(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The New England fruit book. Being a descriptive catalogue of the most valuable varieties of the pear, apple, peach, plum, and cherry, for New England culture"

SB 307 ME? 



MW-EMLAM) 





REESE LIBRARY 

OF THK 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Received. ^6 <*JJ^i88 

Accessions No..^f_4</J_ Shelf No 



FRUIT BOOK 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY FREEMAN AND BOLLES, 
WASHINGTON STREET. 







WILLIAMS' BON CHRETIEN, OK BAR.TLETT, 



It CO* LiH, f? 



THE 



NEW ENGLAND FRUIT BOOK. 

BEING 

A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

OF THE MOST VALUABLE VARIETIES OF THE 

PEAR, APPLE, PEACH, PLUM, AND CHERRY, 
FOR NEW ENGLAND CULTURE. 

BY ROBERT MANNING. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED OTHER VARIETIES ; 

ALSO THE 

GRAPE, aUINCE, GOOSEBERRY, CURRANT, AND STRAWBERRY 5 
WITH OUTLINES OF 

MANY OF THE FINEST PEARS, 

DRAWN FROM NATURE ; 



WITH DIRECTION^^|RtWJfyjWb^TING, BUDDING, 

GENERAL MODES OF CULTU1 




8 E 

BY JOHN M. IVES 



PUBLISHED BY W. & S. B. IVES, SALEM, MASS. 
B. B. MUSSEY, BOSTON. 

AND FOR SALE AT THE VARIOUS BOOKSTORES AND SEED ESTABLISH- 
MENTS IN NEW ENGLAND. 

1844. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1844, 

BY JOHN M. IVES, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of 
Massachusetts. 



PREFACE. 



IN publishing a new edition of " Manning's Book 
of Fruits," it is thought advisable to add outline 
drawings of some of the best varieties of Pears 
found in his descriptive catalogue, (most of which 
we have grown ourselves,) together with a few 
others of recent introduction. The compiler would 
briefly say, that in his remarks, drawn from various 
sources, upon the cultivation of fruit, together with 
his own limited experience, his object is to render 
some service to the cultivator, by collecting and 
condensing from various sources, such directions as 
seemed of most importance in practice. Some of 
the varieties of pears, which from farther experience 
were found not desirable, are omitted in this edition. 
We have not inserted drawings of apples in the 
compilation, from the difficulty of identifying this 
fruit by single specimens. Our object is to bring 
together the experience of practical cultivators in 
a condensed form, and at a low price. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Root, Sap, &c. . . . . .7 V * . 1 

Transplanting, . - . . . . . . 3 

Pruning, . . . ..... . .7 

Diseases Injurious Insects, &c 9 

Use of Salt, Ashes, and Clay, . . . . .12 

Grafting, v . . 14 

Budding, or Inoculation, *. / 17 

Raising Fruit Trees from Seed, .... 20 

On preserving Pears, ....... 22 

Cultivation of the Apple, . . . .^. : . . 24 

Cultivation of the Pear, 42 

Cultivation of the Peach, . . . . . 92 

Cultivation of the Plum, ; , ; ." J i . . 100 
Cultivation of the Cherry, *''."'." .; . . 110 
Cultivation of the Grape . ; >;-'<- : .*?:- .-.*? . 115 
Cultivation of the Quince, ,-.. ..... ., . 121 

Cultivation of the Raspberry, ..... 121 

Cultivation of the Strawberry, 123 

Cultivation of the Gooseberry, .'.-'* .: . . 126 
Cultivation of the Currant. . . . . ./. , . .128 

Isabella Grape : . : , .: . -.''^, . . 120 
Long Orange and Portugal Quince, . . . . . 121 

Raspberry, . . . ."'".. . . 121 

Strawberry, . . . ; 123 

Gooseberry, / ....... 126 

Currant, . . . ;^.; T r. .. . 128 

Peaches upon Plum Stocks, . . . . 110 

Restoring trees girdled by Mice. .... 130 



OF THE 

UJTIVEllSIT, 




NEW ENGLAND FRUIT BOOK 



ROOT SAP, &c. 

THE root being the commencement and founda- 
tion of trees, its office is to collect and apply the 
food which forms and determines its growth ; hence, 
if the roots grow luxuriantly, the branches will also, 
and the reverse. It often happens, says Miller, 
that the roots of trees are buried too deep in the 
ground, which, in a cold or moist soil, is one of the 
greatest disadvantages that can attend fruits ; for 
the sap in the branches being, by the warmth of the 
air, put strongly into motion early in the spring, is 
exhausted in nourishing the blossoms, and a part of 
it is perspired through the wood branches, so that 
its strength is lost before the warmth can reach the 
shoots, to put them into an equal motion in search 
of fresh nourishment, to supply the expenses of the 
branches, for want of which the branches fall off 
and decay. Most trees will thrive if they have two 
feet in depth of good earth, especially when their 
roots spread near the surface ; for whether that 
which supplies food for the tree be a black, yellow, 
1 



FRUIT BOOK. 

or brown loam, it can only be furnished within a 
certain depth from the surface, or within the influ- 
ence of the sun and air. Large roots, running deep 
and spreading wide, may be necessary to produce 
large timber trees, but not fruit trees, for these are 
more prolific when their roots are much divided or 
fibrous, and kept near the surface of the soil. 

The following remarks upon the theory of the 
motion of the sap in trees is from the pen of one of 
our best writers upon horticulture : u The first 
motion of the sap in the spring takes place in the 
branches, and lastly in the roots ; the buds, in con- 
sequence of the increasing temperature of the air, 
first swell and attract the sap in their vicinity : 
this fluid, having lain dormant, or nearly so through- 
out the preceding winter, becomes gradually ex- 
panded by the influence of the solar rays, and 
supplies the buds with nourishment from the parts 
immediately below them ; the vessels which yield 
this supply becoming, in consequence, exhausted, 
are quickly filled with fluid from the parts below 
them, and in this manner the motion continues until 
it reaches the roots, the grand reservoir of the sap, 
by which time the solar heat having penetrated the 
soil, the roots begin to feel its enlivened influence. 
The whole body of sap then begins to move up- 
wards, and as soon as the quantity propelled is more 
than sufficient to distend all the vessels in the stem 
and the branches, the buds begin to elongate and 
unfold. From this time, the fluid becoming more 
expanded every hour, its ascent is simultaneously 



TRANSPLANTING. 3 

increased in force and velocity ; the vessels in the 
branches, being filled to repletion, the buds quickly 
open, and shoots and leaves rapidly protrude ; the 
leaves attract the sap as soon as it reaches their 
vicinity, and, by one of the most wonderful pro- 
cesses that can be conceived, the result of exquisite 
organization, prepare it for the nourishment of the 
plant. It then returns downward, betwixt the bark 
and alburnum, and in its descent is distributed 
laterally to every part of the plant, until it reaches 
(finally) the extremities of the roots." 

TRANSPLANTING. 

In the removal of trees, care is necessary to 
obtain as much of the roots as possible, and in re- 
setting, that none are doubled back and distorted. 
Cutting off smoothly the end of each root that may 
be broken, or cut by the spade, is indispensable, and 
all fibrous roots that are injured should also be cut 
close to the root upon which they are attached ; the 
root or stem should be pressed close down upon the 
soil, so as to place the roots in a horizontal direc- 
tion, and all of them drawn out straight like a fan, 
or rays verging from a centre to a semicircle, and 
the soil thrown evenly over. Trees should not be 
shaken, or lifted up and down, after the earth is 
placed upon their roots, as is too generally practis- 
ed ; for when a tree is thus raised up, the smaller 
roots will be drawn out of their places, and when 
the stem is thrust down again, the roots being too 



4 FRUIT BOOK. 

weak to force their way back into the soil, will be 
doubled up, which often causes knobs, and throws 
out suckers; neither will the earth require to be 
trodden down hard, but gently ; or if the soil be 
that of a dry or loose loamy nature, setting in puddle 
(which is to water as you set it) is an excellent 
process. Copious watering after a tree is set, is 
often very prejudicial, as it will frequently wash 
away the soil, and leave open spaces around the 
roots. Fruit trees should rarely be placed deeper 
in the ground than they originally stood in the nur- 
sery. In removing large trees, it is a good prac- 
tice to cut off* many of the large roots some distance 
from the tree a year previous to their removal ; for, 
wherever the roots are thus cut through, the new 
fibres which are emitted (provided the tree is in 
health) in short tufts, are far more easily taken out 
of the ground without injury, than if they were 
longer and more scattered among the soil. 

Autumnal planting is often preferred in light 
sandy soils, and spring planting on soils of a strong 
and wet nature. From our own experience in set- 
ting fruit trees for some years past, we are inclined 
to prefer the spring, provided it can be done early, 
particularly for stone fruit. Damp, but not rainy 
weather should be preferred, particularly in dry 
soils ; nothing is more injurious to any tree than to 
be taken up, even if immediately afterwards plant- 
ed, during frosty or dry windy weather. Not only 
do the roots, under such circumstances, sustain 
injury during the time they are thus exposed, but 



TRANSPLANTING. 



5 



the dry parching atmosphere, which must, in such 
cases, surround the whole surface of the tree, greatly 
exhausts it, while it is prevented from absorbing a 
fresh supply of food from the soil, in consequence 
of its roots being more or less shortened or dimin- 
ished by the operation. If trees are found to grow 
too luxuriantly, and to form only wood for years, 
even after they are of sufficient size and age for the 
production of fruit, the earth should be removed just 
before the frost sets in, and a proportion of the 
deepest growing roots cut off; thus checking its 
luxuriousness, and rendering it more fruitful. 

The following excellent " Hints for Transplant- 
ing" are from the Nursery Catalogue of A. J. 
Downing, of Newburgh: 

" 1. Many persons plant a tree as they would a 
post ! The novice in planting must consider that a 
tree is a living, nicely organized production, as cer- 
tainly affected by good treatment as an animal. 
Many an orchard of trees, rudely thrust into the 
ground, struggles half a dozen years against the 
adverse condition, before it recovers. 

"2. In planting an orchard, let the ground be 
made mellow by repeated ploughing. For a tree of 
moderate size, the hole should be dug three feet in 
diameter, and twelve to twenty inches deep. Turn 
over the soil several times, and, if not rich, mix 
thoroughly with it some compost, or well-rotted 
manure. In every instance the hole must be large 
enough to admit all the roots easily without bend- 
ing. Shorten and pare smoothly with a knife, any 



O FRUIT BOOK. 

bruised or broken roots. Hold the tree upright, 
while another person, making the earth fine, gradu- 
ally distributes it among the roots. Shake the tree 
gently while this filling is going on. The main 
secret lies in carefully filling in the mould, so that 
every root may meet the soil ; and, to secure this, 
let the operator, with his hand, spread out the small 
roots, and fill in the earth nicely around every one. 
Nine tenths of the deaths by transplanting arise 
from the hollows left among the roots of trees by a 
rapid and careless mode of shovelling the earth 
among the roots. 

" 3. When the hole is two thirds filled, pour in a 
pail or two of water. This will settle the soil, and 
fill up any little vacuities that may remain. Wait 
until the water has sunk away, and then fill up the 
hole, pressing the earth moderately around the 
trees with the foot. The moist earth, being covered 
by the loose surface soil, will retain its humidity for 
a long time. Indeed, we rarely find it necessary to 
water again after planting in this way, and a little 
muck or litter placed around the tree, upon the 
newly moved soil, will render it quite unnecessary. 
Frequent surface watering is highly injurious, as it 
causes the top of the soil to bake so hard as to 
prevent the access of air and light, both of which, 
in a certain degree, are absolutely necessary. 

" 4. Avoid the prevalent error (so common and 
so fatal in this country) of planting your trees too 
deep. They should not be planted more than an 
inch deeper than they stood before. If they are 



PRUNING. 7 

likely to be thrown out by the frost of the first 
winter, heap a little mound about the stem, to be 
removed again in the spring. 

" 5. If your soil is positively bad, remove it from 
the holes, and substitute a cart-load or two of good 
garden mould. Do not forget that plants must 
have food. Five times the common growth may be 
realized by preparing holes six feet in diameter and 
twice the usual depth, enriching and improving the 
soil by the plentiful addition of good compost. 
Young trees cannot be expected to thrive well in 
sod land. When a young orchard must be kept 
in grass, a circle should be kept dug around each 
tree, we think to the extent or spread of the 
branches. But cultivation of the land will cause 
the trees to advance more rapidly in five years than 
they will in ten, when it is allowed to remain in 
grass. 5 ' 

PRUNING. 

In this department of culture no explicit direc- 
tions will indiscriminately apply to each variety of 
fruit trees. Peaches, cherries, and plums, are al- 
ways in the greatest vigor when they are the least 
maimed by the knife ; for when these trees have 
large amputations, they are very subject to gum and 
decay ; so that it is certainly the most prudent me- 
thod, with stone fruit particularly, carefully to rub 
off all useless buds, when they appear. Fruit trees 
in this latitude should not be pruned in the fall or 



8 FRUIT BOOK. 

winter months, as they are at those times exceedingly 
apt to crack or canker. The best season for this 
work is at, or soon after, the swelling of the buds or 
expanding of the leaves, the sap being then in vig- 
orous motion, the wounds soon heal over. Every 
limb taken off should be cut close to the main stem ; 
and provided the limb is large, a composition of tar 
and red ochre, or grafting wax, should be spread 
upon the end to keep out air and moisture. From 
the strong growth of fruit trees in our country, and 
the dryness of its atmosphere, severe pruning is less 
necessary here than in England, from whence we 
have derived many of our instructions. Excessive 
pruning with us is apt to generate suckers, or what 
is termed water shoots, from the limbs. Judicious 
pruning, however, will promote health and early 
fruitfulness. Trees, even of the same species, dif- 
fering as they do in form of growth, require very 
different treatment. Coxe, of New Jersey, recom- 
mends the practice of forming the heads of trees 
in the nursery the year before they are removed. 
Every limb which crosses another should be taken 
off; the external branches, particularly in apple and 
pear trees, should be every where rendered thin and 
pervious to the sun. The great principle to be at- 
tended to in pruning apple trees, is cutting out all 
dead, diseased, or useless branches, at their base, 
and thinning those that are healthy and vigorous, so 
that the sun and air may penetrate to, (not through) 
every part of the tree. Few people have confidence 
enough to do this effectually ; but they may be as- 



DISEASES INJURIOUS INSECTS, ETC. 9 

sured that they would have more and better fruit 
were they to retain one half the number of branches 
which in general at present exist in most orchards. 
In speaking as we have of the difficulty there is in 
giving explicit directions upon pruning, the following 
remarks of " Salisbury " are very judicious. 

" Pruning trees is a work respecting which every 
gardener pretends to have a competent knowledge, 
and those who have written on the subject have en- 
deavored to lay down rules for the operation ; but I 
confess, that although I have had considerable expe- 
rience, for many years, and know the theory on 
which rules for it may be formed, yet I am incapa- 
ble of communicating my ideas on the subject, as it 
wholly depends on the state of the trees ; and it 
would be as absurd for me to tell any one what 
branches he should cut out, and what leave, by de- 
scription, as it would be for a physician to prescribe 
for a patient who labors under a severe and acute 
disease, on the mere report of the nurse, without a 
personal inspection of his patient. I must be par- 
doned, therefore, if I say, that nothing but experi- 
ence, founded on long observation as to the growth 
of trees, will ever enable a person to discover the 
proper art of pruning." 

DISEASES INJURIOUS INSECTS, &c. 

The injuries and diseases to which fruit trees are 
subject, are often difficult to be accounted for, and 
various are the methods devised for their correction. 



10 FRUIT BOOK. 

The genus of insects called Aphis, or green fly, one 
or more species being found upon nearly all our va- 
rieties of fruit trees, particularly upon those that are 
young, are very troublesome. They lodge and live 
on the points of the young succulent shoots, distort- 
ing the leaves and checking the growth. Various 
washings, compositions, and powderings have been 
applied for their destruction, among them are the 
following : Syringing with tobacco water, lime wa- 
ter, fine air-slacked lime mixed with soot, and strewed 
over the trees in a dewy morning, burning haulm or 
straw sprinkled with sulphur to windward of the in- 
fected trees. These are generally considered good 
remedies, but the most effectual in our practice, of 
late, has been the whale oil soap mixture for the de- 
struction of most insects that infest our trees. The 
slimy slug, found upon the leaves of our pear trees, 
may be effectually destroyed by the application of 
wood ashes, thrown upon the leaves during moist 
weather. The canker, a disease which injures many 
trees, causing the bark to grow rough and scabby, 
and turning the wood into a rusty brown color, is 
said by some to be owing to a stintiness that takes 
place in the trees from a bad sub-soil. We appre- 
hend that this disease is often brought on by injudi- 
cious pruning, leaving the wounds ragged, and there- 
by admitting water into the wood, which soon begins 
to decay ; and also from injuries sustained by the 
bark being bruised by ladders while gathering the 
fruit. In careless pruning, the dead shoots are often 
left upon the tree, throughout the summer, which 



DISEASES INJURIOUS INSECTS, ETC. 11 

often brings on the canker. The exuding of gum, 
a kind of gangrene incident to stone fruit, may 
be owing, in some degree, to injudicious pruning, 
bruises, or injuries received in the wood or bark, or 
by cutting the shoots to short stumps in summer. It 
is often seen where large limbs have been lopped or 
broken off. Among the insects destructive to our 
trees, the borer worm is the most annoying ; and we 
know of no better method to adopt for his extirpa- 
tion, than that recommended some time since by 
A. J. Downing, of Newburgh, which is to examine 
the trees in early spring, as also in the fall, and cut- 
ting them out. The method we adopt as a pre- 
ventive to their again entering, described under 
the article " Peach," we believe to be one of the 
most effective. After cutting out these worms, as 
also all decayed wood from hollow wounds, the 
holes should be covered from the heat and moisture 
by applying the following composition, which will 
ordinarily prevent further decay. It is given thus : 
Take one pound of Burgundy pitch, half a pound of 
beeswax, and one pound of tallow, melted and 
spread upon brown paper or cotton cloth, (the latter 
is preferable) and applied closely to the wound. 
This compound we use also for grafting, as it will 
ordinarily resist the force of rain, frost, drying winds, 
and the influence of a changeable atmosphere. With 
regard to what is called fire-blight, which occasion- 
ally affects the pear tree during the months of June 
and July, causing the branch to wither, and which 
may be caused by forcing, or high manuring, we 



12 FRUIT BOOK. 

having never as yet had any trees affected by it, can 
only give the directions of others, which is to cut off 
at once the limb just below the affected part. 

USE OF SALT, ASHES, AND CLAY. 

We commenced our experiments upon the use of 
salt and saline substances four years since, particu- 
larly with the plum tree, and have succeeded to our 
utmost expectation, having had for the last two sea- 
sons of 1832 and 1833, good crops of fruit, where 
heretofore we rarely obtained a crop of one variety. 
Our land being of a light loam, exceedingly porous, 
and consequently subject to drought, we applied, 
early in the spring, upwards of one hundred bushels 
of leached, or spent ashes, to about two thirds of an 
acre, for the purpose of bringing the soil into a more 
retentive nature. We did not, however, observe 
much effect produced that summer ; but in the follow- 
ing spring, on applying nearly two hogsheads of salt 
upon the same land, throwing it broad-cast over the 
whole ground, and around the trees, turning it un- 
der the soil a fortnight after spreading it, this ap- 
peared to make a decided change in the nature of 
the soil, it being less subject to drought, and having 
a better crop of fruit generally, particularly of plums, 
which induced us, in the following spring, to apply 
around our plum trees, as also the quince, as far as 
the branches extended, the same material, placing 
two thirds more to the plum than to the quince. 
Salt, as well as saltpetre, is destructive to insects 



USE OF SALT, ASHES, AND CLAY. 13 

generally, and as it is, when applied in proper pro- 
portion, an excellent manure, particularly to light 
soil. We recommended to an individual, some 
three or four years since, who was complaining of 
the loss of his plums by the curculio, to dig away the 
soil around his trees early in the spring, as far as the 
branches extended, even to the laying bare the top 
roots, and filling the hole with dock mud, green 
from the sea shore. After this experiment, he in- 
formed us that his trees produced more plums the 
year following than they had done for ten years 
previous. We have used brine upon gooseberry 
and currant bushes, for the destruction of insects, 
with decided benefit, by dissolving salt in water, 
in the proportion of one pound to about four gal- 
lons. We, however, proportion this mixture ac- 
cording to the state of the plant upon which we 
use it; thus, for the gooseberry, we applied early 
in the spring, before the leaves or shoots were at all 
developed, a decoction so strong as to whiten the 
branches without injuring the future crop of fruit ; 
but on the contrary, after the development of the 
buds or leaves, we use the proportion named in the 
article " Gooseberry." 

