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Full text of "The New-England farmer; or Georgical dictionary : Containing a compendious account of the ways and methods in which the important art of husbandry, in all its various branches, is, or may be, practised, to the greatest advantage, in this country."

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G K Kovey 









































y t 


44 Divifions 


"- JPage 



47 Door Dung 
47 Drain 


Air 10 


48 Dray 


Anticor 11 

Change of Crops 

50 Drefling 


Ants 13 

Change of Seeds 

52 Drill 


Apples *3 


54 Drought 


Apple Tree 14 


55 Dung 


Arable Land 15 


55 Dunghills 


Artichoke,y72ra 15 

Chick Wee4 

56 Dung Meers 


Artichokefleliant. 15 


56 Dutch Hoe 


Afh 15 


57 Byfce 


Ames 16 


57 E 

Afparagus 17 


>f J*-^ 


Afpen 17 


62 Earth 


Autumn 17 


62 Eddifh 


Axe 17 

Clay Soil 

63 Effluvium 



Clearing Land 

64 Elder 




66 Elf Shot 


Barley 18 


66 Elm 


Barn 21 


66 Employment 

9 s 

Barn Yar4 21 

Cole Seed 

69 EncJofure 


Bean 23 
Beer 25 


70 Ewes 
71 Excrement 


Bees 29 


71 Experience 


Beet 32 


72 Experiments 


Bidens 33 


7 2 F 

Bird Grafs 33 

Cow Houfe 


Blight 34 


74 Faggot 


Blood 34 


74 Fall 


Bog 34 


74 Fallowing 


Browfe 34 


75 Falfe Quarter 


Buck Wheat 35 


76 Fan 


Bull 35 


76 Farcy 


Burn Baking 35 


76 Farm 


Burnet 36 


77 Farmer 


Burnt Clay 37 


77 Feri 

Burnt Grain 37 




Bufhes 38 





77 Fern 


Dairy Room 

7# Fefcue 


Cabbage oo 


79 Field 


Calf 4? 


79 Fifh 

11 1 

Caaker 42 


79 Flail 


Canker Worm 42 


79 Flanders Grafs 


Carriage 44 


So Flax 


Flax Brake 



Flax Brake 








* Tut" 1 




Malanders 195 





Malt 195 





Malt Duft 195 



Horn Diftemper 


Manure 196 





Maple 200 


Horie Hoe 


Mare 200 





Marking of Cattle2oo 



Hurts in the \ 


Marie 201 

Food of Plants 


Withers j 


Marih 205 





Mattock 204 



Meadow 204 



Meafles 20$ 

Fruit Trees 




Melon 2O 





Meflin 205 




Metheglin 206 



Mice 2c6 


Indian Corn 


Mildew 207 





Milk 210 


1 3 2 



Millet 210 




Mofs 211 



Mould 212 



Mouldboard 213 





Mow 213 




Mowing 213 





Mowing Ground 2 14 
Muck 217 





Mud 217 





Mulberry 219 





Mulch 219 




Green Drefftng 


Kitchen Garden 





Nave 219 

Green Scouring 



Navel Gall 21$ 





Neclarine 220 





New Hufbandry 220 





Nurfery 225 





Nut Tree 226 




Nympha 227 


Lay Land 











Oak 228 





Oats 231 





Olive 232 


3 47 



Onions 233 


1 47 



Orchard 235 



Locuft Tree 


Ore Weed 

S~*\. 1" *** 





Oder 239 

Hentins Furrows 
Herds Grafs 



* 95 

Overflowing "1 
of the Gall) 2 39 


Out Hou{ee 


O N T E N 

T S. 




Fa E 

Out Houfcs 









2 7 8 





Red Worm 






2 79 

Spiky Roller 




Ripling Cart 









Spring Grain 




2 43 


2 80 


Spur in Rye 




24 C 





Pafture of Plants 247 





Peach Trees 


Rotation of Crops 2 83 



Pear Trees 






















Perkin or Purre 

J J 







J ~r 


Rye Grafs 


Stone Wall 



Perfpiration \ 
ot Plants J 










Plafter of Paris 





<j (j 









Sandy Soil 



ts j> 






String Halt 


Plum Trees 






Poll Evil 


Sea Water 







2 93 





2 94 


32 i 




2 9*i 









Prong Hoe 



2 95 


Q 2 .$ 






3 "a 




2 9 










Vi t 


Siliquofe Plants 


Swath Rake 

33 l 


















Quince Tree 



2 99 


Quincunx Order 276 



Tail Sicknefs 


Quitch Grafs 






Snead, or Snathe 












j t 







Thill Horfe 


- 34 





Thra filing 


34 l 




34 2 
34 2 




Winter Grain 





3 6 4 







39 2 

Timothy Grafs 











39 2 

Top Dreffing 



Wood Land 

39 2 


34 6 










34 8 


3 6 7 




34 8 


3 6 7 



Trench Plough. 





34 8 






WatcrFurrowing^6g , 



3 6 9 

Yard a meafure 






3 6 9 

Yard an enclofure 395 







Turnip Cabbage 




Yellow Weed 



37 2 













Van t or Fan. 


Wheel - 

Yew Tree 

39 s 





3 ^'3 













White Scout 

3 8 3 



White Weed 

3 8 3 











Wind Gall 












IT is much to be regretted, that the mofc 
complicated of all the arts, in which the brighteft genius 
may find fufficient room to exert and difplay itfelf, fhould 
be flighted and neglected, by a people not generally 
wanting in ambition. And it is equally ftrange and unac 
countable, that the moil ufeful and neceflary of all em 
ployments fhould have been confidered, even by the en^ 
lightened people of Newengland, as below the atten 
tion of any perfons, excepting thofe who are in the low- 
eft walks of life ; or, that perfons of a liberal or polite 
education fhould think it intolerably degrading to them, 
to attend to practical agriculture for their fupport. 

Perhaps, one occafion of the low efteem in which huf- 
bandry has been held, in this country, may have been 
the poor fuccefs which has mod commonly attended the 
labours of thofe who have embraced the profeffion. Not 
only have mod of them failed of rapidly increafing their 
eftates by it, bu too many have had the mortification of 
making but an indifferent figure in life, even when they 
have ufed the flri cleft economy, and worn out their con- 
dilutions by hard and inceffant labour. The misfortune 
has been, that a great proportion of their toil has been 
loft by its mifapplication. To prevent this evil in fu 
ture is a leading deiign of the prefent publication. And 
fnice many among us begin to be convinced of the ur- 

t neceflity of having the attention of the publick turn 
ed to agriculture, it is hoped that the following attempt to 
promote the knowledge of its myfteries, and afpirited at- 

A tentiou 





34 2 
34 2 




Winter Grain 







39 * 






39 2 

Timothy Grafs 



3 6 5 








39 2 

Top Dreffing 



Wood Land 

39 2 


34 6 


39 2 








34 8 


3 6 7 




34 8 


3 6 7 



Trench Plough. 





34 8 v 





Water Furrowing 





3 6 9 

Yard a meafure 






3 6 9 

Yard an enclofure 395 







Turnip Cabbage 




Yellow Weed 



37 2 















Van, or Fan 


Wheel - 

Yew Tree 


w* y, 












3 8 3 




White Scoiit 




White Weed 

3 8 3 











Wind Gall 












IT is much to be regretted, that the rnofc 
complicated of all the arts, in which the brighteft genius 
may find fufficient room to exert and difplay itfelf, fhould 
be flighted and neglected, by a people not generally 
wanting in ambition. And it is equally ftrange and unac 
countable, that the moft ufeful and neceflary of all em 
ployments fhould have been confidered, even by the en 
lightened people of Newengland, as below the atten 
tion of any perfons, excepting thofe who are in the low-* 
eft walks of life ; or, that perfons of a liberal or polite 
education fhould think it intolerably degrading to them, 
to attend to practical agriculture for their fupport. 

Perhaps, one occafion of the low efteem in which huf- 
bandry has been held, in this country, may have been 
the poor fuccefs which has moft commonly attended the 
labours of thofe who have embraced the profeflion. Not 
only have moft of them failed of rapidly increafing their 
eftates by it, bu too many have had the mortification of 
making but an indifferent figure in life, even when the;/ 
have ufed the ftri cleft economy, and worn out their con- 
ftitutions by hard and mediant labour. The misfortune 
has been, that a great proportion of their toil has been 
loft by its mifapplication. To prevent this evil in fu 
ture is a leading deiign of the prefent publication. And 
fmce many among us begin to be convinced of the ur~ 
t neceffity of having the attention of the publick turn 
ed to agriculture, it is hoped that the following attempt to 
promote the knowledge of its myfteries^ and a fpirited at- 

A tendon 

2 IN T R O D U C T I ON". 

tention to the operations of it, will meet with the greater 
approbation and fuccefs. And as a very refpeftable So* 
ciety in the Commonwealth of Malfachufetts have under 
taken to propagate the knowledge of huibandry, the day 
maybe at hand, when the employment of the farmer fhall 
no more be treated with contempt ; when the rich, the po 
lite, and the ambitious, fhall glory in paying a clofe at 
tention to their farms ; when refpeclable, perfons fhall 
confefs it is one of the nobled employments to aflift na- 
u tfu'i ? e in neV*bc'Uht5ful productions ; when it fhall be our- 
ahibitiori to folloV^the example of the fir ft man in tlie 
n>uipst,^v3jQ dc^ not think an attention to huibandry 
degrading"; and when, inftead of being afhamed of their 
employment, our laborious farmers fhall, as a great writ 
er fays, " tofs about their dung with an air of majefly."' 

Amidll the laudable efforts that are now making to 
promote fo excellent a defign as the revival of agricul 
ture, the writer of the following (heets is humbly attempt 
ing to throw in his mite. He has been more prompted 
to engage in fo arduous an undertaking, by an opinion 
he has long entertained of the need of a work of this kind, 
adapted to the flate and circumflances of this country, 
than by any idea of his being thoroughly qualified to 
undertake it. 

European books on agriculture are fufficiently plenty 
in the world, fome of which are extremely well written ; 
and this country is not wholly unfurniihed with them. 
But they are not perfedly adapted to a region fo differ 
ently circum (lanced; Though the productions of En- 
glifh writers may be perufed by the judicious to great ad 
vantage, it would be unadvifable, and perhaps ruinous, 
for our farmers to adopt the methods of culture in grofs, 
which they recommend to their countrymen. Local cir 
cumflances fo widely differ in the two countries, that, in- 
many cafes, the right management in the one mufl needs 
be wrong in the other. Britain, being generally liable to 
too much wetnefs, the Englifli methods of culture mud 
in may refpe&s be different from thole of a region that is 
moflly annoyed, as ours is, with the oppofite extremity 
of drought. Difference of heat and cold mufl require a 
correfpondent variation in thefuiublc crops and manage 

I N TR O D U C T I O N. '$ 

^tn-ent. Difference of feafons and climates vary the fit 
times for fowing the fame kinds of feed ; and the ma 
nures that prove to be moft profitable in one country, 
cannot always be rationally expefted to prove fo in an 
other, although they were equally obtainable. And 
though Americans fpeak the Englifh language, yet the 
diHon peculiar to different farmers on the eaft and weft 
of the Atlantick. and the manner of their communicat 
ing their ideas on hufbandry are fo little alike, as to ren 
der it highly expedient that we fhould be inftrucled in it 
by our own countrymen, rather than by Grangers, if any 
among us can be found ^capable ^of doing it in a. tolerable 

The writer confeiTes he has -never had fufficient leifure 
to attend very clofely to the ftudy of agriculture. But, 
having always had a high relifh for natural philofophy, 
and particularly for this moft profitable and important 
branch of it, he has paid all poflible attention to it for a 
number of years, employed many of his vacant hours in 
perufmg what has been pubHfhed by thebeft writers, and 
in making ufeful experiments in husbandry. He Matters 
himfelf, therefore, that he ihall not have the unhappi- 
nefs of grofsly mi (leading any of the moft ignorant of his 
readers. Many things are written from his own experi 
ence, and from that of others in this country, on 
whofe veracity in their communications he can rely. 
T'hings which are not certainly known. are mentioned on 
ly as opinion or conjecture. Extracts are made from 
fome of the beft authors, and marked as fuch. He has 
not wilfully alferted any thing which he does not know 
to be fa 61:. And though he has adopted the ideas of others, 
he has not parTed any thing on the publick as his own, 
which has been publifhed by others, unlefs it be through 
inattention or mi ftake. Whether the reafonings be juft, 
every intelligent reader muft judge and determine ; and 
to the candour of fuch the whole is fubmitted. 

Long and particular accounts of experiments, fuch as 
abound in many European publications, are generally 
omitted, left they fhould take up too much room, in a 
book that is meant to becomprcheniive, and cheap to the 
prchafer, at the fame time that it is dcfigned to contain 



a whole fyflem of hufbandry. Neither would the inten 
tion of comprehending much in a little room permit the 
pages to be filled with lengthy bills of the coft of culture, 
and computations of profit, which many writers have too 
much run into ; and in which any writer in this country, 
where the price of labour is variable, would be in dan 
ger of deceiving both himfelf and kis readers. Our farm 
ers have a fufficient knowledge of arithmetick to do thefe 
things for themfelves ; and it would not be amifs for 
them to amufe themfelves in this way, in fome of their 
moments of leifure. 

That the writer has been excited to treat on the pref- 
ent fubjecl: by a tender concern for the welfare of his 
country, more than by any felfifh and finjfter view, thofe 
who are beft acquainted with him are fufficiently convinc 
ed. At the fame time, he will not pretend to deny his 
feeling of an ambition to be one of the firft of his nation, 
who has thus endeavoured to lighten the labours, and pro 
mote the happinefs of his countrymen. Yet he moft fin- 
cerely wifhes, that other writers on- the fubjecl: may foon 
carry the fyftem nearer to perfection, as they undoubtedly 
will. But the difadvantages he is under by being fo ear- 
3y, and having an unbeaten way to explore, will doubt- 
3efs apologize for him with all who are candid andconfider- 
ate. and partly atone for his errors and imperfections, from 
which it would be flrange if he were wholly free. 

Though agriculture, ftriclly confidered, has nothing to 
do with the breeding and management of tame animals, 
yet it is fo clofely connected with thofe employments, in 
practice, that the farmer cannot be complete without a 
confiderable knowledge thereof. It is by the am fiance 
of labouring beads, fuch as horfes and oxen, that he 
muft carry on his tillage, and fend the produce of his 
lands to market. By the help of milch kine his grafs-, 
hay. and other fodder, are to be converted into butter and 
cheefe. Bullocks, poultry and fwine muft be fed and 
fattened with the produce of his farm, that he and his 
family may be fed with their flefh, and the markets fup- 
plied with meat. And the fheep muft am ft him in 
the tranfmutation of the fruits of his ground into mate 
rials for clothing and food. Therefore the rearing, tend 


ing, and whole management, of all thefe forts of animals, 
are attended to in the following work ; including the 
methods of preventing and curing the moft common dif- 
tempers to which, in this climate, they are liable. 

Noxious animals, fuch as beads of prey, ravenous birds, 
and devouring infects, have too much connexion with agri 
culture, as the farmer knows by his forrowful experience, 
lie ought therefore to be inftructed in the moft effectual 
methods of defending his property againft them. This 
arduous tafk, to which no one perhaps can pretend 
to be fully equal, the reader will find attempted, and it is 
hoped, in fome good degree performed, in the following 

As fruit trees are of elTential importance to the farmer, 
the rearing of them from feeds and otherwife, as alfo the 
grafting, tranf planting and pruning them, are attended 
to in this work. 

And as agriculture cannot be carried on to the beft ad 
vantage, without a variety of fuitable tools and machines ; 
the moft important and ufeful of farming implements 
are treated of. Much of the eafe and comfort of the la 
bourer, as well as the profit of the farmer, depends upon 
their being well conftructed. Their conftruction, there 
fore, is minutely attended to. although the art of the me- 
chanick is the branch to which it moft properly belongs. 

The author attempted to arrange the parts of his lub- 
ject analytically. But the variety of the materials he 
had collected was fo great, and their heterogeneoufnefs fo 
obvious, that he found it not eaiy to doit to his own fat- 
isfaction ; which is one of the reafons why the book 
makes its appearance in the lexicographical form. And 
when he confiders that what he is doing is not principal 
ly for the inftruction of critical fcholars, but for the di 
rection of the common people, it appears that the want 
of a fyftematical arrangement is a matter of no great con fe- 
quence. On the prefent plan, he has faved himfelf the 
trouble of writing a long index, which mult have added 
feveral pages to the volume, and increafed its price to the 
purchafers, which he willies may be as low as poiTible, 
for their encouragement. Perhaps it need not be added, 
that the fafhionablenefs of an alphabetical method is a 

fV rther 


"further apology for the form in which this book appears * 
nor the advantage the moft illiterate reader will have of 
readily turning to any particular part of the general fubjecl;. 

It is hoped that an acquaintance with this volume, if 
it mould be perufed by the generality of our farmers, will 
enable them to communicate their ideas to each other, and 
to learners in hufbandry, with the greater perfpicuity and 
propriety, and lead them to ufe nearly the fame language 
in doing it, in the various parts of the country. For the 
writer has endeavoured that his diction mould not only 
ibe concife, but plain and intelligible to ordinary readers ; 
fuch as is moft fuitable to the fubject, and not adapted to 
lead any into the ufe of abfurd and ungrammatical lan 
guage. How far thefe defigns are accomplimed the learn 
ed and judicious reader will be able to determine. 

As a mumber of vulgar errors and prejudices are de 
tected, and new methods of management propofed, it is ex 
pected that what is written will be cenfured by many, who 
have confirmed themfelves in wrong practices by invete 
rate habits. But if perfons will only be fo fair as to allow, 
that there is a poffibility of fome want of perfection in 
their prefent eftablifhed practice ; which is at lead high 
ly probable, as this is a country where hufbandry as an 
art has not been taught, nor much attended to ; they will 
then fee it is reafonable to give a candid hearing to any 
new fcheme of improvement fnggefted, and to plaufible 
arguments offered in fupport of its utility and allow 
themfelves to be influenced by them. If'fhofe who are 
in low circum fiances fhould fear they may fuffer lofs, by 
trying any new practice in hufbandry, it is hoped the 
richer fort will be inclined to do it by love of their coun 
try. For others will undoubtedly inquire concerning 
their fuccefs ; and when they are convinced by experi 
ments made by their neighbours of the advantage of any 
new practice, one would think they can need no other 
motive to induce them to adopt it. 

On the other hand, let not the book be reprobated for 
containing fo many things as it does, which are already 
well known to farmers. The farmer may find reafons for 
his good practice which he has not before thought of, and 
be induced to perfevere in it, And befides, all ufeful 



Imowledge ought to be recorded, that it may be retained^ 
and be in no danger of being loft, as a great deal has beea 
in the world. It fhould alfo be remembered that things- 
which are well known by ibme may be quite new to oth 
ers ; efpecially to young perfons, and to all thofe who 
Have newly turned their attention to hufbandry. 

The writer has had more zeal and courage in attempt 
ing to promote improvements in agriculture, fmce the 
happy termination of the late ftruggle for independence 
than before. Our holding the rank of a free and inde 
pendent nation allows us to confider the country as in- 
difputably our awn, and ourfelves as monarchs over our 
farms. Nor does it appear probable, that we fhall foori 
meet with any thing that will give us a material inter 
ruption, in purfuing the arts, or enjoying the bleffings of 
peace. If great improvements were now to be made, we 
might have raafon to hope we mould enjoy the benefits of 
them through life, and that pofterity would not be de 
prived of them. 

But the mod forcible reafon for our cultivating this arr ? 
is the indifpenfable neceffity of it, to enable us to live as 
becomes an independent people. The alarming effect of 
the prefent low ftate of hufbandry is, that we are necefli- 
tated to import much of our food, and clothing, while we 
are incapable of making proportionable remittances in the 
produce of the foil, or in any thing elfe. As a good fyftem 
of national government is now eftablifhed, I fee no reafon. 
to doubt but that a fpirited attention to hufbandry and 
manufactures, accompanied with a more general practice of 
frugality and economy, would put us on a refpe&able foot 
ing; fo that fuch a foundation would be laid for ourincreaf- 
ing wealth, that we fhould be able, in a fhort time, to can 
cel our publick debts ; and might reafonably hope ere 
long to become an opulent, refpeclable and very pow 
erful nation. 

As to the prefent edition, its appearing fo foon after the 
fir ft is occafioned by the rapid fale of the book, arifing 
from the general acceptance it has obtained ; and the in- 
creating demand could not otherwife be fupplied. 

The author has taken the opportunity to corrett a great 
number of fmall errors. Some few things are fuppreflT- 



ed in.this publication. The diftion in many parts is mucli 
improved. Many articles are more largely, and more accu 
rately treated of than they were before ; and a number of 
new and important ones are added, with a view to render the 
work a more complete directory for hufbandmen. And 
that the vegetables that are treajted on may be known to 
perfons in other countries, as well as in remote parts of our 
own, where they are probably called by different names from 
thofe Englifh ones he had given them, he has now added 
the botanical names, which are extenfively known by per 
fons of erudition. On the whole, he thinks the book is far 
more increafed in value than in fize. If, in its prefent im 
proved ftate,itihallbefound to contribute towards reviv 
ing and continuing the fpirit of hufbandry, and towards the 
increafing advantage of thofe who are employed in it, he 
will confider it as the moil happy reward he can have 
for his labour. 







A G R 

al, nearly the fame as hufbandry; 
but mare Ilri6lly tillage, or the 
Culture of land. 

The word is compounded of 
tiger,^ a field, and culiura, tilling ; 
and intends the art, or employ 
ment, of rendering the earth Fruit 
ful by tillage, extending to the 
Care of all ufeful vegetables. Hor 
ticulture, or gardening, is includ 
ed in it ; and, therefore, will not 
be wholly omitted in the follow 
ing pages. Though, in a more re 
frained fenfe,- agriculture is uied 
for the culture of arable lands, 
including ploughing, manuring, 
feeding, &c. yet it is really con- 
verfant with the care of paftures 
and meadows, orchards and for- 
efts ; and with the cultivation 
of all the ufe ful fruits of the earth, 
that in any way are produced by 
the cave arid labour of man. 

Agriculture is juftly thought to 
be the molt ancient art ; and it is 
certainly by far the moll ufeful, 
neceflary and beneficial. The 
fubfifieiice ami welfare" of man 
kind elf oend more on it than on 

A G R 

any, or all others : And all other 
arts would foon be iifelefs, were 
the culture of the furface of the 
earth neglefted. No art, there 
fore, ought to be held in higher 
eftimation. The ancients valued 
it highly ; and no good reafon 
can be given why the modems 
mould lightly efteem it. The 
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, 
afcribed the invention of this art 
to their Gods ; but Jews and 
Chriftians rather trace it up to' 
Noali and Cain, the former of 
whom planted a vineyard, and the 
latter, long before him, was a till 
er of the ground. Even Adam 
in paradife praftifed one branch 
of this art ; he was pat into the 
garden of Eden to drefs it, and 
to keep it. 

The immortal poet Virgil did 
not think agriculture a fubjecl: un 
worthy of his genius ; and his 
Georgicks are efteemed as forne 
of the moil excellent of his works. 
Agriculture has drawn the atten 
tion of fome of the greateft men in 
all nations, many of whom have 
had their hands, as well as their 

A G R 

heads, employed in it. Cyrus the 
younger planted and cultivated 
liis garden partly with his own 
hands : And it is well known that 
the Romans took fome of their 
greatefl generals from the plough. 
Cincinnatus, whofe fame is great, 
and whofe name is much honour 
ed in America, was ploughing in 
his field, when the Roman army 
wasbefieged in its trenches by the 
yEquiand Volfci. Being fent for, 
he went to the army, routed the 
er^emy, entered the city in tri 
umph, and then returned to his 
former employment. The mon 
arch of the great empire of Chi 
na, every fpring, attends to the 
ceremony of opening the ground, 
by holding, the plough. What 
could more conduce to the en T 
f ouragement of this occupation 
among his numerous fubjefts ? 
Agriculture has been fo great an 
object in Britain, as to employ the 
pens of a multitude of its geni- 
ufes ; and the Englifh books that 
have been written upon it are 
furprifmgly numerous. In that 
country, it I miflake not, huf 
bandry has been brought as near 
to perfection, as in any part of 
the world. And it is owing to 
this that the ifland fupports fo 
great a number of inhabitants ; 
and that the Englifh nation has 
been fo opulent and powerful. 

Though other employments 
are oftentimes more lucrative to 
individuals than hufbandry, none 
can be fo advantageous to the 
world. If it is a flower way of 
gaining wealth than fome others, 
it is perhaps the leaft hazard 
ous of any. The farmer depends 
not on winds and waves, like the 
mariner ; nor on the good will 
of his neighbours and the pub- 
Vick, for employment and bread, 
like the mechanick. The bufi- 
nefs of hufbandry is highly adapt 
ed to promote the health of the 

A I R 

body, and the cheerfulnefs sftid 
content of the mind. And if it 
were better underftopd in this 
country, and more fpiritedly pur- 
fued, both the pleafure and the 
profit attending it would be vaft- 
ly greater than we have yet expe 
rienced. It is an employment, 
which affords a variety of enter 
taining fpeculatipns to art inquifi- 
tive mind ; and is adapted to lead 
us into a confiderable acquaint 
ance with the works of nature^ 
and with nature's God. 

" In a philofophick view," fays 
one, " Agriculture is great and 
extenfive. In a political view, it 
is important, and perhaps the on 
ly firm and ftable foundation of 
greatnefs. As a profeflion, it 
ftrengthens the mind, without e- 
nervating the body. In morals, it 
tends to increafe virtue, without 
introducing vice. In religion, it 
naturally infpires piety, devotion, 
and a dependence on Providence, 
without a tincture of infidelity. 
It is a rational and agreeable a- 
inufement to the man of leifure, 
and a boundlefs fource of con 
templation and activity to the 

AIR, the matter of which the 
atmofphere of the earth confifts, 
or the fluid which furrounds the 
terraqueous globe. The air is al 
ways fo loaded with heterogene 
ous particles, that it is" impoffible 
entirely to extricate it from them. 
It is therefore confidered by fome 
as a kind of chaos. That it has 
much water in it is eafily obferv- 
able. The dew that nightly falls 
out of it proves it. Ten thou- 
fand different fleams from min 
erals, vegetables and animals, are 
continually afcending, and mix 
ing with the air. 

The air, therefore, contains 

much of the food of plants ; for 

it is well known, that all animal 

and vegetable fubftances nourifh 


A I R 

plants. Accordingly, the mod 
barren turfs laid high in dikes, or 
fuch as in fome countries are pil 
ed up for fences, or the walls of 
buildings, by being long expofed 
to the air, become fo highly im 
pregnated with the food of plants, 
as to be a rich manure. And it 
-is well known to farmers, in fome 
.countries, that laying the furface 
of the land in fteep ridges, only 
during one 'syinter, conduces 
much to its fertility. The fertil 
izing particles in the air cafily 
enter the foil, when it is loole 
and open, and much expofed to 
the penetration of air. 

Seeds that are fecluded from the 
air will not vegetate. Thofe which 
are buried deep in the ground will 
not fprout, till by fome means 
they are brought fo near the fur- 
face as to fupply them with air. 
Numbers of new weeds will ap 
pear on fallowed land, after eve 
ry ploughing : The reafon of 
which is, that each ploughing 
Ibrings up fome feeds to the air, 
which were before too low, or too 
clofely confined, to receive its in 

Mr. Ray fowed Tome lettuce 
feed in the glafs receiver of an air 
pump, exhaufted of air, which 
Jeed did not grow, nor fprout at 
all, in eight days : Whereas fome 
of the fame feed, fown at the fame 
time in open air, was rifen to the 
height of an inch and a half. But 
the air being admitted into the 
receiver, the fame feed, which 
had not difcoyered the leafl: fign 
of vegetation in fo many days be 
fore, in a week grew to the height 
of three inches. 

A plant needs air in ev cry ftage 
of its growth. Its outer coat needs 
a free air to keep it in a dry flate 
and give it folidity. It abforbs 
air and perfpireS it. It is an ef- 
fential part of the nourishment of 
plants, which enters chiefly at 

ANT it 

their roots, but very plentifully 
alfo through the pores of the 
leaves. Air is known to exift ii 
all plants ; they fenfibly fend forth 
much of it when they are burn 
ing in the fire. 

A free circulation of air abaut 
all parts of the furface of a plant 
is neceffary to keep it in a healthy 
ftate. It is the want of this, which 
caufes thick grafs and grain to 
lodge, before it is come to matu 
rity. Therefore, care ihould "be 
taken that grain be not fowed too 
thick, nor the weeds fufFered to 
grow among it, in fuch plenty as 
to flop the free currents of a'r 
through it. The items will be 
foft and feeble, if they are not 
hardened by a free current of air 
among them. 

ANTICOR, M a fwelling in 
the gullet and throat of a horfe, 
arid is the fame which in man is 
called angina.. It proceeds from 
the fame caufes that bring on ma 
ny other difeafes on horfes, from 
hard riding, expelling a horfe to 
the cold, giving him cold water 
4o drink when he is hot, full feed 
ing, and whatever elfe may caufe 
a ftagnation in the blood. 

" The fignsof this diforder are 

all thofe that accompany a fever ; 

: for an anticor, while it is internal,, 

; never wants a fever to attend it : 

i But when it (hews itfelfexternal- 

' ly the fever begins to abate, un- 

lefs it continue to be both cxter- 

! rial and internal. 

" So long as the inflammation 
continues in the gullet, the liorfc 
; foriakes his food : And though 
: he has frequent inclinations to 
| drink, the firft gulp deters him 
: from meddling with it again, un- 
\ til he has forgot the pain and ag- 
; ony it put him into. And the 
! pain in the gul let is yet more man- 
I ifeft from this, that whenever 3 
': drench is given him he ftaggeiT, 
1 and feems as if he would faU 



down, and makes fliort interrupted 
groans, and fometimes will have a 
cold clammy fweat about his ears. 

" The cure muil be begun by 
bleeding, and that needs not be 
very fparing : For this difeafe fel- 
dom happens to horfes that are 
poor and low. And here we al- 
fo approve of flicking one or oth 
er of the veins in the hind parts, 
to make revulfion, 

" After bleeding, the following 
clyfter may be given : 

"Take two handfuls of barley, 
two ounces of fal polychreft, re 
duced to fine powder : Boil them 
in two quarts of water for a quar 
ter of an hour : Add to the de 
coction a pint of wine, four 
ounces of frefh butter, and two 
punces of oil of rue. Let this be 
given bloodwarm, and repeated 
twice a day, or oftener, 

" If he takes to food, nothing 
muft be given himbutmoiftened 
hay, and fcalded bran ; or what 
ever elfe mult be chiefly fuch 
things as are proper to keep down 
the heat and inflammation, anc} 
abate the fevenfh fymptoms ; for 
which purpofe we recommend, 
after blooding, thofe things that 
are proper to promote fweat. 
Therefore, let the following 
drench be prepared for him : 

"Take treacle water and cardu- 
us water, of each one pint ; dif- 
folve in thefe two ounces of Ve 
nice treacle : And after this has 
been given, clothe him well r and 
give him a little warm water to 
drink. Inflead of the treacle and 
carduus water, a pint of flale 
beer, mixed with fmall beer, may 
be ufed. Nothing is fo effectual 
to remove inflammation, efpecial- 
ly after bleeding, as fweating : 
Therefore, if you find it difficult 
to promote fweat, you may give 
the following ball : 

" Take old Venice treacle two 
Ounces, volatile fait of hartmorn 

A N T 

fifteen grains, Mathews' pill one 
dram, camphor in powder fix 
grains, powder of liquorice, or 
fafTafras in powder, as much as is 
fufricient to make it into a pafte. 
Let this be given after the ope 
ration of the clyfter is over. 

" If the fymptoms begin to a- 
bate, you may venture to give 
your horfe a gentle purge. 

" If the fwelling appears out 
wards, and if the other fymptoms 
abate, you may leave offpurging : 
For what is intended by that evac 
uation, is chiefly to difperfe the 
inward diforder. Nextly, you are 
only to apply ripening cataplafms, 
allowing him fal prunellas, nitre, 
or the fal polychrcftum, diffolv- 
ed in his drink. 

" Cow's dung alone, applied 
warm to the part, with lard, or 
ointment of marlh mallows, may 
be fufficient to bring the fwelling 
to maturity, 

" When the matter feems 
ready for a difcharge, it may be* 
opened in the dependent lower- 
moft part, by the application of a 
hot iron ; afterwards keeping a 
clofiel in. the mouth of the wound 
till the running abates ; and ap 
plying comprcfTes, and conveni 
ent bandage to keep the elevated 
fkin clofe to the flelh, that it may 
be the fboner united. Br:. it the 
cavity of the impofthumation be 
large, it will not he amifs to lay 
it open an inch or more. 

" The cure may be firiifiiccf 
with applying only the nnguen- 
tum bafijicum ;' or a digettive 
jnade with turpentine, the yolks 
of eggs, or honey, with a mode- 
rate mixture oi brandy, or fpirit. 
of wine. And if any fonlneisap- 
pears, or if it heal too faih 
fpungy fpftflefharife.pledgitsdipt 
in copperas water, orafpfutrpn ot 
blue vitriol, may be applied, 
which will keep it fmooth and 

*' But 


" But if tlie fwelling incrcafc 
fail, with no tendency to digef- 
tion, and if it rife up towards the 
neck, affecting all the mufcles of 
the part, the horfe will he in dan 
ger of fuffocation, unlefs a courfe 
different from the former be taken. 
" Befides repeated bleeding, if 
lie is not too much worn out, take 
a hot fearing iron, and apply it 
to five or fix places on the lower 
part of the fwelling, cauterizing 
thofe parts, that they may be 
fpeedily brought to matter, which 
may be drefTed with flax dipped 
in tar and turpentine, mixed be 
fore the fire, and applied warm, 
For by 'giving pain in thofe de 
pendent and inferiour parts, you 
caufe the humours to flow down 
wards from the fwelling ; and by 
making vents you prevent excel - 
five violence of pain. Nor need 
you be afraid of the fwelling that 
may happen in the fore-legs, &c. 
by cauterizing ; for that cannot 
be of fo ill confequence, as when 
it is upon the neck and throat ; 
nor will it be of any confequence, 
if care be taken of the vents. 

:< Solleyfell recommends the 
making of fmall incifions with a 
fleam or lancet, in eight or ten 
places, on the fwelling ; and to 
thruft into the holes, between the 
fkin and the flefh, pieces of the 
root of black helebore : And if 
the tumour be very large, be rec 
ommends the life* of white hele 
bore ; at the fame time chaffing 
the part with the ointments of a- 
grippa and marfh mallows. The 
roots, by their hot quality, draw 
down and increafe the fwelling ; 
and the ointments are to tipen 
the inciofed matter, and fit it for 
a difcharge. 

" The fame author alfo recom 
mends the ufe of Ruptories, for 
drawing an immediate flux of 
moifture from the difeafed part. 
1 hefe are ointments of the fame na- 

A P P 13 

turc as thofe made to draw bliflers 
on the human body , and compofed 
oi the fame materials. The way 
to apply them is, to fpread them 
by little at a time on the part af- 
fetted, holding a bar of hot iron 
to make them fink in." Gibforis 

ANTS, an infeft, which fome- 
times annoys fields. " They will 
dellroy barley, rye, hemp feed, 
flax feed, and rape feed. Other 
grain is either too large, double 
ikinncd, or too bitto:' and ill taft- 
ed for them. When you find 
them in quantities near home, 
pour hot water upon them. The 
farmer, when he dungs his land, 
if he ufes afhes, lime, or fait land, 
he may be certain no ant will 
ever flay upon the ground where 
any of the three is fpread." Scot's 

APPLES, a well known efcu- 
lent fruit, of great, ufe for food, 
and for making cyder. An ap 
ple confifls of the rind, the pa 
renchyma or pulp, the feed vef- 
fels, and the feeds. The forts, or 
varieties, are numerous almoft be 
yond account : And it is faid a 
feed will not produce fruit of the 
fame kind with that from which 
it is taken. Sometimes I think 
I have found that it will ; but I 
do not know that it will in all 
cafes. The feed of grafted fruit 
will not produce fuch fruit as the 
graft produced ; but probably 
fuch, if any, as the flock would 
have produced, if it had not been 

All the kinds of apples are dif- 
tinguifhed into fwect and four ; 
though fome partake fo equally 
of both qualities, that it is doubt 
ful to which -clafs they belong. 
They are alfo divided into natur 
al fruit and grafted. The graft 
ed and: the natural .fruit were 
originally the lame. The graft 
ed fort have been felefted for 

14 A P P 

propagation, and are generally 
more pleafant for eating ; the latter 
are of equal value for other ufes. 

Some apples ripen early ; thefe 
are ufed to make into cyder : 
Others ripen later, and are better 
to preferve for ufe in the winter 
and fpring. One fort is ripe in 
June ; therefore called a jennet 
ing or juneting apple. But nioft 
forts are not ripe till autumn, and 
fome not till winter. 

The fecret of preferving them 
through the -winter, in a found 
ftate, is of no fmall importance. 
Some fay, that {hutting them up 
insight cafks is an effectual meth 
od ; and it feems probable ; for 
they foon rot in open air. 

But an eafier method, and 
which has recommended itfelf to 
me by the experience of feveral 
years, is as follows : I gather 
them about noon, on the day of 
the full of the moon, which hap 
pens in the latter part of Septem 
ber, or beginning of October. 
Then fpread them in a chamber, 
or garret, where they lie till 
about the laft of November. 
Then, at a time when the weath 
er is dry, remove them into cafks, 
or boxes, in the cellar, out of the 
way of the froft ; but I prefer a 
cool part of the cellar. With 
this management, I find I can 
keep them till the laft of May, 
fo well that not one in fifty will 
rot. In the autumn of 1793, ^ 
packed apples in the (havings of 
pine, fo that they fcarcely touch 
ed one another. They kept well 
till fome time in May following ; 
though they were a fort which 
are mellow for eating in Decem 
ber. Dry fawduft might per 
haps anfwer the end as well. 
Some barrel them up, and keep 
them through the winter in up 
per rooms, covering them with 
blankets or mats, to prevent freez 
ing. Dry places are beft for them. 

A P P 

I Some may think it whimfical 
to gather them on the day above 

1 mentioned. But, as we know 
both animals and vegetables are 
influenced by the moon in fome 
cafes, why may we not fuppofe 
a greater quantity of fpiritis fent 
up into the fruit, when the attrac 
tion of the heavenly bodies is 

i greateft ? If fo, I gather my ap 
ples at the time of their greateft 
perfection, when they have moft 
in them that tends to their pref 
er vation. I fufpecl that the day 
of the moon's conjunclion with 
the fun may anfwer as well ; but 
I have not had experience of it. 
The fame caution, I doubt not, 
mould be obferved in gathering 
other fruits, and even apples for 
cyder : But I have not proved it 
by experiments. 

APPLE TREE, pyrus, a well 
known fruit tree, of great impor 
tance to mankind. The way to 
propagate them is, by fowing the 
pomace from cvdermills, dig 
ging, or hoeing it into the earth 
in autumn. The young plants, 
will be up in the following fpring, 
And the next autumn, they fhould 
be tranfpianted from the feed bed 
into the nurfery, in rows from 
two to three feet apart, and one 
foot in the rows, where the ground 
has been fitted to receive them. 
The ground for a nurfery fhould 
not be very rich, but mellow, and 
well pulverized, and cleared of 
the roots and feeds of weeds. It 
is a good rule, That the young 
trees, at their final transplanting 
into orchards, mould not be put 
into poorer, but rather into rich 
er ground, than that to which 
they have been accuftomed. For 
by not finding their ufual fupply 
of nourilhrnent, they will be Hint 
ed in their growth, and never be 
come good trees. 

If apple trees happen to be full 

o>f fruit, the firft year of their 


A R A 

Bearing, they will be fo exhauft- 
ed as to bear little or none the 
following year : But by the third 
year they will be fo recruited as 
to bear another plentiful crop. 
Having got into this alternate 
bearing, they in ufl continue in it. 
But trees which begin their bear 
ing gradually become annual 
bearers. Thefe obfervations do 
not fo abvioufly hold with refpeft 
to any other fruit trees that I 
know of. The reafon may be, 
that no other are fo plentiful 
ly loaded with fruit at any time. 
It is wifhed that naturalifts would 
obferve whether accidents do or 
do not fometimes difadjuft this 
regular alternate bearing, as when 
the fruit happens to be all killed 
by froft at the time of bloflbming, 
or when the roots of a tree are 
highly manured in its barren year. 

When a tree has part of its 
limbs grafted, the alternation will 
be the fame in the grafted and in 
the natural part of the tree. For 
the nourifriment abounds or is 
deficient inboth at the fame time. 
So that it is not to be expefted 
that a fcion will follow the rule 
of its parent tree in bearing. 

It is faid, that when an apple- 
tree has become barren, its fruit- 
fulnefs may be renewed by ftrip- 
pingofTall the bark from its body, 
and from fome part of the largeft 
limbs ; and that this operation 
muft be performed at the time of 
the fummer folftice. But con 
cerning this I can fay nothing 
from experience. 

ARABLE land, that which is 
fit for ploughing ; or which has 
been ploughed from time to time. 
The name comes from the Latin 
arare, to plough. Any land is 
naturally arable, which is not too 
fleep, too rocky, too wet, or too 
much filled with ftrong roots. 
But moft, or all, thefe hindrances 
oi tjie plough may be removed ; 

ASH 15 

and land may become actually' 
arable, which is not naturally fo, 

It is neceflary that each farm 
mould have a fufficient quantity 
of this fort of land : Otherwife 
the farmer will not be able to raile 
his own bread, roots, flax, &c. 
Nor will he know how to beftow 
his manure to fo good advantage. 
But if fo much as a tenth part of 
a farm be arable it may anfwer 
well enough. 

ARTICHOKE, called cynara 
by botanifts, an efculent plant 
highly efteemed. It is much cul 
tivated on the other fide of flie 

ARTICHOKE, helianthustu- 
bercfus, called Jerufalem Arti 
choke, a plant of the funflower 
kind, with an efculent root that 
is perennial. It is faid to be a 
native of America. It grows 
luxuriantly ; and yields as plen 
tifully as any kind of potatoes* 
Many perfons are fond of eating, 
them ; but they are faid to be a 
flatulent food. Swine are excef- 
fively fond of them, and will fat 
ten upon them. It would be 
worth while to cultivate them for 
this purpofe : Efpecially thofe 
fhould do it who have not warm 
cellars, to fave potatoes from 
freezing, as is often the cafe in 
new plantations. As this root wil 1 
bear a great degree of froft, they 
may be left in the ground all win 
ter. They are cultivated in the 
fame manner as potatoes, and the 
fame kind of foil fuits both. A 
Mr. Crow in England obtained 
at the rate of 480 bufhels-per acre, 
of this root. 

ASH, Fraxinus Americana, a 
well known and ufeful tree natur 
al to this climate ; of which we 
reckon three forts, tin- black, the 
white, and the yellow. The body 
of the black am is eafily feparat- 
ed into thin ftrips. by bruifing k 
with a beetle : . 



much uied for brooms and baf- j 
kets. The white aih is oi two i 
forts, or varieties, one of which ! 
is a ftiff, light, and durable tim- I 
ber. It is, therefore, highly ef- j 
teemed by the farmer, and much 
ufed for ploughs and carriages, 
and marry of the tools ufed in j 
agriculture. That is tougheft | 
which grows upon high land, j 
But implements made of this j 
wood mould notbemuchexpofed 
to the weather. For it foon rots, 
if it be not kept dry. 

The bark of the afli is ufed by 
m$ny to make vefTels for floring 
of grain, feeds, &c. They are 
light to handle, fufficiently ftrong, 
and extremely durable. 

The feafon of felling am for 
timber is from November to Feb 
ruary. If it be cut in the wrong I 
feafon, the fappy part of it will 
be deftroyed by worms : And 
turned to what is called powder- 

. ASHES, a duft, confifting of 
the terrene and faline parts of 
wood, and other combuftibles, 
which remains after burning. 

It is not to be doubted, but 
that all the fubftances which 
plants contain are the food of 
plants ; and as they have con 
tributed to the growth of one 
plant, they may be made to npur- 
lih another. The fine particles ; 
of earth, and the fixed falts, which i 
were contained in a tree, remain ' 
in its aihes. The growth of veg 
etables on burnt fpots was evi 
dence enough to convince men, 
long ago, of the advantage of this 
kind of manure. Afhes were 
found to be a good manure, as 
long ago, at leali, as the time of 
Virgil. He fays, 

ne pudeat 

Ejfoetos cinertm immunaum jac- 

tart per ugros. 

Afhes are commonly accounted 
a manure molt fuitable for low 


and moifl lands. A cold and four 
fpot certainly needs them more 
than any other. But I have found 
them to be good in all forts of foil. 

They are not only a valuable 
manure, but an excellent antidote 
to the rapacioufnefs of worms 
and other infe&s. Therefore they 
are a more proper manure for all 
thofe plants, which are liable to 
fuffer by worms and infefts ; fuch 
as cabbages, turnips, cucumbers, 
melons, peas, and other pulfe. 
They mould be fpread evenly, 
and not in too great quantity. 

Wood ajlies is an excellent 
nourifliment for the roots of trees. 
They reftore to trees what has 
been taken from trees ; and tend 
at the fame time to drive away 
certain infefts, which are hurtful 
to trees. 

Allies of all kinds are a good 
ingredient in compofts, which 
are kept under cover. But when 
they are laid upon land unmixt, 
they mould be fpread as evenly 
as poflible. They are thought to 
do better on the top of the fur- 
face than buried in the foil ; for 
there is nothing in them that will 
evaporate. Their tendency is 
only downwards ; and their falts 
will foon fink too low, if they 
be put under the furface. If they 
be fpread upon ground, which 
has tender plants, it mould be 
do;ie juit before a rain, which 
will diflblve and foften their ac 
rimony : For tender plants, when 
the weather is dry, will be apt to 
be injured by them ; at leaft, it 
they are in contact with the 
Items or leaves. 

Afhes in their full flrength are 
certainly beft for manure ; and 
they will not be in full firength, 
imlefs they be kept dry ; nor will 
it be eafy to fpread them proper 
ly. And they mould not be laid' 
on lands long before there are, 
roots to be nourifhed by ihtrni, 



left the rains rob them of their 
falts, by warning them into the 
hollows, or by linking them to 
too great a depth in the foil. A 
few bufhels on an acre are a good 
dre fling for graft lands that are 
low, and inclining to be mofTy. 
But afhes from which lie has 
been drawn have no fmall degree 
of virtue in them. The earthy 
particles are but little diminifh- 
ed ; and fqme of the faline par 
ticles remain in them. 

A handful of allies, laid about 
the roots of a hill of Indian corn, 
is good to quicken its vegetation. 
But it mould not much if any of 
it be in contact with the ftalks. 
The be ft time for giving corn 
this dreffing;, is thought to be juft 
before the iecond or third hoe 
ing : But fome do itbefore the firft, 
and even before the plants are up. 
Like other top dreffings, it is ot 
moft fervice when applied at the 
time when plants need the great- 
eft quantity of nourilhrnent. 
This happens, in Indian corn, at 
the time when the plants are juft 
going to fend out ears and fpindles. 
ASPARAGUS, a valuable 
plant, the young {hoots of which 
are a pleafant and wholefome 
food ; of more account for the 
table than any other greens which 
the fpring produces. They come 
up early, and are eonfequently 
of the greater importance. In 
latitude 44, the moots are fit for 
ufe the firft week in May. The 
fruit is a fpherical, red berry, 
which ripens in autumn, contain 
ing two black feeds. 

The root of this plant is efteern- 
ecl in medicine, as an opener and 

To cultivate afparagus in the 
bed manner, open a trench 
three feet wide, and twelve inches 
deep. If it be clofe to the fouth 
fide of a garden wall, it will be 
yp the earlier in the fpring. Fill 

A X if 

the trench half full of good dung j 
make it level, and fprinkie a lit 
tle rich earth over it, and lay 
on the roots, in their natural po- 
fition, eight or nine inches apart. 
Or, if you cannot get roots, place 
the feeds at half the diftance from 
each other. Cover them by fill 
ing up the trench with the black- 
eft of the earth which was taken 
out. If you plant roots, the 
{hoots may be cut the fecond 
year after ; if feeds, they will not 
be fit to cut till the third year. 
All the ihoots which come up 
before the middle of June, may 
be cut off without injuring the 
roots : After which time, the late 
moots ihould be left to run up, 
and feed ; otherwife the roots 
will be weakened. The feeds may 
be well preferved on the branches 
through the winter, hung up in 
a dry fituation. 

This plant grows well in ground 
that is {haded. The fprouts will 
be very large and tender ; but 
they will not be fo early. It is 
not ainifs to have one bed in a 
mndy place, to fupply the table, 
after the feafon is over for cut 
ting the firft. In autumn, after 
the tops are turned white by the 
froft, they fhpuld be cleared ofr~ 
and a layer of dung, or rich foilj 
an inch thick, laid over the bed. 
This ihould be done yearly, and 
the bed kept clear of weeds. If 
the bed mould get too high by this 
management, the furface may be 
taken off with a fpade early in 
the fpring to the depth or two 
inches, before the young moots 
are in the way. But when this 
is done, a thin dreffing of rotten 
dung or cornpoft ihould be laid on. 
ASPEN. See Poplar, 
AUTUMN, the third feafon 
of the year. See Fall. 

AXE, a iieceflary tool for farm 
ers. A narrow axe is meant ; for 
i broad a*c is a carpenter 's tool* 


*8 B A R 

A narrow axe mould have a 
thick poll, as in that part it com 
monly fails fooneft. It fhould be 
madeof the beft of iron and fteel, 
bequite free from cracks and flaws, 
and nicely tempered ;: not fo foft 
as to bend, nor fo hard as to break. 

Take care that you do not 
grind your axes thin at firft, till 
you learn by ufing them what 
their temper is, and whether 
they will bear it. Aroundingedge 
is beft for chopping large logs, a 
ftraighter one for f mailer wood. 

Let the helve of an axe be made 
of the tougheft of wood, either 
walnut or white oak. Let it be 
fet in the centre of the eye, and 
at right angles with the outer fide 
of the axe ; let it be fmall near 
the eye, that the hands may not 
be too much jarred by the ftrokes 
in chopping, and gradually larger 
towards the other end. Three 
feet is the greateft length that al- 
moft ever will be needful : Short 
er for chopping flicks not un 
commonly large. It fhould nev 
er be lefs than 32 inches. 

A good deal of rubbing with 'a 
whetftone, (after an axe is ground 
on a coarfe grindftone,) is beft ; 
not only to bring it to a good 
edge that will not crumble, but 
chiefly to make the blade very 
fmooth, that it may enter the 
wood eafily, and not ftick too 
iaft when, entered. 


BARLEY, Hbrdcum, a-- well 
known grain of which malt is 
made. In fome countries, it is 
alfo much ufed for bread. If it 
be kept long before grinding, it 
will be the better for this ufe, as a 
certain bitter tafte, which it has 
when new, is abated by age. 
Barley is accounted cooling and 
deterfive ; a broth of it is there 
fore given to perfons in fevers ; 

B A R 

But it xnuft be hulled before it is 
fit for this ufe. 

It is a fort of corn very fuitable 
for cultivation in this region, as it 
feems liable to no diftemper,in our 
northerly part of Maffachufetts 
efpecially ; bears the drought 
well, and never fails of yielding 
a crop. I- have commonly gained 
40 btilhels per acre, without any 
, extraordinary tillage, and without 
much manuring. It will grow ma 
ny foil : Even a foil fo clayey that 
itisfit forfcarcely any other grain, 
will anfwer well for this, as I have 
found by long experience. But 
it does better on fome other foils. 
It fhould be fowed as early as 
the feafon and foil will admit. 
About the beginning of May is 
a fuitable time. The quantity of 
feed for an acre is two bufhels, 
if the grain be fmall ; if larger, 
more in proportion. A corref- 
pondent of the Bath Agricultur 
al Society writes : " The lafl 
fpring (1783) being remarkably 
dry, I foaked my feed barley in 
the black water, taken from are fer- 
voir, which conftantly receives 
the draining of my dung heap and 
ftables. As the light corn float 
ed on the top, I fkimmed it off", 
and let the reft ftand 24 hours., 
On taking it from the water, I 
mixed the grain with a fufficient 
quantity of fifted wood afhes, to 
make it fpread regularly, and 
fowed three fields with it. The 
produce was 60 bufhels per acre. 
I fowed fome other fields with 
the fame feed dry ; but the crop, 
like thofe of my neighbours, was 
very poor, not more than 20 
bufhels per acre, and much mix 
ed with green corn and weeds, 
when harvefted. I alfo fowed 
fome of my feed dry on one 
ridge in each of my former fields, 
but the produce was very poor 
in comparifon of the other parts 
of the field." The ground fhould 


^ A R 

'have two ploughings at leaft. It 
fhould be well harrowed after 
fowing ; and then a roller pafTed 
over it to clofe the foil about the 
corns, that they may not fail oi 
vegetating. And rolling prepares 
the furface for mowing the crop, 
and raking it up clean, which is a 
matter of great importance. For 
it is impoflible to rake it up clean, 
when the ground has been laid 
rough at fowing. 

In Scotland, after the grain is 
up, the farmers, near the fea coaft, 
give it a top drefling of fea weeds, 
which has an excellent e'ffeft. 
This practice I would recom 
mend to thofe of my country 
men who farm near the lea. 

I mould have obferved, that 
barley muft be fowed foon after 
ploughing, left the moiflure of 
the foil be two much evaporated. 
It being a dry hufky grain, a con- 
iiderable degree of moiflure is req- 
uifite to make it vegetate. If the 
ground mould be very dry at fow 
ing time, and the feafon late, fteep- 
ing the feed in lie would not be a- 
mifs. Steeping it in the wafh of a 
barn yard has an excellent effeft. 
Some have got an opinion, that 
barley mould be harveiled before 
it is quite ripe. Though the flour 
may be a little whiter, the grain 
Ihrinks fo much, that the crop 
feems to be greatly diminimed and 
wafted by early cutting. Nograift, 
I think, requires more ripening 
than this ; and it is not apt to ihat- 
ter out when it is very ripe. It 
mould be threfhed foon after har- 
yefting : And much beating, after 
it is cleared from the ftraw, is needr 
ful to get off the beards. Let it lie 
a night or two in the dew, after it 
is cut, and the beards will come 
off the more eafily. 

I had gained the idea of the 
neceffity of barley's being well 
ripened before cutting, from my 
#wn experience, I have been more 

B A R 


confirmed in the opinion, by the 
following paflage in an Englim 
writer, who appears to have been 
well acquainted with the culture 
of this corn. " This grain," fay s he, 
"may be greatly damaged^ r fpoil- 
ed,bybeingmown too foon.; which 
may afterwards be discovered by 
its Ihri veiled and lean body, that 
never will make good malt." 

The fame writer fays, " This 
grain I annually fow in my fields 
on different foils, whereby I have 
brought to my knowledge, fever- 
al differences arifing therefrom... 
On our red clays, this grain gen 
erally comes off reddilh at both 
ends, and fometimes all o>"er, 
with a thick fkin and tough na 
ture, fomewhat like the foil it 
grows in ; and, therefore, is not 
fo valuable as that of contrary 
qualities. Nor are the black, 
bluiih, marly clays of the vale 
much better : But loams and 
gravels are better. On thefe two 
laft foils the barley acquires a 
whitiih body, a thin fkin, a ihort 
plump kernel, and a fweet flour." 

It has often been wiffred that 
thepraftice of hulling barley and 
other grain, were introduced in 
to this country. The time k at 
length arrived ; and it is only to 
be wiihed that every part of the 
country were furniihed with 
mills, and with perfons who are 
fkilful in the bufmels. A Rev 
erend gentleman,to whom I am in 
debted for many ufeful inltruc- 
tions and communications, writes 
me as follows : 

" Barley is a hardy and profit 
able grain. When hulled, it is 
preferable to rice, in every branch 
of cookery for which rice is 
fed. Meffrs. S. and Co. of 
Wells, have lately creeled a hull- 
'ng mill. It hulls and fplits peas ; 
tnd hulls, not only barley, but 
ail other kinds of corn and pulfe 
with the greateft expedition." 


20 BAR 

He has fent me a fample of 
the hulled barley ; which appears 
to be equal to any that is import 
ed. And further fays, " Thefe 
hulling mills, when common, 
jnuft give a fpring to the culture 
of barley. When hulled, it may 
be ground and bolted. The raw, 
bad tafte of barley, lies wholly 
in the hull." 

I am informed that the toll they 
take for hullingbarley at the mill a- I 
bovementioned,is two fixteenths, | 
or four quarts out of a bulhel. This 
appears to be but a moderate toll. 

Barley that has been hulled, 
is faid to be made into an excel 
lent flour by grinding and bolt 
ing, but little, if at all inferiour, 
to that which is made of wheat ; 
and of equal, or greater whitenefs. 
Barley is a corn that is very apt to 
degenerate, ualefs prevented by a 
frequent changing of feed. But it 
will not become oats, as fome ig 
norant perfons have believed. I 
have indeed known a fpot where 
barley was fowed to produce an 
entire crop of oats. The fecret 
was, that a confiderable quantity 
of oats was mixed with the barky 
when it was fown, which was not 
attended to, When the corn was 
in its blade, a flock of iheep broke 
in, and ate it down, which was fatal 
to all the barley. But the oats, be 
ing not fo forward in their growth, 
cfcaped ; and were the more pro 
ductive for the deftrurrion of the 
barley, which allowed the oats 
more room and nourifhment. 

If ever fo few oats are fown 
among barley, the crop, in a few 
years, will come to be moftly 
oats ; becaufe oats increafe more 
than barley. Swimming the bar 
ley before it is fowed, will in 
great meafure prevent this in 
convenience. Almoft every oat, 
and a few of the worft of the bar 
ley corns, will be on the furface 
pf the water, and may be taken off". 


But the fpeedy degeneration of 
barley is a good reafon for chang 
ing the feed very frequently. In 
fome parts of the country, the 
barley, for want of changing, has 
come to produce little or nothing. 

Not only changing feed, but 
forts of barley, mould be attend 
ed to. Some forts are at leaft 
more productive than others, if 
not of a better quality. The two 
rowed barley has feldom more 
than 32 corns on an ear : The 
fix rowed has fometimes 72, that 
is 12 in a row. Of the latter 
fort one pint produced me three 
pecks in a fmgle drill row. It 
was at the rate of about three 
pecks of feed, and forty bufhels 
crop to the acre, on a poor grav 
elly foil. This fort is called bear, 
bere, or barley big. It is a win 
ter grain in England and Ireland. 
But I muft mention one inconve 
nience attending the fix rowed 
barley, which is, that the feeds are 
apt to break off and fall, if the 
corn (lands till it is fully npe. I 
now cultivate a four rowed barley, 
which has not this inconvenience 
attending it : And it yields as 
plentifully as any other. 

I would recommend the drill 
and horfe hoeing method of raif- 
ing barley, when it is defigned 
for hulling, as the corns will be 
the more full and plump, and 
have a lefs quantity of hull in 
proportion to the flour. 

The farmers in Pennfylvania 
have a four rowed barley, which 
is the fort that they principally 
cultivate. This alfo has the name 
of bear in Europe. Bear is much 
cultivated in Ireland and Scot 
land ; but, in England, they chief 
ly cultivate other forts, which 
they think better for malting. 

I have received a naked bar 
ley, fo called, with no more hull 
on the corns, than wheat. How 
profitable this will be, time and 


experience mull difcover. But 
this is undoubtedly what is call 
ed German barley, tritico fpd- 
tum, or, in Englifh, fpelt. 

BARN, a fort of houfe ufed 
for ftoring unthrefhed grain, bay 
and draw, and all kinds of fod 
der. But the other ufes of barns 
in this country are, to lodge and 
feed beafls in, to threfh grain, 
drefs flax, &c. A barn mould be 
large enough to ferve the farmer 
for all thefe purpofes : For there 
is always more loft by flacking 
of hay and grain, than enough to 
balance the expenfe of barn room. 

Regard muft be had to the fit- 
uation of a barn. It fhould be 
at a convenient diftance from the 
dwelling houfe, and other build 
ings ; but as near as may be with 
out danger of fire, if the fhape of 
the ground permits. Too low a 
fpot will be miry in fpring and 
fall. Too high an eminence will 
be bad for drawing in loads, and 
on account of faving and making 
manures. If other circumftances 
permit, it may be beft to place a 
barn in fuch a manner as to 
defend the dwelling houfe from 
the force of the coldeft winds. 

The moft confiderable parts of 
a barn are, the floor, the bay, the 
cow houfe, the fcaffolds, the fta- 
ble. See Cow Houfe y and Stable, 
The threfliing floor Ihould be laid 
on ftrong and fteady fleepers, 
well fupported beneath ; other- 
wife carting in loads upon it will 
loon loofen it, and render it un 
fit for the operation of threfliing. 
It mould be made of planks, well 
feafoned, and nicely jointed ; and 
care mould be taken to keep it 
very tight. If it fhould be fo o- 
pen as to let grain, or any feeds, 
pafs through, the grain will be 
worfe than loft, as it will ferve to 
ieed and increafe vermin. A 
floor of boards fhould therefore 
be laid under the planks, 

BAR 21 

The fills of a barn fliould be 
made of the moft durable kind of 
timber, as they are more liable 
to rot than thofe of other build 
ings, on account of the dung ly 
ing about, them. White oak is 
very fit for this life. The fills 
muft be laid rather low, not only 
for the convenient entrance of 
cattle and carts, but becaufe the 
ground will be lowered round 
barns, by the yearly taking away 
of fome of the furface with the 
dung. They fhould be well un 
derpinned with ftones laid a lit 
tle below the furface of the 
ground ; and well pointed with 
lime, to prevent lofs of manure. 
And dung fhould not lie ferment 
ing againft the fides of a barn ; 
but be fpeedily removed when 
warm weather comes on. 

BARN YARD, a fmall piece 
of inclofed ground, contiguous to 
a barn, in which cattle are ufual- 
ly kept. It ihould have a high, 
clofe, and ftrong fence, both to 
dicker the beafts from the force 
of driving ftorms, and to keep 
the moft unruly ones from break 
ing out. By the help of this yard, 
a farmer may prodigioufly in 
creafe his quantity of manure, if 
he will be careful to take the right 

The ground of a yard for this 
purpofe fhould be of fuch a fhape 
as to retain all the manure, or 
prevent its being wafhed away by 
rains. It fhould be loweft in the 
middle ; or at leaft fo high on all 
the fides, that even the greateft 
rains lhali not carry away any of 
the manure. This is a matter of 
fo much importance, that it may 
be well worth while to form the 
ground to the right fliape where 
nature has not done it. But a 
balm fhould not be dug fo deep 
as to go through the hard under 
ftratum, that the manure may not 
efcape into the earth. 


2 BAR 

A yard mould be larger or 
fmailer in proportion to the ftock 
that is kept in it. A fmall one 
is bad, as the cattle will be more 
apt to pufh and hurt one another. 
A large one is more favourable 
to the defign of making abun 
dance of manure. Not only 
ihould the yard be contiguous to 
the barn, but as many of the oth 
er out houfes as conveniently 
may be mould be placed on the 
fides of the yard, efpecially thofe 
of them which afford manure or 
rubbim, as the hogfty, &c. 

Many, who have good farm 
yards, are not fo careful as they 
ihould be to make the greateft 
advantage by them, by confining 
the cattle continually in them, 
during the foddering fealon. The 
pra&ice of driving cattle to wa 
ter, at a diftance, is attended with 
great lofs of manure. Inftead of 
continuing in thisabfurd practice, 
the well that ferves the houfe, or 
one dug for the purpofe, fliould 
be fo near the yard, that a water 
ing trough may reach from it in 
to the yard. Some have a well 
in the yard ; but this is not fo ad- 
vifable, as the water may become 
impregnated with the excrements 
of the cattle, and rendered lefs 
palatable. He that has a large 
flock, may fave enough in ma 
nure in this way, in one year, to 
pay him for making a well of a 
moderate depth : Befides fecur- 
ing the advantage of having his 
cattle under his eye ; and of pre 
venting their ftraggling away, as 
they fometimes do. Innumera 
ble are the accidents to which a 
itock are expofed, by going to wa 
tering places, in winter, without 
a driver, as they commonly do. 
And oftentimes, by means of 
fnow and ice, the difficulty is fo 
great, as to difcourage them from 
going to the water ; the confe- 
quence is, that they fuffer for 


want of drink, and the owner is 
ignorant of it. All thefe things 
plead ftrongly in favour of the 
mode of watering I have here 
recommended. They fhould not 
be let out, even when the ground 
is bare : For what they get will 
caufe them to winter the worfe ; 
and they will damage the fields. 

There mould be more yards 
than one to a barn, where divers 
forts of cattle are kept. The 
fheep mould have a yard by them- 
felves, at leaft ; arid the young 
ftock another, that they may be 
wholly confined to fuch fodder 
as the farmer can afford them. 
But the principal yard may be 
for the cows, oxen, calves and 
horfes. And the water from the 
well may be led into each of 
thefe yards by wooden gutters. 

If the foil of the yard be clay, 
or a pan of very hard earth, it 
will be the more fit for the pur 
pofe of making manure, as the ex. 
crements of the cattle will not be 
fo apt to foak deep into it, Other- 
wife a layer of clay or marie may 
be laid on to retain the ftale, and 
the warn of the dung, which other- 
wife would be almoft entirely loft. 

Some farmers feem well pleaf- 
ed to have a warn run away from 
their barns upon the contiguous 
Hoping lands. But they are not 
aware how much they lofe by it. 
A fmall quantity of land, by 
means of it, may be made too 
rich. But the quantity of manure 
that is expended in doing it, if oth- 
erwife employed, might be vaftly 
more advantageous; efpecially if it 
were fo confined as to be incorpo 
rated with a variety of abforbent 
and diflblvable fubftances ; and 
afterwards laid on thofe parts of 
the farm where it is moft wanted. 
It is beft, in this climate, that a 
barn yard fhoujd be on the fouth 
fide of a barn. It being lefs (had 
ed, the manure will make the raft 


er, as it will be free from froft a 
greater part of the year, and confe- 
quently have a longer time to fer 
ment in. The feet of the cattle will 
alfo mix the materials the more, 
which are thrown into the yard, 
and wear them to pieces, fo that 
they will become fhort and fine. 

After the yard is cleaned in 
the fpring, the farmer mould em 
brace the firft leifure he has, to 
ftore it with a variety of materi 
als for making manure. For this 
purpofe, he may cart into it 
fwamp mud, clay, brick duft, 
ftraw, thatch, fern, weeds, leaves 
of trees, turfs, marih mud, eel 
grafs, flats, or even fand and loam. 
If he cannot get all thefe kinds 
of rubbifh, he may take fuch of 
them as are the mo ft eafily ob 
tained. Any of thefe fubftances, 
being mixed with the dung and 
ftale of cattle, will become good 
manure. But fome regard may 
be had to the nature of the foil on 
which the manure is to be laid. If it 
be clay, the lefs clay and the more 
brick duft and fand will be prop 
er: If a fandy foil, clay, pond mud, 
and flats will be better ingredients. 

All the materials above men 
tioned, and many more that 
might be named, will in one year 
become good manure, by being 
mixed with the excrements of 
the cattle, and prevent the wafte 
of them. And this is thought, 
by the beft writers on hufbandry, 
to be the cheape ft method a fann 
er can tdke to manure his lands, 
confidering the final 1 cell of the 
materials made into manure. 

If water ihould ftand long in 
any part of the yard, the manure 
muft be raked out of the water, 
and heaped round the borders of 
the puddle, that it may be dry. 
For there will be no fermenta 
tion where there is too much wet- 
nefs : The materials will not dif- 
folve, but turn four. As thefe 

B E A 23 

heaps grow dry, the water mould 
be fcooped up, and thrown upon 
them from time to time. This 
will increafe the fermentation in 
the heaps, and they will grow 
mellow the fafter. It will be of 
fervice to fhovel the whole of 
the manure into heaps, a few 
days before it is carted out, as it 
will bring on a brifk fermenta 
tion, and make it fitter to be laid 
upon the land. Or if (hovelling 
be thought too laborious, turning 
it up with a plough will be ad 
vantageous. Or if there be not 
a deep layer, tearing it with a 
harrow may be fufficient. 

BEAN, Vicia, a kind of pulfe 
much ufed as food, both for man 
and beaft. The forts and varie 
ties of beans are numerous almoft 
beyond account. Butthofe which- 
are moft cultivated in .this part 
of the world are, the Engiifh bean, 
to which the name Windfor is ap 
plied ; kidney beans of various 
kinds ; fuch as the cafe knife 
bean, the Canada bean, the cran 
berry bean, the fhort bean, the 
white bean cultivated in fields, 
and the fcarlet bean. Sivy,orSaba 
beans,are alfo cultivated in this cli 
mate of late to advantage. They 
are known in fome places by the 
name of thoufand for one beans. 

Engiifh beans require a moifl 
and ftrong foil. Nothing that, I 
know of will flourifh better in a 
ihff'clay. They mould be plant 
ed as early as poflible in the 
fpring.. In Europe they ibw them 
in February. There is no dan 
ger of their being hurt by a final! 
degree of froft, if they mould 
happen to come up early. In 
Europe fome fow them in the 
broad caft way : But the drill 
method is better, on account of 
hoeing between the rows, as they 
will need hoeing. When they 
are about a yard high, li they in- 
dine to be too fail, the tops 

24 B E A 

mould be broken off, in the fame 
manner as tobacco. When the 
firft crop is all gathered, the 
iblks fliould be cut off clofe to 
the ground, excepting thofc on 
which feed is left to grow more 
perfectly ripe. The fuckers will 
rife from the roots^ and give an 
other green crop late in the fall. I 
have had a plentiful fecond crop 
fit for the table in November : 
But they will not be ripe, nor fo 
good for eating as the firft crop. 

A fmaller Engliih bean, called 
the horfe bean, and ufed to feed 
horfes, I have attempted to cul 
tivate. I planted them on a rich 
clayey loam, made mellow. The 
plants grew finely, and bloffom- 
ed ; but bore no fruit at all, 
though the plants appeared in a 
healthy ftate through the fum- 
mer. But I made only one ex 
periment : PofTibly, others might 
have better fuccefs. 

The cafeknife bean, is fo call 
ed, becaufe the pod is ihaped like 
that inftrument, and of nearly 
the fame fize. The green pods, 
half grown, are excellent food. 
This bean, as all other of the run 
ning kind, are produced in 
great plenty by the help of hog 
dung, with a little mixture of 
alhes. They ripen rather late ; 
but a fufficient quantity of them 
for feed are ufually ripened. 
They are a tender plant, and 
fhould not be put into the ground 
till after the middle of May. The 
poles for them to climb upon 
may be fet at the time when the 
feed is put in, or afterwards, as 
may be mpft convenient. They 
are amazingly productive. A 
bufhel of pods may be had from 
one or two poles. But it is time 
that new feed be obtained from 
fome dillant country, as of late 
they do not well run up the poles. 

Canada beans have no running 
vines. Tl\ey ripen early and are 

B E A 

fruitful. They are oblong fhap^ 
ed, and of various colours, fpeck- 
led, while with black eye's, cream 
coloured, &c. The pods are not 
fo tender as to be good fof eating, 
unlefs when they are very young* 
Thefe, and all other of the bufh 
kind, grow beft in the drill way. 

The cranberry bean is fo call 
ed from the refemblance it bears, 
when ripe, to that fruit. The 
vines grow luxuriantly, and a- 
bound with leaves, fo that ftrong 
poles are required to fupport 
them. They do not ripen quite 
fo well as might be wilhed in the 
mo ft northern parts of Newen- 
gland ; but they are more fruit 
ful than almoft any other that I 
have met with. The green pods 
are fweet, tender, and a very luf- 
cious kind of food. But they 
are beft to eat fhelled. 

The fhort bean is fo called front 
its fhape. It is of a brown colour. 
Many grow in one fhort pod, 
and each looks as if it were cut off 
fquare at one or both ends. The 
excellency of this kind of bean 
is, that the pod is fit for eating 
when the bean has got its full 
growth. But the pods are liable 
to be hurt by a black ruft, if they 
are expofed much to the fun ; 
though they will be frefh and 
fair when they grow in a ihady 
place. Planted with Indian corn, 
they grow extremely well, and are 
fit to eat green till fome time af 
ter the firft autumnal frofts begin. 

The field white beans com 
monly grow beft on a dry and 
warm foil, but moderately richw 
The way to harveft them is, to 
pull them up by the roots, a (hort 
time before the firft froft is ex- 
pcfted, and let them lie on the 
field. The green ones will foon 
ripen, and efcape injury from 
the froft. They muft be gather 
ed in and fecured, before they 
begin to ihatter out of the pods. 


The haum, or vines of beans, 
fliould not be wafted, but care 
fully preferved : They are a fort 
of fodder which fheep and goats 
are very fand of, though no oth 
er creature will eat them. 

Of beans called fear let the 
white are the befl and moil pro- 

As dried beans are of late be 
come a confiderable article of ex 
portation, farmers mould be in 
formed that the white beans are 
moil prized by far in foreign 
markets, and bear a higher price 
than any other. 

Callivance are a bean of great 
value, and yield great crops in 
lome of the warmer parts of New- 

BEER, a pleafant drink made 
with malt and hops. It is dif- 
tinguifhed from ale by having a 
greater quantity of hops ; whence 
it is more bitter, and will keep 
longer. And beer that is made 
of the higheft dried malt has the 
name of porter. 

Much has been publifhed for 
the direction of thofe who under 
take large breweries. It is much 
to be wifhed that many fuch were 
carried on in this country, where 
barley for making malt can be 
fo eafily raifed. The ufe of ar 
dent fpirits, which are more coft- 
ly, and lefs wholeibme than beer, 
might thus be leffened. They 
who are difpofed to undertake 
brewing, may fupply themfelves 
with volumes on the fubject. 
1 mall only undertake to direft 
farmers, who may be difpofed to 
brew beer for their own con- 
iumption. . -i 

Almoft any houfehokler may 
brew, without putting himfelf to 
much if any charge for an appa 
ratus. Inftead of a large copper, 
which, is neceffary in a brew 
houfe, a large kettle or two may 
anfwer the purpofes of heating 

BEE 25 

the water, and boiling the wort. 
Hogfhead and barrel tubs, and 
other veflels, may ferve for mam- 
ing tubs, backs, coolers, and tuns. 
The water ufed for making 
beer, or ale, mould be foft, and 
fuch as is fit for wafhing. For 
this will better penetrate the 
malt, and caufe it to difcharge its 
fpirituous virtue. Some recom 
mend throwing a: fpoonful of fait 
into a kettle full, which will 
caufe any foulnefs contained in 
'the water to rife to the furface 
when it boils, which may be 
fkimmed off. When the water 
is very good this will be needlefs. 
B*ut let the water be ever fo pure, 
a little bran, or matt, mould be 
thrown upon the top, while it is 
heating ; to be taken off when 
the water begins to boil. If malt 
be ufed, throw it into the mafh 
tub. The defign of thus cover 
ing the \vater is, to prevent the 
belt, moll fubtil and volatile par 
ticles of the water from evapo 
rating, or going off in fteam. 
The water, for the fame reafon, 
mould but juft boil ; after which 
it mould not be left to cool grad 
ually, as the evaporation would 
be too great : But as much cold 
water ihould be thrown in, and 
mixed with it in the mafh tubv 
as will bring it to the right tem 
per, perhaps about three gal 
lons to half a barrel. For the 
malt mould not be fcaided, but 
fieeped in water, as warm as* it 
can be without fcalding ; becaufe 
the fcalding of the malt' would 
rather clofe up its pores, and pre 
vent its impregnating the Water 
with its virtue, fo much as it will 
in a tepid menftruum. It will 
alfo render it glutinous and ad- 
hefive, fo that the water will not 
have a free paffage through it. 
The cold water ihould be put 
firft into the rrrafh, and the hot 
after it. 


$6 BEE 

The nrafh tub fhquld have a 
cock, or a tap and iaucet, fixed 
into its bottom, and the hole cov 
ered within with a little flat 
fhaped inverted bafket, faftened 
v/ith nails, that it may not 
get out of place by the mafhing, 
and a clofe {training cloth may 
be put over it, and faftened in 
the fame manner. 

The water being in the ffiaih 
tub, one perfon fhould put in the 
malt by little and little, and an 
other ihould ftir it about with a 
flick or paddle, that it may not 
remain in lumps, or fail of being 
thoroughly wetted. This is all 
the ftirring that is needful. For 
too much ftirring would caufe 
the malt to thicken, fo as not to 
give a free pafTage to the water 
that is to pals through it. 

Some of the laft of the malt, 
inftead of being ftirred into the 
water, fhould be f trowed loofely 
over the furface, to ferve as a 
coat for the reft, and prevent 
the copious patting away at the 
fpirit in fleams. Befides, the tub 
fhould be clofely covered with 
Jacks, or other cloths, that none 
of the fleam may efcape. In this 
fituatioa it ihould ftand for two 
or three hours. Then with a 
{'mall ilream draw off the wort, 
upon a handful or .two of hops, 
into the back, which is placed 
under the mafh tub. Fill with 
water again, and maih ; m half 
an hour run it off ; in the mean 
while be pouring hot water into 
the mafh as it is running. It 
fhould be poured in on that fide 
of the tub which is moft diftant 
from the cock, or fo that all the 
malt may be wafhed with it as 
equally as poflibie. This water 
may be almoft or quite boiling ' 
hot, as mixing it with that in the 
tub will fo cool it as to prevent 
fcalding. Continue thus to pour 
in water and run it off, till you 


have the quantity in the back 
which you defign for your ftrong" 
ale or beer. Then flop the c6ck, 
and fill the grains with a fuffi- 
cient quantity of cold water, for 
fmalt beer, or it may be hot if 
the weather is cold, fo that there 
be no danger of fouring. Let it 
ftand, covered as before, and boii 
your firft run. When it has 
boiled fmartly for half an hour, 
put in your hops, and boil it an 
other half hour, or till it breaks 
or curdles, as it will when it is 
fufficiently boiled. Or you may 
put your hops into a thin coarfe 
linen bag, leaving room for them 
to fwell, and boil them the firft 
half hour in the wort, which I 
take to be a better method. 

When your wort is boiled e- 
nough, ftrain it into your coolers, 
in which the thinner it lies the 
better, as it will cool the rafter. 

The next thing is to put the 
wort into the tun, an open veflel, 
to ferment. If very fine and 
clear drink is defired, the fedi- 
ments in the coolers fhould be 
left behind, and ftrained through 
a flannel bag : For the lefs of the 
grounds go into the tun, the purer 
the beer may be expefted to be 
in the cafk, and the more eafily 

That which is intended for long 
keeping fhould be almoft or quite 
cold before it is put into the tun, 
becaufe a flow fermentation will 
be moft proper for it. But ale, 
or fmall beer, for fpeedy ufe, 
may be put up a little warm. 

Then ftir in your barm, or yeft, 
a pint of which is enough for a 
barrel. If the fermentation be 
too flow, beat in the yeft once or 
twice, but not oftener, left the 
drink fliould be injured by it. 

In two or three days the beer 
will purify itfelf by throwing up 
the lighter parts to the top in a 
white curled foam, and precipi 


tating *the heavier and fouler 
parts to the bottom. It fiiould 
then be tapped juft above the 
lees, and, having taken off the 
yeft, the beer mufl be drawn off 
into the cafks in whichit is to be 
kept : Which fhould iland with 
the bungs open, till the fermen 
tation ceafes, and be kept con- 
ftantly full, not by pouring inthat 
which runs over with the yeft at 
the bung hole ; but with fome of 
die fame beer kept in a Veffel by 
itfelf. Thus it will throw off the 
yeft, and depofit a dreggy part 
fufficient for the beer to feed up 
on in the calk. Keferving the 
yeft for ufe, bung the cafks clofe 
as foon as the working ceafes. 
If the brewing be done in O61o- 
ber, the bungs ihoiild not be tak 
en out till fpring. Then open 
the vent holes : For the coming 
of warm weather will caufe anew 
fermentation. This being over, 
.keep the cafks well flopped till 
September following : Then fine 
it with ifinglafs, firft racking it 
off, if it be not pretty fine. 

But for ales and fmall beers, it 
may anfwer well enough, to omk 
the tunning, and remove the wart 
from the coolers directly into the 
cafks ; observing to keep them 
full, that they may purge tbem- 
felves of the yeft. 

Butt beer of the ftrongeft kind, 
takes eight bufhels of malt for a 
barrel. But a fmaller quantity 
will make apleafanter and whole- 
fomer drink. The fame quanti 
ty will make a barrel and a half 
of good ftrong ale ; or fix barrels 
of fmall beer. 

R EC EIPT for brewing for a pri 
vate family. 

Take four bufhels of malt, and 
from ten ounces to a pound of 
hops, as you wifh your beer to be 
-more or lefs bitter. Brew accord 
ing to the above method, You 
t* T i]l have one barrel of good ale } 

BEE 27 

and another of fmall beer. Fci* 
the fmall beer half a pound of 
hops will be enough. Some ufe 
the hops that have been boiled 
before : But frefh hops will be 
far better and wholefomer. 

Take a fufHcient quantity oi 
fpruce boughs ; boil them i n water 
about half an hour, or till the out - 
ward fkin, or rind, peels off: Strain 
the liquor, andir in at the rate of 
two quarts ol molaffes to half a bar 
rel. Work it with beer grounds, 
or emptyings ; or rather with .yeft, 

Inftead oi fpruce .fome ufe ju 
niper, and prefer it It is the low 
fpecies, commonly called favin. A 
little wheat bran mould he boiled 
in this beer to give it a brifknefs. 

according to a method faid to be 
pra6lifed in Philadelphia. 

" Take five pounds of molaffes, 
half a pint of yeft, and a fpoon- 
f ul of powdered race ginger : Put 
thefe ingredients into your vcf- 
fel, and pour on them two gal 
lons of fcalding hot, foft and 
clear water : Shake them well 
till it ferments ; and add thirteen 
gallons of the fame water cold, 
to fill up the cafk : Let the. liquor 
ferment about twelve hours, then 
bottle it off, with a raifin or two 
in each 'bottle,/' 
A good H o u S'F/H OLD BEE R. 

Take .a heaped half peck of 
wheat -bran,, and three or "four 
ounces of hops : Boil them a 
quarter of an hour in fifteen gal 
lons of clear water : Strain it 
through a clofe fieve, and fweet- 
en it with two quarts of molaf 
fes : Cool it quick till it is no 
warmer, than new milk, and fill 
your half barrel. Warm water 
may be tiled to fill up the cafk if 
needful. Leave the bung out 
for 24 hours, that the drink may 
work, and throw off' the yeft, and 
it will be fit for ufe. About the 

a8 BEE 

fourth or fifth day, bottle off what 
remains in the veflel, efpecially 
if the weather be hot, that it may 
not turn four or ftale. If the caik 
be new, or not before ufed for 
beer, apply yeft or beer grounds 
to ferment it : Otherwife it will 
not be neceflary. 

The practice, which is common 
in this country, of fermenting our 
fmall drinks, with the fediments, 
or dregs of the fame, ought to be 
laid afide. For this is undoubt 
edly the fouleft, and moft un- 
wholefome excrement of liquor. 
Praftice is ^pt to reconcile the 
minds of people to the moft ab- 
furd and unwholefome things. 
Would not a man be confidered 
as infane, who fhould take the 
emptyings ef cyder, and put it 
into has new cyder to ferment 
it? But how much better a prac 
tice is it, to ferment our fmall 
beers in this manner, with the 
fediments of fmall beer ? It is 
true, that yeft is alfo an excre- 
mentitious part ; but that which 
is white, is evidently far lighter, 
and freer from filth, and contains 
much of the volatile and fpiritu- 
ous parts. As I had rather re 
ceive the breath or peripiration 
of cattle into my body, than their 
flung, or ftale, fo I prefer the 
white fcum in 'my $rink to the 
ponderous dregs of liquors. Thefe 
obfervations will as well apply 
to the fomenting of dough. 

To mend disorders in beer, 
and improve it, the London and 
country brewer gives the follow 
ing directions. 

To cure a butt of ropy beer. 
Mix two handfuls of bean flour 
with one handful of fait, and ftir 
it in. 

To feed a bull of beer. Bake a 
rye loaf well nutmeged, put it in 
pieces into a narrow bag of hops 
with fome wheat, and put the bag 
into the cafk at the bung hole. 

B E E 

To cure mujly drink. Jtiin it 
through fome hops that have 
been boiling in ftrong wort, and 
afterwards work it with two parts 
of new beer, to one of the mufty 
old. This is called vamping, 
and is a cure for mufty, or Sink 
ing beer. 

To feed and give a fine flavour 
to a barrel of beer. Put fix fea 
bifcuits into a bag of hops, and 
put all into the caik. 

To fine or clarify beer in twen 
ty four hours. Put in a piece of 
loft chalk burnt, about the big- 
nefs of two hen's eggs, which 
will difturb the liquor, and caufe 
it afterwards to be fine, and draw 
off brifk to the laft, though it 
were flat before. This will do 
for a kilderkin, or half barrel. 

To fine and feed butt beer. Cut 
ifingiafs into fmall pieces, and 
foak it in fome ftale beer ; then 
boil fugar in fmall beer or ale to 
a thin fyrup, arid mix it with 
fome of the ifingiafs beer, which 
put into a butt of beer, ftiriing 
it bfifkly together. It will fine 
and prelerve the drink well. 

To recover a kilderkin of \flale 
fmall beer. Put two ounces of 
good hops, and one pound of 
mellow fat chalk, broke into a 
dozen pieces, m at the bung hole, 
and flop it up clofc. It will prove 
found and pleafant to the laft. 

To fine a kilderkin of ale or, and prefirve ike. fa we found 
and {ikajant for a long time. 
Take a large handful of bops, 
boiled in a'firil wort only halt 
an hour, and dried ; half a pound 
of loaf fugar dillolved in fome. 
of the ale or beer ; one pound 
of chalk broke in fix pieces ; fhr. 
white part of oyllerfhells. calcined 
in a clear charcoal fire to a v.'hite- 
nefs, and the items of tobacco 
pipes, that have been ufed and 
are burnt again, of each in pow 
der four ounces. Put in your. 



hops firft, with the pieces of 
chalk ; and then mix your two 
powders and loaf fugar in fome 
of the ale or beer, and pour all 
in immediately after the hops 
and chalk, ftirring them well 
about with a ftaff, and bang down. 
Some put thefe into ale quick 
ly after it has done working ; 
others will rack off their Octo 
ber or March beer into another 
calk, and then put in thefe in- 

tredients, and flir it well with a 
aff: Or give the veflel a roll 
x)r two, that the bottom may be 
turned up. You may tap it at a 
week's end : You will have a 
clear wholefome ale or beer. 

BEES, an induftriousand prof 
itable fpecies of infects. Rural 
economy is incomplete where 
bees are wanting. The coil: ot 
keeping them is nothing, after the 
houfe and boxes are made ; arid 
the care that is required about 
them is but trifling, affording an 
agreeable amufement. 

There are three forts of been 
in a hive : i. The queen bee, 
which is larger, and of a brighter 
red, than the reft. Her buiinefs 
is to conduct the new fwarm, and 
Jay eggs in the cells for a new 
brood : And her fertility is lo 
great that me brings forth many 
thoufands of young ones in a 
year. 2. The drones, which have 
no ftings, are of a darker colour 
than the reft, and are fuppofcd 
to be the males. 3. The honey 
bees, or working bees, which 
are by far more numerous than 
the other two kinds. 

A bee houfe mould be fituated 
at a good diftance from places 
where cattle are kept, efpecially 
from hogHies, hen and dove 
houfes, and remote from 'filth 
and dunghills. It mould be de 
fended from high winds on all 
fides, fo far as may be, confift- 
ently with admitting the heat of 



the fun. The houfe mould be 
open to the ibnth, or fouthwell, 


backfide mould be verv 

tight ; with a tight roof project 
ing, that driving rains may not 
injure the bees. If friow lodges 
upon or about the hives, it Ihould 
be brufhed off without delay. 
The bench on which the hives 
(land, Ihould be a little canting 
outwards, that if wet fhould fall 
on it, it may run off without en 
tering the hives. Mr. Bromwich 
propofes, " that a bee houfe b<? 
boarded in front : And that the 
backfide fhould coniifl of three 
doors, which, opened, give a full 
view of the hives, and give op 
portunity to affift or lift them. 
All feams are to be flopped, 
which would admit infects, trom 
which the houfe is often to be 

" If the houfe mould be in 
danger of being too hot, when 
thus inclofed, it may be occafton- 
ally (haded with boughs of trees. 
As winter approaches, all the 
feams of the houfe are plaiftered 
with clay. In very cold climates, 
the houfe fhould be filled with 
ilraw, to keep the bees warm, 
watching again ft mice, and re 
moving the ilraw in the fpring. 

" Cut a hole through the front, 
of the fame fize as the mouth ot 
the lower hive, and directly a- 
gainft it. Under this paflage, 
on a level with the floor, is a 
lighting board, at the mouth of 
each hive, of about five inches 
long, and three wide. It is a 
little fhelf for the bees to land 
upon after their excurfions. 
Thefe being feparate, not in one 
piece of the length of the houfe, 
is to prevent intercourfe between 
colony nnd colony. But more 
effential to prevent mice, fnails, 
and other intruders. Thefe a- 
lighting boards are fornetimes 
painted of different colours, to 

30 3 E E 

direft each bee to his home more 
readily. A long {helving board 
fhould be placed over the alight 
ing boards, to ihelter the bees in 
a rainy time. It mould be 
twelve inches wide, arid placed 
nine inches above the mouths 
of the hives." 

Broom, clover, and muflard,^ 
are faid to afford bees an excel-" 
Jent paflure ; and they appear 
very fond of the flowers of pop 
pies. Gardens, and any places 
where {lowers abound, and ef- 
peciaily where there is a fuc- 
cefhon of flowers through the 
greater part of the year, are moil 
favourable to them : For they 
undoubtedly draw the principal 
part of their honey from the nec- 
ta'ria of flowers. Fields of buck 
wheat are good, as they continue 
in bloom for a long time. In 
Germany they move their bee 
hives in boats to the neighbour 
ing fields of buck wheat. 

Bees are wont to fend out new 
fwarms in May and June. Much 
has been written concerning the 
management of them on thefe 
occafions. But the new mode 
of managing them renders all 
this unnecefTary. It is this: Let 
the bee houfe be made ib tall as 
to admit' three tier of hives, or 
boxes, one above another. The 
hives fnould not be tall lhaped, 
but rather broad and ihort, that 
they may take up lefs room. 
A hive of fuch dimenfions as to 
be equal to a cube of 13 inches, 
will be fufficiently capacious. 
Mr. Thorley directs that they 
fhould be 10 inches deep, and 
from 12 to 14 inches broad in 
the iniide. If hives be made 
larger, the fwarms will not mul 
tiply fo faft. An under hi'/e is 
made with a round hole through 
the top of three inches diameter, 
covered with a Hiding Ihutter. 
Each hive or box mould have a 


pafTage at the bottom for the !>ees 
to pafs in and out, four or five 
inches long, and about one third 
of an inch deep. One of thefe 
hives mould be placed directly 
under an inhabited hive, before 
they are difpofed to fend out a 
new fwarm. This will prevent 
the going out of a {warm, and 
| fave trouble and watching : For 
inftead of fwarming, when the 
upper hive is full, they will build 
and depoht their honey in the 
one that is below ; And when 
that is full, let them find another 
beneath it ; they will take poi- 
feffion of the lowermoft. It is 
their manner always to begin at 
the top, and build, downwards. 
For another method ot manage 
ment, fee White's collateral Bee. 

When the top hive is well fill 
ed with honey, it may be dif r 
covered by lifting it, or more ac 
curately by weighing it gently 
with a fleclyard, in a cool morn 
ing, when the bees Are fliff, and 
not apt to come out. 

When a hive is taken up, there 
is no need of murdering the 
poor infe6ts with fire and brim- 
ilone, as has been the ufual prac 
tice. - Only drive in the mutter, 
and run a thin long knife round, 
to part it from that which is be 
low it ; flip the hive off upon a 
fraooth piece of board, or flide 
the board under, and carry the 
hive into, your dwelling houfe, 
which you may dp in a cool 
morning without any danger 
from their flings. Lay the hive 
upon its fide, and have a window 
of the room open. As the fun 
gets up, and the air grows warm 
er, they will quit the hive, and 
go into the hive next to the 
place whence they were taken. 
When you take out the honey, 
which fhould be done fpeedily, 
the bees that are found among 



tiife honey, ftiff'and unable to fly, 
fliould be thrown into a tub of 
water. They will foon recover 
their activity, and go after their 

Some pfaftife feeding bees. 
But, fays one, " There is but 
little life in it, becaufe thofe 
which have not a good ftock of 
honey to ferve them through the 
winter, are not fit to keep." He 
adds, " There are fome {locks of 
bees in the fpring <;ime, that may 
feem worthy of our care to pre- I 
ferve ; fuch as have but little ' 
honey, and a good number of 
bees, by means of a cold and dry 
fpring, yet in all probability may 
prove an excellent ftock, and 
may be worth confideration." 

" The beft method of fujipiy- 
ing bees with food, is by fmall 
canes, or troughs conveyed into 
their hives ; and beginning in 
March, when they begin to breed 
and fit on their young, it muft 
be daily continued, till the fea- 
fbn affords them eafe and provi- 
fion abroad. 

" Honey is not only the beft, 
but the moft natural of all food, 
and will go much further mix 
ed well with a moderate quanti 
ty of good fiveet wort. Soine 
prefcribe toafts ot bread fopped 
in flrong ale, and put into the 
hive, whereof they will not leave 
one crumb remaining." 

Mr. Thorley advifes when 
{locks of bees are weak, to double 
them, which he thinks the moft 
effectual way of preferving them 
in common hives. He does it 
by the help of a fume, or opiate, 
which will fo ftupify them for a 
time that they may be handled 
at pleafure. Having done this, 
the queen mnft be Searched for 
and killed. And examine wheth 
er the ftock to which you intend 
to join the bees of another, have 
honey enough to maintain the 

BEE ,31 

bees of both : It fhculd weigh 
20 pounds. 

" The narcotick, or ftupifying 
fume, is made with the large 
mulhroom, commonly known 
by the name bunt, puckfift, or 
frog cheefe. It is of a brown 
colour, turns to powder, and is 
exceeding light. Put one of 
thefe pucks into a large paper ; 
prefs it therein to two thirds, or 
half its former bulk, and tie it 
up very clofe : Then put it into 
an oven, after the bread has been 
drawn, and let it. remain there all 
night : When it is dry enough to 
hold fire, it is fit for life. The 
manner of ufmg it is thus : 

" Cut off a piece of the puck, 
as large as a hen's egg, and fix it 
in the end of a fmall flick flit 
for that purpofe, and fharpened 
at the other end, which place fo 
.that the puck may hang near the 
middle of an empty hive. This 
hive muft be fet with the mouth 
upwards, near the ftock you in 
tend to take. This being done, 
fet fire to the puck, and imme 
diately place the ftock of bees 
over it, tying a cloth around the 
hives, that no fmoke may come 
forth. In a minute's time, you 
will hear the bees fall like 'drops 
of hail, into the empty hive. 
You may then beat the top of 
the hive gently with your hand, 
to get as many of them as you 
can : After this, loofing the cloth, 
lift the hive off to a table, knock 
it feveral times againft the table, 
feveral more bees will tumble 
out, and perhaps the queen among 
them. She often is one of the 
laft that falls. If fhe is not there, 
fearch for her among the main 
body in the empty hive, fpread- 
ing them for this purpofe on a. 

" You muft proceed in the 
fame manner with the other \\l\ r c, 
with the bees of which thefe arc 

S 2 BEE 

to be united. , One of the queens 
being fecured, you muft put the 
bees of both hives together, min 
gle them thoroughly, and drop 
them among the combs of the 
hive which they are intended to 
inhabit. When they are al! in, 
cover it with a packing or coarfe 
cloth, which will admit air, and 
let them remain fhut up all that 
night, and the next day. You 
will foon be fenfible they are 
awaked from their flee p. 

" The fecond night after their 
union, in the dufk of the even 
ing, gently remove the cloth 
from off the mouth of the hive, 
and the bees will immediately 
fally forth with a great noife : 
But being too late they will foon 
return. Then keep them con 
fined for three or four days ; af 
ter which the door may be left 

It is convenient to have a pane 
of glafs in each hive, in order to 
watch the motions of the bees, 
and to know by infpeftion when 
is the right time to take up a 
hive. The Reverend Mr. White 
fays, " In the back part you muft 
cut a hole with a rabbet in it, in 
which you are to fix a pane of 
the cleared and beft crown glafs, 
about five inches in length, and 
three in breadth, and faften it 
with putty. Let the top of the 
glafs be placed as high as the 
roof within iide, that you may 
fee the upper part of the combs, 
where the bees with their riches 
are moftly placed. You will, 
by this means, be better able to 
judge of their ftate and ftrength, 
than if your glafs was fixed in the 
middle. The glafs muft be cov 
ered with a thin piece of board, 
by way of fh utter, which may be 
made to hang by a firing, or turn 
upon a. nail, or flide fideways be 
tween two mouldings, Such as 
are defirous of feeing more of 


the bees' works, may make the 
glafs as large as the box will ad 
mit, without weakening it too 
much. Or they may add a pane 
cf glafs on the top, which muft 
likewife be covered with a (but 
ter, fattened down with pegs to 
prevent accidents. 

" Be careful to faften the mut 
ter fo clofe to the glafs, that no 
light may enter ; for the bees 
feem to look upon fuch light as , 
a hole, or breach in their houfe, 
and on that account may not fo 
well like their habitation." 

BEET, Beta, a well known ef- 
eulent root. 

There is a fea beet which grows 
in fait marfhes ; and a white beet 
cultivated in gardens for the fake 
of its leaves, which are fome- 
times ufed in foups. The root 
is fmall, and commonly hard and 

But the fort which is moft val 
uable is the red beet, with a large, 
pyramidal, flefhy root ; the 
leaves of which are large, thick 
and juicy. The larger thefe roots 
grow, the more tender they are ; 
And the deeper their colour, the 
better. The beft of red beets 
have reddifh leaves. In fome oi 
the varieties the leaves are all 
over red. 

Beets require a mellow and 
warm foil, moderately rich, and 
well pulverized to a good depth. 
For as they naturally run deep, in 
mallow groftnd they will be fhort^ 
ftringy, and irregular fhaped. 

Beets mould be fown early. 
A good method is, to fet the 
feeds in fquares of about eight 
or nine inches in poor ground ; 
in rich ground they fhould be at 
leaft a foot afunder. If a fourth 
part of the feeds fhould fail, the 
crop will not be leffened. 

When the feeds are ftrong and 

good, they are apt to come up 

I double. In this cafe they fhould 



i>y all means be fmgled while 
they are young. Otherwife it 
may be expefted that the roots 
will be fmall, and fometimes 
twifted about each other. Thofe 
which are taken out may be 
tranfplanted ; but they are not 
fo apt to make good roots. 
Though they may be thick, they 
will be apt to be wanting in lengh, 

The ground mould be hoed 
two or three times, after which the 
leaves will fo cover the ground, 
as to flop the further growth of 

The under leaves may be brok 
en off towards fall, and thrown 
to the fwine, which are very fond 
of them. This will not injure 
the roots at all ; for if they are 
left on, they will foon decay. 
Taking away part of the leaves 
will' let in the fun and air, which 
will be of advantage to the roots. 

The roots mould be taken up 
before any fevere froft comes ; 
none of the fibrous roots mould 
be taken away ; nor the heads 
cut very clofe. In this ftate, al- 
fo, they mould be boiled, that 
none of their rich juice may ef- 

They may be ufed in autumn, 
and kept good all winter. But 
if any froft touches them, though 
they will not prefently rot, they 
will become tough, and unfit for 
the table. And, in the fpring, 
their early fprotiting depreciates 

A new fpecies of beet has late 
ly made its appearance in this 
country. The German name of 
it is mangel zuurtzel : It is com 
monly called fcarcity root, from 
an idea of its being a good pre 
ventive of fcarcity, or fucceda- 
neiun' for grafs. Like other tap 
rooted plants, it bears drought 
well, and produces abundance of 
leaves, which the cattle are fond 
f . Thefc pi ants have every ap- 

B I R 33 

pearance of beets, excepting that 
the feeds are fmaller, the roots 
much larger, and grow chiefly 
above the furface of the ground. 
Ten pounds is the weight of fome 
that I have feen ; but in a rich 
foil, fome have grown to two 
feet in circumference. ( The leaves 
may be frequently fhripped off, 
to feed cattle and fwine, which 
does not appear to injure the 
roots at all, but rather to increafe 
their growth. They are lefs fit 
for the table than the common 
red beets. Thofe which I have 
feen were fcarcely eatable. 

BIDENS, a tool recommend 
ed by Mr. Tull, with an eye and 
helve like a hand hoe. Inftead 
of a blade, it has two prongs, 
two inches, or two and a half 
afunder, and fix inches long, 
fteeled at the ends. The ufes of 
it are, to take up weeds ftrongly 
rooted, and to loofen the foil 
among plants, without wound 
ing the roots. It was invented 
and ufed by the Romans. 

BIRD GRASS, Poa ava~ 
fia, fpicalis fabbifloris. Ufually 
known in this country by the 
name Fowl Meadow Grafs. It 
acquired this name by being fup- 
poled to be brought to a piece ofc" 
meadow in Dedham, by ducks, 
and other wild water fowl. Mr. 
Roque, an ingenious Frenchman, 
tells us, " He has,found by ex 
periment, that this grafs thrives 
beft on the drieft land." But if 
it did fo in England, where he 
has cultivated it, I doubt wheth 
er it will do fo in this country, 
where the heat of the fun in 
fummer, is fo much greater. The 
fowl meadow, where its growth 
is moft natural, is a low wet foil, 
and fo miry that carts cannot 
well go on it : And from thence 
it has been propagated in many 
fwampy placesv But Mr. Roque 
tells us, " It grew two feet and a 



B L O 

lialf the firft year in a dry foil ; 
four feet the fecond year : That 
at every joint it lends out branch 
es, which will ftrike root where - 
evcr they touch the ground : 
That on taking a full grown 
plant of this grafs out of the 
ground, it was found capable of 
being divided into twenty fmall : - 
cr roots, or off fets ; that thefe off 
fets, though taken thus from the 
root even in the beginning of Ju 
ly, will bear feed the fame year." 
Mr. Eliot thinks drained 
fwamps are a very proper foil for 
the cultivation of this grafs ; he 
allows that it makes a good hay, 
little inferiour to Englifh hay ; 
and obferves, that it keeps green 
for a long time, fo that it may be 
mov T ed at any time from July 
to October ; and that it is fo 
fruitful as to produce three tons 
of hay on an acre. 
BLIGHT. See Mildew:- 
BLOOD, the liquor whicH 
circulates through the arteries 
and veins of animals. It eonfifts 
of water, oil, fait, earth and air, 
all which fubftances are ingredi 
ents of the food for plants. It 
abounds with oil and fait more 
than moft bodies ; therefore it 
may be allowed to be one of the 
rieheft manures ; and experi 
ments have proved it to be fo. 
It is heft to mix it with other 
fubftances before it is ufed. If 
a farmer could get the blood of 
animals in fuffkient quantity, he 
might bring his lands to any de 
gree of richnefs. lie may af 
ford to give a good price for the 
filth at {laughter houfes, as a large 
proportion of it is blood. It is 
owing, in great meafure, to the 
blood of fowls, and other animals, 
which is fpilt in back yards, that 
what is called door dung is fo 
valuable a manure. The fanner 
fhould take care to have all his 
killing done in places where the 

B R O 

blood will be faved for manure. 
A little of it mixed with a large 
quantity of dirt, the fcrapings of 
a yard, &c. will make the whole 
a rich compoft. 

BOG, a piece of land with a 
wet miry foil, or a fwamp. Some 
bogs, when they have a fward of 
grafs roots, will make and trem 
ble under the foot. Such land 
is unprofitable, or even a nuifance, 
until it be drained. But after 
draining, it becomes the beft of 
foil, producing the greateft of 
crops, without any manure. The 
way to drain a fwamp effectually, 
is to j?afs a ditch through the mid 
dle of it ; and another ditch round 
the border, to cut off the fprings 
which come from the upland. 

In order to judge whether a 
bog will pay the expenfe of 
draining, the depth of the draia 
which will be neceffary at the 
outlet, and its length, muft be 
confidered, and alfo the depth of 
the foil in the bog. If the foil 
be very thin, it will not be of fo 
much value when drained. It 
will be thinner after drying than 
before ; but it mould have depth 
enough for the deepeft plough 
ing, after it is dried and fettled. 
Otherwife the operation of drain 
ing may as well be omitted. 
See Eliot on Field Hufbandry. 

BROWSE, young fprouts 
from wood, twigs of trees, and 
bulhes. In. a new country,, 
browfmg is a confiderable part 
of the food of cattle. They will 
eat browfe all parts of the year, 
unlefs when the fnow is fo deep 
that they cannot wander in pur- 
fuit of it. Late in autumn, and 
early in fpring, much hay may 
be faved by turning out cattle to 
browfe. In the former part of 
fummer, when die young moots 
are in the moft tender ftate, fome 
cattle will even grow fat upon 
browfe. Salt hay is found to 


B U L 

give cattle an extraordinary ap 
petite for this kind of food. 

BUCK WHEAT, Polygo- 
num, a dark coloured grain, (liap- 
ed like the feed of onions, but 
much larger, and of a dark brown 
colour. It yields plentifully, 
and is faid to be better than bar 
ley for fattening .of hogs and 
poultry. It mould not be fown 
in this climate, till after the mid 
dle of May. One bufhel is e- 
nough to feed an acre, if fown 
broad caft ; lefs than half that 
quantity, if drilled. 

In the Hate of Newyork, farm 
ers fow it with their winter wheat 
about Auguft. It affords them. a 
ripe crop in the fall, and is no 
damage to the crop of wheat 
nvhich grows with it, and fuc- 
ceeds it. When the plants are 
green, they are large, fappy and 
ioft. European writers, there 
fore, greatly recommend fowing 
it fora green dreffing, and plough 
ing it into the ground, in its inoft 
green and juicy (late. 

BULL, the male of the ox kind. 

The marks of a good -one for 
propagation, according to Mor 
timer, are thefe. He mould have 
a quick countenance, his fore 
head large and curled, his eyes 
black and large, his horns large, 
itraight and black, his neck 
flefhy, his belly long and large, 
his hair fmooth like velvet, his 
breaft big, his back ftraight and 
flat, his buttocks fquare, his thighs 
round, his legs ftraight, and his 
joints .{hort. 

One good bull will anfwer for 
a large number of cows. But to 
mend our bv-eesl of cattle, more 
attention fliould be paid to the 
properties of bulls. Thoie calves 
which are not large, or not well 
fhaped, mould be caftrated while 
-they are young, that a mean race 
of cattle may not be propagated, 
fhoulrl the praclice of 



fuffering bulls that are too young, 
to go to the cows, be continued. 
For either the cows, through the 
infufficiency of the bull, will go 
farrow, which is a great lofs to 
the farmer, and a breach upon 
the dairy ; or at beft, the calves 
will be imall, and fcarcely worth 
rearing ; as fome of our beft 
farmers are now fully convinced. 
A bull mould be three years old, 
before he is ufed for propagation. 

Crofting the breed is account 
ed a matter of confiderable im 
portance. A bull procured from 
fome place at a confidence dif~ 
tance, is, believed to anfwer bet 
ter than one that is home bred. 
'^Gentlemen in Ireland will fome- 
times give an enormous price for 
a young bull from fome parts of 

BURN BAKING, or burn 
beating, often called denftiiring, 
or devonfhiring, from its being 
long praHfed in Devonfhirc. 
The turfs of fwarded land are cut 
up with a kind of hoc, called a 
beating axe, which, after drying, 
are piled and "burnt. The afhes 
.and burnt foil are fpread over the 
furface, from whence the turfs 
were taken, by way of manure ; 
then ploughed in, and mixed with 
the foil ; firft with a (hoal fur 
row, and .deeper at the fecond 

The Marquis of Tourbilly fays, 
" The .paring mattock, or beat 
ing axe, ihould have an edge 
like an adze, of >well tempered 
fteel, and about nine inches wide ; 
that the iron part fnould be fix 
inches in length, growing nar 
rower towards the handle ; that 
the hole to receive the handle 
fhouid be two inches hi diame 
ter ; that the handle fhouid be 
of wood, about three feet long ; 
that the inftrument without the 
handle ihould weigh rrom ten to 

twelve pounds : that the turfs 

/' j 

g6 BUR 

raifed will be about 18 inches 
long, a foot broad, and four inches 
thick ; that they muft be fet up 
to dry, leaning againft each oth 
er ; that when the feafon is not 
very wet, they will be dry e- 
nough to burn in about three 
weeks ; that when dry, they 
muft be piled up in the form of 
ovens, the mouths to the moft 
windward fide ; that a hole 
fhould be left in the top for the 
fmoke to go out ; that as foon as 
they are piled, they muft be fet 
on fire with fome ftraw or heath ; 
that if they burn too faft, earth 
muft be thrown on to deaden the 
flames ; and that they will con 
tinue burning fome days. When 
the burning is ended, he advifes, 
that the afhes be piled up in 
round heaps ; that when it is 
time to fow winter grain, the 
aihes ihould be fpread, and the 
corn fown on them, and then the 
ground ploughed with a flioal 
iurrow, and harrowed." 

He fays, " half the ufual quan 
tity of feed will be fufficient ; 
and that it ought to be fowed two 
weeks later than other ground." 
The reafon is, becaufe the grain 
will grow rapidly, and be un 
commonly large. 

I conceive this muft be a ggod 
method of culture for our cold 
lands, inclining to mofs, which 
can no other way be made to 
produce well the firft year after 
breaking up. But this method 
will not readily be adopted in a 
country where labour is dear. 
The work, however, might be 
greatly diminifhed, by paring the 
furface with a very iharp ironed 
plough ; though in order to do 
this, the ground muft have an 
extremely even furface, and be 
free from ftones. I have faid fo 
much of this culture, in hopes pf 
exciting fome, who are curious, 
19 make trial of it. 


BURNET, Pimpindla^ a vai, 
liable perennial plant, which has 
lately been brought into ufe as a 
grafs for feeding cattle, by Mr. 
Roque, in the neighbourhood of 
London. Several Englifh fann 
ers have teftified, from, their ex 
perience concerning it, that it 
grows and flourifhes well, even 
on the pooreft and drieft of fandy 
and gravelly foils ; that an acre 
will yield three loads of hay, by 
cutting it twice in a year, or 
more than forty bufhels of feed ; 
that the feed is better for horfes 
than oats, and the ftraw, after it 
is thrafhed, equal to the beft of 
common hay ; that it continues 
in perfe6l verdure, and even 
growing during the winter ; that 
it affords excellent winter paf- 
ture for cattle and horfes ; and 
that it makes cows give an ex 
traordinary quantity of the very 
beft tailed milk. 

I have had a bed of this grafs 
for two years paft on a hungry 
fand. It has grown luxuriantly, 
the ftems rifing to the height of 
three feet ; and the feeds ripen 
ed the year it was fpwed, though 
it was not fowed till the end of 
May. The fecond year the feed& 
ripened, I think, in June. The 
feverity of our winter froft nei 
ther killed any of it, nor fo much 
as altered the verdure of the 
items or leaves. Some of it was 
cut up and given to cattle, 
as foon as the fnow was off, 
which they ate very greedily. 

I think this plant bids fair 
to be a profitable grafs in this 
country, where froft occafions 
the confining our ftocks to dry 
fodder for fix or feven months. 
For, on a pafture pf this grafs, 
cattle, horfes and fheep, may 
feed till the ground is covered 
with fnow ; and again in the 
fpring, as fopn as the ground is 



It is alfo excellent for foiling, 
or to give green to cattle in racks ; 
and when it is made into hay, the 
leaves are not apt to crumble, or 
anv part of the hay to be waited. 

They who wifh to propagate 
this grafs, may be amired, that 
there is not the leaft difficulty in 
doing it : For it is not only a 
moft hardy plant, but I have not 
found it to be at all liable to be 
hurt by any kind of infecls. The 
Englim farmers recommend keep 
ing it clear of weeds during the 
firft fummer, or till it is fo large 
as to' cover the ground. This 
may be done partly by harrow 
ing : For as it is a ftrong tap root 
ed plant, the teeth of the harrow 
will not injure the roots at all. 

BURNT CLAY, a manure 
very proper for all clofe and com 
pact foils, efpecially for a foil 
that is clayey, which it opens, 
warms, and invigorates ; and fo 
difpofes fucli lands to part with 
their vegetative virtues, of which 
they are not wanting. 

" I made," fays one, " a num 
ber of clay walls nine inches 
high, the fame in thicknefs, and 
placed at the fame diftance from 
each other, in the fame parallel 
direction, forming a fquare ot a- 
bout three yards. Thefe vacan 
cies I filled with brufh wood, and 
on that threw fome cinders, or 
fmall coal : After which I cover 
ed the whole fquare with clay a- 
bout three inches thick, leaving 
the ends of the tunnels open, 
which I then lighted on the wind 
ward fide. As foon as the fire 
had got fufficient head, I flopped 
die mouths of them ; and when 
I perceived the covering was al- 
moft burnt through, I had a fmall 
fprinkling of fmall coal thrown on 
the heap, and then another cover 
ing of clay as thick as the former : 
And thus I went on till my heap 
was feven or eight feet high. When 



I found my fire was well kindled 
(which was commonly about the 
time I put my fecond coat on) I 
ufed to enlarge the bafe of the 
fire, by continuing the tunnels, 
and adding new ones to the (ides, 
which were filled and covered as 
the others, and then lighted, till 
I made my fire about feven yards 
fquare : For I found it never 
burnt well in the middle, if it was 
too large at firft." 

" I put about ten cart loac^s on 
an acre, and found it an admira 
ble manure, for either meadow, 
pa ft ure, or corn. For the latter 
it will not laft longer than three 
crops, though longer for the two 
former. And with this manure 
I have made prodigious improve 
ments. But I do not believe it 
will anfwer for a faridy foil, as it 
will render it flill lighter." I 
have myfelf tried it upon a fandy 
foil without any advantage. 

Mr, Eliot propofes a method 
of burning clay fomewhat differ 
ent from this and more fimple. 
See his Fie. Id Hujbandry. 

BURNT GRAIN. Wheat is 
faid to be burnt, when the mealy 
part of its kernels is converted to 
a black powder, of the confift- 
ence of lampblack. M. Duham- 
el calls this diftemper uJUlago, 
the burnt ear. Grain which is 
fo affefted, mould not be ufed 
for food without warning, being 
very imwholefome. Grain dif- 
tempered in this manner, is call 
ed by our farmers, finutty ; but 
the heft modern European writ 
ers choofe to call it burnt grain ; 
and they affix the name fmut to 
another diftemper. I greatly fuf- 
pe6i that the original caufe of 
fmutty ears and burnt grain is the 
fame : And that all the difference 
in the diftempers is, that in fome 
ears it begins fooner from fome 
latent caufe, in others later by 
contagion. See Smut. 


as BUS 

It has been recommended, in or 
der to prevent the diflemper, that 
the feed be fleeped in hot lie of 
wood afhes, with the mixture of 
a little lime. This I have tried 
year after year, without the de- 
fired effec~l. Steeping in brine, 
and fitting on the grain powder 
ed quicklime, are better pre 
ventives, but are not always ef- 

M. Tillet, after diligent re- 
fearches concerning this diftem- 
fer, recommends warning the 
?eed in water to clear wheat of 
the black powder, fleeping it in 
'brine of fea fait, or of nitre ; or 
Sleeping in flrong alkaline lies,, 
made of the afhes of fea weeds, 
-of potafh or aihes jo'f tartar ; or 
in lies of common aihes, much 
impregnated with and human 
urine, or cow's urine, alkalized 
vby putrefaftion. Of thefe vari 
ous articles thofe may be ufed 
'which are mofl eafily obtained. 

If the feed be tinged with the 
black powder, it mould be wafh- 
ed and violently agitated in fev- 
<eral clear waters, till the black is 
quite off, and then fleeped. If 
it is not fpotred, it mould be 
plunged in a bafket into flrong 
lie of wood afhes and lime, as 
hot as a man can bear his hand 
in it ; ftirring it well, let the lie 
drain o-ut. The feed thus pre 
pared, muft be fpread upon a 
iloor, till it is dry enough to fow. 
BUSHES, fhrubs. Thefe are 
apt to fpring up and increafe in 
paflure lands, which have never 
been tilled, if timely care be not 
taken to deflroy them. Eradi 
cating them requires fo much la 
bour, that farmers are moft com 
monly content with cutting them 
once in a few years. But the 
more cuttings they furvive, the 
longer lived they are apt to be ; 
and the harder to kill, as the roots 
continually gain flrength. 

B U S 

Keeping cattle fhort in paftures 
will caufe them to browfe the 
! more ; and this will have a ten- 
I dency to fubdue many kinds of 
bu flies. Thofe which grow on 
high ground are oftener fubdued 
this way than thofe which grow 
in fwampy low lands, the latter 
being lefs palatable to the cattle. 
It has often been afferted, that 
when the fign is in the heart, and 
the moon in her wane, in June, 
July or Auguft, if bufhes a-re cut 
they will certainly die. But, by 
a fufFicient trial, I have found 
this to be a great miftake. In 
Auguft, 1782, on the day recom 
mended, I cut feveral acres of al 
der bufhes. And on the follow 
ing day, when the moon was in 
the next fign, I cut a large quan 
tity more of the fame kind, and 
in the fame fwamp. The former 
are fprung up again ^very gener 
ally, and are become tall now in 
the year 1789 ; .and fo are the 
latter. T.he cutting was as inef 
fectual on tfce one day .as on the 

But it is undoubtedly true, that 
cutting bufhes in the iumnier 
will do more towards deitroying 
them, than doing it in any other 
feafon ; and the former part of 
fummer is a better time than the 
latter. Other circum fiances be 
ing etjual, the wetteft weather is 
bell for deflroy ing ihrubs by cut 
ting ; becaufe the lap veffels of 
the Humps will continue open 
the longer ; there will be the 
greater difcharge of fap through 
them, and the roots will be the 
more weakened. 

Bufhes which grow in clufters, 
as alder, and fom.e other forts, 
may be expeclitiotifly pulled up 
by oxen ; and this is an effeftu- 
al way to fubdue them. The ex- 
penfe of it I fuppofe will not be 
more than that of cutting thein 
twice would amount to. 


Elder is a kind of bufii which 
Spreads faft in fome foils, and has 
been accounted harder to fubdue 
than almoit any other. Mr. El 
iot fays, " He knows by experi 
ence, that mowing them five times 
in a year will kill them." This 
has been proved by the experi 
ence of other farmers. The roots- 
of the flirub oak will not be kill 
ed, but by digging them out, or 
by pasturing goats on them. 

The bumes in fwanips are in 
general more hard to conquer, 
than thofe which grow upon 
upland. Flooding a fwamp, 
where it is practicable, or can be 
done without too much coft, is 
perhaps the mod approved meth 
od which can be taken. Flood 
ing for two or three fummers- 
will totally deftroy them, root ] 
and branch. 

But if a fwamp cannot conve 
niently be flooded, the next thing 
is, to confider whether it cannot 
be drained to advantage. Drain 
ing will fo alter the nature of 
the foil, that the fhrubs which 
it naturally produced before, 
will not be any longer nour- 
ifhed by it. Therefore they will 
moftly die without cutting, or it 
may be expecled that once cut 
ting will be fufficient. But if 
draining were not ferviceable on 
any other account, perhaps it 
would not anfwer to go to the 
expenfe of it merely for the fake 
of clearing a fwamp of the b limes. 


