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Crocker & Co., Publishers. 




Albany is one of the oldest settled towns in the United 
States. St. Augustine settled in 1565; Jamestown in 1607; 
New York in 161 2 ; and Plymouth in 1620, are older. 
When Hudson in 1609 passed up the river which bears his 
name, he may have passed the territory now called Albany ; 
but he made no settlement. Shortly after, Adrian Block and 
some other Dutch adventurers followed in the track of Hud- 
son, and discovered how readily and profitably the trade in 
furs could be carried on with the Indians along the coasts 
and up the rivers. In 1614, the United New Netherlands 
Company, under grant from the States General of Holland, 
established a trading house and fortified it with guns and 
twelve men in Castle Island, four miles below the present site 
of Albany. They named their fort Nassau. The spring 
floods and ice injuring their works, they afterwards removed 
them to higher ground near by. For four years they pursued 
a lucrative trade with the natives, purchasing their furs for 
trinkets and finding a ready market. At the end of this time 
their Charter having expired, the States declined, for some 
reason now unknown, to renew it. But a Charter with al- 
most unlimited powers as to jurisdiction, colonization, 
erecting forts, and trade, was given to a company of wealthy 


Dutch merchants, called the West India Company, in June 
1 62 1. This Company erected a fort on the present site of 
Albany in 1623, and named it Fort Orange. Thus was com- 
menced the settlement of Beaverwyck, now Albany. The 
fort was manned, and a few Dutch traders huddled in their 
shanties close around it, for the purpose of carrying on the fur 
trade with the Indians. 

On account of the slow growth of the colony of New 
Netherlands, the States were induced, in 1629, to pass an 
ordinance, granting to any member of the Company, the 
right of selecting any tract of land, outside of the island of 
Manhattan, sixteen miles on one side, or eight miles on either 
side, of any navigable stream, and extending as far inland as 
the patroon, as the proprietor was called, should choose. 
The chief conditions imposed were the establishment of a 
colony of at least fifty persons over fifteen years of age, on 
said tract, within four years, the payment of five per cent, on 
all trade except that of furs, which the States reserved to 
itself. The patroon and settlers were precluded from any 
voice in the government of the colony, and from any manu- 
facture of cloth ; but this feudal lord, as he might be called, 
had full power over the lands of his tenants. All necessary 
local officers were appointed by him, and unrestricted privi- 
leges of hunting, fowling, and fishing given him. 

Under these grants, Kilian Van Rensselaer, a director of 
the Company, a pearl and diamond merchant, secured, with 
additional purchases made through his agents, land twenty- 
four miles each side the Hudson, and forty-eight miles inland, 
constituting Rensselaerwyck, and including what is now 
Albany county, most of Rensselaer county, and a part of the 
county of Columbia. The first colony came over in 1630 and 


settled near Fort Orange, This fort, with its limited sur- 
roundings was not under the patroon. 

Manhattan, now New York, was the residence of the colo- 
nial governor. This with Beaverwyck and Rensselaerwyck, 
was all that constituted the province of New Netherlands at 
that time. 

The cruel wars with the Indians at Manhattan stirred up 
and kept up by the testy Kieft, did not disturb the settlers 
about Fort Orange. They had been cordially welcomed by 
the Iroquois, with whom, in solemn council, they early made 
a firm and lasting treaty. The Dutchman came neither 
for agriculture, nor for conquest of territory, but for furs and 
peltry. It was his policy to keep peace and make gain. 
The five nations, including the Mohaw^ks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas and Senecas, called collectively the Iroquois, 
possessed nearly all of the present state of New York, west 
of the Hudson, except a portion near the island of Manhattan. 
This was occupied by another tribe. When the Dutch 
arrived here, the Iroquois were at war with the Algonquins, 
or Canada Indians, who had formed an alliance with the 
French. Right glad w^ere they to ally themselves with 
another European nation that knew how to use the terrible 
enginery of powder and guns. So, with this notion of self- 
protection, united with their natural love for trinkets and 
strong drink, it was easy to keep them on terms of peace and 
submission. The treaty was mutually advantageous for long 
years. It brought peace to the Indians and plenty to the 

People of all nations were admitted to this settlement, pro- 
vided they had license from the provincial governor at New 
York and conformed to the regulations of the Company and 


the patroon. And yet Beaverwyck contained only ten houses 
in 1646. A few small farms had been taken up near by ; a 
brewery had been erected by the patroon in 1637 ; some few 
small mills for sawing and grinding for immediate use were 
carried by the wind, by horses, or by the waters of the creeks. 
Still, fur trading was the great business, which no local diffi- 
culty, no alarms of war elsewhere disturbed. The annual trade 
at this time has been estimated at about 16,000 beavers. 

The settlers had little care for learning or religion, only 
for the liberty of trade. The Reformed Dutch Church 
was established by law, and an oath to support the govern- 
ment of Holland was required. The first clergyman that 
appeared in Beaverwyck, came in 1642, and a schoolmaster 
at the same time. A small church was soon erected ; nine 
benches seated the audience. But we have no record of the 
labors or influence of those public teachers. They were sent, 
not called for. 

The fruits of the earth were abundant and cheaply pro- 
cured, so that agriculture received but little attention. The 
Indians brought corn and beans cultivated by the squaws. 
While the province was under the administration of the 
honest-hearted but head-strong Peter Stuyvesant, from 1646 
to 1664, there was much contention of words between the 
governor and the officers of the patroon as to certain privi- 
leges and jurisdiction. These led even to violence and im- 
prisonments. There was, also, besides the Indian hostilities, 
some strife between the colonists in Connecticut and the 
Provincial government at Manhattan. Yet, matters as to the 
fur trade at Beaverwvck were but little disturbed. 



The Province of New Netherlands was easily wrested from 
the hands of the Dutch under Stuyvesant in 1664, by the 
English, who had always claimed it as their territory. Man- 
hattan became New York and Beaverwyck became Albany. 
These lands had been granted by Charles II to his brother 
the Duke of York and Albany, afterwards James II. He 
made his claim good without bloodshed. For a little over a 
hundred years, until the Revolution of 1776, it remained 
under the English rule, with the exception of a few months 
in 1673-4. 

While changes were made in governors and in some of the 
forms of goverment, it was many years before those changes 
disturbed essentially the settlement at Albany. The govern- 
ors were usually of short reign ; some popular, and some 
unpopular. But they were generally so engaged in wars with 
French and Indians, and in petty schemes of their own. or of 
the English crown, that there was little interference with the 
trading and pursuits of this northern town. Albany became 
a city in 1686. In 1698, it had a population of only 803, 
among which there were only five English f^imilies and one 
Scotch family. The rest were still Dutch. The English re- 
([uired them to pay their taxes and obey the government. 
This they did. They were secure in all the possessions they 
owned, and in their religious and family relations. They had 
as little as possible to do with politics or war. With great 
sagacity they managed to keep the Indians on terms of friend- 
ship, and to command all their trade. This trade was as ex- 
tensive as the hunting grounds of the five nations, then 
covering nearly all of the present state of New York. 


In course of time, especiall}- through the influence of the 
patroon, agriculture increased, and there was a surplus of 
wheat and peas. Timber was prepared for the market. A 
few of the settlers made a profitable trade with Xew York 
City in these commodities ; but Albany was not a great 
agricultural region. The fur trade with the Indians was the 
great business just as long as furs could be collected. They 
could be bought cheap and yielded a large profit. Agriculture 
and manufactures, education and religion, the wars of the 
nations, and the affairs of courts were of little interest to these 


The Puritans of New England and the Dutch of New 
Netherlands had met before they met in the wilds of North 
America. Not satisfied with the ritualism of the Church of 
England, a band of English Puritans had gone over to 
Holland early in the 17th century, and there formed a church 
after their own model. The Dutch Reformed Church was 
essentially Calvinistic ; so was the English Church of the 
good pastor, John Robinson. The Hollanders were tolerant ; 
the Puritans were industrious and law abiding. So they got 
on well together. Yet, after a twelve years' residence, the 
Puritan was not sufficiently pleased with that country to make 
it his permanent home. There was a disagreeable element 
in thfe Dutch that did not suit the English. The Englishman 
was a diligent farmer, the Dutchman a greedy trader ; the 
Englishman was seeking for "more light," the Dutchman 
was satisfied with what light he had. The Puritan felt that 
he was only a "pilgrim and a stranger" in Holland, a country 
where he could not train his children as he would, in which 


he could not pursue his vocation as he would; and, above all 
in which he could not enjoy the largest religious liberty. 

Our "Pilgrim Fathers" came to wild New England where 
they at once laid the foundation of " a church without a 
bishop, and a state without a king." They established free 
schools for their children, and taught them lessons in industry, 
frugality, freedom, and piety. 

Our Dutch fathers came about the same time to the beau- 
tiful banks of the Hudson, and pursued the lucrative fur 
trade with the Indians. The school and the church gave them 
no concern. The government was left with rapacious and 
arbitrary governors. 

About 1627, Gov. Bradford, hearing that the Dutch were at 
the mouth of the Hudson, and encroaching upon his territory 
by sending ships to Narragansett Bay to trade, sent Mr. Wins- 
low to remonstrate. The vessel had sailed away before his 
arrrival. Soon after this, Gov. Minuit of Manhattan, sent a 
very friendly letter to Gov. Bradford, congratulating Plymouth 
Colony upon its prosperity, and proposing trade and friendly 
relations in the future. To this the Governor of Plymouth 
replied in the most friendly terms, alluding to the hospitality 
which the Pilgrims had received in Holland, and assuring the 
Governor of New Netherlands that they and their children 
after them would never forget the same. At the same time he 
assured Gov. Minuit, that he must respect the rightful claim 
of the Pilgrims and not allow his skiffs to come to Narragansett 
for beavers. He also complained that the Dutch w^ere selling 
muskets, powder and shot to the Indians. Other courtesies 
of the most pleasing character were kept up during the time of 
Minuit, in which, while each decidedly claimed what he re- 
garded as territorial right, there arose no unfriendly words 
or conduct. 


It is said that the Dutch invited the New Englanders to 
come to the rich and fertile valley of the Connecticut River, 
and that, in turn, the New Englanders advised the Dutch to 
make good their claim to the banks of the Hudson. 

But this pleasant state of things did not continue under the 
rapacious Von Twiller, the testy Kieft, or the honest but head- 
strong Stuyvesant, Kings and States in chartered gifts, had 
got matters strangely mixed. England and Holland had both 
given away the same territory when it belonged to neither. It 
was the home of the aboriginal Indian. 

The New Englander pushed his way into the valley of 
Connecticut and all along the coasts and plains of Long 
Island without asking the New Netherlander, and even in 
defiance of his attempts to hinder, when he saw how aggres- 
sive the " Pilgrim '' was inclined to be. The charter, the 
Indian title, and the divine right and duty of cultivating all 
good corn land, furnished his justification. 

In 1643, things had come to such a pass that the colonies of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven, formed a union 
called the United Colonies of New England. Its purposes 
were to protect themselves against the Indians and against 
the encroachments of the Dutch. The population of New 
England was then about 20,000, while that of New Neth- 
erlands was only about 1,000. The English claim was based 
on the prior discovery of North America by Cabot, while the 
Dutch claim was based on the special discovery of Hudson 
and prior occupancy. 

These claims and consequent occupation by the English 
settlers of New England, led to much bitter controversy. 


It was partially but never fully settled until the forced 
surrender, in 1664, of New Amsterdam, and finally, of all the 
Dutch claims in North America, to the English under Charles 
II. who had given all this territory to his brother, the Duke of 
York and Albany. 

Might made right. It is not now our province to discuss 
the question of natural or acquired right at that time. But 
certain it is, that the restless New Englander, pushing his 
way with his bold self assertion, his indomitable energy, and 
his intense love of individual freedom of thought and expres- 
sion, had forced himself into the New Netherlands, and made 
himself felt in its government, so that the wise, good and 
inflexible Peter Stuyvesant, the last of the Dutch Governors, 
saw himself compelled to yield his authority or fight and do 
worse. New Amsterdam became New York, Beaverwyck 
became Albany; and this without bloodshed. This was the 
first New England in Albmy. 

But this was not fully accomplished. The world moved 
slowly then ; but it moved. Years of thought and discussion, 
of doing and enduring, had yet to come. More than a century 
of war and blood ; of life and death ; of toil and struggle, 
before we were the United States of America. 

The English crown did .not readily yield to the claims of 
the people, nor were the people quite ready to sever them- 
selves from their mother England. The autocracy of Great 
Britain had not done their greatest folly in tyrannizing over the 
land of nobles in peasant garb. These nobles were right, 
and were growing mighty. They endured and waited ; 
thought and discussed. It was so in New England and 

Meanwhile, the Dutch, the Scotch, the Irish, the Swede- 


and the Huguenot were looking on and learning. A day was 
to come when they would a'l see alike, and become one 
^reat people. 

The money-loving Hollander was little disturbed by the 
changes that were going on. It was especially so at Albany. 
He had had little to do with the government. He was up the 
river 150 miles, and things in the New Amsterdam -that was, 
were done before he knew it. The new English government 
told him he would not be disturbed in his gainful trade, if he 
Avould take the oath of allegiance and respect the English 
•officers. He accepted the situation and made good bargains 
as before. 

He, somehow, didn't like the Yankee, and the Yankee 
■didn't like him. Few of them came to Albany until after the 
Revolution. There was a mutual repulsion. One hundred 
years later, a common cause, common needs, feelings and 
struggles brought them to know each other. Then the sons 
of the Hollander and of the English Pilgrim of the early part 
■of the 17th century became friends again, as they are now. 


But as to the wars. In 1690, New England had over 
200,000 people within its borders. There were settlements 
all over it. The State of New York was limited to settlements 
on the Hudson, a little way up the Mohawk, and on Long 
Island. Then came King William's war, (1690-97) between 
France and England. Schenectady was burned. The New 
England settlers suffered the most direful atrociiies from the 


The brave Col. Schuyler of Albany did some service in that 
war. But Albany was fortified and palisadoed, and its citi- 
zens stayed safely at home, while Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut did the fighting and enduring to protect them. 

Queen Anne"s w.-ir came (1702-13) ; and while blood flowed 
in nearly every village in jVIassachusetts and New Hampshire, 
the peace of Albany was not disturbed. 

In the war between England and France, (1744-48) when 
the strongly fortified Louisburg fell by New England arms, 
Albany had but little to do, nothing to suflTer, except it may 
be from the heavy debt that came upon the colonies after it 
was over. 

It was in the '* French War" (1754-60) that France lost all 
its possessions in North America. Sir Wm. Johnson was in 
the service, and writes, in 1755, of "great opposition from the 
Dutch traders at Albany," and adds, "by their cabals and 
weight in the assembly may perhaps distress" ; "those people 
are so devoted to their own private profit that every other 
publick principle has ever been sacrificed to it." The fighting 
in that war was mostly done by New England. The city of 
Albany was making money by furnishing supplies. 


There was held at Albany, as a central place, in June 1754,- 
a Provmcial Congress. It was not large ; but its deliberations 
looking to a union of the colonies and securing the Indian 
friendship and aid, were wise and had great lasting results. 

Among those present were Theodore Atkinson of New 
Hampshire, Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts, and that 
common-sense patriot Benjamin Franklin of Boston, repre- 


senting Pennsylvania. They were among the early New 
Englanders in Albany. 

The people of the Hudson and Mohawk valleys were very 
slow to unite with the New England, Virginia, and other 
<:olonies against British aggression prior to the revolution of 
1776. The battle of Lexington aroused the city of New 
York, and the more patriotic and far seeing in Albany. The 
Van Rensselaers, Schuylers, Gansevoort, and a few other 
leading men of Holland descent, nobly gave their money and 
their service to the cause of their oppressed countrymen. 
But ihe Dutch generally were apathetic. They preferred the 
peaceful and profitable pursuits of traffic to the expensive and 
hazardous contests of a war for independence. On this point 
Bancroft, Lossing, and other historic writers are authority. 

Albany was fortified and garrisoned. Its inhabitants lived 
in a village fenced by palisades. It had gates guarded by a 
watch ; and block houses. Loaded arms were kept by the 
citizens in their houses, in their stores, and in church. Scouts 
were on the lookout for approach of danger. They were well 
defended. They were never attacked nor beleaguered. They 
complained when soldiers were billetted upon them and when 
impressments were made. But they were delighted with the 
trade they brought them, the lively society they made, and the 
protection they gave. All historians agree that tories were 
numerous hereabouts. 

Gen. John Stark, who was, for some time, in command of 
the Northern Department of the Army of the Revolution, 
having his headquarters at Albany, was on the most cordial 
terms with Gen. Schuyler and other patriots of the city. In 
1781, he writes to Gov. Clinton, "I am fully confident that 
George the III. of Great Britain, has many subjects in this 


city who would willingly lay down half, nay, even the whole 
of their estates in his service, and trust in his royal clemency 
for the re-j'ayment of the money so profitably laid out." 
Again. "Albany is a very dangerous place to put men into." 
Again, '-I have no hopes of any assistance from Albany; it 
is not their inclination to fight away from their own castle." 

The battles of the Revolution were chiefly fought by the 
men of New England. It was so not only at Lexington 
and Bunker Hill and Bennington; it was so at Saratoga and 
Trenton, and all through the war that sustained the Declara- 
tion of Independence and gave us a nation of freemen. They 
did it under such leaders as Allen and Warner of Vermont ; 
Bedell, Rogers, Poor, Stark, and Sullivan of New Hampshire ; 
Warren, Knox, Prescott, Lyman, Thomas, Winslow, Lincoln, 
Heath and Williams of Massachusetts ; Wooster, Knowlton, 
Putnam and Arnold of Connecticut, and Greene of Rhode 
Island, — not forgetting some brave coadjutors from New 
York and other Colonies. 

These statements are due to the truth of history. Until the 
final adoption of the constitution of 1787, the sympathies and 
hearty co-operation of the Dutch people of New York, with 
a few noble exceptions, were not with the English speaking 
people of the other colonies, in the contest for freedom and a 
United Government of the States. But when it was accom- 
plished, they became law abiding, wealth producing citizens. 
Such was their nature. The Union to-day, and the State of 
New York, in particular, have reason to be glad in the pow- 
erful influence which the domestic and social virtues, the 
indomitable patience and perseverance, simple manners, and 
steady habits of the early Dutch settlers did have and are 
still having, upon the moral and civil institutions of the 


country. Virginia, New York and Massachusetts are now 
one; welded togetlier by common struggles and common 
triumphs; common blood and common interests: The 
patriot graves and historic monuments of great deeds are 
one. The treasures of history and of industry are one. The 
great past and the vast future belong to us all. 


I find no certain evidence that any New Englanders came 
to Albany for permanent settlement prior to the Revolution 
of 1776. They were to be found in New York City, and in 
some of the lower counties, earlier than this date. In a list ot 
the heads of families in the city in 1697, five are reported as 
English in a population of 803 ; but these were probably 
direct from England. There were English soldiers and 
officers in the fort at that time. The Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts sent missionaries here, 
who preached to the people and made some efforts to 
christianize the Indians. There were English chaplains here. 
An English Episcopal Church was erected near the fort, in 
State street, in 17 16, the services in which were attended by 
the garrison and a very few residents. 

Soon after the close of the French war in 1763, a Presby- 
terian church was formed, the attendants upon which were, at 
first, mostly Scotch, with a few English. 

The war of the Revolution opened the way to the State of 
New York for the New Englander. He had been there 
during the wars, and saw rich lands, vast forests, and fine 
products. It was a field for adventure and enterprise open to 
his active nature. New England farmers were poor. The long 


wars had made them so. The boys must do something. Said 
a Connecticut farmer to his son, — " My son, here is a horse ; 
it is all I can give you ; take it and go." He came to Albany, 
opened a tavern, and became a wealthy and influential citizen. 
Usually these emigrants to "York State" were tillers of the 
<»oil, with a few mechanics and traders. Westward the stream 
of population ran. Albany was the route through which they 
took their line of march, usually going beyond any settlements 
into the wilderness. They feared nothing but the savages. 
The Yankee, John Sullivan, and the treaty which soon fol- 
lowed had reduced them to quiet. Some stopped in Oneida, 
some in Montgomery, some in Madison, and some in Onon- 
daga ; others pushed their way on to the Genesee Valley, 
sending out branch colonies to the northern and southern 
parts of the state ; filling, in time, nearly the whole territory 
west of the Hudson, except the small section occupied by the 
Dutch on the Hudson and Mohawk, and by the Germans of 
Herkimer County. And here now live their descendants. 
Volumes could not tell what they have done in this 19th. 
century, and how they did it. They can only say, look around 
you and behold ! They came ; they saw ; they conquered. 

But we are writing about Albany. That there were very 
few in Albany who spoke the English tongue, and, hence, 
few New Englanders previous to about 1790, is evidenced by 
the testimony of Dr. William Bay, son of Rev. Andrew Bay, 
who was pastor of the first Presbyterian church some years 
on from 1765. Dr. Bay was born in Albany, Oct. 14, 1773, 
educated at Columbia College, and spent a long professional 
life here. He states that the population was so essentially 
Dutch in his boyhood, that but few of his mates could speak 
any other than the Dutch language. Rev. j\Ir. Rogers, in his 


History of the Reformed Church in Albany, observes that the 
Rev. Dr. Westerlo, of that church, "in 1782, began to preach 
half the clay in English." 

There are few living now who are authority in regard to the 
nativity of the families who came to this city prior to 1800. 
Death and removal have left many of them without de- 
scendants here to-day. In other cases, no family records 
dating so far back have been kept. We have spent much time 
in research as to this matter, and give the best results we can 
up to this writing. We have resorted to imperfectly kept 
church records, records of tomb-stones, and to the newspapers 
of the time. MunselFs Annals' have contributed their aid. 
Tradition of the older and more observing citizens has given its 
often unsatisfactory help. All these have been compared and 
reduced to probability; in most cases, we trust, to certainty; 
but a certainty far too incomplete. And, yet, enough is 
presented, we think, to show when, why, and in what manner 
the elements of New England civilization were introduced 
into Albany, and finally, commingling with all that is peculiarly 
worthy in the Dutch, with a share of English, Scotch, Ger- 
man, Irish, French, Huguenot, and Hebrew, and a sprinkling 
of other nationalities, have at length, become so modified 
and assimilated by intermarriages, social and business inter- 
course, and the refining influences of religious and intel- 
lectual culture, that there are now few, if any, cities in our 
union that can exhibit to-day, as a result of all these, a 
state of society more homogeneous, harmonious, healthy, 
intelligent, and moral, than this city of Albany. 

Among the emigrants from New England making their way 
westward for home and fortune, many, of a trading turn, saw 
the natural advantages of Albany, and went no further. 


Others tarried here and opened the genuine " traveler's home/' 
a New England tavern. The most important of these, for 
many years, were kept almost exclusively by Yankees. Still 
others remained to pursue the various mechanic arts demand- 
ed at that time. Nearly all "came to stay," and were suc- 
cessful. Then soon followed the school-master, the doctor, 
the lawyer, and now and then a clergyman. 

The tide of emigration was astonishing to the old inhabi- 
tants. Says a letter written from Otsego County, in 1789: 
"The vast multitudes of people that come daily to this 
country have caused a scarcity of provisions amounting 
almost to a famine. In Genesee it is quite so ; corn will bring 
ten shillings there in cash, and six shillings in Albany; and it 
is said that potatoes at Niagara are twenty shillings. How- 
ever alarming this may be, it proceeds from no other cause 
than that of an innumerable quantity of people flocking in. 
I have had 30 in a day seeking land of me." Says another ; 
'• Complaints were frequent at that time of the scarcity of 
provisions in the western part of the state on account of the 
flood of immigrants. In the vicinity of Niagara, it was 
difficult to subsist the new comers." But these " new comers " 
went to work on their fertile farms, and soon had enough and 
to spare. Bread stuffs were sent on in plenty for the Albany, 
New York, and Boston trade. So industrious, frugal, and 
enterprising were they. 

Says a local paper in June, 1791 : — " Motley processions of 
eastern emigrants are daily passing through the city. Albany 
is the grand thoroughfare to the western country. The ** Far 
West " of these New Englanders, as they mostly are, is the 
Genesee Valley; and they are accompanied by their families, 
their flocks, and their implements." 


A treaty of peace and amity was made at Canandaigua, in 

1794, between the United States and the Six Nations. The 
fear of danger from Indian depredations was removed. The 
Genesee Valley immediately became the El Dorado to the 
stirring people of the eastern states. More than before went 
on the " moving to York State." 

Says another writer concerning the farm-lands of Albany 
County, with which the Dutch had done but little in all those 
years since 1623, •' The settlements on these lands did not 
increase very rapidly until the Yankees poured in about 1794.'" 

It may be remarked that some of the best citizens of the 
country towns about Albany to-day are descendants of these 
Yankees . 

