Gof^avu9, n^aich- 
ed to the relief of thi^ place ; but cnme too iate. 
Hc then dinf<fted hi^ march towards Rottenbetg, 
wherc four repimeuis u ere cut ifi pucts by a Swf- 
difti detachmt nt. Attcr thir, thc Uing rcduccd 
H^nan, Franckfort on thc Maine, and Mtntz ; dt- 
ftroymg a body of Spamard*', whb had thrown 
them'flv's in the way to cbftruft his paHape. 
The roiirt <>f Virrina was now thr^n int<» the 
ittmoft, confu1ioY> ; and fent cvcrywheTe befgii'fr 
afliftance, and foliciting the C;»tbol'C prnces to 
arm in detenc-; of their religioT^. The cmptror 
was m^ft emb.irrafled in finding o!it a gen^ral cv 
p.tble of oppofing Gnftavus in the ^''id ; tor thc 
htc nni^stortiintti of cnurt Tiily had cntircVy funk 
hts rcoutatior. W^1Ieftein, an old cipercnced 
r^cer, was made choice of ; but as he bad fnT. 
merly becn difgraced, it was apprehcnded th^t 
he would not accrpl of thc oommand ; yet he 
not only accepted, biit, at his own e^pencc, aur^ 
mented the army to 40,000 men. During the 
whole wintcr ihc SwcdiAi army k^pt thc fiei(1 s 
and before the approach of fummrr had leduccc^ 
Crant2naph, Bobenhaufcn, KirchK:rg, M»gtl«^* 
burg, Gozlar, Northeim, Gottirgtn, and Dm^ 
derftadt ; while thc landgravc Willirtm made f:rci\ 
-progrc^R in Weftphalia. Guftavu8 Hom was re. 
pulfcd btforc Bambcrr ; but foon had hi« r^- 
venge, by cntirely deftroying two repimcnts o\ 
inpptrialiAs. The king now rcfolved to give batj 
tli? to Tilly, who was inarching into Bavana ii 
prevent thc Swedes from gaining afooting in thal 
ele^toratc. Hf^ purfued the impcrial general thml 
a vaft traft of ctmntry, defeatcd h>.s rcar-gnard 
and, haviiig rrduccd many towns ard fortrefre 
on thc Danube, penetrattrd as far as Ulm. Aĕ 
tancing to the river I.cck, count Tilly pcUci 
bimlc.f in a wood on the oppoHte fic*e, to difpiJtl 
his p aflagc. Guftavu« endeavoured to difli>dgl 
him by a rcgular firc from 70 pieccs of cannoTi 
The Aaughter was <?r^adfu' ; and Tilly himtri 
bcmg wou"dcd by a car.non-bJill in tbe knec, did 
a few dAy? bct\ ri* he Ni^a» to have becn fuperfe(i 
cd by Walkftein. Thc following night the imp^ 
rial army cvacuated the poft ; part rctiring « 
Ingoldrtadt, and otherH to Ncwburg. Gufti 
vus immediate'y croflVd the rlvcr, and fcizc 
the rowns of Rain and Nrwbnrp, which th 
cnemy''had a>)hndoned. Auglburg ncxt fnl 
mtttel ; and irom ihe inUbitdnts of thi» pU< 
Guftavus exaAed an oath of hdciity, not only I 
biffliclf but tQ the crown of ^wcdcn. Tbis mcj 
• fui 

Digitized by 


SWE ^ ^7 ) SWE 

izn pn tbc jrrr atcft oATcncc to inany*of tbc Gct- ing that tht enemy wcrc cncampcd atWercD&llc, 
lEuiic bodf, ind madc thcm imagmc that tbc and that Pappcnheim had bccn dctached with a 
k*f of Swedcn had othtr ticws ihan thc dc- (trong corps, Git(lavu8 refo1vcd lo engagc thcm 
f'fior of thc Prolcftant caufc. From Angiburg bcfore thty couid cffeft a jun^ion. With thit 
tv S*Tdf8 adtanccd towardt Hatilbon ; bnt wcrc vicw hc marched to Lutzcn, wherc hc attacked 
Hayj-omtcd in Ihcir dtiign of gciting poATcAion Wallcttcirt with incrcdible fury. Thc Swedirti 
fi tiutcity, by thc Bavarian8 havJng thrown a infantry brokc thc Impcnaiills lu fpite of thcir ut- 

moft tATortSyand took aii tnetrartillcry. The ca^ 
▼alry not being ab.e to pafs thc river fo cKpcdi» 
tiouAy as thc king thou^ht it neccirary, he led 
thc way, attendcd only by the regimcnt of 
Smaland and the dukc of Saxc-Lauwcnburg. 
Hcre, aftcr charging impetoouOy, hc was killcd. 

^rrr mBff.croui gamfon inlo thĕ placc. In the 
r faft riire, ambanador» arrivcd from Denmark, 
ifoir(f ihe mediation of that crown for obtain- 
I ? a iaJHtig pe^cc. G!iftavu«, howcver, rcplied, 
t^.'?r')fuch pcace could takc plicc tiil thc Ca- 
i*^ol!c pnoccs thought propcr to grant the Pro 

tr^jirifull and amplc fccurity for Ahcir cnj y- as PuAen^orAT allcgcs, by thc trcachery of thc 

r<3t of fbfurc trarquillity. But thp ambatTadors 
^«ir-oinitio^iunp to propofe any thing farther. 
(I-Situs now, refolvirg to rctort upon thc Ba- 
ui9^ thccrucltics which thcy had inHi^cd on 
t*< Pro?cftar»ts, Uid thc towns of Moribourp, 
K<k!»fr«. and Land(hut, in aHics. Thc inhabi- 
uis.i Manich fave<l themfelvc« by fubmiffion| 
Iwti, thc p-»f;)nt8 in that neightHHH-hood had 
• T-^ird ihcn«felvc«* iiito bod'efl to murd«^ thc 
^n«f<nfTom thcSwediih army, Guftavu8 burnt 
i^rropiijb, ard dcfi atcd thc torccfi of ihc clcc- 
t".wyj had bccn joircd by a body of militia. 
V.W Guftjvus was thus cmployed, Wallcftcin 

dukc ; who, being comiptcd by thc emperor, fhot 
hlm in the back diTring thc hcat of the adion. 
The ncws of his dcath w^s in an inftant fprcad 
oTcr both armics. Thc courage of thc imperia)- 
ift« revivcd, and they now madc themfclvcs furc 
of Tidory. But th> Swedes, cagcr to rcvcngc thc 
death of their b*lovcd monarch, chargcd with 
fuch fury that nothing coiild rcfift thcm. The 
impenalift8 wcre defcatid a id time, juft a« Pap- 
penhetm, with his frtlh corps, came up to their 
afriftance. On thiR the battle was rcncwed, but 

the Swedts wcrc ftill irreliftible. Pappenhdm 
was mortally woundcd, and hin army tin^Hy rout- 

lid aScmbled a vafl army. lie wa« folicited by cd, with the lofs of 9000 kiUcd in tbe fteld and in 

t <cl-dw of Bavaria to come to his aiBftance; the purruit. 


tidtory of Lutzen proved more unfortunate to 
Swcdcn than thc grcatcft defeat. Thccrown de- 
volvtd upon Christina, an infant of 6 yeart 
otd} the nation was invoivcd in an expcnftve fo- 
iTign war, without any peHbn cqual 10 the ardu- 
ous tafk of commanding thearmicB, or regolating 

tj%ra rcvcnfe of thc elc6or'« havin|^ ^ormerly 
';t»'<<d the command ft»r c"unt TiUy in prc- 
^mt to himfclf, hc drew ot[ towards Bohc- 
»3 to mrountcr the S.ixons. Acnhcim, who 
'«maodcd the 8nxon torccs In tha^, wa?» 
^i ffcmy of Guflavus who had formerly rall 1 d 
'tK^h cowardiee. Hr therctorc pcrmitted 
^•irtcTD togiin an cify viAory, in hopcti that 

i* n^n the elcdor ot S;i3tony, a princc entirely domeftic aATairs as Guftavuti had donc# How^ 

"Urd lo hic p!eafure, might bc induccd to rc- 
' c^ rhc frirndfbip of fuch a rcfllcfs and war- 
l<«'i) f as Gafiavus ; and ind^cd be iifed all the 
' *prnccof which he was mafter to detach him 
*«fr«ii ihc Swcdiih raufe. Sewal advantagcsy 
J'Vmcan tiroc, wcrc gaincd by the Impcrialift<t. 
^'«KTti-tni dcfcat?d the Abp. of Bremcn'8 ca- 
"1< Warrfen ; and 3 Swedifh regiments were 
*^ccar Kadingcn. Pappenhcim» howcT^, 

^'«■ti^rccd with 15,000 mcn, no loiHier dc- 
^<d the cngagcmcnt ; but WalleAcio waa too 
**ftotTTift thc fatc of thc cmpire to a Ongle cn- 
P^^m sgainA fuch an cncmy as thc king of 
^*^« OoAaTiis attackcd his camp, but was 
*polWwith thc lofs of 1000 men ; which cau- 
*^*f«»eral maraiuring againft his raibne^s» 'Sc- 
^ «ber mi«foftuncs jiappencd to tbc Swcdcs j 
*'i«M, aftcr raHous manGsuvref, WallcAciii 

* vot aflemhlifig ihtir whQlc ftrcx»it^# 

crcr, Chriftina Ihc daughter of Guftavus was im- 
mediately proclaimed <jueen. The rcgency dc- 
volvcd on the grand bailiiT, the naarifchal, the 
high-admiral, thc chancellor, and the trcafurer of 
tbc crown. Oxcnfticni was invcftcd with thc 
chief managemcnt of affiiirR> and condudcd hini- . 
k\f with the grcatclt prudcnce. He was greatly 
embarraHed indeed by the divirion8 among thi 
_ ^, Protcftant princc8,whichbccame more violcnt afe 
«^iorccdto withdrawhrstorce«from Stadc;of terthe death of Guftavu9; but, in fpitc of att 
•*«! t^c Swedes took polTctlion. Walleftein diilicultiesy he went on purluing the tnterrlt 
^ Af cWdor of Bavaria, who had now joincd of bi^ country, and planning thc mcans of rc- 
''^lwcct, thrcatcncd Guftavuf with greaily fu- taining thc SwcdiOi conqueft8. Matters went on 
P«^TWaibcrs. At laft, * iwctcr, thc king, bc- prctty fuccefrfully till 1634, when, through tho 

rafhncf8 of the SwcdiOi ibldiers, thcy wtre de- 
fcated at Nordlingen, with the lof! of 6oco men 
killed, a numbcr of prifoner8, and 130 ftandard8 
takcn by thc encmy. Oxcf)fticrn's confUncy was 
ihakcn b? this dreadful blow ; but he applied 
himfelf diiigently to rcpair thc lofR, by recruiting 
the army, and rcndering the allies faithful. Tbe 
lattcr proved the moft difficult taflt. The death 

, . -, ^.« of Guftaviif, and the defeat of Nordlingen, had 

"* ^ ooorfe towards Mifiiia, to oblige the elec^ thrown them into de^pair; and evcry one wa« 
^?Qf Sasooy ta declare againft thc Swedcs, and dehrous of making the bcft tcrms he could with 
^^5* tlicro out of Bavaria. Guftavu8, not- the cmperor. The Saions not only renounccd 
•^«»iinf the iiux>nftarcyof Aug^ thcir alliance with Swedeo, bul opcnly com- 

*^T fct out to afBft him. With incrediblc mcnced war againft it ; and though thc rcgcDcy 
^ ^ marchcd to Mifnia, whcrc thc Iroperia- would gladly havc confcDtcd to an houourable 
MVQtaflcmhlin0 ihiiir whoi# Ar^neih. Hear* pcacc^ thc cnemy wcrc now too much Aoihcd 


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S W E (3 

ui*h fucccf:< to prant it. Oxenft!crn bnr^ r^o oth^r 
rtfoiircc than an alliaiice with 1 rHPCt , and thc 
brHVciy of his pcncrais. In 16.^5, hc wcnt in ptr- 
fofi 10 ihr rourt of l.twis' XJ1]. arid conclut^cd a ; uhich, hn\\cvcr, was ncvcr ubfcr\Cu. 
The cncmy, in i)\t, pulh d Ihc ir guod 
fortun<f. Th ) luipriicrd rhili[,fbw'g, whncthe 
rr^nch had laid up viirt maj;a/iiic- ; ind rcducrd 
^Jptrcs, Au^ibui^r, TiCYc.'', \Vurifhurp, Cohourg, 
a"d fomc oihtr p!acc>. To coinplclc ihc mi > 
ior.ijicb i>f bwcdtn, it wds cxpcCtcd that IIjc 
Poics wouUi imnic(l»alciv uivadc INullia. To pic- 
vcr.i lh:s La Gar''fc w-t., (.lijiaichc J thithtr wi;h 
a powciful arniy ; bul as it was upjH^lhblc to rc- 
(ijt lo many cncmics at oncc, thc cl.anccllor pnr- 
t iiartd tiic fnc:'.dlhip of Pola* d for 26 \car-, by 
crciii^ llut du^hy to t: c rt[,uhl»c. li.u:. hc got 
lid ot a powcitul cncmy ; and tht S vedilh artair^ 
bc;:aM torcv(ve by a vt«ilory which j^cn. Baiiincr 
jiainrd ovcr thc S^Xi>n?, in confrquencc of wh.cii 
t!icy wcic drivcn bcyord thc Kll)C. Ear!y in 
fpriug 1636, thc S.ixoii5 mulc f>me motion'i as if 
tlicy nucndcd to cut e.ft Ba::ncr ':i coniniunicatjon 
^Niih Poincrauia. Thi.-^ hc prcvcnted t^y a ilr.ita- 
gtm i dcfcaicfl a body of Ihc cncmy ; and obli^cd 
thc Saxons to rctirc. Soon ;if:cr this. ht dnue 
thtin out of thcir wiTi*cr qm:lt.r?» wiih coi ndcr- 
;.b:c lob; at whic!i tiriit ailo a bovly 
of imptri.ilirt^ who c.nne to thcir aililt.incc wcre 
difpcifcd. l\ Wtltpl.alia jjcn. Knighauicn 
ihc i:npcri.<',its wjtU il;c iOt-> ot ijcc mcn, but hc 
himi;.lr w.i>; lcdicd in ii*c pu.ruiJ, and his arn.y 
ob'igcd to rtpatb ihc Wclcr. Somc advMnu^cs 
V't«c alf.» jia.ncd in thc ncigtibourhood (»f Min- 
den by gen. Ltfly, who had arrcmolcd a conbdcr- 
wbiC -iTmy. Iii Alficc, Bcrnard dukc of Saxe- dercittd coiun (i illas tlie imptrial gc- 
ncrai, .md (J»fptrlcd hth aun). iiut whcncvciy 
thmp fcvnicd thu^i fuc(rf>«ul for thc Swedes, thc 
city of M«pdebM:p, contrary lo ihc cxpcctation of 
cvcry body, furrcndcrcd f>r want of powdci, 
which thc j:'4ni'on waiitinly coi.lumcd. 
Thc Saxo(is aMu inidt ftriie coikjik(Is on thc Elbc, 
uhichobliRcd BaiM.icr to rccal pcn. L Hy trom 
Wefiphaha to march agamit thcm. Thc Saxoiis 
fi.\t(i on a nuft c •incnijnt htu «tion, whtrc thcy 
Aiopcd to dcriMiy thc Sutdilli army without co- 
mmg to a batllt. Bat B^nnur, rcloUinK to ha- 
2ard CYcry ihmg rathtr than iutler his army to bc 
w.idcd by tammc, atHanccd towanls Bcrlcberg, 
a place clofcly blcckcd up by thc encmy. Hcie 
he drove from an advarfa^cuu» poll 4 rcpimcnts 
ot Sajcoii CHiairiers, having killrd or lakeii pri- 
foncr9 400 mcn ; aficr which he foon forced them 
to a pencrai crtgaj^cmcnt. Thc numbers were 
very untqu-d, Bannicr^j ar.iry amountm)^ to 9000 
horl*e and 7000 foot, and the SiX(.ns to 15.000 
horfc and 13 battaiions of ft>ot. Thc battlc bc- 
gan wiih grcat fury ; thc right wing of the Swedts 
was almolt opprcllcd by numbcrb beforc the .eft 
could comc to thcir ?fliltanic. They wcrc tcn 
times drivcn back, and a» ottcn rcturncd to the 
chargc. At Ult thcy madc tuch a dcfptratc cf- 
forl, that thc tncmy werc entircjy dcfcated : 
5C0C killcd on thc fpot, 30C0 woundcd, and as 
inany takcn priloiirro, wiih J50 ttandard-?, and 
fcvcral picccs of cannon. 


8 ) 

S W E 

O F T H K I M P f R l yM. I S 1 S B V B V N \ I F R . Thup cn J- 

cl tiic campa gn of 1636, in a inaiiner highy ! i»- 
iKairabl- tothcSwtdc^. Soinc fiuillcfs iicg tia- 
tic)! s werc lct on f )ot th^riiij^ thc winttr; but 
thelc comin^ to nolhii.;!, B.u.ujcr quittcd his wiii. 
tci qiiaitcis vciy tarly in thc lc doti ; and frfiimg 
upon 8 rcpiiicn^b ot S.i\ono caiiltrncd at Eiiltn. 
l»urg, p'iifued tlittn to 'jorgau, whcre he ob- 
ligtU ilum tofuricn!cr at ddcution. Anotlicr 
partyi>f Sixons was dctcatcd nc^r I,tipfic; whuh 
lic pr(^pofLd invenin^, hut w,;s (Ul.tpp nntcd ly 
tlie ImpciMldts pciictr.ttMt^' luio l'li'j.iii^ia. Ue 
thcn cal'td in a»! his dctHctunciU^; dtftHtcd lo- o 
ImpernhiU r:car Pc^au, and dtltioycd fevcr.iitlr- 
t^< hmcnl.s that attcmp'td to ohnruct his n^rch. 
Yci, hc ilih fund his litiMtioii eyejydaymcrt 
(tra'tciicd, Irom thc to..linuai increaic ot ihe ciic- 
my\ ♦irce>; whuli oblijdrtl hitn al lalt to r( 
iptj I''>n:ciania, out «f vvh'ch he foon druve 
couiit Oall.i.s. The atiairs of thc Swtdcs wtrc 
n(AV oncv* moiC on thc brink of luin, thrtrugh ihc 
n if-condu6l oi Grn. Wran^cl, uhohad alfo an 
aimy in Ponrerania, but who, imagining himfcf 
pcrtcdtly fct.ure, cantoncd his troops, and cxtcnd- 
ed hi^ qriartcrs, to accommt)d;itc hia army. But 
C#allas luddcniy icturned, iavagcd all IJppcr Po- 
mcrania, a'id rrduccd thc towns of UfcilCMD> 
Dt-inmm. and Wol.m ; attcr whch, lcaving gar- 
rilons in tnc f(irts he rttuiiud to hib wmtcr 
t' rp iii Six«»ny. This untor^uiiC cauipogn cuun- 
lcrbilaiHcil nll tiie aJNant^^tcs of thc tormer. 
Wrrgcl wa? (o hrick w.thihc fuddcnr.cf3 of Ihc 
biow, that hc coulo rake r o mcaruicri for oppoli- 
tion. S jrrc ot thc Swcddh ailics again feil oJi', 
and took up arm.s ;»'^.iirjll thcm. lii 1638, the 
Swediih affaiis again l>v'gan to icvivc in thiB quar- 
trr, thr«vugh thc cxccllcnt conduJt of Bannitri 
who cd count Gdias wilh thc !of-> 0^3000 
mcn kii:cd and laken piiloncrs. P.nluing hii 
good lortui/C, l.c l'o haraircd thc count, that hc 
t»hli;,'cd him lo rcp.ifs the Eibt, and takc Ihcltci 
in Auf\ria. 


OF THF J). oF Saxl-Weymar. Gital as Ba*. 
ntcrN txploit«? had bccn, howtvcr, thcy wrree* 
clipfcd by iholc of Bcrnard Dukc of Sa^c.Wcy- 
mar. Th^t gencral had lo ii crtafcd his army u 
thc Pr'»t( cantoiis of Swit^crlaiid, and i» 
Erai.c! c Comte, that hc v(ns in a condilioD to a£ 
without llic aniOancc of thc Er^^nch, who indeei 
were but trcathciouR allics. Adva ting to th< 
Rhinc, hc fci/>cd on S . '.cingcn and La^Tuburg, am 
iail (ic;c to Rhcmhcid. Thc Impciialirts, ii 
conJHntrtion wiih thc troops tif Bavaria, advancc( 
to ihe rcitt of tlie piacc. An tngagcment cnfucd 
in which the vidory was difputed ; thc cncm^ 
thrcw fuccours into thr city, and thc duke with 
drcw his army. Within a month hc pavc then 
battlc a id timc; and (^j compictcly dcfcatc< 
thcm, that omy onc impcrial olbccr abovc tbi 
rank of a captain cfcapcd bcing kdicd or takci 
priloner. He thcn rcncwcd thc ficgc of Rhein 
FiFLr>; which hc reduccd, as well as fcvcral 
thcr important placcs. Advancing to Brifac, h 
blocktd it up to forcc *.hc garrifon to furrendci 
Gcn. (JtJtz, with 11,000 mcn, attempted h 
throw in 1000 waggons of provifions; but he wa 
dcfeatcJ, wilhthc luf3 of ail his ir.encxcept t^oc 


Digitized by 


S W E 

DabCluHesoC Lorrain, with 4000 men» 

the rcinami of Goti'« army» but bcing lurprired 

br Bcmard, hii whole army was cut in picccs. 

A )d atttmpt wat made by Ootz, but it pi oved 

u uAfiiccefsful as the forincr ; aiid thc pUcc be- 

iig rdticcd to grcat ttraits, waft iibiiged to capi- 

\ tuutt. lo Jan. 1639, ^c ^^^ YiAorious gencrals 

I Bcnurd aod &umjcr prcparcd to attack thc cne* 

of OB tkir owD ground. Bannier made an ir* 

rtijitiot ioto Aohatt and Ualberftadt. Lcaving 

U wimyt hc paihed 00 with hi> cavalry, and 

f[irpnfed Sdit, grand-maftcr of the Imperiai artil- 

lenr. Aitcr a bloody conAa, the Swedcs gained 

I i complcie Tidory, 7 regimcntt of ihc encmy bc- 

i iigoitiipicai. Ncxt entermg Saxony, hc dc- 

iE4ted4rq[imeota of thc cneiny, obUging a much 

^ Urpr huij to take (helter under the cannon of 

Mden. Hcariug that the Sasons were cncamp- 

td ncar Chimnit^, where they waited to be 

i^ bjr tbc Impcrialiil^ he attackcd them bc- 

foretyijoadiun could bc cficAcd, aiid the Sax- 

cBi«aeaiaoft ail kiUed or taken. Bannicr next 

ntdiai into Bohemia, laid thc countrr uiider 

co^rbBtioo; aftcr wbich, rtturnmg Cfofs the 

^•'be^keUionGen.Ho^skirk, whowaseitcampcd 

i BcarBraodcii with 10 regiments of horic and fe- 

«crai hittalions of foot. Uim he dcfeatcd with 

tbe Ui of sooo men. Thc remaioi of the impe- 

nii (atm wcre purfucd to the waili of Pt^guc» 

^tbc gencTaU Ho^tkirk and Montecucuii were 

^ pri^Niers. Yct, notwithttanding thefc fuc- 

(^ tbe cocmics ik Bannier muitiplitd daily. 

Tbe PwjtdUnt pnnces, otcrawcd by the enemy» 

^ wt icnd him affiftance. Undtfmayed, how- 

1 J^. W ciilicBitics Bannicr pcrformed wondcrs. 

■ He dekatrd a body of imperi^liiU at Oiatx ; 

^f ttc Saxoiis thricc from their camp at Fim ; 

J^ f«t »M iorced to c «acuate the place, becauiie 

K casld oot fparc a garrilon. Hj» army being 

jl^i^ of rccmits wa^ much diminiihed in num- 

«» ; !« with it he reduced many towns, and ob- 

i t>^ niioits othcr important adTantagcs» when 

«B» Mdca aU bis h^ics were blailed by the 

r 39 ) s w E 

joined iing on the all^et to join him ; and at laft« in 16110» 
hc was joincd by the Wcymar army undcr thc 
dukcs of LongucYi;lc and» Gubricn, a body ot* 
KuUians lcd by Gcn McP.ndcr, and tbc troop» 
ot Luncaburg commaudcd by Gcn. Klitzing. 
The army now amountcd to aa battalioiis of 10- 
tantry and is,ooo horfe ; fo that they werc much 
morc th<in a match for their enenMCs, had thc/ 
b« co undcr tbc (blc dircAion of Banuier. But tf ti« 
animity was wauting; cvcry one would be ^u- 
prcme, and Bannjcr,. tbc bcft gcneral, hnd Ihe 
leaft inAuence. lnitcad of thoic tnafterly ftrokes 
by which the Swtdcs had . hitherto diftiiiguiihcd 
thcmfclvcs, the armies continucd lookiog at one 
anothcr, cach fuffcring the rigours of famioe. Ac 
iaft Baonicr, rciblriug to cxpoie his troops no 
longcr, fet out for Thuringia, through Praiico* 
nia, to fcize an ad?anUgenuA poft on the Maine ; 
but as hc adYanced to thc Saia, he fbund tht iol^ 
pcrialift8 entrcnched on the othc^r fide. EinAn^ 
it impoiHblc to force a paAage, he took the road 
through Hcflc, wbcre hts troops faftcrcd gr^tly 
by fami[ie. Herc he propofed to fight thc cnemy ; 
but thc Landgravc and D. of Luncnburg rcfufcd 
tbeir conicnt. Upon this he threatened to leave 
thcm to the roercy of thc confederatc6, and thus 
ol>liged thcm to be fomewhat more pliant. None 
of thofe brilhant fucccfles, however, now attcnd- 
ed the operatioos. of the Proteftant allies: the 
campaignt of 1640 and S641 were fpent in uickii^ 
marcbcs and countermarchet ; fenring oniy to- 
brtiig the army into the grcateft dangsrt» ^on» 
which thcy wcre as cooftantly rclieved by thc ac- 
tiTc and intrcpid Bannicr. At laft this brawc gc- 
ncral, wom out with pcrpetual fatigucs, dicd of 
a fcver in 1641» lcaving the Swediih army in a 
woric Btuation tban evcr. 


TutE oF Olmutz by Oem. Torstbiisoic.. 
Thc irapenaHfts wcre toowcll acqnainied witt» 
tbe abilitics of Bannicr, not to take advantage of 
the opportooity oSiercd by bis deatb. A Swedilh 
detachment wascut in piecesat QufiDLiNGBt;RG. 

^^ « thc duke of Saxe-Weymar ; poif mcd, at The Swediih army, accuiiomed only to bc obcdi 
'[«iippoial, by thc Prcnch, who wiihed to get — ' •* * ' . ^ - 

.^^■totheir hands, from which thcdukc pre* 



^ ^t». Baniiier. The difBcultic8 to which 
*j*cr wu Dow teductd provcd eitrcmc. Lcwit 
™.look opoo him to difpofe of the army and 
J**ia«is of Bcmard as be thought proper. Bri- 
TZ^ **^ ?**=«• ^ importance, hc kept to 
■«*«; afiCT which, thc Prcnch cndcavoured to 
"« the iraiy. i^ thg xti^^Vi time, thc impcHal 
**T nadcr Piccoiomini, in tbe Ncthcrlands, wat 
'WBotifiyaagiiitntcd; and thearchduke Leo- 
F*WriilUni, „ jpcncraliffimo, was aliembling 
?."JJ^ft«n?th 10 cruih thc Swedes at once. 
«< BMtf did r.ot dcfpair. Gcorge duke of. 
bdDg dtfguftcd a^tThc empcror, Ban< 

ent to Bannicr, bectme mutinou9, and Piccolo- 
mini itfolved to fall upon thcm wtth his whole 
force. But the tour geocrals, Wrangcl, Konigf- 
mark, Wittemberg, and Pful, having convinccd 
the foidicrs of the neceffity of defcnding thcm-^ 
fclves, nude fuch excellent difpofition8, tbat thc 
imperialifts dorft not attack them. Piccolomini 
then detached part of his army to attack the Ucf- 
fian8 in theur quartcro ; but Wr.tngrl aiid Konigf. 
mark thrcwthcmfc1ve8 in thtir way, anddcfratcd 
tbem with thc lofs of aooo men. This viaory,. 
however, did not retricvc thc Swcdiih a^irs. 
DiiTcnUoasand mutiny began again to take ptace 
in the army to fuch a degrce as thncatened it^dil* 
foluiion. \\\ 1641 Ocn. Toiftcnibii was fcnt from 
Swedcn, with money and a ihrong reinforcenient, 
to takc upon him thc fupreme command. This 

^^'"Jogain him ovcr: he thereiore ap- gencral wat initprior 10 none of his predcccironi, * 
ihM .- 1. _.j _.i. . . . ^ . to an immcdiate eii{>agc* 

mararmy fcparacing from him, 

for a contiderable timc in* 

conBned to his cbambtr by 

thc gout; and thus a rcport of hisdcath bciog 

SprcaJ, thc impciialittb wcrc «ucouraged :o begin- 


l^j^^^ScbrleD ; and a jd timc cntircly de- 
*«^ awr uiphc. Bannicr Was vcry prcf. 

Digitized by 


S W E ( 

a kmg march through road^ rcarce .paAable, io 
)iopea of Aiipriiing the Swedilh army witbout a 
general. fiut Torttcnron Tei^ed an advantageou8 
poft, wbich could not be forced ; and tbus obii- 
ged the enemy to retreat» after baving fuff0red as 
mUcb by their fatiguing marcb an if tbey bad 
fougbt a btoody battle. Then joining Gen. Stal- 
bancb, who bad been driven by the imperialiit» 
out of Siletia, he reduced Great Glogau» with a 
number of othcr important placei ; after wbich 
he laid liege to SchWeidnitz, The duke of 
Saxe-LauenDur^, witb bis ca^alry, endeavoured 
to tbrow in fuccour8 ; but was defeated with the 
lofs of 3000 ncn; taken prifonei'y and died of 
cbagrin a few days after« In confcq.uence of tbis 
defeat Scbweidnitz furrendered at diicretion ; and 
Tor(tenfon baving fent a detacbment to inveft the 
city of NciAe, proceeded with the reft to drive 
the enemy entirely out of Sileiia. Tbis he eltec- 
tually performed; obliging tbem to retire over 
barren mountaina^ almod famiihed for want of 
provifion9, and baralTed by bis h*ght troop<( ; fo 
that tbis lately formid»bie army was almo(t en* 
tirely ruined. With hit vidorioiis troops the 
Swediih general then poured into Moravia; 
where, in five daya, he reduced tbe Arong town 
of Olmutz. 


TUR8 0F Leipsic. Litta and Neudadt ihared tbe 
fate of OlmutSy^ after wbicb, the Sweder , retum- 
ing fuddenly to^SijcTia, took Oppelen and firieg» 
and laid fiege to fireflau. Uere the garrifon made 
fiich au obitinate defence^ that tbe impcrialidn 
bad timc to aAcmble under tbe condui^l of the 
archduke Leopoldy and come to their relief. As 
Torftenfoa was greatly inferior in mimbery he 
raifed tbe ficge ; but appeared fo formtdable in 
his retreaty that the enemy durft neitber attack 
bimy nor attempt toprevent his encamping m a 
Tery advantageous fituation. Tbe iropenalitis 
then laid fiege to Giogau ; but after having loft a 
great number of men, tbey were forced to aban« 
doo tbe enterprife on tbe jundion of Wrangel 
with-Toritenfon; by wbich means the Swedcs 
were once more in a condition to facc their ene- 
mies in the field. Torften(bn now prcjeded an 
irruption into Sohemia, but in tbiy be was pre- 
vented by the vigiiance of tbe enemy : however» 
he reduced the city of Zittau, wbere» for the 
firft time, a cartel for prifoner8 was eftabliihed ; 
by which means the Swedilh army was confidera- 
bly augmented. Torftenfon thtn direded his 
courfe tcrLeipdc, but theimperial generals af- 
fembled their whole rbrce, and fct out to relieve 
it. Tbe twoarmies foon came in fight of each o* 
ther ; and the Swedes, aftcr an obHinate conAid, 
obtained a complete vickory ; 5000 of tbe cnemy. 
being killed on the fpot, 5000 woundtd an<l aa 
tnany taken prilbners. Tbis vi^ory was fbUowed 
by the immediste furrender of Lcipric. - 


OF Westphalia. In all probability tbe Swedes 
would h.ive finally4riiunphed over all their ene- 
mies, bad noc a rupture with Denmark enfi»cc{\ 
Torftenfon and Horn behavcd witb thtiriijkal va- 
lour in Holftein and Schonen, while gen. Koni^r- 
mark diHinguidied himfrlf in GrnT?any j but the 
ruinof ihe VVeyrtii«i a»nr,\, whicl. ;v;iu ;o:ai!y oc- 

40 ^ S W .E 

feated with the lof8 of one half its nurober:lt DcU 
tingen by tbe Bavarians, proved a dreadhil blow, 
from which the Swedcs could icarce rccovcr 
themfrlvc6. Indted, notwitbltandirig the valour | 
and fuc<tcf8 of the S«vedeH, their adairs in Germ- 
ny muft have gone to wreck in tbe catnpaigns of 
1643 ^nd >644 bad not tbe Frencb uiider Coude 
and Turenne made a molt powerful diverfioo, and 
perforaied fuch explaitB as immortalized thcir 
names. In 1645» thc war a^inlt Dcnmark was ^ 
puOied with fuch vigour, thn a peace, vcry ad- 
vaiitageou8 forSweden, wasconcludtd. Torttcn- 
fon now took meafures for carrying the war into | 
the Auftrian ddminions. Hitneld anembled a 
conGderabie army to oppofe the Swcdei ; and 
the empero^ came to Prague to animate his iroopi. ■ 
Tbe two arroies came in fight at Jancowits, and j 
prepared for an engagement- The vaIoiir of thc 1 
Swedcs oncc more prevailed ; and thcy totaliy de- j 
feated tbdr enemies : 4000 of tbc imperiaUtt» werc j 
killed on the fpot, among whom were generall 
HatBeld and maoy officers; and near 5000 werc | 
takcn prifoner84 Yet no great advantage8 wcrcl 
denved from this vi<^ory. Some towns indeedi 
were reduced; but at lall Torftenfon was obiigH 
ed to retire into Moravia, whtre he put bi* armyj 
into winter-quarter8 ; and in thc beginning of 
1646 reliKned the command to Wrangel. Wrao- 
gel conduded tbe Swediih affairs with great ahiH 
lity and fucccf9 ; tUl at laft tbe imperiaHlts, ona^ 
bie to drivc the Swedes out of Germany, conJ 
cluded a peace in 1648. Tbis was the memoai 
bje treaty of Wt?ltphalia, by which the Germantd 
conftitution was icttl-d, and thofe dirpuus wh>ch 
had fo long tom the empire wen; endcd; im 
ducbies of Bremen and Veixicn, ali thc Upwa-^d 
part of Lower Pomerania, t^^e city of WiCmai 
and the ifle of Kugea, werc alBgned to Swedcri 
and Qve millions ot crowns werc given to the army 


NATtON OF Q. Christina. Swcdcn nowenjoyc4| 
fome years of repofc. Cbarles Guilavus, couij 
Palatine, baying gaincd the favour of Cbriftin^ 
was appointec^ generalinimo of the force8, an| 
heir apparent to the crowo. A marriage V9V^ pi 
pofed between them ; but the queen would ne 
liften to this or any other propofal of tbe ki! 
In 1650, the ceremony of the quecn'8 coronatn 
was performed; but in 1654, Ihe refigned t 
crown in favour of Guftxvus. Sce Christik^ 


GusTAvu8, whonowtook the n«imcof Charl| 
X, found himfelf involved iu coniUerable di^ 
cUities on bis acccATum. TLc trc^Uiry wa^ <\m 
exbaufted ; great part of thc revciiuc was appoii 
ed for the fupport of Chriftina'8 houfcho'd ; t 
people were oppreired with taxes ; the nalv 
having been difarmci tor feyeral years, beiKan ; 
lofc its reputMion* To remcdy thcfe 6viis Char! 
propofed to rerume all the crown IaikIs wUi 
had been alienated to favoutitcs during tbe I^ 
reign ; to repeal the tiuiy upon falt ; to put % 
kingdom in a pofture ot dcfci:ce; and to cm 
upon a war with Arnio neiKhbouring ftatc^ Un< 
prctcnce, that C^Hmir king of Poiaud had qu 
tioned his t!tle to the throne, he preparcd lo; 
Vddc liiAt kiug^ioiu. Socrai cu^oaAjcs w^it Ji 


Digitized by 


S W E 

frOm Poland to Stockhotm: hut thcy 
ed without thcir mand. Getjcral Wittembcrg 
m*ff jn irrnption into PoUnd from ^OTJcrania. 
ThtPol«oppofcfl hi:n unth an army of 15.000 
min; but in a (hort time thcy cnth*c{ycj«fpcrrcd 
thfiT.fe!Tc«. Charlcs with ^ powcrful army, pur- 
M hi« march, ait (hc citi s throwing opcn thcir 
^«f«rohim. As hc advanccd to Cracow, Ca- 
irni madc onf dFort to fave his capiial. But his 
if:!iy amount<d ortlyto 16,000 mcn; aiH tl.cfc, 
2fttT i fccblc rcfiftance, fltrd wirh precipitalion, 
haTTTgloii icoo mcn in killcd and prifvncr9. A 
fnf <tay5 aftcr thi?, ChaHcs c1tfeatef1 ihe Polcs a 
(«'ond timc, ahout 14 miles from Cracow ; upon 
whirh Cifimir flcd with hi: fjmily to Oppclcn, in 
S3f6i. Th'r capiral was thcn invcfted ; and tbo' 
<*<ftndH, with thc utm.>ft val«>ur by StcDhcn 
Cnmtiki, w« foon ob.ipcd to capiru!ate. Thus 
inle^thw 3 months Ch^rVs app.irentt)' b^ca-Tic 
n^of Pjland ; ^nt the Polcs h^-t no intciition 
of alwnd 'ning their formcr fovcreign. 


o^THE RussiANs AT RiGA. In i^^^awnrtook 
pfjcp wirh thc cteaor of Brandenhurg. While 
CWltt wai cmployed in the conqueft of Poland, 
t^atprtocchadin^adcd the Royal and Du^al Pruf- 
Hawjrcduccd thc moft contJdcrable towns. The 
kb?of S*cdcn marched agaiiiA him, dtfea!ed his 
^TTcain fcTcral flight«:ncounter8, and cbligcd him 
toown f!nr hc wa*» a yAtT^l of Sweden. Thcfc rapid 
cocqac<ti alarmrd all Enropc; and thc diiTcrtnt 
p^rnfought fKxr mcans of dnving ihe Sw^dcs 
o«of P=jfrfd, Wh'di ttiey had fo urjuftly f izcd. 
ne Polc», itHirei that thcy Hiiiuld be amftc^, 
^«hcrc rcvolted at:d malTacrcd thc Swedes. 
Cotbtt rctnrncd f rom Sitelia ; and thofe troops 
«*trnrra's who fubmittcd to Chartes, now 
''oN tiicrr*ielvc5 undcr his antagonift. Charlcs 
"wnc^ly marchcd from PrudiJi, and Cotally dc* 
^atcd 11,000 Polcs undcr Czarncfki. Thia did 
"Jt llriidcr a?l thc PoJcs incorporated with his 
'fwjp« to 'jc^crt ; which rcduccd hls army; and 
*« aaoaiga bring performed in thc depth of 
«''«crhcwat obligrd tx) rctreat to Pruffia. In 
*" "wch hc wa» haratTcd by thc Polcs ; and a 
JjM 40CO Swedes was'dcfeatcd by thcrtt at 
•»«1. Bot this lof8 was fooo aftcr compenfatcd 
f7* w«np!ctc vi<ftory gaintd by Adolphus thc 
^' ^other, and Oen. Wr^ngel ovcr Czar- 
*«'. In thc racan timc Charlcs took meafure8 
•orltyin^fiqrc to Daotzic. but the Dutch thrcat* 
^ taoppofc him, nnlcfs a propcr rcgard waa 
r^ to thcir intcrcfl. Charlcs accordingly gi^ant- 
'^ tWo ad^antag^-ous terms; and aftcrwards 
p^ otcrthc cic^^r of Brindenburg, by ccdine 

f 41 ) S V7 Ĕ 

r turn- thcn labourcd to brcak the alliancc ; cntercd tW- 
c^l PruAia, and dcfratcd the cIc«oral army, taking 
pnncc Ridz«vil and othcr^rtat perfon8 pri^oners* 
Thc Swede?^ fooii had thcrr rcvcnge. Gen. Stcln- 
bock attackcd the Polilh army at Philippowa, and 
ovtrthrew it with fucb Haughtcr a^ obltgcd thc 
Po!es to guit the fivld. A nit»rc formidablc cnettjy ■ 
than t^c r ^lcs-now bcgan to appcar. The RulBana 
invadt:d thc pr"»vinccsof Ctrclia, Inpcrmania, aml 
Livonia,whi»cthcclcdorof Biandenbnrgbtganto 
waver in hi" iidelity. To prefcrve this only ally 
at fuch a critical jundlm^, Charles wasoblipcd tcr 
.give him mnre a<I?^ntagcou9 terms: whilc the 
RuiliHns wcre ^cpulfed i.» Carclia aud fnfcrmanta. 
Bui in Livon'a thcy had bcttcr f\iccefs, it?o Ttm-' ' 
portaht fortreirt8 f^ inta ihcir hands; aftcr 
wbich thcy ia^d fKge to Rrgi. For 7 monthir 
thcy batttrcd thc walls of this ctty, without oncc 
vcnturlng 10 pafs rhc d^tch or ftorm fhe pradtica- 
ble breachcs. Thc bcfieged, undcr Map:nua 
de la Grirtlie an 1 Simon Hc]mf^eld, dffcndcd 
thcmrclvc8 with thc greatcft intrepidity ; cutting 
ofF ma»<y thoulanils of the cnem^ in the faIHc3 
thcy madc. At laft thct attackcd tf\(fc Ruf)ianr 
camp, drovc 'them out of it with gfcal f1augh- 
tcr an I obiigcd thtm to raiic thc fiege with precipi- 

(17.) SWEDEN, msTORt OP, TIL£ ftfK f REA- 

TY OF RosCHrLD. Charlcs, notwithftanding thc 
numbcr of hi.s cnemies, wastiow bcccmre fo for- 
midable by the vaIour o^ h\^ "irowp^, th^t Wholc'^' 
af mics oftcn flcd on thc very ntfw8 of his approach. 
At laft. in 165^, thc Polcs, f!ntJirig they eould not ' 
Tcfift him in thc lield, harafrerfthcSv^dcson theil* 
march, atid cut ofr thc fora^cts and* cotr^p: ' 
This provcd much mrrc dcftni?liie to tlie SA^Cdes' 
than thcir fbrmcr method; fo that Charlcs wa^' 
cibiigcd to enter inio an atlbnee with. Ragotlk!^ 
prinec of Tranfyltania, by alHgnhig him certain 
province8 in his*neighbcmrhood', to i\itnifh Mm- 
felf w th irrcgular troop*», who ikif%\{t f5ght thc^ 
Poles in thcir owti way. But thc cotlfederated 
aftcr ^pcndiii^ a wholc campa%n in Lithoania^ 
werc obligei to rcturn without accompIWhing 
more than thc redudhonr of a fingle fortrefs; upoci 
which Charlcs rctorned trith tbc ■SweHifh army 
to PruARa. Lecpold, thc young king of Hun^ry^ 
having behcld for. a long rhnc tbe Swedes witfi a 
jealous eye, refolvcd to dcclare for Poland. To 
curb the ambition of the Swediih rtionarch, hc (o- 
llcited the king of Dicnntarkto brcak>ith hm. 
This was comp.ied with, and thc Dan^s invadcd 
Brcmcn. Charlts haftcncd to of)pofc this ncw c- 
ncmy ; which ga^c fuch offcncc toRagotlki, that' 
he nvglc<flcd to takc propcr meafurc8 lor hb owor 

*^^^fbvereignty Ot PruAia, that he migbt bc (Jefcncc in the abfcnce 0? the Swcdcs, ind fujfcr. 
•^ytotum his whole ftrcngth apainft p^o- cd hisarmy to bc dcrtrOycd bythc Polc8and_TaT- 
*«• B? ihe treaty with the elcdor, thc lalter - - - . . . . _ 

^ltt jffift Charlcs in his war wiih Poland ; but 
J*<icftor hadfo procraninatcdmattcrs, that thc 
J^c». hat ing obtained afriftance from thc Tartai 8, 
^ ^Awl tbc city of WaWaw. The two prin- 
^^ cfcr,now marched in conrcrt a?aiiift thcir 

^•a. who wcrc encarapcd in a ftrotig fitua- 

3*ar W^rlaw, ibeir camp bcing ^rontcJ by the 

^J^Tbc Polcs wctc drivcn from their cn- 

^^*^cnti with prodigions naughtcr, and a vaft 

"^t*k^ pHrMicrs. Thc PoIc« and Tartars 

tars. At the h^c timc the Turka invatlcd Tran- 
fyivania, under pretrncc that Ragotfki, being 3 
vafl*^l of thc Grand Scignior, had no r^ht to in- 
vade Pohnd, without his leave. Racotiki oppofed 
them in thc f\cld; wherc ht wardcfeatcd and 
killcd, lcav?ng C^arlcs dcftitute of thc only ally 
on whom he could have depcndcd. But not dil- 
maycd by this misfortune, hc traverfcd Pbmerani;^ 
and Mecklcnburg; aftcr which he fell upon Hol- 
ftc«n, while gcn. Wrangci witb ar.othrr corpa €n 
tered Bmmcn; In ly dtys Wrangrl rtiook nt 

LJigitized by VjOOQ lC 

s w £ . r 42 

thc towns whicb thc cncmy had rcduccd; dcfcatcd fcvcr 
and drovc the Danifh army out of thc couniry, 
killing 3000 of thcir beft Toldicrs. In Holilein 
the king rcduced reveral ^ortrenes, laid {tzehoe in 
a(hcs, defcatcd a body of Dancj», and laid fiege to 
Frederic-Udda, into which the Danca had thrown 
a StroD^ garrifon. The condud of this (icge he 
left to Wrangcl, he bimfclf retiring to Wifmar to 
oH£erve tbc Qtuatton of Poland ; but no fooncr was 
he gonc tban Wranjrd attacked thc pUce with 
fuch fury, that be becamc maAcr of it in two 
hours. In Holland the Swedcs were dcfcated ; 
but the cnemy derived no advantagc from their 
vi4bory : atj^ea the Atcts met and maintained a hot 
cngagemcnt for two days, without iny coniidtra- 
ble jidvantagc on cither fide. In Poland mattcrs 
wcnt on nruach worfc, The boufe of Auftria bad 
now declarcd for CaGmir ; a German army cnter- 
ed Poland, and reduced Cracow, though not 
without prcat loTs. Czamt{ki entered Pomera- 
n)a,^here he butchered the unhappy peafant8 ; 
biit on the approach of Charles he fled as ufual, 
having, gai:ied notbing by his expedition but thc 
cbaradcr p( a cruel barbarian. The king of 
S\^'edcn was now furroundcd by cnemi<*8. Thc 
eledor of Brandenburg had declarcd agaiod him; 
and he had befidcs to enpagc the armics of Auf- 
tria, Poland^ Ruili^iy and Denroark, in tbc Bcld. 
Iq tbis dangcrous (ituation he r(folved to attack 
Demnark» in fueh a m^nner as ibould oblige that 
ppwer to come4o aXpeedy accopnmodation. His 

) S W E 

and thus an end was put, £ur tbat timci to 
all the ambitious deligns of Swcden. 


0F Charles XI. The new king Charlcs XI. 
was a minpr at bis father's death ; and as the 
kingdom was involved in a dangerous war wiih 
fo many cncmies, thc rcgcncy dctermined to con- 
cludc a pcace, if it could bc obtaincd on reafonabic 
terms. A treaty was accordingly concludcd at Oli- 
va : by which Cafimir renoun. ed hiRpretcnfionsto 
the crown of Poland, and that rcpubiic gavc up all 
prctenfions to Livonia. Bomholm and Dronth- 
cim were ccded to Dcnmark ; and an cquivakot 
in Schoncn remained with Swedcn. During tbe 
minority of the king, nothing remarkable occur- 
red. In 1671 hecntcred into alliancc withLcwis 
XIV. whicb, in 1674, !nvolved him in a war with 
the elcdor of Brandcoburg. At firft thc Swcdcs 
carried all bcfore them ; aud j?en. Wrangcl havinR 
fa!ien fick, thcy continued their conquefts undcr 
Marden/eldt^ Almoft all thc towns in Branden- 
burg wcre reduccd, when thc clcdor arrived wilb 
an army. Hc retook fcveral towns, defeated Mar- 
denftldt in a general engagcmcnt, and foon after 
forccd them to abandoo ail thcir conqucfts. In 
conjundlion with tbc Danrs, he then invaded the 
Swedilh dominions : many placcs of importancc 
werereduced; and, in 1676, Swcden rc^:eivcda 
moft dcftrudivc blow by thc defeat of hcr flcet in 
an engagemcnt with the combincd Acets of Dcn- 
mark andHolland. Soon after tbis the king tookthe 

deiigns were forwarded by a very early froft whicb governmcnt into his own band^, and, in fomc dc 

ehabled him to tranfport bis troops withoutiliip 
ping* Having paAcd over on the. ice to the illand 
of Jp^pco, he cut ia pieces a body of 4009 Daniih 
foIdiers and 500 pcafants. Tbe whole illand was 
rcduced in a'few ciays : aftcr whicb he palTcd to 
Langland, tben to Laaland, after tbat to Falftrc, 
and Iaftly (o Zealand. The Danes were terrifi. 
ed at tbis unexpe<Stfd invafion, and were g!vine 
tbem(elves up^ to defpair, whcn Charles oflVred 
peace upon eqiiiublc terms. The king of Den. 
raark very jjladly confcnte^. By this trcaty, cal- 
led tbe treatj of Rofcb'tldy concludcc* lith M^rch 
1658, thc province8 of Scbonen, Halland, and 
Bleking, Lyfter, and Huwen, the ifle of Borkhoim 
the bailliages of Bahus and Drontheim in Nor- 
way, wcre yieided to Swedcn, and a frec pairagc 
thro' the Sound was grantcd to the SwediAi Hiips. 


oF Charl^es X. No fooner was Charles rctircd, 
*ban the king of Denmark bcgan to a<fl againft 
hirn in aq (underhand manner; on which, rcf(4- 
V4ng to aotiripa^e him in bis defign, be appeared 
micJcpcilediy, wi^h a Hect hefore Copcnhagen. 
Had he given thc aflault immcdiattly, before the 
inhabitant'5 hat^ tirre to rccovcr from thcir fur- 
pr\f-4 it would prohably have furrcn(iercd at 
orr«c ; biU, by landing at thc diftance of 17 milcs, 
he gavs thcm time to prcpare for ttcir c?cfcncc : 
the licge proved extremely tedious, and at l^ft ihe 
piace y.a-! celi#ved by a Dutcb fleet. On tbis 
C^ar cs converted the liege iuto a blockade, whicb 
rontitijc-d till the rnd of the war. Wrangel re- 
dsiceU ux* ftrong fortrer8 oi Gr^^ncnburg ; and the 
Swcdiih Idrces wcre fo judiciouAy pofted, that 
All D jnmack was iu a manner blocked up ; wben, 
in i660f kin^ Cbailes X. died of an cpidemical 

gree, reftorcd the fortune of Sweden ; but ihough 
matters went on in a profpcrous way whcre thc 
king commanded in perfon, the fame dirgrace at* 
tended tbe SwediAi arms in every othcr quartcr. 
Jn Pomerania, count Konigfmark loft cvcry part 
of importancc cxccpting Stralfund, Stetin» and 
Gripfwald« In 1678, thc SwediAi fleet was dc*i 
fcated in ^wo engagcmcnts* At Lar?dfcroon 
rooft obftinate battie was fought hom i o A. 
ti.l 6 P. M. when both parlie» were obliged, 
fatigue, to rttire to their camps. At 01deval, 
Norway, the Swcdcs werc ilefeated ; and ll 
D^nes laid defoIate tbe lAands *of OelaDd, Sm| 
laiid, Unno, and Kuno ; wbile thc eledtoi 
troops and Imperialifts rcduccd count Konii^ 
m^rk to the utmoft diftref8 near Stralfund. Bl 
in tbia deplorablc fituation, count Kontgfmark 
tacked hia cncmies to fuch adyantagc, that he 
taincd a complctc vi<flory ; aftcr wbich hc ravag 
thc duchy of Mecklenburg. Yet he could q 
prevtnt hc cle^tor from rcducing Stralfund ; j 
tcr whicb he was obliged to evacuate Pomcranl 
and, to complete bis diftrefH, tbe flcet whtcb trai 
piorted tbe SwediAi army from Pomcrania n 
wrecked on the coaft of Bornho'm ; by which i 
cidcnt aooo pcrfon8 wcre drowecd, and tbe 
mairdcr plundcrcd and takcn prifonera by \ 
Danes, though they had been furniflifd with p| 
ports from king Prcderic. In ibis unprorpen 
fituation of aflairs a peice was concluded al 
Gtrma!n's, with Prancc, by whicb thc Sw«^ 
aiid Danes wcre left to dccide thelr qtiarTc! 
thcrafelvc8. Denmark bcing no match for 
den, cvcn iri her diftrcflcd Atuaiioh, a trcaty 
foon concluded on tcrms very favourablc to 
den; and conGrmed by a marriage bct 


Digitized by 


S W E ( 43 > 

Owrle» «kI Ulrica Eleonoray daughter to thc Talry, 
kiogcf Dcnnwrk. From thi$ timc the Swediih 
moojirb spplicd himrclf to tbe reformation of the 
ft4tc; snd by artfully mjinaging the difputc& bc- 
twem tbe nobinty and pcafants, he obtamcd a de- 
crec of the ttatet cmpowcring him to altcr thc 
caDtttation af be pleafcd. Bring thut invcftcd 
wtth jibfulutc powcr, he proccedcd to takc fonDc 
▼wy ntraordin^ry mcafurc8. In 1685 it was 
projcard to liqoidatc tbc public debtt by railing 
rbr nominal v;)lue of moitey, without adding any 
tkin» to its intrmiic Talwc. This wa» put inlo 
tircutioii in 1686, by which the creditors of thc 
iroTcnraicot loft upwards of 9 minions of erowns. 
Tbii, witb fome cthcr arbitnry rteps, difgufted 
anthcnobility, mcrcbants, and crown crcditors. 
!■ LiroDra they wcrc highly rc*cntcd; and rc- 
noDftranccs were repeatedly fcrt by thc hands of 
<lq5iitic«, who had ordcrs to infift upon thcir pri- 
«iWgcscoDRrmcd by many a<ftii of the king*8 pre- 
^Abri, The dcputicii could ohtain nothing, fo 
tbtlhcdict wa<iaflVmb)ed. On thcir rrport the 
K*ilityrcfolvtd to draw up a ftrongcr rcmonf- 
tnucc than any of thc formrr, to bc prcfcntcd to 
f&c kro^ by c iptain Patkul one of thc deputicAy 
who bad alrtrady diAinguiihcd himfc lf by his 
Mlnds and attachmcnt to libcrty. H18 pubtic 
fpifit, howerer, produccd 00 othcr ctTcA than to 
procore hts own dcftrudion. (S**e Patkul.) On 
tbe jjth April 1697, died Charlcs XI. leaving hia 
crown to bi» fon, the celebrated Charles XII. then 


mrorTHE RussiAMs bt Charles XII. at 
"KwTA. Charlcs Xn. on his acccATion, was only 
fcWfl. Hc wa«Tcarce fcated on thc thronc whcn 
jpwtfu; combination was formed <^gainft him. 
Kdjt Aoguto^ of Poland formcd dchgns on Li- 
WBu ; ChnAian V. of Dcnmark revivcd the dif- 
p«tci«iththc dukc of Holftcin, as a prcludc to a 
war wirh Swedeo ; and Pctcr thc Grcat of Muf- 
wybcgan to fbrm dedgna upon Ingria, formcr- 
^aprormce of Ruffia. In 1699, Chriftian march- 
ctf aaray iDto Ho!ftcin. CharlcA fcnt troops to 
the iekc'! affiftance ; but bcforc .tbeir arrival the 
^whad ra^aged the country, taken thc c*ftlc 
if Ctfioq>, ard laid ficge to Tonningen. Hcrc 
^Mqi commandcd in pcrfon ; and wa6afiiftcd 
^ttetroops of Saxony, Brandcnburg, Wolfcn- 
*ittJe,aod Heflc-Caflel. EngUnd and Holland, 
a»fQaraBtceftof thc laft trcaty with Denmark, in- 
«wccrt witb Swedcn, joined Charles againft this 
«iWcracy, and icnt flcct§ to tlie Baltic. Thcy 
K^poW a temiination of the war upon rquitable 
•bw; bct tMc wcre baughtily Tefufcd by tbc 
^^ monarch, who dcfpifcd thc youth of 
^■«1, aod rclicd upoo hi« alliance with Saxony, 
■»wnb«rf , Poland, and Rttflia. Thc town of 
TenuGCM, kowcYcr, rcHAed all bis effbrt8 ; and 
■*o kc ordcred ihe place to be ftorrocd, his 
jNp» were drircn hcadlong from the walls by a 
fc^ Sw tde» nndcr gen. Bannicr. In lyoo, Charles, 
y^e »tniftcd thc aflairt of thr' nation witb a 
^gjrtcbolcp out of the ^enatc, ftt out on thc 
•lltjr froin hii capital, to whicb he never af. 
■*5*»f*H»nicd. He etnbarked at Carlfcroon, 
^Mcatcd tbc ITcet of the allica. Having madc 
> oa Zcaland| be de£e<tcd a body of ca- 

S W E 

and proc^ded to inveft Copenhagcn by fca 
and land. Prcderick IV. the ncw king of Dcn- 
mark, faw thc dangcr of having his capital dc- ' 
ftroyed, and concludcd a trcaty in 11 days, upon 
thc faroe tcrmBa9tbcfarmcr. Charlcs, bcing thnsat 
liberty to turn his arms againft thc othcr pi;incc8, 
rcfolvcd to lead bis army igainft AuguOus kmg 
of Poland ; but hcaiing that thc czar had laid 
fiffgc to Narva with 100,000 men, he immediately 
embarkcd at Car1fcroon, though it was then mid 
wintcr, and thc Baltic fcarce navigable ; and fooa 
landcd at Pcrnaw in Livonia with part of his 
forcc8. His army did not excecd ao,ooo mcn ; 
but thcy wcrc the bcft foldier8 in Europc, whilc 
the RuAians wcre only an undifcip!ined rabblcl 
Thc con^c^ucncc was, the Swcdcs wcre vidtori. 
ous, cntircly routing[ this vaft artny, and taking 
all thc cannon, ao,ooo pri^oners» and endrely dc- 
ftroyifig the rcmaindcr. 


teat of the Saxons on the Duna. Petcr 
wau advancii)g with 40,000 men to furround thc 
Swedcs^ whcn hc reccived intelligencc of thc 
drc idful defcat at Narva. Hc was grcatly cbag* 
rincd ; but rctumcd to bisown dominions to raife 
another army. He evacuatcd all the provincca 
which hc bad invaded, and for a time abandoned: 
all his grcat pntjcds, thus lcaving Charlcs at H- 
liberty to prolccute the war agaitiA Poland. As 
Auguftus had txpcdtcd anattack, he cndcaTourcd 
to draw the cxar into a cIofcr aJliance with him, 
Thc two monarchs had an intcrview at Birfcn, 
wherc it was agreed that Auguftus (hould Icrid the 
czar 50,000 Ocrman ^aldicrs, to be paid by thc 
czar, who ftiould fend an cqual numbcr of hir 
troops to be traincd up to war in Poland ; and 
that he Oiouid pay the kmg tbree millions of rix* 
dollars in two ytars. Of this trcaty Cbarlcs had 
noticc, and, by mcan8of his miniftcrcount Piper, 
entirely fruftratcd the fchcme. In 1501, Charlcs, 
having reccived a reinf)rctmcnt from Sweden, 
took thc ficld, and appcarcd fuddenly on thc 
b^nks of tbc Dun^, along which thc Saxon army was 
pofted' to rcceivc him : be gaincd a fignal vi^ory. 


0F Cracow. This viAory was followed by thc 
Airrendcr of ali the towns and fortrcflVs in thc 
duehy of Courland. The king thcn paAcd" inlo 
Lithuartia, whcre cvcry town opencd its gatcs to 
him. At Brfen, an army of ao,ooo RuAians rc- 
tired with prccipitation on hisapproach. Charlc8« 
pcrcciving that Po*and was grcatly difaffedcd to 
AuguAus, bcgan to projcdl the fchcmc of de- 
throning him by mcan<s of his own fubje<ft!«« 
While count Pipcr was intriguing with the Polea 
for this purpofc, Angurtus dctermimd to truft his 
fortune to the Saxon army and the nobiliry of 
Cracow, wbo oAcrcd to fupport him to thc ut- 
moft. Tbe Saxon army was now advanccd to the 
frontier8, and Auguftus put himfelf at the hxad of 
it. Being joined by the nobility of Cracow, hia 
forccs amounted to 30,000 men, all brave and 
well difciplined. With thefe he marched in que1t 
of hit ertemy ; who did not dccline the comhat. ■ 
though he had with blm only 12,000 mcn. Tho' 
the Sasons werc ftrong1y poftcd, thcy wcre cn- - 
tirely de^eated» with the iofs of 4000 killcd, aooo- 
F a prifoiicrt 

Digitized by 


5 W E ( 44 ) 

pnTonei-g, and ali thc;r bapgAgt anJ canuon. This inve(kd 
yidory wa- foll:) by tbe T<»fK of Oacow : Af- 
icr whtch Char'eR fct out lo pu'fiilt of t»^c Ryiiig 
array, with a dtrign of prcyrntinj! |hcm froai rc- 
airemhlin^ ; Kot his horfc fa!h' g undcr himt bt 
had ihe ml8fortune to break hi^ thigh bone. by 
which he was contined lix weeks; and thuj Au- 
^uftu8 ohtained fomc rcfpite. 


SCHI tD. Auguflu8 m;t4c thc bcft ot this intcrv3l. 
xiaving convoked a dict Crrt at Manenburjr, and 
^n at Lublin, from tbem hc obtau^cd thc ibUow- 
ipg rcfoiutions; that an army of 50,000 mcn 

s w E 

In the mean time* tlie RuIEaos biving 
recoycred thcir fpiiils, fcli upon thc Swcdc» m 
Livonia with thc utmc^ ^ury. Narva, Dorpt» 
aad fcvcrai otHer towns» wcre takcn, aad the m- 
babitants and garr<f-.iis treatcd wilb ereat baiba- 
rity. Sooo aft<r, an army of loojOooHuAimsen- 
ttred PolAf»d : 60000 ColTacks uuitrr Ma^cppa, 
cnrcrcd thc ccMintry at ihe Chrc -time, aM rafa- 
Ktd cvery thijig with ihc fuiy of bArbirian*. 
S :hullemberg, t^^o, advancc:d wilh 14,000 SiXong 
«♦nd 7000 Rulhanr, dirciplined in Gcrmapy, ^nd 
reputtd cKcdUnt foHiir>. But Cbarlc» tecmcdto- 
tiiumph ovcr his encmJe» wiih luorc cafe the 
roore numcrousthcy wtre. Tbc KuAiaiisweiedc* 

IboulJ l)c raif::d by thc rcpublie for the fcrv!ce of fcated fo fa(lylhat tl»ey wcrc alldifpcrtcd bcforeonc 

the princc; that fix wccks (houid bc aliowed the 

^wtdea ro dctc^mlne whclher they were for war 

<u peacc ; and thc famc timt ihould be grant- 

cd to theiurbulent and difcontented nobles of Po- 

laiul to make tbeir concctTions. To co\:ntcra(5t 

tbc cfici5l8 of thtfe rciplutioni», Charles afl>mbkd 

auother (}ict at Warfaw ; and wbile thc two. af- 

ftrpbiic9 (llfputcd concenuiig thcir rights and pri- 

Tillgcp, he recovcrcd of ]\\% wou^^d, ^ect-iycd a 

Aron;^ rcia*orccm<jnt firom Pomeiania, and nttcr- 

)y ^cfeated.and difperfcd thc rcmains of thc Sax6ii 

army. The ill tortont of Au^juilu-' contijauc»'. 

Jn 1704 hc wf 3 formally dcpofcd by the diei, and 

the crown conferrcd by Charics r\i SrASisLius 

Lecsinsky palatinc of Porninia. Augurtun, 

hovvever, did oot yct tamdy tTi^c up hiskirgdom. 

Hii a(ihcrtnts daily (kirmi(hcd wiih ihc Swcdes 

and Augudus himrclf, bcing rcinforccd by 9000 

Runians, rctook Warlaw, aid was tcry ncar fur- 

prifing the new kmg, who li^ed in pertedt fecun- 

^y in tbe city, whiic Cbarles fougtit iji bis caufe. 

Count Horn, witb ijpo Swcdcs, yigorouOy dc- 

fcndcd the citad^,] ; but, hnding it no idLiger 

tcn^ible, he furrcndcrcd at <hfcrction. Tte re- 

du<ftiort of Warfaw wa«. |^mon^ft thc laft i«dVanta- 

ge^ gaincd by Auguftus in this v/ar. His troops 

werc Bow compo^d of Saxon rccpits and uq> 

diiciplined Polcs, who had no attacbment to his 

perfon. Charles and Stanillaus advaucc<i with 

tb;: v]dtonou6 arnoy ; tbe $axon.s flcd, and thc 

towns for feveral miles round fent tbeir fubmif- 

riups. Thc Poies and SaKons wcrc undcr Schul- 

lcmbcrg, a moft cjipcrienccd gcacral, whoufcd e- 

very expcdient to check thc pro^rt^s' of . the 

Swedef. But with all hU condu<ft and caution, 

he found hiinfclf ou^wittcd, and Charlcs ncar bis 

cimp ready to fali tjpon bim, whilc he thcught 

bim at 50 Icagues (liftance. Tbe king attacked 

him with a (uperior army, btit entircly compofed 

of horfc. This was almoft tbe firft time that in- 

(antry had bcen reg$]lar1yoppoied to cavalry, ^nd 

the fupcriority of ^he formcr was cvidcnt. Aft^r 

the engagcnient had continucd about thrce hourii, 

thc Saxon8 retreated in good order ; whicb no ri 

ncmy had cvcr donc bcforc in any engagcmcnt 

w th Charics. The Swcdes purfucd them tcu 

wards tbe Odcr, but Schuilenr.berg eATcdtcd a rc- 

trcat which Charles always fpokc of wiih admira- 

tion, and (aid hc had bcen conc^uered by Schul- 

tembcrg. No matcrial advantagc, howcvcr, rc-. 

fi)!ted from this to Auguftus; who was |i^ain o- 

b'igcl to lcavc Poland, aisd fortify tl?e CApital of 

5ai;?ny, w.hich hc ^xpc<tcd cycry momcu to lcp 

party tiad notice of ihc mi'fojrtuncs of another. 
Thc Swcdid» pcncral Rcnfchi;d cngaged ar.d de- 
fc,ited Scbulleml>erg in ba4f an bour. Wbole rc- 
gimetits of Saxon8 threw down tbcir arms, and 
beggcd their livc« : 6coo werc flain in tbe 6eld, 
and 7000 t»*Lcn priioncrs: ^6 piccci of canr.op, 
i muik<tts, 40 pair of colours ^n-^ Aaodards, 
wiih all the S^^^on baggage, fcb into tbc hands uf 
tlic Swcdcs: and the cor.ftqucnc:es wcrc ftiilrooic 
iniportant ; for now a p4(r<tgc was into 
Saxony, and Au^ullus tccmed to be in as grett 
dangcr of loHug hii ^crcditary dominions as tie 
bad heta of lofmg Poland. This cxtrardiiwry 
viftory, wbich whs gajr.ed Fcb. 11. 1706, w-*« 
looked upon uith aHm«tation, and thought to 
makc the rcnown of Rentchild equal io liiat of \M 
fovcrcigii. Charlcs himfelf becamc jtalous ot liu 
fame. But thc cruelty of Rciicbtdfuiiicdhi>rc- 
putatioo ; for fix hours aftcr ib<; cugagcmcnt, bc 
caufcd 1000 Rulfian8 to be maiiacrcd in coitl 
blood, to )evengc, as he faid, thc cruelties tbey 
had committcd ju Poland. 


op^THE Swedes bv Augu^tus. Sooji afUr 
this vidory, Charles entcrcd S^X';ny at ihc bcad 
of 24>ooo mcii. Thc dict at R^tiiboii declarcd him 
an ci.citiy to the tmpire if hc croAcd ttie Ode«, 
But to thiri dccUratiin he paid noiegard but pur- 
fucd his match ( whi.e AuguRus was reduced to 
the condition af a vacrant in Pound, whcre he 
pofleflcd not a fingic town belidcs Cr^ow» Iwlo 
this city hc thrcw himielf with a fcw Saxon, 
Polilh, aod RuAian rcgimentB» and bcgan totrcA 
fomc fbrtification8 for its dcfcncet but thc ap- 
proach of tl:c Swcdilh gcneral Mcyc:fcldt, and 
thc ncws^of tUe invafiOD of Saxony, dtfcoDccrtc(t 
all bis mcafu(cs, and thrcw him iiito dtfpair. 
Thc RuiTians md^d-werc his faithful allies; but 
be dreadcd thcm almoft as much a4 thc Swcdci»: 
{o thit he wa4 undcr the necciTity of writing 10 
Charies with his own hand, beggmg for pcacc on 
any terrn». Jiut as hc was thcti at the mercy ot 
thc RuAianp, thit> tran^a^tiop was ccncealcd with 
ttic grcatcft cair. His cipiiraries wcre introdt^ced 
to Charlcs in thc night-timc ; and rcccivcd tbc 
follov'ing anfwer : Thal Auku^W» Aiould for cvcT 
rcnoi^nce tbc crown of Poland^ ackoowtrd|(C 
^uniUaus, and, promife ncvcr to reafcend tbe 
ti.rone, Aiouki an c^ppoitooity oiTcrj that hĕ 
i]ionUl rclcafc thc prin<;e^ Sobie&i. and ali the 
Swcdi-h pri^oaers made in the c«urfe of the war ; 
furrcavltr Patkul, iben rctiderit at bi» court a» 
amb\iradof for ib? tvr,.vf Mui^^AYy^ aud dop 


Digitized by 


S W E 

( .^5 


S W E 

)roc;«fings jtfutih all who had pa^Tcd from hi& 
tcto tbe Swcdiih (crTicc Au«;uttus all this timc 
«13 ob%td to cootinue a Oiow of war, though 
ht had oeitbcr abHity nor inciination to CHrry it 
OA. He wai joioed by pnacc Mcnltkotf with 
30,000 Riifiaos ; whkrh obi'ged him, contrary to 
ki) t&dmatioo, tocng^ige wtth Mcyerfeidt« who 
coaaandcd 10,000 men, one half of whom were 
Swcdd. As at thi» timc no difp«inty of numbcrt 
«aiicckancd an equivalent to the valuur of the 
Stc^ Mc]rcrfddt did not deciine the comb4t, 
tto^tkc 4rmy of the rnemy was foar timcs as 
oenrrous u bis own. With his couutrymcn he 
dc^utoi thc cnemy's fir(t line, and wm on the 
poiot of d€feiting the fccoQd, whcn StaniOaus, 
rt^ tk Piiles and liUuiaDians» g4ve way. 
Mqrafekk tben perceivcd that tbc balUe wa« h f\ : 
bat he foaght dtffpcr3tdy, lo avoid tbe di^gra^e 
eii^gikttu At lalt, howcYer, he was opprcAed 
h^ BBBtcr*. aiid («»rccd to ^nrrciKler : (tiATcrir.g 
ftc Swttki, for the firft timc, to be con^uen-d hy 
trtircK«iei. Tht whole atmy wcre ukcn pn* 
Umarcpiing major-general Kran<iu ; who ha- 
*Kgrrpated7 lailied a body orhnrfe.formed in- 
toihntnAe, at laft brokc through the enemy, and 
tkipcti \o Pofr.ania. 


|»ftui had (carcc fung Tr Demm for this vi<ftory, 
^'i«n b« |>Icnipotcr.t*ary rctumcd from Sai^ony 
^ t^ anidcs of the treaty aboTC-oicntioned. 
tV kiB|bcfttated and fcnipled, but at la(l figned 
tWa; ifter which he fet out for Saicony, g\k6 at 
•T lae 10 bc frced frota fuch an cncmy as the 
^^SwcdcTi, and £rom fuch allics as the Ruf- 
^*» "nicCiar Pctcr was no fooner informcd 
AtrliBenriordinary treaty, and the criTcl execu- 
^o^lasplcnipotentiaryPatkul, (SccPatkul.) 
^ bc fatt letiers to every court in Chnltendomt 
«3mpl«iiMi|[ of this gra£i rioUtion of thc law of 
atiy»^ hoi withnar cfFcA. In i7«7, he entered 
Jotmd A thc hcad of 6o«coo men. Adtancing to 
*'°pold,hciiude hnnjclf mailer of that city,wherc 
|f i JMhled a diet and folcmnly dcpofed StaniC* 
I' jjrtb tv (anic ccrcmonics which hadf bcen 
•''^■wkitlbrd to AngoAu^. Tbc country was 
■•• *«^eed lo ihc moft cnilerablc fituation ; onc 
Wfcwi|h fear adhered to the Swcdes ; anothcr 
*^*arioTtr, or forced by Pcter to take part 
^ ^:a nolcnt ciTrt war took place hctwecn 
II* •«Ot aod grrat number» of people wcrc 
J'**!*^^, whiic cHics, towns, and villagcs, werc 
«inafteibTthc frantic multitudc. Thc ap- 
iK^r»eof « Swcdidi armynndcr king Stanifl<iu8 
*«d|OKr^ Lcwcohaiipt put a ftop to thcfe dif- 
'?•"*» Ptfcrhiin(cifnot caring to ftand bcforc 
^^*f^, HcTttired, thereforc, into Lithu- 
■^St^i^asthecaiirc of bis relrcat, rhat ihe 
f^wiM oot fuppiy hlni with provifion8and 
"^•«crilary for fo gresi an army. In the 
I ?**<«* CbarWs Kad-takrn up his rcfidcnre ih 
^•f» •hoe he gave law to thc coiiri of Vicn- 
^^J^ wi«idatsd all Europc. He declarcd 
y<^ protcaor of the Protcftant intercft in 
^^^P^^^brly of the emperor^s Protcftant 
J7*»^8ilefia. Hc dctiredy or rather eommand' 
^^eror to rcacw and confinn to ihcm all 
Soated bf thc Ucatict of Wcftpba- 


iia, but fince that timc rcdaimcd or cKnlcd at thc 
lieaty of Ry^wick. The cmperor duift not rr- 
fufc ; and upwards of ico chuichcs wcre givcn to 
thc Prottttanta. At laft, Cbancs bcgan to ciiacn- 
ate Sasotiy, in puifuit of his grcat plan, thc dc-> 
throning Czar Pcter, and conqucring thc vaft cm- 
piie of RuAia. While tbe ariry was on full march 
in thc neigbbouihcod of Drcfden, he lurprifcd 
kir.g Augnftu8 with a virit with only 5 attcrdants. 


THCNES. Thc armies of bwtdcn, in Sasouy, 
PoUnil, and Pinland, now excccdcd 70,000 mcn ; 
a force more than fufiic*.et:t to have conquercd all 
the power of Rudia had they nset them on equat 
terms. Ptter, who had his army difper{ed in 
fmail particS) inftantly aAembled it on receiring 
notice of the kmg of Sweden^s march, was oiak- 
ing all polTiblc prcparations for a vigorous rciif- 
tance, and was on thc point of attacking Stanif« 
lau?, whcn thc approach of Charlcs Aruck hit 
whole army with terror. In Jan. 1708 he pafled 
tbc Niemcn, and entcrcd the S. gate of Gr<xInoy 
juft as Pcter |vas quttting the place by the rortli 
gate. Charles at this time had advanccd to fome 
<ltftance btfore thc army at thc head of 600 horie. 
Thc Czar havingintelUgcnccof his fitUAtion» fent 
back a detHchmcnt of 9000 men to attack him : 
but tbey were uttcry defeatcd; and this difap- 
pointmet wa*< followed by the total evacuation of 
Lithuania. Thc king purfucd bb Aying encmies 
in the midft of fnow and iccy ovcr mour.tains, ri« 
verfi, mora(fci>, aiid through aImoft CTcry obftac'ic 
that could be furmounted by human power ; and» 
coming up with thcm atthc Borifthcne6 completc- 
iy dcfcatcd them. 


OF Smolensko. Thc Czar, finding himfe1f 
clofcly purlued by thc enemy with whom he waa 
not able to cope, propofcd peace ; but Charlesrc- 
turncd no othcr anfvver than that he would treat 
ĕt Mofcovi\ whicb bcing reported to Pctcr, hc 
coolly rcplied, •* My brother Charlcs afM8 to 
play AUxander% but hc will not find in me a Da» 
rius'* Howevtr, he did not witure an cngagc* 
mcnt, but continued his retrcat ; and Charlcs pur- 
fBcd ib clofely, that he was daily &imtiftiing with 
thc rcar of the enemy. In thefe a^ions thc 
Swedes bad generoHy thc advantage, though in 
thc main thefe YJdtories proved dctrirrental, by 
wcakening ibc army in a cour.try whcre it was 
in^DoHib^c to recrutt. Ncar Smolcniko, the king, 
wiih only fix regiments, dticated n bcdy \i\ ic,ooo 
horfe and 6coo Calmucbi. In this en^agemcnt 
hc was expofcd'to the utmoft dan^cr, ihe -cnemy 
having fepar;fted him from hts troop''. 


By the jd of OAober i^oS» Charle» w^« wi!hm 
lo^ kagucs of Moicow ; but Prtcr hai madc thc 
road» impa/TaWe, cither by laying thcm undcr 
walcr, diggiitg dtep ditchcs or covering them 
with the wood of whole forcft8. He had dlft) dtf- 
troyed the viUagc6 on cvcry fide, and takrn away 
cvery poATibility of fwbfiftitig an army. The ^c^- 
fon was a fo far advanccd ; thc intcnfc fcverc wca- 
thcr was approaching ; fo that the Swcdes wcre 
thrcatencd witb all tbc miicrics of cold and fa- 


Digitized by 


S W E 

jnlnc, at thc fanic timc ihat thcy wtrc c spor^ d to 
thc attacks of an cnctny grcatly rnpcrior in num- 
4>cr. For thcfe rcafon8 thc king rcfo!vcd to paf9 
•thrr«agh thc Ukrain, whcrc Mazcppa, a Pohih 
l?cntlcman, was gencral and chitf of thc nation. 
•Mazcppa, having bccn affrontcd by the Czar» rea- 
ilily cntcred hite a trcaty with Charles, whom hc 
promifcd to alTi^ with 30,000 mcn» grcat quanti- 
■tics of proviQons and ammunition, and with all 
hi8 trcatures, which wcpc immcnfc. Thc Swcdiih 
army advanccd toward8 thc Drfna, whcrc they 
bad to cncountcr thc grcatcft didiculties; a forcft 
aboTC 40 lcagucs 111 cstcnt fillcd with rocks, 
mountains, and marlhcs. To complctc thcir mi«- 
fortunc8, thcy wcrc lcd 90 milcR out of thc right 
way ; all thc artillery was funk' in bogs and mar- 
ihc8 ;. thc provilibn of thc foIdicr8, wbich con(tft« 
«d of biicuity was cxhauftcd ; and thc whoic army 
ipcnt and cmaciated whcnthcyarrivccl at thcDifha. 
Hcrc thcy cxpcdted to bavc mct Mascppa with 
his rcinforcemcnt ; but inftcad of that, thcy pcr- 
cciTcd thc oppofitc banka of thc river covcrcd 
with a hoftile army, and thc paAagc itfclf almoft 
Charlcs, howevcr, was ftill un- 

f 46 ) 

S W E 

cngagcinent with a party of Ruffianf. To ecir 
plctc his mis^ortuncB, Charlcs reccifed a iho 
from a carabinc in his hccl, whicb ihattered th 
bonc. For fomc days thc Czar, with an army c 
70,000 men, had iain at a fmall diftaiice, har:il 
fing thc Swcdiih camp, and cutting off the coc 
voy8 of provilion ; but now intelligcnce wai r« 
ccivcd, that hc was advancing as if with a d< 
lign of attacking thc linc8. In thi« Btuatioi 
CharWs determiocd to bc thc aAaulter aod n 
the 8th of July 1709, hc loft thc memorabkbn 
tlc of Pakowa which dccidcd t**c fatc of ili 
Swe{les. Our limits forbid a dctail ot the pii 
ticulars, but thc ifluc of thc day was that CharV 
cfcapcd with a mcrc handful of folk>wer& ; t) 
rcft of his army bctng flain or taken pri&nert. 


fiy ovBR THB Dames, by the Swedes. Cbari 
flcd in a mcan calaft)> attcndcd by a httle ire< 
inviolabiy attached to his pcrfon^ fomc on to< 
and fomc on hoHeback. Thty wcrc obiiged 
crof8 a fandy dcfert, whcrc neithcr bcrb oor u 
was to bc (k^en, and whcrc thc burning heat a: 
want of wattr werc morc intolcrabic than thc t 


dauntcd; hc lct his ^oldicrs by ropcs down thc trcmities of cold tbcy had formcrly fuftered. Th 

itccp banks ; tbcy crofled thc rivcr eithcr by fwinD- reached Oczakow, th? baAiaw of which fupph 

miog or on raftcr« haftity put together; drovc thc king with cvcry neccHary. fiut it was ro^ 

tbc RuA^ans fit>m their poft, and continucd their time, t^forc boats could bc got rcady for tra 

march. Mazeppa foon aftcr appcarcd, having portmg thc whoic of thc kingU attcndant* ; 

with him about 6000 brokcn rcmains of tbc army which accident 500 Swcdes aod CoAacks feUI 

hc had promifcd. The RuAians had got mtcUi- to the hands ot the cncmy. Thii lof8 affed 

gcncc of bis dcAgns, dcfeatcd 2md difpcrfed his him morc than all Ms othcr mitfortuncs. 1 

,adhcrcntp, laid hia townii in aAieo, and taken all king remaincd but a fcw days at Oceakow, wi 

}hc provifion8 coUc^ted for thc Swediih army. thc ferafquier of Bender fent an aga to coffi| 

^owcver, he ftill hoped to be urcfifl by his intel- ment him on his arrival in thcTurkifti domiaio 

ligcnce in an unknown country ; and tbe CoAackSi 

out of rcYengc, crowdcd daily to thc camp with 

•pro^irion^:. Greater misfertunc8 ftill awaitc^ thc 

^wedes. Wben CharlcB cntercd the Ukratn, bc 

had fcnt orders to gcncral LewenbMipt to mcet 

him with 15,000 mcn,6oooof whom wcrc Swcdcs 

•and a largc convoy of proviiion8. Againft tbis 

KSctachmcnt Pctcr now bcnt hia wholc forcc, and 

marchcd againft him with an army of 65,000 mcn, 

Xcwcnhaupt defieatcd him in a numbcr of cngagc< 

and to invitc him to that cttv. Hcrc he 1 
trcatcd with thc otmoft hofpitality. In the T 
kitti divan it was propoCcd to cfcort CharKrs « 
a numcrous army to thc &onticr8 of Poland : I 
thc rcvolution which took placc thcre quic 
put an cnd to all fuch projcda. Aogosi 
thought himfelf no longcr bound to obfcrve 
treaty which hc had madc, than Charlcs w« 
hand to forcc him to it. Aftcr thc battlc of t 
towaj tbcrcfof«, hc cntcred PoUnd» aod 

jncntSy and at laft arrtved ^t thc camp of Charlcs Tcry mcalurc, in conccrt with thc Czar, for 

rccovcry of his kmgdom. Stanislaus w^ 
bligcd to lcavc his domintons and fly to Bcnl 
in tbc difguifc of a Swcdiih ofiiccr, to iharc 
fortune of Charle<:.-*It was oot in Poland a 
that thc Swcdilh aftair8 bcgan to fuff*er ia cc 
<juence of thc dcfcat at Pultowa. Thc D 
invaded thc province of Schonen with an ar.n 
13,000 foot and »500 horfe. Only 15,000 Sv 
ifh forceB rcmaincd to defcnd all the tcrriK 
poflefled by Charlct in Gcrmany ; and of t 

with 4000 mcn, aftcr having kiilcd upwarda of 
30,000 of the cncmy on thcir march. 


«Y ovEit Charlbs XIf. BY Peter the Great 

AT Pultowa. Tbis was thc laft cftbrt of Swe- 

difli valour. The difficultict thcy had now to 

Hndcrgo csceedcd what human nature could bcir; 

yct ftill thcy hopedy by conftancy and couragc 

to overcomc every obftaclc. la the fevereft win- 

ter known for a loog time e?en in RuAia, thcy 

madc long marches, clothcd like iavagc8 in thc only a fmail part wcrc allottcd for the dcfcn€ 

/kinrofwi1d bcaft8; all the draught hor(e& p^ Schonen. The rcgcncy of Swedcn, howcver| 

riAied ; thoufand8 of foldicr6 droppcd dead with crtcd themfclvc8 to the utmoft to rcpel this u 

cold and hungcr: fo that byPcb. 1707, thcwhole 

army was reduccd to iS,ooo Swedcs. Amidft 

numbcricfi) d*fficultic8 therc pcnctrated at laft to 

PuLTOWA, a town on the caftem frontier of the 

Utcrain, wherc thc Czar had laid up magaztnefl ; 

aud ()f thefe Charlcs rcfolved to gct pofleflior. 

The place ma le an obftinAtc dcfencc, the Swcdes 

werf repu!ftrd in cvery air^iult, ai»d 8000 of ihtro 

werc deteaicdi and almoft entirely cut off, iu aii 

ncrous invaiion ; and having colleAed an arm 
11,000 militia and 8000 rcgulara, difpatched t 
undcr pcnoral Stcenboek into Scbonen. S 
S^xon troops were incorporatcd tn tbia ar 
and among thrfc a proiiigious defcrtion ' 
placc, which thc gencral tound it itnpolTib 
prevcnt ; and thu8 tbe Danea ^amed rcverail 
va*uagcs, and at lftft took ChriiHanftadt. 1 
iiifolcQL'C 011 th'*M iuccef8 w^ fo great» tba 

Digitized by 


SWE f A7 ) SWE 

Md ddBaaded to be mAantly led againft depart by nezt wiDter» promiGng to Aipply hm 

tiOL Hat the good fortune of Sweden feemed witb ii luABcient guardt with rooneyi and CYery 

9€t Bore Xi> refifr. The Danes were driven thmg elfe nrceAary for his journey. Charles gave 

hffl 1 ferf (booi; fitu;it*on, wtth the lofi of 9ooo an eTAfive anfw-.ry and determmed to procraAi- 

liol asd t>ken pn£Doers9 befides a vaft number nate his journey, as well tagratify his own Aob- 

^mitd, born temper, as becaufe he dircoverecl a corrtf- 

I4L] Sv£OEif, HistOEY 0F, UMTiL Charles pondencc between Augudus and the khan of Tar- 

IirtiitrKisoNiiEiiT iN TuaKEY. In the mean tary» tbe obje^ of which, he had reafon to be- 

t«, Cbaries, by bis agcnts, count Poniatowiki tieve» was to betray him to the Saxons. When 

■d Snr Kengebar} i&d bis utmolt eATorts to he was therefore again prelTed to fix the day of 

Rcqre I rupt«re betweeo the Porte and Ruffia. his departure, he rcplied, that he could not think 

Nri iotj noe tbe money beftowed by Peter on of gotng before bin debts were paid. Being aiked 

OriisnsiH jaai£vies prerailed ; but at lalt» in how much was necelTary for tbis purpofe, he re- 

nut^^rtodfi|Qior9 inAueoced by his mothery plied^ 1000 purfe8, (of 30 fequins each») iioo- 

ibo Ysttroogly tn the intereft of Charles, and purfe8 were inftantly fent to the ferafquier at Ben- 

hi heta «oat to call him ber iion, determined to der, with orders to delirer them to the king of 

flcsfcbttqaarrel with Peter. He therefore gave Sweden, but not before he ihould have beguu his 

■dtntotbevizirto£aU upon the RulBans with joumey. By fair promife8» however, Charles 

B n^ of 100,000 roen. The vizir promifed perfuaded him to part with the money ; after 

cktee; bot profefled his ignorance |n the art whicby inftead of iettiog out» he fquandered a- 

i( vc. Tbe kban of Crim Tartary, who had wayhis treafure inprelents and gratifications, and 

hnpiatd orcr by the reputation and prefents thcn demanded looo purfea more before he would 

dlkbsg of Sweden« had orders to take the fet out. The (erafquier was aitoniOied at this be* 

ioinjti 40,000 of his men» and had tbe liberty haviour. He ihed tears ; and, turning to the 

^deah&Mg bis army at Bender, that Charles king told him, that his head would be tbe forftit 

htiiibeibattbe war was undertaken upon his of having obiiged him with the money. The 

toML Tbe Czar» on thefe news» left tbe fiege grand iigntor» on being acquainted with tbis 

tfRt^vberehehadcontinuedforfomemontha; mamefiil behaviour of Charlcs, ilew into a r^ge, 

■d «it!i 14,000 mco entered Molda^iay where and calied an extraordinary di^an, where he him- 

kwajoioed hy Cantemir» a TaAal of the Porte. felf fpoke, a thing very unufual for the Turkiih 

IW T'zir ourched againft him-with a prodigious monarch!^. It was unanimouily agreed that fuch 

■>T» ud, tbroagb tbe negligeuce ot^ the C^ar, a troublefome guell ought to be removcd by forcc 

i^ biffl op ia fucb a roanner that be could ihould otber meana fail. . Orders were tbrrcfore 

B^adraoce nor retreat. lo this defperate fi- pofitively fent to Charles to depart ; and, in cafe 

■■^ be perceived that he was now in as bad of refufal, to attack him in his quarters. No- 

litttioo as Cbaries at Poltowa ; and gave or- thing could equal his obdioacy on this occafion : 

ks^breaking througb the enemy with fixed in fpite of the menaces of his enemiesy in fpite of 

'■pci. Tbe defpondiog ipiritlef8 foldierSy the intreaties of his fnend8, he perfiiled in his re- 

"•mr, wcre little difpofrd to execute thefe or- folution; and at Uil determintd to refiit, witi^ 

^; vki: Catharine» wi£e to the csar, without 300 Swedes, bting all the attendants he had» an 

■kro^k^r, irt on foot a treaty with the vizir ; army of ao,ooo janifaries well armed and furniih- 

M ^itiing (oan obtained bis con^ent» had the ed with cannon. At lcngth he was attacked ir> 

^ %Bfd in fix hours; by which meana the earned; though even in this extremity, tbe Turks 

ilrieftafiaoaimy wa» faved. The new treaty ihbwed their regard toiiim, and were tender of 

""t^rtnoteotly oppofed bycount Poniatowiki his life. Moft of tbe Swtdes furrcndcred, as 

■**tttaoof Tartary. Tbe formcr had made thinkmg it the only method of faving the kiiig'5 

^^|aoquaioted with the fituation qf both life. But Charlcs becamc thc morcobltinate, the 

^;«irbich he ioftantly ict out from Ben- more defperate his aSairs feemed to be. With 

■iWwiib the bopcs of fighting the RuiTianpy 40 menial fervants only, and the generals Hord 

l^l^l^aaple Ycogeance. H«viog ridden 50 and DardoriT, he dttermined to defend himlel^ 

^» poft, be arrived at the camp juft as the to thc lail extremity, and after thc houfe was on 

J* «« dnwing off his half*famiihed troops. fire, he was forcing his way to an adjoining build-, 

«*t«edat Poniatowiki^s tent ; and bcing in- ing» which had a ftone roof, when his foot ilip- 

l^ o( puticolars, ioftantly flcw in a rage to p^, and his fali iaved his life by making him a 

■|»r, wbooi he loaded with reproaches, and prifoner. Thi^ happened on the i2th Ftb..i7i3, 

**■« of treachcry. RecoUeding himfelf, how- He was now kept pr!fofier, with ah bis retinue; 

^tW pr.)puf^ a naethod by which the fauit aod in this fituation he was vifited in dif||;uife by 

J^ &c ttintdied ; but finding his propoCril re- the unfortunate Stanillaus, whom hedcfired " ne- 

*^bepofted back to Bender, after baving by ver to make peacc with AuguftuH; adding, wc 

*p3ftft ioruUs ihowed his contempt of thc ihall foon have a ch^nge in our adiiirs." 

*• Thii tiolent behaviour of Cbarles did not (41.) ^^^i^en» history of, until Charles 

■J«e bis iotereil. Tbc vixir perceived that Xir8 rsturn from Turkey. Such were the 

■nTmTorkey mi^ht prove fatal to himfelf; confidcration« that ftiil occurred to the mind of 

*<^freCore determined to get him out of ihc Charlcs ; however, at laft hc ftemcd inctined to 

*^asfoon as poilible, either by Ciir means fubmit to his tate, and began ferioully to think of 

^^ SoccrediDg vizirs adopted tbe fame retuniingtohiskingdom,now rcduced tothemoft 

*; od at bft tbc grand fignior himfelf wrote deplorable fituation. His habitatmn wan now fix- 

^totbeking, in whtch he dcfircd him to cd at Dcmot^ca, a fmali town about fix le^^gues 


Digitized by 


S W E (4 

froni Adrianop^e. Hm he was alldwcd protifions 
fc»r hrs own ublt: and tftoAf of hls rctinue f but 
only 2f crowri9 a-diy in moncy, innc^d ot 500 
which he ha»! receited at Bcndcr. Duiinjj hi^ 
rchdenct -here hc reccit ed a deput;ition fr<>na 
Hcire-C^ITel, folicitin)ir hi« coi>fent t<> themarrngc 
of Prederick thc land^re wiih Ulrica Eleo- 
NORA princcf» royal of Swed^n ; to which hc rea« 
dilya^ced: ir dcpntatwn wa«» aifo fent him by 
the re^e»u:y of Sweden, requefting that be would 
prt-p^re ^or rctumin*? to his own domtnions, 
which wcrc Tcady to flok nndcr a rutnou*» war in 
hK abfcncc. What determincd him, howevcr, 
morc than any thmg to h^cn hk rcturo, was 
the foHow»ng acciient. The ncw grand v»z»r 
Ibrabim Molla, havii»g for privatc reaiun» detcr- 
inincd to comc to a rwpture with thc c2ar, iftvft- 
cd Chartes to a confeF«nc€, m thc ftyic and with 
the famirtariry of an equ4l. Chailc» wa.» fo much 
chagrioed at this indigntty, th^ hc fent his chan- 
c^llor Mullem to meetihe vizir, with a pretmcc 
that he wa» fiek. To avoid gi^ing dfFence tothh 
xninifter, Charlc» was oMiged to kcep his bcd 
duping hi» reSdencc a* Dcmotica, which was for 
20 mootbs aftcr. At laft, thi^ vizir being ftrang- 
Itd, ar.d the SwcdiAi intereft at the Porte thereby 
cntirely luined» he dctermined to qwt Turkeyat 
attc^ents. ITrt dcparture was to bc negotiatcd 
by hts favounte Grothufen, whbm he vcfted with 
t*»c chara<fter of ambaATador e^traordmary ; icf)d- 
, ing him to Adr?2»ople vrith a tram of 14 perfon9 
richly <lrcfled. To eqiiip thii retinue the kin^ 
D»a8 reduced to tf»e moft mortifying fhift», ^nd to 
tbe necclJlty of borrowipg money frora ufurer8 
at 50 per ceot. Tbe great objt'<ft wa», to obtaii» 
iroirn Ihc vizir money ar.d a pa/Tport. OrotKo- 
fco wa» received with all the refpe<ft due- to bis 
rank; bttt the ^i^ir ttartcd diATicuitics. With re- 
g*rd to thc palfport, hc faid, it could be of na 
nfe until thc confc^t of the couri of Vie<ma wa» 
firft obtained ; and as to money, hc (aid, ^* hi^ 
maftcr kncw how iogiw whm hc thoughtproper, 
btot Jt wa» beneath his dignity to /e»^ ; that the 
king (liould have evcry netelTary provided fer h'S 
journcy, and poAibly the Portc might makc fo.-ne 
pecuniary prefent, but he wouki not have it cx- 
pe^ed." The. imperiai minifter, h')wever, re- 
moved cvery difficulty witbrcgardtothCpaATport, 
by grantini; it in thc moft full and ampic manncr, 
111 the name of t.he empcror, the princesand rtatcs 
of Germany. He fent a*fo a prcftnt to the king, 
confiftitig of a tent of fcarlet richly cmbroidered 
with gold ; a fabrc, the handle ot wHich waa ftjd- 
fVd wiih jcwcls ; aod eight fine horff s richly ca- 
parHbad. Monty, the article moft wanted, was 
entireiy forgotten ; howcvcr, thc day was fixed 
forCharles'8 depatturc, and the vizir appointed 
60 carriagcs loaded with all kmds of pro^itions, 
andfevcral cocnpanies of janifarie8 aod other troopi 
t ) attcnd him to the frt)ntier8 of Tranfyivania. 
On the I4th 06t. 17 14, Charle? quitted his bci 
at Demotica, and (et out far Swcden. A11 the 
princes through whofe tcrritorica hc wa$ to paf», 
bad givcn orders for hiF entcrtaiomcnt inthemoft 
niagnificcnt manner; but the kmg, perceiving 
t)iat thefc compliments oniy rcndcrcd his impri- 
fonment and othermisfortunesmoreconfpicuott8, 
fiiddcnly dif(niired his Turktft\ attendants, and 


S 'W E 

aircmbHn?» his own ptople, bid them talcc noc:d 
about him, hut make the bcft of thHr wsiy to 
Sti^airnn \. After tbis hc fct out pnft, in thc h^bi^ 
of a Gcrman officer, attendcd only by Colonel 
D*mng. Kceping thc by-road8 throogh Hungai 
ry, Moravia, Aurtria, Bavaria, Wirtembcrg, thj 
PSaUtmate, Wcfttri)aM"a, and Mecklcnhnrg, hc arl 
rfved on th<- 2ift Nov. at midnrght beforc thJ 
pate» of S*r lf>ind. Bein^ unknown, he was adl 
mitted with* dTfficu!ty ; bat beiog (bon rccognitl 
ecf by the Rovcmor, the greateft tokens of joj 
were (hown all ovcr the lown. In thc midA d 
thc tamu!t, Charlci^ wcnt to bed. He had bec^ 
booted foT 16 day<;, and now his legs wcrc f#cs 
lcd to fuch a decrce that it was rteceWary to cn 
his boots otf. Having flcpt for fomc houn», W 
arofe, rcvicwed his troopf, and gavc ordcr* fo 
renewing tbe war with redotiWtd vigoiir. ' 

(43.) SwEDEN, HrsraRY OP, tniTiL Tir€ CAI 

TtJRE 0F STRALSU KD. Swcd^U W1S !?0W io tll 

greatc* diftref<r. On thcdefcat at Pu!towa, th« had imradcd Sehoncn, hnt wcre dcfeafe 
by Gcn. Stecnbock. Tlir» tidtory, hoWcttr, di 
not put an end to tbe waf, for thc kirtgs of Dei 
mai k afld Pobnd, with ttie ci;ar of Mufcovy, e 
tercdiotattri^cr bonds of amity than ever. T*m 
drcadcd the retnrn of Chatics to h\$ own dom't 
Oiii^ and apprehendcd that numb-rlcfs v'\6tot\ 
would foon efface thc rcmen>brancc of Pultow 
They detcrmined, thercforr, to makc thc beft t 
of thcir timc ; attd Charles neirrr took a mm-e it 
pradent relohition than obftinate1y 10 rcmain 
long in the Turkilh domimons. The king« 
Denmark awd PoFand inva»*cd Pomcrar>ta ; b 
after hiymg ftege in vain to Srralfund, "WtAk 
and other piacci}, they werc obliged lo rethrCwi 
dffgrace. In 1712, the kiitg of Dlenmark intai 
and rcduced Brcmtn and Yerdcn ; but thc ftl 
ycar met with a terribie defcat from Steenboi 
^h the lofe of a vaft numbcr kiHcd and wrmMSi 
and a?moft all their artiHcry takcn. Thc fol|o 
ing year, bowctcr, this gcneral bcing purfai 
and ^uiTOUndtd by thc onitcd torctB of thc R 
fians,DancB, an i Saxon6, was obHgcd to tbrow fA 
felf into the neutral town of Toicningbw ; wb 
hc was befi^ged, and obligcd to furrendcr at < 
crctioiu with his whole army. Thc con(cqaei 
was an invafton of Pinland by the czar; wh 
he totally rduced, after dclipating the Swdc? 
fevcral battics. Indccd, thc Swcdilb forccs w 
now unable to cope with aimoft any cncray- 1 
retum of Charlcs, howevtr, fccmcd to give n 
life to thc natton. Thmigh thc numher of m 
bitante was vifibly dimtntihcd, the Icvic8 hc 1 
ordercd werc complcted in a fcw wceks : bat 
hands lctt to cukivate the carth contiftcd of 
infirm, aged, and decrcpid ; fo that a fiamiQe 1 
tHrcatenedin confitquence of tbe military r 
whicb had fcizcd ali tbc youth of the kingd< 
Thc prcfcnce of Cbarlc? did not now prod 
thofe confcqucnce8 which thc allics bad fea 
Thc kingdom was too much rcduccd to be ; 
to fumifti thc nece(ftry fupplh:9 of men ^d 1 
ney ; and though the king'8 courage and miHi 
Ikill were not in thc lcaft diminilhcd, the cffi 
he madc, inftcad of rcftoring Swcdcn to its fp 
dour, ferved entirely 10 rain it. In 1715» P 
fia dcclared againA bim, on account of his 


Digitized by 


S W l^ ^' 49 ) 

icaoding bac^ the towo of Stetin» which that mo. Aiiguftti<i, 
rrch hai fcJKd. To complcte hig cmbarrAir- 
DrDt, George 1. of Britain airo bccame his cne- 
mf. Tbe forcet of Denmark, PnjiTiay S^KOnyi 
and HanoTer, jomcd to •ii?eft Wifniar, while a 
bodf of j6yOoo men fonned tbe iiege of Stral- 
(ood; attbc ratne tinie that tbe czar, with a flcet 
ti vi brge (hips of war, and 150 tran^ports» car- 
rying jo,ooo mcn, tbrcw cvery part of thc Swe- 
diih roaft itito thc grcateA conftemation. The 
brrdliB of Cbarlcs coutd not prcTail againft fo 
mnyeMmies; yet be waA ftill fo drcadful, that 
the prioce of Anh^it, with 11,000 hrave troop0f 
did oot tbink himfelf a mauh for this furious 
caemy wben at the bcad of oply 2000, till he bad 
mreoched bii army behind a ditch, defended by 
dteraus de frizc. This precaution was not un- 
DrceKary; for in the nigbt Charlcs with his men 
Hsiobered up the dicch, and atucked the enemy 
f3hodIy. Numbcrs, howcver, at Iaft prevailed ; 
»dClurle» was oMiged to TCtirc, after having 
fitilis&voarHe Grotbufcn, Gen. DardorlT and 
Dnrii^ the companions of bld eicilc, kiiled by 
^ihk^ be himfcif being wounded in the brealt. 
Thiinih attcmpt was madc to fave Rugen, from 
vi)eiKt the town of Stralfund was fupplied with 
pmimu Thc piace wai well fortiried, and 
larriiboed with 9000 men, with Charles himfelf 
ttlheirhaj ; bul jiothing could refift the effort8 
of tbc eoemy, Tbe houfefi wcre laid in aOica by 
t^iebonbi; the wails miferabiy Oiattered, and 
I^ breachei nude in them by the cannon ; fo 
tto bf tbe f 7tb of December it was propofed to 
|(itibe&/Iautt. The attack on the hom-woik 
*iid(faeratc: the enemy was twice repuifcd ; 
^Mal, by diiit of numbers, effeded a lodge- 
M. Tbe ncit day Charles hcaded a fally, tn 
■^bedeait tcrrible deftru^on among the be- 
'ecm, but was at length overpowered and ob- 
Mtoretreatinto thc town. At laft his oflS- 
^ apprtbending tbat he muft either fall into 
ttebttdi of the cnemy, or bc buried in thc ruins 
«^pbce, iatreated him to rctirc. A rctrcat, 
'^tHt, was now almoft oj damgerwu as to re- 
■»isihe town, 00 accoiint of tbe Becta of the 
*»<«j*itb wbich thc fea was covcrcd ; and tbis 
*f orawibncc induced the kmg to. confcnt to 
*• Sato| out, tberefore, in a fmall boat with 
^aBdoan, hc paiTed all the encmy'» ihips and 
■^toioiard arrived fafe at Ystedt in Schoncn. 
'44.)SvtfiElf, hi9TOryof,i;ntil thbdeath 
w^Chuiei XIL To rcveugc bimfclf for thcfe 

S W E 

and of rcplacing James on thc thrnne 
o*^ Britain'; which laft fchcme he had projeded 
out of <evenge for thc ele^tor of Hanover having 
fcizrd on the duchies of Brcmen and Yerdcn. In 
coo{crquence of ihc conference8 between tbc czar 
and Goertz, the former engagcd to fend into Po- 
land an army of 80,000 mcn, to detbronc tbat 
prince whom he bad fo long defended. He en» 
gaged alfo to furniih fhip« fbr tranfporting 30,000 
Swcdct to Germany, and xo,ooo into Denmark. 
Thifl trcaty, howcvcr, was not fully ratified ; and 
the king's death put a final ftop to ali the great 
profpe^s of Swedcn. CbaHes had rcfohred on 
the conqueft of Norway, and he marcbcel his ar- 
my ioto that cold and barren country in OAober, 
whcn the ground wa8covered with froft and fnow. 
With iS,ooo men he formed the fiege of Fredc- 
rickihall, though the ievcrity of thc fix>ft rendcred 
it almoft impoAiblc to break ground. Charles, 
howcYer, rtfolvcd to form trcncbes ; and his fol- 
dicr» checrfully obcycd, digging into thc ground 
with tbe fame labour as if they had been piercing 
a rock. Oo tbe iitb Dcc. 1718, the king vifitcd 
the trcncbes in the midft of a terriblc fire from 
tbe cnemy, to animate his men by his prcrcncc. 
He took his poft in a moft dangcrous Aation» 
ftanding upon a gabion and lcanmg over thc pa- 
rapet, whiie the enemy werc firing chain fhot at 
tbc vcry fpot whcrc hc ftood. Hc was intreated 
to change his ftation ; but hc remaincd obftrnatey 
as if he had been proof againft cannon builets. 
At laft he was fecn to fall on the parap^t with a 
deep groan. A fmall cannon ball had ftruck him 
on thc tcmplc, bcat in the 1cfit eye, and forced the 
right eye quite out of its focket ; his right hand 
in the mean time grafped the hilt of his fword, as 
ifhc had meant torevcngethc blow. Sec Charles 



OF Prederick. Charlcs XII. was fuccccded by 
h'S fifter, pnnccfs Ulrica Eleonora, wifc to 
Prederick» hereditary prince of HclTc. On this 
occafion thc ftate3' took care to make a prcvious 
ftipulatian for the recovery of their libcrtrcs, and 
obligcd thc princcf8 to fign a paper to this pur- 
pofe beforc entcring on the govemment. Thcir 
firft care was to make a pcace with Great Britain, 
which thc late king intend^d to have invadcd. 
Thc SWcdcs then, to prcvent thcir farther lolTcs 
by thc progref9 of the Ruilian, thc Daniib, thc 
Saxon, and otl^cr arms, midc many great f«icrifi- 

-. «.- *w ....^w^.. w..».^.. .w. v..^.v ccs t« obtain pcacc from thofc powcrs. In 1710, 

y^ Chirlci mvaded Norway with an army of Q. Ulrica Eleonora refigncd the crown in favour 

i^J^JaeiL The Danes wcre every wbcre dc- ot ber hufband Picdcrick, who was ctedcd by 

■Jl^ad porfued with that Yigoiu* for which the Statcs, and crowned May ;?, 1711. The 

i***i was [q rcmarkable ; but itrong rcinforcc- Prcnch, about 17.^8, formed a dahgcroiiR party in 

Ij^aniiing from Dcnmark, and provifions thc kingdom, undcr the nameof the ///r/i ; which 

|*%»he wa» at Uft obliged to rctirc. Soon af- not only broke the internal quiet of thc kinedom, 

■ ***bc Swedcs lcft Wismar; butwbenete- but led it into a ruinous war with RulTia, by 

!T tt^ lceBcd i j go to wrcck, Baron Goertz, which thc province of Pinland was luft. Their 

2V*^toimfter and favouritc of Cbarles, fct on Swcdiih majeftie0 havmg no children, it was nc- 

y^^^y with the czar, by wbich thc moft cciTary to fcttle the fucccifion ; efpeciaily as the 

SP^ of ad Charle5's enemics was tAkcn ofir. dukc of Holftcin was dcfccndcd from thc queen's 

ggj^to ^ prevatkd upon tbe infiexible tcmper cldeft fifter, and was, at thc fam^ timc^ the pre- 

9**Ji by rcprclenting to him that the cefiion fumptive heir to the empire of Ruilia. Four com- 

^2* provioces to Peter would indoce him pctitors appeared ; tbe duke of Holftein Gottorp, 

*f*^^" ^'* proje^ of again dcthromng prioce Frcderic of Heflre*Caftci, nephew to the 

^tlSL Part I. G king. 

Digitized by 


S W E 

Hing, thc priiue * f IX:r.mark, ard t!ie t*iikc ot 
DcuK-PontR. Thc dulic cf Holft» in had imdonbt- 
tdiy thc be(l riuht. Hts name was Ptter Uirie^ 
iht fon of|e8, piiicc of H<»inein. 
Cottorp, and grandlon of Dukc Frtdcrick IV. hy 
tled^piga SppbiAt cldeft rifter to Charics Xn. biit 
bc had embraced the Gr^ck religiun, that he 
priight fuccecd to the throitc of KiidKa ; which hc 
did, on the dcath of Elizahcth, and b-caenc ihc 
unfortiinate Petfr 111. The czartiia intcrptiftd, 
^nd oAcred to rcfture all thc conqiuft8 flje had 
made from Swcdcn, cxccpting a fma'l diftr!<^ in 
Pmland, if thc Swcdcs would rcceivc the dukc of 
Holftdn*8 uncle, A^olphus Frt.dcnc b;ftiop of 
l.ubcc, as thcir hcreditary princc and fucccll"or to 
tbcir crown. ThiB was agrced to ; and a peacc 
was concludcd at Abo, undcr thc mcdiation of 
^ his Britannic majcfty. Thjs |Ka«'c wat» fo hrmly 
adhcred to by the czanna, ihat thc K. of Dcii. 
mark dropt ail rcfcntmcnt for the indiguity done 
~hi;i fon. Q. Uirica Elconora ditd in 1741, and 
^. Prcdcric, hcr huiband, in 1751. 


DEATH OF K. Adolphus Prederick. Ktnj? 
Adolphus Prcderick was ciedcd lucccAbr to ihc 
thronc July 4, 1743 ; and on July 17, 1744» had 
inarricd priticcf8 Louifa Uirrca, third riUci to thc 
king of PruAla. In 1751 he cntered i»»to thepof- 
iciTron of his ncw digniiy, which piovcd to btm a 
/crbwn of thorns. ThrvKy«h a (Iraugc mtdity of 
jiAairs and vicw8 of iiutrtft, the Frcnch had ac- 
quired vaft iuAutiice in all th€.deiibcratior.« df the- 
{>wcdifti fcnatc. TOe intrigucs of the fcnatori 
lorccd^dolphus to take part in the latc wnr a- 
};ainft PruAia : but as that war was ddagrccable 
not only to the pcople, but alTo to the king of 
Swedcn, the nation i:cvcr madcfn mcan an ap- 
pcarariCc ; and upon Rulha's making peace writh 
the king of Pruiria, thc Swtdcs likcwife made 
tbeii^pcacey upon the terms of lcaving things as 

5^ ) 

S W E 

Hc g«ivc p.irticiilar attention and cncouraperacnt 
10 commerce, v»ras a liberal and cnUghtened pa- 
tron of learning and fcience, and laboured ttrcnu- 
oudy to intiodiice into his kingdoro thc moft n- 
lnable improvcment5 in a^nculture that had bccn 
made li» foreipn cmintries. 


MURDBR OF GusTAYUS III. Guftavus ifhi»e 
ihus aiJtivc in promottng thc arts of pcace» wa$ 
n )t inattentive to thofc Gf war. The fleet ard 
t'ie army hc pliced on a more rtfpr<5taWe footiog 
than they had ever bcfore attained. Of this thc 
war with RulTia afforded nurrerous proof$. It ii 
Bccdlcis for us to enter into a dctail of the parti- 
culars of that w^r, which, as well as thc aftoni(h« 
ing a<5l»vity and military Ikill difplayed by the 
Swcdilh monarch, arc frtfh 111 thc memory t»f aH 
our readen». SuAice it to fey, that ncilher Goft>- 
vui Adolphuii nor Charles XII. gave gr?atcr 
proofh t>f undauntrd tourage and miRt^ry cou- 
du<ft iii t*^eir long and bloody wars thnn werĕ gi- 
\tx\ by Guftavati 111. from thc end of 1787 to 
1790, whcn peacc was reftorcd berwecn the courtj 
of St PetcrAiurgh ai'd Stockholm. In 1791, be 
cnlcrcd into tl»c alliancc that was fofnied acaintt 
thc rtvolutioi)ary governmcnt of Prancc ; audtO 
raife an army to co.opcrMc withthccmpcroraod 
thc k«ng of PruAia, hc was oblipcd to neeociatt 
largc hMns, and to impofenpon his Aibjcds hc«y 
taxcs. The nobles took advantape of that dr* 
ctimft>nce to prejudice the nrii«Hls of thc ptople 
afainft the fovciC'gn, who h;*d iatK>ure<l f3 lorn 
fDV- tbeirfcM good. CM the i6th of Marrh 17^11 
hc receivcd an anonymous Ittlcr, waruing him of 
his imaediatc dat'gir from a plot that was laid 
totakcaway hin li!c, rcqn(ftirjg him to rcmama 
horre, and avoid balls for a ye^r. Guftavus Ite 
Caefar, read Ihe notc with eomcmpt, and atalHe 
hour went to a bail that very night. He ming^ 
wtthout appi^hcnlron, among thc rrowd ; JW4 

they ftood at the btginning of thc war. Adolphut juft as hc waH preparing to retire iii companr 

.died difpintcd in 177 1» after a turbulent reign of 
90 yeara ; and was lucceedcd by his foii Guftayus 

T&A0RDINAR.Y REVOl,UTION IN 177». Thc mott 

icmarkable tranTaAion of tbe rcign of Guftavus 
JII. is the rtvotution which took place m the go- 
vtlrnmcnt in 1772, by which the king, from bemg 
thc thoft rtmitcd^ became ooe of thc moft de/potic 
monarchs in Euiopc. Evcr lioce the dcatn of 
Charlea JL\i. the whole power of the ktngdom 
had been lodgcd in the Aates ; and t^i» powcr 
tbey had on all occaBons rooft grievoufly abured. 
Guftavu8 thcrcfore detcrmined either to fcizc on 
that powcr of which they made fuch a bad i!fc, 
or pcrifti in the «ittenrpt. By the powcr of bis 
cU qucncc, he obtatncd the acquiefccnce of all thc 
miiiiary in one day ; and on thc folIowin>r morn* 
i^i^ thc tcrnticd iierutc fubfcribtd with acchmji- 
iionsto 57, nrw ast^clt-s of gcvernment wbith he 
pielcnted to ihcm, iodgiog thtir powtr in bis 
own hard. The powcr, howevcr, ihus obt-^uied, 
\he kiiig tmployed for thc gootl of his fub}tdt8. 
He took care tbai ihc law Aiould bc adminittcrcd 
Hitli imparna»ity to. the richttt noble and thc 
^:>urcft pe<fant, naking a fevere cxamplc of fuch 
juubj.^ .^3 wu'c proYcd tQ haYcmadt jufii*:c vcnrtl. 

with thc PrurtiMn aml)afn»dori lie was furToun<ltl 
by fcveral perf.m8 in maftcs ^^^ o\' whom ftrcdi 
piltpl at the back of the king, and !odgcd the c<* 
tcnts in his body. Thc king languilhcd from tk 
lyth to the a^th of March, whcn hc dud witi 
tbat unOiakcn couragc i)e had manifcftcd duriB| 
hia hfe. A tew hours bcfort his dcccafc, hc att 
pointtd hifi brothcr, the duke of Sudcrmania, f<il 
regent, till his fon, who was thcn about ft^tjrtcetJ 
ftiould have aitained ihc a^c of cightcen. His lal 
wotd8 were a dcdaration of p.irdon to the coiJ 
fpitators ?icrainft his life. But hi» ordcrs in thi 
inftance x\cre dirobeyed. The airadin, AnkaJ 
ftrom, who had bcen dete€led by tbc piftols an^ 
cutlaf? hc arcppcd, v/:!8 fevereiy whippcd thrd 
fucccfiive dnye ; vx\ tr.c lall of which, his ngn 
haiid and head werc cut <^i and hi» body impJ 
ed. Four of his accomplices were bchcacled,nJ 
others werc impnfoiied, nnd fomepardoncd. In 
mediateiy 011 the dcith of the king, his fon w 
proclarnicl kinc by thc titlc af Guftavu9 IV. ti 
cortdu<it of whom, fincc his majority, give8 pr 
mifc that his name will lofc no iUftre in cotnpel 
tion with thc moft glorious in the arwal» 01 Sw 

(4<>.) SwiOtK, iNHABriTANTS, ChARACTEI^ 
. Dr.EiS, DIYERSIONS, .Scc. UF. TbcTC is a grj 


Digitized by 


S W E r 5 

(".irc.nty of charadcrs among ihc penplc of Swe- 
drnjaud they havc h<iil. diffcitnt cb.u'd<5tcrs in 
ditTcrcnt agci. At prcfc»U, Ihcir pc.ifants fcem lo 
bc a hc4vy pUxItliiig racc of mcn, lln^ng and 
M)i bai w»thout any oihcr ambitiou thanthat 
o(fubfiA)ng as wcll ao thty can : thcy arc honcd, 
fioplei tiorpitable, and rciigious; aud thc mcr* 
anile cUbci a;c much uf thc^ ctA ; hut 
ptil applicalion ar.d pcTfcvcra- cc i8 difco- 
mcdacoiig tbcm all. Thc nobil.ty a«»d j;cntry 
of 5.r«lcn arc bravc, politc, and holpitablc ; thcy 
hnchighand waim notioiis ot honour, and a:c 
jwloos of thcir naiional intcrcITs. Thc dicfs of 
tlwpcoplc isalmoll thc fame with that uf Dcn- 
Dirk: ihc hJghcr r.ink8 arc cj with 
frcDch roodcs aud fafliion8. Tlit « ommon divcr- 
&oMof:hcSwcucs arc, Ikiting, runnlng racct» in 
f.cdgci, and lailing \n yacUts upon thc ice. ' TUe 
»otDco plow, thrcfh out the corr, row upon 
tbc waicr, fcrvc Ibc bnck-ijycrs, carry burdci.s», 
nidoall tbc coir.m%j:i dind^cnc» iij Uulbandry. 
Lorjjcrity iscomraoit i.i S*vcdcn. 

(5:.) SwEOLN, Language akd Literature 
Of 7HI rEOf LE 0F. Tbc Swcddli bcguage is a 
^i<di of l^c T<ruton ic, and r. lcmblcs that of 
DcwiurL Thc Swedrfh nobility and ^'ciitiy arc, 
13 ^cacral, iDorc convcrIant in politc hicralurc 
tiaa thofi: of many othcr Bouiilhinp flatc8. Thcy 
btc of Ute txhibilcd fomc noblc fpccimcns of 
thcir inuDificcncc faf thc improvemcnt uf litcia* 
tcrc and (cicoccy paiticularly natural hiilory ; 
^M tbc boUoical and chcmical difcovericA and 
^•'^ciniDU of Linn";eus, Bergman, aqd 
^v iLc, wiO coQfcr cYcrlaAing tiouuur on tbcir 
B<«t couatry. 


^cr. Tbc inhabitants fublift by agriculluic, 
■*iaf» frazinf, hunting, and fifiiing. Thrir 
■*tna4for traflic arc thc buiky and ufcful com- 
Bi«x!i(icsoftDaA9, bcams, and othcr fort8 of lim- 
^farlhipping; tar, pitch, baik of trccs pot- 
**»*oodcn utcniil», hidts, flax, h^mp, pcllry, 
**•• copper, lcad, iron, cordage, fini, and tr.iin 
^ tvcB tkc manufa^uring of iron waaintio- 
^»dwo Swcdcu fo Latc as the i6th ccntury : 
^^tUttimc tbcy foId thcir own crude orc to 
tbcEii&Town», aiKi brought il back a^!n raa- 
'^md into utcnfiis. About thc nuddle 'of 
*^i7th ccDtury, by thc ^lTirtancc of thc Dutch 
*1 Fkimn^s, ihcy fct i:p fomc manuf.idu/cs of 
rji^^tarch, tio, wooncu, 6Ik, foap, lcathci-drcf. 
■t and Caw.milU. Tlicy havc fincc had fugar- 
^**fitobacco plaiitalion.-, and manu^atiluics af 
*<Wh,cotlon, fMitian, and othcr flufl*s ; alfo of 
■•lalttai, brimAonc, papcr-milU, and gunpow- 
(omik, Vaft quantiticii of coppcr, brafs, Accl, 
■*»OB,are oow wrought in Swcdcn, dug trom 
**a,fiMD<of thcm morc^than iioo fcct dccp- 
««wBiaiiDc of Dauncmora, which is much ihc 
**|»ofiiablc of any of tholc with which ti-cry 
Mcf Swcdcn aboundi, is faid to yicld 60 Ib. of 
•j^»ioott>. of orc, arid thc others about 30 Ib. 
^■'•atraAcd from ihis is known 10 Europc 
^lWoaiDcof Oregrmd : which namc is dc- 
?**^ a (ca«port on thc Baltic. A largc por- 
[""••^iiis croploycd by diiTcrcDt nationt for ma- 
*^I*clctt itcL Thc nwnc \vw difccvcrcd in 

I ) S W E 

1470. The Unwrpught ore wa9 firfl fo1d fo t^« ' 
mcicbantii of It was not i^ntil the rci^R 
of Guflavu8 Vaf i, tlut the Swcdcs workcd, il 
themf^lve<i. Tbc nnnc of Danncraora yiclds abou; 
40,000 fto *JS of bar-iron pcr ycar, whicb is fup* 
polcd to beooc loth part of tbt quantity whict) 
all thc iron tnincs of Swcdea producc. Ot t)iis 
pro.iuct, atnouutiug to 400^000 Aonci^ 300,000 
arc annually csipoitrd ; thc tcmamdcr ii manufac' 
turcd at home. It is cikuiatcd no lcfs tban 
3^,600 mcn arc cmploycJ in mi;»iiJg, and Xk^ 
b.Aiiclicii imiiictiiirtcly connc<i:tcd with it, yiz. 
4000 tor bicrtking tbc rocks, cithcr by cKploHon 
01 nianual I.ibour ; xo,8oo to hcvy timt)cr and 
burn ii into charcoal ; aooo arc cmploycd in 
fmc/ting; iSoo in iranfporling thc mctal from the 
furn.( thc foipcs; 600 m Iran^porting fandf 
tULlj <5cc. 4000 for tranfpoittng thc charcoal, and 
2400 at thc foigc«. Toey haye alfo fbaiAdcr)c8 
furcanai)n, f>rgcric8 loi Crc^arm» and ancborp, 
aimotKS, wirc a:,d Aatting-nwils, millsaUo for fulf 
bn^, anU lor.borini; and Itampbig : and of latc thcy 
bavc buiit many Itiips for f2ilc. Thcrc are like* 
wifc m Swcikn lomc ti^^r n)inc8, of which.lhat 
of SaiJba, ox SMUr^i iH thc richcit as wcU as the 
molt anc»ctit. It t^Miccd fo carly a« 1188, and, 
during iKc whoic of thc I4th centtiry, it yielded 
34,000 mciko ot li|vcr annually. |n the ijtb ccn- 
tiiiy thc quantity wa*< din«tuihed to 10,000. Ui 
thc reign ot Charle» X. it gavc ooly loo», and it 
tutniihes at prcfcat ilill !«&, thc orc ykl4i'*g ^tily 
one ouDAc of pure mctai pcrquinta), Tbe chiief 
gallcry, >vh^c the purcit tiilYcr was obtaincd ba^ 
vmg tallcn in, \^ not yet clcared^ DotwithAandin^ 
thcir inccfl*^t labyur^ Thcy arcalfp dtggin^ piti 
in a pcTpcndicu(ai;.drrc^ont in ordcr to arriVe at 
thc princjpai vcin, which cstcnds iticlf from tbc 
N. lo thc S£. P^roicrly lcad employed in ^cpa" 
rating the mctal was importcd froro Eogland } but 
thc minc ^Drnilhc^ at prcfcnt a fuiicieDt qiiaiitity 
for thc purpofe. , CtTlAin' towns i» Swedcn,, 14 ix\ 
numbcr, are callcd St^Unni^s, wberc thc mcr- 
chants arc allowed to import an^ c)i:port commo-* 
diiics io thrir own Ihips. Thofe towns whicbr 
havc no torci^n cummcrcc, thcmgh lying ncar the 
fca aic c.ilkd land to<Htnj, A third kind are tcrmed 
niitie iown^ as bck>nging to mine diAri^s. Tbe 
Swcdcs about thc year 175^ had greaily increa^.' 
cd thcir cxporti« and rtimiDiJhcd thcir imptN-tsy 
mofl part of which arrive or^arc fcnt oi* in Swc- 
difli iliips ; tbe Swcdcs having now a kind of na-* 
yigatioo ac^ hkc thatof thc Eoglilh. 


country haa prodiiced grcatcr hcrocs or bravcr 
troopd t\\Mt ihcSwcdcs; and yel tbcy caonot bc Ctid 
to maintain a Randing army, as thetr forccs coidilt 
qf a rcgulalcd oiilitia. The r.%vahy i« cIothe«If 
;trmed, and maintained, by a rate r;ii!rd upon 
the nobility and gcntry, accordtng to thcir cOatcs v 
and^thc inEantry bf thc pcafant»> £achprovincc 
i,H obliged to tind its pioportion of f(fl(licrt ac- 
cording to the numbcr of tarms it contarns ; cvcry 
f irm of 60 1. or 70 1. per aniiutn is . chargcd Witli 
a foot fo Idicr, furnifbing him wrlh dict, Indging, 
;»nd ordinary clothcs, and about ao n. a-ycar ii> 
moncy ; or clfc a )ittle wobdcn.houlc is built 
him by thc farncr, wbo aliows him hay and paf' 
lura^c lor a cow, and plonghs and lows laitct 
O a • «ncLWwli 

Digitized by VjOOQ lC 


S W E (5 

f nough to fupply him with bread. Whcn em- 
bodied, they are fubjcdk to inilitary law, but 
otherwife to the civil law of the country. It may 
thcrefore litcrally bc faid, that every Swedirti fol- 
dicr ha< a propcrty in thc country hc dcftiidB. 
This nattonai army it thought t# 'amount to 
above 50,000 men. Swedcn formerly could bavc 
fitted out 40 ihipi of thc iinc. 


iN. Sweden produces cryOals, ametbyAs, topa- 
ZC8, porphyry, Iapi8-iazuli, agate, cornelian, mar- 
blc, and othcr foflil8. The chief wealth of thc 
country, howcYcr^ arife9 from her mincs of filver, 
copper, lead, and iron. See $ 5 1. This laft empk)ys 
00 fewer than 450 forgeji, hammerinemiUs, and 
fmdting-boufe8. A gold mine haa likcwife bcen 
dircoYcrcd in Swcden ; but inconliderable. One 
filver miye is faid to producc crowns a- 
year. Thc produ<ft of the copper mines is un- 
ccrtain ; but the whole is loadcd with iraft tazei 
and redu^tions to thc govemmcnt» which has no 
othcr rcfource8 for the exigcncies of thc Itate. 
Thc water-falls in Sweden are numcrous, and 
many of them piAurerque ; but their utility is 
chicAy to l>e admtrcrd in thc immenfe number of 
water-whccls they drive throughout Swedcn. 


population of Swedcn h citimated by Cruttwell 
at near three miilions. Moft other gcographcrs 
are lilent on tbe fubjedt. 


pp. This extenlive kingdom, which istbe largeft 
itate in Elirope, exccpt PrufBa, is <livided into 5 
hrge diltri^ or tcrritories, improperly called 
prwhcesi by fomc geographers, and parts by 
othere, which is a very indiftin« eplthet. Thcfc 
diftriAs are, i\ S^bden, Proper. 1, Ooth- 


and, 5. PiNLAND. <S^e thde articles.) Eachof 
lhcfe is fubdivided' into feveral proTinccs. I. 
Swcden Proper contains ^ provlhdes, viz. Up- 


and Dalbcarlia. II. GotMand contains 10 
protinccs; v.z. Ostrogothia, Smoland» 
WEstROOOTHiA, the lAes of Gothland and 
O^land, Warmeland, Bohi;«, Dalia, Scho- 
NENV Halland, and Blekinobn. III. Norland 
includes7provincc8;viz. Gestricia, Helsingi* 
na, Medelpadia, Hiemptland, Herjedalia, 
Angermania, and W. Bothnia. IV. Swediih 
Lapland comprehends 7 ; viz. AJela^ Wttmptlani^ 
Umeoj iHtbeot LtJeo^ Torneo^ and Kemi ; and, V. 
Piniand conta^ns 6 pro^inces; vrz. Pinland 
Proper, E. Bothnia, Tatasteland, Ny- 
land,Savolax, and part of Care/ia and Cjmene, 
Moft of thcfe provinct8 are defcribtd in their 

(56.) SWEDEN, quadrvpeds, birds, nsH^ 
PLANTS, &c. or. Tbe cclebrated Linnaeus fayf, 
therc are in Swedcn, 1400 dilTercnt fpecit8 of ani- 
mals, and 1300 ^pecies of plants, of which aoo 
are medicinkl.* Among the former are bcars , 
elks, does, roe-bucks, beaverei fable8, polccats, 
wol^es, foi^«, hares, rabbits» fquirre!8, moor- 
lowls, wood-coGks, falcon8, partrtdges, and a 
grtat variety of otbcr game ; t>cfidct tbe domcftic 
animaU, horfc8, Oieep, goats, hog», aod black 
cattle. Tbe coalts and rhrers abound with Alh» 

a > S W E 

which are fa1tcd and exported. Tbcre are no 
venomou8 reptiles in Sweden. 