We have used clay to a portion of our soil, with 
decided benefit, by applying it late in the fall, upon 
the surface, exposing it to the action of the frost, 
and when meliorated in the spring, digging it in. 
2 



14 FRUIT BOOK. 



GRAFTING. 

The origin of grafting is lost in the obscurity of 
antiquity. The art w as carried to a great extent in 
Italy about the time of the Christian era. The va- 
rieties best known, and most generally in use are, 
whip, or tongue grafting, side, or bark grafting, cleft 
grafting, and saddle grafting. The French have, 
with their usual faculty of invention, enlarged this 
number to a great extent. Professor Thoin has de- 
scribed above forty methods of grafting. Inarching, 
or grafting by approach, is another modification of 
this art. In the spring of 1840 we restored a dwarf 
pear tree, which was nearly, or quite dead from the 
root to three inches above the ground, by planting 
around it four or five seedling pear stocks, and in- 
arching their tops into the living bark eight inches 
above the surface of the ground. In the following 
fall this tree bore nearly half a peck of the green 
sugar pear. The cleft, or stock grafting, is the most 
generally practised in New England, and the whip, 
or tongue grafting, is the mode in use in the best 
fruit-tree nurseries in England. The former me- 
thod is performed in the following manner : The 
head of the stock or branch being cut off, a slit is 
made in the top deep enough to receive the scion, 
which should be cut sloping, like a wedge, so as to 
fit the slit made in the stock. Care must be taken 
that the side of the wedge which is to be placed 
outward be thicker than the other, and in placing 



GRAFTING. 1 5 

the scion into the slit it must be so adjusted that the 
rind of the scion join that of the stock ; the whole 
should then be clayed, or covered with grafting wax, 
to keep out the air. The other method, whip, or 
tongue grafting, so called from the manner of cut- 
ting both the stock and scion in a sloping direction 
on one of their sides, so that when brought together 
they fit exactly, and thus may be tied together in the 
manner of a whip-thong to the handle. In former 
times this species of grafting was performed without 
a slit or tongue, and in that case the former term 
was more applicable. Subsequent practice has ad- 
ded the slit or tongue, which has not inaptly given 
rise to the latter term. In performing the first, 
nothing more is required than merely to cut ob- 
liquely at corresponding angles to the stock and 
scion, as that when the incisions are brought to- 
gether, they fit exactly ; then the inner barks of both 
being brought to unite, on one side at least, a union 
takes place. The other variety of this mode, that is 
tongue grafting, is performed as follows : The 
scion and stock being cut off obliquely at corres- 
ponding angles, cut off the tip of the stock obliquely, 
or nearly horizontally ; make now a slit nearly in the 
centre of the sloping face of the stock downwards, 
and a similar one in the scion, upwards ; the tongue 
or wedge-like process forming the upper part of the 
sloping face of the scion, is then inserted downwards 
in the cleft of the stock, the inner barks of both be- 
ing brought closely to unite on one side. Saddle 
grafting is another method well adapted for standard 



16 



FRUIT BOOK. 



trees, particularly when the stock is not much larger 
in diameter than the scions to be put on them. In 
performing this operation, the head of the stock is cut 
in a wedge-like form ; the scion is then split up the 
middle, after which each half is pared off to a tongue 
shape, and is then placed on the wedge-shaped top 
of the stock, taking care that the inner bark of both 
stock and scion join on one side at least ; the whole 
is then tied fast with bast matting and covered with 
waxed paper. 

Grafting under the bark in spring, when the bark 
will separate from the wood, in the manner of bud- 
ding, we have practised for many years, with good 
success. The following are the different varieties 
of this mode. 




* * 

sjf* 



iP 2 : 



J? H 

er s? 



0.-3 O 

B5-- 3 

fif 

!1 

Fo 

5" ^ 



?3 

3' 
0-ra 



In these several modifications of bark grafting, the 
lower end of the scion must be pared off, and then 
applied closely to the wood under the bark. Root 
grafting, which is seldom practised upon fruit trees, 
is sometimes resorted to when stocks are scarce ; 



BUDDING, OR INOCULATION. 17 

the mode of performing this is generally by cleft 
grafting. We prefer, however, the whip, or tongue 
method. Our practice would be, after cutting the 
roots into lengths of about six inches, well furnished 
with fibres, then with a sharp knife commence by ac- 
curately fitting each scion, covering the cut part with 
brown paper or cotton cloth, which has been previous- 
ly covered with grafting wax. Last spring we engraft- 
ed the pear upon roots of the quince, and immedi- 
ately set them out, covering them to within two buds 
of the scion. Nearly all made a good growth the 
past summer. In this mode of grafting care must 
be taken that the roots are kept moist. 

In the choice of scions we usually select those 
from the young wood of the previous season's 
growth, choosing them from the outside lateral 
branches in preference to those growing in the 
centre. These should be cut from the parent tree 
some time previous to the season for grafting, as it 
is found to be better that the stock should be in a 
more advanced state of vegetation than the scion. 

BUDDING, OR INOCULATION. 

Budding differs from grafting in this, that a 
portion of a stem is not made to strike root on 
another stem, but that, on the contrary, a bud is 
introduced beneath the bark of the stock, and there 
induced to strike root. Budding is commonly prac- 
tised upon stone fruits, such as peaches, cherries, 
and plums, and, provided the stock is small, we 

2* 



18 FRUIT BOOK. 

think it preferable to grafting for nearly all kinds of 
fruit. The object in budding is the same as in 
grafting, and depends on the same principle ; all 
the difference between a bud and a scion is, that a 
bud is a shoot or scion in embryo. When grafting 
has been omitted or has failed in spring, budding 
comes in as an auxiliary in summer. The season 
for performing this operation upon pears and apples 
is from the middle of July to the last of August, 
but upon stone fruits the month of September is 
early enough to perform this operation ; for when 
these are budded too early, they are apt to shoot 
the same year, which shoots, being weakly, are 
either killed in the winter, or, if they escape the 
frost, they never make much progress. It is always 
better that the buds should remain dormant until 
spring, when they will shoot forth with vigor. The 
buds used are found in the axillae of the leaf of the 
present year ; the best buds are those on the middle 
of a young shoot, not those at the lower end. Stocks 
for budding may, in general, be much smaller than 
for grafting, as the operation may be performed on 
the same year's shoot. The French enumerate 
twenty-three varieties of budding ; but the variety 
in general use with us is the following, called shield 
or T budding. It is thus performed : Select a 
smooth part of the stock ; then with the budding- 
knife make a horizontal cut across the bark, quite 
through to the firm wood ; from the middle of this 
transverse cut make a slit downwards, an inch or 
more long, going also quite through to the wood ; 



BUDDING OR INOCULATION. 19 

this done, proceed to cut out from the scion the 
bud, cutting nearly half way into the wood ; should 
the stock be small upon which you are operating, 
you can take out the wood from the bud with the 
thumb nail or point of the knife, observing that the 
eye or germ of the bud remains perfect ; if not, and 
a little hole appears on the under part, it is imper- 
fect, or, as gardeners express it, the bud has lost its 
root, and another must be prepared. We, however, 
very rarely take out the wood, but insert the bud 
with the wood attached. There are precautions, as 
Lindley justly observes, in budding as in grafting. 
" It is indispensable that the bud which is employed 
should be fully formed, or what gardeners call ripe. 
If it is imperfectly formed or unripe, it may not be 
capable of that subsequent elongation upwards and 
downwards, upon which the whole success of the 
practice depends. Great care should be taken in 
raising the bark for the insertion of the bud, that 
the cambium be not disturbed or injured. This 
cambium is a secretion between the wood and the 
bark." Seedling trees, which were budded in the 
summer, should in the following spring, when the 
bud commences pushing, be cut off slanting, to 
within three inches of the bud, and not until the 
second season be finished, or the snag cut smoothly 
to the bud or shoot. Budding generally succeeds 
best when performed in cloudy weather, or in the 
morning or evening ; for the great power of the 
mid-day sun is apt to dry and shrink the cuttings 
and buds. 



FRUIT BOOK. 

RAISING FRUIT TREES FROM SEEDS. 

Pear trees for stocks are raised from seeds sown 
usually in the fall. The most successful experiment 
in this method, which has come under own observa- 
tion, was that of Allen W. Dodge, Esq., of Hamilton, 
for which he received the first premium of the Essex 
Agricultural Society in 1843. The following was 
his method of culture : 

" In the fall of 1840 I procured a lot of pumice of 
the small choke pears, which I sowed in drills on a 
dry sandy spot of ground. The seed came up well 
the following spring, and the trees made the first 
season an average growth of one foot. Being 
warned by others of the danger to which they would 
be exposed during winter, I was inclined to use 
some method to protect them. One advised to take 
them up, and keep them duiing the cold weather in 
the cellar ; another proposed to cover them with 
sea-weed or tan ; and a third suggested still another 
course of treatment. As I knew not which method 
to adopt, I determined to let them take their chance 
and winter it out just as they stood. The result 
was, that no injury whatever befell them ; not one 
tree was destroyed by the cold or frost, or by any 
other cause. 

" The following spring I removed the trees into 
rows in the nursery, first taking off a part of the tap 
root. This I found to be of great length, nearly 
one third longer than the tree itself. This length of 
root may have kept the trees from being thrown out 



RAISING FRUIT TREES FROM SEEDS. 1 

of the ground by the frost, which, as I am in- 
formed, is one principal cause of the destruction in 
winter of young pear trees. As they make but few 
lateral roots, they are of course more exposed to 
such an injury than other kinds of young trees. 
Now if the tap root strikes deep, it has the stronger 
hold upon the soil ; and if it reaches below the 
frost, it would seem to be entirely removed beyond 
its action. My soil being very light, the roots of 
the trees had no difficulty in extending to the length 
I have mentioned. 

" Another benefit, as it seems to me, of a light 
sandy soil for young pear trees is this, that being so 
porous, it is less retentive of moisture than stiff and 
strong soils, which is the kind of soils upon which 
pear trees are usually attempted to be raised. The 
wetter the soil, the greater would seem to be the 
action upon it of the frost. It would freeze and 
thaw, in early spring, with greater violence to the 
young roots ; such soil would heave more than a 
dry one, and in heaving would at length throw the 
tree up by the roots, and expose it to the winds and 
weather. 

" The season after being transplanted, the trees 
made a vigorous growth. The principal dressing 
which they received was ashes applied occasionally 
in small quantities and in its unspent state. In 
August of that season, the second of their growth, I 
budded about six hundred of the trees ; the rest, 
not being of sufficient size for that purpose, were 
left unbudded. The ground upon which they then 



22 FRUIT BOOK. 

and have since stood, is similar to that in which the 
seed was originally sown, light and sandy ; the trees 
have received no injury whatever from the winter or 
early spring. I am not aware that a single tree of 
the lot has ever been thrown up or killed -by the 
frost, and they have never received any protection 
but from the hand of nature herself. 

" My budded trees have made a fine growth the 
past season ; averaging perhaps four feet, some 
reaching to nearly six feet in height. The trees are 
healthy and vigorous, and prove most plainly that 
it is not necessary for us to import pear stocks from 
France, when they can be raised, as mine have 
been, at home." 

In raising peach trees from the stone, our method 
has been, to expose the stones to the frosts of 
winter, and sow in the following spring. In the fall 
of 1841 we thus exposed half a bushel of stones to 
the frost, by placing them in a shallow hole in the 
ground, slightly covered with earth, where they 
remained until the spring ; we then cracked them 
carefully, and sowed in rows on the 13th of April, 
1842, in a light loamy soil. These grew well, and 
on the first week in September, of the same season, 
we budded nine hundred out of one thousand 
trees. 

ON PRESERVING PEARS. 

Upon the methods resorted to for keeping the 
finest kinds of pears, much has been written of late 



ON PRESERVING PEARS. 

years. Summer fruit, those particulair^which 
ripen upon the tree, require to be carefully gathered 
and placed in a well-ventilated and cool room. 
The autumn and winter fruit are preserved with 
more difficulty. It has been generally admitted that 
our winter sorts should remain upon the trees as 
long as possible, requiring all the ripening our 
climate will afford, which is undoubtedly the case. 
It has been recently suggested that our winter table 
pears should be gathered earlier than we have 
heretofore done it, from the fact that many varieties 
which were gathered the past season of 1843, in 
October, ripened better than those of the same 
kinds left upon the trees a month later. We found 
such to be the case with the " Lewis," and also 
with the " Bleeker's Meadow." The secret, we 
apprehend, is, however, not so much in their being 
thus early gathered, but that they were kept in a 
uniformly warmer temperature. The remarks of 
T. A. Knight, the most practical pomologist of 
modern times, we think rational. He says, " In 
order to ripen our fine pears, they should be placed 
in a dry and warm atmosphere." 

A writer, (Mr. Walker,) in the January number 
of Hovey's excellent Magazine, writes : " The 
specimens (pears) which were matured in a close 
desk, the temperature of the room being kept from 
sixty to seventy degrees of heat during the day, and 
fifty to fifty-five during the night, were all very 
much superior to those which matured in a room of 
lower temperature. 



24 FRUIT BOOK. 

Much difference of opinion exists in regard to 
the necessity or advantage of sweating fruit previous 
to its being packed. Some disapprove of the prac- 
tice, and say that the flavor is thereby considerably 
injured, and that the fruit does not keep so well ; 
while others contend, and not without apparent 
reason, that, by getting rid of a portion of moisture, 
the fruit keeps better, and retains its natural flavor 
uninjured. 

THE APPLE. 

Of all the fruit produced in our climate, com- 
prising such an extensive variety, none is brought to 
so great perfection and with so little trouble, as the 
apple. The duration of the apple tree is supposed 
by Knight to be two hundred years. The soil best 
adapted for the apple, says Rogers, is that of a soft 
loam, containing some sand ; a great depth is not 
requisite, eighteen to twenty inches being quite 
enough, provided it be on a dry sub-soil. If the 
bottom soil is wet, the trees should be set shallow, 
and the ground drained. Apple trees do not thrive 
if the roots enter into a cold substratum. 

Autumnal planting we prefer in light soil, and 
spring planting on those of a strong and wet nature. 
In forming a collection of fruits, it has been justly 
observed, that it is better to be contented with a 
few good kinds, that produce well in most seasons, 
than to plant those for the sake of variety, of which 
perhaps a crop may be obtained once in three or 



APPLES. 25 

four years. The Secretary of the London Horticul- 
tural Society, in speaking of the mania for increas- 
ing varieties, says, that their catalogue of apples 
" contains one thousand four hundred kinds, three 
fourths of which are probably the same fruits under 
different names, or are unworthy of cultivation." 

In making a selection of apples, we should en- 
deavor to fix upon those which are found to suit our 
latitude. Many varieties of apples, which are first 
rate in quality when grown in our southern cities, 
for example, the Newtown Pippin, and Pen- 
nock's Red Winter are inferior to the Lyscom, 
Fall Harvey, and many others, when grown in our 
soil. Beecher, of Indianapolis, In., says, " That 
the soil and climate so modify the flavor and other 
qualities of the apple, that there is some reason for 
believing that an apple, originating on any given soil, 
will be better than many which are introduced into 
it ; for though the apple is raised with great facility 
in almost every soil, yet it is probable that each 
variety affects a particular one. Thus I perceive 
the most popular apples of New England are 
natives ; for example, the Rhode Island Greening, 
Hubbardston Nonsuch, Roxbury Russet, Baldwin, 
and Minister. This, to a considerable extent, is 
true of the West." 

Attention should also be had in the selection of 
sorts suitable to their destined soils ; as some varie- 
ties that would succeed well in a strong clay, would 
languish in a poor light sandy loam. The Baldwin, 
Yellow Bellflower, and Swaar, flourish well in a light 
3 



26 



FRUIT BOOK. 



loamy soil ; on the contrary, the Ribstone Pippin, 
Pickman Pippin, and Red Doctor, require that of a 
strong and retentive nature. In planting orchards, 
we should therefore have some regard to these cir- 
cumstances. 

A selection of nineteen varieties we would recom- 
mend for a garden : 



Early Harvest, 
Early Sweet Bough, 
Williams's Favorite 
Red, 
Summer Pearmain, 
Fall Harvey, 
Lyscom, 


Drap d'Or, 
Porter, 
Boxford, 
Yellow Bellflower, 
Hubbardston Nonsuch , 
Pickman Pippin, 
Baldwin, 


Danvers Winter Sweet 
Swaar, 
Minister, 
Roxbury Russet 
Superb Sweet, 
Ramsdel's Red Pump- 
kin Sweet. 



APPLES. 

No. 1. Early Harvest. This is the earliest ap- 
ple worthy of cultivation : the form is flat, of medium 
size ; the skin, when perfectly ripe, is of a beautifully 
bright straw color ; the flesh tender and sprightly ; 
if gathered before they are fully ripe, it has too much 
acidity. The finest fruits are those which drop ripe 
from the tree ; the branches make very acute angles, 
by which it is readily distinguished from most other 
trees in the orchard ; it bears young. Ripe in July 
and August. 

No. 2. Early Bough. This is a large hand- 
some apple, the form sometimes oblong, the skin a 
pale yellow, often with a bright red tinge, the flesh 



APPLES. XI 

sweet and tender ; it is a good bearer, and deserves 
extensive cultivation. Ripe in August. 

[No. 2 is decidedly the finest early sweet apple of its season, 
It is called, in some parts of New England, " Washington."] 

No. 3. American Red Juneating. This apple 
is of medium size, oblong ; the skin is a beautiful 
red, slightly streaked and mixed with yellow ; the 
flesh is rich, sprightly and good ; the tree is of up- 
right growth ; it bears well and ripens in August. 
Although it bears the name of American Red June- 
ating, we have strong doubts of its having origina- 
ted in this country ; we think it may be the striped 
Juneating of Ronald. 

No. 4. Summer Queen. A large oblong apple, 
striped with red on a yellow ground ; the flesh is 
yellow, very high flavored, and excellent. The tree 
is of vigorous growth, and a great bearer. Ripe in 
August, 

No. 5. Early Red Margaret. A middle sized 
apple ; the shape round, somewhat flat ; the skin a 
greenish yellow, striped with dark red; the flesh 
white, juicy, and agreeable ; it bears early and 
abundantly. Ripe the middle of August. 

No. 6. Summer Rose. A very beautiful and 
excellent fruit ; the size is moderate, the form round, 
the skin yellow, striped, and mottled with red ; the 
flesh is sweet, juicy, and fine. Ripe in August. A 
great bearer. 



28 FHUIT BOOK. 

No. 7. Summer Pearmain. This apple is of 
medium size, the form oblong and very regular ; the 
skin a dark red, striped with a small proportion of 
yellow ; the flesh very tender and good, juice not 
abundant. It is one of our finest summer apples ; 
bears abundantly, and ripens in August and Sep- 
tember. 

No. 8. Rambour d'Ete. This apple is of large 
size and flat form ; the skin light red, striped with 
yellow ; the flesh is firm, rich and sprightly ; the 
trees assume a spreading form of vigorous growth, 
and great productiveness. Ripe in September. 