It is written that a citizen of Albany on the 28th of February, 

1795, took a count of that day's travel through the city, and 
enumerated five hundred sleighs from sunrise to sunset. 
Another estimated, near that time, that about twelve hundred 
sleighs freighted with men, women, children and furniture 
had passed through the city from the east within three suc- 
cessive days. It was a phenomenon to the quiet burghers of 
the staid old town ; and many wondered if New England was 
being depopulated. But its sons, and daughters, too, Tiave 
been going " out west," and even south, ever since, so that 
they are known by their works, in every state, territory, and 
city in the land. Yet New England is full of busy, populous 
cities ; and its villages and rural districts are dotted with 
pleasant, intelligent, and virtuous homes, made thrifty by 
industry and economy. 

In 1800, Albany, although it had been settled over 175 
years, and been a city 114 years, and occupied a commanding 
position as the capital of the state and as a commercial center. 


was a small town. Its population was only 5,387, show- 
ing an increase of nearly 2,000 since 1790. "The face 
of nature around it had been but little disturbed," says Mr. 
Worth, who came to Albany as a banker, about 1801, in his 
" Recollections of Albany." Old as it was, it still retained its 
primitive aspect, and still stood in all its original simplicity ; 
maintaining its quaint and quiescent character, unchanged, 
unmodified, unimproved ; still particularly adhering, in all its 
walks, to the old track. The rude hand of innovation, how- 
ever, was then just beginning to be felt ; and slight as was the 
touch, it was felt as an injury, or resented as an insult. * * 
" All was antique, clean, and quiet." * * " Nq noise, no 
hurry, no confusion." "No putting up, nor pulling down; 
no ill-looking excavations, no leveling of hills, no filling up of 
valleys ; in short, none of those villainous improvements 
which disfigure the face of nature, and exhibit the restless 
spirit of the Anglo-Saxon race." The stinted pines still cov- 
ered the hills to the very edge of the city, and the ravines 
and valleys were clothed with evergreens, intermixed with 
briars and spangled with wild rose." "The little islands 
below the town were feathered with foliage down to the very 
water's edge, and bordered with stately trees." "As far as 
the eye could extend up and down the river, all remained 
comparatively wild and beautiful." " Pearl street, was, in 
those days, the west end of the town." " There resided some 
of the most aristocratic of the ancient burghers." The accu- 
mulated profits of trade, united with the simplest habits and 
rigid economy, for nearly two centuries had made the Dutch 
of Albany, even at that day, rich ; and riches, where money is 
the main thing, makes an aristocracy in any town. Aristocracy 
gives dignity of bearing and retirement from business. Our 


graphic writer goes on: — "There, a httle after sunrise, in a 
miid morning, might be seen, sitting by the side of their doors," 
(every Dutch house has a stoop), " the ancient and venerable 
mynheers with their little sharp cocked hats, and red-ringed 
worsted caps, drawn lightly over their heads. There they 
sat, like monuments of a former age, smoking their pipes in 
dignified silence and with phlegmatic gravity. The whole 
line of the street, on either side, was dotted by the little 
clouds of smoke that, issuing from their pipes, and curling 
round their noddles, rose slowly ujd the antique gables, and 
mingled with the morning air, giving beauty to the scene, and 
adding an air of life to the picture." "Albany was indeed 
Dutch, in all its moods and tenses, thoroughly and inveterately 
Dutch. The buildings were Dutch, — Dutch in style, in 
position, attitude and aspect. The people were Dutch, the 
houses were Dutch, and even the dogs were Dutch. If any 
confirmation were wanting as to the origin and character of 
the place, it might be found in the old Dutch church, which 
was itself always to be found in the middle of State street, 
looking as if it had been wheeled out of line by the giants of 
old and there left, or had dropped down from the clouds in a 
dark night and had stuck fast where it fell." "All the old 
buildings in the city, — and they constituted a majority, — were 
but one story high, with sharp peaked roofs, surmounted by a 
rooster, vulgarly called a weathercock. Every house having 
any pretensions to dignity was placed with its gable-end to 
the street, and was ornamented with huge iron numericals, 
announcing the date of its erection ; while from its eaves hung 
wooden gutters or spouts, projected in front some six or seven 
feet, so as to discharge the water from the roof when it rained, 
directly over the center of the side walks." " But the destined 


hour was drawing near. The Yankees were creeping in. 
Every day added to their number ; and the unhallowed hand 
of innovation was seen pointing its impertinent finger at the 
cherished habits and venerated customs of the ancient burgh- 
ers. These meddhng Eastern Saxons had, at length, obtained 
a majority in the city councils." 

After speaking of some of the innovations commenced, 
and the manner of treating some of the leaders in them by 
the native inhabitants, Mr. Worth goes on to say: — "This 
done, they went to sleep again ; and before they awoke new 
swarms had arrived, and a complete and thorough revolution 
had taken place. The Yankees had taken possession of the 
city, and the fate of the Dutch was sealed." 

"A restless, leveling, innovating spirit now prevailed 
throughout the city. The detested word "■iviprovenienf was 
in every mouth, and resistance w^as unavailing. The stinted 
pines became alarmed and gradually receded. The hills them- 
selves gave way ; new streets opened their extended lines, and 
the old ones grew wider. The roosters in the gable-heads, 

* * * now gave it up, and came quietly down. The 
gables in despair soon followed, and more imposing fronts 
soon raised their corniced heads. The old Dutch church 
itself * * * submitted to its fate and fell * * * at 
the foot of State street, which freed from that obstruction, 
thence forward became the Rialto of the city, w-here peddlers 

* ^' *. and country hucksters now do congregate." 

" Even the dogs began to bark in broken English ; many of 
them had, indeed, already caught the Yankee twang, so rapid 
was the progress of refinement. In the process of a few brief 
years, all that was venerable in the eyes of the ancient 
burghers disappeared." " It is hardly necessary to say that 


not an iron rooster has crowed upon the gable-heads, nor a 
civil cocked hat been seen in the ancient city of Albany from 
that day to this." 

The ancient Dutch families, many of them, although wealthy 
and respectable, were never the most enterprising. The 
wealth of traffic, in the first one hundred and fifty years, had 
been poured into the laps of their ancestors while they looked 
on, gathered and hoarded. Now an equally greedy and 
more active people had entered upon the opportunities of the 
situation. Here they frequently, after confidence had been 
gained, induced the original citizen to show his money and 
invest it in active trade. Here, too, it often happened that 
he made himself a member of these old families by making 
an amiable and frugal daughter his partner for life. Then 
the large estates were divided and made to produce incomes 
by the toils and profits of new kinds of traffic, carried on in 
a new way and by a new people. The growth of Albany, as 
compared with more recent cities in our country, has always 
been slow ; but it has been sure. The great West down to 
about 1810, was little but a vast wilderness, tenanted by wild 
beasts and the wilder aborigines. These same descendants of 
the ever-moving, unyielding, all-conquering, Anglo-Saxon 
race, have possessed this vast western territory and made it a 
fruitful field, all full of villages and peoples of productive 
industry. Albany, from its advantageous position, has 
derived wealth and growth from western trade. It is not 
our purpose now to discuss how much more it might have 
done with greater enterprise and foresight. The city has been 
growing, we repeat, since 1800; growing slowly but surely. 
But it has grown because the West has grown. The settlers 
that came from the eastern states, about that time and since, 


with their descendants, have seized their opportunities and 
put wisdom and energy into them. 

The state of feeling that had existed on account of 
conflicting interests as to territory and trade between the 
Dutch and the New Englanders, ever since the days of Peter 
Stuyvesant, had become somewhat modified by the mutual 
sufferings and interests of the French wars, and more by the 
war of the Revolution. But still, among the masses especially, 
there was some of the old jealousy and prejudice remaining 
after the Revolution, and even down to about the date of the 
opening of the Erie Canal, perhaps later. The disappearance 
has been gradual as generations have passed away. Now 
history tells its story without jealousy or prejudice, — simply 
as truth, — ^just as it tells of the Salem Witchcraft, the Negro 
Plot of New York City, and the persecutions which our 
ancestors in common, in that dark day, inflicted upon Quakers 
and Baptists in New England, and upon the Waldenses and 
Lutherans in New York. Elements that were once antago- 
nistic to each other in this city, and thus hindered progress 
in art, commerce, manufactures, education and religion, now 
united, are all strongly pressing on for their advancement. 

Among the New Englanders who went no farther west, but 
stopped on the banks of the Hudson and finally made Albany 
their home during a part, and in many instances, the whole of 
their lives, we first mention those who came about the time 
of the Revolution of 1776 and onward to about the beginning 
of this century. They were the pioneers in this new coloniza- 
tion of Albany and vicinity. They laid the foundations. We 
are sorry that we have no sources from which we can draw to 
make this list complete. In a few instances, indeed, we allow 
strong probability to take the place of fact, as to whether 


certain men of pure English names came directly from Eng- 
land, or had first received their training in that rock-bound, 
sea-environed land of free schools and rough discipline of toil 
and struggle — New England. It is certain that some who 
came here early from Long Island, New York City, Orange, 
Putnam, Columbia, Dutchess, Schoharie, Montgomery, Sara- 
toga, and Rensselaer counties, were of New England parent- 
age. All such are properly classed as New Englanders. 

It is worthy of the note made of it by a close observer of 
that time, that there was a great number of aged people of 
Holland ancestry at the beginning of this century who had 
retired from the pursuit of gain and were quietly passing 
away just as the " new comers," with their new ideas and 
habits, were ready to step into their places. " The population 
of the city was evidently undergoing a revolution." One 
generation went away ; another entirely different came in its 

New England settlers in Albany between about 1780 and 
rSoo, were as follows, as nearly as can be ascertained : 

Solomon Allen, hatter. 

Ezra Ames, painter. 

Thomas Andrews. 

EleazerF. Backus, bookseller. 

Benjamin Baker. 

John Blake, stage proprietor. 

Christopher Batterman, builder. 

Moses Beal, stage proprietor. 

WiUiam P. Beers, merchant. 

Abraham Bloodgood, trader. 

Francis Bloodgood, merchant. 

James Bloodgood, merchant. 


Lynot Bloodgood, merchant. 

William Bloodgood, merchant. 

John Boavdman. 

Edward Brown, merchant. 

Samuel Brown, merchant. 

Aaron Burr, law3er. 

Richard Cartwright. 

Isaac W. Clark, editor. 

Walter Clark, merchant. 

Elisha Crane, merchant. 

Stewart Deane, shipper. 

Samuel Dexter, druggist. 

Thomas S. Diamond, d. 1796, a. 59. 

Benjamin Dickinson, merchant. 

Elisha Dorr, hatter. 

Christopher Dunn, taverner. 

James Elliott, city marshal. 

John Ely, teacher. 

Thomas W. Ford, merchant. 

William Fowler, merchant. 

Joseph Fry, printer. 

Elihu Goodrich, teacher. 

Job Gould, merchant. 

Thomas Gould, merchant. 

Matthew Gregory, taverner. 

Daniel Hale, lawyer. 

Daniel Hale, merchant. 

Hamlet H. Hickcock. 

Isaac Hodge, d. 1806., a. 84. 

Philip Hooker, builder. 

Elias Hosford, bookbinder and publisher. 


Elijah Hosford, bookbinder and publisher. 

John Hudson, stage proprietor. 

Chauncey Humphrey, merchant. 

George Hutton, silversmith. 

Isaac Hutton, silversmith. 

Thaddeus Joy, shipper. 

Nathaniel Judson, merchant. 

Enoch Leonard, physician. 

Robert Lewis, taverner. 

Stewart Lewis, taverner. 

John Lovett, lawyer. 

Alexander Marvin, merchant. 

John Marvin, merchant. 

Richard Marvin, merchant. 

Uriah Marvin, merchant. 

William Marvin, merchant. 

Elias Mather, merchant. 

Samuel Mather, merchant. 

Thomas Mather, merchant. 

William Newton. 

Eliphalet Nott, clergyman. 

Isaac Packard, mechanic. 

Aaron Pennell. 

Obadiah Penniman, bookseller, 

Ananias Piatt, taverner and stage proprietor 

Abram Powers, baker. 

Ralph Pratt, merchant. 

John Price, d. 1781, a. 68. 

Elisha Putnam, builder. 

Thomas Russell, merchant. 

Joseph Russell, merchant. 


John Shepherd, d. 1797, a. 48. 

Elisha W. Skinner, printer and publisher. 

Solomon Southwick, printer and editor. 

Thomas Spencer, printer. 

Joab Stafford, merchant. 

John Stafford, merchant. 

Spencer Stafford, merchant. 

George W. Thacher. 

William Thompson, d. 1797, a. 32. 

Isaiah Townsend, iron manufacturer. 

John Townsend, iron manufacturer. 

Israel Tuffs. 

Oliver Warner, d. 1796, a. 21. 

Elkanah Watson, merchant. 

John M. Watson, d. 1795. 

Charles R. Webster, printer and publisher. 

George Webster, printer. 

John W. Wendell, hatter. 

William Woods, d. 1799, a. 66. 
While it will be admitted that we owe much here in Albany 
and all over our land, to the love of civil and religious liberty, 
the firm principles, the pure faith, and the hardy, resolute, 
persevering enterprise of our Puritan ancestry, no one ought 
to abate one iota from the credit due the hospitable, frank, 
independent, stout-hearted, cautious Netherlander of the 
Hudson Valley, nor from the true-hearted, faithful, enduring, 
bright, liberty-loving Huguenot, who early cast his lot among 
our fathers. From all these together, did this country derive 
the elements of its wonderful greatness and power, its broad 
and ever expanding institutions. 

We would be glad if harmony with our purpose in this 


essay allowed us to speak more fully of the talents and vir- 
tues, of the patriotism, liberality, and honor that shone forth, 
all along the early history of struggle and growth in our 
Hudson river valley, even down to later times, connected with 
the names of Van Rensselaer, Schuyler, Gansevoort, Ten 
Broeck,' De Witt, Lansing, Wendell, Yates, Van Schaick, 
Van Vechten, Van Buren, Van Loon, Bleecker, and other 
Holland families ; nor would we forget the English Clintons 
of illustrious fame, nor the Scotch Livingstons, nor the 
Huguenot Jay, nor the Irish Montgomery, nor the German 
Herkimer, nor the Prussian Steuben, nor the Polish Pulaski, 
nor the French Lafayette, all of whom did great service in 
doing noble deeds to protect this valley when it most needed 
them, and left a record of shining worth. 

Among the movements of a minor and local character 
that indicated a new element in the city after 1780, we find, 
mostly from the papers of the period, the following: 

In 177 1, a printing office was started and the Albany 
Gazette issued, — first newspaper, so far as known, in the city. 
Discontinued during the Revolution. 

1779, Capt. Machin engaged in taking a water level between 
Albany and Schenectady, with aim of supplying the city with 
water by means of aqueduct. 

1782. Charles R. W^ebster, associated with S. Balentine, 
started the New York Gazetteer. It discontinued in 1784. 

1784. A Pocket Almanack, first work of the kind issued in 
the city, was published. 

Charles R. Webster, May 28, issued the first number of 
a new paper called the Albany Gazette, which continued 
until its 72d year, 1845. 

Several stores offering a variety of goods, including drugs, 


hats, nails, and East India and European goods, " for cash or 
barter," were advertised this year, indicating a new activity in 
business. Among these traders were John W. Wendell, 
"a Bostonian," manufacturer and dealer in hats. We detect 
several other New England names among these " merchants" 
and '• artisans," such as Maj. Daniel Hale, Capt. Abraham 
Bloodgood, J. Hutton, " minister of the gospel," and Robert 
Lewis, keeper of the leading tavern for many years. 

1784, July 4. The day was celebrated with 'thirteen 
guns " in the morning, and illumination of the city in the 

Select schools and dancing schools were advertised as open- 
ing in the summer and autumn. 

Nov. 8. IVebster'^s Calendar and Albany Almanack, 
appeared for 1785. It was No. i, — but it has been annually 
issued ever since, Alunsell continuing it after the death of 
Charles R. Webster. 

1785, A mail from New York City twice a week. Gazelle 
enlarged. — A law for killing all dogs was passed. — Theatrical 
exhibitions appeared, approved by a "a large and respectable 
part of the community." Capt. Stewart Dean fitted out 
the sloop Experiment, and sailed from this port for China. 
It returned safely, April 22, 1787. 

1786, July 22. The corporation and citizens celebrated the 
centennial anniversary of the charter of the city. The num- 
ber of houses at this time was 550. Boston had four times as 

1788, Aug. 8. The ratification of the adoption of the 
United States Constitution by the State of New York, on the 
26th of July, was celebrated by an imposing procession, a 
public dinner, toasts, speeches, firing of guns, and a street 


1789. The Gazette was published twice a week. 

1791. The city was engaged in paving streets. — A hand- 
fire engine was purchased. — A market-house was built.— A 
subscription for a library was raised. It is said to have been 
started as early as 1785 by a subscription, of 100 members at 
$5 each share, and 10 per cent, annual payment. 

1792. A project was set on foot to establish a College in 
Albany by gift of land for a building by the corporation, and 
subscriptions from citizens. It resulted in establishing Union 
College at Schenectady. A meeting was held to discuss the 
project of a bank. It was incorporated as the Bank of 
Albany, April 10, 1792, the first in the city and the second in 
the State. It continued until May 11, 1861. Daniel Hale 
and Elkanah Watson were among the first directors. Efforts 
were making to connect Hudson River with Lake Ontario by 
means of canals and rivers. Elkanah Watson was an active 
leader in the enterprise. The street paving business was kept 
up amid much excitement as to width and expense. A better 
supply of water was agitated. A scheme for building a new 
and large hotel was discussed at a public meeting. It was 
kept up for some years and resulted in the erection of the 
Tontine, which was first kept by Ananias Piatt, and afterward 
by Matthew Gregory, Most of the hotels in Albany for many 
years were kept by men from New England ; and stages were 
run and mails carried by them. 

1793. Stages had been, for some time, run to Bennington. 
It was now proposed to run them to Whitestown, connecting 
with post carriers on to Niagara. C. R. Webster had asso- 
ciated with him his brother George Webster, and they were 
receiving and forwarding letters with their paper, to every 
part of the country where there were no mails. This was the 


enterprise of true New Englanders. On Jan. lo, one hundred 
and fifty mechanics held a meeting and organized the Albany 
Mechanic Society, which was noted for its activity and useful- 
ness It continued many years, and largely promoted the 
intelligence, zeal, skill, and public respect of its members. 
Among its first officers were John W. Wendell. President ; 
Charles R. Webster, Vice-President; Isaac Hutton, 
Treasurer. The manufacture of maple sugar was encour- 
aged, a new thing in this section. Elisha Dorr appears as 
a hat manufacturer and dealer in cider. Every one seemed 
full of business, and business of many kinds novel in this 
city, was tried. 

In May, a law passed by the common council went into 
effect, ordaining that no gutter or spout should project from 
any building into the street ; that the water should be con- 
ducted down the sides of the houses within three feet of the 
ground by pipes, under a penalty of 40^. This was done by 
the "new comers" who had succeeded in getting a majority 
in the city council, and was an innovation against a custom 
brought from Holland and honored by long years. Its 
enforcement caused much feeling among the old inhabitants. 
Webster, Seymour and Ensign, started the first paper mill in 
this quarter. The building was erected in Troy. Stage lines 
were extending. One to Ballston ; another to Canajoharie , 
another to Northampton. Ezra Ames, appears as jDainter of 
portraits, signs, carriages, standards, etc. The lighting of 
the streets begins to be discussed. The most destructive fire 
that has occurred in the city in all its history took place Nov. 
17 ; estimated loss $250,000, The good President Dwight, who 
visited the city subsequently, and saw the new buildings and 
other improvements, regarded it as a special blessing. The 
citv council established a nisiht watch. 


1794. Trade in wheat and Other agricultural products was 
greatly increasing. Vigorous eiforts were making to connect 
Seneca Lake with Albany by canals. The citizens subscribed 
^6000 towards locating a college in this city. A large por- 
tion of this amount was subscribed by men who had immi- 
grated from New England. Influences were made to bear 
upon the Regents to locate it in Schenectady. Paving the 
city was nearly completed, and made Albany " from one of 
the filthiest to one of the cleanest cities in America. '^ 

1795. Albany County received ^1500, being its portion of 
the school money of the State, under its first appropriation of 
^20,000. Glass works had been carried on for some time 
successfully ; Elkanah Watson, and Thomas and Samuel 
Mather, and two others, constituted the manufacturing com- 
pany. A water passage was opened between Albany and 
Oswego, by canals and rivers. Great delight was expressed 
at the lighting of the city. 

1796. John Clark and Reuben King run a mail stage, 
occupying 4 days through between Boston and Albany. The 
numbering of the houses was talked of. A new Presbyterian 
church was erected. Mail facilities were rapidly increasing. 
Joseph Fry printed a paper called the Chronicle. Albany 
became the capital of the State. 

1797. Philip Hooker, Christopher Batterman, and Elias 
Putnam, were the leading architects and builders of the day. 
Much is said of the improvement in dwellings and hotels. 
The " two steeple " Dutch church was building. 

1798. Eliphalet Nott, the first native New England 
preacher, was installed pastor of the Presbyterian church, 
Oct. 3. The day of building turnpikes was dawning. The 
first Catholic church was built, the city giving the ground, 
and citizens aiding b}' subscrii^tions. 


1799. Sabbath breaking by pleasure riding and keeping 
open places of traffic, was forbidden by city ordinance as 
against good morals. Improvements by removing obstruc- 
tions to navigating the Hudson were making. A circulating 
library was opened by Solomon Southwick and associate. 

These are ^iven as examples of the new activity that had 
been stirring the city for the last ten or fifteen years before 1800. 
We have no room to pursue this method further. It will be 
seen that great changes, for that day and in such a city as it 
had been, were taking place, A writer at the beginning of 
this century speaks of certain natives of New England as 
being "among all the popular movements of the day.*' 
Another remarks that " all enterprises had a live Yankee in 

As illustrations of the state of feeling towards the early 
movers in the reforms introduced into Albany by the Eastern 
immigrants at the close of the last century and the beginning 
of this, we give the following anecdotes connected with the 
doings of Elkanah Watson, one of the foremost of the 
reformers. That relic of an old European usage, the pur- 
chase of the freedom of the city, obtained in this city at the 
time of his coming, in 1789. It was necessary to secure a 
new settler in the enjoyment and protection of his rights of 
citizenship. Mr. Watson, on the 28th of May, 1790, paid ^5 
to Mayor Lansing for this certificate of freedom. He knew 
the power of the press, and often used it without stint. This 
abuse was vigorously attacked by him and soon abolished. 

At the time of his arrival, as he states, there were not more 
than five New England families resident in the city. The 
streets were ungraded, unpaved, aud unlighted. It made 
matters worse that the eave spouts projected over the streets, 


as they did over the canals in Holland, and often poured their 
contents on the heads of the traveler who was obliged to be 
out in the rain. The streets were very miry, and vehicles 
were often stuck so fast in them as to get on with difficulty. 
Added to all this, they were frequented by swine that rooted 
in the mud and garbage in them. Many of the best citizens 
regarded these animals very useful as public scavengers. The 
keen and restless mind of Mr. Watson, with his eastern ideas, 
and the culture that his residence in European cities had given 
him, could not fail to notice these things and urge through 
the press and by personal effort, radical improvements. He 
generally succeeded in accomplishing his objects, but not 
without entailing expense and other inconvenience. The 
hostility against his schemes and his person were, at one time, 
very strong. Time, Avhich often reveals lasting real good 
coming out of present seeming ill, brought him gratitude and 

Nothing, if we can believe an observer of that day, could 
exceed the consternation of the old burghers when they 
learned of the order of the city council to cut off these 
spouts. "Had it been a decree abolishing their mother 
tongue, it could hardly have excited greater astonishment, or 
greater indignation. They rallied their forces and secured 
the election of Mr. Watson, to the heretofore useless office of 
"hog constable," as an expression of their disgust toward him. 
The next morning found him in the streets driving the street 
scavengers to the public pound. 

Mr. Watson uses his own words. "Just after State street 
had been paved at a heavy expense, I sauntered into it 
immediately succeeding a heavy thunder storm, and whilst 
regretting the disturbance in the sidewalk, and to observe 


the cellars filled with water, * * * j heard two women, in 
the act of clearing their invaded premises from the accumula- 
tion of mud and water, cry out, — '* Here comes that infernal 
paving Yankee." "Then they approached me in a menacing 
attitude, broomsticks erect. Prudence dictated a retreat to 
avoid being broomsticked by the infuriated Amazons. * * 
I walked oif at a quick pace." 