ChriHianity was introduced here in the ^th ceo- 
tury. Their religion is Luthcranifm. The Swcdca 
are furpri(ing)y uniform in religious mattcrt; 
and bave fuch an averiion at popery, that cq/lra» 
thn 18 the fatc of every Roman Catbolic prieftdif- 
coYcrcd in Sweden. Thc Abp. of Uplal has a rc- 
Ytnue of about4oo1. a-year; and hasunderhim 
13 fuffragi)nH, bciides fuperintendants, with mo< 
der;ite ftipends. No clergyman has any conceni 
in affairs of ftate ; but their morals and tbe fanc- 
tity of their Uves, endcar them to tbe people. 
Their churchcs are heaty and often omamcnted. 
A body of ecckliaftical laws and canons dired 
their religious cconomy. A converfion to popcty, 
or a long continuance under excommunicatioo, 
which cannot pafs without thc kin^'b pcrmilBon, 
is puniOied by imprifonment and exile. ■ 

(58.) SwEDEN, REVENUE 0F. Thc rcvcnuc of 
Sweden, fince the unfortunate wars of Charlet 
XII. has been greatly rcduced. Her fpedc, in 
the reign of Ad. Prederic, arofe chicAy firom thc 
king'8 German dominions. Pormerly thc crown 
lands, poll-money, tithes, mines, and othcr ari 
ticles, arc faid to havc produced a million fterJ 
ling. Thc payraents that arc made in coppcr, 
which 18 here thc chief medium of commerce, ii 
exlrcmely inconvenient v fome of thefe pieces bc* 
ing as lafge as tiles ; and a cart or wheelbarrow u 
often rtquired to carry home a modcratc foiD 
Thc Swedes, howcvcr, havc gold ducats, aJKi 
ctght-mark pieccs of filver, valucd cach at 58. ad. 


AND Producb of. Tbc furface9 cliaute, (ol 
&;c. of Sweden, are pretty nmiiar to thofe of it 
neighbouringcbUntries ; only it has tbe advaol9 
of navigablc river6. Suramer and winter fuddai 
ly fueceed each other, with hardly any intervj 
of fpnng and autumn as in othtr countries. Yc 
getation is therefore quite rapid, tbe beat beu) 
exceflive. The long days of fummer have hardl 
any night. Stoves and warm furt mitigate tli 
cold of winter, which is fo intenfe, that the no(( 
and extremitie8 of tbe inhabitants arc fometim( 
mortjBcd.. The Swcdes, fince the daya of CbaTl 
XI[.'have been at incredible pains to corre^ tl 
nativc barrennef8 of thcir country, by crcdii 
collegcs of agriculture, and in fome ptacet wv 
great fuccefs. The foil is much the famc wi 
that of Dcnmark and fome parts of Norway, g 
nerally very bad, but in fome valley8 furphbng 
fcrtile. The Swedes now follow thc agriculti] 
of Francc and England ; and rcar aImoft as rou< 
grain as maintains thc native8. Gothland produc 
wheat, ryc, barlty^ oats, peafe, t>ean8 ; and '<i 
ficiencies are fuDplied from Livonia an4 the & 
tic provinces. In fummer the field8 arc verdai 
and covered with Aowers; and producc Ctra 
berries, rafpberries, currants, and other fiii 
truits ; and melons are brought to grcat perf 
tion in dry feafon8. Swedcn is happity-iirec iti 

(II.) SWEDBN, PrOPER. ScC N* I. § $$• 

SWEDENBORG, Emanuel, waa born 
Stockholm on the i^th Jan. 1689. His fatl 
wat biibop of W. Gotbia. Young Swedcnbor 


Digitized by 


S W E 

(docatioo, from the cbaraAcr of the father, fnuft 
bafe beeo pioua ; aod by hia appearing with re- 
potatioo ai »n aotbor, at ao years of age, it i« 
proTcil fuccff6ful. His firft work was a vol. of 
Latin poems, publiihcd in 1709; and in 77 10, he 
ptiblt(hed a colleAion of pieccs, in Latiu ▼erfe» 

( 53 ) 

8 W E 

tBpbjed in the fiege. During thia fiege he com- 
plrteda colledion of ciTayt on matbematics and 
P^tCaUed DdtJaltu Hyperboreus; and poblilh- 
olaaiDtrodudion to algebra, under the titie of 
Tin Art 9ftbe Rtdej. At thc fiege of Frederickf- 

ielf to him tQ a peribaal appearance, in 1745« ta 
open in him a figbt of tbe (piritual world, and to ' 
enable him to conTerfe with ppiriu and angeU* 
From tbat time be bade adieu to ^cience» and em<' 
ployed his time in traveniii^» and cspended large 
.iums in publiihing mydic tra<ft4, declaring in hit 
rntitied Ludm HeUcomus^Jrue Carmina Mijceiianea^ own words " the variou8 unkoown Arcana^ which. 
fa/ varm in iocis cetinit. The fame year he be- bavc bceo either feen by me or revcaied to mc». 
faa bis traveU ioto England» Holland, France» concerning heaven and hell» tbe ftate of men af* 
ZDd Germany; and returning to Stockholm in ter death, the true worOiio of God, the fpirituai 
1714, he was m 17 16 appointed aiTeiror in tbe fenfe of the Scripturea, and many other importanc 
MdalHc College by Cbarles Xn. who bonoured truths tending to falvation and true wiiidom.''. He 
hio with frequent converfation8. At thia.period died at London, March ^» 17-79. Though Ba- 
iiedevoted hit attention to phyfic and mathema- ron Swedenborg^s foiiowers appear not to have 
tio; and in 17 18 he accoropanied the king to the been numerous duriog hi<i life, tbey haTe increaTed 
ftege of Prederickiball» wbtre he gave an crainent fince his death \. and a fcdk fiibfift8 at prcient in 
proof that hc bad not ftudied in vain, by defign- Englaod which derive8 its ongin from him, and ia 
mg a canal a| roiles loog» through which he con- called tlre New Jerujalem Cburci^. Tbe djfcrimi« 
rcyed froB Swedcn two galleys, five large boats, nating tcnets of tbis Tcdt feem to be the followingc 
aad % Aoop, loaded with^battering pieccs, to bc " Hoiding thc doArinc of one' God, tbcy mJiin- 

taln that thi» onc God is no other than JcA^ 
Chrift, and that he always cxiftcd in a bunMn 
form $ that for the £ike of redeeming thc world» 
he took upon himfclf a proper buman or material 

^ body, but not a huroan foul;.that tbis rcdcmp- 

M be bH hia patron Charlcs; but found another tion confift8 in bringiog the hclis or evd fpirit« tn<- 
in bis fiftery Q* Uhica Elconora ; by whom in to fubjcdion, and the heavtnft itita order and re* 
1719 i^ W2a cDnobled, and took his fcat among gulation, and tbercby prcparing: tbc way for'.« 
t^ ibaton of thc cqueftnan ordcr in the trien- ocw fpiritual church ; that without iiich c^emp- 
Aial aicDblies of tbe ftate9. He publiihcd in thc tion 00 man coukl be iaved, nor could the angtls 
^jniA Mttbod tofix tbe raitae o/Meney^ and rctain their ftatc of intcgrity ; tbat thcir redemp- 
tt^dermiae tbe S^uedijb Mea/ures injiulr a iwaj as tion waa effeded by mcans of trials,. temptations, 
*^^efs aU tbe FraQions andfacilitaU tbe G^at* or couAias with cvil fpirit9 ; and Ihat the laft of 
Wf. About tbe iame time he gavc thc public . tbem, by which Chrift glorified his humaRtty« 
^)iatife oA tbe Pojiiion and CoNr/e oftbe Pianets ; pcHe^ng thc tmioo of his divroe with his human 
^»ihtr 00 tife Heigbt of the Tidesf and Fi^ nature, wa» thc paiTion of thc cro^s- Though* 
^lg^ of tbe Sea* As hc contioued, under they roaintain that tbefe,ia btit one Ood^and one; 
*c eew ioYeretgn, to hoid tbc office of aiTeAbr divlne peHbo, thcy hol4 that in this perfon therc 
^olke Mttallic College, he made a iecond jo^- is a real Trinity: cor.Ming of the diyinity^ the 
"*? i«o toreign countries, to examine tbeir humanity, and the opcration of them both in^ th^ 
^OMi particularly thoie of Saiony and Harts. Lord Jclus ; a Tnnity which did not extft irom: 
*«nif thdc 'travcls, hc printed at Amftcrdam, all ctemity, but comroenccd at thc incamation.. 
^^B/ra<ntf frimeipiorum Naturaiium^ Jinre no^ Thcy beiievc that thc Scriptures are to bc intrr- 
**^ tentamtnum^ Cifemiam et Plyjjicam experi» preted not only in a literal but io afpiritual ^enie', 
•*«fc* geometrice erpUcandi. %, Nova objer» not known to the world till it was revealed to B. 
^^ inwnta eirca Perrmm ^ Ignem^ pnecipue Swedenborg; and that thu fpiritual fenfc cKtendi»^ 
*^« tgnis Riementarumj una cum novo Camini to evcry parl of Scripture, except the AAs of tbe 

Apoftle8. Thcy bctieve that tbere are angcls at- 
tending upon men, rcddinjr, as B. Swcdeoborj^ 
iays, in tbetr a^e^ions ; that temptatioii cotilii^s 
in a ftruggle between good and had angels within * 
men ; and that by tbcTe meanf« God ailiAs nren in 
thefeteroptation8, fince of themfelve8theycouid do 
nothmg. Indeed B. Swedcrborg maintains that 
tberc is an univerial inflox firom God into thc 

^'^wu 3. Mttbodw nova inveniendi Longttu- 
^itcorum terr^e marique ope Lume. 4. Modus 
*!^*^ teceptacula naruaiia^ vuigo en Suedois. 
'^^hh^odder, 5. Nova conJiruSio aggeris ayua" 
(ju. 6. Modus expiorandi virtutes Navigiorum* 
^*^Leipfic and Hamburg, ^. Mi/ceiianea ob- 
^^■te csrea res naturaies^ prajertim Mineraiia^ 
l^'^ tf Montium /irata. In 1733 hc finiihed 

*"r»d work, cntitlcd Opera Pbiio/opbica ^ foula of men, infpiring them eii^ecially with the 
?J^* In 17,14. he wcnt to infpca thc mines bclie^ of divme uniiy. Tbis efflux of divme Hght 
, ~P^ ^^ Htingary. In 1729, he wa» madc on thc fpiritual world hc compares to the efllux 
•■WcroftbeSocietyof ScicncesatUpia», and of thc light from thc fun in the natural world. 
2J» P^ohably about thc fame time, made a Fel- •* There arc (fay8 B. Swedenborg) two worii", 
* «tke Royal Academy of Sdences at Stock- thc natural and thc fpiritual, entircly dirtina, 
**• TbcAcadcmy ofStPctcfiburgfeDt him, thougb pcrfcaiy correfpondiMg to each othcrj 
■^Ttli of Decemher 1734» a diploma of af- that at death a man enters into tbe fpiritual >yorld, 
^w as a corrcfpondent membcr. But all whcn his foul is clothcd with a bodY, which hc 
2* ■*riL« of ihe approbation of the leamed terms fubfiantiai, in oppoGtion to the prefei»t ma* 
r?«W preicTTe thc ftrong mind of the Baron teriai body, which, he Jays, is n«:vtr to nic out 
^■«og a TJdim to the wildeft fanaticifm. of thc gravc.*' 
'««d»ed ihat thc Lord had maniftfted him- SWEDES 

Digitized by 


) £( W £ 

Defccnd, yc nint : defceiid and fing, 
And/nv€fp fhc foiinding lyrc. Pope, 

{'%.) • To SwEEp. «r. n. I. To pafs with tu». 
Iciice, lumult, or fwiftncfs. Pcrhap» in thc fiift 
quutation we Ihouid r^id/woop. — 
I wiih wing8 as fwi!t ' 
M^Y/uref> to itiy rtvcrge. Sbak. 

*-A poor mH!i that opprcircili thc poor, is likc « 
brought from> or iaventcd in /u«f<^/;i(; raln whichlcaYethnorood./^rw.^iTiiuj. 

Cowcn in her couffc 
Tow'rd3 thc Sabnnian Ihorcs, zzfweeptng from 

hcr fourc.-, 
Takcs Towa. • Draytm. 

Stars ihoottng throtigh thc darkncCi gild the 
W\Xh fweepini( gloricS. * Drjden. 

«. To pafs wiih pomp ; to pafs witb an cqiial 
motton. — 

S\\tf<iveeps it througH Ihc coiirt. Sb&k. 

In f»cntle dreams I ofttn will bc by* 
AiH\fwtep along bcfort your clUing cyc. Drjd* 
3. To motc with a Jong rcacb.-^ 

Nor ahpray§ errs ; fot oft thc giuntlct draw« 
Af<weeping (trokc along tkc crackmig jiws. Dryd. 

♦ SWEEPER. »./ tfrom Jwcep^l Onc that 

* SWEEPTNOS. 17./. [from /wtep.] ThAl 
which 18 fwcpt away.— Should this onc broom- 
ftick entcr thc fcenc, COTcrcd wnh dnft, tbougb 
the Jkueepin^j of thc fincft U&y*B chambcr, wc 
Aiotild dcfpifc its Tanity. Swi/^, 

♦8WEEPNET. »./. lfwtep and net.l A Dct 
any thing that is funlc, they call thU itiion /ktfeep' that take» in a grcat com^afs. — Shc was a/qyf^ 

S W E (54 

SWEDBS, 11./. the nativea of Swcden. Sce 
SwEOEN, N^ I, $ 49. 

SWEDESBOkOUGH, a poft town of New 
Jerfey, lu Giouccfter couniy, on thc Racoon, 
which runs into the Dclawarc, and is navi^'abie 
vp to this town. It has a ftne chuich, and is 21 
milcs SSW. of Philadelphia. 

(1.) SWEDltjH, a^J. Of, or belonging to Swb 
BtN \ or iprung 
that kingdom. , 

(OSwedishLaplano. SccLaplahd, N**HI. 

C^.jSwSDisH TuRNip. See Ruta, N° i. 

SWEDLER, a town of Hungary, 7 miks S. 
of Kapi<lorf. 

(i.) • SWEEP. «./. [from the vcrb.] i. Thc 
ad ot fwef ping. %, Tbe compaf8 of atiy violei>t 
at tontinued molion.— A door drags when the 
bottom cdgc ridci in itB ^noeep upon the Hoor. 
Jlf«uroit*— - ' 

A torrent fwe'il*d 

Breaking away impctuou«, invo!ve9 

Within its f<weep, trees, houfe6, men. Phi/ips, 
3. Yioicnt and generai deftrtf6ion. — In countries 
fubjed togreat cpidemictil/aiA^/, men may iive 
vxjry long. Crautit. 4* Dire^tioh of any motion 
not redtilincar. — Having made one inciiion a Uttlc 
ctrcuUHy» begin a fccond, brin^ing it with an op* 
pofitc/ui^ to mtet the other. Sharp^ 

{%.) SWBCP, in the fca4anguage» u tbat part 
of tbe roould of a fliip where Ihe begint to com- 
paO) in the rung.hcads $ alfo whcn tbe hauier is 
draggcd atong ihc bottom of the fea to recover 


imgjhr it. 

(i.) • ToSwEiP. V. a. \f<wapaitt Saxon.] i. 
To drivt away with a befom. %. To clcan with 
a bcfom.<^What woman, tiaving tcn pieces of 
ftivcr,'if (tkt Mc one, dotb t\ot/weep the hoQfe, aod 
fcck diligcntly ? LuJkt^ xv, «. 3. To carry with 
pomp. — 

Like a pcacock, /oims^ along his tail. SJbak. 

4. To dHve orcarry ofi' with celerity and vio)cncc. 

" I could, 

With barcfac'd power, /weep him from my 

fight. SJbaA. 

— The river of Ki(hon Jhvept thcm away. ytadgej, 

▼.— The bluftering winds ftriving lor v«dtory, 

^wept the fnow from off the tops of thofc hlgh 

mountain^. Knolleu — 

Tbcy mifB or jweep but coromon fouls away. 

My looking ts the fire of pcftilcncc, 
Thskt/weefj at oncc tbc peoplc and the prince. 

— 1 have alreadyywr^/ the ftake8. Dryden. — 
Is this the man who drive3 mc beforc him 
To the world'i ridge, Sind /tueepi me oflf ? Dryd. 

With cqua! fpccd thc torrcnt flows 
Tof<weep fame, power, and wealth away. Eenton. 
— A duke drew a huge heap of gold ; but ncvcr 
ohfervcd a iharper, who undcr his arm f<wept a 
grcat dcal of it into his hat. S<wift. 5. To pafs 
over with celcrhy and forcc. 6. To rub ovcr. 
Th^ir long dcfccnding train 
With rubics edg'd, and fapphircs /<wept thc 
plain. JJryden. 

7. To ftrikc with a long ftroke.~ 


net for the Spaniih (hips. Camden, 

• 8WEEPSTAKE. «./. [Jweep ;indflaJke.] 
roan that wins all.^ 

S<weep/faJke yon widdraW bothfriend and foc, 
Winner and fofcr ?* Sbak, 

■SWEEPSTAKE^S PoRtLANt),, a CApC in thc 

Slraits of Lon. 71.24. W. Lat. 51. 
40. N. 

♦ SWEEPY; ai^. [f)pom /<twep.] P^ng witb 
grcat fpecd and violcnce ovcr a great compaf5 a! 
oncc. — 

Thc branchcs bcnd bcfore ihcrr fw€efy fwa7 

(!.)• SWEET. aJj. \fwete, Sax.>^/, Dutch. 
i. Pleafir»g to any fcnfe.— 5w^f/ eKprciTes thi 
plcafant pcrccptions of atmoft cvcry fcnfe: fuga 
is /weett but it hath not thc famc fwectncrs as mu 
ti^ck } nor hath mulic thc fwtctnefsof a rofc, an» 
z/<weet profpeA diffcT8 from thcm ail : nor y« 
havc any of thefe tbe famc fweetncf8 aa difcourf< 
counfei, or mediiation hath ; yet thc royal Pfaln: 
ift faith of' a man, wc tooV/^eet counfc1 tog( 
ther: and of God, my meditation of him ftia 
ht/<weet. Watts* %. LufciouK to the taite. — 

Thls honcy taftcd ftill is ts^v/<weet. JDaw 
3. Pragrant to the fmell.— 

hurn/weet wood to make the lodging/av< 

— »-Whcrc a rainbow hangeth ovcr or touchet 
thcre brcalhcth A/<weet fmell ; for that this ha 
pencth but in certain matters which havc fon 
fwectncf8 which the dcw of thc rainbow drawc 
forth. Bacon.—S)\rcd vcry fmaU with tbtmc,/w< 
matjory, and a littlc wintcr favoury. fFahon. — 


Digitized by 


S W E ( 

Thc hilmj irphyrs, filcnt fincc hcr dc^th, 
Lament the ccafing of a/weeirr brc^th. Pope» 

To fcll the bountcou» produ^t of the fpring ; 
S^ert fiDcIling flow*rs. Cfl/« 

4. Mclodioui to thc car. — 

Thc dulcimcr, all organs oijwect^ ftop. MilU 
Hcrf:,crcb is^rac'd with/i/j^^^/^r round 
Than in anothcr^s fong is fourd. lValler* 

iiomon thc (Irtams their muimurs (h«ill for- 
hjweur mufick than thcir own to hcar. Popt. 

5. PSfa/ing to thc cye. — 

Thon haft \i^Jkucettft face I cvcr lookM on. 


6. }{Qi (alt.— Tbc white of an epp, pr Mood min* 
fled with falt water, gathcrs tbc Ciltne^ , and 
wkrtb tbc watcr/wrt'/«rr. Baron. — 

5«^/walersroingle with the briny maio. Dty. 

7. Not fcnir. — Timc chanpeth Cruiis from morc 
foar to more /wet i bot contrariwifc !iquort«, e- 
\cii thoTc that arc of thc juice of fruit, from ujorc 
/awttomorc four. Bacon, — Trccs whofe fruit 18 
io^ \3& \oQgiT than ibofe wh<jfe fruit i» f<wect. 
£«•1.— Whcn mctali art diflV>lved m acid n>cn. 

*niuffli, and Ihe acids io conjur.Aion with the Jtweetbread. Swifi, 

55 ) S W E 

— A littlc bittcr njinglcd io our cup 1cavci no re- 
li(h of the/<a'«'/. Locke.-^ 

Love had ordatnM that it was Abra'8 tum 
To mix ihtfrif€cts% and mui:ftfir thcum. Prior. 
a. A word of endearment.^ 

Sweet ! Ieave me herc a while. Shak. 

Wberefore ffown8 my/u;!'^'/.^ B. Jon/on» 
3. A perfume. — 

Aj» in f>erfume8, 
'Tia hard to fay what (ccnt is uppcrmo(t ; 
So (lic was ail 2Lf<weet. Drjdtn. 

Rcbound their/aw/j. Prior, 

(4 ) SwEET^ »./. in thc wine tradc, denotcs a- 
ny vegctable juice, whcther obtained by mcans 
of fugar, railing, or othor foreign or domcHic 
fruit, which is addcd to wiocs with a defign to 
improvc them. 

* SwEETBREAP. «./. Thc pancrcas of thc ca1f. 

— Nevcr tie yourfe1f alwayt to cat meats of eafy 

digc(ture, as vcaJ, pullcts, or f<u)eetbreads» Harwy. 

SweetbreaJ and collops wcre with &cwera 

prickM. Dryd. 

— Rcmember your fwcetbeart the butier loves a 

nJUl ad aftcr a diffcrent manner, tbc compound 
fea* a d!ffcrcnt tatte, much mildcr than bdorc, 
i^ {ometurcB a /weet oue. Netwton, 8. Ardd ; 

Lct roe report to him 
^mpi/tet dq)cndency. Sbak. 

Thc Plciadcs b<fforc him dancM» 
Shcddiog/«D«/jnfluence. " Mikon, 

Mercy has could mcrcy*8 (c1f be fecn, 
^'^ficxcter look than thU propitioui quecn. 
• ITai/er. 

?. Crttcf«1 ; plcaring.— 

J*fithing fofiiv^ete id as our countrie'8 earth, 

^joy of thofe, from . whom wc claime our 

kirth. Chapm. 

^^>eet intcTchange of hi.l and willey. Miiton, 

The Trojan hoft 

N<»{air?r face or/weeter air could boaft. ^n. 

»c Nrt (UJc ; not (imkiog : as, tbat meat is fweet. 

U]SwitT, in the above qnotation, (} i. 4e/* 

M « wtfecr co>^ufed than explained by Dr H^atts ; 

^tAjkthe lcnfe» ttatcd by tbc Dr except the 

^f^ and /u;^/iw/3r arc ufcd metapborically ; 

°* <iiabfurd to illuttratc a (imple fcnfiition of 

^ ^ mctaphors bi^rrowcd from it. 

IJ')* SwEET. «/: I. 5*ectnef8; fomething 

Lcttbc!ii not Ikk 
Tbc/iwrt which is thcir poifon. ^bt^k, 

WW fofter rour^ds are thcfc falute the car, 
Aiifthcccntcr ot all/«w'ft7j roct hcre ! B» Jtn. 

^ tT*ry fwert and ev'ry grace 
^^Hjr firom that forfakc:i face. Care<w. 

Hail ! wcc^dcd love. 
^ ''Cipetaa! ibcntatA of dc»mc(lic/<u;^^/i / MUton, 
S* with perp]exing ihought* 
To iMcrrapt thc/tt^rti of liie. Milt^ 

Kow Sacc thc Latian and the Trojan brood 
we tafted Tengcance, and the /weets of blood, 
V5k. Dryden, 

fti Ccyx thcn Tudain to 1eavc bis wifc, 
***«iamccm'd foiralte ilc/weets oi^ life l 
! Dryien^ 

(i.) ♦ SwBETBRiAR. «./. \J<weet aiul briar:\ A 
fragrant Oirub. — For March comc yiolets and 
pcach-tree in blo^Toaii tbe cornelian trec» and 
/we-tbrimr, Bacom, 

(».) SWRBT-BRIAR. Scc ROSA, § IV. N<^ 7. 

• Sw(ETBRO0M. «./. [grica, Lat.l An herb. 

VI.) * SwEBTCiCELY. n^/, \myrrbuSf Lat.] A 
plant. Miller^ 

(%,) SWȣT CiCELY is a fpccict 0f SCANDIX. 

(f .) * To Sw«ETEN. V. a, [U^m/weet.'] i. To 
make fweet. — 
^ The world the garden i^, (he i8 the (low'r 
Tha t /<weetens all t hc pl ace. Sidney, 

— Hcre is the ^mell of thc blood ftill : all thc per- 
fume8 of Arabia will not /tttf//M tbis little hand. 
Sbak-'^0\s^ nae an ounce of ciTCt to /weten my 
i nagination. Shak.^ . 

With faircft flow'w, ridcle, 
l*il hieeUn thy fad gravc. Sbak, 

S<wee$en your tea,' and watch your toaft. S<ujiji, 
a. To make mild or kind* — Ai n«er8of frcfli 
water faUiag into the nutn (ea; the (ca fwallowB 
thcm all, but is not cbanged &r /tweetened by 
thcm. 5aa/ir.— X)evotion .fu!ltei)a his heart, en- 
lightens hia vcC\\\^^ /<weetens his tcmpcr. l.a<w. 3. 
To makc lcfs patfliftil.^She. evcii /weeuns thc 
dcath wbich her fwcietnefs brought upou me. 
Sidnry. — '■ 

She tby carca w\i\/we^est with hcr charms. 

— Intereft of ftate and change of circumftanrc4 
may h<r»t^weete9ed t^icie-rc^kdions to thc pohtcr 
fort. Addi/ims — - 

Thy mcpcy f<we€t*ued ev*fy foi I . jlddifo n. 

4, To palUatc ; to rcconctlc.-^Thefe lc^Tons may 
be gilt arnd /weeteped as wc oider pilis and potions. 
UEJlrange, 5. Ta makc gnUjC^uhorplealing.^ ' 
Angry fom<?timcs, io/weeten o(f the rclt * • 
Of hcr biehaviour. Ben Jon/on. 

' 6. To foften; to roake deiicatc.-^orrcgio has 
his rocnM)rv made immortal, by /wetenirig hts 
lights aod Jhadowi* J^rji/. 

(a.) ♦ To 

Digitized by 


s w 

(».) * To SWEETEM. V. «. 

Where a wafp hatb bitten in a grape» or aiiy 
iruiti it y9\\{fweeten hattily. Bacon, 

♦ SwEBTENER. «. /. [from /weeten*] i. One 
that pailiates; one that repre^ctiU things teoder- 

But you who, till your fortune's made, 
Mud b« Si/tufeet'Mer by your trade. Svfifl, 

— Thofe fofiener8, /weetenerj, and compounders, 
ihake their heads fo ftrongIy, th;tt we can hear 
thcir pockets jingle. S<wift, a. That wbich con- 
temporates acrimony.-*-Powder of crabs eyes and 
ciawsy and burnt egg-ihtUsy are prefcribed as 
/<weeteners of any iharp humours. TempU* 
SwEET Pern. See Scandik. 
SwEET GuM. See Liquidambar. 

♦ Sweetheart. »./. t/wfl/ and beart.] A lo- 
ver or miftreffi. — 

Miftref^ retire yourfelf 
IntoTome covert ; take your /weatbeartj, Shai. 
— S<weetbea/^9 your colour is as red as «ny rofe. 

One thingt /<ufeetbeartf I will a(k» 
Take me for anew-^aihion^d ma&. Cleawland. 
— A wench wao cryinc; ; ihe had newly parte4 
witb htr /weatbeart, LrE/r, — 

Poretells th' eftate, when the rich ancle dtee, 
And fee8 a/u^/i/i>^flr/ in.the facrilice. Dryd, 

♦ SwEETiNG. n,/, lfrom J<weet,\ i. A fwect 
lufctott8 apple. — ^A child will chuTc sl /*ufefting be- 
cai]fe it U fair and plea&nt. A/cham. %, A word 
v( endearment. — 

Trip no further, pjtttf /<Ufeeting. Sbai. 

SwEET JoHN, a fpecie9 or Dianthi^s. 

♦ SWEETISH. ^y. lfromy^^.] 3omewhat 
fwe«t.— They efteemed that blood pttiMtous na- 
tnraUy, which aboundei with an exceeding quan« 
tity of/weeti/b chyle. EJcyer. 

♦^.[from/<weef,] In a fweet 
nianner ; with ^weetneia.-^l^e beft wine for my 
beloTcd gocth down/<uMetfy. Gant.^ 

He bore bii great commiffion in his look ; 
Biki/<weetij temperM awe. Dryden. 

No poct tytr/weetlj fung, 
Unlef8 be were like Phcebus yo^ng< S<wifi. 

♦ SWEBTMEAT. »./ [/<weet and meat,] Deh- 
,/caciea made of fruit8 preferved wtth fugar. — Mop- 

fa» aa glad aa oi /<weetnuatj to go of fuch aa er« 
rand» quickly retumed. Sidmy. — 

Wine and dedertay SLnd/<weatmeatj to d(geft. 

— The diOiea wcrc ill fortcd ; wbole pyramida 6f 
/weetmeati for boya and women, but iittle (ulid 
meat for men. Dryden. — 

Make your Xxzxii^iUt6X/vjeetmeat$ troly nice, 
With Indian fugar and Arabiaa fpice. Km^. 
—If a cbild crtesy you purchafe bia quiet by gi- 
ving him a lef8 burtfuiy^/Mf«/ .* thia may pre- 
tcni hi8 healthy but fpoila hia mind. Loeke,^T\it 
/weetmeatj do not make their appearance till peo- 
pie are cloyed up with beef aiid mutton. Addi/m. 
— A profeflbr who alway* ftand8 by, will not fuf- 
f.-r them to bring any prefent8 of toy* or/weet^ 
meatj. Swifi. ■ 

♦ SWEETNESS. «./ ffrom/atv^/.] The quaH- 
ty of beiiig fweet in any of it8 fenfr8; fragrancc ; 
Hielody; TufcioufneCi ; delicioufnefft ; agreeable- 
ndni dcii^tittuinefs ; ^tlen«f8 of >iaaune<»; 

E r 56 ) S W E 

To grow fweet. — miidncfs of atpeA. — She they«;<!f/«(/>of myheart, 
even fweeten8 the death which bcr jiueetnejs 
brought upon me. Sidney. -^TYit right tortn, thc 
true hgure» the natu^al colour tbat ts fit aad due 
to the dignity of a man, to the beauty of a wo- 
man, to tht /<weetne/j of a young babc. AJcbamr^ 

O our iiyts/weetne/jl Sbak, \ 

— Where a rainbow toucheth, thcrc brcathcth 
forth a fweet fmell : for this happeneth but to cer- 
tain matter% which have in themiclve8 fome 
/<weetne/j. Baeon, — \i\s /<weetne/j of caniagc isycry 
particuiarly lemembered. Pell, — 

Serene and clear harmonious Uorace Bowi, 

With/u*tf<r;if^ not to be expreft in proCc. R^f. 

— Suppofe two authora equally fweet, tbere i« a ; 

grcat diftindion to be made \n/<weetne/j, Drjd.— \ 

This old man'8 talk» though honey Acm^M 

Jii eTcry word, would not iofe ail iu /<weetnefi, 


Praife the eafy vigour of a line» 

Where Denham'8 ftrcogtb and Wailcr'«/u;frf. 

i7^join. Pope. 

— Thele qaahtte8 are adorned with grcat modetty 

and a moft \m\2Lb\t /<weetne/s of temper. S<wi/t. 

SwEET RooT, or Carmele, the Enghlh narae 
of a fpccie8 of GLYCYRaHJiA. See Murrat, 

SwEET Sop. Sce Annano, J II, N^ 7. 
Sweet-Springs, a poft town c>f Yurginia, 45^ 
ttules from Pbiladelphia. 
SwEET SuLTAN, a fp«fcie8 of Cehtaurea. 



larmeriat Lat.] Plants. A fpecie9 of giliiAower» 


(3.) SwsETWiLLiAM 0F Barbadoesi a fpeaci 


(i.) • SwEETWiLLOW. «./. Galc or Datch 


SWEIN. See Sueno, and Swsno. 
SwEiN-MOTE. Sce Porest Court^ an^ 


* SWELL. »./. [from tbe yerb.l Extett6on d 
^ The fwan'8down fcathcr, 

That ftand8 upon the/we// at full of tir^e. Stt 

(i.) • To SwELL. V. n, participle pafr. /<woiie\ 
[Jkveiiant SAX./<weiient Dutch.l i. To Rrow tul 
gjd ; to extend the parts. — 

I. To grow tui 

A %tn\\t /twelling and a peaceful flood. 
%. To tumif7 by obftru6iion. — 

K\\/<wotn ahd ulc'rous ; pitiful to the cye, 

The mtre defpair of furgery he curea. Sba 

S^woPn \% his breaft. ^r> 

3. To be exafperatcd.— 

My mildncU hatti allay*d their/u/W/iig;^ grid 


4. To look big.— 

Hcrc he comes» /welling like a Turkcy coc 


5. To be turgid. Urcd of ftyle.— 

Pclcua aod Tclcphus exilM and poor, 
Porgct their/Et;^//i;iy and gigantick wrord». -R^ 

6. To protubeiate. — This miquity ihall be ai 
bre.ich rcady to rall, pweUing out in a high ^-5 
IJa. XXX. 13. 7. l\j nit: iiito ariogancc ; to bc 

Digitized by 



We h;ive madc p^^cc of eamity 
Bctwccn ihtkjwlltng pceri. 

To ftubborn fpiriu 
Tbfy/««'//and growa» terriblcas ilorros. Sbak. 
\ To icrow upon thc vicw. — 

A kiQf doro for a (tage, priocc s to a^» 
i dmooarchs to bchoid \\\^f<voeUimg Cccne. Sba. 

S W E ( 5^ ) ; S W Ĕ 

Yoar cqaaJ mind ya/kuel/j not into ftate.- part of it, and became fatbcr of Canute the Orci{f 

Dryd, who conqucred thc whole of it, and rcigned ms^ny 
8. To be InAated with anircr.— I will help cYcry jears. See Oenmarr, { $% andiNGLAND, f i6— 
oDc from buD X)iiifweUeib agaioft him. P/almj^ x8: ailo Sweno's Stone. 

(i, .v)8wENO, ll.andlll. See Denmark» $5. 

SwENo'8 Stone, an ancicnt roonumcnt near 

Porrca, credted in memory of thc defeat of thc 

Danes Under Sweno. On that fide of tt whlch 

IroDts the South, and meafurc8 the thicknc^s of the 

obeliik about four fcct at.^^Yc thc pavcment on the* 

top of the ftep» hy which one>a(i:ends, is thc in- 

fcnplion cngraved on Plate CCCXXIX. 1 hc m-' 

19. Jt implics commonly a notiou of fomething fcriptian is dtfpofed m two Ime^, on a fca1e 0^15 

wrong.— inchea in lcngth, and tiie rev. Dr James Playfair 

Your youth admires rearts it thtt«, LOHII in rtfi ; and lays it compd- 

Thc thrDV9 iud/weUirtj^j of a Roman r^ul. MJ, Crs the initials of the ^ollowing words Lege obeli/ci 

Immodcratc viioiH /welli intoa fault. AddiJ\ bujus bi^r^gljpbicls in nofiro regno extinfiionem Sue^ 

(i)' fiSwELL. t;. tf. I. To caufc to rilc or none inva/{onis; which thc Dr tranllates thuv 

incraic; to make tnmid. — ** l/ndcrlland that thc hieroglyphicks pf thia obe- 

Wiod, blow the earth into thc f<a, lilk reprefent the cxtin^lon, in ogr kingdom/ 

O /W/ the curltd water« 'b(>ve the main. 5i&tf>. of thc io^aHon under Sweno.*' The monumenc 

You vrho/<well thofc fccds with ktndly rain. was placed bere, becaufe the Danes had attemptej 

Dryden. to form thcir fctticment in this qiarter. Tranl- 
j. To a|gravate; to heighten.— It is low cbb lated literally it lignifie« *^ ^By the hierojjlyphick» 
vtt^ hi« acctt^cr, when fuch pccca<1illoa are put ofthisobeliik, read,theextin^iohinourkingdom/ 
to,^//thechargc. >f//* ^i#r^. 3. To rife to ar* of the invalion undcr Sweno." 
ro<iflce,-AiI thtC: mlerics have ufually attend- * SWEPT. Thc participle an4 pretchte of 
td kiagdoms fiiOolUn ivith long picnty, pride and /weep. 

ticdu Clarendon,-^ * Tq SWERD. v. n. To brecl a green torf.- 

Thc kmg Qf mch whoy^o/i^i} with pride fSee To Sward.] The clays, that aie long int 

Rcfui'd his prrfent8< Dryden» /w^rdipig, are the bcft land for clovcr. Mortimer. 

[u] • SWELLING. a./. [from/w^//.] i. M r- SWERNICK, a towp of European Turkcy, orf 

W idTiour.— Therc is n-^t a chroniral difeafe that tbc Drino, on the con^nes of Scrvia and B jfniA : 

70 milcs SW. of Bclgrade. Lon. 19. 32. £. Lat.- 
44- 41- N. 

SWERTIA. or ihore propcrly Scertia; for^ 
it is m<»nftroufly unclaAical to put W even in- 
to a modermtntin word. To avoM fuch Barhari/ni 
thc late Dr Brown tumed hiS naine into BrOno. 
Marsh Gentian, in botany, a gcnus of plant^ 
belonging to the claf3 oipentandria^ and to the or- 

n-cTt rrwjamtiy introduccs the Hirtcmpcr, than 
l-mwi or fcrophulou9 /<^elUngs or uleers^ 
Bljtkmn-t, a. Proiuberance ; promincnce. — 
Tfcf fapcrficic« of fuch plates are not evcn, but 
hnt 04ny cavit!e5 and /a/elli/igj. lfe*wton, ^3. 
i^"Tifora vcr.t. — My beart was tom in piccet 
t^ kt tHc buibtnd fupprt(riri;t and kceping dowu 
^Mtingj of his grief. Tatler. 

<i.)SwELLiN(i. Sce SuRGERY, and TuMOUR. der oi digynia\ and in the natural fyftem ranging 

(j-iSwELLiiiG, White, or Paronychia. See 

SWELLY, a river of Jreland, in Donegal ; 
»4ar\insinto the Poylc, 3 railcs N. of LiiTord. 
• fi SWELT. V4 n. To bieak out m fweat, if 
^'«thc mcaning. — 

C^carml biood ro faintnef8 chill did melt, 
Wliich, likc a fcvcr tit through ail his body /«it/r//. 

.^•TcSWELTER. V. n. [ThisisAipp-ildto in Aupiift. 
bccwnipud irom /ultrj.] To be paircd with • To SWERV£. 

If the fnn'5 excenive heat 
Mikps oor boc^ics /weltery 

To ao ofier hedge wc gtf 

f«^ ^ fnei»dly Ibeitcr. ' ChaHtl. 

-^* 7o Svilter. V. a. To parchi or dry up 

•^btat— One chmate would be IcorChcd and 

MereJ with cverUfting dog-days whilc «n c- 

*oj^I>ecembcrblafted anothef. Bently 

undcr the aoth order, rotacer. The corolla is? 
wheciihnpcd^ There arc neAarifcroUs pores at 
ihe bafes of the fegmcnts of the corolla. The 
paofule is nnilocular and bivatve. Therc are 6' 
fpccies; vlz. 1. Swertia carinthiaca; 2. 


5. PERKNNis; and 6. rotata. 

SwERTiA Perennis isanativcof Engjand. It • 
is diftinguilhcd by radical oVal leaVc6. It fiowerfc 

X». «.. {/«iuer^en^ Saxou ancf 
Dutch.] I. To wander ; to rove. — 
A maid thithcrward did run, 
'1*0 catch hcr Iparrow which from hcrdidywrrT/»." 

Hiduc. : 
Thc/(Wfrving Yiries on tbc tall clmff pitva :. 

a. To deyl^te ; to depart from ru!c, cuftofr. < r 
duty.— That which anpels do clearlybchold, Ar<i: 
without nny /weruing ohferve,' is a law ccleOi 

SH^ELTRY. adj. [itom/<wetter.] SufFoCating Hooker. — Howfoevcr/w/r*p;ViAf are now ard thrn 

"^jl^l^L ^ incidcnt into thc courfe of iiature. hociir.- l 

J^KNE, or SwiNE. See SuevuS. * /<werve not frora thy commandmcntd. Com. Pia^t .- 

l^)SWENO I, or SUENO, Swan, Swein, or Wcre 1 the f^iitrft yoirth 

J*''», « king of Dcnmark, ^ha Aouiiibed in the That evtr madc the cy<5 /<wfnv€. Sha/ 

«cortunr, twicc mvadcd EnglAud, conaurrcd — la obcdiencc to tLeir jult cuBimaiids upon . 

*•*. XXU. PAkT K H trav>i<i.u. / 

Digitized by 


S W I ( 58 ) 

traordinary occadons. in thc cx4rcution of thcir tration 
truits, thcy /tioen^r from thc (tri^ Icttcr of the law. 
C/itrtnJan. ^TiW thrn hi* majcfty had not in thc 
lcaft /^n»f^ trom that a^ of parUamcnr. Ci^en- 
</««.*-Dcfcft And /<wervinj^ in thc crcaturc would 
kttmediately folIow. Hakc*wiU. — 

Firm wc fubfift, yct p^^Aiblr to/wert/e, MitL 
— Many, through the conti^ion ot il! cxamplc, 
/kitTw exccedin^1y from the rule« of thcir holy 
faith. Atterbiry. 3. To ply : to bcnd.— 

Now thcir migheicft ^ucHM, thcbattlc/«;rrp'i/ 

With many an inrond Por*d. MHtorj. 

4. [I know not whcncc dcrucd.] To climb on a 
Darrow body. — 
^ Nimbly up from bough to bough I /weru^J, 

Shc flcd rctwning by the way fh< wcnt, 

And/<werv*4i along hcr bow. Drjden, 


SWEYN. or SutNO. Set Sueno and Swewo. 

SWIER2NO, atownoClJthiMni.i, inN m>pro- 
dck : 36 mnlcs E. of Kovogrodck ; now anncxcd 
to Rum;i. 

SWIETEN. Scc VA!t Swietew. 

SWIETENIA, or m;rc properly SuiETEnrA, 
Mahocany, in botany, a gcnu» of plantsbelong- 

ing to the claf8 of decanJrwt awT t0»thc order of or rcpaidcdl Byfcholar<; hc wasrcckoncda block 
monoj^nia ; and in thc natural fyftcm arrangcd un- he^d y and'as his circumftancc8 woiild^not pcrmit 
dcr the 54lh ordcr, Mi/eellanea, Thc calyx is him to kccp company with pcrfon8of cqualrankv 
<yuinaucfid. Thcrc are hve pctats ; the nc^arium upoiran footing, he liyedmucb aionc,an<Jbi$ 
h cyur)dricai, fuDporting thc antheras with ite ti-ncwascmploycdinpur^tting.hiscotir^o^readin; 
mouth. Thc eapfule 18 fiTC-ccllcd, woody,. and in hiftory and poctry. Yet under tl»8 prcAurc, hc 
opcning at thc mouth. The fccd8 arc imbricatcd conccived ihc firft rudc draught of thc Tate o/ĕ 
ztid wingcd. Thcrc is only one <pecic8 ; Tuh, In 168S, bcinjr, by thf dcath of Godwio 

SwiKTENiA MAHAGDNT, a DAtiYc of thc waniK Swift his uncle, who had chicAy (^ipportcd him, 
cft parts of Amcrica, growing alfa in thc jAand of lcft without fubfiftcncc, hc wcot to confult hi$ 
Cubi, Jamaica, Hifpanioia,. and thc Bahaima mothcr, who thcn li^cd in Lciccftcr, about tliC 
illands. It aboundcd fbrmerly iir thr !ow lands futurc courie of his Hfc ; and, by hei' d«rc^»o% 
ofJamaica, but it il now formd only on hills and fo1icited the advicc and patronagc of Sir WiUiam 
placcs difficuk of acccAr. It thriycs in moft foil8, Templc, whofe fathcp had livcd in great ^ricndihip 
but varie8 in tcxture and grain acrording to thc wirh GodwireSwirt. Tcmplc reccivcd him widi 
naturc of tbc foil. Oa rocka i€ is of a fma)ler grcat kiodnels, and wa^ fo much plrafcd witb hil 
liie, but very hard and wei^rhty, of a clofe graiu convcrfation, that hc dctained him two ycarsid 
and bcautiful1y ihadcd ; whitc thc prodacc of thc his houfc, aod rccommcnded him to king WiiKam, 
)ow and richer lands i« obferved to bc morc light who^^ otTcrcd lo mabc him arcaptam af horfc. Tbii 
and porous, of a palcr colour and opcn grain; not fmting his difpofition, and Tcmplc notha»inj 
and that of mixcd lji4s tobolda-mcdiumbctween it quickly in his powcr to providc for him olhcr 
both. Thc trcc grows vcry tall and ttrai^ht,. and wifc, Swi^t lcft his patron (1694) «n, difcontent 
rs uiually 4 fcct in diamctcr ; thc frower8 arc ofa having prcviouOy takcn hi« martcr^i dcgrcc"» a 
rcddiih or ^atn-on colour, and.the fruit of anoval Oxford. Ife now refoked to cntcs into ihi 
form, and about thc fi2c of a tnrkcy'6 cgg. Thc 

S W ! 

and witb thi* littlc nutrirrtcnt thc titr 
increafe5 to a (tupcndous fizc in a ^cwyrars. Thc 
fii ft II fc to which m^hopany war appUcd ia Eng- 
lanri; w^it to makc a box for holdiwi^tindlcBt fot 
Dr Gibbons, an cmincnt phyHcian in the lattrr 
cnd of the iTth and bcginning of thc i8th ctntu- 
ry, who had a brothcr, a Wcft India captAin, who 
brought ovcr fomc planks of this woodasbaM. 
Thc (iipcrior ^nailitics of it bcinp immcdiaiclydit 
covfrcd, it foons came into gencral ufc. 

(x.) SWrPT, Dr Jonathan, ib uiiivcrfeny ad^ 
mrrcd as a wit and claffical writcr of the Enpliik 
iRngnagc, was bom io Dublin, Nov. yAh i66^ 
Ilis faihcr was an attorncy, and of a good fami. 
ly ; but dyingpoor, thc cxprncc oFhi« fon*sidi». 
cation was dcfraytd by his Criench. At thc age 
of fi» young Switt Was fcnt to the fchc>ul of Kil^ 
kf noy, whcitce ho rcmovcd in his i^th ycar to 
Triimy Coiicge, Dubli:!. So much did hc dct 
pifc the lludy of thc old Logicians, at that ticic 
held fo indifptnfi4bly necrlHwy, that hc wai refuf. 
cd a dcgrec on account of hi«» ignorancc of thclr 
writings, and ohtaiiicd it aftcrwai ds throujrh ibc 
intcreft of his friends arid ** hy fpecial f-*vour,'' 
a»inf.rted in thc collegc rcgirtry. lfc rcmaiocd 
in the c iHegc ncar 3 ytaraa^tcr thi.s iittlc kno»ft 

wood 18 gcneraily hard, takcs a fine poliih, and is 
foundr to anlWcr better than sny other fort in all 
kiods of cnbinct warc. It is (ani-to bc nrcd fbme- 
times in (hip-building r a purpofc for which it is 
remarkably adftptcd, if it wcrc not too coftiy,- bc- 
ingvery durablc, capabie of rcfifting gun-ft»ot8, and 
hmying the/hots without /^iintering. Thc fccd.vcf- 

church, whcrc his firft prcfcrment was only L.10^ 
a*ycar, bring thc prcbend of Kilroot In Conner\ 
whichTomc time attcrwards, upon Str Wiiliaaj 
Tcmplc*s camcftly inviling him back to hi* houlj 
Wt Morpark» hc rcti^ed. In 1699, Swift loft hii 
patron flir William Tcmple, who lcft him a lcgac) 
in moniey, with thc propci^iy of his MSS.; and 
on his dcath-bcd, obtiined for him a promiC 

fel? arc of a curious form, confifting of a largc conc from the king of th« fii ft prcbtnd tliat ihould be 

fpiitting into fivc parts,^ and diic1ofing its wingci 
fccds, difpofcd in thc rcguUr manncr of thofc of 
apocynum. Thc f<red8 ^ing wipgcd,arctfifperf- 
ed on thc farfacc of the ground, whcre fome fa1. 
iing into thc chinks of thc rocks ttrikc root ; thcn 
cTccp out on thc furfacc of it, and ^t-ck anothcr 
chink, into which ihcy crecp and fwdl to fuch 
a fizc and ftrength, that at lcngth thc rotk rplits, 
and ii forccd to adaait of thc root*8 dct-pcr pcnc- 

comc vacant at Wcftminftcr or Ganterbury. Swi^ 
dcditeitcd to thc kin^ thc piirthumous work« wit 
ii^hich he was cntrulted, and for a whilc attendci 
thc cbHrt; but foon found it in vain. Hc was thcl 
lnvited by the carl of B.^rkcley to accOmpany hd 
into Ircland, whcrc he obiained Ihc livings of La 
racor and ]^thba:ggin in thc dioccfe of Mcath: an< 
foon aftcrW.4rd8 invitt.'d ovcr the untortunat 
*Stei#i.a, a yoimg woman of thc namc of Johpf«>ri 


Digitized by 


S W 1 f 59 > S W I 

»iK»ie Vc b* cootiitcd to embitter, and wh()fc Patrick'fi, whirh hc accepted in 
a)>,tii'ju^'h hc ctTiaKJiy 1ofed hcr, wc may con- ■-'•■• 

f kiiti) iSirm ihat hc (hortC4>ed by his caprice, 

, 1713. In Ihc 

m»c!ft of his> powcr and his politicp, he ktrpt a jour- 
11^1 of his vilitR, hi«wHlk«, his inicrvic:w8 witi 

iia\ of his vilitR, hi«wHlk«, his inicrvic:w8 with mi- 
Tiirterji, and ^u-^rrtls wiih his fervant, and tranf. 
mitted it to Mrs Johnfon and Mrs Dingley, to 
whom he knew that whatever befei him was in- 
tertrtmg j but in 1714 pn end was put to his 
powcr bythe death cf the queen, wh»ch brokc 
down at oiice the whoie tyile^ of Tory politicr, 
and nuthirip remained for bim but to withdraw 
fit)m perfecution to bis dcancry. In thc trmmph 
of the Whigs, Swift met with cvcry mortihcation 
that a fpir^t hke his could poHibly bccxpcjicd tu. 
Thc peopie of Iicland weie irritatcd agamft him 
beyond nicafurc ; and cveiy inilignity was ofFercd 
him as hc walktd the (Ireetu of Dublin. Nor was 
he iufaltcd by thc r-ibhlc only, but perfor.s of dir- 
tiugutlhtd rank and chara«itcr torgoi thc.dccorum 
of commoii civility to ^^Ut hira a pcrfona! aATrpnt, 
Iii thi« Ittuation hc rctircd from the woild to dif- 
chargc his duties as a cltrttyman, and attcnd to 
the car^? of his dtanery. That no part of histimc 
might lie hcavy on his bands, bc empJoycd his 
leiiiire hours on fome hiilorical atiempts rclatirg 
to thechangc of the mimftcrs ^nd thc cor.du^t of 
thc ■miniftry; and ^romplctcd the Hijcry of the 
/our InJI years o/^ueen /^tme^j rejgtiy which had bcCrt 
beguii II) her liteiimc,but whichhe ncver publiih- 
ed. Of thc work wl-.ich bcajrst^hat tiilc, and is 
faid to bc his, Dr Johrfon doarbtB \Vx gtT.uinencf8 ; 
aiid it ccrtamly is not (uch ^s wc ihuuld have cKj- 
pcdcd frohi a man of Swift'b fogacity and cppor- 
tuiihies of >nformaiion. In 1716 hc was private.- 
l^^-marricd to Mrs Johnfon by Dr Aihc bdhop bf 
Cloghcr^ but the marriage n:ade no change ia 
thcM- ^t^ation, and it would be diiRcult to r.rovc 

#1 » i*<lf is gc*»crAlly b(.licvcd 10 havc been the 

k..^ itt jt StT WiliiaiB Tcmjut^s Itcward* tho' 

f*M. Gy, L^^ii fhc wa^^ir Wiilia n's own natural 

iiv^ttu and 8M-ffi h:mfclf his natural foii ; and 

•i:' a difa)tcry of this rtlationlhip was the t.aufe 

f* Swii*s othrrwifc unaccuuniablc condAn5t to 

^ au*kat woman* Be that ai) it m<ry, it is 

crtjw ihit Sir ^rTiUiam left ber L.iopo; aiiJ 

(^, jcciraptnied by Mrs Dinglcy, whc;fc wholc 

fc.'^»t «m *uritcd 10 an «nnuity ot L. 27 for lite, 

#• w . iii cnufequeiice of Swift's invitation, to 

Licw. Ulth thele two ladiea he paOtd hig 

^ j Tiiaiatiu'*, aiid to tbero l^ opened his 

Uiir; bai they Devcr re^idcd in thc famc houre, 

«I d«l hc fef cithcr witbout a <witncfs. In 

» ;i ^»ft pt)b!ifhcd A tii/eour/e of tbe lontejli und 

i m mt a jjtthew nnd Komr» It was the only 

*^ *kch* ht cvcr e^prcrsiy acknowledged. 

I'j*thefol»Dwmg fpring king Wittiam died; 

^*'UTt, 03 hu next vifit to Londtui, fi)und 

f<ni^r apon the throi^^ He was dunng 

Cfariapaftof the^^ucenS rctgn of no party, 

^ts^ed himr-kf in dHchargtngthe duties of 

k</«dijn,, and m pubhihing frum time to time 
u^itridias be thoiiglrt mtght be ufcful. In 
1^4 be pdblttbcd the TaU 0/ a TuA» which^-con- 
^^■mly u a work of gcniuA, is unqueftion- 
'^y ffcf |Teatcft which hc tvcr prodaccd; but 
Pf lc?<f «ith which religion was thought to bc 
l^tititcd, taiicd up cDcmicA-to him among all 
>*-tia, tod cventuai!y produded him froni a 
^**prx. Prom lh«t pcriod tili 1 708, hc itcms 

kla^tmployed tim(clf in fohUry Hudy; but ^ ^ .^ ^ , ^ 

» tfccB f Atc i4icoefiivelf tm thc public TJfe /mti' (fays I^d Orrery) that they were ever aftcr a ard$ 

»« < j Chi0^ei p/Ei^attd mom^ the ridicule of 
5fT%iind«r thc oame of Biekerftqff^ thc Ar- 
T^^ iim/k^h^ij/bing Chrifiiamtff and tbe de* 
t-tt rf dic Sceramental TeJ. Soon after bcgan 
'•^bi^ind important part of Swift*8 lifc. Hc 
♦»ca^cd in 1710^ ogr thc primatc of Ircland 
^ te thc qoces for a remiffion of thc firft 
' -^^ soth parts to thc Iri(h clergy. This 
" "^ * him to Mr Harle/, aiterwards earl of 

togcthcr but iii thc prcfence oLa ihird p^rfon. 
Tlic dcan Jivcd in a piWate «;lnncr, known and 
r^ardcd only b^ his fncnds, till about i^ao that 
Jic publitticd bis firft political pan^phlct rclatiyc 
to Ireland^ entHled A Propofal for the Unit^er/ai 
V/e Qf Irijh Mamt/uSure^ ; whith io ioufed thc 
Uidigiiation ot the ininiAry that they commenced 
a profccution againft thc pnnier, which drew th(e 
attention of thc public lo the pamphlet, and at 

-7*^ mm 10 «ir narie/, awerwaras ean or aiteniion or mc puDUc lo tne pampniet, ana at 
^*i»vrho, though a Whig hjaifclf, was at tbc oncc madc its author popular. WhiUl hc w^S 

■"«•cTory minillry, a9<itn grcat nccd of 
*' •'••T ^ *wc *« Swift, by wbofe pen he and 
^[•>» oinittcrs might bc fupported in pam- 
l^poeaM, aod pcriodical papcrs. In 17 10 
•*cw»e»CBd thc Exammer i of wbich S^ift 
'^ jj PApcrs, begmning bis firft on thp loth 
*X<».|,tu Iniyia bcpubliftied tbe OmduH 
?*r dihet tcn days bcforc tbe pariiament a/Tcm- 
*^; aad Iboo aftcrwart1s, BeJieHions op fbe bar- 
"• ^'w'^ Tkr purpofc af -thc^e pampbiet s was 
I* ^/v^ thc natioo to a pcace, by (howiog 
had becn cshaulted and mUiions dtL- 

cnjoying thc laurels which this wor4v had wreath- 
cd for him, hi8felicity,aswcil as that of bis wife, 
was interruptcd Iby Ihe death of HJra Van Hom- 
ri^h, and the publication of his poc«n calle^ Caie^ 
nui and ^anej/a^ which brought upon him much 
mcritcd ubloc|uy. Vyith I^r^ Yan Homrigh bc 
becamc acquait!ted in London ■dunng hiii atten- 
dancc in Court j and (iuding hcr pofl'cflc4 of ge* 
pius and /ond of Iitcra\ure, hc took dctight in di- 
retSting ber iludies, till lic got Li>frnfibly poirciTion 
i>f her heart. Pr^m bcing proud of bis prai^e» 

^^^^ ^ .^- ^^,^^^^ -..w .......^..w ^^- ihc grcw fond of bis perfon ; and defpifing vul- 

^w* to fccmc thc Dutch and aggrandize thc g^ar rcftrajnt8, Ihe made hkn ^tnTiblc that Ihc was 

^''*»without any adrantagc w^atevcr to 
JjJJ^ntaJD. Though thefc two publications, 
■'^*^ wilh hi< M^marks oa tbe Btjb^po/ Sarum^ 

rcady to rccetvc him as a hu{band. Shc had wit, 
youth, beauty, ai'd a compctent fortunc to rc- 
commcnd hcr; and Tor a whilc Swift fcem8 to 
I <« tiie tbird Kolwme o/bu Hijory o/tbe havc becn undctcrmintd whether or not he ihould 
l'^*»**^ certiiDly turncd thc tidc of ^opular comply with hcr wilh. Shc had followed bim to 
J*'"!» tlid cficAujJy promoted thc dcugnt of Ireland, whcrc ftic Iivcd in a houic about 12 milea 
. ?J'**'7« th€ bcft prctermcnt wbich his mcnds from Dublin ; and he contiDiikd to vlfit hcr oc- 
^cs vcsiosc to gire luiD waa the dcancry of 8t cafionally, and to dirc<ft bcr ftudici as hc had 

U % donc 

Digitized by 



S W I ( 60 > S W I 

lione in T^on^^on ; bnt with Ihere attentloits Ihc gic ftiipi'^'ty, motionlt Ts, ht-eHl^ r-, ard rptc:cV.rf» 

\V/i8 not fati<fic1, and at Uft TcnL tn hmi a »tttcr Anr-r •? \^ar ol" rct-il rucit' c, howcvcr, uhtnhi' 

ivrittcn with prcit irdDur ,^nil tcndernets, ii.hOin^ hot:rr-k<.ep(r t;>'d him th a ihc li.iii 

thit he t^hoii d iniin«,diatcly accept or rtfuk her werc pupui';: to cci-!>r<itc hi^ birtli, hcani"v^ri 

;?f a \v'fc. M's .nJwcr, wbich prob.^hiy con.i-n- ed, '* It i^ .-»!] iv']\ ; thty thid h'.tler let it siont' 

jcdthe rccrct of !u« ni^rriaj^c, he c^irricd h'n:ri!f; Hc at l.^it liMiiw intu i pcrtrCt liici ce, wliich con 

and having in«':^?:.a'>(ly thrown 't on the i-idy'^ tinucd till ih.- i^ih O.I. 174«;, whc.^ he txprK 

tahlc, inil^ntly qiJi!ieti th.chourr, \vc bc)'cvc with- witl)<,nt a (tiiiwtlr, i.. 1. .^ "Xrh ycr^r. By iiihttill 

out Tpeakirig lc hcr, .iiul rcturiad to Pii^ in to d^'cd M y ijijo, jnd u U)re he ceafcd inbcatr,! 

rcflc<5t on tht con(V.|iicnccs of hi.s own corKir.t^t. foi!,ihlc bt-i.^, ht- K ft .ihotit L i2Cv- in fpeci!ic lc 

Thefc wc;e dread^ul. Mrs Y^n l-f;>mri»rh lui viv- p.->Lic'^ ; aiTl t hc rclt "t histbrtutic» whic !- :ut.ol:.1 

fd her difappnintmtnt but a f--w wctk..- ; tluii:.^; td to ahoiit X. ri.c.c, to t:c(*t and c:dowatilo' 

which time (hc cancriitd a \vi.Iti)it ihi h-d ;!4a c pit-il for iun.'tJcs .ind iduj?s, Hc w.i.s huritJ i 

in hi.sf;ivour, l{r.Tvinc hini aiar^t t"orlui'C of r.3.. ..o r!ic iTU>n privalc mi' nc?-, ac ('r'!inp t-.i his wjU, i; and ordcrtd thc pt;em to be pul Iiilu-d ni thc gitatatn': ot St J*atiick',- cathcHa'.. 

w.hich Cadcnus prccl.uinc<i her e^ct hcnce aud (1.) Sv.'i} r^ D^.i' c» Kicj. a 1 ear rtUt-on oft- 

Ci)nftnrcd hi-> h->vc. In 1724, hhs [^aiiicMirin ag.Mii de,m, grandloii to r,,)rt^viT» Swiir, tt-e dc^nSu' 

bi;rft torlh, to ohrtri^cl thc currrncy of^s clr, wns b-^rti 111 I»iib in. rHii< -^tcd at the iinnt 

hairptnce; a..d '.'n /f al w.^>; croxvnrd with lucccf-. (ity thtrc. ::nd cc.iit|)!cird hi- Ihui^e-^ at ()xfor 

%\'(.>od had oht-iinc'' a j^stent to coin ]So,c^^l. in Hr hid ? in\':XA(\^, wiou cntt itHinmi; verfes^' 

haitpcnce and fartiiipi;.s *c>r the kjn^^dum ci Trc- wa^ t rct tj td a pc !< cl nMil^rut thc Greik ai 

l.uid ; .ind vV<c ah'vit to rurn h's br.iV imo gc>'(S Ho!r..iii c]af!iCc. ilc [iu'«h!h^;d, ^lu Fjru\ upcn t 

wheti Sw::':, rr. i.].'^:: ^'"c inctal was t^rbarcd l.:J':Ji'':ii}\- <, aihi Liui UiU' ot J)r jon,Ai.a^)i^^{ 

to an tr.ormous ('c^^-k, wi\ite lctt«-r'- unttr Ihc ^IS',' 2.'llir J^th .ito v')|. ot ilu Dtan*s worl 

p.imt Ci[ M. B. /)7u/yXvr 10 lliow the f-'l'y o'" y:iv lii; i ; '5 ; 't li. \. Hi< Iritcrj^ in a \^ii^. 1768. 1 

goid itnd i'il\tr tor o(>in n-jt worth a iliiu! part Gf di d :\\ v\ .>i. riiri. ui ijM^ 

i's noaimal vduc. A pr.ircChtnin w.r> cnncd mu i j^ * .m- u r. ,ul'. !V:t//?, ?^axoti.] i. Movi 

.•!^Mr.fl thc pri::tcr; And lord Caitcrct, 1* id fn m a tlicrt iimc ; (pnck ; hcet ; fpttd) ; ni 

hrutcnant, ilHicd a v>i\:ri;ajation, ot^" rin^ i...:"c-> blc ; npu!. — 

fci dircovv:r:n^ tlic .-^.uhor va t! r 4tl> lctN.r. 'I hc T* r ;-:t//><,7 winp of rccompence is f.ow 

»hiy afur, Swi(*i ui- t.i tli- ioid licutrn^itt To ov'rtUvC ihet. Si. 

<y\ a !cvce at rhe c.ifi!r, an-1 upi>i..ji'td lim ir l.-n.l 6:: ^/-w innr tl \^ ith derirctr v><.t .i jfrav-. S/ 

Jir.d pttiil.i''t tcrms w 'th 7crftcu. in^' .« p ».»1 i")i(n>- -— A /•:"/// as tVc ror^ npon ihe mc»untai 

ktrpcr whx)ft cruu" wa-^ £ji. tndc iv< nr i'> f-i\( li's T (ihr on. >ii. 8 — W" pr.-ctdc to r'-.ike7'-c;/>fr r 

countiy from ruin ; whtn lord CM'cict, v:^o tio:)!> than anv (ut i>f othcr mnlktts. Jrtr^>«.— 

h 'd lftcncd with gi\rtt co;npofurc tt) tl^e v.ho!c 'i'o Irni witl'/-i'/' dcirit hc up rctuni'd..>3 

ff Ltch, rr.-idt thi5 hncrtp!v, i.i a .int t.f Yir^il: — Thm^-. «ht» !TX'vc To y<iw/; .-^ i.-ol to €»flcCt 

iv.\f Jh>u.y is' rrj^/ii ;;iT./.7J ^ru- tiilla tcyi^/jt te"fr^ ('i''i:i.'t! , , .it iK>t ptiitutci tc> Rlc>ve. Lih 

MMri. — Ji puh ivc3 y\\t cnj- »»f thc b"!c^ fi am inr* 

rf jm thij time .Sw:ft wn" conri(Vicd by Mie por C( n< y, v. huti would coitinCt trom any/; 

pulace as thc chaniLion, pa{r(m,a:ul innnut^u cf m>;ti<>n. 7^</j. — 

liclan(!. ]n 3727 hc retumcd toKncland; vv''rre, -So tht dull ctd movcs nimblcr Jn the mud 

in cCjniL'i.Jt'cn witli P^>pc, hc collciiHed Ihrcc v()- Than .ul the /:c/y> finM n». ci!- of the AocmJ. i 

luTuei? cf n.iiccr.inic'' ; an! thr famc ytar hr ^rnt Kor Ibijirg loi.^cr thau oiicyic//7.wuigM ni 

iu»o ti^c word fr« G:i!:\ir^T\i'icls^ WhilH hc P\ 

< njoycd the reputation ot th'b wo: 1:, hc wa^ i"u^. — The Acf//-foortd niartin piirfued him. ^rl 

<jt dy c.iiUd to a ho.T.e of (ouow. l*'?or Se !a iU'f — 

v.Ms l^mktuj: mto the y\:\\l ; and a^ttr a hnpuiili- Sii'rft of f ot, an'< tcrr bV in fii;ht. ' J 

iii^: dccay of ahout tvM> monrh?, dicd in h< 1 4 4*h Snv'ft thcy dticcnd, w!*h wii ^ to wing cn^^j 

ycai, Jau. 28, 172S. With htr var.il1:cd ah hi?; td. Po* 

do:rjtflic coymciit^ : the f.'vcrity of his inrp-r 2.1t^'"(!^. — e't ry ip;»n be/:v.j^ to hc^ir. 

incrtaicd ; !ic drovc hib Hw'C|uaintanrc lYom h»' ta- i. 19. — 

V(c, a::d w. rd^rcd why he was dcltrttd. The To mifch5ef/Tr//*. M 

I".:.- rf «,ttidintfs ."uid (!c'U~ner> lo which lu- had 1 c( n (4.) * S'.vift. n. f. Tlie cnrrent of a ^tk:^ 

l"wt jccitd ^'"rom hfs bi yiPu ytais, bcc:ime more ♦rc- Hc can hvc iu the It.onpelt Jiit/is ot trc 

tjUriil aud Mol-nt .^s ht i-icw <>^A. In 1^3^. while tcr. iw 

"nc writine a Tat.rc ca!lcd tlic Lryj',>i (..'nb a- (5.) * S\vivt. n./. 'fiom the quickpefs of 

j; ii''li thc Irtrii parhamei.t, he wa*^ ^ with fo ni^ht : i(fui.\ A b rt! iik'' a Jw ti c>w ; ;i rri.' 

dr'..^-!f^u! a i;t of hi . m.(tac'y, that he lel*t thc potm — S\i.;//.r and fvvallo\v«5 havc itmark.\b\y 

u:;!.r.:.'!,cd ; and rcytr .iMcr atttn.pted a compoH- lcp.s. D^rhdni. 

J:. n t"t,tL i'(|M;:ed ;i ' (Mirfe of thinkinj». Fi om \^.) Sw 1 f 1 , i»^ gcr^j:ia' hy, ar»vtv fif Yx\\ 

'. .' : ti^ct his tntu.c ry craduaMy dcidincd. fn whicti r'frs m J c ' tit rrih rt , and faHs mti 

«^;i, 'rt bwc.!:nt, uitc-!y i:C'pab'e o*' c()nvcifa- Avf>' , uta:" Ku>iliy in Warwickl!uie. 

<: 1 ; atul il v.\.i> f;a(: d nr c-Tl :!y to app.nnt lc<.'il (;.} S\^ifT, in oinuholc>gy. Sce Hifu 

C"".(!'v.i'^ to lc>i ptth.n .tiid hi^fj;f'j: c. Hc now K* ■:. 

l ;t .f*l fcni'e o/* c:i(ln ch.)n. i>urin^' i,m xt ycar a * SW iTTLY. /rJi*. [♦'rom /cc///.l FIett>y 

.. i! i';lt.r\ i» o\ rc,ifon c^^uirp, pavc h"pcs of lii^ pidly ; nuntd\ ; with ^icicrity ; wilb vcloci 

.•"cvr '■ ; V':.\ !'. ,1 ft^\ y\-\\{ Lc iL.nk ifilu lethur- 'J'f:elt muvt/'u ;/,)■, and at gre«it dilkancc. J 


Digitized by ^ 


S W I (6 

PJw.'d wilh tht paiTage» we (iii\cjiw}fify on, 
Aud Tce tbc dangcrs which we cinoot ihuo. 

Too Jkt;iftfy Aret by human light. Prior, 

• SviFrNEss. a/. [from /wifi.] Speci; nim- 
blrari»; rapidtty ; quickncfs| vcioc»ty ; ceieiity. — 

All tbings thou^ht upon« 
TTiat may with rea{onable/^//^ir^ add 
Morc Ttathcr^ to our wmps. HiHiJk^ Henry F» 

We may uutrun 
ByTiulent^(qf/?jfiy} that which we run at, 
And \okly over-nininng. Sbak. Henrj FTIL • 
Specd to dcrcnbe whofe fwiftne/j numbcr' 
hi\$. Miiton, 

Thfn cnHes hia coorpirmg feet, whofe lccnt 
BdrtTSthat lafcty which ^t'vfwiftnefs leni. 

Soch \i the mi^htj fwiftiufj of your mind, 
That, Hke the earth'», it leavci our renlc behind. 

SWimrATE, a riw in Glouci?fter(hirc. 

• r»SWlG. V. n. i/Kiga, inandick.) To drink 
\r} hrpt draughts. 

6TOAN, a town of Bo*»emia, in Bolenau. 

• SWILL. «./. lfrom ihc irero.] Drink, luxuri- 
o^Oy poupcd down.— Give fwinc fuch /wi/i as 
ycBbavf. Mortimer.^ 

Tbus ihcy fwim in mutual/u;///. Thom/on, 

• r« SwiLL V. ». [fHfUgahy 8aXon.] i. To di ink 
loiorionAy and grof«ly. — 

The wrctched, bioody, and ufurping boar, 
S«r»/ftycmr warm blood like walh. Shak. 

-Tlic molt commoo of thefe cauies are heredi- 
txy<irpofition,and/tvi7/»f^ dowu great quanti-' 
^o^cgIU Iiquori{. Jirhulhnot, — 
Sicb if the poet» irell) tn pay, 
Htfnomin|rdraaghtft tiU noon ^n/atiil^ 
A«oi,f his brethren of thequiU. ' Swi^* 

«• To wstch ; to drench. — 

Aifrarfuiiy as doth a galled rock»' 
pjiilti with the wild and waftefu> occan. Sbak. 
Wldi that a German oft \i^%Jwil^d his throat. 

3 Toiwbrtale; to fwell with pientitude.— 
Tomeet the mdetie^s knd fUfiIfd infolencc 
Of Cocb tale waAailers. Miiton, 

H« drinki ^fmAiUn'g draugbt. Dryden. 

•WILLER. nf [trom /wi7/.] A luxuriout 

ii ISiriLLY, an iHand in thc S. pac!fic Ocean. 
»3i«i!fS.ofthcS.Capcof NcwHolland. JLon. 
»4ME.Lat. 43. 55. S. 

.«•) 5wiLLT, a river of Irelandy tn Donegal» 
•^nH.1 Lough Swilly. 

Ij) SiriLLT, LouGHy a iakc orbay of Ireland, 
*"thcN.coaftot DoDcgal; x8 milcs long, and 
?**«« to 4 broai!, but above 30 m circum^ 
J^^cc. Tbe S. end of it is 6 rajlca from Lough 

[4.) SwiLLT, LouGH. See Lough Swilly. 

• S^^IM. »./ lfrom thc verb.J The bladdci of 
^bywhichihey are fupportcd in thc water. 
r^k^accihaw thenature and ufe of tendossi 
■«Wrading tbe ^wim, and thcrcby tran8fufing 
^JMJ^oot of ooc bladder into auother, or dif- 
'*'J»f itlirom them both. Grew, 

\k}U^ Swm. 9. /. ?r€t,fwamtfwomt orfwum. 

» 8axQD ) /tanniBnii Dutcb.] i.ToAoat 

I > . S W I 

on the wafer; not to fink.— 1 wilt fcarcc think 
you have fwam in a gondola. 6^a4.— We have 
Ihips and Doats for going under water ; alib/iW»i- 
ming girdles and fuppoiters. Bacon, «. To mo«e 
progri.'fHvely in the water by motion ot the liiikba. 
Ltap in with meinto this angry flood, 
Andfwim to yonder point. Shuk. yuJ,Cafar, 

I havc vcntur'd 
Like little wantou boys ihnt fwim on bladders, 
Thcfc many fummcrs in a fea of g'ory. Sitak, 
— Thc fo)dicr8 counfci was to kiil ihc pHfoners; 
Idl any of them ihomdfwim out and rfcape. jiets 
xxvii. 41. — The reft driven iuto the lake, were 
iccking to favc theirlive8by/u;iV»wifl(f, they were 
Uain in coming to land by the Spanilh horicnneni 
oreire in thcir/a>/mmi«[g Ihot by ihc harqucbufier8. 
KnoIUi, — Animal« fwim in the iamc manner aa 
they go. Brown, — 

Thc trighted woif now fwims among the 


The ftA^'fwimj fafter than hc ran before. Dry. 

Tke ready Nereids hcard andy^i^m bcfore. Dr/l 

5. To bc confvcyed by the fh-eam. — ProtecJtion 

i>f thcni from the tury of thofe who would fooii 

drown thcra> if they refufed to Jwim down thc 

popular (tr^am with them. King Charies.-^l^wom 

with the tide. Dry^^».— 4. To glidc along wiib a 

iinootb^or dizzy motion. — 

She with pretty and wtth/u;immcir^ gate 

Pollowing. Sbakm 

A hoYcring mift CMmcfwimming o'er his light, 

And fcai'd his eycs in everlaftuig night. Dryd» 

Prie(tS| auars, vi€t\msfwam before roy Bghtl 

0'cr hie cye-ballB /umm tbe {hadea.of night. 

-^To bc dtxz7 ; to be ▼crtiginous.'— I am takcn 
with a grievou8 /wimming lo my hcad. Drydetu 
€, Tobc Aoatcd.—Whcn the hca^ens arc niied 
with clouds, whcn the earth /u/im/ in rain, I with* 
draw myfclf frofn thefc uncomfortable lcentsw 
Addifon, — 

Suddcn the ditches fwcll, thc meadows/ui/m. 

7. To have almndance of any qualtty ; to ftow 
in any thing. — 

They now fwim in joy, 
Erelong tofwim at largt. Mihon. 

(%)* 70 SwiM. V. «. To paf8 by fwimming. 
Somctimcs he thought io/wim the ftormy main, 
By ftrctch of arms. Dryden. 

♦ SWIMMER. n. / [from /wim,] i. Onc who 
fwira8.— Birds rtnd cafie in thc dcpth of the atr, 
^%/wimmert do ia a deep watcr. jB^ro».— Latiro£> 
trous and f)at-billed birds, bctng generahyyWm* 
mers^ the organ is wifcly contrivcd for a^tiom 

Life is oft preferv*d 
By the bold /u;imm/r. Thom/oiL 

1. The /wimmer is fitualed in the forc lcgn of a 
horfe, abovc the knecs, and upon the intidci and 
almoft upon the back parts of thc.hind lcgai 
a littlc bclow the ham ; thls part is without hair; 
and refcmblcs a piece of hard dry horn« Farri» 
er^j Dia, 

( I .) S WIMMING. part. «./ 1 he art of fufpend. 
ing 0Dc'a fclf on watcr, aud at tbc ikme timc mak» 
ipg a progrciTiTe mottoa throngh it« Althoug^ 

Digitized by 


SW* ( 6a } SWI 

fiv4<miHAp h fiot f)4Uir%l to maiif yt% ihcte are no a min cai^not iong rcmajii fufpended in watcr 

Aationt io barbarous but the art is known ^mong «yich his hcad in thai pdtition. 6thly; Tbc bmljr 

themyey^n in greater pertcdtion than amoi)gcivi- continued luipcndcd as bctore, and upright, if 

bxcd iieople. It is probable, ihercfore, that the the h<ad be ieautd c|4iite back, fo that the iact 

9iU tbough Dot abfoIutely naiurat, wiH always k|« lo*jks upwards, ai1 thc back p<irt of ihe hcad bc- 

acqinred by people in a iavage (tate from idnuat- icg thcu undcr wacett an^ ii<« weight oonfoijue«r- 

ing the bruccs, moft of whom fwim natuj^dy. ly \i a grcat Tncafurc Aipoorted t^ it, thc tW 

Tne thcory ot' fwimmiiig<depeiKl6 upon this fim- wi!l remain above water quitc frcc for bieaih- 

pJe principle : that if a force iit applied ta ^y tng, wili rifc an inch higher cvery in^piration, 

body, it wihalwaya mov^towardf thatlidewhcre and fink *9 much .cvtry expiration, but nevcr 

thrie is the 'cafl icMancc. This iscvidei)t inthe fo low as that thc «rater ma/ comc OTcr thc 

motion of vc(rr): ; atti thc fAmc thing takcs piace in nKtifth. 7thly, W tbercforc a pcifori unac^u-iim. 

fwiroming, whLtbrr thc animal bc man, ^ua- c^i with fwiniming,andfHiiit)4$accidcntallyintothc 

drupcd, bird, or h(h. a man fwiuit», hc watcr,couid havc prclcnccotnur.dtoa^oidRrus- 

itrikes the watcr with his iiands, aims, and fcct ; gUng and piunping, and to let t'.:e body takc tliM 

io confcquci<e of which thc bi»dy movcs in a di- nalural potition, hc m^ht continue long Uk from 

^rdion contrary to the Aroke. Up<io this princi- 4i>owQtn|;, tili pcrhapa heip w«uid comc; far, aito 

ple, aud on this <^nly, a man may cithcr afccn4» tf:cclothc6, their additionai wetght wbile)mmcrf () 

<i«i!i:cfid, or mo%c obiii|Utly, in any pciTihic d«rtc- \» very incontidciablc, thc w^tcr lupporting u ; 

tion iu thc water, h i?» incrcdibic what cipcrt tbough whcn hc coinesout of thc watcr,hcwouiJ 

fwimmcrs' wiil pcrform inthjsway; of wbichMr fii)d thcm vcry bcavy ind^cd** Thc Dr.^s me. 

Fcirlter givcs a rcmarkabic inAance in tbc inhabi- tbod of lcarning^o fvvtm is as foIloiaraf Thc pti: 

tants ot Otaheitc; whofe agilily wa^ ^ch, that fon mu(l wadc ^o watcrfodeeptkat il wiUrcach 

«\'heiianai« wa< thrown ovcrrboard, thcy.wculj to thc bie.t4t. tle in then to hc down gentlyoo 

|ump after it into thc fea, and never iail to catch thc beliy, krcping iht head and Rcckper^lyu(>- 

it bctorc itcametothc bottom. Astothcprac^ cightj the brcad adv4nciiig forward, thc thoiax 

lice of fwimmingy few iiirc^ionn can bc given. inAatcd, and the back bcnt ; tbcu withdrawn g 

Thc grcat obilacic is the natutal dread which the lcgs from tbe bottom» and Itrctcbing theia 

peoplc havc of bctng drowned j and thts it is out, itrik< thc arnie torward m unifon wtth ihc 

impoirible to oircrcomc by any thing but prac- Wgs. Swimming ou t!~e backi&fomewh^6iBUar 

ticc and habtt. With rcgarJ to the reat dan- to that oo thc bclly ; but withthisdilfeirence,tKat 

tger ot bcing diowned» it is but litlle ; and ar jfcs ^lihough ihc lcgs arc employcd to movc the body 

^tirf ly from tcrror- Dr Fk ahkuk ju&ly obicrycs, forwards, tbe arms arc gcncrally uncmp!oycd,aBd 

** i(t, That though thc leg'-, arm**, anrt hcad, of thc progrc(rivc motion is deriYcd fromthc inovc« 

a human body, bcing ioikl parts arc fpcdficaUy ment ot the legi^ Jp djv|»iq, a pcffun muftclorc 

hcavtertban ^clh watcr, yct thc trunk, poticu- hi^ hands togctbcr, and, prci&n^ hi«chin uponbu 

larij thc upper part, from its hoUownets, U fo breat, makc an cKcrtion to bcud %vith fcrce foi> 

mucb li^htcr than watcr, m that the wholc of thc wards, While io that pofitibn, bc mu(t contimie 

iKKly, takcn togcthcr, ts too light to fink wholiy to movc with rapidity uudcr thc Tur^^cc ; ao4 

undcr watcr, but fomepart wili remain above un- whencrcr hc wilhcs to retnm to his formcr fitaa* 

Cil tbc iungs bccome ^cd with watcr; which tion, hc h;^ nothinglodobut bcndback bishead, 

happcns from drawing water i:rto tbein inftcaii of and hc wid imtnediatcly return to thc furfiice. It is 

air, whcn a perron in thc Iright attcmpts btcath* Tcry common for novices to ufe corks or bladdcn 

ing whilc thc mouth and noftnis are under ^crater. Jto aiTiit in kceping the body abovc IIm! wattr. Df 

sdly, That thc lc|[8andannsarcfpccifically hght- Prankhn allow^ that thcy may be of (crYicc fo( 

cr than (alt water, and will be fupported bv it ; fo fupporting thc body whilc onc it lcaming what 

that a human body would not fink in fa!t watcr is called thc Jroktt or tbat manner of drawing io 

though thc lungs wcre filled as aboY», biit fmm «nd ftriking out tbc hands and fect that rs neccil 

thc gtcatcr ^ccittc gravity «f thc hcad. " ^dly, fary to producc progrciTivc motion. "|Bu| 

That tbcrcforc a perlon throwing himfcif en his (fay8 hc; you will bc no fwimrocr till you cai 

back in falt water, and cxtcn(itng his arms. may place coiifidcnce in thc powcr of thc wnttr u 

«alily lic fo as to keep hts mouth an^ noftriu frec Ibpport you: 1 wouki thereforc advifc thc acqa!ri 

icr l>rtathing4 and by a fma1] inction of hia iiig that confidence in thc firft. placc, eipcdahy a| 

Jiaiids may prcvcnt tuming» if he iliould pcfccivc I have known fcvcral who, bj a little of tbc prac 

-suiy tcndcncy to it. 4thly^ That iu fre(b water, ticc nccclTary for that purpotc, ha?e infenfiblyac{ 

11 a.mAa throws himfeif on his backiicar thc fur- quired tbe Arokc, taugbt as it wcre by uature 

facc, he cannot long con^inue m thac fituation, Tbc pradice I raean as tjiis ; phoofing « plap 

but by a proper adion ot bis hands on the water« whcre the water dccpcns graduallyt walk cooli^ 

2f be u(cs no fuch adioii, the legs and lower part into it tiU it is up to ^out breaft : then tum rounj 

«f tbc body win gndhuUy fink ti)! bc coracs to your facc to thc Ibore, and throw an cgg int^ 

an opiight pofition ; in whieh he will coatinue thc water bctwccn you and the (hore ; it wlll fin| 

^fpcttded» the holksw of the breaft keeping the to the boctoBo, and be eafily ietn thcre, if ihe w^ 
head uppcrmoA. sthly, fiut if tn thiseredt pofi« ter is cicar. It muft lie on thc water fo dcep a 

tioo thc bead la kcpt upright above the (houlders, that you canoot reach it to takc it up but by di^ 

as wheu wc ftand on the ground, thc immerAon ing for it. To encouragc y(Mirfclf to do this* rC 

witl, by the wcight of thc part of the head that Rc& that your progrtls will be lirom dtepcr tl 

•s out oif the water, rcach aboYc the motith and ihallower water ; aod that at any time you maj 

mx)MXh pcrhaps a littk above the eycs ; £o that hj briDging your kgs uoder yott| and lUailing <^ 


Digitized by 


S W I ( $3 

thc boltoiiu ritie jrour bc»d far alK>vc thc watcr : 
th<m plunpe undrr it wtth your cyea opcn, throw- 
mj y<w(c\( lowarda thc t^, and cnucavouring, 
bf thc »^»00 of yoiir handt aod frct agamil thc 
wittr, to jjrt fbrw3trd til» withm rcach of it. In 
tbtattcmpt you wili fjnd that the water bu^yt 
700 np agMift ydOT inclination ; and it is not fo 
taff athirtgto iink ai yoo imaeincd ; that yoh 
cwjMt b«t by aSiirc forcc gct down to iht* cgg^ 
Tkiajim kt\ tbc powrr of thr watcr to {upport 
j^ aod I^am to confldc hi tbat powcr ; whilc 
y«r endeaTours to o^crcomc it, aml to rcach the 
c?f, tcach you thc manncr of a^fng on tbc watcr 
vtth yoor £ect and handt ; whtch adtion is aftcr- 
warditded tn fwimming to ftipport your hcad 
Wer abof e watcr» or to go forward throygh ir.*' 
MaoroclKrrolcs havc becn (aid down for acquir- 
K; this ; biK if a yoang man oiK:e gcts rid of 
far, tbefe are fu9cient, and hf pradicc bc may 
IwMac^itiie trari •■« cvolutions ; or hc may find 
aCoBaocoMit of tbefe in the BntjeiopedU Metbo^ 

(j.) SviMMiNG or FisH. A grcat proportion 
«f thf iaiBbitants of tbc watcrs havc an air-blad* 
drr, b]r wbich thcy poifc thcmfc4TC8. Thctr movc- 
mh cbirfly dcpcnd opon tht;*r tail. Sce Icn- 
TKTOtoGY and Zootomy. 

• 8WIMM1NGLY- adv. tfrom fwhnmiftg.\ 
faoolHy; withoDt obftns6tion. A low wx>rcL — 
}bhifot 00 tbe battlemcnts, and callcd to Nick, 
1 bape thc cauic froes oa fiifimmiHgfy, Awbutbnot. 

SWDI BRIDGB, m town of England, in Dctod- 
<»CiW.of S- Moalton. 

8WWC0MB, a fniiiU towo of England^ in Ok- 
m^, E. of Wallingf6rd. 

^«SWINDLE. V. m. [Ocrm. Scbwindlt.] To 

SWTKDLER, »./ [GtTTmn/ebcwlndrl, U ebeat.] 
rĕ^^S^ bas oow become fo common in ierrrai 
i^P^ townt of thiseoiintry, that it is ua- 
^^nutdj too well known to re^ocrc any dcfcrip« 


Ji-JSWINDON, a town of Bngland, in Wilt- 

P*%Mtbctop of a hilU built with floney near 

JJtrt^ntleyr whb a nMirkrt on Moo. 10 mileg 

^«'IMrarougb» aS N. of Satilbury, af)d 73 

* ^Udoo. Lon. I. 45. W. Lat. 51. a^r N. 

tWjlwiMOoii ; 3 towns; i. in GiotKCltcr- 

Pjt «.m 8taffbrdlbirc, j. in Yorkihirrr on thc 

«**«.«. oCSettlc. 

^)*8WmE.«./ yka^-n^ Sax. Aw. Datch. 

kpobablctbe plural of foroc old word» and 

|^vtklamc in both nH^bcm.) A hog; apig. 

''w^ icnwkaWe for llupidily and nalTincU. 

OaoBAmiu beail \ bow Hke ifivine hc lies ! 

^•abe/ttwdrunJr. Sbah^ 
wHji h\%/wime, for othcrK chccrc. Cbapm^ 
'•wer taftcd, loft bts npright (h^pci 
lo^dowiiward fcll ioto a grotcliing/iiiw. 

P»»t tipper part, to the middlc, bccn of 
^^■ ye, and alt bclow /mnei bad it bcen- 
P*JJ.«roy it ? iotie.-^ 
I cHiJj^ ^arics in thc groT^ing /w/ir/', 
I ^"^"Wd, ka»f reas^oing elephant, with thirrc f 

*»v5»mi kjiooiogy. SceSus^N^m^ 

) S W I 

(3.) S^rNt, mrcography, a brancb of tbe'0- 
DER, ancrmtly c^dlcd Sueyus. 

(4.) SwiNE, a fmall town of YorkAiire, ncar 
Conttablc Burton. 

(j— 7.)Sw^iNEy or SwEYN. Sce Sweiw)» N*^ 

(i.) * SwiNEBaEAD. «./. [eyelamimu,] A kir.j! 
*of plant ? tniAle». Baiirt, 

(%.) SwiNEBREAD, itt boTtany. SccCyclakei^. 

(i.) • SlviHE GRASS. if./ [eetttinodir^ Lat.] A» 


• SwiMEHERD. n, /. 1/w'm and i&^ir^, Sason.] 
A kccpcr of hogs. — 

T\\9ft /^uineberJ^ tbat kcepctb thc hog. 

— Eurocus, has bccn judged to bt- of thc <amc 
ra^^k aitd condition witb onr roodcrn /*wineĕerdt. 

SWINEMUNDE, a town of Lonrcr Satony, 
In thc iflc of Ulcdom^at fhe mobth of thc Pcen^» 
at thc N. cnd; built in 177J on thi rutns of 
SwiNE.ScffANZ. Lon. 3i. 17. E. Perro^ jtat. <^ 
8. N. . 

• Swi«FFSpe. if./ [turdos irmeus.] A bird of 
tbc thiulh kind. BaHer, 

SwiNB$CHANz, a fmaU tnwn aod fort of Low- 
er Saxonv, in the iflc of Ufcdom, dcitroycd by 
thc Swcde% in 1757, See Sw>nemundc. 

Swine'« Cress, a fpecic^ of Cochlearia. 

SwiNe^TONE, Lafij Suilluij or Pmtid Stonet ib 
callcd from its csccmrdy f«Kid Irncll, I» a fpccie» 
q£ SatineStone. Tk ia ioiandt r. ^iid, with thr? 
particles(bircrly vi6blc, df a black colour ; m tht» 
marNc of Plandc rs and >itland. a. With Yilibjc 
grains of a biackilh brown coloth*, found fn Swc* 
dcn. 3. With coaHe (calcs, found jlfoin SweHcir. 
Mntii of the limeftones fbiMid in England, bclon^ 
to thi'» fpccies, and cmit a very fetid ftncH wbeia 
ftruck Yiotcntly; but it goes off^ in the fine. Scc 
MntMiALOCY, PartU.Cbap^iy.CI. L OrJ. IL 
Gen.}.Sf. i.§ U.rar.S' 

SWINE6UNi>, a town of Norway, m thc 
proY. of Aggcthuus ; 5 miles NW. of PredcrickC 

• SWINO. jf./. [fi-om the vcrb.} 1. Motion <jiP 
any thing hanging loofeiy.— In cafting of ai»y 
thing, thc «rnjs, to makc a greatcr /rwjf , are 
(irft caft backward. Baroi».— If anyoncHiould alk 
how hc ccrtainly knows that thc two fucccllrve 
/wings of a pcncbilum arc cqtial, it wouid bc vc- 
ry hard to ^isfy him. Locke. a. A line on which 
any thing bangs ioofc. 3. InSuence or power of a 
Body put in motian,— 

The raro that batters down the wall, 

For tbe prcat/w/«j' and iiidtncft of hii polle, 

They placc bcforc his hand tbat madb thc crt- 

ginc. Sbakerp^ 

— In thiscncyclopsedta, and round of knowkdirc, 

likc thc grcat whccls of hcavcn, wc^ire to ob(crvc 

two circks, that, whiic wc atv daily carritd a- 

bout, and whirlcd on hy the /wing and rapt df 

the one, wc roay maintatn a na*ur»f and prop^ 

courfc in thc fobcr whcel of the othcr. Bnj^n. — 

Thc dcfccndine of thc carth to this orbit is not 

upoii that mcf:hanic»l-;tcco!in^ C^rieriob prctends, 

aamcly,. thc (lroirf yr^//:j of ttic morc iulid eio- 

LJigitized by LjOOQ lC 

;S W 

^li tbit OTcrAow it. More. 
cd libcrty ; abandonment to aoy motive, 
Pads unju(t 
Commit» even to the i\i\\fw'mg of his Iu(t« 


Takc ihY/wing, Drjden. 

r— His whole time Uy upon bis hand», and gave 

him leifure to contrive, and with i\x\\/wmg piue- 

fuc bis follies. Wood<ivard^'-r' 

Lct thcdi all takc thcirywi»^ 
*Tb pillagc the king. S<wift, 

j.^Unrcllrained tendency. — Wherc th^ j<imng 
goeth, therefollow, fawn, Aatter, laugh, and lie 
luilily at other mens liking. AJcbam, — Thofe that 
are fo perfuadcd give up themfelve8 to the Jfiving 
of thcir unbpunded propenfion8. GlannM^le, — Were 
it not for there, C!vil govcrnfficnt wcrc not ableto 
fudid before the prcnailing /<^iing of corrupt aa- 
t\jrc. Soutb, 

(i.) * 7o SwiNCJ. V. if. i/iuingani SaKOitl i. 
To wavc t^ and fro hinging io<rt*cly.--| tricdif a 
pendulum wQu\i/wing ^ailer, otr continueyWnr^- 
#>jf Jongcr in our feccivtr, in care>of exfuftion of 
^heair. B^le.-^lt the coachy«;*wy but thc leaft 
to one lidc, Ibe ufed to ihriek fo loud, that all 
concluded Ihc was overturncd. ArbuthnoU — Jack 
hath hangcd himfelf: let U8 go fce how hc/wi»gj. 
ArkutlmoU — 

Whcn thc /winging Cgna your cara ofFcnd 
Witl> creaking noife» thcn rainy Aoods impend. 

a. To fly backward and forward on a rope. 

(».)♦ To Swmo. V. a. pretcntd/wangt/ww/g. 
X. To make to play looicly oa a itriag. 2. '^o 
whirl round in the air.'— p 

His fword prcparM» 
VLt/<wang about hi8 head. Sbak, 

— Takc bottlcs and [twing them. BacoH,-^Sqping' 
ing a red-hot iroa abouti it wili iboner girow cold. 

Siwing thce in the air, then daih thee down^ 

3. To wavc loofcly. — , . 

If one approach to dare his iatct% 
Ht/wnf^s his Uil. Dryden. 

(i.) ♦ SWINGE. «./. [from the vcrb.J A fway ; 
a fwcep of any tbing in motion. Not |d ufe.— 
The Ihallow water dolh her forcc inTringc, 
And rcndcrs vain hcr tail'8 impetuou8/«t^fi9^<r. , 

, H'alUr. 
(a.)SwiNX5E, inpcography,ariverof Gcrmany, 
in the duchy of Bremea ; wbich runs pait Stade 
iato thc Elbe.' 

♦ 7o SwiNGE. V. tf. [/wi^gan, ,Saxon. Thc g 
in this word, and all its deri«ativcs ibunds as in 
gem, giant^] • i. To whip^ to baftinadc ; to pu- 
niih^Sir, J was in lo¥c wilh my bed : I thank 
you, you/wingf4. ^C f^^ ^y lo^^* Sbak, — 

This vcry rc^^rendrictchcr, quite worn out, 
Porgcts what he in youthful timcs has done, 
Anajwingej his own vicc8 iu his fon. Dryden. 
«^Th^printer brpught along with him a bundle 
of thoie papcrs, which hsLyc/winged oft thc Exa- 
mhier. Sfwi/k. 1« Tq ^ove as a laih. Not in uf^. 
Hc, wroth to fce his kingdora fail, 
Swinges thc fcaW horror of bi« foWedtail. Mi^t. 

♦ SWINGEUUCKLER. n. /'.[/«'«?«' xnd buck- 
kr,] A buily i a m^j who |>aUuui to fcau ot 

I ( 64 ) S W I 

4. Courfc ; anftrain- arms,— -You had not four fuch /mingAnckkn io 
all the inns of court ag;fin. Sbak, 

» SWINGĔR. H./ lfrom /wing.] Hc who 
iwings ; a hurlcr. 

■ (i.)»SWINGlNG.fli/).[from/«;ii«r.] Oreatj 
huge^ A low . word. — The countrynitn fccing thc 
Jioa dirariped, with h /winging cudgcl broke olT 
th« niiatch. VEft*ange, — A %ood /winging fum nf 
John'8 readieft caih went towardsbuiidingof Ho- 
<:u»*8 countryhoufe. Arbutbnot- 

(a.) SwiNGiWG, part. n. /, a kind of exercift 
ih;oiigiy rccommpoded to pcrfon8 in con^umptioa 
by fomc pbylicians, and difistpproved of byothcti^ 
SccMedicine, /ir^^it. 

♦ SWIKgINGLY. adv. [Uasn /win&ng, 01 
/winge.] Vaftly,: greatiy.— 

Hcnceforward be'Il print neithcrpamphlctiK^ 

, linen, I 

. And, if fweariog can do't, ihall be /wlngmj^\ 

maul'd. ^wn 

SWINGLE, «./. in the inEngbuJ 

thc wooden fpokc which is fixed to thc barrcl thJ 

draw8 the wire, and which, by its bcing forcJ 

back by the cogs of the wheel, is the occaitoD \ 

the force with whicb tbe barrel i^ pulled* J 

♦ To SwiNGLE. *u. n. [fronn /wing.] 1. 11 
danglc ; to wave haogiog. %, To fwing in pl^ 

Swi^G-TREE. »./. of a waggon, i«» thc bar f^ 

tcnc$| acrof8 thc fore-guide to -which thc ui<\ 

of the borfc8 are faftened. 

Swing-Wheel, «. /. in a royal pcndoiu 

that whecl which dnve« thc pendulum* In 

watcbor balance clock it is aWcd t^certni 

- SWINHULT, a town of Swcdcn, i» 

Gothland ; 40 miles S. of Linkioping. 
(i.) ♦ SWINISH. adj. lfrom /wine,] Bcto 

fwipe; refembling iwine; groCs.; brutal.-r 
Thcy clcpe us drupkards, and with /wii 
Soil our addition. Si 

\: : S<wim/b fi\uttOT\Y t 

Ne'er looks to Hcav'n. Mh 


espreiTion, ufed by the late celebrated Edai 
9urke, Efq. for thc lowcr ranks» of mankind. 

♦ SWINK. «. r. [/winc, Saxon.] Labour; \ 
drudgery. Obrylcie. — 

Ah, PicrH, becn thy tccth on t-dge«- to th 


How great fpurt tbey gaynen witb HtUc 


Thou*9 but a la^ty loor^^c, 
,And rekcs much of thyy^/«*tf. S^ 

(i.) * 7o SwiNK. n},n. {^/twiruian, SasoD.J 
labour; totoil; to drudg^. O^lbletc. — 
Richcs, rcnown, and principality^ 
For which mcw/wink and fwcat, Sp 

For tbey do/wini and fweat to fe€d *il 
Who livc like lords. Sf 

(1.) ♦ To SwiNic. a%,fl. To O¥eitabour. 

Thc /winked hcdgcr»at his rupper fiit. 

SWINNAr an.illand of Scotland, in tbe 

land Frith, one miie long ajid h;jif ;% niiW | 

inbabited by 6 families, and about aa r.ui<i 

livL ctitctiy by piloting veJVcU ihraugh tU 

LJigitized by 


S W l 

prt of iht Inth, ard tbc whirlpools, called thc 

(HSWINTON, John, a vcT7 ccicbrattd Eng- 

Eib intiq!nry, the (vn of John Swinton of Bcx- 

toc, ^f. was bom ?n CheOnrc in 1703. His pa- 

mts «•crc not affluent, as hc was cntercd at Ox- 

fi)r^2j a ^rritor at Wadham cuMc^re, m Od. 

1719. Oo Jane 30, 1723, hc w;»8 tkdtcd a fcho- 

WootChc/hirc fourdation. In Dcc. 1713, hc 

brtsDc B. A, And on Dcc. i, 1716, M. A. He 

«ueitlaiiicd dcacon, May 30, 1725, prleft, May 

11,1717 : and mndc rcdor of St Pctcr le Bailcy in 

OiM, in Fcb. 1718. In Junc 1718 he was clcc- 

taJi Wiow of bis coUcgc : but willing to ftc thc 

rjrUyhe accepted of a chaplainlhip to thc Eiig- 

Hli h&orf at Lrghom. But as he did not cnjoy 

tahriitb, bc wcnt to Plorencc ttt April 1733, 

tWrc be attcn^ed Mr Coicman, tbe Engliih en- 

»ey. ra hff lail tnomcnts. fte retum^ thro' Vc- 

iktui Yicnna; and TiBtcd Prefb\irg, in Hunga- 

^. Whtle hc was abroad, hc was admittcd into 

oK knipi ibcieties ; tiz. the acaderoy degR 

4^ ti Klorcncc, and thc Etru/can Acaiemj of 

totoiL Oh his rcturn, he fettled at Oxtord, 

'iereWbccamc chaplain to tbc goal. Hc mar- 

^ •« 1743» ami gavc op his fc-llowihip. fn 

/•r^hcbtcamc B. D. ki 1767, hc was clc^ed 

Wb! Anbiwrum^ and, on April 4, 1777, hc 

delwthoot fflbc. His wifc dicd in 1784, and 

*wt4 wrrc btfried in thc chapei of Wadham col- 

fett. Hii pnbttcation<« wcrt numcroos and Icam- 

«i Hc pubhihcd, I. Dc Lingua Etruriae Rcga-^ 

Br icrtaciiU DiAcTt. 4to, 19 p. Oxon, 1738. «. 

Aortical cAky on the word« a«#/m» and Ami/u^m» 

I^Lotdon 1739. 3. Dc prtfci5 Romanorum li*. 

*w;4to to p. Ox. J746. 4. De Primogcnio Et* 

™fenniiT» Alphabcto; Ox. 1S46. 5. Infcriptione8 

Cta? Stei*» binas Infcriptiones Phoenicias, in- 

CT mdera Citii niipcr rcpertas, conjcdurse* 

^«fit de nummis quibufdam Samaritanis et 

'^«apit, ▼el infoiitam prae fe litcraturam fcren- 

^H «et in lucem hadenus noo cditts, diirerta'» 

**». 4^f^ '7 P- Ox. 1750. 6. lnfcriptionc« 

C«ic»:fiTe m btnas ar>a8 Infcriptione8 Phocnicu 

^Wermdera Citii nuper repcrlas conjc^urse, 

■»2?. 7. De numrots quibufdam SamaritAni« 

•«Bdi, Tcl info{itam prae fe iiteraturam fe- 

•••■. Tel in-luoem hadcnus non editiR diiH 

ir.<^ 36 p. 8. Metilia: five de quinatio 

^^ Mctilie, c nnromis «ctuilis cctcroquin 

■*•■» noiae, dilT. 4to, 2% p. Ox. 1 750. 9. Sc* 

;«rJ!Wlertatioo«inthcPi»fo/:rrflif/: A«,Adif- 

*t*to tipon a Parthian Coin ; with charadcra 

• tke itTerfe rclembling thofo bf the Palmy- 
5<»» »«l xlix. p. 593. Remarks on a Parthian 
^ witb a Oreck and Parthian leg cnd, vol. I. 
► '4. A diiTcTtatioii upon the Phcenician nttme- 
« charjkders anciently ufcd at Sidon, voI. I. p. 
^ In -iiiunmum Partbicum haAenus incditum 
*^cft'W, vdL U. p. 683. A diAcrtation upon 

* Withc Denanti«. foL hi. p. a8. An ac- 
^ <rf a fiibcntcd Denarius of the P!zto- 
^ ^ily, wtth an EtroCcan infcription. voL 
*|- p. 60. Obicrritiona upon fivc ancient 
***jCoin«, ttruck in Paleiline or Phoeni- 
Ti \^ the diAblution of the Ptrfian empire," 
\}^ P. 345- 10. A partof the Anciciit Unl- 


6s 1 

S W I 

vcrral Hiih)ry, in thc 6th ard 7th vo1« of that 
work. Thc particulars of this picce of Hterary 
h*ftory werc communicatcd by Dr Johnfon to Mr 
Nichols, iii a oapcr printcd in thc Gent, Mag^ for 
Dec. 1784. ' Thc origiBal is depofited in the Bri- 
tiih Murcum. It aiTigns the following divifion8 of 
thc hiftory to Mr Swinton. •• Thc hidory of thc 
C^haginians, Numidian", Maurit?»mans, Gactu- 
lians, G.^ratnantcs McIar,o-G3etHlians Nlgritse, 
Cyrcnaica, Marir.arica, thc Rcgio Syrtica, Turks, 
Tartar-j, and Moguls, Indians, and Chincie; « 
diiTcrtatton on thc pcoplrng of America, and one 
on thc indtpendency of thc Arabs. 

(a.) SwiMTON, a parifti of Scotland, in Bcr* 
wickihire, united with that of SiMfrin, in 1761. 
The two extend 4 miles from E. to W. in length 
and from 3 to 3^ in breadth from N*to S» Tb« 
iurfarc conliil» of gcntly Aopinp hilt» and «ker- 
nate flats, with fome fmall marlhes. Th< foil i« 
dccp and fertile, producing good cropa ahd fine 
grai". Tbc tcA runs through it, and fomettnes 
overHow8 its banks. It abounds with good free« 
fione. The populationy In 1791, was 898 ; tbe 
increaic 404, fince r^^'^. The name of thc pariih 
and of the tamily of Stunnton^ whoie property it 
is, originated from the dittn^t having becngrant'. 
ed to the fir(t of that iatroily for dearing tbe 
ground of pusine^ which is confirmed by tSe ar- 
niorial bcaring of thc fami1y. The Swintons 
madc a confptciiou^ (igure m thc reign of Malcolm 
Canmotc, whoconRnmed thcir right to».the pro* 
pcrty of tbc p^iriih,' by onc of the oMeft <Scottilh 
charters extant, which ia ttill prcferted in tba 
archWes of Durhaml Nbtwithitanding its fitua* 
tion on tbe bordcrs of thc two kiogdokhly anltiid 
tiirbulent fpirit of the barons, thl« ptopcrtyujdirt 
tinued in tbe pofleffion of the'^faiiie'fkinilyfoc 
731 years, and includin^ the laft proprictor nrai 
poireiTcd by %% barons within that period. 

(3.) SwiNTON, a village in the NE. comer of 
tbe above parith; containing 357 inhabitJints* in 
1792 ; when tbe adjaccnt village of Simprim cont 
taincd 75 pcribns* 

(a^ SwiitTON, a town of Yorklhire, ncar a ca# 
nal on the Don, with a pottery and iron mauu* 
fa^ute : 9 miles SW. of Doncailer, and 165 N. of 

SWIRSEN, a town of Germany, in Upper Sax. 
ony, in Parthcr Pomerania: 7 m. ESE. of Polnow* 

(1.) SWISS, adj. Of or belonging to Switacr^ 
land, or thc Hcltetic rcpublic. 

(a.) Swiss, or ) »./. the people of Switzcr- 

(2.)SwissERs, 5 I<%nd, or tbe HeWctic rc- 

SWISSERLAND. See Switzerland. 

* SWITCH. n, /. A fmail flexiblc twig.^ 
Petch mc a dozcn crabtree ftave8, and ftrofig 
onc8 5 thefe are \3i^^ijkmtcbtt, Sbak. — 

Wben a circlc 'bout the wrift 

1« made by beadlc exorcift, 

Tbc body iccls tbc i^ur and f<wUcb. Hudihrat^ 
— ^Mauritania, on the 6flh mcdal, leads a horlc 
witb fomcthmg iike a thread; in ber othcr hand 
ftie holds a fwitch, AdSfm. 

* 7t SwiTCH. 1». a. tfroro thc noun.] To 
b(h; tojerk. — i » 

Lay thy bridle's wcight . * 

I. . Woft 

Digitized by 


8 W I ( 66 ) 

MoA on the left fide i thy right hor(e thcn and m otheri 
/qvitcbing. Chapmaru 

SWITZ, or ScHWiTZ, a canton of thc Helvc- 
tic republic, witb its capital, whicb give name 
to the whole country o£ SwiTZEaLAND. Sce 
ScHWiTz, N" I. and a. 

S WITZER, a native of SwitzcrUnd. 

(i.) $WITZ£RLAND, or Swisserland, a 
gnoontainous country Df Europe, bounded on the 
N. by Swabia ; £. oy Tyrol and Aultnan Suabia ; 
S. by the ci-devant duchy of Savoy and Italy ; and 
W# by old Prance ; being about 160 niilev long, 
and 100 broad. But the rev. Mr Cnitweli makey 
itonly 180 milet long from £. to W. and 140 
broad. It was dividrd into 13 cintons, viz. 
Bbbjib, Zurich, Schaffhau8RN, Basil, Lu« 


suac, Zuo, SoLEURB, Glaris, and Appknzsl. 


▲ND PRODUCB or» Thc dimate <$f tbis country is 
vcry various. That part of the canton of Berne, 
£. of the lake of Gcneva, together with the can- 
lons of Uri, Switz, Underwalden, Giaris, Ap- 
penzel, and part of tbe canton of Lucerne, confift 
of ttupcndous mountains, whoie tops are from 
9000 to ia,ooo feet above the level of the fea, 
confifting of craggy inaccedible rocks, of which 
fome are quite bare, while others are always co» 
Tcred with ice and fnow. Among the mountains 
are manr excellent mcdicinal and other Tprings, 
coldtnd warm baths, water-faUs» craggy preci- 
pices, deep narrow Talleys, and caverns. Tbey 
vield a]fo a great van£ty, of herbs, thickets, and 
baihcs, m the iipper parts ; and in the lower, rich 
piihnes and woods. The higheft are thoic in the 
canton of Uri. Many of the valley8 are covered 
wiih lakcs» or watercd by brooks and river9. . In 
fome of them are towns, Tillages, woods, vine- 
yards, and Com lands. Both on tbe mountains 
aad iii tbe vallcys the air is extremely cold in win- 
ter ; but tn fummer it is vtry pleafant, cool, and 
refrc(hing on thc former, but exceifivcly hot in 
*the latter. Sometimes it is winter on the N. iide 
of a mountain when it is^mmcr on the S. ; nay» 
Bowers may be gatherca fomctimes with one 
hand, and fnow with the otber. Prodigious 
maiTes of ice and fnow often fall from thero in 
winter, and do a great deal of damage; (fce 
Glaciers ;) and moft of tbĕ ftreams and rivers 
t.ike their rtie irom the tbawing of the ice and 
inow on the 6des and tops, From the rirmg or 
dcTcending of the clouds, with whjch thcy are 
commonly epveloped, the inhabitants can pretty 
exa(ftly forettl the changes of thc weather. Thc 
othcr and lower parts of Switzerland ^re vcry 
pleaiant and fertile, being div<frllfied with vine- 
yards, corn*fields, meaiow8,and pafture grounds. 
T!ie mountains in thcfe arc but mole-hills in com- 
pariron of the others : tbere is toeither fnow nor ice 
on tbem in fummer; and they aSbrd not only 
^ood pafturage, but arable ground. (See § so.) 
l':^ the lower parts of Switzcrland thcy fow rye, 
o;it9, barley, flax, and hemp. Wines of variou8 
fort$ are alfo produced in fomc of tbem, with a 
viricty of fruit8. Of wood for fuel and other 
ufes there is geperally plenty ; in fome placcs, 
buwever, tbey are oblig^ to buro ihcep^s dungi 

s w I 

a kind of hesth and fma}l Ihnihs. 
In the valley8 they cultivate faffron with fnccefi. 
Barley is fowed on tbe very ice mountains, the 
oats in a warmer foil ; rye io a warmer ftill, and 
the warmeft of all u ailigned to fpelt. lo moft 
parts a threefoid produce is accounted a tolerabic 
harveft. Flax, hemp, and tobacco, are mucb col* 
tivated. Apples, pcars, nuts, chernes, pluTni,aDd 
cheTnuts are plcntiful ; and the part towardslialy 
abounds in peachcs, mordlts, almonds, figs, c> 
trocis, pomegranates, and othcrs of the morcde* 
licate fruits. 


The Swifs were anciently called Helyeth, aod 
the country Helvetia, whence the modeni 
name of the H£lvetic Republic. Sec HELn* 
tia, and Hrlvetic, § 1—3: The ancicot Hd. 
vetians were a Gau!i.^ or Celtic pcoplc, and Hel« 
vetia was dlvidcd int0 4 cantons or tcnitories. lo* 
liuB C2far was the firft who reduced the iobabi* 
tants under the domioion of the Romans, and 
thefc founded colonies here undcr tbe namef of 
JuUa Etpujiru, Augusta Raurocorum, aod 
Aventicum. Their dominion continued till the 
5th century, whcn the country was over-run bf 
the Burgundians and Germans ; but (bon alter the 
Pranks madc themfelv^e8 entire mafter8 of it. On 
the dcceaTe of Lewis i. king of the Pranks, aod 
emperor of the Romans, the S. part of Helvetia, 
or Burgundy, devolved to the emperor LotbaTitti, 
and the N. or that of Allemain, to king Lewis 
tbe German. Lotharius II. fon to the ft>riner^ 
and kiug of Auftraiia, retained tbe S. part d 
HcWetia, which, togctber with Burgundy, tf 
Pranche CoMTB, was ftyled iht LeSr BurpĔ^ 
dy. After his demife, this S. part alfo devolfe4 
to Lewls the German, wbo thus became pofli^ 
fed of ail Switzerlafid, and iirom him it dcfccnde& 
to his fon, Charles the Fat. In 8S^, Rodolpboii 
duke of the LeAer Burgundy, took on him thc ti< 
tle of king, but the N. part of Switzerland coBti< 
Dued under the dominion of the cmperor Arnol' 
phus. Rodolphus IL fon to tbe foriner, obtaioe^ 
a grant of the Argau from the emjperor Heory 1 
This prince was (ucceeded by his lon Conrad, a 
the latter was by his fon Rodolpbus III. wbo, v 
1031, by a formal will, bequeathed his kingdoc 
of the LeiTcr Burgundy to the emperor Conrad 1] 
whereby all Switzerland once more became uni^ 
ed to the German «mpirc. In thc ijtb centur^ 
it becamc a third time a nominal pro^increo^ K\ 
German empire, which, however, was poITeire 
of little real auUiority here. A great part of tl 
country was in the hands of the clergy» a^d tl{ 
remainder in getieral of particular noble». Tl 
inhabitants of Uri, Schwltz, Unterwald, aod t^ 
territory af Haili, were, from time immemoTi^ 
poiTcired of tbe nght of bcing govemed by tb^ 
•wn magiAratcs» witb othcr important prtviieg< 
and, in thc iith century« the thrce firft ci^t^ 
into an alliance, whicb they folemnly reDcwcdi 
very tenth ycar. They bad alwayMleclared tbcl 
felves av:rfe to the authority of the emperoi 
ftadtholder in Switzerland» till, in laoo, Otj 
IV. compelled them to receive Rodoiphua \ 
count of UabftnuKb, aa bii fcpre(enUtive, thoil 
he wai to uke ao oatb that bc would govem \ 


Digitized by 


S W I 

wrdinjto law and cqully, and makc no encroach- 
raeob upon thcir right» and libcrtiea. This no- 
bleajn Csrais to bafe becn iittIeobfcrvant of that 
cogajrcroent ; fbr, in 1231, we find them unahi- 
■ooOr addreffing thc cmpcror, Hcnry VII. to rc- 
ctl hia, which be accordingly did, ftirther con- 
frmiig to them all thehr priYilegea. In 1149, ^hc 
Kkc WM done hy hta ^ucccATor, Prederick. In 
1157, doring the interrcgnum, in conGderation 
rfbiigTcat powcr, they chnfe for their protcdor 
R^phiw V. connt of HabAnrgh, who, in ia/3, 
Iwimc cmperor •^ Germany. At the folidtati6n 
oTIiii (00, AJbcrt, dukc of Auftria, heintended 
tohatcercacd a particular dukedom in Switzer- 
iand, which defign did not tranfpirc till fcveral 
yan tftcr, whcn it appeared that hc hadpurtha- 
W of the abbot of Murbach the town of Lucem, 
with his rcTcnnea, and prcrogatiTct in fcvcral-vil- 
l^ in thc territory of Schwciti. Thcfc threc 
^HWdi, 00 the dcath of Rodolphus, faithfully 
aiho«d to bis facceflbr, the empcror Adolphu^, 
l^giTC fo much offence to hia fon, duke Ai- 
hnt, t^ on bis acccffion to thc crown of Gcr- 
^Mo thc dcath of the lattcr, hc difplay d his 
"y^Pt in more than onc inftance, not only 
ttni% pcrcmptorily to confirm thcir priYilcgct, 
^rtboBt fouchCafing to allcge any reafon tor his 
«nnal, bot Iikewifc fetting over thcm two noblt- 
o«of thcmoft irifiamout chara^cr for avaricc 
«^ im>?ance, whofc adminiAration hecame quitc 
»«»PPortabfe. On this, feeing that nothing lert 
JJiraagitaHonthaii thc totaldeprivationof their 
wcrtics, aod Ihc bringing them under the yokc 
«Antna, they unitcd in a Arin refolution to de- 
"■**«»(clvei to the laft extrcmity. The tyran- 
M.l^'^* thc Auitrian govemor, hailened 
"■iwototkM), bv bis barbarouAy ordcrinp Wil- 
«aTcn, the celebrated 8wif8 patriot, to (hoot 
tt apple of bit fon'a head at a condderablc dir. 
.J*«5' Ttll, haring accomph(hed this without 
•«l^ bis fon, Grifler obferved, that he had a- 
wherarrowconccaled under bis doak, and afk- 
«Jin.lbrwhal porpofe /Aa/ was,— To which 
/^^•rrtplicd •< To havc {hotjou through 
^ JJJ^inhad had the mitfortune tohave killcd 
5**^ On thii the enragcd Govemor order- 
«Rlto he hangedlbnt his fcIlow c!tizcn8, f1ew 
to/S ^^^ ^^ vanqui{hed GriAer, who 

f 67 ) 

8 W 1 

^*]^ waithc firft' who raifed the ftandard 
w wty. The citiicns chofc for commandcrs 

cefa of which the liberty of thc confWefatcs wat 
retricYcd, bcing fought within ita jurifdidton, iti 
name was given fo thc gencral confederacy. Thc 
emperor Albert thinking that this was Cht feafbn 
for totally reducing thefc three placcs by foree of 
arms, haflencd to Baden, to begin thc prepara- 
tions, but being, on his rctum, murdered by hit 
brother^s fon, John of Habfburg, thc defign waa 
dropped ; till not long after, the boufe of Auftrit 
invented another pretcnce for ^alling on thc Unit- 
cd Cantons. For thcfe and other parts of Swit- 
zerland, adhering to the emperor Lcwis of Bavi. 
ria, his competitor, Predcric of Auftria, was fo 
cxtremcly initated, that the Switzer8 having, du- 
ring their conteft8 with thc abbey of Einndlhi, 
madc fomc of its monks p(rifoners, put them un» 
der the ban. to which the bifhop of Conftance 
added excommmiication. Thc formcr was taken 
ofr again by the empcror Lewis, and the latter by 
the Abp. of Mrntz. JLeopoId, duke of AnAria» 
by v!rtue aIfo of a commiffion from his brotber 
Predcric above mentioncd, in 13 15, attacked the 
corifcdfrate8 with a powerlu] anny, but was dc- 
feated by them at Morgarten. Hercupon, on the 
8th of Dec. 13x5, they entered intoa perpttual al- 
liance, which proved the origin of the late Hclvc* 
tian confederacy. In 1331, Lucrrn acceded to 
it; tn 135 T, Zurich and Glarus; and in 135« 
tbeir numbcr was increared by thc acccAion of 
Zug and Bern. 