CABBAGE, Braffica, an ef- 
culent plant in high, eltimation, 
which, when well fodden, is a 
very wholefome food. Many 
forts of cabbages are cultivated. 
The common white ,md red cab- ( 
bages, the favoy, the cauliflower, ! 
and the low dutch cabbages are i 
Common in this country. The ' 



favor, for keeping in the winter, 
feems to be equal ,o any. Be- 
fides thefe, other forts are culti 
vated in Europe, as the borecole, 
the broccoli, the batterfea, c. 

Cabbages require a rich foil,, 
rather moift than dry. A clay 
foil well mixed with other mat 
ters, is very proper for them. 
They are faid to grow well in 
drained fwamps without manure, 
Hog dung well rotted, door 
dung and afhes, are fuitable ma 
nures for them. Each plant 
mould have at leaft four feet of 
ground : In other words, the 
plants mould be two feet afunder. 
In gardens and final 1 yards this 
is agooddiftance. But in fields,, 
where they are to be cultivated 
by the plough, a greater diftance 
is neceffary. The rows may be 
three feet apart, and the plants 
two feet in the rows ; or perhaps 
a foot and a half may anfwer,. un- 
lefs it be for the largeft fort. 

Some think cabbages will not 
anfwer more than one year on 
the fame fpot. But this is an er 
roneous opinion. I have raifed 
them for eighteen years in the 
fame part of my garden, being an 
unfavourable foil, dry and grav 
elly : And the crops are better 
than they were at firft, though 
the ground has been but little 
manured. Though cabbages feem 
to require much nourifhment, 
they do not impoverifh the foil. 
This is fo well known to Euro 
peans, that they call cabbages a 
fal low crop,meaninga crop which 
arifwers inftead of fallowing. 
They form fo clofe a covering 
for the furiace of the ground, as 
to caufe a putrefaction of the foil, 
which increafes its fertility. 

Some fet the feeds where the 
cabbages are to grow. By this 
they efcape being flinted by 
tranfplanting. For winter cab 
bages, the latter part of May is. 


40 CAB 

early enough to put the feed in 
to the ground, whether the plants 
are to be removed or not. I have 
tried both ways, and on the whole, 
1 prefer tranfplanting. They are 
otherwife apt to be too tall, and 
to have crooked ftems. Wet 
weather is favourable for tranf 
planting them ; and the holes 
ihould be filled with water before 
the plants are fet, unlefs the 
ground be naturally very moifL 
Then the roots fhould be infert- 
ed immediately into the water, 
held with one hand in the right 
pofition, and fine foil fcattered 
in with the other. This has a 
better effecl than pouring a much 
greater quantity of water on them 
afterwards. Suds would be bet 
ter than clear water for wetting 
the plants. Covering of plants 
with leaves is not -a good prac 
tice. They will be much heated 
through fome forts of leaves, the 
free circulation of air about them 
will be prevented, and their per- 
fpiration partly obftrucled. If a 
hot fun caufe them to droop, a 
fhingle ftuck into the ground 
will be a fufficient fhelter, if it 
be on the fouth fide of the plants. 
I commonly allow each plant 
two fhingles, one on the foutheafl 
fide, and one on the fouthweft, 
meeting at the fouth corner. 

The principal things which 
prevent the growth of cabbages, 
are, the fumble foot, fo call 
ed, grubs, maggots and lice. 
Manuring with afhes and lime 
tends to prevent the firft, as the 
roots become misfhapenby means 
of being wounded by infefts, to 
which the hot qualities of afhes 
and lime are antidotes. 

The grub, or black worm, 
travels in the night from plant 
to plant, eats off the ftalks juft a- 
bove the ground, and buries it> 
felf in the foil when the fun is 
up. To guard againft this worm, 


a little circle of lime, or rock- 
weed round the plant is of fervice. 

To deftroy lice on cabbages, 
they mould be waihed with ftrong 
brine, or fea water, or fmokes 
mould be made among them with 
ftraw, fulphur, tobacco, c. But 
the hard frofts in autumn do not 
fail to fubdue them. A moderate 
frofl will very much thin them* 

If cabbages grow near to a barn 
yard, or other yard where cattle 
are lodged, the under leaves, 
when they begin to decay, may 
be taken off, and thrown to them. 
The plants will not be at -all in 
jured, and they are an excellent 
food for cattle, and will increafe 
the milk of cows. But the leaft 
decayed of them fhould go to the 
cows, left they give the milk an 
ill tafle. Much account is made 
of cabbages in England for feed 
ing cattle in the winter. But 
the difficulty of preferving them 
alters the cafe with regard to us. 
They can gather them there as 
they have occafion to ufe them,, 
through the winter, and in the 

Preferving cabbages through 
the winter for the table, is a mat 
ter of fome difficulty in this 
country. My method is, to pull 
them up in windy, dry weather, 
and let them lie, a few hours, with 
the roots upwards, to drain ; or 
hang them up on trees or fences 
for this purpofe. The later they 
are taken up, the better, while 
the ground continues open. I 
let as much foil remain on the' 
roots as I can, and fet them up 
right together in a celkr, which- 
is fo cold as to admit of fome de 
gree of froft ; and I feldom fail 
of making them keep till April. 
In very warm cellars they will foon 
decay ; and in rotting the fmell 
becomes extremely difcigreeable, 
and undoubtedly very unwhole- 


C A L 

But that I may have a few yet 
later in the fpring, I make a 
trench in the drieft fandy ground, 
nine inches wide, and of equal 
depth ; in which I place a row 
of cabbages, with the roots up 
wards, contiguous to each other ; 
fill the cavities about them with 
fome dry ftraw ; and then fhovel 
the earth up to the ftalks on each 
fide, almoft as high as the roots, 
maping it like the roof of a houfe. 
The cabbages will come out in 
May as found as when they were 
put in, and the outer green leaves 
will be turned quite white. As 
they are not apt to keep \Vell af 
ter they are taken out, two or 
three at a time may be taken, as 
they are wanted for ufe, and the 
breach immediately clofed up 
with ftraw and earth as before. 

CALF, the young of a cow, 
whether male or female. The 
method of managing calves to ad 
vantage is of no final 1 importance 
fo a farmer ; for on the raifmg 
of young flock, his living and 
wealth in great meafure depend. 
XVhen calves are defigned tor 
veal, they mould be taken trom 
the cow the next day after they 
are calved. Let them fuck only 
two teats during the firfl week ; 
three during the fecond ; and 
let them have the whole of the 
hiilk during the third and fourth 
weeks ; and then kill them. If 
they have all the milk at firft, 
they will grow fo {aft that they 
will foon need more than all : 
The natural confequence is, that, 
they will grow lean, and not be 
fit for veal. Many kill them at 
three weeks old ; but the veal is 
not commonly fo good, and the 
fkins of calves fo young, are of 
but little value. 

When calves are to be reared, 
fome let them go with their dams 
till fall. Though this makes the 
beft cattle, it is not beit for the 

e A L 4t 

owner : It is too expend ve. They 
may go with the cows the firft 
three or four days. They mould 
have milk, more or lefs, for about 
twelve weeks. They may be 
fed \vith fkimmed milk, or water 
porridge, after the firft fortnight ; 
dr hay tea may be mixed with 
their milk; or their milk maybe 
mixed with meal and water. Af 
ter a alf has fucked, or drunk 
milk, for the fpace of a month, 
take fome of the f re (heft and 
fweetefl hay, and put little wifps 
of it into fome cleft flicks, ftuck 
tip in fuch a mariner that he can 
eafily come at them, and: he will 
foon learn to eat. 

As foon as the grafs is grown, 
calves mould be turned to grafs, 
hounng them a few nights at firft, 
and giving them milk and water, 
till they a>e able to feed them- 
felves fufficiently with grafs. 
Thofe calves are generally beft, 
which are weaned on grafs : For 
if they are weaned in the houfe, 
on hay and water, they are apt 
to grow big bellied. 

Mortimer fays, " The beft 
calves for bringing up, are thofe 
calved in April, May, and June : 
Becaufe it is feldorn that thole 
which come later acquire fuffi- 
cient vigour to fupport them 
during the inclemency of the fol 
lowing winter ; and the cold 
caufes them to droop, and many 
of them to die." Much oftener 
may this be expected to be the 
cafe in this country , where the cold 
in winter is fo much moreintenfe. 

Thofe which come earlier are 
preferred in this country, being 
more hardy, and better able to 
endure the rigour of the firfl win 
ter. But tlie coft of rearing them , 
is greater. All things Confidtfred, 
April may be as iu'i table a time 
as any. 

" When calves are weaned, 
they ftiould not be fufFered t<j be 


4*- C' A N' 

with their dams any more till 
fall : Neither fhould they be paf- 
tured within fight or hearing of 
them. It will caufe them to neg- 
left their feeding ; and they will 
not forget their fucking. 

" At the fetting in of cold 
nights in autumn, calves muflbe 
.nightly houfcd : And not be out 
early in the morning, nor late in 
the evening. And as the pinch 
ing cold of winter will 1 be ex 
tremely detrimental to them, 
they fhould be kept very warm 
in their houfe, well fupplied with 
water, and let out only in the 
warmeft days. A great deal of care 
is neceffary to bring them through 
the firfl: winter, which is the moft 
dangerous period of their lives. 
They will acquire fp 1 much 
ilrength during the following 
fummer, that they will have noth 
ing to tear from the cold of a 
fecond winter." Bvffon's, Hijloire* 

CANKER, " a difeafe inci 
dent to trees, proceeding chiefly 
from the nature of the fpiL It 
makes the bark rot and fall off. 
If the canker be in a bough, cut 
it off: A large bough fliould be 
cut off at fome diflance from the 
body of the tree, and a final! one 
clofe to it. But for over hot, 
ilrpng ground, the mould is to be 
cooled about the roots with pond | 
mud and cow durig." Did. of 

CANKER WORM, an infeft, 
fo called, I fuppofe, from its hav 
ing much the fame effe6l upon 
apple trees as canker. This 
worm is produced from the eggs 
of an earth coloured bug, which | 
having continued under ground | 
during winter, paries up on the j 
bodies of apple trees early in the 
fpring. They are hatched as 
early as the end of May, and are 
fo voracious, that in a few weeks 
tkey deftroy all the leaves of a 


tree, prevent its bearing for that 
year, and the next, and give it 
the appearance of its haying been 
burnt. As the perfpiration of 
trees is flopped by the lofs of 
their leaves, they ficken and die, 
in a few years. 

The worms let themfelves 
down by threads in quefl of prey, 
like fpiders ; by means of which, 
the wind blows them from tree 
to tree ; fo that in a clofe orch 
ard, not one tree will cfcape 
them. But trees which ftand 
ftngly are feldomer infefted with 
theie infects. As they are the moft 
pernicious kind of infects with 
which Newengland is now in- 
felted, if any perfon could invent 
fome eafy, cheap, and effecluaf 
method of fubduing them, he 
would merit the thanks of the' 
publick, and more efpecially of 
every owner of an orchard. 

Several methods have been 
tried, with fome degree of fuc- 
cefs : i. Tarring. A ftrip of 
canvas, or linen, is put round the 
body of a tree, before the ground 
is open in the fpring, and well 
fmeared with tar. The females, 
in attempting to pafs over it, 
flick fait and perifh. But unlefs 
the tarring be renewed every day, 
it will become hard, and permit. 
the infefts to pafs fafely over it. 
And renewing the tar in feafon 
is too apt to be negle6ied, through 
hurry of bufmefs and forgetful- 
iiefs. If birdlime were to be 
had, it might anfwer the purpofe 
better, as its tenacity will contin 
ue for fome time. 2. Some tie 
ftraw round the bodies of the 
trees. This ferves to entangle 
and retard the infects, and pre 
vents the afcent of many of them. 
But they ar~ fo amazingly pro- 
lifiek, that if ever fo few of them 
get up, a tree is greatly damag 
ed, at leaft for an enfuing feafon 
or two, 



The pafturing of fwine in an 
orchard, where it can convenient 
ly be done, I fuppofe to be an 
excellent method. With their 
fnouts and their feet, they will 
deftroy many of the infefts, be 
fore they come out of the ground, 
or while they are coming out. 
And I have never known any 
orchard, conftantly ufed as a hog 
palture, wholly destroyed, or e- 
ven made wholly unfruitful by 
thefe worms. But this method 
cannot always be taken ; and if 
it could, I do not i'uppofe it would i 
be quite effectual. When the i 
trees are young, the fwine will be 
apt to injure them by tearing the 

There are feveral experiments 
I could wilh to have tried, for 
fubduing thefe infe6ts : Such as 
burning brimftone under the 
trees in a calm time ; or piling 
dry ames, or dry loofe fand, 
round the roots of trees in the 
fpring ; or throwing ..pow 
dered quicklime, or foot, over 
the trees when they are wet ; 
or fprinkling them, about the be 
ginning of June, with fea water, 
or water in which wormwood,, 
er walnut leaves, have been boil 
ed ; or with an infufion of el 
der, from which I ihould enter 
tain fome hope of fuccefs. The 
liquid may be eafily applied to 
all the parts of a tree by a large 
v/ooden fyringc, or fquirt. 

I mould fuppofe that the bed 
time for making trial of thefe 
methods would be foon after the 
worms are hatched : For. at that 
ftage of their exiltence they are 
tender, and the more eafily kill 
ed. Sometimes a fro ft happen 
ing at this feafon has deiiroyqd 
them. This I am told was the 
cafe in fome places in the year 


But as tarring the trees is the 
U>eft .antidote that we yet know 

CAN 43 

of, and as many pcrfons of expe 
rience believe it is poflible that 
the infects may be thus quite pre 
vented palling up the trees, I ihall 
here give directions how to per- 
format in the moil effectual man 

In the firft place, it is necefla- 
ry to begin the operation very 
early in the year. Not obferv- 
ing this caution, has occafioned 
the want of fuccefs, which many 
have complained of : For it is 
certain that the bugs will begin 
to pafs up a-s foon as the ground 
is fo much thawed, that they can 
extricate themfelves from the 
foil ; which is, in fome- years, as 
early as February. Therefore, ^o 
make fure work, it is belt to be 
gin as foon as the ground is bare 
of fnow in that month, that the 
firft thawing of the ground may 
not happen before the trees are 
prepared ; for, beginning after 
ever fo few of the infects are 
gone up, the labour will all be 

Another thing to be obferved 
is, to fill the crevices oi the bark 
with clay morter, before the ftrip 
of. linen or canvas is put on, that 
the infefls may .not find any paf- 
fkges for them under it. 

Having put on the ftrip, which 
mould be at leaft three inches 
wide, drawn it clofe, and ftrong- 
ly fattened the-cnds together, a 
thumb rope oi tow ihould be tied 
round the tree, clofe to the low 
er edge of the ftrip. The defiga 
of doing this is, that the tar may 
not drip, nor run down on the 
bark of .the tree, which would 
injure it. 

When all the trees of an orch 
ard are thus prepared, let the 
itrips be plentifully fmeared with 
cold tar, put on with a brufh. 
Perhaps tar mixed with a fmall 
proportion of fi.fh oil would be 
nil] better. It would not hard 



en fo foon as tar alone. And 
oil is known to repel moft kinds 
of infefts. The fmearing fhould 
be renewed once a day without 
fail. The heft time is foon after 
funfet ; becaufe the infefts are 
wont to pafs up in the evening, 
and the tar will not harden io 
much in the night as in the day, 
becaufe of the dampnefs of the 
air. The daily tafk muft be re 
newed, and performed with the 
greateft care, till the latter end 
of May, or till the time when 
the hatching of the worms is 
commonly over, which will be 
earlier or later, according to the 
difference of climate. 

.Another mode of tarring, and 
xvhich bids fair to be preferred 
to the foregoing, is as follows. 
Take two pretty wide pieces of 
board, plain them, make feruicir- 
cular notches in each, fitting 
them to the item, or body of the 
tree, and fallen them fecurely 
together at the ends, fo that the 
moft violent winds and irorms 
may not difplace nor itir them. 
The crevices betwixt the boards 
and the tree may be eaiily flop 
ped with rags, or tow. Then 
fmear the under fides ot the 
boards with tar. The tar, being 
defended from the direct rays of 
the fun, will hold its tenacity the 
longer; and, therefore, will not 
need to be fo frequently renew 
ed. And the trees may be more 
fecured in this way from the 
dripping of the tar, as a margin 
of two or three inches, next to 
the tree, may be left unfmeared. 

If the trees are final 1, the ilerns 
may be encircled with cartridge 
paper, in the fhape of an invert 
ed funnel. The outfide of the 
paper mould be well , fmeared 
with fifh oil. The infects will 
proceed to the brim of the paper, 
but will not be able to pafs it ; 
as the oil will hang on that part. 


Another expedient, much re<?- : 
ommended, is, to put a ftrip of 
raw fheep or lamb fkin round the 
body of each tree, the wool out 
wards. It is afferted, that, though 
the infecls can pafs over hair and 
ilraw, they cannot pafs over the 
wool. But, to render this the 
more effeclual, it will be proper 
to open the fibres of the wool 
now and then, with a coarfecomb. 

When it fo happens that the 
worms are permitted to prevail 
in an orchard for two or three, 
years, the limbs will be fo corrupt 
ed, that the trees are not apt to 
recover f;heir fruitkilnefs, al 
though the afcent of the worms 
ihould be afterwards prevented. 
In fuch a cafe, it is advifable to 
cut offall the limbs from the trees, 
near to the ftock where they are 
produced, that fo the tops may 
be wholly renewed by freih 
fhpots, as they will be in a few 

It is not lefs than about fifty 
years, fmce this infecl began its 
depredations in Newengland, in 
the parts which had been longeft 
cultivated. But perhaps there is 
fome reafon to hope that Provi 
dence is about to extirpate them : 
For a kind of little birds has late 
ly made its appearance in fome 
parts of the country, which feeds 
upon the canker worms. Should 
thefe birds have a rapid increafe, 
the infects will be thinned, fo as 
to be lefs formidable, if not 
wholly rteflroyed. 

CARRIAGE, a general name 
of caits, waggons, fleds, and oth 
er vehicles, employed in carry 
ing loads. Thofe which are de^ 
ligned for riding, are called 
pleafure carriages. 

CARROT, Daucus, a well 
known and ufeful root for food. 
The feeds are carminative and 
diuretick, and the root is ufeful 
t$ abate the malignity of cancers. 
A fandy 


A fandy foil is very proper for 
carrots ; but they do very well 
in gravelly, and even in loamy 
foils, when made rich and lopf- 
ened to a fufficient depth. The 
large It 1 have ever railed has 
been in gravel. The ground 
fhould be ploughed, or dug, more 
than twelve inches deep, and 
well pulverized. 

I have found by long experi 
ence that carrots fhould be low 
ed early. The laft week in A- 
pril is late enough, when intend 
ed for feeding of cattle ; and 
they may be fowed earlier, if the 
ground be in good order, and fo 
dry as to be made light arid loofe. 
The earl ie ft fown will be the 
largeft, and, in the northern parts 
of this country, nearly as tender 
and good ta&ed as if fown later. 

A fmall quantity of drefling 
will be fufficient for them. But 
whatever manure is ufed, it mould 
be well rotted, and made fine, 
or putrefy very foon in the 
ground ; otherwife the little ob- 
ftacles in it, will caufe the roots 
to divide, and become forked. 
I have known carrots, manured 
with old hog dung, grow to a 
furprifmg bigriefs. But if a large 
quantity of this ftrong manure 
be ufed, they will grow fo faft 
as to burft open. It is a crop 
that bears drought well, as it 
draws its principal nouriihrnent 
from a confiderable depth. Nor 
is the ground apt to be exhauite.d 
by continued crops. 

Carrots may be fown pretty 
thick, as they are remarkable for 
growing better in a crowded fit- 
uation than almoft any other 
kind of roots. And it is eafy to 
thin them at any time when it is 
thought proper, as they are fo 
fhaped as to corne up eafily, in a 
light foil. 

In the garden I fow them in 
drills, or little furrows, made an 

CAR 4- 

inch deep with the head of a rake, 
from 9 to 12 inches apart, acrof* 
beds four feet wide. This pre 
vents treading the ground 
too near to the roots ; greatly 
facilitates clearing them of weeds 
with a hoe, and keeping the earth 
loofe to a fufficient depth. I do 
not thin them much, till I b< 
to pull them for ufe, about, the 
beginning of July ; from \. 
time I pull them, not only for 
the table, but to feed fwine, as 
that fort of animals are fo fond 
of them, that they will greedily 
devour both roots and tops. 
The fpaces between the beds may 
be kept clear of weeds, by turn 
ing over the foil with a narrow 
fpade, once or twice in May and 
June. It will not only fu 
the weeds, but increafe the paf- 
ture of the neareft plants. 

But the field culture of this 
root begins to prevail in die coun 
try : As carrots are found to be 
valuable, for feeding not only 
fwine, but horfes and cattle, and 
for fattening* them. But to fat 
ten fwine on them, they fhould 
be boiled, or parboiled. They 
are fo eafily cultivated, and fo 
hardy, that they may be raifed in 
fields to great advantage. They 
will grow well in a foil that is 
but moderately rich, if it be 
ploughed deep, and made mel 
low. And there is no difficulty 
in keeping them through the 
winter, in good order for feeding 
cattle. The ground fhould be 
ploughed in the fall preceding, 
and ploughed very deep. If the 
plough do riot go deep enough 
at once, it mould be trench plough 
ed ; that is, the plough fhould 
pafs twice in the furrow. And 
if fome of the earth, which was 
never before ftirred, mould be 
thrown up to the furface, it will 
be no damage, provided it be 
fuch earth as crumbles eafily, 


46 CAR 

and does not remain in lumps, 
after the winter frofts have acted 
-upon it. 

If the land incline to much 
wetnefs, it fhould be water fur 
rowed, after the autumnal plough 
ing, that fo it may be dry, and fit 
to be ploughed again very early 
in the fpring. It muft be well 
harrowed before fowing, firft 
-with a heavy harrow, and after 
wards with a lighter one, with 
ihorter teeth placed near togeth 
er. After the feed is fown, the 
ground fhould be raked. When 
fown in the broad caft method, 
they fhould ftand fo far apart af 
ter thinning, as to have each half 
a foot of foil. There will be no 
danger in thinning them early, 
as they are a plant which is fel- 
dom diminiihed by infech. 

After the firft hoeing, -the Eu- 
jopean farmers harrow them. It 
is faid not one in fifty will be 
rleftroyed by the operation. It 
will loofen the foil, and greatly 
forward their growth. But it 
will be advifable to go among 
them after harrowing, and un 
cover thofe which are buried un 
der heaps of mould. A Mfv Bil- 
jiing, in England, one -y ear, low 
ed thirty acres of carrots, and 
had an extraordinary crop. Some 
of the beft of the land yielded 
him twenty four cart loads per 
acre. If his cart contained 40 
bufhels, which is a common fixe 
in this country, he had 960 bufh- 
eis from an acre. And this is 
not a greater crop, -than a gentle 
man at Newbury had laft year, 
unlefs I am mi fin formed. And 
lately at or near Philadelphia a 
diouland bufhels have been raif- 
ed on an acre. 

Mr. Billing had 510 loads of 
rarrots on 30 acres, which he 
thinks equal in ufe and effect to 
near 1000 loads of turnips, or 
.three .hundred loads of hay. If 

C A R 

fo, he had as good a crop as tea 
loads of hay per acre would have 
been. But the half of this quan 
tity is feldom if ev r er obtained in 
| hay ; or if it were, it rnuft be ve 
ry coarfe, and not near fo valua 
ble as hay in general. 

This farmer found, that his 
carrots anfwered extremely well, 
not only for fattening fwine, but 
bullocks ; and for feeding milch 
cows, fheep and horfes ; and that 
the land was -left in a better con 
dition for a fucceeding crop, 
than land after a crop of turnips. 

It is Y/ith pleafure that I find 
the attention of feme of my 
countrymen turned to the field 
culture of this excellent root. 
They who have but little land 
may probably enable themfelves 
to keep considerable Hocks by 

This root -has greatly the ad 
vantage of turnips, not only in 
its being a richer and more nour- 
iihing food, and .in yielding a 
larger produce, but alfo in its 
being never, or very feldom, an 
noyed or hurt by infefts. This 
crop, rightly managed, I have 
never known to fail, as it is well 
known the other often does. 

The drill method, fowing on 
narrow ridges, raifed-by the cul 
tivator, is preferred. by feme, and 
is that which I ufe. But the la 
bour will perhaps be increafed a 
little. The feeds will do beft 
fown by hand, as their fhape will 
not well admit of their being 
drilled. To prepare them for 
fowing at all, they fhould be well 
rubbed, arid paffed through a fieve. 
The .firft hoeing oi carrots in 
rows muft be alfo by hand ; at 
which .hoeing they mould be 
thinned to one or .two inches 
afunder, if large ones are defired. 
The after hoeings may be expe- 
ditioufly done by the horfe hoe 
and cultivator alternately. It is 

C A R 

uot amifs, if they grow large 
and rank, when they are chief 
ly defigned as food for cattle, 
though fmall fized ones are pre 
ferred for the table. For this ufe 
they need not be thinned to more 
than half an inch aiunder in the 
rows : And perhaps not fo much 
in good ground. The way to 
keep carrots good for eating 
through the winter, is to bury 
them in a dry fand of the yel 
low kind from pits. Or, if they 
are put into calks, covering them 
with freih turfs may be fumcient. 

I will conclude this article 
with an extracY from a writer in 
the Scots Farmer. " Let the 
fpirited farmer," lays he, " ap 
ply much of his land to the cul 
ture of carrots ; for he. will find 
no article half fo profitable in his 
whole farm, as this, well conduct 
ed. Few men will bellow atten 
tion or expenfe enough to culti 
vate this plant on a large fcale, 
notwithftanding the undoubted 
profit attending it. A fpirited 
farmer, that has money in his 
pocket, will introduce carrots in- 
ftead of turnips. He mould, 
when his foil is proper, totally 
fubflitute them in the room of 
turnips ; for it is no exaggera 
tion to fay, that one f'uht crop o 
carrots will pay better than ten 
of turnip's." Whether this' writer 
is not rather too {anguine I will- 
not undertake to fay. But from 
long experience I much prefer 
them to turnips on the whole. 

CART, a wheel carriage, of 
effential importance to the farm 
er, to carry his manures, remove 
{tuff fer fences, g-et in his crops, 
&c. Horfe carts are fometimes 
ufed ; but ox carts generally. Of 
the latter fome are fhort, ibme 
long. The Ihort cart is eight 
feet long, four feet wide, and 
two feet high. The long cart is 
ufed for carting, hay, ftraw, and 

CAT 47 

other bulky matters ; therefore 
it is made from ten to twelve feet, 
or more, in length, four feet iir 
breadth ; and in Head of fides it 
has only long, fharp pointed 
ftakes. In fome parts of the 
country they lengthen out a ihort 
j cart, with What are called ladders, 
when they cart hay. But this is? 
not a good practice. The load 
lies higher than in a long cart r 
and is more liable to be overfet. 
The greatell excellencies of at 
cart, are lightnefs, fhength, and 
durablenefs. Therefore, it is ve 
ry proper to conftrut c^rts of 
aih timber. But as white oak i& 
not fo apt to decay, the princi 
pal parts are commonly made of 
that. A cart fhould be kept -un 
der fhelter when it is net in ufe. 
It will laft the longer. 

The axle, and wheels, mould 
be of the tougheft of oak. 
Wheels to be ufed on a farm on- 
| ly, need not be mod with iron, 
A wooden rim, well; made, wilt 
lait federal years, and is eafily 
renewed, and it will do kis in 
jury to the grafs grounds in paff- 
| ing over them,. The {"otter the 
| foil ig, the- wid'er the rim of a 
| wheel fiiould be. Some have 
; the rims a foot wide, to cart up 
on -'marines .. 

that feeds on leaves and fruits. 
Thefe infects differ in colour and 
fize according to their ntuation,. 
and according to the different 
matters en which they feed.. 
The principal inconvenience the 
farmer meets with from cater 
pillars, is the damage they do to 
his orchard. A hairy kind of 
caterpillars build their neffs on 
apple trees in May, and are gone 
entirely in June, about the lum 
pier folfiice. But they feed it* 
induftrioufly on the leaves, as to- 
deltroy a great part or them, it 
they be not timely prevented; 

4$ C A t 

As they are far lefs mifchievous 
than the canker worm, fo they are 
more eafily fubdued. Some de- 
ftroy them by firing gunpowder 
at their nefts. The fame may be 
effected with a match of brim- 
flone on the end of a pole. Some 
fay thefe and all other in feels on 
trees may be ealily deilroyed 
with quickfilver. Se the Arti 
cle Qjuckfilver . 

I have an orchard, which has 
been always much annoyed by 
caterpillars. But in the fpring 
of the prefent year, I hung rock 
weed in the crotches of the trees, 
and not one neft that I can find 
has fince been formed upon them. 
1 have made only this one ex 
periment with rock weed ; but I 
am apt to believe it will always 
be attended with fticcefs. They 
whofe fituation is remote from 
the fea, muft have other methods 
of dcftroying thefe infefts, or of 
preventing their multiplication. 
Woollen rags fteeped in old urine 
may be equally efficacious. 

Since I wrote the above, I 
have once more fuccefsfully de 
fended the trees in my orchard 
from the ravages of the caterpil 
lar, by the application of rock 
weed. The rock weed fhould 
be applied pretty early in the 
fpring ; the beginning of April 
is a proper feaibn. The drip 
ping from this fait plant is un 
doubtedly ferviceable alfo to the 
roots of the trees ; and prevents 
the afcent oi" the black iice and 
ieveral other fpecies o-t infecls. 

.Neils which have been neglecl- 
ed till the infecls have foriaken 
them fhould be deftroyed ; be- 
caule they contain the feeds of 
{warms in the coming year. A 
neil will be found to contain 
feveral of their chryfales. 

CATTLE, a name applied to 
all quadrupeds, which are ufed 
ior tilling of ground, and for the 


, food of man. The name com- 

1 prehends,atleaft,alltheboskind s 

! befides fheep and goats. Euro- 

! peans fometimes diftinguifh cat- 

| tie into large and fmall ; and 

I black cattle is a name they very 

frequently give to the ox kind. 

I fhall fpeak here only of black 

cattle, including bulls, oxen, 

{leers, cows, and heifers. 

As foon as a calf is weaned, it 
fhould run in the beft of pafture 
till autumn, and be carefully 
tended, kept warm, and live up 
on the beft of fodder, through 
the firft winter. Afterwards it 
will become fo hardy as to re 
quire lefs care. But cattle mould 
be frequently looked to and ex^ 
amined ; that fo, if they be over 
taken with any ficknefs, hurt, or 
larnenefs, fuitable remedies may 
be feafonably applied. And in 
order to do this, they mould be 
accuflomed to come home, and be 
fhut up in the yard every night. 
By this method, a farmer will 
fave a much larger quantity of 
dung. And, in cafe of an un 
commonly cold ftqrm, the cattle 
may be houfed with very little 
trouble, as the yard is contigu 
ous to their houfe. 

Cattle, from one year old to 
three, will ufually get a living in 
fummer, and even thrive, upon 
the commons, or in the meaneft, 
and rnoft buihy paftures. And 
in winter the pooreil fodder will 
keep them alive. And, as our 
farmers know thefe things, they 
are very apt to treat their young 
cattle in this manner. Thofe 
which are fo treated, may often 
times become as hardy cattle as 
any ; but they will be fmall, and 
therefore not fo profitable. Farm 
ers in general are too ambitious 
to keep a large ilock of cattle : 
A necefiary corifequence of which 
is, that they are pinched in their 
food, and never come to their 



kill growth. Another ill cgnfe- 
quence is, their growing unruly 
and mifchievous through hunger, 
learning to leap over fences, or 
break through them. 

It would certainly be more 
conducive to the intcrefl of farm 
ers, to keep fmaller (locks of cat- 
tie than mofl ot them do : For 
then they would be able to feed 
diem to the full. Their oxen 
would be much larger and Wrong 
er than they are, and their cows 
would give plenty o( milk, and 
bring larger calves : Not to fay 
how much they would lave in 
taxes, by. reducing their number 
of rateable cattle. 

Farmers mould allow their 
young flock a pretty good paf- 
tiire. This would keep them out 
of mifchiet, prevent their learn 
ing bad tricks, and prevent ma 
ny ill accidents which befal them. 
And it would be no fmall advan 
tage always to know where to 
find them. But, in the common 
method of treating them, it is too 
common a cafe ior them to flrag- 
gle fo far from home, that the 
owner entirely lofes them ; or 
ell*, fpends as much time as they 
are worth in feeking after them. 

If a young flock were well fed 
at all feafons, the heifers would 
Commonly have calves at two 
years ok!, which is no (mall ad 
vantage, and fleers would be fit 
for labour earlier in proportion. 
And when they come to. be 
killed off, the quantity of beef 
would make amends for their be 
ing fo led as to be well grown. 
It the farmer's view in increaiihg 
his flock, be to make as much 
<iu;ig as poihble, he fhould be 
reminded ot what he ought to 
know already, that the dung of 
a final 1 flock will be equal to 
that of a large one, it it confume 
ihe fame quantity of fodder. It 
? tanner make this obje&ion to 


C A 1' 4^ 

pafturing his young flock, that 
his farm is not large enough to 
admit of it ; he may find an an- 
fwer, by turning to the article, 
Mowing Grounds, where diniin- 
ifhing their number of acres, and 
increafmg that of paflure ground, 
is recommended, and i'ufficient 
reafons afligned. 

In the winter, cattle fhould be 
houfed, to defend them from the 
inclemencies of the weather. 
For though nature furniflies them 
with a thicker covering of hair 
in winter than in fummer, the 
difference is not near fo great as 
that of the weather in this climate- 
Working oxen, and milch cows,, 
will fuffer more than the reft by 
lying abroad. li the farmer can 
not conveniently houfe all his 
cattlej thofe fhould be left' out 
which are between the age of one 
and three years. And thofe that: 
lie out fhould have a filed, open 
only to the fbuth and well; to 
f belter themf elves under in 
ilormy weather. 

The injuries which cattle re 
ceive from one another, when, 
they are lodged together in a 
yard, is an additional reafon tot 
tying them up in the barn. To 
which it may be added, that a 
great part ot the fodder given 
them is wafted, even when it is 
given them in racks ; muck 
more, when it is thrdwri upon 
the ground. They trample it 
into the dung with their feet, 
which is iio inconfiderable lofs. 

Cattle will bear to be cold 
much better than to be wet. If 
they be Ictt out in cold florins of 
rain, it pinches them exceeding 
ly ; fo that they will not look fo 
well again for ievcral days after 
it. The fides ot the houfe where 
they are lodged, need not be ve 
ry tight. It might be apt to 
make them too tender. It will 
certain Iv abate tkc iVefhnef's ot 

5 Q CAT 

the air they breathe in, and hurt 
the agreeable flavour of their fod 
der. But the covering of their 
houfe fhould be perfectly tight. 
No window mould be open, 
tb. rough which fnow or rain may 
drive in upon them. The floor 
they lie on fliould have a gentle 
defcent backward, that they may 
be wetted as little as poffible by 
their ftale ; and they fhould al 
ways have ftraw or litter under 
them, not only to foften their 
lodging, but to lay them the 
more warm and dry, and abforb 
the wetnefs. The better they 
are littered, the more manure 
will the owner make for his farm. 
This is an object of high im 

It would be a good method for 
cattle that are tied up, to fodder 
them in racks. They would not 
be fo apt to rob one another ; 
nor to get their fodder under 
their feet ; nor to render it un 
palatable by their breathing up 
on it. 

Where fait hay can be had, 
cattle mould now and then be 
treated with a little of it. It will 
fo incrcafe their appetite, that 
they will eat poor meadow hay, 
and ftraw with it, or after it. 
But farmers, who are far from the j 
fea, and not furnifhed with fait | 
hay, fhould now and then fprinkle 
fome of th^ir meaneft fodder 
with faltdiffolved in water, which 
will anfwer the fame valuable 
purpofe. And at no feafon of 
the year mould cattle be kept, 
for any long time, without fait. 
They are greedy after it, and it 
conduces to keep them in health. 

As to fumrner feeding, it is not 
fit that a whole ftock go promif- 
cuoufly in the fame pafture. 
Some would be overmuch fed, 
and fome not enough. A farm 
er's pafture grounds mould be 
made into a number of feparate 

C H A 

inclofures ; the greater the num 
ber the better. Milch kine and cat 
tle fattening for (laughter Ihould 
have the firft of the feed in each 
inclofure ; then working oxen ; 
afterwards, young ilock, horfes 
and fheep. When each kind 
have had their turn, for two or 
three days, or perhaps a week, 
the apartment may be {hut up, 
till it be fufficiently grown for the 
milch cows. By fuch a rotation 
much may be faved ; but little 
of the grafs will be wafted by 
trampling ; and what one fort 
leaves another will eat fo that 
none of the grafs will be loft. 

Oxen mould not live to be 
more than eight years old, nor 
cows more than ten or eleven. 
When they are kept longer, they 
do not fatten fo eafily ; and the 
beef is not fo good. Cattle to 
be fattened mould have the beft 
of pafture during the whole grafs 
feafon, or they will not be fat fo 
early as December ; and they 
mould lofe a little blood, when 
they are firft turned to grafs. In 
autumn, when grafs grows fhort, 
or is corrupted by frofts, their 
fattening mould be promoted by 
feeding them morning and even 
ing with the ftalks of Indian corn, 
pumpions, potatoes, or carrots ; 
and efpecially with ears of corn, 
if the owner can afford it. In 
dian meal is fuppofed to be ftill 
better to complete their fattening. 
Oil cakes from the linfeed mills 
are much recommended in En- 
glim books, as conducing to the 
fpeedy fattening of cattle. 

method of cultivating different 
forts of vegetables in fucceflion, 
on the fame piece of ground, 
with a view to make tillage lands 
more profitable in the long run ; 
and, at the fame time, to pre 
vent exhaufting them of their 


C H A 

Thofe who believe that the 
food of different plants is differ 
ent, cannot but look on the 
changing of crops as a matter 
of effential importance. For, on 
their hypothefis, land which is 
worn out with one fort of vege 
tables, may be in good order to 
produce a large crop of another 
fort. But there are other reafons 
for the changing of crops, which 
are more fubftantial, being found 
ed in undoubted faft, and prov 
ed by experience. 

Some plants are known to im-' 
poverifh land much fafter than 
others : Such as Indian corn, 
flax, hemp, &c. And it would 
not be a prudent method to 
fcourge a piece of land with fuch 
crops, year after year, till its 
ftrength were all exhaufled. For 
it has been juftly obferved, that 
it is eafier and cheaper to keep 
land in heart, than to reftore it 
after it is worn out. It is advif- 
able, therefore, in general, to take 
but one crop of flax from a piece 
of land ; and not more than two 
of Indian corn, in fucceflion ; 
nor indeed more than one, un 
lefs abundance of manure be ap 

Again, fome plants take the 
principal part of their nourifh- 
ment near the furface of the foil, 
and others draw it from a great 
er depth : And a regard mud be 
had to this in choofing a rotation 
of crops. For it will be found 
that after land lias been much 
worn by plants, the roots of | 
which chiefly confift of either | 
long or fhort lateral fibres, it will 
be in good order to produce i 
plants which are tap rooted. I 
Clover, for inftance, will grow 
rank and good, on a fpot which 
will not anfwer for wheat, barley, 
or oats. The clover will draw 
its principal nourimment from 
thofe parts of the foil., to which the 

C H A 5t 

roots of preceding crops have 
not reached. And if grounds 
have been dunged for feveral 
years, the nutritive particles of 
the dung may have penetrated 
deeper into the foil than any 
roots have reached. In a loofe 
fandy foil, ufed for grain, this 
will often be the cafe : So that 
part of the manure laid on it will 
be entirely loft, unlefs a crop of 
tap rooted plants mould over 
take it in its defcent. 

Preventing the prevalence of" 
weeds is another good reafon for 
the changing of crops* Weeds 
will fo increafe, efpecially in old 
farms, as almoft to fpoil a crop, 
unlefs a hoed crop intervene to 
check them once in two or three 
years. And. a green hoed crop 
helps to prepare land for produc 
ing other crops, by enriching it. 
The weeds, which are feveral 
times cut to pieces, and hoed in 
to the foil, during a fumnier, an 
fwer much the fame end as green 
dreffings : And by keeping the 
foil loofe, the enriching particles 
floating in the atmofphere, are 
plentifully imbibed. See Rota 
tion of Crops. 

Alio, a change of crops, judi- 
ciouily managed, fuperfedes the 
neceflity of fa I lowing, which is 
no finall advantage. Inftead of 
an expenfive refting of the foil, 
during a year of fallow, land 
may yield an unintermitting 
profit to the owner. Wheat 
land, for inftance, may be re 
cruited, and cleared cf its weeds, 
by a crop of beans, or potatoes, 
as effectually as by fallowing. 
If fuch a crop fhould only pay 
the coil of culture, it may be 
confidered as gain. 

What particular routine of crops 
is beft, is not eafy to determine. 
Green and white crops, alter 
nately, are in general recommend 
ed. I fuppofe one courfe may 


52 C H A 

be beft in one county, and an 
other in another. In the coun 
ty of Briftol, Maffachufetts, it is 
called good hufbandry, to plant 
Indian corn the firfl year after 
ground is broken up'; to fow 
rye, wheat, oats, or barley, the 
fecond year ; arid lay it down 
with clover. After two or three 
crops of clover are taken off, the 
land is broken up again, and 
managed as before. 

But in the counties of Cum 
berland and Lincoln, in the fame 
nonwealth,this courfc would 
not an Twer fo well. Indian corn 
is not found to be the mof t benefi 
cial crop for the firft year, in this 
climate. It will be backward, 
in danger of not ripening 
well, unlefs it be on a fandy fpot, 
\vith a fouthern expofure. " And 
when lafid is broken up, it will 
not be fubdued enough to lay 
do^fi for grafs fo foon as the 
third year, on account of the 
toughnefs of the fvvard. But 
when laid down, it may lie fix 
or fe^en years, before it will ne^ed 
breaking up again ; for the lands 
are fo natural to grafs, that the 
crops will continue to be good. 

An eligible courfe of crops in 
theie northern counties may be, 
peafe, oats, 'or potatoes, the firft 
year ; Indian corn, much dung 
ed, the fecond ; barley or rye, 
the third ; and the fourth, herdf- 
grafs and clover mixed, and fo 
on to the tenth. As the clover 
diminiihes, the herdigrafs will 
increafe, which is a more valua 
ble grafs for fodder. But every 
judicious farmer muft judge for 
himielf in tliefe matters. vSoils 
differ fo greatly, 'even in fields 
which lie contiguous, that the 
eourfe of crops which is f nit- 
able for one, would be nnfuit- 
able for another. Change of 
crops is no new doctrine x?no:*g 

C H A 

" Repeated obfervations con 
vinced the Romans, that befides 
the alternate refting of the land, 
wheat may, as Pliny obferves, be 
fown after lupines, vetches, beans, 
or any other plant which has the 
quality of fertilizing and enrich- 
ing the foil. A judicious change 
ot crops is of great importance 
in the common tillage hufband- 
ry, as it enables the farmers to 
fave the expenfe and lofs of a crop, 
in the fallow year ; and to con- 
querhisgreat enemies, the weeds, 
by attacking them at different 
feafons of the year, and in dif 
ferent periods of their growth ; 
efpecially when the intermedi 
ate crops are hoed, as thofe of 
peafe and bean's ; for the repeat 
ed hoeings, not only deflroy the 
weeds, but alfo very much en 
rich the land. The benefit of 
changing crops appears to ariie 
from thcfc circum fiances, rather 
than from any different food that 
the feveral crops are liippofed 
to extract from the foil." Com- 
pletc Farmer. 

CHANGE of SEEDS, taking 
feeds to fow, from different coun 
tries, climates, fields, or foils. 
1 his is a matter ot great import 
ance in agriculture, which has 
been too little attended to by 
farmers in this country. AH 
feeds, which are not natural to 
the foil and climate, will degen 
erate, grow gradually worfe and 
worfe. till they are naturalized ; 
and then remain at a ftand, as 
Mr. Dixfon has jultly obferved. 
But thofc plants, which are the 
natural growth of the country, 
are not liable to grow worfe. "it 
fo, all forts of plants ere now 
would have been reduced to 
nothing. The beft countries 
and foils to procure feeds from 
for fowing, are thofe to. which 
they are natural. For if we ta&e 
tfeem from any other place, they 


C H A 

will be fuch as have already be 
gun to degenerate ; fo that we 
fhall not have them in perfection. 

We cannot avoid fowing fiiore 
or lefs of the feeds of weeds with 
all kinds of grain, unlefs we fpend 
too much time in cleaning them. 
Therefore, when we fow grain 
railed on the fpot, we lhall una 
voidably fow the feeds of weeds 
which are natural to the fpot, 
and they will mightily increafe. 
But when we fow grain, which is 
not raifed in the Tame country, 
or in the fame kind of foil, the 
feeds of weeds which are fown 
with it, will not be fo likely to 
thrive faft, and become trouble- 
fome. This may be allowed to 
be one advantage in changing 
feeds ; and a good reafon for 
changing them yearly. 

As animals, particularly fhecp, 
and fome other kinds, are known 
to be improved by removing 
them from one country to anoth 
er, fo feeds brought from diflant 
countries have often been found 
to produce plants more healthy, 
and of a larger fize, than feeds of 
our own growth. The Siberian 
wheat, which was fent into this 
country about the beginning of 
the late war, was a proof of the 
truth of this obfervation. For five 
or fix years, it produced fo much 
better crops than our own feed 
wheat,that every farmer was eager 
to obtain fome of it; and fome gave 
double price for it. It was at firfl 
perfe6fly free from fmut, and 
from blight, and commonly pro 
duced thirty fold, in land which 
was fuitable for it. And the true 
reafon of its degenerating here 
fo fopn as it did, I imagine might 
be, its having been fowed in Kn- 
gland fa climate not. natural to 
itj for fome years before it came 
to us : So that it had begun to 
degenerate before we receiv 
ed it. 

C H A 


Some feeds will anfwer well, 
when carried from a fouthern to 
a northern climate. Perhaps all 
thofe forts will, which are fa 
quick in their growth, that their 
plants come to maturity very ear 
ly ; fuch as flax, turnips, and 
many other forts. 
- By feveral experiments, I have 
convinced myfelf that the feed 
of flax, carried as much as a hun 
dred miles to the northward, will 
anfwer a very good purpofe. 
The crops have fometimes beea 
almoft double in value. I fup- 
pofe the people of Ireland have 
long been convinced of the util 
ity of this changing of flax feed ; 
which has made them fo fond of 
procuring it from America, and 
other places. American feed 
anfwers extremely well on their 
high, dry lands. 

As to turnips, the beft and 
largeft that I ever raifed, were 
from feeds brought from Phila 
delphia, But the feeds of plants, 
which fcarcely come to maturi 
ty before the onfet of autumnal 
frofts, mould never be removed 
from fouth to north. The laft 
year, I procured feeds of fquaih- 
es from the weitern iflands ; and 
they brought np fruit to matu 

Wheat ami rye mould be ripe r 
not only before the approach of 
froily nights, but even before the 
chilly nights which happen about 
the end of July. For the cold- 
nefs will be apt to retard the af- 
cent of the lap in thefe plants, 
and prevent the filling of the 
grain. "Winter rye from the 
county of Barnftable, was once 
fowed in the county ot Cumber- 
beriand, Maffachufetts. It ripen 
ed later, on account of the fmall 
difference of latitude, and was fo 
blighted as not to prc-.iuce half 
a crop. But bringing gram from 
the ROHUY,- ;>;.]., will ahvays be a 


54 C H A 

good change. It will ripen ear- 
iier, in proportion to thediftance, 
and efcape the chilly nights I 
have mentioned. But I ihould ' 
not be fond of bringing wheat 
or rye from a place very far dil- 
tant, unlefs I could have it 
yearly ; becaufe I imagine that 
the greater the change of climate 
is, which feeds undergo, the more 
rapidly they will degenerate. 

Seeds may -be removed, as I 
have found, from a northern fit- 
iiation too far to the fouthward. 
I have known feed of Indian corn 
carried as much as two whole 
degrees fouth from its native 
place, which was fo much fcorch- 
ed by the greater heat of the fun 
as to produce little or nothing. 
So that care muft be taken to 
make changes within reafonable 

If a farmer have not opportu 
nity to procure feeds from dif- 
tant places, let him at leait pro 
cure them from neighbouring 
iields, rather than from his own. 
For if confiderable changes are 
as highly advantageous, as they 
are generally allowed to be, it 
follows that fmall changes will 
be expe6led to have fome degree 
of advantage. 

Any one, whole farm has vari 
ous kinds of foil in the different 
parts of it, may eafily make 
changes of feed which will 'be 
ufeful. The Englifli farmers 
think k beft to take feed wheat 
from a ftrong clay land, whatev 
er kind of foil they are going to 
fow it upon. They choofe alfo 
to take from a field which has 
been changed the preceding year. 
And they will never take for 
feed, wheat that grew on a iandy 
foil. It is a proverb with them, 
that fa nd is a change for no land. 
The reafonablenefs of thefe opin 
ions I know not how to invefti- 
gate : but if they have founded 

C H A 

them upon a long courfe of ex 
periments, they are not to be 

CHARCOAL, wood charred, 
or burnt with a flow, fmothered 
fire. The making of charcoal is 
a bufmefs moftly performed by 
fanners. And in clearing new 
lands, making their wood into 
coals is better than burning it to 
wafte, unlefs the diftance of a 
market for coals be too great, 
One cord of wood will make for 
ty bulhels of coals ; And thole 
farmers who are not diftant from 
populous towns, or who are near 
iron works, may turn their coals 
to confiderable profit. 

I have long obferved, that 
where coal kilns have been burnt, 
the ground has di (covered a re 
markable fertility for many years 
after ; and more efpecially when 
it has been naturally a cold and 
wet foil. The duft of the coals 
and that of the burnt turf, have 
confpired to produce this effect. 
Hence I have concluded that 
fmall coals, or the duft from coal 
kilns, fpread over four meadow 
lands, would anfwer the end of a 
good manure. Being extremely 
porous, the pieces of coal imbibe 
much of the fuperfluous water, 
as well as increafe the heat on 
the furface, as all black fubitances 
do. And when the weather be 
comes dry, they difcharge the 
moifture, partly into the foil when 
it grows dry enough to attrat it, 
and partly into the air, by the 
action of the fun upon it. Au 
tumn is, on feveral accounts, the 
beft feafon for laying on coal 
duft ; and I would recommend 
it to all who have bottoms of 
kilns, to make this ufe of the duft. 

I have been confirmed in my 
opinion, by reading in the Com 
plete. Farmer as follows : " The 
duft of charcoal has been found, 
by repeated experience, to be of 



great benefit to land, efpecially 
to fuch as is ftiffand four. It is 
to be ufed in the fame manner as 
foot and wood afhes." 

CHARLOCK, Sinapi, a well 
known and troublefome weed. 
It is known alfo by the names 
chadlock, catlock, carlock, and 
white rape. It is fimilar to rad- 
ifh. The young plants fo near 
ly refemble turnips, that they are 
fcarcely diftinguifhable, unlefs it 
be by the tafte. Mortimer men 
tions a field of barley, mowed 
when the charlock was in bloffom, 
which took off only the tops ot 
the blades of barley ; and which 
gave the barley an opportunity 
to get above the weeds, and fo 
it produced a good crop. He 
fuppefes cow dung increafes it 
more than any other manure : 
And recommends feeding fal 
lows with fheep when they are 
infefted with this weed. It is 
well known that fheep will eat 
this weed rather than turnips. 
The feeds will live in the earth 
many years, and afterwards veg 
etate by means of tillage. 

Grain mould be fown thick, 
where there is danger of its be 
ing injured by charlock, fo that 
the crop may overtop the weeds. 
Barley fown thick will certainly 
profper in fuch a fituation. 

CHEESE, a fort of food made 
of milk, purged of the ferum, or 
whey, and dried for ufe. 

Some cheefes are wholly made 
of unfkimmed milk, which are 
called new rnilk cheefes, although 
part of the milk be kept over 
night, or longer. Thefe cheefes, 
as any one would expel, are the 
fatteft, and moft valuable. 

Another fort are called two 
meal cheefes,' being made of the 
morning's milk unfkimmed, to 
gether with the evening's milk 
fkimmed. Thefe, when well 
made, without the mixture of 

CHE 55 

any four milk, are not much in- 
fcriour in quality to new milk 

The third fort of cheefes are 
wholly made of milk deprived ot 
its cream. This kind is, tough, 
and hard to cligeft ; and contain 
ing only the glutinous part of 
the milk, it affords little nouriih- 
ment, and is fcarcely worth mak 
ing/ 1 

i he method of making cheefe, 
in Yorklhire in England, is as foK 
lows." If your milk be not juffc 
come from the cows, make it blood 
warm, turn it into a clean veflel 
for the purpofe, and put in the 
rennet ; be ihre to give it no 
more than what will make it 
come lightly. After it comes, 
ftir it with your hand, till it be 
gathered, and parted from the 
whey. Then take the curd up 
in a ftrainer, and work it with 
your hands, till you get as much 
of the whey from it as poflible ; 
Then lay it in a clean linen 
cloth, and put it into the hoop : 
After it is \lightly covered with 
the cloth, put it into the prefs : 
Let it {fand in the prefs two 
hours ; take it out, and the cloth 
from it, and rub it over withfine- 
falt : Put it in a dry cloth, and 
prefs it eight hours : Then put 
it in another cloth, arid let it re 
main in the preis till your next, 
cheefe be ready. When you 
take it out, rub it well with fait, 
and wrap the round ring of the 
cheefe with a garter made of lin 
en yarn, and pin it at the end, 
which keeps the cheefe in a good 
fhape : Then let it lie in brine 
twenty four hours. Add a Httle 
fait to your brine every time you 
put in a new cheefe. When 
you find the brine turning unfa- 
voury, make new brine ; and 
turn the cheefe in the brine vat 
twice in twenty four hours, al 
ways rubbing a lirtle fait, on the 


56 CHE 

top of it when it is turned. When 
you take it out of the brine, dry 
it with a cloth ;~ and turn it eve 
ry day on the melt' for two 
month*. The melt fhould be a 
little wider than the cheefes, and 
the garters fhould continue round 
them five or fix days." 

A dairy woman in my neigh 
bourhood, whofe cheefe is mofl 
excellent, is nearly in the York- 
fhire praftice. Biit left the fait 
fhould not penetrate the whole 
of the cheefe equally in every 
part, fhe fprinkles a little fine 
fait on the curd, when fhe breaks 
it, perhaps as much as an ounce 
to a cheefe of fifteen pounds 
weight ; and her cheefes never 
appear to be too much falted* 

This may be partly owing to 
another improvement in her 
method. To the brine, in which 
fhe lays a cheefe after it is prefT- 
ed, flie allows as much nitre as 
will lie on a milling. She has 
found, by long experience, that 
the nitre not only gives a reddifh 
caft to the rind of the cheefe, but 
makes it more tender alter it is 
thoroughly dried. It alfo pre 
vents the cracking of the rind^ 
which is a matter of much conle- 
querice. At the fame time it 
prevents the diflention of the 
cheefe by wind, makes it mellow 
and foft throughout, and improves 
the tafie. 

But it is in vain to attempt the 
making of good cheefe, unlefs 
the rennet be uncorrupted, and 
perfectly fwect. See the Article 

In this country, where the 
fummers arc hot, and flies a- 
bound, cheefes aje often delhoy- 
eJ, or greatly damaged, by mag 
gots. To prevent this, every 
precaution ought to be taken to 
prevent fly blows getting into a 
cheefe while it is making. For 
it is certam that eheel es \vrl 1 

C H U 


times prove maggotty, whiclr 
could not have been fly blown 
after they were made. To 
prevent this evil, the milking 
pails, the cheefe tub, &c. mould 
be kept in dark places till the 
moment they are ufcd, after be 
ing dried before a hot fire. And 
if the milk ftand any time, or 
more than during one night, the 
room it ftaiids in mould be dark : 
Becaufe flies are riot apt to lay 
their eggs in dark places. 

After cheefes are made, they 
will ibmetimes have little flaws 
irt them, or cracks in drying, 
which the. flies will be fond of 
depofiting their eggs in. To 
prevent this, the cheefes fhould 
be fmeared with a little tar mix 
ed with fait butter : Or the cracks 
may be filled with a foft pafte of 
flour as often as they appear. 

But all this precaution will be 
apt to prove infufficient, unlefs 
the cheefes be dried in a dark 
room. As flies do not frequent 
dark places, cheefes dried in a 
dark room may be full of cracks, 
and yet efcape maggots. 

Some perfons choofe to medi 
cate their cheefes with the juice 
of: fome wholefome plant, as fage, 
baum, mint, tanfy, pennyroyal, 
&c; which they put into the 
curd. But I think this is no re 
al improvement. To give cheefe 
the hue of that which is made 
in Gloceiicrfhire in England, a 
little of the annotto may be put 
into the milk. 

CHICK WEED, the fame as 
alfine, a tender creeping weed, 
olten troublcfome in old gardens, 
and which grows luxuriantly in 
ihady places. Swine will feed 
upon .it when they are hungry. 

CHUR.N, a wooden ve-fTel, in 
which butter is produced by 
churning. It is broad at the bot 
tom, and narrow at the top, to 
prevent the contents from com 

C H U 

ing out at the top during the ag 
itation. But the fhape does not 
perfe&ly anfwer this defign. 

Churns are commonly made of 
pine. But when they are new, 
they give the butter a tang of 
the wood ; fo that oak is gener 
ally preferred. The hoops are 
of afh, arid mould be made very 
fmooth and regular, that the vef- 
fel may be eafily cleaned and 
kept fweet. 

But on great farms, and where 
the dairies are large, the barrel 
churn is to be preferred. Its 
name gives the idea of its fhape ; 
and when it ecjuals a barrel iri 
fize it can be eafily managed. 
On each head of it is an iron 
fptndle, and on each fpindle a 
winch, by which the veflel is 
turned on a horfe made for the 
purpofe. A much greater quan 
tity of Cream, or milk, may be 
churned in this than in the com 
mon churn ; and the labour is 
eafier. There are two boards with 
in this churn on each fide ot the 
centre, like (helves, which ferve 
to agitate the cream. 

The aperture in the barrel 
churn ought to be five or fix 
inches fquare, to which a Hopper 
muft be exactly fitted, which 
muft be kept in its place by a 
bar of iron acrof s it, held fail by 

CHURNING, the mo'tion 
which is given to cream or milk, 
in a churn, in order to fepafate 
the butter. In common churns, 
this work is very laborious, though 
it falls to the lot of the weaker fex 
moft commonly to perform it, 
But the labour may be lightened 
by a fpringy pole placed over 
head, in the fame manner as that 
of a turner's lathe, to the loofe 
end of which the ftaff of the 
churn is tied. This pole will 
pull up the dafh after every 
ilroke ; which, when dons bv 


I D 


hand, is the heavieft part of the 

CIDER,apalatableand whole- 
fome drink, confifting of the 
juice of apples. The juice of 
fweet apples contains more fpirit 
than that of four ones, and there- 
fore is of more vfclue. 

The more palatable the apples 
are, other things being equal, the 
more pleafant will the cider be, 
when new, which is made qf 
them. But it is believed by 
fome, that a mixture of different 
forts makes the bell cider ; info- 
much that a number qf poor 
forts together will do better than 
one good fort by itfelf. But dif 
ferent forts, which are made to 
gether into cider, mould by all 
means be nearly of equal ripe- 
nefs ; otherwiie the juice will 
not agree in fermenting. Ap 
ples mould be forted according 
to their different degrees of mel- 
lownefs and ripenefs. The ap 
ples which are firft ripe may be 
ground in September, the next 
iri October, and the laft i'a No 
vember. The firft fort fnuft be 
for immediate ufe, Unlefs it be 
preferved longer ty means of 
boiling : The Taft will be proper 
to keep the longeft. The molt 
crabbed apples make the moft 
durable cider. 

It feems to be the general o- 
piniori of writers on this fubjeft, 
that apples mould lie and fweat 
in a heap, fome days, or weeks, 
before they are ground : The 
chief advantage oi which I fup- 
pofe to be their becoming fofter, 
and more eafy to be reduced to> 
fiich a finenefs, by grinding, that 
all the juice may be exprefTed, 
But if apples when gathered are 
fo ripe as to be jiifl beginning; to 
rot, the fhorter time of iweatirig 
they have the better : For in a 
htrge heap the rotting will fooii 
begin and rapidly increafe ; and 

5 s GIB 

the cider made of apples partly 
rotten will be weak, and have a 
difagreeable tafte. 

The 'management' of cider, af 
ter it is made, is of the greateft 
importance. It mould be ftrain- 
ed through a {Ieve,-to- feparate 
the liquor as much as poflible 
from the pulp of the apples, and 
from all the rubbifh mixed with 
i t. Some ftrain it through fand ; 
but this robs the cider of its rich- 
eft particles. And the fooner it 
is put into a cool cellar, the bet 
ter, as it will tend to prevent a too 
hafly fermentation, which mould* 
always be guarded againft. 

If a hole-be dug in the ground, 
fo near to a cider prefs that the 
cider may run into a ftrong cafk 
placed in it ;, this is no bad meth 
od of preferving cider in a fweet 
flate ; the caik may be bunged 
up tightly, and the hole covered i 
with boards, and earth over them. 
The fermentation will be fo (mall 
that the liquor will be very fweet j 
in the fpnng following, as has | 
been proved by experiments. 
But I am fufpicious of its fer 
menting too rapidly, after it is 
taken out, unlefs it be fined, and | 
then racked off without delay, | 
and afterwards kept in a very cooi j 

" An experiment, fays a valu 
able correfpondent, in the coun 
ty of Suffolk, was made in thd 
year 1^64. Some iron bound 
calks of cider were placed in a 
cellar which was always fo full 
of cold fpring water, as to keep 
the cafks conftantlycovered, with 
the water running upon them ! 
continually. As the water was i 
at all times equally cold, it kept 
the cider not only from the in 
fluence of the air, but alfo from 
all thofe changes which can raife j 
frets and fermentations in liquor. } 
In which place it continued from i 
October fb May following. It i 

C I D 

was then drawn off into barrels? 
and was pronounced to be the 
beft of cider, by very good 

He adds, " In this manner the 
famous Falernian wine, fo often 
mentioned by the Latin poet 
Horace, was kept, being funk in 
the river Tybeiy which wafhed' 
the walls of Rome." 

If cider werefirft purged of its 
fasces by fermentation, racking, 
and fining, putting it thus under 
water, I think, would render it st- 
very durable liquor, if not un 
changeable till its removal. And? 
it need not be removed long be 
fore it is ufed. 

Much cider is fpoiled by its 
being put into bad cafks. New 
ones are generally the beft. But 
even thele mould not be trufted, 
without fcalding them with water 
in which fome fait has been 

When a cafk has got a putrid 
taint it mould be unheaded, eve 
ry part of the infide well fcraped, 
and a fire made in it. 

To prevent cafks becoming, 
foul and unfit for ufe, they mould 
as foca as they are empty be' 
warned clean, fcalded, and a lit 
tle brimftone burnt in them, and 
then flopped very tight, that no 
air may enter them. 

Some fay the lees may be left 
in a cafk, without any danger of 
giving it an ill fcent, and that 
for a long time, if it be tightly 
nopped. But I prefer the above 

The cafks in which cider is 
kept mould be well hooped. 
Old wooden hoops mould not be 
trufted, unlefs they will bear a 
fmart driving. They may look 
found, when they are fo decayed 
as to be eafily burft afunder. It 
a cafk be mufty, by means of re 
maining too long empty and foul 
in the cellar, it may be cleared 

I D 

;df its muftinefs by burning a Tew 
matches of brimftone within the 
bung hole. But cafks, which 
have had pricked cider, or 
vinegar, in them, ihould not be 
ufed any more for cider. A 
jjnall degree of muftmefs may 
be cured buy a decoclion of fweet 
fern. It fhould be poured hot 
into the cafk, and well agitated, 
that it may equally affect every 
part of the inner furface. 

They who wifh to preferve 
their cider in a very fweet and 
mild Itate, mould manage it in 
the following manner : " After 
draining, let it ftand a day or 
J two in an open tun, covered on 
ly with a cloth or boards, to keep 
-out the duft, that the more grofs 
parts may fubfide. Then draw 
it off into veifels, wherein it is 
intended to be kept, obfervingto 
leave an eighth part of them emp 
ty. Set thefe veffels in your 
coldeit cellars, with the bung 
open, or covered only with a 
loofe cover, both that the vola 
tile fleams may have free vent, 
and that the muft may be kept 
cool : Otherwife it is apt- to. fer 
ment too much. Having fet- 
mented in this manner for fif 
teen or twenty days, the veffel 
may be flopped up clofe ; and in 
two or three months time, the 
cider will be fit for drinking. 
But if you expect cider in per 
fection, fo as to flower in the ' 
glafs, it muft be glued, as they 
call it, and drawn off into bottles, . 
after it has been a fliort time in 
the cafk. Glueing is xione by 
pouring into each veflel a pint 
of the infufion of fixty or feveri- 
ty grains of the moft tranfparent 
ifinglafs, or fifh glue, imported 
from Archangel, in a little white 
wine and river or rain water, 
:ilirred well together, after being 
.ilrained through a linen cloth. 
When tkis viicous Itibftance is 

C I D 59 

f put into-the cafk, it fpreads itfel'f 
I over the furface like a net, and 
j carries all the dregs to the bot 
tom with jt." Did. of Arts. 

Cider fnould not be too often 
drawn from. the lee& ; for each 
time it will lofe fome of it* 
ftrength. The firft racking, in 
.December, may often be fuffi- 
cient : If not, it mould be rack- 
,ed again in March. And to pre 
vent its iretting or fermenting 
at other times, care mould be 
taken at every racking to ft tun 
the cafk well with matches of 
brimftone. This is found to 
conduce more to keeping liquors 
in a good itate, than aiiy thing 

To make matches for this pur- 
pofe, take ilrips of old canvas or 
linen, fix or feven inches long, 
and nearly as wide as the bung 
hole ; and dip them half their 
length in melted brim-ftone. 
Burn one of thefe matches in the 
barrel to be filled, put in two or 
three pailfuls of the cider, then 
burn another, op up the cafk. 
and roll or make it well for 'a 
few minutes ; fill up the cafk, 
and bung it tightly ; for there 
will be no danger of any fermen 
tation that will injure the cafk. 

If new cider be treated in this 
manner when it comes from- the 
prefs, it will .not need racking 
till February or March. 

The above method is d.oubtlefs 
goocL JButl have found it ari- 
fwer well, to do nothing to cider 
till March, or the beginning of 
April, except .giving a cafk a 
fmall vent hole, and keeping i:: 
open till the firit fermentation is 
over; then draw it off into good 
cafks ; and then fine it with 
fkimmed milk, eggs broke uj 
with the fhells, or molafTes. 
quart of molaflcs will give a fine 
colour to a barrel of cider, as 
well as carry all the lees to the 


G I D 

bottom. But left it fliould in 
cline the liquor to prick, I put 
in, at the fame time, a quart of 
rum or brandy ; and it feldom 
fails of keeping well to the end 
of fummer. But cellars mould 
have neither doors nor windows 
kept open in fummer, where ci 
der is kept. And the cafks 
fhould ftand fteady, and never 
be fhaken, fo as to difturb the 

Thofe who choofe to boil their 
cider, muft do it as foon as it runs 
from the prefs. Some boil it, 
till it is reduced to one half. 
But much of the fineft fpirit e- 
vaporates ; and though it will be 
made a good deal ftronger by 
boiling, it becomes a harfli, beady 
and unpleafant liquor. 

The beft method of reducing 
the quantity without wafte, if 
ilrong cider be thought deferable, 
is by freezing. A ftrong cafk, 
two thirds filled, may be expofed 
to the greateft cold of December 
and January ; and t]ien the fluid 
part drawn but from the fur- 
rounding ice. The liquor will 
be ftrcng, pleafant and whole- 
fbme, after mellowing by age ; 
and be free from that tang of 
the kettle, which renders boiled 
cider unpleafant, and unwhole- 
, fome, 

The beft. way is, to give cider 
no more boiling than is neceifa- 
ry to purity it ; that is, to boil it 
no longer than the fcum contin 
ues rifing upon it. And the 
fcumming muft be continued fo 
long as 4 continues boiling. 

Boiling in brafs kettles, even 
for a fhort time, gives cider a 
difagreeable tafte, and renders 
it unwholefome. I mould pre 
fer ironltettles for this ufe rather 
than any other, in full confidence 
that if particles of iron mould be 
plentifully mixed with the liquor, 
they would have a falutaity effect, 

C I D 

rather than the contrary. But 
this w T ill make it a black liquor- 
When cider is in danger of 
pricking, almoft any alkalious 
fubilance will prevent it. But 
fucli fub fiances fhould be ufed 
cautioufly, either in a fmall 
quantity, or juft before the liquor 
is ufed. 

Tvvo or three fpoonfuls of 
ginger in a cafk of cider will cor- 
reft its windinefs, and make it 
more palatable. Honey and fpices 
will mend cider that is two vap 
id and flat. But medicating it 
with raifins and currents, often 
occafions cider to turn four, un- 
lefs prevented by the addition of 

CIDERKIN, the Englifh 
name of what we call water ci 
der. The fprementioned cor- 
refpondent very judicioufly rec 
ommends the Englifh method 
of making it, which he reprefents 
as follows : " When the cider 
cheefe has been preffed till it 
will run no longer, remove the 
pomace into the trough at even 
ing, and throw a fufficient quan 
tity of hot water upon it ; let it 
lie all night, and in the morning 
make a new cheefe of it, and 
prefs out the liquor." If the 
pomace was ground over again, 
the ciderkin would be ftronger. 
But there is danger of its becom 
ing pricked during this opera 
tion, unlefe the weather is very 
cool. 7f the attempt is made in 
a warm feafori, cold water ihould 
be ufed. And in any feafon, 
though hot water will make the 
ciderkin the ftronger, it will 
have a bittcrifh tafte, which will 
not be agreeable to every palate, 
This, he fays, will be fit for 
drinking in June or July, as free 
from change as cider commonly 
is in February or March. But 
I fhould think it more fate 
to ufe it earlier, left it ihould be 

C I D 

fpqiled for want of ftrength fuf- 
ficient to preferve it ; but the 
beft method of keeping it is to 
bottle it. 

But the beft way of managing 
ciderkin is, to take it direftly 
from the prefs, give it a heating, 
or a gentje boil, and take off the 
fcum. This greatly prevents 
fermentation, and prepares it for 
long keeping. From my own 
experience I can teftify the ex 
cellent quality of boiled water 
cider, when it has been made in 
the common way ; efpecially 
when it has been bottled in the 
latter part of winter, or begin 
ning of fpring. So that I can 
give full credence to his ailer- 
tion, " That in the hotteft part 
of the following fummer, it will 
be one ot the pleafanteft of 
liquors, that can be procured 
from any country : And that it 
might make a very good export 
to the Weft Indies ; there being 
no danger of the burfting of the 
botttes, as there is when cider 
has a ftronger body." 

When apples are not plenty it 
is good economy to increafe the 
quantity of good drink, fey the 
making of ciderkin. A cheefe of 
middling fize will yield at leaft 
one barrel of ciderkin. 

When cider needs fermenting, 
Mr. Chapman direcls, " To one 
hogfhead of cider, take three 
pints of folid yeft, the mildejl 
you can get : If rough-, warn it 
in warm water, and let it ftand 
till it is cold. Pour the water 
from it, and put it in a pail or 
can ; put to it as much jalap as 
will lie on a fix pence, beat them 
well together with a whilk, then 
apply fome of the cider to it by 
degrees, till your can is full. 
Put it all into th,e cider, and ftir 
it well together. When the fer 
ment comes on, clean the bung 
hole every morning, and keep 

C I D 


filling the veffel up. The fer 
ment, for the firft five or fix clays, 
will be black and itiff; let'- it. 
ftand till it ferments white, as it- 
will in fourteen or fifteen days ; 
at which time flop the ferment ; 
otherwife it will impair, its 

" To flop this ferment he di- 
refts to rack it into a clean cafk, 
and when near full to put in three 
pounds of coarfe red fcouring 
land, and ftir it well together, and. 
fill it within a gallon. Let it 
ftand five or fix hours, then pour 
on it foftly a gallon of Englifli 
fpirit, bung it up clofe, but leave 
out the vent peg a day or two. 
Then juil put it in the hole and 
clofe it by qegrees. If the cider 
be ftrong, the longer you keep 
it the better will be the body. 
It may lie in this ftate a year. 
It it be not then bright and 
clean, force it." 

The forcing he recommends 
is this : " Take a gallon of per 
ry or ftale beer : Put to it an 
ounce of ifinglafs, and let it fteep 
three or four days. Keep whifk- 
ing it. When it comes to a ftiff 
jelly, beat it well in your can 
with a whifk, and mix cider with 
it till you have made the gallon 
lour : Then put two pounds of 
brick rubbings to it, ftir it with 
two gallons more of the cider 
added, and apply it to the hogf- 
head. Stir it wel^ and flop it 
clofe, The next day give it 
vent, and it will be fine and bright. 

" To cure acid cider he direcrs 
to the ufe of weak alkalies, chalk, 
oyfter and fcollop fhells, egg 
(hells and alabafter, calcined. 
But when a hogfhead is foon to 
be drunk, fait of tartar, or fait of 
worrnwood with milk and ifin- 

' To cure oily cider one 
ounce fait of tartar, and two and 
a half oi fweet fpirit of nitre in 


6 2 C I D 

a gallon of milk for a hogf- 

" To cure ropy cider fix 
.pounds powdered alum, ftirred 
in well ; then rack the cider, 
*and force it. 

" To cure ill flavoured cider 
ferment it with yeft and jalap 
iiop it after four days and ap 
ply a pound of fweet fpirit qf 
jiitre to a hogfhead. 

" To colour cider two pounds 
of fugar burnt black, diffolved in 
two quarts of boiling water. 
Half a pint of this will colour a 
hoglhead ; add a quarter of an 
ounce of alum to fet the colour." 
To meliorate common cider, 
and render it as ftrong and p leaf- 
ant as wine, the addition of hon 
ey, or clarified fugar, with the 
diftilled fpirit of cider, will do 
xvonders ; making it equal to 
French wines. This is the more 
worthy tobeattended to, /as the lees 
of cider and pomace from which 
cider has been made, by cliftilla- 
4ion may be made to yield a fui- 
iicient quantity of cider brandy, 
to make all our cider as ftrong 
as fome wines. But if thefe 
v/e're not fufficient, cider that is 
too four for drinking, provided 
it be not vinegar, will make a 
good brandy, and yield more fpir 
it than that which is pleafanter. 
The reader may find particu 
lar directions concerning this 
matter, in TraBs on pradical Ag 
riculture, by B. Wejlon, Efq. 

The method of a gentleman in 
the county of JSiTex, whofe cider 
is become famous for^its extraor 
dinary quality, is as follows : 

" Gather the apples dry : 
Jioufe them in an airy apart- 
jnent : Spread them not r more 
than two feet thick : If the weath 
er prove warm, turn them once 
or twice : If they begin to rot, 
grind them in a cool day. But 
lie longer apples are kept in a 

C L A 

found ftate before grinding, the 
greater certainty of having good 
cider. Put the liquor from the 
prefs into vats containing at leait 
three or four barrels, with a tap 
fixed near the bottom. Cover it 
clofe, and let it remain till the 
firlt fermentation is over, which 
is known by a white froth coming 
up through the dark fcum on the 
top. Then draw off the liquor 
into cafks perfectly fweet, and 
Hummed with matches of brim- 
ftone: And put two gills of brandy 
in each barrel. Stop the barrels 
fo tightly that no air can -get in. 
In March draw off the cider a~ 
gain into Hummed cafks, with 
brandy as. before. 

;t To refine, and give a deep 
amber colour, take the whites of 
fix eggs, with a handful of fine 
beach land walhed clean : Stir 
them well together. Take one 
quart of molailes, boiled down 
to a candy : Cool it by pouring 
in cider, and put this, together 
with the eggs and fand, into a 
barrel of cider. When cider is 
thus managed, it .will keep good 
for years." 

.GIVES,. or CHIVES, a p e . 
rennial fpecies of onion, of a ve 
ry fmall fize, feldom growing a 
foot high. The roots are but 
little bulbous, and they grow in 
tufts. The way to make them 
increafe faft is, to divide the tufts 
into fmall parcels. 

Another kind are called French 
cives. Their increafe is more 
rapid. Both kinds are up early 
in fpring, and are much ufed in 

.CLAY, a ponderous kind of 
earth, confifting of fine particles, 
firmly cohering when dry ; and 
when wet vifcid and tenacious. 
It is of various colours in differ 
ent countries. But i this coun 
try it is moftly either a dull blue, 
or of the colour of afhes. In 

C L A 

jtfovafcotia, the clay is of the 
colour of a well burnt brick. 

CLAY SOIL, land which con- 
Ms almoft wholly of clay, with 
perhaps a thin furface of dark 
mould over it, made by fubftances 
which have confumed upon it. 
This kind of foil abounds in the 
northeaftern territories of Maffa- 

Clayey lands are apt to be ve 
ry barren in their natural Hate, 
unlefs when a fummer is fo di 
vided betwixt rain and funlhine, 
that they are kept on a medium 
continually betwixt drought and 
wetnefs, which feldom or never 
happens. In a wet feafon, plants 
growing on fuch a foil are drown 
ed, as the clofenefs of the clay 
will not fuffer the water to foak 
into the ground : And in a dry 
feafon, the ground becomes fo 
{olid that the roots of plants can 
not penetrate it, fome few ftrong 
feeders excepted. 

This kind of earth, however, 
is thought to contain more of the 
food oi plants than almoft any 
other. But fomething needs to 
be done to bring it into aftion. 
The European farmers think 
l-heir clay foils the richeft, and 
moft valuable of their land. But 
many of our farmers defpife 
them, for want of knowing what 
methods to take to render them 
profitable ; or through fear of the 
labour, or expenfe, of doing it. 

Some of thefc foils, without 
much alteration, will bear good 
crops of grafs, if care only be 
taken not to feed them clofe in 
autumn, nor to let cattle in upon- 
them in the fpring. But the 
former, who wiines to keep them 
in tillage, mult alter them by 
the admixture of fuch fubftances 
as may ferve to open the foil, 
and break the cohefion of its par 
ticles. When this is once ac- 
complifhed, the land will become 

C L A % 

highly valuable ; holding the 
manure to admiration, and never 
returning to its priftine ftate. 

Dung is helpful towards open 
ing a clayey foil, by the ferment 
ation it raifes, as well as by the 
mixture of its earthy, faline and 
oily particles. But dung of it- 
fell" will not be fufficient, unlefs 
it were laid on more plentifully 
than farmers can well afford. A 
mixture of dung and fand is 
found to be a much better drefT- 
ing for this fort of land, tharc 
dung alone. And if fand be not 
too far diftant, it would be advif- 
able to put on a layer of it two 
or three inches thick. Beach 
fand is preferable to any other, 
as the faltnefs of it will help ta 
make the ground fruitful. But 
pit fand will do very well ; or 
rather, that which has been wafli- 
ed down to low places in the 

In places where fand is not tc* 
be had, the ground may be loof- 
ened with other fubftances. Grav 
el, or light loam, from neighbour 
ing foots, may be carted upon it 
duft from faw pits, chips and rub- 
bifh from the back yards of houfes r 
ftraw and ftubble, fwamp mud, 
the bark of trees and rotten woody 
or burnt clay. I have known a 
clayey fpot made very fruitful, 
merely by the remains of a rot 
ten log fence, when mixed with 
the foil. 

When 3 clay foil is fanded, or 
;vny other thing laid on to open 
it, it will take feveral ploughing*; 
and harrowings to mix it, fo as 
to bring the land to a good con- 
fiftence. As the expenfe of 
mixing it at once would be too 
great, it is beUer to life it for two 
or three years after, for the grow 
ing of fuch tillage crops as are 
moft flii table to a clayey foil, fuch 
as barley, flax, &c. The foil 
will grow better vear auer vcar. 

' till 

64 t L A 

till the fand, &c. is thoroughly 
mixed with the foil ; after which 
it will be fruitful forever without 
large dreffings. Hoed crops will 
mix it fooner than any other 
method, and without any expenfe. 

A fmall quantity of dung, each 
year that it bears a hoed, or a 
green crop, will be proper : And 
the moft fuitable dungs are thofe 
of horfes and Iheep, pigeons and 
other fowls, which by their heat 
will correct the natural coldnefs 
of the foil. Folding with fheep 
has an excellent effe6t on this 
kind of land. 

Such a ffiff foil is alfo mend 
ed by frequent ploughings. The 
Europeans allow three plough- 
ings previous to feeding, to be 
enough for a free foil ; but to a 
clayey foil they give four or five. 
The oftener it is ftirred with the 
.plough, the more the cohefion 
of the particles is broken, and 
the more eafily the roots of plants 
can penetrate it in fearch for 
their food. But it never mould 
be ploughed when it is fo wet as 
to potch with the feet of the cat 
tle, or to run like mortar. In 
this condition, the more it is 
worked the ftiffer it will become. 
On the other hand, when it is 
very dry, it cannot well be 
ploughed, by reafon of its hard- 
nefs. Suitable feafons mould 
be embraced, for ploug-hing it, 
when it is neither too wet nor 
too dry. At the firfl ploughing 
it comes up in large clods ; but 
the oftener it is ploughed in fit 
times, the fmaller the clods will 
be, and the more fine mould will 
be among them. 

Expofmg the clods to the fun 
and air has fome tendency to 
mellow the foil : But a winter 
furrow is of very great advantage. 
The froft does much towards 
breaking the cohefion, as I have 
found by experience. 

C L 

Clay foils, after all the melio* 
ration that can be given them? 
will be more fuitable for fome 
plants than for others. Thofe 
plants in general which require 
a great degree of heat, or a long 
fumrner, are not fo well adapted 
to be cultivated in a clayey foil, 
fuch as Indian corn, tobacco, 
&c. But it may be made ttf 
produce good crops of wheat, 
grafs, barley, oats, flax, cabbage, 
&c. No good eating potatoes or 
carrots are ever produced in fuch' 
a foil. 

Fruit trees, in general, and I 
think all . forts, excepting pear 
trees, anfwer but poorly in a clay 
ey foil, how much loeyer the 
furface may have been mixt with' 
other fubftances. The roots of 
trees will need to draw fome of 
their nourifhment from a part of 
the foil below that which has 
been meliorated by mixing ; but 
the compaftnefs of it will fcarce- 
ly fuffer them to penetrate it. 

Fallowing and green dreffing 
may help to pulverize a clay foil ; 
and fowing it frequently with 
peafe is recommended. Any 
crop that forms a clofe cover for 
the furface caufes the foil to pu 
trefy, breaks the cohefion of its 
particles, and prevents the ground 
from hardening by the influence 
of the fun. 

If a clay foil lie fo flat that 
water Hands on it fome part of 
the year, it cannot be brought to a 
good confidence without plough 
ing in ridges, and water furrow 
ing. The ridges may be wider 
or narrower, according to the 
degree of wetnefs to which it is 
fubjecl. Sometimes deep drains 
will be neceffary to give it the 
needful degree of drynefs. 

operation often neceffary to be 
performed in this new country, 
efpecially in the moil inland 



parts. Lands which were before 
in a Itate of nature, are faid to be 
cleared, when they are fo freed 
from their natural growth, as to 
become fit for tillage, mowing, 
or pafture. 

In thofe parts of the country 
where wood is of little or no val 
ue, the method of clearing up 
land is as follows : The trees 
are felled in one of the fummer 
months ; the earlier in fummer 
the better, as they will have a 
longer time to dry, and as the 
ftumps will be lefs apt to fprout. 
The trees lie till the following 
fpring ; when the limbs which 
clo not lie very near to the ground 
mould be chopped off, that they 
may burn the better. Fire mult 
be put to them in the drieft part 
of the month of May ; or if the 
whole of May prove wet, it may 
be done to advantage in the be 
ginning of June. Only the 
bodies of the trees will remain 
after burning, and fome of them 
will be burnt to pieces. Then 
they are to be cut into pieces near 
ly of one length, drawn togeth 
er by oxen, piled in clofe heaps, 
and burnt ; only referving fuit- 
able trees, which will be needed ! 
for the fencing. The heating of j 
the foil fo defliroys the green 
roots ; and the afties, made by 
burning, are fo beneficial a ma- ! 
nure to the land, that it will pro- 
ducc a good crop of Indian corn, j 
or wheat, the fame year, without ! 
ploughing, hoeing, or manuring. | 
Indian, corn is rnofl commonly ' 
the firfi crop ; and it will^bear a ! 
good crop of winter rye the fec- 
orid year, if the feed be only 
hacked in with hoes in Se'ptem- \ 
ber, before the Indian corn is ' 
narveuecL After which, if grafs 
feeds be thrown in with the rye, 
the land will be fit for paiturage, 
it not for mowing. The few 
iprouts which fpring up from the 

L E 65 

flumps in the.firft fummer, mould 
be pulled off, and the ground is 
quite fubdued. But if wheat or 
rye be the firft crop, the ground 
mult be well harrowed ; once 
before fowing, and once after. 
And it often happens that the 
firlt arid fecond crops , pay the. 
farmer well for .all the labour of 
clearing and fencing. It is cer 
tain that fometimes the firlt crop 
will do it. 

The invention of this kind of 
culture has been of elfential ad 
vantage to the poorer fort of 
people : And it has been condu 
cive to bringing forward rapid 
fettlements in our new towns 
and plantations. A farm may 
be thus begun in the wilderness 
with little or no flock. 

But thole perforis who are a- 
ble to do it had better plough 
and harrow their ground after 
burning, before they feed it. 
The alhes will thus be well mix 
ed with the foil ; and the land 
has always been found to retain 
its fertility the longer, when fo 

If new land lie in fucli a fitu- 
atiori, that the natural growth 
may turn to better account, 
Whether for timber or fire wood, 
fencing or charcoal, it will be an 
unpardonable wafte to burn the 
wood on the ground. But if the 
trees be taken off, the land mult 
be ploughed after clearing, or 
it will not produce a crop of any 
kind. And fome warm kind of 
manure will be needful, if Indian 
corn is planted on it. This is 
the cafe at leaft in the molt north 
erly parts of Newengland. But 
rye will anfwer extremely well! 
without manure. 

When new lands are deftitute 
of trees, ancl covered with oak 
fhrubs, the clearing is more ex- 
penfive, and the firlt crops not 
fo profitable, But fuch lands 


C L I 

fhould not remain unfubdtied, as, 
in their prefent itate, they are 
quite unprofitable, and a nui- 
fance. The bullies ihould be 
cut \vith ftub fithes or axes, pil 
ed in heaps, and burnt. After 
which the roots may be fubdued 
by goats; or ploughed up with 
a ftrong team, the plough being 
proportionably ftrong. Some. of. 
thole {pots will require a team 
.of 50 oxen to plough them. Af- 
tLT ploughing, the roots muft be 
taken out with a ftrong narrow 
hoe, with a good (harp edge. 

Other methods mull be taken 
for fubduing low fwampy lands. 
Sec the articles Bog, Bujhes^ 

CLIMATE/a word ufed by 
Geographers, to denote a fpace 
on the earth contained between 
two parallels of latitude, fo far 
diftant from the next climate, 
that the length of the longeft day 
in one, differs half an hour from 
that in the other. But the word 
is often ufed lefs accurately, to 
fignify a region, or large tract of 
land, or a diftincl country. 

A farmer muft pay due atten 
tion to the climate, in which he 
is fituated, or he will not carry 
on agriculture to advantage. He 
muft govern all his fchemes of 
management by the peculiarities 
of the climate : Becaufe that 
which proves fuccefsful in one, 
will not do fo in another. 

" The climate, "fays Mr. Dick- 
" determines the times of 
ploughing and fowtng ; it di- 
I'ecb our choice in the kind of 
plants to be cultivated ; it regu- ! 
fates the whole economy of the \ 
farm, and informs the hufband- 
man how to appoint the order of 
the different kinds of labour nec- 
elfary, fo as he may be always 
lifefully employed. Nothing has 
jnore effectually retarded die. 
rogrefs ci agriculture, than the 


C L O 

attempts that have been made ta 
introduce general fchemes, with 
out any regard to the climate. 
A lover of agriculture, captivat 
ed with a fcheme of husbandry, 
which he has obfen'ed in Flan 
ders, or in fpme of the fouthern 
counties of England, without 
any proper preparation, attempts 
to put this fcheme in praftice in 
one cf the {hires of Scotland, not- 
withstanding the great difference 
of climate, This attempt proves 
unfuccefsful, as it is natural to 
expect, where circumftances are 
fo different. No perfon is fo 
fool i Hi as to fuppofe, that all 
kinds of plants can be cultivated 
with equal fuccefs in all climates : 
It is even vain to imagine that 
they can be cultivated with e- 
cjual fuccefs in all parts of thir 
iiland, or in all places in the- 
fame latitude. A- very fmall dif- 
tance fometimes makes a very 
great difference in climate, in 
the degrees of heat and cold s 
and in the quantity of rain that 

CLOG, a wooden inftrument, 
faftened to the neck or leg of a 
beaft, to prevent his leaping over, 
or breaking fences. The beft 
clog for the fetlock of a horfe, is 
made of one piece of tough wood 
bent over at one end. Into a 
notch, near this end, a leathern 
firap, nailed to the long part of 
the clog, is Hipped over the end. 
It may be put on, or taken off, 
in an inifant. 

CLOVER', Trijolium pra- 
tenfe, a fpecies of trefoil, efteem- 
ed as an excellent grafs for the 
feeding of cattle, both green and 
dried. The hay made of clover 
is more fuitable for horfes than 
any other that this country af 
fords. Horfes kept on it will 
fatten, even in the moll unfa 
vourable feafon of the year. It 
anfwers well when ufed as foil-/ 


C L O 

ing, or eaten out of racks with 
out drying. 

Green clover is known to be 
good feeding for fwine. Keep 
ing them inpaftures, where there 
is plenty of this grafs, will make 
them grow faft, and ratten fo as 
to almoft become fit for the knife. 
But when they go in paflures 
they mould have rings in their 
nofes. Otherwife they will root 
out the clover. 

Red and white clover are the 
only forts known and efleemed 
in this country ; as to the wild 
fort, or variety, with a rpugh 
leaf, it is of no confequence. It is 
the red clover that is of moft im 
portance for mowing. The .white 
is generally too finall and iliort, 
unlefs wfcen it is drawn to a 
greater height by being mixed 
with other graiTes, 

Many farmers, inftead of fow 
ing clean feed of clover, content 
themfelves with fowing chaff and 
duft from the floors of their barns. 
This is a flovenly and uncertain 
method, oftentimes attended with 
great lofs. Fowls are ufually ad 
mitted into barns ; and when 
this is the cafe, none can tell 
how much, on how little of the 
hay feed remains among the dull. : 
So that the farmer who fows it, 
may cither over feed his land.; 
.or, which is a more common 
cafe, not feed it half enough. A 
confequence of which lail will 
be, that he will have no gooci crop 
of hay from his fowing. He 
muft either plough up his land 
again, for the mere purpofc of 
feeding it with grjfs, or let it lie 
ufelefs till the grafs gradually 
gets in ; either of which expe 
dients will be attended with in 
convenience and lofs. I am a- 
ware mat farmers, efpecially 
thofe in the northern parts oF 
Newenglancl,vill object, that if 
grafs .do not get in the firft year. 

C L O 67 

it will the iTcond. But they 
fhould conlider that the lofs of 
the firft year's crop is confident 
ble. 'Not only fo, but it is lof- 
ing the befl crop that is to be 
expected from -a clover lay ; and 
the land will become bound and 
weedy, before it is filled with 
grafs roots ; fo that no large crop 
will be had from it after \vanL, 
nor any clean or unmixed crop, 
from which it .will anfwer to 
take clean 'feed. 

The ; quantity of clover feed 
^proper . for an acre is about ten 
'pounds, or fome fay lei's. The 
price of a. pound is from eight 
pence to one (hilling. The cod: 
of the feed need not terrify a 
farmer ; becaufe he will be mo re 
than paid double for the feed, by 
the advantage the firft year's 
crop will receive from a good 
feeding of the ground. 

It is no finall recommendation 
of this grafs, that it is adapted to 
a foil, that is fiiitable for fcarcc- 
ly any other -grafTes, which are 
cultivated in this country ; to a 
foil that is dry, light and fandy. 
It does well aifo on gravel and 
loam. A wet fail is not good 
tor this grafs, efpecially if water 
and ice appear on it in the win- 
-ter, or fpring. Jn cafe of drought, 
it is lucky for fanners to have 
fome ot their mowing lands in 
this grafs : It- bears drought bet 
ter than moft other grafies, as 
might be expefted for two rea- 
fons became it-is fo early as to 
be grown up to maturity, before 
the hottefLpart of fu miner, when 
the fevereff droughts rnoft com 
monly happen ; and becaufe the 
plants, being tap rooted, draw 
great part of their nourifhment 
from a depth, where the foil is 
not much affected with an early 

European farmers recommend 
fowing it in the fpring, after the 



C L O 

grain is up, and harrowing it in ; f 
and they tell us the harrowing j 
will not damage the corn, but j 
gather be a fervice to it, when it is 
either fpring or winter grain. That 
it mould be fowed in the fpring 
is granted, unlefs it be in coun 
tries where there are no fevere 
winter frofts. The young plants, 
which come up in the fall, can 
not bear the froft fo well as thofe 
which have had a whole fummer 
to bring them on towards matu 
rity. Their reafon for not fow- 
ing it at the fame time as the 
grain it grows with, is an appre 
hended danger of its growing fo 
faft as to qbftruft the growth of 
the grain. But I have never 
found this to be the cafe in fact. 

Mr. Eliot recommends a dif 
ferent method, which is plough 
ing in the feed ; which, he thinks, 
and not without reafon, will 
caufe it to bear drought the bet 
ter, and become the more ftrong- 
ly rooted. I believe I may add, 
that it \vill be more likely to ef- 
cape in the frofts of winter, which 
are fo intenfe in this country, as 
often to kill almoft whole fields 
of clover. 

Peat afhes are faid to be a ve 
ry proper drefling for clover 
grounds. But this grafs anfwers 
Jo well in this country without 
manure, that the farmers choofe 
to fet apart the whole of the ma 
nure that they can get for other 

Some think clover is fo far 
from needing any manure, that 
it will recruit lands which are 
worn out. That it will do it 
more than other graffes I cannot 
yet fee any reafon to believe. It 
will bear no crop worth mowing, 
on lands which are quite exhauft- 
ed. But it is probable it may 
produce good crops, on lands 
which are much impoverifhed 
near the furface, by bearing 

C L O 

plants with fhort, fibrous, or hor 
izontal roots ; becaufe clover 
fends its main roots to a great 
depth. And while a field lies 
feyerai years in clover, the foil 
near the furface may be confider- 
ably recruited. But whether 
the land on the whole will be in 
better heart, after feveral heavy 
crops of clover are taken from 
it, and no manure laid on, feems 
rather doubtful. 

Writers on agriculture feem t 
however, to be agreed, that a clo- 
er lay is proper for the culture 
of wheat. The rotting of its 
large roots and ftalks may an- 
fwer as a good manure, no ways 
adapted to diftemper the wheat, 
as fome other manures are thought 
to be. 

Some fkilful farmers infift 
much on the propriety of fow- 
ing clover feed with barley. I 
iuppofe it will anfwer well with 
almofl any grain that we call En- 
glifh. But with a crop of peafe, 
or with any other crop that forms 
a clofe Ihade to the foil, it will 
not anfwer. The young plants 
muft have fome advantage of the 
fun and air, or they will not live. 
And if it be fowh with flax, at 
leaft in fome loofe foils, the pull 
ing of the flax will be apt to e- 
radicate much of the clover. 
Crops which lodge are alfo de- 
itruciive to the young clover, by 
forming fo clofe a cover as ta 
ftifle it. Therefore, when clo 
ver feed is (own, either with 
barley or flax, the ground mould 
be rather under than over feedcd, 
to prevent lodging. 

Clover being an early grafs, it 
is commonly fit to cut in June. 
When half the heads are turned 
from red to brown, and j en the 
decay, it is the right time to 
mow it. But if the feed is to be 
favcd for life, it muft ftand till it 
is all dead ripe, both heads and 


C L O 

ftalks. It requires more care to 
make clover into hay than moll 
other grades. That which is 
mowed in a morning fliould be 
fpread, turned, and raked up be 
fore night. The next day, if the 
weather be fair, it mult be open 
ed, ftirred once or twice, and 
cocked up again. Then, after 
fweating a day or two, it may be 
put into the barn. Rank clover 
requires much more drying than 
that which is of a moderate 
growth. And the hay is not fo 

In the moft foutherly parts of 
Newengland, land in good heart 
will bear two crops ot clover in 
a year. Mr. Eliot, therefore, rec 
ommends faving the fecond crop 
for feed, the firft crop having 
been mowed early. But two 
crops are not to be obtained in 
the northern parts of this coun 
try. And, if they were, fo fre 
quent a cutting would be apt to 
make the roots fhorter lived. It 
is advifable to pafture it in May, 
and then let it grow for feed. It 
is beft to cut clover for feed 
on land that is foon to be broken 
up : Becaufe a crop of feed 
weakens the roots much more 
than a crop of hay ; and it is 
doubtful whether it will bear 
any considerable crop afterwards. 
Indeed, no crop of clover is of 
any great importance for hay, 
after the fecond year. For it is 
a biennial plant. 

The white clover, vulgarly 
called hpneyfuckle, is an excel 
lent grafs, and feems very natur 
al to this country : But when 
fown by itfelf, it does not grow 
tall enough for mowing. It is 
good ior feeding in paftures, 
during the fore part of fummer, 
at which time it often appears in 
great plenty. 

The hop clover is new in this 
country, but feems to appear not 


6 } 

very promifing. It is faid to 
flourifh on the moft barren fands, 
and continue long in any foil. 
It is of two kinds, large and 
fmall, and the heads are yellow. 
I once fowed a fmall bed of it. 
It did not profper, being almoft 
wholly deftroyed by the follow* 
ing winter. 

The European farmers are 
cautious of turning neat cattle in 
to feed in a field of luxuriant 
green clover, for fear of their be 
ing hovtn with it, as it is called, 
or fo fwelled by eating it greedi 
ly, as to be killed by it. But 
this is an inconvenience, which I 
have never known to take place 
in this country. The way to 
fave the life of hoven beafts, is, 
to ftab them between the hip and 
the mortribs, where the {'welling 
rifes higheil. It is performed 
with a narrow, fharp pointed 
knife, which makes an orifice in 
the maw, and lets out the air that 
oppreffes. The wound foon "heals 
or itfelf. 

COLE SEED, Braffica Rapa. 
? This plant, which is generally 
known by the title of rape, or 
cole feed, is much cultivated in 
the ifle of Ely, and fome other 
parts of England, for its feed, 
from which the rape oil is drawn ; 
and it hath been alfo cultivated 
of late years, in other places, for 
feeding of cattle, to great advan 

'The cole feed, when cultivat 
ed for feeding of cattle, mould be 
fown about the middle of June. 
The ground Jhould be prepared 
for it in the fame manner as for 
turnips. The quantity of feeds 
for an acre of land is from fix to 
eight pounds, and as the price of 
feed is not great, it is better to 
allow eight pounds ; for if he 
plants are too clofe in any part, 
they may be eafily thinned, when 
the ground is hoed ; which muft 



C O L 

be performed in the iame maa- 
ner as is pra&ifed for turnips, 
with this difference only, of 
leaving thefe much nearer to 
gether ; for as they have fibrous 
joots and {lender ftalks, fo they 
-do hot require near fo much 
room. Thefe plants mould have 
a fecond hoeing, about five or 
fix weeks after the firft, which, 
if well performed in dry weath 
er, will entirely deftroy the 
weeds, fo that they will require 
210 farther culture. 

" Where there is not an im 
mediate want of food, thefe 
plants had better be kept as a 
xeferve for hard weather, or 
fpring feed, when there may be 
a fcarcity of other green food. 
If the heads are cut off, and the 
ilalks left in the ground, they 
%vill moot again early in the 
fpring, and produce a good fec 
ond crop in April, which may 
foe either fed off, or permitted to 
run to feeds, as is the pra6lice 
ivhcre this is cultivated for the 
feeds : But if the firft is fed 
-dawn, there fiiould be care taken 
that the cattle do not deilroy the 
items, or pull them out of the 
ground. As this plant is fo hardy 
as not to be deflroyed by froft, 
fb it is of great fervice in hard 
winters for feeding of ewes ; for 
-when the ground is fo hard fro 
zen as that turnips cannot be 
taken up, thefe plants may be 
cut off for a conftant fupply. 
This will afford late food after 
the turnips are run to feed ; and 
if it is afterwards permitted to 
fland for feed, one acre will pro 
duce as much as, at a moderate 
computation, will fell for five 
pounds clear of charges." Gar- 
dencr s Dictionary. 

The Rev. Mr. Eliot, who 
jnade iome trial of this plant, is 
doubtful whether it will anfwer 
for winter feeding in this conn- 


try, becanfe of the fe verity oi 
our trolls. But the above author 
adds " The curled colewort, or 
Siberian borecole, is now more 
generally eileemed than the for 
mer, being extreme hafdy, fo it is 
never injured by cold, but is al 
ways fweeter in fevere winters, 
than in mild feafons." A gen 
tleman informs me, that, in Bof- 
ton, Newengland, he has made 
trial of this plant, and found that 
the winter did not injure it. It 
is fit for the table from Decem 
ber to April. 

I myfelf made trial of three 
kinds of borecole the laft year, 
in the latitude of 44. It grew 
very well till winter ; but not 
one plant in fifty had any life in 
it in the following fpring. The 
forts were the green, the white, 
and the red. But it is probable 
that in fome parts of Newen 
gland, and in warm fituations, 
this plant may be cultivated with 
advantage ; though not in fields, 
I think it may in gardens. 

COMPOST, a mixture of "va 
rious manures arid foils, to be 
laid on land to promote vegeta 

Compofis ought to be differ 
ent, according to the different 
foils on which they are to be 
laid. A foil that is light and 
loole requires a comport that is 
heavy, or one which has a large 
proportion of the mud of deep 
ditches, fwamps, or ponds, and 
cow dung. But clayey and 
heavy lands require a compoft, 
in which lomething that is light 
and warm predominates, as lime, 
the dung of horfes and fheep, 

Compofts may be made o^ 
common earth, turfs, the dirt of 
ftreets, Ilraw, mud ; together 
with dung, lime, marie, afhes, 
wee^s, fait, or oily Jubilances, 
and any kind of animal or vege 


table matters. They mould be 
well mixed, and lie one year, 
one fummer at leaft, in heaps, 
and be feveral times (hoveled o- 
ver, to promote fermentation and 
putrefaftion, and to deftroy all 
the feeds of weeds. 

They fhould be kept, if practi 
cable, in a temperate degree of 
moifture. If they lie too wet, 
they will turn four, and not pu 
trefy : If too dry, there will be 
no fermentation at all. 

Compofts are efteemed better 
than dung, for the dreffing of 
land for wheat, as there is not fo 
much danger of dillempering the 
grain, nor of increafing the 
growth of weeds, nor of propa 
gating infefts. 

A compoft of clay, turf, ditch 
earth, with lime, foot, or afhcs, 
is an excellent dreffing for grafs 
lands. The time to lay it on is 
in autumn. Neither would it be 
amifs to do it in the fpring ; on 
ly as carting it on would be apt 
to injure the furface when it is 
wet and foft. See Dunghill. \ 
piece of underwood. " When j 
a copfe is intended to be railed j 
from maft or fegd, the ground is | 
ploughed in the fame manner as 
for corn ; and, either in autumn 
or in fpring, good ftore of fuch i 
mails, nuts, feeds, berries, &c. 
are to be fown with the grafs, 
which crop is to be cut, and then 
the land laid for wood. They 
may alfp be planted about au 
tumn with young fets, or plants, 
in rows about ten or fifteen feet 
diftance. If thu copies happen 
to grovv thin, the heft way of 
thickening them is, to lay fbme 
of the branches or layers of the ! 
trees, that lie nearelt to the bare 
places, on the ground, or a little 
in the ground. Thefe, detained 
with hooks, and covered with 
freih mould, at a competent 

COR 7 

depth, will produce a world c"' 
fuckers, and thicken a copfe 
fpeedily," Did. of Arts. 

CORN, the farinaceous feeds 
of certain vegetables, of which 
bread is made. But the name is- 
ufually applied, not only to the 
feeds, but to plants which pro 
duce them. 

As thefe feeds are various, the 
idea commonly affixed to the 
word corn, differs in different 
countries, according as one or 
another ort is molt cultivated* 
In this country it is chiefly ap 
plied to maize, or Indian corn. 
But in Europe it is a general 
name of grain, including wheat, 
rye, barley, oats, rice, buck 
wheat, &c. 

It is greatly to be wiihed that 
feveral kinds of corn were raifed 
in greater plenty, in the norther 
ly parts of Newengland ; that 
we might no longer depend up 
on importation forthofe neceiia 
ry articles, while we are fo poor 
ly able to make remittances for 
them in our own produce. I 
am perfuaded, the fame quantity 
of labour, which is ufed for this 
purpofe, and on a lefs quantity 
of foil, if wifely applied, would 
produce the happy effecf. No 
fort of corn mould be fown on 
a foil- which is naturally unfuit- 
able for it. Maize, for inftance, 
not on clay, nor wheat upon 
fand, or gravel. Neither fhould 
attempts be made to raife grain 
without fufficient tillage ; that 
fo what is done may not be la 
bour thrown away. It is ridicu 
lous, in ordinary cafes, to hope 
for a large crop of grain from 
one ploughing ; or to imagine 
that the grain will be.plump and 
good, when it is fuffered to be 
choked with weeds. l:i the old 
er countries, farmers tin riot fow 
\vheat, nor fcarcely any other 
grain, till after two or (breo 


c o w 

plougbings : And they make as 
much account of weeding their 
grain, in fome places, as we do 
of weeding our gardens. 

The more tillage is given to 
land, the lefs manure is needed : 
And the increafe of crops would 
richly pay for the extra tillage. 
The coil of fecond and third 
ploughings is but little, as it may 
be performed with one horfe, or 
a fmall yoke of oxen. 

The only grain, to which we 
afford near, enough tillage is In 
dian corn : But even to this 
more might be profitably appli 
ed. They who hand hoe it 
without ploughing are no fmall 
lofers by that management. See 
more concerning corn, under 
Wheat, Rye, Barley, &c. 

COULTER, an important 
part of a plough. See Plough. 

COW, " the female of the ox 
kind. The marks of a good 
cow, according to fome, are 
thefe : The forehead broad, the 
eyes black, the horns large and 
clean, the neck long and ftraight, 
the belly large and deep, the 
thighs thick, the legs round with 
mort joints, and the feet broad 
and thick. Red cows are faid 
to give the bell milk, and black 
ones to bring the beft calves. 
But the cow that gives milk 
longell is the moll beneficial for 
breeding and profit, efpecially 
where one only is kept. Tuft 
before calving, cows mould be 
very well fed ; and if they calve 
in winter, their drink fhould be 
a little warmed, a day and a 
night after their calving." DiEl. 
of Arts. 

I may add here, if the cleaning 
of a cow after calving be delay 
ed, it may be promoted by giv 
ing her a pail of warm water 
with fome afhes in it. 

Cows mould be milked regu 
larly, morning and evening, and 


always at the fame hours, as 
nearly as may be. At fix in the 
morning, and fix at night, is a 
good general rule, as the times 
of milking will be equidiftant 
from each other. But if they 
are milked three times a day, as 
a modern writer on husbandry 
recommends, it may be done at 
five, one and eight. ' He believes 
that if they are full fed, they will 
give half as much again milk, if 
milked thrice as if only twice. 
At the fame time, it would pre 
vent a too great diftention of. 
their bags, to which our bcft cows 
are liable. If the milking be 
once omitted, they will give 
much more at the next milking ; 
but it will caufe them to give 
lefs mik on the whole, and tend 
to dry them up. 

No animals that we keep are 
more profitable than cows. Sup- 
pofing a eow to yield one gallon 
of milk per day, one day with 
another, for forty weeks, (and it 
is a poor cow that will not do 
more than this in a year) at only 
two pence per quart* the milk 
will come to 9!. 6s. 8d. which 
will pay^for her body, and for 
her year's keeping. The clear 
profit ot a cow, therefore, in two 
years, may be allowed to be a- 
bout lol. fuppofing her to be 
worth 5!. and her keeping to coft 
4!. 6s. 8d. per annum. But in 
fome places their keeping is low 
er than this ; and oftentimes a 
cow may be purchafed for ten 
or twelve dollars. 

COW HOUSE, that apart- 
ment in a barn, in which cows 
and other neat cattle, are tied 
up and fed, during the winter 
and part of autumn and fprmg. 

Fanners may think they need 
but little teaching concerning 
thefe apartments, as they have 
been fo long acquainted with 
them. But I ihall take the lib 


ifty to give them the following 
directions, which they may re 
ceive or reje6t, as they think fit. 

In the firft place, it is of no 
fmall importance that the floor 
under a cow houfe be very tight, 
fo that none of the ftale may be 
loft, which is of great value as a 
manure, when mixed with other 
lubftances. A farmer would 
be no more blameworthy for 
throwing away the dung than 
the urine of beafts, which con 
tains abundance of fertilizing 
falts and oils. But if it be fuf- 
fered to run through the floor, it 
is entirely loft. 

The defcending pofition of the 
floor has been mentioned under 
the article Cattle. This defcent 
will convey the ftale through the 
chinks in the fide of the barn, 
unlefs fome caution be ufed to 
prevent it. One edge of a plank 
may be fitted to the fill, nailed 
to the pofts of the building, and 
the joint between that and the 
fill caulked. Or a quantity of 
dry earth may be laid along on 
the fill. Green fods will anfwer 
as well. It will take feveral 
cart loads for a long apartment. 
This earth will be gradually tak 
en up and mixed with the dung, 
as it is fhovelect out during the 
winter. Or if fods are ufed they 
will be well impregnated with 
the excrements or the cattl-e, and 
partly diiTolved, by lying from 
fall to fpring in fuch a fituation. 
If the clung be defigned for a 
fandy foil, clay will be the beft 
earth for this purpofe ; if tor a 
clayey foil, fand will be moft 
proper. Any kind of earth, how 
ever, will ferv'e to.abforb and 
preferve .the itale. But if a farm 
er choofe to lay ftraw, weeds, 
or barn dull, for this purpofe, I 
will not contend ; though I think 
earth is better, as it will be freer 
from weeds, and fconer fit to ufe 



as a manure, than thofe vegeta 
ble fubftances. After this earth 
is throw r n out and mixed with 
the dung in the heaps, it will be 
of fervicein preventing the evap 
oration, and foaking away of the 
beft part of the manure. 

When a farmer thinks himfelE 
not well able to be at the ex- 
penfe of a floor of good planks, 
let him get a quantity of good 
clay, make mortar, and lay a bed 
of it a foot thick or more, fora 
floor'; giving it a proper defcent 
backwards, that the cattle may 
lie dry, and raifmg it at the hind 
er border, to prevent the efcape 
of the urine. The floor will 
grow thinner by being gradually 
fhoveled up with the dung ; but 
it is eafy to repair it ; and the 
fafter it wears away, the more 
the quantity of manure is in- 

Alfo, the floors over a cow 
houfe fhould be more tight 
than they commonly are. It 
would prevent the defcent of 
duft and chaff. It would caufe 
the hay above it to be lefs injur 
ed by the air ; as well as lefs 
contaminated by the breath of 
the cattle, and the fteam of their 

There are different ways of 
tying up cattle. Some prefer 
one way, and forne another. I 
prefer ftanchions to bows : Not 
only becaufe the cattle take up 
.lefs room in this way, but are 
lefs apt to wafte their fodder. 
They are alfo more fecure irt 
this way ; fo that they do not fa 
often break loofc, and worry 
and wound each other. 

A cow houfe Ihoukl be in the 
foutfoerly part of a barn, when it 
can well be ro ordered. The 
cattte will be lefs pinched with 
the cold northerly winds. An 
other advantage is, that the heap* 
of dung thrown out on that tide, 


7 4 C R E 

being in a funny place, will be 
thawed earlier in the fpring, fo 
as to be fit to be carted out in 
feafoa. On the north fide, ice 
will fbmetimes remain in the 
heaps, or under them, till the laft 
of May, or beginning of June. 

In this climate, cattle muft be 
houfed near half the year ; fror/i 
the middle of November to the 
laft of April, and oecafionally at 
other times. Though they muft 
have fodder for two or three 
weeks before and after thefe pe 
riods, I think it advifable to let 
them lie in the barn yard, and 
eat out of a rack, unlefs the 
weather be ftormy or the air un 
commonly cold. For if they be 
kept too warm in- the fall, they 
will become tender, and not win 
ter fo well ; or if lodged too 
warm iri the fpring, they are 
more apt to be loufy. 

CRADLE, a frame joined to 
a fithe, ufeful in harvefting, by 
the help of which, three time? 
the quantity of grain may be cut 
dowu in a given time that can 
be with a fickle, and laid tolera- 
bly even and regular, for bind 
ing in bundles. It is oftener 
ufed for cutting oats and rye 
than for wheat. There is dan 
ger, however, of too much wafte 
in cradling, when the corn is 
thick and heavy, or does not 
ftand upright ; the labour alfo 
would be too painful and tire- 

CREAM, the fat part of milk 
which rifes to the furface. 

To produce the greateft quan 
tity of cream, the pans in which 
the milk is fet mould be flat Ihap- 
cd, fo that the milk may not be 
more than three inches deep. 
Thofe in common ufe are not 
much amifs. ' They mould be 
well fcalded with hot water, as 
often as milk, is fet in them, and 
ke thoroughly cooled. If the 

C R O 

place where milk is fet be tod 
warm, it will be apt to turn four,, 
before the cream has had fuffi- 
cient time to afcend ; and none 
will rife after the milk begins to 
coagulate. If the place be too 
dry, the cream will become 
tough and hard before it is taken 
off. If the place be fo cold as 
to freeze the milk, every one 
knows that but little cream will 
be gotten from it. The time of 
fkimming muft be regulated by 
the weather, and other circum- 
fiances : But nearly the whole 
will rife to the top in twenty 
four hours. In large dairies it 
may be troublefome to let it ftand 

In the Scots* Farmer^ the fol 
lowing method of fkimming is 
recommended. "The maid gent 
ly raifes the dim, laying the lip 
of it on a large pan, and with 
her fingers ends fhe divides the 
cream near the lip of the dim, 
in fuch a manner that the milk 
which is underneath may be 
poured into the great pan through 
this divifion, leaving the cream 
by itfelf in the dim." 

Some fet their milk in trays 
lined with lead. This mould 
never be done. For the leaft a- 
cidity in the milk will diflqlve 
the lead, and poifon the milk. 
Tin pans are good, being light 
and handy, and wooden trays 
anfwer very well, if kept fweet.. 

CROP, a year's produce of 
corn, hay, &c. which a piece of 
land yields. 

The variablenefs of crops is fo 
great, that none can judge from 
a fingle one, whether the fame 
fort would be profitable in the 
long run. A feafon that does 
not happen to be fuitable to the 
foil and plants may either pre 
vent a crop, or render it unequal 
to the labour laid out to produce 
it. We mould not, therefore, 



judge of the comparative advan 
tage of any kind of crop from 
one in fiance ; nor be difcourag- 
ed, but by the failure of a crop 
in a feafon which is fuitable to 
the foil on which it is railed* 

The continual cropping ot 
land with wheat, without inter 
vals of fallowing, will foon ex- 
hauil all its ftrength, unlefs much 
be expended in manuring it. 
For this reafon, the horfe hoeing 
husbandry is much recommend 
ed by forne writers, by which 
land is not fo eafily impoverifla- 
.ed, as the intervals are always 
fallowed. So that there is an al 
ternation of cropping, the inter 
vals this year being where the 
rows were laft year. But this 
culture can hardly be expefted 
to be advantageous in a new 
country ; nor in any foil which 
is not quite free from obftacles. 
The trouble and coft of it would 
be intolerable, to Newengland 
farmers, in generaL 

Small crops are often more 
profitable on the whole than 
larger ones. That is the beft 
crop which amounts to a given 
quantity, with the expenie 
of labour, feed and tillage ; pro 
vided it leave the foil in equal 
condition for future crops. Yet, 
in general, land will pay far bet 
ter for generous manuring and 
tilling, than for a partial and 
ilovenly cultivation : For, in the 
former cafe, a large crop is al- 
moft certain ; in the latter no 
crop worth the culture, fuch as 
it is, can be rationally expected. 
And, in the former cafe, tlieland 
is left after the crop in a far bet 
ter condition. 

CUCUMBERS, Cutumis, a 
cold fruit, which is pleafant to 
thetafte ofmoft people, and much 
ufed by thpfewho find themfelves 
able to digeft them. They are 



The method of growing them 
is fimple and eafy. They ihould 
not be planted till after Indian 
corn : For the Icaft degree of 
froft entirely deftroys Uiem. Th 
flung oi fwine mould be put un 
der them, which makes them 
grow more rapidly than any oth 
er manure which I have ever 

Some fteep the feeds,, and 
cajife them to fprout, before they 
are planted : But I have never 
found any advantage in it. It i 
not amifs, however, to wet them 
a little, and coat them wiih po\v<- 
dered foot, 

Mr. Miller thinks the feeds 
ihould not be fown till they are 
three or four years old. JVjjLtr 
plants are enough to {land in a 
hole together ; therefore, when 
they get into rough leaf, they 
mould be thinned to this num 
ber. The vines fhonld be fo 
conducted as to interfere as lit 
tle as porTiblc with each other. 
They who v/ifh to raife them at. 
all ieafons of the year, may con- 
fult the Gardener s Ditlionary. 

I have known furprifing quan 
tities of cucumbers raifed from 
tubs. The method is this: Take 
a very tight barrel tub ; fill it up 
to the bung with ftones, then a 
little ftraw, and earth over the 
ftraw, enough to fill the barrel. 
Fill the lower halt with water. 
Inftead of letting it fleep through 
the earth, it (hould be palled 
through a tube, placed in the 
earth for that purpofe, as often 
as more water is wanted. The 
bung mould be left out, and the 
water kept as high as the hole, 
by repeated waterings. The 
plants lying fo high will be- out 
of the way of infetis, which is a 
great advantage ; and they will 
not be hurt by drought. The 
lants mould be a little fpriuk- 
led, however, with water, once 

7 6 

G U R 

in a while, if the feafon prove 
very drv. 

CULTIVATOR, a plough, 
with a double {hare and two 
rnouldboards, ufeful in railing 
ridges, and in hoeing plants that 
grow in rows, as in the new huf- 
bandry. See that Article. 