No. 9. Fall Harvey. This is a large and hand- 
some fruit, the shape flat with broad ribs extending 
from the stem to the eye ; the skin sometimes a 
clear bright yellow, but mostly a light yellow, occa- 
sionally with a bright red cheek ; the flesh yel- 
low, firm, rich and high flavored ; it is much culti- 
vated in Essex county, Mass., where it may have 
originated. It is without question the finest fall and 
early winter apple. A good bearer, and deserving 
extensive cultivation. 

No. 10. Drap d'Or. A large flat apple, of a 
bright, but pale yellow color, covered all over with 
small black pips, (never with a red cheek) ; the flesh 
is tender, very light and pleasant ; the growth of 
the tree is large and spreading ; it bears well, and 
should be found in every good collection. Ripe in 



APPLES. 

September and October. This is the Drap d'Or of 
Cox and Ronald, but not of Duhamel. 

[No. 10 commands a high price in our market.] 

No. 11. Hawthornden. This fruit is of me- 
dium size ; of a flat and very regular form, and 
remarkably handsome ; skin of a pale yellow, nearly 
white, with a brilliant red on the side exposed to the 
sun ; the flesh white, very juicy, but not high fla- 
vored. It bears very young, and most abundantly, 
every year ; it is one of the best market fruits in the 
fall and early winter months. 

[This variety is cultivated in Pennsylvania under the name 
of "Maiden's Blush."] 

No. 12. Williams' s Favorite Red. This apple 
originated in Roxbury, Mass. It is of medium size, 
oblong form, the skin a bright and deep red, the fla- 
vor pleasant and agreeable. It is a good bearer and 
a most beautiful fruit, ripening in August. 

[This variety is said to require a strong soil.] 

No. 13. Benoni. This fine and beautiful ap- 
ple was introduced to notice by E. M. Richards, Esq. 
of Dedham. It is of medium size, form round and 
regular, the flesh yellow, high flavored and excellent. 
It bears well, ripens in July and August, and should 
be found in every good collection. 

No. 14. Red Doctor Apple. A large and 
handsome fruit, of a flat form ; striped and clouded 



30 FRUIT BOOK. 

with red, on a yellow ground ; the flesh is tender, 
breaking and high flavored. It bears well, and 
ripens from October to December. 

[This apple is small in our soil, and indifferent in quality.] 

No. 15. Boxford. This apple was first culti- 
vated in Boxford, Essex county, where it may have 
originated. The size is middling, form round, skin 
striped with red and yellow ; the flesh yellow, rich 
and good. Ripens in the fall months, and is thought 
to be a fine apple. 

No. 16. Red Astracan. This beautiful apple 
is of medium size, of a round and rather flat form ; 
the skin is dark red, covered with a thick bloom like 
a plum ; the flesh is white, tender, and good, some- 
what acid; it keeps but a short time after being 
gathered, but the beauty of the fruit, and its early 
and great bearing, render it desirable in every col- 
lection, especially if intended for the market. Ripe 
in August. 

No. 17. Oslin. This apple is of medium size, 
the form flat and regular, the skin a bright yellow, 
with some dark clouded spots ; the flesh firm, of a 
brisk and high flavor. It bears young and most 
abundantly, and ripens in September. 

No. 18. Kilham Hill. Originated on the farm 
of Doctor Kilham, in Wenham, Essex county, Mass. 
The size is sometimes large, the form round, a little 



APPLES. 31 

oblong ; the skin yellow, striped with red ; the flesh 
is yellow and high flavored, but soon becomes dry j 
it bears young and constantly, and ripens from Sep- 
tember to November. The tree is of a spreading, 
but not regular form, and may be known by small 
warts or protuberances on the bark. 

No. 19. Ly scorn. This apple originated in 
Southborough, Mass. It is of medium size, rather 
oblong, and very regular; the skin dull red with 
greenish yellow. The flesh is not high flavored, but 
of a peculiarly mild and agreeable taste. It bears 
well, ripens in October, and will sometimes keep 
till January. 

[No. 19 is called " Osgood's Favorite," in Essex county, 
and " Mathis's Stripe," in Worcester county. It is a superior 
variety, particularly when grown in strong soil.] 

No. 20. Porter. Originated on the farm of 
the Rev. Samuel Porter, in Sherburne, Mass. The 
fruit is sometimes large, the shape oblong, pointed 
at the blossom end ; the skin of a bright yellow, 
often with a blush of red on the sunny side ; the 
flesh fine, sprightly and agreeable. It bears well, 
ripens in September and October, and is a most 
beautiful fruit, either for the market or private 
garden. 

No. 21. Duchess of Oldenburg. A valuable 
and handsome apple, said to be of Russian origin. 
The size is middling, form round and rather flat ; 



32 FRUIT BOOK. 

skin of a beautiful yellow, striped with red ; flavor 
very pleasant and good. It bears well, and ripens 
in September and October. 

No. 22. Yellow Ingestrie. A beautiful apple, 
raised by Mr. Knight, President of the London 
Horticultural Society. The size is small, form round 
and regular ; the skin of a golden yellow, with some 
black spots ; the flesh yellow, firm and delicate. It 
is an abundant bearer, and ripens in October. 

No. 23. Red Ingestrie. This apple is of me- 
dium size, of a round form ; the skin bright yellow, 
tinged and striped with red on the side exposed to 
the sun ; the flesh very rich, high flavored and juicy. 
It bears well, and ripens in October. 

No. 24. Franklin Golden Pippin. This apple 
is supposed to be of American origin ; it is of middle 
size, the form oval and very regular ; the skin of 
rather a dark yellow, without a blush, but sprinkled 
with dark-colored specks ; the flesh yellow, tender, 
and very agreeable to the taste. The tree grows 
well, is of an upright form, and the fruit is ripe in 
October and November. 

No. 25. Kerry Pippin. Fruit of medium 
size ; the form oblong, flattened at the eye and 
stalk ; the skin a bright yellow, striped and marbled 
with red ; the flesh tender and high flavored. This 
is a most beautiful variety ; it bears well, and ripens 
in September and October. 



APPLES. 33 

No. 26. Gravenstein. Fruit large; the form 
for the most part oblong, sometimes flat ; the skin 
of a light yellow, striped, and beautifully mottled 
with red ; flesh very fine, with a brisk high flavored 
juice. This is one of the most valuable apples, 
ripening in October, and keeping good several 
months. The tree is of a strong and healthy growth 
and upright form. 

No. 27. Rib stone Pippin. Fruit sometimes 
large, of a flat form ; the skin is a mixture of russet 
and yellow, with dull red on the side exposed to the 
sun ; the flesh very yellow and firm, with a sharp, 
rich flavor ; the tree is of a spreading, but not very 
regular form ; it bears well, and ripens in the fall 
and early winter months. 

No. 28. Golden Russet. The origin of this 
apple is unknown ; it appears to have been first cul- 
tivated in Essex county, Mass. The fruit is of 
medium size, round, rather oblong, and of a regular 
form ; the skin is a smooth yellow russet ; flesh re- 
markably tender, spicy, and high flavored. The 
tree is very upright and handsome in its growth ; 
bears abundantly ; and is a valuable fruit, ripening 
in October, November and December. 

No. 29. Blue Pearmain. This fruit is large, 
the form round, the skin red, striped and mottled 
with darker red, and covered with a bloom like a 
plum ; the flesh mild and agreeable. This is a 



34 



FRUIT BOOK. 



most excellent variety. Ripe in October, and keep- 
ing till February. 

No. 30. Red Quarenden. Fruit of medium 
size, of a flat form ; skin a very dark red ; flesh 
white, juicy, and of a pleasant flavor. Ripe in 
October and November. 

No. 31. Wine Apple. Fruit large, round, 
sometimes oblong ; the skin a bright red, striped 
with a little yellow, with russet round the stock; 
the flesh rich and pleasant ; the form of the tree 
is spreading ; it bears young and abundantly, 
and ripens in the autumn and early winter 
months. 

No. 32. Fameuse. Fruit middle size ; of a 
flat form ; skin light yellow and green, mixed with 
pale red and dark red blotches on the side exposed 
to the sun ; flesh remarkably white, tender, juicy 
and good. This is a very handsome apple. The 
tree bears well, and the fruit ripens from October to 
December. 

No. 33. Menagere. This apple is said to be 
of German origin ; it is the largest apple we have 
seen ; the form flat, in shape like a large English 
turnip ; the skin of a light yellow ; the flesh pleas- 
ant, but more adapted to the kitchen than the des- 
sert. It bears well, trained as a dwarf, and ripens 
from October to February. 



FRUIT BOOK. 35 

No. 34. Rhode Island Greening. This is a 
well known and favorite apple ; the size is large, the 
shape round, flat at the end ; the eolor, when ripe, 
a greenish yellow; the flesh yellow, tender, juicy 
and rich. The growth of the tree is vigorous and 
spreading. It bears well, and ripens from Novem- 
ber to February. 

No. 35. Lovett Sweet. This apple originated 
on the farm of Mr. Lovett, of Beverly, Essex coun- 
ty, Mass. It is of medium size, the form round, the 
skin, when ripe, a light yellow ; the flesh rich, sweet 
and good. It is highly prized as a winter fruit. 

No. 36. Murphy. This apple, in appearance, 
resembles the Blue Pearmain ; the shape is more 
oblong, the size not so large ; the skin light red, 
streaked and mottled with blotches of darker red ; 
the flesh white, tender and good. It is in use from 
November to February. Raised from seed by Mr. 
David Murphy, of Salem, Mass. 

No. 37/ Ortley Pippen. The size sometimes 
large, the form oblong ; the skin, when ripe, a bright 
yellow, with a little red on the side next the sun ; 
the flesh yellow, breaking and high-flavored, in this 
respect approaching to the taste of the Newton Pip- 
pen more than any other apple. The tree assumes 
a handsome, spreading form, bears well, and the 
fruit ripens from December to March. 



00 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 38. Newtown Spitzenburg. The size is 
large, the form round and regular, the skin a dark 
red, striped, streaked with shades of dull red ; the 
flesh yellow, rich and high flavored. A most beau- 
tiful and valuable apple. In perfection from Octo- 
ber till February. 

No. 39. White Winter Calville. This is one 
of the most celebrated French dessert apples ; the 
size is large, the form flat, with ribs extending from 
the stem to the eye ; the skin, when ripe, of a bright 
yellow, sometimes with a blush of pale red ; the flesh 
white, tender and pleasant, without being high-fla- 
vored. It is an abundant bearer, and the fruit ripens 
from November to March. 

No. 40. Pennocks. This is a large apple ; the 
form round, rather oblong; the skin a dull red, 
slightly streaked with yellow ; the flesh yellow, sweet 
and tender ; good for the table, and excellent for 
baking. The tree grows to a large size, and forms 
an open spreading head. It bears well every year, 
and is in use during the winter months. 

[This variety, as well as Nos. 31 and 38, are finer apples 
when grown South, than with us.J 

No. 41. Baldwin. This fine apple, so well 
known in New England, hardly needs a description. 
It is of medium size, the form round, the skin mostly 
of a brilliant red, with some indistinct yellow streaks ; 
in some situations a large proportion of yellow ; the 



APPLES. 37 

flesh is very fine, crisp, juicy and rich. It bears 
abundantly every other year, keeps well through the 
winter, and although so common, it will bear com- 
parison with the finest of the new varieties. 

No. 42. Lady Apple. The size is small, the 
form flat, the skin at maturity is a bright yellow, 
with a brilliant red cheek, and very smooth ; the 
flesh white, breaking, mild and agreeable, but not 
high flavored. The beautiful appearance of this lit- 
tle apple renders it worthy of cultivation. The tree 
is of more upright growth than any other apple tree 
in the orchard ; it grows to a large size before it 
produces fruit ; it then bears well, and is in use from 
January till March. 

No. 43. Bellflower. This is a large and beau- 
tiful apple. The form is very oblong, tapering to the 
eye ; the skin a bright yellow, sometimes without 
any red, but for the most part the side exposed to 
the sun has a bright red cheek ; the flesh is rich, 
tender and sprightly ; before perfectly ripe it has 
too much acidity. It bears well, though not abun- 
dantly, every year, and ripens in October, and 
keeps till February. It is a valuable market fruit. 
The growth of the tree is large and spreading, and if 
not trained high, the branches will reach the ground 
when loaded with fruit. 

[This variety fruits well in light soil. It is sometimes con- 
confounded with the " Monstrous Bellflower," an inferior 
sort.] 



38 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 44. Swaar. This is a large apple, the 
form round, somewhat flat ; the skin is very smooth, 
of a light yellowish green, without any red ; the 
flesh is juicy and well flavored, but not rich. The 
tree is of spreading and vigorous growth ; bears 
great crops. The fruit ripens from December to 
March. 

[A constant bearer and handsome fruit, deserving extensive 
cultivation ; being one of the finest eating apples, in February 
and March, we possess.] 

No. 45. Danvers Winter Sweet. This apple 
is of medium size ; the form a little oblong, tapering 
to the eye ; the skin smooth, of a light yellow, 
sometimes with a tinge of red ; the flesh firm, juicy 
and sweet. The tree is a great bearer, of rapid 
growth, and is worthy of extensive cultivation. It 
is in use during the whole winter. 

No. 46. Pickman Pippin. This apple is 
sometimes large, the form round, the skin a light 
yellow, spotted with black points ; the flesh hard, 
juicy, and good for the table, and excellent for the 
kitchen, having, when cooked, a most agreeable 
acid. The tree is of an upright growth, bears 
abundant crops, and the fruit ripens from December 
to March. 

[In strong soil a great bearer. This sort and No. 27 we 
consider our two best cooking varieties.] 

No. 47. Mela Carla. This apple is of medium 
size and round form ; the skin is of a light yellow, 



APPLES. dif 

with a bright red cheek next the sun ; the flesh 
white, tender and good, but not rich. It is a good 
bearer, and ripens from October to March. In our 
climate this apple is not so good as in its native 
country, Italy. It is, notwithstanding, worthy of 
cultivation. 

[Shy bearer in our soil, and wanting in flavor.] 

No. 48. Eoxbury Russet. This apple is well 
known, and extensively cultivated in New England ; 
it is of medium size, round, and flat at the ends ; 
the skin of a fine yellow russet, often mixed with 
dull red ; the flesh white, rich and juicy, with a very 
pleasant acid. It bears well, and can be brought to 
market later in the spring than any other good table 
apple. 

No. 49. Hubbardston Nonsuch. This apple 
is large, the form round, somewhat oblong ; the skin 
is red, mixed with a small portion of yellow, streak- 
ed and blotched with dark red ; the flesh yellow, 
juicy, and of excellent flavor. The tree is of vigor- 
ous growth, a great bearer, and worthy of extensive 
cultivation. In use from January to March. 

[This variety, and the one following, we consider two of the 
finest late apples for New England culture, both being good 
bearers.] 

No. 50. Minister. This fine apple originated 
in Rowley, Mass. The size is large, the form ob- 
long like the Bellflower, tapering to the eye, with 
broad ridges the whole length of the fruit ; the skin 



40 FRUIT BOOK. 

a light greenish yellow, striped with bright red, but 
the red seldom extends to the eye ; flesh yellow, 
light, high flavored and excellent. This is one of 
the very finest apples which New England has pro- 
duced. It ripens from November to February, and 
deserves a place in every collection of fruits, how- 
ever small. This apple received its present name 
from the circumstance of the late Rev. Dr. Spring, 
of Newburyport, having purchased the first fruit 
brought to market. 

No. 51. Green Sweet. This apple is of small 
size, round, and rather flat ; the skin at maturity is 
a dull green, approaching to yellow ; the flesh very 
sweet and good. It is in use during the winter 
months, and can be brought to market later in the 
spring than any other sweet apple. Much culti- 
vated in the north part of Essex county, Mass. 



The following varieties are added to this edition by the compiler. 

No. 52. Bevarfs Favorite. This is one of 
the earliest and finest apples of New Jersey, sup- 
posed to have originated there ; the size is me- 
dium ; form somewhat flat ; color yellow, striped 
with red ; flesh juicy ; a great bearer; ripening in July. 

No. 53. Superb Sweet. A large sized supe- 
rior sweet fruit ; form rather flat ; color red, striped ; 
ripening in September and October ; raised from 
seed by Jacob Dean, of Mansfield, Mass. 



APPLES. 41 

No. 54. Strawberry Apple. This variety 
originated in New Jersey ; it is an early winter 
fruit ; will keep into spring ; color bright red, striped 
upon a light orange brown ; flesh juicy, and pecu- 
liarly agreeable. 

No. 55. RamsdeVs Red Pumpkin Sweet. 
This fruit is of good size ; of a dark red, covered 
with a blue bloom, similar to the Winter Blue Pear- 
main ; the flesh is tender and sweet. This tree 
bears abundantly. It ripens in the fall, and will 
keep into January. This apple was brought into 
notice by Mr. Ramsdel, of Connecticut. 

No. 56. Rambo, or Romanite. This apple is 
much cultivated in Pennsylvania ; the form is flat ; 
the size medium ; the skin a pale yellow, with red 
streaks towards the sun ; flesh tender and sprightly ; 
and is a fine table apple, ripening in the fall and 
keeping for several months ; a good bearer in alter- 
nate years. This apple is known by the name of 
Seek-no-farther, in the Philadelphia market. 

No. 57. Cann Apple. This apple, cultivated 
in West Jersey, takes its name from the peculiarity 
of its shape. In form it approaches to a cone ; the 
size is medium ; color green, with a brownish red 
near the stem ; it is a very sweet fruit, approaching 
nearer, in this respect, to the Danvers Winter Sweet 
than any variety we have seen. It is an early winter 
fruit, and is a good bearer in alternate years. 
4* 



42 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 58. Quince Apple. The tree of this 
variety is of vigorous growth ; the size of the fruit 
large ; the shape flat ; the skin, when fully ripe, of 
a rich lemon yellow; flesh rich and juicy; it is a 
great bearer in alternate years, and is, one of the 
very best fall apples we possess, ripening in Novem- 
ber. Coxe says that it came originally from the 
State of New York. 

No. 59. Michael Henry Pippin. This va- 
riety, (supposed to have originated in New Jersey) 
with us is a large fair apple, of a handsome oblong 
shape, color when ripe of a light lemon yellow ; the 
flesh is sweet, ripening in November, but keeping 
well throughout nearly the whole winter. Bears 
well, not greatly, every year. 



THE PEAR. * 

The pear was probably held in higher estimation 
by the ancients, than the apple, as Pliny enumerated 
a greater number. It is a much more hardy and 
durable tree than the apple, and although longer in 
coming into a fruit-bearing state, will exist for cen- 
turies, in health and vigor. The pear is propagated 
by seeds, with a view to obtain new varieties, or for 
the purpose of stocks on which to graft or bud 
known or approved kinds. Doctor Van Mons, and 
M. Duquesne, possess eight hundred approved sorts, 
which they obtained from seeds within sixteen years. 
Pears, however, are more uncertain from seed, than 
apples ; for by far the greater number thus raised, 



PEARS. 43 

being unfit for any other use than to be budded with 
known sorts. New varieties, says Van Mons, are 
more likely to be obtained from the seeds of new, 
than of old cultivated sorts. Among the extended 
varieties of this fruit, it is rather difficult, (under all 
circumstances) to select those which are the best for 
cultivation. We have, however, ventured to admit 
into our list of outlines, those which, from observa- 
tion and the opinion of friends, as well as our own 
limited experience, we could safely recommend as 
among the best. In raising seedling pears, the 
ground should be enriched with well-rotted manure, 
(vegetable decomposition, such as rotten leaves, bark, 
&c., we think the best, mixed with a portion of air- 
slacked lime,) the earth should be occasionally stirred 
between the rows, and all weeds eradicated. (See 
the article on raising trees from seed.) 