TREATY 0F Westphalia. For thc fpacc of 
125 ycars, this confcdcracy was compofed only 
of the above 8 territorits or cantons, on which 
account, they art callcd thc Old Cantons. In 
14S1, Friburg and Soleure; and in 1501, Bafi], 
and Schaffh^ufen wcre admitted into the confe- 
deracy ; and in 15 13 Appcnzcl aIfo acceded to ir. 
Thefe 13 towns and countries, which propcrly 
conftituted the Helvetic ripublic, were unit- 
ed by a reciprocal convention, which, thongli 
not tn all places the fame, and the unions of the 
8 old, and 5 latcr cantons differing in ccrtain rc- 
fpedtfl, yet in the principal points ncarly agrecd ; > 
the firft and chtcf article, relating tothe fuccourfp 
afl]ftance, and prote^ion, to be given to anw one 
of them in cafc of any unjuft vioIcncc, and deter- 
mining in what manner and by whom thc reafona 

' ■ as 

and ftating l>oth the espcnces of the war, and thc 
diftribution of any acquifition8. The sd article 
repulated their proccdure in accommodating any 
diffcrence8 whiph might arife bctwecn two or 

TjJIJWtodeath by William Tell, and initant^y for any military entcrprife ihould be difcuflcd 
2f*" «n aObcinion for their independence. aIfo how and where fuch fuccour fhouId bc gi* 
J^ BctBorablc erent h^ppcned on the 7th of 
^liyn- (See TiLL.) JntoU Meicbthal of Un- 

W lc^ of approved courage and abilitics; more towns or canton^i, &c. Ip fome league 

^^J|*J*"Jcr,orGcrhard Stauffach,of Schwitz, and particularly in thofc of the old town«, it waa 

^■''ror^t, of Uri, and Amold Mc^chthAl a- pcrmittcd to cnler into any cther ccnnt^ions at 

^ttttmooed, who fecrctiy agreed together, pleafure, providcd fuch conne^ions did not affc« 

S^? *"f 6fftday of Jan. 1308, they fhould ''' '-'—' — "" ^ .-. .- .u . — 

J2J*»nd demolifh thc caftle8 hi which the im- 
2"P^njors refided. This rtfolution bcing 
jjJT^» ^^ tbree places jomed again m a lcaguc 


Ttirs, which gavc birth to the HcWctian 

the original confederacy ; but in thc conventionfl 
with thc later towns and cantons, it was cxprefiM 
ly ftipulated that they fhouId not contrad anyen- 
gagements without the privity, advice, and con- 
fent of thc old oncs. The fcdcral union, how» 
ever, extended no farthcr than to tbe fuccoun 
itipulatcd in the leagues, and other cafe8 fet forth 
in the famc ; in all other incidental affairs relative 
to thc confedcracy, thc majority of votea wm not 

55*2^7. ScHwiTZ bciiig the moft powcrful 

CJI!^^^*'*^' places, and the firft mect- 

^^^^mdmtts bctng hdd at Bnmnen, in 

jjJJ*»^^ as aUb tbe flrft lcaguc conduded to thc coniedcracy, thc majority of votea wm not 

-^ «a aftcr that the firft t»attley by thc fuc- obligatory to thc whole body | particularly witli 


Digitized by 



S 'W 1 (68 

rcip9Sb'io the mabing of aiUaJices with forctgii 
powcrs, wherciD cvery town and canton whs at 
iiberty to a^ as a contr;»<!^injf paity or not, and 
Ihat cvcn though fuch aHiance flu»nld havc btcn 
>pprov(-d of by all the otber towns and canton^ 
Thus the wholc Heivctian body corfifted pioper- 
4y of 13 diHkind rcpublics or free itatcs, united by 
oath for thcir mutu^il fecurity and maintenance. 
It had for fome centnrie'* bcfnre the Fr«rnch rcvo- 
]ution, fupported itfelf in an abfolute trce-^ora 
and ii>dcpendency9 enjoyed aH thc privi!eges o^ 
majefty, madc wars, concludcd treatics, recf ivcd 
a«d fent envoy8 from and to thc fev. ral Europeap 
powers, entered into alllances with thcm, givco 
what form thcy thought proper to thcir conitilu- 
tion, cnadted laws and ordinarcee both in tempo- 
f-al and fpiritual atTairs, and exercifed ail tb«' vari- 
0U8 prerogaUvc«» of fovereignty. Accordingly, at 
the peace of Weftphalia, in 16481 it wa* acknow- 
ledged to be a frcc Aatc, estn by thf crapcror 
and empire. 


TS.ESENT TiME. This brayc nation continucd to 
cnjoy tlieir freedora and indepcndcnce, under 
their reipcdtive various conttitutionswithlittle in- 
lerruption, cxcept what took place in their intcr- 
fial governraents, by occa(ionai alteiations, frora 
1^4^, till the commencement of the Prench Revo- 
jution in 1789. But foon after that ereat event, 
•which more or lefi convulfed a!l the ft«tes ()f £u- 
rope, the. rage for . inno:vation, and the hopci) <)f 
•/eftabii(hinff a perted libertj and cguajity, reacbed 
tbe Swirti Cantong: and thc democratic party not 
A)nly attempted to ovcrtuni the oid ariftocratic 
^overnments, but eyen tonew-modcl tholedcmo- 
cratic c^mtpns, thc governments of which by uni- 
verfal ^uiTragjc, and othtr cftaMiftied priviirges, 
appearcd to be as perfeilJy free au thcy couid b^ 
rendered by any cbange. At laft, on the »ad 
March 1798, thcy wcrc revolution'z<.d upon.lhe 
plan of the French.republic> undcj a 4ire^tory 
innd two council&i (Sce HkLVETic REPuetic, 
^3.) After tbis the whole couotry was repeated- 
ly oYcr run, and £ucceftive cbanges made in its 
governracnt, by the diffcrent beliigercnt powers, 
wbilc the inh^bitanta»' aotwithftandin? thc natu- 
Vai ftrtngth o( thcir fttuati0n, nvere fubje6ed to 
»\\ the horrora of wai:, ad related undcr the arti- 
t e Reyolution, N=* VI, § 33t ,38—40; 43—45« 
Wc nc.ed otjly ^dd,; ^that thc whole o^ tbis oncc 
tree country, except fuch portions of it as havc 
fceen anncxcd to the Erencb empir^t or thc i/a- 
iian AingJomt'. {Stc § ii.) and t^efe necd hardiy 
be cxcepteJ, l)eing ftill under the '^Aint impcri- 
al defpotifm, are now entirely fubje<acd to the 
arbitrary >yili aOd plcafure of th^ Emperor, Na- 
poieon, .», . . 


£w!fa arC;A brave, honeft, horpitable, hardy peo- 
ple ; v<ry tiue to their engagcments, fricnd^!y and 
Lumane., In ft)ort, there is not a prpple in Eu- 
/t)pe >vhofr ngtional charadtcr is better.. in thcir 
peifona tbcy are gcnerally t^U, robutt, anii wcil 
^ade ; but thcir complcxionaarc nonc of ibc bcft, 
iind tl^ofc that live in the neighbouihood of the 
Oiountains are fubjc^ tb wen'». The women are 
;v^ncrAliy handromc and »^'eU-fhapccl, ^cnhble and 
IP ji'.fl, yct ffank, tafy, ^nd a^rctab^c iu.conycr- 

> S W I 

fation. Few of Ihe pe.tCintA are miferably poor; 
raAuy c>f thcm are rich, efpccially in thc Protcf- 
Uut (antons, and that of Berne in particular. 


qovERNMENT 0F. Thc Utc fo»m of goYernmcnt 
in thcfeveral ftate^ of the Heivetianrepublic, was 
in f()me monarchical, in othcrs ariftocr^tical| and 
in others dcmocratical. Thcir fovcrcigns werc 
the princes of the cmpire, fuch as tbc bilhop of 
Balil, and the ab^ot ,of St Gall. The arillocrati. 
cal gov?rnmcnt8 were, the cantons of Zucick, Ba? 
fii, and Schalfhaulcn, with fomc inco;poratc 
placcs as thc lowrts of St Oall, MuhlhaufcnatHl 
JJicl, the cantons of IJern, Luccm, f riburg and 
Solcurtj, ovcr whicb werx: appointed Scbuiiixrf%en 
or jufticiHrirs, aod Nrutchaicl aud Ceneyju' Tbc 
dcmocratical form of governmcnt pFtvailĕd inthe 
fix £antun« of Uri, Schweitz, UnderwalJeo, Zttg, 
Glarus, and AppenzeH, vvhiclv werc unUcir thc <li- 
rc^ion of LanJctmmnnj ; as alfo> thnugji wlh 
fome variation in the Grifons and the yaUis, M 
in ali, every male of the age of j6, whctber maAcr 
or fervant, had a votc in the cnading of law , and 
clcding of raagjftr;itc8. The generil anaual dieU 
wert held al IJaden or Fraue>i/eldt, cxlraordinary 
dicts at AUorf. Lucerri t©o|c the lead of thc Ro- 
man cAlhoiic caniuns, but ZuRiCH, though kiii 
powcrfui than Benie, took the precrdence of thc 
wholc. With refped lo tbeir railitary <rftablilh* 
menr,.the only re;;uUr forceshcre wcrc. thole of 
the garrifons of Zurich, Uern, Bafi!, Gcnevi, and 
Arburg ; but cvery butghcr, pcalaDt, aad fubjca, 
wiis. diligcnijy to exercife bimiclf in.thc uC: o( 
arms, to apprar onthe ilaic.l days for (hootinj; 
at A maric, tofqruiih himlcit with proper clothisgi 
accoutrcments, powdcr and ball, to bc alwap 
rcady for tbe defence of bis country, a«.d pundin 
aliy to comply with cvery artick of w,ir. Swd* 
zerland was, ani probabiy ftill ia» well proiidcd 
with arfenali, particularly at Bcrn ; but thc onl^ 
fortified pWcs in it are SoUure, .Ziirich, Bera 
Bflfjl, and Arburg. Tbc Switaers ^ngaged in thi 
fcrvice of lorcign pnncc* and ftates, cither mercli 
slS guard9,.or as marching regiments: ia tbc latt«? 
cafc, the govcmment permi^tcd the cclilttng vj 
luntecrs, though only iii fuch ftatc8 as they \rcr 
in alli mpe or had madc a previou& agreement with 
and ho fubjc<5t wae to be forc(r4 into forcign fe( 
vicc, nor even to bc eiibftcd| without tbc co* 
currenc^ of. the magittracy. All thc advantag^ 
^rifing to the regcncics trom thefe levies, wcj 
ufually only an annual fubfidy paid by>he ftate j 
whole favQur tbe levie8 werc thu^ grautcd ; at 
perhapii a promife of rcciprocal aid whcn occ^ 
fery. A public beocftt, howcvcr, aUendmg th 
ciiftom, waB that thcfc mcn rcturmng homc aflj 
a long f?rvice abroadj werc a gicat improvecuc| 
to the ftatiding militia of tlicir cuunlry. T^ 
conrederate8of thc Swif6 Cantons werctbeabbot 
St G.all and ihc VaUis ; tbe Gj-ifons, townsot O 
nev4, St Gaii, Biennc, Mubibaufan, and Neufcti 
tcl. The indcpcndtnt ftatcs under thcprotc^ij 
cf thc ftates or thc a)lic6 were Gerifauy Engclbe^ 
and K4pperfchweil, Roman catholics ; aod H 
dcnftcin, Protcrtanls, The iubje^» wtrc ^ 
den, Morat, Granfon, Echalen, Orbe,.Schw^ 
^enhutg, XVcidcnbcrg, and Bienncy Protcfta«ij 
^l^e Trec b^iliwicks, Utznach| O^^^r, ^he lt«d 


Digitized by 


S W I 

^«icb, Rooun catboUcs: and the Thurgaui 
Rbctitlal, Sargaos, and Tockenburg, iDixtd. 
BBtpcaC duo^ bave Ukeii pUce m the condi- 
tutioe lad fOfeminent or thj« couDti y during the 
\ae itt^tutioaary war. Sct § ^^ a>td Reyolu- 
\m, J VI. 


ruDi or. The pnncipal inanufadures are Hnen 
titm*i (bits, l4ce, thread, (ilk} and worded (lock- 
rip, u:t<loths, cotton ftu(fi(, gioves» handker- 
Ok^, 6iuot iercrai iorta, gold and (il ver brocade^ 
i uxtf of woolkn manura^ure'', hats, paper, 
iiChcrof alt Torts, earthen wares, fniifr and tob^ic- 
ci.paKiiua,watcfacsc)ocks,toy8,and other hnrd- 
•To, kc Tradc i*^ prcatly pronfM>ied by niany 
.-aniibtc lakei aod rivers« In fome of tbe aVpve 
Binhdwc», and in cheefe, buUir, fheep, horfes, 
Midcmk) bides, and Ikins, the eiports arc con- 
tknhk^and as tbe iAport<t are chieSy grain 
KAUi^ witb foine Americ^n and Aiiatic gcods^ 
tA^iiilarge balance in thcir favour. la fome 
;^i^5*»tzerlaQd dreCs wM/r&raincd by Tump- 


l*«ij'duriegated marble, porphyry, gyp^um, 
lihAT.cTyAal, lilrpctre, falt, coa!, 3cc abound 
Wt, witk EUer, copper, lcAd, and iron ores. 
Ui: dal i« foun<l in the fanJs of fcverai river8, 
rirticTilirty thc Rhine, £mm?t, Aar, ^eufii, Arve, 
tilii. Iron orc aUb abounds and is wrought. 


«iitciHALiPRiNcs, &c. oy. Thc grcatcr part 
(^UMcooatry is compolcd of nK>untainis wjth 
*ww valIcyK between : thclc mountains are 
C5«?oW 0* Aupeodous rocks, two, four, or fijc 
'^^{nitiion each other, and from 4,000 to 
iv»kam pcrpendiculajT height. Oile pcak, 
5 nuooc St Gotiiard, is, by Du Crct, com- 
j«d tt 16,500 f « nch fcet. Jhe lowcr parts of 
'^k bigh laouotama are covered with woods and 
"M^tt, tbe bcrbage in which ts of a remarkable 
*^f^ Md richncfs. The middle confifts of Alp» 
*»Aag io a great iafiety bf odorlferous herbi, 
7^^ and bulhe^, witb exccllent ^prings, in 
•■■^itrjrted to by herdfmeB, with their cat. 
*' TWthird part of thefe iniountaiDs con(ifts aU 
2*«irtly of craggy and inacccAible rocks, fomc 
■■ibare quitc bare, witbout herbage grow- 

( 69 ) 

s w 1 

mountains i<' without a oatara<5t,. and aa the-eyc, 
by reafon of thc intervention of the cloudfl, isnot 
always abte to rench the btginning of them, thty 
look as if pourcd down trom heaven upon the 
rocks. Among thcfe mountain^ arc many excel- 
lent fpring((, fome of which are medicmal, others 
warm*, and others cold baths, cclebrated for their 
€xtraordinary virtues. Of thcfe fummits, too, 
fome form a part of the Alps, fo frcqucntiy men- 
tioned io the Greek aod Roman writers, the Ap- 
PENNiNES (or J/pej Summ^y now St GotharD' 
and Cri/paltJ with thc Jipa LcpontU, ih^ jilpcs 
RbttUj &c. Very ,differcrit from this is thc rc- 
matning and fmalier part of Switzcr1and, includ- 
ing the county of Thurgau, ubich is a part of 
thc cantons of Zurich, Schafifhaufen, Bem, Bafil, 
$oIeure, a/id Pnbuigb ; for tbough this diftri<St Lt 
not withkout mountains, fome of which are evea 
2000 or 2500 fcct bigh, yet it is much mor&leve2 
than the above roemioned parts of the mountain^» 
and fometime6 alfo the vcry fummit8, are covered 
with vincyard8, corn-fields, mcadows, and pafture 
grounds. Herc, arc, likcwife, no Alps, norrocky 
prccipices, no catara^s, few trees, and in fum- 
mer neither fi)ow nor ice. The mountaine, in- 
ftead of bcing interruptcd by vaft chafm8 or abyf. 
fe«, are generally entire, and compofcd of a few 
fmatl eminences, the fummit8 of which, far from 
(hooting out into pcaks, arc flat or round, to the 
c;;tcnt of many miles, without any confiderabie 
iiiequaUty, and frcqucntly afford n<n oniy pafiu- 
rage, but alfo arable ground. It is only during 
li)ng rains, that in thefe parts the clouds fink bc« 
low tbe cminences. Great numbcrs of pctriTac- 
tions, more particularly of marine ihclls and 
plants, are found among them. The ficlds, too, 
though generaily Aony, are fertile, and the mca- 
dowB in moft places are planted with fruit*treeit. 
This more level part of Switzeriand is watered 
only by a few river8, but thelc arc large. 

RELIGION, EDUCATION, &C. 0F. Swit^crlaod is 

not fo poplousas many other countries in Europc; 
the Popiih cantons are leis fo tban the Proteftant« 
The total numbcr of thc inhabitants is computed 
at two millions. Thc languagc generally ^poken 
is the German, in which aifo all public affair8 are 
tranfadted; but in tbofe partsof tbecountry that. 

^^ tbem, or cven fo mucb as graTs, wbilft border on Italy or Prancc, a corrupt Prench or Ita- 
*^ lit continually covercd with fncw and lian prcvail8. Thc two predomioant religions are 
"> Tlic Yalicyi bctwcen thefe mountains ap- '^' - -' - - _. . - 

^••ieioinany f(Dodib frozen lakei. The ice 
*w \KpA in tbe cantoo of Glarus, and after paf- 
^ tbroogh the ttmtory of the Gitfon8, and 
^ii?.*^ the canton of Un, terminate in that 
< Bem, Tbc higbett of thefc mountaios arc thofe 

MIf ^*^^" ^^ ^^^' ^*^ ^' Gotbard, Firka, 
^?a't,aiidLi»cmanicr, which fend forth riv'er» 
*tipar4of E»rope. This is thc mo(l dreary 
i« flf iH Switzerland, and on the (ummits of thc 
.'***^onc eutnal cold almoft prevaiis, with 
** galc» oC wiiid and very damp fog8. During 
;*rmcftpart of ihc ycar, thc clouds Ue be- 
l^tbc peaki of the higheft roouniains, inro- 

•=»>lhat firo3)thtocc they appear likc a (ea, .^. ,..^ ....,,. ^^^. 

ZJV^ proje^ng among them like iOands. f uagc and the fciencc6. 
''•^^«■o» too, thcy break, and thua difpUy a . (ii») Switzerland, sresjbnt state of. 
'***'tkc cotwtry b^ncath. Not onc of thc Tbeprcfcnt poUtical this country belng 


Calvinifm and Popery. Of the formcr are the 
cantons of Zurich and Bcrnc, the town of $t 
Gall, Muh!haufen, aod Biel, the princ'pali»y of 
J^eufchatci, the grcatcr part of Bafil, Schaffhauf. 
en, the country of thc Grirpns, vhe Thurgau, 
Toggenburg, plaris, and the Rbiue valley : the 
frontItr8 of Appenzcl, with a fmall part ot S^^lo- 
thurn, arid fomc placcs in the countiics of Badtn 
and Sargans. Thc reft of the Swifs cantnn" are 
Popiib. For the cducation of youth thert U aa 
iinivcrfity at Bafil, and acadtmies at Zurich, 
Berne, Laufanne, and Gerieva, befide8 gymnqfia 
SLiidJcIjoU illujlresi both In the Popi(h and Pro- 
teftant cantons. Tbcrc arc alfo focictics among 
them for the improycmcnt of thc Gciman lan- 

Digitized by 


S W I 

mentioned above» m § j, we haTe only to take 
«lotice of the geograpbical alterations, which 
liave been made upon it during aiid dnce the 
latc reyolutionary war. Of thcfe thc moft fla- 
grant wai thc compeUing of the citizen8 of Ge- 
tiCYa, in 1798, to annex their city and repubiic 
to the Prench republic j (Sce Geneta, N* 1.) 
in coDftqucncc wherrof th>cy now form the dt- 
partment of Lac Leman in the French cmpirc. 
To that cmpirc is alfo anncxed thc wholc ot the 
Pays de Yaui, or country of the cclcbrated 
Vaud<ms, or Waldenses. The YALTSLiitEy 
Chiavemna and Bormio» wcre at thc voiuntary 
rcqucft of thc citizen8, feparatcd from thc coun- 
try of the Grisons, by Bonaparte, in 1797, and 
annexed to thc Ciialpinc Rcpablic ; (Sec Cisal- 
3PINE, N* a.) whencc thcy now form a part of 
thc Italian kingdam^ aa does aIfo thc country of 
thc Griron^, which was afterward8 anncscd to tbe 

( 70 > 

s w o 

the Reursy the Aar, the Adda, and the Tedno, 
with many othcrs that join thcm. Thc priticipal 
lakcs arc thcife of Gencva, Ncuichatel, Btel, Zq. 
rich, the Waldftattcr, Thun, and Brien, Con- 
fUncc and Lucem. Both rivcr8 and lakcB abound 
with fi(h. 


Tbc arts and fcicncc8 have long becn cultiTatcd 
with aiSduity and fucccfs in Switzcrland; iDdle- 
vcra1 of thc cantons and ftatcs conncAcd with 
thc Confederacy, havc given birth to lcamed mcnj 
whofe abilitiet and writings havc done honotir to 
thc country. Sce Calvin» Gesner* Rousscau, 



Tbc cantons ncvcr kept any ftanding troops, a 
cept for few a garrifonB ; bpt thetr militta wm iooi 
rcckoncd the bcft regulated of ar.y in Eoropd 

Italian republic. Part ci the bi(hopric« of £very maie firom 16 to 60 was enroUcd, aod tl 

Bafil and Conftance, with Baden» aud fomc other 
placcB, wcre allotted among the indcmnitics to 
the ncw clcdor of Badch ; (Sce Revolution, $ 
Vin.) and thefe conftitnte the chief diiincmbcr* 
ments of this ancient rcpnbiic. 


<)F. Tbe inhabitants dcrivc their chicf fubfiftencc 
from thcir cattle : both thc va]lcy8 »id Alp^, or. 
middle parts of thcir cnormous nMunratns yiciding 
cxccllcnt fodd^cr. In thc bcginning of fummcr thc 
cattle are drivcn up among thc AIps, and com- 
mittcd to thc carc of thc Scrms. (Scc Senn, N® i.) 
Thc Scnncs on all thc Alps, likcwifc, kccp hogs, 
which arc fcd with thc whey afrcr making the 
buttcr and checfe« Thc $wif8 checfe is much cf- 
tcemcd in othcr parts of Europe, but the beft is 
thal of Bcrn, aad Gricrs in the canton of Priburg. 
Great numbcr8of hor/es ^e bought up here for the 
Frcnch cavalry.' Cf wjld >nimal8, thc chai^ois 
and the marmozet are the moft rcmarkable. ($ee 
Capra, N^ XIV^ Among the Alps is found a 
fpccie8 of harcs, which in tummer perf<?d1y re- 
femble other hares, but in wintcr bccomc all over 
white, infom.uch thatthey are fcarce dii^gui^?- 
blc among thc fnow« Hcre are aifo, yellow and 
white foxe8 in great numbers» which in yrinter 
come down tb tbe valley8. Tbe lamrmtgmr, 
which delightB in the higheft pcaks, is a Urge 
bird of the eagle kind» and its .wings arc 14 fcct 
in l>readth. ThciTe birds prey alikc on wild and 
tamc aaimals, There are fcveral edible fowls hcre, 
fuch as the moorcook, the raily the fnipe, the par- 
tridge, and f«m'e others. 


lic revenucs wcre in general verT incon^der^blct 
m-iting chicAy from tbe regaliay |he demefne8, and 
public granaries, voluQtary corttributions, the (ale 
of falt, and a land tax ; in the Protcftant cantons, 
fi-om the church-lands alfo that werc feized at the 

boutone ^d of thcm rcgtmcntcd. Thcy all proj 
vidcd themfclvc8 ve}th arms, clothing, andaccon 
trcmcnts, and appeared on the ftatcd dayslorct 
ercife ; and the feveral cantons and diftndt wen 
furni(hed wath a train of artilicry, and all the 
ther implemcnts of war. The Switiers of tbc£! 
vcral canton# wcrc ^llowed to engage in thc fci 
v?ce of fuch forcign princcs ai!d ftate8 as were ii 
alliance with thofe cantons, or with whoiB thr 
had made .a prcviou8 aggrecment. Such ftate] 
paying an annual fubfidy to the refpc^ve cantooi 
wcrc allowed to makc Icvie8. Evc,ry man colitte 
yoluntarilyp and for what numbcr of ycars hcpkii 
cd ; at the cxpiraidn of which he wat at libeit 
to retum homc. A grcat number thus alwiyi fl 
tuming from forcign fervtce, SwitBcrland wai t^ 
^r unprovided witb able ^nd cxpertenccd oiccr 
aod /oldicrs. 

SWITZERS, |f./. plur. [from ^7as.l t^ 
pcople of Switzcrland. See 8witzbbi and, f < 

(i.) • SW1VEL. «./. Somcthing fixcd ifli 
Aothcr body fo as to tum cound tn it. 

(4.) yf SwiV£L 48 a kind of ring made to ttn 
round in a ftaplc, or othcr ring. Thcfe arc oS 
wbcn a ftiip lics at hcr moorings ; aifo In tcdA 
fbr cattle, th^t thcy inay turn round without b 
waiping the tcddcr. 

(3,) SwiyEL Cannon, a fmall ptecc of artille 
bclor^ing to a fhip of war, which cartics a fl 
of haTf a pound, aod b hxcd in a fockct on t 
top of thc fhtp'8 fide, ftcm, or bow, and alfo 
hcr tops. Thc trunnions of this pieoe are c( 
taincd in a fort of iron crotch, of wbich the Ifl 
er end tcrminatcs in a cylindrical pivol reftmg 
thc (bckct, fo as to Tupport the wcight of 1 
cannon. The fockct is borcd tn a ftrong piccc 
baky rcinforccd with iron hoops, in ordcr to <i 
blc it to fuftain the rccoil. By this frame» whj 
18 callcd the/<ic;m'/, and an iron handle on its 

Rcformation, except in Zurich, ^cme, Bagl, cablc, thc ^n may bc dirc^cd by tbc hand l* 

and Schaffbaufcn, where thc peoplc aT mott iti 
duftrioU8, have a grcatcr trade, and arc richcr 
than in the others, thcydcfi*ay thc ordinary charg- 
c«. and that is all. How much thc agents of 
NMpoIcon now fqueezc from the Swif8 we know 


Thc pnnctpal river8 trc the Rhine, the Rhone, 

ny objc^. ^ It is thcrefore vcry ncccAary in I 
Itops particularly when loaded with rouikct ba 
ro firc down cn thc uppcr dccks of thc advcrC 
in a^Ton. 

• SWOBBER. «./. [Scc Swabber.J i- 
fwccpcr of the dcck. — 

On a brown gcoi^e witb louCj /<wMfrj i 

Digitized by 


s w o 

I. Foar privilegcd cards.that arc only iocidcntal 
ly oled in kttlng at tbe game of whift.— The 
doiToan uicd to play at whift and J<wohher*i 
bot be coold Dot digeft tho(e wicked /wohbers* 

S^OJAKOW» a town of Bobemia, in the oir* 
ck of ChradiiD ; 9 miles SĔ, of Poiitzka. 
SWOLL 8eeZvoLL, 

•SWOLN. 5/w/;.— 
Ucr dreadfiil beaftf who, /<wohi with blood of 
CuDc rampiog iortb. Spen/er. 

Wbcn tbiia the g^cr^d ftorm8 of wrctched 
lo mjjwk bofom witb long war had ftrovet 
At ico^ thej broke tbeir bouods. Prior, 

-Whcrcai at mlt wc bad onW three of theie 
priadpb, tbeir Domber is alreaay yiWn to five. 

•SWOM. Tbe'preteriteof/«rfi»f. 

(l) • 8W0ON. »./. llrom ihc wb.) A lipo- 

(1.) Syoom. Sce MsDiciNS, § 807—813 ; 
Sr*cof f, kc. 

* fĕ SwooN. V. m, [flfwwumi Sason.] To fpf- 
h t iiipcnfioo of tbought and fen(ation ; to 

So pby tbc fooHih throngs with onc that 
[wpms ; 
Cooe tli to bclp hiniy and ib ftop thc air 
By whicb be Ihoold revive. Sbak. 

-tttboo ftand'ft ooi i' th' ftate of hangiog, be- 

f 7« ) 

s w o 

To changc ; to escbange one thing for anotber. 
A low word. — 

Oh tbat inrulting word! I would \ivic/wofp*d 

Youth for old age, and all my life behind, 

To have bceo then a momentary man. Drydenm 

(1.) ♦ SWORD. »./. UhueortU Saxon ; /<weerd^ 

Dutcb.] I. A weapoo uled either in cutting or 

thrufting; the uAial wcapoo of fight8 hand to 

The participlc palHYc of hand. — 

Old unhappy traitor, tht/wrd ia out 
That muft deftroy thce. Sbak 

— £ach man took h\%/word. Gett.^ 
But iht/word 

tatow prcCeotlyy skndAwoon for what't to comc 
*P«tkc SbaJk.—Wc tee thc Rr< 

Of Michacl from the armory of God 
Was ffiv'o him tcmper^d io, thlt ncither kccn 
Nor (olid miffht refift that edge : it met 
Thc /word of Satan with fteep f6rce. 
Thc griding^orJ with dilcootinuous wound 
Paf8*d through him. Milton* 

%• DcftruAion by war ; as firc and /<word. — The 
y«;or^ without, and tenour withio. i>fitf. xxzii. 
%$. 3. Yengeaocc of jutticc.— 

Jufticc to Merit doea wcak aid aHbrd» 
Shc quit8 the balance» and refignB thc/word. . 

4. Emblcm of aothority.-* 

This I, her /worJ-bearcr, do carryy 

For civil decd aod military. Budibras* 

(a.) A SwORD is an oirenfivc weapon wom at 

the fide« and ferving either to cut or iUb. Itt 

parts arc> the handley guard» and bladc ; to which 

may bc addcd thc bow, fcabbardy pummeU &c. 

(3.) SwoRO OP Stati, whicb is bomc beibre 

the kingi lorda» aod governor8 of counties, citie8t 

grcat aod fudden or borougba» &c. For or bcfore the kiogy it 

c^tf iJDeila io fietcbtng mco again, when thcy ougbt to bc camed upright ; tbe hilt aa low as 
>i» BawB.— the bcarcr'8 waift, thc bladc up betwcen hi8 eyca^ 

Tbe moft io jcxrt/<wooifd firft away. Dryd. " 
Tbe woman find8 it all a trick, 
Tiutbe couki/urooir wbeo ibe waa fick. Prior* 
*-HefecDcd ready Xo/<woon away io thcfurprizc 
rf J07. Tgtier. 
;^SWOONING,Air/. «./. Sce Mbdicine, « 

*SW0OP. «./ [from tbe verb.] Fall of a 
■^rfprcy opoa hia quarry. — 

w, ail my prcUy cbickcoa aod their dam, 

!^USi/<woopr Sbak. 

Tpe «%Ie tell into thc fox*t quiirter8» and car- 
'^ lay a wholc litter of cuba at a /<woop. 

^ *ftroor. V. 0. [I fuppofe formcd from thc 
^^1 1. To i^izc by fal]ing at oncc, as a hawk 
^ bii prry.— A fowl in A^aga^car, callcd a 
^^ tbe featber» of whofe wings are twclve pa- 
^ m vith aa much ciXcffwoop up an elepbant 
■» kitci do a roonfc. mikins,— 

Kow at laft you came to/u/oo/Mt all. 

A cut-' 

?"pfcTupon; to catch up.-^The phyfician 
l^ «ith anothcr cye on the medicmal berb 
■•^graiiog ox, whichy^oj^/ it in with thc 
?■■« graia. GianvJie. $. To paTa with vio- 
^ Notuicd.— 

^iwd Tmer /kmops aloog with ruch a lufty 

*•*! fo bravc a Aood. Drawton. 

^IWOP. v.a. [Of uoccrtaio dcrivaUonJ 

For or before a duke, thc blade muft decline from 
the head, and be carricd t>ttween the neck and 
the right.ihouidcr. For or bcforc an earl» tlie 
blade i^ to be carried betwecn thc point of the 
ihoulder and the elbow : and for or l>eforc a ba- 
ron, thc blade is to be bora in the bend of thc 
arm. This cercmonial form no lcrs dcnotcs the 
dignity of a govemor tban the coronct fet on hia 
coat of arms. 

♦ SWORDED. adj. [from /word.] Girt witlv 
a iword. — 

Thc /worded feraphim 
Arc feen in glitt^ring ranks. 

♦ SWORDER. n. / [from /wri.] 
throat ; a foidier. In cootempt. — 

A Komsin /%tforder and banditto ilavc 
Murthcr'd fwect Tully. Sbai* 

Czfar will 
Unftatc his happinef8, and be ftag'd to th' {hc«r 
Againft a/worder. Sbak^ 

SwoaD-FiGHT, «./. [jhvord aLndJlgbt.] Adpel 
or corobat with fwordA. Scc Swordplayer. 

(i.) ♦ SwoRDPisH. »./ [se^bias.] A fiih with 
a long ftiarp bone iiTuing from his head.— 

A /word/i/b fmail him from the reft did fun« 

der. Spen/er^ 

-^Malphigi obfcrvcd the middlc of tbe optick 

ncrvc of ihc /<wor^/b to be a large mcmbrancj 

f jldcd in many doubks, likc a fan. Derbam,— 

Our littlc flect waa oow engag'd io far, 


Digitized by 


S Y A X f 

Tbat, likf thc fiiiordfiJht m the whale, iHcy 
fonght. Dryden. 

(a.) SwoRD-PisH. See Xiphias. 
(i.) * Swo)iDGRAss. n.f. [g/adio/uj,] A kSnd 
of lcdge; pladcr. Ainpwo^th. 

(i) SwoRD-GRAss, or Com F/ag, Stc Gla- 

•*SwoRpKNOT. ». /. [fword and iw/.] Rib- 
band titd to the hilt of the fword. — 

Wip8 with w\%By /twordknois \9\\h f<wordknots 
ftrive. /»c/>f. 

♦ SwoRDLAw. ». / Yiolcncc ; the law by 
vhich all is yicldcd to thc ttrongcr. — 

So yiolencc 
Pfoceedcd, and opprcAion, zxi(^f<ivord/a<w. 

SWORDLE, A hill of Scotland, in ihc ifle of 
Stj, arid pariih of Strath-swordle. 

* SwoRDMAN. »./. [f(word and manJ] Soldicr; 
%ht!ng rtiart. — Worthy fcHow8, and likc to provc 
moit l\ncwf ftuordmen. Shak. — 

At Lccca*9 houfc, 
Among yobr f^ordmen. Ben Jonfon, 

— Ĕnex was made licntcnant-gencral of the arroy, 
the darling of thc fwordmen, C/arendom. 

* SwoRDPLAYER. «./. [^word iind p/ay,] Gla- 
diator ; fencer ; one who exh)bit8 in publick bis 
ikill at the weapons by fiRhting prize«. — Thcfe 
thcj ciTlcd/wori^/ajers^ andthisjpcdaclea fword- 
fight. Hokewr//. 

SWORDS, m geograpby, a ttfwn of Ireland, tn 
Dubhn county, Leinftcr ; 7 milcs N. of Dublin. 

♦ SWOHE. The prctentc <A fwear.— 

How foon unfay 
What fcignM fubmiflion/u;orf. Mi/tonl 

(1.) • SWORN. Tbe participle paffivc of 

ril beywor» *ti9 true. Sbak, 

I zmf<wom brother fweet. Sbak. 

•— They that are mad againft me, krcftworn againft 

me. Pf-^lit refufcd not thc civil oftcr of a Pha- 

rifce, tbough h\^f<worh cnemy. Ca/amy, 

The nation all clcds fomc patron-knight, 
Snvom to be true to lovc. Gran^i//g, 

Ci.) SWORN BROTHERs, [fratres'jurati]y per- 
ibns who, by mutual oath, covenanted to (hare 
each others fortune. Pormcrly, in any notabic 
expcdition to invade and conquer an cnemy'ff 
conntry, it waa thc cuftom for the cmincnt fol- 
diers to engage thcnr?fclves by reciprocal oaths to 
ihare thc rewards of thcir fervice. This pra6tice 
gave occaiion to thc proverb of f<worn brotbers or 
hretbren in tniguityt bccaufe of thcir dividing plun- 
der and fpoil. 

* SWUM. Prctcrite and participle paiBve of 

Air, watcr, carth, 
By fowl, fi(h, bcaft, was flown, wasyoyjww. 


• SWUNG. Prcteritc and pgrticiplc paffivc 
qX fwing* — 

Hcr hand within hcr hair (hc wound, 
S<wung hcr to carth, and dragg'd hcr. jiddifon, 
SYA, a town of Sweden, in W. Gothland ; 13 
miles SW. of Linkioping. 

SYAGRUS, an. ancient Greek poet, who flou- 
riibed in the fame ag e with Homcr, to whom hc 
waa a nval, being thc firft who wrote on tbe 

(JE/ian.) Diogcned calls hiiH 

■2 > 

Trojan War, 

* SYB. adj. (Properly/^,/*, S.ixrn.] Rtlatd 
by blood. The Scottrfti dialcd ftill rctaits it.- ' 

S ker I am very^3 to you. Spen[eT\ 

(1.) SYBARIS, an andcnt city of lta'y. in Lu| 
cania, at the motith of thc river, (N** a.) on tf 
bay of Tarentum; foUEded by a cotony 
Achae.^ns. It became vcry rich and powtrfui} 
at one pcriod had the coTT.mand of '4 adj^reot 
tinns, of 15 towns, and an army of 3oo, 
The ciiy walls were 6§ milcs in circuinffr< 
and the fiiburb8 cQvcv:d 7 niilrs of tftc hinkr (^ 
Crathis, lx was 5 timcsdcftroytd but alw;<y''^ 
built. It ftood a lopg and vigorou& fiegc, by tlJ 
Crotorians, but at faft was/educcd bythePyth^ 
gorear?», A. A. C. 50^. A town was built oni^ 
fite called Thurium, A. A. C. 444^ 

(a.JSYBARis, a river of Italy, whichTuniint 
thc hay of Tarentum at the abovc town. * 

SYBARIT-®, > the people of Syiiits, wi 

8YBARITE3, 5 '«^erc long cclebralcd for br 
very and ikill in arts ; but at Iaft depenenitcd | 
much by thc incrCafe of Itncnry, that Sjbaritt bj 
came fynonymous with effemmatt, 

SYBERG, or Sieberg, a town of Ocnnan| 
in the circle of Weftphali«, and county of Marl| 
on thc fitcof Syburg. 

SYBIL CuM.£AN. Sce Sibtls. 

Sybilhead, a caoe of Ireland on the W.ctn 
t)f Kcrry : 8 miles WNW. of Dinglc, Loo. i 
18. W. Lat. 51. II. N. 

Sybilmne Oracles. See Sibtlline, ai 

SYBILS. Sce Sibyls. 

8YBOTA, a fca port of Epirus. 

SYBRECHT, Jobn. See Sibrechts. TVl 
of Buckingham broughl him over to I^wdo 
where he acquired grcat fame as a landfcapepaii 
cr; and died in 1703, agcd 78. 

SYBURG, an ancient town and fort of t 
Saxonf> , at th^ conflux »0^ the Rucr and Lcb 
It was taken by Charlcmagne twice, viz. ift. 
77» ; and again in 775 : but it was dcttroycd 
ia8fS and Syberg built on its lite : 3 miles S 
of Schwiert. 

(i.)*,SYCAMINE. \n.f A tree. Thc 

(i.) • SYCAMORE. 5 camore of Scripturt 
not thc famc with ours. — Sjcamore is our i 
majus, Mortimer, — If yc had faith as a grain 
muftardfecd, ve might fay unto thisjjrwww tl 
bc thou plucked up, and it Aiould obey \ 
Luke^ xvii. 6. — I waa no propbct, but* an hj 
man, and a gatherer offycamore fruit. Jmost 
14.— Go to yond^J^^jcamore trce, and hide i 
l)0ttle of drink undcr it« holiow root. Walton,* 
Sjcamoret with eglantine werc Tpread ; 

A hedgc aboot the fidcs, a covcring over hj 

(».) Sycamore, in botany. Scc Acek. , 
(3.)Sycamore, Ealse. SeeACER, N®b 
(4.) Sycamore Tree of Scripturc. Sce 

cus, N*'^. ^ 
SYCHAR, a city of Samaria, anciently ca 

Sbechem. See Samaria, N** a; Samarita 

and Shechem, N^ ». 
SYCKE, i town of Oerroany, in Weftph 

and county of Hoya : 16 miles NW. of Hoya 

Digitized by 


S Y D ( 71 > S T D 

0.) •SYCCPHANT. n.f. [^^m^pmihsij ya t p^i ta, tnm, af WiQfbni £AgIe in DorG-tmii^ and was 
Im.] A uie^arer ; a naakcbacc^ 4* ihaiicioui boi-n there about x6s4* He ftudied at Matcdalen- 
^ra6tr^Accofin)r Jjcophants^ of all meti, did bail« Ozford ; but lctt that uniYcriity whcu dx- 
brt lirt to hk oaturc ; but tbcrefore ncit< reemiiig ford was K^rrtroned for kiog Cbarks I. and went: 
/rn;^tej0/. 5ii!»9.--*M"n koow themfelve8 vok1 of to London: where» beconung acquainted with 
tibo^- qu jiiriet which thc impudcnft ^^v^^ji/, at Dr Tho-nat Coy» an cinuient pUylician» thac 
tW^timCt bo>h afcribesto tbem, anl in hit gbotleman perfuiided him to Audjr phyric; ac- 
iietrt bugbs at tbem fi)r believiAg. South^ ' cordingly, after ih^ garnfon was deiiyercd up ' ti> 

{h) Sycopmakt wAa an appclUtioii given by tbe parliameot» he retircd agaiu toMagdalcn-hail» 
thcocicAt Athcoians to thoie who informed GKf catered on the itudy of medicine> ai^ m 164^ 

was creatcd M. B. Soon aftcr, \\t was madc a 
leUowof All^SouiBCOilege, andcontinucd thcrc Tc- 
wal.ycar»: whcn, leaving tbe univcrruy, he fetT 

cspertHioo of 6gs ctuitrary to law ; and hence 
itMibllaJcl in ^cMral fpr all in^brmers, para- 
itc% ftattcrcr% 5cc. * 

Tt SrcoPHANT. V. n. It9*«pmikm\ from tbe 
•ooiLl To ptay the Tycophant. A low bad 
vjnl— Hif ,^c8|^jtr/fji^ arts bemg detc^ed, that 

tled at Wcftmtn(ler i became M. D. at Oambridgci 
grew, famoufl for bis pra(^ice ; and wa«i the chicf 
phytician in London from 1660 t^ i6j<m wbcn b« 

gtfie is not to bc playcd tbe Tecond time. Gov. ^ becamr difabled by the gout. YU. di^ y\ 7^89 

• 5YC0PHANTICK. adj. [from fytopbanu\ 
TiW«nr»g ; «nifchirvoufly otficioua.— 

• Ti SyCOPHANTISE. ^. n. {^.^^nm^ 
baAfft$^ha4S.] To play the takbcarer. Om. 

SmjRIUM, a town of TbelTaly, at the foot 
dOSi, Uv. 42y c. 54. 

5rj)AP0UR, a town of Hindooftao, in the 
Cmatir; »1 milc« SW. of NcUorc. 

vntff, bomin 1710, and cducated at Wadham 
Cadcpc, Oxfurd ; where hc took his degree in 
ib n]4* Hc tranaatcd fome parts cf Platu's 
^HK and pubiiihed them between 1753 aad 
1:67. Hc was kiiown and edeemrd by many 
iwtkmcn eminetit in literatorc ; but» J)avii)g lirom 
iw acK* of mtKtefty» which t*»o ofkrn accom- 
P^wei^trcit mcnt and excenrive fenfibility, cott- 
<ny bK diArefs, he wa-t put m, jail £or a fmall 
«tbtcomradctl f«>r maiiitcuance, ;ind died with- 
Mtf1cttia^hfs frief»dt know hin w«int6. Of thi« 
■»Hwcfeo*y cvrnt, the rev. and.ingcnious David 
^^isaoi fpcaks in the foUowing indignant and 
^iB|tams, in his Giaims ofLittrature^ p. 9^. 
-^Dwmg tbe fom!ner of 1788, an cvcnt took 
Pi^which urtiilhedthe charaaer of £nglifh 
•?ukoccind humanity» and a^t^dd tbe votaiie9 
<<miQg. FLOYEitSYDENHAM,thcwell known 
^tur of PUto» owt oi thc moft ufcful, if not 

"^iliie Aoft competcnt Grtck ^choiars of hiit 
^•'imao rrvered for hit knowlcdge, and be- 
^^ f<u' the candour cf his tcmpcr, anU the 
i^^^lKarCt of his manncrs, ditd iii confequciicc of 
bfiB| beco arrcfted, Aiid dctained, for a dcbt to 
»T>da4|lcr, who had for fomc timc fiirni<hed ht» 
t^Uinncr. At thc ncw» of ihat rvci»t, cvcry 
'nd (rf Utcrature fclt a mixture of (orrow and 

(3.) SYDSNHiiM, Wiliiam, elder brother of \\<t 
Dr (N"* a.) was for fome time a jrcotleman com« 
moncr of Trinity College, Oi^ord.. Entefi<ig in- 
to the army t>f the Parliameot» ^ ac^uHted hfm- 
fclf fo welir that he rofe to the highcft oi^ccs. 
la 1649 he ^as- appoiotcd gover;)or of the illc 
.of Wight, and vice-admiral of tbat irie and of 
Hamp&ire. In*i65i, he wa8 chofen M. P. for 
Dorletlhire ; tn Uj^» was appointed commi(Iioii«> 
er of thc Treifury, aud a menibcr of the priv/ 
council ; and in 1656 was fummoned tQ Parliamcnt 
by thc Protedor, Ricbard Cromwcll. \Vhat b«* 
camc of hhn aftcr thc rettoration we Ijnow not. 

SYDEIiOPOkCILUS, in miocralogy, a ftone 
mentioiTed by the ancicnts. k wai» found iu 
Arabia, and obtained thiit name from ttt> bcin}; 
fpotted witha £crfugiROU4i'€oAopr. It mightponr* 
bly be a ^ranit^ w^th fpots of thid occuliar coii^ur. 
SYDERYELTi a town of ihe Udtawian repub- 
lic, in the dep^ ot the Rhine, and late prov. of 
Guckieriand : '6 miies W. of Culcmburg. 

SYDLINO, a town of England in.Dorfet(h*re \ 
calkd alfo St Nicbolat ; with a fair Dcc. 6* 

{U %.) SYDNEY. Sce Sii>N£Y, N'' 1, and 2. 
. (3.)8xi>NEY Bay, abay of Uie S. Pacitic O- 
ceaot on the S. (ide of Norfolk Islahd, form- 
edbyPoint Hooter aod.i^oint Rof», which are 
t\ lailes aTunder. On tihis bay is formed a fcttic- 
meut of BritiCh convi6lS4 Loii. 168. la. £. Lat. 
»9. 4* S. 

(4.) Sydney Cove, a town on thc coa^l rti 
Ncw Stjuth Walcs, 00 thc E. coaft 9f Ncw HjI- 
Und ) which was begun to be ere^cd at Poat 
Jackson, as a fettiement for conviiits in Pcb. 
1788» Thc ground around it was then covered 
by a ibick foreft ; but a conti^^crable part of it w;r<{ 

loon cleared \ and convcuicot lodging» wcre cicc- 

^4iBr; and one of thtr mcmber&of a clubat the tcd for the governor, dcputy governor, judgc, 
?i jce of Walc:>'s Coffrchoufc, propoftd, that it «od oihcr oitil and mi»itary oCBccn», by M^rcb 
•iJiW adopt, as its objcdt and purpofc,' fome 1790. <Sce Wales, Niw South.) Lou. 151. 
■«n*toprevcnt rimiiar affliaions, ^itd to M^ %%. E. h^. 31. 50. S. 

•*^ing aothors and thcir tamilics i» diftr<.fi»." (5.) Svt>N6v Coyk, a hapbour. of N«rw J>. 
J^i|4vcnic lo thc ertabliHimcnt of that cxceU WaUs» within.Port Jackfon, whicti givc* nams 
«tindnowHouriihing inttitution, theLiTEt4* ,to tbc ^boYc town, (N® 4) It iici\ opcn to the 
JT PoiiD fur tbc rchef of Authors and tbeir NE. and«xlemis near 1000 yards SW. gradual»/ 

dccrcaAng frum the breadth of 1400 fcct, cill it ter- 
mioates in a pomt, where it receive« a rivulct. The 
ancboragc cxtcuda aoopfeet up the cove, and has 
(bundtngs of 4 tathoma ntAt ihe Oiore,^ and from 
5 \o 7 ncar t^c mtddle of thc cb^nuel. ^ U ih Hui^e 
K ' ' fccurc 

^•taiis; of wbicb we ga%c a brief notice uh- 
«rLtTiaARY Ft;Nl>, and a morc fuii accouut 

«j^SpciBTY, Part 11, s^a. I. N» vn. 

LlSiroEVHAM, ThojT^s M. D. an cXccUent 
^fl«3»05yfician, was thc li/O U Wiinaiu S>dcn- 

Digitized by 


SYL ( 7A ) SYL 

iecnit fix)m «11 winds, and (hips Tan lie dofc to; to Atbens ; for tliat c!tf , toj^ct^er witli tfcf rtl (jf 
thc (horc on both fidc8, thcre being nrithcr rocks'- Grctcc, had failcn into the powcr of Mithridatc?. 

nor ihatlows. Mr Crultwctl places this harboor 
in Lon. 159. 10. E. L*i. 31. ss- S. 

SYEDRA, an ancient towo of Ciiicia* 

SYEKE, or Syckb. Sfc Sycke. 

SYENE, an aocicnt city of •Egynt, &tiiatcHt 
according to Mr Bnsce» in lat. 24* o 45^^ N. aU 
though Piiny and Stratii>both fay that it Uy dirc^^ 
ty onder thc tropic of Canoer. Sytnc is recnark- 
able for betog the place wherc the hrit attentpt 
was made to meaiure thc circnmiereoce of the 
earth, by Eratofthencs whom Pto'cmy Eucr- 
sctes had invtted ^m Athens to Alciandria. It 
is now called Ajonan. It is 375 miics S.of Cairo. 
LoD. 40. at. £. Pcirro. 

STEH, t nvcr of Prancc, wbich rifes 6 milcs 
N. of ThiODville, and ruos into.thc MoieUc, ncar 

SYCAMBRL See Sicambri» 

(i.) SYLi a rrftr of Walachia; which mns \n* 
to thc Danubc; t6 milcs S. of KrajoYi^ 

(t.) Syl, a town of WaUchia ; aS miies SSW. 
of Brsncoran. 

SYLBl/RGIUS, Predcrick. a leamcd Oerman, 
bom at Marpurg in HclTc, itt 1546. He t-^ught 
Latin, Grcck, and Prcoc*!, for tome tmrc at Licha ; 
bttt «fterwafds applicd himfeif folcly to thc rcvif« 
ing and corre^ing of ancimt authors, particular* 
ly thtrjGreck claAks, for the prrlTcs» of Wcchel and 
Commelin. Hc alfo jrrcaily aflifted thc cclcbrat'. 
ed Hcnry Stcphcns, io compiiiog his Tht/aurus 
Crjtc^ Lirtjtude. (Scc Stb>hkns, N* 7.) Ue 
fikewi(xf pttbliihcd a GretA GrammOri which W4S 
much cttccmcd. For theic fenric^ he had a ia- 
lary from thc uniYcrfity ©f M^rpurg. Hc 6k^ m 

SyLEdM, an ancient town of Pamphyiii^. 

STYLLA, Luciun Comehus, wai defccndcd from 
thc illuftnous Aimily of the Cornslii, but frotti 
a branch quitc didinA firom that «^ the Scip^od. 
Hu dcbauchcd bchavmiir in his younger ycars 
did nnt carrcfpand with hls esccllcnt education. 
Kicopolis, a rich couitesao, left him heir to^ier 
grcat cltatc. — Hc learncd the art of war «ndcr 
Mirius, whom hc attended to Numidia as ^uei- 
tor ; and ibon bc cimc the moft ikilful roldicr in 
tbc army, while bv his obliging behaviotir be 
gaincd thc cfteem of alL His courage aod dcste-* 
rity cpntributcd to the fiicce(s of the war; and 
his eloqirence perfttaded. tioocbos to dc Uver up 
Jugurtha. He fenred aiterwards in thc focial war^ 
and as a reward he was raifed to the prsttorlhip^ 
fiext eie Aed c6nful, and fooo after dectared genc» 
ral of the army agatinA Mithridates Yn. king of 
'Pontus. MaKfU9 was eiMfperated, that thc 
inanagement of this war^ was not crummhted to 
bim. Thc peoplc were perfuaded by his intrigues 
to reverfe the dccreCy and fubftitute him in place 
of Syila. Upoo this he fcnt down officers to take 
the commaod 6f the army; bot Syliaby th^s 
time had gained over the foldicr«; who, inftcad 
cif obcying the decree of the people, llcw MariDs's 
olTicers, and intrcated Sylla to lcadthem mftantly 
to Rome. Accordinglyhe entered thc city fword 
in hand, flew Sulptcius the conful, obligcd Mari* 
us to flee» new-modclied the Uws, and afterwards 
mmhed into the £a(l,«TRl immediatcly iaid fiese 

He wrote to thc Amphy^ions, who wrre siTem' 
bied at Delphi, to icnd himall tbe gnld in tbe 
templc tii Apollo, promifing to rrttorc it at tbc 
end of the waf ; and whrn he rcceived it h\A thal 
hc now was fure of viAory, flnce tbc gods thea* 
fclveR furniflied him wtth moncT. Athcus wai st 
laft taken by aAknlt, and Sylla was upao the 
point of deitroying it, when hc rccollcd^cd tttan- 
cicnt glory, ai»d fpared (as hc laid) tbe Uning f6r 
the fake of the dead. Af^cr boming thc Pirzu% 
hc ^aincd two dccifive f?Aories over thc generaU 
of Mithridates. In the %A battle, fought at Or. 
chomeuus, he was admoA 4cfeated; his troopt 
begao to flce, whcn, kaping Irom his borie, he 
ihatched up a Aandaird, and cr)ring out. ^ 1 wilt 
die berc glonouAy ^ and foldicff , wbcn you are 
afl&cd whcre you abaodoncd yourgcncrai, anfwer, 
Ai Orchomcnu*.** This rcproacb rccalled tbc 
cottrage of the Komans ; tbcy followed bhD aod 
gaincd a compk:te viAory. Mithndalc8tbcofued 
tbrpeacc. Mcan time Cinna had dcdarcd againl^ 
Sylla in Italy ; and Marius rctumiog firombani(h^ 
mcnt, b»d takcn thc moft fcverc Ttngeancc on alj 
his cncmie«. Sylia was dtclarcd a traitor; bii law^ 
revcrfcd, bis^ricndswercmurdcrcd, andthcgorere 
mcnt nrw-modellcd. Thefc ncws indoced Sylii 
to conclude a treaty with Mithndates, atd march 
dire^Iy to Homc. His approach tcrrifie4 the K» 
mans. Marius and Ctnna were both dcad ; bt^ 
the conihls made vigorout preparations tdoppdi 
him% A c4vil war was bcgun ; bot Sylta in thi 
eod fubducd all bfs encihies, and eotireiy tmi 
the MananAi^ion. Hc entcred Rome at th^bari 
of bis riAorious trmy, and aAumcd thctiHril 
Mht, Het^. Tbe remainder of hi« hfe was ftaid 
with thc moft abomtnablc ctnclHcs. tlc ordael 
Sooo WTCtehcs* who had thrown tbemlitl^i oj^ 
his clcmeney, to be butchcred in thc CaniiM 
Manius. To carry on thefe cruelties ivith Ih 
«ppearancc oijttfliee^ bc coma.trded tbe peoplet 
elcA him didator. He ke^ thts oHice abovc 
ycars ; and thct», to the amazemcfit of a(1l, laidl 
dowo, and oAercd to iland his trial bcfore tb 
pcoplc. 9oon afterwards be retircd into th 
co^nt^-y, apd plongcd rnto cverv kind of dcbauc) 
cry.^ He dted of the ioufy dilcaic in thc 6otb yei 
of his aee. His pcrfon was clcgant, his air n< 
ble, and Kis manners eafy. Hc was eIoiitifent, I 
berarl, crafty, infinuatmg; and a profoBnd taz 
ter of diHimulatior, by which he conccaAed a bidi 
ous train of vices. Thi» Nero of the rcpubli 
did one cAcntial fervice to (eience, by recoteni 
the works of Aristotle at tbe taking of Atben 

• SYLLABICAL. adj.[iromJyllahU.] Rclalic 
io fy11ables ; conAiting of fyllab!es. 

♦ SYLLAWCALLY. tf4r. [from j>/rfl^Va/.} 1 
a fyilahical manner. 

« SYLLABICK. adj. \/yllahique, Fr. ffom^//i 
^.1 Rehting to fyllabks. 

(!.)♦ SYLLABLE. it./ [HXXmU) J^lMe, FJ 
I. As mtich of a word as is uticrcd by tbe bclpj 
one vowei| or one articUtalKMi.— • 

I bc-«4../* 

£ach/>/X0^^|;(ftitbrtatb made up bctween tbee 

— Tberc is tbat property inall letters of aptne 


Digitized by 

Google - 


S Y L r 

eo Wc^wd \r\Jjliabfes and words, RoUtr. i. 
Aiif thiOK prOTerb»a!ly conciic. — Ahiaham,*Jobf 
MdtbrreftthM Iivfd bcfore Tcny/yllabU of tbc 
Uw of Gad was writtcn, dtd^bey not iiii aaouich 
as^iedu^ fl^4rr,— 

Tt»«om)w,Andto-morTow, and torn^oirowt 

Crre • in tbis prtry pacc from day to day, . 

To the Uft ^/'oMr of rtcordcd timc. Sbak. 

*!iL'hafh toIdfumany mcUncholy AoiCca, with- 
oit c«c ffJUbU oi truth, that ht hatb bl^ntcd the 
/ed^ of oy fcir«. SwiJL . 

[i.] A SYtLABLE^ in grtmmar» ifl one % >r more 
letten proaounccd by a liogic impuire of the 
i-icr, f inning a completc found, and ctnltim- 
tiai 4 worrt or a part of ji word. No ringjc lct- 
!tf nr» form a f)-llable ctqcpt a t owcl. Tbc 
idflgeft fHUblc tn tbc EpgliAi langu^e U tbe 
^t^pejgib, Tht moft ^atural way of diviilin^ 
•ordimtofyii*ble«, is tu Ccpar^te all thc (in\p\c 
imM of which arty word con^As, fo as aal to 
A^thoiip lctters whidi arc join?d clo£c togcihttr 
•oonKajs to tbe raoll accuratc pronuiiciation^ 

*ffSrLLiBL£. V, a* [from the n<>un.^ To 
mtr; to proaounce ; to articulatc. Not in ure. 
^ tongues xk9tjjfllable n^ns names 

Ot Uf^ tmĕ (borc 8. Mllton. 

(i.)*Syi^L4BIJB. «. / [Rightjy SjLLABOB^ 
•*«* fcc.) Milk and acjds.— 

^^sjUababt made at the mitking pai]^ 

Bot vbat are compob'd of a put uf ^ood ale. 

r<TwoIioci wQQld «i>rrA aU they <ay in two 
P*fto: 'lii ttothtDg but whipt^//^ifi and froth. 


\^) i SriLiBt;» is a lind of compound drink, 
■flAl6ul in fummer4 ordinarily made o^ whitc 
**^ad faga|, into whid^ is (i|u<rte.d new mi^c 
*i(kaf^gr or woodion cow. Somdimet it h 
^tf caoary, in which caTc the fugaf is /par* 
g^Mdalittlekmoo and outmjiig ^M^e ad<ded ia 
^of it To preparc it th? beft way, thc ^inc 
)^«bcrtflgredicfkt«, c^cccpt the mitt(» are tc bc 
*■** o»cr nighl, and thc »ilk or cream addcd 
» t^ momififi. T|c prgooTtton ia. a pint pf 

I WSntaiJirt, WinfT, To hatf a pjnt of 
I '•''••'^^Hhciiilh is pi^ a pint of cream« 
! •[Jtk wtoes of tbree eEfs. Thia they fe^fon 
I TJ%*» and beat wtth Hrcbcn rods» (^ work 
™ * 'ynBge. The lirotb ia ukcn off as \i rifcf^ 
^potntoa potg whcre, aHter Aandihg to fct- 
* «»o or tbpce boiir% it is iit to eat. 
M • STLLABOS. ii. /. [^vxuCh.] An ^b- 
ys < cottipcndium cootaioiog thc hJeads ot ^ 

^)SYLt4BT7s, tn literatorrt denotes a1fo a ta- 
•fof coiteoti, or ao iadex Qf thc c6icf hcads of 

WlUPSIS» «./ lx.juuw»f, <?r.l ia grammar, 
'H^m wbicktwo aoiiiiinative caTcs of ^be fin» 

75 ) S Y L- 

and the teel, inftcad of a fcw fparks, ihou^l 
chancc to knock out deiiniticns ^ttd J;lhgifinj ^ 

(a.) A SyLLOGiSM, in logic, confift8 «f 3 pro- 
pofitions; tht twofiift cailcd^iv»»;/>j; thc iaft, 
tbe eonclujion. Sce Locic, Part III. SeS. IV. 

• SYLLOGlSTICAL. Syilogistick. adj. 
\cu\Xry*rt»H\ ho(n/v/iogi/mJ] RetAining to a fy!lo- 
gifm; corniline nf a ^yilogiAn.^^Thounh we fup- 
porcTubjcdi and predicatc, and copula, and pro- 
pofuions jk*^d/fffojpJiiea^ connt^hona in thetr rca« 
loning, there is no fuch maltrr. Jiaie, — Whcrc 
tht* compofition of the whole ar);ument is plainy 
fimplc, and rejrular, it is propcrly called a fim«^ 
ple ^yr.ogiTm, Tince thc compiexion does not be- 
lonp to tht: Jjtiio^i/iicb form of it. ITatts. 
., . . «S YIXOGlS TICALLY WT;.[from^%i//W.l 
In the form of a fyll(>gifm. — A man knows ftrftp 
and thcn hc is able to ^rovt fyllo^JfieaHy \ fo that 
fyl]ogifm comp s aftcr knowlcdge. Locke. 

• SYI.l6GI§TICK. 6ef Syllogistical. 

• To SYLLOGAZE. v. n. [JalhgiTer^ Fr. tyky.^^ 
y<w».l To reafon by fyllogifai. — I^ick is, ia 
%\^t6Lf thc art of JyUogit^ing. Baber.-^Mtn have en. 
<leavoured to tcach boys tn/yllqgi%e, or fraroe ar- 
gumcnts and rcf^tc jthem, i|rithout real kno^lcdge. 

, SYLOEjK, apromont.ory of Africa. 

SYLPH, n.r. in rav»dcrn mythology and d«mo- 
ni|>logy, aii \ip^\ being, fomewh;)t analac^ous to 
Xhff Pairj of th« Britifh; (Sce Fairv ;) ftippofcd 
to attcnd wiih anyiouti care abotit all' thc mlmi- 

• i*in«rf «Mii tbmkj ; PtUr i^ a man, ther^' 
^'W/ApiAi.— A piecc of rhctorick is a fufR- 
J?*IMient of logick ; an apologue of JEfop^ 
^!?**^%!/« «« J^arbara. Arotyii.— What a 
tUog Oioyld wc co||o(it; if ;hie Sint 

tia and paraphcmalia of a fine lady. fote*4 Kate. 

* t>YLT» an iH^nd of Deqmark, in the North 

Sca, II miles froifi thc W. coaft of the duchy Qf 

$lefwick. It iii about 40 mtle$ |n drcumference^ 

but of a vevy irrcgular form, and ^n no place a- 

bovc 4 miles broad. Lon. j^. «o. £. Lal. 54. 51 . N» 

*YLVA. SccPANCAapus. 

(i.)«SVLVAN.fl4r.lBcttcr/At«w.] Woody; 

^ady ; relating tp woods.— 

Cedar and pihe» and fif ^nd br^oching paUn» 

KJylitan fcene ! . Miltcn, 

WatchM by thejyivan.2cn\u9 oS thc place. . 


(i.) • Sif LTiw. if./. \/fivaifi, Vr.] 4 wood god, 
91: utyr ; pclrhaps fometfmts a ruftick, — 

Her pnvatc orcbards, wallM on tv*Tj fide, 
To lawlcf8 J)ivi,'nj atl accefR dcnyM, Pc^. 

(i.J SYLYANUSi^ in ,church hiftory, 5ce Si- 


{%.) SYLTANUSy in Che mythology. See 6cL* 

(3.^ SyLTANu^, a braye warrior among the 
Pranks, iindcr thc cmperor ConAantius» who, be- 
ing by the mbft deliberate v^Iainy and forgery, of 
Qyname8| compelled to dectare himielf emperor, 
was afterwards when his innocence was di(cover- 
cd, murdered by lfrficinus,^anotber traitor. See 


(i, a.) SYLYESTER, I. and H. Popci. Sec 


(3.) SYLyssTsa, Jofhu?, bom in 1563. He 
tranOated the workt of Bn Bartaj ; fomc piecet 
of Erae^/hrius from the Latin ; and the Quatrains 
p/Pibrae^ with fomeother tra^t from tbe Prench. 
He died in Ho)land!^ ii^ 16x8. 

(i.) SYLyiA, or Ilia. or R^iea Syltia» the 
J( % mother 

Digitized by 


s Y M . r 

.T^otl-cr rf RoMULUS. Sec Rhfa, K° 3; and 

(2.) SvLViA, in ornithology, a ncw genn*^ of 
birds, bfIoiij£ing to the oidcr o-f pnnVrt.f^, lornw d 
by Dr Latham by hmiting the moracilla to thc 
V'agta»l, aiK' arryr.ging the other fpf ck^s, ^crmcr- 
ly cUAcd undi r that gtnus, under the fylvM. i See 
Ornitholocy, 0'^rr III. p. 523. The moja- 
ciLi.A he ttius (^efcribes: Thc i>eak is rnl iil.Utd, 
(lcndcr, and fomewhat indented at ilie point. 
The tonpuc ft.err.s torn at thc end, and thc tan i,s 
Jong. Hethns chara^5trri7es thesyLViA: Ihe 
'b^ak »s fiibnlated, ftraight, and fm;iil-, the rr.m- 
dibles are near^y rqnal. T^e noOrils aie t b(;v.itc, 
'anri ^ littlc dcprcrTed. The eX»erior tne i< j.)ined 
3t the under pait to the |5afe of thc midiile oitc. 
Thc tongnc i.- clcnen ard tbc t^il is imall. Hr 
inake«5 13 Ipccie.s oj" the mot.ici.M.i, .jnd 174 fpt- 
ccs (>f thc fyivia. i-^ee Motacilla. 

{>YtVIc6r.!ST, M. /; />/v.7, .1 wood, and 
crjlo^ to cuitivatc,] One wbo dwelis in a wooej. 

"SYLYISrORG. See SoLFwiT7PiTpr;. 
(i, 2.}SYL\TUS7".« L an<l II. kint'^ of 
.A.!ba, the loVi and prardl^-n of ,^!ne'i^, the Tri^- 
jan, bv J.iviTMa. 'SeeRoMF, J .^ 
(j.)Svlvius, 7Lpeis. S^t Viv$ II. 
(4, 5.} SvLviiTs, James, or JiuK^i Du Lo}.u a 
Ccitbrattcl Fien(.h a? atomid and phynti.Mi, Lbe 
fon i^f Nico'..^'- Du B.>is, a canil''et wya^cr, born 
.Ht Aniicn?, in V>c,ir(iy, in 1478. He arr^uirc'' a 
great knoy^''.edfc of (Irt'<^k in-1 T.itin, ,iuH f<-?nc 
Hebrcw, underhi.-i cl^tcr brothcr Tr^mci^ Svlvit s, 
or J)u Bo{j, uhn prii.cipal of tf.c CoIK ^re of 
Tournay, at Pari-, .-Ann a great promptcr of Icarn- 
ing. James, wrt^tr fc''t ral works ou anatoTTy, 
irjcd!''ine and pharm.icy, \y!iich havc l)rcn oftcn 
printrd, thougli he was much opoolcd by hn 
cf»ntymporaric^. He dcfcndcd Ga^\:n agamtt Vt- 
lalius. (St*c /\^'ATOMY, lrfJcx.l Ile w;i.'^ aIfo a 
pood mathj^matician, and iiivtnted frVeral ufrful 
inachinc;. ^His great vice hms a^iwiriret whirh pre- 
vrnte(t hini fro|Ti taking the degrre of M.' 1). 
th;ni<:Ii he went to Montpellicr in 15^0, on pnr- 
pofc ; but l^e wm rccoociied to ^i«5 brethien and 
iidmitted M. B. in June J531. IIc rrad lr(^turts 
cni llippocratcs and palen, a\ hicn Iprrad his ^ame and widt'. In 15;,^ ^^^' wa^* ;?ppo»nted a pro. 
ftt'or in th^'( ollrge of Triquc>, and in i «^4?^, pro- 
b f]v»r o^ phyric in thc Royai Colie>!e at V.«ri';; 
w!uch on";ce he ttt^intd t.ill his de.Uh, in i;ss- 
He \^ a- ncvcr n^in icd. 

SYMA, (U SvMK, a town of Aria. Lim^^r. 

SYMA!<1), a town of Trancr, in thr drp.irt- 
ir.r! t ot' S.ione and Li'irt : 5 miics N.of Louh.ans, 
;ii'd n^ K. of Ch.don*; Tur Saone. 

(r f * SYMIU);.. ru f. [frmho!f, Fr. r./.'-)- ; 
^yy^hr '-'riy Lal.] j. A ** abOinwt ; a coV;pr' d'.iim ; 
A corr,Mchtnnve torT. — Becinring \vith the/i;;:- 
/•?/ of oiir*>.ith. r>.2A> ' . 2. A typc, wljirh 
r'.'nirrthf n^l» in t?s Hpurc a rt^refrn* it-on of 
J^^mttl-.irg rlTc — '-oilt, as inc^^nuptibit . was thr 
jj-nhc! of tiiendPiip. Iho^t.':. — Wt rds arr t'.e f?gri:? 
4i'd n-mboh o^ thiiie«^. ^c^;/?. — Th^- h^aihrrj: made 
c'm>u r t>t thcfe 1 ghis as npt y'v '«/'?// ot eternity. 

(2.) W SvMv,nT, is a ri«'n or rtprt ^^ntatio'! rf 
["omethmp Tnr.x,S, by thc hgur^^s oi' pr^^pertics ot 

7^ ) S Y M 

natural thirg*. Ilrnce fymbois .^re of v;iriou< 
kind'^ ; as hitr-^giyphio, t>prs, enii^in-^j., p.nahlc-, 
f.iblt'^, Scc. 

* SYMROLICAL. acff. \f,inh^Ji-/ie, Fr. <rrz..3*;,. 
*5> •, \\oxr^ fy7ii>oi.\ KcuKk . t<(tivt ; t)pical;cx« 
pref!ing f^yilv,'ns; compulKiiilrrtg f mcthni: murt 
thari iM^-tlt. — \\s ii'is nu u),Khmc; t jdoLnry ftr!t 
cr-pt in, mrn coTur-rTiui' tJK lymhjucal iiie nt i- 
c!(^'s int'j th.-ir propcr worih-p. Bfo\j>i. — T!ic fa' 
cr.innrnt is a rcprririitaiion ')t Chriu's i!i;4th, bj 
fuchyr>f/rV;///v7/^i'tio-!^ a^ himlclt «^proMartJ. Tii\l^r 

* S7MIU)LICAI LY. o:h' iTrom jynhoucul. 
Typir<?>ll\- : hy rcoicf. nr.iuo.i. — 1 h;s «.:>lliiicii(ii 
of anir!'.als was huroi-JypJn .d, in tbe i waidieiil^ 
impiyuig an abttiiiriue tro.n ctitam \i^e ,/rw^fl 
tteuiy intimatrd trom th<- n^Mirr of thoie av. iiuh 
hirjT^ii. — It l}»jrr)iicnl'y 'eachr'- us our '.Uit V. T«r'o) 

* SYMBOLL/.AT! :'i.V. rr. f. [/iwW/rr.] Ih 
a(^ o* fyiiiboli/.iii,»r ; r j>rcreni.rtio!- ; reiemhluict 
— 7'hr hirroplyphuMl fyn)So s ()f'urr a» 
ofreniimcs rackcd bc) .md tl.eir jyniho'izffti(it 

(i.) * Tn SYxMROLIZK t. /7. To make rcpn 
feni.»tM,v ot lomcthii.v;. — Soirr 'y. /"'//T.r iht fair 
ti.^m Uit^myli' ly of it*-- coiour . Broitn. 

ii.) '^ To :;vM!;oi.i/,K. T. V. [Jr>nb''!if'r., F 
from f\-viho!.] To havr irnirihi'.g in commo 
with another by n Drrfe;it ^iive «:jUHUtie».— Ov 
kin;..; hndmg hiirfr!f lo^irrj' in many thiiij 
with tliat king of ih" iir'r->vs, honoincd hii 
wth the titlc of this fniid.'M'>o. l\ucrjn.— '\\ 
I)h/ilinfT ofr..loi:r h;r,}br^irzct!.^ wit^ thr ptrafu'g ' 
anv nnLrJc tntH to 'hr eir ; hut thc plcahnp ot 
Ot r doth f\mi^n''!-.'' \\\^\\ h,^rmon\. Hnrou. — Arft 
tlc and tlv frhooL hnvr tauchr, " air and w 
trr, bcm;_r fvnil ol!^f>f}^ rltrcrn^s. are c.dily tra? 
ni'it(t''r. B'']'!/'. — T^^cy both iwthoH-^^r in lht>, Ih 
t!n.y love to look npon thrmf''ivts tbrough mi 
tiplying gIafVrs. Ihwe^/.— l atTccte<My j\mbi'rk 
m c;^rel^l^ Tniithantl tirrdom wnb tbe lihirin» 
to (irciimvrnt libcrtmibii. Mcr^. — 1 br lt»ul 
fuch, that it ArangrJy Jymbo'izrj with thc thv 
it m»^'htdy dclircs. Sr)ii-t!.\ 

SYMBOLUM, an ancient town of Macednn 
nr ;rr Philippi ; 011 tht bordcrs of Thractr. Lem 
SYM^L Scr Syma. 
SYMI, or SiMi. Sce Simi. 
(f.) SYMlXCi rOIS', or SvMONTnv, a par 
rf Scotland in Ayrlhire, in the diitrj»t of K) 
a!>ovr 4 njiirs lonc, and ii.bto;id. T\^e fur»; 
C(u.iins of a hr,o.i:i'nl hrulLaor c»f g-ntly nf 
gro'.!nds, and iloping ticld.- ; with iiumeroii*^ 
dorure.s eic^'aiit ^'( ritlcmn»*^ leat?;, ATid clun 
otplantmp. Thr foil is ciay tir nch bULk lo 
on a frctitonr boU« in. Thc p.irilh oom;^rehc' 
1,1^0 acrr.*-, of which abovr iico are ciiitivat 
a»»d cf»o mtre lufceptib>e of it. \n 1792, the 
pnlarioi» was /.|c ; iicrr.iTi , 251, hocc 17 "5- 
thc S\V. boidcr, t^'e pariih ipi ornamciilcd m 
the-e;t^ant houtr <i1 Ku/itnotttit, the fcat of VA 
Fuli.irton. F.i(]. and it^ extri'liv^r pF^ni.^t'oi»s. 
{7 ) SymiSV;ion, a in ^hc ab^yve 
riffi, plta<antly (ratcd ou the g»eat road fi 
E 'ipiurgli ^^nd (Jlal^ow to Poripatiick; t' 
taining ic^ in^-^dnt.iDt^, in 1792. 

(^) S^Misr, ro»^, a panlh of Scotl^^nd, 
Lanaikilurr, of a cucular ligure, 3 mu-s in 
metcr. The Turtacc is molily ltvt:l, f\ 

Digitized by 


S y M ( 77 ) *S Y M 

|lvfootofthf hiaofTiiiTototbc.Clyde. Thc, low, whtn -rx(>orcd to heat, but dirapp^nrs with 
pattr port of it is wdl i:uitiv;ite<l aod inclnft4l ; coid or moiRure. 

|i!id prndurcA good crop*. The popuiation» iii 
1:91. was J07; tbc incrcalc 43. ^"t-c 1755. 
' V4) Symiiigton, a vitUfc m thc 4bove pa- 
r<h, (N° j.) fe4ted on the Clyde, 30 mi.cs from 
Idiubui^h and jj from GKtfgow. Ncar it arc 
irri*cs of an ancicnt Arong turiiiication, callcd 

, (I.) 8YMMACHUS, a writer who 0ouri(hed 
n fhe ad cr ntttry, and tranlkted ihc Hcbrcw 
Hk into Greck. Only a fcw tragmtni» of his 
>i.}SYMMACHUSt a fcnatnr, and orator, of 
. iLinc, who w«s roiiful A. D. 391. He wrotc 
fnMs 9/E^Jffei, againji tbe CbrtjHtm Religiou ; 
■►•iKhwt dtant, and have bccu retuted by Am- 
|p»«c, Bp. of Milan, and Prudcnttpa, thc Chrif- 
luT P-^ct. Hc wa- baiiilhcd trom R;i!rc by Va. 
ik>ni*tan, but rec;iiled and reccittd into favour 
\() Thc<«do(jiift. Ammianus Marccdmus Ipcaks 
b^*kaas a man of prrat learnihg and modefty. 
Iooppiu<i, Parcus and othtr lcMriied mcn, havc 
^nrin notrs opon hi<i epiAici. The bcit cditiiins 
(rr thorc of GrReva, 8vo, 1598 ; Parit, 4to, 1604 ; 

Pancktort, 8vo, x64a* 
t^SYMMETRIAN. «./ [irtim/pnmeiry.] One 
' ncmiy Hudious i>f propoiiion. — His facc was 
Sat|hr loti^rr tban ttic txJLti ^mmetriaaj would 
c*r. SiJ)iy. 

•SYMMETRICAL. ai(/.,{tnxnjymm^t^y] Pro- 
•otorc; having parts wcil sdapted to ca«h 

l*SYMMLrR\^.n./.[from/jmmetfy.] One* 
f iMtioit» or (ibfrivaiit ot pruportion. — S«me 
^lrmmrtrTjis have kjccn blamcd k/t bctng too 
• H'otton, 

%i.) • 5YMM£TRY. w./ [/jmmetrie, PrciOch ; 
iu4^^.\ Adaptation *ot pans to each o- 
I prtip rtion : harmony ; agrecmcttt of one 
ttuanulker.— • ^ 

Shc t»y whnie Mne» proportion Aionld bc 
£umi<M, meafute of iiil>{y«fifr^ry. » Donne, 

Afd inibey^iMAKrr/ ol ner pam is ft>und 

Apow'r, likcthat of harmony in found. i^aller* 

-iwR/fr^, e^uaiity» and corrtfpon<lcnce of 

^«is ii ibe ditceramcnt of reaibn. Morc. — Thfir 

Bci4iraody^iirMMfr^^were owing to him. Drjd> 

(s)5rMMB.TitY 11 ihcjult proportionof thefcve< 

[/ympatbetiqucy Frcnch, froin /ympaihy^ Ha- 
vuig inutuai (enlation ; bcing a^eited by what 
happcns to anotbcr ; tecUing in confequencc of 
what anothcr ftcl8. — Herciipon are grounded 
the grof8 miilakrs in the cure of difea(es, not 
only from /ympaĕijetick rrcnprs, but amulet», 
charms aod all incanratCMy appUcations. Brown. 

Unitcd by \h\%/ympatbetiek boi d, 

You grow tamiliar, intimatc, and ii^Vk6, Ro/e. 

— -To contcr at thc didancc of'thc Indics byjjmr^ 

patbetick coiivcyancts may be ^s niual to futurfc 

timcs iiti to us in a literary corrr^^oondcnGe. Glanv. 

yo\M /ympaibeiick hrarts (hc iiopcs to movc# 

From tci'dcr tritndOiip. Prior» 

— AJI thc idca» of feniibic qualities are the tffe^ 

of their motion upon our ncrves, and Jymp^ 

tbetical and V!tal pailion^ produccd withm our« 

fcivit. Bent/ey. 

• SYMPATHETICALLY. OiiJ. [hom /ympa^ 
tbetiik.] Wiih fympathy ; io conlcqucncc ot fyin- 

* SYMPATHETICK. 5ec Sympathetical. 

♦ To SYMPATHIZK. v. n. [Jympatbijer, ¥9. 
from Jympatby.] i. To ttci wiih janothcr; to fetl 
in c(Hifcqucncc of what anothcr ^ctis ; to fccl mu- 
tually. — Thc mcn Jympaibi%e witb tiic mailiAs ia 
robuilious coming on. Sbak. — 

As rouz*d with ragc, wiih ragc doth^w^ 
thi%e, SbakeJ^are^ 

"Naturc in awe to him, 
Faih dotrd hcr gaudy irim, 
With hcr grrat maAcr fo Ko/ympntbhce. Miltot\. 
— Hc Jympatbiicesi' and is coiictmtd tor ,them. 
2.orie.— ^Thtir countrymen 'ympatbisud with their 
hcrocs in atl thcir adveiituics. Addi/nti. — Nonp 
condolc Mii\/ympathi%e more htar^ily. LoiHer,'. %. 
To agrcc ; to ht. Noi pnjpcr, — Jiiuc aiid ycllow 
aic two colours vi\\'\Qhjympatbi%e^ 'Dryden» - 

SYMPATH1ZER, «./. jtroOijSirTi/w/^.] One 
who fvmpathr£C8 withanoth|:r« 

(i.)'* 8YMPATHY. fi. /.[/ymtatbiey Frera:h ; 
#v^ir«J^.) Fcllow tccling; miitual icnfibility ; 
ttic qualiiy ot bcing ailcCtcd by thc affc^ion of a* 
nothcr. — . - 

A wor!d cf earthly blcnings to my foul, 

Vjympatby of lovc unitc our Ihoughts. - Sbak, 

.— You arc not young ; no morc am 1 : gu to ttici», 

^P>rt4of any tbiag, fo asto coinpofcibeautiful tlicrc's fympatby'. yuu ajc merry fo am 1; ha ! 

*^s*e. ha ! then thtrc^s more jympotby : you »ovc fack, 

/- 1 • _. . :_^ — g^g Paimtinc, and fo do I ; would you dclirc bettcr Jympatby? 


The a(5tion of my lifc is hke it, which J*ll keep, 

Ij ] Stmmetky, in painting. 


iYHONDSBOROUGH, a remarkablc large 
^owof Ftintihire, ncar Weliington in Dcvon* 
^'r* in tbe nortbem ritremity of Hcmyock. 
^ ptople baire a notioo tbat a ktPg cailcd Symon 
***htintd fcre. 

SYMOKTON. Sce SyMiNOTpw, JJ*? i. ; 

«YMPATHANT. ri.J, [irom /yntpaii^.] Ooe 
«^ » fynipaitkized wnJr, by a tncod» ;>cc Sy m- 

'*TIIT, i 3. 

\M SYMPATHETIC. Sce Sympath^tical. 

aysuKP^THtTic l«it. (Scc Jnk, § 13.) 
**rv Sjrmpatbetic ink baa bccB maiis trom a 
^*'^©^ a misture of fulpluit of c«)pper, atid 
**^of ammooiai which appcars bf a biight yel. 

If but iorjmpatby, Sbak* 

I itartcd back ; 
It rtartcd back : but plcas'd 1 foon returnM ; . 
Picab'd it rLturn'd as foon with aniwcnng looks 
O^/ympaiby and love. MHtoa. 

They faw, but othcr iight initead, a crowd 
Of ugly fcrpent)» : korror on thtm fth, 
And horrid^/iir^/i^. 3f/7/«#. 

Ox /ympatby^ or iome connat'ral f<irct. Miii. 
— Every man would bc a diitinitt iptcics to him- 
fcif, wcrc thcrc no Jympatby among individua<;. 

Ki ndncf8 by k crct 'ympathy is ty 'd . Drydeji. 

— To 

Digitized by 


S Y M r 

— To thij might bc attnbuted tnoft of tht J^mpa- 
Sbiei and aiitiparhies obrcrTablc. Locke. 

(%.) Sympatky alfa figni6cs tf\ agrccment of 
affc^tioiin and in^ltnations, or a conformity nf nitu- 
n! quaiittc8, bumourit, tcmpcramcnts, which makt 
two pcrrottRdcRghted and plcafed with cach athrr. 

(3.) Sympathy may fublift cithcr bctwccn dif- 
fcrcnt pcribns or bodics, or bctwccn diffcrcnt parts 
of tbe famc body. It is tithcr/mjTor or dtgiMiiar ; 
iimilar, whcn thc aflre^ton or adtion in thc sym- 
PATHiZER 18 6miUr to the afie^*on or a^ion in 
thc SYMPATHANT ; aod dtinmiUr, whcn thofc arc 
diAercnt. — Sympathy,. too, ij» ntrcn an imitativc 
faculty, fometimc9 involuntary, frtqucnt1y with- 
out cjniciotifncfti: <hus wc yawn wiicn wc (cc o- 
thcrj» yawn, and arc e^citcd to iauffh by thc 'augh- 
ing of othcr5. Sympathy, accord<ng to Dr J;ick. 
ibo, rciatcs to thc operations «^ thc afftdi(>n!i of 
thc mind, t-) thc opcraticns oi the imagination, 
and to thc affc^ion8 af tbc cxtcrnal fcnfcs. i. Thc 
aiTcdlions of the mind producc inlhc bo.ty ditfcr- 
"ent fcnCiiions and impriAtons, and, a^ fympatbics 
of confciourncfB, determinc in gcntral thc fp«nt8 
to thoic piirts whicb are riioft apt to bc affe^^d. 
TIk aiTcdions of tbc mind of onc pcrfon wiH of- 
•tco work upon thc fp!rits of m;tny. Thut wholc 
con>panic^ arc Ibmctimes difpofcd to bc fad and 
ipnclancholy, or mcrry a^d j'i?ial, wttcn any onc 
f5 prcfent ittuch incHncd to cithcr of ihofc ftalci 
of mtnd^ Thoic tciidr-r fympathettc aiTcAions 
whicb lay hold of thc mtnd, at the rrprefcntatio^ 
of thcatiical pctformances, originatc frona the 
f tmc principle, whilc they arc thc fureft icf* of iuft 
caccution in the a6>or, and of the cxprtfTifrc lan- 
fuagc of thc autbor. Iiidced all (tagc effe(^ dc- 
pcnds on fympaihy. a. It is probable that a con- 
ttc^ion betwecn thc atTcAions and fenfationf of 
thc fcinalc mind ard utcrus is vtry materiaSly 
concerncd in thc procefs of generation, and pro- 
bably can alor^ give «Aicacy to thofc aAiont nnd 
impreAions fubfcrvient to coi^ccption through thc 
fyfnpathfcing afte^ions of the mind. 9ut this is 
a fabjcA of which wc as yct know littlc ; though 
the fadt8 are nnnicrou", and incoatrovcrtible, bnt 
phy5ologi(tH fecm unwilling to adpiit of tbem, 
bccanfe tbcy cartnot accmrat fi)r tb<?m. Sec 
KxYUS, and Nicvt MATERUty undcrSuRGERY» 
Index, — 5. A8 affc<5tinff the fcnfes, fyfnpathies bavc 
bccn comparcd to untr«ns of fouod in mufio, whi^h 
produce agrecable fympathetie f<rclings; and the 
rcvcrlc producc difagrceablc fcelir.g8. •* AU con- 
cords and difcords of mnfic arc fympathici and 
antipathics of Tound.** A difagrccable found will 
oftcn fct thc tcctb on cdpc. The moft agreea- 
blc as wcU a8 cdipus ohjei^ts operatr t^ a fecon* 
dary way in producing thofc fympathctic impre^- 
fion8 and a^^ons whtch thcy commonly givc rifc 
to. 4n increafed feerctlon of ialiva oftcn takcs 
pUcc at thc ^ght of a favouttte di(h. Klany 
^avc ^ttempted to account for thc lemark- 
jiblc fympathY which takcs placc betwecn parts 
of thc body iccmtngly unconnc^cd witb' cacb o- 
tber ; but thefc attcmpts arc rocrely conjedhircs. 
• 8YMPHONIA, in botany ; a genus of plaot?, 
belonging to the claf8 of monadelpbia and ordcr of 
pentandria.-^Thtrc is onc piftt1. Thc corolU is 
glubular, and the bcrry five-celicd. ThcrcisoDly 
«nc fpccic» yct difcovcrcd $ Yiz. 

le I 

78 ) S Y M 


monious : 'agrcetng in fooiid.— ^ 

Up he rode, J 

Follow'd with acciamatioD and the foiind 

Sympbotmus of tcn thouCuid harp«, MHh 

(1.) ♦ SYMPHONY. n,/ i^«^Awpir,Frtuc| 
r»» and f^A Concert of inAruments ; barmn^ 
of mingled founds.— A lcamcd fcarcher fn>ai ? 
thagoraA ^chool, determines thc comdieA pi 
portkra bctween brcadltbs and heightf| led^i-i 
fymmctry to /jntpboiM. Wotton^ 

Angels ! for yc behold him« and witb <bo| 

And chor<il (ympbonies driy witbout' uaght, 

Circle his throue rcjoicing. ifi/| 

Thc trumpcts found» 

And warlike j$riii;^m^ is hearri arottnd. Dr 

(3*) SiiMPHoNY, in munc, denote«aconfiHUi 
of fcvcral fotinds aggrceaWc to the eari wbrt] 
Yocal or inftrumcntal. Stjp JIarmony. 

(1.) • SYMPHY8|S. if./. [^ and pm,.] Sjmpk 
in its original (ignitication, denotesacpon^tKS 
or grf)wing togetbcr ; and pcrhaps ts mt^ti 
thofe bones wbich in young children are dilkl 
but a6ttr fomc yem unhjc and cot:fultdate 
OBC bonc. Wifemun, 

().) SY14PHYSIS, in anatomi*, ooc of tbc 
of Jundures or articuiMton of tbc boocs. Sc^' 
NATOMY, htdex. 

(3.) Sv»4PHYStS Futis, SaCTlOM eF THt. Sd 
MiDWi^EtY. Part 11. Se3. JX. 

SYl^HYTUM, coMFREY, in botany. a n 
nu* of p%W% bclongtiig to thc c)afs of peiiaMi 
and orjler of mono^ynia ; and in thc natural fy 
tcm, yanging. unw ihc ^ift ordAr, a/peryyii 
Thc limb of the corolla ts tuhuhir and vcntrt€of^ 
and thc throat is fbut wkh awl-fhapcd i^ 
Thcre are 3 fpec?c8 ; of wbtch 

Symp^ytwi oppiciHALt ts a Britiih pM 
The ftem is about two fect high, round, hraod 
ed, grct^, and yough. Thc radical leaves are ^ 
ry large and rough ; thofe on thc ftalk arc dccv 
rent, apid atlemate . The Aowcrs grow 011 loo 
fpikes, and are eithcr of a ydiowiOi or purple c 
tour. It grows on thc baaks of riYors and Aovc 
<rom May to OAober. 

9YMPL£OADES,or C^#, a niggcd i(Umh 
the cntrance of thc £uxinc ica ; ao ftadui from t 
mouth of thc Thractan Bo^horus : tbe onc on t 
coaft pf A6a» and the othcr on that of Enrop 
^paratcd by only >o furioogs of water* wbi 
howeyer foams and ragcs con^antly, fo ai to n 
der thc paiTage very dangerous. Thcy were f 
cxpI«Trtd by thc Argonauts. Thcy wcre alfo cj 
cd PlanetĕPt or Wanderers^ from a mtftaken id 
that they moved or iloatcd. P(in» vL c. f »• 

SYMPLOCE, «,/. leuf*w%^] in rhetoiic, a 
gure, whcrc tbe (amc word is rcpcMitd. Scc Oi 

TORTi $113. 

SYMfFL0C09» in botany, a geans pf planty 
loiiging to the clals of polyadelpbU^t iiid f o tbc 
dcr cfpofy0ndria: and in thc natural (yttcai ra 
ing under thofe thc order of which it doubt 
Tbc calyi is quinqoefid and ia^orior : tbc cor* 
is pcntapetalous : tbc ftamina arc attacbcd to 
tubc of the cTorolia in 9 f aorfold icrttt. Tt 
arc 5 fpccics ; vit. ^ 


Digitized by 


S T N 

i.STMriocos Alstomia ; 

s.SrMrLOCos AtECHtA; aod ^by Mr 

h SrMPLocos CisroNiMA ; j Ucntier 
of thr Aciidein^ of Scknoirt at PArt». 

4. Stmplocos MAtTiNtCENsis, the only fpe- 
6n Mnihtd bf LtODSUS» tt a ottiTe of Mart inico. 

j. Stmplocos Tincto&ia, a pUnt uCed by 
ĕjm, w aiio mentlbaed by L* Heritier. 

*SYMPOSIACK. aJj. IJ^mp^agui^^Khch*^ 
nfnmut,] Relatiog to merry-makings ; bap- 
p("nf wbete cooipany it dnnking togrther. — By 

( 79 > 3 Y N 

*) arcdefcTibed (i.) • SYNAGOOUE. m./ {/jnagoj^t Frencb 5 
tu*mymyn,] An alTenibly of thc Jcws to wor(hip.«^ 
Go, Tubal, and meet me at our^w^i^. 

— Ue went into \ht Jjfm»g9gite on the iabbatb. Gof' 

{%,) Synaoogue, among the Jews, wits a placc 
where people mel to worihip. Autbort are not 
agrced «ibout the timc when the Jewt 6rft began 
to haYe fynagngucs : — Some will baTc them as old 
^ at the Ceremonial Law, and others fiiL tbcir be« 
<kirii^ a iecrecy to worU Ipoken under the roiii', ginning to the tiroct after the Baby^onifh captivity. 
«t ot^ mcaa to foctrty and compotatioo» £rom Tbey errded fynagogue^ not only in towns and 
thciQciaitcoftoaofj^irNii;^^^mcetingtto wear cities^ but alfo in the country» eljpetially near 
cbplctiQf mics about tbeir headt. JrMi/n.^in riTcrs, that they might haYc.water for.their puri- 
woftkof«^jN>^ar;i(difyutation8amongft my l&cationt and ceremooious waihirgs. No fyna- 
Kqamtsoce, 1 aiBnned that the dietetick part oif gogtic wat built in anjr town, uoieCi there werc 
BK^icioe dcpeoded npoa icientifick pnnciplet. t^ pcHons of leifore 10 it ; but there might be 

many in one town, or in one ouarter of a town, 
provided it was verypoDulou«. Jcrufi>ltm it diid to 
have contained 480. The chief thingt belonging 
lo a fynagogue were, i. The ark or cbeft, made 
aHer the model of the «irk of the covcnant, con- 
taining the Pentatemb. s. The pulpit and defk 
in the middle ot tbe fynagogue, in wbich he that 

SYMPOSIARCH. n, /. [irom S»^w«r««», a ban. 
(|Kt, isd «car», goYcmor,] in anti^oliy, the di- 
■tdsroraaoager of an entertainment* This of- 
fia tM toctinet performed by the perfon at 
"^ durire tbe entertainmeot wat provided ; 
ioBM^neik by aootker oamed by bim ; and at 

otkrtincs e^^ectally in entertainmd^ts providrd wa^ to read or espound the law ilood. j. The 

Mthecotsmoa espence, be wat e^edcd by lot» 
M by tbe (uffiraget of tke goeftt. 

(0 • SYIiPTOM. H. /. [JjmpHme^ Frcnch ; 
^M*^] I. Sometbmg that bappent concur- 
Ritly vitk ibaietbiiig eiie, not ai tbc original 
«Jjc» ttrai the oeceiTary or conftant effca — 
^^iytaK/ are often notbing but the prind* 
rOtr (ieedt of a growing, but unripe gout. 
™""«. 1. A iign ; a token. — Ten glorioot 
caN^n are pafl*ed, and now, iike the fick man, 
teaeapiiiog with atl forttof good jgrim^oM/. 

hO STMtTOM, ia medicine, meanc any circum- 
^■ocwhidi indicatet tbe exiftence, nature» or 
yrf t di%gfe. Vmi w^eiikneit, drowGneft, 
fap(lieffioa of urioei dUBcultiet of 

feAts or pews Ibr the peaple. 4. Tbe lamps to 
givf Hgbt at eveniog fervtce, and the feaft of dc- 
dication. 5. Roomt or apartments fbr the uttii- 
fil8 and alms<hefts. The fynagogue was govem« 
ed by a council or aAembly, over whom wat a 
prefir1ent, callcd, Tbe Ruier 0/ tbe Jynagogue, 
Thefe are fometimet callcd Clnefs of the Jewsi 
Tbe Rvier$^ Tbe Pfiefis or Eiders^ Tbe Go^crnors^ 
Tbe (H>erjeersi Tbe Fatherj of tbe Synagegue. 
Their bunnef8 wat to puniih thc difobedient br 
cenfuret, excommunicatioo, or penaltirt, fuch 
as finet and fcoorging ; to take carc of the almt» 
which are frequently callcd by the name of righ- 
teoufnift. llie chicf ruler, or onc of thc rulers» 
gave leave to have the law read aod eapoonded, 

- -,- and appolnted wbo ihottld do it. In evcry fyna- 

^ -.' «nd iwillowtng, cought» diftaftet, nau- gogue,. there werc feveral minitert who had dif- 
^^''^^'^Mii^iiSS^^i^inS^i^^coe^scoiHY^^ ferent officet adigned to thero. Scrvice was per- 
^^Toeliand Uackne^s af the tongue, are the formed tbret timet a-day, .vic. in the moming, 
^^^jPjjH^l»tN#ofdi(eaies< SeeMEDiciN £,/»/. in tbe afternoon, and at nigbt; at the timc of 
^— « ^« *« « ^ ^. . * _ _ ^ morning iacrificc^ evening fiicrifice, and after the 

erening iaarifice on Moodays, Thurfdays, and 
Saturday^, there wa« a morc forcible obiigAtioo 
upoD the people to atteod than upoo the other 
dayt. Tbere are fynagogue8 at Lon6on, Amftcr- 
dam, Rotterdam, Avignon, Mtta, 6cc. 

SYNAGOOAN, a town of WaUchia, witb a 
famou6 abbry : 11 miieR N. of Bucbarcft. 

(f .) • SYNALEPHA, n.f [rt««i#if,.] A con- 
tra^ton or excifion of a fyiUbie in a Latin ver&r» 
by joinicig together two vowels in thc fcanning, or 

^^ . — _, ^,.^^ .» —..^. ..^».1^... „„.^. cMtting oiTthecnding vowel;: as,f7/*«>^o. — Yirgil, 
-The fcver, appearing but ^^mptomatkmi^ though ftnooth, frequeotly nfrt fyf^iepbast aiid 
tsthe keat and Dain raitieated. tfn/^mMt. concludet his fenfc in tke middlc of hii Yci^e. 

U.)SrNALEPHa, or ) in grammar{ or C«/i^/a 
SYNALCEPHA, S contradion of fylUb^t, 
performed principaliy, by fupprrfling fome yowei 
or diphthong at the end of a word. on account 
of anotker vowcl or dtphthong at the beginniDg 
of tbe neat, At, «//* ego, for iile ego, Btc. 

Contiew* omnes iNtcM(iqu* (*ra teuebunt. Virg. 


•WTOMATICALLY. aeU, lfrom fymp> 
*2J^1 In the Batnrc of a iymptom.— -The 
^'^•^ a bibo.arc Ticio»^ humourt in the blood, 
^J^ eacrcted ibmetimet crittcally, fome- 
^^^^ptmatieaiif. Wifeman. 

• JlMPTOMATICAL. ) adj, [ffmpi9maiiifui, 

* SmpTOMATlCK. i Prencb ; fmm limp^ 
p H ippcning cunciirrently or occafioaally.— - 
lymim/ i« olten uied to denote the difle* 
g^^gw eco the primary and fecondary caufet 
!***>(»; at a frver from pain it htd to be 

t^t becaule tt arife8 from pain only. 
-The lever, appearing but J^mptomatiemi^ 
'tttbe keat asid pasii raitigated. Wijeman. 

I >nil8, X moaotaio of Armenia, from which 


I JP^ ESiS, or CiAstt, CoNTaACTSON, in 

1 1?*^ *figore wlleireby two fyllablct are,uni- 
"•■•t; at ^emau ; fDr vehemenjf 9fn for ^mt^ 

y^nmcOGlCAL. adj. [(torn j^agegue} 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


S Y N r 8 

(t.)SYMlCOOCHE. S«C ORATOUr, J 175 — 181. 

• SmCDOCHICAL. adj. [Uom /ynecdoc/A] 
kprdlcd byr^ccdochc ; implying \ fynccdt)chtf. 
Shwtd I bnug f ou into hoCpitals, and (how you 
Bjay (bgi«, narrowly lcdgcd in Jynccdochital bo- 
!i«, fcc thcir cottagea moulder «way to clufti 
brtbc lols t!f onc limb after another, liirviving 
bal part (if thcmiclm ^ and living to fce thtfmfcWtS 
UdkdlMncd by pi(4:eincal. Bejle, 

ST?rtCPHONE3fS. n, /. in grammar, a coali* 
t«, «tcrcby two fyilable5 ar<r pronounctd as 
«et; brtng much tbe fafne a« Synaloepha and 


5YKES1S, ». / in Latin grammar, a fipure 
rherr^y tbc conftnidion of a fcntencc l8 rcgulat- 
ei B« by ibc vtords, but by the /cn/e^ ^s to gen* 
irr or nimibcr : as, in Livy, Latlum Cap^a^ue a- 
|n««/la»; inAcad of /»tffmi et Capuanu • 

SYKK1U8, a cclcbratcd lather c»f thc Chrif. 
tdacWcb, wbo flouri(hed under Theodoniis II. 
Hf v«borfl at Cyrency in Afnca, of nobie pa- 
^'^^a* lo 410, he waa appointcd bilhop of 
ftflbi*t His work« cooiiA of \$s EpiJlleSi and 
tw (<hr curiuus tra^s, writtcn in very purc 
indticgantGrtrk. Thc bcft tditicns are thijfe 
l^Pim, JD %*o %6os ; fblio, i6i», and 3*6335 
■^A-|fTdatn, 1749. 

«YNEOROSIS. Strc AwATOMY, /A£«rj and 

SYNGE, Edward,.» Itte emiretit prc *ate of Irc- 
hid,«a« thc Ibn of Dr Edward Syngc, biihop of 
C*k,ifld bom Apm 6, 1659, *^ Inilhonane. He 
«■atacatcd at Cork ; a-^mKtcd Commoncr, and 
^S.itCbritt-C-hurch, Ox^rd ; «nd finifhcd his 
*»teaiDubli!!. He was roade ?icar at Chrirt- 
0^^ iA Cork, and ifter othei' promotions rofe 
lllebE#iopof Rapboe, in 1714; and at iaft in 1^16, 
J*WkT> of Tatm, bcing a sealous whig. He 
■Meindpoblilhed many excelle^t tra<5ts onditi- 
Kl/^itote. nmo.) and dicdatTuam, in 1741. 
^^YNGENESIA, (rpt and ytwHt eongeneration^] 
pv iT^ii cUfstn Ltnnsus'! artiBcial fy(tem; com- 
►|fkci«iiig thoTc p^anta which bate thc anthcr» 
^'^ 1 <«• « cyKndcr; The ordersare fix : i. Po- 
«quali$. a. Polygamia fuperf}ua. 3. Po* 
i^iiiran^a. ^. Polygmia ncceffaria. j, 
-^.--■n fcgrcgata- 6. Monogamia. Thc fiv^ 
f* •'kn contain thc compound Aowcrs» and 
^■«riilj truly natural. See Botan Y/ lndex, 
J»p<GNATHUS, in ichthyolopy, PiPE-risB, 
■ard^og itt Linn«u«, a genns belonging to thc 
^ ^ ampbihia^ jrr»d ordcr of nanteji but ar- 
JN by Gaietin more propcrly uiidcr the clafe 
Mj^i, tiKi ordcr of hranebiaflegi. Thc hcad is 
^J tb: roftTura f)mewhat cylindncal, long, 
^■•t»ed np at thc point, ^herc thc mout% is 
|Jjc*d, wtich U cofcred with a lid or valvc. Thc 
ji^otewrcred in the Cime manrcr. The body 
X^^ wtth a.Aroii^ cmtt, and h«8 no vcDtral 
.*?• Tbcrc wcre fcirmcrly rniMncratcd 8 f?ecic8. 
7 *^. 3 «re ibinid in the Bhiim (^as, or/». IV* 

■A^**^**"* Act/», the N£e!>Li Pish, 
i%V^f^Mi/^t M thicjLcr than the baabar us, 
■"WTtt il ba» bcen (ccn of thc length of f 6 
r** Thc middtc of thei>«dy in fome is hcxan- 
^^^[■«hcrs hcpeangulair: Thc moutll is form.* 
%**^^^of ihcbarbarus, thc iridcs arc yĕl- 


I ) s' Y^ jr 

low; clor<!iWiind tbc hcad arc thĕ praoral titt§f 
whfch'are frtwU and (bort. On Ihc lowcr part ol 
the back U one mrrOw fin; beyonU thc vcnt thi 
tail commencti»i which is long and' qnadnthguhir^ 
At thc cxtrcmity is a fin round and radiated.; Thc 
body is coveT<:d witli a ftrong cruttj clegintly di- 
vidcd into fmal! compartmcnts, Thc belly in 
whitc; the othcr parts are brown. 
a. Synonathus JEqdoreu$. Sce N* 6.' 

3. Syngnathus l&AK%ik9,v%iOT hnger pipt /t/bi 
One dcicnhcd by-8ir Robcrt Sibbald was two tect 
in lcngth ; that cXAmin» d by Mr Pcnnant only 16 
incheu. Thc nofe was an mch long, comprcAcd 
fidswifc, and the tnd of ihe iower mandible tum^ 
cd upi thc aperturc ot tbc mooth was vety fmaU. 
The iridcs wtrc red ; bebiild each car was a dccp 
brown line. Thc body, ip the thickeft part, wag 
cqual to a fwan's quill, hcX»nguUr from fhc c"d 
of ihe dorfal fin;-from thcncc to the tail, <(ua- 
dranpuLir. The belly was Aightly carinatcd, and 
markcd aidng thc rciddle whh a duAcy hnc. Un-' 
dcr thc tail, commcncing at the anus, is a fi^u8 
or groovc, it\ imhes long, covcrcd by two Ibngi» 
tudma; varvc8, whichconccalam6liitudeof young 
fiih. Oa crulhmg this part, hundreds miy bc ob-» 
f*rvcd to crawl out. 

4. Sywonathus Hippocampus, thc/'fl-i6o^/ 
which was cl.»fled by Artedi undcr the Syngna- 
thus, is now, by latcr ichtbyologifts, arraiigcd 
undcrTR/CHEci/s; whiehfcc. 

5. Syngnathus OpHtDtoN, or little pipe fi/k$ 
fcldom.cxcecds 5 inchcs in lengtH; is vcry Aendcr^ 
anii tapers 1.0 a point. It wanis both the pcAo* 
fal and tall fins ^ is covcred wfth a fmooth 9k\x\f 
not with a cfuft. Thc nofc is Ihort, atid turns a 
httle up ^ thc eycs are promiucnt. On the back 
U one narrow fin. This Ipecrcs is ttct miparousi 
on !he helly of tbc femalc is a lotig' hollow, to 
which adbtre the eggs in a or 3 rows. Thcy arc 
large, and not numerous; Serpent is uTcd in fcve-' 
ral languagcs to esCpre^s thefe hlh : thc Prcoch call 
bne fprcie8 arueu/f from a fort of fnakc, likc thc 
blindworm : the Gtrmans caH it mtbereblange \ 
and the Corniih ^ht /eaadder. 

6. Syngnathus PelaOicds, *)aTe all na- 

7. Sykgnathus Tetraoonu», f tivc9of fo- 
S. Syngnathus Typhele, and Crcign 

Syngnathus iE^troREus, JCountrics* 

Syn-wu, orSiN-Ngo. SecDituOE, N**5,ao<i 


SYNNAM, plar, Or ) anancrenttownof Phry« 

SYNNAS, Jing\ J gia, famous for roarbW 

qnarie?;. Strab. t%. Chud. 

(i.j^SYNNEUROSIS^/i/lri^andw*^*».] Syn-^ 
newrqfir\i whicn the connexion is madc by a liga- 
rocnt. — Of thw in fympbyfts we find infta[nceS) itr 
the connexiob of thc olTa pubts togcthtr, cfpcc»- 
ally in womcirj by a Itgarocntous fubftancc. In 
articulationj it h eitbct round, as that whtcb 
onitcs thc hcad of thc os femori8 to thc coxa ; of 
broad, a? rtrc tendon of the patclla, which unitc^ 
it to the os tibi>r. Wi/eman. 

(».) Synneurosis. Sce Anatomy, Tndae t aI 

SYNOeHA, an4 ) 'm medicine, tt^o fpeiit8 ti 

SYNOCHUi. 5 continu^d fcvcr. Src ^M^- 

DICINE, hidejc, 

(i.> « SYNOD, n. / [ rjnod, Prtnch j «'mJ^.J 

L I. An 

Digitized by 


SYP ( 94 ] ?YR 

lird was (liviiUv! fnto 4 diilii^s ; vl7. Ortyci/, wa« in tcn mor.ths drivefi out, 4od a popcUr go 
/ffr.7^/»<7, Tycha, and Neapolis. Thtrc wis verntrcnt rcdorcd ; whicycontinucd 55 ycar?. 
;<!ro"a 5th dr(lr<5!, cai ed Epipo!^, bi:t as it was . (5.) Syracuse, history of, till the d^ 
^hinly inh^bite-^, ir is often orrilted by peopra- Feat of the Syracusans by the ATHkni 
phers. Each r»f the 4 chicf d:ftri(fls formcd fcpa- A^s. Sevtr.»l perf<>ns f6r Tomc timc«fp'rtdaith 
ratecities, anH wtre fortified >vith 3 ciiadds and f )vcreigntytopreverit>^'hichtheyh^drecourfcto;j 
/^r^'<'-^///^J/or triplc walls. Syracufc had aIfo iwo M//7w,butlfingpro^ndivcofgrcat inconfcnicrcfl 
^pict^iM harbonrs Tcp^rated froin cAch other by th^ law Was rt pealed foon ai^lcr il liad bcen cnittH 
thc i/land oF O.rtygi^. (Sce Ortycia, N^ 2.) (Sec Pet^alism.) Abouttbis time.thc S)Taci| 
Thc preateft harbonr was above 5000 paces tn lans cntcrcd into. a *w<ir witb thc Siculi, wh>^ 
circuatfi?rence, artriits er.tran"C 500 pace» widc. 
The city ^Ttit w^cll ^uilt, and thc ht>ufes werc 
ftately and magnificent.' 

(3.) Sytiacuse, ancient history qf, till 
'fftE DEATH OF -GEtON. What try^ of g';^vcrn- 
jTJcnt firft prevailed in the city is not known; Thc 
hiftory i«j obfcurc till the tirtic of Gclon, who 

%ras born in Ot\^^ in Sicily. He figna|ized , .- , , - 

MiitiTclP in a wnr canricd 6n by Mlppoci^ttto tyrant Iy> with a prctcnce to attack thc SyracuCani wil 
of Ocla s^ainll the Syracu^aH^, v/h6m bc deftat- their wholc force. But thc Lcontines, lcafib| 
lfd'fn 3 pttchetj battle, and had wcll r1?gh takcri that tbeir pretcr-dcd allies aimcd >t thc coDq»J 
thtir city. Havln^ \bos becomc vcry powciful, of thc wholc lAahd, concludcd a peact witbSyJ 
hc foonfated ti& ttfc ^d^e^rcipnty. I^ilting bim- ctjfe. In A. A.C.4i6,adiiptitehappeningbctweJ 
felf at the hcad of fomc Syracufin txilcs»,be thc inhabiiants cf JEgefta, orSECESTi and Sd 
inkrtrh^itbwardsthatplac?, whcrehc^a«ircctivcd rms conccrning fomc lands \yhich the lattcr M 
wi^h loud accUnitnsiti^ns Vy thc fa(f>ioiv tp^»»h)ch • ieized, thc S gcRincs appliid for afliftance to J 
tRtf pflQngcd;'';^i^dbjCthcir n^eans'oMaincd pc')^^ prigcntum, Syr. cufc, and cvcn to Caittttd 
rcto-^t)^ the city. ' d<ftbn, to pec^lc l,Kc cipiial Hut as none of thcTe ft^tcs chofc to intcr.ft lliea 
rf Wi8'iiew damit1i<>*^^, ^rft dcmohni^d the neJgii- fclvcs iii thcir quarrtl, ll cy applicd at laft lo l* 
l)OUTing c'ty of Carmrn^, aad trapfplantcd tjjc' Athcnian'^, who joyfuIly accepted of tbe cpjw 
inh.abitant| to jSjrraf ixfe. S.ooii aftVr, t»>ltViiig4ji. tuniiy of again intertcriog iu tfie affairs of Sicil 

ans, he dcfeated thcm^ 

es, and in l^kc mannicr 
Syracufc thus became 

3? inhabiiants; and thic 

'oiirlcd bnth by Athens 

:tU cf thc PciTiao inya- 

ever, wgR afterwards rc- 

tVrniina*cd in thc ftibjcw*tion of tbc lattcr. Sj 
r4cufc now bccamc lo powcrfuI, that it m 
manner gave law to the wholc ifland. Tl 
Leontipcs, d»fput;ng ihc fupremacy of thc Syi 
cufins,*thc!r tcrrilOry waslaid waftc, a* dlhcirc 
rw*duccd to pr^at ftraits. Leontini was inAll 
nian colony ; and this fUrni(hcd thc Alhcnww 
who had already mcditated thc copqucft bf Sic 

pedt or thc army. In 
giniaiis had cntcrtd into 
i by which it waragrc- 
fd atfack.thnfc of tbe 
ITt-iiy, tg divcrt thtfm 
from affifting one anoibcr. ^SiciIy was accordrnR 

Witb thc moft (anguine rxpcdlations thc Atha 
ans landcd 7000 mcn \x\ Sicily, iin^cr Nicias (K 
f-fl'cd thrmfclveii of a Aror.g poft, andput thc S 
raculans tb pight. 


0F THE Athenians. Io thc ipcan timc tU 

racnfans rcccivcd afliftancc from ilic I<»2ccd« 

i1>eing madc^com.nah- rians undcr thc comijianci oC ati cRpi^ricncd c 

ccr namcd CyJippus^ who Brrivtd juft m tisic 1 
prcvcnt Syracule from funen1ering. At thcH 
of ;goo toot and 200 horfc, he madc dirc^Iy f 
Epipoisc, whercl^icias had fc:rtificd hrxfc!f ia 
caftlc namedi Lahdahnt be drcw up his ^iwil^ 
niy uiider thc wah ; an j ftDt an hcralJ lo Kici 

H^iVv^dĕd bythc CaiiKagrnianp wjth a vaft ^my ; to tell him that he woi^ld aKo>v hitnoi)iy fiveda| 
b!Jt th^y were urtctly 6<rertb'rovvn b>; GeU y, and to ltavc Sitily. Nicia« retu 

hl^;^thcnr-in-'aw ^h^bo,' princc o? Aciii^ENi 

TV»i", afi is Vclatt,d undcr Ihe articlc CaiJthage, 

^♦4' Aftcr thii v?Aoiy, thc pcoplc cut of gprati» 

tudc oblij^cd him to take upoa bimfelf ^he titl^ of 

km£; whhrhtill that time he had jrefufcd. A 

c^ec ree aIfo paATcd -With^ut oppofi^ioo, by which 

thc ctoWDwas fcttled on hia two biothera Hiero 

dcath. Thc ntwjcing, 

8 OiOJt Tcign in ftudyir.g 

?lc- IIc dicd A. A, C. 


!d )>y^is broth^r Hii- 

turrdd Bo aiifw?cr; 
Gylippi^s fv)on afur ftortried thc fort, ar^d put 
Ihe fword ali thc Athenian$ in it. Thij opci 
a way into ihc ciiy, wherc hc was rccciTcd wi 
loui,! /icplamations. Tbc fortucc of the war 1 
again changed.' Thc Athenians gaincd a^i a<in 
tage by land, .but wci« rcxt day cJctcatcd wt 
grcat iDft. Thc Syracufan8 rc'cxivtd firtfti fu 
phcs frQm* Corirth, and the Athcnians frcm At 
tica. I^lany cngigements boih by fca land to( 
place, in whicb tnc fuccefs was UitkOiatcly in \ 
vGur of thc Syracufars, At laft thc Athcnian j 
^riirs wcre to$aily riiined by thc Iof8 of a fca-fig« 
in which 60 of thcir Aiips wce takcjn or dcftro 

. ^,,^ - -^ - , cj, an4 tbe reft ltft quite wiifcrviceablc. In tl 

ff»^cntly dra\»'i7 ty hifT , defpcratc fituat:on it was determhicd to aband^ 

,.... — — .•,"—-. ^ng^cd ib a war tliib tl;cirthlps, and rctirc that nigbl to thc cilyi 

thc A^ngcntSnC^, irtd drove' frbm thcTr habita'- their contcdcratcA. llut this mcafurc was dclA| 

t-pns thcjjcpplc of Catan and Naxtu^cUkng in cd fromapicct:offaIfcintchigcncc;andNiciasd| 

ttfcir ronm a coiony of iyracufar.s and Pcloponc- not inarcb pui lill the ^d day aftcr. The A^h 

liiirsr Hitlo I. died A. A. C. 459.,.^^^- was fuc* njans and tbeir allies aIfo marcbtd oot to tl 

cccd^ l;jr Thrafybu!us; wbo rroving a tyrart| Kumbcr of 40,000;, biit tinding t^^cmlielycs ft»| 

Digitized by 


8 T R 

( «5 > 

cp M a]] fidct, and bdng obiiged to fight their 
vaTtbroogb cnry 4>utkt9 tbey foon funk iiitode- 
ipaiu' Niciai iJad bi« utaiott to ei*courage them; 
W it M thcy marcbed out in t wo bodies. The 
\tM§md kd hj Kicias continucd to advance in 
{ood'ordcr; bnt haif tbc reir, comaundcd by 

§ Y R 

Dir^n, and to kecp Plato bimfcif in a kind of im^ 
prifonment in tbe citadel. At lait, howtvf r, he 
iet bim at liberty; upon which Plato retumed tu' 
hh ovn country. Dion, in the mean timf , vifi-- 
ted fcveral of the Grecian citic^, and at laft took. 
up his rcfidence in Athens; but tbe honourt 
i>cBoftiuoes> ioft tbcir way ia the night, and wKich were cvery where paid him, raifed Tuch 
Vcrrob:iged to farrender. Nicias being infor- j^alouties in the breaft of thr tyrant, that heftop- 
&td Qf tiiu miafortune» oATcred to pay the whole ped his rcvenue, <ind caufed it to bc paid in to his 
apeftcccf ibe war, piotided he watialkn^-ed to ewn treafury.* In a (bort time Diouyfiut again 
mj^b oS with his m^cn. But this bcing rrje^ed fent far Plato ; but hnding it impofiible to dir* 
kUi out, tho' gal^cd all the wsy by ibowers {olve the fiiendlhip betwecn hiin and Dion, dif-> 
d 6uu bom his cncmies Amvmg at a rivcr graccd* and placed him m a very dangerous fitua- 
ciUrd jlfiiiMrujt tbe)r ruibed into it without or- tion, in the midft of aflaffins who hated htm. 
^;lnwb*chconfufioo theSyracufan cavabryat- (Sec Plato.) Not daring, bowever, to offer 
uckcdthtm io dcipcrately» tbat 181O00 pcrihedy htm my violence» bc allowcd hira foon afiter to 
md tbe rirer foc many miks was d>4d with th«ir depart ; revehging bim(etf on Dion, whofe eftate 
bmi. The remajiider furrcndered, on condi» he fold, and g^ve his wife Arctc in marriage to 
fe»ofhaTipg tbcir lives iavcd; but thc tcrms Timncrates one of his own Aatttrers. Dion now 
mflufflcfuiiy broken by the Syracufans. The |icfolvtd to revengc htmfclf on tbe tyrant ior the 
inehi^wcTC firft.i^nominioufly whipt, aodthen many injnries hc had fuftained, and at once to 
^tsdcith: thc loldiers wtre (ent to iabour in |jclivrr hts coontry fi?om the opprdTion ondcr 
fBnn,whcrc ibeywere allowed oj)lytwofmail whicb it groancd. He bcgan with raifing fo 
Mbrcs of Bour aHd one.of watcr a day; and reign troops privately« by propcr agents. Many 
sioi, biing crowdcd, thcy fui&red incKprtlTiblc Syracufans of diftinAi6h (ntered into bis fchenie 
t^tpc* ht many months. Moft of thcm pcriili- «nd gavc bio) intclligencc of what paAcd in 

^ the city ; but of the ciile^, only 15 joined him, 
with aboat 800 mcn. -Hc ^rrirtd at the port of 
Minoa, near AgrigcDtum. Herc they receivcd in- 
tclltgcnce that Dtonyfius had (^ lail for Italy» 
with a flcet of 80 gaileyt. On this Dion refolvcd' 
to take advantage of the tyrant'8 abfencc ; and 
immediately fct fail for Syraciife. On bis march 
he prevailed upon the inbabitaots of Agrigcn- 
tum, Gela, Camarina, and other cities, to join 
him. As foon as he cntered tbc tcrritories of Syra- 
cuic, multitudcs Aocked to him ; and as nobody 
^aak. DiONy«ii;&, k man of grcat valour appcared to oppofe him, be boldly etttercd thc 
«4floqBCDce ac^ui^rd fuch inAucnce with the ctty, where he quickly found himfelf at the head 
Hntscr, that Itcp by ftep he attained to (o* of 50«oo« ircn. Sevcn days after Dion'8 arrival^ 
f«t^ powcr, poiHlUd bimfelf of tbe citadcl, Diooyfius returned and cntered thccitadel by fea. 
^^ ah tbe anris and provifioNs wcre kcpt; and Pinding his aSairs tn a dcfperate fituation, bc had 
I^C7 took thetitlc ot J^iHg o/Sjrodti/e, A. A. C. reoourfc to artifice ; and baviag amuied the Sjrra* 
tt¥ Tbe Syracu/ans did not tamiely fubmit to cafan8by a feigned negoctation, until he obienr- 
^it# mai^cr : bot Dionybus managcd mattcrs ed tbat they kept a negligent guard, he attacked 
**«di, tbat tbcir 6refiueQt revolts anfwercd no tbcm all at once with fuch fury, that tie had al- 
' ^^OTpok tban morc ccrtainly ta entail flavc- inoft taken thc city. Btit Di6n eocoumged the 

"" ' foldicrs by bis example fo mticb, that hc at Uft 
obtained, a complcte «i^ory; f>r whicb they 
prc^ntcd him witb a crowii of gold. Dionyfiua 
was obliced to fly to Italy, 


DER OF DiON. It was ttot long, however, be- 
fore the ungrateful SyractiCimi began to cooter 
quitc differcnt rcwards on thcir bencfaAor. Dion 
baviQg oppofed a ptx>po<ki for a new divifion of 
land*, was obliged to ltave tbe city and rtfide 
fome time at LemtlBi, wbert he was receiv<^a 
witbrefpea. Inthcmcin tirBc, the citadcl ftill 
coneisiaed iu tbe haodt of the«dherentsof Diony- 
fius. Betng blocked up on all fi4c8, they weic 
rcduced to great ftrait8, and wereadtually mAking 
propofal8 of capitiilation, whcn NypAus, an ex- 

, — , — ^ .^^. .^. — , ^..,. perienccd gencral, and greatly attached to Diony- 

ndier who(c-jcare be put tbe young kinp. C\ii% appeared with anomeroos fqoadr(in of gal- 
pndaccd a rcfoniiation on DionyAus ; but Iry^» and a largc Acet of tnnfports laden witK 
Wicrs, di^adiBg tbe cffc^ of the pliilofo- provifion8. The gcneral lajided his men, and got 
• atnittiaDs, .prctaikd 00 ^m to kaniib tbem ioto the citadel ; but alinoft all bis gallcy» 

. and 


«dbf ihiscruel trcatoicnt, aod thc fcw who fur- 
mcii v^ ibld for aave«. 

<;.)5rsACusfi, HisToar or, to thb DEarH 
ci DioiYsius I. Tbe war was fcarce cndcd, 
«tei I ficw aud fonnidab)e invafion by the Car- 
ttiliatant took placc ; but tbc evcnt of that cx- 
ytittMM was as ttofortuDate to tbc Carthagioians 
«thcCormcr bad bcco, of which a particuUr ac- 
Qp8tii.giveo undcr the arttcle CaRTHACE, $ 4* 
kefc» Agbicemtum. In the rpean time, how- 
rpt axo-fidcrabk r<:vcluticn had bappcr.ed in 

VMemfclvcs ; and he was allowed to poffefB 
MlOK witbont mncb oppoAUaD tillhis death, 
^C|66. Scc DiOM Ysius I, and Sicily, § 7. 