CURRANT, Ribes, a fpecies 
of fruit tree. There are three 
kinds of currants produced in 
this country, red, white and 
black. The red and the white 
are a wholefome cooling iruit, 
and flouriih well in this part of 
the country. They are eafily 
propagated by cuttings, fetting 
the young twigs in the ground ? 
which will furniih themfelves 
with roots ; and will bear fruit 
the fecond year. Some plant 
them fingly, others in clumps. 
The latter method is difapprov- 
ed by the beft gardeners. If 
they be fet (ingle round the bor 
ders of a garden, clofe to the 
fence, and fattened to the fence, 
to prevent their being bowed -to 
the ground when loaded with 
fruit, they will take up little or 
no room, and make an agreeable 
appearance. And it will be ea- 
iy to keep them free from weeds. 
When they are planted on the 
fouth, or iouth call: fide of a wall, 
the iruit will be ripe in June ; 
but on the north fide, they may 
be kept till October on the bufh- 
es, in a found ftatc. 

A wine that is not unpleafant 
is made of the red kind ; but 
that which is made of the white 
is preferable ; and this ought 
to be more attended to. This 
v/inc meliorates exceedingly by 
a<*e, becoming equal to the beit 
of Malaga wine, after being bot 
tled a year or two. 

Thq way to make currant wine 
is as iollows : Take ripe cur 
rants, wafh them, clear them from 
he ilems, add a gallon of water 


c u s 

to a gallon of currants, and bruife 
them well in the, water. Strain 
it through a cloth. Then to one 
gallon of the mixed juice and 
water, put two pounds and three 
quarters of good brown fugar. 
Stir it well. When the fugar is 
diffolved, put the wine into a 
caik not Hopped. When the firft 
fermentation is over, bung it up 
tightly, and in fix months it will 
be fit for bottling. 

CUSTOM, an habitual man 
ner of doing any thing. Meth 
ods of agriculture, as well as 
methods of doing other things, 
are not feldom founded merely 
on cuftom. Farmers do rnany 
things, for which they can affign 
no other reaion than cuftom. 
They ufually give themfelvcs 
little or no trouble in thinking, or 
in examining their methods of 
culture, which have been handed 
down from father to fon, from 
time immemorial. 

In fome countries, this prac^ 
ticc anfwers tolerably well. It 
does beil in old countries, where 
methods, which have not been 
found to anfwer well, have 
been gradually laid af;de in a 
long courfe of years. But this 
cuftqmary culture has a very 
pernicious effeft, when ignorant 
farmers remove to a different cli 
mate. They naturally continue 
in the ways to which they have 
been accuftomed. Their crops 
often prove to be unsuitable to 
the region they inhabit. They 
plant, fow and harveft, at the 
wrong leafons. They* fow feeds 
in unsuitable foils. The confe- 
quences arc, that their labour is 
mifapplied, their time is loft, 
they grow poor and difhearten- 
ed. Perhaps they remove them- 
feives to other places, hoping to 
mend their circumftances ; and 
when they come thither, their 
habitual methods will arifwer 


C Y O 

ftill worfe, rather than better, nn- 
lefs they go back to their firft lit- 
uation, or towards it. 
. CUTTINGS, or SLIPS, "in 
gardening, the branches or fprigs 
of trees, or plants, cut or flipped 
off, to fet again, which is done 
in any moift fine earth. The 
heft time for this operation, is 
from the middle of Auguft to 
the middle of April ; but when 
it is done, the fap ought not to 
be too much in the top ; .neither 
mull it be very dry or fcanty, 
for the fap in the branches affifts 
it to ftrike roots. If done in the 
fpring, let them not fail of hav 
ing water in the fummer. In 
providing them, fuch branches 
as have burs, knobs or joints, are 
to be cut off, &c. and the leaves 
are to be ftripped off fo far as 
they are placed in the earth, 
leaving no fide branch. Small 
top fprigs, of two or three years 
growth, are the beft for this op 
eration." Did. of Arts. 

Cuttings of the grape vine, 
goofeberry, willow and currants, 
are eafily made to flrike root ; thoie 
taken from the quince will com 
monly, and the apple tree will 
iometimes do fo, if the earth be 
kept very moift. It is belt to 
fet them a good depth in the 
earth, not lefs than twelve or fif 
teen inches, or the greater part 
of their whole length. In this 
country, the beft time that I 
have found to fet them is in. A- 
pnl. It mould be done as foori 
as the froft is quite out of the 

CYON, or CION, a young 
fprig or fprout of a tree. Cyons, 
for grafting, mould always be 
taken from the mofl thrifty trees, 
not from thofe efpecially which 
are old and decaying. The time 
to cut them is in February or 
March, juft before the buds be 
gin to. fwellj and. appear frefh, 

D A I 


which will be earlier or later, 
according to the feafon and cli 
mate. They mould be taken 
from the ends of limbs of the 
former year's growth, not from 
young fuckers of an over quick 
growth ; and kept moift in a 
cellar, with the lower ends in- 
ferted in moift clay, or mud, till 
the proper time for grafting. In 
fuch a pofition they will keep 
'well for two months or more, be 
fore grafting. I have had good 
fuccefs in fetting them, this pref- 
ent year, 1786, though it was al- 
moft three months after they 
were cut : But I afcribe my fue- 
cefs partly to the uriufual wet- 
nefs of the feafon, which is al 
ways favourable to grafting. 


DAIRY, the occupation of 
making butter, cheefe, &c. from 

" This is the moft ticklifh part 
of the farmer's bufmefs. Unlefs 
he has a very diligent and induf- 
trious wife, who fees minutely 
to her dairy, or a moft honeft, 
diligent, and careful houfekeep- 
er, to do it for him, he will aflur- 
edly lofe money by his dairy. 
Trufted to common fervants, it 
will never pay charges. The 
dairy maid muft be up every 
morning by four o'clock, or ihe 
will be backward in her bufinefs. 
At fix the cows muft be milked, 
and there muft be milkers e- 
nough to finiih by feven. The 
fame rule muft be obferved in 
the evening. Cleanlinefs is the 
great point in a dairy. The u- 
tenfils fhould all be fcalded eve 
ry day ; the pails, and whatever 
elfe are final! enough, boiled in 
the copper daily." Farmer's 

-Dairies arc often managed fo 
poorly, that it would be as well, 


7 S DAT 

-or better, to feed fwirie with the 
milk as faft as it comes from the 
cows. This method has been 
tried, as I am informed, by a 
fingle man, fomewhere about 
Newbury, who was convinced it 
was a better method than to hire 
help to carry on the dairy. 

If milk turn four before the 
cream be well rifen ; or, if mag 
gots get into the cheefes, the 
profit of a dairy will not be 
much. -See Chesje. 

Butter is oitener well manag 
ed than cheefe. But there are 
few who fait early made butter 
fo that it will keep good and 
iwect. An ounce and a half, or 
more, of the ftrongeft and heft 
fait, very finely powdered, fhould 
be worked into a pound of but 
ter, and fo thoroughly mixed 
that every part may be equally 
fait. For if ever fo fmall a part 
imifes of being falted, it will turn 
rank, and communicate its ill 
tafte to the remainder. It mould 
then be put into tubs that are 
quite fweet, and fo clofely pack 
ed and crowded, that no air can 
be in contact with the butter ; 
which mould be carefully cover 
ed with a piece of fine cloth, af 
ter dipping it in melted fweet 
butter. When more is to be 
put into the tub, take up the 
cloth ; and after that is well 
crowd-ed in, and levelled, put on 
the cloth again fo nicely as to 
{hut out, if poffible, every parti 
cle of air. The fame mould 
be done as often as any is taken 
out for ufe. The tubs, during 
fummer and fall, fhould ftand on 
the bottom of the coldeft part of 
the cellar. When there is occa- 
jfionto carry butter to any diftance 
for fale, in hot weather, let not 
the tubs, or boxes, be expofed to 
the heat of a traveling horfe, by 
lying againft his fides. For by 
this praftice it is known that a 

D A I 

great deal of butter is greatly 

a houfe or apartment where milk 
is kept, &c. 

Our farmers and their wives 
feem to think it necefiary, or 
highly convenient, to have a 
dairy room annexed to their 
dwelling houfe, partly above and 
partly below ground, that they 
may dry their cheefes in the up 
per part, and fet milk and cream 
in the lower. This, in wooden 
hcufes, is certainly not the beft 
practice, and occafions much 
lofs. For fuch an apartment will 
be top hot in fummer, nd too 
cold in winter, to keep milk in 
it ; neither will it be poflible to 
keep it fo fweet as it ought to 
be kept. 

An apartment in a cellar is 
better on every account to keep 
milk in. As to drying of cheefes, 
they mould never be kept to dry 
in the fame room where milk is 
fet ; for they will undoubted 
ly communicate an acidity to the 
furrounding air, which will tend 
to turn all the milk four that 
Hands within the fame enclofure. 
And a drier room would be bet 
ter for the cheefes ; only let it 
be kept dark, that the flies may 
not come at them. So that, in- 
fiead of a place called a dairy, 
there fhould be a milk room, and 
a cheefe room, in a farm houfe. 

A room in a cellar may be 
kept fo nearly of an equal cool- 
neis, by means of burning a few 
coals in it ; when the weather is 
cold, that the milk will neither 
grow four in fummer, nor freeze 
in winter : So that nothing will 
obftrucl; the rifing ot all the 
cream f It is fuppofed that the 
warmth of the air in a milk room 
ought to be from 50 to 55 de 
grees on Farenheit's thermome 
ter. But a few degrees over or 


D A I 

tmder will produce no very dif- 
sgreeable effefts. The cellar 
ihould have fuch windows as will 
afford a fufficient quantity of 
light, and be on the molt north 
ern fide ; and they mould be o- 
pened now and then to lei in 
frefli air, particularly in the cool- 
eft of the mornings in fummer. 
The room mould be ceiled with 
plaifter, t& prevent the defcent 
of dirt ; and the top and fides 
white wafhed, to increafe the 
light, and fill up chinks that har 
bour infefts. Every part fhould 
be kept extremely clean and 
fweet, and nothing fhould enter 
into it which can corrupt the air. 
The floor mould be made of 
ftones, bricks or tiles,, and be 
frequently warned in fummer 
with the coldeft water, to cool 
and fweeten the air in the room j 
and milk fhould not be fuffered 
to ftand in it till it becomes four, 
left the fournefs be communica't- 
to that which is fweet. For the 
fame reafon, cream which is put 
by for churning, ought not to be 
kept in that apartment which 
contains the milk. B-ecaufe acid 
ity in cream is expe&ed, and 
neceffary before butter will come. 
Thofe who have large' dairies, 
in hot climates, having a fpring 
or brook near the dwelling houfe, 
might find it worth while to 
build a milk room over it, with 
a ftone floor, and a channel in 
the floor to pafs the water all 
round, near -the infides of the 
walls. The pans may be fet in 
the channels, and water let in at 
pFeafupe, to cool the milk in the 
hotteft feafon. An arch of brick 
mould be turned over the build 
ing. The windows, to let in 
light and air, mould be on the 
northerly fide, or end. To fhel- 
ter the arch from the weather, a 
flory of wood m^y be ere61ed 
over it. for a cheele room. The 

Bit 79 

arch will be the cooler in fum 
mer and warmer in winter, as 
well as more durable, as it will 
be defended from rain, &c. 

It rats and mice cannot enter 
the milk room, there will be no 
need of having fhelves in it. 
The floor is the beft place to fet the 
veffels of milk on, it being cool- 
eftin fummer, and perhaps warm- 
eft when the weather is froflv. 

DARNEL, Lfflium,z trouble- 
fome weed, which fometimes ap 
pears among grain, and is often 
fo fruitful as to f'poil a crop,, 
The feeds of it referable corns 
of blafted i ye, but are more light 
and chaffy. Thefe weeds mould 
be pulled up before they go to 
feed. But grain for fowingmay 
be moftly cleared of the feeds 
by fwimming it in water. 

DENSHIRING, fee the arti 
cle Burn Baking. 

DIBBLE, among gardeners^ 
the name of a tool, or forked 
ftick, with which they let plaats* 
DiEi. of Arts. 

DITCH, a narrow channel, 
or trench, of great ufe in agri 
culture. Ditches ferve two pur- 
pofes, to enclofe grounds and 
to carry off fuperfluous water. 
When they are ufed for fences, 
they fhould be four feet wide, at 
leaft, at the furface. In England 
they make them wider. But 
four feet is enough, when the 
raifed eanh is laid all on one 
fide. When they ferve only as 
drains, they mould be wider or 
narrower, in proportion to the 
quantity of water which is to 
pafs through them. And the 
earth may be laid in heaps, in-, 
ftead of laying it in a continued 
bank. Thus the water will the 
better iind its way into the ditch. 

A ditch fhould be three times 
wider at the top than at die bot 
tom, to prevent the killing in of 
th-* fides. Where there is a cur 


D I T 

rent of water, the fides will foine- 
times be undermined by it. But 
in this country, the fides of ditch 
es are often hove in by the fe- 
vere frofls in winter. Nothing 
will fo much prevent the filling 
up of ditches as flrong rooted 
graffes, or other plants, growing 
plentifully on their margins. 

DITCHING, the making of 
ditches. This work is moft 
commonly performed in fum- 
mer, or early in autumn. When 
this work is to be done in very 
low and wet land, a hot and dry 
feafon is beft ; that the water 
may not prove troublefome, nei 
ther by its quantity, nor by its 
coldnefs. When it is to be per 
formed in a fait marfh, not only 
a dry and warm time mould be 
chofen for the bufmefs, but it 
ihould be done alfo at a time 
when the tides are loweft. On 
high lands, ditches may be made 
at almoft any feafon, when the 
ground is not frozen. But in 
the fpring the digging will be 
eafieft, the ground being foften- 
ed by the preceding frofls. But 
as the ground is drieft in autumn, 
then is the beft time for ditching 
in moft of our low lands. At 
leaft, the month of September is 
a good feafon. But farmers muft 
be governed, as to the time, in 
fome meafure, by their own con- 
veniency. It muft be done when 
no other bufmefs of greater im 
portance demands the whole of 
their attention and exertion. 

When bufhy ground, full of 
ftrong roots, is to be ditched, the 
Rev. Mr. Eliot wifely recom 
mends beginning the ditch in 
the winter, when the ground is 
frozen two or three inches deep. 
The furface may be chopped into 
pieces by a broad axe with a long 
helve, and the fods pulled out 
with an inftrument made like a 
dung croom. The farmer may 

D I V 

probably hit upon a good time 
for this work in December, whew 
there happens to be no mow, 
and when it will not interfere 
with other farming bufmefs. The 
lower part of the ditch may be 
done in the following fummerj 
or autumn. In a free and firm 
foil, a ditch may be begun with 
a plough, drawn by an orderly 
team that will keep to the line*; 
This faves labour. 

To make a ditch ftraight, and 
equal in all its parts, it is recom 
mended that the work be regu 
lated by a frame of flit deal, nail 
ed together, to the exacl fize of 
the intended ditch. It may be 
a rod or more in length, and a3 
wide as the intended ditch. 

DIVISIONS, of a Farm Jots 
enclofed for the convenience of 
tillage, pafturing, mowing, &c. 

The judicious dividing of a 
farm into lots, may fave much 
labour, efpecially much travel 
ing from one part to another. 
The more fquare lots are made, 
the more is faved in fencing. 
Crooked fences fhould if pofli- 
ble be avoided, not only to fave 
expenfe, but to add beauty to a 
field, or plantation. All tillage 
lots, and efpecially fmall ones, 
fhould be nearly of equal dimen- 
fions on all fides ; for if a lot be 
out of fquare, the labour of 
ploughing will be increased, as 
there mult be a number of fhort 
furrows. If a lot be long and 
narrow, crofs ploughing will be 
either prevented, or the labour 
of it much increafed. 

When it can conveniently be 
fo ordered, the lots defigned 
chiefly for tillage fhould be near- 
eft to the houife and barn, to fave 
labour in carting manure, and 
to prevent lofs in getting in the 
crops. The nearer grain is,- the 
lefs it will fhatter out in carting. 
The mowing lots fhould be next 


D 1 V 

io the tillage, if the foil permits ; 
as thefe mnft be dunged, and their 
crops carted : The lots for paftur- 
age fhould be contrived to be next, 
and the wood lots fartheft of all 
the lots from the houfe, that fo the 
view of the other lots may not 
be obftrufted too much by trees. 
Suppofe a farm of one hundred 
acres, lying all on one fide of the 
road, 100 rods wide ori the road, 
and i6p rods deep ; it may be 
well divided according to the 
following fcheme : 

D o o 








a ji. 






Where a is the farm houfe, b 
the barn ; c c c c the tillage lots, 
of which one of the corner ones 
may contain the orchard, that it 
may not obftrucl; the view of the 
other parts of the farm. Thefe 
lots are fometimes to be relied, 
by laying them to grafs \dddd 
mowing lots, once in a while to 
be ufed as tillage ; e pafture 
lots ; ff wood lots, to be ufed 
alfo as paftures. The front lots 
aire five acres each, the reft ten, 
excepting what the Fane takes 
lip, which fhould not be very 
harrow, left it be blocked up too 
much with friow in winter. The 
land it contains will be ufeful 
for pafturing ; fo that its wide- 
nefs will be no tofs. 

On this plan, the labour of 
driving cattle out and in, morn 
ing and evening, will be fave'd, 
as the lane may be always in 
common with the pafture which 
is in prefent ufe, the gates of all 
the reft being flwt. 

If the lane pafs through funk- 
en land, the owner had better be 
at the expenfe of a little caufey- 
ing, than fpoil the regularity of his 
lots by making it crooked. Or, 
fometimes a bog or a fteep hill 
may be avoided, by making the 
lane a little on one fide of the 
centre of the farm, but ftill par 
allel to the fides. If the lots def- 
tined for tillage be too low, or 
wet, it mould be confidered 
whether they may not be made 
fufficiently dry by draining. If 
fo, there will be no need of can- 

When a farm is more oblong 
fhaped than I have here fuppof- 
ed, the lots may be lengthened 
the other way, or made fmaller, 
as mall be found convenient. 
Small lots are generally the moft 
profitable, in proportion to their 
quantity of land r efpecially when 
they are ufed as paftures. 

If a farm be out of fquare, a 
lane, perhaps, may be had paral 
lel to one of its fides ; fo that 
fome fquare lots may be obtained 
for tillage. The lhape of lots 
ufed only for other purpofes, is 
not of 10 much conlequence. 
Leaft of all thofe which are for- 

There are doubtlefsmany farms 
fo broken and irregular as to be 
quite incapable of the above reg 
ulation. But all I would con 
tend for is, that when it is prac 
ticable, without too much ex 
penfe, a farm fhould be fo order 
ed. It will be ot great advan 
tage to the farmer, in faving 
time and labour. 

DOOR DUNG, a manure 
taken from the back yards and 
doors of dwelling houfes. 

Though it may feem to be 
made up of chips, faw duft, and 
feveral other matters" that appear 
unpromifing, yetthereare various 
fub fiances intermixed with them, 

$2 D R A 

and foaked into them, which 
contain food for plants in abun 
dance. A large proportion of 
the dung of fwine and of fowls, 
which are excellent manures, are 
contained in the eompoft. It 
has, belides, the fweepings- of the 
houfe, blood,.. fnaalL bonesj fhells, 
and other animal f ub fiances ; alfo 
fuds, alhes, foot, urine, together 
with fait particles, which are 
fome of the beft of manures. 

It is, therefore, no wonder if 
this filth is found to be very con 
ducive to the growth of plants,, 
as it really is. 

Some think it beft to let it lie 
year after year in the yard, that* 
it may grow fine and mellow. 
But it is wafted by this practice,, 
the fun, air, and rain, depriving 
it of its volatile, fine, and moft 
trustifying particles. I choofe 
to be rid of its putrid ftearns, 
and place it where it may do- 
good and not hurt. I, therefore, 
have it fcraped up clean- every 
fpring, clearing it of the largeft 
and brighteft chips ; and after it 
has lain in a heap for a few days 
to ferment, apply it to the foil in 
the field, though it be not. fine 
enough for the garden ;: or elfe 
add it to the compoft dunghill. 
I find it to be a very proper ma 
nure for land that is ftiff and clay 
ey ; and it will do great fervice 
in any foil. 

Thofe farmers are certainly 
guilty oi bad hufbandry, who 
take no care to avail thernfelves 
of this excellent manure, of 
which they all have more or lefs ; 
and that is commonly beft, where 
the greateft number of fwine are 
permitted to run. 

DRAIN, a channel made in 
the foil to carry off fuperfluous 
water, or divert its courfe. 

Drains are of the higheft im 
portance in agriculture : For, by 
means of them, lands that are fo 

I> R A 

wet and fenny as to be entirety 
ufelefs, may oftentimes become 
by far the moft valuable part of 
a farm. It would be happy for 
this country, if the hufbandmen 
were fully convinced of the vaft 
utility of them. The real value 
of fome eftates might be doubled, 
by a fmall expenfe in draining. 

Drains ufed in farming are of 
two kinds, open, and hollow, or 
covered. The open drains are 
moftly ufed, becaufe more eafily 
made. But if the firft cofl be 
lefs, the expenfe, in the long run f 
may not be lefs, but greater than 
that of covered drains. For they 
will be continually filling up ; 
and, therefore, will often need to 
be mended'. 

Open" drains are to be fhaped 
like other ditches, wider at the 
furface than at the bottom. And, 
for a general rule, they mould 
be carried through the loweft 
and wetteft parts of the foil, 
though it ihould caufe them to 
be crooked and unfightly. The 
water will be carried off more 
effectually ; and fome labour in 
digging will be faved - T for if 
they pafs through the higher 
parts, the ditch muft be deeper, 
at leaft in fome places. But 
where a plain is incommoded 
with too much water defcending 
from an adjacent height, the wa 
ter muft be cut off by an open 
drain drawn along at the foot of 
the high ground, and the earth 
which is taken out mould be 
laid on the fide towards the plain. 

Open drains ferve well enough 
in fwamps, if the foil be not too 
loofe, fo as to fill them up foon, 
In this cafe the covered drains are 
certainly beft, efpecially where 
materials for making them are 
eafily obtained. 

The earth that is thrown out 
of open drains in fwamps fhould 
not lie in banks by the fide o 


D R A 

them. This will tend to prevent 
the water from paffing freely in 
to them, and conduce to their fill 
ing up the fooner. It mould be 
fpread over the furface of the 
drained land, which will make 
it drier, and fometimes anfwer 
as a good manure. And, in this 
operation, there will be often a 
mixing of foils, attended with 
confiderable advantage. 

To judge rightly, whether it 
will be worth while to attempt 
the draining of a fwamp, it is 
firft to be confidered what will 
be the coft of digging at the out 
let, where it will, in feme cafes, 
be neceflary to go very deep. 
If large rocks mould be found in 
the way, they may be blown to 
pieces with ,gun powder. But 
doing this is fomewhat -expen- 
five. Alfo, the depth of the 
black foil in the fwamp muft be 
examined, and the ftratum next 
under it. If the under ftratum 
be clay, the fwamp may be weH 
worth draining, though -no more 
than fix inches of till or mud be 
above it ; for the mud and clay 
mixed, will make an excellent 
foil. But if the under ftratum 
be gravel, or white fand, it will 
not be beft to undertake drain 
ing, unlefe the depth of black 
mud be as much as from -fifteen 
to eighteen inches. For it is to 
be remembered that the foil will 
fettle after draining, and be not 
fo deep as it was before. If, af 
ter draining and hardening, there 
mould be a fufficient depth for 
tillage, the foil will be moft ex 
cellent ; and will pay well for 
an expenfive draining. 

Tha manner of draining a 
fwamp is as follows : Beginning 
at the outlet, pafs a large ditch 
through it, fo as moftly to cut 
the loweft parts. Then make 
another ditch quite round it, near 
;to the border, to cut off the 

D R A 83 

fprings which come from the up 
land, and to receive the water 
that runs down from the hills 
upon the furface, in great rains. 
Thefe ditches are to be larger or 
fmaller in fome proportion to 
the bignefs of the fwamp, having 
a regular defcent for the water, 
that , not much of it may Hand in 
them. "If the fwamp be large, it 
may be neceffary that fome fmall 
er crofs drains mould be cut in 
feveral of -the loweft parts. The 
bottom of the main ditches, 
when the -foil is not of an exira- 
ordinary depth, muft be lower 
than the bottom of the loofe foil ; 
otherwife the foil will n over be 
come .fufficiently dry .and firm. 
When the fwarnp ccmes to be 
fufficiently dry for tillage, fucii 
of the drains may be converted 
into hollow ones, as cannot profit 
ably be 'kept open for fences. 
Thtis the quantity of impiovea- 
ble land will be increafed. 

If a bridge aver any of the 
drains mould be wanted, the beft 
way to make one will be by fill 
ing up a Ihort piece of the drain 
with ftones, or wood, that is, by 
making it hollow in that part. 
This will be lefs expenfive than 
a common bridge, and anfwer 
the parpofe better. 

Tho-fe who are willing to be 
convinced of the amazing fruit- 
fulnefs of drained fwamps, mould 
read Mr. Eliot on the iubject. 
He reprefents them as prodocing 
turnips, clover, oats, &c. to great 
advantage ; Jing'lifh bay, four 
tons per acre, and Indian corn 
at the rate of more than ninety 
bufbels per acre, without ma 

Such lands are highly advan 
tageous, as they require no dung ; 
and cannot be eaiily, if at all, 
worn out by cropping : Alfo, as 
they bear drought remarkably 
well. As this country very oft-. 


84 D R A 

en has its crops greatly dimin- 
jfhed by dry feafons, it would be 
well if every farmer had contin 
ually fome of this kind of foil in 
tillage, or mowing, or in both. 

Covered or hollow drains are 
more ufed for the drying of 
fpringy, wet and fpungy uplands. 
They may be ufed with advan 
tage 'on gentle declivities, where 
the foil appears fpewy and cold, 
by means of fprings. They will 
caufe the foil above and below 
them, to be more dry and fruit 
ful. But if the defcent be very 
fteep, or if the wetnefs of de 
clivities be owing only to water 
running down on the furface, the 
open drains are to be preferred : 
For if they were covered, the 
water would pafs over them, and 
the drain would be of little ad 

To make a hollow drain, dig 
a channel between thirty and 
thirty fix inches wide atop, and 
iix inches, or the breadth of a 
fpade, at the bottom, and three 
feet deep, giving it juft defcent 
enough to make the water run 
brifkly. Fill it half full, or more, 
with fmall flones, thrown in at 
random, and cover them with a 
layer of firaw, leaves, or the 
fmall branches of trees with the 
leaves on them ; then fill it up 
to a level with the furface, with 
the earth that was thrown out. 
Such a drain, as it will not choke 
or fill up, will never need repair 
ing. It the defcent fhould be 
but jiift fo much as to make the 
water run flowly, there may be 
fome danger of its choking up, 
and ceafing to run at all. But 
this danger will be greater or lefs 
according to the difference of 
foils. There will be no danger 
of it, in a foil that does not eafi 
ly diffolve in water. 

If Itones be fcarce, long fag 
gots, or fafcines,, laid in the 

D R A 

trench, will anfwer as well, fo 
long as they lait ; which being 
fecluded from the air, will not 
rot foon. Some fay they have 
known them to anfwer well for 
forty years. 

.If a plain piece of ground be 
too wet to be made fit for tillage 
by ridge ploughing, it ihould be 
made drier by hollow drains. It 
no lower place be adjoining, 
where the drains may have an 
outlet, holes Ihould be dug in 
forne of the loweft parts of the 
plain, to examine what ftrata are 
under the foil. It is likely that 
a ftratum of clay, or of fome oth 
er earth not eafily penetrated by 
water, is the real caufe of the 
wetnefs of the foil. If you find 
it fo, then dig through the ftra 
tum, and below it, till you come 
to loofe gravel, fand, or fome- 
thing that will eafiiy imbibe wa 
ter : Fill up the hole with Hones, 
and diretl your hollow drains to 
it. It will ferve for a perpetual 
outlet ; and cpnduce much to 
the drying of the foil. 

The peculiar advantages of 
hollow drains are, that they will 
not need repairing, as they do 
not fill up ; that no foil is wait 
ed, or rendered ufelefs by them ; 
that a plpugh may pafs over 
therft to as great a depth as is 
rieceflary in. any kind of tillage ; 
and carts and other carriages are 
not obftructed or incommoded 
by them. So that thefe drains 
may pafs acrofs roads without 
detriment, when the defcent re 
quires it. It is often necellary 
to hollow drain roads to lay; 
them dry, and found to be of 
great advantage. 

The draining of a marim, or 
fhaking meadow, which feems to 
be a foil floating on the water, is 
jfometiines practicable. I fha.ll 
give the reader the method oi 
doing it in th$ words of the in 

D R A 

genious Mr, Dickfon. ' To 
drain a mariih," fays he, " it is 
neceflary, in the firft place, to 
convey away all the ftagnating 
water : And this water can be 
conveyed away in no other man 
ner, than by a large open drain, 
with a fufficient fall. This fall 
muft be fuch, as to carry oft the 
xvater from the bottom of the 
mariih ; otherwife little advan 
tage is to be expected from it. 
By conveying away all the ftag- 
nating water, fome land on each 
iide will he gained : For the wa 
ter being removed, the earth by 
degrees will fubfide, and become 
firm and folid. By this, likewife, 
the bottom will become firm ; 
which will allow the drain, by 
degrees, to be carried forward 
through the middle of the marifh. 
If the fprings, by which the mariih 
is fupplied, arife near the middle, 
this principal drain, with fome 
branches cut from each fide, 
where the fprings are largeft, or 
moft numerous, will be fufficient. 
But if there are fprings in all 
places, as is frequently the cafe, 
it will be neceflary to make 
drains at the fides, as nearly par 
allel to the principal drain, as 
the fituation of the marim will 
allow, to intercept the water that 
comes from the heights, and 
fupplies the fprings. It will be 
neceffary, likewife, to make com 
munications, by crofs drains, be 
twixt the parallel drains at the 
fides, and the principal drain i n the 
middle." It is no wonder if the 
coft of draining a ihaking mead 
ow mould be confiderable, as it 
feems like a foil floating upon 
water. But there is no reafon to 
doubt its becoming fome of the 
belt foil, when fo drained as to 
give firmnefs to it. 

DRAY, or car, a flight kind 
of carriage drawn by one horfe. 
It confiits of a pair of thills, con- 

D R E 


j nefled by two or three crofs bars. 
The hinder ends of the thills 
I Hide along on the ground. It 
| draws heavily on bare roads, but 
j on grafs land much more eafily. 
j The horfe muft carry much of 
I the load on his back. In cafe of 
neceffity, it is better than no car 

DRESSING, the application 
of dung, or other manures, to foils, 
to increafe their fruitfnlnefs. 
Dreffing differs from manuring 
in general, only as it is chiefly 
intended for the increafing of 
one fingle crop. Not only are 
drefFmgs neceffary for poor and 
weak foils ; but they are profit 
ably applied to thofe which are 
rich and flrong; efpecially when 
! feeds are foWn which need much 
I nourifhment, or will make good 
return for it. 

There are four things chiefly 
to be regarded in dre fling ; the 
fuitablenefs of the drefling to the 
foil, and to the crop ; and the 
manner and the feafon of apply- 

To light, warm, or fandy foils, 
the coldeft manure mould be ap 
plied ; fuch as the dung of hogs, 
cows, oxen, &c. Dung that is 
much mixed with ftraw does heft 
in fuch a foil, as the ftraw foon 
rots and becomes food for plants. 
Cold and ftiff foils mould be 
dreffed with the hotteft and dri- 
eft manures, as the dung of 
horfes, Iheep and fowls. Wet 
foils mould have manures that 
have the grcateft power of-ab- 
forbing moiilure. Lime, where 
it is cheap and plenty, may be 
ufed with great advantage ; alli 
es, coals, and faw duft, are alfo 
very proper. 

Some kinds of dreffing fhould 
be well mixed with the foil, by 
the plough and harrow ; efpe 
cially fuch as are apt to lofe their 
itrcn^t.h 3 by being expofed to 


S6 D R E 

the air. Of this fort are dungs 
in general, and fome other ma 
nures. Dung is to be ploughed 
in with a light furrow. Com 
pofts, which confift of dung, 
earth, and other fubftances, need 
only to be harrowed. If drefT- 
ings are laid too deep, as under 
deep furrows, they will be in a 
manner loft ; the roots of moft 
kinds of annual plants will 
icarcely reach them ; and, be 
fore the next ploughing, the 
lirength of them will be funk 
flill deeper into the earth. 

There are other manures which 
Ihould be ufed only as top dreff- 
ings. Their expofure to the air 
takes away little or none of their 
virtue, being of an alkalious na 
ture, fuch as aihes, lime, and the 
like. They are fpeedily fettled 
into the foil by rains, and melt 
ing fnows ; and afford a more 
kindly nouriihment to the roots 
of grafs and grain, than if they 
were buried in the foil. Being 
laid lower than the furface, their 
Ilrength would be more apt to 
be carried lower than the roots 
of plants commonly reach. 

Some dreflings are thought to 
be more fuccefsfully applied 
fome time before fowing. Such 
a one lime is faid to .be, as being 
apt to burn, or too much heat 
the feed. But this, I think, can 
be only when it is laid on un- 
llacked, and in large quantities. 

Other dreflings anfwer belt at 
the time of fowing. This is the 
cafe .as to moft kinds of dung 
that a-re ufed, and of feveral oth 
er manures. 

But thofe manures which ex 
ert all their ftr.engLh fuddenly, 
are allowed to be beft, ufed only 
as top dreflings, after the plants 
are up, fuch as foot, afhes, .cer 
tain warm compofts, and malt 
duft. If they are laid on winter 
$rain in autumn, there will be 

D R I 

danger of their caufing too rapid 
a growth : In confequence ot 
which, the grain will be after 
wards ftinted, and languifh, un- 
lefs another and larger drefling 
be given it in the following 
fpring, or fummer. It is proba 
bly beft to apply thefe dreflings 
juit before the time when the 
plants will need the greateft fup- 
ply of vegetable nourifhment, 
which is when their growth is 
moft rapid, or near the time 
when the ears are (hooting out. 

The adapting of dreflings to 
the nature of plants will be found, 
in thofe parts of this work, where 
the moil .ufeful pla-nts are treat- 
ed of. 

DRILL, *' a name given to 
an inftrument for fowing feeds 
in the new method of horfe hoe 
ing hufbandry. It plants the 
corn in rows, makes the chan 
nels, fows the feeds in them, 
and covers them with earth when 
fown ; and all this at the fame 
time with great expedition. The 
principal parts of a drill are the 
feed box, the hopper, the plough 
and its harrow, of all which the 
feed box is the chief. It meaf- 
ures or rather numbers out the 
feeds, which it receives from the 
hopper, and is for this purpofe 
as an artificial hand ; but it de 
livers out the feed much more 
equally than can be done by a 
natural hand. 

" Whoever is defirous of 
knowing more intimately the 
whole apparatus for this method 
of fowing, may fee it fully de- 
fcri-bed, and illuft rated with fig 
ures, by Mr. Tull, in his Horfe 
Hodng Hvjbandry" Dil. of 

Th drills whick are defcrib- 
ed by European writers are very 
complicated and coftly machines. 
But I have had barley, carrot, 
.and fojtne other feeds, evenly and 

D R I 

drilled by a hand- 
drill, being only alight tinmeaf- 
wre, with a hole through the bot 
tom, arnl a broad headed fpike 
in the hole. When this is ufed, 
channels on the ridges muft be 
previously made with the head 
of a rake. But a drill, which I 
would rather recommend for ufe, 
on account of its ligh'tnefs, and 
fimple conftruftion, is a drill 
upon fmall wheels, to be drawn 
by a man, or by one or two boys. 
To the hinder part of the axis is 
fattened a long ihaped, tapering 
veflel, ferving at once as a hop 
per, drill box, and hofe. Below 
the middle is a partition, through 
which is a hole for the feeds to 
pafs into the hofe. The hole 
has a Hiding cover, which flops 
and opens it two or three times 
in a fecond, by being failened to 
a fpring that is moved by one of 
the wheels. A coulter to open 
the channel may be made f-aft to 
the fore part of the axis, as much 
longer than the fpokes of the 
wheels as the depth at which the 
feeds are to be buried : And this, 
as well as the box,- may be fixed 
higher or lower on the axis at 
pleafure, according as the {ow 
ing is to be performed, on ridg 
es or on a level ; or according 
to the depths at which different 
feeds are to be fown. A fmall 
harrow, or rake,, to cover the 
feeds, may as well follow this, as 
a drill of any other con-ftruclion. 
I have feen a drill nearly of this 
eonftru&ion in pofleffion of the 
Rev. Mr. Little of Wells. And 
I cannot but prefer fuch a hand 
drill to a heavy complex one, 
drawn by a horfe : For the tread 
of a horfe makes fuch holes in 
the foil, as muft needs render the 
operation of drilling lefs accu 
rate, or more imperfect. Two 
boxes with coulters may as well 
& fixed on the machine I rec- 

D R O 87 

ommend as orre ; but it will in- 
creafe the labour of drawing it 

DllOUGHT, fuch a contin 
uance of dry weather, that plants 
cannot draw a fufficiency of 
npurifhment from the earth, to 
give them their full growth and 

Some countries are much more 
liable to this inconvenience than- 
others. Newengland, for in- 
ftance, is oftener troubled with 
it than Greatbritain ; one oeca- 
fion of which is, the greater heat 
of our fummers, by which lands 
grow dry falter here than there. 
Another caufe may be our hav 
ing a greater quantity of fair 
weather. And our being more 
liable to drought, makes it nec- 
effary that our methods of cul 
ture Ihould be different from 
thofe practifed in that country. 
Heating manures are generally 
more needful there than here ; 
and ridge ploughing is a more 
proper kind of tillage for the 
Englifh than for us though it> 
might be of great fervice in ma 
ny of our fields. I have found 
eonfiderable advantage from it 
in land that is flat and wet. 

To plough our drieft lands in 
ridges,, would undoubtedly be 
loft labour, unlefs for certain? 
particular crops, as it would caufe 
a drought to be more hurtful tci 
the crops, and there is no dan 
ger of too much wetnefs* And 
yet it may be, that when an o^er 
drynefs of foil on the fide of a' 
hill, is owing to the rain's run 
ning off before it has time to 
foak into the foil, ploughing the;' 
land into ridges, and making the 
gutters nearly parallel with the 
horizon, may caufe the foil to re 
tain- rnoifture the better. But as 
this would be difficult plough 
ing, perhaps ribbing the iurface 
with furrows half a rod aparf^ 
might as well retard the efcape 


83 D R O 

of the rain water. This latter 
method would be proper for paf- 
ture grounds, which lie in fuch 
a iituation. 

It is in the power of the farm 
er in good meafure to guard a- 
gainii the ill effecls of drought. 
It is a matter that certainly 
ought to be attended to in this 
country, in which almoft halt ot 
our fummers are complamed of 
by many, as being very dry. The 
beft method is, to have more of 
our loWeft lands under the beft 
improvement in tillage. If this 
were the cafe, we ihould not fo 
often hear of a fcarcity cauf- 
ed by drought. If it were be 
come cuftomary to plant and 
fow on drained lands, and in 
thofe which are fo low and wet 
as to need laying in ridges, pof- 
fibly our dry fummers would be 
as fruitful on the whole as our 
wet ones. But, as we manage 
our lands at prefent, the cafe is 
far otherwife. A great number 
of people are always reduced to 
a diftrefled condition by a "dry 
fummer. And they are too ready 
to confider the ihortnefs of their 
crops in a dry year as a divine 
judgment, though they might 
have prevented it by a more pru 
dent management. 

Another way to guard againft 
having our crops pinched by 
drought is, to have a variety of 
different crops on a farm each 
year, fome that are leaft injured 
by a drought, and fome that re 
quire the moil rain. Thus, let a 
ieafon happen as it will, we may 
hope to gain in one crop, what 
we lofe in another ; or at leaft 
that fome of our crops will be 
very good, if others ihould fail. 
Sometimes land is fo fhaped 
by nature, that the water of a 
rivulet, or of a plentiful fpring, 
may be led by gutters, or narrow 
channels, to moiften-places which 

D R O 

would otherwife fuffer by drought- 
When it can be be performed^ 
without too much expenfe, it 
>,vill be found to be an excellent 
piece of hulbandry. In fome 
cafes it may be a double advan 
tage, making a wet place drier, 
by diverting the water to places 
that need it. Deep tillage is al- 
fo of very great importance to 
prevent the ill effects of a dry 
feafon. For the drynefs of three 
or four inches in depth would 
fcarcely alter the condition of 
the plants. But if the plough 
has gone only to this depth, a 
fevere drought will be fatal to 
the crop. 

It would greatly advantage the 
farmer, if he could foretel wheth 
er a feafon will be dry or wet. 
But as he knows this is impofli- 
ble, he fhould fo conduct his 
crops, and other matters, that he 
may be prepared for either ex* 

The earlier a drought begins^ 
the more diftrefling it generally 
proves in this country. For, af 
ter the grafs crops and Englifh 
grain have nearly got their 
growth, a drought is lefs detri 
mental than before, becaufe the 
Indian corn, by means of the til- 
lage given while the plants are 
growing, bears it fo well as to be 
feldom cut fhort by it : And In 
dian corn is the principal of our 
late crops. 

Failure grounds are often fo" 
dried up, that both the meat and 
drink of the cattle are cut off at 
once. This fhews the propriety 
and neceiTity of having fome low 
lands in paiture, when it is prac 
ticable. And a few trees, grow 
ing at proper diftances in a paf- 
ture, will partially made the foil, 
and prevent its drying fo rapid 
ly. The more grafs will be pro 
duced ; and the cattle will be re- 
frethcd by the fliade ; befides' 



the advantage the farmer will 
gain in fewel and timber. In 
thbfe parts of the country where 
trees have become fcarce, the o- 
minion of planting quick grow 
ing trees in our pa/hire grounds 
is unpardonable. When a paf- 
ture is deftitute of water, Mn 
Eliot advifes to dig a well on 
the fide of fome hill in the paf- 
ture, and having come to water, 
to dig a trench below, level with 
the bottom of the well, and 
bring the water through a hoU 
low drain out to the fur face, 
where it may be kept in a little 
bafin, made in the foil, for a wa-^ 
tering place. 

DUNG, the excrement of an^ 
imals, iifed to increafe the fertil 
ity of land. Dung may be faid 
to be almoft of the fame im 
portance to the farmer, as ilock 
in trade is to the merchant 
There are but few lots, or pieces 
of lots, in this country, which 
can be tilled to any great profit, 
in the common way of culture, 
without manure ; and dung is 
of all manures the mod ufefuL 
The very heft of (oils, when 
dunged, will more than pay tor 
it, by the increafe of their crops, 
and the poorelt will produce 
next to nothing without manure, 
Some think it more profitable to 
apply dung to their beft foils 
than to their pootfeft, as they 
think the increafe from it to be 
greater in the former cafe than 
in the latter, This opinion is 
probably founded in truth. 

The forts of dung which are, 
or may be ufed, are that of black 
cattle, iheep, horfcs, fwine, goats, 
hens, pigeons, -ducks, geefe and 
rabbits, befides human ordure. 

The dung of animals conlins 
of oils, fixed and volatile falts, 
together with nitrous and earthy 
particles. But in different forts 
f dung thefe principles are dif- 


DUN 89 

ferently compounded ; fo that 
the dung of one animal is a 
proper manure for one kind of 
foil, and that of another for an 
other. And yet there is no kind 
ot foil that may not be enriched, 
in fome degree, by any kind of 

Mr. "bickfon fays, " Dung 
promotes vegetation, by increaf- 
ing the vegetable food ; it being 
compounded of the fame princi 
ples of which the vegetable food 
itfelf is compounded* It pro 
motes Vegetation, by enlarging 
the pa (lure of plants : It attracts 
acids from the air and foil ; and 
by raifing a fermentation with 
them, feparates the particles of 
the foil with which it is mixed. 
It promotes it, by Communicat 
ing to the foil a power of attrat- 
ing the vegetable- food from the 
air ; for the earth it contains, is 
of the abforberit kind, and- at- 
tracls all the other principles o 
the vegetable food* And it like- 
wife promotes vegetation, by 
preparing the vegetable food for 
the nouriihment of plants ; for, 
by the falts which it contains, 
and produces, it not only attracts 
oils, which is probably one of 
the principal ingredients of eve 
ry plant we cultivate in the field,, 
but diffolves them, and thereby 
makes them fit to mix with wa 
ter, and to enter the roots of 
plants. But though it operates 
in all thefe ways, it is more than 
probable that it principally ope 
rates by increafing the food of 
plants : And this feems to be 
confirmed by experience ; for 
when the virtues of dung are ex- 
ha u fled, the foil is no poorer 
than before it was laid on." 

The dung of oxen and cows 
is a cool, mild and ,oily fub- 
ilance ; and is, therefore, moil 
i u i table for warm, fandy, and 
gravelly foils. It tends to pre 

9 o DUN 

vent the foil's becoming too dry, 
and keeps the plants on it from 
being pinched for \v-ant of moif- 

Thedungof fheep is more hot 
and fiery than that of black cat 
tle ; it ferments quicker ; it is 
fitter, therefore, for cold, heavy 
lands. Perhaps the beft way of 
applying the dung of fheep to 
land is by folding, in "countries 
efpecially which are not greatly 
infefled by wolves. For in this 
method their urine is all faved, as 
well as their dung. But it ought 
to be turned in with the plough 
as foon as poflible, that the fun 
and air may not deprive the land' 
of it. 4 

In Flanders, it is the practice to 
ho ufe their fheep at light, under 
flight iheds, the ground being 
fpread with dry fand, about four 
or five inches thick, laying on a 
little more frefh every night. 
This is cleared out once a week, 
and carried to a dunghill, or ap 
plied to the foil. This mixture 
of fand and hot dung, makes a 
very excellent drefTmg for cold 
and ftiff land. For there is 
fcarcely a richer manure than 
the dung and urine of fheep. 
M. Quintinie thinks it the great- 
ell promoter of fruitfulnefs, in 
all forts of ground. This meth 
od of folding fheep in' a covered 
fold, and of mixing their dung 
with fliff earth or fand, according 
to the nature of the foil it is in 
tended for, is, alfo, with much 
reafon, recommended by Mr. 
Mortimer ; who alfo fays, " that 
lie has known vaft crops of rye 
upon barren lands, that have been 
old warrens, well dunged by 
rabbits, and large oak and afh 
trees upon the' fame, though the 
foil was very lhallow." 

Some have recommended the 
reducing of fheep dung to pow 
der, by pounding it with mallets, 


and ufing it as a top drefling for 
grain, perhaps half a dozen bum- 
els on an acre. But this is a te 
dious piece of work, and of no 
Jafling advantage : Whereas too 
much can hardly be faid in praife 
of the Flanders method of ufing 
it. A prodigious quantity of 
good manure may be thus ob 
tained from a flock of fheep, by 
houfmg them regularly every 

If a light foil is intended to be 
manured with this compofl ; in* 
fiead of fand, clay, pond mud, 
or the mud of flats, may be ufed, 
thefe fub fiances having been firft 
mellowed by the frofls of winter. 
The dung of goats is fuppofed 
to be nearly of the nature of 
fheep ? s dung, 

Horfe dung is a flill hotter 
manure, as appears by its quick 
fermentation in heaps, even in 
cool weather. It is confequent- 
1;V fittefl for hot beds, when iris 
new, and for nourifhing thofe 
plants which require the greateft 
degrees of heat. The dung of 
horfes that are fed on grain, is a 
richer manure than that of thofe 
fed only on grafs and hay. 

Great care mould be taken 
that horfe dung be not fpoiled, 
by being overheated, or burnt 
in the heaps, before it is ufed. 
For, in this country, it is very 
commonly the cafe. When it 
has been fo heated as to give it 
a white and mouldy appearance, 
the virtue of it is gone. It is 
difficult to give-it age, v/ithout 
mixing it with other fubftances. 
A mixture of horfe and cow 
dung is very proper for land that 
is neither too light nor too fliff. 
Horfe dung is a much ilronger 
manure than it is fuppofed to be 
by thofe whofe conflant practice 
is to fuffer it. to be fpoilt by over 
heating in the heaps. This ma 
nure, when ufed as an ingredient 



in compofts, has an excellent et- 
fecl:, as, by its quick and ftrong 
fermentation, it fpeedily diflblves 
other fubftances that are mixed 
with it. 

Mr. Miller fays he has fre 
quently feen new horfe dung 
.buried as it came from the liable 
in very cold, moift land ; and 
always obferved that the crops 
have fucceeded better than where 
the ground was dreffed with very 
rotten dung. 

The dung of fwine is a very 
rich and tat manure, and fo cool 
,as to ferment very flowly. It is 
fo rich and oily, as to be double 
in value to neats' dung. It will 
render the moil dry and hungry 
foils exceedingly fruitful in a 
wettifh feafon, as I have found 
by experience. It refifts the ill 
effecls of drought, and does mod 
fervice in a hot country. By 
its ileady and gradual fupply of 
a rich nourilhinent, it is peculi 
arly adapted tor the growing of 
hops, pumpions, running beans, 
and every plant which has long 
vines. Nothing can equal it for 
the growing of potatoes. It has 
produced me more than a peck 
in a hill on the pooreft hui^gry 
fands. Or rather I might -fay, 
ilraw only a little impregnated 
with the dung of hogs has done 
it. This is io ftrong a manure, 
that it anfwers well, when mixed 
with a large proportion of earth, 
weeds, flraw, or other bibulous 
fubftances. It is almoft incredi 
ble how great a quantity of good 
manure may be obtained, by fup- 
plying a hogily w ith jubbilh to 
mix with the dung, I have 
heard of 40 loads of manure be 
ing made in a year by means ot 
one liogily. And I have no 
doubt of its being pra6licable. 

The dung of ducks and geeie, 
is deemed too hot and burning!, 
But it the farmer would 

D U N 91 

it in a heap, and mix it with the 
dung of cattle, he would bring 
it to a temperate heat, and draw 
from it Inch advantage as would 
indemnify him for the pains he 
Ihould take. The virtue of this 
method is known by experience. 
A farmer having abandoned a. 
piece of ground to his geefe for 
twelve years, afterwards turned 
them out to let the grafs grow, 
and it rofe fo thick and itrono- 
that a fithe would fcarcely pafs 
through it. Hen dung is recom 
mended to be f cattered in irnall 
quantities upon land intended to 
be fown, and on account ot its 
heat it is never ufed, unlefs when 
rain is {orefeen. It is an excel 
lent manure for meadows. Pig 
eon's dung is much the fam'e 
with that -of poultry, the only 
difference being its fuperiour 
heat." Scots Farmer. 

I Ihould* think it better to mix 
the dung of poultry and pigeons 
with otfeor fubftances, to allay 
their heat, before they are appli 
ed to the foil. .And thus quali 
fied, they would be -an excellent 
top drefling for corn, efpecially 
in cold and wet lands. On old 
mowing grounds, I have found 
the grafs abundantly increafed, 
by a fpririkl-ing of earth taken 
out of an apartment ufed as d 
hen hoLife, though there was lit 
tle or none of their dung vifible 
amongft it* 

" Human ordure is a very fat 
and hot manure, full of fertiliz 
ing falts and oils ; and, therefore, 
extremely proper for all cold, 
four foils ; efpecially if it be 
mixed with other dung, flraw, or 
earth, to give it a fermentation, 
and render it convenient for car 
nage. .Some do not like the ufe 
of it, on account of its bad frnell ; 
and others imagine, that it gives 
a fetid taile to plants. But in 
this they feem to cany their del 

9 2 

D U N 

icacy too far. Mr. Bradley fays, 
it is kept in pits made on pur- 
pofe, in foreign countries, till it 
be one, two, three or four years 
old : That of four years old 
is accounted the beft, that of 
three years tolerable. Perhaps 
it may owe great part of its rich- 
nefs to the urine with which it 
is mixed; for though the human 
urine be deftructive to vegeta 
bles, whilft it is new, by rea- 
fon of its burning fal ammonia- 
cal Cpirit, as Glauber terms it, 
yet time will digeft the urine, 
and render it an extraordinary 
fertilizer of every kind of foil." 
Complete Farmer. 

This kind of manure mould 
be compounded with a large 
quantity of earth, and lie one or 
two Cummers at leaft, that it may 
be thoroughly mixed. The con 
tents of an old vault would thus 
make a furprifing quantity of ex 
cellent manure. 

As dung in general is fo im 
portant a manure, every pofTible 
method mould be taken to pre 
vent its being wailed, as indeed 
a great proportion oi it is, by 
the common management oi 
our farmers. In no way is it 
more wailed, than by its being 
too much expofed to the fun, air, 
and rains. Mixing of dry earth, 
or other abCorbent fubfhinccs, 
with heaps ot dung, will do 
much towards preventing this 
iofs. Or fli ghl y fhcds may be 
made over them to prevent their 
ftrength being too much wailed 
by heavy rains ; and at the fame 
time, to prevent a too great ex 
halation from them. Some cov 
er them with turfs, when they 
choofe to keep dung till old. 
This is not a bad practice ; for 
the turfs in that fituation will 
become good manuie. I would 
hope farmers need not be told, 
that thegrafiy fide mould .be laid 


on the dung. Otherwifc, infleai 
of conCuming, it will produce a 
crop of grafs. 

It would be a good method^ 
if barns were built with the root 
hanging over about ten feet, on 
the fide or fides, where the dung 
is to be thrown out. This 
would greatly prevent its being 
robbed of its richnefs. But if 
this be neglected, and the heaps 
are at the ends, it is beft to build 
fheds or leantoos over them. If 
the heaps lie at the fides of barns 
or under the eaves, the leail that 
mould, be done to prevent the 
wafting of the dung, is to put up 
gutters, that the heaps may not 
be waihed with the ftrcanis from 
the eaves. And befides, fome 
loofe board* ihouldbe let againft 
the ficles of th n barn, in f'uch a 
manner as to. prevent the great- 
eft part of the rain from falling 
on the heaps of dung. 

Or, if tliefe things are negleft- 
ed, through indolence or an unrea- 
fonable paifimony ; at leafl let 
the farmer lay a ridge of earth 
along in the back fide of his cow 
and ox houfes, and {tables, that 
th'r dung may be mixed with the 
earth by degrees, and the Hale 
ab (orbed. If the dung is to be 
laid on a light foil, clay and turfs 
ihould be ufed, if on a heavy 
one, land is better. Avcrycon- 
fiderable Caving may be made in 
this way, cfpecially where the 
houCe is not too narrow. I have 
practiCed this method with ad 
vantage for Ceveral years pail. 

Some build cellars under their 

barns, and throw the dung 

through Ccuitles down into them, 

to ls.eep it from the weather, 

.This is a far more expenfive 

method .than what I have above 

recommended, ror it is necef- 

Cary, in order to lave the ma- 

I mire, that, the cellar wall be well 

i pointed ; and allb thut a bard 



under ftratuin form the floor, or 
that a tight artificial floor he 
made. The dung in this fitua- 
tion will mellow the faftcr, hy 
its not heing expofed to any fe- 
vere fro ft. And a cellar may 
be fo contrived, that a cart may 
be driven in at one end, and out 
at the other, which may render 
the removing it eafy. I wifh 
not to difcourage any who are 
willing to put themfelves to the 
expenfe that attends this method. 
For I am fully convinced that 
the expenfe will be more than 
repaid in a courfe of years. 

Some caution fhould be ob- 
ferved, that the ftrength of dung 
may not he diminimed by fhov- 
eling and carting it in weather 
that is hot, dry, or windy. If it 
be performed when the weather 
is calm and cloudy, its volatile 
parts will not evaporate, in any 
confiderable degree. 

When it needs fermenting in 
the field before fpreading, or put- 
ing into holes, which is often 
the cafe of new dung carted from 
large heaps, and fometirnes con 
taining ice and fnow ; the ihiall 
heaps in the field mould be thin 
ly covered with a little earth. 
It will not hinder the fermenta 
tion, but will prevent evapora 

When the farmer has carted 
his dung heaps away from the 
fides of his barn, he mould take 
up an inch or two of the furface 
of the ground beneath ; becaufe 
much of the ftrength ot the dung 
and ftale has pa (Ted into it, and 
made it a good manure. 

When dung is applied to til 
lage land by folding, it fhould 
be mixed with the foil, by the 
plough or the harrow, every two 
or three days, if the weather be 
dry. Or it may be done Math 
the hoe or {hovel. In cloudy, or 
rainy weather, it will not need 



mixing fo often. If this method 
be obfervecl, much will be fav- 
ed : And half the time that yards 
are commonly folded, will, if I 
miihike not, be fufficient to fit 
them to produce a good crop. 
See the article Folding. 

Our farmers, in general, feem 
to think it a matter of great im 
portance to put dung in holes 
under the feed, efpecially to 
produce a crop of Indian corn. 
Nothing makes this tedious and 
laborious method needful, unlefs 
it be a fcarcity of manure, as lei's 
of it will anfwer for one (ingle 
crop, than is required in the oth 
er way. The corn does not 
commonly come up fo well, and 
it is more in danger of being de- 
ftroyed by worms. If fix or 
eight loads of dung will caufe 
an acre to produce more corn 
when put in holes, than if it were 
ploughed in, as it undoubtedly 
will ; yet it fhould be remember 
ed, the land will not be in fo 
good heart the year following, 
will not produce fo good a crop 
of grain, nor be in 16 good or 
der to lay down to grafs. So 
that, perhaps, in a courfe of 
crops, it may be found that the 
labour of dunging in the holes 
may be fpared ; excepting, per 
haps, in green fward ground. If 
fo, the farmer mignt redeem 
time by it, and at a feafon when 
his hurry of bufinefs is greateft. 

I may add, that new dung is 
not fo fiii table to put in holes, 
as that which has lain a year in 
heaps. But it has more virtue, 
and will add more ftrength to 
the foil ; for it is next to impof- 
fible to keep dung till it is old 
without fotne wattage. And this 
may afford another good reafon 
for laying a fide the practice of 
dunging in holes. For the newctt 
dung will anfwer well for fpread 
ing, and ploughing into the foil. 

9 4 DUN 

DUNGHILLS, heaps of ma- 
pure laid up to ferment, confift- 
ing of dung and earth, together 
with lime, or marie, and any an 
imal or vegetable fubftances, 
which eafily putrefy and con- 

It would be well if every farm 
er had fome of them preparing, 
to be carted out in autumn, or 
to lie two fummers, when it is 
found convenient. He would 
avail himfelf of much manure 
that might be collected between 
Jfpring and fall ; for, in the fum- 
mer, the crops on the ground 
niuft prevent carting it ; fo that 
it mould be preferved in the beft 
manner to prevent wafte. And 
this can in no way be fo well 
prevented, as by mixing it with 
other fubftances. 

Farmers mould have fuch 
dunghills, fome at their barns, 
or cow yards, one at a hogfty, 
when fwine are {hut up, and an 
other not too far from the back 
door of a ( houfe. They may be 
tended, and augmented at odd 
times, when no other bufmefs 
ftands in the way. That at the 
back door, efpecially, may be 
very eafily made up, of a varie 
ty of rich and fertilizing ingre 
dients, befides dung ; fuch as 
the fcrapings of the yard after 
rain ; foot and afhes ; .{hells, 
lime and bones ; the fweepings 
of the kitchen ; oil dregs, and 
any fat things ; woollen rags ; 
bloody water, in which meat or 
fiih has been waihed ; greafy wa 
ter ; fuds ; afhes, although the 
{ie has been drawn from them ; 
old ufelefs brine ; urine ; and, in 
ihort, any animal or even vege 
table fubftance, that has not too 
much acid. Or, even acids, if 
they be overbalanced by plenty 
of alkaline fubftances. 

To prevent the heaps being 
too much torn and fpread about 


by fwine, or by the fcratching 
of dunghill fowls, the heaps 
may be included in pens made 
with wide boards ; or fome rocks 
may be laid round them. Turfs 
may be laid over them, to pre 
vent their evaporating ; as well 
as under them, to prevent their 
foaking into the earth. 

The heaps mould have fuch a 
degree of moifture as beft pro 
motes fermentation and corrup 
tion. A cavity may be made 
clofe to the lower fide of the 
heap, to receive the fuperfluous 
moifture as it runs from it after 
jain ; and this liquid, highly 
impregnated with the itrength 
of the manure, Jhould be thrown, 
from time to time, on the top 
ot the heaps, with a fcooping 
{hovel. In a wet feafon, the 
heaps will need fome flight fheds 
over them. Indeed it would be 
beft to cover them in all feafons, 
and to apply v/ater to them when 
they need it. 

Heaps about the barn or cow 
yard, may be augmented with 
fome ot the neareft .earth, fwamp 
mud, ftraw, weeds, &c. thofe at 
the hogfty with the fame, to 
gether with the dung of fowls., 
or other hot manures, as the 
dung of fwine is naturally cold. 
But the farmer mould acquaint 
himfelf with the nature of differ 
ent manures ; and always let 
that ingredient in his heaps be 
predominant, which is beft adapt 
ed to correct and meliorate th 
foil on which it is to be laid. It 
it be deftined for a fandv foil, 
clay will be an excellent ingre 
dient in the compofition of the 
heaps. If it be defigned to lay 
on a .clayey foil, fand is proper. 

The heaps will not ferment fo 
faft as they ought, unlefs they be 
moveled over once or twice in a 
fummer. By fuch operations 
they will be more thoroughly 

D U N 

aiixed and mellowed, and the 
fooner be fit for ufe. The feeds 
of weeds in them will vegetate, 
and be deftroyed, which is no 
inconfiderable advantage ; ef- 
pecially if the manure is to be 
applied to unhoed tillage crops. 

DUNG MEERS, " places 
where foils and dungs are mixed 
and digefted together. For this 
purpofe, it is ufual to dig a pit 
fufficient to hold the flock of 
foil the huibandman is capable 
of making ; and to prepare it 
at the bottom with itone and 
clay, that it may hold water, or 
the moifture of the dung ; and 
befides, it mould be fo fituated 
that the iinks and drips of the 
houfes and barns may run into 
it. Into this pit they caft refufe 
fodder, litter, dung, weeds, &c. 
where they lie and rot together, 
till the farmer have occafion for 
it." Dia.ofArts. 

Thefe pits anfwer nearly the 
fame end as dunghills. But 
they are attended with more ex- 
penfe and labour ; and are more 
apt to fuifer with wetnefs in a 
rainy feafon, unlefs a fried be 
built over them. If this be done, 
and the right proportion of wa 
ter applied, there can be no bet 
ter method of making compofl. 
I know a gentleman in- the coun 
ty of Briflol, who has a fmall 
cellar under cover, adjoining to 
his ftable, in which he lodges 
only one horfe ; and who makes 
in it 20 loads yearly of compoil, 
far fuperiour in flrength to any 
unmixed barn dung. In fum- 
mer he has it filled with weeds 
and various vegetable matters: 
In autumn two or three fwine 
are fattened in the apartment. 
In winter a very fmall flock of 
fheep lodge there : The. dung of 
one horfe is gradually thrown in 
as fail as it is made ; and a few 
fowls roof! over it, The whole 

D Y K 


is watered occafionally by a fpouf 
turned inwards. The crops he 
raifes from this manure are fur* 
prifingly large and good. 

DUTCH HOE, fometimes- 
called a Scuffle ; an iron initru- 
rnent, with a {harp fleeled edge, 
nearly in the fhape of the letter 
D. with a fhank from the round*- 
ing part, five or fix inches long, 
which paifes info a handle of a- 
bout fix feet in length. It is of 
ufe to clean walks and avenues in 
gardens. No gardener ihould be 
without one of thefe inflruments. 

DYKE, or DIKE, a fort of 
dam, conflrucled of earth, timber, 
fafcines, &c. to oppofe the en 
trance of water from rivers and 
from the fea. 

Dykes made to exclude the fea 
from marfhes, are built with fods 
cut out of the marfb, fo as to 
make a ditch near the dyke, or 
clfe a ditch on each fide. The 
fods are laid as a wall doping 
on both fides ; they ihould be 
laid very clofe, that the water 
may not enter ; and fome flen- 
der bufhes mould be laid between 
them, that the work may hold 
together the better. Some of 
the buihes ihould have roots to 
them, that they may grow, and 
more flrongly bind the fods to 
gether. Shrubs without roots 
will not live placed in the dykes 
at midfurnmer, the time when 
dykes ihould be built. But they 
may be inferted afterwards, at a 
proper feafon. 

A dyke, feven or eight feet 
wide at bottom, and three atop, 
and made a little higher than the 
higheft fpring tides rife, will be 
fuiricient on high inarm. When 
a dyke paifes through a low 
place, or through a creek, it muft 
be wider at bottom in proportioa 
to the depth of the hollow, or 
creek, fo that the fides of the 
dyke may be perfeft inclined 

96 EAR 

planes. Though this will make 
it very thick at bottom, it is nec- 
effary, that it may refill the great 
er preffure of water againft that 

When we build on an oozy, 
foft fpot, it is beft to fill the mud 
with piles, driven as deep as 
they will eafily go, and then cut 
off even with the furface or a 
little above it. This will give 
inability to the foundation, and 
prevent the water's undermining 
the dyke. On a fideling place, 
itakes fhould be driven through 
the dyke into the marfh, to 
hold the fods in their places. 
There fhould be many of them, 
and they fhould be ftrong. 

In the creek, or creeks, there 
muft be fluices, larger or final ler 
in proportion to the quantity of 
frefh water that will need to pafs 
out. See Sluice. 


EARTH, the foil, or land, in 
which the roots of plants find 
nourifhment. There are fever- 
al fimple kinds of earth, confid- 
ered only with refpe6t to huf 
bandry ; as clay, marie, loam, 
gravel, fand, peat, and black 
mould. Perhaps thefe are near 
ly all the fimple foils that are 
found on or near the furface of 
the earth, in this country ; though 
others, diftintt from them all, 
are found by digging deep. 
There is not one of thefe earths, 
in its unmixed ftate, that is fo 
friendly to the growth of plants, 
as when mixed with fome other 
forts ; and it is happy for us that 
nature in moft places has blend 
ed them. Though the original 
foils are fo few, they are fo va- 
rioufly compounded in different 
places, as to prefent us with an 
endlefs variety of foils, fome or 
other of which are moft fuitable 


to nourifli every different plant* 
But for mod of the purpofes of 
hufbandry a fandy loam is as 
good as any. 

Good earth for the general 
purpofes of hufbandry, is moft 
commonly of a dark colour, or 
quite black, unctuous to the 
touch, eafily ploughed, on a due 
medium betwixt dry and wet, 
not compact, nor too loofe and 
open, and eafily made to ferment. 

To find whether land be good, 
fome recommend the following 
experiment : Dig a hole, and 
return the earth into the hole. 
If there be more than enough to 
fill the hole, fay they, the land 
is good ; if j uft enough to fill it, 
indifferent ; but if there be not 
enough, the land is bad. Doubt- 
lefs, in warm weather, good earth 
expofed to the fun will immedi 
ately fwell by fermenting ; fo 
that fuch earth will more than 
fill the hole it is taken out 
of, unlefs it be forcibly ram 

Mortimer obferves, " That 
mixed foils are beft ; efpecially 
where the mixtures happen to 
be of the right kind, as thofe of 
the hot and dry foils, blended 
with the cold and the moift. All 
fands are hot, and all clays are 
cold, and, therefore, laying fand 
on clayey lands, or clay upon 
fandy lands, is the beft of all ma 
nure for both. This alters and 
changes for the better, the very 
nature of the land itfelf, whereas 
dung only improves it for a 
time, and after that leaves it 
nearly as bad as it was before. 
It is not only the nature of the 
foil we are to confider, but the 
! depth of it, and what kind of 
earth is underneath ; for the 
j richeft foil, if it be only eight or 
ten inches deep, and lies upon a 
cold clay, or upon a quarry of 
ftone, will not be fo fruitful, or 


Advantageous to the farmer, as 
the leaner foil that lies upon bet 
ter under ftrata." 

But an under firatum of clay, 
not too near to the furf'ace, and 
where the ground has not tco 
much wetnefs, is found to be 
good, as the flrength of manures 
does not efcape through it. A 
liratum of clayey gravel, or mere 
clay, or almoft any that is not 
too eafily penetrated, is good : 
But one of loofe land or gravel 
mtift necefTarily be bad, as the 
foil above it will not hold its 

EDDISH, or EADISH, " the 
latter pafture or grafs that comes 
after mowing or reaping ; oth : 
erwife called eagrafs, earfh, and 
etch." Dicl. of Arts. 

EFFLuVIUM, an irivifible 
vapour, confiding of minute par 
ticles, which exhales from bodies 
of almoft every kind." A copi 
ous effluvium a'rifes from all 
plants while they are growing ; 
but more while drying after they 
are cut down, as. appears from 
the ftrong and agreeable fcent 
of mown grafs. The exhalation 
of fome plants while growing, is 
very fenfible to the fmell ; and 
the flowers of moft of them fend 
forth a perceptible odour. That 
of clover fields, and of orchards 
in full bloom, is grateful and re- 
f re filing. See rerfpir alien of 

The effluvia of rotten fun ftances 
are fuppofed to breed difeafes : 
The farmer, therefore; fhould be 
cautious that he do not breathe 
in the fleams of his old dunghills 
more than is neceffary, efpecial- 
Iy when they have a very difa- 
greeable ftench, 

ELDER, SambucuS nigfa, an 
ill imelling ihrub, which grows 
plentifully in moil parts ot this 
co'untry, produces a black berry, 
and is too well known to need 
i - N 

E L F 97 

defcribing. I mention it, be- 
caufe it is believed to be an excel 
lent antidote againft deftrulive 
infe6ts. But as I have not yet fuf- 
ciently proved it by experiments, 
not ma king any trial till rather late 
in laft fummer ; I mail give the 
reader a brief account of fome 
experiments which were com-' 
municated to the Royal Society, 
by Chriftopher Gullet, Eiquire. 

He whipt cabbages gently 
with green boughs ot elder, juil 
at the time when the butterflies 
appeared, after which, though 
they hovered over them, they 
were never obferved to touch 
them.. He whipt the limbs of a, 
plumb tree as high as he could 
reach. That part remained green 
and flouriihing ; but all above 
fhriveled up, and. was full of 
worms. He concluded that, if a 
tree were Iprinkled with an infu- 
fion of elder, once a week or fort 
night, it would effectually pre- 
ferve it, without injuring the tree, 
or the fruit. He prevented the 
yellows in wheat,'which is caufed. 
by an infeci;, by bruming the 
wheat with elder ; and preferved 
a bed of young colliflowers. 
He prefers the dwarf elder, as it 
emits a more ofTenfive _ effluvium. 

Perhaps it may be. found, as 
this writer fu'ggefls, to prelerve 
tiirrips from the fly, and thefe 
and other plants from grafshop- 
pcrs, and all other infe6ts. Noth 
ing is eaflcr than' to make a thor 
ough trial of iu 

TEN, a difeafe in horned cattle, 
the fymptoms or concomitants 
of. which are lluggifhnefs and 
lofs of appetite. The original 
of the name feems to h:dve beeri 
a fuperffitious opinion, that cattle 
were ihotten and wounded by 
elves, or fairies. The difeafe* 
however, is not imaginary. It 
is believed to be an opening irt 


9 8 E M P 

the peritonaeum, or film of the 
belly, caufed by relaxation: It 
refembles a hole made by a bul 
let, and may be felt through the 
{kin which remains unhurt. 
Thefe openings are clofed, 
and the animals cured, by 
rubbing the part with fait and 
water. It fhould be repeated 
two or three times in the courfe 
of a day. 

ELM, Ulmns* Americana, a 
tree that is commonly found in 
our forefts. It is tall<and beau 
tiful, longlived, and grows to a 
large fize. The wood is not apt 
to fplit, or crack ; and is very fit 
for the naves of wheels for car 
riages. Of this tree there are 
faid to be two varieties, the white 
and the red. The Elm is a prop 
er tree to plant in groves. It is 
iightly and durable ; and not apt 
to be broken by high winds. 
. EMPLOYMENT,, buimeft 
which takes time, and is an exer 
cife of abilities. No one that 
confiders the condition of a 
farmer, can doubt of his having 
iufficient employment. He has 
fo many obje6is to attend to, that 
his life muft be filled up with 
carefulnefs or exercife. If lie 
grow reinifs, he will foon find 
that he has loft fomething through 
negleft, or failed of availing him- 
felf of fome advantage. 

In our climate, befides care, 
the fanners are neceffarily hurri 
ed with their bufinefs during 
much the greater part of the 
year, that is, from April to No 
vember inclufive. But in the 
winter, they may be in fome 
clanger of fpending fome of their 
time idly, it they do not take 
fome care to prevent it. Feed 
ing and tending their cattle, it' 
they do it faithfully, will take 
fome confiderable part of each 
day, if the flock be large. The 
dreifmg of hemp and flax re- 

E W E 

quires fome time, and ought to 
be done in winter. Getting 
home fewel for maintaining fires 
through the year, and hauling 
fluff and fitting it for the building 
and repairing of fences ; threfh- 
ing and cleaning of corn and 
grain, and preparing farming 
implements, may all be done at 
this feafon. And thefe things 
ought to be done at this time of 
the year, to prevent hurry at a 
more bufy feafon. So that, 
though our farmers cannot 
plough, or do any thing to the 
foil in winter, unlefs it be fome- 
times in part of December, they 
need not be idle. In maritime 

E laces they may employ them- 
jlves and their teams in getting 
manure from flats and creeks., 
and drawing it to their hungry 
high lands. This will turn to 
very good account, and pay them 
well for their labour. Holes 
may be dug in the ice over flats, 
from whence rich mud maybe 
taken, and drawn upon fleds to 
the high parts of a farm* And 
this will be found to be a profit 
able employment. 

ENCLOSURE, a piece of 
ground fenced by itfelf, to pre 
vent the entrance of cattle, Sec. 
In fome places men farm in com 
mon fields. But this method, 
pafluring excepted, is not eligi* 
ble. Some lofe more by it than 
enough to pay for enclofing. 
And it is too often the occafion 
of quarrels, and endlefs uneafi- 
nefs among neighbours. 

EWES, the females of fheep. 
That they may be profitably 
managed, we mould keep none 
for breeders that have not long 
and fine fleeces. The reft mould 
be killed off during the firft year. 
Otherwife the flock will degen 
erate ; and a large proportion of; 
their wool will be coarfe, or too* 
fliort r and of little value. 



From the firft of Oftober, to 
-the twentieth of November, the 
rams mould be kept from them ; 
that fa their lambs may not come 
till the twentieth of April, when 
the ground is mod commonly 
bare, and the grafs begins to 
fpring in many places. 

For a few days, or weeks, be 
fore yeaning time, they Ihould be 
more generoufly fed. Some 
juicy food, which they are fond 
of, fhould be given them, fuch 
as turnips, potatoes, &c. that 
they may have plenty of milk 
for their lambs : For it is the o- 
pinion of careful obfervers, that 
want of milk is the caufe of the 
dying of fo many Iambs in the 
firft ftage of their exigence. 

From their firft going to paf- 
ture to the laft of June, or the 
middle of July, the ewes fhould 
have plenty of feed, by means 
of which the lambs will come 
forward rapidly in their growth, 
fo as to be fit for weaning., Nor 
will the ewes become ib'Iean, 
but that they may be fattened in 
autumn ; which would be other- 
:wife, were the lambs to fuck 
them as long as they are permit 
ted to do in this country. 

As to the advantage of the 
milking of ewes, after the lambs 
-are weaned ; as it has not yet 
.been much praftifed among us, 
I can only teftify, that the beft 
cheefes I ever tafted, made in 
this country, had a mixture of 
this milk in them. But a writer 
in the Scots Farmer declares, 
.from his own experience, it is 
of great advantage to the owner. 
He thinks they mould not be 
milked more than eight weeks 
at the fartheft ; fays they ought 
to have good pafture ; and that 
-the lambs they bring the year 
following will not be the 
.worfe for the if having been 

E X P 


EXCREMENT, that which 
is thrown out of the body as tife- 
lefs after digeftion. See Bung, 
Urine, &c. 

EXPERIENCE, praftice, or 
continued ufe. Perhaps no man 
ever attained to a thorough 
knowledge of hulbandry merely 
by books, or by oral informa 
tion. Experience is needful to 
fix the knowledge of the multi 
farious branches of it in our 
minds. It is needful, alfo, to 
teach us the eafieit methods of 
performing a tlioufand things, 
-which depend on circumftances 
fo minute, that they were never 
committed to paper, and fcarce- 
ly -are, thought; to be jvorth men 

?3&ut experience, however nee- 
eflary, is not all that is needful 
to make an accompliihed fanner. 
Qbfervation is equally necellary. 
And without argumentation, 
none will; be fit for any thing 
.greater than going on in the 
moft beaten tracks. None ought 
to , conclude from their having 
had the longeft experience, that 
they have the .greatest degree of 
knowledge : For fome will learn 
more by experience in one year, 
than others will in forty. The- 
ory and practice mould certainly 
concur, to render perfoiis fkilful 
in huibandry, or in any other 
profeffion An early apprentice- 
mip is as neceffary to the attain 
ment, of this art, as any other.; 
as fome have been convinced, 
who have entered on farming 
when they were paft the merid 
ian ofrlife. 

EXPERIMENTS, trials of 
practice in huibandry. It is 
greatly to be wiihecl, that more; 
of thefe were made in this young 
country, where the knowledge 
of agriculture is yet in its in 
fancy. Experiments made in 
.other countries are not to be re- 


E X P 

lied on, as proofs of the utility 
of one mode of culture in pref 
erence to another, in this coun 
try. Therefore, we fhould not 
truft to the experiments of Eu 
ropeans, but make experiments 
for ourfelves. Till this is done, 
we are not to look for great im 
provements in husbandry. 

It may be true, that 'he who 
makes a new experiment is in 
fome hazzard of lofing more or 
lefs by it. Therefore, I would 
not prefs it upon farmers in in 
digent or low circum fiances, to 
venture upon any thing of the 
kind, unlefs it be in very fmall 
matters, or on a fmall fcale ; for 
the failure of one year's crop 
would almbfb reduce them to 
beggary. They would do well, 
however, to compare the profit 
of one crop with another, reck 
oning the coft laid out upon 
each ; and of one courfe of crops 
with another ; and the fuccefs of 
different manures on the fame, 
or on different foils. Thus they 
may find which of the old meth 
ods is to be preferred, by a fmali 
degree of attention, without any 
rifk, which is a matter of forn.e 
confequence. For we need to 
learn what methods to drop, or 
dif continue, as well as what to 
adopt "cr bring into Life. 

Gentlemen of large eflafces, 
who can bear fome conf'derable 
Jofs without feeling it, in cafe 
they fail of fuccefs, are the per- 
fons that fhould try new crops, 
or new ways of railing old ones. 
Love of their country mould 
prompt them to it ; for there is 
no reafon to doupt but that our 
hufbandry may admit of a varie 
ty of important improvements. 
It is wifhed that an enterprifmg 
fpirit were more excited, that j 
we might have reafon to hope for j 
great improvements in hufband- 
iry. There is an extenfive field 

E X P 

for experiments ; and making 
them might be a good and lauda 
ble amufement to perfons who 
have leifure. Trench ploughing, 
which has never yet been at 
tempted in this country, ought 
to be tried, at leafl by thofe who 
have dpep foils, clear of rocks 
and other obflacles. Trials 
mould be made of the advantage 
of ploughing flat land in ridges ; 
and whether ridge ploughing 
will not fecure grain from de- 
Itruclion by winter frofts. At 
tempts fhould be more exten- 
Jively made to raife winter wheat, 
which is the moil valuable of all 
grain. We fhould endeavour to 
find out the bell: fleeps for grain 
and other feeds, to quicken their 
vegetation, and to fecure them 
againfl infefts and fmut ; -what 
are the befl quantities of fee4 
for (owing in different grounds ; 
whether fowing feeds with a 
drill be not the beft method when 
hbrfe hoeing is not applied ; 
when is the beft time for fowing 
bt winter grain ; whether good 
peat and marie be not to be found 
in plenty in various parts of the 
country, and the advantage of 
marling, and fowing peataihes ; 
whether drained fwamps are not 
the rnoil profitable of all our 
Jands ; whether new dung or 
old will produce the beft crop, 
anci whether compoft will not 
do better than either ; how lime 
will anfwer as a manure in our 
hot fummers on what kind of 
foil it is moft ferviceable, &c. &c. 
But, in making experiments, 
great care mould betaken that 
we do not draw a conclufion too 
hafhly ; certainly we inuit not 
do it from one fingle trial. For 
a thing may anfwer well at one 
time, owing to the peculiarity of 
a feafon, or to fome indifcerni- 
ble circumilances, which will not 
at another. If men allow thern- 


F A L 

felves to be too fanguine and 
fudden in their conclusions from 
fingle experiments, they will 
rather ernbarrafs and miflead, 
than increafe agricultural knowl 

But if improvements be wifli- 
ed for, experiments ihould be 
carefully recorded. If this be 
negle6led, hufbandry muft be ex- 
pelted to remain in it3 prefent 
low ftate. For want of fuch 
records, a great deal of ufeful 
knowledge has been already loft. 
Though many have made exper 
iments, by which they have fatis- 
fied themfelves, but few have re 
corded them. The experiment- 
rs themfelves have forgotten 
them, to fucn a degree, that they 
are apt' to mifreprefent them, 
when they attempt to relate 
them. And too many fufter ufe 
ful difcoveries to die with them. 
To prevent thefe evils, the form 
ing of focieties in various parts of 
3the country might be of great ufe. 


FAGGOT, a bunch of bum- 
es, or limbs of trees, bound to 
gether by a withe. Faggots for 
fewel are cut to the length of a- 
bout two feet. In many parts 
of this country, the fcarcity of 
lire wood makes it expedient 
that iarmers mould no longer go 
on in the practice of burning 
fuch materials on the ground. 
They mould preierve them in 
faggots for fewel in their houfes. 
They will ferve to heat ftoyes j 
and for heating ovens there is no 
better wood. 

FALL, autumn, that quarter 
of the year which includes Sep 
tember, O&ober, and November. 
Jt is fo called, becaufe the leaves 
of deciduous trees fall off in that 
feafon. In this quarter of the 
year, the farmer fmifhes his har- 

F A L lot 

vefting, and lays in his flores for 

In a country where the fpringj 
are backward, as in the northern 
parts of Newengland, farmers 
ihould do all they can in autumn, 
to diminiih or lighten the la 
bours of the following fpririg, 
when they will have much work 
to perform in a (hort time. Sum- 
mer dung and ccmpoits Ihould 
be carted out ; at TthiV feafon. 
Fences mould be built or repair 
ed, not only! to 'prdvefti'fylvhlg 
them to do in "trie Spring, fcut w fb 
keep cattle from injuring the 
lands with their feet. All the 
ground fhould be ploughed in 
the fall, that is to be ieeci^d 
the following fpring. That 
which is intended for fpring 
wheat fhould be ploughed 
twice. Though all that is 
ploughed in the fall, for fpring 
tillage, muft be ploughed again 
before feeding, the fall plough 
ing laves labour, as one plough 
ing may anfwer in the fprmg 
where two would be otherwile 
needful. It is faving labour at a 
time when teams are moft apt to 
be faint and feeble, and when 
there is too often a fcarcity of 
food for them. But ploughing 
in autumn is of great importance 
in a clay foil, as, by expofing it 
to the fro ft, the coheiion of its 
parts is much broken. 

The tranfpianting of trees out 
of nurferies may, to redeem 
time, be performed in the fall ; 
though, on other accounts, I 
ihould prefer doing it in the 

FALLOWING of land, let 
ting it reft from one crop, or 
more, being ploughed without 

When land has two plough- 
ings, in the fallow year, it is 
faid, in the language of Eng- 
lilh farmers, to be twyfallowed. 


F A L 

"When it has three, as indeed it 
always mould have, it is faid to 
>e trifallowed. The firft plough 
ing is mallow ; the fecond a little 
deeper than the firft ; and the third 
a little deeper than the fecond. 
But i f the land be cold and ftiff, and 
need much warming by the fun, 
they go to the full depth at the 
rft ploughing. 

Nothing can : be better than 
" allow ing, 3p* recruit land that is 
'too 'much' exliaufted by crop- 
:pi&gV;The bftenerfa is plough 
ed", J the i uirare" it " is enriched. 
Some have ploughed their fal 
low land no lefs than a dozen 
times ; and, if I am not mifm- 
formed, have, by doing .fo, 
changed fome ot the pooreft 
fpots, fo as to make them too 
orich for a crop of wheat. 

If new dung be laid on fallows 
to recruit the foil, it mould be 
done early in the -year ; that the 
ploughings may more thorough 
ly mix it with the earth ; and 
that the feed of weeds contained 
in the dung may be killed. But 
when old dung, or compoft, is 
laid on to help the next crop, the 
right time to do it is juft before 
the laft ploughing. It fhould;be 
turned in with the plough with 
out delay, to prevent evaporation. 

But it dung cannot be had, 
the want of it may be fupplied 
by more frequent ploughings. 
By fallowing, the weeds are moil 
effeclually killed, and converted 
to manure. The land is finely 
pulverized, fo that the pafture of 
plants is greatly increafed : And 
a new furface oy each ploughing 
is expofed to the influences of 
the atmofphere ; fo that the foil 
is deeply penetrated, or even 
faturated with fertilizing parti 
cles, which are wafted by the air. 

" The farmer cannot wifh," 
fays one, " for any thing more 
to his hufbandry, than 

F A L 

moderate (bowers after each fal 
low, to bring the feeds of every 
weed to vegetate, in order that, 
being turned down by feveral 
ploughing?, they may be the 
more effectually deftroyed." I 
may add, that the more the land 
is ploughed when the dew is on 
it, the more it will be enriched. 
Too much of this work, there 
fore, cannot be done early in the 
morning, efpecially if the ground 
be dry : And when it is fo wet 
as not to crumble, but turn up 
in clods or potch like mortar, it 
mould ;not be ploughed, or med 
dled with at all. 

Summer fallowing, however, 
is not fb -much in ufe among 
European -farmers at prefent, as 
it has been. For they .have found 
that there .are certain crops 
which do not impoverifh the 
foil, but rather improve it. Such 
crops, for inftarice, as peafe, and 
other things which form a clefe 
fhade over the ground, which 
kill weeds, and increafe the pu- 
trefaftion in theJbil. Therefore, 
many choofe to avail themfelves 
of the advantage of improving 
crops, as they are, called, rather 
than lofe a year in fallowing. 

But winter fallowing is always 
allowed to be profitable ; and I 
have found it ttrbe fo by expe 
rience. The advantage of it is 
moll vifible in iliff foils ; for the 
froil and winds in winter will 
do much towards making them 
mellow and fine. One plough 
ing in the fall, and another in 
the fpring, will .put the land in 
to better order for feeding, than 
two ploughings in the fpring. 
Land that is apt to be wet may 
be ploughed the earlier in the 
fpring, for having been winter 
fallowed. The feed may be got 
in the fooner, as the land will be 
drier, which, in fome crops, is a 
great advantage. 

F A L 

Green fward land mould al 
ways be broken up in the fall, if 
it be only for peafe or potatoes, 
and the earlier in fall the better. 
For either of thefe crops, noth 
ing more will be needful in the 
fpring, than a harrowing with a 
keavy drag. On half an acre of 
poor ground thus managed, and 
without any manure, I once 
railed a hundred bufhels of po 

FALSE QUARTER, a rift or 
chink in the quarter of the hoof 
of a horfe, from top to bottom. 
It happens generally on the in- 
fide, that being the weakeft and 
thinneft ; and proceeds from the 
drynefs of the hoof, but efpecial- 
ly when a horfe is ridden in dry, 
fandy, or ftony ground, in hot 
weather, or in fro fly weather, 
when the ways are flinty and 
hard. It is, likewife, caufed by 
bad fhoeing, and all other acci 
dents whereby a horfe becomes 
hoof bound : For the narrownefs 
of the heels, and brittlenefs of 
the quarters, continually expofe 
a horfe to all the faid accidents. 

" This accident is both dan 
gerous and painful ; for as often 
as a horfe fets his foot to the 
ground, the chink widens ; and 
when he lifts it up, the (harp 
edges of the divided hoof wound 
the tender flefh that covers the 
coffin bone,, which is for the 
Hioft part followed with blood ; 
and it muft of courfe be apt to 
render a horfe lame, as it is very 
difficult to form a reunion. To 
remedy this imperfection, Firft, 
draw the whole length of the 
cleft with your drawing iron, 
then anoint the hoof with tar, 
honey, and fuet, molten togeth 
er ; for nothing can be more 
proper for the hoof ; and lay a 
thin pledgit dipt in the fame a- 
long the cleft. After this,, take 
jope yarn, fuch as the failors 



ufe, which is no other than hemj* 
moiftened in melted tar, and f pun- 
look : Apply the yarn all down 
the hoof, beginning at the coro 
net and defcending downwards, 
one lay after another, as clofe as 
the binding of the hoops of wine 
cafks, laying a fmooth pledgit of 
flax behind, to keep it from fret 
ting the heel. This mould be 
opened once in three or four 
days, that the cleft may be drefh 
And to prevent any inconve- 
niency that may happen by the 
opening,. a thrn ftaple may be al- 
fo contrived with points like 
horfe fhoe nails, caft off oblique 
ly, to take a flender hold, the 
plate of it croffing the cleft, 
where part of the fhoe is cut of? 
(as it muft be under the cleft) 
and the nails coming out on each 
fide of the cleft, on the upper 
part, to be clinched as the other 
nails. By this method a cleft in 
any part of the hoof may be ea- 
fily cured, if the horfe be not 
very old, or difeafed." Gibfons 

FAN,, an inftrument ufed in 
feparating corn from its chafE 
Of late^the fan is almoft out of 
ufe. See Riddle, Winnowing 

FARCY, a difeafe in horfes, 
fimilar to the fcurvy in men, 
and arifing from a fimilar caufe, 
The farcy is caufed in. horfes 
from their being for a long time 
confined to dry meal. And as 
the fcurvy in men is cured 1 by a 
diet of green vegetables ; fo the 
farcy in horfes may be cured 
by turning them into a good 
frefh pafture. But it is only in 
the beginning of the difeafe that 
it can be fo eafily cured. Gib* 
fon prefcribes bleeding, and 
moderate purging ; and after 
wards dofes of antimony. See 
his Farriery. Mr. Mills calls 
it a cording of the veins, arid th.t 

F All 

appearance of fmall tumours in 
feveral parts of the body. Mr. 
Bartlet deems this diftemper eafy 
of cure, when it appears on the 
head only. Mr. Bourgelat fays, 
a decoftion of the woods, anti 
mony, powder of vipers, with 
fome mercurial preparations, are 
looked upon as fo many fpecif- 
icks in this difeafe and that 
hemlock will cure it. 

FARM, a traft, or piece of 
land, under improvement, fit 
for a farmer to live on, or one 
that is adapted to ferve the 
general purpofes of a hufband- 

That a farm may be conve 
nient, it mould be compa6t and 
regularly fhaped ; well watered 
with rivulets or iprings ; and 
contain a variety of foils, fit for 
the growing of all forts of plants 
that are needful to thofe who 
live a country life. It mould 
contain high and low lands, dry 
and moift ; lands that are fit for 
tillage, orchard, mowing, paftur- 
ing and wood land. And a farm, 
with fome rocky land in it, is 
not the worfe. Thofe farms will^ 
in the long run, be the moft 
profitable, which contain ftones 
enough to make a wall round 
them ; if not to enclofe them in 
lots. Farms that have a fouth- 
ern expofure are generally pre 
ferred ; but a northern expofure 
is beft in a dry feafon, in partic 
ular for grafs, and fome other 
vegetables, which require no 
great degree of heat. Flat land 
is not fo good as land lying in 
gentle declivities. Flat land is 
commonly too much incommod 
ed with water. 

In fome countries men choofe 
to hold large farms. But in 
places where labour is dear, as 
in this country, fmall farms are 
to be preferred. One hundred 
acres of good land may be enough 


for a man, whofe work is moftly 
done by himielf and family,. 
Near to a. market town, a much 
lefs quantity may be fufficient j 
and, all things considered, equal 
ly profitable. 

They who hire farms mould 
confider, and be well fatisfied 
what they will produce, before 
they bind themfelves to be tenants. 
Otherwife they may repent when 
it is too late. It is a kind of rule 
in England, that a farm Ihould 
produce the value of three rents ; 
one for the landlord ; one for 
the charges of cultivating, &e. 
and the third for the farmer and 
his family to live on. So that a 
farm will not rent for ioo unlefs 
its produce, co??imumbus annis, be 
worth 300 pounds; But farming 
rnufl be better underftood and 
practifed, before farms with us 
will pay for three times the la 
bour done on them, or labour 
muft grow cheaper ; or both thefe 
caufes muft concur. 

Perhaps ioo acres produces 40 

tons of hay, which, 

commumbus annis, /. s. d 

may be worth, 60 o o 

loobuihels of Indian corn, 20 o o 

ioo weight of flax, 4 o o 

50 bulhels of rye, 10 o o 

30 buihels of wheat, 900 

ioo bufhels of potatoes, 6 o o 

pafture for io cows, one 

horie, and 2 oxen, 11 o c 

Total, 120 o o 

The third part of this fum is 
40!. But I know of ho farm of 
this fize which brings fo high a 
rent. I fuppofe it^muft be part 
ly owing to the dearnefs of la 
bour, and partly to the want of 
better management of farms. 
The higher the price of labour 
is, the tower rents ought to be. 
Forty pounds, will by no means 
purchafe the labour that muft be 
done on fuch a farm. 



, FARMER, one who culti 
vates a farm. His addition is 
tiujbandman. In England, the 
word gives the idea of one who 
hires a farm to cultivate, as in a 
mariner all -the 'farmers are ten 
ants. But, thanks to good Prov 
idence, the farmers with us are 
moftly landlords. One would 
think this rnuft conduce to the 
better cultivation of our lands in 
general. A tenant does not in- 
tereft himfelT in the improve 
ment of the farm : He aims to 
do what will be moft profitable 
to himfelf. If he can anfwer his 
own ends, he cares little how 
much the lands are exhaufted 
when he leaves the farm. 

FEN, land which abounds with 
water, as fwamps, or is full of 
bogs, or miry places. The only 
way to make feany lands good, 
either for tillage or grafs, is by 
draining. See Bog and Drain- 

FENCE, a hedge, wall, ditch, 
or other inclofmg made about 
farms, or parts of farms, to ex 
clude cattle, or include them. 
Fencing is a matter of great con- 
fequence with farmers ; and, as it 
is managed in molt parts of this 
country, is a great drawback up 
on their profits. But however 
tollly fencing may be, it is 
good economy to make fences 
flrong and fully fufficient to an 
fwer their purpofe. It would be 
folly to fave a trifle by making 
a fence too (lightly, and be liable 
to lofe a whole crop, by the 
breaking of cattle through it. 

The kinds of fence, and man 
ner of fencing, mould vary ac 
cording to the difference of foils ; 
and according as one kind of ma 
terials for fencing is more plen 
ty and cheap than another. 

In the new plantations of this 
country, log fences are moft 
ufed ; as they certainly ought to 

FEN 105 

be ; becaufe the wood is of little 
or no value. To build thefe 
fences with, the beft wood that 
I am acquainted with is white 
pine. A fence built with logs 
of this kind will ftand twenty 
years, with little or no repairing. 
But if this kind of wood be 
not at hand, and other forts be 
plenty and near, it may be as well 
to make ufe of Tome other kinds : 
Such, for instance, as pitch pine, 
norway pine, hemlock, am/oak, 
and white maple. Several, or 
almoftany of thefe kinds, if they 
do not lie too near to the ground, 
will laft for a confiderable time. 
If a fence be made partly of 
white pine, and partly of other 
wood, the former mould be laid 
neareft to the ground. , 

But let farmers beware of build 
ing their log fences of bafs wood, 
poplar, birch, beach, or rock ma 
ple, unlefs in cafes of neceflity ; 
for as they will be foon rotten, the 
labour of building them is in a 
manner loft. If logs are peeled 
they will laft the longer in fences. 
The largeft logs mould lie low- 
eft in a fence, both for ftrength 
and durablenefs. The loweilare 
fooneft rotten, when all are of 
the fame fize ; and the largeft 
logs will laft longeft. 

Log fences thould always be 
braced with ftrong (takes acrofs ; 
and heavy riders add ftrength to 
a fence. 

When ground is wholly fub- 
dued, and the fturnps of its orig 
inal growth of trees quite rotted 
out, if ftones can be had without 
carrying too far, ftone walls are 
the fences that ought to be made. 
Though the coil may be greater, 
at firft than that of fome other 
fences, they will prove to be the 
cheapeft in the end. Building 
ftone walls is not only the way 
to clear ground of a bad incum- 
brancc ; but when the fence is 


F E N 

made, it is certainly thebeftofall 
fences. On a hard, fandy, or 
gravelly bottom, if built with 
good {tones, a wall will ftand ma 
ny years without any repairing. 
And it will (land well on any 
foil, clay and mire only except- 
ed. On a clay foil it will ftand, 
if the foundation be laid in a 
trench, near as low as the earth 
commonly freezes in winter. But 
a wall of flat or fquare fhaped 
ilones, will ftand tolerably well on 
any foil, laid only on the furface. 

It is true that walls will grad 
ually fettle into the ground, 
xvhere the foil is at all mellow, and 
heaves with the fro 11 ; fo that it 
may be necelTary, in a century 
or two, to dig them up and re 
build them. I find fome of this 
work has already been done in 
lorne of our oldeft towns. But 
this is a {light objection again ft 
the utility of this kind of fence. 
For future generations will- blefs 
themfelves, if they have materi 
als on the fpot to build fences 
with, when wooden materials 
ma ft unavoidably be fcarce in 
inoft places-, and very coiily. 

I am aware it will be objecled, 
that ftone walls are not Sufficient 
fences a gain ft. ft ee p. But it is 
eafy to make them fo, A row 
of flat, ftones laid on the top, and 
jutting over, will make a wall 
fufh'cient for this purpofe : Or 
fome of the flighted riders will 
do it. Riders with fome of the 
limbs on them are bell for this 

Fanners need not fear that they 
fh-all impoverifh their land by 
clearing it of ftones. For, after 
all they can do to a foil that is nat 
urally ftony, there will be ftones 
enough remaining, a little way 
beluw the furface, to render the 
ground rnoift arid war-m.- 

In thofe parts of the country 
where boards are plenty and 

F E N 

cheap, many think it worth while 1 
to build fences to their fields and 
paftures with boards. Such 
fences abound in the counties oi 
York and Cumberland, in the 
ftate of Maffachufetts. Refufe 
boards, which are moft common 
ly ufed for this purpofe, may be 
had at the mills for two dollars 
per thoufand ; and a thoufand 
will ferve for about fixteen rods 
of fence, So that I fuppofe fuch 
fence may be made, at leaft in 
the neighbourhood of mills, and 
in a flight manner, for about one 
milling per rod. If the boards 
i muft be carted to any confidera- 
! ble diftance, the coft of the fence 
I is much increafed. Such fence, 
j however, may be accounted 
cheap, confidering the durable- 
nefs of the boards. I have board 
fen-ces now, which have ftood 
twenty years, which will laft per 
haps ten years more, with the ad 
dition of here and there a board. 
When the boards are of com 
mon width, they may be fo fort- 
ed together, that three boards one 
above another, will make a fence 
of convenient height. 

Board fences are of two- 
kinds : They are built either with 
pofts and fpikes, or with {lender 
flakes and withes. In making 
the former fort, fome lap the ends 
of the boards one on another a- 
gainft the pofts. This makes the 
ftrongeft work, and is beft for 
open fence. For field fence the 
edges of the boards may be put 
three or four inches apart. The 
ftrong winds will not be fa apt to 
injure it, as if it were made clofe. 
To make handfomer fences, a- 
bout gardens, yards, and fmall 
inclofures f the ends of the boards, 
being cut fquarc, fhould meet a- 
gainft the centre of the poft. 
There muft be a poft at the mid 
dle, as well as at each end of a 
board, fuppofmg the boards to be 



not much over nor under twenty 
feet in length. The port mould 
go into the ground at leaft thirty 
inches. Three feet will not be 
too much in clayey ground : For 
in fuch foil the pofts are apt to 
beraifed by fevere irofts. 

The other kind of board fence 
is more ealily built. The ends 
of the lowermoft boards ihould 
be a little raifed from the ground 
with flat ftones or pieces of wood. 
The boards will laft the longer, 
and it is no hurt to the fence. 
But the withes will not laft more 
than two years at longeft. So 
that the fence mufl be rebuilt or*ce 
in two years. It mould not be 
neglefted longer, left the boards 
fall and get broken before the 
fence is rebuilt. I will add one 
thing, which is not generally at 
tended to, in making board fences 
of either kind. When the fence 
does not Hand due north and 
fcuth, or on a meridional line, 
care muft be taken to place that 
fide of a board which is neareft 
the heart, towards the fouth, or 
on the foutherly fHe of the fence. 
This will ferve to keep a board 
from warping ; and the fence 
will laft the longer ; for they 
ibmetimes warp fo much as tw 
make them fplit. 

Rail fence is perhaps s much 
ufed as any. The timber for pofts 
and rails Ihould be felled in the 
winter. To fharpen rails before 
they are dried-faves labour : And 
pofts mould be mortifed while 
they are green. Rails are cut 
twelve feet long. Pofts ihould 
be fix feet and a half, or f'even 
feet. The beft timber for raiks 
is cedar : It is-eafy tofpilt, light 
to carry and to handle, fufhcient- 
ly ftrong, arid the rnoft durable 
of any. A rail of cedar will laft 
an age. Next to cedar, rails of 
chefnut, white pine and a(h are 
;bcft. But, for want of better, 

FEN 107 

fome ufe rails of oak. Cedar is 

alfo beft for the poft, in this and 

! in board fence. The locuft tree 

I is faid to -be excellent. But pofts 

of white oak, which in moil. 

; places are more eaiily got, will 

laft about fifteen or twenty years. 

If the lower ends of polls be 

I fcorched in a hot flame, before 

i they are put into the ground, 

! they will lait the longer. Alio 

j foaking them in lea water will 

j tend to keep them from rotting, 

i Juniper, the larch, is much ufei 

! for pofts in thks part of the conn- 

' try. They will laft about eight 

| or ten years. 

In fome places it is beft to 

j make hedge fences. There are 

two kinds of fence that go by 

: this name, tlead hedge and quick- 

' fet hedge. 

To make 2. good dead hedge, 
take ftakes about fix feet long, 
and fet them faft in the ground, 
upon the line of your fence, 
about four feet apart, or a lefs 
diftanoe if your bufhes be Ihort. 
Then interweave bulhc;?, young 
trees, or fmall {lender limbs of 
trees. This fence will anlwer 
-with a yearly repairing until the 
ftakes fail. ' 

But quic'kfet hedge is much 
better, as it is a perpetual, fence. 
It muft be made with different 
fets in different, grounds. En- 
gliih willows will anfwer well in 
low and moift 1-md. They grow 
very rapidly, though fet without 
roots. On high land, hawthorn, 
prim, pear tree, or crab tree 
hedges will do better. Some 
times a hedge is made in the 
bank of a ditch, and fpmetimes 
without a ditch. The latter fort 
may be -planted clofe to another 
fence, which mould (land until 
the hedge is grown up. When 
a fence is made without a ditch 
it ought to be fenced on both 




Mortimer direfts, " Thatif the 
hedge have a ditcti, it fhould be 
three feet wide atop, one at bot 
tom, and two feet deep : That if 
it be without a bank, or ditch, 
the fets be in two rows, almofl 
perpendicular, and at a foot dif- 
tance ; and, that at every thirty 
foot diftance, a young oak, elm, 
crab, or the like, be placed : 
That when a hedge is grown tall, 
it may be plained, by giving the 
ihoots a cut half through, and 
weaving them between the flakes, 
trimming off the fuperfluous 

Mr. Miller fays, " It will be 
proper, before planting a hedge, 
to coniider the nature of the foil, 
and what fort of plants will 
thrive befl in it ; and alfo what 
the foil is from whence the plants 
are to be taken. : That when the 
bank at the fide of a ditch is to 
be planted with quicks, the fets 
ought to be about the fize of a 
goofequill, and their tops fhould 
be cut off within four or five 
inches of the ground : That they 
fhould be frefh taken up, flraight, 
fmooth, and well rooted. Part 
of the turf taken off the furface 
of the ground, where the ditch is 
to ]DC dug, fhould be laid with 
the graffy fide downward, on the 
fide of the ditch where the bank 
is intended to be made, and fome 
of the beft mould ihould be laid 
upon it to bed the quick. The 
fets of quick are then to be laid 
upon that mould, a foot afunder, 
with their cut ends fome what 
{loping i p wards. When the 
firfl row ot q[uick is thus laid, it 
mull be covered with mould : 
Some of the remaining turf mufl. 
be laid upon that mould, with 
the grafs fide downwards, as be 
fore ; and more mould mufl be 
laid upon the turf. When the 
frank has been thus raifed about 
a foot high, a fecond row of fets 


fhould be laid in the fpaces b$- 
tween the lower quick, and with 
their ends turned the oppofite way, 
in order to thicken the bottom 
of the hedge. Thefe are then to 
be covered in the fame mannei 
as the former. The bank is to 
be topped with the bottom of the 
ditch ; and a dry or dead hedge 
muft be made on the other fide, 
to defend the young plantation 
from cattle. The quick mufl be 
conflantly w ceded ; and in Feb 
ruary it fhould be cut to within 
an inch of the ground ; for this 
will make it moot flrong, and 
greatly help its growth. When 
a hedge of this kind is about 
eight or nine years old, it will be 
proper to plain it. The beil 
time is in Oclober or February. 
After it has flood twenty or thir- 
years, and there is in it old 

flubs, as well as new moots, 
t-hofe flubs ihould be cut floping 
off, within two or three inches of 
the ground." 

It takes time to make thefe 
hedges. Put, on the whole, they 
are cheap fences, as they require 
but little repairing, befides trim 
ming and pruning, to prevent 
their growing fo high as to cafl 
too great a fhadow. It is greatly 
to be wifhed that farmers in many 
parts of this country, where ma 
terials for other fences arefcarce 
and dear, would go into this 
method of fencing. The coft of 
making the ditch and bank, 
would be no more than two mil 
lings a rod, exclufive of the 
quicks. And when fuch a fence 
is intended, the farmer mould 
have a nurfery of quicks prepar 
ed. For though flips and cut- 

| tings may live, quicks with roots 
are more certain. And it is bet 
ter to make a good hedge at firfl 
than to have it to mend after 
wards. The befl times to place 

i thefe quicks in the fence in 



this country are April or May, 
and October. 

There is a Virginia fence, fo 
called from its being much ufed 
in Virginia. It is made by lap 
ping" the ends of rails or poles on 
each other, turning alternately 
to the right and left. There muft 
be ftakes acrofs under the upper- 
moft rails, to make the fence 
fteady, and prevent its falling. 
As it is eafily made, and foon 
taken up, it may do be ft where 
a fence is wanted only for a fhort 
time : But it takes up too much 
room, and has not an agreeable 

Another kind of fence is made 
with rails, or poles, with ev 
ery but end on the ground, 
and every rail fupported by a 
pair of ftakes eroded. It may 
be built exaftly on a line, and 
be put up with great expedition. 
Cattle feem afraid to attempt to 
leap over it, nor can they puih 
it down, nor remove any of the 
parts of it with their horns. It 
is not to be coveted for the beau 
ty of its appearance. At a frnall 
diftance it might be miftaken for 
a Chevaux de Frife, 

Bufh fences are fometimes 
made by piling bullies, or imall 
trees with the limbs on them ; 
finifhed with crofs ftakes and rid 
ers. It will be continually fet 
tling ; and therefore muft be 
inade hgher each year. It poor 
ly pays for the labour of making 
it, and mould never be made, 
but where fuitable materials for 
better fences are not eafily to be 

Some make a compound fence, 
with two or three rails above, 
and ftones beneath. Pofts that 
have flood in a rail fence till the 
bottoms are rotted off, will an- 
fwer to hold the rails in this 
kind of fence, if care be taken to 
fupport them with heavy ftones 

F E N 

1O 9 

againft their fides. But if the 
wall be not made with ftones tha-t 
are fomewhat large, fwine AVI 11 
be apt to difplace them, and make 
breaches to pafs through. 

Fences for fpme inclofures 
may be made with two rails or 
three, and open below. For di- 
vifion fences on a form, fuch 
fences will be fully fuffi- 
cient, where neither Iheep nor 
hogs are to be oppofed. They 
are convenient alfo, and prefer 
able to alnioft any other, on ac 
count of the facility of fhifting 
them from place to place, as a 
farmer may often find occafion 
to do. For the pofts being point 
ed in the manner of ftakes, the 
holes may be made with an iron 
bar, and the pofts driven into the 
ground with a beetle, fo as to 
ftandfufficiently ftrong. Infome 
parts of the country, where nei 
ther fheep nor fwine are permitted 
to go at large, thefe open fences 
are ufed againM roads. And it 
is not amifs to adopt the cheap- 
eft ways of fencing that will an- 
fwer the purpofe. 

A fort of tence is made of {.he 
ftumps and roots of white pine 
trees. In a (oft foil the roots 
run deep : But the ftumps on a 
foil of clay may be taken up 
without much labour. The meth 
od of doing it is, to cut off the 
rcots all round, about two feet 
from the body of the ftumps : 
Or nearer the fide of the itump 
which is to lie on the ground* 
and farther on the other : Then 
heave at them with a long lever^ 
till they are fo loofened that they 
may be pulled up by oxen. Lay 
them in a range where you want 
your fence, mending the gap* 
with the final ler roots; they will 
be a good fence for two or three 
generations. Beiides durable- 
nefs, the fence has thefe things 
to recommend it : It clears the 


no F E R 

land of a bad incumbrance, and 
will fland well on a clay foil, 
which is bad for other fences in 

For ditch fences, fee Ditch. 
ternal motion excited in fubflan- 
ces, by which the eohefion of 
their parts is deftroyed, and their 
nature changed. But, that a fer 
mentation may take place, it is 
neceifary that fome particles in 
the fermenting body be fluid ; 
or that the body be moiil. Bod 
ies perfectly dry can have no de 
gree of fermentation in them. 

Fermentation does much to 
wards the production and growth 
of plants. It is therefore a thing 
of muchconiequence to the farm 
er ; and he ought to know by 
what means he may increafe it 
in his ground. 

The pafture of plants is increaf 
ed by fermentation, as it loofens 
the foils, fo that their roots do 
more eafily find their food. All 
rich foils contain the principles 
of the food of plants in abun 
dance : And a fermentation is 
produced among them by any 
thing that alters the arrangement 
of their particles. A fermenta 
tion is produced by heat from 
the fun, and by rain : But when 
the foil is too much filled with 
water, the fermentation is abat 
ed, or deftroyed. Ploughing, 
and otherwife ftirring the ground, 
is a principal caufe of fermenta 
tion in the foil. The plough not 
only increafes the pafture of 

Slants by pulverizing the foil, 
ut by mixing the falts and oils 
contained in it, fo as to bring on 
a degree of fermentation, if the 
foil -have neither too much, nor 
too little water in it at the time 
of ploughing. 

I fufpect that our fevere frofts 
in winter may have a tendency 
?.o -excite a degree of ferrneiita- 

F E R 

tion, which takes place after the 
ground is thawed. For the heav 
ing and fettling of the foil will 
make fome alteration in the dif- 
pofition of its particles, and eon,- 
duces to its imbibing more free 
ly, fnow water and rains, which 
contain food of plants. 

But dung^ and other flrong 
manures, are perhaps the chief 
caufes of the fermentation of 
foils. Dung is no fooner mixed 
with the foil, when there is a 
proper degree of warmth in the 
earth, than it ftrongly ferments 
in itfelf, and brings on a new 
fermentation in the earth which 
is in contact with it, which is 
communicated to remoter earth : 
By all which the cohefion of the 
parts of the foil is broken, the 
foil highly pulverized, and the 
pafture of plants proportionally 
increafed, fo that their roots can 
freely extend tbemfelves in queft 
of their food. 

By the fame fermentation, the 
food or nouriihment of plants is 
increafed ; be-caufe the dung it 
felf is diffolved, its falts and oils 
mixed, its fine earthy particles 
fet at liberty, the vegetable fub- 
ftances, fuch as roots, weeds, &c. 
corrupted and diffolved : All 
which confpire to increafe the 
food of plants, and prepare it to 
enter the minute pores of their 

That plants -may flourifh, it is 
thought to be needful that a fer 
mentation of the foil be contin 
ued during their growth. Oth 
erwife a fufficient quantity of 
fleam will not arife to their roots ; 
a probable confequence is, that 
they will be flinted in their 
growth. It may be for this rea- 
fon that tillage, during the grow- 
ng of plants, is found to be fo 
,'ery advantageous to them ; ef- 
pecially when they are hoed to 
a good'depth, by which the fer* 

F E R 

mentation of the foil among the 
toots is increafed. 

FERN, or BRAKES, Polypo- 
<#7te,awell known fort of weeds, 
that is often troublefome to fuch 
of our cleared, or partially fub- 
dued lands, as have not been 
tilled. They are fo full of falts, 
that they fhould be cut green, 
and laid in our ba*n yards to pu 
trefy, and mix with dung. Per 
haps there is fcarcely any better 
method of iiicreafmg manure. 
Pafturing the land where they 
grow, especially with hungry 
cattle, that will cat them as fait 
as they come up, will help to 
fubdue them* Folding will kill 
them ; for there is nothing fo 
fatal to them as urine : But not 
lefs than two or three year's til 
lage will fubdue them. They 
are hardefl to fubdue in deep 
foils. Plentiful dunging, with 
tillage, will be effectual ; but a 
molt certain remedy is urine ; 
this they get in plenty by fold 

" Fern, cut while the fap is in 
it, and left to rot on the ground, 
is a very great improver of land ; 
for if burnt when fo cut, its afhes 
will yield double the quantity cf 
fait that any other vegetable can 
do. In feveral places in the north 
parts of Europe, the inhabitants 
mow it green, and burning it to 
afhes, make thofe afhes up into 
balls* with a little water, which 
they dry in the fun, and make ufe 
of them to warn their linen with ; 
looking upon it to be near as 
good as foap for that purpofe." 
jfo&. of Arts. 

In the Farmer's Calendar you 
may read, under September, 
t; Now is the proper time to cm 
.fern, called in forne places brakes. 
This is moft profitable work, and 
fhould never be neglefted. Car 
ry it into your farm yard, and 
build large flacks of it for cut- 

F I S lit 

ting down through the winter, 
as faft as the cattle will tread it 
into dung ; alfo for littering the 
ftables, ox houfes, cow houfes, 
hogfties, &c. By having great 
plenty of it, you will be able to 
raife immenfe quantities of dung, 
which is the foundation of all^ 
good hufbandry ; and it is well" 
known that no vegetable yields 
fuch a quantity of falts as fern \ 
from which we are to conclude, 
that it is heft adapted to the 
making manure." 

It is a lamentable thing that 
we mould hitherto be fo inatten 
tive to our own welfare, as to 
fuffcr this weed to render our 
lands in a manner ufelefs, when 
it might be turned to fo great 
profit. It is a double advantage - 
to cut brakes, as they not only 
make plenty of good manure, 
but every cutting helps to de- 
ftroy them. The work may be 
done after the hurry of hay mak 
ing is over ; and perhaps no la 
bour on a farm can turn to bet 
ter account, 

FESCUE, the name of a ge 
nus of grafs, of which there are 
feveral fpecies. 

FIELD, a piece of cultivated 
land, whether for tillage, paflure y 
or mowing, 

FISH, animals that live in. 
water. All the parts of fifh, 
fnell filriandall other, are excel 
lent manures. They may be 
ufed, either falted or frefh ; fak 
ed fifh are faid to be befl. The 
offals of fiih, and fifh that are 
fpoilt for eating, may be con 
verted to this ufe : But I fhould 
prefer ufmg them as an ingredi 
ent in compofL They are fo 
flrong a manure, that it has been 
faid, one fingle alewiie will an- 
fwer as well as a {hovel full of 
the belt dung, in producing In 
dian corn. But they caufe land 
to exert itfelf fo much, that i* 


112 FLA 

will be apt to grow poor, unlcfs 
care be taken to prevent it. 

FLAIL, an inftrument for 
threfhing. A flail confifts of the 
hand-ftaff, the fwiple or flyer, the 
caps or caplins, the firing or 
band. The ftaff Ihould be of the 
lighteft timber, fuch as a-fh, and 
made perfectly ftraight ; the fly 
er fhould be of a heavy kind of 
Wood, as walnut, elm, or beetle 
wood. Some make the Caps of 
wood, -but ftiflffoal leather is bet 
ter. The firing or thong, which 
connects the cap with the flyer, 
may be of the neck of deer {kin. 
But the fkiri of an eel will laft 
much longer than any other 
firing I have met with. 

name given to clover, denoting 
the country from whence it firft 
came into England. 

FLAX, or LINT, Linum, one 
of the moft important of all 
plants, the culture of which is a 
needful, if riot a profitable piece 
of hufbandry. But I fufpecl the 
true caufe of its being thought 
unprofitable by many, is their j 
poor management of it. It is a 
crop that perhaps requires the 
moft care, and the niceft cul 
ture, of any that we are concern 
ed with. But this may be faid 
in its favour, it is fo ill tailed a 
plant, that it is feldom deftroy- 
ed, or hurt by infe6ts. It fhould 
never be fowed on a foil that is 
not rich, and well wrought ; for 
if the crop be not good, and do 
not get a good length, and a 
{bong coat, it will not pay for the 
labour, but be worfe than noth 
ing, which is too often the 

Sandy and gravelly foils are 
by no means fuitable for flax. 
It' is not a plant that requires 
much heat ; therefore it anfwers 
well in cold latitudes. The 
cooler kinds of foil, fuch as clay 

F L A 

and loam, and the black earth of 
drained lands, are fuitable for it. 
But they fhould be well pulver 
ized and manured. In wet fea- 
fons it commonly does better 
than in dry ones : So that though 
it may fometimes do well upon 
high land, it is beft not to run the 
rifk of it, but rather choofe a foil 
that is naturallylowandmoift. It 
it be too wet, fome little trenches 
may be made, thirty or forty 
feet afunder, to drain off the wa 
ter. The land muft be in good 
heart, either naturally, or by the 
help of manures. But new dung 
mould not be laid on it at the 
time of fowing ; nor any thing 
elfe that will make weeds in- 
creafe ; for in no crop are weeds 
more pernicious than in flax. It 
is often found that they entirely 
kill moft of the plants ; and the 
remaining ones will be bufhy and 
misfhapen, and have a weak coat 
on them, being too much depriv 
ed of the rays of the fun. 

The manure for flax ground 
fhould rather abound with oils 
than otherwife, and be rather 
cooling than hot. The old rot 
ten dung of black cattle and 
fwine is moft fuitable, or a com- 
poft in which thefe dungs are 
the principal parts. A top dreff- 
ing of fea weeds, after the flax 
is come up, is geatly recommend 
ed. But I rather choofe to en 
rich the ground a year before, 
than when the flax is fowed. 
A crop of potatoes is good to 
precede one of flax. I plough 
up green fward land, dung it 
well with fuch manures as are 
fuitable for flax, and plant it 
with potatoes. This crop does 
not abate the ftrength of the foil, 
but rather increafes it. It makes 
the ground mellow, and does 
not encourage weeds : It is 
therefore in fine order for flax 
the year following. 



Green fward will fometimes 
do well the firft year ; but it muft 
be a fat deep foil, fuch as fome in 
tervales are, and fhould have a 
dreffing of old dung, well pul 
verized, and mixed with the foil 
by harrowing : For if it be not 
well mixed, the crop will be of 
various lengths, which is incon 
venient, and occasions lofs. 