Hoping that we have clearly shown the state of society 
and the progress of events down to the beginning of this 
century, we proceed to present some of the leading institu- 
tions that have, if we may credit the records and the memory 
of man, been suggested, projected, or progressed chiefly by 
New England men and motive, with the names of some of 
those who have been most prominent in them ; to be followed 
by some general statements in regard to certain classes of 
business and professions, and closed by such biographical 
sketches as we have been able to procure, chiefly of the 
departed ones. We suppose it is well to regard the senti- 
ment, — Pronounce no man happy until he is dead. 

It may be understood that every person named in these 
connections, is of New England birth or ancestry. 

.Vlbany Academy. Some of the first movements toward 
establishing an Academy for boys were made while Rev. Dr. 
Nott was pastor in the city, he being one the chief movers. 
These were continued by such men as John M. Bradford, 
Theodore Sedgwick, Ambrose Spencer, Chauncey Humphrey, 
James Kent, Ebenezer Baldwin, Gideon Hawley, James 
Goold, Thomas W. Olcott, Charles R. Webster, Theodoric 
R. Beck, from New England, and kindred spirits among 
the Holland descendants, until it was established, by the aid 
of the city council and citizen subscriptions, in 1813, and 


put in full operation in 1815. For thirty-one years, Dr. Beck, 
gave it the impress of his great character. Among the prin- 
cipals who have followed him have been George H. Cook, 
James W. Mason, Abel Wood, and notably for twelve years, 
ending in 1882, Merrill Edward Gates, now president of 
Rutgers' College, all of New England ancestry and character. 
It has always held a high rank among the many excellent 
schools of its kind in our country. Hundreds of the boys of 
Albany have received their literary discipline and their best 
inspirations to act well their part, in this noble institution. 

Albany Female Academy. A "Union School" for the 
higher education of Albany girls was started in 18 14, by 
Ebenezer Foote, a lawyer from Connecticut. It was supported 
by tuition. Out of it grew, in course, the present flourishing 
•'Girls' Academy," incorporated under the above title in 1821. 
Its first trustees show the names of James Kent, John 
Chester, Gideon Hawley, Asa H. Center, Joseph Russell, 
William Fowler. Since then, there has always been a pre- 
ponderance of New England men on the board of trustees, — 
among them William L. Marcy, Wm. B. Sprague, Ira Harris, 
Edwdn Croswell, Marcus T. Reynolds, Thomas Gould, Isaac 
Hutton, Dr. John Stearns, Nathaniel Davis, John O. Wilson, 
Harmon Pumpelly, Ezra P. Prentice, James H. Armsby, 
Amasa J. Parker, William L. Learned, Rufus W. Clarke, and 
Erastus D. Palmer. 

The architect of its model building was Jonathan Lyman. 
Alonzo Crittenden, of Massachusetts, 19 years; Eben S. 
Stearns, of New Hampshire, 12 years; L. Sprague Parsons, 
of Connecticut, 10 years; have been the principals whose 
labors have given it a wide extended and good fame ; while, 
for shorter terms, in its early years, it was taught by Horace 


Goodrich, Lebbeus Booth, and Fred'k Matthews, from New 
England. Its present able principal. Miss Lucy A. Plympton, 
is from Massachusetts, and is successfully sustaining its char- 

Public Free Schools. There were no school facilities 
for the education of the children of the people of Albany 
worthy of mention before the establishment of the above 
Academies. This fact is spoken of with regret in the news- 
papers of that day. Private schools, usually ephemeral, 
and taught by indifferent teachers, were patronized by the 
wealthy. The citizens generally were given to trade and 
material improvements, so that little organized effort was 
made to secure first class public schools, much less free 
schools for all. In 1810, there were no public schools. A 
school called the Uranian Academy, projected and sustained 
for the benefit of the children of mechanics, by such New 
England mechanics as Charles R. Webster, Thomas Russell, 
Isaac Hutton, Elisha Dorr, Benjamin Knower, and others, 
had then existed for several years, and continued awhile after 
1820. The Lancasterian System, inaugurating a school 
managed on a popular plan at cheap rates of tuition, was 
favored by Gideon Hawley. A school of that class was 
started here about 18 12, and continued about twenty-five 
years. It was well patronized and very useful. But it was 
not a free school. 

The public school system of the State was of slow growth. 
Something of the kind, in ideal, had many admirers, many 
advocates. The New England idea was early brought here 
but modifications and improvements that led to much talk 
and much writing with little practical result, were brought 
forward by governors and school officers from 181 2 down to 


1868, when the really free public school system of the State 
was first presented to the people of the State of New York, 
through the earnest and persistent efforts of Victor M. Rice, 
a man of New England blood, ideas, and energy. But before 
this, much had been accomplished by Gideon Hawley, Jede- 
diah Peck, Jabez D. Hammond, John C. Spencer, John A. 
Dix, Daniel D. Barnard, James Wadsworth, Francis Dwight. 
Calvin T. Hulburd, Alonzo Potter, John A. King, Samuel 
Young, William L. Marcy, and other New England men of 
great influence. Their efforts were for the whole State. 
Until the State system was settled, there could be said to be 
but little real system in Albany. The more prospered classes 
of the city seemed satisfied with the advantages offered by 
the truly excellent academies, and some very good private 
schools. For some thirty years before 1868, Albany had 
public schools ; but the odious rate bills were a burden for 
the poor, and there was general indifference among the rich. 
For the excellence of our present system, growing better 
every year in its practical working, much is due to such men 
as John O. Cole, George W. Carpenter, John G. Treadwell, 
James L. Babcock, Henry S. McCall, and others, supported 
by a liberal public sentiment, v/hich has been promoted by 
the good work of John W. Bulkley, Thomas W. Valentine, 
of the past, and Josiah H. Gilbert, Levi Cass, John E. Sher- 
wood, John A. Howe, Eli E. Packer, and other principals of 
the grammar schools, with the able faculty of the high 
school of to-day, named elsewhere. 

Albany State Normal School was opened May 7, 1844, 
as an experiment, being the first in the State. In 1848, it was 
made permanent. A building was erected, and opened for 
pupils, July 31, 1849. Ever since then, it has had an able 


corps of teachers, a large patronage, and enjoys the fullest 
confidence of the State and of all friends of education. Its 
inception was by New England minds, among them Samuel 
Young, Alonzo Potter, Gideon Hawley, and Francis Dwight. 
Its principals, Page, Perkins, Cochrane, Woolworth, Alden, 
and Waterbury, have been of New England stock, as has 
been a large number of its assistants and pupils, both male 
and female. It is soon to be removed to a new site on 
Washington Park, having a building unsurpassed for architec- 
tural beauty and working adaptation. 

Dudley Observatory was named in honor of Hon. 
Charles E. Dudley, a native of England, who came to New- 
port, R. I., while a boy, received his early culture and pursued 
his vocation of merchant there, and came to Albany in 1811. 
He married Blandina Bleecker in 1809; held an influential, 
social, and civil position in Albany; was State Senator, 1820- 
'25; Mayor, 1821-28; U. S. Senator, 1829-33. d. Albany, 
Jan. 23, 1841. After his decease, Mrs. Dudley contributed 
$105,000, which, with liberal contributions from Thomas 
W. Olcott, and other citizens, made the amount $200,000, 
and founded the institution, with land, buildings, and instru- 
ments. Incorporated 1852 ; dedicated 1856. Dr. James H. 
Armsby is acknowledged to have been the most active 
citizen in working up the interest which secured the neces- 
sary funds. At the dedication, Ira Harris presided, and 
Washington Hunt, Edward Everett, and Louis Agassiz 
made the addresses. Prof. Benjamin A. Gould, of Boston, 
was the first astronomer in charge. The present Director 
of the Observatory is that already widely known and very 
talented son of Rhode Island and graduate of Dartmouth, 
Prof. Lewis Boss. Since he came here, about eight years 


ago, the institution has been rapidly advancing in reputation 
among scientific astronomers abroad as well as at home. At 
present, about two thirds of the trustees are men of New 
England origin. 

Albany Institute grew out of the '■ Society for Promo- 
tion of Useful Arts," started in 1791, and the "Albany 
Lyceum of Natural History," of early date. It was chartered 
in 1829; embraces most of the men of literary and scientific 
tastes in the city ; holds regular meetings for papers and dis- 
cussions ; has a library of 6,000 volumes, besides pamphlets 
and papers ; and has published 10 volumes of transactions and 
proceedings. Dr. T. R. Beck was its founder, upbuilder, and 
president for many years. Other New England men have 
done their full share in its literary and financial support. 
Among them may be named, Joel Munsell, Daniel J. Pratt, 
James Hall, James H. Armsby, Amos Dean, Henry A. Homes, 
Charles M. Jenkins, and many others. 

Al'jany Medical College grew out of a class in medicine 
and surgery started in 1821, by that most eminent surgeon. 
Dr. Alden March. He was afterwards joined by his- brother- 
in-law, almost equally eminent in his profession, and quite 
equal in important public enterprises. Dr. James H. Armsby. 
These two are its acknowledged founders. Its first course of 
lectures began in 1839. It now constitutes a part of Union 
University. Its library, largely selected by Dr. T. R. Beck, 
is valuable ; its museum is unequalled in this country and 
unsurpassed in Europe ; its chemical and anatomical facilities 
are all that can be desired ; its standard is very high. It num- 
bers a faculty of about 20 ; has had about 5,000 students, and 
1,500 graduates. Besides its founders, it has numbered in 
its learned faculty, very many of the most eminent medical 
lecturers from New England. 


Albany Law School. Organized 1851 ; now a branch of 
Union University ; to Amos Dean is chiefly due its organiza- 
tion ; has graduated about 2,000 students. Its principal lec- 
turers in the faculty have been Amos Dean, Horace E. Smith, 
and Matthew Hale from Vermont ; Amasa J. Parker, William 
L. Learned, and Henry S. McCall from Connecticut; Ira 
Harris, from Rhode Island ; Isaac Edwards, from Massachu- 
setts ; all men eminent in legal lore, and residents of the city. 
Amasa J. Parker and Ira Harris should be named with Amos 
Dean as the founders of the institution. It now has a 
separate building and is rapidly growing in patronage 

Dana Natural History Society. This is an institution 
named in honor of Prof. James D. Dana, of Yale College; 
organized in 1868; its active members, ladies of scientific 
tastes and culture ; holding stated meetings for papers and 
discussion ; pursuing studies in classes ; having frequent field 
meetings, often joined by Albany Institute. Among its presi- 
dents have been Mrs. William Barnes, (daughter of Thurlow 
Weed) I year; Mrs. Dr. Daniel J. Pratt, (b. Mass.) i year; 
Mrs. Dr. John E. Bradley, (of High School) 2 years; Mrs. 
Dr. Jonathan Tenney, (b. N.' H.) 6 years; and Mrs. R. D. 
Williams, i year. It is a useful and growing institution, 
reflecting great credit on its originators and managers. 

St. Agnes School, a very admirably planned and con- 
ducted school for girls ; was founded by Rt. Rev. William C, 
Doane, Bishop of Albany, in 1870; incorporated in 1871 ; 
school opened in 1872. The wealth of the large hearted, 
liberal minded Erastus Corning, Sen., secured the grounds for 
the fine buildings ; and further aid, united with the energetic 
work of Bishop Doane, erected and furnished them and the 
cathedral close by. The pri.,mise of a prosperous future is 
very bright. 


YouxG Men's Associatiox. Amos Dean was one of its 
founders and first president. It was the outcome of a demand 
of the young men of 1833, ^^ which year it was founded, 
for an organization for mutual inprovement in public speaking 
and better facilities for periodical and library reading. It has 
done a great deal of good ; the only insti'.ution in the city 
that contains a reading room and library, so cheap as to be 
almost free; accessible to every citizen. It is not large, but 
has much of what is most called for in Albany. Erastiis 
Corning, Sen has been its most liberal benefactor. Among 
others have been Thurlow Weed, Thomas W. Olcott, Joel 
Munsell, and Angelo Ames. Of its presidents, besides the 
first, Charles A. Hopkins, John Davis, Denison Worthington, 
Walter R Bush, Arthur C. Southwick. Rufus King, Charles 
H. Stanton, Franklin Townsend, William A. Rice, George B. 
Steele, James I. Johnson, Theodore Townsend, George C. 
Lee, Ralph P. Lathrop, Charles T. Shepard, Edmund L. 
Judson, Franklin Edson, Frank Chamberlain, Grenville Tre- 
main, Henry C. Littlefield, Charles A. Robertson, Amasa J. 
Parker, Jr. Frederick W. Brown, Thurlow W^. Barnes, John 
AI. Bigelow, William P. Rudd, Frederick Harris, and OrenE. 
Wilson, are of New England antecedents. 

Albany Orphan Asylum. This city was formerly reproach- 
ed for its lack of institutions of charity and benevolence. Now 
they have become very numerous, varied in their special 
objects, and well sustained. 

It was said by the traveler Buckingham in 1838, " Albany 
is singularly lacking in benevolent institutions compared with 
the other older cities of America, or with the extent of its 
own population, wealth, and resources." He visited the orphan 
asylum and gave C|uite an extended account of what he saw, 
with decided approval. 


Among the first established and one of the best managed, 
is this asyhim for orphans. It was opened in 1829, largely 
through the activity of native New Englanders. Its principal 
supporters have been James D. Wasson, John F. Rathbone, 
Ira Harris, John O Wilson, Eli Perry, James Dexter, Dyer 
Lathrop, Isaac Kdwards, James Covert, Justus F. Taylor, 
Jeremiah Waterman, William G. Thomas, James D. Wasson, 
Marcus T. Reynolds. 

Albany Hospital owes its existence to Dr. James H. 
Armsby, whose untiring efforts made with heartfelt and 
intelligent zeal and much sacrifice, gave it plan, secured it 
means and successful operation. No institution in the city 
has now a more popular interest. It was incorporated in 
1849. ^''' i^s ^^^^ *^^ governors are to be found many of our 
best citizens ; and the very best physicians and surgeons 
have from the beginning given their attendance. 

The Albany Homeopathic Hospital. Organized in 
J 868, and is supported and managed chiefly by such men as 
Erastus Corning, Amos P. Palmer, Nathan IL Perry, and 
iAl. V. B. Bull. 

The Child's Hospital, recently established, constitutes 
a part of the Christian work done by the Cathedral of All 
Saints, under the direction of the Episcopal Bishop, Rt. Rev. 
William C. Doane, and supported by Erastus Corning and 

Home of the Friendless, a retreat for aged women, was 
established in 1850, by Mrs. Lee, and a suitable building 
erected subsequently on a lot given by James Kidd. Its 
management is by ladies, many of whom, it may be observed, 
are of New England ancestry. 

House of Sheltek. Organized in 1868, a home for once 


fallen, now repentant women, owes its existence and great 
usefulness chiefly to the labors and benefactions of Austin S. 

Home for Aged Men. Originated by James B. Jer- 
main in 1876. He has given to it freely of his time and 
ample means. It receives the encouragement and support of 
the best men and women of the city. 

Washington Park. This most attractive and popular 
institution of Albany, is the legitimate outgrowth and expres- 
sion of the progressive spirit introduced into the city by the 
New England immigration. It lies west of the capitol about one 
mile, and on an elevation about two hundred feet higher than 
the Hudson. Its establishment was long opposed as creating a 
large and needless expense. But, at length, in 1869, a com- 
mission was constituted by state law, and it became a fact. 
It has since been increasing in acres, in improvement, and in 
public favor. Most of the ground occupied, once a grave- 
yard, a pasture, and a military muster ground, is now 
a charming landscape, with hill and dale and lake, with drives, 
walks and resting places; tastefully laid out and cultivated. 
It is surrounded more and more every year, by handsome 
residences occupied by some of the best citizens of the city. 
Reuben H. Bingham was the first surveyor, and John Bridg- 
ford one of the first commission. It contains over one hun- 
dred acres. 

Albany County Penitentiary, was erected in 1845-46. 
While specially a county prison, it receives convicts from all 
parts of the country, particularly from the United States 
courts, and from other State counties, on payment of board. 
Amos Pilsbury was its superintendent from 1846 to 1872, 
except five years spent in charge of the reformatory on 


Ward's Island, and as Superintendent of the Metropolitan 
Police, New York City. The silent system, so called, was 
adopted at the start, and has ever since been successfully kept 
up. Convicts are treated kindly but firmly; — eating and 
sleeping in their cells ; marched to and from them to their 
work, in lock step ; never speaking to each other ; always 
kept employed. The institution has secured a wide rep- 
utation for discipline and financial profit. Lewis D. Pils- 
r.URY succeeded his father from 1872-79. The managment of 
the Pilsburys, by universal consent, has given this peniten- 
tiary its wonderful success and universal admiration, beyond 
any other in the Union, be it state, county, or city. It has 
furnished example to the best institutions of the kind more 
recently established It has often had as many as one thou- 
sand convicts at one time. 

Albany Rural Cemetery. This oft frequented city of 
the dead, last earthly home, '♦ life's fitful fever o'er," of many 
who have lived here, sprang from a powerful sermon preached 
by Rev. Dr. Bartholomew T. Welch, in December, 1840. It 
was repeated by request ; followed by a public meeting, Dec. 
31st; an act of incorporation in 1841 ; purchase, laying out, 
and working; and a consecration in 1844. The first board 
of trustees contains the names of Rev. Dr. B. T. Welch, 
John A. Dix, J. O. Wilson, A. M. Strong, T. W. Olcott, E. 
P. Prentice, E. Baker, and Ira Harris. Others since have 
been Erastus Corning, Dudley Olcott, John F. Rathbone, E. 
D. Palmer, J. B. Jermain, R. W. Peckham, W. L. Marcy, and 

At the consecration, Daniel D. Barnard was the orator: 
Alfred B. Street the poet ; Revs. Dr. W. B. Sprague and H. 
Potter, were the clergy ; and active on that day and in the 


^vhole work, as Jong as they lived, besides the trustees, were 
Gideon Hawley, Amos Dean, Otis Allen, Lewis Benedict, 
Matthew Patten, and many others. Gen. Rufiis King was the 
marshal. In natural and artistic beauty, this cemetery has 
been spoken of by good critics as excelled only by that at 
Cincinnati. Its location is about three miles north of the 


Dutch Reformed. This ancient church has been largely 
helped in its growth in this city by those able ministers of 
New England antecedents, John M. Bradford; 1805-20; 
Ebenezer P. Rogers, 1856-62; Rufus W. Clarke, 1858-83 ; 
John Ludlow, 1823-33; Thomas E. Vermilye, 1835-39; 
Dwight K. Bartlett, 1873-81. Many of its leading lay-mem- 
bc-rs, also, were New Englanders. 

Lutheran. While this church, the second established in 
the city, never had a pastor from New England, several of 
its leading members have been and still are New Englanders. 
Joel Munsell attended here. 

Episcopal. Ministers of this church first came here, 
probably, as chaplains to the English garrison at Fort Fred- 
erick, after it came in possession of the English in 1664. 
English missionaries were sent here at the beginning of the 
18th century. The first church, located about where St. Peter's 
now is, was opened in 17 16. For many years New England 
has contributed many of its most active and influential 
members to this church. And it has given, at least, among 
its clergy, Horatio Potter, Timothy C. Pitkin, Wm. C. Doane ; 
probably several others. 


Presbyterian. A church seems to have been organized 
by a few Scotch and English resident Presbyterians in 1763, 
soon after the close of the French war. It was closed during 
the Revolution, and re-organized the latter part of 1785. 
Then entered it most of the New England immigrants. They 
seem to have been prominent. Among the trustees, deacons, 
and elders, we find the following New England names : — 
John W. Wendell, Boston, James Bloodgood, Joseph Xew- 
land, JohnFolsom, Isaac Hutton, Charles R. Webster, Enoch 
Leonard, Francis Bloodgood, George Pearson, William P. 
Beers, Dr. Elias Willard, John Boardman, Ananias Piatt, 
Chester Bulkley, Thomas Mather, Eleazer F. Backus, John 
Marvin, Elisha Dorr, Willard Walker, Isiah Townsend, Wil- 
liam Fowler, James King, Rufus H. King, Levi Philips, Fr. 
Alden March, Abraham Covert, Amos Fassett, Elihu Russell, 
with others from southern counties, from New Jersey, England, 
and Scodand. Eliphalet Nott was its pastor from 1798- 1804. 

In 1813, was organized the 2nd church, which was more 
decided still in its New England membership, so much so 
that Elias Putnam, the architect, with reference to this fact, 
placed on the spire what he called a pumpkin and a codfish, 
as appropriate emblems. John Chester, (1817-26), and Wil- 
liam B. Sprague, (1829-70) were the honored pastors for a 
period of fifty out of seventy years of its existence. 

New England has also, I think, given to the Presbyterian 
churches of this city. Hooper Cumming, Henry R. Weed, 
Ezra A. Huntington, Edward D. Allen, Samuel W. Fisher, 
William H. Williams, Benjamin N. Martin, A. H. Dean, 
Samuel T. Seelye, Henry Darling, William Durant, and 
Horace C. Stanton, most of them eminent for learning, piety, 
and eloquence, widely known and greatly useful. This city 


has been greatly favored and the good in it promoted by 
the pastors of the Presbyterian churches. 

Methodist. Methodism was first, we think, brought here 
from New England, and has been built up and established in 
a most prosperous condition, mostly by preachers of New 
England origin. It is said that a church was formed here as 
early as about 1790. Now there are six Methodist churches. 
Among the preachers have been Samuel Merwin, Tobias 
Spencer, Lorenzo Dow, Elijah Hedding, Noah Levings, 
Charles Shermr.ii, Alfred Saxe, John Lindsey, Charles Devol, 
Jesse T. Peck, Samuel McKean, Homer Eaton, J. E. C. 
Sawyer, D. W. Gates, Joel W. Eaton, and doubtless several 
others, who have been most efficient church builders and 
christian workers. 

Baptist. The first church was organized in 1810; there 
are now five flourishing churches of this denomination in the 
city, containing a large number of prominent and active 
members of New England birth or descent. Among their 
ministers have been, Elias L. Magoon, Bartholomew T. 
Welch, Francis R. Morse, and Henry M. King, all men of 
potent influence, some of them of great power. We think 
that several other Baptist pastors came from New England 

Christian. The earnest and vigorous pastor of this 
church, is Edgar C. Abbott, of the extensive and respectable 
New England family of that name. This church is now 
taking a new departure of growth and influence under his 

Roman Catholic. When a house of worship in this city 
for this church was first called for, in the latter part of the 
last century, the men of New England, with wonderful liber- 


ality, contributed of their money and tlieir influence, and 
secured its erection. Rev. Clarence A. Walworth, gr. 
Union 1838, son of the late chancellor, Reuben H. Walworth, 
rector of St. Mary's. He is a man devoted to temperance and 
other works of christian benevolence, and highly esteemed in 
the city. 

Quaker. This quiet and exemplary sect began to hold 
meetings here about 1825, and organized and built a meeting 
house in 1835. Among its leading laymen and preachers it 
numbers Samuel Carey, of Rhode Island, and others from 
New England. 

Unitarian. Though not strongly organized here, this 
denomination is composed of an intelligent class, mostly 
from. New England, and has had the preaching since about 
1840, of such able divines as Orville Dewey, Henry F. Har- 
rington, A. D. Mayo, George T. Simmons, and Charles G. 

Congregational. This strong church is the direct out- 
growth of the New England sentiment of this city. It was 
founded in 1850, by men coming out peaceably, from hon- 
est conviction of duty, mostly from the Presbyterian and 
Reformed churches of the city. Among them were such 
New England men as Anthony Gould, James Gould. Bradford 
R. Wood,Rufus H. King, Henry S. McCall, Uriah G. Bige- 
low, Theodore D. Smith, John G. Treadwell, Chauncey P. 
Williams, Isaac Edwards, William L. Learned, and many 
others. Ray Palmer, (1850-66) was its first pastor, — succeed- 
ed by William S. Smart, since 1867. It has the reputation 
of holding in its congregation, more of the liberally educated 
men of the city than any other church. 

Colleges. Union, so near to Albany, has given college 


training to most of its young men. Princeton, Rutgers, 
Columbia, and Hamilton, have taken many of them through 
their liberal culture. But New England has had its full share 
of influence in this kind of preparation for life work. The 
following, after much research, shows, as nearly as we now 
can ascertain, the number of men who have graduated from 
New England colleges and have spent more or less of their 
active lives in Albany, viz : — Bowdoin, i ; VVaterville, i ; 
Dartmouth, 12; Middlebury, 4; Vt. University, 3; Harvard, 
21; Amherst, 12; Williams, 41; Brown, 9; Trinity, 4; 
Middletown, 7; Yale, 63. Here are potent influences. 

Since institutions of New England became well established 
here, the city has chosen many natives of New England or 
their descendants, as chief executives in the oflice of mayor. 
We believe the following belong to this class : — 

1814-19. Elisha Jenkins. 