'IttOiKsius U. BY DiON. On tbc death of 
Wiis, hc was fuccctded by his fo^f Diomy- 
»tL Hc .WM o<curaJly Qf a mild and peacc- 
■kaper, avcric Crom crucity» aod iitc.intd to 
^Hi boi £ii iathcr, to whom all merit, even 
bi«rBchiidren, gavc umbrage, ftiQcd as far 
PoWe bis goosl qualitics by a mcao cducation. 
'KtlaDacr a&eodtd the throiic, than Dion, 
^to Aritotnacbe thc other wifc of Diony- 
>>tW fi)dcr, Mdcrtook to corrcd the faulu 
bicdocatioa, aitd to in^pirc him with thoughts 
*^tothc bigh ftation tn which hc was placedi 
^tkiiporpofe he icot for thc philoGiphcr Pla- 
who(c-jcare be put tbe young kinp. 

pndaced a rcfoiiiiation on Dionyfiufi *, but 
, di^adiBg tbe cffc^ of the pliilofo- 

• atnittiaDs, .prctaikd 00 ^m to kaniib 

Digitized by 


S Y R 

and (hips hdcn with com were Aink or taken. 
Thig vidory proved the ruin of the Syraculans ; 
for, giving themrcUes np to riot and debiuchery, 
tbe enemy rallied out in tbc night-time from the 
citadeU and maiTacrcd the citizen8 without mer- 
cy. An embafiy was tben Tent to Diou, intreat- 
ing htm to return and fave the city a fecond time. 
To this he agreed, and inftantly fct out on bis 
march ; but in the mean time, as the foidier8 of 
Dionyiius, fatiated with the (laughter, had retir» 
ed into thcir fortref8, the ungratehil Syraculans be* 
gan to repeiit of thelr having fent an embaiTy to Di- 
on. Thc chief commandersy thercfore» fent mcATen- 
gcrs to ftop his marcb ; but as fome of ht« friend8 
&nt deputies to btm at thc iame time» contradtc- 
tmg this mcAage, be proceeded on bis journcy. 
The infatuated mob ieized the gates todifpute bii 
cntrance; but they paid dear for their frei^y. 
The Dionyiians again (allted out upon themy and 
made a ad maAacrc. As thcy knew tbat Dion 
was haftening to tbe reltef of the city, they endea* 
voured to deftroyjtcnttrely.beCovehi8arrival^ for, 
after they had murdered aU the inhabttants tbey 
could find, they fet fire to the ;houfe8, by which 
great numbert periihed. But» during tbis confu- 
li«..n Dion arrived; and havtng.brtikya\tackcd tbe 
euemv, at laft defeated tbem with ^reat Aaugh- 
Cer, driving the remaindcr into the citadcl. Tbe' 
citadel faon after furrendered ; and Dion allowed 
Apollocrates thc tyrant^t fon, Vho commandcd 
tbere, to retire with five galleys to bii father, 
Ai foon as Dion entercd the citadel» be was met 
by bis fifter and wife Arete, whom he recctved with 
aftlb^on, notwithftanding her having livedfoIong 
with Timocrates. He theu lcft the Syraculana in 
poAcilion Df the citadel, rewardcd hii foliower«y 
difmified his guardt, and lived like a pnvate 'd- 
tizcn. In a ihort time aftcr he loft his li^e» 
through the bafc treachery of Calippus, or Gylip- 
pus, who pretcndcd to be hiiintimatc Aricndy and 
who immediately aiter caufed his wife and £fter 
to be carried to prifon. See Diom» N® i. 
(lo.) Syracusei history of, to the tot^-l 


CaUpput haviog thas removed Dton« foon made 
htmfelf m«fter of Syracofe, where be committed 
all manner of craelties ; bat was driven out, and 
furced to fly to Rhegium» whcre he was murdere'd 
with the ume dagger wberewith hc 4iad killed 
Dion. In 350 B. C. Dtonyfius again made blm- 
fclf mafter of Syracufe ; and bcing exafperated by 
his paft mi8fortunes, tyranised worfe than cvcr. 
The Syracnians firft bad recouric to Icetas^yrant 
of Leontini ; but ai tbe Carthaginians took this 
opportunity to invade them with a powcrfuI fleet 
and army, tbey were obKged to apply to the 
Corinthians. By them Timoleon, a celebrated 
commander» wai fent to a(fift the Syracofant, 
whom he found in a very diftrefled fituation ; i- 
cetas being mafter of the ctty, the Carthagtnians 
of the harbour, and Dionyfius of tbe citadcl. As 
all parties were equaliy tbe enemies of DionyCiuSy 
he found it impoiHble, to hold oiit, and thrre- 
fore furrendered himfelf to Timolcon, by whoiii 
be was f-nt to Corinth ; wherc at Uft he was rc- 
duced to the neccAity of tcaching a fchool for his 
(11.) Syracuse, histo&y of, until thb 

r 86 ) 

S Y R 

oeatr op Timoleon. After the cipulBon of 
the tyrant, Timoleon withdrew to Catana, lea?- 
ing only 400 Connthians, under the conicnand cf 
an expericnced officer named Leont to guard ihc 
citadel. Thefe wcre immedtately bciicged by 
Icetas and thc Carthaginians, but Timgleon re- 
Iicvcd them in fpite of all oppofiiion ; aiid hating 
di]rperfcd cmiAaries through the army of Mago 
the Cartbaginian general,' exborting the mcrcetia* 
ry Greeks to forfakc him, he was fo much inttmi* 
dated, that in fptte of all the remonftrances Icc- 
tas could make, he (et fail for Afrtca, leatring bis 
aolieague to cairy en the war tn the bcft maoiKr 
be could. The day after the departure of Mago, 
Timoleon aiTaulted the city fo briikly, that thf 
troops of Icctas wcre driven from tbe walis, and 
theCorinthi^ns became mafters of theplacc. Ti- 
moteon invited the inhsTbitants to a(fift in deaioHih- 
ing the citadel and other cattles, which he called 
nejis oftyranU\ after wbich be caufed tbecdificefl 
to bc ercAed in 4be place wbere the dtadel 
had ftood, fbr the adminiftrat4on of jufticc. Hc 
foiind the city in a moft mtferable fituation and 
a1moft a dcfcrt. Hc fupplied the city with inba. 
bitant8from Corinth and othercitic6of Greece,and 
diftnbuted the lands among X\itxxi graiU ; butfoI^ 
the houfes, and with the money arifing from the 
fale eftablifhed a fund for the fupportofthepoor, 
Having thus reftored Syracufe, he in like mannet 
deUvered all the Greek cities of Sicily from ih« 
tyrants wbo had taken poiTedion of tbemi aH ol 
whom he put to death. After tbis be reBgne^ 
his authority, and led a retired 1ife, honoured il 
the higheft degree by the Sjracutans» and by a^ 
the cities in ^iciiy. After bis deatb he was fao 
nonred as a god* 

(1*.) SvitACVSE, hi^tory op, until thb ^ 
«truct4oh^f Tunis by Agathocles. ^ 
ao years the Syracufan« enjoyed thc fipuit8of.Ti 
moleon'8 viAor|e9, but new difturbances arifing, X 
nother tyrant itarted up, who csceeded all thi 
h/Td gone before htm in cruelty and other Tice| 
This was the celebrated Agatbocles, of whofc ti 
ploits againft the Carthaginian^ fome account 
given uiider thearttclee Aoathocles, AcriciI 

Tt7M, CARTHA6E, $ 4. and SlCILY, $ 8. BJ 

farther particulars 1>eldng to this article. In ti 
years be fubdued all tbe Groek part of Siclly. I 
next comnnitted great devaftations in tbe Carth 
einian tenritories, their generil Hamtlcar not \ 
tering to difturl) bim. This perfidious condt 
gteatly fnccnfed th^ peopDe of thofe di4lnAs agaii 
Hamilcar, whom thcy accufcd bcforĕ tbe fcna 
He died, however, in Sicily ; and Hamilcar i 
fon c>f Cifco was appointed tnfueceed hhti if| 
command of the lorces. Tbe laft p]ac«* tiiat 
out againft Agathocles was MeiTana, whklie 
the Syracufan exi)e8 had-retrred. Paliphil^j 
gathocles'8 general, cajoled the inbabitarits 
a treaty which Agathocles paid no regard to, 
as foon as he was in pofleiflion of thc towni 
oiT all thofe who had oppofed his govemn 
For, as he intcnded to proftci>te the war witj 
utmoft vigour againft Carthage, he wilhcd t 
ftroy as man^ nf his Sicilian enemies as pol 
The Carthagiriians in the mean time haTing 
cd a powcrful army in Stcily, an engagcmeil 
^uedy tn which Agathoclet was.defeat«d witl 

Digitized by 


S Y R ( S7 ) S Y R 

lo6 of 7000 mcD. After this defcat he was obli- tal. In this Gtuation Agathocles received advice 
fed to (hat bimrclf up in SjrracurC) which tbe of the dcfeat of the Carthagioian forccs before Sy-- 
Ciiihipnaoĕ imroediately inveitcd, and molt of racafe along wiih the head of Hamiicar. Upon^ 
tbc Grrek itatcn in tbe idand fubn)ittcd to them» thrs he imanediatrly rodc up to thcenemy^scampyi 
Agaibocicticciag bimfelf ftrippcd of almolt all bia and Oiowing them the head, gave them an account 
domtnions, and hii capital itfelf in danger of fall- of the total deitru^ion of their army bcfore Syra« 
log into thc haodi of tbc encmy, determined to cufe. This threw them into fuch conAernation» 
traoi^ thc war into Aii^ica, and lay fiege to the that in all human probability Ag^thoclea would 
mmft capital. For tbit purpofe be contrived have made himfclf ma(ter of Carthage, bad not 
iocaiTyovcr 14,000 men» and land them with an unespeded mutiny arifcn in his camp, wbich 
iJttie oppofition. As/oon as bis force8 were land- gave the Carthaginians time to recover frofn 
ei A(^bodc8 bumt hb fleet, tbat bis foldiert tbcir terror. The year fol1owing an engagement 
■i^t ba?c no poffibility of Aying. He firft ad- bappencd, in which neither party gained any great 
'aaced to a piace called the Great C$ty, Tbis, af- idvantage : but ibon after, tbe tyrant, notwith- 
ter a fecble rcfiftance be tonk and plundered. ftanding all his vidtorie8y found himiblf unable to' 
From hcocc be marcbed to Tunin, which furren- carry on the war alone ; and therefore endeavour- 
^cd OB thc firft fummont ; and Agatbocles le- ed to gain over Ophclias, one of the captalns of 
*eficd both pla ces with tbe ground. Alesander the Great. In tbis he fucceeded ; O- 

(ij.)Sriacusi,HisTORyoF,uiiTOTHEDEATH phcllas brought an army to his affiftance through 
orHaMiLCAi. Tbe Cartbaginians werc at firft many trials, in reward f6r which Agathocles cut 
t^w»B into tbe greateft conftemation ; but reco- him olf by treachery, and then by promife8 per- 
vai|tiici9lelves, tbe Citizen8 took up arms, and fuaded his troops to ferve under himfelf. 
«liewdaystbey bad an armyof 40,000 fool and (i5.)Syracuse, history of, unto the mur- 
loooboriit, withaooo armcd cbariots. Thecom- der of Agathocles. Agathoclcs now finding 
«ffld of tbis army they entrufted to Hanno and himfclf at ihe head of a numerotts army, atTumed 
™j*cir, two generals betwecn wbom thcre fub- tbe title of King of A/rica^ intcnding to complete 
■tedagrtatanimoGty. This occafioned thc dc- his conqucfts by the redudion of Carthage. He 
wt()f tkcir wboic army with thc lof» of their began with the fiege of Utica, which was taken 
ciap. Upoo this defeat, the Carthaginians, ac- by aiTault. After this he marched againft Hippcr 
c^gtothdrbarbarou8fuperftition, oiTered up Diarrhytus, the hiferta of the modcms, which 
joo d»adrea and othcr 300 Wiw/ay^ buman facn- was alibtaken by ftorm; and after this moft of 
■ces. lo Sidly, Hamilcar, ftill reIolved to ftorm the people bordering upon thc fca*coafts, and e« 
uecitf, did his utmoft to conceal from the Syra- Ten thofe who inhabited the inland parts, fubmit- 
f^tbe iotelfigencc of Agathocles^a Tidory; ted. Butin the midft of this fuccefB, the Siciliana 
^iiiain, fbr Agathoclct got it convcyed by a formed an alTociation to reCover their hberty;. 
P^> Hamilcar tben cr<^ed fcaling laddcrs which obliged the tyrant to return home, leaving 
*^in bis attack upon Syracufe, but though his fon Archagathus to carry on the war in AfH* 
«M bewas^oiDcwhat fuccefsful» be was foon ca. Archagathus, aftcr his father's departure. 
''^P''^ witb grcat loft. Raifing the fiege, he o. greatly extended the APrican conqucft8. Be fent 
^'Ttt tbe country and took fome towns in aU Eumachus at the head of a large detachment to 
"*c inah 8yracufe ; after which he rcnewed bis invade fome of the neiRhbouring proyinces, whilc 
^ *>ck 00 thc dty in the night, but was complcte- he him(elf, with the greatcft part of his army, ob- 
iTdc^cd.his troops Aaugbtcred and himfelf ta- fcrved the motions of the Carthagininris. Euma- 
•HprifciiCT, carried into Syracufe and bfheaded. chus faliing into Numidia, firft took the great ci- 
(M>)STRacusE,HisTORYOF,uNTOTHEDEATH ty of TocAS, and conqucrcd fcvcral of thc No- 
^^itLAs. About this period, tbe Agrigcn- midian cantons. Aftcrwards bc befitged and took 
l^^ing tbe Carthaginians and Syracufans Phellinat which wa^ attended withthe AibmiAion 
«wpeiUy weakencd cach other, thought it a of the Aiphodelodians, a nation, (faysDiodorus,) 
! JJjrtHDc to icize tbc fovcreignty of the whole as black as the Eihioplans. He then rcductd fc- 
l*ji»d therefore comroenced a war againft veral other cities; and bcing at laft elatcd with 
I**"; in wbich they bad fuch fuccef8, that they fuch a run of good fortune, rcfoIved to penetratc 
iWBiaAy capital towns both from the Cartbagi- into thc more remote parts of Africa. Here he 
|**wd Syracufan8.— In the mean time Agatho- at firft met with fucccfa ; but hearing that the bar- 
*° 'W8 ntrcmely fuccefsfuLin Africa. He took barous nations wcre advancing in a formidable bo- 
•^rflbc towns of note in the Carthaginian ter- dy to give him battlc, heabandoned his conqueft8, 
•jjw; and hearing that Elymas king of Libya,* and retreated with the utmoft prccipitation to- 
g^*Pyt was coming againft him, he entered wards the fea-coafiA, after having Ioft many mcn. 
2^ Libya« and gave him a complete over- This unfortunate expedition made a grcat altera- 
^y*! Aaoglitermg a great number of his troops tion for the wnrfe in the aftlxir8 of Archagathup. 
**J« gcoeral at thcir head. After thia he ad- The Carthagini^ns heArinp of Eumachus'8.bad fuc- 
J^ataiaii i||^ Carthaginians with fuch expe- ceff», iefolvcd to repair their former loires. Thty 
2j» *^ bc furpnfed and defeated them, with divided their forcc8 into 3 bodies : one they fent 
S*rf aooo killcd, and a grcat number taken to the fea-coift3; anothcr into the MeditcrraiHan 
JJj^He next prepared for the fiegeof Car- parts, ani the laft to Uppcr Afpca. Archaj:a- • 
Jijw; aod advanced within 5 rone8^of that thus dividH hi<i foroe8 likewirc «iito 3 bo-lic^-: 

^Y^notwitbftanding tbe great Ioflc« thcy 
JJ**«c4, the Carthaginians, with a power- 
^^% CDcamped betwcen bim and thcir capi- 

One he ff nt to obfcrve the Carth i;;inian tn>ops on 
the coaft8, and to .idvance aftcrwards into Up'/er 
A/rica; aiiolbcry undcr ili^rcbnony hc rcnt into 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

9 T R 

f 8« ) 

S Y R 

thc heart of the cpunh^ ; and with the 1af^, which 
hc led in perron, hc kept ncarcr Carth*»ge, prc» 
rerving a communicatioij with the other two, to 
fcud thcm fucc*our>», or rrc^l thcm^ a« thc cxij;en- 
cy ihould rcquire. — Thc Carthaginian troop;;, fcnt 
iulo thc heart of the couiitryy. -were iromm^nded 
by Hanno, a gencral cf great cxpcr<f nce, who be« 
ing iafarm;:4 o^ iht approach of ^fchrion, laid 
ao amhufcadc for htm, i- to which hc wai drawn 
aod cut o{f with 4000 foot and zoo horic. Himil- 
co, who commanded thc Carth^ginian forcc8in 
Upper Africai baving adTicc of £umachus'8 march, 
immediattly adiranced againit h*m. An enpagement 
cnfued, in which the Grctks wcrc almoil totally 
cut oft or periihed with thirll after the battle ; 
out of 8ooo foot only 30, and of 800 horfc only 
40, having efcaped. Archagithu^ receiving thc 
tiews of thtfc two defeat6, immediatdy calicd in 
the ^etachmentr he had fent out. He was, how- 
cver, foon hennnacd in oii all lidcs in (uth a man- 
oer as to be rediiccd to the laft extrefnityfor pro- 
Tifions and rdady every moraent tabc fwallowcd 
vp by hi« niimcrouA encmies. In thia dilhc^s, bc 
fcnt an cKprers to his fathcr in^orming him of hi» 
k)flc». Hcrcupon Agathocles, leaving thc care of 
-the Sicilian war toLcptines, procurcd thcaifift- 
ance of ig £trufc<tn ibips, with which he fought 
the Carthaginian fquadron then od the coail, took 
5 of thcir iibips and made prifoner8 of their men. 
Uaving thu!< bccome maiter of tbe port» and fecU' 
red a pailagc into it for tradi^^g vcncl8, plenty waa 
fpoD reilored ; of whicb taking a fufficicnt fupply 
for himfclf» he immcdiately fai!ed for Airica. 
Vpon his arrival, be found his forces to coDfiit of 
fti,ooo Greek^, Samnites, £tnifcan8, Cc)te<>, and 
Airicans ; be&des 1500 horfe. He oifered the e- 
qemy battlc, but thcy declined. Hc, however, 
forced them to a^ion, attacked tbe camp with 
his ufual bravcry, and in all probabiltty would 
liave gained a compktc vidory, had not his mer- 
cenanea dcfcrtcd hitn. Ttic barbarous facrifice 
Oiade by the Carthaginian^, and ita dreadful con- 
lcquences to their whole army are relatcd under 
Carthage, $ 4; as well as its coniequences to 
Agathocle*, who with difficulty efc<ipcd from his 
ehemies, and his own enragcd (bidiers, who mur- 
dered his fonA, and madc peace wjth C^rthage, 
iVfter all this rcvcrrc of fortune, Agathocles rc- 
turned to Italy, gathcred a new army, reUeved 
CoRCYRA, anj forced CaiTaiidcr to ra'fc the iiegc 
of it ; burnt tbe MaceHiniian ileet ; avcDgcd the 
rourdcr of bis wtvcs and children ; met with his 
olil troop^, who had dcfcrted hun in Africa ; de» 
fcatcd and mailacred them all ; ra^agcd the coaita 
of itaiy, and took Hipponium* At lait he was poi« 
fL>ned, fomc Uy by Dis grandfon, others by otie 
MotnoHi A. A. C. 289, in the 28th year of his reign,- 
aiid 95th of his a^rc. 

(i6.)Syracuse, history of, unto thb de- 
PARTURB opPyrrhus. AftcrAgathocies'«dcath, 
a fucceiIion of tyrant:» tollowcd, till at lait the 
city, bcing held by two rival8, Toenion and So- 
fMtratu«, who m«Jc war wtthin thc very walls, 
.Pyrrhus king of Epirus wa» invited into Sicily, to 
put an cnd to thcie dcltruiftionR. Hc willingly 
complicd with the iiivitation ; ar»d wa*evcrywhei« 
reccived with loud acclam<ition8, as tbe dclivercr 
not oaly o^ Syracufcj but of a!l Sicily. ^uSTed up 

with the expeftation of reducirg the whole ii!aa()f 
hc cauf d his fon take upon him the titleof ii»^ 
ofSicUy\ but in thc mean ti.T.e, hAving difpleafcd 
the Sicili.^ns by ht<t arhitrary bNrhaviour, tbc^dc- 
Lrtid from him in fuch numbcrs that bc watt^ 
to fct out for It<ily. He erob^rked io the Aiips 
which hc had brought with him frcm Itaiy; bul 
was met at fca by the Carthagimans, whgiunk 
70 of h>8 veirc!8f aod difprrled or took tltt rdl', 
fo that he faved himie.f m ItaJy only wlth 1i v.f. 
fcls, thc poor remamt of a fleet of soo fail. 


SEATH 0F HiERO 11. Aftcr tKc dcpar urcof Pyr. 
rhus, HiertHI. the fon bf Hieroclcs, a dcfcciKiaut 
of Geuoji the firft king of Syracufc, wai cholct» 
general of the rorces,- along with anothcr named 
Artemi^onu. Thr two generals eameitly wilbed 
to put an end to the conft]fion and difordcr wbicU 
retgpcd in the city ; for which reaibn thcy entcr» 
ed it at thc head of their forces. On tbis occji 
fion Hiero difcoveTed extraordinary talents for go- 
temmcnt. By merc diht of infiauation and ad- 
dref8, witbout tbeddirg blood, or hurting a fin. 
gle cilizer, he fo gained the aATediops of all, tbat 
be was inveited witb the whole civil as well ii 
milltary powcr m thc itate. Soon ailtr thi?, bc 
married thc daughter of one of the firit citiicn») 
tnd having diit^nguiihed bimfclf by his cEploitj 
againft tbe Mamertines, was unanimcDily clccj 
ted lung of Syracufe, A. A. C. 165. Somc titd 
after H»ero*s accefiion to the throoe, he againdd 
(cated tke Mamcrtincs, and reduced tbcmtoliicj 
ttraits, that they werc obliged to cail in thc Ko^ 
mana to their a£Gitance. The con(cqueDfC*j 
this hate l)cen fully rclated under the aitidd 
RoMB and Carthage, § 5. Hiero, who H 
allied himielf with the Carthaginians, beiog m 
felf defeatcd by the Romans, and finding hisallii 
unable to protedt him agaipft thc power of thi 
republic, concluded an alliance with them; m 
continued faithful to them evcn io thc time cf tj 
fecond Punic wai, whcn they werc in tbe grcatc 
diitref8. In bis retgn Aouriibed thc celcbratj 
matheraatician Arcbimedcs, whofc gcnins bc cb 
ployed in f6rtifyirg the city of Syracufe, by i 
nuroerable macbiocs, in fuch a maaocr as rcod^ 
ed it abiblutely impregnablc to evcry melhod I 
attack known at that time. ' See Aachimed^ 
Hiero U. died about A. A. C. aiz. 
(18.) Syracuse, history op, umto t 


MURDBR 0F ArChimedes. Hlcro was fuccd 
cd by hia grandfon Hieronymus : but he un 
dently for(bok the^ounfei8 of hb grandfatl 
and entercd into an alliance witb thc Carth 
nians. Soon after tbis he was mardered, in c| 
iequence of his tyranny and cruelty, aad the gi 
eit diforder8 took place in the city ; which H 
Dibal, though \hcn io Italy, found nieans to 
ment, id hopes of keeping the Syracufan8 in 
intereit. Thia indeed hc ciTeAed ; but as hb < 
affairs in Italy bcgan to decline, ((ee Cartha 
j 6.) he could not prcvcnt MarceUus fif>m Unt 
m Sicily with an army, which tbe Sicilians « 
unable to rciiit. Syracnfc was foon inst^ted ; 
the macbincs intenttd by Ardiimedec bafic< 
attcmpts to take it by aiTault. Tiieic* werl 
Itupcudoui aod powcrfii), tbat ibips werc daj 

Digitized by 


tj3ktbf oppcrtonity Q£a fc:ftiva1, wben tbe foJ- 
i!jen lod otiieji» badtdnink plaitifully» to make 
idrUchiDcntlcaic tbc wallt of Tyche, in that 
pit of it whicb wat Otareft ta £pipol0, and- 
winch wnĕ Ul gnarded. He preTemly after pof* 
(clcdkiarrif<^ £ptpolz; urberrnpon the inba- 
hnscs oi Nrapolis, a» wcll at Tycbe, lent depu« 

tijritkey bad gaintd. BiN now a pli*^e roade 
'mtUrhJYock iii botb acmirs. At the hrtt brealN 
Kf «itof the pcftileDce, tbe SiciVanv who fer- 
*ri«aicr Urppocratei and Hiiriko, diibandcd 
rMiii:<frt, aod rc tumcd to the ir refpc^ivc bomct ) 
^ali (fac Canbagiiiiaa foldiert periihed, toge- 

S Y. R r «9 > S Y R 

ta piecei by |be buge rock« tbpy difcbarged, and noeans to corfiipt Mcricot, a Spanlard, t>he 6t i1i¥ 
thctrorpi wcrc more annoyrd by the Ihowcrtt of fix generalt chofen by tbe fo&dicri, and cn^h^tit 
«rD«n and (lonct tban modrrn armi^ arc by him to admit tbe Romans into that paH> of th<^ 
Butarf. TbeconfuU, 6niing thrmicltet tbut city wherc he commanded. Merico», the betttr 
(kkatcd in ctciy attempt, tumcd the 6cge into to accompliih tbis delign, feigoed an eiKraordina» 
atiorkade, rcduccd rooft of the otber placet in ry tcal for tbe preiervation of that place ; prci- 
t(x ifl4ad, and dcfcatcd tbe forcet'which were tended not to lik« tbatdcputiea(hoiiki-haveI^avd' 
ktt umk ihem ; and at laA Marccilut made to go out and iniit plea(ure| and proporecT, that 
k9^tDiAcT of 8yTacuft iticJF, of which.the foU for thc greater fccurity of tbc town, each gcncral' 
imr^ account is givcn bv Mr Hooke. ** He ihouUl bave a didin^ quarter aHijrned hhn/ and' 

' be refponftble for any negled of dtity in it. • Thtf 
nk>tion wat agrced to; and uponntie d^iBon^, 
that diftrid of Ortygia whicb extendf d frbm Ihe 
fountain of Arcthufa to the moutb of th* gHeat' 
port fcir to bit care. MarceWus, intorrtn^d df what 
wat dooe, tv>ok bis mcafbres'accordingly. H& 
fcnt a body of troopt to tbat fide whcrc Mericut» 
t^to hhn aod iuhmitted. MarccUut granted' oommanded, and tbe^Spaniard admiued thcA al^ 
'i^ and Ebcrty to all of frcc condition, but gate tbe gate of AretbUli^ A^tbc fame ti{ne«thc pro»^ 
B^tblc ^BJuttrn of tKc ciiy to bc plondcred. confui ordered a falfe attack to bc made on Acra<^ 
lijinikaaiKt*ng tbis, thcrc wat a grcat deal yct dina; whichdrawTng almoA all the foldtcrt'cf tbe 
te^ Acradioa and Ortygia, which were ftrong- garrifon tbither, Ortygia was in a mailher Id^t^de^ 
ifMedi f itl bcid out; Hippocratcs and Hu fcncelel«. t^orcfcC*n)ftht9, be hitd dcta^he^' ^no- 
ffip»rritcd with their troopi to the rcli*'^ of the thcr party of ibldier» totake ad*antaj»e ^ »iti 
iBi(|ed; and thc Rorr.nnt wefc tbrccd to cxert« Thcfe entcrcd Ortyjeia {(lm«ft'WitboiK fi§htifig i 
i^(kirbfavcry aod ikill tomaintain the advan*' upon wbich the defertcrt madc^tbeir efca:p<S'*fK^ 

R^wnant giving them way ; and the^' 9>'raCu£^'ns 
in Acradina, thut delivcred from tHe ^^rot^tbc^ 
defcrtcr8, imn^dlatcly opcntd thar gatet jb^tllarE. 
cellus who thercby b^came malltr of the^hole 
city. And now rhc comiuero^, who i« raid t^ 
bavc wcpt dunng tbe fiege with compflfcon'for 
te a4tk tboic two geocralt. Thc Homant iuf« tbc lohabitantti g^ve* up both OrtygiH ii)d A6ra- 
t^ icii by thc infc«icn ; heraufc, hating becn dina to be p*ufldered by bit army, nMr he'ha^ 
>tjtt tinic bcfore Syracu£r, tbey wcre ie^foned fecured the late king'8 tred^ures for the vffe of th6f 
^silcairand watcr of tbe cr,untry. Abnut tUit republic, and the Eattiet^ paintiijgn, andprmtlpnt 
*!7c BKnikur amvcd un tbe coaft of Sicily from ornamtnttt of Syracufe tb ilKiArate' his* trttitfi{)h,* 
OrJnpc* witb a flcct of 130 galicyt and 700 Aiipt Tbt foldienf had oisdcrs to iparc the IrtdToT tb& 
^tcnko: bul ^* j» long hiT.dcrrd by contrary' eitiaeni; but tbey wei^ cttie*'in' t^fr ' 2f ratice^ 
«n*! frora doubliB^ tbc cape of Facbynum. £- (lew many of them, and aitiong tlie irei^the fnconr<^ 
^t^t*, ic:mrg tbe Cartb^^gioianJ» might iail baclo |Jarable ArchinYcdet. • Hc waa YeryWreWon a tlJ^ 
-s^^ia» lett tbe command QfbAcradina to th» moaftration in geometry, aod cAlmly drawin j hl^ 
pcnlBof thc merccnatics, and wcnt to BomiU' lcrtcSy when a foMi«i' eot^ed the rndm raiid clapJ 
'X» to order to pctfuade hrm to fighr the Roman {kd a fword tb bii throat. - '* Hbld ! (faiff Arch?- 
'-A Theadxnifal would nnt tngage, bbt iaile^ roedot) onc-momt^nti^^and' my dHnonftration 'wi]{ 
••otoTai^atum with aU hit gallcyt, ordering be Aniihed.^ But tbe Ibldier, bit}o;^Hy rcgarcA^lW 
*-*t9ffof btirden tp rctnrn- to Africa. £picy-' oC.hit prayor and htt demonitv^ion, kil)ctl hiTrr 
^titt fmftratcd of his bopct, and knowin^ initantly. 'TherKnYt dHferent acconntt nf th^ 
'■5ttimab*e to dcf<.*.d a city alrcady ha}f takeiTy i»anner of hi% dt«K ; bot all agree that MarccHn? 
*?^1 to Agrtgmtum 5 wbemipon the Sytoco* oe^retted it eKtrdm^^ and ibowed a fif:gular fa-* 
'■• oialiacrcd tbc commaiKlcrt appointed by* vodr to hit relatloht fbr hiA fakc.<^' 
•*n,cho£cncw prartort to govem in the tcwn, '(i^.^SyracUsb, modern mi«toiI¥ or. ^e 
i'-icat dcpotic^ to Marccllut to trcat of peace.' apoltic Paul fp'ent $ d^ys intbit erty, iYt^hi« voy- 
2it^iifan timc» thc defcrtert, feaiing to be gt- agc to Romc, and ChriOianity wit early jJlantect 
Ta Lpto tbe vcogcaocc <»f tbc Romaos pcrfua« in it.-^ U continocd fubjed t« the wcft^ crtijjtrr 
^iic mcrctnarict that thcy 4lfo woold have the till itt declen6on, whcn thc iiland of Sidly, beirtj? 
^ fcte. Inftantly thc foldicrt ran to arms, ptit ra«aged by diiTcrent barbari^ns» the rapitat aIfo 
*'icnii the nctv ptxtors, together with teany df iindcrwent vartou«» rcVolutioPS; |Ih 67^, it tras ta- 
'^Sriacti^ans and plundntdpart of tbc city/ ken and plundexed'1>y*the Saraceiw, wbb, abbii^ 
i3cr da* ibuigbter thcy choie-fij| igeoerals tbree S17, htd fubdoed all SicHyr and dfcftrcyed mocK 
'>caa>Bvand ia Acradina, aad thfree in Ortygia» of its ^nclent gfandeur'; (Se^ CoNarTANTiNO?LE| 
r^therettini of chcdeputicftfrnm Marcellut, $ 10,) b«t in 10901 it was #ecovcrcd br RoKcr^ 
VflKiccoanct, brding tbatiheircafe watdi^i- £«iof Siclly. (Sc^cS»cilV, } lo.) It has rmce 
istftomtbat of thc de^crtcrs, and that ther^ ihared tbc foriune of thercftof Sieily. Ncar this 
^ 00 dcSgn agaioft thcir livcs, bccamc pcrfc^« f)Ort iherc was a fea cngagemcnt, in 1718, bc- 
)<iUficd, aod tbc rcgotiation wcnt on. l>a- t«rtecntbe Spaniards and thc Britiili, rn which thef 
a^tbc oHirfc of the trcaty, Marcellui fouod lortiicr wcrt dcfcatcd, am! obligc^d to leavc Sicilv^ 

V0L. Uni. PlAT I. M h^Z 

Digitized by 


S Y R r 90 ) S Y R 

Iwit, jn 1735, thcy retooV Syrarnfc. Like thc daa, or Palestine, Mesopotamia, Babylok, 
r«ft of Sicily it 13 much fubjc^t to earthquakes; and Assyria;" which latk name, ht adds, wu 
and, In 1693, was almoft totaily dcftroycd by ont. 

(See Earthquake, § 6.) 

(ao.) SvRACU?it, POPULATioN op. The pre- 
frnt populalion of Syracufe is eftimated, by Mr 
Swiubume, uot to excced i8»oco. 

(21.) Syracuse, pres-ent state op. The 
relics ot this ancict ciiy nuw ^orrn a blhop*» fre, 
in the «aJley ot Noto. " At prctcut, fay8 Mr 
Swinbume, ir i^ ftrongIy fortih«d towaiHis the 
land, and the ditohes ot the battions form th« 
communicationo betwetn the two havens. It is 
vcry weak towarda the fea, but thc lbelves rcn- 
der it ha»ardou8 to debark on that fide. The 
garrifQT, ig one of tbc beft app*>ifit!cd in ihc kinp» 
dom, but the heigMs of Acradina command the 
work«. The dwclling<; are far from bein^memo» 
rials of ancicnt Syracufian apchite<fturc or opu- 

ufe(1 hidifferentJjf with Sykia by fcmc ancient ;iu-' 
thor^. But bc \\\u as it may, all the pctty ftatc«, 
proyinces, principalitics, and cantons, into whicb 
Syiia l'iopcr. wan «>riginal.y dividcd, appcar U> 
havc bccn aftcrward9 reduccd undcr Oibjti^tion to 
the four principal one<, Zobahv Damascus, 
Mamadbt and Gtjhur, Atterwards thc whok 
country was dividcd into two parts uttiy, Tii. 
Cnti.PSYRiA and Phoen-icia; thoui:hthc Ph«- 
nicians, (dumcans, Jcw?, Gazitcs, an:l Aeotitcs, 
inhabitrng tbe wholc country of ihc pHiLirruiis^ 
werc inciuded. Aitcr the daatb of AUxand«r,. 
Syria, in the grcat extent of ihe word, was divi' 
dcd, according to Strabo, into Comaoenc, Se- 
UEUC15 of Syna, Coelesyria, pHaENiCE on 
thc fca coalV, and Judea in thc roidiand. Plo- 
lcmy, howcvcr, fubdividc9 thc£b;. and m thc Pro* 
pcr Syria rcckons oniy Comagcne^ Pieria^ Crrb^' 

SYRACUSIANS^, n, / an anomalous fpc!ling. tica ox Cyrrbejiica^ Seteucii, (Aijiotu or Cajiotii,. 

of Syracusan-s 

SYRiAU, a towu Qf Gcrmar^5*, in Upp<*r Saxo- 
ny, m thc Vogtland :• 4 milcs nS^W. of Plaucn. 

(i«) SYR£, a river of Norw:«y, which runs in- 
to the North Sca ; ao miles J^W. of Syrt. 

(^rS')^^*^^» ^ iown and Jakc of Norway, in 
theprovinccof Chriftianfand:.theformcr a4.milcs, 
thc Utter 30 NW.^of ChrtftianfanJ. 

SVREF0RD, a fmail town of Enpland, in 
Glcnccftcrfhirc, m the pariih of Whittingtnn. 

(i.) SYRIA, a very ancient country or kingdom 
of A-Ha^ lying betwccii tha Mcditcrrancan on the 
W. thc Kuphratcs on tbe E. and Arabia Delcrta, 
Phoenicia, and Palcftine on thc S. or, a^ Crutt- 
well dcfcribe«> it, ** thie namc is pivcn to the wholc 
fpace contamed bctwecn two liiic& drawn, the 

ChcJyhonitijt Cbalcidice or Cdjakidene, Apamemr 
Laodicwnc, Pbanicia Moiiitcpranea^ Oaltiyria^ acd 
Palmyrene' It has iong becn, and itiil is ramcd 
by thr Arabs, thc dcfcen<^int« of l!hmael, iarr 
el Sham, or the cwntry of Shem* 

(3.) Sy.ria, ANcitNT MisTORY OP. Thc hifto« 
ry of thc ancient Sytians, tiil thc timc of their bt- 
inp carri -d awiy by the king^ of AiTyria, is alto- 
gcther unknown, cxc3epting aitw particulark to- 
bc j:<cai!td-from Scripturc, which it ia unneceH^ 
ry hcre to reocat. During thecontinuanceof thc 
cmp'rfs of Babylonia and Persia, thc hirtory" 
of Syrja atiords noihing peculiar, bcing iiivolted' 
in that ol thcfc countnce; but aftcr thc dcath <rf 
Alkxander ihe Grcat, who had fubdued iM- 
thcre cinpirtP, it bccame a vcry confiderable king-' 

ane from Alcxandrctta tothc Euphrateo, and tlic dom^ w^ich makcs a confpicuous tigure io in- 

othcr from Gaza in tho dclert of Arabia ; bound- cicnt hi(tory. 

ed on the K. by this dclbrt, and on the W. by thc (4.) S^ria, history op, from its er^ctio»' 

Mcditerranean." But Mr Lempricre fayf»,. that into a ringdom- by Sbleucus k till Bir 

ancient Syria^ whofe boundarits arc not accurate- death. At thc dcath of Alcxandtr, tbe name •( 

ly afcertaincd by the anctents, wan boundcd on iS^'*'^ ^^^ "o^c^^*^<^^ ^^ ^yi^ P^^op^r^T^*^^^^^ 

thc E. By the Euphratcs, N. by Mount Taurus, but comprchended all thofe vaft provinceB of 

W. by the Medlterrancan,, and S. by Arabia. Uppcr Afia' which formed the Perlian empire; 

(a.) $Vria, anci€Nt ^ivisions and names bcing, in it3^full extcnt, boundcd by thc Meditcr- 

OP. This country appcarii in the patriarchal agc ranean upon one lide, and ihc river Indus on ihe 

to have bccn divided inio a great number of can- othcr. Sclcucus, onc of tbe gcneraU uf AleiaH' 

ton^ or pctty principiliticA. Vcry carly aftcr the der the Gicit,. attcr the dcrrih of that conqucror) 

flood, it went by the gencral namc of Aram, being roadf govcrnor of Babylon, wastemptcdb) 

from j^ram thc youngeft fon of Shem, who fct- thc cKample of Alcxandcr*ji othcr captainsy to fd 

tled in it. Hence the diffcrcnt camong were na- 
mcd Aram^nabaraim^ Aram'%cbaf»^ Aram-maa* 
chal>i a:id Aram-^ebchi. Within a few ccnturie» 
aftcrward8, it had obtaincd its prcft;nt name of 
Syria ; for we find BetbkeJ^ the ncphcw,. and 
Laban, the prand-nephcw, of Abraham, fty]ed 
Syria.ns, even in the pattiarchal aK^. (Scc Gen.. 
XXV. ao.) Jt is a piecc of learned fi>ily^ thcretorc, 
to quotc Plutarch'»» d»:rivalion of uwt name from 
the fabulous hero, Syrus, thc Ibn of Apollo. 
Much morc credit is due to tholc etymol;gifts, 
who fuppofe it to bc a contra^ion of tl.e liame 
Assyria, which thc bcft liirt^jrian^, ctymologirt*'. 

up for himCrlf. EamcT^e^i, who had fincerelyai 
heart the intcrcft of Alt^candcr^s fan\ily, folicitc< 
his aHirtanco againll Antigonus, who had openli 
rcvo!tcd ; but Sclcucu« not only rcfufcd thu al 
li(\ancc, but attemptcd to deftroy EiHncncs him 
fclfwith hi) wholc army^by cutting thc'flui€C 
of the Euphratcs, and layiiig undrr walcr th 
wholc plain whcre thcy wcre cncaropcd. En 
mcncs, lK>wevcr, cfcapcd the dangcr wttbout th 
lois K^i a man. Upon this ScIcucim cndcavouro 
to gain ovcr his troops : but Hnding that impol 
fil>ler hc made a trucc with Eumcnes, and grante 
him a fafc palTige through his prcmncc; but a 

and chronologifts, derive from Ashur, tlic ad the lamc ume ftfnt an exprcfs to Antigonus, di 
f.jn of Shcm. (Scc Assyria, $ i and %.) Mr (inng him to faH upoii him bcforc hc wai» joioc 
Lempricrc makcs it fo vcry a« to hAv« by thc govcrnurs ot Uppcr Aiia. Axitigonus di 
comprchcndcd " Phoe.sicia, Sflfucia, Jl'- not fail to tbllow hii aavicc | bui having thm pr* 

Digitized by 


S T R (-9 

««H ifainft Eomenes throagh tretHi«>rf» ^e 
nctt thouibt of bnnging6tleucut'himfclfunder 
ttbje^Aon. Oq his rctum to B^b^jlon, thtrefore» 
mer haTiog bcrcn fcafted with his wholc am»y by 
S.'lfOcov be denuKKled an aocount of the reve- 
8ucsof hii proYince. Thit betng refufed, Anti* 
tORQ5 was fa moch fxafperatcdt tbat Soieucuay 
a >t thmkiog hrmfclf a match f6r htm, flad into 
hej^. %f tbe Aight ef Seleucus Anti^onus wn$ 
)tft nuiiter of all bit prorincM; liut his fon^* 
iirtrm« bctng aftcrwaid$ dcfeated by Ptolemy at 
£^zi, Srlcncasbegaa to thinkof recovcnng what 
hc had laft. Bciog fBf niihed by Ptolemy -with 
1900 fuot aod 300 hor^e» he fet out with that 
lcndcribicc to tttcmpt the recovcfy of Babylon. 
^*uibing coaM hate a more ^cfperate appear- 
aiice thas thi« undcrtaking ; yet SclĕucuR, on his 
vmal at Carrhar tn Mdopotamta».part]y by foroe 
M pirtly by pcrfuit&ofu prevaitrd on the Mace- 
^aamt who gardlbiied that place» to rcvott 
bNiAotigomus and join him. )king thus rein- 
^ndlt be mtcred ihe territories of Babyjon, 
^tot Bf «r fiiy|pries were contimiany added to bis 
«af;kiiaDeioAt Tub^eds Aocktog to hw from 
iOpirti^ and dcciaritig thenWcWes ready,to rltand 
iy kia with thcir Iivr8 and fortunca. This hap- 
P^io C0Qfcquence of the lenity with which 
^iiCTbad bcen treatcd by Sdeucus^ whereaa Anti- 
^oouwai onireriaHy dcteiltd on. aocouot of^t8 
4rvmty. Ai he ap|Hroached.the 'cily, thofe who 
^roBred Anti^onus retired into the citaiel* bat 
^iooa obiiged to furrender ; at:d in that f(v« 
MSdnjciis foand bis children, friends aod do« 
^^citwhom Antigonas had kept prifoners ever 
«>Be bia dight ioto f gypft* Scleucus having thui 
■||^bim(clf mafter of Babylon, in A. A. C. 3«^ 
*^ to prepare for encountcring Antigonus» 
*^he koew wooM foon attaok htm wi|h all hit 
*>roe. ^tcanoct gowemor of Media ander Anti* - 
4^ lrft advanced agaiaft him at l3ie hcad of 
*^ feot and 7900 horfe ; bot ^lcucus witf| 
^ joce foot aiid 400 horfe, haiing drawn bim 
bKaaaambaib, cat off almolt the ^hole of his 
^7f aod tbeiurviving foldicrs wiUiogly enKAcd 
^ kim. The confequence of thh vt&ory was 
wKi^ttton of all Mcdia ami SuBana ; which» 
*j^'*f Antigooosy he fent his 4bn ^emctriut 
I yp army of ^ooo Macedonian foot» «o«opo 
' 3|^vit«» and 4000 horfe. ^leucus was theo 
r,jW«» »nd Patrocies, whom he had lelt to 
w earc of Babyloq« Anding his iosce iaadeatlate 
*tbt puipolic.comgdlcd-the inhabttants to kave 
«eotyaad di^rie themfeWe8 in thc adjacnt 
^airies, wbile he hiiii(clf| with whattroopshe 
■>d, ictircd iiHo -two furt8, whioh he thought 
^o&lybe defendcd. "urbcn therefore Qd- 
Mn cntertd^Abyioo, hc wis rurprifed to find 
*«tcd»iipoD whieh he initaiitly attacked the 
«m. One wa8.Qoic^ rcdoccd ; but as the other 
Jw «ft tiM the ejtpirattoa o^-the timc which had 
taaibwed him bv|us fathcr, hc left fooo fbot 
^»000 bcHe ttBder Atchelaoa to carrv on the 
g* Wkh the reit he. marched awayj luAering 
*««ifif to4ive at dtiicretaon aa he went aloog; 
^ f» proruked the Babyloniaas» tbat tbey 
2 vcr aftcr attaebed to.Selcncaa aa if he had 
Wlkir^atonl^riaae. On t)K ic^uia of jSelea- 

I ) S Y R 

cu4 t^ Babjlon» he eafily drovc out the troopt 
lcft by Antigonus recovcred the cadlc which hc 
had garriioetcd, and lcttkd his authority oii fuch 
.a firm/oundationy that Jtjcould ncvcr aftcrward8 
be moved. Uaving then marchcd again into Mc- 
dia, he de^eatcd an(i killcd wath hi&.own hand Ni- 
canoi:» whom Aotigotnis had fentagainft him ; af- 
<ter whieh, having Irttltd thc ntfAv» tn Mcdi^, he 
^uccd all^erfi3, BaAria, atid iHytca'Qia» fubjcc- 
tir.g to bis new 4ciiigdom thefe and ali the otber 
province« on thia fide thc lindus whtch rhad beea 
>€onquered. ^cieucus bcing now niaftcr of ail tbe 
countries which lie bctween thc Jtuphrates and 
thc Indus» took the title of •^m;^ ef BabjhB and 
Mrdia^ But, not fatisfied with thcfe polieirions, 
amplc as thcy wcre, hc.croired the€'tdu8,.to con- 
^ucr thof:f rcKions which had Tubmitted to Alcx- 
ander beyond that rrver. But» dunng the time 
that the generals of Alesandcr bad been making 
war upon bis iamily and upon one another, San- 
drocottu*» ^.native' of India, had driven out the 
Macedonians, aod oMde hiniietf matter of the 
whok country. (Sec SAHnaocoTTUs.) He pp- 
pofrd Selcucus with an army of 6oo,qfao men» 
^d a prodtgii>u9 number of elephants : which in- 
timidated the MaccdoniatiXo much, that be .of- 
fcrcd to leavc Sandrocottus in quict podttOion .of 
his dominons, provided he would fumi(h him witfh 
^oo elcphants. To this .Sandmcotttis rcadily af- 
jcntedi; upon which Scleucuit marched back into 
the weft againd Antigonus» and, in conjundion 
with I«yfimacho8 andPtolemy, engaged and toul- 
ly defcated and kitlod hhKi at:j[pias. j(See Ant4- 
OOM us J.) Aft0r this^elcuca» marched intojLJppor 
Jyria» which ne reduced entircly, and jbuilt the 
city of ^ntioch on thc Orontes.^ In the lame 
country he buiit feveral other citics ; one of * 
whick hc called %tiL%vQi^f froin bis own nao^-; 
another A?a«iia, irom bis vwfe Ap^m^ the 
daugbter of one Artabazus a Pcrfian; and a third 
I^AOMCEA, firom his mother Laodicc. H^ firft 
entcred inte an alliance with Dcmetrius» and mar- 
ried Stratonice his daughtei^i ^Scc STEAT0itic| ;) 
bot foqn after aflifted Lvfimachu8 and Ptolem^ 
Jto deprive him c\f the bcirt part of his dominiont. 
Tbus Demetritts being redutcd fo low that h^ 
could give him no farther j^oufy, Seleucas buiit 
anoch«r city, calied Kkewile ;8ELEua4> ^^tcd 
where Bagdao now ttands. Befide8 theie»' he 
built many otbers^ s6 of wbich be calkd An- 
TiOtCH, from his brother or fon Antiochus ; 9 
SELEUi:aA ; 1 ArAMEAy I SrRATOKtC^A, ai^di^ 
Laddicea» from his rclations i^bove mcntioned. 
In 1849 Sdeucus cntered into a war with Ly6- 
macboa» vrith whom he had ht0iato Iived in 
imitT. ^ Out of 06 (^eneral oAScers Ieft by Akxaa- 
.dcr:lhe'*Grcaty they two only furvived» and boih 
were upwaido of >o ycars old ; yet both wc^ 
ftlled witb the ambition aiid animofitv of young 
men. The two armies iiaet at a place called 
Citr^iJm in Phrygia, wbere an obftinate eiigage- 
ment took piace. Yidory was long doubtful; 
but at ]aft LyTimachus was run through vrith a 
Tpcary and died on the fpot ; on which hts troopt 
(M, and left Sekucus mafter of all Iheur bacgage. 
This vii^ory added to the pofleffions of Seleucua 
^ th/Q(e p|rovinces Miliich had fonDcrly bcen fub- 
M a je4 

Digitized by 


8 T R (9 

cft toLyTirtiachas. Hc exuUed much In his ^o6d 
ortune; boading that hc was now thc laft of 
Alcxander'6 captains, and by this Tnftory bc- 
camcy as hc ttylcd it, tbe c(mqi»gror of con^aerors ; 
■whcncc hc ispcr.erally callcd NiCAToitt or t/jf con- 
■gueror, His triumph, howc«cr,wasbut rtiort livcd; 
'lor, 7 monthit aftcr, a« hc was marchi^-g towards 
Maccdon to takc poflefiidn of thatkingdom, hc 
wae trcachcrouily murdercd by Ptolcmy Ceran- 
jiu*, on whom hc had 'confcrred innumerahle fa- 
vour9. Philctacrus, prlncc of Pcrgamus, purcha- 
icd his body at a grrat pricc from Ptolcmy, and 
fcnt it to his fon Antiochus ; who, with extraor- 
dinary pomp, bumed it tn Scleucia on thc ^ta- 
coaft, crcAing on thc placc a maf?nificcnt chapcl, 
c^llcd from his fumamc Nicatorjum, 

(5.)Syiua, history of, till THE nSATH OF 
AHTioCHps I. Sc.eucua was fuccccdcd by his 
ibn Antiochus Soter, who reigncd 19 ycars. Hc 
|rc|igncd to Antigonus Gonatas ail prettnlioni to 
thc cTDwn of Macedon ; afid h3ving engagcd in ^ 
war with Eumcncs king of Pcrgamus, he was dc- 
fcatcd by him, ami obliged-to yic!d up parl of 
hifi dominions, Hc died in 361 B. C. 

(ĕs) Sykia, history of, till the death 
-CF AntiochusII. Antiochut I. was fucceeded 
by his fon Antiochusll. blafphcmonfly furnamtd 
Titeos, or the Godt who having engaged in a war 
with Ptolemy Philadelphus king of Egypt, thc 
Parthians and Badrians took an opportu: ity to 
rcvolt, ind could rtevcr attcrwards bc rcductd. 
la 246 B. C. the /(od was poifoncd by hid wifc 
Laodicc, wbom hc had divorccd for Bercnicc, 
daughtcr to Ptolcrry, with whom hc made pcacc 
cn tnc rcvolt of thc Ba»^rians. Gn thc dcath of 
Ptolcmy, Antiochus had divorccd Bcrenice, and 
took back Laodice ; who, to fecure hcrfelf agamft 
Ahe effe^a of his fick<c difpo(ition, poifoncd him, 
and raifcd to thc thrbne her own fon, namcd .S^- 
Jeticyj Callinieuj. 

{7.) ^yria, history of, till th^e death 0F 
Seleucus n. AND in., Laodicc not thmktng 
herfclf f%fe as long as Bercnicclivcd, bcgan inome- 
'^iately td^cpnccrt mcafurc8 fof putting both hcr 
and her foa to dcath. BctYnicc attemptcd to 
favc hcrfdf by rctirtng tq Daphnc, whcrc (hc ftlut 
lierfelf up iaan afylum btrilt by Sctcucns Nicator. 
Thcrc flic waa cIofcly befieged by thc fons of Sc- 
lcucus : ofwhich thc cities of Afia having intrllir 
gcocc, formcd ^ conft*dcraCy in hcr favour. Hcr 
brothcr thc king of Egypt alfo haftcned to h^r 
iclicT with a conltdcrablc army; but bcfore 
. citherpf thcfc could comc to her afliftancc, t>oth 

• fhe and hcr fon wcre barbarouOy murdcrcd, 
with all the Egyptians who attcnded them. Pto- 

- |cmy, on hcaring the melaricholy ncw» of hi^ fif- 
ter'«i death^ detcrmincd to takc thc nioft fcvcre 

• venecancc on her murdcrcrs. Joining his forct8 
to thofe of thc AAalics hc carricd cvcry tliing 
beforc bim. Having Hrft killcd thc crucl iiaodicc, 
he ri^iadc himff lf raaftcr of atl Syria and Ciiicia ; 

, thcn p*fling the Euphratcs, he fubducd all the 
.rcpupiry as far aa Babylon and the Tigria j and 

• htd not the pl*o«rcfs of hisarns bccn interruptcd 
t>y a fcditiun which obligcd him to rctum to 
I^pypli it it probablc that bc wouW havc fuh- 
(lucd the whoie Syrian cmpicc. As foon as hc u^s 
returncd,'5eicnci^8 ^tcmptecl to rcvcr.pc hiinfclf j 

« ) ,s Y R 

but hi8 flcct being d ftrovcd hy a violcnt ft<mii, 
•and hi» arm^ dt:frated by Ptolcmy,.hc corc.ud«i 
a trucc for ten ycars. During all tbis fimt Ar- 
facC8 the princc of Parthia, had cftablift»ed hira- 
fclV fo firmly on thc thronc, tbat it waa in vaiQ 
to think of di^ooOenir.g' him. H(»wtvcr, as fu<m 
as his othcr aAair» wonid pcrmit, Scicucus under- 
took an expcdition a^ainft Arfarc*, ^y whon\ bf 
was utttrty drfcatcd, taken prifoi»er, ai»cl rarT'ed 
into Parthi •, whcrc hc died 4 ycats a:icr. Ht 
wa» fucrteded by his cldcft fnn itlcucus lll.fur- 
named Cai/imcuj, or thc Thunderer^ .1 weak prmcc,' 
aiid was poifoned by two uf liis oASccrs, when he 
had reipned onc year, 
(g.) Syria, history o/, till the expfdu 


East. Anti«>chu8, furnaraed thc Great^ brcthtr 
of Seicucus HI. a^cen-^cd thc thronc in 325 B. C. 
In thc beginnmg of his reign, two of his Rctter»l«, 
AIexandcr and Molo, rebclle.l againft him. Tk 
formcr had^bcen appointed -goYrrnor of-Ptrlij| 
and thc latter of Media; but thty, dffpiting tbe 
king^syouth, refufcd fo obey. Thc occaf.oa «( 
this rcvoit i<5 fa?d to have been thcir dread of th< 
cruclty of Heimias, thc kirg's prime mii»»fttr 
and as they hoped to draw into thcir fchemti 
Acbaeus govtr»»or of A(ia Minor, tbey doubttc 
not of fuccefR. In this, hoxvcver, ihcy ta^kd 
Ef^igcnea,thc commandrr of the tre»ops abgut t+?! 
king'8 perfon, ai^i^ed him to march without dc 
lay argainft thc rcl^els ; but as Herroias rtprtuchct 
him wilh trcychery, and a detign tb bctray bir 
into thc hands of hiscncmics, Anliochu^ltnt tw 
of hi» gcncrals mio thc Ci*ft,- while he himfrlf un 
dcrtooTt an expfdition agairtft Ptolemy Phil» 
dclphiis, to rccover Ciiclyria. In this ^tliPnpi 
howcvtr, hc w^ difappointed ; an^ thc gepcral 
whom he had fent into thc caft wcrc totally dj 
fcatcd, and thcir trobps cnfo(F: iip«'n wh»ch n 
detcrmincd to <ay afidc his Syriaii cntcrprirr, m 
march in perfon apainft thc Tcbcl*!. Tbis ^l 
again oppoftd by Hcrmias ; but m hc fomiti 
impoAiblc to aUer thc king's mind, thc trcacW 
rous mimftcr found mcans to get EpigeocitB 
author ef this projert excctited, lindtr prttew 
of holding a c<)rrefpondcncc with M0I0 oncj 
the rcbcl ch!cf^. Antiochus in thc nncan tin 
purfucd his march againft the rcbclr, whom I 
dcfcatcd m a pitchcd battlc-; upon whicb tbc: 
chtcf8 kiilcd themfclvcs. On his rcturn hc icc< 
vcd thc fubmifrion of thc Atropatii, a barban»^ 
pcople in Mcdia ; and put to death hi^ piime tt\ 
nifter Hermias,/ whofe treacbcry bc at laft difcj 
vend. During hi* hf€, howtvcr, tbctraitor, i 
acc6fi«g Achacua of trcafon, had.ohligcd bm| 
revolt in his own dcfencc ; fo tbat thc kirg h^ 
fti)t two important wars-on his hand», ^'is* thj 
with PtoUniy king of Egypt, and thc othci 
gainft Acbarus. Aftcr fomc dchbcration, bc i 
folvcd to maich firft agaitjft thc king of £gy{^ 
and wa8 at firft vcry fncccf8ful, rcducing mdl 
citits in C<£lefyiia andPateftinc, and dcirAtiRg tl 
£gyutuus in a pitchcd battlc: but m 117 B. 
bcing worftcd in thc batilc of Raphia, be v^ 
obliged to abandon all his conque1ts ; of whil 
Ptoiemy immediatcly took poAr/rion, aiid An 
^hus wa8.obiigttd to cedc thcm to-biia^ that I 
oiigbt purfuc war a^ain^ ^ch^cua. Antioch 


Digitized by 


S Y R ''. 93 ^ 

fcsTfflg mide ?aft preparations for his erpedition, qiicfis ; 

Uoi rtdurtd Ac^jpuh to fuch diftrcfs, that hc waa 

ob: gcd to fljol hi4nftlf up in the city of Sardis, 

niich hc d<fendcd for fomf i»mc with great hra- 

tt^: tn};it laft, b^ing bctraytd by two Crctans, 

^r W/nddwcd uptothr ki«»g, an^. by his ordtr 

pt.t m dcath* Antiochus thcn uiKleito<Vk an cx- 

^^m igaintt thc P^rthians» whom bc obligcd 

tT^joclod? a oeac? on very adTantagcous tcrms. 

\klttn tumi*d bie anm againft thc king of Dac- 

p»a, rbom bt a!fo conr.pclcd to agrcc to his 

ItTmi ; onc of wJiicb was, that hc Ibould givc him 

te aii lii* elcphants. For i hc confirmalion o( t bc 

littty, tbe kinj( of Ba^tria fcnt his fon to Anti- 

fchw; who b^i-^g ti<icn with his m?jeftic micn 

^ d ajrrceiWe convcrfa»ion, gavc him onc of his 

ISifhttn io marriage. Hc theiT craATcd Mount 

Ciutaf«j, aiid entcrcd India ; wherc having rc- 

lcwcil ii'i alliancc with Sophagafenu5», thc king of 

^'trDiiBtry, bc receivcd aIfo of hi-i CiCphauts 

j^itbtcae^lcd hii tlock to 150. (Sce Iniha,$ 5.) 

^«Bljwtiahe marched into Arachoiia, Drangi- 

«. 1*1 Cirmania, crtabliihing order^and dif- 

PpluJcinal! thofecoontrie8 : thcn parTmg through 

^S^Bibylnnia, and Mcfopotamia, hc rcturned 

h .l"tioch, aficr an abfencc of 7 ycars. 


InincMPs AT THERM0FYLiC. Id thc ycar 
^4 B. C. Antiochus niade an eafy fconqucft of 
Mca; bnt Ircaied the Jew» wiih great kindneijs 
'«i ttmanity, as related under the articlc Jews, 
'«• Icthc Cime year, bc cntered into a lcaguc 
Wh P^triip V. of Macedon, on purpofe to dc- 
'l ^ PMcmy £piphanc«, thc inCant king of 
'rptoC all bi» dcnninion?. Thc Egj^ptiani, 

s Y R 

rccoYcred all Pa!cftinc and Coeidyria; 
after which he inraded Alia Minor, in hopc« of 
reducing it alfo, and reftoring the Synan empiic 
to the famc extent it had in the timc of Sclcucus 
Nicator. Thc fi^e cities in Alta Minor immcdi- 
ately had rccourfe to the Romans, who (bnt au 
embalTy to Antiochui^ on the f>ccaiion ; but as 
both partics treaied each othtr haughtily, no U- 
tisfadion wae givcn, but every thing tcndrd to an 
opcn rupturc. Whi c mattcra wtre in thiB titua* 
tion, Hannibal the Grcat, bcing obliged to 
leavc his bwn country, flcd to Antiocbus : from 
whom he ipict. with a ^raciout rcception. As 
Hannibal had, whiic a chi.d, fwom perpetual en- 
mity ngainft the Romans, hc ufed all his clo- 
<]ucncc to pcrfuadc AnticKhus to makc war witb. 
them ; and as the mi^ny Yi^tories which hc had over thcm left no room to doubt of his -ca- 
pacity, Antiochu<i doubted notbing lot being able* 
by hi!t ^ftai'Ce,'to copqucr ibat haughty peopic. 
ScYcral cmbaflie8 pafl'ed bctwcen the two natioiisi 
br.t chicAy with a dclign, on ihc pait of Antio- 
chus to gain time. Hannibal rndeavourcd to 
draw his countrymcn into the cnnfcderacy againlt 
l^ome, but without cftc^« Antiochus having 
ftn«ngthrT»ed himfelf by fcvcra1 al.ianccs, at lalt 
refolved to becin the war in eamtft. To confult 
on the nieafure9 proper to be taken, bc callcd a 
councit of war; but exc1uc1td from it the oniy 
man whole advite he oiight to havc followed ; 
viz. Hannibal. The reafcn of thiB was, that hc 
had bccomc jcalous of him from the too grcat io- 
timacy, as lie thought, which he had kept witb 
the Roman ambairador^. Howevcr, in this coun* 

^ — -.. — ^„ ^.... *..* -t/r "^ cil it was agtecd that the war Oiould bo imme* 

*»fw,put the young king undcr t^e tuiiion of diately commenced. The kinu bimfclf was prc 

J'^*^»?; w!k> immcdiattiy rtquired the con- 
*^fpnnces to dc6ft from any cntcrprife a- 
M ibc king of E*fypt, under tbc penalty of in- 
*^l IJJC difplcafure of the rcpublic. After 
otcritg thii mclTagc, M. JEmilius Lcpidus, onc 
f^ imbaAadors, reprircd to Egypt, whcrc h« 
■* "W8 bimfe)f thc oAicc of rcgcnt and guar- 
j^*« Hie young king. Having rcgulatcd affairi 
■'^•tbe bet mariHcr hc could, be rcturned to 
^V8frcr having appointed one Ariftoracre«, 
Pj^^an, to bc chicf min'fter to thc king. 
P*'*^ bcine a man of pnidence and fidc- 
^•*q«incd himfclf very weH in bis new fta- 
*]• Hj?iiig ukcn care to recruit his army as 

▼<<ik'd upon by tbe JEtolians to paf9 over into 
Orcece, and entire>y to reje<ft thc advirc wbich 
Hannibal had formcrly given, of fcnding him witU 
an army mto Italy. Hcre he was made pen'cra;if- 
fimo of thc Grcck forcep ; but made nonc of thofc 
eftorts that had formerly obtaincd him tbc title 
of Grc^t. Indeed it now plainly appeaied, not oil»y 
that hc was incapable of carrying on war againtt 
iuch cncmies as the Romans, biit even of acccpt- 
ing proper advicc whcn it w.s given'him. Jn 
another council in whPch Hannibal was admittcd, 
that commandcr adtiied thc king, before he un- 
derfook any thing clfe, to uf- bis utinoft cnde^t- 

. -e ™... ™^ .« .^^,w -....^ «*, vour8 to gain ovcr Phihp V. of Maccd6n ; which, 

™ «Ik could, bc fent onc Scopas, a man of he faid, was a ftep fo important, that if it coulcl 
"^««hority amonsr the ^tolians, into that bcgaincd,they might, without muchado, bccomc 
**7» to raife aoKiliaries. Scopaa Ibon raifed mafter8 of all Grecce.' But if Philip gould not 
bM? ^ ^°^ JEtnliati», at that timc reputcd be pirr^ailed on to make war on the Romans, hc 
Jr^^^^ien io the worid ; and having joincd was of opinion that the king (hould fend bis fon 
*»|ypiBninny, rcduced alljudca, puta gar- Seleucus into Micedon at the head pf an army, 

and thU9 pr*vent Phiiip from giving thc Roman» 

any afliftance. But hc ftill maintained, that th^ 

only way to defeat thc Romars was to fetid an 

army into Itaiy. This advicc waa again rtyedled \ 

and tbe king impnidcntly btcame thc aggrclTdr, 

by fa]ling on a body of 500 Romans betore war 

ia mcn h^dbeen^dccUrcd. He a1fo madc Philip his cnc- 

my, by cmertainmg thc regent of Atbamania, 

who was a prctcnder to tlfc crown of Macedon. 

^ . , To complcte ail, hc himfclf fcll in love, though 

^ redttocd t^ tbc occcffity of furrefi- abovc 50 ycars of age, with a bc»utiful ybung wo- 

•ipaBof Clttlcif,*ivhQa bcJ»«riedj aid.t»cin* 


■» totbecaftle at Jcrulalem, and, on thc ap- 
J^ winter, rctumcd to Alcxandria loadcd 
?*7<y. Thcfc exp)oits howcver, werc per- 
j^ *kni Amfocbu& wa« ^fcnt in Afia Mi- 
tJJ"^ fo fooner wa« hc returncd, than the 
P«*ifein wat cbaMged. Scopas wad' defeatcd 
fr*»**ol btttlc, whcrc one'half of hii 

^igtoycd. Hc himfc)f efcapcd to Sidon, 
'l2iV?** himfe)f up with 10,000 of hh 
iJJHmAntiocbttS lMvinf iavefted thc plac^, 

10. Tbe king |>iiiitj«d' hi&«oa« 

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S T R r 94 

rto gr»t A ^tre to this paiiioa, tlwt he en^rcly 
tieglcAcd his alTairs^ tbe army gave thcmreiTrt 
«p to diAipation and debaucbery» and cYery trace 
^t mtUtarjr difcipline vani{hed. In s^i B. C. An- 
tiochus wat roi&d from hit lcthargy by a dccia* 
cation of wgr againft bim at Romc, and ict out 
4or JEtoUa. Hin army at this time anaounted to 
«10 mure than 10,000 fL>ot and 500 horie» . He had 
hctn madc to beiicve that hc would •rcccive a va|t 
•rcinforcemcnt iii J£toliaj: but all the troops he 
•could raife there amounted to only^ooo men. 
With tbis forcc* fo excecding1y iiiadcquate to tbe 
purpofc« he was oblig.'d to oppofe thc Homao 
armyy who w^rre advanciAg iii eonjumdton with 
<hc Macedooians» ao I had alrcady madtiurpniing 
|>rogTef8. Anliochud ^ised tbe Straits of Thtrr- 
inopylz; bu^ wm driven fitom thcm by the Ro* 
^aiM» the^kiug himfc:lf being the iiril that Acd. 
J^lmolt hts whole army was detkroyed «n the b«ittle 
4ir ia the pur^ait» aud Antiocbua petur^rd with 
<lifgrac< into AGa. 

(10.) Syria, HisTORr 0*, T# TiTE mAmi 
or MAGNCsta. 8oon aftcr bis rcturn« Antiochu% 
«quipped a §tM of aos (ai):; on which be imme- 
<ijately embarkcd for the Thracian Cbcrfoncfu8y 
Aow Crim Tartary, whcre he fortified thp Citics 
of Lylimachia, Seliii^» and Abycloe, with others 
in that n^ighbourliood, to prcvcnt tbe^imans 
tVom croAing thc Hcile^ont. Jn the lAcan time 
lV>lyzcmi)as the 5ynan admiral fcnt int«Uigencc 
. to tbe king that tbc Roman Aaet had appcared off 
Delos; upon which he dcBrcd bim to icrk theni 
«ut and enffage tbero at alt #vcnls. He -did fo, 
«nd was d<jcaled with the Iofs of 40 ihips taken 


S Y R 

AiUedhtm in histrenchcs» andpropoGDdlo 
Jiis fortrfications» if ^e couttnued to deciinc 
cugagcment. At laft the lorog, thiakiog it 
be Huunetol f6r him longcr to rcfttCc ao 
menty foi^t a battle» which ii&ied iohiri 
<lefeat. No lefs Ihan j 0,000^00^^4000 
were killed ; 1500 woi;e taken pn({>iicn, asd 
elephanta. In the conafiilAr army tbere wach 
3t>o foot killedi and 15 horfe. 

(11.) Sv<1tlA, HISTORY 6f, TO THE HH 

wiTH T»E RoMANS. Antiochus Tdti^ to m 
dts with as many of bis forcc8 tbat bad tk% 
the Aaughtcr as hc couki draw togetbtrr. IH 
Sardis be foon marchcd to rejoin bis^oa Seleol 
who had fied to Apamca. A* ior thc conH 
look advaotagc ot the king'j dc£eat and ft| 
makin^ himfelt' maiWr of all thc noigbbotii 
countries.. Dcputics haltencd to hioD fiom 
parts; thc cities of Thyatira, MagocfiatTil 
Mago<3fia iu Caria, ail Lydia, and £pbefu8 ilJ 
though highly favoured iiy Aiitiocbas, deek 
for the Eom^ns. Poljacnida», upoo tbc nc«| 
the king^ dcfcat, left tbe pon of EpbtM I 
Ailed to Patara, where he landcd with a 1 
^maU ruacd, aad «turoed by hiod iato SH 
The conful took the road to Sardis, whicb 
td tts gatos to him. Antiochus finding bis 
•in « bad tituation both by ^ca and land, 
to conc.iide a peacc^ which he obtained a^ 
followin^ terms: Hc was to confinc his 
nioix -withm Mount Tauris^ topay iiiooo 
4K>tc taleots for thc espcnccs of thc war; to 
river-up Hannibal and fome otiicr Sorcigoetsl 
wcre obno9uo«s to the Aonnans. For tht 
•or funk in thc <engagemernt. This was f—n aftcr ilmcot of thele artides he .ga^e 90 hoftagc% 

icTcugod by thc dcilF.u^ioti ef the Rhodian fleet 
^y the arti6ce of Polyxenidas ; but in fhe end the 
liing's atfairs wnt evirywhcre to wreck. |iaviiig 
Jaid ficg6 to the oity of Pergiimusy he was obllged 
to rAife it with k>(«; tbe Phcenician Acet «om- 
maodcd by Hanoibat yras dcteated by thc Jtho- 
^iaoA ; and foon aft^ thc Syrian iflect «Bder 
Po!yx?nidas wa» uHr^Jy defeatc4 by the itomans. 
Antiochus was £0 npich diiheartened by thQife re- 
pcated dctcats, that he appeared }cke one infattt* 
Alcd Initcad of fortifying mofc itrongly thofc 
cities which lay on the n-ontiers of hts nngdom, 
iieentirely dcfcrtcd them^ and tliu^ Lyilnaachia 
and Abydos, thc two kcys to Aha, fdl into the 
Jiands ef thc Romans mrithout the 1eaft refiftance. 
Thc ariival of thc Romane in ^Ba itruck 4>nti- 
-ochutt with fuch terror, tbat he inltantly {ocd fior 
peacc. The terms hc oAjercd wcrc indeed lery 
AdYantageous, but by no mcans agrccabic to the 
<xpc^ations of the jiLomang. Thcy therefore 
^ave hnn this final anfwer ; i. That iince iie had 
«Irawnaipon bini^lf the war» hc {hould dcfiay the 
iwholc c«peoce of lit.: a. Tbat he (kould rcftore 
liberty in gcncral tp all the Oreek c\ties in Alia^ 
Jind, j. Tbat» to preycnt finujre hoftilities, he 
ihould relinqui(h ^11 Afia on tfri« fide Mount 
Taurus'. Thcfc terou, howcver» ftill appcared to 
bim So intolerablc» that he rcfo1vcd to continue 
jthe war^ and determincd aifo to take thc moft 
imprudent method of carryin^ it on» namely, by 
hazarding all 0*0 the cvent ot a gcncral engagc- 
snent. Thc king encamped near Magnetia, imd 
Itrootgiy (^ -7^ JBLoiwt ia- 

ef whom was his yautigeft fon Antiochui. 
peace bcing .ratffied hy the SaraU, thc Orcek^ 
wetse by the ^lomans Tcttorcd tQ thcir libcitj| 
provioces of Oai^ia and Lydia ^iven to the 
^iaoi), and all thc reft that had bcloogcd to^ 
lkxJiu»Km that fide of B^ount Tatmu ' 
aipon £umeties. 

09 AlTTiOC^US TH£ GltCAT* Aotiochl 

not long fiirvive his misfortui%e at 
Some tell us, that being ^greatly puuled 
graiie the fum •be had engaged to pay to ^ 
mans, he leieed on the ricbes which had fari 
ages becn depofitcd io a templc of Ji^cr 
40 tbe prorince of £lymai8 ; upon wkicb thcj 
piiUce rofe in arms, and Hew him, and all 
tendants. Others inCorm ut, tbat be was 
at an entcrtajnment by one of his gucAs. 
ochtis the Grcat dted in 1^7» and witb bim 
glory of the Syriao .empire. 

(13.) Sy^IA, HISTOHy OT, VHf7L TMI Wi 

<;r AntiochusEpjiphambs. AntiochustbcG 
was fucceeded by bis ibn, Scletic|us )V. imM 
P^lopatt^ A. A.C 1JB7. who reigocd only UTJ 
dying in 1^5, and Itaving the Syrian 4hrone tfl 
fon, or his brother according to Alttidios, A 
ocAts fV. fiiraamedJBvM»iiANEt9 the iDoftJ 
barouB and bloody tyrant that ever reigncd td 
ria. The Romans now gave laws to the kioi 
Syria, infomuch» that when Aottocb^is f pip^ 
beiitated at obeying the commandt of thc k^ 
ooe of the ambiifladort drew a cirde round 
«ith a rod 00 jAp flo9i> andtoMlim lic ^ 

Digitized by 

Google . 

9 T R 

^|!OOii(of lbat(potbeforehe bad toM^lMin wbat 
r wis to do. But tbe moit borrible traiifadioiif 
f thii pfiflce vt bk wars witb tbe Jews» aiid per- 
fiaitiouof,thcai; of whicb a fuU accvuDt ia fU 
cfi onder the article j£Ws» § 5 aod 6. 

(14) SllU* WISTOaT 0#« UllTd^ ITS COM- 

(EisT aY TRE EoMuiiu. Alter tbc inifcrablc 
btk of ehe moiilter, £piphancit sft Taa «>: as 


8 Y R 

named 4fiatiĕUi, or tbe Xm, at he it ftyled-b|r. 
fome» (for there wcne other * ufarpcr8 of thc name»> 
the fon of Cyaiccous» ^ho had becn Ikulking ia 
Ctlicia, claimcd the crown, in A. A. C 6^ and 
was fupportcd againft Tigraoes» by Lncullun tbe 
Romaa gcaeral ^ who defcated Tigrane^ and dc* 
ciarcd Antiot hus, hing of $fr'a^ But hia reiga 
was ihort>.oniy 4 years^ ^ TiKranes attcmptius, 
ihted iuder tln artkrk J(ws> $ 4* the Sf riao U> rccoYcr tbe kingdom* was dcfeated by Pom^ 

pey^ the Grtati who^ diiircgaodiog Antiochai'f 
claim» rcduccd the wholc kingdom- to a RomaOr 
proviAOf ;. A» U. C, 69S9 and A. A. C 6s^ 
' Uj-^SuatA, nisToaY of, omto- it* coik 
auEST BT TMS SajiACENa« Prom being a pro- 
?ince of the Roman Rrpublic, Syrtai became, ois 
the diyKion of the Roman empire, fubjed to the 
emperoro-.o^ the £aft ; but m A.. IX 634« it was 
invadrd l^ the Saracetuir who complclcd the con* 
qucft of -it in 640 ; wben it wa« conhrmcd to tbem» 
by the trcaty made witb Conftantine IV. (See 
bf tbe kings of Pergamus and Cappadocia^ Constantinop !,£,.$ 10 v and Sa&acens, § 6.).> 
lqrthcRoiiaok^de£cattd and kilUd Dcmetn- (16.} $TRLA,.Hi>sToay os, u»to iTS (;0N<;ius&ir 
idgoed 5 jeari» (bme iay 6 1 but was at laft ar the TaaT Ajts. In A. D ^70, Syria was «00- 
■inbU, A. A. C »46. (SeeALESAWDEA quered by thc FATEM4.irE Ij^HALirs^ foon af(ey 
^) Dcmctrtus H. fumamed ATcea/or, the Uw- their conq;ucit of £^){pt. (Scc Eoypt; § li» aad 
[kir,ini^ the foo of Deme^ius^ L thea fuc* ix.V But the emtrB of Damaicus rcvoItcU in loCy > 

aod thoie of Aleppo in to68. Xn 1096« thc croi-r 
iades from Europe coramenced ; and the ChriRl» 
ans conqucrtd that part of Syria, called tbe He(f( 
JLamh which they kept polTeinon of« £or a)>ovc 
loo-years* (Sce Croisai»^, ^ 3,.4r) I^ ii^» ^o^ 
reddi^, or Nuroddin, emir 9! Damafcus, deifcatc4 
the £gyptiao«t ;yid conquered the greatcHt part oi/ 
Syria; CSee £cYPr, $ 17 ) and.hit ne^hew». tb^ 
£auiious Saladin, ioon attcr, on thc dĕath pf the 
khalif Aded, Cei^ed the govemment of £gyp(, pui 
an end to the power of tht Hatcmites, and.^ec* 

kraK £eU a pitjr to a fcric» of tyranle, impoitorsr 
iddsipert, of whem il is fumcteiit to give tbc 
IMDgbiief chroB0logicaI liit 9 AnroocHirs V. 
IniiiedEoPATOt^ iuccteded his wicked father, 
bi4:butreigacdooly»year8. He was fuccteded 
hii, b7 Dci»vRitM K fitmam«d S^iert » bEO- 
bof Aatioduii Kpipfaani||, who had oofy reign- 
lii fein, wbcn, in 151 tbe crown was claimed 
(AloaaikrBilas^a» iiiipoftov^ who pcetendcd 
[Wi£»of Epiphanet; and being iupporled in 
^hl^dum, by Ptokmy Phikimetor, IC ol£- 

Pdedtbit bf being takeu priibncr % yeari after^ 
Ike^hiaos, in 144, the thronc was ieiaed by 
[rio€m?L iiiroaaied Entbeus^ who reigned 
t»iikeg with ao Uforpcp, named DiODOTUt 
YMOii, «bo afterwards aiTumed thc fole pow- 
lotbcrjyears. till A. A. C 1^9^'when he was 
tUb^AnTiocHUs ¥fl.ittmamed ZiDCTfia 
|AAi» aiid Soter^ the ibn of Dcmetrius I. 
I k«her of Dcmetpius 11; who re igncd so- 
^"^ fct Demetriua II. being now r.v>craled fay 
tmau, waareilored to his kingdom ; but 

tn^ only i ycani, when Atexandir^bm4h ted a new dynaily. CSee £g vpx, jf P7, 18«) I^iUr 

to>«poftory who pretended to be thc fon of 
'■PQ*QrAkxander Bhlas, being aiSfted and 
l«tcd by fto1emy Phyfco9» tbe tyrant of £• 
^ opdkd Demetrius a id time in i^, .and 
3 ycars. Im- »aj, howwer» thc ufurper 
ittntiy dctiMPDBed and kiUed by An- 
^nSL fixmamed Grypmp the ibn of Oe< 
^D» (See AL«KAiiDC& 7knivik.\ Grroui 

in IS59 ^^^ ^jri^ wasoTer-ran and conqucrcd by 
the Tartari, under Holaku. Sce £, i 19. 

(i7.)Syria, Hi«Toav ob, urto its con(^u£si: 
by tm Turss. The Tartars did not long re- 
tain poAeiiioo of Syria. It was (ooo r<covertd by; 
the iultans of £gypt ; who aKo^ in- w^» totaHj) 
espclled thc Chrifttan Croiiadccs out of Syria. (Sec; 
,_... (See ALtKAHDCJL i^giti A.) Gryput Ci,oiaMMSt ^ 4«} &yna was.again ovcr-run aac^ 
PjMyearsinaU, bot iohis ^di ]^ar,hisbro- cavaged by Tai«£Rlasie, in X4*ooo; but he di<l 
l^wu Cy%ieemt9% sebelled aftainit him, and not attemptto retain tt* After this pciiod it un* 
^mO A ^A. C »fs, eredcd Coilesyria der went the rcvolution8 of £gypt^ tillfboth wcre 
''«yinte kid^doin, wbereio be reigned for i II cooquered by the Turks undcr Se li m, L in 15 i 2. 

j^be nce is rankcd' as Antioch us IX. by 
■"Mi. On tbc death of thelc two brotb- 
[^I^C 94 and 93, Seleucus V. a ^d ibn of 
"™ TUk claimed the crown of Syria,. but 
^^pofcd bjr 4 other pretcndcrs ;^ viz. Antvnl^ 
^imp^ Demetnus-VLX. fitmamed Buceriu^ 
X, furdkmcd /%i, alb claiming aa- 
of the royal houfi: of the Seleucid^ 
diiBaat» tBvolved tbe couotry in a civil 
** ycaa ; when Philip ovcrcomin$ thcm 
^PB^ % ytars alonc But AaaTAS feizcd 
^ji^Sir ? aod » years tbereaftcr, Tigha^ 
.rOiAnnenia, taking Advantag|e of thc dif.« 
M tbe SdeucidsB, and being invited by a 
*tb^ Syrtaoe themfe1vef,- reduced the 
io 83«and govemed it ^or j8 yeart 
trAa^ulllity, tbao it had. eojoycd for a 
^*»i Antiochus XI« howevcr, fui5* 

Sce EiGYPT, 19. 


Tiiir£| 1845. £veriincc the abovc conquclt by. 
Sclim, tbis coiKitry bas continucd in thc undillurbM. 
ed;poifei&on of the Turks» till thc invafion ot £* 
gypt hy^the Fren<;h, in 179S, as rcbtcd undcr £• 
GYPT, ^ 21. Soon aftcr that cvcnt, Bboaparte o- 
Tcr-ran. Syria, aod took Gaza. and Jaffa, or Jop* 
PA, 6lc^ z% mciitioncd under thcic articles; but 
found a fatal itop puV to his vidoriou8. carecr, hyt 
Britiih valour, at Acre, or Sr Jean d' Acre, tbie 
ancierit Ptolemais *,. whcre thc bravc Sir Sidncv 
Smith^gaincd immortal fame, by the dcfence ot 
that fmail town ; as related undcr the article Re» 
yoLUTiON, N® Vfc $ 4<« 

(i9^3vRiAt Inhaeitants, language &c. 
0F. The inhabitants may be dividcd intu thrce 
princjpal clailcs :• the dcllcidants of the Grccks 


Digitized by 


df iBe Lcr^tr Ertipire* ihe Aribv tlj*fr com|MCr. 
brS, confifting 6f MotoiTAlis, Dit uset and An- 
saRiAi^s, atjd thr Turk<», the pref<rnt ruUng pow- 
er, brfide.* tbrte wanderine tnbcs of Turkomen, 
Curds, and Bedouin ArMw. The ancitnt in* 
habitants bcfcre l4ie Oreeks undcr AJeKanotr are 
cntirelyHort. Thfc inbabiiants are cf a middhng;^ 
ft.tturej and thc eye« of tbe womea alrooll eveTy- 
whereb(rau:ifo?» aodtheirlhipe^corre^ and wcll 
proportioned; The geniral languagc is Arabic. 
Striac rs a dead' lar^uage. 

(20.) SvRiA, WOUNTAMI8 oP.- Thi» country 
abounds wiih miiiy celcbrated nAountain^, ^ir h 
will bc found dcicribed in thtfir order. Sc^ 
Anti-Libanus, Lebanon, Libanus, Moriah; 

5lNAl,Zt3N« SCC. ' 

(11.^ SVria, paoviNees an^ chiet ciTm- 
0F. /SyriA 18 at prefent divlded mto 5 provirctr« 
«rgQ?crriments, calkd PachaHa $-v\f., Al^ppO^ 
Tripoli, Dama9cus, Acre, anji Palestine; 
thecapital« of whtch are Alei^po, the ancient 
BERtA,TRi.P^L!,*DAMAsct;s,or5>&a;y/,of jtr/wm, 
As the Arabs llyfe tt« PTOLeMAiP} or Acre, aiid 
J^erusAlem. See thKe articles. 
-' (1».) StRiA, R^ENUB of; Thc whole rtve- 
Ude of this extenfiire country is eftinr.atcd by a 
inoderO travclUr,^o brttig into the Orahd Signi- 
or*« trcafury tw>1y thc Dmall (um cif 313,500!. Ster^ 

(23.) SYRIA,'kOIL AND ^RODUCE OP. Syris 

19 CRCtcdiogiy ftrfilc, and the v?irfcty of tts pro-' 
duRions 18 very Rrcat Bcbdes vfhe«ft, tyr, blir* 
ky, beans, and theconon ptant^ wbich ts culti-* 
Vated evcrywheiit, Palcrtine abou4id»in fefamom; 
from tvbich orJ is procuredi and-doura^M good^ao 

) S Y R 

(1.) Striac lam^uaob. Sce Pkiloloci 
Sea, IV.; and Syri^» § 19. 

SYRIACtJM Mars, tbe SyrUtn Sea, tiiatpai 
ofibc MfciiiT^RRANBAN, wbich waihettbecoa 
of Syria. 

(i.) SYRIAN, aJ/. Of or belonping to $\ 
RiA ; bom, or ptoduccd, or m«dc in ^yria. 

(i.) Syriah, a. /. in geograpliyy alarge tc^ 
of A6a, in Regue, near the cuaft of the iky < 
Bengal. Lon. ^6. 40. £l lAt. 16. 50. N. 

(3.) Syriaw, ariver of Afia, on« of theestrtH 
branchet of the Airi, wbtch runs into the bay 
Bencral at the above towo.* 

SYRIANS; n./. Tbe Datives of Syria, apcie 
aod modem; See Stria, § 1 smd 19. 

SYRINOA, tbe Li#AC, or Pipr Trbe» in h 
tany, a genu» of piantii heionging to tiie c|af« 
Jiandna, and ordĕr of mmagyma ;• aoct in tbc 1 
turAl fyftcm r^ngieg uodrr tbe 44t& ordcr, &^ 
Hx. The coroUa ts qaa<:rifid, and the cap^ 
bilocular. Thtre are 3 fpccie», li\z. 

I. Syrimga Persica, tJbc Perfian Ldt^ '« 
native of Pcrt^a.' It h;i8 Unccor«<tc icasnes a 
was^culritatci) in Britain iothe aud(licaf thc i 
century^about 1658, or earlicr. 

3« Syrinca susp£nsa, tbc bang^g lutai^ 
natitre of Japan. 

3. S%'«IKCA WLGARts,, thc commoH Li}at\ 
origmaHy a nativc of I^erha. It ia difttfigiiii1 
by ovat heart-niapcd'leavt4, and waa cDl€i*atc4 
Britujn ;ibout 1597. by Mr JoKt: Gerard. 

(i.)*SYRiNGE.-ii./ [tt^t^A Apipetl 
which any liquor is fquirted.-^Thc'hc«rt fci 
not deiigned 10 be the touotacn oc conlorra) 
of the vttat Hame^ tMit as a macbinv'torecctve 

that bP E^pt.- Maizethrfre8 iiyth^ hght foil>of Mood fronl the vt^nB, and fbrceil cut by tU 

Balbed, and rice Is cultivatecr whh fuc(^efil ontht teries throo^ thc wboie bddy, as a ^riMge i 

borders of Che marfhy coun^ry of Hatbra. TKty anv liquor. Ray. 

plairt ^ugai^-canes in thc gatdens of Saidc and^ ol (s.) Tbe Syringe is a weHknown inAni» 

Bakout, equat to (hofi' 6f the Ddla; * liidigc^ ftrvir>g«tb imbibc or fuck ta a qtM<uity of fl 

^W8 wltbout etiHivatm^ on the banks of tbe and to fqufft of expcl ihe fame witb yjtilcnce. 
Ibi-dan, in the cooAtry of Bifan, and only re^uirti 

Me <6 mak^ it of ah e^ecilent qualiry. ' Ttit htll 
fldes of LaMcin p^duec robaeco, OaW t>^do-' 
ccs-dtitesand (k^megranntes; Tripoli aiibrds oj 
panges', Bairout, figs and bananaa ; Ak^po pro^ 
doces piftachio« ; ai>d DaoudcuB potTcATes all th^ 
fruil8 kno\yn m JEui^pe ; applcs, jbhimB^peacheo^ 
itnd twenty fortbhf apricots are rdkonid thcre," 
the i^onc of one of : whiclp cbntainiB a ktfmel high- 
ly vaiued-thrcugh ali Turkcy. ThC tochincai 
pladt, which prows on a?I that coalt, contain^tbat 
precious inft<5t iir as high perfeCtibn aa it is found 
m Mcxico and St Donntngo. 

(24.) Syria, surpace and climatb ot. Sy- 
ria i» iii geueral a chaih of mountains, varying in 
thcir lcYcls, (ituation, and appearantc». The 
couutry, howcver, ncxt the fea, is low, aiid there 
arc fc»eral cxtcnfive valleyi.' The climatc on the 
fca-c«>aft and in thcfe yaUeys is very hot, bot iri 
the highcr parts ()f thc country it bears a good 
deal ot reftmbiancc to that <if Prance. 

(15.) Syria, troops or. Ati the Tarkiih 
troopa, in the abcve 5 pachaliCB (J ai.) unitcd, 
arc faid to amouuttoonty ^760 mcn. ^ 

(i.) SYRIAC, adj. [Uvm Syria.} Of or bc- 
longing to Syri A : chieAy ufed of thc I«Higiiage. 

is formcd from tb^ Gt^ek #if<7{, or thc jLAliiJ 
fhiscV <t ^rpls. A fyiiiigic ii oiiiy a (kigir. pu nBp» 
the' water aiceJid» ln*it«on the fame.prip.ctpie ; 
tbccommon Ajcking.pOmp. Scc llVDfto4 
rics, Part U. 4lr£r. 11. ^ and Pn £ u M at x d s . fcl 

• (3.) Svai^afi, coND£Ndi2^G. Sce Pkkv 
Tics» 51-^. I. Page 69^ ^^- ** 

• * To Syringe. •p. tu t6<iru thc Oouq«] i 
fpoot by a fyritigc.— »-A fiHx «1 blcod . froTQ 
nofei mouth, and citt*, wa« ftopt by thc Jjrn 
up of oiyCPatc. iVi/enum* a. To wdlh w»tft 

SYRINOOIDES Lapis, a foffil ttonc, 

• dO ♦ SYRINGOTOMY. n. / ir^:; 
nr.^.] Thea^ or piadice of cuttiog tiiii*! 
hoilow forc«. 

(a.) Syringotomy. See Surgery» J 
undcr risT.ULA^ 

SYRINX, in Ihe mylhology, a ciymph ol 
cadia, daughtcr of the rivcr-god, Ladm^ 
thc god of (hx:phnrd« and ruiai (sjcoiiomy» f 
love with htr ; but Avhen he aitempted t,vi 
violcncc, SyTinx prayed to thcr godS tbr SLid 
was changcd into a recd^ which tbc4Xcfortl« 
her namc, 2*^i>4. I^a«t thtrcfcie, inaiic a 

Digitiz*ed by 


S Y R 

wJtb (wf of hff rredi, ind it bccap^c ht§ fivourite 
BuScal tn#niincnt. Ovi^» Met, i. 4^91. 

(i.) SYRNA, thc wifc of PoDi^HRius, thc 

(a.) SrasiA, »n ancicnt town of CariH, built by 
FjOAUKi9it wbcrc hc was aftcrw.trdi wor(btp* 

ff.) SYRO GRECIAN, aiij. l(r%m Syria ;»nd 
Cmiiw, xo cpftbct appli^-d to thc cmpirc of ihc 
SmuciO*, 10 Syna, bcing foundtd by thc 
0*rk* 1*1 Syria. Scc Syri A, § 4— 14. 

•I.) STKo-GatciANs, n./. trjc ocoplc of Sjnia, 
v^ tbc SclcucdK, bcing a roiiturc of Orccks 
w Syniink 

>i.)$rio>MacEDONiAN, <i^. ffrom Syria and 
iUr.iA».] A word fynoiiym.)U8 with Syro«Gre- 

\\ 1 Srto Macedonian £ra. Sce Seleuci- 

5no.pHnE>tfCfA, a country lylngr bctwecn Sy- 
n «id Phoemcta, inhabited, according to Bo* 
ctet, \ff nativcs of both oationt roiiccd. 
Sna.PHOENiciANS| the inhabitants of the a- 
k*tcoontry. Tbcy wcrc oricinany Canaan- 
tni The importuitatc wbman, wbofe daogh- 
(rosrSattoorcurcd, ;*ftrr rcpcatcd fccroing rc* 
f-Iils w a natinr of this cotintry. Sec M^t. xt. 
i^-il M;irk ▼«. »5—30. 

,0 SYROS, in ancicnt gcography, an iOand in 
ftf JEsran 9ft, one of the Cycladi s; about ao 
■*<i w drcuTEicrcoce, and Ycry fcrtiic in com, 
viicaiidfroits. Thc climatc ismild, and thc 
eWjitaaU !ong-li?ed. Hom. Od. xv. 504. Strahot 

\i.) Srtoi, a town of Cari}i. Pauf, iii. c. 16. 
SYITES, in anc^cnt i^eography, % large fand- 
^b in tbc Mediterrancan, on thc coaft of Afri- 
a t^ cmr Acar £^rj, the otbcrncar Carth AG E. 
A»tbfy(jftfn Owftc-1, and were romctimes vcrf 
Mi f)nctftnes Yery low tindcr watcr, thcy wcrc 
'^dwgcioiis, and oftcn fatal to ihips. Meloy i. 
^ ? «• r. 7. 
JTRTICA Rbgio, the> a coantry of Afnca, 
5TRTIC Region, 3 onc of thc 3 grcat 
™«»i of ancicnt Libya. (Scc CYRENAtCA, 
«nA,|i— 4; LYBii, and Marmarica.) It 
*pthcodcd thc coaft of Darbary b*twtco Tri- 
^nd Ihrca ; and was fo naracd Irom 
:i*>) SYRTIS, an ifiai)d and a ^pacious golf, 
2^»ca, on the coaft of Barbary, betwccn the 
J^ hiait^ ; now callcd SiJra, (Sce Sidra, 
^ »»jO TUc quick-iands in tbc gulf fhiftcd, 
•^f*ce thc word waa iifcd as an appciUttvc. Scc 

^) • SYRTia. n. /. [Latin.l A quick fand ; 
•bor.— , 

^^'^Wffr'tu^ neithcyfca, norgooddryland. 

STRIJP; n,/. io pharmacy, a ratnratcd folution 
jnosar, niadc io vcgctablc drco^ioiis or infu- 
^ SecPnARstACY, andMEnciNE, /Wr:r<'/j 
«•Cf ; and SocAR, J la, I ^,and 19. 
^M SYRl/S, in fabulou8 hiftory, tbc fon of A- 
J™l«J.bT thcDymph Sinopc. (Scc Sinope, N® 1.) 
«^•wlaUcdto have gitcn bis name to Syria. 

ii)STat7i, Publius, a Syrian mimic pcct, who 


( 97 ) 

S Y S 

AouriOied aboot 44 Ycars B. C. He was ongi nat « 
ly a flavc fold to a Roman patrician, called Demi* 
titut who brought him up with grcat attcittion^ 
and gavc hiin hi<4 frccdom whcii of age. Me gain- 
cd the cftccm otthc rooft powcrful men at Rome» 
and rtckoned J« Csrar among his patrons. H0 
foon ccl*prcd thc poct Labcriu^, whofc barleiqae 
compoBlions werc in grtteral tftcrm. Thcre re- 
mams of Syrus, a collcdion of moral fcntcnce8y 
writtcn in iambics, and placcd tn alphabetical or* 

(1.) Syrus, an iAand. Sce Syros, V? t. 

SYSIOAMBIS, or SisYGAii Bis, thc motber of 
Darius 1H. king of Per6a. Shc was fo Tcr^ 
kindly Ircated by Alcxandcr the Grcat, that^ tho' 
flic bad btcn ahlc to furviTc thc*dta»h of hcr fon, 
and thc oTct throw of his cmpirc, ihe couM not 
furvivc that oi Alcxandcr, but killcd hcrfclf when 
hcdicd. See Micedon, § 16; afid ORAtORY^ 

SYSONBY, a fmaTl town of Erigland,Mn Lcl- 
ccfter(hire, near Mclton.MoWbray. 

SYSSARCOSIS. n. /. in anatumy, lfrom tm^ 
^witb^ and f»i*»t% flffi\ ^ l^nd of articulation by 
\Xit intcrTcntion ot Hero. AJh* 

(i,) * SYSTEM. 1»./. \Jxfieme^Vf. #»rv-.] r. 
Any Complexare or combination of many thingn 
ading togctber. 1. A fchcme which reduces m^ 
ny thines to rcgalar Ocpendcnce or co-operation« 
3. A fLncroc wbicb unttcs many thin^a in ordcr. 
— Hc prcicntly booght a /xfiem of divinity. FelL 
— Arirtoile brings roorality into /jftemt by treat- 
ing of hnppintfs anc^er hcads, and rangcs it in 
claiTcs. Boi^r.-^The l»eft way to^lcarn any fcicncc 
i^ to bcgin witb a rcgolar /jkem. Wettte, 

(1.) System, in pcncral^TTrom Xwrv«, ttmpoji'» 
tion.} dcnotcs * chain of priscipJes and ^ncliH 
fion9, or thc wholc of any do^rine, the (br^ral 
parts whcrcof are bouod togethcr, and dcpend oa 
each othcr. 

(3.) Systbm, in muftc, an alTemblage of tkt 
rulcd for harmony, dcduccd from fome commott 
principle by wbich thcy are rcinited ; by which 
thctr connc^ion one witb anothcn is foirmcd| 
from whcncc, as from their genuine (biirce> they 
nativcly flow ; and to which, if wc would accottnt 
fbr thcm, we muft have recoarfc. See Cff roma* 
Tfc, DiATONic, Enha^monic, Harmoky, In- 
teryal, and Music. 

(4.) Systems, io the animal economy, are thfl 
t>a/culari thc nervoujf and the eetluUit* Scc Ana* 
tomy, } 389— 5*6. 

(5.)^TsT£M8 of aftronomy. See AsTROwoMyt 

(6.) Systsms of botany. Sec Botany, IndeK* 

(7.) Systems of chcffiiftry, new and old. 8e€ 
Chemistry, ^ 31, Scc. paffim\ InJeXf ajidPoeah* 
l. and II. 

(8.) Systems of mediwine, ncwand old. See . 


Pharmacy, and Surgery, Jndei^ei. 

SYSTEMATIC. adj. Syftcmatfcal« 

• SYSTEMATICAL. adj. l/jjhnati^e, Fr. 

evrfifutTum; from J;'flent.] Mcthodical; writtca 

or tormcd with rcgular fubordination of onc parl 

to anoiher. — It will be ncccllary, in a difcourfe 

about tbc rorinatioa of thc world, to giTC you s 

N bricf 

Digitized by 


S Z A (98 

bHef account of rome of the molt principal tnd 
Jxftematical phsnomena that occur in it. Bentity. 
— Now wc dcal much in eAays, and unreafonabIy 
.de(pife fxfiematical leaming ; whereas our Tathers 
had i ju<t value {br rcguUrity and ^ydems. 1Vatts, 

• SYSTEMATICALLY. adv. [hon\ /j/iemati- 
cid] In form of a fyftem. — 1 treat of the uft'ful- 
nef8 of writing bookd of ciTiiyi in comparifon of 
that of writing JyJlematicaUy, Bpyle. — Anftotle 
brings morality into fyftemy diftingui(hiTig yirturs 
into their feveral Jcinds which had not been hand- 
MMemathaHyMoTe. Baker. 

SYSTEMATIST, ». /• ^nc who adopts a 
particular fyftem in (ciencc ; it is chicAy ufed of 
botanic^l writera. 

(i.) ♦SYSTOLE. «./. [hftoU, Fr.wx«.] i. 
[hi anatomy.) The contraoion of thc hcart. — 
Thc fyflole refemblc9 thc forcible bending of a 
fpnng» and tbe diadole its Aying out ag^in to its 
natural (ite. Ray. 1. [Syjiote^ Fr.] In Grammary 
the (hortening of a long (yllabie. 

Ca.) Systole, in anatomy, is the oppo(ite ftatc 
to thc diajiole^ or diiatation oftbc beart, Sec Ana- 

TOMY, § %TJ. 

SYSTYLE, «. /, in architc^ure, that manner 
of placing columns wherc the fpace bctween thc 
two (haft^ con6fts of two diametcrs, or four mo^ 
dules. Scc Architecture, Index. 

SYSYGAMBIS. See Sysigambis. 

SYSYRINCHIUM. See Sisyrinchium. 

SYTHAS, a river of Peloponnefu8, running 
tbrough Sicyonia» ioto the bay of Corinth. Pauf. 
«i. 7?. ' 

SYTHE. «. /. (Pope, S<wift.J or 5«/Af, (Mii- 
ton.) or Scytbe^ (Slmii.} Scc Sithe, N*» i. 

SYWEli, a fniaH town of England, in North- 
amptonOiire; NW.of Wellingborough. 
. .SYXFORD, a town of England, in Yorkfhire, 
00 thc Nyd ; in Nethcrdale. 

SYXHANDEMAN, n.f lSax.] a man of thc 
loiddle rank,^ under thc Anglo-Saxon govern- 
ment t a man wortb 600 (hillings. Afi}. 
. SYZYG1A, \ ». /. Lfrom XK»yai, conJun3ion.] 
/SYZYOY, J in aftronomy, a term cquaUy u- 
(ed for thc conjundion and oppoGtion or apianet 
jvilh tbi fun. The word is formed from the 
0»eck.w?«/r<«, which properly (ignifie8 conjunSio. 
Qn thc phenomcna «^nd circuroftancc8 of ihe fy- 
zygic8 a great part of thc lunar thcory dependa. 
Scc Aatronomy, § 6a7, 6a8. 

SZACK> a town of Lithuania, in tbc palatinate 
of Min(k ; 24 milcs S. of Min(k : now anncxcd to 

SZADECK, a town of Great Poland, in thc 
late palatinate of Siradia, %% milcs NE. of Siradia; 
Dow anncxed to Pru(fia. 

.^ZALGENf an ifland in thc Black Sea, oppo- 
fite the mouih of the Danubc. Lon. 48. 40. E. 
Ijctto. Lat. 45« *©• N. 

SZAMOSFALVA, a town of Tranfylvania, on 
thc river Samos, one milc N. of CoIofvar. Lon. 
40. 9. E. Perro. Lat. 47- 18. N. 

) S Z T 

SZAMOSVIVAR. Sec Samosvitak. 

SZASY, a town of Hungary, 4 milci £SL d 

SZEBEN, a town of Hungary, on tbcTareu; 
jo miles N. of Cafchau, and 48 NW. of Un^tiN 
In 16049 it wa» taken by Couut Bot(ksy ; aod ia 
166.^, by the Turk». 



SZ£GED. See Zegedin. 

SZ£KELY, a town of Hungary. fonnerly (br- 
tified, 7 milcs NNW. of St Job, and x8,E8E, ol 
Debreczyn. It ftood a (icgc in 1660, but rurrc» 
dcred in 1664^ to Abadi, princc of Tno^yUani^ 
wbo difmaRtled it. 


SZEKZARD, a town of Hungary, with afoit 
on the Sarvitz, famcd for its wine ; 17 miki E.o 

SZELITZ£, a town of Hungary, 5 oulci W 
of Ca(chau, with a largc cavem» which is (aid ti 
bc hot in winter, and very cold in fumroer. 

SZERBESTI, a town of European Turkcy, 
Moldav»a j 51 miles SW. of JaCTy. 

SZ£R£GNY, a town of Hungary; 1% mil 
N. of Munkacz, aod 11 S. of Ungrar. 

SZ£RW£NTY, a town of Lithuania, in 
na ; 16 milcs SE. of Wilkomicrz; now 
to Pru(iia. 

SZINY, a town of Hungary» 14 milcs £. 

SZITES, a'townofTranfylvania9 Aiuii^ 
of Schc(burg. 

SZITTK£M£N, a town of Pruffian Ulhu. 
14 miles^. of Goldapp. 

SZOBOTISZA, a town of Hungary, on 
Marfch ; 3» milcs W. of Topoltzan. 

SZOMBATH-Hely, or Steinam, a towo 
Hungary, built on the ruins of an ancient Roi 
town, callcd Subatia; 43 milcs SSW. of Prc(bi 
and 48 S. of Vicnna. 
SZOMOLNOK. See Smelnitz. 
SZOMUS, a river of European Tjirkcy, 
MoIdavia ; wbich runs into thc Sirct, hcAX Xk 

SZR£BERNIK, a town of Bo(hia ; 36 W 
NNW. of Zwori.ik. 

SZREDITS, a town of Croatia ; 16 milcs £.< 
SZR0DKA, a fuburb of Posnania. 
SZTROPKO, a town of Hungary, s8 mil 
ESE. of Palotza. j 

SZUCCA, a town of Wcftcm PruOia, in X\ 
palatinate of Culm, on the Viftula. Lon. 19. i| 
£. L^t. 53. 14. N. 

SZULGO, a fort of Hungary: 5 miles E.^ 

SZYATY, a town of Lithuania, in thc Pali 
tinate of Troki ; 48 milcB NNW. of Troki ; aoj 
anncxed to Pruffia. 

^ SZ YDLO W, a town of Samogitia ; 8 mtl^ 
NNE. of Rofiennc. 


(••) • 1 

Digitized by 


(f.) • 'p A mote cooronant, wbich, at thc bc- 
1 , gmntng aod end of wordR, ba« alwayi 
the CuDc fouad, ncariy approaching to that of d \ 
bot bdbrc ni h ^hrn foi)owcd by a voweU has 
ibe fiMBd of an oblcure j : a8« natioHt/eU^ation ; 
occpt wbcii/prccedct / : a« Cbnflianf qiuftion. 

(}.) T it ofed, I. as a lcttcr ; %. as an abbrc- 
Tiatioa; word ; and 4- it wai ancicntly u- 
W 41 a Dumcral, I. As a lettsr, T, or t, i« 
tkc i9tb of oar alphabct, and tbc 15 tb conronant. 
7Vlouod u formcd hy a ftrong eapat^on of thc 
bulh throuj^h tbc moutb, upon a fuddcn draw> 
i^bickof thetoDgue frt)m the fore part of thc 
p^i vith ibc lips at the fame tinc opcn. Tlie 
properibundoff i»exprcfled in moft wordi be- 
VKQS% or eodiag with tbat ietter ; as in taktt te% 
kt,ftt. Tt bcfore a vowel bas the found of^, 
orratho-o^^ at in cnation^ cacept whcn/pre- 
o^ *# in qm/iion; and in drrivative8 from 
I Wnli codioi; ifi t/ ai;, migjbtj, migbtier. Ancient- 
!ntb(flUble/i wa« conBdcred as diftina from 
« '«•ei that followcd it, and fuch words as 
»^/«-//-f<i, &c. formcd tnATyliablc» in poe- 
jTjUappcari from tbc wrion of the Pfaimi 
Maldiuour churcbes. But now in moJcrn 
■jwrd EogiHb, /i is not conPidered ai a dif- 
■« fylUblc, but only as foftcning thc / to thc 
W*J ofA ai if Ibe words werc Ipclt na-Jbon^ 
f^fmy &c Tb bas two foundB ; the one hard, 
Ji^Mrr; tbc other foft, a« tbmgy ttiink. 
ne kwid II hard, ia thefc words, tbe^ tbm, tban^ 
r"^' ^'^kthcir dtriTatiTcs and compounds ; and 
P tbe words tbat^ tbisy tbtut tby, tbe^; aud in 
liwwds io wbicb tb comcs betwecn two vowcls, 
P**^» ratber; and betwecn r and a vowcl, 
ffW«: bui it is foft in tbanct tbank, tbateb^ 
P^^^^ra/rr, tbeft^ tbenee, tbeocraeyt and all o- 
^«mativcs of ecoi, tbeorem, tbeory, tbe^s^ 
■K lil t^x wordi of Grcck dcrivation, tbick% 
W %*• tbint tbirdt tbirjtt tbi^le^ tbo* tbong^ 
P^ «««igA, tbongbtt tbottjandt tbrallt tbrojb, 
■«^ tbnot, tbree^ tbricet tbrift, tbrrmt tbroat^ 
PJ» '*rt»f, tbroo^bt tbrowt tbrumb, thrujbt 
W»^^, tbimdert Tburjdayt tbwackt tbwart^ 
?• J« all tbeir compounds and dcrivative«. 
[*■ tbe word tbitbert and its compounds, tb 
PJ* Wt in thc Jirft fyliable and hard in thc 
jy^ ^ m tbyme tbc b ts noi foundcd. II. A» 
r*««u?iATioii, T was ufcd among thc Ri>- 
rV*«frif for 7i/«i, Titiust 8cc ; Tab. tbr 
T^f Tab. P. H. C. Tabalariui Provinci^ 
y^Gteri§rijf Tar. Tarpunim ; Ti. Tiberi^ 
!»5- F. TAeruJUiujt Ti. L. TiberH libfrfm ;. 
^ T^herH Nepos; T. J. A. V. P. V. D. 
2^*^ arhitrumvtpoftulat ut det; T. M. P. 
^^Hfot; T. M. D. D. Urminum dediea- 
r^trmjt tribmmuj ; Tr. M. or Mil. tribunus 
S^i Tk. PL. DES. tribunisplebis dejgnatys ; 
* AER. /ri^a^ ^^^ ^. Tj(v, CAP. /nw». 
rJJ*^' T. P. or TRIB. POT. tribunicia 
T^i ToL H. TuUus Ho/iiiius. In mufic T 
JT *^ /«//i, •* all or altogethcr." III. As a 
2v " °^ witbout a vowcl, both in Surgcry 
J^**»«ci. (See N» 3. tnd 4.) IV. As a 
^i^ T was offd among tbe ancientt, for 
^^jf^ «^/«(^ ; *nd with a daih at top, 

^y" ^^ ^ btmdred andftxty tboujand. 

-^' ^i «^. 11 tt(cd ai a diiuiaion for a pccu- 

99 > T A A 

iiar kind of bandage, in furgcry. S<:c T baw- 
DAck, under SuaoERY, Index* 

(4.) T, n. /. T Square, or Teb Square, in 
drawing ai>d mcchantcs, an inftrumcnt fo namcd 
from its rcfcmblance to a capital T. 

(i.) TA, a river of China, wbicb nins into the 
Eaft Sca, in Lon. 139. ao. E. Pcrro. Lat. 36. 
55' N. 

(a.) Ta, a town of China of thc ad rank, with 
a fortref8, in thc provincc of Sc-tchucn: 650 
miles SW. of Pcking. Lon. 115. i. E. Pcrro. 
Lat. 31. 18. N. 

. (3.) Ta, or LouGH Ta, a lakc of Ireland, on 
the S. coaft of Wcxford ; 3 milcs NW. of Cam- 
fore Point, and 9 SSE. of Wcxford. It reccivcs 
fevcral rivcrs, but haviog no outlet, would foon 
defolatc the country, Sf tbcy did not makc aa 
outlet by cuttin^ oS^tbc bankncittbc fea ; wbich 
foon fills up again. 

(4.) Ta, pr Taslousac, a town of Lower 
Cinada. Lon. 69. 30. W. Lat. 48. 5. N. 

TAAPE, / or Tave, a vcry rapid river of S. 

TAAFF, ) WalcH, in GlamorganAiirc, which 
runs inro ihc fea at Cardiff. Over this river, near 
Carphilly, thcre is a ftoiic bridpc of onw arcb, 
called Ponty Pryddal^ which is fuppofcd to bc 
one of the widtft in ihc world ; bcing 140 fect'in 
the fpan acrof8 the rivcr, and 34 fect bigh. It 
was planned and exccuted, by a common maToa 
of GUmorganfhirc, who had acquircd all his (kiU 
without teacbing. Wby is not his namc at leaft 
rccordcd ? 

TAAPINGE, an ifland of Denmark, x6 milcs 
in circumfercncc ; witb its capital fo namtd ; bc- 
twten the iAc of Funen and Langcland. 

TAAIP, a towii of Arabia, in tbc proviiicc of 
Hedsjas, featcd on a mountain in a pleafar.t and 
fertiie country, 60 roiles S£. of Mecca. It has a 
coniidcrabic tradc to Mecca and Dsjtdda in ai- 
monds, raitins, and otbcr bne fruit9. 

TAANATH-Shiloh, a town of Ifrac1, io £- 
phraim, 10 miles E. of Sbecbcm. It cxiftcd un- 
dcr the name of Then ath, as late as A. D. 400. 

TAAS, a city of Arabia, in Ycmcn, at thc foot 
of a fertilc hill, called Sabber. It is furroundcd 
with a ftrong wall, from 26 to 30 fcet thick, aod 
deiended by fcvcral towcrs. It bas alfo a fortt 
callcd Kabbre, in tbe circuit cf the wall ; % gatct 
fortiBcd witb 3 towtrs, and a garrifon of 600 mcn, 
It lies 48 milcs N£. of Mocba. Lon. 44. 10. £. 
Lati3. 37..N. 

TAATA, a town of Uppcr Egypt, a roilc fr(im 
tbe Nile, and aco roiles S. of Catro. It has ma- 
ny curious relics of antiquity, and is the rcndcnce 
of a govemor. It makeR a grand appcarance 
from the Nilc. Lon. 31.I5. E. Lat. a6. 56. N. 

TAAUT, "^or Thoth, a PhoBrician dcity, 

TAAUTES, f the fame with Hcrme? of Egypt, 

TAAUTOS, i and Mcrcury pf the Gretks and 

TAAUTUS, ^Rora»"»' SecHEaMBS, N** 1-3; 
Me&cu&y, N® I. Mystiries,^ is% Mytho- 
LOOY, § zo, 11; Polythbism, d. isi, coI. a. 
Sanchoiiiatho, and Thoth. But Mr Lem- 
pncre makcs him tbe famc with Saturn, for 
which hc quotci Farro. 

TAAWIRRY, an ifland, in the 8. Pacific 

Occan, tttuatcd, along with tbe ifle of Boourout 

on tbc £. fide of OUhcitc, ind wiUuo thc rcef. 

N % Both 

Digitized by 


T A B 

|loth'have frood anchor^ge wubin &c rc«f. 
Frcnch (hips, iindcr B M!eainvill<r, lay hcrc. 

TAB, a nvcr of Pcriia, which ftparatfs tbc 
provincc« of Chufiftan and Faififtan, and fail3 in. 
io thc Perfian Gulf ncar Chimz. 

TABA, a town of Afri(3a, on thc Grain Coaft. 

TABACHASAN, a town of Ariatic Turkcy. 
in Natolia» in thc county of Bozoe, among moun- 
tainn ; ftated on thc Adcna, ncar it8 rourec, 50 
laailc» aborc thc town of Adcna. 

TABACO, a prot^ncc of Mcxico, in Yucatan, 
whcre thc Tobaccp plant was firft difco»crcd. 

C loo ) T A B 

Thc ycllow with triangular bi own fputs ; ycHow Ir^i, 
and wbitc wing^ with black and browtt rpot^. 
Tbe len^th is four lincs and a balf. 

3. Tabanus pLuriATiLis i8of anaihra grey 
colotir; it6 cycs are green, with brownttrukt. 
Thc tho/ax 18 hrown, markcd with about f k»- 
gitudioal grcy |inc?« ; thc win^$, whith arc browB 
and aib-c<»ir»urc<!, are dotted over ^th HaMH 
whitc fpot8, ard havc a black fpotoiithcinirgtBj 
thc (cg*» are ftirroDndcd with brown and whitc 
rings altcrnatciy. Thi< rpccics is vcry coauBOS 
in mcadowp, a^^d m about 4 hnts In Irnwlb. 

and from which it was named. Sce NijCOtiana, TABAQU£R. or Tabarca. Scc Tabakcjl 

and ToBACCo. TABARA, a tewn of^pain, in the pro<nocca! 

TABJE, an aricient town of Pifid*a^ {Uv. 38. X^on : 14 m^lcs N. of Zamor 

c. I.?.) mcmorabic fbr bcing tbc fccnc of thc mi- (i.) TABARCA, ao inanil in thc Mtditcrta» 

ferable drath of thc monfttr, Aiitiorhns Epipha- an, 2 ns\\e% frotn thc coall ut Africa, attbcmoim 

oec. Strc Jews, § 6; and SvaiA, § 14. of the Zcinc, which feoaratc« Algiera IroinTs 

TABAGA, or ) an ifland of the S. Pacilic oi^. It was loDg polTcOcd by ihc lameiiid, <i 

(i.) TABAGO, ) Ocean, in thc bay of P.(na- tomeliiHijf a noble fao)»1y of Gcnoa, to whoot 

ma, ncarthc coaft of Mcxico,.bcrlongiug loSpain; was givco by thc crlrl^atcd Andrcw Doria, 

niilc8 long and 3 broad. It is mountainous, ' ' 

4 Tnitca long and 3 

but thc Und ilopcs, with a gcntlc drfccnt, on the 
K. fidc to thc coad ; whcrc it i» vcry fcrtilc, and 
rcfcmblc8 a garden of fruit and forc(i tretp. The 
chicf produ^ons are piantains and hananas. • It 
ba8 a good road for vcfleU, from 16 to 18 ^a- 
thoms water, a roile Irom the (horc.^ Lon. 80. 
i6. W. Lat. y: 50. S.iBroakej.) Lat. 81.9. W. 
JLat. 8. 4«. N. Cnai<ufeli. 

(1.) Tabago. 'Scc Tobago. 

(3.) Tabago LiTTLi. See Taboouilla. 

TABAGUILLA, a fmall ifltt, ncar Tabaoo. 

TABANIE, a towo of E^ypt, on thc E. brinch 
pf thc N?1e : 6 milcs SW. ot Manibra. 

TABANKA, or Tabarca. S«e Taiabca. 

TABANUS, thc Ba»EZE-FLy ^-a gcnli8 of in- 
fcd« bcloBging to thc order pf dictca. Thc 
tnouth i« cxtcndcd jo a Acrtiy proboCci», tcrminat- 
dd by two lips. Thc ToHrtim 18 fumtflicd with 

whom the TuniBaiKt had giveTi \x'\ii ranto 
or>c of thdr pririccs, whoip Doria had takcn ^i 
foner. Il ia defcildcd by a-cafllc, wcU 
whieh kjng protcdcd thc corai fifhcry on 
coafts. But, 1n 1740, Ali Bcy, thc tyiaot ot 
nf<, look it by trcachcry, mafla -rcd part of ll 
G«hocfe citi/;en8, and carricd ihc tcft,'about 4« 
captiy^ . Lon. 9. 16. E. Lat. 36. 50, or ss» N- 

(i.) Tabarca. a town of AtTica,^n Tu*48, 
thc coad, oDpofitc the aborc ifland. 

TABARIA, or Taberayan, a town of 
Irdine, anciently caNcd TiB^atASi (eated on 
\V. bank of the Sca of Ti'oeria8, or lake of Ct 
KESARETH ; at tbc f^x>t of a hi«b mountain; i\ 
rouiulcd with wsllt, cscept towards the 
(Scc TISERiAS.) It has fomc warm batbs. 
Chriltians havc a cHurrh tn it, and thc Jcwi a 
nary, It is 50 milca NNE. of J^ni^atcm, and 
S§W.6fI)amafcu^. * 


t wo poittcd palpi pUoJd on tach itdc of the pro- TABAS^ a town* of A(iatic Turkry, ui Na< 

bofci8, and parallcl to it. Gmehu bas eptnne- lia, 34 nM*c^ S. of Ocgiutiu. 
ratcd 38 fpccicd; of whiph three oniy arc fbund (1.) TABA^pO, a provTnce of N. Amciioii 

j^ Great Britain ; viz. ' M^jtico ; boundcd N^ by thc Gulf of Mcxic% 

i. Tabanus boyinus, or great horfe fiy^ has bay'of C^peachy; E. bT ^u^^^^*^» S.byQ 

^ gfrcy hcad \ tbe tyes ahnoft of a black brown, pa ; and W. by Gkuxaca. It is 100 milctll 

occ«pying tke greateft part of it. Tbc thorax is ^nd c^ually broad, but.Cruttweli lays it it i 

pfa grcy coloor ; thc abdomen ib ycllowiih, with row. Jt ia fcnik in variouft berbs, maisct li 

n triaagular white fpot 90 the middie of eircry barlcy, Indian c<m, cocoa-nuts, vinc8, lcmoSi 

nrtgt which conditutcs -a longttudinal band of rangc, apd tig trcci; alfo thc iargcA cabbaf!C3 

fpot8, the point of which is dircded towards the cotton trcci in tbc woild groW on tbc bankJ 

?^orax. The thighs are blackii^, aud the lcgs the rivcr, N** a. The cnmalc is moill and 

elk>w. The wlngs tre diiiky, with'brown veins beitthy, a* it rains 9 moaths in thc ycar. 

4)C a deeper dye. This tnfcd is the tcrror of otbtr 3, Prbru^ry, Manb, and April, arc 

homed cattle, borfc8, &c. Its mouth is arrocd trcincly hot, and givebirth to nuBC>bcrlcf»» fwaj 

with two (harp hooks wbich penetratc thcir bide ; of infc^*. From Scptcmbci- to M;»rcb, ttmj 

wbile with its probofcif, which is (hapcd likc a tuous win ts arc fircqttcnt from thc N. Cattlc 1 

fiingy it fuck8 thcir blood, of which it is very fifli abounJ. £xtenlTvc wood& of cedar, bi 

greedy, Thc pundure of thc tabanus is kccn an^ wood, mangrove«, bambti08, &c. arc naucb 

painfuU Thc infc^ is vcr^ common in . damp (^ uentcd by lions, tigcrii, dccr, wild bears, rabl 

«roods and rocadows, cipccully during tt^e great apcs, rqu rrcis, &c. 

beats, y^bcn rt is moft trot^bielome. Thc borned (a.) TAtasco, a rivcr in the abo^ provt 

cattle arc fomct«mes ixi molctted b^r tboir itings, wbipti rtfc8 m ihe nK>untaio8 of Cbapa, and i 

^bat they go mad, run dowa precipice«, tcar ioto thc Gulf of Mexico; tn lon. 75. 5».£. 

thcmfclvc9 on thc ilumps of trees, ftone% ^c. 10. JLu. 17. 40. N. 

a. Tabanos cof cutisnb has a brown hcad ; (j.) Tobasco, aa ifland in the above rivcr, 

f yc8 grccn and hrown, with black fpc>t8 ; thc tho- 2. ^6 nwlcs long, and from 7 to 10 broBd ; abo| 

rai \x<yKix with bUcl^ fpot8 \ tb^ abdomcn abovc^ ii.g \siih caitk^^mouotaic cowSy afi(l otbu^aniE 

Digitized by 


T A Bt f ic 

Itijwar thc hay of Campeachy, bnt lo railc« 
fmm tbcf(M,aii<l i6oSW.of Campc^chy. Corlcs 
^iiPtd I vidory in it, on his firil arriyal. 

(4,) Tabiico, a well buUt town in the aboTc 
ift»d,(N* 3.) apiral of Ihe lAand and province, 
f>ri.)moch frci)uented and cnrichcd by mcr- 
(*uDii and tradcrmen. It is frated at the motiih 
oi th« GrijalTa. Loo. 76. o. W. Ptrrro. Lat. 17. 
40 N. 

TABASHEER,»./ a Pcr6an word, fignifying 
ibn) fabft/«nce f ^and in the cavtttts of thc bam- 
kworjidan reed, and highly Talaed as a medi- 
lar B the Eaft Indics. From th« exptriocct5 of 
DrRoAirl, it appears that thc tabalhecr is thc 
jokr of tbt bamboo thickened and h»r-*encd. Its 
Ddlical ttkdi are mentioncd in a PcrAan work 
ti Udbmmtd Monein Ho/emj, by Mr Wt1iiam«t, a 
(BTKon i<i the £a(t Indics. It it ufcfu) iii bilious 
mntikg», ihe bloody flox, palpitations of thc 
tc»t,£»imn>gscafcs of dcbility from heat ; a1fo 
Bthtpiln, ;icutcbutning fcvcrt, puilulrs in the 
»*k,thioih; and, with oxyn.eU 18 of great 
I fc*i»ifatrfl reftleflrncfi, roelancholy, and hypo- 
I cMocil ailc^ions. The habitual interrial ufe 
^«iiprcjodtci-il to the viri1c powcrs, and to the 
m«. lu correAires arc the gum of the pine 

TABBAY, one of the Weftem lAamU of Scot- 
*wJ Kjr tbi' E. coall of the iflf of Sky. L^n. 
* 37. W. of Ediobnrgh. Lat. 57. 15. N. 

'.i)^TABBY.a^'. Brinded; brindlcd; varitd 
^KltdiArrent colourt.— 

A laUj cat Ui in the chimney comer. Addijon. 
O) her to% rival'« fw, 

8^ Hteo wili inark her new difgrace. Prhr, 

(t)* TaBBY. «. /. \fabi^ Uihino^ Italian ; tabis^ 
n^] A kind of wavcd filk.— 

Brocadts, and ta^birs^ and gaufcs. &wift. 

';.)Tanr, m cbmmerce, i^ aricb filk which 
» wtdcryone the operation of tabbyins. 

TABWINO, n./. a paffine the fiik or ftuff 
jdrr a caltodar, the n»ll8 of whtch' are madc 
JJ^^orcoppcT^arioiiOycngrt^cn, which bcar- 
J««^Ml»yoa the ftuff rcnders thc furface tberc- 
■*^mI,^ ai to reflca thc rays of light dlffe. 
*l%«iBakifigthe rcprcfentation of wavesthereon, 

•TABEPACTION. n. / '[tahefiieio, Latin.] 
■•^-o^ walking away. 

•RTABEPy.i;. w. ITmS^acio. Uttii.} Tg 
^ttoeiTcOuite. — Meat caicn in gltater quan- 
■nhiaitconvciMrnt tahtfies thcbody. Harwy. 
^TABELLARUB Leges, in Roman antiqiji- 
^ W made by /nfrages delruertd vpon ta- 
^^ MiSf and iM)t 'urua uote. There were 
*« tWa, visu tbc Cabiniany by Gabiniu*, A. U. 
\^l tbc CaJUm, by CaHius, A. U. C. 616 ; the 
_y*S by PapimAt Carbo, A. U. C. 621 ; aiid 
■*<-*««, by CjtiiuM, A. U. C. 646. Ge. de Legg. 

TABELLIO, io the Roman law, an ofBccr or 
w»(Scr, Biiich thc Urat with our notartcs-pub- 
■•■^awoltco cilkd tabeilibnes. Scc Stipu- 

j2™E, a town of Afiatic Turkey, in Cur- 
^[^0 mjles ESE. of Kcrkok. 
^j**>ttAYAN. Scc Tabiria, and Tibcri- 

' lUERD. n./. \fabarda^)QS9 LotiD \ tatard, 

I ) T A B 

prcnch.] A long gown ; a hcrald's coat: foine- 
tin>e?i writter tabard. 