In Englancl they fow two 
bufhels of imported feed on an 
acre. When they fow feed of 
their own growing, they allow 
more. In this country fome af 
ford but one bufhel. The beft 
quantity may be about fix or 
leven pecks, or a little more or 
lefs, according to the ftrength of 
the foil. For it is not with this 
crop as fome fay it is with grain. 
Of grain, rich land requires, 
they fay, lefs feed ; becaufe 
what is wanting in feed, is made 
up in flooling. > But however 
this may be, it is moft certain 
that the ftooling of flax will be 
hurtful. That is the beft flax, 
where a root bears but one fpire, 
or ftalk. It will be ftraighter 
and taller, as well as more foft 
and pliant. The ground mould 
be ploughed in the fall, and a- 
gain in the fpring, the clods 
broken, and the ftones taken oiit. 

Flax mould be fowed early, 
unlefs the foil be tao wet. A final! 
degree of froft, happening after 
"it is up, will not kill it. That 
which is fowed early, has the 
ftrongeft coat, as it is llower in 
its growth. 

A calm time mould be taken 
to fuw the feeds : Otherwife it fowed even, it being 
more difficult to fow than moil 
other feeds. 

Flax feed mould be chahged 
once in two or three years, or it 
will fo degenerate, as to be unfit 
for lowing. It is worth while to 
change it every year. It is cer- 



tain, that feed from lefs than a 
hundred miles diftance, has been 
known to make a crop more 
than double in value. It has 
done fo in this country. After 
the feed is fown, it fhould be 
covered, either by bufh harrow 
ing or by rolling, or both. 

when flax comes to be about 
four inches high, if weed appears 
among it, they fliould be pulled 
up by careful hands : And to 
prevent wounding the flax, the 
weeders fhould be barefooted. 
If they fhould tread it down at 
this age, it will foon rife up a- 
gain. The weed, commonly 
known by the name of falfe flax, 
is not in bloflbrn till the flax is 
nine inches, or a foot high. At 
this time the weed is eafily found 
by its yellow bloffoms ; and 
what efcaped at the firft weed 
ing, fhould at this time be care 
fully eradicated. Otherwife it 
will be troublefome infpreading 
the flax, and in dreflihg it, and 
the feed will be foiil. 

The next operation in the cul 
ture of flax, is pulling it : In do 
ing which, care fhould be taken 
not to mix long and fhort to 
gether in the fame hands : But 
to keep all of the fame length by 
itfelf. The reafon of which cau 
tion is fo obvious, that I need 
not mention it. 

The time of pulling flax de 
pends upon its growth arid ripe- 
riefs.and upon the propofed meth 
od of managing it afterwards. 

That which is to be watered, 
fhould be pulled as foon as the 
bloflbms are generally taller! off* 
Some think the harl is ftroriger 
at this time than afterwards, as 
hone of the oily particles are yet 
paffed up into the feed. It is un 
doubtedly better for the foil, that 
it be pulled at this time, than 
when the feed is ripe* The 
longer it ftands to. ripen, the 


more oily particles it will draw 
from the earth. 

Being pulled, and tied up in 
hands, the flax mould be put in 
to the water without delay. A 
pond is preferable to running 
water, both as it is warmer, and 
not fo apt to deprive the flax of 
its oily and glutinous fubftance. 
In four or five days, according 
to the warmth of the water, it 
will be time to take it out. But 
that the true time may not, be 
miffed, it muft be carefully 
Watched, and trials made by dry 
ing and breaking a little of it, 
that fo the harl may not get too 
much weakened by fteeping. 

After it is taken out and has 
lain dripping a few hours, it muft 
be fpread on a graffy fpot,- and 
dried. If it fhould happen to be 
not watered enough, the want 
may be made up by letting it lie 
in the dews for a few nights ; 
and if a gentle rain happen to 
fall on it, it will be the whiter 
and cleaner. 

The flax that goes- to^ feed' 
ftould not ftand till it appears 
brown, nor till the feed be quite 
i'ipe. It is not neceffary on ac 
count of the feed ; becaufe it 
will ripen after pulling. When 
the leaves arc falling from the 
ftalks, and the flalks begin to have 
a bright yellow colour, the bolls 
juft beginning to have a brownifh 
cafi, is the right tkne for pulling. 

The rind is to be loofened 
from the ftalks, not by watering, 
left it be too harm, but by fpread- 
ing it on the grafs to receive the 
nightly clews. When it is done 
enough, the rind will appear fep- 
arated from the flalk at the flen- 
dcr branching parts near the top 
ends. When it is almoft done 
enough, it fhould be turned over 
once or twice. 

It was formerly the practice, 
after drying the flax in the field, 

F L A 

to houfe it till fome time in Sep- 
tember ; and then to beat off the 
feed and fpread the flax. But 
this often interfered with fall 
feeding : And it was necef- 
fary it iliould lie the longer, 
the weather being cool. Some 
times it has been overtaken by 

I prefer the method I have 
lately gone into, as if faves la 
bour ; which is, to fpread the 
fox as foon as it : is pulled. I do 
it on a fpot where the grafs is 
not very fhort, which prevents 
fun burning. And I avoid an 
evil which I once experienced. 
In a wet feafon the flax was fpoilt 
in the field after pulling, before 
I could get itjdry. As the weath 
er is hot, it will be done in about 
ten days or a fortnight. I then 
take it up, bind it in fmall bun 
dles, beat the feed off. and lay it 
up in a dry place till winter. 
While it lies on the ground, molt 
of the falfe feed will fhell out, 
which is a confiderable advan 
tage. It will be the fitter for 
market : But the feed referved 
for fowing mull be cleaned with 
a proper fieve. 

In the moil frofty clear weath 
er, flax will drefs eafily without 
roafting it before a fire, or bak 
ing it in an oven. Thefe prac 
tices are not approved, as they 
make the flax too brittle ; and 
caufe it to wafte a great deal in 
the drefling. They are needlefs 
in this country, whatever they 
may be in fome parts of Europe, 
\vhere there is a great deal of 
moift, dull weather. 

If the above directions wei'e 
ftriftly followed, I have no doubt 
but an acre of good land would, 
in a favourable feafon, produce 
four hundred \veight of flax, 
On this fuppofition, we may 
confider what the profit of the 
crop will be f 


F L A 

One third of the flax will 
pay for the dreffing. The oth 
er two thirds, at nine 
pence per pound, will /. s. d. 
come to - - 10 o o 

Dedufttwoploughingsl ^ 

of potatoe ground, J 
Six loads of dung laidl 
on the year before, J 
Harrowing and fowing, o 
Burning, or rolling, o 
Weeding, perhaps, . o 
.Pulling and ipreading, i 
Taking up and fecur-1 

ing it, 

8 o 

4 o 


4 ,o 

1 40 

O 12 O 

O O 

Whole expenie, 5 
The profit of the acre! 

then is J > 

To which I might add^j 

for the feed, over I 

.and above the quan- [ 

tity fown, J 

Whole profit, 600 

I believe there are but few fin- 

gle acres, in this country, which 

bring a greater profit than this 

would be. 

To prevent the ill effecl: of fo 
fevere a crop as flax is to the 
foil, it fhoulci be ploughed with 
out delay, after the crop is taken 
off. As flax is pulled early, the 
ground thus gets a kind of fum- 
mer fallow, which will do much 
towards recruiting it ; and weeds 
are prevented from going to feed, 
at the fame time that they ferve 
as a green drefTmg. 

FLAX BRAKE, a machine 
ufed in drefling flax. New im 
provements of it are, placing the 
jteeth fo as to converge towards 
the fore part, and laying tlie up 
per teeth higher at the hinder 
part. That this machine may 
tail for any confiderable time, 
care mould be taken that it be 
not expofed to the injuries of 
the weather* 

V L O 115 

Brakes may be conftrucled to 
go ly water. Either a mill may 
be built for that purpofe ; or, 
which is attended with lefs ex- 
penfe, the machinery may be an 
appendage to fome larger mill, 
and moved without a diftiuct 
water wheel. But fuch brakes 
are attended with f'undry incon 
veniences, beiides extra coil in 
building them, and wailing oi 
the flax : Though it cannot be 
denied that the work may be 
performed with much greater 

Not only brakes, but {"catchers, 
or fwingling mills, have been in 
vented, to be moved by the foot. 
Pa-rt of the exertion of the la 
bourer may undoubtedly be lav 
ed by them. At leait, when 
they are ufed by way of change, 
the work may be lightened on 
the whole. They who think 
it expedient to have thefe ma 
chines, may find them defcribcd, 
with outs annexed, iii the Com 
plete Farmtr. 

or DROWNING, covering of 
low lands with water, when 3. 
rivulet paries through them, by 
making a dam at the outlet. 
When there is a tafficiency of 
water, and a. ihort dam will arr- 
fwer, this is a piece c^ hufband- 
ry that aught not to be neglect 
ed. Oftentimes it nwy be of 
great advantage. 

Sometimes it is done for the 
purpofe of deflroying the natur 
al growth of trees, bullies, &c. 
The water not only makes an 
edential alteration iu their food, 
but alfo excludes them from the 
{ree air, which is eifentially nec- 
eliary to vegetation. It is no 
wonder, therefore, that it proves 
their definition. 

The flowing ot two fummers 
is found fufficient to kill every 
plant of tlje woody kind, fo that 


it will not fprout any more. 
But fome advife to drawing off 
the water in Auguft, that the 
ground may be, for a few days, 
heated by the fun. The plants 
thus fuddenly pafs from one ex 
treme to another, which will 
doubtlefs tend to deftroy them 
the fooner. But when the fea- 
fon is fo dry that another pond 
of water could not be immedi 
ately raifed, the drawing off had 
better be omitted. 

Another intention of flooding 
is, to enrich the foil. Some lay 
their low grafs lands under wa 
ter during the whole of the win 
ter. This may be a good meth 
od for lands which are fo low 
and wet, that none of the beft 
grafles can be made to grow on 
them. The poor water grafles 
will grow the fafter ; and the 
crops of hay, fuch as it is, will 
be the larger. 

But places where clover, or 
herds grafs, or red top will flour- 
ifli, fhould net be flowed during 
the winter : Becaufe the winter 
irofts are known to be neceflary 
to the production of thefe grafles. 

Flooded lands fhould always 
be laid bare early in the fpring, 
that the growth 'of the grafs be 
not prevented : Or that the 
ground may be dried fo early as 
to be fit for tillage crops. And 
ditching of flooded lands, "at leaft 
round the borders, will be necef- 
fary'to lay them dry enough for 

As {landing water catches duft 
from the atmofphere, and always 
contains more or lefs of the fin- 
eft particles of foil, it depofits a 
rich fediment ; a fat flime : , there 
fore, will remain on the furface 
after the water is removed. And 
a time fhould be chofen for draw 
ing it off, when the air is cairn, 
and the water cleareft, that as lit- 
tie a quantity as ppflihle of the 


food of plants may pafs off with 
it. Such land is no more liable 
to fuffer by drought than the fer 
tile land of Egypt, which is year- 
ly enriched by the overflowing 
of the Nile. 

Though winter flooding do 
not fuit the nature of good graff 
es, a few days flooding in the 
fpring and fall will not hurt 
them ; but will enrich the foil, 
and fo promote their growth. 
The foil will have the fame ad 
vantage as intervale land, which 
i made rich and fruitful by oc- 
cafional flooding : Yea, a great 
er advantage, as the water may be 
applied and removed at pleafure, 

FLOUR, the edible, part of 
corn. The name is chiefly giv 
en to the meal of wheat corn, af 
ter it js cleared from the bran, 
by fiftjng or bolting. The flour 
of wheat is the beft fubftance for 
making bread that is known in 
the world. 

That flour may continue good 
and fit for ufe, it fhould be put 
into dry cafks, and then kept in a 
place that is cold and dry. Oth- 
erwife it will be apt foon to turn 
four. And if it be paffed through 
a fieve once in a while, it will 
keep good the longer. 

It is greatly to be regretted 
that this country does not pro 
duce flour in greater plenty. 
That it may do fo, I ftiould think 
nothing is neceffary befides the 
following things : i. To procure 
new feed of wheat from fome re 
mote place, once in three or four 
years ; and from the northward, 
that it may ripen the earlier : 
2. To give the land three or four 
ploughings before fowing, fo as 
to make it very mellow and fine, 
like garden mould : 3. To pre 
pare the feed in fuch a manner 
as to prevent i'mut. See Smut. 


the moil beautiful part of a plant, 


F O A 

many of which have an agreea 
ble flavour. 

The flower contains the or 
gans of generation, the farina 
Jecundans, which ' is neceifary to 
iruitfulnefs, and the rudiments 
of the fruit itfelf containing the 
feed of a future plant. 

FLY, an infeci that eats, cor 
rupts and deftroys young plants. 
See Infett. 

FOAL, a colt. " Foals are 
ufually foaled about the begin 
ning of fummer, and it is the 
cuftom to let them run till mich- 
aelmas with the mare, at which 
time they are to be weaned. 
When, firft weaned they muft be 
kept in a convenient houfe, with 
a low rack and manger for hay 
and oats ; the hay mult be very 
fweet and fine, efpecially at firft, 
and a little wheat bran ihould be 
mixed with their oats, in order 
to keep their bodies open, and 
make them eat and drink freely. 
When the winter is fpent, they 
fhould be turned into fome dry 
ground, where the grafs is fweet 
and fhort, and where there is 
good water, that they may drink 
at pleafure. The winter after 
this, they may be kept in the 
{table, without any further care 
than that which is taken of oth 
er horfes : But after the firft 
year, the mare foals and horfe 
foals are not to be kept together. 
There is no difficulty to know 
the ihape a foal is like to be of ; 
for the fame ftiape he carries at 
a month, he will carry at fix 
years old, if he be not abufed in 
after keeping." 

We often hear it lamented, 
that our breed of horfes is fo bad. 
But I am convinced that, as our 
colts are managed, if we had any 
other breed, we ihould foon make 
it appear to be as mean as our 
own, if not worfe. The abufing 
jits in the firft winter, is the 

F O D 


principal caufe of their proving 
io bad. For our fanners feldorn 
allow their weaned colts any 
food befides hay, and that is not 
always of the bell kind. So that, 
they feldom fail of being ftinted 
in their growth, in the firft win 
ter, to fuch a degree that they 
never get the better of it. A 
colt that is foaled late, ihould not 
be weaned till February or March, 
and Ihouid have oats during the 
whole of the winter. In fome 
countries they allow a young 
colt fifteen hufhels. We need 
not grudge to feed them with 
meal, oats and bran, befides the 
belt of clover hay ; for they will 
pay for it in their growth. Af 
ter the firft winter, they will 
need no extraordinary feeding 
till they are grown up. Were 
the above directions obferved, 
we ihould foon fee an improve 
ment of our breed of horfes. 
They would be capable of doing 
much greater fervice, and be 
likely to hold out to a greater age. 

FODDER, dry food for horfes 
and other cattle. The term in 
cludes corn or grain, hay and 
ftraw, the ftalks and leaves of 
Indian corn, the haulm of peafe 
and beans, &c. Dried weeds, 
and leaves of trees, may alfo 
ferve as fodder for hungry and 
hardy cattle. 

Mr. Liile recommends elm 
leaves, dried on the fmall branch 
es, as a great relief to cattle in 
winter. He fays the cattle will 
eat it before oats, and thrive ex 
ceedingly with it. Alfo, the 
chaff' of all kinds of grain, in the 
old countries, is referved for fod 
der, and made more account of 
than the ftraw. In this country 
it is fullered to be driven away 
by winds. This is an inftance 
of our want of economy. 

In fuch a country as ours, 
where. the winters are long and 


siB F O D 

cold, and where grafs does not 
ferve for the cattle fo much as 
half the year, providing fodder, 
and preferving it, are matters of 
high confequence. In this bufi- 
nefs, a great part of the farmer's 
care and ftrength is employed. 
For there is not more than two 
months in a year, in which farm 
ers are not either preparing, and 
laying up fodder for their {lock, 
or elfe dealing it out to them. 
But this need not difcourage the 
Newengland farmer. For the 
cafe is very much the fame in 
moft parts of Greatbritain, where 
the nation has become rich by 
hufbandry, and where lands wijl 
bear a high rent. One guinea 
per acre per annum, is not ac 
counted high rent for good land, 
in tillage or grafs, in that country. 
JLands that lie near to great towns 
and cities are rented much higher. 

The ways to increafe the quan 
tity of fodder, will be found un 
der other articles. The ways to 
prefer ve it, fo as to make the 
greateft advantage from it, may 
be here confidered. 

One important caution to be 
obferved is, that hay, which is 
the prin cipaj fodder, Ihould not be 
fo much dried as to occafion its 
wafting. When it has been 
properly made, it mould not be 
carted in, if it can be avoided, at 
a time when the weather is dry 
and windy, nor in the hotteft 
part of the day. Mornjngs and 
evenings are the be ft times for 
removing it, as there is a damp- 
nefs in the air which prevents its 
being too crifpy. The leaves 
will not crumble, nor the feeds 
fhatter out. The beft parts of 
the hay are often loft by not ob- 
ferving this caution ; or at leaft 
much di mini died. 

The hay which is to be ftored 
in fmall or narrow mows, and on 
fcaffolds, will keep well with lit- 

F O D 

tie drying. That which goes 
into a large mow, will need to 
be dryer, as the air will not pen 
etrate fo near to the centre of it, 

To prevent the hay from tak 
ing damage, by overheating in 
a large mow, fomc recommend 
a barrel, bafket, or a fluffed fack, 
to be placed in the centre, and 
gradually raifed as the mow rifes. 
This forms a kind of chimney, 
which takes away the fteam ot 
the hay when it is overhot, fup* 
plies frem air to the hotteft part, 
and keeps the hay from turning 
mouldy. But as good a meth 
od may be to pitch fome of the 
drieft hay in each load, into the 
centre, and the greeneil round 
the lides. In xhis way no room 
will be loft, 

In difpofing of the different 
kinds of hay and other fodder, 
fome regard mould be had to the 
places, or parts of the barn, in 
which the different forts of cattle 
are kept. The clover hay, for 
inftance, mould be laid up near 
to the ftable where horfes are 
kept, as this is the moft fuitable 
fodder for them. The good hay 
of other kinds, mould be put 
where it can be handily given to 
the calves, milch cows, and work 
ing oxen. The meaneft fodder 
neareft to the apartment of the 
growing young ftock, on which 
it is commonly beftowed, and 
which is more proper for them 
than for the reft. 

In thofe parts of the country 
where fait hay cannot be had, it is 
a good method to apply fait to hay- 
that has been damaged in mak 
ing, and to ftraw, and hay of low 
meadows, as it is put into the 
mow. The fait will make it more 
palatable both to horfes, and 
neat cattle. One peck of fait is 
enough for a ton of hay. 

Some choofe that a barn mould 
have large gaps between the 


toards on the fides, that the hay, 
&c. may have air. This is fure- 
ly a miflaken notion ; for the 
hay that is neareft to the gaps 
will fofe its fweetnefs. The roof 
of a barn fhould alfo be kept very 
tight; and none of the hay fhould 
be laid very near to the ground. 

I do not approve of flacking any 
kind of fodder, excepting in cafe 
of necefftty. For fome inches of 
the outfide of a Sack is certainly 
fpoilt by the weather. It is well 
if the reft happen to be well fav- 
ed. It often proves otherwife. 

When a farmer has more hay 
than his barn will hold, let him 
flack it near to the barn ; and, 
as foon as he has made room, in 
fome damp or calm day take it 
in. There will be the lefs dan 
ger of its getting damage. 

Farmers, who mean to keep 
good their flocks, and to have 
plenty of manure, mould not be 
fond of felling hay. If they 
fhould have fome left in the 
fpring, it will not grow worfe, 
but fome forts will be better, by 
keeping. And if a fhort crop 
fhould happen, they will be glad 
they have kept it. 

Straw that is referved for fod 
der, may help to preferve the 
hufks and bottom flalks of Indian 
corn, which commonly have too 
much fap in them to be mowed 
by themfelves. If they are 
in owed together, in alternate 
thin layers, the itraw will pre 
ferve the corn flalks, arid the 
ftalks will impregnate the ftraw 
with their fweetnefs, fo that the 
cattle will eat them together 
with a good relifb, and be well 
fiourifhe'd hy them. 

Another method of managing 
flrawj which I have found to be 
of fingular advantage, is to mix 
it with fait hay which is not more 
than half dried. The hay is ! 
thus kept from heating, and the j 

F O D 


ftraw is fp tinftured with the fait 
and fap of the hay, as to be render 
ed an agreeable fodder for cattle. 

It is well known that cattle 
prefer fhort ftraw to that which 
is long : Therefore fome farm 
ers cut their ftraw as fhort as oats, 
and to tempt the horfes to eat it, 
mix fome oats or barley among 

FODDERING, feeding cat 
tle with dry food. We have 
occafion to begin to fodder, moft 
commonly, about the beginning 
of November ; and to continue 
doing it till the middle of May, 
and Sometimes later. 

We fhould take care not to be- 
in to fodder till it is really necef- 
ary : Becaufe cattle that are fod 
dered, will notgraze fo diligently . 
When it is once begun, the cat 
tle will expecl: it, and it muft be 
continued. When we firft be 
gin, we fhould fodder early in 
the morning only ; for at that, 
time of the day the froft is ufual- 
ly on the grafs ; fo that the cat 
tle will not graze. They fhould 
not yet be houfed, horfes except- 
ed ; But in wet weather the whole 
flock fhould: be houfed; for they 
bear cold better than wetnefs, 
Or if not put into the barn, they 
fhould have a fhed in the yard, 
under which they may fhelter 

The meaneft fodder fhould 
not be dx2alt out firft of all. The 
hufks and ftalks of Indian corn 
are fuitable for this feafon. The 
flraw and the worft hay fhould 
be referved to give them in the 
cohleft weather ; for it is then 
that they have the keeneft appe 
tites. The hay of low ground, 
ftraw and haulm, it fait hay be 
not to be had, may be fprinkled 
with falted water, if faking it in 
the mow has been neglected. 
They will not only eat it hearti 
ly, but live well upon it. 



F O D 

Wild grafs hay is not fit for 
horfes, nor any of the water 
grafles. They will need fome 
grain, if they be fed on any other 
hay befides clover. They mould 
have a final 1 window again ft 
their rack, to let in frefh air to 
their fodder, and at the fame time 
give them light. They will eat 
fnow with their hay, if you fet 
it by them : They will take a 
mouthful of each alternately ; 
and the fnow feems to increafe 
their appetite. If horfes have 
not grain through the winter, 
they ihould have it at leaft in the 
fore part of winter ; for the com 
ing on of winter is the moft try 
ing feafon for them. If they be 
fed with Indian corn, it mould 
be well foaked and fwelled ; it 
will give them the more nourifh- 

Neat cattle and horfes mould 
not have fo much hay laid before 
them at once, as will quite ferve 
to fill them. The hay they have 
breathed on much, they will not 
eat up clean, unlefs when they 
are very hungry. It is belt, 
therefore, to fodder them twice 
at night, and twice in the morn 
ing. Let neat cattle as well as 
horfes have both light and freih 
air let in upon their fodder, 
when the weather is not too 
cold, or ftormy, to allow the 
windows to be open. What one 
fort of cattle leave, mould be 
thrown to another fort. Thofe 
that chew the cud will eat the 
leavings of thofe that do not, and 
vies verfa. 

It is alfo well known to farm 
ers, that what cattle leave in the 
barn, they will eat abroad in the 
open air ; and moil freely when 
it is laid upon clean fnow. Not 
only this, but the meaneft of 
ftraw fhould be given them in 
this way. What is left will help 
to increafe the manure in the yard . 

F O D 

But fome of the young andl 
hardy of the flock ihould be 
kept wholly on ftraw, when a 
farmer has great plenty of it, and 
not be fufFered to tafte any other 
fodder during the whole winter. 
For their getting a tafte of other 
fodder will fpoil their appetite 
for ftraw. But if they be kept 
entirely to it, it is faid by farm 
ers of great experience, that they 
will winter very well. If this 
be attempted, there muft be a 
diftinft yard for them. 

Every farm yard, where any 
considerable ftock is kept, mould 
be furhimed with a large fhed, 
and a rack under it. For where 
there is no clean fnow to lay the 
ftraw, and other mean fodder 
upon, it mould be put into the 
rack. A larger proportion of the 
dung will be dropped under the 
fhed, than in any other part of 
the yard. And this dung will be 
better than the reft, as it will not 
be warned by rains, nor fo much 
dried by the wind and fun. 

Sheep,when they are under cov 
er, ihould draw their hay through 
a rack, made fo clofe as juft tc 
admit their nofes. They fhould 
have good hay, and a cool and dry 
houfe. Beans is a fort of food 
they eat very greedily, and even 
the ftraw. But it is faid, that 
ewes with young ihould not be 
allowed to eat many beans ; as it 
will make their lambs grow too 
large within them . Neither mould 
they be fed too generoufly, nor 
to the full, till near the time of 

When a farmer thinks that h 
has too much ftock for his fod 
der, as will fometimes be the 
cafe, it is not beft to pinch them 
in their allowance fo much in 
the fore part of winter as in the 
latter part. For the cattle are 
more liable to he pinched with 
the cold, in Decemb er and Jan 


Hair than afterwards. And no 
man knows how favourable the 
latter part of winter may be. 
Advantage alfo may be made 
of browfing in the latter more 
than in the former part of win 
ter, as the buds then begin to 
(well* and the twigs have more 
fap in them than before. 

When browfing is depended 
on, the farmer who has fait hay, 
fhould preferve a fufficien t quan 
tity of it to the latter part of 
Winter. It will give the cattle 
a high relifh for browfe. If they 
have no fait hay, they mould 
have fait, to increafe their appe 

Cows that are near calving, 
mould not be driven out after 
the browfe, for fear of accidents. 
They mould be kept on the befl 
fodder : Not be tied up with the 
other cattle ; but each one fhould 
be fed in an apartment by her- 
felf, without tying. 

AGE, lorig grafs and ftumps of 
grafs, remaining in mowing 
grounds and paftures till winter. 

This is accounted in general a 
benefit to the land ; especially 
when the grafs is not of a bad and 
four kind. The fnow prcfTes it 
down clofe to the furface, where 
it fhelters the roots of the grafs, 
corrupts it, and turns it to ma 
nure. But when mowing grounds 
are fed very clofe in the tall, the 
cnfuing crop is poorer, the roots 
being more injured by the feet 
and teeth of cattle, and more ex- 
rJofed to the weather. The dung 
they drtfp, though it be confid- 
erable, will not wholly repair the 
damage of clofe feeding and 

But fog ismoft effentially fer- 
viceable on a foil of the clay 
kind. It forms a cover which 
retains the rains and dews, in the 
following fpririg and fummer, fo 

f 6 L 121 

as to give the furface a more 
equable and conflant moifture ; 
and prevents the binding and 
cracking of the furface by the 
heat of the fun. Nothing can 
better oppofe the ill effecls of a 
dry feafon on fuch a foil. 

FOLDING of land, confin 
ing fheep, or other cattle, night 
ly, in a final) lot or yard, for the 
purpofe of enriching the foil. 
The benefit arifing from this is 
fo great, that it ought not to be 
hegle6ted, especially in thofe 
parts of the country, where the 
wolves do not come. 

Some turn in their other cat 
tle with the fheep. This is good 
conduct, when the foil is warm 
fand or gravel ; and not bad 
when it is loamy. But it may 
be better to yard the black cattle; 
without fheep, on a very dry 
foil ; fuch as hungry fand or 
gravel ; and the fheep without 
the black cattle, on a foil that is 
heavy and cold. Thus both, 
thefe kinds of manure will be 
applied to the foil which will 
be moft helped by them. 

Folding is a much better 
method than carrying dung from 
the barn yard, when the feafon is: 
fuitable for doing it. One great 
advantage of it is, that none of 
the ftale is wailed, but every 
drop of 'it inftantly abforbed by 
the foil that needs it, and will 
make a good return for it. 

Folding, or yarding, is but lit 
tle attended to in this country ; 
and not half the advantage is 
made from it that might be, 
when it is attempted. It is faid 
that one hundred fheep in a fum- 
mer will enrich eight acres, fo as 
to need no other manuring for 
fix years. 

This matter is certainly mif- 
conducled, when a farmer, either 
to fave the labour of fencing, or 
through ignorance of the advan 

22 F O L 

tage of folding, makes his ia- 
clofures too fmall, and folds the 
land too much for his own profit. 

Let a fpot of half an acre be 
ploughed and fenced. Turn ia, 
each night, a dozen head of neat 
cattle, and fifty fheep. Continue 
to do it for three weeks, harrow 
ing the furface once in three 
days, to mix the excrements with 
the foil. The ground will be 
iufficieatly folded to produce a 
fine crop of turnips, or almoft 
any other good crop. It is reck 
oned by fome that a fheep will 
fold one yard fquare in a night ; 
or rather one rod fquare ia about 
a fortnight. 

A yard for cabbages or tur^ 
nips, may be begun about the 
middle of May ; cr when the 
cattle firil go to grafs. About 
a month after will be nearly the 
right time to tranfplant cabbages ;. 
and fix weeks or about two 
months after, to fow turnips. 
And, for a general rule, it is belt 
that a crop Ihould fucceed the 
manuring as foon as poffible. 

Wheaa crop of wheat is want 
ed, the ground may be folded in 
July, as the feed is to be fown ia 
Auguft. And frequent ploughing. 
and harrowing for this crop 
Ihould aot be aegle&ed. If the 
land be wettifh, do it in the mid 
dle of the day ; if dry, in the 
inorning before the dew is off. 

Low grafs grounds, which are 
cold and four, and produce bad 
hay, may be furprifingly melio 
rated by a little folding. It kills 
fern and moffes, and roots out 
the wild and watery graffes, even 
without breaking up the foil. 
At the fame time it encourages the 
growth of better kinds of Cranes. 
This may be done at certain fea- 
fons that are unsuitable for the 
folding of ploughed lands, they 
being too wet and dirty for the 
iheep to lie upoa, as in October, 

F O O 

November, March and April. 
Sheep are more proper, for this 
fort of folding than larger cattle, 
as their excrements are hotter. 

FOOD of plants, the matter 
which enters into them, aad 
gives them their nourifhment 
and growth. 

It has been much difputed 
among aaturajifls, what the food 
of plants confifts of. It is agreed, 
that the food enters the pores of 
plants in a liquid form. But of 
what kind of matter this fluid is 
eompofed, is the queflioa. 

I mail pafs over, for the fake 
of brevity, the argumeats of thofe 
who have fuppofed this food 
wholly to confrft of air, of earth, 
or of Water ; or of any oae un 
mixed fub fiance whatever. And 
I mail not trouble my readers 
with an account of any of the 
futile experiments, by which 
they imagined they had proved 
their hypothefes. For L believe 
they have all been wide of the 
truth, and their experiments im 
perfect and fallacious. 

I mould think there caaaot be 
a more likely way to afcertaia 
the nature of this alimeat, than 
to examine what plants contain, 
or what they are made up of. 
For they almofl entirely confift' 
of what paffes into them during 
their growth. The feed is fo 
fmall, that the fubftance contain 
ed in that can make but little al 
teration ia the aature of the 
wliele plant produced from it. 
Or, if it did, feeds may be re 
duced to their firfl principles, as* 
eafily as die plant that bears 

Plants have been found by 
chymical analyfesto contaia air, 
water, earth, fait, and oil. But 
any one may convince himfelf 
of it, without the aid of a chym 
ical procefs. If we take notice 
of wood that is burning, we (hall 

F O O 

End, by its biffing and {napping, 
that it difcharges no fmall quan 
tity of air : Water is feen paff- 
ing out at the ends of the fticks 
on the fire : The flame proves 
the exiflence of the oily part : 
And falts are eafily produced 
from the afhes, by extracting the 
lie, and boiling it. The alhes 
that remain are the caput mor- 
iuum, or earth. It is natural to 
ftippofe that the food of plants is 
made up of thefe ingredients, to 
which plants are fo eafily reduc 
ed. For it feems irrational to 
think, that the nature of the food 
is totally changed in a plant, or 
by conco6tion changed into a 
fubftance of a quite different na 
ture. If it were fo, rotten vege 
tables would not give fuch good 
nourimment to growing plants 
as we find they do, 

But then it is found that the 
fubflances of which plants are 
compofed, are varioufl-y combin 
ed in different plants. Some 
plants abound mod with oil, 
fome with fait, &c. And this 
variation is fufl&cient to conlli- 
tute an almoft endlefs variety in 
the natures of plants ; although 
there were no different concoc 
tions in plants, after the entrance 
of the ingredients of their food, 
which affimilates them to their 
particular natures. 

The food of plants is provid 
ed by nature, in a greater or lefs 
degree, in every part of the earth, 
near the furface. In places 
where it is found to be fcarce, 
the defect may be fupplied by 
tillage, dung, and other manures. 
Tillage adds to the food of plants, 
by opening the pores of the earth, 
and difpofing it to abforb, and 
retain the vegetable food that 
floats in the atmofphere ; and al- 
fo, by mixing the ingredients, 
and caufmg a fermentation, which 
prepares the ingredients to enter 

F O O 123 

the pores in the roots of plants. 
Dung, and many other manures, 
increafe the food, as they contain 
it in greater plenty than the e 
does. Some of the manures do 
ahnofl entirely confifloi it. 

The queltion has been much 
conteiled, whether the food ot 
all plants be the fame. It fecms 
to be, in general, nearly the 
Fame : i. Becaufe all plants con 
tain more or lefs of each of the 
ingredients : 2. JBecaufe moft 
kinds -of plants will flourim on 
any piece of ground that is well 
cultivated, when it has the de 
gree of moifture that fuits them : 
3. Becaufe almofl, or quite, eve 
ry plant will rob all others of 
their food, which ftand near it ; 
and one of its own kind riot per- 
x:eptibly more than one of an 
other kind. 

But it may reafonably be fuf- 
peted, .that the orifices in the 
roots will not fo readily admit 
any particles which do not fuit 
the nature of the plants, as thofe 
that do. For the flavour of the 
root is often very different from 
that of the earth neareft to it. 
But if, oa the contrary, v/e fop- 
.pofe the roots to take in all the 
ingredients ot vegetable food 
proinifcuoufiy, as they are pre- 
fented, they arc not all equally re 
tained. On this itippolition, a 
plant irmfl have the power of 
lending out, by perfpiration, or 
excretion, a greater proportion of 
one kind of ingredient of its 
food than another, that the re 
maining fap may be more iuka- 
ble to the nature of the plant. 

Which of thefe hypothefes is 
neareft the truth, I will not un 
dertake at prefent to determine.. 
But there is a remarkable anal 
ogy beUvixt animals and plants, fo 
far as their natures are inveftigat- 
ed. Therefore, as animals have 
different appetites, why may we 



F O O 

not fuppofe fomething fimilar in 
plants ? Or, that feme roots may 
reject one kind of particles in the 
general food that nature provides, 
and other roots reject other par 
ticles. A flag, for inftance, may 
imbibe more water, than a bum 
of the whortleberry of the fame 
bulk. Why may we not fup 
pofe further, that as fome ani 
mals feed qn afrnoft any thing 
that comes in their way, fo fome 
plants may be deilitute of any 
nicenefs of appetite, and admit 
all food prom ifcuoti fly ? But 
whether the difagreeable parti 
cles are rejected, without enter 
ing the roots, or expelled after 
they have, entered ; yet the real 
jiourifhment of different plants, 
as well as of different parts of 
the fame plant, inuft needs be 
fomewhat different. For that 
\vhich nourifhes a plant, mult be 
made up of nearly the fame par 
ticles of matter, that the plant 
is when it is grown. As there 
is a real difference in the latter, 
there muft be alfo in the former. 
So that there is a real difference 
in their nourishment ; though not 
fo great a difference, but that the 
food of all plants may be con- 
fidered, in general, as being 
much the fame. So a company 
of men are faid in general to 
feed alike, when they all eat of 
the fame number of dimes at 
one table, though one take a 
greater proportion of his meal 
from one diih, and another from 
another: Or though, taking e- 
qually of all, oneftomachdigefts 
that which another does not, but 
throws it off as unfuitable ali 

If the above reprefentation be 
agreeable to truth, it will follow, 
that as all foils do not contain 
the ingredients of vegetable food 
in the fame proportions, fome 
foils muft be fitter to nourifli one 

F O O 

kind of plants, and others anoth 
er kind ; and the fame may be 
faid of manures. And as expe 
rience proves that this is fo, it is 
favourable to my theory. But ftill 
the food of plants is, in general, 
nearly the fame. In confirma 
tion of this opinion, it may be ob- 
ferved that fallowing always en 
riches a foil ; and, for ought that 
appears to the contrary, makes it 
more fit to produce all forts of 
crops. But the food which en 
ters into fallowed land from the 
air muft be, in general, nearly 
the fame. 

It has been afked, whether a 
piece of ground, which has borne 
the fame crops, year after year, 
till it will bear the fame no long 
er, may not be in a good condi 
tion for bearing fome other crop 
that requires equal flrength in the 
foil ? I think it doubtful wheth 
er this has ever appeared to be 
the cafe in fact. But have ob- 
ferved, that a piece of ground, 
tired of producing white crops, 
as they are called, which require 
much nourifhment from the foil, 
may be in a fit condition for 
crops that require little : Not 
becaufe the food of different 
plants is efTentially different, 
but becaufe the latter takes from 
the air a greater proportion of its 
nourifhment than the former. 
Thus land which appears to be ex- 
hauled by cropping with wheat 
or oats, may be fufficiently rich 
for peafe or potatoes. And a- 
gain, as fome plants draw their 
nourilhrnent from a greater depth 
in the foil than others, a fpot 
that feems to be cxhaufled by fi 
brous rooted crops may be in a 
condition for tap rooted ones. 
Arid this is perfectly confident 
with the opinion that the food 
of both kinds may be nearly the 
fame. And on the whole it ap 
pears, that there may be fuffi- 



c*ient reafon for a rotation of 
crops, though the food ot all 
plants were the fame, or nearly 
fo, as I fuppofe them to be. 

FOREST, a traft of ground 
producing wood. Each farm ot 
any considerable bignefs, mould 
have a foreft to afford a fupply 
of fewel and timber. In clear 
ing farms in a new country, due 
regard mould be had to preferr 
ing a perpetual foreft. Some 
have miftaken their intereft fo 
much, as not to leave a fufftcient 
quantity of land uncleared. So 
that they are put to the difagree- 
able neceflity, either of buying 
their fire wood, or elfe of go 
ing fome miles after it. That 
part of a farm mould be fet apart 
for this purpofe, which is leaft 
adapted by nature for tillage, or 
grals. Land which is fwampy, 
with a very thin foil over a fan- 
dy bottom ; land that is rocky and 
mountainous, or which will but 
poorly bear a dry feafon, or even 
the mo ft fandy, or gravelly 
heights, of fteep declivities vyhjch 
cannot be ploughed, may an- 
fwer well for a foreft. Foreft 
trees, having long roots, fome 
of which penetrate deeply, v,::I 
find fufficient notirimnient, in 
places where corn and grafs can 
not be cultivated to advantage. 
So that it is very bad economy 
to fuffer any fuch places to be 
deftitute of growing trees. For 
if they do not produce wood 
they are in a manner ufelefs. 
Or if they produce any grafs, 
trees will not hurt them for paf- 
turage, but in fome cafes make 
them better. 

The quantity of ground that 
mould be fet apart for this ufe, 
muft vary according to the hrge- 
nefs of the farm it belongs to, 
1 and according to the demand for 
wood, the quality of the foil, and 
the nature of the climate. If the 



climate be hot, the foreft may be 
final ler. 

A fmall farm cannot fo w^ell ad 
mit of a large lot for wood as a 
larger one. Some intelligent fann 
ers in this country have thought 
they could make a lot of ten cv 
a dozen acres anfwer the purpofe 
of fupporting one conftant kitch 
en fire. But it certainly will not, 
unlefs the foil be uncommonly 
fruitful, and the trees fuch as are 
of the quickeft growth. If land 
be poor and dry, it will require 
twenty acres or more, to fupply 
one fingle fire, and keep the 
{lock ot trees undiminifhed. 

To thicken a foreft, or to pre 
vent its becoming too thin, cattle 
mould be kept out at all feafons, 
that all the trees which fpring 
out of the ground may live, and 
grow up to maturity. And when 
it is found needful, acorns, or 
other feeds, Ihould be planted, fo 
that none of the ground may 
continue unoccupied. 

In our rnoft fouthern climates, 
I find that hard wood is more 
rapid in its growth than in the 
northern. And fprouts oftener 
grow up from flumps of trees 
that are felled. The trees that 
grow up quickeft in general 
mould be moil cultivated. 
Thofe of thefe kinds Ihould be 
more generally left ftanding than 
others ; fuch, for inftance, as the 
red and grey oaks, aih, white 
maple, &c. 

That a foreft may be preferv- 
ed from wafte, as few trees as 
podible Ihould be felled in fum- 
mer, orfpring ; not only becaufe 
the wood and timber is of lefs 
value, but becaufe no fuckers 
will be fo apt to come up from 
their roots. It is a frugal meth 
od to fell all wood, and timber 
trees, in December and January, 
or a little before and after thole 
months. The wood will laft 



longer, will be more durable on 
the fire, and burn better : And 
the timber will be more lafting. 
When a number of fuckers fpririg 
up horn a Hump, all, excepting 
one or two, fJiouid be taken a- 
way as early as poffible ; then the 
remaining ones will grow with 
rapidity. Thofe are to be left 
which are talleft, and moft rap 
id in their growth. 

When a farm is quite deftitute 
of a foreft, fome fpot, or fpots, 
the mo ft barren of any part of 
the farm, ihouldbe converted to 
this ufe, and be planted with 
fuch trees as may be expecled to 
thrive beft. 

If thefe fpots be tillable, " cat 
tle of all kinds, and fwine fhould 
be fenced out ; and the ground 
well ploughed and harrowed, 
znd made mellow,. Acorns may 
be put in, in rows four feet afun- 
<ier, two inches apart, and two 
inches deep. The intervals may 
bear fome hoed crops, while the 
trees are fmall. They mould be 
hoed the firft year with the hand 
hoe ; the fecond with the horfe 
hoe, and fo on afterwards. When 
they are a year old begin to thin 
them. When they are, by re 
peated thinnings, as they grow 
larger, reduced to the .diftance of 
eight feet, all the reft may ftand 
for timber, till fome of them are 
iit for fome ufes. But the final 
diftance for large timber trees, is 
from twenty to thirty feet." 
Complete Farmer. 

But if places defigned for fpr- 
efts cannot conveniently be till 
ed, the trees mould be raifed in 
a nurfery, and tranfplanted into 
fuch places. The coft of doing 
it will be trifling, to compare 
with the advantage to be obtain 
ed by doing it, efpecially in thofe 
parts of the country where wood 
35 become a fcarce article. Small 
clumps of trees on little efni- 

F O U 

nenccs, have an excellent ef 
fect on the beauty of a country. 

FOUNDERING, a very pain- 
fuj difeafe in the feet of horfes. 
A horfe affecled with this difeafe 
draws himfelf up in a heap, and 
is loth to move. It is laid to be 
occafioned by bruifes on the legs, 
by bad fhoeing, by ftanding in 
cold water after 'being heated 
with exercife ; or even by ftand 
ing ftill in the ftable for feyeral 
days. As the difordejr is in 
the feet, covered by the hoofs 
and fbles, it is difficult to make 
application to the parts affefred. 
But drawing out the fole Mr. 
Snape does not approve of, with 
out paring the hooE Something 
mult be done without delay, left 
impofthumations come on in the 
feet, by which the hoofs will be 
caft off : In which cafe, the horfe 
mull lie by ufelefs for a number of 
weeks before the new hoofs will 
be grown. The fame writer di 
rects that the hoofs be razed from 
the coronet or top to the bottom, 
quite through the hoofs to the 
quick, fo as to make the blood 
run. Thefe channels in the 
hoofs may be readily made with 
a common marking iron. 

To cure the wounds made in 
the hoofs, apply to them tar, tur 
pentine and honey, melted to 
gether, with a fourth part of fpir- 
it of wine, foaking pledgits of 
clean flax, or tow, in this mix 
ture, and layirjg them upon the 
chinks, not opening them till 
two days after the fjrft dreffmg ; 
afterwards making frefh applica 
tions every day, till tli channels 
in^the hoofs are grown up. 

The fame applications muft 
be made to the fole, if that has 
been drawn. But fimilar chan 
nels in that, as } apprehend, may 
anfwer well enough, and paring 
the fole thin. They muft, how 
ever, have the fame drefiings as 


F R E 

the hoofs. A piece of leather 
/hould be laid over the fole, and 
the whole foot fo bound up with 
ftrong bandages, that the appli 
cations may not get difplaced. 
See Gibfon's Farriery. 

FREEZING, or congelation, 
the fixing of fluids, or turning 
them into ice, by their being ex- 
pofed to very cold air. 

" Philofophers are by no means 
agreed as to the caufe of this 
phenomenon. The Cartefians 
account for it by the recefs, or 
going out of the ethereal matter 
From the pores of the water. 
The Corpufcularians, on the 
other hand, attribute it to the in- 
grefs of frigorifick particles, as 
they call them. Hobbes afferts, 
that thefe particles are nothing 
elfe but common air, which, en 
tangling itfelf with the particles 
of water, prevents their motion. 
Others will have a kind of ni 
trous fait to be the caufe of con 
gelation, by insinuating itfelf 
between the particles of water, 
and fixing tt^m together like 
nails. And indeed it feems prob 
able, that coM and freezing do 
arife from fome fubftances of a 
fiiline nature, floating in the air ; 
fince all falls, and particularly 
nitrous ones, when mixed with 
ice and fnow, greatly increafe 
their cold, and even bulk." 
DiB. of Arts. 

The freezing of the ground is 
that in whch the farmer is chief 
ly interefted. But when we fay 
the ground freezes, we mean that 
the watery and moift particles in 
the ground are turned to ice, by 
which the particles of the foil 
are fo ftrongly bound together, 
that the ground is harder to pen 
etrate than ice itfelf. As to the 
ground itfelf, it would be inca 
pable ot congelation, if wholly 
diverted of moifture. We fee 
UO figns of froft in the fands of 

F R E 


an hour glafs, however expofed 
to cold. When the ground is 
bare, it commonly freezes to as, 
great a depth as water does, 
which, in this country, is forne- 
times not left than 30 inches. 
But in Britain, the greateft depth 
to which Mr. Boyle ever could 
find the ground frozen in any 
filiation, was only 14 inches. 

The farmer is in fome refpets, > 
greatly benefited, and in other 
refpe61s, feems not a little injur 
ed, by frofts. 

He is certainly benefited by 
the winter frofts, as they are the; 
means of the growth of his beft 
graffes. Such is their nature, 
that the atlion of froft upon the 
foil, is needful to fit it to nouriui 
them. Thus Providence h;is 
wifely and mercifully contrived, 
that the belt grafles lhall be pro 
duced in cold countries, where 
they are moft needed, for the. 
fupport of beafls in the winter. 

Frofts ferve to open and fbfteri 
the foil, and fo ferve to increafe 
the pafture of plants, making it 
more eafy for the roots of gralles 
and other plants to extend them- 
felves in quell of their food. 
At the fame time they make it 
more eafy to pulverize by the 
plough and the harrow ; and 
confequently fitter for tillage. 
And perhaps where the ground 
freezes fo much as it does in this 
country, leis labour may be re- 
quifite in tillage, than in coun 
tries where the winters are mild 
er. But this will not wholly ex- 
cufe the negligence in culture of 
which our fanners in general are 

As it appears very probable 
that freezing is caufed by fdine 
particles, which abound more in",;. 
cold northwardly winds, than irlP 
any other, thefe particles pene 
trate the foil in winter, fome of 
which get entangled in it, ib as 



F.R E 

not to efcape out by thawing, 
but, remaining in the foil, in- 
creafe the food of plants. Ac 
cordingly, it has long been ob- 
ferved, that the more land is ex- 
pofed to the aftion of froft in 
winter, the more fruitful it be 
comes. Hence the praftice has 
become general in fome parts of 
Europe, to lay the foil up in 
ridges, and make it as rough and 
uneven as poflible, during the 
winter, that the froft may pene 
trate the deeper ; and not only 
pulverize it the more, but fill it 
the more with nitrous fait. 

Another advantage we have 
from the freezing of the ground 
is, that it helps to kill weeds ; 
and efpecially when their roots 
are turned up to the furface by 
autumnal ploughing. Many 
weeds that in other countries are 
perennial, in this, by means of 
our great frofts, are only annual. 
They are only propagated by 
the feed ; and, therefore, are the 
more eafy to fubdue. 

But, on the other hand, the a- 
bounding of froft in this coun 
try, is detrimental to the farmer, 
by preventing his working the 
foil for the fpace of almoft four 
months fucceflively, that is, from 
the beginning, or middle, of 
December, to the latter end of 
March. During this long froft, 
the farmer has often but little 
employment for himfelf and his 
domefticks, and ftill lefs for his 
working cattle ; the necefTary 
confequence of which is, that 
both man and beaft muft be more 
hurried, and fatigued, in the oth 
er parts of the year. 

The Britim farmers feem to 
have greatly the advantage of us 
.in this refpe6t, as their ploughs 
may be going fome part of each 
month in the winter, which has 
rarely, if ever, happened to be 
poflible in any part of Neweng- 

F R E 

land. But whether the ihereafi 
iiig mildtiefs of our winter, as 
the back wildernefs is more clear 
ed and cultivated, will not re 
move this inconvenience, I un 
dertake not to determine. 

Another inconvenience of fe~ 
vere froft, is the deftruclion of 
our winter grain, which we have 
not yet found out any fure way 
to present. Sudden and violent 
freezing, when the ground is bare 
and very wet, caufes a quick and 
violent expanflon of the foil, 
which fnaps the tender roots of 
the corn to pieces. This hap 
pens ofteneft in our ftiff loams 
and claySj foils which expand 
mo ft by 'the froft. 

Our long continued fro ft feems 
to be againft us alfo, as our ma 
nures remain unaltered, during 
the whole winter. Nothing can 
be done to mix, fhorten or pul 
verize them. The cattle can do' 
them no good by trampling : 
There is no fermehtatibn, nor 
corruption, going forward in 
them. So that we arc under no 
imall difadvantagS^ to making 
and increafing rSmures. But 
this, by the way, mould ferve tat 
excite us to be the more careful 
and induftrious in this bufmefsj 
in thofe months which are fa 
vourable. Perhaps we mall find 
this laft inconvenience in fome 
meafure balanced by the great 
heat of our fummers, fo favoura 
ble to the putrefaction of ma 
nures. And, to avail ourfelves 
of this advantage, we mould 
never fail in fumrner to have 
manures rotting in dunghills, or 
in yards, &c. The greater plen 
ty of them the better. 

I may add, that what xve call 
untimely frofts, are often hurt 
ful to us, either by killing our 
tender plants in the fpring, or 
the bio Horns on our fruit trees ; 
or by corrupting our unripe crops 


P fc U 

in autumn, or even before 
fammcr is ended. The truth is, 
that though our fummers are hot, 
there is but one month in the 
year, that is> Juty, in which we 
can depend upon being unmo- 
lefted by froft. Such is the un- 
evennels of our ciimate. 

On the whole, I rather think 
the inconveniences of our fe- 
vere frofts, more of which I 
might have mentioned, are much 
more than a balance for the ad- 
Vantages of them. But the gifts 
of Providence, on the whole, are 
dealt out more equally to the 
people of each habitable coun 
try on this globe, than fome are 
ready to imagine. What makes 
the difference appear the greater, 
to a curfory obferver, may be, 
that the people of one country 
do not fo well improve natural 
advantages, as thole of another. 

FRUIT TREES. The forts 
which are moft common in this 
country, are apple, pear, peach, 
plum and cherry. And per 
haps there ace no others that 
would be more profitable. But 
a greater variety might be eafi- 
ly had ; and would be a real im 

The apple tree I mention firft, 
as being of the moft importance 
of all our fruit trees. In about 
five or fix years after the feeds 
are {'own in the nurfery, the 
young trees may be fit for tranf- 
planting into the orchard. Mr. 
Donald ion advifes that they be 
planted thirty feet apart. But I 
have known orchards anfwer 
very well, that were planted as 
dole as twenty five feet. No 
Hated rule, however, fhould be 
afligncd for the di {lance of the 
trees, unlei's it be this general 
one, that the diftance mould be 
Fttch, that the trees which are 
largeft mould not crowd each 
ether, when they are full grown : 


F R U 

nor, on the other hand, that any 
of the ground in an orchard 
mould be unoccupied. For I 
think it is better that a fpot of 
ground be well covered with 
trees, when they have got to 
their largeft growth, than to have 
a larger fpot fpoiled for tillage, 
by trees that are too far afunder. 
As fome fpecies of apple trees 
are apt to grow larger than oth 
ers, a due regard fhould be had 
to this in planting an orchard. 
And a conjecture may be formed 
from the foil to what fize trees 
will grow. If apple trees were 
to grow to fuch a fize as they 
commonly did at the firft fettle* 
ment of this country, when the 
feeds, or the young trees, were 
newly imported from Europe, 
it might be proper to fet them as 
far apart as from thirty to forty 
five feet. But the fize to which 
they ufually grow of late, will 
not require more than twenty 
five feet, in common foils. But 
fome foils being peculiarly fa 
vourable to the growth of this 
kind of trees, the diftance in 
them may- be greater, as it may 
be expected the trees will grow- 
large. The moft fuitable foil 
is allowed to be that which is 
rocky and moift, confifting Q 
fandy or gravelly loam. 

In traniplanting of trees, the 
large roots muft of neceffity be 
fhortened, and the final 1 fibrous 
roots fhould be moftly or whol 
ly cut off. For if they are left 
on, they will probably be dead 
and dry before the tree is plant 
ed, efpecially if it is carried t<* 
any diftance, or expofed at all to 
the fun or air : But the mouths 
where they are cut off will re 
ceive fpme fap from the earth r 
though the dried fibres would 
not. But if trees are planted 
without any delay, it is next tp 
impoflible to prevent thefe {len 

430 F R U 

.der roots from being twilled or 
turned out of their natural pofi- 
tion, and if this mould be the cafe 
they wcnild neither inhale nor con 
vey. Cap to the tree. There muft 
'be Come lofs of roots. There 
fore, to balance the lofs of rionr- 
ifhment by the roots, when the 
'head is large, a proportionable 
'part of the hflihs flioul'cl be taken- 
'away. The trees may be tranf- 
planted in fpring or autumn. I 
have generally had the beft fuc- 
ce'fs in the fpring, and rather pre 
fer that feafon. I do it at the time 
when the buds are juft beginning 
to open into leaves. The holes 
Should be made fo broad as to- 
til low the roots to have their nat- 
r.ral. fituation, without contor 
tion. ' And if dead" earth be 
'thrown out, rich earth from the 
jfurface fhould fupply its place. 
If the earth be not rich, : a little 
old. dung may be mixed with it. 
But dung unmixed will be hurt 
ful. Trees are fometimes killed 
by having dung heaps lying near 
to their roots, which .mews that 
they, ought to be dunged fpar- 
ingly, and' with- caution. , 

If the trees be planted in a fit- 
nation much expofcd to winds, 
they fhould be made fteady with 
flakes during the firft year, that 
the roots may not be loofcned, 
and the air let into them, by the 
rhotkm of the tops. And fome 
woollen, or other foft fubftance, 
mould be put between the ftake 
and the tree,: to prevent galling 
of the tree. 

Pear trees require much the 
fame management as apple trees. 
But as their tops are more coni 
cal fhaped, and not fo broad, 
they may be let rather nearer 't'o 
ther. " Perhaps twenty feet or 
fs may be fufficicnt in a foil 
that is not rich. One thing that 
Recommends them is, that they 
\vill thrive well in fome of the 

F R U 

moft unpromifmg foils, and even- 
in a flifF clay. The moft crab 
bed natural fruit is valuable, as 
from it may be made the agreeable 
liquor called perry. But for 
eating they muft be grafted. See 
Pear Trees. 

When apple and pear trees 
need pruning, it mould be done 
before' the middle of winter, in 
November or December. A 
gradual pruning, from year to 
year, is generally better than 
greatly diminifhing their tops at 
once. But fuckers that grow 
rapidly mould be taken oflF at any 
feafon, as f aft as they appear; 
or they will bring on ilerility, 
either partial ortotal r and afpeedy 
decay of the tree. In pruning, 
every dead and decaying limb. 
Humid be remov.ed, ; and cut off 
clofe to the trunk, or where it 
originates. It is recommended 
that wounds made by large am 
putations fhould be made fmooth, 
and fmeared with clay mortar. ' 
It woul'd be better Hill to fmear 
the wounds with a little melt 
ed pitch, which would form a 
coat impenetrable fyjf the weather. 

With regard t.o ftone fruits^- 
as plums, peaches and cherries, 
they do not well bear much 
pruning. They mouM, howev 
er, be cleared of their fuckers, 
both round the roots, on the 
Hems, and iir the tops. See 
Ptacii Tf^s, &c. 

Cherry trees grow luxuriantly 
in this country, and are apt to 
Jive long. But peach trees are 
foon pail: bearing, and on the de 
cay. The early decay of peach 
trees is fuppofed to be partly 
owing to worms in their roots. 
For it is a certain fa6l, that a 
trqc, apparently pad. bearing, has 
been fpeedily recovered, by re 
moving the earth from above its 
roots, and laying on allies and 
earth over them, 

F'U R 

Plum trees 'of the damafcene 
Jcind, will hear no fruit, if the 
ground about them be Awarded, 
unlefs it be in a wet, fpringy foil. 
Perhaps this may be the cafe with 
all the other kinds of plum 
trees ; unlefs when they are 
planted in a foil that is both rich 
and loofe, with the right degree 
-of humidity. 

FURROW, the trench made 
by aplough in going, alfo the earth 
thrown out of the trench. The 
European writers often ufe the 
word furrow, to fignify a plough 
ing. They tell of fowing on 
one furrow, that is, after only 
: one ploughing ; on the fecond 
furrow, or on two furrows, that 
is, after two ploughings, &c. 
Though I fee no need of our a- 
dopting this way of {peaking, I 
think it not arnifs to mention it, 
to prepare readers to underltand 
thofe writers the better, when it 
falls in their way to perufe them. 

FURROWING, in this coun 
try, is under Hood to mean mark 
ing ground into little fquares with 
a horfe plough, in order to plant'In- 
dian .corn, pj dny other plant that 
requires the like culture. The 
goodnefs of this ^operation con- 
fiils in making ' the -furrows 
Straight, equidiftant, and at right 
angles ; neither too deep nor too 
ihallow ; that the dung and feed 
may lie neither too low nor too 
high. When dung is to be laid 
in the furrows, they .{Jio.uM/j.e 
deeper ; when ground is to" be 
feeded without putting diiii^ in 
the furrows, or holes, the fur 
rows mould be very fhailow. 
The nearer the time of plant 
ing this work is done.the better. If 
a rain fall between fun owing and 
pianting, it is detrimental.' It 
foddens the ground, or makes 
it more heavy and compact, and 
.caufes the furrows to be left vif- 

G A R 


GARDEN,-" a piece of ground 
cultivated and properly orna 
mented with a variety of plants, 
flowers, fruit trees, &c. Gar 
dens are u.fually drftinguilhed in 
to flower garden, fruit garden, 
.and kitchen garden : The n'rit of 
which, being dcfigncrl for orna 
ment, is ' placed "in the molt 
.confpicucms part, that is, next to 
the back front of the lioufe ; and 
the fccond and third, being de- 
fig tied for ufe, fhonld be placed 
lefs iii fight." Diet, of Arts. 

I confider the kitckcn gar 
den as of very confiderable im 
portance, as pot herbs, fallads, 
and roots of various kinds, are 
ufef ul in houfekeeping. Having 
a plenty of them at hand, a fam 
ily will not be fo likely to run 
into the error, which is too 
common in this country, of eat- 
ing flefh in too great a proportiou 
ior health, tanners, as well a;; 
Others, mould have kitchen gar 
dens : they need not grudge 
the labour of tending them, 
:vh.ich may be done at odd in- 
.tcrva'Is of time, which -may oth- 
erwife chance -to be .coiifumed in 
rie-edlefs -loitei i n-g. 

It is "beft that a garden fliould 
be on a declivity. If it be very 
iteep, it may be thrown into 
-banks, and -level plats. There is 
commonly a variety of foils on a. 
declivity of any confiderable ex 
tent. This will give a material 
advantage to a garden, as a vari 
ety of different plants may hav^e 
.each the foil that beftfuits them. 

A kitchen garden mould not 

be fi.tua.ted at any great diftance- 

from the houfe, leil being too 

much out of fight, it fhould b<? : 

j out. of mnid, and the necefifary 

! culture of it too much neglect- 

A gardpa 

132 GAR 

A garden fliould have a clofe 
fence, that the winds may not 
drive feeds of weeds into it. The 
fence fhould be at leafl feven 
feet high, and picketed, to pre 
vent the entrance of thieves. 
The height and clofenefs of 
the fence, will increafe the veg 
etation by increafmg the warmth 
of the air in the garden, except 
ing perhaps in the parts which 
are ihaded by the fences. The 
rage of high winds will be fo op- 
pofed as to prevent the tearing 
and diftorting of tender plants ; 
and fowls may be the more eafily 
kept out. 

A garden mould have a bor 
der of about three feet, and next 
to the border a walk of the fame 
width or one foot wider. The 
walk through the middle may be 
from fix to eight feet as the owner 
pleafes. This may be croffed by 
one, two, or three narrower ones, 
if the fhape of the ground re 
quires it ; or if it is half as long 
again the one way as the other, 
\vhich is more elegant than an e- 
quilateral fquare. On thefe crofs 
walks may be efpaliers for grapes. 
Trees mould nut be in the outer 
border, but on the oppofite ficles 
of the outer walks ; not two ma 
ny of them ; perhaps one of the 
dwarf kind in 20 or 30 feet. 
Standard trees in gardens give 
too much fhade. Dwarfs are 
commonly cut into efpaliers. 
But this torturing of trees makes 
them lefs fruitful, and ftiorter 
lived. Thofe who prefer it may 
make this facrifice to elegance 
and beauty. In fruit trees which 
need much heat, and placed a- 
gainft northern walls, I object 
not to it. 

. GARDENING,a kind of ap 
iculture, ufually called horti 
culture. It may be confidered 
as farming in miniature. It is 
converfant in preparing ground 


for different kinds of feeds, and 
in treating themproperly during 
their growth. The garden is the 
fitteft place to make the firll ex 
periments in, with exptick roots 
and feeds, as the lofs is inconfid- 
erable, if they mould not prove a- 
greeable to the climate. If they 
profper well in the garden, they 
fhould afterwards be tried in the 
field : And even then not at firft 
on a very large fcale. 

He who would make his gar 
dening profitable, fhould have 
his kitchen garden near to the 
dunghills, that the manure may 
be applied without too much la 
bour. Dung that is old, and def- 
titute of feeds, fiiould be ufed, 
that too many weeds may not be 
propagated. And that a garden 
may be kept clean, not one weed 
fhould be fuffered to have its 
feeds ripened in it : And every 
rootxveed that appears in autumn, 
mould be extirpated in fuch a 
manner that, if poffible, no parts 
of its root may remain in the 
ground. The feeds of many 
weeds may alfo be deftroyed, by 
laying the ground in high ridges 
during the winter. At the fame 
time, it will help to enrich the 
foil ; and many of certain kinds 
of infetls, or their eggs, will be 
dellroyed : Especially if th& 
ridging be performed about trip 
lafl of November, or the beg in 
ning ot December. Ground that 
is fo managed, will be dried the 
earlier in the fpring, to fuch a 
degree, as to be fit for digging 
and feeding. Ii is of more ad 
vantage in land that is apt to be 
too wet, than in that which is fan- 
dy and dry. 

GARG'ET, a difcafe in cattle. 
Cows fometimes have their ud 
ders greatly diftended, and indu 
rated, with this diilemper ; of 
which they will pine away and 
die, unlefs a remedy be fpeedily 

G O A 

applied. The method of cure is, 
to make an opening in the dew 
lap, and inlert into it a pie<;e 
ol the root of mechoacan, as big 
as a nutmeg, with a filing made 
iafi to it, that it may be drawn 
out when the cure is effeUed. 
The humour, in about twenty 
four hours, will b f e revulfed from 
the udder to the dewlap, and 
foon difcharge itfelf at the orifice, 
which completes the cure. 

GIGS, little tumours or blad 
ders in the mouths of horfes. To 
cure flit them open to difcharge 
the matter ; and waih them with 
fait and vinegar. 

GLANDERS, a very foul 
and often fatal difeafe in hoiks. 
It is always accompanied with a 
copious difcharge of mucus 
from the noilrils, and fwelling 
of the glands under the throat 
and tongue. In its advanced 
flages the difcharge becomes pu 
rulent. And when the bones 
become carious, the difeafe is at 
tended with an intolerable flench, 
and may be pronounced incur- 

In the firft and fecond ftages, 
Gibfon direfts to purges, diaph- 
oreticks, and rowelling in the 
hinder parts by way of revujfion. 
To clear his noftrils, burn brim- 
(lone, feathers and hits of leath 
er' under his nofe, palling the 
fumes into his noftrils, through a 
funnel. And when much mat 
ter is difcharged by freezing, 
fyringe the noflnls with brandy, 
or red wine. Afterwards * ihiali 
quantity Unguentum Egyptia- 
c.'im, diflblved in oil of turpen 
tine, may be inje&ed through a 
large pipe, which will be help- 
iul toxvards cleanfing the ulcer 
ated parts. See W. Gibfon on 

GOATS, a well known tame 
kind of animal, remarkable for 
cUsibiug, Tac ewes often bear 

G O A 133 

twins. They are hardy, not fub- 
ject to many difeafcs, but the 
kids are apt to poifon tlicrafel^es 
by eating Lrarel, or lamb poifon, 
as it fs often called. The coil of 
i ceding goats is next to nothing 
in a new country, as they pre 
fer mofs, leaves, twigs and barlv 
oi trees, to all other food. But 
they nidy be eailly made very 
tat with corn. 

They would be a profitable 
animal to keep, efpecially in a 
new country, were it not that no 
fence of a common height will 
confine them. The kids are ex 
cellent for the table ; ami the 
old ones are eatable, and apt to 
be well filled with tallow of an 
excellent quality. Their milk 
is extremely nourishing, good to 
mix 'with cow's milk in cheefe ; 
an excellent reilorative, highly 
valued in comfurnptive cafes. 
They give a greater quantity of 
milk than any other animal of 
their fize. And their fkins make 
a much flronger leather thiin 
thofe of fheep : It is nearly of 
the fame ilrength as deer's fkin. 

They may be inade greatly 
ufetul in fubduing new land. 
r rhe method of managing them 
for this purpofe, is as follows. 
When the large trees are all fell 
ed, let ten acres be enclofed for 
thirty goats, or in that propor 
tion. The fence mould be fev- 
en feet high, and leaning a little 
inwards towards the top. This 
pafture will feed, and even fat 
ten them the firil year ; for they 
will eat the bufhes and girdle 
the fmall trees ; and in three 
years every i'mall tree, bufh and 
plant, of the woody kind, will 
be totally killed. After which, 
when fumcient time has been aU 
lowed for the roots to decay, the 
land may be ploughed with as 
fmall a team as is ufed for plough 
ing of common green fward ; 


G R A 

and it will be in excellent heart. 
The fhrub oak land is very prop 
er for them, and difficult to fub- 
due without them. 

In winter, goats fhould be driv 
en into a thick wood, fomewhat 
diftant from inhabitants, and a 
flight flicker made for them, a- 
bout which they will haunt, and 
live well upon the mofs of trees 
and browfe,- till fpring. Or, 
they may be kept in a pen at 
home, and f$d with the meaneft 
fodder. The kids will be apt to 
die if they come too early ; there 
fore, the ram fhould be kept from 
the ewe's till the laft of November. 

GOOSE, a well known bird. 
The tame kind are fome of them 
entirely white, but they are mofl- 
ly particoloured, grey and white. 
The belly and wing feathers are 
white, even in thofe that have 
moft of the grey colour. 

Geefe are more profitable than 
moft other tame fowls, on ac 
count of the cbeapnefs of their 
feeding, and the value of their 
flefh and their feathers, befides 
their greafe and quills. Some 
llrip them of moft ot^their feath 
ers twice a year. But this hurts the 
animals, and is on the whole, no 
profit to the owner. Moulting 
time is the right feafon for pluck 
ing them ; for then the feathers 
are loofe, and begin to fall off of 
themfelves. Geefe begin to lay 
their eggs in March ; and begin 
to fit on them in March or April. 
The time of incubation is four 

ING, the taking a fhoot from 
one tree, and inferting it into 
another, in fuch a manner, that 
both may unite and become one 

Trees which are of the fame 
genus will unite. Nut trees will 
take on each other. Apple and 
will fbme times unite ; the 

G R A 

latter will grow on the common 
thorn. Plumb, peach, almond, 
nectarine, and apricot will unite. 
But peach and neclarine Jhould 
be inoculated. The general rule 
of grafting is, flone fruit on flone 
fruit, and feed fruit on feed fruit. 

The methods of grafting are 
various ; as grafting in the rind, 
or crown grafting whip graft 
ing, or tongue grafting root 
grafting inarching, or grafting 
by approach and cleft grafting. 
The laft is moft commonly prac- 
tifed in this country, and is at 
tended with fuccefs. It is done 
on the flocks, in a nurfery, or 
on the frnall limbs of trees, in 
an orchard, or garden. The latr 
ter part of April, or beginning 
of May, is the feafon for doing 
it, before the leaves open, and 
when the fap flows upwards in 
abundance. The head of the 
flock, or branch, muft be cut off 
Hoping, an4 a flit made the con 
trary way in the top of the (lope, 
deep enough to receive the cion, 
which fhould be cut like a wedge, 
with a very fharp knife, the out- 
fide of the wedge being much 
thicker than the other. The 
rind of the cion inuft exactly 
join to the rind of the flock. 
The flit fhould be opened by a 
wedge of hard wood, that the 
cion may be gently put in its 
place. The whole fhould be 
clpfely covered with clay, or 
with a mortar of fliff loam arxl 
hprfe dung, fo as to keep out the 
air from the joint for feveral 
months. It fhould be confined 
with rags or tow, to guard it a- 
gainft rain and winds. Two 
buds of the cion, at leaft, fhould 
be left above the mortar. For a 
more particular account of graft 
ing, fee Did. of Arts. 

GRAIN, a general name for 
all forts of corn, as wheat, rye, 
maize, barley, oats, millet, &c. 

G R A 

GRANARY, a flore houfe for 
threfhed corn. A granary ihould 
be fo conftrufted, that corn may 
be kept free from dampnefs, in- 
iefts, and vermine. To avoid 
the laft of thefe evils, its being 
mounted on blocks, capped with 
flat ft ones, like fome of the houfes 
for Indian corn, is no ill expe 
dient. But for large granaries 
this will not be convenient. 

In granaries, where corn is in 
tended to be kept for years, a 
very particular care fhould be 
taken in their conftruftion. The 
roof mould be made perfectly 
tight, that no rain nor fnow may 
.enter. The ftories mould be 4 
low, that too much room may 
not be unoccupied. Each floor 
.Ihould be covered with boxes 
about fonr feet fjquare, leaving a 
paflage all round between them 
and the outward walls, for the 
convenience of earning at the 
windows, and to prevent any 
wet from penetrating to the 
boxes. The {hitting and tolling 
of grain from one box to anoth- 
,er, will help to prevent or cure 
dampnefs. In England, where 
they are wont to keep grain in 
facks for a long time, they turn 
the facks bottom upwards, which 
anfwers the end of (hitting, as it 

fives a new fituation to every 
ernel contained in them. 
To prevent the heating of corn 
in granaries, the windows Ihould 
be opened when the air is dry, 
and the weather windy, but 
clofed at other times. The grain 
fhould be laid thin- at firft, not 
more than three inches deep, and 
frequently ftirred. After it is 
well dried, it may be laid in 
thicker heaps ; or put up in 
calks, or lacks, as may be found 
convenient. But if it lie long 
in large bodies, it mould be fre 
quently attended to, that it may 
not be fuffered to heat, and take 

G R A 135 

damage. To find whether the 
bottom or centre of a heap be hot, 
pufh a lath, or other flick, into 
it, and let it remain a few min 
utes. If there be heat in the 
grain, it will be communicated 
to the lath. If it be found to be 
hot, it Ihould be fhifted and laid 
thin, or ventilated. When the 
degree of heat is fmall, ventilat 
ing may be fufficient to cool it. 
See Ventilator. 

".They have, near Grand Cai 
ro, a magazine, or granary, de 
fended with good walls, and call 
ed Jofeph's granaries. Many- 
parts of Africa abound with gra 
naries of this kind. They are 
fo many deep pits made in the 
folid rock.^ The defcent into 
them is but juft large enough for 
a man to go down into them ; 
but they grow larger as you de- 
fcend, and are ufually fquare, 
from 20 to. 40 feet in diameter. 
In thefe the great men of the 
country preferve their corn, 
They firft ftrew over the floor 
with ftraw, then they lay on 
their corn, ftill as the heap rifes 
placing a thin bed of ftraw be 
tween the corn and the fides, as 
they did at the bottom. In this 
manner they proceed, till the 
whole cavity is filled. When 
this is done, they cover the 
mouth of the entrance with a 
fort of hurdle of green boughs 
of trees, interwoven one with 
another. This they cover with 
about two feet thick nefs of fand ; 
and over this raife a ridge of 
earth, well beat together, in or 
der to throw off the rain both 
ways r that none may fettle on 
the place r and foak into the mag 
azine. The corn thus .ftored, 
keeps three, four, or more years. 
All the care they take with re 
gard to the corn is, to expole it 
two or three days to the fun's 
heat, to dry it thoroughly before 



fe ft. A 

they put it into the 
Great care is to be taken in open 
ing thefe ftore rooms ; for if 
people defcend into them be 
fore they have had fufhcient 
communication with the frefh 
air, they are killed by the damps." 
tymplete Farmer. 

GRASS, a general name for 
moft of thofe plants which are 
ufed in feeding cattle, both in 
their green and dry Hate. 

" The land, on which grafs 
feed is intended to be (own, 
fhould be well ploughed, and 
cleared from the roots of nox 
ious weeds. Before the feed is 
fown, the fur face of the ground 
Ihouldl be made level and fine : 
Otherwife the feeds will be buri 
ed unequal iy. When the feed 
is fown, it ihould be gently har 
rowed in, and the ground rolled 
with a wooden roller, which will 
make the furface even, and pre 
vent the feed being blown into 
patches. It is the common way 
of proceeding ; if a farmer wants 
to lay down his land to grafs, he 
either takes his feeds indifcrim- 
inately from his own hay rick, 
or fends to his neighbour for a 
fupply. By this means, befides 
a certain mixture of rubbifh, 
which muil neceffarily happen, 
it is not unlikely but that which 
he intends lor dry land, may 
have come from moift, where it 
grew naturally, and fo on the 
contrary : And the confequence 
of this Covenly method frequent 
ly is, that the ground, inftead of 
being covered in one year with 
a good feed, is filled with weeds, 
not natural to it, which would 
never have fprung up, if they 
had not been brought thither. 

" Some fay that if you ma 
nure your ground well, good 
gratfes will come in of them- 
felves. I own they will. But 
the queftion is, how long will it 

C- R A 

he before that happens ? Arid 
why will you be at the expenfe 
of lowing what you fnuft after 
wards try to kill ? Which muft 
he the cafe, fo long as people 
fow all kinds of rubbifh tmdetf 
the name of hay feeds. Others 
fay it will be better to have a 
mixture of different feeds. I 
fuppofe this to be true. But can 
not a mixture be had, though the 
ieeds be gathered atid feparated ? 
And is not a mixture by choice 
more likely to be proper than one 
by chance ? Efpecially after fuffi- 
cient experience has been had ot 
the particular virtues of each 
fort, and of the different grounds 
where they will thrive beft ? 

" It is faid by fmrie, that weed$ 
will come up along with the 
grafs, though what is called clean 
feed he fowed. No doubt of it. 
Can any one imagine that grafs 
feeds mould be exempted from 
what happens to every other 
kind of feed ? But I will ven 
ture to fay, that not near the 
quantity of weeds will fpring up 
which they imagine, if the grafs 
be fown thick." Stilling JUet. 

It is undoubtedly beft to fow 
clean feed, which is known to 
be fui table to the foil, when land 
is laid down to grafs. For though 
gra'fes will gradually come in, 
no great crop is to he expefted 
the firft year, unlefs k be a crop 
of rank and ufelefs weeds. And 
he that miffes of the firft year's 
crop, lofes much, as the longer 
the land lies, the more compact, 
or bound, it will become, and 
produce the fmaller crops. 

Of profitable grafles there arc 
many forts, fome of which thrive 
beft in one country, and fome in 
another. The graffes which are 
moft ufeful in this country, be- 
fides red clover and bird grafs, 
which have been mentioned in 
their places, are herds grafs, red 


G ft A 

top, or what is called Englifh 

grafs, honeyfuckle, or white clo 
ver, and wire grafs. There are 
feyeral other grafles produced in 
this country, as quich grafs, dogs 
.grafs, and fcratch grafs, refem- 
bling arfmart, on the uplands ; 
and in low places, blue joint 
grafs, Alopecunesgeniculatus, and 
goofe grafs, Galium, which are 
accounted good fodder, befide 
many other kinds of lefs value, 
which deferve not a particular 
The herds grafs, or foxtail, 

.Mopecurus pratznjis, is a native 
of this country, arid is perhaps 
as valuable as any that we cul 
tivate. The cattle are fond of it 
both green and dry. It is eafi- 
ly managed, and makes a nour- 
iihing kind of hay. It ofteii 

-grows very tall, and commonly 
produces a larger crop than grafs 
of any other kind. It is not apt 

- to lodge when it grows rank, 
and it thrives well on any kind 
ef foil, except hungry fand and 
gravel ; more eipecially in the 
northern parts of Newengland. 

In fome foils it does well to 
mix this grafs with clover. For 
it will be found that, as the lat 
ter diminifhes from year to year, 
this will increafe, fo that the 
crops will not fail for a confider- 

. able number of years. The time 
to cut herds grafs, is when it is 
j lift out of bloiTom ; but when 
it is mixed with clover, which 
ripens earlier, it muft be cut a 
little fooner. 

The red top grafs, Poo, trivi- 
d. prate nfis, is fo natural to 
every foil in this country, that 
alloitr old fields, which have lain 
long, are full ot it, as well as our 
paftures. It makes a profitable 

5 hay for fpendirig, though the 
crop is felv'lom fo large as that of 

I herds grafs. It is more certain 
durable, and bears the une- 

G R A 

vennefs of our climate better 
than almoft any other grafs. In 
paftures it fhould be fed clofe ; 
for when it is run up to feed, the 
cattle are not fond of eating it. 

White clover, orhoneyfuckle, 
fo called for the remarkable 
fweetnefs of its tafte, Trifolium 
repens. It bloflbms in June, and 
is ripe early. It is good feeding, 
in paftures in the beginning of 
fummer. But when it grows by 
itfelf, it does not ufually rife to> 
a height fufficie.nt for mowing. 

Wire grafs, Poa compreffa, is 
of a bluifli colour, and ihaped 
much like the red top grafs, but 
is more folid and heavy, having 
fcarcely any cavity in the ftalk. 
It would be highly prized, could 
it be made to produce largely. 
It grows beft where the ground 
is baked, orchard trodden, and 
where the foil is riot deep, as in 
a thin fward over a flat rock ; and 
it bears drought to admiration. 

Rhodeifiahd Bent, Agroftis 
interrupta, is allowed to make 
a very excellent hay. 

Lucern and St. Foin, have 
been tried a little in this coun 
try ; but it feems they will not. 
profper well in our climate, as 
our winter frofts are too hard for 
them ; though they do extreme 
ly well in fome countries that 
are in the fame latitude. 

The burnet, which is now up 
on trial, will be found to anfwer fl 
I thirikj very well. 

GRAVEL, earth of the fame 
nature with fand, only more 
coarfe and harfh. Both feem to 
confift wholly of minute pebbles. 
Gravel is ufeful in mending 
roads, in making dams, and for 
walks in gardens, &c. 

A foil of mere gravel is the 
meaneft of all foils; and will 
produce next to nothing, till^ it 
be mended with fomethtng mix 
ed with it : and even then it 


I3 8 

G R 

will need a wet feafon, unlefs it 
be in a wet fituation, as at the foot 
of a hill, or watered with fprings. 

The beft manures for this fort 
of land in general, are marl, clay, 
die mud of fwamps, ponds, riv 
ers and creeks. If applied in 
large quantities, they will meli 
orate it for a long time. The 
beft yearly dreffingsare the dung 
of cows and fwine, fea weeds, 
ifraw partly rotted, bits of leath 
er, woollen rags, and alrnoft any 
fpumry fubftances which retain 
moifture for fome time. 

This kind of foil, well manur 
ed, fometimes produces good 
crops of fuch plants as require 
much heat, as Indian corn and 
tobacco. And it does well in a 
good feafon, for rye, clover, 
beans:, peafe and' potatoes. 

GREASE, a diftemper fo de 
nominated, is a fwelling and 
goufdinefs of the legs of horfes, 
which frequently happens to 
ihem after a journey. Moft 
people have believed their greafe 
to be melted by hard riding, and 
fallen into their legs : And that 
which may have given encour 
agement to this opinion, is the 
colour of the matter iffuing from 
the chinks and fores in tbofe 
parts, when they come to break, 
fbmewhat rcfembling greafe. 
The diftemper may arife from 
various caufes. If the greafe be 
-an attendant on fome other dif 
temper, the cure will be the 
more- difficult, and it will be in 
vain w expert a recovery, until 
the difcafe is removed which- oc- 
cafioned it. Therefore, methods 
for the cure of thofe diftempers 
rnuft be followed, and applica 
tions made outwardly for this. But 
if it be an original diforder, and 
if the horfe havebeen'pampered, 
or well fed, the cure ought to be 
begun by bleeding and purging, 
to leffen the redundancy of hu^ 

G R E 

mours. Neither mould thefe b* 
too often repeated : But what is 
wanting in that way had muchbet- 
ter be effeftuated by a more fpare 
diet, with daily exercife. After 
moderate evacuations, a rowel 
may be rnade on the infide of 
the thigh, or on the belly ; which 
may be continued for a month, 
or longer if neceffary. In the 
mean time the cinaber or anti- 
monial balls ought to be con- 
ftantly given. And while thefe 
things are doing internally, the 
legs mould be frequently rubbed, 
not with hard inftruments, but 
with a good wifp of hay, or a 
brufh. Baths and fomentations, 
fuch as may caufe the humours 
to go off by perfpiration, or ren 
der them fit to return in the cir 
culations, are alfo to be made.- 
ufe of. For this purpofe the f ok 
fowing is recommended. 

Take wormwood eight hand 
fuls, John's wort, centaury, cam 
omile, of each four handfuls, el 
der flowers two handfuls, bay- 
berries half a pound : Boil them 
in two gallons of water till one 
third is confumed, and make a 

The horfe's legs are to be bath 
ed three or four times a day, 
with woollen cloths wrung out 
of the liquor, and applied as hot 
as he can bear them, adding a 
little of the fpirit of wine or 
brandy. And if they be much 
inflamed, as happens when the 
fifiews are affefted, a good quan 
tity of the afhes of the green 
twigs of vines, walnut or oak, 
may be boiled in the decoclion, 
adding more water, when the oth 
er ingredients are eafily to be had. 

The lees of wine, with a mix 
ture of foap, are alfo very proper 
to be applied warm : As alfo 
cow's dung boiled in vinegar. 

Suitable cataplafms in bad cafes 
are proper. The camphorated 


G R E 

fpirit of wine alone is good, viz. 
an ounce of camphire to a pint ot 
ibirit. Frequently ufed, it will 
anfwer well when the (welling 
.w. See Gibforis Farriery. 

ing a -:rop of green plants into the 
grour in fummer, to enrich the 
foil, and fit it to produce a good 
crop of wheat. By repeating 
culture,, poor or worn out 
laud may be brought to any de- 
of richnefs that is defired, 
jut any other manure. Buck 
vvheat, rye, peafe or oats, may be 
fowed in the fpring, and in June 
. ou^he.d in, when they are full- 
ell; of fap, and moil eafjly rotted. 
The ground mould be again 
ploughed in the fall, fowed with 
winter grain, and well harrowed. 
The coil of ploughing and feed,, 
is not fo much as that of dung, 
when it can be had, and carting 
it. This management, therefore, 
may often appear eligible, efpe- 
cially in places where manures 
are not plenty. On account of 
the cheapnefs of the feed, Mr. 
Eliot recommends millet as a 
moft fuitable crop for green 
c^re fling ; and fome have ufed 
clover and rye grafs. In Britain, 
buck wheat is much ufed, as the 
ftalks, when green, are very large 
and juicy, and as they require 
but a fhort time to rot. It is af- 
ferted, that about ten days are 
fufficient for it to lie under the 

The chief difficulty I can think 
of, which tends to difcourage 
this practice, is, the choking of 
the plough in going among a 
tall growth of plants. It rnay 
be needful for a boy to tend if, 
But in Britain, to prevent chok 
ing, they recommend to pafs a 
roller over the crop to be turn 
ed in, which lays it flat, and in 
tiie fame direction tjiat the plough 
t? to pafs. 

G R I 


GREENS, the general name 
of thofe pot herbs which are 
boiled for food when they are 
young and tender. Some of the 
moil ufeful of them known in 
this country, are fpinage, kale, 
French turnips, dandelion, purf- 
JaiK, white and black milliard. 
There is a.Scoth knle which may 
be reared earlier than almoit any 
other greens, and Is equal in 
goodnefs to any. To have greens 
early, let kale and French tur 
nips be fowed in October, and 
the -young plant covered clofely 
with eel grafs, or It-raw, during 
the winter, and till the influence 
of the fun be fuffjicieut to renew 
their vegetation. 

difeafe to which iheep and bul 
locks are often fubjeft. The bell 
remedy for this cjiftemper is ver 
juice : A wine glafs full is e- 
nough for a iheep, and a pint for 
a bullock." Complete Farmer. 

GRJPES, or cholick pains. 
Horfes are very fubje6t to grip 
ing, or cholick pains. They 
may proceed from flatulencies, 
or wind pent up in the ftomach 
and bowels, frocj inflammation 
of the coats of the ftomach and 
inteftines, or from worms, fpafins, 
&Co In fuch cafe U is very 
wrong to give him heating things 
by the mouth, as is too common 
ly praftifed. Bleeding fhould 
be the firfl thing in thefe cafes, 
it the diforder be violent, which 
may be known by the creature's 
motions, frequency of lying 
down, and ftarting up again, &c 
As horfes are coftive in thefe 
cafes, the rectum fhould be clear 
ed of the hard dung, by back 
racking, as it is called, that is, it 
fhould be taken out by a hand, 
which gives a horfe great relief. 
For the preflure on the neck of 
the bladder being thus rejTioved, 
he will be able to ftale, 


G R O 

ent clyfters are then of great ad 
vantage, as they not only bring 
way the excrements, which af- 
ibrds a paflage for the wind 
backwards ; but they aft as an 
internal fomentation, to remove 
fpafms from the bowels. They 
may he frequently repeated, till 
the confined air finds a paffage 
Backwards. If it mould be 
found necefTary, a fpoonful of 
laudanum may be given in a pint 
of watergruel, either by the a- 
nus in a clyfter, or by the mouth. 
See Clark's Farriery. Nearly 
the fame treatment is proper for 
horned cattle under the fame 

GROUND, a general name 
for land, be the foil what it may. 
Ground that is fit to produce 
crops is neither too foft nor top 
hard ; neither too wet nor too 
dry. It is light and eafily pul 
verized. It is not fo tenacious 
as to cleave to the fpade, which 
enters eafily. That is the Deft 
mould which cuts like butter, 
and yet eafily crumbles, and has 
110 ill fmell. It does not crack 
in dry weather. It is dark col 
oured, or quite black ; does not 
fopn poach with wetnefs. It 
Ihines alter the plough : Flocks 
of crows follow the ploughman, 
and, as Pliny expreffes it, peck 
at his heels. 

GROVE, a row or walk of 
trees, planted clole or a little 
open, for ornament and made. 

Formerly a grove made in reg 
ular lines, was considered asmoft 
ornamental. But modern im 
provers are rather difgufted with 
the uniformity of a grove, and 
prefer thofe which appear as if 
they were the work of nature or 
chance. As tafte alters from time 
to time, I mail not undertake to 
Determine which are mo ft grand 
pr beautiful. As my great ob- 
is real iraproveroent and ad- 

G R O 

vantage, I (hall here only attend" 
to groves in regular lines. 

Groves in gardens are both 
ornamental and ufeful, if the 
trees be not too large. They 
fhade the walks in the borders ; 
fo that we may walk in gardens 
with pleafure, in the hotteft part 
of the day. It is fcarcely need 
ful to fay thefe garden groves 
mould oonfift of fruit trees ; an4 
they fhould be of the fmaller 
kinds, if in a garden of a fmall 
or middling fize. A double row 
has the bell effecl:, as it refpects 
fhade, one near the wall, the 
other on the oppofite fide of the 
walk. But this on the whole I 
do not recommend, unlefs it be 
in gardens uncommonly large. 

IP* other fituations groves of 
larger trees are preferred. Lanes 
and avenues, leading to manfion 
houfes and other buildings, may 
be ornamented with rows of trees, 
either on one, or on both fides : 
If only on one, it fhould be the 
fouthernmoft, on account of the 
advantage of fhade in the lane. 
Such trees are beft, the limbs of 
which are not apt to be low ; 
fuch as 7 elm, am, maple, poplar, 

Lots and enclofures fliould be 
bordered with rows of trees, ei 
ther fruit trees- or timber trees, 
in clofe order. They will do 
better a yard or more from the 
fence, than in hedges according 
to the Englifh method, as rec 
ommended by Mortimer. But 
fuch trees fhould be chofen, as 
are not apt to propagate and 
multiply, left the borders be foon 
filied with fhrubs. 

It would be advantageous to 
the publick, as well as to the 
owners of adjoining farms, if all 
our roads were lined with groves, 
of barren or timber trees. They 
might! be either within or with 
out the fences. In the latter cafe,, 

G R Q* 

government might interpofe, and 
tecure to the planters thofe which 
flood in the roads againft their 
lands ; and oblige farmers to 
plant in the roads againft their 
own hnds. I (hoiijd prefer this 
to- planting, within" the fences, ef- 
pecially where the roads fyave a 
good width* Bat the trees 
(hould be fo tall when planted^ 
a.s to be above the reach of cat 
tle ; and- be flaked, or otherwife 
fecured, till they arrive to a cer 
tain bignefs. The expenfe of 
thus fecuring them need not 
amount to much, when compar 
ed to the advantages arifmg from 
fuch groves, 

Or, if they were planted along, 
the foutherly fides of roads only, 
the advantage to the publick 
\vould be great. Befides provid 
ing a flock of wood and timber 
for future generations, the pref- 
ent would receive the benefit of 
their fhadow, cafl into the roads 
in the hotteft part of our fummer 
diiys. This would be extremely 
refrefhing to travellers, to teams 
that pafs under them, and to 
many tame animals that live in 
the roads. In this cafe, the ad 
joining lots would not be injur 
ed with the fhade ; but for the 
beauty of their appearance, trees 
on both fides of the road would 
be beft. 

If the country were well ftock- 
ed with thefe groves, their per- 
fpiration would help to abate the 
fcorching heat of die fun, in a 
dry feafon, by moiftening the at- 
mofphere. They would ferve 
to impede the forcer of high, 
driving winds and ftorms in fum 
mer, which often tear our tender 
vegetables, or lay our crops flat 
to the ground. Our buildings 
would be alfo in lefs danger 
from them. The winds in win 
ter would not be fo keen and vi- 
clent. The force of fea winds 

H A R 


on our fruit trees would be abat 
ed. The fnows that fall would^ 
be laid more even on the ground* 
K.oads: would be lefs blocked up, 
and feldomer rendered impair^ 
ble by them. But. for theie lalt* 
riurpofes, groves of evergreens/ 
will. have the greateft effe6t:. 

Groves fhouldbe p-ianted thicl;. 
at firft, that the- above advanta 
ges may be had from them while^ 
young, \Vhen the trees become- 
fo large as to be crow-ded, they- 
mould be thinned* And thus 
a co-rifiderable quantity of fewel 
a-nd timber may be foon realiz 
ed by the proprietors. 

The increafing fcarcity and 
dearnefs of wood, especially in 
the oldell fettlements in this^coun- 
try, affords an unanswerable argu 
ment in favour of fuch a piece 
of good husbandry. 

GRUB, ** the name of a large 
maggot produced from the eggs 
of a certain fpecies of butterfly. 
It is of a large fize, and often 
does great injury to the corn by 
undermining it, and preying ort 
its roots. It produces the beetle, 
and is by fome called the rook 
worm, becaufe rooks are partic 
ularly fond of it. The befl way 
to dellroy the grub, is good and 
frequent ploughing, which will 
clear the ground, however in- 
fefted with this infcft, for fome 
y ears at \c aft . " Complete Fa rm- 



HARROW, a kind of drag 
ufed in tillage. By drawing a 
harrow over ploughed ground, 
the clods which remain after 
ploughing, are broken, and the 

f round made mellow and fine. 
t ferves alfo to deftroy weeds, 
by piil-iing out their roots, and 
expofing them to the fun and 
wind. Aad it is ufed to cove " 


H A R 

feeds newly fown. The wood 
of a harrow fhould be the ftrong- 
eft and beft feafoned white oak. 
There are two kinds of har 
rows commonly ufed ; the fquare 
harrow, and the bifurcate har 
row ; the former is for old and 
clear ground, the latter for land 
that abounds with flumps of trees 
and other obftacles. The fquare 
harrow is armed with fixteen, 
or .with twenty five tulhes, jar 
teeth. The fharper thefe teeth 
are, the more they will pul 
verize the foil. If they be fteel- 
ed at trie points, they will hold 
their fharpnefs the longer, and 
ilir the ground more effectually. 
And the coft of doing it is fo 
little, that it is furprifing to fee 
that it is fo generally neglecled 
by our farmers. 

It has been the common practice 
in this country to place the. teeth 
in the joints of the fquare har 
row. But this has a tendency to 
weaken the joints, and the teeth 
are more apt to become loofe. 
They mould be placed^ in the 
folid parts between the* joints. 
The beft way to faften them is, 
with moulders uader the harrow, 
and nuts fcrewed on above. 

Some ufe harrows with wood 
en teeth, but they are of fo little 
advantage to the land, unlefs it 
be merely for covering feeds, 
that they may be confidered as 
unfit to be ufed at all. The 
treading of the cattle that draw 
them, will harden the foil more, 
perhaps, than thefe harrows will 
foften it. 

The bifurcate, or triangular 

harrow, is either a fork of natural 

growth, or elfe made artificially. 

The artificial one is commonly 

ftrongeft, when well made, as 

* timber may be chofen which is 

*" Sufficiently tough and ftrong. 

i The two legs may either be lap- 

?? ?d together at the angle, or elfe 

H A R 

framed together like a pair of 
rafters, excepting that the butt 
ends, being tougheft, and ftrong- 
eft, muft be put together. But 
the joint muft be ftrengthened 
by a good iron hoop fmartly 
driven on to the nofe, after the 
wood is thoroughly dry, and 
fattened with ftrong nails ; and 
further ftrengthened with a brace 
from one leg to the other, fram 
ed in, about two feet from the 
jun6lure of the legs. 

The angle may be more or lefs 
acute, according to the ftate of 
the land in which the harrow is 
moftly to be ufed. For the 
rougheft ground the angle muft 
be more acute ; but lor well 
cleared ground, the angle may 
be of 45 degrees, or more. The 
more obtufe the angle is, the 
more near together the teeth 
muft be placed. Jn this kind of 
harrow fome put 9, fome 11, and 
fome 13 teeth, or even 1$. The 
rougher and harder the land, the 
fewer the teeth ; and the fewer 
they are, the longer and ftronger 
they mould be. Twelve inches 
clear of the wood is not too long, 
nor three pounds too heavy for a 
tooth in the ftrongeft harrows. 

To prevent this machine from 
faftening itfelf often in immovea- 
ble flumps and roots, the teeth 
may be let leaning a little back 
wards. But where there are no 
obftacles, they fhould rather in 
cline the contrary way, or at 
leaft they fhould be perpendicu 

Some make ufe of a horfe har 
row of the forked kind, and very 
narrow, to mellow the ground 
and kill weeds, betwixt rows of 
Indian corn. But the horfe. 
plough anfwers the purpofe bet 
ter in general, unlefs it be upon 
green fward ground, in which 
the horfe plough will not an- 
fwer at all. The ftifihefs of the 


H A R 

eld furrows will prevent its reg 
ular going. Lord Kaimes rec 
ommends what he calls a clean 
ing harrow with no lefs than 56 
teeth, which teeth are no more 
than fix inches apart. The ufe 
of it is to clear land of ropts-,*in 
an expeditious and effectual man 
ner. The weight of a tooth is 
one pound only. If they are fet 
raking forward they will pene 
trate the deeper, and have a bet 
ter effeft.. 

foil with a harrow. A team 
that travels quick, is beft for 
harrowing, unlefs the land be 
too full of obftacles. Horfes, 
therefore, are better for this work 
than oxen, becaufe their motion 
is quicker. The fafter the har 
row moves, and the more it 
.jumps, the more the hard clods 
are broken, and the turfs torn. 
The teeth will alfo keep cleaner 
and go deeper ; fo that the land 
will be more mixed and mellow 
ed. But clayey land is fo apt to 
be cloddy, that it is often necef- 
fary to follow the harrow with a 
maul, or a hoe, to break the re 
maining clods. 

Befides pulverizing the foil, 
covering feeds, and drawing out 
the roofs of weeds, the defigns of 
harrowing are to make the land 
level, or fmooth ; and, on fal 
lows, to caufe the feeds of weeds 
to vegetate by expofing them to 
the air, in order that they may 
fee deftroyed by after operations, 
either with the plough or the 

When land is wet and poachy, 
6r at all muddy, it can be of 
no fervice to harrow it. It will 
rather do damage, as it will make 
it more compact and ftiff. 

Land that is too light and 
ii puffy, as drained fwamps often 
I are, cannot eafily be too much 
i harrowed. The more it is har- 

H A R 

rowed, the more compact it will 
be ; and this is what it wants. 

The harrowing of new ground 
for feeding, without ploughing, 
may be performed in almoft any 
weather, if the ground be only 
dry enough to be mellowed by 
the harrow. And the fooner, af 
ter burning, this work is done, fo 
much the better, as it will pre 
vent the afhes being blown 
away by high winds, and as it 
will fpread it more equally, 
and more effectually mix it 
with the foil. Here the ftrong- 
eft harrow muft be ufed ; and 
it ought to be heavy, in or 
der to make any considerable 
impreffion on the foil. It is 
often neceflary that the harrow 
pafs feveral times in the fame 
place, in order to faife a fuffi- 
cient quantity of mould. There 
is no reafon to fear its being loft 
labour. The more fuch ground 
is harrowed, the better crop may 
be rationally expefcled. 

On furrows of green fward 
newly ploughed, the harrow 
(liould pafs the fame way that 
the plough did : Otherwife, 
fome of the furrows, which lie a 
little higher than the reft, will 
be turned back again, grafs up 
wards. This fort of land re 
quires a heavy harrow, or one 
made fo by loading it. A light 
one will fink into the furrows 
but little, and be of little fervice. 

On old ground, ploughed 
plain, the harrow mould pafs, the 
firft time, acrofs the furrows, 
as the teeth will better take hold 
of the roots of weeds, and more 
deeply penetrate the foil. It 
will alfo do more towards level- 
ling the ground. Afterwards it 
mould be harrowed the other 
way, lengthwife of the furrows. 

Harrowing commonly does 
the moft fervice immediately af 
ter ground is ploughed, as the 


144 It A H 

teeth go deeper and raife the more 
mould. If it be neglected at 
this juncture, a- time fhould be 
chofen when the foil is not too 
dry. After a -gentle rain the 
clods will crumble the more ea- 
fily ; and the foil underneath 
being drier, will -not-be harden 
ed by the treading of cattle. 

'In light fandy, or gravelly 
foils, or where there is occafion 
for narrowing land .which is ex- 
cefitvely dry, or in danger of 
foon becoming fo, it fhould be 
done when the dew- is -on the 
ground, early in a morning. 
This will incrfcafe, rather than 
dimini/h the moiftnefs of the foil. 
And on the contrary, land which 
is apt to fee too wet, fhould be 
harrowed at a time when it is 
rlrieft, as in the middle of a fair 
day. The /Irft fcratching will 
caufe it to dry faft, and fo pre 
pare it to be m.'Stde fine and mel 
low by the fecond. 

The Europea a farmers recom 
mend harrowinig ground once 
over before cor n is fowed, and 
then to harrow in the feed the 
contrary way. The grain will 
be the more eve in, and not ap 
pear fo much in n *ws, as if it were 
fowed upon the furrows ; but it 
ivill not be fo deeply covered. 
-Perhaps fowing upon farrows, 
both winter and .fummer grain, 
may be generally t hebettermeth- 
od in this countr jr, which is fo 
much more liable lo fufferby fe- 
vere f rolls and drc nights. Some 
of our farmers even think itbeftto 
plough in the fee el with a fhaU 
low Furrow. The roots will lie 
'the deeper, and b c lefs expofed 
-to-fiiflfer by troft-a nd drought. 

Harrowing fallows' is doubt- 
lefs a beneficial operati'on. If it 
be done two or three .times be 
tween ploughings, the .feeds of 
weeds will be encouraged to veg 
etate, and confequently N vill be 

killed at the next ploughing C# 
harrowing. Thus the land ;will 
become very clean after a year 
of fallow ; arid the food and paf- 
ture of plants will be more in 
creafed than it could be by: 
ploughing only. For every weed 
that confumes in the foil is of 
fome advantage. 

Some have found their ac 
count in harrowing mowing 
grounds, when they have become 
bound and ftiff. Though the 
roots of the grafs are much torn 
.and mangled by harrowing, the 
foil will be loofened at the fur- 
face, and the vegetation of the 
grafs fo much increafed, that the 
excefs of the next crop will more 
than compenfate the labour of 
harrowing. It mould be done 
in autumn, and before heavy 
rains fall, but after a gentle, one, 
when thefurface is a little moHU 
ened. It would be beft, before 
harrowing, to arTord the land a 
fprinkling of old dung, qr com- 
pofl : Or elfe immediately after, 
and btiih it in. Its fruitiulnefs 
will thus be greatly increafed. 

The harrowing of land that is 1 
ploughed in ridges, mould be per 
formed lengthwife, and by two 
harrows abreaft, or three, if the 
breadth of the ridges require^ 
them, that the trenches may not 
be too much filled. The fecond 
harrowing may be acrofs, if the 
land needs to be laid even for 
-mowing. But then the trenches 
fhould be cleared out with a 
fhovel or plough, if the land be 
fo flat and \Vet as to make it 
proper or r necerTary to lay it 
down in ridges. 

Harrowing of winter grain, in 
the fpring, is approved of be 
yond the Atlantick. When the 
roots are well fet, and in fuffi- 
cient plenty, I think this may 
be a laudable. piece of hufband- 
ry. The harrow will deftrof 

ft A R 

but a few of the plants ; and 
the lofs of them will be more 
than made up in the increafed 
growth of the reft. But, in or 
der to make the loofened plants 
take rooting, Mr. Lifleadvifes to 
drive a flock of fheep about over 
the field. Others advife to roll 
ing the ground, which appears 
more rational. 

HARVEST, the feafon when 
corn is cut down, arid fecured. 

In this country, there are two 
feafons which are called harveft : 
Englifh harveft and Indian har 
veft. The former is about the 
fend of July or beginning of Au- 
guft, the latter in October or No- 

Wheat and rye are harvefted 
in much the fame manner. Both 
are reaped and bound in iheaves. 
It is ufual to cut rye rather 
greener than wheat, that the 
flour may be the whiter. 

When a fevere blight or ruft 
has ftruck the ftems of wheat, or 
rye, it anfwers no purpofe to let 
it ftand longer to ripen, or grow 
hard. It is agreed that it fhould 
be cut though full in milk. And 
afterwards it may lie on the 
ground, expofed to the fun and 
weather,till the grain is hardened. 
But the heads mould lie fo as 
not to touch the ground ; which 
may be eafily done, if the reap 
ers will only take care to lay the 
top end of each handful on the 
lower end of the preceding one. 
Some fay it will anfwer to cut it 
three weeks before the ufual 
time, and before the ftems are 
turned yellow. 

If grafs or weeds grow among 
grain, it fhould be cut high, that 
fo the lefs quantity of trafh may 
be bound up in the fheaves. 
And when taking weeds with the 
grain cannot be avoided, it 
fhould be reaped a little the ear- 
Jier, that it may have time to lie 

H A K. 145 

in the field, till the weeds are well 
dried, without danger of fcattering 
the corn by its being over dried. 

The bands fhould be made in 
a morning early, when the dew 
is greateft,and the ftraw moft fup- 
pie. But the beft time to bind 
the fheaves, is when the air begins 
to be damp towards everting, as 
the leaft degree of moifture will 
toughen the ftraw and prevent 
the fcattering of the grain : And 
there is fome degree of damp- 
nefs in the air, for an hour or 
two before funfet. 

A late writer advifes to make 
the fheaves with only one length 
of ftraw. 

After binding, it fhould be 
made up into mocks without de 
lay, or after ftanding in fheaves 
one day, if the weather be fettled 
and dry ; where it is to ftand irt 
the field till not only the ftraw^ 
but the grain, be thoroughly 
dried ; and till a fuitable oppor 
tunity prefent for carting it in. 
It fhould be done when the air 
has a fmall degree of darnpnefs$ 
to prevent the fcattering of the 

It would be beft on fome ac 
counts, that grain fhould be 
thrafhed as foon as it is carted im 
But as it is ufually a hurrying 
feafon, it is but feldom that the 
farmer can {pare time for it. It 
muft, therefore, be ftored moil 

The belt method of ftoring it, 
is, to lay the fheaves up in the 
barn. But if want of room re 
quire them to be flacked, care 
{hould be taken that the grain 
may not draw moifture from the 
ground, by laying boards, ftraw% 
or rubbifh under the ftack. A 
better way ftill is to have a tight 
floor of boards mounted on four 
blocks, fet in the ground, and fo 
high from the ground as to pre 
vent the entering of vermin. 

H A R 

In building a flack, care fliould 
be taken to keep the feed ends 
of the fheaves in the middle, and 
a little higher than the outer 
ends. No fowls nor birds can 
then come at the grain ; and the 
rain that falls on the ftraw ends will 
run off, and not pafs towards the 
centre. The ftack mould be well 
topped with ftraw, that the rain 
may be completely turned off. As 
to the harvefting of barley, oats 
and peafe, fee thofe articles. 

With refpeft to harvefting In 
dian, corn, I would obferve, that 
many do it much too early, to 
their own damage and lofs. As 
long as there is any greennefs, 
or fap, remaining in the whole 
length of the ftalk, below the ear, 
or even in the cob ; fo long the 
corn improves by ftanding. For 
the fap will continue to dif- 
charge itfelf into the grain. 
Though a crop harvefted earMer 
may meafure as much in ears, or 
more, when it is newly hufked, 
it will fhrink a great deal, fome- 
times fo much that not two corns 
on an ear will touch each other. 
Befides, there will be the great 
er difficulty in drying and keep 
ing it. Corn that is harvefted 
early, will not be fit to- ftore in 
out door cribs, nor in our com 
mon corn houfes, unlefs it be 
firft fpread thin on floors, and 
dried. And this is troubl-efome, 
at leaft, if not impracticable. 

Squirrels, and rapacious- birds, 
diforderly cattle and bad fences, 
drive perfons to harvefting early. 
But there is commonly more loft 
than faved by it. When the 
corn Hands tolerably fecure,. and 
is in no danger from froft, nor 
from thieves, harvefting early is 
an error. I fhould not think 
the beginning of November at 
all too late. 

It is not fafe to let it lie long 
ra the Imfks after it is gather- 

H A T 

ed, left it fliould heat, or contract 
dampnefs. One unripe ear or 
green ftalk, in a heap, may dam 
age many. The common praftice 
of collecting large companies to 
hufk the corn as foon as it is gath 
ered, is a laudable one. And after 
it is hufked, it mould have a dry 
place, and foijiuch benefit of the 
air, that it may be fure not to 
grow warm, let the air prove to 
be ever fp moift. 

Sometimes a fevere early froft: 
drives the farmer to harvefting, 
as he knows the froftbitten corn 
is apt to rot in the hufks. But in 
fuch a cafe, or when corn holds 
its greennefs uncommonly late, 
an approved method is, to cut it 
up clofe to the ground, bind it 
in fmaU bundles, and fet it up in 
fmall fhocks in the field. It will 
ripen kindly, and take no dam 
age. By this method the grain 
has the benefit of all the fap con 
tained in the ftalks, to bring it 
nearer to maturity. 

I have heard of fome perfons 
in the county of Lincoln, who, 
finding their Indian corn very 
green at harvefting, have boiled" 
k in the ears after hufldng : By 
which expedient they were able 
to dry it in the ears, without its 
rotting, or moulding. This may 
be no ill method at a pinch. But 
rather than be obliged to do it 
yearly, I mould think they had 
better lay afide the culture of this 
plant^or elfe ufe no feed but from 
the northward, which will ripen 
in- feafon, 

HATCHEL, an inflrument 
called fometimes a- comb, full of 
lon-g pins of iron or fteel for teeth, 
with which flax and hemp are 
combed. They who manufac 
ture thefe articles, as perhaps all 
the families of farmers- fhould, 
ought to be provided with fever- 
al hatchels of different finenefles. 
Where only flax is manufactur 


d, two combs, one coarfe, and 
the other fine, will be fuffi- 

HAY t dried grafs. 
HAYHOOK, an inftrument 
to pull hay out of a mow, or | 
ftack. This inflrument is often | 
made of wood ; but an iron one ; 
is far preferable. It fhould be 
fharp pointed, armed with a fluke, 
and have a focket to receive 
the wooden handle. The han 
dle mould have a turn at the end 
for the eafe of pulling. There 
can be no better handle than the 
half of an old oX bow : Or a 
little more than half. But this 
in liniment will wafte the hay, 
and diveft it of much of the feed. 
A better way is, to -cut off flices 
of two or three feet in thicknefs, 
from a mow or flack, as it is 
wanted for ufc. 

HAYMAKING, the curing, 
or drying of grafs for fodder. 
The firft thing to be confidered 
about haymaking, is the time of 
cutting the grafs. It mould not 
be cut too early, or before it has 
got its growth : For this will 
caufe it to ihrink too much in 
drying. On the contrary, it 
fhould not ftand too late, or till 
the feed be quite ripe. It is not 
.only harder to cut, but the ripe- 
nefs of the feed will caufe it to 
{hatter out while drying, which 
will be a considerable lofs, as the 
feed is the moft rich and nour- 
iihing part ; and the foil will be 
the more exhausted by nourifh- 
iiig the feed till it come to ma 
turity, and the next fucceed- 
ing crop will be the poorer. 
There never can be any advan 
tage in mowing late, unlefs it be 
thickening the grafs roots, by 
fcattering fome ofthe feed, where 
they were before too thin. He 
that mows early has the advan 
tage of longer days for drying his 
jeay ; and of morter nights, 



when the dews are lefs detri 
mental to haymaking. 

The right time for cutting; 
clover is when half the heads be 
gin to lofe their bright colour, 
and turn brownifh by ripenefs. 
A general rule for other grades 
is, to cut them foon after they 
iave bloflbmed, or as foon as the 
feeds are formed. The grafs is 
then in its perfeftiop, as it is full- 
eft of juices, and the juices will not 
evaporate nor the draw (brink 
too much in drying. Four pounds 
of green grafs will, commonly, 
make one pound of dry hay. 

But the farmer who has many 
acres of the fame kind of grafs, 
cannot always expeft to cut the 
whole of it in exactly the right 
feafofl. That he may approach as 
near to right as poflible, he 
(hould cut the thicker! grafs firft 
of all ; especially if it be in dan 
ger of lodging, or fo thick that 
the loweft leaves perifh, or the 
bottoms of the ftalks turn yel 
low. The thinned of his grafs 
mould be cut next, which is apt 
to be ripe fooneft : And laft of 
all, the middling fized grafs, or 
that which is on a medium be 
tween thick and thin. 

Where a fecond crop is ex- 
peeled the fame year, thick grafs 
Ihould be cut a little the earlier, 
that the roots may not be injur 
ed fo much as to prevent their 
fpeecly recovery, by being clofe- 
ly covered too long by the firil 

Some regard mould be had to 
the weather, when the time of 
cutting is in contemplation. 
Thofe, efpecially, mould regard 
it, who are able to call in as much 
afliftance as they pleafe in hay 
making. It would be beft for 
them not to cut any grafs juft 
before the full or change of 
the moon, as falling weather is 
to be looked for at thefe times 


jl H A Y 

more efpecially : Though in 
facl it does not always fo hap 

Grafs, which has not been 
waihed by rain tor feveral days, 
has a kind of gum on it, which 
is known by its adhering to the 
lithe. This gum is thought to 
be a benefit to the hay ; and farm 
ers are fond of mowing their 
grafs when this gum appears, 
rather than juft after the grafs 
has been wafhed by rain. 

As to the drying of hay, or 
the manner of making it, I know 
there are a variety of opinions. 
The right way is to do it in fuch 
a manner that as much of the 
fap as pomble may be retained, 
and in the beft (late that is pofli- 
ble. In this I mould think all 
would agree. All perfons will 
allow that too much drying is 
hurtful. It is certainly a lofs to 
rake it, or fHr it at all, when it is 
fo dry that the leaves will crum 
ble. And doubtlefs as much of 
the fap (hould be retained as is 
confident with its being kept in 
good order for fodder, and for 
long keeping. 

Some graffes will keep well 
with lefs drying than is needful 
for others. The Rhodeifland 
bent, as it is called, or red top 
grafs, will do with lefs drying 
than fome other grafles. It has 
been much practifed to put it up 
with fo little drying that it heats 
in the mow to fo great a degree, 
as to make it turn brown like to 
bacco ; and it is known that cat 
tle will eat it well, and thrive on 
it. But the mow will certainly 
fend out part of the virtue of the 
hay in fleams. I cannot but 
think that all graffes mould be 
fo much dried, that mows and 
ilacks, though they have a de 
gree of heat, Ihould not emit any 
ienfi&Ie fleam ; and I would not 
3 have hay naatde brown 


by mow burning. It furcly doea 
not appear to. fo good advantage 
at market. 

Were it not for the labour and 
coft, a good way of haymaking 
would be, for the haymakers to 
follow at the heels of ths mow 
ers, at lead as foon as the dew 
is off, and fpread the fwarths 
evenly ; turn the grafs about the 
middle of the fame day ; make 
it up into cocks before night ; 
open the hay, and turn it the 
next day ; and fo on till it be 
fufriciently dried, doubling the 
cocks if figns of rain appear. It 
will not commonly take more 
than two or three days to dry it, 
unlefs it be very green, or un 
commonly thick and rank. A 
perfon who has but little hay to 
make, need not be much blamed, 
if he do it in this way ; efpecial- 
ly if the weather do not appear to 
be fettled. 

But a method which I have 
generally found to anfwer well 
in fettled good weather, and 
which faves fo much labour as 
to recommend it, is as follows. 
If the grafs be thick, the fwarths 
mowed in the morning I turn 
bottom upwards at evening, which 
prevents the hay being browned 
and hurt by imbibing the dew 
of the approaching night, the 
part that is dried being not ex- 
pofed. Thefe fwarths, together 
with thofe mowed in the after 
noon, I fpread the next morning, 
as foon as the dew is nearly ex 
haled. I rake the hay in the af 
ter part of the day, in fuch a 
manner that the raking feryes 
to promote its drying, flinging 
fome of it inwards, expofmg the 
greenefi locks as much as pofli- 
bie to the fun, raking alternate 
ly on one windrow and another, 
till all are clofed. Then I make 
them up into cocks of a mode 
rate fize. After this, if the weath 


er continue fair, I ftir the hay 
no more for two or three days, 
and then cart it in. It will 
fweat fb much in the cocks, that 
there will be no danger of its 
mow burning afterwards. 

But if the weather be un fet 
tled, or if fliowers be frequent, 
it may be better to fpread grafs 
well, as foon as it is mowed, ftir 
it often, cock it the fame day it 
is mowed, open it the next fair 
day when the dew is off, let it 
fweat a little in cock, and houfe 
it as foon as it is dry enough. 
Jt will bear to be laid greener 
on a fcaffold, than in a ground 
mow ; and in a narrow mow 
greener than in a broad one. And 
that which is leaft of all made 
fhould be put upon a fcaffold. 

When grafs is very thin, and 
not full of fap, having ftood be 
yond the right time of cutting ; 
Jt may be cut in the forenoon, 
and raked in the afternoon, of 
the fame day ; and then dry fuf- 
ficiently in cocks, in two or 
three days. But if a heavy rain 
fall, it will need to be opened, 
and expofed to the fun for a few 
hours. If there be only a fmall 
quantity of rain, it may be fuf- 
ncient to pujl out fbme of the 
hay round the bottoms of the 
cocks, or only on that fide which 
was windward when the rain 
fell, and lay it on the tops. If 
the cocks are fb fituated that the 
water has run much under their 
bottoms, they mould be turned 
bottom upwards, and trimmed at 
leaft ;but it will moft commonly be 
peceffary to fpread them abroad. 

Sometimes hay will become 
too dry, notwithftanding every 
precaution to prevent it : For it 
will dry txvice as fait in fome 
fair days as in others, becaufe of 
the different drynefs of the air. 
When this is the cafe, it ihould 
be removed to the barn only in 

H A Y 


the evening, or morning, when 
the air is damp. And it is good 
to have fome greener hay to 
mix with it. 

Some think that mown grafs 
fhould never be expofed to the 
full influence of the fun, left it 
be robbed of too much of its 
fap, while it is in its moft fluid 
ftate. A very ingenious gentle 
man, of my acquaintance, does 
not permit his grafs to lie in 
fwarth, but for an hour or two 
after it is cut ; or no longer than 
till its wetnefs be gone, and it 
juft begins to appear withered : 
He then gathers it into very 
fmall parcels, which he calls 
grafs cocks, not more than a 
good forkful in each : Turns 
them over once in a while, about 
funfet is the beft time : Doubles 
them as they grow drier : Arid 
when the hay is aim oft dried e~ 
nough, makes up the whole into 
large cocks. Grafs that is thus 
dried, will not wafte at all by 
crumbling ; nor will much of 
its juices evaporate. I. have 
feen his hay, the flavour of which 
excelled almoft any other that I 
have met with.' The colour of 
it, indeed, was rather yellowifh 
than green : But that is a matter 
of no confequerice to the farmer 
who does not fend his hay to 
market. I cannot but think that, 
in dry fettled weather, this is an 
excellent method of haymaking. 
But in catching weather, per 
haps a method which takes lefs 
time is to be preferred. From 
the above Mr. Anderfon's meth 
od is not much different. " In- 
ftead," fays he, " of allowing the 
hay to lie, as ufual in moft places, 
for fome days in the fwarth, af 
ter it is cut, and afterwards put 
ting it up into cocks, and fpread- 
ing it out, and tending it in the 
fun, which tends greatly tobleach 
the hay, exhales its natural juices, 


i 5 o H A Y 

and fubjefts it very much to the 
danger of getting rain, and thus 
runs a great rifk of being good 
for little, I make it a general 
rule, if poflible, never to cut my 
hay but when the grafs is quite 
<lry ; and then make the gather 
ers follow dole upon the cut 
ters, putting it up immediately 
into frnall cocks, about three 
feet high each when new put 
p ; always giving each of them 
a flight kind of thatching, by 
-drawing a few handfuls of the 
hay from the bottom of the cock 
all around, and laying it lightly 
on the top, with one of the ends 
hanging downwards. This is 
done with the utmoft eafe and 
expedition ; and when it is once 
in that ftate, I confider my hay 
as in a great meafure out of dan 
ger ; for unlefs a violent wind 
ihould arife, immediately after 
the cocks are put up, fo as to o- 
verturn them, nothing elfe can 
hurt the hay ; as I have often 
experienced that no rain, how 
ever violent, ever penetrates in 
to thefe cocks but for a very lit 
tle way. And, if they are dry 
put up, they never fit together 
io clofely as to heat ; although 
they acquire in a day or two, 
fuch a degree of firmnefs, as to 
be in no danger of being over 
turned by wind after that time, 
unlefs it blows a hurricane. 