Small stocks, measuring from an half to an inch 
through at the but, should be budded, rather than 
grafted. The best and most durable stock for stand- 
ards is the wilding ; the quince and white thorn, for 
dwarfs. There are some pears, (the Bartlett, for 
example,) which do not thrive well upon the quince, 
directly. Our method with such has been to graft 
those softs that grow well upon the quince, and in 
the following season re-grafting on these the kinds 
that do not flourish when placed directly upon this 
stock. This process of double grafting may be ad- 
vantageously employed also in bringing pears earlier 
into fruit. In the spring of 1840, we inserted a 
graft of the " Cabot " into a dwarf stock, which was 
but one inch through at the but, and in the fall of 
1841, it bore from twelve to fifteen pears. 



44 



FRUIT BOOK. 



The effect of double grafting, says Lindley, " is 
similar to ringing the branches, the obstruction that 
the sap meets with, in passing through the two 
places of union, would be tantamount to the limited 
supply of sap permitted to ascend where a portion 
of the bark is removed." The quince stock brings 
the pear into early fruiting, and some varieties are 
larger upon this stock ; still, where a permanent or- 
chard is wanted, we should recommend the natural, 
or wilding pear. P^ars worked upon the white thorn, 
are said to do better where the soil is a strong clay, 
than upon the quince. Pears have been grown 
in Europe upon the mountain ash. We budded 
twelve small trees of this sort with the Bartlett, and 
Seckel, in the fall of 1840. A shoot of the ash was 
permitted to grow in connection with the pear, for 
the first season. In the spring of the following year, 
the first shoot (the ash) was then cut off close to the 
main stem. These trees have made quite as good a 
growth as upon pear stocks. 

The distance at which pear trees should be set in 
the orchard or garden, depends in some measure 
upon the soil and aspect ; but thirty feet is about the 
maximum distance in the best soils, and from eight 
to ten feet, when grown upon the quince or thorn. 
Trees engrafted or budded upon the quince, should 
be done as near the root as possible. This budding, 
which we prefer to grafting, is performed when the 
bark will separate entirely from the wood, which, in 
this latitude, takes place in August, and sometimes 
into September. The following spring, when the 
bud is developing, cut off the stock to within two 



PEARS. 



45 



joints of the bud, and not until the next season 
finish, or cut the snag smoothly to the shoot. At 
the third season, the trees may be removed to the 




[This cut of a dwarf tree is placed to show the position of the quince stock, 
when grafted or budded with the pear one inch below the surface of the soil.] 

situation for fruiting, and in resetting them, the 
stock should be placed at least one inch below the 
insertion of the bud as shown in the preceding cut 
of a trained tree. 



40 FRUIT BOOK. 

Thus setting the stock below the bud or scion will 
preserve them from the frosts of winter and the 
borer in midsummer. In order to obtain fruit early 
upon dwarf pears, the side shoots or spurs should be 
suffered to remain upon the whole extent of the 
tree, as they will then ordinarily form fruit buds 
upon each spur. These trees are admirably adapted 
for small gardens, occupying but little space, less 
exposed to high winds ; thus affording greater se- 
curity to heavy fruit. One of the new Flemish 
pears, the " Duchess d' Angouleme," when grown 
as a dwarf, produces larger fruit than when upon a 
wilding. When pears are worked upon the wild 
species, apples upon crabs, and peaches upon 
peaches, the scion is in regard to fertility, says 
Lindley, " exactly in the same state as if it had not 
been grafted at all ; while, on the other hand, a 
great increase of fertility is the result of grafting 
pears upon quinces, peaches upon plums, apples 
upon the thorn, and the like. -In these cases, the 
food absorbed from the earth by the root of the 
stock is communicated slowly." No other influence 
have we ever noticed exercised by the scion upon 
the stock. 

Deep soils are not necessary for the pear ; from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches are quite sufficient. 
Pruning is not often wanted in the culture of this 
fruit as a standard. Some few kinds there are that 
resemble the apple in their growth, that require 
cutting to keep them from superfluous branches ; 
those particularly of pendant or weeping habit. This 
tree, under good management and in favorable soils, 



PEARS. 



47 



may be continued in health and vigor for a greater 
length of time than almost any other fruit-bearing 
tree. When the pear tree grows too luxuriantly, 
and consequently unproductive, pruning the roots, 
or bending the branches downwards, (the latter 
course we prefer,) will generally check its luxuriant 
growth, and throw it into a bearing state. The 
pear being a more hardy tree than the apple, is less 
liable to the attacks of insects. The most annoying, 
however, is a species of coccus or miniature tortoise, 
which attaches itself to the bark. This insect is 
common to the apple in some gardens. Our method 
of destroying them is to wash the bark with a strong 
solution of whale-oil soap and water, applying it 
with a stiff brush. Young trees are sometimes 
almost wholly incrusted with this coccus. 

A selection of twenty-six varieties of pears we 
would recommend for a garden : 



Madaleine, 


1 


Belle Lucrative, 




Bloodgood, 


i SUMMER 


Bartlett. 




Dearborn's Seedling, 


FRUIT. 


Flemish Beauty, 




Early Rousalette, 




Urbaniste, 




Summer Franc Real, - 




Gushing, 








Duchesse d' Angou- 








leme, 




Beurre d'Aremberg, 




Andrews, 


AUTUMN 


Winter Nelis, 
Lewis, 
Easter Beurre, 


WINTER 
FRUIT. 


Long Green, 
Beurre Bosc, 
Louise Bonne de Jer- 


" FRUIT. 


Vicar of Wakefield, 




sey, 








Golden Beurrd of Bil- 








boa, 




Catillac, 




Washington, 




Black Pear of Wor- 


COOKING 


Seckel, 




cester, 


FRUIT. 


Bon Chretien Fon- 




Dr. Hunt's Winter, 




dante, 





48 



FRUIT BOOK. 



No. 1. Amire Joannet. This fruit is small, 
form oblong ; the skin, when ripe, is light yellow, 
with a small portion of red ; the flesh white, and 
when not overripe, juicy and good. It ripens in 
July, about ten days before the Petit Muscat, to 
which it is superior in size and flavor. The head of 
the tree is open, with a few long and hanging 
branches. 

No. 2. Petit Muscat. This pear ripens imme- 
diately after the above ; the size is small, the form 
round, a little oblong, the skin mostly of a clear yel- 
low, with a little dull red ; the flesh pleasant and 
musky, without being high flavored. The tree grows 
to a large size, with long and hanging limbs, produ- 
cing its fruit in clusters, and most abundantly. 

No. 3. Madaleine. This is the first good pear 
which ripens immediately following the Petit Mus- 
cat. The size is rather small ; in rich land they 
grow large ; the skin, when ripe, is light green, ap- 
proaching to a yellow ; sometimes a tinge of dull 
red on the side exposed to the sun ; the flesh white, 
juicy and pleasant, with a most agreeable acid. 
Ripe the end of July and first part of August ; it 
bears well every year, and from its open head, re- 
quires but little pruning. 



PEARS. 



49 




No. 4. Bloodgood. This pear was first brought 
into notice by the late James Bloodgood, of Flushing, 
Long Island ; the size is large, the form nearly oval, 
the skin a dull yellow, covered with dark russet 
spots ; the flesh tender, melting and pleasant. It 
comes very early into bearing, and produces abun- 
dant crops every year. Ripe in August. 
5 



50 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 5. Rousselette Hatif. This is a small 
pear, with a long curved neck ; the stem is long and 
fleshy, in most cases appearing to be a continuation 
of the fruit ; the skin yellow, with brownish russet 
on the side next the sun ; the flesh very fine, rich 
and high flavored when eaten ripe from the tree ; 
the branches are long, the head of the tree very 
open, and the produce most extraordinary. It ripens 
about the middle of August. 

No. 6. Honey. This tree was procured from 
Messrs. William Prince & Sons, of Flushing; but 
as there are two pears bearing this name, one Euro- 
pean, the other American, it is uncertain to which 
the specimen belonged ; in size and shape it resem- 
bles the Seckel ; the skin is yellow, with a large 
portion of dull red ; the flesh sweet, juicy and good. 
The tree bears young, and when more advanced 
promises to be a great bearer. Ripe in September. 

No. 7. Julienne. This pear resembles the 
St. Michael's, but is much smaller, except on 
very rich land; the skin light yellow, sometimes 
with bright red next the sun ; the flesh rich, juicy 
and melting. The tree comes early into bearing, 
produces abundantly, and is in use from the 
middle of August to the middle of September ; 
ripening gradually in the house, which renders 
it very desirable for a market fruit. 

[This variety seems to have lost its flavor of late, at least in 
many localities.] 



PEARS. 



51 



No. 8. Andrews. This fruit sometimes at- 



52 FRUIT BOOK. 

tains a large size; the form is oblong, tapering 
gently from the blossom end to the stem ; the skin, 
when at maturity, is a yellowish green, often with a 
dull red cheek ; the flesh melting, juicy, and high 
flavored ; it is a most valuable pear, producing its 
fruit early and abundantly. The tree is not of very 
vigorous growth. Ripe in September and Octo- 
ber. 

No. 9. Skinless. This pear is of small size, of 
a long shape, round at the blossom end, tapering to 
an obtuse point at the stem ; the skin is smooth 
and very thin; the color, when ripe, is a light 
yellow, with a slight tinge of red ; the flesh juicy, 
crisp, sweet, and very good. The tree produces 
well, and the fruit ripens in August. 

[Hardly worth cultivation in light soils.] 

No. 10. Summer FrankreaL This very fine 
pear is of medium size ; the shape oblong, thickest 
about one third from the eye, sometimes flat like a 
Bergamot. The skin, when fully ripe, a light 
yellow ; flesh melting, rich and excellent. It is a 
great and early bearer, ripening in September. 

No. 11. Williams 1 s Bon Chretien. (See Fron- 
tispiece.) This fruit is very large ; the shape long, 
round and full, both at the eye and stem, which is 
short and large ; the skin, when fully ripe, yellow, 
with faint red next the sun ; flesh white, melting, 
and good. The character of this pear is very high ; 



PEARS. 53 

the tree is of a strong and vigorous growth, bears 
very young, and yields most extraordinary crops 
every year. Ripe in August and September. 

[This fruit has the remarkable quality of ripening in the 
house, when not fully grown.] 

No. 12. Dearborn's Seedling. This fine and 
beautiful pear originated at Brinley Place, Roxbury, 
the seat of the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. The fruit 
is of medium size, round at the crown, diminishing 
to the stem, around which is a circle of bright 
russet ; the skin is smooth, of a light yellow color ; 
the flesh delicate, melting, and fine flavored, equal 
to any other pear of the same season. The growth 
of the tree is healthy and vigorous. It bears well, 
and the fruit ripens in August and September. 

No. 13. Crawford. This pear is very exten- 
sively cultivated in Scotland ; it is of middle size, 
round at the eye, diminishing to the stem, and 
very regular and uniform in its appearance ; the skin 
is entirely of a light yellow ; the flesh juicy, tender 
and good. It bears young, and ripens in August. 

No. 14. Williams' s Early. This new pear 
originated on the farm of Mr. Williams, in Roxbury, 
Mass. It is of middle size, turbinate form, the skin 
light yellow, with a red cheek next the sun ; the flesh 
melting, sugary and fine. The tree promises to be 
a great bearer. Ripe in September. 



54 



FRUIT BOOK. 




No. 15. Urbaniste. One of the new Flemish 
pears ; the size and form is somewhat like the St. 
Michael, round and full at the eye, diminishing 
gradually to an obtuse point at the stem, which is in- 



PEARS. 55 

serted in a shallow round cavity ; skin light green, 
nearly yellow, with small spots of dull russet ; flesh 
white, melting and fine. The tree is of handsome 
form, and grows vigorously ; does not bear young, 
but is productive after it has attained a proper size. 
Of all the new European pears, this is the best sub- 
stitute for the old favorite St. Michael's. Ripe in 
October and November. 

No. 16. Summer Thorn. This pear is oblong, 
of medium size, the skin smooth, and when ripe, of 
a light green ; the flesh melting, juicy, and of a very 
peculiarly pleasant flavor. It bears well, and ripens 
in September. 

No. 17. Citron de Sirentz. Indifferent; not 
cultivated at the Pomological Garden of Mr. M. 

No. 18. Valee Franche. Astringent, not cul- 
tivated at the Pomological Garden. 

No. 19. Chair a' Dame. This variety is not 
retained at the Pomological Garden. 

No. 20. Green Pear of Yair. We have dis- 
continued the cultivation of this variety. 

No. 21. St. Ghislain. This superior pear is 
one of the new Flemish varieties ; it is of medium 
size, the shape rather oblong ; the skin at maturity 
is a pale yellow ; the flesh juicy, melting and very 



00 FRUIT BOOK. 

delicious. The tree is vigorous, and bears good 
crops every year. One of the finest of pears, and 
should be found in every good collection. Ripening 
in September and October. 




No. 22. Gushing. A native fruit from Hingham, 



PEARS. 57 

Mass. The size in rich ground is large ; the form 
oblong, diminishing from the eye to an obtuse point 
at the stem ; the skin, when ripe, smooth, of a light 
yellow, sometimes with dull red on the side exposed 
to the sun ; the flesh white, melting, sprightly and 
good. It comes early into bearing, produces well, 
and the fruit ripens the last of September. 

[This pear is, in our soil, equal to the Bartlett, in flavor.] 

No. 23. Seckel. This well known and excel- 
lent pear is of small size on poor land ; the form is 
regular, round at the blossom end, diminishing gradu- 
ally to an obtuse point at the stem ; the skin often 
yellow, with a brownish red cheek, sometimes en- 
tirely covered with greenish russet; the flesh melting 
and of most exquisite flavor ; the growth of the tree 
is slow, with great and unusual symmetry. It pro- 
duces abundant crops ; but in order to obtain fruit 
of large size, the ground should be rich and the tree 
pruned with a more open head than is generally 
thought necessary. Ripens gradually in the house, 
from the middle of September to the last of October. 

[Pear trees seldom thrive when budded upon the apple. No. 
23 does better than any other we have tried. They should 
be placed upon a small tiee, and no part of the apple branches 
suffered to grow in connection.] 

No. 24. Jackman's Melting. This tree was 
received from the Messrs. Young, of Epsom, Eng- 
land ; it produced its first fruit in 1837 ; the name 
is no doubt erroneous, as it is not noticed in the 



58 FRUIT BOOK. 

catalogue of the London Horticultural Society, or in 
any other work of authority. The fruit is large and 
very long, the stem short, the skin entirely of a dark 
red ; the flesh juicy and good, but not rich ; it is re- 
markable for its beauty, promises to bear well, and 
ripens the last of September. 

[This pear is very astringent, and hardly worth cultivation, 
notwithstanding its great size and beauty. In the last Cata- 
logue of the London Horticultural Society, it is called " King 
Edward."] 

No. 25. Johonnot. Originated in the garden 
of the late George S. Johonnot, Esq. of Salem. The 
fruit is of medium size, of a roundish and very une- 
qual form ; a little extended, the skin thin, the color 
a dull yellow, with a large portion of dull brown and 
indistinct russet ; the flesh is very fine, melting and 
delicious. The tree is not vigorous ; it bears well, 
and is in perfection from the middle of September to 
the middle of October. 

No. 26. Summer Rose. A pear of medium 
size ; the form flat, resembling an apple, with a long 
stem inserted in a roundish hollow ; the skin is dull 
yellow, spotted with russet, and mixed with a large 
proportion of brownish red ; the flesh white, juicy, 
and sweet, with a high and very peculiar flavor. 
The appearance of the tree is that of a large spread- 
ing apple tree ; it grows to a large size before pro- 
ducing fruit ; it is then very productive. Ripe in 
August. 



PEARS. 



59 



No. 27. Buerre Bosc. One of the new Flem- 
ish pears ; the form is very long, the skin of a light 
cinnamon russet ; the flesh white, juicy, melting and 



60 



FRUIT BOOK. 



good. It bears abundantly, and ripens in October 
and November. 

[This fine melting pear is usually of a higher flavor than the 
Bartlett.] 

No. 28. Jalousie. This pear is rather above 
the medium size ; the form round and large at the 
blossom end, diminishing rapidly to a point at the 
stem ; the skin is smooth, and entirely covered with 
a cinnamon russet ; the flesh white and melting, 
very pleasant and good. The tree bears well, and 
the fruit is in use during the whole month of Oc- 
tober. 

No. 29. Autumn Superb. This is a large 
pear, full and round at the eye, diminishing to a 
point at the stem ; the skin is yellow mixed with 
dull red ; the flesh melting and good, but not very 
highly flavored. It bears young and the fruit 
ripens in October. It was originally introduced 
from Fiance, and received its present name in this 
country. 

No. 30. Heathcote. This native pear is large 
on rich land ; the form is long, round at the blossom 
end, and full at the stalk ; the skin almost always of 
a light yellow, seldom a tinge of red ; the flesh 
melting, rich and well flavored. The growth of the 
tree is handsome and vigorous. It produces abun- 
dant crops, and ripens in September and October. 



PEARS, 



61 




No. 31. Belle Lucrative. The tree which 
produces this fine fruit, was received from the 
Messrs. Young, of Epsom, England. The size is 
large, the form round at the blossom end, tapering 
gradually to the stem ; the skin, when ripe, is a pale 
yellow, sometimes with a little dull red next the 
sun; the flesh is melting, sweet, juicy and fine 
flavored. It bears well. Ripens in September 



62 FRUIT BOOK. 

and October, and is worthy of a place among the 
choicest selections. 

[This fruit, supposed to be the Fondante d'Automne of the 
London Catalogue, is decidedly the finest fall pear in our col- 
lection.] 

No. 32. Belle et Bonne. These trees have 
been received from various sources, as the Belle de 
Bruxelles; the fruit is large and round, the skin 
yellow, sometimes with a little blush on the side 
exposed to the sun ; the flesh very sweet, rich and 
good. The tree is very vigorous in its growth ; 
does not bear till it has attained a large size ; it' is 
then very fruitful. Ripe in October. 

No. 33. Long Green. This is one of the best 
of the old varieties ; its form is very long ; skin at 
maturity a light green ; the flesh is white, melting 
and fine flavored. The tree is of vigorous growth, 
bears well, and the fruit ripens in September and 
October. 

[This is one of the few old varieties that have not as yet 
shown any signs of decay.] 

No. 34. Henry Fourth. This pear is of small 
size, the form very irregular, oblong , the skin of a 
dull yellow, mixed with brown and green ; flesh 
yellow, gritty, juicy and melting, with a high and 
somewhat remarkable flavor. It bears young and 
abundantly, and ripens in September. 



PEARS. 



63 



No. 35. Surpass Vergalieu. This tree was 
received from the late Mr. Parmentier, of Brooklyn, 
L. I. ; as we do not find the name in any European 
author, it was probably adopted in this country. 
The fruit is large, form oblong, some specimens 
nearly round ; the skin smooth, of a light yellow 
with a little red on the side next the sun ; the flesh 
rich, juicy and high flavored. It appears to require a 
warm sun to have it in its greatest perfection ; it bears 
young, yields large crops of fair fruit every year, and 
is worthy of extensive cultivation. Ripe in October. 



FRUIT BOOK. 




No. 36. 



PEARS. 



65 



No. 36. Duchesse d'Angouleme. One of the 
new European pears ; the size is very large, oblong, 
round at the blossom ends, tapering gradually to an 
obtuse point at the stem, with a knobby and uneven 
surface; the skin greenish yellow, spotted with 
small russet points ; the flesh very rich, melting and 
high flavored. It is a good pear on standards in 
rich ground, larger and better on the quince, trained 
low ; it is very productive. Ripe in October and 
November. 

[The specimen was grown upon the quince.] 

No. 37. Beurre Van Marum. This is one of 
the new Flemish pears ; it is of medium size, the 
form oblong, the skin of a bright yellow, sometimes 
with a tinge of red ; the flesh melting, juicy and 
fine. It is an early and great bearer, and in per- 
fection about the last of September. 