♦ TABERDER. w./ [from taberd.] Onc who 
wcars a long gown. 

TABERG, a town of Sweden, in Smaland, ncAr 
a mountain fo named, which aboundsin iron 01 c; 
8 milrs S. of Jonkioping. 

TABERISTAN, a province of Ptrfia, which 
forms part of Mezanderan. 

(i.) • TABERNACLE.h./ MrrWe.Prench; 
tabemaetilum^ Latin.] A tcmpurary babitatioc ; a 
cafual dwclling. — 

Thcy fuddcn rcarM 

CoclelHal tabernacles. Milton*s Paradi/e toj. 
t. A lacred piace; a placeof worlhip.— His works, 
though conTccratcd to thc tabernacle^ bccaroe the 
nationnl cntcrtainment, as wcll as the ddrotioa of 
his peoplc. Addijon. 

(a) TiirTABERNACLE, ondcr thc Hcbrcw thc- 
ocracy, was a kmd of building, in the form of a 
tent, fet up, by command of Ood, for the per* 
form^ncf of religious worihtp, facrifice(i, £cc. dur- 
ing tht journeying of the IfraeIitcB in the wilder- 
ncf8 : and, aftcr thetr f ttlemcnt in Cinaan, uftd 
for the fame purpofc till tbe building of the tcm- 
pie. It was divided into two parts ; the one co- 
vered, and properiy calicd the iabemaeU\ and the 
other open, cailed thc eourt. SccExod.xxv-zxvii. 

(3.)Tabrrnacles, Peast of, a fnicmofcfti- 
¥al of thc Htbrcws, ob^crrcd after harvtft, onthe 
15 th day of the mooth Tifri, inftitutcd to com- 
memor^tc tbe goodnef8 of God, who protedcd 
the Kracliteii in the wildcmefs, and made thcm 
dwell in booths, whcn thcy camc out of Egypt. 
On the firft dr:y of thc fcaft, tbcy began to crcd 
b«oths of the boughs of trees, and in thrfc thcy 
continued 7 days. The booths werc placed in 
the open air, and wcre not covered with cloths, 
nor made too c1ofe by thc thickne(sof the bougbs ; 
but fo loofc thit the fun and the itars migbt be 
fccn, and thc rain dcfcend through them. For 
furthcr particular:», fee Levit. xxiii. 

♦ To TABtRNACLi. V. s. t^Tom tbc noua.] To 
ijnihnne ; to houfe.— The word was made flc(h» 
and tabernacled among us. yobth i* I4* 

TABERNJE, if.///«r.rLat.] in Roman anti- 
quity, were houfcs made of boards, (hopsor warc- 
boufe9. Such Aiops fet up in coiiquered countrics, 
gavc rife to towns ; as, 

I. Taberna Rhenana;, a town of Germany, 
at the conftux of the Rhinc and thc Eclhach: now 

Calltd RHI)I£-ZABfiRN. 

%. Tabern^ RiGUiE, I town of ancient Gaul» 
011 the Morclic; now callcd Bern Castle. 


4. Taberna Triboccorum, a towii uf Gaul, 
in thc ci-devanr provice of Lowcr Alf.tcc, now ni 
thc dcpartmcnt of the Lowcr Rliinc j callcd .Sa- 
H)erne. Sce Saternb, N<* i. 

TABERN^MONTANA, in botany, a genus 
of p.ants bel' nging to the claf3 oi pentandriu^ and 
order oi monogynia \ and in ihc natuial f)ftcm ar- 
ranged undcr thc 3oih 6idcr, Contorta. Thtre 
are two horizomal fol!ioIc8, and tljc fceds are im- 
merfcd io pu!p. Thcrc arc 8 fpccic», ail forcit:n 

TABERNAS. a town of Spain, io Grenada ; 15 
milcs NNE. ol Almcr.a. 


Digitized by 


T A B ( 1 

TABES. Scc Medicine, Index, 

TABEYRO, a town of Spain, in Galicia, 5 
milcs SE. of St Ja? o. 

TABIANA, a town of thc Italian kingdom in 
Parma : 13 milcs W. of Parma. 

• TABID. adj. [tabuU^ Fr. tabidtu, Lat.] Waf- 
tcd bydilcafe; confumptivc.--Thc tabid difpoQ- 
tion, or thc ulccr of the lungs, is vcry diiTcr- 
crit from a diminution of thc body. Bluckmore, 
-^ln \tabid pcHbns milk is thc bcft rcftorativc. 

• TABIDNESS. »./. [from tabid.\ Confump- 
tivcnef» ; ftate of bcing wafted by difcafc. 

TABINSK, a town of RuAia, in the province 
of tJpha, on the Btclaia; 40 milc» S. of Upha. 
Lon. 74. o. E. Pcrro. Lat 54. o. N. 

TABITHA, or Dorcas^ a Chrirtian widow at 
Joppa, who aboundcd in works of charity, and 
afier dying, waa raiTed to life by St Petcr. A^s 
ix. 36 — 41* 

TABLANATZ, a town of Maritime Auftria, 
in Iftria, 24 milcs N£. of Pcdcna. 

• TABLATURE. «./. [from tabU.] Painting 
on waUft or ceilingR. 

(i.)*TABLE. 11. /. [tabU, Fr. tabuia^ Lalin.l 
t. Anjr flat or lcvcl furfecc. — ^Upon the caftic hill 
thcre 11 a bagnio pavcd with hWtabUs of marblc. 
Saadjs. a. A horizontal furfacc raifcd above the 
grotind» ufcd for meals and othcr purpolcs.— 
We may again 

Give to our tabUs meat. Sbab. 

— If I find not what I feck, let mc for evCt bc 
your tabU fport. Sbab. — Childrcn at a tabU ncvcr 
a(kedfor any thing. Lockt. — This Aiuts thcm out 
from all tabU converfaiion. Addi/on, — We may 
f4fcly comc to thc Lord'8 iabU, KettUwelL^DiU 
fering from othcr apples, yct is a gcK>di<i^ fruit. 
Mortimer. — 

Thc nymph thc udiU fprcad. Pope* 

3. Tbe perfon8 titting at tablc» or partaking of 
cntcrtainment. — 

To the gencraljoy of the whoIe/a^/(r. Sbak, 

4. The fare or entcrtainmcnt itfclf : a8, he keeps a 
good tablc. 5. A tablet ; a furface on which any 
thing 18 written or engraved. — ^He wa« thc writer 
of them in the tabUs of their hcarts. Hooker. — 

Tp fcc him every hour ; to (It and draw 
His arched brdws, his hawking eye» hiscurls, 
In our hcarts tabU, Sbak* 

All thcfe tme notes of immortality 
In our heart'8 tabU we ihall writtcn find. Dav* 

£v'n this had been your elcgy which now 
Is o^er^d for your healtby the tabU of my vow. 

— There arc books eitant whick the Atheift muft 
allow of as propcr cTidence; e?en thc mi^h- 
ty volume8 of vifible nature, and the everlafting 
tabUs of right reafon. B0«i/i!ff .->The praetor grant- 
cd adminiftration, not only according tq the tabUs 
of thc tcrtamcnt^ butcvcn contrary to thofe /a^/e/ . 
Jjiije.—By the twcWc tabUst only tho(^ wcrc 
called into fucccffion of their parcnts that werc 
in ihc pArcnt*8 powcr. Aylijfe, 6. [TabUau^ Fr.] 
A pidure, or any thlng that cxhibit8 a Vicw of a- 
ny thnig upon a flat fiirfacc. — 
Now, infixcd, I bchcld myfelf 
Dtawn in thc flatt'ring tabU of her cye. Sbak, 
— H18 Bacclius he fo cftcem4.d, that hc had lathcr 

oa ^ T A B 

iofc all his fathcr'6 imagc8 than that ta^, Peach. 
— $.iint Anthony has a tabU that hangt up to bim 
from a poor pcafant. Addifon. 7. An indcx ; a 
collcdtion of heads \ a cataioguc ; a fyllahu8.~lt 
might fcem impcrtincnt to havc addcd a tahk to a 
book of fo Imall a volume, and whtch fccmi to be 
itfelf but ^itabU, .£iv/)ny.-^Thcir leaming reacbcs 
no farthcr thau thc tc^bUs of contcnti. Watu, S. 
A fynopfi8 ; many particulars brougbt iuto oim: 

No forgcd tMes 
Of long defccntii. B. Jw/on, 

9. Thc palm of tbc hand. — 

Miftrc;f8 of a faircr tabU 
Hath not hiftory nor fablc. Ben Jotifon, 

10. Draught8 ; fmaU piccca of wood Oiittrd on 
iquarc8. — . 

MonHcur the nicc, 

Whcn hc piays at tabUs, chidcs thc Aicc^Sbak, 
— We are in the world like men playing at taktet^ 
TajUr, II. To turn /^ Tables. To change 
the condition or fortunc ot two contcnding par- 
tlc8 : a mctaphor takcn from the vicifiitu(lc of 
thc fortune at gaming-tables. — They that are ho- 
ncft would be arrant knave6, if the tabies wcre 
turned. VEfrange.^\i it bc thus, thc tabUs woutd 
bc tumed upon mc. Drjden, 

(1.) ^ Table 18 a movcablc picce of fumitnref 
ufually made of wood or ftone, and fupported 
on pillars or icct» for the reccption of thinga pla- 
ccd on it. 

(3.) Table, in mathcmatics, a fyftem of num* 
bcrs calculatcd to be rcady at b^nd for expc« 
diting aftronomica|, gcometrical, and othcr op^ 

(4.)Tables, laws of thb TwELTStWcreUw 
firft fct of law8 of thc Romans ; tbus calkd (i< 
thcr bccaufc the Romans then wrotc with a ftyk 
on thin woodcn tablcts covcrcd witb wax ; or »• 
ther, becaufc thcy wcre engraved oa tablea 01 
platcs of copper, to bc expofcd in th^ moft vm 
part of the pubiic forum. After the cxpulfi« 
of thc king8, as thc Romans had do fixcd fyft< 
of law, aniplc euough to take in tbe varioui cai 
tbat might occur, thcy rcfolvcd to adopt the * 
laws of thc Grccks. One Hcrmodoms was 
pointed to trandatc thcm, and thc dccemviri v 
rangcd thcm in ten tablcs. Aftcr much care, the 
wcre cna^fd and confirmed by.the icnatc aw 
pcoplc, A. U. C. 303. In 304 thcy. found ioine 
thing wanting, which they fupplicd from thc law 
of thc kings, aod from certain cuftoma whicb di 
had authorifcd : all tbcft bcing cngraven on tw| 
othcr Ub)e8, madc thc law of thc XII. tablcs, \ 
famous in thc Roman juri(prudcQcc, tbefourcc4 
the civil or Roman law. j 

(5.] Tasles of the Law, in Jewiib aotiqu 
ty, two tables on which wcre writtcn the &t6^ 
loguc» or tcn commandmcnta, gtvcii by Ooi> i 
Mofc8 on mount Sinai. 

(i.) • To Table. v»/k lfrom thc noun.] II 
make into a caUioguc; to.fct down. — 1 couj 
bave lookcd on him without admiratioo, thou^ 
the cataloguc of his cndowmeots had t>ecQ tMi 
by hi» A^ic. Shak, 

(a.) ♦ roTABLB. V. n. To.board ; to Uvc \ 
tbe tablc of another.— He Ioft his kingdom, w^ 
drivcn from thc focicty d men to taldc witb tl 


Digitized by 


T A B f %oi 

M^ SoKtb.—Yoa vn\\ have no ootion of deli- 
cinf$if]roti/tfi^with tbem. Peltom, 

(/OTiBLK Bay, h bay of Africa, on the W. 
coaftofthcS.cxtremity, wbicb waOits the foot 
of TiiLE MouNTAiN, near the Cape of Good 
Hope. Sce GooD Hope, N^ %, and Hotten- 
TOTt, J a. 

(t)TmE BAT,*abay of Americay on tbe N. 
kkwk Ocean, oo thc-E. ooaft of Labrador. Lon. 
W.57.W. Lat. 53. 45. N. 

•TiBLiBED. «./: [from tahie and Aed.) A 
W of the figurc o^^a table. 

* Tailebeir. fl./. \ta^ and heer.] Beer u^ 

fi.)* Tablebook. »./. [tahJe and ^iJ.] A 
h-iok 00 wbich any thine is graved or writtcn 

What might you think, 

If Uad pUy^d thc deik or table-book ? ShaM. 
-^n wtpcs clean the tabU^book firft. More.-- 
Witto your tablebook wbatfoever ye judge wor- 

WBre'i &ir table-^ooAt our tender ibul«, 
Wcfcrawl all o'er. S<wifi. 

k)h»ii BooK . Sce Writiiig. 
(^•TABLiCLOTH. »./ [table and elotb.] Li- 
»fB ipread on a table.— I wiil cnd with Cjdo hold- 
■■raaicrdodor^B Dulcy aod Anr»c with hcr ta- 

(».) Tabli^loth, in mcteorology, a whitc 
wMrcfira»Wing a tablc-cloth, often fcen on thc 
^of Tablk Mountain. Sce Good Hopb, 

ib.)TABLE IsLAND, an iiUnd in thcNorth Sea, 
fw tbe coaft of Spit^bcrgcn. Lon. %o. 30. E. 

WTablb Island, an ifland in thc S. Pacific 
P». one of thc Ncw HebridcB. Lon. 167. 7. 
lLat.ij. jg. s, 

I WLahd.* See Good Hope, N** %. 

T^^MAN. «./. A man at draughts.— 

^^^* the keyt arc lined, and in colIcgcB 

"wEtolincthe/iiiJ^»i«i. Baeon. 

>)TAfLi MouNTAiN, a mountain of A^ric?, 

**wefte»ly cape io that part of the world, 

*Tf the Cape of Good Hope. Scc GooD 

^t. aod Hottentots, § %. Jt is fd 

«an ita flat fnminit, which rcicmbles a ta^ 

Wbyits height it is feen at 30 milcsdi^ance 

Mw dcar weathcr being 3,567 fcet above thc 

El^I^ABLi MouNTAiN, a mouotain of Ircland» 
*»cWow; 15 milcs W. of Wicklow. 
wTaiLE MouNTAiNs, a rangc of Moun* 
••the United Statrs, in N. Carolina. Lon. 
;^W. Lat. 36. o. N.. 
TABLER. n. /. lfrom tabie.] Onc who 

H||J2SlET. *./ ffrom table.] i. A fm'all 
J**ce. *. A mcdicine in a fquarc form. — 
*•« aodently in ufc to wcar tablets of ar- 
njMMcnratiTCS, agalnft the plague. ^ae. 
■■«ce wnttcn on or paintcd. — It was by 
^••«nty of Alcsaodcr, tbat tbrough all 
"**c yonng gentlemcn lcamed to defign 
T****ofboxco wood. Diydett.-^ 
L/JjPi^d nurble, and thc tablet braTs, 
^■«owg, drop the viaor'a piAifc. Prior. 

) ,. T A B 

(a.) TABLETy in coirfedionary, a cakc of fu- 
gar, ginger and othcr fpiceriea, madc thin and ii» 
a Icvel form, to be cut into fmall fquareB, of a- 
bout 1 inches each. 

* Tabletalk. »./. [tab/e and taib.] Conver- 
iktion at meals or cntcrtainroents ; table difcourfe* 
Lct mc praifc you while I havc a ftomach. 

— No ; Ict it ferve for tabietaik. Shak. 

Hit fate makes tabietaik. DryJen^j Juvenaim 

— He improve« by the tabletaik. Guardlan, — ^No 

fair adveriary wooki nrgc Ioofc tabietaik in con* 

troverfy. Atterbwy. 

Table Yallby, a valley of Africa, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, furronnded by 3 mountainBt 
called Table Mountain, Druirs Tower^ and 
Lion*! Head. The Cape Town is fcated in it : Sce 
GooD HoPE, N* %. and Hottentots, § %. 

TABLI£R, a town of Prance, in the dep. of 
the Yendce ; 6 milea SS£. of Rochc fur Yon, and 
9 NW. of Lu^on. 

(i.) TABO, a towo of Africa, on the Ivory 

(a.)TAB0 DACkou, a towo of Africa, in Quoja. 

(3.)Tabo Dune, a town of Airica, on thc I- 
vory Coaft. 

TABOA, a town of Portugal, in Beira,%n the 
MondcgA : 9 miles S. of Vifeu« 

TABOGA. Sce Tabaoo. 

TABOGUILLA, or Little Tabaoo^ an 
iiland in the bay of Panama, ncar Tabago. The 
channel betwecn thcm Ib narrow, bot good. Shipc 
paik by it to Point Chama. 
«.(i.)TABOO, adj.^ word ufed bythc South 
Sca iAandem, ncarly of the fame import as prohi« 
bited or interdided. It applics eqoalIy to perfon8 
and things, and is alfo exprcinvc of any thing ia- 
cred, devoted, orcminent. 

(».) Taboo, in geography, a kingdom of Airi- 
ca, SW. of Fcz2an. 

TABOOYAMANOO, an ifland in the S. Paci- 
fic Occan, fubjcA to Huaheine, onc of thc So- 


(i.)TABOR, in ancicnt geography, a moun- 
tain of Galilce, near Kadeih, about t% milcs firom 
TiBBRiAS. It baa the form of a fug;fr-loaf, in the 
midft of an extenrive plaih, and is 30 ftadia in 
hcight. (Jo/epbm.) The afccnt is fo eafy, that 
one may arcend on korfeback. On thc top there 
is a phin two miles in circumfcrence. Flaviu8 
Jofephu8, thc hiftortan and governor of Galilec,* 
caufed thc fummit of this roountain, for two miles 
and a half, to bc furrounded with walls. The in- 
habitants of Tabor long braved tbc power of tbc 
Roonan armie» ; but being depnved of water, they 
were fqrced to furrcnder to Placidius, thc gencral 
of yefparian. Scvcral churchcs and mon.tAerics 
wcrc built upon this mountain by St Helen. Ta- 
bor was alfo the feat of a biihop, dependant on 
thc patriarch of Jcrufa1em. When Godfrey of 
Bouillon fcized on thia mountain, be repairtd the 
ancicnt churchet. Undcr Baldwin I. in 1113, the 
Sar<icen8 rctook Tabor. It again fell ioto thc 
hands of the ChriftianB ; but the Catholic ilandjrd 
was by Saladm pulicd down the yenr after, and 
aU the churchcs deftroytd. The Chrillians retook 
it in 1153 ; and rcbuilt thcm. Pope Alcxandtr 
IV. granted Tabor tolhe Tcmplars, whoforiificd 
it again. At Icn^th, in Uie courr<; (>f 1390« the 


Digitized by 


T A B ^ \ 

l^iltan of Egypt dedroyed and laid wafte the 
^uiidings of tbis mountain, which could never be 
yrpAircd aftcrwards ; fo that it is now unlnh^bitcd. 

(a.) Tabor, a city given by the Zebalonite« to 
thc Mcrarit^s. i Chron. vi. 77. 

(5.) Tabor, in modern peography, a town of 
Bohemia, in the circle of Btchin, founc1ed by thc 
.Hurtires, undcr John Zi(ka; who, after plunder- 
ing andrating ttietownof ^(^f,in i42o«built Th- 
bory in the' form of ^eamp o/loa/es out of its ruins, 
whencc thc HuOitcs were namtrd Taburii, or 
Taborite^^. Being fcatc:d on a Aeep raountain, 
on thc dver Luznice, it is naturaily itrong. It 
i^ alfo fortiBed with a ditch, waiis and bulwark<i. 
The empcror Sigifmund n:ade it a royal borough. 
Albert of Auftna in vain attempted to takc it. 
Bnt Rodolph H. took it by Aratagcm, in 1611. 
]t was atfo taken in 161I1 16481 and 1744. It is 
.10 milet NN£. of Bcchin, and of Budwcis. 

TABORITES. See Taboji. N*» 3. 

TABORNOST, a town of Africa, in Dirab. 

TABORO, a mountain of * Naplts, in the W. 
4)art of Principato Cttra ; ncar Lavora. 

TABOROWKA, a town of Poland, in the Pa- 
latinate of Kiow; 16 mi!cs WNW. of Biaiaccr* 

TABORZI. See Tabor, N» 3. 

» TABOUR. «./. lrfl/fo»rin,/i?^ar,oldFrcnch.l 
A fmaH drum ; a dnim beatcn with one iiick to 
accompany a pi;»e. — If you did but brar the pcd- 
lar at door, you would ncvcr daiice again after a 
iabour and pipe. SbaJk.--' 

Th€ niepherd knows not tbunder from a tih- 

hour, Sbak* 

The tahour and the pipc fome takc delight to 

found. Drajion, 

— Morrice danccrs danced a maid mari<in, a;*d a 

tabĕur and pipe. Temple, 

* To Tabour. V. n. [taborer^ old Prench, from 
Ihe noun.] To ftrikc lighily and frequciitly. — 
And her maids ib^ll lead her as with the voicc of 
tl(>ve8» tabouring upon their breaftt. A''^. ii. 7. 

* TABOURER. «./. [from tabour.] One who 
beat«< Ihe tabour.— 

Wotild I could fee this tabourer. Sbai. 

* TABOURET. «./. lfrom tabour,"] A finail 
t.ihour. — Thry ihalldepart the roanor beforr hiia 
¥ ith trumpets, tabourets^ and other min{lrelfey. 

• ♦ TABOURINE. n./ [Picnch.] A tabour ; a 
inia«l dium. — 

Make n^ingle with our rattling tabourinej. Sha, 

TABOUROT, Stephen, a Prcnch pocl, bom 
3t 0;jon, in 1549. Hc was ki:ig*8 advocate, in 
th^ parliament ot Djon ; and was a man pf gcni» 
ws, but addidttd to trifles ; and bis poetry was li- 
4 j; tious, agrecabl/to the tiifte of tht timea. He 
ptiblilhcd Les Bigarrurest Paris, 1582 j and Lej 
raucbett Parii, 1585 : with fome othcr pieces ; in 
.•^11 of wh'ch hc allumcd the whiralical titlc of 
LorJ 0/ Accords. Stc AccoRDs. Hc dicd a^lh 
J'?lY, M6f, aged 46. 

TABRACA, an anc»fff.t fra-port town of Afri- 
I -», nrar H«ppo. I: waa madc a Roman coluny. 
'J nt f }rcflfl ahouiided with monkcys. PUn, v. 3. 

* TABRERE. n./ Tabourer. Obfolcte.— 
Beforc thcm yodc a lufly tabrere^ 

TuAl to thc mciry honipipt plaid. Spen/er, 

04 ^ T A C 

* TABRET. n. /; A tabour.-r nMJrht harc 
fcnt thce away with mirth and m\)i4akret, Ca. 
XXXI. 27. 

TAi3RISTAN, a prcvince of Pcrfia. on thc S. 
coail of thc Caljpian Sea. 

TABUDA, in ancicnt geography, a tWct oi 
Germany, no* callrd Ihe Scheldt. Ptol. 

TABU£, a town ui £gypt,*ofi the Niie ; 9 inilci 
SW. of Mcnuf. 

TABUK, a town of APia, in Pa!cftinc; 2o( 
miles ESE. of Jerufalcm. 

♦ TABULAR. «./. [tabula-uj Lat.] 1. S 
down 1!) the form ot' ubles or fynop^cs. i. Foroi 
ed laminr. — Moft of tlic fpottcd one», and inder 
all whatcYcr, cacept thote tbat are tebtdar t^ 
platcd. H'ood*u>ard, 3. Set in iqnarr8. 

• To TABULATE. v. a. [tabula, Lat-l 1. 1 
redoce to tables or fynopfcs. a. To ibapc wii 
a flat fuiface. I 

* TABULATED. adj. [tabuia, Lat.] Hat»n« 
flat furface.— Many of the beft diamonds a 
pointcd with C\x angleot and rorce tabuiatei 
p'ain. Gretuj. 

TABURNUS, a mounlam of Iialy, in Oiinj 
nia, abnnnding witb ohTcs. yirg. Geor.W, ^i 

TABTi a town of Sweden, in £. Gotbland; 
miles S£. of Nordkioping. 

TACALALPO, a town of MexicQ» m Til 
co ; »3 miles SW. of Tab ifco. 

TACAMAHAC, > in pharmacy, a rolki 

TACAMAHACA, J 6n, improperty calW( 
gum in thc (bop!<. It exudes ftom a fpccie« 
poplar; and is in rcpute for mitigattng paio» 
achcs, and is allb reclLoned a Tulnerary. Sce 1 
TiRiA Mkdica. 

(i.) TACAMES, or Jtacamesj a pro^iw 
S. Amcrica, in Terra Pirir.a, N. of Guay» 
and W, of the Andes. it contain» %o tow« 
of which are on thc fea coaft. Thc inba!!^ 
of thcfe 5 are Spaniaids» mcftizoee« negroes, 
varioutcafts, iprung from th«fe. Tbofe ^ 
otber 15 are moftly American Indtans. Tbc 
mate and produce are iimilar to thoie of \ 
yaquil. It alfo produces grain» frtittt, 
nut^,. yanillas, farfaparit1a, indigo, and mod 
ney and wax ; and the foreft8 abouiid whh tre 
great height and bulk, Tcry tbick iet. 

(i.) Tacames Bat, a bay of tbe Paci6 
cean on the coaft of Peni. Lat. i. 6. N. 

TACAPE, an ancient town of Afnca. 

TACATUA, a fea port town of Nurridi^ 

TACAZZ£, a riYcr of Africa, in Ab)i 
and ncxt to tbe Nile the largrd in that eii 
It rifei from i fource8 m thc ditirtA of An^ 
bout aoo milcR S£. of Oondar ; runs bctwc^ 
and tbe ir.ountams of Samen, and joina thej 
at ilak, in Nubia. Mr Bruce rays, that it i 
ncar one third of the water which fa\\« i 
wholeempire; and when paiCng it, he U 
marks of its ftream, the preceding year, \ 
perpendtcular abovc the bottom ; nor couV 
afcertained wbetlu r thin waf the higbdt p< 
which tt tad icached. It is extrefnely pl^ 
being (haded with Bne lofty treei«, the wai 
tremely cltar, and the baoks ador«ed wj 
moft fragrant Aowers. At tbe ford whc^ 
croiTcd, tliis rifer was fuUy aoo yards brod 
about 3 feet deep ; runniog ?cry fwiflly 

Digitized by 


Mt(nfe of pelib!c«. At t!?f cdpc OlP the water thc 
bicb wcrc cowcd with tamariAts, bchinH which 
ptm tail and ftatdy irecs that ucver lofc thcir 
tf)fes. It ib(»und«i with fif>', and i)« mhabitcd by 
cr«codi!cs and htppdponnni ; tbc formcr oftcn 
nrryoirproplc who attempt To crof8 thc rivcr 
tipoa blo%i^n up tkins. The heighbouring woodn 
vt ful! of lioiw and hyaeuas. Thc TacazZc is 
ourked bf Mr Brucc in hi^ n^ap as ^ branch of 
'k Allabora?, which fall8 into thc l^ilc. Thfc 
Lii.of thc f6rd was 13"* 42' 45*' W. 

TACCA« in botanyt ^ gcnuR of plaots belonging 
tothe chfs oi dodeca^drUii and drdcr of trig^nta\ 
Tbc flo«rcf i& abovfc. Thfe cortilla has fix pctaisi 
and is ?Au!tcd. Thc calyx \i hckaphyllou!: ) thc 
fmit a dry, angnlai^» tHrcc-cclIcd bcrry . Therc »S 
onlr nae fpcclc» ; vi2. 


TACCHAR, a toUrn of Afia, iii Thibct 5 43 

T.iCFARINAS, !i NurHian \frho, aftcr fcrving 
tocitmcin ihc Roman lcpons, hc^camc a pcnc- 
rilahiiown country, and commandcd an army 
«iiaS it« corourrors in the rrign of Tih^triu?; 
In(lKcoorfcot tKis war he rcpeatcdly dcfcatcd 
TibcnW5fcntrat8. Y^c^arinas was at laft killtd 
i^ Mrlc, performing hct-oic dctds of Valour, by 
DolideiiiL Tac. jfHn. ii. 

TACHA. SccTacMau. 

TACHA>lPSO, a.i id^nJ io thc ^ilc, ncar 
Tlcheis. Thc £(»ypt\an8 hcid onc haU of ii, and 
ihc JEthiop-an* thc othcr. Herodot, ii; 

TACHARD, Ouidin, or Guy, a travcllcn and 
"'«rr, wbo accompaiiicd M. Dc Chaumont, ag 
«i4«Q*7, in bis rmb«fry to Siam, in j686, aild 
rctirscd fo Europc in 1688. Hr ajrain wcnt to 
I«lj, io Mf apoHo.ic fur.dtion ; and died thcic 
'51*91» Hc publiAied Vojage de Suim, en 1685. 

TiCHAR SiGHi», a lownof APia, in Thibtti 

TACH.Ut, a town of Bohcmi», in thecirclc of 

Mn, u milc» v^ Embogen, and 28 W. of I>jlfen. 

Ai»aib-6cgcd by Zif<'a, ih 1411, without fuc- 

' Ctt; in 14 j;, he tcx)k it by Itorm, aod fackcd it* 

" '431, it w^ bcdcged by thc Cermans in vain. 

• TACHE. «./. lfrom tatk.\ Any thii^g takcn 
Mof; acalch; a loop; a buttotu— Make lifty 
'**'rfgold, alid couplc thc cUrtaina togclhcr 
^"^^tacbes, Exod, xxv. 6. 

TACHENS, a lakc of B.ivaiia, io Saltiburg, 5 
^B^itilOTtand ibroad: 14 tn. NW.of SalUbUrg* 

UCHin, a capc oil thc coaft of Mcxico ; iZ 

TACHOW, ur T^ichau. Scc TacMaI;. 

Tj^HUS, or Tachoi, a kiiig of E^ypr, who 

I «criftrd in thc rcijrn of ArtaxerxeH Ochus, Init 

*»Jclhrowd by NectanEBus II. 

; TACHYGRAPHy. «./. {rm^^i ind y^^.} 

*^«Worpraaicc of qiiick writing. 

n « '^*^» * "^^ ^^ It^*y> *n thc country of 
"* w.ii. 

TaCIT. fli/. [/tff/>, Pr. tacitus, Latir..] Si- 

**;«iplicd; Dot cxprcfl'cd by word«.— Thcrfc 

j T*">taf*I and taeit confcderation amongrt ail 

I ■■♦ Htmh thc common tncctiy of human fo<*ic- 

I^Ptr^ti. Arroa.— In elc^ivc novcrnmcnts thcre 

•{WW eoTcnaot, that liic king of thcir own 


makirg (hal) makehiir makcri princcs. V2lfra^» • 
— CApacioufnef« nnt only produccs miibccommp. 
cxprtf!ionB and carriagc but is a tacrt rcproach (Ji 
fome ipcivil!ty. Locke, 

TACITA, \ti.\Y.t Rpman mythology, thc^od- 
dcfs of Silcncc. King Numa t^ompllius paid par- 
ticuiar vcneration to hcr. 

* TAClTLY.^^t» .|from Ucit.] Silcntljr j with- 
out oral cxprcffiop<^Whilc thcy arc expofing a- 
nothcr'8 wcakneiTts, tbcy arc ttui$lf atming at 
thcir own cotnmendations. W^ij/cn.— Indulgttice 
to tbc vicc8 of mcD c&n Dcvtr be tttcitly impiitd. 
Rogeri, ^ 

. * TAciTtJRNlTY. »./ [taiiturniU, Prtnchi 
ialriturnitast Lat.l Habltuai filcncc.— ^ 
Thc lccreictt of natcrcs 

HaVc not morc eif^ in tadturnity. Shuk. 

Some womcn havc fomc tacitumity, Donne. 
— Too grcat loquacity, and ibd g^eat taciturmtj by 
fits. Arhutbnet. 

(i.)TACITUS, Caius Comcliu<^< a cclcbratd! 
Roman hittorian, and ocic of thc grcatcft mcn of 
his timc^ born about A. U. C. 809. He applicd 
bimiielf early to tbc bar, in which hc gained bigh 
rcputatibn. Haviag married thc ctaughtcr of A- 
caicotA, ihc road to pubiic hononrs was c^cti 
to him, iindcr Vcfpafian and Titus j bct daricg 
thc fr>.npuinary tyranny bf Dotnitian, hc andhi* 
fricnd Piiny rctircd from public atfairs. Tkc 
rcign of NcTva rcftorcd thijfe ltlminaritRof litcra- 
turc to korhe, and Tacitus waa tngat fed, in 850, 
to pronciunce t^e funcra» opcration of thc vcncra- 
blc yirginiu,- Rufus, the coileai»uc of thc cmpcror 
in thc confuhhip, and a^tcrwards fuccccdcd him a» 
■conful A. D. 97. It is ^uppcLd that he dicd m 
thc tnd of the rcign of Tr^j^"» His wurks which 
remain arc, i. Five book» of his Hiftory. 1. Hra 
AnoAU. 3. A TiicatiTc on thc diffcrcm "Katk^trs 
wbo thcn inhabitcd Gcrmany : 4. The Lifc of A- 
grico^a* 5. A Treatifc On Eloquencc. No an- 
clcnt autbor ha^ obtaintd a tticre fpiendid reputa« 
tion than Tacltus. Kirgs, princcs, and anthurs of 
all rank? havc rcad and admirco him ; tho' a fpl- 
rit of llbcrty rtms thro' his Whole works. Ntvcr 
were dcTcription aDdfcntifcentfohcautlfuliy blcn- 
dcd ; hor the a^ions ard charadters ot dc!i- 
cnated with mch precirion. In ihort, hc has a.I 
thc merits of other auihors wiLhoiit thclr difc^l»'. 
Tbcre havc bcen J trar.Aations of his Works into 

(i.)TacituS, M. Claudis^, an exctllcnt cm- 
peror of Romc, who fuccccdcd Aurclian, A. D. 
47«. SCC ROME, § 7p 

(1.) * TACK. n.A lfrcm t^.t verb.] i. A ^m^H 
nail. 1. Th« adt ot turoing fhip« at lea.— 

At cach iacJ^ our littlc Ilcct cfows lcls. Dryc^, 
^. To^/^oldT ACK4 To iaft ; to hold oui. TocM 
is rtill retaincd in Sc^Jtiand, and dcnotes hold (»V 
pcrfcvcre in cohcnGon,-*- 

Martimas bttfe duth bcar good tacke, T/. 
If Ihis twig ht madc of wocd 
That wi«l hold tack, V\\ makc the finr 
Tiy *bout thc tars of that old ctir. MudrBrns, 
(i.) Tack, in Scots law, { i. de/. 3. SrcL/.w, 
Part IH; CiHi^. IL S^<f. n, g; aM LrAsi-, $ ; 

(3.) Tack, m fhip.bui»diiif , a rof e ufcd 10 cor- 

fifie luc forcrr!oft iower rorr its ct ibt ivurfchaiKi 

O !:aw 

Digitized by 


. T A, C ( 1 

> .ftiy-i^iH in a fixed pofitioD, when the wind arof- 
Ks.^c fbip'8 courre obliquely : airp tht rope cm- 
«ployed to puil out the lowet corner of a iluddtng- 
uil or drWer lo the eKtremity of its boom. Thc 
nain^i aod fore-nul of a (hii>are furniflied wikh 
.a tack ottearh fidc, which is fi»rmed of a thick 
rope tapering to the end« and having a knot 
wrought upoa the Urgeft end» by whieh it is firm- 
ly retaibcd rn tbe ciuc of the fail. One tack is 
tnus a)ways .faftened to the wlndward» at the 
.fame time tha£ the ibect extends the fail lo this 

(4;)Tack ifl al(b applicd, byanalogy, to that 
pnrt pf Any (kil to which tbe tack ii»ufuaUy faften- 
ed. A' ibip is faid to be oit the ilarboard or lar- 
board tack, when ihe is cIofe-hauled, with the 
wind upon tbe (tarboardor larboard lide; and in 
ItSiis fen(e the diftance wbich flie faiU in tbat pofi- 
tioo is confidered as tbe Irngth of the tack ; al- 
thmighthisis more frcquebtly called boaro. S;C 
that artide. 

(i.> * To Tack. V. a. [iiuier. Breton.J i. To 
fa(ten to any thing. It has now a fcnftt appcuac^ 
iiig to contempti— . 

Thy great arm, whtck fj>ans-thc Ea(l and XVcft, 

jLnd tack^ Ihc centrc to thc fphe*re f ' ' Berbept. 
But living as you nft, and to your mmd, 
"" And loofely tack[df ai( muft bc lefl bthiod. 

-^TCht fymmetry of cloaths fancy appropriates to 
thc weairer, tacJting them tothe body as \i they be- 
longed to it. Grrci?. —Fiame fo as t > be cavcrcd 
with tbe hair-cloth, or a blankct tacJ^d about tbe 
edgcs. Afortimtr.'-ThcY (ctYt every tum that 
(baH be dcmanidod^ in hopes of peiting fomc coin. 
mcnd^ tacifd to tbeir fee8. Swi/i. ». To joiti ; 
^to uoite ; to (litdi togethcr.— The half Aiiit is two 
"^napkins tack^d togtthcr. Sbak. — I tack^d two 
playB togcther for the pleafure cif variety. Jbryden, 

(a.j.^T^oTACK. V. n. [probably from taek/e.] 
To turo 2 (bip. — This ver£criam' they conittrue to 
be thc compafs, which is bctter intcrpretccl thc 
ropc that tiirns the (hip^ aa we Tay, o&akc^ it /aek 
about. ĔrwMn. — Sceing HolTiod fail iato clorer 
nieafurc8witbu8 axid Sweden, updn t6e trrpje al- 
liancc, tliey have tacked fome poiots ocarcr Fra()cc. 

On citber (ide thcy nknbly tacL Dryden. 
They give mc figns 

To tack al>ou\, and (tecr aoother way. Addif, 

(3.) To Tack, ( $< a.) is to chsnge thc couric 
from ooe botrd to anotheir,* or tum the ftiip 
about from tbe ftarboard to the larboard tack, ia 
a contrary v^ind. Thua a (hi^ being ctof« bauled 
on the la^rboard tack, and turning hrr prow i\id- 
denly to windward, reccive8 t*bc irapreilion of thc 
wind on hcr head-failB^ by which (ne ^aUs o^STup- 
pn thc linc of tbc ttarbbard tack. Tackinc h 
a1(b ufcd in a more enlarged fenfc, to imply that 
niana;iivre in navigation by whlch a ihip makĕn 
an oblique pro^rcHioo to the windward, in a zig- 
xag dircdion. Tbis, however, id more ufually 
callcd beatingt or turning to <wmdfiuard. Sec Na- 
VAL TactiCs, NAVi(5ATioN, aod Saihng. 

TACKING, pari. n. /. See Uft arlide, and 
thc rcfercnce8 thcrc pointcd out. 

(i.) * TACKLE. «./. \jacelt Wclih^ an arroW.l 
X. An arrow. — 

06 > T A c 

Thc takil fmotc, and in it wcnt. Chauctr. 
a. Weapons ; inttrumcnts of adion.— 
Shc to hcr tackU feli, . 
And 011 tbe knight lct fail a peal 
Of blows fo iiercc, ,and prefs*d fo bome, 
That he retirU H^iihrau 

-^He rcfoIved to t^c up his taekJe and be foiw. 
VEJlrange. 3. [Tacekrl, a ropc, Dulch.)-. Tbc 
ropes of a niip : in a looter knftf aU thc i»ftru- 
,m«nts of faihng-— 

Tbc fails of goid, of filk the knkle werc. 


A focflning mcrmaid tt^crs ; thc Biken tttckla 

Swell with thc toucbes of thofc flowcr-foft 

That yarcly framc thc oftcc. . ShaL 

Though thy tackle'% tom, 
Thou ftiew*ft a noble ve(rcl. SJbak.CoriolMut, 

A ftately ftwp 
Wiih all her bravery on, and /^rii^? trim. Mi'l 
— As for tackitt the BocotianA invented Ibc oar, 
l)xdalus and bis fou Icarus^ the maAs and r<iili 

Ere yct the tcmpeft roi^rs 

Stand to your tackle, mates. D\^ 

— ff he drew the figure of a (htp, thcrc was not 

ropc among tbc tackle that cfcapcd hirr». Jddijiy 

(2.) TAeKLB, {§ I. def. 3.) in (hip-building. * 

MasT, J 4J R0PEJk£AKI1«<^ SeQ. HL— VIll! 

Ship, ^ it$\ and SHrp-BuiLDiNG. 
Tackl£-boardv »./► [fatkk sind board.] Sa 


♦ TACKLE0. adj. [f?om taikk.] Madc of ropo 
tackcd togcther.— ^ 

My man (hall 

Bring ^c cnrA, m;^de fike a tackUd (lair. Shcl 

ii.) • TACSCLINO. «./. lfrom faekU] i. Vr 
niture of thc maft.— Tbcy wondcrcd at their ihi| 
and thch- tacilin^s. Abbit. — Tackltng^ as ftfl8 ar 
tbrdage, muft be forefeen. Bacon. — 

Our iackMngjkld^Md wfccks ad Uft fuccet 

2. InArumcnls of a^on : ^HJjJhTng tacUhig, kiici 
>» taCkling.— I wiil fumifli him wilh a rod, if y< 
Wiil funjiih him with thc rift 6f thc Miklmg, 
makc him a ftflier* H^alton. 

(a.) TACKLrnG. Sec FiSHERt, Pishinc, Fisk 

ING-rLOAT,tlSHIN6H0<)K,NET, &C. alf)TAC 

Kle, § 2v and fhc attticlcs there refcrrcd to. 

TACKSMAN, ir. /: SccTenurb. 

TACKUMBKEET, a town of Africa, ancicnl 
ly callcd Siga, or Sigeum, ind oncc the capital q 
Ma\jritania; fcatcd on fhe coatt cf fhe Mcditcrrao^ 
an, 44 milcs SW. of Oran. 

TA-CONO-LOCHE, a town of thc Cbin^ 
cmpife, m thc yiand of Fomao(fe. Lon. 137.5' 
E. Ferro. Lat. aa. ai. N. 

TA-COU, a river of Cbina, in Changtoni 
\frhich runs into the E.ift Sca ; 7 milcs ENE 
Kiao. I 

TACrOU-CHAI, ) t tb^n 6f Thibct ; the rd 

TAC-POUNA:, Uss milc» SE.' of Lii^ 
the other 240, 

TACPOY, .1 city of Thrbet, and capital of , 
didria fo namcd ; 126 milcs 8B. of LalTa, H 
150 NNW. of Ghergo »g, Lon. 91. 51. E. Lal 

TACCUET, Andrcw, a Jef^it of Ar.twcrc 

Digitized by 


T A D ( 1 

tho i^jnrt^hcdin \ht lyth ccntury. Hc was a 
moit bborioni writer in matheinAtici ; aod pob* 
ltftfd AtretttiiedH AJtr^nomy^ an edtUon of Euciid^ 
and many other trat^s. Hn workt wtpe coilc^ted, 
nd printtd ;it AntMrcrp, in one lirge 'TOlutne, fo- 
io, tiS^. If( dicd iii 1660. 

TACSAIRAt^I, a lake of Afia, in Thibet, .^6 
c<k] in drcu(nfcrenae. Lon. 16. 20. £. Fcito* 

(i.)«TACTJCK.5r'fw^, Fr.]&dating lo thc 

(1.) • TA<:TJCits. ». /. 1t««W] The «t of 
M>ring tncn in the ficld of isatUe.— Whcn Tully 
h\m^ rhe taditki^ he was thioking on thc bar» 
^iwch wa< hif hcld (?f baitle. Drytien, 

(T.)TACTicf, in tbc act of w^r^ is the method 
Hdi^-^g toroe* to the bcft advAfit^e in order 
fit \i»iky aod of pciforming the rcvcral military 
fco*woi tnd nrorution». 

{^^TlCTKS, NaTAL. ScC NaYAI. TA«TtC8. 

HriiiotheTOgcnious and jiilUy celcbratcd Mr 
C^ntittat Grcat BriUm owe» thc prcfcnt'high. 
^«pTwcd ftatc of her Maval TadUcs, in which 
''<«6pfnor to all the other powcrs of Ewopc;; 
*B^forwbich (he ii chicAy indebted for thc glory 
«^i'i o«r na?al ^idories» obtained lioce the i«ih 
J^Apni, i7gj, when <thcie improTcd ta^ica were 
w cime4 i^to praaice. Rodncy, Howe, Dnn* 
W» /oii% Nciion, and all our «t^rr brave na« 
'*'*k««i, have bcen highly and defcrvedty bo* 
■BBTBd and ttwarded» for their tmportant^cr^i.» 
B^tlu Itoc. But qvbat htncurst wbat ri*vt^ta^9 
F«WBconfcrrcd on Mr Clerk, whdfe aibnilh- 
Ngtniiii Uid the Toundation ot all thefc bnltiant 
***iai wkich have contrihuted» at fuch a cnii- 
tt^nod, to prefcrTe our Iree c^nl^tution» and 
■tStabertyand iodepeiidcnce dritons ftill buaA; 

. * TACnLE. A^'. [/««//^» Tr.Utailu, ta3umt 
W'J SofccptibIe of tooch-— 
Sbe 00 tbc (icenc hcr 4aaik iweeta pieefcBled7 

I Beaumamt. 
^^ebie troD, fo«odty liglUi figiiration,t /aSi/e 

■•liCTJUTY. n. /. [from taaiU.] Ptrcei>. 

. TACTION. if. /. [taaion, Fr. toBitt Lat.] 

T.4ajBA, a town of Mcxtco, N W. of the city. 
.*'JCUMAnAAitS, or Tioomedes, a town 
lA^rica, tn Oarah» the original country Qf the 
^P^ fcenffii of Morocco. 
TACUNGA, a popnloua dty of Pcru, in Qui« 
^ ^ ailet S. of Qaito. The inhabttaut» drivfl 
l^tr^dc m woollcn cloibs» whicb thcy mana« 
^^ h ba^ tbc ntitn» of a noblc pakcc of thc 
^ H kad alfo a gnmd temple of thc Sun. 
J^U, a rivcr of Buropcan Torkcy, wbich 
«■Kotbe Daoube* near Kiiia, in BcUarabia. 

I I ADAilERL at own of Hindooftan, in Myfore; 
^*:ei NE. c* Chitiadroog, and 140 NN£. of 

L2*^W)OLY, a town of Hindooftan, in My- 

T.i?^ SE. of Sattimunguhim. 
I J*OCASTER. a tdwo of England in thc W. 
**^ rf Yorkihire, ngted for ptenty of lime- 

07 ) T iE N 

itone dog up near it ; and for bcing onc of the 
fi»ft pUccj» in which a huiMmp wa»? crc<5lcd fnr 
SuhHiy frhoola. It is 9 miles 6W. of York| and 
1J8 N. of Loridoa. 

TADCUL, a town of Hindooitan, in the Myv. 
forc: 6 milca S£. ot Cavcnpatan9. 

TADEN, a town of Uo4ft<iini;:i4 miktE. of 

TAD^R* « rivcr of Spain near New t^artha^^^ 

(i.) TAUl>V-fVN, or Tadoum, a t^^wn^ of Aii- 
atic Turkey*in Armm^a, on jfUce Vav, with a; 
haibour : lao iniles SSE. of Erzerum. 

(ft.) Taoivan, or Ta^uan, ^ town of Periia» 
in Fa(fiftan, featc4 in a beautiful plaini lunopg 
(prin^s^ aod luFrouiidt<lwit^c^iifeot£rmt>»tr^e9: 
60 milc8 1). of Schirauz. 


TADORNA. Scc Anas, N^ z6. 


TADOU8AC, a town of N. America, in Low* 
cr Carmda, at tbc moutb of the SAOti£MYi on 
thc lcCt fide of the St Lawr«ncc. Xt h a pbcee^ 
gncat refprt fnr thcAmericanJndians, who givc fttr» 
in ex€hange for.doth, andothcrEuroptao goodt.* 
It was firft ieitltd by the French, but w»8 takcn by 
thc Engiilh in x6a^ It was t^kcnby thcPicnch 
in x6^ ( but cedcd to ^rita^, with the reft of 
Cioada* atJhe pcace in 1763. It it loo^milet 
JIE. of Qucbec. Lon. 69. 40. W. Lat.^S. 5. Ni^ 

(t.).* TADPOLE. n.f. [tad, ioad^ and poia, 
€ijovngvu%,%^Tifiti^ A young fl>^p€lQj(»>.fi;pg p^; 
toad, conlUling onlj of ab^dy andaiM^lv>3 POTK 

^ipcic. — ^ f . : *. 

• I II broach ihe tadpoie^n isy ra|>ier's point. SJmU^ 
^oair<-Toifr>eats ihe toad and tbc tadfi$k\SM. 
— Thc rcRjlt is not a pcriieiSt, frog but a tadpgk- 
il<iy,— A hiac^ and round liibftaoce teg^n to- di-r 
lat<Wtan^ after awhile the head, the cyc^, thc tarl 
%o fbc daA^ernable^ ami at laft become what th<L 
ancientt cahe4 gy^uii vMe aporwiggle or tadpole* 

(a.) J TADjroi^* ii a youog frog bcforc it hajt 
dift!ngagcd iifrUfro«i tbe menr.braBtb ihat envc- 
lope U in its -firft Aage of ttfe. Sec^RAHA« K^» 
and jp ; and &PAi^ANZANi. ' 

TADJLJAK. «ce Taditaw, N? >. 

TADWORT, a town of England ^ Surrey; 
$. of B«nfteai(t 

Ti£DHFM vtTjp,{Lat.] WearincA of life. Setj 
£t(NVi, and SuiciDa. 

TAEL-PB» in zoology. Sec TARTARjr, N** IIL 

* TA'£N* fV.|^tioal oootrA<^ion oitaken. 

TJENARJA, feftivali) hcU in honour of Nep- 
tune, at Tcnarud-. < • 

TJENARIUS, a narne of Neptjunc ; from 

(x.)TJSNARIJS| apromoiitory of Laconia, the 
moft fQuthern point of thc Morca, where Ncp- 
tuae bad a temple. It ia now called Matapan. 
It had a large and dcep cavcrn, whcnce^ i0ucd a 
black unwholtiome vapour,(probabJyf ked air, 
or carbonu: acid jGas,) whcnge the pocts fctgn- 
ed that it was onc of thc entranpcs to hell, thro^ 
which Hercuka dragged thc iriple-headcd infcr- 
nal dog, Ckrberus, up to tbe earth. Paufaniat 
(ays, tbat tbis cavein was the rcfort of a large 
ferpent, whofe bite was mortal, and which Her- 
cules ki)led and carried to £uryftheus ^ apd that 
Q % thii 

Digitized by 


T M H ( 108 ), T...^ N 

\his gave nk to tbe ftbry of his chaining tbe dog pals ; thffi! canals p<ih rcHjn^ tvery jomt Qf thi, 

ot HcU. 

: (».) T^H^RUs, a town of Laco::ia, 40 ftadia 
from tbc capc, (N^ ^.} fainuus br bcautitui grera 

(3.)TiEiiARUs, a fon of Ncptune, who gatc 
^lainiB to the capc, town, and ftltivais« . .' 

(I.) T^NIA, in archiicdturc, a rticmbcr of the 
I>ofic ca^itai, rtfcmbhng a fqpRrt tii|ci, rcrving 
]nfteaH'of a cymatium, bci>Tg'madc faft to a ca- 
ni^l bclow tt^e triglypbs, \f hcri of i*t fccoas ihc 

. ^!L) T[xnfA in entomoiogy, tbe TA?i.WoaM, 
a gen&s ot animtl« belongin'^ to the c\aU r.H yer^ 
: «; and ouder of inte^inm, The body ia lorg, 
dcprtnTcd, ;ind jointed likc a ehain, and- comain» 
a mduth and vil'ccra in cHch joint. Actording to 
Gmclin, tbcre arc 91 ^pccie^j ait which inh^ibit 
the inttftinc-a ot variou.s animals, particui:ir:y of 
<)Hadrupc€ts. Thc tania appcars dcttinrd to fccd 
on (uch^juicr: of animais as are already animaiiaed, 
^i^ is th<Jrcfbi*e nwft coma^only found iri th^: aii- 
^ntary canal, and in the upper part, vfrherc 
t-hcTC i€ the gre^teft^bnndaiKct>f chytc : for chyle 
ftem8 to be thc i»atural fo6d 6f thiic t^nia. Aa 

antma/t body, aud coaycy tbc a&iiAcDt {fi^. 3.) 
Surrouiiding ihc opeiung Mt tbc muuM)art9Ucevl 
anumbcr of pirojtding rs-dit, whicbarcot a b- 
^oua tcxturc, wtiote direciion ia ionguuJiaiU 
Thclc radii apptar to icrvc ihe purpo(c of Unu^ 
c^i^ for fix^ng thc* orihcc pf tbc gioutb, as wetl 
aa lliat ot mulcic& t» cxpand tlK cavity pf ib^ 
mouth, from thcir bcing mlcrted alotig (Uc bnm 
ctf tbat opeiiing i {^CKjij(, i.) AJtScr iBcjoundid 
extreoiity or hcaJ bati betn n.4rrbwcu iiitu tlkc 
ncck, as is rcprcicnted lu Jig, %. tlie lowerpait 
becomes tiitted, anu haa % linaU tubcrde^ pUctd 
upon cacb fli^tted tide, tbe tut>ercteb aie cuuan 
iii thc middjc, and appcaif dcftiue4 to Tct ve tk 
purpofe of Cuckcra tor attaching- tlic hc^mwc 
^dtuatly. * Thc trtcrnia tfructure of lUep.i! 
cosipoliiig the body of this animai ia partiy ni 
cuar and partly cehular ; thc .ittbilaacc itkit u 
whitc, and fomcwhat icl"envt>.*cs in iis tcjtturcilu 
coagniatcd tyoipb of the human blood. T:c2li 
meiitary canal pallcs aiotig cacb hde of tbe loi 
mal, len Jing a cfof9 canai ovcr tbc bottoo ( 
eacb jotnt, which connc£ts thc two iaterai c^* 
togeiticr. S-e/j^. j. Tne tsenia let^jowtobc 

it is tbus fupported by roodwHich h a^-caiy dt» ot tlic hmpldt >/iUcttlar animals in itityrr. T 

^elted, it is deftitute of tbe complicated organii 

0f digfftion. Seven' fpccitii of tsrnia aie p:cuii«4r 


»-1;*'Tjbi*ia cELLtJLOSA, which is inclo(?d. in a 

einrcini^mm]» vt5c!c; inhabits the •^cllniar fub* 

ft^ncc ofit4ile'mufi-lcs>| i&^tbout an jncb iong,.b}itf 

an inch broad, and <mc.fourtb of an inch tlnck, 

and is vefjrtenacious of U*^c. ■ '1 '*.;.. . 

^i.'T3fe*^A DBNr<TA, ha?8 a pointed h€a4 v^ 

Urge joims ^ti. ftreJrtctfflYrarifvcrfely, and thclmall 

jrtintb are att'd|lated ;' the ofcuIum of openirrg in 

thc middk of both^^iargi'^^ is'fOmewhrit "^iicdr probUtkiy p«oJ)agatcd by ova, which tnay** 

]t is inarrow, i^ hr'^i ^i loog, and btoad i1f \htf pals along the circulating Ycllclii of othcratti(r 

fofe^|tts ; its bTtria< are aot vilib1e tp thynakecl Wc canu&i 6tticrwifc cXpUio tbc ' pliciioineoa 

eyc; and thc head undcr»^eath rcfcmblcs a beari worrhs bcing f()Uiid 10 tbc cgg» of ^iMrb, am 

iit^apc. h^nbabits the inteftii)e!t. theMiteftincsof a foet^ brttire.birtb, exi:ep| 

'♦3. T^iA lATA, h wh^e- With' joints very 

^iort attd knotry iu-tbe middle ; lhf ofculi]mi^ (al- 

litary. Il is from 18 to iao'ftct loAg, its jjointi 

way lu witicb it is oourilbcd is liuguiar ; ttic li 
bcii^ takcn in b^' tbe mouth, prftica iiHu tbe 
mentaiy caiat, and is thus madc la Yiijt in a 
Bcnalway the d»ftercnt pait» gf thc ammal 
\l has no cxcrctODy f^MtXu it w« Uid appcar t^ 
tne wltutc of its alimentary fluid is tti titcnoui 
mcnt; thc dee^yrd paitti prob^bly dttlb^^c 
a f)uid whikdi tr«iUfu<tck (hrough Ihc Ikio, wl 
i» extiiemei^^ poiouK. This atiimal iias r 
Fcfcml^ing a brain m Dervcs, atKl-, ftem& lo 
no ortraiis or l-.nic hut tital of iecling. It is 

fuppoling their ova to havc Dafl'cd tbrougbl£[ch of the motbc^^ andthust 
coi)veyed to the toetus. Anothcr modc of inn 

arc Itreakcd tranfverfcly j 'it« ovaria are dilpafcd pofltlicd by taBoia (if Wc may ckil it intreaf\ 

3ilte'tbepetahi-(of a rofv, • * ^ ' 4 fprcic8 of Vcgetaiion, by aii addttion id 

^. TjEnia solium, ha^ a margina* montb, one ^robur of thciii joicics. It we coiUuiertbe iij 

on each J^int.: ThiA fpreieH <s m<)ft' trcquent in dual joinis as diltinit bcmgs, it ia io; aiia J 

ihis countiy. It is fiom 3 tb 30 fett long, fom4 we rcftc^ upon the powct of gtncration givi 

f!iy 60. If'ls cbmpofe^ of a head, in wbicb is a eacb j<*int; it mabostliis co'njc<!turc tlic: mure! 

motith ^dUpted to«*ritik op fliiid«', and ah apjpa- '""'"'^ ^" '*'" •—"" «•«..-.->^ *K-f* -, 

ratu» fbr gWing the head a fiXed ^iiuatioo. Thc 
body i j compof^d of a grcat mimbcr of diAm^l 
pirces art fcufettfd togrthey; ^4ch jomt havfi«g ari 
6rgan whereby it attacbe? it(cif to the neighbour- 
iiig parl«f theinncr coat 6f th* intcftint?. Th« 

bable. Wc can kaycUy fappaV tt^t an ovt] 
a ta^nia, which at its hill gro>«th. i»"3o 'fcct 
iind', co.Bpofc(t of ^oo joialf> coniattird a i 
toenia e6mpo%d of 'thf3 numbt;.r o» pieces *, b 

bave fccn yoiing taenia nol half a foat lcing 

pot pdtiri^d of 50jomt9> which itui wcre 1 

j<^ini!f »^tft the hcad afte always ffAaU, and l?b^y worms. We bavc- airo nnmy reafon3 to b 

VtCoW<*^^duaHy ^nlnrgcd as ihey are TaHher rt* that wbcn a p4rt of thitt animal is tircUKcn oti 
fi rvt^*frb*n it : but towards the tail a f«'w of lb« tbc rCft, it is-capable of formmg a bcaid fvtt 

).;t^»ioin\:s again becotht! dtmininied in Hice. T**t* 
ilxiremuy of the bo'1y is tCrminated bya fmall'fe- 
D.icircularjOint, which has no opcinng init; Th^ 
I i«> coinpofcd of the fanie mutcriaU as the o* 
th:r parts of its lK>dy ; il has a louhded opentng 
ifi lU extremitv, which is contidered to l>e iis 
^umtb. SeeHnfrCCCXXVm.Jg. 1, 2. Tbis 
DptniMo' is c jntiniicd by a U^oin duct into two ca- 

and becoteing an independent bcing» >ike tl 
lypUs, (Stici.^0LYPU$, § II, N** X — «.) ^/u\ 
ftg. I. ihows the hcad ot thc tsnia m&gmhc 
n»outh is fai the middce of (hcr ctrcblaj' 
wherc thc body t>ecomcs Aatted aml broad 
are twb hoUow lubcrclcs rcprefentt:ci by tl 
dark Ibaded fpots. Etg. s. is llic iaine h< 
itd natural bigncfs, and whicb b^lon^ed to t 

Digitized by 


T A 

tokdin lenglb. Ft^, 3 

uoaUt iii a porlion ur ttic: f«icn« taeniai of tbeir 
a4:ur4) bigacls. The dartL-Oiadcd undulating 
liM art the alimcotary oanaisi which arc f<tu tu 
iW fuh estent in this portion of tbc worm. jPi^ . 
4. ihuir»thi: micidic fyftcm of vcflVU, in two joints» 
wtucb arc rrprc^cnttd by the dark iines. Fig. j. 
ibvvs two jo^nti^ from .qof rwk qf \vhich a Uip 
vm toro <iiiwn tu (how tbc vcircia iindcrneaib» 
W «iio tr.c diridiuii of tbc the f)ip« 
Moidi uc accuisuuted ioto iittl^ faicicuii Ukc 
cutkiuir fibrcs. fsg. 6. cxhibits Ihrcc joints» ha* 
\H% (Jbc.4u^ lcading irom the UtcTal olcuia in- 
jcard^tbcdark tranfvcrfe linis ieading frorQ each 
U'.iil\itD iliow the fiac» dircCtigi^i ^nd exient of 
Uck duct», Fig, 7..1howu th«cdgc of two jinnts 
inDtci (^wiTik^j aod tlic appcaraucc of thc ukru» 
L lA tiiis pgiot of vicw. Fig, %- rcprerciits tbe 
^ksk oi thcle caoais in tbcir rei4(ivc htuationS( 
bccMrCariiHc^s ii>g«uiou8 account qf ibc tsnia^ 
ttiWLniican Traofj^tioAV 

j. T£«tA T^t^TTA» vi(hicb chic^y bbabita 
t£cBvauf the trout, but i& aif() tu be f9ifiid in 
tfeiQtcftioc» oi' th< hum*u ipcoica. 

LTjtuik visc£RAkM, whicb is inclo{c4 io ? 
fr& ir, bruai in the lortr-parti aod poir.tcd in the 
bMderpart, iohabita, the Uver, the plaosnta ^t^* 
ntu, isA the-lAck wiucb contaius the TupcrHuous 
iutii ot 4rop6cat pei Uyn», . 

:.T4iiu vuLOARis, orcpmmon/a^^r^uoTMiybaii 
two litcr.ll ojoutns io each joint ; it attachca itp 
Ultf Drnily to the intc£ki<^^, tbat U cao fcarcely 
WrmiMred by the moft violent mediunes; it is 
ftni4cT»aiKl ba» the sippcarHnce of bciog mcmbra-» 
i«cin)»; itK fv>mewbat pdtucid» from xo to 16 
knktBgi anU about 4 aiul a^ half linta broad at 
^tin. . , . , 

TJBNIAS, a par^of kk« Moeotis. Strab^. . 

T4£N;>A, ittuwA and lctti^Hiient ut W..lflori* 
^ 00 thc E. chaunel ot the Mot>iHr, ou the. fid« 
^aoucicnt Ittdian towa« .•The wax ueeabouadi 
BttTit. SeeMYiiiCA. 

TAlfX SccTAPp. 

TAFALA, or Tap^lla, a city of SpaiOi ia 
)i^ie} «hh-a p^ace» tHiilt iathc ijth ccn- 
^^Cittrk8ll*K^i>tNavarre. it has alC^ a^ 
M^rityi ^d 4 caft)e } 4vfi.if.plc^l^y fituate4 
«^ b.ioKs of the CidazzO| in a tV;rtiie coumry, 
^actti(br.good winr. (t to 15 mile'8 NW. of 
W^U, and 15» «8» or »a miics S, of Pampe- 
^ W 1. ^ W. L«t. AK^ %9- N. 

TAFi^i£, a river of AfFM^ which ruos int9 
^ ksk bccwccs thc rivcrs Soncgai and Nunez, 

TAf ALiOGAi a town ot A^rica, in G4Um. 

TAFAliSGA« a tuwn of Atrica, in Seoega^. 

TiFALLA Sfc Ta? ALii*r . . 

TAPAK, a towo of Arabia, in Ycmcn ; 80 miicg 

• TAFf ARf L. «./• in thip^buiidiog, thc t^pper? 
Mpaiti fram9k or rail, abaft ovcr the poop. 

fccSlllP.BU|LQI9IG, /V^U. 
TAFFAROWY» a mouniain of Afcicai ta Al- 
^»; 15 miles S£. of Oran. 
T4FF£R£L. Scd TAf farel. 
ii4 • TAFFETA. n. /. [tajttojp Fn tafi€$arf 
^t^ Alhiulilk.— 
Beauiics no ricbcr than ricb tajhta, 
T^fftta pbxiich hikcntcrma.precUe* 

F ( i«9 > T A a 

(howf the ahmenUry — Tbct:hangcablc /«^(y, who(e colours thephi- 
lofophers call not rcal but apparent, Boj^U. 

(%,) Taffeta, or l io commcrcc, 3 finc 

1 AFFETY, 5 fmooib fiikcn ftuflf. rcj 

mark^bly gloAy. There are talTcties of ali co- 
lour^ fome plain, and othcrs itriped with gold» 
tilvcr, &c. others chequered, othcrs liowcred, 
^c. according to the fancy of the workmen. 

TAFFI, Andrew, an crainent Itaiiaa artiil^ 
boia at Floieucc in laij. Having lcarncd thc 
art of defigning in Mosaic, frum fome Greek 
artilts, cmploycd in dccorating thc diurch of St 
Mark in Veiucc, thc chief ot whom was Apĕilo- 
mtuj hc introduced it into Italy. His chief worl^ 
LA a Mofi%c picce of our Saviour dcad, )i^ a cha« 
pcl at Fiotcucc. Ile (iicd in 1x94* 

(i) TAF1LET, a kingdum of Africa, in Bar- 
bary» t)eiongiiig to tbc cinpcror of Morocco, ly- 
inp along the £. Hdc of Mount Atlas ; bOundecl 
on the N. by tbc kingdom» of Fez and Trcrocfcu \ 
^. by Bcriberies ; S. by the Dcft.rt of Barbary | 
and W. by Fcz, Morocco, and Sus. It i« moun* 
tainon», and is divided into 3 provinccs, viz« 
Drasy Saro, and Tuet ; which t:»ntain about 
1000 icattered houfes, ibmc uf thcm witb towerst 
aod cach io4he midil o£an mclofure of gardeot» 

f>alm trec plantatiune, and cuitiva!ted grounds ; 
unniog a beautiful and variegAted appcarancci 
and interfc<5tcd by «nany rivcrs and rivu!et8 Aow- 
ing fvom Mount Atlas and fcrtilizii}g thc wholc« 
Thcir djtcs arc very fmali bui exc(llcQt, aod, 
hkc ^r OATS, are a principal ^o^d both of the 
people and tl^cir horfcti. Thcy alfo make a v^)| 
ftix>ng braody frum thcnob of whjcb thcir iheiiliii 
drmk- to fuch cxecf8, though prohibitcd by ti)f 
Koraii,4bat wiue has no r&^ on thcnu They 
Ukcwifc fe(d upoii camcls Rcni. Tlie country 
abouods with oilricbes and dromcdaiicp. . 

(^.) TATiLiT, thc capital of ihc above king. 
dom, is a good trading cRy, and has a caillc, ao^ 
maniifa<5tures of ftutfs and ciirpets. it is ieated 
OD the rivcr, <N^ 3.) «75 miies SE. of Morocco, 
but Cruttwell roakes it only i<vo f SE. aod 349 
S. of Fvz. Lon. 5. 45. W. Lat. a8. 3. N. 

(3.) TAPiLETt a river of Africa, which rifc8 iii 
Mojupt Atlas, pailcs tbe city of Tahleti and fall8 
^ito; alakc, 149 miles $. of tbat clty. 
, TAFNA» /1 riyer of Ainca, in Aigiers, whicb 
runs into thc Mcditerranean, near Tackumbrret. 
TAFO, atown of Africa» oo the Goid Coaft. 

• TAG. n. f. [tag<t lilandicki thc point of a 
lance. x. A point of metal put ta the end of a 
Aring* . i. Any tbing paitfy and m<ran. — If la^ 
and rag be admittcd, lcarncd and unltarncdi it it 
thc fault of fome, oot Qf thc law. H^kitgip.^ 

Wili you hencc 

Bcfbre the tag returoa whofe rage doth rend 

Likc interrupted waters. Sbak^ 

^Tbe M^rag peopie did not clap him and hif8 

him. Sbak.-^Ht invited tag^ lag, and bob-taii, 

to the wedding. VEJlrange, 3. A young (beep. 

• To Tag. i», a* lirom the noun.] i. To fit 
any thing with an end| or point of mctal ; as, t9 
tag a Uue. 4. To fit one thiog with anotberi ap* 

His courteous hoft 
Sbak. Tagi tvcry fcDtence with fomc fawniDg word^ 
Skak^ Such aa my kiogi my prioce* Drjden. 

■ * * Tif 

Digitized by 


T A G. r 1 

- Tis iag^d wrth rhymc. Drjden, 

3. The word is hcrc impropcrly ufcd. — 

^ Cb r.pcii*d by you to tag in rhimcs. S^wi/i. 
4* Tpjoin. This is V^^^y jf9 tack.— RcfiftaiKC, 
and thc *focccffionof thehoufe of HHno»cr, the 
whig writOTs pcrpctitaHy tag logcthc^* S<»i/>. 

• TAGADEM?T, > or TiaEDENT, h town of 
TAGADEONT, J APric;^, in Algicra, 6j mile* 

ESE. of Oran, and 315 SW. of Aig»cr«. 

TA^GAI, a town ox RuHia, \\\ Sinvbirflcoe ; 4S 
rriiles W. of Simbiiik. Lon. 64. 40. E. Pcrro. 
Lat. 54. jo.N. 

TAGANROG, a t-^wn antl fort of RurTn, ofl 
tl c fca of Azoph, btiilt by Pctcr the Great, im 
»^96. In 171 1, ihe fQrt wa« dcmolilhed by trca- 
ty, b«t rebu'it m 1769. It is 31 milca WNVf. o€ 

TAGAOST, or Taoast, or Tagoast, a town 
of Morocco, m Sus, where a great n^imhcr of 
Jcw9 TcG le and carry on a confiderab!e tr nde. It 
h dfefrndrd by a parrilon ^f 400 mcn. Thc rc-r. 
Mr Crutiwcii makcs it thc hsrih ptece of St Aii- 
£uftine t othen pia6e tbat towii in Algicri. (See 
TagasTa',) It is feated on a ferlile pUin, 37 
w. S. of Tanitoit, ?o ^romthe^ea.coatt, and 140 
6W. of Morocco. l^n. ^. ^. W. ktt. «9. 15. N. 

TAGAPIPE, n fort (»f «ratii, on a poi»t of 
l^ftdi in the bJiy of Ai7 SArnta, ncar St Salvadore. 

T^AGARA, a city cjf anciem India, the mctto. 
pblis of a large diftnd calicd Anaca, which com- 
prrhcmled ili^ ^reatt^ part of the Subah of Au- 
irettgabad, ai»d the S. pirt nf Con<:aw. Arriai» 
fays, that it wn^i lituattd about 10 day« jmirncy 
lothcE. of ^ultanah*; wliich, a»cdrding to the 
f4tc bf traVclUng iti rhat cotintry^with loadcd caris, 
iSHght be about 100 BritiAi milcs. Thi» fii^8 itt 
Ituatton at Deoghirt a pl^oe of great antiqQity, 
snd famous thfungh ali Indla on accoont of the 
pagodaR of E»oufa. It i« tiow callcd Doulat-abadm 
6ee Am¥dnagur, AurengabaDi and DowtAT* 

ABAD, N° 2. 

• TAGASAj a town of AfrTca, in Fcz, on a r\i 
vet, 9 miiestrom thc Mcditarrancan, -Snd 60 W. 

TAGAST. Scc Tacaost. 

TAGA8TA, a tttwn of Algicrs, in t4ie prorinci 
of Conftantra, ftirmcriy conlidcrablc, but now 
TTiuch redttced. !t is fanK)us fer having been thc 
l)irth-plare of St AuGusTiNE. 

TAGASTE, an ancicnt town of Numidia. 
Plin, ▼. r. 4. ' 

TAGAYOST. Scc Tagj\ost. 
. TAGAZaNTE, a town of Algiers-, ^l-owTc» 
€E. of Oran. 

TAGB, a larjie town of Arabia FdiXf on th^ 
road from Mccca to Yemen, with a caftle on a 
mountatn wMch commands tbc town. Lon. 43. 
J. E. Lat. N. 

TAGE8, in ihe tnythology, a fon of Genius» 
and grandfon of Jupiter, who firft taught thc E- 
tr«riant augury. He was foiKid by a TuicaB 
^lowman in the form of a clody and immediately 
alTumed a"^ human Ihapc to teach thcm augury. 
(CueroJ Had this drume clod taught thcm agri" 
£ulture indead of augwy^ it would hare bcen a 
bettcr ailcgory. 

• TAGETE8, marygold, in botany', a genut 
^f plamtt belongiug \o tbe clait of ^ngenejia^ and 

lo ) T A O 

orAtr ^ ptdygamia f«pfrjlua ^ and in tfit tiShira! 
fyftem ranging under ihe 49th order, <2on^u, 
The reccptacie is naked ; tbe papput €Oimft« ol 
5 tTe& awnt or beard9;'the caiyx is monoplirl- 
I0U8, -quinqucdcntate; and tubular; and thcrcait 
4 prrfiftcnt ^orets of the ray. Thcre are 3 (pc- 
des: vix. ' • 

I. TJKSETES KmcTA, tbe AJrieon wiary;rold,h 
a na)rvc of Mcsico, but has been cukivated in Bn« 
tiOi gaidens tince 15^. U ha«a (tcm iiibdmdcd 
and rprcading. Thcre arc miinj^ vaftetics: i. Pale 
y^eWf or brimftonr cdottr, wHh lingie, d«jbtt| 
and fiftuious Ik^wcrs. s. Deepyeih^o^ wkhltgte, 
^oublc, and fiftulo«i;t Rowcrs. 3. Orange^olwnd^ 
with fingle, double, ' and Muious Auwc^rs. 4« 
Middling Afrieem^ witb oraoge coloured Aowers. 
5. Smieet /cetUed Africam, T^eic arc alt very Aib. 
}t€( to vary ; f9 that unlcf"* tlie fecd^ art ^cry carc- 
firtly itnt^ from thc fiiicft Aowcrs ^cy alY apt t» 
degcnerate : nor Oiould thc f;mae ^ccis t>c too long 
fown in the famc gardcn. ThoCe ' wfco wiAi to 
have thefe A^^wersin perfcdfon Aoukl eidiange 
,thtir feed8 with fome pcribn^ inte:grtty atia dif- 
tance, where the fofI is-o^ « diffcrrot Oatorc, at 
>ca<k evcry other year. ]f thls ts done, thc »aric- 
t4e8 may be c«ntim>cd kn pcr^e^on. TtieyAow- 
cf firorrt the bcginning of July til^ t4»e firoft fet$ in. 

i.Tac^tEs minuta, tbe fmQU marigold, 

3. TAGETE3 patulAj ihe Wrencb mangoU^ hai 
t fimp1c -ere^ ftcm, arMl the ptduntles ar< (caly 
and muktAorou-^. It has bcen cultivatcd in ttie 
Brittdi pardcn* iincc 1596. 'Tbere areicteral w- 
rictiei» 5 fofnc have larger ilowcrs t^an otbei^and 
thtrir colottr*viirie8trrea*Iy: fome arc lMniitrfiillf 
variegated, «nd others «^uite plain ^ 4>ut all tbele 
are accidents arrliDg^ frmi ^ltarci £or feedt few4 
from tbe moft bcautiful Aowers wih degCAcrate* 
if Hiey are4bw« \n the famc garden fir fmral 
years togcther, «*ithout chairging thc Itjcd, TIiclc 
pUntr have a ftrong dilagrceabie <ceni» elpeciaJiy 
when hand^d; icn Whtch-reakwthcy a?c aot 
plantcd near habitations : the Howcrs of thc fwect- 
fccntcd fort being prcftrredt efpeci»lly ^ imaB 
Ijlinderrs. ^ . , . 

TAGGIA, is toiMn of Italy, in' tbe ciKkraal 
HepnbKc of Genoft,'and late Ligumn reptibliCi' 
now annexed to tbe Prcnchcmpirc: i^miktKB. 
•f Tentiii\ig!lai ' ' ' 

TAGHAIRM, SctliECiKmAiiCT, $ t^ 

• TAGHMON, a towrt of Ireland, in Wcadbrd, 
Lcinfter ; 7 mi^let Wv o* *We*fonk It fent two 
membetYt to the CMkrJHit IriAi parliarhent. ^ 

TAGlA, a rfvrrof Algiers^ whtch ruatinto 
the Mediterranean, 14 milet £. of Oran. 

TAGIDOG, a river df N. W«tes, wbich nins 
into thc Alen, 4 milcs N. bf Wrexhaai, in FUnt- 
-Oiirc. / 1 . . 

TAGIL, a rivcr of Ruilia, whicb ruot into the 
Tura, 48 rallcs W. of 'tuiir>ft. 

TAGILSKOI, Ver8Ch>^ei and Kitmit ot 
OWand Nenu^ 1 towns of Ruffia, la Bkaterincn. 
burg ; the fbFmer ja, and fhe Ultcr 60 miies K. 
of Ekaterinenburg. 

TAGLARET, a town of the Prenth cmpirc, 
in th< dep.'of the Po, and late provilu:e of tbe 
Four Yalicys : 7 milcs W. of Lignerdlo. 

• TAGLESSE, atoWn of Morocco; 110 m\t% 
W;of Moroccg. * 


Digitized by 


T A H f I 

- TAGIiACIOa, Gaipir. SecTALiACOTius. 
TAGLlACOZZO, a towo of Naple?, in A- 

lmxoU*tra;.i8iDilc8 SW. of Aguiiai aucl ^t 

TAGUAMBNTO, a riw of Maikime Aiif. 

tria, wbkh rtk» in Friuli, and taMu into the Adria* 

tic, i6 milcB SS£. of Concordia. On its banks 

BooapMte, in 1797, dcfcat(rd aod killed a party 

o^jooo Auftrian«. Tbts river, 00 tlie iith Nov. 

1(05, wati the icrnc of a briik camiooade acrof» 

ii, bctwecn tbe Preoch aiod Atktrians, wbo wtre 

Med 0Q eacb ide of tt» and which lailed tbe 

»kledaf; bot was attended with fucb lof« to 

ikkmct^ thit tbe arehdake Cbarles retreaird 

«idi hti wbole troops early 00 tbe moming of 

itie 13U1» wbeo tbe Prench troops croAed ii» but 

kĔod their enemiea flc<L 
TAGUO i>EL Po, A diiliia of MaritiaM Aui; 

tna, in the Dogado ; cootaining 2,300 fiouU» 
TAGNON, a towo of Prance, ii> thc dept. of 

tibt iUdeane^ ; 6 milcs SW. of Rethel. j- 
TA60, St Tago, or Point Tiago^ a towo 

<f Ncv Meiicoy on the W. coad^ oear SaUguo. 
TiGODAST, or Isaoagas, a town of Mo^ 

nrco, ncar the foot of Mouot Atlas: 60 mile» 
>f£- af Morocco. 

TAGOBlAGOto a» iilaad in thc Mcditemoean» 
trar the E. eotit of tbe ifle of Yvica. 

TAGONIUS, a nver of Uifpaoia Tarracooea- 
is. Len^riert. 

TAGQVAST. Sce Tagaost. 

TAGOURI£, a town of Cbine& Tartary». ia 
^;5omiles KN£^ of Ham-tamtam. 

TAGRiN, or Sicrra. See Si^aaa» N" 5. 
*Titf.rAfL. »./. Uag and iail.] A worm 
•hid kas tiic tajl ot anotber colour. — TJicy fecd 
«/!YwonoAaml)uggc&. Carew. — Tbtre are o- 
t^ wqniM, as the marOi aod tag^taii. fVaU^ 

TAGVA SccTacuwa. 

(r-) TAGi0MM>£RT, a town of Airica^ io 
^i so milcs & of Taltab. 

d-jTAGUMAMRT» A towu of Morocco, 10 
Ti&et, on tbe DtaSy wtth a ftrong caitle on a 
*Buuin. Lon. 6. 43- W. Lat. a;* lo. N. 

TMjOS, in ancient geograpby»a rircr of Spain^ 
J^ aAer croAng ha^mi, falU into tbe Au 
■tic. kt £inds abound witb goid du(l. Aiir^ 
^^tSU^ hal, iv. a J4. It is now cailed Taj«. 

TAGOYA* a towu of Aiirica» itk Gaoga. 

TAHAL, a towu of Spain, in Orenada: S miles 

TAHAT£, a town 6f Arahia» in Yemen. 

TA^AN, a town of Cbina» of tbc ad rank, 
^ YttMian : I i^o roiies SW. of Pekin. Lon. 1 1^^. 
I^ B- Perro. Lat. aj. st*tf» 
I TAIiEl, a town of Hindoodan ; 150 miles W. 
pAnedabody atid 400 5. of Mouitaii. Loo. 6'«^ 
*LUt.«>i6. N. 
^AHIAO, a town of A&i» ii> Corea; sS ^'^^^ 

» ^ i^-Kouang, 

*AHMDRAS. See Mythology, § t%. 

TAIiOeR£WA/ one of tbe Siodwich iiiands. 

■«hiUy dcftitutc of wood, and its foii iand[]r 

■*"ilrtile. Sce Cooa, N^HL^ a«d Sand- 

•'ciIii.iKo,. I/)n. joj. 17. E. Lat. ao. jg. N. 

^^HOORA, onc Qf th« Sandwich i^^iih in 

11 ) T A 1 

tbc Soutb Sca. It is uninhabitcd* SeeSANpwicit 
Islands. Lon. 199. .^6. £. Lat. 21. 43. Ni 
TAHPANHES, or Tshaphnemes, or Haner^ 
ao ancient city of Egypt, iiippnCcd to bc Ihe fame 
with Dapb$ue^ abcul 16 miles S. of Pelusium^ 
on tbe £. h^k of the Niie. To Ihis city thc 
rcmnant of thc Jews left by Nebuchadntnar, re- 
tired, afterthe murder of Gedaliah.' h. was af- 
tcrwards taken by Ncbu€badn«azar. Jer. lUiii. x 
— ji. Eaek. xxx, 18. 

TAHTA, a towii of %ypt, on the Nile; .^i 
mile^ Sw of Siut, and i&> S« of Cairo. Loo. 49'. 8. 
E. Pcrro* Lar.a^^ 57> N. 

(i^) TAl, a largc iake of China, 150 miles in 
circumferencep in tbe provinces of Kiang-o^an and 
Tche»kiang : 75 milcs SE. of Nan-king* 

(a.) Tai, a town ot China, of the ad rank, 11» 
Cban-li.; 174 mM^s WSW. of Ptkin. Lon. 130. 
i6..'5. Pcrro* Lat. 39^ 6. N. 

C3O Taty a town of China« of the »1 rank» ia 
Kitog-nan; lamibts £. of Yang^cbeou. Lon.. 
137^ ai..E* Pcrro. Lat» 3». 30». N. 

TAJACU, Tajassu, or Pecas,*, in«zoology^ 
a fpecie8 of hog. See Su », § IH, N* 4. 

TAJAMENTA, a tiver of Mahtime Aurtria^ 
wbich rife8 in tbe NW. part of P^iuli, and falU 
into the Gulf of Yenicc: 16 miles SSE^.or Con^ 
TAJASSU. SecSns, «IlIrN*'^. 
TAI-CHAN, a tow» of China^ of the ^ rank^ 
ia Tchc-kianir ; ^o milcs SW^of Ouen-tchcou. . 
TAJEELT, a town of Algiers,. 35 milca SSE!. 

TAI^, or Taie^ a town of Arabia Felix,'ii¥ 
.thc proyincc of Hedbjas, abounding in tt-uite., . Jt 
was aiirooK towi? in tbe timc o£ Mahomet, wb^» 
be&eged it tor ao days in vaio. Xt. is ieated. op 
the S.^of J^unt Gaauaijij ^Smiles E. of Mecca..* 
TA1EZA, a towh of Croatla, 44 miks £. of 
. TAIF- SeeTaiEr. ' 

TAIjHO^ 1 towns of CHina, of tbe ^d rank f 
ii. in iitang-Dan,, 17 miles NW. of Hing : a. in 
Kian^-fi, ioJnilesS«^^ofKingan. 

TAI KANG, d tdwn of Cbioa,. io Ho-oan ^30 
miUs B. of Hiu.. 

. (iv) * TAIL. «y/ lugU Sax,l r. Tbat whjcl) 

tcrminates the ammal behind : the continuation ot 

Ihe vertebrac of the back banging loofie behind.-r 

Ort bave X feen a .bot o\:r-wcening cur, 

Who, having fuffcrM with the bear^s fcU paw» 

ILith cJapt bis l^ri/ betwixt his legK Sb^t^ 

Men and boats his adive taii cdnfound!«. 

— The lion wiil ttrikc fuch a ftroke with his tail^ 
that will break the back of hie encountere^. More. 
Rouz'd by the laih of his owo itubborn taiU 
Our lion now will foreign foQ9 anai1.r Drjden^ 
— Thc taii fin is half a foot bigh, but undcrncath# 
lc?cl with the taiU Crtrjj. z. The lowcr part. — 
Thc Lord (ball makc thce the head, and not thc 
taiL Deut, xxyiiL 13« 3# Any thing banging long ; 
a cat-kuw — Durctus writes a ;;rtai .praifc of the 
diitillcd watcr of tbofe taiU that bapg upoa wiU 
low trecs. Harvej, 4. Thc hindcr part of any 
tbiogw — 


Digitized by 


t A 1 r tt 

With thc helm thcy turn Hnd ftcer the taH. 

5. 7*0 tum Tail. To Ay; to run away. — Would 
fhe rimi tail to the heron ? Sidncjr. 
' (t.) 1*^1 L, in anatomy, it thetrain of a beaft| 
hiridy or f){h ; which in land animala rervet to 
iirive away ^ies» Scc and in birds and fi(hes to 
dire^ their courTc» and affift theni in alcending or 
dercending in thc air or watcr. 
- (3*) Tail, or FEC-TAiL, in law, is a condition- 
al cftate or feef oppofed to /eeJimpU* See FtE, 
$ tl, N^ 1.; and Taill^ A conditional fec, 
tt the common law, was a l^e reftrAtned to fome 
particular bcirs exclunve of othert ; as to the heirs 
bf a rran'8 ln>dy, b/which only his Kne;d defcend- 
tnts were admittcd, in excluilon of coil^iteral 
hcirs ; or to the heirs malc of h«« body, in exclu- 
fion both of collaterals and lincal females aIfo. It 
was caUed a tĕndHional he^ t>y reafoA of the con* 
dition expreflVd or implicd in the donation nf tr, 
t!hat if the donee ^ied without fuch parttcular 
heini, thc Und (hould rerert to the donor. For 
this was a condition annescd by faw to all grants 
^hatfoe^er» that on failure of the hcirs fipecHicd 
in the grant, the grant Aiould be at an cnd, antl 
thc land return to its ancicAt proprietor. With 
regard to the condition anncsed to thcie fees by 
the tommon law, it was hcd, that fucfa a gift (to 
a man and the heirs of his body) wa» a gift ttpon 
cionditlon that it ftiouId ttvcrt to the donor if the 
donee bad no hcits of his body ; but if he had> it 
ihould then nhtia^n to the donec. They thcr<fore 
called it ^/ee-JimpU on condinon that hc had iAuc. 
So that as foon as the grantce had any ilTuc bortt, 
his eftate Was ft2ppofcd tbl>ecomc abfolQte by the 
t|erfurmAtice of thc condition; f6r thefe 3 purpo- 
iCB 1 r. To en^lc the tenant to arienatc the )ahd, 
Sind thcrcby tb bar the donor of his intercft in 
Ibe reyeHion. «. To fubjedt hhn to forWt it fbr 
treafon. '3. To cmpoWer him to charge the land 
with rents, commons, and other encumbranccsy 
fo as to bind his ifl*ue. . Bat if the tcnant dtd pot 
nlicnAtt thc land, the couHe of defcent was not 
atttnred) for if thc \(f\it had afttrwards dictl^ and 
then the tenatit or origit^l grantee had iliedi with- 
t>ut making any alienath>n, thc land^ bythetenns 
of the donation, could dtfcend to none btJt tht 
hcira of hi« body ; aird thfreforC muft have revert- 
ed to the donon To fiibje6t thc lands thcrcfore 
to the ordinary courre of dcfcent, thc donces of 
thefe conc!itional f(?e>fimp!es took carc to alienate 
^s foon as they had illuc; and attcrward'' rcpUr- 
cbafed the l^ds, which gave them. a fee>nmple 
abfolute, that would defccnd to the hcirs genera), 
tccording to the common law. And thuR fiood 
the old law with reg^rd to conditional ftfe8 : 
vrhich things, fay8 Sir Edward Coke, are necclTa- 
ry to be known, for the fake of annuities, and 
luch like inheritances, as are not within the fta- 
tutes of entail, and therefore rcmain a^ the com- 
mon law. Thc inconve!iicnce« which attendcd 
thci^ fctterc:i inhcritances induccd the judgcs to 
give way to this fubtile /inej/ey to fhortcn thc du- 
ration of thefe conditional eftatc<!. But, on the 
othcr hanJ, the nobillty, who wilhcd to perpc- 
tuate thtir poAein^^ns tn their own tamiiics, pro- 
curcd the ftatutc of Wtftminftcr thc ^'l, Je ionis 
tonditionatilmj, to be made ; wbich paid a greater 

i ) 'T A I 

regnrd to the intmtioas of the doiior, ftiin to1k 
propriety of fuch inTentioir?i Thi* redraint fc. 
trLved the aHcient icoAnt reftraints origiiially \sk 
on alicnations, by enading. that from thcncc^ortb 
thewill of the donor be '-cbfervcd • ahd th4t thc 
tcnements fo given (tora man and hi«hcirs) ihoutd 
at all events go to the iAue,^ or if nonc, (lioold , 
cevm to the donor. tf pon this a^ thc jodgcs d^ 
terminedthat the doncc had no longer a c(«(^- 
tional fec-fimple, but they divide4 the cftstc into 
two part^, lcaving iti the dotice a hcw liad of 
patticular eftatey Wbich they dcnominated a/^ 
tail; and veftif]g in the donor the ulttmatc itt^ 
hmple of the land^ estpeB^nt on rhe fai«iire of \^ 
fuc ; which espcAant eftate il what we oi^ c%l 
ft reverfion» And henc« Littleton i^iys,. tbat t(4 
nant in fce.tail is by virt«w of this ftat«tc. W^ 
itow proceed to conBder WhM tbings tiaj or tr.aj 
ncit be emailed tsnder the abovc Aaiutc. " Ttt* 
ments*' is the only wotd 6fed in thc llaiutti ixA 
this Sir Edward Coke etpcnintls to meanallco/]^ 
r^d/hcreditamcnts; and alib^ll ineorp&red inpt 
ditaments which iAlie out of corporral orict, o 
may be exercifed within thcm ; a* renls, cftonr 
commons, &c. AIfo offires %wi. dignhtes vk:£ 
co!«cem bnds may be entailM. Bnt mcrc pnii 
nal chattels, which favour ndt at «ul of the rr^J/ 
cannot ht entaiicd* Ndtber can an oAkc^ wVii 
rclatesto fuch chattetsi nor an annuity, ivbK 
charges only the periob- of the gnmter. But 
thclc Uft, if granted to a man and hi!» heU^ tl 
grantcc hath ttiil a fire coniitionai at con:» 
law, and by tits alienation mly bar the hetr ct r 
Teriioncr. An rftate to a man and his hcirs i 
an6thcr'f( life cannot be entatled. Ntkher ci^ 
copyhoW eftate be entailed, but, by tbe fp<c 
cuftom of the manor, a copyhoid may be iihiit 
to thc heirs of the body. As to thc ftrveral i\ 
cies of eftates tiil, and how they are re^^c^ 
created ; they arc either gencral or fpeci3l. Tl 
general is where laiid* and tenemcnta are givcD 
one, and the heirs of his body begotten : w^ 
I» fo caTIed, becatife, Row oCtto €ovfer ibcb 1 
tiec in tail lie marritd, his iiTue tn itcntral, br 
fuch marriage«i iib in lucceftive otdcr, capaUi 
tnheriting the eftii|| Uii, pet firmsm iW. " 
nant in taitj^eml h where the gift ia rdta 
ed to certain hcits bf the donec's body, 
does not go to all of them in g^ner^il. I 
no iflbe can inl.efit biit fuch Jpĕcial inVs( 
Is engertdered bctw«en the two p€9fdm fpn\ 
mentioned ; and therrfore it li calicd Jpectai 
The wOrds of inhcritance, to kim and inj h 
pve him an eftate in fee ; hut thcy htln^ bei 
he by him h^tten^ tbis makes it a Jre^ii\ 
tbc pciTon being airo limitcd, oO whom ^uch 1 
ihail be begotttr (vtz. Mary his preCeat wifc^ 
makcs k ^ fee-tail Jpeeiai, £ftatefi m gencrall 
fpccial tail are faithcrdivcrtt8c(1 by ihcdiltin^ 
^ fexfM forboth of thtm may rithcr be ii^ 
maU or X^\\femaU, If lands be givni to a i 
apd his beirt maU^ this is an^cAate xn tart mal 
nerai ; but if to a mAo, and his heir« lemalCi 
i« an eftAtc in U\\ hrttklt^^rdai* Aod. ia c^ 
?n cntail mal'-, the heirs lemale Ihatl fiever 
rit, nor any detail fiom them ;'nor th« heir« 
in c»fc of a gift in tail femMlc. If the doni 
tail malc hath a daughtcr, yho diea iravipg i 

Digitized by 


T A 1 r I 

{t:h praodTon in this cafc canuot inberit the edate 

tuL And as the heir ncalc mult conTcy hi» drf- 

c-irt «nM^^ i^f »w/«, (b mutt thc heir fema!e tuhol- 

hhjrmaies, • Ami iherefore it a iraii hath iwa 

ciitc«tail« the ont in uil ma.e» and ti>e cthtr in 

t.itfe!Balp, aod hehath itrue a dAUghicr, which 

dmjhlrr hath iATiie a fon ; th'i% granJjin can fuc- 

CK^tom:tierof iht cftHies tor ht cannot con- 

i.7lwdffceni «rAo//f ctthur in the male or fe- 

E3k I*'dc ! Ai the word H£Ir.s is neceAary to 

t-cite a fec \o Ihe word ^^(f i? necelTiry to raake 

tt/f /«(/, and a£:crtatn to what heirs in pani- 

wil£rthcftei« !imited. If, thcrefore, either the 

•*»fsh of mberUan<e or wordt of procreation be 

«•itei, tbis wilt not make aii ejiate tail. As if 

Vtfmi be to a mao and tbe ijue of his body» 

alnyCe^ hif thUren or offspring ; all thefe arc 

cB^dtjtufbr hfe, therc wanting the words of 

K^rrtjoce, i6M beirs. So a gift to a man, and hi« 

^tnalt or female, 19 an eflate m fec-fimple and 

MB&rUil; for therc are no wordi to alcer- 

tniW^ont of which they (hall liTue. But 

^^mdtt and tejlmments^ whercin gi*cater indul- 

;raatallowed, in dtate tail may be created by 

aM^toaman and \i\%feei^vx ni« heirs male» 

r ^«hcr trregnlar mo 'cs of exDreffion. Therc 

til}iia.'iother fpecie« o^ eniailed cttatcs, now in- 

^gruwo oMt •/ mfe% yct itill eapable of fDb(i(t« 

iS{iiLrv; whicb are eftate8 $tt iibeto maritagio^ 

«rrtaiK marriage. 8ee Prank, § i. N* 6. 

THt incidrmsi to a tendency in tail, undrr the ftAt. 

Wdainitcr t. arc chicAy thrie : i. That a tcnant 

atajmaycommt w;ifte on the ftaie tail, by fel- 

*a? timbcr, pulling down boufe', or the like, 

»tteat being imprached or called to accounj tor 

«^C»«. 1. That fhe wife of the tenant in tail 

fcJ) hwc btr dower, or thirds, of the cftatc tatl. 

.- T)ta( the hiifban*i of a fcmale tenaiit in tail 

«wbetenant by the cuitefy o{ thc tftat« tail. 

4-Tb« an dtate tail may be barred, ordeftroyed, 

^TJSir, by a common recovery, or by lineal 

J»^^y f?cfcmding with airris to the heir, 

kA*!itj. Sach i* thc natwe of dtates tal : 

l^ tttahhibmeot of which famify ia^ (as it is 

^grtyftyled by Pigott) occationtd iotinite dif- 

**w tnd dif^utei. Children grew difobe<1ient 

"^atlicy koew they could not l>e ftt afide : far- 

*»»cre oufted of their leafc« niadc by tenants 

•^; creditort wcrc defrauded of their debts; 

■?*B<Table Latent entails wcre producec^ to de- 

fnK purchalera of the lands thev haJ fairly 

*^^t; uf fctitt in confeqoence of which, our 

•cii^tbook* are f o 1 : and trea/ons tnrrrc enc6u- 

^^ t» etatet were not hable to forfeiture lon- 

'^thiDibr t»te trnantN lifc. So that they wcre 

.Tliybrtndcd as the f<»urcc of ncw contentions 

^ «ifi:kitft ohkoown to ihe coramon law ; 

■4ilfltoft antvcrfally coniidtTed as the common 

^''«ce of ibc rralm. Bot as the nobility were 

■nyifbodof this (tatute, bccaufc it prcferved 

wEuoily eftatet fTom forfeiture, there was liitlc 

y^p rocuring a repe;*! by the legiftaturr ; and 

r^^^ by thc connivance of an adive a*'d po- 

•^pnnce, a method wa« devifed to cvade ir. 

A^^ow 100 year^ tntervencd iKtween the making 

"i^tatuie Je imit^ and thc application of com- 

■« «^coterie* to this intenr» in the itth of Ed- 

•■• IV. ; whtrh werc thcn opcaly deciarcd by 

i3 > T A I 

ihe jadges to bc a fufiicient bar of an cftate tail; 
Foi ihough the conrts had, fo long before as thc 
rcign Df Edward III. very uften hinted that abar 
roigf:t be rffcdted upon thcfe pnnciples,yet it was 
netrrr carried iutoexecution ; till Edward IV. ob« 
fcrving (iii ihe difputes between the houfes of 
York aiiJ Lancatter) how littlc effedt attainders 
for treafou had on faiKiHc8 wbcfeeftatetwerc pro* 
tcAcd by the f.in6tuaryof entails,gavehi8countc- 
nance to thin procecdiiig, and ^aATe-ed Taltarum'» 
cafe to bf brought before thc coiirt ; whctrin, in 
confequence of the principles thco laid down, it 
was in ifFed drtcrmined, ihat a common recove- 
ry fiiffercd by tcnant in tail fhould bt an effr<ftual 
deftrudion thereof. Thcfe common recovenc4 
zxtJi3itious procredinp 8, intrrdured by a kind of 
pia/tuiut to elude the (tatute de doms^ whicH was 
tound fo intolcrably mifchievouf, and which yet 
ooe branch of the leginatttre would not then con- 
f nt to repeal : and that thcfe rccoverieS are notr 
becomr by long ufc a mo(t common affurance of 
laiidb ; and are looked upon as the legal mode rf 
convryancc, by which a tenant io taii msy difpofe| 
of his lands and tr-nemrms : fo that no court wil 
fuffer thrm to he Ihaken or rcAcded n», and cveii 
ai^s of parliament haveby zjide*<a)ind countenan* 
ced and eftabU(hetl thcm* This cspcdicnt havinf: 
grrally abridged cftates tail wiih rrgard to their 
duiation, others wcre fooD inrented to trip theiit 
of othcr privilcgcs. The next that was attackrd 
was thcir freedom from forfeitures fof trea/on^ 
For, ikOtwithftanding the large advances made by 
recovcricF, in the coinpaf)i of abont 6o ycars, to- 
wards untettenng thefe inheritanccs, aud thertby 
fubjcCtif»g the lands to for^itare, thc rapacious 
priiice thcn rcigninj», finding them freqiiently refct- 
tltd in a limiliU- manner to fuit the con'venience of 
families, had addrcfii enongh to procure a ftatute« 
wherrby all eftates of tnheritancc (undcr which 
eftatc8 tail wcrc covertly included)iredeclarcd to 
bc forfcited to tht king upn^n any cont t^tion of • 
high-ti%afon. Thc ncxt attack which thcy fuf- 
fered, was by ftatuto ja H<in. VIII. c. t8. whereby 
ccrtain lrafe8 made by tcnants in taii, which do 
not tcnd to the prrjudice of thc iffue, were al- 
lowed to be good iii Kiw, and to bind the iiTuc ia 
tait. But rhey rcceived a morc viu1ent blow in 
the famc ftffion of parliament, hy the conftruc- 
tiou put upon the Aatute of (incs, by ftat. ^a 
Hcn. VIII. c. j6. which dectares a fine duly levied 
by tenant in tail to be a completc bar to him and 
bis hcirs, and all pcrfons claiming under fuch en- 
tait. This was agrceable to thc intention of Hen- 
ry VII. t^ hofe policy it was to lay the i:oad as opcn 
as poAible to thc allienation of landed propcrty, to 
wcHkcn the oveigrown power of his noblcs. But 
as thcy were not eatiiy brought toconfent to fuch 
a proviQon, it was couched, in hts aA, underob- 
fcure cxpref!ions. And thc judttrs, though wii- 
ling to conftrue that ftatutc as favourabiy as pof- 
fibic for the drfcating of tntailed cttates^^yet hc- 
htated at givitig Hncs f9 extenftvc a power by 
mcr? implication, whrn the ftatute de donit had 
exprcfsly declarrd that thcy fhon!d not be a bar 
to rrtates tail. But the ftat. Hen. VIII. whcn thc 
dodtrinc of allenation wa«« bttter reccived, and thc 
king^s will more implicitly ot>eycd, rltablilhcd 
that iotcntipn. Y.t, lo prcfcive the propcrty of 
P thc 

Digitized by 


T A I ( 1 

the crown from infnngemcnt, all eitates tail creat- 
ed by tbe crown are excepttd. And tbe fame 
was done with regard to cnmmon recoverie8> by 
ftat. 34 and $$ Hen. VIII. c. lo. which euadSy 
tbat no feigned recovery had againft tenants in 
tail) where the eftate wat created by tbe crown, 
and the reveriion continues in the crown, (ball be 
of any force and effcdt. Which is alLowing, in- 
dire^ly, tbeir fun force and effcdt with rcfpedt to 
ordinary eftates tail, where tbe royal preropative 
18 uot concemed. Laftly, by ftat. 36 Hcn. VIII. 
all eftate8 tail are rendered liable to be cbarged for 
payment of debts due to the king by record or 
(pecbl coAtraA ; as lince, by the bankrupt lawg, 
tbcy are aIfo fubjeAed to be foId for the debts 
contra^cd by a bankrupt.^ And» by the conftruc- 
tion put on thc ftat. 43 £liz. c. appointmcnt 
by tenant in tail of the lands entailed to a cbari. 
table ufe is gobd without fine or recovery. £ftate8 
tall being thus by degrees unfettered, ane now re- 
duced again to almoft the fame ftate^ evcn before 
ilTue born, as conditional fee8 were in at common 
law, after the condition was pc^ormed by birtb 
of iirue. For, i. the tenant in tail is now ea- 
abled to alicnatc bis landt and tenements by fine> 
by recovery, or by certainotbcrmcAnB; andtbere- 
by to defeat the intercft as well of bis own iAue» 
thoegh unborn, as alfp of the reverfioner, except 
in the calie of the crown c a. he is now iiable to 
forfeit them for higb treafon : and, Iaftiy, be may 
charge them with reafonabIe Ieafe8, and aIfo with 
iuch of his debts as are due to the crown on fpe- 
giaities, or have been contraded with bis feil«w 
fubje^8 in a courfe of extenfi^ commerce. 

♦ To. Tail. V. ff..To puU by the tail. — 
Firft Trulla ftavM and Ccrdon tairii. HuMk 

♦ TAILED. adj. lfrom tai/.] Fumiihed with a 
taiL— Snouted and tailed likc a boar. Ore<u;. 

* TAILLAGE. »./. [tailler, French.] TaiUage 
originally fignified a piece cut out of the wholc ; 
md, metaphoricallyt a Oiare of a man's fubftance 
paid by way of tribute. In law, it fignifie8 a roll 
or tax. Coiutel, 

(i.) * TAILLE. «./. Taille^ tht fcc which is 
oppoGte to fee-fimple, becaufe it is fo minced or 
parcd, tbat it is not in hiH frce power to be dif- 
ptTcd of who owns it ; but is, by the firft giver, 
cut or divided from all other, and tied to the if- 
Tue of the donec. This limitation, or taUlet is 
cither general or fpecial. Cooue/. 

(a.) Taille. See Tail, ^3; and Tail- 


TAILLEBURG, a town of Erance, m the dcp. 
or Lowcr Charente, and ci-devant prov. of Sain- 
t^ngc; memorable foraviAory obtained by Lew- 
is IX. uver the count of Marche, in 1141. It is 
f'atcd on the Cbarente, 6 milcs N. of Saintcs, 7^ 
SSW. of Saint Jean d'AngeIy, and 30 SE. of Ro- 
thpilc. Lon. o. 40. W, Lat. 45. 46. N. 
' TAILOOR, a town of Hindoortan, in tbe My- 
lorc : lomiles NNW. of Vencatighery. 

* TAILOR. «./. \faiUeur, from tailUr^ Erencb, 
to cut.] Onc whoic bufinefs is to make clothcs. — 

ril entcrtain a fcorc or two of tailors. Shak. 
— Hcrc'8 an Englilh tculor come for ftcaling out of 
a Prcnch houfe ; come, tailort you may roaft your 
goofc. Shak.-^T\it knight camc to thc taiior^j. 

u ) T A 1 

Camden. — The tailor arid (hoemaker roay cnt oot 
what religion they pleafe. Hmii^/.— It wai preltily 
faid by Seneca, tbat friend{hip (hould not be un- 
%ipt,but unftitcht, though fomewhat intbephnfc 
of a tailor. CoiUer. — 

In Covcnt-Gardcn did a tailor dwell. Hnp 

TAILZIE, ». /. in Scots law, tbeiaaewitb 
Tail. See Law, Part III. ^Cbap. II. SeB. XX. 
§ 8—14. 

TAIMURSKAIA, a gulf of Ruflia, in tht Fro- 
zcn Occan« between thecapc8SicvcroVoftocbnio, 
and $ievcro Zapadnci. Lon. iia. to 116. E. Fer- 
ro. Lat. 75*to 77*^ N. 

(i.) TAIN, a town of Erancc, in thcdcp.of 
the Drome, 9 milcs N. of Valence, and 9 WNW. 
of Romans. 

(a,) Taikj or Tayhb, a dtftria of ScotlaDdin 
Rofs-ibire, comprehendiQg the greater part of that 
county. See Ross, N® i. and Tayme, N® i. 

(3.) Tain, Tayne, or Thane, an ancicnt royal 
borough of Scotland, in the abovc diftrift, (N* a.) 
fcatcd on the S. bank of Ihe Erith op Taih. It 
is irregularly buiit, but has many ncw and ele* 
gant houfes, ^^r public alTemblies, &c. latclyered* 
ed towards the £. Tbe church is an elcgant an- 
cient building, erc^d in 1471, and dedicatcdto 
St Dutbus. It has a large fquare towcr, witb 5 
fpb-cs. Tain joins with Diog wall, Domoch, Rirk- 
wall, and Wick, in clc6ting delegates to cboorc i^ 
rcprefcntative in the BritiHi parltamcDt. Itcon* 
tamed 1350 inhabitants in 1791. 

(4.) Tain, a parilh of ScoUand, in tbe aboie 
diftri^, estcnding g milcs along tbe Frithof Taia 
or Domoch in length, and % tn breadth. Tbc 
furface is moftly levet, but rife8 into fniall emi- 
ncnces towards the W» coaft, whicb is flat and 
(andy ; about one 5th of it is arable, and tbe ibil 
various but fertile, The chief feat8 are AnkenMh 
the feat of David,Rof8, late lord of feffion bytbit 
title, and Uttle Tarrel, the feat of Mr Baillie. Tbe 
population, in 1791« was aioo ; mcreafe ajot fince 

1755- .. 

(5.) Tain, or Tayme, Frith of, or Ihe fn» 
o/Dornocb, See Tayne, N** 3. 

TAINACH, a rivcr of Germany, which nm 
into the Nagold ; % miles S. of Caw, in the docbT 
of Wirteraburg. 

TAI-NGAN^ town of China, of the sd rank, ia 
Chantong : %^s "™»*^» SSE. of Pekin. Lon. 134« 
35. E. Fcrro. Lat. 36. 15. N. 

TAI-i^HING, a town of China, of the sd mh 
in Eokicn : 5* milcs SSW. of Shaf<ou. 

TAINING, a town of China, of thc ^d rank, \t 
Se-tchucn; on the Tong-ki-ho: 20 miles N. o| 
Koei-tchcou. ' 

♦ TAINT. ji./. [teinte^ Fr. from the vcrb. 
I. Atindurc; a ftain. **. An infca.— Tbcre i 
found in the Summcr a fpider called a /amt/» of ^ 
rcd colour, and fo little that ten of tbe largeft wi| 
bardly outweigh a grain. Brown. — 
As killing as the canker rofe, 

Or taint worm to the weaning herds. Mten 
8. In^edlion; corruption; dcpravation*— 
Your forcvouch*d aftedtion 

Eairn into taint. Sijoi 

Man^s poUuting fin with taint Kath ihed 

On wbat was pure. itf///o^ 

Digitized by 


T A I 

*-A6tberthat breed« hiirfon at home» can keep 
lubctter froaithe tamt of (enrants than abroad. 

Bdt is 00 rank, no dation, no degree* 
Froin tbti comagioui tamt of ionow free ? 

4. A (pot ; a Ibil ; a blemiih.— 
Tk tmnts aod blames 1 laid upon myfetf. 

(i.)'f»TimT. V. a, [tdndre^ Fr.] x. To 
iitee or impregDate with aoy thing« — 

The rpanicl ftnick 
3dff by the tamttJ gale. Tbomfm. 

j.ToliD; toftiily. — 
We come oot by the way of accuiationy 
To to/ that boDour. Sbak. 

SiTtnt tamt 
TbeiuQdsofall men. Cbapman. 

Tbey the truth 
Vitb rapcHUtionii and traditions taint. Miiton, 
Tboie pore immortal elements 
^ bia tainted now. Milton. 

( iiS ) 

T A 1 

with bamboos and ftraw, to keep olT the rays of 
thc fun. Thcy arc from 30 to 40 fect broad, and 
fome of them near 3 mlles long. They abound 
with elegant ttiops, where (ilks, China wares, and 
other goodsy made chicAy iii China, are fold. 
This city is ncither fortiiied nor walled. The 
harbour is wtll Ihcltcrcd from all wind?», but thc 
entrance into it bccomes daily more dlAicult^ It 
had formerly a entries, but the bcft, callcd Ta- 
KiANG, where large YelTeU iloated eafily, is now al- 
raott ufelcf8, thcre bcing oftcn hardly 5 feet wa- 
ter in it, and at no tide above 8 ; and t^e other, 
callcd Loutbmen^ having a rocky bottom, and ne- 
Ycr aboYc 10 fect at high water. Lon. 3.30. E. 
of Pckin. Lat. 13. o. N. 

TAI-PIN, a town of China, in Tche-kiang. 

(i.) TAI-PING, a city of China, of the firft 
rank, in Kiang-nan, on the Yang-tfc: $i$ miles 
S. of Pekin. Lon. 136. o. E. Perro. Lat. 31. 
38. N, 

(a.) Tai-ping, a city of China,of the firft;rank, 
in Quang-fi, on a peniniula, nearly furrounded by 

>-TfiiafeA4 to poifon ; to difea(e.— Nothine ariver, and fortificd by a wall on thc land-fidf. 

^isaadlaogs fooner than infpiring the brcath 
dcsakmpim lungi. ja^rtir;.— Tbe tainted air 
B>y4fed tbc lungs by its hcat. ArbUtbnot, — 

V(}ctable vcnom taints tbe plain. Pope, 

*- h comipt^A fwcct-bread you found it 

The ycllow tinging plague 
litemal viiion tainu» Tbomfin, 

i* A comipt contra^on of attaint 

befides many forti, ai it ii near tht kingdohiof 
Ton-king. The whole territory in fertile and 
very populous. It ii 1175 milei SSW. of Pekin, 
Ix)n. 114. 20. £. Fcno. Lat %%, 35. N. 

(3—6.) Taiping, 4 towns of China, of rank 

3d in Chan-fi, Kiang-nan, Nankin, and Se-tchuen. 

TAI-SANG, a town of Corea, j; milei SSE. 

of Hoang-tcheou. 

TAl-TCHEGU, a city of China, of thc ift rank, 

(5} • 7o Taint. V. «. To bc infe^ed ; to in Tche-kiang, in a mountainoui country. It has 

«^«*cbed witb foffiethiog comipting. — 6 citics of thc ad rank in its dlftri^. The people 

Tifi Biniaa woed removc to Dunfinane have a great trade in fcabbard8 for cutlaiTei, which 

^oaoot taitt with fcar. Sbak. thcy make of the (kini of a peculiar fpecies of 

*TAINTL£SS. ii^. \ixom taint.^ Freefrom thornback, and export through the whole empire. 

■*4wD; pnie.— It is 721 miles SSE. of Pckin; Lon. 138. 48. E. 

^o booKMiri groTi, or frowzy Acams» Fcrro. Lat. a8. 55. N. 

C«id finMn her tamtUfs body flow. Swift. TAI-TCHIN, a town of China, of the ^d rank, 

TAiyrON, a frnaU town of Gloucefterihire, with a fine harbour, 260 miles SE. of Nankin. Lon. 

^SE.of Newciit, and 7 W. of Glouccfter. jat. 16. E. Lat. «9. 10. N. 

TAI-TCHING, % towns of China, of the ^d 
rank,' in the provincei of Pc-tche-li, and Sc-tchu- 
teintttret en. 

TALTING, a clty of the id rank, in Koei- 
tchcou : 967 milei SSW. of Pckin. Lon. 113^ £• 
Fcrro. Lat. 17. 5. N. 

TAI-TONG, a city of China, of theitt rank, 
in Chan-fi, in a mountainous country ; abounding 
witb mcdicinal and other plants. As it is the on- 
ly City of thc empire that is expofed to the Tar- 

"<^ ii I mine ncar it, whicb contains fome 

•TAmrURE. n. /. [tinaura, Lat 
"-. 1m 5 tingc ; defilemcnt.— 

fcbere the tahtiure of ihy neft. Sbak. 

^^ the Ia^eft river of Spain ; which nfcs 
•t4fenofiiie8 of Arragon, runs SW. through 
r* Ciitic aod £ftremaduni ; and paiiing by the 
P^^Anmiiez, Toledo, Talavcra, and Alcan» 
P» aters Portugal at Mootaivao, iorms thc 

r^ <^Lift>oa, where it ii about 3 miles over ; tars, it is very well fortificd, and has a ftrong gar- 

r5Bfing pQrtagiiefe £ftramadura, pafles Ab- 
"B>i5uKarem, &c- and fialb into tbc Atlantic 
^io mika bdow liAioo. It was anciently 

I^JOH, a town of China, io Ktang-fi, fa- 
N tor iti magmEccot tcmpies, and two very 
^^crs. Lon. X 14. 41« E. Lat. 27. 38. N. 
'^j TAIOUAN, or Tay-ouam, tbc Chincfc 
P^oC the illand of Pormola. See Pormosa, 

LJ-j Tai-ocTAii, or TAY-otiAN, the capital of 
poIaDd ol PoKMOSA, it fcated 00 the W. coaft. 

rifon. It bas 4 citics of the ad rank, and 7 of thc 
3d in its jurffdidlion. Its territories abound with 
lapis lazuli, and a particular kind of jafper called 
yieebe^ which is as whitc,and beautiful a&agate; 
marble and porphyry arc alfo comroon; and a 
great revenue is produced from the ikins which 
are drelTed here. Lon. 130. 30. E. Fcrto. Lat. 
40. 5. N. 

TAI-TSANG, a city of China of the «d rank, 
inKiangnan ; 567 milesSSE. of Pekin. Lon. 138. 
10. E. Fcrro. 

Lat. 31. 30. N. 

TAJUNA, a river of Spain, which rifcs in thc 

M^ccts are rc^Iar, lin ttraight lines ; and are Jl. part of New Cattiic ; and runs into the Xara- 
r^cddnring thc 7 or 8 hot monthsot the year, ma above its jun^ion with thc Tajo. 

P % TAI-y» 

Digitized by 


T A K ( i 

TAI-Y, a city of Chini of ihe li rank, in 
Q«ung-ri, oii the S. bank of the Porai: 1125 
inilts SSW. of Pckin. Lon. 124. 4. E. Pciro. Lat. 
%3' 4. N. 

TAI YUEN, a city of Chin », o*^ the ift rank, ih 
Chanti : 230 milcs WSW. of Pckin. Lon. 129. 
42. E. Pcrro. L^t.37. 54. N. 

TAK, a town of Pci (ia, in Segedan ; 30 milcs 
N. of Zareng. 

TAKA» a town of Nubia ; 50 milta SE., of 
Ilak. • 

TAKAUL, a town of ACiatic Turkcy, in Cara- 
irauia : 40 milcs N. of Cogni. 

(i.) * To TAKE. V. a. [preteritc tookt p^rt. 
p.ilT. iaAi.fh fonoctimc8/coi; taJta, IHa^idicI:; tytekt 
2 takc; ej tooJk^ I took.j i. To rccti?c wbiit is 
pffcrcd : torreIjtivc to giirg oppofcd to n/u/e. — 
Then tcok 1 thc cup at thc jJord'» haiid. Jer, 
XXV. 17. — 

Dcatb, or this counfcI, from Leuclppup take. 

An boncit man may take a knavc'8 advict. 


r^dam, wcrc I as you Td take bcr counff?l. 


Di(lrcf8'd myftlf, likc you, cc;nfin*dl livc, 
And tbercfore can compaiTion take and give. 

%, To fcize what h not givcn,— 

In fettcrs onc tbc barking portcr ty'd, 
A^^d took hitjn tremblirg. Drjden. 

3. To receiyc. — No man (hall /<i^^ the ntthrr <»r 
uppcr milHonc to pledgc. Deutk xxiv. 6. 4. To 
receive wiih good or ill will. — 

Why ihould wc, in our pejevi(h oppoHtion. 
Take it to hcart. Slmk. 

— Ltt them take it ^s they lift. Shak.-^U you 
fp4ak ili of the dtvii, how hc takej it to hcart ! 
Sbak. — Damafco yicldcd unto thc Turku ; whicli 
thc balTa tooi in Tg good part, that he wmild not 
fuffer hi8 foldicrs to enttr it. KnoUej.-^Thc king 
being in a rage took it grievouny that he was 
mocked. t Mac» vii. 39. — Thc qucen took it fo iil 
as Ihc would ncver ancr hcar of tbe other*8 fuit. 
Bacon.—h following hath ever been a thing civil, 
and well taken in moharchiee. Bacon. — The dimi- 
nution of the powcr of tbc nobility thcy took very 
heavily. Clarendon. — I hopc you will tah it wc»l 
that I Aiould offer at a ncw thing. Gramt.-^li I 
havebcen a Httle pilfeiiog, 1 take it bitierlyof thce 
to tcll mc of it. Dryden.^Thc folc advicc I could 
give him in confcitnce, would be tbat which he 
would take ill. Swi/jt. 5. To lay hold oo ; to 
catcb by furprizc or artiiicc. — Who will bclitvc a 
man that hath no houfe» and lodgeth whtrefotvt r 
thc night taketb him ? Ecclt/. xxxvi. ^6.— Tbty 
(ilenced thofc who oppofed Ihem, by taking ad- 
▼antage againft them in the houfe. C/^ir.— Wifc 
men arc ovcrborn when taken at a difaJvantage. 

Men in their loofc unguarded hours Ihey take. 

6. To fnatch ; to feize.— I am contentcd to dwcU 
on thc Divinc Providcncc, and take up any oc- 
caiion to !ead me lo its contemplaiion. Hule. 7.' 
To make pnfoner. — . 

Appomt a me^-ting w^h th'S o!d fat feliow, 
Whcrc wc may take him. Skak. 

16 ^ T A K 

Ktiig Lear hatb loft, bc and bii daughttr 
ta\n. Shak. 

— This man wn^ taken of ihc Jtws. jiaj,xiuui). 
— They enterin^ with woudcrful celtriiy,flcwaD(l 
/oo;t30ojir.izarics. Knollei. 8. To capti?atewtth 
pltarure ; to delight ; lo enpagt .— 

Mprt thai» hiilGry can paltem tho' dcvif;'d 

And pUyM to take fpedaior8. SkaL 

To htar thc rtory oi your life, whicb mud 

Take thc ear ftrangcly. Sbei 

— Let her not take thee with ber cyrlids. Prw 
vi. 2$.—Taken by Pcrkin's amiablc bthavionr, \a 
entertaincd him. Bacon. — 

Tbcir fong was partial, but tbe hannony 

Sufpendtd hcll, and took wirh raviihmeitt 

The thron^iiig audience. Miltct 

— J do it ytt more when fhe is tbus beautifitdo 
purpofe to allure the eye, aiid take the b&ii' 
Decaw 0/ Piety. — This beauty (hincs throueh fr>n! 
men's ai^ions, fets off all that thcy do, ai^ ul 
all thty comc near. Locke, — Ckombrotus wa$ 
taken wiih this profpett, thaf hc had no paticnc 
Wake. 9. To entrap ; to catch in a fnare.--Tfi 
us rhe foxeB, that fpoil tbc vineB. Cdnt. ii. 15* i 
To nndtrdand in any particular fcnfe or manni 
— Thf words are more propcrly taken Ur thc \ 
or sether than tht hcaycns. Raleigb. — YQ\itQ^^ 
right, Eup(>'i8; fjr theie is no potlibiV»iy of 
holy war.^^row. — I take it, and iron hraf8, cali 
whiie brafR, bath fome mixiuiie of tin to help t 
luAre. ■^con. — 

W-Ily, now you take nic ; thef- arc rite^ 

Tbat grace Ioy»;'» days, and crown his nrghj 

Thefe arc the motions I would fce. Benjzm 
— Give them Of»e fimoIe rdca, and fce that t 
take it right, and pcrfe^Uy comprchcnd it. Lw 
— Cbarity tcdken in its iargeft cattent, is rotti 
elle but the fincere lovc of God and our uc. 
bour. fVake, ri. To exaA, — Take no ului) 
him. Lrv. XXV. 36. la. To gtt ; to hAve; to 
propriatt. — Take ihe goods to thyfeif. Gen. 
21. 13. To ulc ; to cmploy. — This roan ai? 
takes timc. lVaits, 14. To blail ; to infc^.- 
Strike hcr young 6one«», 

You taking airs, with iamcnefs. l 

15. TojUdge in favour of ; lo adopt.— 
Thc niceft eye could no diftm£tton tnak 

Whcrc lay tbeadvantagc, or what tidc to 


16. To admit any thing bad froin withoui.-^ 

1 ought to havr a care 
To keep my wounde trom taJkin^ air. Hud\ 

17. Togct; to procure. — Stiiking ftoncsl 
took firc out of them. a Mac. x. 3. 18. To 
to ; to prairtift. — lf any bt fubje^*t to vice, q 
iil courfe», tliey arc rcproved. Sucom. i\ 
clofe in with ; to c^moly witb. — 

Old ap I am, 1 take^hce at thy word. 

You, kind lover, took her at hcr word. 

I take tbee at thy wOrd. | 

ao. To fnrm; to fix. — Reltblutioiis tuken 
full debate, wcre feidom proftrcutcd. C/ai^ 
ar. To catch in thc hand; to rcize. — He t< 
by a lock of my bead. £zek. rnu 3.^- 

1 took noi armti till urg'd by lclf defen 


11. To admit 5 to fofrtr. — 

Now take thc mould. J 

Digitized by 


T A K r I 

11. To perform any a^op.— PpradveBturc we 
Ibiil take our rctenge on him. Jer, XX. lo. — Uz- 
uh put forth bis hand to the ark, and iook huid 
of it. 1 Sam, ▼!. 6. — Taking my lcave of them, I 
•rcDt into Macedonia. a Cor, — Before I priKecd, 
] vctild take fome brcatb. Boeon* — His wind he 
uyrx took whiiH tbc cup was at his roouth. Hake' 

A lcng figh he drew» 
AimI his voicc faili ng, took his laft adicu^ Dryd, 

Thc Sabinc Claufu9 came, 
And hrom afary at Dryopn took bi*( airo. Dryden, 

Hcr iovcr» namc<) in ordcr to run o'cr, 
Tbc girl t^k breath fuU thirty times. Dryden, 
UcighttuM revcnge he (hould have took. 

-Thc huiband'8 aATairs madc it ncceffary for him 
to/oir a vo]rage to N^oles. Spe3.—\ took a waik 
m Liiicoln'8 Ii»n Gardco. 7tf///T.— The Cartha- 
^iintook bis feat. TVi/^r.— 1 can p.ralify my fa- 
«vwiies, and take vengeance on my cncmies. 
i>vjt, J4. To reccivc inlo thc minH.r — Thcy 
f«i koowlcdge of thcm that thcy had bctn with 
jiius. Jffsf IV. — He took gitat contcutment in 
tiii»«ir qutftion. Baron.-^Dr Moorc rcckors this 
pirttcaar inciination» to take a prcjud»ce againft 
a iMii for bia lookd, among thc ^mallcr vice8 in 
irorjtity, and na.ncs it a profopoKrpfia. SpeSator, 
-A ttudcnt ihould ncvcr Ulihiy himfclf wtth barc 
jrcBdancc on lcaurcp, unlcf« he ckarly takes up 
tKcfrtfe. H^atti. %$. To go into.— Hc podcd to 
ihc ta^roatt to takf ihip. Cff«i^ii.--Tyger« and 
l^-aiarc not apt to take thc watcr. Hale. a6. To 
t^ilong; to follow ; to purfue.-* 

Thc joyfal fliort-liv'd ncws foon fpread a- 
Totk the famc train. Dryien. 