" In thefe cocks I allow the 
hay to remain, until, upon in- 
ipeftion, I judge that it will keep 
in pretty large tramp cocks, &c. 
The advantages that attend this 
method are, that it greatly a- 
bridges the labour, that it allows 
the hay to continue almoft as 
green as when it is cut, and pre- 
ferves its natural juices in the 
greateft perfection. For it is dri 
ed in the moft flow and equal 
manner that can be defired. Laft- 
ly, that it is thus in a great meaf- 

H E M 

ure fecured from almoft the pof- 
fibility of being damagedby rain." 
EJfays on Agriculture. 

Clover is a fort of hay that re 
quires a critical attention in cur 
ing : Becaufe, though the ftalks 
need much drying, the leaves 
and heads will bear but little 
without wafting. It is beft to 
rake it towards night, when the 
dampnefs of evening begins to 
come on ; open it the next day, 
and never ftir it much when 
there is danger of its crum 

Salt hay, in this country, has 
ufually been hurt by lying too 
long in the fwarths. The meth 
od in which I have treated it for 
feveral years, is, to cock it the 
next day after it is cut, and car 
ry it in, without delaying more 
than one day, and put a layer of, 
forne kind of dry ftraw between 
load and load of it, in the mow, 
to prevent its taking damage by 
overheating. The ftraw con 
trails fo much of its moifture 
and faltnefs, that the cattle will 
eat it very freely ; and the hay 
is far better than that made in 
the common way. 

If this hay be permitted to lie 
out in rains, the faltnefs of it 
will be diminished, which they 
who have but little other fodder 
may be apt to confider as an ad 
vantage. But it will contract 
no virtue, while it lofes its falt 
nefs. The frefh water will dam 
age it ; efpecially for thofe who 
have plenty of other fodder, or 
even ftraw to mix with it. 

Salt hay fhould not be cut 
when the full or change of the 
moon is approaching, left the 
tides fhould be high, before it 
can be got off from the marfh. 

HEMP, a plant with a tough 
fibrous coat, which anfwers the 
fame purpofes as flax, but is 
coarfer and llronger. 



The plant is tap rooted, and 
therefore does beft in a deep and 
free foil. It is luxuriant, and 
quick in its growth, and there 
fore requires a rich,, and well 
prepared foil. The foils which 
have been found to fuit it heft, 
are a rich gravelly loam, or a 
loofe black mould, which is dry 
and deep. It is an error to think 
that it needs a wet foil, for it 
bears drought almoft equally 
with any plant that we cultivate. 
Mr. Eliot found by experi 
ment, that it anfwered very well 
on a drained fwamp : And he 
tells of a man in the Jerfies,who 
raifed as much hemp yearly, on 
half an acre of fuch land, as 
brought him fifty pounds York 
money. It is not uncommon 
for one acre to yield half a ton, 
which will fell for twenty pounds 
in cam, at the loweft. And I 
am told by one who is much ac 
quainted with it, that it is more 
eafily broken and fwingled than 
flax ; and that, oftentimes, the 
brake will do all that is neceffa- 
ry in cleaning it. 

To prepare land for a crop of 
hemp, the land mould be plough 
ed to a good depth in the fall of 
the year preceding. If it be 
green fward land, it mould be 
ploughed as early as Auguft or 
September, that the fward may 
be perfectly rotten. And if it 
were ploughed in ridges it would 
be the better, and fit for fowing 
the earlier. And by crofs plough 
ing and harrowing in the fpring, 
it mould be made extremely fine 
and mellow, A little dung 
Ihould be applied, if the land be 
not in the beft heart ; and the 
fall is the beft time to apply it. 
But if compofts are ufed, they 
mould be laid on juft before 

The time of fowing the feed 
is as early in the fpring as the 


foil can be got into good order, 
as it is a plant that is not eafily 
injured by froft ; but the middle 
of May will not be too late. 

The feed for fowing mould 
be of the laft year's growth, as 
older feed is not wont to come 
up at all. I once fowed feed 
which was brought from Eng 
land. It looked as well as any 
I ever faw ; but not one in ten 
thoufand ever fprouted. The 
quantity of feed for an acre, in 
the broad caft way, is three 
buftiels ; but half that quantity, 
in the drill method, will be e- 
nough. If the land be poor, a 
fmaller quantity of feed will 
ferve. The groimd mould be 
watched after lowing, that birds' 
do not take away the feeds. 

The drill method is on fome 
accounts preferable to the other, 
For though in the firft crop it 
will fall fhort, it exhaufts the 
land lefs ; and, therefore, in the 
long run, it may be more profit 
able. But in this way it pro 
duces more feed, and this meth 
od is certainly advantageous on 
account of the more convenient 
pulling of the hemp. If fown 
on narrow ridges, or beds, and 
the trenches ihoveled out after 
fowing and harrowing, I fufpeft 
the broad caft way would have 
the preference. But of this I 
have had no experience. 

As the correfpondent parts of 
generation are on different plants, 
they are of two diftmct fexes, 
male and female, and require 
different treatment. I will ven 
ture to affert, contrary to M. 
Mercandier, that the male is the 
plant which bears the flowers, 
and the female that which bears 
the fruit, or feed. 

That which bears the flowers, 
will be fit for pulling about the 
end of July. Its ripenefs is 
known by its growing yellow at 


tt E M 

the top, and white at the root, 
by the falling of the flowers, and 
the withering of the leaves. If 
care be taken in pulling, not to 
hurt thofe plants which are left, 
they will thrive the better after 
it, as they will have more room, 
and as the earth will be ftirred 
about their roots; And the drill 
method is favourable to this 
work, as the pullers need not 
tread among the thickeft of the 
hemp. And fowing in beds has 
the fame advantage. 

After pulling, it mttft be put 
into the water without delay, to 
fteep. Ponds and ftill waters 
are beft. It will not take more 
than four or Tive days to water 
it enough. But it mufl be watch 
ed, left it fhould be overdone. 
After watering, it mufl be fpread 
and dried in the fun. 

The fruitful kind does not 
jipen till about five or fix weeks 
later. Its ripenefs is known b^ 
the feed's turning brown. After 
it is well dried, and the feed 
taken off by a kind of coarfe 
comb, it muft be watered. It 
will take almoft three times as 
much watering as the firft kind. 
The one kind is more fit to be 
manufactured into thread and 
cloth, the other more fuitable 
for rigging of fhips, and ropes. 
But the lateft kind may be made 
pliable and fine, if labour enough 
be bellowed upon it. In Head 
of fteeping, fpreading hemp in 
the dew will anfwer, as I have 
found by experience ; and this 
method is pra6tifed in England. 

The drefling of hemp may be 
performed in the fame manner 
as that of flax, if it be not un 
commonly large and long. A 
perfon, who is well acquainted 
with the culture and manufacture 
of hemp, allured me, that when 
his neighbour raifed it on a 
drained fwamp, he had it twelve 


feet long ; and, that he might 
manage it eafily in dreffing, he 
cut it in the middle. It was 
then as long as ordinary hemp, 
and as ftrong for every purpofe* 

If fome of the ftalks of hemp 
fliould be too large and ftubbonv 
for the brake, they may be put 
by themfelves to be peeled by 
hand. The doing of it may be 
an amufement for children and 

But to facilitate the drefling 
of hemp, mills mould be erefted 
for doing it. Or the machinery 
may be an appendage to fome 
other mill. Two brakes fhould 
be moved together, a coarfer and 
a finer, placed head to head, that 
the hatidfuls may be eafily fhifu 
ed frorri one to the other. It is 
light work for two boys to tend 
them. But the breaking of large 
hemp by hand, is fevere labour 
for the ftrongeft men. 

If no convenient dream be at 
hand, a mill may be conftru&ed 
to be worked by a horfe. 

It was formerly the cuftom id 
beat hemp abundantly with mal 
lets, or with peftles in large mor 
tars, or in fulling mills, to make 
it foft, and fit for fpinning. But 
M. Mercandier has (hewn how 
it may be more eafily done, by 
fteeping it in warm water, or in 
lie, and wafhing it. See his 
Trea.ti ft on Ihmp. 

The great profit of a crop of 
hemp, and its being an article 
that will readily command cafh, 
fhould recommend the culture 
of it to all our farmers. Befides 
the hemp itfelf, of the value of 
twenty pounds per acre, after it 
is dreffed, the feed of an acre 
muft be allowed to be of confid- 
erable value. Perfons need not 
fear their crops will lie upon 
their hands, when they confider 
the vaft fums of money which 
are yearly fcnt to other countries 


H I D 

fbr this article, almoft enough to 
deprive the country of a medi 
um, and how naturally the de 
mand for it will increafe as it 
becomes more plenty. There is 
no reafon to doubt of fuccefs in 
raifing hemp, if the foil be fuita- 
ble, and well prepared ; for it is 
liable to no diftemper ; cattle 
will not deftroy it, unlefs it be 
with their feet ; and it is an anti 
dote to all forts of devouring in- 
fefts. Neither is the plant diffi 
cult as to climate. Though the 
hotte/l climates do not fuit it, 
temperate and cool ones do ; 
and it has been found, by the 
finall trials that have been made, 
to thrive well in the various 
parts of Newengland. The moft 
northern parts are very iuitable 
for the growing of hemp. The 
fouthern are equally fo. 

thofe which are turned from 
each other, being contiguous at 
bottom, as the two lait furrows 
in ploughing a land, or between 

Tail, A/opecurus pratenfs. This 
grafs is a native oi Newengland. 
Mr. Eliot fays it was firil iound 
at Pifcataqua in Newharnpihire, 
by one Herd, who propagated it, 
whence the name. It is culti 
vated in our improved fields for 
hay. It requires about ten or a 
dozen quarts of the feed for an 
acre. It does beft in rich and 
inoilt land. More needs not to 
be faid of a grafs, the great val 
ue oi which is fo well known in 
this country ; efpecially in the 
northern parts, where it profpers 
more than in the fouthern. It 
is of more importance to our 
farmers than any other grafs that 
thev cultivate. 

HIDE BOUND, a diftemper 
into which horfes fall when they 
are poorly fed and neglected. 


HID 153 

" A horfe that is hide bound 
grows lean, has a feverifii heat, 
his lkin {licks to his ribs, thu 
{pine becomes harder than uiiial, 
fnutll boils breakout on his back, 
and yet his appetite fometimes 
continues good. As this difor- 
dcr feldom is an original com 
plaint, but generally arifes from 
forne former caufe, regard mufl 
be had to that caufe, in the 
method of cure. But as to the 
diforder itfelf, Vegelius direHs 
the anointing the whole body 
with oil and wine mixed togeth 
er, rubbing them ftrongly againit 
the hair, in a warm fun, in or 
der that the (kin may be relaxed, 
and a fweat break out ; after 
which the horfe ihould be well 
curried, and placed in a warra 
flable, with plenty of litter. 

" The authors of the Maifon 
Rujiiqut advife that the next 
clay after bleeding the horfe, a 
fomentation be made of emoli- 
ent and aromatic {lengthening 
plants, boiled in lees ot wine, or 
beer, and that the whole body 
of the horfe be rubbed with thefe 
plants, whilit they are warm, till 
it. is thoroughly wet ; and that 
the loins, belly, and neck, as 
well as the re it of the body, be 
anointed with a mixture of one 
part honey and three parts of 
ointment of elder, rubbing it 
{trongly in with the hand, that 
it may penetrate the fk-in. This 
done, the horfe fhould be cover 
ed with a cloth dipt in the warm 
fomentation, and doubled, and 
another covering fhould be put 
over this, tying it on with one 
or two furcingles. The horfe 
mould remain in this condition 
24 hours, and then be fomented, 
rubbed, &c. twice as before. 
Thefe fomentations being iinifh-- 
ed, a warm covering mult be 
continued, left the horfe catch 
cold ; and he ihould then have 




an opening clyfter, and the 
morning a purging medicine ; 
continuing to wafh his head and 
Tseok, and alfo to rinf'e his mouth 
with the decoction, 

" For food, put into a pail or 
two of water about half a bufncl 
of barley meal carefully ground, 
ftir it well about, and let it fet 
tle. When the heavier! parts 
have fubfided, pour the thin part 
off for the horfe to drink, and 
give him what remained at the 
bottom, at three different times 
in the day, mixing -with it a due 
quantity ot crude antimony. 
The horfe muft have reft for 
fome time, and be fed with the 
belt hay, or grafs, according to 
the feafon of the year. In 
fpring, there is nothing better 
than new grafs. In about three 
weeks, he will begin to mend 
remarkably." Mills on Cattle. 

HOE, a well known inftrn- 
rnent ufed in tillage. It is call 
ed by fome writers the hand hoe, 
to diitinguifh it from the horfe 

Hoes are chiefly of two kinds, 
narrow and broad. The ufe of 
the narrow hoe is to break up 
fpots of hard, or tough ground, 
as the balks left by the plough 
in fwarded land, or the corners 
of lots where the plough cannot 
conveniently reach ; or to take 
up firong roots, fueh- as thole of 
the ihrub oak, &c. Therefore, 
this tool mult be made thick and 
iirong, with a large eye, that, it 
may admit a flrong helve. 

It has alfo the name of a break 
ing up hoe ; but it is ieldom 
made to do the work of a plough 
in this country of late, unlefs by 
the pooreft people, and in new 
places where teams cannot be 
eaiiiy had, 

The broad hoe is a very im 
portant implement among farm 
ers, as it is mucU ufe-d, though 

H O E 

rot fo much as it fhould bev 
The more mellow the land is> 
the larger the hoc ihould be, 
that work may be done more 
expeditioufly. The tough and 
hard foil requires a narrower 
hoe, to render the labour more 

Where land is not ftony, hoes 
fhould he kept iharp by grind 
ing. They will enter the ground 
the more ea(ily, and deflror 
weeds and their roots more ef- 

For the eafe of the labourer, 
hoes fhould be made as light as 
is confident with the needful 
degree of ftrength : Their han 
dles efpecially ihould be made 
of fome light kind of wood, as 
alh, or white maple, or a young 
tree of fpruce. For the Horfe 
Hoe, fee that article. 

HOEING, either burying 
feeds in the earth with the hoe, 
or breaking and ftirring the foil, 
chiefly when plants are growing 
in it. 

This after tillage, as I may 
call it, has been found to be of 
great advantage to almoft every 
kind of plants, and to fome it is 
fo neceffary that no crop is to 
be expected without it. The 
deeper land' is hoed, the greater 
advantage do plants receive from 
hoeing, if due care be taken that 
their roots be not diflurbcd, or 
too much cut to pieces. 

The ends to be anfwered by 
hoeing are chiefly thefe : i. To 
defiroy weeds, which are always 
ready to fpring up in every foil, 
and which would rob the culti 
vated plants of moft of their 
food. Scraping of the furface, 
if it be done frequently, maj 
anfwer this purpofe ; but to de- 
ftroy the roots of weeds, deeper 
hoeing is neceffary. 2. To keep 
the foil from becoming too com 
pact, which prevents the roots 


extending themfelves freely in 
fparch of their food, at the fame 
time keeping up a fermentation, 
by which the vegetable food is 
concocled, and brought into 
contaft with the roots. For this 
purpofe, the deeper land is hoed 
the better. But hoeing fhould 
ceafe, or be only fuperficial, 
when the roots are fo far extend 
ed as to be much injured by 
hoeing. They will bear a little 
cutting without injury. For 
where a root is cut off, feveral 
KC\V branches will com-e in its 
place. 3. To render the foil 
more open and porous, fo that it 
ihall greedily drink in the night 
ly dews, and that rain may not 
run off, but readily foak in as it 
falls, and be retained. Accord 
ingly, the more and ohenerland 
is hoed, the more moiilure it re 
tains, the better it bears drought, 
and the more its plants are nour- 
ifhed. 4. Another dciign of 
hoeing, and which has not been 
enough attended to, is to nour- 
rfh plants by drawing freih foil 
near to them, the effluvium of 
which enters their pores above 
ground, and increafes their 
growth. 5. At the fame time, 
earthing of plants makes them 
ftand more firmly, and increafes 
their pafture in the fpots where 
the roots moft abound. At the 
fame time it prevents the drying 
of the earth down to the roots. 

But earthing, or hilling of 
plants, mould be done with cau 
tion. Hilling exceffivcly is 
hurtful, as it does not permit the 
roots to have fo much benefit 
from the rains, and too much 
hinders the influence of the fun 
upon the lowermoft roots. 
Whatever hilling is done, fbould 
be done by little and little, at 
feveral hoeings, that the roots 
may gradually and eafily accom 
modate themfelves to the altera- 

H Q E 155 

tion of their condition. LafMy, 
frequent hoeing ferves to pre 
vent the {landing of water o 
the furface, fo as to chill the 
ground, and check all fermenta 
tion in it. 

When alt the hoeing between, 
rows of plants is performed with 
the hand hoe, the labour is fe- 
verc, and more expenfive to the 
owner 4 and the plants will, on 
the whole, receive tar lefs advan 
tage from hoeing. Therefore, 
where land is tokrably free 
from obftacles, I would carneft- 
ly recommend that the hoe 
plough, or the common horfe 
plough, which anfwers nearly 
the lame end, 'be much ufed ; 
and the earth ftirred with it to a 
good depth, and frequently, dur 
ing the proper feafon of hoeing, 
which is the former part of fiun- 
mer, but varies with refpecl to 
different crops. 

A plough, called a cultivator, 
has been conltru&ed, with two 
mouldboards, which turns the 
mould both ways at once, to 
wards each of the two rows be 
tween which it paffes. But, as 
it requires more than one horfe 
to draw it in ftifF ground, two 
furrows made with a hoe plough, 
or horfe plough, according to 
the cuftomary practice, may an- 
fwer full as we-H. When the 
foil is light and mellow, it will 
be a faving of time to ufe this 
cultivator ; and the work will 
be done with more regularity 
and neatnefs, if guided with 
fkill, and due care. 

The ufual method of horfc 
hoeing is as follows : At the 
firll hoeing, turn the furrows 
from the rows, fo that they form 
a veering, or ridge, in the inter 
vals between the rows. The 
plough fhould pafs as near to 
the rows as may be without dan 
ger of eradicating or diflurbing 


356 H O E 

die plants ; for it is beftthat the 
ioil be loofened as near to the 
roots as pofiible : Becaufe when 
they are tender and weak, they 
\viliextcnd their roots but little; 
and there will be no opportuni- j 
ty afterwards oi ploughing and j 
uirring the earth fo near to 
them, without too much danger 
of tearing and injuring their 
roots. After ploughing, the 
rows are to be cleared of weeds 
with the hand hoe, and a little 
frefh earth brought into contact 
with them. 

At the next hoeing, and all 
after hoeings, in our common 
liuibandry, the furrows are to 
l)e turned towards the rows, fo j 
as to form a henting, or trench, 
in the middle of e;i.cii interval ; 
and crofs the furrows lalt made, 
that the land m?iy be the more 
thoroughly pulv'cn/-:ed. This 
operation carries the {hare of the 
plough- farther from the roots, 
a.'vi at the fame time a fiords 
plenty of frelh earth about the 
plants ; which mult be finifhed 
with the hand hoe. But if, in 
ploughing, any oi the plants 
nld dbance tahe covered, they be lot free witho.i.U delay. 

At the lalt hoeing, -either ot 
Indian corn, or of any thing that 
is planted in hills, as it is vulgar 
ly culled, it is belt to make but- 
one furrow in an interval, and to 
p;Js the plough both ways, or 
cut the ground into fquares with 
the plough, or rather -with the 
cultivator. This leaves the roots 
the more room, and Ici.s work 
will remain to be done with the 
hand hoe. 

If the horfe be weak, or the 
ground hard and fthY, it may be 
needful to let the plough go 
twice in a place, which makes 
four times in an interval, for 
ihe plough fhoukl go as deep lor 
hoeing, as in any other plough-. 

If O E 

ing, or elfe the intention of it 
will be partly defeated ; which 
15 to keep that quantity of foil 
light and mellow from which 
the plants are to draw the moil 
of their noiirifliment. 

We apply horfe hoeing to In 
dian corn, when the ground is 
well cleared from obihcles, and 
could not be ealily perluaded to 
negleft it. Every farmer knows 
how much it faves labour, and 
thafr the crop is increafed by it. 
Why then will they not be per- 
fuaded, by all that has been expe 
rienced, and written, by fome 
of the wife ft farmers, to apply 
this method of culture to many 
other plants ? I have no doubt it 
might be done with equal advan 
tage. Indeed, we cultivate but 
few plants in tillage, for which 
this kind of. culture would be im 
proper. In Europe, they horfe 
hoe all kinds of grain, and even 
fome kinds of graiies. 

In a dry feafon, or in land 
that is in no danger of ever be 
ing too wet, it is ad vi fable to hoe 
only in the morning and even 
ing. And if farmers will work 
as early and late as they can, 
they may afford to delift, and re 11 
themfelves from nine till four, 
when the air is hotteit. The 
ground will get and retain the 
more moiiture which is thus ho 
ed early and late. And in the 
middle of fome ot our ho tie ft 
days, -there is danger of hurting 
teu-ler plants, by drawing the 
fcalding hot earth clofe to their 
items. But the opinion enter 
tained by many, that no hoeing 
at all Ihould be done in a dry fea 
fon, is irrational and ridiculous 
They deprive their land ot the 
benefit oi the dew, by neglect 
ing to hoe it, fuffer it to be over 
run with deilructive weeds, 
which rob the plants of moft of 
their nouriilunent, and allow the 


ground to be fo compacted and 
hard, that the rain when it comes 
will not penetrate it. This 
ftrange opinion will occafion 
much lofs to thofe whole con 
duct is influenced bv it. 

HOG-STY, a kind of build 
ing in which hogs are confined 
and fed. The ways oi confhit- 
ing thefe houfes are various : 
But the beft are thofe which are 
framed and boarded. The boards, 
that the fwine may not gnaw them 
to pieces, fhouhl be of fome 
harder wood than white pine, 
and they {hould be [aliened with 
ribbings and fpikes. Whatever 
be the conftructure of ilies, they 
ihculd always have one part clofe 
and warm, with a tight roof over 
it ; and the other part open, in 
which the trough is placed. 
Swine will not well bear to be 
wholly fecluded from the weath- 
; er and funftiine ; and it is hurt- 
. ful to them to have a cold and 
i wet lodging ; more hurtful than 
many people are ready to imag- 

! ine ' 

The floor of a fly mould be 

\ very tight, to prevent the lofs of 
j manure ; or elfe it {hould be 
mounted fo high above the 
ground, that the manure may be 
eaiily pulled cut from under it. 
It is a good way to have the open 
fide, or end, a little lower than 
the other, that the lodging part 
may always be dry. And fome 
build them with a gap above the 
fill at the lower part, where much 
oi the filth will go out, with 
out the trouble of (hoveling it. 

If planks be thought too ex- 
petifive for flooring, a good, and 
very durable floor, may be made 
of flat ftones, bedded in clay, 
that the manure may not foak 
into the ground, But none of 
ti:c rocks mould be fo fmall, that 
the iargeit hog can ftir- them with 

II O G 157 

In a neighbouring town., I 
once faw a light ity. mounted on 
four low wheels,, one at each 
corner ; which was frequently 
drawn with eafefrom onef^t <o 
another, in an orchard near to the 
dwelling houfe. By means oi 
tiiefe removals, every part of the 
enclofure might be manured m 
turn, arid nu manure wafted by r 
its Handing too long in one 
place. 1 heartily wifh this ex 
ample may be followed, as it 
may be with a trifle of expcnfc, 
for it muft needs be profitable in 
a considerable degree. 

In feeding hogs, their food is 
often wailed, and fo dirtied as to 
be fpoiled, by their {landing with 
their feet in the trough, and by 
their fcuiiling with each other*. 
Thk may be eafily prevented. 
Let the trough be fo fpiked u> 
the floor, or otherwife made -lo 
fleady, that they cannot difplace 
it ; and let a piece of joift be fo 
framed in over the trough, that 
they cannot ftarid over it ; but 
can put their heads under the 
joift into the trough. I have 
faved much in this way, fince 
I firft thought of it. The fwine 
eat little or no filth, when a 
a trough is fo defended, which is 
a matter of fome importance 
with me ; for I am thoroughly 
convinced, that the more cleanly 
any animals feed, the more fweet 
arid wholefome their flelh will 
be. And none of the food that 
is given them will in this way be 
wailed, or next to none. 

As there is fome labour, and 
much care required, in tending 
hogs, which are fattening in a fly, 
I lhall with p leaf tire relate a 
method of doing it without tend 
ance, excepting with water. It 
was difcovered to me by an in 
genious and valuable friend. 
Let a hopper be built over the 
trough, capable of holding as 



H O P 

coarfe linen cloth. They are 
commonly about eleven feet 
long, and near two yards and a 
half in circumference, and con- 
fain about 250 weight of hops. 
The fmall bags, called pockets, 
contain about half as much. 

The manner of bagging is 
thus. Make a round or fquare 
hole about 26 or 30 inches over, 
in the floor of the chamber 
where the hops are laid in heaps 
after fweating. Tie with a piece 
of pack thread, a handful of hops 
in each lower corner of the bag, 
to- ferve as handles for the more 
eafy lifting or removing the bag; 
and fatten the mouth of the bag 
to a frame, or hoop, fomewhat 
larger than the hole, that the 
hoop may reft on its edges. The 
upper part thus fixed, the reft of 
the bag hangs down through the 
hole, but not fo far as to touch the 
lower floor. Then throw into 
it a hufhel or two of hops, and 
let .a man go into the bag, and 
tread the hops down till they lie 
clofe ; then throw in more and 
fread ; and fo on till the bag is 
full. Loofe it from the hoop, 
and few up the mouth as clofe 
as poflible, tying hops in-the up 
per, as was done in the lower 
corners. The harder the hops 
are preffed, and the clofer arid 
thicker the bag is, the longer 
and better the hops will keep. 

A fmall manuring of hop 
ground every fecond year is fut- 
ficient. Dung was formerly 
more in ufe than at prefent, ex 
perience having fhexvn that lime, I 
lea fand, marie, afhes, &c. an- 
fwer the end better, and laft 
longer. But hog dung prevents 
mildew from taking hops. 

Each pole, according to Dr. 
Hales, has thr^e vines, which 
makes fix vines to a hill. All 
the fprouts above this number. 
iiijuld be broken ofFin che f 

tl O R 

eafe of neat cattle, the feat of 
which is in their horns. Cows 
are more fubjeft to it than oxen. 
It does not attack bulls ; and 
fleers and heifers, under three 
years old, have not been known 
to have it. The dillein per grad 
ually confumes the pith of the 
horn. Sometimes it is in both 
horns at once, but more ufually 
in one only. 

The difeafe is difcoverable by 
the coldnefs, or lofs of the nat 
ural warmth of the horn ; by 
dulnefs of the eyes, fluggiflmefs* 
lofs of appetite, and a difpofition 
to lie down. When the brain is 
affetted, cattle will tofs their 
heads and groan much as if in 
great pain. 

To effeft the cure, the horn 
mould be perforated with a nail 
gimblet, through which the cor 
rupted thin matter will be dif- 
charged, if care betaken to keep 
it open. By this boring, which 
mould be nearly horizontal, or 
in the depending part of the 
horn, and two or three inches from 
the head of the animal, the cure 
fometirnes is completed. When 
it proves ptherwife, a mixture of 
rum and honey with myrrh and 
aloes, fhould be thrown into the 
horn with a fyringe ; and be fev- 
eral times repeated, if the difeale 
continue. For a more particu 
lar account, fee a letter from the 
Hon. C. Tufts, Efq. in the lit 
Vol. of the Memoirs of the Acad 
emy of Arts and Sciences. 

HORSE.oneof the moil ufeful 
of tame quadrupeds. The marks 
or evidences of a good one ars 
thefe, a high neck, a full breaft, a 
lively eye. a ftrong back, a ft iff 
dock, full buttocks, ribs reaching 
near .to the hips, well made hoofs 
rather large, and a good gait. 

The fize of a horie fliouJd be 

in proportion to the work in 


H O R 

which he is chiefly to be em 
ployed. Small fized ones often 
prove gOod in the faddle. They 
are apt to be h<rrdy, arid in pro 
portion to their fjze,and thequan- 
tity of their eating, ufualiy are 
the moft profitable. Plough 
horfes, and all draught horfes, 
ihould be large, as their weight 
is of importance in drawing ; and 
as it is often inconvenient to put 
two horfes to one plough, efpe- 
cially in horfe hoeing. Large- 
nefs is alfo of importance, when 
they are ufed fmgle, in journey 
ing, as they molt ufually are, in a 
chaife or fleigh. 

A horfe 's manner of going is 
a matter of no fmall importance. 
The ambling gate, or what in 
this country is vulgarly called 
pacing, is not good, neither for 
the horfe nor the rider. It is 
tirefome to both. It habituates 
a horfe to carry his feet too near 
to the ground, fo that he is the 
more liable to trip and ft urn We; 

The method fo much practif- 
ed formerly in this country, of 
teaching horfes to pace fwiftly, 
and racing in that gate, is high 
ly pernicious. It puts them to 
a much greater ftrain than run 
ning ; and numbers have been 
thus ruined; Some colts natur 
ally amble, and others trot. But 
all may be made to trot, if due 
care and pains be taken with 
them while they are young, or as 
foon as they are firft ridden. In a 
carriage an ambl is tirefome to 
a norfe^ appears highly improp- 
ejr, and is difgufling to every one. 
And I do not fee why it Ihould 
appear at all more tolerable in 
the faddle. 

When any change of gait is 
wanted fur the eafe of the rider, 
the canter is to be preferred, 
than which none can be more eafy . 

The way of breaking a young 
horie ihat is nioftly ufcd in this 

O R 


ry, is highly abfurd, hurt* 
ful, and dangerous. He is 
mounted and ridden before he 
has been ufed to the bridle of 
to bearing any weight on his 
back; If he will not go for 
ward, he is mofl unmercifully 
beaten ; by which his fpirits are 
broken, and his ftrength impaired* 
If he rears up, he is pulled back 
wards, with the rilk of hurting 
both horfe and man. If he runs 
and fiarts, as he probably will 
under fuch management, he flings 
the rider, perhaps is frightened, 
gains his liberty, and is encour 
aged trado juft fo the next op 
portunity ; and the unfortunate 
rider bleffes himfelf, as he has 
reafon to do, if he efcape with 
out broken limbs. Or ii the 
horfe ihould chance to go kindly, 
the rider continues the exercife 
till the horfe is fatigued^ difcour- 
aged, and injured. 

Inftead of this mad manage 
ment, the way praclifed in the 
older countries fhould be adopt 
ed. Let a horfe firft of all be 
tamed with the bridle^ by leading 
him again and again \ in the firft 
place, after, or by the fide of an 
other horfe ; and after he walks 
well, bring him to trot after his 
ieader. In the next place, put 
on the faddle, and lead him ill 
thati time after time. Then lay 
a fmall weight on the faddle, and 
if he be apt to ftart, iaften it, that 
it may not be flung off^ increaf- 
ing the weight from time to timCi 
till he learns to carry what is e- 
qual to a man's weight;. Laftly, 
let a man gently mount him, 
while another holds him by the 
bridle, and fix himfelf firmly in. 
the faddle. The place of riding 
is recommended to be a plough 
ed field. Let him thus be rid 
den with a horfe going before 
him, till he learn the ufe of the 
bit, and will flop, or go forward, 

H O R 

at the pleafure of the rider, and 
without the application of much 
force. Being exercifed in this 
manner a few times, and treated 
with all poiliblegentlenefs, there 
will be no more occafion for 
leading him. He will go well 
of him felt" ; and be thoroughly 
broken, without formjch as giv 
ing him one blow, and without 
danger or fatigue, to the horfe 
or his rider. And, what is much 
to be regarded, the horfe's fpirits 
will be preferved, though he be 
fitfficiently tamed. In teaching 
a horfe to draw, gentlenefs muft 
be ufed. He fhould be tried fir ft 
in company with other horfes, 
whether in carting or ploughing ; 
and the draught Ihould not be lo 
heavy as to fret him or put him 
to great exertion till he has learn 
ed to draw fteadily. After this 
he may be put to draw light loads 
by himfclf. Laftly he may be put 
to a pleafurc carriage, but coupled 
with another rather than alone, 
and toaftctghrather thanachaile. 

It may be taken for a general 
rule, that the gait which is eafi- 
eft to a horfe, will be the eafieft 
to his rider. For jaded horfes, 
it has always been obferved, are 
apt to go hard, and to tire their 

The feeding of horfes, as I 
conceive, has not been fuffi- 
ciently attended to in this coun 
try ; which is, doubtlefs, one 
reafon why they are in general 
fo mean and defpicable. Too 
many keep horfes who cannot 
well afford to feed them. They 
fhould neither run upon the 
roads and commons, nor in paf- 
tures that are filled with wild 
and water graffes. They love a 
dry pafture, not too much {had 
ed, and fhort grafTes of the beft 
kinds. Clover and white honey- 
iuckle, both green and dry, are 
excellent food for them. It 

H O R 

nourifhes them well, and pres 
vents coftivenefs, which is very 
hurtful to them. The beft of clo 
ver hay will keep them as well as 
moft other kinds of hay with oats. 
To fit a horfe tor a journey he 
mould not be fuffered to grow too 
fat and grofs. He ihould for 
fome time be kept in the ftable 
rather than in the pafture, and 
fed moftly with hay and proven 
der : But rather fparingly if he 
incline to be fat. He mould 
have exercife daily to harden his 
fleih, and keep him in the habit 
of travelling. He ihould be fliod 
fome days before he begins a 
journey, that the flioes may be 
well fettled to his feet, and the 
nails a little rutted at the points, 
that they may hold the faft'er. 
And the pads of the faddle 
fhould be well fitted to his back, 
fb as to fill the hollows, and bear 
equally on every part. And 
while he is onthe journey, he 
fhould be ftabled every night. 
It is deftruclive to expofe a horfe 
to the dampnefs and cold of the 
night after fevere exercife. But 
it would be bed, if neither 
horfes, nor any of our cattle, 
were wholly confined to dry 
meat in winter. Horfes indicate 
this, by their eating fnow with 
their hay. Set a bafket of fnow 
within reach of a horfe, when he 
is at his manger, and he will take 
a mouthful from each alternately. 
Of all juicy food for horfes in 
winter, writers on hufbandry 
feem to give carrots the prefer 
ence. They have been found by 
experience to anfwer well in- 
ftead of oats for labouring 
horfes ; and to fatten thofe which 
are lean. 

He that would be fure to keep 
his horfe in good order, mull be 
ware whom he fuffers to ride 
him, -and mutt fee that he is never 
abufed. Profufe fweating mould 

H O R 

always be avoided. And when 
a horfe is much warmed by ex- 
ercife, he mould not be expofed 
to cold air, or night dew, and 
much lefs to rain and fnow. If 
he cannot be in-ftantly rubbed 
down and houfed when warm, 
he mould be covered with a 
blanket ; and he fhould always 
have a dry ftable, and be well 
littered. The neglect of thefe 
precautions may bring on incur 
able diforders. 

Horfes mould not be too 
much deprived of the liberty of 
motion, as they too often are. 
Clofe confinement after hard la 
bour, will be apt to abate their 
circulations too fuddenly, make 
them chilly, and ftiffen their 
joints. To be deprived of mo 
tion, is bad for man and beaft. 
Horfes therefore Ihould not be 
ftraitened for room in their (tables. 
Stables fhould not be fo low as 
to prevent their tofling up their 
heads as high as they pleafe. 
Some {tables have fo little room 
over head as to bring horfes into 
a habit of carrying their heads 
too low. They become atraid 
to lift them up. They mould 
alfo have room in their {tables to 
turn their heads to any part of 
their bodies, that they may de 
fend themfelves from the biting 
of infecls, allay itching, &c. 
And their halters mould always 
be fo long, and their itable fo 
wide, that they may ,lie down 
conveniently. Nor mould horfes 
be fo placed as to be able to de 
prive each other of his fodder. 

When horfes are kept in fta- 
bles, as they generally are in the 
coldeft half of the year,they mould 
be daily drefled, as it is called. 
The curry comb, and the brum, 
mould be well ufed on all parts oi 
their {kin, which are covered with 
hair. This increafes perfpiration 
through the pores of the fkin. 

H O R 


which is neceflary to health; and 
caufesthe blood to move falter in 
the veins This treatment will not 
only caufethem to look better,but 
they will have better health, and 
more activity and courage. Thev 
will digeft their food better, and 
be better for fervice. But if rub 
bing and fri&ion be wholly neg- 
ledecl, or fiightly performed, the 
hair will appear dry and rough ; 
the perfpirable matter hardens 
in the pores of the {kin, or re 
mains lodged at the roots of the 
hair, and has the appearance of a 
dirty white duft : And fometimes 
like fmall fcales attended witi\ 
itching. More efpecially is rub 
bing neceilary for horfes, when 
they are growing cold after being 
fweated by labour. In (uch cafes 
it Ihould never be omitted. 

Columella obferves " that the 
bodies of cattle ought to be rub 
bed down daily, as well as the 
bodies of men ; and fays it often 
does them more good to have 
their backs well rubbed down, 
than their bellies well filled with 

But in warm weather it would 
be belt lor them, that they 
mould not have the confinement 
of the halter, nor even of the 
(table. A fmall fpot of feeding 
ground, if it were only a few- 
rods, adjoining to the (table, and 
the door left open, that a horfe 
may go in and outalternately as he 
pleafes, would greatly conduce 
to the health of the animal. 
This degree of liberty will be 
moil needful, when the flies are 
troubleiome ; and be better for 
him than confinement to*a liable 
that is perfectly dark. la fly 
time it gives a horfe much eafe 
and comfort to linear his limbs, 
neck and head, with rancid fuh 
oil, or fomething elfe that will 
keep the flies from attacking him. 
Aud in allJCeafgns,whsnhories have 


H O R 

been heated with exercife, they | 
ihoulcl be well rubbed, or curried. | 

VVhen ahorfe runs inapafture j 
during the grafs feafon, he (hould 
have fome fhelter, not only a 
(hade to defend him from the in-: 
tenfe heat of the fun, but a fhed, 
or a clump of trees, that he may 
retreat from the inclemencies pf 
the atmofphere. 

But horfes that are daily 
worked, in fummer, Ihould be 
rnoftly kept upon green fodder 
in (tables, rather than grazed in 
paf hires. The tendance of them 
will not be fo burdenfome, with 
a fpot of high arid thick grafs at 
hand, as leading them to and 
from a pafture, at the diftange of 
a quarter of a mile. Tins will 
prevent their being often chilled 
by feeding in wet nights. A 
large quantity of manure will 
thus be fa^ed. And a very 
frnall quantity of land will an- 
iwer, in comparifon with what it 
takes for the paftunngot a boric. 
Keeping a fithe and a hafket at 
hand, a horfe may be foddered in 
this way, in two or three rqin- 
'utes ; and by the time that the 
whole fp-ot has been once mow 
ed over, that which is firft cut 
will be grownup again. Where 
a number of horfes are foiled, a 
pair of poles, or a hand cart, will 
be better than a bafket to carry 
the hay to them. This pra6Hce, 
called foiling, anfwers well near 
to cities and large towns, where 
lands for pailurt-ge are not plen 
ty ; and where, by means of the 
plenty of manure, lands may be 
made to yield the greateft crops 
of graft. For very thick grafs 
Ihould not be fed off; becaufe 
the greater part of it will be waft 
ed by the trampling, and the ex- 
crem^nfs ef animals. 

HORSE HOE, a kind of 
plough ufed in flirring the foil, 
when a crop is growing on it. It 

H U R 

does not effentially differ from a 
common horfe plough, only in 
the different manner of connect 
ing it to the horfe. This is done 
by two arms, or fhafts, likethofe 
of a cart, faftened by fcrews to a 
fhort plank about three feet long 
and one foot broad ; which plank 
is made fail to the fore end of the 
beam, which may be occafional- 
ly removed to the right or left, 
according as the hoeing may re 
quire the plough to pafs nearer 
to, or farther from the rows. 
This is lefs apt to injure tho 
plants, than a common harnefs. 

The advantage of this inilru-r 
ment above a horfe plough is 
iaid to be principally the ileadi- 
nefs of its going, by which a fur-" 
row may be drawn very near to 
a row of plants, without danger 
ot injuring them. This was the 
opinion oi Mr. Tull,the inventor. 
But as it cannot be fo well gov 
erned by the handles as the com 
mon horfe plough, the fafety of 
the plants muft chiefly depend 
upon the fleadinefs oi a horfe's 
going. I therefore prefer the 
norfe-plough, in the whole, for 
loofening the ground betwixt 
rows. It will anfwcr, at lea ft, 
every purpofe of the horfe hoe. 

HURDLE. The hurdles ufed 
in hufbandry, for fences, are 
frames of wood, confifting of 
two poles, four feet apart, con, 
nested with Imall Hicks acrofs 
from the one to the other. 
Spruce poles are good for this 
ufe, being light and tough. The 
fticks may be of fplit timber, 
fuch as does not rot too foon j 
or round nicks of natural growth, 
fuch as thrifty fuckers from the 
flumps of oak trees. If they are 
wattled, or have twigs wove into 
them, the fticks may be a foot, or 
eighteen inches apart ; and they 
will refemble the hurdles on 
wftich fifh are dried. If thry are 


H U R 

not Wattled, the {licks muft be fo 
near together, that neither flieep 
nor hogs can pafs between them. 
Cheap gates may be convenient 
ly made in this way, A hurdle 
is often wanted, to make a good 
fenae acrofs a run of water, being 
mod fuitable for this purpofe, as 
it may be fattened by ftrong 
flakes at the ends, and as it refills 
the current of water but little. 
They are ufeful to fence fmal] 
pens and yards on any fudden 
occafion. And as they are eafily 
removed, they are ufed in En- 
v-l-'iu. 1 ., in eating off a crop ot tur 
nips with flieep. If there fhould 
be need of preventing the climb 
ing of boys over them, the ends ot 
the crofs flicks may rife a tew 
inches above the upper pole, and 
be made (harp at trie points. 

HURTS, a;:d Bruifes in the 
withers. Horfes are very often 
hurt, or wrung in the withers, 
by the br ther horfcs, or 

bv un'it fiddles, cfpecuiiy when 
the bows are too wide ; tor by 
that means they bruite theflefha- 
gainft the fpinesor 'thefecondand 
third vertebrae of the back, which 
form that prominence which riles 
above their (boulders. When 
the fwelling is moderate, the 
ufual method is to wafh the part 
with fait and watrr, or to apply 
horfe dung, or fait and black 
foap mixed together, which very 
often fucceeds. Any reftringent 
charge, as bole and vinegar with 
whites of eggs, has the fame effcl; 
as alfo the whites ot eggs beat up 
into a foam with a piece of alum. 
This is very much commended. 

" Sometimes the hair is rub 
bed off, and the part becomes 
galled, in which cafe nothing is 
preferable to the rectified fpirit 
of wine or brandy, which ought 
to be ufed often, covering the 
part with a flaxen cloth dipped 
in beefwax, and a little oil melt- 



ed together, to keep the dirt 
from it and defend it from th* 
air." Gibfon'sFur. 

HUSBANDRY, the art and 
bufinefs of a farmer. Though 
the word is commonly ufed as" if 
it were perfectly fynonymous 
with agriculture, it is, in it rift. 
nefs, a word of larger fignifica- 
tion. It includes not only tl e 
bufinefs of tillage, and the care 
and management of vegetables, 
but it extends to the rearing and 
feeding of cattle, (wine, poultry, 
the management of the dairy, 
raifmg flax and hemp, fruit and 
timber trees, &c. and indeed to 
every branch of rural economy. 


bare ufe or occupying of lands, 
though the word is too often fo 
ufed improperly. In this fenfe 
of the word, forne have improv 
ed lands till they would produce 
nothing at all. 

By the improvement of lands, 
I would be under flood to mean, 
making them better and more 

To improve lands that are 
worn out, or bring them into fuch 
a ftate that they will bear good 
crops, the method mod approved 
and praitifed, feems to be, to ceafe 
from tilling them, and let them lie 
tor pa ft urage, perhaps eight or ten 
years. It land get a good fwanl 
by lying, it may be thought to 
be confiderably recruited. But 
it may be done in a much fnort- 
er time by fallowing and plenti 
ful manuring, it the owner will 
be at the expcnle ot doing it. 

Land that is fo poor, either 
naturally, or by fevere cropping, 
as to produce few or no vegeta 
bles fpontaueoufly, may as well 
be laid common. This will b 
the rnpil profitable jnethod, when 



I M P 

the fence is fuch that it can be 
eafily removed, and profitably 
ufed elfewhere. More manure 
will be dropped by cattle, on 
land that is common, while fo 
many people depend upon the 
roads and .commons for paftur- 
age, than if it were an inclofed 
pafture : Therefore it may well 
be expected to recruit the faft- 
er, and be fooner in a condition 
to bear good crops. 

But if the circumstances of the 
farmer be fuch, that he cannot 
excufe his pooreft land from til 
lage, let him either provide plen 
ty of manure for it, or elfe let 
winter rye be fown on it. Some 
have found that a fucceffive 
cropping with this grain will re 
cruit land, and that each crop 
will be better than the preceding 
one. But if the land be very 
poor, fuch a courfe mould be 
gin with a year ot fallow, or elfe 
manure fliould be applied. That 
weeds may not increafe, fonie 
hoed green crop fhould inter 
vene once in three or four years. 
But the moft quick and effectual 
methods of recruiting land, per 
haps, are fallowing and green 
drelling. Much may be thus 
done in one or two years. 

If a field be not too far exhau fl 
ed, laying it to clover will re 
cruit it, if the foil be deep, and 
{uitable for clover. But the 
grafs fliould be fed off, not mow 

The beft management would 
be, not to fuffer lands to become 
fo poor as to need much recruit 
ing ; but to keep them, at leaft, 
in the fame degree of richnefs, 
as they are when newly cleared. 
There is great lofs in cropping 
land fo feverely as to wear it out, 
and ufing methods afterwards to 
recruit it. For, by doing this, 
we muft be content with crops 
for o;ie or two years, which v/i!! 

I M P 

fcarcely pay the cod of culture : 
Or with none at all : Whereas", 
by a judicious courfe of tillage, 
if the feafons prove fruitful, prof 
itable crops of fome kind or oth 
er may be always obtained. 

We ihall fcarcely find any 
fpot in this country, that is not 
capable of much improvement. 
And, by the help of manures, 
lands which are continually 
cropped, may be made richer and 
richer ; even by fuch manures as 
are obtainable in moft parts of 
this country. We are too apt to 
be fatisfied with a final 1 degree 
of richnefs in our tilled lands. 
Being u fed to poor fuccefs in 
farming, we content ourfelves 
with a crop of ten or a dozen 
buihels of wheat or rye from an 
acre, and think our lands are in 
heart, if they will produce fo 
much. But, in old countries, 
where the foil is not naturally fu- 
periour to ours, farmers get more 
than twice this quantity. Mr. 
Young has found, that in fever- 
al parts of the north of England, 
where the rule is a crop and a 
fallow, or a white and a green 
crop alternately, the average prod 
uce ot an acre, reckoning wheat, 
rye, barley, oats, peafe and beans, 
is thirty bumels. And in thofe 
places where the method is, two. 
crops to a fallow, the average 
produce of the fame crops is 
twenty fix bumels. 

It appears to be beft, therefore, 
in that country, not to raife two 
exhaufiing crops in fucceffion. 
Making this a rule, feems to be 
ftill more neceflary in this coun 
try ; becaufe one of our moft 
faihionable white crops of corn 
is more exhaufting than any of 
theirs ; that is, maize is more ex 
hau (ling than wheat or oats. 

He that would really improve 

his tillage land, or even keep it 

from depreciating, ihould always 



manure it for a crop of maize, 
and very plentifully, or elfe tal 
low next after it ; and never take 
two white crops without a green 
one, or an improving one inter 
vening. A good improving 
courfe may be, i. Potatoes on 
green fward land, well dunged. 
2. Maize dunged. 3. Rye. 4. Clo 
ver two years. 5. Wheat. The 
fecond courfe may be, i. Peafe, 
beans, rye, or potatoes. 2. Maize, 
hemp, flax, barley or oats, dung 
ed. The third courfe, i. Rye. 
2. Clover two years. 3. Wheat. 
I am convinced that, by fuch a 
management, with deep and fre 
quent ploughings, our lands in 
general would yield more than 
twice as much as they do at prefent. 

It is adefpicable way of fann 
ing, to expend forty ihil lings on 
a crop that is worth no more 
than forty millings. The land 
holder is, in fuch a cafe, in fa6t, 
no richer than the pooreft labour 
er. But if the crop were double 
to the coft of culture, the farmer 
would receive fome intereft or 
rent, for his land ; and might lay 
up fomething to fupport him 
when he is part his labour, as well 
as lighten his labours at prefent. 
Such a degree of improvement 
would enable farmers to provide 
fettlements for more of their fons 
near home, than they can at pre 
fent ; not only as they would 
gain fomething to purchafe lands 
with, but becaufe fifty acres 
would afford a better living, than 
a hundred have hitherto, as moft 
of our farms have been managed. 

Some may inconfiderately 
think, that he who raifes twenty 
bufhels from an acre, has only 
double the advantage that he has 
who raifes ten. But if ten only 
juft pay for the culture, feed, 
fencing and taxes, the latter has 
no advantage at all from his 
land ; and is in na better a condi- 

I M P 165 

tion than he \vho buys his 
bread ; while the former clearly 
gains ten bufhels from an acre. 
The more a farmer gets in a crop, 
over and above paying neceflary 
charges, the greater is his clear 
gain, as it is called. 

I would en treat farmers tocon- 
fider that the coft of raifmg 
a poor crop, one time with an 
other, is nearly as much as that 
of raifmg a large one. There is 
the fame expended in fencing 
the fame tax paid the fame 
quantity of feed fown the fame 
almoft expended in ploughing, 
as rich land ploughs fo much more 
eafily than poor, as to make up 
for the extra number of plough- 
ings in a courfe of tillage. I 
may add, there is the fame or 
more labour in thrafhing. An 
attention to thefe things is e- 
nough to convince any one of 
the gre-t importance of endeav- 
ouri ng to improve crops by a more 
fpirited and rational hufbandry. 

If a farmer think he cannot 
afford to lay out a farthing more 
on the tillage of an acre, than he 
has been accuftomed to do, let 
him be entreated to fave a little 
in fencing, and fo enable himfelf 
to do it, leaving out fome of his 
lands that bring little or no prof 
it, and pay taxes for a lefs quan 
tity of land in tillage; or let him 
turn fome of his tillage land to 
grafs ; and lay out the fame 
quantities of labour and manure 
on a third lefs land in tillage. 
Lands in tillage might thus be 
made profitable ; and more fo 
than many are ready to imagine. 

It has often been obferved, 
that thofe farmers in this country 
who have the feweft acres, com 
monly get the beft living from 
their farms. It is, dov. /tlefs, be 
caufe their lands are under better 
cultivation. And fome have tak 
en occafion to remark, that our 

1 65 

I M P 

farmers are ruined 
plenty of land in 

by the great j 
their poffef- 

Though this remark is 
jufl, I can fee no reafon why it i 
ihoukl continue to be fo ; my ! 
more than, that being rich mould ! 
neceflarily make a man poor. I 
What need has the man who j 
poffelFes three hundred acres, to j 
deilroy the woo.- 4 ., or clear the 
!<md, as they call it, any fafter 
thrm he can make ule of the foil 
to the bell advantage ? What 
need has he to be at the expenfe 
of enclofing more than his neigh 
bour does, who has only one 
hundred acres, while he ha's no 
more ability, or occafion. for 
doing it ? Or to pay taxes for 
more, acres id grafs or tillage ? It 
is a foolifhatid ruinating ambition 
in any one, to defire to have a 
wide farm, that he' may appear to 
be rich, when he is able to give 
it only a partial and {lovc'ily cul 

If fuch improvements as are 
poffible,and even eafy, we're 1 made 
in the hufbandry of this country^ 
many and great advantages 
would be found to arife. As 
twice the number of people 
might be fup ported on the fame 
quantity of land, all our farming 
towns would become twice as 
populous as they are likely to be 
in the prefent ftateof hufbandrV; 
There would be, in general, but 
half the diftanceto travel to vif- 
it our friends and acquaintance, 
friends might oftener fee, and 
converfe with each other. Half 
the labour would be faved in 
carrying corn to mill, and pro 
duce to market ; half the jour 
neying faved in attending courts ; 
and half the expenfe in fupport- 
ing government, and in making 
and repairing roads ; half the 
diftance faved, in going to the 
fmith, the weaver, clothier, &c. 
bait the diilance faved, in going 

I N A 

to publick worlbip, and moft 
other meetings ; lor where flee- 
ples are four miles apart, they 
would be only two or three. 
Much time, expenfe and labour 
would on thefe accounts be lav 
ed ; and civilii'jt.iGMi, with all the 
focial virtuef, wo^jS, perhaps, he 
proportionabiy promoted and in~ 

Nothing is wanting to produce 
thefe, and other agreeable effects, 
but a better knowledge of, and 
clofer attention to, matters of 
hufbandry, with their necefTary 
eonfequences, which xvould be 
a more perfect culture, a judi 
cious choice of crops, and 
change of feeds, arid making 
every advantage of manures. 

Improvements of vaft impor 
tance,, might alfo be made in the 
management ol meadows and 
paftures. See thofe articles. 

INARCHING, "a method of 
grafting, commonly called graft 
ing by approach, and is ufed 
when the Hock intended to graft 
on, and the tree from which the 
graft is to betaken^ fland fonear, 
or can be brought fo near, that 
they may be joined together.- 
The method of performing it is 
as follows : Take the branch 
you would inarch, and having 
fitted it to that part of the flock 
where you intend to join it, pare 
away the rind and wood on one 
fide, about three inches in 
length. After the fame manner; 
cut the flock or branch iri the 
place where the graft is tdbe unit 
ed, fo that the rind of both may 
join equally together : Then cut 
at little tongue upwards in the 
graft, and make a notch in the 
frock to admit it ; fo that when 
they are joined, the tongue wil! 
prevent their flipping, and the 
graft will more clofely unite with 
the flock. Having thus placed 
them exaflly together, tie them 


I N C 

with fome foft tying ; then cover 
the place with grafting clay, to 
prevent the air from entering to 
dry the wound, or the wet from 
getting in to rot the ilock. You 
ihould alfo fix a ftake in the 
ground, to which that part of 
the flock, together with the graft, 
fhould be faftened, to prevent 
the wind from breaking them a- 
funder, which is often the cafe, 
when this precaution is not ob- 
ferved. In this manner they are 
to remain about four months, in 
which time they will be iuffi- 
ciently united, and the graft may 
then be cut from the mother tree, 
obferving to flope it off clofe to 
the flock. And if at this time 
you cover the joined parts with 
frefh grafting clay, it will be of 
great fervice to the graft. 

" This operation is always per 
formed in April or May, and is 
commonly praftifed upon myr 
tles, jafmines, walnuts, firs, pines, 
and feveral other trees that will 
not fucceed by common graft 
ing, or budding." Dictionary of 

SURE, that which fwrrounds, 
enclofes, and fecures a field. See 
the article. Fence. The word is 
alfo ufed to fignify the land 
which is enclofed ; alfo the ap 
propriation of lands before held 
in common. 

INCREASE, a word com mon- 
ly ufed in hufbandry, to exprefs 
the proportion in which a crop 
exceeds the feed from which it is 
railed. It is generally true that 
the fmaller the quantity of feed 
the greater is the increafe ; be- 
caufe a plant that ftands by itfcif, 
has all the food that the earth is 
adapted to give it. But plants 
that are fo near together that 
their roots intermingle, do more 
or lefs rob each other of their 
food. But we muil not conclude 




from hence, that the lefs quanti 
ty of feed we fow, the better. 
Becaufe, in getting a crop, other 
things befide the increafe from 
the feed, are to be taken into con- 

Other things being equal, thofe 
crops are mod to be coveted, 
which require the fmallefl propor 
tion of feed. But the greateft 
profit, on the whole, is to dirett 
the choice of crops. The cheap- 
nefs of feed fometimes mifleads 
the farmer; To this caufe may 
be afcribed, not feldom, the cul 
tivation of maize on foils that are 
more fuitable for other kinds of 
corn ; or on foils that will pro 
duce no crop of maize worth 
cultivating. In a fuitable foil, 
well dunged, it is not uncom 
mon for one quart of maize to 
yield ten bufhels, which is an in 
creafe of 320 fold. The expenfe 
of feed, therefore, for producing 
a bufhel of corn, at 45. is but fix 
tenths of a farthing. But an in 
creafe of 20 fold is a good crop 
of wheat ; the feed to produce a 
bufhel of wheat, at 7^. will be 
more than four pence : So that 
the expenfe of feed for wheat, is 
thirty times greater than for 
maize. One confcquencc of 
this diflerence in feed is, that 
many of the poor can obtain 
feed for the former crop, who 
cannot obtain it for the other. 
And I fufpecl that the greater 
expenfe for feed of Englifh grain, 
as we call it, has gradual ly 
| brought the people of this coun- 
try into a habit of fowing it too 
| thin, and made them eftabliih 
I rules of doing fo. It is certain 
I we fow much thinner than Euro- 
| peans do. For the fame reafon, 
i the poor perfift too much in the 
culture ot maize. 

It is not eafy to determine what 

quantities of feed will anfwer 

befl for given quantities of 


ground. But it is obfervable, 
that, in kindnefs to man, the be- 
neficientGovernour of nature has 
made moil plants of the farina 
ceous kind, capable of getting their 
full growth when they ftand. 
near together. The greateft in- 
creafc from the feed, is not to be 
accounted the rnoft profitable 
crop. A yield of eleven for one 
may he of more advantage than 
twenty for one. If one bufhel 
of wheat fowed on an acre pro 
duce 20 bufhels, and two bum- 
els on an acre produce 22, it is 
worth while to fow two bufhels. 
The farmer may confider one of 
the two buihels as yielding 20 
bufhels, and the other as yield 
ing two buihels. In this cafe 
eleven for one is more advan 
tageous than twenty for one. See 
the article teak 

Another matter in which in 
creafe is to be confidered, is the 
breeding of cattle, and oilier an 
imals. The farmer may reckon 
increafe in neat cattle as follows : 
He that has one Cow may ex- 
peel:, in one year, to poffefs a 
tow and calf ; in two years, a 
cow, a yearling and a calf ; in 
three years, a cow, a two year 
old fteer or heifer, a yearling 
and a Calf. The two year old 
ifeer or heifer may be worth 3/. 
the y earl ing qos. and the calf 2,os. 
So that the increafe from a cow 
worth 4/. in three years may be 
worth 6/ Confequcntly, he that 
lets outa cow for half her increafe, 
as is the pra6Hce in fome places, 
gets 25 per cent, ftmple irtterdl 
on the money that lie buys her 
with. No man therefore that 
has a due regard to his own in- 
terelr, will rhoofe tohire cows at 
this rate ; or take them to the 
halves as it is called, engaging to | 
return the cow and halt her in- 
creafe at the end of three years. 
\Vhen cows are thus let the own- 

-L IN I> 

j er ought to rifque the cow and 
her offspring. 

The increafe of fheep is a mat- 
i terof greater uncertainty, as they 
| are liable to more fatal difeafes 
i and accidents than black cattle 
are. But as they often bring 
two at a yeaning, it many times 
happens that ewes increafe as 
fait as cows, or fafter. But as a 
lamb grows to maturity in one 
year, and a me calf not in lefs 
than three years, ewes may be faid 
to increafe three times as faft as 
Cows, even 'when they bear fingle. 
known and ufeful plant of the 
grain kind. It is called maize 
in molt countries, zea in fome. 

The parts of generation are on 
different parts of the fame plant. 
The panicles, or toflels, contain 
t\uzjannafc?ciindans, which fall 
ing on the filk, or the green 
threads at the end of the ear, im* 
pregnate the ear, and render it 
fruitful. If the toflels, or fpin- 
dies, were cut off before the grain 
in the ear is formed, the crop 
would be fpoiled. This has been 
proved by experiment* But 
this effect will not take place* 
unlefs all the tofTels be removed ; 
becaufe one of them will be fuf- 
ficient to impregnate twenty 
plants. The filks, or threads, 
| in uft be undifturbed to the time 
i of impregnation. They are as 
neceflary as the fowing itfelk If 
part of them are taken away or 
I pulled out as foon as they ap 
pear, part of the corn will be 
; wanting on the ear i For every 
j fingle grain has one of thefe 
threads. It is therefore a bad 
practice to fuffer weaned calves 
to go among the corn, as fome 
do, at the feafon of impregnation. 
Maize is confidered, in this 
country, as a moft important crop, 
It is preferred to wheat and rye, 
becaufe it is not fubjeft to blaft- 


I N D 

ing, nor to any other diftemper 
that is apt, in any great degree, 
to cut ihort the crop, A good 
foil, well tilled and manured, 
feldom fails of giving a good 

Another advantage of it is, that 
it is more productive than either 
wheat or rye are, even when 
they efcape blaiiing and fmut. 

No grain on the whole is more 
ufeful ; for there is no other 
grain equal to it, for the fatten 
ing of cattle, poultry and fwine. 
No other beef is ib well tailed as 
that which has been ted with it. 
The pork fattened with it is very 
white, firm and fweet ; and it 
makes the flefh of all animals 
very folid and good. 

Though it be not fo light and 
eafy to digelt as moil other forts 
of corn, it is found, that people 
yho are fed on it from their in- 
fi-ncy, grow large and flrong, 
and enjoy very good health. 
There are a variety of ways of 
preparing it for food. The In 
dians parch it in embers, then re 
duce it to meal, and carry it 
with them, when they go forth to 
war, or hunting. Whenftliey eat 
it they reduce it to a pafte with 
water, for it needs no other cook 
ing. It is called nocake. 

The green ears, cither roafled 
or boiled t are delicate food ; cf- 
pecialiy fome of the more tender 
forts, which are cultivated for 
this purpofe. Ripe corn, the 
hulls being taken off \*\\ a 
weak lie, and boiled till it is foit, 
is an excellent food ; and not 
inferiour to it is pounded corn, 
known by the name of lamp. In 
either way, many account it c- 
qual to riee. But the mo.ft com 
mon ufe of it is in meal lifted 
rom the bran, made into bread or 
uddings. For the latter, it is 
1 lowed to excel all other forts 
: For the former it does 

I N D 171 

not anfwer well, by itfeH" ; but is 
excellent when mixed with an c~ 
qual quantity of; rye meal.. 

The cheapnefs of fee<r, being 
next to nothing, greatly recom 
mends, to the poorer foito-f peo 
ple, the culture of this corn. 
For it is often the cafe, that they 
are fcarccly able to procure other 
feed for their ground. But this 
they can often have gratis. 

In our new fettlements, border 
ing on the wildernefs, it fcenis 
to be of more importance than in 
other places ; becaufe the fialks, 
leaves and hufks, being good 
fodder, fup ply the new begin^ 
ners with winter food for their 
cattle, before hay can be railed. 
Of all foils a clayey one- may 
juiily be accounted the worii: 
kind for <-his- crop.. A loamy foil 
! will not aiifwer without a plenti 
ful drefling. But a fandy or grav 
elly foil is heft ; or land, ii it be 
not deititute ot vegetable food. 
In the northern parts of Ncw~. 
england, it is not worth white |p 
plant this corn, on clay-, nor or* 
mere loam : For it requires 
much heat, and thefc foils are 
not fo much warmed by the fun, 
as fandy and gravelly ones. On 
any foil it requires much tillage 
and manure in this country ; if 
either be {canty, a good crop is 
not to he expected. 

I think it is not the heft metru 

od to plant it on what we call 

green fwarcl ground, at Icaft in 

! the northern parts. It is apt to 

be too backward in its growth, 

a.nd not to ripen fo well. But 

if we do it on fuch land, the 

j holes Jhould be made quite 

| through the furrows, and dung 

j put in the holes. If this caulion 

i be not obferved, the crop will be 

j uneven, as the roots in fome 

| places where the furrows an* 

j thickefr, will have but little ben- 

I efit from the rotting of the {ward. 


572 I N D 

But if the holes be made through, 
the roots will be fed with both 
fixed and putrid air, fupplied by 
the fermentation in the graf's 
roots of the turf. In this way, I 
have known great crops raifed on 
green fward ground, where the 
foil was a fandy loam, but moft- 
ly fand. 

But in the courfe of my expe 
rience, I have found peafe and 
potatoes the moft fuitable crops 
for the firft year. In the fecond, 
it will be in good order for In 
dian corn. This cafe, however, 
may be peculiar to the northern 
parts of Newengland. 

For this crop, it is certainly 
beft to plough in the fall pre 
ceding ; and again in the fpring, 
juft before planting. If the land 
he flat, and inclining to cold, it 
ihould lie in narrow ridges during 
the winter ; and if it is naturally 
nioift, the corn fhould be plant 
ed on ridges ; otherwife it fhould 
be ploughed plain in the fpring. 

Some recommend gathering 
feed corn before the time of har- 
vcft, being the ears that firft rip 
en. But I think it would be 
better to mark them, and let 
them remain on the ftalks, till 
they become faplefs. Whenever 
they are taken in they ihould be 
hung up by the hufks in a dry 
place, fecure from early froft ; 
;i:ul they will be fo hardened as 
to be in no danger of injury from 
the froft in winter. 

I would not advife the farmer 
to plant conftantly his own feed ; 
but once in two or three years, 
to exchange feed with fomebody 
at the diftance of a few miles. 
Change of feed is doubtlefs a 
matter of importance in moft 
kinds of vegetables ; though it 
has not yet been fo plainly dif- 
covcred in this as in fome others. 
But let the farmer beware ot tak 
ing his feed from too great a dif- 

I N D 

tance. If he fhould bring it, for 
inftance, a hundred miles from 
the Ibuthward, his corn would 
fail of ripening ; if as far from 
the north he muft expeft a lighter 
crop ; and in cafe of drought, the 
latter will be more apt to fuffer 9 
as it has been proved by experi 
ment. A fanner in the county 
of Briftol, took feed from the 
county of Cumberland. It came 
on well at firft. But the fummer 
being pretty hot and dry, it 
parched up, and produced next 
to nothing, though the feed he 
had taken from his own field 
turned out very well. 

If the farmer cannot conveni 
ently obtain new feed ; or if he 
be loth to part with a fort that 
has ferved him well, and choofe 
rather to ufe it than feed he has 
not tried ; let him, at leaft. fhift 
feed from one field to another, and 
efpecially from one kind of foil 
to another. 

And in the choofing of feed, 
fome regard ihould be had to the 
ftate ot the foil on which it is in 
tended to grow. If it be poor, 
or wanting in warmth, the yel 
low fort with eight rows will be 
moft iiiitable, as it ripens early. 
A better foil fhould have a larg 
er kirxd of feed, that the crop may 
be greater, as it undoubtedly will. 

If twenty loads of good ma 
nure can be afforded for an acre, 
it fhould be fpread on the land 
and ploughed in : If no more 
than half of that quantity, it will 
be beft to put it in holes. In the 
former cafe, the corn ufually 
comes up better, fuffers lefs by 
drought, and worms ; and the 
land is left in better order after 
the crop. In the latter cafe, the 
plants are more aflifted in their 
growth, in proportion to the 
quantity of manure. If the 
manure be new dung, burying it 
under the furrpws is by far tha 


I N D 

better method. None but old 
dung (hould be put in the holes. 

Let the ground be cut into ex- 
a6l iquares, by fhoal furrows 
made with a horfe plough, from 
three to tour feet apart, according 
to the largenefs orfmalinefs of the 
fort of corn to be planted. This 
iurrowing is eafily done with one 
horie,and is by no means loft labour, 
as the more the ground is ftirred, 
the more luxuriantly the corn 
will grow. If dung is to be put in 
the angles where the furrows 
crofs each other, the furrowing 
fhould be the deeper, that the 
dung may not lie too light. 

The right time of feeding the 
ground may be from the firit to 
the third week in May ; or a lit 
tle fooncr or later according to 
the drynefs of the foil, and the 
forwardnefs of the ipring. The 
farmers have a rule in this cafe, 
faid to be borrowed from the abo 
riginals, which is, to plant corn 
when the leaves of white oak be 
gin to appear. But fo much time 
is commonly taken up in plant 
ing this corn, it being tedious 
work to dung it in holes, that it 
will be neceffary to begin in the 
driett part of the field a little ear 
lier than this rule directs. 

Shell the feed gently by hand, 
that it may not be torn or bruif- 
ed at all, rejecting about an inch 
at each end of the car. And, if 
any corns appear with black eyes, 
let them alfo be rejeled, not be- 
caufe they will net grow at all, 
the contrary being true ; but be- 
caufe the blacknefs indicates, 
either fome defe6t in drying, or 
want of perfection in the grain. 
Put five corns in what is called 
a hill, and let them not be very 
near together ; for the more the 
roots crowd each other, the more 
they will prevent the growth of 
each other. Four corns would 
perhaps be a better number, it it 

I N D 


were certain they would all prof- 
per. The true reaftms for put 
ting more than one in a place I 
take to be, that by means of it, 
the rows may be fo far a part as 
to admit of ploughing between 
them ; and that forne labour in 
hand hoeing is fared, itbeingno 
more work to hoe a hill with 
five plants, than with one in it. 

Some fl.ecp their feed. Butin. 
general it had better be omitted ; 
for it will occafion it to periili 
in the ground, if the weather 
ihould not prove warm enough 
to bring it up fpeedily. If 
planting a fecond time mould 
become neceflary, by means of 
the deftruftion of the firil: feed ;' 
or if planting be delayed on any 
account till the beginning of 
June, then it will be proper 
that the feed mould have boiling 
water poured on it. Let it not 
foak more than half a minute, 
and be cooled fpeedily, and 
planted before it dries. The 
corn will be forwarder in its 
growth by feveral days. The 
ieetl ihotild be covered with a- 
bout two inches of earth. 

To prevent birds and vermine 
from pulling up the corn, fteep 
fome com in a ftrong i y'ufionof 
Indian poke, or refufe tobacco, 
and fcatter it over the ground 
before the corn is up. White 
threads itretched over a field of 
corn, will prevent crows from a- 
lighting upon it : But I douSt 
whether this will deter any other 

A handful of afhes on each 
hill, will nourifh the plants, and 
have a tendency to prevent their 
being annoyed by worms. Some 
Iry it on juft before the firft, or 
fecond hoeing. It will have a 
better effect in preventing worms, 
if laid on before the corn is up. 
But it is commonly defigned to 
anfwer chiefly as a top drefling ; 



I N D 

and for this purpofe it wo-ul'd an- 
fwer better near the third hoe 
ing ; for then the plants want 
the greateft degree of nourifli- 
ment, as they begin to grow very 
rapidly. Two dreflings with 
afhes, to anfwer the two pur- 
pofes, would not be amifs. 

When the plants are three or 
four inches high, the. plough 
jnuftpafs in the intervals, making 
two furrows in each, turned from 
the rows ; and then the weeds 
killed with the hand hoe, and a 
little frefh earth drawn about the 
plants. This operation we call 

In about half a month after, 
plough again, but acrofs the 
former furrows, and turn the fur 
rows towards the rows. Then 
with the hand hoe earth the corn 
as much as it will well bear. 
This is called moulding, or halt- 

When the plants are about knee 
high. and before they fend out their 
panicles,orfpindles,give them the 
third and laft hoeing. The bell 
way at this hoeing is to plough 
one furrow in an interval, both 
ways. The cultivator with two 
mouldboards would be better 
for this work, than the common 
horfe plough, as it would throw 
the mould equally towards each 
row, and fave labour in hand 
hoeing. The ground would thus 
be cut into fquares, and the hills 
almoft completely formed. In 
finilhing them, care ihould be 
taken that they be not made too 
high, or fleep ; that fo they may 
not divert the water, which falls 
in rains, rom the roots. When 
hills are too much railed, they 
alfo prevent the warm influence 
of the fun upon the lowermoft 
roots, by too great a thicknefs of 
earth ; in confequence of which, 
the plants are put to the exertion 
of fending out a new fet of routs, 

I N D 

at a fui table diftance from th$ 
fur face. 

Some think high hills are 
needful to make the corn ftand 
upright. I never could perceive 
the advantage of it. But I am 
confident it is oftener broken by 
winds when the hills are uncorn- 
ly high, which is a greater evil 
than its leaning half way to the 
ground, if indeed that be any 
evil at all, which I think may 
be doubted. 

The farmer, wlia wiflies for a 
large crop of this corn, fhould 
not annoy it with running 
beans, or pumpions ;, the former,, 
by winding' round the ftalks 
and ears, cramp them in their 
growth, and (Sometimes bend 
them down to the ground 
by their weight ; the latter, by 
their luxuriant growth, rob the 
hills of much vegetable food, 
and by their thick made, Ihut 
out the influence of the fun from 
the roots of the corn. So that 
they mud needs be very detri 
mental to its growth, and ripen^ 

At the fecond and third hoe- 
ings, all the fuckers mould be 
buried under the foil ; not brok 
en off, as is the common prac 
tice, becaule this wounds the 
plants. If the fuckers be fufler- 
ed to grow, they feldom, or nev 
er produce fair and perfecl ears ; 
and they rob the ears on the 
main flalk of their nourUhment. 
I mention the fecond and third 
hoeings,becaufe the fuckers will 
not all appear till the third; and 
the fooner they are deflroyed 
the better the crop will be. 

Inttead of the common meth 
od of planting, if your land be 
rich and eafy to till, and free 
from obftacles, I mould ,think 
it would be bed to plant the 
corn in the drill method, the 
rows being of the lame diftance 


I N D 

s in the common way, placing 
the corns about five or fix inches 
af under. I have found by experi 
ment, that a greater quantity 'of 
corn may be produced in this 
method, than in hills ; and the 
labour is but little, it at all in- 
creafed. In afmall field, where 
the dung had been evenly fpread, 
and ploughed in, I planted one 
row thus, the reft being in the 
common way ; and it yield 
ed, at harveft, one eighth part 
more corn by meafure than 
cither of the two neareft rows, 
the corn being equally ripe and 

When there is reafon to appre 
hend that the ground will prove 
too moift for this crop, it will be 
advi fable to plough it into nar 
row ridges, and feed each ridge 
with one or two rows, as fhall be 
found moft convenient. Some 
of the fineft crops that I have 
known, have been railed in this 

1 When a feafon is at all wet, 
this would be the beft culture in 
almoft any foil, unlefs the very 
dried be excepted. 

There is a kind of ridging, 
which would be very proper for 
this plant, not only on account 
of drying the foil, but that the 
land may have an alternate reft- 
ing, or fallowing, between the 
rows. In the common method 
of plain ploughing, it commonly 
happens that a hill Hands pre- 
cifely in the place of a hill of the 
preceding year. When this is 
the cafe, the plants will receive 
lef's nourifhment than it the hill 
had had a new fituation. That 
each hill may always have this 
advantage, let a ridge be formed 
by two furrows, turning part of 
a row of hills on each fide, fo as 
to meet each other, in the laii 
year's interval : Thus fmall 
ridges will be formed, ou which 

I N D 175 

the rows fhould be planted. If 
dung be firft fpread over the 
ground, the moft of it will be 
buried where it fhould be, in the 
bottom of thefe ridges. At the 
timeof weeding, or at the fecond 
hoeing, the remainders of the 
old hilis may be turned towards 
the new rows. With fuch a 
mode of culture, land could not 
foon be exhaufted, even by a fuc- 
ceffive cropping with maize. 
Land which has before been 
planted on ridges is as proper for 
this management, as if it had 
been planted in hills, or even 
more proper. For the fuccefs of 
a method not very \lfflimilar to 
this, fee Experiment for raifing 
Indian corn, in the Mention of 
the. American Academy, by Jofeph 
Greenleaf, Efq. 

The toflels, or top ftalks, fhould 
not be cut off, till the top of the 
fpindle is perfectly faplefs. I 
think we ufually cut them too 
early, unlefs their total greennefs 
for fodder be a fufficient com- 
penfation for pinching the ears. 
The wounding and mutilat 
ing of mofl other annual plants, 
in their green ftate, is known to 
make them lefs fruitful. I have 
f ufpe6led the effect muft be the 
fame on this plant. 

To fatisfy myfelf, I made the 
following experiment. The 
whole of a fmall field was topped, 
Sept. 10, 1783, excepting two 
rows through the middle, the ex 
tremities of the fpindles being 
quite dry. The tops of the two 
rows were not cut at all. The 
two uncut rows produced a 
tenth part more corn by meafure, 
than the two neareft rows did. 
The quantity of ripe corn was 
equal, all the excels being in the 
green ears. I am led by this ex 
periment to think the ft a! k ought 
never to be topped at all : For 
the greennefs of the ftalks mak 


I N D 

ing them a better fodder, will 
not compensate for the lofs 
of a tenth part of the corn, if 
nothing be reckoned for the ex 
tra labour of topping and preferv- 
ing them. But as M. Aimen 
has fuggefied that the panicles 
ihould be cut off as foon as the 
plants are impregnated, I choofe 
rather to lufnend my judgment 
concerning it, till I fee the refult 
of more experiments. 

We are certainly guilty oF an 
error when we harveft this corn 
too early. The difference of ear 
ly and late harveft ed corn may 
be feen by the flirinking of corn 
in the former cafe. In drying, 
large fpaces will be left between 
the kernels on the cob ; but that 
which, is well ripened on the 
flail;, will lhew no fuch inter 
faces. The corn will undoubt 
edly be growing better till the 
flalk below the ear is perfectly 
fapiefs, and the cob dry ; receiv 
ing continual nouriihment from 
the fap, unlefs the fro It or forne 
accident ihould happen to pre 
vent it. Squirrels and other an 
imals drive people to early har- 
vefting ; but there is commonly 
more loll than -faved by it. 
When corn Hands tolerably fate 
from the attacks of tame and 
\vild animals, harvefting eaily is 
an unpardonable error. See 


This plant is fo luxuriant in 
its growth that it irnpoverifhes 
the foil falter than aimoft any 
other crop. Therefore it is not 
good husbandry to plant it more 
than two years in fucceiliori. It 
would be better ftill to grow it 
but one year in the fame place. 

European writers fay, the land 
mould be ploughed as foon as 
ihe crop is oil, to prevent the 
ibiks tram drawing the rnoifture 
out Of the ground. But the rea- 
fon of this ;-s not fo evident as to 

I N O 

carry convition,unlefs the ftems 
are quite in a green {late. It is,how- 
ever, a good method to plough 
all fields in tillage, as foon as the 
crop Is off. 

DING, inferring a bud fo that it 
will live and grow, in the fide of 
the trunk, or limb of a tree. It 
anfwcrs the fame end as grafting. 
Mr. Miller fays, " This is com 
monly praclifed upon all forts of 
ft one fruit in particular, fuch as 
peaches, neclarines, cherries, 
plums, &c. as alfo upon orang 
es and jafmines, and is prefera 
ble to any fort of grafting. The 
method of performing it is as 
follows : You muft be provided 
with a {harp penknife, having a 
flat haft (the ufe of which is to 
raife the bark of the ftalk to admit 
the bud) and fome found bas mat, 
which Ihould be foaked in water, 
to increafe its ftrength, and make 
it more pliable ; then having 
taken off the cuttings of the trees 
you are to propagate, you fhould 
choofe a fmooth part of theftock 
about five or fix inches above 
the furtace of the ground, if de- 
figned for dwarfs ; but if for 
ftandards, they ihould be budded 
fix feet above ground ; then 
with your knife make a horizon 
tal cutcrofs the rind of the {lock, 
and from the middle of that cut 
make a flit downwards about two 
inches in length, fo that it may 
be in the form of a T ; but 
you rnull be careful not to cut 
too cleej), left you wound the 
{lock. Then having cut off 
the leaf from the bud, leaving 
the foot flock remaining, you 
ihould make a crofs cut about 
half an inch below the eye, and 
with your knife flit off the bud, 
with part of the wood to it, m 
form ot an efcutcheon; This done, 
you muft with your knife pull 
off that part of the wood which 


I N O 

Was taken with the bud, obferv- 
ing whether the eye of the bud 
be left to it or not (for all thofe 
buds which lofe their eyes in 
{tripping fhould be thrown away, 
being good for nothing.) Then 
having gently raifed the bark of 
the llock where the crofs inci- 
fion was made, with the flat haft 
of your penknife, cleave the 
bark from the wood, and thrufl 
the bud therein, obferving to 
place it fmooth between the rind 
and the wood of the flock, cut 
ting off any part of the ririd be 
longing to the bud, which may 
be too long for the flit made in 
the flock : And fo having exacl- 
ly fitted the bud to the flock, you 
inufl tie them clofely round with 
bas mat, beginning at the Under 
part of the flit, and fo proceed 
to the top, taking care that you 
do not bind round the eye of 
the bud, which lliould be left 

" When your buds have been 
inoculated three weeks or a 
month, you will fee which of 
them have taken ; thofe of them -I 
which appear fhriveled and black | 
being dead, but thofe which re 
main frefh and plump you may de 
pend are joined. At this time you 
fhould loofen the bandage, which, 
if not done in time, will pinch 
the flock, and greatly injure, if 
not deilroy, the bud. 

" The March following" (per 
haps April in this country) " you 
mufl cut off the flock about three 
inches above the bud, Hoping 
it that the wet may pafs off, and 
not enter the flock. To this 
pa> t of the flocl , left above the 
bud, it is very proper to fallen 
the (hoot which the bud makes 
in {urmner, to fecure it from be 
ing blown out ; but this part of 
the flock mufl continue on no 
longer than one year, after which 
it mud be cut off clofe above the 


I N S 


bud, that the flock may be cov 
ered thereby. 

." The time for inoculating is 
from the middle of June to the 
middle of Augufl, according to 
the forwardnefs of the feafon, 
and the particular forts of trees 
to be inoculated, which may be 
eafily known by trying the buds, 
whether they will come off Well 
from the wood. But the moft 
general rule- is, when you ob- 
lerve the buds formed at the ex 
tremity of the fame year's {hoots, 
which is a fign of their having 
finifhed their fpririg growth. " 
Gardener's DiB. 

INSECT, a numerous clafs of 
animals. They have the name 
infecl from their appearing to be 
almofl cut off in the middle, or 
in fome part of their bodies. 
But the name is alfo applied to 
worms, &c. which have not this 
mark of diflinflion. 

A general divifion of infers is 
into winged and naked ones. 

Both forts are generated from 
eggs. They are either hatched 
in the form of their parents, or 
into maggots or worms, which, af 
ter feveral tranfmutations, come 
to be in the form of their parents. 

I do not undertake fo great a 
tafk as to difcourfe of all forts of 
infefts ; but only of thofe which 
are found to be noxious to the 
plants that are cultivated in this 

As I have already faid fome- 
thing concerning caterpillars, 
and treated more largely on that 
formidable infeft the canker 
worm ; I mall here begin with 
one that is almofl equally terri 
ble in its eHefts, the fpecies of 
gryllns, or locuft, called the 
Grqfskffpper, which is as diffi 
cult to guard again if as the canker 
worm, or much more fo. More 
or fewer of thefe well known in- 
fecls appear every year on our 

178 I N S 

grounds, more efpecially in dry 
iummers ; and in a fevere 
drought, they ufually appear in 
endlefs fwarms, hurting the moft, 
and deftroyingmany, of the fruits 
of the earth, by eating off the 
more tender parts, and depriving 
the ftems of their fap. They 
Lave this year, 1789-, in fome 
places, eaten off the bark of the 
limbs of trees and fhrubs. 

An infufion of wormwood, or 
a decoBion of almoft any bitter 
plant, fprinkled on vegetables, it 
is afferted, will prevent their eat 
ing them. But this labour will 
be thought too tedious, unlefs it 
be in gardens or other very fmall 
inclofures. And this would be* 
to no purpofe, when green food 
to fupply them became fcarce. 
In this cafe, they will eat onions, 
and all forts of plants, wormwood 
not excepted. 

If our farms were always plen 
tifully Hocked with fowls, and 
particularly with turkies, thefe 
infects would be thinned, as they 
are fond of them, and eat mul 
titudes of them, efpecially in 
the beginning of fu mm er, before 
they can make much ufe of their 
wings. But this can be only a 
partial remedy. 

As the grafshoppers depofit 
their eggs in the furface of the 
foil, it is thought that the greateft 
production of them is in mowing 
grounds, and in open fields that 
are not much trodden by cattle. 
They are feldorn feen to tarry 
in forefts, or in very moift or 
fliady places ; though they trav- 
erfe fuch places in queft of their 
food. The only way then, it 
feerns, to guard againft them 
moft effectually, would be, to 
paiture the whole of our high 
lands clofcly, excepting the parts 
that are in tillage. For the eggs 
will be moftly ^rufhed by the 
. jt of cattle. But for a whole 



country to do this, would per 
haps be confideredas making too 1 
great a facrifice ; and for one or 
two farmers in a village or neigh 
bourhood to do it, would have 
but little effect, unlefs where 
they are furrounded with large 
forefts ; becaufe the infects, 
when they come to be furnifhed 
with ftrong wings, at which time 
they devour fafteft, pafs from 
field to field with the rapidity of 

However, as they abide and eat 
chiefly where the foil is natural 
ly dry, a proper expedient may 
be, to cultivate hay crops only 
on low and moift lands, which is 
practicable, as thefe lands might 
be made far more productive 
than they are. Or, if on high 
land, it mould be fome early 
crop, fuch as clover, which may 
be mowed before this infect has 
attained to its full growth. 

The black ivorm^ an infect fo 
called, is an am coloured worm, 
with a ftripe almoft black upon 
its back. At its full growth, it is 
about the bignefsof agoofequill, 
and an inch and a quarter in 
length. The greateft mifchief 
that they commonly do, is to 
young cabbages, cauliflowers, 
&c. They never chpofe to ap 
pear on the furface in the day 
time ; but keep themfelves buri 
ed about an inch or two beneath 
it. In the night they come up, 
eat off the ftems of the young 
plants, and again bury them 
felves in the foil, often attempt 
ing to draw in the plants after 

They fometimes deftroy oth 
er vegetables. I have known 
them to cut off great part of a 
field of Indian corn, before the 
firft hoeing : But this is not a 
common cafe. 

They begin to devour in May, 
and ceafe ia June, 


I N S 

1 once prevented their depre 
dations in my garden, by manur 
ing the foil with fea mud, newly 
taken from the flats. The plants 
generally efcaped, though every 
one was cut off in a fpot of 

f round that lies contiguous, 
rom the fuccefs of this experi 
ment I conclude, that fait is very 
offenfive, or pernicious to them, 
Lime and afhes in fome meaftire 
prevent their doing mifchief ; 
but fea water, fait, or brine, 
would be more effectual antidotes. 

Top worms, or Spindle worms, a 
white worm relembling a grub, 
found in the hofq, or focket, of a 
plant of maize, which eats off 
the item of the plant, and ren 
ders it unfruitful. When its 
excrements appear on the leaver, 
it may be known that a worm is 
in the focket. They are nxoft 
commonly found in places that 
are rich and dungy, particularly 
in corn that grows near to barns ; 
but they will fometimes prevail 
through whole fields. Sprinkling 
the corn, when they begin to eat, 
with a weak lie of wood afhes will 
effectually deftroy them. .So, I 
fuppofe, would almoftany bitter 
intufion ; but of this. I have made 
no trial. 

The. griped bug, or yellow fly, 
is a fmail four winged infetf, the 
outward wings of which are ftrip- 
ed with yellow and black. They 
eat and deftroy the young plants 
of cucumbers, melons, fquaihes 
and pumpions. They begin to 
eat while the plants are in feed 
leaf ; and, unlefs they are oppof- 
ed, will totally deftroy them, ef- 
pecially in a dry feafon. 

Thefe infefts maybe confider- 
ably thinned, by killing them in a 
dewy morning, when they have 
not the free ufe of their wings, 
and cannot well efcape. 

I have fometimes defended the 
plants in fome rneafure, by en- 

I N S 


circling them with rock weed. 
But nothing that I have tried 
has proved fo effeBual, as fifting, 
or fprinkling powdered foot upon 
the plants, when the morning 
dew remains on them. This 
forms a bitter covering for the 
plants,.which the bugs cannot en 
dure the tafte of. Perhaps water 
ing the plants with fome bitter in- 
fufion might equally preferve 
them, if it were often repeated. 
I prefer foot, as 1 know by ex 
perience that once fprinkling 
with it will anfwer the end, un 
lefs it happen to be warned off 
by rain. When this happens., 
the footing mould be repeated. 

The turnipjly, a well known 
winged infe6t, which eats the 
feed leaves of turnips, before the 
firft rough leaf appears. Their 
ravages are fo general, and of 
fuch confequence, that the inge 
nious have attended to the matter, 
and explored many methods, both 
preventive and remedial, to op- 
pofe them. 

One of the preventive meth 
ods is, making the ground fo rich 
that the plants will grow rapidly, 
and continue but fora fhort time 
in the feed leaf ; for, after the 
evolution of rough leaves, the 
plants are almoft or quite out of 
danger of this infett. 

It is alfo recommended, to 
pafs a roller over the ground, as 
foon as the feed is fown. This 
not only prevents the too fud- 
den efcape of the moifture in the 
furface, and caufes the plants to 
rife fooner and more vigoroufly ; 
but fills up or clofes ten thou- 
fand little interflices in the fur- 
face, which ierve the infecls as 
places of retreat. The confe 
quence is, either that they are 
deftroyed by rains, driven away 
by winds and ftorms, or fiiffen- 
ed with the dews of the coldeft 


I N S 

Mr. Tull thought it bell that 
the feed ihould be buried at dif 
ferent depths in the foil, and' fays, 
as they will come up at different 
times, either the firil or the laft 
will probably efcape the fly. He 
accordingly conitru&ed his tur 
nip drill in fuch a manner as to 
bury the feed at different depths. 

The fame thing in effect may 
be done in the broad cafl way of 
fowing. The ground may be 
harrowed with a common harrow 
with iron teeth ; then half the 
feed fowed, and the ground 
fmoothed with a bu(h harrow and 
rolled ; then the other half fow 
ed, and burned in, or raked. At- 

I N S 

flight top dreffing, and increafe 
the growth o( the plants. 

Some writers aifert, that only 
drawing a green bulh of elder 
over the young plants will fa\e 
them from the fly. I think it 
may have fome tendency towards 
it ; but I have never made the 
experiment. An infufion, of el 
der, applied by fprinkling, w r ould 
probaoly have a greater effeih 
But I mould expect more from 
an infufion of tobacco. 

Some fet plants of tobacco 
thinly in their turnip ground, 
thinking that the fcent of them 
does fomething towards repelling 
the fly. I have no objection to 

ter which the roller mould be this, excepting that a much rich- 

again pafled over the furface. 

Some writers on this fubje6l 
are confident that the beft meth 
od is, to fow the feed very thick, 
equal to double the ufual quanti- j 
ty of feed, that when the flies 
have cuten all they can, there may 
be a fufficient number of plants 
remaining tpinfiire a good crop. 
Another projeft is fowing a mix 
ture of old and new feed, as the 
latter is known to come up foon- 
er than the former, one or other 
of which may happen to efcape. 

After the turnips are up, if the 
flies appear in plenty, it is advif- 
able to pafs a fmooth roller over 
them. If the roller be drawn 
carefully by hand, or even by a 
horfe, turning the roller about on 
the head lands only, the opera 
tion may be performed without 
hurting the turnips ; and the flies 
will moftly be crufhed by the 
roller. This operation mould he 
performed in a dewy morning, 
when the flies are fo ftiff that 
they cannot make their efcape. 

Or, inflead of this, lam confi 
dent that the fitting of foot over 
the turnip ground in a dewy 
morning will be effeftiial ; at the 
iame time that it will arifwer as a 

er ground is requifite for tobacco 
than for turnips, in our climate. 

Some attempt to clear a turnip 
ground from flies, by making: 
fmokes on the head lands around 
it, or chiefly on the windward 

The red worm is another ene 
my to the farmer. This infeft is 
ilender, and ufual ly about an 
inch Jong, with a hard coat, and 
a pointed head. It eats off 
wheat, barley and oats, above the 
crown of the roots'. It perforates, 
or bores quite through bulbous 
roots, turnips, potatoes, &c. My. 
turnips for feveral years, which 
were fown in the ipring, have 
been thus almofi ruined, though 
on a foil that fuited them. When 
a turnip is once wounded by 
them, it grows no bigger, unlefs 
it be in ill lhapes, and hard ex- 
crefcences, and becomes totally 
unfit for the table. As to pota 
toes, I have feldom known them 
do much hurt, unlefs when they 
were planted in a foil that did 
not fint them, particularly in a 
clay. It is eafier to fay what 
will not flop thofe borers, than 
what will do it. I have manured 
with fea mud ; applied dry fait 


to the foil after the plants were 
up ; mingled dry fait with the 
feed when it was fo wed ; fteepcd 
the feeds in brine before lowing, 
and coated them with fulphur ; 
but all in vain. 

I fuppofe the burning of a ftub- 
ble as it ftands would deftroy all 
the worms that happened to be 
very near to the furface. A cer 
tain Englifh writer thinks that a 
perfect fummer fallow would def 
troy them, partly by expo (ing 
fbmc of them to the neat of the 
fun at each ploughing, and part 
ly by depriving them of food. 

I Ihould think ploughing late 
in autumn might deftroy many 
of them, by expofing them to the 
mod violent action of the froft. 
Or in a garden, throwing up the 
foil in ridges with the fpacie, fo 
to lie during the winter, would 
have a good effect. Liming 
plentifully, if it could be afford 
ed, I mould rely upon as a mod 
effectual antidote to this, and fev- 
eral other kinds of infers. The 
CompUte Farmer mentions lime 
and foot as good antidotes to this 
infect in particular. 

The garden Jlea is a minute fly 
that eats cabbages, and other 
plants of the brajjica kind, while 
they are in feed leaf. They are 
of a very dark colour, or nearly 

I once applied fome clefts of 
the flems ot green elder to fome 
drills of young cabbages, which 
this fly had begun to eat, and 
could not find that they eat any 
afterwards. But as I made this 
trial but once, I dare not poli 
ticly affert its efficacy. I would 
heartily recommend the trial of 
bitter fteeps to gardeners who are 
troubled with this infect. They 
are earlier in gardens than any 
other infect ; and I have never 
known thern fail to appear in a 
$lry fpring. 

i NT s 

j Lice, an infect in the fhape of 
j mites, but larger, and of the col 
our oi the plants ; which eat and 
deftroy cabbages, french turnips, 
muftard, &c. They adhere fo 
ftrongly to the plants that rains 
and ftorms will fcarcely beat 
many of them off ; and their 
bodies are fo unctuous that water 
will not foon wet them. Salt 
manures do not prevent their ap 
pearance. I have often fprink- 
led them with a ftrong infufion 
of tobacco, which does but partly 
conquer them. The fmoke of 
tabacco I have tried with no 
greater fuccefs ; and urine I have 
found to have little effect on 
them. But branches of elder 
laid on the plants feemedto have 
a great effect this fummer, 1787. 

I have never been able to find 
any better remedy before, than 
to take away thofe parts of plants 
which are almoft covered with 
them, and wipe off thofe which 
are fcattering. But when they 
have taken pofleffion of the cen 
tre of a plant, it is difficult, if 
pofiible, to preferve it by wip 
ing, as the young leaves are too 
tcmlcr,and too much crumpled, to 
admit of being cleared of the in 
fects by this method. The whole 
plant in this cafe Ihould be remov 
ed out of the way. froft kills 
thefe in lefts. 

There is a kind of black lice, 
which afcend the trunks of apple 
trees about the middle of May, 
and afterwards appear on the 
fmall branches, changed to the 
colour of the bark, arid ftrongly 
adhering to it. I know of no 
better way to deal with thefe in 
fects than to rub them off. 

Sometimes the leaves of trees 
will appear dead in the latter 
part of the fummer, and drawn 
together with filaments of the ap 
pearance of cobweb. The eggs 
of future caterpillars areenclcfed 


I N S 

with the fe leaves. Thefe branch 
es {bo-j..d therefore be taken off 
and burnt ; not fuffered to con 
tinue through the winter. 

Maggots. I have often found 
a white maggot, of the fhape and 
lize of thofe in cheefe, preying 
upon the roots of young cabba 
ges, turnips, and raddimes. My 
raddimes, when fown early, fel- - 
dom efcape ; thofe that are fown 
in June moftly profper. 

A perfon in my neighbour 
hood, who has often been defeat 
ed by thefe infefts, in his at 
tempts to raife cabbages, declares, 
that laft fpring, as ufual, the mag 
gots attacked his cabbages before 
he tranfplanted them ; and that, 
having a fcarcity of plants, he 
tranfplanted, on the fame fpot 
where they ufed to fail, fome 
which had maggots in their roots 
among found plants : That as 
foon as he had done tranfplant- 
ing, he watered them plentifully 
with fea water : That the water 
ing was not repeated ; but the 
maggots did no damage at all ; 
and that his crop was very large 
and good. Some that were left 
without watering were deftroyed, 
as before, by the maggots. 

I have fince tried this experi 
ment, with a good effect. Very 
few of the cabbages were touch 
ed by the maggots. But I find 
there is danger in applying the 
fea water plentifully, unlefs it be 
in a wet fe.afon. The plants are 
in danger, when the ground is 
dry, of imbibing too much of the 
fait. In this cafe their growth is 
greatly obftrufted. 

Though I have conceived that 
it would kill all forts of plants, 
to pour fea water upon them, the 
cabbage, having an oily furface 
to which water does not eafily 
adhere, is perhaps an exception. 
The farmers who are remote 
from the fea cannot apply fea 


water to their cabbages, without 
too much experife of carriage. 
But they can afford to water their 
plants with a brine of equal fait- 
nefs. I wifli them to make the 
experiment, not only on cab 
bages, but on raddimes, &c. It 
is fafe to apply fait water in a 
wet feafon, or juft after a rain. 

The HeJJianjly, fo called, is an 
infecl that is pernicious to wheat, 
while it is growing. It made its 
appearance in the time of the late 
war, iil the vicinity of Newyork, 
and is fuppofed to have been im 
ported with the German troops. 
From thence it has fpread into 
ConnefticutandNewjerfey, lay 
ing wafte whole fields in its 
courfe. A more formidable in- 
feft has fcarcely ever appeared in 
the country. 

But againft this enemy it feems 
an eafy antidote has been already 
difcovered. A letter, figned D. 
Wadfworth, which has lately been 
pubiifhed in the newfpapers, 
communicates a method of pre 
venting its depredations, which 
the writer fays he has feen ufed 
with effect. It is only fteeping 
the feed before fowing for twelve 
hours in a ftrong infufion of the 
leaves of elder. 

In the lateft edition of Dr, 
Morfe's Geography, there is an 
account, that yellow bearded 
wheat, fown late in autumn, ef- 
caped the Heffian fly. 

The palmer worm, a wanderer, 
as its name fignifies. This is a 
fmall worm, about half an inch 
in length, with many legs, and 
extremely nimble. It appears at 
different times in different parts 
of the country. I have feen them 
only on apple trees and oak trees, 
in any great abundance. They 
give trees the fame appearance 
that the canker wormdoes. They 
appeared in the county of Cum 
berland in the year 1791, about 



the middle of June, eating off 
the covering of the leaves on 
both fides, and leaving the mem 
branous part entire. The fol 
lowing year there were none to 
be ieen ; and I have not known 
them in- any place two years in 
fucceflion. The feeds of them 
may be conftant, wanting only a 
particular ftate of the weather to 
produce them. The fpring which 
preceded their appearance had 
been remarkably dry, both in 
April and May. The hiftory of 
this infecl; is fo little known, 
that I will not undertake to fay 
how they may be fuccefsfully 
oppofed, I made fmokes under 
the fruit trees, without any ap- 

Earent effect:. As they let them- 
dves down by threads, they 
may be thinned by making the 
trees, and firiking off the threads. 
Their ravages had not any lafting 
efFecl : For the orchards that had 
been vifrted by them bore plenti 
fully the following year. 

Weevil, an infect injurious to 
corn in granaries. Shutting up an 
apartment and filling it with the 
frnoke of burning fulphur will 
deftroy .them. But the fmoke 
Ihould be continued as much as 
twelve hours. Grain may be 
cleared of them by fifting, in a 
fieve fo made that the infeSs will 
pafs through, and the grain ftay 
behind. See the article Weevil. 

The timber worms mould alfo 
be mentioned. Thefeare of two 
kinds. The fmaller kind eats 
only the fappy parts of the wood, 
turning it to what is vulgarly 
called powder pofl. To prevent 
damage from this infect, nothing 
more is neceffary than to fell the 
timber in December or January, 
in which months it is fure to be 
freeft from fap. When it is nec 
effary to fell trees that are full of 
fap, fomething mould be done to 
divert it of the fap, or alter the 

I N S i8y 

quality of this juice. Soaking it, 
even in frefh water, will be of 
fome fervice. But in ialt water, 
foaking will be quite effe&ual, 
againft molt kinds of worms. 

The large boring worm is far 
more mifchievous than the one I 
have mentioned ; and no feafon 
of felling fecures timber wholly 
from this infect. TJiey make the 
greateft havock in pine. They 
are hatched in the cavities of the 
bark, and being fmall when they 
enter the wood, they grow larger 
as they proceed, till their boring 
may be heard, like the cutting of 
an augur, to a confiderable dif- 
tance. ^ They proceed to eat the 
wood in every. dire6tion, till they 
become as large as one's linger, 
or till the juice of the wood, be 
ing altered, is unfit to nourifh 
them any longer. 

Steeping the wood feafonably 
in fait water deftroys the worms, 
or prevents their entering the 
wood. If the trees be fcorched 
in a light flame, before they have 
entered too far, the effect will be 
the fame. 

To prevent and cure worms in 
timber, Mr. Evelyn recommends 
the following, as much approv 
ed. 4< Put common fulphur into 
a cucurbit, with as much aqua 
fortis as will cover it three fingers 
deep ; diftil it to a drynefs, which 
is performed by two or three 
re6tifications. Lay the fulphur 
that remains at bottom on a mar 
ble,* or put it in a glafs, and it 
will diflolve into an oil ; with 
this oil anoint the timber whiclx 
is iniefted with worms." 

Befides the deftruftive infe6ts 
which appear more or lefs every 
year, there appear fometirncs 
formidable fwarms, or armies of 
worms, which fuffer fcarccly any 
green thing to efcape them. 
They overran many parts of the 
county of Cumberland, in the 


I N S 

(770, rather before the mid 
dle of July, to the extreme con- 
flernation, as well as the great 
injury of the inhabitants. Thty 
/hipped the corn and grafs of 
the leaves, leaving only the bare 
items, and thofe deprived of their 
lap. They were extremely vo 
racious ; and appearing to be in 
the utmoft hafte, they all moved 
in the fame direction. They 
fuffered nothing that they could 
climb upon to flop their courfe. 
They crawled over houfes, and 
all other buildings, unlef's when 
they found a door, window, or 
chink in their courfe, where they 
could enter. Whether they pall 
ed in this manner over the plants 
they deftroyed I did not take no 

Between twenty and thirty 
years ago the fame dreadful in 
fect appeared in the county of 
Effex ; and between 1770 and 
1780, in fome places in the terri 
tory of Vermont. 

The only ways of oppofing 
their ravages that have been ufed, 
are, either to mow a field of grafs, 
whether it were fully grown, and 
fit to cut, or not ; or, to fence a- 
gainfl them with narrow trench 
es, made perpendicular, or rath 
er hanging over, on the fide next 
to the field. Many fields of 
corn have been thus faved ; and 
bufhels of the worms being una 
ble to climb fuch crumbling walls 
died in the trenches. 

If their hiftory were attended 
to, perhaps it would' be found 
they have flated periods. 

It is not fuflicieiU for the far 
mer to defend his vegetables 
againft infecls. There are in- 
fets alfo that annoy and hurt 
his animals. 

Lice are often found on colts, 
and on neat cattle, efpecially on 
yearlings in the fpring. When 
thefe animals become poor, they 

I N T 

mo ft commonly grow loufyV 
which makes them ftill poorer. 
Poffibly it may be owing to an 
obftru6tion of perfpiration. For 
there are doubtlefs many oily 
particles in the effluvium of 
healthy cattle, and oil is an anti 
dote to this infeft. Oiling their 
fkins will clear them of lice ; fo 
will a ftronginfufion of tobacco. 
But when they are cured, better 
feeding is the be ft preservative 
from the return of the infecls. 

The tick, or tike, is the fheep 
loufe. When thefe infe61s be 
come numerous, they are very 
hurtful to the flieep. In Eng 
land, the farmer fmears his fheep, 
after fhearing, with a mixture of 
butter and tar. This fortifies 
them againft being injured, either 
by the weather, or by infers. 
But at any time, oil, or tobacco, 
will ciefiroy the ticks. 

INTERVAL, the fpace be 
tween two places, or things. 
The word is ufed in husbandry 
to denote the fpace between rows 
of corn, or other vegetables ; ef 
pecially in the horfe hoeing huf- 

By interval, alfo, and more 
ufually in this country, is under- 
ftood land on the border of a riv 
er. Interval land is commonly 
fo high and dry as tc be fit for 
tillage ; and yet always folow as 
to be frequently overflowed by 
the fwelling of rivers, efpecially 
in the fpring. On fome of thefe 
lands the water often continues 
fo late in the fpring that they 
cannot be feeded till June. But 
the increafed fmitfulnefs of the 
foil feems to more than make up 
for this delay. For when the 
waters fuhnde, they leave a fat 
[lime upon the foil, rnoft friend 
ly to vegetation. 

The foil on thefe intervals is 
noft commonly fand, with a 
large mixture of the fined vege 

K A L 

table mould ; and much of it is 
made, from time to time, by the 
mif'ting of the channels of rivers. 
This fort. of land has generally 
been prized highly in this coun 
try. But in foine places it has 
become lefs fruitful of late than 
formerly. The reafon of this 
alteration moft probably is, that 
the floods are not fo great as, or 
that they fubfide quicker than for 
merly ; owing to the more culti 
vated ftate of the country, and a 
quicker evaporation of the waters^ 


KALE, Colewort, an excellent 
potherb, early, and of quick 
growth, which ought to be culti 
vated in this country. 

KALENDAR, an account of 
time. That great naturalift, Dr. 
Linnasus, did not approve of 
farmers' confining themfelves to 
certain fet .days, or weeks, for 
committing their feeds to the 
earth. The feafons are much 
forwarder in* fome years than in 
others. Therefore, he who thus 
governs himfelf, will a (lured I y 
fow his annual feeds fomctimes 
too early, and fometimcs too late. 

That a better pra6lice might be 
introduced, he recommended it 
fo fiis countrymen to take notice 
at what times the trees unfold 
their leaves. Nature is fo uni 
form in her operations, that the 
forwardnefs of trees is an unfail 
ing indication of the ilbrwardnefs 
of the fprihg. And the genial 
warmth, which caufes trees and 
fhrubs to put forth their leaves, 
will be fufficient to caufe feeds to 

In order to reduce to pra6Hce 
fo ingenious a hint, an account 
mould be made out of the firft 
leafing, and I may add, the blof- 
foming of a variety of trees and 
fhrubs. I fuppofe trees and i 


K A L 


mrubs to be moft fuitable for this 
purpofe, as they are more deep 
ly rooted, and therefore more 
iteady and uniform in their appear 
ances, than any plants which are 
perennial only in their roots. 
They are efpecially much more 
fo than annuals. 

It is certain that fuch an ac 
count taken in one place wilf 
not anfwer alike for every part: 
of the country ; becaufe the 
vegetation in every part is nor. 
equally forward. Therefore, I 
would earneftly recommend, that 
in each degree of latitude, 
throughout Newengland at leafi, 
fome attentive naturalift would 
make a lift of a confiderable num 
ber of trees and fhrubs, which 
are common, and near at hand ; 
carefully watch their appear- 
ances, and minute the times of 
the firft opening of their leaves, 
and alfo of their blofToming,, 
By comparing the accounts, the 
abfurdity will immediately ap 
pear, of (owing the feme kind o 
feeds at the fame time of the 
month or year, in the 42d, 43^ 
4/jth, and 4sth degrees of latitude-' 
This is a matter that farmers 
ought to attend to ; that fo thofc 
who remove from one degree of 
latitude to another, may not be 
confounded concerning the true 
times of fowinef, on fuppofition 
that they have been once in the 
right practice. The right in one 
place will be wrong in another. 

When thefe accounts are ob 
tained, let trials be made, by 
fowing a certain kind of feed be-, 
fore, at, and after the foliation, 
or the flowering of fome particu 
lar plant, and the produce com 
pared. Let accurate experiments 
of this kind be yearly repeated, 
with all the moft ufeful fpring 
plants ; by this, in a few years, 
complete kalendars may be ob 
tained for &very degree of lati 

K A L 

tude in this country. The con- 
fequence will be, that the farmer 
will be able infallibly to read the 
true times of fowing, by calling 
his eye upon the trees and ihrubs 
that are about him. We have 
already fuch a rule as this, with 
refpecl: to Indian corn ; but it 
perhaps ought to undergo a fur 
ther examination. 

But fuch rules, after all that 
can be done, muft not govern us 
invariably. The right times of 
feeding admit of fome latitude, 
on account of the degree of dry- 
nefs of the foil, and of its expo 
fure to the folar warmth. Land 
mould have the right degree of, 
inoiflure when feeds are fown on 
it ; and a fouthern expofure will 
afford an earlier vegetation than 
a northern. 

That I may fet an example of 
what I have been recommending, 
and begin the needful work, here 
follows an account of the leafing 
and bloffoming of trees and 
ihrubs in that part of Neweng- 
land which lies in the 44th de 
gree of latitude, in the fpring of 
the year 1789. 

Leafing, Bloffbning. 

Goofebery, April 16 May 12 
Englifh Willow 28 
Wild red Cherry 29 - - 19 
Lilac - - 30 
Currant May i - o 

Alder 5 

Apple Tree - 6 - 25 

Thorn Bum 7 

White Birch 8 

White Maple 9 

Beech - - - 10 
Plum Trees - 12 

Hazle 14 

Elm - - i\ 

Summer Pear - 17 31 

Wheat Plum - - - 19 

Common red Cherry 19 - 20 
Damafcene Plum 22 

Grey Oak t 20 
White Oak r-3 

K I L 

KALI, Salicorftia, glafs worf, 
or rock weed, a fea plant which 
grows upon rocks near the more. 
By burning of this weed a hard 
fixed fait is obtained, which is a 
principal ingredient in the com- 
pofition of glafs., Rock weed is 
alfo an important manure. 

KALMIA, angufli folia, a 

flirub commonly called laurel, 

or lamb poifon. It is an ever- 

:reen, with narrow leaves of a 

irty green colour. The flowers 

e red, growing round the up 
per part of the ftem.. It grows 
plentifully in low flat land, 
which has never been ploughed. 
It indicates a cold foil. 

But I mention it in a work of 
this kind, on account of its poi- 
fonous quality. Sheep and goats, 
efpecially young lambs and kids, 
will eat it, when compelledby hun 
ger, by which they ficken and die. 
The way to cure them of this fick- 
nefs, is drenching them repeated 
ly with milk, mixed with oil, or 
frefh butter. Or, 4 tea of rue, 
'given in feafon, may have the 
fame good effe6h 

KID, the young of a goat. See 

KILLING^/ beajls.^ Asfev- 
eral of the tame kinds of animals 
are, by divine leave, ufed as the 
food of man, it is requifite to de 
prive them of their lives by vio 
lence. This may well be ac 
counted a difagreeable operation, 
as it is apt to hurt the feelings of 
tender hearted people, who have 
not accuilomcd themfeives to 

Mercy, which ought to be ex 
tended to beafls, and even to the 
meaneft animals, pleads that their 
lives iljould be taken in a way 
which is leaft painful. The 
fpeedicft method is therefore in 
general to be preferred. The 
iifual method of flunning neat, 
cattle by a blow on the head is 

K I L 

'laudable, as they have probably! 
no fenfe of pain alter it. But I 
for one to knock clown a bead j 
while another is holding him, is | 
not without danger to the hold 
er ; and fuch a pralice ought 
not to be continued. Inftead of 
this, the beaft fhould be tied, and 
in fuch a manner that he cannot 
efcape, nor caufe the blow to be 
mifplaced by ftarting. Thruft- 
ing the pointed knife into the 
heart of a hog, if it can be done 
without erring, is nearly the 
fame, as he expires in a few fec- 
onds. But who can approve of 
the barbarous practice, of hang 
ing up calves alive by the heels? 
Or of carrying them to the butch 
er on horfes in a pofture ftill 
more uneafy ? Decapitation with 
a Tingle ftroke is a good method 
of killing ilieep, lambs, and 
-calves. Some will 'objeft that it 
is not cleanly ; but greater clean- 
linefs will not atone for cruelty. 
It fhould be remembered that no 
death can be more inftantaneous 
than beheading ; therefore none 
lefs painful. 

For our own advantage, care 
(hould be taken that the blood be 
entirely di (charged ; and behead 
ing is favourable to this defign. 
Blood is not wholefome food ; 
one reafon perhaps why it was 
anciently forbidden by divine 
authority ; and the lawfuinefs of 
eating it feems difputable among 

The time of killing beef is to 
be regulated by the market, and 
the advantage and convenience | 
of the farmer. And the fame | 
things muft fix the time, if he 
fells them to the butchers. Beef 
that is only grafs fed muft be kill 
ed as early as the beginning of 
November ; becaufe after this 
time, grafs will not increafe the 
fatnefs of cattle. This may be 
Afforded at the loweit price, per- 

K I T 187 

haps 2 1 pence per lb, withouflofs. 
Cattle that are fatted till Decem 
ber muft have, befides grafs or 
hay, corn or juicy vegetables, or 
both, to increafe their fatnefs. 
The price of beef therefore ought 
to be higher, by about two far 
things. If not killed till January,, 
the price mould continue rifmg, 
at leaft in the fame proportion ; 
and fo on, till the time of fatting 
by grazing returns. 

KILN, a fabrick for admitting 
heat, to dry or burn various 
things. Malt is dried on a kiln. 
Another fort of kilns is ufed for 
the burning of lime ftone. A 
lime kiln fhould be conftrucled 
of a fort of ftones which will en 
dure the fire. But if fuch can 
not be eafily obtained, hard burnt 
bricks will anfwer, and laft a 
good while. The fhape of a lime 
kiln mould be like that of a 
pitcher, wideft in the middle, and 
gradually narrower to the top 
and bottom. The fire will be 
the more confined, and acl: the 
more powerfully. In countries 
where lime ftone is plenty, each 
confiderable farmer is funiifhed 
with a lime kiln, in which he 
makes lime to manure his foil. 
This pra6tice might doubtlefs be 
imitated with advantage, in a few 
places in this country, where 
this fort of ftone is at hand. 

KINE. See the article Cow. 

garden to produce vegetables for 
the kitchen. Mr. Millar fays, 
" A kitchen garden is almoft as 
neceflary to a country feat, as a 
kitchen to the houfe : For with 
out one there is noway of being 
fupplied with a great part of ne- 
ceffary food. Whoever pro- 
pofes to refide in the country, 
fhould be careful to make choice 
previoufly of a proper fpot of 
ground for this purpofe ; becaufe 
fruit trees and afparagus require 


K I T 

three years to grow, before any 
produce can be expefted from 
them.' 3 The lame writer recom 
mends, " that this garden be near 
to the houfe, that fo it may be 
the better attended to; that the 
foil be two feet deep, on account 
of raifing parfnips, and .other long 
rooted efculent "plants ; that it 
Ihould have a good expofure to 
the fun ; that no plants that re 
quire much depth of foil Ihould 
be cultivated in the borders that 
are planted with trees, left the 
roots of the trees be difturbed, or 
injured ; that if the foil be too 
jnuch inclined to wetnefs, it 
Ihould be laid drier by hollow 
drains. But he prefers a fpot 
that is not naturally low and wet, 
as the fruits and herbs raifed on 
dry ground are wholefomer, and 
better tailed." 

Thefe directions are excellent. 
But I cannot approve of the 
quantity of land he propofes to 
be laid out for a garden. Four 
or five acres I fliould think three 
or four times too much for almoft 
any perfon in this country. Halt 
an acre will be fufficient for al- 
rnoft any family, unlefs we ex 
cept thofe who have inc4epend- 
cnt fortunes, or can afford to 
Js.eep two or three gardeners in 
pay. A fmall one well tended, 
will be more profitable than a 
large one poorly cultivated. 
Every man may determine the 
fize of his own garden by his a- 
bility and circumifances. 

Dwarf trees are moft fuitable 
for the borders of fmall gardens ; 
or it may be flill better that trees 
ihould be in a garden by them- 
felves. Too many of the falling 
leaves of trees are difagreeable in 
a garden, and their fhade is no 
advantage to vegetation near 
them. But every one has a right 
to confult his own fancy in fuch 
matters. Where horticultural 


neatnefs is meant to be preferved 
the plough muft not be introduc 
ed, but the whole dug with 
fpades, fhovels or forks. 

The breadth of the walks, that 
they may not offend the eye, 
mould be proportionable to the 
largenefs of the garden : The 
broadeft mould be lengthwife 
through the centre, and narrow 
er ones round by the outfidc 
borders. A walk mould be a lit 
tle rounding, higheft in the mid 
dle, for the fake of drynels. See 
the articles Garden, and Garden 


LAMBS, the young of 
The firft care of them is to fee 
whether they can come at the 
teat ; and if not, to clip away the 
wool of the ewes which hinders 
them, as alfo all tags of wool ori 
the udders of the ewes, which 
the lambs are liable to take hold 
of inftead of the teats. 

If a ewe refufe to let her lamb 
fuck, fhe and her lamb fhould be 
fhut up together in a clofe place, 
till fhe grow fond of him. For 
this purpofe, ionic fay that fur- 
prifing a fheep with a dog will 
be effeanal. 

Care mould be taken to feed 
the ewes plentifully after yean 
ing, and with fome juicy kind 
of food, that fo the lambs may 
I not fail of having plenty of milk. 
i The rams may be gelded at any 
time from one to three weeks 
old, if they appear to be well and 

They mould not be weaned 
till they are fix weeks, or two 
months old. At this age they 
mould be taken from the ewes, 
and have the befl of pafture dur 
ing the firft fortnight ; by the 
end of which time they will be 
ib naturalized to living wholly 


L A R 

grafs, that they may be 
jturned into a poorer pafture. 

The word wooled lambs, and 
bad coloured ones, and thole that 
are very fmall, fhouldbe deftined 
to the knife, and not weaned. 
So great is the need of increafing 
the manufacture 0F woollen in this 
country, that I muft earneftly 
recommend it to the farmers, not 
to kill, .or fell for killing, any 
lamb, till it is near half a year 
old, or till the wool be come to 
fuch fulnefs of growth, as to be 
valuable for fpinning. To kill 
them earlier is fowaftefula prac 
tice as to be inexcufable. 