No. 38. Capsheaf. The origin of this pear is 
unknown ; it is much cultivated near Providence, 
R. I., where it may have originated. The size is 
small ; the form almost round ; the skin a light cin- 
namon russet ; the flesh white, melting and juicy, 
with a pleasant but not high flavor. It bears well, 
and the fruit ripens in October. 

No. 39. Naumkeag. This is a seedling from 

the garden of the late G. S. Johonnot, Esq., of 

Salem. The wood and leaf of the tree resemble 

those of the Brown Beurre ; the fruit is large, form 

6* 



66 



FRUIT BOOK. 



oval, rather oblong, full and round both at the blos- 
som end and at the stem ; the skin a yellow russet, 
with much dull brown mixed with russet; flesh 
juicy, melting and good, with rather too much 
astringency. A great bearer, ripening in October. 

[We should not recommend this variety for general culti- 
vation.] 

No. 40. Raymond. A new fruit, which origi- 
nated on the farm of Dr. Joseph Wight, of Ray- 
mond, Me. It is sometimes large, but generally of 
a medium size, the shape of the St. Michael's ; the 
skin yellow, with some dull red and russet on the 
side exposed to the sun ; the flesh melting, rich and 
high flavored, equal to any pear of the same season. 
The tree is slow and crooked in its growth, but pro- 
duces well, and the fruit ripens in September and 
October. 

[This variety is small in our soil.] 

No. 41. Buffum. This pear originated in 
Rhode Island ; medium size, the form nearly oval ; 
the skin yellow, mixed with russet and brown- 
ish red next the sun ; the flesh melting and 
good, but not first rate. The tree is very upright 
and strong in its growth ; a great bearer, and an 
excellent market fruit. Ripe in September. 

No. 42. Rostiezer. This tree was received 
from the Messrs. Baumans, of Bollwiller. The fruit 
is of medium size, oblong and pointed at the stem, 



PEARS. 



67 



the skin covered with light yellow russet ; the flesh 
melting, high flavored, and delicious. It ripens 
about the first of October ; and, so far as we could 
judge from the first specimens, is decidedly a first 
rate fruit. 



No. 43. Washington. A native fruit from New 
Jersey, of medium size ; "the form is nearly oval ; the 
skin of a light yellow, covered with small brown 
spots, sometimes a slight tinge of red ; the flesh 
melting and excellent, with an unusual flavor. The 
tree grows vigorously, bears well, and the fruit 



68 FRUIT BOOK. 

ripens in September. A beautiful and good pear, 
worthy of cultivation. 

No. 44. Princess of Orange. One of the 
new Flemish pears. In size and form this fruit 
resembles the St. Michael's ; the skin is an orange 
russet, mixed with dull red ; the flesh white, melt- 
ing and good, but not first rate. Ripe in October. 
The scions of this pear were originally received from 
the London Horticultural Society ; but a distin- 
guished cultivator from Belgium thinks it cannot be 
the Princess of Orange of Van Mons. 

No. 45. Gansels Bergamot. This has been 
placed among the old pears ; it is only compara- 
tively so, having been raised in 1768 ; as yet, it 
shows no indications of decay, such as we see in 
many of the finest old pears. It has the reputa- 
tion of being a bad bearer, but in the gardens in 
Salem it produces good crops. The fruit is of 
medium size, the form nearly round, the color a dull 
brown ; flesh white, melting and fine flavored. Ripe 
in October. 

No. 46. Cabot. This pear was produced from 
seed by Joseph S. Cabot, Esq., of Salem. The 
original tree, after producing the first specimen of 
fruit, was destroyed by the cold winter of 1831. 
We were so fortunate as to preserve a scion, from 
which we obtained fruit the last season, 1837. It is 
of medium size, of a round form, a little extended ; 




PEARS. 

li U JN 1 v 

the skin a light yellow russet, with a small portion of 
brownish red ; the flesh white, melting and fine 
flavored. It is decidedly a first rate fruit, and 
worthy of extensive cultivation. The tree is of a 
strong and healthy growth, bears well, and is in per- 
fection during the whole month of October. 

No. 47. Bon Chretien Fondante. This is one 
of the new Flemish pears ; fruit rather large ; form 
regular, oval ; the skin a yellowish green, mixed 
with brown and yellow specks; the flesh yellow, 
rich and melting; the tree produced fruit the first 
time, the last season, 1837, and promises to be a 
first rate fruit. Ripe in October. 

[This sort has proved with us very fine.] 

No. 48. Pope's Quaker. The origin of this 
pear is uncertain ; it appears to have been first culti- 
vated by a Mr. Pope, a nurseryman near New York. 
The fruit is of medium size, oblong pear-shaped, the 
skin entirely covered with yellow russet ; the flesh 
white, melting and good, but not high flavored; 
the tree is productive. The fruit ripens in October. 

No. 49. Reine des Poires. This is a large 
pear ; the form obtusely pyramidal ; the skin a dull 
yellow mixed with red, and red on the side exposed 
to the sun ; the flesh crisp, pleasant and good, but 
not high flavored ; it bears young, and is very pro- 
ductive. Ripe in October. The tree has a great 
resemblance to that of the Easter Beurre. 



70 



FRUIT BOOK. 




No. 50. Golden Buerre of Bilboa. This tree 
was imported from Bilboa, by Mr. Hooper, of Mar- 
blehead ; the original name is unknown ; in size 
and shape it resembles the Doyenne Gris, but the 
skin is of a lighter russet ; the flesh is melting, rich 



PEARS. 71 

and of fine flavor ; it is a good bearer. Ripens in 
October. 

[This variety grows large and beautiful upon the quince.] 

No. 51. Cumberland. A native fruit, from 
Cumberland, R. I. ; the size is large, the form oblong, 
round and large at the blossom end, tapering to an 
obtuse point at the stem ; the skin of an orange 
color, with bright red next the sun ; the flesh melt- 
ing, juicy and good, nearly first rate. Ripe in 
October and November. The tree is of vigorous 
growth, and bears abundantly. 

[Inferior with us to the " Buffum."] 

No. 52. Louise Bonne de Jersey. Fruit large, 
oblong, pear-shape ; skin yellowish green, mixed 
with brownish red next the sun ; the flesh melting, 
rich and good. It produced its first fruit the last 
season, and gives every indication of being a first 
rate pear, and good bearer. Ripe in September 
and October. 

[This is a fine melting pear.] 

No. 53. Petre. This tree was presented to 
me by Mr. Carr, of the Bartram Botanic Garden, 
near Philadelphia, where the fruit originated. The 
first specimens were produced the last season, 1837. 
The size is large, the form long, round at the eye, 
and tapering to an obtuse point at the stem ; the 
skin is a dull yellow, mixed with greenish russet ; 
the flesh melting, juicy, and very delicious. Ripe 
in October and November. It is a pear of the very 
first rank, and should be extensively cultivated. 



FRUIT BOOK. 



No. 54. Frederic of Wurtemberg. This is 
one of the new Flemish pears, and has been culti- 
vated under the erroneous name of the Capiaumont. 
The size is large, round and full at the blossom end, 
tapering rapidly to a point at the stem, which is 
short and placed on the summit ; the skin a bright 



PEARS. 73 

yellow, with a brilliant red cheek next the sun ; the 
flesh yellow, melting, rich and excellent. The tree 
grows vigorously, bears young and abundantly, and 
the appearance of the fruit is beautiful. Ripe in 
September and October. 

[This variety inclines to overbear, and is then small and 
destitute of flavor.] 

No. 55. Rousselette de Rheims. This pear is 
of medium size, the form is oval, blunt at the stem ; 
the skin yellow, with much dull red on the side next 
the sun ; the flesh is breaking and fine, with a very 
high musk flavor ; it is best when eaten ripe from 
the tree. The tree attains a large size before bear- 
ing ; but when more advanced produces an abun- 
dant crop. Ripe in September. 

No. 56. Wilkinson. A native pear from Cum- 
berland, R. I. ; the size in rich ground is large, the 
form oblong, round at the blossom end, and at the 
stem ; the skin yellow, seldom (on pear stocks) any 
red ; the flesh white, juicy and melting, with a fine 
and delicious flavor. The tree bears young, is very 
fruitful, and in perfection during the months of Oc- 
tober and November. If grafted on the quince it is 
smaller, more prolific, higher flavored, and a brighter 
red cheek, than if grafted on the pear stock. 

[The fruit of this variety is not always fair in our soil.] 

No. 57. Bergamotte d'Automne. This pear 
is of medium size, the form round, a little lengthened 



74 FRUIT BOOK. 

towards the stem, which is short and inserted in a 
small cavity ; the skin when ripe is a dusky yellow, 
thickly sprinkled with greyish spots ; the flesh break- 
ing, tender, juicy and sweet. It is a good fruit, and 
an early and great bearer, ripening gradually in Octo- 
ber ; distinct from the Autumn Bergamot, described 
by Cox, and figured in the Pomological Magazine. 

[We have a pear answering to the above description, received 
from France, under the name of " Sylvanche Bergamotte," 
which is a great bearer, and the fruit of fine flavor.] 

No. 58. Napoleon. One of the new Flemish 
pears ; the size is large, the form long, round at the 
blossom end, contracted in the middle, obtuse at the 
stem, which is short ; the skin at maturity is a yel- 
lowish green ; flesh melting and fine, with an un- 
usual quantity of juice ; in some soils, a little too as- 
tringent; tree healthy and strong, bears well, and 
the fruit ripens in October. 

[This tree has borne with us fine melting pears, without as- 
tringency, for two years past. Bears greatly on small trees.] 

No. 59. Moorf owl's Egg, of Boston. A pear 
of medium size, oval form; the skin light green, 
mixed with russet and brown next the sun ; the flesh 
tender, juicy and good ; tree of vigorous growth, and 
ripens in November. This we think cannot be the 
pear of the same name cultivated in England and 
Scotland. 

[This variety is the "Long Green" of " Duhamel, and 
other European authors.] 



PEARS. 



75 



No. 60. Marie Louise. This is also one of 
the new Flemish pears ; the size is large, the form 
long, tapering from th6 middle to the eye and stem ; 
the skin is a dusky yellow, sometimes with a large 
portion of cinnamon russet ; the flesh white, melting, 
juicy, and very delicious; the tree grows crooked, 



76 FRUIT BOOK. 

and the leaves are small and generally hollowed like 
the bowl of a spoon ; it is equal to any other pear of 
the season, European or American. Ripe in Octo- 
ber and November. 

No. 61. Fulton. This pear originated on the 
farm of Mrs. Fulton, Topsham, Maine. The size is 
small, the form nearly round, a little lengthened, the 
skin entirely covered with dark russet ; the flesh 
white, melting, juicy and well flavored ; the tree 
bears well, and the fruit ripens gradually in the 
house, in October and November. 

No. 62. Bleeker's Meadow. A native fruit 
from New York ; the size is small, the form round, 
somewhat flat ; the skin, when fully ripe, is yellow ; 
the flesh yellow, melting, juicy and high flavored. 
The growth of the tree is vigorous ; it does not bear 
young, but as it increases in size it bears well. 
Ripening in October and November. 

No. 63. Harvard. This pear originated in 
Cambridge, Mass. The size is large, the form ob- 
long, contracted in the middle, diminishing to an 
obtuse point to the stem, which is inserted in a small 
cavity ; the skin is of a dull russety yellow, some- 
times nearly covered with brownish red ; the flesh 
white, juicy and fine, but subject to rot at the core, 
which is its only defect. The tree is uncommonly 
strong and upright in its growth ; it attains a large 
size before producing fruit ; it is then a great bearer. 
Ripe in September and October. 



PEARS. 



77 




No. 64. Dix. This fine pear originated in the 
garden of Mrs. Dix, in Boston ; the size is large, ob- 
long, tapering gently from the blossom end to the 
stem, which is short ; the skin, when ripe, is yellow, 

7* 



78 FRUIT BOOK. 

sometimes with a blush of red on the side exposed 
to the sun ; the flesh melting, juicy, and very rich, 
with a high and most agreeable flavor. In perfec- 
tion during the months of October and November. 
The tree is of slow growth, the wood small and 
thorny ; it grows to a large size before bearing ; it 
then produces plentifully. 

No. 65. Newtown Vergalieu. We should 
judge by the name that this pear originated on 
Long Island ; it is of large size, round at the blos- 
som end, tapering to a point at the stem, which is 
short ; the skin of a pale yellow, seldom with a 
tinge of red ; the flesh is sweet, rather dry, not 
highly prized as a table fruit, but excellent for bak- 
ing. It ripens in the early winter months, and its 
productiveness renders it desirable in an orchard. 
The tree is crooked and strong in its growth, form- 
ing a large spreading head like that of an apple 
tree. 

No. 66. Fig Pear of Naples. The scions of 
this pear were received from the London Horticul- 
tural Society. In their catalogue it is described as 
first rate ; the fruit is of large size, form oval, skin a 
dark brown, with a mixture of red ; flesh melting, 
juicy and good ; it is very productive, and bears 
young. Ripe in November and December. 

No. 67. Sylvanche Verte. Identical with No. 

68. 



PEARS, 



79 




No. 68. Beurre Did. One of the best of the 
new Flemish pears. The size is very large, tapering 
gradually from the middle to both the eye and stem, 
where it is full and thick ; the skin, when ripe, of an 
orange color, with small russet spots ; the flesh white, 



80 



FRUIT BOOK. 



sugary, rich and delicious ; the tree is of a crooked 
but strong and healthy growth ; it bears well, and 
the fruit ripens in November and December. 

[This variety cracked with us in 1842 ; was fine, however, 
in 1843.] 

No. 69. Lewis. This pear originated on the 
farm of Mr. John Lewis, Roxbury, Mass. The size 
is small, the form round, a little oblong ; the skin, 
when ripe, a greenish yellow ; the flesh white, melt- 
ing, juicy and good. The tree is of the most rapid 
growth; a great and constant bearer. The fruit 
ripens from November to February. 

No. 70. Prince's St. Germain. Produced 
from seed at the nursery of W. Prince and Sons, at 
Flushing, L. I. The fruit is of medium size; in 
form sometimes like the old St. Germain ; the skin 
yellow, with patches of russet, and a dull red cheek 
on the side exposed to the sun ; the flesh is melting 
and good, but not esteemed a first rate fruit ; its 
abundant bearing, and its ripening gradually in the 
house during the winter, renders it a very valuable 
market fruit. 

No. 71. Echasserie. This is one of the old 
French table pears ; the size is small, of oval form ; 
the skin, at maturity, a greenish yellow ; the flesh 
melting, juicy and sugary. It is a good bearer, and 
a favorite winter pear, ripening from December to 
March. 



PEARS. 



81 




No. 72. Passe Colmar. This is also one of the 
new Flemish pears ; the size is large, the form round 
and full at the blossom end, contracting suddenly to 
the stem, which is about an inch long, and planted 
in a small and oblique cavity ; the flesh is yellow, 
melting, sweet and excellent. The growth of the 
tree is vigorous, without any symmetry ; its produce 
very great ; it is a favorite, and deserves to be so. 
We have had them in eating from October to Feb- 
ruary. 



FRUIT BOOK. 




No. 73. 



PEARS. 83 

No. 73. Bourgmestre, of Boston. A pear of 
large size, very long, round at the blossom end, ta- 
pering gently to a point at the stem, which is long 
and fleshy at its junction with the fruit ; the skin 
greenish yellow, (on a quince stock it has a bright 
red cheek ;) the flesh juicy and pretty good, but not 
rich. Ripe from November to January. This is not 
the Bourgmestre of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety's Catalogue. We were inclined to discontinue 
its cultivation ; but its abundant bearing, great size, 
and beautiful appearance, the two last seasons, have 
induced us to continue it for further investigation. 

[''Vicar of Winkfield," of the London Catalogue. The 
above is a fine market fruit.] 

No. 74. Catillac. This is one of the old 
French baking pears ; it is very large, flat and round 
at the crown, diminishing rapidly to the stalk, which 
is an inch in length, obliquely inserted ; the skin of 
a light green, nearly yellow when ripe ; the flesh 
hard and suitable for baking from November till 
April ; very productive. 

No. 75. Surpasse St. Germain. Introduced 
into England from Flanders, by the late John Brad- 
dick, Esq. It is of medium size, round at the crown, 
tapering to the stem, which is obliquely planted ; it 
is of very irregular form ; the skin is rough, yellow 
mixed with dull brown ; the flesh coarse grained, 
sugary and high flavored ; it produces abundantly, 
and the fruit ripens in December and January. 



84 



FRUIT BOOK. 




No. 76. Winter Nelis. One of the new Flem- 
ish pears ; the size and form is somewhat like the 
Seckel ; the skin a greenish yellow, covered with 
dark spots ; in some seasons they have a large por- 
tion of dull russet ; the flesh yellow, melting, sweet, 
and very high flavored ; a very fine pear, ripening 
during the months of December, January and Feb- 
ruary. 
[This fine fruit with us averages larger than the " Seckel."] 



PEARS, 



85 



No. 77. Beurre d'Aremberg A new Flemish 
pear ; in good ground it is usually of a large size ; 
the form oblong, thick at the crown and stalk ; the 
skin, when ripe, a dark yellow, mixed with russet 
specks ; the flesh white, melting, rich and sweet. It 
is in eating during the winter months, and has the 
reputation of being one of the most valuable winter 
pears. 

8 



86 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 78. Easter Beurre. The size of this pear 
is large ; of an oval form ; the skin, when ripe, is 
dark yellow, covered with russet spots ; the flesh 
yellow, melting and high flavored. It bears abun- 
dant crops, grafted either on the pear or quince ; 
keeps till May, and is the most valuable late winter 
pear yet known. 

[This variety was in eating with us in March, 1844. Melting 
and of fine flavor.] 

No. 79. Black Pear of Worcester. Fruit 
large, oblong ; skin rough, covered with dull russet ; 
the flesh hard and coarse ; suitable for baking during 
the winter and spring ; it produces abundantly ; 
the branches of the tree, when loaded with fruit, 
bend to the ground like the weeping willow. 

[This variety is more productive and better for general cul- 
ture than No. 81, which has, in many localities, somewhat 
degenerated.] 

No. 80. Pound Pear. This is one of the 
largest pears : its origin unknown, but supposed to 
be European ; the form oblong ; some of the pears 
Ju- are thickest in the middle, tapering to the crown 
and stem ; the flesh coarse and astringent. It is 
a great bearer, and the best winter baking pear, 
being one of the most profitable fruits for the mar- 
ket. The extensive cultivation of Nos. 79, 80, and 
81, in large orchards, would produce greater and 
surer income, for the capital employed, than any 
other investment. 



! 



PEARS. 



87 



The following, with the exception of No. 87, are added to this 
edition by the compiler. 




No. 81. Beurre d' Arnaults. This new pear is 
said to have been received from France. Size large ; 
color green, inclined to yellow, covered over with 



FRUIT BOOK. 



numerous red or russet spots; flesh melting and 
juicy ; flavor sweet and excellent ; tree vigorous. 
Ripe in August and September. 



No. 82. Stevens } s Genesee. This pear, sup- 
posed to be a native fruit, having been first brought 
into notice by a Mr. Stevens, near Rochester, N. Y. 
It is an early fall variety, ripening the first of Sep- 
tember ; the size is large ; flavor sprightly and good. 



PEARS, 



89 




No. 83 . Flemish Beauty. Belle des Flandres. 
This newly introduced pear is of large size ; color 
greenish russet and handsome, ripening in October 
and keeping into November; the tree is vigorous, 

8* 



90 FRUIT BOOK. 

and promises to be a great bearer ; flesh yellowish 
white, sweet and excellent. One of the best pears, 
and should be found in every good collection. 



No. 84. Josephine or Jaminette. This new 
Flemish pear is of good size ; flesh melting, flavor 



PEARS. 91 

sweet, not high ; ripens in November and Decem- 
ber ; a good bearer, particularly upon the quince, 
and is a desirable variety. 