1821-24. Charles E. Dudley. 

1828-31. Ambrose Spencer. 

1832-33. Isaiah Townsend. 

g^ "^ ■ > Francis Bloodgood. 

1834-37. Erastus Corning. 
1838-41. Jared L. Rathbone. 

;843-45. ^ Friend Humphre)-. 
1845-46. John Keys Paige. 
llf'.il' \ William Parmalee. 

1850-51. Franklin Townsend. 


1856-60 VEli Perry. 




Geo. H. Thatcher. 




1874-76. Edmund L. judson. 
The influence of all these men upon the advancement of 
the city, cannot be too highly estimated. 

The New York Governors have all had a temporary home 
in Albany ; and some have resided here many years, and 
taken an active part in its local affairs. Among them the 
following are of New England ancestry. 

1833-39. William L. Marcy. 

1839-43. William H. Seward. 

1845-47. Silas Wright. 

1847-49. John Young. 

1849-51. Hamilton Fish. 

1851-53. Washington Hunt 

1863-65! ^ Horatio Seymour. 

1855-57. Myron H. Clark. 

1857-59. John A. King. 

1859-63. Edwin D. Morgan. 

1865-69. Reuben E. Fenton. 

1S73-75. John A. Dix. 

1875-77. Samuel J. Tilden. 

1877-80. Lucius Robinson. 

1880-83 Alonzo B. Cornell 

1883. Grover Cleveland, 

To these may be added the following Lieut. Governors, 

some of whom have national fame : — Erastus Root, Daniel 

S. Dickinson, George W. Patterson, Sanford E. Church, 

Henry J. Raymond, Stewart L. Woodford, Thomas G. 


Alvord, Allen C. Beach, John C. Robinson, and George G. 


Among the illustrious names that have reflected brightness 
on the escutcheon of the Empire State, are the following 
eminent jurists, most of whom have made themselves felt in 
the institutions of this city. 

James Kent. 

Reuben H. Walworth. 

Ambrose Spencer. 

Sanford E. Church. 

William F. Allen. 

Charles J. Folger. 
All strongly marked by the true New England character in 
which they had a birthright. To these we add the names of 
the scarcely less distinguished Lyman Tremain, Ira Harris, 
Amasa J. Parker, Rufus W. Peckham, and William L. 
Learned, long residents of Albany. 

In making the following lists, we may be guilty of errors of 
omission and commission ; but have been guided by the best 
authorities we could obtain. We trust the errors are very 


Otis Allen. Isaac Edwards. 

Le Grand Bancroft. James Edwards. 

Ebenezer Baldwin. Azariah C. Flagg. 

Daniel D, Barnard. Ebenezer Foote. 



Lewis Benedict, Jr. 
Nathaniel S. Benton. 
Alexander W. Bradford. 
Greene C. Bronson. 
Aaron Burr. 
Benjamin F. Butler. 
Clarke B. Cochran. 
Samuel G. Courtney. 
T. Le Roy Case. 
Amos Dean. 
George Dexter. 
James Dexter. 
John A. Dix. 
John Lovett. 
Cicero Loveridge. 
William L. Marcy. 
William S. Paddock. 
Matthew Patten. 
Geo. W. Peckham. 
Rufus W. Peckham. 
John H. Reynolds. 
Marcus T. Reynolds. 
Theodore Sedgwick. 
A. C. South wick. 
Ambrose Spencer. 
John C. Spencer. 
Samuel Stevens. 

Samuel A. Foote. 
W. W. Frothingham, 
John Gould. 
Isaac Hamilton. 
Jabez D. Hammond. 
Ira Harris. 
F. H. Hastings. 
Gideon Hawley. 
Nicholas Hill.' 
Samuel M. Hopkins. 
Lemuel Jenkins. 
James Kent. 
Hale Kingsley. 
Alfred B. Street. 
Richard M. Strong. 
J. B. Sturtevant. 
Azor Taber. 
Grenville Tremain. 
Lyman Tremain. 
Reuben H. Walworth. 
Henry G. Wheaton. 
James M. Whelpley. 
Elisha Williams. 
Gilbert L. Wilson. 
John O. Wilson. 
George Wolford. 
Deodatus Wright. 





"Buel C. Andrews. 
William Barnes. 
John M. Bailey. , 
Alpheus T. Bulkley. 
Isaac B. Barrett. 
Eugene Burlingame. 
Alden Chester. 
Andrew J. Colvin. 
Philander Deming. 
Andrew S. Draper. 
W. Frothingham. 
W. D. Frothingham. 
Scott D'AL Goodwin. 
Matthew Hale. 
William H. Hale. 
Lewis B. Hall. 
Stephen H. Hammond. 
Hamilton Harris. 
Frederick Harris. 
Henry Q. Hawley. 
Nathan Hawley. 
Galen R. Hitt. 
Charles M.Jenkins. 
JohnM. Kimball. 
J. Howard King. 
Dwight King. 
Isaac Lawson. 
Joseph M. Lawson. 
Wm. L. Learned. 

Henry S. McCall. 
Henry S. McCall, Jr. 
Charles W. Mead. 
Nathaniel C. Moak. 
Edward Newcomb. 
John T. Norton. 
John J. Olcott. 
John K. Porter. 
Amasa J. Parker. 
Amasa J. Parker Jr. 
Rufus W. Peck ham, Jr. 
William F. Rathbone. 
William P. Radd. 
Joseph W. Russell. 
Edward Savage. 
O. H. Shepard. 
S. O. Shepard. 
Henry Smith. 
Horace E. Smith. 
Geo. L. Stedman. 
Benjamin I. Stanton. 
Alvah H. Tremain. 
Edward Wade. 
Hiram L. Washburn. 
William G. Weed. 
Robert H. Wells. 
Bradford R. Wood. 
J. Hampden Wood. 
Geo. M. Wright. 




In the profession of medicine Albany has many names of men 
who have adorned the city by their talents, and helped it on 
in some of its most valued institutions, especially its Medical 
Schools and Hospitals. Among the most illustrious, New 
England has contributed Drs. Tully, Stearns, Willard, Wing, 
Cogswell, Bigelow, March, Armsby and others, who have 
yielded to that conqueror whose weapons their skill often par- 
ried, but who subdues all at last. They have left names long 
held dear alike in the cottages of the humble and in the man- 
sions of the rich and learned. 

The following is a list of the physicians of this city now 
deceased, who sprang from New England stock, followed by 
the names of those now living : — 

James H. Armsby. 
Geo. H. Armsby. 
James L. Babcock. 
James S. Bailey. 
Uriah G. Bigelow. 
Asa Burbank. 
Moses F. Clement. 
Mason F. Cogswell. 
Charles D. Coope-- 
Palmer C. Don 
Harris I. Fello 
Edward W. Ford. 
Henry Green. 
Henry R. Haskins. 
J. Warren Hinckley. 
Carroll Humphrey. 
Wm. Humphrey. 

John James. 
Otis Jenks. 
Jonathan Johnson. 
Zina W. Lay. 
Edward A. Leonard. 
Enoch Leonard. 
Solomon Lincoln. 
Alden March. 

vi Moore. 
J. rid A. Munson. 
L,nas. A. Robertson. 
John Stearns. 
John H. Trotter. 
William Tully. 
Ashbel S. Webster. 
Ellas Willard. 
Sylvester D. Willard. 



Isaac Hyde. 
Daniel James. 
Edwin James. 

Erastus Williams. 
Piatt Williams. 
Joel A. Wing. 


Wm. H. Bailey. 
Lewis Balch. 
James F. Barker. 
John M. Bigelow. 
Frederick C. Curtis. 
Charles Devol. 
Amos Fowler. 
Samuel H . Freeman. 
Lorenzo Hale. 
Henry March. 

C. S. Merrill. 
Wm. H. Murray. 
Geo. H. Newcomb. 
M. R. C. Peck. 
Charles H. Porter. 
Timothy K. Perry. 
Norman L. Snow. 
George T. Stevens. 
Willis G. Tucker. 
Samuel B. Ward. 


Among the best gifts to Albany from New England are 
some of its most useful and honored teachers. The Boys^ 
Academy has had Beck of perennial fame, Wood, Gates, and, 
it is presumed, several others; the Girls' Academy, Booth, 
Crittenden, Parsons and Stearns, and now the very worthy 
Miss Plympton ; the Normal School, Page, Perkins, Cochrane, 
Woolworth, Alden, and just now, Waterbury, besides many 
most useful male and female assistants ; the High School now 
has John E. Bradley, Oscar D. Robinson, Charles A. Home, 
Austin Sanford and Richard Prescott ; the Grammar grades 
have had, or now have Valentine, Bulkley, Gilbert, Howe, 
Cass, Packer, and probably many others both male and female, 
whose records we have not vet been able to secure. 


Besides these, the Schools of Law and Medicine were found- 
ed and have been manned almost entirely by men of New 
England birth or antecedents, as shown elsewhere. 

It should be added, that the present Superintendent of 
Schools is Charles W. Cole, son of that venerable man, so 
long useful to this city in the cause of education and public 
justice, John Orton Cole, a native of Connecticut. 


Albany has not had many of the class of writers who give 
their whole time and talent to authorship. It is true that 
many excellent things have been written here, outside of 
journalism and the pulpit, which have had a wide and influential 
admiration. Some have been very effective, as intended, in 
promoting good morals, education and public improvements- 
of many kinds ; and have thus had a lasting influence. But 
most of our best known writers have written amid the pres- 
sure of professional duties, and as the outcome of professional 
study, that they might enlarge their sphere of active good. 
Among our most prolific authors may be named the following ; 
Among the clergy, Sprague, Palmer and Clarke; among the 
lawyers, Kent, Walworth, Edwards, Dean, M c Call and Moak; 
among the physicians, Tully, March and Willard ; among 
educators. Page, Alden, Perkins, Davies ; among scientists, 
T. R. and L. C. Beck, Hall and Emmons ; among the poets. 
Street and Saxe; and Southwick, Buel, Croswell and Munsell^ 
on more miscellaneous themes. All these claimed a New 
England birthright. 



Oar practical people are not given to oratory ; they speak 
by their deeds. But all admire the orator they cannot imitate. 
Such men crop out now and then among our lawyers and 
divines, and sometimes where we least look for them, among 
•our men of affairs and our toiling men. Daniel D. Barnard was 
always listened to with pleasure ; so was Henry G. Wheaton ; 
Lyman Tremain was a man of eloquence, something of the 
Rufus Choate order. Albany never had a man that would excite 
his audience with his uncultivated yet electric eloquence, like 
the rough carpenter, James Kilburn. Among our divines, with 
differing graces of oratory, — persuasive, convincing, moving, 
pleasing, magnetic or powerful, — we may name, without 
question, as ranking very high in pulpit oratory, Eliphalet Nott, 
John M. Bradford, John Chester, Hooper Gumming, Barthol- 
omew T. Welch, Wm. B. Sprague, Edward N. Kirk, Orville 
Dewey and Elias L. Magoon,- all the gift of New England. 
To these should be added the names of men whose preemi- 
nent statesmanship^ has, each in its time and manner, done so 
much, not only for the .good of this city, but for the whole 
nation. Wm. L. Marcy, Silas Wright, John G. Spencer, 
Benj. F. Butler, John A. Dix, Daniel D. Barnard and Bradford 
R. Wood belong to this class. They all took pride in their 
New England blood, and made Albany, at least some part of 
their lives, their home. 


Albany has, also, been swayed by such gifted thinkers and 
orators from New England as Daniel Webster, Wendell Phil- 


lips, Edward Everett, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edwin P. Whip* 
pie, John B. Gough, Theodore Parker, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, Charles Sumnei-, Thomas Starr King, and most 
others of its leading platform lecturers. 

Their influence has been felt here ; it has impressed itself 
on many minds and led to better lives and nobler deeds. 
Shouid it not be placed to the credit of New England in Albany ? 

And who writes the books our children use in the Sabbath 
and Day Schools? Who the books and periodicals that 
delight our hours of leisure, rest us when we are weary, 
instruct us when we are ignorant, uplift us when we are 
depressed and urge us on when we are faltering in life's jour- 
ney? Are they not, most of them, from the homes of New 
Enofland ? 


In this department of quiet yet mighty energy. New Eng- 
land has given to Albany its full share. Among them we 
have only to name Charles R. Webster, that early printer, 
who so long gave the people knowledge in city and in country, 
a sort oi vox claniaiitis in deserto, aiming to be successful 
only as he was true to the interests of the people ; the ear- 
nest, ambitious Solomon Southwick, who grew better and 
better as long as he lived ; the wise and useful Jesse Buel and 
Luther Tucker ; the keen Edwin Croswell, who wrote so 
potently and so gracefully; the ever diligent and practical 
Joel Munsell ; and the master magician, Thurlow Weed, who 
was mighty in council, and carried to the editor's sanctum 
a clear head, a strong arm and a cogent pen. Sharper and 
mightier than swords were their pens ; as long as New York 
State has a name their names will be respected. 



At one time Albany had a " Gallery of Fine Arts, " where 
were collected quite a display of good pictures by such artists 
as Durand, Sully, Peale, Chapman, Carleton, Weir, the Harts, 
Ames and others. But most of the artists sought more favored 
homes and the treasures of the gallery were scattered. Ames, 
who was the founder and leading spirit, had died. There are 
good pictures in Albany now in private homes, and some con- 
siderable art appreciation ; but no organized exhibition or en- 
couragement. Page, the younger Ames, the younger Palmer, 
Low, all of New England stock, were born here. Boughton 
once resided and now has family friends here. Launt Thomp- 
son was brought out here by Dr. Armsby. Wm. M. Hunt, 
born in Vermont, has left one of his masterpieces in our new 
capitol. Palmer has done some of the best work in American 
sculpture; while Elliot was a master in portrait paintings and 
Twitchell, many think, quite equals, if he does not excel him 
in some of the requisites of true portraiture. 


The most noted of this class in the early part of this cen- 
tury were, Christopher Batterman of Boston, Philip Hooker 
and Elias Putnam of Connecticut, and Jonathan Lyman of 
Massachusetts. They designed and erected most of the larger 
and better public and private buildings of their time, which 
are still admired for the common sense of their proportions 
and the good taste and good finish of their work. They have 
stood well the test of time. 


The representative taverns, inns, coffee houses, tontines, 
hotels, and such hke, have usually been kept, each in its way, 
by •' the right man in the right place ;" among them Robert 
Lewis, Leverett Crittenden, Christopher Dunn, Ananias Piatt, 
Matthew Gregory and Charles E. Leland, all from New Eng- 
land. To these men is greatly due the fact that Albany has, 
forthree -quarters of a century, always had first-class public 


It is claimed that the first movement for a Bank in this city 
was made by Elkanah Watson about 1791. It was the "Old 
Albany " put into operation in 1792 ; the second in New York 
and the fourth in the United States. It continued until 1861. 
It was opposed at first as needless and hazardous. When the 
books were opened, the whole amount of stock was taken in 
less than three hours. Watson was one of the first directors of 
this bank and also of the "State", which started in 1803. Of 
this latter bank, Rufus H. King was president nearly thirty 
years, succeeded by his son-in-law, Franklin Townsend, and 
his son, J. Howard King. The Mechanics and Farmers came 
next, in 181 1, and was under the direction of Solomon South- 
wick, Benjamin Knower, ElishaDorr, Isaac Hutton and others. 
G. A. Worth was cashier. Thomas W. Olcott was, for many 
years, its president, succeeded by his son, Dudley Olcott. It 
has always had its full share of public confidence ; its man- 
agers and stockholders have been largely New England men. 
No bankers in the United States have enjoyed a better repu- 
tation for financial sagacity and integrity than Rufus H. King, 
Thomas W. Olcott and Chauncey P. Williams. To-day, all 


the Banks of Albany stand on the surest foundation and are 
universally trusted. A list of those which have presidents of 
New England birth or ancestry, with their names, is herewith 
given : — 

Matthew H. Read, First National. 

Billings P. Learned, Union. 

Chauncey P. Williams, Exchange. 

William G. Thomas, Exchange Savinojs. 

J. Wilbur Tillinghast, Merchants. 

J. Howard King, State. 

Dudley Olcott, Mechanics and P'^armers. 

Erastus Corning, City. 

Benj. W. Wooster, County. 



In a city so well situated by nature for trade, and, in later 
times aided by art, there has been always, for an inland town, 
a large proportion of traders and merchants, representing 
nearly every class of trade. Many of them have made their 
own goods ; or commencing as mechanics and manufacturers, 
have gone, in riper years and with the gains of prosperity, 
into trade. The usual ups and downs of mercantile life have 
been seen and felt here. A complete list of those thus enga- 
ged, it would be impossible to present in this essay. They 
have represented all nations and people. Among the most 
prosperous have been Erastus Corning, RufusH. King, Isaiah 
and John Tovvnsend, Matthew and Samuel Patten, Friend 
Humphrey, James Goold, and, in more recent or present 


times, George C. Treadwell, Newton & Co,, Bacon, Stickney 
& Co., E. P. Durant, Weare C. Little, E. J. Larrabee, E. A. 
Hobbs, John S. Perry & Co., D. G. Littlefield, Rathbone, 
Sard & Co., Weed, Parsons & Co., Wm. M. Whitney & Co., 
Henry Russell, Geo. H. Thacher & Son, Kibbee & Dalton, 
B. W. Wooster, S. L. Munson, Mather Brothers, J. Benedict 
& Son, R. W. Thacher, James W. Eaton, C. W. Eaton, G. 
W. Luther, G. B. Hoyt, D. S. Lathrop, T. C. Cooper, Moore 
& Bellows, Justus F. Taylor, Judson & Capron, Jesse C. Potts, 
Paul Cushman, Alexander Gregory, and others of the New 
England class of Manufacturers and Merchants. 


Joseph Alden, b. Cairo, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1807 ; descendant of 
John Alden of the Mayflower; gr. Union, 1829; D. D. Union 
1838; LL. D., Columbia, 1857. Studied Theology at Prince- 
ton ; tutor there two years. Ordained pastor of Congregation- 
alist Church, Williamstown, Mass., 1834; prof. Williams, 
1835- 52 ; prof, moral philos., Lafayette, 1852- 7 : pres.. Jef- 
ferson, 1857- 67; pres. N. Y. State Normal School, Albany, 
1867- 82. Author of many juvenile books, Elements of Intel- 
lectual Philosophy, Science of U. S. Government, Christian 
Ethics, English Grammar, and a large contributor to N. Y. 
Observer and other religious journals. William L. Alden, the 
author, is a son. 

Otis Allen, b. Surry, N. H., Oct. 15, 1804; d. Albany, Mar. 
27, 1865 ; came to this city and became law partner of Israel 
Williams, in 1833; of F. H. Hastings, until 1848; after this 
was without partner. An accurate, honest, successful lawyer; 
a citizen most heartily respected and trusted. 


Ezra Ames, b. Mass. about 1768 ; was in Albany in 1793 ; 
d. Feb. 23, 1836, a. 68. He was a painter, and acquired dis- 
tinction as a student of art; executed with great fidelity a large 
number of original portraits and made copies of many paint- 
ings of merit. He was a director in the Mechanics and Far 
mers' Bank, and left a good estate. Julius Rubens, an artist 
of promise, who died young, and Angelo, a well known resi- 
dent of this city, are his sons. 

James H. Armsby, b. Sutton, Mass., d. Albany, Dec. 3, 
1875 5 succeeded Dr. March as professor of Anatomy and 
Physiology at Castleton, Vt., 1834; in 1838, resigned, and 
devoted nearly all his time to raising funds to furnish and fit 
up a Museum and other things necessary to the establishment 
of a Medical College in Albany. Of this college he was one 
of the founders and always a devoted friend. He was one of 
the most popular of its lecturers from the first. He was, also, 
one of the founders of the Albany Hospital and of the Dudley 
Observatory. Always a public spirited, large hearted citizen, 
intent upon doing good, especially to 3'oung men of talent 
and moral worth. He held many honorable official positions. 
A bronze bust has been placed in Washington Park, by his 
students, aided by citizens, to commemorate the deeds of this 
good physician and great public benefactor. Dr. Gideon H. 
Armsby was his son. 

John F. Bacon, b. Mass., settled in Albany as a lawyer; 
Clerk of State Senate, 1814-40; was U. S. Consul at Nassau, 
N. P., about 10 years; d. there Feb. 25, i860, a. 71. 

Samuel N. Bacon, b. Harvard, Mass., Jan. 25, 1829; came 
to A. 1848, is senior member of the large, long established 
and prosperous Coffee and Spice Establishment of Bacon, 


Stickney& Co., which grew out of the house of L. A. Chase 
& Co. Mr. C. was a native of Hillsborough, N. H. ; d. 1857, 
le.iving large wealth and an unblemished name, which their 
successors have fully sustained. 

Daniel D. Barnard, b. Sheffield, Mass,, 1797; d. Albany, 
Apr. 24, 1861 ; gr. Williams, 1818; began law practice at 
Rochester, N. Y., 182 1 ; came to Albany 1832 ; was member 
of Assembly ; M. C. 1828- 30 and 1839-45 ; Minister to Prus- 
sia 1849- 53 5 ^^ active whig politician ; a vigorous writer for 
Whig Review and other periodicals ; a popular orator ; pub- 
lished many addresses. LL. D., Geneva. 

Ezra A. Bartlett, descended from Dr. Josiah Bartlett of N. 
H., one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and 
belongs to a family noted for physicians of eminence ; b. New- 
Duryport, Mass., July 18, 1845 ; gr. Rochester University; gr. 
M. D., Albany Medical College, and is now a lecturer in the 
College and a resident physician. 

Lewis C. Beck, b. Schenectady, N. Y., Oct. 4, 1798; d, 
Albany, Apr. 21, 1853; gr. Union, 1817; brother of Dr. T. 
R. Beck. Came to Albany, about 1821 ; gave lectures and 
lessons in botany and chemistry in Rensselaer Institute, Vt. 
Academy of Medicine, and Middlebury College ; in 1827, took 
charge of the New York Mineral Survey ; in 1830, was prof, of 
Chemistry and Natural History at Rutgers. At time of his 
death, was prof, of Chemistry in Albany Medical College. His 
published scientific writings are numerous and valuable. 

Theodoric Romeyn Beck, of New England Ancestry, "his 
ancestors being among the first settlers of New England," b. 
Schenectady, N. Y., Aug. 11, 1791 ; d,Utica, Nov. 19, 1855; 
began to practice medicine in Albany, 1813 ; was principal of 


Albany Academy from 1817-48, in which position he gained a 
great reputation as an educator and left a lasting influence for 
good on the young men of Albany. While in this position, 
and during the few remaining years of his life, he did much 
collateral, useful and scholarly work, which places him high 
among the benefactors and scholars of our country. He 
gave lectures at Albany Medical College, 1840-54 ; was pres. 
State Medical Society, 1829 ; manager of the State Lunatic 
Asylum ; founder of the Albany Institute, some years its 
president and promoter of its best working plans ; for many 
years editor the Am. Journal of Insanity ; published many 
valuable papers, addresses and reports. His famous work on 
" Medical Jurisprudence " is standard in Europe as well as in 
America and has given him the name of father of that Science. 
In philanthrophic works, his head, heart and hand were all 
in them. 

Lewis Benedict, of Mass. stock: b. Albany Sept. 2, 18 17 ; 
killed in battle at Pleasant Hill, La., April 9, 1864; gr. Wil- 
liams, 1837; began practice of law, 1841 ; held offices of City 
Attorney ; Judge Advocate ; and Surrogate of Albany Co., 1848 
-52; also Memb. of Assembly, i860. Went into the Union 
service in 1861, as Lt. Col., and was conspicuous for soldierly 
conduct and bravery until he fell leading a charge. Became 
Col. and then brevet Brig. Gen. The G. A. R. Lew Benedict 
Post, was named in honor of him. 

Uriah G. Bigelovv, belonging to a family remarkable for 
producing many eminent physicians, originating in Mass., or 
now residing there ; was b. Worcester, N. Y., Oct. 21, 1621 : 
practiced medicine, with marked success in Albany, about 
30 years; d. Feb. 23, 1873. 

John M. Bigelow, son of Dr. Uriah G., b. Albany, August 


26, 1846 ; gr. Williams, 1866, and M. D. at Albany and Colum- 
bia, 1870; lecturer at Albany Med. Col.; has been del. to 
Am. Med. Ass. and N. Y. Med. Soc. ; prest. Albany Co. Med. 
Soc. ; prest. Y. M. A. ; and is an active, successful, rising 
physician and citizen. 