Thofe ewe lambs which are kept 
for ftock, mould not come at the 
rams : For if they have lambs at 
a year old, it flints them in their 
growth ; and they have fo little 
milk, that their lambs common 
ly die for want of nourishment. 
Or it they chance to live, they 
will be apt to be always fmall. 
This praftice is one reafon why 
our breed of fheep in this coun 
try is fo poor. See the article 

LAMPAS, " an excrefcence 
in the roof of the mouth, which 
hinders a horfe from feeding, and 
happens ufually to young horfes. 
It is cured by applying a hot 
iron made for that purpofe. It 
is fuccefsfully performed in all 
parts ; fo that there is no need of 
any caution, but only that the 
farrier do not penetrate too deep, 
fo as to fcale the thin bone that 
lies under the upper bars ; for 
that would be attended with very 
troublefome and dangerous fy mp- 
toms." Gibfon's Furriery. 

LAND, a general name appli 
ed to the fur face of the earth, or 
to the ground. 

LARCH, Finns lanx, " a 
genus of trees, whofe leaves are 
long and narrow, produced out 
c?f little tubercles, in the form of 



a painter's pencil. The cones 
are produced at remote diftances 
from the male flowers, on the 
fame : The male flowens are 
very like fmall cones at their 
fir ft appearance, but afterwards 
ftrctch out in length. In autumn 
they caft their leaves. From the 
wounded bark of this tree exudes 
the pureft Venice turpentine." 
Compete Farmer. 

A fort of trees whichgrow nat 
urally, and in great plenty, in 
the northern parts of Newen- 
gland, called juniper, I take to 
be the true larch, as k anfwers 
to the above defcription, as well 
as to that given by Mr. Miller. 
They thrive beft in poor, wet and 
cold foils, and fhould by all 
means be cultivated. This is 
eafily done by fowing the feeds 
which are found in their cones. 
The trees are an excellent tim 
ber for fome ufes. They are 
commonly ufed as ports for 
fences, and are faid to be more 
durable than almoft any other 
timber, when fo ufed. But for 
rails in fences, or any work that 
is expofed to the weather, this 
timber will laft a long time. 

LAYERS, tender twigs buri 
ed in earth, which having ftruck 
root, are afterwards cut off, and 
become diflincl plants. 

Potatoes, and many other her 
baceous plants, may be in this 
manner propagated. Butthere is 
little advantage to be gained by 
doing it. 

As to thofe trees and fhrubs 
which yield no feed in this cli 
mate, neither can be propagated 
by cuttings, there may be often 
occafion for laying them. The 
manner of doing it is as follows : 
Take fhoots <of the laft year's 
growth, bend them to the earth, 
and bury them in good mellow 
foil half a foot under the furface, 
and fallen them with hooks to 



prevent their rifing, bending 
the tops fo as to bring them 
above the furface. A flit up 
wards in the twig ihould be made 
in the part that lies deepeft in 
the foil, or a wire drawn fa ft 
round it, to prevent the fap 
mounting too raft ; and mofs 
Ihould be laid on the furface, to 
prevent the fudden drying of the 
mould. Afterwards they fhould 
be watered as there may be occa- 
fion. If they form roots, they 
may be cut off, and tranfplanted 
the next fpring into the nurfery. 

The time for laying ever 
greens is July or Auguft ; for 
laying deciduous trees, Oftober. 

or LAYS, fallow ground, or that 
\vhich lies untilled. 

LEAVES, the moft extreme 
parts of the branches of trees, 
Ihrubs, &c. " Their office is to 
fubtilize the nouriihing fap, and 
convey it to the little buds, and 
to cover and defend the flowers 
and fruit. 

" Dr. Grew obferves, that the 
fibres of leaves confifl of two 
general kinds of veflels, viz. for 
fap, and for air ; and are ramifi 
ed out of greater into lefs, as 
veins and arteries are in animals. 

"IF the furfaces of the leaves 
are altered, by reverfing the 
branches of trees on which they 
grow, the plants are flopped in 
-their growth, until the foot ftalks 
are turned, and the leaves recov 
er their former pofition. If 
leaves are eaten, or cut off, the 
en-:'ofed buds will not grow, and 
the plants will be weakened. 
The winter feeding of wheat, 
therefore, is hurtful ; and it has 
been found fo by experience. 

" Another principal ufe of the 
leaves, is to throw off by tranf- 
piration what is unneceffary to 
the growth of plants, anfwering 
to the difcharge made by iweat . 


in animal bodies. As plants re 
ceive and tranfpire much more, 
in equal times, than large animals, 
fo it appears how neceiTary the 
leaves are to preferve the plants 
in perfefcl health : For it has 
been found by the moft exacl 
calculation, made from repeated 
experiments, that a plant of the 
funflower receives and perfpires, 
in twenty four hours, f even teen 
times more than a man." Com~ 
plete Farmer. 

Mr. Bonnet made many ex 
periments, which proved that 
leaves imbibe the moiftureofthe 
atmofphere on their under fur- 
face ; excepting fuch as have the 
upper furface covered with hairs, 
or down. The leaves undoubt 
edly ferve for infpiration, as well 
as for tranfpiration ; and plants 
draw through their leaves, fome 
confiderable part of their nour- 

Leaves alfo ferve for ornament, 
and to fcreen vegetables, and 
their fruits, from the too intenfe 
heat of the fun in fummer. 

Leaves of trees are ufeful as a 
manure, excepting thofe of the 
refmous kinds. They fhould be 
colle61ed into farm yards, tram 
pled by the cattle, and mixed 
with their excrements. Some 
recommend leaves of oak for hot 
beds, in Mead of tanner's bark, "as, 
:>y fermenting more (lowly, they 
afford a more regular and perma 
nent heat. Dr. Hunter proved 
the advantage of them by his 
continued praclic*. SecGeorgi* 
cat Eflays, by A. Hunter. 

LEES, the grofs fcdimerit in 
:ermented liquors. Moft kinds 
)f lees contain much of the food 
of plants. But they ihould not 
)e applied to the foil as_a manure 
their acidity is deftroyed, by 
mixing and fermenting them 
with large proportions of alkali- 
ous fubltances, fuch as marie, 


L I M 

lime, afhes, foot, &c. Even the 
pomace at cyder mills, which has 
hitherto been confidered by our 
farmers as good for nothing 
might be thus changed into a 
good manure. It is nearly the 
fame fubftance as the lees of cy 
der. Cyder lees will alfo pro 
duce brandy by diftillation. 
LICE. See Infefts. 
LIME, a crumbly foft fub- 
ilance, made by burning ftones, 
and the (hells of fhell fifli, and 
flacking them with water. 

Lime has been proved, by the 
long experience of European 
farmers, to be one of the moft ef 
ficacious manures. This may be 
thought ftrange by thofe who 
know it to be a mere alkali, con 
taining neither oil nor fait, which 
are certainly the principal ingre 
dients in the food of plants. Oil 
is an indifpenfably neceffary part 
of this food. 

But, by experiments made of 
late, it has been clearly proved 
that plants are greatly nourifhed 
by fixed air, of which it is known 
that lime contains a large quan 
tity. It has been proved by the ex 
periments of Mr. Lavifier, that 
one third part of calcarious earths, 
and particularly of lime ftone, 
confifts of fixed air. 

But befides affording to plants 
this nourifhment, which is known 
to be in plants, lime acls as a 
manure, by attracting and imbib 
ing the oils and acids which are 
contained in the earth and atmof- 
phere. It not only collects thefe 
ingredients of vegetable food, 
but fo alters them as to fit them 
to enter the roots of plants. 
With the acids it forms a fait, 
which, by mixing with the oils, 
becomes a faponaceous mucilage, 
which is the true pabulum for 
the nourifhment of plants. 

Thefe changes cannot be made 
in the ingredients of which veg- 

L I M 191 

table food is compofed, without* 
confiderable degree of fermenta 
tion. This fermentation breaks 
and mellows the foil, and fo in- 
creafes the paflure of plants, that 
the roots can more fir cly extend 
themfelyes in quell of their food. 
Accordingly it is found that lim 
ing renders a foil very foft and 

And as lime, when it is flack- 
ed, is a very foft fubftance, I can 
fee no reafon to doubt of its 
containing a very confiderable 
quantity of thofe impalpably 
fmall particles of earth which 
enter into plants, and become 
part of their fubftance. If fo, 
it mufl be allowed that lime 
is fit to anfwer every intention 
of manure. It either has all the 
ingredients of vegetable food, or 
produces and prepares them, 
though not in the fame propor 
tions as dung, which is allowed 
to be the moft valuable of ail 

Lime has been complained of, 
as impoveri filing the foil ; and 
it has been often remarked, that 
though one drefling will pro 
duce feveral good crops, the 
land is lefs fruitful forfome time 
after, than before it has been 
lined ; and that a fecond drefT- 
ng with lime, will not have fuch 
an effecl: as the firft, in increafing 
the fertility of the foil. But the 
"armer fhould confider how Tar 
ic has been recompenfed by 
extraordinary, crops, for the ex- 
laufting of his foil ; and that if 
ime will not, other manures will 
ecruit it. So will fallowing, 
reft, or tiling it as a pafture. 

It is granted that lime may 
lavean ill efFeft, when it is inju- 
iicioufly applied, as in too great 
quantities, or to an improper foil. 
Three cart loads, or 120 bulh- 
els, are allowed to be a fuffi- 
cient drefling for an acre. Butiti 

I M 

Ireland, where they plough ex 
tremely deep, they lay on twice as 
much. This dreffing enriches 
cold, ftiff and clayey foils, for 
many years after ; and in fuch 
foils it may be fafely repeated. 
If it force any foils too much, it 
can be only thofe which are 
weak and fandy. 

The beft time for applying 
lime as a manure is, when land 
is newry broken up, or after ly 
ing a long time in grafs. This 
may be afcribed to the plenty of 
roots in the foil, which the lime 
foon diffolves, and changes into 
food for plants. 

Mr. Evelyn advifed to the 
mixing of lime with turf in al 
ternate layers, to lie in heaps for 
months ; in which time it will 
become fo rich and mellow as to 
run like alhes. He thought it 
would nourifh the foil more than 
if ufed alone in a greater quanti 
ty, and without any danger of ex- 
haufting the vegetative virtue of 
the earth, which mould be pre- 
ferved. If it were mixed with a 
large proportion of clay, or with 
mud from the bottom of ponds or 
rivers, it might be applied even to 
fandy and gravelly foils without 
danger, and to great advantage. 

Lime is a very important ingre 
dient in compofts, as by railing a 
flrong fermentation it diffolves 
and prepares the other materials. 
There mould be fome layers of 
it, where it can be eafily obtain 
ed, in every heap of compoft. It 
will be* the fooner fit for ufe, as 
well as prove to be a more fertil 
izing compofition. 

When lime is laid on land 
which has a quick defcent, it 
ihould be always mixed with 
dung, and laid on the higheft part ; 
bacaufe it fo loofens the foil, as 
to difpofe it to be plentifully 
wafhed downwards by rains, fpi'l 
and manure together. 

L I M 

Lime is an excellent manure 
for foils that are moffy, as it 
fpeedily diffolves the oil which 
is contained in mofs, which is 
not foon diiTolved by other ma 
nures, and changes it to vegetable 
food. It deftroys all aquatick 
weeds, and diflplves the remain 
ders of decayed vegetables in the 
foil. Therefore it does well in 
rnoory and peaty fwamps that are 

While 1 am treating on this 
excellent manure, I have the dif- 
agreeable reflection, that it will be 
to little purpofe ; as lime is fo 
fcarce and clear in moft parts of 
the country, that it muft not be 
ufed as manure. Moft people 
can fcarcely obtain a fufficient 
quantity of it for building. But 
thofe farmers who know they 
have lime ftone or mells in plen 
ty near them, mould not neglect 
to make ufe of them as manures, 
after .reducing them to lime. 

LIME STONE, a ftone of a 
calcarious nature, which, by cal 
cination, or burning in the fire, 
becomes lime. There are many- 
kinds of lime itone ; the harder! 
kinds make the beft lime, and 
require the mo ft burning. Chalk 
will burn into lime, of the nature 
of ftone lime, but a great deal 
weaker ; lime may be made of 
marble and alabafter, &c. But 
the ftones ufed for lime are moft- 
ly ofabluifh colour, or inclining 
to grey. They are fometimes 
purely calcarious, but often mix 
ed with undiffolvable ftones, 
which leffen their value. 

Some countries are very plen 
tifully furnifhed with thefe 
ftones, Great Britain and Ireland 
in particular. It is ftrange they 
have been found in fo few places 
in Newengland. It has proba 
bly been owing to want of atten 
tion. An infallible way to dif- 
tinguifh them is, by dropping 

L O A 

upon them a few drops of aqua 
fortis, fpirit of fea fait, or oil 
of vitriol. All thofe Hones, on 
which thefe, or any other ftrong 
acids, effervefce, or rife into bub 
bles, are lime Hones, and will 
burn into lime. 

It is greatly to be wiflied, that 
fome perfons in the various parts 
of this country, would be furnifli- 
ed with one or other of thefe 
acids, and make frequent trials 
with them. They who are not f ur- 
nifhedwith the proper acids, may 
prove ftones, by burning them 
for fome days in a fmith's fire, 
and then throwing them int 
water. PofTibly we may find 
the benevolent Author of nature 
has not left us fo unfurnimed 
with thefe valuable ftones, as we 
have been ready to imagine. 

LOAM, one of the principal 
kinds of earth. Some fuppofe it 
to be not one of the natural foils ; 
but gradually made fince the cre 
ation, by the putrefied vegetables 
which have fallen upon the 
earth. This does not appear 
probable ; for, if fo, why do we 
meet with any other kind of foil ? 
This foil cpnfi'fts of very line 
particles, without grit, almoft as 
fine as thofe of clay, but do not co 
here like them. If it lie long 
under water, it is apt to have 
the appearance of clay. It 
receives water readily, and re 
tains it long ; on which ac 
counts it is preferable to clay or 
.fand. It is better adapted by 
nature to nourifh vegetables than 
either the one or the other. But 
it needs manure, and will com 
monly pay well for it by the in- 
creafe of its crops. 

Loams are of various kinds. 
Some is fHff, approaching to the 
nature of clay, and is apt to be 
adhefive in wet weather. This is 
not fit f or the nourishing of thofe 
vegetables wkich require much 


LOU 193 

heat. It needs to be drefled 
with hot and opening manures 
for any kind of crop. Other 
loam is more light, foft and mel 
low, and does not fo much need 
the mod heating manures. Some 
loam is of a dark red, hazely, or 
brown colour. This is com 
monly a mofi excellent foil. 
Other loam is of a light yellow, 
or whidlh colour, .and requires 
abundance of manuring to ren 
der it fruitful. 

> All kinds of loam are apt to 
be too wet, and to be covered 
with a fhort green mofs, if they 
lie flat. In this cafe, ridge plough 
ing is beft* and hollow drains 
often neceffary. Loam that has 
a mixture of gravel, or fand, is 
warmer, and fitter for tillage ; but 
all loams are good for the grow 
ing of grafles. 

LOCUST TREE, Robinia, a 
well known tree, which grows 
in great plenty in the vicinity of 
Bofton, and is a native of this 
country, but does not flourifh fa 
well in the Province of Maine, 
as the froft of winter is apt to 
kill the extremities of the limbs. 
There are particular places, how 
ever, in this diftrift, where the 
growth of this tree is confidera- 
bly rapid. 

This tree would be more priz 
ed for its beauty, were not its 
limbs often broken by high 
winds. Its leaves put out late in 
the fpring, and fall off early in 
autumn. It bloffbms about the 
beginning of June, at which 
time it makes a beautiful appear 
ance, and perfumes the circum 
ambient air with an agreeable 
odour. The branches are armed 
with hooked fpines ; and the 
leaves compofed of ten pair of 
oval lobes, terminated with ar 
odd one. 

The wood is not only good few- 
el, but excellent timber, very du 


L U C 

rablein any fituation, and particu 
larly when ufed as potts in'fences. 

This tree grows belt in a fandy 
foil, and will popagate itfelf in the 
moil barren places, where the foil 
is fo light as to be blown away by 
winds. By fhelteringfuch places, 
and dropping its leaves on them-, 
and grais to grow upon them. It is 
not advifable to plant groves of 
the locuft tree on the borders of 
fields, on account of their fp read 
ing too much by fcattering their 
feeds, unlefs on thofe which are 
imoft barren. B ut thofe who pof- 
fefs hills of barren fand, and in a 
climate that fuits them, fhould 
not delay to makeforefts of thefe 
trees on fuch fpots. It may be 
eai r ily done by fowing the feeds 
in a nurfery, and tranfplanting 
them. A plenty of wood may be 
thus fpeedily produced, without 
the lead injury to the land, yea, 
\vith advantage to it. 

It is much to be regretted, that 
of late years a worm has deilrey- 
ed many of the trees, by eating and 
boring them through the trunks 
and limbs. Perhaps it will be 
found that -quickfilver is an anti 
dote to thefe infects. 

LUCERN, medicago, a plant 
with a perennial root, and an an 
nual top. The bloflojns are of 
the butterfly kind, of a fine pur 
ple colour, growing upon fpikes 
from two to three inches long. | 
The feeds are kidney fhaped, and 
contained in pods. 

This plant is fupnofed to have 
been brought from Media, whence j 
the names medicago and medica. 
It has long been profitably culti 
vated in France, more in the fouth 
ern than northern parts of that 
country, where they call it Bur- i 
gundy hay. 

It loves a foil moderately rich, | 
and not very dry. It is tender 
while young, and inuit be culti- 

L U F 

vated with care ; alter wards 'it 
grows more hardy. No other 
plants, nor weeds, fhouldbe fufter- 
ed to grow with it. Themoftap- 
pro\ ed method of cultivating it 
is by tranfplanting it in rows. It 
grows fo fail that fix crops of 
hay may be cut from it in one 

After each cutting, the weeds 
fhould be killed, and the ground 
ftirred with the dutch hoe. It 
fhould be cut a good while be 
fore the time of its bloffoming. 
The leaves and ft ems are fo juicy, 
that they require abundance of 
drying, to make them into hay. 
The beft ufe it can be put to is,, 
to cut it and give it green to cat 
tle and horfes. It is a very fweet 
and fattening food for them ; 
and fome lay it will cure them, 
when they happen to be fick. 
Three acres of lucern, in Eng 
land, has yielded fo much as to 
feed ten working horfes from the 
end of April to the firft of Ofto- 
ber, in which time they would 
have eaten 20 tons of hay. Mr. 
Roque lays it has yielded him at 
the rate of eight tons of hay per 
acre. And M. Duharnel had 40 
tons green from an acre, equal 
to ten tons of hay. Volumes 
have been written on the virtues 
and advantages of this plant. 
But, from repeated trials, it ap 
pears that our winter frofts def- 
troy it. I hav"e been informed 
that it profpers well in Virginia. 
In that and the more fouthern 
Hates greater attention than hith 
erto has been, ought to be paid 
to its cultivation. 

LUPINES, a fpecies of wild 
pea, cultivated principally for a 
g ree n cl r e f 1 i n g . T h e y w i 1 1 g t o \ v 
well in almoft any foil : efpecial- 
ly in that which is dry, fandy 
and poor. 

The red and blue lupines, 
which are cultivated in gardens, 


M A L 

.are faid: to grow wild in great 
plenty in Spain. 

LYE, or lie, a fluid impregnat 
ed with falts. 

MALANDERS, a horfe dif- 
eafe, caufed by corrupt blood, or 
over hard labour, &c. It e on fi its of 
chops, or cracks, on the infide oi 
the fore legs agarnrft the knee, 
discharging a red fliarp humour. 

To cure this difeafe, wafli the 
cracks with warm fo.ap fuds or old 
urine ; then rub them twice a 
day with an ointment of hog's 
lard mixed with two drachms of 
iublimate mercury. Or apply 
a poultice of the roots of marfh 
mallows and flax feed, foftened 
with linfeed oil, tying it on with 
a roller. Continue that till the 
feeds fall off and the fores be 
come clean. Afterwards a mix 
ture of turpentine .and quickfil- 
ver will be a proper application. 

MALT, barley, or other corn, 
prepared for making beer or ale. 
As it is of great importance that 
the people of this country fliould 
make a greater ufe of malt than 
they do at prefent, I will here 

five the procefs of making it, 
rom the Didionary of Arts and, 

" In making malt from barley, 
the ufual method is to fteep the 
grain in a fufficient quantity of 
water, for two or three days, till 
it fwclls, becomes plamp, Ibme- 
what tender, and tinges the wa 
ter of a bright brown, or redclifh 
colour. Then, this water be 
ing drained away, the barley is re 
moved from the itecpirig ciilern 
to the floor, where it is thrown 
into what is called the wet 
couch ; that is, an even heap, 
rifing to the height of about two 
feet. In this wet couch, the cap 
ital part of the operation is per- 

M A L 

Formed ; for here the barley 
fpontaneouily heats, and begins 
to grow, {hooting out firit therad- 
icle,then the plume,fpire or blade. 
But the procefs is to be Hop 
ped' fhort at the irruption of th 
radicle, otherwife the malt would 
be fpoiled. In order to flop it, 
they fpread the wet couch thin 
over a large floor, and keep turn~ 
ing it once in four or five hours, 
for the fpace of two days, laying 
it fomewhat thicker each time. 
After this it is again thrown into 
a large heap, and there fuffered to 
grow fenfibly hot to the hand, as 
it ufually will in twenty or thirty 
hours : Then being fpread again, 
and cooled, it is thrown upon 
the kiln, to be dried crifp with 
out Icorching. If thefe direc- 
j tions be followed, the malt will 
ahvays be good. 

" The method of malting In 
dian corn, or Virginia wheat, is 
much lefsJaborious. For, if tl/is 
corn be buried two or three inch-' 
-es deep in the earth, and covered 
with the loofe mould, in ten or 
twelve days time the corn will 
fprotit, and appear like a green 
field ; .at which time being taken 
up, and warned or fanned from 
the dirt, it is immediately com 
mitted to the kiln, and by this 
means becomes good malt." 

MALT DUST, the dull which 
falls from the kiln, while malt is 
drying. Repeated experiments 
made by Europeans, have citab- 
lifhed the credit of this dull; as a 
manure for HirT loams and clays. 
A good drefling of it has been 
found to increafe a crop of bar- 
Icy as much as fifty per cent, and 
wheat Hill more. The quantity 
ufed is from thirty to fixty bum- 
els per acre, according to circum- 
Hances. It is ufed rnoflly, or 
i only, as a top drefling. Itexcrts 
| its ftrength fo fuddcnly as to be 
i nearly exhauHed with one crop. 


It mould not be fown together 
with winter wheat, but upon it 
in December or January follow 
ing : For if it be fown early, it 
will exert its ftrength too foon, 
and bring the wheat forward too 
faft, as has been proved by exper 
iments. For barley, this dreifing 
ihould be fown with the feed and 
harrowed in. A fmall dreffing 
of this manure on grafs land, 
mightily increafes the vegeta 
tion, and the fweetnefs of the.grafs. 

Maltfters ihould carefully pre- 
ferve this precious manure in 
fome place where it will not con 
tract dampnefs. It may be of 
ufe to farmers in their neigh 
bourhood : But it cannot be 
come a manure of general ufe, 
the whole quantity that is made 
being To final 1. 

MANURE, any kind of fub- 
ilance fuitable to be laid on land 
to increafe its fertility. 

,JVlanures contribute feveral 
ways to the producing of this ef 
fect : Either by increafmg the 
quantity of vegetable food in ths 
foil or by preparing- the nour- 
ifhment already contained in the 
foil to enter the roots of plants 
or by enlarging the vegetable paf- 
ture in which roots fpread and feck 
their food or by attracting the 
food of vegetables from tire air. 
Some of the manures increafe 
fruitfulnefs in all thefe ways, par 
ticularly the dung of animals, 
rotted vegetables, &c. Other ma 
nures perform each office, ex 
cepting the firft : And fome have 
no other immediate effecl: befides 
opening and loofening the foil : 
But even thefe la ft kinds may 
fometimes be ufed to great ad 

There are different ways of or 
dering and managing manures, 
according to their different na 
tures. Some are to be applied 
to land without alteration, or 


mixing ; the reft to be prepared 
by compounding and fermenta 
tion : Some are fuitable for ftiff- 
and fome for light foils : Some 
to be mixed in the foil by the 
plough and harrow ; other kind? 
to be ufed only as top dreffings. 

Farmers and gardeners fhould 
not be fo inattentive to their own 
intereft, or that of their employ 
ers, as to fuffer a variety of valu 
able manures to lie ufelefs, while 
they are fuffering for want of 
them. J have drawn up the fol 
lowing lift for their benefit, hop 
ing that fuch a variety, all ot 
which can be had by one or oth 
er, in this country, and by moft 
farmers in plenty, might excite 
the ambition of fome to make ufe 
of their advantages, and fuffer 
no manures to efeape their atten 

The fubftances fit to be ufed 
as manures, are either animal, 
vegetable, foflil, or mixed. 

Animal manures are fuch as 
thefe that follow : 

Putrefied Jlejli, fuch as the car- 
caffes of animals, or meat not well 
faved. This may be an ingredi 
ent in compoft, or buried at the 
foot of fruit trees to increafe their 
fruitfulnefs. Dead horfes, dogs, 
cats, rats, and uneatable birds, 
ihould, inftead of putrefying the 
air by rotting above ground, be 
thus converted to an economical 
purpofe. When the carcaffes of 
animals are buried in dunghills, 
it may be proper to lay over 
them fome bumes of thorn, to 
prevent ravenous dogs from tak 
ing them away. 

Blood, mixed with faw duft, 
and ufed as a top dreffing, &c. 
See the article Blood. 

Hair, a top dreffing for grafs 
land ; under the furface of a dry 
foil in tillage ; or ufed in com 
poft. In either way it is an ex 
cellent fertilizer, 


Feathers, fuch as have been 
worn out in beds, or are unfit to 
go into them in compo/l. 

Rffufi wool, fuch coarfe dag 
locks as are not fit for carding 
covered with the plough in a dry 
foil. They will ferve as fpunges 
to retain moifture, and be a rich 
food for plants when they are dif- 
folved. So will 

Woollen rags, chopped to piec 
es, for a light foil. They mould 
be cut as fraall as an inch fquare. 
Twenty four bufhels are faid to 
be a fufficient quantity for the 
dreffing of an acre. Thefe fhould 
be under the furface. 

Hoofs of cattle Jimp, 8cc. If 
large hoofs were fet in holes with 
the points downward in. a dry 
foil, fo low as not to be difturbed 
by the plough, they would caufe 
the land to retain raoiflure, and 
hold the manure, not only by the 
fpunginefs of their fub fiance, but 
alfo more efpecially by their hol- 

Bones, of all kinds, pounded or 
broken into fmall pieces, with 
hammers or mallets. This is an 
incomparable manure, if they 
have not been burnt, nor boiled 
in foap. But in either way they 
mould befaved for manure. Six 
ty bufhels are a fufficient dreffing 
for an acre. 

Rawjkins of all kinds of ani 
mals. Thefe mould be cut into 
fmall pieces, and ufed for light 
loils, ploughed in. 

Le&tker t new or old, in fmall 
bits, for dry foils, ploughed in. 

Curriers' Jliavings, cut fmall, 
for a foil of fand or gravel, 
ploughed in. 

Oil, of all forts, ufed in com- 
pofts, not applied to the foil till 
a year after it is mixed, that it 
may be diffolved and altered. 

FiJIi, of all kinds, from the 
whale to the mufcle ; they are 
belt ufed in compoits j and 

M A N 197 

fhould lie a year, that their oil 
may be diffolved, and fitted for 
the nourilhing of plants. 

Ojfalol fi(h, in compofts, fit 
for one foil or another, accord 
ing to the predominant ingredi 
ents of the mixture. 

The vegetable manures are good, 
though not fo ftrong as animal 
ones. They can be had in great 
er plenty in moft places ; and 
ought to be laid on in larger 

Green vegetables, fuch as all the 
otherwife ufelefs weeds in fields 
and gardens. Thefe fhould be col 
lected and rotted in heaps. They 
are a good manure for all foils, 
and to nourifh all forts of plants. 

Aquatick weeds, fuch as grow 
in the borders of ponds and riv 
ers. Thefe fhould be collected 
in large heaps on the higher 
ground, and covered with turis, 
the grafs fide outwards. Thefe 
heaps will be eafily made in forne 
places, and will be a valuable 
manure. Some fay, care fhould 
be taken to prevent their taking 
fire by fermenting, as their heat 
will be very great. 

Straw, and other offal of corn 
of all kinds, rotted in farm yards, 
or dung pits. 

Rcfufc hay, both frefh and fait, 
rotted in yards, and trampled on 
by cattle, and mixed with their 

Tfiatch, that grows by the fides 
of fait creeks, or the parts of it 
which cattle will not eat, mould 
be thrown into the farm yard, to 
putrefy. Thus a great increafe 
cf good manure may be made. 

The haulm of all dry vegeta 
bles, fuch as the ftalks of pota 
toes, beans, peas, &c. . Even the 
offal of flax, if it have fufficient 
time to. rot, will be a good manure. 

Fern, a vegetable peculiarly a- 
dapted to the purpofe of making 
manure, See Fern. 


ag8- MAN 

Lees of fermented liquors, rot 
ten fruit, and pomace, in compoft. 

Oil cakes, which may begot at 
the mills where linfeed oil is fac- 
tured, for top dreffing, being 
firft pulverized. 

Tanner' shark from , Fermcnted 
the oak tree, 

Rotten wood, 
Saw duft, 

be laid on 
clayey and 
ftifF foils. 

Decayed Jhips> 

Wood ajhes, a good top dreffing 
for almoft any kind of foils, but 
beft for a moift one. 

Coal aJJies, top dreffing for 
cold damp foils. 

Coal diift, top dreffing for low 

Malt duft. See that article. 

Sea plants, rock weed, eel 
grafs, &c. are the moft valuable 
of green vegetables for manure. 
They fhould be either ploughed 
into the foil, or mellowed in 
compoft dunghills. It is a wrong 
practice to ufe them as top drefi- 
irigs. Much of their virtue in 
this way is loft. 

Mofs, mixed with dung in 
holes for a dry foil. Good for 

Linen rags ; thefe will be a ma 
nure worth faving, but they take 
a long time to putrefy in com 

The fojjil or earthy manures 
are thefe : 

Lime, mixed with the foil, or 
in compofts, for ftifF foils. See 
the article Lime. 

Marie, moft fuitable in gener 
al for light foils. See the article 

Sand, in roads, wafhed down 
from hills, to open a ftifF clayey 
foil. See the article Sand. 

Plaijler of "j Abforbent ma- 
Paris, and I nures for cold 
Duft of | wet foils, for top 
kewnjl&nes, j dreffing. 


Gravel, for a wet puffy fwamp,, 
Clay, to mix with the plough 
and harrow in a fandy or gravel 
ly foil. It fhould be expofed to 
the ation of thefroft one winter 
before it is ploughed in. Other- 
wife it will remain a long time 

!To be mixed 
with a fandy or 
gravelly foil; but 
beftin compofts, 
with dung. See 
the article Mud. 

AJlies of fea coal for cold itifF 

Peat, when reduced to afhes, 
top dreffing for all foils, beft for 
a cold one. See Peat. 

Turfs, either in compofts, or 
dried and burnt. They may 
be takew from the fides of high 
ways without damage. Thefe 
places are the walks of cattle and 
f wine, where much dung is drop 
ped ; the turf is therefore a rich 
ingredient in manure. 

Shells of mell fifh, ploughed 
in whole, are a good manure for 
dry foils ; and ground or pound 
ed fmall for ftifF land. 
Brick duft, 1 To open a clayey, 
Burnt clay,) or warm a cold foil. 

Beach /and, to open a ftifF, and 
warm a cold foil. That which 
has a fine grain is the beft. 

Pit fand, of any colour, to 
meliorate a foil of ftifF clay. It 
fhould be laid on plentifully. 

The mixed folid manures are 

Dung of all kinds. Though 
it chiefly confifts of rotten vege 
tables, there is a mixture of ani 
mal juices in it, and fome of the 
fineit particles of the earth. 
Moft dungs mould be mixed 
with the foil, by the plough or 
harrow. See the article Dung. 

Compojls of every kind, fit for 
light or ftifF foils, according to 
the difference of their predomi 


ixant ingredients ; or a general 
manure for all foils. 

The fcr apings of hack yards, 
for all kinds of foil, but when 
containing chips, (havings of 
wood or much law duft, tor Itiff 

Rubbifk of old houfes, for cold 
and ftiff foils. This contains 
much nitre in compofts it is of 
moft: advantage. 

Earth that has been long un 
der cover. This commonly col- 
lefts much nitre. Beft in com 

Scraping of flreets, a general 
manure, fit for all foils. Farm 
ers who live in the vicinity of 
cities, and great towns, Ihould 
always avail themfelves of this 
kind of manure. 

Mixed liquid manures. 

Old brine of falted meat or fifli, 
which contains, befides fait, fome 
blood, oil, &c. in compofts. 

Sea water, which contains 
other things befides water and 
fait, fit to nourifh vegetables. It 
may be fprinkled on land, or 
ufed in com polls. 

Soap Jitds replete with a pre 
pared food for plants ; excellent 
for watering gardens in dry 
weather. None of this ihould be 
loft. If the garden be diftant, or 
wet, it may enrich the dunghill. 

Urine of all animals that are 
mingent. This contains earth 
and animal juices, falts and oil ; 
and is, next to dung, perhaps the 
moft valuable and important 
of all manures. See the article 

Water in the. hollows of farm 
yards. Inftead of fuffering this 
rich liquor to foak into the bow 
els of the earth, it Ihould be taken 
up by mulch, or fome abforbent 
fubftancc thrown into it, or elfe 
carried out in a water cart, and 
fprinkled over a foil that needs 

MAN 199 

Water that runs from compofl 
dunghills. This fhoul d be thrown 
back upon dunghills, or elfe ufed 
as the preceding article. 

Liquors from die hoiifis. This 
Ihould be ufed in compofts. 

After all, I may add Salt, be 
ing diftinft from all other ma 
nures, an important ingredient in 
the food of plants, and adapted 
to prepare other ingredients. 
Some apply it as it is, but it has 
a better effecl: when ufed in com 

If our farmers in general would 
be perfuaded to avail themfelves 
of fo many of thefe manures as 
fall in their way, or can be eafily 
obtained, we mould no longer 
hear fo many difmal complaints 
as we do, of fhort crops, and worn 
out lands. The face of the coun 
try would foon be furprifingly 

But that manures may fully 
anfwer their intention, they muft 
be judicioully applied. We 
mould not only apply each ma 
nure to the foil for which it is 
moft fuitable, but at feafons when 
it will produce the moft valuable 
efFecl. For a general rule it is 
beft to apply thole rich ferment 
ing manures, which are to be mix 
ed in the foil, as near as may be 
to the time when the ground is 
feeded. Dung Ihould be plough 
ed in with the feed furrow, as it 
is called. Compofts may be har 
rowed in with the feed. The 
reafon for applying thcfe ma 
nures at this time is obvious. 
They will begin to raife a fer 
mentation in the foil, almoft as 
foon as they are applied ; fo that 
if there be no feed, nor plants to 
be nourilhed by them, fome part 
of the good effect of the manure 
will be loft. As part of the fer 
mentation will be paft, before the 
plants begin to grow ; fo there 
may be danger of its being over, 



before they have attained to their 
full growth. If fo, the foil will 
harden, and the plants will re 
ceive the lead quantity of nour- 
ifhment at the time when they 
need the grcatefL 

As to thofe manures which 
raife little or no fermentation, 
they may be laid on at any time 
when the farmer has leifure for 
it, as fand on a clayey, gravel 
on a boggy and puffy foil ; or 
clay, marie, or mud, on a light 

H It has been too much pra&ifed 
in this country, to apply fcanty 
dreflings to lands in tillage, hard 
ly fufficient to have a perceptible 
effect, and to repeat it year after 
year. But this, I think, is a 
v;rong practice. A fufficient dreff- 
ing once in two years, I have al 
ways found to do better than a 
half dreffing each year. This 
laft method does not fo well agree 
with a fucceflion of crops ; be- 
caufe fome crops require a much 
greater degree of ftrength in the 
foil than others do. Let us then 
rather follow the example of the 
European farmers, who common 
ly manure very plentifully once 
in a. courfe of crops, and no 
more ; and the year the manure 
is laid on, take a crop that re 
quires the greateftaffiftance from 
manure, or that bears high ma 
nuring beft, or makes the belt re 
turns for manure : Afterwards, 
crops that need lefs manure, till 
the end of the courfe. Perhaps 
the year of manuring in this 
country mould be chiefly for In 
dian corn. This crop is not ea- 
iily overdone with manure, and 
it pays well for high manuring. 
And this happens well for us, as 
a hoed crop, when the dung is 
ufed, will prevent the increafe of 
weeds, which a plentiful dunging 
will greatly promote in every 
kind of foiL 


) MAPLE, acer, a tree. See 
: Sycamore. 

MARE, the female of a horfe. 
Breeding mares jfhould be free 
from difeales ; and have good 
eyes ; becaufe the colts are apt 
to inherit their diftempers. They 
Ihould be the firongeft, beft fpir- 
ited, and well fhaped ; not of any 
bad colour. If any defefts are 
difpenfed with, the mare and the 
ftallron mould by no means have 
the fame defeats. In fuch cafe 
there can be but little profpeft 
that the iffue will be good. Some 
fay they mould not breed with 
ftallions of the fame blood. Croff- 
ing the breed is faid to be of great 
confequence. Mares ihould not 
be fuffered to breed till after four 
years old ; and the beft time for 
them to take horfe is about the 
latter end of June, then they will 
not foal till the fame part of the 
month of the following May, 
when the grafs will be grown, 
which is better to make mares 
give milk than dry food is. 

Mares that are with foal mould 
be houfed the earlier in the fall; 
and fed well till foaling. For 
the laft month or two before foal 
ing, they mould not be ridden 
fwiftly, nor be put to draw at all, 
nor to cany heavy burdens on 
their backs. 

MARKING of cattle. As 
one man's cattle, horfes, and 
fhecp, have very often fuch a re- 
fernblance to thofe of another, 
that they cannot eafily be diftiri- 
guifhed ; and as they often graze 
together on commons, or in com 
mon paftures, marks for thele 
different animals have been found 

I have known no other mark 
ing ufcdfor horfes than branding 
with a hot iron, on the fhoulder 
or thigh. As thefe marks are not 
ornamental, moft perfons choofe 
that their horfes mould have no 


marks, but natural ones, as they are i 
called, fuch as particular fpots on 
them ot different colours, c. In 
this cafe, thefe natural difcrimi- 
nations fhouldbe regiftered j be- 
caufe, in cafes of difpute in law, 
no owner's word, who is a: party, 
will be taken as evidence. 

The marking of neat cattle on 
the horn, with the branding iron, 
is foeafily done, and without giv 
ing them pain,and is fo permanent; 
that it ihould never be negle&ed. 
The brand mould be made near 
er the point than the root of the 
horn, on the outfide which is 
inoft expofed to view, and not 
very deep, efpecially on young- 
cattle, which have thinner horns' 
than older ones. Burning a 
horn through to trie pith will 
hurt a creature, and will fpoil the 
horn for certain ufes afterwards. 
The fame kind of mark would 
be preferable for fheep, if they 
all had horns ; as" they have not, 
fome other mark, alike furtable 
for all, Ihould be ufed. Mark 
ing them on the wool is a bad 
practice. Some of the wool is 
fpoiledand loft by it; and,atlong- 
eft,itcan laft only to the next {hear 
ing ; oftentimes not fo long ; and 
an uncertain mark is worfe than 
none. The ear mark muft be 
ufed, thoiigh the operation gives' 
fome pain to the animals. 
Thefe marks may be diftinctfor a 
great number of flocks. And 
tliefe marks ihould be matter of 

MARLE, a fine fat kind of 
cfarthj but littde coherent, and 
eality diifolved in water. It is 
allowed to be one of the richeft 
of manures. It is of various 
colours IFU different places, grey, 
blue, brown, yellow, red, arid 
mixed. It is diftinguifhable into 
three forts, ftone marie, clay 
. marie, and llate rnarle. The firft 
is hard, the fecond foft, the laft 

A 2 


is found in thin lamina,like (late. 
Each kind, however, is of thd 
fame nature as the others. 

Marie i s faid to havebeeri found 
in fevefal parts of this country. 
Poffibly it may abound in all 
parts ; if fo, it may double the 
value of our lands when it cornes 
to be in general ufe. People 
mould make themfelves ac 
quainted with the nature and ufe 
of it, that they may be difpofed 
to feek for it, arid be able to dif- 
tinguifti it from all Other earths- 
It often bears fo near a refem- 
blartce to clay, that the one may 
be eafily miftaken for the other. 
That we may be able to diftin- 
guifti thefe fubftances, ^ve mould 
remember, that mafle is apt to> 
break into little fquare bits, like 
dice ; that when it is wetted, it 
has riot the tenacity of clay ; that 
after being expofed to the weath 
er, it eafily falls to pieces with a 
blow ; that after tying oft the 
fur face for fome time, it looks as 
if it were covered with white 
froft, or with a fprinkling of fine 

Marie effervefces with acids j 
but this effervefcence does notdif- 
tinguifli it from other calcarious 
foflils. , , 

It has beerf faid that a mofl: in 
fallible way to diftiMguifti marie 
from other earths, is, to drop a 
piece of dry marie, a's big as a 
nutmeg 1 , into a glafs" of cl'ear wa 
ter, where it will fend u'p many 
fparkles to the fur face of the wa 
ter, arid foori diflblve into a foft 
pap. But I have found that 
fome clays exhibit nearly tho 
faitie appearances. 

Sometimes the beds of rriarle 

are near the yfurface, but they are 

oftener found deep in the earth. 

It is fqmetimes found on the 

banks of ditches, by means ofc 

j the rank growth of weeds and 

i grafs on it. Boring with a long 


M A R 

auger, or the' fcrew borer, may 
difcover where it is. Two kinds 
ot marie were lately found at 
Penobfcot in digging a well. 
Sometimes it is very dry and 
compa6l in the earth, but in fome 
places almoft liquid. Earths, 
thrown out of wells, if they have 
a clayey appearance, fhould al 
ways be examined. 

Maries have been known to 
fertilize all kinds of foil, but 
light fandy ones more than any 
other. But as Dr. A. Hunter, 
by decompounding, has proved 
that marie confifts of particles 
of lime ftone, mixed.with clay or 
fand, or both ; according as ei 
ther of thefe ingredients is more 
predominant in: it, the foil will 
be indicated for which it is moft' 
iuitable. That which contains 
the leaft proportion of clay will- 
be proper manure for a IHfffoil, 
being of the moftabforbent kind ;: 
that which has the largeft propor 
tion of clay 'fhould be applied to 
a fandy foil. To difcover the 
proportion of thefe fubftances in 
marles, the fame ingenious wri 
ter advifes as follows : 

; ' Having dried and powder 
ed the marie to be examined, 
pour upon any given weigritof it 
a final 1 quantity of water. To 
this mixture, well fhaken, add a 
little of the acid of fea fait, 
and when the confequenfc cffer- 
vefcence is over, add a little 
more. Repeat this addition at 
proper intervals, till no more ef- 
iervefcence enfiies. Then throw 
the whole, with an equal or 
greater proportion of water, into 
a filter of grey paper, whofe 
weight is known. When all the 
fluid parts have paffed through, fill 
up the filter again and again, with 
9|arm water. By this means the 
difTolved particles of calcareous 
earth, adhering to the refidue, or 
ntang.led in the pores of the paper, 


will be warned away, and 
ing but what is really unfoluble 
will remain in the filter. This 
rtjtduum, with the filter, muft 
be completely dried and weigh 
ed. Then the difference be 
twixt its weight and the orig 
inal weight of the filter, gives 
you the weight of unfoluble parts- 
contained in the marie under ex 
amination. This being known, 
the proportion of calcarious earth 
in the fame rnarle is evident. 
The proportions of clay and 
fand in it are discovered by fub- 
jecling the refiduum to a proper 
elutriation. This operation is 
very fimple, and performed thus : 
Having weighed the dry refidue, 
mix and fhake it well with afuf- 
ficient quantity of water. After 
allowing a little time forthefub- 
fidence of the groffcr parts, let 
the \vater, with the finefl parti 
cles of clay fufpended in it, be gent 
ly poured off. When this is done, 
add more water to the remainder, 
and after fufficient mixture and 
fubfidence, pour off that likewife. 
In the fame manner repeat the 
operation, again and again, till 
the water comes over perfectly 
pure. The fubitance which then 
remains is fand, mixed perhaps 
with fome flakes of talc ; and 
whatever this fubftance wants of 
the weight of the refidue employ 
ed, is the weight of pure clay 
carried away by the water in the 
procefs of elutriation." Georgtcal 

If five parts in fix prove to be 
calcarious in a piece of marie, 
the lime is predominant, and it is 
fit for the fliffer foils ; if two 
thirds only be calcarious, and the 
reft clay, it is fit for a fandy 
foil, &c. 

The calcarious part of marie 
does not produce fo quick an ef 
fect as lime, when ufed as ma- 
nu|s ; becaufe the latter is burnt, 


M A R 

flakes fuddenly. This feems 
=to be the true difference, which 
Is not effential ; becaufe the cal- 
caricus part of marie gradually 
(lakes ia the earth without burn 
ing. Like lime, it attracts and 
imbibes the acids of the earth and 
air, forming a fait, which dif- 
folves the oils, increafes the paf- 
ture of plants, and prepares the 
food of plants to enter their roots. 

The quantity -of marie to :be 
applied to an acre is about fixty 
loads. Some fandy foils may 
bear more of the clay marie ; 
rich foils need not near fp much, 
of the kind of marie which fuits 

Marie mould be mellowed by 
the froft of one winter before it 
is buried in the foil ; even in this 
cafe, it will not fertilize the foil fo 
much the firft year as afterwards. 
Some marles do not produce 
their ful-1 efFefttill the third year, 
as they diffolve (lowly. Some 
fay the good effect of one full 
<lreffmg with marie will lait thir 
ty years. 

As good foils may be over 
done with this manure, it is bet 
ter to err at firft in laying on too 
little than too much. More may 
be added at any time. As the 
principal effects of marie 2re 
like thofe of lime, it is not to be 
expecled that marling a fecond 
time will have fo good an effefl: as 
the firft. T his obfervation is fakl 
to be confirmed by experience. 

There is another fort of marie 
no lefs valuable than the former 
kind ; and much ufed in old 
countries. It is cornpofed chief 
ly of broken fhells, which were 
undoubtedly once the (hells of 
marine animals, mixed with a 
proportion of (and. It fotne- 
times alfo contains a mixture of 
mofs and decayed wood. 

This marie is udially found 
under mofs, or peat, in low furik- 

M A R 


en parts of the earth ; and efpe~ 
cially thofe which are nigh to 
the fea, or confiderable rivers. 
Mr. Mills fays, " Whoever finds 
this rnarle finds a mine of great 
value. It is one of the beft and 
mod general manures in nature ; 
proper for all foils, and particu 
larly fo far clay." This fort of 
marie, as well as the other, may be 
eafily found by boring. It has 
been fomethnes difcovered by- 
ant hills, as thefe infects bring 
up fome final! pieces of (hells 
from their holes. One would 
think that this country muft be 
furnifhed as plentifully as any oth 
er with this kind of marie ; wheth 
er we fuppofe the beds to have 
been formed by the general del 
uge, by the raging of the fca and in- 
undationsiince that great event, or 
-by the (liiitingof the beds of rivers. 

The goodnefs of this rnarle 
depends upon the (hells, which 
are the principal, and fometimes 
almoft the whole that it contains. 
It is much of the nature of lime, 
and will go further than other 
marie. It efferYx^c-clTilrongly 
with all acids. 

MARSH, according to Dr. 
Johnfon, a fen, bog, or fwamp. 
In this country the word is ufed 
only to fignify flat land, border 
ing on the fea, and lying fo low 
as to be often overflowed by the 
tides, when they are fulleft. 

Marmes are diftinguimed into 
high marfh and low mar Hi. The 
former bears a very fhort grafs, but 
in many places very thick ; the 
latter produces a tall rank grafs, 
called thatch. Both thcfe forts 
of grafs are too highly impreg 
nated with fait to be a conftant 
food for cattle ; hut the long 
grafs is falter than the fhort, as it 
is ottener wetted with fea water 
during its growth. 

It is efleemed healthy for 
horfes, cattle, and Iheep, to have 


M E A 

fome of this fort of land in their 
paflure ; or to be turned, now 
and then for a few days, into a 
marfh. At leaft it jfaves the 
trouble and expenfe of giving 
them fait. In England, it is 
thought to fave fheep frpm that 
fatal diftemper, ttye rot. 

Marmes are certainly the rich- 
<eft of our lands, as appears by 
the aftoni filing degree of fruitful- 
nefs, apparent ir> jthofe peices 
from which the fea has been ex 
cluded by dikes. Marfr? may be 
fo far improved by diking and 
tillage, without manuring, that 
inftead of producing lefs than 
one ton of fait hay per acre, it 
ihall produce fhree tons of the 
bed kinds of hay. The value of 
this foil mult needs be great, as 
it is not exhauftcd by cropping, 
and needs no manure, unlefs it 
be fand, or fome other cheap fub- 
ftance. to dry and harden it. 

Some marihes require a long 
fJike to exclude the fea, in pro 
portion to the land it contains ; 
others a fhort one, as where the 
marfh is narrowest towards the 
fea. He that poifeffcs a marfh of 
the latter kind, can undertake no 
buiinefs that will be more profit 
able than diking it. Two men 
can eafily build a rod of dike up 
on high marih in a. day. Through 
the hollows and creeks, more 
work wil} be required. 

If a marfri, after it is diked, 
ihould ])Q rather too wet for til 
lage, aditch fhould be made round 
by the upland to cut off the frefh 
water, both above and below the 
furface, and lead it to the outlet 
or fluice. See Dike, and Sluice. 

MATTOCK, a pickaxe. 
This is a ufeful inftrument in fink 
ing wells, digging trenches, ditch 
es, &c. 

MEADOW, grafs land for 
jnowing. In this country the word 
is feldom ufed to iignify upland 

M E A 

mowing ground, but that which 
is low and moid, and feldom or 
never ploughed. In other coun 
tries it is the name of all mowing 

Too much or too little moif- 
ture is hurtful to thefe meadows, 
Thofe that are apt to be too wet 
mould be made drier by ditching 
or by draining, if it be practica 
ble. They may be made drier 
alfo by fpreading fand, gravel, or 
coal jduft,' upon them : At the 
fame time, their fruitfulnefs will 
be increafed, and better kinds of 
grafs may be introduced. 

When they are become dry, 
they fhould be ploughed and till 
ed, if the foil be riot a tou^h clay 
with only an inch or two of black 
mould above it. In this cafe, I 
think a low meadow fhould nqt 
be ploughed at all. Inftead of 
ploughing, perhaps it would be 
better to cut away the hillocks 
and unevenneffes j which by rot 
ting in heaps, or burning, may 
be converted into good manure 
for the foil. And to jncreafethe 
thicknefs of good foil, let fand 
and other earths, with dung, be 
fpread over it. 

When the foil is a loofe crum 
bly clay, fuch as is found under 
fome meadows, fuch a meadow 
may be converted to tillage land 
with great advantage. 

Flooding in the fpring not on 
ly enriches, the foil of meadows, 
but makes them bear a {harp 
drought the belter. It caufes the 
grafs to grow fo rapidly that the 
foil is fooner fcreened from the 
fcorching heat of the fun. 

Particular care fhould be al 
ways taken to keep cattle, out of 
meadows in the fpring and {all, 
when they are very wet and (bit. 
For they will fo break and fpoil 
the fward with their {eet, that it 
will not be fit for mowimj, nor 
bear more than half a crop. All 


M E L 

the fall feeding of fuch land 
Jhould be over, before the heavi- 
eil rains of autumn. In the 
fpring, no hoof mould, by any 
means, be fuffered to go upon a 
foft meadow. It occafions fo 
inuch lofs and damage, that a 
farmer had better give treble price 
for hay to feed his cattle, or buy 
corn ior them, than to turn them 
in, as fome do, to eat the grafs 
that firft fprings, and which has 
but little more nourifhment in it 
than water. No hufbandry can 
be worfe, if hufbandry it may be 

Meadows that bear poor water 
graffes mould be mown rather be 
fore the grafs is grown to its full 
iize. The hay will be fo much 
fweeter and better, that what it 
wants in quantity will be more 
than made up in its quality. And 
the lofs of quantity may perhaps 
be made up in fall feeding ; or 
elfe a fecond crop may be taken. 

I have long obfer ved that heavy 
rains commonly fall before the 
end of Auguft, by which low 
meadows are often flooded. 
Therefore, there is danger in de 
laying to mow them till it is fo 
late. The crop may be either 
totally loft, or men muft work 
in the water to fave it in a damag 
ed condition. 

MEASLES, a difcafe in fwine. 
The eyes are red and inflamed, 
and the fkin rifes in pimples, and 
runs into fcabs. To cure a 
fwine of this difeafe, take half a 
fpoonhil of fpirit of hartfhorn, 
and two ounces of bole armcni- 
ac, mix it with meal and water, 
and give it him ifi the morning 
when he is hungry. Jlepeat the 
dofe every day, till he is cured, 
which will be in four or five 
da vs. 

MELON, a pleafant tafted, 
cooling fruit. It grows beftina 
warm climate ; and is large and 

M E S 


excellent in the fouthern dates. 
But they will ripen in Neweng- 
land, in the common way of 
planting ; but are not fo large, 
nor fo early in the moft northern 
parts. Some improvement has 
lately been made in this fruit, by 
bringing feeds from the fouth- 
ward. Whether this will be a 
lading advantage time will fhew. 

Of all the kinds of melons, 
Mr. Miller greatly prefers the 
cantaleupe, a native of America. 
But I have not heard whether it 
has yet found its way into this 

The fame writer fays, the feeds 
of melons mould be three years 
old before they are planted ; and 
that thofe feeds which are fo light 
as to fwim on water, are not good 
to plant. Melons grow beft on 
a fandy loam, which has a warm 
expofure tothefouth orfoutheaft. 
The vines fhould be flickered a 
gainft cold winds which flop their 
growth ; and againfl 4)oifterous 
winds from any quarter, which 
will hurt them, by difhirbmg and 
difplacing their vines. 

A good manure to be put un 
der melons, is an old compofl of 
good loam, with the dung of 
heat cattle or fwine. The ends 
of the runners, and the fruit lat- 
eft formed, fhould be taken off, 
that the fruit firft formed may 
Lave more nourifhment, grow 
larger, and arrive to the greater 
perfection. To raife melons on 
hot beds, under frames, or un 
der hand glafles, fee Gardener's 

MESLIN, wheat mixed with 
other grain in fowing. The 
name is moft commonly applied 
to a mixture of wheat and rye. 
But there is an unfitnefs in fow 
ing thtfe together, as wheat re 
quires the beft foil and tillage, 
and rye will anfwer with the 



I fh<Duld greatly prefer the 
mixture of fpring wheat and bar 
ley, as barley requires nearly as 
good a foil, and as many plough- 
iflgs, as wheat. But that which 
chiefly recommends this mixture, 
is, that wheat will not blight 
when it is fown with barley. 
This has been proved by the ex 
perience of a number of farmers 
in my neighbourhood, who are 
encouraged toperfift in the prac 
tice. This confirms a hint that 
was thrown out by Mr. Eliot, 
in his EJJays. 

Whatihouldbe the reafon why 
barley prevents the blightiifg of 
wheat, may be worthy of the in 
quiry of naturalifls. "May it not 
poflibly be this ? That the large, 
bufhy beards of the barley fo en- 
clofe the necks of the ftems of 
wheat, as to defend them in fome 
degree from cold in the cool 
nights ; fo that the fap in the 
ftems of wheat is not fo much 
thickened by the cold, as to be 
obftrucled in its afcent to the ear ? 
The worftcircumftance attend 
ing this kind of meflin, is the 
difficulty of feparating the two 
forts of grain. Though wheat 
does no harm in malt, barley is 
a poor ingredient in bread. So 
that there is need of making the 
feparation. Barley being light 
er than wheat, will moftly fall 
nearer to the tail of the meet in 
winnowing, by means of which, 
fome of the wheat maybe almoft 
or quite extricated from the bar 
ley. Throwing it with a (hovel 
may do 1 more towards feparat 
ing the two forts. The lighter 
grain will drop ihortof the heap. 
METH EGLIN, a pleafantfer- 
mented liquor, made of honey 
and water. It is made thus : Put 
fo much new honey into fpring 
water, that when the honey is 
diflblved, an egg will not fink to 
the bottom, Soil the liquor for 

M I C 

an hour. When cool, barrel it 
up, adding a fpoonful of yeaft to 
ferment it. Some add ginger 
half an ounce to a barrel, and as 
much cloves and mace ; but I 
have had it very good without 
any fpices. One hundred weight 
of honey will make a barrel of 
metheglin, as ilrong as good 
wine. I once had a barrel made 
with 90 pounds of honey. Af 
ter fermenting and fining, it was 
an excellent liquor ; fome part 
of which I kept bottled feveral 
years ; it lofes the honey talte 
by age, and grows lighter colour 
ed : But on the whole, it does 
not improve by age, like fome 

MICE, a well known genus 
of quadrupeds, troublefome to 
all houfekeepers, but more ef- 
pecially to farmers, and thofe 
who keep quantities of grain in 
their houfes, or in granaries. 
Farmers mould know the belt 
ways of oppofing their depreda 
tions, and of deftroying them. 
The field moufe eats the bark of 
trees in nurferies and young orch 
ards, when fnow is on the ground, 
and moflly when it is deep. A 
good way to prevent this mif- 
chief is to tread down the fnow, 
and make it very compa6t, about 
the ftems of the trees. And 
though laying mulch about the 
roots of trees be good for the 
trees, it occafions the mice to in- 
creafe ; therefore I do not go in 
to that practice, while the trees 
are fmall, and have a fmooth 
bark. It is only while the trees 
are young that mice eat the bark. 
In fpring, the field mice eat 
corn and other feeds under the 
furface ; in the fummeY they hurt 
the grafs ; and in autumn I have 
found that they eat potatoes be 
fore they are dug up. I know 
not. whether the field moufe and 
thofe in houfes, barns and grana 

M I L 

*ies, be of the fame fpecies ; 
though the former are larger. But 
it has been found that both may be 
deftroyed by the fame poifon. 

Take a fpoonful of flour, mix 
ed with fome fcrapings of old 
cheefe, and feeds of hemlock, 
made as fine as poflible. Set it 
where they haunt. If it be fet 
in a houfe, let it not be in the 
fame apartment with any thing 
that is to be ufed as the food of 
man. This mixture will deilroy 
all the mice that eat it. 

But fince many fear to ufe poi 
fon, they may take them alive in 
wire cages. However, inflead 
of the round ones which are com 
monly ufed, I would recom 
mend fquare ones, enclofed in 
thin wooden boxes, with a hole 
in the box againfl the entrance 
of the cage ; becaufe a moufe 
will not fo readily enter into a 
place where he fees another con 
fined. The bait may be a rind 
of cheefe fcorched, madefaflto 
the centre of the bottom of the 
cage, and fo far from the hole 
that a moufe cannot reach it till 
he has got quite into the cage. 
For if he mould flick in the paf- 
fage, he will prevent the entrance 
of others. 

or HONEY DEW, a certain 
fweet tailed clammy fubflance, 
found in mornings, on the leaves 
of fome vegetables, the pores of 
which do not abforb it. Many 
have believed that this dew is the 
real caufe of the rufl, or dark 
coloured fpots, on the flems and 
leaves of blalled grain. This 
has been the popular way of ac 
counting for the difeafe, among 
my countrymen. It has been 
fuppofed, that this moiflure ad 
heres to the plants, and fo con- 
denfes as to obflruft their perfpi- 
ration, by which they ficken and 
become unfruitful. 

M I L 207 

The French call this diflemper 
in grain rouille, or ruft. It is un 
doubtedly the fame which the 
Romans called Rubigo. The 
flems and leaves are befpattered 
with brown fpots, and the grain 
appears fhrunk and fmall, in pro 
portion as thefe fpots abound on 
the plants. It moflly attacks 
wheat and rye, but fometimes al- 
fo oats and barley. 

Mr. Worlidge, an ingenious 
writer on hufbandry, was an ad 
vocate for the hypothefis I have 
mentioned. He therefore advif- 
ed to brufhing off fuch dew with 
a repe, before the fun could con- 
denfe it on the grain. But it is 
much to the difcred ; i of this opin 
ion, that though bruthing has oft 
en been tried, it has never been 
certainly known to have had the 
defired effe6r. I am one among the 
many who have tried it without ef- 
fe6l. M. Duhamel made trials, 
to determine whether this were 
the real caufe, by applying to the 
leaves of plants fuch glutinous 
fubflarices as were fufBcient to 
flop the perfpi ration ; but it had 
no fuch effect as rufl. How- 
much lefs can fuch an effect be 
expeclcd from adhefioris to the 
flems, fince the leaves are the 
principal organs of perfpiration ? 
Or when not a fourth part of the 
furface of a pl<mt is ever covered 
by the fpots ? 

Some impute this diflemper in 
grain to intenfe heat from the 
fun, happening after dry gloomy 
weather. But it is known that 
it attacks young plants in au 
tumn, when the heat from the 
fun is not great, nor the weather 
dry, and covers the leaves with 
fpots of rufl. 

Mr. Miller and others fuppofe 
infe&s to have a hand in this dif- 
temper ; either originally, or af 
ter the flems are wounded. But 
microfcopical obfervations have 


M I L 

not afforded reafon to believe 
this to be the true caufe. And Mr. 
Tillet has obferved that the fpots 
are ohiifferent colours on different 
plants, according to their differ 
ent kinds of lap ; from whence 
it may feem probable that the fap, 
rather than infe&s, or their eggs 
or excrements, is the fubftance 
of which the fpots are formed. 

Some have fuppofed the fpots 
to be made by the intenfe action 
of the fun on the drops of com 
mon dew, while they adhere to 
the flems after the fun is up, and 
colle6t the rays as lenfes, by 
\vhich the ftems are over heated 
under the drops, or rather burnt. 
But the ihape or thefe drops will 
hardly juftify fuch an opinion : 
For though their convexity on 
the outfide is confiderable, their 
concavity on the infide is almoft 
the fame. Or if it mould be al 
lowed that the rays do converge 
a little in the drops, yet their ac 
tion on the ftems cannot be fo 
great as to diffolve their fub- 
ttance into that powder, of which 
the rufl is known to confift. Be- 
lides, if this were the caufe, the 
fpots would be made only on the 
eaftern fide* ot the ftems, which 
is contrary to fa61. They ap 
pear equally on every fide of the 
items. , 

Mr. Tillet's hypothefis feems 
to bid fairer than either of the 
foregoing to account for thisdif- 
temper. He thinks it is caufed 
by a fharpnefs in the air in dry 
cloudy weather, which breaks 
the veflels interwoven with the 
fubftance of the blades and ftems, 
and makes them difcharge a thick 
oily juice, which, by degrees, is 
turned into that rufty powder* 
He examined with a microfcope. 
and faw fmall openings in the 
membrane covering the plant 
where the pbwder lay : And ob- 
feived that the juice iffued 

M I L 

through thefe fmall openings., 
over which he faw fdme pieces 
of the membrane, which partly 
| covered the openings. Hence 
! he juftly concluded that the 1 
caufe of the difeafe is the wound 
ing of the fap veffels,frOrri which 
wounds the fap exudes, which 
mould pafs into the ear to per- 
fe5t the grain : But I greatly 
fufpe& he does not here aflign 
the true caufe of thefe fra&ures. 
It they were caufed by any un 
favourable ftate of the air, one 
would think that, of two adjoin 
ing fields, one would not efcape 
this diftemper, and the other be 
ruined by itj which is not an un 
common cafe. And M. Chat- 
eauvieux has remarked, that the 
whole of the fame field of wheat 
is not ufually affecled at the fame 
time. Beiides, M. Duhamel 
often applied to' plants acid and 
corrofive, alkaline and fpiritous 
liquors ; which trials did not 
produce any thing like ruft. 
How then can any fuch effluvi 
um in the air be fuppofed to cor 
rode and break the veflels of the 
ftems ? 

M. Chateauvieux believed 
that the powder which forms the 
ruft, is the extravafated juice of 
the plants, becaufe it flops their 
growth. As he had not obferved 
the ruft to come but in dry weath 
er, and when there were no dews, 
he conjectured that the want of 
moiiture caufes the furfaces of the 
ftems to crack, and pour forth 
their contents. Whether this 
be the true caufe or not, future 
obfervations and experience may 
enable us to determine. To me 
it does not appear very probable ; 
becaufe, in this country, in fome 
of the drieft feafons, grain has 
been moftfree from ruft. I rath 
er think this is generally the cafe. 

Were it proper that I mould 
attempt to aflign another caufe, 


M I L 

after the vain inquiries of fo ma 
ny of my fuperiours, I fhould af- 
cribe the burfting of the fap vef- 
fels to cold. The fafls that have 
led me to form this hypothefis are 
chiefly thefe : Firft, that in the 
col icr parts of North America, 
grain is far oftener hurt hy this 
diftemper than in the warmer ; 
oftener in the northern than . in 
the fouthern ftates. Secondly, 
becaufe early ripe grain moft com 
monly efcapes the ruft. Thirdly,' 
becaufe the ruft does not often 
appear on fummer grain, before 
the nights begin to grow colder, 
as they do about the latter end of 
July. From thefe observations, 
I have been led to think, that the 
increafmg cold of thefe nights 
thickens the fap in the leaves 
and the neck of the ftem, juft be 
low the ear, where it has thethin- 
neft covering, fo as to form ob- 
ftru&ions in the fap veffels : After 
which thepreffureof the fap up 
wards, in a warm day, is fo ftrong 
as to burft the veffels, and out 
ward membrane, and fo to form 
paffages for the fap to the fur- 
face of the ftems, &c. I am the 
more induced to adopt this hy 
pothefis, becaufe I have obferv- 
ecl the fpots ufually appear firft 
ie n-eck of the ftem, and are 
a! ys there in the greateft plen 

By a greater degree of cold 
than that which formed the firft 
obitruttions, I conceive aew ob- 
ftructions are formed below the 
wounds or fiflures, by means of 
which new cracks are made from 
whence the fap exucles : And 
thus the ftems may become fpot- 
ted, as they fometimes are, quite 
to the ground. 

I dare not abfoKueJy depend 
upon the truth of this theory, 
though I do not conceive how it 
can be othenvife. I would ear- 
neftly requeil ail who are able, 


MIL 209 

to make obfervations concerning 
this diftemper, that fo my opin 
ion may be either confirmed or 
refuted ; efpecially that light 
may be thrown on a fubjett that is 
very interefting to the inhabitants 
of this country. For we are not 
to expeft that we fiiall be able ef 
fectually to prevent or cure this 
diftemper, by which we fuffer 
greatly, until the caufe of it be 

If I have Been fo happy as to 
afiign the real caufe of ruft on 
grain, will it not follow, that 
the moft probable way to pre 
vent itmuft be, to bring our feed 
from a more northern climate, 
where it has been ufed to bear a 
greater degree of cold than it 
will meet with here ? This has 
been found to be the cafe by ex 
perience; and feems to be much 
in favour of my hypothefis. But 
it foon alters by repeatedly fow- 
ing it, fo as to become natural 
ized to our climate ; and as lia- 
able to this diftemper as any oth 
er feed : Whence I conclude, 
that it ought to be renewed once iri 
three or four years, at the longefh 

M. Chateauvieux cured rufty 
plants of wheat in autumn, by 
taking off the leaves clofe to the 
ground. If the ruft comes ort 
after the ftems are grown, he fup- 
pofed it to be incurable. But 
the rufting of the leaves is not 
always followed ty the rufting 
of the ftems ; and if the latter 
efcape, the grain will be well fil 
led. If there be no way of cur 
ing this diftemper, we ftiouldne- 
glecl nothing that we can do to 
prevent it. As to fpring grain, 
this I conceive may be done by 
new feed from the northward, by 
fowing early, and only on warm 
foils ; giving it plenty of tillage 
before fowing, and warm top dref- 
fings about the time of earing. 
By thefe means the grain will 


M I L 

get beyond its milky ftate, be 
fore the time when ruft is ex- 
peted to appear ; and the crop 
will be good, though fome fpots 
mould be formed on the grain 
afterwards, or when the grain is 
nearly arrived at its moft perfect 
flate of : fulnefs. 

Winter grain is not fo often 
bla'fted, becaufe it ripens earlier. 
.But that it may efcape an autum 
nal ruft, it- mould not be fown be 
fore the hotteft of fummer is paft. 
Some grains of wheat fown by 
M. Chateauvieux, on the fixth 
of July, were totally deftroyed 
by the ruft in autumn. Early 
fown winter grain undergoes too 
great a change of weather, from 
hot to cold. 

Some writers tell of other dif- 
tempers in grain, befides ruft, uf- 
tilago and frnut ; but I have met 
with no other in this country of 
any confiderable ex-tent ; there 
fore, I (hall not trouble the read 
er with the mention of any other. 
See the articles Burnt Grain and 

MILK, a nutritious liquor, 
which nature prepares in the 
breads of female animals, for the 
nourifliment of their young. 
The milk of cows is that with 
which the farmer is moft con 

That the greateft quantity of j 
milk may be obtained from cows, | 
they, fhouid not calve out of the 
right fcafon. April is a good 
time of the year, if the calves are | 
to be reared ; if not, perhaps , 
May is better, being rather more | 
iavourable to the dairy. But that 
eows may give plenty of milk 
to nourifh their calves at this fea- 
ibn, they fhould not be wholly 
confined to hay, or any other dry 
meat : But be daily fed with 
fome kind of juicy food, f'uch as 
potatoes, turnips, carrots, &c. 
*ntiJ they have plenty of grafs. 

M I L 

In feeding milch cows, the 
flavour of the milk mould be at 
tended to, unlefs it be when their 
calves fuck all their milk. Feed 
ing them with turnips is faid to 
give an ill tafte to the butter 
made of the milk. The decay 
ed leaves of cabbages will un 
doubtedly give a bad tafte to the 
milk, though the found heads 
will not. There is no fear of 
potatoes and carrots having any 
bad effecl; upon the milk in this 
way. The quantity of milk is 
greatly increafed by potatoes, 
but it becomes thinner. Some 
think carrots have a tendency ta 
dry up the milk in cows ; but I 
have allured myfelf of the con 
trary by much experience. 

The milk of cows in fummer 
is fometimes made very bitter 
by their feeding on ragweed, 
which they will do, when they 
are very hungry. To prevent 
this evil it is only neceffary that 
they fhould not be forced to eat 
it by the want of other food. 

MILLET, Panicum, a round 
yellowifh white grain, which 
grows in panicles at the top of the 
ftalk. The ftalks and leaves are 
like thofe of Indian corn, but 
fmaller. It grows to the height 
of three or four feet. A fandy 
warm foil fuits it beft. It mould 
be fown about the middle of 
May, in drills three feet apart. 
The plants fhould be fo thinned at 
the firft hoeing as to be about fix 
inches apart in the rows. It will 
produce as large crops as Indian 
corn, and bears drought admira 
bly well. Cattle are fond of eat 
ing it green, preferring it to clo 
ver. A crop of it fown thick, 
and mowed green, would be ex 
cellent fodder. 

Some fay a crop may be ob 
tained by lowing it at about mid- 
fummer. Perhaps it may be fo 
in hotter climates. I tried the 

M O S 

experiment in the 44th degree of 
latitude, and the crop was little 
better than mere chaff, for want 
of continuance of heat to fill the 

This grain appears to be fub- 
Jeft to nodiftemper; but when it 
is nearly ripe, the birds are apt 
to get a great deal of it, if it be not 
watched carefully. 

The way to harveft it is, to cut 
off the pannicles with a knife, 
near the uppermoft joint of the 
ilalk, put them into facks or meets, 
carry them to the barn floor, and 
empty them into heaps, covering 
them with cloths. After lying five 
or fix days, it rnuft bethrafhed and 
cleaned. It fhould be dried well 
in the fun, before it is flowed a- 
way in the granary ; tor it will 
not keep well with any moifture 
in it. 

Millet is an excellent food for 
fowls and fwine ; for the latter 
it mould be ground into meal. 
Some mix it with flour in 
bread ; but it is better for pud 
dings. There is alfo a red fort of 
millet ; but this I have never 

MOSS, ^Lichen, a fort of plant 
that is injurious to the growth of 
other plants in general. It was 
formerly thought to be an ex- 
crefcerice ; but even the mi- 
nuteft kinds are now known to be 
propagated by feeds, and have or 
gans of: generation. 

Low meadows are often infer! - 
ed with mofs, which prevents 
the fiourifhing of the grafs, and 
indicates the coldnefsand fournefs 
of the foil. To cure meadows of 
mofs they mould be top dreffed 
with lime, alhes, and other abfor- 
bent manures ; as well as laid 
di ier by ditching'or draining. Af 
ter which Hre mould be put to it at 
a time when it will burn freely. 

Tillage lands, when they are j 
laid down to grafs, often become ' 

M O S 

moffy, especially when they are 
too long in grafs. Cold loamy 
foils are moft fubjeft to this e- 
vil. The mofs on fuch land is 
often fo fmall, as to appear only 
as a green mouldinefs of the fur- 
face. Btit this mould confifls of 
diftinct minute plants, as well as 
all other mouldinefs, as may be 
feen by the help of nncrokopes. 
If dreflings of warm man ures do 
not prove fufficient to clear the 
ground of this rnofs, it mould be 
Icarified, or harrowed, or elfe 
broken up and tilled. For if it 
be permitted to continue, it will 
rob the grafs of molt of its food, 

A very long white or yeilowiih 
mofs grows in wet fwamps. 
Draining the fwamps, and fct- 
ting fire to the mofs in a dry fea- 
fon, will commonly befufficient 
to fubclup. it. 

I mentioned mofs under the 
head of manures. As mofs is 
known to contain a large propor 
tion of undiffolvedoil, any thing 
that will diflblve that oil, will 
convert it into a rich food for 
plants. Lime is excellent for 
this purpofe : Mofs and lime, 
therefore, mixed in compofldung 
hills, may well be expected to 
make a good manure. 

As mofs retains water more 
than almoit any thing elfe, fome. 
have found advantage by mixing 
it with Candy and gravelly foils. 
It enables the foil to retain the 
moifture it receives from rains 
and dews, and to hold tiie ma 
nures that are laid on it : And 
the mofs itlelf {lowly dijfoives, 
and becomes food for plants. 

Richard Townlley, Efq. a wri 
ter in the Gtorgical. Ejjays, tried 
experiments of yellow mofs in ; 
the culture of potato e s . One r o \ v 
was manured with liable dung ; 
another row of the fame length, 
with liable dung covered witli 
common yellow mofs. The 



212 M O . 

firft row yielded 438 ft of pota 
toes ; the fecond 515 ft. En 
couraged by this great fuccefs, 
he tried a row of potatoes on fta- 
ble dung by itfelf, another oh 
mofs by itfelf; the crops were 
of equal weight ; thofe on mofs 
more fizeable than the ether. In 
the firft experiment, I fuppofe 
the heat of the (table dung dif- 
folved the mpfs as faft as was 
neceiTary for the nourifhment 
of the potatoes, which was moft 
needed in the latter part of fum- 
mer. The refult of the latter 
experiment is more furprifing. 
Doubtlefs the ground had been 
before richly furnimed with 
fome fubftance which was adapt 
ed to diffol ve the mofs : Perhaps it 
had been limed in the year pre 
ceding. If fo, it renders the {lory 
more credible. 

Nothing is more common 
than to fee mofs of a light green 
colour upon fore ft trees. The 
feeds being carried in the air, 
lodge in the crevices of the bark, 
where ihey vegetate and grow 
into plants of a larger or fmaller 
fize, according as they happen 
to be more or lefs (haded. This 
is fo different from the yellow 
i wamp mofs, that cattle eat it very 

Mofs on fruit trees is detri 
mental to their fruitfulnefs. 
" The remedy is fcraping it off 
from the body arid large branch 
es, with a kind of wooden knife, 
that will not hurt the branches ; 
or with a rough hair cloth, 
"which does very well after a 
leaking rain. But the mofl ef- 
feclual cure, is taking away the 
caufe. This is to be done by drain- 
ng off all fuperfluous moiilure 
rbm about the roots of the trees. 
And it may be guarded againfl 
in planting the trees, by not 
fetting them too deep in the 

M O U 

" If trees ftand too thick in a 
cold ground, they will always be 
covered with mofs ; and the bed 
way to remedy the fault is to thin 
them. When the young branch 
es of trees are covered with a 
long and (liaggy mofs, it will ut 
terly ruin them ; and there is no 
way to prevent it, but to cut off 
the branches near the trunk, and 
even to take off the head of the 
tree, ifneceflary, for it will fprout 
again. Arid if the caufe be in 
the mean time removed by thin 
ning the plantation, or draining 
the land, the young fhoots will 
continue clear after this. 

" If the trees are covered with 
mofs in confequence of the 
ground's being too dry (as this will 
happen from either extreme in 
trie foil) then the proper remedy 
is, the laying mud from the bot 
tom of a pond, or river, pretty 
thick about the roots, opening 
the ground to fome diilance and 
depth to let it in. This will nojt 
only cool it, and prevent its giv 
ing growth to any quantity of 
mofs ; but it will prevent the 
other great mifchief which fruit 
trees are liable to in dry grounds, 
which is the falling of the fruit 
too early." Mortimer's Hujband- 

MOULD, a word that imports 
the fineft parts of a foil, or the 
furface abo vethe foil. It is the flra- 
tum or layer of earth which forms 
the furface, or turf, in paflures or 
grafs land, in which the roots get 
the principal part of their nourifh 
ment. The plough ats in the 
mould ; hence the name mould- 
board is given to that part of a 
plough which turns up the foil and 
mould. In fome places this lay 
er is thicker, in others thinner. 
The deeper it reaches, the richer 
the land may be efteemed ; and 
it is the more val uable. It is com- 
raonly black, or of a dark brown 


colour. The layer which is 
next under it is foil, which is al- 
fo fit for tillage. But in tilled 
lands the rich mould and foil are 
blended, and the mixture has the 
name of mould. 

The beft mixed mould is of a 
hazelly or chefnut colour; neither 
too adhefive nc,r too loofe ; nei 
ther baking to a crud with 
drought, nor turning to mo.rter 
with wetnefs ; it is fweet fcent- 
ed ; and teels unftuous and line. 
All good mould and foil will be 
come black, by being expofed 
to the fun and air for a year or 
two. An am coloured mould 
is not good, a pale yellow mould 
flill worfe. 

A good mould contains much 
of that extremely fine impalpa 
ble earth, which is a real ingre 
dient in the food of plants. This 
is called, by fome writers, vege 
table mould. 

The word mould is alfo ufed 
to fignify foil that is made loofe, 
light and fine by tillage and ma 
nuring. Hence plants are faid to 
be moulded when this fine earth 
is drawn up to their ft ems by the 
hoe. And a garden mould is 
made by tillage and manure. 

MOULDBOARD, that part 
<?f a plough which turns over the 
furrow. For ploughing green 
fward an iron mouldboard is 
beft : For if it be wood it ought 
to be plated with iron to prevent 
its being foon worn through. For 
ploughing in tillage land a wood 
en mouldboard will anfwer. 

MOW, a quantity of hay, or 
grain in the ftraw, piled in a barn 
for keeping. Ground mows are 
more liable to take damage by 
moifture, than mows upon fcaf- 
folds. Mows of grain ihould be 
laid upon the latter. The larger the 
mow, the drier the hay or (heaves 
mould be of which "it confifts. 
3ce Fodder. 

MOW 21$ 

MOWING, the operation, or 
art of cutting down grafs, corn, 
&c. with a Tithe. , 
They who have not been in 
the-ir youth accuftomed to do 
this work, are feld-om found to 
be able to do it with eafe or ex 
pedition. But when the art is 
once learnt, it will not be loft. 

As this is one of the moft la 
borious parts of the hufband- 
man's calling, and the more fa 
tiguing as it muft be performed 
in the hotteft feafon of the year, 
every precaution ought to be 
ufed which tends to lighten the 
labour. To this it will conduce 
not a little, for the mower to rife 
very early, and be at his work 
before the rifing of the fun. He 
may eafily perform half the ufual 
day's work before nine in the 
morning. His work will not 
only be made eafier by the cool- 
nefs of the morning air, but alfo 
by the dew on the grafs, which 
is cut -the more eafily for being 
wet. f By this means he may lie 
ftill and reft himfelf during all 
the hotteft of the day, while oth 
ers who begun late are fweating 
themfelvesexcefiively ; and hurt 
ing their health, probably, by 
taking down large draughts of 
cold drink to flake their raging 
thirft. The other half of his 
work may be performed after 
three or four o'clock ; and at 
night he will find himfelf free, 
from fatigue. 

If the mower would hufband 
his flrength to advantage, he 
Ihould take care to have his fit he, 
and a.ll the apparatus for mow 
ing, in the beft order. Who 
ever does his work with infufli- 
cient, or bad tools, the mower 
ihould not. His fithe ought to 
be adapted to the fur bee on which 
he mows. If the fur face be level, 
and free from obftacles, the fithe 
may be long and almoft flraight ; 




and he will perform his work 
with lefs labour, and greater ex 
pedition. But if the furface be 
uneven, cradley, or chequered 
with flones, or flumps of trees, 
his fithe muft be fhort and crook 
ed. Otherwife he will be obliged 
to leave much of the grafs uncut, 
or ufe more labour in cutting it. 
A long and ftraight fithe will 
only cut off the tops of the grafs 
in hollows. 

A mower mould not have a 
fnead that is too (lender ; for this 
will keep the fithe in a continu 
al tremor, and do much to hin 
der its cutting. He muft fee that 
it keeps perfectly fait on the 
fnead ; for the leaft degree of 
loofenefs will oblige him to uf<e 
the more violence at every flroke. 
Many worry themfelves need- 
lefsly by not attending to this 

Mowing with a company ought 
to be avoided by thofe who are 
not very flrong, or who are little 
ufed to the bufmefs, or who have 
not their tools in the beft order. 
Young lads, who are ambitious to 
be thought good mowers, often 
find themfelves much hurt by 
mowing in company. 

Mowers mould not follow too 
clofely after each other : For 
this has been the occafion of fa 
tal wounds. And when the dan 
gerous tool is carried from place 
to place, it fhould be bound up 
with a rope of grafs, or other wife 
equally fecured. 

" Mr. de Lifle introduced in 
England, the mowing of wheat. 
The method is this : The fithe 
he ufes is at leaft fix inches fh$rt- 
er in the blade than the common 
fithe ; and inftead of a cradle, 
has two twigs of ofier put femi- 
circular wife into holes made in 
the handle of the fithe, near the 
blade, in fuch a manner that one 
femicirclc interfecls the other. 

M O W 

** By this method of mowing 
wheat, the ftanding corn is al 
ways at the left hand. The 
mower mows it inward, bearing 
the corn he cuts on his lithe, till 
it come to that which is ftanding, 
agairift which it gently leans. 
After every mower follows a 
gatherer, who, being provided 
with a hook or ftick, about two 
feet long, gathers up the corn, 
makes it into a gavel, and lays 
it gently on the ground. This 
muft be done with fpirit, as an 
other mower immediately fpl- 
lows." Complete Farmer. 

As reaping is flow and labori 
ous work, it would be right for 
our countrymen to learn this 
method of mowing their wheat ; 
which will undoubtedly anfwer 
alfo for other forts of, grain. 

name commonly given in this 
country to land that is mowed for 
hay ; which being fit for either 
mowing or tillage, is occafion- 
ally ufed for the latter. 

The generality of farmers, in 
this country, lamentably miftake 
their intereft, by having too large 
a proportion of their lands in 
grafs for mowing, Half the 
ufual quantity with the beft man 
agement, would produce as much 
hay as they need, a great deal 
more than they commonly get ; 
befides faving them expenfe and 
much hard labour ; and allow 
them to convert half their mow 
ing land to tillage or pafture ; 
especially to the latter, which is 
moft wanted. 

A Newengland farmer is not 
contented, unlefs he yearly mows 
over the greater part of his clear 
ed land ? becaufe he fuppofes 
that if he does not, he (hall be 
able to winter but a fraall ftock. 
His grafs on the moft of his acres 
muft needs be very thin, even 
when the feafons are moft fa 
vourable ; 


vburable ; therefore, if a fummer 
happen to be dry, the foil, which 
is fo poorly covered as to retain 
neither dews nor rains, is una 
voidably parched and bound. 
The grafs, thus deprived of its 
nouriihrnent, does not get half its 
ufual growth in a dry feafon ; and 
the crop turns out to be almoftnoth- 
ing. The diftrefled farmer, not 
knowing how to get fodder for his 
cattle in the enfuing winter, with 
fevere labour or coil, mows his 
dead grafs, and gets perhaps four 
or five cocks from an acre. He 
cannot fell off many of his ftock, 
becaufe of the general fcarcityof 
hay ; nor fatten them to kill, for 
want of grafs ; therefore he keeps 
them along poorly and pinching- 
ly, till the ground is bare in the 
following fpring ; then, to fave 
their lives, he turns them into 
his mowing ground, as foon as 
there is the leaft appearance of 
green grafs. They potch the foil 
to the depth of fix or eight inch 
es, which is fufficient to pre 
vent the growth of a good crop 
that year ; as it finks a great part 
of the furface to fuch a depta 
that it can produce nothing ; 
tears and maims the roots which 
remain in their places ; and leaves 
the furface fo uneven, that if a 
crop of grafs fhould grow, it 
could not be mown clofely, if at 
all. Therefore, through want of 
hay, the foil and fward mult be 
mangled in the fame way the 
fpring following ; and fo on 
from year to year perpetually. 
How abfurd and ruinating is this 
practice ! 

If our farmers would refolve 
they will mow but half the quan 
tity of ground which they have 
mowed hitherto, I fhould think 
they might foon find their ac 
count in it. But it will be nec- 
effary that they fhould adopt 
a new kind of management. 

M O W 


with refpeft to their mowing 

In the firfl place, let them not 
lay down Uvgrafs for mowing,, 
any lands that are quite exhauft- 
ed by fevere cropping ; nor 
without manuring them well. 
Good crops of grafs are not to 
be expefted when there is no 
ftrength, or next to none, in the 
foil. Therefore the lands fhould 
be dunged when the grafs is fown, 
unlefs we except clover and oth 
er biennial graffes. And even 
for thefe it is often quite neceffa- 
ry, always advantageous. 

Mr. Miller advifes to fowing 
perennial graffes in autumn, not 
with corn, but by themfelves. 
This is the right way to have the 
foil well filled with good grafs 
roots, before it "fubfides and be 
comes compact. I think the far 
mer need not grudge to forego 
his corn crop in this cafe ; but 
perhaps this is not neceffary ; 
for no crop will be miffed by 
fowing grafs by itfelf. If it be 
fown with winter grain it will 
not produce a crop for mowing 
the next year ; but if fown by" 
itfelf it will produce a good crop ; 
and a plenty of itrong roots will 
be eftablifhed in the foil. But 
when grafs is fown with grain, 
the grain kills part of the roots, 
and ftints the growth of the reft 
to fuch a degree that they will- 
never recover. But whether the 
feed of red clover will come up 
fo well if fowed in autumn, as if 
fowed in the fpring, is perhaps 
yet to be proved. Concern 
ing other grafs there needs no 

Alfo, the furface fhould be 
rolled after the feed is fown, to 
clofe the mould about the feeds, 
to prevent their being removed 
by ftrong winds, to prevent the 
furface from being irregularly 
torn bv the frofl of v.'inter, and 



M O W 

to make the foil fmoother for 

Grafs land, by lying, is apt to 
become uneven, ai>d knobby. 
Por this reafon the good farmers 
in England pafs a roller over 
their grafs land every fpring arid 
fall. It gives the roots of grafs 
a more equal advantage for nour- 
ifhment and growth, and facili 
tates the mowing of the grafs, and 
the raking of the hay. 

When land becomes bouncJ, or 
mofTy, fo as to diminifh the 
growth of the grafs, if it be not 
convenient for the farmer to 
break it up, it mould be cut, or 
fcarified, with fome fuch in fir u- 
inent as the three coultered 
plough, invented by M. de Chat-- 
eauvieux. Then dreffed with 
fome Ihort rotten manure fuited 
to the foil ; burned, and a roller 
panned over it. Inftead of the 
three coultered plough, when 
that cannot be had, a loaded har 
row with fharp fteeled teeth may 
anfwer. There is no danger of 
deftroying the roots of the grafs 
by this operation. Though they 
are broken they will be fpeedily 
renewed ; new offsets will be 
more plentifully formed, and the 
crops will rife with renewed vig 

Let farmers keep their iow- 
ing land fo completely fenced, 
that cattle and fwine may be ef 
fectually prevented from break 
ing in at any time of the year. 
I think every one mull: be fenfi- 
ble of the neceility of this. 

It is ridiculous to think of tak 
ing many crops of hay from any 
piece of upland, in uninterrupt 
ed fucceflion, without affording 
it any manure. For it does not 
imbibe the richnefs of the atmof- 
phere fo plentifully as land in 
tillage. Grafs land fhould there 
fore, once in two or three years 
at leaft, have a drefling of good 

M O W 

rotten dung, or of acompoft ftiit-f 
able for the foil. But the beft 
way is to do it every year. Au 
tumn is the time for applying the 
manure, according to long ap 
proved practice. But a writer in 
the Georgical EiTays recommends 
doing it immediately after the 
firft mowing, when a fecorid crop 
is expefted, which will undbubt- 
edly be the larger. Whenever 
it is done, a bum harrow fhould 
be drawn over the furiace, which 
will break the fmal'l lumps re 
maining in the manure, and bring 
it clofer to the roots of the grafs. 
By this management, four or five 
tons of hay may be the annual 
produce of an acre. Or if the 
furface be not dunged, the crop 
mould be fed off once in three 
years ; that the excrements of 
the cattle may recruit the foil. 

No cattle mould, on any ac- 
count, be turned into a mowing 
ground in the fpring. The mif- 
chief they will do, will be ten 
times more than the advantage 
they can get. In the fall, neat 
cattle may take the aftermath : 
But fhcep and horfes will be apt 
to bite fo ctofe as to injure fome 
of the roots. Therefore I think 
they fhould be kept out, efpeciaJ. 
ly after the grafs comes to be 
fhort. Whatever dung is drop 
ped by the cattle, fhould be care 
fully beat to pieces, and fpread,. 
before winter, or early in the 

Thefe lands mould never be 1 
fed fo bare, but that fome quan 
tity of fog may remain on them 
through the winter. The fnow 
prellcs it down to the furface, 
where it rots ; it holds the rain 
water from paflingoff fuddenly ; 
and the virtue of the rotten grafs 
is carried into the foil, where it 
nourilhes the roots. 

Grafs lands, with fuch a man 
agement as is here recommended, 

M O W 

would produce crops furprifmg- 
ly large ; efpecially in the north 
ern parts of Newengland, which 
are extremely natural to grafs. 
The furface would be covered 
early in the fpring with a fine 
verdure. The crops would cov 
er the ground fo foon as to pre 
vent moft of the ill effect of 
drought in fummer. It would, 
by forming a clofe cover to the 
foil, retain moft of the moifture 
that falls in dews arid rains'. So 
that a dry fummer would make 
but little difference in the crop ; 
and the rich lands would often' 
produce two crops in a year. 

On this plan of management,' 
much labour might be faved in 
hay mdking ; and the grafs might 
all be cut in duefeafori ; not on 
ly becaufe the farmer has more 
leifure, by having fo much lefs 
mowing to do ; but alfo becaufe 
a good crop is not apt to dry up 
fo 1 fuddenly, as a poor and- thin 
one. The grafs in our mowing 
grounds is often faid to be win 
ter killed. It is obfervable that" 
this happens only in the little 
hollow places, where the melting 
fnow towards fpring forms little 
ponds of wafer. A cold night 
or two turns thcfe ponds to cakes 
of ice, which lying long tiporr 
the roots chills them fo much that 
they cannot foon recover. Or 
the ponds made by the thawing 
of the ice dcitroy the roots by 
drowning theni ; ib winter flood 
ing deflroys all the beft grades. 
The grafs, however, only of one 
crop is dcffroyc'd in the hollows ; 
for it rifes again by the midfum- 
mer, or autumn following. 

Laying lands very fmooth ancl 
level, according to the above di 
re ft ion, will do much towards 
preventing this evil. But if a 
field be perfectly fiat, and apt to 
retain too much wet when it is in 
tillage, it ikeuld be laid down to 


M U D 


grafs in broad ridges or beds. I 
am acquainted with fome farmers 
who have found advantage from 
this method. The trenches, or 
furrows between the beds, mould 
be the breadth of two or three: 
fwarths afunder, that the graft 
may be mowed with the lefs in 
convenience. It is near as much 
work to mow a half fwarth as a, 
whole one ; which is a good rea- 
fon why th'e beds mould not be 
very narrow. Ten ortwelve feet 
is a good breadth, as it is equal 
to two fwartfis. 

MUCK, dung or other filth, 
fuitable for manure. 

MUD, a black or dark colour 
ed fediment, found at the bottom 
of ponds, rivers, creeks, ditches, 
and wet funken places. It is 
moftly compofed of a fine vege 
table mould, mixed with the fub- 
ftance of peri'fhed vegetables, &c. 
and therefore it contains much 
of the natural food of plants. 

In ponds and rivers, this fedi- 
merit is made rip of fine duft, to 
gether with a rich variety of oth 
er fub ftances, which, have been 
Xvafted in the air, and have fallen 
into the water ; together with 
the fubtilcff. particles of the: 
neighbouring foils wafhed down 
into them by fains. That is fup - 
pofed to be the richeft mud, 
which is near to the borders, and 
which has been alternately flooded 
and fermented ; as if will ferment 
when it lies bare, in fome degree. 

Iti rivers, and in long ditches 
that have currents, there is a' 
greater" proportion of foil in the 
mud. It has been brought down 
from fott, mellow lands, through 
which the rivers pafs ; and fome 
of it doubtfefs from beds of 
marie, which are often found in 
the banks of rivers, and which 
readily diffolve in the water. ^ 

Some ponds are totally drietf 
up in a hot and dry fummer' ; 

a-i 8 

M U D 

and all ponds and rivers are fo 
diminifhed by a copious evapora 
tion, as to leave part, and the 
richeft part, of their beds uncov 
ered. And thefe beds, where 
there 'has been no rapid current, 
are always found to contain a 
rich mud. In fome places it 
2'eaches to a confiderable depth. 
This mud, though taken from 
frelh waters, has been found to 
be a valuable manure ; more ef- 
pecially for dry, fandy and grav 
elly foils. I have known it to 
have as good an eflfeft as barn dung, 
in the culture of Indian corn, 
upon fuch foils. The advantage 
of it is not found to be only for 
one feafon ; it meliorates th 
land for feveral years. It reftore& 
to a high piece of ground what 
Vegetable mould the rains, in a 
long courfe ot years, have been 
wafning away from it. 

It is happy for the farmer that 
Providence has prepared for him 
thefe magazines of manure in all 
parts of the country. None but 
the ftupid will let them lie un 
noticed, or unremoved. When 
a dry autumn happens, the pru 
dent farmers will be very iriduf- 
trious in carting mud up from 
evaporated ponds, and other 
funken places in their farms, and 
laying it upon their light foils, 
especially upon high gravelly 
knolls ; or into their barnyards, 
if the diftancc be not too great. 
We had a fine opportunity for 
doing much of this work in the 
autumn of 1786. We might thus 
in great meafurehaverecompen- 
led ourfelves for the difad van 
tages we lufFered by the uncom 
mon drought. 

But with refpecl to ufing mud 
asamanure, the maritime farmers 
have the advantage of all others. 
For the fea oofe, that uliginous 
matter which appears on the flats, 
a&d in creeks and harbours, along 

M u n 

the mores of the fea, has all the 
virtues of freih water mud, with- 
that of fea fait fuperadded, which, 
is one of the mofl important in 
gredients in the compofition of 
the belt manures. I might add, 
that it abounds, more than any 
other mud, with putrefied animal 
fubftances. Much of thefe are 
contained in the fea itfelf : And 
innumerable are the fowls and 
fiih that have perifhed upon flats 
fince time began ; and the com 
ponent parts of their bodies have 
been fealed down by the fuper- 
venient (lime; 

Mud taken from flats where 
there are fhell fiih;-or even where 
they have formerly lived, is bet 
ter for manure, than that which 
appears to be more unmixed. 
The fhells among it are a val lia 
ble part of its compofition. If it 
abound much with fhells, it be 
comes a general manure, fit to be 
laid upon almoii every kind of 

That mud, however, which is 
a richer manure than any other* 
is taken from docks, and from, 
the fides of wharves in populous 
towns. For it has been greatly 
enriched by the fcouring of foul 
flreets, and from common few- 
ers ; as well as from an unknown 
quantity of animal arid vegetable 
fubftances, accidentally fallen, or 
defignedly thrown into fuch pla 

Sea mud may be taken up at 
any feafon, whenever the farmer 
has mofl leifure. It is a good 
method to draw it up on ileds 
from the flats in March, when 
the border is covered with firm 
ice. I have thus obtained mud 
from flats, with great expedition 
und little expenfe. 

Mud that is newly taken up, 
may be laid upon grais land. But 
if it is to be ploughed into the 
foil, it ihould firft lie expofed to 



the froft of one winter. The 
froft will deflroy its tenacity, and 
reduce it to a fine powder ; after 
-which it may be fpread like alh- 
*es. But if it be ploughed into 
the foil, before it has been mel 
lowed, it will remain in -lumps 
for feveral years, and be of leis 

A layer of mud will be no bad 
ingredient in a heap of compoft. 
But it mould be contiguous to a 
ftratum of lime, if that can be 
obtained. But where this is want 
ing, new horfe dung is the heft 
Jubftitute, to excite a ftrong fer 

The beft method of managing 
-all forts of mud, were it not for 
increafing the Jabour, would be to 
lay it in farm yards, and let it be 
thoroughly mixed with the dung 
and ftale of animals. When it 
is fo managed, the compoft is ex 
cellent, and fkforalmoft any foil, 
though beft for light ones. Per 
haps the advantage of it is fo 
great as to pay for the increafed 
expenfe of twice carting. For 
it will abforb the ftale of cattle, 
and retain it better than ftraw. 
and other light fubftances. 

MULBERRY, Morus t *wd\ 
known tree, the leaves of y^hich 
are the proper food of filk worms. 
For this ufe, thofe which bear a 
black fruit are preferred. Ac- 
cordifig to Mr. Miller, the male 
and female organs of generation 
are commonly on the fame tree; 
but fometimes a tree will have 
only male flowers. 

It would be right for us to 
propagate thefe trees, as it might 
be done with the greateft eafe. 
We may do it by their feeds, or j 
by layers, cuttings or flips. If j 
we are not difpofed to make ufe ! 
of them for the feeding of fill; ! 
worms, they would pay for the i 
trouble of rearing them, by their j 
fruit and their timber. They fui t 

NAY 21$ 

our climate, and grow rapidly, at 
leaft in Connecticut, and in the 
weftern parts of MafTachufetts. 

Pofiibly the time may come 
when we may be glad to make 
filk for our own ufe in this coun 
try. If this mould happen, it 
will be regretted if there be no 
trees in the country from which 
the worms can be fed. They 
will grow well in a deep dry foil 
which is moderately rich. 

MULCH, rubbiih of decayed 
vegetables. Litter is a word of 
the fame import 


NAVE, the middle part of a 
wheel, through which the axle 
paffes. See wheels. 

NAVEL GALL, " adiforder 
on the top of the fpine, oppofite 
to the navel, whence the name. 
It is moft commonly caufed by 
an ill formed faddle, or want of 
good pads, and being neglefted 
turns to a foul fungous excref- 
cence ; and fometimes, after long 
continuance, to a fiftulous ulcer. 
While there is moiftureand fen- 
fibility in the part, an ointment 
may be applied of quickfilver 
and turpentine ; an ounce of the 
former to two ounces of the latter, 
rubbed in a mortar till they be 
well incorporated ; and then 
fpread upon tow. On each fide 
of the fpine, over the (welling, 
may be laid fmooth dry pledgits, 
or bolflers., which may be girt 
round with a furfmgle. But if 
the fore be. dead and lifelefs, a 
good fliarp knife muft be ufed to 
cut it to, the quick ; then let it be 
drefled according to the directions 
for the cure of wounds. 

" A fit fafl a Ifo proceeds from a 
faddle gall, and is another of the 
accidents that happen to the fpine. 
It is dry and horny, and may be 
cured by .anointing , it firft with 


280 N W 

oil of bays, until ,it turns foft ; 
fhen by dreffirig it with quick- 
filver and turpentine, as aboye 
directed. This will make a 
cure, efpe.cially if .the hard horny 
iubftance be gently fcarified in 
ibme places." Gibfqn's Farriery. 

NECTARINE, Atwgdalus>* 
fpecies of the peach, with a 
imooth rind, and a firm pulp. 
The name is derived from nec 
tar, the poetical drink of the Gods. 

kujbandry, or horfe hpang huf 
bandry. It chiefly differs from 
the old hufbamdry, in this, that 
the foil is tilled while the plants 
to be nounlhed are growing in 
it. Thn's mode ot culture was 
introduced into England, by the 
ingenious JethroTull, Efq. who 
wrote largely and repeatedly on 
the fubject. His volume in fo 
lio, entitled, New horfe hoeing 
.Hiijbandry, was publimed in the 
year 1751. An Effay on tjie 
fame fubject, in the year 1733. 
A Supplement to the Effay, in 
173 . Addenda, and Corjcju- 
fion, in ^738, and 1739. This 
gentleman expended as it were 
his whole life, in zealqus and be 
nevolent exertions to convince 
mankind of the great utility of 
his new fyftem, and directing 
them in the practice of if. But 
he had the mortification of find 
ing, that only here and there an 
enterprifing genius adopted it in 
practice. And though move than 
fixty years have now elapfed, 
fmce he made it publie4c, it is fo 
far from having become the gen 
eral practice of farmers in that 
country, that there is no reafon to 
fuppofe that it ever will : Al 
though it has been recommend 
ed, and further explained and 
improved, by writers of note in 
feveral nations. 

The author of this hufbandry 
meant to apply it chiefly to 

N E W 

wheat, as being the moft impor 
tant kind of corn. The new 
hufbandry differs from the old in 
the manner of preparing the 
ground for a crop, and in the 
manner of fowing the feeds. 
The ground is ploughed into 
ridges, Or beds, five or fix feet 
wide, and fmoothed with har 
rows. Inftead of fowing at ran 
dom with the hand, or broad 
caft, as it is called, the feed is 
drppped by a drill, in flraight 
lines, in little furrows about two 
inches deep. Either J:\vo or 
three fuch rows are on one bed, 
eight or nine inches apart ; and 
the feeds are clofely covered in 
the furrovys, by a frnall harrow 
annexed to the drill. 

Mr.Tull invented a drill, or drill 
plough, on a new cpnftruftion. 
It is not only effentially differ 
ent from the fembrador, or fower, 
invented by Don Jofeph de Lu- 
catello ; but an improvement up 
on the drill which was invented 
by Mr. Worlirlge. With this ma 
chine one may low fuch a quan 
tity of feeds, and as many rows as 
may be thought neceffary, lay 
the feeds at a convenient depth, 
and cover them nicely, only by 
drawing the machine once along 
the ridges. 

As foon as the plants are a 
few inches high, the horfe hoe is 
introduced, which differs but lit 
tle from a horfe plough, except 
ing in the manner of connecting 
it to the horfe that draws it. 
With this plough, paffing it with 
in three or four inches of the 
row<>, the earth is turned from 
the rows into the intervals 
or alleys, fo that the furrows 
meet each other, a ; nd form a 
fharp ridge. This is the firil 
hoeing, and is performed late: 
in autumn, juft before winter." 
It lays the young plants fo dry, 
that it is thought they are in no 


danger of being killed by the 
Jrofts of winter. But fome im 
provers on this fyftetn have re 
commended on) it* ing one of thefe 
furrows, or if both be ploughed, 
to turn back oije of them to 
wards the row before the hard 
frofts of winter ; left the ridges 
ihould be too much in danger of 
being warned away by rains, and 
the young plants removed. This 
feems to be a real improvement 
upon Mr. Tull's method. 

Early in the following fpring 
[they fay in March, but it muft 
be April in this country) the 
earth is turned toward the rows ; 
then in May, from them ; and 
laflly, in June, it is turned back 
to the rows, and partly againft 
the Hems, when the graip is juft 
out of bloflbin ; which laft 
ploughing is thought to do more 
iervice than any other, as it 
greatly helps to fill out the grain ; 
and muft not, therefore, on any 
account, be omitted. 

Each of the ploughings mult 
be very deep, fo as to keep the 
ground very loofe and open. 
But care muft be alfo taken to 
uncover plants that chance to be 
buried by the plough-; to weed 
the grain once or twice in the 
rows, and to ftir the earth be 
tween the rows, with a prong hoe 
or hand hoe, as often as the in 
tervals are ploughed, or horie 

The advantages of this method 
of culture are laid to be thefe : 
That indifferent land will pro 
duce a good crop, which would 
produce little or nothing in the 
old way ; that a good crop of 
wheat may be railed each year 
from the fame piece of ground, 
without impoverishing the foil, 
as the intervals are always fal 
lowed ; that there is no need of 
manuring the land at all, as the 
(extraordinary tillage will anfwer 



the fame end as manure, and at 
lefs expenfe ; that there will be 
no crop milled or prevented by 
a year of fallow, which muft take 
place every fecond year in the 
old way of cultivating wheat, 
to prevent exhaulling the foil ; 
that the crops will be larger, bet 
ter and. fuller grain by tar, and 
entirely free from the feeds of 

The editors of the laft edition 
of Mr. 'Full's horfe hoeing Hitf- 
bandry, by a computation of the 
expenfe and profit of the old huf- 
bandry and the new, and com 
paring theaccounts.maketheclear 
profit of the latter appear to be 
more than double to that of the 
former. This may be feen at 
large in the Complete Farmer, un 
der the article tiujbandry. Oth 
er ingenious writers in Great 
Britain, fince have written in 
confirmation of this opinion. 
See Encyclopedia, article Agricul 

I do riot at all fcruple the fair- 
nefs of the computations ; nor 
the accounts of writers in other 
countries to the lame purpoie. 
But there is no arguing with any 
certainty from the advantage ot 
the new hulbandry in England, 
or other parts of Europe, to the 
advantage of it in this country. 
Becaufe, inthefirft place, labour 
is more than twice as dear in this 
country ; and that there is a 
greater quantity of labour requir 
ed in the new hulbandry than iu 
the old, is very obviouily true. 
There are at leaft two or three 
ploughings extraordinary to a 
crop, befides weeding and Irand 
hoeing ; arid weeders will not 
accept of the weeds they pull as 
fufficient pay for pulling them, 
as poor women fornetirnes do in 
the old countries. 

Another reafon for fufpecnng 

that the new hufbandry may noj 


N E W 

anfwer fo much better than the 
old in this country, when appli 
ed to wheat and rye, is, that thefe 
grains are here very fubjeft to 
blafting ; and the later they rip 
en, the more they are in danger 
of this diftemper. Hoeing of 
grain will caufe it to ripen later, 
as may be feen in the border of a 
field that is contiguous to hoed 
ground. The plants that ftand 
neareft to the hoed ground retain 
their greennefsmuch longer than 
the reft of the grain, becauie 
they are more plentifully fed. 
Hence there appears to be fome 
reafon to doubt of the advantage 
of hoeing wheat and rye in this 

But if there were no weight 
in this, nor in the foregoing ar 
gument, yet the difference of 
climate muft be taken into con- 
fideration. Our lands are hov- 
en and mellowed by the froft of 
every winter, to a greater depth 
than the hoe plough can ever ftir 
them, by which the roots of win 
ter grain are often hoven out of the 
foil ; but in England, the ground 
feldom freezes to half the depth 
that a plough goes. Therefore, 
the moft forcible argument in 
favour of the new hufbandry, 
which is ufed by its advocates, 
will not fo well apply in this 
country ; which is, that the 
ground fettles and becomes very 
compact, during the long contin 
uance of a crop of grain upon it. 
| fee no reafon to doubt but that 
our extraordinary degree of froft 
may, on the whole, have nearly 
as much effect, towards loofening 
and breaking the foil in tillage 
ground, as one ploughing has. 
But this by the bye. 

Not only is the fuccefs of the 
new hufbandry in this country 
for the above reafons uncertain ; 
but there are feveral difadvan- 
<*3ges and inconveniefiCes, at- 

N E W 

tending this hufbandry, which 
are common to all countries. 
One of thefe difadvantages is the 
coft of the drill plough. This is 
every where a material objection 
to the new huibandry in the 
minds of common farmers. And 
the curious and complicated 
ftrufture of this machine, which 
renders it liable to get out of or 
der, is no fmall inconvenience ; 
for common labourers are not 
expefted to have Hull enough to 
rectify, or repair it. Befides, 
the accuracy of the work of drill 
fowing requires fo much thought 
and attention, that the ignorant 
and carelefs,who are apt to defpife 
new inventions, will not perform 
it in the beft manner. So. that a 
gentleman muft always do his 
own fowing himfelf, if he wifhes 
to have it done well. And not 
every gentleman who has a farm 
will be difpofed to fubmit to this 
employment. Neither does the 
drill plough perform well on fid- 
ling fituations and declivities. 
To which it may be added, that 
there are many kinds of feed 
which it is next to irnpoflible to 
fow well with this machine. 
Such are all the hooked, winged, 
flat, long fhaped, and extremely 
light feeds ; fuch as thofe of car 
rots, parfnips, lettuce, &c. It 
will not well deliver any but 
thofe which are ponderous, 
fniooth, and fo round, or regular 
fhaped, as to be eafiiy put in mo 

Thefe difficulties are complain 
ed of in the old countries ; but 
there is a more material one to 
conflict with in many parts of 
this. In many of our fields, 
flumps of trees, roots, rocks and 
ftones, are fo frequently met 
with, that the drill plough could 
not be ufed. It is neceffary that 
the ground fhould be perfectly 
clear of every thing that can ob- 


or hinder the going of the 
drill. Thefe obitacles, Iconfefs, 
are not infuperable ; but in pro- 
cefs of time may be removed. 
And in future generations the 
drill may be more conveniently 

I have not mentioned thefe 
things with any view to deter my 
countrymen from attempting to 
apply the new modeof culture to 
winter grain. There is nothing 
that I more fincerely wifh, than 
to fee careful experiments made 
with it. But I think this caution 
ought to be obferved, never to at 
tempt to raife fpring wheat, or 
fpring rye, in this manner. 
Though I have never read, nor 
heard, of horfe hieing fpring 
wheat in England, 1 have known 
it tried by feveral perfons to their 
mortification and lofs, in this 
country. The crops were fo en 
tirely blafted as to be fcarcely 
worth reaping. This has been 
the cafe, when the culture has 
been conduced by fome of the 
moft judicious perfons, with great 
attention, and with the proper 
apparatus. The true reafon of 
their mifcarriage I take to be this, 
that as fpring grain ripens later 
than winter grain, and hoed later 
than unhoed grain, it could not 
be ripe till fome time in Auguft, 
when fome of the nights are fo 
cold as to blaftthe grain, by flop 
ping the afcent of the fap. 

But let the new hufbandry be 
tried on winter wheat, fown in 
Auguft, or September, on a warm 
foil with a fouthern expofure, 
and where there are no ftones, 
nor any other obftacles ; and let 
the feed be brought from fome 
place at leaft a hundred miles 
northward. If with thefe advan 
tages for ripening early, and in 
favourable fcafons, a good crop 
of wheat cannot be obtained, it 
will not be worth while to make 



any farther trials. But it mould 
be tried on rye alfo ; for as that 
is known to be a hardier grairt 
than wheat, it is poflible it may 
anfwer better in this hufbandry. 

We need not be at the expenfe 
of procuring drill ploughs, and 
horfe hoes, to make experiments 
of thefe kinds. After the ground 
is ploughed into ridges and well 
harrowed, the channels may be 
expeditioufly made two inches 
deep with the head of a common 
rake, and the feed may be fcat- 
tered in them by hand, and cov 
ered with the rake. The horfe 
hoeing may be well enough 
performed with a common horfe 
plough, pairing it twice in a fur 
row, if it be found neceflary, that 
the ground may be ftirred to 
a fufficient depth. 

If, after a fair trial or two, the 
new culture of winter wheat and 
rye mould prove unfuccefsful, it 
need not difcourage any from, 
fowing their grain with a drill 
plough. In land that is fit for 
it, the fowing may be performed 
with great expedition. If the 
feed were to be drilled in rows 
about nine inches apart, leaving 
no wider intervals, it would be 
attended with feveral advantages. 
Half the feed may be faved by it, 
which is a matter of fome im 
portance, efpecially in a time of 
fcarcity of grain. 

If the feed be good, it will un 
doubtedly all come up well and 
profper : Becaufe it will all be 
buried at the mo ft fuitable depth 
in the foil. But in the common, 
way of fowing, fome of the feeds 
are buried at fuch a depth, that 
they fcarcely come up at all. 
Some are fo near the (urtace, that 
the leaft drying of the foil pre 
vents their vegetating,or alternate 
rnoifture and drynefs turn them 
to malt. And fome will be un 
covered, which will be taken a- 




way by birds. Many {tinted 
plants will appear ; the crop will 
be uneven, fome part of it being 
better, and ripening fooner, than 
the reft. Another advantage of 
drilling will be, that weeders may 
pai's through afield to weed it, if 
there mould be cccafion for it, 
without any danger of hurting 
the plants. And all fields of 
wheat that produce weeds, ought 
to be carefully weeded. Sowed 
in this way the ground might al 
to be itirred in he narrow inter 
vals with a fma}l hoe, which would 
encourage the growth of the plant, 
and keep it cleaner from weeds. 

Inftead of the drill hufbandfy, 
Dr. Hunter recommends a new 
icheme of his own, which par 
takes partly of the new, and part 
ly of the old hufbandry. He 
calls it alternate human-dry. The 
Icheme is as follows : He ploughs 
his ground in flat ridges, or in 
lands, nine feet wide. When 
ieed time arrives,' he fows one 
land in the broad caft way, and 
leaves the next, fowing the third, 
and fo on alternately through the 
field. The lands which are not 
fown .he fallows, allowing them 
three or four ploughing* in the 
fallow year ; fows them the next 
year, and fallows the other. 

He finds this to be a good mode 
of culture for land that is weak, 
and which lies remote from ma 
nure. A mean foil will thus bear 
pretty good crops without drei "- 
lings, or with very fmall ones. 
The grain has greater advantage 
of a free air than in the old huf 
bandry. No new implements 
are needed, nor any greater ac 
curacy in the culture required, 
than any ploughman is capable 
of. Perhaps a row or two of 
potatoes, or carrots, in the mid 
dle of the fallow ridges, might 
not be amifs in this hufbandry ; 
but rather ail improvement. 

But, to retufrn to my fubjeft : 
Every one mud be eaiily con 
vinced, that plants in general re 
ceive a greater degree of nourifh- 
ment, it the ground about their 
roots be frequently ftirred during 
their growth. We find the ben 
efit o! this in our gardens. We 
fee that bare \\reeding does not 
anfwer fo well as hoeing, among 
the^plants we cultivate in them. 
The great advantage of horfe 
hoeing hufbaridry muft appear, if 
we only attend to our ordinary 
method of cultivating Indian 
corn, which differs but Jittlc 
from that husbandry. If plough 
ing and hoeing were to be total 
ly negletled, while the plants 
are growing, we ftrould have no 
good crops. On the contrary, 
the deeper we plough the inter 
vals, and the oftener we ftir the 
moivld witbrtbe hand hoe, the bet 
ter is our crop. An-d why fhonld 
not the advama-ge of the fame 
culture be equally great, when 
appHecho molt of the plants which 
we cultivate ? The more the 
ground is opened by frequent 
ftirnngs, the more vegetable 
nourifhrnent it will receive from 
the atmofphere ;- and the roots 
will find a freer pafTage in ex 
tending fhemfelves after their 
food. They will, therefore, re 
ceive a greater quantity ; and 
their growth and perfection wilt 
be anlwerable. 

I have not the feaft fufpicion. 
that barley and oats will fail of 
receiving great advantage from, 
this culture ; in both ot which I 
have had fome experience. Sev 
eral years of late 1 have applied 
this culture to barley, in fingle 
rows or ridges three feet apart ; 
and have never once failed of 
gaining at the rate of 40 bumels 
per acre. The grain has been 
perfeftly clear from feeds of 
weeds, and more full and large 


N U & 

than when cultivated in the com 
mon way; After ploughing the 
ground, and harrowing it, I form 
the ridges with the cultivator. 
I fow the feeds with a moft lim- 
ple drill of my own inventing. 
The weeds are killed, and the 
, plants earthed, by paffing the 
cultivator between the rows, with 
the addition of but little hand 
hoeing. That it does well for 
hemp, has been proved by trials 
in this country. None will doubt 
the advantage of it in railing po 
tatoes-, our common culture of 
which is fo fimilar to that of In 
dian corn. But if they were fet 
in drills, inftead of 'hillocks, the 
produce would be greater^ in 
both corn and potatoes, as I have 
found by ieveral trials* 

The new hufbandry may as 
well be applied to all filiquofe 
plants, as peafe t beans, &C; and 
to all efcuicnt roots, as parjfntps, 
carrots, beets, and the like. The 
fame may be faid with regard to 
cabbages* afparagus, and moft 
kinds of pot herbs. The trials 
that have hitherto been made 
upon inch plants, in this country, 
have been fo fuccefsful, that I 
truft the practice will foon be 
come general. See the Rev. Mr. 


inds of plants require 
fo much lefs labour in the drill 
way, than is ufually beftowedon 
them in gardens, that when they 
are cultivated for the market, or 
for feeding of cattle, they ihould 
by all means be fown in drills, 
and horfe hoed. The above 
writer from his own experience 
concluded, that five bulhels of 
carrots might be as ealily raifcd, 
as one bulhel in the 

N U R 


fruit trees, the land (hoiild not 
be quite fo rich as that into which 
they are to be transplanted ; be- 
caufe it will be better for them 
to have their nourimment in- 
creafed than diminimed, as they 
increafe in age. Therefore, a 
nurfery will need but a little ma 
nure, unlefs the foil be uncom 
monly peon 

A nurfery mould not be on a 
fpot where fruit trees have lately 
grown, or indeed any other deep 
rooted plants. It mould be on a 
medium between the too extremes 
of wet and dry* 

To prepare the ground for 
fowing, it mould either be trench 
ploughed, or dug with a fpade to 
a conliderable depth. From a 
foot to fifteen inches is not too 
deep. This mould be done in 
the latter part of fummer, and the 
ground well cleared of the roots 
of all perennial weeds and graffes. 
The feafon for planting either 
feeds or ftones, is about the month 
of Oftober* If it were done in 
the fpring, none of the plants,' 
would be up in lefs than a year r 
And a confiderable proportion 
of the feeds would perith. The 
feeds may be fownpromifcuouf- 
ly ; and they mould be pretty 
thick, U'caiife they will not all 
come up. Some think it necef- 
fary to fow the pomace with the 
feeds .of apples, I have fown 
them with and without it, and 
do not fee that lowing feeds 
with the pomace is to be prefer 

When you tranfplant trees of 
one or two years growth in the 
nurfery , mark the ground in lines 
three feet apart. Then open a 
trench a foot wide on the firlt 
method. My own experiments line, and of a depth proportiona- 
have fully juftified this opinion, ble to the length of the roots 

Eliot's EJJaySi p. 
Thefe ki 


NURSERY, a garden, or 
plantation of young trees, to be 
trarifplanted. la a nurfery for 


Take the flock* out of the feed 
bed, with a fpade, preferving the 
roots as entire as pofiible ; Cut 



N U R 

off all the very (mall fibrous 
soots ; and it a root tends direft- 
ly downward, it muft be fhort- 
cned : Plant them in the trench 
twelve inches afunder. Then 
dig a trench and plant it in the 
next line, and-fo on, till the bufi- 
nefs is completed. 