Oofcr»mg (liil thc rootions of their flight, 
What couric tkcy took. Drjden. 

r. Tij fwalk)w j t j rcccive.— ConGder the infa- 
t.f4vTioooffcvcral bodics, and of their appctite 
tJ uk iii othcrs. 5flr<w;— Turkeyn take down 
t(xn.\ having tound in the gtzzAr j of onc no lcCs 
t*i*n 7CO. Bro<ufn. 28. To fwaUow a» a medi- 
^.-Tdlin ignoi amu« in placc to his facc that 
wtoa wit abovc ail thc world, aad as fnifome 
*^ai you givc him hc Iball rcadily take it 
^/n. Uutb, — Upon this airurance hc took phy- 
■^ Ueke. 29. To choofc orc of morc— 
Takt to thcc trom aroong the cherubim 
p»y choicc ol Aaming warnor?. Milton. 

•^WhcT but one man, or ali men arc kings : take 
*fccli you plcafc. Locke. 30. To copy.— 

Bciuty alonc couM bcauty take (o right. 

I Drjden. 

I 3t' To convcy ; to carry ; to tranfport. — 

I Taki ah bis company along w ith him. Sbak, 

"•Noiian/90* thcm into his houfc to lodging. 

Mp/,xix.I5. 3«- To fa(len on; to feizc.— 

*fccnfocvcr hc taketb him hcteareth him. Mark^ 

^ il-^-Mo tcmptation hath taken you, but fuch 

I M^coroiDon. I Cor. x. ij^Whcn thc froft and 

' ^ ^»e taken tbcm/they grow dangcrous. 7Vm- 

, Atfirftthey warro, thcy fi:orch, aod then they 
j ^' Dryden. 

7^beaft will eat four grafs till the froft hath 
**»it. Mortimer.-^ln buming of Aubblci takc 

17 ) T A K 

care that thc Rrc may not take the hedgc». Mcr^ 
timer, 33.» Not to rcfufe ; to acccpt. — Take no 
fMtisfa6ion tur ihe lifc of a murdcrcr. Num. xxxv. 


Thou tak*^ thy mothcr'8 word too far. 

— We are to take his woid for this. Locke. — Who 
wiil liot rcceivc clippcd moncy whdft hc fce8 the 
bank and gold^miths wiil take it of him ? Lockt', 
34. To adopt. — I will take you to me for a peo- 
plc. Exod. vi. 7. 35. To changc with rcfj>c^i to 
piacc. — He took out two pencc, and gave them t«> 
the hoft. Lukey x. 15. — Whtn hc took h out, it 
waa lcprou^. Exod. iv. 6. — Thc artery will not 
bcat below thc ligaturt ; yct do but take it oir» 
and it wiil beat immcdiatciy. Ray. — Lover9 flung 
themftlvf8 trom thc top of the prtcipicc into thc 
fe«i, where they wcre foraetime8 taken up alive. 
Addijon. 36. To ftparatc. — Still therc rcmains 
as much to be addcd as if none wcrc taken out. 

The liying fabrick now in picces take. 


37. To admit. — Lct not a widow hc taken inio 
the number undcr threcfcore. i Tim. v. 9.— 

The fouicft imprcnionA I ealily take. Swiji, 

38. To purfue ; to go in. — 

He aloncy 
To 6nd H hcre Adam fliclter'd, took his way. 

To the port fhc takes her way. Drydau 

InjurM Nifu8 takes his airy courf<. Dryden» 
Lct eternal juftice take the way. Dryden, 
li was her tortunc once to take hcr way 
Along thc fandy margin of the fca. Dryd., 

39. To rcccive any teropcrordifpofitionof mtnd. 
— Thcy fhali not take (haroc. Mit. ii. 4.— Thou 
baft taken pity 011 roc. Tob. — ^Thcy take delight m 
approaching to God. I/aiab% lviii. a. — Take ^%ood 
hcart, O Jcrufalem. Bar. iv. 30. — Mcn dic in de- 
firc of fome things which they take to heart. 
Bacon. — 

Fcw arc fo wickcd as to take delight 
In crimcs unprofitable. Dryden. 

•^Childrcn take a pridetobehaTethcroiclTcspret- 
tily, pcrceiving thcrofclves efteemed. Loeke. 40. 
To cndurc ; to bcar. — I can be a« troubirforoe as 
another when I raeet with thofc that wiil take it. 
L' E^range.-^ Won't you thcn takeSLJt^. Spe^a- 
/or.— Hc met with fuch a reccption as thofe only 
defcrvc who arc content to take \Xt S<wi/t. 41. 
To draw ; to dcrivc. — Tbe firm bdicf of a fut4iTe 
judgment, i*- the moft &»rdble rootive to a good 
lifc ; bccaufc taken from this conhdemtion ot thc 
moft lafting happinefs and nifery. TilUt/on. 42. 
To icap ; to jump over.-<— 

To cudgcl yoy, and make you take thc hatch. 


43. To aATumc.-^ 

Fit you to thc cuHom, 
And take t'ye as your prcdcceirors bave, 
Ycur honour with your form. Sbak. 

—1 take\\bcv{y to (ay, that thcfe proporition» t«» 
a grcat part of mankind are not known. Ij)cke. 

44. To allow ; to admit. — Take not any tcrm t<> 
Itand for any thing till you havc an idca of it. 
JLof^^.-*Chcmifts take lorocthing for grAhtcii, 
whicb they ough t to pro? e. Bo^le.-^ 

Digitized by 


T A K ( i 

l tooh your weak excuft8. Drydetu 

45. To rec€ive with fondncf8,— 
I lovM you ftill, and 

Took you into my bjfom. Drjden» 

46. To carry out for ufc. — They (hbuld take no- 
thing for thcir jouroey fave a ftafF. Mark^ vi. S. 

47. To fuppofc ; to rcccivc in thought^ to coter- 
tain in opmion. — 

This I take it 

Is the main motivc of our prcparations. Sbak* 
. — Tbe fpirit6 that are iu all tangible bodies ^ie 
fcarce kn jwn ; fometimc8 they take them for va- 
cuum. Bacon. — He too^ bimfelf to have deferved 
as much as any man. Chrendoa* — He was deceiv« 
cd ; and fo took that for virtue aod aftedion which 
was nothing.but vice in adifguife. 5oi</A.— Dcpra- 
ved appetitcs caufe us often to^^ that for true 
imitation of naturc which has no reremblancc of 
it. Drydeu. — 

So foft his trciTes» fillM with trickliog pearl, 

You doubt his fcx, and take him for a girl. Tatg. 
— Timc is taken for fo rouch of jnfinitc duratlon,, 
ab 13 meafured out by thc great bodics of the uni* 
vcrrf. £of>C^.— They who wo^ld.advance4nknow- 
kdt^c, (hould lay down this rule, not to take 
worJs Tor things. Locke, — Fcw wiU takc a propo- 
fitioii waich amounts to no morc tban t^is, that 
God iB pleafed with the doing of what hc bimrclf 
commandi. Z^r/i^.— Some torics will «oi^ yon for 
a whig, fomc whigs will take you for a tory. Pofie^ 
— As Uake it, the two princ\pal branchcs of prcach- 
ing are, to tell thc people wb^t is theirduty, and 
thcu to con\ince them -that it is fo. ^<w'tft* 4^* 
To fcparatc for onc*8 fclf from any quantity ; to 
rcmovc for onc'8 lclf from any place. — I will take 
of thcm for pricft8. lfaiab% livi. ai. — Hath God 
airaycd to take a nation trom the mt(ift of another^ 
Deut, iv. 34. — I might have ^aken her to mc to 
wrfe. Gen, xti. 19.— -^nocb was not, for God topk 
him. Gen. v. 14. — 

Four heifer8 from his/cmak^ort he took, Dryd. 

49. Not to leavc ; not to omit.— The difcourlie 
hcre 18 about ideas, whichheiays ai^crcal thitigd; 
in taking this along with me, to make it prove a- 
ny thing to his purpofe> thc argument muft (Und 
tbus. Loeke* — Young gentlemcn ought not Qn]y 
to tahe along with thcm a ckar idca of the anti- 
quitic8 on mcdals and figure8, bMt iikewife to ex^ 
erctfe thcir arithmetick ia rcduci^g the fum8 of 
inoney to thofe of thcir own eountry. Arbutfmot, 

50. To receive payments. — Never a wffe leads a 
better iife than fhe docs ; do what ihc will, take 
all, pay all. Sbak. 51. To obtain by menfura- 
tion. — The ^night coming to the tailor'8 to take 
ineafure of his gown, perceiveth the iikc gdwn 
cloth lying there. Camden, — With a two foot ruLe 
be took the dimentions of the room. Swi/t. ja. 
To withdraw. — Honeycomb, on the vergc of 
tbrecfcore, took me afide, and aiked me, whcthel: 
I would advife hlm to marry ? SpeSator, 53. Tb 
feiEe with a tranfitory impulfe ; to afre<ft fo as not 
to laft. — Tiberiu8, notedfor his oiggardly tcmper, 
only gave bis attcndants tbeir diet ; but oncc be 
was taken with a 6t of generofity. Ark. 54. To 
compriie ; to comprchend. — We always take the 
account of a future ftate into our fcheme8 about 
the concerns of Ibis world. jltterbury.-^llsLd thofe 
who would pafuadc us that thcreare innatepriQ* 

>« ) T A K 

ciplcs, not taken thcm together in gfof8, bul coo. 
iidercd feparatcly thc parts, thcy would not bave 
been foforward to believe thcy wcre innatc. Lo^, 
S5* To bave recoorfe to.— A fpaiTow took \ bu(h 
juft as an eagle madc a ftoop at an hare. V^r, 
— The cat prefently takej a trcc, and fecs the 
poor fox tom to picces. L^J^rangt. 56. To pio- 
duce; or fuffer to be produced.— No purpofei 
whatfoever which are meant fpr the goo(l4)f that 
iand wiU profper, or take good cfled. $peiifrr. 

57. To catcb in tbe mind.— Thefe do bett who 
Jaie material hints to bc judgcd by hiftory. Locie, 

58. Tohire; to rcnt.— 

If three ladics, like a lucklef8 play, 
Take the whole houfc upon tbe poet'6 day. Pope, 

59. To cngage in ; to bc adivc in. — 
Imagine me Uiking your part, 

And in your pow'r 10 filencing your fon. Shak, 

60. To incur ; to receivc as it happcns.^ 

In ftream89 iny boy, and river8 taie thf 
chance. ' Jddi/o». 

Now take your turn. J)r;den, 

6i. To admit in copulation.— 

Five bundred aircs yearly took the horfe 
Producing mules of grcatcr fpccd. SaaJju 
^%. 1*0 catch cag^rly. — 

Dranccs took the word. . Drydtn, 

.63* To ufe as an oath or expreffion. — Thou ihalt 
not take thc name of the Lord in vaiD. £xo^. 
fi4. To feizc as a difcafe« — They that comcabroad 
aftcr thefe ihowcrs, are commonly taken witb fick« 
ncf8. Bacon.^J. am 0ken on tbc fuddcn with a 
/wimming in my hcad. Dryden, 65. 7o Take a- 
Qvajf. To dcph ve of. — lf any take awaj fironI thc 
book of this prophecy j jGod iball take awaj hii 
part out of thc book ot lifc. Rev, xxii. 19.— Thc 
pill for taki^gawaj the iV0te8 of biihops waBcilled 
a bill for takuig away aU temporal jurifdidioo. C/o- 
rendon, — Many difper^d objcAs hreed confufioo, 
^nd take awr from the pidturc that grave majeily 
^hich give8 beauty to the piece. Drjden, — 

3y your o wn law I take yonr lifc awaj, Drjl 

The £ufi'ral pomp which to your kmgs yoH 

l8 all I wai^t, ^nd all you take aviaj. Dryien. 
«-Onc who give8 ai^othcr any thmg, bas not al- 
yays ^ right to takeM awaj agJ^n. Locke,-^ 

Not fQe8 nor forttAQt takej tbis powcr awaj» 
'■ - ' ' Pope. 

66. To Taxe awaj. To fet afidcj to remo?c. 
•^If we taie a<waj confcioiifnef6 of pleafure and 
pain, it will be hard to know wherein to place 
perlbnal identtty. Locke, , 67. To Taks care, T6 
be careful ; to be folicitou8 for ; to iuperiotend. 
— ^Doth God take care for oxcn ? i Con ix. 9« 
68. To Take care. To be cautious ; to be vi. 
gilant. 69. ToTAiLE.courJe, To have recour(e 
po mcafureB.— They meant to take a cour/e to dtal 
Witb pkrticularb by rcconcilcments. Bacon,^Thc 
violence of ftormiug is the cour/e wbich God ii 
(orced to take for t^e dcftroying of finncr8. Ham' 
mond, 70. To Takk down. To crulh ; to rc- 
ducc ; to fupprefii. — Do you think that it U fo hard 
tp take him down as fome fuppofe i Spen/er.-^. 

Take down thcir mcttlc : kcep thcm lean. 

— Lacquey8 wcre rever fo faucy as now, and bc 
ihould be glad to lce them taken do<im Addijon» 

71. fa 



A K ( i 

To fwa)low; to take bf 


tbc moutb.'— Wc cionot toAe down thc livc8 of 
linofr crtaturesy whicb fome of thc ParacelGans 
Ciy, i tbej could be taken downt would make us 
iiDaorta]. ibcw. 72. 7o Takb ^^-om. To dc- 
rojatc; todctrad.— It /ai#j not yrom you, that 
yoe «ere bom with priociples of generoruy. 
DrjL n* To Take /rom. To dfpnve of. — 
CoBioi^ioD will add to thetr knowledge» but bc 
too ipt to taieJroM their virtiie. Locke. — 

Geotle gods iaie my breath/rom me. Shak, 
-IwiU faute thee* and take thine head Jrom 
tbce. I &«. 74. 7# Takb beed. To be cauti- 
001; to bewarc—Toi^ ^«ri/ of a mifchievou8 
■an. Sdb/.iLjj.— 

rolr imi left paffioa 

$nf tlif jadgment to do oaght. MUton. 

Takhetd what doom againtt yoorfelf you 

git^ Diyden. 

:j. r# Taie W /•. To attend^r<i><' iteed 

mt tbe commandmentB of the Jx>rd. Ecelu/. 

XM.i;. 76. 7o Takb in. To incloAr.— Upon 

the icKoat are parceU of laod that woold pay him 

^h^tittakingm. Mortimer» 77. To Take 

»• Tocheat ^ to gull : at» tbeewming ones were 

taiak A k)w tpulgar phrale. 79. 7o Take m 

M To otidcrtake.~Nuthing would profper 

^^Uok m band. So. To Takr m. To 

wtipnie; to comprebend. — Tbefe heads are fuf- 

i^cieat Uk the explication of thb whole matter ; 

11«% k Ibaie additional difcourfef. Bumet,-^ 

\^ iote of our country takei in our familie«9 

'«Ddi, aod acquainunce. MdiJbn.^Tbe difufe 

<^tlietacker bat enlarged the neck of a fine wo* 

Basthatat preient it takes in almoft half the 

^* diidi/on.'—Of tbcie mattert no fatiafaaory 

^owoit un be givea by any mechanical bypo- 

JW*» vttbout taJkiitg' in thc Aipcrintendence of 

^pctt Creator. Derbam. Sr. 7o Takb m. 

fio idait— An opinion bronght into his head by^ 

«^, becauie hc beard bimfelf called a fether, 

pk Woj lAir im. Sidnty.-^h grcat ▼elTcl full bc- 

pldiiwa iato bottlco» and thcn tbe liouor put 

npiBb(othe veireU will not fill the veHel again 

l^ M it wasy bot that it may take in more. 

I«*-Pbiter was taken in as a bcd-chambcr 

'*^ ffotton. — 

J^fertuiie empty ^er whole qoiver on mc, 
U<fea (bol, tbat» iike an ample ihicld, 

t^^wan. Dryden. 

^ ^t aod toucb take in from the fatne ob- 
Jdiltitm kteat. Locke.—l take in none that do 
*^>atBQll7rejoice in thc foil. SpeBator, 8a. 7o 
y^** To win by conqacft.— He fent Afa- 
Ji*^ tbe JaniKartet, to take in the other cities 
?^*i»- ir»»/i^/.— Should agrcat beanty refoi?e 
^*«e M witb the artillcry of her eye», it 
Jjji be at Tain ae for a thief to fct opon a new. 
2^ Njeiiger. SyekHng.-^Opco places are 
■*TH4f»ii. Pettan. «3. 7o Take in. To re- 
^^locaUy^Wc failed unto AiTot, there in- 
r^J ta tMke in Piiul. >f5/, KX. 13.— That 
^•« /oir in by education is ncKt to that 
^«•taittral. 77ifo(/&ii.— As no acid is m an 
?J*yy but muft be tmken in by the mouth, 
/^••oifubdued it may get into the blood. 
^***- 14. To Takb in, To receive men- 
/'-Aotatcd undcrftaoding can ncver take in 

19 ) T A K 

thc fiillnefs of thc divine eKcclIencies. Hale.^ 
The idca of cKtcnGon joins itfelf fo infeparably 
with all vifib!^ qualitie9, that it fufrcrs to fee no 
one w\i\iOuX.jakmg in impreiTions of extenfion too. 
Locke. — It is not in the powerof themoft enlarged 
underftanding to frame one new fimplc idea in the 
mind, not taken in by the ways afore-mentioned. 
Locke. — A man can never have taken in his full 
meafure of knowledge before he is hurried o^^thc 
ftage. Addijbn. — Let him take in the ioftrudions 
you give him in a way fuitcd to his inclination. 
Watts. — Somc genius can take in a long train of 
propotitiont. fVatis. - 85. 7o Takb notice. To 
obfervc. 86. 7o Take notue. To (hew by any 
ad that obfervation is made. — At that time thcy 
took little notice of it. Clarendon. 87. 7o Takk 
oatb. To fwear.— The king of Babylon hath 
taken of the king*s feed, and of him taken an 
oatb^ £zek. — Wc take all oatb of fecrccy, for thc 
concealing of thofe inYcntions which we tbink fit 
to keep fccret. Bacon. 88. 7o Take of, To in- 
validatc ; to deftroy ; to remove. When it is im- 
mediately tp follow by /romt without an accufa- 
tive, it may be contidered either as elliptically 
fttppreifing the accufative, or as being neutral. — 
Your power and your command is taken o/f, 

And Caifio rules in Cyprus. Sbak* 

The cruei minifters 

Took off hf r Iifc. Sbak. 

-— If the hcads of the tribes can be taken off^ and 
the mifled muititude retum to their obcdience» 
fuch an extent of mercy is honourable. Baeon. — 
Subtile or windy ^piritsarc takenoff by incenHon 
orevaporation. Bacon. — ^To ftop ichifms, tah tff 
the principal authort by winning and advancing 
tbem, rather than enrage them by violence. 
Baeon. — What taketb off the objedion is, that in 
judging fcandal we are to look to the caure 
whence it cometh. Sanderjon* — Ail force of thtfc 
is taken off by this do^nnc. Hammond. — It will 
not be unwclcome to the(c worthics, who cndea- 
vour tbe advancemcnt of learning, as bcing hkely 
to iind a clear progreifion when fo many untrutbs 
are taken off. Brown. — This takes not o^the forcc 
of ourformer evidence. StUL — The uuHing pot 
can eMytakelt off. Locke.^K man'» underftanding 
faihng him,.wouid/aitr o^that prefumption moft 
men have of thcmfclvcs. Locke. — It Ihews virtue 
in thc faireft light, and takes off{Tom the deformity 
of vice. Mdi/on. — When we would take offtrom 
the reputation of an a^ipn, ^e afcnbe it to vain- 
glory. Addi/on. — This takes off from the clegance 
of our tonguc, but cKprcires our idcas in thc rea- 
dieft manner. Addi/on. — The juftices decreed, to 
take off^. halfpenuy in a quart firom thc price of 
ale. Sm;//?. — How many Iive« have bcen loft in hot 
blood, and how many likely to be taken off in 
bold. B/biM/.— Favourahle namcs are put upon ill 
ideas to take o^the odium. JTatts. ,89. To Takk 
off. To withhold ; to withdraw. — Hc in ereat 
courtefy took us off, and condefcended to alk us 
queftions. Bacon.—Your prefent dittemper is not 
io troublcfomr, as to take you o^ from all fati8- 
fa^ion. JVake* — Thcre is nothing more ungo- 
vcmable than our thoughts : they will not 
be dircded what objcdts t%' puHue, nor bc 
taken off from thofc thcy havc oncc fixcd on, 
Lotke. — K^cp forcigu idcas from taking ofl* our 


Digitized by 


120 ) T A K 

Ile takcnuphtfoTefOVLprocccd.Sharp, io^.ToTau 
uff, 1 o cngrois; tocngaRe,— Ovcr much mitty 
in woridly Ihing» /iiit« H^the mind. Dt^pa,-^ 
Takc my eftecm ; 
If my heai t you alk, or hope for more, 
I gneve is ioAea uf> btfi)re. DrjL 

— I iritendcrt) ta ha^e left thc dage, for a work which 

T A K ( 

mirtdn from its prcfent purfuit. Lttcke, 

had takcn you o^, by his mercy, from thc 

vinitif s and temptations of thc ^orld. lVake, 

90. To Take o^. To fwa)li)w. — Wcre tbc 

p'cafurc of drinkiog accompinied, the moment 

a man taltes off his glafis with that fi'.*k llomach 

"«^hich, m fomc men, failow6 not many hours af« 

tcr, no body wou"d ever Itt wine touch his lips, woiild have taken up my life in thc pcrf«rrar>cf. 

Loch, 91. To Taicr off, To purchafc. — Com i>/^4/.— To uruIcritaBd fully his pi*rtic»»H railiog 

Ihe labourer will have *t his own ratr», clfe heM in the comoion^^eakh, and n.*iigion taka uf hii 

not take it off\.ht farmerN h;md9 for wagts. Locke, whdle time. X^fi<r.— C-untriCb ftored wiih roircs 

— The Spjiniards have no commodiTic» that we are poor, the digitiog and re»ufe of thefe metab 

will takeoff^ above the va.ue of 100,000 1. pcr an- taking tt^ thc Ub^)Uf, a**d wadmg tbc nucnhcrot 

num, cannot pay us. Lockc» — Thcre is a projc<ft the pcOpIe. LocAe,-^M.o^ of roy fcilow foWicn 

oT\ foot for tranfporting our bcft wbeatcn ftraw lo wcrc takenup with thc famc inuginations. M^w. 

DuQftable, and obliging us to take off yeariy fo — An artift, now tmke/t up with thb InycntioD. 

many ton of ftraw hat««. Sm)\ft, 9*. 7o Ta k e off^ AJcU/I-^TUctc hr9a mucb takat up'\Ti the ceremottyi 

To copy, — TaLvoff'»\\ their models in wood 

sii/bn» 9.?. To Take of. To find place for. — 
Thc multiplying of uobility bring» a ftate to ne- 
cedity ; and, in likc manner, when more are bfcd 
fchOlars than preferment8 can take off, Bacon. 
94. To Take off, To rcmoTc, — Whcn Mofet 
went in, hc took ihc veil of, Exod. xxiv. 34. — If 
any woold reign and take up all the time^ let him 
tnke thera offind bring oihcrs on. Bmeon, 95. To 
Take order luith, To chcck ; to takc GOUTfc 
r^'iih. — Though he would have turncd hi<i tccth 
upon Spain, yet he was taken order with bcfoi^it 
c:kvi\c to that. Bacon, 96. To Takc out, To rc« 
move trom within ary placc. — 

All thy friends which thou muft make thy 
Have but their fting8 and tecth newly ta*en wt^ 


97. To Take part. To fharc.— -T^il^ pa^^t m rc- 
ioicing for thc vi^ory over the TurkR. P&pe» 

98. To Takb place, To prevail ; to have cATe^t. — 

Where arms take place^ all other pleaa are 
vain. Dryden. 

that htf0reAbejr eoteronthcirfubjedthcdialog>j< 
u half ^nded^ Mdi/.-^Thc aft*airs of reli|non an:j 
war took tip Conftantin6 fo roudh, that he had no| 
iKrie to thtnk of tradc. jfr^.-«.Thc compar-* of ij 
book<9i9^tak^n up in tbefe. Pope. lor. TpTai 
up, To havc fiiial recourfe to. — Amobius aOcrt 
that raen of thc ftneft ^m.% atid leaming, rbctoij 
cian«, iawyem, phy(icians^ dcfptftng the (entidkd 
they had been oncc foad of, took up thcir rrlki 
thc CHrirtian rcligioR. Addifon. 106. To Ta« 
up, To fciie ; to catdi ; to arreft.— Thottgh ifl 
ihcriir hid tbts authority to take up ail fucb ^rk 
glcrs, and iinprifon them ; yet (hall he not wd 
that terror iii tbeir hearts that a marikal wi{ 
Spenfer, — 1 

I was taken up fnr laying them down. $U 
You have taken up^ 
Undcr the eountertcited acal crf Godt \ 
The fuSjc<ft8 of bis fubftitutc. . Sbaiujpee\ 
107. 7o Take up, To admit. — Th€ ancirnt»^ 
up cKperiments upon credit. Baeon. loS 
Takb up. To anf\»er by reproving ; to rcprimai 
— One of . his rclatibiis iook him tip ronndly. V 

— The debt a man owts liis father takes place, and Jlrange. 109. To Takb up^ To begin whcrc i 

•vt8 the father a right to inherit. Locke^ 99. To 
Take up. To borrow upon crc<jlit or intcreft. — 
The fmooth patcs rvow wcar nothtn? but hi<h 
OiHs; an i if a man is through with them in 
h(>orft takin^t u^, they ftand upan iecurity. Shuk. 
— Wc take ut> corn for them. Ncb. — 
She to the merchant goes, 
R''ch rryftal8 of the rock fhe takes up there, 
Hnge agat »afeo, and old china ware. Dryden, 
— l M4ve taken u*) from Boccacc before I comc to 
h'">. i>rf</«i.— Mcn, tor want of due paymert, 
.rr f »rccd tc) take up the, ncc-Aaries c;f iifc at a'- 
MY\K doubic valiie. 5wr/>. ico.To be rcaiy for; 
iw cngape with. — 

One power acainft thc Prcnch, 
Anrl one againft Glcndower ; ptrforce a ihird, 
Miift take up us. Shak, Henry IV. 

iji. 7o Take «(p. To apply to the ufe of. — 
We took up arme not to revcnge ourf«:lve8, 
But free the commonwealth. Addifon. 

1-2. roTAKE up, To begin.— They ftiaU take 
ufi 1 Umcutation tor me. £j5/i* xxv. 17. — Princcs 
*.ien:11hip, wliich they take up upon thc accounts 
< \ iii-1ifment and ncrit, they/moft times laydown 
OA'. (>f humour. Sou ^\ to$.To Take up. To faftcn 
V \*l\ .1 ligaturc p^ljcd under. A tcrm of chirur- 
griy.— A largc YclLl opcncd by incifion muft bc 



formcr lctt oW. — Thc plot is purely fiAion ; 
take it up wher<: the hiftory has laid tt d( 
Dryden*s Don Sebaji.^ 

Soon a» thc evening ftiades prcratl, 

The moon taiet up tbc wond'roua talc. 
iio. 7o Take up, To lift.— 

. Tetke up thef<^ cloaths hcrc quick!y. 
— Thc laft things arc taken up by th€ thumb J 
f >rcfinger; whcn wc would take up a greatrr qri 
tity, we would ufe tbe thamb and all the Tio^ 
Kay, — Mtlo took up a calf daily on his Oiouldl 
artd at laft arrivcd a^ firmni;fs to bcar the b 
lVatts, III. To Take up. To occuoy locatl^ 
The chambers whicb opened towards tbc ictS\ 
were taken up, Hayward, All «tctous tnom^ 
praifticcs arc reguUHy confcquent, wherc 
other hath taken up the lodging. Hammond. — 
mittces for the conveniencc.of thc common c< 
cil who took up the Guild-hall, Cnt in Oroc^ 
ball. Ciarendon — When my concCrDmeot tak 
no more than myfelf, then I know whcrc u 
bappy. Soutb. — Notwithftanding ihe room 
mountains take up on the dry land, there wl 
be at leaft 8 oceans rcquired. Bumet.^y^ 
thefe waters wcre annibi]ated,foraucli otbcrl 
tcr muft be created to take up thcir placcs. Ba 
— Priuccs wcre fo taken up wiib wars, that 

Digitized by 


T A K f 1« 

coalJ m'\{€ or rc»d tMGde< th6fe of the long robcs. 
Trm^ie — Thc buildiag« about tooit up ^ wholc 
hiLt» ArhMibn9t. n%. To Tak£ i^. To manHge 
SB ibe pttLC ol:' anothtrr. — v 

1 MYe h» hor£e to take up the ^uarrrU 5iM« 
-Tbe prcatclt cmpire» bave bad thtir ritc fiom 
tht prrtmce ot' takttig up <judrrcf8. VEfirunge, 
115. 7o Take «/. To comprire. — I prtfcr in our 
cjynrytncn thc noblc poem of Paleroon and Ar- 
rHf, trhich is perhaps not mucb infcrior to-lhe 
liis. oftif it rA(«i a^ icYcn yearp. Drjdetu 114. 
TiTaii ij^. Toadopt; to alTtime.— God'3 dc- 
crcrtof (ajvatton af»d d:imnatioR ha»e bccii iaten 
i^tyf roscoCthcKomiib and Rcformcdchurchca, 
i4xjcg t:'.cm to incn'8 particuiar entitics. Ham. 
— TtKT cdmmand in war is givcn to the br<tvcft ; 
indmpcace/^iKTi i^ by the boldctt. TempUr- 
AITanincc is pruperly that confid6Q£:c which ;i 
pa tMkei up of thc pard.on of his fin&. South, — 
Tiic French aiid wc ftill changc. 

TWy te^ up ogr old tradc of conqucrine, 

iad w€ arctaking thcir's todancc and hng. 

-rHcth*t will ob(erve the coficlu(ion« meu take 
*^msft be ratikAcd they arr not ail raiional. 
^^.-Ccjibacy, in \ht church of Kotne, wa« 
«tauDoniy forccd, and taken up^ under a boid vow. 
MiTiirj.-^\jLvt\^ Biiboon had ta^eu up the trade 
etoiotbier. Arb^timot.-^Eytry man ta^es upihok 
intcrcttt in whfch his bumpur cngagca him. Pope. 
-If tho(e proceedings were obrervcd, moraiiiy 
Md ncligion would foon become falhionaWc, and 
bctciAi^asthe only mclJs.oda lo get or lucp 
B&pkiymeiits. Stui/t.T' 

Takeup oo m<M-e tl^ui you by worth may 

lct fooo you pj-wre a bankrupt. Toung. 

jH^ n Tak^ ^. To coiua i to e«aa a taK — 
p« grtat baiTa was bom m a poor country vil. 
bjtiiod m his chiidhood takcn from his ChHtti. 
w pwcati, by .f«ch as take up thc tribute children. 
,Wb. 116. 7> Take upon. To appropriate to j 
toaffBac; 10 admit to bc imputed to.— if I had 
MmoTc wit than be, to take • fault4^ roo that 
«H be ha4 bcen hang'd loi^t. ^Aa*.— Hc took 
Mwhimthenaturc of angcls. B^^.ii. x6.-^l wiU 

W totf itpo^ mc thc knowledge how the princes 

«Earope ftand affcAed towards^pain. ^on. — 
Would I could your fulf'ring(} brar, 

T« tfl*f ppm myfcif your imniOiment. Bryderu 
8bc lovc« me, evcn to fuffer for my fake ; 

A«d« hcr(elf would my rdnufal take. Dryden. 
"7.7«Tak« upon. To aOiime; to claim au- 
^y. The£ea£e (bmctimca-approaches to ncn- 

He oNiA bc told 00% and he ihall ; the of- 

iWBCi a woman beft : VA tMx, upon me. 

look that jm U2keftpon you as you jhould. 

7**' «^ trtnOator takHk upon bimfi lf to do. 
^•••^The parliament teok upon thcm to call 
•j^nbly of divioes^ to letile foiUe cburch cou. 
Jjo*ci. Sanderfon* iig. This verb, U^k^prendte 
^^^^ » «f<d wrth eodIef8 msltiplicity of rc- 
■*r Iti uies are fo numerous, that they cah- 
^OaJrbe cxemplificdi u4 itl rdcrcncci tp 


I ) T A K 

the wordi goyerned by it iK> gencral and 1ax, tbat 
tbey can hardly be cKplaincd by any rucccdaaeous 
tcrms. Btit commouty thi^t is hardeft to cxpUia 
which lealt wants cxpliration. I have expanded 
this word to a widc di^TuGou, which, I think, is 
all that could bc donc. 

(t.) • To Take. nt. »• I. To dircA thc courfe ; 
to havc a t<?ndcncy to. — The inclination to good- 
ncf8, it it iiruc not-towards men, it wili take un^ 
to othcr things. Bacon. — Thc king began to bc 
trouMed with the gout ; but the dcfluxion taktng 
alia into hi^ brcaft, waitcd hi& lungs. Bacon, -AU 
mco bcing aUrmed with it, roi^e .W towards the 
park. Dryden.-T. 

To fliun thy lawlefs luA thydying bride, 

Unwary, toot ?long the rycr^s rule. , Dryden, 
1. To pleafc io gain rcception. — An appl«f of So- 
dom, with a Aorid whitc ard red, yct fiUt: thc 
hand wtth (lcnch and ^oulners : tajr in iook and 
rottcn in hcart, a» tUe ftaytft ani mo(t taking 
things are. 5att/A.— Words and thought«, whicb 
cannot be changcd but for tbe worle, maft of nc- 
cciCty cfcapc thc trandrrnt virw upon thc iheatre; 
aud ytt wkbout thcfe ^ piay may toJ(.e, Dryden.^ 
Each wit inay prail? it for his own dcar f^ket ' 

And hint bc writ it, if the thin^ ihould tnke, 

— ^The work mav Vc well perfonne<l# but will neyer 
iake if it is not ict oiT with proper iccncs. Addtfon. 
— May thc man grow wittier ard wifcr by fiAding 
that lh'8 ftuflf will not tai^e nor plcafe. Beniiey. j. 
To have thc intendcd o^natural cATc^. — In impreO* 
iions from laiiid to miiid, the impreilion taiet^ 

Putrid earth will beft iavineyards/<}i^, Drjfd. 
4. To catch ; to fix.-rWhcn Aarne taketif and 
openetK, tt giveth a noife. J^acgn. 5. To TAKt 
after. To leam of ; to rciemble ; to imitAte.T- 
Bcafts, that converfc 

Witb man, take after him, iu hogs 

Gct pigs all tii' ycar, and bitchcn dog«. ntdiik 
— He has taken afier « good pattern. 4^teriimry. . 
4. Tp Take in <witb. To reiort to.— Mcn bncc 
placed take in witb the c6ntrary fadtion. Ba^on. 
7. To Take on, To bc violently aiTeiled.— Your 
huiband fo takej on ypnder with my huiband, 
that any madne.fs I cvcr yet beheld ftcmed but 
tAnacncfs to this diftcmptrf. SiKi. — In borfcs, the 
fmell of a dead horfie nhaketh thcm By away, and 
take on at if they were'mad. Bacon, Z, 7o Takk 
on* To ^laim a character.— 

I fake not qn me herc as a pbyRcian. 

.9. 7o Take on. To gricvc; to pine.— 

How will my mother, lor a father'8 death, 

Take on with mc, and ne'cr bc fatisfy'd ? Sbak, 
10. 7o Take to, To app^ to ; lo bc fond of. — 
Have bim und<>rftand it as a play of older pcoplc» 
aod he will take to it of himfclf. Locke,-^ 

' MiU Bctty won'l take to hrr book, Sqvift, 
— Thc heir« to titics and large crtatei could nevcr 
raiir /0 their books. S^wi/i, 11. ToTakKo. To 
bctakc to ; to havc rccourf*. — If I had taken to 
the chtM-ch, I ibould have had more fcnfe than to 
have turned rayfcif out of my bcnchcc by writing 
hbtls. Dr^den, — 

The callow ttorks with lizzard and wilh 

Q Arc 

Digitized by 


T A K ( ift 

* Arc fci\t a«» fbpn a8 c'cr to wiAg thcy t^ie, 
At fight thofe animaU for food purfuc. Drjden* 
^— Mtti of lcartiing who take to bufincfs, difchargc 
it gcncralty with grcater honcrty than mcn of the 
worid. Addijon, ii. To Take up, To ftop. — 
Thc mind of man bcing naturally timorou» of 
truth, and yct avcrfc to that diligcnt (carch nc- , 
cctTary to its difcovcry, it muft nccds take up 
Oiort of what is rpally fo. G1anviUe. — This 
gratcd hirdrr upon thc hcarts of mcn, than thc 
ilranj?cncfs of all thc formcr articles that toct ut 
chicRy in rpeculatibn. ^«(//i>.-»Sinncr8 at laft taie 
vp^ and fcttlf in a conlempt of all riligion, Til- 
htfon, 13. ToTakem/. To rtt.Tm.— This ra- 
tional thought matlc him tah upt and from that 
time prove •» good hufband. Loch. 14. To Take 
tip nvith, To be contentcd with. — The afs takei 
np ^'ith that for his fatisfat^Hon, which hc rcckon- 
cid upon bcforc for his mi§fortunc. VFflrange» — 
Thc law and gQfpcl call aloud for adtivc obcd!- 
cncc, and fuch a p'ety ^%'takes not up nvith idlc 
InclrnationP. South, — I could as cafily tak:up<witb 
that fcnfclefs aAcrtion of thc Sloicks, that virtue8 
and vicc» are rcal bodics and didin^ animaU, as 
with this of thc Athicft, that they can all bc de- 
rivcd from the powcr of mcrC bo*Jief. BentUy* — 
A poor gcntlcman ought ncvcr to bc curate of 
a paTifh, c^ccpt hc bc cunninger than thc dcvil. 
It will bc difficult to rcmcly this, bccaufc who- ' 
CTcr had half his -cpnning would i»ever take up 
^ith a vicaragc of lot. Swift^ — In afFair8 which 
may havc an4nflucnce on our futurc happinefs - 
wc fhould not toke up with probabilitic*. M^ntts. 
15. To Take up <with, To lodgc; to dwcll. — 
Who woutd not rathcr take vp wijb thc wolf in 
thcwood«,thanmake fuch a cluttcr in theworld? 
VEflrange. Arc dogs fuch defirablc company to 
^akcup *with? Soutb. 16. To Take witb. To 
plcafe. — Scafonablc mcmchto8 may be ufeful: and 
belng difcrcctly ufed, cannot but take wcll witb 
him. Bacon, 

* T^KEN, thc participlc paiT. of take.^Thon 
srt taten in thy mifchicf. a Sam. xvi. 7. — Hc who 
ietteth will let, until hc bc taken out of thc way. 
fl The//', ii. 7. — It conccrns ail who think it worth 
^hile to bc in earncrt with thcr immortal fouls 
pot to abufc thcmfelveR with a falfe confidcnce : 
n thing fo cafily taken up, and fo hardty laid down, 
South. — Scaligcr, comparing thc two great orators, 
iays, that notbing can bc taken irom Dcmorthcncs, 
nor added tn Tully. rfenh.'—\\\% auditors are fjcr- 
hap8 a8 much token up with thcmfclvc8* Gov. o/ 
the Ttngt^e. — 

Thc objed of dcSre pncc ta*en awav« 
'Ti«» then not loyc, but pity whicb wc pay. 

Dnden, - 

* TAKER. n.f. [froro tai,£.] Hc that takei.'— ' 
He is fooncr caught than thc pclliiencc^ 

And thc taker runs prefcnt!y mad. Sbak. . 

— The d?ar falc beyond thc fea8 incrca^f((d thc 
rnmber of tnkerjy and the takerj JHmn^: and braw- 
li:'P one wiih anothcTr and foreclo{ing thc fifhc9, 
f<ecreafed thc numbcr of the takcn. Care*w,^ 
Thc far dtftancc of thi« crunty from the court 
hath affordcd it a fupcrfi:dc^8 from tak/rj and 
puweyors. OtreH^/. — Bcrry co^Tee and tobaccc, of 
whicb tbe Turk8 arc grcat t^ker4yXondttik the 
fpirit8. Bacon,r^^ 

r > T .A L 

Fcw likc thc Pabii or thc Scipios are 

Takerj of citir8, conqucror8 in war. Dcnbtnu 
At oncc thc taker, and at oncc thc prcy. 

Scizr on thc king, and him ycur pris'oetf 

Whilc* 1, m kind> my taker take. Drji^ 
'Tis prodigality that buys dcceit, 

Where both the giTcr and tht taker chekU DrjA 

TAKIANG. 8ecTAi-ouAN,1^». 

TA-KIA.TCHE, a towii of Formofa, on th| 
W. coaft. Lon. 137. E. Pt-rro. Lat. 14. a«. N. 

• TAKING. n,f, [Uom,take.\ Seizurc;di( 

trcfs of mmd. — What a taking wis he in, whci 

your hu(band a(ked who was in the balkct l $bak 

. Shc faw in what a taklng 

Thc knight was by his furiou8 quaking. huiln 

TAKLACOT, a town of Afia, in Thibct; 6« 
roitcR NR. of Kcnion, ' 

TAKM1TZSKA1A, a town of Ruilia, in To. 
boHk, on^the Irtilch ; j;6 miks S. of Tara. 1 

TAKTANG, ariver of Rudia, v.bich runs into 
the Lis ; in Lon. 107. 30. E. Pcrro. Lat. 61. 14. N. 

TAL, a town of Aliatic Turkcy, in Curdiftao; 
240 mile» SW. of Berli-j. 

TAI AFEUA. Scc Talavfra. 

71M.AHASOCHTE, a large town of thc Se. 
lyiiNOLE Ir.dians, on thc £. b^nks of Little St 
John*8 River, ncar thc bay of Apalachc, in ibc 
Gulf of Mcxico.^ 

TALAMANKA, a town of Spam, in New Ca(r 
tile ; 14 mile8 NW. of Guadalaxara. 

TALAHONE, a lea port of Etruria, ij tniUs 
N. of Orbitello. Lon. 11. 4. E. Lat. 4^. 30. N. 

TALAN, an lAand of RuiTia, in thc Cra and pro- 
vince of Ochotik. Lon. 167. o. E. Pcrro. Lat.59. 
30. N. 

TALANT, a town of Pranrc, in the dcpart. 
ment of Cotc d' Or : i^ miles NW. of Dij» n. 

TALANTA, a town» of Europcan Turkcy : x. 
in Livadia, 18 milcs NE. of Livadia : 2, in thc iGc 
of Ncgropont, .u milcs NW. of Ncgropoot. 

TALA-OSO, a town of Cbincfc Tartary, in 
Hami ; 28 milct$ l^E. of Hatamtam. 

TALAPINS, n.f.plur. Sec Talapoins. § a. 

TALAPOIN, n.f. in zoology. Sec Simim 
N*' ai. 

TALAPOINESSES, »./ nuns of Siam. Scc 
tbc nex^ anicle. 

TALAPOIN8, or Talapins, «./. pricft9 of 
Siam. — They onjoy grcat priv)lege«', but are cr- 
joincd CcUbacy apd auttcrity of life. Tbcy lire n 
monaftcrie8 contiguous to thc tcmpits : and any 
onc may cnter ioto tbc priefthood, and after a 
ccrtain agc m^y quit it to mairy, and rcturn to 
focicty. Ther^ are t^lapoin esses too, or nuns 
who livc in the fapie ronvcnts, but are not admit- 
tcd tiil tht;y hA«c t>^flcd tbcir 4oth ycar. Th< ta- 
lapoins educatc children ; and at cvery ncw and 
full moon e^plaiD thc precepts of tbdr rtlig ipn 
in tbcir tcmpks ; and during thc rainy fcafon 
ihcy prcach from 6 a. m. tili noon^ aml /rom i 
p. m. till 5. Tbcy drcfs in a vcry roean f;afU S« 
barchcadcd ar.d barefcotcd ; and no pcrfon h ad- 
mitted amoni^ thcm who is not wcH flcil4cd in thc 
Bnly language* (Scc Mythology, $ 14*) Thcf 
belic^e that the univcrfe is ctcrnai ; but admit 
thdt wiii^ p^ft8 pf it| as ^is world» may bc d:- 
.; ^ri^y^^ 

Digitized by 


T A L r u 

Iruyed md spia regcncral<rd. Thcy bclicvt in a 
triTerUl pctTading (pint, aiid in the immortality 
oJ (n«fmtgratioa of thc Toul ; but tbcy ^sctcod 
tubAdodrioc, oot only to ail aninaaU» but to 
ie£rub*cs aod locks. Thcy bavc thcir good and 
erl fcMi« aad particular local dciticsi who prc- 
ik otcr forrfU aod mcrs* aod intcrfcrc in all 
aboaary affairs. Tbcir morality i» Taid to bc yc- 
7 peic It OGt ooly forbid8 iU followcr8 to do 
ibatcojoio<; thc occcAity of doing good^ acd of 
Ui^ every imoropcr tbougbt or criminal dcdrc. 
TALAPOOSEE, a rivcr of W. Florida, which 
jitLr|rcat NE. hrameb or rathcr bead watert of 
Qt iubama aod Mobilc. In mo(t maps the 
B«tr port af it ii cailcd Oa^fuJkee. Scc MoBi L E, 
X*i;aodOaKFu$KE£, N" i. 
TAIAKIIO, a towo of Cl.incfc Tartary, in the 
ttMtryo^ihcElutht; 715 miks NW. of Pckin. 
I«% uob to- E. Pcrro. JUt. 47. a4> N. 
TALASEE, or ) a county of Gcorgia, bound- 
;.)rALASSE£, > ed 00 thc N. by the Alata- 
BKi,£.byGlYnn andCamdencoupt^s, S.byE. 
nmiii aad W. by a linc from thc W. part of 
lidmkA (v3Lmpt in a N£. dire^ion tili ii joins 
t^Oa«ULCfti at ita mouth, wbcre it f6rms 
tk&ptat bnoch or head-watcr of the Alata- 
U9L Sce thdc articlcs. 

(t^TiLAsasB, BiG, aod) Two ^towns of 

(j.jTaLAtiiE, LiTTLE, J Gcor^a, belong- 

i^t9tkoCrcek m Mulkogulgc. IndiHno, on thfi 

i 5aak of thc Taiapofce. Thcy arc rcguiarly 

^«itha iiiiiare in thc middic 6f cach. See^ 


TALAYAN^ a town of Spain, in £(trcmadu- 
n; s; miks S. of Placentia. 

ii.)TALAVERA. a town of Spain, in Ncw 
to, «wh a fort, Ceatcd on the Tajo, in a va|lcy, 
iXf&dh}giD corn, fruitB and vine8, which afibrd 
«ccltfBt wioc. It bao ancient furtiticatJOf]t$: by 
^ towers, and brcaft works. It was formcr- 
•^Wpriatcdto ihc ^uecn'j rcvcnuc, wbeoce» 
sacallcd Talaterjl le Reyna. U is fa- 
■^ fer eartlicn waret : aod tico 25 niiks W. 
«Toidio, and 58 SW. of Madrid. Lon. 4. i. 

^ii4TaLAVs&A LA RfiAL, a town of Spaio, io 
'^tt» ; 13 inile» SE. of Badajoz. 

•'^'TiaLAyEaA la Reyna. SccN' i. 

.f)TALAT&Rjk LA YiEjA, or OldTaUn^ero^ a 
?«of S)>ain in Ncw Cattile; 6 roilcs WSW.of 

T.UAYERUELA, a town of Spain, in Eftrema- 
^ oa the Guadiana: 14 miltt» E. <if Bad,a^ 
y^- L^o. 6. 34- W. Lat. 38. 34. N. 

TALAUS, the fon of Bi«io and Pcro } one of 
Ai''OiAUTt, and fathrr of AoaAsTUS« 

TALAYRA, or Hilarian wifc of Cajiort aod ^U 
•ffofPhac»>c. .SecPMnEBE. 

TALBERrs ItLAND, an iAand of Georgja, 
5«flbccoaft; inLar. 3o»44-Nv » , 

SL) TALBOT, Williaro, D. J). an tmtncAl 
tfKj|^ prelatc, born io 1659» and edycat^ at 
"*w. Ittthc rcign of Jamco II. hc preacbcd- 
■^peat couragc and stcal agait)ft Po^ry ; fpr 
*«>cb ahcr thc revolution, he wa« proo^cd' to 
J«>aoof Worceitcr, and aftcrwar4^ bp^ of Sa- . 
^«»fT. lo i7ai, hc wasiAa^lr a^.-^.t i)iirh.*ru> 
^^^^^dleurai Scripon» | auU d,<?i: m 1^7 ^a- . .. 

3 V T A li 

(j.) • Talbot. n, f, llt ii borne by the hmtfo 
of Talbot in thcir arms.j A houiid. It i» fu ufcd» 
io Wajes^s tranAation of Gratiusi 

(3.) Talbot, in gcography, a rich and populoua 
county of Maryland, on the Eaftcrn Shorc, 
boundcd N. by Queen Annc county; E. by thc 
Choptaok and Carolinc county ; S. by thc Chop^ 
tank and Dorchcfter county ; and W. by Chc(a- 
pcak Bay. It is 14^ tnilca loog, fram N. to^^ 
and 15^ broad, froro E. to W. In 1795» it con-* 
tajiied 8,307 citizcDS, and 4*777 fiav69. Easton 
is the cacital. 

(4.) Talbot, a town of Maryland in the ahov« 
oounty; 77 milc» SSW. of Philadc'phia. Loda 
76. 1». W. Lat. 38. 49. N. 

(5.) Talbot, an lAand tn thc Atlantic, on the 
coaft of E. Elorida ; 8 milcs jong, and a broad- 
Lon. 81, 42. W. Lat. 30. 36. N. 

(I.) TALC, or TALE n.J. in the old ryHem iA 
mineralogy, a fpecic8 of toATii tormerly arran(|cd 
undcr the magncdan earths; and iu M/iKelUii's 
cdition of Crooftedt'>i Mineralogy, rankcd as ^ 
fpcdc8 of MiCA. See Mica, N^ 1, aod \\* 
Thcre are two varietici, vi2. ; 

I. Talc, Muscoty, calkd alfo hpisjpuulartii 
is vcry common in RuOia, and Cypru»; aud. iri 
thc Alps, the Apcnninc^ aod many mountainr of 
Qerraany. It is imported m largc quatttit»C3,in- 
to Eogland, and is uftd by thc lanthoriMnakers 
inftcad of born in thcir niccr work^; by the paiiit* 
crs to covcr minaturc pidurcs ; and by thc micrO'» 
^opc-makcrs to prefervc fmall objct-ts for view;ng 
by gUlTcs. Thc ancicnta uicd it mitead of gla^ 
in thcir wmdows. It dilTcr» ftom plnttcr itpne \\i 
this, thal it docs not, after beirig uiki'»cd .an4 
wetted with-watcr, fwcll and concrctc mion baid 
ttony fubftaocc. Mufcovy talc and iapis (pccuU<' 
ris wereloog contidercdas thc Xamc, buit a diKinc- 
tion is now difcovered betwcen thcnn. Sec Minp-» 
HALOGY, Part IL Cbap. IV. Clajj l.Ord, L Gcru. 
VII. Sp. 6, 7. Talc is employed, in placee where it 
is found ia cotidderable <tuofitit*y, ir. oompt tittpna 
ToTicartheni^cirdis, tefts and cupels, &t;. From its 
fmoothnefi, un^oGty, and brightnefs, rtlhas bf en 
celebrated as a cttTooetic \ and formcr cbemiRs lub-' 
l<utted it to a variety of pperatioiTS, for procuring 
from it oil«, falts, tindturcs, magiileries, ^c^ 
Bot all their labours proved in vain. 

a. Talc, Yenetian, is not fo naifted from he- 
itig a produ^ion of thc trrritories or Vtnice, (lot* 
it is ftldom met with in th?l country,) but as jn ar-» 
ticlc of Ycnctian commerce. It aboiwds in En^- 
laody Norway, Hungnry, Bohtmia, iypain, anJ 
ih many countrics of AUa. With lialf it.s wcighc 
,of alkaliAc falt, it may, in a Arong fire, b«f 
brougbt ioto perfe<a f»ii<Jn, IhoOgh not to pcr-» 
fo^ tranfpaveocy i with cquat wcipbt, or lef'«, of ^ 
ly>rax, il ruos incoa beautifuiy pehucid, grcenil]i 
yellow glaf8. Taic dooi .n«t*melt With auy othcr 
CMtb^ nor cven bakc* or collcrd v*ith a»y b«t Ihc 
^illaceoin: Mi«tulrt!i of lit wsth thcm »11 arc n«H^ 
tfTth€kifi^. brooght into fu6oo by a remarkabl/ 
^Hb ^akitity of f3)in« mattcr than tbt itiKrtdrentti 
£^affAtely would rec)uii«« Thus cqual ptit» :rf 
talc and chal^,; with o«4y.onc 4tb thcir woght of 
b^rari ttit\% in a mmltrtte^oat into a linc, irani- 
pwcfit iMiteoiib gUfs, .oi c*3fifiderable hatd< tTs 
&^ ^•t**. ^ullre.. On-* <"ubftiiutir.g gypkott 
^ t cartl.» 

Digitized by 


T A L ( I 

«irtb» to chatk, the fufion ig as eary, and the 
glart as be autlful ; in colour not green, but jcU 
2ow hke the topai. TatC, with t>ftlf its wcigbt 
of fand« and a ^u^nt^ty of nitre cqu^ taboth, 
yields alfo a tr;)nfpArent topaz yellow glafs. Scc 
other expenment8 by Mr Pott, in Mem* de f Aeni. 
ie Ber/in, 1746. 

(II.) Talc, irt tbe ntw fyftcm of mineralogy» 
H reckoued by Dr Thomfon, a fpecics <jui:c d«f- 
tin^t from Mica ; and k ftit*dividedinto 3 varie- 
tic8 j v!Z. I. Tbe ScALY Talc ; a. Tbe 
TiAN or Common Talc ; and 3. Tbe S»isTos£ 
Taic. Sec MiNERALOGV, Part JI. Cbap. IV. 

C*f) TALCAGUAMA, Cape, acape«fPcni; 
an (hc coalt of Chili ; 6 milcs N. of Port St Vin- 
cent, atid zz NE. of St Mary iHc. 

{%.) Talcaouama Poxt, a port or harbour of 
ChiU; in Conception Bay ; 6 miles.withtn the a< 
fcoK C?pe. Morje. 

TALCAN, a town of Alia, tn TokariAan ; ta- 
ken hj Jenj(hiz khan in laai, after a fiege of 7 
«ontbs. tt h 100 miles S£. of Termed. Lon. 
84«5i- E- Perro. Lat. 36. 45- N. 

TALCAQUANO, a fea port town of Pcni, in 
Chiiri with good ancborage in 4 fathom8 water; 
€ railes firom Conceptioti. (CruttfivtH.} Perbaps 
tt ii the fame with Taix:ag(7ama. 

TALCITE, #1. A a namc giveii by Kirwan to 
Scaly Tah. Set Mi K er a log v, Part II. Cbt^. i\, 
a. I. Oni. I. Gen. VII. Sp. 7. 

TAL€KEN$yE!N, a mountain of SilcBji : 4 
miles NNE.ioPLoewenberg. 

• TALE. n. /. lto/f, from tetlen^ to te/l^ Sax.] 
I.- A narratiYc ; a ttory. Commonly a Hight or pct- 
ty accoont of fome triftif>g or fabalous inciJent : 
as, a faie 0/ a tub, This llory preparcd tbeir 
minds for the reception of any tales rtlattng to o- 
thcr countric^. 9fatts. «. Oral rdatioii.'»- 

My corifcicnce batb a thoaiaad fevcfal 
And ev'ry tongue brings in ft^Iev'rttl tate^ 
And every r«ilf condtmns M for a vlllatn.r ShaK 

Lifc 18 a taU i: 

Told b^ an idiot, full of foontt and (nry, 
Signifying nothing. ^ Sbakt 

Hermia, foraugbt lcDuld rcad, 
Could ever bear by tale or hittory 
Thc coufrfe of troe love nevcr did run Tmooth. 

* . Shak. 
— ^Wc fpend our years as a ta!e that is told. Vf. 
3. ITalan, to eounit Saxon.] Nmnbcr rcckoned. 
— Number roay ferve yobr purpofe whh the igno- 
rant, who mcafure by taie and not by Wdight* 

For ev'ry Gloom his trees in Sprhrg alTord, 

An autumn apple was by' tale redor^d. Dryien. 

Once fhc takes the taleoi all tbe lambs.i)/^/* 

Tbc herald for tbc laft proclaims, 

Tbe/a/^wa8juft# ' Dryikki 

— Keafons of thingt ar© rathcr to be taken tyi 

weight than tttie. CoUter^ • «4. Reckoning ; nuffferaf 

account.— In packiog, they keep a ]\x%:taU<4 the 

numberthat every hogfhca4witatneth> Ca^h^»^^ 

Money bemg the oottmoii icaW . : j 

Of things by fneafurt. might and tak. Sikthr, 

— Twelve returncd upo» thc prkicipil pannclr «r: 

the taki wcc fworn to try according- to -tliclr 

T A £ 

InformatioD ; d^fc1o(aTe of »7 

u ) 

dcnce. Hale. $ 

thinp fecret. — 

Prom hour to hour we ripe awd ri^, 
And thcn from hour to hour wc rot and rot^ 
And thereby han^s a taie. ^M. 

— Birdi live in thc air frecft, and are actctt hf 

tbeir voice to tell taUs what tbey iind. Beewi. 

♦ Ta L E B E AR ER. it . /. [tale and Awir.] OiKr who 
gi?es cllicious or malignant intclHjgence.— Thc H- 
berty Qf a commen t^blc is a tacit invitati()ii t» 
all introders ; as butToons, (pies, tatebea^en^ (Mt- 
terers. V Ejiranj^e.^^ln grcat iamilies, fome wt 
falfe, paultry talebtarer^ by carrying (torid, M 
dircom|^ofe the qulet of thc whcte tamily. Soatk 

* Talebearhig. n,/. [talr aod Sear.] The 
aA of informing ofSciou8 of malij^nant inklli- 
gence. Tirtiothy was exlremcly ofi5ekiiii sboot 
their miltref8's perfon, endeayouring , by l*ltcff 
and talebearin^^ to fKt hcr againft thc reft of tb« 
ftrrvant8. Arbutbnot. 

TALEKAN, a tdwns of Perfia : r.hiCborx&o, 
with a fort, 195 miles NE. of Hcrat : s.ia Irac, 
30 mlles NE. of Amadan. 

(1.) • TALENT. n./. [talenfam, Lat.l i. A 
tahnt rigniticd fo moch weight, or a .(\tin of mo- 
ney, f he valuc differi«g according to tli« difiereflt 
agcs and cotrntrica. Arbuihmt.'^ 

Five talents ifi hts dcbt. Sbek> 

Two great f«/M/j of the fineft gold. Dryin. 
s. Facu»ty \ power ;'^ft of nature. A metapho* 
bonowcd from thc talentB ntJ^ntioned i« ihe bolf 
writ. It ifi ufcd (bmctimcs ferioufty, and foofr 
tiirtcs lightly.— Many, who kncw thc treafiirpr' 
tttltnts in rempving prcjudice, believed thclolid 
the duke was unfeafonable. Cki'endon.^\it '" 
okiefty to heconMered in bis three ddfer^l 
Unti, as a critick, fatyrift» aod writcr of odt 

'iPis not my talent toconccal mr thoaghts. 

— Logick i^ nonc of their talenu. iWrr.— Pirioni 
who po(refs the true tiilem of raillcry are Rke cd 
mcts; they airc feIdoiti fcen, and all at ««ce adj 
mired aiMt fcaped» ffemaUi(^Moie. — Algeiiis» tho^ 
otherwife a very* worthy mao, yet hatmg no MJ 
leni for diiputaiion, recommcnded Siiinnius ^\ 
ledtor. t^aterland. 3. <^alily; difpoMflD. A^ 
impropcr and miftaken ufe.— Thc nation^eDeralj 
ly was withottt any ill talent to the charchin docj 
ttmc or diicipliae. Claret^don.^^li^it ihe taHentot^^ 
man naturc to nra from one cxtreme to ar>tb(fl 

(«.> TaIents, Attjc. The commoa Ai 
talent of wcight containc* 6« Attic mni«, or 
Attic drachmaB ; and weighcd, adcording to Dl 
Arbuthnot, $6 Ibs. 11 ot. 17^ gr. EngliAi tH 
weight. Thcrt was another Attic taletit, t>y fonij 
faid to con&ft of 80, by Othcrs of 100 mm se.Se^ 
§4. - 

(3^) TalentsvEgtftiak and AnTtoCH^si^ 
Tlie E^yptran talem was 86 mrnic ; tke Antioeb'i 
an al^ Sb^; thc Pic^matic bf C»eopatra «^| 
tbat of A]eX^ndria ^.; and the InAiUr taleat iks 

(4.)Ta**ht^, GaECt an, SYa^A^HTYmrAH.&t^ 
Intbe ^luatlon of money, theCttcian lalcnt, ad 
cordr^ to Df Arbuthnot, was» eqoa> to'6o mms^ 
or, re&o«ihg the mina-at L. 3 54«7i eqiial U 
L. I9^^^5: The-Syrtau tal^ot 111 this val»alio« 


Digitized by 


T A L ( i%s } T A L 

coaBtcd of 15 Attic miiwci tbe Ptdemiic of («.) Talt, t tbiiro of Poraori, on thc W,. 
m; the Antiochbn of 60; thc Eaboic of 60 ; tht coaft. Lon. 1^7. vj. £* Fefro. Lit« 23. 36. N. 
Bibfto«caf 705 the Gi^tcr Attic .of 80; thc TALIACOTIUS, GafpAr, chicf furgcon tothe 
Tynin of 80; the E^iriean k^ ico; tk-.' Rho- jgrcat dukc p^ Tufcar»3ri was born at Bonoma, in 
dDiiof 100; and thcEgyptian of 80 min». There Italy, in 1553. Hc wrote a Latin treatireentitled 
b another taleot much mone aiicicnt, wYncb dbirurgia Nptm </# Curiis AUmbris% in which be 
Dr ATbathnot ealls thc H^Merie taient of g«ld, tcachcs.thc art of cnprafting no/eu eart^ lipsy 5cc, 
pbich leeat to havc weigbcd fix Attic «Irachms giving rrprefentationi of thc inUrumciHs and pro- 
m tlwe djriciy » danc weighing very littlc roorc pcr bandage«. 

tbMagiMnea. TALIESSIN, thc moft fimou9 of thf ancieat 

(|.)TaLCNTf, JswiSH. Talenti, a« a fpccics bards of Walce. Hc Aooriihed in thc 6tb centu- 
nf money, among thc Hebrew», was fomrtimci ry, undcr princcs Bl^n ^ad- Urien. About 80 
tMiaragoki coin, thc famc witH tbc AitKtl of of his Pĕems arc f>reflirvcd, and pubUikeU in the 
fflW, caHtd aKo Jlater% and weighing on>y 4 Wetjh Areh^eblogy. 

dncbtts. TbcHebrcti«reckoRcdbytb«ictaieiit8 TALIGONG/ » t»wn «^ ISidooiao, io the 
» «e do bf poandt, 5cc. Thot a milKon «f Camatic ; 7 milcs N* of Terrtore. 
gold, or ni^Uon of taknts cĕ gold, among tbcm, TALIGOV, a town of Rii(fia, ni Rtga. 
vu a BiHioD of ihck«U or nommi ; the nummua TALUiOU^ a finail ifland of Prancc, on tb^ 
€f goid bebg thc (amc weight with the (hck*;!, coad 9f thc dcpartment of thc ChanneU and ci^ 
ri. im dradkms. But the Hcbrew talent weight dcvant prov. ot Normandy ; 3 niilcs N. of Hoguc 

At low watvr the chaonrl bcCwecn it and ibc con- 
tincnt i« dry. It has a lasarctto. 

TA LIN-HO, a town of ChinrfeTartary. Lo«* 
138. 3S. £. Fcrro. Lat. 14. 10. N. 

TALIOy «r/, less tsliĕnist or the istw o/retaBa» 
tions a fpccics of pUDilbmcnt in the Moiaic law» 
whercby an evtl is rctttmed (imilar to that eom-< 

df iher, which they called cicah, was cqufv7- 
Irtt to that of 3000 Oickels or 113 Ib. xo ^ 
I <hrt toJrgi'- Engbih Troy wcight, according to 
Arlntbsot. *^ 

(i.Jin*SLiiiTs, RoMAw • AmoAg the Roraans 
tliov were two kinds of talents, thc littie and the 
rtt tikBt : the littlc 1v^ the common talent ; 

lid vkemfer tbey (ay fimpfy talentumt thcy are mittcd againit us by anotber ; as an ** Eyc for 

tobeMderftoodof this. The little talcnt was — .^kf^»^^k>» twi-u-..^ — «-a ...r^..»^^ 

4fiinittz or Roman pounds ; tbe mina or poond 

^tiBiated at 100 drachmsB or dcnarti : it wars aIfo 

(ttauted at 14 great leiterces, which amoontcd 

f» h poundSd Tbe §veat tikrnt cscctded thc lcf9 

^Mc 3d part. Bodacus computes, that the lit- 

tJetaleotot Biver was worth L. 75 Surltng, aad 

t^ ptn L. 09 : 6 : 8 Sccrltng. The grcatcr of gold 

^iRwth L 1115 StcrHng. 

TALES8E. Sce TAi.Assst, V 1^3. 

TALETUM, a tovni of L^conia, on mmint 
TiTidii, ^moo» for its tcoiple of ApoHa Hork 
^«cteCKriAccd ifli it. iW. 

TALOARTH, a lowu of S. Wates, in Brtek:. 
^^ckiire, on the Llevenyv 8 or 10 milcs N£. of 
M"pck, and 160 W. of Loodon. If ha«a eol- 
^ dtabliibcd bf tbe lale couotcis of HMiHntr- 
^.» a ieminary fbr young divines. (Sce 

cye, tooth for tooth/' Tbis iaw w^^s firft tn^crted 
in the Xn. tablcs amoiigft the RomasM ; but. af^ 
terwards fet aitde, and a power gtvcn to the psst^ 
tor to fix upon a ium of money for the damage^ 

( t .} ^ TALISMAN. « ./ [I biow not wbence 
dcrivcd ; nXiay««i, Skinnen] A^magical charaAcr» 
*^If tbe phyticians wotiid forbid 0« toptonounce 
gout, rbeumatifm, and itonc, wotsid tkat fcrve 
lik^l^ many faHflmm to ddtroy tke dilcaicsd 

Of tala/marti aod figil« knew thc ^>owcr. Pvff^ 

(s.) TALisHAns arc magical Agures cut oft 
cngravcd with fitperftitious obfervatiDns on thd 
charafterifm8 attd co n i gu r a tions of the hcavcns» 
towhkb fumc aftrolqger8 havc attribotcd won- 
derful vi«niest pMkmlArty that of calKng dowa 
celciHal inOuenccs. The ta]ifmans of Samo- 
thrace» fo Aimous 0f otd, wert pieces of irmr 

^ttr, K* t.) It bas lairs Mareb is, M^ ^r, Ibrmed iitto ccitaio ima^res» and iet in rings ; tbefe 

t Sept. 11, 'No^. 3, and Dec. 3, 
GAllTPORAM, atown of Hindooftan, in 

wcre eftcemed prefervativcs againft all kinds of 
evils. Ttocre were ltkewtfe ta}ifmans taken from 
v«getablcs, and from nnneraJs. 

• TALISMANICK. aslj. [from taii/mati.] Ma»- 
gica^.— *The Irgure o€ a heart blcedmg upon ai> 
altar» or hcld in thc hand' of a Cupi«5» has always 
bcen lookcd upon as tati/msmisk in drefles of thi« 
natttre. Addihn. * 

(i.) • TALK. »./. [Tirom the vcrbJ| i. Oral 


o^ M«(6re i 6 nnles S. of Bangalorc . 

TALGOL, a town of HindooAan, io thc My* 

^J 10 mtlc^ SSW^ of Sirpy. 

TALUAIARN, a celebrattd bard oTWalcs, wbo 

**ifced in thr middlc of thc 7t|i century. He 

2y*W among other poems a poetiial prayer, 

^^bca(meft|:eneralformutaamongthebard<i. ^,., .,-^. ^..^ , .. 

TALHABd, a town of Germany, in Im^rial converfation ; Auent and familiar Ipecch. — 
«f*t : t inilcs SS W. of Voglabruck« Wc do remember ; bot our argumcnt ^ 

u.) TAU, a city of Chioa, of Ihc fft rank, iti Is all loo hcavf to admic much taiK Siyc^^ 

^■•^, fiinous for iti beautiful mas btc/ obtain- — Perceivfng hisitoldicrs dtfmayed, he fbrbad thcm 
*™»MotnitTii»-sUMG*,naturallyornamented lo bavc any /ni^ wttb the cncmy. JTiw^/^— Hbw 
27 ^'tsoC trccs, fl(vwers, rivers, monnt*unsy can he get wirdom that drivcth oxcn, and whofe 

ar. /ir/lis ofbtil)ocks? Eccht/ xxxviii.— Thi» ought 
to wctgh with tholc whoic rcadiag is dcligdcd for 
mtich talii, Locie.^ 

\n vartou» taik th' fnftru^ve hours tlicy paft» 
Who gave thc baU^ ov paid tbe vifit Uft. Pĕpe, 

». Rq)6rt; 

I 2« «ad of which ihey nukc taWes and other 
I rJI* h has 4 citiei of tUc »d rank ; andcr tCs 
Wl»dioii, and 3 of the ^d and ii iicr^ mihes 
*^;«# Wdn. Lom 117. 40. E. Ycrto. Lat 



Digitized by 


T A L 

r 126 > 

T A L 

%. Report 5 rumour. — I hcar a talk up aod down 
of raiung our money. Locke. 3. Subjedt of dir- 
courre. — 

. What delight to bc by fuch extoird, 
. To, live upon their tongues and be thcir iaik, 

Of whom to be defpis'd were no fmali pr<tif5^ ? 


(i.) • Talk. n.f. [talcs Fr.] A kiod of ftonc. 
— Stoncs compofcd of platcs are gcnerally parallel, 
and ilcxib1e and elaitick: as» talk, cat-5Iver'or 
glimmcr, of which thcre are three fort#, the ycl- 
low or goiden, the white or iilvcry» and the black. 
/ro0i<u;ar//*— Ycnetian falk kept in a heat of a 

Elaf8 ^umaccy had not lo(t much of its bulk, and 
:emed ncartr of kin to tali than mere carth. 

(3.) Talk, or Talc, § %. Stt MiHaRALOGYy 
Part. II. Cbap. IV. Cta/t I. Ordtr I. Gm. VU. Sp. 
7: andTALC,^ I— II. 

(4.) Talk, 10 eeograpby, or Talk on tij« 
Hu^L» a town of Eogland, in Sta^Tordihirc, feated 
on a hill, N. of Newcattle under Line , near tbc 
iource of that rivcr, on the road irom London to 
CariiAc : 154 miles from London. 

♦ To Talk. w. m, [taeUn^ Dulch.] i. To fpcak 
in convcriatioo ; to fpeak Auently and fami!iarly ; 
not fet in fpeeches; to convcrfe. — I wiH buy with 
yott, fell with you» talk wi th you ; but I will not eat 
•with you. ^hak. — Now ia thi» vicc'8 dag gcr bcr 
camc a fquire, and taiks as £amlUarly Qf Johniof 
Oaunta8if be had bcen fwom brothcr to.himt 
Sbakm^T^^ princet) relsatncd talking. Jobt xxix. 9« 
— Tbe children of thy pcc^e (till te/i^agamlt thce. 

With himfelf9 bii btfk advifer» talks. Waller. 
-*<Cod remembers that we are but ileih, unabk 
to bear the nearer approacbcs o£ diviiiityi and fo 
talks with us as once with Moies through a cloud. 
Dtcaj of PUty. -^hHttiWoTi the king of Spair, hc 
talks serj notably. Addybn. a. To prattle; to 
fpcak impcrtincntly. — 

Hypocritcs aufterely ^a/ii ' 
Ofpurity. • Ji^ton. 

My hcedlcf8 tongue haa talk'd away this iifc. 

— Confidcr wcll thc time when Petavius iirft be- 
gan to talk in that manner. Waterland» 3. To 
give account. — 

Thecryftalioe fphcre« whofe balance wcighs 
Thc trepidatior^ talk*d. MiUon, 

— The natural hiftorics of Switzerland taik mtch 
of the fall of thcfe rocks. Jddifon.^^t will coo- 
iider whettier Adam had any luch hcir as our au- 
thor talks of. Locke. 4* To fpcak ; to rcafon ; to 
confer.— -Let me talk with thcc of thy judgmeote. 
Jer. xiL i.— Wili yc talk dcccitfully tor him l Job^ 
xiii. 7. — It isaditBcult taiktofa/^ to the purpofe. 
CoIUer.^Talkuig overt!>e things which you havc 
read with your companions fixcs them upon the 
mind. Watts. 

* TALKATIVE. fl4r..lfrom talk?^ FuU of 
pratc ; loquacious, — lf 1 have held you ovcrlong, 
lay the ,fault upon my old age, whicb in its dif« 
pofition 13 talkati^ue. Siiniff .— This may provt an 
iniirudivc leiTon to the difaifedled, not to build 
hopesoo the /ii/*a/rtvKalotSof thcirp^irly. Add. 
*— I am aflume:l 1 caiinot make a quicker pro^crs 

in the Prcncb, whcrc cvcry body is fo c6ortcoo8 
and talkaiiire. A^di/on, — 

Thc coKcomb bird fo talltative and gravc, 
That from his c&ge cries cuckold, whorc, and 

Thout^h many a paircn|er he rightiy cali, 
You hold him no phiiofophcr at aU. Popt. 

♦ TALKAT1VENES8. »./. [from uilkatne.] 
Loquacity ; garrulity v JPulncTs of prate.--^e call 
this talkatifuenefi a femininc vice. Gov. ef7m%m. 
— Lcarncd women bave loft all credit bytbeiTio- 
pcrtinent talkatrvenefs and conccit. Swtft, 

TALKEA^E» a town of Peraa in SegcRanui 
miles SW. of Kin. 

♦ TALKER. n.f [from talk.] i. One wto 
talks. — ^Lct me give h)r kiitance (brne of thoiiE 
writers or talkers who dcal much in tbe words Na^^ 
ture or Fate. ITatts, 4. A loquaciotu pcrfoD;a 
pratkr. — 

Parewel, I'1I grow a talker for this jeer. Sbd 
— If it wcre dcGrabic to have a child a morebrdk 
talker^ ways might be fouiid to make bim U 
Locke. 5. A boailer; a bragging fcllow.— '^ 
grcatcii /a/^^rj in thedays of pcacc, havc beeo tl 
moiE puiiltanimoas in tbe day of temptatii 

♦ TALKY. adj, [from talk.] Conriilingof talk 
refembltnK talk.— -The talky Aakes in tbe ftrai 
were all forrard before the i'ubhdenct»aloog wi 
thc iand. lVood^ard, 

♦ TALL. adj. xtih Welih.J i. High m iUt 
Briug word.bow tall (he is. 5< 

Two of nobler ihape» 

Erea and /11//. m 

9« High; lofty. — ' 

\ Wiods ruiliM abroad 

On thc vext wilderneis, whofe talkft piocJi 

Though rooted doepas high, and iturdkd oati 
• - Bow*d thcir ilii' nccks. Mi 

— Thcy lop, and lop, on this aod that haod, 
ting away tbc talU lound» and fubftantial w\ 
that uf(^d to iheltcr thea iroro the wiods. Dat. 
May be livc long enough to fee them all 

Darkihadows cdft« dnd a? hispalacc talll Wi 
3. StuTdy; lutty.— rU fwear ihou art htaUitW 
of thy hands, and that thou wilt not bc drui 
but I know thou art 00 tall fcilow of thy bai 
and that thou wilc bc. drunk ; but I wouid ti 
wouIdft bc a tnll fcUow of thy Kands. Sbak. j 

(i.) ♦ TALLAGE. »./ \jailiage, Fr.J liopoj 
cxcife. — The pcoplc of ^iiu wcrc bettcr alh^^ 
unto Philip than to Pcrdinancto, becaufc hc U 
impofed upon thcm many tai^cs and taliagci, B^ 

(2.) Tallag£, .Upilagium,] irojii the FrtH 
taillei is mctaphoricaliy uicd for a part or liti 
qf a man's fubftance carricd out of tiic wMe, p^ 
by way of tribute, tol!, or tax. 

(x.) TALLAGH, a town of Ireland, in Wat^ 
iord, MmWlcr; 104 miie<) from Dubiii?,. 

(a.) Tallagh, a fmaU towii (>f Ireland, | 
Du^lio county, Lciuiter : 3 mile? S W* of Dubl^ 

(3.) Tallagh HiLL, a hi!l of ireland, lo Ou 
lin county, ncar Taihgh, tN^ 1.) whjch aflv« 
a very bca^tiPul anJ -.tenti^c prolpc^t tff thc 4i 
rounding country, tuc city, harbour, aud bay 
Dublin, with tht* pcninruia of Howtht.ami t 
IrjOi Channtl. - | 


Digitized by 


T A L 

( 137 ( 

T A L 

^OTALLAND, a town of Ertgland, in Corn- 
will, a enilr froro W. Looe. 

[\.] Talland Point, a promonlory on thc 
cc\rt ot Comwall, bctw. Fowcy, ard thc a Loocs. 

UjTALLANO, a town of thc Prcnch cmpirc, 
i£ tbe tHiud and dcp. of Corrica ; capital nf a btc 
(tii^d, and reatcd mi tbe Gulf, N^ i. 36 mites 
5W. ci C)rtc, and 14 N. of Bonifacio. 

1.) Tallano, Gult of, a hay of thc Mc- 
dt'crr4nc4n, oii tbc coaft of Corfica. 

TALLAPOOSEE. Scc Talapoosee. 

T.\LLAKAP£SC£T, a town of Pcrfia, io thc 
proYiocc Gf Meiandcran : 21 miirs S. of Fcrabad. 

.i.}TALLAKD, a town of Prancr, in the dcp. 
of ihc Uppcr Alp*, and ci-.icvant provi'.xc of Diu- 
fii^y ; leated on thc Durance : 9 inilcs S. of G-^p, 
i< K.of SiAcron, a^^d 47 S. of Grcoobic. Lon. 6. 
10. E. Ut. 44. 28. N. 

/1) Talla&d, Camillus d* HoAun, Count 
rt,>cclfbrafed Pretich gencral, bom at Provencc, 
F i*n. Hc ccmrrtanded the army on thc Rhinc, 
kiTcitUdin 1703, was made a marAial ; whtn hc 
«Wotrtthe Pritice of Hcflc.Cafl'el. and took Lan- 
liio. In 1704, hc was fcnt with of 
icoocKtu againft thc D. of MarLborough and 
Pr. £8f'.'r\f ; but was defeatcd aod taken prifoncr 
« '"^^ bJtlk of HocHSTET, and brcnijrht ovcrto 
ly*iuj, wherc hc wan cictaincd 7 ycars. Upon 
kirciBm tu PariA hcr was crcatcd adukc; and 
ftiViccretaryajf Hate in 1726. Hcdied in 1718. 

TALLASSE£. Se<r Talassie, N'' i— 3. 

TALLEMONT. Sce Talmont. 
. TALLEYENDE, a tgwn of Prancc, in thc 
lir^i^CalTadci; containing abcut 3000 cittzei>8 ; 
^4cctiief inanufadure is earthcn ware : % roilcs 

TALUER. n./. lfrom tally.} An oAicer in thc 
Jiri-cwier, now callett TdUr, Sce Tally, § a ; 
{w^tu, ^ I, i^/ 3;.and ^ 1. 

TALLIS. Thomas» an ErgUlh muGcian of thc 
|l(^crmury, reckoncd onc of thc moll eraincnt 
WttetcrEngUiid brcd. But his abilitics werc 
^oBrdetoted to lacrcd mufic. He is.faidto 
prttbtni orfanift of tbc Chapel royal to Henry 
Wl Wward VL Mary L and Eiizabeth. It \% 
^KWihc wa» organift along with Biid undcr E- 
Iti^^aiNl thefe two publiihcd an admircd coU 
^Bjmnj/or sJbe Cburcb /er^jue. He com- 
^ tW Momiog, Evening, and Communion 

"**<»• «n 4 part», witb thc preccs, rcfponfe8v 
'''-wy; and fcTcral anihcmg. Hc dicd i^d 
'TS51 and was baried in Grecnwich Cburpb. 

bM • TALLOW. «./. [taigey DaniA.) Thc 

tor f4t of. an animal ; coarie fuct. — I war- 

- fc<rraii, and ihc/a/W in ihcm, will bum 

Mnd wintcr. Sbak.-^Thc Spaniards kill thou». 

J^of tbem yearly, f<»r thcir tallotw and hidcs. 

k^^-Sou^* tbc candJes clofe to the taUo^, 

)i)Tallow, tn commercc, is thc fat of cer. 
" »fmi^ melted and clanGed. It Is pro^ 
^ ^om moft animals, but cbieAy from bui- 
B^feeep, hog^, and bears. Somc kindi of 
^'^t ulcd as ungucDts io medicinc^ fome for 
{ i ap aod dre(Eng lcathcr, and fomc for 
^(lo^ilci. SeeAnATOMY ;^id(^H£Mi8TaT, 
*^rt ardpAT. 

(3.) Talxow, in gcography, a borough of Ire- 
land, in Waterford ; whicb fcnt 1 membcrs to thc 
iJitc lrifh parliamcnt. It is (hittd on the Brule^ 
which ts navigablc by boats up to it: 23 mllca 
WNW. of Cork, and 31 WS W. of Waterford. 

(4) Tallow Tree. Scc Chima, ^ 31; and 
CaotON, § III, N* 3. Sir Gcorgc Staunton, 
fay&, that the candlcs made of the Ycgctabie tal- 
low arc/rw^ than thofc madc of animal lallow, 
^nd ircc from ail offcnfive/W/. They arc not, 
howevcr, cqual to thorc ot waa or fpermaceti; 
but the lattcr is not within the rcach of thc Chi- 
ndc, and the art of blanching thcJ^ormer if« little 
known to thcm. Thc tailow trec ha« bccn tranl- 
plantcd to Carolina, and Aourtihcs thcrc as wcll 
as in Chi a. 

• To Tallow. y.a. [from thc noun.] To 
grcafc ; lo f:ncar with t.?'i!ow. 

• TALLOWCHANDLER. n. r. {tattov> anci 
ehandelier^ Fr.] Onc who makcs candles of tallow, 
not of wax. — Sevcral nafty trades, as tai/owcban^ 
dleriy butchcrs, and ncglcd of clcanfinp of guttcrs, 
gre grcat occaBons of a plajruc. Hanvej. 

TALL.WArER, arivcrofIreland, in Armag^, 
which joios tHc Calicn, and LtlU into thc Black- 
watcr, near CharWmont. 

(i.) • TALLY. «./. [frora tailler, to cut, Pr.J 
1. A ftick notchcd or cut in conform'ty fo ano« 
thcr ftick,. and ufcd to kccp accourt* by.-^ 
So right hisjudgmciit was cut fit, 

And made a tallj lo his wit, Hudihras» 

— The only talcnts in eftecm arc thofe of Ex- 
changc-Allcy ; onc tallj is worth a grovc of bays. 
Garth — 

Have you not fecn a baker^s maid 
• Bctwcen two fqual pannieni fway'd ? 

Her tall/ej ufclcf8 lie and idle, 

If plac'd cxadliy in thc middle. Prior* 

From his rug the fticw'r hc takes 

And on the ftick ten ctiu.d nr.tchr s makcs ; 

There takc my tallj of tcn thoiirand pound. 

a. Any thing madc to fuit anotber. — 

Thcy wcrc frani'd the taJIiej for cach other. 


(».) Tbe Tally is ufed by bakcr<i| brewers, &c \ 
And this wa*» thc anrient way of kccping all ac- 
counts, onc part bcing kcpt hy thc crtdii&r, thc 
othcr by thc dcbtor, Scc. Htncc ?he tallier of 
tbe cxchcquer, whom wc now call the teller, 

(3.) Tally Court, a court whcrc the two 
dcputy chambcrlains of thc cxchecfuer and tho 
tallycutter attcnd; and a tally is geiicrally thc 
king'8 acquittanre for, moncy paid or lcnt, and 
has writtcn on it words proper to exprefs oq 
wbat occafion thc moncy is rcceived. 

(i.) • To Tally. y. n. [fro.Tr\, thc noun.] To 
fit; to fuit; to cut out, io as to anfwer any 
tbing. — 

They fcemed juft tallj^d for each othcr. 

— Thcy arc not fo well tallj'd to thc prcfcQt junc- 
ture. Pope. 

(!•) • To Tally. V. n. To be fittcd; to 
conform ; to. bc fuitable — I *"ound picces of tile» 
that cxaaiy tallL-dwHh the channcU jlddifon. 

Tally CUTTER, n. /. [tallj and cuttcr. \n 


Digitized by 


' T A L ^ I 

oSRcCT in thc court of Excheou^ who cuts or 
marks thc tally. Src Tally, J 3. 

Tally-mam, «•/ U^y and mait.] a pcdbn 
that reli» or leti goods, clothcs, &c. to be paid by 
io rauch a.wctk. 

TALLYOOR, a town c>f Hindoottan, in thc 
, Myforc; 8'milcs NW. of DindiKul. 

TALMAS, a town of Prancc, in thc depart- 
ment <»f thc Souimc ; 9 milra S. of Dowriens. 

TALMAY, a town of PrAncc, in tbc d<rpatt- 
meni ol the C.>tc d'Oi, af the jundron of iht Vn 
gennc and SHone : 18 miles NR. of Dijon. 

TALMOND, or > a town of Prance, in thc 

dO TALMONT > dcp. of Lower Charente, 

/ and Utc prov.of SAintonge, with a hnrbour, on a 

peninluU on the right bank of tbe Gironde : 18 

.inilcs SW.of Saintcs, a«? M. Cnitweil haR it, or 10 

SE. iB Brookrs fay9 ; 42 N. of B iurdcaux, and 

,»60 SW. ot Piiris. Lon. o. 50. W. Lat. 45. 32. N. 

{%.) Talmont, a town of Prancc, in ihc dep. 

of the. Ytndec ; 7\ mi^es ESE. of Sable d'Olonnc, 

«nd 18 W. of Lu^on. 

. (i.) * TALMUp, Thalmu». m. /. Thc hook 
containing the Jcwint traditions, the rabbinical 
conftttuti«ns and cHpIications cf the law. 

(a) Talmud is thename of 2 Jewilh works, 
thc Talmud c/JtTu/alem, and thnTalmuJo/ Btkby' 
ion, Each of thcfi is compoftd of t wo parts ; thc 
MiAma, whkh is thc text, and is common to 
boih, ajid thc Gcmara or commcntary. Scc Ge- 
mara and Mishna. Thc MlOina, which com- 
prchcnds ail the laws, inAitutions, and rnM of 
hfe, which, bcttdcs the ancient Hcbrcw lcripturc», 
thc Jcws tbought thcmrclves bound to obfcrve, 
WAH compoicd, accordm|[ to tiicir own pnanimous 
tcilimnny, at>out thc clofc of tbe ad century. It 
"was thc work of Habbi Juda Hakkadoib, who 
•was thc ornamcnt of thc rchool at Tibcrias, and 
is f4id to ha^e occupicd him 40 ycar^ Thecora- 
roentancs aiid adittiions which (uccceding Rabbis 
made wcrc collcdtcd by Rahbi Johanan Bcn Elic- 
JEcr, in the ^th, 6th, or ^th ccntury, under thc 
rame of Gemar/tf th «t is, compUtion ; bcrcaitfe k 
♦ omplcicd tbc Talmud. A fimilar' addition was 
TOa'1e to thc Milhna by the Badylorilh dodord in 
thc 6tli or 7th century. The Talmud of Babylon 
is moft valucd by tbe' Jcws ; ahd this is the b*>ok 
which they mcau, whcn thcy talk of tbe Talmud 
in gcncral. Aa abrid^ment of it •was madc by 
MaimcM.idce in thc iith century, in which he rc- 
jcited fomc of its greatcd abfurditic«. Thc laft 
'cdition of the Taimud of Babylon, printed at 
Amfterdam« is in i» vol8 folio. Thc Talmud of 
Jernfalcm is in onc lar^e folio. 

• TALNESS. M. / (from to//.] Height of 
Itature; proccrity. — 

An beidcbus giant, horrible and high, 
That with his talnefi fecmM to thrcat tbc (ky. 

■r— Thc cjci behotd fo many nakcd bodics, as for 
talnefs oi ttaturc could hardly bc cquallcd ip any 
country. Hay<warJ, 

TALO-CHAN, ah ifland ne^r thc cpaft of 
China. Lon. 139. 50. E. Fcrro. Lat'. 19. 57. N. 

TALOIRE, a town of thc Ercnch tmpire, in 
the dep. of Mont Blanc, and latc duchy of Savoy; 
S milcs SSE. of Aonecy. 
^ 9 '^TALON. »./ [taUn, Fr.] Thc claw of a 

28 > T A L 

i>ird of prey.— It nuy be tried, whrthcr Wi 
may not be madc to havc greater or iooger//iiMi. 
Bacan, — 

Upward the nobie bird dtrcds bii «ing, 

L'fts hls Bcrcc talon high. tm 

TALOO, « fca-port on thc N. coaft of EimeoJ 

onc of the Socii^ty I»t.AMDs, in the Sotuh Sc^J 

I^on. 150*' W. or 110*, asCruttwreil Ikys. Lal.iyJ 

30 S. 
TALOOK, ir.yC an Arabi^ word, which figni^ 

iicd litcraliy attachmcnt, conncdtion, dependmcfj 

In Bcngal, howcYcr, whcre it occnrs pcrpetual J 

in thc cnuiDcration of thc dHtriAs and (ubdiTj 

fions of thac pravince comainrd in tbe iaftit\ud 

of Akber, it (ignitics a tenute.of land. Uencj 

the talo9k of CaOiinat, t!<e taio^k of Mcbcyt tN 

hcadman, the tahok of Ahmrd Khan, &c. %\ 

ji DiJlirrta tion conceming tbe Landtd Pr^riyl 

BeugaU by Sir Charles Roufe Boughton. I 

TALOOKDAR, n, /. thc pol!e«or of I 

talook. - I 

TALOOKDARY, »f./ tenurc of a ta'.ook(W 

TALOYKA, a rivcr of Ruffia, whicb joinsH 

Analick, and^thc joint watcrs fail into tbe li|i 

31 miie«» E.of Voiik, in Sarator. 
TALPA, ih zoology, the mole; i gcnus 

quadrupcds beloiiging to the order of j^rr ai 
cbifM of mammalia, It has fix unequil foTetci 
in thc uppcr jaw, and 8 in the lower ; onc ti 
on cach lidc in cach jaw ; 7 griuders on cachfi 
above, and 6 bek>w. There are 7 fpccic8, f»x. 

j, Talpa Aurea, tSt gHM moie^ or & 
rian moiet of Pcnnant, has 3 tocs oa tbe ^ 
fect, with very large ciaws; 5 on th« hhid,» 
weak claws ; out no tail. .The iaoot is ibof 
than that of tHc Europcan, (N** 3.) thc noie 
ked ; the hcad and-body-4 inchei^; the fur ab 
varied with gloiTy grccn, golden, and reddilhc 
pcr colour ; thc lowcr a cincreous twrown. T 
inhabit the Capc of Good Hope aiid Sibcria. 

1. Talpa Cristata, tbe crejied mole^ ot & 
erijtatiii ot Gmelin, has 5 toc» 0« C^h iwk 
ihort tail ; and thc nofc long and furroun<k< 
the point with 10 or 15 Ihort radiatcd tc« 
forming a (t^r ; the body is thick and round, 
covcrcd with a fine (koit dulky fur. Thcy 
on roots, and iiihabit N. America.' 

3. Talpa Evt.OTJfAt.tbe Enra^^mn «••^,«< 
only fpccics found in Britam. Thcy ibhabit 
wholeof Eurnpe, except Ireiand» where no « 
are found. Thcy are alfo common in tbc ] 
Aiia aod Africa. They chicQy fireqacnt 1 
heids e3[pofcd to thc fun, mcadows, and gar( 
tbrougb which thcy form fut>teTrancous roaj 
every dircAion in fearch of wormii, on whicl 
thc IarvaB of iivfeds thcy feed, and not on I 
tabiest though they do grcat daroage by loo4| 
the roots of plants. Thcy are mdk a&rrt M 
rain, as thc worms are then in cnotion. 
peniB of the malc is exccedingly long io pi^ 
tion ; thcy pair and propagate in fpring, ti 
malc bringmg 4 or 5 young at a btrth, whi^ 
placcd in ncns made of mofs, leavefty andj 
graf8, under the larged hiliocks of tbc fitld j 
are conftrufted witli wondertul ingenuity, c 
ing of an intcrior hillock,fttrrotfn<ied with a 
which communicatcs with fcvcral gallcrii 
purpofe to carry off the moiilure ^ and U 

Digitized by 


T A t ( 1 

Mcomtd ow with a dorae of carih, lilce llie- Aat 
an:h of an o?en. Molcs are dertroycd by a pafte 
coinpofed of palma chrirti and white hellcbore, or 
byAoodingthc iieldswhich tfrey infeft ; thcugh, 
m tbc lattcr cafc, they fometimes efc2pe by af- 
ctndirp trees. This fpecic8 is $\ inches \u Lngth, 
2ud \u tail about onc inch. it has ^ largc, 
«iib^Hit scy rrtcmalcars, and tycs fo very fiiiall 
ckI fo complctcly hid in thc fur as to make it 
tulgarly believcd tbat it bas nonc. As thcy lrvc 
rrtircljr below groUnd, they havc certainly no oc- 
ciSoa for eyci ; aud astbty probabiy tind their 
fcod by the (meli, which is acuto, eycs m:iy fcrve 
i«rely lo warn thcm when they happen to emcrgc 
Iram ihe ^rornid to return to theii fubierraneou8 
dwrdiog. Thercarc 4 varietic8, viz. 

i. Talpa EuaoPAA alba, tbe 'wbite moU% 
with fur unifnrmly whitc. 

ii.TALPA£uROP^A Q\}f^fL^A^tbtgreymoUthz% 
aiTOw forc paws ; Ihe fur is of a cincrcous co« 

iiTALPA EuROP^A NiGitA, tbe black mole^ 
bifBruDifbnnIy black. 

nr. Talpa £urop^a tauegata, the vaHe' 
gsui Mole, has fur yariegated with white fpot3. 

4. Talpa Flava, fbe yellow or Arherican 
Uaky hat 5 toe^ on cach foot, thc fur is of a 
yrliowiAi broM colour at tbc tipg, aiid dark 
|rry«t llic roots ; thc hcad ii» brighteft r the rump 
dtrk; the deep brown; thc fect and tail 
»hite. They inhabit N. Amcrica. 

5. Talpa PusCA, tbe brown Mole^ tbe Sorese 
^^uuicust '^r Aquatic Sbrew, of Gmelin, hat 5 
^ 00 all the fcet, which are palmated ; thc 
tailaiid fcct ihort and whttc; * forctecth in thc 
■ppcr iDd 4 in thc kiwcr jaw. Tbc hcad and 
^T are s\ mchea long ; thc taH not an inch ;• 
Ae aoCc ift QeBdcr ; thc uppcr jaw ionger tbafv 
•beoDder, TScy iohabit N.Amcrica. Thisand 
tbt CwsTATA, N** a, wcrc formerly raiiked un* 
wTtht genus Sorex ; but as they have the man- 
»cT5and figurc of the Moles, Ibey arc very pro» 
Pcrlj rdlorcd to this pcnua by Mr Pennant. 

6.TALPA LoNGiCAUDATA, tbe hng-toiUdMote^ 
jl^wnt, ba^ 5 toc« on all thc fect, which arc 
*wi oakedy aod palmated ; tbe forc fcet have 
knjigibort claws ; tbe hind fc«t long and Aendcr 
^aod are fcaly. Thc bead aud body arc 
wa^to 6 inchc: long : thc tail a, foraetimc3 5. 
"Cf mhabit N. Asncrica. 

7- Talpa Rubra, t/je red Jiwencm Mole^ ha« 
3 toci 00 tbe forc fcct, 4 on tbe hind, and a (hort 
^ It is of a pale red colour, and in form re- 
«oWe» thc European (N° 3.) but is larpcr, and 
1« rool of thc tail is thickcr. They inhabit A- 
*"ica, Ktrr^s Animal Kingd. vol. i. p. 199 — aoj. 

TALP1,V, a town of Chinefe Tartary, in Ha- 
•>; %l mtlcs NE. of Hataratam-. 

TALPINA, in ^oology, a fpccies of Myotal- 
JJj or M^U-Rat^ i« ncarly allicd fo thc Talp^, 
«tt " arrangcd with ihc other fpecic8, under 
**. 8re Mus, § HL N** 4^ i, and ii. 
^TALSARNE, a town of S. Watrs, in Cardigan- 

TALTHYBIUS, a celcbratcd herald in thc 
^Oreciaa camp, dunng thc Trojan war, the friencl 
•*« miniltcr of Ag^racmnon. who lcnt him to 

29 ) T A' M 

briug away Brifci8 from Achibcs. He diC^d kt 
iEigium, in Achaia. Hont. //. u v. 310, &c. Pattj» 
vii. c. a^. 
.TALT1TZ, a town of Germany, in Upper 
Sascuny, in thc Yogiland :' 4 miles S. of PJauen. 

TALYAR, a town of Pcrfia, in thc proviiacc 
of L ac : . 9 miles NW. of Amadan. 

TALUD, or ) «./. in architedture,- thc incli- 

(i.) TALUS, J iiatiOn or flope of a work; a!i 
of the outfidc of a wall, whcn ita thicknefs i» 
dimim(hed by d-grees, aa itrifes in height, to 
make it thc liimer. 

(a.) Talus, in fnrtification, thc flopc of a 
work, whctbtr of earth or ma^oni^y. 

(j.) Talus, in hiftory, partiy fabnlou8, the 
nephcw of Dtcdalus, dHd, likc his unclc, a gi^eat 
mathcmatica! gcnius, having inventcd the faw, 
CompaATes, ai»d othcr mechanical inih-umcnts. 
But thi;; merit occaAoncd his murdcr. SccDwCDA-' 
Lus. The poet5 fabled, that he was turncd into' 
a partritWe. 

TALYA, or 7 a town of Hungary, 8 milcs N, 

TALZA, ^ofTokay. 

TAM, a town of the jd rank, and a river o£ 
China, in Pe-tchc-li ; »7 miics WSW. of Paow 
tinp. Thc latter runs into the Ta. 

TAMACH, a rivcr of Suabia, wbich rifea ncar 
Neuweilcr, and runs into thc Nagold» % milcs S^ 
of Calw, in Badcn. 

TAMALAMECA, or > a town of TcrraPirma^ 

TAMALAMEQUE, i in St; Martha, on th^ 
Magdaiena. Lon. 71. 45« Wr Lat. 8.,5ib I^.. 1 

TAMAMES, a town of Spain, in Leon. 

<r.) TAMAN, a town pf ,Circaflia, on Xhc N/ 
coad of.the BiackSea: ajomiles SSW.of Azqpb» 

(a, .^.). TAMAt<, a Arait and ifland betwce» 
the Black Sca, and tbe Sea*of Azopb : the iliapd^ 
was ancicntly called Phanagoria- „ , 

TAMANAH, a feaport town of lodoitan, oa 
tbe coaft of Malabar, in Concan ; r^mijca N. o^ 
Goa. t 

TAMANDUA, or } in zoology, Sec Myrme- 

TAMANOIR, J cophaoa, N** 6. 

(1.) TAMAR, a riverof England, which rifei 
in the NW. part of Devonfliire near C^rnwall ; 
and running S. ieparatcs the a countics, cxccpt 2 
fmali part of Devorfliirc on thc*W. fidc ; after 
whicb it fa!ls into the lea bclow PiyrooUlh . 

(a — 4.) Tamar, in Scripturc hillory, a name 
common among the Ifraclitifti woracn, ap, 1. Thc 
wifc of Fr and Onanr Judah'8 fon8, and molhcr 
of Pharez and Zarah by himfelf, 1. A daughtei' 
nf David ani full fifler of AbfaIom, raviflitd by 
bcr brotb^r Amnon. Sec Absalom and Amkon# 
3. A daughter of Abfa!om. 

(f.) TAMARA, a rivcr of Naples, which rifc» 
ar the foot of thc Apcnnihcs, and faIU itito the 

(1.) Tamara, or Tamary, a fea-port town 
on the NW, coaft of Socotora, the royal reli- 
dcncc, and capital of Ihc ifland. It is fcatci 
near the mouth of tlic Red Sca. Lon. 5». 25. E. 
Lat. 11. 30. N. 

(3.) Tamara Ittes, a cIuAcr of iflands of Afri- 
ca !■ Guinca ; ncar thc coart of Sicna Leona. 

TAMARAC, a rivcr of Brafil, which runs into 
thc fca at Tamaraca. 

R (i.) TAM- 

Digitized by 


T A M f 130 1 

(r.) TAMARACA, a pleafarit and fertik ifland whtch 
of Bradl, nrar tbe mouth of tbc Tamarac,^ on the 
coaH of thc diAridt to whicb it gives name, and 
ffom which it is divided by a fmail llrait. It pro- 
duces Bradlwood, cocoa nuts, cotton, Tugar, 
citronf), melons^ and wood jn great plenty. It 
18 9 miles long, 3 broad, and a% in circutt. Lon. 
35. 5. W. Lat. 7. 56. S. 
(2O Tamaraca, or> a didridt of Brafil, in the 
TAMARIKA, J junTd-aion of Femam- 

bucoy which, betides including the aboye iOand, 
extends lao miles within thc continent; being 
bounded N. by Parayba, E. by thc Occan, S. by 
part of Pemarobuco, and W. by the country of 
the S. American Indians. 

TAMARIL, a town of Spain, in Catalonia ; a 
miles NE. of Tarrapona. 

(r.) ♦ TAMARIND Tree. «. /. [tamarindus^ 
Lat.] The flov&er of the tamarindtree 'confift8 of 
feveral Ieave8. Miller. — Lcnitivcs arc caliia, /«1- 
marindsi manna. Wtfeman. — 
Lay me recKnM 
Beneath the fpreading tamarind. Thom/on, 

(2.) Tamarind tree, ) in botany, a genus of 
TAMARINDUS, > plants arranged by 
Linnaeus under thc clafs of triandria and order of 
nnnogynia\ but Woodville, Schrcber, and other 
Urte botamfts, have found that it belongs to the 
claf8 of monadetpbia and order of triandna, In 
the natural fyftem it is ranked under tbe hmen' 
taee^. There is only one fpecie8, viz. 

TAHkARiNDus Indica, a native of both Indies, 
of Americai of Arabia^ and Egypt. Il was culti- 
ratcd in Britain bcfbre 1633. It rife8 to 30 or 40 
fret, fending otTnumerous large branchesy wbich 
ibread to a conRdcrablc cxtenty and havc a beau- 
tifv1 appearance ; the trunk ts cre^i and covered 
with rough bark, of a greyilh or alhcolour ; thc 
ltave8 are fmall and pinnated, and of a yellow- 
ifh green colour : the Aowers refemblc the papili- 
onaceous kind, and grow in lateral clufters : tbc 
t:alyx confift8 of 4 leaves, aud the corolla of 3 pe- 
tals, of a ydlowilh hue, and beautifully diverfi- 
Aed with red vein8 : the firuit is a pod of a round- 
iih com^rcAcd foan, from 3 to 5 inchc» long, 
containing a, 3, or 4 fced8, in a dark pulpy mat- 
ter. The Bowers appear, according to Jac^uiny 
in Odt. and Nov. but, according to Dr Wnght^ 
during the wholc of June and July. The pulp 
of the tamarind, with the fccd8 conncdted togc- 
ther by numeroud tough ftring8 or fibrei»» arc 
brought to U8 freed from the outer Aiell, and 
commonly prcfcrved in fyrup. The fruit prodn- 
ced in the Eaft Indies is morc eftecmcd than that 
of the Wcft, and is diftinguifhed by the grcater 
length of the pods, and thc pulp being dryer and 
of a darker colour. This fruit, thc afe of wbich 
was firft learned of the Arabiane, containe a largc 
pioportion of acid, with the facchanne matter, 
and is therefore not only employcd as a laxative, 
but aIfo for abating thirft and heat in variou8 in- 
Aammatory complaints, and putrid diibrdcri), ef- 
pccially thofe of a bilious ktnd ; in which the ca- 
thartic, antifeptic, and refrigcrant gualities of 
the fruit have becn found cqual1y ufcful. When 
intcnded merely as a laxative, it may be joined 
with manna, or purgativcs of a fwect kind, by 

T A M 

it 18 rendcred fafer and moreefiedoal. 

Three drachms of thc pulp arc ufually fufficieot 

to open the body : but to prove moderately a- 

thartic, i or a oz. are required. It is an ingre- 

dtent in eleBuarium e caj/ia^ and eleOuarimn e/ema 

or lenftive cleAuary. Stc Materia Meoica, 

and Pharmacy, Jndex. 

TAMARIS, a river of Spain. Lempr, 

(i.) • TAMARISK. »./. [tamari/ce, Lat.] Tbc 

Howers of the tamarijk are rofaceou8. JGUrr.^ 

Tamarijk is a trec tbat grows tall, and ils wood 

is medicinal. Mortimer. 

(}.) Tamarisk, i in botany, a genus of planti 

TAA^AIIIX, 5 belonging to thc clafs of peih 

tandriat ai d order of trigynia ; and in the oatural 

fyftem ranping under thc ijth order, Sueeuientn» 

The calyx is quinquepartitc; the petals are fiTc; 

the capiule is unilocular and trivalvular, and the 

feed8 pappous. Therc arc only two fpccic8 knowo} 

i. Tamarix Gallica, Prench tamarijk, which 
grows upon thc iea coaAs. Whcn burot it af- 
ford8 fulphat of foda. See C h e m i str y, /«iur. 
ii. Tamarix Obrmanica, German tamariji 
TAMARUS, atnountain of Epirus. Strabo, 
TAMARY. Scc Socotora, and Tamaea, 

TAMA^A, a river of Afia, in Mingrelia. 

TAMASCAL, n./. thc name givcn in Caliibr- 
nia to a kind of (and*bath cmployed by tbe na- 
tivc8 in the cure of thc vencrcal dileafc. It iiprt- 
pared by fcooping a trench in tbe fand, two fect 
wide, onc foot decpy and of a length proportion- 
ed to the fize of the patient ; a iire is then madc 
through the wbole extent ot it, at well «as upon 
thc (and which was dug out of tbe bollow. Wken 
the whole ts tboroughly heated, tke firc is rcmo- 
ved, and the (aod ttirred about, tbat tbe wamth 
may be equally difl[bfed. The fick pcrfoD is thetr 
ftripped, laid down in tbe trencb» and covercd 
up to bis chin with heated fand. In thiapolition 
a very profnfe fweat foon breaks out, whick gra- 
dually diminiOics according as the iand coolk 
The patient tlien rife8 and bathes in the (a, or 
thc neareA river. Tbis procefB is repcated till a 
complete cure is obtained. Wbile the patient \% 
undergoing the operation of tbe taroafcal, he 
drinks a contidcrablc quantity of a warm fudon- 
fic, prepaned by the decodtion of certain hcrbi» 
cbicOy of the (hrub called by the Spaniards Gou* 


TAMASEA, a plain of CypruSy facred to Yc' 
nns, Plin. $• 
TAMATMA, a town of A^rica, in Bomoa. 
TAMBA, a tbwD of Indoilan, in Vifiapour. 
TAMBAC, »./. See £xcoecaria, andXy- 


TAMBACII, a town of Upper Saxony, in tbe 
duchy of Saxe Gotha ; 9 miles S. of Gotba. 

(i.^^TAMBARINE. »./. [tamhounn, Fr.l A 
tabor i a fmall drum. It Ihould be tamiourinj— 
Calliope witb Mufe8 moe, 

Tbeir ivory lutes and tambarines forego. SpenJ, 

(i.) Tambarine. Scc Tambourin. 

TAMB£RCH£RY, a town of Hindooftan, in 
Calicut ; 18 miles N£. of Calicut. 

TAMBOY, a city of RsOia» tbe capital of 


Digitized by 


T A M 

TAMBOfixoE; 118 inilet SE 
j7« SE. of Pcttiiburg. Lon. 58, 

(i.)TAMBOUR, «. / in architc^ure, a term 
applied to thc Corintbian and Coropotite capttalsy 
u beariog fome rcieoiblance to a drum which the 
Prendi call tMmbour. Some choore to cali it thc 
f»^ and others campana or the bell. 

(i.)TAMB0i7a is airo uCed for a little boz of 
timbcrwork, covered with a celiing, withinlide 
tbeporch of ccrtain churchee ; botb to prevent 
tbe riew of perfons palDng by, and to kcep off 
tne wiod, &c. by means of foIding doors» &c. 

(j.)TAMB0UEalfodenote8a round courfe of 
ftoo(, icYcial whcreof form the (haft of a column, 
Dot io bigb as a diameter. 

(4.)Tamboui, in the manufadures, is a fpe- 
ciei af cmbroidery. The tambour is an inAru- 
nKfitof afpberical form, upon whicb is itretched, 
byaAringand buckle, a p'ece of lincnor thin 
^^ ttdT; wbich is wrought with a needle of a 
pvticQlarform, and by means of Tilken or goid 
udSltertbrcads, ioto lcaTcs, flowc'n>, or bther 

TiTambour, V, a. To cmbroider by tbe tam- 
TAMBOURER. n.f. a girl who works at the 

TAMBOURIN, «./. a t;»bor or fma!I drum : 
aiia a dauce ptrfbrnied on the Prcnch ttage. The 
air 11 liTclr, and thc mo?emcnts are quick. See 
Music, j »51. 
TAMBOYSKOE, a goYemment of Ruflia, 
knadcd N. by that of Uladimir ; £, by thofe of 
Nizef orod, Pcnza, and Saratov ; S. by Sarato?, 
^ W. by tboic of Riasan and Voronez. It is 
ioo nilcs toog, and firom 80 to 100 broad. Tam- 
MT i« thc capital. Lon. 56*" ao' to 6i* E. Perro. 

TAMBRA, a river of Spain, which runB into 
tbe AUantic, near Muros in Galicia. 

TAMBUCO, a town on thc £. coaft of Cclebes, 
I ^ated 00 a hay to which it giyes name. Lat. 1. 

(i.)*TAME. adj. [tame, Saxon; /a«w, Dutcb; 

tos BMi/h.l X- Not wild ; doroeftick.— Thalts 

!^lilcfian iaid, That of ail wild beafts a tyrant 

"tkworfty and <if all tame beafts a flatterer.. 

^fi^ ». CruOied; fubdued; deprcAcd; dc- 

/^; fpirttic(ji ; heartle(j. — 

I If you (hould need a pin, 

I Tm cottld not with more tame a tongue delire 

t Sbak. 

j Tbeir coorage with hard labour tame» Shak» 

A ffloft poor man made tame to fortunc'8 

! Wowi. Sbak, 

Time AaTct of thc hbcrious plough. Ro^com. 

I y Spiritlrf> ; unanimaAed : as, a tame poem, A 

I !i-)Tamc, 111 grograpby, a town of England, 
• Otfordflitrr, with a free fchool, an hofpital, 

I 5^ a market on Tucfdav. It is feated on the 
Tut, (IT 3.) I» miles E. of Oitford, and 45 W, 
•TN. of lAMidon. Lon. 0.55.W. Lat.5i.46.N. 
Ij.)Taiie, or Thame, a river of England, 
•^ rilb ncar WinAow in Buckinghamihiie, 
jji mnt luto thc Tbamej^ above WaIlingford, at 
|>»cbcAci to Oxfordfliirc ; and hencc has bccn 

( 131 ) T A M 

of Mofcoe, aod often errcneouAy fuppofed to give name to th|t. 
50. E. Ferro. famou8river. SccThames. 

(4.) Tame, anothtr river of England, which ri- 
fes in Staflbrdfliire» and runs into the Trent, 7 
mi^es above Burton. 

• ToTamb. V, ». Igatamgan^ Gothick; te^ 
mean^ Saxon ; tammen^ Dutch.] i. To reduce 
from wiidnefs ; to make geptle.— 

Thofe that tame wild hoHes 
Stop their mouths with Aubborn bits. Sbai. 
4. To fubdue ; to cruAi ; to dcprefs ; to conquer. 
If tbe Htavens do not their viflble fpirits 
Serid quickly down to tame the oAences, 
Humanity muft perforce prey on itfelf. Sbak* 

Thcy cannot tame 
Or overcome thcir riches ! Ben Jon/on. 

A puling cuckold, would drink up 
The lees and dregs of a flat tamed piece. Sbak. 
A race uncoRquerM, by their clime made 
The Caledooians armM with want and cold, 
Have been for ages kept for you to tami. WalL 

* TAMEABLE. adj. \irom tame.] Sufceptivc 
of taming. — Ganza8 are great fowIs, of a ftrong 
Aight, and eaflly tameabie. Wiikint. 

TAMEGA, a river of Portugal, which runs in- 
to the Duero: 10 miles 3* of Amarante. 

TAMEGAN, a town of Ceylon, 48 miles S. Qf 

* TAMELY. adv. [from tame.] Not wildly : 
meanly; fpiriilcfly. — 

Stoop tamely to the ibot of majefty. Sba. 
What courage tamelj could to death confent? 

So tamelj can you bear the ravifli'd crown ? 

Did he look tamey on and let them paf8 ? 

— Can you Iove your prelate, whom yoii tamely 
fufier to be abufed l Sv3ift. 

• TAMENESS. «. /. tfrom tame.] i. Thc 
quality of being tame ; not wildncls. %. Waot 
of fpirits; timidity. — Sttch a condudt m«ft appear 
rather like tkmene/s than beauty. Bjtgers.,.^ 

♦ TAMER. n./. [from./amr.] Cuoqueror; fub- 
duer. — 

He, grcat tamer of all bwnan art. Popi. 

TAMERLANE, orTiMUR-BEK, acelcbratcd 
prince and conqueror. As he very early exhibhed 
uncommon courage, hc bad at the age of %s at« 
tained the highcft dignitics. He (pcnt 9 years in 
diAerent countnes, traycUing for improvement. He 
conqaercd thc 3 great cmpires ot Ptriia, India, 
and Egypt ; plundered Baodad, Delhi, Cairo, 
and othcr rich cities ; and took pri^oner Baja- 
ZET I. emperor of the Turks ; fo that bis power, 
riches, and magni&cence hecAmc immenfe. There 
rcmain vaft nionumeota of ht^ grandeur in the 
citics, towns, caftle6, and walts, whtch he built ; 
in the river8 and canals which he dug, as well 
as in thei bndges, gardcns, palaces, hofpitaIs, 
mofque8, and oaonaAericB, which he treded in 
the various parts of Afia. Tim^r, accordiog 
to the hiftonan ArabAiah, was vcry corpulent 
and yet taU. He had a large forehead, and a big 
head. His countenance was agrecable, and his 
compkxion fair. He had a large beard, was very 
ttrongy and wcll limbed ; had broad Aioulder*, 
R % thick 

Digitized by 


T A M ( 1 

<.tt)ick fingcr8, and long l«*g:*?. His con^^ittition was 
Amazingly yigorous; but he was mn»mf<i *" one 
liand, andJanie of thc right fidlc. Ilis <*y«'« ap- 
pcarcd fu]l of fire; hi« voice was loud «nd pier- 
cing; and when faradvanced in ye.irs, his u.-nJer- 
Handing was ftfund, his body vigorou8 and robull. 
Hc died on the ift of April 1405, «gt^ti 71» '" ^^^ 
36th year of his rtign. Sce r.AGPAD, § 5 • Ba- 
JA2ET I.; HlSTORY, Part 1. Sr&. XI.; l^rJiA, 
5 II ; MOGULS, § Si^i Persia, § i8; and Sy. 
HIA, § i>. 

TAMESIS, in anci^nt geography, a rlver of 
S. Britam, now called Ihc Thames. C^/, de BeL 
Qal. V. c. ii. 

TAMIEH, a t©wn of Egypt, on a canal, which 
runs bctween thc Nilc and thc Biriet ; ii miles 
NE. o^^Payoum, 

TAMINGA, a town of China, in Ptkin, in a 
plcalant country, abounding with lates and riyers. 
Lon. 114. iS' E. 36. 56. N. 

TAMINIZ, a riycr of Carniola, about 4 nijles 
long, which has no vifiblc communication with 
any othcr water. It I3 about 4 milcs SE. of Veii. 

TAMINO, a rivcrof Switzcrland, which runa 
Snto the Rhine, i4 miles from Sargans. 

♦ TAMINY. »./ A woollen ftuff. 

♦ TAMKIN. if. /. Thc ftopple of the mouth 

TAMMESBRITCK, or ) a town of Th^irinpia, 
•^AMMISBROOK, 5 ontheUnftuilh; luilt 
ty king P-^pin of Pranct» . 

• TAMMOWISCHKIIN, h t^^wn'©? Pruriian Li- 
thuania ; .•? milcp E. of Infterburjr. 

TAMMTOUL, orToMANrouL, a vi]Iagc of 
^cotland,' in Banrtshire, in the midtlle of thc iligh- 
lands; feated on the banks of the Avcn, cn the 
great road to lnVeroef8. It is in thc piriAi r f 
K»rkmichael. In 1792, it containcd 37 ^^nnlies 
iL-onfiftiiig of 110 poribnB. It has 2 wctl frtquenl- 
cd annual fairs. 

TAMMUZ» a namc of Adonis. Scc Myste- 
niEs, 4 8. 

' TAMOU, an ifland in thc S. Pacific Occan, 
ncar Uuetea. . 

' ♦ 'Tb TAMPER. V- €?r[of unccrtain deritation, 
deriyed by Skinner from tempero^ Lat.J i. To bc 
«ufy with phyfick;-*-' 
'Tis in ▼ain 
To tamper with your crazy brain, 
Without trcpannmg of your Ikull * 

Aa oftcn a» t he moon^ĕ* at f u H. Hudibfhi, 

•— He Iried wajhe&togtve him a bettcr complexion, 
birt thc vcry tmmpering caft bim into a difeafe. 
L*Bflraiife. %, To meddlc ; to have to do with- 
out fitneft or ncccdity.— Tbat kcy of knowlcdge, 
which (hould give us cntrancc into thc rcccAes of 
teligion, is by fo much tampering and wrenching 
made ufclcf9. Pecay efPietj, — 

'Tis dangVous tampehng with a Mafc. Rofc. 
— Earl Walthcof bcing otcrtaken with wine, cn- 
jragtd in a confpiracy; but repenting next roorn- 
i"g, repaircd ta the king, and difcovered the 
whole roatter: notwithdanding^hich hc was bc- 
hcaded upon thc dtfeat of thc confpirary, f<^r ha- 
ying but thus far tampered in it. AddifGn, 3. To 
ckalj to pra^ifc fecretly. — 

Oihcrs tamper'd .^.^ . 

32 ) .T A N 

For FicetwQod, Defl)orough, and Lambcrt* 


TAMPICE, orTANiiPE, a town of Mcxico, 
in Guafteca| 69 miiCS NNW. of Panuco. 

t* AMSWEG, a town of Bavana, in Sallzburp; 
la miles W. of Muehrau, and 4« SSE. of Salti- 

TAMTALLAN, a high rocky pcninfuiar pnv 
m<tntory of ScolLnd, in E. Lothian, projtttmg 
over the Tea, which walhts it' on 3 fidc6. Il has 
the ruins of .in ancient c4itle on its top, and is t 
miles E. of North Berwick. The cattlc waji dc- 
ttroyed by the Covenanttr8, in 16^9. 

TAMTAM, n,f a flat dium u'fed by thc Hin. 
doos, rclembhng a tabor, but it is largcr, ani 
fuund8 louJcr. 

TAMUS, BLACK BRiONY, in botany, a gcnu^ 
ftf plants belonging to tbe claf8 nf diaciat and o^ 
der o{ hexandria ; and in thc natural fyftcm rao- 
ring uhder the iith ordcr, Sarmentace^. Thc 
maJe and ftmait (lowers arc both fexpartite; Iherc 
is no c^rolla ; thc ftyie is lrifid ; the bcrry is trt. 
locular and inftr5or, and contains a feeds. Tbtr* 
are only 2 fpecics known : 

I. Tamus coMMUNis, the common bhckhrmh 
is a native of Enjriand, but has nol been obfcnt4 
growmp wild in Scoilant^. It ha* a lai^ge roul, 
wbich ltnd8 fortb fevera! long Aendcr ftem«: iht 
leavcs aie larce, heart-lhapcd, dark grtcn, and 
piow on long foolftAlke: thc Aowcrs aregrceniib, 
and ihc bcrry red. It Aowers from May to Au 
£uft, and i« common in hcdgcs. 

1. TamuS elfphahtii»es is a nativc of lh< 
Capc of Good Hope, and was firft dcfcribcd b| 
L'Ueritier. 1 

TAM\yOIlTH, an ancient borough of Er? 
laod, Aaied nearthe grand canal, at thc conflB] 
of the Anker atnd -Taiiic, partly in Stjff*ordihiit 
and pariiy in Warwickihirc. Il was the rcBdtoc 
af tbe Anglo.Saxon kings of Mcrcja, duriiig lb| 
Heptaicby. It was deftroycd by thc Danct, bu 
ribu It by queen EthclAcda, who addcd a caiti 
for its dcfence in 914." It is large^aod well buiH 
and has manufa<5tures of narrow cloth, wiUi 
markct on Saturday. It fend8 tiJS*t mtmbeis t 
thc imperial parhament, who arc rcturncd by tl' 
*flieritF8 of 1>ot& ccunlics. It lics 8 milcs SE. 1 
Lichficld, and 114 NW. of London. Lon. 1.3 
W. Lat. 36. 56. N. 

TAMYRAS, a rivcr of Piicenicia, betwrt 
Tyrc and Sido^*. 

(i.) TAN, 1/./. thc bark of the oak aftcr il b 
bccn ground and uf;d by thc tanner. Thc fmal5 
fort is generally madc up in littlc fquare cakes ci 
led twji and f<>ld lor firing. Thc coarfcr fort 
fomeiimc8 dried in the fun, and ufcd by bak< 
for hcati^-g tbcirotcns, ^c. but its chi^f u^c 
for hotbcdi to raife piuc^arplcs aiul othcr plan 
William III. introduced thc ufe of it from H 
land, for raifing orange trecs ; aftcr which it % 
difcontinued lill about 17 19, wben ananas w< 
firft brought iiito England, it camc into gcne 
i!fc,,and hasever iince bcen mucb^ ufcd by g 
dcners tor lorcing, &c. by its ftrong and iatti 
f. rmentation. The Imalkr the tau, ibc quic1 
. ir heat ; but the larger fort acquirca hcat roi 
graduaily and letainb its longcr: gardcners thc 


Digitized by 


T A N ( i 

Ibre u(e the on« or the othcr, or a robcture of both, 
Kcordiog to ibc purpofe for which it is wanted. 
Jt ']$ tome time after ihc tan comes out of the pit 
bcTare it b<fgiDS to beat ; but having laia a week 
or tvo, it ferment8, and if put into bpt-beds pro- 
pcdjrprepared» will rUain a moderatc he;it for 3 
or 4 roontbs. When «]felefii for the hot-houfe it 
u ItiU an excellent manure. 

(i.)Tan is fometlmes9 tbough improper1]r> ufed 
i:^\ic kark itfelf, wbich 2s the chief ingredicnt in 
tbc tanniitg of leather. Oak bark, on account of 
its gieat aftringency and gummy rcGnous proper- 
ti«, is prcftrred to all other fubftances for the 
pnrpolc of tanning, as it not on'y prefcrve8 the 
lcatberirom rotting, but alfo, by condcniing tHe 
pores, reodcTs it impervious to watcr. Scc Tan- 


(3.)TaN, in chemidry, is a fuh(lancc found in 
BK}ft «egetables, which, not having hithertobeen 
iribtted into component parts» is therefore cou- 
k&er^ as Bmple. 

• foTAN. •». a. [ianwn, ]>utch ; tannerr^ Fr.] 
I. Toimpregnate or imbiie with bark. — A human 
ikalJ corerrd with the ikin, having been buricd 
10 I;nc limy foil, was tanned or turned into a 
laidof leather. Gr^r^a;.-- The grcatclt part of thc 
i»dcj arc cxportcd raw for want of bark to tan 
tiien. S?t'^.-rThey fell ua bark *t a cood price 
^xuaaungi»iT hides into ieatiKr, S<w\ft. 2. To 
iiLbr.wn by the fun. — 

Uis face all tatuCd with rcorching funny ray, 
•. Spenjer. 

^ch 16 thy tann^d ikin'8 lamei^blc llate. 

A browD fQr which Hcaven woyld diiband^ 

Tbc gaiaiy, aod (lars be tannU! Qka^elemd, 

TANACETUM, tansy, in botany, a genus 
crt pUnts belonging to the clafs o^ Jypgenejiai and 
^^ ^ f9hfgamla /uperjim i and in thc natural 
Mcaianging under the 49th order, Compqfit^. 
Toe receptacie is nakcd; the pappus fomcwhat 
™»giiiatfd ; thc caiyx iiivbricatcd and hemifphe* 
^; thcHorcts bf the radius are trifid, and fcarcc» 
ly dilhngui£hable. Qn\t\m has cnUmcrated 7 fpe- 
oa; of which onc only is a native of Britain, viz. 