Capt. Abraham Bloodgood is first mentioned as taking a 
cargo of goods in a sloop from New York to West Indies, 
starting Nov. 3, 1770, the consignors being merchants and 
others of Albany. He returned in due time, with rum, limes 
and cotton. Among the consignees are James Bloodgood & 
Co. Abraham is named among the merchants in 1794; d. 
Feb. 17, 1807, a. 65, James d. May 4, 1799, a 64, William d. 
June 29 1801, a. 41, James d. Nov. 4, 1806, a. 35, Lynot d. 
Enfield Ct., June 17, 1857, a. y6. S. DeWitt Bloodgood was 
grandson of Abraham. Of Lynot, it is said, he was born in 
Albany and belongs to one of those families whose names are 
associated with the early history and progress of our city. 
He was buried in Utica. We think the family came from Ct. 
among the earliest N. E. immigrants ; were mercantile and 
estimable citizens. 

Francis Bloodgood, b. 1768; d. March 5, 1840; gr. Yale, 
1787; lawyer; one of the founders and first directors of the 
State Bank and for many years its president ; Clerk of the 
Supreme Court; Mayor of the city, 1 831- 1833. Was also 
pres. of Albany Insurance Co. ; distinguished for the excel- 
lence of his temper and the integrity of his character. 

Lewis Boss, b. Providence, R. I., Oct. 26, 1846; gr. Dart- 
mouth, 1870; adopting the profession of astronomer, he stud- 
ied at the Naval Observatory, Washington, and was employed 
in government service until 1879, when he became director 


of the Dudley Observatory, Albany, and a professor of Astron- 
omy in Union University. By his reported observations and 
published works on Astronomical subjects, he has already 
attained a world wide fame as a devoted astronomer of distin- 
guished merit and promising future. 

Lebbeus Booth, b. Danbury, Ct. ; moved to Ballston with 
his father, when a boy ; gr, Union, 1813 ; prin. Female Acad- 
emy, 18 15- 24 ; md. only dau. of Ebenezer Foote, the founder ; 
had private school at Ballston, several years ; d. there Dec. 
16, 1859. 

John Melancthon Bradford, D. D., b. Danbury, Ct., May 
12, 1781 ; d. March 26, 1826; gr. Brown, 1800; pastor of i. t 
Reformed Dutch Church, Albany, 1802- 20; "a man of com- 
manding presence ; " "an eloquent and impressive preacher ; " 
"among the distinguished pulpit orators of the day." His 
son, Alexander W., was an eminent lawyer ; sometime Surro- 
gate of New York. 

John E. Bradley, b. Lee, Mass., Aug. 8, 1839; g^"- Wil- 
liams, 1865 ; Ph. D. 1879; principal of Pittsfield High School, 
1865-68 ; and of Albany High School, from its first opening 
in a hall as Free Academy in 1868, with 140 pupils, to its pres- 
ent firm establishment, in a model building, with about 600 
pupils, 20 teachers and a first-class rank among similar insti- 
tutions in the country. In 1878 he visited Europe, as Commis- 
sioner at the Paris Exhibition, and made a valuable report to 
the State. He is knoAvn and felt in the religious, social, 
charitable and educational organizations of the city, and is, 
also, active in the interests of his Alma Mater, and of the State 
work for advancement of learning. 

James Gordon Brooks, b. Claverack, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1801 ; 


d. Albany Feb. 20, 1841. Son of David, a Rev. officer; gr. 
Union, 1829. Studied law ; went to New York City, 1823; 
Ed. "Minerva," "Literary Gazette," 'Atheneum," "Morning 
Courier," and cont. to " Commercial Advertiser. " In 1828, 
md. Mary Elizabeth Aiken, of Poughkeepsie, a literary lady. 
In 1829, they pub., as joint authors " Rivals of Este and other 
Poems." In 1838 they moved to Albany. 

Jonas H. Brooks, descended from one of the earliest and 
most respectable families of Mass. ; b. Rutland, Mass., Jan. 
5, 1848; studied at Oxford (N. Y.) Academy; was teacher, 
bank clerk and bank director, before he came to the ist. Nat- 
ional Exchange Bank, Albany, in 1873, as teller, and in 188 r, 
as cashier. 

Jesse Buel, b. Coventry, Ct., Jan. 4, 1778; d. Danbury, 
Oct. 6, 1839. -^ printer, he went to Albany in 1813; estab- 
lished and edited the Argus until 1821. Was a large hearted, 
public spirited, highly esteemed citizen. Was well known as 
an active and influential promoter of local institutions of reli- 
gion, education and benevolence. Member of State Assembly, 
of the State Board of Regents, and in 1836, Whig candidate 
for governor of the State. He owned, occupied aAd suc- 
cessfully cultivated a large farm in the west part of the city, 
ever after 1821; in 1834, established the Cultivator, in 
which he, by his practical knowledge, common sense, and 
hearty zeal, was successful in creating a greater respect for 
cultivating the soil, presenting improved methods, and show- 
ing how profits could be made. He delivered numerous 
addresses on agricultural subjects ; pub. the "Farmers Instruc- 
tor" and "Farmers Companion." He lived a public benefactor, 
and left a great and precious name. 


Aaron Burr. This man of brilliant parts, great ambition, 
tireless activity and questionable patriotism, studied law 
in Albany, having Alexander Hamilton as a fellow student; 
married here, opened a law office here, and was for some years 
well known and influential in this city. His only child, Theo- 
dosia, was born here. He was son of Aaron Burr, president 
of Princeton, and grandson of Jonathan Edwards, of gen- 
uine New England stock; b. Newark, N. J., Feb. 6, 1756; d. 
Staten Island, Sept. 14, 1836; gr. Princeton, 1772. He did 
service under Montgomery, Arnold, Putnam, Stirling, and 
Washington during four years of the Revolution ; held in N. Y. 
state, the offices of member of the Assembly, Atfy-General, 
and Com. of Claims ; was from 1791- 97, a leader in the U. 
S. Senate; Vice Pres. of U. S. four years from 1801 ; killed 
Hamilton in a duel July 12, 1804; was tried and acquitted of 
treason in Aug. 1807; afterwards spent four or five years in 
London and Paris ; returned to New York in 18 12, and spent 
the rest of his life in quiet practice of law. He was a remark- 
able man in his greatness and in his weakness. 

Benjamin F. Butler, a descendant of Oliver Cornwell, in 
his maternal line; b. Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1795; d. 
Paris, France, Nov. 8, 1858; studied law with Martin Van 
Buren ; became his partner in 1817 ; district atty. of Albany 
Co. 1821-25; served in the State Assembly; was on com- 
mittee with John Duer and John C. Spencer, to revise Statutes 
of New York. U. S. Attorney General under Jackson, 1831- 
34; acting Sec. of War, Oct. 1836 to Mar. 1837; U. S. District 
Atty. for Southern N. Y. 1838-41. Joined the republican 
party on passage of Kansas-Nebraska bill, and voted for 
Fremont. After this he was instrumental in founding the 
University of New York, and while practising his profession, 
served as law professor in that institution. 


Samuel Gary, b. Providence, R. L, Aug. i8, 1766; d. 
Bethlehem, N. Y. Feb. 16, 1845. Came to Albany, 1827; 
was a most acceptable preacher of the Society of Friends or 
Quakers ; lived an eminently blameless and useful life ; his 
influence aud example widely felt and acknowledged. His son 
Joseph, b. Albany Co., Jan 30, 1802 ; d. Albany, Aug. 29, 
1879 5 foi' nearly 40 years pursued the business of a wholesale 
provision merchant, in Albany, in company with his brother, 
David H., who died in 1865. Both left unblemished and hon- 
ored names. 

Nathaniel Hazeliine Carter, b. Concord, N. H., Sept. 17, 
1787; d. Marseilles, France, Jan. 2, 1830; gr. Dartmouth, 
181 1 ; taught in Salisbury, N. H. and Portland, Me.; read 
law; prof, of languages at Dartmouth, 1817-20, In 1820 
became ed. and prop, of Albany Register. Pub. '• Letters 
from Europe" in 1827, after traveling there 1825- 27 ; spent 
winter of 1828 in Cuba; relinquished his paper and went to 
France for his health in 1829, As poems, he wrote " Burial 
at Sea," "Pains of Imagination," " Hymn for Christmas," and 
many minor ones. 

Asa H. Center, b. Berkshire Co., Mass., 1779; a printer 
in Pittsfield ; came here early in this century as foreman in 
the Centbiel office; about 1805 went into mercantile busi- 
ness with Nathaniel Davis ; dissolved and went to New York 
in 1827; continued business there until his death in 1857; 
an active, public spirited man, enjoying good will of the com- 

John Chester, b. Wethersfield, Conn., Aug. 1785; d. Phil- 
adelphia, Jan. 12, 1829; gr. Yale, 1804; D. D. Union 1821 ; 
pastor of Presb. church, Hudson, N. Y. 1809- 15; first pastor 


of 2nd, Presb. church, Albany, 1815- 28; amiable and sym- 
pethetic as a man ; fervid and persuasive in the pulpit ; an 
earnest worker for the education of the young and for every 
worthy public enterprise ; he was very useful here and endeared 
himself greatly to his people. He was the pastor of DeWitt 

Kufus W. Clarke, b. Newburyport, Mass., 1813; gr. Yale, 
1838; pastor of No. Cong, church, Portsmouth, N. H., till 
Dec. 1851 ; of Maverick church, E. Boston, 1852-56; of So. 
Cong, church, Brooklyn, 1857-62; of ist Reformed church, 
Albany, 1862-83. D. D. Univ. of N. Y., 1862; author of 
Heaven and its Scriptural Emblems ; Memors of Rev. J. E. 
Emerson; Lectures to Young Men ; Review of Dr. Stuart on 
Slavery; Romanism in America; Bible in Schools; Moody 
and Sankey in England ; Life Scenes of the Messiah ; Heroes 
of Albany ; Premillennial Essays, and numerous sermons, 
pamphlets and essays on various subjects. He was a faithful 
pastor, a diligent workman, and did great good in this city. 
He is brother of Bishop Clarke of R. L, and has four sons in 
the ministry. 

David H. Cochrane, of New England parentage, b. July 5, 
1828; gr. Hamilton, 1850; after other teaching, was principal 
Albany Normal School, 1856-64; thence went to Brooklyn 
as the president of the Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute. 
To his work he has always brought scholarship, energy and 
executive ability. LL D. Hamiltofi, 1869. 

Mason F, Cogswell, b. Hartford, Conn., Nov. 10, 1809; d. 
Albany, Jan. 21, 1865; son of an emiinent physician and sur- 
geon of same name in Conn. (1761-1830) who gr. Yale 1780. 
Came to this city in 1833 and devoted himself to the duties of 


his profession with almost singular zeal and fidelity. He attained 
a foremost rank. His own patriotic emotions and the con- 
fidence of the appointing powers are attested by his position^ 
as examining surgeon, and afterwards as hospital surgeon in 
important posts. He, also, heard his country's call for volun- 
teer surgeons and readily took his place in camp and field. 
He was, in all places, not only the good physician, but the true 
man, sympathetic, genial, sincere and thoroughly upright. 

John O. Cole, b. Sharon, Conn., Oct. 5, 1793; d. Albany,, 
Jan. 4, 1878; came to this city in 1814; printer; studied law; 
held office of police justice forty-four years ; a man of inflex- 
ible integrity, and large public respect ; was always active in 
the interest of public morals and public education; was pres. 
of the Board of Education 20 years, and Supt. of Schools for 
eight years previous to his death. Among his sons are 
Addison D. and Charles W. of this city. The latter succeeds 
his father as Supt. of Public Instruction. 

Andrew J. Colvin is a lineal descendant, through his pater- 
nal grandmother, from the Fullers of the Mayflower ; an 
estimable citizen and lawyer. \^erplanck, Supt. of the Adi- 
rondack Survey, is his son. 

Charles D. Cooper, the 4th of 10 sons of Dr. Ananias 
Cooper; b. Rhinebeck, N. Y. 1769; ancestors among the early 
English Puritans of Mass. ; d. Albany, Jan. 30, 1831. Came 
to Albany as physician in 1792; health officer, 179!- 98;, 
interested himself in politics ; held offices of county clerk and 
county juf'ge some years ; also Indian agent ; was Secetary 
of State 1 81 7. Noted as a man of remarkable physical force 
great influence and high sense of honor. Gen. John 
Taylor Cooper of Albany, and Rev. Charles D. Cooper of 
Philadelphia, are his sons. 


Erastus Corning, b. Norwich, Conn., Dec. 14, 1794; d. 
Albany, April 8, 1872. Went to Troy in liardware store of 
his uncle, Benjamin Smith, in 1807, and inherited most of his 
estate. In 1814, came to Albany as clerk, where he, after a 
few years, established the widely known and always prosper- 
ous house of Erastus Corning & Co. ; was a leader for many 
years, in the principal business enterprises of the city, such as 
banks, canals and I'ailroads ; and held the most important 
executive offices in them. He was alderman of the city, and 
3 years a Mayor ; several years a member of state legislature ; 
member of Congress 1857- 9, '61- '63, '65- '67 ; of the Lon- 
don Peace Congress, in 1861 ; and delegate to the State Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1867. In 1863, he retired from 
business with a fortune estimated at five millions, to which his 
son, Erastus, succeeded. He was large hearted and liberal ; 
an unostentatious giver; a wise counselor ; a public benefactor. 
Education, morals, charity, religion, all moved his activities. 
He was held in affection and honor by the friends of these 

Alonzo Crittenden, b. Richmond, Mass., d. Brooklyn, N. 
Y., 1883; gr. Union, 1824; an eminent teacher; princ. of 
Albany Female Acadamy 1826-45 ; after this, princ. of Packer 
Institute, Brooklyn. He was one of the pioneers in the 
movement favoring increased facilities for the higher education 
of women in our country, and practically worked with this 
purpose all his life. 

Harry Croswell, b. W. Hartford, Conn., June 16, 1778 ; d. 
New Haven, March 13, 1858. Was a pupil of Noah Webster ; 
D. D. Trinity, 1831. In 1802, he came to Hudson; became 
proprietor and editor of the Balance, and subsequently of the 
Wasp. Was an intense federalist and wrote vigorously and 


severely against his political opponents. Hamilton's last 
and greatest forensic effort was in his defense in a famous 
political libel suit. In 1808, he came to Albany and estab- 
lished another federal paper, an article in which led to 
another prosecution for libel by his opponent, Solomon 
Southwick, who recovered damages. Disgusted with politics 
Mr. C. took orders in the Episcopal Church in 1814; preached 
a short time at Hudson ; then became rector of Trinity 
church, New Haven, which continued from 1815 until 1858. 

Sherman Croswell, son of Rev. Harry C b. Hudson, N. Y. 
1803; d. New Haven. Conn., March 3, 1859; g^'- Yale, 1822; 
read law; came in 1826 to Albany, and was associated with 
Edwin Croswell, as ed. the Argus until 1855. Was author 
of Crosweirs Legislative Manual, which is still authority in the 
N. Y. legislature. 

William Croswell, son of Rev. Dr. Harry, b. Hudson, N. 
Y. Nov. 7, 1804; d. Boston, Nov, 9, 1871 ; gr. Yale, 1822; 
studied law and pursued literary labors at Albany ; then pur- 
sued theological studies at New York and Hartford, editing 
Christian li 'aU/iman a.t time; rector of Christ church, 
Boston, 1829-40; St. Peters, Auburn N. Y., 1840-44;. 
Church of the Advent, Boston, remainder of his life. His 
poems and corresponcence pub. by his father in 1833, contain 
some of the sweetest composition in our language. His life 
was a beautiful example of self-denying charity and religious 
devotion. D. D. Trinity, 1846. 

Edwin Croswell, nephew of Rev. Dr. Harry, b. Catskill N. 
Y., May 29, 1797; d. Princeton, N. J., June 13, 1871. Assis- 
ted his father as ed. of the Catskill Recorder, supporting the 
War of 18 1 2, and so managed it as to command much 
notice. He took control of the Albany Argus in 1824,. 


changed it to a daily, and made it a leading organ of the 
democratic party in New York State ; ranking high for the 
signal ability with whicli it was conducted, all over the coun- 
try. He retired in 1854. Was State printer, 1823- 40. His 
literary publications are numerous, and his name and influence 
as a journalist v/ill long remain. 

Hooper Gumming, son of Gen. John N. Gumming, a Rev- 
olutionary officer; b. Newark, N, J.; gr. Princeton, 1805; 
studied theology at Andover ; was pastor of the Seceders' 
church, as the 3rd Presb. church of Albany was then called, 
from i8i7to'23; resigned and went to New York city as 
pastor of United Presb. church; health failing, he went to 
Charlestown, S. G., where he died in 1825. He was a man of 
wonderful pulpit power, people of all classes thronging his 
church to overflowing every Sabbath. 

Charles Davies, b. Washington, Gonn., Jan. 28, 1798; ed. 
at West Point, 1815; LL. D. Geneva, 1840. Early worked 
on a farm with his father in St. Lawrence Go. Prof, at West 
Point, 1816-37; at Trinity 1839-41; New York University 
1848-49; Albany Normal School and Golumbia, 1857-65. 
Was paymaster in the army, 1841-42. As a teacher of 
mathematics and as author of a full series of mathematical 
works for all grades of American Schools, he ranks unrivaled ; 
d. Fishkill, N. Y., Sept. 17, 1876. 

Amos Dean, descended from Walter, of Taunton ; b. Barn- 
ard, Vt., Jan. 16, 1803; d. Albany, Jan. 26, 1868; gr. Union, 
1826. Entering the profession of law, he came to Albany, 
and as learned in legal knowledge, always held highest rank. 
He was the real founder of the Albany Law School, aided by 
Judges Harris and Parker; from its organization in 185 1, 


was its head professor and lecturer; also, filled the chair of 
lecturer on medical jurisprudence in the Albany Medical Col- 
lege from its opening in 1839. He projected the Young Men's 
Association in 1833, and was its first president. Among his 
many lectures and writings, the following are published : — 
" Medical Jurisprudence, 1854, Phrenology, 1835, ^lanual of 
Law, 1838, Philosophy of Human Life, 1839, History of 
Civilization, 7 Vols., since his decease. He was held in high 
estimation in all the stations filled by him ; an eminently useful 
man. He was a trustee of the Albany Female Academy, 
Dudley Observatory, and the State Normal School ; he lec- 
tured several years in the Iowa University. 

Capt. Stewart Dean fitted out the sloop, Experiement, 80 
tons, in Albany, and made a voyage to Canton, China, starting 
Dec. 1785, and returning April 1787, with a cargo of nankeens, 
teas, silks, and 13 sets of china ware. It was a wonder in 
that day and excited general interest, especially in Albany and 
New York, He made several voyages to China subsequently, 
Dean street preserves his name. He seems to have been born 
in Conn. ; made A. his home many years, and died in New 
York about 1845, ^ged 8^. 

Philander Deming, of New England ancestry ; b. Schoharie, 
N. Y., 1829; gr. Vt. University, 1861 ; and at Albany Law 
School; became stenographic reporter to the N. Y. Supreme 
Court, 1866; also legislative reporter; is the only Albany 
contributor to the Atlantic Monthly, and has done and is 
doing much literary work. He published Adirondack Stories. 

Charles Devol ; parents from Westport, Mass. ; b. Schagh- 
ticoke, N. Y., April 4, 1809; gr. M. D. at Fairfield, 1831 ; 
came to Albany 1854; began to preach in 1836, as member 


Troy Conference, and has since preached in Albany and 
many other places, and practiced medicine. He is a man of 
varied knowledge, a prolific essay writer, an original thinker, 
and a good man, 

John A. Dix spent some years in Albany and made him- 
self an interested and influential citizen. B. Boscawen, N. H., 
July 24, 1798 ; d. 1879 ^^^ eminent military service for his 
country in the wars of 18 12 and 1861 ; was largely useful in the 
Assembly and as chief executive of his adopted State of New 
York; also, as its Secy, of State and Supt. of Schools; he 
showed sagacious statemanship in the U. S. Senate, and wis- 
dom in the Cabinet councils; he made a skillful diplomatist 
abroad ; he has written well of his travels, in his state papers 
and addresses. In this city his name is held in great honor 
as a citizen, scholar, statesman, and patriot. His good fame 
is national and European as well. 

Lorenzo Dow preached in the early days of Methodism, 
here in Albany, attracting, as everywhere, crowds of listeners. 
B. Coventry, Conn., Oct. 16, 1777; d. Georgetown, D. C, 
Feb. 2, 1834. 

George Dummer, b. New Haven, Conn. Feb. 8, 1782; d. 
Jersey City, N. J., Feb. 21, 1853 ; was a member of tlie firm 
of Webb & Dummer in Albany, in a wholesale store, in 1807, 
and did a prosperous business many years. He retired, and 
after a brief residence in New York, removed, in 1825, to 
Jer.-ey City, where he had erected two extensive factories, 
one for the manufacture of flint glass, the other for making 
China Ware. These works did much for the growth of Jersey 
City. The glass factory never ceased its burning night and 
day for 40 years. For many years Mr. D. was leading citizen 
of the city, remarkable for his public spirit, common sense. 


liberality, and love for order, lor the useful and the good. 
The laboring, people always found him their true friend. 

William Durant, b. Middlefield, Mass. ; came to A. about 
1813 ; d. Albany, 1845 ; produce merchant ; trustee of Albany 
Savings Bank ; intelligent, energetic, successful, and liberal 
in works of charity. 

Clark Durant, b. Middlefield, Mass., came to A. in 1825; 
bro. to William and in business with him ; d. New York, 
1873 ; very generous ; gave $10,000 to the Albany Hospital ; 
bought and sustained the " Bethel ;" gave the bell to the 
3rdPresb. Church, etc. Was ist pres. of Board of Trade; 
director of Commercial Bank, etc. 

William C. Durant, nephew of W. and C, came to A., 
1843; engaged in milling and flour business. William b. 
Albany, gr. Princeton, late pastor of 6th Presb. church, 
Albany, is a son. 

Homer Eaton; b. Enosburgh, Vt., 1834; D. D. Syracuse 
Univ., 1879; from 1872- 74, pastor of Grace Meth. church, 
Albany, and from 1867-79, presiding Elder of Albany district. 
Was in 1872 and '80, member of General Conference, and in 
1 88 1, delegate to the Ecumenical Council, London. Joel W. 
Eaton is his brother. 

Joel W. Eaton, b. Enosburgh, Vt., Sept. 26, 1831 ; gr. 
Meth. Bib. Inst., 1855 ; D. D. Wesleyan Univ., 1881 ; mem- 
ber of Troy Conference since 1857; and came as pastor of 
Ashgrove church to Albany, 1881 ; has been army Chaplain, 
member of General Conference, and contributed largely to 
the religious literature of his church. 

James W. Eaton, b. New Jersey, Aug. 22, 1817 ; his father 
a native of N. H. ; came to Albany as contractor and builder 


in his early manhood; in 1874 was appointed by Gov, Dix, 
Supt. of Construction of the State Capitol, which difficult 
position he held with credit to himself and advantageously to 
the State until 1883. Calvin W., lumber merchant, and James 
W., lawyer, are his sons. - 

Franklin Edson, b. Chester, Vt., April 5, 1832; came to 
Albany in Feb. 1852, and joined his brother Cyrus in distil- 
ling business. Here was director of State Bank, pres. Y. M. 
A., and vestryman of St. Paul's. In 1866, went into produce 
business in New York City. Has been prominent there in 
business circles ; pres. of Produce Exchange ; bank director ; 
school trustee. Was elected Mayor of N. Y. in 1882. 

Isaac Edwards, b. Corinth, N. Y., Aug. 30, 1819; d. 
Albany, Mar. 26, 1879; descended from good New England 
parentage ; came to A. in 1838, and to the practice of law in 
1843. With a clear, well balanced mind; accurate in knowl- 
edge; patient in hearing and weighing; fearlessly just, he 
became distinguished as a reference lawyer, and much em- 
ployed as such, as well as in trusts and real estates. His 
published works on " Bailments,'' " Bills and Notes," " Fac- 
tors and Brokers,'' place him among the best legal writers in 
the English language. For 12 years from 1867, he stood at 
the head of the Albany Law School ; and, by his clear and 
thorough instructions and wise management, added much to 
its high standing. 

Charles Lovering Elliot, of N, E. stock, b, Scipio, N. Y., 
Dec. 1812; d. Albany, Aug. 25, 1868. He devoted all his 
leisure moments while clerk in a country store to his favorite 
pursuits of drawing and painting. About 1834, became a 
pupil of Trumbull. His first attempts at portrait painting 


were not successful. By perseverance he came, in his later 
years, to rank as one of the first of American portrait painters. 