No. 85. Hunt's Connecticut. This early 
winter fruit, introduced by Dr. Hunt of Northamp- 
ton, is a profitable variety for cultivation. The tree 
bears early and abundantly ; fruit of medium size, 
rather oblong, and an excellent cooking pear late in 
the fall. 

No. 86. Beurre Romaine 1 This tree we re- 
ceived from Prince's Nursery, at Flushing, some 
years since, under the above name. It bears young 
and constantly. The fruit resembles somewhat in 
form, as well as in its time of ripening, the " Ur- 
baniste," which name was affixed to specimens 
sent to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 
It is, however, a distinct variety, and resembles 
the "Bezi Montigny" more than any sort we 
have as yet seen, differing only in the deeper 
cavity around the stem. This fruit ripens in Sep- 
tember and October, and is a fine melting pear. 

No. 87. Glout Morceau. A new Flemish 
pear ; the size is sometimes large, the form rather 
oblong, round at the crown, diminishing suddenly to 
the stalk, which is inserted in an oblique cavity ; 
the skin is a dull green, nearly yellow when ripe, 
mixed with russet blotches ; the flesh white, juicy 
and excellent; the growth of the tree is crooked 



92 FRUIT BOOK. 

and bending ; it produces well, and the fruit ripens 
gradually from December to February. The French 
nurserymen still continue the cultivation of this pear 
under the name of the Beurre d'Aremberg. 

[There are a number of new varieties of Pears, of recent 
introduction, and of desirable kinds, which we have not as yet 
fruited ; among them are the following : 

Belmont November. 

Beurre Crapaud .... December. 

Columbian Virgalieu . . . December. 

Hacon's Incomparable . . November and December. 

Beurre Bronze Winter. 

Van Mons Leon Le Clerc . Winter. 

This last is said by Thompson, of the London Horticultural 
Society, to be " the best pear in the world, combining the 
properties of large size, handsome appearance, and rich 
flavor." 

Lawrence . (Native Fruit) December to February. 

Mac Laughlin " " 

Muscadine . . vu> iv September. 

Ambrosia September and October. 

Althorp Crassane (Knight) November and December. 
Comte de Lamy (Lon. Hor. Soc.) September and October. 

Passans du Portugal . . . August.] 



THE PEACH. 



The peach is generally supposed to have origi- 
nated in Persia and China; some, however, have 
considered it really indigenous to America. Henni- 
pen, who has given us the first description of the re- 



PEACHES. 93 

gions of Louisiana, in his voyage down the Missis- 
sippi, describes the peach he observed in all parts 
of those regions, as being of immense size, which 
has led some to conclude, that as those latitudes corres- 
pond with the part of Asia, where this tree is deemed 
indigenous, they are natural to Louisiana, Botanists, 
in common with the French cultivators, regard the 
peach and nectarine as merely varieties, and not dis- 
tinct species. Scientific cultivators of Europe have 
endeavored to make an arrangement of this fruit into 
divisions, and sub-divisions. With us this would 
seem to be a difficult process, as thousands of sub- 
varieties are constantly being produced from the 
seed, and we therefore ordinarily make but two di- 
visions, under the terms freestone, and clingstone ; 
the former, those whose pulp or flesh separates freely 
from both skin and stone ; and the latter, those 
whose flesh is firm, and adheres both to the skin and 
stone. It would also be exceedingly difficult to make 
a correct systematic arrangement of the kinds found 
in the nurseries, as those known in many nurseries 
by one name, are distinct varieties. We have re- 
ceived from different sources, the " Noblesse," and 
the "Vanguard," which, upon fruiting, appeared 
identical; the "Early York," and "Early Royal 
George," one and the same. We do not, however, 
mean to be understood that it is difficult to depend 
upon obtaining fine fruit, but simply that there is so 
much confusion as to the original names, that it is 
next to impossible, (as so many varieties nearly or 
quite approximate to each other in quality, time of 



94 



FRUIT BOOK. 



ripening, &c.) that an entirely correct catalogue can 
be expected. The Grosse Mignonne, a superior fruit, 
is called by Mclntosh, (in consequence of the great 
number of its synonymes,) " The Peach of an hun- 
dred names." Nearly, if not all those, however, 
which are cultivated in the nurseries as early fruit, 
are of fine quality. Late peaches, such as Heath's 
clingstone, Ward's late red, and some others, are 
hardly worth setting in this region, as they will not 
ordinarily ripen their fruit. The peach tree should 
be trained low, as in high training they are exceed- 
ingly apt to die from the lower branches upward. 
When small trees are set, they should be carefully 
examined, to see if any gum exudes, and the worm 
which causes it cut out. A box, without top or bot- 
tom, or, in other words, four pieces of wood, from 
eight to ten inches in height, should be placed 
around the tree, sunk about two inches below the 
surface, into which place fine charcoal, which will 
ordinarily keep out the borer, who generally enters 
the tree at, or near the surface of the ground. We 
have protected our trees the past season from the 
worm, by taking thin lead, (such as we find in tea 
chests,) and cutting it into strips of nine inches in 
width, bending them close around the tree, three 
inches below the surface of the ground, extending 
upon the trunk six inches above the earth. 

In order to keep this tree low, the long shoots 
should be shortened in July, to about one half their 
length, always cutting at or near a single, and not a 
double bud. Young peach trees should never be 



PEACHES. 95 

placed upon the site of old roots of others. They 
thrive best in new virgin soil, not highly manured. 
In light and dry soil, early autumn planting will an- 
swer, but early spring we generally prefer. Care 
should be taken in transplanting, not to place the 
roots too deep in the soil, for from this circumstance 
more trees are injured than by almost all other modes 
of planting put together. The following are among 
the most desirable kinds. 



Crawford's Early Rareripe. 
Early Royal George. 
Cooledge's Favorite. 
Red and Yellow Rareripe. 
Early York. 
Malta, or Maltese. 



Hastings's Rareripe 

President. 

Red Cheek Melacaton. 

Grosse Mignonne. 

Washington Freestone. 

George the Fourth. 



No. 1. Early Ann. This is a small round 
fruit, with a greenish white skin ; flesh melting and 
good. The tree does not attain a large size ; a 
freestone, ripe in August. 

No. 2. Early Royal George. The size is 
large, the form round, the skin of a bright yellow, 
with a large portion of deep red on the side exposed 
to the sun ; the flesh melting and delicious ; it is a 
great bearer, and one of the most superior peaches 
we have ever raised ; a freestone, ripe in August. 

No. 3. Red Rareripe. This is a large free- 
stone peach ; form nearly round ; the skin of a very 
bright yellow, with a light red cheek ; the flesh very 
rich and excellent. Ripe in August. 



96 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 4. White Rareripe. This peach is of 
large size, the form somewhat oblong, the skin a 
pale yellow, nearly white ; flesh white, juicy and of 
fine flavor. Ripe in August. 

No. 5. Red and Yellow Rareripe. A large 
round freestone peach ; the skin of a deep orange 
yellow, with a dark red cheek ; the flesh deep yel- 
low, rich, sweet and luscious. The tree is an abun- 
dant bearer ; and a most valuable peach ripening 
in August. 

[This variety ripens with us nearly a month earlier than the 
Royal George Freestone.] 

No. 6. Grosse Mignonne. This is a large, 
round and most beautiful freestone peach ; the skin 
deep yellow, with a brownish red cheek next the 
sun ; flesh light yellow, fine and delicious. A peach 
of the highest character. Ripe in August. 

[This sort, and the Malta, are our best peaches.] 

No. 7. Red Cheek Melacaton. A large free- 
stone peach, of an oblong shape, the skin of an 
orange yellow, with a dark red cheek ; flesh yellow, 
melting and rich. Ripe in September. 

[This variety has not ripened with us for the past two 
years until the last of October. It is the best late peach we 
cultivate.] 

No. 8. Malta. This peach is of a large size ; 
form round, rather flat at the stem ; the skin a light 



PEACHES. 97 

green, mottled and blotched on the sunny side with 
dull red ; the flesh greenish yellow, red next the 
stone, with a most superior flavor ; a freestone peach. 
Ripe in September. 

[This variety, although not a great bearer, is the most deli- 
cious peach in our grounds.] 

No. 9. President. A large and most superior 
freestone peach ; the form roundish oblong ; the 
skin pale yellow with a bright red cheek ; the sur- 
face covered with small red spots, which give it a 
rich and beautiful appearance ; the flesh white and 
high flavored ; one of the best of peaches. Ripe in 
September. 

No. 10. Belle de Vitry. This peach is of 
large size ; the form round, a little oblong ; the skin 
a dull yellow and red ; the flesh melting, juicy and 
excellent ; between a freestone and clingstone. Ripe 
in September. 

No. 11. White Blossom. Of medium size, 
oblong ; the skin a very light yellow, nearly white ; 
the flesh white, melting and extremely juicy, with a 
most agreeable acidity. Ripe in September. We 
have found this a hardy peach, and most certain 
bearer in our climate. We have for several years 
reproduced them from the stone. The blossoms 
are clear white, and the young wood resembles that 
of the willow tree. 

9 



98 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 12. Orange Freestone. This peach is of 
medium size ; the form round ; the skin a deep 
orange yellow ; flesh yellow and sweet, but rather 
dry ; a beautiful and good fruit. Ripe in Sep- 
tember. 

No. 13. Congress Clingstone. The size is 
large, form round ; skin yellow and bright red ; 
flesh rich and excellent. Ripe in September. 

No. 14. Oldmixon Clingstone. Large, round 
and rather flat ; skin whitish yellow, with a bright 
red cheek, beautifully spotted with red dots. Of 
all the clingstone peaches this is the most delicious ; 
a great bearer, ripening its fruit gradually in Sep- 
tember. We have cultivated this peach, and the 
Catharine and old Newington, and could never per- 
ceive any difference in the fruit or trees. 

No. 1 5. Heath Clingstone. Fruit large, ob- 
long ; skin of a delicate cream color, sometimes with 
a faint blush on the sunny side ; flesh rich, very juicy, 
and fine flavored. Ripe in October, and we have 
eaten them produced in our own orchard in the 
highest perfection, on Thanksgiving day, Novem- 
ber 30th. 

[This sort rarely ripens upon open standards.] 

The nectarine and the apricot, so nearly allied to 
the peach, we should not recommend for cultivation 
upon standards, but inoculated upon the plum stock, 



PEACHES. 99 

and trained as espaliers upon walls or fences. They 
often produce fine fruit, particularly the apricot. 
The following are among the best varieties of the 
latter fruit : Peach, Apricot, Moorpark, Holland, 
and Hemskirke. 

Added to the list by the compiler. 
No. 16. Crawford's Early. This is a large 
sized fruit, the form round, the skin of a beautiful 
bright yellow, with a large portion of red on the side 
exposed to the sun ; the flesh melting ; a freestone, 
and a popular early variety, ripening in August. 

No. 17. Cooledge's Favorite. A large sized, 
rather oblong peach, of fine flavor, and a popular 
fruit in the market. Ripe in September. 

No. 18. Early York. The peach we cultivate 
under this name resembles the Royal George, in 
form, flavor, color, and time of ripening ; it is, how- 
ever, a much greater bearer, and is the most profita- 
ble variety for fruiting we possess. 

No. 19. George the Fourth. An excellent 
peach, of medium size, and globular shape, of a pale 
yellow color in the shade, and dark red next the sun ; 
flesh yellow, but red at the stone, from which it 
separates. Originated in New York ; ripe in Sep- 
tember. 



100 FRUIT BOOK, 



THE PLUM. 

The native country of the plum is supposed to be 
Asia. The majority of our finest varieties have been 
introduced from France. Of sixty-four sorts, de- 
scribed by Professor Bradley, not one has other than 
a French name. Since his time, however, a great 
variety have been produced in England and in this 
country, and new sorts are constantly being pro- 
duced. Corse, of Montreal, has brought forward 
many fine plums. Among those kinds which have 
originated from seed in our country, the Washing- 
ton, Imperial, Bleeker's, Cooper's, Roe's Autumn, 
Cruger's Scarlet, Pond's Seedling, and Corse's varie- 
ties, are among our best native plums. The plum 
tree flourishes best in a rich sandy loam, neither too 
dry nor too moist ; a cold, wet, clayey soil, or dry 
sandy situation, is not so favorable. They appear to 
thrive best in our neighborhood, near the borders of 
the sea ; which we think is owing to their being in 
such situations not so subject to the insect called 
curculio, which perforates the fruit. We have since 
1841 applied annually, in the spring, coarse salt 
around these trees, with good effect, spreading upon 
the top of the ground, as far as the branches extend, 
about one inch in depth, and in the course of a 
fortnight after its application, turning it under the 
surface nearly the depth of a spade. In 1843 we 
fruited thirty varieties, all ripened, with the excep- 
tion of Coe's Late Red. The following, from a 



PLUMS. 101 

practical cultivator of this fruit, we would recom- 
mend : " When this tree has arrived to maturity, 
and ready to bear, the soil around, to the spread of 
the branches, should be thrown into a hard texture 
of the consistency of a gravel walk. A pig or poultry 
yard, with a hard pan, is a fine position for a plum 
nursery. The advantages are, a more stinted, 
and, consequently, a less exuberant growth of the 
branches, a greater supply to the fruit, and a pre- 
vention, in some degree, from the attack of the 
curculio, as that insect, not meeting with a proper 
soil to deposit its egg, will take shelter elsewhere." 

Removing the soil from around these trees to the 
extent of its branches, even to the laying bare the 
top roots, and filling the hole with fresh sea mud or 
salt sand, is found beneficial to the production of its 
fruit. Many set their plum trees too deep, particu- 
larly in rich soils, causing them to produce strong 
watery shoots, growing so late as to be imperfectly 
ripened. "They require," says Kennedy, "like all 
other stone fruit, to be planted on a dry sub-soil ; in 
such situations they bear high flavored fruit in great 
quantities. They are not so large as when planted 
in strong earth, but the quality and richness of the 
flavor make amends for that deficiency." M'Intosh 
observes, " That in planting this tree the tap-roots 
should be shortened, and the others spread out in a 
regular manner near the surface, so that they may 
enjoy the warmth of the sun, heat and air, which is 
necessary for the welfare of all fruit-bearing trees. 
If planted in too rich a soil, they become so luxuri- 
9* 



102 



FRUIT BOOK. 



ant in growth, as to require immoderate pruning to 
keep them within due bounds ; and excessive prun- 
ing, in such cases, only tends to aggravate the evil." 
Plum trees are subject to a disease which has been 
so destructive to them, as to have destroyed nearly 
all the damson plums heretofore so common in our 
neighborhood. It appears at first a greenish brown 
excrescence, which soon becomes black. Various 
are the hypotheses which have been given as to the 
cause of these warts. Some have attributed it to 
the quality of the soil, others to a redundance of 
nourishment, which distend the cutaneous vessels by 
an extravasation of the sap ; others to a much more 
rational and philosophic solution, attributing it as the 
work of an insect. In our examinations, &c. for 
fiye years on this subject, it was not until the spring 
of 1843 that we were able to find an insect in these 
excrescences while in a green and fresh state ; and 
have heretofore been inclined to adopt the theory of 
the distension of the cutaneous vessels, considering 
the worms which we have repeatedly found in these 
warts, when black, to be a consequence and not a 
cause of this disease. We now consider this excres- 
cence analogous to that which we find upon the 
swamp pink, or azalea, called by boys swamp apples, 
which has always been supposed by botanists to be 
caused by an insect. The only remedy that we 
have found effectual has been the amputation of the 
diseased limb. These excrescences always extend- 
ing themselves upwards, and not downwards, upon 
the branches, would seern to prove that the disease 



PLUMS. 103 

either enters, in some manner, into the circulation, 
or that the insect always ascends. 

We have not, as yet, found any variety that is 
entirely exempt from this fatality, but some appear 
to be more subject to it than others ; which may, 
however, be attributed more to the locality than to 
any thing else. One thing we feel confident of is 
this, that the most effectual way of eradicating them 
from our gardens, is not only to examine the trees 
carefully in spring, cutting off every branch as 
soon as they appear upon it, but inducing those who 
may have them in their inclosures contiguous to 
ours, to do the same. Among the kinds which have 
fruited with us, we would recommend the following : 



Green Gage, 
Purple, 

Bolmar's Washington, 
Italian Damask, 
Coe's Golden Drop, 
Blue Imperatrice, 
Cruger's Scarlet, 
Sharp's Emperor, 



Imperial Gage, 
Violet Perdrigon, 
Orleans, 

Large Long Blue, 
Roe's Autumn Gage, 
Duane's Purple, 
Red Gage, 
Diamond. 



No. 1 . Italian Damask. Fruit of medium size, 
round ; skin dark blue, nearly black ; stem half an 
inch long, inserted in a small round cavity ; flesh 
yellow, juicy, and high flavored. A freestone, a 
great bearer, and one of the best early plums. Ripe 
in August. 

No. 2. Morocco. A fine and very productive 
variety ; the size is rather small, nearly round ; the 



104 FHUIT BOOK. 

skin a dark purple, covered with a blue bloom ; flesh 
greenish yellow, juicy and good. A clingstone, ri- 
pening in August. 

No. 3. Prince's Imperial Gage. Originated 
at the nursery of William Prince & Sons, Flushing, 
N. Y. Fruit nearly as large as the yellow egg plum ; 
of an oval form ; when fully ripe the skin is yellow, 
with streaks of bright yellow and green indistinctly 
seen ; the flesh rich and sweet. The most produc- 
tive and profitable of all the plums. Ripe in August. 

[This variety succeeds well upon the peach, budding it as 
near the root as possible. We have trees received from Alba- 
ny for Jenkinson's Imperial, which are identical with this plum.] 

No. 4. BrevoorVs Purple Washington. Pro- 
duced from the stone of Bolmar's Washington, by 
Mr. Brevoort, of New York. Fruit of large size ; 
form round, and nearly oval ; skin dark blue, covered 
with a bloom ; the flesh sweet and good. A free- 
stone, ripening in September. The tree is of vig- 
orous growth and very productive. 

No. 5. Orleans. This is a well known and 
productive plum ; the fruit is sometimes large, the 
form round, the skin dark, approaching to a purple, 
with a thin blue bloom ; the flesh yellow, firm and 
good, with some astringency near the stone, from 
which the flesh separates. Ripe in August. 

No. 6. Kirk's Plum. Fruit large, round ; skin 



PLUMS. 105 

dark purple, covered with a dense bloom, which ad- 
heres firmly to the skin ; flesh yellow, juicy and rich. 
A very productive freestone plum, ripening in Au- 
gust. 

No. 7. Purple Gage. Fruit of medium size, 
nearly round, a little flattened at the ends ; skin of 
a violet color, with a light blue bloom ; the flesh 
greenish, rich and high flavored. A first rate free- 
stone plum, a great bearer. Ripe in August. 

[This sort, and No. 9, are the finest flavored plums in our 
collection. This variety hangs longer upon the tiee than the 
Green Gage.] 

No. 8. Large Long Blue. The origin of this 
fine plum is uncertain. The tree which produced 
the specimens was procured from the nursery of the 
Messrs. Landreth, Philadelphia. The size is large, 
the form oval, very long ; the skin blue, nearly black, 
covered with a thick bloom ; the flesh yellow, rich 
and excellent ; it hangs a long time on the tree, ri- 
pening gradually, and is well adapted to the market, 
bearing carriage better than most other plums. It is 
a great bearer, a freestone. Ripe in September. 

No. 9. Green Gage. The finest of all plums ; 
of medium size, round ; the skin a greenish yellow, 
when very ripe nearly yellow, mottled with red near 
the stem ; flesh sugary and of delicious flavor. In 
our own exposed grounds, and in grass, it bears 
abundant crops, not being subject to rot like many 



106 FRUIT BOOK. 

fine plums. A freestone, ripening in August and 
September. 