The main branch for the top 
Ihould not be cut off, but care 
fully preferved. Several of the 
lateral branches mould be taken 
off, more or fewer in proportion 
as the root is more or lefs dimin- 
ifhed. In this fituation they are 
to grow till they are tranfplant- 
ed into orchards, &c. And they 
rnuft be carefully tended, or they 
will not become good trees. Ev 
ery fprlng and fall the ground 
between the rows muft be well 
digged, and fo carefully as not to 
injure or difturb the roots ; or 
elfe the intervals muft be horfe 
hoed. If the latter be intended, 
the rows mould be planted at 
leaft three feet and a half apart. 
But the plough muft not go fo 
near the rows as not to leave 
fome ground to be dug^ with 
the fpade, or ftirred with a dung- 
fork ; and in ufmg the plough, 
great care fhould be taken to 
avoid galling and injuring the 

A nurfery fhould 'always be 
kept clear of weeds by frequent 
hoeing. No fuckers that fpring 
up from the roots mould be dif 
fered to remain. They will need 
a- little pruning each year, to 
prevent their becoming misfhap- 
en ; and all buds fhould be 
fpeedily rubbed oft, which 
would make branches too low 
on the ftems. A nurfery re 
quires fo much attention, that it 
ihould be in a fituation where 
the owner cannot avoid feeing it 
otten ; otherwife it will be in 
danger of differing through neg- 

N-U T 

The fruit trees fhould be a!- - 
lowed to grow to the height of 
five or fix feet, before they are 
budded or grafted. See thoft ar 
ticles^ Inoculation, and Graft 

Trees, to be tranfplanted into 
forefts, may be cultivated in a 
nurfery in the fame manner as 
fruit trees. But, as Mr. Miller 
advifes, it would be beft to have 
a nurfery of thefe in the place 
where the foreft is defigned to 
be planted ; where a diffident 
number of the trees may be left 
Handing, after the reft have been 

If a nurfery be in dich a fitu 
ation that the young trees are in 
danger of being broken down by 
deep ihows ; either the fence on 
the windward fide fhould be 
made fo open, that the wind may 
have a free paffage through it, 
and drive away the fnow : Or 
elfe the trees may be defended 
by ftaking. A ftake a little tall 
er than the tree, made of a flip 
of board, fhould be fet clofe on 
the windward dde, and the 
top of the tree fattened clofe to 
il with a foft firing. Or two fuch 
flakes may be fo fet, that the up 
per ends may meet over the top 
of the tree. 

TREE, Juglans, a well known 
tree, valuable for its fruit and tim 
ber. There are fix forts, accord 
ing to Mr. Miller, who makes 
the hickory, or white walnut of 
Virginia, to be diftincl from our 
white walnut. 

There are but two forts that 
grow fpontaneoufly in this coun 
try ; the white walnut, and the 
fhagbark, fo called. The firft of 
thefe is a very hard and tough 
wood, which our formers find 
ufeful for many purpofes. It will 
bend into almpft any form with 
out breaking,, efpecially the low- 

"ft U T 

^er part of the body of a young 
tree. It is white and fmooth ; 
it is therefore much ufed for ox 
bows, goads, and axe helves. But 
it foon decays when it is expofed 
to the weather. The fruit of this 
tree has a thin fmooth fhell, and 
is of very little value. The inner 
bark is ufeful for making a yel 
low die. 

The fhagbark tree is fo called, 
on account of the roughnefsof its 
icaly bark, which hangs in flips on 
the bodies of old trees. This has 
afmall rich nut,enclofedinavery 
thick (hell ; but it is not fo much 
efteemed for its timber as the oth 
er fort. The nuts naturally ad 
here ftrongly to the trees, but the 
firft hard froft caufes them to 

The black walnut tree is faid 
to grow naturally in Virgnia, and 
particularly on the banks of the 
Ohio. Though it be rather brit 
tle, it receives a good polifh ; is 
hard and heavy, and is much priz 
ed for its beautiful brown colour, 
and ufed in ail forts of cabinet 

We have another fort, not in 
digenous, but the only one that 
is much cultivated in this coun 
try. It goes by the name of the 
Englifh walnut. The fruit is 
much larger and better than that 
of either of the other forts. In 
its tender ftate, it is ufed in 
pickles for fauce. But the nuts 
are too folid for this ufe when 
they are come to their full 

A moift loamy foil feems to be 
the befl fituation for walnut trees; 
but they will growonalmoftany 
upland. They are not well a- 
dapted to be cultivated in nurf- 
eries. They bear tranfplanting 
but poorly, unlefs when they are 
very young. The roots mould 
not be wounded, butitisnoteafy 
to avoid it in taking them up, as 

N Y M 

they naturally run deep. Though 
the tranfplanted trees are beft 
for fruit, they grow fliort and 
bufhy, and are not fit for timber* 
Therefore, he who wiihes to cul 
tivate a grove of them for tim 
ber, fhoiild plant the nuts in the 
place-s where he wiihes the trees 
to remain. 

As there is a confiderable pith 
in the limbs of walnut trees, they 
do not admit of much pruning. 
The water is apt to enter at a 
wounded limb and caufe it to 

NYMPHA, " the ftate of 
winged infe&s, between their liv 
ing in the form of a worm, and 
their appearing in the winged or 
moft perfect ftate. The eggs of 
thefe infecls are firft hatched in 
to worms, or maggots ; which, 
afterwards pafs into the nympha 
ftate, furrounded with fhells, or 
cafes, of their own fkins : So 
that, in reality, thefe nymphs arc 
only the embryo infecls, wrap 
ped up in this covering ; from 
whence they at laft get loofe, 
though not without great diffi 

"During the nympha ftate, 
the creature lofes its motion,, 
Swammerdam calls it nympha au- 
retia, or {imply aurelia ; and oth 
ers give it the name of chryfalis^ 
a term of the like import." Diet* 
of Arts* 

It is in their winged ftate on 
ly, that they copulate. The fe 
male lays eggs ; and their ofiu 
fpring go through the fame 
changes. The ftate of thefe an 
imals may ferve to remind man 
kind of the manner ot their ex- 
iftence, firft in mortal bodies,, 
then in a ftate. of death, after 
wards pofTefTed of glorious bod 
ies. In their aurelian ftate, thefe 
animals have no vital motion, 
but are to all appearance dead. 
So that in thsir lafl ftate of ex- 
v iftence^ 



ilience, infers have as it were 
refurreftion bodies. 


OAK, Quercus, a well-known 
tree, the timber of which is 
of great ufe and importance in 
ihip building, and architecture, 
and is valuable for fewel and 
many other purpofes. The tim 
ber is both ftrong and d.u/able, 

Mr. Miller reckons eighteen 
fpecies of the quercus, or oak. I 
know of but five that grow in this 
country, uhlefs the fwamp white 
oak, fo called on account of its 
growing in wet fwamps, may be 
a diftincr. fpecies from that which 
grows on the upland. 

The firft and beft is the white 
oak, Quercus alba, which bears a 
Jong ihaped, fmall and pleafant | 
tafted acorn. 'The bark is of a 
very light am colour. The tim 
ber is more ftrong, and far more 
durable than the other kinds. 
Staves for cafks, made of this tree, 
bear a higher price than any oth 
er. As it does not foon decay, 
the farmers find it convenient to 
have their wheels, carts, ploughs, 
and feveral other implements of 
huibandry, made of this timber. 
The but ends of the trees which 
have grown in paftures,are com 
monly found to be extremely 
tough, and are moll fit for the 
jiaves and fpokes of cart wheels. 

The black oak, Quercus nigr'a* 
has a very dark coloured, hard and 
rough outer bark. The inner 
bark: is of a bright yellow col 
our, and may be ufed to advan 
tage in dies, Little or none of 
this oak is found in the Di Uriel 
of Maine. Of all the kinds of 
oak produced in our country, 
this is eileemed the beft for few- 
el, as it will burn freely in its 
green ftate : But it is not fo 
Wiuch prized for timber as fome 
other forts, 


The grey oak is next in quali 
ty to the white for build ing. The 
red, Quercus rubra, which is fo 
called from the colour of its 
wood, anfwers well for Haves, 
efpecially for molafles hoglheads. 
But as it is not a lafting timber, 
it is more proper for fewel ; and 
for the laft purpofe, it does not 
anfwer well in its green ftate. 
The acorns of the grey and red 
oak, are much larger than thofe 
of the white. The leaves are al- 
fo larger, and very deeply finu- 
ated. They are probably not 
different fpecies of the oak, but 
only varieties. 

The laft kind, and the meanefl 
of all, is the dwarf, or ihrub oak, 
it being fit for neither fewel nor 
timber. It is always crooked 
and fmall, andfeldom rifestothe 
height of ten feet. It delights in 
a poor foil, aad overruns many 
of ourfandy and gravelly plains. 
It has a ftrong root, which will 
continue to fend up new Ihoots, 
though they are cut off yearly ; 
fo that there is no effectual way 
to fubdue them, but by grubbing 
them, or pafturing goats upon 

As all the kinds of oak bear 
fruit, the ihrub oak as plentifully 
as any, thefe trees are of fome 
advantage in feeding fwine and 
pouitry. They are fondeft of 
the acorns that grow on the white - 
oak, as the other kinds have a 
bitter tafte. Some perfons gath 
er them, and lay them up for 
winter feeding of fwine. It is 
faid that acorns were anciently 
ufed as the food of man : I fup- 
pofe it muft have been only thofe 
of the white oak. But even 
thefe, as well as the other kinds, 
are of a very aftringent quality, 
too much fo to be a very whole - 
fome food, unleis in compofition 
with fomething that has a contra 
ry quality. 

O A K 

The bark of oak is flill more 
aftringent, fome fay equally ib 
with the cortex per u~oi anus, and 
may anfwer the fame medical 
purpofes. This bark is ot great 
life in tanning hides, and a good 
ingredient in dies. 

The oak produces a fungous 
ball, or apple, of aloofe, fort con- 
texture, which foon dries and 
falls off, and is of no ufe. 

But befides, it has little round 
hard kind of excrefcences, called 
galls, which are of great ufe in 
dying and making the beft writ 
ing ink. Though they grow as 
large as nutmegs in other coun 
tries, thofe which I have found 
in this, have been much fmaller. 
Perhaps trees muft ftand fingle 
many years, before they will be 
apt to produce galls of a large 
fize. I have not found them but 
upon the white oak, and thofe 
not larger than peas. 

I beg leave here to give the 
reader the hiftory of galls, from 
the Dictionary of Arts. " An 
infecl of the fly kind is inftruct- 
cd by nature to take care of the 
fafety of her young, by lodging 
her eggs in a woody fubftance, 
where they will be defended from 
all injuries. She, for this pur- 
pofe, wounds the branches of a 
tree ; and the lacerated veiTels, 
difcharging their contents, foon 
form tumours about the holes 
thus made. The hole in each of 
the tumours, through which the 
fly has made its way, may tor the 
moft part be found ; and when 
it is not, the maggot inhabitant, 
or its remains, are fure to be 
iound within, on breaking the 
gall. However, it is to be ob- 
ierved, that in thofe galls whijch 
contain feveral cells, there may 
be infefts found in fome'of them, 
though there be a hole by which 
the inhabitant of another cell has 



It is to be wifhed, thatperfons 
in the oldeft parts of the country, 
when an oak is felled, would 
fearch for galls. If they are pro 
duced here in plenty, it will not 
be right to per 11 ft in lending our 
money for them to foreign coun 

As trees, both for timber and 
fewel, are become fcarce in fome 
parts of the country, it is high 
time to begin to make planta 
tions of trees for thefe purpofes. 
And I know of no kind that will 
anfwer, all things confidered, 
better than the oak. The trees 
are fo hardy as never to be dam 
aged by the fevere coldnefs of 
our winters : Neither have they 
been known to fuffer much by 
any kind of infefts. The red 
ancl grey kinds are very rapid in 
their growth, and will foon re 
pay the coft and trouble of rear 
ing them : And the white is of 
fo effential importance for tim 
ber, that a fcarcity of it is to be 

Some of our pafture lands, which 
are high and quite bare, would be 
much improved, if every hundred 
feet fquare were fhaded by a 
lofty oak : Befuies gaining a 
beautiful appearance, efpecially 
if they were placed in regular or 
der. Barren heights, in fome 
paftures, are in great want of trees 
to fhade them. Copfes, or 
clumps, in fuch places, would 
have excellent eficfls. There 
would be more grafs, the appear 
ance would be beautiful, and the 
profit confiderable. But the 
queiiion is, in what manner fliall 
oaks be propagated ? They may 
undoubtedly be raifed in nurferies, 
and tranfplanted, as well as other 
trees. But this method is' not 
univerfally approved. 

Mr. Miller fays, oaks are beft 
produced from the acorns in the 
places where the trees are to re 


main ; becaufe thofe which are 
tranfplanted, will not grow to fo 
large a fize, nor remain found fo 
long. He advifes to planting the 
acorns as foon as they are ripe 
in O&ober, which will come up 
in the following April ; becaufe 
if they are attempted to be kept, 
they will fprout, although fpread 
thin. He directs that the ground 
defigned for a plantation, mould 
have a good and durable fence ; 
that it be prepared' by three or 
lour ploughings and borrowings ; 
that the acorns be taken from the 
largeft and moft thrifty trees ; 
that they may be fowed in drills 
about four feet afunder, two 
inches deep, and two inches a- 
part ; that the ground mould be 
ploughed and hoed among them, 
during the firft eight or ten 
years ; that after two years fome 
oi them mould be drawn out 
where they are too clofe ; and 
fo from time to time as they 
.grow larger, till they come to be 
-eight feet diflance, each way, 
when they will want no further 
thinning for a long time. - But 
after the trees come to be large, 
he thinks 25 or 30 feet apart will 
be the right diftance. 

Another writer direfts that the 
acorns be gathered as foon as 
they fall in autumn, and kept in 
,a box or boxes of fand till the 
following fpring. Then open 
them, and carefully plant thofe 
of them which are fprouted, 
which he fays will not fail to 
come up. But no time mould 
be allowed for the fprouts to dry. 
I incline to prefer this method, 
efpecially fmce I have tried that 
which is recommended by Mr. 
Miller without fuccefs. Not one 
in a hundred ever came up. 

A rich deep foil fuits the oak 
beft, and in fuch land they will 
grow to a large fize. The tim- 
Eer is apt to be tough andpliable : 


But in a gravelly foil, or one ( thatt 
is dry and fandy, the wood is 
more hard and brittle. The oak, 
however, will grow in almoft any 
foil that is not too wet. 

Many are apt toobjecl: againft 
attempting to raife timber trees, 
that they fhall not live to receive 
any advantage from them. But 
do they think they were born for 
themfelves only ? Have they no 
great regard for the welfare of 
their own children ? Do they 
not care how future generations 
fare after they are gone ? The 
more growing trees they leave 
upon their farms, the better will 
their children be endowed ; and 
does this appear as a matter of 
indifference ? Or if they mould 
providentially be under the ne- 
cefTity of felling their farms 
while they live, will they riot be 
prized higher, by any rational 
purchafer, for having a few hun 
dreds of thrifty young trees 
growing upon them ? But it is 
poflible that while they hold their 
farms, they may receive aclual 
advantage from their trees them 
felves. Pofiibly trees may grow 
fafter than they apprehend. The 
Marquis of Lanfdown planted 
with trees a fwampy meadow^ 
with a gravelly bottom, iri the 
year 1765, and in the year 1786, 
the dimenfions of the trees were 
as reprefented in the, following 

Height in Circumf. 
Frat. Ft. In. 

Lombardy poplar 60^70 4 8 

Arbeal - - 50 70 4 6 

Elm - - 40 60 3 6 

Cheftnut - - 30 50 2 9 

Weymouth pines 30 50 2 5 

Scotch fir - - 30 50 2 10 

Spruce - 30 50 2 2 

Larch - - - 50 60 3 lo 

The meafures were taken five 
feet above the ground. It appears 
that if trees can be waited for 2 1 



years they will repay the coft, by 
becoming fit for many important 
ufes. And I am perfuaded that 
fome of the fpecies of oak will 
grow as faft as moft of the trees, 
in the foregoing table. 

One acre will bear 160 oaks, 
at the diftance of 15 feet from 
each other : If each tree will 
grow in 30 years to half a cord of 
wood, worth 12s. per cord, the 
whole produce will be 90 cords 
of wood, worth 160 dollars,which 
is four dollars and a third per 
acre per annum, for the ufe of 
the land, a greater profit than we 
expecl: from other acres in gen 
eral. It ought to be confidered 
that intermediate trees taken out 
young may pay the coft of plant 
ing and culture ; and that the 
land may ferve mo{l of the time 
for tillage or pafture ; for tillage 
while the trees are fmall, which 
will haften their growth. The 
increafmg dearnefs of fewel and 
of timber mould put the holder 
of land, in old fettlements, upon 
thinking of the cultivation of all 
trees that are ufeful for either of 
thefe purpofes. The day is at 
hand, if not already arrived, 
when this will be one of the 
moft profitable, as well as im 
portant, branches of hufbandry. 

OATS, Avsna, a well known 
grain, very pleafant and nourifh- 
ing to horfes, and conducive to 
keep them in health. Though oth 
er forts of grain are too binding, 
oats have a contrary effecl ; and 
eren too much fo, tinlefs they be 
fweated in a mow before they be 
thraihed. The flour of this grain 
is no bad ingredient in table pro- 
vifions. It is highly approved for 
gruels and puddings : And 
would be more ufed, were it not 
for the difficulty of diverting the 
grain of its huflc. 

There are varieties of this grain, 
jliftinguiihed by their different 

OAT 231 

colours, the white, the black, the 
grey, and the brown oats ; but as- 
thefe differ only in colour, they 
are not confidered as dillinct fpe 

The white oats which are moft 
commonly cultivated in this 
country, are generally preferred 
in other countries, as producing 
the beft crops. But I fufpe6l 
that fufficient trials have not yet 
been made here, in the culture 
of the black oats. The produce 
of them from a few corns fowed 
in a garden, has been aftonifhing. 
But this might be owing to the 
newnefs of the feed in our cli 
mate, or to fome circumftance 
lefs confiderable, orlefs obvious. 

There is al-fo a fpecies of the 
naked oats. This, one would 
think, muft have the advantage 
of other oats, as it is thrafhed 
clean out of the hufk, fit for grind 
ing. But with this grain we arc 
yet unacquainted. 

I have lately met with the Tar- 
tary oats, which refemble our 
white oats, but differ in their man 
ner of growing. They bear very 
plentifully : But are rather apt 
to lodge. 

Oats cannot be fowed too early 
in the fpring, after the ground is 
thawed, and become dry enough 
for fowing. The Englifh farm 
ers fow them fome time in Feb 
ruary. But in a wet foil they 
fometimes anfwer very well, 
though fowed in June. 

Three bufhels of feed is the 
ufual quantity fown on an acre. 
This quantity fay fome will be 
rather more than enough on a 
rich foil. If the foil be poor, 
the quantity of feed Ihould be the 
greater, fay they, as the plants 
will be fmaller, will not tiller ; 
and fo may ftand the nearer each 
other without crowding. But 
this is a matter of opinion only, 
and may be amifiake. 


232 OAT 

Oats have ftrong piercing 
roots, and are called heatty feed 
ers, fo that they can find their 
nourimment in {tiff foils ; and 
for the fame reafon they fome- 
times produce great crops when 
fown after one ploughing. But 
two ploughings are generally 
better for them than one. 

When they are cultivated ac 
cording to the new hufbandry, 
they fhould be fowed in double 
rows, fifteen inches apart, on 
beds fix feet wide. For they 
will grow taller than wheat, and 
therefore require more room. 
One bufhel of feed will be fuffi- 
cient for an acre in this way. 
Some advife to brining and 
liming the feed ; but this may as 
well be omitted, unlefs when 
they are fowed t late. It may 
ferve in this cafe to quicken their 

Oats mould be harvefted in a 
greener ftate than other grain. 
The it raw fhould not be wholly 
turned yellow. It will be the 
better fodder, if it do not itand 
till it be quite ripe and faplefs. 
Mr. Cook, an Englifh writer, re 
commends cutting them about 
tour or five days before the ftate 
of ripenefs ; and fays they will 
improve by lying on the ground. 
But if they be quite ripe when 
they are cut, they will be apt to 
ihed out by Jying. 

Though they Ihould be well 
dried on the ground after cutting, 
they fhould not be raked, nor 
handled at all, when they are in ! 
the drieft ftate. It fhould rather 
be done in mornings and even 
ings, when the ftraw is made 
limber and pliable by the moift- 
ure of the air. If they fhould 
be got in when they are fome- 
what damp, there will be no dan 
ger, having been before thor 
oughly dried ; for the ftraw and 
ckafT are of a very dry nature. 

O L I 

} . Some choofe to reap them ? 
But the ftrav/ is fo valuable a 
fodder, that it is better to cradle 
or mow them. And that 'the 
ground may be well prepared 
for mowing and raking, a roller 
fhould be palled over it after 
fowing and harrowing : But 
fome prefer rolling the ground 
after the grain is fome inches 
high ; it is faid to clofe the foil 
to the roots, and make the grain 
grow with freih vigour. 

Oats are fo apt to rob land of 
its richnefs that they fhould not 
be fowed on the fame fpot twice 
in fucceffion, unlefs the foil be 
very plentifully manured. In a 
fucceffion of crops, oats may 
foraetimes be fown to advantage 
the firft year after the breaking 
up, before the land can be made 
mellow enough for ether grain : 
Or they may follow wheat or 
barley. In the latter cafe, the 
wheat or barley ftubble ihould 
be ploughed in as foon as the 
crop is off. 

OLIVE, olea, the famous tree 
which produces oil. A fpecies 
of thefe trees grow wild in the 
woods and forefts of France. 
But thofe which they cultivate 
profper well, and are fo fruit 
ful and profitable, that the oil 
s an article of their exportation, 
Darticulariy in Provence and 

Even in England the trees 
lave produced fruit in the open 
air fit for pickling, though their 
tWBtners be not warm enough to 
bring the fruit to maturity. 

I am perfuaded our fummers are 
hot enough tor this tree, fo that 
we might cultivate it to advan 
tage, if our winters do not prove 
to be too cold. It is faid to grow 
on any kind of foil, though 
largeft in a rich one : But to 
produce the beft oil in a poor 
lean foil. As Bofton and the 




(blithely part of France are m i them after fowing, efpecially ' 

the fame latitude, it is tobe wifh- 
e.d that trials maybe made to cul 
tivate thofe trees in this country. 
Whoever attempts it, fhould lit 
them be fcreened, either by build 
ings, or high fences, from the cold 
northwardly winds. 

But if this- climate mould not 
i'uit them, doubtlefs they may be 
cultivated to advantage in fome 
of the foutliem ftates. And I 
think every poffible attempt 
fhould be made, that may enable 
us to live lefsr dependency on 
Europe. The oil and pickled 
olives brought from thence, a- 
naount to more than a trifle,- 
which ought to be faved if practi 

. ONIONS, Albums a well 
known efculent root. The com 
mon fort have purple bulbs; 
The white, or ,filver fkinned, 
which are fuppofed to have come 
from Egypt, are by fome prefer 
red to the other. Theyhave not 
fo ftrong a tafte; 
. This plant flourimes fo weli 
in the fouthe'rn parts of Newen- 
glarid, that it has long been a con- 
iiderable article of exportation ; 
in the northern parts, it requires 
the very beft culture j but even 
tfoere, onions may be railed in 
fuffieiertt plenty for home con- 

A fpqt of ground fhould be 
r&efen for them, which is nioift 
and fandy j becaufethey require 
much heat* and a considerable 
degree of moifture; A low fitu- 
ation, where the fand has been 
warned down from a neighbour 
ing hill, is very proper for them. 
And if it be the warn of a fandy 
road, fo much the better. The 
moft fuitable manures are old 
rotten cow and horfe dung mix 
ed, afhcs, but efpecially foot. A 
fmall quantity of allies or fand, 
or both, ihould be fpread over 

the foil be not fandy. And it is 
not amifs to roll the ground af 
ter fowjng ; or harden the fur-i 
face with the back of a (hovel. 

I have many years cultivated 
them oh the fame fpot ; and 
have never found the land at all 
impoverimed by them. But on 
the contrary, my crops are bet 
ter than formerly. But the ma-, 
nuring is yearly repeated ; and 
muft not be laid far below the 

The ground mould be dug or 
ploughed in autumn, not very 
deep ; and then made very fine 
in the fpring, and all the grafs 
roots, and roots of weeds, taken 
out ; then laid in beds four feet 
wide. Four rows of holes are 
made in a bed, the rows ten! 
inches apart, and the holes in the 
rows ten. About half a dozen 
feeds are put in a hole, or more 
if there be any danger of their 
not coming up well, and buried 
an inch under the furface. This 
is allowed by the experienced 
cultivators in Connecticut, to be 
the beft way of fetting the feeds. 
For they will grow very well in 
bunches. I have lately found 
that they grow full as well in 
drill rows a: foot afunder. They 
crowd ea-ch other up out of the 
foil, and lie in heaps as they 
grow upon the furface. Though 
the largefl onions are thofe that 
grow fingly, fome inches apart. 
thofe that are more crowded 
produce larger crops.- And the 
middle fixed onioas are 'better 
for eating than the largefb. . . 

The Jail week in April i'S the 
right feafon for fowing the feeds,' 
if the ground-be capable of being 
got into proper order fo early. 
In wet ground it is often necef- 
fary to low them later. 

Laft year I lowed my onions 
ki dulls, twelve inches apart, 



acrofs the beds : And 1 found 
jny crop was near double to 
what it ufed to be, when they 
were fowed in bunches, perhaps 
this will prove to be the better 
method. But I gave them a Mb a 
$ight top dreffing of foot, juft 
before they began to form buJbs, 
which might be the true reafon 
of the great increafe : So that I 
dare not yet abfolutely prefer 
th drill method to the other ; 
though I am much inclined to 
give it a decided preference. 

Onions mould be hoed three 
or four times, and kept quite 
clear of weeds, before the tops 
arrive to their full height. At 
this time* the bulbs will begin to 
fwell > hoeing mould therefore 
be laid afide, and the weeds pul 
led up by hand as often as they 
appear. Weeds not only rob 
the plants of their food, but in 
jure them much with their (hade ; 
for they have occafion for all 
the warmth of the fun that they 
can get. 

To promote the growth of the 
bulbous roots, I have found it 
advantageous to trample the 
ground hard between the rows 
or bunches, and to draw the foil 
away from the bulbous roots, 
laying them bare to the fun. 
They are the more warmed, and 
grow f after* 

Some think it proper, and 
even neceffary, to pafs a rollei 
over beds ot onions, or cripple 
down their tops by hand. But 
I- have never been able to find 
the leafr advantage from either 
of thefe methods : Nor do I 
think they ought to be practifed ; 
lor I cannot eafily conceive how 
the cruming and wounding any 
plant, while it is growing, mould 
conduce to its improvement. 
Though fome may have good 
crops, who treat them in this 
manner, I aju pervaded that it" 

O N I 

they negleBed it, they would 
have much better crops. For, 
befides the mifchief already men 
tioned, the fun is (hut out from 
the bulbs by cruming the tops 
down upon them ; but the more 
upright the tops are, the more 
the fun will mine upon the roots, 
I would fooner cut off part of 
the tops than go to crulhing 

Others make and twift the 
tops, to loofen the Bulbs in the. 
foil, which I cannot approve of : 
For if it do not fnap off fome of 
the fibrous roots, it gives too free 
a pafTage of the air to them, by 
which, if dry weather follow,, 
they will be injured, rather than 
aflifted in their growth. 

When onions are thick neck 
ed, do not incline to bottom, but 
rather to be what are vulgarly 
called fcal lions, the more care 
mould be taken to harden the 
ground about them, and to lay 
the bulbs bare to the fun. And 
it may be proper to let them 
touch the foil only in that part 
which fends out the fibrous roots. 

At the worft, if they fail to 
have good bottoms the firft year, 
and chance to efcape rotting till 
fpring ; they may perhaps get 
them by being transplanted. 
Even an onion which is partly 
rotten will produce two. three, 
or four good ones, if the feed 
flems be taken oftasfoon as they 
appear. They ripen earlier than 
young ones, have the name rare 
ripes, and will fell at a higher 

When onions are fo ripened 
that the green nefs is entirely 
gone out of their tops, it is time 
to tahe them up : For from this 
time the fibrous roots decay, and 
no longer convey any nourifli- 
ment to the bulbs, as appears by 
their becoming quite loofe in the 
fgil, and eafy to. taj^e up. 


O N I 

After they are pulled up they 
fliould lie on the ground tor ten 
days or a fortnight, to dry and 
harden in the fun, if the weather 
be fair. Then, in fair dry weath 
er, he moved into a garret, and 
laid thin. The fcallions {hould 
not be mixed with the good 
onions, left they mould caufe 
them to rot ; but be hung up in 
fome dry place in fmall bunches, 
where they will not be too much 
expofed to froft. 

That onions may keep well 
through the winter, they mould 
not be trufled in a warm and 
moift cellar ; but have actuation 
that is dry and cool. Moillure 
foon rots them, and warmth caufes 
them to vegetate. A degree of 
cold which would ruin moil 
other efculent roots, will not in 
jure them at all. The fpirit 
that is in them is fufficient to en 
able them to relift a confiderable 
degree of froft. Accordingly, in 
the fouthern parts of this coun 
try, as I am informed, they are 
ufually kept through the winter 
in dry calks placed in chambers, 
or garrets. But they {hould not 
be removed, or touched, white 
the weather is very frofty. 

Thofe which are (hipped for 
market, are ufually made into 
long bunches, by tying them to 
wifps of ftraw. 

When onions are kept long, 
they are apt to fprout, which 
hurts them for eating. To pre 
vent this, nothing more is ne- 
cellary than to fear the fibrous 
roots with a hot iron. The pores 
of the roots will thus be flopped, 
through which the air enters an.d 
caufes them to vegetate. 

To obtain feed from onions 
they mould be planted early in 
beds, about nine inches apart. 
The largest and foundeilare belt. 
In a month the tops will appear; 
and each one will fend up (ever- 

O R C 

a 35 

al {Jems for feed. They {hould 
be kept free from weeds ; and 
when the heads of the flowers be 
gin to appear,each plant muil have 
a Itake about four feet long, and 
its ftems be loofely tied to the 
ftake by a foft firing of fufficient 
ftrength. If this be neglected, 
the heavy tops will lay the 
flalks on the ground, or the 
winds will break them. In either 
cafe, the feeds will fail of com 
ing- to perfe61ion. 

ORCHARD, an cnclofcd 
plantation ofljruit trees, not again 
to be removed. 

An orchard may confifl wholly 
of pear trees ; or of quince, 
peach, plum, &c.or i,t may be a 
mixture of various kinds of trees. 
But orchards of apple trees are 
the mod important, and are al- 
molt the only ones in this coun 
try. Other fruit trees are com 
monly planted in the borders of 
fields, or gardens ; becaufe only 
a frnall number of them is defirea, 
or confidered as advantageous,, 
by fanners. 

The foil for an orchard {hould 
be fiuted to- the nature of the 
trees planted in it. Though a 
clay foil will do well for pear 
trees, it is not at all fuitahie tor 
apple trees. Dry land and grav 
el are not good ; but a deep ha 
zel loam is preferred to any oth 
er- foil ; and it is the better if 
it be fomewhat rocky and moilt. 

Plains, hollows, or high fum- 
mits, are not fo good fituations 
for orchards, as land gently flop- 
ing : And a ioutheaitern expo- 
lure is generally the belt. But 
when this cxpofes the trees to 
lea winds, a fouthweltern expo- 
lure may be accounted better, 

It the land be fwarded, it fliould 
be broken up and tilled one 
year before the trees are planted ; 
arid if it be dunged it will 1:>~ 
better for v :., The ro?!; 


O R C 

fhouki alfo be token out ; becaufe 
it cannot be done fo convenient 
ly afterwards. And if there be 
any large flumps of trees, which 
would laft long in the ground, 
they mould be taken out. Other- 
wife they will render the opera 
tions of tillage in the young 
orchard very difficult. 

Trees which are ungrafted are 
fuppofed to bear as good fruit as 
any for cyder. They commonly 
bear more fruit, andwill laft longer. 

But when grafted trees are to 
be tranfplanted, thofe mould be 
chofen that have not been graft 
ed more than two years. Old 
ilinted trees, the refufe of a nurfe- 
ry, are to be avoided, which will 
jgrow very flowly, if at all. For 
directions concerning the time 
and manner of planting an orch 
ard, fee Fruit trees and Tranf- 

Concerning the right diflance 
of the trees in an orchard, there 
are a variety of opiniojis. But 
the coldnefs and wetnefs of the 
climate, an argument ufed in 
England for placing them far a- 
funder, does not fo well apply in 
this country. Trees in that coid 
and cloudy region nee-d every 
poflible advantage of expofureto 
the fun and air. It ihould be 
confidered at the time of plant 
ing, to what fize the trees are like 
ly to grow : And they fhouldbe 
fet fo far afunder, that their limbs 
will not be likely to interfere 
with each other, when they ar 
rive to their full growth. In a 
foil that fuits them beft v they \yill 
become largeft. Twenty five 
feet may be the right di fiance in 
fome foils ; but thirty five feet 
will not be too much in thebefl, 
or even forty. If, contrary to 
expectation, they mould be too 
clofe when they are grown up, 
they may be eafily thinned : And 
u will be. better to take away here 

O R C 

and there a whole tree, than to 
lop and maim them all, that they 
may have room. 

The planting of fmall trees in 
the midft of full grown ones does 
not anfwer fo well for the fmali 
ones, as when the trees are all 
nearly of one fize. A fmall tree 
among large ones has not an 
equal chance of expofure to the 
fun and air : Both of which are 
of great importance. So that it 
is of the lefs importance to re 
place a tree that dies in an orch 
ard. And it is of no advantage 
to do it, when the nearefl neigh 
bouring trees appear to be rather 
too much crowded. 

An orchard mufl be conftant- 
ty well fenced, to keep out cattle. 
It mould be enclofcd by itfelf. 
Hungry fheep would peel the 
trees while they are young ; and 
cattle will bite oif all the lirnbs 
of young and olcj trees that are 
within their rc-Lich. But there is 
no danger in turning in a horfe 
occafionally, when there is grafs 
and no apples ; and fwme may 
be confined in an orchard that is 
grown up, fo that the trees can 
not he hurt by them, and when 
the iruitis not in their way. 

Sheep fometimes get into an 
orchard that is well fenced, by 
means of high banks of fno\v% 
when they are fiiff or crulled. I 
can think of no better way to 
prevent this, than to make the 
fence fo open, with round poles, 
or pickets, that the fnow will pafs 
freely through it* and not rife in 
high banks. The latter kind of 
fence might be fa conf trusted as 
to. keep out fuch creatures as are 
apt to take fruit from the trees, 
without leave of the proprietor. 
After an orchard is planted, it 
is b.eft to keep the laud continu 
ally in tillage, till the trees have 
nearly got their full growth ; at 
Jeafl till they ha,ve begun to bea:~ 

O R C 

plentifully. The trees will grow I 
fafter, and be more fruitful. 
But great care muft be taken 
that the roots be not diftr.vbed by 
ploughing, nor th.<3 bark on the 
ftems oi the trees wounded. 
The ground near the trees, 
which the plougb leaves, mould 
bebrokeaand made mellow with 
a fpade, for twu or three years, 
before the rapts haye far extend 

Severe prunings fliould gener- 
be avoided. The limbs that 
interfere, and rub each other, 
jnuft be cut out; but never (hort- 
en the (hoots, nor cut off any of 
the bearing fpurs. Take off all 
decayed and broken branches, 
clofe to the ftems from whence 
they are produced ; and cutaway 
#11 fuckers, as foon as they ap 
pear, whether irom the roots, 
trunks, or any other parts. Prun 
ing mould be done in Novem 
ber, or in the beginning of De 
cember. In the depth or winter 
it will be apt to be neglected, and 
towards fpring the iap will be in 
motion, an.,d the buds (welled. 
But fuckers mould be taken away 
whenever they appear. This re 
quires clofe attention. 

In fome of our new towns and 
plantations, woodpeckers attack 
apple trees, They girdle the 
trunks of the trees with a row of 
deep holes, and fometimes with 
feveral rows ; which renders the 
trees fickly and unfruitful. I am 
informed that fmea.ring the part 
with cow dung where they have 
begun, caufes them to defifl. A 
piece of birch bark, put round 
the part where they ufually peck, 
might guard a tree againft them. 
Jt will hold itfelf on for a long 
time, wherever it is put, and not 
need renewing. The birds feein 
to be mo(t fond ot pecking on 
the upper part of the items, near 
to the lo^weli branches,. 

ORE 237 

ORE WEED, fea weed, fea 
ware, or fea wreck. Thefe names 
are applied to all the? vegetables 
which grow plentifully in the (eu 
and on the muddy and rocky parts 
>f the (hprebelow high water mark. 

The forts are chiefly three ; 
the kali, or rock weed, which 
ftrongly adheres to rocks, and 
which is allowed to be of the 
greateft value for manure. The 
alga^, called eel grafs, or grals 
wreck, is of the next rank as to> 
its richnefs. But there is anoth 
er fort, confting of a broad leaf 
with a long (hank or ft em, of an 
inch diameter, by lome ignorant- 
Iy called kelp ; this is faid by Sir 
A. Purves to be of the leaft val 
ue ot any of the fea weeds. 
However, none of them are un 
important for fertilizing the eartlu 

All vegetables when putrefied 
are a goo.d pabulum for plants ; 
for they confift wholly of it. But 
the value of marine vegetables is 
greater than that of any other ; 
tor, be(ides the virtue* of the 
other, they contain a large quan 
tity of fait, which is a great fer 
tilizer. Mr. Dixon thinks thofe 
weeds which grow in the deepeft 
water are the beft. Perhaps they 
contain a greater proportion of 
fait than thofe which grow near 
the (hore, as the.y are feldom or 
never wetted with freih water. 

A great advantage that thefe 
plants have above any other, is 
their fpeedy fermentation and. 
putrefaction. The farmer has no 
need to wait long after he has 
got them, before he applies them 
to the foil. The, rock weed may 
be ploughed into the foil, as foon 
as it is taken from the fea. This 
is praclifed in thofe parts of Scot 
land which lie neareft to the 
(hore ; by which they obtain ex 
cellent crops of barley, without 
impoverishing the foil. Neither 
, have they any occafion for fal- 

23$ ORE 

lowing to recruit it. In hills of 
potatoes, it anfwers nearly as 
well as barn dung. I have 
Jinown fome fpread it upon 
young flax newly come up, who 
fay it increases their crops f'ur- 
prifmgly. The flax may grow 
fo fall, and get above this ma 
nure and {hade it, fo foon, as to 
prevent evaporation by the fun 
and wind; fo that but a fmall 
part of it is loft ; and flax is fo 
tiardy a plant that it does not fuf- 
fer by the violence of fait, like 
many other young plants. 

But I rather think it is beft to 
putrefy fea weeds before they 
are applied to the foil. This 
may fpeedily beaccompliihedby 
laying them in heaps. But the 
jheaps mould not lie naked. Let 
them be covered with loofe earth 
or turf ; or elfe mixed in com- 
poft dunghills, or laid in barn 
yards with divers other fub- 
ftances. This f ubftance will foon 
.dilfolve itfelf, and what is mixed 
with it, changing to a fait oily 
flime, very proper to fertilize 
light foils, and not improper for 
almofl any other. 

As to the eel grafs, &c, the 
beft way is to cart it in autumn 
into barn yards, filling the whole 
areas with it, two or three feet 
deep. It may be either alone, or 
have a layer of ftraw under, and 
another above it. When it has 
been trampled to pieces by the 
cattle, and mixed with their ftale 
and dung, it will be fitteft to be 
applied to the foil. It being a 
light and bibulous fubftance, it 
will abforb the urine, which is 
totally loft by foaking into the 
earth, unlefs fome fuch tralh be 
lafd under cattle to take it up, 
and retain it. 

Farmers who are fi mated near 
to the fea more have a vaft ad 
vantage for manuring their lands. 
If they were once perfuaded to 

O R E 

make a fpirited improvement* 
they might enrich their farms to 
almoft any degree that they pleafe. 
They mould vifit the mores af 
ter fpring tides and violent ftorms, 
and with pitchforks take up the 
weeds, and lay them in heaps a 
little higher up upon the more ; 
which will at once prevent their 
growing weaker, and fecure them 
Irom being carried away by the 
next fpring tide. 

Many are fo fituated that they 
can drive their carts on a fandy, 
hard beach, at low water, to the 
rocks ; and fill them with weeds. 
Can they be fo ftupid as to ne- 
gle6t doing it ? It is even worth 
while to go miles after this ma 
nure with boats, when it cannot 
be obtained more eafily. 

It has often been obferved that 
manuring with fea weeds is an 
excellent antidote to infefts. It 
is fo, not only in the ground, but 
alfo upon trees. I have an orch 
ard which has been for many 
years much annoyed by caterpil 
lars. Laft fpring, about the laft 
of May, I put a handful of rock 
weed into each tree, juft where 
the limbs part from the trunk ; 
after which I think there was not 
another neft formed in the whole 
orchard. April is a better time 
to furnifh the trees with this an 
tidote to infefts. And the month 
of March is perhaps better ftill. 

Putrefied Jea weeds mould, I 
think, be,ufed for crops of cabba 
ges, and turnips, and for any oth 
er crops which arc much expofed 
to be injured by infecls. 

One difadvantage attending the 
bufmefs of farming in this coun 
try, is, that our cold winters put 
an entire ftop to the fermentation, 
and putrefaction of manures. 
This may be in fome meafure ob 
viated by the ufe of rock weed, 
which is fo full of fait that it is not 
afily frozen ; Or if frozen, it is 
' foon 

O S I 

jfbon thawed. I have been in 
formed that fome have laid it un 
der their dunghills by the fides 
of barns ; in which fituation it 
has not frozen ; but by its fer 
mentation hasdiffolved itfelf, and 
much of the dung that lay upon 
it. There is undoubtedly a great 
advantage in fuch a praHice. 

Another advantage of this kind 
, of manure, which muft not be 
forgotten, is, that it does not en 
courage the growth of weeds fo 
much as barn dung. It is cer 
tain it has none of the feeds of 
weeds to propagate, as barn dung 
almoft always has. But fome 
fuppofe that its fait is deftru&ive 
to many of the feeds of the moft 
tender kinds of plants ; if it be 
fo, it is only when it is applied 
frefh from the fea, at the firne of 
fowing. Buteven this is doubtful. 

This manure is reprefenled in 
the Complete Farmer to be txvice 
as valuable as dung, if cut from 
the rocks at low water mark ; 
that a drefling of it will laft three 
years ; and that fruit trees which 
have been barren are rendered 
fruitful by laying this manure a- 
bout their roots. 

OSIER, Salix, Sallow, or 
V/iltow Trees. According to Mr. 
MUler there are fourteen fpecies ; 
the twigs of fome of which are 
much ufed by bafket makers in 

A fort of grey orbrown willow 
grows naturally in this country, 
in low moift places. But it is 
only a bufhy ihrub, of flow 
growth, and has not that tough- 
nefs in its {hoots for which fome 
o-f the foreign willows are valued. 

Two forts are propagated in , 
this country, which were brought 
from Europe, The young moots 
of the yellow fort have a golden 
colour ; but the trunks of the 
trees are almoft black. The green 
fort bids fair to be m^ore uieful 

O V E 239 

than the other. They will grow- 
in almoft any foil, and come to 
be large trees ; but a moift foil 
fuits them belt, I have known 
the green fort to grow where the 
ground is fome part of the year 
flowed with water, as in the bor 
ders of rivers and ponds. 

It might be advifable for the 
people in fome parts of the 
country to propagate them for 
the fake of the wood. I know 
of no other trees that increafe 
nearly fo raft as both thefe kinds 
do. A prodigious quantity o 
wood might be obtained from an, 
acre planted with them. In lefs 
tha twenty years they would 
be large trees. I have knowr* 
fets, or cuttings of the fmalleit 
fize, in ten years, grow to the 
fize of thirty inches round, or 
ten inches diamater. 

The trees are eaftly propagat 
ed by cuttings, or fets, either in 
fpring or fall. If in fpring, they 
mould be planted early, as foon 
as the ground is thawed. Young, 
fets mould be three feet long,, 
and two thirds of their length in 
the ground. 

Live hedges may be more- 
cheaply and expeditioufly made 
of ofiers than of any other plants. 
Stakes or truncheons of feven or 
eight feet long may be fet in a 
fpungy or miry foil ; they will 
take root and grow, and form a 
hedge at once. This faves the 
coft of fecuring a young hedge. 
It is with great, pleafure that I ob- 
ferve fome fences of this kind 
are begun in the country. It is 
a very cheap and eafy method of 
fencing, which cannot be too 
much encouraged. The trim 
mings of the hedges will be of 
great value in towns where wood 
is become fcarcc. and may be 
had yearly. See Willow. 


GALL, a difeafe in horned cat- 

<+ tie, 


O X 

tFe, known by a copious dif- 
charge of water at their eyes. 
To cure it, take a heft's egg, open 
the end, and poitt off the white, 
refervirig the yolk ; the.: fill up 
the cavity with equal quantities of 
foot, fah and black pepper ; 
draw out the tongue of the ani 
mal, and with a flender ftick 
pufh the egg down his throat. It 
fbould be repeated two or three 
mornings. It feldom fails to cure. 

OUT HOUSES, flight build 
ings that belong to a manfion 
houfe, but ftand at a little dif- 
tance from it. When it can con 
veniently be fq ordered, the 
out houfes of a farmer ought to 
be fo placed as to be all contig 
uous to the farm yard. Then all 
the dung, filth and rubbish they 
afford at any time, may be flung 
into the yard, without the trou 
ble of carrying ; where they will 
be mixed and mellowed by the 
trampHng of beaits, and contrib 
ute to the increafe of manure. 

OX, a caitrated bulk Till 
they are four years old, they are 
ufually called fleers,- afterwards 
oxen.' Oxen that are white, 
black and white, or a very pale 
red, are feldom hardy, or good 
in the draught. Red and white 
oxen are often good ; but the 
darkeft coloured oxen are gener 
ally befl. Brown, dark red and 
brindled are good co-lours. 

The figns of a good ox are thefe : 
Thick, foft, finootb and fhort 
hair ; a ihort and thick head ; 
glofly, fuiooth horns ; large and 
ihaggy ears ; wide forehead ; 
full, black eyes; wide noftrils ; 
black lips ; a thick flefhy neck, 
arid large moulders; broad reins ; 
a large belly ; thick rump and 
thighs ; a ftraight back ; a long 
tail, well covered with hair ; 
ihort and broad hoofs. 

Steers at the age of two years 
and a haft, or earlier, may be 

O Y S 

rained for the draught* 
If it be longer delayed, they are 
apt to be reftiff and ungoverna-' 
ble. They fhould not be work 
ed by tbemfelves, but in a teain 
with other cattle which have been 
ufed to labour. Their work 
fhould be very cafy at firft, and 
only at fhort intervals, as they 
are apt to fret and worry them- 
felves exceffively. A gentle u- 
fage of them is beft,.aiid beating 
them mould be avoided. . 

If oxen are worked in the- 
yoke in wet and rainy weather, 
which fometimes unavoidably 
happen^, their necks are apt to 
become fore. To prevent this, 
a little tallow fhould be rubbed 
on the parts of the yoke which 
lie upon their necks, and alfc* 
upon the bows. 

When ' fteers cOifie to be four' 
year? oM, they have one circu 
lar ring at theroot of their horns, 
at. five two rings, and one ring is 
a-dded each year ; fo that if you 
would know the age of an ox, 
count the rings on one of his 
horns, and axld three, which a- 
mounts to the true number of 
his years. It is the fame in a 
bull, and a cow. In very^ old 
cattle, thefe rings are fometimes 
rather indiftint. 

When an ox has completed his 
eighth year he mould be worked 
no longer, but be turned off to 
fatten. His flefh will not be fo 
good, if he be kept longer. A 
little blood mufl be taken from 
him, that he may fatten thefafler. 

OYSTER, or OISTER, a bi 
valve teftaceoas fifh. The low 
er valve is hollowed on the in- 
fide, and protuberant without : 
The upper fhetl is flat or hol 
low on the outfide. The fhells 
of thefe fifh are an excellent 
manure, but being large they 
fhould be burnt to lime be 
fore they are applied to the foil. 




PALE, a pointed ftake, ufed 
in making enelofures, partitions, 
&c. Gardeners oftentimes have 
occafion to make pale fences, to 
fecure choice apartments from 
the entrance of tame fowls, 
which will not ofteri fly over a 
paled or picketed fence : As 
well as to prevent the intrufion 
of idle and mifchievous people. 

PAN; a ftratum of compacl 
earth under the foiL In fome 
places it is fo hard that it cannot 
be dug through without pickaxes 
or crows. It the pan be low, the 
ibil is faid to be deep and good ; 
but if near the furface^ the foil 
is thin and poor. The common 
depth in good land is from eigh 
teen to twenty four inches. 

The deeper ftrata, or layers in 
the bowels of the earth, are 
fuppofcd to have been fornied, 
by the diurnal rotation of the 
earth, before it had become 
compact and folid. But this 
ilratum being more conftant and 
regular, the formation of it, if I 
miftake not, mould be afcribed 
to other caufes. If we fuppofe 
that this and the foil above were 
intermixed, and of one confid 
ence after the creation, the pan 
muft have been formed long be 
fore this time, by the fubfiding 
of the more ponderous parts of 
the foil. For it has been often ob- 
ferved, that clay, chalk, and lime, 
which have been laid on as ma 
nures, after fome years^ difap- 
pear from fhe furface, and are 
found a foot or more beneath it. 
Rains, and fermentations in the 
foil, make way for the defcentof 
the heaviest particles contained 
in the foil. 

It is in favour of this hypothe- 
lis, that the pan under the foil 
mod commonly bears an affinity 
) the foil itfelf. Under a grav- 


PAN 241 

elly foil, there is a large propor 
tion of gravel in the pan ; under 
a fandy one it ufually is found to 
eonfift chiefly of fand ; and under 
a ftiffloam it iscommonly clay : 
I think it is alv/ays found to be fo. 

But I fuppofe the operation of, 
froit Ihould be confidered, as af- 
fifting in forming the pan. All 
the foil above it is ufually hqveii 
by the froft in winten At leaft 
it is fo in this latitude. We fee 
rocks and ftones below the fur- 
face when the ground is frozen,; 
which before were on a level 
with it ; and in a foft foil they 
do not rife quite up to their form 
er fituation, when the ground is 
thawed. The froft does more 
than tillage, and perhaps more 
than rains, or fermentation, to 
wards caufing th more ponder 
ous parts of the foil (or ponder 
ous bodies in the foil) to iubfide^ 
or fink. 

The ffoft may have another in 
fluence in increafing the com- 
pachiefs of the under ftratum. 
As the froft expands he foil, the 
preifure of it downward is in- 
creafed j by which preffurc, the 
matter of which the pan confifts,. 
is made moft clofe and hard, like 
earth that has been violently ram 
med. But this perhaps can take 
place, only when the frozen ftra 
tum is held down by ftrong ob- 
jecfs, which reach far below the 
froft and pan ; as the (tumps of 
large trees deeply rooted, large 
rocks, &c. 

But it will be objefted, that 
fome foils appear to have no pan. 
under them* To anfvver this, it 
may be faid, that perhaps fome 
foils were, originally made up of 
particles equally ponderous ; fo 
that one had no more tendency 
to fubfide than another. Or elfe 
the loofenefs and opennefs of the 
under earth in fuch places, was 
fo great that it could not flop the 


P A 'N 

ponderous parts of the foil in their 
defcent; fo that they have been 
difperfed among the loefe earth, 
and part of them gone to a very 
great depth. 

If I have given a juft account 
of the formation of the pan, will 
it not follow, that this under ftra- 
fcum is lefs penetrable in cold 
than in warm latitudes, when 
made of like materials ? So far 
^s my obfervation has extended, 
this appears to be the cafe. It 
ought alfo to be lower ii% the 
earth, and the foil deeper ; and 
future obfervationsmay convince 
'us that this alfo is fat. 

Another corollary may be, 
That deeper ploughing than is 
ufually praftifed in this country 
would be proper. For it feenis 
that nature defigned all the flra- 
ta above the pan to ferve forpaf- 
tfure of plants. And it is well 
known that the more it is flirred 
and mixed, the fitter it is for this 
purpofe ; not only becaufeit lies 
the more loofe and open, but be- 
cau.fe the more of the food of 
plants will be contained in it. 

Such a ftratuiE, at a right dif- 
tance from the furface, is a great 
l>enefit to the foil. For, as no 
manures can eafily penetrate it, 
they muft remain in a good fitu- 
ation to be taken up by the roots 
of vegetables. But where there 
is no compact under ftratum,un- 
lefs at a great depth, manures laid 
upon the foil- are partly loft. 
Hence appears the great propri 
ety of claying 2nd marling fuch 
foils. In a long courfe of til 
lage, thefe dreflings will fubfide, 
and do fomething towards form 
ing the ftratum that is wanted. 

But to form a good under lira- 
turn at once, where it is wanted, 
let one hundred or more loads of 
clay be fpread on an acre of 
fandy grafs land. After it has 
lain, fpread upon the furface one., 


winter, let it be made perfectly 
fine and even by a bufh harrow, 
and rolled. Afterwards turn it 
under with a very deep plough 
ing. This will greatly affift a 
weak drv foil to retain moifture, 
and to hold the manures that mall 
be given it. Jt will be a lafting 
benefit. But this ploughing 
mould be done at a time, when 
the clay is fo damp that it will 
turn over in whole flakes. 

When, a plot of ground intend 
ed for a garden wants an under 
ftratum, it may be advifable to 
dig trenches four feet wide, and 
place a regular bed of clay in the 
bottom . The fecond trench may 
be contiguous to thefirit, and the 
firft be filled up with the earth 
that is taken out of the fecond ; 
and fo on till the whole work is 

Some have put themfelves to 
the expenfeof this operation, on 
ly with a view to get rid of all 
the feed of weeds in a garden 
which had long lain neglected, 
placing the upper part of the foil 
at the bottom. 

NINSENG. As this plant is a 
native of our country, and is be 
come a confiderable article of 
commerce, I think it is neceffary 
that every one mould know how 
to diftinguiih it from all other 
plants when he meets with it. I 
defire therefore to entertain the 
reader with Mr. Miller's account 
of it. 

" It hath male and hermaphro 
dite flowers on diftincl; plants. 
The male have fimple globular 
umbels, compofed of feveral 
coloured rays, which are equal. 
The flower hath five narrow, ob 
long, blunt petals, which are re- 
flexed, fitting on the empalement, 
and five oblong flender ftamina 
inferted in the empalement, ter 
minated by fingle fummits. The 


hermaphrodite umbels are fimple, 
equal, and cluttered ; the invo- 
lucrum is fmall, permanent, and 
compofed of feveral awl fhaped 
leaves. The flowers have five 
oblong, equal petals, which are 
recurved, and five fhort Aamina 
terminated by fingle fummits, 
which fall off, with a roundifh 
germen under the empalement, 
fupporting two fmall ere&ftyles, 
crowned by fimple ftigmas. The 
germen afterwards becomes an 
umbilicated berry with two cells, 
each containing a fingle heart 
fhaped, convex, plain feed. 

" The fpecies are, i. Panax 
qmnquefolium,fotits^ ternis quin- 
atis ; or panax with trifoliate 
cinquefoil leaves ; called ninzin. 
2. Panax tnfolium, foliis ternis 
itrnatis ; or panax with three 
trifoliate leaves. 

" Both thefe plants grow natur 
ally in North America ; the firft 
is generally believed to be the 
fame as the Tartarian Ginfeng. j 
It has a flefhy taper root, as large 
as a man's finger, which is joint- | 
ed, and frequently divided into 
fmaller fibres downward. The 
ftalk rifes above a toot high, nak 
ed to the top, where it generally 
divides into three fmaU foot 
$alks, each fuftaining a leaf com 
pofed of five fpear ftiaped lobes, 
which are fawed on their edges ; 
they are of a pale green, and a 
little hairy. The flowers arife j 
on a (lender foot ftalk, juft at the 
divifion of the foot ftalks which 
fuftain the leaves, and are formed 
into a fmall umbel at the top ; 
they are of an herbaceous yel 
low colour, compofed of fmall 
petals, which are recurved. 
Thefe appear the beginning of 
June, and are fucceeded by com- 
prefled heart fhaped berries, which 
ripen the beginning of Auguit. 
The Chinefe affirm that it is a 
fpvereign remedy for all weak- 

P A R 


nels occafioncd by exceffive fa 
tigUfes, either of body or mind ; 
that it cures weaknefs of the 
lungs and the pleurify ; that it 
Hops vomitings ; thatitilrength- 
ens tke fiomach, and helps the 
appetite ; that it ftr.engthens the 
vital fpirits, and increafes the 
lymph in the blood ; in fhort, 
that it is good againil dizzinefs 
of the head, and dimnefs of fight, 
and that it prolongs life in old 

Mr. Miller found he could not 
propagate this plant by the feed, 
either raifed in England, or 
brought from America. None 
of the feeds would grow. He 
believes the hermaphrodite plants 
fhould have fome of the male 
plants {landing near them, to 
render the feed prolifick ; for 
all the plants he faved feed 
from had only hermaphrodite 

PANIC, or PANNIC, a kind 
of grain that refembles millet, 
and requires the fame culture. 
Of this grain whole fields are 
cultivated for bread, in Germany 
and Italy. The Italian kind is 
faid to be larger and better than 
the German. 

PARSNEP, Paftinaca, an ef- 
culent root, of a fweet tafle, and 
of a very nouri filing quality. 

Prafnepsmuft have a mellow, 
rich and deep foil, not apt to be 
very dry. The be ft taded roots 
are produced in a foil that is 
more fandy than loamy. When 
they are cultivated in kitchen 
gardens, the ground mould be 
duguncommonlydeep; eighteen 
or twenty inches at leafi. No 
common ploughing will loofen 
the foil to a fufRcient depth. 
The goodnefs of a crop of thefe 
roots depends much upon their 

If they be fet near together, 
they will not grow to a large 


faze. I fow them in rows acrofs 
the beds, 15 inches apart, and al 
low about fix inches from plant 
to plant at the laft thinning, 
which may be early,, as they are 
not often hurt by infecls. I have 
feldom known any tobedeftroy- 
ed by them. 

The feeds mould be fowed as 
early as in March, if the ground 
be thawed, and not too wet. 
Some fow them in the fall ; but 
that is not a good practice, be- 
caufe the ground will grow too 
clofe and ftiff, for want of ftir- 
ring in the fpring ; which can- 
not well be performed in gar 
dens, without danger of in 
juring the roots. And weeds 
will be more apt to abound a- 
inong them, if they be fown in 

The manure that is ufed for 
parfneps fhould be very fin and 
rotten, and quite free from ftraws 
and lumps ; otherwife it will 
caufe the roots \o be forked, 
which is a great damage to them. 
They require but little manure, 
as they draw much of their qour- 
ilhmeht from a great depth. 
What manure is given them, 
fliould be fpread before digging 
the ground, that fome of it at leaf? 
may go deep. They do not im- 
poverifh the foil. I have raifed 
them near thirty years in the fame 
fpot, on a foil not naturally rich, 
and with a very flight yearly 
drefling. The crops are better 
than they were at firft : And the 
earth is become very black to a 
great depth. 

Parfneps will continue grow 
ing fo late as till the tops are kill 
ed by the troft, if not longer. 
Some let them remain in the 
ground through the winter, ex- 
pocling that they will grow larger 
in that feafon. But it is not pof- 
fible they fhould grow at all, fo 
( jong as they are cnclofcd with 


the frozen foil. They may pof- 
fibly grow a little in the fpring, 
before there is opportunity to 
take them up, if they efcape rot 
ting. But their growing will he 
chiefly f prouting at the top, which 
hurts them for eating. As foon 
as they begin to fprout, which 
will be as foon as the ground is 
thawed, they will begin to grow 
tough,andtohaveabitterifh tafle, 

The beft way is to dig them up 
about the lafl of November, or in 
the beginning of December. Let 
them not be wounded, or fo much 
as touched with the fpade in do 
ing it, if it can be avoided ; nei 
ther mould the tops be cut off very 
clofe to the roots, nor any of the 
lateral roots cut off. In either 
cafe the roots will rot, or become 

Many lofe their parfneps, or 
make them fprout, by putting 
them into a warm cellar. It is 
better to keep them in fome out 
houfe, or in a cellar that freezes ; 
for no degree of froft ever hurts 
them. 3 Lit to prevent their dry 
ing too much, it is befl to cover 
them with dry fods, or elfe bury 
them in fandthat has no moiflure 
in it. Beach fand is improper, 
becaufe the fait in it will make 
them vegetate. 

It is faid by European writers, 
that, parfneps are an excellent 
food for fwine, and ufeful for 
feeding; and fattening all forts of 

If we would cultivate them for 
thefe purpofes, the horfe hoeing 
husbandry niuft be applied. The 
ground mufl be trencli ploughed 
in October, and all the ilones 
carefully taken out. The trench 
ploughing muft be repeated be 
fore the end of November, the 
foil made fine by harrowing, laid 
in beds of from three to four feet 
wide, and fown by a line in drills 
on the middle of the beds. There 


may be either one or two rows 
an a bed. If there be two, they 
mould be full twelve inches apart, 
and the intervals proportionably 

Autumnal fowing in the field 
culture is not amifs, as the ground 
is to be kept light by horfe hoe 
ing. In this operation the ground 
fhould be ftirred very deep. The 
plough ihould go twice in a fur 
row. At the laft ploughing, the 
furrows ihould be turned towards 
the rows. 

PASTURE, according to the 
language of fanners in this coun 
try, means land in grafs, for the 
fummer feeding of cattle. 

To manage pafture land advart- 
tageoufly, it fhouldbe well fenc 
ed in fmall lots, of four, eight or 
twelve acres, according to the 
largenefs of one's farm and flock. 
And thefe lots fhould be border 
ed at leaft with rows of trees. It 
is beft that trees of fome kind or 
other ihould be growing fcatter- 
ed in every point of a pafture, fo 
that the cattle may never have 
far to go in a hot hour to obtain 
a comfortable {hade. The grafs 
will fpring earlier in lots that are 
thus flickered, and they will bear 
drought the better. But too 
great a proportion of (hade ihould 
be avoided, as it will give a four- 
nefs to the grafs. 

Small lots, thus flickered, are 
not left bare of fnow fo early in 
the fpring as larger ones lying 
bare, as fences and trees caufe 
more of it to remain upon the 
ground. The cold winds in 
March and April hurt the grafs 
much when the ground is bare. 
And the winds in winter will not 
fufter fnow to lie deep on land 
that is too open to the rake of 
winds and ftorms. 

It is hurtful to paftures to iurn 
in cattle too early in the fpring : 
And moft hurtful to thofe paftures 


j in which the grafs fprings earli- 
i eft, as in very low and wet paf- 
I tures. Fetching fuch land In the 
fpring, deftroys the fward, fo 
that it will produce the lefs 
quantity of grafs. Neither 
ihould cattle be let into any 
pafture, until the grafs is fomuch 
j grown as to afford them a good 
bite, fo that they may fill them- 
felves without rambling over the 
whole lot. The 2oth of May is 
early enough to turn cattle into 
almoft any of our paftures. Out 
of fome they mould be kept lat 
er. The dried paftures ihould 
be ufed firft, though in them the 
grafs is (horteft, that the potch- 
ing of the ground in the wetteH 
may be prevented. 

The bufhes and (lirubs that 
rife in paftures, mould be cut in 
the moft likely times to deftroy 
them. Thirties, and other bad 
weeds, mould be cut down be 
fore their feeds have ripened ; 
and ant hills ihould be deftroy- 
ed. Much may be done to 
wards fubduing a bufhy pafture, 
by keeping cattle hungry in it. 
A continual browiing keeps 
clown the young ihoots, and 
totally kills many of the bufh 
es. Steers and heifers may mend 
fuch a pafture, and continue 

But as to cleared paftures, it is 
not right to turn in all forts of cat 
tle prpmifcuoufly. Milch kinc, 
working oxen, and fatting beafts, 
ihould have the firft feeding of 
an enclofure. Afterwards, iheep 
and horfes. When the firft lot 
is thus fed off, it ihould be fhut 
up, and the dung that has been 
dropped ihould bebeat to pieces, 
and well fcattered. Afterwards, 
the fecond pafture mould be 
treated in the fame manner, and 
the reft in courfe, feeding the 
wetteft pafture alter the riricft, 
that the foil may be lefs potched, 



Something confiderable is fav- 
ed by letting all forts of grazing 
animals take their turn in a paf- 
ttire. By means of this, nearly 
all the herbage produced will be 
eaten ; much of which would 
otherwife be loft. Horfes will 
eat the leavings of horned cattle; 
and fheep will eat ibme things 
that both the one and the other 

But if in a courfe of pafturing, 
by means of a fruitful year, or a 
fcanty flock of cattle, fome grafs 
of a good kind mould run up to 
feed, and not be eaten, it need 
not be regretted ; fora new fup- 
ply of feed will fill the ground 
with new roots, which are better 
than old ones. And I know of 
no grafs that never needs renew 
ing from the feed. 

A farmer needs not to be told, 
that if he turn fwine iflfto a paf 
ture, they mould have rings in 
their nofes, unlefs brakes and 
other weeds need to be rooted 
out. Swine may do fervice in 
this way. They mould never 
have the firfl of the feed ; for 
they will foul the grafs, and 
make it diftafteful to horfes and 

Let the flock of a farmer be 
greater or lefs, he mould have at 
leaft four enclofures of pafture 
land. One enclofure may be 
fed two weeks, and then {hut up 
to grow. Then another. Each 
one will recruit well in fix weeks ; 
and each will have this fpace of 
time to recruit. But in the lat 
ter part of Oclober, the cattle 
may range through all the lots, 
unlefs fome one may have be 
come too wet andfoft. In this 
cafe, it ought to be fhut up, and 
kep.tfo till feeding time the next 

But that farmers may not be 
troubled with low miry paflures, 
they mould drain them, if it be 


pralicable,orcanbe done confift- 
ently with their other bufinefs, 
If they mould produce a fmaller 
quantity of gr.ifs afterwards, it 
will be fweeter, and of more 
value. It is well known, that 
cattle fatted in a dry pafture 9 
have better tailed flem than thofe 
which are fatted in a wet one. In 
the old countries it will fetch a 
higher price. This is particu 
larly the cafe as to mutton. 

Feeding paflures in rotation, is 
of greater advantage than fome 
are apt to imagine. One acre, 
managed according to the above 
directions, will turn to better ac 
count, as fome fay who have prac- 
tifed it, than three acres in the 
common way. By the com 
mon way I would be underflood 
to mean, having weak and tot 
tering fences, that will drop of 
themfelves in a few months, and 
never can refift the violence ot 
diforderly cattle ; fufFering weeds 
and bufhes to overrun the land ; 
keeping all the pafture land in 
one enclofure ; turning in all 
forts of flock together ; fufFering 
the fence to drop down in au 
tumn, fo as to lay the paftt*re 
common to all the fwirie and 
cattle that pleafe to enter ; and 
not putting up the fence again 
till the firft of May, or later. 
Such management is too com 
mon in all the parts of this country 
with which I am moft acquainted. 
I would hope it is not univerfal. 

Land which is constantly ufed 
as pafture, will be enriched. 
Therefore it is advifable to moAy a 
pafture lot once in three or fpur 
years, if the Turf ace be fo level 
as to admit of it. In the mean 
time, to make amends for the 
lofs of pafture, a mowing lot 
may be paftured. It will thus be 
improved : And if the grafs do 
not grow fo rank afterwards in 
the pafture lot, it will be more 



cfear of weeds, and bear better 
grafs. Alternate pafturing and 
mowing has the advantage ot 
faving a good deal of expenfe 
and trouble, in manuring the 
mowing grounds. 

Though paftures need manur 
ing lefs than other lands, yet, 
when buihes, bad weeds. Sec. are 
burnt upon them, theafhes Ihould 
be fpread thinly over the furface. 
The grafs will thus be improv 
ed : And grafs feeds mould be 
(own upon the burnt fpots, that 
no part may be vacant of grafs. 

vegetable Pafture, that part of 
the ear- h in which the roots of 
plants extend and receive their 
nourimment. This is properly 
their natural pafture. But more 
commonly thefe expreflions in 
tend that depth of foil which is 
ftirred, and rendered fo loofe by 
tillage, that the roots of tender 
vegetables eafily penetrate it, as 
they extend themlelves in quell 
of nourimment. 

Within certain limits, the 
greater quantity of pafture a 
plant has, the greater advantage 
it has to get nouriihment. But 
fome require a greater, and fome 
a lefs quantity of pafture, ac 
cording to the diftance to which 
their roots are difpofed to extend. 
Therefore, fome plants mould be 
placed at greater diftances than 
others. The fanner, mould be 
able to determine thefe diftances, 
with refpeft to every plant that 
he cultivates ; becaufe the large- 
nefs ot his crops in fome rneaf- 
ure depends on it. He mould 
therefore attend to the conftruc- 
ture of the roots of different 
plants ; and obferve to what 
length the lateral fibres extend. 

But as the capillary fibres of 
moft plants are fo fmall, and fo 
impregnated with the colour of 
the foil, as to become invifible 

P A S 247 

near their extremities ; the fol 
lowing experiment is adapted 
to throw much more light on 
this mbje6t, than any examina 
tion of the roots by the eye. 

In a foil that is become hard 
and bound by lying, let a triangle 
be marked on the ground, forty 
yards the length of the fides, and 
four yards the length of the bafe. 
Let the foil it includes be well 
dug and pulveriled. Then 
draw a line fo as to bifcft the 
bafe and the acute angle. On 
this line, at equal diftances, plant 
the feeds, give them the ufiial 
culture, obferve their growth, 
and fee at what breadth the plants 
arrive to their greateft growth. 
If they do fo in that part of 
the triangle which is four feet 
wide, it will follow th; i the 
plant has fent its. roots ; , o feet 
on each fide, and from that dif 
tance drawn part of its nourim- 
ment. Mr. 'Full, .in his experi 
ment, made ufe of the feeds of 
turnip : But other feeds may 
ferve as well ; and it might be 
advantageous to make trial with 
many kinds of feed. 

I do not recommend that all 
plants/ which extend their roots 
as much as two feet, Ihould be 
placed four feet apart. Doubt- 
lefs the capillary roots may in 
termix, to a certain length, with 
out robbing each other to fuch a 
degree as to injure the crop ef- 
fentially : But the comparative 
diltances at which different plants 
ought to grow, may in this way 
be afcertained with exaftnefs. 

Another thing which ought to 
be determined, is, what depth ot 
pafture different plants require. 
For this purpofe, let one bed be 
dug nine inches deep, another 
of equal dimenfions, and foil, 
twelve, and another fifteen. Let 
the three beds be fet with equal 
numbers of the fame kinds of 
feeds ; 



feeds ; and let the produce be 
compared. If it be found that 
the excefs in the crop will not 
pay for extra tillage, the extra 
tillage Ihould be avoided for the 
future. But the experiment 
fhould be made two years in fuc- 
ceffion,without fhifting the beds ; 
becaufe the deepeft part ot the 
foil will be in better order the 
fecond year than the firft, in land 
which has not before been dug 
to that depth. The refult might 
be with the more fafety depend 
ed on, if the trials were made 
three years in fucceffion. 

And there will ftil! be fome 
danger of drawing too hally a 
conclufion, if another thing be 
not confidered, which is, that 
plants, which ftand fo near to 
gether as to be fomewhat crowd- 
ea, will alter the natural form 
of their roots, and point more 
downward, when there is a plen 
ty of artificial pafture below them. 
So that deep tillage will render 
it proper to let plants proportion- 
ably nearer together. The beds 
fhould therefore be dug the fourth 
year as before. If the firft in 
clude one hundred plants, let the 
fecond include one hundred and 
fifty, and the third two hundred. 
I fuppofeall the beds to be equally 
manured, and equal in dim en - 
fions, as well as equally pulverif- 
ed, and to the fame depth as be 
fore, and equally tended after 
fowing. Then by comparing the 
produce, it may be determined 
whether making a deep pafture 
ior the roots be really advanta 
geous, and to what depth the 
ground ought to be loofcned, as 
well as at what diflance the plants 
ought to be fet. 

I have here gone upon the 
fuppofition thru the beds be 
equally pulverifed : For, if not, 
the quantity of pafture in one,may 
be double to that in another,in the 

2 A S 

fame depth. If the tillage differ,- 
the crops will differ in proportion,, 
But I will next obferve, that 
there are twree ways of increaf- 
ing the artificial paifure of plants : 
One is tilling the land to a great 
er depth, by means ot which a 
greater quantity ot foil, under a 
given furface, is employed in the 
bufinefsof vegetation : Another 
is a more perfett tillage, by which 
the number of little cavities in 
the foil are increaied, fo that the 
roots may come into contact 
with a greater quantity of vegeta- 
able food, more or lefs of which 
is contained in- the fliffeft parts 
of the foil : The third is apply 
ing fuch manures as raife a fer 
mentation in the foil, by which 
its parts are well broken and di 
vided, and kept in that ftate till 
the fermentation ends, and for 
fome time after, till the foil has 
had time to fubfide. 

Tillage and manure are both 
requifite to pulverife the foil. 
Without the former, the manure 
cannot be properly mixed with 
the foil ; and tillage alone will 
not anfwer, not even in land con- 
fiderably ilored with the food of 
plants, unlefs it be of ten repeat 
ed while the crop is growing : 
Becaufe the foil that is only till 
ed, foon fettles, and becomes too 
compact ; unlefs manure be ap 
plied, which will keep up a fer 
mentation, fometimes for feveral 
months, befides increafing the 
vegetable food. Any one may 
obferve, that dunged land feels 
fofter to the foot, than land which 
has not been dunged, when both 
have had equal tillage. The form 
er therefore will afford more nour- 
iihment for the plants growing 
in it, befides the nourifhment 
contained in the dung. 

Indeed there is one kind of 
foil, which, inftead of being too 
clofe, is too puffy and porous to 



be a fuitable pafture for plants. 
The interfaces are fo large, that 
the roots will not pafs through 
them. We fometimes meet 
with fuch a foil in drained 
fwamps. This foil mufl be 
ploughed and harrowed to make 
it more folid, or compact. Til 
ling it helps to fill up the vacui 
ties ; and in the place of one large 
one, many fmaller ones are form 
ed, of a fize more fuitable to facil 
itate the extenfion of roots. 

PEACH TREES,4mygJalus, 
a well known kind ot truit trees, 
of which there is yet no great va 
riety in this country. Mr. Miller 
reckons no Iefsthan3i forts, be - 
iides a number ot lets value. 
We have room for making, very 
great improvements, it feems, in 
the culture of this fruit. What 
we call the rareripe, is almoft 
the only fort I have feen, that 
is worth cultivating : And this 
kind, within thirty, years pafl, 
fecms to have greatly degenerat 
ed. , I apprehend it is time that 
thefe were renewed, by bringing 
the trees or itones from fome 
other country. 

Peach trees fli6uld be cultivat 
ed near to or in the borders of 
gardens. When they are propa 
gated by planting the flones, they 
mould be taken from fruit that 
has thoroughly ripened on the 
tree, and be planted in Oclober, 
three inches under the furface. 
The trees may alfo be propagat 
ed by Jnoculatingupon plums and 
apricots. This will undoubted 
ly render them longer lived. 

When the trees are tranfplant- 
ed, the downright (hoot of the 
roots fhould be pruned very 
fhort, and the lateral ones be left 
at a good length ; for if the trees 
draw much of. their nouriQiment 
irom a great depth,, the fap will 
be crude, and the fruit not fo 
good. As thefe trees are natives 

PEA 249 

of 3 warmer climate they ought 
to have a fouthern expofure. 
They mould alfo be fcreened 
from the direct influence of north, 
and northeafterly winds. 

The foil that fuits them beft is 
a dry light loam ; and the fur- 
face mould be conflantly tilled; 
and moderately manured with 
old rotten dung. 

If too great a quantity of 
peaches appear on the trees, fo 
as to crowd each other, they 
Ihould be fpeedily thinned, by 
taking off the pooreft : For if 
they be fuffered all to remain on. 
the tree, much of the fruit will 
drop off unripe : What remains 
will not be fo perfect, and per 
haps fewer in number. 

As the fruit grows not on fpurs, 
but on the fhoots made in the 
laft preceding year, Mr. Miller 
dire6ls,that the new flioots fhould 
be fhortened, by cutting them 
yearly in Oftober, leaving them 
from five to eightinchesinlength, 
according as they are weaker or 
flronger. I have praftifed this 
method of cutting in October 
for feveral years ; which has 
caufed trees, which were before 
barren, to bear fome fruit. And 
I obferve that the branches of the 
trees are not fo often killed by the 
froftin winter. But the trees have 
now become fickly and barren. 

PEAR TREES, Pyrus, Pears 
have a nearer affinity to quinces 
than to apples : For a pear cion 
will grow and profper upon a 
quince flock, but not fo well upon 
an apple : Arid a quince cion will 
grow upon a pear flock. 

The vafl variety of pears, 
which are cultivated in the 
world, have been obtained from 
the feeds, which, like thofe of 
the apple, will produce fruit 
trees different from the- parent 
tree. Seeds fometimes bring de 
generate, and fometimes improv 

#50 PEA 

ed fruit trees. So that, all the 
beft grafted fruits have been, 
fome time or other, produced by 
nature itfelf : And though the 
fruits vary, there is not a fpecifi- 
cal difference. 

Though the pear will grow 
upon the quince, or even upon 
the white thorn, it fhould not be 
grafted on the former, unlefs it 
be for dwarf trees, and in no 
cafe upon the latter. The flock 
of the thorn will not grow to fo 
large a fize as the cion will : 
The trees will therefore be top 
heavy, and fhort lived, as I have 
found by experience. ^There 
fore it is beft in general, ttiat pears 
fhould be grafted upon pears. 
The propagation or pear trees 
from the feeds, and the culture 
of them in nurferies, do not dif 
fer from the propagation and 
culture of apple trees. See Nur- 

Pear trees bear -fruit to -the ends 
of the laft year's moots, as well 
as upon the fpurs. Therefore, 
the new moots fhould not be 
fhortened, left the fruit be di- 
imnifhed : And, for the fame 
reafon, thefe trees fhould never 
ftand fo near together as to 
crowd each other. But the dif- 
tance at which the trees are to 
be fet in an orchard, or in a grove, 
depends partly upon the nature 
of the trees, as fome grow larger 
than others ; and partly upon 
the fruitfulnefs of the foil. In 
general they may be allowed to 
iland nearer together than apple 
trees. Thefe, as well as other 
fruit trees, ihould have the 
ground tilled about them, to pro 
mote their growth and fruitful 
nefs, at leaft until they are be 
come fo large as to bear plentiful 
ly, and occafionally from time to 
time afterwards. 

PEASE, Pifum& fort of plants 
which bears a papilionaceous or 


butterfly flower, fucceeded by 
unocular pods full of globofc 

The varieties are fo numerous, 
that I mail not undertake to dif- 
tinguifh them. They are culti 
vated in gardens and in fields. 
The garden culture is thus : Af 
ter the ground has been well 
dug, raked and levelled, mark it 
out in double rows one foot apart, 
and leave intervals of three feet 
between the double rows, fo that 
when they are brufhed, there may 
be a free paffage through the in 
tervals. Open the trenches 
three inches deep with the head 
of a rake, or with a hoe ; fcatter 
in the peafe at the rate of about 
one to an inch, or nearer ^to 
gether if you have plenty of 
feed ; and then cover them with 
a-rake. Or fmall marks may be 
made for the rows, and the 
peafe pricked in with a finger to 
the fame depth, and the holes 
filled* with a rake. The former 
method is beft, as the mould a- 
bout the peafe is left lighter ; 
and it is more expeditioufly per 

The ground mould He hoed, 
and kept clear of weeds ; and 
when the young plants are fix 
inches high, the fterns fhould be 
earthed up a little, and each 
double row filled with brufh 
wood, fo that each plant may 
climb, and none of them trail 
upon the ground. The brufh 
fhould be fet ftrongly in the 
earth, or they will not bear the 
weight of the plants in windy 
weather. I fet the larger bufhes 
ftrongly between the rows, mak 
ing the holes with a crow .bar ; 
and then the frnaller bufhes in 
the rows as leaders. The latter 
may be fharpened a little at the 
points, and pufhed in by hand. 
They will be the more fruitful 
for brushing or flicking, as well 



as more Tightly, and more con 
veniently gathered. But the low 
dwarf kinds feldom need any lup- 

Whatever be the fort, no weeds 
fhould be fuftered to increafe 
among them ; and the alleys 
mould be hoed deep once or 
twice after hrufhing. But the foil 
fhould not be very rich, left the 
plants run too much to haulm. 
The mo ft hungry part of a gar 
den anfwers well for peafe. 

The earlieft forts of peafe will 
fometimes be ripe in June : So 
that a crop of potatoes, turnips, 
; or cabbages,may be had after them, 

For field .peafe, land that is 
newly ploughed out of fward is 
generally accounted beft ; and 
land which is high and dry, and 
has not been much dunged. A 
light loamy foil is moft fui table 
for them ; and if it abound with 
flaty ftpnes it is the better. But 
they will do in any dry foil. The 
forts that grow large fhould have 
a weaker foil ; in a ftronger foil 
the fmaller forts anfwer beft. 
The manures that fuit peafe beft 
are mar]e and lime. 

Horfe hoeing husbandry appli 
ed, it it were practicable, would 
greatly aflift the growth of peafe. 
They fo foon begin to trail upon 
the ground, that the feafon in 
which this culture can be appli 
ed, is extremely fhort. But ibme 
have obtained very good crops in 
this way. Much of the feed at 
leaft might be faved. 

Our farmers dp not common 
ly allow a fufficient quantity of 
feed for peafe, in broad oaft fow- 
ing. When peafe are fowed thin, 
the plants will lie upon the 
ground, and perhaps rot : When 
they are thick, the plants will 
hold each other up, with their 
tendrils, forming a continued 
web ; and will have more benefit 
ft' the air. 


At Fryburgh and Conway, as 
I am informed, the farmers fow 
three bufhels on an acre, accord- 
ing to the practice in England ; 
and their crop, one time with an 
other, is upwards of t-wenty bufli- 
*els. This is certainly better for 
them, than to fow one bufhel, 
and reap eighteen : But he that 
fows one bufhel only on an acre, 
muft not expecl, one time with 
another, to reap twelve. 

The only infe6t that common 
ly injures our peafe, is a fmall 
brown bug, or fly, the egg oi: 
which is depofited in them when 
they are young, and the pods eafi- 
ly perforated. The infecl. does 
not come out of his neft, till he 
is furnifhed with fliort wings. 
They diminifh the peafe in which 
they lodge to nearly one half, 
and their leavings are fit only for 
the food of fwine. The bugs, 
however, will be all gone out, if 
you keep them to the following 
autumn. But they who eat bug 
gy peafe, the winter after they arc 
raifed, muft rim the venture o 
eating the infecls. 

If fpwn in the new plantations, 
to which this bug has never been 
carried, peafe are free from bugs : 
For the infects do not travel far 
from their native place. There 
fore, care fhould be taken not to 
carry them, as fome are apt to 
do, in feed, from older fettle- 
ments. Even in a part of an old 
farm, near to which peafe have 
not for a long time, if ever, been 
(own, a crop of peafe are not 
buggy, if clean feed be town. 
Therefore, in fuch places, one 
may guard again ft this infect, by 
(owing peafe \yhicharecertainly 
known to be clear of them. But 
if the contrary be known, or even, 
fufpefted, let the peafe be fcald- 
ed a quarter of a minute, in boil-, 
ing water ; then fpread about* 
cooled, and fown without delay. 




If any of the bugs mould be in 
the peafe, this fcalding will def- 
troy them : And the peafe, in- 
flead of being hurt, will come 
lip the fooner, and grow the 

All peafe that are fown late, 
fhould be fteeped, or fcalded, be 
fore lowing. They will be for 
warder. But peafe mould always 
be fown as early as the ground 
can be got into a good tilth, with 
out any filly regard* to the time 
of the moon ; by which I have 
known fome mifs the right time 
of fowing, and fuffer much in 
their crop. The real caufes 
of a crop not ripening equally, 
are bad feed, poor culture, and 
fowing too thin. If the ground 
be ploughed but once, it fhould 
be harrowed abundantly. But 
on green fward ground, I think 
it mould be ploughed early in au 
tumn, and crofs ploughed and 
Jjarrowed in the fpring. In old 
ground, as it is called, it is no bad 
way to plough in the feed with 
a fhoal furrow : It will be more 
equally covered, and bear drought 
better ; and I mould think, the 
crop would ripen more equally. 
There is no danger of their being 
buried too deep, in our common 
method of ploughing. The Eu 
ropean farmers think fix inches 
is not too great a depth for peafe 
to be covered in moft foils, and 
four inches not too deep in clay. 

Changing the feed is a matter 
of very great importance ; for 
peafe are apt to degenerate more 
rapidly than almoft any other 
plants. Seeds ihould be brought 
irom a more northern clime ; for 
t'hofe which ripen earlieft are beft. 
I would change them yearly, if 
it could be djne without much 
trouble or coft. Once in two or 
three years is neceffary. 

If weeds come up among field 
, while they are young, they 

be weeded. But whea 
are grown up, they will 


hinder the growth of weeds by 
their made, unlefs they are fow r 
ed too thin. Peafe fown thick 
form fo clofe a cover for the foil, 
that they caufe it to putrefy ; 
they are therefore called an im 
proving crop : But they alfo 
draw a greater proportion of their 
nourifhment from the air, than 
moil other plants ; for it is ob~ 
fervable that they continue their 
greennefs long after the lower 
parts of the fterns are dead to ap 

Garden peafe are harvefted by 
picking them off as they ripen ; 
but field peafe muft unavoidably 
be harvefted all at once. They 
mould be carefully watched, and 
harvefted, before any of them are 
fo ripe as to begin to (hell out. 
Thofe among them which are 
unripe, will ripen, or at lead be 
come dry, after they are cut or 
pulled up ; and fuch peafe, well 
dried, are not commonly bad for 
eating, though ill coloured. To 
dry them, they fhouid be laid on 
the ground in fmallheaps, as light 
and open as poflible, the greened 
of the ftraw and pods uppermoft. 
The heaps mould never be turn 
ed upfide down, though rain 
ihould fall, but they may be gent 
ly lightened up, if they fettle 
clofe to the ground. This will be 
fufficient. When thoroughly 
dried, they mould be carefully 
removed to the barn, at a time 
when the air is not dry, and 
tferafhed without delay. But if 
the thrafbing muft be delayed, it 
is better to keep them in a flack 
than in a barn. 

After winnowing, peafe fhould 
lie on a floor, three or four inch 
es thick, and air fhould be let 
into the apartment, that they may 
be dried ; which they will be in 
two r tkree weeks, the weather- 


feeing generally dry. After this 
they may be put into cafks to keep. 

Our common method ot pull 
ing .up peafe by hand, is too la- j 
borious. They fhould be cut or ' 
pulled up with a {harp hook in 
the form of a fickle ; fattened to 
a long handle. Some perform it 
expeditioully with a common 
fickle. But this is little, if at all,, 
lefs laborious than doing it with 
the hand. 

When land is in fui table or 
der, field peafe may be cultivated 
according to the new hulbandry, 
with advantage. M. Eyma 
found his crops were half as large 
again in this way, as in the old 
hulbandry, befides faving half the 
feed. The intervals between the 
double rows mould be near four 
feet wide, or there will not be 
fufficient room for horie hoeing. 
And this mould be done with, be 
fore the plants begin to trail on 
the ground. 

PEAT, a kind of earth, or rath 
er a foflil, ufed in fome countries 
for fewel. 

It is often found in low, mi 
ry, and boggy places, that lie 
between hills. That which is the 
moft folid is the moft valuable. 
It lies at different depths ; fome- 
times, very near the furface ; 
femetimes eight or ten feet below 
it. The bell way to find it is by 
boring. The flratum above it is 
moft commonly mud, or moory 

I fuppofe many places where 
it is found tohave been originally 
ponds ; and that they have been, 
either fuddenly, at the time ot 
Noah's flood, or gradually fince, 
filled up with wood, and other 
vegetable fubflances, which, by a 
flow putrefaction, have been 
changed into the fubftance we 
call peat. For fome undilfolved 
trunks of trees, bark, c. are 
found among it. 

PEA 253 

It is fometimes found in inter 
val lands, and near to the banks 
of rivers. In thefe places, the 
{hitting of the beds of rivers, cauf- 
ed by the choking of the old cur 
rents, will afford a probable ac 
count of its formation. 

Peat is diftinguifhable by its 
cutting very fmooth, like butter 
or lard, by its being free from 
grit, and its burning freely, when 
thoroughly dried. It will not 
diffolve when expofed to the air 
tor a long time, but become hard 
like cinder. 

A dry feafon is thebeft oppor 
tunity for digging it, as the la 
bourers are but little incommoded 
by water. They who dig peat for 
fewel, mould have long angular 
fpades, the blades of which mould 
be lhaped like a carpenter's bur, 
with which it may be eafily cut 
put of the pits, in pieces four fquare, and twenty inches 
in length. Thefe fhould be laid 
fmgly on the furface to harden. 
When they are partly dry they 
are piled open, athwart each 
other : And in a few days of dry 
ing weather, they will be fit^ to 
cart, and {lore for fewel. This 
fewel muflbeconftantly kept in 
a dry place. 

It has been found by trials that 
the afhes of peat is a very impor 
tant manure, of three times the 
value of wood afhes. Fifteen 
bufhels are allowed to be a fuf 
ficient top drefling for an acre. 
It is an excellent manure for cold 
grafs lands ; and for all fuch crops 
in any foil as require much 
heat. They mould be fowed by 
hand, as they can thus be more 
evenly fpread. It may be done 
in winter with the leaft dan 
ger of hurting plants by its 
heat. If fown in fummer, it 
fhould be juft before rain, when 
it will be immediately deprived 
of its burning quality. 



The method of burning peat 
to allies, I will give from the Mu- 
Jeum Rujticum, as I have had no 
experience in it myfelf. 

" As foon as it is dug, fome 
of it is mixed in a. heap regular 
ly difpofed with faggot wood, or 
other ready burning fewel : Af 
ter a layer or two of it is mixed 
in this manner, peat alone is pil 
ed up to complete the heap. A 
heap-will confiil of from one 
? hundred to a thoufand loads. 

" After letting fire to it at a 
proper place, before on purpofe 
prepared,it is watched in the burn 
ing : And the great art is to keep 
in as much of the {moke as poi- 
fible, provided that as much vent 
is left as will nourifh and feed 
the fire. 

" Whenever a crack appears, 
out of which the fmoke efcapes, 
the labourer in that place lays on 
snore peat ; and if the fire flack- 
ens too much within, which may 
be known by the heat of the out- 
fide, the workman muft run a 
ilrong pole into the heap, in as 
many places as is needful, to Rip 
ply it with a quantity of frefli 
air. Whenmanaged in this man 
ner, the work goes on as it mould 
do. It is noticed, that when once 
the fire is well kindled, the heav- 
ieft rain does it no harm whilftit 
is burning." To preferve the 
afhes for ufe, this writer proceeds 
'thus : 

... " It is neceffary to defend the 
afhes from the too powerful in 
fluence of the fun, arr, dews, rain, 
&c. or great part of their virtue 
would be exhaled and exhaufted, 
If the quantity of afhes procured 
is not very gre'at, they may be 
eafily put under cover in a barn, 
cart lodge, or hovel ; but large 
quantities muft neceffarily, to 
avoid expenfe, be kept abroad ; 
and when this is the cafe, they 
Should be ordered as follows : 


" A dry fpot of ground muft 
be chofen ; and on this the allies 
are to be laid in a large heap, as 
near as poflTible in the form of a 
cone Handing on its bafe, the top 
as {harp pointed as poflible : 
When this is done, let the whole 
be covered thinly over with a 
coat of foil, to defend the heap 
from the weather : The cir 
cumjacent earth, provided it is 
not too light and crumbly. 

" When thus guarded, the 
heap may very fafely be left till 
January or February, when it is 
in general the feafon for fpread- 
ing it. But before it is ufed, it is 
always beft to fift the afties, &c.' ! 

Mr. Eliot fuppofeditwas nec- 
eflary to dry the peat before 
burning : But perhaps he never 
tried the above method. He 
fays, if it be ftifled in burning, it 
will be coal inftead of alhes ; 
and that the red fort makes bet 
ter charcoal than that made of 

It is happy for mankind, that 
bountiful Providence has prepar 
ed and preferved this precious 
treafure, containing the effence ot 
vegetables, by which they may 
be fupplied with fewel in their 
houfes, manure for their lands, 
and coal for fmiths' forges. But 
in vain itis -provided, unlefs men 
will fearch for it, and make ufe 
of it. There is no reafon to 
doubt of its being as plenty iu 
this country, as in any other. 
When Mr. Eliot fearched for it, 
he tells us he foon found it ii* 
feven different places. 

The afhes are fajd to have a 
better effecl; upon winter,than up 
on Runnier grain ; and to be not 
good for leguminous plants, as it 
makes their haulm too luxuriant. 
The good effefts of a drefiiog are 
vifible for three years ; and they 
will not leave land in an impov- 
erifhed {late. 



PEN, a fmall enclofure, to 
Confine animals in. 

PERKIN, or PURRE, a liq 
uor made from the murk, or grots 
ipiatter, remaining after perry is 
preffed out. It has the fame affini 
ty to perry as cyderkin has to cy 
der. To make this liquor,the murk 
is put in a large vat with a proper 
quantity of boiled water, which has 
itood till it is cold again. It may 
infufe 48 hours if the weather be 
cool, and then be preffed out. 
The liqour may be put into cafks 
and lightly flopped, and will be 
fit to drink, in a few days. It is 
oqual to fmall beer : But if well 
boiled with hops, it will be fit 
for keeping till the following 
fummer. And it may be great 
ly improved by bottling. 

PERRY, a liquor made from 
pears, in the fame manner as cy 
der is from apples. The pears 
fhould, in general, be ripe before 
they are ground. They will not 
bear fo much fweating as apples. 
The mofl crabbed and worfl eat 
ing fruit, is faid to make the befl 
perry. After perry is made it 
fhould be managed in all refpefts 
Hke cyder. Boiling has a good 
effecl; on perry, changing it 
from a white to a flame coloured 
and fine flavoured liquor, which 
grows better by long keeping 
and bottling. 

PLANTS, the palling off of the 
juices that are fuperfluous, through 
pores prepared by nature on 
their fuperficies for that purpofe. 

The analogy which plants 
bear to animals, is in no inflance 
more remarkable than in this e- 
vacuation. The parts of a plant 
which contain the excretory 
duels, are chiefly the leaves. For 
\ve find, that if a tree be contin 
ually deprived of its leaves for 
two or three years, it will ficken 
and die, as an animal does when 

PER 255 

its perfpiratio^ is flopped. But 
fmear the bark on the Hems with 
any glutinous fubftance fuffi- 
cient to flop any pores, and no> 
great alteration will be obferved 
in the health of the tree, as has 
been proved by experiment. And 
as M. Bonnet has proved that 
leaves generally imbibe the moif- 
ture of the atmofphere on their un 
der furface, is it not reafonable to 
fuppofe that the pores for tranf- 
piration are placed on their up 
per furface ? But that the flems 
of plants contain fome bibulous 
pores, feems evident from this, 
that when placed in the earth, 
they will fend out roots, But 
thefe pores in the flems are fo 
few, that the flopping of them 
does not materially injure a 

As animals have other ways of 
throwing off thofe parts of their 
food which are not fit to nourifh 
them, it is no wonder that plants 
have been found to perfpire in- 
fenfibly a far greater quantity 
than animals. Plants cannoe 
choofe their food as animals do r 
but mull take in that which is> 
prefented by the earth and atmof 
phere, which food in general is 
more watery, and lefs nourilh- 
ing, than that of animals ; and 
lor thefe reafons, alfo, it might be 
juflly expetled, that the matter 
perfpired by a plant mould be 
vaflly more than that perfpired 
by an animal of the fame bulk ; 
and this has been found to be the 
cafe. See the- article Leaves. 

A practical inference or two 
from the copious perfpiration of 
plants may be, that the plants 
we cultivate fhould not be fet 
too clofe, that they may not 
be incommoded, or rendered 
fickly, by the unwholefomc 
fleams of each other. They are 
as liable to be injured this way, 
for ought that appears to the 

256 FLA 

contrary, as animals are. And 
the water that drips from trees 
upon fmaller vegetables is known 
to be not healthy for them ; the 
reafon is, becaufe this water con 
tains fome of the matter which 
perfpired from the trees. But 
if the perfpirable matter of plants 
be injurious to plants, it does 
not follow that it is fo to animals. 
It is thought to be not fo in gen 
eral, but the reverfe. The efflu 
vium of poifonous plants is an 

PLANT, an organical body, 
deflitute of fenfation and fponta- 
neous motion, adhering to an 
other body fo as to draw its 
nourishment from it, and 'propa 
gating itfelf by feeds. 

This name comprehends every 
thing that exifts in the vegeta 
ble kingdom of nature, from the 
lofty cedar of Lebanon to the 
minuted mofs. 

Plants by their want of fenfi- 
bility, and their fixed pofition, 
are inferiour to, and diftinguifh- 
ed from the animal part of cre 
ation ; alfo, by their organiza 
tion, and power of reproduc 
tion, they are fuperiour to and 
diftinft from the kingdom of 
fo fills and minerals. They hold 
the middle rank in the vifible 
works of the Almighty Creator ; 
and are conilructed with fuch 
admirable wifdom, as to be fit to 
fhew forth his praife. 

The external and mofl obvi 
ous parts of plants are the root, 
item, branches, leaves and flow 

The root, by which a plant is 
connected with the earth, con 
tains a vail multitude of abforb- 
ent pores, through which it un 
doubtedly receives the greater 
part of its nourimment. 

But the internaj ftruftmre of 
plants, though perhaps far more 
fimple than that of animalSj Teems 


not yet to have been thoroughly 

Dr. Hill's fyftem of the anat 
omy of plants, as reprefented 
by Dr. Hunter, in the Georgia 
cal Effays, I will lay before the 
reader, as concifelyas poffible. 

" The conftituent parts of a 
plant are, i. The outer rind. 2. 
The inner rirrd. 3. The blea. 
4. A vafcular feries. 5. A fleihy 
lubftance, or the wood in a tree 
or fhrub. 6. Pyrarnidical veffels 
included in the flefh. And 7. 
The pith. 

" The fmallefl fibre of the root,- 
and the fmallefl; twig in the top, 
have all thefe parts ; and no part 
oi the tree has more. Even the 
flower is made of the extremi 
ties of thefe parts. The outer 
bark ends in the cup of the flow- 
er ; the inner rind in the outer" 
petals ; the blea in the inner pe 
tals. The vafcular feries ends 
in the neclarium ; the pyramid- 
ical veffels form the receptacle,- 
and the pith furnifhes the feeds, 

" The outer bark is made up. 
of membranes with a feries of 
veffels between them, which 
veifels inofculate with thofe of 
the inner bark, to which they 
communicate part of their juices. 

' The innef bark is made of 
regular flakes, each of which 
confifts of two membranes, in- 
cloiing a feries of veffels which 
communicate with thofe of the 

" The blea lies next to the in 
ner bark, and is made up of hex 
agonal cells ; and in angles form 
ed by thefe cells are the veffels 
of the blea, which pour their 
contents into the cells. Thefe 
cells feem to be refervoirs for the 
water imbibed by the plant." 
Out of the contents of thefe cells 
I fuppoie a new circle of flefh 
or wood in perennial plants to 
be annually formed, 

? L A 

*Next to the blea lies the vaf- 
ular feries, a courfe of veffels 
lodged between two membranes. 
Thefe veffels have a free com- 
fcmnication with the blea, and the 

" The wood, or flefhy part, is 
made up of flrong fibres, in 
which may be feen the tracheae, 
filled with elafHck air. 

" The pyramidical veffels are 
fpread through the fubftance of 
the flefhj and as they advance up 
wards their ramifications inofcu- 
late, fo as to prevent obftruclions 
of the fap iri its courfe. The 
fides of tnefe veffels are always 
in contact with the tracheae ; and 
they alfo communicate with the 
pith ; which is found in the cen 
tre of all plants, but not always 
regularly continued ; therefore 
it is not thought to be abfolutely 
neceffary to vegetation. It re 
ceives a fluid from the pyramid 
ical veffels, and is thought to be 
a refervoir of part of the fap. It 
is found in the ribs of leaves, and 
funs to the ovarium." 

Doubtlefs there are alfp vari 
ous flrainers, by which different 
juices are affimilated to the na 
ture of the plants ; and by which 
juices in the fame plant are pre 
pared for feveral purpofes ; for 
the leaves, the fruit and the feeds 
contain different juices. The 
fhorteft cion muft be fuppofed to 
contain fome of thefe {trainers ; 
otherwife it would not produce 
its own proper fruit, but that of 
the flock on which it is grafted. 

Many forts of plants may be 
made to vegetate in an inverted 
ftate ; a proof that the different 
parts of a plant are nearly of the 
fame flrufture. It alfo fhews 
that the leaves are adapted to take 
in nourilhmentas well as the roots. 

GYPSUMo " The plafter of 
;Paris is a preparation of feveral 

? L A sy 

fpecies of gypfums, dug near 
Mount Maitre, a village in the 
neighbourhood of Paris; whence 
the name. 

4 The beft fort is hard, white, 
fhining and marbly ; known by 
the name of Plaflerjtone, or Par 
get of Mount Maitre. It will 
neither give fire with fteel, nor 
ferment with aquafortis, but very 
freely and readily calcines in the 
fire into a very fine plafter ; the 
ufe of which in building and 
cafting ftatues is well known*". 
DiEl. of Arts. 

When this fubftanee is reduc 
ed to powder, without burning, a 
moderate degree of heat will 
make it boil like milk, and ap 
pear like a fluid. But it cannot 
be made to boil more than fif 
teen or twenty minutes. Whence 
I conclude it contains a large 
quantity of fixed air, which is 
difcharged in boiling. After 
(landing a few days the fixed air 
will be reftored, and it will boil in 
the fame manner as before. 

It was not till of late that it 
has been known as a manure. 
The Pennfylvanians have im 
ported it from France, as I am 
informed, and find it a great ad 
vantage to their crops. They re 
duce i*to a fine powder in mills 
for that purpofe, before they ap 
ply it to the foil. Several (hip 
loads have been carried from 
Novafcotia to Philadelphia ; but 
this is not found to be fo good 21 
manure as the French gypfum. 

Five or fix bufhels are faid to 
be a dreffing for an acre ; I have 
never heard of more than fix 
bulTieis being laid on an acre. It 
is ufed as a top dreffing on grafs 
land ; but mixed with the foil in 
tillage, when the crops arc hoed* 
which is unavoidable. 

When it is fowed upon wheat 
and other grain, while it is grow 
ing, it has asgoodaaeflfeft as the 

5 ' P L O 

largeft dreffing of the beft dung. 
It mould be finely pulverifed af 
ter being burnt in a moderate 
fire, and fowed in May, as evenly 
as poffible. Cloudy or dull wea 
ther is accounted beft for doing 
it. The good effect of one dref 
fing, it is faid, will continue 
feven years. 

It is dbubtlefs a great abforbent 
and afts like quicklime, or like 
powder of marble, inm-ending the 
foil. But in Novafcotia, where 
it is found, I am told it does not 
appear to have any great eflfecl: 
as a manure. This m#y be 
owing to the want of being fuffi- 
ciently pulverifed. Or it may 
$o better in a hot than in a cold- 

PJfrAT, a fmall piece of grou-nd. 

PLOUGH, a machine with 
which the ground is turned up 
and broken. It is the moft im 
portant of all the tools ufed in 
nufbandry : And much of the 
comfort of th labourer, as well 
as the profit of the farmer, de 
pends upon the good ftru&ure of 

The plough was fo early in 
vented, that mention is made of 
it in fome of the moft ancient 
books, both facred and p^>fane. 
Numbers of them, however, have 
been fo badly conftrucled as to 
be of little advantage* 

Omitting what has been faid 
f the various kinds of ploughs, I 
perfectly agree with the writer 
of the New Syjlem of Agricul 
ture, that two ploughs are all 
that are requifite in the com 
mon culture of land, a ftrong 
one and a light one. The ftrong 
plough is neceffary in foils that 
are ftrongly fwarded, or very 
ftiff; or filled with ftrong roots, 
ftony, or rugged ; in all other 
foils the light plough, or that 
which is commonly called the 
feorfe plough, will e fufficient. 

P L O 

**The ftrong plough, which 
fhould always be made of the 
ftrongeft of white oak, mould 
not be heavier than is neceflary 
for ftrength. One of the han 
dles fhould be framed into the 
chip, and the beam into the han 
dle ; the other handle muft be 
made fail to the groundwreft 
and mouldboard ; and the handles 
ihould be fo long, that the plough 
may be guided by them with 
out much exertion of ftrength. 
Otherwife the ploughman will 
find his labour to be very fatiguing. 
The fliare fhoukl, be made of 
tough iron, well fteeled and 
fharpened on the point and wing, 
and rightly tempered. 

The coulter (hould alfo be 
fteeled on the edge, and be fre 
quently made (harp by grinding, 
when ufed in fwarded ground 
that is not ftony. This will render 
the draught the more eafy, efpe- 
cially . where there are ftrong 
roots in the foil, which muft be 
cut off by the coulter. The 
plough will not only be the 
more eafily drawn and lefs apt 
to choke with roots and rubbifh ; 
but will cut the furrow more 
evenly. The coulter mould be 
inferted into the fhare fix- inches, 
at leaft, from the point, for land 
that has no impenetrable roots ; 
but where fuch roots abound, the 
point of the fhare mould be in- 
ferted into the back of the coul 
ter, very near to the bottom. 

The coulter fhould always lean 
backwards between the fhare 
and the beam ; and be bent un 
der the beam, fo as to pafs 
through it at right angles. 

Every one knows that the 
chip and the groundwreft fhould 
be plated with iron, on two of 
their fides. Otherwife they will 
foon wear away. 

In fome parts of this country, 
ploughs are tolerably well con- 
tatted i 

? L O 

flru&ed ; in other parts, fo badly, 
.as to occafion the lofs of much 
time and labour. But for thofe 
ilrong ploughs, which are ac 
counted the beft, I would fug- 
geft two or three improvements. 

One is, that the fock, or fock- 
et of the (hare, mould be fo made 
as to receive a chip five inches 
thick, or deep, and that the chip 
be anfwerably thick at the tore 
end, where it enters the fock, 
and the fock mould be large e- 
nough to receive it, By means 
of this conftruftion the furrow 
begins to cant as foon as it is cut 
through by the coulter. There 
fore the mouldboard takes it aU 
ready turning, fo that it meets 
with but little refiftance ; confe- 
<juently it requires lefs ftrength 
of team, by half, as fome . fay, 
to draw the plough. The la 
bour of the ploughman^ is alfo 
diminifhed, as the plough is 
more eafy in its going. The late 
Robert Pier point, Efq. of Roxbu- 
ry, was polleffe.d of a plough of 
this make, the original of which 
came not long nnce from En 
gland. His family will doubt- 
lefs be ready to oblige any perfon. 
with a view of it. 

That gentleman once told me, 
that with his plougii he had brok 
en up the hardeft green fward 
ground, with only a yoke of 
ileers four years old to draw it. 

Another improvement that I 
would fuggeft, is, to have an iron 
plate rightly fhaped, inftead of 
a mouldboard ; either riveted to 
the mare, or a continuation of it, 

Every ploughman knows, that 
the greateft part of the trouble of 
his work arifes from the furring 
up and clogging of the plough 
by the earth's cleaving to it, and 
particularly to the mouldboard. 
And it is plain that this not only 
hurts the regular going of a 
plough, but makes it harder to 

P L O 

draw, and caufes it to have the 
lefs effect in turning and pulver- 
ifing the foil. 

But a plate of iron, in place of 
the mouldboard, would always 
be fmooth and bright, and glide 
eafily through the foil in fward- 
ed ground ; and the plough 
would be far more eafily manag 
ed. It is the opinion of the above 
mentioned writer, that with a 
plough of this kind, rightly con- 
itruded, there can never be need 
of more than one yoke of oxen 
to plough in the hardeft foil. If 
two yoke would be fufficient for 
our hardeft land in this country, 
much would be faved by fuch a 
plough. And of this I think 
there is little reafon to doubt. 

I will juft mention one thing 
more, which fome will allow to 
be a confiderable improvement. 
Inftead of wheels to a plough, 
which are now generally repro 
bated, let a little roller be fixed 
to the fore end of the beam, in 
fuch a manner as to move upon 
the furface. It ihould be four 
or five inches in diameter, and as 
much in length, and be connect 
ed with the beam, by an iron 
rightly fhaped for the purpofe* 
which can be eafily put on 
and off at pleafure. It is to be 
ufed only in ploughing green 
fward ground, and fuch as is 
pretty level, and clear of obfta- 
cles. It gauges the plough, fo 
as to prevent its going too 
deep ; and it compreffes the 
furface, fo that the coulter cuts ' 
it more evenly. Befides, it is 
'manifeft that this will eafe the 
ploughman of part of his labour. 

But whether this be thought 
of importance enough to be at 
tended to or not, the iron plate 
for a mouldboard, I think, can 
admit of no doubt concerning 
its utility. The coft of it will 
be the only objection ; but thiv 


P L O 

is of no weight. The extra 
coft will certainly be fayed in 
the work of a few days ; as the 
plough may be drawn with a 
weaker team ; turn over the foil 
more completely ; and perhaps 
fave the hiring of a man to tend 
>the plough and turn turfs. It 
fhould be remembered that a 
*wooden mouldboard ought to be 
plated ; which, if well done, may 
coft half as much as an iron 
mouldboard ; and will much 
fooner come to need repairing. 
Tne bloomers who make what 
are called fliare moufds, fhould 
draw the plate about four feet 
long ; the hinder part, which is 
to be for the mouldboard, not 
* inore than one fourth or fifth of 
an inch thick j the part that is 
for the ftyre, of the ufual thick- 
nefs. With fuch a piece of iron 
any ingenious fmith can make 
the fhare and mouldboard in one 

The light plough may be made 
<very way like the former, but 
fmaller ; but a roller to this 
plough is not requifite ; and a 
wooden mouldboard will'anfwer ? 
if properly plated with iron. 

As the handles of ploughs 
mould be crooked, efpecially at 
the outer, ends, a fmall fladle 
quartered, together with a part 
of the root, is the l>eft timber 
that I know of for this purpofe. 
While they are green they may 
be foaked in hot water and bent 
into the right fhape. If dried in 
this fhape, they will always re 
tain it, though ever fo much af 
terwards expofed to the weather. 

PLOUGHING, the operation 
of turning, breaking and loofen- 
ing the earth with a plough. 

Lands in general that are ufed 
in tillage muft be ploughed, if 
therebe not intolerable obftacles, 
or great difficulties in the way to 
prevent it. Breaking up ground 

P L O 

with the fpade, or the hoe, it 
tedious and expenfive, in com- 
parifon with ploughing ; fo that 

t fmall quantities of land could 
3e employed in tillage, were it 
not for the important art of 

One rule to be regarded in 
ploughing is, that no land, except 
ing green fward, fhould be 
ploughed when it is fo wet that 
it will not eafily crumble. For 
the principal defign of ploughing 
is to break the cohefion of the 
foil, and fet the particles of it at 
fuch a diftance from each other, 
that even the fmalleft and tender- 
eft roots of plants may find their 
way between them in queft of 
their nourifhment. 

When, in ploughing, of land in 
tillage, the furrow turns over 
like a dead mafs of mortar, 
ploughing can be of no advan 
tage at all. The foil becomes no 
lighter or loofer by it, but rather 
heavier, and more compact. On 
tlie contrary, land mould not be 
ploughed when it is too dry ; be- 
caufe it requires the more ftrength 
of team to perform it, nor can 
the furrows be fo well turned 

The plough fhould be ufed 
much more than it is in this coun 
try. When a crop of barley or 
wheat is defigned, the ground 
fhould, at leaft, be thrice plougla- 
ed ; for a crop of Indian corn, 
twice is not too much. The ex 
tra ex penfe will be repaid by the 
increafed crops. The advantages 
of frequent ploughing have not 
been duly confidered. By often 
repeated ploughings, land may 
be brought to any degree of rich- 
nefs almpft that is defired. Fre 
quent ploughings are deftru&ive 
to weeds, and fave mucji labour 
in hand hoeing and weeding ; 
befides making a greater quanti 
ty of pafture for plants. preparing 


1 L O 

fhe vegetable food the better to 
enter the roots of plants, and dif- 
pofing the foil to imbibe the rich 
and fertilizing particles of the at- 

As it is known that repeated 
ploughings fupply the place of 
manure; where manure is fcarce, ' 
farmers have need to plough the 
more frequently. Mr. Tull \vas 
of opinion tbat it was a .cheaper 
method to enrich land by plough 
ing than by manuring. In fome 
fituations it undoubtedly is fo. But 
it is beft that land mould have 
enough of both, when it is prac 

And the more to promote the 
fertilization of the foil by plough 
ing, let the farmer plough as much 
of his ground as poffible while 
the dew is on it, becaufe dew 
contains much nouriihment for 
plants. The early rifer has the 
advantage of his fluggifh neigh 
bour; not only in ploughing^ 
but alfoin harrowingand hoeing, 
to greater advantage. 

When land is to be ploughed 
that is full of flumps of trees and 
other obftacles, as land that is 
newly cleared of wood, or that 
is rocky, the ftrong plough mould 
be ufed ; and the flrength of the 
team muftbe proportioned to the 
flrength of the plough ; and the 
plough to the condition of the 

It is fometimes advifable, to 
cut off clofe to the bodies of 
ftumps,before'ploughing,the hor 
izontal roots which lie near the 
furface ; efpecially if there be no 
{tones, nor gravel in the way, to 
hurt the edge of an axe. When 
this is done, the ilrong plough 
will be apt" to take out the moft 
of the roots fo parted. And the 
frofts of a few winters will be the 
more likely to heave out the 
flumps, or fo to loofen them that 
li&ey j$ay be eafily removed, I 

r L o 

'hare conquered the flumps of 
white pine in this manner,; but 
flumps which rot very foon it is 
not of fuch importance to man 
age in this way. 

The plough muft go deeper in 
breaking up new ground, than 
old. Otherwise the little hollows 
will go unploughed ; and there 
will not be mould enough raifed 
in the hillocks to level the fur- 
face, and leave fufficient depth 
for the roots ,of plants to extend 

The )aft of fummer, or the be 
ginning of autumn, is the right 
feafon for ploughing new ground. 
For itwill be beft to harrow^ and 
crofs plough it, before it is feed- 
ed, that the foil may be thorough 
ly mixed and pulverifed* There 
fore, the firft ploughing mould be 
performed fo long beforehand, 
that before the fecond, the turfs 
may ferment and become partly 
rotten. But this is not to be ex- 
pe6led, if the ground be plough 
ed late in the fall ; becaufe the 
fun, at that late feafon, will not 
warm the ground enough to bring 
on any fermentation before the 
following fpring, when the 
ground is to be fowed. For falj 
lowing, the ground mould be 
broken up ftill earlier ; either in 
fpring or fummer will do very 
well, if time can befpared for it. 

But it is beft that the moft or 
all of our tillage land mould be 
ploughed in autumn, both in new 
and old ground. It jfaves time 
and labour i n the following fpring, 
the hurrying feafon, when more 
work is to be done than we can well 
get time for ; and when our teams 
are ufually much weaker than 
they are in the fall. But land 
ploughed in the fall muft be a- 
gain ploughed in the fpring ; and 
a weaker team will perform it for 
its having been ploughed in au- 
HUBIJ. la very light old ground 

P L O 

a fmgje horfe may perform it ; 
and two ploughings are better 
than one in moil cafes. 

Green fward land may be 
ploughed at any feafon of the 
year, if it be not too dry, nor too 
much frozen. In the former 
cafe the plough will go very 
Iiard ; in the latter ploughing is 
im practicable, which is the cafe 
for four months together, com 
monly^ from the firft of Decem 
ber to the laft of March. 

Farmers generally choofe to 
plough green fward ground 
when it is pretty wet, if it be not 
miry ; becaufe the labour is 
more eafy for man and beaft. 

The Englifh farmers pratife 
ploughing green fward in Janu 
ary, not only becaufe they have 
leifure, but becaufe it is fo wet 
as to plough eafily. They call 
it ploughing in lays ; and it is 
faid to be well performed, when 
the fward is all completely turn 
ed over, without lapping one fur 
row on another. The depth 
that the plough mould go is- a 
matter that ought to be attended 
to. The depth mould be gov 
erned in fome meafure by the 
fiaple^of the foil. Where the 
foil is deep,deep ploughing is beft. 
See Pafture of Plants. 

But where the foil is very thin, 
fhoal ploughing is neceffary ; for 
it the plough turn up much of 
the under ftratum, and mix it 
ful, at leaft for fome years after. 

Land ihould always be plough 
ed out of fward with a deeper 
furrow than will be neceffary af 
terwards, through the whole 
courfe of tillage. All the after 
ploughings will be the more eafi 
ly performed* 

^ Mr. Young, by attending par 
ticularly to the depth of plough 
ing in various towns in England, 
found that the average depth in 

P L O 

fandy foils was four inches, ia 
loamy foils four and three quar 
ters, and in clayey foils three and 
an half. But in Ireland they 
plough much deeper ; fometirnes 
not lefs than nine or ten inches. 

Our farmers are fometimes led 
to plough too fhallow, to fave a 
little labour. And fome are too 
much afraid to turn up what 
they call dead earth. But they 
fhould know that all the foil a- 
bove the hard pan may be well 
employed in tillage, for fome 
crops or other ; and that if they 
turn up a red foil, it will in a 
year or two become dark, and fit 
to nourifh plants, by being expof- 
ed to the fun and the weather, 
and imbibing rich particles from 
the atmofphere. 

Trench, ploughing is fome 
times praciifed to advantage ; and 
the culture of fome plants with 
tap roots requires it. This is 
done by paffing a plough twice 
in a furrow. Ground may be 
thus ploughed to the depth o.i 
twelve or fifteen inches. But, 
inftead of this double labour oi 
the plough, where labourers are 
plenty, the furrows may be deep- 
ened with movels, by a number 
of hands following the plough. 

In old countries, where lands 
have been tilled for a thoufand 
years, and have b^en frequently 
manured, the rich black foil has 
been growing deeper and deep 
er. So that jtrench ploughing by 
this time may be very proper in 
many of their fields ; and even 
neceffary to bring up the ftrength 
of manures, which has fubfided 
to a greater depth than common 
ploughing reaches. 

But there is only a fmaU ^pro 
portion of our land in this coun 
try, to which trench ploughing 
is fuitable, or which will well 
pay the cpft of it. In mo ft 
of our foils, even where the 

P L O 

liard under ftratum, or pan, lies 
deep, trench ploughing would 
throw up fo much cold hungry 
earth, and bury the upper mould 
fo deep, as to render the land 
very barren at firft. The places 
where it would anfwer beft, are 
hollows, into which much vege 
table mould has been waflied 
down from the neighbouring 
heights, which has a black moory 
foil to a great depth ; and fuch 
fpots as have been ufed as gar 
dens, and have been often dug 
with the fpade. 

If labour of men and teams 
were as cheap as it is in fome 
countries, it would be advifable, 
to give more of our deepeft foils 
this culture than we do at pref- 
ent. But wherever it is once 
begun, it fhould be continued, at 
leaft through 7 a coarfe of tillage ; 
or elfe the firft ploughings will 
be worfe than loft. The beft of 
the foil would be buried at fuch 
a depth as to become almoft ufe- 
lels, unlefs it were alternately 
brought near the furface, by af 
ter ploughings equally deep. 

Regard fhould be had to the 
fhape of the land in ploughing. 
They who plough a fteep hill up 
and down injure their cattle, and 
rnifs of ploughing their land to 
advantage. The furrow that is 
drawn up hill muft be exceffive- 
iy moal ; or the team much 
ilronger than common. For this 
reafon a hill mould be ploughed 
horizontally ; with furrows as 
nearly parallel to the bafe as pof- 
fible. This may be ealily done 
when all the fides of a hill are to 
be ploughed at once. The rains 
will carry much of the fineft of 
the foil to the bottom of the hill, 
if the furrows are made up and 
down. But ploughed the other 
way, thehentings, or parting fur 
rows, -frill be fufficient drains ; 
and the water will move fo flow- 

? L O a% 

ly in them, that none of the foil 
will be waflied away. But when 
a hill is very fteep, no turning of 
a furroV upwards fhould be at 
tempted. And if only one fide 
of a fteep hill is to be ploughed, 
the furrows mould be all cut the 
fame way, the team returning 
light after each furrow. 

The reader will perceive, that 
what is commonly called crofs 
ploughing on hills' fides is not 
approved. But crofs ploughing 
of land that is level, or gently 
Hoping, is oftentimes very prop 
er. Land in general fhould be 
ploughed one way and the other 
alternately, that it may be the 
more thoroughly pulverifed and 
mixed ; that is, when the fhape 
of the ground and the dimen- 
fions of a lot admit of it. 

Green fward ground, that is 
broken up in the fall, is ufually 
crofs ploughed in the fpring fol 
lowing. But this mould not be 
done without caution. For if 
the turf be not confiderably rot 
ted, crofs ploughing will only 
drive it into heaps, inftead of 
cutting it to pieces : Neither 
will the harrow reduce the turf 
to powder. In this cafe it will 
be belt to omit the crofs plough 
ing : And after a heavy harrow 
ing lengthwife of the furrows, 
feed the land with peafe, pota 
toes, maize, or any thing that 
will do well with fuch culture. 

Some plough green fward in 
the fpring and feed it without 
delay. It fometimes does well 
for maize, oats, and flax, if well 
dunged ; or for peafe and pota 
toes without much dunging.. 
Potatoes feem to do better than 
any thing elfe. But the holes 
muft be made quite through the 
furrows, whether dunged or not. 
As this crop requires the greateft 
part of its nourifhment in the lat 
ter part of fumraer, about that 

P L O 

time the turf comes to be in fts 
beft ftate for yielding nourifh- 
inent to plants. 

For a crop of winter wheat the 
tillage ground fhould be plough 
ed in the fpring, again in Ji^ne, 
and laftly juft before fowingv 
Whatever manure be put on, it 
ihould be juft before the laft 
ploughing, and ploughed in im 
mediately. If the grain be 
ploughed in with a fhoal furrow, 
it will not be fo apt to be killed 
by the winter. The roots will 
lie deeper than thofe of harrow 
ed grain ; and it will the better 
bear drought in the following 
fummer, it that mould happen. 

For other feeding in general, 
or for whatever is planted or 
fown in the fpring, on what we 
call old ground, it mould be 
ploughed near the time of feed 
ing, although it were ploughed 
in the fall ; and the nearer to the 
time of feeding the better. The 
feeds will be the better iupplied 
, with moifture to make them veg 
etate ; and the crop will have 
the better chance of being able 
to outgrow and ftifle the weeds, 
arid have the benefit of a loofer 
foil, during the whole of its 
growth. Thefe autumnal plough- 
ings, I have found to be greatly 
advantageous, efpecially in clays, 
and in ftiff loams. 

Many, to fave labour, plough 
their land fo {hallow for fowing, 
as fcarcely to take up the roots 
of the weeds. Men of common 
underftanding, I fhould fuppofe, 
need not be told that this is bad 
hulbandry : For it may rational 
ly be expefted that there will be 
a larger crop of weeds, than if it 
had not been ploughed at all ; j 
and that the roots of the plants j 
will not have fufficient room to j 
extend themfelves. Ploughing j 
the ground in autumn will have I 
<a tendency to prevent this moft j 


abfurd conduft in the fpringV 
which, many go into that they 
may favour their teams in a faint 

That feed may be fown as ear 
ly as poffible, many are led to 
give the feed furrow before the 
ground is fufficiently dry. If the 
crop mould be a little earlier, it 
will be the poorer. It will be 
flower in coming up ; more of 
the feeds will fail ; the blade will 
be moreflender; nor will it grow 
fo.faft as if it were fowed later, 
when the ground is warmer. 
Sometimes it will not grow at all 
for a long time, but become fo 
ftinted, that a crop muft be def- 
paired of. No pra6tice can be 
worfe than to give the feed fur 
row in ftifffoils, before the ground 
is fufficiently dried. 

Land that is low and flat, and 
therefore apt to be too wet and 
heavy, ought to be ploughed in 
ridges. The ridges may have 
two, three or four furrows on 
each fide, according as ,the ground 
is wetter or drier. The wetteft 
ground mould have the narroweft 
ridges ; but they mould never be 
narrower than four furrows in a 
ridge. The rows will bebetween 
four and five feet apart, if one 
row of plants be fet on each ridge. 
But if there be fix or eight fur 
rows in a ridge, it may admit of 
two rows, one on each fide of the 

After lying in ridges through 
the winter, the ridges {hould be 
thrown into the hollows by an 
other ploughing in the fpring ; 
which will bring it into good or 
der for feeding. 

Or if it {hould be too miry to 
be ploughed in the fpring, either 
maize or potatoes may be planted 
on the ridges ; and what is want 
ing of the proper tillage, may be 
made up after the ground is be 
come drier, by frequent and deep 

1* L O 

norfe hpeings. Good craps f 
maize have been obtained in this 
method on land, which, with 
plain ploughing, would have pro 
duced next to nothing. 

Molt of our clay (oils, which 
lie level, require this fort ot cul 
ture ; for this more than any oth 
er foil is liable to be injured by 
overmuch wetnefs. And the 
drier it lies the weaker will be 
the cohefion of its parts. 

Some foils which lie gently 
doping are fo wet as to need ridg 
ing. It is not beft to make the 
ridges diretly up and down the 
flope, nor horizontally, but on a 
medium between both. But 
where the land will admit of it, 
the ridges fhould lie north and 
fouth. It is no bad pra6Hce to 
Jay lands to grafs in ridges or beds. 
For too much wetnefs is apt to 
hurt grafs lands, as well as lands 
for tillage, whether they are ufed 
for mowing or paflurage. In the 
former, the grafs will be too four 
to make a good hay ; in the lat 
ter, not only the grafs will be bad, 
but the foil fo fott as not well to 
bear the tread of cattle. I have 
found that not only better grafs, 
but a greater quantity, will be 
produced in this method. Nor 
will the foil fo foon become 
hard and bound. 

Nor is it a bad practice to fplit 
the hills with the light plough in 
autumn, after a crop ot maize ; 
even though the ground be not 
feeded till the following fpring. 
One fide of a row of hi 11s is plough 
ed off with one furrow, and the 
other fide ploughed off the con 
trary way by another furrow, fo 
as to form veerings, or ridges, in 
the intervals. It is performed 
with lefs than halt the expenfe 
ot a plain ploughing ; and near 
ly the whole ot the furtace is 
either taken up or covered. Eu- 
ropeaa writers think land fhould 

I i 

P L U 

be ploughed immediately after a 
crop of maize, to prevent the 
ftubs trom robbing the foil of its 
juices. Be this as it may, the 
ploughing is at leaft as ufeful as 
other autumnal ploughing ; and 
where dung has been put in holes, 
it mixes it with the foil ; not to 
mention the burying of fome of 
the flubs and leaves of the corn, 
which is of fome advantage to 
wards enriching the foil. 

There is another way of 
ploughing called ribbing; which 
is making furrows unconnected 
with each other, three feet or 
more afunder. It is but about a 
fourth part fo much work as 
ploughing plain. One very con- 
(iderable advantage of it is, in- 
creafing the fuperficies of the foil, 
by which it is more expofed to 
the aHon of froft, air, and dews, 
and abforbs the largeft quantity 
of nutritive particles. 

In tillage land that is fteep, 
ribbing is a further benefit to the 
foil, as it prevents the wafhing 
down of the vegetable mould, 
and the ftrength of manures. 
With this view the operation 
mould be performed in autumn. 
And the plough mufl pafs hori 
zontally, or nearly fo, not up and 
down the fteep. 

In paftures or grazing land, de 
clivities would produce the more 
grafs, if they were ribbed ; as the 
benefit of fudden rains would not 
fo foon be over, by means of their 
quickly running down into the 
vallies. At the fame time, the 
vailies would not fo often be 
overcharged with water. Furrows 
eight or ten feet apart would an- 
fwer, and the ribbing would not 
want to be repeated tor a long 
time. The furrows fhould be as 
nearly horizontal as poffible, as 
well as in tillage land. 

PLUM TREES,Prwj, ftone 
fruit trees, which produce their 


P O L 

fruit upon fpurs, that fpring out 
of all parts of the limbs. 

The in oft common plum in 
this country, is the damafcene 
iplum, an excellent fruit for pre- 
ferving, which is faid to have been 
brought from Damafcus, whence 
the name. 

The black bullace, is a glob 
ular, tart fruit, of the fize of 
grapes ; befides, fome very crab 
bed wild forts, which are. oval 
iliaped, are found in fome parts of 
this country. There is alfo a re 
markable wild plum, peculiar to 
an ifland near Newbury,of afmall 
fize, and by fome much valued. 

The better forts which are cul 
tivated, are the horfe plum, a very 
pleaiant tafted juicy fruit, of a 
large fize : The peach pjum, red 
towards the fun, with an agreea 
ble tartnefs : The pear plum,,fo 
called from its ihape, which is 
iweet, and of an excellent tafte : 
The wheat plum, extremely- 
fweet, oval, and furrowed in the 
middle, not large : The green 
gage plum, which is generally 
preferred before all the reft. 

All the varieties of plum trees 
may be propagated by budding, or 
grafting.. Budding is preferable, 
as thefe trees are apt to difcharge 
a gum, where large wounds* are 
made. The trees grow belt in a 
foil that is on a medium betwixt 
wet and dry. They mould be 
kept clear of fuckers, and have 
but little other pruning ; and 
care mould be taken not to di* 
miii'h or wound the fpurs.' 

on the poll of a horfe. At fir it it 
requires no other method of cure 
than what is common to other 
boils, and inflamed tumours. But 
fometimes it degenerates to a finu- 
ous ulcer, through ill manage 
ment, or neglect. 
" There is a fmail firms under the 
bone^ where the matter is. 


apt to lodge, unlefs care be taken 
to keep the part iirm with a band 
age : But inftead or' that the far 
riers generally ufe to thruft in a 
long teat, which raifes the flefh, 
and opens a way into the finus. 
And thus an ulcer is created 
where there needs be none. All 
therefore that is further neceffa- 
ry on this head is, to caution the 
practitioner againfl fuch ill meth 
ods;. And if the tumour has a 
very large cavity, it is better to 
lay it open, than to thruil foreign 
iubflances into it. And if it ac 
quires an ulcerous difpofition, it 
muft be treated as fuch." Gib- 
Jon's Farri&ry.. 

POND, a colleftion of ftill wa 
ter. A mill pool is fo called, 
though it gradually receives wa 
ter in one part, and difcharges it 
in another : So that it is not per 
fectly if ill water. The water is 
fo often fhifted,. that it is not apt 
to putrefy. 

Paitures that are deltitute of 
water, mould have artificial 
ponds made in them, for water 
ing places. '' Obferve where 
nifties, reeds.; flags, and other a- 
quatick plants grow fpontane- 
oufly- ; or where frogs are ob- 
ferved to lie fquatted down clofe 
to the ground, in order to re 
ceive its moifttire. Or obferve 
where a vapour is frequently feen 
to rife from the fame fpot. Some 
fay, wherever little fwarms of 
flies are feen conftaatly flying in 
the fame place, and near the 
ground, in the morning after 
funrife, tbere is water under 
neath." " If a well is made in a 
floping ground, and the declivity 
is fufficient to give it a horizon 
tal vent, it will be \vorth the huf- 
bandman's while to dig fuch a 
paflage, and by means of pipes, 
or any other conveyance, to car~ 
ry the water acrofs the light foil, 
through which it might other- 


P O N 

wife 'fink. The greateft quantity 
of water will be obtained in this 
manner, becaufe there will be a 
continual flream." There is no 
difficulty in making a durable 
pond- in a clayey foil. Let a large 
hollow bafin be made in fuch 
earth, and it will preferve the wa 
ter that falls in rain. But it is 
apt to be thick and dirty, if fome 
pains be not taken to prevent it. 
The declivity, by which the cat 
tle enter, mould be paved, and 
gravel mould be fpread on the 
bottom. Or it might be-better if 
the whole were paved. 

There are many large natural 
ponds, which have outlets in one 
part, and are fupplied by brooks 
or rivers in other parts ; but a 
greater number of fmaller ponds 
which are perfectly flagnant, un- 
lefs when they are agitated by 
winds. Such ponds as the latter, 
in hot feafons, are apt to become 
putrid, and contaminate the air 
about them. For this reafon they 
fhould, it poffible, be drained. 
And when the water is not. deep, 
and an outlet can be made with 
out too much coil, they mould 
be drained for the fake of reclaim 
ing the foil. This will be -of 
great value, as it commonly is 
found to be extremely rich, be 
ing made up of the fine ft parti 
cles of foil, wafted into them by 
winds, and of decayed vegetable 
fubftances, befides the fine mould 
warned into them by rains. 

Many farms contain little funk- 
en fpots, which are mofl of the 
year covered with water, and pro 
duce fome aquatick bufhes and 
weeds. Thefe are notorious har 
bours for frogs ; and are there 
fore called frog ponds. They 
iho'uld be drained, if it be prac 
ticable. It is commonly the 
cafe, however, that draining them 
in the common way, by making 
aa outlet, would 'coil -more than 



they would be worth when drain 
ed, becaufe of the height of the 
land on every fide. But in this 
cafe, if the banks be not clay, 
they may be drained in the fol 
lowing manner. 

Take notice on which fide land 
that is lower than the pond is 
nearefl. On that fide, in the 
bank near the pond, dig a kind 
of cellar, two or three feet deep 
er than the furface of the pond j 
do it in a dry feafon. If a hard 
ftratum appear, dig through it ; 
and leave, digging where the bot 
tom is loofe gravel, or fand. 
Then make an open or a covered 
drain from the pond to the cellar* 
The water will be difcharged 
from the pond, and foak into the 
earth through the bottom of the 
cellar, till a fcurf is formed on 
the bottom that will flop the wa 
ter from foaking into the earth. 
This fcurf mould be broken from 
time to time, and taken aWay with 
a long handled hoe. Or, the 
cellar may be filled up with ret- 
ufe flones, which I think is pref 
erable to the other method. 

If the pond fhould not then 
become fufficiently dry, a fmali 
ditch fhould be drawn round it, 
anddifcharge itfelf into the cellar. 
The land that is thus gained will 
be rich muck, much of which 
may be carted away for manure ; 
and common earth, or fand, may 
replace it, without detriment t 
the foil. 

POPLAR, Populus, a well 
known tree of quick growth ; 
but ihort lived, and feldom ar 
rives to any great fize. The 
wood decays very foon when ex- 
pofed to the weather. But being 
a white, fweet, and light wood, 
it is ufed for trays, and various 
turned work, &c. 

The Lombardy Poplarhegins to 
be propagated in this country. 
It is Uone by cuttings or flips. 




The trees grow moft rapidly, are 
ftraight, tall, and beautifully ta 
pering ; and are therefore covet 
ed for groves, and to adorn yards 
and avenues. They flourith well 
in a moift foil, and even in a 
heavy and clayey one. To what 
iize they will arrive, and how du 
rable they will be in this country, 
time willdifcover. 

POTATO, Solanum, a well 
known vegetable. This plant is 
Hefcribed by Mr, Houghton, to 
be a bacciferous herb, with efcu- 
ient roots, bearing winged leaves, 
and a belled flower. 

The potato was not known in 
Europe, till carried thither from 
Virginia, by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
in the year 1623. He flopped at 
Ireland, where he gave away ma 
ny of the roots, which were plant 
ed there, and multiplied fo faft, 
that in the wars that happened af 
terwards, when all the corn was 
deftroy ed, potatoes were the chief 
fupport of the people. 

It is more than half a century 
fince this root found its way into 
this country. And within thir 
ty or forty years they have been 
much cultivated. They have 
been found by long experience, 
to be a very wholefome food for 
man : For no people enjoy bet 
ter health and fpirits than the 
common people of Ireland, who 
make them their principal food. 
So that their being claifed by 
botanifts among poifpnpus plants, 
will not deter us from cultivat 
ing them, and freely feeding up 
on them. If they were eaten 
raw, perhaps they would be 
found to be very unwholefome. 
But, like feveral other plants, the 
aftion of fire renders them very 
wholefome, and nourifhing to 
man and beaft. 

The colour of the roots may be 
known by the flowers. The 
white have white, and the red; 


reddifh flowers, fucceeded by an 
apple, or berry, as big as a grape, 
containing a multitude of fmall 
white feeds. Potatoes are ufually 
propagated by the roots : But it 
is eafy to propagate them fever 
al other ways. Cuttings from 
the top branches, fet in the 
ground, will produce a confider- 
able crop. The cuttings will 
even ftrike root, if they are 
planted bottom upwards. The 
fprouts broken from potatoes 
which have been kept in cellars 
will produce roots. So will the 
apples, the bare eyes or buds, or 
even a piece out of the heart of 
a potato. 

There feems to be nothing 
about a potato but what is pro- 
lilick, like the polypus. The 
parts of the plant, above and be 
low the furface of the earth, 
feem to be the fame. The run 
ning roots produce fruit, if con 
fined under ground ; but if they 
chance to pierce through the 
furface, they bear leaves and ap 
ples. So that potatoes may be 
confidered as a fruit growing un 
der the furface of the ground. 

The forts or varieties, may be 
multiplied in infinitum. It is 
therefore ftrange that fo few 
forts have yet been known in 
this country. No longer ago 
than about the year 1740, weriad 
but one fort, a frnall reddifh col 
oured potato, of fo_ rank a taite 
that it was fcarcely eatable. 
Soon after this, the white kid 
ney potato appeared, as good 
tabte potatoes as any that I have 
known fince ; unlefs the brown 
rough coated potato be except- 
ed, which was introduced foon 
after. Since th?fe we have 
had the Spanifh potato, ex 
tremely prolifick, but fit only 
for cattle and fwine : Then the 
bunker potato : The fmall round 
potato, white and goodtafted : A 

P O T 

red potato : A potato, part 
red and part white, brought horn 
Ireland in the late war : A large 
white potato, a great bearer, 
known by the name of the flour po 
tato : Orange potato, fo called 
from its colour : Purple pota-to : 
Cranberry potato, which bears 
no apples on the tops ; and laft 
ol all, the winter white. The 
laft is as pleafant tafted as any 
that are now cultivated, and ex 
ceeded by none, unlefs it be the 
yellow rough coat, 

In the year 1785, I planted in 
my garden a mixture of the {op 
feeds of Spanith, bunkers, flour, 
winter white, long red, and white 
rough fkinned potatoes. From 
this feed I obtained ten varieties, 
really different from any I have 
feen before, yet bearing feme re - 
femblance to thofe from which 
they fprung, fo that their parent 
age might beeafily guelfed. As 
my old forts had grown mixed to 
gether, I -fupppfed their being 
impregnated with {\\afannafd- 
cundans of each other, might oc- 
cafion thefe- new varieties. 
Some of them appear to be ex 
cellent roots, and well worth 
propagating. I have fince found 
that the top feeds will produce 
various forts, though kept by 
themfelves, or when there is no 
poflibility of their mixing. 

Since doing the above. I have 
found that the renewing of po 
tatoes from the top feed, -is no new 
thing with the Englifh farmers. 
They hold it to be neceifary to 
do it once in fourteen or fifteen 
years ; becaufe, after that period, 
potatoes degenerate, and produce 
lefs and lefs till they alrnolt 
come to nothing. The brown 
rough coats, and white kidney 
potatoes, have thus failed in this 
country ; and other forts have 
become lefs fruitful than they 
were. Perhaps every kind that 

POT 269 

we cultivate, might be improved 
by fuch a renovation from- the 
top feed. 

I have much reafon to think 
my renewed potatoes will prove 
very productive : For, in the 
year 1786, three pecks of the 
roots, planted in a gravelly, poor 
foil, produced forty five bufhels ; 
fome of the hillocks containing 
more than a hundred roots each ; 
which is a greater number, by a 
third part, than I have ever 
found of other forts. This was 
the fecond year from the feed. 

As fome perfons may be dif- 
pofed to renew their potatoes 
from the top feed, I ilia 11 here 
give the method of doing it. 
Take the apples in the begin- 
ning of Oftober, before the fro ft 
has hurt them : Hang them up 
j by the foot {talks in a dry clofet, 
: where they will not freeze : Let 
j them hang till March or April : 
j Then main the apples, wafli the 
j feeds from the pulp, and dry 
; them in a funny window. Sow 
the feeds in a bed, about the firlt 
j of May. When the plants are 
j four or five inches high, tranf- 
I plant them into ground well pre- 
! pared, one or two phnts in a hill. 
j They will produce full grown 
! apples, and fome of the roots 
! will be as big as hens' eggs. But 
! if the feeds were fowrt in au- 
1 tumn, fome of them would come 
i up in the following fpring. 
i Nothing is more common than 
1 their appearing in fields, where 
; potatoes have been railed the 

preceding year. 

i As potatoes are come to be of 
i more importance in this country, 
I than any other efculent root, and 
I are even an article of exporta- 
! tion, I fhall be the more partic- 
! ular in pointing out the bell 
I methods of cultivating them. 

This plant thrives befl in a 
! light landy io-.'.zii, A dry foil 


^produces the beft eating potatoes ; 
one that is rather moift will give 
the largeft crops. But if you 
plant them in a clay foil, they 
-will be ill tafted, wormy, and fit 
only for cattle. The land fhould 
foe ploughed deep for this crop ; 
foecaufe roots will commonly 
grow as low as the foil is flirred, 
and no deeper. And the more 
the ground is pulverifed before 
planting, the better will be the 

Perhaps green fward ground 
ought to be mentioned here as 
^an exception. I have had the 
largeft crops on fuch land, even 
with one ploughing, and that 
juft before planting. I account 
for it thus : Potatoes want 
air ; fuch land affords it from the 
hollows under the furrows, in 
no fmall quantity, both fixed and 
putrid, and in the greateft abun 
dance towards the end of fum- 
iner, when they require the 
greatefl: quantity of nourifhment. 

No dung is found to be more 
fuitable for potatoes than hogs' 
dung, mixed with a great deal of 
ilraw, or other rubbiih. This 
dung is late in fermenting, and 
therefore affords the roots plenty 
or nourilhment, when they moft 
need it. And as they want air 
and room, rubbifh, and even 
flicks and chips, or any thing 
"that makes the ground lie light and 
hollow, encourages their growth. 

But thofe roots are account 
ed beft for eating, which are 
raifed without dung. I once 
;had a middling crop, by putting 
a handful of old weather beaten 
fait hay in each hill. New land, 
burnt, produces excellent roots, 
.and a large crop, without any 
manure but what is made by the 
burning ; fometimes not lefs than 
a peck in a hill. 

The potato is fo hardy a 
plant, that it will grow in aay 

P O T 

kind of foil, and even with the 
pooreft culture. It is a great im 
prover of land ; not only by the 
rotting of its fucculent ftalks, 
which ihould be buried in the 
foil at, or immediately after dig 
ging ; but the digging itfelt is a 
further improvement. A crop 
of potatoes is good to prepare 
land for other crops. It is not 
uncommon, on poor land, with 
very little cultivation and with 
out manure, to obtain one hun 
dred bufhels per .acre. But in 
Ireland, with deep ploughing, 
or digging, with manure, four 
times that quantity is common : 
And Mr. Young mentions one in 
ftance of an acre in England, pro 
ducing a thoufand bulhels. As 
they will grow almoft any how, 
we are tempted to negleft them ; 
but no crop that I know of will 
better pay for good cultivation. 

The firft of May is perhaps the 
right feafon for planting pota 
toes, in a dry warm foil : But 
they will fometimes produce 
well, though planted at the laft 
of June. An early crop will be 
better ripened, and more dry 
and mealy. A late one is unfolid 
and watery, as the roots do not 
arrive to their full maturity. 

When the ground has been 
well prepared, by deep plough 
ing, crofs ploughing, and ha.r- 
rowing,let the lets be prepared by 
cutting. Pieces, as I apprehend, 
are better for fets than whole po 
tatoes. Pieces confume .quick 
in the earth, and pafs their fub- 
ftance into the new plants : 
But when potatoes are planted 
whole, they come out of the 
ground in autumn, almoft as hard 
and folid as when they were 
planted. And whole potatoes 
fill the ground with fuch a mul 
titude of roots, that they will 
rob one another of their nour- 
I .choofe potatoes of a 


middling fize to cut into fets. 
Such a one will make half a 
dozen, or more good fets, with 
one or two buds in each ; three 
or tour of which fets are fuffi- 
cient for one hill, and they 
mould be placed fix or eight 
inches apart; for the roots mould 
never be much crowded. 

The mooting parts exift in a 
potatoe, in the form of a tree,. of 
which the Hock is at the but, or 
root end. I therefore take care 
to cut athwart thefe parts as little 
as poffible : For though they will 
grow any way, the greater length 
of mooting item there is in a fet, 
the more ftrong and vigorous 
will be its growth at firft. 

If dung be ufed, it may be 
fpread before the fecond plough 
ing, or elfe laid under the fets. 
The latter method will give a 
larger crop. Dung laid under 
the fets, will produce more than 
if laid above them ; as Mr. Wynn 
Baker proved by accurate exper 
iments. The feeding roots 
mould go into the dung, not di- 
reclly into hungry earth below ; 
and thefe roots ftrike downwards ; 
and therefore need fome loofe 
earth under the dung to extend 
themfelves into. 

The faihionable way of plant 
ing potatoes in hills, may be as 
good as any in rough ground, 
or that which is not well fubdu- 
ed. But in a rich, mellow foil, 
well pulverifed, the drill method 
is to be preferred. The fets maybe 
eilther in fingle rows, three feet, 
or double, one foot apart, and 
from feven to nine inches afun- 
der in the rows. One of my 
neighbours planted in his gar 
den, drills and rows of hills al 
ternately of equal length, and e- 
qually manured ; when he dug 
them he found the drill rows 
produced twice as much as the 
Cither. It is not more labour to 

POT 271 

lay the dung in drills, than in 
hills ; and the labour of hoeing 
is not increafed. My trials irv 
the drill way, have produced 
only half as much again. But I 
did not put dung in the furrows, 
but always put dung in the hills- 
My method has baen, in dry 
ground, firft to plough in the 
dung ; then harrow; raife the 
ridges, and dibble the fets into 
the ridges. 

The lazy bed method, or 
trenching, is moft praftifed in 
Ireland. I have tried it feveral 
times, and am convinced, that a 
greater quantity on the fame 
ground maybe raifed in this way,, 
than in almoft any other. But 
the labour is fo great, as it mufh 
be performed with the fpade, that 
I dare not recommend it, unlefs 
in particular cafes, or to thofe who 
have but little land. 

It is a good, and very effectu 
al method, to fubdue bad weeda 
in the border of a field,which can 
not w r ell be ploughed. But the 
foil mould be deep,that the trench^ 
es may not go into the under ftra- 
turn of hard earth, nor too near to it,, 
And in this way good crops may 
be got in fpringy and miry places,, 
which are too wet for ether til 
lage. But the work muft be be 
gun in autumn. In October, 
mark out the beds, five feet wide, 
leaving two feet between each 
bed for the trench : Spread the 
dung upon the beds : Dig the 
trenches, and with their contents 
cover the beds to the depth of it- 
bout five inches. In May follow 
ing, dibble the fets into the beds, 
quite down to the dung, and fill 
the holes with earth. Befides 
getting a good crop, the foil will 
be thus drained and fubdued, and 
fitted for ploughing, and tillage 

An expeditious way of plant 
ing potatoes is as follows. After- 


272 POT 

the ground is prepared, by plou~ v - 
ing and harrowing, cut furrows 
with the horfe plough, forty inch 
es apart ; drop the lets in the 
furrows ; then pals the plough 
along the back of each furrow, 
which will throw the earth of 
both furrows upoH the fets ; and 
afterwards level the ground with 
the back of a harrow, or with a 
harrow that has (hort tines if you 
will ; but it is of no great confe- 
quence whether it be levelled at 
all. Another method of plant 
ing is, to plough the ground 
plain, keeping the furrows Straight 
and regular, and drop fets in eve 
ry third or fourth furrow. But 
before this is done, the ground 
ihould be ploughed and made 
level and fine with the harrow. 

But the method laft mentioned 
is lit only for a dry foil, where 
the feed needs to be laid deep. 
Where the foil is moift, a better 
way would be to furrow the 
ground, and lay the fets on the 
furface, clofe to the backs of the 
furrows, and cover them by turn 
ing another furrow towards each. 
Jf this mould bury the fets too 
deep, the ridges may be eafily 
lowered, with a hoe or a rake ; 
but I do not apprehend it would 
be neceffary. The ridges may 
remain as the plough leaves them. 

As foon as rows of potato 
plants are grown to the height of 
four or five inches above the fur- 
face, or earlier if the ground be 
weedy, the cultivator, with two 
mouldboards, mould be pa fled 
between them, as dcp as one 
horfe can draw it. For want of 
a cultivator, a common light 
plough Ihould go and return in 
an interval, turning the earth at 
the firil ploughing from, and then 
at the fecond towards, the rows. 
After each ploughing the plants 
ihould be weeded, and a little of 
the frefh earth drawn clofe to 


their items, uncovering thofe' 
which chance to be covered by 
th<r cultivator, or plough. This 
.ionfhould be repeated three 
tunes, taking care not to earth 
the plants too much, as fome are 
apt to do where the ground is 
light and mellow : For potatoes 
will not grow well more than a- 
baut five inches under the fur- 
face, being too far removed from, 
the influence of the fun. The 
ridges, or hills, fhould be rather 
broad than ileep ; flat, on the 
top, that the water, which falls in 
rain, may not be too much divert 
ed from the roots. 

The laft hoeing mould be firr- 
ifhed before the plants are in blof- 
fom ; and before the branches be 
gin to trail upon the ground. 
Otherwife anew fet of roots will 
be formed, too late to get their 
full growth, and which will rob 
the former fets of their nourifh- 
ment. But if killing weeds be 
neceifary after bloffoming, it may 
he done with the hand hoe, ob- 
ferving not to earth up the plants 
at all. 

Cattle mould be kept from a 
field of potatoes, till- the roots 
have got their full growth, as 
carefully as from a field of corn. 
For potatoes will not grow after 
the tops are browfcd. They 
doubtlefs receive as much of their 
nourifhment through the tops, as 
aimofi; any plant. 

As foon as the tops are dead, 
either by ripenefs or by froft, the 
roots may be taken up. If they 
lie in the ground till they are 
foaked by the heavy autumnal 
rains, they will be the worfe ; 
and the labour of digging will be 
increafed. Thofe that do not 
much adhere to the tops, may be 
thrown up by the cultivator, or 
by thejiorfe plough, which will 
facilitate the digging. But the 
tops Ihould be pulled out, and the 



fruit that comes out with them 
gathered, before the plough is 
paffed tinder the rows. Some 
recommend a tour or live prong 
ed fork, as the beft inihumeiitto 
dig them with. 

There is no difficulty in keep 
ing them through the winter, in 
a cellar that is free from froft. 
Caves, dug in a dry foil, preferve 
them very well. They fhould 
be covered with two feet of 
earth over them. If they are 
in danger of froft in a cool cel 
lar, they mould be covered with 
a little fait hay. This any farm 
er may eafily do, who has a mar 
itime foliation. 

In cellars, they are more for 
ward to fproutin the fpring, than 
in caves. Thofe which are for 
iummer eating, fhould be attend 
ed to in May, the fp routs rubbed 
off, and put into a cool and 
dark part of the cellar. They 
will thus keep well till new pota 
toes are grown. But if any light 
come to them, they will fend out 
long moots towards the place 
where it enters. 

Raw potatoes will keep fwine 
alive through the winter : But 
they will not grow much with 
this food alone. Parboiled, they 
are an excellent food for fwine, 
and will almoft fatten them. The 
Eriglifh farmers parboil them, 
not only for fwine, but for horn 
ed cattle. I know of no food 
that will more increafe the quan 
tity of milk in cows ; and they 
give milk no ill tafte, whether 
boiled or raw. In either way 
cows are very fond of them. For 
liorfes they mould be boiled. 

Though the Spanifh potatoes 
be not fit for the table, they are 
io very productive, that it would > 
be well to raife them by them- , 
felves tor cattle. And out of i 
other forts, the largeft and fmall- j 
eit, the irregular (haped and the i 


POT 273. 

cut ones, mould be put by for the 
cattle : For middling roots are 
beft both for eating and planting. 
Overgrown ones are apt to be 
hollow and watery ; and wound 
ed ones rot, oftener than found 

As a further recommendation 
of this ufeful root, I may add, 
the farinaceous part of it makes 
an excellent ftarch, much fupe- 
riour, as fome fay, and not half fo 
coftly, as that made of wheat. 
1 he method of making potatoe 
ftarch, according to Mr. Wef- 
ton, is as follows : ** Wafh and 
pare them, grate them upon large 
tin graters, and fill tubs about 
half full with the pulp : Then 
fill them up with water : Stir it 
well once a day, for three or four 
days, and take off all the fcurn. 
About the ^th day take out the 
pulp, and put it into mallow earth 
en pans, fuch as are ufed for 
milk, as much as will cover the 
bottom an inch thick, and put 
water upon it. Every morning 
pour off the water, break up the 
ftarch, and add frefh water. 
When it is thus become very 
white, leave it in the pans till it 
is quite dry, then put it into pa 
per bags, and put it in a dry place 
to keep." 

This fort of ftarch has been 
made and ufed in my houfe, for 
twenty orthirty years paft. The 
making of a quantity that will 
ferve for a year is always begun 
and fmifhed in a day or two. 
As foon as the ftarch is fettled to 
the bottom, which it does in 
twenty minutes, the water is re 
newed ; and initead of its {land 
ing in tubs, and being fkimmed, 
we flrain it through a cloth. 
Which of thefe methods is 
to be preferred I do not deter 

Some fuppofe this ftarch is apt 
to rot the things which are ftiffen- 

274 s POT 

ed with it ; but this is a great 

In an abstract of the Memoirs 
of the. Swedijk Academy, the a- 
Dove writer found the following 
account of one of their methods 
of ufmg potatoes. " Mr. Charles 
Skytfe has propofed to diftii 
brandy from potatoes, in order 
to fave the Corn, which is fo dear 
in Sweden ; and finds by expe 
rience, that an acre of land fet 
with potatoes, will yield a much 
greater quantity of brandy, than 
when {"own with barley." It is 
aflerted that a gallon of good 
ilrong fpirit may be taken from 
fix pecks of boiled potatoes, by 

The account given by Dr. An- 
derfon of his fuccefs in extraft- 
ing potatoe fpirits is this : He 
boiled 72 pounds of potatoes, 
they were then bruifed, and pafT- 
ed through a riddle along with 
fome frefh water. The pulp was 
then mixed with cold water, till 
the whole amounted to about co 
gallons. This was allowed to 
cool, till it attained to fuch 
a temperature, as would be 
proper for mixing yeaft with 
wort, when fome yeaft was put to 
it. In ten or twelve hours the fer 
mentation began, which contin- 
ed very brifkly for as many hours. 
After waiting fome time, and in 
vain warming it a little, with a 
view to renew the fermentation, 
he ftirred it brifkly, which renew 
ed the fermentation: Stirring it 
daily, the fermentation went on 
for a fortnight, and then abated, 
and could not be renewed by ag 
itation or otherwife. It was then 
diftilled with due caution, care 
having been taken to ftir it in the 
ilill, until it began to boil, before 
the head of the ftill was applied ; 
and the fire was afterwards fo 
kept up as to keep it boiling 
briikly, till the whole was run 

P O U 

over. In confequence of thefe 
precautions and due reclification, 
he obtained an Engliih gallon of 
pure fpirit, confiderably above 
proof, and .-.about a quart more of 
a -weaker kind, a good deal below 
proof. The Dr. fays, it was in 
every refpeft the moft agreeable 
vinous fpirit he ever fa w; and 
that in tafte it fomewhat reSfem- 
bled'fine brandyv According to 
this account, one acre of potatoes 
might yield 300 gallons of good, 
ftrong fpirit, worth at lea it 9o/. 

My new method of planting 
potatoes is this. After the dung 
is fpread and ploughed in, and. 
the ground levelled with the har 
row, I raife the ridges about three 
feet and a half apart, with the cul 
tivator ; and-, then dibble in the 
fets along the tops of the ridges, 
abo ut feven or eight inches apart, 
laying each fet about as low as 
the furface was before the ridges 
were made. I" have had as good 
crops in this way, as in any-other. 
The method of raifmg potatoes 
under ftraw, is very fimple and 
eafy. Lay the fets about eight 
inches apart each way, on any 
kind of foil that is not too rich : 
Cover them with ftraw, or refufe 
hay, to the depth of about twelve 
inches. Nothing more is to be 
done to them till they are taken 
up. They will be very clean, 
and the crop confiderable. 

POULTRY, all kinds of tame 
birds, as hens, geefe, ducks, tur 
keys, &c. 

Thefe may be confidered as 
part of a- huibandman's flock : 
But the keeping of great num 
bers of dunghill fowls will not 
turn to his advantage ; as it is 
certain they will never indemni 
fy him for the corn and grain 
that are requifite for their fup- 
port. Yet on a farm a few of 
them may be ufeful, to pick up 
what would otherwise be loft. 


Q U A 

ftnd in this view they feem to be 
profitable only part of the year. 
If confined they will not prof 
fer, though they have a yard of 
tome extent ; if not confined they 
will be mifchievous to the gar 
den and field. 

PRONG HOE, a hoe with 
prongs inflead of a blade. It is 
either a bidens, or a trident. It 
is eafily {truck into the ground ; 
and as the tines are fix or ieven 
inches.long, it will llir the ground 
to the .fame depth that a plough 
does. It is ufeful in taking up 
flrong rooted weeds, and open 
ing ground that is crufled, or be 
come too compact. The eye 
and handle are the fame as a 
common hand hoe. It is .the 
beft inftrumerit to iHr the ground 
with, clofe to the roots of plants. 

PROVENDER, dry fcod for 
.brutes, as hay, corn, &c. 

PULSE, the fruit of legumi 
nous, or podded plants, which 
produce their feeds inclofed in a 
pericarpium, confiding of two 
valves, joined by a vifible future, 
having the feeds fattened alter 
nately to the two valves. 


MARISH, low boggy land, -that | 
makes and fettles under any one I 
in patting over it. 

It has a fward that is tough, 
being a web of the roots of ftrong 
grades ; but the mud under the 
iward is very foft and yielding. 

Such places fhould be drained 
when<"it can be done without too 
much expenfe. For its natural 
.produce confifts of the worft wa 
ter grailes, cranberries, &c. but 
the foil is always deep, and rich. 
See the article Draining. 

Mr. Eliot drainepl fuch apiece 
of ground, and foon made it fit 
ior tillage. 

Q u i 27$ 

HEDGE, all kinds of live hedge, 
ot whatever plants they are com- 
pofed. The hawthorn or white 
thorn is moft commonly ufed. 
The young fetsare raifedinnur- 
feries in the old countries. 

Mr. Miller fays, " In the choice 
of fets, thofe which are raifed in 
nurferies are to be preferred to 
fuch as are drawn out of the 
woods, becaufe the latter have 
feldom fo good roots ; though, as 
they are larger plants than are 
commonly to be had in the nur- 
fery, many people prefer them 
upon that account ; but he has 
found by long experience, that 
thofe hedges which have beea 
planted with young plants from 
the nurfery, have always made 
the beft hedges. He fays, if 
perfons would have patience to 
wait for thefe from the feed, and 
to fow the haws in the^ place 
where the hedge is deiigned, 
thefeunremoved plants will make 
a much flronger and more dura 
ble fence than ihofe which are 
tranfplanted .: But where the 
hedge is to be planted, the fets 
fhould not be more than three 
years old from the haws ; lor 
when they are older, their roots 
will be hard and woody ; and 
as they arc commonly trimmed 
oft' before the lets are planted, lo 
they very often mifcarry, and 
fuch of them as do live will not 
make fo good progrefsas young 
er plants, nor are they fo dura 
ble." See Hedge Fence. 

QUICKS, this name is given 
to the young plants ot which 
a live hedge is compofed. 

CURY, a ponderous mineral 
fluid. It has been often aiferted 
that quickiilver will deltroy in 
fects on trees. The method of 
applying it is thus. Make a hole 
Doping through the rind or bark, 


276 Q U I 

with an awl. The hole mould go 
into the wood, but not reach the 
heart xDr pith. Pour in a fmall 
drop or two of quickfilver, and 
iftop up the hole with a peg. On 
the 1 8th of May, in the prefent 
year, 1787, I applied quickfilver 
as above to two apple trees 
which hid young nefls of cater- 
piilars on them. One was in a 
young orchard, the other in a 
nurfery ; nefls of the fame age 
being on neighbouring trees, 
which ferved as ilandards. 
Watching the nefts daily, I 
found that the infects fpread 
themfelves on the latter, and ate 
the leaves as ufual. On the 
former they multiplied but little; 
and I could not find that many 
of them fpread on the tree*s, or 
ate the leaves at all. And from 
the neft in the nurfery many of 
the infecls removed to other 
trees. But the caterpillars were 
not all dead in either neft, till 
about the dimmer folftice, the 
ufual period of their exiflence. 
Whence I conclude that though | 
the quicklilver feemingly had 
ibme good effect, this is not to 
be relied on as the mod effectual, 
eaiieft and che>apefi method of | 
deftroying thefe infefts, or pre 
venting their ill efiecl. 

QUINCE TREE, Cydoma. a 
imall fruit tree, beaiing a large 
yellow fruit, ufeful in cookery 
and medicine, but not fit to eat 1 

It is eafy to propagate the trees 
by fuckers, layers or cuttings, 
but they require a moilt foil. 
The cuttings mould be planted 
early in autumn. The trees re 
quire very little pruning ; the 
principal thing is, to keep the 
ftems clear of fuckers, and thin 
t)ie branches where they crofs 
each other. "Upright luxuriant 
ihoots in the top mould alfo be 
taken out, that the trees m-iy not 

R A B 

have too much wood, -which is 
bad for all forts of fruit trees. 

cording to Mr. Miller, is appli 
ed to a plantation of trees, dif- 
pojfed originally in a fquare, con- 
fifling of four trees, one at each 
corner, and a fifth in the middle; 
which difpofition, repeated a- 
gain and again, forms a regular 
grove, woo<}, orwildernefs ; and, 
when viewed obliquely, prefents 
ftraight rows of trees, and parralr 
lei alleys between them. 

QUITCH GRASS, called al 
fo Witch graft, Twitch grafs, 
Couch grafs, Dutch grafs, and 
Dogs grafs, Loiium, a moft ob- 
itinate and troublefome weed, 
which fills the foil with white 
ftnngy roots, and is harder to 
fubdue than any other weed. 
The more the foil is tilled, and 
the oftener hoed, the fairer it 
grows ; for if the roots be ever 
io much cut to> pieces, each 
piece will live and become a new 

Land that is much infefted with 
this weed fhouldbe laid .down to 
grafs ; and as ibon as the fwarcl 
binds, which it is apt to do foon, 
burn beating (hould be applied, 
which will go near to conquer it. 
See Burn baking. 

But it may be kept from bind 
ing by plentiful and, frequent 
manuring, and the grafs makes 
very good hay, 


RABBITS. 4< In fome fitua- 
tions thcfe animals may be kept 
to advantage, as they multiply 
exceedingly, and require no trou 
ble in bringing up. They de 
light in the fides ot fandy hills 
which are generally unproduc 
tive when tilled, but level 
ground is improper for them. 
The fur of the rabbit is worth 

R A D 

thrice the whole value of the 
carcafs. Therefore, ftippofmg a 
rabbit to confume a quantity ot 
food in proportion to its carcafs, 
it is a fpecies of ftock nearly 
three times as valuable as either 
cattle or meep. Rabbit war 
rens ought to be inclofed with a 
ftone or fbd wall : And at their 
fir ft flocking, it will be neceifa- 
ry to form burrows for them, un 
til they have time to make them 
for themfelves. Boring the 
ground horizontally with 2 large 
auger is perhaps the beft method 
that can be praftifed. Eagles, 
kites, and other birds of prey, as 
well as cats, weafels, and pole 
cats, are great enemies ot rabbits. 
The Norfolk warreners catch the 
birds by traps placed on the tops 
of ftumps ot trees, or artificial hil 
locks of a conical form, on which 
they naturally alight." Encyclop, 

RACK, a frame made to hold 
fodder for cattle, to prevent 
their trampling it under foot, and 
wafting it. 

Thofe racks which arc under 
cover, as in iheep ho-ufes, horfe 
flables, &c. may be conftrufted 
of almoft any kind of wood ; but 
thole which ftand abroad fhould 
be of fuch timber as lafts long in 
the weather. The rails may be 
larch, or white cedar, and the 
crofs flicks white oak. Such a 
one will endure the weather ma 
ny years. 

RADICLE, that part of the 
plantule in a feed, which, when 
it vegetates, becomes the root. 
Whatever be the pofition ot a 
feed, the radicle will {hoot down 
wards. The radicle ihoots from 
the feed before the plumula, 
which is the blade of a young 

RADISH, m R&phanus, a plea- 
fant root, which has an attenuat 
ing virtue, and is a good antifcor- 

RAG 277 

I have had better fuccefs with 
thole fown as late as June or 
July, than with thofe Town in 
the fpring. The earlieft are apt 
to be cieiiroyed, or greatly injur 
ed, by the white maggots ; t 
which fea water is an antidote ; 
but with refpect to this root not 
-quite effectual. 

To have a conftant fucceflion 
of radifhes at table, the feeds 
ill or, Id be fown once a fortnight, 
from April to Auguft. But in 
midfummer they fooner grow 
iticky and ftrong, than in fpring 
or fall. They muft therefore 
be eaten while they are young. 
I have had better fuccefs 
thofe fown in Auguft, than i: 
other month. In hot he 
may be raifed any month in the 
year. Or thofe 
may be kept ii 
eating in the \. 

As radiihes arc uncertain in 
their growth, the beft method is 
to put in the feeds between rows 
ot other plants ; and they are fo 
loon pulled up, that they will 
not incommode the plants among 
which they grow. 

Radifhes that are for feed re 
quire much room, as they grow 
to a large fize. For this puipoie 
fome of the moft thrifty ones 
(hould be left Handing ; or d(o 
be transplanted to a place where; 
each lhall ha\e as much room as 
m>ar a yard {"qua re. The ripe- 
iieis of the feed is known by the 
pods turning brown. For tlvs 
purpofe the feeds muft be fown 
early in the fpring, becaufe they 
ripen ilowiy. 

RAGS, pieces of worn out 
cloth, a valuable manure. Wool 
len rags are an animal fubftancc, 
and therefore contain much food 
for plants. The longer they 
have been worn, the more dirfy 
they arc, and the ?nore perfpira- 
i ble matter they have imbibed. 



R A I 

the better they are for this life* 
JBut ihreds of new cloth are 
.good ; forne quantities of which 
may be collected where tailors 
work. Woollen rags mould 
be chopped JYnall on a block, 
and be fcattered, or fown by 
hand. It is recommended to ufe 
thefe as a top drefling. This 
manure attracts nitre, and im- 
'foibes dews, which the firft rain 
carries into the foil. Or, as the 
-earth grows dry it attracts moif- 
ture from the rags. 

Woollen -rags are peculiarly 
good for a dry foil, as they will 
retain moiflure along time ; and 
in.fuch a foil I think they will 
do bell when they lie a little un 
der the furface. I would mix 
them in the foil with the harrow. 
Before they difiblve, they will 
caufe plants to be nourished, by 
keeping the ground moifl ; when 
they are didblved, they become 
iocd -for plants. Twenty four 
Imfhels will be a fufficient dref- 
dfing for an acre. 

Linen rags, like other vegeta 
ble fubiiances, contain food of 
plants ; but they fhould be well 
rotted in dunghills, before they 
are applied to the foil. They do 
jiot retain moiflure like woollen; 
ad they diffolve (lowly. 

RAILS, pieces of timber plac- 
*cd horizontally in fences, fup- 
ported at the ends by pofls. See 
the article Fence. 

RAIN, condenfe^ vapour, 
which falls in drops, and waters 
the earth. This is of more ad 
vantage to the hufbandman'than 
all his labour and care. No kind 
or degree of culture will fecure 
a crop, if the ground do not re 
ceive a confiderable quantity of 
2noifture from the clouds ; for 
it the earth be not frequently 
tnoiflened, the food of plants in 
it will become fixed ; and there 
be no fermentation in the 

R A I 

foil ; fo that the roots of plants 
cannot receive any nourishment. 
Was it not for the falling o'f dews 
the want of rain would be much 
oftener definitive to plants 
than it is. -Dews are often great 
in a dry feafon ; and from dews 
plants receive a confiderable 
part of their nourishment. 

The due quantity of moiitee 
might indeed be fupplied by wa 
tering by hand, as long as wellSj, 
fpriags and rivers were not dri 
ed up. But the labour of doing 
it would be worth more than all 
the crop. Neither would artifi 
cial watering have fo good an 
effecl; as rain, on account of the 
infe.riour quality of the water for 
this ufe, and the mode of apply?. 
ing it. The genfleft rains are 
generally mod conducive to the 
growth of plants, and the^ruit- 
fulnefs of the foil, as all parts are 
more equally foaked; and cloudy 
weather, which moft common 
ly happens before rain, helps to 
predifpofe the earth, and its veg 
etables, to receive the greater ad 
vantage from the water that fails. 
It is a lib believed the .eleftrick 
fluid, which is conduced to the 
earth by rains, conduces much to 
the invigoration of plants. 

Rain not only gives fluidity 
and motion to the food of plants 
contained in the foil, but contains 
in itfelf more or lels of the in 
gredients of it. The atmofphere 
contains abundance of fajine, 
earthy and oleaginous parti 
cles ; fo that rain water cannot 
fail of being impregnated with 

It has been proved by a varie 
ty of experiments, that a much 
greater quantity of rain falls at 
the furface of the ground, than 
at the top of a houfe, or other 
building ; which may be partly 
owing to the vapour contained 
in the lower part of the atmof- 

& A r 

which is joined to the 
drops in their defcent. 

Perhaps the a6Hon of the fun's 
heat is proportionally greater in* 
vallies than on fumrnits of hills; 
if fo, there is a happy balance 
between heat and rain on all 
parts ot the furface of the earth. 
Though it is often regretted that 
low hollows are overcharged 
with water, it is commonly foon 
exhaufted by the heat of the fun in 
fummer, which- is much greater 
in vallies than on hills. 

It may be afked; would it not 
have been better, if a greater-pro 
portion of rain had fallen on hills 
than on vallies ? But they need 
it not fo much, becaufe of the 
greater coolnefe of the air on 
hills. More of the fine mould 
would have been warned down 
into the hollows, and deeper 
channels would have been made 
in the foil by the running of wa 
ter, which would have been con- 
fiderable inconveniences. 

The quantity of water that 
falls in a year may be from twen 
ty five to thirty inches. If the 
whole were to fall at once, def- 
truclive deluges would be experi 
enced, and droughts equally de- 
ftruclive. It is the frequency of 
rains that renders the earth fruit 
ful. To fome foils, as ft iff clays 
and loofe fands, frequent rains are 
more needful than to others. 
The former imbibes the water 
too (lowly ; the latter parts with 
it too fpeedily. Thefe two kinds 
of foil, therefore, need the moft 
frequent mowers. 

In- fome years the rains are fo 
ordered, as to make the feafons 
moft fruitful. A moderate 
quantity in each week through 
the fummer will be apt to fupply 
fo much moifture, and keep up 
fuch a degree of fermentation in 
the foil, as is moft conducive to 
ihe progrefs of vegetation. 

R I D 279. 

FaiTmers in this climate gen 
erally wifh for but little rain 
in April, and for much in May 
and part of June ; then lefs in 
hay time, and Englifh harvefL 
But as it is not left to us to order 
this matter, we fhould endeavour 
to accommodate ourfelves to the 
feafons ; and to affift nature when 
ever we have opportunity for 
doing it, draining land which 
is too wet, watering that which 
is too dry, and applying more' 
manures to 1 dry foils, which will 
make them more retentive o 

RATS, a mifchievous kind of 
vermine too well known to the- 
farmer. No walls that I know of 
have been found to be fufficient 
barriers againft them. 

The fame poifon which I pre- 
fcribed for mice, will well ferveto 
deftroy thefe animals. But the beft 
way is to catch them in a cage made 
of wire, in a cubical form, en- 
clofed in a wooden box. Each 
fide of the cage mould be a plane 
of about fifteen inches fquare. 

RED WORM. See Infers* 

REED, Arundo, " the name 
of an aquatick plant, infefting 
low grounds. The beft method: 
of destroying them, is by drain 
ing the land. Afhes and foofe 
will kill them- So will plough 
ing the land, and laying it in- 
high ridges. They always indi 
cate a good foil." Complete 

RIDGLING, a male animal 
half caftrated. A horfe of this 
kind is as troubleforne as a ftal- 
lion,or more fo ; but is not fit to 1 
be depended on as one. A ridg- 
ling hog will never be fat, nor, 
grow fo large as a barrow, till* 
his caftration he completed ; asj 
it may be by making an opening 
in the belly, when the cafe is the 
moft difficult. They mouldbe-ei- 
ther killed young, or completely; 


R O L 

caftrated. The flem of a young 
ridgling pig is good ; but that of 
an old one brawny and difagree- 

KIPLING CART, amachine 
to perform the work of reaping. 
In a pamphlet publifhed at New- 
york, in the year 1790, by F. C. 
H. B. Pollintz, a ripling cart, as 
lie calls it, is recommended for 
the harveiting of wheat. In the 
operation the heads of the corn 
are taken off by feven combs, 
each four feet in length. The 
combs are ftrongly fattened, at 
equal distances, to a roller, which 
is turned by bands from the 
wheels of the cart, and which 
throws the heads into the cart, 
\vhich is puibed forward by one 
horfe, harnefled with his head to 
wards the cart. Allowing that the 
horfe travels twenty miles per day, 
ten acres are reaped. A boy 
placed in the cart fills lacks with 
the heads, as the cart is going, 
and throws them out at the head 

After the heads are thus col- 
Ie6i:ed, the threlhing of the wheat 
is reprefented as performed by a 
mill built on the principles of a 
common coffee mill, which is 
turned and fed by two fmall 
boys, who can do three bumels 
in an hour. If thefe modes of 
threfhing and reaping were 
brought into common ufe, it is 
aiionifhing to think how much 
labour might be laved. But I 
fufpecl there are difficulties at 
tending the method of reaping. 

ROD, the fame as a perch, or 

\ pole ; a meaiure of five yards 

and a half. A iquare rod of luper- 

ficies is the i6othpart of an acre. 

^ ROLLER, a cylindrical in- 

ilrument to pafs over lands, to 

anfwer leveral good pui poles in 


Thofe rollers which are cut out 
f free ftone, being heavier than 

R O L 

Wooden ones, are beft ta 
and harden, the alleys in gardens^ 
walks, &c. But wooden ones 
anfwer better in tillage, xvhen- 
they are lufficiently large. A 
roller for field hufbandry Ihouid 
be five or fix feet long ; fo that 
it may perform much in a fhort 
time, being drawn by a horfe or a 
yoke of oxen,for eitherof which it 
may beeafily harnefied. It mould 
be made perfectly round and 
fmooth, that it may be drawn the 
more eafily, and prefs the ground 
the more equally in all parts. 
And it ihould be from eighteen to 
twenty fcur inches diameter. Be 
ing large, the prellure will be 
greater ; and the furface will be 
left the more level* 

A fpiky roller, or a roller fill 
ed with fpikes, fix or feven inch 
es long, fharp pointed at the out 
er ends, is fometimes ufed in the 
old countries, to pulverife clod 
dy land in tillage, or to brake 
and open the fward of grafs land 
when it is bound, and too com 
pact. After grafs land is fo brok 
en, a top dreiling will have the 
better effecl:. A roller is fome 
times armed with circular knives, 
four or five inches broad, put on 
in the manner of hoops, the edg 
es at right angles with the axis 
of the roller, twenty inches from 
each other. They ufe thefe in- 
ftruments to cut the fward into 
ftrips, in order to cut up the 
turfs with a fharp ironed plough 
for burn healing. This manner 
of doing the work, is far 1 els ex- 
pen live than cutting up the turfs 
with the beating axe. But the 
fward of land to which this in- 
llrument is applied, ought to be 
extremely level, and free from 
Itones and ftrong roots. 

ROLLING, fmoothing and 
moderately hardening the fur- 
face of land, by drawing a roller 
over iu 


R O L 

The rolling of land in tillage 
Should be done only in _dry 
V eather ; never, when the foil is 
fo wet as to flick to the roller. 

No foil will admit of rolling that 
is very uneven, or much rocky or 
ilony. But fmall round pebbles 
in a mellow foil, well pulverif- 
ed, need not prevent rolling : For 
the roller will prefsthem all into 
the foil. Land that is apt to 
have aftiff cruft formed upon it, 
by lying only a few weeks, I 
think mould not be rolled ; be- 
caufe it will caufe the cruft to be 
the mote hard and ftifF. But the 
advantages of rolling in a light and 
rich foil are fo great, that it is 
pity that the practice of it is fo gen 
erally laid afide in this country. 

Rolling, after fowing and har- 
rOwing, will caufe the iribuld to 
enclofe the feeds ; much of 
which, otherivife, lying in cavi 
ties that foon become dry, is apt 
to fail of vegetating. 

Rolling aifo fills up ten thou- 
fand little cells, which, when left 
Open, are haunts arid harbours for 
flies and other noxious xnfefts ; 
befides, it has the advantage of 
deltroying fome kinds ^of infefts 
in the operation. It is peculiarly 
beneficial on this account to a 
crop of turnips. And fome rec 
ommend parting the roller over 
turnip ground, not only when 
the feed is newly fown, but after 
the plants are up. 

When a clay foil is fown, roll 
ing breaks many lumps, or hard 
clods, which have efcaped the 
plough and the harrow. But an 
over light foil, which is apt to 
dry too faft, needs rolling more 
than any other. It ferves to pre 
vent the evaporation of moifture, 
by making it lefs porous. 

Some of the European farmers 
prefer rolling after the grain has 
rifen to the height of four or five 
inches, But of the utility of this 


R O O 


we are not yet convinced by a 
fufficient number of trials. 

In all kinds of foil that are laid 
down to grafs, rolling is necefTa- 
ry, to lay the furtace fo fmooth 
and even as to facilitate mowing 
and raking. And thole kinds of 
fowed corn which are to be cut 
with the fey the, and raked, mould 
be rolled, that lofs may be pre 
vented in harvefting. Without 
it, a crop of barley cannot be 
well taken up clean with a rake* 
efpecially when the corn is fhorfc 
and fmall, as I have often found 
to my lofs. Some writers on 
hiifbandry think a crop of barley, 
in particular, will be confidera- 
bly larger for rolling it, as it is a 
dry feed, that needs to be well 
enclofed with rnould, in order to 
its vegetating. Lands that are in 
grafs, may be kept even by a 
yearly rolling, which will prefs 
down mole hills and other une- 
vennefTes, and caufe the grafs to 
grow thicker. It will alfo be an 
advantage to be able to mow it 
the more clofely. 

ROOD, forty perches of land, 
or a quarter of an acre. 

ROOTS, the parts of plants 
that are under the furface of the 
earth, which imbibe the nutritious 
juice of the earth, which feeds and 
ncreafes the plants. 

Botanifts diftinguifh roots into 
divers forts, according to their 
different forms. But the only 
diftinftion to which the hufband- 
man needs to give his attention, 
[s, to confider roots as of the tap, 
Dulbous, or fibrous kind. Of the 
irft kind are the carrot, parfnep, 
jeet,&c.of thefecondjthejpotato, 
onion, turnip, and feveral other ; 
of the laft, wheat and other kinds 
of grain, and many gralfe's. 

But (till there are perhaps but 
few plants which have only one 
of thefe kinds of roots, though 
the form that is moft obvious 


R O O 

denominates a root. Carrots, 
and other tap rooted plants, fend 
out horizontal fibres to a confid- 
crable diftance. Trees in gener 
al have both tap and fibrous roots. 
A turnip has the three kinds of 
roots, having a bulb, a tap, and 
many lateral fibres from the tap. 
Mr. Mills, on this fubjeft fays, 
the roots that proceed immedi 
ately from the feed, are always of 
the carrot or tap kind. Tap 
roots ftrike down perpendicular 
ly into the earth, til.l it becomes 
too hard to admit of their farther 
paffage ; but when the foil is 
deep, and eafily pierced, they 
penetrate fometimes to the depth 
of feveral yards, un lei's they are 
cut or broken ; in which, cafe 
they alter their direction.. This 
is frequently obferved ; particu 
larly in plants railed in water 
only. The tap roots ihoot out 
branches which extend heri- 
zontally ; and thefe branches 
are ftronger, in proportion as 
they are nearer t,o the furface of 
that layer of earth which is ilir- 
red by the plough or fpade. 

Thefe are the roots which we 
call creeping or fibrous. They 
extend fometimes to a confider- 
ablc diftance from the plant that 
produced them ; but then they 
become fo minute, that the nak 
ed eye can no longer trace them ; 
efpecially when they have taken 
the tinfture ot the earth that fur- 
rounds them,' as they generally 

A carrot, for an example, 
which feems to have only one 

freat root, furni Pried -with fome 
bres, puihes its roots, according 
to Mr. Tull, to a confiderable 
diftance ; but they grow fo very 
(lender, that they cannot he dif- 
tinguithed from the earth that 
covers them, without great at 
tention. The cafe is the fame 
witkalmoft ull plants.. 

R o a 

To convince the reader of this,, 
and at the fame time to (hew 
how far the roots of plants can 
extend in ground that is well' 
loofened, he recommends the 
experiment which I have men 
tioned under the article, Paflurt 
of Plants, which fee. 

The lollowing inftances, fays- 
M. Duhamel, {hew what effort 
trees will make,, to find a proper 
foil for the extenfion of their 
roots. On examining thofe of a 
hedge, at the fide of which a 
ditch had been dug, it appeared, 
that after palling underneath the 
ditch, they reafcended, and 
fpread themfelvcs in the plough 
ed earth on the other fide.. 

He made the fame obfervation 
on a row of elms, which were 
very near being killed by the 
digging of a deep ditch pretty 
near them, in order to prevent 
their roots from damaging an 
adjacent piece of ground. The 
elms ihot out frefh roots in the 
loofs mould that dropped into 
the ditch ; thefe. roots reafcend 
ed on the other fide of the ditch, 
and fpread in the ploughed 
ground, and the elms foon recov 
ered their former vigour. 

He likewife obferved, that ort 
digging a trench at a fmall dif 
tance from a young elm, and fil 
ling it with good mould, the 
roots of that elm took their di 
rection towards the trench, and 
grew to a great length in it. 

Thefe obfervations prove that 

horizontal roots extend far, ef- 

pecially. in loofe mould : And as 

a plant thrives in proportion to 

j the length of its roots, Mr. Tull 

I juilly infers the neceflity oi 

I keeping the earth in tillage in a 

I light itate, that the roots may ea- 

fily penetrate it. 

A root that has been cut or 
broken, never grows longer, but 
foon produces feveral new roots, 



all of which gather the proper 
food of the plant. Its means of 
fubfiftence are therefore increaf- 
ed, by the breaking of its roots, 
in digging or ploughing, rathe 
than otherwife. In the horfc 
hoeing hufbandry many of th< 
fibrous roots of "the growing plant 
are undoubtedly cut off by the 
plough. But it occafions the 
multiplying of the roots, a 
x:onfequently the greater noiu ilh- 
inent of the plants. 

ROT, a clifeafe in fheep, fimi- 
iar to a pulmonary confumption 
in men. A writer in the Scots 
Farmer thinks, that if the difeafe 
have not proceeded far, the an 
imals may be cured by feeding 
on turnips. But this is rather to 
be doubted. It is faid to be caufed 
by keeping them in a pad-are 
that is too moift, producing 
rank and watery graffes. The 
raging of this diftemper in a 
flock, is flopped by removing 
them to a dry fituation : B ut the in 
dividuals which are deeply feized 
with it, are feldom cured. Cough 
is a conflant fymptom. The 
lungs decay, and the whole body 
droops and languiflies, in the 
fame manner as perfons in a hec- 
tick. The fick of the flock 
mould be removed from the 
found (heep, that the infection 
may fpread no further among 
the flock. 

courfe of different crops in fuc- 
cefiion, on the fame piece of 

This matter has not yet been 
fufficiently attended to by New- 
england Farmers. This appears 
by their often being necessitated 
to lay their tillage lands wafte for 
a confiderable number of years, 
that they may get recruited. 
The expenfe of recruiting wcrn 
out land is fo great, that fuch a 
courfe of crops ought to be pre- 

11 O T 283 

ferred as the foil will bear with 
out material injury, or without 
being too much exhauited. And, 
when other things are equal, 
fuch a courfe fhould be a- 
dopted, as requires the leaft la 
bour, or coft of manures and cul 
tivation. When a courfe is well 
chofen, it may be repeated on 
the fame fpot perpetually, with 
out damage to the foil. 

It is not to be expecled, that the 
heft rules concerning this matter 
can be eflablifhed, but from the 
experience of many years. For 
though it may be eafy to com 
pare the refpeftive advantages 
of different courfes, in a few. 
years, fo as to find which is more 
productive ; it will take a much 
longer time to determine which 
courfe will be befl on the whole. 
For the ilate oi the foil, at the 
end of a long courfe, is to be 
taken into the account. And it 
is to be remembered that a courfe 
that is fuitable for one foil, may 
not be fo for another. 

In countries where a fpirited 
attention to agriculture has for a 
long time fubfifted, one would 
expect, that people have moft 
probably adopted the bell 
courfes. It is not amifs, there- 
Fore, to obferve what courfes 
they generally prefer in Brit 
ain and Ireland, taking care not 
ogo into a rafn and inconfider- 
Ue imitation of them, without 
naking allowance for local dif- 
erences, &c. 

A common courfe in Ireland 
s, turnips, barley, clover, wheat: 
From the account that Mr. 
i'oung gives of the courfes in 
;ifferent places, which he paffed 
hrough in his northern tour, the 
olio wing things are obfervable : 
hat where they do not fallow, 
green and white crops follow 
each other alternately ; and thai 




follows clover oftener than any 
other crop : That where fallow 
ing is praftifed, wheat is next, 
and after it fometimes another 
white crop ; but not generally. 
It ought to be never. 

The courfes of crops in Ire 
land, will furnifli nearly the 
fame obfervations. 

The judicious farmer knows, 
that fome regard muft be had to 
the nature of the foil in a courfe 
<of crops. Thofe crops which 
require a light foil, mould make 
no part of the courfe in a ftiff 
one, and vice verjh. 

But fuppofing the European 
courfes to be the beft that can be, 
fome variation is furely to be 
made in this country ; what that 
variation is, experience mult dif- 
cover. Not only our climates, 
but alfo our crops are different. 
We raife fome crops that they 
do not, and not all that they do 
raife. But a rule that is fit to be 
extended to all countries, is, that 
two impoverifhing crops fhould 
feldom, or never, fucceed each 
other in a courfe. And it is 
certain, that white crops in gen 
eral, are apt to impoverifh the 
foil, as they continue to draw 
nourimment from the earth, for 
fome time after the leaves are 
dead, and ceafe to receive nour 
imment from the air. And a)l 
plants that bear an oily feed, rob 
the foil of much of its vegetable 
food : Such are flax and hemp, 
fuppofing them to continue on 
the foil till the feed is ripe. 

Reafoning from experience 
and obfervation, I am led to be 
lieve, that the following are as 
good courfes, as may be expe61- 
ed to be introduced in this coun 
try. On light warm foils, the 
frrft year, maize dunged, peafe, 
or potatoes : 2d year, rye, bar 
ley, or buck wheat: The 3d, and 

th, clover ; The 5th, wheat ; 


The 6th, and 7th, clover. OH 
cold and ftiff foils, ill, oats or 
potatoes : 2d, Potatoes well dungr. 
ed : 3d, Flax, or wheat : 4th, 
Grafs, and fo on till it needs to> 
be broken up again. Though 
thefe may ferve for general rules, 
yet as there is a great variety in 
foils, and fome farmers can ob.- 
tain manure in greater plenty 
than others, each farmer muft en 
deavour to accommodate his 
courfes to his foil and pther cir- 

ROWEL, a kind of iflue, or 
artificial wound, made in the 
fkin of a horfe, by drawing a 
fkain of filk, thread or hair, 
through the nape of the neck, or 
fome other part, anfwering to 
what furgeons call a feton. 

Horfes are roweled for inwar,4 
ftrains, efpecially about the moul 
ders or hips, or for hard fwellings 
that are not eafily diffolved. The 
rowel may be made in almoft any 
part, and fhould always be not 
far from the difeafed part, and 
about a hand breadth beneath it. 
The two ends of the rowel mould 
be tied together, that it may not 
come out, and be fmeared with 
lard, or frefh butter, before it is 
put in. Afterwards, it fhould 
be daily fmeared again, and 
drawn backwards and forwards, 
that the putrid matter may dif- 
charge itfeif. 

What are called rowels by the 
Englifh Farriers are made as fol 
lows : An incifion is made 
through the fkin, about three 
eighths of an inch long. Then 
the fkin js feparated from the 
flefh with the finger, or with the 
end of a blunt horn, as far as the 
finger will eafily reach. Into 
this a piece of leather made very 
thin, and round fhaped, is intro 
duced, about the fize of a crown 
piece, having a large round hole 
in the middle of it. Previous to 


introducing the leather, it is cov 
ered with lint or tow, and dipped 
in fome digeftive ointment. Al- 
fo a pledgitof tow, dipped in the 
fame ointment, is jvut in the ori 
fice, to keep out the cold air. 
See Clark's Farriery. 

acid juice, contained in the maw 
of a calf that has fed on noth 
ing but milk. When the rennet 
is to be preferved for ufe, the 
calf mould be killed Toon after 
he has fucked ; for then the curd 
is entire and undigefted. 

Dairy women ufually preferve 
the maw, and the curd contained 
in it, after falting them ; and 
then by fteeping this bag and 
curd, make a rennet to turn their 
milk for making cheefe. But a 
method which feems to be more 
fimple, and is equally good in 
every refpeft, is, to throw away 
the curd, and after fteeping it in 
very ftrong pickle, ftretch out 
the maw upon a flender bow in- 
ferted into it, which will foon be 
very dry, and keep well for a 
long time. Take an inch or two 
of the maw thus dried, and fteep 
it over night in a few fpoonfuls 
of warm water ; which water 
ferves full as well as if the curd 
had been preferved, for turning 
the milk. It is faid that one inch 
will ferve for the milk of five 

In the Bath papers, Mr. Haz- 
zard gives the following receipt 
for making rennet: " When the 
jraw (kin is well prepared and fit 
for the purpofe, three pints of loft 
water, clean and fweet, fhould be 
mixed with fait, wherein fhould 
be put fweet brier, rofe leaves and 
flowers, cinnamon, mace, cloves, 
and almoft every fort ot fpice ; 
and if thefe are put into two 
quarts of water, they muft boil 
gently, till the liquor is reduced 
$9 three pirjts, and care fhould be 

RUN 285 

taken that this liquor is not fmok- 
ed. It fhould be ftrained clear 
from the fpices, &c. and when 
found to be not warmer, than 
milk from the cow, it fhould be 
poured upon the cell or maw ; a 
lemon may be diced into it, when 
it may remain a day or two ; af 
ter which it mould be ftrained a- 
gain, aad put into a bottle, where, 
if well corked, it will keep good 
for twelve months. It will frnell 
'like a perfume ; and a fmall 
quantity of it will turn the milk, 
and give the cheefe a pleafing fla 
vour." He adds, " If the maw- 
be falted and dried for a week or 
two near the fire, it will do for 
the purpofe again almoft as well 
as before/' Another receipt is 
as follows : After the maw has 
been well cleaned and falted, and 
dried upon flicks or fplints, take 
boiled water two quarts, made in 
to brine that will bear an egg, let 
it be blood warm, put in the maw, 
either cut or whole ; let it fteep 
twenty four hours, and it will be 
fit for ufe. About a tea cup 
full will turn the milk of ten 
cows. It fhould be kept in glafs 
bottles, well corked. 

An ingenious correfppndent, 
who has made ftri6i inquiry into 
this fubjel, recommends the fol 
lowing method of preparing a 
rennet, which he has found to 
be better than any other. "Throw 
away the natural curd, which is 
apt to taint, and give the bag a 
bad fmell : Then make an artifi 
cial curd, or rather butter, of new 
cream, of fufficient quantity to 
fill the bag. Add three new laid 
eggs well beaten, one nutmeg 
grated fine, or any other good 
fpice : Mix them well together, 
with three tea cup fulls of fine 
fait : Fill the rennet bag with 
this fubftance : Tie up the mouth : 
Lay it under a ftrong brine lor 
three days, turning it over daily : 



Then hang it up in a cool anc 
dry place for fix weeks, and it wil 
be fit for ufe. When it is ufed 
take with a fpoon out of the bag 
a fufficient quantity of this arti 
ficial butyrous curd for the cheefe 
you purpofe to make : Diffolve 
it in a fmall quantity of warm 
water, and then ufe it in the fame 
manner, as other rennet is rnixec 
with the milk for its coagulation.' 
Whatever kind of rennet the 
tlairy woman choofes to prepare, 
Ihe fhould keep it in mind, that 
this animal acid is extremely api 
to turn rancid and putrefy, and 
take care to apply a fufficient 
quantity of fait to preferve it in 
its befl ftate. It fhould be as 
much falted as poflible. The 
ilrongeft kind of fait fhould be 
ufed. For it is probable that the 
rank and putrid tafte, which is 
fo often in cheefes made in thig 
country, is owing to a putridity 
in the rennet. 

RUSH, Juncus, a troublefome 
fort of plant, commonly found 
growing in wet and miry land. 

" Rufhes always indicate a 
good foil, They may be clef- 
troyed by lime, even after it has 
been flaked, by fea coal afhes, or 
by draining the land. Rufhes 
thrive moil in land that is too 
cold and moifl for moft other 
plants. A(hes, and other warm 
manures of various kinds, laid on 
plentifully, will keep down the 
ruflies for a time : But to eradicate 
them perfe&ly, it is neceffary to 
dra i n the 1 a n d . " Co mplete Fa rmer'. 
RUST, dark fpots, of the col 
our of the ruft on iron, that ap 
pear on the ftems and leaves of 
blighted grain. See the article 

Some forts of grafs are alfo 
fubjeft to the fame diflemper. 

RYE, or RIE, Sccale, a well 
known grain, that is much culti 
vated in this country. 

H Y E 

Though rye by itfelf makes k 
dark coloured, clammy, and un- 
favoury kind of bread, it is better 
to mix with Indian meal in bread, 
than any other kind of Englifh 
grain ; and for this reafon, our 
farmers are the more fond of cul 
tivating it. 

Rye is as liable to fuffer by 
ruft, as wheat ; but it is feldom 
known to be fmutty. It is, kow- 
ever, fometimes hurt by a diftem- 
per called the Spur. See that 

Mr. Miller thinks there is but 
one fort of rye, though diftin- 
guifhedby farmers, into winter 
and fpring rye. The winter rye 
is larger and heavier than the 
other, and is commonly more 
profitable to the farmer. This is 
Town in autumn, at the fame 
time as wheat. The fpring rye 
mould be fowed as early in the 
fpring, as the ground will admit 
of it. 

Some fow their winter rye at 
the lad hoeing of Indian corn, 
and hoe it in. This is a good 
practice, when it is fown on flat 
land, or on a rich or heavy foil, 
where grain is apt to fuffer by 
the fro ft of winter. For the 
plants'ofrye will be moftly on 
the corn hills, and fo efcape in 
jury from froft : At leaft they 
will moll commonly efcape, or 
r o many of them as are necefTary 
o give a good crop. The plants 
:hat are killed will be thofe in 
:he low fpaces between the 

Sandy and gravelly foils are 
moft fui table for rye. It com 
monly profpers much better on 
uch, than on richer foils : The 
)rincipal reafon of which may 
3e its ripening earlier, and fo ef- 
:aping the blight. Weak land 
las flrength enough to produce 
ye, and it does not exhauft the 
oil f< much as other corn. 


I have known the fams fpot 
produce twenty crops of this 
grain in fucceffion, (excepting 
that it was planted with Indian 
corn once or twice, to fubduethe 
weeds] the crops yearly increaf- 
ing, inftead of diminifhing. The 
right method is, to plough in the 
ilubble as foon as the crop is off; 
and in a fortnight or three weeks, 
according as weatjier and cir- 
ctimiiances favour, crofs plough 
the ground, and fow the feed. 
The ftubble, fo early buried in 
the foil, ferves as a manure. It 
will need no dung. 

It is faid by fome writers, that 
fowing rye two or three years on 
a warm dry foil* it will be for 
warded, fo as to ripen a month 
earlier than that which has been 
long cultivated in other foils. 
This ought to be attended to by 
farmers in this country, where 
grain that ripens late, is fo apt to be 
blafted. But this obfervation,pof- 
fibly,may not be founded in truth. 
The quantity of feed to be 
fowed, is recommended by fome, 
to be two bufhels per acre. But 
when the grain is fmall, five or 
fix pecks may be a fufficient 
quantity. For the fmaller the 
grain the greater the number of 

The figns of ripenefs are, the 
yellow colour of the ft raw, the 
hanging of the ears, and the hard- 
nefs of the grain. But fome 
choofe to cut it when in the milk, 
becaufe the flour will be whiter. 
The quantity, however, will be 
Icfs, unlefs it lie a good while on 
the ground to ripen, which it 
may fafely do in good weather, 
if care be taken to keep the top 
ends from the ground. Winter 
rye is fome times fit to harveft 
by the middle of July even in 
the northern parts of Newen- 
gland : Spring rye is always 

SAL 287 

Some recommend fowing win 
ter rye for grazing and fodder. 
It affords very early feed for cat 
tle in the fpring. Or it may be 
mowed for hay two or three 
times in a fummer. In coun 
tries that are dry, and do not 
naturally produce much grafs, 
this niay beconfidered as a good 
piece of hufbandry. 

RYE GRASS, Lolium, a fort 
of grafs propagated in England 
for hay, fometimes called Rayt 


SALT, a fubftance that readi 
ly diffolves in water, has a pun 
gent taile, and eafily unites with. 

Salt is one of the eflentia! in 
gredients of the nourifhrnent of 
plants ; and fome kind of fait ii 
contained in every plant. 

Common fait is found in a va 
riety of forms : But it always af- 
fumes a cubick, or parallelepip 
ed figure, after folution and 
cryftallization. It is contained 
not only in the fea, and in fait 
fprings ; but in large ftrata or 
mafles in the bowels of the earth. 

Salt is of effential importance to 
the fanner as a manure. It may be 
applied to the foil, either by itfelf, 
or mixed and diflblved in com- 
poft. In the latter method, I 
have found it to be a great fer 
tilizer of land. 

But if fait be applied unmixed 

and undiflblved, it will endanger 

the exigence of tender plants. 

Mr. Tull afferts, that common 

fait is poifon to all plants, ex- 

j cept marine ones : He doubt- 

j lefs means that it is fo, before it 

is mixed, altered and affimilated. 

In June, 1786, I falted one 

bed or my onions, one bed of 

my carrots, and one bed of my 

early turnips ; laying the fait 




under the furface, in the centres 
of the intervals between the rows 
at fome diftance, perhaps fix inch 
es, from the plants, that .the fait 
might have time to be difTolved, 
and altered, before the fibrous 
roots fhould reach it. The car 
rots of the falted bed, evidently 
grew much larger and better 
than the reft of the carrots ; but 
I could not perceive that the fait 
was at all beneficial to the onions, 
or to the turnips. 

According to Mr. Ford's ex 
periment in faking flax ground, 
fait feems to be highly beneficial 
to that crop. He fpreads the 
fait over the ground, at the time 
cf fowing the feed ; and thinks 
that the quantity of fait fhould 
be double that of the feed. From 
three acres in flax falted, he had 
fifty bufhels of feed, and an ex 
cellent crop of flax. It was 
thought that the ad vantage of fak 
ing appeared more in the feed 
than in the harle. 

Mr. Eliot tells of five bufhels 
of fait being applied to one acre 
of flax, which is a much larger 
proportion, and that it had an 
extraordinary effecl : And alfo 
of a crop of wheat being increaf- 
ed by fait. It is hoped that fu 
ture trials will more fully afcer- 
tain the utility of this kind of 
manure, and to what crops it 
may be moft advantageoufly ap 

method of preventing its cor 
ruption for a long time, by the 
application of common fait, &c. 
As farmers are moft commonly 
too far diflant from market plac 
es, to be fupplied from them 
with frefh meat, and as it is moft 
convenient for them to kill only 
at certain feafons, they ought to 
be well acquainted with the beft 
methods ot keeping meat in good 
rder, by faking. 

, S A L 

The common method of pre- 
ferving pork, referving the lean 
parts for ufe in the cold feafoiv 
and applying a large quantity of 
fait to the tat, is perhaps as good 
as any can be. But beef is great 
ly injured, and rendered un- 
wholefome by a fevere faking. 

A good method of preferring 
beef, which I have known to be 
praftifed for feveral years paft, is 
as follows : For a barrel of beef 
of the common fize, reduce to 
powder in a mortar four quarts 
of common fait ; then eight 
ounces of fait petre, and five 
pounds of brown fugar. Let the 
fait be well rubbed into the pie 
ces, pack them clofe in the bar 
rel, and fprinkle the fait petre 
and fugar evenly over each lay 
er. No water at all is to be appli 
ed. The juices ot the meat, if 
well packed, will form a fuffi- 
cient quantity of brine.; and the 
beef will keep fweet and good 
through the following fummer, 
fuppofing it killed and packed in 
the beginning of winter, or late 
in autumn ; and will not be too 
fait to be palatable. Draining 
off the brine and purifying it by 
boiling and fcumming, with the 
addition of a little fait in the be 
ginning of fummer, and return 
ing the brine upon the meat, will 
be a real improvement. 

Dr. Anderfon recommends a 
fimilar method for preferving but 
ter. Take of fugar one part, of ni- 
treone part, and of thebeft Span- 
ifh great fait two parts. Beat the 
whole into a fine powder, mix 
them well together, and put them, 
by for ufe. One ounce of this 
is to be thoroughly mixed with 
a pound of butter, as foon as it is 
freed from the milk, and then 
immediately put into the veflel 
defigned to hold it After which 
it rnuft be prefled fo clofe as to 
have no air holes ; and then fo 


clofely covered that no air can 
come to it. If all this is done, 
he thinks the butter may be kept 
perfectly found and good tor 
many years. For he had feen it 
at two years old, in every refpect 
as fweet and found as when only 
a month old. 

SAND, is defcribed as a ge 
nus of fo fills, found in minute 
concretions, forming together a 
kind of powder, the genuine par 
ticles of which are all of a ten 
dency to one particular fhape, 
and appear regular, though more 
or lefs complete, concretions ; 
not to be diffolved, or difunited 
by water, or forming into a co 
herent inafs by it, but retaining 
their figure in it : Tranfparent, 
vitrifiabie by extreme heat, and 
not diflbkible in, or effervefcing 
with acids. 

** Thefe are fubjeft to be va- 
riotifly blended and intermixed, 
either with homogene or hete- 
rogene particles, particularly 
with flakes of talk ; and, accord 
ing to thefe, and their different 
colours, are to be fubdivided in 
to different kinds, as red, white, 

"As to fand, its ufe is to make 
the clayey earth fertile, and fit 
to feed vegetables : For fuch 
earth alone, we find, is liable to 
coalefce, and gather into a hard 
coherent mats, as is apparent in 
mere clay. The earth thus em 
bodied, and as it were glued to 
gether, is no ways difpofed to 
nouriih vegetables. But ir with 
inch earth, a fufficient quantity of 
fdiid be intermixed, it will keep 
the pores of the earth open, and 
the earth itfelf loofe and in- 
cpmpacl ; and by that means 
give room for the juices to af- 
cend, and tor plants to be nour- 
ifhed thereby. 

" Thus a vegetable planted, 
either in fand alone, or in a fat 



glebe, or earth alone, receives 
no growth or increment at all, 
but is either ftarved or furTocat- 
ed : But mix the two, and the 
m.afs becomes fertile. In effect, 
by means of fand, the earth is 
rendered, in fome manner, or- 

fanical : Pores and interfaces 
eing hereby maintained, fome- 
thing analogous to veflels, by 
which the juices may be convey 
ed, prepared, digefted, circulat 
ed, and at length excerned, and 
thrown off into the roots of 

" Grounds that are fandy and 
gravelly, eafily admit both heat 
and moifture : But then they 
are liable to thefe inconvenien 
ces, that they let them pafs too 
foon, and fo contraft no ligature, 
or elfe retain it too long, efpe- 
cially where there is a clay bot 
tom : And by that means it either 
parches or chills too much, and 
produces nothing but mofs and 
cankerous infirmities. But it 
the fand happens to have a fur- 
face of good mould, and a bot 
tom of gravel, or loofe flone, 
though it do not hold water, in 
may produce a forward fweet 
grafs ; and though it may be fub- 
jeft to burn, yet it quickly re 
covers with the lea ft rain. 

" Sea fand is accounted a very 
good cornpoft for ft iff ground : 
For it effects thefe two things ; 
it makes way for the tree or feed 
to root in {tiff grounds, and 
makes a fume to feed it. 

" Sand indeed is apt to puffi 
the plants that grow upon it, ear 
ly in the fpring, and make them 
germinate near a month fooner 
than thole that grow upon clay, 
becaule the falts in the fand are 
at full liberty to be raifed, and 
put into motion, upon the leaft 
approach of the warmth of the 
fun. But then, as they are hafty, 


they are foon exhaled and loft, 
m "T. 


S A N 

" The beft fand, for the farm 
er's ufe, is that which is wafh- 
ed by rain from roads, or hills, 
or that taken from the beds of 
rivers. The common fand, that is 
dug in pit.% never anfwe'rs near 
ly fo well. Sand mixed with 
dung, is much better than laid oil 
alone : And a very fine manure 
is made, by covering the bottom 
of fheep folds with feveral loads 
of fand every week, which are to 
be taken away 1 , and laid on cold 
ilifr' lands, impregnated as they 
are, with the dung and urine of 

" Befides clay land, there is 
another fort of ground very im- 
proveable by fand. This is that 
fort of black foggy land, ofi which 
bufhes and (edge grow naturally, 
and which they cut into turf in 
fome places. Six hundred loads 
of fand, being laid on an acre of 
this land, meliorate it fo much, 
that it will yield good crops of 
oats, &c. though before, it would 
have produced fcarce any thing. 
If after this crop is taken oft, the 
land be well dunged, and laid 
down fdrgrafs, it will yield a large 
crop of fweet hay. 

" Sea fand; which is thrown 
up in creeks and other places, is 
by much the richeft of all fand 
for manuring- the earth : Partly 
its faltnefs, and partly the fat and 
un&uous filth that is mixed a- 
mongit, give it this great virtue. 
In the weftern parts of England, 
that lie upon the fea coaft, they 
make great advantage of it. The 
'fragments of fea (hells alfo, which 
always abound in this fand, add 
to its virtues : And it is always 
the more e (teemed by the farm 
ers, the more of thefe fragments 
are among it. 

" Sea land is beft, which is 
taken up from under the water, 
or from fand banks which are 
covered by every tide. The 

S A N 

fmallefl grained fand, is themofl- 
fudden in its operation, and is 
therefore beft for the tenant, who 
is only to take three -or four 
crops : But trie coarfe, or large 
grained fand, is much better for 
the landlord, as the good it does 
lafts many years." Complete 

Sand entirely changes the na 
ture of a clayey foil ; fo that it 
will fcarcely ever become fo 
compa6r, as it was before land 
ing. Nor is any other manure fo 
good as fand, to loofen and (oft 
en it. No other will have fo 
lading an eflfecl;. From being 
the leaft productive, a foil of 
clay, by fanding, comes to be the 
o rnoft fruitful of any, when it is 
fufficiently fanded ; for it has 
more of the food of plants in it 
than any other foil, wanting on 
ly to have its cohefion fufficient 
ly broken, to give a free pafTage 
to the roots of vegetables. For 
"this purpofe, a very fmalldreffing 
of fand will not feem to produce 
any effecl. A layer of two and 
a half or three inches will not be 
too much for land in tillage, ii 

The benefit of fanding does 
not appear fo much the firft year 
or two ,as afterwards : For the 
oftener the land is tilled, the 
more thoroughly is the fand mix 
ed with the clay ; by which the 
vegetable pafture is more and 
more increafed. 

But fand laid up'on clay land in 
grafs, will have a great effeft, 
without mixing it with the foil. 
I have known half an acre of 
clay land laid to grafs, which be 
came fo bound and ft iff, as to 
produce only two or three cocks 
at a mowing, with a mixture of 
low mofs and other tram. The 
owner, in Oftober, 1783, with one 
yoke of oxen, carted on eighty 
loads of yellow fand from the 


S A N 

road, which was about equal to 
forty cart fulls ; levelled it with 
a harrow, and threw in fome hay 
ieed. The following year it pro- 
duced ten hundred weight of 
good hay : Laft year it produced 
twenty hundred ; ^and it is ex 
pected, that about thirty hundred 
will he the weight of the crop in 
the prefent year, 1786. The fand 
not only added warmth to the 
foil, but prevented the clay from 
becoming fo dry and hard as to 
prevent the roots of the grafs 
from extending themfelves in it. 

SANDY SOIL, afoil in which 
fand is the predominant ingredi 

It is feldom found unmixed 
with other ingredients. Wherev- 
.er it is fo, it is extremely barren, 
and of little or no value. It will 
Scarcely produce weeds. 

Some barren fands confift of 
very fine particles, and have no 
: fward over them.. The wind 
drives them before it, and makes 
what are called fand floods, 
which bury the neighbouring 
lands and fences. The fences 
near them mould be tall hedges 
to abate the force 'of winds : 
And trees which require but lit 
tle nouri foment from the earth, 
(hould be planted in thefe fands, 
that a fward may be obtained up 
on them. See Locujl Tree. 

When a fandy foil is ufed in 
-tillage, it mould be for thofe 
crops which require the mod 
heat, and are lead apt to fufifer by 
drought ; as maize, tobacco, rye, 
peafe, c. 

The belt manures for a fandy 
foil, are marie, cow dung, and 
fwines' dung ; mud from flats, 
fwamps, ponds, rivers, &c. 

Clay is as beneficial to a fandy, 
as fand is to a clayey foil. A 
drefTmg of clay two or three inch 
es thick, laid on a fandy foil, 
and well mixed, will make it 



fruitful for many years after, as I 
have found by experience. It 
brings the foil to the right con 
fidence, renders it lefs porous, 
and caufes it to retain its moift- 
ure. At the fame time it is more 
retentive of manures applied to 
it : Perhaps the benefit received 
from the clay will never be whol 
ly loft. Though the clay is con 
tinually finking further into the 
earth, by means of every rain, 
deep ploughing will return it to 
the furface ; fo much of it at 
leaftasisneceffary. Andrepeat- 
ed dreflings of clay may be needed. 

SAP, the fluid contained in 
plants, which is drawn from the 
earth and atmofphere, by .which 
plants are nourished, augmented, 
and rendered fruitful. It an- 
fwers the fame purpofes as the 
blood and othercirculating juices 
in animals. It conveys nouriih- 
ment to all the parts. 

Before this juice enters, it is 
called the food of plants ; after 
wards, it has the name fap : But 
it ftill confiftsof nearly the fame 
ingredients, being compound 
ed of earthy,' faline, aqueous, 
oleaginous, and aerial particles. 

The greater part of the fap en 
ters at the root, being a fubacid 
juice : And the nearer it is to the 
root in a plant, the lefs it is al 
tered from its original ihte. But 
the farther it removes from the 
root, or the more it circulates, the 
more it is affimilated to the na 
ture of the plant ; the heteroge 
neous particles being flopped by 
ttrainers, or thrown off by per- 
fpiration. When the fap hasar- 
j rived to the germs and buds, it is 
highly conco6ted : And when 
the leaves unfold, they ferve as 
lungs for the further preparation 
of this liquid for the purpofes na 
ture intends it mould ferve. 

It has long been difputed 
whether there is a circulation of 

292 SAP 

^he juice in vegetables, fimilar to } 
*hat of the blood in animals. 
Malphigi, Grew, and others, have 
contended in favour of fuch a 
circulation. They fuppofed the 
fap to afcend through tubes, or 
arteries in the woody part, and 
to return in what they call veins, 
between the wood and the bark. 
But Dr. Hales has confuted this 
doftrine, and fubftituted a more 
rational one in its place. 

To conceive aright of the mo r 
tion of the fap, it fhould be ccn- 
fidered that the pabulum for the 
jiourifhraent of plants is prefent- 
ed to them, and efpecially to their 
loots, in the form of a fleam, or 
vapour : That the capillary pores 
in the fuperficies of the roots and 
other parts, imbibe this vapour 
by the principle that is common 
to all capillary tubes ; from 
whence it pafTes by anailomofing 
canals to the inner parts, where 
it gets its higheft perfection. By 
the fame principle, the fap alfo 
afcends ?;G the top : But this is 
not the only caufe of its afcent, 

The increased rarefaction of 
this juice within the plants, often 
expands it and caufes it to mount 
upwards. As often as once eve 
ry day, when the weather is 
warm, as in fpring and fummer, 
the fap afcends and defcends. 

In hot weather plants perfpire 
freely, through the pores of the 
leaves and bark, at which feafon 
the fap is much rarefied. By 
means ot the heat, the air in the 
tracheae, or air veflels, expands, 
and enlarges their diameters. 
Therefore they comprefs and 
flraiten the fap veffels, which 
are in contak with them. The 
fap by that preffure is forced up 
ward, as it cannot efcape by the 
root, and fends out the excre- 
mentitious and ufelefs matters 
contained in it,through the leaves 
and branches. On the cooling 


of the air, the fap fufcfides again 
in its velfels. The veffels in the 
uppermoft branches and leaves, 
^re thus alternately emptied ; and 
in their exhaufled flate, they im 
bibe food from the air, which 
mixes with the fap, and increaf- 
es its quantity. This is a circula 
tion peculiar to plants, and is 
different from that of animals. 

SCRATCHES, or Sclcnders, 
a diforder between the hinder 
paft?rn joints and hoofs of horfes, 
confiding of cracks and forenefs, 
with fuppuration. It is trouble- 
fame commonly in the winter 
feafon only. The method of 
cure is the fame as for malanders. 
See that Article. 

SEA WATER, this fluid, be- 
fides water and particles of com 
mon fait, contains, according to 
Dr. Ruifel's account, fulphur, 
nitre and oil. 

As it undoubtedly contains 
much of the cffence of animal and 
vegetable fubflances, by means 
of the perifhing and confuming 
of both in it, it is fitter than 
mere fait to be u fed as a manure, 
whether by itfelf, or in compoit. 

In the year 1786, one hundred 
hills of potatoes near the ihore 
were watered with fea water, 
about two quarts on a hill, being 
one hour's work of a man. The 
crop was half as much again, as 
in the fame number of hills ad^ 
joining. The water was appli 
ed to the foil jull after planting 
the fets, which I fuppofe to be 
the beft time for doing it, as 
there can be no danger of burn 
ing the young (hoots, and as the 
fait will be mixed, with rain and 
the moiffure of the earth, before 
moots are produced. 

In the year 1787, alternate 
rows were watered in the fame 
manner with fea water. There- 
fult of this experiment was un 
certain j becaufeby ploughing off 



and on alternately between the 
rows, the earth of the watered and 
im watered rows was blended to 
gether. But all together, a good 
crop was obtained. 

The fame year a piece of flax 
was, in the month of June, very 
fliort and yellow on one fide of 
the piece ; but of a good colour 
on the other, and much taller : 
This induced the owner to water 
the poor iide from the fea. In 
ten days it was equal in length 
and colour with that on the oth 
er fide, though very little rain 
fell in the time. At pulling, the 
watered ficih was evidently bet 
ter grown than the other. This 
was a fufficient demonftration ot 
the advantage of fea water, 
when the land lies adjoining to 
the Tea ihore ; fo that the labour of 
applying it is inconfiderable. 

The above experiments were 
made in a clayey foil. 

In a fandy (oil the fame year, 
watering the ground where 
French turnips were j aft fcnvn, 
had an excellent effect. Though 
it was a fpot where the turnips 
had been deflroyed by infects, 
feveral years fucceflively, they 
generally efcaped this year. Not 
more than one pailful! was appli- 
* ed to a drill row two rods in 
length, wetting the ground over 
the feeds, foon after fowing. 

Salt water applied to tender 
plants, moil commonly proves 
too ftrong tor them, it applied 
when the ground is dry. But if 
it be wet, the ftrength'of the wa 
ter is abated by mixing with the 
juices in the foil, before it is tak 
en up by the roots, and thus it is 
rendered innocent and fate, as I 
I have found by experience. The 
feeds bear the application of the 
I fea water, better than the young 
, plants do. 

SEEDS of Vegetables. " their 
laft product, by which their fpe- 

SEE 293 

cies are propagated ; being fre 
quently all the fruit of a plant, 
but fomctimes only a part includ 
ed in the fruit. 

" Every ieed contains a plant 
in embryo. The embryo, which 
is the whole future plant in mini 
ature, is called the germ or bud ; 
and is rooted in the cotyledon, or 
placenta, which make its involu- 
crum, or cover. The cotyledon 
is always double ; and in the mid 
dle, or common centre of the 
two, is a point or fpeck, viz. the 

I embryo plantule, which being 
acled on by the warmth of the 
fun and ot the earth, begins to 
protrude its radicle, or root, 
downwards, and foon after, its 
plumula, or bud, upwards ; and a,s 
the requifite heat continues, it 
draws nourishment by the root, 
and fo continues* to unfold itfelf 
and grow. 

" The two cotyledons of a 
feed, are a cafe to the little 
embryo plant ; covering it up, 
and fheltenng it from injuries, 

I and ieeding it from its own prop 
er fubftance ; which the plan 
tule receives and draws to itfelf 
by an infinite number of little fil 
aments, which it fends into the 
body of the placenta. 

" The cotyledons for the 
moft part abound with a balfam 
difpofed in proper cells ; arid 
this feerns to be oil brought to its 
greateft. perfection, while it re 
mains turnid, and lodged in thefe 
repofitories. One part of the 
competition of this balfam is oily 
and tenacious, and ferves to de 
fend the embryo from any ex 
traneous moifture ; and, by its 
vifcidity, to entangle and retain 
the fine, pure, volatile fpirit, 
which is the ultimate production 
of the plant. This oil is never 
obferved to enter into the veflels 
of the embryo, which are too 
line to admit fo thick a fluid. 



The fpirit,however,being quick 
ened by an a6tivepower s may pof- 
fibly breathe a vital principle into 
the juices that Hourifh the em 
bryo, and flamp upon it the 
charafter that diftinguimes the 
family ; after which, every thing 
is changed into the proper na 
ture of that particular plant. 

" Now when the feed is com 
mitted to the earth, the placen 
ta fti 1 1 adheres to the embryo for 
fome time, and guards it from the 
accefs of noxious colds, &c. and 
even prepares and purifies trie 
Cruder juice the young plant is to 
receive from the earth, by {train 
ing it through -its own body. 
This it continues todo, till the em 
bryo plant being a little enured to 
its new element, and its root tol 
erably fixed in the ground, and 
fit to abforb the juice thereof, 
it then perifhes, and the plant 
may be faid to be delivered ; fo 
that nature obferves the fame 
rnethod in plants, as in animals 
in the mother's womb. 

" Many forts of feeds will con 
tinue good for feveral years, and 
retain their vegetative faculty ; 
\vheieas others will not grow 
after they are one year old : This 
difference is in a great meafure 
owing to their abounding more or 
lefs with oil ; as alfo to the nature 
of the oil, and the texture of 
their outward covering. All 
feeds require fome mare of frefh 
air, to keep the germen in a 
healthy ftate ; and where the 
air is abfolutely excluded, the 
vegetative quality of the feeds 
\vill be foon loft. But feeds will 
be longeft of all preferved in the 
earth, provided they are buried 
fo deep as to be beyond the in 
fluence of the fun and mowers ; 
lince they have been found to 
lie thus buried twenty or thirty 
years, and yet vegetate as well 
AS new feeds. How the vegeta- 

S M 

tive life is fo long preferved, by 
burying them fo deep, is very 
difficult to explain ; but as the 
raft is very well known, it ac 
counts for the production of 
plants out of earth taken from 
the bottom of vaults, houfes,&c. 

" In the common method oi 
fowing feeds, there are many 
kinds which require to be fown 
foon after -they are ripe ; and 
there are many others which lie 
in the ground a year, fometimes 
two or three years, before the 
plant comes up : Hence, when 
feeds brought from diftant coun 
tries are fown, the ground mould 
not be diflurbed, at leaft for two 
years, for fear of deftroying the 
young plants. 

" As to the method of pre- 
ferving feeds, the dry kinds are 
beft kept in their pods or outer 
coverings ; but thefeeds of all foft 
fruits, as cucumbers, melons, 
&c. muft be cleanfed from the 
pulp and mucilage which fur- 
round them ; otherwife the rot 
ting of thefe parts will corrupt 
the feeds. 

" When feeds are gathered, it 
mould always be done in dry 
weather ; and then they mould 
be hung up in bags in a dry 
room, fo as not to deprive them 
of air." Dictionary of Arts. 

SEEDING, the fame as fow- 
ng of feed. Se the article Sow- 

SEEDLING,arootthat fprings 
rom feed fown. The name is 
applied alfo to the tender tops of 
plants that have newly come 
from feed* "The little plants are 
bus diflinguifhed from cuttings, 
ayers 4 and flips. 

SEMINATION, the manner 
n which plants fhed and difperfe 
heir feeds. 

Some feeds are fo heavy, that 
;hey fall direftly to the ground ; 
others are furnimed with a pap- 

S H E 

piis, or down, that they may, by 
means thereof, be difperfed by 
the wind ; and others again are 
contained in elaftick capfules, 
which, burfting open with eon- 
fiderable force, dhrtor throw out 
the feeds to different diftances. 
Some of the fecond fort are waft 
ed over vaft tracls of land, or 
even carried to remote countries. 
The weed that is peculiar to 
burnt land, and is called fire 
weed, has fuch a kind of feed : 
It is not ftrange, therefore, that 
we fee it grow in burnt places, 
many miles from where it has 
grown before. 

SHADE, a fhelter or defence 
againft the heat of the fun. Cat 
tle need not only to be fheltered 
againft cold and wet weather in 
other feafons, but againft heat in 
fummer. Therefore the paftures 
in which they feed, mould have 
trees in them, that they may re 
pair to their fhadow in the hotteft 
hours. Clumps are preferable to 
fingle trees, as they not only af 
ford a cool lhade,but may fcreen 
the cattle from the violence of 
rain and ftorms, fome of which 
happen in the time of grazing. 

SHED, a flight roof or cover- 
mg, oi boards or other materials, 
for temporary purpofes. Where 
boards are not eafily obtained, 
they may be covered with ftraw, 
which will laft a few years ; or 
with the bark of trees, which 
will be far more durable. 

SHEEP, a well known tame 

They multiply faft ; they are 
fubjeft to but few difeafes in this 
country ; their flglh is excellent 
food, and their wool of the great- 
eft importance to this nation ; in 
which the woollen manufactory 
ought to be encouraged, and may 
be carried on to great advantage. 

Mortimer fays, " The farmer 
ikould always buy his fheep from 

S H E 

a worfe land than his own, and 
they mould be big boned, and* 
have a long greafy wool. 

" For the choice of fheep to 
breed, the ram rnuft be young, 
and his Ikin of the fame colour 
with his wool ; for the lambs 
will be of the fame colour with 
his fkin. Thofe ewes which 
have no horns, are found to be 
the beft breeders." 

The farmers in Europe knowj 
how to diftinguim the age ot 
fheep by their teeth. When a 
Ibeep is one fhear, as they ex- 
prefs it, that is, has been fheared 
but once, or is in its fecond year, 
it has two broad teeth before : 
When it is two fhear, it will have 
four : When three, fix : When 
four fhear, or in its fifth year, it 
will have eight teeth before. After 
this, their mouths begin to break, 

" The fat paftures breed ftraight 
tall fheep, and the barren hills 
fquare and fhort ones. But the 
beft fheep of all, are thofe bred 
upon new ploughed land, the 
reafon of which may be eafily 
guelfed, as fuch land is common 
ly the moft free from bad 

" All wet and moift lands are 
bad for fheep, efpecially fuch as 
are fubjecl: to be overflowed, and 
to have fand and dirt left on 
them. The fait marfhes are an 
exception from this general rule : 
For their faltnefs makes amends 
for their moifture ; any thing 
fait, by reafon of its drying qual 
ity, being of great advantage to 
fheep. The beft time for fheep 
to yean, which go twenty weeks 
with lamb, is in April, unlcfs 
the owner has any forward grafs, 
or turnips. Ewes that are big, 
fhould be kept but bare ; for it is 
dangerous for them to be fat at 
the time of their bringing forth 
their young. They may be well 
fed, indeed, like cows, a fort-- 


night beforehand, to pttttfecDB in \ 

IvLBuffonfays," One ram will 
be fuflicient for twenty five or 
thirty ewes ; but that he fhpuld 
be remarkable tor ftrength and 
comelinels : That thofe which 
have no horns are very indiffer 
ent : That the head of a ram 
fhoiUd be large and thick, the 
forehead broad, the eyes large 
and black, the nofe ihort, the 
neck thick, the body Jong, the 
back and rump broad, the tefti- 
cles large, and the tail long : 
That the belt are white, with a 
large quantity of wool on the 
belly, tail, head and ears, down 
to the eyes : That the bed fheep 
for propagation, are thofe which 
have moft wool, and that clofe, 
long, filky and white ; efpecially 
if, at the fame time, they have a 
large body, a thick neck, and are 
light footed." 

He fays, " that ewes fatten 
very faft during their pregnancy ; 
that as they often hurt themfelves, 
and frequently mifcarry, fo they 
fometimes become barren ^ and 
that it is not very extraordinary 
for them to bring forth monflrous 
productions. But when proper 
ly tended, they are capable or 
yeaning during the whole oi 
their life, or to the age of ten or 
twelve years. But molt com 
monly when they come to be 
feven or eight years old, they be 
gin to break, and become fickly; 
and that a ram is no longer fit for 
propagation after eight years, at 
which time he fhouid be knit, 
and fattened with the old iheep." 
According to the fame writer, 
V fheep Ihould in the 
turned out early in the morning 
to feed ; and in four or five hours, 
after watering, be brought back 
to the fold, or to fome ihacly 
place. At four o'clock, P. M. 
they fhould be turned to their 

S.H E 

piilure again, and continue tfie? 
till evening ; and were it not tor 
the danger ot wolves, they mould' 
pafs the night in the open air, 
which would render them more 
vigorous, clean, and healthy. 
As the too great heat of the fun 
is hurtful to them, fhady paftures 
are belt for them ; or elfe to 
drive them to a place with a 
weflern defcent in the morning,, 
and the contrary towards even 
ing." That their wool may be 
faved, they fhould not be paftured 
in bufhy places, or where there 
are briars. Sheep are often thus 
deprived of moft of their fleeces ; 
which befides the lofs of the 
wool is very hurtful to the an 
imals, when the weather is not 

The above writer direfts, " that 
every year a flock ot fheep 
Ihould be examined, in order to 
find out fuch as begin to grow 
old, and ought to be turned off 
for fattening. As they require 
a particular management, (o they 
fhould be put in a flock by them 
felves. They fhould feed while 
the grafs is moiflened with dew- 
in the morning. Salt fhould 
be given them to excite thirft, as 
the more they drink the hfler 
they will grow fat. But to com 
plete their fattening, and make 
their flefh firm and fblid, they 
fhould have fome corn or grain 
given them." They may be fat 
tened in the winter ; but it is 
commonly too expensive, as 
they will require a good deal of 
richer food than hay. When 
fheep are once become fat, they 
fhould be killed ; for it 'is faid 
they cannot be made fat a /econd 
time. The teeth of ewes begin 
to decay at five, thofe ot weath 
ers at feven, and thofe of rams 
not until eight. 

We (hear our fheep in general 

too early in this country. In 


, SHE 

England, where the fpring 
more forward than in this coun 
try, the approved time of {hearing 
is from the middle to the latter enc 
of June. They mould be wafliec 
in a warm time. After this they 
fhould run three or four days in 
a clean pafture, before they are 
fhorn. It is good for . them to 
have time to fweat a little in their 
wool, after warning* 

In {hearing, great care mould 
be taken not to wound, prick, or 
cut their fkins with the fhears. 
In England, after fhearing, the 
farmers fmear their fheep with a 
mixture of tar and frem butter. 
This not only cures any little 
wounds they may chance to get 
in (hearing, but is fuppofed to 
fortify their bodies againft cold, 
and caufe their wool to grow a- 
gain the fooner, 

If any cold rains happen foori 
after [hearing, the fheep mould 
be put up in a warm houfe. For 
if they be left abroad, it is apt to 
be fatal to them. 

But Mr. Young thinks they 
are fo apt to be hurt by being kept 
very warm that they, mould nev 
er be confined to a houfe, but al 
ways have the door open, that 
they may be ita the houfe or the 
yard as they choofe. They will 
undoubtedly prefer the warmer 
place when they are newly morn, 
if the air be colder than common. 
Small flocks commonly profper 
better than large ones, as they 
are not often To overheated by 
crowding each other. 

In France, fifteen pounds of fait 
per annum arc allowed to a 
iheep, and fifty for each head ot 
cattle. The truth is, that in the 
inland parts of this country, both 
forts fhould have fait often, and 
be allowed to eat as much as they 
pleafe, their health requires it, and 
they will pay well tar it to the 



SHE 297 

Some are fond of having black 
flieep in their flock. But their 
wool is feldom fo fine, or fo 
ftrong, as that of white ones. 
Nor is the wool ever a perfe6tly 
good black, and it is found diffi 
cult to give it any good durable 
colour by dying. 

SHELLS, ftony coverings, 
which nature prepares for cer 
tain kinds of animals in the fea, 
and by which they are defended j 
which are therefore denominat 
ed {hell fifli. 

Thefe {hells are much of the; 
fame nature as lime ftone, and 
are one of the beft kinds of ma- 
ire. No length of time de 
prives thofe mells of their virtue, 
which are buried deep in the 
earth. Thofe which muft have 
been in that fituation, at leaft 
ever fmce Noah's flood, are un- 
arltered. But fhells which lie on, 
the furface of the ground will 
gradually moulder, and become 

This manure is fo highly ef- 
teerned in fome parts of Europe, 
:hat the farmers even carry it in 
3ags upon horfes to the di (lance 
of feveral miles from the fea. 

Shells may be applied to the 

"oil at one feafen of the year as 

well as at another ; excepting: 

hat they mould not be carted on 

at a time whan the ground is fo wet 

as to be poachy ; becaufe poach^ 

ng is hurtful to all foils. The 

; armer may generally do this 

york at a time when he is moft at 

_eifure. Even in winter thofe 

may well be removed, which lie 

ower in the fea than high water 


Mr. Wefton recommends that 
fhells be ground fine before they 
ufed as manure ; and fays, 
the finer they are ground the 
farther they will go. But it re- 
quire* fo much labour to grind 
them, that I doubt whether it be 

s8 SI L 

worth while to do it, unlefs it be 
for gardens. And in the long 
rtin, they will benefit the foil as 
much without grinding. Though 
the benefit of them, when appli 
ed whole, do not appear much in 
the firft and fecond year,the tillage \ 
of every year will help to break 
and crumble them ; and in a 
courfe of years, by continual til 
lage, they will befufficiently dif- 
folved, and intimately mixed with 
the foil. 

It is chiefly the fmaller fhells 
that fliould be thus ufed, fuch.a? 
thofe of clams,- mufcles, Sec. for 
thefe will be fooner dilfolved 
than larger ones. As final 1 fhells 
are moftly mixed with fand, or 
tenacious rnud, they need' not be 
Separated from thefe fubftances. 
Thofe that are mixed 'with fand 
will be a proper drefBng for 
cold, ftiff and clayey foils ; and 
thofe which are mixed with mud 
fhould be laid upon foils that are 
dry and light. For many of the 
fhells will lie with the concave 
fides upwards in the earth, and 
will flop the water in its defcent, 
and fo aflift the foil in retaining 

Mr. Eliot tried* a fort of fhell 
fand, which he fays he found to 
be equal to good dung. -If it had 
as much effett as dung at fir ft, it 
in uft have been vaflly better than 
dung upon the whole : Becaufe 
ihells are a lafting advantage to 
the foil. 

SHRUB, a bum or dwarfifh 
tree. Some apply the term to 
all plants that are woody and tlo 
not arrive to the fize of trees, 
though not fo durable as trees. 
The final! oak bulbes-on plains, 
the elder, whortleberry bufh, 
thorn, fweet fern, &c. are rank 
ed under this head. 

thofe which contain their feeds 

S L I 

in pods. The feeds adhere to 
the ftronger limbs of the two 
valves alternately. Of this kind 
are peafe, beans, vetches, and 
many more. 

S1THE, a well known inftru- 
ment to cut grafs. This inftru- 
ment fhould confift of tough iron 
and the beil of ileel, well wrought 
together, and nicely tempered. 
If the temper of a tithe mould 
prove to be too high, it may be 
lowered by laying it to the hot 
fun a few days in midfummer. 

SLED, or SLEDGE, a car 
riage without wheels, chiefly ufed 
to convey loads when the ground 
is covered with fnow. Plank 
fleds, and framed fleds, are both 
ufed. The latter for lightnefs 
are rather preferable. But plank 
fleds are more ufed for the heav-* 
ieft loads, as maftsand mill logs. 
The common length of a fled is 
eight or nine feet ; but longer 
ones are better for carrying 
boards, and long timber. 

SLIPS, twigs torn from a tree, 
or fhrub, to propagate by plant 
ing them in a moifl foil: 

More than half, or even two 
thirds of their length, fhould be 
buried in the foil. They" ftrike 
root more eafily than cuttings. 
Early in the fpring is the right 
legion to perform it. I have the 
beftfuccefs when I doit as foon 
as the ground is thawed in the 

The flips fliould either be 
planted immediately after they 
are taken from the trees ; or the 
lower ends fhould be enclosed in 
wet clay till they are fet in the 
ground. This laftwillbe necef- 
fary when the flips muft be carri 
ed to any confiderable diftance. 
And in this cafe, they fhould lie 
for a while in water before they 
are put into the ground. 

It is neccffary to place them in 
moifl earth, rich, and finely pul- 

$ L U 

verifed ; and they fhouU be fre- 

quently reircfhed by a little wa 
tering, unlefs the feafon be wet. 

But it is the fureit method to 
plant flips in pots, efpecially of 
thofe kinds which are leaft apt to 
ilrike root. In this cafe, it will 
not be at all difficult to give them 
continually the right quantity of 
iHoifture. Slips from almoft any 
kinds of trees and fhrubs may be 
thus made to grow ; but they 
will never make fo large trees 
as thofe which come from the 

feeds. They will be the more 
fit, however, for the borders of 

_. SLOUGH, a deep muddy 
fpot of earth. 

Softand hollow places in roads, 
where puddles of water ftand af 
ter rain, by means of the frequent 
paffing of loaded wheel car 
riages, often become deep and 
troublefome floughs. The way 
to prevent their cxiftence, is to 
make a channel, or a covered 
drain, where the fhape of -ihe 
ground admits of it, to lead away 
the fuperfluous water. For the 
ground will thus be permitted to 
dry and harden, fo as to prevent 
the finking of -wheels into it. 

To cure a '{lough in a road, 
fink pebbles, or any kind of 
ftones into the bottom, and cover 
them with a thick coat of coarfe 

gravel, or with cinder from a 
Imith's forge, or with rubbifh 
from a brick kiln. But this 
ihould be done in a dry feafon. 
SLUICE, a frame of timber, 
fei;ving to obftruft and raife the 
water of the fea, or of a river, and 
to let it pafs as there may be oc- 
cafion for it. 

Sluices are required for mills, 
and for locks to carry on inland 
navigation. But I ihall only 
confiaer thofe fluices which the 
hufbandman may find ufeful in 

. flooding of low laHds,or watering a 

S L U 290 

dry foil with thePerfian wheel, or 
in reclaiming of marines. 

For the iirit and fecond of 
thefe purpofes, fiuices with gates 
to raife and let down are proper. 
But for the laft gates are not 
needed when the dream is large. 

ThePerfian wheel has floats 
made hollow, and of fuch a con- 
ftruftion, as to raife the water 
from a 11 nice, to the height of two 
thirds the diameter of the wheel ; 
where the floats difcharge the wa-. 
ter into a trough ; whence it is con 
veyed away in fuch a manner as 
to water the neighbouring lands. 
For a particular account of the 
machine, fee Milk's DuhamcL 

For reclaiming of marines, 
boxes with (butters are ufed, ef 
pecially when but a imall quan 
tity of fief h water will need to pafs 
out through the fluices. A box: 
may be made of four pretty wide 
and ilrong planks,either nailed or 
pegged together. The length 
of the box muft be equal to the 
thicknefs of the bottom of the 
dyke ; and rather projeft a little 
at each end, that the paffages 
may, not be obftrutred by dirt or 
fods falling from the dyke. 
Thefe boxes fhould be placed in 
the lower! hollows of the maifh, 
or in the creeks, and the ground 
well hardened beneath them, and 
on their fides. It is better to 
place two or three boxes fide by 
fide, if needful, than go to the 
expenfe of building a more coft- 
Jy kind of fluice. And each 
hollow or creek, through which 
a dyke pafles, and wherever 
there is likely ever to be frefh wa 
ter to convey away, (hould have 
one or more of thefe little fluices. 

Each box fhould have a clap 
per, or fh utter. The mutter is 
to be fattened to the mouth of 
the box, at the end towards the 
fea, with hinges made of iron or 
wood. The rifi ng tide preffes the 


S M U 

ihutter clofe to the mouth of the 
box, fo that no water can enter ; 
and at ebb tide the frefh water, 
when there is any, opens it by its