Ebenezer Emmons, b. Middlefield, Mass., May i6, 1799; 
d. Brunswick, N. C, Oct. i, 1863; gr. Williams; became M. 
D. and a successful practitioner; prof, of Natural History at 
Williams in 1833 ; made a report on Quadrupeds of Mass., 
and added much to the knowledge of botany, mineralogy and 
geology in the northern States. In 1836 was engaged upon 
the Geology of New York ; advanced his Taconic theory in 
opposition to the received Silurian theory, which has since 
been accepted ; removed to Albany in 1838, and became prof, 
of Chemistry in Medical college ; began the geological Survey 
of N. C. in 1858, and was kept from returning home by the 
Rebellion. His reports on the Natural History of N. Y., 
and on the Geology and Agriculture of N. C. are very valua- 
ble, as were, also, at the time, his text books on Mineralogy 
and Geology. 

Samuel Ware Fisher, b. Morristown, N. J., where his father 
was a Presb. minister, April 5, 1814; d. College Hill, Ohio, 
Jan. 18, 1874; gr. Yale; began preaching at W. Bloomfield, 
N. J. ; came to Albany as pastor of fourth Presb. church, 
1843; afterwards, pastor 11 years in Cincinnati, and eight 
years pres. of Hamilton College ; finally, pastor in Utica. He 
was among the ablest clergymen in the church ; clear, direct, 
affluent and vigorous in style ; lofty in his themes ; manly and 
eloquent in their utterance. 

E. G. Folsom, b. Ashtabula Co., Ohio, May i, 1821 ; gr, 
Oberlin, 1847; teacher of penmanship in public schools of 
Cleveland, studying, first, theology and, then, medicine mean- 
while; opened Folsom's Mercantile College in 185 1, m that 


city; came to Albany in 1862, and has since alone and with 
partners, successfully conducted Folsom's Business College 
here. He has had wide connections with several other simi- 
lar colleges, and has published a valuable treatise on the 
" Logic of Accounts." He is an earnest, systematic, faithful, 
progressive educator. 

Ebenezer Foot, founder of Albany Female Academy, b. 
Conn. ; a successful lawyer, practicing here in the early part 
of this century ; d. July 21, 1814, a. 41 years. His only 
daughter md. Lebbeus Booth, second principal of the 
School. Samuel A. Foot, once a prominent lawyer here and 
afterwards a State Senator and county judge, was a brother. 

Amos Fowler, whose father was from Lebanon, Ct., b. Co- 
hocton, N. Y., July 5, 1820; gr. M. D., from Univ. of New 
York, 1846; came to Albany in 1849, ^^^^ ^^^^ since practiced 
here. Warren H. Fowler, M. D., 1879, Jefferson Med. Col., 
is a son. 

William Fowler, b. East Chester, W'estchester Co., N. 
Y., Feb. 10, 1774: worked in manufacture of morocco in New 
York City; came to Albany in 1793 ; lost by a great fire; was 
started again chiefly by John Jacob Astor; md. Margaret Ste- 
venson in 1796 ; was extensively engaged in wool and fur busi- 
ness with Benjamin Knower; retired with a good estate in 
1824; one of the founders of Mechanics and Farmers Bank in 
181 1 ; a director till his death, Jan. 11, 1861. Rev. Philemon 
Fowler of L^tica is a son. 

Samuel H. Freeman, b. Hanover, N. H., Aug. 24, 1821; 
gr. Dartmouth, 1843; gr. Alb. Med. Col., 1846; for twelve 
years was associated with Dr. J. H. Armsby in practice ; con- 
tinues practice in A. ; has twice been president of the County 


Medical Society, and is a member of curators of the Medical 
College and of the State Societ}-. 

William W. Frothingham, b. Hudson, N. Y., Sept. 21, 
1796; d. Albany, Jan. 25, 1876; son of Hon. Thomas, of 
Charlestown, Mass., an honored revolutionary patriot who 
was a member of the X. Y. Senate, 1820 — 23, and d. at Sand 
Lake, N. Y., 1827 ; a successful lawyer and esteemed citizen. 

Worthington Frothingham, b. Albany, Feb. 23, 1832; son 
of William W. ; a lawyer; for 20 years United States Circuit 
Court Commissioner and Master in Chancery. Walter D., 
lawyer, is a son. 

Elias Gates, b. Westmoreland, N. H., Sept. 7, 1801 ; came 
to A., 1825 ; opened a bookstore in 1830, and, until 1861, was 
chiefly engaged in this business at Troy and Albany, with 
different partners. A man of intelligence and integrity, en- 
joying universal respect. 

Joseph E. Gavit, b. New York, Oct. 29, 1817; d. Stock- 
bridge, Mass., Aug. 25, 1874. Settled in Albany, 1838; 
banknote engraver from 1841 — 59; carried on an extensive 
business in engraving in Albany ; went to N. Y. City in 1859, 
and was instrumental in the formation of the American Bank 
Note Co. ; became general superintendent, vice president, 
and from 1866, president of the Co. Devoted much of his 
time to the practical study of natural history and microscopy, 
in which he acquired extensive and critical knowledge, and 
remarkable skill. Was president of N. Y. Microscopical 
Society. His son Joseph is carrying on the work of engraving 
in Albany. 

Horace Goodrich, gr. Union, 1814; first prin, of Albany 
Female Academy ; d. Albany, 1815; good classical scholar; 


fond of music; beloved by his patrons. He was of N. E. 

Thomas Gould, came here from R. I., and carried on the 
hardware business, about 1790. At first his brother, Job 
Gould, and Benjamin Dickinson were associated with him. 
After 1798, each of the Goulds carried on the same business 
separately ; both acquired fortunes. Thomas d. April 22, 1820. 

Matthew Gregory, b. Wilton, Conn., Aug. 21, 1757; d. 
Albany, June 4, 1848. He held commissions, and served 
with honor during the whole war of the revolution ; came to 
Waterford, N. Y., 1791, and kept a small inn; and to Albany, 
in 1803, in charge of the "Tontine," then the great hotel of 
the city; became proprietor of the " Eagle Tavern" in 1806; 
and having acquired a fortune, in 18 14, bought and occupied 
for thirty-five years the " Congress Hall" property. He was a 
useful citizen, supporting all good objects ; prudent in his 
affairs ; neat, orderly, exact and prompt in all that he under- 
took. He was always connected, in some official position, 
with local matters of business, religion and benevolence. 

Silvester Hale,b. Dalton, Mass,, April 8, 1804; d. Albany, 
Aug. 27, i88r ; came to Albany 1836, and carried on a large 
wholesale flour and grain business ; served as bank director, 
as president of Board of Trade, and for nearly thirty years, as 
elder in the 4th Presb. church. His sons are William H., gr. 
Yale, i860, Ph. D., 1863, a lawyer, and Lorenzo, M. D. 

Matthew Hale, b. Chelsea, Vt., June 20, 1829; gr. Vt. 
University, 1851 ; 1867-8, State Senator from Essex County; 
settled in Albany, 1868, and is a leading member of the bar, 
and a prominent citizen. 

James Hall, b. Hingham, Mass., Sept. 12, 181 1; studied 


natural sciences at the Rensselaer Polytechnic School, Troy, 
N, Y., 1831-36. Appointed one of the New York State 
geologists; he has resided in Albany since 1837, when he 
began to survey the western district of the state, publishing 
the results in 1843. Giving now special attention to paleozoic 
formations ; he published 3 vols, on the "Paleontology of New 
York," in 1847-59, ^^^ i^ still engaged in this kind of work. 
He is also director of the State Museum of Natural History, 
the establishment, arrangement and great value of which are 
very largely due to his science, industry and skill. He has, 
also, assisted in the Canadian survey, and been State Surveyor 
in Wisconsin and Iowa. He has been honored by many Euro- 
pean and American scientific societies ; has contributed to 
their " Transactions," and written many of the government 
papers on fossils. His facts and opinions are known and 
valued wherever science is known and valued. 

JabezD. Hammond, b. New Bedford, Mass., Aug. 2, 1778; 
d. at Cherry Valley, N. Y., Aug. i8, 1855 ; taught school at 15 ; 
practiced medicine in Reading, Vt., when 21 ; settled in the 
practice of law in Cherry Valley, in 1805 ; was M. C, 1815-17 ; 
State Senator, 1817-21 ; a practicing lawyer in Albany, 1822- 
30; commissioner to settle N. Y. claims vs. U. States, 1825- 
6; visited Europe 1831; returned to Cherry Valley; was 
County Judge in 1838. He is author of "Political History 
of N. Y.," 2 vols. ; '• Life and Times of Silas Wright," and 
"Julius Melbourne." 

Ira Harris, b. Charleston, N. Y., May 31, 1802 ; d. Albany, 
Dec. 2, 1875; descended from one of the colonists who fol- 
lowed Roger Williams; gr. Union, 1824; came to Albany as 
student, under Ambrose Spencer; began his eminent legal 
career in 1827 ; member of Assembly, 1844-45 ; of State Con- 


stitutional Convention, 1846-67; Judge of Supreme Court, 
1847-59; U. S. Senator, 1861-67. As a legislator he was 
vigilant and discreet ; as jurist, impartial and learned; as a 
statesman, always for country as above party. He was known, 
honored, and useful in the cause of liberal learning, having 
been for many years president of trustees of Union, a 
trustee of Vassar, and chancellor of Rochester, beside several 
similar trusts of a local character. For several years he was 
an esteemed lecturer in the Albany Law School, and president 
of trustees of the Medical School. . He left a great and good 
name. Hon. Hamilton Harris, of this city, late State Sen- 
ator, is a brother. 

Hamilton Harris, b. Preble, N. Y., May 21, 1821 ; of R. I. 
ancestry ; fitted for college at Homer and Albany ; gr. Union, 
1841 ; came to the Albany bar in 1845; practiced ever since 
here; was member of Assembly in 1851 ; District Attorney, 
1853; chairman of Republican State Committee, 1864-70; 
president of Capitol Commission, 1866-75 5 State Senator, 
1875-79. He cultivates literature; is a good writer and 
speaker, an able lawyer, a shrewd politician, skilled in organ- 
izing and leadinf^. His popularity has enabled him to over- 
come large opposition majorities, and succeed where others 
have failed. Frederick, Union, 1875, ^ lawyer, is his son. 

Gideon Hawley, b. Huntington, Conn., Sept. 26, 1785; d. 
Albany, July 17, 1870; gr. Union, 1809 ; LL.D. Rutgers, 1834. 
His home was in Saratoga Co. from 1794 until he was admitted 
to the bar as a lawyer, in 181?, whei_ he settled in Albany. 
His tastes were for literature and science. He early and 
always took a lively interest in education of the masses. He 
held the office of State Supt. of Schools, 1813-18; Secretary 
of the Board of Regents, 1814-41 ; and regent of Smithsonian 


Institute, 1846-70. "Essays in Truth and Knowledge," is 
his only printed work outside of official papers. He was regent 
from 1842; and Trustee of State Normal School, Albany 
Academy, and Albany Female Academy, many years. "To 
no individual in the State are the friends of common school 
education more deeply indebted for the impetus given to the 
cause of elementary instruction in its infancy, than to Gideon 
Hawley.'" This may be, after a long and steadily useful life in 
many positions, his highest praise. 

Henry A. Homes, b. Boston, Mass., March 10, 1812; gr. 
Amherst, 1830; studied theology at Andover, and medi- 
cine at Yale. From 1S36-50, he was in the American 
Missionary work at Constantinople, followed by some three 
years in the American Legation, and as Charge d' Affaires 
at the Porte. He has been a resident of Albany since 1854, 
as assistant librarian or as librarian of the State Library. 
For his present position as chief librarian, he is eminently 
fitted by scholarship, cultivated tastes, and habits of research. 
His contributions to^ literature are varied in subject, and 
valuable to the librarian, the historian and the antiquarian. 
LL. D. Columbia, 1873. 

Friend Humphrey, b. Simsbury, Conn., 1787; came to 
Albany 181 1; d. March 15, 1854; leather merchant ; Mayor 
1843; very energetic ; a very popular Mayor and most useful 
citizen. Gen. Chauncey Humphrey was a brother. 

Isaac and George Hutton acquired wealth here in the manu- 
farture and sale of jewelry and silver ware. They afterwards 
embarked in the less successful business of cotton manufac- 
ture. Isaac d. at Stuyvesant Landing, Sept. 8, 1855, aged 
68; George d. at Rhinebeck. They held prominent posi- 
tions in business institutions here. 


Elisha Jenkins, of New England stock; his early life 
was spent in Hudson, N. Y. ; liberally educated ; pursued a 
mercantile life until he became wealthy ; came to Albany about 
1801 ; was State Comptroller, 180 1-6, and Secretary of State 
three years: and Mayor of the city, 1814-19. He also filled 
many minor offices, and had great influence in promoting the 
growth of the city. He was a man of excellent sense ; a 
gentl'eman in every walk of life, and carried with him into 
public life amenity of manners, strict integrity, and the best 
of business habits. 

Edmund L. Judson, b. Albany, Nov. 13, 1830; s. of 
Ichabod L., whom he succeeded in the provision trade, 31 
years ago. Was Alderman of the city, 1862-66, and Mayor, 
1874-76, Nathaniel, who came here in 1796, was his grand- 
sire, and Albert C, late County Clerk, is his brother. 

James Kent, grandson of Rev. Elisha Kent, of Suffield, 
Conn.; b. Philippi, N. Y., July 31, 1763; spent his youth in 
Fairfield Co,, Conn. ; d. New York City, Dec. 12, 1847; g^- 
Yale, 1781 ; LL.D., Columbia, 1797. After coming to the 
bar, 1787, he practiced in Poughkeepsie until 1793; went to 
New York City; became prof, of law in Columbia; City 
Recorder in 1797 ; Judge of Supreme Court, 1798 ; Chief Jus- 
tice, 1804; Chancellor, 1814-23. Resided in Albany during 
most of these last, and somie subsequent years, and repre- 
sented the Co. in the Const. Convention of 182 1. Returning 
to New York City, he was prof, of law in Columbia in 1824; 
and in 1826-30, published his great work, '♦ Commentaries on 
American Law," in 4 vols. His rank as a jurist and legal 
writer, and his valuable public service, are well known. 

Austin H. Kibbee, of Conn, parentage; b. Maiden N. Y., 
April 22, 1822 ; came to Albany in 1845 ? ^^ charge of machin- 


ery of Jagger Iron Works, eight years ; and has, since 1858, 
beeo in the lumber trade ; has been very active in church and 
Sunday-school work ; was Supt. Cong. Sab. School 24 years f 
and is now, for 13 years, pres, of directors of House of Shelter, 
and a promoter of other good works ; also an Alderman. 

George Kilbourn, b. Hartford, Conn., July 6, 1792; lived 
40 years in Albany ; a drum maker. James, the third of his 
ten children, b. Albany, March 22, 1820; died Aug. 11, 1881 ; 
carpenter by trade, and gloried in his'calling ; but was regarded 
as one of the most remarkable natural orators of the State, 
especially in political campaigns. He canvassed the State 
several times, drawing crowds, always arousing the greatest 
enthusiasm, by his strong logic and stirring eloquence. He 
sought no office; but was an honest man and a true patriot. 

Rufus King, son of Charles, and grandson of the eminent 
statesman, Rufus; b. New York City, Jan. 26, 1814; gr. at 
West Point, 1833 ; engineer of construction at Fortress Mon- 
roe ; also in N. Y. & Erie Railroad ; came to Albany as writer 
on the Evening Journal \ afterwards edited Daily Advertiser. 
Appointed Adj. Gen. of N. Y., by Gen. Seward; was School 
Commissioner for Albany Co. Removing to Milwaukee, he 
edited the 6"^?;///;/^/. In 1861, appointed Minister to Rome; 
but remained in the country, and did important service in the 
Union cause. In 1867 he went to Rome; d. Oct. 13, 1876. 

Rufus H. King, b. Ridgefield, Conn., 1795; d. Albany, 
July 9, 1867. His father, Gen. Joshua King, was a distin- 
guished officer in the Revolutionary War. Came to Albany in 
1806 ; clerk in retail dry goods store of Bogart & McHarg ; in 
181 5, became one of the firm of McHarg & King; afterwards 
R. H. King & Co., wholesale dealers ; did immense business, 
and acquired a colossal fortune. Taking a lively interest in 


public affairs, and active in promoting worthy enterprises, he 
declined political office ; but was one of the most trusted and 
influential in financial circles, holding offices as director in 
banks, insurance Cos., board of trade, etc. From 1840-67, 
was president of State Bank. The late Col. Henry L. King, 
J. Howard King, now president of State Bank, and a leading 
citizen, and Gen. Rufus H. King, are his sons ; and Mrs. Gen. 
Franklin Townsend, his daughter. 

Benjamin Knower was from Mass., and resided in Albany 
nearly 40 years. He came here a hatter, and also carried on 
extensive mercantile operations. He was remarkable as a 
friend to the 3-oung men in his employ, helping them, as a duty 
and a pleasure, in their start in business life. His business 
capacity was unsurpassed, carrying it into every worthy public 
enterprise, and carrying on all his undertakings with an unsul- 
lied reputation for good sense and integrity. He was one of 
the founders of the Mechanics and Farmers Bank, and its 
president many years. From 182 1 to 1824, he was State 
treasurer. As a mechanic he was confessedly- at the head ; 
and by his active co-operation in founding and carrying on, for 
many years, the Mechanics Institute, and the Uranian School 
for the children of mechanics, did much to elevate this useful 
-class of citizens in his day. He died Aug. 23, 1839, a. 64. 

Dyer Lathrop, b. Bozrah, Conn., May 4, 1788; d. Albany, 
April 18, 1855 : came to A. in 181 1 ; merchant until his death. 
A man of great industry, solid sense, universally respected ; 
very benevolent; was one of the founders and constant sup- 
porters of the Orphan Asylum, a leading charity of the city, 
and for 24 years its treasurer. 

Daniel S. Lathrop, b. Albany, April 13, 1825 ; d. 1883 ; was 
his eldest son ; as a business man successful, and widely and 
favorably known. 


William L. Learned, b. New London, Conn,, July 24, 1821 ; 
gr. Yale, with salutatory honor, 1841 ; ad. to bar 1844; came 
to Albany soon after; had Gilbert L. Wilson, James C. Cook, 
and Rufus G, Beardslee, as law partners ; app. Justice of 
Supreme Court, by Gov. Hoffman, 1870, in place of Judge 
Peckham, deceased ; elected, in fall of 1870, Judge of Supreme 
Court for a term of 14 years ; made Pres. Justice of 3d judicial 
department in 1875 ; professor in Albany Law School now for 
several years ; president of trustees of Albany Female Acad- 
emy; LL.D., Yale, 1878. John De Witt Peltz, lawyer, 
married a daughter. 

Noah Levings, b. Cheshire Co., N. H., Sept. 29, 1796; d. 
Cincinnati, Jan. 9, 1849; ^- ^- Union ; came to Troy, N. Y., 
as a blacksmith, when 16; began to preach at 21 ; ministered 
in very many towns and cities ; at Albany, 1840. One of the 
leaders of the Methodist church in this vicinity in his time. 

Robert Lewis kept the most popular tavern in his day, cor. 
of what is now So. Pearl and State St. ; d. June 17, 1798; 
succeeded by his son, Stewart. It was the resort of the lead- 
ing citizens, and of all distinguished visitors of that day. 

John Lovett, b. Conn. ; gr. Yale, 1782 ; attempted a school 
in Albany soon after ; read law ; resided as tutor and land 
agent at Ft. Miller ; then at Lansingburgh ; member of Assem- 
bly, 1800-1-7; returned to A. in 1812; was on the staff of 
Gen. Van Rensselaer; member of 13th Congress ; afterwards 
went to Ohio ; was interested in the first steamboat on Lake 
Erie; d. Ft. Meigs, Ohio, Aug., 1818. 

Addison Low, b. Shrewsbury, Vt., Nov. 21, 1809; d. Al- 
bany, Aug. I, 1883. Came here in 1822; father carried on 
furnace and machinery business. In 1865 he was appointed. 


by Prest. Johnson, local inspector of steamboats; subse- 
quently supervising inspector of steamers in the waters from 
Cape May to Portland, Me., including Philadelphia, New York 
and Boston. He aided in the construction of the present 
laws in regard to steamboats. Resigned in 1879, and after- 
wards acted as consulting mechanical engineer and designer 
of engines. W. G. Low and W. H. Low are his brothers, 
and William, the artist, is a son. His daughter Mary is wife 
of Judge Danaher. 

Jonathan Lyman, b. Derby, Conn., June 7, 1786; d. Scho- 
dack Landing, N, Y., Dec. 5, 1856; came to A. 1815; archi- 
tect and builder; superintended building old City Hall, old 
State House, and Female Academy ; was a man of sterling 
qualities of mind and heart. His son, Charles R. Lyman, b. 
Albany, 1818; assistant city surveyor ; flour merchant ; Mary 
Augusta, teacher in Female Academy, is a granddaughter. 

Henry Strong McCall, b. Lebanon, Conn., Feb. 14, 1819; 
gr. Yale, 1842. Came to Albany as principal of Boys' Col- 
legiate Institute, located on Broadway, and taught and read 
law until 1847, when he was admitted to the bar. He has 
ever since resided and practiced law in this city; was county 
Superintendent of Schools in 1847, and has been actively 
identified with the advancement of the public schools of this 
city. Was city Attorney from 1854 to 1856. He was active 
in founding the Congregational Church in 1850, and has 
always been the clerk and held other offices in it. In 1851, 
he published " Notes to the N. Y. Civil Procedure," which 
has had 3 editions; in i860 " the Clerks' Assistant," which 
has reached 3 editions ; in 1862 "the Constable's Guide," of 
which 3 editions have been issued; in 1865, the " New York 
Civil and Criminal Justice," of which the 5th edition has been 


published; and in 1883, a work of 400 pp, on " Real Prop- 
erty." " His writings are used by a larger number of lawyers 
than those of any author engaged in the active duties of the 
profession." He has been, since 1879, ^ lecturer in the Albany 
Law school. As an upright, sound, clear headed lawyer, he 
has no superior. Henry S. McCall, Jr., lawyer, is a son. 

Stuart McKissick, b. Saco, Me., Nov. 27, 1807 ; d. Albany, 
Aug. 29, 1882; came to this State in 1816; a long time en- 
gaged in the transportation and commission business in Onon- 
daga Co., and in Troy and Albany; later, dealer in flour and 
produce ; held important business trusts here in banking and 
mercantile organizations, and as member of the school board, 
and of the Presbyterian Church. 

Elisha Mack, b. Middlefield, Mass., Sept. 26, 1784; d. Al- 
bany, Nov. 24, 1854; general merchandise; a very worthy 
man. Elisha Mack, son of Elisha, b. Windsor, Mass., Feb. 
7, 181 1 ; came to A. 1816; clerk for his father; police officer 
from 1838, about 30 years, when Loveridge, Kane and Cole 
were police justices ; and was always regarded as a remarkably 
skillful detective of crime, and a most reliable man in any 
position in which he was placed. Many very dark and impor- 
tant cases were brought to light by him, in the interest of jus- 
tice and public order. 

Elisha L. Magoon, b. Lebanon, N. H., Oct. 20, 1810; early 
a brick layer; ord. Baptist preacher 1840; preached as pastor 
in Richmond, Va., Cincinnati, New York and Philadelphia; 
settled in Albany as pastor ist Baptist ch. 1857. His ministry 
is one of power; his public influence decided for every good 
work. Has published " Orators of American Revolution," and 
several other works bearing on eloquence, religion and patri- 


Alden March, b. Sutton, Mass., Sept., 1795; d. Albany, 
June 17, 1869; gr. Brown Med. School, 1820; began practice 
in Albany, 1820; in 1821 began a private school of medicine 
and surgery, which he continued until the Albany Med. Coll. 
was founded, in 1839. Of this, and of the Albany Hospital, 
he was one of the founders, and the recognized head as long 
as he lived. He was a quick and skillful surgeon, and made 
many important improvements. He devoted himself to his 
profession, and was regarded as unsurpassed in surgery in this 
country. As an example of his zeal, he selected and took 
from Boston in a wagon, his anatomical illustrations for his 
private school. At this time there were only one hospital and 
two medical schools in the State. The admirable system of 
college clinics is due to him. As a citizen, he had all the ele- 
ments of a public-spirited. Christian manhood. Henry, ]\I.D., 
Albany, is his son. 

Five brothers, born in Lyme, Conn., — Uriah, John, William, 
Alexander and Richard Marvin, — came here about the year 
1800 ; and three of them carried on in partnership, with some 
changes, the grocery business for more than 40 years, with 
great success. They were William, who retired in 1828, and 
d. New London, Conn., IMay 19, 1849 ^ged 74; John, who 
retired 1822, and d. Albany, May 8, 1853; and Alexander, 
who retired in 1842, and d. Albany, Sept. i, 1864, in his 8oth 

Thomas Mather came from Lyme, Conn., and opened a 
store early in the present century ; later had a mill on Wynants- 
kill, and dealt in flour and grain ; and finally carried on busi- 
ness with the West Indies, from Middletown, Conn., where 
he died at an advanced age, about 1850. He was one of the 
first directors of the New York State Bank. Elias and Sam- 


uel, also merchants in Albany, were his brothers, and the 
present enterprising and successful mercantile firm members of 
of Mather Bros, are grandsons. 