[The varieties of plums which we have received from Eu- 
rope under the names of Drap d'Or, and Golden Gage, have 
proved to be the above. We have a tree received from the 
South, for the Green Gage, that produces fruit resembling the 
Yellow Gage of the London Horticultural Society's Catalogue.] 

No. 10. Bleeker's Gage. Produced from seed 
by the Rev. Mr. Bleeker, of Albany, N. Y. The 
form oval, nearly round ; skin a dark yellow, with 
dark red spots and blotches ; the flesh is rich and 
excellent, a great bearer. Ripe in September. 

No. 11. Cooper's Plum. Produced from a 
stone of the Orleans, by Mr. Joseph Cooper, of New 
Jersey ; the size is very large, round, a little oblong ; 
the skin a dark purple ; flesh greenish yellow, rich 
and good. It ripens in September ; produces abun- 
dant crops ; but is very subject to rot at the period 
of ripening. 

[We received this fruit from Europe under the name of 
" La Delicieuse."] 

No. 12. Elfrey. This is a plum of small size 
and oval form ; the skin dark blue ; the flesh dry, 
firm and of fine flavor. The trees produce abun- 
dantly. A freestone ripening in September. 

No. 13. German Prune. Fruit of medium 
size ; form oval, diminishing towards the stem ; the 



PLUMS. 107 

skin purple with a blue bloom ; the flesh rich, sweet 
and delicious. It produces abundantly; it begins 
to ripen in August, and can be eaten from the tree 
for a month or more. 

No. 14. Duane's Purple. This is a plum of 
an extraordinary size ; the form round ; the skin a 
dark purple ; flavor good. The origin of this plum 
is uncertain ; it ripens in September, and has the 
reputation of being a fine fruit. 

No. 15. Bingham. Fruit large; the form 
oval ; skin a bright yellow, spotted and blotched 
with red ; the flesh yellow, rich and delicious. A 
clingstone ripening in September. 

No. 16. Washington. This very superior 
plum originated in New York ; the size is very 
large ; form oval ; skin an orange yellow, speckled 
with red ; the flesh yellow, sweet and excellent ; 
highly esteemed as a first rate plum. Ripe in Sep- 
tember. 

No. 17. Italian Prune. The size is large; 
form oblong ; the skin dark purple, covered with a 
bloom ; flesh greenish yellow, firm, dry and fine. 
It bears well, and the fruit ripens in September and 
October. 

No. 18. Diamond. This new plum originated 
in England ; it is of the largest size, oblong ; the 



108 FRUIT BOOK. 

skin purple, neatly black, covered with a thick 
bloom ; the flesh firm and good, but not rich ; the 
tree is of rapid growth an extraordinary bearer. 
The fruit ripens in September. 

No. 19. Blue Imperatrice. Fruit of medium 
size ; shape oblong, tapering to the stem ; the skin 
a dark purple, covered with a light bluish bloom ; 
the flesh yellowish green, firm, rich and sweet. A 
clingstone. A great bearer. It hangs on the tree 
a long time, and is in use in October and No- 
vember. 

[This variety bears greatly upon small trees.] 

No. 20. Coe's Golden Drop. This beautiful 
new plum is of large size ; the form is oval, with 
unequal sides ; the skin a golden yellow, spotted 
with rich red points and small blotches, on the sun- 
ny side ; the flesh yellow, sweet and delicious. A 
clingstone an abundant bearer. Ripening grad- 
ually in September, October and November. Of 
all the late plums this is decidedly the best and the 
most profitable which can be cultivated. 

[This variety, as well as No. 19, requires a warm exposure 
to ripen its fruit. The tree makes a great growth when 
worked upon the peach root.] 

The following varieties are added to this edition. 

No. 21. Cruger's Scarlet Gage. This showy 
scarlet plum, of the size of the green gage, and a 



PLUMS. 109 

great bearer, originated near Newburgh, N. Y. 
Flesh yellow, sweet, and of good flavor, ripening 
from September to October, and is the least liable to 
drop from the tree than any other in our collection. 

No. 22. Roe's Autumn Gage. This plum we 
received from A. J. Downing, & Co. Newburgh, N. Y. 
It is a fine, late fruit, coming into eating just after the 
above variety ; the form is oblong, color orange yel- 
low, good size, and great bearer ; flavor sweet and 
rich, ripening in October. 

No. 23. White Sweet Damson. This seedling 
plum is a great bearer, ripening gradually from Sep- 
tember to October ; flavor sweet, not rich ; color 
light yellow, but its fruitfulness and its early bearing 
render it worthy of cultivation. Raised in Essex 
county, Mass. 

No. 24. Sharp's Emperor. The fruit of this 
variety is of the most beautiful red ; form inclined 
to oval, resembling the imperial gage ; flavor sweet. 
The tree bears well, and is worthy a place in every 
fruit garden. 

No. 25. Dana's Yellow Gage. This plum, a 
native of Ipswich, Mass., we received from Mr. 
Manning ; and it is said to be exempt from the warts 
which injure most trees. We have not, as yet, ob- 
served any of these excrescences upon the tree, which 

is large. The fruit is of a pale yellow color, medium 
10 



110 FRUIT BOOK. 

size, flesh juicy and sweet, and the tree promises to 
be a good bearer. 



PLUM STOCKS FOR PEACHES. 

In England, where peaches are invariably raised 
upon walls, or trellises, they almost universally make 
use of the plum as a stock to graft upon. In bur 
country, where peach trees grow so luxuriantly, we 
should not recommend this stock, as the scion not 
only overgrows it in a short time, producing an un- 
sightly appearance, but is exceedingly apt to be blown 
down by the wind ; the roots of the plum being of a 
much slower growth, are not sufficiently large and 
expanded to support the larger top or branches. 

Budding the peach upon this stock, even to the 
height of six or eight inches from the ground, we 
have found no security from the ravages of the borer, 
as that insect will pass over the plum, and enter into 
the peach at, or just above the junction. We have 
generally preferred to bud on stocks of seedling 
peaches, considering them decidedly superior to the 
plum, particularly when wanted for standards. 



THE CHERRY. 



The wild cherry is a native of many parts of the 
world, and has been cultivated in the East from the 
Christian era. Cherries were exposed in the streets 



CHERRIES. Ill 

of London in 1415, much in the manner they are at 
present. Mclntosh remarks, that cherries have not 
multiplied so fast into varieties as most other fruits. 
Forsyth describes eighteen sorts ; Lindley twenty- 
eight ; Nicol eight ; Rogers twenty-five ; the Horti- 
cultural Society of London, fifty-seven ; and Loudon, 
twenty-three. This tree will accommodate itself to 
a variety of soils, but the best is that of a light loam 
upon a dry sub-soil, and in an airy exposure, not 
shaded by larger trees. In planting this, as with 
other fruit trees generally, we prefer the autumn for 
light soils, and spring, for those of a heavy and wet 
nature ; and also to transplant in moist weather. 
Standard cherries, when once established, require 
very little pruning. They in general produce fruit 
upon spurs which proceed from the sides of the two 
year, three year, and older branches. These spurs 
continue to make their appearance along the whole 
length of the shoots. It should be borne in mind 
that immoderate pruning is highly injurious to the 
cherry, and also to the plum. The following are 
some of our best varieties of cherries. 



Black Tartarian. 
Honey Heart. 
Black Eagle. 
Elton. 

Black Heart. 
White Bigarreau. 



Napoleon. 

Mottled Bigarreau. 

Manning's Fine Red. 

Davenport's. 

Gridley. 

Manning's Black Bigarreau. 



No. 1. May duke. Fruit of medium size, round ; 
the skin, when fully ripe, very dark red ; the flesh 
tender, juicy, and good. It is very productive, and 
the fruit ripens the last of June. 

No. 2. Davenport's. This fine cherry origi- 



FRUIT BOOK. 

nated on the farm of Mr. Davenport, in Dorchester, 
Mass. ; the fruit is large, skin bright red ; the flesh 
firm, and of excellent flavor. It is an early and most 
extraordinary bearer. Fruit ripe early in July. 

No. 3. Black Tartarian. One of the finest 
and most productive cherries ; the size is large, heart- 
shaped ; the color, when fully ripe, is black ; flesh 
dark red, tender, and of superior flavor. Ripe early 
in July. 

No. 4. Napoleon Bigarreau. The tree of this 
variety is remarkable for the vigor and beauty of its 
growth ; the leaves are large and smooth. It is a 
fine large white cherry, ripening in July. As they 
have just come into bearing upon small trees, we 
cannot as yet say how productive they may be. 

[This variety is more productive in our soil, than No. 3.] 

No. 5. Black Heart. A well known and 
favorite cherry, of medium size ; the skin, when at 
maturity, is black ; flesh dark red, tender, and of 
fine flavor. Ripe in July. Very productive. We 
seldom see this cherry brought to market perfectly 
ripe ; when suffered to remain on the tree till they 
have acquired their proper color, they are very supe- 
rior. 

No. 6. Florence. This cherry resembles the 
White Bigarreau, but is a little more oblong ; the 
flesh more tender, and ripens a few days earlier. 
Very fine and productive. 



CHERRIES. 113 

No. 7. Elton. A new and very fine cherry, 
raised by Mr. Knight, President of the London Hor- 
ticultural Society. It is of medium size, long heart- 
shape ; of a beautiful cream color, marbled with 
bright red next the sun ; flesh rich and excellent. 
It is ripe about the first of July, and promises, 
when the tree has attained a proper size, to be a 
great bearer. 

No. 8. White Bigarreau. One of the largest 
and finest cherries ; the form obtuse, heart-shaped ; 
skin pale yellow, with a bright red cheek ; flesh very 
firm, juicy, sweet and fine flavored. Ripe in July. 
This cherry has the reputation of being a bad 
bearer. In our orchard it bears abundantly, and, 
owing to the hardness of its flesh, is not liable to 
injury from birds ; on this account it is highly 
deserving of cultivation. 

No. 9. Black Eagle. This is a new cherry. 
The size is sometimes large, shape nearly that of the 
black heart ; skin a very dark purple ; flesh tender, 
of superior flavor ; the young trees bear well. Ripe 
in July. 

No. 1 0. Gridley. Originated on the farm of 
Mr. Gridley, in Roxbury, Mass. Fruit of medium 
size, nearly round ; skin black ; flesh firm, rather 
dry, of good flavor, and a most abundant bearer. 
Ripe in July. 

10* 



114 FRUIT BOOK. 

No. 11. Downer. This fine cherry originated 
in the garden of Samuel Downer, Esq. in Dorches- 
ter. It is a large, round cherry, of a light red color ; 
flesh firm, and of a fine sprightly flavor. It ripens 
in July, and is very productive. 

No. 12. Late Duke. The size is large, heart 
shape, rather flat ; the skin a shining dark red ; flesh 
tender, juicy and good. It is a great bearer. Ripe 
late in July. 

No. 13. White Mazzard. A new fruit, which 
originated in the Pomological Garden, from a stone 
of the White Bigarreau ; it is of the size, form, and 
color, of the Elton ; the tree is of a handsome and 
upright growth, and bears well. Ripe in August. 

No. 14. Plumstone Morello. This is the lar- 
gest and finest of the acid cherries ; the skin is very 
dark red, when fully ripe it is nearly black ; flesh 
dark red, and of a sharp, rich, and agreeable flavor. 
A great bearer; it remains late on the tree in a 
sound state. 

Added by the compiler of this edition. 

No. 15. Manning's Black Bigaireau. This 
cherry, a seedling from the White Bigarreau, is of a 
fine sprightly flavor, flesh firm, a great bearer, not 
subject to rot at the time of ripening, which is in the 
middle of July. 



GRAPES. 115 

No. 16. Mottled Bigarreau. This is also a 
seedling of Mr. Manning's from the White Bigar- 
reau ; it is a superior large and sweet cherry, ripen- 
ing from ten days to a fortnight earlier than its 
parent, and less liable to rot on the tree ; we consider 
it as good a variety as we possess. Ripe in July. 

No. 17. Early Red and Yellow. Fruit medi- 
um size, obtuse, heart-shaped, light red on a yellow 
ground ; sweet and juicy, a great bearer, and the 
earliest cherry we cultivate, ripening in June. This 
variety was raised by Mr. Manning from the seed of 
the White Bigarreau. 



THE GRAPE. 

Great difficulties are attendant upon the raising of 
foreign grapes in the open air, except in our cities, 
where, occasionally) a crop is obtained of the Chas- 
selas or Sweetwater. In this compilation we intend 
to confine ourselves to out-door culture, and of the 
variety which we have cultivated for ten years past, 
viz., the " Isabella," a native grape, introduced from 
South Carolina some years since by William Prince, 
of New York. This vine is extraordinary for the 
vigor of its growth and great productiveness. A 
single one planted on Long Island, produced, in 
1820, eight bushels. It is a late fruit, and conse- 
quently in a shady situation, or upon an open trellis, 
rarely ripens its berries. It should be trained to a 



116 FRUIT BOOK. 

wall, fence, or outbuilding, where it can receive the 
sun's rays nearly the whole day, at least from nine 
o'clock in the morning to three or four in the after- 
noon. We recommend this grape, from the circum- 
stance that we have never, as yet, been able to find 
any other variety which, upon the whole, is prefera- 
ble. The " Catawba," considered by Adlum to be 
worth all others as a wine grape, we have found to 
be a still later variety, having cultivated it for two 
years without ripening a single bunch. In the culti- 
vation of the Isabella we have found the following 
method, (which we tried a few years since,) to accele- 
rate the growth of this vine, as well as its flowering, 
viz. Remove the top earth from around the trunk 
as far as the roots extend, and then place large 
stones upon the surface, watering occasionally, par- 
ticularly in dry weather, with soap suds. These 
stones retain the heat, which they received from the 
sun's rays during the day, a great part of the night. 
We know of no fruit which will, with such certainty, 
annually produce a crop, as this variety of grape. 
This vine is so luxuriant in its growth, and the im- 
mense quantity of wood which it annually produces, 
requires frequent use of the pruning knife, as it 
will always set more fruit than it can bring to matu- 
rity, which but serves to weaken and exhaust the 
plant. The importance attached to this point of 
culture, in reference to the capability of the vine for 
fruiting in foreign countries, as stated by Miller, is 
" That when gentlemen let out vineyards, there is 
always a clause inserted in their leases, to direct how 



GRAPES. 117 

many shoots shall be left upon each vine, and the 
number of eyes to which the branches must be short- 
ened." This is done to prevent the exhausting of 
the roots, and rendering them so weak as not to 
recover their wonted strength for several years. The 
pruning of the Isabella grape here is generally done 
in the fall, which should be done at or soon after the 
gathering of the fruit ; for by this early pruning, the 
buds are said to push earlier in the following spring. 
We have generally performed this in March. This 
season is often objected to, from the fear of their 
bleeding ; this, however, rarely takes place, pro- 
vided it is performed early, and the section which 
is laid bare be presented to the sun's rays, which 
will almost invariably close up the sap vessels. They 
should, therefore, be cut from the outside, inward, 
in an oblique direction. 

In the cultivation of this grape, we have found 
that the shoots which come out from the main stock, 
nearest the ground, should be trained up for annual 
bearers, and that in the summer pruning, the laterals 
which spring out from the joint upon the strong 
wood should not be broken out close to the fruit bud 
for the next season, (as is often done to the loss of 
fruit,) but cut off above the first joint. The laterals 
or side shoots containing bunches of fruit, (two 
bunches, at the most, should be suffered to remain 
upon one shoot,) should be topped when they are 
about six inches in length, always leaving one joint 
beyond the fruit ; the tendrils should also be taken 
off near the branch, for if left they will often entwine 
themselves round the adjacent shoots, and cripple 



118 FRUIT BOOK. 

them. The proper soil for the grape vine is of more 
importance than is generally supposed ; for, as Hoare 
remarks of English culture, (which will apply in a 
great measure to our own,) " that vines may be 
seen in all parts of the country, the fruit on which 
looks well during the early part of the season ; but 
when the ripening season arrives, the berries become 
green and hard, or otherwise they shrivel and decay. 
These results are sure to be produced when the roots 
grow in a soil that is too wet and adhesive, and into 
which the sun and air cannot freely penetrate." 

The Isabella vine will grow most luxuriantly in 
rich, deep soils, producing large shoots and leaves, 
but the shoots and fruit ripen later, if they ripen at 
all. The best soil we consider to be that of a light 
loam, not deeper than twenty inches, mixed in with 
bones, old mortar, oyster shells, &c. " Retentive 
clays," as Loudon justly observes, " are the worst 
soil for the vine ; " they are particularly so if upon a 
wet and cold sub-soil. 

The grape is easily raised from cuttings ; these 
must be taken from shoots of the last summer's 
growth, taken off the vine previous to the swelling 
of the buds in the spring ; shorten these to three 
joints, and, when they admit, let each cutting have 
about an inch of the previous year's wood at its 
bottom ; they may be planted either in nursery rows, 
or in places where they are finally to remain, observ- 
ing to plant them somewhat slanting, and so deep 
that only one joint or eye may appear above ground. 
Vines are also propagated by layers of young shoots, 
or with part of the branch they proceed from ; laying 



GRAPES. 119 

them from three to four or five inches deep in the 
earth ; leaving three eyes of the shoot out of the 
ground, and shortening the top if too long. Or, you 
may make layers in large pots, placed near the vine ; 
and either draw the layer shoot through the hole at 
the bottom of the pot, and fill up the pot with earth, 
or bend the layer into the top of the pot a proper 
depth into the earth. In the former method, a strip 
of bark should be taken off quite round the branch, 
or a piece of wire drawn tightly around, at the place 
where the roots are wanted. In either method, 
when the layers are rooted next autumn, cut them 
off from the parent vine. 

Upon the subject of manuring vines, the following, 
from one of the most distinguished writers on Agri- 
cultural Chemistry of modern times, Doctor Justus 
Liebig, of Europe, appears to us rational, as it seems 
to follow nature in her modes of enriching the 
soil. 

"I remember, (says Fauenfelder,) that twenty 
years ago, a man called Peter Muller, had a vine- 
yard here, which he manured with the branches 
pruned from the vines, and continued this practice 
for thirty years. His way of applying them was to 
hoe them into the soil, after having cut them into 
small pieces. His vineyard was always in a thriving 
condition ; so much so, indeed, that the peasants 
here speak of it to this day, wondering that old 
Muller had so good a vineyard, and yet used no ma- 
nure." 

Another example of this method of manuring 



120 



FRUIT BOOK. 



vines, is from Wilhelm Ruff, who says, " that for the 
last ten years, I have been unable to place dung on 
my vineyard, because I am poor, and can buy none. 
But I was very unwilling to allow my vines to decay, 
as they are my only source of support in my old age ; 
and I often walked very anxiously among them, with- 
out knowing what I should do. At last, my neces- 
sities became greater, which made me more attentive, 
so that I remarked that the grass was longer in some 
spots, where the branches of the vine fell, than on 
those where there were none ; so I thought upon 
the matter, and then said to myself, if these branches 
can make the grass strong and green, they must also 
be able to make my plants grow better, and become 
strong and green. I dug, therefore, my vineyard as 
deep as if I would put dung into it, and cut the 
branches into pieces, placing them in the holes, and 
covering them with earth. In a year I had the very 
great satisfaction to see my barren vineyard become 
quite beautiful. This plan I continued every year, 
and now my vines grow splendidly, and remain the 
whole summer, green, even in the greatest heat. All 
my neighbors wonder very much how my vineyard 
is so rich, and that I obtain so many grapes from it ; 
and yet they all know that I have put no dung upon 
it for ten years." 

This proves, says Liebig, that a vineyard may be 
retained in fertility without the application of animal 
matter, when the leaves and branches pruned from 
the trees, are cut into small pieces and used as a 
manure. 



THE QUINCE. 121 



THE QUINCE. 