TmcETVM TULGAL£, commdn tan^y, grows 
3^4 (ed high ; tbe lcavc8 are bipinnatcd and 
^^i the Sowcrs yeliow, and terminatc the 
^^Bcles in Aat ut^bcls. Il is found on the bor- 
<^af fiekl8 and dry banks ; it abounds at Wark, 
J*iford<a(Ue ncar Kelfo; on thc 6dc of Garc- 
>ocb 0Q the W. coaft of Rof8-fhire ; and in Brcad- 
*^. It Aowers gcncrally in Auguft. There 
** ai tariety with curled leawes, cailed euried tanjjf^ 
u bai I bittcr tafte, and ao aromatic fmtll dila- 
PcrabJe to many peoplc. It is good for warming 
^ ^rengtbcning thc tlomach : thc young leave6 
*ttkrefore nfi:d as fan ingredicot in puddingA, 
*^ It is rarely ufcd in medicpc, though extol^ 
*^***food emmenagogue. A drachm of tbe 
^ Aowcrs has bcen tound bencScial in hyltcric 
f*»4en ariting from fupprclBon. Tht feed8 and 
**'« 'wcrt lormerly in cltecm for dcflroying 
•onni in cbiUiren, and arc reckoned good in co- 
^udiatalesdes. In fome parts of Swcdcn 
^J^UpUnd, a bath with a decoaioo of tanfy is 
«cd lo aflift parturition. Sce Materia Me- 

33 ^^ T A N 

TAN^CIUM, in botany, a genus of the an^ 
gioJjf>erma order, bclonging to ihe dUjnamia cials 
of plants; and in tbe natural mcthod ranking un- 
der the a^th ordcr ^ Putaminea. Thc caiyx is mo- 
nophyllous, tubulated, truncated, and cntire; 
thc corolla long, monopetalous, aitd white; tl)e 
tube cylindrical ; thc lymbi ercd, fprcadmg, and 
nearly equal ; the fruit a herry covercd with a 
thick bark, largc, obiong, internally divided intp 
two parts; in the pulp are containcd a numberof 
feed8. Thcrr arc only two fpecles ; viz. 

I. Tan/^cium jaroba, and > botli natWcs 

a. Tan^cium PARASiTicuM, j of Jamaica. 
They grow by the fidcs of riytrs, and ciimb on 
trccs and bpdics. This gcnus is omittcd by Mr 

TAlsTAEIM, or Tenaiem, a town of Arabia, 
in Ycmcn, which was long the chicf icat of thc 
Arabian Jews, who bad many fynagogues in it, 
but it is now much dcfcrted. It is 30 milcs $£• 
of Sana. 

TANAOA, one of the Fox Islands, in the 
N. Pacihc Ocean ; about 40 milcs in circumfc- 
rence. Lon. 200. o. E. Ferro. Lat. 53. 20. N. 

(i.) TANAOER, in ornithology. See Tana- 

CRA, N° %, 

(2.)Tanager, in andcnt geography, a river 
of Italy, in Lucania, rcmarkable for tts bcauftful 
cafcadcd and meandcrs, through a hne piAurefque 
country. (A7r^. Ceor* iii. v. 151.} It is now cal- 
lcd Ne^ro. 

(i.) TANAORA9 an aocient town of Boeotia, 
near thc Eui ipus, betwecn thc Afopus and Thcr- 
;nodon, famou8 for cock-fighting. 

(3.) Tanagra, Tanager, in brnithology, a 
gerjus of birds bclonging to the order of p^eres. 
The beak is conical, acuminatcd, emarginatcd, 
almt>ft triangular at the bale, and iuclining a littic 
towards the point. Dr Latbam has defcribcd 44 
rpecies, all of which are of foreign extradlion. 

TANAORUS, or Tanager. Scc Tanaqer, 

' (i.) TANAIS, in ancicnt gcography, a river of 
jScythia, which divides Europe from AHa, and 
aftcr a rapid courfc fall# into ^he Palus Mceotis. 
It is now callcd Don. Sce Don, N'' 4. 

(a.) Tanais, a town at the mouth of the above 
iivcr. Mela i, 19. Strabo, ii. 

(3.) Tanaisi a deity of theancient PcrHans an<^ 
Armenians, fuppofed to be the Ume with thc Ye- 
Nus of tbe Creeks; her ritcs being cqually ihamc- 
fui, the no^Ieft ladies proftituting thcmfeivcs iii 
hcr tcmple. Straho 11. 

TANAQUIL, thc wifc of Tarquin 1. king of 
Rome, who is faid, from hcr Ikili in augury, to 
have forctoId his promotion. Attcr his dcath, ihe 
raifcd Sm'iu8 Tullius U) thc thronc. Scc Rome, 
§ 10, II. 

TANAR, a rivcr otS<;ot]and, in Aberdecn(liire, 
which falls into theTea^Aear the church of Ahoync. 
)t gives naT.e to the pariih of Olentanar, through 
which it runs, and its banks arc adorncd wiiii 
thc Forcft of Olentamar. Sce Olcntanar, N*' x 
and a* 

(i.) TANARO, a river of Italy, in the ci^e- 
Tant principality of Picdmont, now includcd in 
the Prcnchempire. It nfes in thc mountains near 
Tenda, palTcs by Coni| ChcrafcO| Alba, Afti, 


Digitized by 


T A IJ ( 1 

AlexiRdria, 8cc. and fatl8 into the Po, 3 ini«e8 £. 
of yalentia» or ITaien^a. 

(a.) Tanako, a dep^rtnient of the Prench em- 
pire, fo named ffom the above river, one of thc 
{jx into wbich the liing of Sardinia'8 ci-devant 
dominions wcre divided, by a decree of the Prcnch 
(Ionfervative fenate, in S^ptember x8oi. <See Pi- 
EDMONT.) It comprehends the ci-dcvant duchy 
of Mqntferrat; and fend8 3 deputies to thc 
ieginattve body. Asti is the capitil. 

TANAS, a river of Numidta. Sall. Jug. 90. 

TANASSEE. See Te^assee. 

TANASSERIM, or Tenasserim, a city of 
AHa, in Siam, capital of a proWnce fo named ; 
%io miles SW. of Siam. (Sec Siam, $ 4.) Lon. 
9S. o. £. Lat. 11.50. N. 

TANAT, a rivcr of N. Walcs, in thc counties 
of Montgomery and Denbigh. 

TANAYELLE, a town of Prance, in thc dc- 
partment of the Cantal : 4^ miks WSW. of St 

TANBANTY, a bay of S. America, on the 
coaft of Bratil ; with a good road ibr (hipB, bc. 
twcen Point Negro and Point Luena. 


TANCARYILLE, a town of Erancc, in tiic dc 
partmcnt of tbe Lowcr Scine ; so milcs S£. of 

TANCO-BANCA, a rivcr of Periia. mnning 
into tbe Indian Sca, 69 miles WSW. of Purt 

TANCOS, a town of POrty^ai in EAremidura, 
featcd on thc Tajo at its jundtion with thc 2^ra- 
ra, 60 milcs N£. of LiA>on. Lon. 8. 30. ^. Lat. 
39. 16. N. 

TANCRED, a natural^on of Roger IL king of 
Sicily, whoi>rcame king on tbc death ot Wiiliam 
II. his nephew. 'Sce Si-cily, ij 11. 

TANCREY, an iflahd on thc coaft of Kent. 

TANCROWALL. a town of A£rica, in Nc- 
groland, whcre the Britilh harc a fbrt. It is di- 
vided into two parts ; the onc inhabitcd by Por- 
tuguefc, conftfting of large fquare houffs; thc 
other by Mandingoes, confifting of round huts, 
t feet higb, and %6 in diamctcr, covered with 
ftraw and Palmetto leavc8. It lics 30 miles £. of 
James Port. 

TANDA, or Tanrah, a town of HiDdoof- 
tan, in Bengal, of which it was ancicntly the ca- 
pital. It is much reduced ; and is Jeated on the 
£. bank of the Gangcs; 190 miles NW. of Dac- 
ca. Lon. 87. 56. £. Lat. 13. 35. N. 

TANDAYE, onc of thc moft cafterly of the 
Philippine Islands, feparatcd from Manilla 
by a narrow ftrait. It is ii; milcs long, and 100 
broad; and bas a vo)cano, on thc N. coaft, which 
1 fmfi;«ntly throwe out firet Lon. 114. j6. E. Lat. 
la. 36. N. 

TANDERAGEE, a town of Ircland in Ar- 
magh, onc milc Irom Newry Canal, S W. of Ar- 
magh, and 61 from Dublin. It hastan eztcnrivc 
tinm tnaniifacl(n-y. 

TANDLA, a town of Hindooftan, in Malwa ; 
7a miles W. of Ougein, and 130 NE. of Sut^i. 
Lon. 74- 30. Lat. 13. 5. N. 

TANDORP, a town of Bohcmia, in Konig n- 
grats; 10 mitcs E. of Konigingratz. 

• TANE for taken, tu*en. lU fpclt-— 

34 1 T A N 

Two trophics tane from th' £aft and Wdbm 
ftiore. Ma/i rtrgil. 

TANELA, or Tonbla, adiftrid ot Maico, 
on the W. coaft of thc N. Pacific Ocean; eitc»d. 
ing from Sugar Loaf-bill, 6 milcs within Und, 
N£. of the volcano, Lacatecolulat about 18 milcs 
up the bankR of the rivcr Limpa. 

TANETUM, an aiicieot town of Italy, in Mu. 
tin;i, now called ToNEDo. 

TANPANJE Lucus, a (acred grovc in Genna- 
ny, in tbe country of the Marfi ; between the 
£ms and Lippc. Tac, An* L c 5 1. 

TANPIELD, 3 fmall towns of £ngland: i.ii 
Durfaam« NW. of Lumley Caftlc: % and 3.£.io4 
W. in Yorkftiire ; £. of Maftiam. 

(i) ^ TANG. n,{, [tangbet Dutch, acrid.] uK 
ftrong tafte ; a tafte ieft in the mouth.— Although 
thc body of the liquorftiouldbc poured out again, 
yct ftiil it lcaves that «au^ behind it. South.—li'tt 
ftrange that the foul ihould nevcr once recal onr 
any of its purc nativc thoughts, bcfore it borrow. 
cd any thing from tbe body; nevcr bring ioto the 
^aking man's view any otber idcas but wbat lufe 
a tang of thc caik. Locke. 2, Relitti ; tafte. A 
low word.— Thcre was not thc leaft tcug of rclt< 
gion. Atterbwy, 3. Somcthing that leavciaftiQg 
or pain behind it. — 

Shc had a tongue with a tar^^ 

Wouid cry to a failor go hang. Sbak. TempeJL 
4. Sound; tone: this is miftakea for nme or 
/^Aii^.— Thcrc is a pi^tty afiedation io tbe Alb 
main, which gives their fpeecb a difterent tm^ 
^omptirs. HoUer, 

(i.)Tang, a town of China, of tbe ^drank, 
in Ho-nan ; 15 milcB SE. of Yang-nan. 

* IThtt 18, I think, miAakea 
fbr tvmng.] To ring with. — Lct tby tongue ta^ 
arguments of ftate. Shak. 

TANGA, a filver coin, ufcd by thc Usbeci 
Tartars, worth about is. jd. It ts rouod, aod 
has on onc Mt thc namc of ihe country ; and 00 
tbe rcverfe, that of thc khan, and tbe year of thi 

TANGALE, a town of Ccylon, 91 miies S. oi 

TANGATABOO, the principal of the f rieiid 
LT IsLANOs, ahd thc refidencc of the ibvereig( 
and chicf9. . ' ' , 

TANGE, a tOK^n pf Swcdcn, in W. DothlaDd 
«r N. of Gothcburg. 

TANGEN, a town of Norway, in Aggcrhuusi 
smiitrB E. bf Stromfoe. 

TANGENE, a town of Sweden, io W. GotK 
Und ; 26 miles £. of y ddevaliia. * ^ ! 

(i.)'* TANGENT. a. /. [tangent, French,tori 
genjt Latin.] Tangent$ iu irigonometry, is a n^ 
Tine perpendictilarly raifed on thc cxtremity o^ I 
radius, and vi^hich touches a circle foft»oott 
cut tt ; but yet interf eds aivother linc without tb 
circle called a iecant that iS drawn from the ceij 
tre» and which cuts thc arc to wbicb it is a l^ 
gtnt. Trryoiw.^Nothmg in this hypothcBi ci 
retain the planrts in thcir orbs, but theywouft 
immediately dcftrt them and thc ncigbbourho0 
of thc Tun^ and vanifb away in tangentt %o thel 
fevrral circle^ into thc mundaoe fpace. Bentley. 

{%.) TANGENr OF AN Arch^ 18 a right liti 
drawn pcrpcndicular»y from thc eod of a dianw 


Digitized by 


T A N (135 

ter, paf&of to ooe cxtreinity of the arch, and ter* 
niruted bf i right Uoe dniwii firom tbc centre 
tbroogli tbe othrr cnd of that arch» and called 
tky^. See Geometry, and Plate 331. 

TANGER, a rit e r of Germany, in Upper Sax- i 
ciy; wbiciiraoi ioto the £lbe» at Tamgeemun- 


TANGERMUNDE, a populoas town of Bran- 
doborg, initd on the Tanger, at its jun^ion 
«ich tbc Elbe; 34 milcs NW. of Brandenburg, 
ilN£.of Brandcoborg, and 51 W. of 'Bcrl'n. 
iodief tnde i« brcwing. Lon. 13. 30. £. Lat. 

TANGHOO, or Tihhoa, or Cuakmg, a town 
«f A&i, hi Tonquin» capitat of a province fo nam- 
cd,aboindii»g in cattle and rice. Thc city is iitu- 
scdotariralet, near the W. coaft of Cochin* 
OsDL Lat.i9.4o.N. 

• TANGIBIUTY. »./. [from tangihU.] Thc 
^•lity of bcing percciTed by the touch. 

* TANG1BL£. aJj. [from tango, Latio.] Pcr- 
<n>^bf tbe tooch.— -7Vra,gi^r bodiea have no 
ih^ io the conrort of air. Bacom,^By the 
i^tbete«;x^ qualitic8 of bodios arc difcem* 
«)«aikni, (oft, fmooth. LocAe. 

(i.)TANGl£R, a port tewn of Morocco, in 
Ackiagdom of Fe2, at the W. entrance of thc 
fcnitiafGibraltar; ancientlycaUcd Tingis. In 
^})Mfhce bclonged to the Portuguefc, and 
nigrmitokiog Cluu-les IL upon his marriage 
nth the lo^uita of Portugal : but he, grudging 
yciurgeof kceping tt, caulcd its molc and for- 
■Cc^tobc blowB Qp*in 1684* It has Itill 
^ bittcrict, whicb are occupied by Moonlh 
^ Had Britain ftill kept it, it might have 
*v*cd aieful during the ficges of Oibraltar. It 
Mfl« BriJcs NNW. of Fez, and 38 WSW. of 
mkar. Lon. 5. 50. £• Lat. 38. 49- N. 
iM TasGiEt, BAr of, a bay of thc coaft of 

) T A N 

Thcy^re catch'd in knottcd nets ; 

In which when oncc they are entangPd, 

The more they ftir, the more thcy're tangPd.^ 

3. To embroil ; to cmbarrafa.— 
TangUd in forbidden ways ; 

He,.my Oicpherd! is my guide. Crajbaw. 

(a.) • To Tangle. v. n. To bc entangled. — 
SlkTubs and tangling buOies had perplesM 

AU path of man or &aft. Jnon. 

TANGL£Y, a town of £ngland, in Harnp* 
Oiire, near Andover ; with a fair April 15. 

TANGOLA, or > an iOand in the N. Paci- 

Tangola-tange, \ fic Ocran, on the W. 
coaft of Ncw Mcxico ; afrording good ancborage, 
wood and water : 60 miles W. of Guatimala. 

TANGROLIPIX, fultan of thc Turks, in the 
tith century, a barbarous but not ungencroua 
conqueror, and the firft of the Turks who madc 
inroada upon thc £afiern cmpire. He and his ne- 
phew, Cutlu-Mofe8, ravaged Iberia. Taagroli- 
pix alfo conqucred Perfia, in 1030» and founded 
a new dynafty of Turki(h fultans, who rcigned 
therc for a century. Sec Persia, ^17. 

TANGU, a citjr of Afia, and capiul of a ci- 
devant kingdom, ntuatcd confiderably N. of Pe« 
GU, but now included in that cmpire. 

TANGU£Y, or Tonguey, a town of Pem» 
on th^ coaft of Chi^ ; 30 milcs from Limari. Lat. 
30. 30. N. 

. TANGULA, a riv«r of Chincfe TarUry, which 
rifes io Mount Ilha, nins ncarly S. and lalls tnta 
the rivcr, Yalou-kiang. 

TANG-YANG, a lake of China, in Kiang- 
nan ; 31 milcs N. of Hoai-ngan ; and 30 in circuit. 

Tan-hole, if./.I/<ui and bote.] Sce Tan-pit. 

TANINGt a town of China, of tho '^d itmk» 
in Chan-fi ; 15 miles SS£. of Si-tcheou. 

, , w-, j ^- ™ , w. TANINGE, atownof the Prcnch empire, in 

^spnr,pcculiarlyfavourable to MooriAi piratcs* thc departmcnt of Mont Blanc, ci-devant duchy 
nobioBtbis, thc narrowett part of tbe ftrait, of Savoy, and latc lordlbip of Paucigny: 14 milea 
VcafiiyfiifpHfe mcrchant (hips while paiHng. S£. ofGcncva, and 16 N£. of Annecy. 
k > £idfe harboar 9 ononths in the year, but in (i.)TANJOR£, orTANjoua, a province of 
F^t orwbcn tbc wind is in tbe W. it is dan- Hindooftan, on the coaft of Coromandcl, includ- 
"IJ^^ Tbe bcft aiicborage is in the £. point. ed in the Camatic, but govemcd by its own ra- 
TANGIERSy an erroneous fpclling of Tangi- jah, who pays an annuai fubridy (>f 160,000 1. Ster- 
\i^ ling to thc £ngli(h £. Iiidia Company. It is 95 

jTANGLE. »./. [firom thc vcrb.] A knot of miics long from N. to S. and 50 broad from £. 
ppnierwovcninoneanotber,ordiftcrcntparts to W. and is boundcd on thc £. and S. by thc 

Gulf of Bengal ; and N. and W. by the rcft of 
the C-imatic. It is watered by the various bran- 
ches of the CAUvcry. 
(a.)TANjORE, br> thc capital of thc abovc 
(a.) Takjoor, J province, is a large city, 6 
milcs in circumfcrence, featcd t>ctwecn 1 bran- 
Chcs of the CauYcry, and dcfcndcd by a double 
wall and a largc ditch. The palace is a grand 
fquare, defcnded aUb by a wall and a ditch, fre- 
qucnted by crocodiUs. It is 105 milcs SW. of 
Madras, (ays Brookcs, or 156 fays Cruttv»clli 
aid 176 S£. of Scriogapatam. Lon. 79. la. £. 
Lat. 10. 46. N. 

(i.) TANIS, in ancient gcograpby, a large lake 
of £gypt, now cailcd Menzalth, Sce M£NZALEH. 
N^ I. 

(a.) Tanis, an ancient city of £gypt, featcd 
near thc lakc» on onc of thc £aAcrn mouths of 
thc Nilc. 


• ^ Ittic thing pcrplcjccd.— 

He lcadiog (wiftly rowlM 
!■ ««Sr^. Miiton's Par. LoJ. 

I 8?oft with Amaryllis in thc rtiade, 
iGr *itb tbe ta^gies of Ne«ra's hair. MUton. 
«•! * Tt Tanole. t. a. [Sce entangie.] i. To 
jtee; to kmt togethcr. %. To cnfnare ; to 

^ neaos to tw^ie mine eycs too* Sl)ak. 

My kiog is tangrd in aftedion to 
•owirc of thc qoeen's. Sbak. 

^oo muft lay lime to tangie\itt deCires. Sbak. 
^" tboo rctire, tbe dauphin, wcll appoinled, 
**^ irith the tiiares of war to tangie thec. 

** waiingly, but tmgtd in thc fold 
" *rc ■cceiEty. MUtoi^t Agonijieu 

*p*d to rctirr» tnd in retiring draw 
«arti after tbem, tangl^d in am'rou8 ncts. Miit, 

Digitized by 


T A N ( i 

♦ TANIST. n./. [an Infh word ; an taanij^r, 
Erff .] Prefent!y after the death of any of their 
captains, they aAemble themfeWc8 to ehufe ano- 
ther in his (tead, and nominate commonly the 
iiext brothrr, and then ncxt to him do they chufe 
iiext of the blood to be //i»//?, who (hall Dcxt fuc- 
ceed him in thc faid captainryr Spenprr, 

» TANISTRY. «./. [from tanlji.] The Iriih 
hold their lands by tanijlry^ which is no roorc 
th^n a pcrfonal crtatt? f6riii9 life-tin^e tbat is tU' 
niji by reafon he is aK^mirted thereuntoby cIcAion. 
Spenfer,-^\{X\^t I:ifli be not pcrmitted to purchafe 
cHates of frcehold«, which might dciccnd to their 
chHdren, muft they t\ot; continue thcir cu(tom of 
tantjiry ? Da*vifs* — By the Irilh cudom of tanijiry^ 
the chieftain» of e rery courttry, and the chief of 
evcry fept, had no lonper eftate than for lifc in 
fheir chieferics ; and when thcir cbieftatn8 were 
dead, their fons, or next heirs, did not faccccd 
them, but their tanijist who were elective, and 
purchafed their eledions by ftrong hand. Davies. 

Ci.) * TANK. »./. [tangite, Fr.] A large cif- 
trcn or bafon, — Here*ti plentiful provifion, rafcal ; 
iallading in the grarden and water inthc/^»;*; and 
in holy days, the lickinlg of a p!atter of ricewhen 
you dcfcrve it. Dryden. 

(i.)Tank, in the language of Hindoftan, is a 
place inclofed for receiving and rctainingthe rain. 
During thc periodical rains the t^ks are Wied, 
atid thus in the dry feafon furniih water for thc. 
*fce fteld*» and cattle. 8ome of them are of 
j?reat extent, meafuring 300 or 400 feet on the 
(ide ; they are of a quadrangular forrn, and Kned 
with granite, defcending in regular fteps from the 
margin t», thc bottom. 

• TANKARD. ». / [tanqnard, Fr. tanitaerd, 
Dutch ; tancaird^ Irilh.] A largc YclTcl with a 
covcr, for ftrong drinki — • 

Hath bis tankatd touch'd your bfain ? 

Ben Jon/on, 
— Marius was the firft who drank out of a filvcr 
tankard, jlrhuthnot^^Whtn an^ calls for ale, lill 
thc largeft tankard cup top ftltl. Siui/t. 

TANKERDSONG, a town of Thibet, 548 m, 
E. of Lada. Lon. 117. 42. E. Ecrlro. Lat. ao. 
56. N. 

TANKERSLEY, a town of England, in York- 
ihire, helwe^en Barnefley and ShcHieid : % miles 
E. of Woriley. 

TANKIA, or TiHKiA-LiNG, a town and fort 
of Thibet, ^t the foot of Mount Langur, which 
€xhale8 fulph'jr: 132 or 275 miles SW. of Laira. 
Lon. 87. ai. E Lat. 29. 5. N. 

trade is in wax. Lon. ». 19. E. Ferro. Lat. 13. 
/io. N. 

TANLAY, a town of Erance, in the dep. of 
Yonne, 6 miics E. of Tonnere, and 19 W. of 

(4-) TANNA, a town of Germany, in Upper 
Saxony, and couniy of ReuATen : 9 miles ENE. of 
Lobeftein, and 17 SW. of Greitz. 

(a.) Tanna, a town of Hmdoftan, in the illand 
ofSalfette ; 15 miles NE. of Bombay. 

(3.}Tanna, an ifland in the South Sea, ncar 
Anattom. See Cook, § III. 9. Lon. 169. 44. 35. E. 
J-at. 19. 32. 25i. S. 

36 ) T A N 

(i.)TA?mADICE, or \ a parirti cf Scollaid 
(i.)TANNADYCE, 5 in Forfar.lhlrc, n 
miles long, and froffl '4 to 10 broad. It is water. 
ed by the ^outH Esk and th<f Noran, Thc for.| 
fHce is hilly and in Ibme parts mountainous; aod! 
th<:(e with the Ijanks of the riverp, cxhibit a gTcati 
v:iriety of bcautiful and romantic fccnc8. Thci 
ibil is clay and fandy and produces good cropsof' 
all the ulbal grain and erecn crop«. Thc cKidi 
mountam is St Arnoiits/eat, which h*« i Urgc cairo 
on if9 top. Oii thc banks of the 8. EiktoJslhc 
houfc of Inc/jewen, the c}*dcvant feat of Sir JoHp 
Ogii^y, bart. Ncar the E. estremity i'^ a ?aliff 
Which abounds with martiai pyritesy and other 
fulphuroo8 rrAtters, about » fect bclow the for 
f(ice ; wbich ^ometinoes, by fpontaneoin combo^ 
tion, throw out large maffe8 of carth. Thc po 
pulation in 1775 ^"^ 179' ^^ t\^t /anie\ 1470 
but» in 1801, it had decreafcd 11 8. On tbc }\ 
bank of ihe S. Efk ftood the caftlc of Huekh, lV 
relidence of'thc anctent Earls of Buchan; bu 
there are now no rcHcs of it« It (toodon thelaa 
mit of •? romantic precipice almoft inftt)attd 1: 
the S. 'Brik., There are alib relics of andent ca 
tles at Auchloweric and Barn<^ardii. 

(2.) TaNNAUYCE, or > a viilage m tbe aboi 


tbe S. Eflc. 

paridiy on tbe baob < 

TANNASER, a town of »ndooftan in Dcll 
famous for ita Indian idols : 45 miies N£. of B 
far, and 61 ESB. of Sirhind. 

TANNAY, a town of FraDce, 5n the dep. 
the Nyevre ; 6 -railes SSE. of Clainecy, ainl 
SW. of Avaloh. 

TANNEBBRO, a town of Aullria; % mila 
of Aigen. 

' (i.) TANNENBERO, a town of Phima* 
Oberland ; 6 miies SSW. of Hohenftein ; Um 
for an ubftinate battle fought between the Fo 
and the Tentonic Knights, wherein the Ut 
were fo completety defeated, that tbey declii 
cver after. 

(a.) Tannenberg, a town of Upper Sam 
in Erzgtbure ; 6 miles SW. of Wolkenftein. 

(i.) TANNER, Dr Thomas, an Eoglilh i 
late and celebrated antiquanan, bom in i( 
He was admitted of Queen's College, Oxford. 
J697, hc was chofen fellow. lo 17»», hc 
madc archdeacon of Norwich ; and in 173I1 
of St Afaph. He died at Oxford in 1735 ; 
after his death was publiHied an elaborate w| 
fafd to have employed him for 40 years, etKr 
Bibiiotbeca Britannica Hibemicttt JS^^e de Scri^ 
tms qm in Angiitti Scoticit et Hibtrnia^ ad j\ 
X\ril. initium Jioruerunti &C. 1 

(a.) ♦ Tanner. [«. /. from /<w».] One ^ 
tradt is to tan leather. — Tanners ufc thali 
which 18 newly drawn out uf the kilO) and 
(lacked with water or air. Moxon* I 

TANNERY, »./. tfrom Tanner.} A tan-w 
a piece of ground laid out for tam&ing \ea1 
with tan-pits, oak bark, and all otber stpp^ 
neccAary for that opcration. Seb XamnihcS 

(i.) TANNING, />flr/. «./ [from Tam 
art of manufa<tluring lcather trom raw hide^ 
ikins. Thefe being compofed of oiinute I 
inttricAing each other in c?cry dire^iony tl 

Digitized by 


t A N 

nw' bicratioa of l-^noirg confifts cbitAy in tx 
paiuliti^ tbe purcs and diiruWing a Tort of ^caf7 
(•ibdaace contained in thcm; and then, by tbe 
anrin^cDCf and gummy relinous propcrties of oak 
bark, to fttl and rcunite thcui, fo as to givc firm- 
K^ ini dunbility tu the whole textui«. But thiB 
tbcory his becn controvtrted by fafce chemilts, 
*)io lappoic that the aoimal jelly containcd iu the 
ilt i% not diflblved, but unitcs during the procefs 
witb tbc aAnngcnt principle of tbc bark» n^id 
krmi a co{Dbtn;)tion inlbluble in water. Tbe 
procclii of tanning varica conGdciably, notonly in 
di^CTCot coiintricsy but cvcn in difFcrcnt parts of 
tk f-unc country. The ^ollowing is the mcthod 
Buft «pproTcd aod pra<^ifrd in Lpndon and its 
«craiiy, whcre tht bcii leather is gcncrally allow- 
cd to bc manu^a^tured. Thc leathcr tatined iu 
IngUod confifts chicAy of threc forts, callcd3K//i 

LTiMiuNG 0F BuTTS. Butts are generally 
A^ fronQ t^^c ftoutcft and hcavic(l ox hides , and 
atsiDasicd as foilow8 : Afier thc boms arc ta- 
ia oir, tbc hidcf( are laid fmooth in heap» for one 
«tiodays in thc fummcr, and for f\vt or fix in 
^Vioter: tbcy are then hun^ on poles, in a 

( '37 \ 

t A K 

fmooth by woodcn hainmert callcd ieetUi, iht O^ 
pcration ii complcte ; and wh^n thoroughly dfff 
thcy are fit for fale. Butts are chicAy afcd ^r tbd 
ibles of itout Ihocs. 

II. Tanning op HiDEt. The leather which ii 
named hiiUj is generaUy made from cow hide^i 
or the lighter ox hidcs, whicb arc thud managtd i 
Aftcr the horna are takea off, and tbe hideswaib- 
ed, thcy arc piit into a pit of water faturated witb 
limc, where thcy rcmam a few days, when they 
are taken out, and thc batr fcraped o£f on a \tood' 
cn beam, as bcfore dcfcrib€d ; they are thcn waOr- 
ed in a pool of water, and the Ioo£: flcfii, £cc#, be-' 
ing takcn offV they jre rcmp^cd into a pit of weaM 
ooze, wherc they arc takcn up and pdt dowa 
(whtch i.'; technically termed Imndling) 9 or 5 timc^ 
a-day ft)r the firfl wcek : e.Very id or jd day thcy 
are ihtftcd into a pit of frefh t^oo2e, hmtvf]ci9.i 
ilrongcr tban the farmcr ; till at the end of $ 6t 
6 wceks tbcy are put into a itrong woozc, id 
whicb they art b^ndled oncc or twtpe a-wecK 
with fre(h bark ^oi" a or 3 monthg^ Thcy- ar^ 
tben removed into anothcr pit, called a lajen m 
which tbcy arc laid fmooth, witb bark ground ve^ 
fine (trcwed bctween eacb hidc.^ After remMn<< 

, p .^ - ^ . .. 

dT&rooro cailed a /moJi^-Uu/e, m which is kcpt ing thcrc a Or 3 moothSy they are gcnerjaJ.y tajicii 
''inoiiUering fire of wct tan ; thi;) occaGons a up, whcn thc oofc is drawo out, and the h^e9 
^dci^rec of putrcfadion, by which mcans the put in agaio with frcfb woore ami frefh bark ^ 
iwiic^dly got off, by fprcading the bide on a wherc, aflcr lying » or 3 month» morc^ thcr. ard 
f«tofwood^n borfc or bcam. aiid fciapiDg it completcly <ani>ed, excep^ a iew vcry ftout bidc8# 
•uli a crookcd kmfe. Thc hair bciug takcn off, which in^y rcc^irean extra laycr : they a*« tbcn 
titebidc ii thrown iuto a pit or pooi of watcr to takcn out, hung on ^le4,^ and bcln^i^ bammercd 
^^c h from the dirt, &c. which bcing done, and rr.oothed by a (lccl pin, arc, whcn dry, ^t 
i^htdcu again ijprcad ou tbc woodcn bca^m, for faie. Thefc hidea arc caiUd crop huUj } thcy 
4!>ti thc grc arc, loofe ficfh, cxtrancou« filih, 5cc. arefiom 10 to iS months in talnoing, andarcufc3 
^ttlijr /cnibbed out or takcn otf ; ihe hidcs are for thc folc8 oi ihoes. 

III. Tanning 0F SkiHS. 5ii«i irf the gcncral 
term for tbc (kins of caWe?» feais, bogs, dogs, kd 
Thcfe, after betng walhe4 ^^ water, are put \nto 
lime-pits, whcrc thcy are taken up and put down 
cvery ^d or jth day, f6r a or 3 wecks, to clihit<s 
tbc porca and diAbWc the gcUtinous parti. Thtf 
bair id thcn fcraped off, and tbc ffc{h and txcM^ 
Ccnccs bcing removcd, thcy ar^ put into a pil of 
water imprcgnatjBd with pigeon dung, (callccTa 

fWa put ioto a pit of flrong liquor calicd ocze or 
^ooiE, prcpared in pits calicd ietcbes or t K? % 
i<pt for thc purpore, by infufiag gronnd bark ia 
*^; thi« is tera>c4 coburing: atttr which they 
arc rcmov»:d into aoother pit cailcd a /coi^ering^ 
^;^ confifti of water Hrongly imprcgnated with 
wriodcacid, or with a vcg?tablc acid prcparcd 
'i^ 7c or b4f ?ey. Tbis opcration ^cahcd mU''^ 
•J/^by diftcnding tbe porcs of thc htdc^ cauie^ 

^more readiiy to imbibe thc 002^9 and thui grainer or majringt) formir.g a ftrong alkaKnc Icy 

JJ*ftriiiKC and condenfc ihe fibres, and givc firm« 
J^toihc Icatber. The bidc» orc then takenout 
wi4e fc<)wering, and fprcad ftiiooth in a pit cpai- 
*^'T filkd with water, callcd a linJert with,a 

J^tity of ground bark flre\rcd betwccn cach. 
Wcrlyiog a montb or rix wcck^, thcy arc takei 
*?; and thc decaycd bark and liquor bcing 
^i^ti ottt of thc pit, it i» fillcd agaio witb itrong 
Jt2c, wbco they are put in as btfore, wlth bark 
•^twcco cacb hirte. They now lic a or 3 monthK, 
*lbccnd of wbich thc opcration 1$ rcpcatcd ; 
'^^T tbcn rcmain 4 or j mbnths, when thcy agam 

, **ierga the farac, proccfs ; and aftcr bting 3 
"5"^i iii the laft pit, are compktely tanncd^ Un- 
^ thc hides are (o remarkably flout 33 fiiU to 
**1 an additional pit.— ^Tbt whole proccr« tc* 
Wifirom ji to 18 moiithi, and foractimcs two 

I *»^according to thc fubftance of thc hidc, and 

, Wn^thc tanner. Whci» takcn out of the pit 
J^ *>? dncd, thcy are hunu on poUs; and aftcr 
"f*o' omorriTcd by a flccl pin, aud bciit cut 

which ib,8 ur 10 daysToakine oat tbc li(nci gfeafe^ 
and faponaceous matter (dttring wbicb period 
tbcy, are feveral timcs fcraped ovef witb a crook-» 
ed knifc to work out Ihc dirt,) foftcn8 fhc Ikins^ 
and preparca thcm for the rcception of the woozc- 
Thty are then put into a pit of weak w'Ooze, ia 
thc laiiic as thc hidc», and being oftcn 
tandled^ are by dcgrccs rcmoved into a ttrongci' 
and ftili {tronger Hquor, for a inontb or fix wccks^ 
whcn they are piit imo a vcry flrong woozc, with 
frefh bark ground very finc; and at thc cnd of * 
or 3 months, aceording totheir fui3ftancc, are Cut^ 
ficicntiy tanrcd; whcn thcy arc takcn oui, hiin{;( 
on poJes, dritd, and mt for fale. Thcfc ikins arcf 
afterward8 dreffed and bfackcd by thtciirritr» 
and arc ufcd for thc uppcr leatbcrs of fhoe8, boots^ 
ic. Tbe ligbt^r fort of hides^ caWed JrrJin^MirJp 
as wcH ai horfc hidcs, are managed neaily in thir 
fkmc manncr as ikins ; and are ufci for coacb« 
woik, harr]cfs-work, 5cc. &c. 

La.j Tj!:>iNl.NC, IM?ROVEMENTS 0F, fR3PCr- 
S SE0. 

Digitized by 



T A N r 1 

SSD. A« the mctbod of t^Hiotnj^ abore dercribed, 
apd ill otbcrs tn general uTe, are tediou^ &nd ex- 
|jcnfive, ▼ariou^ Tchemes hate been ro^ gefted to 
(horten tbe procets and leAen the expehce. But 
fnoft of thffe have ultimattty provcd unfuccef8- 
iuU' and a dcfcription of tbeni necd not tfaerefore 
rweil our limited papCB. 

TANNIS, a fmal! town of £ngYand, in Hert- 
fbrtl(hire ; NW. of Buntingf rd. 

TANNHODA, a town of G-rmany, in Uppcr 
S2Xony, and dachy of Weimar ; 9 mijes SSW. of 
Wcimar. , 

TANORE, a fea port town of Hindooftan, on 
the coaft of Malabar, in CallcUt; «5 m1le« SSE. 
orCalrcut. Lon. 75. 54. E. Lat. 10. 58. N. 

TANOT, and 5 two rivcr9 of N. Walcs, 
' Tanot GtrEATEa, J whicb rife in Montgome* 
tTftiire ; and-after running fcvcral m»lcs feparatc» 

ein their watcrs, and fall mto the Scveri), 7 miles 
k)w W(fl(h Pool. 

(i.) • Tanpit. w. /. [fTbm tah ind^/.] A pit 
^here leatberit impregnatcd witb bark. 

(1.) Tan-pits. Ste Tanning. 


TANSE, a town of BraPil, in St Psnt!V. 

TANSEY. Sec Tan acetum, and Tansy. 

TANSIE, a river of Morocco, whicb rifc8 in 
mount Atlas and runs tnto tbe Atlanttc, 14 miies 
SSW. of Saffi. 

TANSILLO, Lewis, a cckbratcd Ttalian poct, 
borii at Nola, about 1510. Ht« pocm, entitlcd^ 
II Findemiafret i. t.tbe tlnta^ert bcirig vcry in(<c- 
ecnt, ail his pocms were profcnbcd. To makc 
fome rcparation for this error, he wrotc La Z^. 
grhne ie S. Pietro, i. e. Tift Tears ^ St Feter ; 
which being prelented to Popc Panl Vf. he took 
D(f the interdiA from ali hiR poems» txeept th^ 
Vintager. He dicd abont ts^^. 

TANSITARO, a %Q9ni of Mexico, in the pro- 
Tincf of Mechoacaa. 

" TANSOR, a tow^ 0f Fcz, 30 mi>ff N. of Pcr. 
^S.) * TANSY. Hi/. [tanacetum^ Latin.} An 
o<!foron« ptant. MUier, 

(1.) Tansy. Sec Tamacetum. 

(3.) TaNSY, WltD. Sce PbTENTtLLA. 

TANTALIDES, in fabulouB hiftory, thc de- 
fcendants of TANTALUt, as AtreOs^ Agamei(i. 
KON, Menelaus, 5cc. 

♦ TANTALISM. »./. ffrom tantathce.} A pu* 
ninimcnt Uke that of Tantirius. — A liveiy repre- 
fcmation^of a pcrfon lying under the torments of 
fuch a tantali/m, or platonick hcH, JddifoH, 

• r^TA^rrALIZE. v. o. [from TANTALtrs. 
wbofe puniibmcnt was to ftarvc aroong froit6 and 
watcr which hc could not toocb.] Ta tormcnt 
by thc fhcw of pleafuTef whicb cannot bc reacb* 

Thy Yain defire8, at rtrife 
Within themfclvcs9 bave tantaiht^d thy Iife. 

-^■^tht maid oncc fpcd wa» not iuftered to tanta* 
iize'iht male part of the cdmmonwealth. Adebjonn 
TANTALLAN. Scc Tamtallan. 
(r.) TANTALUS, in ft(buIou8 bittory, kiu|f; of 
Pbrygia and Paphlagonia, was tbe fon of Jupiter 
and tbe nympb Plota. Hc one day entertained 
the gods at hts tablc; when, to provelhcir divi- 
nity, he ^enred up hi» fon PsLors cut in pieces. 

38 ) T A fJ 

AIl the delties, cxccpt Ccres, f f rcctvc4 Mri cnicf* 
ty and impirtjr, and would ntit touch his proti. 
fi«»Tii. That goddcf«r inadvcrtenrly cat a part o{ 
his lcft ihouldcr. • Pclop?, howcvcT, wasrellumi 
to Iifc ; and an ivory (bouhdcr givcn him in the 
room of that whicb b-id bccn eatcn ; butTanta- 
lus was throwir into Tartanis, wbcre hc «a? po- 
niOicd with porpetual hunger and thir^. Hew» 
chained in a lak- ; the watcr of which^;ichtd op 
to hiB chin, but retired wbcn he attcmpted to 
drink. The branch of a trce loaded «^kh fr«it 
huog down evcn to his lips, bur on his ;illeiDp(* 
tng to pluck the fruit, the branch fprtmg op- 

(1.) Tamtalus, a fon of Thy^ftc», thcfirfthrf 
band of C?ytcn»ncftra. Pavf. 1. 

(3.) Tantalcs, in ornithoiogy, a fct>«» 
yAri^ bcitmg Ttig to thc order of grallac. The 
is long, fubula?cd, and fomcwbat crool^d; tfc( 
face nakid ; thc tongnc fhort ; and KHc feci 
four tocs palmatcd on thc undcr part. There 
according to Dr Latham, ij ^ptches ; of w1 
thc moft rcmj^rkablc is tbe 

Tamtalus 1»is, rtK- i^i/ , tbe bird Ib moch 
Kitd by thc ancicnt Egyptians fof rts uttiit) ij 
^'cdng thc country froro ferpents, but rtow « 
K)n^rfonnd in Egypt.' Mr Bruce fonnd a hirl 
in Ahyiiinia, which, after compariog it witi 
the dcfcription of thc ancient writcr«, a« 
the embalmcd ibh of £?ypt, he concludcs i« th 
fame witb the Egyptian ibis. It is nnr^utcly derci^ 
ed by Mr Brucc. It bas a bcak Hi^ped litcthate 
a Ctnrlcw, two thirds ftraight, and thc remAitni^ 
rhird crookcd ; thc uppcr part of a grccn hort 
fubftance, and the lower part hlack. It mcafafi 
fonr inehes and an balf from the occipat to tl 
place wherc it joins the brak, The Icg, from ' 
lower jorot of the tbigh to the fbot, is fix iocl 
tbcboncroimd and vcry ftrong; and from 
lowcr joint of the tbrgh to wbcre it joins tfcc 
dy, is five inchcs and an half. i^hc heigbt of 
body froro the ible to thc middt^ of tbe back 
19 inches 5 the apcrture of the eye one inch; ^" 
fctt and lcgs black ; thrce toes bcfore armcd 
(barp and ftraight claws ; and a toc bebind. 
bead is brown, and the pluh^age of thc famc 
K>dr dovhi to the back, or thi! place whcrc 
neck and back are joincd. Tht thrbat is whi^ 
as welf as tbc Wack, bre»ft, and thi^bs ; thc U 
geft feather8 of thc wing arc of a dcep black i 
13 'mchcs frflto thc tail; and fix incbe» up ll 
i>ack from tbe estrcrttity of the tail is btack \X 


♦TANTAMOUNT. »./ tPrcnch.l Equii 
lent.— ^lf one third of our coin were nonc, ai 
men had ecjually ont third lefs moncy than Xh 
have, it muft bc tantamount. Locke. 

TAN*TANEH, i mountain of Afnc% which 
the S. boimdai*v of the defert of 6erdoa. 

TANTCHING, a town of ATu, in Corea. 

Taic-TeKOui.TeHiNC, a town of Pormola,» 
the W. coaft. Lon. 138. 1$, E. Pcrro. Lat. 1 


TAN.TIE-KAN, a town of China, of thc 
rank, in the proviDCc of Kiang-nan : 15 mi 
NW. of Nan-king. 

♦ TANTIVY.«</v. [from thc notc of a huTi^ 


Digitized by 


T A O 

kw, (o exprtfM in arttcnUte foiHidi« 

ftf«/4 «» iaf t Skianer] To ride iamtiyj it to ride 

vitb ^ut rpccd. 

• TANTLING. n,/ [frofn rfl»<ii/«i.] 0#e 
(iozd witb hopci of pleafun* unattaioiibte.'-^ 
To bc ftili bot SuiDiner's tantiingst and 

Tbe i]iriokinf! Oatcs of Winter. f i6tf(^. 

TANTUM(Jl/£RI, a town of >ifika, in iht 
•wiiry 0» Pantin, on tbe Gold Coatt. The 3rt- 
tiihand Dutch havc eacb a fort in tt. 

TANUM, a town of Sweden, io W. Gotbland : 

TANUO, a town of Pent» yn Lima. 

TANUSIUS GstMiNUS, a Latin hidomn, of 
tWAuso^^n zft\ iniimate mtb Ciccro. Seneca. 
B«irotk*arc loil. 


1 AN. YANG, a town of China, of tbe .id rank, 
■ tbeproT.ttt Kiang-oan: la milet S.ot Tcbing«- 

TuYard, «./. [tan and/or/l The grotind 
«kot a taancry i« ereded. Sce TANNCftV and 


T4KZY. 8ee Tanicetum, and TAHsr. 

TAO, a town of Ct^ina, of tbe id rank, in tbe 
pme of HoiMiuang : pto miies S. of Peking. 

TAOLOUSAC. Sec 1 a, N» 4- 

TAONEROA. Sf-e Potirty Bat. 

TAOO, tbc moll Soutbcm of the PRiiwoLr 
I^ANM, io tbe S. P^ciRc Ocean« It is jp miles 
«circat, and io b^h as to be vifible %^ mile» 
^ll^. It hu good anchorage on the N"^. 6de« 
»w»tcr on tbe coaft is brackilh, but there are 
faral Wngt of pore water within tbe iAand, 
JJooc rifi«i, TJic SE. iide is rockv, but the 
#W. abottbds wkh plantatione of trcos, &c. and 
jAibiu a braittiftil Undlcapc 
l TAORMINA, a town of Sidljr, in tlie valle7 
P^enoiu, 00 a rock confiderably above the fea 
py toottnded by otber rocks, the')ieight of 
^Mii ftiU grctter. It m 88 milet 8. of ^elBna, 
"*'»» fctn led bf « cok>ny from Naxos, who 

^ it ibr the iccurity which it would a^brd. 

K>tti?cry £i1ubrtous« Tbe road to it, up the 

^0f die hiU on tlrhich it fttndt» is Tery fteep. 
^^ctey lettkcd at the fopt of ^tna, near the 
SP^iUot j or 4 milei fitMii the prefent iitua- 
P ^ Taiinntna. Dioi^|rfius I. attacked this co* 

r 139 ) T A P 

From to M nolw black"and (hioky ; and fcw itmains t)f 
thc Greck paintings with which it was once ornt» 
nented can be diAinguHhed. Thcre are aifo to 
be rern near it, a variety oi tombs, the rcmiint 
of a gyreo^iium, with a nomber of other monu« 

TA08ANLU, :i town «^ Afiatic Tarkcv> in 
Nitolia: ao niiles NW. of Kiutaja. 

TAOUKA, one of the Socicty Tilands, in thc 
S. P^ciRc Ocea*^. Lon. 145. 9. W. L^t. 14. 30. S. 

TAO-YUEN, 1 townt ot CHir.a, of the .id 
rank: i. in Hou quang, on thc Yurn, 15 roiics 
W.of Tchang-tc : a. in Kiang-nan, on Ihc Hoaiig^ 
25 milc^ NW. of Hoaingan. 

• TAP. «./. Ifrom the verb.] x. Accntle blnw. 
— Tbis is theripht f?ncing gracc, tap f(»r tap» Sba, 
— Each Ihakcs her with a fmile, th^rti gite* 
her right-hand woman a tap upon the fhp<ildcr. 

As at hc^ cf>ckles ooce I lai'' me down, 
And felt the wtrighty hand of many a clown, • 
Buxoma g:)ve k gentle tap. Gaj, 

80 Hnron lccchcs, when thcir patic*nt lics 
In fcverifli rcitle(tnef8 with unctosM eye% 
Apply with gcntle (trokes.their ofier rod^ 
And tap by titp invfte the Accpy God. Harte.- 

t. Apipe at which tbe Iiquor of a YriTcl i«i let out. 

— A^entleman was inclined to the knight of Gaf- 

coigne's dittemper, opon bearing tbe noifc of ^ 

/A^running. Derham. 

• To T4f,. V. a, [tapfefif J)utcb$ tapper^ Pr.J 
1. To tpuch lightly to Itnke gently. t. [Tappen. 
Dutch.l To piercc a ^eiTel ; to broacb a vefl>l| 
It is urjpd likewife of the !iquor. — 

That blood, already like the pelican, 

3aft thou tapt out. ^bake^^pear^, 

e has been tapping bis liquors. Addifmy^ 
Wait till the tumour bccomes troublefome, and 
tben M it witb t lancet. Sharp, 

TArACRI, a prorince of Ptru. 

TAPANATEPEQUE, t town of Mexlco, in 
Goaaaoa, at the f66t of Mount Qoe]etios, on a 
bay of the S. Padfic Occan. Tbe adjacent coun« 
try abonnds witb orai^^e, lemon^ citron» fig an4 
other frutt-trees. 

TAPARICA, t long ifland on the W. cotft of 
BraSl, at the entrance into AH-Saints bty. 

TAPAROOLY, a town of Sumatra, witb 4n 

B^ ad took thetr city. The Inhtbitants rpti- Engliih faAory. It was taken by the French» du 
^ ^^ rocks of Mount Tauru^; anu^ wtiicb ring tbe German war; but reftored at the peac4 
^^Bttd a trad of ground fiifficiently level, in 1763. 

■ ^itadent extent, to f)ui]d upooy wbere TAPATACSO^ a town of Tbibft; 45 miles 
^ y<i ff be iccure lirom cvery ttttck. Here» NE. of LtiTa.' 
Wse, they buiit t^city ; wbtch, tfter mbunt TAPAYO, a town of ^eru, on the S. bank of 

the Amazon, E* of tbe mouth of the Madeira. 

« TAPE. ir./. {t4Bpftant Saxon.] A narroy fil. 
let or band of lineii.— 

^ill you buy any taptt or lace for your cap \ 



m,tbeyAamedTAUROMiNiVMc _ 

B^itiied to a vcry Hounibing ftate by trtde, 
^^tcame oelebratcd as a iett of tbe arts; of 
tkere are ilill many relits \ particularlv 
"" thcatre» t tomb, tnd t Itrge nttutai 

The ^rottotppetrs to havebeen tncient- 
^■"■ed witbin wiih artificlal omaments. It 
*9nbih|y coo^ccrtted by the Greeks to t|ie 
^■»f or to Palis, the protearefs of Aocks. 
~*e iabtbilanti of T^orroint embrtced Chrif. 
^^f tbey ftiU eootinucd to Ti^t thts grotto 
^<^ vcncration; but tbcy fubftituted 91 
"^ fcr thf fportive nymphs. But tbis grot- 

This pouch thtt^s ty*d with tapg 

ril ^ager» thtt the prtze ihall be my due. Gay. 

Once on t flock bed, byt reptir^d witb ftrtw, 

Witb r^ty^d cortains. Pope. 

(!.)♦ TAPER. aij. (firom the fofm of t tapcr.J 

Regoltrly ntrrow firom the bottom to tbe top ; py. 

ramidtl ; conical. — 

Hcr f:ip^fingcrs,and herp4ntlngbrcaft. Dryd, 
St — From 

Digitized by 


T A P 

f r4p ) 

»--*Fram tf!C bcavcr tbc ottcr diffcrs in hie tail, 
^hitch 18 fclincy or a long tapcr, Grew, 

l%.) Taper^ or Tapbring, ia underilood of a 
piecc of timbcr, or the hk?, wbcn thick at onc 
C<id, and gr;^ually diminiihing to tbe othcr ; as 
is thc cafe in pyramid», concs, &c. 
"{3.) * Taper. »./. [taper, SaAn.] . A wax can- 
fi\e 5 a light.— 

Grct mc ^ taper in my ftudy, J^uciua. ShaA. 
My daughter and roy littlc foii wt*Jl drrfj» 
With rounds of waxcn taper^ on thcir htads. 

\x^lf ^ny fnatch tbc pure faprr from my hand, aiid 
ho!d it to th- devi(j hc will pply burn h\$ own 
^ngers. Taylor.-^ 

t* here the fair light, 
Like Hcro'8 taper in the window placM. Wall. 

Hcay^i, aa if therc want^d itght8 abovc, 
For taper4 n>ade two gUring comets rife. Dryd» 
(4.) Ta^er alfo dcnotcs a kind of tall wa< can- 
dlc, placcd m a candicAick, and bumt at funeral 
procefrions, and in other chi)rch folemnitie9. Ta- 
per« arc made of diffcr.tnt ijses; in fome placcA, 
as Italy, ^c. they are cylindricat ; but in moijt o- 
ther countries, a8 En^land, F|^nce, 6cc they «re 
conijcal of t^ppr; w()cncc tbc name ; .unlcf8 wede- 
f ive it in tbc acije<5tive fcnfe, Irom thc fubllantive 

iapert Sai^on taprn or tapon^ cerein^ ^ase-candie. 
}oth kinds are pierocd at bottom for a pin in the 
pandleitick to cnter. — There are ivro waya of mar 
Jcing upcrs, the firft :ivith thc Udlc, thc ^ccopd by 
)iand ( for whjch, fec Cahole, $ 8. 

(iOTy^pBRi Pa^chal, '»mong the Romantitp, 
18 a laree taper, whereon the dcacon apptie^i $ bita 
of franlcincenfe, in holes made fbr tbc puipofe, in 
forni of a crof6 ; and which bc lights with new 
fire in thc ceremony Of Eallcr Saturday. Thc 
Pontiiic^l mat^cB Popc ^oH.nus thc author of this 
Yifagc ; but Baronius will hayc it ipore ^ncicnt, 
and quotC8 a hymn pf Prudentiu» to prove it. F. 
i^apebrpch givc8 th; origiisal of thc pa&ha) taper, 
iiJ hia Qonatui Cbronico-Hijhritus, ifc. ThougR 
thc council of Nic^ rcgulatcd thc day whercon 
]Ea(ter wa<( to b^ ccicbratcd, |t cnjointd tbc pv 
iriarch of Alexandr!a tomake a ycarly canon 
therepf| and to fend it tp thc popc. A> >II tb; o- 
1 hcr tnoypjjblp feafts wcrc regulatcd by that Qf 
£after, a cataloj^ue of thcm ^as roadc cycry ycar ; 
^nd this W4f» writ^n op a confecrated taper, eere» 
fdj. Tbis t9per, ^iccorHiog to thc abbot C^.aite- 
Jairj, was nct madc to be burnt ^ it had nu wick, 
^nd was pnly a column Qf w^i madc toinrritr the 
lift of moYcable feaft8 oh, for a yĕar. .For the ao- 
irients, wbcn any thing yv^ to bc writtetj to laft 
for ever, cngraved it on mart)4c or fteel ; whcn it 
y^as to la^ 4 Jong while, ihcy wrote it oij Bgyp- 
tian pappr; and whcn it was only to Iaft a ihprt 
timc, tb^y wrot^ tt on waat. Y bcy camc at laft 
to writc thc mcveable feaft8 on papcr,' bpt tbcy 
ftill faftcncd jt to the pa(chai tapcr. 

^6.) Taber TiH«i^Rf Scc. TP |iE49iJ[R&» ^ec 
JJliimj^g RyL«. 

• *7(? T A p E R . r . ». To g ro w gradu ^il y fn|iallcr. 
^The back is oaade taperirtg in form of a pi^ar,^ 
the lowcr Ycrtcbrcs bcing tbe broadeit and iargeft. 

Such be tbc ^t%^ 
^'jtb taperin^^ tail. - 7?^^*''* 

T A P 

TArER-BOitED, adj» [taf>er and bnred.] isappli»! 
cd to a piece of ordnance when it is widcrat ibe 
mouth than toward*} the breech. 

(1.) ♦ TAPESTRY. »./. [tape/lene, tap^ene, 
tapi^, Fr. tapftum, Lat.] Clotb woven in rc|ull 

In the defk 

That*s covered o'er with Turkiih tapeSry* 

Thcrc 18 a purfe of ducats. * Skakl 

Horfe8 hoof8, for earth, on (ilkcn tapeJtyUadl 

— Onc room is hung with tapejlry, JdJi/on. 

(i.)Tape8Try is akinl ot cloth madeof wo] 
and nik, adornrd witb bgure«; of different aninalsi 
&c. and ^orberly ufcd for lining tbe i?alL« ol 
room»', chnrches, &c. 

(3.) Tapestry, history of THE AtT 01 
yHAYiNO. The att of weaving tapettry is bor 
rowcd from the Saraccns ; accordingiy thc work 
men cinployed in tbi« manufa(fturcinFranccwct 
formerIy called Saiazi»j or Satassmois. Guic 
ciardini alcrtbcs the invcntion of tapeHry baiw 
ings 10 tbc inhabiiants of the Nethtrlandi; bu 
h« b|s nct mcntiontd at wbat trmethe difcovci^ 
W^s made. Thia art wa? brought into EnpUiJ 
by Wjlliam Shcldon, rtarthccndof Hmn* VilJ.' 
reign. In 1619 a manufaCturc was cftabiiflit 
at Mortlakc, in Surry, by Sir Prancis Cranc, wli 
rcceived L. icoo from King Jskme^ to encottri| 
it» Tlie Hrft manufa^re of tapeftiy at Pnris 
frt up unHer Henry IV. in 1606 or 1607, by f« 
ral arti^HM^hom that monaich in^ited Irom Fl 
dcrs. Urdcr Lewis XIV. thc manuta^nrc of 
Oobelms was infl^tuted« which introdurcd 
beautitul cioths, rcmarkftblc for (trcngth, for 
gance of delign, aiid a b^ppy choice of coli 
Tbt fincft paintings arc CDpic.t, and cminent 
ers have becn cmployed in making dcBgns fur 

(4.) TAPESTay, KiNDS oF. Tapcftry is difti 
gu*fhed by thc worknocn into two kind^, 
bigb and lonv *warp ; thougb the difterciicc i« 
ther iii thc manner of working than in the work 
felf ; wbich is in cffcd tbe famc in both i only 
loom8, and caDfiquently tbc warps are dip^ 
Qtuated ) tbofe of the low warp bcing p!acedfldti 
parallcl tothe horizon, aod thofe of thebigtir 
erci^ed pcrpendicularly. Tbc EngliPi ancii 
excclled all the wor^d in thc tapcilry Qf tbc 
\yarp; and thejr ftiil retain their former rtpi 
tion, thov w>th fume littl^ cbarge : thcir 
warps are ftill admired; but thc btph oncs 
ouitc laid afidc by thc Prench. Tbc Prench, 
rore the |}cvolutiqn^ had thrce coniidcrabic U| 
try iranuta^tiires behdcs tbat of thc Oobclii 
the fif ft at Abt|Ifon in Ofivergnc, the ^ d at Fcil 
tin in thc Uppcr Marchc, apd thc sii at Beau 
They wire ali ^qually cftablithtd for tbe b' 
and the \oyi warp; but they ha^ all laid atidc 
hi^h warp fxcepting tbc Gobehns. Thcre 
admir^b'^ i<*^ warps likcwife in FIandrrs, 
raliy exceeding thofe pf Francf ; tbe chtcf and 
moft oiiiy Ftcmi(h nnanufa^ures were at Bruil^ 
Antwrrp, Pudepard,l.i(Ie, Tournay» Brug^, l 
yaicncicnnf:«. Tbp iifual widths of tapcttry I 
irooi ft to :$ dU Parif<mcafure« 


FACTURE 0F. Tbe looin on whicb it ia wroui 

Digitized by 


**i± is a kind ct wcirArd, or twtitcd woolltn 
iRjd, is wouml OD Ihc uppcr roller; and the 
tyrty ji Uk a« wuire» U wound on the iower. 
*>tinft<1e tbe plan^s, which are 7 or 8 feet high, 
i4'r ly inckeii»ix>ad» and 3 or 4 tbirk, arc hoiea 
fnr/lrom lop to bottom, in which are put 
oc^ pi(Cff of iror, with hooks at onc end ferv- 
^to<iitw! the coat ftave : thefc pieces of iron 
»n* jtJb bolcj pierce-', by potting a pin in which 

T A P ( 141 > T A P 

isplacedpcrpcmiicuUrlyr }t conflftg of 4 prroci. of finencf« N>f the intended work. Laftly, tlic 

p*lpio:r^; % long pi^nks or chreks of Wood, and nekdlc, if made in fbnn Of the cowinion utedlc, 

nrotWckronmor bcams. The planks are fcl only bigger and longer. It» ufe U to. prcfs 

tnngk!, and the heami acrofs them, onc at ihe clofe the wool and iilks when thcre is any' 

♦t? iw! tte otber at thc bottom, or about a foot Une or colour that docs not ht well. All thingt 

frT9i tbe groo?Ki. They haYc eacb their trunni- being preparrd for the work and the workman 

»f»,bf wbichthey are fufpendcd on the phinks ready to begin, he placcs himfclf on tbe wrong 

»1 are tnmcd wilb bars. ln each i^ollcr is a (ide of the piece, with his back towards the de- 

pw«f, fro!n ooc end to Ihe othcr, capable of con* fign : fo that he work'^ a* it werc bHnd/olii^ fteing 

t.ttLjalong round piccc of «^/ood, Uftened witk nothing of what he doe«, and btmg obliged to 

\xk\t to t.c tfce cnds of the warp to. The warp, quit his poft, and go to thc other fHe of the ioom 

" " " ' whencver he would view ard txamine thc pircc, 

to correA it with his prrffing>needlc. To put filk, 

&c. in the warp, he hrft turns and looks at thc de- 

fign ; then, taking abroach fiill of thcproptrrcoloUr, 

hc phiccs it among the thrtadRof the warp, which 

he biing»crofi»each other with hisfinger«,bymeanr 

of the coats or thrends faftened to the ft*ift"; thi» 

hc repeat<< every time hc has to charge his colour. 

Ha^ing placrd ihc filk or wcol, hc beats it with 

Maie 1* drawn nearer or Tet tatther ott"; and his rced or comb; and whcn he has thus wrought 

totsecoati or thrcads arc ttretchtd or loofcntd in fevcral rows over each other, he gots to feetbe 

«*<ifarc Thc coatftave is atiout 3 inches dia. cSir^ls iheyshave, in order to rcform tlie conioUr^ 

tto, rjd runt all the lcng*h of thc loom ; cm with his nced.c, if therc be occafion. A^ the 

t^orliud the coats or thr^adii, which make work advance6, it i« rolied upon the lower beam,' 

A({tjnd«of thr warp crofs eachother. It has and they unrol as mucb warp from the upper 

Mthc umc eftcd as the fpring-ftate and tred- beam as fuftice8 them to continue the piece ; the 

^ k]it in the comnuin f?omp. The coats are like they do of the defign behind them. When 

iPtt^frad» iattened toeacb thread of thc warp the picccs arc widc, fevcral workmen roay be em- 

tr)ihiHlof Aiding knot,- which forms a foit of ployed at onct. The hi^h warp tapcftry itoes on 

«jArrnae. Th^L-y fcr?e t© ketp thc warpopen mucb morc fl«wly than the low warp, and takes 

^ttcpada^ ot broaches wound with hiks, up almoft twice rhe time ard troubic. All the 

•toi^st, of other cnattent uftd in the piecc diffcrtncethat the cyc can perccive between thc 

«fiTcftry. lirthe laft place, therc arc a numbcr two kmdn, conArts in this, that in the low warp 

9 adr lkickfi of dfffcrent lcrgths, but ail about there is a rcd hilrt, ahout onc iith of an ihch 

broad, running on Ciich fide from top to bottorc, 
which is wantirrg in the high warp. 

(6.)Tapfstry ot the Low Warp, MANr^ 
TACTURE 0F. Thc loom or trame, whereon thc 
low warpis wrou^ht, ts much like that of thc wea- 
^•'•eibeaick. The loo|n beiDg thus formed, Ters ; the principal parts aic two ftrorg piccts of 
•^ Bioimtd wi»h its warp, the Hrft thing the woodforming the lides of the loom, and hearinga 
«iiksuodocs is to draw on the thrcads of thts beamorrollcrateacheiid:thcyarc' ftjftainedatbot- 
■*ptbr princtpal 'ines and ftr»kcs of the defign tom with other ftrong pirccs of wood in manncr of 
*Jfctrprcfenicd on tbe piecc of tapeftry ; by ap- treftcs ; and, to kcep thcm firm thry are faftcned 
P^ cartooo* made from the paintini? he in- to thc floor with a kind of buttrrfle«, which prc- 
^tocupy to tbe fide that is to be the wrong vent any Aiaking, though thcre are fomcfimr6 4 
^^\\c piece, and thcn, with a blacklead pcn- or 5 workmcn lcaning on tbe fore-hram at once. 
4blowing aod tracing out the contours there- The rollers have each their trunnlons, by whiih 
^« ibc t&read of tbe nght fidc; fo that thc they are fuftained: thtyare turncd by large iron 
'^ appear c<)oa]ly both before and behind, pins, 1 feet long. Alongeachbeam runFagroove, 
Tkonpnal ddign of the work is hung up bchind whercin is placed the wich, a picce of wood about 
^^■orkaBen, ind wouod on a long ftaflr, firom two inches diameter, and aimoft the Ttngth <)f 
•^» ptrce f« unrolled firom time totime astHc the roUcr : thia piece fills the groove cntirely, and 
*»* pnjcctds. Bcfides tbc loom, &c. hrre AcU is faftcned tHertin, from fpace to fpace, by wocd- 
^^ tbeie ate three other principal in^mments en pins. To the two wiches are faftcncd the t wo 
fo{wed Ibr wwkiag the filkor tbe wool of the eKtremttie*) (>f the warp, whlch is wound on the 

farther rollcr, and thc work, a3 it advances, on 
thc ncarcr. Acrof» the two fides, almoft in thc 
middle of tbe loom, pRAcs a woodrn bar, whicli 
fufta*n8 little piece<t of wood,' not unlikethe heam 
of a balance i to theie pttcrs are faf^ed ftrings, 
which bcar certain fpring.flavcs, wherewith the 

„, _- -_ workman,'bytwo treddles under the loom whcrc- 

^o^woedi 8 or gtnch^Blong, and an inch thick on he fet8 his feet, giTC<3 a motion to the coat^, 
« tke kack, wbence it grows iefs and lefs to the and makcs the thread« of the warp ri^e and IaW a!- 
«iiiniiyrf thc teeth, whichare more or lefs tcmately. Each loom hasmore or fewer of thef* 
^*i accofdiB£^ to the grcatcr or lcfs degrcc fprii.g-ftdvc^, and cach ftaffmorc or fcwcr coats, 


iinch in di;imct(r, whidi the workman keeps 
b im in t>Aflcct5, to make the threads of the 
t.Tp crp6 cach other, hy paATmg thtm,acrof8; 
i*i ihn Ibc thrcads thus croHed may rttain their 
V^ fi:uation, a |Kaokthread i^ run amongthem 

*^wtthiDtbe threads uf tbe warp; tbefe are 
*^mrh,mned, and a» iron needUj* The broacb 
"Bade ot hard wood, 7 or S tnches long, and 
**« jds of aa locb thick, cn^ing in a point with 
1 htle baodle. Tbis fer^cs as a Aiuttle ; tbc 
t*i» «oollcna, gOidv or filver, to be ufcd iu the 
*^ bciBg isotsnd on it. THe i;eed or eomb k% 

Digitized by 


T A P 

( 14«- ) 

T A P 

;i^»the tJpdtry conCad of morc or fewcr tbre^ids. 
The dc(ign or |>4intm|$ the t;ipeftry workcr \t to 
foilow 18 piaccd ujider the w^p ) wbere it ts A]f- 
tained liroai fpacc to Ijpace with ikrings» by wbich 
thc defign is brodght nearer the warp. The looro 
bciog mouHted, two in(lrumcnt« are urcd in work- 
kg it, vie. the rerJ and th< j^o^. Tbe flule does 
tlte officc of thc wravcr'8 ihutttc.; it is male of 

bard poliihed wuod, 3 or 4 lines thick at the tnds, each 4 hoof8 ; the htad leet ^ 
and fonr.ewhat niorc in the middie, and 3 or 4 ipccte»: viz. 
On it are wound tbe Slks or oth^r "~ 

TAPINAMBOES, a nattiiR Qf S. Aipcrica Ir. 
diaas >n BraPi». 

TAPIOCA» 11. /. a Tpecica of ftarcht whichibe 
BraziliaB8 make from tbc root8 of thc ctiUda 
plant. See Jatp.opha. 

TAPIR9 tn zoology, tbe £l|phant Hog, 

a f»enn8 of quadrupedt of the ordcr of ArW* ic- 

(embliog the bippopotamus. Thc ^ fcct bave 

^ r .^ ^ t ^ ^ Thcrc is oaly ouc 

inchci; ionp, 

iikatiers to be uicd as the woof of the tapedry. 
The comb or rced 4% of wotxl or ivory ; it lus u- 
lually tec^h nn both tides; tt i^ about an inch 
thick in thc middtc, but dimimthes each way to 
thc cxtrcmiiy of the te«*th: it ftrve9 10 bcat the 
thieadii of the woof c}ofc to each oibcr, an faft as 
tiie workmaA has paiTcd nnd placcd thcm with 
his Aiite among the thrcads of the warp. TKe 
wiTkman is fc^ted on a bench bctore the loom, 
with hid breait againft the t>eam, only a ri*(hion 
or pitlow between them ; and, in thin poOure, fe» 
paratit^g, with his fingerF, the threais of the w^rp, 
that he may fee thc dcflRn undcrneath, and taking 
a S\itCf mouDted with a propcr colour« he paU 
fc8 it among the thrracls, after having raifed or 
Inwcred thcm, by the treddles moving thcfpnng- 
ftave8 and coat*. Laft.y, To pref!« an^ clo& tbe 
thrcads ot' the li k or yarn» &c. thus placed» he 
ilrikcs each coujrfc (i. e* what the l^ute lcavc8 in 
k8 padin^s aud comtng b;ick xg^'it\) witb the rccd. 

* TAPET. /1./ Uapetia, Lat.] Workcd or fi- 
Sured ftutf.^ 

To thcir work they fit, and each doth chwlc 

What ftory (he will fpr hcr tapet take. Spem/er. 

Tape-Worm. See Tj£nia. 

TAPHi^, in ancicnt geograpbT, iAands in thc 
lontan Sea, bctween Achara and Leucadia called 
atfo T£i«EBOiDEs ; frnm and Tel^bo* 
ua. Tbe Taphians fiade war agiiinft £ledryon, 
king of Mycrna!, an^ kiilcd all his fon8. Upon 
this he promifed his daughtcr, Alcmena, with hia 
kingdom, 4o any man» wbo niould avciige hiit of 
the TaphianK. Tbis wa8 accomplilhed t>y Am< 
phitryon. (Hom. Od. u iZt» 8cc,) SccAlcmena» 

TAPHIANS, thc nativc8 of the Taphijk^ 
Thcy were cxpert failurKy but addidid to ptracy. c. 11. 

TAPHIASSUS, or > a mourtain of Locris, on 
. (i.)TAPHlUSi j the conBnes of .Eiolia. 

(3.)Taphiu^ and TEtEBot;8, in fabulput 
hidory, the fon8 of Ncptunc, by Hippothoe, tbc 
daugbter of Neftor, thcy reigned in thc TArHiJEi 
. and gave their names to thero. Strabo, lo. 

TAPHIUSA« a towu near Leucas» famoai £oy 
a particular ftone, cailcd 

TAPHIUSIUS. Sce PHn. 36. c. *i 

TAPnt American us, tbe Amtrican tapir. Tiie 
nofc of the roale e^ends far b^yond the lowcr jaw, 
tf Aenderi and forros a tbrt ot' prutx>(ai ; it ii o* 
pabie of being contra^cd or exteodcd atpka^on, 
and its liJe^ are fulcatcd, Tlic eitieiDitict Qf 
both jaws end in a point^ and thcre are tcn ciK< 
tiiig tectb in each. Between tbero and tbe griiN 
dersthcre is a vacant fpace; and thcre arc tti 
grin^lcrs iii «ach jaw. The ears are ered, tlie 
eye> fmall, and the body is (haped likc that of I 
hop, Thc back is archcd; tbe legs are iborti 
and the hoofB Imall, black, and hollow. Tt 
tail ia yerf fmail. 'yht ammal grows to tbc ^ 
of a hcifcr half a year okl. The hah' is Ihort 
wben young, it is fpottcd with white ; wbco m 
of a duiky oolour. They inhabit the woodi m 
riYcrs of the £. lide of S. America, fiom tbe ift« 
rous of D^rien to thc Amazon. Thcy (lccp 6m 
ing day in the darkeft and thickeft forcft ^j^eii 
to thc banks and go out tn tbe oigkt-tin>e ij 
fearch of food. They feed on graf8 ; fugar C2id 
and tiuits. It difturbcd, they run to the wated 
and fwim yery well ; or fiiik bclow, aod like ti 
htppopotamus, walk on the biittam as on dn 
ground. Thcy makc a fort pf hiHJo^ noiic.— Tlij 
18 tbc Iargeft ot thc Ancrioan anioiaU. 8cc Mf I 
ico, J 1, 13. 

TAPIRTALA, a town of Chiiicfe Tartary: i 
Lon. iiB.%s. £. Perro. Lat. 43. 15. N. 

TAPLAKEN» a town bf PrutGa, in Simtid 
00 the Pregel : 14 miies C. of Konigfberg« 

TAPLO£t or ( a fmail town of £nglaod, 

TAPLOW, ( Bucks (eated on a bitl, i 
the banks of the Thames^ one mile from Maiod 
head* and %$ W. by N. of London. J 

TAPOAMANAQ, tbe naroe given by the 4 
tive8 to SiR Charles Saunders's Islamd. 

TAPOOKAS, 4 town of the Umted ^tatrs, 
Gcorgia, on tiic yazoo. Lon. 89. 51. W. U 

(i.) TAPOOR, a river of| Htpdooiaii* wb^ 
runs into the CauTery» 4 ro. N. of Covcriponu 

(4 ) Tapoor, a town of Hii»dooftani io t^ 
Myfore ; 15 miles SSW. of Dar^ropooryy and I 
£SE. of Seiingj^ataam. 

TA-POU» a town of Cbjna, of llie sd raok, 
Quangtong ; 57 mileR N. of li^hab-tctieoo. 

TAPPAIiANNOCK, or Hobbs's UoLE.apj 

TAPHRJ£> an ancicnt tpwn on thc ifthmu« towo and ii^aport of Yirginiai tlie capitai of £fl 

countyi ft;atcdoa a Certile plain on the SW. b^ 
of the Rappahanoock. It is' regulartT built, ^ 
cootains about 100 boB^es» ao epacopaliaii chnn 
a court-houfe, &c. aod a court is hcki the ^d M| 
of every montb. It esportt whcilit« Aoiir^ ^h 
an com» tobacco» &c. Tbeic anicnuitcd S<^ 
SOi 17941 to i6o»673 dollars. it tt 30 oriles t 
of Frcderickiburgy'43 N£. of ^chmoBd, ao^ 


0f Taurtca Chcrfonefu8| oqw cailcd Prskop« 
Mela ii4 c. I. Ptin^ iv» c. 11. 

TAPHROS. the ftr^it.betweeii Corfica, and 
Sardinia; now called Bonipacio. , 

TAPIA, a town of S. America» in Ncw Grc- 
pada, and provincc of St Martna. 

TAPIAN, a tgwn of PniiGai in Samland ^ 16 
nilC8 £. of Kooi^ibcrg. 

Digitized by 


T A R ( I 

(r«D fti!adelphui. Lon. 76^ «5. W. Lat. 37. 

(i)TAPPAN, a town of New York, in O- 
nf.ff County» at tbe S. end of the Bay, (N^ 1.) 
vbĕrr Major Aadre wm hanged as a Tpy bf the 
inkmcsn^ Sre AmbeicAs f 71; and ANPitB. 
(i.)TAfPAiiBAY, or> a B$iyof New York^ 
(t.)T4?PAN Sea, *{ ad[}oining to H<iver£. 
tnv Bay on tbe N. and ^s 'niles ]f . of Hew 
Ydit k if 10 mtk^ kMig, and 4 broad. 
(i.)TAn^IKG, ^r/. ir./.in gcnenrl» the a^ 
flf pierciRg a hole in a ▼rflet, and applying a tubc 
«canttbin thc apertnre, for the coiiunoiioiM 
dnviog o^tbe liquor contaroed therein. 
(s.)TAPPiiiO, in rorgcry. 8ee StTRdBRr, M. 
TAPRE, a valky of Tbibct, abounding with 
km. SeeBoRAS, f IL 

TAPIIOBANE, ao ifland in the IndiaD Occan, 
lOYcalledCcykm. (See CsyLON.) Tbeanetent 
iiihibitants were rich and iong4ivcd* Strak: 1. 
I /TAPROOT. jf. f, [tap and iwr. J The prin- 
; oM Ira of tbe roor. — Sonne put ondcr the trcci 
; (afei of iiced, abotit 4 inchct below thc placr 
I «terrtbcy (om tbcir ^ccdiy a fmali piccc of tilc 
|lilBplheninDingdo«m of thc ia^aett which oc^ 
^ itto braacb when it conct to the Hilc. 

TAPSOlr, atom of Afia, io Tbibct } ^aoHlca 


* TAPSTBR. m/. [htm tap.] Onc wboirbufi- 

ii to draw bccr io an alehoulr. — Thc oath of 

hm trongcr than thr word of a tapj$er; 

2r< both tbc conAroicrt o^ fal(e rcckoomgt • 

.— rn be your Utpjttr ftiHl Sbttk^ — The Tint- 

Md tap^ oiay broaclk wbat tcligion tbeV 

The boile wHI oercr Me tts tradc^ 
^ 'Ny* tboagb tht treachcrous tapjtr Thomat 
j Hngi a new aogcl two doort from ot. S^fk 
JAPSDS; I. R maritime town of Africat (S^. 
K >} 1. A.; pcoioiiila on tbe E. coall of 8ieiif. 

TAPTEEy «r ( o ri^cr of Hiodootan, formed 
[uPnr, \ bytbcumonof(evcralrifolctt 
F^«lcift, at Makoy^ 84 milet NW. of Nag- 
pr» aod fiiNihg into tbe Gulf of Cambaj^; 10 
Pttoilef,bd0w Surat» 

I^APUTAS; a rircr of Bnifil whicb Mnt io- 

WTAPviFAt, or ) a nation^o^ S. Amcricar 1 

t^jTAH^TEs^ > in Braltl, thc moft' conA- 

rbo batrc oot becn con^ucred^by the Por- 

^PTRl, aoancicnt nation»' who rcdded ocai^ 
- *»it. Dionp. Perieg. 

M ' TAIL «./. [tare^ Sason ; tarre^ DUtch ;' 
^ Dtni&.] Liquid pitcb ; thc turpentinc of 

'P* or fir dmined out by fire.— 

*Vfi, fbanung tar^ thetr bridlct tbcy would 
^ etoip. Sreftfer. 

7^^ mU noi loie a hog for »halfpcnnyworth 

I^^Tai. ii,yr[from taf uied tn (bips^ A 
P^a^aman, in cootcmpt* — 

Mnatet bold, and fiercc in war^ 
Ahad comaiandcr, and a tar. Swi/i, 

LWTtt,(J X.) is a thiclr, bUck, undnouit fub- 
Mtt obcaaocd cbicily from oldpines aiul (ir trcct 


43 T A R 

by burnitig them wkb a clole Imotbtrio^ l^at. 
It U prepared in great ^uantities io' Notway, 
Swedeny Germany, %ufifa, and North Ataictica, 
• and in other oountriet where thc pinc abd ftr a- 
bound. For the method of obtaioini^it, Tec Pi« 
Wu», N** 9. Becher, ihc ceUbrated cbi'mift,.lirft 
propored to make tar firom pit-coaK. Maiiiifac- 
turcB for this purpore have beeii eltabli^daitny 
yean» ago in the cidevant btlbopric of ^Liege, and 
in icTeral partt of England^ In ij^r» the.eari uf 
Dundonald obtained at patcnt for exti^adiBg taf 
from pit-coal by a ncw procei^ ot drililiation,^ 
(See Chemistry, lMJex^ and CoA04.i$ W.. alib 
Sir J. Sinc)aii'ft itai. Jecotmt. Yol^ IX. p. tyl» 
iy^.) Aar^ vi^hiefa it wcli knowo«ior ita econo- 
toical ofet, it properiyan empyrcumatic oil uf 
turpcntioe^ aod hat beca mtich uicd at a mcdi^ 
cine both internally and extcmally. Sec Mate* 
ria Mrdica, and Pharmacy, indeiu 

(4^) Tar, Barradoes* Sec Materia Midi« 

CA, under Petroieum^ and Pstroleum» $ x, NPL. 

(s) Tar L^aa, a bitominout laiie or plam ki 

the ifland of Trinddad. 

(6.) Tar, MlkERAviU SceMiNEOALOGWAir^ 
IL CJbop. VL Cfa/i lil. G>jr. IIL ^.3. 
(7.) Tar RivtR. Scc Pamlico, N' i. 
(f .) Tar Water, or water Impnegnated^witti^ 
the roluble partt of tar, wat about » century ago 
a very poptf ar reoiedy ^ but it aow wkaoit cnt re- 
)y out of uie« 

^ Ta Tar. w. a. [from the noon.l i.-To hneat 
over with tar. i. I^o tcazc; to provokc. [««f- 
mmt.] Tbc nation holdt it no' fih tir tar tbem- 00 
10 controvcrfy. SJbaJ^^ 

Two cors ihali tame eacb otber ; pride alone 

Muft tar the nuftiftt on. SJbaJL> 

(u) TART, a towo of RUOia» inToboiAcoi, oi»' 

the Irti^} %%o mi|ct £» of DobotBu and »64 

WNW. of Kolivan.> Lon. ^.19. ^.^Perro. iLat. 

57. o. 'N. 

('«.(TaRTi jkmotiotain of Irclapd^ ia Wcxford> 
ncar thc Coaft v 4 tnilct N£k of l^kwborough.. * 
tARABlSL». Sec Teipoli, N^" ». 
TARABLUSv or ) ancient namet of Trtpoit in 
TARABOLU8) H S|fir. SceTRirOLi N^j. 
TARACASSA,; a cHftria of BUBNOt Ayres. 
TAkACON, a citv of St>ain, in Arragon,* ai>- 
oieotly callcd T)rriRfona, icatcd at the foot of 
ibount Moncayo, on thc Chiiet. 
TAAAGE, a toom o^Spam. in Catalonia. 
'tARAeAUC, a town of Africa, in Tafijet, on 
the Drag, with a caiUo'»?^ oulet SW. of Tahlct». 
l.on. 6. s^ ikr. I^t. !>. 40- N. 
TARA6ALE, or > a town of Afriea, 10 the 
TARAoOK, y kingdomofDarah. 

TARAH^. a town of Irelandr in Meath, 19^ 
mikt fTO« Dublin. Trieoueal parliamcotB were 
anciently held in it. 

TARAHUMARY, a prorince of Mcsico ; i2ao 
milet firom Mcxico. 

TARAKLl, a town of Biiropean Turkcy,. iiv 
B< Aarabia | 34 mllrt SSW. of Brnder. 
TARAMA, a dtftna of Peru, \n Uma. 
TARAMEU, a town of Egypt, % m. N£. Tincb . 
TARAMUND, m town ot Spaio, in Afturia; 
4(5. milct W. oB Oviedo. 


Digitized by 


T A R / 144 ) 

TARANIS» a oame of Jopiter, among the aii- and wool, 
cient Gauh. Lucan^ i. 146. 
. TAKANNON, a rivcr of N. Wak», in Mont- 
gomcit^re ; wbkh x}Xti% iato tbt Severn, 5 mtlet 
N. of Ncwton. 
TARANaA., or \ one of the Westerm 
TARANSAY, 5 Islan6s of Scotland in 
the clufter calied tbe Harrij IJlands^ (See Harris, 
K^ 3.) It is high and rocky, 4 milea loiig, and 

T A R 

It 18 ro milics N, of AHett ^'^ WS 
S. hy E. of Paris. Lon. 4. 45. W. Lal. 43. 46.N 

(3.) Tarascon, a towii ot' SpaiSi in NewCar* 
tile : 21 milcs SW. vi Huctc. 

TARASOYA, a tQwn of Ruflia, in IrkutlkoiJ 
on tbe Lcna : 1% xci\\%\ S. of Turtura. 

TARASSOt a fea port town of A6aticToikcyi 
in Caramania, ancieotly cailed Tnr/tu, (Sre Tar 
SU5, N* 3.) It is a largc town, aod is CttTTOund 

from I to 3 broad. Having little foii, the native8 ed with a double wall. It is iohabited by Torb 

are chieDy employed io fiihing and making kelp. 
.It has relics of rehgious houies, and is 5 miles 
NE, of Toe Head. Lon. 5. 4«. W. of Edin. 
Lat. 58. a.K. 

TARANTA,«highmountaioof AbyAinia. On 
the top ia tbe village Halai iohabitcd by iliep- 
•berds, who:kecp the Aucks of ihe rich people of 
the town of Disan below. 

TARANTO, the anoent Tariiitum, a fca 
port town of Naples» in Otraato. It is a ftrong 
and popglous piaccy with an archbiihop'8 fce, 
and thc titlc Qf a principality. It ia iisated on a 
pcninfula, aod is defendcd by.a. itroiig cai^lc; 
but the harbour ts cboaked up. it »8 50 milrs S£« 
of Bari, 55 NW. of Otranto, and 14 E. by S. of 
NaplcB; Lon. 17. »0. £• Lat. 40. 35. N. 

TARANTOLA, a town of Naples, in Abnizzo 
Cttra ; 10 miles ENE. of Soimooa. 

(1.) • TARANTULA. »./. llulian ; tarentule ; 

Greek», aiid Armcnians ; and isthc (ca oi a J^o 
bite biihop, and a Ncftorian archbilhop. It ^ 
105 milcs W. of AJeRandretta. 

TARATATO, a town on the E. coaft of F« 
tai^jcntura» one of the Canary Islamds, 

TARAXACUM, tn botany, Dawdelios. & 
Leontodon, and Matiria Meoica. 

TARAXIPPUS, a dcity woHhippcd in Eli 
who fuperintcndcd the races and othcr ginK 
His itatue was placed near the race ground, u 
his protedtion implored to the horrcs apd it( 
riders. Pam, vi, so. 


(1.) TARAZONA, a ftrong town of Spain 
Arragon, ncar. Qld Cailile» wiih a bi(hop'$l) 
Jt is lcated partly on a rock, aod partly in a i 
tile plam, on tbe rivcr Chilcs. It was takcn 1 
razed by the Moors tn 724, rebuilt by thetnali 
wards; but reMkcn by the Spaniardb in iiio. 

Prench.] An inred whofe bite is ooly cured by is la? mile!) N£. of Ma(}rid, and 43 NW.of ^ 

■iufick.— This wordy lover» did no lef8 pterce 
poor Pyrocles, thao tbe right tune of muiick 
toucbeth him tbat ia fick of thc tarantatia» Sidnej, 
— He that ufe8 the word tarantula^ without ha- 
viQg any idea of what it Aaoda for, OAeoas nothing 
At all by it. Loeke. 

(1.) Tarantula, a ipecies of Araoea, fo call* 
cd from Tmmo, v^ere they abouBd. See Ara- 
MIA, J I, 5 • N** la. 

TARAPACA, a town of Pcru, in Arequipo, 
iieated on a>iver, which ruos into th« Padnc O- ftala^itical incruAations. It ha8 a fafc bai 
cean ; in Lat. 10. lo. S. P^rt Makoimmkt where thrre wae a picr, 

TARARE, a town of Prance, io .thc dep. of is aow become ruinous. Thc furfaccisir- 
the Rhone aod Loiret and ct*devant prorinoe of tbougb npi hiily ; thc foiI is fcrti!c, rar^iog 
Lyonoois : " feated on tbe Tordivc, at thc foot of a-rich to ji iandy loam. The pariih oomprei^ 
a mour.tain(fay&DrBrooke8,)of.the^nif «Mir;'' 5,081 acrcs; of wbich ^,998 are arablc, v 
but vobicb name he meam, {Totitiic or Tararcj) pailure, 113 moor, 82 mo(s, and 165 p^ 
Lon. 4. 43« E. Lat. 45 3»« N. 

ragoiTa. Lon. i. a6. W. Lat.>ia. 10. N 

(a.) Tarazona, a town of Spam, in ^ 
Caitiie ; 15 miles S. ot' Alarcon. 

(i.) TARBAT, a pariih of Scotland, partlj 
Rafs.ihirc, an^ partly in Cromariy, 
ing the ei;»rcmi!y of thc peninruU, formcJ by 
Priths of Croni.irty and Domoch. It is 7 ' 
loog, and 4» whcre broadeit, cxtcodiRg 15 
along the coaft, wbich is moftIy tK>ld and ri 
and abouiuis with numerous caves li^^ 

wc know not. 

(i.) TARAS, a fon of Neptune» w1k> built 

(4.) Taras, an ancient oan« of Tarbntum. 

TARASCO, ao aocieot towo of Gaui» Dow 
Tara/con. Sce Tarascon, N® a. 

(i.) TARASCON, a city of Prance, in thc de- 
partroent of Arriegc, and ct-devant provmcc of 
¥o\% \ fatnou8 for its maou^a^urcs of iron. It is 
feated on the Arriege, 7 mi;c« SE. of Foir, 41 
SW. of CarcaiTouc, and 48 S. of Touloufe.. Loo. 
19. 16. E. Pcrro. Lat. 4»' 50. N. 

(a) Tarascon, at» aocient, populous, and 
handfoinc town of Prance» in the dtpartmcnt of 
the Mouths of the Rhone, and late provioce of 
Pr9vencc, with a well-built caftie, fc-titcd on the 
Rhonc, oppoBtc Bcaucaire, with which it com- 
municatts by a bridge of boata. It contaiiis a- 
bout 7000 citizcnp. Its comraerce i& in oil, ^ran- 
dy, ftarcb, and fta&'H of coarlc iilk, anJ of iilk 

Marl and frce-ftor.e abound. Thc popuUtio 
€791, was 1370 r .iecrc»lV 2x4, fince 175^. 
ODly feat is tbat of Mr M>icicod of Goatars» 

(a.) Tarbat, orTARBERT, a town m tl 
bove pariih, and county of Cromarty ; 6 mi^ 
of Tain. 

(3.) Tahbat, East, a town of Scotlan 
Aiiyllihire, on the bay (N** 4) ^5 milcs ] 

(4.) Tarbat, LocHj^a bay on thc N. cxtj 
ty of Kintyre. 

(5.) Tarbat Ness, a cApe of Scotland c< 
£. coaft of Rofs-ibire, bctwcen the Priths of 
noch, Cromarty,and Murray. Lon. o. ^8. 1 
Edin. Lat. 57. 50. N. 


TARBELLiE, a name of the Pyr£ncfs, 
TARBELL1, an ancicnt peoplc of G^ul, J 
foot of the PyrcnccR. Ca/. de BfII. GaL 
(i.) TARBEHT, a town ot I.-e.and, i 

(1 > 

Digitized by 


T A R ( 

coo«tf 6^ tmy ud prcmDce of Munfter, 
BHt9 irm Doblin. 

(i.) TiKinT, a fmil] ifland, near the ibore 
tewD ; betwteo wbich and the ifland tbere is a 
Ue and commodioos road for yeAels» either 
Inod op tbe Shannon, or outwards. 

(j.) Tarbi aT, another iOand of Ireland, near 
tik W. coait, aod county of Galway ; a mtlei S. 
«f St Omey lOaod. 

(4.) TAaBsar, in Scotland. See TARiATy 

TARBES, a popnloui city of Prance, capiul 
o^tbedep. oT the Upper Pjrrencet, aa It was of 
fk dderaot connty o{ Bigerre. It ii built on 
tk nm of the ancient Bigorre ; and beforc the 
rrioiotioa waiabifliop'fl fee, and had a magnili* 
Mtcpibipal palace, with a handfome college 
aod III ancient caftlf , feated on the Adour : «49 
I Bib 8W. of Aoch, and iii S. by E. of Bour- 
deioL Lon. o. 9. £. Lat. 43. 14* N. 

TARBET. 8<e Tarbat, and Tarbbrt. 

TARBIDO, a rirer of Napie?» which roni in« 
toOteMediterranean, 13 mites SW. of Cofenza. 

(i.)TARBOLTON, a pariAi of Scottand, in 
AyiAirt, io tbe diftrid of Kyle, 8 miles long and 
i broil Itt furface h interfper(ed with heath* 
omnA hilli and marihes ; yet great part of it ii 
«olcitititated. Tbe population, in 1796, wai 
iMo;tbedecreafe 1659 fince 1755. 1"^^ num- 
kro((heepwas5oo; of cows 1800, and of hor- 

(1.) TiKBOLTONy a fman but neatly butlt 
^o ta the aboYc parifti, containing 450 inhabir 
Ms m 1796, and 3 mafon lodges: 9 miles £. 

TARBON, a town of Hungary, 00 the Theyfe : 
U nilet NNE. of Kif warda. 

TARBOROOGH, or { a town of N. Carolina, 

TARBURGH, ^capital of Edgcombe 

^7t ieated on the W. bank of Tar Ritir, 
I5 Bilci from its inflox into Pamiico Sound. It 
«•acoort.hoafe, poft office, Scc. and quarterly 
jwt« are beld in It. Great quantftie8 of pork, 
m lodian com, tobacco, Scc, arc eaported. 
t* »• 40 miles NW. of WaAiington, iio NE. by 
|«-«ffa7ettetillc« and 4<9 SW. of Philadelphia. 
»f«;i.46. W. of tbat ciiy. Lat. 35. a7' N. 

TARCHON, an Etrurian ch!cf, who aflifted 
«»igainft the RtttuU) and built Tarqvinii. 
'^Tlt.riii, 603. 

TARCHONANTHUS, flea.baiie, in bota- 
rT- A gesns of plants belonging to the ciafs of 
Mr^A >nd to the order of fofygamm itgtmKjt 
^Qtbrnatvral fyftem ranging under thc 49th 
^Cm^Ju. The receptacle is ▼illout» and 
^^pappoi plnmy : the calyx is roonophyllous, 
r^ed, and half diTided into icTen (egments. 
^^ are ooly 3 fpccies ; ^12. 

^^ a«d GLABER. 

JAKCOA, atown of Abyffinia, 10 Gi^am. 
TARDATION. »./. [/«rio, Utin.] The aA 
" ttadcnog or delaying. 

145 ) T A R 

xa4 MoTing Aowly. — It is bot a flow and tardigradoM 
animal. Bro<wn, 

♦ TARDILY. adnf, (from tardj.] Slowly^ 

Tho(c that could Tpeak flow and tardih^ 
Would tum tbeir own perfedtion to abu/e, 
To fcem like him. Sbak, 

♦ TARDINESS. »./ [from tardj.] SIownefs ; 
floggiflincf8; unwilltngncfs to adion or motion. 

A tardine/i in nature, 
Which often lcaTcs the hiftory unfpoke. Sbak. 

♦ TARDITY. «./ \tardHast from tardus^ Lat. 
tardrv€te^ Fr.] Slownefff; want of velocity.— 
$uppofe fome obfervable tarditj in the motion of 
bght. Di^Ar.— Our eaplication includes time in 
the notiuns of veIocity and tarditj, Digh» 

TARDOIRE, a riw of Prancc, which runs 
into thc Charcnte, near Rochefoucault. 

TARDOU, a town of Spain, in the prorince 
«f Cordova : a8 miles W. of CordoTa. 


TARDSONG, a town of Thibet : 191 railea 
SSE. of Lafla. Lon. 113. ao. £. Pcrro. Lat. ao* 
54. N. 

♦ TARDY. adj. [tardus^ Lat. tardif^ Prench.] 
X. Slow ; not fwin.— 

Souls, more fwift than motion, climb, 
And check the tardj flight of time. Sandjs. 
a. SIuggifli ; onwilling to adtion or motion. — 
Behold that navy which a while before 
ProvokM the tardj EngliAi clofc to tight ; 

Now draw their beaten tisAels clofe to rtiore, 

As larks lie dar^d to fliun the hobbies. Drjden, 

Tardj to Ycngeance, and with mercy brave. 

3. Dilatory ; late ; tedions.— , 

Bc not ta*cn tardy by unwiie delay. Sbak, 
Death he as ort accusM 
Of tardj execution. Mitton, 

Thc tardj plants in our cold orchards placM» 
Rcferve their fruit for the next age*8 tafte. 

Tardj of aid, unfeal thy heavy cye«. Drjden. 
— Yon may cenfure him for bcing tardj in his pay- 
mcnta. Arhmb, 4. Unwary. A low word.— 
If thou think'ft I took thee tardj^ 
And dar*ft prefume to be fo bardy» 
To try thy fortune o'er a-^reAi» 
ril wave my title to thy flefli. Hudibras, 

f. Criminal; oAending. A low word.— If thcy 
take them tardj^ they cndcaTOur to humble them 
by w^ of rcpntel. GoUier, 

♦ Ti Taroy. V. a, [tarder^ Fr. Arom the adjcc- 
tifc.] To dehiy ; to hinder.— 

The good mind of Camillo tardied 
My fwift command. Sbak. 

(i.) ♦ TARE. n,/, (fix)m teeren, Dutch, to 
coofttme. Skinner.] A wccd that grows among 
com.— Through hatrcd oitares^ the corn in thc 
fidd of God ispiuckcd up. Hooker.^^^htn {^t&^ 
time was their harveft, and by fowiog tares they 
reaped goid. Detoj of Pietj.^My country neigh- 
bours begyi not to thtnk of being in grneral, be- 

TARDETS, a town of Prance, in tbe depart- forc they come to tbink of the tarrs in their com. 
J«^ of tbe Lowcr Pyrtnees ; 6 roilea S. of Blau- Loeke. 
™*« »d 11 8W. of Olcron. 

*'. Itard^^gradMS, Lat.] 

(a.) Tari» or Vetch, in botany. Sec RiraAL 
EcoMOMY, Part l. Sed. VI, and Yicia. 

T (3.) • Tari 

Digitized by 




T A l^ ( i 

(3.) ♦ Tar^. n. /. [rr ] A merc-sntHc 
"word (Jcnotiip the wcipht of Ar-y tMnp cOiiUin' 
tng a commodity ; allo thc alU)wance made tbr it. 

(4.) Tarf, in commerce, is an allowarcc tor 
thc oiitlide pack;«ge that contAiM f9ch poods as 
cannol be urpicked without dttrim^rrt ; or.for 
Ihe papcrs, thrta<.!s, bands, 8iC, that i?ick»fe or 
l)ind any goods irrportect luoft ; or thoo^ h Hn- 
r orted in caric?, chtftff, &c. ytt cannot bt un- 
packrd and ..eighed neat. 

(5.) * Ta»£, pretentc of /rtir,— 

The womcn bcat tbeir breads, ihcir c^heeks 
. thcy tarf. Djt^tu 

(6.) Tare, Yetch. Scc Targionia. 

TARIP, a toun of Aiabia Felix, irt Htd jaa; 
40 mil-p NE. of Medina. 

. .T^RENGASONG, a tcvv \t of 'Afia, w Thibct : 
192 miles S^E. of I-afia. • \ 

.-TA-RENY^ a rivcr of England, in Dorfrtftiire, 
which rifcs in Stubhampton, runa tbroiigh Dor- 
fetfhire whcrc it giyes nan^e to 7 vill3gc8; (Sec 
T4WMt-Cranford, &c. aiKl fall8intotheSloijr, 
3 mile» SE. of BI:^iidford. . i . 

I^ARENTAISE, a ci-devant connty and pro- 
viBCft lathc lalc duchy, of SaVoy, no^ induffed 
in Ihc Ererch empirc, and dcparlment of Mont 
Blanc. It wai bound^ on the N. by the latc 
lord£b'ip of Paucigny, E. by thc €i-dcvant ducby 
of Aofta; S- by the ci-d^^yant cmimy of M^on- 
cnne, and W. by.Savoy Pioptr. It waf maile ^ 
biihopric in tt>c ^tb ctnlury, ant^ an arl^hbiiholp- 
r ic -in thc Sth. Tbe kings of Burgundy oiadc 
it a couniy, aud in the cnd of t^c iirh centoty, 
Iluoil^ett ILEari of Savoy and Maurienpc tonk 
"it,. and his defcendant8 and ^uccetTi^rs held i» till 
179T, whrn the whalc ol Savoy ^'as aTmcxtfd'ta 
the prench rtpubiic^ The foil is.barien, aT*d the 
wholc furf.'*c mou«taincus rugged ami fult of 
dreadfol precipiccs. The Ifcrc croiTcs it ffom E. 
to Wir MoNSTiEi^ W98 ihc capital. 


JUaunsto>;,,, and TarInt- 
Hl^SHTON, ^iinail towM and vtli^^of Engla»'4«- 
in DorfctOiire, on thc bank6^pf the T^rent, aH 
NE. of B!."ndford. 


(i.) TARENXl^?Et «*• l^rora tart^tnm.] Of 
or bcWnging to TAREi^TyM. 
. (2.) Tarentines, n. /. tSc ancicnt inhabitart» 
of TAReSTUM, long famou8 fr*Crthcir >ravcr^, 
and aftcrward8 cqually infamou8 fbr thtin tuMiiy" 
and «Acsiinacy. . 

(3.) Tarentine War» a war.i>liich lattcd zo' 
ycars, bctwecn tbcTareotinet affifted byl^YRR Hf's, 
and tbe Romans. Sce £piltvs, Rome, § 15; 
SyRi^cusE, § 17; and TAR)kNTuM,' 
" 1 ARENTO, or Taranto, tfie modcrtnujnc 
of thc ancient Tarentum. ' 

(k) TAlt^NTUM, /or 'Baras, an Wnrientr 

tr.) TARENTUSj S city of italy, in CaUbwiB^t 
Teated near thc mouth of tbe GmIc^bs» nnd ca|ii«*Y 
tal of a rcpub!ic. It was fcnindcd by a oo4i»v' 
of'Spartans, underpHALAWTHCs, abont A. A.€L' 
707. The govcrnment was dcmocratical, thoughi 
thcy*^ftd occaiionally ^ome raonarchB. Itwas 
^or fome timcthc refidcri6c df PyJthagor as, wHo 
tA#ghl tbc caizcus his phil6(bphy, infpircd Ihcm 

46 ) T A R 

with the lOte of;viriiic» and icndrrtdlhcm («pr. 
rior to thcir neighboui<i, both in ihc ctbin<t iwi 
tbc ticid. Tbcy wete long irdcpcndcm, ard 
nnaintaincd thcir fuptriority ovcr 13 tr^taryci* 
tie«; wbcn tbcy couH arm 100,000 fo«it, w\ 
3000 horfe. Brcoming nch, tbcy grcw Toluptu» 
oi»8 and indolent ; fo that the ddi^bts of 7am' 
tmn beeame proverbial. Jn thc pndt of thdr 
prowef<, howevcr, thcy quarrciledw»th'thc Ro. 
ma(i9, and ioVUed Pyrrhus into Italy. (Scc Romf, 
5 «5.) But thc war ended, aftcr 10 ycan, ir> th? 
total corH^ui^ of thcir republic» its tnnaaton 
to that of Romei and the capture of 30,000 pri' 

(a.) TARBWTus,or Tarentum, bay op, a 
large, beauttful, and c^^rioiia bay aod birW 
of Italy 00 the <oaft of Tarentum, grcailyctk^ 
br^tcd by ancicnt hidiirians : but now almod en< 
lirely chokf<1 \\p. Sce Taranto, 

TAR1iZA, a rivcr of Hun^Tary, whicb lUni inj 
to the S;inno8 : ao mdts SW. of Tckay. 

TARE» anTcrof Seottand in Kukcattbrightl 
flnre, whicb rifc8 frora Loch Winnoch, in il 
pari(h of Gitthoii ; and aftCT rnnnmg tv «lOe^ sj 
iui.g thc W. ftdc of the parrAi of Tongla>*d, h\ 
into the Dtc, a* tbe S. en<1 Qf tbat panlh. 

TAKPE, a town of Egypt; 7 mil6* W. 

(i.) TARFF, a ri^cro^ ^ScothwHl ia lnTCTOff 
fliifc, whicb rifc8 fr©n\ Loch Tarff; wd, atti 
running about 8 milcs, fal!s into Loch NJr, 
thr 8(flMtiry c>f the Orch, and Rot hx from Fa! 

(a.) Tarff, Loch, a Ul|e of Invcrrcftft»in 
abtjut 3 milcs in circumftrence, in which arc U 
vcr*«l t»eimtiful woody in%nd9. 

TARGA, a town of Fr«; ^omiie^ 8E. c>f Tii 
ger«; nt*ar Sn oy#cr fi(hcry, witb a ca6lc uo 
r«€k, in a p)»in (tirroiindcd l^y imountains an 
foreft«, abolinding witb ircmkcys itnd with goo 
wclls and pa(tures« Lon. 4. 56. W. Lat. 35. 20. N 

* TAROE. > n.f. {targOi 8«xon; tar^ 
(j.) • TARGET. \ Italian ; iarj^e^ Prcnch ; a 

rm«, WeWh, whicb fccnM the orig^nal of thc rct 
tmlamr^^ettu ErW.j A kmd of buekler or (hW 
bor.o 011 tbe kft arm. R feems to be cooimiml 
tifcd for a.defenfive weapoD, lcla in circifmfcrcoc 
than a Ihiddk— 

An open gafh therein, werc't not hii targe 

That brokc thc vtolcncc. SptnJ^ 

I took all tbeir feTCH potntP in tt?y tĕrget. Sl\ 

' t Henceforward will 1 bcar 1 

Upon my iarget thrce fair Oiining tos. &H 

— Tbe anne <hc uicth moft is the^Ar,^ Hovei.^ 

Tho(t leave« 

They gatber'd, broad »b Amstoniao targe- A*»] 

. . l'ht GrerliB tht gates approach'd Ibcir w 

ftetj cnit 
- Oyertheir tteadr. . ; • Derbu:^ 

(%.) Targkt, in war. Sec SmiLD. 
(j.), in pcography, a towrt Of Prnig 
itl^hc t%p of Allier; ^i m. JSE. of MontmsrauM 

♦ TARGETIER. /i./. lfroro tmrget.] One aiii 
edrwTth a target. — , 

• Ffjr horferaen and for targetiers none cool 

with hJm compare. Cbaprm 

TARGIONIA, in boUny; a genus of ?!<»>* 

bcloii^ing to thc clafs of crjiftogatniap d^A natu^ 


Digitized by 


T A R 

f H7 > 

T A R 

«rder (£aig£, The calys is biohr^-d, ipchKltng a 
globular bodj. Tturre is only oue (^ciet ; vi2. 

Taiciokia hvpophylla, /Z>tf rctc6 Tortt a 
latire of Grtat Biit.iin. It has kavc8 about a 
qurterof ui toch ioog, of a htart-Oiape, inY^rted, 
^ growing prudrate in a clump tdg<*tber : tbeir 
opprr furfact itgrrccn, coYrrcd with whitilh pa* 
)ilbB.and tbeir loM^er iuHace is black. Tbe fruc* 
tiSa^iuogrowi ;it tht great cfKl of the Icaf on the 
MKT fide« and conBJis of two concavc vatvc8 
U a rtddiih b.ack coiour, incioBog a chocoUie 
coWtd (riobn)e> rtrimbling the feed of a tare or 
nt»h, fon of a yct!o\r powJer. The lcave8 in- 
re^iie by Aiooting out youog oOiets from their 
&1» iikr tbe polyptu. Tbis pUnt in foand in the 
N.of eoglaod, and near Tarbat of Kintyre in 

TARGON, a town of France, in the ^t\), of 
&roiik« jnd dittrid of Cadillac : 6 milet N£. of 

TARGOROD, a town of Europcan Turkcy in 
^i^itmi 50 onles SW. of JalTy. Lon. a6. 19. 
1.14146,49. N. 

TaoOYJSCO, or TaRGOvisco, a city of Eu- 
r^ Torkey, capital cf Walachia ; ieated on 
^ Liaiiits, 70 miles S£. of Hermaniladt» and 
ill X£.of»ae. I^n. «5.16. E. Lat. 45. 45. N. 

TARGOWISKA, a town of tke ci^vant re- 
poUic Qf Polaady in the paUtinate of Yoibynia» 
9siilnii.ofLiicko; oow am>exed to RulBa. 

li.^ • TARGUM. n./. [xnnn.) A paraphraTt 
«Bibepentateoch in thc Chaidee language. 

W Takou 18 ti)rQi6eft para^bra/ts or expofitionMi 
^^coi^thry are ratber coimnenta aod exphcatioii8 
^ i^al tranOationa of thc ttxX. They arc 
■<In jn the Chaldee tonguc, wh'ch became 
■«eiMiKar to the Jcw» after theii^ c«ptivity in 
*%tofl»tba» the Ilcbrew itfclf. Biac thougb the 
^o(nof makiO); thefc txpofition8 in the Chal- 
«tliftfoafc be very ancient aaioiig theHebrew8t 
Jft kaie tbey 00 targnm» before the era of Jona- 
«D. »d 0nkel08. 

^ ^WTaaouM of Jbru8Albm is only vpdv 
w PrstHeuch ; nor ia that cnlire or per^ed. * 

•[•TArTAacoM of Jonathan> ibe/cno/U- 
J^jjopon the greater and lefler propmti. Hc 
■"f*ed onder Herod theGreat^about A. A.C.30. 

"•T^TAaouM OF JoiEPH TNB Blind ia 
•P* tte Hagiographa. This anthor is muck 
B9it aoderB, and \cU eileemcd than thofc above- 

! "rArTAtcuwop Onkelos i« the moft of 

1 **^U«i»ed, and copie« are to be foand in which 

1 5»»^lcttcd verfe for veife with the Hebrew. It 

•wjiort and fo (imple, tbat it caunot be fufpcc- 

Woi bciRg c.irrupied. ' Tris paraphraft wrote 

,*"? *PM tbc books of Mofe8 ; and hia liylc ap- 

P^cho Dcarly to tbc purity of the ChaWec, aa 

■• w«od in Daniei and Ezra^ This targom is 

2«« tbeMifchoa, biw was oot knowo cithcr to 

"^J»»! St Jeromc, or Oiigen. Sce Onkelos. 

^[|WU, a mcr e#Africa, on thc Slavc C(iafty 

^ roni tbroogh tbe kingdom of Popo. 

/ARlcaSUM, a fortificd town ot Judaa. 

j^1*TARIP. »./. [perhapa a Spanilli word; 
*T» rr.] A cartd of coa»m(rce.-«^Thi« braach 

Qf our trade was rkrgulated by a tariff^ or decU- 
ration of tbe duties ot import and cxport. AJdifi 

(2.) Tarif io a tabie or catalogac containinK 
the of diffcrent fort9 of merchand.^e, v^ilb 
the duties to be paid as (cttled by authority ar 
cong trading nations. 

TARirPA, a fcaport town/bf Spain, in Sc, 
^ilhl, OB a bay fo uamed, on thc N. (idc of th« 
Straits of Gibraltar; fortiried wiih walU, towers» 
and a caftlc. By the Romans it wat calkd Ju- 
LiA Traducta, aiid Julia Joza ; anct a^terwaids 
Tariffa by the Moors. It is 37 miles SSE. of Mc- 
diiia SidDoia, aitd 17 WSW. of Gibraltar. Lon. 
5. 40. W. L^t, 30. o. N. 

TARIN, Prler, a French pbyrician .ind aulhor^ 
born at Courtenai, about thc c»d of tbc t^th ceno 
tury. He pubjilhcd, i. Aiter/aria Anaiomicai 
4to. 3. An Anatomiral DiStionar^t 4to. 3. Q/2c0^ 
rrapJbia^ 4to. 4. Antbropeojniat or the Art of DtC^ 
Tedbng: 3 vol8. i3mo. 5. A Treatile on Liga* 
mcnts ; 6. Obfcrvation8on Mcdicine and Surgery i 
3 volg. iirao; and 7. A Defcnption of tbc Muf- 
cics; 4to. He dicd in 1761. 

TARINGASONG, a town of Thibct, 17 miles 
SS£. of LaOTa, and 106 N. of Ghergong. Lon* 
93. o. Ej Lat. 3S. 6. N. 

TARINURAK. a riverof RuAia, whicb^runs 
ioto il e Lena ; in Lon. 143** E. Ferro. Lat. ^i^ N, 

TARITO, a t^wn of AUa, iti Tbibct; 33 miles 
S£. of Tchontori. 

TARKA, a niouotain of TranfyWanij( ; x% milct 
N^E.of Udvarbely. 

TARKI, > 3 town» of Hungary: ift. ij inilcs 

TaKKO, 5 NN W. of Topoliiao : 3d. 6 milcs 
ESE. of Szcben. 

TARKU, a city of Aria, capltal of Dagbettan ; 
on the W. coift of thc CafpiaQ Sea: 53 miles 3E« 
of Derki, 130 N. of Schamatbie» 360 S. of Allra- 
can, and 300 N£. of Tauris* Lon. 47. 5. £. Lit. 
45. 50. N. 

(<.) TARLAND, a parifti Qf Scotland, io the 
W. part of Aberdecn(hire ; united ^ith tbat of 
AIij(vie. £xcepting tbe lands funrounding the vil. 
lage, which aie levcl, the greater part of tbc.fur- 
facc h mountainous and thc climate cold. The 
moantains are moftly cuyered with heath, and af- 
ford good pafture for llieep, and in fome places 
good gr:tf8 for black cattic. Tbcy alfo abound 
with game. The population, in 17^1, was 1100; 
deoreafe 300« fioce 1755. The pariih is watercd 
by the Dt/iry, and a part of it lying in that cf 
Strathdon is watercd by thc Don. 

(3.)Tarlano, a borough of barony in the a- 
bove pariAiy nearly in thc ccnlre of thc diftri^ of 
Cromar, ieated on tbc banks of the Dc&ry. It 
bas a weekly market, and 6 annoal fa.r8, and con^ 
tainea 150 inhabttants in 1793* 

TARLETON, Richard, a celtbrated Englifti 
adlor, born ahout the beginning cf the i6th ccn- 
tury at Condovcr, in Shropihirc ; nhence hc was 
brougbi to Landon^ and patroni^ed by Rubert Earl 
of Leicefter. Stowe fay8 be w.48 oiie cf the i3t 
wbom, in 15^3, Q. Elt^dbttb appoinled hcr play- 
ers at B^rn.Eimii ; aUowing thcut wages and iivc* 
ries as grooms of the chambci:^ He wrote a dia- 
malic piece, callcd TI:eS:rvcn Dcadlj Slns, Hc diwd 
about 1589. 

T 3 Ci.) TAR- 

Digitized by 


T A R r 148 ) T A R 

(i.) TARMA, a towti of Afnca, in EgTpt, od wbicb it is tbe capital ; feiUed on tbe Taro; %$ 

the tfthmu9 of $uez. It was taken by the Sara- miles SW. of Parma. Loo. ic 9. £. Lat 44. 

cena, under Amru. See Saracens, § 3. 40. N. 

(a.)TARMA, a province or jurifdidion of Pe- TARODANT, orTARUDART, acityof Mb- 

ru, Tituated on tbe N. of Aturi-Xauxa, 90 milts rocco* capital of tbe proTiDceof Sui;featdoar 

from Lima, to which diocefe it belongs. The thc Atlantic Ocean, iso miks S. of Morocco. 

climate is temperate and tbe foiI fertilc, except 
towards the mountams wbere it is cold. Ic a* 
bounda witb black cattle and filver mines. 
TARMON, a mountain of Ireland, in Mayo. 
Tarmon-Barry, a town of Ireland, in tbe 
county of Rofcommon, in Connaught, with a 
bridge ; 64 miles firom Dublin. 

(i.) • TARN. »./. [tiom, lAandick.) A bog ; 
a fen ; a marlb ; a pool ; a quagmire. 

(a.) Tarn, in geography, a department of 
Prance, forfned out of the ci-dcvant province of 
Languedoc. It is bounded on the N. and N£. 
by the dep. of tbe Aveiron ; S£. by that of Herault ; 
S. by tbat ci tbe Aude ; and W« by thofe of Up* 
per,Garonne, and Lot. It estends 47 roileK from 
N. to S. and about as far from £. to W. brCdes a 
mountainous tradt 7 miles broad, from Caune to 
6t Oenrais, wbich extends 15 miles farther £. 
Castres is the capital. 

(3.) Tarn, a river of Prance^ which rife8 in the 
mountain and depiirtment of Losere, runs tbrough 
the above department (N^ a.) to which it gives 
name, from £. to W. palTes by Plorac, liphnhACy 
St £nimie, Compyre, Mithaud, St Rome, Lifle, 
Gaillac, Rabaltens, Yillcmur, Montauban, and 
other towns, and fa1ls into the Garonne near 
MoiiTac, io the dep. of tbe Lot. 

TARNAK, a town of Prance» in the dep. of 
Correze ; feated on tbe Yienne, 95 milcs £• of Li« 
moges, and 2$ ^* ^^ Tulles. 

TARNAYAY, a towd of Hindooitan, in Cali- 
cut ; 20 miles N£. of Paniany. 

(i.) ♦ To TARNISH. i>. a. [termr^ Prencb.] 

To fully ; to foil ; to make not bright. — Let bim 

pray fbr refolution, tbat b^roay dilcover nothing 

tbat niTLjtarmJb tbe gloryot Use fufering. Colier. 

Low wavcs the rooted foreft, vex'd, and iheds 

Wbat of its tonif/^'ihonours yct remain. Tbam. 

(a.) * To Tarnish. v. «. To lofe brigbtnci». 

^A fine objca ibould tamifi by bAving many icc 

rt. CoUUr. 

TARNOGROD, a town of theci^evant repu- 
b.ic of Poland, in tbe palatinate of Belcz and late 
provinee of Red RuiTu, now in the ncw Auttnao 
proYince of Galicia. 

TARNOWITZ, a town of Sileiia, in Oppeln, 
nrAr a filver mine ; 6 miles N. of Beuthen, and 38 
SK. of Oppeln. At tbis town AuguAus II. on 
fh ele^lon to the crown of Poland, in 1697, ^ay^ 
audtt nce to the ambailadors fent to him on that 
occafion ; and in 1734, a fimilar intenriew upon a 
flmilar occaAon was held by Auguiius III. with a 
rplcndid embaiTjr from Poland. 
* (i.) TARO, a nvcr of luly, which rifes io the 
S. p^rt of the ci-dcvant duchy of Parma, and runs 
iiito thc Po, 9 miles £. of RuiTeto. 

(2)Taro, orVAL »1 Taro, a vaUey in tbe 

late duchy of Parma» on the banks of the above 

iivcr, uow anncxed to the Italian kingdom, or ci« 

dryjiiir repnbric. 

(3.) Taro, a borough in tbe above Talley» of 

(Sec Sus, N^ I.) Lon. 8. 10. W. Lat. 30. 0. N. 

TAROGA, or Taraga, a town of Spais, k 
Catalonta, ieated on a bill, near the Ccrren; 5 
roiles W. of Cenrera, 15 from Lenda, and 30 N. 
Qf Tarragona. 

TAROM, a town of Perfia, in the proiincc of 
Lariitan : 69 milcs NW. of Lar. 

TARON, a town of Ptrfia, in tbe pro?ioccoi 
Adirbeitsan : 119 roiles S£. of Tanris. 

TAROONCHI, a town of Hindooitan, iiitk 
Mysore, now belonging to Grcat Britain: i| 
miles SSW. of Cbinna Balabaram. 

TAROUC Yamdson, a lake of Thibd, n 
roiles in circuit. Lon. loa. 24. £. Pcrro. lit. 
30. 3». N. 

TAROUT, a town of Arabia, in the pnmoa 
ofHad8Jar: 3» roile.s S£. of Catif. 

TARPA, Spurius Martios, a Latin critic iotll 
time of JuItUR Cefar and Auguttus. He hsd Ui 
tribunal io the temple of Apollo, whcre, wid 
four aiEitants, he paiTed fenteoce on tbc woikl 
of tbe poets, which, after his aipprobation, wdi 
depofited in the temple of thc mukes. Cicero m 
Horace make hooourable meotioo of this cntie 
He alib rcviewed the plays. 

TARPAULIN. See the oext article. 

• TARPAWLING. »./. [from^.] x.Heft 
pco clotb fmeered with tar.— 

Searcloth maits witb ftrong twrfav>BMg 

a. A iailory 10 contempt.— Wat aoy tbing wi 
ing to tbe extravaganoe of tbis age» but tbc 
king a living tarpawlin and the fwabba tbc ' 
of a tragcdy ? Denmu. 

TARP£IA, a vcital virgin, who betrayed^ 
citadel of Rome to the Sabines ; for wbicb, btl 
Toluntary miitako» they rewardcd ber with deati 
See RoME, $ 6. J 

TARP£IAN R0CK9 in Romao antiquity,J 
itrep rock in Ron^ ; wbence, by tbe law of U 
XU. tablet, thofe guilt^ of certain crirocs wfli 
precipitated. It took its oaTOc from Tarpb^ 
who was bumed near it. | 

TARP£IUS MoNt, tbe Tarpeiaii M « 
which Aood thc Tarpeian Rock. (See laftil 
ticle.) It was 80 feet perpendtcular in hcigll 
It was aIfo called Capitolimus» fron tbc Cl 
riTOL being bui^ on it. 

TARPOUt a large lake of Thibet ; 66 milcs i 
circuit. Lon.99. 40. £. Perro. Lat. 30.31. K. 

TARQU1N I. king of Rome, fucceeded Aooi 
Mattius A. A. C. 6x5. See Rome, § 10. 

Tarqvin II. fumamed tbePrmtd^ a tyraota» 
ufurpcr. See Rome, J la— 16. 

TARQUINIA, the daughter of Tarqvi« 1 
and the wife of Senrius Tutlius. Aiter tbe roui 
der of ber huiband, (fee Romb, 5 xi.) flie borie 
his body, and died of grief the night follovin| 
Others iay that ihe was poifoncd by tbe pamcidi 

TARQUINI£NS£S> the ancient iobabiunts c 


Digitized by 


GnnUiiaa» watedocated in it, took his funiaine 
f«rymv firoiii it ; aod after he htcunt kmg of 
lasr, by the oame of Taxquih I. roade it a Ro« 
mcahaj. (Sirah^ 5.) It it now cailed Tar- 

((,1.)TARQU1N1U8I. & II. 8ee TAiiQinN. 

(j.) TatQoiMios, Lociusy CoLt.ATiNus,one 
^tbc hro firft cooruls of Rome» the huibaod of 
UcuTu and colleague of Brutus. See Colla- 
Taot, aod RoMi« ( 11—14. 

T A R ( 149 ) t A R 

Taaimni. Thej eodeaToured to reftore Tar- ihirey which rife8 tn the pariih or Ewei, and hW^ 
^ 0. See RoMi, $ 14- into the £ik 3 miles below Langholm. It is re- 

TARQCJINIl9 ao ancieot city of Etruria, built markable for tts precipitous channel, and beauti- 
bf Takcmoii, an aUy of JBneas. Lucumo, the fu! romantic (cenery. 

TARRASA, a town of Spain^ in Catalonia ; 13, 
miles N« of Barcelona. 

TARRATZ PoiHT, a cape on the N. coaft 
of St Yincent. Lon. 6^. i6. W. Lat. 13. «4, N. 
TARREGA, or Taroga. Sec Taroga. 
* TARRIANCE. «./. [from tarrj,'^ Stay ; de- 
laj ; perhaps rojourn.— 

I am impAtient of my torrianee. Sbak» 

(i.) ♦ TARKIER. ». /. [Thii ihould be writ- 
ten terrUrt from terre^ Prenc^, the earth.l x. A 
TARQUITUS, a '(6a of Paunus and Dryope ; ibrt of fmall dog, that bunts the fox or otter out 
«ko dtted Turaui agamft JEoeas, and was killed of his hole.— The fox is earthed ;. but I ihall fend 
^tWlatter. firg.JEn.x.^.S5^ two tarriers in after him. Dtjden. a. One that 

TARRACINA, or Amiur, an andent city of tarries or ftays. 
Ike Vdia, between Rome and Naples ; (fee (a.) Tareier, or Trrrmr, in zoology. See 
Anvt:) Bow called TtRRACiNA. Canis, i I, iv, N^ 19. 

TiRItACO, in ancient geography, a ctty of TARRING, a towo of England^ tn Suflex ; with 
luuiu TARRACOMRNSiSy of wbicn it WRs the a market on Sat. 17 miles W. of Brighton, and 57 
of^ibaflded by the Iboenidans ; and planted S. of London. 

' " " TARROCK, jf./. in omithology. See Larus, 


(i.) • To TARRY. V. «. [tar^^ Prcnch.1 »• To 
iay ; to contioue in a place. — 

Tarry I here, I but attend on death. SbaJL 
1 dare not die, but fain would tarry here. 

«. To delay ; to be long in coming. — Make no 
tarrjing, O God I P/ai,--Thcj that tarry long at 
the wtne. Prov. Rxiii. 30. 3. To wait ; to ex- 
pea attending.— Tarr; ye herc for us. £W. 

XXiv. 14. 

(a.) • To Tarry. V. a. To wait for.— I can^ 
DOt tarry dinneT. Sbak. 

Tarry-town, a town of New York, whcrc 
major Andrĕ was apprehendcd. See Andre. 

(i.)*TARSEL.«./: A kind of hawk.— 

MkiRoman colony by the two Scipiones Afri- 

oi, Bd (eated on the coaft of the Mediterra- 

101. It b now called Tarr agon A. 

TARRACONENSIS Hispania, an ancient 
kuo profiocc of Spain, called alib IBJ^ama 
Otrs, or Gte^iort in refpeA of its Btoation as to 
i»e. (See Hisfania.) It was boonded on the 
)^'bTtbeP]rreoees and the Cantabrian Sea, now 
ttBi7of Bifcay ; on the E. by the Mediterra- 
m; $.bf LQfitania, and Hiipania, Bctica; ^nd 
V by thc Atlantic Ocean. (See Bjbtica) It 
•u imm for its wioes. Tarr aco was the ca« 
ful It compreheoded Catalooia, and ibme a^- 
^ditnas. See Catalonia. 

;i ) • TARRAGON. •./. A plant caUed herb- 

(l) TiatAGON. Sce Artimisia, f III. N* 4. 

TARRAGONA, an ancient ctty or Spain, in 
C**1«M, of which pToyincc it is the metropoiitt 
■ttbeiao^ ao archbiihop. It is feated on a 
^ pwsd, on tbe coaft of the Mediterraoean, 
atbeiiooth of the river Prancoli. It has many 

Hift ! Romeo, bift ! O for a falkner'6 voice, 
To lure this tar/el gcntle back again. SbaJ^. 

Of tar/elj and of iures hc talk8. Prior. 

(2A Tarsel. See Palco, and Palcon, § a. 
TARSHlSH,or Tartessus, a town frequent- 

^^^ by regtilar baftions, but fK)t in |Ood rc- 
M^' k bai a graod Gothic cathedral, of YaA di- 
"^*^ aod elegant arcbitcdure ; with a mag- 
^^chapel, boilt with marble and jari^r, de- 
^toS/ Theela. But tbe city i^ neitherfo 
*P>Borfo popoiou^ as it was anciently ; for^ 
H ttidiiBcolions within the walls, it might con- 
^ ^ooo bottfesy wherras thcre are not above 

*arfRoman aotiquity, thoughmuch defRced ; ly roentioned by ancicnt authors, thc dtuation of 
J Woded with walls boilt by thc Moors, and which it is diAicult to afccrtAin. 

TARSIA, a town of Naplcs, in Calabria Citra ; 
7 mtles N. of Bitignano. 
TARSIUS, a river of Troa^. Stralto. 
(i.) • TARSUS. «./ 1««^ 5 tar/e, Pr-l Thc 
fpace betwiRt the lowcr end of the tocil bones of 
the leg, and the beginning of the five long bone» 
thatarejointed witb, and bear up, the tocs; it 
comprifc8 7 bones and the 3 olTa cunciformia. 
P^Bot thcy are all built with large fquare Di3. — ^An obfcure motion whcre the conjur^ion 
"l^ ; aod it has an univerfity ; with a conhder- is calied fynarthrofis 5 as, in joining thc tar/iu to 
*f tndcio corn, wine, oil, flax, &c. It is 35 thc metataifu9. H^i/eman. 
*^NE.ofTortola, 38 SW.. of Barcelona, 98 (a.)TARSUs. See Anatomy, $ 159. 
^ of MararoiTa, and aio E. by N. of Madrid. (3.) Tarsus, in ancicnt geography, a celebrat- 
^ «• 13- E. Lat. 41. 8. N. ed city of Cilicia, feated on thc CyJnus. It wa» 

TARRANTIUS, Luciui, an ancient Roman fouadcd according to fome, by Sardanapalus, 
^■'«"«ticiao aod philofopher, who was cotem- kin| of AiTyria ; or as othcrs fay, by Triptole- 
^«nb Cic^, and was t>ne of his fricnd8. mus and a colonjr of Argives ; wbile a jd fct of 
*oiibc:n ftil#H th^ P#^/*^ nf Ai^r*JM0i^t^ H^ authort afcribe its foundatioo to Perseus. It 

wasat one period the capital of all Cilicia, and 
became a riwal to Alexandri4 and Athcns in thc 
artt aod (ciencci. The iuhabitanU having, in the 


> t»c:n ttiled the Prince 0/ A/irologers. He 
^ tiro famous Horo/copes ; the one of Romw 
TARRAS, a rivcr of Scotland, in Dumfrie8- 

Digitized by 


T Y R r 150 ) T A R 

timc of Julitn Cicrar, (howcd thcrr.rtlYes fncnHly the wliitc is prtferabie, as containin< lef3 drofi .^ 
T 1 thf Rirrans, tltt-y ucrc cndowcd with all the t.nt^n' p.i.t;. : t'ic btil comcs Uom Gcrmaiiy, ;»nc 

ts ttic ici Lir of tht R!:t!iijh wuii:. 0.u«rr.— Th« 
fcrni. ij\\.i i'.iict of grap's is pmiy luinai into i 
ijn.d dr )ps or Ic\'s, ,^Ai\ p.Trlly i:it j crnft u 
laip K:i vhy rccul -ncy t. at i> com::uji;ly ctllcJ tartjr 
.i!)d ihM n\ \\ by th^ iiic bc dividt.i ir.U 
tivc vl^tf r :'g Uib.taucc"^, fokir of wl.ich \\r. not 1 
cul, ;ui 1 tl.c othci liot fo iiiAiiiicUly acia a^ tU 

]-ri\Mh<'ts of Roman ci: zcr!';. H. nce St P.iul 
< : tuncd bcir^^r n Konnn. It is now c;'iicd Tar ai^so, 
(i.^ • 'rART. aJj. \:cart, '/ .xon : /..m /^ts 
utch.] I. Soiir; acid : .fcuhra'cd ; 
l.ilU'. a. Sli.irp; kccn; l"cvcre. — 
V.'hy fo turt a favonr 
To tnin^pt t luch j-ood tidrg-^ ? 



"hcn h's humours gn>w tnrt thty brcak fuilh turtar itlc.f. i)'?»^'. 

l'"uwch ; tnrtiJi l'.'df- 

(z.) Tartak, C^J I. ^./. 1 ) «'< thc mythobg^ 
S.- ' lit !'L, ) -j : .1. d Tak rARUs. 

(^Vi AKP.^K, 7i /. th orr. r^irtary ; or pcr! a: 
r«.!) r '7<.r/rt' j ooiii /u'//7-;] A ua ivc of 'l".irt<4i| 
8^e 1 AKr \c:b, aud Takiar.v. 

(4 ) TAKrAK, \'i 1. ^y /: 2.) in chen:iiftiy an S. c C;i: MisTKV,ai:d Pharmacy, /i 

v5 ) Tartar, Cream ov. See Chemistri 
lr.JtXy aiid l'jcau. I; allo M.^TKiiiA Mkdua. 
13 now calied Sl'i'kk- rARiKiTi, o\ Potass. S 

TaR I RITh, N" II. 


(7.) Tar 1 AK, Ckysi als of. Scc Tartrit 
Tartar, Emetic. See CHLMisTRY,ai 

into cert'^!'^ uidden ty.ccii. 

(a.) *■ Tart. n. /. [tui i. 
^n ; t(tart^ Danilh.j A rinaii pic Mt m:ir. — 
} ;,;urcs, with divcts co^outtd tanh?-, bc l)ui tu)H : 
y^u ai ly lec as ^ood li^ht^ iu turtj. Bmcn. 

TARTAGLIA, N.colas a ccebr.itcd It diar. 
inatlictnalician, borti at Breici.i, whcrc 1 c bcc-i.r.e 
.n lamous te^^chcr of ihc i athtir.alical icic.ucs. 
Tlc publillicd fcveral works uiuch aic cUccmcd. 
lli'^ (.]uef trad U on num* tr a:^d .iicatuit, cmitkd 
'irattat di Nuricri tt MiTurc, 1556, tolio. iic 
tlicd about i ?58. 

TARTAK, au idol cf the Av!les. Scc Sama- 


TARTALA, a tnwn of lIindooft;in, iii C il.cut : 
21 miles r.. of l\aniany. 

V I • ) TA \V\\\ N, iu!j. [ U o I n t h c Ti '. Ml a n '. I vc .1 Va - P h .^ k m a c y , hidixfs . 

1 i^ ^Mted wdh icd, b.uc, ^ictu, ai.U biack colcuib ; 1,9 ) Tartar of thk yr.KTH, a bony cn 

U.iped iike lartaii. which oricn attachcs itfr!f to thc tceth. I 

(2.) Tartan, ;;./. or Tartan cloth, a klnd Thomlon and Touicroy fay it is conpuird 

c.f cloth, madc gciicra'ly uf woolien, fometimcs Sulphat ov Limi.. 

(.f li;itn, aml oticn of lilk, of various coli>uit> ; ae (lo.)TAKrAR, PHtNOMrsA ^nd properti 

bluc, rcd, grtcn, wl-itc, biack, ^ud ycilow, 6«:c. ov. Sce CHHMisrRY, /.v«/. and Taririte.N^ i 

running In paradcl line?, and crurii g tach oiher ; (11.) Tartar, s.ilts of. Sec CuE.MisTa thus forminj> yar-rus colourd lo,iiarts, paral- lnd.x ; aud Tartritk, N'^ i — 24» 

l'>^'rams and parallelopipeds. 1 hib drels is uuch (ii.)Tartar, yarious ohsolete kah 

worn by thc Scottidi IIiCHLANDtas. Tht tartau and distinctions ok, with ihc ncw uamc^. i 

«licia is laid to li^ve betn dtrivctl from the nu- Chemistry, rocab. I 6c IL 

» :cnt Gauls, or Cilta: ; the GdlH nonbraccati, (r.;.) Tap.tak, yitriolated 
'i hc lartaii is noadc into p]a'ds, coats, and phih- 
btgs. The mofi elej^ant form of this rirefs is 
v\ icn the coat is made of that kmd of tartan, in 
wiiK.h thc rcd (Iripc^ chitily prcvai! ; thc vtft cu- 

tMcly wh-tc ; tl e phil:he^-. drawcrs, or troulcrs, C«)Miilling of tartar. — In tiuits, ihe tartan 

' * t,Vat in whicli tJ.c grccn or bhic chitHy predt)- paits tf the T.ip arc thrown upon the fibrcJ( 

■•. :i.itcb; a-. 1 thc plaid, with cither thc gTcin or li^iicd for the Itoue, a'id ihe oily upon ibc ft 

! '.c pr- d>:iiiii^':!, but tl:livrin^ Irom that of ihe wilhiu it. Grcii'. 2. Ilchilh. — 

Sce SuLfHJ 

N^ 12. 

* TARTAREAN. adj. [tartaruj,LzU] HcHi 
Ili.Uhroiu riux'd with /«r/^jrco;! fuiphiir. M 
(i.) * TARTARL()US./7^/. Itrom tartar.) 

.ll-r^. S^^c i'M[LiliEG. 
j "j Tak 7 .a \ PlaiD. o 

i.' • 'iAi< i ANh. n./. 
-, rr.] ..V. 

')■:! 1|(,-M A 

.;' '''.//. 

l ) 1 AK1 A . 

lce Plaid. 

. Itnrtunit^ ]*a!i 'n ; tnr- 
1 rMis.:. u''-kl in trc .Mctli*vi:.i- 
It .iiul \ \'\:r conuTcd lail. — I 
lci.lib to Gtuua in a turiuth. 

.:i ita ;aii;.>u:4gc, a fma]l coaOin^ 
.t ! .!.'•. ,^ itt c', . , tl.t r.!cJ.itcr»aiit.ui It a, ar d hav- 
,, 'y .»:.r lu.iil a.ul .» t/'vv'p;it, li.c piiicipa! 
. vvhii li i.^ • .<• '».uiciv (.^i^c, l>v.m>i c)«Un.!t d l y a 
ti.-yard. V htc t.oinus put up a itp.iic l.ol 
* cdcd a /htl < f f\iti<ht'. 

I \ ■" 1 aK J"r.t<. n.j. [tii tar:>s, L::'.^ I. Ib:!!. 
A' 'd Ly l!.t >.ic'. pjt"-,u uv t,Mo'ttc.— 

\V'i'h th:o '.l:c d .u.-:c;l ^-'.ol*.- hc ^•ovci :i"t'', 

/. .' fi;i:t^ i.;'l:, ..i;0 turt^ /(. lcnpcrcth. ^/^if»f. 

.1'% lU i>{(tiii iHiibo \..-it'. l'.aii hc!l. iihak. 

' liirlrr, T'' | Tiirlnr \- *-v I at Uck:> to *\iiiC 

i.-» iikc a ^. .. d iti^! r, t:fi.'r v.t:!lc t*- rcd, as 

^ 1..U' -1 U.c v.u.c 1: ;.i; \vl.i-r:ce it coa.ei t 

'he lVui't of GotJ downward purgM 

The bia.k iartcirt^ora co!d iuf.'rnal dret,'^. M 

(2.) Tartakljus, in modcrn chemiilry, 1 

S u L r H u R i o c s for Su l p h u aou s, is uow cntJ 

ly diopt lor 1'artarous. 
(3.) Taktarfous Acid. Stc Chemistry, 

d(x ; aiuj Tak rARr)us. 

VI.) TARl ARIAN, ndj. Oi or belonging 

'iAKl ARY. 

(2.) Tartarian Sk^, a part of tb- Eallern 
ccAii, wiiich bounds L.iilern Taitary on tbc 
aiid S. 

TARTARIS, ) ;/. /. [from TiJ^tnr.] 

TARTARITi:, ) ..amcblira givcu by mo<i 
cheu.ill, to the ialts now calied Tarthi 
Sci Chimistry, h/ dt X ;^nd Tartrite. 

* To TARTARlZi:. 1;. a. [Uom tartar.] 
imp;t jj:"»atc u ith taitHr. 

I I.) TAirrAi<]ZlT:), adj. [rrom tnr 
izK ; irTu.r^'L'v.a:cd wiili t.iiiar. 

Digitized by 


TAR rf5i> TAR 

(i.)TitTAKiZBD Antimokt. Ste^CHiMiST- ft>o«tanrotts dccnitipontiort, whcn diiTolrcd in 
y, !9jcx. w^tcr, unltl» ^rcaily diluttd. It ox!datfs iron, 

(j/.TAiTAiiiED Irow. SecPHARMACY, /*//. zinc, aod «ven mercury ; but docs not aA uoon 
(4.)TARTAKizbD Tartar» &c. SccChe^ aiitimoMy, biCmtrth, iin, icad, <!oppcr, GNer, gold, 
mtr,FotĔ6,U nor platinum. li combincs with alka4ttr«, caTth<, 

(I.) » TARTAROUS. aJJ. [^rom tartar.] Con- and metallic oxi*Jes and form8 faU8, namcd<TaR. 
iTiinstjrttr; confifting ottartar. tritis. — HcrmHadt ha» afccrtaincd ihat it ftj.iy 

\v)Tartakous 18 now uriiverfally ured hy bc cony>?rt«d into oxa.ic acid, by diftll!injr tt oU 
tticru chcmiils, for wbat was formeny «Knttcn ttn wiih tix tmK-*» its wcight of nitric acid. By 
'itTAtiout: Ai this proccfs, h^ obtaincd 560 part^ oxa*ic acid, 

lj.)TAtTA»0U8 Acio. See CHtMiBTRY, /«- fTo*i 360 part» of lartrous. Ft)urcroy and Vau. 
kat TAKTARSOut. Ai the accouirt of ihig queliri afcertamed its- ingrcdients to bc 70*5 oxy- 
ndib(regiveD iidefcdive, we add the follow- gen, 19" carbon, and 105 hydrogtn. It» ;(ffii)iiic9 
ij pirticmars from thc ingvnicni8 1>t Thomlbo'» are t^e iaaie with thofe of thc osaKc acid. Purc' 
}f.9fQbem. toU 11* p. 109.—" Scheele (fay8 tartamus acid ha« fcarcely bcen put to any ufc; 
:) «1« the 6rft, who obtained this acid in a flD- bnt fome of its compound» are much Qfed in me- 
mtr ibrr. He comreumcated h'u priH:ef^ to dicine. It has the propeny<>f combioing in two 
ritM, who puhrdhcd tr in the 5^#riiM«f Truir/. diA^rent prnportions wrth* many bafc9. With 
ir i:;o. It confiftrd in boihng tartar with litne» poUfic it forms a fait pretty folable in water ; (fec 
^4 dfcotnpoflng thc tratrite of lims thus Tartrite, N® i — 24;) but wtien addcd hi a 
wcJ bTfBlph«ric ;>cid. The procef« now etti* grcircr pi*opo>tio«t it f«»rm8'TARTAR. 
*»»d «tbe Umc with Schec!t'9 ^-LHATol vc tar- ( i.) TARTARS, n./ plw. The naiives of Tar-^ 
«iiWl!nf wattr, and add to tbe f jlution pow- t«ry. (SetTARTARY, J i,t. I— IV.) Althc/ widc- 
^cialk hll aH effeTire(cencc ctafcs, and the ly difpcrfedy and vcry differcnt hi their cuftom« 
^^ fnfci to rcdden v<g«*tablc hlucs. I^et the- and manncrs, they arc detcended from one com- 
>H^I,andpaf«it throujTh a fitter. A <|nan- m.m Aock^ anl arc generalty coniidcrcd as the 
>)rfTASTSiTi oF LiME, whtch 1« an infoluHlc defc<;ndants of tbe ancient Scythiahs. Ail thc 
f 4( p^wdrr, n m;««n9 upon tbe filter, Piit th-s TarMrs clalm to be defccndtd from TVR'it, the 
rtntf» we4 wa^^cd, into a g iaTs cuciir^-irc, XhA cKltfft ibn of Japheth. Although ffom the timc 
tarro taquantfty of Tulphunc acid« eqiiai) to that Jenghiz Khan fubdoed all Tartary, and a 
^Vfigfitof tbecha!k tmployed, which mull bc gteatpart of Afia, and made irruptions into Eu- 
Jptd with wa^cr. Let it <WKeft fnr it ho^H^ rap«, they4ijiv«!^been known by thĕ namc of Tar- 
mi k orcaa^natly. The ftiipfniric adt^ti* TAic*, to whlcHthat df Mongols or Mogijls, 
p^tbc tanarou": Ailplrat of littie letmtins»! ofwha^ he was properiy the princc, appearcd 
NV*taM, wbiie thc tartarous «oid i«KUflolv«f infenor; ncvcrthelefs, theTartarspref*rveamong 
J^hjirn}. Decint off thit Uft, and try tf It them4etvc8 the of Ttjsks. Thofe who are 
anf fulphuric Rcid. Thij is done by Mahomctans bordering oi^ Rudi^, but tnc^epen- 
pin a lirile aretite of lead ; a prrcipitate dent of that crown, arc addi^tcd to robbing the?f' 
» wUdi Is 'infoittble inr acetogs acid if ful- ncTghbours: the KALMt;cRs and MoicGtJLS ane 
tscid be pr-fenf, Iwt ibWb^eif it be abrent; ircry diATcrent in their behaviour, liting quietly on 
■V>wicjG»d be prclent, tke*H<j«id moit be the produce of their foil, wtthoilt domg injiiry tcr 
^ ijtsto on fome more tsartiite of lin:>e ; tf othcns. The Tartars of ARatk Rudia are likc- 
^itiitobr Oowly evapor«ted, and about dne wifc a quiet, inOflrcn(ive peoplc, Iiving chieHyby 
•^JW wtighrof the Urtar entpl^yed is obtain- bortting and IWhing. 

■<ry*ailxcd tartarous Acro. Thc form (».)Tartars, Crim, otKriM, f hc rtatlvtt of 
■C7ftiu is fo irreguUr, that ewy cheroiil^ the Cr»mea. Src Tartary, rT III. 
■^tTeated of themt bas gtven a diffe^cnt (3.)Tartars, Crim, is alfo thc namc of .1 pco- 
r^ioa. Bergman liiys, they confift of diYa- ple of Arta, ibcatled betaufe they origrnaHy came 
*■? hmeUaj ) Van Packen, tbat they aflume fronj. Crimea. They rove from place to placc \n 
^P» flf kKJg pointed pnllns; Spielman and fearch of paftures, their houfes beingdrawn un 
J*" obtaii>cd them in groups, lance-ihaptd, c;g»s. There are a great number of tlie n abour , 
P*^*'»"»*^, and pyramldal. Mormu obtain- AAracan, to whtch place they flock in ihe wim^ 
F™*?«ile.fotmcd. Their fpedifc graviiy !s timc; but they -are not permttttd to enter thc 
f^CfylaUfxedtartarousacid tuHrrsitochangc city : for this reafon, th^ ere<5t hnts np and 'fov^ii 
f«pn»«f, but hmt decompo^es it altogether: in the opcn fields ; which are madc ctthcr of biiH-' 
^T^ •re it bom» without aoy rendnum mrthrs or rceds, bc?ng aboyit ii fcct m diarjcttr, 
'p^Jcgy charcoai, containihg fomc lime. of a-roand fo^m, and With a holc at thc tc5p tv) 
diWird io clofc vcflcls, it is converted Into let out ihe fm6ke. Thcir fuc» ts turf or cow- 
*>cid gat, aiul carbonated hydvogene gas, dung ; and, wben Ihe wc«her is very ci^ld, thcy' 
*wl 0)1, and a reddiib acid liquor, which covct thc hut with a coaHe cloth, ai»d ni^ettm^^s" 
^My naned PYRo-TAiTARkous Acid; pifs fevcrai days without rtirring oirt. Thcy .irc 
-•««I1TRY, J»M^;) but which Pourcroy generally of ftnall (lature, wifh Iaigcfaces, littlc 
**?iHtn bave afccrtained to be merely tce- eyes, and of an oKrc complexion. Tbe incn tTt 
^ '«pregnated wilh oil,— Tartarons acid jKnerally fo wrinkled in their faees, that thcy look 
^ ttaJily in water. Bergman^obtaincd ;< hkeoldwomen. TbcircommonTood tsHth dricd 
Jj«f tbe fpecific graviiy of i^ajo. Mor- in thc fun, which ferve« them irHlead of brcad ; 

r**'^, tkat cryftalf /ormed fporitaiieoufly and they eat the Aelh of horfes as well as camcl -. 
I «cre roS4. It t| oot It^Ic to Thctr drink is watcr aod milk| dpccially marcK^ 

Digitized by 


T A R ( t 

«liik, which they carry about in nitty leathern 
^ags. Tbeir gartnents arc of coarTe grey clothy 
with a loore mantle ma^^e oi a hlack {heep'8 {kin, 
and cap of the fame. The «romen are clothed in 
white linen, with which Iikewire they drer^ their 
hcadsy banging a number of Mufcovian pence a- 
i>out them ; and there is Hkewife a hole kft to 
ftick feather8 in. A8 for thcir religion, they are a 
ibrt of Mahometans; bvt do mot coop uptheir 
women like the Turks. 


Kalmucs; and Tartart, N^ X, § lu 

(5.) Tartars, language of tne. Thetr 
language is Bngular in this re^ped» that thc Terb 
differ8 as often as the iiibftantive go^emed by it ; 
or, to every different fubftantive they ufe a difl^ 
rent verb. Another fingularity ib the copiou(hef8 
of i\ i for bcBdes names for each fpecie6 of ani- 
tnaUy tbey bave words to exprcfs tbeir feveral 
jlges and qua!itie8. 

(6.) Tartars, M00UL9 pr Monoul. Stc 
MoGULs, § 1—7; andTARTARY, N**I, fU. 

(7.) Tartars» Usbsck» a nation of Indepen* 
dent Tarurs. The name of UJhtckit which the 
jruling thbe of the Tartars of Kara^mand Great 
Bukbaria beary is derived from one of their khans. 
The Ulbecks of Karaim irc diyided into feveral 
hords, and Uve for tbe moft part by rapine ; re- 
lembling in all refpeds tbofe of Great Bukharia, 
CKcepting tbat they are much more nide and an- 
civi)ized. The goyeniment of KaraCm» the Ul^ 
becks being roalterSy is commonly vefted in djwersi 
princes ef tbat tribe of the fame bottfe $ of wbooii 
notwithdanding» onky OAe hae tbe title of khath 
with a fuperiority over the others. Thts khan 
has no dcpendence on any otber prtnce. Bnkha* 
rya is the name given to all that regton or traft 
of land lying hetween Karafm ^nd the Great Ko- 
bi, or Sandy Defart, bordering on Cbioa. It is 
dividcd into the Great aad Little Bukbaria. See 


(8.) Tartars, Yvtu $ce Tartary, N** I, J L 
TARTARUM. Sce Matejiia Mrdica. 
TARTARUS, in the mytbolugyy the infernal 
legionsy or the HeU of tfae ancient Greekr, Ro- 
mans and Egyptians ^ which con(ifted of two di« 
vifions, the one called BljJSumt for the receptton 
of tbe virtuou8 ; the other Tartarui^ for that of 
the wicked. (SeeELYSiuM, and Hbll, § 3.) Tar- 
tarus was farrounded witb a brazen wail, and its 
entrance was continttally hiddcn from the 6glit, 
by a cloud of dar]mefs 3 times more gloomy , than 
tbe obCcureft night. HcBod fay8, (TJbeos, 7^^*} ^^ 
was a prifon9 at a greater diftance from tbe earth, 
than the earth is mm the hea? ens. Yirgil Tays, 
{J?if. vi.) it was furrounded by 3 impenetrable 
walis, and by the impctuoiM burning ftreams of 
the river Phlbgbthon* Tbe entrancc was by a 
iarge lofty tower, whoie gatet were fupported by 
columns of adamantt which neither gods nor roeo 
could open. lo Tartarus, (he adds,) were puniih- 
cd all wbo had been difobedicot to parentSy trai- 
tors, adulterers, barbarous conoueroni, who un- 
deitook iinjuft and cruei wars, taithlefs miniftcrsr 
&c. It wat the place where Tantalus, Ixion, 
SisYPHus, the Danaides, and other heinoit*i of- 
fender8, were punifhtd ^ (Chw^. Met. iv. /ah. 13. 
Som. Odjf»%i.) and was frequeuted br tbe Fuiu£9| 

5« > T A R 

the Ha&pies, and otber monftersof theReatlKa 

(i.) TARTARY, a Ycry Jaige coontry of Afia, 
fituated bctween 57" and x6o^Lon. E, of Ffrn>, 
aod between 37^ and $5** of Lat. It ii boundc^ 
00 the N. by Sibcria, or that part of A&a whicl| 
belongs to RuOia ; on the W. by the Don, Woii 
ga, and Kama, whicb feparafe it fTom Ruiiia;o^ 
the S. by the £uxine and Cafpian Seae, Karab 
tbe two Bukharias, China, and Korea ; aad « 
the £. by the Oriental or Tartarian ocean. It es 
tends from £. to W. 104^ in lon. or 4145 i^^ 
phical miles; but its breadth is not proporttoB^ 
bemg not above 960 miles where broadcA, m 
where narroweft 330. Tartary, in its moA cxtei^ 
five fenfe9 contains ait tbat vaft couotry of Aii^ 
whicb lies between the Frozen Sea, tothd^.as 
Perfi9, Hindooftan, and China to tbe S. and ii 
cludes a great variety of nations, to «^bich ii ai 
phed the general name of TanTAas or Tatau 
withaparticuiaroneoften from theirlocaliituatio^ 

(lO Tartary, classss and Divtsiovs 
Mr Strahlenberjrt a Swedi(h officer, who rdkk 
(bme years in Siberi^ divides all Tartary ioto 
ciaiTcs: the firft containing 7 diATerent nation», 
in the dominions of Ruffia, vi£. tbe Monlwi 
who dwell in the governroent of NiiECoaoD ; t 
Tf SCHBREMISSEB9 or C^r^jnj^, in thatoC Riti 
the Permians» in that of Perm ^ the Yotiabs, 
the govemment of Yiatsa ; tbc VoGoi;i.s, « 
dweli on both fides of tbe mououios, whicb m 
cd a (eparation betwcen RuiSa and Sibcria; i 
OsTiACJCS, who dwell on tbe coafts of theOd 
and the Barabint%h who inhabit the couDtryJ 
tweeo Taea and Tomsk. The td dafi of I1 
tars» includes tbe Bwdsuackj^ which dwcU on I 
coaftB of the Black Sea; the Crim Tabtai 
vho inhabit the province of Taurida; tbcK 
BAN Tartabb, on the banks of tbe Koban; 1 
the Tartars of Dagmcstaii. Tbe N^sm^ 
Tartars of Aftnican, or Kazan, and UrNA. t 
Balkirs and the Tartars about of Tiumen, Tai 
ToBOLSR, and Tomsk. Thc Uscek Tabta^ 
the TuRCOMANS, the Kur^t the Kmrskgi^ 
tbe Sajant%h who dwell near the head of ttc 
nifei ; the Kirgis» wbo occupy the mountai* 
of Irake Biakal ; tbe Burats ; the Jtrinttit "^ 
alfo inkabit near the faa\e mountaio, aod 
Yacti, more to the N. on the banks of the~ 
Tbc 3d claf8 incHides the Samotedes, on tbc 
of the Frozen Sea, from Archang^i to the ' 
The 4th clafs inclodes the Kalmucrs and 
GULS, who were formerly but onc peopk. 
5th claf8 inciudes the MatUehauc and Tunco| 
The6th cIafscontain8the (avagc nations 00 tbei 
coaftof AAa, a« the Tschutski, &c. witb 
inbabitants of Kamtschatka, and tke KrB 
Iblandb. Of thefc« tbe ift, sd, and 6tb 
are fubjed to Rudia, but a fmatl part of tbe 
indtpendent. The 4th is partly tndepcndcnt 
partiy fubjf<5t to China. The jth claf$ is wt 
lubjbA to Cbina. AU Tartary may be dtvidi 
to 3 parts, viz. Cbinefe Tartaiy, Im' 
Tartary, and RuAian Tartary. 

I. Tartary, Chinesb, U bounded on t1 
by Siberia, £. by the Gulf of Kamtfchatka 1 
tbe £aftern Sea, S. by China, and W» by 
ccuntry of thc Kalmucks, which-licB betwecii 


Digitized by 


T A 

CiTpian Sa and Kaibg^ir. 

wiiich 4t ^••crent inhabit it, wcre formci ly compre- 
it^cdcd undrr tbc £f ncral namc of Mongui or Mo^ 
piTartarjt a warlike and for midab>e natiuo» who, 
jQ t&c onc band» conouercd Hindooltan, under 
lijeDonrtc', Jenchii Khaoy (fcc Moguls, § i 
-:; MoNGULS, aod China, § 9.) and on the 
oihcr, fubducd Cbina. In the ijth ccntury 
t'^ Mooguli took poOcdion of the latter empire ; 
ttttaftcr haring rcigncd therc for 100 ycars, thcy 
wwr apcllcd hy thc Chmcfe, in 1368. (Sce 
CaiNA,^ 13.) Thc fugtttves took diffcrent rout^ ; 
iosac wcnt to«rard< the £ idern Sea, and eltab)i(h« 
d ibemlciTcs bctwecn China and the river Sagha* 
Ha: tbcrfftrctumed wcdward to thcir former 
couotry, whcre intcrmlsing wttb the Mogulsthat 
rc^inird, thcy fooii rcfumcd their ancicnt oun- 
BtrQflinn{(; 'thofe who fcttlcd towards the caft, 
kiring fuund thc country alm6ft a dcfcrt, and 
«itiuwt iababitants, rctained the Time cuftom% 
v^tbey had brought from Cbina: hence tbeie 
tta Mjgat nationo diiTcr at prefcnt in languagc, 
l<'*cn»ieot, religion, and cuttoms. Thofe of the 
od rdiiu thcir ancient name of Af««t/f«/ or M^gyJ 
f^t\ the rctt arc namcd Mantch^ or Eajlcrn 
f<rtari. ChincA; Tartary is thcrcfore dividcd in* 
totwoparts, Eagera and Wejiem. 

i.TiiTARY, Eastern Chikrss, CKtcnds N. 
«»d 8. from 41-» to ^^^* of Ut. N. ancl E. and W. 
|fr3flj about 137« of lon. as far as ihc Ealtcrn Sca. 
j k « bounden ou the N. by Sibcria, S. by thc Oulf 
|rfLno4oogr and Caica; E. by thc Eartcrn Sca, 
j »1 H^.by the countiy gf the Mi»nguls. The Tar- 
*>nwhoretircd hithcr, aftcr thcir c}ipulQou fr>m 
^^io 1368, immediatcly bcgan to butldcitics, 
**«^ and viilagcs and to cuitivatc thc carth, 
i ^the manncr of thc Chincff, among whom 
(^UdliYcd: hcnce thc grcatcr part of thcm 
H^reoainrd fixcJ, and arc much mor: civiiifed 
»6ao ihc rcft of thc Monguis. Tbey Wcre at erft 
ITcatcdbyp^rticuiar khans,each indepcndent of 
tt«othcr; biit fincc that of Ninguta (who was 
tt«»o(t powcHiil among thcm) took potrcdio*! of 
wiaa, about thc middlc o^ thc t^th ccntury : Ihc 
ll^^cspcror, lCicn-Long, who was his dcCcendant 
™ce(l undcr his dominion all thc olhcr khans 
•Cttii part of Tartary. The prefent eaipcfor 
t^Biiit icnmcdiately by himfclf> and fends thi- 
"f^^9»crnor8, and officcr8, ad into all thc other 
^9c«ofthccmpirc. Thccountry of thc Mant- 
*y^ Tartars is dividcd into 3 grHnd dcpartments : 
•f TsiTiiRAR. 1. Thc governmcnt ot Sbin- 
^l^ OHitainmg alt the ancicnt Lyau-tong or 
VWone, U bounJc 1 rm thc S. by thc RTcat 
**'lof Chin:i and the Yclltiw Sca ;»oji tjic E. N. 
F« W. it 11 iuclorcd by a woodcn palifadc, % fcct 
r^ Tbc Uuds of this provincc afc vcry fcrtilc, 
ijj^iiaag plcnty of wbeat, millet, roots, and cot- 
|"if vidi pature togrcat nunibers of Ihccp and 
•^: AliopIcntyof appics, pears» nuts^RibcrJd, 
yrtcinuti. Thc princlpal placc^^ arc Sh ia-yanj» or 
*pieOjFong.whang, In-icn, Ichcw, and Kmg- 
^H* ^ country was thc on^inal uat of the 
2»' tribc of thc Manchcws, who havc bcen 
**^ of China above xob ycar», 1. Thc govern- 
*•••' ^^^Kirtn is biundcd W. by JU/au tong ; E. 


R ( 153 ) t A R 

The differcnt uibes by the Eaftcrn Occan ; S. by thc Core A ; and N hi 
the Saghalian ; fo that it cxtcnd^t no fcwcr thad 
la" and almoit ao® in lon. bcin^ 750 milcs long and 
600 broad. This vaft country abounds tn millct 
and oats, wtth an c&cellcnt grain unlcnown \6. 
Europc, called may-Jem-mi^ of d middlc.kind hi:- 
twecn wheat and ncc. It i's rauch ufcdi Th^. 
banks of the rivers are adorncd with a Yaricty ot' 
Aowers comroon iu Europe ; thc ycllow lilics ant 
of a moft Iiveiy cotour, rcfcmbling our white liU' 
lies, but of a much wcakcr fccnt. Hut thc plant 

mott crtArocd, is i^t gin/eng^ callcd by thj^ Man- 
chcws orbota, or tire gueen ojplanu. (Scc ^kHkX4 
N** 3.) Jt is hishly valuccl for its virtucj», in cu- 
ring fcveral diieales, and.has always bcen thc 
prlncipal richcs of Eaftern Taf tary. Thts ccAjntry 
abounds alTo in fine fablcs, grcy crmines, andt 
black foxcs. The manners of thc Yupi Tartarst^ 
one of tbe tribcs inhabitiiig this coiintry, are 
fomewhat extraofrdinary. AU the fuinracr thcy 
fpend in fi(hing : one part of what thcy catch iir 
laid up to makc oil faf thcir Umps ; ancaher feivesr 
for their daily food % a^nd the rcft, which thcy dry 
in the fun, without falting, is laid up fof Cbcrr win- 
tcr^s provifionSf for both mcii and cattle^ 'l*hcir' 
raiment confifts of the (kins of H(h, which^ 9SXf^ 
drcHing and dycing 6f thrce or four colour?, thcy 
(hapc and few in a Vcry delicatc manncr, with an 
eacccrling finc thong, cut out of a thin ikin. In^ 
Vititcr, thcir Aedgc» arc drawn by dogs trained 
for the purpofe. This country contairs only 4 
cities^ viz. Kirintdai Petuna^ Nmgutay and (^utay-i 
ula^ which are 111 built, and cncorppalTcd witl^ ' 
mud walla. Tbc fifft fl:ancls oti tbc rtvcr Songari, 
and is thc rcfid«nce of the NlantcbcW genera), ^ho^ 
a<5ts as viccroy^ Ninguta, whtc^ tht fami1y po^ 
rcigning in China coDfidcrs as its ancicn.t patri- 
mony, is fitu<tted on the Rurkaptra^ which ruiv 
N. into the Songari, The govcirnmcnt of Tsit- 
siKAk is 74C niies long and 6oabrQad^ and.b^- 
longs partly to China and partly to Rul^a. Tlie 
pcoplc arc ^cat hunters, dcjctcrous aYchers, and 
pay thctr tribute m fable-flrins. This provincc i^ 
inhabited bj tbree tribcs, the Mantehew^ the So-i 
tom% and TagurU of whom .the firft are maftcrs. 
Thc Taguri are a largc robuft pcoplc, bui not 
tcry numei out». They lii/e in boufcs or hiith^ and 
cuhivatc barlcy, cals and miliet. Thtir cattler 
arc prineipally horfes, dromedaric<,><)xcaf cows,- 
and (hcco. Thcy uff thcir oxcn to itd- on. The 
Solons alfo arc a brave robuft pcoplc, Thcir 
dref8 is afhort jackct and cap of woltcs ikins, and 
long cloaks mad« of fo3C cr tigers Ikins. Thc 
>vomcn ridc ori borfcback, drive th^ piotigh, hurt 
ftagp, 5cc. Therc Att 3 citics in Tfitli£ar, viz. 
Tfitfikar, thc capHal, Mrrghcn, and SaghaiiHii 
Uia. Thc garriroi of Trufikar, confift« of M;tn- 
tch6w« ; but ihc inhabitants arc mollly Chin<rfc. 

il. Tar 1 ARY, WtSTĔRN CHINEsr,. OT MoW- 

CUL Taktary, ia boundcd oii ihc N. by Sibc- 
ria, E. by Eattcro Chinclc Taitary, S. by the great 
wall and Lean-tonp, and W. by lndcpcnc'cr»t 
Tartary. It was partly (roni ihc bofoai of thdc 
dry dclcrts, ihat tnofc blc5(:ly con^arrorji iAbcc?,' 
who madc all Afia trcrablc. Thc Mopyul na- 
tion is fiibdividcd Into a mi»llitudcof othcra, wHt/ 
all Tpcak liJt fan;c Unyui^^c, gcncrAliy c.»n«d ih« 

Digitized by 


T A R 

Mongul hngtiage, tho* they ha^ fffveral diiferent 
dialedts, but whicb they all underftand. There 
Tartars bavc ncither towns, viiraBCS, nor bourts; 
thcy forro themfelves mto wanderin^ hords and 
livc undcr plam tfnl8, which thcy tranfport from 
onc place to anbthcr, according as the tcmptra- 
turc of ^c fcafons, or thc vt^nts of tbeir ttacks 
rcquirct th-y pafs the fummcr on thc banks of 
thcir rivcrs, and ihc wintcr at the bottora of fome 
ttiountain or hill, which ihclters thcm from thc 
iharp north wind. £ach of thefe tnbes jiais its rc- 
fpc^ivc limits and it woutd bc an a^ of hoftiliiy 
towards thcir nciphbours tu go bcyond thcm; 
but they arc at fuU libcrty to cncamp whercvcr 
thcy choofc within the circumfcrence a0igned 
thcm. Thc Moguls are free, open, and linccre. 
They priJe tbcmfclvcs chirHy on thcir dcKtcrity 
$n handling the bow and arrow, mounting on 
horfcbaclc, and hunting wild beads. Polygamy is 
pcrmittcd among thcm : bul they gcncraily havc 
only onc wifc. The Ikins which they ufc for 
dothihg arc gcncrahy thofc of thcir (hcep. They 
wear thc wool inmoll, and the Aun on thc out- 
fidc, Thcyare very well acquaintcd wilh thc ait 
of preparing and whitcning thcfe ikins. Son^c of 
the higher ranks ufc the ikins of ftags, dogs, or wild 
^oats, of which thcy make drcircs for tpring ; but 
thcfe ikins always cxhale a difagrceable fmell, ou 
wh'ch account thcy arc callcd by thc Chmef<^ 
7faofatfeStinking Tartan, The rtligion of the 
Mogui Tartars w coniined to the worthip of Fo. 
Thcy hivc thc moft fuprcflitious^ rcncration fcr 
the laniaA. AIl thc MnguU arc govemcd by khans, 
or particularprmccs, independcnt onc of ihc othcr, 
but ali undcr thc authority of the cmperor of 
Cbina, whom thcy conlider as thc grand khan of 
thc Tartars, Whcn the Mantchcws fub(^ucd 
China, they confcrrcd on thc moft powerful of 
thc Mogul princes the tiile of mang^ peile^ perre^ 
inA eong, which anfwcr to oar titles ot king^ duke^ 
countf and marguis ; cach of them had a rcvcnue 
aOigncd him, but far inferior to the appointmcnts 

C 154 ) 

t A It 

arc fivc othcrs, undcr thc immcJiatc pOTcmmOTt 
of thc cmperor of China, and coramandcd by of. 
liccrs whom he fends tbithcr. Tbt Kalkas Iwbo 
formrry compofcd a numcrous tnhe, (confifHn?of 
morc than 600,000 fairilics)inhabitN.of iheMo» 
gul Tartars. Thcir c6untry, fttetcbcs a^ far a 
thc kmgdom of the Eluths, is ncar 900 roiits in 
extcnt, from E. to W. In tbis region wasformtr. 
ly fituatcd, in 45** Lat. N. thc city of Karakon, the 
fcat of hc cmpirc of Jcnghi2 khan, and iha?of hu 
fucccffors. Thc Kalka» livc undcr tcnts, on m 
banks of thc rivcr8 whicb watcr thdr country^ 
that of Kilka-pira (though onc of thc in^iMi 
and al prcfent onc of thc lcaft frc%uet»tcd) \d 
givcn its namc to thc wly) c nation. Tbt mel 
confiderab!e of thefe>ivf rs arc thc Kcnlon, Toulii 
Touy, and Sclengui. Thc vafl dcfcrt, which ti 
Chintfc call Cbamo, and thc Tartar» Cobi, occj 
•pics almofl all thc S. part of thc conntry of tk 
Kalkas. A war which ihe king of thc Eluthsca 
ricd on in i688, againll thc Kalkas, almofl d* 
ftroycd ihc wholc nation. To avoid thc pUTfci 
of a Aiperior cncmy» thcy bcpged thc afliftancei 
thc Chincfe, ard offcrcd to fubroit to thc cmpirt 
Kang-hi undertook thcir dtfcnce, corqucrrd tt 
"king i)f thc Eluths, and kcpt the Kalka Tarta 
under his dwninion, aftcr having corfcncd opH 
thcir princcs diffcrcnt titles of honour. Thd 
peoplc havc among them of^e of thoic grand I 
man, callcd bou tou8ou^ whom they conlidcr am 
many living Fo*» : hc ts lodgcd under a largc ta 
ai:d Ihows himfclf to thc public, Jymg on a m 
of altar, wherc hc receivc8 the ?doration of aRtl 
Tattars. The hon touaou is howevcT but a lu 
of the fccond order; for the lama who rcOJci 
Thibct is acknowledgcd his fuperior ; (Bcc IJ 
Mi, N® f.) thc latter is gcncraHy confidcrcd 1 
thc high»prieft, and fupremc chict' af thc Tartarj 
ligton. Thc countrr of thc Ortous (who »om 
to tbc nonh of thc grcat wall, an4 to thc Mog 
propcrly fo ca!!edVi$ 110 Icagucs in cxtcnt, W| 
E. to W. and 70 trom N. to S. Thcfc pe«( 

of thc Mantchcw lords at Pcking: the cmperor * arfc divided into (ix ilandards, which comprclKj 

fettlcd the limit« of thcir rcfpcdtivc tcrritorics, 
and appointed them laws, according to which 
thcj are at prcfcnt govcmed: thele tributary 
khans havc not the powcr of condcmning thcir 
> fubjcAs 10 death, nor of depriving them of thcir 
poflcfiions ; thcfc two cafes of dcath and confifca- 
tion are refcrved for the fuprcme tribunal cftabli(h- 
ed at Pcking for thc a^Tair^ of thc Moguls, to 
which every individual may appcal from thc fen- 
tence of his princc, who is obligcd to appcar in 
f>erfon whcncver he is cttcd, A.i thc Mogul na- 
tions undcr ihc Chinefc govcrnmcnt pfiay be divid- 
ed itito 4 principal tribcs, whtch arc thc Mdguls, 
propcrly io called, the Kalkas, Ortous, and thc 
Tartars of Kokonor. According to the map of 
Cbinefe Tartary, tbe country of thc Moguls cx- 
tcnds more than 900 milci from E. to W. and 600 
fi om N. to S. It is incIofed betwcen the country 
of thc Ortous, tbc great wall, Eflflem Tartary, and 
the couHtry of the Kalkas ; thcfe peoplc compole 
49 kif or llandards ; cvery AandarO comprchends a 
immbcr of coropanics, each of whicb confifts of 
150 hcads of familie8 ; and asthefe familic8 arc gc- 
«crally nuncroua, each company may coniain 
1000 indiyiduals. Befides thefc 49 itandards, there 

166 companics, cach compofed of 15© hcadt 
familic8. Thc Ortous arc of a free diipohtiojl 
tremely Iivcly, and ncvcr fuhjeft to mclancW 
they may bc jufl»y called thc Frencb of TarU 
Tbc Tartat» of Kokonor (who arc Elutln 
Kalmucks by nation, and who are at prefcot (i 
jed>fl of thc cmpcror) occBpy an extcpiivecoui* 
to thc W. of China and the proviiice of Chcn 
whence thcy arc fcparatcd by lofty monntM 
They takc thcir name from a lake in thisco!iri 
Cdlied in thcir languagc kokonol or kokonor, wb 
IB onc of thf Iargefl of Tartary. Thcjr arc f 
jcdt to t pnnccs, who are cach indcpcni^cat 
thc o'her, and who arc all of the race ot thc t 
of the Eluth TarUrs. Thc(c peoplc dcrivc tl 
principal riches from thc gold whieh is found ti 
cd with the fand of thcir r!vcrs, and abo^c 
with that cf Altangkol, or thc Goldcn Ri 
The goId-dufl which il furnifhcs, is thc prmc 
revenuc of thc princcs of Kokonor, who cmi 
thcir vaffals during fummer in concding it. ' 
of thc principal articlcs of thc tradc of Koko 
is a kind of napped wo*>llen flufF, called pou- 
it is manufa<fturcd by thcfc Tartars, whobaTt 
art of dycing it cf diAcrent coiours. Thc^Hi 


Digitized by 


T A j^ ( 

eapirt hAi Wen lattly cxtcnded into Tartary, 
l^ ctkbn cd conquert of the kingdom ot thc 
I wh^ madc io 1759, *^y ^^^ empcror Kien.|ong. 
Tte wholc nation of thc Eluths, who in Eu- 
TDpc tnd i(oflij are oamcd Kalmucrs, may bc 
6nfci irto 5 t^ranchcs which ha^pail proccedrd 
inra iht Cimc ilcm. (Sct Kalmucs.J Thcmod 
■*fctlf (who at prerent arc moft powcrtul 
i»i luwBrrnns) occupy tbe country contaiotd be-' 
trrn tbc C4fp>an Sca, Ruilii, Samarcand, and 
iAnr. Thc td dmhon of the Elut *b inhabit 
tiiir £. Th? country is bounded oh thc N.bjr 
M 1, a d on tbe S. by thc tcrritorics of thc Ul- 
kiTinjTB. Thtfc arc thc peoplc wbomTien- 
ior^cbii^cd to fubmit tothe Chintfe govcrnment/ 
TV 3d branch of the EluihH inhabit lo the W. of 
CrtPijHHmrd thc Tartars ofK$kor,or, who, tor a 
^ m.z hate bccn lubjcAs of thc cmpirc. (Stc 
KoKOKot.) Bclidcs tbefe tribcs, there are o- 
ftm, wlia pofl'cfs tbat part of Weftem Tat'* 
tsyallcd Toskestan, thc original country 
«btlurks afi4 Turkmans, «n the N. of Great 
kbjra snd Karazm, bttwccn thofe countries 
BitKdomioion^ of thc Etuths. Undcr Weftf rn 
Tetjy alfo is comprchended Tibet, Thi- 
J2T, or TobbtK, fubjeded to thc Dclay Lama, 
* pnt high-pricft of thc Pa(;an Tartars ^^d 
Oftf{e. In aH thc ▼att rcgton of Wcftcm Tar- 
tery.ihert are but fcw town», rroft of thc mhaW- 
trtit f Jrnng undcr tcnts, e(pcciaily in fummer, mov- 
iDf rroBi pbcc to pUcc with thcir Rocks and hcrds, 
•sd graeraYly encamping near fome. river. The 
It ii tmpentc, wholcfomc, and p1cafant, bcing 
1^7 remoTcd frofn the cxtnemitic8 of hcat and 

n.TttTART, IiTDEPiMMNT, inchidcs atl thc 
©mtry betwecn Chinefc Tartaiy and thc Cafpi- 
B Sea, aod contains Turkestan, Great aiid 


Tbibit, aod foine nther counti ics and province8, 
**hibM by tbcUirBSCKs and Kalmucks. Scc 
fil Tartart, RtTM^AM, or Crim Tamtary, 
«t*cCtiMiA, thc an\eicnt Taurica Che^so^ 
nivs, a pcomAila of Afia, hounded on the 8. 
•4 W. by the Biack Sca ; on thc N. by the pro- 
*i>aef CathariQcnf1af, with whtch it communi- 
<^by the tdhmus d^ Prreltop ; and on the S. 
^6eieaof Afoph and the ftrait of Cafta. It 
•■«rty diAingoiihcd by its cKtraordinary ferti- 
^ iBd commcrcial idvantage8. Long before 
lbttraeof Hcrodotusj its S. coaft was occuplcd 
Jt (^crk fettlcrs9 who built fevcral towiis in it. 
i^ Grecks became tributary to the Scythians, 
•^ were afierward8 drivcn from thc country by 
•febndates VII. king ol Pontus. On his dcfcat 
^ death, tt became tributary to the Romans. It 
l^ faccc(Hve!y rarag^ by tbc Sarmatjc, 'thc 
^^ thc GothSy (who made an eftabrtftimcnt h 
themooiitaint to the S.) the Huns, and the Kba- 
■n. Toward thc cnd of thc xith ccntiiry, thc 
C«6oc{e icttled in thif country j but they \^erc 
««Ptikd by thc Tatiari^ io 1474. Thefc Tartara 
«1 bcen iettled in thc Crimea above two centu- 
•o bcfort thc cKpultion of thc Genoefe. Thcy 
*^ iobjcds oiBatu Khan, grandfon of Jenghiz ; 
^ their coaqocft was anncKcd to thc kiugdom 
^ Ka£ii}| ttii tbe dcaih of Taracrlaae in s^oc^ 

155 ) T A R. 

by whcn Edeg^T JChA^, an officcr of that prinj e, took 
po{rcfrirn %f it, and was fuccceded ' by Deulet 
Gherai, in whofe family the fovciciiinty continucd * 
till tbe i8th csntury. T^ekhaiis, howevcr, werc 
vaflrais, or tributary to thc Turk*, tili 1774» whcn 
their independencc was /lipuiatcd in thc trcaty 
of Cainargi. In 1783 thc RuAiansitook poircAion 
of thc country with an army ; in 1784 it wa5 ce- 
dcd to the.ti by the Turks ; and the pc.iceab>c 
poATcilion of thc whole was (tcurcd in them in 
1791, by t^c cc/Tion of thc fortrcrt. of Oczakow. 
Thc Crimea is divfded ioto two pirtt», by moun- 
tains which run E. and W. The N. divifion is 
fljt, poor, and fit for pafturage orly. in thc S. 
parts the valley8 are aftonilhinglyprodudlive, anrt 
the climatc extren*,e»y mild, from ihc cxclofion of 
thc v4olcnt winds hy which thc N. divifion i? fre- 
qurntly incommodcd. The lower hills, CKtend- 
ing fi*om CarrA to the E. exiremity of the coun- 
try, arc pnncipally ufed in ^ardening, and pro- 
duce cxrel»ent fruit. Achmciftcd was rrade tbe 
capital m 1785. Befidc the ports of Kcrth and 
Jenikale, the road of CafFa, and the harbour of 
Baluc!ava, therc is, near ScbaOapul, one of thc 
fincft harbours in thc world, fccured from all 
winds, fufficient4y capacious to admii largc fleetf , 
with a depth of watcr for fhips of any' bur- 
den. Tht Crimea now fonr.s ore of the two prn- 
vince8 of ihc governn[ient of'CATiiARiNENSLAT, 
undcr the name of Taurida. In rome latc mapi 
it iB cailed Taurica. See therc articlcs. 

IV. Tartary, Usbeck, is a part of Indepcri; 
ttcnt Tartary. On the N. and NE. of P<rfia Kc 
the countries of Karafm, and Great and Little 
Bukbana, which being mottly fubjed to and in- 
habited by thc tribe of Uibeck Tartars, arc com- 
monly named Ujbeek Tarteiry, The kingdom c5f 
Karatm Was known to the ancient Gretkp, a« ap- 
pear5from Hcrodo^u^, Ptolemy, aod others, bjr 
tbc namc of Khore/mia^ At prcfcnt it iR bound- 
c4 on thc N. by thc countrics of TurkĕlUn. an?l 
of the Eluths or Kalmnck8;'on tlte E. by Grcat 
Bulthanaj from which it i« fepara*red partly by 
ihc mountain8*of Irdar, andthe defHrt8 of Karak 
and Gaznah ; cn the S. by thc Perfian province3 
Of Afterabad and Khorafan, from which it is di- 
l/ided by Jihnn or Amu, and extenfivc defcrts^ 
and on the W. by thc Cafpian. It is about 440 
nMiCs lopg from S. lo N. and 300 broad from W. 
to E.; bcmg tituatcd betwcen 39** and 46* lat. N. 
and 71* and 77** lon. E^ It confift8 of vaft fandy 
plains, fome of which arc barrcn dercKs, but 
othcrs afFord eKCCilent pafturc. In fcveral pro- 
vincc8 vincs grow, and winc is madc ; but watcr 
is fcarcc. It owes all its fcrtility to 3 rivers and 
a lake. Thc rivers Rrc tbe Amu, Khrji^ and SiR. 
Thc Athu, as it is callcd by th<^ Ufbecks and Pcr- 
iians, is the Jihon of tbcArabs, and Oius of 
'the ancient Grceks. Jt rifes in thofc high moun- 
tains which feparatc Littlc Bukharia from the do- 
'Vninioiis of the^^Great Mogul ; and, afttr pafiSng 
throi^gh Great Bukharia and Karafm, dividcs into 
two branchcs, one of which fall8 into Khefil, and 
the other into the Cafpian Sea, towardi tbe pro- 
vincc of Aftarabad. Thc Amn abounds with ex- 
ctllent filh, and along its bmks grow thofe cx- 
ccllcnt mclona and other fruit trces fo much cf- 
tccmcd in Pcrfiaj the Indics, and Ruffia. Thc 
U 3 Kh^i 

Digitized by 


T A R 

j^bejl nfe« in th€ mo^ntain» NE. of Jamarkand^ 
^iid falls into the lake of Arai or Bagles, jo or 60 
iptles below its jijndion wiih thc Amu. It«bank8 
arc c^^ecdipgly iPcrtilc. Thc Sia or paria nfe8 
in the mpuntains £. df Little Bukharia, and Attcr 
4 lonp cpurie W. along thc bordcrs of Bukharias 
fiX\A Kara^m; fall8 into the lakc Aral. See Sir, N° 
3. Karafm u inh;^bited ]>y thc Sarts, Turkmans, 
»nd Ui)>.eck Tartars. |. Thc ^aru arc the an- 
jtjient inha]t>itant9 of the country, who wcrc fet- 
tlcd there beforc th^ U/becki becamc miillcrs of 
}t ; and t{icy livp \iy thejr caltle ;»nd hulbandry. 
Thc Turkman» or Turkon>ans damc onginaliy 
from TuRKESTAN, in the iith century. 

(3.)TARTA»y» MbuNTAiiisoF. Thcprjncipal 
pountajps, or rathtr chains of tnountaiDs, found 
in the W. part of Grcat Tartary, may bc divided 
into 3 clalTc?: i. Thoic Which run along tb« N. 
bordcrs of it, aiid go undcr the gcncral namc of 
illug T^lgt or Dag, that is, thc Grtat rMoun^ain. 
^. Thofc which ipatie thc S. bounds, and are caU 
}ed Kic^g 'Tagf qt ^he Z^r Mountajn» The ^d 
great phain i^ callcd /Htutc^ lyiiig ncarly in thc 
^iddl^, bctween thc Carpian Sea and £aftcrQ 
Tartary, ahd cxtending'bctwcen theother two, iii 
^bout iio'* lon. (Sec Mountain, } 8.) 


MANUPACTUR^ES, ^c, 0F. iu thc middlc of a 
flcfart, pn the baqk» of thc Irii(h, is a rcraarkable 
piccc or anti^pity c«iilcd Sedmy Palatjy or ti)e 
Jrvfn pf^iaeej, Aboyc Scdray Palaty, towards thc 
fourcc pf thc IrtiAi, grovvs thc bcft rhubarb iq 
the ^orid, withou^ apy culturc. In thc pl;[in oi^ 
iihis coi^ntry airo, about ( or fo days iourncy 
«r._ if : « . ^j.|^ ^^^ tpund' many tomb» 

o{ aiici^nt hci-oca, vyho arc 
len in b^ttic. Thtfc tpmkjs 
^d by th^ mounds of carth 

then}. por the maiiucrs and 
rtars; fcc Ifi^)LMpcs. 


lcsthc l)NiEf,ER, DoN, an^ 

liA of Yaijc, and Vem; boih 

Ulug Tajr, and failing JRlo 

Lhc N. lide of. thc rivcr Jii or 

s ou| of thp Kichi^g TagJ on 

i Bukharia, and runs NW in- 

wbich is about 40 miles long> 

and 30 broad. in lat. 48**, lon. 97^, E. of Fcrro ; 

vn this nWr the khan of t|ie pjuihs or Kalhiucks 

iiruairvf«|ic*c8; ttip Iniftft which rifeH ih thc Aitaic 

Mount> aiid runsW. inclining totbe N. bctwcen % 

|)^anches of it, intothe lakc Sayjan^ Saft(in* or I/orfi 

called alfo donhotu-^or^ ^o milcs long fr6m W. to 

p.and 4Q broad,in •ar. 47° ^p^, lon. 10^^; whcncc 

illuing agaiii, it i;uDP.IfW. through patt of Sibcrwi, 

?nd falU into thc Qby.' (Sec Oby.) On thc N]f . 

rife9 thc f^em or Jenija^ which riins Vf. Tor 7® or 

$**, and thcri^turninj? N. cotcrs Sibt^ia, l^ht ncjjt 

river of note is thc Shlenqa, y^^tch rifes out Qf 

156 ) 

T A R 

SW. ; and tnto the Orkon the TuU, 
MoMnt-Kentty; on which nfes alfo two othtr 
tivers, viz. tbe Onpnt calkd alfo by the TarUn 
Saghalian Ula, Qr the Oragon river^ iiA\^f 
tbe Ruliians A m u r ; which run.H N£. aod thcn tak. 
ing a large fwrep by tbe S. rolls along thc bouo(li 
of Eaftern Tariary, and talls into tbe Eaft«n 0- 
cean. On its banKR ftand t wo cities; Nercbinjk^\ 
or Nipche^u^ a fronticr of thc RuCTians, alroott duc 
N. oi Pekin in (hina ; and Sagbalian Ula^ puU 
lielfed by thc Chinefc. Anothcr large nvtr i$ tbe 
Kerlon^ or Keruion, which running NE. falU inta 
tbe l^kc Kuion^ or DaJayt which is (tq miles loot 
frQm SW.lo N£. and 27 broad, in lat. 4^^ i^ 
longitude 135 **, and ilTuing opt again uoder tbc 
name ^iErgma or Ar^un^ join« thc Saghilian Ul»| 
abput 170 miics beyond Nerchinikoy. (See Ai^ 
CUM, N" 1.) The Kaikai from whrncc, thougjl 
fmali, tbe Kaikn M^gulJt or MoifGOLb,taketbdl 
name, rifeR in the muuntaini^. lcparating Eaitrn 
from Weilpr'» Taitary| and, runninf E. ^aUsinu 
tbc lakc Putr, and tbcn itito that of Kulon. 


91RDS, FfSH, ^c. 0f, Though therc arc 
mountains, lakcw, aiid def4tto in it, yet the hanki 
the rivcrs,and thr plains, fomcof which art of gi 
j^jKtciit, and cx 'cediugl]^ fertile. The mo»ntai 
Hj^nodh, and defarts, abcund with yffnfon, gai 
and wjld fowls; and thc rivcrB and lakcs wttb fii 
and fowU. Therc are alfQ wild myie^^, or /w^j-i/^ 
(fee Equup, N"*. ly.) horfes a''d droaictlar 
fi'\\^ boats, fcvcral kindftof deerjiafpecieiof 
witb ycHow hair, fquirreiR, foxe« ; an «oinal 
!ed hautehant rrfcmbling an clk ; another 
ibuhn^ or fheii/offt a fort of lynx f and a creat 
ca''e i TAf L-P^, as fmail as an crminei pf ^^ 
ikins ttic Chinefc makc p^ntlc^ to kecp out 
cokJ. Among other birds of crtraorjUnary ' 
ty, bred in this cpuntry» thtre-is pne callcd 
Jj^nkgrt which iji all ovcr whitc:e;*ccpt ibc ' 
wing<t, and tail, which are a very tinc red« 
^withiWinding tbe foil in roanyparta of Tart; 
Vo Ip^uriant, yet it dpcs npt produpc R iiD^^c 
Qf tall t^ces oi any kjnd whatcvtr, exceptiii| 
fpmc few piaces towaris thc front'cr« ; alU 
wood that 18 foun4 jn thc couptry coii6fti«| 
ihrubs, whiph neycr e^cced ibc hcight of a pi 
^nd eyen thefe are rarc. 

(1.) TARTAS, a town.of Franctf, in tke 
.of Landes, and ci-ficvai)t prpv. of Gafcoiiy. 
jyiidopfc'runs thrpugh it. The part on ihe 
bank of this river is in thc forn[i of an agiphii 
tre. Thc othcr part is a plain. It is xi 
N5, of t)ax, 15 WgW. of Mont dc Marlao, 
36 NE. of BayopDc. ;x)n. q. 4^. W. Lat. 
50. N. J 

(4.) Tartas, a riyer 9f RuiUa, whicb runs \ 
^he pm, near Tarta(koi. ' J 

T4HTASKOI, a Low-n of RutTia, in Toboll 
fit thc iunojioii ot thc 0gi and the Tartas; 

the lakc Ko^ogdln or ^utuiiut whic|i is jo milĕs . xnil.fs WSW. of Kaip(k 

long from*S7to ^. and 26 broad^ fn lat. 52^ loq. 

fi8**, near thc fourcc of thc J[cnifa, ahd taking a 
wecp fouthward, round by thc f . fa!ls north- 
ward into lakc Baykal in Sibcria, about 90 milea 
^W. of the city Selinghinlkoy, which ftands up- 
6|) it. |nto tbe Sclinga runs th^ Orkon^ from the 

(4.) TMTE^SUS. SecTARSti^sH. 

(a.) Tartessus, an aocitnt town of Sp 
nearthe piilars of l^crculcsi artciwards c^ 
^arteia, and Ga4fs» « 

(3.) Tartessuh, a naroe of Gades. Sce Ga 

(4—6.) Tartessus, a town| iAand» 3^id 1 

of iDcria, near Gadcs. tcmpn -, 

• - ' 0' - T 

Digitized by 


T A R 

r ,57 > 

t A ft 

TARTIM, Joff ph, a cclcbrJited Italian mu(i- 
cuB bom at Ptf4no, io llUiay in 1^1. He hcrcame 
i> ctj^i al a pcrformrr on the vioIin, that he was 
t^iitrd nutter of the band in the f<«mou3 
rA^cb of St Antbony. Ile pubHlhed fevcral va- 
•jibtetrjds on muhc ; and as Ityled by Di Bur- 
tn tit A^mirabU He ditd m 1770. 

•TAKTLY. €uiv. Ifrom tart\ i. Sharply 5 
Wiy; with acidity. 3. Sbarply ; wdh poig* 
•j*y; wiih (rreri y. — SmeCa was by Caligula 
uiviu\\L^ arena Jne caUe^ ffind without Itme. 
i^jo. 3. Wiili iuumelV of afpc6t. — 

Ho« /o/-//^ tbat gentieman looks. Sbak, 

• TARTNESS. n. / Uroin /ar/.j 1. Sharp- 

^r^i^oracb; acidity. — Of thcfc fwcet8 put iu 

kr:: pilgos, roorc or ief9 as the tartneft of your 

*;iT injuirc». Mortimer. a. Souriitf« ef tcm- 

pr. poignaotjr of languagr. — ^Thcy cannot t>c 

U' i«ftt for the liing'» tarine/t. Sbak, 

TARTHIS, \n. f. m chcmidry, a falt form. 

iAKTRJTE, J cd by ihe combination of the 

TuuKoui AciD, with an alkarine, cartby, or 

wj^ hAfis. ". Thoiigh Tartarona Acid," 

i*ntkingc'iious 1>T Thomfon, in his Sjft, of 

i«.ic!. II. P..411.) *• was firft obtaimd by 

^^tk ra i fcpa/ate ltatf, feveral of the tartritea 

Uibccti prc^iouHy examined, having becn form- 

«it^Ltiyby decompcfing tariar, and partiy by 

c^ihUugit witb other bafe«. Since the difco« 

»r* of j>urr tarlarous acld, they havc been exa- 

• «i ^y kctziu8, Von Packcn, and Thenart. 

Vf lu>e ihe following propcrtic*: i. \Vhen 

CTuaro-ircdheat, the acid is dccompofcd, and 

*vii3Jc rcnLims, generally m thc ftatc of carho- 

**^ 1. Tuc carthy tarlritcs arc nearly infoIuble 

■•«itr; thc ^lkalinc are folub1e ; but they cora- 

»' «'ui. au cxcef? of acid, a»id are cunverted tn- 

- -»jVr-ter/r//«, much Uli$.foluhle fhan the tar- 

•^* j. Wheo boiled wiih fulphuric acid, thc 

&n4rja« acid i* feparated^ and may be detedcd, 

b» ir.ipj>iDg in a fi)lution of potaf8. Tartar pre- 

'y^ m fmall grittr cryftaU like fand. 4. Atl 

k tutritra are capablc of combining with ano- 

•^b'lc,aoafonningTRiPLE sAtTs." Ofthefe 

^DrTtKimfon cnumcrates 16 fpccie8, belides 

*^*nh bafi:s of o^ctallic oj^idcs, in the follow.* 

H^; Tartritet, i. of limc; 2. barytes; 3. 


5. fijper-tartrite of potafs; 

. ^.potaa^ ^ , 

r*ntc of jpotafi and llme ; 7. of potaT; and 
*TVi; g. or potaft and ftrontian ; 9. of foda ; 
i^ (^poiats aod foda ; |i. of ammonia; ii. of 
P^ aad ammonia ; 13. of magnefia ; 14. of po- 
^^ iDa^nc6a \ i^. of alumina ; 16. of potaf)) 
*1 abmina, Tbelc, with a few of thc metal'4c 
^t«, wc ihall dcfcribe in their order. 
/•**Ta«.tmtb of Alumina doct not cryf- 
'^iCi bttt fonnt by evaporalion a clcar tranfpa- 

by tbe famc pix)cef8 as Tartrite ot LiMt, (N* 
6.) and, like it, is an infoluhlc white powder." 

4. •• Tartkite of Copper. Tartarou» acid 
has but little adion on copper, but diAblTCs itt 
oxide ; and wbcn poured into the fu)phat or mu» 
riat of coppcr, it prtc'pitates a tartritc in thc 
form of biue cryftal8. Lconhardi fay8, th^s falt 
formji the beft kind of thc pigmcnt, called Brm^"' 
wick CreenJ* 

5. *• Tartrite of Cdpper, Triplf, may bc 
obtained by boiling together oxic1e of copper and 
tartar in watcr. Thc folution yiclds by cvapo-^ 
ratio!'. blue cryftals, which have a fweeti{h tafte, 
and contain a great proportion of metai." 

6. " Tartrite of Lime may bc formed by 
diflblving lime in tartarouit acid ; or by di(roiving 
tartar in boiling water, and adding to thc folution 
lime in powdrr, titl it ceales to produce effcrv^f- 
ccnce, and to redden vegetab»e biues. It precipi- 
tates in the form ot a wliitc powdcr, taftelcfs, in« 
foluble in water, but foluble in an fxccfs of tar- 
taious acid. It is decompoTcd by fulphuric, nit- 
ric, and muriaiic acids, but by no earths or alka- 

7. •* Tartrite of Magnesi a, 18 infolublc in 
water, unlefs thcre be an txccr9 of acid pr?feot. 
It ihen affords by cvaporation fmall cryftal8 in the 
form of he^sngblar trnncated pyramtds. ft hat 
a more fahne tafte, and i^ more tuli>ile, than tar- 
triie of lime, (N^* 6.) Heat firft melts, and theo 
decompofeJ* it." 

8. Tartrite ofManganese. See CHEMit- 

TRY, § 835. 

9. •• Tartrite of MERCtJRY. ' Tartarous a- 
cid does not attack mercury, but it dilToWcs itt 
oxlde, and furms with it an inroluble white falt ; 
which foon becomcs yellow, when 'expofedtothe 
air. This f dt precipitatcs when tartarous a- 
cid is poured into nitrate ot mrrcury." 

10. " Tartrite of Mercury, Triple, firft 
defcribtd by Monnet, may be tormed by boiling 
in wattr 6 parts of tartar, and onc of oxide of 
mercury. Tht liouid, when evaporated, yicldt 
fman cryftal« of Tartrite of PoTASa and 
Merc(7RY. Thenart has afcertaincd, tbat thc 
famc triple ftlt may bc formed, by mixiT*g toge- 
ther the folotions of tartar and mercurial ni»rat. 
This lalt 18 decompofed by the alkalies, the alka- 
linecarboiiats, the hydro-lulpburets, the^ulphats» 
and the muriat*»." 

11. " Tartrite of Potass, formerly named 
SolubU Tartar^ is ufually prrpared by adding at 
intervals tartar in powder to a hot fotution of 
carbonat of potaf5, tili all effVrvefcencc ceafeiw 
The folution is then bciled, and afterwardt eva- 
porated, titl a pclHcle form8 on its furface. On 
cooiing, the tirtrtte cryftallizet in flat four-fidtd 

1*^ pmi&y mafs. Its tafte is aftringent. It is^ rcdangular prifm8, terminated by dih^dral fum« 

It does not delicfuefce in the 

^i^ h watcr. 

i-^Tartriti of Ammonia. Tbccryitala 
^polygooout pnfmB. It has a cobling bjttcr 
■< likc tbat of nitre. |t is vcry foluble in wa- 
^ Heat dccompafes it. It comblinct with an 
^ of acid, and fonf^s a fuper-tartntc aimoft at 
*fc!ablc m waier as Urtar." 

> **TARTtiT£ 0F DARYTBt may be fopmed 

mits. It has an unpleafant bitter t^^t, Its fpe* 
cific gravity is 1*5567. It it folubIe in 4 parlt 
cold water, and ftLll more fo in hot. When heat* 
ed it melts, fwell8 up, blackens, and it decompo- 

12. " 5a;^^r-TARTRfTE 0F PoTASS, or Tar% 
TAR," it the onginal Tartar^ which give8 name 
to the wbole clafs. •• Thi« falt is obtained, in a 
f(ate of impurity, iocmlled oo tbe bottom and 


Digitized by 


1! A ^ ( i 

^drs of caiks in wbich wine bas bcen kept. It is 
afterwards purified by diiroiving it in boiling wa- 
tcr, and tiitering it while hot. Oo cooiiug, it 
4epo6ts the pure Talt in very irregular cryltals. 
In thiaiiate tt is foId under tbe natne of Crys- 
TALS or Cream of Tartar. Tiiis (alt attrad- 
^ the peculiar attcntion of chemil^s, probably in 
co&requence of tbe cxtravagant encomiums and 
inTcdt»ve9 beftowed on it by Paracelsus. It is 
cf)Iled i(>rtar, Uys hc, beo8ufe it producei} tbe oil, 
water, tindure and fjit, which burn ibe palicnt 
Iks JbcU does. According to bim, it is the priuLi- 
ple of cTery diicaTe aud cvcry remedyi and all 
things contain thc gcrm of it. Tbis rid«cuIou3 
thcory was combatctl by Van Helmiint, who gives 
a prttty accurate accotint of the formation of tar- 
Ur in wine caiks. It was known to Ynn Htl- 
oont, and evcn to his prcdcccilbrs, that Potass 
could be obtamed from tarlar; but it was long a 
diiputed point, whether that alkali exifled ready 
formed. Ouhamel, Margra^ and RouelLe, at lalt 
citabiiihed that poiut beyond a duubt ; but thc 
otber omponent parts ui tartar wast unknown or 
wcry imptr*cd!y known, till Scheclc pointed out 
the mcthod of cjUra^ing it. Thc cryitals af tar- 
|ar arc vcry fmall and irregular. According to 
Moutejt, thcy are prifms Tomewhat flat, and moft- 
ly with.6 tides. Tartar has an acid, and rather 
vnp}eafant ufte. It is very brittle, and calSiy rc- 
4tuced to powdcr. Its fpecific gravity is 1*953. 
It is foluble in about 60 parts of cold water, aud 
10 about 30 tff boilirg watcr. It is not altercd 
by cxpofare to ihc air, but whcn its folution in 
waier ia allowcd to remain for lome time, tbe fait 
18 gradualiy decompofcd, a mucous matter is de- 
polited, and there rematns in foIutiOH carbonat ol 
potafSt coloured with a Iittle oil. This decom- 
po£Uion was ftrft accuratcly dcfciibcd by Bcrthol- 
kt in 1781. When tartar is heatcd, it melts* 
Iwells, blackcns, and the acid is eiitirely decom- 
pofcd. The (amc chapges ukc placc» whcn thc 
/alt is diAiilcd in du(e vtflcis. Tbe phcnoraena 
of this diltiilation have bcen dcfcribed with great 
<arc, and its produ<^8 very 2ltentiveiy cxamincd 
l>y chcraiftB; becaufe, beforc thc diTcoyery of the 
tartarous acid by Schcele, diftinatiott was the on- 
ly method thought off for obtaining any know- 
kdgc of the acid part of tartar. Thcfe produ^s 
^rc an cnormuiis .^uantity of gafi, coutifting of 
carbonic acid, and carbonic (lydrpgcn, an uil« 
«nd an acid ; and according to fomc chemids, 
Carhoaat of Ajnmonia, Thc ^cid obuined was 
)ong conTidtred as a pecuUar body, acd was de- 
chemifts»in 1787. (Sec Chbmistry, Ittdgx.) But 
Fourcroy and Vauquelin have lately <lemonftrat- 
cd, that it is no otber tban acetous acid contami- 
sated with a httlc tm^riumatk oil, Tartar« 
fay8 Bergmao» is compofcd of 77 acid» 13 pota^s; 
or of 56 tartrite of potais, 44 Urtarous acid. 
Thcnart'9analyfis makes its component parts, 57 
acid, 33 potaf(S and 7 watcr." 

13. •* Tartrite of Potass and Alumina. 
ThiB triplc laltis formcd by faturaticg tarur with 
alumioa. It l^ars a fcry Uriking refemblance to 
thc Tartrite of Alumina. (Stc N® i.) Thc^ 
nart obicrvjedj that ao prccipiute is produced in 

58 ) T A R 

this Cilt, cither Uy the addition of aikalieiortbcir 

14. " Tartritb of Potass awd AimoKiA. 
Th>3 tripic falt may be formcd by pouring am- 
monia into acidulous Tartrite of Potajs*' (S« 
Chemistry, Index,) ** Its crytta.s, fayi Mac- 
quer, are prifms with 4» 5f or 6 fides: accordinj 
tu the Dijon Acadcmicians, parallelopipcdj, witk 
2 attcrnate (loping tides. It has a cooliog taftc; 
is foIublc in water; cfHorcfces in air. Ucatde* 
compofe8 it.'* 


This tripic falt may bc formed in ihc Camcway" 
with the loilowing : 

16. ** TaRTRITE 0F P0TA88 AND LiMi. Tbii 
Talt was firft pointcd out by Thcnart. It roay U 
formed by pouring lime walcr into thc foioc«i 
of tartriic of potaTs till a prccipitatc bcpniij 
appcar, and thcn allowing the liquid toevap ■nl 
fponUneouQy. The tripic falt graduaUyattacM 
itftlf tp thc (ides of the vcflel in cryrtaiR." ' 


This triple falt, firft eicanMned by ihe Dijan 
dcmicians, may be formcd by tliAblt ing 
or its carbonate in tartar. The fo1utioD, a( 
i»g to thtm, yiclds, by cyaporation, nccdlc 
cryftal8 : but, accordm^ to Thcnart, it doci 
cryftallizc ; and when evaporated to dryncf^ 

18. Tartrite of Potass and Mescdi 
Sce N*» 10. 


£ih 18 ufua]iy prepared by putting onc pait 
tartar in 5 parts of boiling watcr, and addiog^ 
dually cart>on;it of foda in powdcr, as long ui 
produccs an effervcfccncc. The tartar grad* 
difrolvcs. Whcn thc laturation is compictCi 
fuIutton is BUercd and evaporatcd to' tbe COI 
tcnce of a fyrup. On cooling, thc tartnlc of 
tafs and foda cryftallizcs. This falt has bcca 
tinguiihtd by thc namc of SaU of Seignttttt 
caufe it wa« firft formed and introductd intol 
dicinc by M. Scigncttc, an apothccary at R< 
This g<;ntlen}an recommcDdcd it in a tiad 
liihcd in 1671. It wa^ foon aftcr introdui 
pradlicc at Pans by Lemery^ an^, bi 
talhionable medicinc, made th^ fprtuneof 
coverer. For fomc timc its compoGtion will 
lecret ; but BouJduc and Geo^roy difco^ 
co.nponent parts in 17^1. Its prifms arc 
of % or 10 uncqual fide8, bavipg tt^ir endi 
catcd at rigbt angles. Thcy are gencrally di 
into two in ihe diredion of thcir ajics ; and' 
bafc on which they ftand is marked witb % 
nai IiDe&, fo as to divide it into 4 trianglei. 
has a biiter tafte. It is almoR as fb1uble as'' 
trite of Potass." (Sce N* 1 1.) It cP< 
whcn expo{ed to the air. Heat decom, 
According to the anal) Hs of Vauquelia» it isC^ 
pofed of 54 parts tartnte of pours, aod 46 taitl 

20. «• ITE 0F PoTASS Alit> SlROSTli 

Tbis triplc lalt may bc formed the (amc way n 
thc Urtritc of potais and barytcs/* and thc tarj 
of potafs and limc. (Sec N* 15 and 16.) Tl 
havc bcen all pointcd out by TDcnart^ but t] 
properties are ftill undcfcribed."^ 


Digitized by 


t A S 

/ tS9 > 

T A S 


SeeSiLVBR>^ i6f keHsn, on tfie Sir» tio mi!cli'N.of 'Samarcirid. 
It ha» bee^ oftcn dcltroyed and rebuilt. Lon. 64. 
45. £. Lat. 41* 40« N. 

TASHKUPRI, a town of Afiatic Tuilccy. in 
NRtolia : Y4 "tiles S£# of Caftamena. 

TASI£VA, a river (if Ruffi«, whidi nint into 
the Tchiuma ; %o milea NW. of Ta(iev{koi. 

TASI£VSKO], a icMrn of Ru(fia, in Tuboiikoe; 
Z%o miics £. of Tobolik, and 448 £N£. of Koii- 

• TASK.I»./. ItsjTcAe, Prenchj iaja^ ItaUan^ 
i. Somethingr to be A>ne imporcd by Hnotber.— 

Rciieve8 me from mytajko^ fcrvilc toil. MHt, 
%. £mployment; buGnciii. — His mentai powe» 
were tqual to greater $afis. AHerbury,— 

No happier tajk there fadcd eycs puriiie. Popt. 
3. To take to Task. To rcprove ; torcpnmand 
— ^A holy man took a foldier to tajk upon his prp- 
feflion. VEflrange, — He difcovercd fome remains 
of hia nature, for which Sir Rdger took him to 
tq/k. Addijon, 

• To Task. V. a. MtcotDL the noun.] To barth- 
cn with Tomething to be done.— 

Likc t'o a har? cftman, that'i tajked to mow. 


Some thinga of wcight» 

That tajk out thoughti». Sbahejpeai^^ 

—I dare not tajkm^ v^akf*ef» any more. Sbak.--- 

Divert thy thoughts at boa>e» 

Thcrc tojk thy maids. Drydem* 

• TASKER. hn.J,[iaJkSLMmaJler. Ooc 

• Taskmastsr. 5 who impolcs ta&s.^ 
Evcr in my great tafimajler*3 eye. Mihon* 

TARYES, a pariib of Abcrdecnihire, 9 milcs — The fervice of fin \h pcrtca navcry ; and hc 
i»ti ind 6 broad» watcrcd by thc Ythan. Thc ^ho will pay pbedicnce to it, ihall find it an un- 
jfc6ceiimoftly lcvcl, with a fcw low hills. Thc rcafonablc tajkmafier, Sotttb»^ 
iKapirtly dcep, partly ihallow, but in general Hcar, ye tajterj of the dcad. Dryd. andtee. 

iWilc. About 100 acrcs are under plantatlons. TAS-KUJE, a town of Pertia, io Larillan ; ^4 
■.«Tn» the population was 1690: the dcci^ca^c mtlcs N£. of Lar. 

Htecci755. Tbc only manfion-houfc is Si&iw/, TASLUI, a rivcr of Europcan Turkey, whirfi 

runs into the Slrek, near Adzud, in MoIdavia. 

TASPOULSASEN, a town of Chinefc Taf- 
tary, in Hami. Lon. 11 j« 40. B. Ferro. Lat. 40. 
I». N. 
TASSACORTA,or> a fca-port tc^n of thc 
TA8SACRODA, \ Canary lAands on the 
W. coaft of Palma. Lon. 17. ^g^W. Lat. oS. 
37. N. 

TASSASUDON, a city of Afia, capital of 
Bootan : %o6 ntilcs 8W. of Lafla, and 141 NE. 
Lat/a;. 45. N. 
{tajf.-^ Preiich ; ta£dlus^ 

tt. TlITKITt or SlLV£ll. 

N* rriii. 

11. TmsiTE or Silver, Triplb. 

ij. *«TARniTf 0F Soda may be formcd by 
^^TTOg ibdi m tart^rous acid. It cryilalliies 
n&neoccdlcs. Its fpccific gravity is 1*7437- 
T^iiR i) airo capible of combining with an ex* 
ccftGfacid, and forming a Staper^tartrrte of Soda^ 
«tick b n^^rly as io^olublc in water as tartar." 

faiiLT,f I, II. 

i4."TaRTRiTi oF Strontian. This falt, 
Henmtncd by Dr Hofe, and alterwards by 
fflqsdio, may \ft fiprmcd by dilToNing (trontian 
statmms actd, 09 by miiing togetber foIutions 
d 'itnt of ttrootian and tartrite of potaf!i. , Its 
crytilijrt (iDaU rcgular tnangular tables, ha^irg- 
t>«d||csind anglcs iharp and wcH dcfincdt It 
•riipii. It diiloWcs in 320 parts of boiling wa- 
te. h is coniDofed df 47*1» parts acid and wa- 
te,od jrW ilmntian." 

TilTURA, a town of Paleltinc, near the coaft 
tftklfMitcrranean ; lo roiles S. of Acre. 

TAUANA, 10 ancicnt town of Gaul, now 

f/.) TARODANT, a ctty of Morocco, the ca- 
P^to^Sos. See Sus, N* r, and Tarodant. 
^ii4]ai)cs E9£. of SanU Cruz, and iso SSW. 

IlJ Taeiidant, a didriA of Morocco,.in Sus, 
•lic estrcmity of thc empire, of which thc a- 
W dty is thc capital. It contaiiis fcveral othcr 
^»» whicb arc wcll built with ftone. 

«tbtoT Hsgh Mrddlcton, £fq. 
tARDFFI, Emiliua, «n emincnt Italian pain- 
; ^^ tt Brefcia9 in 1633. Hi» landfcapcs and 
*><al picces werc much admired, as well as 
■Aiice of fccnery. He died iu 1694. 
^^8, or Taewis, a town of Germany, in 
gJ*B; %% miles WSW. of aagenfurt, and 46 
■W.oC Trictt. It was taken by thc Krcnch 
gteios, after a bloody battle in wbich thc 
^■"*iwcredcfcated^on the «jdMarch, 1797. ^ 

I TARYISIUM, an ancient tbwn of Italy, now of Patna. Lon. 89. la. £. 
»oITiiviso. {i^i * TASSEL. .». /1 

ijARONTlUS SruRiNA, Lucius, a celebrated iow Latin.] An omamcntri buoch of A, or 

P^aiician, who Aourilhcd about A. A. C. 61. glittcring fubftance8.— 

k;^^.ii.c.4/. ----- 

LTARURAW, a town of thc Unitcd States, in 

pyK» ; 14 mile» N. of Tugcloo. 

I TARU8, a rivcr of Gaul, runntng into thc Po. 

I TAROSA, a town of Rotiia, in Kaltfg3. 

Then took the fquircan hom of bugle fmall, 

Which hung adown his Hde iii twifted gnld, 

And taffeh gay. SpenCer^ 

— Thcir heads are trickcd with tajph. Sandjj. 

( 1 .) • Ta s sbl.Ta2EL.«./. l carduus fuUoniut.\ 

, TAR0SAT£S, an ancicnt pcople of Gaul, who Anr herb. Scc Te azel. AinMuortb 
JJM thc count? y- now callcd Tur&n. Or» (3^) Tassbl, or Tbazel, in 
*4 C. iK. 33. ' 

TAH08CUM, an ancient town of Oaul. 
LTASCHOW, a town of Bohemia, in Leitmc- 
■i* S onlcs of Leitmcritz. 

TASCHTER, in the mythology of the Hin- 
■J «nd PcTfcc8. Sec Delvge, J 6. 


{>) Tassbl, or Tbazel, in botany. &c 


(4.) Tassels, in buil^ing, arc thofe picces of 
board that lie ur.der the cnds of tbe mantlet 

* TASSELL£D. adj, [ from taffeL] Adorned 
with taflels.— 

£arly erc the odorous breath of mcni 


Digitized by 


JtrufaUmt and thc whole bcing reprintcd and 
pubiiflied togetber, its Tuccers was ailoni(bing| 
aud it «ras immedutely trandated ioto Litin, 
Prench, Spaniih, and evcn the Oricntal Uoguagew 
But it wa« Taflb'8 fatc to becomc wretchcd u 

withiu a ycar ercapcd, and retircd te Ti 
where he wa<i recommendcd to tbe diike of 
voy : but Taflb, fcaring ibat the duVe o( F(}j 
rara would require him to bc dehvcrfd up» ' 
out for Rome : therc hc wa« TiGted by pri 
cardinaU, prciatcs, aod ali the lcarned in tbe 
But bcing impaticnt of c^e, lic made hia 
with thc -lukc, who ga?e him freih marki ot 
eftcem. But T aflb, having madc Tomc atti 
on the dukc's fifter, princefs Lconora, whon 
Jiad celcbrated in his ycrics, the duke 

T A s f i«o ) T A S 

Awakes the fltrmb'ring leave8. or tajei^d hom 

Sbakes the high thickLt, hafte I all about. Milt, 

* TASSES. n. /. Armoor for the thiphs. Ain/, 

TASSIE, James, modeller, was bom ocar 
G.argow, of oblcure parcnts ; and began bis liiie 

as a country ftone*mafon. Going to Glafgow, he foon as be gaincd thc fummit of reputatioo. Sooa 
ac^uh^ed a kuowled^e of drawing tn the acaderoy after his Jerufalrn% was publiihed, be lod his ^ 
•inftitutcd by thc Powlise»; while, at famc time, ther ; his Jeru/alem was attacked by iavidioai 
be was obltged to labour at ftone-cutting for his critics ; and the pcrBdy of a fricnd drcw upon 
fupport. Refoning to Dublin for cmployment, him greater mis^ortuncs. Iii confcquenceof4rrB< 
4ie became known to Dr Quin, who was amuling countre, in which he beh4ved very bravcly, the 
himfelf witlT trjing to imitaie the precious ftoncs duke put him in prifon, under prctcnce of fccii- 
10 colourcdpadcs, andtake impreflionsQf thc en- ring him from any future attacks. But T»ft 
^raWngs that were on them. Dr Quin foon dif- 
coverc^ Tai&e to bc onc in wbom be could piacc 
pcrfe6t conhdcnce. He was cndowed with finc 
tafte ; modeft, unalTuming, patient, and poiTeircd 
the higheft intcgrity. The Dodor committed his 
laboratory and expcrimcnt8 to his care. Thc af- 
ibciates were fully fuccrf8ful ; and found them- 
felves abie to imitate all the gems, and take accu- 
j-atc unpreAions of the engravings. The Dodor, 
when the difcovcry was completed, cncouraged 
Mr Taflic to repair to London, and to devote 

lumfclf tothe prcparation and lale of thofc pafte8 him to be cootined in the hofpital of St 
as his profe(fiton. In 176^ hc arrivcd iu the capi- as a pcribn dcranged. TalTo appiied to 
tal; and, until his death in 1799, hecontinued dukc, by every friend he had, to releaTe I 
acquiring cminencc wA, wealtb. In addition to but withi>ut cAed ; for TaiTo was certainly 
this elegant art, hc pra^iied the modelling of ordered in his mind. At iaft, after he bad 
portraits in wax, which hc afterwards mouhied a prifoner 7 ycars, Yincent GonzAgo, 
and caft in pafte. Sce Paste, ^ XI. 

(i.) TASSO, Bcrnard, an Uluftriou6 Italian 
lawyer, defccnded of thc ancicnt and noble fa- 
mily of Torrcggiani. Hc was author of fcTeral 
iogenious compoBtions in vcrfe and profe. He 

was fent to accompany thc prince of Salcrno» - — ^- - - »-, 

upon a deputation from Naples, to thc cmperor Naples, and rndeavour to recover hi« motl» 
Charlcs V. to remonftratc againft the cre^ion of jointure, which been fctzed by ber rtim 
an InqmJtiom therc. Hc was aiterwards employ- when he wcnt into exile. Piiiding his law.{ait 
-ed by; William Gonsago, D. of Mantua, a$ his "" " ' ' 

principal fccretary, who at ]aft promoted him to 
bc govemor of Oftiglia, upon thc Po ; wherc hc 
•died in 1585. He was fathcr to thc cclcbratcd 

of Mkntua* caine to Pcrrara during the i 
tivals, procured his hbcrty, and took hin 1 
Mantua, he being then in tbe 4ad ycar of bisi) 
At Mantua hc lived about a ytar in gr&it k^ 
with thc princc, but he becamc wcary of a tl» 
of dependcnce, and thercfore rcfolvcd tO goi 

likcly to bc foon determincd, hc went 1 
l^aples to Rome, where he continued 
year in high favour with Pope Sixtut» V. andd 
wcnt to Ptorcnce, at tlie inviution of pcrdim 
grand duke of TufcaDy. ' Havine fpcni 

(1.) Tasso, Tor^to, the fon of Bcmard, a year atPlorcnce, he rciurned co N^pics,ai 

.juftly celebrated Italian poct, born at Sorrcnto in 
Naplcs, ii) 1549» the fon pf Bernard, by Portia di 
kofti, a lady of an illuftriou8 famiiy of Naplcs. 
At 9 he and his fathcr were coademncd to death 
for trcafon, but cfcaped ; and 3 years aftcr, tbey 
went from Rome to Mantua: T^MTo had then 
complcted hia knowledgc of thc learned ian- 
gua^es. He was foon afcer fent to the uiuverftty 
of ^dua; and, in his i8ch year, pubiiHied bis 
Einaido. He next went to Bologna, by the invi- 
tation of the city and college ; but ibcn retui ned 
to Padua at thc requeft of Scipio Gonzago, who 
had been eledted princc of the agademy tben efta- 
t)lifhed by t(ie namc of thc jEtberoi, of which 
Ta (To was made a member. Here he formed thc 
pian of his Jeru/alem Deli^ered. Being prciTcd 
bythc dukc, and his brother Card. Lewis, to re- 
fide with chem at Perrara, he confented, and the 
duke gave him an aparCmcnt in his palace, where 
he lived in aOIuence, and proftcuted bia work ; 
which he dedicatcd to thc duke. Whcn hc 
was about 17, hc piiblilhed a patlorat comcdy 
caiied Aminta. In hib joth year, bc liiKihcii hi» 

iiftied his Jeru/aUm DelivereJ. Soon af(tfl 
Sixtus V. died, and was fucceeded by Ofldri 
VII. and his nephews Cynthio and PcterAJt 
bandin*, wcre cre*ted cardiiials. Cynthio,»^ 
was a patron of icarnipp, prevailcd wiih kj 
to leave N-iples, aiid livc with him in R-w. 1 
returncd again to Napics, but carac back 
Rome, in order to bc crowned <witb iaureh 4M 
capitaL While thcy werc waiting forfair^ 
ther, Cynthio fcll fick ; aiiJ, bcfure hc rccofcfl 
TaCb was takcn ill, and dicd on the 15 ih dj 
agedji. His pocms had acquircd him an 1 
mortal rcputatii^n. Ilis works wcre printc^^ 
gtther at Piorence in i;»4, in 6 vols. foliOf A 
thc criiicifm8. His Amitaa and Gieru/alemmt\ 
berata bave been ctandatcd into En^liih. 

(3.) Tasso, an iiland nn the W. coaft O^ 
rica, in ihe m«uth of tiie Sierra Lr ona. 

TASSONI, Alexander, an Italian poet, N 
at Modcna, in 1565. He was a mcmbcr ofJ 
academy of Un>erifti ; and^ among other wH 
publilhcJ Secchia liupita, 01 ths Ra^e o/tbs Bju 

Digitized by 


T A 8 ( 1 

trliicli was tlie firft raodcl of *a Mock Heroic 
p<xm lA thf lulian (angua^c. Hc dicd in 1635. 

TASSOW, a town of Pcrfia in Adirbcitzdn : 

• TASTABLE: tfdjr. That maf be tafted ; 
kmq; nrii/brng.—^Thcir diAillcd otlsar^uid^ 
lou^lcand ta/tabU, Bojk, 

(i.) * TASTE. «. /. lfiroro the wrb.) i. Thc 
)Aoft4fhog; guitatiai^^— *• 

hft of trwtSy Whofe to/ie gave eloctition. Miit* 
I. Tbc ftiife bj which the reliih o^ any thing oa 
liKpi^ 1*8 p<nccivcd. — Bcc8 dclight morc in onc 
L^wcr thio laotber, and tbercfore have ttf/ft, 

Dclicacies of fa/fe, 'figbt, fineU. Mihon. 

Tbr tard^ plants tti our cotd orchards plac'd, 
hhn tbdr h uit for the ncxt agc'« tajie, WaL 
^ aciiWity ; perccption.— 

i hate ihnoft forgot the ta0e of fear8. Skak^ 

Mufick in thc cIofc, 
Ittbe lail m/U of fweet8 is tb^ fvrefcteft lalt. 


4» IWt (cn&tion which all tbings taken into the 

mk)TTe particidarly to tbe tongu^y the p«pil<* 

ko^ «ijch jre tbe principal inttrumcnta bcreof« 

^.-Tbc tajie of »it was like wafeft made 

Wb Iwjey. BoBod. xvi. 31.— Though tbcrc be a 

ptiX lariety of tajtej^ yet, as in fmcllt, tbcy havc 

•iiy (bmc fcw generai names. Locke, 5. Intel- 

k^wl rebih or difcemmeAt.-^Sccing tbey pre* 

'M ao ^uarrct at other pialms, why do thef9 fo 

«Kb ofod aad difp!caie thdr iMfles. Hooker.^ 

Swo*! foDg9 to all true iajiex cxcc!ling, 

^e Ood is praitM aright# MUton. 

I have no tajie 
ff Topular applaufe. Dtyihi, 

•-Ajkhad no tajie of trac gforf^ we icc him 
\^F^ tike aa Hercale<t. Ad^H^n.^^^thiB meta-« 
Parttoaid Aot barc bocn fo generai, bad tbere 
J«*m a confoniiity betweeii tbc meotal ta^ 
ythi fciiti?e tattc wiiich give8 us a rellih of 
pttTfa«o«r. JdJi/tm. — Your.way of hfe, in my 
M.wjii be tht bcft.' Po^e>*»How ill a tttfie for 
^j^ ktik prcvaiU in the world. 5«;i/>.— Pica. 
PtrdiJts from a frnfe to dKcern, and a taJU to 
«f^<l witb beauty. Seed.^li is trUe io taftef 
■<itt8y UttietbinKa will not make a fnneat one. 
9f^ 6* An etray ; a trial > an espcrimeit. 
mtiM^k^l bope he wrote tbii as an eflay or 
M^^Biytirtue. Sbnlk, 7. A fmall portion gr* 
^ » > Ipcctmcn ^Tbey thougKt it noi fiife to 
^^ tifl tbey had a tajie ct tbc peopWa iiw 
F*tian. Batoii. — B^de»theprayer«* mcntioned, 
^^ fi*conly a tajie ot" fome few reconkmended 

Jj^AtTE 11 a ccrtain fcn(atioo, or c!af8 of 
r**«W cscttcd in tbe mind by certain bodies, 
2[*"« eallcdy5^irf, applicd to the tongue and 
P«»*id moiftcnea wn h the ialiva. This ie tbc 
pW and proper mcaningof the word tajie ; 
P*faTanfYf ics,) biit as tbc ^oalitles of bo- 
^«iich product. tbereCrniationt are unknown, 
*fW»einaJ' Iwguage^ fot thcnaihca of the fcn* 
gyt bcnaielyes, by * rt fif iirc of rpcech whicb 
^'•Btesti ^ canfc for tbe efica. Hence we taik 
'^tiftelof (bgar, woormwood, honey,vioe« 
^^; aad iay, that tbe ooe is fwcet aud tbe 

61 ) T A g 

other four, &c. Taftes havc bccn dividrd raitS 
ilmple and compound;. and phi1ofopher6 hay^ 
to vcry little purpofe endeavoured to aicertain tbe 
number of each ipccics. Sec PiM, TranJ, N* a8of 
199 ; and Abereromh, Nov, Med, Cla*tu, 

(3.) TiUTR is likcwife ufed in a figurative fenfe^ 
to denote that facu1ty of thc mind by which we 
perceiye aod enjoy wbatever is l»cautiful or (bbiime 
in thc works or nature or of art. Like the tafte 
of thc pa^ate, this facuity rcliihes fome thmgs, ia 
dtfgitfttd with otherR, and to many is indtAcreot a 
aod from Uicfe obvfou8ana]ogiea between it and 
tbe cxternal fcnie it hn obtained it« name. It 
bas likewifc bcen ctf led an intcmal Jenjet and b^ 
Dr HutcI>cfrtD, a refien /enje; whHft otbCrs have 
coniidered it, not as a diftind faculty or fenfe^ 
but as the joint exertion of pdtception and judg^ 
ment in fome cafcs, and as a play of tbc imagi^ 
ostion in otbera^ 

(i.) • To TA8TB.r ^ a. [tqfter<, to fry, ^rench.J 
f . To perceive and diftingQi(h by tbe paiate.— • 
The ruler of the feaft tafled the water made wine^ 
Jobn ii. a. Te try by the momb ^ to eit at lcaft 
in a fmall quantity.-*^ 

Bokl deed to i^rtt tmder ban fo toocb. 

' MHton^ 

$, To eiPay firft.— Rofcete8 wat Celdom permitted 
to eat any other meat but tach as the princc bc^ 
forc tajkdoi, Knolies.^ 

Thou and Lmarahkig bcforc our troops 
May tajie. faU to tbeda. DryieH* 

4* ToobtaiiYp]eaifurefroroj^ 

So (halt thou be defpifed, fiir inaid» 
When by the iated lovcr iajkd, darewi 

$, Te (^el ; to bave peroeption of;*-He (houkl 
ta/k denth for e> eif raao^' Meb. ti. 9. ^. To rcliill 
tntelle^uaUy ; to approve.f-« 

Thou, Adam, wiltMAn^pleafore'. Mikwe* 
(»>• To Tastb. v.ii. I. To try by thd 
inDUth to cat.-^ 

Of tbis trcc wc may oot tmjie nor teuch. 

%, To b3vea (mack; to prodOce on the palate a 
particular fenfation.-^When the mooth is out of 
Uftc, it maketh thi0ft ta^ bJtter and ioathfomc, 
bot never fweet. Baeon,^yNhea kine €ced upon 
wildgarlick, thtir mWk ta/ieti> of It. Baton,^\i 
your bttttcr /4^^/of bra(s, it ie your ntaAcr^i fault^ 
who will not altow a ftlvep faufepan. Swjk 3* 
To diftinffui(h irteilc<5tually.— 

ScholOTs, wheogoodleofe4cfrribing, 
Call it tajling and imbibtng. Stwijiĕ 

4v To bc tic^red^ or reccivc (bmc quitity or 
coara^cr.— « 
1 £v'ry idle, nice, and wanton realbo 
Shall, to the king, tajie of this aaioo. Sbak* 
y. To try tbc relilh of «ny thjng.— 
The (bot doth ofe tbc t^yting powV 
Iiv vcin8, whicb tbrou^h tko tongoc aod palate 
ibread. Dawes. 

6. To ha*e pcrccption of.^ 

Tlir yaiiant never tajie c^dedtb Butooce. Sb^ 
^T-heitaJiing of death touched thc rigbtoous alfo# 
fF^d. ?• To take to bc enj/oyed.-* 

' Wiiat hithcr brought us ? not hope hcr ta 
Orpkaiiire. . MUtote. 

X Of 

Digitized by 


i6a ) T A S 

TATARSKOI, a town afld fort of Raffia, hr 
Koiivanflt.oi9 on the £. batik of tbe IrtKcb. L0IL93, 
20. E. Pcrro. Lat. 5-3. 44^ N. 

TA-TCHOU, a town of China, in Sc-tcbwn. 

TATE, Nahum, an cmineot poet, bom ^ 
Dublin, where hc recciTcd bis cducation, tn 1651. 
He was made poet laureat to K. Wiilam IIL ni 
the death of ShadwcU, and hcld tbat place notil 
the reign of George I. whofe^firlt birtbiday odc ke 
wnite, with ur.ofual fpint. He dicd m tbe miot m 
X 7 X 6. He wrote 9 dramatic perfonnancet, a greA 
number of pocms, and a verlton of tbe P/alm \a 

T A s ( 

Of nature'8 bounty men Ibrebore to tajie. 

^ To cnjoy ^paringly. — 

Age but tajes of pleafure8, youth dcrourt. Dr. 

• TASTED. adj. tfrom tajle.] HaTing a 
particular reliih.— Coleworts are better tqfied, \f 
watered with falt water. Baeon. 

• TASTEPUL. aJJ. [tafle and /«//.] High 
reliihcd; fafoury.— 

Mufick of 6gh8 thon (halt not bear» 

Nor drink onc ioTcr^s tajie/ui tcar. Cewiley. 
TaMtil)xtThs that in tbefe gardens ri(c. Pope. 

(i.) * TASTELESS. tfi^'. [Uom tajie.] x. Ha^ conjunaion with Dr Nicholas Brady. 
ving no powcr of perceiviag uftc. a. Having no TATIAMBETTY, a town of Hindoottan, i| 
reliJh or power of itimulatiog the palate ; infipid. MyTorc ; 5 milcs NW. of Wombincllore. 
— By depurating chcmical oil«, tbey could ncrcr TATIAN, a writer of tbe primitivc cburcb,S 
be made tqfleitfs. Byle. 3. HaTing no power of the id century, bora in Adyria, and traincd upb 
gifing pleafure ; infipid. — The corroption ot our tbe hcathen religion and lcarning. He becani 
wiTl^ and affeaionrrender8 thcm tafielefi and mfipid Chrittiao and difcipie of Juftin Martyr, whoiD H 
to U6. R<igerd.'^li by ht8 manner of writing a crr- attendcd to Rome ; and whtte Juitin Ihed, caA 
tick is htavy and tajtele/t^ I throw afide hi<i cpitit> nued orthodox ; but aftef hia dcath made afdiifii, 
cifm8. Spett. 4. Haviog no intelledual guft. and foundrd a new fed, condemning roarriage, 

(3. Tasteless EittiTHffagufierJetJ the name joinitig ablTmence froro wine and anhnaif6od, 
given by Pro^eiTor TrommidoiHt to a ncw Gmple fuffenng ooly water to be uicd in the boly 
earthy wjbich he diicovered io tbe Saxon bervl. rics; whence his followers wcre ciliedJSan 
It is diftinguiihed (he layB) from other cartbs by and KyĕntparaJUie. I^one of his works are 
)>eiog white, and totall^ iiifolubIe in watcr. In tant but his piece agaioft the Gentiles, cotl 
a frdh ftate, when moiftencd with water, it is his Oration to tbe Oreeki. 
ibmewhat dudilc. In the fire it becomcs tranf- 
parent and very hard, fo as to fcrafech glaili, but 
rcmains infipid and inibUible in woter. Tbc bornt 
earth diiToWes ^ery caCly «n addi, and producct 
with tbem peculiar lalts, wbicb areentirely devoid 
pf tafte ; and hencc he gave it tbe name of tajle^ 
irfe eartk. Tisced alkalict do aot diiTol^e tbis 
f jUth» cilbcr in the dr|i or in the wet way ; and it 
is equally infoIub]e with the carbonie acid and 
ifkih cauftic ammooiRi It has a greater aiEnity to 
the oxiili^ than to the othtr.acidB. 

♦ TASTELESSNESS. «./. [from tafttlefr:^ 
X. Infipidity: want of reliih. 2. Want of pcr^ 
ception of tafte. 3. Want of inteiledtual reliih. 

* TASTER. n.f. [tafi^9 Fr.from tajie.] i. 
One who takes the firft cilay of food. — 

YouBg time is tajler to etemity. Crajbaw. 
— Sayi the fly, Am not I tbc tajler to princes in 
gj) thcir entertainments ? V£firange.^ 

. Thy tutor b^thy ta/lerf crc thou eat. Dryden. 
Apicius, here, tbe tajter of the town. 

Pccds twicc a-wcek. Toung. 

\ %. A dram cup. Ainpwrtb. 

TATAf or Dottj^ a town of Hungary, with a 
eaftk, fcatcd among fwamp8« lo 1543$ it wat 
taken by the Turks, but retakcn foon atter ; h» 
^SS^t ^^^ Turks toolb it again; in 1566, it was re» 
takcB by the imperialift8 ; wbo Ioft it in 1594« but 
retook it in 4597 ; but within & montMk, the 
Tutks again took it, and keptit. It is s8 milcs 
8. of Raab, aod ao W. of Gran. 

TATACUL, a town of Hmdooftan, in Myfore: 
1 1 milcs N. of Ycncatighcry. 

(i.) TATAR*Ba8sard8Cihi, a town of Eu- 
i[Opfan Turkcy, in Romania, on the Marita ; 16 
inUes W. of Philippopoli. 

(«.) Tatar Bunar, a town of Eoropean Tur- ing' in mannfadlure8of filk, woibllĕn, cottoo, 
kcy, in BtriTarabia : 30 miles SW. of Akcrman. cabinet warcs, &c. all of which arenow lil 

TATARS, or Tartars. See T^rtary, § a. decayed, and it8 Itmits reduced. Bot it basiD] 

TATIANITE8,^h« foHower8 of Tatiam. 
Patricians, N^ 6 ; and the laft articlc. 

TATIANSKAIA, a town and fort of Ri 
in 8Aratovy on the Volga: 14 miles N£. of 

TATIEN, a town of Chinefe TarUry, 55 
NE.ofTamfan. i 

TATIENSES, a name giyen by RomuhHiil 
tribe'of the Roman peoplc, in honour of biici 
kguc, K. TATii;s,.to whom part of tbcin*"^ 
becn fubjed8. They lived oo the moonti ' 
toliniis md Ouirinaiis. 

TATISCHEYA, atown and fort of 
0pba, on tbe Ural : aS miles W. of Orenbiirik 

(i.)TATIU8, Titus. king of the Sabines 
Romans. Sce Rome, $ 5 and 6^ and SABir 

(2.) TATrus, Achillcs, a native of Al( 
wasthe author^ a book on tbe Ijphere. 
18 alfo attriboted to him a Greek romancc oa 
live8 of Leueippe mnd Clitopbont of which Ssloi^ 
has givcn a bcautiful edition in Orcek and iMj 
with notcs. Suidiis ^ys, that Tatius «ratt 
gan, but aftcnvards became a Chriftian, 
biihop. Photius mentions him in bis BiUi 

TATOBIT, a town of Bohemta» in 
5 milrt £• of T^imao. 

TATONNEUR, in zoology. See Lsmue 

TATOON TREE. See Bbnegal, $ 11. 

TATOUCHE, a town on thc W. coaft of 
mofa. Lon. 13. 44* £• Pcrro. Lat. 34. 8. N« 

TA.TSIN, a rivcr of China, which runi 
thc £aft^a : in Lon. x j6. 5. £. Lat. 37. 46* 

(1.) TATTA, a city of HmdooAan, the 
of SiNi>Y. It is boiit.on the file of thc ai 
Patai^ on the Indu8* In the irth century 
city was very extenfive and populoos; al 

Digitized by 


T A T 

( »63 ) 

T A V 

flf irai, tsd reck £ilt near jt* wkh % manufiidure 
cf ^itprrre. ft it 156 milet WNW. of Amcda- 
U, itti 540 SSW. Monitan, and 740 NW. of 
loiihiy. Lon. 67. a^. £. Lat. 14. 54, N. 

(t.)TATTA, a naanc of Sini>y. 

OJTatta, tn ancient geograpby, a large lake 
ihr^ Dcar PiGdia. 

TATTAH, a town of Afitca on the ^rontiers 
rfOnb vA Morocco, on tbe road frc Moroc- 
cots Tombadou : 150 miles SS£. o^ ^orocco. 
Ja 10. 55. £. Lat* 44. 54. N. 

TirrABfUNG, a towo of HindooAan, in Ca- 
int ; i milci 8. of Policandchery. 

•TATTER. «./. [from tbc vcrb.] A rag; a 
toriig rag.— Tbis fable bo1d«« from him tKat 
fai{ta (bc throne to tbe poor dcTil tbat bas 
hKtimtir, VRfirange. 

• f# Tatte*. V. a. {Mjeran^ Saxon.] To 
b»; torend ; to makc ragjrcd. TatUred li pcr- 
^iBortproperly an adjcdiTC.— 
"Miatter^d cloatha rmall ?icef do appear, 

labnaod rurr^d gowna bide aN. SJbaA. 

Ad apotbecary late I notcd 

IiatorVwccd*. Sĕai. 

IVrc wiT^d thc fatter*d tndiM o( RagCair» 

irwaiagruin haogf. Pope. 

Little tyrants rag^d* 

T« {roa cold wmtry Hmbs the tatte/^d wced. 

Ndv, tbc treaikre ibund, and matron's ftorc, 
|S30|tit otbcr obje^ tban the tatiet^d poor. 

,^ HaHe. 

jTATTERDEMAUON. n.f. [taSter and I 
F» oot what.] A raggcd (cllow.— A fpark that 
«winn cUd caJied to-this tatterdemalion^ how 
tBoiridenderc tbtt wcatber? VEJrange. 
tATrEREB.rt^-. 8ccroT4TTER. 
TATTER-SHALL. a town of England, in 
JtoWWrc, fcated 00 tbe Banc, ncar it« conflux 
»tkt Witham, aroong fens. It had a cattlc, 
« »« deftroycd during tbe ciTil wars in the 
iUcntafy. It baa a markct on Friday, and is 
^■inS.of Loatb, le SS. of Lincoln, and 117 
U loBdon. Lon. o. S. W. Lat. sz> 6. N. 
WncOMBA, a town of HindooOao, in 
■Ijp, 4 miles N^ of Qindigul. 
•TITTLE. »./ [«romthcTcrb.] Prate; idie 
«lyiliiig ulk.— 

^y tfrd ber bow ihc lik'd tbc irfay f 
^ told the tmitie of tbe day^ Swi/t^ 

*** tastle oftcn eptertains, 
J*! loiti and me aa far as Stains. Swift. 

"^^wcO ikillcd in tborc dHTcreiit fubjcds 
*t^impcrtincnt $attU witb a juft contempt^ 

* Tt Tatti.1. w. Jf. Uateren, Dutch.l To 
Fe; lo talk idly ; to uft many words with ht- 

^ »fter cTcry ta^t&ig fable fly. Spen/er. 

loe mf lady^s eWctt fon, erermorc tattiing. 
r^Ewulc it by tbe tattiing quality of age, 
« » alwayi narratiTC. Dryden.-^The world is 
^ emwgb to taUle of thcm. Loeke.^Tht 
p™ ^«Twige it estremcly proper to tattie in ; 
podetpoC (b mucb repetition and compli« 

• TATTliR. *./. tCrom tattle.] An idle talk^ 

er; a pratcr. — Going firom boufc to boufe, tattlers^ 
bufy Dodies, arc rcproTcd by tbe apoft]e. Tajlo r 

^TATTOO. n./.[homtafoteztouj^Vr.] The 
beat of drum by wbicb foldier8 are wamed to 
tbcir quartcrs — 

All tbofe whoie bcarts are loofe atul low, 

Start if thcy hear but the taitoo. . Prior. 

TATTOOING, or > »./. an operation in ufe 

TATTOWING, J among the iAandcrs in 
the South Sea for markyng tbcir bodics with fi- 
gnres of various kinds wbich they conlidcr as orna- 
mental. It is performcd by puniAuring the ikin, 
and rubbing a black «olour into the wouuds. Scc 
Otaheitbb^ 15. 

TATTUBT, a town of Algicrsjancienlly called 
Taduttii and tben a ?cry conddcrable city, but 
now almoft in ruins, 35 miles irom Conftantina« 
Some bcautiful granitc plllars werc lately dug 
up in it, and placed in a morque at Conftantina. 

TATZO, a town of Hungary, 40 miles E. 

TAUA, a town of Egypt, in tbe Delta. 

(/.) TAVAI,an ifland in thelndian Ocean, ncar.. 
thc coaft of SiAM ; aomties long and 3 broad. Lon. 
97. s%. E. Lat. 13. o. N. 

{%.) Tatai, a town of Siam, i%a nniles N. of 
Mcrgui, and 148 S. of Martaban. Lon. 98. 12. £• 
J^at. 14. 10. N. 

(3.) Tatai Poimt, theextreme point of a pc- 
ninfula on the coaft of Siam. JLon. 98. o. £. Mt. 
13. 40. N. 

Tayai-pobw AMMOO, tbc namcgiTcn by thena» 
tiTCS, to the W^ ifland of Ncw Zcaland- The in- 
land part is full of very bigh and rugged monn- 
tains, whofe tops are-covcred with fnow but the 
fea coaft abounds with trccs, among whtch is tbe 
true fprucc. Tbougb much rain feU, it was at- 
tended witb no bad ciTcdts on Captain Cook's 
fcamcn. The nativcs lead a wandering life, witb^ 
out feeming unitcd in focicty or fricndfliip. The 
ifland is 600 miles long, and tjo broad. 

TAYARONE, Laiarus, a celebrated Italian 
paintcr of hiftory and portraits, born at Genoa ia 
1536. He was a diCcipie of Lukc Cangiagio, and 
fucceeded him as painter to tbe king of Spain. He 
died in i5.u« 

TAyASTEBORG,") otTatastus, acityof 

TAYASTEHUS, > Swcden in Pinland, thc 

TAYASTHEHUS, 3 capital of Tavaftlandf 
built in 1650, by Count Peter Braht, on a plca- 
iant fpot, and endowcd with many privllege8. It 
wattakcn by tbe S.ufllans in 1713, and in tbe laft 
war was bumt by thcm. It hai a ftrong caftlc, 
with a magazine ; and is icatcd on a river that 
mns into lakc Wana ; 44 or 6a m. NE. of Abo^ 

TAVASTLAND, a provincc of Swcden, in thc 
middle of Pinland, about 150 milcs joog, and 100 
broad. Tbe foil is vcry fcrtilc, and the furtacc 
cbicAy coofifts of Bne plains, dcverflfied with ara- 
ble and meadow lands and watcred by many lakc^ 
and riTcrs abounding witb fifti. Jt likewire a- 
bounds in cattle and wild game. Yct it is but 
poorly cultivated, andliencc the pcafants m vcry 
peor. The N* part of this provincc is morjntainp. 
ous and wood^, and abounds with iron ore . The 
peoplje are cbieOy cmployed in buAiand y, and 
fifl^ng. Thcy alfo cxport com, Oas» bemp, 
X % diicd 

Digitized by 


T A V 


Mcd fifhy cattie» leatber, butteri tailow, 
and bark. 


TAVAVIS, a town of AUa, in Gfeat Bukbaria : 
%S miles NE. of Bukharia. 

TAUBE, a riycr of Brandenburg, which runs 
into the Aland, ijear Seehaiifen. 

(i.) TAUBER, a ritrer of Pranconia, in Anfpach ; 
yrhich runs NW. by Mergenthcim, and fails into 
the Maine at Wertheira. 

(2.) Tauber, a lake of Bavaria, in Berchtefga- 
4cn ; 6 milca W. of Bcrchtcfgaden. 

TAUBMAN» Prederick, a learned German cil- 
tic, born in Pranconia, about 1565. He bccamc 
profcflbr of poctry and belles lcttrcs at Wrtem- 
ocrg. He publiChi^ Commentaries on yirgii and 
Plautus. He dicd in 1633. 

TAUCHA» a town of Upper Saxony, in thc 
circle of Leiptic ; built in 1121 by Albert Abp. of 
Magdebyrg; hqt dcftroyed in 1179, by Dictric, 
inarg. of Mciflfcn. It5 was rcbullt and pon^At-d 
by different lords* till it felluoderthc jurifdi^ion 
ofLcipric; but in 1431» it was again deitroycd 
by the tiaAJtcs and Bohcmians ; when moft of thc 
Inhabitants flcd to Leipfic. It is 6 miJes NE, of 
JxMpfic, and; SSW. of Eulcnburg. 

TAUCHEL, a town of Pruffian Pomcrelia, 44 
miles SSW. of Dantzic. 'In 13 10, it was takep 
;ipd bumt by th^ Tcutooic Knighta. Ii was re- 
|)uiU, but has fince fuflercd much in the PoliHi 
«irars. It is fcatcd onthe Verd, 30 mites NW. of 
C^ulm, and $$ SW. of Magdeburg. hon. 18. 5. 
B. Lat. s^. 38. N. 

TAUD, a river of Enjrland, in LancaHiire. 

TAYDA, a river of RuAia, which rife8 from 
jLake Pelim, and falls into thc Tobol ; 40 miles 
S. ofToboHk. 

TAUDECONDA, a town of (lindooftan, in 
Oolconda ; 25 miies S W. of Warandole. 

TAUDENY, a town of Afika, in Zaara, 270 
milcs NNW. of Tombudou, Lon. 14. 45. E. 
ycrro. Lat. »3. 30. N. 

(i.) TAV£, a river bf Pranccy which ruus into 
thc RhoDC ; 6 milcs below Loudun. 

(a.) Tave, a riycr of S. Wales, in Cacrmarthcn- 
Ihire ; which ruhs into the l3riftol Channcly neaf 

(3.) Taye, or Taafe. Scc Taafb. 

(i.) TAVERA, a town of thc Prench cmpirc, 
}n the ifland ind dcpartment of Cprfica 

( 164 > 

T A V 

MAN. ir.^ [from tavcrn tnan or ke^; tabenunist 
Lat. ta^ermer» Fr,) One who kceps a ta^crB.— 
Atter local namcs thc moft in numbcr biive beeo 
derived from occupations ; as tailor, arcbcr, ta- 
verner, Camden* 

TAVERNES, a town of Prancc, io tbc dcpt 
of thc Var : % milet N. of Barjols. 

(i.) TAVĔRNIER^ John Baptift, a imm 
prench traytlltr, bom at Paris in 1605. In the 
ci>urfe of 40 years he travclled fix tiraH to Tur' 
key, Perfia, and thc Eaft Indici?; and vifiied aH 
thc countrics in Europe^ travclling moftiyonfboL 
His Trayels havc bcen oftcn prtntcd. Hcdied 
on hi« joBrncy, at Mofcow,-in 1609. 

(i.)Tavernier Kby, onc of thc TotTUGA 
inands ; s.miles ,fro^ the S. cnd of Laigo, ind 5 
NE. of 0»d Matacombe, 

TAVERNY, a town of Prancc, in the deptof 
Scine an J Oife ; 6 miles E. of Pontoifc. 

(i.) TAVETCH. or 7 a diftria of SwiUcriand, 

(i.) TAVETSCHE, J in the ci.dcvant Grifoai 
tcrritories, ncar Uri ; now in the Itaban kiagdoin. 

(i, 3.)Tav£T8Che, a town and mountaio it^ 
the above diAriO ; thc formcr 13 milcs SW. of JJ 
lantz, the latter 5. 

TAVEY, or Taafe. Scc Taafe. 

TAUFFKIRCHEN, a town io the cmpirc oi 
Auftria ; a.miles SW. of Gricikirchcn, aod SSW< 
of EiTcrding. \ 

(i.) • TAUGHT, pretcrite and part. paffivca 
teach.—hW thy childrtn (haU bc tau^bt o(ik< 
Lord. I/a. Iiv. 13.— 

How haft thou fatisfy'd mc, taogbt to IItc 
• ... ^ Wth^ 

(2.) Taught, adj, in fca languagc, tighi. S<| 
Navy, $ 6. 

TAUGIA, a town of Arabia, intledsja»: a» 
miies ENE. of Mecca. 

TAVLiNO,,a town of Naples, in Otianto 
XI milcs WNW. of Alexano. . • 

TAVIGNANO, a rivcr of the Prcnch cmpm 
in Coriica, which runa into the Uia ^S ^^^ ^ 
Qf Cenrione. . , 
,. TAVILA: SccTayira. 

(i.)TAUILE, a town of Arabia, in Ycmca 
»4 milcs W. of Tana. 

(2.) Tauile, a town of Egyp^ on thc Nik: 
iniic^ N. of Manfora. 

TAVIRAr or Tavila, a city Qf Portugal,a^ 

14 railc^ 
^NE.of Ajazzo. . , .... , ^. -, , , ^ 

(a.) TA.7ERA Di OrtAi i town oF Naplcs, in capita) of thc province of AigJirvc, wiih a baw 

Ihe proT. of Capitanata ; 14 nailcs SSW. of ATcoli. fomc caftlc, and onc of the beft barbours io t| 

*TAVERN. n./* [taveme, Fr. taberna^ Lat.} kingdom, dcfended by a fort. It is ^eated 10 

A houfc whcrc winc in fold, and drinkcrs arc cn- plcafant ftrti]c country, at thc mouth of OM 

lcrtaincd. — betwccn CipcyinccntandthcStrait of Gibraltj 

£nquir^ at Lohdon» 'mong tbc tamems thcrc. ;oo milcs W. hy N. of Cadiz. JL#on. 7. a^ \ 

Sbak^ Lat. 37- iS. N. ' . J 

I— you ihall fear'no morc tavern bill». Shak.'-'To ^ TAyiSTOCK, a borough cf England, m I 

reform the vices of this town, all tavems and al^- vonftii(e^ featcd 00 the Tavc, ovcr which it ha 

)&oufc8 Ihould be obli^ed to dirmifs tbeir compa- biidgc 0^5 archĕa. It gavc birlh to Sir F. Dra« 

jny hy twelyc at night, and no woman fuffercd to and fcnd8 2 nrtembers tp parlUment. It b^ 

cuter any tavern or alehoufc. S<ufift. . roarkct on Saturday ; and is 14 milcs N. of ^ 

TAVERNA, a toWn of Naplcs, in Calabria Ul- mouth, 32 W.' by S. ,of Esetcj, and .006 WSl 

tra, I? milcs N« of Squillace, 20 E. of Nicaftro, of Londoo. Lon. 4. 11. W. Lat. 50« 37» N. 

^nd 70 NE. of Keggio. Loni 16. 44.'E. Lat. 39. TAULANTII, an ancicnt nation of Illynt^ 

|i. N. • on thc Adriatic. Liv. 45» c a6. Luean^ vi. x^< 

* TAVERNER. TAVERNKiEErER.* TATEtN- TAULE', a town of Prancc, in the dcp. ol 

^ Difterl 

Digitized by 


T A U 

3 aiki NW. of MorUis, 


and 6 SS£. 


TAOLIGNAN, a town of Prancc, in thc dcp. 
of tbe Ikomt ; 9 milcs NW. of Nions, and 12 S£. 

TAUMACO, a town of Eojopcan Turkcy, in 
Thf(Wy; 18 milei NW. of Zrtton- 

TAUMAOO, an lAancl in tbc S. Pacific Occan. 
loo.3oi.o.£. Fcrro. Lat. 13. o. S. 

TA(JM£, a rjvcr of £ngland, which rirct in 
IMm, and ruos tnto thc McrTcj m Lancaihire, 
oppoite Scocliport. 

TAUNA, a town of £gyp^> on thc canal cf 
Mph« which runa bctwccn thc Nilc and tbc Bir- 
ietel Ktrum ; 5 rollcs SW. of Aikmuncin. 

♦TAUNT.»./. lfrora thc vcrb.] Infult; fcoff; 
Rproich j ridiculc— 

Wtth fcofft and fcom8» and contumclious 

Iiopcn markct-placc produc'd thcy mc, 
To be a pubtick fpcdaclc. SJM. 

-JoBiD thoujht it moic cff<Aual to pcrlccutc thc 
Ouilijai by tatptij and ironics, than by torturcs. 
O^wtment o/the Tomjpie.-^ 

Scni thcm Aowing round his drunkcn',fcaft9 

With (acrilcgious taunt, Prior. 

•f«TAirNT. V. <rl {tanW^ Fr. Skinner. Tan' 

H Dotch, to Oiew tcclh. Minjhew,] x. To rc- 

^oacb; to infult ; to rc^ilc ; to ridiculc ; to trcat 

tiiij infolcrcc and conturoclics. — 

Whco I bad at my picafurc iaunted hcr* 
Shc in mikl tcrras bcgg'd my paticnce. Sbeik* 
Tbc btttemcf«i and (lingflof /oim/iA^jcalou^y^ 
Hafc driv'n him forth. Row^t Jane Sbone. 

}-Toexprobatc; tomcntion wtth upbraidingd — 
Itail thou iu Fulvia'» phrafe) and taunt my 
Ualts r 

With foch full liccncc. Sbak. 

•TAUNT£R. «./• lfirom tamt.^l Onc who 
tiUDtt, rcproachcs ^r infult8. 
. •TAUNTINGLY. adv. l^rom tamitmg.] With 
B^lt; icolBngly; with contumdy and t^proba* 

It tmmntingly rcplied 
To th' difcontented members. . Shai» 

Tbc waotoo goddcf8 vicw'd the warlikc maid 
FrDo bcad to root» and tawttingJj (hc taid. 


165 > T A U 

of day; and lics 31 milcs N£. of £xctcr. Lon. 3. 
17. W,