Arthur D. Mayo, b. Warwick, Mass., Jan. 31, 1823; stud- 
ied at Amherst, and with Dr. H. Ballou ; preached in Glouces- 
ter, Mass., Cleveland and Cincinnati, O., and Springfield, 
Mass, In 1855, came to Albany, as pastor of Unitarian Soci- 
ety. He is a fine writer, and has published several interesting 
addresses and other writings. His educational papers are 
pointed and valuable. 

William L. Marc}^ b. Southbridge, Mass., Dec. 12, 1786; d. 
Ballston, N. Y., July 4, 1857: gr. Brown, 1808; taught 
school ; studied law ; practiced in Troy ; distinguished him- 
self in the war of 1812; Adj. Gen. 1821 ; State Comptroller 
1823; Judge of Supreme Court 1829; U. S. Senator 1831; 
Governor of New York 1833-9; U. S. Secy, of War 1845-49; 
U. S. Secy, of State 1853-7. He resided in Albany many 
years, as a public officer and valued citizen. He was a scholar, 
a statesman, a writer, and a diplomatist of remarkable ability. 
Simple in his habits, a hard worker and faithful man, emi- 
nently useful to his country and his kind. His grave is in 
the Rural Cemetery. 

Nathaniel C. Moak descended from the Clevelands of Wo- 
burn, Mass.; b. Schoharie Co., Oct. 3, 1833; studied law; 
admitted to practice, 1856; has practiced in Cherry Valley and 
Oneonta; came to A. in 1867 ; Dist. Atty. 1872; has been en- 
gaged in many important criminal trials ; is a great worker 
and student ; has a library valued at $50,000 ; is much engaged 
in editing law works ; has already published some thirty 


Joel Munsell, b. Northfield, Mass., April 14, 1808; d. Al- 
bany, Jan. 15, 1880. Came to Albany as a printer, in 1827. 
He was a remarkably busy man ; a first-class printer ; a patient 
and judicious compiler and editor, with exceeding fondness 
for American history and antiquities. For the preservation, 
by the printer's art, of local and documentary history, all 
American historians will always be indebted to him. He pub- 
lished and edited the New York State Mechanic, The Unionist, 
Albany State Register, Statesjnan, and Mortiing Express ; 
also, Albany Annals, 10 vols. ; Historical Collections, 4 vols. ; 
" History of Printing; " " Paper and Paper Making ; " •' His- 
torical Papers," 10 vols.; and numerous smaller works. His 
invaluable aid by counsel, annotations and type work has 
contributed greatly to the literary merit and mechanical beauty 
of many works in genealogy, antiquities, biography and his- 
tory bearing his imprint. For many years he was a leading 
spirit in the Albany Institute. 

Eliphalet Nott, b. Ashford, Conn., June 25, 1773 ; d. Sche- 
nectady, N. Y., Jan. 29, 1866; gr. Brown, 1795 ; D.D. Prince- 
ton, 1805 ; began to preach in 1795; preached and taught at 
Cherry Valley, N, Y. ; was first native New England pastor in 
Albany, being pastor of ist Presb. church from 1798- 1804. 
Asa preacher he was regarded as very eloquent, attracting 
large congregations. As a citizen, interested in every good 
work, he commanded profound respect and great influence. 
From 1804 until his decease, he was the popular president of 
Union College, leaving a deep and abiding impress on hun- 
dreds of young men. In this position his usefulness to Albany 
was inestimable, because very many of its "boy.: " were placed 
under his instruction. He was a practical man, as shown in 
his improvements in stoves, the benefits of which all buildings 


warmed by them still enjoy. Many of his writings are pub- 
lished ; but his great life work was written in the imperishable 
minds of young men. 

Thomas W. Olcott, son of Josiah, of Stratford, Conn. ; b. 
Hudson, N. Y., May 22, 1795; d. Albany, Mar. 23, 1880. 
Came to A. as clerk in the Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank, at 
its opening, July 29, 181 1, and continued, as cashier, from July, 
1817; as president from June, 1836. During his long career 
as banker, for nearly 70 years, with singular devotion, he at- 
tained a reputation as bank financier second to no one in the 
country; and left large wealth, and a name greatly honored 
for benevolent deeds, broad public spirit, and exalted integrity. 
In 1863 he declined a flattering offer from Pres. Lincoln, of 
the position of the first Comptroller of the Currency. He 
declined all public office, except such as related to the promo- 
tion of education, or other local interests. He leaves one 
daughter and five sons, Dudley and John J. now president 
and vice president of the M. and F. Bank; Frederic P. late 
State Comptroller; and Alexander and Theodore, of Corning, 
N. Y. 

David Perkins Page, b. Epping, N. H., July 4, 1810; d. 
Albany, N. Y., Jan. i, 1848; attended Hampton Academy a 
short time ; began to teach district schools ; at 21 was princi- 
pal of English department of Newburyport High School, 
where he spent 12 years of severe study and faithful, discrimi- 
nating labor, and gained a reputation that made him first 
principal of Albany Normal School. His labors for nearly 
4 years assured the " experiment" a success, and gave the 
institution a lease of life which it still holds in vigor; and 
gave himself a name among American teachers that cannot 
die. The " Elementary Chart of Vocal Sounds," and " Theory 


and Practice of Teaching/' are his printed works. He was 
buried in the cemetery at Newburyport. 

Erastus D. Palmer, of New England descent ; b. Pompey, 
N. Y., April 2, 1817. A carpenter until 29; a cameo-cutter 
until 35 ; he came to Albany and became a sculptor. He has 
never studied abroad, but has produced over 100 works in 
marble, which have secured a foremost rank among American 
sculptors. Among them are "Infant Ceres,"' "The Sleeping 
Peri," " The Little Peasant," " The White Captive," " Resig- 
nation," " Spring," " The Infant Flora," and " The Angel at 
the Sepulchre ;" together with bas reliefs, and " Landing of 
the Pilgrims;" and 15 statues intended for the Capitol at 

Ray Palmer, b. Little Compton, R. I., 1808 ; gr. Yale, 1830. 
D.D., Union, 1852; pastor in Bath, Me., 1835-50; and first 
pastor of the Congregational Church, Albany, 1850-65. His 
work here was laying foundations, and he laid them well. He 
has since been Secy, of Am. Cong. Union, New York. He 
has written many lyric hymns and other verse, some of which 
will always be sung in the churches. He has also published 
many sermons, addresses, religious books and memoirs. 

William Parm-elee, b. Lansingburgh, N. Y., 1807 ; d. Albany. 
Mar. 15, 1856; gr. Yale, 1826; practiced law in Albany from 
1830; City Attorney 1836; County Judge 1839, ^"^ 1847-52; 
City Recorder 1840-46 ; Mayor 1846 and 1855. He died while 
yet holding this office. He married Helen, daughter of Dr. 
T. Romeyn Beck. 

John Davis Parsons, b. East Hampton, L. I., April 27, 
1815 ; of Puritan ancestry; came to Albany early in life, and 
as the managing member of the printing, binding and publish- 


ing house of Weed, Parsons & Co., is widely and favorably 
known. Much of the State printing and best law printing is 
done by this house. 

L. Sprague Parsons, b. Walcott, Conn., May i6, 1809; gr. 
Yale, 1837; principal of Albany Female Academy, 1845-55; 
had previously taught 6 years in a select school here; d. Co- 
hoes, N. Y., Apr. 27, 1864. 

Rufus W. Peckham, of Rhode Island ancestry; b. Rensse- 
laerville, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1809; drowned on the sea-wrecked 
steamer, Ville du Havre, Nov. 22, 1873; g^- Union, 1827; 
district attorney for Albany Co., 1838-41 ; Judge of Supreme 
Court 1859, ^^^ re-elected in 1867 without opposition; elected 
Associate Judge of Court of Appeals for a term of 14 years, 
1870; 1852-54, member of Congress. With a clear head, 
strong assertion of honest convictions, and commanding pres- 
ence, he was powerful as an advocate ; with learning, and keen 
sense of justice added, he made an eminent judge ; and was, 
withal, too independent and patriotic to be a partisan. 
Wheeler H., of New York, and Rufus W., of Albany, recently 
elected to the Supreme Court Bench, are his sons. 

Eli Perry, of Connecticut ancestry; b. Johnstown, N. Y. 
1802; d. Albany, May 17, 1881. Mayor of Albany 6 years; 
M. C. 2 years; very influential in civil affairs and financial 
circles, and did much good with his wealth. 

John S. Perry, b. Dec. 17, 1815, in Farmington, Ct. ; came 
to Albany in 1830, as clerk in crockery store of H. & C. Webb 
& Co. ; in 1843 ^vent into the manufacture of stoves and ma- 
chinery; 10 years later confined his business to improving, 
making and selling stoves, which, with different partners, he 
has continued ever since, with remarkable success. Since 


1864 his partners have been his cousin, Nathan B. Perry, and 
Andrew Dickey, from Wilton, N. H. Their annual product 
of stoves has gone up, in 40 years, from 500 tons to 12,000 
tons, now exceeding any other foundry in the world. Mr. P. 
was the first to introduce the base burner, which has culmi- 
nated in the argand burner, which has revolutionized the 
coal-heating stoves of this country. He was for 3 years pres. 
of the U. S. National Asso. of Stove Manufacturers, which he 
helped organize He is prominent in the financial and re- 
ligious organizations of the city. 

Amasa J. Parker, son of Rev. Daniel; b. Sharon, Conn., 
June 2, 1807; gr. Union, 1825; LL.D. Geneva, 1845; prin. 
Hudson Academy at 16; ad. to bar in 1828; practiced at 
Delhi until 1844, when he came to Albany ; member of Assem- 
bly 1834; regent 1835; jM- C. 1836-40; Circuit judge and 
Vice Chancellor, 1844-47; Judge of Supreme Court, 1847-55; 
of Court of Appeals, 1854: many years lecturer in Albany 
Law School, of which, with Dean and Harris, he was a founder. 
Memb. State Const. Conv., 1867; twice dem. candidate for 
Governor. Has largely interested himself in education ; trus- 
tee of, Cornell, of Albany Med. Coll., and Female Academy. 
Of fine culture, broad views, independent conviction, and 
careful and accurate legal knowledge, he is widely known and 
highly esteemed for his learning, wisdom and integrity. Col. 
Amasa J,, lawyer, is his son. 

George R. Perkins, born of New England stock, Otsego 
Co., N. Y., May 3, 1812. LL.D. Hamilton, 1852; taught at 
Clinton Institute, 1831-38; at Utica Academy, 1838-44; in 
Albany Normal School, 1844-52, of which he was principal 4 
years. Superintended the building of Dudley Observatory, 
and was, in 1858, asst. eng. and surv. of the State. He was 


author of a text book on astronomy, and of a series of math- 
ematical text books ; a large contributor to educational jour- 
nals; d. Aug. 22, 1876. 

Amos Pilsbury, son of the best prison warden of his time, 
Moses C. Pilsbury, of the N. H. and Conn. State Prisons, was 
born Londonderry, N. H., Feb. 8, 1805; d. Albany, July, 
1873. Was deputy under his father at Concord, N. H,, and 
Wethersfield, Conn. After his long and successful service at 
Albany Co. Penitentiary, he resigned his position and went 
to London, in 1872, under appointment from Gov. Hoffman, 
as Commissioner to the International Penitentiary Congress, 
and made an able report to the State on his return. Few 
men have lived more useful lives, or left a more honored 

Louis D. Pilsbury, son of Amos, was born at Wethersfield, 
Conn., and as Superintendent fully sustained the high name 
of the Penitentiary, which his father had given it. He has 
held until recently, the position of State Superintendent of 

Ananias Piatt, kept Tontine Coffee House three years, clos- 
ing with May, 1801 ; had kept a public house in Lansingburg, 
and was a pioneer stage proprietor of line from Albany to that 
town; d. April 10, 1842, a. 80. 

Charles H. Porter descended from one of the oldest and 
most respectable of N. E. families ; is a scholarly gentleman, 
a leading phN-sician in Albany; and for some years, one of 
the faculty of the Medical College. 

Horatio Potter, of N. E. ancestry; b. La Grange, N. Y., 
Feb. 9, 1802: bro. of Bishop Alonzo ; gr. Union, 1826; 
D.D. Trinity; LL.D. Geneva; D. C. L. Oxford; Rector of 


St. Peter's, Albany, 1833-54, where he was emuiently hon- 
ored and useful; cons, provis. bishop of New York in 1854, 
and became bishop of the diocese in 1861. Is father of the 
late Hon. Clarkson Potter, and of Eliphalet Nott Potter, pres- 
ident of Union College. Bishop P. md. the only dau. of 
Prest. Nott. 

Daniel J. Pratt descended from William, of Saybrook, Ct. ; 
b. Westmoreland, N. Y., Mar. 8, 1827; gr. Hamilton, 1851; 
principal of Fredonia Academy, 1854-64; Assistant Secretary 
of Board of Regents since 1866 ; Secretary of Albany Institute 
since 1869. Besides the most assiduous and intelligent devo- 
tion to his official duties, he has done a great amount of col- 
lateral faithful work, as author or editor of valuable reports, 
essays, and other contributions to the educational and histor- 
ical literature of the State. The suggestion, systematizing, 
and practical working of the Board of Regents, are largely 
due to his patient industry. 

Harmon Pumpelly, b. Salisbury, Conn., Aug. i, 1795; d. 
Albany, Sept., 28, 1882. After spending his earlier life in 
Tioga Co., as land surveyor and agent for large land holders, 
and laying foundations for fortune himself, he came to Albany, 
in 1841, where his business forethought, promptness and in- 
tegrity were in requisition until his death. He had been, for 
many years, president of the Albany Savings Bank, Albany 
Insurance Co., and Albany Gas Light Co., and filled other 
important trusts in the city, especially in St. Peter's church. 
Mrs. James Kidd, and Mrs. John Meredith Read, are his 

Elisha Putnam, nephew of Gen. Israel; b. Button, Mass.; 
md. daughter of Capt. Stephen W. Johnson, of the " Boston 
Tea Party." Came to A. about 1790; architect and builder; 


put Up first nail machine in this vicinity; first to propose 
carrying water in iron pipes ; patented hooped stave race- 
way for mills; Supt. of City Water Works about iSoo; built 
St Peter's, North Dutch, and old ist Presb. churches; engi- 
neer, about 1820, on Erie Canal; long an elder in the Presb. 
church. After 70 years old, wrote and published " Crisis ; or 
the last trumpet; " d. Feb. 11. 1854, a. 89. 

Jared L. Rathbone, b. Salem, Conn.; d. Albany; carried 
on a stove foundry; was an Alderman, and also Mayor of the 
city, 1839-40. 

John F. Rathbone, b. Albany, Oct. 9, 1819. After some 
time as student and clerk, he went into the foundry business, 
in 1840; built a stove foundry in 1845, ^^^ is now at the 
head of one of the largest in the world, under firm name of 
Rathbone, Sard & Co. In 1861-7, he was Brig. Gen. of 9th 
Brigade of National Guards, and commander of forces sent 
into the military service in the civil war; 35 regiments were 
sent forward by him. He founded the Rathbone Library of 
the University of Rochester. 

Matthew H. Read, b. New Haven, Conn., Sept. 2, 1803; d. 
Albany, Sept. 6, 1883 ; came to this city about 1830; engaged 
in the flour and grain trade, retiring in i860. Was prominent 
in commercial circles ; president of First National Bank since 
1869; leaves four sons and three daughters. 

Marcus T. Reynolds, of Connecticut ancestry; d. Albany, 
July II, 1865; a distinguished lawyer; represented the city in 
the State Legislature; was actively interested in the Albany 
Hospital, Orphan Asylum, and other humane institutions; 
also in the railroad enterprises that centered in the city; was 
a highly useful and respected citizen. Dexter Reynolds, law- 
yer, is a son, and Marcus T. and Leonard Hun, lawyers, are 


Charles A. Robertson, son of Conn, and Mass. parents; b. 
Mobile, Ala.; gr. Harvard, 1850; studied medicine at Boston 
and Philadelphia; settled in Albany, and rapidly rose in his 
profession, making the eye and ear a specialty. Was tal- 
ented, public-spirited, and of restless energy; wrote much, 
and to the point; prest. of Y. M. A., and member of school 
board; d. iSTg, 

Ebenezer Piatt Rogers, b. Dec. 18, 1817; d. Montclair, 
N. J., Oct. 22, 1881 ; educated at Yale and Princeton. Inter- 
rupted much by weak e>:es, and poor health. Was pastor at 
Chicopee and Northampton, Mass., Augusta, Ga., Philadel- 
phia and New York city. Came to Albany as pastor of ist 
Reformed church, in Nov. 1856, and spent 6 years of " useful, 
acceptable service, " especially endearing himself by his 
ready personal sympathy. D. D., Oglethorpe, 1853. Published 
many sermons and other religious writings. 

Joseph Russell, b. Bedford, Mass., Oct. 7, 1777; came to 
this city in early manhood ; became an active and prosperous 
merchant in the firm of Thomas and Joseph Russell ; always 
influential in commercial circles ; an honorable man ; d. 
Dec. 25, 1838. Joseph W. Russell, Esq., a lawyer of this city, 
is a grandson, 

Luther Sawyer, b. Lancaster, Mass.; came to A. 18 13 ; 
brick and stone mason. His son William Sawyer, b. March 
14, 1821 ; shoe dealer; " never drank, smoked or chewed;" 
never attended a circus or theatre; is now in real estate 
speculations ; has large income, with which he is doing much 
good, especially in helping Baptist churches and the poor. 

John G. Saxe, b. Highgate. Vt., June 2, 1816; gr. Middle- 
bury, 1839; practiced law in Vt., 1843-50; ed. Burlingto7i 


Sentinely 1850-55; 185 1, State Atty. forVt.; candidate for 
Governor. Has resided for many years in Albany. His 
poems, chiefly of wit and humor, are widely read and some of 
them have become apart of our nation's permanent literature. 
They have been published at different times and in various 

Theodore Sedgwick, son of Judge Theodore Sedgwick, b. 
Sheffield, Mass., Dec. 31, 1780; d. Pittsfield, Mass., Nov. 
7, 1839; g^- Yale, 1798; practiced law with great distinction, 
in Albany from 1801- 22 ; was the first to suggest the idea of 
a railroad from Albany to Boston over the Green Mountains, 
and carried it through in the Mass. legislature, of which he 
was a member in 1824, ''25, '27. Devoted friend of free trade, 
temperance and anti-slavery, and published writings on these 
subjects. Theodore, his son b. Albany, Jan. 27, i8ri: d. 
Stockbridge, Mass., Dec. 8, 1859; g*"- Columbia, 1829; prac- 
ticed law in New York city; U. S. Atty. for So. District of 
New York; author of Life of Wm. Livingston, Writings of 
Wm. Leggett, and many treatises on political economy and law 

John and Robert F. Slack, brothers ; b. Weston, Mass : 
came to A. about 1810; enterprising and successful wholesale 
grocers for more than 30 years ; also largely engaged in 
lumber and stave business ; word as good as their bond ; 
warmly interested in education and every good work. Dr. 
Henry of Fiskill, and Mrs. George B. Steele of A., are sur- 
viving children. 

Elihu Smith, b. Stamford, Conn., Mar. 14, 1804; came to 
Albany, 1847; architect and builder ; had previously lived in 
Genoa, Ithaca and Troy ; began making stove models in 
1830; claims invention of the principle of base burning and 
argand stoves; also of improved refrigerators; is a skillful 
mechanic and an honest man. 


Horace E. Smith, b. Weston, Vt., 1817; LL. D. Dart- 
mouth, 1880; practiced law in Boston in New York city and 
in Johnstown, N. Y.; in 1879 became Dean of Albany Law 
School. He has been a prominent member of the Mass. 
legislature and of the Constitutional Convention of New York, 
1867; and has had extensive practice in his profession. He 
is a man of high purposes, diligent work, eminent legal 
knowledge, and excellent qualities for his present position. 

Norman L. Snow, son of Hon. Dr. Simon Snow of Mans- 
field, Mass.,b. Root, N. Y. Apr. 7, 1839; S^- Union, 1859; 
N. Y. College of Phys. and Surgeons, 1861 ; rendered impor- 
tant service as army Surgeon during the late civil war; began 
a successful practice in Canajoharie when the war was over 
and held honorable civil positions in that village ; visited the 
hospitals of Europe in 1873; settled in practice in Albany 
with Dr. A. Van Derveer in 1875 i ^^^<^^ is holding high rank in 
the Medical College, in the Hospital, in the Medical Society, 
and in general practice. 

Solomon Southwick, b. Newport, R. I., Dec. 25, 1773; d. 
Albany, Nov, 18, 1839. Came to this city, 1792; became 
connected with the Albany Register, published by Robert 
Barber, whose sister he married ; and succeeded him as pro- 
prietor in 180S. It was the leading paper of his party, and he 
the leader until 181 7. He held the offices of State printer, 
Clerk of the Assembly, Sheriff of the County, president of 
the Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank, postmaster and regent of 
the University. Twice he was the candidate for Governor; 
when 40 years of age, he was admitted as attorney at 
law. Besides the Register, he conducted the ''PloiigJiboy,'''' 
*'■ National Observer,'''' '■'Christian Visitant ''"' 2in6. ''Family 
Newspaper.'''' He lectured extensively on temperance, edu- 


cation and morality, and published valuable treatises on these 
and kindred subjects. He was a remarkable man; with strong 
convictions, great boldness, untiring devotion, and great 
ambition. During his later years, he devoted all his high 
powers to doing good. 

Ambrose Spencer, b. Salisbury, Conn., Dec. 13, 1765; d, 
Lyons, N. Y., Nov. 13, 1848; gr. Harvard, 1783; LL. D., 
Harvard, I821. About 1785, he entered upon the practice of 
law in Hudson, N. Y., and was called, almost at once, to 
important office in that city, and in the State legislature. In 
1802-4, he was Atty. General and began to reside in Albany, 
which was his home until 1839. He became Justice of the 
Supreme Court in 1804, and Chief Justice from 1819-23; 
member of N. Y. Const. Conv. in 1821 ; M. C. 1829-31. 
In this city he held many important offices, including that of 
Mayor. He was truly a great and good man, one of the shin- 
ing lights of his time. His legal decisions stand as highest 
authority. In political counsels he had great weight. At the 
same time, like all truly great men, he was simple hearted, 
approachable by all who needed sympathy and counsel, and 
as just and inflexible as Cato. 

John C. Spencer, son of Ambrose; b. Hudson, N. Y., Jan. 
8, 1788; d. Albany, May 18, 1855; gr. Union, 1806; practiced 
law in Canandaigua; settled in Albany, 1845; ^^s nearly his 
whole life in public business; besides minor offices, M. C, 
1817-19; State Assembly, 1819-20; State Senate, 1825-28; 
1832, Assembly; 1839-41, Sec. of State and Supt. Com. 
Schools; 1 84 1, Sec. of War; 1843, Sec. of Treasury. Had 
much to do with looking into the affairs of the old U. S. bank, 
and also with the anti masonic excitement. The organization 
of the State Asylum for Idiots, and the improvement of the 


State common school system, are largely due to him. The 
most useful part of his life was spent in this city. His anno- 
tated " De Tocqueville's Democracy in America," and his 
great labor in revision of the Statutes of the State, are among 
his monuments. 

William B. Sprague, b. Andover, Conn., Oct. i6, 1795 ; d. 
Flushing, L. I., May 7, 1876; gr. Yale, 1815; Princeton 
Theo. Sem., I819; D. D. Columbia, 1828; settled at W. 
Springfield, Mass., 1819-29; pastor of 2d Presb. church, 
Albany, 1829-70. Such a long ministry is unusual in a city, 
and it was filled by him with distinguished honor. His heart 
was warm toward all good, and he was very helpful in good 
works. He had a facile pen and his published works are very 
numerous ; amongthem are over 100 pamphlets, many religious 
books, memoirs, and notes of travel. His great work, " An- 
nals of American Pulpit," in 9 vols,, is a monument of indus- 
try amid other labors. His autograph collection was the 
largest in America. 

John and Spencer Stafford were prosperous merchants, in 
company here for many years, from about the beginning of 
this century. The former died Oct. 12, 1819, aged57; the 
latter, Feb. 10, L844, aged 72. 

Horace C. Stanton, b. Wolfborough, N. H.; gr. Union, 
1867, at head of his class; excels as a linguist; read law; 
then went to Princeton Theol. Sem., and gr. 1873; pastor 3 
years in Edinburg, N. Y. ; came to Albany as pastor of 
Clinton Sq. Presb. Church, 1876. B. I. Stanton, lawyer, is 
a brother. 

Eben S. Stearns, b. Mass.; gr. Harvard, 1841 ; had been 
prin. of a Mass. Normal School; prin. Albany Female Acad- 
emy, 1855-66; afterwards prin. Robinson Female Seminary, 
Exeter, N. H. 


John Stearns, b. Wilbraham, Mass., May i6, 1770; d. New 
York, Mar. 18, 1848; gr. Yale, 1789; went to Waterford, N. 
Y., 1793; to Albany, 1810; to New York City, 1819. Was 
in 1806, founder of the State Medical Society, of which he 
was the first secretary, and four years president ; also first 
president of the New York Academy of Medicine, in 1846; 
member of N. Y. Senate, 1809-13. A leading aim of his life 
was to purify and elevate the profession of medicine. To this 
and his own personal culture, he devoted his vigorous mind, 
his untiring energy. His influence was very great. 

Lemuel Steele, b. Hartford, Conn., Aug. 26, 1787; d. Al- 
bany, Dec. 26, 1853; came to A. 1815; engaged in manufac- 
turing and importing paper-hangings until 1852, when he was 
succeeded by his son, George B. Steele, and Robert M. King ; 
now succeeded by Frank B. King. Mr. S. was a prominent 
citizen, holding various offices; was 10 years an Alderman; 
20 years or more a bank director; and several years Chief 
Engineer of the Fire Department. 

Moses W. Stickney, b. Antrim, N. H. ; d. Albany, Feb. 4, 
1879 ; came to A. in 1836. Leander Stickney, bro. of M. VV. ; 
b. Antrim; d. 1882; came to A. in 1838. Both were Coffee 
and Spice Manufacturers and merchants, of the firm, of Bacon, 
Stickney & Co. ; successful in business, and acquired large 

Alfred B. Street, descended from Rev. Nicholas Street, of 
New Haven; b. Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Dec. 18, 181 1 ; d. Al- 
bany, June, 1881 ; studied and practiced law with his father, at 
Monticello, N. Y. ; came to Albany, 1839; Librarian of State 
Library for some years. An unostentatious, but highly es- 
teemed citizen, he has left a name honored by his literary 
work. Besides numerous contributions to periodicals, and 


poems on anniversary occasions, he has written, " Burning of 
Schenectady," "Frontenac," "History of the Council of 
Revision," '-Woods and Waters," " Forest Pictures," "In- 
dian Pass." Some of his poems have been collected, and 
published in volumes. 

Jonathan Tenney, b. Corinth, Vt., Sept. 14, 1817; gr. 
Dartmouth, 1843; studied law and medicine, but never prac- 
ticed ; has also been a licensed Congregational minister. 
Early chose teaching as a profession ; has been a successful 
principal of academies and high schools in N. H., Mass., and 
N. Y., about 25 years ; was founder and president of the N. H. 
Teachers' Association, in 1854; has been Commissioner of 
Schools, member of State Board of Education, and secretary 
of the same, in N. H. ; Deputy Supt. of Public Instruction in 
N. Y. ; has lectured extensively on educational subjects, and 
conducted teachers' institutes in Vt., N. H., Mass., Me., R. I., 
and N. Y. ; has written much for educational and literary 
periodicals, as editor and contributor; was Supt. of Schools 
in Owego, N. Y., and Chairman of School Board in Manches- 
ter, N. H. His historical, statistical, biographical and educa- 
tional publications, have been numerous. He came to A. in 
1868; has been 7 years Librarian of Y. M. A., and is now 
engaged in literary work for publication. Received honorary 
degree of Ph.D. from Dartmouth, in 1880. 

George H. Thacher, descended from Rev. Thomas Thacher, 
first pastor of the Old South Church, Boston, was born in 
Hornellsville, June 4, 1818. He is grandson of Judge Hor- 
nell, for whom this town was named. About 1848, he came 
to A., and went into the stove foundry business with Billings 
P. Learned, which he left in 1852, to establish the manufac- 
ture of car- wheels, which for 30 years has been successfully 



carried on by him. His sons, John B. member of the state 
senate, (Williams, 1869,) and George H., are now the active 
members of the firm. Mr. T. has long been prominent in 
business circles; is now Vice President of the ist National 
Bank. He has held the office of Mayor four terms, i860, '66, 
'70 and '72. He is a man of positive convictions, and bold 
in standing by them. This is shown by his official career in 
such notable and well-remembered instances as taking de- 
cided ground in favor of free speech, when some of the 
leaders of his political party endeavored, by a mob, to prevent 
an abolition convention in the city, just before the war ; he 
going into the hall with the speakers, and enforcing order; 
also, in the Dudley Observatory controversy and in the High 
School question. He has been a presidential elector. 

Isaiah Townsend came to Albany in 1799; b. Orange Co.; 
d. Feb. 17, 1838, aged 61. For 36 years, he was engaged in 
an extensive and active manufacturing and mercantile busi- 
ness, in company with his brother, John Townsend. The 
house was very enterprising and liberal, and did much to 
advance the interests of this city. It was known, indeed, all 
over the country, as honorable, skillful and just. Gen. Fred- 
erick Townsend, Gen. Franklin Townsend, Theodore Town- 
send, Rufus K. Townsend, Dr. Franklin Townsend, and the 
late Dr. Howard Townsend, all honored and valuable citizens, 
are descendants of these men. Their ancestors were from 
Rhode Island. 

John Townsend, b. Stirling Iron Works, June 14, 1783; 
came to Albany, 1802, and joined his brother Isaiah, in the 
hardware and iron foundry business, in which they success- 
fully continued many years. Was 6 years Mayor of A. ; d. 
Albany, Aug. 26, 1854. He was one of the founders of the 


Syracuse Coarse Salt Co.. of which he was president; was 
president, also, of Commercial Bank, of Exchange Bank, of 
Savings Bank, and an officer of many other organizations of 
business enterprise and public good. 

Franklin Townsend, s. of Isaiah, b. Albany; has been 
Adjutant General of the State, and president of State Bank ; 
was Mayor of the city, 1850. Gen. Frederick Townsend is a 
brother, and Dr. Franklin, Jr., a son, 

Lyman Tremain, b. Durham, N. Y., June 14, 1819; d. 
New York, Nov. 30, 1878. His ancestors were from Berk- 
shire Co., Mass. Studied and practiced law in his native 
town, until he came to A., in 1853, where he had his home, 
and pursued his brilliant career as a lawyer, until his death. 
He was among the foremost in his profession ; eminent as a 
jury lawyer ; electric as an orator on the platform, or anywhere. 
He served as District Attorney 2 years, and County Judge 4 
years, in Greene Co.; as member of Assembly from Albany, 
and Speaker of that body, in 1866; as Attorney General of 
the State two years ; and as Congressman-at-large from the 
State, 1873-5. He was candidate for Lt. Governor in 1862. 
Until 1861, he was a Democrat; after this he acted with the 
Republican party. His exalted patriotism, and burning 
eloquence were called into active service during the late civil 
war. His son, Col. Frederick, died of wounds in the service; 
and Grenville, another son, a lawyer of splendid promise, died 
just before his father. 

Luther Tucker, b. Brandon, Vt., 1802; d. Albany, Jan. 26, 
1873. ^ printer; in 1826, established the first daily paper 
west of Albany, at Rochester, and called it the '* Z)a//y Ad- 
vertiser ;'"' then started that pioneer agricultural journal, the 


Genesee Fanner, in 183 1 ; this he afterwards consolidated 
with the Cultivator of Jesse Buel, in Albany. In 1852, he 
started the Country Gentlemaji, which is still continued by 
his sons, Luther H. and Gilbert M. Tucker, with marked 
ability, and a very large circulation. Dr. Willis G. Tucker, 
one of the Faculty of the Medical College, and of the College 
of Pharmacy, is also a son. 

Wm. Tully, b. Saybrook Point, Conn., Feb. 18, 1785; d. 
Springfield, Mass., Feb. 28, 1859; gr- Yale, 1806; practiced 
medicine with Dr. March in Albany, 1826, and a few years 
later. Was regarded by many as the most learned and 
scientific physician of his time. Was a great student, an able 
lecturer, a vigorous writer. His views were positive, his 
prejudices strong, his criticisms caustic, his attacks upon 
what he deemed errors, merciless. As a practitioner, he was 
heroic, allowing no questioning as to his treatment. His 
numerous contributions to the literature of medicine, abating 
something for minuteness of detail or difFuseness, were greatly 
esteemed. His reputation as a medical writer rests chiefly 
on his great work "Materia Medica, or Pharmacology and 
Therapeutics," 2 vols. His lectures were given at Castleton, 
in South Carolina, and Yale (1829-41.) 

Asa W. Twitchell, b.?;Swanzey, N. H., Jan. i, 1820; came 
to Lansingburgh, N. Y. 1834; to Albany, 1843. ^^ painted 
his first portrait in 1839; r^^cently spent a few months among 
the galleries of Europe ; has painted many of the best portraits 
of the city; holds a first class rank as an artist; is especially 
happy in presenting his subject, not as a picture, but as a 
character in active business or professional life. He is still, 
daily, in his studio, doing'work that will long do him honor. 


Thomas W. Valentine, b. Norton, Mass., Feb. i6, 1818; 
d. Brooklyn, N. Y., April 4, 1879; ^^'^^ 1842- 53, was prin- 
cipal of a Public School in Albany; went to Brooklyn in 1855. 
While in A. he was for a while Superintendent of the Albany 
Orphan Asylum and Editor of the New York Teacher. In 
1857 he was president of the New York State Teachers^ Asso- 
ciation, and made the first movement toward the establish- 
ment of the National Education Association of the United 
States. He was a man of retiring habits, but of earnest 
purpose and broad views. The State of New York owes him 
gratitude for efficient aid in building up its present system of 
public education. 

Franklin Vose, b. Spencer, N. Y., 1822 : came to Albany 
in 1846, and Rodney, his brother, b. Spencer, 1824, came in 
1849. Both became successful lumber merchants, Rodney 
still carrying on the business and ranking well among our 
many enterprising and prosperous lumber traders. He is 
descended from Robert, of Dorchester, Mass., and related to 
that distinguished educator of N. E., Hon. John Vose, of N. H. 

Reuben H. Walworth, b. Bozrah, Conn., Sept. 26, 1788; 
d. Saratoga, Nov. 26, 1866; spent his early years in Hoosick, 
N. Y., where his father moved in 1793; was admitted to the 
bar at Troy, 1809; practiced some years at Plattsburg ; was 
active in the war of 1812; M. C. 1821- 23; Chancellor of the 
State, 1828 to '48, during a part of which time he resided in 
Albany. He was pronounced by Judge Story, " the greatest 
Equity jurist living." He was a man of large benevolence, 
and a firm and active friend of temperance and religion. 
Rev. Clarence A. Walworth, rector of St. Mary's, Albany, 
since 1866; gr. Union, 1838 ; a devoted priest, a useful citizen, 
a scholar and a writer, is a son. 


Samuel B. Ward, son of D. B. and Abby Dwight Partridge 
of Mass.; b. New York, July 8, 1842; gr. Columbia. Since 
he came to Albany, he has held a leading place among its 
eminent physicians and surgeons, and is a member of the 
faculty of the Medical College. 

B:dward P. Waterbury, b. Franklin, N. Y,, May 10, 1831; 
gr. Albany Normal School; teacher for 13 years, in Albany 
Academy, and 14 years agent of Mass. Life Ins. Co. Was 
appointed principal of Albany Normal School to succeed Rev. 
Dr. Alden, in 1882. 

Elkanah Watson, b. Plymouth, Mass., Jan. 22, 1758; d. 
Port Kent, N. Y., Dec. 5, 1842. In 1773, was a merchant's 
clerk in Providence; executed important commercial trusts 
during the revolution ; in 1779, bore despatches to Franklin, at 
Paris; for 3 years, engaged in commerce at Nantes; then 
visited England, Holland and Flanders ; returned to Newport, 
R. I., and from thence went to Albany in 1789, where, for 18 
years, he was an active promoter of public enterprises. From 
1807- 16, resided in Pittsfield, Mass., where he devoted him- 
self to agriculture ; founded Berkshire Agric. Soc. ; returned 
to Albany in 1816, and founded first Agricultural Society in 
the State of New York; made a tour of Michigan and the 
Lakes, round by Montreal, with reference to better facilities 
for trading western products, in New York and Boston; made 
the first suggestions in regard to the canal improvements that 
were carried out and completed by De Witt Clinton in the 
N. Y. and Erie Canal, in 1824; went to Port Kent in 1828. 
His numerous notes of travel ; his essays on agriculture and 
other public matters ; his activity in promoting public enter- 
prises, entitle him to a large place in the list of our nation's 
benefactors. Albany owes him much. 


John H. Webb, partner of George Dummer in 1807, 
afterwards associated witli him H. L. Webb, and continued, 
until 1829. He d. in Hartford, Conn., Sept. 14, 1847. The 
house continued under the name of H. L. and C. B. Webb 
until 1844, when it sold out to Gregory & Co. It was the 
first house in this business that extended its trade to the then 
far off wilderness of the North West Territory. They estab- 
lished in 1834, a branch at Detroit. //. L. Webb was 
active in founding the Canal Bank, and was president of the 
Gas Light Company. He died in Hartford, Conn., Oct 1846. 

Charles R. Webster, b. Hartford, Conn., Sept. 30, 1762; 
d. Saratoga Springs, July 18, 1834; printer; came to Albany 
in 17S1, and went on a small weekly paper with S. Balantine. 
In 1784, he started the Albany Gazette, which continued 
under his guidance, the leading paper of the city for about 40 
years, and existed until 1845. I^^ the capacity of leading jour- 
nalist, conspicuous for a ready enterprise, abroad public spirit, 
a liberal philanthropy, and discriminating charity, he, more, 
perhaps, than any other citizen of his time, became identified 
with the leading interests of the city, and promoted its pros- 
perity. Bookselling, binding and publishing became a part of 
his business. He pub. the Daily Advertiser in addition to 
his weekly. His twin bro. George, and his nephews, Elisha W., 
Hezekiah and Daniel Skinner, became partners before 1800. 
Their Gazette was widely circulated over the then new settle- 
ments of the State west of the Hudson River. He was very 
active in all efforts to encourage young mechanics, and excite 
in them intelligence and self-respect. To this end, he joined 
in the formation of the Mechanics' Society, which was largely 
officered and carried on by mechanics from the common 
schools of New England, and was a power for good many 


Thurlow Weed; father from Stamford, Conn. ; b. Catskill, 
N. Y., Nov. 15, 1797; d. New York City, Nov. 22, 1882; 
became a printer; in 1826-7, edited the Aiiti-Masonic 
Enquirer ; elected twice to the State Assembly ; came to 
Albany in 1830 as Editor of the Albany Jonrnal, and contin- 
ued mitil 1862, gainino; an immense power as a journalist and 
party leader, and holding it many years. While declining all 
public offices himself, he was largely instrumental in bringing 
forward such men as Harrison, Taylor, Scott, Seward and 
others. He was wise in council and powerful in action, and 
ranks with Greeley and a few others as one of the greatest 
journalists of his time. His pen was always busy in notes of 
travel, reminiscences, and political counsel after h^ retired 
from his editorial chair, which might be called the Chair of 
State, so potent was his influence. Of course, such a man was 
largely influential in shaping affairs in this city. His daughter 
Emily is wife of Hon. William Barnes, and mother of Thur- 
low Weed Barnes. 

Bartholomew T. W^elch, b. Boston, Sept. 24, 1794: d. New- 
tonville, N. Y., Dec. 9, 1870; entered ministry in 1824; pas- 
tor of Baptist Church, now called Emmanuel, 1828-48; a 
preacher of great eloquence and power; very active in public 
enterprises; first excited public attention to the need of a 
public cemetery, in a sermon preached Dec. 1840, which led to 
the opening of that beautifal city of the loved and departed, 
the Rural Cemetery, consecrated to its sacred uses in 1844. 
. Elias Willard, b. Harvard, Mass., Jan. 7, 1756; d. Albany, 
Mar. 20, 1837. He was at the battle of Lexington, April 19, 
1775, and served as military surgeon during the revolutionary 
war. Came to Stillwater, N. Y., 1785, and to Albany, 1801, 
where, for 25 years, he was ext^nsivel}' engaged in the practice 


of medicine and surgery. Patient, diligent, devoted to his 
work, a sincere christian, a noble patriot, ever ready to do 
good, he was beloved, and, in his last years, venerated. Dr. 
Moses, his brother, prominent in his profession, practiced here 
a few years and went to New York in 1821. Dr. E. W. 
Ford, and Dr. John H. Trotter, his grandsons, practiced later 
in this city. 

Sylvester D. Willard, b. Wilton, Conn , June 19, 1825 ; d. 
Albany, Apr. 2, 1865 ; came to Albany in 1845 ; gr. Alb. Med. 
Col., and began practice in 1848. Ever after, while not 
regardless of the daily calls of his profession, he devoted much 
time to^its local history and the biography of deceased physi- 
cians, the results of which appear in "Albany Medical Annals, 
Vol.1." He also did service as a Volunteer Surgeon in 1862, 
and successfully interested himself in securing state aid for 
the relief of sick and wounded soldiers. His crowning acts 
relate to his agency in ascertaining the condition of the insane 
poor of the State, which led to the establishment of the "Wil- 
lard Asylum for the Insane, " so named as a memorial of him 
since his decease At the time of his death he was holding 
the position of Secretary of the State Medical Society, exam- 
ining Surgeon for the Pension oiffice, and Surgeon General of 
the State, all of which were to him posts of arduous labor and 
unceasing fidelity. 

Chauncey P. Williams, b. Middletown, Conn., 1817; came 
to Albany in 1835, ^'^d successfully followed the lumber trade 
for 25 years. Was a director of the Albany Exchange Bank, 
and its president in 1856. In 1861, entered upon the business 
of banking as a profession, and has ever since followed it in 
this same bank, first as cashier and then a^jain as president. 
Thr. ugh the recent civil war, this bank, under his manage- 


ment, had the agency, in this vicinity, for obtaining loans for 
the U. S. government, which was carried on skillfully in the 
spirit of wise finance as well as good patriotism, and aided 
much the Government credit. Mr. W. was one of the founders, 
and is a leading supporter of the Congregational Church, 

James Wilson, b. Londonderry, N. H., 1763; d. Mar. 26, 
1855, ""^ Bradford, Vt., where he had owned a farm since 1796, 
and resided when not engaged in his globe manufacture. He 
was from his boyhood, fond of mathematics, geography and 
astronomy, and made a celestial and a terrestrial globe, the first 
ever made in this country and presented them to the city of 
Boston in 1814. In 1815, he established the first Globe manu- 
factory in the United States, at Albany, assisted by his sons 
Samuel and John, and continued the work successfully, with 
great credit, making many improvements, until the death of 
his sons. He did his own designing and engraving. 

Joel A. Wing, b. Berkshire Co., Mass.. Aug. 13, 1788; d. 
Hartford, Conn., Sept. 6, 1852. Spent his professional life 
as physician in Albany ever after 1814; president of Co. and 
State Med. Societies. With a wonderfully retentive memory 
and eager fondness for knowledge, his medical attainments 
were very extensive ; his practice was very large and his 
counsel frequently sought. Few physicians ever excelled him 
in acuteness of perception or prompt action in treatment of 
a case ; few were more welcome in the sick room or more 
highly esteemed by all classes of society. 

Bradford R. Wood, b. Westport, Conn., Sept. 30, 1800; 
gr. Union, 1824; came to Albany 1824; read law and has prac- 
ticed his profession here ever since, taking an active interest 
in public affairs, and in the civil, intellectual and moral 
advancement of the city. He was M. C. 1845-47, where his 


action was independent, above party, statesmanlike. He was 
subsequently U. S. Minister to Denmark. He was one of 
the founders and is a leading supporter of the Congregational 
Church in this city. Gen. J. Hampden Wood, is a son. 

Darius S. Wood, b. Westboro, Mass., July 1821 ; became 
an engineer at B. & W. R. Rd. shops; ran the first passenger 
train into Albany on the B. & A. R. Rd. ; held important trusts 
as engineer at Niagara Falls and W. Albany; was very skill- 
ful, and patented many valuable car improvements ; d. Albany, 
Feb. 1881. 

Royal Woodward, b. Ashford, Conn., Nov. 13, 1815; d. 
Albany, Oct. 2, 1882; silk manufacturer and merchant; had 
resided in A. many years; a very estimable man; intelligent 
and unostentatious. Had collected a library of about 30,000 
volumes, probably the largest private library in the country, 
outside of New York City. 

Samuel B. Woolworth, b. Bridgehampton, L. I., Dec. 15, 
1800; gr. Hamilton, 1822; was successively teacher in Acad- 
emies of Monsoh, Mass., Onondaga and Homer, N. Y., until 
1852; was principal of Albany Normal School, 1852-56; 
and Secretary of Board of Regents 1856, to 1880. In all these 
positions he was a faithful, efficient, conscientious educator, 
and did vast good. He served as trustee of Hamilton College 
44 years ; was one of the founders and a president of the N . 
Y. State Teachers' Association. His ancestors were from 
New England. 

Gorham A. Worth, b. Nantucket, about 1773; his father 
came to Hudson, N. Y., and taught school. He came to 
Albany as teller in New York State Bank, in 1803, and 
became first Cashier of Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, in 


1811 ; had charge of United States Branch Bank, at Cincin- 
nati, 1817-21; removed to New York; for many years presi- 
dent of City Bank of N. Y. ; acquired wealth and high social 
position there. Was an intelligent observer and a ready 
writer. Wrote '■'■ Recollect io7is of Albany,'''' and Reminiscences 
of Cincinnati i''' d. New Orleans, Apr. 3, 1856, aged 'j'>^. 



Thus have we completed the task of selecting from the history 
of this city, matters that relate to a class of men who began to 
come here from New England about loo years ago. We have 
tried to gather up the names of the earliest of them; 
to show the condition of society and affairs when they came 
here, and what changes they inaugurated. We have detailed 
some of the leading enterprises in which they engaged, 
and some of the results, as they have been brought about 
by the continued efforts of those who followed them with the 
advantages of more time, more light, more means, and larger 
opportunities. The task has been difficult because it required 
selection from a confused mass of unassorted history, most 
of it unwritten; afterwards to be arranged, compared, and 
condensed into the small space allowed by this paper. 

We have added such antecedent and collateral history as 
seemed necessary to show bow Albany has grown in a period 
of 260 years (1623- 1883) from a few miserable huts occupied 
by Holland fur traders to a city of 100,000 people, from every 
nation under heaven, busy with the hum of varied industry, 
possessing great wealth and all the elevating and refining 
advantages of modern civilization and growth. We have 
tried to be true to history, conscientiously faithful. Much 
has been left out because we could not, up to the time when 
our work must be completed, secure satisfactory knowledge ; 
more, for the want of space in the limits assigned. 

As a descendant of the Puritans we point with decent pride 
to the changes wrought. And yet we are not blind to the 
good work done by men with the blood of Holland, France, 
Germany, Scotland, Ireland and other nations, in their veins. 


We are one now. Of one blood God hath made all people. 
We could select and write up the deeds and names of each 
with great satisfaction. 

There is truth in the remark of Hon. Wm. L. Learned that 
" Albany was once a Dutch city; then it became a Yankee 
city; and now it is a city of all nations." 

"He was of Puritan descent; his ancestors were noble ones; 
for the blood of the Pilgrims ran in their veins, and the love 
of the Pilgrim's God burned in their hearts." It was so said 
of one excellent man, who still has relatives in Albany. Well 
if it could be said of all of "Puritan descent," "that blood 
tells. " Do all honor their birthright? 

We should be glad if we could have presented what the New 
England women have done in Albany. If it could be told, 
we doubt not it would be a noble record That they are enti- 
tled to a full share of the credit given their fathers, husbands, 
brothers and sons, will not be denied. What a story theirs 
would make as mothers, wives and sisters, — a story of home 
fidelity, of loving entreaty, of wise counsel, of endurance borne, 
of christian grace, and of much public activity in works of 
benevolence and charity, in the name of learning and religion! 

Says the late Hon. Lyman Tremain, one of Albany's most 
valued citizens, in a speech made at the Lyman Reunion in 
1 87 1, " It has been related of a prominent Ohio politician, 
who had thoughtlessly repeated the outcry against New Eng- 
land, that, when he came to look around him, and consider 
the elements of which the community was composed ; and 
when he came to take out from among the people those who 
were born in New England, or were the descendants of New 
Englanders; those who married New England wives; or the 


children of New England parents ; and, also, those who had 
been instructed by New England school-masters, or school 
mistresses ; he found that those who were left would not 
amount to much ; and so he concluded to say no more about 
*' leaving New England out in the cold." 




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