This fruit is a native of Austria and other parts of 
Europe, and was introduced into England at an 
early period, from whence we probably received it. 
They are said to have been early used in Europe for 
hedges and fences to gardens and vineyards. The 
medicinal properties of this fruit was at one time in 
repute. There are two well known varieties, viz. : 
the apple or orange, and the Portugal or pear-shaped. 
The former, which is the best known in New Eng- 
land, has leaves of a more ovate form, and bark of a 
lighter color than those of the latter. They both 
produce the finest fruit when grown in a soft moist 
soil, and warm exposure, and can be produced by 
cuttings in such soil. These trees, or bushes, should 
be planted from ten to twelve feet apart, requiring 
little pruning. They should, however, be kept free 
from suckers, and all old decayed wood. They 
are easily grafted under the bark in early spring, or 
budded in August and September. The orange we 
have considered to be earlier in its ripening, and 
larger sized fruit than the Portugal. Mclntosh re- 
marks that he has always observed the quince to 
succeed the best on the alluvial banks of rivers. 
There has been an increased attention to the culti- 
vation of the quince, for a few years past, as a mar- 
ket fruit. 



THE RASPBERRY. 

This fruit, which has improved greatly under cul- 
11 



122 FRUIT BOOK. 

tivation, is easily grown, as the old plants send up, 
annually, a plenty of suckers from their roots, which 
should be taken up in autumn or spring, and planted 
where they are to remain. Among the varieties 
which we have seen, the Franconia Red, Gowen's 
Seedling, (which resembles this variety) and the 
White Antwerp, are the most desirable sorts. In 
the selection of young sucker shoots to set in the 
spring, choose those that are of strong growth, from 
three to four feet high, detached from the old stools 
with good roots, prune the top to the first good bud, 
plant them in rows four feet and a half, or five feet 
asunder, by three feet ; prune out all dead stems, of 
the last summer bearers, from the old roots, as the 
same shoots or stems never bear but once, being 
succeeded by young shoots produced from the root, 
every summer, which becomes barren next year, and 
perishes the following winter, and should be now cut 
out as above, close to the ground ; part of the young 
shoots should also be cut away, leaving but four or 
five of the strongest on each stock. Prune off the 
tops of those that remain, leaving them about five 
feet high, which increases the size of the fruit, as 
well as to encourage the growth of suckers for the fol- 
lowing year. This cutting, however, should not be 
done in the spring, until all chance of severe frost 
is over. The stems should afterwards be tied lightly 
together at the top, or to stakes placed in the ground. 
With regard to the proper soil for this fruit, different 
opinions have existed. Mclntosh says, " all that 
is required, we think, is a deep, rich, and humid soil, 



STRAWBERRY. 123 

for upon shallow, dry, and poor soils, they neither 
produce such fine fruit, nor do the plants last as 
long. In deep alluvial soils, this fruit attains a per- 
fection seldom seen elsewhere." 

Cultivators generally approve of a soil of the above 
description, and most of them recommend a situation 
either naturally or artificially shaded. This is very 
necessary here, under our July and August sun, that 
the plants should be grown in a half shady position. 
Some cultivators, with the view of obtaining large 
fruit, cut away all the suckers, and also the young 
wood ; by that means larger fruit is obtained, but 
the plants are rendered useless for future bearing, 
and are consequently destroyed, and fresh plantations 
must be formed. 



STRAWBERRY. 

There are numerous varieties of this fruit, and 
new sorts are constantly being produced in Europe, 
as well as in our country. The late president 
of the London Horticultural Society, of London, 
Thomas Andrew Knight, had not less than four hun- 
dred varieties of this fruit in his garden, almost all 
of his own raising. Few plants multiply more 
readily than the strawberry, either by suckers from 
the main stem, or by runners, which extend to a 
considerable length, and strike root at every joint, 
from which a new plant springs. These, when 
rooted, are separated from the parent, and -planted 
out where they are to remain. They are also in- 



124 FRUIT BOOK. 

creased by seeds ; but unless, in the case of the 
Wood, and Alpine sorts, this is rarely attempted. 

These sorts are thus raised by many. The seeds 
are sown in the spring, in a bed of light, rich mould, 
and by August the plants will be of a proper size for 
setting out. These differ from other sorts in quick- 
ness of bearing, as most others sown in the spring, 
will not produce fruit under two years. The Alpine 
will continue to bear fruit throughout the season ; 
but although a constant succession of fruit is ob- 
tained through the season of vegetation, the supply 
is but very limited, and it is consequently not a pro- 
fitable variety for common culture. There are a 
number of fine varieties in general cultivation, pro- 
lific, and of fine flavor. Among those we should 
recommend Hovey's Seedling, a new and very large 
variety ; Bishop's Orange, Warren's Seedling, and 
the Early Virginia ; these are all desirable sorts ; the 
last named variety is generally considered to be the 
most profitable for an early market strawberry. 

" With respect to the season for planting this fruit, 
opinions are somewhat at variance ; some recom- 
mending autumn, and others, spring ; (we prefer the 
latter in our region.) If the plants are strong, and 
have been selected from the earliest runners, they 
will succeed very well if planted in the fall. Gamier, 
an English cultivator, makes his beds in August, or 
as soon as the fruit is gathered. Keen, however, 
says, he has " always found the spring better, plant- 
ing them in beds containing three or four rows, and 
the plants in each row at a certain distance from 



STRAWBERRY. 125 

each other, leaving an alley between each bed the 
distance of the rows." Lindley " prepares the ground 
for his plants by trenching twenty inches deep, and 
adding a quantity of half-rotted dung ; the roots of 
strawberries, penetrating as they do to a consid- 
erable depth, it is at their extremities that they, in 
common with all plants, take up their nourishment." 
He plants in beds of four rows each, with alleys 
from two feet, to two feet and a half, between the 
beds. The stronger growing sorts are set fifteen 
inches apart between the rows, and the same dis- 
tance between each plant. The medium sized 
growers (Early Virginia) are allowed twelve inches 
each way ; and the smaller growing, such as the 
Alpine, twelve inches by nine. Shaded and dark 
situations, or under the drip of trees, although some- 
times chosen, are unfavorable for this fruit. They 
ought to be accommodated with an open, airy, and 
warm exposure. 

" After the plantation is once made, the principal 
attention required is, keeping the ground free from 
weeds by repeated hoeing. The practice of Keen is 
not only to keep the ground clear from weeds, but on 
no account to allow any other crop to be planted 
between the rows ; and I recommend (says he) to 
scatter some loose straw, or long dung, between the 
rows, as it serves to keep the ground moist, enriches 
the strawberry, and forms a clean bed for the trusses 
of fruit to lie upon ; and thus,' by a little extra 
trouble and cost, an abundant crop may be ob- 
tained." 

11* 



126 FRUIT BOOK. 

Some cultivators recommend cutting off the leaves 
of strawberry plants in autumn ; while others, with 
better reason, highly disapprove of this course, as also 
the practice of digging between the rows in autumn. 
Knight, and also Young, says, " that this practice of 
digging shortens the lateral roots, and the plants not 
only lose the true sap, which such roots abundantly 
contain, but the organs themselves, which the plants 
must depend upon for supplies of new food in the 
spring, must be, to a considerable extent, destroyed." 
Strawberry beds in this latitude should be covered 
in the fall with leaves, straw, litter, or seaweed ; this 
last article we have used in preference- to any other 
material, as it is not subject to heat and rot, and is 
more easily removed in the spring. 

The method of cultivating the strawberry in hills 
we approve, particularly for the larger growing varie- 
ties. Cutting off the runners as they appear ; the 
roots will, under this treatment, throw out a greater 
quantity of fruit, and larger berries. This course of 
culture is peculiarly well adapted for a weedy soil, 
as these are more easily eradicated from around the 
plants. 



THE GOOSEBERRY. 



The Gooseberry, in its wild or uncultivated state, 
is found in most countries of Europe, as also in this 
country. They have increased in size under culti- 
vation, and the varieties are now so extensive, that 
their names alone would occupy more space than 



GOOSEBERRY. 127 

could be appropriated in this compilation. Seven 
hundred and twenty-two are enumerated by Lindley ; 
these are divided or classed according to their colors, 
white, green, yellow, red, and dark purple. These 
differ much in quality ; some of the largest fruit, 
having a thick skin, are fit only for cooking, while 
others are fine for the table. In our importations of 
this fruit, we have invariably sent for those only 
which are considered the best table varieties, without 
regard to names. The gooseberry bush will flourish 
in almost any soil, but that which is humid and 
richly manured will produce the largest fruit. " The 
best soil," says Rogers, " is a fine fresh loam, neither 
too heavy nor too light, eighteen inches deep, and if 
resting on a sub-soil of clay, so much the better." 
They should be set in the most open and airy situa- 
tion in the garden ; as in a confined and close loca- 
tion, as well as in the hot sun without a good 
circulation of air, they are exceedingly inclined to 
mildew. To destroy the green worm, as also the 
small orange-colored aphides, which often injure the 
bushes and destroy the fruit, we sprinkle the plants 
with salt and water early in the spring, before the 
leaves are developed ; the mixture may then be made 
so strong as to whiten the branches, without affect- 
ing the future 'crop of fruit. Should the leaves or 
buds be in part expanded, the brine should be greatly 
reduced, say one quart of salt to about eight gallons 
of soft water, applied over the bushes from the rose 
of a watering pot. One of the best situations for 
this fruit is upon moist and warm hills. 



128 FRUIT BOOK. 

These bushes are easily raised from cuttings, pro- 
vided you have moist soil, by placing them into the 
ground immediately upon the falling of the leaf, 
when the shoots of the summer are well ripened, or 
very early in the following spring. These should be 
taken from the strongest and cleanest shoots of the 
last summer's growth, rubbing off the buds to within 
three or four at the top ; they should then be in- 
serted from three to five inches deep, according to 
the nature of the soil and situation ; all buds that 
may push below those left at the top, to form the head 
of the bush, should be cut away. Gooseberries bear 
their fruit on the last year's shoots, and on short 
natural studs or spurs ; they will continue to bear on 
the same buds or spurs for many years, especially if 
the branches are kept open and free for the admis- 
sion of the sun and air. To have large fruit, they 
should be trained to resemble a well formed tree in 
miniature ; the ground around the bushes should be 
enriched with well-rotted manure ; cut out all de- 
cayed or irregular branches, let none be permitted 
to grow across each other ; also the superabundant 
lateral shoots of the last summer, on the old wood 
near the ground, only retaining here and there one 
in vacant parts, to form successional bearers, and to 
supply the places of unfruitful branches. 



THE CURRANT. 

Both the black and red Currant are indigenous to 
Britain. The white, which is supposed to be a 



CURRANT. W ^ OFl"29 

hybrid, accidentally produced by (^UWrt; TirM T^s * 
been brought to a high degree of cultivation by the 
Dutch, (who do not however claim it as a native of 
Holland,) are the varieties which our gardens at this 
time present. They are all justly considered to be 
among our most desirable and wholesome fruits. 
Lindley describes six sorts, and the Fruit Catalogue 
of the London Horticultural Society enumerates 
fourteen. The following, under our own cultivation, 
we consider among the best : 

Large white Dutch, amber colored fruit and large bunches. 

" red " dark red fruit and long bunches. 
English black, . dark purple fruit, full bunches. 
Champagne, . . a pale red fruited sort, rather acid. 

The same instructions for the culture of the goose- 
berry will apply in the main to this fruit, with the 
exception that they do not require the like airy situa- 
tion, as they are not liable to mildew. Both fruits 
do better when set in open inclosures than against 
fences or walls. High manuring is as essential for 
the production of large berries in the currant as in 
the gooseberry. Autumnal planting is preferable to 
the spring. They should be set at about five feet 
distance each way, and no branches suffered to grow 
within five or six inches from the ground, all the 
laterals below this being rubbed off, and the bushes 
grown in the form of a small tree. The insects 
which infest the gooseberry are the same with this 
fruit, and the same method used for their extermi- 
nation. Currants and gooseberries, when planted 
by the sides of walks and alleys, are very cumber- 



130 FRUIT BOOK. 

some in general. It is better to plant them in quar- 
ters by themselves, and to make new plantations 
every fifth or sixth year ; for young plants produce 
handsomer fruit than old ones, and more plentifully. 



FRUIT TREES, GIRDLED BY MICE. 

The meadow or field mouse frequently injures or 
destroys trees, particularly in winter, when there are 
deep snows, by gnawing the bark quite round the 
limb through into the wood. 

The best method to preserve such trees, is to pro- 
cure long scions, and, as soon as the bark will peel, 
which will take place on the movement of the sap, 
to insert them by bark grafting or inarching one end 
under the living bark below the debarked circle, 
and the other under the corresponding bark above ; 
then take strong bass matting, and bind it closely 
above and below, covering the whole with a compo- 
sition of clay, cow manure, and hair finely incorpo- 
rated, in order to keep out the sun and air. Each 
end of the scion must be pared auay upon one side, 
previous to their being set, as described in the article 
" Grafting under the Bark." 

The above process is more successful upon the 
apple, pear, and quince, than upon the plum, cherry, 
or peach. 



INDEX 



APPLES. 



Page. Page. 


American Red Juneating 


27 


Michael Henry Pippin 


42 


Bevan's Favorite 


40 


Minister 


39 


Boxford 


30 


Newtown Spitzenberg 


36 


Baldwin 


36 


Oslin 


30 


Blue Pearmain 


33 


Ortley Pippin 


35 


Bellflower 


37 


Porter 


31 


Benoni 


29 


Pennock's Red Winter 


36 


Cann Apple 
Drap d'Or 


41 

28 


Pickman Pippin 
Quince Apple 


33 
42 


Duchess of Oldenburg 


31 


Red Ingestrie 


32 


Danvers Winter Sweet 


38 


Ramsdel's Red Pumpkin 




Early Harvest 


26 


Sweet 


41 


Early Bough 


26 


Rambo, or Romanite 


41 


Early Red Margaret 


27 


Rambour d'Ete 


28 


Fall Harvey 


28 


Red Astracan 


30 


Franklin Golden Pippin 


32 


Rhode Island Greening 


35 


Fameuse 


34 


Ribstone Pippin 


33 


Gravenstein 


33 


Red Quarenden 


34 


Golden Russet 


33 


Red Doctor Apple 


29 


Green Sweet 


40 


Roxbury Russet 


39 


Hawthorndean 


29 


Strawberry Apple 


41 


Hubbardston Nonsuch 


39 


Summer Queen 


27 


Kilham Hill 


30 


Summer Rose 


27 


Kerry Pippin 


32 


Summer Pearmain 


28 


Lady Apple 


37 


Superb Sweet 


40 


Lyscom 


31 


Swaar 


38 


Lovett Sweet 


35 


White Winter Calville 


36 


Mela Carla 


38 


Wine Apple 


34 


Menagere 


34 


Williams's Favorite Red 


29 


Murphy 


35 Yellow Ingestrie 


32 




PEARS. 




Autumn Superb 


60 Beurre Crapaud 


92 


Andrews 


51 


Beurre Bronze 


92 


Amire Joannet 


48 


Beurre Romaine ? 


91 


Beurre d'Amalis 


87 


Beurre d'Aremberg 


85 



132 



FRUIT BOOK. 



Page. 

Beurre Bosc 59 

Beurre Golden of Bilboa 70 

Beurre Van Marum 65 

Beurre Diel 79 

Belmont 92 

Bourgmestre, of Boston S3 

Bergamotte d'Automne 73 

Bloodgood 49 

Bon Chretien Fondante 69 

Belle Lucrative 61 

Belle et Bonne 62 

Buffum 66 

Bleeker's Meadow 76 

Black Pear of Worcester 86 

Chair a'Dame 55 

Capsheaf 65 

Cabot 68 

Columbian Virgalieu 92 

Cumberland 71 

Crawford 53 

Citron de Sirentz 55 

Gushing 56 

Catillac 83 

Dearborn's Seedling 53 

Dix 77 

Duchesse d'Angouleme 65 

Echasserie 80 

Easter Beurre 86 

Fig Pear of Naples 78 

Flemish Beauty 89 

Frederic of Wurtemburg 72 

Fulton 76 

Green Pear of Yair 55 

Gansel's Bergamot 68 

Glout Morceau 91 

Golden Beurre of Bilboa 70 

Hacon's Incomparable 92 

Harvard 76 

Heathcote 60 

Honey 50 

Henry Fourth 62 

Hunt's Connecticut 91 

Jalouse 60 

Johonnot 58 

Josephine 90 



Page. 

Julienne 50 

Jackman's Melting 57 

Lawrence 92 
Louise Bonne de Jersey 71 

Long Green 62 

Lewis 80 

MacLaughlin 92 

Madaleine 48 

Marie Louise 75 
Moorfowl's Egg, of Boston 74 

Muscadine 92 

Naumkeag 65 

Napoleon 74 

Newtown Virgalieu 78 

Petit Muscat 48 

Pope's Quaker 69 

Petre 71 

Princess of Orange 68 

Passe Colmar 81 

Prince's St. Germain 80 

Pound Pear 86 

Raymond 66 

Reine des Poires 69 

Rousselette HatifF 50 

Rousselette de Rheims 73 

Rostiezer 66 

Surpass Vergalieu 63 

Seckel 57 

Surpass St. Germain 83 

Skinless 52 

Stevens's Genesee 88 

Summer Rose 58 

Summer Franc Real 52 

Summer Thorn 55 

St. Ghislain 55 

Sylvanche Verte 78 

Urbaniste 54 
Van Mons Leon Le Clerc 92 

Valle Tranche 55 

Washington 67 
Williams's Bon Chretien 

(Bartlett) 52 

Williams's Early 53 

Wilkinson 73 

Winter Nelis 84 



Belle de Vitry 
Cooledge's Favorite 
Congress Clingstone 



PEACHES. 



97 
99 
98 



Crawford's Early 99 

Early Ann 95 

Early Royal George 95 



INDEX. 



133 



Early York 

George the Fourth 

Grosse Mignonne 

Heath Clingstone 

Malta 

Orange Freestone 

Oldmixon Clingstone 



Page. 
99 

99 
90 
98 



OS 



President 

Red Rareripe 

Red Cheek Melacaton 

Red and Yellow Rareripe 

White Blossom 

White Rareripe 



Page. 

97 
95 
96 
96 
97 



Blue Imperatrice 
Breevort's Purple Wash 

ington 

Bleeker's Gage 
Bingham 

Coe's Golden Drop 
Cooper's Plum 
Cruger's Scarlet Gage 
Dana's Yellow Gage 
Duane's Purple 
Diamond 
Elfrey 
Green Gage 



Black Tartarian 

Black Heart 

Black Eagle 

Davenport's 

Downer 

Early Red and Yellow 

Elton 

Florence 

Gridley 



PLUMS. 




108 


German Prune 


106 


- 


Italian Damask 


103 


104 


Italian Prune 


107 


106 


Kirk's Plum 


104 


107 


Large Long Blue 


105 


108 


Morocco 


103 


106 


Orleans 


104 


108 


Purple Gage 


105 


109 
107 


Prince's Imperial Gage 
Roe's Autumn Gage 


104 
109 


107 


Sharp's Emperor 


109 


106 


Washington 


107 


105 White Sweet Damson 


109 


CHERRIES. 








112 


Late Duke 


114 


112 


Manning's Black Bigar- 




113 


reau 


114 


112 


May Duke 


111 


114 


Mottled Bigarreau 


115 


115 
113 


Napoleon Bigarreau 
Plnmstone Morello 


112 
114 


112 


White Bigarreau 


113 


113 


White Mazzard 


114 



HOME USE 

CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT 
MAIN LIBRARY 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 
1 -month loans may be renewed by calling 642-3405. 
6-month loans may be recharged by bringing books 

to Circulation Desk. 
Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days prior 

to due date. 

ALL BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO RECALL 7 DAYS 
AFTER DATE CHECKED OUT. 




DEC 31976 



INItKLIBRARY LOAN 



371984 



LD21 A-40m-12,'74 
(S2700L) 



General Library 

University of California 

Berkeley 



YB 47351 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY