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Full text of "A new English dictionary on historical principles : founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Society"



. ' . . 
f. 



HANDBOUND 
AT THE 







A NEW 



ENGLISH DICTIONARY 



ON HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES. 



VOLUME III D AND E. 




HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 




LONDON, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW 
AND NEW YORK 



A NEW 



ENGLISH DICTIONARY 



ON HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES; 



FOUNDED MAINLY ON THE MATERIALS COLLECTED BY 



EDITED BY 



DR. JAMES A. H. MURRAY, 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF MANY SCHOLARS AND MEN OF SCIENCE. 



VOLUME III. 



D 

BY J. A. H. MURRAY, LL.D. 



E 



BY HENRY BRADLEY, M.A. 



"* 



OXFORD: 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 

1897. 

[All rights reserved.] 



PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART, M.A. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 




Ifc25 



E 

* 

BY HENRY BRADLEY 

HON. M.A., OXON. 



94* 




PREFATORY NOTE. 

THE portion of the Dictionary occupied with the letter E contains 9,249 Main words, 1,813 Subordinate 
words, 933 Special combinations, and 756 Obvious combinations: total 12,741.. Of the 9,249 Main words, 
2,409, or 26 per cent., are marked as obsolete, and 319, or 3^ per cent., as alien or imperfectly naturalized. 

The section of the English vocabulary included in the present half-volume is remarkable for the extremely 
small proportion of native English words which it contains, as compared with the large number of 
words adopted from French (many of which are obsolete), and of derivatives from Greek and Latin. 
A feature of the words beginning with E that will at once attract attention is the unusual abundance of 
technical terms belonging to modern science. It has often been difficult to determine whether particular 
words of this class should be inserted or not ; and probably no two critics would entirely agree in their 
lists of deficiencies or redundancies in this respect. While care has been taken to ensure the utmost possible 
accuracy in the explanation of the scientific terms given, it must be remembered that the concern of an 
English Dictionary is with their origin and history as words, not with the minute description of the things 
which they represent. So far as possible, modern words of this kind have been traced back to the authors 
by whom they were formed, and the inventor's own statements as to the etymology and the reason for which 
the name was given have, when it seemed necessary, been quoted. 

Among the articles in which the current etymological statements are corrected or supplemented may 
be mentioned those on the words each, eagre, Easter, Easterling, earnest, eddish, eel, either, elope, ember, 
embracer 1 , encrinus, engineer, enker, enlist, enough, entellus, enthusiasm, entice, entropy, epergne, ephah, epicure, 
era, ermine, errand, errant, essera, csurine, euonymus, euphroe, even sb., evening, ever, excise, extra. New 
etymological information has also been given in many of the articles on prefixes and suffixes, which 
are here extraordinarily numerous. Among the words of interesting history or sense-development are 
economy, ecstasy, edge, effluvium, electricity, element, elocution, embezzle, emperor, emphasis, enchant, engage, 
engine, English, entail, entertain, enthusiasm, entire, esquire, essence, establishment, estate, esteem, estrange, 
eternal, ether, euphuism, evangelical, evict, evidence, evident, evil, evolution, exact adj., excelsior, exception, 
exchange, exchequer, exclusive, execute, exercise, exhaust, exhibition, exorbitant, expedite, expense, expire, explain, 
explode, express, expression, exquisite, extend, exterminate, extenuate, extravagant, eye. 

The treatment of the pronunciation has presented some special difficulties. An unusually large propor- 
tion of the words dealt with belong to the class that are much better known in their written than in their 
spoken form. The difficulties connected with the orthoepy of words of this kind have already been referred to 
by Dr. Murray in the Preface to Vol. I ; but the words beginning with E are perplexing for a reason peculiar 
to themselves, the initial e in unaccented syllables being pronounced variously in the same word, not only 
by different speakers, but sometimes even by the same speaker. In words beginning with unstressed e before 
two (written) consonants, like effect, ellipse, entail, the initial sound is in rapid or familiar pronunciation 
almost universally (e) ; but in careful or syllabic pronunciation the majority of educated speakers would 
retain the older sound of (e), except before s. On this ground it has been thought best to use the symbol 
(e) in the notation of words like those above quoted, and (e) in that of words like essential, estate; 
but it should be understood that the sound expressed by the latter symbol is in colloquial use always 
a permissible substitute for an initial unstressed (e). Similar uncertainties exist with regard to the 
unstressed initial E before a single consonant : in most of the words in which this occurs the pronunciation 
varies between (t) and (*'). 

Before being taken in hand by the present editor, the material for the letter E had (in common with that 
for several other portions of the alphabet) been subedited in 1881-2 under Dr. Murray's direction by the late 
Mr. P. W. Jacob, who also revised it in 1884-5. incorporating the additional quotations accumulated in the 
meantime. Hearty acknowledgement is made of the important service thus rendered by Mr. Jacob : and 



j/ PREFATORY NOTE TO THE LETTER E. 

it is a cause of regret that this accomplished scholar did not survive to see the publication of the first of 
those portions of the work to the preliminary arrangement of which he so zealously devoted the latest 
years of his life. 

Although Dr. Murray is not responsible for any of the faults that may exist in this portion of the 
work, he has rendered much valuable assistance in its preparation ; there are in fact few pages that have 
not been improved by the adoption of his suggestions. The proofs have been regularly read by Mr. Fitz- 
edward Hall, D.C.L., who has furnished many hundreds of important quotations, carrying back the history 
of words to an earlier date, or exemplifying senses or constructions not sufficiently illustrated ; also by 
Mr. H. Hucks Gibbs, M.P., by the Rev. J. T. Fowler, M.A., of Durham, and by Mr. W. H. Stevenson, who 
have contributed many valuable annotations. Mr. John Mitchell, Dr. Murray's senior assistant, has 
also furnished useful remarks on the proofs. 

On questions of Teutonic philology important help has been received from Prof. Eduard Sievers, 
Halle, and Prof. Napier, Oxford: on questions of Romanic philology the advice of Prof. Paul Meyer has 
been of great value. For information on various special subjects my thanks are due to the following : 
the Rev. J. C. Atkinson, D.C.L. ; Mr. A. Beazeley, C.E. ; the Rev. T. E. Bridgett ; the Rev. W. Bright, D.D., 
Canon of Ch. Ch. ; Dr. Robert Brown ; Mr. A. H. Bullen, M.A. ; Mr. Ingram Bywater, M.A., Oxford ; Mr. 
J. S. Cotton, M.A., Editor of The Academy; Mr. P. A. Daniel ; Mr. L(k>n Delbos; Mr. C. E. Doble, M.A., 
Oxford ; Mr. Austin Dobson ; the Rev. Canon D. Silvan Evans ; Dr. Fennell, Cambridge (for several 
references for the article Eureka) ; Dr. Robert von Fleischhacker ; Dr. S. Rawson Gardiner ; Dr. R. Garnett, 
British Museum ; Mr. Israel Gollancz, M.A., Cambridge ; Dr. Carl Horstmann ; Mr. Henry Jenner, British 
Museum ; Mr. Henry Jones (' Cavendish ') ; Mr. W. F. Kirby, Nat. Hist. Dept, British Museum ; Prof. 
E. Ray Lankester ; Mr. J. A. Fuller Maitland, M.A. ; Mr. Julian Marshall ; Mr. Russell Martineau, M.A., British 
Museum ; Mr. F. D. Matthew ; Prof. Alfred Newton, Cambridge ; Prof. Karl Pearson, University College, 
London ; Mr. T. G. Pinches, British Museum ; Mr. A. W. Pollard, M.A., British Museum ; Sir Frederick 
Pollock, Bart. ; Mr. F. York Powell, M.A., Oxford ; Mr. R. B. Prosser ; Mr. P. Le Page Renouf, British 
Museum ; Prof. Rhys, Oxford ; Dr. Ch. Rieu, British Museum ; Mr. J. S. Shedlock ; the Rev. Prof. Skeat, 
Cambridge ; Mr. John Slater, F.R.I.B.A. ; Dr. Oskar Sommer ; Mr. W. Barclay Squire, British Museum ; 
Mr. W. Sykes, M.R.C.S., Mexborough ; Miss Edith Thompson ; Dr. R. F. Weymouth. I have regretfully to 
record that Dr. A. J. Ellis, F.R.S., Mr. James Lecky, and the Rev. Dr. R. F. Littledale, who furnished infor- 
mation or suggestions for some of the earlier articles, are no longer living to receive this acknowledgement of 
their valued help. 

I desire also to express my thanks to the Trustees of the British Museum for granting me special 
facilities for working in the Library ; to the officers of that institution for the readiness which they have 
shown on all occasions to assist my researches ; and to Dr. F. J. Furnivall for constant and important help 
in many ways. To my assistants, Mr. G. F. H. Sykes, B.A., and Messrs. W. J. Lewis, W. J. Bryan, and 
H. J. Bayliss, working at Oxford, and Mr. E. Gunthorpe, working with me in the verification of references, etc., 
at the British Museum, I owe cordial acknowledgements for their zealous and painstaking co-operation. To 
these names must be added those of Mr. S. A. Strong, M.A., and Mr. F. S. Arnold, M.A., each of whom 
in succession was for a short period one of my Oxford assistants, but for reasons of health was compelled 
to withdraw from the work. Special recognition is also due to the valuable services rendered by Mr. A. 
Erlebach, B.A., in the revision of the proofs. 

HENRY BRADLEY. 

LONDON, October 1893. 

EMENDATIONS. 

Each.. The form euych should be deleted, with the quotation 1480-7 under (A. ), in which this occurs, the correct reading being 
euerych (see EVERY). 

Egg-berry. (EGG sb. 7, p. 58.) This is a corrupt form of HAGBERRY, and ought not to have been given here. 

Egromancy. The form egremauncey occurs a 1649 in Gregory's Chron. (Camd. Soc. 1876), 183. 

Zirant. This form and Errant (omitted in its alphabetical place) see variants of HAURIANT, q. v. 

Enhendee. The word is, as stated in the text, a mistake for OF. enheudet ; but the misreading occurs in Fr. writers, e.g. Palliot 1664. 

Eve-Star. The quotation 1691 under this word should be deleted. The word evesler occurring there is adapted from the mod. Lat. 
tuestrum, which seems to have been arbitrarily invented by Paracelsus, and is explained in the Onomasticon of Toxites (1574) to mean, amongst 
other things, ' the astral body {corpus sidereuni] of man, which foretells to us either death or any other evil.' 

Eylet-hole, si. i. The following earlier example has been found =1497 Naval Accts. Hen. ^77(1896) 334 Makyng of olyett-hooles 
with other necessaries for the seid sayles. 



PREFACE TO VOLUME III. 



HPHIS volume contains the words beginning with the letters D and E (the latter edited by Mr. H. Bradley). 
Including the Main words, to which separate articles are devoted (e.g. Day, Eye), the special 
combinations or compounds, explained and illustrated under the Main words (e. g. day-boy, eye-wash), and 
the Subordinate entries of distinct forms of words, entered in their alphabetical places with a reference to the 
Main words under which they are treated and illustrated (e. g. Damaoene, obs. f. DAMSON ; Ee, Sc. form of 
EYE), the number of words amounts to 29,042. The Combinations of simple and obvious meaning (such as 
day-beam, day-flier, eye-like, eye-syringe}, of which lists are given under the Main words without further 
explanation, but in most cases with illustrative quotations, number 2,750 more, raising the actual total of 
words included in the volume to 31,792. 

These words are thus distributed between the two letters : 

Main Words. Subordinate words. Special combinations. Obvious combinations. Total. 

'3.478 2,099 1,480 1,994 19,051 

E 9> 2 49 1,813 9 2 3 756 12,741 

Considered as to their status in the language, the Main words are distinguished approximately into those 
native or fully naturalized, and still current, those now obsolete (marked f), and those considered as alien or 
imperfectly naturalized (marked ||). The distribution of the Main words is as follows: 

Current. Obsolete. Alien. Total. 

D IO -33 3-046 399 13.478 

E 6,521 2,409 319 9,249 

16,554 5,455 7'8 22,727 

If to these be added the words in Volumes I and II, we have, for the contents of the first five letters of 
the alphabet, the following figures : 

Main words. Subordinate words. Special combinations. Obvious combinations. Total 

A-E 66,254 13,181 10,156 8,017 97,608 

That is to say, nearly a hundred thousand words, simple and compound, have already been dealt with in the 
Dictionary. Of the 66,254 Main words, 47,786 (72^ per cent.) are current and native or fully naturalized, 
15,952 (24 per cent.) are obsolete, and 2,516 (3^ per cent.) alien or imperfectly naturalized 1 . 

1 For the sake of comparison with Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, and with some more recent lexicographical works, the following figures have 
been carefully compiled for the letter D. 

Johnson. Enodic. Cen.ury Diet. Funk', -S.and.rd.- H. 



Total words recorded in D 2,684 10,089 10,705 11,181 '9,051 

Words illustrated by quotations 2,136 5,251 4,977 1,313 16,128 

Number of illustrative quotations 6,529 9,178 'M7 1 >> 8 '5 8 544 6 

The number of quotations under D in Richardson's Dictionary, where the first serious effort was made to how the history of words by 

quotations, is 7,988. 



NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 

Of this volume 740 pages are occupied by the letter D, 488 by E. The contents of the E part are 
treated of by Mr. Bradley in the Prefatory Note to that letter. Of the D part, the first 75 pages, to the 
end of DEA-, and the last 200, from DlT- to the end, exemplify fully the composite nature of the modern 
English vocabulary. Its two main bodies of words, from Teutonic and Romanic, are reinforced by a smaller 
body from Greek, and interspersed with words in varying numbers from most of the European, many of 
the Oriental, and some American and African languages. The same elements characterize pages 76 to 396 
(DiB- to end of Dm-), where, however, there is a great preponderance of words formed with the Latin (and 
French) prefix DE-, Latin Dl- and DlF- (forms of DlS-), and Greek Dl- and DIA-. But pages 379-540 contain 
an almost solid block of words formed with the Latin prefix DlS-, extending to no fewer than 3,049 main 
words, and including many of the most important verbs in the language, with their cognate substantives and 
adjectives. We have only to turn to such words as defer, degrade, delay, depend, determine, detract, differ, 
discover, disease, dispose, -ition, distance, -ant, distract, distress, district, disturb, to appreciate the practical 
importance of this element. A strong contrast to this latinized group is afforded by the 66 pages of words 
in DR-, a combination foreign to Latin, in which therefore the words of Latin derivation are at a minimum, 
and either go back to Greek or Celtic (Dryad, Druid], or arise from later syncopation, as dress. 

Among the more important words of Old English and Norse origin are the great verb Do, to the 
lexicographer one of the most formidable words in the language, which here occupies 16 columns, DRAW 
(17 columns), the verbs dare, deal, die, dight, dip, dive, drag, drink, drive, drop, dwell, dye; the substantives 
DOG (claiming, with its combination, 22 columns), daughter, death, die, door, down (sb., adv., prep., adj. and vb.), 
draught (and draff), duck, drone ; the adjectives dark, dead, deaf, dear, deep, dry, dull, dumb. Among those 
of French extraction are the verbs defeat, deign, dine, doubt, dress ; the substantives dame, damsel, danger, 
deacon, demesne, diamond, diaper, dinner, dozen, dragon, dragoon, dungeon ; the adjectives dainty, diligent, 
DOUBLE (with combinations, 13 columns), due. Among the words of Greek derivation are the medical terms 
in DlA- so curiously formed from Greek phrases ; though now represented in current use only by Diachylon, 
they were formerly so numerous that their common element dia was itself taken as a word meaning 
' medical preparation.' Interesting groups of dia- words are those connected with diaphanous and diather- 
manous ; other important groups from Greek are those in DYNAM-, and DYS-. 

Among the words on which new etymological or historical light has been shed, or where the history 
of special senses has been for the first time worked out, are daffodil, damask, dapple, dean, DEBENTURE, 
Black DEATH, decoy, demijohn, dene-hole, dengtie, DERRlNG-do, diaper, dicker, diet, dilettante, diocese, 
diphtheria, DISMAL, DISPATCH, dock, doddered, dolmen, Dom-daniel, dragoon ; the military sense of detail, 
the academic sense of determine, -ation, the philosophical sense of dialectic, the ecclesiastical and political 
senses of dispense, dispensation, the logical sense of distribution, distributive. Other words of which the 
English history receives special treatment are dirge, Dane-geld, Dane-law, dauphin, deacon, deist, deity, 
defenestration, demarcation, demesne, despot, deuce, DEVIL, de-witt, diamond, DICTIONARY, die (dice), discount, 
distemper and its family, divan (dewan, douatte), docket, Doctor's Commons, dodo, doldrum, DOLLAR, domesday, 
donkey, DUKE, dunce, Dunstable (way), DUTCH, dynamics, dynamo. Attention is called to the etymological 
articles on the verbs die and do ; under DROP sb. there is a note showing the historical relations of the dreep, 
drip, droop, drop family of words. 

The materials for the words from D to Defy were sub-edited for us by Mr. F. T. Elworthy of 
Wellington, Somerset, with the collaboration of members of his family ; the following section, to the end of 
Dh, by Miss J. E. A. Brown of Further Barton, near Cirencester ; a small section, from Dia to Dialysis, 
by the Rev. W. E. Smith then of Putney ; and the remainder by our indefatigable worker, the late 
Mr. P. W. Jacob of Guildford, part of this having been previously arranged by Mr. J. W. Warre Tyndale of 
Evercreech. Much of the letter was subsequently revised, with addition of more recent materials, by the 
Rev. C. B. Mount, M.A. of 14 Norham Road, Oxford, and by Mr. John Dormer, then of Horsham ; to 
the former of these we are also indebted for the detailed investigation of the history of several interest- 
ing words ; and to the latter for the compilation of the Lists of Special Wants for D, as also for filling 
many gaps in our quotations for scientific and technical words. 

In the 'proof stage, continuous assistance has been rendered by Lord Aldenham (better known to 
friends of the Dictionary as Mr. H. Hucks Gibbs), the Rev. Canon Fowler, D.D. of Durham, the Rev. 



PREFACE TO VOLUME III. ^# 

J. B. Johnston, B.D., of Falkirk, Monsieur F. J. Amours, Glasgow, and, for later parts of D, by Miss Edith 
Thompson and Miss E. Perronet Thompson, Reigate, and Mr. Russell Martincau, M.A., formerly of the 
British Museum. But above all, we have to record the inestimable collaboration of Dr. Fitzcdward Hall, 
whose voluntary labours have completed the literary and documentary history of numberless words, senses, 
and idioms, and whose contributions are to be found on every page ; also the unflagging services of Dr. W. C. 
Minor, which have week by week supplied additional quotations for the words actually preparing for press '. 

Grateful acknowledgement is made of the generous help of all these contributors and collaborators ; 
as, also, of the contributions of Professor Eduard Sievers of Leipzig to the etymological articles on 
Teutonic words, and of M. Paul Meyer, Member of the Institute of France, to the solution of difficult 
points in French etymology. Among others who have given help on particular etymological points, are 
M. Antoine Thomas of Paris, Dr. W. H. Muller of Leyden, Professor F. Kluge of Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 
Prof. A. S. Napier, M.A., Prof. Margoliouth, M.A., the Rev. Prof. Driver, D.D., and Mr. J. T. Platts, M.A., 
of Oxford. Many of the scholars and specialists named in the Preface to Vol. I. have also helped on 
particular points ; special mention is due of Professor Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., Prof. F. W. Maitland, 
LL.D. of Cambridge, Prof. H. Goudy, D.C.L., LL.D., Prof. T. E. Holland, D.C.L., Oxford, the Rev. A. M. 
Fairbairn, D.D., the late Professor Wallace (of whose ever ready help with logical and philosophical terms 
a lamentable accident has so lately deprived us), Mr. H. T. Gerrans, M.A., L. Fletcher, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., 
and the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. We have also to acknowledge the substantial help of Prof. 
Albert Chester of Hamilton College, Clinton, New Jersey, with mineralogical terms ; of Dr. W. Sykes, F.S.A., 
of Gosport, with the history of medical and pathological words (see diphtheria) ; of Mr. Barclay Head of 
the British Museum, with several numismatical words ; of Mr. C. W. C. Oman, M.A., with the history of the 
word duke, and of Prof. Sylvanus P. Thompson, F.S.A., and Prof. R. B. Clifton, F.R.S., with that of 
Dynamo and Dynamic. 

The assistants in the Scriptorium, who have been engaged on the work all through D, are Mr. C. G. Balk, 
Mr. A. T. Maling, M.A., and Mr. F. J. Sweatman, B.A. In the early part of the letter I had the co- 
operation also of the late Mr. John Mitchell and of Mr. W. Worrall, B.A. Mr. Mitchell had been on the 
staff of the Dictionary for more than eleven years ; and his sudden and lamented death, caused by a fall 
when climbing in the Snowdon region, on August 30, 1894, was for certain departments of our work 
a loss which is not yet repaired. In the later parts of the letter, I have had the assistance of Mr. C. 
Talbut Onions, M.A., and Mr. A. R. Sewall ; and, for certain portions, of Mr. A. Erlebach, B.A. 

JAMES A. H. MURRAY. 

THE SCRIPTORIUM, OXFORD, 
May, 1897. 

ADDITIONS AND EMENDATIONS. 

(The recent publication by the Navy Records Society of a volume containing Naval Accounts of the reign of Henry VII, edited by Mr. M. 
Oppenheim, has carried back the documentary history of many naval terms to a date much earlier than was previously known. Among the D 
words are the following :) 

Davitt. 1485 Naval Accts. Hen. VII (1896) 40 Daviott for the bote. Ibid. 49 Daviottes in the ffore castell. 1495 Ibid. 193 Devettes 
with a shyver of yron. Ibid. Dyvettes with a colke of brasse. 

Dock. 1486 I hid. 23 About the bringing of the same ship into her dokke. 1488 Ibid. 36 Keping the said Ship at Erith in her dokke. 1495 
Ibid. 137 The Reparalyng, fortifying, and amendyng the dokke for the Kynges shippes at Portesmouth, makyng of the gates, & fortifying the hede 
of the same dokke. Dock-head 1497 Ibid. 143 The dokke, the dokke hedde & gates of the same. 

Dunnage. 1497 Ibid. 351 For xxxvj shegge Shevys layed alow in John Millers craycr for donage. 



Dory, sb.l 1726 Trav. Capt. N. Uring 346 We launched the Dory over the reef. 



Daver, v. dial. [In I. app. cognate with Du. daveren to shake, quake, MLG., LG. damtrn, a word of frequentative form, of which the root 

is uncertain. In II. perh. transferred from the same.] 

1 Many new names have to be added to the List of Readers for the Dictionary ; of these the following are here mentioned on account of the 
importance of their contributions : Albert Matthews, Esq., Boston, U.S. (c 28,000), George Joicey, Esq., Gateshead-on-Tyne (8,500), Rev. J. W. 
Hooper, M.A., Gateshead-on-Tyne (6,000), Halkett Lord, Esq., Scotch Plains, New Jersey, U.S. (4,000), Miss H. M. Poynter, Oxford (2,500), 
I Id IUT R. H. Gosselin, Esq., and Miss Geraldine H. Gosselin, London (3,500). Constant help in the alphabetizing of material has been given by 
Mrs. Walkey, North Allington, Bridport. 



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION 



I. CONSONANTS. 



g as in go (g?u). 

h ... ho\ (hou). 

r ... run (TVD), terrier (te'riai). 

i ... her (ha.i), farther 

> ... tee (sf), cess (see). 

w ... iven (wen). 

hw ... when (hwen). 

y ... ^es (yes). 



b, d, f, k, 1, m, n, [>, t, v, z have thtir usual values. 

t> as in Min (fin), baM (ba. 

8 ... Men (Sen), baMe (be'S). 

J ... sAop (J ? p), du-4 (di/). 

tj ... <-//op (tj>p), diA-,4 (ditf). 

3 ... vis/on (vi-jan), de/euner (dejohe). 

dj ... /nafce (djodj). 

t) ... singing (si'nin), think (fink). 

i)g ... finder (fingaa). 



(FOREIGN.) 
n as in French nasal, environ (anviron). 



1 
n' 

X . 



It. tengtto 

It. Kgnore (tmi}-it). 

Ger. uh (a x ). Sc. loe* fax, \o x ") 

Ger. \ch (i x '), Sc. nkAt (nex't). 

Ger. sa^tn (zi-ycn% 

Ger. le^en, re^nen (le-fln, 



ORDINARY. 

a as in Fr. a la mode (a la mod'). 

ai ... aye =yes (ai), Isaiah (aizai'a). 

x ... man (msen). 

a ... pass (pas), chant (tjant). 

au ... lod (laud), now (nau). 

r> ... cut (kot), son (sn). 

e ... yet (yet), ten (ten). 

e ... survey si. (sp-jve), Fr. attach/ (ataje). 

II f ... Fr. chef (/{O. 

9 ... ever (evai), nation (ne'-Jan). 

ai ... /, eye, (ai), bmd (baind). 

II? ... Fr. eau de vie (5 fo vP). 

i ... lit (sit), mystic (mistik). 

i ... Psyche (sai'kz), react (r|Se - kt). 

... achor (e''koj), morality (morse'llti). 

01 ... oil (oil), boy (boi). 

o ... hevo (hi'ro), zoology (zojplodgi). 

9 ... what (hwot), watch (wjtj). 

f, P gt (gpt), soft (sfift). 

II 8 ... Ger. Koln (koln). 

flo' ... Fr. pe (po). 

u ... fll (ful), book (buk). 

iu ... dwration (diurei'Jan). 

u ... unto (-nt), frwgality (fr-). 

iw ... Mattheiw (mae'|)i), virte (va'atix). 

|u ... Ger. Mwller (mii-ler). 

|| ... Fr. dne (dn). 

(see I, e, o, u) 1 

'..(seeei.o-.) | see p. xxiv.. note 3. 

' as in able (e'b'l), eaten (it'n) = voice-glide. 



IL VOWELS. 

LONG. 

a as in alms (amz), bar (bii). 



9 ... cwrl (kSil), (ui (fai). 
e (e)... thfre (*ej), pear, pare (pej). 
r ' n r <' 



f ... Fr. faire (f|t'). 

5 ... ffr (fsj), fern (fain), earth (5j))). 



I (!)... bier (blj), cl/ar (klij). 

... thirf(J)f), &ee(s). 

o(o)... bar, bore (boa), gbry (gl6'ri). 

o (d)... so, sow (so"), sowl (sol). 

... wa/k (wk), wart (wjjt). 

f ... short (Jit), thorn ()>^m). 

BO ... Fr. cocut (kor). 

|| o ... Ger. Gothe (gate), Fr. je/tae (jon). 

u (u) . . poor (puj), moorish (muTiJ). 

iu, iu ... pre (piuj), lre (l'uj). 

u ... two moons (t munz). 

i, i... few (fi), lte (1'ttt). 

|| ... Ger. grwn (grn), Fr. JKS (j). 



OBSCURE. 

a as in amoeba (amrbi). 

t ... accept (*kse-pt), 



... datmn (d/i-t*m). 

.. moment (moVment), several (se*verU). 

... separate (adj.) (se'pirA). 



... added (ie-ded), estate 



I ... vanity (vse-nlti). 

t ... remain (rftn/i-n), believe (b/lry). 

5 ... theory (J>-8ri). 



8 ... violet (vai-olet), parody 

} ... authority (jSJijrriti). 

f ... connect (kftae'kt), anutzon 



iu, 'u verdre (vaudiui), measure 
a ... altogether (ltuge-5aj). 
ill ... circxlar (sa'aki 



* f) the o in soft, of medial or doubtful length. 



| Only in foreign (or earlier English) words. 



In the ETYMOLOGY, 

OE. e, o, representing an earlier a, are distinguished as {, f (having the phonetic value of ( and f, or 9, above) ; as in puff from aoi' (OHG. anti, 

Goth. anJei-s), ntfun from rnann, fn from an. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, &c. 



a. [in Etymol.] ... 
a (as a 1300) 


= adoption of, adopted from. 
= ante, before. 
= adjective. 
= absolutely. 
= abstract. 
= accusative. 
= adaptation of. 
= adverb. 
= adverbial, -ly. 
= Anglo-French. 
= in Anatomy. 
= in Antiquities. 
= aphetic, aphetized. 
= apparently. 
= Arabic. 
= in Architecture. 


L r cn. .. 


= genitive. 
= general, -ly. 
= general signification. 
in Geology. 


pa. t 




Path 




perh 


absol., absol 
abst 


Geol 


Pers 




= in Geometry. 
= Gothic ( = Mceso-Gothic). 
= Greek. 
= in Grammar. 
= Hebrew. 
= in Heraldry. 
with herbalists. 


pers 




Goth. . .. 


pf. 


ad. [in Etymol.]... 


Gr. 


Pg 


Gram 


Philol. 




Heb 


phonet 


AF AFr 


Her. 


phr. 


Anat 


Herb. 


Phren 




Hort. 


in Horticulture. 


Phys 






= Imperative. 
= impersonal. 
= imperfect. 
= Indicative. 
= indefinite. 
= Infinitive. 
= influenced. 
= interjection. 
= intransitive. 
Italian. 








poet. 


Arab. 


impf. 


pop 


Arch 


ind. 


ppl.a., ppl.adj. ... 
pple. . 




indef. 






inf. 


pr. ::.: : 




association. 
= in Astronomy. 
= in Astrology. 
= attributive, -ly. 
= before. 
= in Biology. 
= Bohemian. 
= in Botany. 
= in Building. 


infl 


prec 


Astr. 


int. 


pref. 


Astral 


intr. 


prep 


attrib. 


It 


pres 


bef. .., 


T., (T.) . 


= Johnson (quotation from). 
= in Jamieson, Scottish Diet. 
= Jodrell (quoted from). 
= Latin. 
= Latham's edn. of Todd's 
= language. [Johnson. 
= Low German. 
= literal, -ly. 
Lithuanian. 


Prim, sign 


Biol 


(Tarn.) 


pnv 


Boh 


(Jod.) 


prob 


Sot. 




pron 


Build". 


(L.) (in quotations) 
lane. , 


pronunc 


c (as <rl3oo) 
c (as 1 3th c ) 






LG 


Pros. 


Cat. ... . . 


= Catalan. 
= catachrestically. 
= confer, compare. 
= in Chemistry. 
= classical Latin. 
cognate with. 


lit. 


pr. pple 


catachr. 


Lith. 


Psych 


Cf., cf. 


LXX 


= Septuagint 
Malay. 


q.v 


Ghent 


Mai. 


(R.) 


cl. L. 


masc. (rarely m.) 
Math 


masculine. 


R. C.Ch.. .. 


cogn. w 


in Mathematics. 
= Middle English. 
in Medicine. 


refash 


collect 


= collective, -ly. 
= colloquially. 
combined, -ing. 
= Combinations. 
in commercial usage. 


ME. . . . 


refl., refl 


colloq 


Med. 


ree. .. 


comb 


med.L 


= mediaeval Latin. 
= in Mechanics. 
= in Metaphysics. 
= Middle High German. 
= midland (dialect). 
= in military usage. 
= in Mineralogy. 
modern. 






Mech 


Rhet. 


Comm 


Metaph. 


Rom. . 


comp 


= compound, composition. 
= complement. 
= in Conchology. 
= concretely. 
= conjunction. 


MHG 


sb., sb 


compl 


midl. 


Sc. 


Conch 


Mil 


sc. 


concr 


Min 




con/. 


mod. 


Skr. . . 


cons 


= consonant. 
= Construction, construed 
with. 
= in Crystallography. 
in Davies (Supp. Eng. 




= in Music. 
= Nares (quoted from). 
noun of action. 


Slav 


Const., Const. ... 
Cryst 


(N.) 


Sp. 


n. of action 




= noun of agent. 




(D.)... 


Nat Hist. 




Da 


Glossary). 
= Danish. 
= dative. 
= definite. 
= derivative, -ation. 
= dialect, -al. 
= Dictionary. 


Naut. 


= in nautical language. 
= neuter. 


subord. cl, 


neut. (rarely n.) 
NF.,NFr 
N O. 




dat 




def. 


= Natural Order. 
= nominative. 
= northern (dialect). 
= New Testament. 
= in Numismatics. 
object. 


suff . 


deriv 






dial., dial. 


north. ..... . . 


Sure" 


Diet 


N.T 


Sw 


dim 
Du 


= diminutive. 
= Dutch. 
in ecclesiastical usage. 


Numism 


s.w 

T (T) 


Eccl. 


Obs., ots., obs. 






ellipt. 


= elliptical, -ly. 
= east midland (dialect). 
= English. 
in Entomology. 
= erroneous, -ly. 
= especially. 
= etymology. 
= euphemistically. 


= occasional, -ly. 
= Old English ( = Anglo- 
Saxon). 
= Old French. 
= Old Frisian. 
= Old High German. 
= Old Irish. 
= Old Norse (Old Icelandic). 
= Old Northern French. 
= in Optics. 
= in Ornithology. 
= Old Saxon. 
= Old Slavonic. 
Old Testament 


Theol 


e. midl 


OE 




Eng 


OF., OFr. 




Ent. 




erron 


OFris 


Trip 


esp., esp 
etym 


OHG 


Tvtosr . 


Olr. 


ult 


euphem 


ON 




exc 


= except. 
= formed on. 

= form of. 


ONF. 


U S 


f. [in Etymol.] ... 
f. (in subordinate 
entries) 


Opt. 




Ornith 


v. sir., or w 
obi sb 


OS. 


fern, (rarely f.) ... 
Jig. 


= feminine. 
= figurative, -ly. 
= French. 
= frequently. 
= Frisian. 
= German. 
= Gaelic. 


OS1 




O.T. 




F!, Fr 


OTeut. 


= Original Teutonic. 
= original, -ly. 
= in Palaeontology. 
= passive or past participle 


,,, 


freq 




.,; 


Fris 


Palseont. . . 


WS 


G., Ger. 
Gael 


' pa. pple 


(Y1 


fiass. 




7/i/i/ 









Before a word or sense, 
t = obsolete. 
|| = not naturalized. 

In the quotations. 
* sometimes points out the word illustrated. 



In the list of Forms. 
i = before noo. 
a = I2th c. (noo to 1200). 
3 = 1 3th c. (1200 to 1300). 

5-7 = 1 5th to 1 7th century. (See General Explan- 
ations, p. xx.) 



= past tense. 

= in Pathology. 

= perhaps. 

-= Persian. 

= person, -al. 

= perfect. 

= Portuguese. 

= in Philology. 

= phonetic, -ally. 

= phrase. 

= in Phrenology. 

= in Physiology. 

= plural. 

= poetic. 

= popular, -ly. 

= participial adjective. 

= participle. 

= Proven9al. 

= preceding (word or article). 

= prefix. 

= preposition. 

= present. 

= Primary signification. 

= privative. 

= probably. 

= pronoun. 

= pronunciation. 

= properly. 

= in Prosody. 

= present participle. 

= in Psychology. 

= quod vide, which see. 

= in Richardson's Diet. 

= Roman Catholic Church. 

= refashioned, -ing. 

= reflexive. 

= regular. 

= representative, representing. 

= in Rhetoric. 

= Romanic, Romance. 

-= substantive. 

= Scotch. 

= scilicet, understand orsupply. 

= singular. 

= Sanskrit. 

= Slavonic. 

= Spanish. 

= spelling. 

= specifically. 

= subject, subjunctive. 

= subordinate clause. 

= subsequently. 

= substantively. 

= suffix. 

= superlative. 

= in Surgery. 

= Swedish. 

= south western (dialect). 

= in Todd's Johnson. 

= technical, -ly. 

= in Theology. 

= translation of. 

= transitive. 

= transferred sense. 

= in Trigonometry. 

= in Typography. 

= ultimate, -ly. 

= unknown. 

= United States. 

= verb. > 

= verb strong, or weak. 

= verbal substantive. 

= variant of. 

= word. 

= West Germanic. 

= west midland (dialect). 

- West Saxon. 

= in Col. Yule's Glossary. 

= in Zoology. 



In the Etymol. 
* indicates a. word or form not actually found, but 

of which the existence is inferred. 
: = extant representative, or regular phonetic 

descendant of. 



The Printing of a word in SMALL CAPITALS indicates that further information will be found under the word so referred to. 



D. 



D(dJ), the fourth letter of the Roman alphabet, 
corresponding in position and power to t!ie 
Phoenician and Hebrew Daleth, and Greek Delta, 
A, whence also its form was derived by rounding one 
angle of the triangular form. It represents the 
sonant dental mute, or point-voice stop consonant, 
which in English is alveolar rather than dental. 
The plural has been written D's, Ds, de's. 

The phonetic value of D in English is constant, except 
that in past participles the earlier full spelling -ed is retained 
where the pronunciation after a breath-consonant is now ;, 
as in looked, dipped, fished, passed. The spelling -ed is now 
even extended to words in which OE. had /, as in -wished, 
puffed, kissed, OE. iuyscte,pyfte, cyste. 

c 1000 J"LFRIC Gram. iii. (Z. 1 6 B, c, d, g,p, /, xeendiad on e. 
1673 WVCIIERLF.V Getttl. Dancing-Master v. \, His desperate 
deadly daunting dagger : there are your d's for you 1 1716 
LKONI A Ibertis Arc/lit. I. 67 b. The Walls . . of Memphis 
[were] built in the shape of a D. 1879 Miss BRADDON Vixen 
III. 168 This, .must end in darkness, desolation, despair 
everything dreadful beginning with d. 

2. Used in reference to the shape of the letter, 
as D-shaped; so D block, D trap, D valve, etc. 
See also DEE. 

17514 Riggitg fy Seamanship 1. 156 D-Blocks are lumps of 
oak in the shape of a D . . bolted to the ship's side, in the 
channels. i8j7 FAREY Steam Eng. 707 Sliding valves. . 
called D valves. 1840 E. E. NAPIER Excurs. S. Africa I. 
161 The saddle, .should be abundantly studded, .with iron 
loops : or as they are from their shape termed in Colonial 
phraseology, D's. [See DEE.] Ibid. 163 Append to one of 
the D's of the said saddle, a leathern bottle. 1891 T. B. F. 
EMERSON Epid. Pneumonia n The catch-pit was covered in 
by a D trap. 

8. Used euphemistically for damn (often printed 
d ), etc. Cf. DEE v. 

1861 DICKENS Gt. Expect, xi. He flung out in his violent 
way, and said, with a D, ' Then do as you like '. 1877 
GILBERT Com. Opera, H.M.S. Pinafore I, Though ' bother 
it ' I may Occasionally say, I never use a big, big D . 

H. 1. Used like the other letters of the alphabet 
to denote serial order, with the value of fourth; 
applied, e.g., to the fourth quire or sheet of a book, 
a group or section in classification, etc. 

1886 Oxford Univ. Statutes (1800) 109 The examination 
in the above-mentioned Group D shall be under the direc- 
tion of the Board of the Faculty of Theology. 

b. In typical or hypothetical examples of any 
argumentation, D is put for a fourth person or 
thing. (Cf. A, II. 4.) 

1858 KINGSLEY Let. to J. Ludbnu in Life xvii. (1879) II. 
78 How worthless opinions of the Press are. For if A, B, 
C, D, flatly contradict each other, one or more must be 
wrong, eh ? 1864 BOWEN Logic 208 If A is B, C is D. 1887 
Times (Weekly Ed.) 21 Oct. 3/2 This or that understand- 
ing between Mr. A, Mr. B, Mr. C, and Mr. D. 

2. spec, in Music. The name of the second note 
of the ' natural ' major scale. (In Italy and France 
called Re.) Also, the scale or key which has that 
note for its tonic. 

1506 SHAKS. Tarn. Skr. in. i. 77 D sol re, one ClifTe, two 
notes haue I. 1880 GROVE Diet. Mus. II. 269/3 A Concerto 
of Bach in D minor. 

8. \nAlgebra: see A, II. 5. In the higher mathe- 
matics, d is the sign of differentiation, and D of 
derivation ; D is also used to denote the deficiency 
of a curve. 

i8s SALMON Higher Plant Curves it (1879) 50 We call 
the deficiency of a curve the number D, by which its number 
of double points is shurt of the maximum. 1873 B. WILLIAM- 
SON Diff. Cafe. {ed. 2) 5 When the increment is supposed 
infinitely small, it is called a differential, and represented 
by dx. 

III. Abbreviations, etc. 

1. d stands for L. denarius and so for ' penny ', 
'pence' ; as id. = one penny, . s. J. = pounds, 
VOL. III. 



shillings and pence, t Formerly also, d. - one 
half (L. dimiJium, also contracted di., dim.) ; D. 
-dollar (in U. S. ; now $). 

1387 E. E. Wills 2 Y be-quethe to the werkes of poulys 
vj s. viij d. 1488 Nottingham Rec. III. 269 Ford, a quarter 
of pepur. ciyn Debate Carpenter's Tools in Halliwell 
Nugae Poet. 15 Fore some dey he wyll vij.* drynke. I5 g8 
SHAKS. /.. /,. L. HI. L 140 What s the price of this yncle? i. d. 
1791 JEFFERSON in Harper's Mag. 11885) Mar. 535/1 A pound 
of lea. .costs 2 D. 1866 Cm Mr Banking 233 Pence or half- 
pence are not legal tender for more than ivl., or farthings 
for more than 6/z. 

2. D, the sign for 500 in Roman numerals, as 
MDCCcxcin = 1893. [Understood to be the half of 
cio, earlier form of M-= 1,000.] 

(Formerly occasionally written D.) 

1459 Inv in Paston Lett. I 469 Summa, DCCCClxv. 
unces. //'/(/. 471 Summa, I> c unces. 1569 GRAPTON Chron. 
16 This Thurston obteyned the rule of the Abbey againe for 
the price of D. pound. 

8. D. = various proper names, as Daniel, David ; 
t D. = Duke ; d., d. (usually before a date) = died ; 
fd.= degree (of angular measure); d (in dental 
formulae) = deciduous, as at., deciduous canine, di., 
deciduous incisor ; d or D (Anal.) = dorsal ; D, 
' in the Complete Book, means dead or deserted ' 
(Adm. Smyth) ; d. (in a ship's log) = drizzling. 
In Academical degrees D. - Doctor (as a Lat. word 
following, and as English preceding, other initials), 
as D.D. (Divinitatis Doctor), Doctor of Divinity, 
LL.D. (Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws, M.D., 
Doctor of Medicine, Ph. D., Doctor of Philosophy, 
D C.L., Doctor of Civil Law, D.Lit., LitD., 
Doctor of Literature, D.Sc., Doctor of Science. 
D.C. (Music) = Da Capo (q.v.). D.G. = L. Dei 
gratia, by the grace of God, Deo grottos, thanks to 
God. D.L., Deputy Lieutenant. D.T., vulgar 
abbrev. of delirium tremens. D.V. = L. Deo 
volente, God willing. 



Doctor of fiue Dd, as Dissimulation, Deposing of Princes 
. . Destruction. 1630 WADSWORTH Pilgr. vli. 64 This North 
was created D.D. in Paris. 1635 J. WELLS Sciogr. 4 Let 
60 d. of the chorde, be equal to 30 d. of the Sines. 1710 
SACHEVERELL Sp. on Impeach. 51 This argues a scandalous 
Ignorance . . in a D.D. a 1866 KEBLF. Lett. Spir. Counsel 
(1870) 186 My dear wife (D.G.) bore up well through the 
nursing. 1870 LOWELL Study Wind. (1886) 62 His cousin, 
the Ph.D. 18710. W. HoLMttPtxtBreat/.-t.v. (1885)110 
The D.D.'s used to be the leaders. 1873 H. SPENCER Study 
Social, ii. 30 The ' D.V.' of a missionary. meeting placard. 

-d, formative of fa. pple. as in heard, paid, dead : 
see -En suffix. 

Da (da). Nursery and homely abbrev. of D.MIA. 

1851 LADY DUFF GORDON Let. in Three Gentr. English- 
women (1888) II. 216 Whether Da and my mother will stay 
at Weybridge, I know not. Ibid. 217 Da is gloomy, I fear 
'tis his normal state. 

Da, obs. form of DAW, DAT, Dos. 

Dab (dseb), si. 1 In 3-4 dabbe. [f. DAB .', 
both being found c. 1 300.] 

1. A blow of somewhat sharp and abrupt char- 
acter, b. A blow from a bird's beak, or with the 
comer or point of anything which scarcely or only 
slightly penetrates; a thrust as if aiming to strike 
or stab ; an aimed blow. C. dial. A slight blow 
with the back of the hand or the like, a box, a slap. 

1300 A'. Alis. 2306 Philot him gaf anothir dabbe. That in 
the scheld the gysarme Bylefte hongyng, and eke the arme. 
Ibid. 2794 They laughte dedly dabbe. Ibid. 7304 Bytweone 
you dehth hit with dabbe. And with spere, and sweordis 
dunt. 1706 I'HII.I.U-S (ed. Kersey), Dab . . also a light blow 
on the Chaps, or box on the Ear. 1731 SWIFT Mtm. Copt. 



CrtiehtfnVl\a. 1768 XI. 161, 1 gave him a dab in the mouth 
with my broken sword, which very much hurt him. 1748 
SMOLLETT Rod. Rand. (1812) I. 69 Giving us ever*) daw 
with its beak. 1865 DICKENS Mat. Fr. n. xi. Making two 
dabs at him in the air with her needle. 187$ A. K. Hons 
My Schoolboy Fr. 125 She made furious dabs at him. 
1879 Miss JACKSON Shropsh. H'ord-bk. , Dab. a slight blow, 
generally with the back of the hand. [So in N. W. Line. 
and Cheshire Glois.\ 

d. Jig. (cf. rap, poke, thrust) 

1705 in Perry Hist. Coll. Amer. Col. Ch. I. 160 Here's 
another dab upon GoV Nicholson. 1748 RICHARDSON 
Clariua (1811) II xx. 140 At our alighting, I gave him 
another dab. 1810 Blackw. Mag. VI. 391 Its now an age 
. . Since we have had a dab at any body. 

2. A gentle blow or tap with a soft substance, 
which is pressed slightly on the object and then 
quickly withdrawn ; a stroke with a Jabber. 

1755 in JOHNSON, 

3. A flattish mass of some soft or moist sub- 
stance dabbed or dropped on anything. 

1749 in Doran Mann ft Mariners (1876) I. xiii. 293 Putting 
a large dab of hot wax under the arms. 1768-74 TUCKER Lt. 
h'at. (1852) II. 596 We. .garnish the rims of our dishes with 
dabs of chewed greens. 1779 MAD D'ARBLAY Diary 3 Nov., 
How can two or three dabs of paint ever be worth such 
a sum as that? 1874 MRS. H. WOOD Mast. Grrylands iii. 32 
Fifteen dishes he wanted for his dinner, if he wanted one. 
And all of 'em dabs and messes. 

4. Jig. Applied slightingly to (a) a small or 
trifling amount, as of money given ; (b) a slight 
effort of the pen, etc. 

I79 MRS. DELANY Life t, Corr. I. 453, I had your hasty 
dap as you call it. .your dabs are of more worth to me than 
folios of letters from anyone else. 1735 HERVIY Mem 11. 
13, 32oo/. ever since he was King, besides several little dabs 
of money. 1761 H. WALPOLE Lftt. H. Mattn (1833 II. ; ,7 
(D ) A new dab called Anecdotes of Polite Literature. 1788 
MAD. D'ABBLAY Lett. 29 Jan., I actually asked for this dab 
of preferment. 

5. a. A wet or dirty clout, b. A pinafore, dial. 
1714 SWIFT Hue tf Cry, Reckon with my Washerwoman ; 

making her allow for old Shirts, Socks, Dabbs and Markets, 
which she bought of me. 1711 BAILEY, Dab. .a dirty clout. 
1837 THACKERAY Yelltnvplush i, Wet dabs of dishclouts 
flapped in your face. itjJ.V W. Line. Clou., Dot, a child's 
pinafore. 

6. Applied to persons: a. An untidy woman, 
a drab. b. A small child, a chit. 

1730-6 BAILEY (folio , Dab. .also a word of Contempt for 
a Woman. 1797 MRS. BENNETT Beggar Girl (i%iv 1.91 It 
[ Iktty] is such an engaging, good-hearted little dab. 1879 
Miss JACKSON Shropshire Word bk.. Dab, an untidy, thrift- 
less woman. [So Cheshire Gluts.} 1833 SIR F. I{VM> Bubbles 
cf Brunntn, A little bare-headed, bare-footed dab of a child. 
1864 CAFERN Devon Prcvinc., Dab, a chit. 

7. See quuts. 

1758 DYCHE Diet., Dab. .likewise a mangled piece of fat 
meat goes by this name. 1836 DICKENS Sk. Bat 11877) 38 
Dabs of dingy bacon. 

8. pi. The refuse or sediment of sugar. 

1858 SIMMONDS Diet. Trade, Dabs, refuse foots of sugar. 
1881 Daily .Ven>s 7 Sept. 3/4 Barbadoes dabs, aos. to ais.. . 
Grenada dabs, 173. to igs. 6d. 

9. Type-founding. See qnots. 

1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., l<ab, an impression in type- 
metal of a die in course of unking. 1889!'. B. REED (in 
letter^ The common process of producing cast ornaments 
for printing before the introduction of clcetrotyping was 
known in English type-foundries as 'dabbing 1 . The original 
woodblock is dropped sharply into a bed of molten lead on 
the point of cooling. A mould or matrix of the design is 
thus produced. To produce replicas of the design, the 
operator strikes this matrix into lead. The result is a* cast ' 
or 'dab* in relief, which when mounted can be used to 
print along with type. 

10. A printer s dabber. 

1861 W. F. COLLIER Hist. Eng. Lit. 75 The worker of the 
press has found the. .dabhcrs. .unfit for use. . He sits down 
with raw sheep-skin and carded wool, to stun* the balls and 
tia it round the handle of the dab. 



BAB. 

11. Comb., &$ dab-pot \ f dab-stone, a game with 
stones ; cf. dabbers and Jib-stone ; dab-wash (dial.'}, 
a wash of a few small articles, as distinct from the 
usual household wash ; hence dab-wash vb. 

1876 B9oww*tG/*acc&tarv&04iQ Stick thou, Son, to paint- 
brush and *dab-pot ! 1652 J. DONNE Ep. Dcd. in Donne's 
Paradoxes, Leliusand Scipio are presented to us as playing 
at *Dabstone before they fought against Hanniball. a i8iz 
MAI.ONE (cited for * Dab-wash by Todd s.v. Dab). 1863 
MRS. GASKELL Sylvia's L. vi, Having had what is called 
in the district a ' dab-wash ' of a few articles, forgotten 
on the regular day. 1881 RICHARDSON in Gd. Words 
51 A few clothes that had just gone through a 'dab-wash 1 . 

H 12. Dab is frequently written instead of DAUB 

=- rough mortar, clay used in plastering, esp. in 
wattle and dab (daub}. 

1839 LOUDON Encycl. Arch. 840 Instead of brick nagging 
for partitions, cob is used for filling in the framework. .This 
sort of work is called rab and dab. 188* Miss BRADDON 
Asphodel vi. 70 Cottages, with walls of wattle and dab. 

Dab (daeb), sb2 [Etymology unknown : cf. 
however DAB sbj- 3.] A species of small flat-fish, 
Pleuronectes limanda> nearly resembling the floun- 
der, common on the sandy parts of the British coast ; 
also used as a ' street term for small flat fish of any 
kind' (Slang Diet.}. 

1577 HARRISON England in. Hi. (1878)11. 20 The plaice, the 
but, the turbut, dorreie, dab, &c. 1620 VENNER Via Recta 
iv. 72 The Dabbe or little Plaice is of the same nature. 
1778 PENNANT Tour in Wales (1883) I. 29 Dabs visit us in 
November. 1851 MAYHEW Land, Labour I. 165 The fish 
fried by street dealers is known as 'plaice dabs' and 'sole 
dabs', which are merely plaice and soles, 'dab' being 
a common word for any flat fish. 1886 R. C. LESLIE Sett- 
fainter* & Log x. 193 A dab or plaice soon getting pale- 
coloured when lying upon a white surface. 

b. Comb.) as dab-darter, one who spears flat- 
fish ; dab-fish, flat-fish. 

1883 G. C. DAVIES Norfolk Broads xxvi. (1884) 203 In the 
deeper water the dab-darters are often hard at work, .the 
* dart *. .is like the head of a large rake with the teeth set 
vertically. 1876 ROBINSON Whitby Gloss., Dab-fish, all 
kinds of flat fish. 

Bab (dseb), sb$ [Appears before 1700; fre- 
quently referred to as school slang : origin unknown. 

Conjectures have been offered as to its being a corruption 
of adept) and of dapper^ but without any other evidence 
than appears in the general likeness and use of the words. 
It is possible that it is a derivative of DAB ?'.] 

One skilful or proficient at (f of, z'n) anything ; 
an expert, an adept. 

1691 AtJunian Mercury IV. No. 3 Qu. 8 [Love is] such 
a Dab at his Bow and Arrows, a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. 
Crew^ Dab, expert, exquisite in Roguery. .He is a Dab at 
it) He is well vers'd in it. 1711 Vind. Sacheverell^ The 
Dr. is charg'd with being a great Dab, as the Boys say, for 
he plays on Sundays, a 1754 FIELDING Ess. Conversation. 
Wks. (1840) 642 (To fetch a phrase from school . . ) great 
dabs of this kind of facet iousness. 1759 GOLDSM. Bee No. i 
A third [writer] is a dab at an index. 1845 THACKERAY 
Punch in the East iv, I wish to show I am a dab in history. 
1874 HELPS Soc. Press, v. (1875) 69, I am ' a dab ', as we 
used to say at Eton, at suggesting subjects for essays. 
b. attrib. or Comb., as dab hand. 

1828 Craven Dialect, Dab-hand, expert at any thing. 
1870 Miss BRIDGMAN Ro. Lynn? II. Hi. 67 He was a dab 
hand at water-colours. [The comb, occurs in many dialect 
glossaries from Lonsdale and Holderness to W. Somerset.] 

Dab, sb.t slang. A bed. 

1812 Sporting Mag. XXXIX. 16 Those who had been 
accustomed to a downy dab. 1812 J. H. VAUX Flash Diet., 
Dab, a bed. 1823 W. T. MONCRIEFF Tom <$ Jerry in. iii. 
(Farmer), Vhen ve've had the liquor, ve'll . . all go to our 
dabs. 

Dab (dseb), z>.l In 4 dabben, 6 dabbe. In- 
flected dabbed, dabbing. [This and the accom- 
panying sb. DAB! appear about 1300; there is 
nothing similar in OE. 

> Middle and early modern Dutch had a verb dabben, accord- 
ing to Otidemans, * to pinch, knead, fumble, dabble ' : cf. 
Ger. tappen to grope, fumble (with the hands, as in the 
dark) ; butit is not clear that there is any connexion between 



____ j question by 

analogous oral action, including (but only in a secondary 
way) the representation of the sound. Cf. DUB 7',, which 
in some of its senses appears to be of kindred formation.] 
I. To strike, peck, stick, etc. 

1. trans. To strike somewhat sharply and abruptly. 
(The ME. sense is not quite clear.) b. To strike 
so as slightly to pierce or indent ; to peck as a bird 
With its bill ; to pick the surface of a stone (see 
quot. 1876) ; to stick or thrust. Now chiefly Sc. 
c. in mod. dial. To strike with a slight blow, as 
with the back of the hand, f To dab nebs : to kiss. 

a 1307 Pol. f Songs (Camden) 192 This Frenshe come to 
Flaundres . . The Flemmisshe hem dabbeth o the het bare. 
1532 MORE Confut. Tindale Wks. 551/1 The pricke of the 
fleshe, to dabbe him in the necke. 1630 DEKKER ind Pt. 
Hon. Whore iv. n, Let me alone for dabbing them o' th' 
neck. 1730-6 BAILEY (folio>, Dab, to cuff or bang; to slap 
or strike. 17. . in Jamieson Pop. Ball, fy Songs (18061 I. 87 
(Jam. i The thorn that dabs I'll cut it down, Though fair the 
rose may be. 1786 Yng. Coalman's Courtship fed. 20) 5 
You may.. dab nebs wi' her now an' then. 1876 GWILT 
Archit. Gloss., Dabbing, Daubing., working the face of 
a stone, .with a pick-shaped tool .. so as to form a series of 
minute holes. 1885 RUNCIMAN Skippers $ S/t. 82 One chap 
dabbed his sticker through my arm here. 1887 Cheshire 



Gloss., Dab, to give a slight blow to. ' Dost want dabbin i' 
th' maith ' [= mouth]. 

d. intr. Of a bird : To peck with the bill. 6. 
To aim at in order to strike, as in playing at mar- 
bles, or throwing a stone at a bird, etc. Sc. 

1805 J. NICOL Poems I. 43 (Jam.) Weel daubit, Robin ! 
there s some mair, Beath groats an' barley, dinna spare. 
1826 WILSON Noct. Ainbr. Wks. 1855 I. 25 Chuckles.. 
dabbing at daigh and drummock. Mod, Sc. If you go near 
the nest, the hen will dab at you. Which marble shall I dab 
at ? Some boys dabbing at a cat on the roof of the shed. 

2. To strike or cause to strike (usually with 
something soft and of broadish surface) so as to 
exert a slight momentary pressure, and then with- 
draw quickly. The object may be a. the brash, 
dabber, etc. used ; b. the moist or sticky substance 
applied ; c. the surface to which it is applied. 

a. 1592 NASHE P. Penilesse (ed. 2) 13 b, A Painter, .needs 
no more but wethispencill, and dab it on their chfeekes, and 
he shall haue vermillion and white enough. 18*3 J. BAD- 
COCK Dom. Amusem. 143 A common printer's ball, .is now 
to be dabbed on the whole surface. 1863 TYNDALL Heat 
viii. 313, I dip my brush, .and dab it against the paper. 

b. 1562 TURNER Herbal IL> 31 a, Laser, .is dabbed about 
the stynginges of scorpiones with oyle well menged or tem- 
pered. 1750 E. SMITH Compl. Housewife 352 Dab it on with 
a fine rag. 1833 HT. MARTINEAU Ta/eo/Tynei.SQnewho 
dabs brick-clay into a mould. 1853 READE Chr. Johttstone 
109 [It] dabbed glue on his gauzy wings. 

C. 1747 WESLEY Prim. Physic (1762) 63 Dip a soft rag in 
dead small Beer, new Milk wai*m, and dabb each eye, 
a dozen times gently. 17.. S. SHARP (J.), A sore should 
never be wiped by drawing a piece of tow or rag over it, 
but only by dabbing it with fine lint. 1879 Newspaper, If 
the bleeding be too copious, dab the part with a rag wetted 
with creasote. 

d. spec, in Printing^ Etching, etc. : To strike 
or pat with a dabber for various purposes, as e.g. 
in order to spread colour evenly over a surface. 

1759 MRS. DELANY Life $ Corr. (1861) III. 573, I found 
one painting and another dabbing. 1799 G. SMITH Labora- 
tory I. 339 The interstices may be dabbed over with the 
tincture of that colour which you would have for the general 
ground-work. 1832 G. R. PORTER Porcelain <$ Gl. 300 
Holding the brush perpendicular to the glass, every part of 
the latter must be dabbed so that the surface will be dimmed 
by the oil. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. 1. 673/1 The insinuation 
[in stereotyping] of the damp paper into the interstices of the 
letters by dabbing the back of the paper with a hair brush. 

3. To set or put down with a sharp, abrupt 
motion (cf. to stick down} ; to throw or fling down 
in a rough, careless, untidy manner. 

1772 G. WASHINGTON in Mag. Amer. Hist. May (1884)71 
They [clothes] will be . . dabbed about, in every hole and 
corner. 1877 Holderness Gloss., Dab, Dab-doon.Ao fling 
down with violence. 1884 Chester Gloss., Dab, to set things 
down carelessly, not in their right place. 

II. Specific senses of doubtful history, or in- 
direct connexion with prec. 

1 4. Fishing. To fish by dipping the bait gently 
and lightly in the water ; to dap, dib. Obs. 

1676 COTTON Angler n. v. 295 This way of fishing we call 
dapmg, dabbing, or dibbing. 

5. To dibble, dial. 

1787 W. MARSHALL EastNorf. Gloss., Dabbing, dibbling. 
1847 m HALLIWELL. 

6. Type-founding. To produce a ' dab ' in the 
process of making matrices, etc. 

1889 [see DAB s&. 1 9]. 

tV. ? To deceive, jape. Obs. 

1616 R. C. Times' Whistle vi. 2402 Like the parish bull he 
serves them still And dabbes their husbandes clean against 
their will. 

8. A modification of DAUB v., to plaster. 

1577 Lndlmu Churchiv. Ace. (Camden) 164 Item, to Hum- 
freis for dabinge the churche house, .vjd. 1730 A. GORDON 
MaffeisA mphith. 272 The Steps are . . dabbed over with Lime 
and Mortar. Ibid. 374 Those who in various ways transform 
and dab over those parts of the Building. 1853 BROWNING 
Grammarian 's Funeral 7-2 Fancy the fabric Quite, ere you 
build . . Ere mortar dab brick ! 

Hence Dabbed (dsebd) ppl. #., Da'bbing vbl. sb. 



1885 W. Rhintfs Trade Circular, A beautiful smooth 
ground, which . . will stand the acid bath better than any 
dabbed ground. 1843 Penny Cycl. XXVII. 577/2 The 
wound itself does not require . . washing and sponging and 
dabbing. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., Dabbing-machine, the 
machine employed in casting large metal type. 

tDab, v.- Obs. [Cf. DABBY and DABBLE.] 

? To be wet and dabbled, to hang like wet clothes. 

1558 PHAER Mneid vi. (R.), I creping held with crokid 
hands the mountaynes toppe, Encombrid in my clothes that 
dabbing down from me did droppe. 

Dab, adv. [The verb-stem or sb. used ellipti- 
cally.] With a dab, or sudden contact. 

1608 ARMIN Nest Ninn. 2 He dropt downe..as heauy 
a L ^aden plummet . . had fallen on the earth dab. 
1884 RUSKIN in Pall Mall G. 10 Dec. n/i One who 
sharpens his pencil point, instead of seizing his biggest brush 
and going dab at the mountains with splotches of colour 

Dabber (dse-bsiV [f. DAB v^ +-ERI.] 
1. One who or that which dabs. b. spec, A 
rounded mass of some elastic material, enclosed 
in leather or silk, used to apply ink, colour, etc., 
evenly to a surface ; employed in printing from 
type, wood-blocks, or engraved plates, in painting 
on china, etc. ; in Printing = BALL sb.^ 13. c. A 
brush used in stereotyping for pressing the damped 



DABBLED. 

paper into the interstices of the type, or for various 
purposes in gilding, photography, etc. 

c 1790 Artist's Assistant Afech. Sc, 193 The ground . .is to 
be laid on thinly and dabbed all over with the dabber. 1799 
G. SMITH Laboratory II. 419 Have ready a dabber made of 
a round piece of white glove leather . . filled with cotton, or 
wool, and tied close Into a ball. 1821 CRAIG Led. Drawing 
vii. 397 Taking the dabber, on which some portion of the 
etching ground has been left. 1854 r - Laniartine's Celebr. 
Char, II. 333 Dabbers to spread the ink on the letters. 1870 
Eng. Mech. 28 Jan. 487 (Gilding), Go over gently with 
a dabber [brush]. 

2. (See quot.) 

1881 Oxfordsh. Gloss. Supp., Dabbers, a game played by 
children with small round flint stones, Dabber, a stone 
with which the game of Dabbers is played. 

Dabble (d?e-b'l), v. [Appears late in i6th c. 
Agrees in form, and in sense 2, with Du. dabbelen, 
var. of dabben^ expl. by Plantijn as ' pattrouiller, 
on patteler de mains * to dabble with the feet or 
hands, met de voet int slijck dahbelen, ' trepiner des 
piedz en la fangc ', to trample with the feet in the 
mud. In form Du. dabbelen is the frequentative of 
dabben : the relation of dabble and dab in Eng. is 
less clear.] 

1. trans. To wet by splashing, as in running 
through a puddle or wading about in shallow water, 
or by pressing against wet shrubs, or the like ; 
to move anything to and fro in water ; hence to 
wet in a casual way ; to disfigure or soil with 
splashes of any liquid ; to bespatter, besprinkle, 
bedabble. Said of the personal agent, or the 
liquid medium. 

1557 TUSSER IQQ Points Husb. xxvii, Set bauen alone, lay 
the bowghes from the blockes : the drier, the les maidens 
dablith their dockes [skirts behind]. 1594 SHAKS. Rich. ///, 
i. iv. 54 A Shadow like an Angel!, with bright hayre 
Dabbel'd in blood. 1604 MIDDLETON Witch u. iii. 3 We 
must take heed we ride through all the puddles, .that your 
safeguard there May be most probably dabbled, a 1656 
USSHER Ann. vi. (1658) 570 The Country being woody they 
were daily dabled with the fall of snow from the trees. 1676 
WISEMAN Sitrg. ( J.), I scarified, and dabbled the wound with 
oil of turpentine. 1860 GEN. P. THOMPSON Audi Alt. III. 
cxxi. 66 The men who are dabbling the Queen's robe in 
blood. 1887 T. A. TROLLOPE What I remember II. v. 85, 
I dabbled a handkerchief in a neighbouring fountain for her 
to wash her streaked face. 
b. causal. 

1847 TENNYSON Princess m. 297 Or in the. .holy secrets of 
this microcosm, Dabbling a shameless hand. 

2. intr. To move (with feet or hands, or the bill) 
in shallow water, liquid mud, etc., so as to cause 
some splashing; to play about in shallow water, 
to paddle. 

1611 COTGR., Patouiller . . to padle, or dable in with the 
feet. 1626 J. PORY in Ellis Orig. Lett. i. 331 They . . made 
her to dable in the durte on a foul morning from Somerset! 
House to St. James. i66i FULLER Worthies (1840) III. 
135 Ducklings, which . . naturally delight to dabble in the 
water. 1789 WORDSW. Evening Walk, Where the duck 
dabbles 'mid the rustling sedge. 1821 CLARE Viil. Minstr. 
II. 118 The long wet pasture grass she dabbles through. 
1858 FROUDE Hist. En%. III. xvii. 488 The minister who . . 
had stooped to dabble in these muddy waters of intrigue. 

3. fig. To employ oneself in a dilettante way in 
(any business or pursuit) without going deeply or 
seriously into it ; to work off and on at> as a matter 
of whim or fancy. Const, in (with) at, etc.). 

1625 B. JONSON Staple of N. n. i, Let him still dabble in 
poetry. 1676 MARVELL Mr. Smirke 14 Some Youngster 
that had been Dabbling amongst the Socinian Writers. 
1768-74 TUCKER Lt. Nat. (1852) I. 120 One of those sources 
of disputation which must not be dabbled with : we must 
drink deep, or had better not taste at all. 1792 T. JEFFERSON 
W-ViY.(i83o)IV. 465 Examining how far their own members 
. .had been dabbling in stocks. 1840 DICKENS Old C. Shop 
xxviii, It's the delight of my life to have dabbled in poetry. 
1879 G. MACDONALD P. Faber III. i. 14 The man who 
dabbles at saving the world by science, education, hygeian 
and other economics. 

t b. To meddle, tamper with ; to interfere in. 

1660 R. COKE Justice Vind. 7 He has bound himself up 
from dablin? with the Grounds of Obedience and Govern- 
ment. -31733 ATTERBURY To Pope ij.), You, I think, have 
been dabbling here and there with the text. 1776 PAINE 
Com. Sense, Addr. Quakers (1701) 80 Dabbling in matters, 
which the professed quietude of your principles instruct you 
not to meddle with. 1794 SIR F. M. EDEN in Ld. Auck- 
land's Corr. (1862) III. 238 As he loves to be dabbling, he 
may perhaps go. 

*t* 4. To move up and down in a playful, trifling 
manner, like one dabbling in water. Obs. 

a 1688 VILLIERS (Dk. Buckhm.) Poems(ifj$ 169 I'll dabble 
up and down, and take the air. 

Da'bble, sb. [f. prec. verb.] The act of dab- 
bling; that which dabbles. 

1871 R. ELLIS Catullus Ixiii. 7 While still the gory dabble 
did anew the soil pollute. 

Da'bbled, ppl. a. [f. DABBLE zr. + -ED.] Wetted 
bysplashing; casunlly or irregularly wetted; stained 
or soiled with water, blood, mud, etc. 

1591 SYLVESTER Du Bartas i. iv. 397 The lively Liquor 
God With dabbled heels hath swelling clusters trod. 1727 
SWIFT Poems, City Shower, Rising with dabbled wings. 
1887 STEVENSON Underwoods \. ix. 18 The maiden jewels of 
the rain Sit in your dabbled locks again. 

Da'bblement. nonee-ivd. [See -MENT.] Dab- 
bling (in semi-concrete sense). 



DABBLER. 

1866 CARI.YI.B Ktmin. (18811 II. 236, I .. alas, was met by 

a foul dabblemenl of paint oozing downslaiis 

Dabbler <l.< i.l.u). [f. DABBLE v. + -EH'.] 

1. ( )ne who dabbles, esf. in any business or pursuit. 

1611 COTCR., PatKiiillurd, a j>adler, dabler. slabberer ; 
one that mmpta with his frri in plashes of durtie water. 
01615 Fi.i'roiER KMcr lira. u. ii, A little unbaked poetry 
Su< li as the dabblers of our time contrive. 1768-74 TUCKER 
LI. Nat. (1852) I. 7 Your dabblers in metaphysics are the 
must dangerous creatures breathing. 1869 FREEMAN Norm. 
Conq. (1876) III. xi. 72 A dabbler in arts and sciences. 

t2. (Seequot.) Obs. 

1611 COTGR., f\tpe/i/ t the maine course ; that part of the 
mainc-sayle whereto the bonnets, or dablers be fastened. 

Da'bblesome, a, nonce-wd. [See -SOME.] Given 
to dabbling. 

1866 l!t.ACKMORE Cradock ffowell liii. (1883) 370 Dabble- 
some interferences with ancient institutions. 

Dabbling (darblirj), vbl. sb. [-INO'.] The 
action of the verb DABBLE ; an instance or result 
of such action. 

1677 HUBBARD Narrative 109 Many of the rest were sorely 
wounded, as appeared by the dabbling of the Hushes with 
blood. 1711 SWIFT "Jrnl. Stella 19 Dec., We are full of 
snow and dabbling. 1856 FROUDE Hist. Enf. (1858) I. iv. 
361 Some further paltry dabbling was also attempted with 
the phraseology. 1884 Cltr. Treasury Feb. 92/1 The dis- 
connected dabblings of. . untrained forgers. 

Da-bbling, ///. a. [-INQ 2.J That dabbles. 

1661 LOVEU. Hist. Anim. ff Mm. 518 In dabbleing 
weather and autumnc. 1816 J. GILCHRIST Philos. Etym. 
178 Superficial, dabbling authors. "1845 HOOD Mermaid 
oj Margate xii, A scaly tail, of a dolphin's growth, In the 
dabbling brine did soak. 

Hence Da bblingly adv. 

1811 W. TAYLOR in Monthly Rev. LXV 134 The first 
number is written by the editor, and treats dabblingly of 
4 dabblers'. 

Dabby (da;-bi), a. ff. DAB w.2, DAB sb\ f.J 
Damp, moist : (of clothes) wet and clinging to the 
body ; flabby ; flaccid. 

1581 f. STUDLEY Seneca's Medea 131 b, When the stormy 
southerne winde witli dankish dabby face Of hoary winter 
sendeth out the gushing showres apace. 1811 Starting 
Mag. XL. 167 All very greasy, blousy, dabby, dusty, salt- 
watery, and so on. a 1815 FORBY Vac. E. Angiia, Dotty, 
moist, and somewhat adhesive ; sticking to the skin like wet 
linen. 1844!.'!'. HEWLETT Parsons f, W. v, Your, .overalls, 
which hang dabby and flabby about your legs, a 1845 HOOD 
Domestic Asiaes iv, I should have loved to kiss her so, 
(A flabby, dabby babby It. 

Dabchick (darbitjik). Forms : a. 6 dapchicke, 
dopohicken, 6-7 dopchiok(e ; f. 7 dip-ohioke, 
9 dibohick ; 7. 6 dobchiokin, 7-8 dobchiok ; 
8. 7-9 dab-chick, 8- dabchick. [The early 
forms dap-, dop-chick, with the later dip-chick, and 
synonym Dol'PKit, appear to connect the first part 
of the word with the nblaut stem dcup ,dup-, dop- 
of DIP, DEKP ; but the forms in dob-, dab-, seem 
to be associated with some senses of DAB z.] 

The Little Grebe, Podiceps minor, a small water- 
bird, found in rivers and other fresh waters, and 
noted for its diving ; in U.S. the name is applied 
to another species of Grebe, Pottilymbus podiccps. 

a. 1575 TfRBERv. Faiilconrie 150 Small fowle, as the dap- 
chicke, or suche like. 1583 GOLDING Catriirt on Dent. xc. 
552The Swanne the Cormorant the pellicane, the Dopchicken 
the storke. 1615 CHAPMAN Odyss^. xv. 636 She. .Snot dead 
the woman, who into the pump Like to a dop-chick dived. 
173* MORTIMER in Phil. Trans. XXXVII. 449 Podicipfs 
minor rostra vario, The Pied Bill Dopchick. 1888 (('. 
Somerset Word-bk., Dapchick. (Always.) 

ft. looa CARHW Corttivall 353, The Dip-chicke (so named 
of his diving and littlenesse). 18*7 T. Arrwooo in C. M. 
Wakefield Life viii. (1885; 109, I am glad Bosco has got the 
dibchicks. 

y. 15. . Par/. Ryrdes 88 in Hazl. E. P. P. III. 171 The 
Cote, the Dobchick, and the water Hen. 1598 FLORIO, 
PioHibrino . . a bird called a kingsfisher. Some take it for 
a dobchickin. 1670 NARBOROUGH fritl. in Ace. Sev. Late 
Voy. i. (1694) 59 White-breasted Divers, and Dobchicks. 
1678 RAY n'iUitghby'sOmith. 340 The Didapper, or Dipper, 
or Dobchick, or small Doucker. 1766 PENNANT Zool. (1768) 
II. 397. 1796 MORSE Atner. Geog. I. 314 Dobchick. 

B. 1610 [see c]. X7a8 POPE Dune. u. 63 As when a dab- 
chick waddles thro* the copsr, On feet and wings, and flies, 
and wades, and hops. 1789 G. WHITE Selborne (1853) II. 
xii. 273 Dabchicks and coots fly erect. 1870 THORNBURY 
Tour Eng. I. i. 7 Brentford again dived, to reappear 
suddenly, like a dab chick on the surface of history. 

b. dial. Applied to the Moor-hen or \Yatcr-hen. 

1877 A". W. Line. Glass., Dot-chick, the water-hen. 1879 
Shrofsh. Word-bk., Dab-chick, the Water-hen. 
C. Jig. Of a girl. 

1610 B. JONSON Alch. iv. ii, 'Fore God, She is a delicate 
Dab-chick ! I must have her. 

H Ash's explanation ' A chicken newly hatched ' 
(to which the Century Dictionary refers the quot. 
from 1'ope in a 8) is merely an amusing blunder. 

I- Dablet. Obs. In 4 deblet, 7 Sc. dablet, 
daiblet. ["< OF. deablot (141)1 c. Godefr.), dim. 
of deable, diable DKVIL.] A little devil, an imp. 

c 1380 WVCLIK Serm. Sel. Wits. II. 328 pe fend moveb |>es 
debletis to fere Cristene men fro treube. a too* MONT- 
GOMKRIE Fiytiitg 379 When the Weird Sisters had this 
voted, all in an voyce, The deid of ItheJ dablet. Ibid. 515 
For the din of thir daiblets raisd all the deils. 

II Daboya (daboi-a, da-boyjr. Also daboia. 
[Hindi daboya that lies hid, the lurker, f. dabna to 
lurk.] The large viper of the East Incies. 



3 

1871 W. AITKIM Set. * I'ract. Med. (ed. 6) I. 387 A hone 
bitten by a dabma. 1889 < '. nt,,ry Mag. Aug. 505 Among 
the vipers the daboya is entitled to rank u a poisoner clu>e 
to the cobra. 

Dabster ida."bstj). [In sense i f. DAB j*.:i : 
see -HTKR.] 

1. One skilled at anything ; an expert or dab. 
Chiefly dial. 

1708 Krit. Apollo No. 03. 3/2 Ye Dabsters at Rhime. 
1770-86 P. SKKLTON Wk*. V. 103 The right dabsters at a sly, 
or a dry joke. 1814 Hist. Gaming w) Her . . luck at play 
(for she was a dabster). 1841 AKF.RMAN Wiltshirt Glass 
Dabster, a proficient. 1888 Berksk. Glass., Dabster, one 
who excels greatly. [So in many dialect Glossaries.) 

2. Applied depreciativcly : cf. DAUBSTER, 
DABBUCR. 

1871 IIROWHING Pr. Hohenst. 389 Lines Which every 
dabster felt in duty bound To signalize his power of pen and 
ink By adding to a plan once plain enough. 1891 Idler 
Sept. 203, I am a very indifferent amateur, a touchy dabster, 
a mere artistic sarcasm. 

II Dabuh. [Arab. Ju* cfabue. hyxna = Heb. 

nis tsabuae. Jer. xii. 9.] The Arab name of the 
Striped Hyaena, retained by some early naturalists. 

1600 J. PORY tr. Leo's Africa II. 342 Of the Beast called 
Dabuh . . It . .will rake the carkeises of men out of their 
graves, and will devour them. 1607 TOPSILL Four./. Beirjti 
430 The second kind of hyena, called Papio or Dabuh. 

Dab- wash: seeDAB.fi. 1 n. 

II Da Capo (da ka-px>). Mus. [It. da from capo 
head, beginning.] A direction at the end of a piece 
of music to repeat from the beginning ; the end of 
the repeat being usually marked with a pause or the 
word Fine. (Abbreviated D.C.) Also/f^f. 

17x4 Snort Exflic. For. Wds. in Mus. Bks. cStanf.), Da 
capo, or by way of Abbreviation D C. 1740 DYCHK & 
PARDON, D. C. in Musick signifies Da Capo, that is, give or 
play the whole or some particular part of an air again. 1855 
THACKERAY Nfiixomes i, And then will wake Morrow and 
the eyes that look on it ; and so da capo. 

Hence Da capo v. (nonce-ivd.}, to repeat (mu<ic\ 

1764 Poetry in Ann. Keg. 240 Say, will my song, da 
capo'dv\r, Piaitosoh, Andante roar. 1803 in Sfir. Pub. 
Jrnls, (1804) VII. 21 Thus you may da capo this musical 
entre". 

Dace (d^s). Also 5 darce, darse, 6 dase. 
[ME. darse, etc., a. OF. dars, dars, nom. (and pi.) 
of dart, from ijth c. dard DAIIT, dace: cf. Cotgr., 
' Dard, a Dart ; also, a Dace or Dare fish ' ; so 
called from its darting motion : cf. DARE.] 

1. A small fresh-water cyprinoid fish, Leuciscus 
vulgaris. 

1:1430 Two Cookery-Iks. 20 Take Dace, Troutys, and 
Roche, c 1460 J. RUSSELL Bk. Nurture 575 Perche, rooche, 
darce. 1496 Bk. St. Altan's, Fishing (18101 36 Another 
[bayte] for darse & rochc & bleke. 1538 LELANO /tin. 
V. 90 Brcme-s, Pikes, Tenches, Perches and Daces. 1655 
MOUFET & BENNET Health's tmfrov. (1746) 271 Daces or 
Darts, or Dares, be of a sweet Taste, a soft Flesh and 
good Nourishment. 1801 BINGLKY Anim. Blag. (1813) 
III. 84 Dace afford great amusement to the angler. 
1833 LAMB Klia, Old Margate Hoy, With no more relish 
for the sea, than a pond-perch or a dace might be supposed 
to have. 

b. U. S. Applied locally to other fishes resem- 
bling or allied to this : as the genus Rhinichthys, 
and the redfin, Minnilus cornutus. (Cent. Diet.) 

2. Comb., as dace-like. 

1838 LYTTON A lice vl. iv, Stopping Mr. Doucc's little.. 
dace-like mouth. 

[I Dacey (d^'si). Anglo-Ind. [ad. Hindi desi, 
f. da country.] Of or belonging to the country 
(i. e. India), native ; = COUNTRY 13 b, as in dacey- 
cotton, silk, manufacture, etc. 

1876 L. P. BKOCKETT Silk uwingi. 13 (Cent. Dicl.\ 

II Dachshund (da'ks^und). Also in partly 
anglicized form dachs-hound. [Ger. = badger- 
dog.] One of a German breed of short-legged long- 
bodied dog?, used to draw badgers ; a badger-dog. 

Cl88l M. ARNOLD Later Poems, Poor Matthias.W&x, 
a dachshound without blot. 1888 MRS. H. WARD R. l-~.h- 
mere (1890) 285 The sleek dachshund . . sat blinking beside 
its mistress. 

Dacite (d^'-sait). Ceol. [Named 1863 from 
Dacia, the Roman province including Transylvania 
+ -ITE.] A name for varieties of greenstone or 
trachyte rock containing quartz. 

[1878 LAWRENCE Cotta's Rocks Class. 185 Stache has given 
the name of Dacit to a quartzose trachyte.) 1870 RUTLEV 
Stint. Rocks xii. 235 The chemical composition of the dacites 
varies considerably. 

Dacity (darsiti). dial. Also (s.w.1 docity. 
[An aphetic form of audacity : so in local dialects \ 
Jacious.] Capacity, ability ; activity, energy. 

1636 W. SAMPSON l'(rw Breaker v, I have plai'd a Major 
in my time with as good dacity as e're a hobby-Horse on 'em 
all. 1746 Kxttippr Sctil(tiH ,i$i<j)voi)'Y\\& hast no Stroil ner 



DACRYOLITH. 

I. 1. intr. To shake to and fro, w.ncr, tc.tter, 
stagger. J-.ng. dial. 

itM SKINNKK Ktytn. 1 1671 ., backer, vox In agro Lincoln 
la : rinUott autem Vaollare, Nutate. 1674 KAY N. C. 
>ver, ttagger or totter, a word ucd 
in I.mioln-.hirr. 1876 Ifnitty Class.. Daittiinr 
quavering with the limln; 'a daikering ion of a bo.lv '. 
a paralysed person. 1(77-89 A'. 1C. J.,;,. ;//./. ie.1 11. 
Dacktr, to waver, to .hake fitfully. . ' I could e the ctumla 
dackcr ivry guil that came '. 

2. To walk totteringly as from feebleness or in- 
firmity; to toddle; to go about slowly, idly or 
carelessly ; to saunter, dander. 

1818 SCOTT Ret Kay xxiii, Gin veil . . iun daiker op the 
gate with this Sassenach. Hrt. Midi, viii, Wha wad 
hac thought o' hit daikering out this length? I(M IAMII. 
SON, Dad,tr, daiker . . (7) To go about in a feeble or infirm 
state. Ettrtck forest. 1(51 Cumbrld. Gloss , Dak { ,,n, 
walking carelessly. 

3. To work in an irregular or pottering way. 
1703 TIIOKLSBY Let. to Kay lE. D. S.', Daker, to work for 

hire after the common days work is over, at 2./ an hour. 
1808 JAMIMON, Dacker daker, daiker..^. To toil as in job 
work, to labour. .5. To be engaged about any piece of work 
in which one does not make great exertion ; to be slightly 
employed. 

*: fig- To remain or hang on in a itate of irreso- 
lution ; to vacillate, equivocate, waver ; be irregular 
in one's ways. Also, to have relapses in sickness. 

1818 SCOTT Rob Ray vi, Sae I e'en daiker on with the 
family frae year's end to year's end. i77 in N. W. Line. 
Gloss., ' I knew he was liein', he dadcer'd . . in bi talk.' 

6. To truck, to traffic {Lothian). 

' It properly signifies to deal in a piddling ami loose sort 
of way ; as allied in sense to E. higgle ' ( Jamiesoni. 

6. To have dealings, engage, grapple fci'M. 

7*S Fermi Buchan Dialect 10 .Jam.*, I dacker'd i' him 
by mysel'. 1881 in Edwards Mad. Sc. Feels Ser. iv. 191 
Twere well wi folk they oft would think Afore they daiker 
long wi drink. 

II. 7. To search (intr. and trans.). 



. 

Docity, no Vittiness in enny keendest Theng. 1855 ROBIN- 
SON H hithy Gloss. , Dacity, fitness, capacity, suitable address 
In a matter. 

Dacker, daiker dnc-kai, drkar), v. Sc. and 
not th. dial. Also daker. [app., in sense i,the 
same as MFlem. daeckeren ' volitare, motari, mo- 
bilitari; et vibrare, comscare ' Kilian, 1599). But 
sense 7 is not clearly connected with the others, and 
may be a ieparate word.] 



Keith (1880! 90 Warrant for dickering for the said meal. 
1768 Ross Helenart 91 (Jam.) To dacker for her as for 
robbed gear. 

Dacoit fdakoi-t), s/>. Also dakoit, decoit. 
[Hindi dakait, orig. dakait, {. daka gang-robbery, 
f. Skr. dashtaka compressed, crowded.] 

A member of a class of robbers in India and 
Burmah, who plunder in armed bands. 

Also applied to pirates who formerly infested the Ganges 
between Calcutta and Burhampore; see quot. 1810. 

1810 T. WILLIAMSON E. India yade M. II. 396 ( Y.) Derails 
or water-robbers. 1844 H. H. WILSON Brit. India I. 399 
The Dakoits did not commonly proceed to murder ; but 
they perpetrated atrocious cruelties. 1888 rail Mall G. 
i I*eb. 1/2 The whole of Lower Burmah was ravaged by 
bands of dacoits, who defied and defeated the local authorit ie> 
and robbed whole villages. 

Hence Dacoi't v., to plunder as a dacoit ; Da- 
coi-tage, Dacol'tinff, the practice of a dacoit, 
DACOITY ; Dacoltee', one roobcd by a dacoit. 

1886 Athenytim s May 578 The only choice left him U that 
of dacoiting or of being dacoited. 1890 Times 96 J >rc. 3/1, 
2000 rupees and other property belonging to them were 
dacoited. 1887 AYw York Examiner 12 May (Cent. Diet. \ 
We may expect soon to hear that Dacoitage has be^un with 
as much vigor as ever. 1887 Edin. Rev. Apr. 499 It may be 
a pleasanter game to play the dacoit than the dacoitee. 
1885 Manch, Courier 16 Dec., It is stated that dacoiting . . 
has taken place at Bhamo. 

II Dacoity (dikoHi). Also de-, daooitee, -ie. 
[a. Hindi i/akaiti, abstr. sb. f. c/atait.] 

The system of robbery practised by the dacoits ; 
gang-robbery ; an act of robbery with violence 
committed by an armed band (now, according to 
the Indian penal code, of not less than five men . 

1818 JAS. MILL Brit. India (1840) V. 466 (Y.) The crime of 
dacoity (that is, robbery by gangs). 1845 STOCQCKLKH 
Handek. Brit. India (1854) 223 Not less than one hundred 
Dacoities. .are annually reported. 1891 Times 13 Jan. $/> 
A dacoity did occur, .and property was carried off. 

^1 Erroneously for DACOIT. 

1849 E. E. NAPIER I'.vcurs. S. Africa II. 7 Once the 
property of a renowned Decoitee, or river-pirate. 

Dacre, obs. form of DICKER (of hides). 

Dacryd ds-krid\ Bot. [f. mod.L. Dacrydiuiii, 
a. Or. leucpvtiov, dim. of Sdxpv tear, in allusion to 
resinous drops exuded by these trees.] A tree 
or shrub of genus Dacrydium, allied to the Yew. 

1846 I.i siti KY 1'eg.Kingd.yiZ In New Zealand the Datrj.'. 
are sometimes no bigger than Mosses. 

Dacryolin (dwkriolin). Cheat, [mod. f. C,r. 
SAxpv tear + -OL + -IN.] The form of albumin found 
in the tears, 

1875 A. FLIMT Pnvtitl. Man. V. 145 The albumen . . it 
called by some authors, lachrymine. .or dacryoline. i88j 
Syd. Soc. Lex., Dacryolin. \* convened by slow evapora- 
tion into a yellow insoluble substance. 

Dacryolith, -lite (dse-kri^Hb, -bitV Path. 
[f. as prec. + \!Sot stone ] A calculus or concretion 
occurring in the lacrvmal passages. 

1847-9 TODD Cycl. Anal. IV. 82/1 Calculous formations in 
the lacrymal organs . . may be known by the generic name 
dacryolith. 1875 H. WALTON Dis. Eye 1009 Conjunctival 
dacryolilhs have been described. i8t* Syd. Six. Lix., 
Dacryolitk, same as Dacryalite. 

!- J 



DACRYOMA. 

|| DacryO'ma. Path. [f. as prec. after such 
sbs. as carcinoma^ An impervious state of one or 
both of the puncta lachrymalia, preventing the tears 
from passing into the lachrymal sac. 

1830 in S. Cool'ER Diet. Surf. 373. 1857 in DUNGLISON. 

II Da'CryOpS. Path. [f. as prec. + uffi eye, face.] 
a. An affection of the eyelid : a clear cyst due to 
distension of one of the lachrymal ducts, b. A 
watery eye. 

1857 in DUNGLISON. 1859 HUI.KE in Opthalm. Hosf. Rcpts, 
1.287. 

Daetalomanoy, error for DAC? YLIOMANCY. 

fDa-ctile. Obs. [? f. DACTYL sb] ?v. intr. To 
run quickly and nimbly. (If not a misprint for 
ductile adj., as treated by Gifford, or for tactile?) 

a 1637 B. JONSON Mortimers Fall, Thy form doth^ feast 
mine eye, thy voice mine ear. -And softness of thy skin my 
very touch, As if I felt it dactile through my blood. 

Dactyl (dse'ktil), sb. Also 5 -yllo, 5-6 -He, 6 
-il, -ill, 7-9 -yle. [ad. (peril, through F. dactyle} L. 
dactylus, a, Gr. Sd/cTi/Xos, a finger, a date, a dactyl 
(from its 3 joints).] 

1 1. The fruit of the date-palm ; a date. Obs. 

[1398 TREVISA Earth. De P. R. xvn. cxvi. (1495)678 The 
frute of the palme is callyd Dactulus.} 1483 Cath. A ngl. 88 
A Dactylic fute (fruytt A.\ dactilis. 1541 R. COPLAND 
Guydon's Formularye X ij b, Powdre of dactiles. 1644 
BULWEH Chirol. Aiij, Thus while the gratefull Age offer 
whole springs Of Palme, my zealean humble Dactyle brings. 
1656 in BLOUNT Glossogr. 

2. Prosody. A metrical foot consisting of a long 
syllable followed by two short (or, in modern 
verse, of an accented syllable and two unaccented^ 

-1420 Wyclif Bible, Job Prol. (1850) II. 671 Vers of sixe 
feet, rennende with dactile and sponde feet. 1581 SIDNEY 
Apol. Poetrie (Arb.l 71 The French . . hath not one word, 
that hath his accent in . . Antepenultima, and little more 
hath the Spanish : and therefore, verie gracelesly may they 
vse Dactiles. 1589 PUTTENHAM Eng. Poesie n. xiv. (Arb.) 
140 This distique . . standing all vpon perfect dactils t 1670 
EACHARD Cant. Clergy 13 "If. . upon the first scanning, he 
knows a sponde from a dactyl . . A forward boy ! cries the 
school-master. 1779 BURNEY in Phil. Trans. LXIX ; K)6 If 
he discovers a partiality for any particular measure, it is for 
dactyls of one long and two short notes. 1838^9 HALLAM 
Hist. Lit. n. v. 92 The first foot of each verse is generally 
a dactyle. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. I. 30. 

3. A mollusc, the piddock (Pholas dactylus). 
1802 BINGLEY Anim. Biog. (1813) III. 442 The Dactyle 

Pholas. 

t Da'ctylar, a. Obs. rare. [f. L. type aacty- 
lar-is, f. dactyl-us : see prec.] Pertaining to a 
dactyl ; dactylic. 

[c 1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. 307 The .vj. is cleped dactilare 
for it is schape as it were pe stoon of a date.) 1828 in 
WEBSTER. 

t Dactyle"t. Obs. nonce-wd. [f. DACTYL + 
-ET, dim suffix.] A little dactyl. 

1597 BP. HALL Sat. i. vi. 14 How handsomely besets 
Dull spondees with the English dactilets. 

Dactylic (dsekti'lik", a. and sb. [ad. L. dacty- 
lic-us, a. Gr. oa/mAt/ros, f. Ba/cri/Aos : see -1C.] 

A. adj. Of, pertaining to, or of the nature of, a 
dactyl ; consisting of or characterized by dactyls. 

1580 PUTTENHAM Eng. Poesie n. (Arb.) 130 That which 
Stamhurst first tooke in hand by his exameters dactilicke 
and spondaicke in the translation of Virgills Eneidos. 1751 
JOHNSON Rambler 94 P 9 The power of the spondaick 
and dactylick harmony. 1853 LOWELL Moosehead Jml. 
Prose Wks. 1800 1. 11 The dactylic beat of the horses' hoofs. 
1871 Publ. Sch. Lat. Gram. 225 The Dactylic Hexameter 
occupies as large a space in Latin poetry as all other Verses 
together. 

B. sb. A dactylic verse. 

1795 SOUTHEY (title). The Soldier's Wife. Dactylics. 
1797 CANNING & GIFFORD Parody in Anti.jacobin No. 6 
Ne er talk of ears again 1 look at thy spelling-book ; Dacty- 
lics, call'st thou 'em ? ' God help thee, silly one ! ' 1872 
M. COLLINS TVJO Plunges I. v. 103 She got hold of a blind 
poet, .and made him tell the story in dactylics. 

Dactylic-, combining form of Gr. Satcrvkios 
finger-ring [f. SanTv\os finger : see DACTYL], as in 
Dactyliog-lyph [Gr. SuKTuAio-yAwp-os], an en- 
graver of gems for finger-rings ; also, according to 
lirande, ' the inscription of the name of the artist 
on a gem ' ; hence Dactyliogly phic a. Dacty- 
lio-giyphist = Dactylioglyp/i ; Dactylio-glyphy 
[Gr. 5aKTv\ioy\v(f>id], the art of engraving gems 
(Webster 1864). Dactylio-grapher, one who 
describes finger-rings, engraved seals, etc. ; hence 
Dacty Hogra'pMc a. ; Dactyliography, the de- 
scription of finger-rings, ' the science of gem- 
engraving ' (Brande). bactylio logy, the study of 
finger-rings. 

1830 LEITCH Mutter's Anc. Art\ 131. 109 The luxury of 
ring-wearing . . raised the art of the dactylioglyphist to the 
height which it was capable of attaining. 1872 C. W. KING 
Antique Gems % Rings Index, Dactyliology. 

Dactyliomancy (drektHiama^nsi). erron. 
daetylo-. [f. Gr. SaKTv\ios finger-ring + -MANCY.] 
Divination by means of a finger-ring. 

(For methods see E. B. Tylor, Prim. Culture I. 115.) 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage I. IV. v. 310 Dactyliomancie was 
a divination with Rings. 1652 GAULE Magastrom. 165 
Dactylomancy. 1871 TYLOR Prim. Cult. I. 115 These 
mystic aits, .are rude forms of the classical dactyliomancy. 



1877 W. JONF.S Finger-ringL. 112 Another method of prac- 
tising Dactylomancy. 

t Da'Ctylist. Obs. rare. [f. DACTYL + -IST.] 
A writer of dactylic verse. 

1785 WARTON Pref. Milton's Min. Poems (T.), May is cer- 
tainly a sonorous dactylist. 

Ii Dactylitis (drcklilaHis). Path. Inflamma- 
tion of a finger or toe. Hence Dactylitic (-i'tik) 
a., pertaining to dactylitis. 

1861 BUMSTEAD Ven. Dis. (1879) 671 This affection . . was 
formerly called syphilitic panaris. We use the term dacty- 
litis. Ibid. 772 Dactylitic swellings. 

Daetylo- (dce-ktilo, dffiktiljr), combining form 
of Gr. SaitTv\os finger, as in Da'ctylodei'ktous a. 
(nonce-wd.) [Gr. 6aitTv\6$eiKTot], pointed at with 
the finger. Dacty lo-grapliy = DACTYLOLOGY. 
Dactylo'nomy [-NOMY], the art of counting on 
the fingers. Dactylo'podite (Zool.}, [Gr. TroS- foot], 
the terminal joint of a limb in Crustacea. Da'cty- 
lopo're (see quot.) ; hence Dactylopo'ric a. 
Dactylo'pterous a., having the characters of the 
genus Dactylopterus of fishes, in which the pectoral 
fins are greatly enlarged and wing-like ; so Dacty- 
lo-pteroid a. Da ctylozo'oid, -zo'id, a mouthlcss 
cylindrical zooid in some Hydrozoa. 

1852 Times 27 May 5/6 Oxford must . . be represented in 
politics . . by an universally dactylodeiktous personage. 1884 
J. C. GORDON Deaf Mutes in Amer. Annals Apr. (18851 128 
note, A much simpler system of ' dactylography ' based 
upon the Dalgarno alphabet. 1721 BAILEY, Dactylimomy, 
the Art of Numbering on the Fingers. 1870 ROLLESTON 
Anim. Life 92 Appendages which are known as the 
' propodite ' and ' dactylopodite'. 1880 HUXLEY Crayfish 
iv. 219 The dactylopodites of the two posterior thoracic 
limbs. 1882 Syd. Soc. Zf-r., Dactylopore, a name given to 
the pores in the corallumof Hydrocorallinae, from which the 
dactylozoids protrude. 1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. 
Life 758 The hydranth is sometimes modified for special 
functions, and the following must be regarded as polymor- 
phic forms of it. .The Dactylozooid, a mouthless hydranth, 
modified for solely defensive and offensive purposes. Such 
zooids are universal among Hydrocorallina. 

Dactyloid (dse-ktiloid), a. rare", [ad. Gr. 
SaKTt/Aofiorjs finger-like : see -OID.] Resembling 
a finger. 1882 in Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Dactylology (dtcktil^'lodji). Also 7 daoty- 
logie. [f. Gr. BaKTv\os finger + -^0710 discourse : 
see -LOGY.] ' Finger-speech ' ; the art of ' speak- 
ing* or communicating ideas by signs made with 
the fingers, as in the deaf-and-dumb alphabet. 
(Formerly CHIBOLOGY.) 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Dactylogie . . finger-talk, speech 
made with the fingers. 1680 DALGARNO Deaf fy Dumb 
Man's Tutor Introd., Cheirology, or dactylology. . is inter- 
pretation by the transient motions of the fingers. _ 1860 
Guardian 24 Oct. 927/1 The ceremony was performed in the 
finger language, or, as it is grandiloquently termed, dactyl- 
ology. 1885 G. MEREDITH Diana II. xii. 303 They pressed 
hands at parting, .not for the ordinary dactylology of lovers, 
but in sign of the treaty of amity. 

Dactylose (dsektiljo-s), a. rare-", [f. DACTYL 
(or its source) + -OSE.] ' Having fingers, or finger- 
shaped ' (Syd. Soc. Lex.}. 

Dad (deed), rf.l colloq. Also 6-7 dadd(e. 
[Occurs from the l6th c. (or possibly 1 5th c.), in 
representations of rustic, humble, or childish speech, 
in which it may of course have been in use much 
earlier, though it is not given in the Promptorium 
or Catholicon, where words of this class occur. 

Of the actual origin we have no evidence : but the forms 
dada, tata, meaning ' father ', originating in infantile or 
childish speech, occur independently in many languages. 
It has been assumed that our word is taken from Welsh 



A childish or familiar word for father : originally 
ranking with mam for mother, but now less typi- 
cally childish. Cf. DADDY. 

la 1500 Chester PI. (Shaks. Soc.) I. 43 Cayme. I will. . 
Speake with my dadde and mam also. . Mamme and dadd, 
reste you well ! [Of uncertain date : the MS. isonlyof 1592. 
Harl. MS. of 1607 reads ([1.678) 'sire and dam', iii. 68il' father 
and mother'.] 1553 WILSON Rliet. 31 Bryngyng forthe 
a faire child unto you . . suche a one as shall call you dad with 
his swete lispyng wordes. 1590 GREENE Never too late 
(1600) 53 The boy sayes, Mam, where is my Dad, when will 
he come home? 1595 SHAKS. John II. i. 467 Since I first 
cal'd my brothers father Dad. 1623 GILL Sacr. Philos. I. 95, 
I have not read so farre in heraldry, as to tell you who was 
his Dad, nor of what house his mother came. 1708 M RS. 
CENTLIVRE Busie Body i. i, An Uncle who . . tho' he made 
me his Heir, left Dad my Guardian. 1816 ' Quiz ' Grand 
Master i. Argt., Leaving his dad and mam in tears. 1886 
BESANT Childr. ofGibeon n. viii, Poor old dad ! 

Jig. x6o8 T. MORTON Pream. Encounter 93 It is better to 
be a lad then (that I may so say) a dad in falshood. 1682 
N. O. Boileau's Lutrin 1. 222 For he was Dad of all the sing- 
ing Tribe. 1828 Craven Gloss., Dad is also used for one 
that excels in any thing, but chiefly in a bad sense. ' He 'st 
dad of au for mischief. 

Dad, s/'. 2 Sc. and north, dial. Also daud, dawd. 
[f. DAD v.] 

1. A firm and shaking blow, a knock or thump 
(e.g. on the back of a man or beast, or on any body 
with dull resonance). 

1718 RAMSAY Christ's Kirk m. xiii, He. .Play'd dad, and 
dang the bark ArT's shins that day. 1789 D. DAVIDSON 



DADDOCK. 

Seasons 15 (Jam.) Whoe'er did slight him gat a daml. 1827 
J. WILSON Noel. Ambr. Wks. (1855) I. 277 The snaw was 
. .giein them sair flaffs and dads on their faces. 

2. A large piece knocked off, a ' thumping ' piece, 
a lump (of bread or other solid matter). 

1785 BURNS Holy Fair xxiii, Cheese an' bread .. dealt about 
in..dawdsthat day. 1837 R. NICOLL /Vewtt (18431 89 Bauds 
o' counsel ye would gie. 1849 in Robson Bants of Tync 
77 Lumps o' beef, an' dads o' duff. 1879 Cumbrld. Gloss. 
Suppl., Daud, a flake of snow. 

Dad, a deformation of God, in asseverations : 
now dial. (Cf. ADAD, BEDAD ; also DOD.) 

1678 OTWAY Friendship in F. in. i, But by Dad he's pure 
company. 1681 N. N. Rome's Follies 30 Say'st thou so, 
Neighbour? dad, you have very much reviv'd my heart. 
1843 S. LOVER Handy Andy iii, By dad 1 Andy, you've 
made a mistake this time that I'll forgiv 



give you. 

Notes (Boston U.S.), Kentucky Words u. 64 Dad, dad, for 
Cod, in certain curses. .' Dad drat your hide '. 

Dad, dand (daed, dad), v. Sc. and north, dial. 
[Onomatopoeic ; expressing orally the action in 
question, and its abrupt and somewhat dulled 
sound. The occasional Sc. spelling dand does 
not imply a long vowel, but merely the low back 
wide (a), often approaching (o).] 

1. trans. To strike with a blow that shakes or 
sends a shock through ; to knock, beat; to shake 
with knocking or beating. 



II. iii, Then took his bannet to the bent And daddit aff the 
glar. 1712 Three Bonnets w, This said, he dadded to the 
yate. 1816 J. WILSON Noct. Ambr. Wks. 1855 I. 138 Twa 
stout young fellows daudin ane anither about.. wi' their 

the end of 

Froude Life II. n Nervous sysl 

coach travel. 

2. intr. 

1719 RAMSAY zndAnSTv, Hamilton iv, Dad down a grouf, 
and tak a drink. 1865 MRS. CARLVLE Lett. III. 258 The 
shock it was to me to find, .all those weak, wretched letters 
. .'dadding about' [knocking about] in the dining-room. 

Dada (dorda, dada 1 ). Also dadda, da-da. [Cf. 
DAD st>.'~\ A child's word for father; cf. papa. 
(In some parts pronounced dada', like papa', and 
used instead of that word.) 

1688 yd Coll. Poems, Loyal Litany xvi, Or if the Smock 
and Dada fails, Adopt a Brat of Neddy Hayles. 1689 
FARQUHAR Love $ Bottle i, Poor child 1 he 's as like his own 
dadda as if he were spit out of his mouth. 1775 MAD. 
VARBLAY Earfy Diary (i&&o)U. 117 Dear Dada, I have 
this moment received your letter. 1842 in Robson Bards 
of Tyne (1863) 227 A, U, A, my bonny bairn . .A, U, A thou 
suin may learn To say dada se canny. 1866 Miss YONGE 
Prince fy Page iii. 52 The child still cried for her da-da. 

t Da da, int. Obs. [app. of nursery origin ; 
but the history is unknown.] A childish and 
familiar expression for ' Good-bye ! ' ; the earlier 
form of TA-TA. 

1681 Orw AY Soldiers Fort. in. i, Well, da, da, da. .prithee 
don't be troubled, da, da. 1733 Hampton Court Misc. 10 
Wife.. Da, Da, Monster [exit laughing]. Huso. Farewel, 
Tormentor. 

t Da -elder, v. Obs. exc. dial. In 5 dadir. 
[Cf. DODDER, DIDDEE, DITHER : the form is that 
of a frequentative, as in palter, shiver, totter, etc. : 
but the etymology of the stem dad-, did-, dod-, is 
obscure ; cf. DADE.] intr. To quake, tremble. 

5483 Cath.Angl. 88/1 To T>zAa,frigucio. 15.. HyeWay 
to Sfyttil Hous i-A'm Hazl. E.P.P. IV. 28 Boyes, gyrles, 
an ' 
1 

Dadd... . 
Dodder, to shiver ; to tremble. 

Hence Dadder-, Dodder-grass, Briza media. 

1878 Cumbrld. Gloss., Dadder grass, Dotherin grass, 
quaking g_rass. 

Daddie, var. of DADDY. 

Daddle (dse-cl'l), sl>. dial. The hand or fist. 

1783 in GROSE Diet. Vulg. Tongue. 1812 Sporting Mag. 
XXXIX. 47 His daddies he us'd with such skill and dex- 
terity. 1827 SCOTT T-wo Drovers ii, 'Adzooks ! ' exclaimed 
the bailiff' sure.. men forget the use of their daddies'. 
1881 Miss JACKSON Shropshire Word-bk. SuppL s.v., ' Tip 
us yer daddle ' is an invitation to shake hands. 

Da'cldle, v. 1 dial. [app. f. same root as DAD- 
DER, with dim. ending -LE : cf. toddle.'] intr. To 
walk totteringly or unsteadily, like a child ; to be 
slow in motion or action ; to dawdle, saunter, trifle. 
Cf. DAIDLE, DAWDLE. 

1787 GROSE Prcni. Gloss., Daddle, to walk unsteadily like 
a child; to waddle. 1825 BROCKETT North C. Wds., 
Daddle, to walk unsteadily, to saunter or trifle. 1878 
Ciimbrld. Gloss., Daddle, to walk or work slowly ; to trifle. 
1881 Miss JACKSON Shropshire Word-bk. Suppl., Daddle, to 
trifle ; to loiter ; to dawdle. 

Da'ddle, v.~ dial. - DIDDLE. 

1886 STEVENSON Treasure Isl. I. iii. 21 ' 111 trick them 
again . . I'll shake out another reef, matey, and daddle 'em 
again.' 

Daddock (dse-dak). dial. Also 7 dadooke. 
[Stem dad- of uncertain etymology; but cf. Don- 
DER: the suffix appears to be dim. -OCK, as in 
bullock, hillock] Rotten or decayed wood ; also 
j* daddock-wood. 

a 1624 lir. M. SMITH Serin. (1632) 106 How long would it 
be before you could, .make mortar of sand, or make a piece 



DADDY. 

of dadocke-wood to flame? 1674 HLOUNT Glassogr. (ed. 4), 
Dmddock, when the hr.'irt or body of a Tree is throughly 
rotten, it is called Daddock, i/itusi, ,l,;i,t Halt. 1787 
Prtrii. Gloss., Daddock, rotten wood, touch-wood. Gltntc. 
1845 S. Juno Margaret u. i, The great red daddocks lay in 
the green pastures where they had lain year after year, 
crumbling away. 1884 Ufton-on-Severn Clou., Daddock, 
decayed wood, touchwood. 

Hence Da'ddocky a., decayed, rotten. 

1815 BRITTON /leant. Wiltshire, Daddicky, dry, decayed. 
1884 Ujpton&Sgotrm Gloss., Daddocky, flimsy, unsub- 
stantial, soft with decay. 

Daddy ;dardi). colloq. Also 6 daddyo, 6-8 
dady, 89 daddie. [dim. of DAD j<U : see -Y.] 
A diminutive and endearing form of DAD, father. 

?.i 1500 Chester PI. (Shaks. Soc.) I. 38 As my daddye 
hath taughtc yt me, I will fulfill his lore. [MS. of 1593; 
Harl. MS. reads father '.) a 15*9 SKKLTON Image Ifocr. 
158 Now God save these dadycs And all ther yong 
bahyn. iS5 HULOET, Dadde or daddy, as infantes c:il 
their fathers. 1673 R. LEIGH Transproser Keh. 8 Every 
Nurse can readily point to Daddy's Eyes. 1794 J. WOLCOTT 
(P. Pindar) Rmul.for Oliver Wks. II. 413 So [I] ask'd my 
daddy's leave to study Painting. 1880 Miss BRADDON Just 
as I am xl, She could not believe that there was a fault in 
daddy. 

b. irreverently. 

1749 CHESTEHF. Lett. II. cxciii. aao All day long afraid of 
old Daddy in England. 1899 Spectator 14 Dec. 927/2 In 
other respects, he is an Old Daddy ! 

Hence Da'ddyism nonce-wd., the characteristics 
of an ' old daddy ' (cf. prec. b) ; in U.S. boast of 
or respect for ancestry. 

1871 KATE FIELD in Harper's Bazaar Aug. (Farmer), 
'His grandfather was a distinguished man.' 'Was he? 1 
replica the man of Chicago. ' That 's of no account with us. 
There 's less daddyism here than any part of the United 
States. What 'she himself?' 1893 Spectator 24 Dec. 927/2 
If this great truth had broken upon Carlyle's biographer, how 
much daddyism had we been spared I 

Da ddy-lo'lig-legs. [From its very long 
slender legs.] a. A popular name for the CRANE- 
FLY. (Called also father- and ffarry-long-legs.') 
b. A name for Arachnids or spiders of similar 
appearance, such as those of the genus Phalangium. 

01814 DIBOIH <?**! Fongo in Univ. Songster II. 58/1 
Old daddy longlegs, when he drank hiscongo. 1840 WEST- 
WOOD tr. Citvicr's Attint. Kingd. 619 These insects are well 
known under the names of Daddy long-legs, Tailors, &c. 
1884 F. J. LLOYD Science Agric. 279 Next to the wireworm 
the crane fly or daddy-longlegs, -is probably most hurtful. 

Dade (d'd\ v. 06s.exe. dial. Also dial, dad, 
dawd. [perh. the same as the root of DADDER.] 

1. intr. To move slowly or with uncertain steps, 
to toddle, like a child just learning to walk. 

iiuz DRAVTON Poly-olb. i. 8 Which nourish! and bred up 
. . No sooner taught to dade, but from their mother trip. 
Ibid, xiv, But eas'ly from her source as Isis gently dades. 

2. trans. To lead and support (one who totters, 
esp. a child learning to walk). Alsoyf^. 

1598 DRAYTON Heroic. Ep. xxi. 108 The little children 
when they learne to goe, By painefull Mothers daded to and 
fro. 1603 HOLLAND Plutarch's Mor. 18 A guide . . to stay 
and dade them when they learned to go. Ibid. 399 Such he 
ought to enforme, to direct, to dade and leade by the band. 
1859 E. WAUGH Lane. Songs 72 (Lane. Gloss.), Dost think 
thae could doff me an' dad me to bed? 1879 Miss JACKSON 
Shropshire \Vord-bk., Dad?, to lead children when learning 
to walk. 1881 Leicestershire Gloss., Dade, to help to walk 
. . ' I shouldn' ha' got home, if they hadn' daded me along '. 

Hence Da'ding vbl. sb., as in \dading-slccvcs, 
-strings (dial. 1 ), leading-strings. 

1675 TEONGE Diary (1825) 13 His sonn. .with his mayd to 
leade him by his dading sleeves. 1865 BEN BRIKRLEY Irk- 
dale I. 259 He's nobbut like a chilt in its dadins. 1879 
Miss JACKSON Shropshire Word-bk., Dadine-strings, by 
which a child is held up when learning to walk. 

t Dade, sb. Obs. Name of some wading bird. 

1686 Lttyiil Garland xx. ii, There's neither swallow, dove, 
nor dade, Can soar more high, or deeper wade. 

Dade, early form of DEED. 

Da'dless, a. rare '. [f. DAD sb.\ + -LESS.] 
Fatherless. 

1606 WARNER Alb- Eng. xtv. xci. 369 So many dadlcsse 
Babes. 

Dado (d, T '-do\ Arch. [a. It. dado die, cube 
I 1'r. i/at, OF. del, de) :-L. datum : see DIE.] 

1. The block or cube, with plane faces, forming 
the body of a pedestal, between the base mouldings 
and the cornice ; the die. 

1664 EVI-LVM tr. Freart's Archil. 124 [The Pedestal] is 
likewise called Truncus the Trunk , . also Abacus, Dado, 
Zocco, Jtc. 1688 R. HOLMR Armoury ui. 102/1 Dado or Dye 
is a flat in a Cornice or Pedestal. 1816 J. SMITH Panorama 
Sc. $ Art I. 171 Each central portion, as dado of pedestal, 
shaft of column. 1820 T. CROMWKLL Excnrs. lreland\\, 81 
The dado of the pedestal, above the entablature. 

2. The finishing of wood running along the lower 
part of the walls of a room, made to represent 
a continuous pedestal ; strictly applied only to the 
flat surface between the plinth and the capping. 
Hence, b. Any lining, painting, or papering of the 
lower part of an interior wall, of a different 
material ur colour from that of the tipper part. 

1787 Builder's Price-Bk. 39 Dado. i inch dado, level, 
skirted, and caped. 1794 IHd, 41 Whole deal dove-tailed 
.l.i.l . and keyed. 1837 l\-nny Cycl. VIII. 284/2 The dado 
employed in the interiors of buildings is a continuous 
pedestal . . constructed of wood, and is usually about the 
Height of a chair-back. Its present UMJ is to protect the 



stucco work or paper of the walls. 1854 EccLsiohgisI XV. 
357 A dado of oak-panelling. 1858 lions. ///>/</ Words No. 456. 
66 (The Alhambra) The dados, or luw wainscoting, arc of 
smiare glazed tiles, which form a glittering breast-high coal 
of mail. 

b. 1877 BLACK Green Pott. xl. fi8r8) 323 Oh, by the way, 
Lady Sylvia, how did your dado of Indian matting look? 
1879 Miss HRAIIIXIN Vixen III. 249 Mabel insisted upon 
having . . a sage-green wall with a chocolate dado did you 
ever hear of a dadot in the new morning-room. 

3. attrib., as dado-moulding. 

1837 Penny Cycl. VIII. 284 A cornice or dado moulding 
surmountini; the die. 1851-61 Archil. Pull. Soc. Did. 
s. v., The capping or surbasc, sometimes called the dado 
nioklitur. 

Dadoed (d^-dodi, ///. a. [f. DADO sb. 4- -in.] 
Furnished with a dado. 

1881 Miss BRADDON Asph. xiv. 159 The old oak-dadoed 
drawing-room. 1800 Pall Mall G. 13 Aug. 2/3 A pretty 
morning-room, .with dadoed walls. 

Dae, Sc. form of DOE. 

Daedal, sb. Obs. In 7 Dtcdale, Dedal 1. 
{ad. L. DJKDAL-US : see below. Cf. F. Dfdale maze.] 

1. An anglicized form of the proper name Daeda- 
lus ; a skilful artificer or fabricator like Drcdalus. 

[1610 H. HUTTOM Foil. Anal. A v a (Stanford), My lame- 
legd Muse . .Yet doth aspire with Dedall's wings.] c 1630 
DKUMM. OF HAWTH. Poems Wks. (1711) 18 The Silk-worm 
of Love. A Dardale of my death. 

2. A maze or labyrinth. 

1609 EVELYN Acetaria (1729) 119 Groves, Labyrinths, 
Dedals.. Close- Walks, .and other Relievo's of Topiary and 
Hortulan architecture. 

Daedal (drdal), a. Chiefly poetical. Also 6-7 
(9) dtedale, 7 dedall, 7-9 dedal, [ad. L. dxdal- 
us, a. Gr. oWSaXos skilful, cunningly wrought, 
variegated, etc. : see prec.] 

1. Skilful, cunning to invent or fashion. 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. in. Pro), ii, All were it Zeuxis or 
Praxiteles, His da-dale hand would faile and greatly faynt. 
c 1630 DKUMM. OF HAWTH. Poems Wks. (1711) 36 Out-run 
the wind-out-running da:dale hare. 1838 Blacfnv. Mag. 
XXIV. 346 Here the dashing Blind Harry the Harper had 
hung up his .U.1..1 harp. 187* BLACKIK Lays Highl. 33 By 
the da:dal hand of Titan Nature piled. 

2. Displaying artistic cunning or fertility of in- 
vention ; maze-like ; = D.EDALIAN i. 

c 1630 DRUMM. op HAWTH. Poems Wks. (1711) 42 Ye, who 
with curious numbers, sweetest art, Frame dedal nets our 
beauty to surprre. 1746 J. WARTON Ode iii. (R.), Here 
ancient art her dxdal fancies play'd In the quaint mazes 
of the crisped roof. 1836 LANDOR Pericles /j A. Wks. 1846 
II. 372 The dedal dance is spun and woven. 

3. Of the earth, etc. ; ' Manifold in works ' ; 
hence, varied, variously adorned. 

A vague poetic use after Lucretius (I. 7 ' daxlala tellus ' ; 
v. 234 ' natura dxdala rerum ' '. 

1596 SPENSER F. Q. iv. x. 45 Then doth the dardale earth 
throw forth to thee Out of her fruitful! lap abondant 
flowres. 1745 T. WARTON Pleas. Melanch. 248 What daidal 
landscapes smile I 1817 WORDSW. Sequel to ' Beggars ', 
For whose free range the daedal earth Was filled with animated 
toys. 1834 D'IsRAELl Rev. Epick I. xv, The d.tdal faith of 
the old world had died. 1861 SKEAT Uhland's Poems 28 
With what daxjal fulness Thy beds their blossoms shew 1 

1 4. ? Mazy, labyrinthine ; 1 changeful. Obs. 

1818 KEATS Endym. iv. 459 Search my most hidden 
breast ! By truth's own tongue, I have no daxlale heart 1 

t 5. Bot. D*DALEOU8, D^DALOUS. Obs. 

1793 T. MARTYN Lang, of Bot.. D&daleum foli um , a 
D.tdal leaf. 

Dseda'leous, a. Bot. [f. as next + -CDS.] 

1835 LlNDLEV/n/fW. 0^(1848)11. 357 Dzdaleous', when 
the point has a large circuit, but is truncated and rugged. 

Daedalian, -ean (dfdji'lian), a. Also De-. 

[f. 1,. Dsdaie-us relating to Daxlalus, Gr. iatSaXios 
cunningly wrought 4- -AN ; or f. Diedal-us + -IAN.] 

1. Of or after the style of Docdalus ; skilful, in- 
genious, formed with art ; resembling the labyrinth 
of Daedalus, intricate, maze-like. 

1607 WALKINGTON Opt. Glass in The Da;dalian . . Laby- 
rinths wherein hee takes his turnes. a 1634 CHAPMAN i W. '. 
pur bodies decked in our daedalian arms. 1757 J. BROWN 
in Pope's Iv'ks. 1757 III. p. xv. (Stanford 1 , Daxlahan argu- 
ments but few can trace. 1776 ADAM SMITH W . -V. 11. ii. 
(1869) I. 322 Suspended upon the Daedalian wings of paper 
money. 1880 Contemp. Rev. XXXVII. 475 not.-. Beauty 
of contrivance, adaptation, or mechanism . . we have called 
Daedalian beauty. 

1636 Raleigh's Tvlius Hist. Pref. B, Contrived by a D*. 
dalean Hand. 1697 J. SERGEANT Solid Philos. 41 1 o please 
the Paxlalean Fancies of the ingenious Contrivers. 1850 
CARLVLE Latter-d. Pantph. iii. 14 Such creatures, like 
moles, are safe only underground, and their engineerings 
there become very daxlalean. 1854 BADHAM Halieut. 512 
Unable to wind his way through the Daedalean mazes of a 
modern bill of fare. 

f2. -D.EDALfl. 3. Obs. 

1598 SYLVESTER Du Bartas II. ii. ,-lrke 425 In various 
sort Dedalian Nature seems her to disport. 

8. i, See quoL) 

1848 WORNUM Left. Painting 351 note. The black vases, 
or those with the black figures (skiagrams^ or the stained 
reddish-yellow terra ootta, are the most ancient . .The style 
..!<! -^ign of these black figures has been termed the Egyptian 
or Daedalian style. 

Daedalist (d/-dalist). tionce-tvd. [See -IST.] 
An imitator of Drcdalus. 

1713 ADDISON Guardian No. 112 F 3, I have fully con- 
sidered the project of these our modern Daedalists, and am 
resolved so far to discourage it, as to prevent any person 
from flying in my time. 



DAFFADOWNDILLY. 

t Dse'dalize, v. Obs. nonce-wd. [f. D.CHAI. a. 
-I/.K.] tram. To make intricate or maze-like. 

a 1618 SYI.VETTM Du Kartas, Lacrym* 80 We Lawycn 
then, who dedalizine- Law, And deading ConKtence, like 
the Hone-leach drawe. 

DaedaloilS(d>-dil9s),a. Hot. Also dedalotu. 
[f. L. dvdal-us cunningly- wrought + -OIH] 

Of leaves : ' Having a margin with various wind- 
ings and turnings; of a beautiful and delicate Ux- 
ture' (W'ebtfer 1838, citing Martyn, and I 

II Dtedalns (drdaliis). See also DJCDAL '* [I-. 
n. (ir. AaiiaAoi 'the cunning one', name of the 
workman who constructed the Cretan labyrinth, 
and made wings for himself and his son Icarus ] 
A skilful or cunning artificer (like Dxdalu). 

< 1630 DHUMM. OF HAWTH. Poems Wks. (1711) 50 Gone b 
my sparrow . . A Dedalus he was to catch a fly. 1631 H BY- 
WOOD Eng. Eliz. (1641) 123 Gardiner was the onely Dedalui 
and inventour of the engine. 

Dsal, early form of 1 )KAL. 

Demon, Daemonic, etc. : see DEMON, etc. 

Daer-atock (davr-stfk). Irish Antiq. [f. 
Mir. doer, Olr. doir, doer base, ignoble, nnfrce, 
servile, mod.Ir. door captive, condemned, guilty + 
STOCK.] Stock or cattle belonging to the landlord 
of which the tenant or vassal has the use ; used 
alt rib. in doer-stock tenant, tenancy. 

187$ MAINE Hist. lust. yi. 159 The Daer-ttock tenant had 
unquestionably parted with some portion of his freedom. 
Ibid., The relation between vassal and chief called Daer- 
stock tenancy. 

Desman, var. of DE.SMAN. 

Daff (daf, sb. Obs. exc. north, dial. Also 4-5 
daf, 4-6 daffe. [Etymology uncertain : cf. DAFT. 

It has been conjecturally referred to ON. datif deaf, 
dull, savourless, which survives in Sc. dowf, dtnt/Autt, spirit- 
less, but this is phonetically inadmissible.] 

One deficient in sense or in proper spirit ; a sim- 
pleton, a fool ; a coward. 

c IJ5 Poem Times Edvi. II, 99 in Pot. Srmgs i Camden) 
328 If the parsoun have a prest of a clene lyf . . Shal comen 
a dafTe and mute him out . .That can noht a ferthing worth 
of god. 1361 LANCL. /'. PI. A. i. 129 ' pou dotest daffe 
quap heo ' Dulle are bi wittes.' c 1386 CHAUCER Reeve's T. 
288 And when this lape is tald another day 1 sal been 
haldc a daf, a cokenay. c 1440 Promp. Part'. 111/2 Daffe, 
or dastard, or he bat spekythe not yn tynie, oridiirtts. 
1587 HARRISON England n. ii. . 1877) I. 58 Certes it [Landafle] 
is a poore bishoprike . .the late incumbent thereof l>eing called 
for. .in open court made answer: 'The daffe is here, but the 
land is gone '. 1616 BULLOKAR, Dajffe, a dastard. 1876 
Whitky Gloss., Daff, a half-wit ; a coward. 

Daff (daf), v. ' Chielly Sc. [f. DAFF sb. 

Cf. the dial, daffle to become stupid, grow imbecile ; also 
to dumbfounder, confuse the faculties; ilaffly imbecile, 
stupid from failure of the faculties. Whitby Gloss.] 

1. intr. To play the fool ; to make sport, toy, 
dally, talk or behave sportively. 

'535 STEWART Cron-Scot. III. 342 Quhat do je nowt I se 
3e do bot daf. a 1605 POLWART Fly ting tv. Montg. 662 
Dastard, thou daffes, that with such divilrie mels. 1813 
PICKEN Poems I. 13.5 (Jam.) Come yont the ereen an* dan 
wi' me, My charming dainty Davy. 1876 whitby Gloss., 
Dajff, to chat in a dandling way ; to loiter. Also to falter 
in memory ; ' beginning to daft'. 1886 STEVENSON Kid- 
napped iv. 30 Gentlemen darting at their wine. 

1 2. trans. To daunt, north, dial. Obs. 

1674 RAY A'. C. Words 13 Daffe, to Daunt. 

Daff (daf), v. 2 [A variant of DOFF to do off, 
pat off. 

(Johnson, misunderstanding the pa. t., as in quot, 1596, 
made the present stem daft.}\ 

1 1. tram. To put off (as clothes) ; to throw off, 
divest oneself of. Obs. 

1597 SHAKS. Lover's Cornpl. 297 There my white stole of 
chastity I daff'd. 1606 Ant. 4 Ct. iv. iv. n He that 
vnbuckles this, till we do please To daft ( -- daff'l I for our 
Repose, shall hcare a storme. 

2. To put or turn aside, to thrust aside ; esp. in 
the Shakspcrian phrase to daffthe world aside ( to 
bid or make it get out of one's way), and imitations 
of this (sometimes vaguely or erroneously applied). 

1506 SHAKS. i Hen. IV, iv. L 96 The . . Mad-Cap, Prince 
of Wales, And his Cumrades, that daft the World aside, 
And bid it passe. 1599 Much Adov. i 78 Claud. Away, 
I will not haue to do with you. Leo. Canst thou so daffe 
met 1599 Pass. Pilgr. 183 She bade good night, that 
kept my rest away ; And daff'd me to a cabin hang'd with 
care. 1601 WREVER Mirr. Mart. A vij, We daft the world 
with time ourselues beguiled. i8ao KEATS Lamia- u. 160 
Some knotty problem, that had daft His patient thought. 
1880 GOLDW. SMITH in All. Monthly No. 268. 202 We have 
no right todaffa pessimist's argument aside merely because 
[etc.). 1884 Sett. Rev. 14 June 787/1 Its pleasant fashion of 
daffing the world aside. 

t b. To put off (with an excuse, etc.). Obs. 

1604 SHAKS. Oth. rv. ii. 176 Euery day thou dafts [v. r. 
doffest] me with some deuise lago. 

Daffadowndilly, daffydowndilly. Also 
dafTe-. [A playful expansion of DAFFO-DILLT.] 
A daffodil ; used at first in the generic sense. 
Still a widespread popular name of the Yellow 
Daff odil, under the dialect lormtdaffadffum-,-doon-, 
daffidown-, daffadowndilly. 

1573 TLSSER Must, xliii. (1878) 95 Herbes, branches, and 
flowers, for windowes and pots . . 7 Daffadondillies. 1579 
SPKNSKR Sheph. Cat. Apr. 140 Strowe mee the grour.de with 
daffadowndillies. 1708 MoTTCCX Rabelais iv. Ii, Their 



DAFFING. 

Hair . . stuck with Roses, Gilly-fiowers . . paffidown-dillies. 
1840 P.ARHAM Ingot. Leg., Barney Maguire ii, With roses 
and lillies, and daflfy-down-dillies. 

2. A shrub : prob. the Mczereon, which is still 
so called in Yorkshire ' from the slight similarity 
of the Greek name Daphne with Daffodil* (Britten 
and Holland). 

1591 PERCIVALL Sp. Diet., Adelfa, a daffadoundilly, or 
rather rose bay tree, Rhododaphne. 1611 FI.OFIO, Oledndro^ 
the weede Oleander. Also a Daffadounedillie. 

Daffing (da-fin), vhl. sb, [f. DAFFZ>.I + -ING T.] 

1. Fooling, folly ; sportive behaviour or talk ; 
frolicking, toying, merriment. 

1535 STEWART Cron. Scot. \. 449 Into sic daffing putting 
5our delyte, As brutell beist that followis appetyte. 1686 
G. STUART Joco-ser. Disc. 39 You would have burst your 
heart with laughing To've seen the gang so full of daffing. 
1787 BURNS Tiva Dogs 43 Until wi' daffin weary grown, 
Upon a knowe they sat them down. 1823 LOCKHART Reg. 
Dalton vn. v. (1842) 416 They're young folk ; daffin's natural 
to them. 1886 STEVENSON Kidnapped xxiii. 232 It was all 
daffing ; it's all nonsense. 

2. Mental derangement, insanity. 

a 1614 J. MELVILL MS. 58 (Jam.> There be falls into 
a phrenzie and daffine which keeped him to his death. 1857 
DUNGUSON Diet. Meti. 274 Daffing, insanity. 

Da'ffish, a. Obs. exc. north, dial. [f. DAFF sb. 
+ -ISH.J Spiritless ; stupid. 

1470-85 MAI.ORY Arthur ix. xlii, This is but a daffyssh 
knyght. [1869 Lonsdale Gloss. , Daffish, shy, modest.] 

Daffodil (de-f<Mil). Also 6 daffodyll, 6-7 
daffo-, daffadill, 7-8 daffadil, (9 daffodel) : see 
also DAFFODILLY, and DAFFADOWNDILLY. [A 
variant of AFFODILL, q. v. The initial d has not 
been satisfactorily accounted for. 

It has been variously suggested as due to childish or playful 
distortion, as in Ted for Ed-ward, tante for aunt ; to union 
of the article tK (cf. COTGR., AJfrodille, TK Ajfodill, and 
north. Eng. /' affadil) \ to final d of and, in (e. g.> ' fennell 
an-daffodil* ; to union of the Dutch or Flemish article, as de 
affodil= the affodil ; and to Fr. prep, tf as mjleur d'aphro- 
dille. It is noteworthy that as in Eng. the word has gained 
a letter, in :6th c. Fr. it sometimes lost one: Littre (s. v. 
asphodile} quotes from De Serres (i6th c.), * Des racincs 
a" afrodillc , and also ' Decoction de lapace, defrodilles '. 
A third form dafrodille is quite conceivable. 

Affodill and its popular variants daffodil, daffadilly, were 
originally and properly the Asphodel; then by popular 
misconception, due apparently to the application to both 
plants, at their first introduction to England, of the fanciful 
name Laus tibi (see Turner Libellns B 3 b\ it was applied, 
especially in the popular variations, to species of Narcissus, 
etc. Botanists, after resisting this misapplication, com- 
promised the matter by retaining affodil for the Asphodel, 
and accepting the more popular daffodil for Narcissus. 
Finally affodil was ' rectified ' to asfodyl and asphodel, 
and daffodil restricted in popular use to the Yellow Narcis- 
sus or Yellow Daffodil of Eng. fields and gardens.] 

f 1. The same as AFFODILL ; the genus Aspho- 
delus (formerly including some allied plants). Obs. 

[1538 see AFFODILL.] 1548 TURNER Names of Herbes s. v. 
Albucns, Asphodillus groweth .. in gardines in Anwerp, it 
maye be named in englishe whyte affodil or duche daffodil. 
1567 MAPLET Gr. Forest 40 Daffadill, some call Antheri- 
con, the Romanes Kings spare. 1578 LYTE Dodoens v. Ixxix. 
649 This herbe \Asphodelus in 3 species] is called .. in 
English also Affodyl, and Daffodyll. 1607 TOPSELL Four-f. 
Beasts (1673) 304 Asphodelus (englished by some daffadit). 

f2. The genus Narcissus, of which it is the 
common Eng. name in the Catalogue of Gerarde's 
Garden 1599, where twelve Daffodils or Nar- 
cissuses are distinguished, the White Daffodil being 
the common White Narcissus or Poets Lily (N. 
poetictts) of Eng. gardens, the * White Lily' of 
Scotland; the Yellow Daffodil (N. pseudo-Nar- 
cissus] the plant to which the name is now restricted. 

1548 TURNER Names of Herbes (E. D. S.) 10 This that we 
take for daffodil is akinde of Narcissus. 1578 LYTE Dodoens 
ii. 1. 211 These pleasant flowers are called.. in Englishe 
Narcissus, white Daffodill, and Primerose pierelesse [In 
Lyte's own annotated copy in the Brit. Mus. L.ibr. he has 



of Constantinople [N. orienfalis] was sent into England 
vnto the right Honorable the Lord Treasurer, among other 
bulbed (lowers. 1629 PARKINSON Parodist inSoleiv. (1656) 
8 Many idle and ignorant Gardiners. .do call some of these 
Daffodils Narcisses, when as all know that know any Latine, 
that Narcissus is the Latine name, and Daffodil the 
English of one and the same thing. 

3. Now restricted to Narcissus pseudo- Narcissus 
(also called Lent Lily), found wild in various parts 
of England and cultivated as an early spring flower. 

[1562 TURNER Herbal n. 62 a, Our comen daffadil is one 
kynde of Narcissus.] 1592 GREENE Ufist. Courtier (ityi.} -z 
The yellow daffodil, a flower fit for jealous dotterels. 1611 
SHAKS. IVint. T. iv. Hi. i When Daffadils begin to peere, 
With heigh the Doxy ouer the dale. 1648 HERRICK//^/^., 
To Daffadils, Faire Daffadills, we weep to see You haste 
away so soone. 1746-7 HEKVEY Mcdit. (i8i8> 129 Who 
emboldens the daffodil.. to trust her flowering gold with 
inclement and treacherous skies ? 1855 TENNYSON Mand 
in. 6 When the face of night is fair on the dewy downs, And 
the shining daffodil dies. 

4. Chequered Daffodil : the Fritillary or Snake's 
head, Fritillaria Meleagris. Still known as the 
Daffodil 'in Hants. (Britten and Holland). 

1507 GERARDE Herbal \. Ixxxix, The checquered Daffodil 
or Jinny hen floure. .checquered most strangely. 1599 
Catal., Frittillaria, Checkerd Daffodill. 



5. The colour of the daffodil; a pale yellow. 
Also attrib. or as adj. 

1835 TENNYSON Maud i. xxn. ii, On a bed of daffodil sky. 
1884 Pall MallG. 21 Sept. 1/2 A belt of daffodil in the cast 
announced the approach of dawn. 1886 St. Stephens Kef. 
13 Mar. 14/1 A primrose, a daffodil, or an orange-coloured 
gown. 

Daffodilly, daffodilly (dse-fadili\ sb. [f. 

prec. : perh. influenced by lily.] The same as 
DAFFODIL : a poetic (and dialect) form. 

i538[see AFFODILL]. 1379 SPENSER Stieph. Cal. Jan. 22 Thy 
sommer prowde, with Daffadillies dight. 1593 DRAYTON 
Eclogues iii. 81 See that there be store of Lillyes, (Call'd of 
Shepheards Daffadillyes). 1637 MILTON Lycidas 150 Bid 
amaranthus all his beauty shed, And daffadillies fill their 
cups with tears. 1847 MARY HOWITT Ballads ^ He cut the 
leaves of the snow-drop down, And tied up the daffodilly. 

Da-ffodilly, a. rare. [f. DAFFODIL + -Y.] Full 
of or furnished with daffodils. 

1892 Temple Bar Slag. Sept. 125 An exceedingly unpre- 
tentious, yet palm-y and daffodill-y drawing-room. 

Daft (daft), a. Now chiefly Sc. and north. 
[In early ME. da/te, corresp. to OE. gedsffle mild, 
gentle, meek : OTeut. *gadaftjo-z, f. gadafti vbl. 
sb. from stem dad-, in Gothic gadaban to become, 
be fit, OE. pa. pple. gedafen becoming, fit, suitable. 
The & here is app. for umlaut g before//, st, which 
explains the two-fold ME. development daft and 
deft. The primary meaning of the adj. must have 
been 'becoming, fit'; cf. the adv. getfseflllce fitly, 
suitably, seasonably, and the vb. gedxftan to make 
fit or ready, to prepare; from 'fit, ready, apt" 
came the general later sense of deft ; from ' be- 
coming, deceits' as said of persons, came that of 
'meek, mild, innocent', and from 'innocent, in- 
offensive ' app. that of ' irrational ' said of beasts, 
and of ' silly, foolish, deficient in sense ' as said of 
persons : cf. a common sense of ' innocent ', and 
the sense-history of SILLY. See also DEFT. 

DAFFE, * a fool,' is found c 1325 ; its relationship to daft is 
uncertain ; if originally distinct, it may have contributed to 
the development of the sense 'foolish' here.] 

fl. Mild, gentle, meek, humble. Obs. 

c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. xxi. 5 Nu bin cyning be cym5 to 
be xcda;fte. c 1200 ORMIN2I75 Shammfasst, and daffte, and 
scdefull. Ibid. 4610 And meoc, and daffte, and sedefull. 

2. Silly, foolish, stupid. Cf. INNOCENT, SILLY. 
a. Said of beasts. 

c 1325 Body ff Soul 302 in Map's Poems 343 Ne wuste 
what was good or il, But as a beest, doumbe and daft. 
c 1450 HENRYSON Mor. Fab. 81 Who sayes ane sheepe is 
daft, they lie of it. 

b. Of persons : Wanting in intelligence, stupid, 
foolish. 

c 1450 St. CiitUert ( Surtees) 443 Bot to make it I am daft. 
For I can nojt of potter craft. 1535 LYNDESAY Satyre 2008 
Thou art the daftest fuill that ever I saw. 1570 LEVINS 
Manip. 9/33 Dafte, doltishe, itupidia. 1637-50 Row Hist. 
A"?VA(i842t 462 Cast away these daft conceits, and.. take 
you seriouslie to your booke and studies. 1674 RAY N. C. 
Words 13 Daft, stupid, blockish, daunted, a verbo Daffe. 
1855 ROBINSON Whitby Gloss., Daft, dull of apprehension. 

3. Of unbound mind, crazy, insane, mad. 

1576 BELLENDEN Cron. Scot. (1821) I. viii. He that was 
trublit with the falling evil, or fallin daft or wod. 1540 
Lit. Treas. Accts. Scot., Makand him Curatour to P. N. 
quhilk is daft, and hes na wit to gyde him selff. 1816 



SCOTT Old Mart, vii, 'The woman would drive ony reason- 
[e being daft.' 1829 ARNOLD Let. in Stanley Life ff Cory. 



abl 



(1844) I- v - 2 54> I hope you will not think I ought to. -adjourn 
to the next asylum for daft people. 1880 R. G .WHITE Ercry- 
Day Eng. 122 We have preserved our common sense, and 
have not gone clean daft. 

4. Thoughtless or giddy in one's mirth ; madly 
gay or frolicsome. Daft days : the days of merri- 
ment at Christmas. 

c 1575 Dial, betiv. Clerk ff Courtier (Jam.\ Quhen ye 
your selfis ar daft and young. 1768 Ross tlelcnorc 117 
i Jam.) Awa, she says, Whaever's daft to day, it set^na you. 
1787 BURNS Tiva Dogs 155 In a frolic daft, a 1774 FERGUS- 
SON Poems (1789) II. 10 (title'] The Daft Days. 1816 SCOTT 
Antiq. xxi, 'Ay, aythey were daft days thae but they 
were a 1 vanity and waur.' 1832-53 WhistleJinkie (Sc. Songs) 
Ser. in. 81 At Yule, when the daft-days are fairly set in, 
A ploy without him wadna be worth a pin. 

f5. = DEFT, skilful. Obs. 

?i5oo Chester PI. (Shaks. Soc.) 134 (MS. 1592) For 
semlye he was and wounder dafte [MS. Harl. (1607) 2124 
wondrous deftel. 

Hence f DarteliBk, dafftelejBc [ON. -leikr suffix 
of action or condition], gentleness, meekness. 
Da'ftie (colloq.), a daft person. Da ftish a., some- 
what daft. Da-ftlike a., having an appearance of 
folly or craziness. Da'ftly adv., t a. mildly, 
meekly (ol/s.) ; b. foolishly. Da ftness, foolish- 
ness, madness. 

c 1200 OKMIN 2188 Forr kaggerrle53c shall don ban ^ho 
Shall dafftelej^c forrwerrpenn. 1872 C. GIBBON For the 
Kinff i, The daftie still maintained his position. 1825 
JAMIESON, Daftish, in some decree deranged. 1855 ROBIN- 
SON Wkitby Gloss., A daftish dizzy sort of a body. 1725 
RAMSAY Gent. Sheph. iv. i, 'Tis sae daftlike. 1816 Scorr 
Antiq.^ iv, Never think you . . that his honour . . would hae 
done sic a daft-like thing. < izoo ORMIN 1215 And ha^herr- 
like ledesst te And dafftelike and fa',5re. 1724 RAMSAY 
Tea-t. Misc. (1733! I. 34 We daftly thought to row in 
rowth. 1552 ABP. HAMILTON Catech. 151 The word of the 
crosse semis to be daftnes and folie to thame that perischis. 



DAG. 

Daft, pa. t. of DAFF v.v 

Dag (<la-'g), f*- 1 In 4-5 daggo. [Of uncertain 
origin : the same senses are partly expressed by 
TAG.] 

1 1. A pendant pointed portion of anything ; one 
of the pointed or laciniated divisions made by 
deeply slashing or cutting the lower margin of a 
cloak, gown, or other garment, as was done for 
ornament in the I5th c. 06s. 

1399 LANGL. Rich. Reticles 193 Dryue out be dagges and 
all pe duche cotis. 1440 Promp. Parv. in Dagge of 
clothe,_/>dk:/iV/j. 1617 MINSHEU Ductor, Dagge or ragge 
of cloth. 

f 2. A tag or aglet of a lace, shoe-latchet, or the 
like; = AGLET T, 2. 06s. 

1:1400 Rom. Rose 7262 Grey clothis. .fretted fulle of tatar- 
wagges [=dags, sense i] And high shoos knopped with 
dagges. 1616 BULLOKAR, Dagges, latchets cut out of leather. 

3. One of the locks of wool clotted with dirt 
about the hinder parts of a sheep ; a ' clag ' ; = 
DAOGING, DAG-LOCK. 

[The relationship of this to the prec. senses, and to DAG 
v. 1 , is not clear.] 

1731 BAILEY, Dagges. .the Skirts of a Fleece cut off. 1887 
Kentish Gloss., Dag, a lock of wool that hangs at the tail 
of a sheep and draggles in the dirt. Dag-wool, refuse wool; 
cut off in trimming the sheep. 

tDag, -r^. 2 06s. [Derivation unknown. 

Referred by some to F. dagite a dagger ; but no trace has 
been found of any connexion between the two words.] 

1. A kind of heavy pistol or hand-gun formerly 
in use. 

1561 Diurn. Occiirrents (Bannatyne Club) 66 Thay . . schot 
furth at the said servandis ane dag. 1587 HARRISON Eng- 
land n. xvi. (1877) i. 283 To ride with a case of dags at his 
sadle bow. 1598 BARCKLEY Felic. Man (1631) 252 Because 
the dagge being overcharged brake, .he draweth his dagger 
to stabbe him. 1602 WARNER Albion's Eng. IX. xliv. (1612) 
2ii By wars, wiles, witchcrafts, daggers, dags. 1642 LAUD 
Wks. (1853) III. 461, I heard a great crack, as loud as the 
report of a small dag. 1785 New Cant. Diet., Dag, a Gun. 
1849 GRANT Kirkaldy of G. xxiv. 283 The captain rushed 
upon Lennox and shot him through the back with a dag. 
1881 GREENER Gun 61 A chiselled Italian dagg manu- 
factured by one of the Comminazzo family about 1650. 

2. attrib. and Comb. 

a 1568 Def. Crissell Sandelandis 53 in Sempill Ballates 
(1872) 234 Snapwark, adew, fra dagmen dow nocht stand. 
1587 FLEMING Contn. Holinshed III. 1409/2 The dag was 
bought, .of one Adrian Mulan a dag-maker dwelling in east 
Smithfield. 1589 R. HARVEY PI. Perc. (1860) 33 A Dag 
case may be as good now and then as a case of Dags. 1721 
WODROW Hist. Ch Scat. (1829) II. n. ix. 250 Alexander 
Logan, Dagmaker in Leith Wynd. 

(The sense 'dagger' given by Johnson (without quotation), 
and repeated in later dictionaries (in Century Diet, with 
erroneous quotation), appears to be a mere mistake, due to 
misapprehension of the frequent i6-i7th c. collocation ' dag 
and dagger' in descriptions of personal accoutrement. Sense 
3 in Century Diet. ' a stab or thrust with a dagger ', is a 
blunder due to misreading of Minsheu.] 

Dag (dseg), si.3 [a. F. dague dagger, also the 
first horn of a young stag, and in some technical 
senses. Sense 2 is not found in French.] 

1. The simple straight pointed horn of a young 
stag. 

1859 TonvCycl.Anat.V. 517/2 These processes acquire 
in the second year the form of. .dags. 1861 HULME tr. 
Mofuin-Taxdm n. in. 181 At first the new horns [of the 
stag] are simple protuberances, and are known by the 
name of ' dags '. 

2. A pointed piece of metal, etc. ; a pin or bolt. 
1727 BRADLEY Font. Diet. s. v. Bridge, You must so joint 

the Timber, as . . to resemble an Arch of Stone . . the Joints 
oughttobe.. strongly shut together with Cramps and Dags 
of Iron. 1805 R. W. DICKSON Pract. Agric. (1807) II. 598 
The upper pair [of rollers] being stuck with coggs and dags. 

3. dial. ;See quots.) 

a. 1863 BARNES Dorset Dialect, Dag, a small projecting 
stump of a branch. 

b. 1880 W. Cornwall Gloss., Dag, a mining tool ; an axe. 
Dag (dseg), s6.4 dial. [app. of Norse origin : 

cf. ON. dogg, gen. daggar, pi. daggir, dew, Swed. 
dagg (Norw. dogg, Da. dug) = Goth. *daggwa-, 
OTeut. *dauwo-, OLG. dauw, OE. deaw, dew.] 

1. Dew. 

1674-91 RAY S. ff E. C. Words 95 Dag, Dew upon the 
Grass. 1876 S. Warwicksh. Gloss., Dag, dew. 'There's 
been a nice flop_ of dag.' 

2. a. A thin or gentle rain. b. A wet fog, a 
mist. c. A heavy shower {Ayrshire). 

1808 in JAMIESON. 1823 BROCKETT N. C. Words, Dag, 
a drizzling rain. 

Dag, v. 1 [Connected with DAG s6.l The senses 
have no connexion with each other.] 

1 1. traits. To cut the edge of (a garment) into 
long pointed jags ; to slash, Vandyke. Obs. 

^1386 CHAUCER Pars. T. P?44 Costlewe furring in here 
gownes-.so moche daggyng of scheris. Ibid. F347Suche 
pounsed and daggid clothing. 1393 LANGL. P. PI. xxnl. 
143 Let dagge hus clobes. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 112 Dag- 
gyn,_/ractittt>. 1480 CAXTON Chron. Eng. ccxxvi. 233 Short 
clothes and streyte wastyd dagged andkyt. 1533 SKELTON 
Garl. Laurel 630 Raggid and daggid & cunnyngly cut. 

2. To clog with dirt, bemire, daggle, bedraggle. 
Obs. exc. dial. (Cf. DAG sbl 3.) 

1484 CAXTON JEsop in. xvii, At to-fowled and dagged. 
a 15*9 SKELTON El. Riimmyng 123 Wyth theyr heles 
dagged, Theyr kyrtelles alPto-iagged. 1530 PALSOR. 445/3 



DAG. 



DAGGLE. 



Indcde, damoysell, you be dagged. .wus estes crotUc. 1611 
COTGR. s. v. A t'chediacre, Crotte en Archediacre, dagd vp 
to the hard heclcs (for so were the Archdeacons in old time 
euer woont to be, by reason of their frequent. .Visitations'. 
(i 1661 HOLYDAY JiircHiit 136 Vexing the baths with his 
dagg'd rout. 1869 Lonsdale Class.. Dag . . (2) To trail or 
dirty in the mire, to bedaub, to daggle. 1879 Miss JACKSON 
Skropsh. WordM., Dag. .to trail in the wet or dirt. 
b. intr. To daggle or trail in the dirt or wet. 

1869 I.onsiialf Gloss., Dag v. i. 1880 W. Cornwall Glass. 
s. v. lagging, 'That tree is dagging with fruit.' ' Her dress 
is dagging in the mud.' 

3. Farming. To cut off the ' dags ' or locks of 
dirty wool from (sheep). (Cf. DAQ sb^ 3.) 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey, To Dag stuff, to cut off the 
Skirts of the Fleece. 1887 Kentish I, loss.. Dag, to remove 
the dags or clots of wool, dirt, etc. from between the hind 
legs of sheep. 

T Dag, V.'* Ob$. [Related to F. dague dagger 
(i.lth c. in Littri) : cf. also i6th c. F. daguer to 
strike with a dague or dagger ; but the latter is not 
the source of the Eng. verb. See also DAGGER.] 

trans. To pierce or stab, with or as with a pointed 
weapon. 

la 1400 Morte Artk. 2102 Dartes the Duche-mene daltene 



pierceth and daggeth guilty persons with the anguish of 
a galled conscience. 1794 A. GALLATIN in I. A. Stevens 
Life iv. (1884) 95 One Ross of Lancaster, .half drew a dag- 
ger he wore . . and swore any man who uttered such senti- 
ments ought to be dagged. 

t Dag, v? Obs. [f. DAG sb.' 1 '} trans, and intr. 
To shoot with a dag or hand-gun. 

111571 KNOX Hist. Kef. Wks. 118461 I. 87 The! schote 
spearis and dagged arrowis, whare the cumpanyes war 
thikest. c 1580 J. HOOKER Lift Sir J\ Carciv, They soe 
dagged at these loopes, that sundrye of theyme within were 
slayne. 

Dag (dseg), v.* dial. [app. of Norse origin : 
cf. DAO sb.* and ON. doggva, Swed. dagga to be- 
dew. See also DEO.] 

1. trans. To sprinkle, to wet with sprinkling. 



6k., Dag, to sprinkle clothes with water preparatory to 
mangling or ironing. 

2. intr. To drizzle. 

1815 BROCKETT A'. C. Words, Dag, to drizzle. 

Dagar, -ard, -are, obs. forms of DAGGER. 

II Dagesli, daghesh. (da-gef), sb. Heb. Gram. 
[med.Heb. WJT daghesh, f. Syriac j^ d'ghash to 
prick.] A point or dot placed within a Hebrew 
letter, denoting either that it is doubled (dagesh 
forte), or that it is not aspirated (dagesh lent). 

1591 PERCIVALL Sf, Diet. Bj, B. .very often.. is sounded 
like the Hebrew a when it is in the middest of a word 



the H. 1834 A. WILLIS Hear. Gram. 5 A point is some- 
times inserted in the middle of a consonant affecting the 
pronunciation, and called Dagesh or Manpik. 

Hence Da'gesh v. trans., to mark with a dagesh. 
Also Da-gessate v.. Da gessate, -a,\,i.pa. pple. 

1751 WESLEY Wks. (1872) XIV. 156 In some Verbs . . the 
middle Radical is dageshed. 1871 BOLTON tr. Delitzsch's 
Psalms II. 259 note, The dageshing of the opening mute of 
the following word. 

Da-ggar. dial. ' An old term for a dog-fish 
(Smyth, Sailor's Word-bk. 1867). 

a I78 KENNETT cited by HALLIWELL. 

t Dagged, ///. a. 1 Obs. [f. DAG .i] 

1. Of a garment : Having the margin cut into 
long pointed projections ; jagged, slashed. 

c 1386 [see DAG t'. 1 ij. c 1430 LYDG. Klin. Poems (Percy 
Soc.) 200 Undir hiredaygyd hood of green. 15*3 [see DAG 
.' i]. [1884 Pall Mall G. 'Extra' 24 July 28/2 The 
costume is all dagged and slashed into the shape of leaves 
and flowers.] 

2. Clogged with dirt, daggled. 
1484, a 1529, 1661 [see DAG p. 1 2]. 

Dagged, ppl. a.- Obs. exc. dial. [f. DAG v.^] 
Wet with dew, drizzling rain, or a sprinkling of 
anything, b. slang. Drunk. 

a 1605 MONTCOMERIE Sonn. Ixviii. T.I My Bee's aloft, and 
daggit full of skill : It getts corn drink, sen Grissall toke 
the bed. 1745 FRANKLIN Drinkers Diet. Wks. 1887 II. 23 
He's dagg'd. 1847-78 HALLIWELL, Dagged, tipsy. North. 

Dagger (dse'goj), sb. Forms : 4- dagger ; 
also 4-5 daggere, Sc. dagare, 5 daggare, 5-6 
dager, dagar, daggar, 6 dagard. [Related to 
F. dague (Sp., It. dago] dagger, and to DAO o. 2 

No such form is known in Old French. Med.L. shows 



My 

. _nglish formation Iff. DAG v. 2 , of which however only 
later instances are known 1 . If the form daggard could_be 
assumed as the original, the word might be an augmentative 
in -ard of F. dot nt ; but, though extracto cultcllodaggardo 
occurs in Walsmgham, isth c. (Du Cange', the forms dag- 
garium and dagger are of earlier appearance and better 
supported.] 

1. A short stout edged and pointed weapon, like 
a small sword, used for thrusting and stabbing. 

[a 1375 Fragm. t'rtus/a xxiv. in -SV. Acts (18441!. 388 
Habeat equuni, hauberkion, capilium de ferro, ensem, et 



cultellum qui dicitur dagare. Ibid. Habeat archum et 
sagittas. et dagi;arium ct cultellum.] c 1386 CHAUCER /'re/. 
113 He baar. .on that oother syde a gay daggere [r/'/wspereJ. 

' '' 



26 The same dager he slewe hym with. 1535 l>nry Wills 
(1850) 127 W' my dagard. 1601 SHAKS. JtiLC. in. ii. 157, 
I feare I wrong the Honourable men, Whose Daggers haue 

' 



l' t i> t t. '/'. 502 And with thy daggere {so 4 MSS., 3 dagger) 

oke thou do the same. 1440 Promp. Pun', in Daggare, 
to steke wythe mcn,J>Hgio. 1463 Paiton Lett. No. 460 II. 
126 Th 

1850) 1 
I feare 

stabb'd Cxsar. 1605 Macb. I. iii. 33 Is this a Dagger 
which I see before me ? 1719 YOUNG Bvsiris iv. i, Loose 
thy hold, Or I will plant my dagger in thy breast. 1866 
KINGSLEY Heravard iii. 88 'You have a daguer in your 
hand ! ' said he. 

fb. Alt dagger, alehouse dagger : see ALE, B. II. 
Dagger of lath : the weapon worn by the ' Vice' 
in the old 'Moralities'. Obs. 

1591 NASHE P. Pmilesst (Shaks. Soc.) 40 All you that will 
not. -wcarc ale-house daggers at your backes. 1596 SHAKS. 
i Hen. IV, it. iv. 151 A ICings Sonne ? If I do not beate 
thee out of thy Kingdome with a dagger of Lath . . He neuer 
weare haire on my face more. 1601 Tu'tl. N. iv. ii. 136 
Like to the old vice . . Who with dagger of lath, in his rage 
and his wrath, Cries ah ha, to the diuell. 

2. Phr. Daggers' draining (fig.) : the commence- 
ment of open hostilities. At (or to) dowers' 
drawing, now at daggers drawn: on (or to) the 
point of fighting or quarrelling ; in a state of open 
hostility. Also (rarely) at daggers' points. 

A t daggers drawn is found in 1 668, but becomes usual only 
in : ,i h c. 

1553 GRIMALDE Cicero's Offices 12 a, They . . among them- 
selues are wont to bee at daggers drawing. 1576 FLEMING 
Patwpl. Epist. 267 That countrie was at denaunce and 
daggers drawing with the lande of Grarcia. i6u J. WADS- 
WORTH tr. Sanaovafs Civ. Wars Sf>. 19 The Grandees of 
the Court were com almost to daggers drawing. 1668 K. 
L'ESTRANGE Vit. Quev. (1708) 114 Upon this Point, were 
they at Daggers-drawn with the F.mperor. a 1735 SWIFT 
Drafter's Lett, vii, A quarrel in a tavern, where all were at 
daggers-drawing. 1801 M AR. EDGEWORTH Castle Rackrent, 
Three ladies, .talked of for his second wife, all at daggers 
drawn with each other. 1837 LADY L. STUART in Lady M. W. 
Montagu's Lett. (1893) 1. 104 Both these ladies inherited such 
. .imperial spirit, as to. .insure daggers drawing as soon as it 
should find, .opportunity to display itself. 1847 MRS. SHER- 
WOOD Lady of Manor III. xviiu 36 You will be at daggers- 
drawing . . with every order . . of persons in the town. 1855 
DICKENS Dorrit (Housed. ed.) 395/1 Five minutes hence we 
may be at daggers' points. 1870 R. B. BROUGH Marstpit 
Lynch xxiv. 257 Was Marston still at daggers drawn with 
his rich uncle T 

8. jig. Somethingthat wounds orafflicts grievously. 

1596 SHAKS. Merch. V. in. i. 115 Thou stick'st a dagger 
in me, I shall neuer see my gold againe. 1605 Macb. 11. 
iii. 45 Where we are there s Daggers in mens Smiles. 1704 
STEELE Lying Lover 11, This was to me Daggers. 1800 
MRS. HKRVEY Mouriray 1-am. HI. 240 Every word he 
spoke was a dagger to her heart. 

b. To speak or look daggers : to speak so as to 
wound, to speak or look fiercely, savagely, or 
angrily. 

1602 SHAKS. Ham. in. ii. 414, I will speake Daggers to 
her, but vse none. i6u MASS. & DEKKER Virg. Mart. iv. i, 
And do thine eyes shoot daggers at that man That brings 
thee health? 1833 MARRYAT /'. SimfleVu, Lord Privilege 
. . looked daggers at me. 1839 H. AINSWORTH "Jack Shef. 
iv, A glance .. which was meant to speak daggers. 

f4. fig. (contempt.) A bravo, braggadocio. Obs. 

1597 isi Pt. Return fr. Pamass. I. i. 280 Soothe upp this 
. .ingrosser of cringers. .this great hilled dagger ! Il>id. IV. 
i. 1236 This bracchidochio . . this meere rapier and dagger. 

t5. A bayonet. (See BAYONET i, 2.) Obs. 

1688 CAPT. J. S. Art of War 27 Draw your Daggers. 
Fix them in your Musquet. 

6. a. The upright piece of wood nailed to the 
bars in the middle of a rail or gate. b. Naut. 
(See quot.} 



piece of timber that faces on to the poppets of the bilge- ways 
and crosses them diagonally, to keep them together. The 
plank that secures the heads of the poppets is called the 
dagger plank. The word ' dagger ' seems to apply to any- 
thing that stands diagonally or aslant. 

f7. Thehornofayoungstag; -DAO**.* I. Obs. 

1616 SURFL. & MARKH. Country Farme 684 The second 
yeare they haue their first homes, which are called daggers. 

8. Printing. A mark resembling a dagger (f, 
used for marginal references, etc. : also called 
obelisk. Double dagger : a mark having each end 
like the hilt of a dagger (f), similarly used. 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Dagger, .a. .Mark in Printing 
. .(t). 1770 Hist. Printing 259 The Obelisk, or long Cross, 
erroneously called the single I)agger. .The Double Dagger. 
i86a ANSTED Channel /si. n. viii. led. al 166 Those that are 
certainly not indigenous being indicated by a little dagger 
(t) placed before the name. 

9. A collector's name of moths of the genus 
Acronycta having a black dagger-like or ^-like 
mark near the anal angle of the fore wings. 

1831 J. RENNIE Consfectus Butter/. t Moths 70 The Dark 
Dagger appears in June. 1861 E. NEWMAN Brit. Moths 
240, l do not know why this insect \Acronycta tridens] is 
called the ' Dark Dagger ' : it is no darker than the ' Gray 
Dagger '[A. fsi], 

10. //. Applied locally to various plants with 
long sword-like leaves, as Sword-grass ,Poa aqua- 
tit a , Water-flag <Iris Pseudacorus~), etc. 

1847-78 HALLIWKII, Daggers, sword-grass. Somerset. 
1881 Dn'tntsh. Plant-n. lEVD. S.), Dufgers, Iris I'senda. 



corns, and I./cetidistima. The name evidently ha refer- 
ence to the tword-like nags or leave*. 

til. The name of a celebrated tavern in Hoi- 
born 1-1600 (Narea); hence all rib. as in dagger- 
ale, -frumety, -pie. Obt. 

1576 GASCOIGNE Diet DroonkardesW.), Rut we must have 
March beere, dooble dooble beerc. da^KT-alr, Khcni'h. 
160* DEKKER Satiromasti.t\n Hawkintl >rif. /.HO- Drama 
III. 115 (N.i Good den, good coown . . When shall we eat 
another Dagger-pie. 1610 B. JoNsoN^/cA. i. i, My lawyer's 
clerk, I lighted on last night, In Holbom, at the Dagger. 
Ibid. v. ii, Her grace would have you eat no more Woolsack 
pies. Nor Dagger frumety. 

12. Comb., as dagger-blade, -hilt, -stab, -work ; 
dagger-like, -proof adj. ; t dagger-ale (tee u); 
t dagger-cheap a., very cheap, 'dirt-cheap ; 
T dagger-frame ty (see 1 1) ; dagger-grace, ? = 
sword-grass (see 10) ; dagger-knee (Naut.}, tee 
quot. ; t dagger-man, a man who carries a dagger, 
a bravo ; f dagger-money, ' a sum of money for- 
merly paid to the justices of assize on the northern 
circuit to provide arms against marauders ' (Ogil vie); 
t dagger-pie (see ii); dagger-piece (Naut.) - 
sense 6 b; dagger-plank (JVaut.^, see quot. under 
6 b ; dagger-plant, a plant of the genus Yucca, 
also called Adam's needle, having sharp-edged and 
pointed leaves ; dagger-wood (Naut.) - sense 6 b. 

1561 Act ; KHz. c. 7 { 3 'Dagger-blades, Handles, Scab- 
bards. 1591 BP. ANDREWES Serm. Christ's Tnuft.n. '18431 
V. 546 We set our wares at a very easy price, he [the devil] 
may buy us even 'dagger-cheap, as we say. 1834 MCDWIN 
Angler in Wales I. 262 These tracks were sometimes lost in 
high "dagger-grass. 1676 GREW Anat. Plants Lect. iv. ii. 
i 18 Crystals . . figur'd crossways like a ' Dagger-H ill. c 1850 
Rudim. Navig. (Weale) 114 Any straight Hanging knees, 
not perpendicular to the side of the beam, are in general 
termed "dagger -knees. 1603 SHAKS. Meas.forM. IV. iii. 16 
M' Starue-Lackey the Rapier ard 'dagger man. 186? 
SMYTH Sailor's WordJ>k., ' Daggtr-fiece, or Darger^oood, 
a timber or plank that faces on to the poppets of the bilge- 
ways, and crosses them diagonally, to keep them together. 
1866 Treat. Hot., 'Dagger plant, a name for t'ncca. 1885 
LADY BRASSEY The Trades 220 The road was bordered by 
hedges of cactus and dagger-plants. 1891 BARING-GOULD 
Roar of Sea II. xxix. 141 Miss I'ravisa. .cast a glance at her 
niece like a 'dagger-stab. 1890 MICHAEL FIELD Tragic Mary 
I. i. 7, I never saw such 'dagger-work . . As that which pierced 
him. Six and fifty wounds ! 

Da-gger, v. [f. prec. sb.] 

1. trans. To stab with a dagger. 

1658 R. FRANCK North. Mem. (1821)36 When Democra- 
sians dagger the crown. 1806 N.nat Chrox. XV. 453 
Rackstraw was daggered, and died immediately. 18. . 
A. SUTHERLAND Tales of Pilgrim, Brigand of Loire, He 
was in no danger of being daggered. 

2. Printing. To mark with a dagger (t). 

1875 FURNIVALL in Thynne's Animadv. Introd. 37 note, 
The dishes chang'd in the list are daggerd. 

Hence Da ggoring vbl. sb., stabbing with a dagger ; 
///. a., stabbing, fatal. 

1694 WESTMACOTT Script. Herb. (i69S> 214 Every Month 
produces sad and fatal Instances of its I Brandy's] daggering 
force. 1830 Blaclnv. Mag. XXVII. 55 The screaming an3 
daggering and death-rattling. 

Daggered (doe-gsidi, a. [f. DAGGER + -ED.] 

1. Armed with a dagger. 

1:1400 MAUNDEV. (1839)111. 137 Now swerded, now dag- 
gered, and in alle manere gyses. 1794 COLERIDGE Relig. 
Musings, The dagger'd Envy. <ri8jo BEDDOES Poems, 
Boding Dreams, A daggered hand beside the bed. 

2. Stabbed or wounded with a dagger. 

1604 DEKKER Hon. Whore Wks. 1 1. 38 How many Gallants 
have drunke healths to me. Out of their dagger'd armes. 

8. Printing. Marked with a dagger. 

Daggeswayne, var. DAGSWAIH Ots. 

Dagging (dre'girj), vbl. sb. Now dial. [f. DAO 
i/. 1 + -IXG "i]J The action of the verb DAG ; clog- 
ging with dirt, esp. of the wool about the hinder 
parts of a sheep ; in //. (concr.) = DAG-LOCKS. 

1547 SALESBURY Welsk Diet., Dibyl, daggyng. 1587 
MASCALL Cant. Cattle (16271 197 Keeping :hem from cold 
in Winter, dagging in Summer. 1890 F. T. ELWORTHY (in 
lttter\ In Kent these clots of dung which are apt to. .stick 
to the wool around the tails of sheep, with the wool attached, 
are called ' daggings '. 

Daggle idse-g 1 !), v. Also 6 daggyll, 6-7 dagle. 
[Frequentative of DAG f.l sense i : associated in 
its sense-development with DABBLE and DRAGGLE 
and perhaps with DAO . 4 ] 

1. trans. To clog with wet mnd ; to wet and soil a 
garment, etc., by trailingit through mud or wet gras*. 

1530 PALST.R. 594/1 You shall daggyll your clothes, vom 
crotttret vot kalillemens. l$S HOLLAND Crt. ytnxs II. 
566 Daglit in weit richt claggit was his weid. iii COTGR., 
Cmter. .to dagle, bedurtie. 1600 T. GOUGE Ckr. Directions 
xv. (i 831 > 85 As a long coat is in greater danger to be daggled 
than a short one. l8a$ BUOCKETT ff. C. Wonls, Daffle . . 
to bemire. 

b. In later nse, chiefly said of the effect of wet : 
To wet by splashing or sprinkling. See DAG v* 



been daggied in the wet. 

2. To drag or trail about (through the mire). 

1681 OTWAY Soldier's Fort. v. i. After you have been 
daggling yourself abroad for prey, .you come sneaking hither 
for a crust, do yout ifc SCOTT Nigel viii, I have been 
daggled to and fro the whole day. 



DAGGLE. 

3. intr. To walk in a slovenly way (through mud 
or mire) ; to drag or trail about. Cf. DRAGGLE. 



I 



POPE Prol. Sat. 225, .... 

the town To fetch and carry sing-song uo and down. 1869 
Lonsdale Gloss., Daggle v. i., to trail in the dirt. 1876 
Whitby Gloss, s. v. Daggling, ' Trailing and daggling ', 
said of a person walking in a shower. 

t Da'ggle, sb. Obs. rare, [f prec. vb.] A clot 
or spot of wet mud, as on a daggled garment. 

1591 PERCIVALL Sf. Diet., Carpas, daggles of durt, spots 

Daggled (d:e-g'ld\ ///. a. [f. DAGGLE v. + 
-ED l J Having the skirts clogged or splashed with 
dirt or wet ; bespattered, bemired. 

1607 Barley-Breake (1877) 21 What . . dagled mayd with 
payle. 1638 Songs Costume (Percy Soc.) 140 Fringe with 

J>ld your daggl'd tails. 1727 SWIFT Poems, City Slurwer, 
o shops in crowds the daggled females fly. 1742 MRS. 
DELANY Life * Corr. (1861) II. 193 Caught in a smart 
shower of rain, [we] came home in a fine daggled condition. 
b. Comb, f Daggled-tail a. = DAGGLE-TAILED. 
1708 SWIFT Ag st. Abol. Christianity, Shocked at the sight 
of so many daggled-tail parsons. 

Daggle-tail (dse-g'lit? 1 ! 1 ), sb. Obs. exc. dial. 
A person \esp. a woman) whose garments are be- 
mired by being trailed over wet ground ; an untidy 
woman, slut, slattern. Now DKAGGLE-TAIL. 

1577-87 HoLlNSHEpC4ro. III. 1098/2 Vpon their Joining 
with the queens soldiers, the one part could not be discerned 
from the other, but onelie by the mire and durt . .which 
stacke vpon their garments . . wherefore the crie on the 
queenes part . . was ; Downe with the daggle tailes. 1674-91 
RAY 5. # E. C. Words 95, Daffle-taiL.a'Woman that hath 
dabbled her Coats with Dew, Wet or Dirt. 1881 Leicestersli. 
Gloss., Daggle-tail, a slut.. 'Doll Daggle-teel'. 

Daggle-tailed (dae-g'lit^ld), a. Obs. exc. dial. 
Having the skirts splashed by being trailed over 
wet ground ; untidy, slatternly. (Usually of a 
woman.) Now DRAGGLE-TAILED. 

1573 G. HARVEY Letter-bk. (Camden) 125 A nobeler witt 
Then that daggiltayld skitt. 1824 SCOTT St. Ronan's xxxiii, 
To make love to. .some daggletailed soubrette. 

Daggling (dse-glin.), vbl. sb. [-ING 1 .] a. The 
action of the verb DAGGLE, q. v. -fb. concr. 
DAGGING (obs.^. 

1580 HOLLYIMND Treas. Fr. Tang, Crottes, daglings. 
1650 FULLER Pisgah iv. vi. 100 To prevent the dangling 
down, and dagling of so long garments. 

Da'ggling, ppl. a. [-ING -.] That daggles : 
see the verb. 

1562 PHAER SSneid. vin. Z iij b, A she wolfe downe was 
layed, and next her dugs two goodly twins, Two daggling 
sucking boies. 1611 COTGR., Crottes, durt, filth, mire ; 
dagling stuffe, etc. 1705 VANDRUGH ConfeJ. I. ii, Who is 
this good woman, Flippanta?. .An old daggling cheat, who 
hobbles about . . to bubble the ladies of their money. 

Da'ggly, a. dial. [f. DAGGLE + -Y.] 

1869 Lonsdale Gloss., Daggly, wet, showery. 1887 S. 
Chesliire Gloss., Daggly, wet, dewy. ' It was daggly l' th' 
morninY 

Daggysweyne, var. DAGSWAIN, Obs. 

Dagh(e, obs. form of DOUGH. 

Daghesh, Daghyng : see DAGESH, DAWING. 

Dag-lock, [f. DAK sb.\ 3 + LOOK.] //.Locks 
of wool clotted with dirt about the hinder parts of 
a sheep. 

1623 Althorp MS. in Simpkinson Washington* (j86o) 
p. xlv, To 12 women.. 2 daies washing dag-loakes. 1724 
Lonti. Gaz. No. 6264 7 2 Frauds., are. .committed, .by wind- 
ing in Fleeces, Locks, Tail-Locks, Sheer-Locks, Dagg- 
Locks. 1799 W. PITT in Comm-itn. Board Agric. II. 464 
A very small proportion of breechings or daglocks. 1805 
LUCCOCK Nat. Wool 2-25 The bundles contained, .a quantity 
of dag-locks, of wool from dead sheep. 1881 Leicestersk. 
Gloss., Ditg-locks, the long locks of wool about a sheep 
which dag in the dirt when the animal lies down, etc. 

Dagman : see DAG sb.- 2. 

Dago (,d?'go). U.S. [Supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of Diego a Spanish equivalent of James : 
applied as a generic proper name to Spaniards.] 
A name originally given in the south-western sec- 
tion of the United States to a man of Spanish 
parentage ; now extended to include Spaniards, 
Portuguese, and Italians in general. 

1888 American 18 July (Farmer), The shrimps .. are 
caught by Dagos. 1800 N. Y. Nation (25 Sept.) LI. 237/1 
Mr. Reed makes no effort to conceal his contempt for this 
proposition to trade with a lot of ' Dagoes ', as he calls them. 

II Dagoba (da'gflba). [ad. Singhalese dagaba : 
Pall dnalugalibho : Skr. dhdtu-garbha relic-recep- 
tacle (Yule). Also adopted as dhagope, daghope, 
dhagob, dagop, from the form of the name in the 
Mogadhi dialect of south Behar.] 

In Buddhist countries, a tope or dome-shaped 
monumental structure containing relics of Buddha 
or of some Buddhist saint. 

1806 SALT Caves ofSalsette in Trans. Lit. Soc. Bombay 
(1819) I. 47 (Y.) In this irregular excavation are left two 
dhagopes, or solid masses of stone bearing the form of 
a cupola. 1855 YULE Mission to Ava (1858) 35 (Y.) The 
bluff knob-like dome of the Ceylon dagobas. 1892 Pall 
Mall G. 28 Sept. 6/1 Mdme. Blavatsky's dagoba is to be 
built of pink sandstone from Rajpootanah. 

t Da'gon a . Obs. Also dagoun. [? related to 
DAG sb. ?] A piece (of cloth). 



8 

c 1386 CHAUCER Sompn. Tale 43 Or gif us. .A dagoun of 
your blanket, leeve dame. 1486 Bk. St. Albans B v a, 1 ake 
a dagon or pece of Rough blanket vnshorn. 

II Dagon 2 (d^'-g/n). [a. L Dagon a Gr. 
Aa^cui', a. Heb. jui dagon 'little fish, dear little 
fish', f. JT </if,y fish.] 

The national deity of the ancient Philistines; 
represented with the head, chest, and arms of a 
man, and the tail of a fish. b. trans/. An idol, 
or object of idolatrous devotion. 

1382 WYCLIF JuJg. xvi. 23 The princis of Philistiens 
camen to gidre tn oon, for to offre oostis of greet worship 
to Dagon, her god. a 1572 [see DAD v. i]. 1667 MltJOU 
P L. i. 462 Dagon his Name, Sea Monster, upward Man 
And downward Fish. 1677 Qua Dxmonol. (1867) 440 
Though the Roman synagogue join force to subtlety in the 
advancement of their dagon. 1868 STANLEY Script / ortr. 
89 The head was deposited -(probably at Ashdod) in the 
temple of Dagon. 

C. A term of reproach to a man. 

1500-20 DUNBAR Flyting 66 ?e, dagone, dowbart. [Cf. 
DOGONE in Tua Mariit Wemen 457.] 

Hence Da-gonals sb. pi. nonce-wd. (after baccha- 
na/'i, rites or orgies in honour of Dagon. 

1614 T. ADAMS Devil's Banquet 5 A Banket worse then 
Jobs childrens ; or the Dagonals, of the Philistins ; (like the 
Bacchanals of the Moenades). 

t Da'gswain. Obs. Forms : 5 dagswaynne, 
daggysweyne, 6 daggeswayne, -swanne, dag- 
swayne, -swain. [Etymology obscure : the first 
part has been associated with DAG sb. ! (cf. descrip- 
tion in quot. 1519) : cf. also DAGON 1 .] A coarse 
coverlet of rough shaggy material. 

?, 11400 Morte Arth. 3610 Dubbyde with dagswaynnes 
dowblede they seme, c 1440 Promp. Parv.uz Daggysweyne. 
lodix. 1519 HORMAN Vulg. 167 b, My bedde is couered 
with a daggeswayne : and a quylte . . Some dagswaynys 
haue longe thrummys and iaggz on bothe sydes : some but 
on one. 1547 BOOHDE Introd. Knovil. v. (18701 139 Symple 
rayment doth serue us full well; Wyth dagswaynes and 
roudges we be content. 1577 HARRISON England 11. xii. 
(1877) I. 240 Our fathers .'. and we . . haue Hen full oft vpon 
straw pallets . . vnder couerlets made of dagswain . . or hop- 
harlots (I vse their owne termes). 

Da'g-tailed, a. [f. DAG rf. 1 ] Having the 
wool about the tail clotted with dirt. (Cf. DAG 
sb.i 3, DAG-LOCK.) 

1597-8 lip. HALLSa/.v. i. 116 To see the dunged foldes of 
dag-tayled sheepe. 

Dague, var. of DAG sb.s 

Daguerreotype (dage'rotsip), sb. Also da- 
guerrotype. [a. F. dagiterreotype, f. Daguerre 
name of the inventor + TYPE.] 

1. One of the earliest photographic processes, first 
published by Daguerre of Paris in 1839, in which 
the impression was taken upon a silver plate sen- 
sitized by iodine, and then developed by exposure 
to the vapour of mercury, fb. The apparatus 
used for this process (ots.). C. A portrait produced 
by this process. 

1839 A thenzuni 26 Jan. 69 The newly invented machine, 
which is to be called the Daguerotype. 1839 E. FITZGERALD 
Lett. I. 53 Perhaps you are not civilized enough to know 
what Daguerreotype is. 1849 THACKERAY Lett. 14 Sept., lam 
going . . to give you a daguerreotype of myself. 1875 VogeFs 
Chem. Light li. 14 The little pictures that were called 
daguerreotypes from their inventor. 

( 2. fig. An exact representation or description. 
Obs. (since the daguerreotype itself has yielded to 
improved photographic processes). 

1850 WHIPPLE En. $ Rev. II. 351 The masquerade at 
Ranelagh, and the scene at Vauxhall . . are daguerreotypes 
of manners. 1866 DOOLITTLE little), Social Life of the 
Chinese : a Daguerreotype of Daily Life in China, 

3. at/rib. 

1841 CARLYLE Misc. (1872) VI. 212 Contemporary Daguer- 
reotype delineator. 1845 A thenaenm 22 Feb. 202 Daguerreo- 
type plates. 1858 J. MARTINEAU Stud. Chr. 234 From which 
it must be copied, with daguerreotype exactitude, into every 
disciple's mind. 

Dague'rreotype, v. [f. prec. sb.] 

1. trans. To photograph by the daguerreotype 
process. 

1849 C. BRONTE Shirley vii. 80 A head, that daguerreo- 
typed in that attitude, .would have been lovely. 1867-77 
G. F. CHAMBERS Astron. vii. vii. 707 The sensitive silvef 
compounds used in Daguerreotyping. 

t2. fig. To represent or describe with minute 
exactitude. Obs. 

1839 E. FITZGERALD Lett. (iSSgU. 53 All Daguerreotyped 
into the mind's eye. 1861 J. G. SHEPPARD Fall Rome xiii. 
706 That daguerreotyping power which he possesses beyond 
any other writer of the time. 

So Dague-rreotyper, = daguerreotypist. Da- 
BTuerreotypio (-ti'pik), -typical atijs., relating 
to the daguerreotype process. Dagtte'rreotypism 
(nonce-wd.), minute exactness as of a daguerreotype. 
Dague rreotypy (-taipi), the daguerreotype pro- 
cess, the art of taking daguerreotypes. DagneT- 
reotypist (-taipist), a photographer who uses this. 

1864 WEBSTER, Daguerreotyper. 1840 THACKERAY Crit. 
Rev. Wks. 1886 XXIII. 156 Mr. Maclise has a daguerre'o- 
typic eye. 1854 J. SCOFFERN in Orr's Circ. Sc. Chem. 91 
The language of Daguerreotypic art. 1840 Fraser's Mag. 
XXI. 729 Painted with a daguerreotypical minuteness. 
1846 RUSKIN Mod. Paint. I. II. I. vii. 30 He professes 
nothing but coloured Daguerreotypeism. 1841 EMERSON 



DAIDLE. 

Led., Times'Wks. (Bohnl II. 251 Whilst the Daguerreo- 
typist, with camera-obscura and silver plate, begins now to 
traverse the land. 1853 Chamb. Jml. XX. 79 There is 
something new in daguerreotypy. 

II Dahabeeyah, -biah. (dahabrya;. Also 

-beeah, -bleb, -beiah. [Arab. iCLai Sahabiyah 
lit. ' the golden', {. i_jui tiahab gold : name of the 
gilded state barge of the Moslem rulers of Egypt.] 
A large sailing-boat, used by travellers on the Nile. 
1877 A. B. EDWARDS Up Nik Pref. 12 The Dahabeeyah 
hired by the European traveller, reproduces in all essential 
features the painted galleys represented in the tombs of the 
kings. 1890 SAYCK in Trans. Lane. # Cheshire A ntiq. Sac. 
VII. 4 Coming down the Nile in a dahabiah. 

t Dahet, clathet. Ol>s. Forms : 3-4 dahet, 
dapet, (dayet), dapeit, dathait, dapeheit, 
daij>at, dait, dai. [a. OF. dahet, dehet, usually 
dehl, dahf, dal, del, also dehait, Ja.ha.it ; in pi. cle- 
hez, dahez, daez, dehaiz, ' misfortune, mischief, evil, 
curse', used only in imprecations. 

As to the OF. word, see M. Gaston Paris in Romania. 
(1889) 469. He shows it to be distinct from OF. deshait 
evil disposition or condition, sorrow, woe, etc., and suggests 
the meaning ' God's hate', in primitive Merovingian French 
*dea hat. In English, the primary dahet is very rare ; the 
usual dafeit, datheit, dalhet are difficult to account for, 
unless they represent the OF. phrase da(K]et ait, datit ait, 
or in pi. dahez, daez, daaz ait, just as in OF. itself M. Paris 
explains dehait, daJtait, from the running together of deht 
ait. Apparently, the phrase being thus taken for the simple 
word, the verb had to be added anew, as in OF. dehait ait ! 
ME. dafeit haue \ In Robert of Brunne written da}et with 
dotted f, printed by Hearne as dotted y.\ 

[ = OF. dehet ait, dehait ait. 1 a. In the construc- 
tion dahet have, dathet have : = May ;he, etc.) have 
misfortune ! a mischief, curse, damnation be to ... 

a 1150 Owl $ Night. 99 Dahet habbe that ilke best, That 
fuleth his owe nest. cixga S. Eng. Leg. I. Beket 1884 
Dabeheit habbe |>at so atstonde so folliche. c 1320 Seuyn 
Sag. iW.) 2395 Datheit haue thou . . Al to loude thou spak 
thi Latin ! c 1330 R. BRUNNE Chron. tiSio) 143 Dayet haf 
his lip, & his nose berby. 

b. without have [so OF. dehait, dahait\ : A curse 
upon! 

c 1290 J. Eng. Leg. I. Beket 2036 Dabeit alle bat it seide ! 
<ri3o8 Sat. People Kildare xiv. in E. E. P. (1862) 155 
Da>eit 3ur curteisie, }e stinkeb al be strete. ^1330 R. 
BRUNNE Chron. (1810) 95 A Breton (dayet his nose) for 
Roberd bider sent. 

c. followed by relative clause [so OP', daha ait 
qui, dahait qui\. 

c 1300 llektt (Percy Soc.) 2072 Daithat hit so sede. c 1300 
Havelok 300 Dabeit hwo it hire yeue. c 1300 Seyn Julian 
202 Dait fat him wolde bymene. Ibid. 134 Dai bat wolde 
. . him biseche. c 1330 R. BRUNNE Chron. (1810) 167 Dayet 
bat berof rouht, his was alle be gilt. 

F The following is prob. a mere coincidence : cf. dash it I 

1875 Lane. Gloss., Dathit (Furness), iuterj. a mild curse 
on making a mishap. 

Dahlia (d^i-lia, properly da-lia). [Named 1791 
in honour of Dahl, a Swedish botanist.] 

1. A genus of Composite plants, natives of Mexico, 
introduced into Europe in 1789, and commonly 
cultivated in gardens. 

In the wild plant the flowers are 'single' with a dull 
scarlet ray and yellow disk ; in the cultivated forms the vane- 
ties of colour are very numerous, and the ' double ' varieties 
are distinguished by the remarkable regularity of their 
flowers, in which florets of the ray completely cover the 

1804 Curtis's Bat. Mag. XIX. 762 Of the genus Dahlia 
there are three species described by Cavanilles. 1840 HOOD 
Kilmansegg, Her Honeymoon ix, A double dahlia delights 
the eye. 1863 LONGF. Wayside Inn, Student's Tale 182 
Among the dahlias in the garden walk. 

b. Blue dahlia: Jig. something impossible or 
unattainable (no blue variety of the dahlia having 
been produced by cultivationX 

1880 Daily News 17 Dec. 5/4 Whether the colonisation of 
Gilead be a blue dahlia or not. 

2. Name for a particular shade of red. 

1846 Art Union ?rnl. Jan. 26 Their Mazarine blue, their 
puce, their dahlia, their Turkey red, or their azure. 1891 
fall Mall G. 29 Sept. 1/3 One of the many ugly shades 
that are to be worn this season is dahlia. 

Dahlin (da-lin). C/iem. [f. DAHLIA + -IN.] A 
name for INULIN from the tubers of the dahlia. 

1826 HENRY Elem. Chem. II. 326 Dalhine. This substance 
was extracted by Layen from the bulbs of the Dalhia. 1882 
Syd. Soc. Lex., Dahlia. .The roots of the several species are 
eaten when cooked, and supply Dahlin. 

Dai, Daiblet : see DAY, DABLET. 

Daidle (d^-d'l), sb. Sc. A pinafore. Hence 
Dai'dlie, -ey (diminutive). 



Mo 

a daidley. 

Daidle (d^'-d'l), v. Sc. and north, dial. -[app. 
Sc. form of DABBLE v.] intr. To move or act 
slowly or in a slovenly manner ; to saunter, loiter. 
Chiefly in pres. pple.= loafing, idling, lazy, slovenly. 
(Cf. DAWDLE.) 

1808 in JAMIESON. 1816 SCOTT Old Mori, xyii, He's but 
a daidling coward body. Sc. Proverb, A primsie damsel 
makes a daidlin' dame. 

Dale, obs. form of DAY. 

Daigh, Sc. form of DOUGH. 



DAIKEE. 

Daign, obs. form of DEICN. 

Daiker (d'kor), v. Sc. [?a. F. decortr to 
decorate, adorn.] trans. To set in order. 

1810 Blatkw. Mag. Sept. 657 (Jam. s.v. DaHer) Say 
Madge Mackiurick's skill hafi failed her in daikering out 
a dead dame's flesh. 1880 MRS. L. B. WALFORD Troubl. Dan. 
I. ii. 31 Your room will be daikert by the time it's wanted. 

Daiker : see DAIKEB. 

Dail(e, obs. form of DALE, DEAL. 

Dai'liness. rare. [f. DAILY a. + -NESS.] The 
quality of being daily ; daily occurrence, etc. 

1607 HIKRON Wks. I. 135 There are very few duties of 
n:linion, but the scripture speaks of the dailines of them. 
a 1670 HACKKT Chr. Consolation* ii. (1840) 19 The dailiness 
of sin must be bewailed with the dailiness of sorrow. 

Daill, obs. Sc. form of DALE. 

Daily (d^'H), a. (st.) Forms : 5-8 dayly, 6 
daylie, dailie, (Sc. dalle), 6- daily. [OK. de^Uc 
(in the compounds Iwitdsegllc^reodsegllc, happening 
once in two or three days) = OHG. tagallh, dagalth, 
ON. dagligr, an ancient derivative of WGer. dag, 
OE. d day : see -LY >. The ordinary OE. word 
was dseghwamUc, in izth c. deihwanlich.] 

1. Of or belonging to each day; occurring or 
done every day; issued or published every day 
(or every week-day). 

c 1470 HENRY Wallace xi. 1291 For dayly mess, and 
heryng off confessioun. 1516 TINDALE Malt. vi. 1 1 Geve 
vs this daye cure dayly breade. 1533 EDEN Treat. Nnvc 
/*/.(Arb.)7 Proued. .bydaylyexpenence. 1611 BiBLE..r. 
v. 13 Fulfill your workes, your dayly taskes. 1711 HKAKSK 
Collect. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) III. 153 A Daily paper comes out 
call'd The Spectator. i86a LD. BROUGHAM Brit. Canst, iv. 
62 The daily labour to gain their daily bread. 

b. with agent-nouns, as in daily waiter, one who 
waits daily (a title of certain officers of the Royal 
household). 

1568 E. TILNEY Disc. Mariagc Cj, A daylie gamester, 
a common blasphemer. 1641 Brass in Weybridge Church 
(A^ # Q. i Oct. 1892), Here lieth the body of Humphry 
Dethick Esq. who was one of his Ma oi Gent. Vshers 
(dayly Waiter). 1715 Land. Gaz. No. 5300/4 Sir William 
Oldes, to be his Majesty's first Gentleman Usher, Daily 
Waiter and Black Rod. Mad. A daily visitor to the well. 

t 2. Of the present day ; belonging to the present 
time. Obs. rare. 

1663 GERBIER Counsel 8 Why modern and daily Buildings 
are so exceedingly Defective. 

B. sb. (ellift.) A daily newspaper. 

1858 Times 29 Nov. 6/3 Clever weeklies and less clever 
dailies. 1881 Academy 26 Mar. 234 The foreign corre- 
spondent of one of the great dailies. 

Daily (d^'-li), adv. Forms : 5-7 dayly, (6 Sc. 
dalie, -y), 6 dailie, 6-7 daylie, 7- daily, [f. DAY 
+ -LY 2 . The OE. word was daihwamllfe] Every 
day, day by day. Often in a looser sense : Con- 
stantly, always, habitually. 

c 1440 York Myst. xxvi. 9 My desire muste dayly be done. 
ija Pilgr. Per/. ( W. deW. 1 53 1 ) i b, Wherin .. dayly & hourly 
I myght loke, as in a myrour. 1635 A. STAFFORD Fern. 
Glory (1869) 79 With bended knees I dayly beseech God. 
iji* ADDISON Sfecl. No. 265 F 6, I am informed that this 
Fashion spreads daily. 1747 WESLEY Prim. Physic (1762) 
97 Drink daily half a Pint. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Kng. II. 
75 He continued to offer his advice daily, and had the mor- 
tification to find it daily rejected. 1885 R. BUCHANAN 
Annan Water v,The public waggonette ran daily between 
Dumfries and Annanmouth. 

Dai'meii, a. Sc. Also 9 demmin. [Origin 
unknown. In Ayrshire pronounced as dfmmin. 

(Perh. a pple. : cf. Whilby daum'd out, dealt out sparingly.)] 

' Rare, occasional ' i, Jam.). 

1785 BURNS To a Mouse. A daimen-icker in a thrave 'S 
a sma* request. 1811 Edin. Mag. Apr. 352 (Jam.) At 
a demmin time I see the Scotchman. [Still in use in Ayr- 
shire, as in ' a daimen ane here and there'.] 

Daimeiit, var. DAYMEKT, Obs. 

II Daimio (dai'niiyo). [Japanese, f. Chinese dai 
great + mto, myo name.] The title of the chief 
territorial nobles of Japan, vassals of the mikado ; 
now abolished. 

1839 Penny Cycl. XIII. 94/1 The nobility or hereditary 
governors of the provinces and districts are called Daimio. 
or High-named, and Siotnio, or Well-named. 1875 N. A rner. 
Rev. CXX. 283 The writer, .has lived in a daimio's capital 
before, during, and after the abolition of feudalism. 

Hence Dai-miate, Dai mioate, Ilai'miote, the 
territory or office of a daimio. 

1870 rail Mall G. 26 Aug. 4 Japanese students., from all 
parts of the empire, from the inland daimiotes as well as 
from the sea-coasts. 188* Athenxum 10 June 730/1 The 
abolition of the Daimioates has elevated the masses of the 
people [of Japan] from a state of feudal servitude to the 
condition of free citizens. 1880 Ibid. 6 Apr. 436/1 Old 
Japanese tenures [of land], .no doubt differed considerably 
in the different daimiates. 

|| Daimon idarmdnn), a direct transliteration of 
Gr. Sctifiojv divinity, one's genius or DEMON. 

i8jj THOREAU Lett. (1865! 73 It is the same daimon, here 
lurking under a human eyelid. 1875 E. C. STEDMAN 
Victorian /WO (1876) 154 The Laureate, .is his own daimon, 
the inspirer and controller of his own utterances. 

t Dain, s/>. Obs. Also 5 deyne, dene, 6 daine, 
dayne,deune. Syncopated from Jedain, DISDAIN sb. 

1. Disdain, dislike, distrust. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 1863 pat ay has deyne [Dublin MS. 
dene] & dispite at dedis of litill. 1591 LYIY Sappho v. i. 
VOL. III. 



9 



207 Which striketh a deepe daine of that which wee most 
desire. 

2. The suffering or incurring of disdain ; con- 
tumely, ignominy, reproach. 

taijoo MS. St. John's Coll. Oxon. No. 117 foL 123 b (in 
Maskell Man. Kit. III. 356), Thi beginning of thi lif, care 
and sorwe ; thi fu[r]lhliving, trauail, and dene, and disese. 
IS. . Merlint in Ptrcy Folio 1. 444 ' Nay, cert.iine,' said the 
old queane, ' yee may it doe without deane.' 

8. Kepulsiveness of smell ; ' stink, noisome 
effluvia. Still used in this sense in the west of 
England ' (Nares). 

(Quot. 1575 taken in this sense by Nares and Halliwell 
may belong to 2 ; 1601 may belong to DAIN adj.) 

iSM Mirr. Mag.,Cordila, Frombowres of heauenly hewe, 
to dennes of dayne. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny xi. liii, The 
breath of Lions hath a very strong deane and stinking smell 
with it [animae /emit virus rrave J. 1(15 BRITTOH fnv. 
Words in Beauties of Wtltsli. (E. D. S.), Dain, infectious 
effluvia. 1847- in HALi.lELL(WV//5). 

t Daill, a. Obs. or dial. rare. Also 6 daine, 
dane. [a. OF. *dcigne. Burg, doigne * F. digne 
worthy : cf. Chaucer s deyn under DIONE a.] 

1. Haughty ; reserved, distant ; repellent. Sc. 

c 1500 DUNBAR Tua mariit Wemen 132 Than am I dan- 
gerus and dane and dour of my wilL Ibid. 253 Thought 
T dour wes and dane, dispitois and bald. 1 1540 LVNDLSAY 
Kitteis Con/. 6 Bot jit ane countenance he Lure, Degeist, 
deuote, daine, and demure. 

2. Repulsive, esp. in smell ; stinking. Cf. DIGNE o. 
(Cf. DAIN si. ouot. 1601.) 1888 Berkshire Gloss., Dain, 

tainted, putrid, bad-smelling. 

tDain, v. Obs. Also 5 deyne, 6 dayne. 
Syncopated form of dedain, DISDAIN v. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 4579 Owbir }e gesse at je be gods . . 
Or deyncs with cure dri^tms for bat we bam dcre hald. 1514 
BARCLAY Cjrt. t, Uplomlyshm. (Percy Soc.) 6 Vouthc dayneth 
counsayle, scornynge dyscrecyon. a\yy* GRZEHiLAlfihensus 
i. Wks. 226/1 She shall have scholars which will dam to be 
In any other Muse's company. Ibid. in. 237/2 ; IV. 240/1. 

Dain e, obs. forms of DEION. 

t Dai'ufal, a. Obs. Also 6 deignfall. Syn- 
copated form oidedainful, DISDAINFUL. 

c 1530 H. RHODES Bit. Nurture 672 in Baitci Bt. (1868) 
TOO A busy tongue makes of his friend oft tymes his daynfull 
Foe. 1578 T. PROCTOR Gorg. Gallery in Heliconia I. 91 
Cipres well, with dainful chaung of fraight, Gave thee to 
dnnke infected poyson colde. 1600 FAIRFAX Tasso IV. 
lxx.\ix, Yet tempred so her deignfull lookes alway. 

t Daint, a. and sb. Obs. Also 6 daynt, deint. 
= DAINTY ^of which it appears to be merely a 
shortened form, or perh. a misreading of the old 
spelling dainte, deynte, etc.). 

A. adj. 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. x. 2 To cherish him with diets 
daint. Ibid. n. xii. 42 Whatever . . may dayntest fantasy 
aggrate. 1596 Ibid. iv. i. 5 Demeanour daint. 

B. sb. 

1633 P. FLETCHER Pise. Eel., The Prize xxxvii, Excesse 
or damts my lowly roof maintain not. 

Hence t Dai ntly adv., daintily. 

1563 SACKVILLE Mirr. Mag., Induct, xxxviii, As on the 
which full dayntlye would he fare. 1591 PKRCIVALL Sp. 
Diet., Regaladainentc, gentelie, curteouslie, deintlie. 

t Darnteons, a. Obs. Forms : a. 4-5 deyn-, 

dein-, (den-), daynteuous, -vous, (-uos, denty- 
uous) ; j8. 4-6 deyn-, 6 dayn-, deinteous. [app. 
orig. dayntivaus, f. dayntive DAINTIVE + -ous: 
afterwards altered so as to appear f. daynte, 
DAINTY + -ocs. C BOUNTEOUS, PLENTEOUS.] 
= DAINTY a. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Merch. T. 470 Ful of instrument! and of 
vitaule The moste deynteuous of all Ytaille. 1387 TREVISA 
Hirden (Rolls) III. 323 Wib gret plente of deynteous mete 
and drink, la 1400 Morte Arth. 4196 Itt was my derlynge 
daynteuous, and fulle dere holdene. c 1510 BARCLAY Mirr. 
Ga. Manners (1570) Dv, The soure sauce is serued before 
meat deynteous. 1548 UUALL, etc. Erasm. Par. Matt. x. 
64 This is no daynteouse and delycate profession. 

Hence t Dai nteously adv., daintily. 

c 1380 WYCLIP Sel. Wks. III. 157 Sommemen deynteuously 
nonschen hor body. 1393 LANGL. P. PI. C. ix. 324 Thenne 
was bis folke feyn and fedde hunger deynteuosliche [v.r. 
denteuous-, deyntifliche]. a 1556 CRANHER WJts. (Parker 
Soc.) II. 194 Yet will they, .fare daintiously, and lie softly. 

Dainteril, var. of DAINTBEL Obs., a dainty. 

Dainteth, -ith (d^'-nteb), sb. and a. Now 
only Sc. Forms : 4-5 dein-, deyn-, dain-, dayn- 
teth(e, rarely -ith(e, -yth, (also den-, dan-, 
dayen-, dayne^, 8-9 Sf. daintith, -eth. [a. 
OF. daintiet, deintiet : L. dignitdt-em, i. dignus 
worthy : see DAINTY **.] A. = DAINTY sb. 

< iaoo .9. Eng. Leg. I. Beket 1190 Heo bi-gan to serui bis 
holi iiuin and deintebes [Percy Soc. 1. 1202 deynte's] to him 
brou^te. a 1340 HAMPOLE Psalter Ixxv. 10 With other, .he 
has litil! daynteth to dwell, c 1400 Destr. Troy 463 Sho 
hade no deintithe to dele with no deire meite. 1 1450 Bk. 
Curtasye 527 in Babees Bk. (1868) 316 Yf any deyntelhe in 
countre be, po stuarde schewes hit to bo lorde so fre. a 177* 
FFRGUSSON Drink Eclogue Poems (1845) 52 On bien-clad 
tables . . Bouden wi* a* the daintiths o' the land. x8so 
Blackm. Mag. VII. 520 Sic daintiths are rare. 

t B. = DAINTY a. Obs. 

c 1430 LYDG. Chorlt tf Byrde Ix, A dunghyll Douke as 
deyntieth as a Snyte. c 1440 Gcsta Ront. Iviii. 374 (Add. 
MS.) He myght not take of the noble and deynteth metes. 

Hence t Dai ntethly adv., t Dai ntethness. 

1:1440 Gcst,i Rom. L 370 (Add. MS.) Riche men. .bat., 
etyn and drynkyn deyntethly. c 1440 York Myst. i. 78 Thi 



DAINTIVE. 

dale, Ion), e* > daynelethly delande. tut THOMAS It.,/. 
Cram., Dilicatetza, dainlethnesse, or deficacU. 

Daintifica-tion. noncc-wJ. [f. IUI.STIIM : 
see -FICATION.1 I (aintilii-d condition. 

17*0 MAD ICAmii.AY Diary Apr., A mistily delicate 
gentleman . . all daintification in manner, speech, and drcu. 

t Dai ntiful, a. Obs. [f. DAINTY sb. + -FUL.] 

I "DAINTY . 

1393 GOWIR Con/. I. 28 There it no lust 10 ddntefull. 
a 1400-50 A lexander 4274 A dayntefull diete. c 1440 Cftta 
Rom. xlvi. 184 (Harl. MS.i How that he made to grel 
1 festes, and hadde so deyntefulle metis. 

Hence t Dai ntiftOly adv., daintily. 

1393 LANGL. /'. PI. C. ix. 324 (MS. G.) fit folke . . fedde 
hunger deyntfulliche [v.r. deynteuosliche, deyntifliche]. 

Daintily (d^-ntifai), v. nonce-wd. [See -ry.] 
trans. To make dainty. Hence Dai ntlfled />//. a. 

1780 MAD. D'ARBLAY Lett. July, My father charge* me to 
give you his kindest love, and not to daintify hit affection 
into respects or compliments. 1834 New Monthly Mas. 
XLI. 317 A silken cushion which . . the daintificd animal 
did not hurt. 

Daintihood d^'ntihud). rare. Daintiness. 

1780 MAD. D'ARBLAY Diary May, Shocking her by too 
obvious an inferiority in daintihood and ton. 1890 Temple 
Bar Mag. ^lan. 146 Her youth, her daintihood. 

Daintily (d^'ntih), adv. [f. DAINTY a. + -Lf 2 .] 

t 1. Excellently, finely, handsomely, delightfully. 

T a 1400 Morte A rth. 723 Dukkes and duzseperes dayntte- 

hely rydes. c 1415 WYNTOUN Cron. ix. xxvii. 8 Kycht wele 

arayt and dayntely. 1615 BACON Ess. Truth (Arb.) 499 

A naked, .day-light, that doth not show the masques . . of 

the world halfe so Stately, and daintily, as Candlelight*. 

1640 HOWELL Dodon is Gr. 2 There is no Forrest on Earth 

so daintily watered, with such great navigable Rivers. 

2. In a dainty manner; with delicate attention to 
the palate, personal comfort, etc. 

c 1340 Cursor j/. 3655 (Trin.) Venisoun . . Deyntily date 
to his pay. c 1440 Gesta Rom. xxxvi. 145 (Harl. MS. i 'I he 
fleshe is i-fed deyntili. 1549 LATIMER vnd Semi. bef. Kdvt. 
VI (Arb.) 52 The rich . . gloton whych fared well and deyntely 
euery day. 1588 SHAKS. Tit. A. v. iii. 61 Baked in thai 
Fie, Whereof their Mother dantily hath fed. 1647 COWLEY 
Mistress. Lore's Ingratitude ii. And daintily I nourish'd 
Thee With Idle Thoughts and Poetry. 17 . . BROOMK 
View Efick Poems (J.), To sleep well and fare daintily. 

3. Delicately, nicely, etc. ; elegantly, gracefully, 
neatly, deftly. 

1561 T. NORTON Calvin's Inst. in. viii. { i He was not 
tenderly & deintily handled. 159* GREENE Disput. i You 
tread so daintily on your typtoes. 1654 TRAPP Comm. /'s. 
xxiii, So daintily hath he struck upon the whole string. 
1860 G. H. K. Vac. Tour. 117 The daintily tripping roe. 
1860 MOTLEY Netherl. (1868' vii. 443 The envoy performed 
his ungracious task as daintily as he could. 
f4. Rarely, sparingly. Ol>s. (Cf. DAINTT a. a.) 
1494 FABYAN Chron. vti. ccxxi. 242 To be kept there as 
a prysoner, where he was so dayntely fed that he dyed 
for hunger. 1581 SIDNEY Apol. Poetrie (Arb.) 65 The 
Auncients haue one or two examples of Tragy-comedies. . 
But. .we shall find, that they neuer, or very daintily, match 
Horn-pypes and Funeral)*. 

Daintiness (d< T '-ntines\ [f. DAINTY a. + 
-NESS.] The quality of being dainty. 

1. t a. The quality of being fine, handsome, de- 
lightful, etc. Obs. in general sense, b. Of food : 
Choiceness, dcliciousness. 

iS5 HULOET, Deyntines of meates at a banquet, lait- 
titia, 1577 B. GOOCE HeresbacKs Hush. IV. (1586) 167 In 
daintinesse and goodneMe of meat, the Hennes may com- 
pare with.. the goose [etc-]. 16*7 HAKEWILL X/o/MjJ, 
It was more notorious for the daintiness of the provision 
which he served in it, than for the massine&s of the di&h. 

2. Delicate beauty, elegance, gracefulness ; neat- 
ness, deftness. 

1580 SIDNEY Arcadia i. (1725) 106 Leucippe was of a fine 
daintiness of beauty. 1669 A. BROWNE Art rift. (1675) 
19 The grossness, slenderne&s, clownishness, and daintyness 
of Bodies. 1876 J. W. EBSWORTH Bratktuaifs Strappado 
Introd. 28 There U poetic grace and daintiness of expres- 
sion in the charming little lyric. 1884 BLACK 7d. Shaki. 
xxx, The pretty daintinesses of her coaxing. 

8. Niceness, fastidiousness, delicacy, scrupulous- 
ness of taste, sensibility, etc.). 

'57? TOMSON Cah'in's Serm. Tim. xxL 250/2 What greter 
daintinesse doe we make at blasphemies? 1593 SHAKS. 
Kick. It, v. v. 45 Daintinesse of care. 1614 WOTTON A rthit. 
l. Of sand, Lyine, and clay, Vitruvius hath discoursed 
without any daintiness. 1899 Speaker 3 Sept. 299/1 A cer- 
tain discrimination, a certain daintiness of choice. 

4. Niceness of appetite ; fastidiousness with re- 
gard to food, personal comfort, etc. ; softness. 

1530 PALSGR. 212/2 Deyntinesse./nViW/K'. tS9* HAKI.UYT 
Voy. I. 250 (R.) How iustly may this barbarous and rude 
Russe condemne the daintinesse and nicenesse of our cap- 
taines. 1670 MIL-TON Hist. Eng. v. (1851) 232 The People 
.. learnt .. of the Flemish daintiness and softness. 1836 
W. IRVING Astoria I. 78 What especially irritated the 
captain was the daintiness of some of his cabin passengers. 
They were loud in their complaints of the ship's fare. 

t o. Physical delicacy or tenderness. Ots. 

"575 TURBERV. Faulconrie 229 In these cures of diseases 
that grow in the eyes there must be great care used . . 
bicause of the dayntinesse of the place. 

Daintith : see DAINTBTH. 

t Dai'ntive, fb. and a. Obs. rare. In 6 deyn- 
tyue. [app. a. Anglo- Fr. *daintif, -ive, (. dainli: 
cf. OF. bontif, -ive, f. tonte'.'] = DAINTY sk. and a. 

13. . [see adv. below]. iga6 Pi/tr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 
70 b To taste of his deymvue delycates. Ibid. 71 [He] 
fedeth vs with the deyntyues of his owne delycate dTSshe. 

2* 



DAINTREL. 

Hence f Dai'ntively adv. (in 4 deyntijliche). 

n Cursor M. 27904 (Cotton Galba) To 3ern metes 
dayntyuely. 1393 LANGL. P. PI. C. IX. 324 (MS. I) pis folke 
..fedde hunger deyntifliche. 

t Darntrel. Obs. Also 6 deintrelle, 7 dain- 
teril, -trill. [Cf. OF. daintier a tit-bit, a delicacy. 
The formation is obscure.] A dainty, delicacy. 

'575 J- STILL Gamm. Gurton n. i, But by thy words, as 
I them smelled, thy daintrels be not many. 1577 tr. Bit II- 
inger's Decades (1592) 240 Neither glut thy selfe with 
present delicates, nor long after deintrelles hard to be 
come bye. 1613 SIR E. HOBY Curry-combe i. 7 Ihese 
dainterils haue layen so long vpor. his hands, that I feare 
me they are scarce sweete. 1640 BROME Spar. Garden m. 
vii, You say I shall fill my belly with this new Damtrill. 

Daillty (d^'nti), sb. Forms : 3-6 dein-, deyn-, 
dain-, daynte, -ee, (4-5 dayn-, deyntte), 4-6 
dein-, deyntie, -y(e, 4-6 Sc. dante(e, 6 -ie, 5 
dente, 6 denty, -ie, 4-7 daynty(e, -ie, 67 
daintie, -ye, 4- dainty, [a. OF. deintie, daintie, 
dainte pleasure, tit-bit :-L. dignitatem worthiness, 
worth, beauty, f. dignus worthy. The earlier OF. 
form was in -et, whence DAINTETH.] 

fl. Estimation, honour, favour (in which any- 
thing is held) ; esteem, regard ; affection, love. 

a 1225 Ancr. R. 412 Me let lesse deinte to binge bet me 
haueS ofte. c 1305 St. Dmistan 35 in E. E. P. (1862) 35 For 
hadde of him : he let him sone bringe Bifore 



deynte J?at he hadd> 



bou5te. c 1430 LYDG. Bochas Prol. 52 These Poetes . . Were 
by olde time had in great deintye With Kinges. 1513 
DOUGLAS j*Eneis iv. viii. 28 Sen jonne. . manj deir sister, the 
Was wount to cherise, and hald in gret dantie. 

(2. Liking or fondness to do or see anything; 
delight, pleasure, joy. Obs. 

c 1325 Song of Yesterday 5 in E. E. P. (1862) 133 J>ei 
haue no deynte forto dele With )>inges bat bene deuotly 
made. 1375 BARBOUR Bruce xn. 159 Than all ran in-to 
gret dantee The Erll of Murreff for till se. c 1386 CHAUCER 
Man of Law's T. 41 Euery wight hath deyntee to chaffare 
With hem. c 1449 PECOCK Repr. i. xiii. 66 The reeding in 
the Bible, .drawith the reders..fro loue and deinte of the 
world. 1508 DUNBAR Tiua maryit wemen 413 Adew 
dolour, adew ! my daynte now begynis. a 1529 SKELTON 
Bouge of Courte 337 Trowest thou..That I haue deynte 
to see thee cherysshed thus ? 

f3. Delightful or choice quality; sumptuous- 
ness. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 3655 (Cott.) Venison bou has him 
nommen, Wit dainte dight til his be-houe. c 1300 A". Alis. 
7070 They haven seolk, gret plente, And maken clothis of 
gretdeynte'. ^1440 Promp. Parv. 117/1 Dente (K. H. P. 
deynte), lauticia. 

\ 4. Daintiness ; fastidiousness. Obs. 
1390 SPENCER F. Q. i. ii. 27 He feining seemely merth, 
And shee coy lookes : so dainty, they say t maketh derth. 
1397 SHAKS. 2 Hen. IY, iv. i. 198 Note this: the King is 
wearie Of daintie, and such picking grieuances. 

(5. concr. Anything estimable, choice, fine, pleas- 
ing or delightful ; hence occas., a luxury, rarity 
(cf. DAINTY a. 2). Obs. exc. as in 6. 

1340 HAMPOLE Pr. Consc. 7850 pare es plente of dayntes 
and delice. a 1400-30 Alexander 5298 Ware slike a won- 
dire in oure marche of Messedone. .It ware a daynte to 
deme. 1362 J. HEYWOOD Prov. $ Epigr. (1867) 51 Plenty is 
no dainty. 1617 RICH Irish Hubbub 47 It was a great dainties 
. . euen amongst their greatest nobility, to see a cloake 
lined thorow with Veluet. a 1661 FULLER Worthies (1840) 
1 1. 439 [He] made such a vent for Welch cottons, that what 
he found drugs at home, he left dainties beyond the sea. 
1798 FERRIAR Jllustr. Sterne, Eng. Hist. 227 Those who 
can only be allured by the dainties of knowledge, 
fb. As a term of endearment. (Cf. sweet.) 
1611 B. JONSON Catiline H. i, There is a fortune comming 
Towards you, Daintie. 

6. esp. Anything pleasing or delicious to the 
palate; a choice viand, a delicacy. 

c 1300 Behet 1202 Heo servede this holi man and of deyntes 
him brojte. 1393 GOWER Con/. II. 255 Tho was there 
many a deinte fet And set to-fore hem on the bord. c 1440 
Promp. Pan'. 117 Delyce, or deyntes, ddicie. 1576 
FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 291 Some whet their teethe upon 
sugred deinties. 1611 BIBLE Ps. cxli. 4 Letmee not eate of 
their dainties. 1794 SOUTHEY Wat Tyler m. ii, Your 
larders hung with dainties, a i839PRAED/Ww.s(i864'i. 305 
The cunning caterer still must share The dainties which his 
toils prepare. 

fig. 1393 GOWER Conf.\\\. 26 Suche deinties. .Wherof thou 
takest thin herte food. 1614 Bp. HALL Recoil. Treat. 59 
There be some, .to whom sin. .is both food and dainties. 

1 7. Phrase. To make dainty of (anything) : to 
set great store by ; hence, to be sparing or chary 
of ; to make dainty to do (or of doing ; also absol.}, 
to be chary or loth, to scruple. Obs. 

1555 WATREMAN FardU Facions I. iii. 37 The moste noble 
Citrus, wherof the Romaines made greate deintie. 1579 
TOMSON Calvin's Serin. Tim. ix. 107/1 They will not make 
daintie of the name of our Lord Jesus Christe, to worke their 
subtill and mischeevous practises. 1381 SAVILE Tacitus' 
Hist. I. xlvi. (1591)26 Some, .made noe dainty to beare any 
burden. 1592 SHAKS. Rom. $ Jul. I. v. 21 Which of you 
all Will now deny to dance? She that makes dainty, She 
lie sweare hath cornes. a 1617 HIERON Wks. II. 492 Shee 
ranne home and made no dainties of it ; all her neighbours 
were the better for her store, a 1628 PRESTON New Cov. 
(1634) 410 Defer not, make not dainty of applying the 
promises. 1633 Bp. HALL Hard Texts Matt. x. 39 Hee 
that makes so dainty of his life as that, .he will not expose 
it to danger. 1638 FEATLEY Strict. Lyndont. n. 122 We 
have all reason to make great dainties of the noble con- 



10 

fession of. .our Romish adversaries. 1649 MILTON Eikon. 
43 If .. he made so dainty and were so loath to bestow [etc.]. 

f 8. As an asseveration : ? =By God's dignity, 
or honour. Obs. 

1611 TOURNEUR Ath. Trag. n. v, S'daintie, I mistooke the 
place, I miss'd thine eare and hit thy lip. 

Dainty (d^nti), a. [from prec. sb.] 

f 1. Valuable, fine, handsome ; choice, excellent ; 
pleasant, delightful. Obs. or dial, in general sense. 

e 1340 Gam. >t Gr. Knt. 1253 To daly with derely your 
daynte wordez. c 1386 CHAUCER Frol. 168 Full many a 
deynte hors hadde he in stable. 1526 TINDALE Rev. xvm. 
14 All thynges which were deyntie and had in pryce. 1573 
TUSSER Husb. xxxv. (1878) 81 More daintie the lambe, 
the more woorthto be sold. 1626 BACON Sylva 389 The 
daintiest Smells of Flowers, are out of those plants, whose 
Leaves smell not. 1712 STEELE -S/terf. _ No._ 354 F i To 
hear Country Squires, .cry, Madam, this is dainty Weather. 
1816 SCOTT Old Mart, vi, ' Ay ? indeed ? a scheme o yours 1 
that must be a denty ane ! ' 1855 ROBINSON Whitby Gloss., 
Detity or Dentyisk, a weather term, genial, cheering. 

f 2. Pricious ; hence, rare, scarce. Obs. 

? a 1500 How Plowman lerned Pate r- Nosier 28 in Hazl. 
E. P. P. (1864! I. 2ii Malte had he plentye; And Martyl- 
mas befe to hym was not deyntye. 1578 LYTE Dodoens vi. 
xi. 671 The blacke [whorts] are very common, .but the red 
are dayntie, and founde but in (ewe places. 1616 HIERON 
Wks. I. 584 If sermons were dainty, .they would be more 
esteemed. 1677 LADY CHAWORTH in i2.'/5 Rep. Hist. MSS. 
Camm. App. v. 37 A rare muffe, but judged to be some 
dainty squirell skin. 

3. Pleasing to the palate, choice, delicate. 

1382 WYCLIF Prov. xxi. 17 Who looueth deynte metis. 
c 1386 CHAUCER Pard. T. 58 To gete a glotoun deyntee 
mete and drinke. 1541 BARNES Wks. (1573) 299/1 To eate 



shall be serv'd up last. 1758 JOHNSON Idler No. 100 T 12 
Her house is elegant and her table dainty. 1892 STEVENSON 
Wrecker ii, Fine wines and dainty dishes. 

4. Of delicate or tender beauty or grace; delicately 
pretty ; made with delicate taste. 

c 1400 Destr. Troy 3060 Her chyn. .With a dympull full 
derne, dayntiS to se. 1355 WATREMAN Fardle Facions i. v. 
77 She is estemed, as a deinty derling, beloued of many. 
1579 SPENSER Skeph. Cal. June 6 The grassye ground with 
damtye Daysies dight. 1609 B. JONSON Sil. Worn. iv. i, 
Let your gifts be slight and dainty, rather than precious. 
c 1645 HOWELL Lett. i. xxviii. 54 Such a diaphonous pel- 
lucid dainty body as you see a Crystall-glasse is. 1877 
M. M. GRANT Sun-Maid vii, There stood waiting for her 
the daintiest of little broughams. 

5. Of persons, etc. : Possessing or displaying deli- 
cate taste, perception, or sensibility ; nice, fastidious, 
particular; sometimes, over-nice. 

1576 FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 357 Fine fellowes, that bee 
verie deintie and circumspect in speaking. 1581 LAMBARDE 
Eiren. IV. v. (1588) 497 Sundry other daintie and nice 
differences doth M. Marrow make. 1591 SHAKS. i Hen. 
VI, v. iii. 38 No shape but his can please your dainty eye. 
1602 Ham. v. i. 78 The hand of little Imployment hath 
the daintier sense. 1700 CONGREVE Way of World in. xv, 
I am somewhat dainty in making a resolution because 
when I make it I keep it. 1841 LYTTON Nt. tf Morn. m. ii, 
You must take me as you take the world, without being 
over-scrupulous and dainty. 1855 H. REED Lect. Eng. 
Lit. iii. 101 From being too dainty in our choice of words, 
f b. with of: Particular or scrupulous about 
(anything) ; careful, chary, or sparing of. Obs. 

1578 FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 251 Friendes. .garnished wt 
learning, & not deintie of their travel!. 1603 SHAKS. Macb. 
n. iii. 150 Let vs not be daintie of leaue-taking, But shift 
away. 1642 FULLER Holy ty Prof. St. v. iii. 367 The devi! 
not being dainty of his company where he finds welcome, 
t C. with infin. : Disinclined or reluctant 'to do). 

'553 B. GILPIN in Strype Eccl. Mem. II. xxiii. 440 Such 
as be dainty to hear the poor. 1612 SIR R. DUDLEY in 
Fortesc. Papers ^ note, I will not bee dainty to make you 
a partie to my designes. 

6. Nice or particular as to the quality of food, 
comforts, etc. ; t luxurious. 

""533 LD - BERNERS Gold. Bk. M. Auret. (1546) Kjb, 
The heart of a woman is deyntee. 1614 Bp. HALL Recoil. 
Treat. 85 As.. some daintie guest knowing there is so 
pleasant fare to com. 1683 TRYON Way to Health 181 You 
dainty Dames that are so nice, that you will not endure this 
pleasant Element to blow upon you. 1855 MOTLEY Dutch 
Rep. III. VI. v. 521 When men were starving they could not 
afford to be dainty. 1892 STEVENSON Wrecker ii, I was 
born with a dainty tooth and a palate for wine. 

f 7. Delicate (in health or constitution). Obs. 

1562 BULLEYN Campoundes 46 a, Thei maie be giuen to 
drinke to them that are weake or feable, or as thei call it 
deintie. 1581 MULCASTER Positions xxii. (1887) 94 Whose 
mother was delicate, daintie, tender, neuer stirring. 

8. quasi -otft>. Daintily, (rare?) 

1614 Bi 1 . HALL Recoil. Treat. 726 You quote Scriptures, 
tho (to your prayse) more dainty indeede then your 
fellowes. 1671 H. M. tr. Erasm. Colloo. 72 If rich men 
shall fare somewhat dainty. 1873 Miss BROUGHTON Nancy 
III. 144 So exceedingly fair and dainty wrought. 

9. Comb., as dainty-chapped, -eared, -fingered, 
-motithed, -tongued, -toothed adjs. 

1725 BAILEY Erasm. Colloq. (1877) 42 (D.) You *dainty- 
chapped fellow, you ought to be fed with hay. 1549 LATI- 



1530 PALSGfr. 309/2 *Deynty 



jy a *dainty-finger'd Girl. 

mouthed, friant^ 

are so " ' 

J577tr. ..... ti-.- 

bee. .not hcorish lipped, nor *dainty toothed. 



DAIBY. 

t Dainty (d?'-nti), v. Ol'S. rare. [f. prec. sb. 
or adj.] trans. With up : To pamper or indulge 
with dainties. 

i6zz H. SYDENHAM Serin. Sol. Occ. (1637) 108 So that 
they would, .nourish, not daintie up the body. 1778 MRS. 
THRALE in Mail. D'Arblay's Diary Sept. I. 68 She dainties 
us up with all the meekness in the world. 

Dair, Dairt, obs. forms of DAKE, DABT. 

Dairawe, Daired : see DAY-. 

II Dairi (dai-rz). Also 7 dayro. [Japanese, f. 
Chinese dai great + ri within.] In Japan, properly 
the palace or court of the Mikado : also a respect- 
ful mode of speaking of the mikado or emperor. 

Hence Dairi-sama, lit. lord of the dairi or 
palace, an appellation of the Mikado. 

1662 J. DAVIES tr. Mandelslo's Trav.^ E. Ind. 184 That 
great State hath always been govern'd by a Monarch, 
whom, in their Language they call Dayro. 1780 Phil. 
Trans. LXX. App. 7 We were not allowed to see the 
Dairi, or ecclesiastical emperor. 

Dairy (de->'ri\.r. Forms: 3 deierie, 4 dayerie, 
dayry, 5 deyery, deyry, 6 deirie, dary, //. 
deyris, dayres, 6-7 deyrie, dayery(e, dery, 
dayrie, dairie, 7 daery, darie, dayry, 7- dairy- 
[ME. deierie, etc., f. deie, deye, DEY female servant, 
dairy-maid + -erie, -EHY 2, suffix of Romanic origin. 
The dai-ry is thus the place where the function of 
the dey is performed : cf. dey-woman, -house.'] 

1. A room or building in which milk and cream 
are kept, and made into butter and cheese, b. 
Sometimes in towns the name is assumed by a shop 
in which milk, cream, etc. are sold. 

c 1290 6". Eng. Leg. I. 192/14 Hire deierie was euere of 
chese and botere bar and swibe lene. Ibid., For bare nas 
in be deierie noujt adel of none ^wite. c 1386 CHAUCER 
Wife's T. 15 Thropes, beernys, shipnes, dayrys. c 1440 
Promp. Pant. 117 Deyrye, vaccaria. 1577 B. GOOGE 
HeresbacKs Hitsb. i. (1386) 3 As my Foldes. .or my Dayrie 
and Fishpondes wyl yeelde. 1621 B. JONSON Gipsies 
Metamorph. Wks. (Rtldg.) 624/1 To Roger or Mary Or 
Peg of the dairy. 1727-46 THOMSON Summer 262 Some 
[insects] to the house, The fold, and dairy, hungry, bend 
their flight. 1837 HOWITT Rur. Life vi. i. 402 The elegant 
dairy for the supply of milk and cream, curds and butter. 

2. That department of farming, or of a particular 
farm, which is concerned with the production of 
milk, butter, and cheese. Hence, sometimes ap- 
plied to the milch cows on a farm collectively. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Prol. 597 His lordes scheep, his meet, 
and his dayerie, His swyn, his hors, his stoor, and his 




cows established here by the present king. 1814 JANE WEST 
A. de Lacy III. 238 The .. troopers .. drove off our good 
cow-dairy. 1881 Somerset Co.Gaz. 18 Mar., Dairy of 12 or 
16 cows to be let. 1888 ELWOHTHV W. Somerset Word-lik., 
Dairy, the milking cows belonging to any farm or house. 
3. A dairy-farm. 



manie wickes or dayries. a. 1661 FULLER Worthies n. 144 
The Goodnesse of the Earth, abounding with Deries and 
Pasture. 1769 De Foe's Tour Gt. Brit. II. 41 AH the loVer 
Part of this County, .is full of large feeding Farms, which 
we call Dairies ; and the Cheese they make is excellent. 

4. attrib. and Comb., as dairy-cabin, -country, 
-damsel, -pail, -society, -ware, -wench, -wife, -work, 
etc. ; dairy fed adj. ; dairy-farm, a farm chiefly 
devoted to the production of milk, butter, and 
cheese ; so dairy-farmer, -farming ; dairy- 
grounds, cow-pastures ; dairy-school, a technical 
school for teaching dairy-work or dairy-farming ; 
dairy-woman, a woman who manages a dairy. 

1797 MRS. RADCLIFFE Italian xiii, It was a *dairy-cabin 
belonging to some shepherds. 1626 BACON Sylva 354 
Children in *Dayrie Countries doe waxe more tall, than 
where they feed more upon Bread, and Flesh. 1818 SCOTT 
Hrt. Midi, xli, The yet more considerate *dairy-damsel. 
Ibid, ix, To employ them as a "dairy-farmer, or cowfeeder, 
as they are called in Scotland. 1842 S. LOVER Handy 
Andy x, I've seen them in England killing your "dairy-fed 
pork, a 1618 SYLVESTER HymnofAlms 131 His douns with 



278/2 They will, .establish *dairy schools all over England. 
1890 Farmer's Gaz. 4 Jan. 5/2 The numerous *dairy socie- 
ties in America. 1727 Philip Quarll (i8r6) 61 Having 
a store of *dairy ware, he resolved to make a place to keep 
it in : the kitchen, .not being a proper place for cream and 
milk. 1684 OTWAY Atheist v. i, The "Dairy-Wench or 
Chamber-maid. 1798 BLOOMFIELD Farmer's Bay, Spring 
251 Suffolk *dairy-wives run mad for cream. 1609 Ev. 
Woman in Hum. i. in Bullen O. PI. IV, I shall goe to 
court now, and attired like an old *Darie woman. 1841 
M. L.HAWTHORNE in Hawthorn,: t; Wife(-&%$> I. 230 Brim; 
us home a box of butter, if your dairy-woman is very nice. 
1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa (1811) III. ix. 67, I have . . ad- 
mired them in their "dairy-works. 1890 Farmers Gaz. 
4 Jan. 5/2 As a specialist in dairy work. 

Dai'ry, v. rare. [f. DAIRY si.] trans. To 
keep or feed (cows) for the dairy. 



dairying of cows. 



DAIRY-HOUSE. 

Dai'ry-house. A house or building used as 
a dairy ; - I UIUY $b. i ; ihc house of a dairy-man. 

1530 I'AI.SCR. 2ia/* I^cyrie house, meteric. 1616 SUHFL. 
^: MAKKH. Country 1-nrme 16 You shall haue a Uairic- 
hmisc or MIL ill vaulted Rtwme jpaucd, and lyuiK ?>lopc-wise 
..to serue for the huswifes I);iirie. 1741 RICHARDSON 
r>int,'lct III. ioi You'd better sec her now-and-then at the 
I );iiry house or at School. 

Dairying (de-Tijiij 1 ). [f. DAIUY v. + -iNo 1 .] 
The business or management of a dairy ; the pro- 
duction of milk and manufacture of butter and 
cheese ; dairy-farming. 

1649 BLITHK Eng. lnij>rav, Imfir, To Rdr., To shew the 
w:iy of Cow-keeping, Davrying, or raising most Cheese and 
Butter. 1891 Queen 25 Alar. 478/2 They have the subject of 
dairying and dairy schools very much at heart. 
b. attrib. 

1784 TWAMLEY Dairying 8 In a considerable Dairying 
Country. 1890 Times 22 Feb. 7/3 The improvement and 
extension of the dairying industry. 

Dairymaid tdc'rinvid}. A female servant 
employed in a dairy. 

1599 B, JONSON Cynthia's Rcr. iv. i, Now I would be an 
empresse; and by and by a duchess; then a great lady.. 
then a deyrie maide. 1711 ADDISON Sfiect. No. 530 p 3 
He has married a dairy-maid. 1879 J. WRIGHTSON Dairy 
Hush, in Casselfs Techn. Educ, Iv. 246/2 When the butler 
falls from side to side in a compact lump the dairy-maid 
knows that her work approaches completion. 

Dairyman (de*rima i n). A man who manages, 
or is employed in, a dairy, b. A man engaged in 
the sale of milk and other dairy produce. 

1784^ TWAMLEY Dairying 58 An object not unworthy 
a Dairy-man's notice, 1813 L. RICHMOND (////*, The Dairy- 
man's daughter. 1882 .Somerset Co. Gaz. iSMar., Wanted ( 
a steady young man as Dairyman. 

Dairy-woman: see DAI BY 4. 

Dais (d*s, d^'*is). Forms : 3-5 deys, 3-6 
dels, 4-5 dea, 4-6 dese, dece, deyse, dees, 5 
deise, deesse, 5-6 dess(e, deaa(e, 6 deaase, 
t'lysse, Sc. deiss, deische, 8-9 .SC. deaa, 4, 8-9 
dais. [a. OF. deis (later dois) t mod.F. (from 
Ticard dial.) t/aiV Pr. des y It. dcscoi\+, disc-tttn 
(nom. discus] quoit, disk, dish, in late L. table. 

The sense-development has been ' table, high table (in- 
cluding its platform), the raised end of the nail occupied by 
the high table and used for other purposes of distinction, 
the canopy covering this ' : the latter being only in modern 
French, and thence in Eng. The word died out in Eng. 
about 1600, but was retained in Sc. in sense 3 ; its recent 
revival, chiefly since 1800, in senses, is due to historical and 
antiquarian writers ; it appears in no Eng. diets, until 
Worcester 1846, Craig 1847. Always a monosyllable in Fr., 
and in Eng. where retained as a living word ; the dissyllabic 
pronunciation is a ' shot ' at the word from the spelling.] 

1. t a. A raised table in a hall, at which dis- 
tinguished persons sat at feasts, etc.; the high 
table. (Often including the platform on which it 
was raised : see next sense.) Obs. since 1600. 

a 1159 MATT. PARIS I'itae A bbatum S. Alb. inWalsingham 
(Rolls) I. 521 Priore prandente ad magnam mensam quam 
1 Deis 1 yulgariter appellamus. 1*97 R. Gtot'c. (Rolls) 11073 
Vort hii come vp to pe deis. a 1300 Cursor M. 12560 (Colt.) 
Ne brek bair brede, ne tast bair mes, Til he war cummen til 
bair des. c 1350 Will, Palerne 4564 f>e semli segges were 
sette in halle, pe real rinkes bi reson at be heije dcse, and 
alle o'>er afterward on be side benches. 1450 HENRYSON 
Mar, Fab. 10 So that Good-will bee caruer at the Dease. 
cijoo in Arnolde Ckron. (1811) 241 Syttyng at the hygh 
dees : My Lord of Ely in the myddes. 1535 STEWART Cron. 
Scot. II. 395 Quhair that he sat into his stait royall, With 
mony ding lord sittand at his deische. a 1575 Wife lapped 
in MorrelU-s Skin 312 in Hazl. E. J\ P. IV. 193 The Bride 
was set at the hye dysse. 

\ b. To begin the dais : to take the chief seat, 
or preside, at a feast : see BEGIN v. 1 5. Also to 
hold the dais in same sense. Obs. 

1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 7166 He ber be croune & huld be 
deis mid obcr atil also, c 1310 Sir Bents 2123 J\>w schelt 
bis dai be priour And be-ginne oure deis. c i+jpSyr Tryam. 
1636 Queue Margaret began the deyse, Kyng Ardus, wyth 
owtyn lees, He nur was he sett, c 1440 I'artonopt App. 
7310 (Roxb.) Next the Quene he began the deyse. 

2. The raised platform at one end of a hall for 
the high table, or for scats of honour, a throne, or 
the like : often surmounted by a canopy. Obs. since 
c 1600, until revived c 1800 in historical and sub- 
sequently in current use. 

In earlier times sometimes app. meaning a bench or seat 
of honour upon the raised platform : cf. sense 3. 

r- I- T . T _^_/__ *\_ L_ L_!__ J-T- __ 

. .i 



were sette solempnely in a sete ryche, Abof dukes on dece. 
with dayntys serued. c 1386 CHAUCER Merck. T. 467 Ana 
atte fest sittith be and sche With othir worthy folk upon 
th deys. c 1450 St. Cnthbcrt 3049 He salt doune opon be 
dese. 1501 DOUGLAS Pal. Hen. it. xlv, Tho I saw our 
ladyis twa and twa Sittand on dei;*sis, 1513 BRADSHAW 
St. Wcrburge i. 1625 Ouer the hye desse. .Where the sayd 
thrc kynge.s sate crowned all. 1575 LANEHAM Let. (1871) 
41 A doouty Dwarf too the vnpermost deas Right peartly 
gan prik, and, kneeling on knee.. Said 'hail, syr king . 
1778 PENNANT Tour in Wn&r (1883) I. 13 The great.. hall 
is. .furnished with the high Dais, or elevated upper end, 
and its long table for the lord and his jovial companions. 
i8ao SCOTT I-sankee iii, For about one quarter of the length 
of the apartment, the Hoor was raised by a step, and this 
space, which was called the dais, was occupied only by the 
principal members of the family. 1840 ARNOLD Hist. Rant 
II. 459 Like the dais or upper part of our old castle and 



11 

college halls. 1860 KMMSON Coo./. Life, HeluTviour Wks. 

H !<n) II. 386 The Knindcc- look his place on the duis. 

b. liy extension : The platform of a lecture 
hall ; the raised floor on which the pulpit and 
communion table stand in some places of worship. 

1888 Nature 26 Jan. 299/1 As a lecturer he was not 
brilliant ; lie appeared shy and nervous when on the dais. 
1893 Newsf<r. A Flower Service was held in the church ; 
the pulpit iind dais were taMefully decorated. 

8. In some early examples (chiefly northern) it 
appears to have the sense ' seat, bench '; so in Sc. 
a ' A long board, scat, or bench, erected against 
a wall ', a settle ; also, ' a seat on the outer side of 
a country house or cottage', b. A seat, bench, or 
l>ew in a church. (Jamieson.) Chamber of dais : 
see CHAHBEK sli. 1 1. 

a 1330 Syr Degarrt 765 Amidde the halle More A fir was 
bt stark and store : He sat adoun upon the dais, And 
wanned him wel eche wais. 

a 1774 FERCUSSON Farmer 1 ! Ingle (184^ 38 In its auld 
errocn yet the deas remains, Where the guidman aft streeks 
him at his ease. 17.. JAMIESON 1'of. Bali, (18061 I. an 



I errocn yet the deas remains, Where the guidman aft streeks 
him at his ease. ij.. JAMIESON Pof. Ball, (18061 I. an 
I Jam.) The priest a/ore the altar stood, The Mer-man he 



stept o'er ae deas. And he has stepptt over three. 1818 
SCOTT iht. Midi, xviii, The old man was seated on the 
(teas, or turf-seat, at the end of his cottage. 1833-53 
ll'kistU^finkie iSc. Songs) Ser. 111. 73 Last Sunday, in jour 
faither's dais, I saw thy bloomin May-morn face. 1879 
E. W. ROBERTSON Hist. Ess. 107 The chamber of Deese, 
the best room in the farmhouse of a certain class. 

4. trans/, (from a) A raised platform or terrace 
of any kind ; e. g. in the open air. 

1861 N. A. WOODS Frixce of Wales in Canada 341 
A noble and lofty flight of steps those daises of architecture 
which . . add . . to the grand and imposing effect of lofty 
facades. 1884 C. ROGERS Soc. Life Seal. I. ix. 378 On the 
slopes of ancient daisses or hill terraces. 

6. [after mod.Fr. not an Eng. sense.] The 
canopy over a throne or chair of state. 

1863 THORNBURY True as Steel^l. 147 The Bishop, .occu- 
pied with bland dignity the chief throne under the dais. 
1866 Village on CY/// iii, An old dais of Queen Anne's time 
still hung over his doorway. 

Dais, Sc. pi. of DAW, Doi. 

Daise, obs. form of DAZE. 

Daisied (d^-zid), a. Also 7 daziod. [f. DAISY 

+ -ED 2 .] Adorned with or abounding in daisies. 
(Chiefly poetic.} 

1611 SHAKS. Cymb. iv. it 398 Let vs Finde out the prettiest 
Dazied Plot we can. c 1710 GAY Diane I. iv, Daisy'd lawns. 
1883 Cjtntemp. Rev. June 862 Beneath the daisied turf. 

Daisle, Daisterre, obs. ff. DAZZLE, DAT-STAR. 

Daisy (cU'-zi). Forms: i deegesege, -ease, 
3-4 dayes-eje, -eghe, 4 dayesye, -eye, 4-5 
daysye, 4-7 daysie, daisio, (5 //. dayses), 5-6 
daysy, 6 deysy, dasye, dasey. dayzie, 6-7 dasy, 
7 days-eye, dazy, -ie, (//. dayzes, Sc. desie, 
deasie\ 7-8 daizy, 6- daisy. [OE. dttys cage 
day's eye, eye of day, in allusion to the appearance 
of the flower, and to its closing the ray, so as to 
conceal the yellow disk, in the evening, and open- 
ing again in the morning.] 

1. The common name of Bellis pcrennis, N.O. 
Composite, a familiar and favourite flower of the 
British Isles and Europe generally, having small 
flat flower-heads with yellow disk and white ray 
(often tinged with pink), which close in the evening; 
it grows abundantly on grassy hills, in meadows, 
by roadsides, etc., and blossoms nearly all the year 
round ; many varieties are cultivated in gardens. 

c loco ^ELFRIC Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 135/22 Consolda. 
daezesege. ciooo Sax. Leechd. III. 2512 icarwe, and fil- 
leafe, daejesege, and synnfulle. a 1310 in Wright Lyric l\ 



xiii. 43 Dayes-eJes in thio dales, c 1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. 
Prol. 43 Of al the floures in the medc, Thanne love I most 
these floures white and rede, Suche as men callen daysycs. 
Itia. 184 Wele by reson men it calle may The dayeseye, or 
ellis the eye of day. c 1450 Crt. of Lave xv, Depeinted won- 
derly, With many a thousand daisies, rede as rose, And 



_____ i6 1 

Ess. (fardens I Arb.)' 556 For March, There come Violets.. 
The Yellow Dafladifl; The Dazie. 1710 ADDISON Ttitlcr 
No. 218 pg Visits to a Spot of Daizies, or a Bank of Violets. 
1803 LEYDEN Scenes of Inf. i. 291 When evening brines the 
merry folding hours. And sun-eyed daisies close their winking 
flowers. 1833 MARRYAT /'. Simple xxxv, She was as fresh 
as a daisy. 1861 DELAMER Fl. Gartt. 81 There are 
Quilled, Double, and Proliferous or Hen - and * Chicken 
Daisies. 

b. Cf. DAISY-CDTTEB i. 

1847 W. IRVING Life <f Lett. (1864) IV. 28 M_y horse, now 
and then cuts daisies with me when I am on his back. 

2. Applied to other plants with similar flowers 
or growing in similar situations, a. simply. In 
N. America, the Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysanthemum 
Leticanthemum (see b) ; in Australia, various 
Composite, esp. Vitattenia and lirachycome iberiiii- 
folia ; in New Zealand, the genus Lagenophora. 
b. With qualifications, as African Daisy, Athan- 
asia aiinua ; Blue Daisy, (a) the Sea Starwort ; 
(/>) the genus Globularia ; Bull D. = Ox-eye D. ; 
Butter D., locally applied to the Buttercup, ami 
to the Ox-eye Daisy; Christmas D., several 
species of Aster, esp. A. granJiflorus ; Dog D. = 



DAKER-HEN. 

Ox-eye f).; Olobu D., the genus (,, 
Great D., II or BO D., HicUummcr D., Moon D. 
-Ox eye D.\ Marsh D. .V 1>. ; Michaelmas 
D., various cultivated species of Aster whidi 
blossom about Michaelmas; also nppli.il to the 
wild Aster 'J'ripolium ; Ox-eye Daisy, Chrysan- 
themum J.eucant/ienim, a common plant in 
meadows, with flowers resembling those of the 
common daisy bat much larger, on tall stiff stalks ; 
Sea Daisy, Thrift, Armeria maritima. (See Treat. 
Hot., and Britten & Holland Eng. 1'lattl-tt.} 

a 1387 Sinen. Bartkal. f Anecd. Oxon.i 16 CauolMa m,,tia, 
Krete uaycseghc. 1578 I.VIK Dotieens n. xix. 169 There be 
twojtinucs of Day&ic% the great and the small Ibid ML 
xxxiii. 364 Some call it blew Camomil or blew Duties. 1794 
MARTYH Rousseau's Hot. xxvL 396 The Ox-eye Dawy, 
a plant common among standing grass in meadows. 1838 
SCKOFE Dcerslalkin; 388 Even the higheM hills, .are scat- 
tered over with the sea daisy and other plants. 1861 Miss 
PRATT Flaaxr. PI. II I. 286 (Sea-Starwort). .Country people 
call it Blue Daisy. 

3. A species of sea-anemone (Actinia belli]). 

1859 I. ewes Sea-tide Stud. Index. 

1 4. As a term of admiration. Obs. 

c 148$ Jiigfy Mysl. (1881) in. 515 A dere dcwchesse, my 
daysyys lee ! a 1605 MONTGOMEKIE Misc. ffena (1887) 
xxxix. i, Adeu, O dcsie of delyt. 

6. slang, (chiefly U.S.\ A first-rate thing or 
person ; also as adj. First-rate, charming. 

1757 FOOTE Author it. Wks. 1799 I. 148 Oh daisy ; that's 
charming. 1886 MRS. BURNETT Lit! It Ld. l-auntleroy 
xv. (18871 3 ^3 ' She's the daisies! gal I ever saw ! She's 
well, she's just a daisy, that's what she is.' 1888 Denver 
Republican May (Farmer), Beyond compare a pugilistic 
daisy. 1889 Boston (Mass. I Jriil. 22 Mar. 2/3 In a new 
book upon Americanisms,' some of the less familiar are . . 
daisy, for anything first-rate. 

6. attrib. or as adj. Resembling a daisy. 

a 1605 MONTCOMERIE Well of Lave 41 Hir deasie colour, 
rid and vhytc. 1611 BARKSTED /i it-en (1876) 83, 1 sweare 
by this diuine white daizy-hand. 1854-6 PATMORE Angctin 
Ho. L ll. iv, She Whose daisy eyes had learned to droop. 

7. Comb., as daisy-bud, -flmvcr, -head, -lattm, 
-root ; daisy-dapple </, -diapered, -dimpled, -painted, 
-spangled adjs. ; daisy-like adj. ; daisy anemono 
sense 3; daisy-bush, a New Zealand shrub of 
the genus Olearia ; daisy -chain, a chain of daisies 
sewed or fastened together, made by children in 
play ; daisy-leaved a., having leaves like those 
of the daisy. 

1857 WOOD Cflitnn. Obj. Sea Shore vi. 114 A bad-tempered 
*Daisy Anemone (Actinia bellis\ which lived in a cave . . 
and did not approve of intrusion. 1841 LVTTON Nt. 4 Morn. 
l.ix, I never walk out in the fields, nor make ' dais) -chains. 

1596 FITZ. GEFFREY Sir F. Drake (1881) 81 The 'daysie- 
diap'red bankes. 1845 HIRST roftns 54 Over "daisy-dimpled 
meadows. 1887 SIR W. G. SIMPSON Art of C off 91 One 
sweeps off "daisy heads with a walking-stick. 1796 
WITHERING Brit. I'lants (ed. 3) III. 577 *Daiie-leayed 
Lady smock. 1796 T. TOWNSHEND Poems ao The "daisy- 
painted green. 16*6 BACON Sylva { 354 Boyling of "Dasie- 
Roots in Milk. 1813 SHELLEY Q. Mat vm. 82 The "daisy- 
spangled lawn. 

Dai'Sy, v. rare. [f. prec. sb.] trans. To cover 
or adorn with daisies. 

1767 G. S. CAREY Hills of ifytla 8 When fertile nature 
dasy d ev'ry hill. 1831 E. TAYLOR Remembrance 29 The 
earth we tread shall be daisied o'er. 

Dai'sy-cutter. [//A ' cutter of daisies ' : see 
DAISY si. i b.] 

1. A horse that in trotting lifts its feet only very 
slightly from the ground. 

1791 * G. GAMBADO* Ann. Heriem. xvi. (1809) 129, I luckily 
picked up a Daisy-cutter, by his throwing me down on the 
smoothest part of the grass. 1847 VOVATT Hone iv. 87 
The careless daisy-cutter, however pleasant on the turf, 
should.. be avoided. 1867 REAUC Griffith Gaunt (1889) 5 
Daisy-cutters were few in those days. 

2. Cricket and Base-ball. A ball so bowled or 
batted as to skim along the surface of the ground. 

1889 ' MARK TWAIN' Yankee at Crt. K. Xrf*xnTuchn.) 
II. 226 I've seen him catch a daisy-cutter in his teeth. 1891 
FARMER Slanf Diet.) Daisy-cutter, a ball which travels 
more than half the ' pitch ' along the ground without rising ; 
a ' sneak '. 

So Dai sy-cutting vl>I. sb. and ///. a. 

18*7 HONE Everyday Bk. II. 461 Nimble daisy-cutting 
nags. 1837 T. HOOK Jack Brag I, None of your bowling- 
green, daisy -cutting work for us. 1875 'SToNEiiEMGC 1 
Brit. Sforts ll. 11. i. 8 3. 502 The . . low daisy-cutting form 
which suits the smooth turf of our race-courses. 

Dait, obs. form of DATE. 

Dak : see DAWK. 

Daker. Al?o daiker, dakir. [a. OF. dacre, 
Jakere, med.L, dacra: see DICKER.] Variant of 
DICKER, a set of ten. 

1531 Aberdeen Burgh Kec. xm. 248 The dakir of hiilis. 

1597 SKENE De Vert. Sign. s.v. Serpluith, Ten hides maids 
ane daiker, and twcntie daiker makis ane last. 1753 MAIT- 
LAND Hist. Ediit. in. 248 For every Daker of Hides landed 
at Leith -8 pennies. 1866 ROGERS Aerie, fr Prints I. 171 
The dicker or daker was. .a measure for hides and gloves. 

Daker, var. of DACKXB. 

Daker-heu. dial. [Connexion has been sug- 
gested with D.VIKKK i>., and with Flem. daeckeren 
' volitare, motari, mobilitare, et coruscare' (Kilian . 
But no such name appears to be applied to the 
bird in Flanders.] The Corn-crake or Land-rail. 

2* -2 



DAL. 

1552 ELYOT Bibl., Cre.v, a certaine birde, whiche semeth 
by Aristotle to be that whiche in some places is called 
a Daker hen. 1678 RAY Willugkhy's Ornith. 170 The Rail 
or Daker-hen. 1766 PENNANT Zool, (1768) II. 387. 1789 G. 
WHITE Selborne 11853) 347 A man brought me a land-rail or 
daker-hen. 1869 Lonsdale Gloss., Daker-hcn^ the corn-crake. 

Dakoit, etc. : see DACOIT, etc. 

11 Dal (dal). Anglo-Ind. Forms : 7-9 dol(l, 9 
dhal, dhol(l, dal(l. [Hindi dal split pulse :- 
Skr. dala, f. dal to split.] The pulse obtained 
from some leguminous plants, chiefly from the 
Cajan, Co/amis indicits, extensively used as an 
article of food in the East Indies. 

1698 FRYER Ace. E. India 101 lY.) At their coming up 
out of the Water they bestow the largess of Rice or Doll 
(an Indian Bean). 1727 HAMILTON New Ace. E. Ind. I, xiv. 
161 Doll and Rice being mingled together and boyled, make 
Kitcheree, the common Food of the Country. 1866 Treas. 
Bot. 189 Cajanus indicns. . In India the pulse is called Dhal 
or Dhol or Urhur, and [is] ranked as third in value among 
the pulses. 1883 F. M. CRAWFORD Mr. Isaacs v. 87 
A mouthful of dal to keep his wretched old body alive. 

Dal: see DALE, DEAL, DOLE. 

|| Dalai, Dalai-lama : see LAMA. 

Dalder, obs. form of DOLLAR. 

Dale * (dJ'l). Forms : 1-3 dael, 1-4 dal, 3- 
dale ; also 3 deale, 4 dalle, 5 dall, dalle, daylle, 
6 daill. [OE. dsel, gen. dxles, dat. dxle, pi. dalu, 
dalo, neuter ; Com. Teut. = OS. dal, OFris. del, 
deil, MDu. and Dn. dal, all neuter, OHO., MHG. 
tal, masc. and n., Ger. thai n., LG. dal, ddl, Goth. 
dal\\.> ON. dalrm. (Sw., Da. dal) :-OTeut. dalo-ni, 
dalo-z, of which the root-meaning appears to be 
* deep or low place * : cf. Goth, dalap down, dalapa 
below. As used in ME. the native word appears 
to have been reinforced from Norse, for it is in 
the north that the word is a living geographical 
name. 

As to the final e in Ormln's dale, see Sachse Unorganische 
E im Orrm. 22. The form deales pi. in Ancren Riwle is 
difficult to explain.] 

1. A valley. In the northern counties, the usual 
name of a river-valley between its enclosing ranges 
of hills or high land. In geographical names, 
e.g. Clydesdale, Annandale, Borrowdale, Dovedale, 
it extends from Lanarkshire to Derbyshire, and even 
farther south, but as an appellative it is more or 
less confined to the district from Cumberland to 
Yorkshire. In literary English chiefly poetical, 
and in the phrases hill and dale> dale and down. 

893 K. ALFRED Oros. i. iii, pass dseles se dil se ^aet flod 
ne grette ys gyt to-dscg wxstmberende on xlces cynnes 
blaedum. c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 37 Hwile uppen cliues 
and hwile in J>e dales, c 1200 ORMIN 9203 Nu sket shall illc 
an dale beon all he^edd upp & filledd. ibid. 14568, 
& coude & feld, & dale & dun. c 1205 LAY. 26034 Heo comen 
..in ane dale deope. a 1225 Ancr. R. 282, I ^e deales. .bu 
makest wellen uorto springen. a 1300 Cursor M. 22532-4 
(Cott.) Al bis werld bath dale and dune, .pe dais up-rise, be 
fells dun fall, c 1386 CHAUCER Sir Thopas 85 By dale and 
eek by doune. c; 1440 Promp. Parv. 112 Dale, or vale, 
vallis. a 1533 LD. BERNERS Hnon xxi. 60 They., rode by 
hylles and dales. 1560-1 Bk. Discipl. Ch. Scot 1. v. ii. 10 
Galloway, Carrick, Niddisdaill, Annanderdaill, with the rest 
of the Daillis in the West. 1611 BIBLE Gen. xiv. 17 The 
valley of Shaveh, which is the Kings dale [1885 R. V. vale]. 
1727-46 THOMSON SutnmerT.zji Where, winded into pleasing 
solitudes, Runs out the rambling dale. 1806 Gazetteer Scot. 
(ed. 2) 343 Linlithgtnvshire . . Its surface is finely diversified 
with hill and dale. 1820 WORDSW. Scenery of Lakes (1822) 
62 That part of these Dales which runs up far into the 
mountains. 1847 TENNYSON In Mem. Concl., Till over 
down and over dale All night the shining vapour sail. 1876 
Whitby Gloss. 50/2 Around Whitby all the valleys are 
1 dales '.. There are many smaller dales into which the 
larger are divided. ' Deealheead ' is the upper portion of 
the vale ; ' Deeal end ' being the lower part. 

b.j& 

c 1250 Gen. ff Ex. 19 Dan man hem telled soSe tale . . Of 
blisses dune, of sorwes dale, a 1340 HAMPOLE Psalter xxin. 
3 Falland down agayn til be dale of synn. Pr. Consc. 
1044 Twa worldes . . An es bis dale, whar we er wonnand. 
a 1661 FULLER in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. cxxi. i Viewing 
the deep dale of thy own unworthiness. 

T" 2. A hole in the ground, a hollow, pit, gulf. 
Cf. DELL i. 06s. 

a 800 Corpus Gloss. 274 Baratrnm^ dsel {Leiden dal]. 
a 1000 Cxdmons Gen. 421 On Sset deope dasl deofol gefealla)? . 
c 1420 Patlad. on Hnsb, xi. 481 Ther thay stonde a dale Do 
make, and drenche hem therin. 1489 CAXTON Faytes qfA . 
i. xxv. 78 Dyches or dales or euyll pathes. 

3. attrib. and Comb. t as dale furze ; dale-end, 
the lower end of a dale ; dale-head, the head of 
a dale or valley ; dale-land, ' the lower and arable 
ground of a district ' (Jamieson) ; dale-lander, 
-man, ' an inhabitant of the lower ground * (Jam.) ; 
dale-backed a. } hollow in the back (as a horse). 

1676 Land. Gaz, No. 1078/4 Lost.. a brown bay Nag., 
a little dale backt. 1807 VANCOUVER Agric. Devon (1813) 
250 The . . dwarf or dale furze blooming in the autumn. 
1876 [see sense i]. 

Bale 2 (<U~'I). Also Sc. dail(l. [The northern 
phonetic variant of DOLE :-OE. ddl part, portion, 
division, allotment, dealing, dole; cf. northern hale, 
stane = standard Eng. whole, stone. Used esp. in 
the following senses ; for others see DOLE.] 

1. A portion or share of land ; spec, a share of a 



12 

common field, or portion of an undivided field in- 
dicated by landmarks but not divided off. 

c 1241 Neivutinster Cartul. (18^8) 87, j acram et j rodam 
in campo del West in duas mikel dales quas Rob. fil. 
Stephani et Sywardus quondam tenuerunt. 1531 Dial, on 
Laws Eng. i. xxx. (1638) 53 The grantee suffered! a recovery 
. .by the name of a rent in Dale of a like sum as, etc. 1735 
N. Riding Rec. IX. 157 All the.. closes, inclosures, dales 
and parcels of arrable land meadow and pasture ground 
thereto belonging. x8zo WORDSW. Scenery of Lakes'^. (1823) 
43-4 The arable and meadow land of the vales is possessed 
in common fields ; the several portions being marked out by 
stones, bushes, or trees ; which portions . . to this day are 
called Dales. ^875 Lane. Gloss. , Dale [local], an unseparated 
portion of a field, .often unmarked, or only shown by stakes 
in the hedge and stones at the corners of the dale. 'A dale 
of about a quarter of an acre on Black Moss belongs to this 
farm.' 

t 2. Dealing ; having to do with ; business. Sc. 
Obs. 

c 1375 BARBOUR Troy-bk. n.2839Cume and ly heire besyde 
me now, So bat I may haf dale with be. 1469 Act. Audit. 
9 (Jam.) He sail hafe na dale nor entermeting tharwith in 
tyme to cum. 1513 DOUGLAS sEneisxii. iv. 161 All to 3yng 
wyth sic ane to haue daill [1553 dale], 1535 STEWART Cron. 
Scot. III. 302 That he wald get the best part of the daill. 
1592 Sc. Acts Jos. F7 (1814) 544 The successioun preceding 
of that pretendit manage or carnall daill. 

Dale 3 (d*U). Also 7 daile, 8, 9 dail, (dill). 
[Corresponds in sense i to LGer. and Du. daal ; 
also to F. dalle, which is also used for a conduit-tube 
of wood or metal used in various technical pro- 
cesses, Sp., Pg., It. dala, Sp. also adala. Accord- 
ing to Littre dalle in Picard is also a kitchen-sink ; 
and Cotgr. has ' dalle, a sewer or pit whereinto the 
washings, dishwater,and other such ordure of houses 
are conueyed '. See Littre and Diez.] 

1. A wooden tube or trough for carrying off water, 
as from a ship's pump; a pump-dale. 

1611 COTGR., EscoJirsoiie'r, the dale of a (ships) pumpe, 
whereby the water is passed out. 1627 CAPT. SMITH Sea- 
man's Gram. ii. 8 The daile is a trough wherein the water 
doth runne ouer the Deckes. 1800 S. STANDIDGE in Naval 
Chron. HI. 472 They pumping the water into a pump dill. 
c 1850 Rudini. Navig. (Weale) 139 Pump dales ^ pipes fitted 
to the cisterns, to convey, .water, .through the ship's sides. 

2. Aii outlet drain in the Fen district. 

1851 Jrnl. R. Agric. Soc. XII. n. 304 When those fens 
were first embanked and drained, narrow tracts, called 
' dales', or washes, were left open to the river . . Every dis- 
trict, with its frontage of dales, is tolerably well drained. 

Dale : see DEAL. 

Dale v.j northern form of DOLE v. 

Daleir, obs. form of DOLLAR. 

Dalesman (drfi'izmsen). [= daysman from 
DALE'.] A native or inhabitant of a dale; esp. 
of the dales of Cumberland, Westmorland, York- 
shire, and adjacent northern counties of England. 

1769 GRAY Jrnl. in Lakes Wks. 1884 1. 257 A little path. . 
passable to the Dale's-men. 1813 SCOTT Rokeby in. ii, In 
Redesdale his youth had heard Each art her wily dalesmen 
dared. 1848 MACAU LAY Hist. ng. I. 285 Even after the 
accession of George the Third, the path over the fells from 
Borrowdale to Ravenglas was still a secret carefully kept by 
the dalesmen. 

So Da'lesfolk, Dalespeople, Da'leswoman. 

1863 MARY Howirr F. Brevier's Greece I. 224 Our dales- 
folk of Mora. 1886 HALL CAINE Son of Ha%ar i. ii, There 
is a tough bit of Toryism in the grain of these Northern 
dalesfolk. 1883 F. A. MALLESON Wordsnv. <$ Duddon in 
Gd. Words i The dreary wastes of Wry nose, which the 
dalespeople call Wreyness. 189:1 MRS. H. WARD David 
Grieve I. v. 362 Her daleswoman's self-respect could put up 
with him no longer. 

Dalf(e, obs. pa. t. of DELVE. 

Daliance, dalie, obs. ff. DALLIANCE, DALLY. 

t Dalk i. Obs. [OE. dale, dole, in ON. ddlkr.'] 
A pin, brooch, clasp, buckle. 

c rooo ^ELFRIC Josh. vii. 21 Ic geseah sumne gildenne dale 
onfiftijumentsum. ciooo ^LFRIC Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 152 
Fibula^ preon, uel oferfeng, uel dale, a xioo Anglo-Sax. 
I'oc, ibid. 313/22 Spinther, dole, oSSe preon. 1483 Cat/t, 
Angl. 89 A Dalke (or a tache), Jirmacnlum^ firmatorium^ 
monile. 1488 JK/V/m Ripon Ch. Acts 286 Unum portiferium 
cum a dalk cum ymagine B. Marise. 

tDalk 2 , deli. 06s. exc. dial. [?dim. of 
DALE, DELL : cf. E.Fris. dolke small hollow, dimple, 
dim. of dole excavation, hollow: see Kluge 
Nominate Stammbild. 29.] A hole, hollow, de- 
pression. 

"3*5 Gloss. W. tie Biblesw. in Wright Voc. 146 A u cool 
troveret lafosset, a dalk in the nelike. 1340 HAMPOLE Pr. 
Consc. 6447 For als a dalk es even Imydward J>e yholke of 
be egge, when it es hard, Ryght swa es helle pitte . . Ymyddes 
be erthe. c 1420 Pallad. on Hnsb. iv. 607 Or brason scrapes 
oute of everie dalke Hem scrape. 1440 Promp. Parv. 112 
Dalke, vallis. 1688 R. HOI.ME A rmoury H. 85/1 The daulk 
. . is . . the Crown, top, or head of an apple, where the blossom 
is. i82J FORBY Voc. E. Anglia, Delk, a small cavity, in 
the soil, in the flesh of the body, or in any surface which 
ought to be quite level. 

Dalk, in mining : see DAUK. 

Dall, obs. Sc. spelling of DAW v. 

Dallastype (das-lastaip). [f. proper name 
Dallas + TYPE.] (See qnot.) 

1875 D. C. DALLAS Circular, I have . . perfected the method 
known as Dallastype a process of Photographic Engraving 
by which can be produced as Hlocks for Surface Printing. . 
copies of Wood-cuts, Type or MS. Matter. 1884 Acaiiemy 
9 Feb. 94 The photographic process known as Dallastype. 



DALLY. 

t Dalle 1 . Obs. rare 1 , [app. an infantile word. 
Cf. DADDLE.] The hand. 

r 1460 Toiviieley Myst. (Surtees) 118 Haylle ! put furthe 
thy dalle, I bryng the hot a ballc. 

II Dalle 2 (dal). [Fr., in both senses. 

It is probable that the two senses are really distinct words ; 
in sense 2, the F. word is the same as DALE :i ; in sense i 
Hatzfeld suggests connexion with Ger. diele, board, DEAL.] 

1. A flat slab of stone, marble, or terra cotta, used 
for flooring ; spec, an ornamental or coloured slab 
for pavements in churches, etc. 

1855 Ecclesiologist XVI. 200 The choir, the chapels, .were 
paved with these dalles. 

2. //. The name given (originally by French 
employes of the Hudson's Bay Company) in the 
Western U.S. to rapids where the rivers are com- 
pressed into long narrow trough-like channels. 

1884 Harper s Mag. Feb. 364/1 The Columbia River is 
there, .compressed into 'dalles', or long, narrow, and broken 
troughs. 1890 M. TOWNSEND U. S. 137 The Dalles of the 
Columbia, Oregon ; the Dallesol the Wisconsin, Minnesota. 

Hence Callage [Fr.], flooring with dalles. 

1856 Ecclesiologist XVII. 57 In the dallage the treatment 
is archaic. 

Daller, obs. form of DOLLAR. 

Dalliance (dx-lians). Forms: 4-6 dalyaunoe, 
daliaunce, 4-7 daliance, (5 -auns, -ans(e), 5-6 
dalyance, 6 dally-, dalliaunoe, 6- dalliance, 
[f. DALLY v. + -ANCU : prob. formed in OFr. or 
AngloFr., though not yet recorded.] 

(1. Talk, confabulation, converse, chat ; usually 
of a light or familiar kind, but also used of serious 
conversation or discussion. Obs. 

c 1340 Gaw. <$ Gr. Knt. 1012 purj her dere dalyaunce of 
her derne wordez. f 1440 Promp. Pan>. 112 Dalyaunce, 
coiifabntacio, collocncio, colloquium. 1447 BOKBNHAM 
Seyntys CRoxb.) 162 Marthe fyrst met hym [Christ] . . And 
hadde wyth hym a long dalyaunce. 1496 Dives $ Paup. 
(W. deW.)vi. xv. 259/1 Redynge & dalyaunce of holy wryt 
& of holy mennes lyues. 

2. Sport, play (with a companion or companions) ; 
esp. amorous toying or caressing, flirtation ; often, 
in bad sense, wanton toying. 

c 1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. Prol. 332 (Cambr. MS.) For to 
han with }ou sum dalyaunce. c 1386 Doctor's T. 66 At 
festes, reueles, and at daunces, That ben occasiouns of 
daliaunces. f 1400 MAUNDEv.(Roxb.txxvi. 124 J>ai schall. . 
etc and drinke and hafe dalyaunce with wymmen. a 1553 
UDALL Koystcr D, iv. vi. (Arb.) 70 Dyd not I for the nonce 
..Read his letter in a wrong sense for daliance? 1602 
SHAKS. Ham. i. iii. 50 Whilst like a puft and recklesse 
Libertine Himselfe the Primrose path of dalliance treads. 
1725 POPE Odyss. vm. 348 The lewd dalliance of the queen 
of love. 1742 FIELDING J. Andrevjs ill. vi, He, taking her 
by the hand, began a dalliance. 1820 SCOTT Monast. xxiv, 
Julian . . went on with his dalliance with his feathered 
favourite. 1860 MOTLEY Netherl. (1868) I. vi. 346 The Earl's 
courtship of Elizabeth was anything . . but a gentle dalliance. 

3. Idle or frivolous action, trifling ; playing or 
trifling with a matter. 

1548 BECON Solace of Soul Catechism (1844) 571 In health 
and prosperity Satan s assaults seem to be but trifles and 
things of dalliance. 1561 T. NORTON Calvin's Inst. III. xii, 
i When they come into the sight of God, such dalliances 
must auoide, bicause there is . . no trifling strife aboute 
wordes. 1617 F. E. Hist. Edvt. II (1680) 16 Divine Justice, 
who admits no dalliance with Oaths. 1641 Lett, in Sir J. 
Temple Irish Rebell. ii. 47 Now there is no dalliance with 
them; who.. declare themselves against the State. 1814 
WORDSW. Excursion i. Wks. (1888) 423/2 Men whose hearts 
Could hold vain dalliance with the misery Even of the dead. 
1843 PRESCOTT Mexico (1850) I. 63 He continued to live in 
idle dalliance. 

f 4. Waste of lime in trifling, idle delay. Obs. 

The first quot. prob. does not belong here : see DELAY- 
ANCE. 

[1:1340 Cursor M. 26134 (Fairf.), & for-bink his lange 
daliaunce \Cott. delaiance] b at ne for-drawen has his 
penance.] 1547-^4 BAULDWIN Mor. Philos. (Palfr.) v. vi, 
Death deadly woundeth without dread or daliance. 15510 
SHAKS. Com. Err. iv. i. 59 My businesse cannot brooke this 
dalliance. 

Dallier (dae-lisi). Also 6 dalier. [f. DALLT 
v. + -ER i.] One who dallies : see the verb. 

1563-87 FOXF. A. f, M. (1596) 1553/2 To bee no dalliers in 
Gods matters, but to be. .earnest, a 1568 ASCHA.M Sckolcm. 
I. i Arb. ) 85 The greatest makers of loue, the daylie daliers. 
1861 GEN. P. THOMPSON in Bradford Advertiser 19 Oct. 6/1, 
4 I will go so far', says the dallier with evil ; and everybody 
knows where the dallier comes to. 

Dallop, var. of DOLLOP. 

Dally (dae-li),^. Forms: 4-6 daly(e, dayly(e, 
(5 dallyu\ 6 dalie, dallye, 6-7 dallie, 6- dally. 
[a. OF. dalier to converse, chat, pass one's time in 
light social converse, etc. ; common in AngloFr. : 
see Glossary to Bozon (ed. P. Meyer). Godef. has 
an instance of dallier trans, to ' chaff'.] 

jl. intr. To talk or converse lightly or idly; to 
chat. Obs. 

c 1300 K. Alt's. 6991 Dysers dalye, reisons craken. c 1340 
Gaw. ^ Gr. Knt. 1114 pay dronken & daylyeden, & dalten 
vnty5tel. Ibid. 1253 To daly with derely your daynte 
wordez. c 1440 Promp.Parv.\iz Dalyyn or te\\iyn,fatltlor, 
confabulor, colloquor. 

2. To act or speak sportively, make sport, amuse 
oneself; to toy, sport, play with, esp. in the way 
of amorous caresses ; to flirt, wanton. 

(1440 Promp. Parv. 112 Dallyn, or hallesyn, amplector. 
X 573 G. HARVEY Letter.bk. tCamden) 105 Did you never see 



DALLYING. 

a flye in y nintnc I tally so tonge with y" candle lighte. 1594 
SHAKS. Kif/t. Ill, i. iii. 265 Our Aycric buildeth in the Cedars 
top, And dallies with the windc. 1611-51 BURTON Anal. Mel. 
ii. ii. iv. 274 Little else, .but to daily with their rats. 1685 
A'oaA Hall. VII. 473, I have a Chamber here of my own, 
Where we may kiss and dally alone. 1842 TBNNVSON Hay 
Dream, Revivaliv, The chancellor, .dallied with his golden 
chain. 1883 R. NoEi^in Academy No. 577. 365/3 Leaping 
lambs and lovers dallying. 

b. To play with a thing or subject which one 
does not intend to take seriously ; to coquet, flirt, 
esp. with temptation and the like. 

1548 UDALL, etc. Erasm. far. Pref. 18 The auncient doc- 
tourcs . . doe in expounyng the allegories, seme oft tymes to 
playc and dalie with it. 1637 MILTON Lycidas 153 For, so 
to interpose a little ease Let our frail thoughts dally with 
false surmise. 1643 ROOKKS Naantan 167 Daily not with 
her, as Eye with the serpent. 1774 FLETCHER Hct. , Gen. 
Creed viii. Wks. I79 5 III. 343 When we dally with tempta- 
tion. 1780 COWPEK Table-t. 544 To dally much with subjects 
mean and low. 1855 PRESCOTT 1'hilip II, I. u. xiii. 290 Men 
; .who .. had been led to dally with the revolution in its 
infancy, .now turned coldly away. 

8. To trifle with a person or thing under the 
guise of serious action ; to play with mockingly. 

1548 HALL Ckrm. 225 But the Duke of Bisrgoyne dalied 
and dissimuled with all parties, .gevyngthem fairewordes. 
'579 TOM SON Calvin's .ferm. Tim. 440/1 We see a great 
number y' wold dallie thus with God. 1600 HOLLAND Livy 
n. xxiii. 593, Then thought the people, .they were mocked 
and dallied withall lelndi]. 1614 Bp. HALL Recall. Treat. 
697 If wee feared the Lord, durst wee dally with his name ? 
1706 ADDISON Rosamond MI. iii, Why will you dally with my 
pain ? 1721 DE FOE Relig. Courtsh. i. i. (1840! 17 Why do 
you trifle and dally so long with a thing of such conse- 
quence 1 

t b. trans. To dally out : to trifle with, elude. 
1548 HALL Cftrort. 146 The matter was wynked at, and 
dalyed out. 1563-87 FOXE A. <r M. (1684) I. 173/1 He would 
suffer no man . . to dally out \eluiicre] his laws without con- 
dign punishment. 1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xvii. 112 
But Lewis, .dallied out Edward with shewes of firme faith, 
till hee had effected the thing hee went about. 1618 BOLTON 
Floras ii. ii, Skill to shift aside Oares, and to dally out the 
strokes of beake-heads, by yare and ready turning. 
4. intr. To spend time idly or frivolously ; to 
linger, loiter ; to delay. 

1538 BALE Thre Louies 241 Ye are disposed to dallye. 
'594 WILLOBIE Aviso- (16051 28 The poesie..bids you doe, 
but dallie not. Doe so, sweete heart, and doe not stray, 
For dangers grow from fond delay. 1600 HEYWOOD i Ectiu. 
IV, Wks. 1874 I. 33 We dallied not, but made all haste we 
could. 1647 R. STAPYLTON Juvenal xvi. 285 If, being my 
d-btour, he . . stand Dallying to pay me. 1822 W. IRVING 
Braccb. Hall I. 6 Lest when he find me dallying along, .he 
may hurry ahead. 1860 ttumfUjH. Geog. Sea xv. 651 
One vessel, .dallying in the Doldrums for days, 
t 5. trans. To put off or defer by trifling. In 
earlier use to dally off; cf. dally out in 3 b. 06s. 

i&!4'WHnairTJ)e/.Ansiv. i. Wks. (1851) I. 165 This is but 
a shift to dally off a matter which you cannot answer. 1589 
GREENE Menafhoti (Arb.) 50 Fates and Fortune dallying 
a dolefull Catastrophe. 1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xxi. 
ij The Councell of Flanders . . dallied him off with many 
Excuses. 1616 Marlowe's Faust. Wks. (Rtldg.) 126/1 But 
wherefore do I dally my revenge? 1633 T.ADAMS Exp. 
2 Peter ii. 2 Neither dally this execution. 1831 CLARE 
Vill. Miiistr. I. 34 Some long, long dallied promise to 
fulfil. 

1 6. To play or toy with ; to influence or move 
by dalliance. Obs. 

1597 DANIEL Civ. Wars n. xix, Pleas'd with vain shewes, 
and dallied with delyt. 1617-77 FELTKAM Resolves i. xxv. 
44 Like a cunning Courtizan, that dallies the Ruffian to 
undo himself. 1677 GILPIN Dxtnonol. (1867) 70 Mark 
Antony by this means became a slave to Cleopatra, .and so 
dallied himself into his ruin. 

7. To dally away : to consume or spend (time) 
in dalliance or by dallying. 

1685 Rojct. Ball. VII. 473 Now when the night was dalli'd 
away . . She 'rose and left me snoring in bed. c 1765 FLLOYD 
Tartarian T. (1785) oo/r They had dallied away a part of 
the night. 1828 SCOTT F. M. Perth viii, He asked them 
what they meant by dallying away precious time. 

Dallying ',dse-li|irj), vbl. so. [-INQI.] The 
action of the verb DALLY, q.v. : toying, trifling, 
etc. ; dalliance. 

c n^ctPromp.Parv. 112 Dallynge, orhalsynge,ai//w. 
1545 BRINKLOW Compl. 53 Cardys, dalyeng with women, 
dansing, and such like, c 1680 BEVERIDGE Serin. (1729) I. 
470 There is no dallying with Omnipotence. z88 SCOTT 
Ft M. Perth xxxiii, Speak out at once. .1 am in no humour 
for dallying. 1889 Athensenm ix Dec. 816/3 The pleasant 
enough dallying and 'daffing' of her young people. 

Dallying, ///. a. [-INO".] That dallies; 
toying, trifling, etc. : see the verb. 

1548 HALL Ckron. 234 b, A Chaplayne mete for such 
a dalyeng pastyme. 1580 BAHET Alv. F 662 A flatterer or 
dallying deceiuer, adulator. 1651 CRASHAW Delights of 
Muses Poems 89 A warbling doubt Of dallying sweetness. 

Hence Da llyinjfly ,!;:':. 

1550 BALE Image both Ch. 11. (R.), Wher as he doth but 
dalliengly perswade, they may enforce and compel. 1563- 
87 FOXE A. *tM. (1596) 1459'! What an arrogant . .boy 
is this [John Bradford], that thus stoutly and dallyinglie 
behaueth himselfe before the Queenes Counsell t 1637 
BASTWICK Litany \. 3. 

Dalmatian [delin^'fln), a. and so. Of Dal- 
matia, the Austrian province on the eastern coast 
of the Adriatic ; whence Dalmatian dog, the 
spotted coach-dog, sometimes called ' smaller 
Danish dog '. Hence so., A native of Dalrnatia ; 
a Dalmatian dog. 



18 

1814 BEWICK Quadrupeds (ed. 8) 339 The Dalmatian, or 
Coach Dog . . has been erroneously called the Danish Dog . . 
It is frequently kept in genteel houses, as an elegant alien* 
i carriage. 1893 II. DAI.ZIEL Diseases i>f7}ors(vi 3) 
58 Dogs that travel much on hard dry roads, as Dalmatians 
often do. 

Dalmatic (drelmartik), a. and sfi. [The sb. 
occurs earliest, being a. K. dalmaiiijtu (i.-Uh c. in 
Littre 1 ), ad. 1.. dalmatica, subst. use (sc. visits } of 
Dalmaticus adj. of Dalrnatia. ( Thence L. dalma- 
ticatus attired in a dalmatic.) The adj. u of later 
adaptation from L.] 

A. adj. Belonging to Dalrnatia, Dalmatian. 
Dalmatic robe: a dalmatic, or a garment resem- 
bling it ; so dalmatic vestment. 

1604 E. G. D'Acosta's Hist. Indiet v. xx. 384 Their 
habue and robe was a red curtin after the Dalmatike 
fashion, with tassellcs belowe . . They were attired in a 
Dalmatike robe of white wroght with blacke. 1634 SIR 
T. HERBERT Trav. (1638) 38 Their habit, a long coat or vest 
of white quilted Callico ofthe Dalmatick sort. ITM Loud. 
Got. No. 6089/3 The King's Regal Mantle, and Dalmatick 
Vestment. 1804 Ann. Rev. II. 83/2 The deacon, standing, 
in the dalmatic vestment, bears tne chalice. 1838 Rubric 
Coroa. Q. t'kt. in Maskell Man. Rit. (1847) III. 114 Then 
. .the Imperial Mantle, or Dalmatic Robe, of Cloth of Gold, 
lined or furred with Ermins, is . . delivered to the D.-.m of 
Westminster, and by him put upon the Queen, standing. 

B. so. An ecclesiastical vestment, with a slit on 
each side of the skirt, and wide sleeves, and marked 
with two stripes, worn in the Western Church by 
deacons and bishops on certain occasions, b. A 
similar robe worn by kings and emperors at 
coronation and other solemnities. 

Cf. ISIDORE Orig. xix. xxii. 9 Dalmatica vestis primum in 
Dalmatia provincia Gracia: texta est, tunica sacerdotalis 
Candida cum clavis ex purpura. 

c 1415 WYNTOUN Cron, ix. vi. 153 Wyth a prestis vestment 
hale Wyth twynykil and Dalmatyk. 1483 CAXTON Gold. 
Leg. 350/1 The byere was couerd with a clothe named 
dalmatyke. 1781 PRIESTLEY Corrupt. Cftr. II. vm. 118 
Mention is made of Dalmatics for the deacons. 1844 I.is- 
GARD Anglo-Sax. Ch. (1858) II. ix. 69 The usual episcopal 
vestments, the amice, .tunic and dalmatic. 1855 BROWNING 
Misconceptions ii, The true bosom . . Meet for love's regal 
dalmatic. 

t Dalma-tical, a. 0/>s. --= DALMATIC a. 

1599 THYNNE Animadv. (1865) 35 The kinges dalmaticall 
garmente..was crymsone. 

Dalt (d9lt). Sc. Alsodault. [ad. Gael.<&//a 
in same sense.] A foster-child. 

1775 JOHNSON Iv'estern hi. Wks. X. 485 When he dis- 
misses his dalt, for that is the name for a fostered child. 
i8a8 SCOTT F. M. Perth xxix, It is false of thy father's 
child . .falsest of my dault I 

Dalt'e, obs. pa. t. and pple. of DEAL v. 

Daltonian (dglttfu-nian), a. and sb. [f. the 
name of John Dalton, a famous English chemist 
(1766-1844), who was affected with colour-blind- 
ness : see DALTONISM.] 

A. adj. Relating to John Dalton, or the atomic 
theory first enunciated by him. 

1850 DAUBENY Atom. Th. iii. (ed. 3) 108 The Daltonian 
method of notation may still be of use, just as pictorial 
representation often comes in aid of verbal description. 

B. sb. A person affected with colour-blindness. 
[First used in Fr., daltonien.] 

[1817 P. PREV-osTin Bibl. Univ. Sciences et Aris XXXV. 
321 De ceux qui j'ai coutume d'appeler dalttmiens. ] 1841 
K. WARTMANN in Rep. Brit. Assoc. n. 40 There are two 
classes of Daltonians. 1881 Times 10 Jan. 4/2 Daltonians 
of the same nature [not perceiving red]. 

Daltonism (dg Itaniz'm). [ad. F. daltfnisme, 
{. as prec. 

Introduced by Prof. Pierre Prevost of Geneva, but objected 
to by English authors on the ground that it associated 
a great name with a physical defect. See Wartmann's 
papers on ' Daltonisme ' in Mem. Soc. Phys. de Geneve 
(1843) X. 273 ; and (.849) XII. 183.) 

A name for colour-blindness; esp. inability to 
distinguish between red and green. 

1841 E. WARTMANN in Rep. Brit. Assoc. H. 40 An incom- 
plete vision of colours which has been called Daltonism. 
1855 J DIXON Pract. Study Dis. Eye 161 Of all the un- 
fortunate inventions of pathological nomenclature the word 
Daltonism, .seems to me the worst. 1881 Nature^ 23 Mar. 
493 This case of temporary daltonism for red is attributed to 
the fatigue of the retina for red. 

Hence Da Itonist - DALTONIAN sb. 

1879 H. T. FINCK in Macm. Mag. XLI. 128/2 The 
authorities last mentioned class those only among the 
Daltonists who show . . that they cannot physically dis- 
tinguish between certain colours. 



;ve, obs. pa. t. of DELVE. 

t Daly, sb. Obs. Also dayly ; //. dalies, dalyg, 
daleys. [Derivation unknown.] A die, or a 
knuckle-bone used as a die ; also a cubical piece 
of anything, a cube. 

c 1440 Promp. Parv. 112 Dayly, or pley (K. P. dalv), 
tessura, C. Y.'alen, decius, K. . 1519 HORMAN Vule. xxxii. 
180 Men play with in dice: and children with iiij dalies 
[a stragalis vel talis\. Cutte this flesh into daleys [/w//m], 

Daly (,d?-li>, a. rare, t Obs. [f. DALE **.' -r -Y.] 
Abounding in dales ; of the nature of a dale. 

103 FITZHERB, Sum. iii. 3 Groundes that is bothe hylly 
ana dalye. 1606 J. RAYNOLDS Dolarneys Prim. (1880) 61 
The daly grounds in garments greene were clad. 

Daly\e, Dalyance, obs. ff. DALLY, DALIJ- 



DAM. 

Dam(da-m .sf-.l Konns: 4- dun, 4-7 damme, 
5-6 dame, (6dampnc. 7 damn(e, damp, damb), 
7-8 damm. [Common Ttut. - OKrLs. ,lam, Join, 
MDn. dam(i , Ml.ti. and 1> U . Jam, MIKi. lam, 
mixl.G. damm (from L(J.\ None dammr (14- 
ijth c.), Sw., Da. dam. The earlier existence of 
the word is proved by the derivative vbs., Goth. 
faurdammjan to stop ur>, OE. i/fmman, OFrin. dpn- 
men, MHO. temmen, Gei.ddmmtn: tee DM r.] 

1. A bank or barrier of earth, masonry, etc., con- 
structed across a stream to obstruct its flow and 
raise its level, so as to make it available for turning 
a mill- wheel or for other purposes ; a similar work 
constructed to confine water so as to form a pond 
or reservoir, or to protect land from being flooded. 

c 1440 /Y<v/. Pan. niDame, or hye hanky* (K. dam or 
heybanck), agger. 1530 PALSCR. 312/1 Damme of a myll, 
escluse. ifai T. H(AWKINS] Caustin't Holy Crt. 575 A a 
Torrent, which after it hath a long tyme been restrained, 
breaketh the forced dammes, and., drowneth the nelds. 
ci6jo RISDOM Sun. Drum (1714) II. 153 Whose Home 
was called Hemeanton, now Weare, by Reason of certain 
Damps, which we call Weares. 1650 H. BROOKE Cotuerv. 
Health 93 Banks and Damns. 1631 TENNYSON Miller's D. 
99 The sleepy pool above the dam, The pool beneath it 
never still. 1841 Ki.rmssroNK Hist. Ind. H. 71, 50 dams 
across rivers, to promote irrigation. 

b. The barrier constructed in a stream by beavers. 

1748 F. SMITH Voy. Disc. N.-W. Pats. 139 The Plenty of 
Water was. .owing to its being kept up by Dams, the work 
ofthe Beavers ; which, .had also built a House on the side 
of this Creek. 1834 M MURTRIB Curler's Anitn. Kinfd. 
89 Beavers . . keep the water at an equal height, by dams 
composed of branches of trees, mixed with clay and stones. 
1875 WHITNEY Life Lang, xiv 290 Building a particular 
style of shelter, as the beaver its dam. 

C. A causeway through fens. 

1809 CRABBE Tales, Lovers Journey, When next appear'd 
a dam, so call the place, Where lies a road confined in 
narrow space, .on cither side Is level fen. 

d. fa 

i6oa MAHSTON Antonio's Rev. v. iii, The States of Venice 
Like high-swoln floods drive down the tnuddie dammes of 
pent allegeance. 164* ROGERS Naantan 528 To keep up 
the damme of their owne consciences from breaking in upon 
them. 471711 KEN Hytnnotheo Poet. Wks. 1721 III. 138 
Thou down the sensual Dam dost throw, Which made me 
stagnate here below. 

2. The body of water confined by a dam or 
embankment. (Now local, Yorkshire, etc.) 

ciwE.E. Allit, P. C. 312 pystryuandestreinez..Inon 
dascnande dam, dryuez me ouer. a 1340 H AMI-OLE Psalter 
509 t>e dam of waters \gnrges aqitantm}, 1391 Stlty Car- 
tulary (Yorks. Archa:ol. Soc.) I. 4 Indentura..de Stagno 
vocato le Damme [Selby Dam], 14.. Nom. in Wr.- 
Wiilcker 736/20 Hoc stangnum, a dame, c 1530 Remedy of 
Love xxxv, War.. AD water ynke in damme or in flood. 
1621 51 BURTON Anat. Mel. in. iv. i. i. 642 As a damme of 
water stopt in one place breaks out into another, c 1869 
GATTY Hunter's Hallamshire ix. 186 note, Several of the 
smaller dams at Crook's Moor [Sheffield] were filled up in 
1839. .The large dams are still made use of by the company. 
1888 Sheffield Gloss. , Dam, a piece of water impounded by 
damming up a stream. 1899 LENTZNER A ustrnfian Word- 
bk. 19 Dant (up-country), a pond for watering cattle, .made 
by throwing up a bank across a hollow or little gully. 

b. In south of Scotland, the stream of water from 
a weir or pond, which drives a mill ; a mill-race ; 
tail-dam, a tail-race. (The dam in sense i is 
a 'cauld'.) 

3. A Hat land from which water is drained off and 
excluded, local. 

1699 S' hertogenbosh 13 It lyeth as it were in a Myre, 
h-iiiing on the one side a small moore or damp. 1800 in 
G. C. Da vies Norfolk Broads xv. (1884) 107 Tame and 
meadowed flats, here called dams, between Yarmouth and 
Norwich, producing turf, peat, furze, flag and sedge. 

4. a. Alining. A partition of boards, masonry, 
etc. in a mine to keep out water, fire, or gas. b. 
Smelting. (Seequot. 1881.) C. Floating dam: f(a) 

= CAMEL a ; (b} ' a caisson used instead of gates 
for a dry-dock' (Smyth Sailor's IVord-bk). 

1706 Loud, Gaz. No. 4262/3 A Machine, termed a Float- 
ing-Damm, whereby he is capable of carrying. Barges, .over 
. .Shallows. 1881 RAYMOND Mining Gloss., Datn. .the wall 
of refractory material, forming the front of the fore-hearth 
of a blast furnace. It is built on the inside of a supporting 
iron plate (dam-plate). 

6. Comb., as dam-like adj. ; dam-head (Sc. , 
a weir or cauld on a river for diverting the water 
into a mill-race; dam-plate, dam-stone (see quot. 
and sense 4 b) ; t dam-shed (St.), ' a portion of 
land bordering on a dam ' (Jam.). See also COFFER- 
DAM, MILL-DAM. 

1540 Sc. Acts Jos. Fn8i4) 37 The dene of Logy, dame 
and damsched tharof, and thair pertineniis. 1760 WAKK 
in Phil. Trans. LI I. a Locks and dam-heads might be raised 
..by the help of furze. 1776 ADAM SMITH H\ A.iv. .(1869) 
II. 86 As much water must ran over the dam-bead as if 
there was no dam at all. i8ao SCOTT Monast. v. A strong 
wear or dam head, running across the river. 1881 RAYMOND 
Mining Glost., Dani-flatf, the plate upon the dam-stone or 
front stone of the bottom of a blast furnace. 



aein),.^.? Forms: 3- dam, 4- 7 damme, 
6 dam be, 6-7 Hn.mm [A variant of DAME, also 
written from I4th c. damme, retaining the short 
sound of F. a ; originally used in all the senses, 
but from about the i6th c. differentiated.] 



DAM. 

fl. =DAME. Obs. 

1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 11732 Dam Maud be Mortimer. 



ay hir whele. 1:1382 WY .,,-~ f ._.-,,- 

chaterynge damme. c 1430 Hymns Virg. 3 IMStr.) pou 
deintiest damme. 

2. A female parent (of animals, now usually of 
quadrupeds). Correlative to sire. 

1320 [see DAME 8 b]. 1486 Bk. St. A ibans E iv a, A fawne 
sowkyng on his dam. 1523 FITZHERB. Hnsb. 68 A sandy 
colte . . neyther lyke syre nor damme. 1607 TOPSELL Four-/. 
Beasts (1673) 363 The duckling, the first day [can] swim in 
the water with his dam. 1663 HOOKE Microgr. 216, I have 
observed the young ones of some Spiders have almost kept 
the same proportion to their Dam. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. 
Eclog. i. 32 So Kids and Whelps their Sires and Dams 
express. 1774 GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1776) HI. 25 Calves. . 
taken from the dam in a savage state. 1834 MUDIE Brit. 
Ilirds (1841) I. 301 And when the dam [robin] leaves her 
eggs. 1870 BRYANT Iliad I. v. 162 Two young lions, 
nourished by their dam. 

f b. Phr. The devil and his dam ; the deml s 
dam, applied opprobriously to a woman. Obs. 

1393 LANGL. P. PI. C. xxi. 284 Rys vp ragamoffyn and 
reche me alle be barres, That belial by bel-syre beot with 
by damme. 1538 BALE Tltre Lawes 1070 The deuyll or 
hys dam. 1588 SHAKS. Com. Err, iv. iii. 51 Ant. It is 
the diuell. 6". Dro. Nay, she is worse, she is the diuels 
da 
Si 



Diet, n, Trivenefica, a great witch, a devil's dam. 
3. = Mother (human) : usually in contempt. 



T. n. iii. 94 This Brat is none of mine. .Hence with it, and 
together with the Dam, Commit them to the fire. 1801 
WOLCOTT (P. Pindar) Tears ff Sm. Wks. 1812 V. 55 And said, 
that George allowed his dam But thirty pounds a year. 

^-fis- 

c 1540 Pilgr. T. in Thynne Animadv. App. i. 8-> As we 
be taught of the churche our dam. 1594 BARNFIELD AJf. 
Sheph. n. liv, Ignorance, .the Damme of Errour. 1621-51 
BURTON Auat. Mel, in. iv. i. ii. 648 That high Priest of 
Rome, the dam of that monstrous and superstitious breed. 
1892 R. KIPLING Barrack-r. Ballads fed. 2) 80 What dam 
of lances brought thee forth to jest . . with Death ? 

5. Comb. 

1605 SYLVESTER Du Bartas n. iii. iv. Captains 1237 Dam- 
Murdering Vipers, Monsters in-humane. i6a* BOYS Wks. 
936 As the carefull Dam-bird [loves] her unfeathered brood. 

Dam, sb.% Chiefly Sc. Forms : 6 damme, 7 
dame, 9 dam. [a. F. dame lady (DAM 2 , DAME), 
the name of each piece in the jeu de dames or 
draughts, esp. of the crowned pieces which can 
move forwards or backwards ; in Ger. dame (damen- 
sfl'el, damspiel draughts), Du. dam (damspel 
draughts) : cf. DAMBBOD.] 

Each of lhe> pieces in the game of draughts or 
checkers (pbs^ ; pi. the game itself. 

App. in early times a piece, pawn, or 'man' in various 
games. Dame is given by Cotgrave 1611 as ' also, a man at 
Tables or Draughts ', and dames is the name of Draughts 
in Rabelais; Florio 1598 has Ital. ' dame, men to play at 
tables or chesse with'. 

1580 HOLLYBAND Treas. Fr, Tong t Le jeu des Merellcs^ 
the playe of dammes. [CoTGR. ' Le *Jcu des merelles^ the 
boyish game called Merills, or fiue-pennie Morris ; played 
here most commonly with stones, but in France with 
pawnes, or men made of purpose, and tearmed Merelles.'] 
1653 URQUHART Rabelais 94 (J am -) There he played at the 
Dames or draughts. 1814 Saxon $ Gael I. 94 (Jam.) After 
playing twa or three games at the dams. i8z8 WEBSTER, 
Dam . . 3. a crowned man in the game of draughts. 1870 
RAMSAY Remin* vi. (ed. 18) 246 Dams were the pieces with 
which the game of draughts was played. 

t Dam, sb.^i damp. Obs. Also 6 dame. fa. 
OF. dam (also dan^ domp, dant^ in nom. dans, 
dans) : L. dominus lord, used in OF. as a feudal 
title (ranking between comte and baron}, but com- 
monly prefixed to the name of a person by way of 
honour.] Lord ; as a prefix Sir, Master. Cf. 
DAN. 

c 1300 Hayelok 2468 He knew, |?e swike dam, Euenldel 
god was him gram, c 1375 Lay Folks Mass Bk. (MS. B.) 
18 Dam leremy [v.rr, Dane leremi, Saynte Jerome] was 
his name. 1506 Bury Wills (Camden) 108 Dame John 
Barkyng, pytauncer of the monastery in Bury. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Nun's Pr. Prol. 26 (Harl.) Wherfor sir 
monk, damp Pieres by 5our name, c 1489 CAXTON Sonnes 
of Ay men ix. 199 They met wyth damp Rambault, the free 
fcnyght. Ibid. ix. 201 Damp bysshop, ye be welcom. Ibid. 
xvi. 382 ' Damp emperour ', sayd thenne the duke naymes. 

Dam (dsem\ v. 1 Forms : 6-7 damme, (damn, 
7 dambe), 7-8 damm, 6- dam. [f. DAM sb. 1 ; 
taking the place of the etymological DEM, OE. 
dejnman, found in early ME. and existing dialects.] 

I. trans. To furnish with a dam ; to obstruct or 
confine (a stream, or water) by means of a dam. 
Usually with up ; also (rarely) with back, out, etc. 
1563 W. FULKE Meteors (1640) 57 Wells that have beene 
dammed up. 1659 B. HARRIS Parrvats Iron Age 106 He 
had dammed up the Rivers. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Past. in. 
171 Now dam the Ditches and the Floods restrain, 1850 
LYELL znd Visit U. S. II. 253 The Mississippi forms long 
bars of sand, which frequently unite with some part of the 
coast, so as to dam out the sea and form lagoons. 1867 
PARKMAN Jesuits N. Amer. xxi. (1875* 314. The beavers had 
dammed a brook and formed a pond. 



14 

2. trans/, and fig. To stop np, block, obstruct ; 
to shut up, confine : a. things material. 

1553 BKENDE Q. Ciirtius VH. iv. 152 The sand in the 
plaines is blowen together, .wherby the accustomed wayes 
be damned. 1390 GREENE Never too late (1600) go Hauing 
the Ouen the hotter within for that it was damd vp. 1603 
FLORIO Montaigne I. xxiv. (1632) 61 Lamps dammed with 
too much oyle. 1652 WADSWORTH tr. Sandovats Civ. Wars 
Spain 351 Don Hernande. .dammed up all the doors but 
one. 1794 SULLIVAN Vieiu Nat. I. 347 When a ridge of 
mountains thus dams the cloud. 
t>. things immaterial. 

1582 BENTLEY Man. Matrones m. 261 Vnthankfulnesse . . 
dammeth vp the fountaine of thy godhe mercie. 1632 
SANDERSON 12 Sena. 522 He doth also dambe vp the mercy 
of God by his contempt. 1875 M'L-AREN Serm. Ser. H. iv. 
66 His love [is] too divine for us to dam it back, a 1876 
G. DAWSON Improvers of Slinks., They dammed up all 
human energy into two channels the chapel and the shop. 

t Dam, v? Obs. rare. [f. DAM sb?\ To give 
birth to (young) : said of animals. 

1577 B. GOOGE Heresbaclis Husb. m. (1586) 139 Such 
[lambs] as are afterwarde dammed, are feeble and weake. 

Dam, obs. form of DAMN. 

Damacene, -yne, obs. ff. damascene, DAMSON. 

Damage (dse'medg), sb. Forms : a. 4- dam- 
age ; 5-8 damraage, (6 damppage, 6-7 dam- 
nage, 7 damadge). 0. 4-7 dommage, 5-7 
domage. [a. OF. damage (nth c. in Littre), also 
damage, daumagc, dcmage, since i.;tli c. dommage 
= OSp. domage, f. OF. dam, damage, prejudice, 
loss (=Pr. dam, It. danno loss), ad. L. damnum 
loss, hurt, damage + -AGE. Cf. Pr. damnatge and 
It. dannatico on L. type *damnaticum. The ME. 
form domage, dommage is after later French; 
dam{p}nage after medL.]. 

I. Loss or detriment caused by hurt or injury 
affecting estate, condition, or circumstances, arch. 

a. [1292 BRITTON i. v. i En despit et damage de nous 
et de noster poeple.] 1300 K. Alls. 959 The scoumfyt, and 
the damage, Feol on heom of Cartage. 1386 CHAUCEH 
Pars. T. r 383 As moche to oure damage as to oure profit. 
1535 COVERDALE Luke ix. 25 Though he wanne the whole 
worlde and loseth himself or runneth in dammage of himself. 
1609 SKENE Reg. Maj. 89 The damnage and skaiths, 
quhilks he hes susteined be the defender, sail be taxed. 
1611 BIBLE Dan. vi. 2 That ; . the king should haue no 
damage. 1778 C. JONRS Hoyle's Games Imf>r. 21 You could 
receive no Damage by playing the King the third Round. 
1851 HUSSEY Papal Pmuer ii. 86 The corrupting by bribes 
of the late Legats . .to the damage of S. Peter. 1877 J. D. 
CHAMBERS Div. Worship 141 These ..Anthems have been 
wholly omitted, to our great damage. 

ft. 1481 CAXTON Myrr. I. xiv. 45 [It] torneth contrarye to 
them & to their dommage. 1508 FISHER Wks. (1876) 193 
The great domage whiche we suffre by the absence of many 
of them, a 1611 DONNE BiaflaraTos (1644) 124 If a pub- 
Hque profit recompence my private Domage. 

2. Injury, harm ; esp. physical injury to a thing, 
such as impairs its value or usefulness. 

CI374 CHAUCER Boeth i. v. 25 pou hast wepen for be 
damage [ed. 1560 dommage] of (i renoune bat is appaired. 
1430 LYDG. Citron. Troy i. vi, He was enoynted with an 
oyntment On his body that kept him from damage, c 1440 
Proinp. Pan'. 113 Damage, or harme, dampnum. 1577 tr. 
Bullinger's Decades Introd., He. .suffered all the damages 
of the body. 1637 GILLESPIE Eng. Pop. Cerem. it. ix. 50 
His answere bringeth great damnage to his owne cause. 
1639 T. DE GRAY Cotnpl. Horsem. 9 Lest in foling, the colt 
receive domage. 1719 DE FOE Crusoe (1858) 353 She was 
leaky, and had damage in her hold. 1869 HOOK Lives Alps. 

II. ii. 94 To repair the damage done to the monastery. 
b. (with a and//.) A loss, an injury. 

1470-85 MALORY Arthur I. xv, Kyng Lott made grete 
dool for his dommagis & his felawes. 1577-87 HOLINSHED 
Scot. Chron. 188 The damages & skathes committed by 
theeues and robbers. 1593 T. WATSON Tears ofFancie xxiv. 
Poems (Arb.) 190 That I. .brought faire beauty to so fowle 
a domage. 1600 J. PORY tr. Leo's Africa II. 55 They paid 
the said owners for all dammages committed. 1771 GOLDSM. 
Hist. Eng. I. 79 Repairing the damages whicn the king- 
dom had sustained by war.. 

t 3. a. A disadvantage, inconvenience, trouble. 
b. A matter for regret, a misfortune, ' a pity '. 

a. 1398 TREVISA Earth, deP.R. vi. i. (Tollem. MS.), Age 
ha}> with him many damagis. 1637 R. HUMPHREY tr. St. 
Ambrose i. 15 They hold profit to consist in the goods 
secular, wee reckon these for dammages. 1721 DE FOE 
Col. Jack (1840) 33 'Tis an unspeakable damage to him for 
want of his money. 

b. ^1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. 578 Cleopatra, And of his 
deth it was ful gret damage, c 1489 CAXTON Blanchardyn 
xxti. 74 It were domage yf suche a lady . . sholde perysshe. 
1524 Losse of^Rhodes in Hakluyt Voy. II. I. 84 Sir Francis 
de Frenolz. .it was great dammage of his death, for he was 
a worthy man. 1612 SHELTON Qnix. 1. 1. iv. 25 The Damage 
is. .that 1 have no money here about me. 

4. Law. (Now always in //.) The value, 
estimated in money, of something lost or withheld ; 
the sum of money claimed or adjudged to be paid 
in compensation for loss or injury sustained. 

[1430 Act 8 Hen. VI, c. o Le plcyntif recovera ses 
damages au treble vers le defendant. 1538 STARKEY Eng- 
land II. ii. 190 The party condemnyd. . schold euer be award yd 
to pay costys and al other dammage cumyng to hys 
aduersary by the reson of the vniust sute and vexatyon.] 
1542-3 Act 34-5 Hen. VIII, c. 27 36 Actions personal), 
whereof the dette, and domage amounteth to the summe of 
fouitie shillinges. 1548 HALL Chron. 31 For recoveryng of 
damages for injuries to them wrongfully done. 1631-2 Star 
Chttinb. Cases (Camden) 168 He shall therefore pay 500'' to 
the King and zoo 11 Dammage to M' Deane and make recog- 



DAMAGEMENT. 

nition of his fault and wrong. 1767 BLACKSTONE Comm. II. 
438 When the jury has assessed his damages. 1858 Ln. ST. 
LEONARDS Handy Bk. Prop. Law ii. 5 An action . . for the 
recovery of damages for breach of contract. 

5. slang. Cost, expense. 

1755 Connoisseur No. 68 ? 10 ' There ', says he, ' there's 
your damage thirteen and two-pence.' 1812 BYRON Wks. 
(1832) II. 179, I must pay the damage, and will thank 
you to tell me the amount of the engraving. 1852 MRS. 
STOWE Uncle Tom's C. xiv, What's the damage, as they say 
in Kentucky . . what's to be paid out for this business ? 1855 
DICKENS Lett. 1. 409 Excellent stowage for the whole family 
. .Damage for the whole, seven hundred francs a month. 

H Erroneously for DANGEB. 

1464 Plumpton Corr. (Camden) 13 Now you bee utterly 
out of"his dammage. 

Da'mage, v. Forms : see the sb. [a. OF. 
damagier, -er, domager, f. damage : see prec. sb.] 

1. trans. To do or cause damage to ; to hurt, 
harm, injure ; now commonly to injure (a thing) 
so as to lessen or destroy its value. 



nune, ana specially uy lyue iimigeb. 1540 iaAi-L.^^</. vi^^u^ 
24 The English studied all the wales possible to dammage 
their enemies : some shot arrowes, some cast stones. 1594 
SHAKS. Rich. Ill, iv. ii. 60 To stop all hopes, whose growth 
may dammage me. 1674 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. III. 459 



ig been taken. . ot my . 

a 1859 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. V. 130 He missed no oppor- 
tunity of thwarting and damaging the Government. 1892 
Law Times' Rep. LXVII. 251/1 The Merchant Prince.. 
ran into and damaged the Catalonia, 
2. intr. To suffer damage or injury, rare. 
1821 CLARE Vill. Minstr. I. 37 Her Sunday clothes might 
damage with the dew. 

Damageable (dse-medgab'l), a. For forms cf. 
DAMAGE sb. ; also 5 dommegeable, 6 dommagi- 
able, domagable, 6-7 damagable. [a. OF. 
damag(e}able, dom-, causing or bringing damage, 
f. damagier : see prec. and -ABLE.] 
1 1. Causing loss or injury ; hurtful, injurious. 
1474 CAXTON Chesse n. iii. (1860) Cj, The tunges of advo- 
cates and men of lawe ben perilous & dommegeable. 1570 
DEE Math. Prxf. 45 Neither by worde, deede, or thought, 
. .damageable, or iniurious to you. 1604 DEE in Hearne 
Collect. 3 Nov. 1705, That.. most grievous and dammage- 
able Sclaunder. 1636 E. DACRES tr. MaMaivfs Disc. Livy 
I. 166 Many faults, .dommageable to that tyrannic. 1674 
Gout. Tongue xii. (1684) 164 Immodest talk .. damagable 
and infectious to the innocence of our neighbors. 1796 
BURKE Regie. Peace \. Wks. 1802 IV. 437 Before it is clearly 
known whether the innovation be damageable or not, the 
judge is competent to issue a prohibition to innovate until 
the point can be determined. 
2. Liable to be damaged. 

"755 MAGENS Insurances'll. 273 If Goods easily damage- 
able be in a Ship. 1881 J. F. KEANE Six Months in Meccah 
vii. 183 Much destruction, .to all damageable property. 
Hence f Da-magea'bly adv., injuriously. 
1660 HEXHAM, Kommerlick . . Dammageably, or with 
Molestation. 

I Damage-cleere. Law. Obs. [ad. Anglo- 
Fr. damage clers for damage des clers, in med.L. 
damna clericorum ' clerks' costs '.] 

A fee formerly paid in the courts of Common 
Pleas, King's Bench, and Exchequer, in cases where 
damages were recovered: abolished in 1665. 

1665 MARVELL Corr. xlviii. Wks. 1872-5 II. 183 There are 
several other Bills in hand ; as . . the taking away of Damage 
cleere. ' 

Damaged (dse'med.^d),///. a. [f. DAMAGE v. 
+ -ED 1.] That has suffered damage ; injured (esp.- 
physically). 

1771 SMOLLETT Humph. Cl. 10 July an. 1768, Clinker., 
unscrewed the damaged iron. 1891 Daily News 23 June 
2/3 If any sovereign or half-sovereign is more than three 
grains below the standard weight, it shall be considered 
a damaged coin. 

Damage-feasailt. Law. Also 7 -feasaunt, 
-faisant, 7-8'fesant. [OF. damage fesant, F. dom- 
mage faisant, doing damage, causing loss.] 

Said of a stranger's beasts, etc., found trespassing 
on a man's ground without his leave, and there 
doing him damage, as by feeding or otherwise. 
(Properly adj. phr. ; also used as sl>.} 

1621 R. BOLTON Slat. Irel. 191 (33 Hen. VIII), In any 
replegiare or second deliverance for rentes, customes, 
services or for damages feasaunt or other rent or rents. 1681 
CHETHAM Angler's Vade-m. xl. 18 If I leave my Angle- 
rod behind in another's ground he may take it Damage 
feasant. 1714 SCROGGS Courts-leet (ed. 3* 73 Any Thing 
distrained for Damage-feasant cannot be distrained for 
Rent. 1768 BLACKSTONE Comm. HI. i. III. 6. 1887 Edin. 
Kelt. Jan. 77 The right of distraining animals trespassing 
and as we now say ' damage-feasant '. 
t Da'mageful, a. Obs. [f. DAMAGED. -H-EUL.] 
Injurious, hurtful. 

CI449 PECOCK Repr. H. viii. 182 It were ful unprofitable 
and damageful to alle Cristene. 1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. lirit. 
IX. xiii. 107 His warre in Ireland was more dammagefull. 
1645 T. COLEMAN Hopes Deferred 15 These purposes of 
mischiefe are either issulesse, or damagefull, or dangerous. 
Damagement (dcE-medgment). rare. [a. 
OF. damagcment, f. damagier to DAMAGE.] The 
action of damaging, or fact of being damaged. 

1603 J. DAVIES Microcosmos Wks. (1876' 44 (D.) The more 
vs'd they [pleasures] are excessiuely, The mores the soule 



DAMAQEOUS. 

and bodie's damagcment. 1885 rail Mall G 20 May 5/1 If 
war has any raisoa d'ttre at all, that muM lie ill the effective 
damagerncnt of your enemy. 

t Damageous, a. Ot>s, For forms cf. DAMAGE 
sli. ; also 5 damegeous, 6 dammagious, -ius 
[a. OK. damageus, -gioiis, -jos, f. damage : see 
DAMAGE sb. and -ous.] Fraught with damage, 
hurtful, injurious ; causing loss or disadvantage. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Pars. T, p 364 Whan bat meynee is 
felonous and damageous to be peple. 1474 CAXTON Chesse 
in. vi. (1860) Hiij b, What synne is fowler than this synne. . 
ne more dommageous. 1477 EARL RIVERS (Caxtoni Dicttt 
48 Lakking of thy lore is to vs a damegeous thing. 1611 
COTGR. s. v. Vimaires, Fearefull or dommageous accidents. 
1637 HEYWOOD Royall Ship 33 All the raucnous and dam. 
mageous beasts to be destroyed through his land. 

Damaging (doe-medgirj), vbl. sb. [-ING V] 
The action oi the verb DAMAGE, q. v. 

13. . Childk. Jesus 1344 (Matz.) Of be Hones he made 
a semblingue bifore heom withoute datnagingue. 1568 
GRAFTON Chron. II. 93 The French king.. in dammagyng 
of king Richard, layde siege to the Castell of Aubevylc. 

Da'inaging, ppl. a. [-ING *.] That damages ; 
causing damage or injury, injurious, hurtful. 

1856 EMERSON Eng. Traits, Relig. Wks. (Bohn) II. 101 The 
modes of initiation are more damaging than custom-house 
oaths. 1885 Athemtum 5 Sept. 299/2 [The hedgehog's] 
moral character, .is the subject of damaging criticism. 

Hence Da-mafringly adv., hurtfully. 

1854 KITTO Bible lllustr. (1867) VIII. 427 The stroke b 
usually, .inflicted damagingly to the mouth, with the heel of 
a shoe. 1868 Daily News 7 Sept., Mr. M'Carlhy thinks 
the defence unassailable. To us it appears very easily and 
very damagingly assailable. 

Damaisele, obs. form of DAMSEL. 

Damalic ((lamarlik), damolic (damp-lik), a. 
Chem. [f. Gr. Jo/wtAir, Sa/uiXi; heifer + 10. The 
second form is perh. short for damal-olic^ In 
damalic or damolic acid, an acid (C 7 H, O) dis- 
covered by Stiideler in cows' urine. Hence 
Da-inolate [-ATE *], a salt of damolic acid. 
Damaln-rlo [TjMc] acid, an acid (C, H 10 O 2 ) akin 
to damolic, and of the same origin ; its salts are 
Damalivrates. 



two volatile acids said to exist in cows' and horses' urine. 
1879 Ibid. VI. 541 The filtered solution deposits, first 
crystals of barium damolate, then the damalurate. 

II Daman (doe-man), [from the Arabic name 
Jjj^l ^J daman isrdil, sheep or lamb of Israel.] 

The Syrian rock-badger or 'cony' of Scripture 
(llyrax Syriacus) ; the name is also extended to 
the species found at the Cape (H. Capensis). 

1738 T. SHAW Trav. Bart. 4 Levant. 3)6 The Daman 
Israel is an Animal likewise of Mount Libanus, though 
common in other places of this Country. .We have . . pre- 
sumptive Proof that this Creature is the Saphan of the 
Scriptures. 1700 BRUCE Trav. I. x. 241, I went ashore 
here [Cape Mahomet] and shot a small animal among the 
rocks, called Daman Israel or Israel's Lamb ; I do not 
know why, for it has no resemblance to the sheep kind. 
1815 GORE tr. Blummbach's Man. Nat. Hist. iv. 47 The 
Daman, Cape Hyrax. 1835 KIRBY Htib. ff hist. Anim. 
II. xxiv. 497 The skin, .is nearly naked, except in the case 
of the swine, the daman, the mammoth and some others. 

Damar : see DAMMAR. 

Damas, obs. form of DAMASK. 

Damascene (drcmasrn), a. and sb. Also 4 
damyssone, -assene, 4-7 damasene, 6-7 dania- 
scen, -sine : see also DAMSON, [ad. L. Dama- 
sci-n-us, Gr. Ao/ioff/oyi-ds of Damascus. Cf. Ger. 
damascen.] A. adj. 

1. Of or pertaining to the city of Damascus. 

[c 1386 CHAUCER Monk's T. 17 Loo Adam in the feeld of 
Dai 



and commeth from Damasco. 1611 COTGH. s.v. Damas, 
Hitile tie Damas, oyle Damascene. 1875 SCRIVENER 
Ltct. Text N. Test. 17 About the ninth century, a rough, 
brown, unsightly paper, made of cotton rags, and some- 
times called Damascene from the place where it was 
invented, crept gradually into use. 

2. Of or pertaining to damask (fabrics), or to 
the art of damascening metal ; as damascene work. 

1541 Ord. 33 Hen. VII 1 in Nicholls Housch. Ord. (1790) 
215 In fine Diaper, in Damasene worke. 155010 Athenaeum 
21 Oct. (1871) 520/3, 4 damascene buttons were cut off my 
lord's gown in the privy-chamber. 1883 C. C. PERKINS fist. 
Sculpt. 100 Stanford) The damascene work and the foliated 
ornaments . . challenge comparison with bronzes of any 
period. 

3. Damascene plum : see DAMSON i c. 
B. sl>. 1. A native of Damascus. 

1381 WYCLIP 2 Cor. xi. 32 The cite of Dnmascenys. 

2. Damascene work ; formerly applied to damask. 

1481-90 Hini'iird Hoiiseh. Bks. (Roxb.) 285 For brynging 
of damysens from Colchester. 1553 in Rogers Agric. Sf 
rriccs\\\. 489/3 [Damascene. Sells W3/.]. 1844 Mech. Mag . 
XL. 342 The damascene which appears upon the surface of 
steel is very various. 1873 DIXON 7*7c< Queens I. v. i. 233 
A Spanish silversmith copied arabesques and damascenes. 

8. See DAMSON. 

Damascene (dsemasfn), v. Also 9 -ine. [f. 
prec. adj. ; cf. DAMASKEEN v.] trans, a. To orna- 
ment (metal-work, esp. steel N with designs incised in 



15 

the surface and filled in with gold or silver, b. Tc 
ornament (steel) with a watered pattern, as in 
1 lama.sous blades. 

1585-1613 (see DAMASKEEN .]. 1848 LYTTOM Ifarold in 
ll. His arms were damascened with silver. 1880 Sat. Kn 
No. 1302. 461 Swords beautifully damascened in gold. 
c. transf. aa&fy. 

1878 Examiner 2 Mar. 283/1 These essential elements, 
are damascened upon a ground of really good story 
1891 G. MEREDITH One o/mr Cong, xix, M. Falariqu< 
damascenes his sharpest smile. 

Damascened (dicmasrnd), ///. a. [f. prec 
+ -ED.] Of steel and other metal-work : a 
Inlaid with ornamental designs, gold or silver ; b 
Having the watered pattern of dark lines charac 
teristic of Damascus blades. 

i86 J. GRANT Caft. of Guard \\, The earl's cuirass was 

of Milan steel, magnificently damascened. itKAfhenxutn 

17 Mar. 344/3 Swords, .with splendid damascened hilts. 

O. transf. 

1879 RUTLEY Stxit. Rocks xi. 181 Damascened. s. 
author suggests this term as a convenient one by which to 
describe the structure shown in some obsidians, in which 
streaks or threads of glass are contorted in a confusec 
manner, which somewhat resembles the markings on 
Damascus sword-blades, or the damascening on gun-barrels. 

Damascener (tlxmasf-nsi). [f. as prec. + 
EK.] One who damascenes metal. 

1855 tr. Labarte's Arts Mid. Ages x. 361 The damas- 
cener and the goldsmith. 1883 Harper's Mag. June 57/1 
Damasceners . . and gun-makers are Mohammedan. 

Damascening (daemasf-nin), vtl. sb. [-INO i. 
The action of the vb. DAMASCENE ; also the design 
or figured surface so produced. 

1860 Cornh. Mag. No. 3. 271 Delightful arabesques and 
damascenings. 1880 BIRDWOOD Intl. Art I. 163 Damas- 
cening is the art of encrusting one metal with another . . in 
the form of wire, which by undercutting and hammering is 
thoroughly incorporated with the metal which it is intended 
to ornament. 

Damascus :damarsks). Formerly also in 
the Ital. form Damasco. [L. Damascus, Gr. 
Aa/ma/coV, from Semitic: cf. Heb. pb>QT Dam- 
meseq, Arab. i_i-o Dimashq, Dimeshq ; thence 
Heb. pE'DI cTmescq or cTmesheq, transl. ' silken ' 
in Amosiii. ia (Rev. V.).] An ancient city, the 
capital of Coele-Syria, famous for its steel and 
its silk fabrics. Often used attrih., as Damascus 
(Wizrfir (see quot. 1875), etc. ; also absol. = Damascus 
steel, etc. 

Damascus iron : a combination of pieces of iron and 
steel welded together and rolled out, in imitation of the 
steel of Damascus. Dumasctts-tivist : see quot. 

a 1615 FLETCHER Elder Bro. v. i, A Milan hilt, and 
a Damasco blade. 1665 SIR T. HERBERT 7 'rap. (1677) 149 
A Sword not so hooked as the Damasco. 17*7-51 CHAM- 
IJERS Cycl., Damascus-steel. . remarkable for its excellent 
temper. 1830 Mech. Mag. XIV. 31 By filing semicir- 
cular grooves into both sides of the blade, and again 
subjecting it to the hammer, a beautiful roset-shaped 
Damascus is obtained. 1846 GREENER Sc. Gunnery 
113 On examination of .. real Damascus barrels. 1874 
KNIGHT Diet. Mech. s.v. Damascus. iron, The fineness of 
the Damascus depends upon the number and thickness of 
the alternations [of iron and steel]. Il'id., Damascus-twist, 
a kind of gun-barrel made of a ribbon of Damascus-iron 
coiled around a mandrel and welded. 

t Damasee*. Obs. Also -ys6, -es6. [A cor- 
ruption or abbreviation of damasene DAMSON : cf. 
first quot. there.] = DAMSON. 

14.. T. o/ Erceldoune 180 (Thornton MS.) Whare frwte 
was growande gret plentee The date and als th damasee 
[v. rr. damese, damyse). ? 1:1475 Sqttyr lowe Degre 36 
The date, also the damyse [rime larel-tre]. 

Damasin, obs. form of DAMSON. 

tDamasine," Obs. = DAMASCENE. Dama- 
sine-rosc : = damask rose. 

1607 TOPSELL Fonr-f. Beasts (1673) 430 Herbs which 
smelt sweet like musk : as. .the damasine-rose. 

Damask (die-mask \ sb. and a. Forms: 4-7 
damaske, -asc, 4- damask; also 5 damcsko. 
5-6 dammask(e, 7 damasque, -ast ; Sc. 5 -6 
dammas, -PS, -ys, 6 domos, 7 damas, -es. 
[Prob. originally a. AngloKr. *Damasc = It. Da- 
masco, L. Damascus proper name of the city ; Littre 
and Hatzfeld have an OF. Damas of 1 4th c., 
whence ihe Sc. fornis above. The French text of 
Mandeville (Roxb. Club) ch. xiv. has Damascc.] 
I. f 1. The city of Damascus. Obs. 

c 1150 Gen. ff Ex. 761 At damaske is Se oVidde stedc, 
Quer abram is bigging dede. 1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. XV. 
486 So many prelates . . Of Nazaretn, of Nynyue, of Nep- 
talim, and damaske. c 1485 Digby Myst. (1882) ll. 32 
Thorow all dammask and liba. 1539 Inventories 49 (Jam.) 
Tapestry-is. Item, vi pece of the cietie ol Dammys. 

2. attrib. = Made at or brought from Damascus, 
as damask blade, sword, etc, (see 7 below) ; damask 
cloth, silk (see 3 and 6 below) ; also the following : 

t Damask plum, prune = DAMSON. Obs. 

1543 TRAHERON Vigo't CAirurg. 268 b/i (Stanford) Take 
of rcysons. .of damaske prunes. 16x6 SURFU & MARKH. 
Country Farmt 393 Damaske Plums . . are of three sorts, 
the black, red, and violet colour. 1664 EVELYN Kal. Hort. 
(1729* 210 Plums. . Damasc, Denny Damasc. 

t Damask powder, fa toilet-powder scented with 
damask roses. Obs. 



DAMASK. 

<ri$40 [cf. I1,,mask rot, below]. 1634 Allhort MX. in 
Sinipkmv>n Waihin K t,<ns Ixviii, Fur 4 ll of danwuke powder 
for Gooddy Webb. 1637 HKYWOOU AV.M<7 A'/.; 
1874 VI. 70 Now farewell Gun-powder, I mutt change thee 
into Damaak-powder. 

Damask rose, a species or variety of roie, sup- 
posed to have been originally brought from Da- 
mascus. 

Apparently, originally the Rosa gallica rar. damascena, 
a tall shrub with semi-double pink or light-red (rarely white) 
flowers, cultivated in the East for altar of rose* ; but tbu 
underwent many changes under cultivation in the West, and 

Ihon. 
,thly, 

Ihe Damask rose. According to f fucliiger and Hanbury, 
I'liarmacographia, the name is now applied at Mitcham to 
a variety of R. gallica with very deep-coloured flowers. 

ciUftRecipe'm Vicary'sAnat. <i886iApp. 334 Putttheno 
half an vnce of fyne pouldre of rcdde dammaske rmys. 1578 
I.VTE Dodotns vi i. 655 We cal them in English, Roses of 
Prpuince, and Damaske Roses. Ibid. 654 1 ne flowers, .be 
neither redde nor white, but of a mixt colour betwixt red 
and white, almost carnation colour. 1581 HAKLUYT Mtmo- 
ranila in I'oy. II. i. 165 The Damaske rose [brought in) by 
Doctour Linakcr, King Henry the seuenth and King 
Henry the eights Physician. 1646 J. HALL Poems 45 
Damast-roses yet unblown. 1744 C. Thompson's Trav. 
III. 13 Rose-water made of the Damask Roses which grow 
here plentifully. 1869 HOLE Bk. about Roses xi. The 
Damask [rose] with its few rich velvety-crimson petal', 
is a memory, and that is all. 

Damask violet DAME'S VIOLET. (In Ger. 
Damas/l/lume.) 

1578 LYTE tr. D adorns 153 In English Damaske violets, 
Dames violets or Gillofcrs. 1597 GERARDE Herball H. 
cxvi. 377 Dames Violets is called.. in English Damaske 
Violets [etc.]. 1861 PHATT f'lmuer. Plants I. 154. 

t Damask water, rose-water distilled from Da- 
mask roses. Obs. 

(1306 N. DE TINCEWICK in Annxol. Jrnl. XIV. 271 hem 
proaima rosata dc Damasco.] 1519 Four Elements m Hazl. 
Dodstey I. 44 With damask water made so well, That all 
the house thereof shall smell, As it were paradise. 1555 
KOEN Decades 224 The Capitayne sprinkelcd the KynRx-s 
with damaske water. 1611 COTGH. s.v. Damas, Eau de 
Damas, Damaske, or sweet, water (distilled from all sorts 
of odoriferous hearbs). 

II. As a name of substances originally produced 
at Damascus. 

3. A rich silk fabric woven with elaborate designs 
and figures, often of a variety of colours. 

Also applied to figured materials of silk and wool, silk and 
cotton, or worsted or cotton only, used for furniture- 
covering, curtains, etc. ' True damasks are wholly of silk, 
but the term is now applied to any fabric of wool, linen, or 
cotton, woven in the manner of the first damasks' (Ueck, 
Draper's Diet.). 

c 1430 LYI>G. Storie o/ Thebes III. vi, Clothes of vtrluel, 
Damaske and of guide. 1473 Pasttm Lett. No. 725 1 1 1. 91 
A newe vestment oft" whyght damaske flbr a dekyne. lS3-3 
Act 24 Hen. VIII, c. 13 No man, vnder the saide 
estates, .shall, .weare any salen, damaske, siike, chamblet, 
or taflata. 1577 Ir. Ritllingcr's Decades 11. x. 239 A linnen 
or wollen garment doeth as well couer and become the 
bodie, as damaskcs and vclucts. 1689 l.,<nd. Gat. No. 
2425/4, 3 Pieces of Crimson Missena Damasks, of a large 
Flower, commonly used for Beds, and Hangings of Rooms. 
!7ioC. FlENNES/Jwry 1888) 290 All ye bed and hangings 
are of fine damaske made of worsted. 17*5 DE FOE Voy. 
round World (1840) 21 A quantity of China damasks, and 
other wrought silks. 1841 BISCHOFF U'oollen Manuf. II. 
415 The draw-loom .. is now ustd to a very considerable 
extent in weaving carpets and figured damasks. 

b. A twilled linen fabric richly figured in the 
weaving with designs which show np by opposite 
reflexions of light from the surface ; used chiefly 
for table-linen. 

1542 in Rogers Agric. < Prices III. 487/3 Damask diaper 
i yd. . . 2/2. 1614 Will in Rifon Ch. Acts 364 One suite of 
damaske.. for his table. 16967. F. Merchants' Ware-ho. 
13 Damask .. is a wry fine sort of.. Linnen, and is 
wrought into several sorts of fine Imagery, and Figures, .it 
s for few uses except for Table- Linnen. 1759 GOLDSM. Ree 
No. 3 He looked at the tablecloth, and praised the figure 
of the damask. 1877 MRS. FORRESTER Mignon I. 23 The 
table is laid, .damask, pble, glass, is perfect. 

4. a. Steel manufactured at Damascus ; also steel 
or a combination of iron and steel exhibit ing a 
similar variegated surface : more fully damask steel. 
3. The wavy pattern on the surface of Damascus 

steel, or cf iron and steel welded together and cor- 
roded with weak acid. 

1603 KNOI.LES Hist. Turks (1621) 1297 Two knives of 
damaske, with hafts of jasper. 1844 Mech. Mag. XL. 342 
All steel which exhibits a surface figured with dark lines, 
is called damask. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. Damask- 
teel, a laminated metal of pure iron and steel, of peculiar 
[uality, produced by careful heating, laborious forging, 
[cabling, and twisting. 1881 Blackw. Afag. May 567 
The curious product called damask-steel possesses both 
edge and elasticity, and all the great Eastern swords owe 
o it their celebrity. Ibid. 568 He made some swords 
hich would bend till the point touched the hilt, and 
rtiich would also cut through an iron bar . . the same two 
acuities have never been conjoined in any other steel than 
amask. 

1818 FARADAY Exf. Res. xvi. (1820) 59 The damask itself 
s merely an exhibition of crystallisation. 1844 Mech. Mag. 
'CL. 342 Common steel acquires no visible H^my by 
radual refrigeration. 

5. The colour of the damask rose : esp. as seen in 
lie face of a woman. 



DAMASK. 

1600 SHAKS. A. Y. L. in. v. 123 There was a pretty 
rednesse in his lip . . 'twas hist the difference Betwixt the 
constant red and mingled Damaske. 1607 Cor. H. i. 
232 The Warre of White and Damaske in Their nicely 

fawded Cheekes. 1600 FAIRFAX Tasso n. xxvi, Her 
amaske late, now chang'd to purest white. 1820 KI-:ATS 
Lamia \. 116 She. .Blush'd a live damask. 

III. attrib. and adj. from senses under II. But 
early examples of damask cloth, blade, etc., mean 
literally ' of Damascus ', and so belong to 2 above. 

6. Made of damask (silk or cloth) ; furnished 
with damask. 

c 1489 CAXTON Blanchardyn xix. (1890) 61 A fayre whyte 
coueryng of damaske clothe. 1609 B. JONSON Sil. Woman 
HI. i, A Damask table cloth, cost me eighteen pound. 1682 
Vestry Bks. (Surtees) 340 One fair damask linen cloth and 
a damask napkin. 1755 MRS. DELANY Let. to Mrs. De-wes 
17 Nov., Lady Anson began the last ball in a green damask 
sack. 1814 Hist. Univ. Oxford II. 261 The dress of the 
Chancellor is of black damask silk. 1842 TENNYSON A ndley 
Court 20 A damask napkin wrought with horse and hound. 

7. Made of Damascus steel ; having the fine 
temper and watered surface of Damascus steel. 

ci6xi CHAPMAN Iliad x. 63 By him his damask curets 
[eWea iroutt'Aa] hung. 163* J. HAYWARD tr. Biondi's 
Eromena 78 The fine edge of his damaske blade. 1820 
FARADAY Exp. Res. xvi. (1859) 59 The wootz . . retains . . a 
damask surface when forged, polished, and acted upon by 
dilute acid. 

8. Of the colour of the damask rose ; blnsh- 
coloured. 

1588 SHAKS. L. L. L. v. ii. 296 Faire Ladies . . Dismaskt, 
their damaske sweet commixture showne. 1601 Tivel. 
N. n. iv. 115 She neuer told her lone, But let concealment 
like a worme i' th budde Feede on her damaske cheeke. 
1842 TENNYSON Day Dream Prol., While, dreaming on 
your damask cheek, The dewy sister-eyelids lay. 1861 
MRS. H. WOOD East Lynne xvi, Her pretty cheeks were 
damask with her mind's excitement. 

1 9. = DAMASKED 3 (? a misprint). 

1648 HERRICK Hesper., Country Life 42 (MS. version, ed. 
Hazl. p. 457) The damaske [v. r. damaskt] meddowes, and 
the crawling streames. 

IV. 10. Comb,, as damask-coated, -coloured, 
-gowned^}, adjs. ; damask-wise adv.; f damask 
branch, a figured pattern like that of damask or 
damask-work ; so f damask -branched ppl. a. ; 
damask carpet (see quot.) ; damask loom, a 
loom for weaving figured fabrics ; damask steel 
(see 4) ; damask-stitch (see quot.) ; damask- 
work, the veining on Damascus-blades; incised 
ornamentation inlaid with gold or silver. 

1634 PEACHAM Gentl. Exerc. i. xiv. 46 Diapering . . (in 
* Damaske branches, and such like 1 .. it chiefly serveth to 
counterfeit cloath of Gold, Silver, * Damaskbrancht, Velvet, 
Chamlet, &c., with what branch, and in what fashion you 
list. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. RIech., Damask-carpet, .a variety 
of carpet resembling the Kidderminster in the mode of 
weaving, but exposing the warp instead of the weft, 1606 
DEKKER.$VV.I$YJ m. (Arb.)9j The*damask-coated Cittizen. 
a 1631 DRAYTON Noah's Flood, The *damask-colour'd dove 
. .His sundry colour'd feathers. 1861 W. F. COLLIER Hist. 
Eng. Lit. 135 A magnificent array of satin and *damask- 
gowned priests. 1846 M C CULLOCH Ace. Brit. Empire(i&$$ 
I. 708 The Mamask loom is capable of producing any figure, 
however complicated. 1882 CAULFEILD & SAWARD Diet. 
Needtouork, * Damask Stitch. A name given to Satin Stitch 
when worked upon a linen foundation. 1580 HOLLYBAND 
Treas. French Tong, Tailler quelque chose a la Damas- 
quine, to cut some thing *damaske wise. 1611 COTGR., 
Damasquiner. . to flourish, carue, or ingraue Damaske-wise. 
1598 FLORIO, Damaschino, *damaske worke vpon blades. 
1830 TENNYSON Recoil. Arab. Nts. iii, All. .The sloping of 
the moon-lit sward Was damask-work, and deep inlay Of 
braided blooms unmown. 

Damask (dse-mask), v. [f. prec. sb. By Mil- 
ton and Phineas Fletcher stressed dama'sk.'] 

1. trans. To weave with richly-figured designs. 
[ I S99> etc. see DAMASKED i.] 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kerseyl, 

Damask or Damasquine . . to imprint the Figures of Flowers 
on Silk, or Stuff. 1755 JOHNSON, Damask, i. to form flowers 
upon stuffs. 

2. = DAMASCENE v. 

1585 T.WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's I'oy. Turkie B. n. 
xxi. 584 b, A faire basen of Copper damasked. 1653 H. 
COGAN tr. Pinto s Voy. 159 Armed with . . Partisans damasked 
with gold and silver. 1673 RAY Jonrn. Low C. (1738) II. 
354 They damask their cymeters with a blewish colour. 
1877 W. JONES Finger-ring L. 247 The wooden sides were 
plated with gold, and damasked with gold wire. 

3. transf. and _/?. To ornament with or as with 
a variegated pattern or design ; to diaper, 

1610 G. FLETCHER Chrisfs Viet., There pinks eblazed 
wide And damaskt all the earth. 1633 P. FLETCHER Purple 
Isl. XIL i, Where various flowers damask the fragrant seat. 
1667 MILTON P. L. iv. 334 As they sat recline On the soft 
downie Bank damaskt with flours. 1744 SHENsfoNE Song, 
' O'er desert Plains ' 5 Tho' my path were damask'd o'er With 
beauties e'er so fine. 1872 O. W. HOLMES Poet Breakf. T. 
i. (1891) 34 Fair pictures damasked on a vapor's fold. 

4. To make red or blush-coloured like a damask- 
rose. 

1863 MRS. MARSH Heathside Farm I. 58 Cathie's peach- 
like cheek was damasked by heat and laughter. 

6. To deface or destroy, by stamping or marking 
with lines and figures. 

1673 in Stationers' Rec. (i883\ Order of Bishop of London 
to damask ' The Leviathan '. 1678 Ibid., Order of Bishop of 
London to damask Seditious books seized at Frances Smith's, 
and to burn in the Company's garden adjoining their Hall 
the Hooks not fitt for damasking. 1706 PHILLIPS led. Kersey>, 
Damask or Damasquine, to stamp rude Draughts on waste 



16 

Paper, etc. 1709 Act. 3 Ann c. 21 Such offender or offenders 
shall forfeit such Book or Books . . to the proprietor or pro- 
prietors of the Copy thereof, who shall forthwith damask 
and make wast Paper of them. 1843 CAMPBELL Chancellors 
(1856) I. 23 The ceremony of breaking or 'damasking' of 
the old Great Seal consists in the Sovereign giving it a gentle 
blow with a hammer, after which it is supposed to be broken, 
and has lost all its virtue. 

t 6. To warm (wine) : see quot. 1706. slang. 

1699 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, Damask the Claret, Put 
a roasted Orange slasht smoking hot in it. 1706 PHILLIPS 
(ed. Kersey), To Damask Wine, is to warm it a little, in 
order to take off the edge of the Cold and make it mantle. 
1778 CUMBERLAND in GoMsmit/t's Wks. (1881) I. 101 Wilt 
have it steep'd in Alpine snows, Or damask'd at Silenus' 
nose ? 

Damasked (das'maskt), ppl. a. [f. prec.] 

1. Of silk, fine linen, and other fabrics : Woven 
with richly-figured designs. 

1599 MIDDLETON Micro-Cynicon iii. Wks. (1886) VIII, 124 
Sitting at table. .All covered with damask'd napery. 1607 
TOPSELL Fonr-f. talff (1673) 206 The outward appearance 
of the said skin is like to a damaskt garment. 1866 Pall 
Mall G. 24 Oct. 4 The exports in damasked silk. 

2. Of steel or other metal ; = DAMASCENED. 
<ri6ii CHAPMAN Iliad in. 345 His sword he took, and 

faslen'd it, All damask'd, underneath his arm. 1631 WEEVER 
A tic. Fun. Mon. 202 The out side was. .damasked and 
embossed with wires of gold. 1820 FARADAY Exp. Res. xvi. 
(1859) 50 It is certainly true that a damasked surface may 
be produced by welding together wires of iron and steel. 
1832 BABBAGE EC on. Manuf. xviii. (ed. 3) 167 Barrels of 
double-barrel guns, twisted and damasked. 

3. transf. Variegated ; diapered. 

1648 EARLOFWESTMLD. Otia Sacra { 1870) 88 The Crimson 
streaks belace the Damaskt West. 1855 SINGLETON Virgil 
I. 360 Blooming be the gates with damasked wreaths. 

4. Having the hue of the damask rose. 

TT6oo SHAKS. Sonn. cxxx, I haue scene Roses damaskt, red 
and white, But no such Roses see I in her cheekes. 16.. 
WOTTON Farewell to Vanities, Beauty, th' eye's idol, [is! 
but a damask'd skin. 165* BENLOWE Theofik. in. xxviii, 
So Roses damaskt robe, prankt with green ribbons, sents. 

5. Furnished or hung with damask. 

1861 Our English Home 134 The damasked chambers. 

t Damaskee'n, -kin, a. and sb. Obs. Also 
6 -en, -yne. [a. F. damasquin, -ine damascene, 
ad. It. damaschino, f. Damasco^ Damascus.] 

A. adj. - DAMASCENE a. 

1551 in Strype Eccl. Mem. II. n. ix.3ig Under a baron, 
no man to wear .. any embroidery of gold or silver, or 
damasken work or goldsmiths work. 1585 T. WASHINGTON 
tr. Nicholas's Voy. Turkie n. xxiii. 62 b., Vessels of gold 
. .faire painted after the Damaskin fashion. 

B. sb. A Damascus blade. 

1562 J. SHUTE Two Comm. ii. Ccj a (Stanford), A Scimitar 
bending lyke vnto a falchion, he was a righte damaskyne. 
1625 PURCHAS Pilgrims I. iv. i. Fa. 346 A Damaskeen, or 
Turkish Sword, richly garnished withSiluer and Gilt. (1645 
HOWELL Lett.Chas. 7(1753) 124 No old Toledo Blades, or 
Damask ins. 

Damaskeen (dremaskrn), v. In 6 -kane, 6-7 
kine, 8-9 -quine, -keen. [a. F. damasqiiiner^ f. 
damasqnin adj. : see prec.] = DAMASCENE v. 

1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's Voy. Turkie in. ix. 
84 b, A litle hatchet damaskined. 1613 PURCHAS Pilgrim- 
age in. xiii. (1626)315 Cups of fine Corinthian Latten, gilded 
and damaskined. 1848 LYTTON Harold ix. iii, His axe.. 
was so richly gilt and damasquined. 1863 Caxtoniana I. 
152 Only on their hardest steel did the smiths of Milan 
damaskeen the gracious phantasies. 

Hence Damaskee ned ///. a. y Damaskee'ning- 
vbl. sb. 



1676 Phil. Trans. XI. 715 The Persians are exquisitely 




with gold or silver wire. 1882 Cornh. Mag. Feb. 171 His 
drawn sword with its beautiful damasquined blade. 

Da'masker. rare \ [f. DAMASK v. + -ER.] 
= DAMASCENER. 

1621 Canterbury Marriage Licences (MS.), Robert Wors- 
ley of St. Marys in Sandw'ch, damasker. 

Damasking (dse-maskin), vbl. sb. [-ING 1 .] 
The action of the verb DAMASK ; esp. the damas- 
cening of metal. 

1591 PERCIVALL Sp. Diet., Atauxta, damasking of a knife 
or sword. 1677 J. PHILLIPS Tavernier's Trav. v. xii, The 
Persians are excellent artists at Damasquing with vitriol, or 
engraving Damask-wise upon Swords. 1881 Blackw. Mag. 
May 567 The art of damasking (which is a very different 
matter from the damaskeening alluded to just now) has lost 
its use since s-vords have ceased their service. 

b. transf. (In quot. 1660 applied to the natural 
veining or ( marbling* of wood.) 

1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit.v. vii. 40 Their painting and 
damasking of their Bodies. 1660 EVELYN To Dr. Wilkins 
17 Feb., Above all conspicuous for these workes and 
damaskings, is the Maple. 

Damasquee*nery. rare , [a. F. damasgui- 

nerie^\ The art of damascening ; damask-work. 

1730-6 BAILEY (folio 1 , Damasquenery, Steel work damas- 
keened, or the Art itself. 1775 ASH, Damasqueenery. 

II Daniasquriie (-skrn). DAMASKEEN sb. 

1849 in WEALE Diet. Terms. 

\\ Damasse (dama's^). [F. damassl = linge 
damasse Hatzfeld.] A kind of linen manufactured 
in Flanders, woven with flowers and figures like 
damask. 1864 in WEBSTER. 

Damassen, -syn, -zeene, -zine, obs. forms of 
DAMSON. 



DAME. 

Damassin (dse'masin). [Deriv. of F. damas, 
DAMASK.] ' A species of woven damask with gold 
and silver flowers' (Brande Diet. Arts 1842} ; see 
also quot. 1882. 

1839 URE Diet. Arts, Damassin is a kind of damask, 
with gold and silver flowers, woven in the warp and woof; 
or occasionally with silk organzine. 1882 BECK Draper s 
Diet., Damassin, Damasqiiitte, an ingenious modification 
of brocade invented by the Venetians in the 17th century, 
which by being subjected after being woven to great pres- 
sure between rollers, caused the metal wires which formed 
part of the fabric to appear in one unbroken and brilliant 
plate of gold or silver. 

Damaysele, -elle, obs. forms of DAMSEL. 

Damb(e, obs. (erron.) form of DAM, DAMN. 

Dambonite (dse-mbonsit). Chem. [f. dambo 
native African name-*--TTE.] 

A sweet white crystalline substance (C 4 H g O,) 
found in a kind of caoutchouc obtained from a 
plant growing near the Gaboon in Western Africa. 

[1861 Du CHAILLU Eqttat. Afr. x. 121 The caoutchouc of 
Africa is obtained from a vine (called dambo by the natives).] 
1879 WATTS Diet. Chem. VI. 541 The exuded juice, coagu- 
lated by exposure to the air, is kneaded into loaves called 
by the natives n* dambo, .Dambonite is white, easily soluble 
in water and in alcohol of ordinary strength, sparingly 
soluble in absolute alcohol. 

DamboSG (dse'mbJus). Chem. [f. prec. + -OSE.] 
A cry stalliz able sugar (C 3 H 8 O 3 ) obtained from 
dambonite. 

1879 WATTS Diet. Client. VI. 541 Dambose is a poly- 
atomic alcohol, and dambonite its methylic ether. 

Dambre : see DAMMAR. 

Dam-brod, dam-board. Sc. [f. DAM sb.$ 

+ BnoD 2 , BOABD: Du. dambordj Ger., Da. 
dambret, Sw. dambrade, the board on which the 
dams orj'eu de dames is played.] A draught-board. 
b. attrib. Checkered. 

1770 Inv. Goods of D. Steuari, Earl of Buchan (MS.), .8 
Damboard T[able] Cloths. x8a6 J. WILSON Noct. Ambr. 
Wks. 1855 I. 124 Baith at gammon and the dambrod. 1870 
RAMSAY Remin. v. (ed. 18) 113 [She] asked to be shown 
table-linen, a dam- brod pattern. 

Dame (d,?im). Also 5 Se. deym(e, 5- Sc. deme, 
9 north, dial, deame, deeam. [a. OF. dame 
(nth c. in Littre) : earlier damme ~ Pr. dama, 
domria, It. donna: L. domina lady, mistress, fern, 
of dominus lord, master. A variant now differen- 
tiated is DAM ^.] 

I. Expressing relation or function. 

fl. A female ruler, superior or head : = 'lady ', 
as fern, of lord (* our most gracious Sovereign 
Lady, Queen Victoria') ; the superior of a nunnery, 
an abbess, prioress, etc. Also Jig. or transf. Obs. 

a 1225 Ancr. R. 428 Almihti God . . ^iue ure dame his 
grace, so lengre so more, c 1420 Chron. Vilod, 774 When 
he [ = she] was hurr' Abbas and hurr* Dame, c 1490 Promp. 
Pan'. 1 13 (MS. K) Dame, domina. 1594 T. B. La Primaud. 
Fr. A caff. 11. 440 Reason, which is the principal faculty 
and power of the soule . . is called of them the Queene, Dame, 
and Mistress. 1667 MILTON P. L. ix. 612 Sovran of 
Creatures, universal Dame. 1677 GALE Crt. Gentiles II. 
in. 139 Zenobia Queen of Arabia and Dame of Antioch. 

2. The 'lady' of the house, the mistress of a 
household, a housewife. Now archaic or dial, 
(my dame ray wife, my * missus '), or humorously 
applied to an aged housewife. 

C1 33 R- BRUNNE Chron. Wace 15150 At Londone anoj>er 
kyng gan wone . . Saberk ban was his name, Dame Rytula 
highte his dame, c 1386 CHAUCER Shipm. T. 356, 1 toke vnto 
our dame ^oure wif at home ^e same gold a}em. 1483 Cath. 
Angl. 80 Dame ; vbi a huswyfe. 1535 COVERDALE Isa. xxiv. 
2 The Master as the seruant, the dame like the mayde. 
1548-9 (Mar.) Bk. Com. Prayer, Catechism Rubr., Fathers, 
mothers, maisters, and dames. 1593 BILSON Govt. Christ's 
Ch. 58 Every poor woman that hath either maid, or ap- 
prentise is called Dame: and yet Dame is as much as 
Domina and used to Ladies of greatest account, as Dame 
Isabel and Madam. 16x1 SHAKS. Wint. T. iv. iv. 57 Upon 
This day, she was. .Both Dame and Seruant : Welcom'd all, 
seru'd all. 1741 RICHARDSON Pamela III. Ivii. 147 The 
Gentry love both him and my Dame, and the poor People 
adore them. 1833 CARLYLE in Emerson Eng. Traits Wks. 
(Bohn) II. 7 My dame makes it a rule to give to every son 
of Adam bread to eat. 1855 ROBINSON Wliitby Gloss, s. v., 
My deeam, my mistress, my wife. An and deeam : an old 
woman. 
b. transf. 

1632 MILTON V Allegro 52 The cock .. stoutly struts his 
dames before. 

3. The mistress of a private elementary school for 
children. (Usually an old woman or widow.) Now 
almost Obs. 

a 1649 WINTHROP New Eng. (1826) II. 50 He bewailed . . 
his disobedience to his parents, his slighting and despising 
their instructions and the instructions of his dame. 1850 
W. IRVING Goldsmith i, Those good old motherly dames, 
found in every village, who cluck together the whole callow 
brood . . to teach them their letters. 

4. At Eton : A matron who keeps a boarding- 
house for boys at the school. (Also applied to a 
man who does the same.) 

c 1737 H. WALPOLE Let. to Montagu (1857) I. 15 A dame 
over the way, that has just locked in her boarders. 1825 
C. M. WESTMACOTT Etig. Spy I. 52 Do you bid the Dames 
of old Eton appear. 1844 DISRAELI Coningsby i. Si, The 
room in the Dame's house where we first order our own 
breakfast. *386_I)QVfDEti Li/e Sketky 1.22 Hexter. .being, 



DAME. 

not only an Eton writing-master and a ' dame ', but also 
a magistrate of the county. 

II. Expressing rank or honour. 

6. A form of address originally used to a lady of 
rank, or a woman of position ; the feminine corre- 
sponding to Sire ; = My lady, Madam : gradually 
extended to women of lower rnnk, and, after the 
1 6th c., left to these (cf. senses 2, 6 c). 

a tut Leg. Kath. 2080 Hu nu, dame, dotestut Cwen, 
acangestu nu f a 1300 Cursor M. 8349 (Cott.) Dame, I did 
be hider call, Als mi wedded wijf of all. 01300 1'loriz 



of solas have we sene.' cilfi* Wrigkfs Chaste Wife 139 
Thus seyd the wyfe of the hows, 'Syr, how faryth my 
swetc spouse.. ?' ' Series, dame,' he seyd, ' wele '. 1:1470 
HKNRY Wallace v. 330 A wedow thar duelt . . ' Fayr deyme ', 
he said, ' go get sum meit for me '. 1606 SIIAKS. Aitt. ff C/. 
iv. iv. 29 Fare thee well Dame, what ere becomes of me, 



W 

M istress. 1711 DE FOE Col. Jack (1840) 90 How'much was 
it, dame ? 

f 6. Prefixed as a title to the name of n lady or 
woman of rank ; = Lady, Mistress, Miss. Now 
only fig. in personifications, as Dame Fortune, 
Dame Nature. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 23719 (Cott.) Dame \v.r. Dam] fortune 
turnes ban hir i)uele. c 1305 Saints' Lives in K. E. f. 
(18621 71 Tuei maidenes clene ynou hire douilren were also 
Dame Mar^erie and dame Alice . . Dame Mabille be gode 
moder bis children loucde ynou. 1386 CHAUCER Man of 
Law's T. 151 The Emperours dognter dame Custance. 
1413 LYDG. Pilgr. Sowle \. \. (18591 ' The noble worthy 
lady dame Misericord. 1500-20 DUNBAR Litcina Schynnyng 
li Ale thocht Deine Fortoun . . Stude me beforne. 1568 
GRAFTON C/iron. II. 119 Alexander king of Scottes marycd 
dame Jane the sister of king Henry. 1593 [see z]. 1600 
THVNNK Emblems xiii, Dame Lais is a puritane. 1669 
A. BROWNE Ars fid. (1675) 14 Dame Nature is extremely 
Various in her Representations. 

b. The legal title prefixed to the name and sur- 
name of the wife of a knight or baronet, for which 
f.aily prefixed to the surname is in common use. 

1611 I'attnts creating baronets in Selden Titles Hon. II. 
v. 46 Quod uxores . . gaudeant hac appellation?, videlicet 
Anglice, Lady, Madame, et Dame respective, sccundum 
usum loquendi. 1614 Ibid. n. ix. 2 By custom, .tbe Ladies 
that are Knights' wives are in conveyance for the most part 
stiled Dames, and other Ladies only of greater honor, 
Ladies; which we see is a title much more frequently given 
to this sex than Lord to males. 1648 PKVNNE Plea for Lords 
42 Dame Alice Piers was brought before the lords. 1661 
Protests Lords I. 19 Sir Edward Powell Knt. and Brt., 
and Dame Mary his wife. 1793 in J. L. Chester Watm. 
Abbey Kef. (1876) 452 Dame Sidney Hawkins [relict of 
a knight) died the i8th. 

c. Prefixed to the surname of a housewife, an 
elderly matron or schoolmistress, arch, or dial. 

c 1300 Ilavclok 558 [GrimJ bar him horn to hise cleue, 
And bi-taucte him dame leue [his wife]. 1575 J. STILL 
Gamm. Gttrton Prol., Dame Chat herdeare gossyp. [Also 
called ' Goodwife Chat', 'Mother Chat'.] 1701 BOSWELI. 
"Johnson, He was first taught to read English by Dame 
Oliver, a widow, who kept a school for young children in 
Lichficld. Chapbook title. The History of Dame Trot and 
her Cat. 

7. The wife or daughter of a lord ; a woman of 
rank, a lady. Now historical or poetic. 

1530 PALSOR. 212/1 Dame, a lady, darne. a 156* G. 
CAVENDISH Life of IVolsey, Your . . banquette, where was 
assembled such a number of excellent fair dames. 1590 
SIIAKS. Mills. N.y.i. 298 [Thisbe] the fairest Dame That liu'd, 
that lou'd, that lik'd, that look'd with cheere. 1606 Tr. 
fr Cr. i. iii. 282 Hee'l say in Troy . . The Grecian Dames 
are sun-burnt. 1630 WADSWORTH Pilgr. vii. 73 They., 
intice likewise the young Dames. 1701 POPE Sapplw 17, No 
more the Lesbian dames my passion move. 1764 GOLDSM. 
Trav. 251 Dames of ancient days Have led their children 
through the mirthful maze. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eur. I. 
385 Dames of high rank visited him [Claude DuvaT] in 
prison. 1856 MRS. BROWNING Aur. Leigh in, 345 She had 
the low voice of your English dames, 

b. A woman in rank next below a lady : the wife 
of a knight, squire, citizen, yeoman, arch, or dial. 

1574 H ELLOWES Guevara's Fam. Ep. (1577) 20 The Ladyes 
and dames that serue you, and the gallants and Courtiers 
that altende vppon you. 1752 JOHNSON Rambler No. 189 
P 7 The city dame who talks of her visits at great houses, 
where she happens to know the cook-maid. 1864 CAPERN 
Dei'on /'roi'im ialism. Dame, an appellation bestowed on 
yeomen's wives. 

c. The title of female members of the Primrose 
League of the same rank as the ' knights '. 

1890 G. S. LANE Fox Primrose Leaf tie 13 The members 
of the League consist of Knights, Dames, and Associates 
(men and women). 

III. A mother ; = DAM sb.- 

1 8. A mother. Obs. a. of human beings. 

a us Aucr. R. 230 Ase be moder mid hire }unge deor- 
linge vliho from him . . & let hit sitten one, & loken ?eome 
abuten, & cleopien, Dame ! dame I & weopen. c 1175 in 
O. E. Misc. 190 Hire sire and hire dame bretej> hire to bete. 
c 1386 CHAUCER Manciple's T. 213 Thus taughte me my 
dame; My sone [etc.]. 4-1400 Test. Love Prol. (1560) 
272/1 In such wordes as wee learneden of our dames 
tongue. ?'.'i475 Xyr. /tnve Dfgre 622 To bydde this 
chylde go sucke his dame. 1593 SIIAKS. Lucr. 1477 The 
sire, the sonnc, the dame and daughter die. 
b. of animals; =DAMjA.-2. 

1-1310 R. BRUNNE Medit. 286 As chekenes crepyn vndyr 
Vi'L. III. 



17 

be dame wyng. 1-1400 MAUNDEV. (1839) xx*. ya pel 
puttcn forth anon the jonge foles and maken hem to nyjen 
alter hire dames. 1548 UDALL, etc. Erasm. Par. .Matt. 
xxi. 100 This she ase ii the dame of the fole. 1598 S v, 
I>iana 219 Despoyling the harmlesse Nightingale of her 
deerest prclie ones, and the sorrowful! Dame fluttering vp 
" dow ne ouer tlieir h. ails. 1709 BLAIR in Phil. Traits. 
XXV II. 63 Ihey quit their Dame at 6 Months. 

IV. f 9- The queen at chess. [ = K. dame.] 
Ots. rare. 

1574 HBLLOWES Gueuara's f'am. >.(is84) 231 Sonitimcs 
we were wont to play at the chesse . . and [IJcannot advise 
me that you gave me the dame. 

V. 10. Comb., as dame-errant (noncc-wd. after 
knight-errant) ; dame-school, an elementary 
school for children kept by a dame. 

1851 Miss YONOE Cameos (1877) II. xxxiii. 338 Henry 
received her with the courtesy due to a distressed dame- 
errant. 1811 MAR. EOCEWORTH Sequel to Rosamond II. 
65 The name of this ' tiny play ' . . ' The Dame-school 
Holiday.' 1876 GRANT Burgh Sck. Seotl. n. xvi. 527 
Dame schools, .have, .ceased to exist in Scotland. 

Dame, obs. f. DAM sb. 1 and *, and DAMN. 

Damegeous, var. DAMAGEOUS Obs., injurious. 

Dameisele, damesol lo, obs. ff. DAMSEL. 

Dames, obs. form of DAMASK. 

Dameae, var. of DAMAHKK Obs., damson. 

Damesene, obs. form of DAMSON. 

Damoship (d^i-mjip). nonce-tad. [f. DAME sb. 
+ -SHIP.] The office or position of a dame. 

1837 CARI.YLK Fr. Rev. I. ill. viii, He shall have . . a 
Daineship of the Palace for his niece. 

Dameson, -yn, obs. forms of DAMSON. 

Dame's-violet. [A transl. of the Latin name 
in the old herbalists, Viola malronalis, or of its 
equivalents. The form damas or damask violet 
appears to have been a corruption.] A popular 
name of the common Garden Kocket, Jlesperis 
matronalis; by Lyte called also Dame's Gilli flower. 

1578 LYTE Dodofiis n. v. 153 Of Dames violets or Gilo- 
floures . . These floures be now called in Latine Violx 
Matronalcs [so in TURNER 1562]: in English Damaske 
violets, Dames violets or Gillofers, and Rogues gillofcrs ; 
in French Violettes de Dames; in base Almaigne Hut- 
bloemen, and after tbe Latine name they call it Joncfrouwen 
vilieren, which may be Englished Dames violets. 1597 
GERARDE Ifcrbal n. cxvi. i. 376 Dames Viulets or 



Queenes Gilloflowcrs. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury n. 74/1 
The double Dame Violet growet 
knot. 1886 Pall M 
purple dame's-violet, 



. 

let groweth many together in a 
knot. 1886 Pall Mall G. 8 Oct. 5/1 The sweet smell of the 



Damicel, obs. form of DAMSEL. 

Damie (.d^-mi). St. [f. DAME + -IE, -Y dim. 
suffix.] A diminutive or pet form of DAMK. 

1789 BURNS To Dr. Blacklock v, Ye glaiket, gleesome, 
dainty damies [the Muses]. 

Damisel, -en, obs. ff. DAMSEL, DAMSON. 

II Dammar (dse-mii). Also (? 5 dambre), 7-9 
damar, 8-9 dammer. [a. Malay damar resin, 
whence the botanical genus Dammara (N.O. Coni- 
ferse), the typical species of which, D. orientalis, 
yields the resin in Amboyna and the Moluccas.] 

The name of various resins obtained from different 
trees growing in the East Indies, New Guinea, and 
New Zealand; esf. the cat's-eye resin (E. India 
Dammar) from Dammara orientalis, used instead 
of pitch for caulking ships, etc., and the Kauri-gum 
from D. australis of New Zealand ; both these are 
used for making varnish. White Dammar, or 
Dammar Pitch, is obtained from Valeria indica ; 
Black Dammar from Canarium strictum. (Also 
Dammar-gum, Dammar-resin, Gum Dammar.') 

[c 1440 Secrees 165 A dragme and a half of good muske, 
& a dragme of dambre, and bre dragmes ot be tree of 
aloes.) 1698 FRYER Ace. E. India ff P. 37 The.. Planks 



of Rosin taken out of the sea). 1717 A. HAMILTON 
AVw Ace. E. hid. II. xxxviii. 73 Damar, a Gum that 
is used for making Pitch and Tar for the Use of Shipping. 
1805 Trans. Soc. Encoitrag. Arts XXIII. 412 Resms . . 
called dammer in India . . the produce of various trees. 
1891 R. KIPLING Barrack-r. Ballads 130 He has taken 
my bale of dammer and spice I won beyond the seas. 

11 Da'mmara. Hot. [See prec.] A genus of 
trees yielding dammar. Also attrib., as dammara 
resin. Hence in Chem. Da mmaran, a neutral 
resin, and Damma-rlc acid, constituents of dam- 
mar. Dammarln. Da nnuarol, Da nimaronc, 
Da mmaryl, chemical derivatives of dammar. 



~ WATTS Diet. Cnem. II. 301 Dammara resin. 
Australian, .consists of an acid resin, dammaric acid, and 
a neutral resin, dammaran. 

t Da'mmaret. Obs. Also damouret. [ad. F. 
dameret 'an effeminate fondling or fond carpet 
knight' (Cotgr.) ; deriv. of dame lady.] A ladies' 
man : ' one that spends his whole time in the 
entertaining or courting of women ' (Cotgr.). 

1635 DRUMM. OF HAWTH. Commend. Verses to Person's 
Varieties, The Lawyer here may learne Divinity The 
Divine, Lawes . . The Dammaret respectively to fight, The 
Duellist to court a Mistresse right, a 1649 Fam. Epist. 
Wks. (1711) 145 Place me with a damouret .. if I praise him 
in the presence of his mistress, he will be ready to perform 
like duties to me. 

Dammas, -oskc, obs. forms of DAMASK. 



DAMN. 

Dammaaln, obs. form of DAMSON. 
Damme (da-mi). Also 7 dammee, - .. 
dammy. 

1. int. Shortened form of Damn me I used as a 
profane imprecation. 

.-1645 H.mni. Lett. (1650) I. 37 My Lord Powii.. 
said, dammy if ever he come to be King of England I 
will turn rebel. 1651 Total Rout in Cemimu. Baltadi 
(Percy Soc.) 132 Hee's not a gentleman tht wean, a sword, 
And fears to swear dammee at every word. 1791 Wotcorr 
(P. Pindar) Magpie n, Robin Wks. 1812 11.476 Damroei.it 
you ? 1848 THACKERAY Van. Fair Iv, Tandyman wouldn't 
pay : no, dammy, he wouldn't pay. 

2. as/*, a. The oath itself, or its utterance. 
1775 SHERIDAN Rivals m. iv. Let me begin with a damme. 

1813 HYKON Juan xi. xliii, And yet the British ' Damme V 
rather Attic. 

fb. transf. A person addicted to using this 
oath ; a profane swearer. A Isot damme- boy. Obs. 

1618 MYNSHUL ESI. Prison 45 Though be iteale his 
band of tenne thousand Dam-mees. (11658 OuvEUHOlNA 
Punks and dammy-bovs. i66j NEWCOME War.riCheth.im 
Soc.) j2 The ranting dammees of y nation. 1674 COTTON 
Compl. Gamester in Singer Hist. Cards 335 A grand-jury 
of dammees. 

1 8. attrib. or adj. Obs. 

1660 H. AIMS Fannaticks Mite * iij b. That multitude of 
dammy and debauched Daudy-houses. 

Damme, obs. form of DAM, DAMN. 

Dammed (d:cmd), ///. a. [f. DAM K.I + -ED.] 
Furnished with a dam ; obstructed or confined by 
a dam (usually with ;// . 

1664 DRYDEN tad. Queen iv. !, Like dammed-up streams. 
1879 ATCHHRUEY lloerland 97 This race wu intended to 
bring water from a dammed creek. 

Dammer (dx-mai\ sl>. [f. DAM ?>. ' + -EH i.] 

One who constructs dams. 

1816 Scorr Antiq. xxiii, Auld George Glen the dammer 
and sinker. 

t Dainmer, v. Obs. rare. [Cf. Ger. dammern 
to become dim, to dim.] To make dim or dark. 

1610 HOLLAND Camdcn's Brit. (1637) 649 So greate a 
mercate towne and faire withall that . . it dammereth and 
dimmeth the light in some sort of Radnor. 

Dammer, var. DAMMAR, resin. 
Dammes, -ys, obs. Sc. ff. DAMASK. 
Damming doe-min), vbl. sb. [-nol.] The 
action of the verb DAM l ; obstructing or confining 
by a dam. (Also with /.) 

1801 PLAYPAIR Illustr. Hntton. Th. 353 The damming 
up of those rivers. 1861 HUGHES Tom Brmvn at Oxf, 
xvii. 11889) 162 A small brook., with careful damming is 
made to turn a mill. 

Dammisel, obs. form of DAMSEL. 
Da-mmish, v. S,. Also daimish. [Possibly 
a variant of DAMAGE ; OF. had damaehier beside 
damagier. But cf. Ger. diimisch stupid.] 
1 1. trans. To stun, stupefy. Obs. 
(11598 ROLLOCK On the Passion (1616) 38 (Jam.) As 
a man who falls downe from an high place . . lyes without 
sense, and is dammished with the fall. 1711 WODROW Hist. 
Stiff. Ck. Scot. II. 25 He was perfectly dammished with 
the stroke. 

2. To bruise the surface of (an apple or similar 
fruit) by a knock. 
In south of Scotland (daimish). 
Dammosen, obs. form of DAMSON. 
Damn (dxm\ v. Forms: 3-6 dampne, (4 
dempne, damp), 4-7 damne, (5 dame, 5-6 
damme, 5-7 dam, 7 damb), 7- damn. [a. OF. 
dampne-r, damne-r, ad. L. damndre, dampnare, 
orig. to inflict damage or loss upon, to condemn, 
doom to punishment ; taken early into F. in legal 
and theological use. Cf. Pr. dampnar. It. damnare.] 
1 1. dans. To pronounce adverse judgement on, 
affirm to be guilty; to give judicial sentence 
against ; = CONDEMN I (in part\ a. Cbs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 13756 (Cott. \ I damp be not quar-so bou 
far, But go nu forth and sin na mar. 1381 WYCLIF John 
viii. 10 Womman, wher ben thei that accusiden thee? no 
man dampnede thee. c 1384 CHAUCER L. G. If. ProL 387 
It is no maysterye for a lord To dampne a man with-oute 
answere. 1440 J. SHIRLEY Dethe K. James u8i8) 23 This 
same Erie of Athetellcs was endited, arreyned, and dampned. 
1483 CAXTON G. de la Tour N iij, Ye hadde made hym to 
be dampned and destroyed withoute cause. 1495, 1551 [see 
DAMNED i], 

t b. To condemn to a particular penalty or fate ; 
to doom ; = CONDEMN 3, 6. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 20888 (Gott.) Bat ananias and his wijf 
For suilk he dampneJ paim of lijf. triuo R. BRLNST. 
Mt-iiit. 556 Pylat . . dampnede his Lorde to dye on the croys. 
c 1460 T(nvnflfy_Myst. 209 Pylale, do after us, And dam to 

id 



.So 

she was dampned by the assent of the barons to be brente. 
I S59 Mirr. Mag., Trfsilitin xvii, I poore Tresilyan. .was 
dampned to the galowes. 1611 SfEED Hist. Gt. Brit. VI. 
xlviii. 168 Let the Edict be dambd to eternal silence. 1734 
POPE Ess. Man IV. 284 See Cromwell damned to everlasting 
fame. 187* BCACKMORE Maid of Sk. (1881' 69, I will take 
it as a separate case, and damn the country in the fees. 

t 2. To adjudge and pronounce (a thing, practice, 
etc.) to be bad ; to adjudge or declare forfeited, 
unfit for use, invalid, or illegal ; to denounce or 

8 



DAMN. 

annul authoritatively ; to CONDEMX. Obs. exc. as 
in b, or as associated with other senses. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Wife's Prol. 70 For hadde God co- 
maundid maydenhede, Than had he dampnyd weddyng 
with the dede. 1387 TREVISA Hidden (Rolls) VIII. 289 
Kyng Edward dampned sodeynliche fals money pat was 
slyliche i-brou}t up. 1483 RICH. Illin Ellis Orig.Lett. in. 
xlii. I. 105 Damnyng and utterly distroying all the stamps 
and Irons. 1556 Chron. Grey Friars (Camden) 20 And 
also there [Paul's Cross] .. ware many bokes of eryses.. 
damnyd and brent be fore hys face. 1635 n.c,\T?Christia.nogr. 
in (1636) 40 A Councell, in which Image-worshippe was 
damned. 1676 WYCHEKLEY PI. Dealer Prol., And with 
faint praises one another damn [cf. Pope Prol. Sat. zoo]. 
1700 WELWOOD Mem. fed. 31 231 All the Charters in the 
Kingdom were damn'd in the space of a Term or two. 1797 
GODWIN Enquirer n. vii. 266 We should [not] totally damn 
a man's character for a few faults. 1868 G. DUFF Pol. 
Sum, 9 An assembly, .gathered together for the express 
purpose of damning modern civilization. 

b. spec. To condemn (a literary work, usually 
a play) as a failure ; to condemn by public expres- 
sion of disapproval. 

1654 WHITLOCK Zoototnia 254 We glosse him with Invec- 
tives, or damne the whole Book for Erratas. 1696 tr. Dn 
Mont's Voy. Levant A vij, The Book must be damn'd for 
the Clownishness of the Author. 1749 FIELDING Tom Jones 
xin. xi, A new play, at which two large parties met, the one 
to damn, and the other to applaud. 1791 BOSWELL Johnson 
an. 1777, A comedy by Mr. Hugh Kelly, which.. in the 
play-house phrase, was damned. 1860 J. P. KENNEDY W. 
Wirt I. xx. 309 The ordeal of facing the authorship of a play 
that has been damned. 

fc. Used by Coverdale as a rendering of Heb. 
to devote to destruction. Obs. 



153^ COVERDALE Josh. vi. 18 Howbeit this cite, & all 
that is therin, shalbe damned vnto the Lorde.-Onely be- 
warre of it that is damned, lest ye damne youre selues iyf ye 
take ought of it which is damned). Ibid.xi, n He. .smote 
all the soules that were therin with the edge of the swerde, 
and damned it. .& damned Hasor with fyre. 

3. transf. To bring condemnation upon ; to prove 
a curse to, be the ruin of. 

1477 EARL RIVERS (Caxton) Dictes 68 The wikked werkes 
dampne and distroye the good. 1611 SHAKS. Cymb. m. iv. 
76 Hence vile Instrument, Thou shalt not damne my hand. 
KSo 7 _ Timon w. iii. 165. 1691 T. H[ALE] Neiv Invent. 
p. Ixxxiii, He would damn all Patents that damned the 
River, 1728 YOUNG Love Fame iii. (1757) 101 Who borrow 
much. .And damn it with improvements of their own. 1848 
LD. G. BENTINCK in Croker Papers III. xxv. 165 The 
Budget has damned the Whig Government in the country. 
&y$ Publishers' Circular $ June 623/1 Chapman's, .remark- 
able preface, .if written by a modern author would at once 
damn his book. 

4. Theol. To doom to eternal punishment in the 
world to come ; to condemn to hell. 

c 1325 Mctr. Hom. 112 Sain Jon hafd gret pile That slic 
a child suld dampned be. a 1340 HAMPOLE Psalter i. 6 
Wicked sail noght rise. . for to deme, hot for to be demed 
and dampned. 1483 CAXTON G, de la Tour E ij, He 
wold pray god for hym that he myght knowe whether she 
was dampned or saued. a 1533 LD. BERNERS Huon xlv. 
151 Haue pyte of your owne soule, the whiche shal be 
dampnyd in hell. 1638 CHILLINGW. Relig. Prot. i. ii. 101 
You damne all to the fire, and to Hell, that any way differ 
from you. 1^27 SWIFT To Very Young Latfy, Some people 
take more pains to be damned, than it would cost them to 
be saved. 1870 M. CONWAY Earthw, Pilgr. xxiii. 270 He 
had rather be damned with Plato than saved with those 
who anathematised him. 

b. transf. To cause or occasion the eternal 
damnation of. 

1340 Ayenb. 1 15 He is manslajte and him-zelue damneb ase 
zayp J>e wrytinge. 1377 LANGL. /'. PI. B. xn. 02 Ri?t so 
goddes body bretheren but it be worthily taken, Dampneth 
vs atte daye of dome, r 1440 York Myst. xlviii. 161 pe 
dedjs t>at ys schall dame be-dene. 1547 BAULDWIN Mor. 
Philos. n. iii, The Justice of God and their owne desertes 
damne them vnto euerlasting death. 1658 Whole Duty R I an 
xvi. i. 127 Some.. make it their only comfort, that their 
enemies will damn themselves by it. a 1703 BURKITT On 
N. 7"., Lnke \. 66 'Tis..the contempt and neglect of the 
sacrament that damns, 1837 J. H. NEWMAN Par. Serm. 
(ed. 2} III. xv. 235 You have the power to damn yourself. 
fc. In passive sense : be damned. Obs. rare. 
1611 BEAUM. & FL. Philasferi\. ii, Cle. Sir, shall I lie? 
King. Yes, lie and damn, rather than tell me that. 1625 
MASSINGER New Way n. i, So he serve My purpose, let 
him hang or damn, I care not. 

6. Used profanely (chielly in dptative, and often 
with no subject expressed) in imprecations and 
exclamations, expressing emphatic objurgation or 
reprehension of a person or thing, or sometimes 
merely an outburst of irritation or impatience. 
(Now very often printed ( d - n ' or ' d - ', in 
.pa. pple. 'd -- d'.) 

[1431 JOAN OF ARC in De Barante Dues de Kourgogne vi. 
116 Mais, fussent-ils [les anglais] cent mille Goddem de 
plus qu'a present, ils n'auront pas ce royaume.] 1589 Pappe 
w. Hatchet (1844) 16 Hang a spawrie? drowne it ; alls one, 
damne it ! 1605 SHAKS. Macb. v. iii. ii The diuell damne 
thee blacke, thou cream-fac'd Loone. 1633 T. STAFFORD 
Pac. Hib. vi. (1821)292 His owne manifold Letters, .(full of 
God damne him). 1709 STEELE Tatler No. 13^1 Call the 
Chairmen : Damn 'em, I warrant they are at the Ale-house 
already ! 1751 SMOLLETT Per. Pick, viii, I'll be d - d if 
ever I cross the back of a horse again. 1815 SCOTT Guy M. 
xxxvi, Then take broadswords and be d -d to you. 1859 
DICKENS T. two Citi\'s\, ii, One pull more and you're at the 
top, and be damned to you. 1849 THACKERAY Pendennis 
xxvil, D - it, I love you : I am your old father. 

6. To imprecate damnation upon ; to curse, swear 
at (using the word 'damn '). Also absol. 



18 

1624 MASSINCER Par!. Love I. v, If you have travelled 
Italy, and brought home Some remnants of the language, 
and can . . Protest, and swear, and damn. _ 1665 DRYDEN 
Indian Emp. EpiL, Their proper business is to damn the 
Dutch. 1796 STEDMAN Surinam I. vii. 135 Insulted by 
a row-boat, which damned him, and spoke of the whole crew 
in the most opprobrious terms. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. 
Jng. (1871) II. xiii. 49 The dragoons, .cursing and damning 
him, themselves, and each other, at every second word. 

Damn ((tern), sb. [f. prec. vb. 

(The conjecture that, in sense 2, the word is the Hindi dam, 
Jalum, an ancient copper coin, of which 1600 went to a rupee 
(see Yule), is ingenious, but has no basis in fact.)] 

1. The utterance of the word ' damn ' as a profane 
imprecation. 

1619 FLETCHER M. Thomas n. ii, Rack a maids tender 
ears, with dam's and Devils. 1719 DE FOE Crusoe 11850) 
1 1 . 460 ' What ! he no hear you curse, swear, speak de great 
damn? 1 1775 SHERIDAN Rivals II. i, Ay, ay, the best terms 
will grow obsolete. Damns have had their day. 1849 
THACKERAY Pcndennis Ixvii, How many damns and curses 
have you given me, along with my wages ? 1877 BESANT & 
RICE San of Vulc. \. xii, That [oath] once discharged, he 
relapsed, .into numerous commonplace damns. 

2. Used vaguely (in unconventional speech) in 
phrases not worth a damn, not to care a damn. 
(Cf. CURSE sl>. i U.) 

1760 GOI.DSM. Cit. W. xlvi, Not that I care three damns 
what figure I may cut. 1817 BYRON Diary Wks. (1846) 
423/1 A wrong, .system, not worth a damn. 1827 SCOTT 
Jrnl. (1890) II. 22 Boring some one who did not care a d 
about the matter, so to speak. 1849 MACAULAY Life $ Lett. 
(1883) II. 257 How they settle the matter I care not, as the 
Duke [of Wellington] says, one twopenny damn. 
Damn(e, obs. (erron.) form of DAM. 
Damnability((!fcmnabi'liti;. [f.next.] Quality 
of being damnable ; liability to damnation. 

1532 MORE Con/lit. Tindale Wks. 438/1 The damnabilitie 
belonging to the mortall offence. 1648 Bp. DUPPA Angels 
Rejoic. rglt maybringadamnability(astheSchoolespeakes', 
but not damnation. 1845 CARLYLE Crumlvell I. iv. 72 Which 
in that time meant temporal and eternal Damnability. 

Damnable (dse'innab'l), a. Also 4-6 damp- 
nable. [a. F. damnable, in 12-1 3th c. dampnable, 
ad. L, dam(p)ndbilis, f. damndre : see DAMN.] 

1 1. Worthy of condemnation ; to be reprobated ; 
highly reprehensible. Obs. (or merged in 3, 4.) 

'1380 WYCLIF Sel. Wks. III. 341 Myche more ben bei 
dampnable bat letten Goddis lawe toshyrie. 1509 BARCLA_Y 
Shyp ofFolys 123 Than it [daunsynge] in erth no game is 
more damnable. 1634 PRYNNE Documents agst. 1'rymie 
(Camden) 21 For a man to endeavour to Jefraude the Kinge 
of this treasure is a most damnable offence. 1841 EMERSON 
Lect., Conservative^^. (Bohn)II. 268, 1 observe that there 
is a jealousy of the newest, and that the seceder from the 
seceder is as damnable as the pope himself. 

f b. Liable to judicial condemnation. Obs. rare. 
cn6a Tmaneley Myst. 193 Sir Cayphas, bi my wytt, he 
shuld be dampnabille. 

2. Subject to divine condemnation ; liable to or 
worthy of damnation. 

1303 R. BRUNNE Handl. Synne 3768 Pys synne ys nat 
dampnable But hy t be seyde custummable. a 1340 HAMPOLE 
Psalter xvii. 25 pe pynes of dampnabil men. 1532 MOKE 
Confute Tindale Wks. 475/2 The contrarye behefe per- 
tayneth to the damnacion of our soules, if heresye be 
damnable. 1614 H. GREENWOOD Jayle Delivery 468 O what 
must poore lamentable damnable I doe to be saved. 1751 
SMOLLETT Per. Pic. xxxvi, Those enthusiasts who look 
upon every schism from the established articles of faith as 
damnable. 1882-3 SCHAFF Encycl. Relig. Knmvl. II. 1366 
Who makes us damnable, .of his own will, 
t 3. Causing loss or harm ; hurtful, pernicious. 
Obs. rare. 

ci42o Pallad. on Hust. I. 181 Yf thi wey be foule, it is 
dampnable. 1659 B. HARRIS Parivafs Iron Age 108 A most 
damnable Victory to the House of Austria. 

f b. Causing damnation. Obs. rare. 
a 1617 HIERON Serm. (r6;j4) 185 The mercy of God, if it 
bee rightly applyed, there is nothing more comfortable ; if 
it be abused, .there is nothing more damnable. 

4. As a strong expression of angry dislike (or 
merely as a strong intensive) : F'it to be 'damned'; 
< damned', ' confounded '. (Now regarded as vulgar 
or profane.) 

1594 SIR J. HARINGTON in NiigzAntiq. (1804) 1. 167, I will 
write a damnable storie, and put it in goodlie verse, about 
Lord . 1596 SHAKS. \Hen.lV,\.\\. zoiO, thou hast damn- 
able iteration. 1606 Tr. fyCr. v. i. 29 Thou damnable box 
of enuy thou. 1712 HEARNE Collect. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) III. 347 
This is a damnable Shame. 1843 LYTTON Last Barons x. vi, 
That damnable wizard and his witch child. 1880 Mus. 
FORRESTER Roy fy V. II. 143 That blackguard has been 
telling his damnable lies to you. 

t B. as adv. Damnably, execrably ; also as 
a strong intensive. Obs. 

1611 SHAKS. Wint. T. HI. ii. i83 That did but shew thee 
..inconstant, And damnable ingratefull. 1668 DAVENANT 
Alan's the Master Wks. (1673) 352 She's damnable hand- 
som ! 1678 BUNYAN Pilgr. \. 152 After he went to the iron 
gate [of Doubting Castle] . . but that lock went damnable 
hard, yet the key did open it. 1712-35 ARBUTHNOT John 
Bull I. xv. (1755) 29 They are damnable greedy of the pence. 

Da'mnableness. [f. prec. + -NESS.] The 

quality of being damnable. 

1638 CIIILLINGW. Relig, Prot. Answ. to Pref. 29 The 
question being of the Damnableness of Error. 

Damnably (dse-mnabli), adv. [f. as prec. + 
-LY 2.] In a damnable manner. 
1 1. So as to deserve or incur damnation. Obs. 
c 1386 CHAUCER filelib. r>86o Cursedly and dampnably we 



DAMNATORY. 

ban ygilt ajeinst ;oure gret lordship. 1551 Act 5-6 Edw. 
VI, c. i i A greate nombre of People, .do wilfullye and 
dampnablye . . abstayne and refuse to come to their Parislie 
Churches. 1651 C. CARTWRIGHT Cert. Relig. i. 149 It is 
granted, that the invisible Church cannot erre damnably. 
1768 74 TUCKER Lt, Nat. (1852) H. 64 He should make 
himself damnably wicked as fast as he can. 

2. In a ' damnable' way, execrably, confoundedly ; 
sometimes merely as a strong intensive. (Now con- 
sidered vulgar or profane.) 

150 SHAKS. i Hen. 7F, iv. ii. 14, I haue mis-vs'd the 
Kings Presse damnably. 1667 DRYDEN Wild Gallant i. i, 
I was drunk ; damnably drunk with ale. 1687 CONGKKVE 
Old Bach. \. i, I find I am damnably in love, c 1753 in 
Hanway Trav. (1762) 417, I hate the dutch most damnably. 
1843 DICKENS Lett. (1880) I. 87 The bitterness of hearing 
those infernally and damnably good old times extolled. 

Damnage, obs. form of DAMAGE. 

Damnation (dnamn^'Jan). Also 3-6 damp- 
nacion, -ouu, etc. [a. V . damnation, in I2lh c. 
dampnation, -acton, ad. L. dam(f}ndtidn-em, n. of 
action f. damndre : see DAMN z>.J 

fl. The action of condemning, or fact of being 
condemned (by judicial sentence, etc.) ; condemna- 
tion. Obs. exc. as in b. 

a 1300 Cursor M. i5472(Cott.))>is traitur. .batbushissuete 
lauerd soght vn-to dampnacion. 1382 WVCLIF Litke xxiii. 
40 Nethir thou dredist God, that thou art in the same 
dampnacioun ? 1534 MORE On the Passion Wks. 1276/1 
Her offspring, .had not .. fallen in dampnacion of death. 
1639 LAUD Wks. (1849) II. 297 In a council .. Pope Alex- 
ander III condemned Peter Lombard of heresy, and he lay 
under that damnation for thirty and six years. 

to. The damning of a play, etc. by publicly ex- 
pressed disapproval. 

1742 FIELDING J. Andrews m. x, Don't lay the damnation 
of your play to my account. 1800 LAMB Let. to Manning 
16 Dec. , I met him in the lobby immediately after the damna- 
tion of the Professor's play. 1806 H. SIDDONS Maid, Wife, 
etc, II. 147 The fatal cough, well known to authors as the 
sure forerunner of dramatic damnation. 

2. Thcol. Condemnation to eternal punishment 
in the world to come ; Ihe fact of being damned, or 
doomed to hell ; spiritual ruin ; perdition. (Op- 
posed to salvation?) 

a 1300 Cursor M. 16455 (Cott.) pai ches )>aim-self dampna- 
cion . . And brocht vs til saluacion. c 1340 HAMPOLE Prose 
Tr. (1866) 7 Sentence of dampnacyone flelle one me. c 1420 
Chron. Vilod. 193 pat his sowle was sauyd from danipna- 
cyon. 1541 BARNES \Vks. (1573) 241/2 Hee woulde haue hell 
or euerlasting dampnation to hys rewarde. 1616 R._ C. 
Times Whistle vi. 2481 Whose concupiscence, Like thine, 
deservde black helles damnation. 1667 MILTON P. L. i. 215 
That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on himself 
damnation. 1719 YOUNG Rei-enge v. ii, So Lucifer broke 
into Paradise, And soon damnation follow'd. 1869 W. P. 
MACKAY Grace fr Truth (1875) 243 You are, O sinner, on 
the edge of eternal damnation. 

b. Cause or occasion of damnation or ruin ; sin 
incurring or deserving damnation. 

1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. xu. 89 Goddes body. .is. .deth and 
dampnacioun to hem bat dyeth yuel. (1386 CHAUCER 
Wife's T. 211 'My love?' quod he, 'nay, nay, mydampna- 
cioun '. 1596 SHAKS. Merck. V. ii. vii. 49 'Twere damnation 
To thinke so base a thought. 1605 Macb. i. vii. 10 
His Vertues Will pleade like Angels, Trumpet-tongu'd 
against The deepe damnation of his taking off. 1712 SWIFT 
To Dr. Sheridan, Tell me . . What name for a maid, was 
the first man's damnation? 

3. In profane use : a. as an imprecation, or ex- 
clamation of emphatic objurgation. 

1604 SHAKS. Oth. m. iii. 396 Death, and damnation. Oh ! 
1709 STEELE Tatler No. 137 72 [He] invokes Hell and 
Damnation at the Breaking of a Glass. 1747 Gentl. Mas:. 
XVII. 46 The ensign more than once drank 'Damnation to 
all Scotchmen!' 1836 MARRYAT Midsh. Easy xii. 39 
' Damnation ! ' cried the master, who was mad with rage. 
b. as adj. or adv. = ' Damned '. 

1757 LLOYD Satyr $ Pedlar Poet. Wks. I. 57 The wit 
with metaphors makes bold, And tell's you he's damnation 



thy'sons O'er tea damnation hot, make damifd 

odd puns 1843 MARRYAT M. Violet xxxvi, He would have 
the lives of the damned Frenchman and his damnation horse. 

|| 4. Roman Law. [tr. L. damiiatio, with reference 
to danmas condemned, sentenced, bound to make 
a gift or contribution.] (Sec quot.) 

1880 MUIRHEAD Ulpian xxiv. 1 1 a, The most advantageous 
form of legacy is that by damnation. 1880 Gains Digest 
528 A legacy by damnation, .was one in which the testator 
imposed an obligation on his heir to give to the legatee the 
thing bequeathed, and which afforded the latter a personal 
claim against the heir, but no real right in the object of 
bequest. 

Hence f Damna'tionly adv. - prec. 3 b. 

1762 GOI.DSM. Life of Nash (Globe ed.) 549/1, I knew him 
when he and I were students at Oxford, where we both 
studied damnationly hard. 

Damnatory (darmnataril, a. [ad. L. damna- 
tori-its, f. damndtor-em, agcnt-n. from damndre : 
see DAMN z>.] 

1. Conveying condemnation ; condemnatory. 

1682 Case Prot. Eng. 7 The Sentence.. is not pretended 
to be damnatory. 1817 COLERIDGE Biog. Lit. II. xxi. 118, 
I do not arraign the keenness or asperity of its damnatory 
style. 1884 Pall Mall G. n Dec. 3/1 No one who knows 
Dean Burgon will be surprised to find that his view of these 
changes is entirely damnatory. 

b. Occasioning condemnation ; damning or 
ruinous in effect. 



DAMNED. 

1858 J. II, NORION Tof-us 157 It was citln \ 
.1 iii-i.t i!.imn;it"! / ail mi-. iori. 1864 VV. M. ROSSKTTI in 
l>'rt\st'rs A lag. July 70 It U n f.it.il writktitss in art, more 
tlaniM.'Uni y by far than even thu tendency to ungainliness. 

2. '1'hcol. Containing or uttering a sentence of 
damnation ; consigning to dnmnnUon ; damning. 

1738 NKAI. Hist. J'urif. IV. 617 Ath.inasius's creed being 
disliked by reason of the damnatory clauses. 1838 ARNOLD 
Let. in St.inley Life fy Corr. (1844) II. viii. 132, I <: 
believe the damnatory clauses in the Athaiiasian Creed 
under any qualification given <.f them. 1882-3 SCHAI-F 
Kncycl. Rflig. Knwvl. I. 204/3 Nor was the absence of 
baptism damnatory. 

Hence Da'mnatorily adv. 

1892 J. I'AKLUW Irish Idylls iv. 79 Somewhat damnalorily 
faint praino. 

Damned (dicmd, poet, daj-mntd), ///. a. [f. 
PAMN v. +-ED '.] 

1 1. Condemned, judicially sentenced. Obs. 

11440 Promp. /'arr. 113 Dampnyd, dmnfinatHs. 1495 
Act ii If en. I /f, c. 48 8 a Felons, fugit if, outlawed, convicte 
and dampned persunes. 1551 ROBINSON tr. Mart's Utof>. 
i. (Arb.) 49 Condernpned to be common laborers.. In some 
partes . . these seruing men (for so be these dampned persons 
called) do no common worke. 1616 HRENT tr. Sarftt s Hist. 
Connc. Trent (1676) 442 To shew what Books did contain 
damned or Apocryphal Doctrine. i8*x LAMB Elia Ser. i. 
t The reveries of the cell-damned murderer. 



b. Condemned by publicly expressed disapproval, 
as a play, etc. : also transf. of an author. 

1708 POFE Let. to Cromwell 10 May, Damnation follows 
death in other men, But your dainn'd Poet lives and writes 
agcn. 1710 //'/</. 17 May, I am, it must be own'd. .dead in 
a poetical Capacity, as a damn'd Author. 

2. Thcol. Doomed to or undergoing eternal pun- 
ishment; condemned or consigned to hell. 

1393 GOWER Conf. I. 189 O dampned man to helle. 1508 
FISHER Wks. (1876)20 The dampned spyrytes. 1590 SHAKS. 
Miiis. N. in. ii. 383 Damned spirits all, That in crosse- waies 
and llouds haue burial!. 1667 MILTON P. L. n. 482 For 
neither do the spirits damn'd Lose all their virtue. 1882 
ROSSETTI Ballads fy S0nn. t Rose Alary n. 43 Full well hath 
thy treason found its goal, O thou dead body and damned 
soul. 

b. absoL as sb. pi. The souls in hell, ' the lost '. 
1 1507 CowMUNyc. C ij, The payne . . That dampned haue 

in hell. 1610 SHAKS. Temp. i. it, It was a torment To lay 
upon the damn'd. 1651 HOHBES Lrviaik, in. xxxviii. 242 
The place of the Damned. iSajr POLLOK Course T. v, In 
dreadful apparition, saw before His vision pass the shadows 
of the damned. 

c. See quot. (Cf. F. &mt damnJe.') 

a 1791 GROSE Olio, Grumbler \\\\. (1796)30 Men who attend 
at the Custom house, under the denomination of Damned 
Souls, in order, for a certain fee, to swarc out any goods 
whatsoever for the merchants. 

f3. Lying under, or worthy of, a curse; accursed, 
damnable, execrable. Obs. exc. as in 4, or as a con- 
scious extension of 2. 

1563 NOWELL in Litnrg. Serv. Q. Eliz. (1847) 493 Filthy 
and aampned Mahomet, the deceiver of the world. 1603 
KNOLI.ES Hist, Turks (1621) 48 A damned writing was 
subscribed by the young emperour her son. 1605 SHAKS. 
Macb. v. i. 39 Out damned spot : out I say. 1667 SIR R. 
MORAY in Lauderdalc Papers (1885) II. Iv. 88 Ihere is a 
Damned book come hither from beyond sea called Naphtali, 
or the Wrestlings of the Church of Scotland. 179* WOL- 
COTT (P. Pindar) Ode to Burke Wks. 1812 III. 35 What Bat- 
like Demon, with the damn'dest spite, Springs on thy fame. 
1871 B. TAYLOR Fanst (1875) I. xix. 174 And so, though 
even God forgive, On earth a damned existence live. 

4. Used profanely as a strong expression of repre- 
hension or dislike, or as a mere intensive. Now 
usually printed * d - d '. 

1596 SHAKS. Tarn. Shr. v. i. 1-22 Where is that damned 

villaine Tranio? 1664 BUTLER [hid. \\. ii. 832 And streight 

another with his Flambeaux, Gave Ralpho s o'er the eyes 

a damn'd blow. 1749 FIELDING Tom Jones xvi. ii, It is 

a d- d lie, I never offered him anything. 1830 GALT 

Laivrif T. (1849) n. i. 42 The pigs may do their damncdst 

with me. 1848 THACKERAY I'an. Fair Iv, You would be 

a d fool not to take the place. 

b. as adv. Damnably. 

1757 LLOYD Satyr $ Pedlar Poet. Wks. I. 57 Damn'd's 



a Sticks i. Wks. 1799 II. 251 How dainn'd hot it is ! 1848 
THACKERAY l-'an. f-'airxiii, I believe she's d d fond of me. 

Hence *t* Da'mnedly adv. 

1607 TOURNEUB Rev. Trag. HI. vt, Suft. Fell it out so 
accursedly? Amb. Sodamnedly? 1675 R- HEAD Art of 
Wheedling 186 He mortgages his Soul to the Devil, by 
swearing damnedly there is not a cleaner piece of Wine 
between Aldgate and Westminster. 

t Daxnnement, dampne-. Ohs. rare. [a. OF. 
iiam\p\nement^ f. </a/#(/)/wr.] Damnation. 

1480 CAXTON Ovid's Met. xv. x, Cleopatra .. shal be . . 
deceyvedofherfolysshe einpryse unto shame and to dampne- 
nient. 

Damuer (darmai\ [f. DAMN v. + -ER T .] One 
who damns : sec the verb. 

1647 J'wt'r of Keys v. 120 Hindred from being damners 
of other men. 1695 HICKEKINGILL Wks. (1716)!. 337 Fewer 
Swearers and Curses and Damners. 1743 GARKICK Lethe, 
I, I was a great damner [of plays] myself, Ixrfore I wasdamn'd. 
1859'!'. PAKKKR in Life -V Corr. I. 150 Damnation is of no 
advantage to tlie d;unned, only to the tLunner. 

t Da'ninifiable, a. ( } l>s. rare. [f. DAMNIFY + 
-AIJLK ^here in active sense).] Injurious, hurtful, 
detrimental. 

1604 T. WRIGHT Passions t. v. ai To provide for them- 



19 

Hblucs all tli ii .ire profitable, ami to avoyde ail 

those things whi'.U ;uc (l.immiieablc. 

t Damni'fic, a. Of>s.~ Q [ad. I damnify -u$> 
\' . tliitnnijiijui', f. ilaninunt loss, injury + -fans 
-making, -doin^ : see -Fie.] Causing damage or 
loss ; injurious. 

i77 UAII.KV vol. II, Datnnijicki that bringclh damage .. 
[ llcucc in JOHNSON and mod. Diets.] 

Damnification fla^mnifik^'Jan). [n. of action 
from DAMNIFY : SCC-ATION.] The action of damni- 
fying; infliction of injury or loss. (Now only in 
legal use.) 

1628 DONNE Stmt. John xiv. a6 Not onely discs timat ion 
in this world, and damnification here, but damnation in the 
next world. 1798 DALLAS Amer. J.aw Rej>. II. 167 Putting 
the obligee in danger of being arrested is a damnification, 
1875 I'osiK G'aiativ. Co mm. ted. 2)623 Grievous damnifica- 
tion (Jatst'tfy occasioned by some exceptional condition. 

Damnify (darmnifai), . Also 6-8 dampn-. 
[a. OF. damnifier (in I4th c. damtitfier, dampni\ 
ad. L. damniftciire (in liala), to injure, f. damni- 
fic-us hurtful, injurious : see DAMNIFIC and -FT.] 

1. trans. To cause injury, loss, or inconvenience 
to ; to injure, damage, hurt ; to inflict injury upon, 
to wrong. (Very common in I7th c. ; now rwtf.) 
a. in estate, condition, or circumstances. (Now 
chiefly in legal use.) 

151* Act 4 Hat. F///, c. 19 \ 10 That no personc be. .in 
any wyse greved or dampnifyed by reason of any certificate . . 
excepte onely for rate and taxe beforeseid. 1574 HKLLOWES 
Gneiiara's Fain. Ep. '1584) 325 The Judge is more damni- 
fied in his fame, man the suiter in his goods. 1614 T. 
ADAMS in Spurgeon Treat. Dav. Ps. x. 9 A money-man 
may not be damnified, but he may be damned. 1654 GAY- 
TON Pitas, Notes iv. ii. 181 Who could damnify her, who 
had nothing to lose, not so much as credit f 1737 WHISTON 
yosffhtts' Antiq. xi. vi. ( 5 That the King might not be 
damnified by the loss of the tributes. 1891 Law Ttntt-s XC. 
460/2 Induced by a fraudulent prospectus to make con- 
tracts whereby he was damnified. 

j-b. To injure physically or bodily. Obs. 

a 156* G. CAVENDISH Wolsey (1893) 229 The cross . . fall- 
yng uppon Mayster Bonner's hed..whicnc was danipneficd 
by the overthroweng of the crosse. 16x1 WOODALL Surg. 
Matt Wks. (1653) ii You are sure either to break them [the 
teeth] or to damnific the jaw bone. 1712 M. ROGERS I'oy. 
300 Their Masts and Rigging being much damnified. i8ia 
J. SMYTH Pract. Customs (1821)208 Hemp-seed and Lin- 
seed, bad, mixed, or damnified. 

t C. To inflict injury upon in war. 06s. 

1598 BARRET Thtor. Warresv. \, 123 Forts.. placed, .in 
such panes as may most damnific the enemy. 1653 H. 
COGAN tr. Pinto's 7 rav. Ixiv. 261 The besieged were there- 
with mightily damnified. 

T" 2. \Vith double object : To subject (a person, 
etc.) to the loss of (so much money or property) ; 
to injure to a specified extent. Obs. 

1578 A. PARCKHURST in Hakluyt I'oy. III. 134 To grant me 
leave to stay here so much of their goods as they hauc damni- 
fied mee. 1631 Star Chamb. Casts (Camden) 63 S' Cornelius 
hath been damnifyed hereby more than aooo 1 '. IJMI St. 
German's Doctor fy Stud. 188, I think him bound to give 
restitution . . of all that they be damnified by it. 

f3. To cause the loss of, bring to destruction or 
ruin. Obs. 

i6u T. TAYLOR Connn. Titus L o Satans kingdome shall 
be destroyed and damnified, c 1045 HOWELL Lett. iv. iv. 
(1892) 561 A most mischievous design that would have 
damnified not only his own soul, but destroyed the Party 
against whom it was intended. 1693 LUTTRELL Brief Ret. 
(1857) III. 232 The privateers and other ships were haled 
a shore within the land, and were damnifyed. 

t 4. absol. To do injury. Obs. 

i6ai AINSWORTH Annot. Pentat. Ex. xxi. 28 Every living 
creature which is in the power of man, if it shall damnific, 
the owners are bound to pay for it. 

1 5. iw/r. (in passive sense) : To become dam- 
aged ; to spoil. Obs. 

1711 E. COOKE Voy. S. Sea 312 Our Goods., would 
damnify staying so long. 

Hence Da-mnifled ///. a., Da'mniiying vbl. sb. 
and ///. tf. 

1545 Act 37 Hen. IV//, c. 6 8 i A newe-.kind of Vice, 
Displeasure, and dampnifienge of the Kings true Subjects. 
1616 SURFL. & MAHKH. Country Farmt 192 They that 
would haue them [Melons) grow vpon beds, as Jesse damni- 
fying. 1690 LOCKE Govt. n. ii. 2 The damnified Person 
has this Power of appropriating to himself the Goods or 
Service of the Offender. 1780 Banff Burgh Ktc. in Cra- 
mond Atui. /tow?" (1843) II. 233, 1400 pounds of damni- 
fied teas. 1893 Edin. Rev. July 61 Our author discredits 
all stories concerning him.. which would be damnifying. 

D a mil ill g (dormirj), vbl. sb. [-ING 1.] 

1. The action of the verb DAMN, q.v ; condemna- 
tion ; damnation. 

,1400 Apol. Loll. iii. 17 To tak be sentence of daining. 
//'/</. xvii. 61 Vndur syn, bondage, nor damping, c 1400 
Kent. Kosf 6645 He etiih bis ownc dampnyii^. 1707 
WVCHEBLEY in Pope's Lttt. (17^5) I. 32 Tis my infallible 
Pope has, or would redeem me from a poetical Damning. 

2. Profane swearing : cf. DAMN v. 6. 

1679 T. SIDEN Hist. Stt'aritft u. 16 Take heed of swear- 
ing, cursing, or damning. 17*1 DE FOE Col. Jack (1840) 
198, I heard a great deal of swearing and damning. 

f3. A 'company * of jurors. Obs. 

1486 Rk. St. Albans F vj b, A Dampnyng of Jurrouris. 

Damning ^Uvmiij, dae'mniij),///. a. [-ING-.] 

1. That damns ; that brings damnation. 

1599 MARSTON Sco. I'illanic i. iii. 185 To take a damning 
periured oath. 179$ SOVTIIEY Jotttt of Art in. 508 Such 



DAMP. 

look.. Ai thsll otic day, uu .' 

the appmtor plead 1 1803 T. Hti.ix.tji llrg. ia x. 78 A re- 

'..!. 1881 A. I: I 

inl>/t.'hriit II. viii. (1691 1384 That the sujn- in. virtue 
is IQVC, and lli. : .-. .sin u telfih inhunt.uiity. 

t b. In passive sense : Incuiring ilomnatinn. 
Obs. rare. (Cf. 1 )AHN v. 4 c.) 

i6ss GHHAUL Ctr. in Ann. (1669) 383/1 IThey) to 
cruel] to their dying damning souls, that they turn Christ 
their Physician out of doors. 

2. That leads to or occasions condemnation or 
ruin. (Cf. DAMN v. 3.) 

1798 COOKK in Lit. Auctioned Carr.(iVa< III. 411 We 
took up the two Shears to-day, with damning papers. 1844 
DISRAELI Cottutgtbv vt. i, Without which.. the statesman, 
the orator, the author, all alike feel the damning conscious- 
ness of being charlatans. 

3. Addicted to profane swearing. 

1667 PEPVS Diary 14 June, The most debauched, damning, 
swearing rogues that ever were in the Navy. 

Hence Da'uiningly adv., Da mning-ne. 

1709 CHANDLER F.ffort afst. Bieotry 33 No Party of 
Protestants is so in the Right . . that the other be damn- 
ingly wrong. 1645 HAMMOND Pratt. Catrch. 1. 1 3. 85 For 
the emptinessc and damninKnesse of them Isinn). 

t Damncvse, a. Obs- [ad. L. damiifs-us : 
see next.] Hurtful. So + Damno ity, hurtlul- 
ncss. 17*7 BAILEY vol. II. 

Damnous (d9e-mnas\ a. Law. [ad. L. dam- 
tins-its, (. darnnum hurt, harm, damage : see -ous.] 
Of the nature of a damnum, i.e. causing loss or 
damage of any kind, whether involving a lc-gal 
wrong (injury} or not. Hence Da mnonaly adv. 

1870 SIR J. MKLLOR in Law Ktp. 5 Exch. 349 All the 
injurious or damnous consequences . . resulted from an act 
done on the land of the owner. 1884 Lb. llLACKBt'RN in 
Law Ttfftfs Rejt. Lli. 146/1 They nave injuriously, v> 
distinguished from damnously, affected the plaintiff's rights. 

Damocles (d.L- mokl/V. . [L. from Or.] Proper 
name, occurring in the expression sviord of Damo- 
cles, DamocU? sword, used by simile of an imminent 
danger, which may at any moment descend upon one. 

Damocles, a flatterer, having extolled the happiness of 
Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse, was placed by him at a ban- 
quet with a sword suspended over his head by a hair, to 
impress upon him the perilous nature of that happiness. 

Hence Damocle'an a., of or as of Damocles 
(erron. Dainoclesian). 

1747 Scheme Equip. Men of War 58 Hanging over our 
Heads, like Damocles Sword. 1891 Latv Titties XCII. 
313/1 Little do directors and their companies know of this 
sword of Damocles that hangs over them. 

1888 Void (N. Y.) is Apr., This curse hangs over their 
homes, like a Dainoclesian sword. 

II Damoiseau (da"miz<J). Obs. or arch. [a. OK. 
ttameiseau, earlier damei-, dami-, i/amoisel-.i, 
dominicellus ; the masculine corresp. to damoisel, 
DAMSEL.] A young man of gentle birth, not yet 
made a knight. (Occurring in isth c. translations 
from French, and in modem archaists.) 

c 1477 CAXTON Jascin 5 The damoiscau Jason, c 1500 
Mclusine 125 Two yong & fayre damoyseaulx brethren.. 
' Frende ', said the damovselle, ' be they so fayre damoy- 
seaux as ye say ? ' 1870 SloKRis Earthly Par. \. \. 194 So 
thou, O damoiseau. must wait ; Tie up thine horse anich 
the gate. 187* E. W. ROBERTSON Hist. En. 190 The 
aspirant for knighthood was supposed to pass his life be- 
tween 7 and 14 as a page . . figuring during the next 7 years 
as a Damoiseau or Esquire. 

Damoisel, -elle, etc., obs. forms of DAMSEL. 

Damolie, sec DAUALIO (acid). 

Damosol, -zel : see DAMSEL. 

Damosin, -zin, obs. forms of DAVSON. 

Damouret, var. of DAMUAHET. 

Damourite (damu''reit). Afin. [Named l>y 
Delesse 1845 after the F. chemist Damour.] A 
hydrous potash mica, with pearly lustre, occurring 
in small yellowish scales. 

1846 Amer. Jrxl. Sc. Ser. II. I. lo DnmattrUt, anew 
mineral. 1879 KUTLEV Sltiti. Kocks x. 134 Damourite and 
Sericite are hydrous potash micas usually occurring in scaly 
aggregates. 

Damp idoemp;, so.* In 5 clomp. [Corresponds 
with ML.G. and mod.Du. and Da. damp vapour, 
steam, smoke, mod.Icel. dampr steam, MHO. 
damff, tampf, mod.Ger. damp/ vapour, steam ; 
cf. also Sw. i/ami dust. The word is not known 
in the earlier stages of the languages, and its 
history in Eng. before its appearance in 1480 is 
unknown ; it is difficult to conceive of its having 
come down from OE. times without .appearing in 
writing. See DAMP .] 

fl. An exhalation, a vapour or gas, of a noxious 
kind. Obs. exc. as in b. 

1480 CAXION cVmwl. Euf. Ixxv. 58 After this dragon .shal 
come a goot and ther shal come oute of his nostrel a domp 
that shal betoken bonger and grele deth of pcple. 1577 
B. GOOCE HtrtitatKs Hiab. \. (15861 8b, The Fennes and 
Marshes, in the heate of the yeere, doo send foorth pestilent 
and deadly dampes. 158* COGAM Haera Health 343 ( Tkt 
Plague) All infected in a manner at one instant by reason 
of a dampe or miste which arose within the Caslle yeard. 
1606 DCKKER Sev. Situus Vll. cArb.l 47 What rotten 
stenches, and contagious damps would strike vp into thy 
noslhrilst i6& J. BARORAVK Poft Alex. Vll (1867) I3i 
It [the Catacombs] is a horrid place to go into and 
dangerous for fear cf damp. 1744 URKELEV Sin's { 144 

3 2 



DAMP. 

In poisonous damps or steams, wherein flame cannot be 
kindled, as is evident in the Grotto del Cane near Naples. 
1774 GOLDSM. Nat. ifist. (17761 VIII. 31 Exposed . . to the 
damps and exhalations of the earth. 1824 W, IHVING T. 
Trow. I. 52 The mode of keeping out the damps of ditch- 
water by burnt brandy. 

b. spec, in coal mines : (a) = CHOKE-DAMP ; 
also called black damp, and suffocating damp, 



Damps 

retired immediately and saved themselves from the erup- 
tions of the Damp. 1670 W. SIMPSON Hydrol. Ess. 97 
A sulphureous damp.. which by the flame of a candle., 
might very probably take fire. 1695 WOODWARD Nat. Hist, 
Earth iv. (1723)227 One is called the Suffocating, the other 
the Fulminating Damp. 1774 PENNANT Tour Scot I. m 1772. 
50 The damp or fiery vapour was conveyed through pipes to 
the open air, and formed a terrible illumination, c 1790 
IMISON Sch. Art\. 106 Air that has lost its vivifying spirit 
is called damp. .The dreadful effects ofdamps are known 
to such as work in mines. 1836 Scenes of Commerce 
334 The miners.. also meet with foul air, called by them 
the black damp .. which suffocates the instant it is in- 
haled. 

fig- #1598 H. SMITH Wks. (1866) I. 367 The remembrance 
of death is like a damp, which puts out all the lights of 
pleasure. 164* Vind. King i, An open Presse to cleere 
every imagination which is not stifled in this Dampe. 
f2. Visible vapour ; fog, mist. Obs. 
(This being usually humid gives rise to the sense of 
* moisture ' in 3.) 

1601 SMAKS. All's \Vell\\. \. 166 Ere twice in murke and 
occidentall dampe Moist Hesperus hath quench'd her 
sleepy Lampe. 1739 LADY M. W. MONTAGU Lett. I IT. 8, 
I have lost all my bad symptoms, and am ready to think I 
could even bear the damps of London. 1742 YOUNG Nt,- 
Th. ii. 688 While rising vapours, and descending shades, 
With damps and darkness drown the spacious vale. 1808 
J. BARLOW Colmnb. in. 654 Thou darkening sky Deepen 
thy damps, the fiend of death is nigh. 

Jig. i6zg DONNE %rd Serin. John \. 8 Vet there is a damp 
or a cloud of uncharitableness. 1751 SMOLLETT Per. Pic. 
(1779)111. Ixxxi. 182 He hangs like a damp upon society, 
and may be properly called kill-joy. 1827 POLLOK Course 
T. in, Sin, with cold, consumptive breath, Involved it still 
in clouds of mortal damp. 

3. Moisture (diffused through the air as vapour, 
or through a solid substance, or condensed upon 
a surface) ; dampness, humidity. (The ordinary 
current sense.) 

[1586 COGAN Haven Health ccxli, The coldnesse of stones 
and the dampe of the earth are both verie hurtfull to our 
bodies.] 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Damp, Moisture, Wet- 
ness. 1758 JOHNSON Idler No. 11 p 10 He. .may set at de- 
fiance the morning mist and the evening damp. 1806 SURR 
Winter in Loud. (ed. 3) III. 66 We keep fires in all the 
rooms by turns, so that no damp has come to the tapestry. 
1838 LYTTON Alice \.\\ t Mrs. Merton, who was afraid of 
the damp, preferred staying within. 1875 JEVONS Money 
xi. 129 To corrode by exposure to air or damp. 

b. with//. (Usually more concrete in sense.) 
[1577 GOOGE HeresbacJis Hiisb. \. (1586) 42 b, Howe so 

ever the Barne be, you must place it as hie as you may, 
least ye come be spoyled with inoysture or dampes.] 
1721 R. BRADLEY Wks. Nat. 166 An Hygrometer in the 
. . Conservatory, by which we might regulate the over 
Moisture or Damps in the Air of the House. 1797 MRS. 
RADCI.IFFE Italian xxvi, Cold damps which hung upon his 
forehead betrayed the agony of his mind. 1839 LONGF. 
Voices of Nt.^ L' Envoi., Amid the chills and damps Of the 
vast plain where death encamps. 1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. <$ 
//. Jrnls. I. 120 Covered with damps, which collected and 
fell upon us in occasional drops. 

c. slang. A drink, a 'wetting'. (DAMP v. 5 b.) 
1837 DICKENS Pickw. xxvii, We'll just give ourselves a 

damp, Sammy. 

\ 4. A dazed or stupefied condition ; loss of con- 
sciousness or vitality, stupor. Obs. (Cf. DAMPZ;. 2.) 

1543 BECON David's Harp 150 b, He was in a trauns, 
that is to say in a dampe, a stupour, ahashement, and 
soden privacion of sence or fealyng. 1552 HULOET, Traunce 
or dampe, ecstasis. 1667 WOOD Life (Qxf. Hist. Soc.) II. 
140 [It^did] strike him into a damp, and being carried 
thence in a chaire to Ms chamber, died the next day. 
1667 MILTON P. L, xi. 293 Adam by this from the cold 
sudden damp Recovering, and his scatterd spirits returnd. 
ITU Vind. Sachcverelt 04 He. . struck a damp upon 
W[hig]g[i]sm, and laid it in a State of Death. 1712 AD- 
DISON Spect. No. 538 P 3, I felt a general Damp and 
a Faintness all over me. 

6. A state of dejection ; depression of spirits. 

1606 G. W[OODCOCKE] tr. Justin 22 a, Their heartes were 
stricken into a great dampe, and were so discouraged, that 
[etc.]. 1647 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. v. (1702) I. 550 He found 
a great damp upon the spirit of the Governour. 1692 
R. L'ESTRANGE Josephus' Antiq. x. xii. (1733) 275 The 
Dread of this Decree, put all People into a general Damp 
and Silence. 1760 Impostors Detected I. 13 [This] put 
a sudden damp to their zeal. 1838 PRESCOTT Ferd. fy Is. 
(1846) I. ix. 398 This news struck a damp into the hearts of 
the Castilians. 1840 BROWNING Sordello v. 433 This idle 
damp Befits not. 

6. A check, discouragement. 

1587 GREENE Carde of Fancie Wks. 1882 IV. 59 To 
driue him more into doleful dumps shee returned him this 
damp. 1642 CHAS. I Declar. 12 Aug. 18 Such a dampe 
of 1 rade in the Citie. 1680-90 TEMPLE Ess. Pop. Dis- 
contents Wks. 1731 I. 268 Some little Damps would be 
given to that pestilent Humour and genera! Mistake. 
1769 BURKE Obstro. Late State Nation Wks. 1842 I. 92 
Those accidents that cast an occasional damp upon trade. 
1832 HT. MARTINEAU Life in Wilds vi. 70 A sudden damp 
seemed to be cast over all the plans. 

7. Comb., as ^damp-hole (sense i\ -sheet (see 
quot. 1881); damp-proof^ -worn (sense 3) adjs. ; 



20 

damp-course, prop, damp-proof course, ' a 
course of some impermeable material laid on the 
foundation walls of a building a short distance 
above the level of the outside soil, to prevent the 
damp from rising up the walls ' (Gwilt). 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. 41 Which dampe holes breathing 
out a deadly aire. 1852 DICKENS Bleak Ho. II. xviii. 5 
The time and damp-worn monuments. 1881 RAYMOND 
Mining^ Gloss., Damp sheet, a large sheet, placed as 
a curtain or partition across a gate-road to stop and turn 
an air-current. 1884 Health Exhib, Catal. 50/2 ^Sanitary 
Stoneware of every description, including .. air-bricks, 
damp-proof course. 1890 A. WHITLEGGE Hygiene vi. 150 
A 'damp-course* must be provided, that is a continuous 
horizontal course of glazed earthenware, slate, or other 
impervious material. 

Damp, sbt Variant of DAM sbA 

Damp (dsemp), a. [f, DAMP sb.] 

T~ 1. Of the nature of, or belonging to, a ( damp ' 
or noxious exhalation : see DAMP sb. i. Obs. 

1634 MILTON Comus 470 Such are those thick and gloomy 
shadows damp Oft seen in charnel vaults and sepulchres. 
1671 Samson 8 The air, imprison'd also, close and 
damp, Unwholesome draught. 1733 SIR J. LOWTHER Damp 
Air in Coat-pit in Phil. Trans. XXXVIII, 112 It is to 
be observed that this sort of Vapour, or damp Air, will 
not take Fire except by Flame. 

f 2. Affected with or showing stupefaction or de- 
pression of spirits ; dazed, stupefied. Obs. or arch. 

1500 GREENE Never too late Can/one, An object twice 
as bright, So gorgeous as my senses all were damp 
[rime Tamp]. 1667 MILTON P. L. r. 523 With looks Down 
cast and damp. Ibid. v. 65 Mee damp horror chil d. 
1697 DRYDEN Virg. JEneid vi. 85 The trembling Trojans 
hear, O're-spread with a damp sweat and holy fear. 1843 
J. MARTINEAU Chr. Life (1867) 473 Murky doubts ana 
damp short-sightedness. 1855 THACKERAY Newcomes liv, 
The dinner was rather a damp entertainment. 

3. Slightly wet as with steam, suspended vapour, 
clew, or mist; holding water in suspension or absorp- 
tion; moist, humid. (The ordinary current sense.) 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), To Damp, to make damp, 
or moist. 1755 BERKELEY Querist 412 A cold, damp, 
sordid habitation, in the midst of a bleak country. 1748 
F. SMITH Voy. Disc. N. W. Pass. I. 21 The Weather., 
disagreeably damp from the gre;it Wetting of the Fog. 
1874 KINGSLEY Lett. (1878) II. 429 We have come out of 
intense winter into damp spring. Mod. A cold caught by 
sleeping in a damp bed. 

Damp (damp), v. [f. DAHP.T. ; frequent from 
c 1550. Ger. dampfeH) Du. dampen, also go back 
to the i6th c. ; in Ger. a causal dcmpfen appears to 
go back to OHG. (demphan-i^dampiaii). For 
dampped in A Hit. Poems B. 989, see DUMP.] 

1. trans. To affect with *damp', to stifle, choke, 
extinguish; to dull, deaden (fire, sound, etc.). 



t 1564 tr. Jeivt.-?* Apol. Ch. JStte. iv. (Parker Soc.) 82 
Their own _matter is damped, and destroyed in the word 
of God as if it were in poison \invenenoextinetnvident 
et ^snffocari}. \^/yj HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ixiii. 2 An 
euill moral disposition, .dampeth the very light of heauenly 
illumination. 1626 BACON Sylva 147 All shutting in of 
Air, where there is no competent Vent, dampeth the 
Sound. 1637 SHIRLEY Lady of Pleas, iv. i, Her phlegm 
would quench a furnace, and her breath Would damp 
a musket ball. 1705 LEUWENHOEK in Phil. Trans. XXV. 
2159 If we take a piece of Wood-coal, that has been damp'd 
or extinguished. 1818 Blackw. Mag. II. 528 Having 
damped his own appetite with a couple of slices. Mod. 
To damp a fire with small coal. 

b. To damp down (a fire or furnace) : to cover 
or fill it with small coal, ashes, or coke, so as to 
check combustion and prevent its going out, when 
not required for some time. Alsoy?^. 

1869 J. MARTINEAU Ess. II. 278 Fire which must not 
be permitted to damp itself down. 1884 Pall Mall G. 
20 Feb. 2/1 The notices terminate at the end of the 
month.. and the furnaces will be damped down. Ibid. 28 
Aug. i/i Mr. Gladstone's speeches may tend to damp down 
the agitation. 

C. Acoustics, Music, etc. To stop the vibrations 
of a string or the like; to furnish (the strings of 
a pianoforte) with dampers. 

1840 Penny Cycl. XVIII. 140 A piece of cloth . . to damp 
or stop the string [in a clavichord]. 1883 A. J. HIPKINS in 
Grove Diet. Mns. III. 636 The higher treble of the piano 
is not now damped. 

d. Magnetism. To stop the oscillations of a 
magnetic needle by placing a mass of conducting 
metal near it. 

1879 THOMSON TAIT Nat. Phil. I. i. 370 The oscij- 
lations of a magnetized needle about its position of equi- 
librium are ' damped ' by placing a plate of copper below it. 

1 2. To stifle (the faculties) with noxious 
'fumes'; to stupefy, benumb, daze. Obs. 

1570 DEE Math. Pref. i The fantasies of those hearers 
were dampt. 1633 T. ADAMS Exp. 2 Pet. ii. 20 (1865) 559 
Ine lusts of the flesh, like the vapours of a replete stomach 
rising up and damping the brain. 1716 EENTLEY Serm. 
xi. 375 We may damp or stifle them [our Faculties] by 
Sloth and Neglect. 1726 LEONI tr. Albert* 1 * Archit. I. 
5 a, The Understanding can never be clear, the Spirits 
being dampt and stupify'd. 

3. To deaden or restrain the ardour or energy 
of; to depress, deject, discourage, check. 
a. persons, their spirits, zeal, hopes, etc. 

1548 UDALL, etc. Erasm. Par. Matt. iii. (R.), That . . 
they that were puffed vp before, .should bee damped, and 
be brought lowe. 1654 TRAIT Comm. Job xiii. 15 As that 



DAMPER. 

woman of Canaan . . who would not be damped or dis- 
couraged with Christs. .silence. 1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia 
24 Nor shall their scorne spoyle good purposes, by damping 
my resolutions. 1748 Ansorfs Voy. i. i. ii Our hopes of 
a speedy departure were even now somewhat damped. 1766 
GOLDSM. Vic. W. v, This is the way you always damp my 
girls and me when we are in spirits. 1821 CLARE VilL 
Minstr. I. 166 Sorrow damps my lays. 1876 J. Ii. NEWMAN 
Hist. Sk. II. ii. ii. 242 How little his personal troubles had 
damped his evangelical zeal. 1887 VmiHAittobiog. I.xxiii. 
329 Damped by the indifference of my artist-friends. 
b. actions, projects, trade, etc. Now rare. 

1548 UDALL, etc. Erasm. Par. Luke xvi. (R.\ To dampe 
y taunting mockes of such persones. 1622 BACON Hen. 
/'"//, 75 To stop and dampe Informations upon Penall 
Lawes, by procuring Informations by collusion. 1689 C. 
MATHER in Andros Tracts (1869) 13 The Courses imme- 
diately taken to damp and spoyl our Trade. 1787 T. 
JEFFERSON Writ. (18591 II. 89 To damp that freedom of 
communication which the resolution of Congress, .was in- 
tended to re-establish. 1832 AUSTIN Jurisfr. (1879) I. vi. 
301 If they think .. that a political institution damps pro- 
duction and accumulation. 

1 4. To envelop in fog or mist ; also_/5g-. 

1629 DONNE Serin. Matt, xi. 6 If my religion did wrap 
me in a continual cloud, .damp me in a continual vapour, 
smoke me in a continual sourness. 

5. To make moist or humid, to wet as steam, 
vapour, mist, or dew does ; to moisten. 

1671 R. BOHUN Wind 14 They [winds from South] damp 
innen and paper, though never so carefully guarded from 
the Air. 1789 W. BUCHAN Dom. Med. (ed. ii) 129 That 
baneful custom said to be practised in many inns, of damp- 
ing sheets, and pressing them in order to save washing. 
1868 HAWTHORNE Amer. Note-Bks. (1879) 1. 180 The dew 
damped the road. 1875 URE Diet. Arts III. 648 The paper 
used in printing is always damped before being sent to the 
press, wet paper taking the ink considerably better than dry. 
b. re/I. To take a drink, * wet one's whistle'. 
slang. 

1862 LOWELL Biglow P. Poems 1890 II. 283 A tent.. 
Where you could go, ef you wuz dry, an' damp ye in 
a minute. 

6. Gardening. To damp off (intr.) : Of plants : 
To rot or go off from damp ; to fog off. 

1846 MRS. LOUDON Gardening for Ladies 90 Cuttings 
when thus treated are very apt to damp off. 1881 Gard. 
Chron. XVI. 690 See that none of the spikes touch the 
glass or they may speedily damp off. 

Damp, obs. var. DAM sb.^ ; obs. (erron.) form 
of DAMN. 

Dampen (dce-mp'n), -v. (Now chiefly U.S^ 
[f. DAMP a. + -EN, or derivative form of DAMP #.] 

1. trans. To dull, deaden, diminish the force or 
ardour of, depress, deject ; = DAMP v. 1,3. 

c 1630 JACKSON Creed vi. i. Wks. VI. 36 By which the 
fervency of better spirits devotion is so much dampened. 
1633 P. FLETCHER Purple 1st. vn. xxxiii, Himself dampens 
the smiling day. 1813 W. IRVING Life 4- Lett. (1864) 
I. xviii. 296 The miserable accounts from the frontier 
dampened in some measure the public zeal. 1824 LANDOR 
Iniag. Conv. vii. Wks. 1846 I. 28 His genius hath been 
dampened by his adversities. 1885 Century Mag. 427/1 
This adversity seemed to dampen the ardor of the crew. 

2. Magnetism. =DAMPZ>. id. 

1879 G. PRESCOTT Sp. Telephone 36 The object in using 
the rubber is to dampen the movement of the disk. 

3. To make damp, moisten ; DAMP if. 5. 

1885 G. H. BOUGHTON Sk. Rambles Holland v. 77 The 
high tide must somewhat dampen the poor departed [in 
a churchyard], 

4. intr. To become dull or damp. 

1686 GOAD Celest. Bodies n. xi. 305 Fog, close, dampning, 
windy. 1857 I -o WELL Poems, Captive, Vet he came not, 
and the stillness Dampened round her like a tomb. 

Hence Da-mpening- vbl. sb. and ///. a. ; Da m- 
pener (17. S.}, a contrivance for damping linen, 
etc. 

1814 BYRON Lara i. xxviii, And o'er his brow the damp- 
ening heart-drops threw The sickening iciness of that cold 
dew. 1836 New Monthly Mae. XLVI. 204 The gallantry 
and beauty of Tuscany sped through the dampening air. 
1864 LOWELL Lincoln Wks. 1890 V. 178 To withstand the 
inevitable dampening of checks, reverses, delays. 1887 Set. 
Amer. 26 Mar. 202/2 A seam dampener has been patented 
. .for use in laundries, etc. 

Damper (doe-mpaa). [f. DAMP v. + -ER.] That 
which damps, in various senses of the vb. 

1. Something that damps or depresses the spirits, 
etc. ; also, a person who does the same. 

1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa Wks. 1883 VII. 282, I very 
early discharged shame, that cold water damper to an 
enterprising spirit. 1749 H. WALTOLE in Hissey Holiday 
on Road (1887) 140 Sussex is a great damper of curiosity. 
1818 Blackiv. Mag. II. 528 Out of sixteen people, five 
dampers were present. 1823 HAZLITT Table-t. Ser. n. xii. 
(1869) 248 This is a damper to sanguine and florid tempera- 
ments. 1855 THACKERAY Newcomes xxvi, I feel myself very 
often an old damper in your company. 

b. Something that takes off the edge of appetite. 

1804 MAR. EDGF.WORTH Pop. Tales, Limerick Gloies t 
In the kitchen, taking his snack by way of a damper. 
1811 LAMB Edax on Appetite^ I endeavour to make up by 
a damper, as I call it, at home before I go out. 

2. a. A piece of mechanism in a pianoforte for 
* damping or stopping the vibrations of the strings, 
consisting of a small piece of wood or wire covered 
with cloth or felt, which rests against the strings 
corresponding to each key, and is raised or with- 
drawn from them when the key is pressed down. 

1783 Specif. J. Broadivood's Patent No. 1379, <">, t>, are 



DAMPINESS. 

the dampers, which also is fixt under the strings. 1856 
Mus. C. CLARKE tr. Berlioz' Instrument. 72 The sign (i) 
indicates that tile dampers must be replaced by quitting the 
pedal. 

b. ' The mute of a horn and other brass wind 
instruments ' (Stainer & Harrett Diet. Mus. Terms\ 

3. A metal plate made to turn or slide in a flue 
or chimney, so as to control the combustion by 
regulating or stopping the draught. 

1788 Sped/. Gardner's Patent No. 1642 These registers 
or dampers are enclosed in the chimney. 1791 BKDDOKS 
in PUt Trans. LXXXI. 174 He first turned the flame 
from off the metal, which is done by letting down a damper 
upon the chimney. 1813 MOORK Fables, Holy AlliaHei 
86 Those trusty, blind machines, .by a change as odd as 
cruel, Instead of dampers, served for fuel ! 1819 R. STUART 
Anecrl. Steam Engines I. 269 The heat of the furnace 
under the boiler was rudely regulated in both machines by 
a damper. 

4. Magnetism. (See quot., and cf. DAMP v. I d.) 
1881 MAXWELL Electr. 4- Mitgn. II. 344-5 A metallic 

surface, called a Damper, is sometimes placed near a magnet 
for the express purpose of damping or deadening its vibra- 
tions. We shall therefore speak of this kind of resistance 
as Damping, 

6. Any contrivance for damping or moistening. 

e.g. An appliance for moistening the gummed back of 
postage stamps ; one for damping paper for a copying-press, 
for cleaning slates, etc. 

1845 Meek. Mag. XLII. 285 Postage stamp, wafer, and 
label damoer. 1854 IHii. LX1. 86 The damper may be left 
in any position when not in use, as the water will not of 
itself run out. 

6. Australia. A simple kind of unleavened cake 
or bread made, for the occasion, of flour and water 
and baked in hot ashes. 

1833 STU T Tw EjcftJ. S. Australia II. 203 While 
drinking their tea and eating their damper. 1851 MUNDY 
Antipodes vi. (1855) 140 The Australian bush-bread, a baked 
unleavened dough, called damper a damper, sure enough, 
to the stoutest appetite. 1891 Melbourne Argus 7 Nov. 
13/5 When you've boiled your billy and cooked your damper 
you put out the fire and move, .on to camp. 

7. Comb. a. in sense 2 a, as damper-crank, -rail, 
stick, ^-stop; damper-pedal, that pedal in a 
pianoforte which raises all the dampers, the ' loud 
pedal', b. in sense 3, as damper-regulator, a 
contrivance by which the heat of the furnace or 
the pressure of steam is made to control the 
damper. 

1840 Penny Cycl. XVIII. 140 Fig. 2, e. Damper stick. 
Ibiti. 141 The damper-stop raised the dampers from the 
strings. Ibi<i., Fig. 10, k. Damper Crank. Ibid. 142 
Fig. 1 1, g, Damper rail. 1874 KNIGHT Did. Mech. 676 
The damper-regulators which act by the pressure of steam 
are of three or more kinds. 

Da'mpiiiess. rare. [f. DAMPY a. + -NESS.] 
The state of being ' dampy ' or somewhat damp. 

1830 niaclnv. Mag. XXVIII. 886 You know not whether 
it be rain, snow, or sleet, that drenches your clothes in 
dampiness. 

Damping (dae-mpirj), vbl. sb. [-INO 1.] The 
action of the verb DAMP, q.v. Also atlrib., as in 
damping-machine, damping-plate ( = DAMPER 3). 

1756 TOLDERVY Two Orphans III. 172 The flames, by 
slight damping, soon became the more violent. 1816 
J. SMITH Panorama Sc. tt Art II. 312 The bottom 
of the furnace . . the holes of the damping plate. 1874 
KNIGHT Diet. Mech., Danipinf-mackinc. i. (Printing) 
A machine for damping sheets of paper previous to print- 
ing., a. A machine in which starched goods are moistened 
previous to running them through the calendering-machinc. 
1881 [see DAMPER 4]. 1883 ATKINSON tr. Goiut's Physics 
(ed. n) 832 The greater the masses of metal, and the more 
closely they surround the magnet, the stronger b the 
damping. 

Damping (darmpirj), ///. a. [-INO -'.] That 
damps, in various senses: see DAMP v. 

1607 WALKINGTON Opt. Glass 28 The damping fumes 
that the Sun elevates from bogges. 1691-8 NORRIS Pract. 
Disc. 151 What a damping Thought must it be for such 
a Man to consider (etc.). 1844 DICKENS Mart. Chuz. xiii, 
It was somewhat of a damping circumstance to find the 
room full of smoke. 1878 M. C. JACKSON Chaperon's Cares 
I. xi. 153 Clarissa's presence generally has a slightly damp- 
ing effect upon Forster. 

Dampish (darmpif), a. [orig. f. DAMP sb. + -ISH 
(cf. boyisli) : subsequently treated as if f. DAMP d.] 

1 1. Of the nature of, or infested with, exhalations 
or (noxious) vapours ; vaporous, foggy, misty. Obs. 

1577 B. GOOGE Hcresc-ach's Husb. i. (1586) 8 b, All waters 
commonly with dampishe vapours in Summer . . doo infect 
both man and beast with pestilence. 1596 SPENSER Hymn 
Heav. Beaut. 165 The darke And dampish aire. /'. Q. 
iv. viii. 34 The drowzie humour of the dampish night. 
a 1649 DRUMM. OF HAV.TH. Poems Wks. (1711) 13 His caves 
and dampish bow'rs. 

t 2. fig. a. Of stifling or extinguishing nature 
(cf. DAMPZ>. i). b. ? Stifled, choked. Obs. 

1603 H. CROSSE Verities Comimv. (18781 123 Lampes.. 
which with dampish idlenesse are soone put out. 1604 
T. M. Black Hi: Middleton's Wks. (Bullen) VIII. 33 With 
a whey-countenance, short stops, and earthen dampish voice, 
the true counterfeits of a dying cullion. 

3. Somewhat damp or moist. 

[i77 GOOGE Heresbaclfs Husb. iv. (1586) 192 b, Set them 
up in some moist and dampish place.] 1641 HKST f-iirtu. 
llks. iSurteesl 24 Stone floores are allwayes moist and 
dampish. 1717 HAILF.Y vol. II, Dampish, something damp or 
moist or wet. 1803 Trans. See. Encotiraf. Arts XXL 303 
Wood place.l in dampish situations. 



21 

IN me Dampiahly adv., Da. mpihnes. 

1*15 MARKHAM Kug. llotn.-.n. u. iii. (1668) 109 Let them 
be dampishly moistened with Damask Rose-water. 1617 
Cn-'al. vi. 24 It shall defend him from the coldc dampish 
nes of the earth. 16*6 HACON Sylva f 937 To put a Iiy ol 
Chalke between the Bricks, to lake away all Dampishneuc 
1717 BAILEY vol. II, Dampishness, inoislncss, wetness. 

Damply (dsrmpli), a,lv. rare. [f. DAMP a. ^ 
-i.v 2.J In a damp manner. 

1887 American XIV. 234 The house was damply cold. 
1891 C. DUNSTAN Quita II. u. v. 115 It was damply, foggily 
cold. 

Dampnacion, dampne, etc., obs. ff. DAMNA- 
TION, DAMN, etc. 

Dampnage, obs. form of DAMAGE. 

Dampness (dse-mpnfs). [f. DAMP a. + -NKSH.] 
The condition or quality of being damp ; moist- 
ness, humidity; moisture. 



..ills too dry. 1765 A. DICKSON Treat. Afric.lcd. 2155 A care- 
ful observer, in a night when there U a great dew, will per- 
ceive a dampness upon every surface. 1848 THACKERAY 
I'an. Fair xxii. The valet, .cursing the rain and the damp- 
ness of the coachman who was steaming beside him. 

Dampson, obs. form of DAMSON. 

Dampy (darmpi), a. [f. DAMP sb. + -T.] 

1 1. Full of, or of the nature of (npisome or 
gloomy) vapour or mist ; foggy. Obs. 

1600 TOURNEUR Traiup. Metamorph. v, O see how dampy 
shewn yond' torche's flame. Ibia. Ixxx, How like blacke 
Orcus lookes this dampy cave. 1605 DRAYTON Matt in 
Moon 363 The dampy Mist, From earth arising. 17*9 
SAVAGE Wanderer in. 384 Dispers'd, the dark anil dampy 
vapours fly. 

Jig. a 1617 HAYWARD Edw. yi (1630) 141 To dispell any 
dampie thoughts which the remembrance of his unkle 
might raise. 

b. Of a mine : Infested with ' damps ' or noxious 
gases. 

18. . WEALE (cited in Encycl. Diit.\ When foul gases do 
not move freely by the ordinary natural ventilation in 
a colliery, it is said to be dampy. 

2. Affected with moisture ; somewhat damp. 

01691 BOYLE Wks. VI. 397 (R.) Very dampy vapours- 
about the mouth of the baroscope. 17x0 PHILIPS Pastorals 
iii. 42 His beauteous Limbs upon the dampy Clay. 1840 
Btatkm. Mag. VII. 677 The clay-hole you live in, cold, 
dirty and dampy. 

Darn sax : see DANISH AX. 

Damsel (dae-mzel), damOSel (darmozel). 
Forms : a. 3 domeisele, 3-4 daruaisele, 4 dam- 
maisele, 3-5 damaysele, 5 -elle ; ft. 4-6 dame- 
sel, -ele, -elle, damysol, -ele, -elle, damisel, 
-elle, 5 dammisel, Sc. damyscill, 6 Sf. damicel, 
-ell ; f. 5-7 damsell, 6- damsel ; S. 4-6 damoy- 
sele, -el, damoisele, -el, (9 damoiselle) ; (. 
6-7 (9)damosel, -elle, damozel 1,-elle, :6damu- 
sel) ; (. 7 dam'zell, 7-8 dam'sel. [Early ME. 
dameisele, damaisele, a. OF. damcisele (damiselc) 
(izthc.), later damoisele, -elle (the only form in 
Cotgrave), demoiselle ( 1 4th c.). The OF. dameisele 
was a new formation from dame, instead of the 
popular danzele, dansele, donccle ~ Pr. and It. don- 
zef/a, Sp. doncella:\a!x. L. *dominicella, med.L. 
domnicella, domicella, dim. of domina mistress, 
lady, fern, of dominits lord. (There is a loth c. F. 
instance of the learned form domnizelle.) In 
Eng. the middle syllable was reduced from ei (at), 
to i, /, and finally disappeared. The variant 
damoiselle was introduced in 1 5th c. from Parisian 
F. (by Lydgate, Caxton, etc.), and gave rise here 
to damosel, damozel, so frequent in Io-I7th c., and 
affected in igth c. in sense i. See also DOUZEL.] 

1. A young unmarried lady ; originally one of 
noble or gentle birth, but gradually extended as a 
respectful appellation to those of lower rank. Now 
merged in sense i ; but modern poets and romantic 
writers (led by Sir \V. Scott) have recalled the 
16- 1 7th c. damosel, damosel, to express a more 
stately notion than is now conveyed by damsel. 

a. [1191 BRITTON i. xix. % 5 DCS enfauntz madles, dam- 
aysels et veducs.) < loo,V. Enr. Leg. I. 84/37 pe lustise 
bi-hcold bat maide . . ' Dameisele, he seide, ' a,wat art bou ? ' 
l97 R. Gi.ouc. (Rolls) 1492 pe nobloste damaisele bat was 
in eni londc. a 1450 Knt. tie la Tour cxx. 166 The yonge 
damaysellc, the whiche the knight hadde refused. 

p. 1300-40 Cursor M. 3837 (Colt) lacob lifted vp be 
sten, And spak ban wit be damisel. cijgo Sir Ferumb. 
2103 pan hvm spak duk Roland ..Tak thys damesele by 
be hand as pow louest me. c 1386 CHAUCER Xun's Pr. T. 50 
The fairest hiewcd . . Was cleped fayre damysel Pertilote. 
a 1440 Sir Degrcv. 623 To chyrche the gay dammise! 
Buskede hyr ;are. e 1500 Lancelot 2351 Sche had no 
knycht, sche had no damyseill. 

y. <-4oo Destr. Troy 7887 A darosell faire, pM bright 
wasofble, and Breisaid she bight. 1649 MILTOX EUan. 
xxi, The Damsell of Hurgundie [the Duchess). 1711 'J. 
DISTAFF' CAar. Don SacTierertllio 9 [Hel took.. the very 
Scrubs of both Sexes for Knights and Damsels. 1848 
MACAULAY Hist. Engl. I. 586 Damsels of the best families 
in the town wove colours for the insurgents. 

S. c 1400 Rom. Rose 1622 These damoysels & bachelers. 
<- 1477 CAXTON Jason 6 Barounes and kmghtes, ladies and 
danioisellcs, ete in the halle. 1549 CHALONITR Erasmus on 
Folly O iij b, Amonges the damoysels and Madamcs of the 



DAMSON. 

A'. Arthur (Copland I. xvii, There came 



md.. pajuyng layre daminel. (1841 D'ISRAEU 

/.;'/. (18671 223 Those romances of chivalry . . long 

I the favourite reading of the noble, the dame and 



court, 
a damoy 
Amen. . 
formed I 
the damoiselle.] 

. c 1300 A'. A Hi. 171 Ladies and daroo*eli Maken heom 
redy. 1513 I..,. BERNERX l-'niis. \. a. 9 All knyghtcs ought 
to ayd to theyr powers all ladyei and damozeU. IfiJ. 
ccxni. 264 They rode about the countrey, and vysited the 
ladies nad dumascls \elseTvhere damozefles, danunukelleil 
1548 HALL Chron. 240 The yonge i 
of Burgoyne. 1590 SPENSER /'. Q. u. i. 19 TV adventure 
of the errant damozell. 1615 G. SANDYS Tnto. 215 Her- 
cules walking along the shore with a Damosel, whom he 
loued. 1813 Scorr Tritrm. Introd. riii, (if errant kni K hi 
and damozelle. 1871 ROUETTI Blessed Damoiel i, The 
blessed damozel leaned out From the gold bar of Heaven. 
1884 K. M. CRAWFORD Rom. Singer I. 256 Your boy wants 
to marry a noble damosel. 

2. A young unmarried woman (without any 
connotation of rank or respect sometimes even 
slightingly) ; a maid, maiden, girl, country las. 

Since i7th c., archaic and literary or playful ; not in ordi- 
nary spoken use. 



thame dichl, Ihir lassis licht of Iain's. igjS KNOX Firit 
Blait (Arb.l 52 Aged fathers and lend re damiselle*. 

v. IS35 COVKRDALE Zeck. viii. 5 Yonge boyes and dara- 
selles, playnge vpon ihe slreles. 1667 CONCRCVE Ola Back. 
in. vi, Good words, damsel, or I shall - . 171* STEELK 
Sped. No. 278 f 2 You will not deny your Advice to 
a distressed Damsel. 1(31 W. IRVING Alkamhra II. 139 
Awed and abashed in the presence of a simple damsel of 
fifteen. 1(70 DICKENS K. Drotnl viii, The two young men 
saw ihe damsels enter Ihe court-yard of ihe Nuns' House. 

. isaa SKKLTON Wky not to Court 209 With Dalyda 
to men, That wanton damozell. 1576 Act 18 Elii. c. 7 



. 

i Of Women, Maids, Wives and Damoseb. list BIBLE 
Martv. 39,41 The damosell is not dead, but sleepeth.. 
Damosell (I say vnto thee), arise. 1641 ROGERS Xaarnan 7 



, . 

A poore damosell and captive. 1704 J. Prm Ace. Ma- 
kammetaas 27 The Father of the Damosel usually makes 
up the Match. 

". 163* OUARLES Dip. Fancies in. vii, Dam'sel arise? 
When death had clos'd her eyes, What power had the 
Dam'sel to arise? 1718 PRIOR Solomon u. 301 And one 
mad Dam'sel dares dispute my pow'r. 

t8. A maid in waiting, a female attendant. 
Originally a young lady of gentle birth, as maid 
of honour or waiting-woman to a lady of rank ; 
but gradually extended downward. Now Obs. exc. 
as merged in t. 

(1199 Rot. Chartarum 25/2 Beatriciae et Aeliciae dorni- 
cellis praedictae reginae sororis noslrae.) c 1314 Gut Warn.'. 
(A.) 618 Felice be feir answerd bo [lo her maid], Damisel, 
sche seyd. whi seislow so f 1377 LANCL. F. Ft. B. ix. 12 
Dobet is hir damoisele [C. XI. 138 damesele] sire doweles 
doujlerToserue bi< lady lelly. (-1489 CAXTON Blanckardyn 
'* 39 A goode auncyent damoysell whiche dydc norisshe 
her of her brestys . . called her nourycc and maystresse. 
1594 CAREW Huartc's Exam. Wits*. (1596) 130 He senl 
his damsels \ancillas suas\ lo call to the Castle. 1649 
ROBERTS Clavis Bibl. 387 His friends and her Damosels, 
being the foure speakers. 1664 BUTLER //</. u. L 08 
A slender Young waiting damsel to atlend her. 1833 Hr. 
MAKTINEAU Loom t, Lugger u. v. ico The terrified kitchen 
damsels. 

II. trans/. 

4. A hot iron for warming a bed. 
App. a humorous allusion to i Kings i. 1-4. 

'7'7~S' CHAMBERS Cycl., Damsel, a kind of utensil put in 
beds, to warm old mens feet withal. It consists of a hot 
iron inclosed in a hollow cylinder, which is wrapped round 
with linen cloth . . Some call it a nun. 1848-9 SOUTHCY 
Cammon.pl. Bk. IV. 434. 

5. A projection on the spindle of a mill-stone for 
shaking the shoot. 

1880 Antrim 4- Dawn Class., Damsel, an iron rod wilh 
projecting pins, that shakes the shoot of the hopper in 
a corn mill. 1880 JF.FFERIKS Ct. Estate 167 Tibbald, of 
course, had his joke about thai part of Ihe [mill] machinery 
which is called Ihe ' damsel '. 

III. 6. attrib., as damsel train, etc. Comb. 
damsel-errant, feminine of knight-errant (Scott, 
after Spenser's ' errant Damozell in i t ) ; damsel- 
fly, the slender dragon-fly Agiion Virgo, and 
kindred species, called in French demoiselle. 

a 159* GREENE & LODGE Looking Glastf L (1861) 118 
He send for all the damosell Queenes . . To wait as hand 
maides to Rcmelia. 1671 MILTON Samson 721 Her har- 
binger, a damsel train behind. 1715 POPE (Mrst. xxui. 
46 At his nod the damsel-train descends. 1815 MOORE 
l.alla R., I'araa. f 1'eri, The beautiful blue damsel 
flies. i8ai SCOTT heniltn. xxv, If any man shall find me 

taying squire of the body to a damosel-errant. 1840 

BROWNING Sordelh \. 284 Flittered in the cool some azure 
damsel-fly. 

Hence Da-maelhood. the condition or age of a 
damsel, young-womanhood. Da mli*h a , of 
or proper to a damsel (nonce-wdi.) 

1867 Contemp. Rev. VI. 363 'One of the queene'i 
damselles ' is set forth as riding about .certainly in a very 
damselish way) at random . . to find the desired champion. 
1880 liailyNms i July, The great majority, .had not reached 
the glory of damselhood ; they were simply children. 

Damson (dx-mz'n). Forms : 4-9 damascene, 
4-5 damacene, -yne, 4 damesene, 5 damesyn, 
()yn, 5-6 -asyn, 6 dameson, -ysen, -isen, 
-ozin, dammosen, damasson, -en, 6-7 dam- 

in nsin, ( -t) damascen. 7 -azine, -azeene. -oain ; 
5 damsyn, 6 dampsou, damiine, -iiig, 6-7 



DAN. 

damson, 7 -zin, 7-8 damsin, 5- damson. [ME, 
(or ? AngloFr.) damascene, ad. L. Dantasccnum for 
Prnnuni Datnasccnum plum of Damascus (Isidore 
xvii. vii. 10 Damascena a Damasco oppido). The 
various weakenings, danicscnc, daniesen, daniscn, 
damson, appear to be all of English development.] 

1. A small plum, black or dark purple, the fruit 
of Prunus commimis or domestica, variety damas- 
cena, which was introduced in very early times into 
Greece and Italy from Syria. 

a 1400 Pistill of Susan 89 per weore growyng so grene 
pe Date wib be Damesene. c 1400 Latifranc 's Cirurg. 
192 Take xx. damascenes & xii. figis. c 1460 J. RUSSELL 
Bk. Nurture 77 in Babces Bk. 122 Serve fastynge, plom- 
mys, damsons, cheries. Ibid. 668 Damesyns. 1542 UOORDK 
Dyetary xxi. (1870) 285, .vi. or .vii. damysens eaten before 
dyner, be good to prouoke a mans appetyde. 1573 TUSSER 
Husb. (1878) 76 Damsens, white and black. 1626 BACON 
Syl-va 509 In Fruits, the white commonly is meaner, as 
in Pear-plumbs, Damosins, etc. 1657 ^- AUSTEN Fruit 
Trees \. 57 The Damazeene also is an excellent fruit. 
1747 MRS. GLASSE Cookery xviii. heading^ To preserve 
damsons whole. 1750 JOHNSON Rambler No. 51 f 14 The 
art of scalding damascenes without bursting them. 1818 
MRS. SHERWOOD Fairchild Fam. (1829) I. xiv. 115 Mrs. 
Fairchild and Betty boiled up a great many damascenes in 
sugar. 1866 Treas. Dot., Prunus institia, the Bullace.. 
A variety occurs with yellowish fruit, which latter are sold 
in London as White Damsons. 

b. Locally, a distinction is sometimes made 
between damson and damascene, the latter being 
applied to the so-called damson-plum ; see c. 

1818 TODD Supfl., Damascene. This and the damson 
are distinct sorts of plums : the damascene is the larger of 
the two, and not at all bitter; the damson is smaller, and 
has a peculiar bitter or roughness. 1891 Daily AViw 17 
Nov. 5/2 In Nottinghamshire there is, It seems, a recognised 
distinction between 'damsons' or 'damasons' and ' damas- 
cenes'., in the Newark County Court .. a greengrocer., 
complained that whereas he had ordered damsons he was 
supplied with damascenes. 

c. Damson plum: formerly = damson \ but now 
applied to a sub-variety of plum somewhat like the 
damson: see quot. 1892. 

1586 COGAN Haven Health (1636) 104 The Damasin 
Plummes are woont to be dried and preserved as figges. 
1611 COTGH., Damaisine, a Damascene, or Damsen plum. 
1770 FOOTS Lame Lover in. Wks. 1799 II. 85 It was., 
the best of plum-trees, it was a damascen plum. 1892 Daily 
News 13 Sept. 3/2 The damson plum . . is quite as good for 
most purposes as the damson, and has not its acridity or 
roughness. 

2. The tree which bears this : also damson tree. 
1398 TREVISA Earth, de P. R. xvn. cxxxv. (1405) 686 Of 

plumme tree is many manere of kynde but the Damacene 
is the beste. 14 . . T. of Erccldoune 180 iCambr. MS.) Pe 
darte and also be damsyn tre. 1575 Art of Planting \i To 
set Damsons or Plum trees. 1625 BACON Ess., Gardens 
(Arb.)556 In April! follow .. The Dammasin, and Plum- 
Trees in Blossome. 1860 DKLAMER Kitch. Card. 158 In 
shallow or wet soils it is better to bud [peaches] on plum 
stocks, such as damsons, St. Juliens, &c. 

3. Applied to Chrysophylhtm oliviferum of the 
W. Indies (Damson-plum^ quot, 1756) ; Bitter or 
Mountain Damson, a name for Simaruba amara. 

1756 P. BROWNE Jamaica 171 The Damson-plumb . . is 
found wild in many parts of Jamaica. 1811 A. T. THOMSON 
Land. Disp. (18181 327 The Simaruba quassia, or mountain 
damson, as it is called in Jamaica. 1858 R. HOGG Veg. 
Kingdom 224 Simaruba officinalis . . attains the height of 
sixty feet, and is called Bitter Damson, Mountain. Damson, 
and Slave Wood. 

4. a. attrib. or adj. Of the colour of the damson. 
Also damson brown. 

1661 LOVKLL Hist. A ntnt. $ Mm. Introd., Partridge, 
grecian, reddish, cinereous, white, and damascen. 1684 
Lond. Gaz. No. 1963/4 A Damson brown Mare. 1791 
HAMILTON Bertholtet's Dyeing II. n.vi. iv. 347 Damascene 
colours, and other shades of browns of the common dye. 

b. attrib. and Comb., as damson dumpling, etc. ; 
dams on -cheese, an inspissated conserve of dam- 
sons and sugar ; damson-pie, -tart (slang, after 
damn}, profane language ; damson-plum (see 
i c, 3). 

1769 MRS. RAFFALD Eng. Housekpr.(\T]%) 183 To make 
Damson Dumplins. c 1803 C. K. SHARPE New Oxford 
Guide ii. in Mem. (1888) I. 15 Cakes, ruskins, prunelloes, 
and sweet_ damson cheese. 1887 JESSOPP Arcady 213 His 
language is profane from long habit ' given over to damson 
tart like ', as they say_ in Arcady. 1888 W. BLACK Strange 
Adv. House B<>at\\\\, (Farmer), Even if you were to hear 
some of the Birmingham lads giving each other a dose of 
damson-pie, .you wouldn't understand a single sentence. 

Damys6, var. of DAMASEE Obs., damson. 

Damysel, Damysen, obs. ff. DAMSEL, DAMSON. 

t Dan ! . Obs. Also 4-5 daun, danz, daunz, 4-6 
dane, 5 dann ; see also Sc. dene, DEN. [a. OF. 
dan (also dant, dam, damp, in nom. dans, danz} 

- mod.F. dom, Pr. don t dompn, Sp., Pg. don, It. 
donno :-L. dominus lord. Cf. DAM j<M] 

An honourable title = Master, Sir : a. used in 
addressing or speaking of members of the religious 
orders; cf. DOM ; b. applied to distinguished men, 
knights, scholars, poets, deities, etc. ; its modern 
affected application to poets appears to be after 
Spenser's ' Dan Chaucer *. 

1303 R. BRUNNE HandL Synne 73 Dane Phelyp was 
mayster bat tyme. c 1330 ~ Chron. Wace (Rolls) 8829 
With hem wente daunz Merlyn flfor bo stones to make 



22 

cngyn. 1340 Ayciib. i J?is boc is dan Michelis of North- 
gate, c 1386 CHAUCER Miutk's j'rtil. 41 My lorcle the 
Monk quod he. . Wher shal I calle yow my lord daun lohn, 
Or daun Thomas, or cllcs daun Albon ? Of what hous be 



Laurel 391 The monke of Bury.. Dane Johnn Lydgate. 
1587 TURBERV. Trag. T. 11837) . I undertook Dan Lucans 
verse. 1596 SPENSER F. Q. iv. li. 32 Dan Chaucer, well of 
English undcfyld. 1714 POPE/;;///. II or., Sat. II. vi. 153 Our 
friend Dan Prior. 1717 PRIOR Alma n. 120 Pray thank 
Dan Pope who told it me. 1832 TENNYSON Dream Fair 
lyortieu 5 Dan Chaucer, the first warbler. 

Dan - (clcen). Also 8 dann. A small buoy, 
made of wood or inflated sheepskin, supporting 
a stout pole which bears a flag by day and lamp 
by night, used either to mark the position of deep- 
sea lines, or as a centre round which a steam - 
trawler is worked. 

Hence titlrib. dan- to w, the rope fastening the dan to the 
lines or, in steam-trawling, to a small anchor or anchors. 

1687 Land. Gaz. No. 2298/4 They will . . forthwith cause 
to be laid a White Buoy, having a Dann thereupon, till 
they may be able to erect another Beacon. 1883 FislierifS 
Exhib. Catal. 7 Fleet of Cod Lines . . ready for Baiting, with 
Dans, Dantows, and Anchors complete. 1892 Whitby 
Gaz. ii Nov. 3/1 The vessel then drifts slowly on until 
a distance of about two miles separates it from the dan. 

Dan . Coal-mining, local. A small truck or 
sledge on which coal is drawn from the workings 
to the main road or shaft. Hence Dan v. 

1852 BRANDE Diet. Sc. (ed. 2\ Dans, small trucks or 
sledges used in coal mines. 1871 Tratis. Amer. fnst. 
Mining Rug. I. 305 The coals were brought along the face 
to the hill, on a ' dan ' . . there reloaded and hauled to the 
shaft. 1879 Miss JACKSON Shropsh. Word-bit. , Dan, 
a small tub used for drawing coals from the workings to the 
main road where the skips are loaded. Danningis drawing 
the coals in the dans, which is done by boys. 

Daiiaid (doe-n^id). [In Fr. Danaide, ad. Gr. 
Acipai's, pi. Aorat'Sfs, the Danaides or daughters of 
Danaus king of Argos, who, having murdered 
their husbands on the wedding-night, were con- 
demned eternally to pour water into bottomless 
or sieve-like vessels.] 

A daughter of Danaus ; used attrili. in reference 
to the labour of the Danaides : endless and futile. 
.So Danaide an a. ; and Da-nans used attrib. 

(11628 F. GREVILLE Kidney (1652) 62 A Danaus sive of 
prodigality. 1884 Century Mag. Mar. 704 The crew are 
worn out with their Danaidean task. 

Danaide (dsew,aid). [a. mod.F. dana'ide (see 
prec.) : so named in 1813 by a committee of the 
French Academy of Sciences, to whom it was sub- 
mitted by the inventor Mannoury d'Ectot, from a 
fancied analogy to the vessels which the Danaides 
were required to fill.] 

A kind of horizontal water wheel, consisting of a 
vertical axis to which is attached a conical drum 
and case, with radial spiral floats ; the water is 
directed against the floats by a chute and escapes 
at the bottom : also called ' tub-wheel '. 

1825 Meek. Mag. IV. 41 Description of the Danaide. 1856 
CRESV Encycl. Civ. Eng. 959 Danaide. .this machine may 
be classed among hydraulic wheels. 

Danaite (d<7'-na|0it). Min. [Named 1833 after 
J. F. Dana, an American chemist.] A variety of 
arsenopyrite or mispickel, containing cobalt. 

1833 Amer. Jrnl. Sc. XXIV. 386 Danaile, a new ore of 
cobalt and iron. 

Daiialite (d.ji-naloit). Min. [Named 1866 
after J. D. Dana, an American mineralogist : see 
-LITE.] A silicate of iron, glucinum, etc. with 
sulphide of zinc, occurring in reddish octahedrons 
in granite. 

1866 Amer. Jrtil. Sc. Ser. 11. XLII. 72 On Danalite, a new 
Mineral Species. 

Daiilmrite (dae-nbrfrait). Min. [Named 1839 
from Danbury, Ct., U.S., where it occurs.] A 
boro-silicate of lime, brittle, translucent, and of a 
yellowish or whitish colour. 

1839 Amer. Jrnl. Sc. XXXV. 137 Danburite, a new 
Mineral Species. 1886 ERNI Min. 295 The presence of 
boracic acid in danburite. 

Dance (dans), sb. Forms : 4-7 daunce, (4-5 
dauns(e, 5-6 dawnoe, 6 dans(s), 5- dance, [a. 
OF. dance, danse, f. the vb. dancer, darner. So 
Pr., Cat. dansa, Sp. danza, Pg. dan(a, dansa, It. 
danza ; also Ger. tans, Du. dans.] 

1. A rhythmical skipping and stepping, with 
regular turnings and movements of the limbs and 
body, usually to the accompaniment of music ; 
either as an expression of joy, exultation, and the 
like, or as an amusement or entertainment ; the 
action or an act or round of dancing. 

c 1300 A'. Alls. 6990 Murye they syngyn, and daunces 
maken. 1303 R. BRUNNE Hmull.Syntieufst^ Daunces, karols, 
somour games, c 1340 Cursor M. 7601 (Trill.) In her daunse 
[v. r. dauncing, karol] [is was be song, c 1400 Rom. Rose 808 
It to me liked right wele, That Courtesie me cleped so, And 
bade me on the daur.ce go. 1535 COVERDALE Ps. cxlix. 3 
Let them praysc his name in the daunce. 1590 SHAKS. 
Mitis. N. n. i. 254 Lul'd in these flowers with dances and 
delight. 1611 IJIULE Judg. xxi. 21 If the daughters of 



DANCE. 

Shiloh come out to daunce in daunces 1667 MILTON P. L. 
v. 619 That day. .they spent In son;^ and dance about the 
sacred Hill. 1730-46 TMUMSON Aiitnnin 1225 Leaps wildly 
graceful in the lively dance. 1761-71 H. \VALI-OLK I'ertne's 
Anecd. Paint. (1786) II. 157 The holy family with a dance 
of Angels.. is a capital picture. 1841 LI;VI-:R C. O*M alley 
cxviii, Waltzers whirled past in the wild excitement of the 
dance. Mod. Her partner for the next dance. 

2. A definite succession or arrangement of steps 
and rhythmical movements constituting one parti- 
ticular form or method of dancing. 

1393 GOWER Conf. III. 365 The hove daunce and the 
carole. 1521 R. COPLAND ltitk\ Maner of Dauncynge of 
base daunces after the vse of Fraunce. 1500 SHAKS. Hen. V* 
n. iv. 25 If we heard that England Were busied with 
a Whitson Morris-dance. 1600 J. POKY tr. Leo's Africa, \. 
55 A kinde of dance which they use also in Spaine . . called 
The Canaries. 1711 BUUGELL Spect. No. 67 F 2 Pyrrhus 
. . Inventing the Dance which is called after his Name. 1879 
H. N. MOSELEY Nat. on Challenger 331 The most in- 
teresting dances were a Club Dance and a Fan Dance. 

b, A tune or musical composition for regulating 
the movements of a dance, or composed in a dance 
rhythm. 

1509 HAWES Past. Picas, xvi. xix, She commaunded her 
mynstrelles right anone to play, .the gentill daunce. 1597 
MORLEY Introd. Mm. ifo Ballete or daunces.. songs, which 
being song to a dittie may likewise be daunced. 1711 
BUDGBU. Spect. No. 67 F 9 [He] bid the Fidlersplay a Dance 
called ^Mol Patley. 1880 GROVE Diet. Mm. I. 350/1 His 
[Chopin's] first . . compositions were dances : Polonaises, 
Mazurkas, and Valses. 

3. A social gathering for the purpose of dancing ; 
a dancing party. 

1:1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. 1269 Dido, And waytyn hire at 
festis and at dauncis. 1790 BURNS Tarn O'S /tauter ifo Ah ! 
little kenn'd thy reverend grannie, That sark shecoft for her 
wee Nannie . . Wad ever graced a dance of witches ! a 1845 
BARHAM Ingold. Leg., Wedding day ?N\vv[\ asked to a party, 
a dance, or a dinner. Mod. Mrs. S. is giving a dance 
instead of a garden party this year. 

4. transf. andyf^. 

1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 85 r 4 The dance of spirits, 
the bound of vigour, .are reserved for him that braces his 
nerves. 1879 STAINER Music of Bible 3 One might say that 
rhythm is the dance of sound. 1881 Daily Tel. 28 Jan., 
The dance of the waters, especially to windward, was visible 
for over a mile around. 

"1" 5. fig* Course of action ; mode of procedure, 
play, game. To know the old dance : cf. F. * elle 
s$ait assez de la vieitte danse, she knowes well 
enough what belongs to the Game' (Cotgr.)- 

a 1352 MINOT Poems i. 66 At Donde now es done baire 
daunce, And wend bai most anober way. Ibid. v. 14 Sare 
it bam smerted bat ferd out*of France, pare lered Inglis 
men bam a new daunce. 1:1386 CHAUCER Prol. 476 Of 
remedies of lone she knew per chaunce For she koude 
of that Art the olde daunce. 1423 JAS. I Kingis Q. clxxxv, 
Tham that ar noght entrit inne The dance of lufe. c 1449 
PECOCK Repr. i. xvi. 86 God for his merci and pitee kepe 
Ynglond, that he come not into lijk daunce. 1513 MORE 
Rich. Ill, Wks. 53 The lord Stanley and he had departed 
with diuerse other lordes, and broken all the daunce. 1659 



no further go. I meant well, but . . the Act could not be 
carried into execution without an armed force. 

6. Phrases: a. To begin, lead the dance \ fig. to 
take the lead in any course of action. 

c 1325 Coer de L. 3739 The damyseles lede daunse. 
c 1374 CHAUCER Troylits n. 504 Yet made he bo as fressh 
a contenaunce, As bough he schulde haue led be newe 
daunce. <: 1380 WYCLIF Sel. Wks. II. 360 Crist bat ledib 
be daunce of love. 1526 SKELTON Magnyf. 1348 Foly 
foteth it properly, Fansy ledeth the dawnce. 1579 TOMSON 
Calvin's Serin. Tim. 522/2 They must begin the dance to 
be punished. <? 1616 BEAUM. & FL. Cnst. Conn-try^ n. i, 
They heard your lordship Was, by the ladies' choice, to 
lead the dance. 1742 MANN Let. to H. Walpole 23 Sept., 
M. de Gages is now the man who begins the dance. 

b. To lead, rarely give (a person} a dance \ fig. 
to lead (him) in a wearying, perplexing, or dis- 
appointing course ; to cause him to undergo exertion 
or worry with no adequate result. 

a 1529 SKELTON Edw. fl^, 29 She [Fortune] loke me by 
the hand and led me a daunce. 1599 PORTER Angry Wont. 
Abingd. in. ii, I pray God, they may . . both be led a dark 
dance in the night ! 1682 HICKERINGILL Wks. (1716) II. 37, 
I think he has led me a fair dance, I am so tyred. 1700 
S. L. tr. C. Fryke's Voy. E. hid. 45 [A monkey] led me such 
a dance, that I had almost stuck in the Slough. 1798 W. 
HUTTON Antobiog. 65, I should have led them a dance 
of twenty miles to breakfast at Kidderminster. 1874 
ALDRICH Pntd. Palfrey i. (1885) 12 It was notorious that 
the late Maria Jane had led Mr. Wiggins something of 
a dance in this life. 

C. Dance of Death', an allegorical representation 
of Death leading men of all ranks and conditions 
in the dance to the grave : a very common subject 
of pictorial representation during the middle ages. 
Also called dance of Macabre, F. danse macabre : 
see Littre". 

1430 LYDG. Daunce of Mnchalwe Prol., The which 
daunce at sainct innocentes Portrayed is with all the 
surplusage. Ibid., Death fyrst speaketh vnto the Pope, 
and after to euery degree as foloweth. 1480 Kobt. Deiyll 
26 For and we nowe in deathes daunce stode To hell 
shoulde we go, with horrible vengeaunce. 1494 FAB VAN 
Chron. vi. clvi. 145 But deth yt is to all persones egal), 
lastlye tooke hym in his dymme daunce, wh.in he had ben 
kyng .xlvii. yeres. 1631 WEEVER Anc. /'. Men. 378 
The dance of Death . . the Picture of death leading all 



DANCE. 

estate*. 1833 J. DAU.AWAY Arc/lit. A>/ A *. i-j (Stanford) 
The Dance oT Macabre iHolbein's Dance of Death) was 
painted on the wnlls. 

d. St. Vitus's dance ('HOI;I:A, q.v. ; nlsoyf^. 
Also St. Jo/in's, St. <Vv\f tiancc. terms applied to the 

dancing-mania of the middle ages. 

1611 I'.rmoM Amit. M.-L i. i. i. iv, CJu>rns Sanctt K///, or 
S. Vitus Dance, .they that are taken with it can do nothing 
but dance till they be dead, or cured. 1711 BAILEY, Gfc<w<* 
Sanli t'ifi, St. ViiuA Dunce. 1746 I. ANDREE (title), 
( I of Kpilcpsy, Hysteric Fits, and St. Vitus's Dance, 
with the Process and Cure. 1804 SOUTHKV in H. I). Trail! 
Coleridge (1884) 106 Hi* [Coleridge's] mind is in a perpetual 
St. Vitus's dance eternal activity without action. 1840 
TWKEDIE rract. Med, II. 205 In St. John's dance, as well 
as in that of St. Vitus. .a tympanic state of the abdomen was 
a frequent symptom. 

e. Dance upon nothing: an ironical expression 
for hanging (cf. DAXCE v. 3 b). 

1840 Hoon Kilmansegg. Her Death ix, Just as the felon 
condemned to die. .From his gloomy cell in a vision elopes, 
To cair on sunny greens ana slopes, Instead of the dance 
upon nothing. ' 1845 An Oft* Question, note, If 
a dance upon Sunday led so inevitably to a dance upon 
nothing ! 

7. attrib. and Comb., as dance-leader, -lover, 
-tune \ dance-loving adj. ; dance-hall, -house, a 
public dancing saloon ( U. S.} ; dance -music, 
* music designed as an accompaniment to dancing; 
also, music written in dance rhythm though not 
for dancing purposes' (Grove Diet. Mus.\ 

1891 Scrihncrs Mag. Sept. 276/1 Port Said .. abounds in 
French cafes and dance-halls. 1889 AWo* (Mass.) Jrnl. 
24 Apr. 1/8 To run a dance-house and gambling-den. 
1:1440 Promp. Part'. 114 Dawnceledere, coralles. 1860 
G. H. K. I 7 ac. Tour. 152 Very popular .. as a means of 
producing dance music. 

Dance (dana\ v. Forms : 4 6 daunse, 4-7 
daimee, (5 dawnce, 6 dans s,, donse), 5- dance, 
[a. OF. danct-r, danse-r = Vr. dansar, Sp. danzar, 
1'g. dan$ar y dansar, It. danzare. 

The origin of the Romanic word is obscure ; it is generally 
held (after Diez) to be an adoption of OHG. danson to 
draw, to stretch out, from which is supposed to have arisen 
the sense 'to form a file or chain in dancing*. From 
Romanic the word has been taken (back) in the sense 
*dance' into German : MHG. /aws^wdithc 1 , MDu(/*w. 
(OHG. dnnsfln^ was a derivative form from dinsnn = Goth. 
finsan in at-fiinsan to draw towards one.)] 

1. intr. To leap, skip, hop, or glide with 
measured steps and rhythmical movements of the 
body, usually to the accompaniment of music, either 
by oneself, or with a partner or in a set. 

c 1300 K. Alis. 5213 Mery time it is in May. . Maydens so 
dauncen and thay play. 1388 WVCLIF 2 Sattt. vi. 14 Dauid 
. . daunsidc with all strengtnis bifor the Lord. 1483 CAX- 
TON Gold. Leg. 147/3 He . . scnte them into the gardyn to 
daunse & to carolle. 1530 PAI.SGR. 361 After dynner men 
avaunced them to daunce eche man with eche woman. 1631 
MILTON 1* Allegro 96 Many a youth and many a maid 
Dancing in the chequer'd shade. 171:1 STEELE Spect. No. 
466 F 3 You shall see her dance, or, if you will do her that 
Honour, dance with her. 1884 Miss BRADUON /skttiaelix t 
I never danced with any one in my life until to-day. I have 
danced by myself in the yard sometimes when there was an 
organ. 

t b. To dance barefoot : said of an elder sister 
when a younger one was married before her. Obs. 

1596 SHAKS. 1 'am. Shr. n. i. 33 She must hauea husband ; 
I must dance bare-foot on her wedding day, And for your 
loue to her leade Apes in hell. 174* MRS. DELANY Life $ 
Corr. (1861) II. 188 The eldest daughter was much dis- 
appointed that she should dance barefoot, and desired her 
father to find out a match for her. 

C. Of animals taught to perform certain regular 
movements. 

(1530 Hickscorner in Hazl. Dodsley I. 184 Then should 
ye dance as a bear. 1854 WOOD^W/W. /.(/fcaioThe educa- 
tion of most bears seldom aspires beyond teaching the 
animal to stand on its hind legs, and raise each foot alter- 
nately, a performance popularly entitled 'dancing'. 

d. transf. and/?^. 

c 1430 LYDC. Bochas i. viii. (1544^ na, Beware afore or 
ye daunce in the rowe Of such as Fortune hath from her 
whcle ithrow. 1613 SHAKS. Hen. K///, v. iv. 68, I haue 
some of 'em in Limbo Pal mm, and there they are like to 
dance these three dayes. 

e. To dance to or after (a person's] pipe, whistle, 
etc. : fig. to follow his lead, act after his desire or 
instigation. 

1562 J. HRYWOOD Pr<n>, tr Epigr. (1867) 61 To daunce 
after her pipe. I am ny led. 1604 MIDDLETON Father 
I Into. Talcs Wks. 1886 VIII. 65 Till the old devourer . . 
death, had made our landlord dance after his pipe. 1707 
NORKIS Treat. Humility iii. 98 When a man .. dances to 
the tune of the age wherein he lives. 18*3 SCOTT Peveril 
vii, I thought I had the prettiest girl in the Castle dancing 
after my whistle. 1845 S. AUSTIN Rankc's Hist. Ref. 1. 523 
That most of these councillors . . will ' dance to Rome's 
piping ', if they do but see her gold. 

2. To leap, skip, spring, or move up and down, 
with continuously recurring movement, from excite- 
ment or strong emotion. Said also of the lively 
skipping or prancing of animals, and of the heart, 
the blood in the veins, etc. 

c 13*5 E. E. Allit. P. A. 345 J>oj bou daunce as any 
do, Braundysch, & brais by brafxjz breme. c 1400 50 
Alexander 2618 For be dowt of (>e dyn daunced stedis. 
15*6 Ptlgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 291 Some were con- 
strayned to leape and daunce for ioye. 1553 EDEN Treat. 
AVwr Ind. (Arb.) 21 The woman runneth vp and down, 
daunsing continually like a frantike bodie. 1611 SHAKS. 



11'int. T. i. ii. no, I haue Trertwr Cordis on me: my 
heart daunces, But not for ioy. a 1710 SHEFI r. 
Buckhm.) Wks. (1753) I. 160 The blood more lively danc'd 
Within our veins. 179* S. ROGERS Pleat. Mem, i. 142 When 
the heart danced, and life was in its spring. 1821 I. AMU 
Elia, I 'alfniinSs f),ijr, He saw, unseen, the happy girl un- 
fold the Valentine, dance about, clap her hands. 1859 
TENNYSON Enid 505 Yniol's heart Danced in his bosom, 
seeing better days. 

b. To run, go, or move on with dancing or 
tripping molion. 

171* ARBUTHNOT John Bull \. x, How you have danced 
the round of all the Courts. 1820 SCOTT Abbot xxiv. The 
moments .. danced so rapidly away. Ibid, xxxiv, Snme 
sprightlydamsel, who thinks to dance through life as through 
a French galliard. 187* KI.ACK Adi>. Phaeton ii. 30 These 
boys of twenty-five will dance over the world's edge in 
pursuit of a theory. 

3. Of things inanimate : To bob up and down on 
the ground, on the surface of water, in the air, etc. 
Often with personification or figurative reference 
to gay and sprightly motion. 

1563 W. FULKB Meteors (1640) 7 b, The flame appeareth 
to leape or daunce from one part to the other, much like as 
bals of wild fire daunce up and downe in the water. 1567 
DRANT Horace's Epist. xviii. Fvj, Whilst thy ship dolh 
kcpe a flote, ydauncinge on the plaint. i66< HOOKE 
AJicrogr. 231 Why the limb of the Sun, Moon, Jupiter . . 
and Venus, appear to move or dance. 1703 MOXON Meek. 
Kxerc. i )5 Care must be taken that the liressu miners and 
Girders be not weakned more than needs, lest the whole 
Floor dance. 1812 H. & J. SMITH Rej. Addr. % Cuibonof 
iv. Light as the mote that daunceth in the beam. 1884 
O. VICTORIA Afore Leaves 138 The little boat rolled and 
danced. 

b. Grimly applied to the movements of the body 
in or after death by hanging ; to dame upon 
nothing, to be hanged. 

1837 MAJOR RICHARDSON Brit. Legion viiL led. 2) 210 
To see a fellow-being dancing in air after death, in the 
manner practised in England. 1839 H. AINSWORTH Jack 
Sheppard xxxi. (Farmer 1 , * You'll dance upon nothing, 
presently', rejoined Jonathan, brutally. 1862 CARLVLE 
Fredk. Gt. (1865) III. vm. iv. 21 This poor soldier, six feet 
three, your Majesty, is to dance on the top of nothing for 
a three-halfpenny matter ! 

4. trans, with the name or description of a dance 
or measure as cognate object. 

c 1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. Prol. 200 (MS. Gg> Daunsynge 
about e this flour an esy pas. 1509 HAWKS Past. Pleas. 
xvi. xix, To daunce true mesures without varyaunce. 1599 
PORTER An fry Worn. Abingd. in. ii, They have danced 
a galliard ajTbeggars'-bush for it. a 16*7 MIDDI.ETON Chaste 
Afaid iv. iii, As if they'd dance the swurd-dance on the 
stage. 1761 GOLDSM. Life of Nash Wks. 1881 IV. 69 
A minuet, danced by two persons. 1844 E. FITZGERALD 
Lett. (1889) I. 142 If you could see the little girl dance the 
Polka with her sister ! 

fb. To dance Barnaby. to dance to a quick 
movement, move expeditiously. To dance the 
Tyburn jig : to be hanged : cf. 3 b. Obs. 

1664 COTTON Scarron. 15 Bounce cries the Port-hole, out 
they fly And make the world dance Barnaby. 1664 ETHER- 
EDGE Com. Revenge v. ii, Widow, here is music ; send for 
a parson, and we will dance Barnaby within this half hour. 
1697 VANBRUCH Relapse Epil., Did ever one yet dance the 
Tyburn jig With a free air, or a well-pawdered wig ? 

O. To dance attendance : to wait (upon a person) 
with assiduous attention and ready obsequiousness ; 
orig. to stand waiting or * kicking one s heels ' in 
an antechamber. See also ATTENDANCE 5. 

1523 SKELTON Why not to Court 626 And Syr ye must 
daunce attendance, And take patient suffcraunce, For my 
Lords Grace, Hath now no time or space, To speke with you 
as yet. 1613 SHAKS. Hen. VIII, v. ii. 31 To suffer A man of 
Place . . To dance attendance on their Lordshipspleasures, 
And at the dore too, like a Post with Packets. 1675 TRAHERNE 
Chr. Ethics xxv. 380 Few have observed that the sun and 
moon and stars dance attendance to it (the Dearth), and 
cherish it with their influences. 1768 GRAY in Corr. w. 
Nickolls (1843) 75 Here are a pair of your stray shoes, 
dancing attendance, till you send for them. 1883 GILMOUR 
Atongws xxxi. 362 After dancing attendance on the court 
for a month or two they receive their dismission. 

0. causal, a. To lead in a dance, cause to dance. 

1665 PEPYS Diary n Oct., Having danced my people as 
long as I saw fit to sit up, I to bed. 176* STERNE Tr. | 
Shandy VI. ii, When my father had danced his white bear , 
backwards and forwards, through half-a-dozen pages. 1773 
GOLDSM. Stoops to Cona. i. Though I am obligated to dance 

a bear, a man may be a gentleman for all that. 

b. To move or toss up and down with a dancing 
jerky motion ; to dandle. 

WVCI.IF Isa. Ixvi. 12 Vp on the knes men shul daunte 
[MS. H. a 1450 daunsen] 5011. 1546 HEYWOOD proverbs ii. 
x, In hope. .In hir dotyng dates to be daunst on the lappc. 
1622 FLETCHER Sp. Citrate H. i, I have dandled you, and 
kissed you, and played with you.. and danced you. 1681 
\V. ROBERTSON Phrascol. Gen. (1693) 418 To dance a child 
in one's arms. 1773 MAD. D'AHBLAY Early Diary July, It 
was no sport to me to be danced up and down, and to find 
the waves . . rougher every instant. 1850 TENNYSON in 
Mem. Epil., I that danced her on my knee. 

7. \Yith compl. : To remove, put, bring, impel, 
etc., off, away, out, in, etc., by dancing. 

a 1633 AUSTIN Afedit. (1635) 208 So was the blessed head 
of John . . danced off his shoulders by a Harlot. 1787 
GeneroHS A ttachment 1. 200, 1 danced away the recollection 
of it. 1812 BYRON Waltz vii, Her nimble feet danced off 
another's head. i86 MERIVALK Rom. fiagMiKflVL 1. 169 
That an obscure player . . should dance himself into the 
chamber of the empress. 1880 G. MEREDITH Trag.Com. \ 
iv. 11892)29 Like a lady danced offher sense of fixity. Alod, 
I fear he has danced away his chance. 



DANCING. 

Danceable 'la ns.ii,T , a. colhq. If. DAHCEV. 
+ -AIH.I ; , !. I . damatle.] .Suitable for dancing ; 
fit to dance with. 

1860 W. COLLINS Worn. Wkitt i. vi. 31 A fliruble, 
danceable, imall-talkablc creature of the male MX 1891 
.V.i/. Rev. a, July 133/3 '11,6 Shaking Polka' .. u a very 
bright and danceable specimen. 

Dancer (da-nsu). [f. DANCE v. + -P.B.] 

1. One who dances ; sfec, one who dances pro- 
fessionally in public. 

c 1440 Promp. Parv. 114 Dawncere, triftuiialar, trittuli. 
alrix, 1599 SHAKS. Much Ada n. i. in God match roc 
with a good dauncer. 1688 Land. (,'ac. No. 1318/4 Stage- 
Plays, Dancera of the Ropes, and other Publick Shews. 
1700 Bmw Tarn US hunt tr 146 The dancers quick and 
quicker flew. 1858 THACKCKAV 1'irginiutu xxviii, She u 
a dancer, and . . no better or worse than her neighbours, 
fb. A dancing-master. Obs. 

1599-16. . MIDDLE-TON, etc. OU I.a-ui in. ii, His dancer 
now came in as I met you. 01617 MIDDLKTON Ckatlt 
Maid i. i, I hold my life you have forgot your dancing : 
when was the dancer with youT 

t O. transf. A dancing-dog. Obs. 

1576 FIRMING tr. Caitij Dyi in Arb. Canitr III. 361 
The dog called the Dancer. .[They] are taught and exercised 
to dance in measure. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury II. 184/1. 

2. (//.) A sect of enthusiasts who arose in 1374, 
chiefly in parts of Flanders, and were noted for 
their wild dancing ; in 1'athol. those affected with 
the dancing-mania (St. Vituf, St. John's danct,tte?) 
of the middle ages. 

1764 MACI.MNK tr. Masktim't Ck. Hilt. xlv. II. v. f 8 
Directly the reverse of this melancholy sect was the merry 
one of the Dancers, which . . arose at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
1844 BABINGTON tr. Hrckcr't Rpitiftttics Mid. Aget i. 88 
rwti; According to the Chronicle of Cologne, the St. John's 
dancers san^ during their paroxysm*. 188* 3 SCHAFF 
Encycl. Relig. Ktunvl. I. 603 The sect of the Dancers 
who were enthusiasts, first appeared in 1374, on the I-uwer 
Rhine, dancing in honor of St. John. 

8. =DANI>Y-KOLLKB, q.v. . 

4. //. Stairs, slang. 

1671 R. HEAD Eng. KofMf L v. (1874) 53 (Farmer) Track 
up the dancers, go up the slayrcs, 1715 in flirw Cant. 
Diet. 1811 J. H. VAUX Flaih Diet., Dancers, stairs. 18*9 
LVTTON Disrnvned 65 Come, track up the dancers, and 
dowse the glim. 1858 What will he do f xvL <L>.\ Come, 
my Hebe, track the dancers, that is, go up the stairs. 

6. //. A local name for the aurora borealis or 
northern lights. Also Merry daiuers. 

c\m Lett.fr. Mist't Jrnl. (1723) I. 09 In the North of 
Scotland . . they are seen continually every Summer in the 
Evening .. they call them Dancers. 1717 Phil. Traru. 
XXXV; 304 The Meteor calPd by our Sailors, Merry Dancers, 
was visible, and very bright. 1863 C. ST. JOHN AW. Hist. 
Moray 86 April 7th (1847).. we saw a very brilliant aurora 
borealis, or as they term it here, ' The Merry Dancers '. 

t Danceress. Obs., exc. as notue-wd. [a. OF. 
daneertsse, danscrtssc, now supplanted by danseusc : 
sec -KSS.] A female <lancer. 

1388 WYCLIF Ectlus. ix. 4 ISe thou not customable with 
n Jatinseressc [1383 a Icpercsse or tumbler), neither here 
thou hir. 1491 CAXTON I 'Has Patr. ( W. de W. 1495) I . xli. 
62 b/i The moost excellent Jonuleresse or Dawnceress that 
was in the cylce of Anthyoche. 1633 PRVNNE /Hitrie- 
Mastix v. viit. 260 What doth a Danccresse doe? She im- 
pudently uncovers her head. 1855 HoitstH. W<cw*/ XI. 57 
A cavalier may. .offer, .aglassnowandthcntohisdanceress. 

tDa'ncery. Obs. rare-' 1 , [a. OF. danserie, 
dancing, ball : see -BUY.] Dancing. 

1615 CHAPMAN Ottyss. vill. 504 Two, with whom none 
would strive in dancery. 

Dancette (donse-t), sb. [app. a modern form- 
ation, inferred from next.] 

1. Her. A fcsse with three indentations. 

1864 BOUTELL Heraldry Hitt. + Pop. xiv. I i (ed. 3) 160 
The ' daunces ' are equivalent to a group of fusils conjoined 
in fesse across the shield, which is sometimes blazoned as 
a ' dancette ' or a fesse dancctte'e. 

2. Arch. A zigzag or chevron moulding. 

1838 BRITTON Diet. Arckit. 349 The chevron moulding, 
or dancette. 1876 GWILT Emfyct. Artkit. Gloss. 

Dancette), -ee (da-nscfti, -ti), a. Her. Also 
ty. [app. a corruption of F. datuhi, denchi, in 
OF. also dansif (: late L. denticalus, f. dtnl- 
toothl used in same sense. 

DancttU or dfincctf may have originated in a scribal 
error for dancU or dansU. OF. had also the phrase 
A <1aitscs=<iaticht.\ 

Of a line, the edges of a fesse, etc. : Having large 
and deeply marked indentations, usually three in 
number ; = DANCT. 

1610 GUILLIU Heraldry n. iii. (1660) 55 These two last 
mentioned sorts of Lines viz. Indented and Daunsette are 
both one. .their forme is all one, but in quantity they differ 
much in that the one is much wider and deeper than the 
other. 1661 MORGAN Sph. Gentry I. ii. 15 Dancette differs 
from Indented, by reason it consists but of three teeth only. 
1864 BOUTT.LL Heraldry Hitt. t P'f. *'." (K) . 3) "5 
A chie_f dancettee, i88a CL-SSANS Heraldry \\. 47 The lines 
by which a shield is divided, .may assume any of the follow- 
ing forms. .Indented, Dancette" -but 3 indentations^ iv. 59 
Argent ; a Bend vert, between Colises dancette gules. 

Dancing (da-nsirj), vbl. sb. [-iso'.] The 
action of the verb DANCK. 

a 1300 Cursor .I/. 7601 (G5lt.) In hair dauncin? H* was 
bnir sang, ti 1340 HAMPOLE Psalter xxxix. 6 Hoppynge 
& daunceynge of tumblers & herlotes. 1530 1 INDALK 
Pract. Prelates Wks. (15731 375 As who should say, we 
payd for all meiis daunsing. 1633 P. FLETCHER Purple 1st. 



DANCING. 

vn. xxx. 92 With dancings, gifts and songs, 1670 COTTON 
Espenion n. vi. 244 One night that the King had appointed 
a great Dancing at Court. 1766 FORDYCE Senti. Vug. 
Women ted. 4' I. vi. 236 What is dancing, in the best sense, 
but the harmony of motion rendered more palpable ? 1853 
THACKERAY MmcHHW xxiv, They had no dancing at Grand- 
mamma's : but she adores dancing. 

b. aitrib. and Comb., as danting- assembly, 
-chamber, -days, -dress, -floor, -hall, -house, -match, 
-pipe, -pump, -shoe, etc, ; dancing- malady, 
-mania, -plague CHOREA ; dancing-mistress, 
a female teacher of dancing ; f dancing rapier, 
a sword worn only for ornament in dancing; 
dancing-room, a room for dancing ; spec, one for 
public dancing. Also DANCING-MASTER, -SCHOOL. 

1765 COWPER Let. to jf. Hill 3 July, Here is a card- 
assembly,anda" 1 dancing-assembly. cijBsCHACCERZ-.G. W. 
1106 Dido, To *daunsyng-chaumberys . .This Enyas b led. 
1591 SHAKS. Rom. <$ Jul, i. v. 33 Nay sit. . For you and I are 
past our *dauncing dales. 1724 SWIFT Stella's Birthday^ 
As when a beauteous nymph decays, We say, she's past 
her dancing-days. 1843 LONGF. Sp. Student n. i, Now 
bring me . .my *dancing dress And my most precious jewels ! 
1839 Hyperion in. iii. Used as a *dancing-floor. 1753 
GOLDSM. Let. Wlcs. 1881 IV. 474 When a stranger enters the 
*dancing-hall he sees one end of the room taken up with the 
ladies. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. Midi, ix, Nae frequenter of play- 
house, or music-house, or *dancing-house. i8J8tr.2iftnssftt r s 
Cycl. Med. XIV. 416 As a pandemic disease, the *dancing- 
mania died out in the fifteenth century. 1741 RICHARDSON 
Patnela II. 145 All the Ladies could prevail upon my Master 
for, was a *Dancing-match. 1852 DICKENS Bleak H. II. vii, 
'Dancing -mi stress though in her limited ambition she 
aspired to be, c 1440 Fromj>. Parv. 114 *Dawncynge pype, 
carola. 1847 ALB. SMITH Ckr. Tadpole xix. (1879) 167 They 
all wear jackets and trowsers, and trodden out *dancing- 
pumps. 1788 WOLCOTT (P. Pindar) Peter's Pension Wks. 
1812 II. 17 T* illume The goodly Company and 'Dancing- 
room. 1836 Murray's Handbk. N.Germ.z-]\ Occupied by 
lowtaverns and dancing- rooms. 1709 STEELE Taller No. 180 
?8 * Dancing -Shoes not exceeding Four Inches Height in the 
Heel. 

Da'ncing 1 , ///. a. [-ING 2 .] That dances, in 
various senses of the verb. 

[c 1386 CHAUCER Knfs T. 1343 What ladies fairest bene or 
best daunceinge.] 1568 FULWEL/$ Will toLike in Hazl. 
Dodsley III. 310 Whom have we here? Tom Tumbler, or 
else some dancing bear? 1583 STUBBES Anat. Abus. 11. 
(1882) 33 Their dansing minions, that minse it ful gingerlie. 
1697 DRVDEN Virg. Gtorg. i. 506 Chaff with eddy Winds is 
whirl'd around, And dancing Leaves are lifted from the 
ground. 1701 DE FOE Tnie-born Eng. 8 A Dansing 
Nation, Fickle and Untrue. 1887 J. BALL Nat. in S. 
Atncr. 15 The irregular surface of the little dancing waves. 
b. f Dancing-goats [Lat. caprx saltantes\, a 
species of meteor or aurora ; dancing -damsel, 
-wench, -woman = DANCING-GIRL. 

X 5<>3 W. FULKE Meteors (1640) 6b, Of fiery meteors., 
they have divers names : for they are called burning stubble, 
torches, dauncing or leaping Goates. Ibid. 7 b, Dansing 
Goats are. .as when two torches be seene together, and the 
flame appeareth to leape or daunce from one part to the 
other. 1606 G. W(OODCOCKE] tr. Justin 42 b, He begat 
Larissa, a dauncing damsel. 1698 FRYER Ace. E. India $ 
P. 160 The Dancing Wenches singing with Bells at their 
Wrists and Heels. 1810 T. WILLIAMSON E. India VadeM. 
1. 386(Y.) The dancing- women are of different kinds. 

Ba'ncing-girl. [DANCING///, a.] 

L A girl who dances in public ; a female pro- 
fessional dancer ; esp. in India, a nautch-girl 
ijn Pg. bailadeira, BAYADERE). 

1760 GOLDSM. Cit. W. xlv. Pleased with the postures as 
well as the condescension of our dancing girls. 1782 Ann. 
Reg- 43 A company of strolling dancing girls from Surat 
appeared on a platform. 184* LONCF. Sp. Stud. i. i, A mere 
dancing-girl, who shows herself Nightly, half-naked, on the 
stage, for money. 1848 HT. MARTI NEAU East. Life 11850) 
283 There was a booth with dancing-girls, a horrid sight. 

2. Dancing-girls: a plant, Mantisia saltatoria, 
cultivated iu green-houses for the beauty and 
singularity of its purple and yellow flowers. 

1866 Treas. Bot. 719/1 Its flowers, .present some resem- 
blance to a ballet-dancer ; hence the popular name, Dancing 
Girts, applied to the plant. 

Dancingly (da-nsirjli), adv. [f. DANCING///, a. 
+ -LY a .] In a dancing or capering manner. 

1667 H. MOSE Div. Dial. in. xxxvi. (1713) 283 If you be 
so dancingly merry. 1892 Chamb. Jrnl. 27 Aug. 552/2 
A chill gleam, .lit dancingly on Miss Mattie's face. 

Da-ncing-ma:ster. [DANCING vbl. sb.] A 
professional teacher of dancing. 

1651 (titlf\ The English Dancing- Master. 1681 OTWAY 
Soldier's Fart. v. v, Odd, they'll make an old fellow of sixty- 
five cut a caper like a dancing-master. 1711 ADOISON Sped. 
No. 29 p n The Shepherds . . acquit themselves in a Ball 
better than our English Dancing-Masters. 1860 EMERSON 
Cond. Life, Culture (Bohn) II. 371 In town, he can find 
the swimming -school, the gymnasium, the dancing-master. 

Da-ncing-school. [f. as prec.] A school 
for instruction in dancing. 



24 

t Dancy, a. tfer. Ol>s. rare. [a. OF. dansic, 
\ dancM: late L. denticatai toothed, f. dent- tooth.] 
Toothed, indented. 

1611 COTCR., DancM, indented ; or (as in termes of 
blazon) dancy. 1706 PHILLIPS, Dancette or Dancy. 

Dand, slang or dial, abbreviation of DANDY. 

1886 T. HARDY Mayor of Cast, xxvii, Farfrae, being 
a young dand. 1891 Tess I. 89 You will never set out 
. . without dressing up more the dand than that? 

Dandelion (dse-nd/bisn). Forms : 6 dent de 
lion, dentdelyon, dantdelyon, 6-7 dan-, dante- 
delyon, 7 dent-, dandelion, 6- dandelion, 
fa. F. dent de lion, in med.L. dens leonis, ' lion's 
tooth ', f. om the toothed outline of the leaves.] 

1. A well-known Composite plant (Taraxacum 
Dens-leonis or Lcontodon Tarttxacuni), abundant 
in meadows and waste ground throughout Europe, 
Central and Northern Asia, and North America, 
with widely toothed leaves, and a large bright 
yellow flower upon a naked hollow stalk, suc- 
ceeded by a globular head of pappose seeds ; the 
leaves, stalk, and root contain a bitter milky juice. 

1513 DOL'GLAS ^Sufi's XH. Prol. 119 Seyrdownis smaillon 
dent de lion sprang. 1578 LVTE Dodoens v. xvL 568 Dan- 
delion flowreth in April and August. Ibid. 569 The seconde 
kinde is called . . in snoppes Dens leonis . . in French Pisse- 
en-lict . . in Englishe Dandelyon. 1655 HARTLIB Ref. Silk- 
wornt 31 They wil also eate the hearb called Dantedelyon. 
1693 TRYON Good Hoitse-iv. xxii. (ed. 2) 216 Our Herb 
called Dandelion i that is in English, Lyons Tooth, because of 
the similitude of its Leaf). 173* ARBUTHNOT.KI(/M of Diet 
l. 249 The Juice of the Dandelion is a remedy in intermit- 
ting Fevers. 1805 WORDSW. I'awdracotir ff jfulia, A tuft 
of winged seed, .from the dandelion's naked stalk . . Driven 
by the autumnal whirlwind. 1872 OLIVER lem. Bot. 11. 195 
In Dandelion, all the florets are . . ligulate and yellow. 

2. Applied, with qualifying words, to other 
Composites : as Autumnal D., Apargia autum- 
nalis; Blue D., a species of lettuce (Lactuca 
sonchifolia} with toothed leaves ; Dwarf D. (UJ5.), 
A'rigia virginica False D., ' a branching compo- 
site of the southern United States, ryrrhopapptts Ca- 
rolinianus, withdandelion-likeheads'(C/./J/V/.). 

3. attrib. 

1656 MENNIS& SMITH Jlfusarurn Del , Oberon's Apparel, 
His [Oberon's] breeches., lined with dandelyon plush. 1821 
CLARE VilL Minstr. I. 114 The dandelion flowers. 1883 
Miss BRADDON Gold. Cal/\u. 83 As light and airy as that 
dandelion seed. 

Dander v dje-ndoj'), sb.' 1 Sc. [Origin unknown]. 
A piece of the vitrified refuse of a smith's fire or 
a furnace; a calcined cinder or piece of slag. 

1791 NEWTE Tour Eng. >, Scot. 230 These [peats) burnt 
in kiln-pots leave a plate of yetlin amongst the ashes, which 
the country people call a dander. 1828 SCOTT F. M. Perth 
iii, ' Nay, father,' said the Smith, ' you cannot suppose that 
Harry Gow cares the value of a smithy-dander for such 
a cub.' 1828 Specif. T. Stirling's patent No. 5685. 3 
A layer of dander or the scoriae obtained from the Carron 
Ironworks in Scotland. 1888 Cycl. Totir. Club Gaz. Mar. 
98 i The horse sprained the fetlock joint in the near fore- 
foot . . in consequence of a number of lumps of ashes or 
' danders ' having been left on the road. 

Dander (dse-ndai), sb.- [Origin uncertain: 
app. West Indian or American.] (See quoL) Now 
commonly DUNDEB, q.v. 

1c 1796 SIR J. DALRYMPLE Ooserv. Yeast^ake i The season 
for working molasses lasts five months, of which three weeks 
are lost in making up the dander, that is, the ferment, 

Da'nder, s/>. 3 = DANDRCFF, q.v. 

Dander (doe'ndai), sb.*. U. S. colloq. and dial. 
[Conjectured by some to be a fig. use of DANDEB 3, 
dandruff, scurf; but possibly fig. of DANDEB 2, 
ferment.] Ruffled or angry temper ; in phr. to get 
one's dander up, etc. 

1837-40 HALIBURTON Clocknt. (1862) 31 He was fairly ryled. 



sooner become the Devils dancing-Schoole, then Gods 
Temple. 1837 HT. MARTIXEAU Sac. Aitier. II. 356 A warn- 
ing that no young lady who attended dancing-school that 
winter should be employed. 

fDa-ncitive, a. Obs. noncc-wd. [f. DANCE v., 
on the analogy of sensitive : cf. talkative.'] Inclined 
or given to dancing. 

1606 SirG. Goosecaffe ii. in Bullen O. PI. III. 31 Your 
Lord is very dancitive me thinkes. 



__ , jp it's the very thing ._ 

urge me on. 1884 Cheshire Gloss, s. v., ' I got his dander 
up 1 means I put him out of temper. [In Dialect Glossaries of 
CumtrlJ., Sheffield, Berkshire.} 

Dander ^dse-ndsa), sb.S Sc. and dial. Also 
daunder, dauner. [f. DANDEK #.] 

1. Sc. A stroll, a saunter. 

1821 Joseph the Book-Mnn 17 He'd from Edina take 
a dander To Glasgow. 1883 NASMYTH A ntobiog. xxi. 379 
We had a long dander together through the Old Town. 

2. dial. A fit of shivering. 
1877 in Holdemess Glou. 

Dander (dse-ndaj), v. Sc. and dial. Also 
daunder, dauner, dawner. [A frequentative 
form like blunder, wander. Conjectured by some 
to be akin to DANDLE : cf. dadtlcr and doddle] 

1. intr. To walk idly or purposelessly ; to stroll, 
saunter. (Sc. and north, dial.) 

a 1600 Bi'kEL in Watson Collect. (1706) II. 19 (Jam.) 
Quhiles wandring, quhiles dandring. 1724 RAMSAY Tea-t. 
Misc. (1733) I. 75 Alane through flow'ry hows I dander. 
1808 ANDERSON Cumbrld. Ball. 57 The wearied auld fwok 
dander d heame. 1830 GALT Laivrie T. ix. viiL (1849) 434, 
I would just dauner about and dwine away. 1856 MRS. 
CARLYLE Lett. II. 288 To see poor Jess Donaldson daunder- 
mg about, opening drawers and presses. 1889 BARBIE 
Window in Thrums xvi. 153 Hendry dandered in to change 
his coat deliberately. 



DANDIPRAT. 

2. dial. a. To 'wander 'or 'ramble' in talk, 
to talk incoherently, b. To tremble, to vibrate ; 
applied also to the rolling sound of a drum. In 
this sense akin to dunder, dunncr. 

a 1724 Battle of Harla-w xviii. in Evergreen I. 85 The 
Armies met, the Trumpet sounds, The dandring Drums 
alloud did touk. 1847-78 HALLIWELL, Dander, .to talk in- 
coherently. Chesh. 1855 ROBINSON WhitbyGloss., Dattder, 
to tremble as a house seems to do from the inside when 
a carriage passes heavily in the street. 1876 Mid. } 'orksh. 
Gloss., 'Thou danders like an old weathercock hold still 
with thee.' 

Hence Da nderer, one who 'danders' ; Dander- 
ing ppl. a., that 'danders'. 

1821 Rlfickw. Mag. Jan. 407 (Jam.) Thou art but a daun- 
derer a-down the dyke-sides, a 1774 FERGUSSON Poems, 
Cauler Oysters, We needna gie a plack For dand'rin 
mountebank or quack. 1849 MRS. CARLYLE Lett. II. 85 
There are always some ' dandering individuals ' dropping in. 

Dandiacal (dsendai-akal), a. [A Carlylean 
derivative of DANDY, after hypochondriacal and 
the like.] Of the nature of, or characteristic of, 
a dandy ; dandified. 

1831 CARLYLE Sari. Res. HI. x. (heading} The Dandiacal 
Body. .It appears as if this Dandiacal Sect were but a new 
modification . . of that primeval Superstition, Self-worship. 
1845 MRS, CARLYLE Lett. I. 3or How washed out the beau- 
tiful dandiacal face looked. 1886 SALA in Illustr. Lend. 
Neivs 7 Aug. 138 Arrayed in the most dandiacal manner. 

Dandification (d^ndifik^i-Jan). colloq. [f. 

DANDIFY z>.] The action of dandifying or fact of 
being dandified ; concr. a dandified adornment. 

1827 Blackw. Mag. XXI. 828 There is no dandification 
about it, no cockneyism. 1856 THACKERAY Christmas Bks. 
(1872) 137 [He] surveys his shining little boots .. his gloves 
and other dandifications with a pleased wonder. 

Da'ndified, ///. a. colloq. [f. next + -ED.] 
Made or adorned in the style of a dandy ; 
foppish. 

1826 DISRAELI Vh>. Grey iv. i, He was dressed . . in the 
most dandified style that you can conceive. 1856 R. A. 
VAUGHAN Mystics (1860) I. vi. i. 150 A rainbow-coloured, 
dandified puppy, a secretary of the bishop's. 

Dandify ;dse'ndifai), v. colloq. Also dandyfy. 
[see -FT.] trans. To give the character or style of 
a dandy to ; to make trim or smart like a dandy. 

1823 Mirror I. 365/2 Dandyfying in the first style for the 
occasion. 1824 New Monthly Mag. XI. 150 The male is 
dandyfying his plumage. 1859 W. H. GREGORY Egypt II. 
134 For fear, if smartened up and dandified, he should 
become the object of envy. 

Da'ndilly, a. and ib. Sc. Also dandily. [app. 
a deriv. of DANDLE v.] A. adj. Petted, spoiled 
by being made too much of. Jamieson also gives 
the meaning 'Celebrated'. B. sb. A pet, a 
darling. 

1500-20 DUNBAR Schir, jit remertibir 62, I wes in 3owth 
on nureiss kne, [cald] Dandely, bischop, dandely. 1697 
CLELAND Poems 76 (Jam.) The fate of some [that] were 
once Dandillies, Might teach the younger stags and fillies, 
Not for to trample poor cart-horse. 17.. in ll. Jamieson 
Pop. Sottgs(iSo6) I. 324 (Jam.) And he has married a dandily 



dandilly maiden . .a' glistenin' wi' goud and jewels. 

Dandily, Dandiness : see DANDY. 

Dandiprat (darndiprset). Obs. or arch. Also 
6 dande-, dandy-, dandipratt(e, danty-, 6-8 
dandy-, 7 dantiprat, (dand-prat). [Etymology 
unknown ; as the sense-development is also uncer- 
tain, the senses are here arranged chronologi- 
cally.] 

fl. Applied to a small coin, worth three half- 
pence, current in England in the i6th c. Obs. 

cig2o T. NORFOLK in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. in. 129 I. 381 
Suche a Coyne might be devised as were the dandipratts. 
1530 PALSGR. 498/2 Coyle out the dandyprattes and Yrisshe 
pence. 1542 RECORDE Gr. Artes (1575) 198 A Dandiprat, 
worth 3 halfe pens. 1574 HELLOWES Gueuttra's Fam. Ep, 
d577)253 Iftheyaske an halfpenie for spice, a penie for 
candels, a dandiprat for an earthen pot. 1605 CAMDEN 
Kent. (1657) 188 K. Henry the 7th stamped a small coine 
called dandyprats. 1641 PRYNNE Antip. 99 A poore Knave, 
scant worth a dandyprat. 

2. A small, insignificant, or contemptible fellow; 
a dwarf, pygmy. Also attrib. Obs. or arch. 

1556 J. HEYWOOD Spider ff F. Ix. 158 Yet as the giantes 
pawes pat downe dandipratts, So shall we put downe these 
dandiprat brag bratts. 1606 SYLVESTER Du Bartas 11. iv. 
i. (1641) 195/2 Am I a Dog, thon Dwarfe, thou Dandi- 
prat ? 1659 TORRIANO, Sipithamfi, pigmeis, or dandy-prats 
that be but three spans long. 1718 MOTTEUX Qitix. (1733) 
I. 211, I saw a little Dandipral riding about, who, they 
said, was a hugeous great Lord. 1841 GEN. P. THOMPSON 
Exerc. (1842) VI. 133 The dandiprats of St. Stephen's 
. .took themselves for patricians of old Rome. 

b. Said of a young lad, little boy, urchin ; rarely 
(quot. 1638) a young girl. Obs. or arch. 

1583 STANYHIIRST /Eneis i. (Arb.> 41 On father ^Eneas his 
neck thee dandiprat hangeth. 1638 HEYWOOD Ir'ise Woman 
I. Wks. 1874 V. 284 Her name is Luce. With this Dandi- 
prat, this pretty little Apes face, is yon blunt fellow in love. 
1706 ESTCOURT Fair Examp. in. i, Bay. A Candle, Sir ! 
'tis broad Daylight yet. Whims. What then, you litlle 
Dandyprat ? 1821 SCOTT Keiiihu. xxvi, It is even so, my 
little dandieprat. 1875 CALVERLEY fly-Leaves, Cock ff 
\ Bull, It's a thing I bought Of a bit of achit of a boy. .' Chop ' 
was my snickering dandiprat's own term. 



DANDLE. 

Dandizette (dxndizet). Also dandisette, 
dandysette, -zette. [f. DANDY ; app. after French 
words \\kegriselte.'] A female dandy. 

1821 X t --i> M<>}itltly Mag. I. 409 The city dandy and 
dandisette. 18*5 r>luckm. Mag. XVII. 336 Lord Foppiii^- 
ton was a dandy, and Lady t anciful a dandyzette. 1890 
Mi/, V tVews i6Scpt. 4/7 The humours of the Dandies and 
the 1 >amli/ettcs are shown up. .in these pleasant pages. 

Dandle (dje'nd'l), v. Also 6 dandil 1, -yll. 
[Not known before l6th c. To be compared with 
It. dantiola, var. of dondola, ' a childes baby [ 
doll] ; also a dandling' ; dantlolare, var. of dondo- 
lare, 'to dandle the baby ' (Florio), to swing, toss, 
shake to and fro ; dally, loiter, idle, play, sport, 
toy. Hut actual evidence of the derivation of the 
Eng. word from the Italian has not been found. 
Another suggestion is that the word may be 
cognate with Ger. tiindtln intr. ' to dawdle, toy, 
trifle, dally, pl:>y, dandle ', dim. of MHO. tdnden to 
make sport (with), play ; but no word of this family 
is known in Old or Mid. Eng., and the sense is not 
so close to the English as in the Italian word.] 

1. trans. To move (a child, etc.) lightly up and 
down in the arms or on the knee. Also^f. 

1530 PALSGR. 506/2, I dandyll, as a mother or nourryce 
doth a childe upon their lappe. 16x4 Bp. HALL Recoil. 
Treat. 804 Your Church, in whose lappe the vilest mis- 
creants are dandled, c 1671 WOOD Life (Oxf. Hist. SocJ I. 
79 [lie] would often take her out of the cradle, dandle her 
in his armes. I76 GOLDSM. Nash 93 Dandling two of 
Mr. Wood's children on her knees. 1847 J. WILSON Chr. 
North (1857) I. 146 He sits dandling his child on his knee. 
i88a F. P. VF.RNEY in Contemp. Rev. XI. II. 961 The nurse 
took up a child and dandled it kindly. 

b. transf. To move (anything) up and down 
playfully in the hand. 

a 1678 MARVELL Poems, Checker Inn, ThouMt ken him out 
by a white wand He dandles always in his hand. 1865 
'IYLOR Early //ist. A fun. ii. 20 In the sign .. for 'child , 
the right elbow is dandled upon the left hand. 

2. Jig. To make much of, pet, fondle, pamper. 
1575 GASCOIGNE Pr. Pleas. Kenilw. Wks. (1587) 12, 

I would confesse that fortune then, full freendly dyd me 
dandle. 159* WYRLEY Armorie 143 She dandles him, and 
then on him she frowns. 1605 Z. JONES Layer's Specters 16 
Which did entertain and dandle him with all manner of de- 
lights. 174* YOUNG Nt. Th. i. 315 By blindness thou art 
blest; By dotage dandled to perpetual smiles. 1881 GOLDWIN 
SMITH Lectures ft Ess. 42 No man or nation ever was 
dandled into greatness. 

t 3. To trifle, play, or toy with. 06s. 

1569 E. FENTON Sccr. Nature 66 a, Noble men, whome 
she courted and dandled with such dissimuled sleightes in 
loue. 1596 SPENSER State Irel. Wks. (Globe) 648/1 They 
doe soe dandle theyr doinges, and dallye in the service to 
them committed, as yf they would not have the Enemye 
subdued. i6ti SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xx. (1632) 970 
King Henries Ambassadors . . hailing been dandled by the 
French during these illusiue practises. 1646 J. HALL Hone 
Vac. 83 Some studies would be hug'd as imployments, others 
onely dandled as sports. 

4. intr. To play or toy (with}, rare. 

1839 U'estm. Rev. XI. 207 That sort of dandling with 
Irish history. 1865 CARLYLE Fredk. Gt. VI. xvi. ix. 256 
While dandling with the flute. 

f6. DANGLE. 06s. (? erroneous.) 

1614 R. TAILOR Hoe hath lost Pearl iv. in Hazl. Dodsley 
XI. 480 A holy spring, about encompassed By dandling 
sycamores and violets. 1656 W. D. tr. Comcnins Gate Lat. 
Unl. 147 The wild Swan . . in his crop, (dandling just below 
his beak) insatiable. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. Bergerac's Com. 
Hist. i. 33 Having more shaggy Rags dandling about me 
than the errantest Tatterdemallion. 

f6. =DANDKH i. Sc. Obs. 

a 1600 BUREL in Watson Collect. (1706) II. 39 (Jam.) Euin 
as the blind man ^angs be ges, In houering far behynd, So 
dois thou dandill in distres. 

Dandier (dse ndloi). [f. DANDLE + -EB '.] One 
who dandles : see the verb. 

1598 FLORIO, Trt'scatore, a iester, a dallier, a dandier. 
1611 COTGR., Mignardeur, a luller, dandier, cherisher. 1830 
CUNNINGHAM Brit. Paint. I. 269 Poor Miss Morris was no 
dandier of babes. 

t Da'ndling, s6. Obs. (or dial.) [f. DANDLE v. 
+ -ING.] A dandled child ; a fondling, a pet. 

1611 COTGR., Mignot, a wanton, feddle, fauorite ; a dilting, 
dandling, darling. 1695 KENNETT 1'ar. Antiq. App. 695 
Fortune.. bL-fore made him her dandling. [1847-78 HAL- 
LIWELL, Dandling, a fondling child.] 

Dandling (darndlirj), vbl. s6. [-INQ 1.] The 
action of the verb DANDLE, q.v. 

1591 W. WEBB Let. toR. Ir'ilinott'm Tancred r Gismiind, 
Let it run abroade ias many parentes doe their children once 
past dandling!. isgiSxAKS. I 'en. r Ad. 562. 1601 MARSTON 
Ant. f, Mel. in. Wks. 1856 I. 39 That wanton dandling of 
your fan. 1836 SIR W. HAMILTON Discuss. 11852) 260 [He] 
has long out-grown the need of any critical dandling. 

Da'udling, ///. a. [-wa*.] That dandles : 
see the veil). Hence Da mllingly adv. 
1598 FLORIO, Vezzosamente, wantonly, dandlinglte. 

Dandruff, dandriff (doe-ndrtff, -if!. Forms: 
6 dandrif, 6-7 -ruffe, -raf(e, 7 -ruf, -riffe, 7- 
-ruff, -riff; also 6-7 dandro, 8-9 dander. [Of 

unknown origin. 

For conjectures, see Wedgwood, Edward M filler, Skeat : 
nothing satisfactory has been suggested.] 

Dead scarf-skin separating in small scales and 
entangled in the hair ; scurf. 
VOL. III. 



25 

1545 RAYNOLD Byrth Mankynde iv. vi. 1634^ 198 They 
that liaue blacke hayre huuc more store of Dandruflc then 
others. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny xx. vi, The iuice of Garlick 
being taken in drink clenseth the head from dandruffe. 1611 
COTGR., Crasse de la ttste, Dandriff; the skalcs that fall 
from the head, etc. in combing. 1730 SWIFT l t oftfts. Lady* 
r)ressing-KooM t Com}y*. . Fill'd up with Dirt. .Sweat, Dand- 
riff, Powder, Lead and Hair. 1866 YOUATT Horse xv. 342 
The scales which fall off in the shape of dandriff. 

ft, 1591 PBRCIVALL Sp. Diet., Casa de a&tfa t Dandro, 
Fnrfures cafiitis. 1650 BUI.WEH Anthropotnet. 53 To breed 
Lice and Dandro, after the manner of your frish. 1786 
Sportsman's Diet. Gg viii, Some horses have neither scales, 
dander, or scabs. \tyjbWhitby Gloss., Dander ^ a slight scurf 
on the skin. 

at frit. 1668 DRYDEN Evening?* Love rv. iii, There 's the 
dandriff comb you lent me. 

Hence Da'ndruflry a., scurfy. 

1858 MAYNE REID in Chamb. JrnL IX. 333 A white 
dandrufiy surface was exhibited. 

Dandy ;darndi), sb. 1 (and a.\ [Origin un- 
known. In use on the Scottish Border in the end 
of the i8th c. ; and about 1^13-1819 in vogue in 
London, forthe 'exquisite' or 'swell' of the period. 

Perhaps the full form was JACK-A-DANDY, which occurs from 
1659. and in i8th c. had a sense which might pass into that 
of dandy'. Connexion with dandiprat or with V.dandin 
has been guessed, but without any apparent ground. It is 
worthy of notice also that Dandy = Andrew in Sc. See 
Rev. C. B. Mount in N. 4 Q. 8th Ser. IV. 8x.) 

I. 1. One who studies above everything to 
dress elegantly and fashionably; a bean, fop, 
* exquisite 



their ribbons round their hair, And their stumpie drugget 
coats, quite the Dandy O. 1788 R. GALLOWAY Poems i Jam.), 
They. . laugh at ilka dandy at that fair day. 1818 MOORE 
Fudge Fam. Paris i. 48 They've made him a Dandy, A thing, 
you Know, whiskered, great-coated, and laced, Like an hour- 
glass, exceedingly small in the waist. 18x9 ANDERSON 
Cumbria 1 . Ball. * 1823) 148, I . . went owre to see Carel Fair ; 
I'd heard monie teales o' thur dandies Odswinge 1 how 
they mek the fwok stare ! 1831 CARLYLE Sart. Kes. in. x, 
A Dandy is a Clothes-wearing Man, a Man whose trade, 
office, and existence consists in the wearing of Clothes. 1874 
DASENT Haifa Life II. 65 Like the cabriolets which some 
dandies still drive. 

b. Said of animals and things. 

1835 SIR G. STEPHEN Adv. Search Horse ii. 18, I mounted 
many a slug and many another dandy before I again ventured 
to buy. 1885 RUNCIMAN Skippers 4- Sh. 54 The barque 
looked a real dandy. 

2. slang' or colloq. Anything superlatively fine, 
neat, or dainty ; esp. in phr. the dandy, ' the correct 
thing ', ' the ticket '. 

1784 G. COLMAN Song in Two to One, Her breath is like 
the rose, and the pretty little mouth Of pretty little Tippet 
istheDandyOl 1814 Apollo (in N. f, Q. 6th Ser. IX. 136', 
For marriage to old maids is the dandy, O. 1831 \V. 
STEPHENSON Gateshead Local Poems 105 A cure for coughs 
I know, It will prove the dandy. 1837-40 HALIBURTON 
Clockm. (1862! 340 The new railroad will be jist the dandy 
for you. 1887 Artier. Angler XII. 360, I had the largest, 
the dandy, and was satisfied. 

II. Technical and other senses ; app. transferred 
applications of prec. to things considered neat, 
trim, or ' tidy ' in form or action. 

8. Naut. ' A sloop or cutter with a jigger-mast 
abaft, on which a mizen-lug-sail is set ' (Smyth, 
Sailor's Word-bk.). Hence dandy-rig, -rigged adjs. 

1858 Merc. Marint Mat. V. 134 Dandy j, Flats 4. 1880 
Daily Nevis 12 Nov. 3/7 Busy Bee, fishing dandy, of Lowes- 
toft, struck on a wreck and foundered. 1886 limes 2 Jan. 
3 The lifeboats.. dandy Snowdrop, of Ramsgate. .dandy 
Lady's Page, of Scarborough . . dandy Seabird, of Yar- 
mouth, saved vessel and six. 

1858 SIMMONDS Diet. Trade, Dandy-rigged-cutter. 1883 
Fisheries Exhib. CataL (ed. 4! 132 An elliptical stern 
Dandy-rig Fishing-boat, 1891 Daily News 15 Dec. 5/6 His 
smack . . dandy-rigged, and of only thirty-seven tons, was 
again overtaken by a storm. 

4. Naut. A piece of mechanism, resembling a 
small capstan, used for hoisting the trawl. Hence 
dandy-span, the handle-bar by which a dandy 
is worked. 

1883 Fisheries Kxhib. Catal. 10 Bridles, Dandies . . 
Hauling Lines, and Running Gear. Ibid. 12 Manilla Bridles 
.. Dandy Span. 

5. dial. A bantam fowl. (Dandy-coft, dandy-ken.) 
i8a8 Craven Dialect, Dandy-cock, a bantam cock, a diminu- 
tive species of poultry. 1884 Cheshire Gloss., Dandy, 
a bantam. The sexes are specified as dandy-cock and 
dandy-hen. 1887 S. Cheshire Gloss. 167 ' Hey struts abowt 
like a dandy-cock.' 

6. Irish. A small jug: a small glass (of whisky). 
1838 nlafkw. Mag. May (Farmer!, ' Father Tom and the 

Pope '. Dimidium cyathi vero apud Metropolitanos Hiber- 
nicos dicitur dandy. 1859 All Year Round No. 12. 285 
Take a dandy there 's no headache in Irish whisky. 

7. In various other technical applications ; e.g. 
a handy accessory to various machines or struc- 
tures ; a running-out fire for melting pig-iron in 
tin-plate manufacture ; a small false grate fitted 
for purposes of economy into an ordinary grate or 
fireplace ; a light iron hand-cart used to carry coke 
to a blast furnace ; also short for DAMDT-CABT, 

-ROLLEll. 

1850 MBS. F. TROLLOPK Petticoat Govt. 13 She blew 
r\ small tlandy-ful of shavings and cinders into warmth, for 



DANDY-CART. 

the purpose of causing the water in her diminutive kettle to 
botl. 1851 AV/. JuHft o/ /inhibition 428 A channelled and 
perforated roller technically called a ' dandy ', to remove 
P. ut ..f the water from tlic pulp. 1875 L'liK Diet. Arts MI. 
490 Th two rollers following the dandy .. are termed 
couching-rollers. 1884 W. H. GREENWOOD Steel $ Iron 
376 Price's puddling furnace . . consul* of a bed or hearth 
at one end of which is a chamber or dandy in which the \>i-^- 
iron is first placed for preliminary heating. 189* [see 
DANDY-CART]. 

Hence (nonce-wds.] Dandyhood, the state or 
style of a dandy. Da'ndylca., dandyish. Da ndy- 
ise v. intr. t to play the dandy. Da ndy-Jack v., 
to play the jack-a-dandy. Da ndy-land [cf. fairy- 
land], the (imaginary) land of dandies. Da ndy- 
ling-, a diminutive or petty dandy. 

i83 Nrtu Monthly Mag. VII. 329 Prank 'd out in dandi- 
hood withal To the top pitch of fashion's folly. i8ja 
Prater* s Mag. V. 171 Done.. not with philosophic, perma- 
nent colours, but with mere dandyic ochre and japan. 1830 
Ibid. II. 300 We have dandyised in our time with the .. 
turbaned exquisites of . . Staroboul. 1831 CARLYLE Sart. 
Rei. in. x, Those Dandiacal Manicheans, with the host of 
Dandyisine Christians, will form one body. 1887 Ff.xs 
Master of Cerent* xi, My, he do go dandy-jacking along 
the cliff.' 1831 MOORE Summer Fife 498 1 wo Exquisites, 
a he and she, Just brought from DandyUnd, and meant For 
Fashion's grand Menagerie. 1846 WORCESTER, Dandyling. 
a little dandy ; a ridiculous fop. Qn. Rev. 

B. attrib. and adj. Of, belonging to, or charac- 
teristic of a dandy or dandies; of the nature of a 
dandy ; affectedly neat, trim, or smart. 

1813 BYRON Let. to Moore 35 July, The season hat closed 
with a Dandy Ball. 1811 Juan v. cxliii. Even a Dandy's 
dandiest chatter. 18*4 Miss MITFORD I'iUage Ser. i.(i8oj) 
173 The stiff cravat, the pinched-in waist, the dandy-walk. 
1848 THACKERAY I'an. /'air Ix, A dandy little hand in 
a kid-glove. 1887 JESSOPI- Arcady 194 They .. had the 
dandy youths taught how to ride. 

Hence Da'ndily adv., Da-ndineM. 

1834 Fraser's Mag. IX. 147 We were not so dandily 
dressed. 18*5 SOUTHEY Lett. (1856) III. 473 The first two 
numbers . . displeased me as much by their dandiness as 
's does by its blackguardism. 

Dandy, J/'.-' Also dandy-fever. [See DENGUE.] 
The popular name in the West Indies of DENGUE 
fever, on its first appearance there in 1827- 

z8a8 STEDMAN in Edin. Mfd. Jrnl. XXX. 337 As it was 
unknown to the faculty, the vulgar, as commonly happens, 
gave it names of their own ; and ridiculous as they may 
sound, they soon became the only appellations of the new 



The contagion was supposed to be brought by a vessel from 
the coast of Africa which touched at St. Thomas. 1830 
FURLONCE Itid. XXXIII. 51 (title* A few remarks on the 
Dandy which prevailed in the West I ndies towards the close 
of 1827 and beginning of 1828. 1869 E. A. PARKES Praet. 
Hygiene led. 31573 'Dandy fever', or break -bone i Dengue), 
has prevailed several times. 1880 FAGG & PVE SMITH Tejrt- 
bk. Med., The negroes called the new disease ' Dandy-fever ', 
apparently in ridicule of the attitude and gait of the patient. 

II Dandy, dandi (ds - ndi;, t/>.z Anglo-Ind. 

Also dandee. [Hindi i/dnji, deriv. of Janif, JanJ 
staff, oar (Yule).] 

1. A boatman of the Ganges. 

1685 HEDGES Diary 6 Jan. (Y.X Our Dandees (or Boat- 
mem boyled their rice. 1763 W. HASTINGS in Long Select. 
Rec. (i869l347(Y.)They. -plundered and seized the Dandies 
and Mangles' vessel. 1813 MRS, SHERWOOD Ayah f, 
Lady ix. 51 To make sport for the dandies, and other 
people in the boat. 1867 SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk., Dandies, 
rowers of the budgcrow boats on the Ganges. 

2. (Dandi.} A S'aiva mendicant who carries a 
small wand (F.Hall). 

1831 H. H. WILSON in Asiatic Res. XVII. I73 The 
DaRdi is distinguished by carrying a small dan'd, or wand . 
with several processes or projections. i86a BEYERIDGE Hist. 
India II. iv. it 74 The Dandis, distinguished by carrying 
a small dand or wand. 

3. ' A kind of vehicle used in the Himalaya, con- 
sisting of a strong cloth slung like a hammock to 
a bamboo staff, and carried by two v or more, men 
[dandy-wallahs'] ' (Yule). 

1870 C. F. GORDON CI'MMING in Gd. Words 135/1 As the 
darkness closed in, my dandy-wallahs stumbled, so that 
1 had to give up the attempt to use the dandy, and struggle 
on on foot. 1888 Times 2 July 5 2 Major Battye and 
Captain Unnston joined the rear and placed the wounded 
man in a dandy. 

Da-ndy-brnsh. [app. f. DANDY j*.'] A stiff 
brush used in cleaning horses, made of split whale- 
bone or vegetable fibre, as the stiff root fibres of 
Chryiofogon Gryllus, the Venetian or French 
Whisk. 

1845 Jrnl. R. Agric. Soc. VI. I. 77 Then have every 
bullock well brushed with what is called a dandy-brush 
i being a brush made with whale-bone, for taking the rough 
dirt off horses). 1879 Miss BRADDON Vixen xxxii. 349 Poor 
Bates, .brushed away more than one silent tear with the 
back of the dandy brush. 

Da'ndy-cart. A kind of spring-cart, used by 
milkmen, etc. 

1861 RAMSAY Retain. Ser. n. 105 May besomeo'ye wad b 
sae kin' as to gie me a cast out in a dandy-cart. |89 
Melbourne Aft 31 Dec. 10/1 Advt, Milk dandy, good, high 
wheels, half cost. 

Dandy-cock, -hen : see DANDT i 5. 

Dandy -fever : see DANDT 2. 



DANDY-HORSE. 

Da'ndy-horse. A kind of velocipede, an 
early form of the bicycle, in which the rider sat on 
a bar between the two wheels, and propelled him- 
self by pushing the ground with each foot alter- 
nately. 

1819 J. HODGSON in J. Raine RTcm. (1857) I. 247 The 
little boys about London are all getting dandy-horses, for 
such seems at present the name of the Velocipede. 1892 
Strand Mag. IV. 30 (Evolution of Cycle) Mr. Dennis 
Johnson . . a coachmaker at 75 Long-acre took out a patent 
for this dandy or hobby-horse in 1818. 

Dandyish (darndi,i J"), a. [f. DANDY i + -ISH.] 
Somewhat characteristic of a dandy ; foppish. 

1826 DISRAELI Viv. Grey iv. v, Pacing Bond Street.. with 
an air at once dandyish and heroical. 1883 F. H. BURNETT 
Through one Admin. I. vii. 70 His rather dandyish light 
overcoat. 

Dandyism (dre-ndiiiz'm). [f. as prec. + -ISM.] 
The character, style, or manners of a dandy. 

1819 Blackw. Mag. IV. 565 The affectation of Dandyism 
on the part of some.. of our day. 1883 V. STUART Egypt 
32 A house, .with some attempt at architectural dandyism. 

Da'ndy-liiie. [Cf. DANDY sbl 4.] A kind 
of line used in herring fishing : see quot. 

1882 DAY Fishes Gt. Brit. 215 The ' dandy-line ' is used in 
herring fishery at Peterhead. .A piece of lead about i J Ib. 
in weight is attached to a line, which carries at short 
intervals transverse pieces of whalebone or cane, having 
unbaited hooks at either end. Herrings are such hungry 
fish that they fly at the naked hooks, and are easily caught 
in this manner. 

Da'ndy-lpom. A name given to a loom in- 
vented by William Radcliffe and patented in 1805 
by Thomas Johnson. 

1823 Mech. Mag. I. 45 A hand loom on a new construction 
has been recently introduced which has received the appella- 
tion of the Dandy Loom. 1878 A. BARLOW Weaving 245 
Radcliffe 's loom was long known as the ' Dandy loom . 

Da'lldy-liote. A document used in the 
British Customs for giving the export officer par- 
ticulars of the bonded goods delivered from a ware- 
house for shipment at his station. 

[The name is generally held, by those who have to do 
with the matter, to be a corruption of Addenda note, these 
documents being of the nature of addenda to the Pricking 
Notes, used to advise the export officers of bonded goods 
intended for shipment.] 

Da'ndy-roller. Also dandy-roll. Paper- 
making. A perforated roller for solidifying the 
partly-formed web of paper, and for impressing the 
water mark. 

(Patented by John Wilks in 1830, No. 5934, but the 
word does not occur in his specification.) 

1839 Specif. Joynson's Patent No. 7977. 2 [The] said roller 
is commonly known by the name of a dandy roller, a dancer, 



or a top roller. 1875 URF. Diet. Arts III. 491 The pulp. . 

of the dandy-roller. 

_ . _ .. . , landy-roll. .for 

ducing water-marks on writing papers. 



receiving any desired marks by means of the dandy-rolU 
1879 Print. Trades Jrnl. xxvi. 9 Dandy- roll .. for pro- 



Dandysette, -zette : see DANDIZETTE. 

Dane (dc T 'n). [Corresponds to Da. Daner, ON. 
Danir: OTeut. Dani-s pi., Danes, L. Dani pi. 
The OE. form was Dene pi. (with umlaut), which 
would have given Dene in ME. : cf. OE. Dene- 
mearc in nth c., later Denmearc, Denmarc, in 
ON. Danmork (-.markup, Da. Dannemark, Dan- 
mark, the Danish mark or country, Denmark.] 

1. A native or subject of Denmark; in older usage 
including all the Northmen who invaded England 
from the gth to the 1 1 th c. 

901 O. E. Chron., Butan Sam dsele be under Dena onwalde 
waes. a 1050 Ibid. an. 1018 (Laud MS.) And Dene and 
Engle wurdon Sam mzele a;t Oxnaforda. a 1300 Cursor M. 
24771 (Cott.) Harald. .pat born waso be dams [v. r. danas, 
danes] blod. 1483 Cath. A ngl. 89 A Dan, dacus, quidant 
populus. 1596 SPENSER State Irel. Wks. (Globe) 642/2 The 
others [hills] that are rounde were cast up by the Danes, .for 
they are called Dane-rathes, that is, hills of the Danes. i6oa 
SHAKS. Ham. v. ii. 352, I am more an Antike Roman than 
a Dane. 1682 EVELYN Let. to Pepys 19 Sept., If euer there 
were a real dominion [of the seas] in the world, the Danes 
must be yielded to haue had it. 1863 TENNYSON Welcome 
to Alexandra, Saxon and Norman and Dane are we, 
But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee. 

2. Applied to a breed or breeds of dogs. 

Great Dane (also simply Dane) '. a large, powerful, short- 
haired breed of dog, between the mastiff and greyhound 
types. Lesser Dane '. the Dalmatian, or coach-dog. 

[1750 BUFFON Hist. Nat. s. v. Chien, Le grand danois.] 
1774 GOI.DSM. Nat. Hist. III. viii. 286 The Bull-dog, as 
Mr. BufTon supposes, is a breed between the small Dane 
and the English mastiff. The large Dane is the tallest dog 
that is generally bred in England. ibid. 292 The great 
Dane. 1800 SYDENHAM EDWARDS Cynogr. Brit. s.v., A 
beautiful variety, called the Harlequin Dane, has a finely 
marbled coat. 1870 BLAINE Encycl. Rur. Sports 394 The 
great Dane is rather pied or patched than spotted . . 
The lesser Dane dog, Dalmatian, or coach dog. 1883 
Great Dane Club Rules (Standard of Points), The Great 
Dane is not so heavy as the Mastiff, nor should he too 
nearly approach the Greyhound in type. 1891 Times 
28 Oct. 1 1/5 Great Danes have certainly become very popular 
during the last few years. 

3. attrib. or as adj. DANISH. 

1873 STUBBS Const. Hist. I. 199 The amalgamation of the 
Dane and Angle population began from the moment of the 
conversion. 

Dane, obs. form of DAN ', DEAN. 
Danebrog : see DANNEBROO. 



26 

Danegeld, -gelt (d^-ngeld, -gelt). Eng. 
Hist. Also 4 Dangilde, 4-6 Danegilt, Dane 
gilt, 5-7 Dane ghelte, Daneghelt, 6 Dane gelt, 
7 Danageld, 7-9 Danegelt. [Corresponds to 
ON. * Dana-giald, in ODa. DaiiegjelJ, mod.Da. 
Vanegxld, f. Dana-, Dane- +gjald,gjcld, payment, 
tribute, corr. to OE. gicld, nld, geld, whence ME. 
jeld, jild, YELD. Cf. med.L. Danigeldwn.~\ 

An annual tax imposed at the end of the roth c. 
or in the lithe., originally (as is supposed) to 
provide funds for the protection of England from 
the Danes, and continued after the Norman Con- 
quest as a land-tax. 

The name is not known to occur in OE., and the actual 
contemporary notices, beginning with Domesday, are 
mainly of fiscal character. Bromton d4th c.) calls it ' talla- 
gium datum Danis ', apparently identifying it with the ga/ol 
or tribute paid to the Danes in 991, and on two subsequent oc- 
casions, to buy them off. I n the so-called ' Laws of Eadweard ' 
(Schmid 496) it is described as an annual tax to hire mer- 
cenaries to resist and put down pirates. This might identify 
it with the tieregyld ' army-tax ' levied by the Danish kings 
to maintain their army and navy (see O.E. Chron. 1039-40), 
and said to have been afterwards remitted by Edward the 
Confessor. Mr. Freeman suggests {Nortti. Cong, II. App. 
Q) ' that Denageld was a popular name of dislike, originally 
applied to the payments made to buy off the Danes, and 
thence transferred to these other payments made to Danish 
and other mercenary troops, from the time of Thurkill 
onwards'. The Danegeld was levied as a land-tax by the 
Norman kings; it disappears under that name after 1163, 
but in fact continued under the name of tallage. 

[991 O. . Chron., On bam jeare man Jeraedde bxt man 
Xeald serest gafol Deniscan mannum, for bam mycclan 
brogan be hi worhtan be bam sse riman.l 1086 Domesday 
Bit. (1816) 336 Stanford., dedit geldum T. R. E.pro. XII. 
hundrez & chmidio. In exercitu & nauigio& in Danegeld. 
1100-35 Charter to London in Stubbs Sel. Ch. ill. 103 
Et [cives] sint quieti de schot et de loth, de Danegildo et 
de murdro. c 1250 Gloss. Law Terms in Rel. Ant. I. 33 
Danegeld, Tailage de Danais. c 1330 R. BRUNNE Chron. 
(1810) 57 Edward him granted.. bat neuer be Dangilde.. 
Suld be chalanged for man of Danes lond. 1483 CAXTON 
Gold. Leg. 324/2 An ayde was thenne cleped the dane 
ghelte. 1577 HOLINSHED Chron. I. 239 an. 991 This 
money was called Danegylt or Dane money, and was 
levyed of the people. Although others take that to _ be 
Danegylte, whiche was gyuen unto such Danes as king 
Egelred afterwards reteyned in his service, to defende the 
lande from other Danes and enimyes. 1644 MILTON A rcop. 
(Arb.) 73 Not he who takes up armes for cote and conduct, 
and his four nobles of Danegelt. 1756 P. C. WEBB Short 
A cc. Danegeld 2 It was called Danegeld as being originally 
agreed to be paid to the Danes, and, like many other 
things, continued to retain the name long after it became 
appropriated to uses entirely different. 1873 STUBBS Const. 



The Conqueror, .imposed the Danegeld anew. Ibid. I. 462 
The Danegeld from this very year 1163 ceases to appear as 
a distinct item of account in the Pipe Rolls. 

Dane-law (dji-nlg). Also I Dena lasu, 3 
Denela}e, Dene lawe, 6 Dane lawe, 8 Dane- 
lage, (-lege), 9 Dane-lagh. Latinized a Dene- 
laga, 2-9 Danelaga. [OE. Dena lagu Danes' 
law, of which Dane-law is a modern equivalent.] 

1. The Danish law anciently in force over that 
part of England which was occupied or held by 
the Danes. 

c 1050 Laws of Edw. <$ Guthr. 7 (Bosw.) Gylde lahslihte 
inne on Dena la^e and wite mid Englum. a 1135 Leges 
Hen. /, vi. 2 (Stubbs Sel. Chart, in. 100) Legis etiam 
Anglicae trina est partitio . . alia enim Westsexiae, alia 
Mircena, alia Denelaga est. a 1300 Shires of Eng. in O.E. 
Misc. 146 pes .xxxij. schire syndon to delede on breo lawan. 
On is west-sexene lawe, ober Dene lawe, be brydde Mercena 
lawe . . To Dene lawe bilympeb .xv. schire. 1576 LAMBARDE 
Peramt. Kent (1826) p. xvi, The Dane lawe, West-Saxon 
lawe, and Merchen lawe : The first of which was brought in 
by the Danes. 1765 BLACKSTONE Comm. (1830) I. Introd. 66 
The Dane-Lage, or Danish law, the very name of which 
speaks its original and composition. 

2. Hence, The part of England over which this 
law prevailed, being the district north-east of 
Watling Street, ceded by the Treaty of Wedmore, 
878, or perhaps the Northumbrian territory in 
Danish occupation. 

This use appears explicitly only in modern historians 
(chiefly under the barbarous forms Dane-laee, Dane-lagh, 
which are neither Old nor modern English*, though founded 



log, J>rvnda-log, etc.] 

1837 Penny Cycl. VIII. 299/2 The eastern part of England 
retained long after the name of Danelagh, or Danish law. 
1874 GREEN Short Hist. i. 50 The Danelagh, as the district 
occupied by the Danes began to be called. 1877 FREEMAN 
Norm. Conq. (ed. 3) II. 663 Danes in the sense of being 
inhabitants of the Denalagu. 1886 F. YORK POWELL hist, 
l~'ng. to 1509, I. vi. 37 He [K. Eadmund] got the whole 
Danelaw south of Humber into his hands. 

t Da-ne-money. 0/>s. =DANKGELD. 

1563-87 FOXE A. 4- M. (1684) I. 679/1 Without paying of 
any manner of imposition or Dane-money. 

Da'ncs'-blood. [Of the same origin as DANE- 
WORT, q.v.] A local name for plants abundant on 
sites noted for the slaughter of Danes. 
a. The Danewort or Dwarf Elder. 

1607 CAMDEN Brit. 326 Ebulum enim quod sanguineis 



DANGER. 

baccis hie [at Bartlow] circumquaque copiose prouenit, non 
alio nomine quam Danes-blond, id est Danicutn MfljfWflMM. 
etiamnum appellitant, ob multitudinem Danorum qui 



plenteously, they still call by no 
bloud, of the number of Danes that there were slaine. 
1656-85 AUBREY Nat. Hist. Wilts (1847) 50 Danes-blood 
\cbulus) about Slaughtonford is plenty. There was hereto- 
fore a great fight with the Danes, which made the inhabi- 
tants give it that name. 1875 Gardener s Chron. IV. 515. 

[Note. The berries of this plant are not red, but black 
or reddish black, yielding a violet dye]. 

b. Clustered Bell-flower, Campanula glomerata. 

1861 Miss PRATT Floiver. PI. III. 342 The author, -found 
this clustered bell-flower [at Bartlow, Cambs.] largely 
scattered about these mounds.. and was told that it was 
4 Danes-blood '. 

C. The Pasque-flower, Anemone Pulsatilla. 

So called in East Anglia, Essex, Cambs. , Herts. (Britten 
& Holland.) 

Da'iies'-flower . local. DANES'-BLOOD c. 

1878-86 BRITTEN & HOLLAND cite the name from Cam- 
bridgeshire. 

Daiieweed (d^-nwfd). [See next.] 
f a. A local name for Eryngium campestre. Obi. 
b. = Danewort. {Prior Plant-n.~) 
1748 De Foe's Tour Gt. Brit. II. 416 (D.) Everything 
hereabouts is attributed to the Danes, because of the 
neighbouring Daventry, which they suppose to have been 
built by them. The road hereabouts .. being overgrown with 
Daneweed [Etyngium}, they fansy it sprung from the blood 
of the Danes slain in battle. 1737 W. STUKELEY Mem. 
(Surtees) III. 56 Much daneweed still grows upon the 
Roman road in Castor fields. 

Danewort (d^i'nwwt). Forms : 6 danwoort, 
danewurt, daine-, daynworte, 6-7 danwort 
danewoort, 7- danewort. [f. DANE + WORT, 
in accordance with a popular notion that the plant 
sprang up in places where Danes slaughtered 
Englishmen or were slaughtered by them.] 

A name for the Dwarf Elder, Sambucus Ebulus. 

(The name is found in Turner 1538, but only the earlier 
name Wallwort or Wellewort, OE. wealtuyrt, is given in 
Sinon. Barthol. of I4th c., and Alphita c 1450 ; Rous also, 
who died 1491, in relating the legend, has only the 
name Walivort ; so that the names Daneiuort, Daneweed, 
Dane's blood, etc. can hardly have belonged to early 
tradition. While suggested in part by the abundance of 
the rjlant at certain spots historically or traditionally 
associated with slaughter, there was also an element of 
fanciful etymology in explaining the Latin name Ebulus 
from ebullirc to bubble forth, with reference to the flowing 
of blood. See also WALLWORT.) 

a 1491 J. Rossi [Rous] Hist. Reg. Angl. (1716) 105 Herbam 
ebule, id est Wakuort, . . quse ex ebulhtione sanguinis 
human! naturaliter originem trahit. 1538 TURNER I.ibellus, 
Danwort, chameacte. 1551 Herbal I. ns68)Ovja, 
Walwurt. .named in englyshe also danewurt. .hath a spoky 
or busshy top as elder hath. 1578 LYTE Dodut-ns in. xlv. 
380 This herbe is called, .in Englishe Walwort, Danewort, 
and Bloodwort. 1640 PARKINSON Tliealr. Bot. 210 It is 
supposed it tooke the name Danewort from the strong 
purging quality it hath, many times bringing them that 
use it unto a fluxe, which then we say they are troubled 
with the Danes. i8i Miss PRATT Flower. PI. HI. 131 
Dwarf Elder, or Danewort. .is. .an herb and not a tree. 

Dang, v. A euphemistic substitute for DAMN. 

1793-7 Spirit Pitk. Jrnls. (1799) I. 146 [Kentish man 
says] Dang me, if I sometimes know how to answer them. 




stan' this ony longer '. 1884 J. PURVES in Gd. Words May 
330/2 ' Dang me if I can make out what they mean to be at . 
1886 MRS. RANDOLPH Mostly Fools II. v. 142 'Danged 
shady lot '. 

Dang, pa. t. of DING v. ; also its dial, equivalent 
= to drive, push, knock, or dash. 

1877 Holderness Gloss., Dang, to throw anything with 
vehemency, or passion. 1878 Cnmbrld. Gloss., Dang, to 
push, to strike. 1887 Clushire Gloss., Dang, to dash down 
or about. 

Danger (d^i-nd.^si'), sb. Forms : 3-6 daunger, 
4-5 daungerre, dawnger(e, dangere, 5 daungeur, 
dangeour, 5-6 daungeour^e, 6 daungier, daen- 
gier, Sc. dangeir, -gier, -geare, denger, 4- 
danger. [a. OF. dangier, danger : late L. 
*dominiarium, deriv. of dominium lordship, 
sovereignty, f. domimis lord, master. The sense - 
development took place in OF. : see Godefroy. 
For the a cf. DAN '.] 

fl. Power of a lord or master, jurisdiction, 
dominion ; power to dispose of, or to hurt or 
harm ; esp. in phr. in (a person's'* clanger, 
within his power or at his mercy ; sometimes 
meaning spec, in his debt, or tinder obligation to 
him. Obs. or arch. 

a I22S Ancr. R. 356, & bolieS ofte daunger of swuche 
' - - R. GLOUC. 




gise The }onge 

SHIRLEY Detke K. James (1818) 19 Thou hadest nevyr 
mercy of lordes..ne of non other gentilman, that came yn 
thy dawnger. 1461 Paston Lett. No. 399 II._25, I am 
gretly yn your danger and dutte for my pension. 1556 
Ridley's H'ks. (1843) 101 They put themselves in the 
danger of King Ahab, saying, ' Behold we have heard that 
the kini;s of the house of Israel are pitiful and merciful . 
I596 SMAKS. Merck. l r . iv. i. 180 You stand withm his 



DANGER. 

danger, do you not? 1603 KNOU.KS Hist. Turks (1621) 
408 He. .having ^ot liiin within his dimmer, cruelly put 
him ID (lc;ilh. 't 1679 Ilonbf.s Kftet. I. xill. 11681)33 P cr * 
sons obnoxiuus to Injury are. .Such .is are in our danger. 
1815 Storr I'Cimhcd xxx, If the Constable were once 
within his u.mger. 

tb. Power (of a person, weapon, or missile) to 
indict physical injury ; reach or range. Also^^f. 

1375 HARBOUR Jlmce in. 43 To withdraw ws..'1'ill we 
cum owt off thar daunger. 15x3 Lu. HEKNEKS Froiss. I. 
clxii. 199 The archers shotte so holly togyder, that 
none durst come in their dangers. 1576 NEWTON Lcmnie's 
Cvm/>lex. (1633) 39 Within the levin and danger of this 
vice, are all they. 1601 SHAKS. Ham.' \. iii. 35 Keepe 
within the reare of your Affection ; Out of the shot and 
danger of Desire. 1603 KNOLLES Hist. Turks (1631) 679 
Ifhc should show himself by troups within the danger of the 
shot. 1618 LATHAM -2nd Bk. /''nlcoury (1633) 43 Your 
Spaniels will hunt, .so neere you and your Hawke, as they 
shall neuer spring any thing out of her danger. 1676 Doctr. 
of Devil* 300 This draws the Birds into their Dangers. 

t c. Power of another as it affects one under it ; 
a state of subjection, bondage, or captivity. Obs. 

c 1330 Will. I'alerne 4227 Route daunger or duresse or any 
despit elles. c 1400 Destr. Troy 6584 Troilus was . . turnyt 
furth louse, And don out of daunger for the due tyme. c 14x0 
A nturs of A rth, xxv, Thynke one be dawngere and the dole 
bat I in duellc [in hell). 106 Pilgr. Per/.(W. de W. 1531 1 4 
Free from all captiuite ana daunger. 1335 COVKRDALE Isn. 
Iviii. 6 Till . . thou lowse him out of bondage, that is in thy 
daunger. 

fd. Liability (to loss, punishment, etc.). In 
danger to or of: liable to. Obs. 

1377 LANGL. /'. PI. B. xu. 206 For he bat is ones a thef 
is euermore in daungere, And as la*we lyketh to lyue or to 
deye. 1463 Fasten Lett. No. 508 II. 200 Thei say that 
I am sufficient to here the hole daunger. 15*6 TINIMLE 
1'atlnv. Holy Scrip. Wks. I. 9 The wretched man (that 
knoweth himself to be. .in danger to death and hdK 1611 
BIBLE Matt. v. 22 In danger of the judgment. 1689 WOOD 
Life Aug. 31 (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) A Gent, threatned to bring 
him into danger. 

e. The phrase out of debt out of danger perh. 
originally belonged here ; but is now taken in 
sense 4. 

1730-6 in UAII.KV (folio), s. v. Debt. 1804 MAR. EDGE- 
WORTH Pop. Tales, Out of Debt Out of Danger. 

f2. Difficulty (made or raised); hesitation, re- 
luctance, chariness, stint, grudging; coyness. To 
make danger [OF. faire dangler (de)] : to make 
a difficulty (about doing anything). Obs. 

c 1290 6 1 . Enr. Leg. I. 397/155 Sem eustas made gret 
daunger & natneles ate nende to be emperour . . he gan 
wende. 1373 HARBOUR Bruce v. 283 He but danger till 
himgais. c 1386 CHAUCER Wife's Prol. 521 With danger 
uttren we all our chaffare. c 1400 Rottt. Rose 1147 Gold 
and silver for to dispend Withouten lacking or daungere. 
c 1440 HYLTON Scala Per/. (W. de W. 1494) ll. x. And our 
lorde made fyrste daungeour by cause she was an alyene. 
c 1500 Melusine 219 They of Coloyne made grete daunger 
to lete passe the oost tnrughe the Cite at brydge. 1316 
DALABER in Foxe A. <f M. (1583) 1196, I made danger of it 
a while at first : but afterwarde being perswaded by them 

. . I promised to do as they wold haue me. 

tb. Untowardness ; ungracious, uncompliant, 
or fractious conduct. Obs. 

a. 1300 Cursor M. (Cott.) 6299 Wit bair danger, sir moyses 
[v.r. grucchynge on moyses], Oft bai did him haue malees. 
1-1374 CHAUCER Anel. <fr Arc. 186 Hir daunger made him 

boope bowe and beende And as hir lyste made him tourne 
and wende. 

t8. A place where one is at the mercy of an 

enemy ; a narrow pass ; a strait. Obs. 
1393 GOWER Conf. III. 208 In the daunger of a pas, 

Through which this tiraunt shulde pas She shope his power 

to compas. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 114 Daunger, or grete 

[PvNsoN streyte] passage, aria via. 
4. Liability or exposure to harm or injury ; the 

condition of being exposed to the chance of evil ; 

risk, peril. (Directly from sense i ; see esp. I d. 

Now the main sense.) 
c 1480 CAXTON Sonnet of Aymon xiv. 352 There is dan- 

Kcour by cause of the nyghte. a 1533 LD. BERNKRS Hum 

Ixxxii. 253 Esclaramonde saw Huon her housebonde in 

that daunger. 1551 k. Common Prayer, Communion, So 

is the daunger Kreat, if we receyue the same vnworthely. 

1610 SIIELTON QutJC, III. xli. 280 "fis ordinarily said that 

Delay breeds Danger. 1789 A. DUNCAN Mariner's Ckron. 

(18051 IV. 44 The sea running immensely high, it brought 

them again into great danger. 18*1 HAZLITT Table-t. I. 

ix. 187 Danger is a good teacher, and makes apt scholars. 

1874 MICKLETIIWAITK Mod. Par. Churches 186 It is also 

a source of danger to the building. 

b. Const, (a) 0/"that which is exposed to peril. 

(Now rare or arch. exc. with life.*) (*' o/"the evil 

that threatens or impends. (Now the ordinary 

const.) t (<") t w ' ta '"/ Obs. 

c 1489 CAXTON Sonnes of Aymon xxii. 479 Elles they ben 
in daungeur of their lives. 1333 EDF.N Decades Pref. to 
Rdr. (Arli.) 51 The Moore .. possessed a greate parte of 
Spayne to no smaule daungeoure of the hole Christian 
Empire. 1:1676 LADY CHAWORTH in 12.'* Kep. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. App. v. 32 Lord Mohun . . was four days in danger of 
lyfe but now is upon recovery. 17*6 LKONI Alhertis 
Archil. II. 1050, In gravel.. there is no danger of finding 
water. Moil. He goes in danger of his life. 

1400 (" XVTON Enfvdm vi. 29 In dangeour of myscrable 
dc-th 1690 LOCKE Gail. 11. xiv.8 168 This, .wise Princes never 
need come in the Danger of. 1713 J- RICHARDSON 77 
/'aintinfn8 There wasno danger of that in Kafaelle. 1848 
Mv.-u'LAY Hist. Eng. I. 373 They lost their way.. and 
were in danger of having to pass the night on the plain. 

1580 NORTH Plntardi, Thesrus 5 35 In danger to die. 1611 



the 



27 

BIBUC Trantf. Pref. I Sure ; .1, and in 

danger to be condemned. 1695 Hi-. l'.\ i KICK Comm. (ten. 293 
It might have been in danger to have been neglected. 

o. spec, on Railways. Risk in a train s proceed- 
ing owing to an obstruction, etc. on the line ; the 
position of a signal indicating this. 

1841 Committee on Railways Q. 467 You think it would 
be desirable that on all railways red should indicate danger T 

1874 l'r<>c. Inst. Civ. l-.ng. XXXVIII. 149 A signal u said 
to be ' on ', when it is at danger. 

5. (with a and //. An instance or cause of 
danger ; //. perils, risks. 

1338 STAKKKY England \. ii. 49 Fill of many-fold pcryllys 
anddaungerys. 1568 GRAFTON Chron. 11. 25 To commit 
themselves unto the daungcrs of the sea. 1859 HELPS 
Friends in C. Ser. it I. Addr. to Rdr. 3 Blind to 
dangers of their country. 1884 Titites (Weekly Ed. 1 
3/3 Two territorial questions, .unsettled, .cachofwf 
a positive danger to the peace of Europe. 

b. Naut. A submerged rock, or the like, causing 
danger to vessels. 

1699 HACKE Coll. I'oy. iii. 59 At three quarters Ebb, you 
may see all the Dangers going in . . But I would not advise 
any Man to go in till he has viewed the Harbour at low 
Water. 1838 Merc. Marine Mag. V. 347 It appeared to 
him to be a detached danger, 6 or 9 feet under tne surface. 

1875 BEDFORD Sailor's Pock. Bk. v. (ed. 2) 137 Kuoys 
painted red and black are placed on detached dangers. 

t6. Mischief, harm, damage. Obs. 

c 1400 Destr. Troy 146 And ho no daunger nor deire for bat 
dede haue. 1530 PALSGR. 212/1 Daunger on the see, Ha-'- 
fraige. 1368 GRAKTON Chron. II. 277 Then the king of his 
mere pity, .suffered them to passe through his hoste with, 
out daunger. 1396 SHAKS. Merch. l r . iv. i. 38. 1601 
Jut. C. u. i. 17 We put a Sting in him, That at his will 
he may doe danger with. 

t 7. The lordship over a forest ; the rent paid in 
acknowledgement of this (so OF. dangier*). ' In 
the Forest-Law, a duty paid by the Tenants to the 
Lord for leave to plough and sow in the time of 
Pannage, or Mast-feeding" (Phillips 1706). Obs. 



W. 

t 8. To make danger : in 17th c. used in sense 
ol\j.periculumfacere, to make trial or experiment ; 
to venture, ' risk it '. Obs. 

(Perhaps the phrase in 2 taken in a new sense.) 

1618 FLETCHER Legal Stthj. in. iv, Make danger, Trie 
what they are, trie. 16*1 Wild Goose Chaste i. 11, I shall 
make danger, a l6a5 Hum. Lieut. IV. ii, Leon. Art 
thou so valiant? Lieut. Not absolutely so neither yet I'll 
make danger, Colonel. 

(B. 1 as adj. Dangerous, perilous. Obs. rare. 

c 1470 HENRY Wallace vin. 202 We ar our ner, sic purpos 
for to tak ; A danger chace thai mycht vpon ws mak. 

C. Comb., usually attrib. (cf. sense 4), as danger- 
board, -chuckle (seequot), -flag, -whistle ; danger- 
signal, a signal indicating danger; spec, on Kail- 
ways, a signal (usually the extended arm of a 
signal-post painted red, or a red light) indicating 
an obstruction, etc. ahead ; also danger-free, 
-teaching adjs. 

1891 Cycling 21 Feb. 86 The local centre is about to erect 
a "danger-board on Maur Tor Hill. 1830 DARWIN Orig. 
Spec. vii. (1860) 192 If a hen gives the 'danger-chuckle. 
i86a Athenxum 31 May 717 The *danger-flag held out to 
warn their children off the road. 1640 SHIRLEY .V/. Patrick 
for Irel. v. iii, And make thy person 'danger-free. 1848 
AV/. Rail-way Commissioners App. 84 The pointsman had 



schoole. 1878 RUSKIN Eagle's N. 61 The "danger-whistle 
of the engines on the bridge. 

tDa'nger, v- Obs. [a. OF. dangerer, {. 
tlangier, danger, DANGER.] 

1. To render liable. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 1176 And all be trouagc. .fat he to 
Darius of dewe was dangird to paye. 1344 four Sufflu . 
(1871) 52 They be compelled to sell theyr landes. .or els to 
daunger them selfe in dette to many. 1633 T. ADAMS Ejrf. 
2 Ftter'A. i If it [libel] be liked, they know the authors ; if 
it be dangcred to penalty, it is none of theirs. 

2. To bring into or expose to danger ; to en- 
danger, imperil, risk. 

1470 [see DANGERING]. 1344 BALE Chroit. Sir J. Oltlcos- 
tell in Harl. Misc. (Malh.) I. 247 They whyche . . haue 
daungered theyr Hues for a commonwelthe. 1570 Lvi.v 
Euphues (Arb.) 133 The hecdelesse practiser, which daun- 
gereth the patient. 1390 MARLOWE Edw. //, v. iii, There- 
Fore, come ; dalliance dangereth our lives. 1606 SHAKS. Ant. 
$ Cl. l. ii. 199- '663 PEPYS Diary i May, My stone-hone 
was very troublesome, and begun to fight with other horses, 
to the dan^ering him and myself. 

b. (with inf.} To ran the risk ; to be in danger. 

1671-3 MAKVELL Rch. Transf. II. 238 Should the Legis- 
lator persist . . he would danger to be left in the field very 
single. 

3. ? To damage, harm, injure. (Cf. DANGER sb. 6. 
1338 HALE God's Promises i. in Had. Dodsley I. 288 He 

must needs but fall. .And danger himself. 1391 HARINGTON 
Orl. b'nr. i. ix, He would, .bestow The damsell faire on him 



gereth the Dam in yeaning. 

Hence Da-ngered ///. a., Da-ngering vbl. sb. 

01400-50 [see i]. f 1470 HENRY Wallace vin. 547 It is 
my dctt to do all that 1 can To fend our kynnk out 
off dangerynj. ? t' 1600 Distracted /?//. I. i. in Bullen 



DANGEROUS. 

<>. PI. 1 1 1. 172 A long daungcrad maun i 1611 

T. TAYLOR Contnt. '1'itns iii. j '1 o the present d.uigcnnfi and 
drowning of both. 1643 QUAM.KS .W. K.-catit. 34 Why 
should thy too much rigntcou&neuc betray Thy danger 'd 
life? 

t Da-ngerfol, a. Obs. [I DAKGKB sb. + -KI L ] 
1' ull of danger, dangerous. 

1348 [sec DANGIKFULLY], 1607 WAI.KINGTOH Oft. Glaue 
54 Much eating is also dangcrful for this humour, i&u 
PEACHAM Comfl. Centl. viii. 116341 67 The Atlanta ke or 
Western Ocean b most rough and danger-full, a 1708 
T. WARD Ear. Re/, it 172 (D.) As Lion, Scorpion, Bear, and 
Bull, And other things less dangerful. 

Hence t Ds/ntrerfalljr adv., dangerously. 

1348 UDALL, etc. l-'.rasm. Par. Luke xi 107 a. Certain 
Jewes. .whose solles y sptrite of Satan did more oaungier- 
fully posses.se. 

Dangerless (df'-nd^jles), a. (and adv.}. 
Now rare. [f. as prec. + -Lisa.] Without danger ; 
free from danger. 

a 1368 COVERDALE Carrying Christ's Cress iii. We. .shall 
be (Lingeries in such feficite and ioy. 1581 MULCASTEI 
Positions XV. (1887) 69 For the better and more daungerlesse 
performing thcrof. 1660 S. FISHER Rusticks Alarm Wks. 
(1679) 379 One of his wonted Fits of dangerless fear. 1793 
SOUTHEY Joan of A re vill. 371 Nor dangerlehs To the Eng- 
lish was the fight. i88a WOOLSON Anne 361 It is the long 
monotony of dangerless days that tries the spirit hardest. 

b. as adv. Without danger ; f without damage 
or harm \obs.~). 

c 1440 Cenerydet 4567 For all that he skapid daungerlev 
z6oa WARNER Alb. E*g. xi. Ixvi. (1612) 281 Howbeit Bur- 
rough did therein, not Dangerles, preuaile. 1633 L. 
ROBERTS Prelim. Y. to P. Fletcher's Purple ///., Where 
all may dangcrlesse obtain, .cheapest, greatest gain. 

Hence Da-ngerleneai, freedom from danger. 

1818 COLERIDGE in Rein. (1836) I. 133 The dangerlessnesb 

TO OJtiVjt/l'OI'. 

Dangerous (d^l'ndjoros), a. Also 3, 6 dan- 
gerus, (3 daunchorous , 4-6 daungeroua, (5 
d iwngerowse, 5-6 daungerouae. [a. A 1- . Jan 
gerotn = OF. Jangeros, -eus, mod.F. dangereux, (. 
danger : see -ot'8.] 

1 1. Difficult or awkward to deal with ; haughty, 
arrogant ; rigorous, hard, severe : the opposite of 
affable. Obs. 

<tiiiS Aucr. R. 108 Heo is a grucchild, & ful ilowen, 
dangerus, & erueS for te paien. c 1*90 .V. Eug. Leg. 1. 
280/83 r* e pop 6 makede him dauncherous and nolde ensenti 
|>cr-to. 1386 CHAUCER Prol. 517 He was to synful nuui 
nought dcspitous Ne of his speche daungcrous ne digne. 
c 1400 Rom. Rose 591 And she to me was nought unmcke. 
Ne of hir answer daungerous. Ibid. 1483 So fiers & 
daungerous was he, That he nolde graunte hir askyng. 

t b. Difficult to please ; particular, ticklish ; 
fastidious, nice, dainty, delicate. Obs. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Melib. Prol. 21, 1 wol yow telle a litel 
thing in prose. That oughte like yow. .Or elles certes ye be 
to daungerous. c 1430 i'ilrr. LyfManhode i. cxx. 1 1 869) 63 
Of bi mete and of bi drink l hpu neuere more daungerous. 
What bou fyndcst take it sladliche. 1368 E. TILNEY Disc. 
Mariage C ii b, Daungerous, and circumspect in matters 
touching his honesty, a 1368 ASCHAM Scholem. \. (Arb. I 65 
Great shippes require costlic tackling, and also afterward 
dangerous gouernment. 1577 B. GOOGE Herfsback's HHS!>. 
i, (1586) 31 The Oate is not daungerous in the choysc of his 
grounde, but groweth lyke a good fcllowe in every place. 

( c. Reluctant to give, accede or comply ; chary 
of. Obs. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Wife's Prol. 514 For that he Was of his 
loue daunjjerous to me 14. . Pol. Rtl. + /.. Poems 155 If she 
be dawngerouse, I will hyr pray. 1494 FABYAN Ckroa. civ. 
144 And requyryd hym of his comforte and ayde, wherof 
he was not daungerous. 1356 ROBINSON tr. More's Utopia 
(Arb.) 166 As myne 1 am nothinge daunKerous to imparte, 
So better to receaue I am readie. 1598 W. I'HILLII-S Lim- 
cholen (1864) 300 They are so dangerous of eating and 
drinking with other men which are not their Countrimen. 

2. Fraught with danger or risk ; causing or 
occasioning danger ; perilous, hazaidous, risky, 
unsafe. (The current sense.) 

1490 CAXTON Enerdos xxL 78 Attc this tyme which* h o 
daungerouse. 1340 Act 32 lieu. VIII , c. 19 Some house* 
be . . redy to fal downc, and therfore dangerus to passe by. 
1577 15. GOOGE llertshu Ks Hush. i. {15861 40)1, Delay herein 
is daungerous. 1399 SA_NDYS /:' uropig Sfec. (1632) 148 The 
daungeroust enemte Spainc had in the world. 1670 M II.TOM 
Hist. Eng. iv. Wks. (18471 516 They who pray against us. . 
are our dangerousest Enemies. 1748 SMOULKTT K. Rand, xu 
His wife . .seeing her husband in these dangerous circum- 
stances, uttered a dreadful scream. 1779 81 JOHKSON L. P., 
Milton Wks. II. 142 To beof no church is dangerous. 1859 
HELPS Friends in C. Ser. u. I. ii. 131 In most of the European 
nations there are dangerous classes, dangerous, because un- 
cared for and uneducated. 1893 SIR I. W. CHITTY in Law 
Times' Kef. LXVIII. 430/1 A most dangerous doctrine. 

+ 3. Ready to run into or meet danger ; venture- 
some. Obs. rare. 

1611 TOI-RNEUE Atk. Traf. IV. ii, And I doubt his life. 
His spirit is so boldly dangerous. 1641 [see DAKGEROLSLY jl. 

4. In danger, as from illness; dangerously ill. 
Now dial, and (7.S. colloq. 

a 1616 BEAU*. & Ft- Bonduca iv. iii, Reg. Sure His 
mind U dangerous. Drus. The good gods cure it ! 1619 
FLETCHEE M. Thomas u. i, Which will as well restore To 
health again the affected body. . As leave it dangerous. 16*0 
MELTON Astralog.n A Spirit that will fright any disease 
from the most dangerous and ouer-spent Patient, a 1813 
FORBY J ". E. Auglia, Duuftrms, endangered. 'Mr. Smith 
is sadly-badly; quite dangerous.' 1864 BAIHES 
Glaa., Dangerous in danger. 1884 Krea,l-n'inuers (U. S.) 
344 He 's dangerous ; they don't think he '11 live. 



DANGEHOTJSLY. 

t5. Hurtful, injurious. Obs. (Cf. DANGER sb. 6.) 



f 6. as adv. Dangerously. Obs. rare. 

1593 SHAKS. 3 Hen. K/, i. i. n Either slaine or wounded 
dangerous. 

Dangerously (dt'i'nd^arasli), adv. [f. prec. 

+ -LY a .J In a dangerous manner. 

fl. With reserve ; shyly; charily. Obs. 

a 1577 GASCOIGNE Fable ofleronimi, L.alwayes dangcr- 
ouslye behaued my selfe towards him. 1647 CLARENDON 
Hist. Rcb. vn. (1703) II. 304 He was so sotdshly and dan- 
gerously wary of his own Security . . that he would not pro- 
ceed. 

2, In a way involving danger or risk ; perilously. 

ci54o Four P. P. in Hazl. Dodsleyl. 372 To die so dan- 
gerously, For her soul-health especially. 1603 KNOU.KS 
Hist, /iwifttf* (1638) 101 Hee fell dangerously sicke. 1766 
GOLDSM. Vic. IV. xxxi, One of my servants has been 
wounded dangerously. 1860 TYNDAI.L Glaciers i. u. 78 
The slope, .was most dangerously steep. 

f3. Venturesomely. (Cf. prec. 3.) Obs. rare. 

1642 MILTON Apol. Smect. (1851) 293 A Satyr . . ought . . 
to strike high, and adventure dangerously at the most 
eminent vices among the greatest persons. 

DangerousneSS (d^'-nd^arasnes). [f. as prec. 
-t- -NESS.] The quality of being dangerous. 

tl. Chariness, grndgingness. Obs. 

1548 UDALL, etc. Erasm. Par. Mark vi. 49 a, It came not 
of any daungerousnes, or dirficultie on his behalf. 

2. Perilousness. 

1530 PALSGR. 212/1 Dangerousnesse, dangerevse t<f, dangifr. 
1602 CAREW Cornwall i b, The dangerousnesse of the 
passages laid them open to priuie inuasions. 1736 CARTE 
Ormonde I. 99 The ill circumstances of his lady s health 
and the dangerousness of her condition. 1881 J. SIMON in 
Nature No. 616. 372 Experiments which illustrated the 
dangerousness of sewage-polluted water-supplies. 

Dangersome (d#"ndganftn), a. Obs. exc. dial, 
[f. DANGER sb. + -SOME.] Fraught with danger. 

1567 MAPLET Gr, Forest 96 The sluggish owle hath bene 
to man Most often daungersome. 1651 Reliq. Wot ton. 8 
The dangersome marks. \W$Century Mag. XXIX. 549/1 
How to run in daylight without it being dangersome for 
Tim. 

Dangle (dae'rjg 1 !), v. [Appears at end of 1 6th c. ; 
corresponds to Da. dangle^ Norw. and Sw. dial. 
dangla t North Fris. dangdn, ablaut-derivs. of Da. 
dingle , Norw., Sw., Icel. dingla to dangle. In 
form these seem to belong to the stem ding-, dang- 
(DlNG z>.), but the connexion of sense is not clear.] 

1. intr. To hang loosely swaying to and fro. 

c 1590 Sir T. More (Shaks. Soc. 1844) 46 How long Hath 
this shags fleece hung dangling on thy head ? 1598 YONG 
Diana 228 Her disshiueled hair.. in curled lockes hung 
dangling about her snow-white forehead. 1633 P- FLETCHER 
Pise. Eel. i. vi. Our thinne nets dangling in the winde. 
1678 NORRIS Misc. (1699) 37 Ripe Apples now hang dang- 
ling on the Tree. 1782 COWPER Gilfiti 132 For all might 
see the bottle-necks Still dangling at his waist. 1877 
BLACK Green Past, xxxvi, Mr. Bolitho was seated on a 
table, his legs dangling in the air. 

b. To hang from the gallows ; to be hanged. 

1678 BUTLER Hud. in. i. 641 And men [have] as often 
dangled for't, And yet will never leave the sport. 1748 
SMOLLETT Rod. Rand, xxx, Let the rascal be carried back 
to his confinement. I find he must dangle. 1841 JAMES 
Brigand xxxviii, Set him dangling from the battlements. 

2. trans. To make (a thing) hang and sway to 
and fro ; to hold or carry (it) suspended loosely. 

1612 Two Noble^ K. \. ii. 57 What canon is there That does 
command my rapier from my hip, To dangle 't in my hand? 
1748 SMOLLETT Rod. Rand, xlv, I . . dangled my cane 
and adjusted my sword knot. x8o8 SCOTT Mann. v. xii, 
The bridegroom stood dangling his bonnet and plume. 
1873 SYMONDS Grk. Poets x. 314^ Lazy fishermen, .dangling 
their rods like figures in Pompeian frescoes. 

b. jig. To keep (hopes, anticipations, etc.) 
hanging uncertainly before any one. 

1863 KINGLAKE Crimea (1877) II. ii. 31 The mighty 
temptation which seemed to be dangled before him. 1871 
FREEMAN Norm. Cong. (1876) IV. xviii. 193 The hopes of 
a royal marriage were again dangled before the eyes of 
Eadwine. 

c. To hang (any one) on a gallows. 

1887 W. C. RUSSELL Frozen Pirate II. Iv. 92 This is 
evidence to dangle even an honester man than you. 

^- fig- {intr.} To hang after or about any one, 
especially as a loosely attached follower ; to follow 
in a dallying way, without being a formally recog- 
nized attendant. 



Lodge, Plump Johnny Gay will now elope; And here no 
more will dangle Pope. 1734 FIELDING Univ. Gallant i, 
Pray take her, I dangled after her long enough too. 1760 
tooTE Minor i. Wks. 1799 I. 232 The sleek, .'prentice us'd 
to dangle after his mistress, with the great Bible under his 
arm. a 1859 MACAULAV Hist. Eng. V. 5 Heirs of noble 
houses, .dangling after actresses. 1862 MERIVALE Rom. 
hmp. (18651 IV. xxxvii. 271 The exquisites of the day were 
men who dangled in the train of ladies. 

t b. To stroll idly, or with lounging steps : cf. 
1 607, 1 760 above. Obs. 

1778 Learning at a Loss II. 76 They quitted, or, to use 
their own expression, dangled out of the Room. 

4. trans. To lead about in one's train, or as an 
appendage. 



28 

a 1723 GAY Distressed \Vifc 11, I :im not to be dangled 
about whenever and wherever his odious business calls him. 

5. To while away or cause to pass in dangling. 
1727 BOLIKGDROKE in Swift's Lett. (1766) II. 77 The | 

noble pretension of dangling away life in an ante-chamber. 

6. Comb, (of the verb stem) dangle-berry, .Blue | 
Tangle, Gaylnssaciafrondosa, an American shrub, 
N.O. Vatciniacex ; dangle-jack (see qnot). 

1881 Leicestcrsh. Glass., Dangle-jack, the primitive 
roasting-jack, generally a stout bit of worsted with a hook 
at the end, turned by giving it a twist from time to time 
with the fingers. 

Da'iigle, sb. rare. [f. DANGLE v.'] Act or 
manner of dangling ; something that dangles. 

1756 Connoisseur No. 122 Seeming ravished with the gen- 
teel dangle of his sword-knot. 1888 O. CRAWFURD Sylvia 
A nien ii. 21 He lay there in a swound till they got him up 
the ladder, with just a dangle of life in him. 

Da'iigle, a. rare. [f. DANGLE v.] Dangling. 

1600 J. POKV tr. Leo's Africa 11. 341 A tame beast., 
having long and dangle eares. 1889 BKAITHWAITE Retrosp. 
Kfcd. C. 241 In many cases the leg is a mere ' dangle limb ' 
of no service whatever. 

Da'ngled, ///. a. [f. DANGLE v. + -ED.] Hung 
dangling, or furnished with dangling appendages. 

1593 NASHE Christ's T. (1613) 148 For thy flaring frounzed 
Periwigs, lowe dangled downe with loue-lockes, shalt thou 
huue thy head side, dangled downe with more Snakes than 
euer it had hayres. a 1688 VJU.IERS (Dk. Buckhm. ) Poems 
(1775! r4i Nor is it wit that makes the lawyer prize His 
dangled gown : 'tis knavery in disguise. 

Danglement (dce'ijg'lment). [f. DANGLE v. 

+ -MENT.] 1. Dangling. 

1834. BECKFORD Italy II. 75 He. .passes the flower of his 
days in this singular species of danglement. 1849 LYTTON 
Cantons vii. i, The . . suspension and danglement of any pud- 
dings whatsoever right over his ingle-nook. 

2. cotter. (^/.) Dangling appendages, dial. 

1855 ROBINSON Whithy Gloss., Danglements, tassels and 
such like appendants. 

Dangler (dse'rjglsa). [f. as prec. + -EH '.] 

1. One who dangles ; one who hangs or hovers 
about a woman ; a dallying follower. 

1727 FIF.LDING Love in Sev. Maso. Wks. 1775 I. 37 The 
dangler after a woman. 1730-6 BAILEY (folio), Dangler, so 
the Women in Contempt call a Man, who is always hang- 
ing after them, but never puts the Question home. 1770 
MAD. D'ARBLAY Early Diary 10 Jan., ' You see ', she 
cried, ' what a herd of danglers flutter around you.' 1828 
CARLYLE Misc. (1857) I. 228 Fashionable danglers after 
literature. 1882 BESANT All Sorts xix. 139 Dick Coppin 
was not . . a dangler after girls' apron-strings. 

2. A dangling appendage or part. 

1731-7 MILLER Card. Diet. (ed. 3) s. v. Vitis, You must 
go over the Vines again . . rubbing off all Danglers, as before, 
and training in the leading Shoots. 1870 Miss BROUGHTON 
Red as Rose iv, The long red pendant to his [a turkey- 
cock's] nose : I confess to being ignorant as to what function 
that long flabby dangler has to fulfil. 

Dangling (de-rjgltrj\ -obi. sb. [-wo 1 .] The 
action of the verb DANGLE, q.v. ; f concr. (pi.) 
dangling appendages. 

1611 COTGR., Pendiloches, jags, danglings, or things that 
hang danglingly. 1650 FULLER Pisgah iv. vi. 100 To pre- 
vent the dangling down and dagling of so long garments. 
1678 BUTLER Hud. in. ii. 202 The Royalists. .To leave off 
Loyalty and Dangling. 1855 SMEDLEY H. Coverdale i. 5 
I've given up flirting and dangling. 

Da'llgling, /'/. ii. [-ING 2 .] That dangles. 

1593 SHAKS. Rick. JI, in. iv. 29 Goe binde thou vp yond 
dangling Apricocks. 1635 QUARLES Emblems i. Invoc., 
Cast off these dangling plummets. 1750 MRS. DELANY/.//^ 
-V Corr. (1861) II. 602, I am very happy that I have no 
dangling neighbours. 1856 MRS. BROWNING Aur. Leigh. 
in. 767 Thin dangling locks. 

Hence Da'nglingly adv. 

1611 COTGR., Pendiller, to hang danglingly, loosely, or 
but by halves. 

t Da'nic, a. Obs. [ad. med.L. Danic-us, f. 
Dania Denmark.] = DANISH. 

1613-8 DANIEL Coll. Hist. Eng. 12 During this Danicq 
warre. 1692 RAY Dissol. World III. v. (1732) 363 In the 
Baltick Danick and Holland shores. 

Hence Da'nlcism, a Danish idiom or expression. 

1881 F. YORK POWELL in Encycl. Brit. XII. 628 The 
intercourse [of Iceland] with Denmark began to leave its 
mark in loan-words and Danicisms. 

Danish (d^-nij), a. undsi. InOE. Deniso; 3-4 
Denshe, Bench, Danshe ; 6 Sf. Denoe, Dens, 
Densch. Also ME. Danais, Danoys, and 67 
DANSK, q.v. [OE. Dyiisc : OTeut. *danisk-, 
whence ON. Danskr, f. Dani-, D$ne, Danes -I- -ISH. 
Thence ME. Densh, etc. In Danish, the vowel is 
changed as in DANE. The ME. Danais was immed. 
from OF. daneis, danoys (: L. Danensis) ; and the 
late Dansk directly from Danish.] 

Of or belonging to the Danes and to Denmark. 
sulist. The language of Denmark. Danish ax : a 
kind of battle-ax with very long blade, and usually 
without a spike on the back. Danish dog : see 
DANE. Danish embroidery: see quot. 1882. 

833 O.E. Chron., )>a Denescan ahton wajlstowe Jewald. 
845 Ibid. [Hi] ^efuhton xt Pedridan muban wib Deniscne 
here. 1297 R. GLOUC. (1724) 299 Atte laste myd a denchax 
me smot hym to grounde. c 1300 Harclok 1403 Mi fader 
was kjng of denshe lond. c 1314 Guy Wanv. A. 3585 
A danisax [ed. damsaxl he bar on his hond. <- 1340 Gaiv. 
Sf Gr. Knt. 2223 A felle weppen A denez ax nwe dyjt. 
1398 TBEVISA Earth, ae P. R. XV. Ixi. (1495) 510 Frisia . . 



DANK. 

endyth atte Danys^he see. 1500-20 KKNNEDY Fly tine w. 
Dnnbar 356 Deiihitien of Denmark ar of the kingis kyn. 
1545 Aberdeen Reg, V. 19 (J am -J Ane densh aix. a 1578 
Glide $ Godly Halt. (1868) 159 Inglis prelatis, Duche and 
Dence For thair abuse ar rutit out. 1602 SHAKS. f/am. 
iv. iv. i Go Captaine, from me greet the Danish King. 
1643 in Statist. Ace. Moray V. 16 note, Furnished with 
..halberds, densaixes, or Lochaber aixes. 1774 GOLDSM. 
Nat. Hist. III. viii. 284 The Grey Matin Hound .. trans- 
ported to the north, becomes the great Danish dog . .The 
Mastiff .. transported into Denniark, becomes the little 
Danish dog. 1825 SCOTT Note in Jamieson (Stti 

I-l _ A T\- '-.I __ ..1 _ _r _ -T 



Densaixes, A Danish axe was the proper name of a Lochaber- 
axe; and from the Danes the Isles-men got them. 1870 
ELAINE Encycl. Rur. Sports 394 The Danish dog is con- 
sidered as the largest dog known ; probably it would be 
more correct to call it the tallest. 1882 CAULFIELD & SAWARD 
Diet, Needlework^ Danish Embroidery, this is an embroi- 
dery on cambric, muslin, or batiste, and is suitable for hand- 
kerchief borders, necktie ends, and cap lappets.. [Also] a 
variety of the work only useful for filling in spaces left in 
Crochet, Tatting, and Embroidery. 
f. Danais, Danoys. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 24796 ^Cott.) To spek a-bute sum pais, 
bituix him and J?e danais. c 1450 RJerlin 42 The Danoys, 
that Vortiger hadde brought in to the londe. 1480 CAXTON 
Chron. Eng. xci. 73 Kyng Adelbright that was a danoys 
helde the countre of norfolk and southfolk. 

Hence Da nishry Obs. exc. Hist. [cf. Irishry^ 
etc.], the people of Danish race (in Britain). 

c 1470 HARDING Chron. cvm. x, Where Alurede had the 
vktorie, And slewe that daye al the Danyshrye. Ibid. 
cxix. xiii, A duke of the Danishrie. 1857 Fraser's Mag. 
LVI. 27 The Danishry rose en masse* 

Danisk: see DANSK. 

Dauism ] (d^-niz'm). [f. DANE + -ISM.] A 
Danish idiom or expression, a Danicism. 

1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 369/2 Many Damsms and a few 
Suecisms were imported into the language [of Norway]. 

fDa'nism^. Obs.~ [ad. Gr. bavfiff^os money- 
lending, davftarr}?, L. danista money - lender, 
5afiaTttc6s, L. danisticus usurious.] Money-lending 
on usury. So Da iiist, Dani stic a. 

1625 COCKERAM, Danisme^ Vsurie. Daitist, a vsurer. 
1656 in BLOUNT Glossogr. [who adds] Dantstick, pertaining 
to usury. 1692 in COLES. 1775 in ASH. 1848 WHARTON Law 
Lex..Dani&m^ the act of lending money on usury. 

t Dank, sb. Obs. Forms : see adj. [app. f. 
DANK al\ 1. Wetness, humidity, damp. 

la 1400 Morie Arth. 3751 One }?e danke of ^e dewe 
many dede lyggys. 1602 MARSTON Antonios Rev, Prol., 
The rawish danke of clumzie winter ramps The fluent 
summers raine. [Cf. CLUMSY.] 

2. A wet place, pool, marsh, mere. 

1513 DOUGLAS sEneis vn. Prol. 60 Bedovin in donkis 
deyp was every syk. 1560 ROLLAND Crt. Venns i. 2 Eolus 
out ouir thir rokkis rang, Be donk and daill. 1667 MILTON 
/'. L. vn. 441 Yet oft they quit The Dank, and rising on 
stiff Pennons, towre The mid Aereal Skie. 



(dserjk), a. Forms: 5 dannke, 5-7 
danke, 6 dancke, 6- dank ; also 6 donk, 7 
donke, 8-9 dial. donk. [The adj. and sb. are 
known from ^1400, the vb. (which we should 
expect to be formed from the adj.) appears nearly 
a century earlier ; the early quots. for both vb. and 
adj. refer to dew. The etymology is uncertain. 

The only words allied in form, and possibly in sense, are 
Swedish dank * moist place in a field, marshy spot ', Icel. 
dSkk t:-dankn-) pit, pool. These must evidently be sepa- 
rated from the Germanic stem dittk- t dank-, dunk-, whence 
ON. dokkr dark, Ger, dunkel. There is no original con- 
nexion, either of form or sense, between dank and damp, 
but in recent times damp has acquired the sense of dank 
and largely taken its place.] 

f* 1. Wet, watery, wetting : a. said of dew, rain, 
clouds, water, etc. Obs. 

?<z 1400 Morte Arth. 313 pe dewe J?at es dannke, whene 
J?at it doune falles. c 1400 Destr. Troy 2368 Dropis as dew 
or a danke rayne. 1513 DOUGLAS jKneis in. ix. 3 Aurora 
the wak nycht dyd..chays fra hevin with hir dym skyis 
donk. 1549 Compl. Scot. yi. 38 The drops of the fresche 
deu, quhilk of befor hed maid dikis ande dailis verray done. 
1601 WEEVER Mirr. Mart. B ij, Fruits. .Which the danke 
moisture of the ayre doth cherish. 

b. said of marshes, fens, soaking ground, humid 
tropical forests, and the like. 

[1667 MILTON P. L. ix. 179 Through each Thicket Danck 
or Drie.] 1735 SOMERVII.LE Chase t. 340 O'er the dank 
Marsh, bleak Hill, and sandy Plain. 1799 Scotland 
described (ed. 2) 14 A pool in the midst of a wide, dead, 
and dank morass. 1851 SIR F. PALGRAVE Norm. $ Eng. 
I. 163 On the dank marshy shores of the oozy Yare. 1857 
S. OSBORN Quedah xxiv. 351 In those dank and hot forests 
reptiles abound. 

2. Damp : with the connotation that this is an 
injurious or disagreeable quality, a. of fog, vapour, 
the air, weather, etc. 

1601 ? MARSTON Pasqnil <$ Kath. v. 70 The euemng's raw 
and danke; I shall take cold. 1757 DYER Fleece i. 365 
Dank or frosty days. 1784 COWPER Task \. 437 Vapours, 
dank and clammy. 1822 HAZLITT Table-t. Ser. n. xiv. 
(1869) 288 A dank, cold mist, encircling all objects. 1860 
TVNDALL Glac. i. v. 41 Dull dank fog choked the valley. 
b. of substances or surfaces. 

In this sense app. Obi,, after 1650, exc, m northern dialect ; 
but revived by the romantic writers in end of i8th c. 

1573 TUSSER Hnsb. xxii. (1878) 60 Dank ling forgot will 
quickly rot. 1590 SHAKS. A/ids. N. n. ii. 75 Sleeping 
sound On the danke and durty ground. 1626 BACON 
Sylva 352 In a Cellar or Dank room. 1642 ROGERS 
Naaman 618 Oh that our powder were not danke. 1787 
GROSE Prov, Gloss. , Donk, a little weuish, damp. N[orth). 



DANK. 

1813 SCOTT Kotc/y n. ix, The dank and sable earth receives 
Its only carpet from the leaves. 1855 ROBINSON Whitby 
Glass,,' As^donk as a dungeon.' 1876 HUM IIKKVS Coin-Call. 
Mitn. xxvi. 400 Pa^es of vellum that served as knee-rests 
to the monks on the dank stone pavements. 

3. In igth c., oltcii said of rank grass or weeds 
growing in damp places, [pern, associated with 
nink. "I 

1810 SIIKI.I.KV Sensit. Plant m. 55 And thistles, and nettles, 
and darnels rank, And the dock, and henbane, and hemlock 
dank. 1817 KI-.III K Cltr, Y, 1st Sunday after Trin., Here 
over shatter'd walls dank weeds are growing. 1863 GEO. 
ELIOT Komola i. xviii, That dank luxuriance [of the 
garden] had begun to penetrate even within the walls of 
the. . room. 

Dank (dserjk), v. Obs. exc. dial. Forms: 4-5 
donk(e, 5 dowuk(e, 5-6 danke, 6 dounk, 7- 
dank, 9 dial. donk. [See DANK a.} 

t 1. trans. To wet, damp, moisten ; originally 
said of dew, mist, drizzling rain, etc. Obs. 

a 1310 in Wright Lyric I', xiii. 44 Deowes donketh the 
dounes. c 1400 Dcstr. Tray 7997 The droupes, as a dew, 
dankit his fas. Ibid. 9639 A myste. . All donkyt the dales 



fig- To damp (the spirits or aspirations) ; to 
depress. Still dial. 

1555 ABP. PAKKF.R Pi. viii. Ijb, Thy foes to blanke : 
their threaten to danke. a 1575 Corr. 237, I am . . not 
amazed nordanked. 1864 BAMFORD Homely Rhymes 135 
(Lane. Gloss.) Put th' Kurn-bill i' the divel's hous 'At it no 
moor may dank us. 

f 2. intr. To become damp. Obs. 



1866 Gcntl. Mag. \. 546 They have a peculiar expression 
in Lancashire, to convey the description of a hazy showery 
day : ' it donkes and it dozzles '. 1869 Lonsdale Glass. s.v., 
1 It donks and it dozzles ' It damps and drizzles. 

Hence Da'uking vbl. sb. and ///. a. 

^1340 Can. $ Gr. Kut. 519 When be donkande dewe 
dropez of the leuez. ? a 1400 Morte Arth. 3248 Was thare 
no downkynge of dcwe that oghte dere scholde. 

Dankish (dse-rjkij), a. [f. DANK sb. and a.] 

1 1. = DANK a. : wet, humid. Obs. 

1545 RAYNOLD Byrtk Mankynde iv. ii. (1634! 187 The 
earth may be ouer waterish, dankish, or ouerhot and dry. 
1545 ASCHAM Toxaph. n. (Arb.) 118 Take heed also of 
mislic and dankyshe dayes. 1590 SMAKS. Com. Err. v. i. 
247 In a darke and dankish vault at home, There left me and 
my man. 1626 BACON Syl-na 6^6 The Moath breedeth 
upon Cloth. .Especially if. .laid up dankish and wet. 1644 
NVE Gunnery i. (1647) 13 You must suffer the said water 
to settle, .and congeal in a dankish room. 

2. Somewhat dank ; inclined to be wet or moist. 

1717 BAILEY vol. II, Dankish, a little Moist or Wet. 
1886 Pall Mall C. 21 July 6/1 Butts and tubs . .stood close 
packed and cumbersome upon its dankish floor. 

Hence Da'nkishness, dankish quality, humidity. 

1576 T. NEWTON Lemnie's Complex, n. 1123, A fustic 
dankishnesse . . ynder the skin. 1611 COTCR., Relant, 
mustinesse, fustinesse, ranknesse, dankishnesse. 1630 in 
J. S. Burn Hist. Parish Reg. Etig. (18621 68 This place is 
very much subject to dankishness. 1727 BAILEY vol. II, 
Dankishness, moistness. 

Daukly (drc-nkli), adv. [f. DANK a. + -LY2.] 
In a dank or humid manner. 

1818 SHELLEY Rev. Islam vi. 4 The dew is rising dankly 
from the dell. 1870 Miss BROUGHTON Red as a Rose xxvii, 
Upon the broken headstones the lichens flourish dankly. 

DankneSS (dse-nknes). [f. DANK a. + -NK*S.] 
The quality of being dank ; humidity, dampness. 

tool HOLLAND Pliny II. 476 The natural! moisture and 
dankenessc that commeth from thence. 1651 tr. Bacon's Life 
% Death 5 To save them from the Dankness of the Vault. 

Danky (darrjki), a. Also dial, donkey, -ky. 
[f. DANK + -Y I.] Somewhat dank, dampish. 

1796 W. MARSHALL Midi. Counties Gloss., Donkey, 
dampish, dank. 1830 MOIR \\\Blackiv. Mag. VIII. 176 The 
sward is dim with moss and danky weeds. 1821 Ibid. IX. 
271 The owl sends forth her whoop from danky vaults. 1860 
Lonsdale Gl., Donky, damp, moist, humid : 'a donkyday . 

Dann, obs. form of DAN !. 

II Dannebrog (darn^brpg). Also Dane-. [Da. 
Dan(n}ebrog, f. Dantie-, Dane-, Danish + brag su]>- 
posed to be ODa. brog, breech, cloth.] The Danish 
national flag; hence, a Danish order of knighthood, 
founded in 1219, revived in 1 671, and regulated by 
various later statutes ; it is sometimes bestowed 
upon foreigners. 

1708 Loiut. Gaz. No. 4434/2 His Majesty conferred, .three 
white Ribbons, the Order of Dannebrog on Monsieur 
Plessen [etc.]. 1714 Ibid. No. 5260/2 His. .Majesty, .made 
a Promotion of seven Knights of the Order of Dannebrog. 
1837 I'entiy Cycl. VIII. 401/2 The orders of knighthood are 
the order of the Elephant . . the Danebrog order, founded in 
1219, and now bestowed for eminent services. 

Daimemorite (dornemorait). Min. [Named 
from Dannemora in Sweden, where found : see 
-ITE.] A variet) of hornblende. 

1857 Amrr. Jrnl. Sc. Ser. n. XXIV. 120 A columnar or 
fibrous mineral, .named Dannemorite. 

Banner, var. of DAXDKK v. Sc.. to saunter. 

Da'nnocks, sb.fl. local. [Korby prefers the form 
ilarnocks, and says it U a corruption of Doriuck, 
Dornick, Flemish name of Tournai.] (Scequots.) 

a 1819 FORBY Voc. E. A ftffi'a, Damocks, Deatnocks, 



hedger's gloves. 1854 N. , Q. isl Ser. IX. 2 73 /! Gloves 
made of Whit-leather (uiltanned leather! and ust<l by work- 
men in cutting and trimming fences are called in this part 
of Norfolk dannocks. 1883 HULK Gievenjj The dannocks, 
or hedging gloves of labourer.-, in our time. 

Danseuse (daiWz). [Kr., fcm. of danseur 
dancer.] A female dancer, a ballet-dancer. 

1845 Athenzum 8 Mar. 236 A danseuse to whose notice 
lie had been recommended. 1878 H. S. EDWARDS in Grove 
/>;'./. Mai. I. 131 Three other danscuses and a befitting 
number of male dancers. 

t Dansk, a. (sb.} Obs. Also 6 Danisk. [a. Da., 
Sw., Icel. Dansk : see DANISH. Spenser's Danisk 
unites Dansk and Danish.] = DANISH. 

1569 mils , Imi. N. C. <Surtees)3oi A danske chiste that 
was his sisters. 1596 SPENSER F. Q. iv. x. 31 On her head 
a crowne She wore, much like unto a Danisk hood. 1610 
MAKKHAM Masterp. n. xcvii. 387 Our English [Iron] is 
best, the Spanish next, and the Danske worst. 
b. sb. Denmark. 

1568 TURNER Herbal in. 5 The rootes are now condited in 
Danske. 

II Da-nsker. Obs. [Da. Dansker Dane, f. Dansk 
Danish.] A Dane. 

1601 SHAKS. flam. n. i. 7 Enquire me first what Danskers 
are in Paris. 

t Bant '. Obs. [Cf. obs. Du. tiante ' ambubaia, 
mulicr ignava '.] 'A profligate woman' (Halliwell). 

a 109 SKKI.TON Elynor Rutnm. 515 In came another dant 
She had a wide wesant. 

Dant -. Obs. or local. [Derivation unknown : 
perh. more than one word.] (See quots.) 

1688 R. HOLME Armoury n. 24/1 Dants or Sulphury 
Damps, .all proceed from dry and hot slimy Vapours. Ibid. 
in. 97/1 Down, is the Dant, or pure sou airy Feathers 
which have no Quills. Ibid. in. 316/1 The Bolted Meal 
was put to fall into the Wheel . . and the pure Dant, or second 
sort of Meal to fall into the Ark. 1888 GuiNWSLL Coal- 
trade Terms Northttmb. ff Durh., Dant, soft sooty coal 
found at backs, and at the leaders of hitches and troubles* 

Dant, -ar, obs. or Sc. forms of DAUNT, -BR. 

Dante. Also 6 dant, 8-9 danta. [Cf. It. dante, 
'a kind of great wilde beast in Affrike hauing 
a very hard skin ' (Florio 1598) : see ANTE. In the 
second sense app. a transferred use of the same word 
by the Spanish settlers in S. America.] 

1 1. (Also dant.} Some African quadruped : the 
same as ANTE sb. q.v. Obs. 

1600 J. POKY tr. Leo's Africa i. 39 Ruffles . . and Dantes 
(of whose hard skins they make all their targets) range in 
heards up and down the woods. Ibid. ll. 340 The beast 
called Lant or Dant . . in shape resembleth an oxe, saving 
that he hath smaller legs and comclier horns. 

2. (Also dan/a.) The American tapir. 

(The early accounts are often exaggerated and erroneous.) 

1601 HAKLUYT tr. Galvano's Discov. World (1862; 206 
Many heards of swine, many dantes. 1711 E. COOKE Voy. 
S. Sea V)? This Country [Verapaz] . . has abundance of 
Lyons, Tygers, and Dantas. 17*0-71 tr. Juan if Ulloa's 
Voy. (ed. 3) I. 362 Peru .. infested with bastard lions, bears, 
dantas or grand bestias, (an animal of the bigness of a bul- 
lock, and very swift, its colour generally white, and its skin 
very much valued for making buff leather ; in the middle of 
its head i- a horn bending inward 1 . 1796 MORSE Amer. 
Geof. I. 83 American beasts .. averse to cold ; such arc apes, 
dantes, crocodiles. 1887 W. T. BRICHAM Guatemala 370, 
I have seen the tracks of the danta (Tapirus Americanns) 
in the Chocon forests. 

Dante e, -ie, Dantely, obs. ff. DAINTY, -ILY. 

Dantean idae-nti'ian), a. [See -AN.] Of or 
relating to Dante or his writings ; resembling 
Dante's style or descriptions. Also si. A student 
or admirer of Dante. 

a 1850 ROSSETTI Dante <y Circ. I. (1874) 20 Among our 
Danteans. lS7 C. KING Mountain Sierra Ntv, ix. 193 
It was no small satisfaction to climb out of this Dantean 

Bilf. 1879 J. COOK Marriage 93, I do not adopt the 
antean view of the state of the lost in another life. 
So Dante sque a. [see -ESQCE] - - prec. Da ntist, 
a Dante scholar. Da ntize v., to imitate the style 
of Dante. Danto'philist, an admirer of Dante. 
1833 Editt. Rev. LVII. 417 A poem thoroughly Dantesque. 
1844 DISRAELI Coningsby iv. xi, ' Too insipid ', said the 
Princess. ' I wish that life were a little more Dantesque.' 
1889 W. W. VERNON Readings on Dante's furg. I. Pref., 
One of the greatest Dantists of his time the late Duke of 
Sermoneta. 1764 Acct. of Bks. in Ann. Reg. 272/2 Michael 
Angelo-.is not ashamed, in some of his compositions, t 
dantize. 1871 LOWELL Dante Prose Wks. IV. 147 The 
veneration of Dantophilists for their master is that of 
disciples for their saint. 

Dantiprat, obs. var. of DANMPBAT. 

Danton: see DAUNTON. Danz, obs. t DAN!. 

Daou, var. of DHOW. 

t Daonrite. Min. Also daurite. [Named 
from Daouria in Siberia, where found.] An obso- 
lete synonym of rnbellite or red tourmaline. 

iSoz BOURNON in Phil. Trans. XCII. 316 The tourmalin 
. .of Siberia, to which the names of rubellite, of datmn'fe, 
and of Siberite, have been successively given. 1804 R. 
JAMESON Min. I. 130 Daurite. 

Day ,dsep), sb. Obs. exc. dial. [perh. f. DAP f., 
in which case sense 2 (as held by Halliwell) would 
be the original.] 

1. //. Ways, modes of action ; hence dial, like- 
ness, image (in ways and appearance). 

1583 STANYHVR^I JEnris iv. (Arb.) 110 His daps and 
sweetening good mood to the soalye (thee solely] uere 



DAPHNIN. 

opntd. in MASSE U. Airman's Guzman d'Atf. ll. M 

"" -knew the Dapps of the world. 1746 Sjamtf StitaSf 

yp (t. D. S.) I ha hast lha very Daps o' thy old (lunl 

Sybyl. 1787 GKUSK I'nn: Ctoit., />,,f,e, likenev 

very dapie of one, the exact likeneu in thane and manner 

1888 W. Somerset Wordlk., Da/,, i. habits or waym. i. 

Likeness; image. 

2. A bounce of a ball ; a hop of a stone on the 
water. 
lt3&(SaiJat Kut^y School), He caught the ball first dap. 

1847-78 HAI.I.IWHLL, Dap, a hop, a turn. Wat. 1888 in 

West Somerset Word-bk. 

Dap(daep),i. AUodape. [Known only from i;th 
c. : app. a parallel formation to DAB, a lighter or 
slighter touch being expressed by the final /. In its 
use possibly also associated with DIP. Cf.also DOP.] 

L intr. (rarely trans.} To fish by letting the bail 
dip and bob lightly on the water ; to dib, dibble. 

1653 WALTON Angler TO, I have taught him how to catch 
a Chub with daping a Grashopper. Ibid. 118 With these 
[fliesjand a short line, .you may dap or dop. 1676 COTTON 
Angler-T.\ The stone-fly we dape or dibble with, as with 
the drake. 1799 G. SMITH Laboratory II. 271 The larger 
trout arc to be taken, .with a stout rod. .dapping therewith 
(which term you will find used by eel-fishers on the surface 
of the water. 1888 W. Somerset Word-bk., Dap..\o 
fish with a rod in a peculiar manner. When the stream 
is flooded and the water muddy, the bait, whether fly or 
grub, is kept close to the top of the rod, with only an inch 
or two of line, and is made to bob up and down very quickly 
on the surface of the water. 
b. gen. To dip lightly or suddenly into water. 

1886 R. C. LESLIE Sea-painter's Lot 70 The ' dapping ' of 
the kittywake gulls tell[sj where a shoal of mackerel lies. 
1891 H. HUTCMINSON Fairway Island 129 In a few hour, 
came a dapping of the lead line. 

2. To rebound, bounce; to hop or skip (as a stone 
along the surface of water). 

1851 l-'a): Mauritius vi. 204 A shot fired over the smooth 
sea astonished them much, as they watched the ball dapping 
along the surface. 1880 Boy's own Bit. 148 The other 
player then strikes it . . before it has . . dapped U- e. hopped 
from the ground) more than once. 

Hence Da pping vbl. sb. 

1799 E. SMITH Laboratory II. 272 The few which you 
may . . take, by dipping or dapping, will scarcely be eatable. 
1867 F. FRANCIS Anglings 1876) 263 Daping is in.some places 
called ' shade fishing '. 1886 91 [see i b above). 

t Dapa-tical, a. Obs.-" [f. late L. dafdtic-us 
sumptuous, f. dap-em feast : cf. also Gr. JairdVn 
cost, expense.] Sumptuous, costly. 

l63 COCKEKAM, Dapatical meates, daintie meates. 1656 
BLOUNT Glossogr., Dapatical, sumptuous, costly, magnifi- 
cent. 1731 in BAILEY. [Hence in mod. Diets.] 

Dapehick e : see DABCHICK. 

Dape : see DAP v. 

Daphnad >l;c-fnad . Hot. Lindley's name 
for plants of the order Thymelacat, including 
Daphne. So Da phnal alliance, that containing 
the Daphnads and Laurels. 

1847 LINDLEY Vee. Kingd. 530. 187* HARLEY Mat. Med. 
(ed. 6) 448 Daphnal Exogens, apetalous, or polypetalous. 

Daphne (darfnt). [Gr. Jac/wr/ the laurel or 
bay-tree : in Mythol. a nymph fabled to have been 
metamorphosed into a laurel.] 

1. a. The laurel, b. in Rot. The name of a genus 
of flowering shrubs containing the Spurge Laurel 
and Mezereon. 

c 1430 LYDO. Compl. Bl. Knt. x, I sawe the Daphene 



, 

closed under rynde, Grene laurer and the hoKome pyne. 
1634 HABINCTON Castara (Arb.) 19 Climhe yonder forked 
hill, and see if there lib' barke of every Daphne, not appeare 
Castara written. i86a ANSTED Channel Isl. iv. xxi. led. 2) 
497 Daphnes flourish marvellously and remain in flower 
a long tune. 

2. Astron. The name of the 4 1st of the Asteroids. 

Hence Daphnean a. [Gr. Aa^rafus. L. Daph- 
nteus], of or pertaining to Daphne ; Irons/, of or 
pertaining to virgin timidity and shyness, t Dapfc- 
ne'on, a grove of laurels or bays. 

1606 SirG. Goosecapfiem. ii. in Bullen O. PI. Ill, Nor 
Northren coldnesse nyppc her Daphnean Flower. 1887 T. 
HARDY Woodlanders xl, The Daphnean instinct, exception- 
ally strong in her as a girl. 1664 EVELYN Syh'a (1716) 398 
They (Bays) ..grow upright and would make a noble 
Daphueon. 

||Daphnia (da-filial. Zool. [mod.L. (Miillcr 
Entomostraca, 1785) f. DAPHNE.] 

A genus of minute fresh-water entomostracous 
Crustacea ; a water-flea. Hence Daphnla ceouji a. 
Da phniad, a member of the order containing 
the water-fleas. Da phnioid a., allied in structure 
to Daphnia ; sb. a daphniad. 

1847 CARPENTER Zool. $ 805 After the third or fourth 
moulting, the young Daphnia begins to deposit its eggs in 
the cavity of its back. 1851 DANA Crust- 11. 1525 No Daph- 
nioids. .have been yet reported from the Torrid Zone. 

Daphnin (dsrfnin). Chem, [f. DAPHNE + -IN.] 
A bitter glucoside obtained from two species of 
Daphne. So Da-phnetin, a product of the de- 
composition of daphnin. 

1819 CHILDREN I. htm. Anal. 389 Daphnin is the bitter 
principle of the daphne alpTna. 1847 TURNIK Elem. 
Chem. (ed. 81 1165 Daphnine, from the bark of Daphne 
mezereum and other species. Itiscrystallizable. 1871 WATT* 
Diet. Chem., Dachnetin. 1876 HARLKY M*t. Mtd. (t 6) 
449 Colourless prisms of daphnetin. 



DAPHNOMANCY. 

t Da-plmomancy. tV.- [f. Or. te</>vi 
laurel, DAPHNE + -JIANCY.] 'Divination by a 
Lawrel Tree' vl'lount Glossogr. 1656). 

II Dapifer (dre-pifai). [L., f. daps, dapi- food, 
feast + fer- bearing.] One who brings meat to 
table ; hence, the official title of the steward of 
a kind's or nobleman's household. 

lfe6BRATHWAtr Roman Emp. 308 This Emperour also ap- 
pointed divers Offices in the Empire, as Chancellor, Dapifer, 
etc. 1657 REEVE Gad's Pica (T.I, Thou art the dapifer of 
thy palate. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Dapifer, he that 
carries up a Dish at a Feast, a Server . . Afterwards the 
Title was given to any trusty Servant, especially the chief 
Steward, or Head Bailiff of an Honour, etc. 1845 C. M Ac- 
FARLANE Hist. Eng. I. 163 The royal cup-bearer or dapifer 
ordered him to withdraw. 

t Dapinate, v. Obs.- [f. L. dapindt-, ppl. 
stem of dapindre to serve up (food), f. daps (cf. 
prec.).] ' To prouide daintie meates ' (Cockeram). 

Daply, var. of DAPPLY a. 

t Dapoca-ginous, a. Obs. 

1674 BLOUNT Glossogr. (ed. 4), Dapocaginoiis (from the 
Ital. dapoco), that has a little or narrow heart, low-spirited, 
of little worth. 

Dapper (dfe-psj), a. Also 5 dapyr, 6 daper ; 
6 erroti. dappard, -art. [Not found in OE. or 
ME. App. adopted in the end of the ME. period 
from Flemish or other LG. dialect (with modi- 
fication of sense, perh. ironical or humorous) : 
cf. MDu. dapper powerful, strong, stout, energetic, 
in mod. Du., valiant, brave, bold, MLG. dapper 
he'avy, weighty, steady, stout, persevering, un- 
daunted, OHG. tapfar, MHG. tapfer heavy, 
weighty, firm, in late MHG. and mod.G., warlike, 
brave. The sense of ON. dapr ' sad, downcast ' 
appears to be developed from that of 'heavy'. 
Possibly cognate with OSlav. dobrii good.] 

1. Of persons : Neat, trim, smart, spruce in dress 
or appearance. (Formerly appreciative ; now more 
or less depreciative, with associations of littleness 
or pettyness ; cf. b.) 

c 1440 Promp. Pan>. 113 Dapyr, or praty, elegans. a 1529 
SKELTON Image Hypocr. 95 As dapper as any crowe And 
perte as any pie. 1530 PALSGR. 309/1 Daper, proper, inigKon, 
godin. 1594 NASHE Vnfort, Trav. i The dapper Mounsier 
Tages of the Court. 1648 HERRICK Hespcr., The Temple, 
Their many mumbling masse-priests here, And many 
a dapper chorister. 1673 R. LEIGH Transproser Reh. 9 As 
if the dapper Stripling were to be heir to all the Fathers 
features. 1749 FIELDING Tom Jones \. xi, The idle and 
childish liking of a girl to a boy. .is often fixed on. .flowing 
locks, downy chins, dapper shapes. 1828 SCOTT F. M. Perth 
viii, The spruce and dapper importance of his ordinary 
appearance. 1861 Sat. Rev. Dec. 605 Our dapper curates, 
who only open their mouths to say ' L'Eglise, c'est moi 1 ' 
1885 Miss BRADDON Wyllard's Weird I. 89 A good-looking 
man. .well set up, neat without being dapper or priggish. 

b. esp. Applied to a little person who is trim or 
smart in his ways and movements : ' little and 
active, lively without bulk ' (J ). 

1606 IVily Begnilcd'm Hazl. Dodsley IX. 229 Pretty Peg 
. .'Tis the dapp'rest wench that ever danced after a tabor 
and pipe. 1634 MILTON Comus 118 Trip the pert fairies 
and the dapper elves. 1792 WOLCOTT (P. Pindar) Ode to 
Ld. Lonsdale, Much like great Doctor Johnson . . With 
dapper Jemmy Boswell on his back. 1823 SCOTT Peveril 
xxxv, The clean, tight, dapper little fellow, hath proved an 
overmatch for his bulky antagonist. 1840 HOOD Up the 
Rhine 66 A smart, dapper, brisk, well-favoured little fellow. 
1870 EMERSON Soc.fy Solit., Civilization'Wks. (Bohn) III. 
12 We are dapper little busybodies, and run this way and 
that way superserviceably. 

2. Iransf. Of animals and things. 

1570 SPENSER Sheph. Cal. Oct. 13, The dapper ditties, 
that I wont devise, To feede youthes fansie. [Gloss., Dap- 
per, pretye.] 1589 Tri. Love ty Fort. iv. in Hazl. Dodsley 
VI. 198 There was a little dappard ass with her. 1592 
GREENE Upst. Courtier in Hurl. Misc. (Malh.) II. 218 
A little daper flowre like a ground hunnisuckle. 1672 
WOOD Life (1772) 48 Mounting my dapper nagg, Pegasus. 
1704 Moilerat. Displ. vi. 23 A Dapper Animal, whose Pigmy 
Size Provokes the Ladies Scorn, and mocks their Eyes. 
1802 G. COLMAN Br. Grins, London Rurality i, Would-be 
villas, ranged in dapper pride. 1870 EMERSON Soc. fy Solit., 
Work f, Days Wks. (Bohn) III. 65 What of this dapper 
caoutchouc and gutta-percha, which makes water-pipes and 
stomach-pumps ? 

) 3. as sb. A dapper fellow. Obs. 

1709 Tatler No. 85 F i A distant Imitation of a forward 
Fop, and a Resolution to over-top him in his Way, are the 
distinguishing Marks of a Dapper. Ibid. No. 96 r 4. 1747 
W. HORSLEY Fool No. 68 The well-dressed Beaus, the Dap- 
pers, the Smarts. 

4. Comb., as dapper-looking. 

1874 BURNAND My Time iii. 28 [The] dapper-looking, 
though common chairs. 

Da'pperism. twnce-wd. [-ISM.] The style, 
manners, etc. of a dapper person. 

1830 CARLYLE Richter Misc. (1888) III. 33 A degree of 
Dapperism and Dilettantism . . unexampled in the History 
of Literature. 

Dapperling (de-pailirj). [f. DAPPER a. + 
-LING : cf. weakling.] A little dapper fellow. 

1611 COTGII., Namlmt, a dwarfe; elfe, little starueliug ; 
a dandiprat, or low dapperling. 1829 CAKLYLE Sietu of 
Times Misc. (1888) II. 246 An intellectual dapperling of 
these times. 1881 P. BAYNE in Lit. World 14 Jan. 26/1 
She loves Anthony, a dapperling in person. 



30 

Dapperly (darpaili), adv. [-LY ^.] In a dapper 
manner; neatly, trimly, sprucely. 

1858 I.o. MALMESOURY in Times i Oct. (1884) 4/4 A slight 
figure . always with spurs and dapperly dressed. 1862 
Temple Bar Mag. V. 290 Horns set dapperly upon the 

Dapperness (darpajnes). [-NESS.] The 
quality of being dapper ; spruceness, trimness. 

1530 PALSGR. 212/1 Dapyrnesse, propernesse, mignotteric. 
1841 EMERSON Led., Man the Jle/oruier'Vfks. (Bohn) II. 
238 Each requires of the practitioner, .a certain dapperness 
and compliance, an acceptance of customs. 1881 Athenzum 
12 Feb. 242/2 Dapperness rather than assumed dignity 
being the chief characteristic. 

Dapple (dae-p'l), sb. Also 6 dappell. [Unless 
this is the first element in dapple-grey (q.v.), it is 
not known until late in the i6th c., being preceded 
somewhat by examples of the adj. of the same form, 
and followed by those of the vb. in the simple 
tenses; the (?ppl.) adj. dappled however appears 
two centuries earlier. The mutual relations of these 
and the derivation and etymological development 
of the whole group are, from the want of data, 
still uncertain. The primary meaning of dappled 
was 'spotted, specked, blotched', which might 
arise either from a vb. ' to spot ' or a sb. = ' spot, 
blotch '. A possible connexion is the Icel. depill 
(found in I3th c.) ' spot, dot ' ; according to Vig- 
fusson ' a dog with spots over the eyes is also called 
depill'. This is app. a dim. oidapi pool : cf. mod. 
Norw. dape, depel muddy pool, pond, dub ; MLG. 
dope, dobbe. Thus dapple might perhaps originally 
mean a ' splash ', and, hence, a small blotch or 
speck of colour.] 

f 1. One of many roundish spots or small blotches 
of colouring by which a surface is diversified. Obs. 

1580 SIDNEY Arcadia n. 271 (R.) As many eyes upon his 
body, as my gray mare hath dapples. 1611 COTGR., Place 
. .a spot or dapple on a horse. 

2. (Without //.) Spotting, clouding ; mottled 
marking of a surface ; dappled condition, dappling. 



DAPPLY. 

D. C. MURRAY Hearts I. vi. 138 The green flooring of the 
dell [began] to dapple with light and shadow. 

Hence Da-ppling -M. sb. and ///. a. 

1830 WOKDSW. Russian Fugitive l. ii, In the dappling 
east Appeared unwelcome dawn. 1870 RUSKIN Ltct. Art 
vi. (1875) 172 The dappling of one wood glade with lloweis 
and sunshine. 1883 G. ALLEN in Knowledge 3 Aug. 66/1 
The. .colour and dappling [of orchids]. 

Da'pple-toay, **. [After dafple-grey: see 
BAY a.] A dappled bay (horse). 

1835 D. BOOTH Analyt. Diet. 305 The colours of Horses 
are various. .There are also Dapple-bays. 

Dappled(dae'p'ld),a. Also5dappeld,6 daplit, 
6-7 dapled. [In form, the pa. pple. of DAPPLE 
v., which however it precedes in recorded use by 
two centuries. If DAPPLE sb. occurred early 
enough, an adj. from it in -ed = ' spotted ', would 
be possible ; cf. F. pommeU, OF. pomele, dappled, 
which similarly occurs long before the vb. pom- 
meler, and was perh. immediately f. pommette, or 
OF.fomel, dim. ofpomme apple; also OE. eeppled 
in xpplede gold, ' formed into apples or balls ', 
from sppel sb.] 

Marked with roundish spots, patches, or blotches 
of a different colour or shade ; spotted, speckled. 

c 1400 MAUNDEV. (Roxb.) xxxi. 142 It [Giraffe] es a faire 
beste, wele dappled \Cott. MS. a best pomelee or spotted, 
Fr. une beste tcchchele]. Ibid. 143 per er also wilde suyne 
. .dappeld and spotted [Cott. MS. all spotted, Fr. tontz 
tecchelez]. 1535 STEWART Cron. Scot. (1858) I. 21 The daplit 
sky wes lyke the cristell cleir. 1590 SI-ENSER F. Q. II. i. 18 
A gray steede. .Whose sides with dapled circles weren 
dight. 1610 FLETCHER Faithful Sheph. n. ii, Only the 

' 



streaks belace the Damaskt West . . And cast so fair a Dapple 
o'r the Skies. 1713 Land. Gaz. No. 5176/4 A Grey Mare. . 
a little Fleabitten. .on the Dapple behind. 1820 T. HODGSON 
in J. Raine Mem. (1857) I. 291 The whole sky has a harsh 
and unnatural dapple. 

3. An animal, as a horse or ass, with a mottled 
coat. [app. subst. use of DAPPLE a.] 

a 1635 CORBET Poems (1807) 16 The king . ._rides upon 
his brave gray dapple. 1733 FIELDING Quix. \. i, Thou art 
just such another squat bag of guts as thy Dapple, a iSojo 
COWPER Needless Alarm 115 Be it Dapple's bray, Or be it 
not, or be it whose it may. 1861 Times 8 Oct. 8/1 The pure- 
blooded dapple, shaking his long ears over that manger. 

Dapple (dse'p'l), a. Also 6 daple. [See 
DAPPLE sb., and DAPPLED. The simple adj. is 
known 'c 1550 : its relation to the sb. and vb. is un- 
certain! According to analogy, it might be the 
source of either or both of these ; but its date would 
suggest that it may itself have been worn down 
from dappled, or short for dapple-grey] = DAPPLED. 

1531 T. WILSON Logike 79 All horses bee not of one 
colour, but . . somebaye, some daple. 1735 SOMERVILLE Chase 
IV. 249 With his Hand Stroke thy soft dapple Sides, as he 
each Day Visits thy Stall. 1841 LANE Arab. Nts. I. 46 
There approached them a third sheykh, with a dapple mule. 
{Dapple cited by Imperial and Century Diets, from Scott, 
is an error for dappled : see Gny M. xxv. 

Hence t Da'ppleness, dappled state. 

1611 COTGR., Pommclure, plumpenesse, roundnesse ; also 
daplenesse. 

Dapple (dse-p'l), v. Also 7 daple, dappel. 
[The (? ppl.) adj. DAI-PLED (q. v.) .occurs from the 
end of the 14111 c.; but the simple vb. is first 
known two centuries later, and might have been 
inferred from the ppl. adj., or formed directly on 
the sb. or adj. of same form : see DAPPLE sb] 

1. trans. To mark or variegate with rounded spots 
or cloudy patches of different colour or shade. 

1599 SHAKS. Much A do v. iii. 27 The gentle day . . Dapples 
the drowsie east with spots of grey, c 1620 FLETCHER & 
MASS. Trag. Barnavelt IV. i. They should have dapled ore 
yon bay with fome, Sir. a 1658 CLEVELAND Wks. (1687) 14 
the Walk with light and 
81 A Negro-Boy that is 



, . 

The trembling Leaves . . Dappling the Walk with light and 
shade. 1697 Phil. Trans. XIX. 781 A Negro-Boy that is 
dappel'd in several Places of his Body with White Spots. 



1791 COWPER Odyss. xx. 427. I see the walls and arches 
dappled thick With gore. 1799 G. SMITH Laboratory I. 
320 How to dapple a horse. 1824 Miss MITFORD Village 
Ser. i. (1863) 79 An adjoining meadow, where the sheep are 
lying, dappling its sloping surface like the small clouds on 
the summer heaven. 1870 LOWELL A jnong my Bks. Ser. I. 
(1873)240 The flickering shadows of forest-leaves dapple the 
roof of the little porch. 

\>. fig. 

1647 WARD Simp. Coblcr 76 It is in fashion with you to. . 
dapple your speeches, with newquodled words. 16^2 N. O. 
Boileait's Littrin i. 41 Discord dappled o're with thousand 
Crimes. 

2. intr. To become dappled or speckled. 

1678 Land. Gaz. No. 1266/4 An iron gray Gelding, begin- 
ning to dapple. 1818 KYUON Mazepfia xvi, Methought that 
mist of dawning gray Would never dapple into day. 1883 



dappled deer. .Dwellsinthisfastness. _ w 
41 Till the dappled dawn doth rise. 1718 PKIOR Poems^ 
The Garland i, The dappl'd Pink, and blushing Rose. 1860 
RUSKIN Mod. Paint. V. i. i. 6 Beeches cast their dappled 
shade. 1868 DARWIN Anim. <$ PI. I. ii. 55 Horses of every 
colour, .are all occasionally dappled. 
"b. Comb, dappled grey =-- DAPPLE-GREY (horse). 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. in. vii. 37 Fast flying, on a Courser 
dapled gray. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. i. xxiii, He saw 
your steed, a dappled grey. 1842 TENNYSON Talking O. 
112 Her mother trundled to the gate Behind the dappled 
grays. 

Dapple-grey (dae-p'ligr* 1 ), a. (sb.} Forms : 
4-5 dappel-, -ul',1-, -il(l-, 6-7 daple-, 5- dapple- 
grey, -gray. [See DAPPLE sb., a. t v. and GREY. 

Since dapple-grey occurs nearly two centuries before 
dapple itself is exemplified in any grammatical capacity 
(the only form known to be of equal age being the ppl. adj. 
dappled\ it is difficult to conjecture whence or now the 
compound was formed. In such combinations, the first 
element is usually a sb. : e. g. in apple-grey^ iron-grey^ sky- 
blue t stiow-iuhite, etc. ; but it is difficult to attach any 
analogous meaning to ' spot-grey ', if we suppose dapple 
here to be the sb. The Germanic languages generally nave 
combination meaning l apple-grey ' : viz. ON. apalgrdr_ 



atildgraa, pied, piebald ; Urllj. apnelgra 'glaucus (urimm.i, 
MHG. apfelgra, Ger. apfelgrau ' dapple-grey ' (Flugel), ' ap- 
plied 



(of any colour), gris-potttmele grey dappled with darker 
spots, dapple-grey,/<w/j''n9' in Chaucer, C. T. Prol. 616 ; 
with which cf. Russ. fla6jIOHHLin yablochnyl dappled, 
f . yabloko apple 
not easy to beli< 

words, has no t . . , 

tnuislation ; the explanation may be that dapple-grey^ was a 
mixture of DAPPLED spotted, taken as the sense-equivalent 
of F. pommele", with apple-grey informal representative 
of Norse apal-gra-, and its Teutonic equivalents. This 
would account at once for the difficulty in analysing dapple- 
in this combination, and for its presence here before its 
appearance as an independent word.] 

Grey variegated with rounded spots or patches of a 
darker shade : said of horses. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Sir Thopas 173 His steede was al dappull 
gray \i>. rr. dappel- (jMsS.), dapull, dapil-, dapple-grey]. 
14.. T. of Erccldoune i. 41 Hir palfraye was a dappill 
graye [v. rr. Cot}, dappyll, Lansd. daply, Cantbr. dappull 
gray]. 1577 B. GOOGE Hercsbach's Husb. in. (1586) 116 
The bay, the sorrell, the dunne, the daple gray. 1599 T. 
M[OUFET] Silkivormes 72 How they color change .. Then 
to an yron, then to a dapple gray. 1664 EVELYN Syh'a. 
(1679)29, I read.. That an handful or two of small Oak 
buttons, minted with Oats, given to Horses which are black 
of colour, will in few days eating alter it to a fine Dapple- 
grey. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury^ n. 154/2 Daple-Gray is 
a light Gray spotted, or shaded with a deeper Gray. 1722 
Loud. Gaz. No. 6052/2 The other upon a Dapple-grey 
Horse. 1805 SCOTT Last Minstr. \. xxiv, O swiftly can 
speed my dapple-grey steed. 

trans/. 1639 MAYNE City Match v. v. in Hazl. Dodsley 
XIII. 307 She has three Children living; one dapple-grey, 
Half Moor, half English. 

b. absol. A horse of this colour. 

1639 DRUMM.OF HAWTH. Challenge of Knights Err. Wks. 
(1711) 232 Christianus. .mounted on a dapple gray, had his 
armour sky-coloured. 

Da'pply, a- rare. [f. DAPPLE sb. +-Y.] = DAP- 
PLE a. Dapply-grcy = DAPPLK-URKY. 
. 17. . SWIFT roeins, On Roz>er t Make of lineaments divine 
Daply female spaniels shine. 1744 Jf. CLARIDGE She ph. 
Baubnry's Rules 5 Clouds small and round, like a dappky- 
grey with a North-wind. 

Daps : see DAP sb. 

I)ar, obs. form of DARE sb$ t DARK v. 1 

Dar, var, of par, THAU v., need, needs. 



DARAPTI. 

Darapti (darie'ptri). Logic. A mnemonic term 
designating the first mood of the third figure of 
syllogisms, in which both premises are universal 
affirmatives a, ), and the conclusion a particular 
affirmative ('. 

The initial </ indicates that the mood may be reduced to 
Dtrtf of the first figure; the /* following ihe second vowel 
thai there must be conversion per accidrns of the minor 
premiss. 

1551 T. WILSON /,<v7Xv (1580) 30 The thirde figure. . Da rap 
ti. 1654 Z. COKK Art L0gt&(i6$?) 136 The third Figure 
..The Modes of this Figure are six. Called, Darapti, 
/>/<i/Aw, Disamts, Dtitisi t Bt*card0 % fr'tris&n. 1727 51 
CHAMBERS Cytl. s. v. Darapti . . . g., HA. Every truly 
religious man is virtuous; r '\P* Every truly religious man 
is hated by the world : //. Therefore, sonic virtuous men 
are hated by the world. 1827 WHATRLV Logic (1848) 101 
Third, Darapti. viz. (dA> Every Y is X ; (rAp) Every Y is 
Z ; therefore <tl) some Z is X. 

Darayne, var. of DEBAIQN Obs. 

Darbar : see DURBAB. 

Darby (cla-jbi). A southern (not the local) 
pronunciation of Derby, the name of an English 
town and shire, which was formerly also some- 
times so spelt. Hence an English personal sur- 
name, and an appellation of various things named 
after the place or some person of that surname. 

1575 LANEHAM Let. (i87i> 4 Chester. .Darby, and Staffoord. 
1654 TRAPP Comttt. /'*. liu Introd., Summerset, Netting* 
ham, Darby. 

1. Father Derby's or Darby's bands : app. Some 
rigid form of bond by which a debtor was bound 
and put within the power of a money-lender. 
(It has been suggested that the term was de- 
rived from the name of some noted usurer of the 
i6th c.) 

1576 GASCOIGNE Stecle G/. (Arb.) 71 To make their coyne, 
a net to catch yong frye. To binde such babes in father 
Derbies bands, To stay their steps by statute Staples static. 
159* GREENE Upst. Courtier in Harl. Misc. (Malh.) II. 
229 Then hath my broker an usurer at hand, .and he brings 
the money, but they tie the poore soule in such Darbies 
bands. 1601 CARF.W Cornwall 15 b, Hee deliuers him so 
much ware as shall amount to fortie shillings, .for which 
thee poore wretch is bound in Darbyes bonds, to deliuerhim 
two hundred waight of Tynne. 

2. //. Handcuffs : sometimes also, fetters, slang. 
1671 R. HEAD Canting A cad. 13 Darbies, irons, or 

Shackles or fetters for Fellons. 181$ SCOTT Gny M. 
.\\.\iii, 'But the darbies', said Hattemick, looking upon 
his fetters. 1889 D. C. MURRAY Dang. Catsftaw 301 Better 
get the darbies on him while he 's quiet. 

t 3. Ready money. Obs. slang. 

i68a HICKERINGILL Wks. (1716) II. 20 Except they, .down 
with their Dust, and ready Darby. 1688 SHADWELL Sqr* 
Alsatia \. i, The ready, the Darby, 1699 Miracles per- 
formed by Money Kp. Ded., Till with Darby's and Smelts 
thou thy Purse hast well stored, c 1712 ESTCOURT Prunella 
i. 4 (Farmer) Come, nimbly lay down Darby; Come, pray 
sir, don't be tardy. 1785 in GROSE Diet. Vnlg. Tongite. 

4. Short for Derby ale ; ale from that town being 
famous in the l^th c. 

[161* J. COOKK Greene's TnQitoqiie in Hazl. Dodstey XI. 
234, I nave sent my daughter this morning as far as Pimlico, 
to fetch a draught of Derby ale.] a 1704 T. BROWN It'&s. 
(1760) II. 162 (D.i Can't their Darby go down but with 
a tune? 1719 D'URFEY /*/V/j IV. 103 He . . Did for a 
. .Draught of Darby call. 

5. Mastering. A plasterer's tool, consisting of a 
narrow strip of wood two or three feet long, with 
two handles at the back, used in 'floating* or 
levelling a surface of plaster ; also applied to a 
plasterer's trowel with one handle, similarly used : 
see quot. 1881. (Formerly also Derby.'} 

1819 REES Cycl. s. v. Stucco^ The first coat . . U to be laid 
on with a trowell, and floated to an even surface with 
a darby (/. c. a handle-float). 1823 P. NICHOLSON Fract. 
Hnilti. 390 The Derby is a two-handed float. 1842 GWILT 
Archit. ( 1876) 675 The Derby . . is of such a length as to 
require two men to use it. 1881 Eviry Man his tntm 
Mechanic^ 1379 For laying on fine stuf and smoothing 
the finishing surface of a wall, a trowel of peculiar form and 
make, wilh the handle springing from and parallel to the 
blade., is required . . This trowel is technically called a 
'darby', 

6. Darby and Joan. A jocose appellation for 
an attached husband and wife who are * all in nil 
to each other', especially in advanced years and 
in humble life. Hence dial., a pair of china figures, 
m.ile and female, for the chimney-piece. Hence 
Darby-and-Joan ?.. -Joar.ish a. 

The Centl. Mag. (1735) V. 153 has under the title 'The 
joys of love never forgot : a song', a mediocre copy of 
verses, beginning ' Dear Chloe, while thus beyond measure, 
You treat me with doubt and disdain', and continuing in 
(he third stanza 'Old Darby, with Joan by his side. You've 
often regarded with wonder : He's dropsical, she is sore-eyed, 
Yet they're never happy asunder '. This has usually been con- 
sili red the source of the names, and various conjectures 
have been made, both as to the author, and as to the 
identity of ' Darby and Joan ', but with no valid results. It 
is possible that the names go back to some earlier piece, 
and as Darby is not a common English surname, it may 
have originated in a real person. There is also a well-known 
ii>th c. song of the name. 

1773 (ini.nsM. St<>t>/-s toCottq. i. i. You may be a Darby, 
but I'll l>e no Joan, I promise you. 1857 MRS. MATHEWS 
Tea-Table Talk I. 50 They furnished, .a high-life iUmliM- 
tton of Derby and Joan. 1869 TROI.LOPR He Knew xc. 
(1878) 500 When we travel together we must go Darby and 



31 

Joan fashion, as man and wife. 1681 Mitt BRAUDOH AipH. 
III. 251 Daphne, sat !>> Kdgar's tide in n thon 
and-joanish manner. 1887 1'mu/t 18 June 294 Both their 
Grace* were present, llarby-aniT-Joaning it all over the 
shop. 

Darbyism <la Jl-i|iz'm). [f. the name of Rev. 
John N. Darby, their lirst lender.] The principles 
of a sect of Christians ( founded c i"3o), also called 
Plymouth lircthren, or of a branch of these called 
Exclusive I'.rethren. So Da rtyito, one who holds 
these principles. 

1876 SPURGEON Commenting 62 Good as Ihey are, their 
Darbyism gives them an unpleasant and unhealthy savour. 
'881-3 K. E. WIIITKFIKLD in S. haff Kncycl. K'lif. Kumtil. 
III. 1856 Plymouth Brethren . .upon the European Continent 
Kenerally named ' Darbyites '. 1890 J. WOOD BROWN llal. 
Campaign li, ii. 148 Darbyite views. 

Darce, obs. var. PACE, a fish. 

Dardan (daudanj, a. anclrf. [ad. L.>arJanus, 
Dardanius (poet.) Trojan.] adj. Trojan, of Troy. 
si. A Tioj n. So Darda nian a. and sf>. ; || Dar- 
da/ninm [Pliny ff. ff. xxxni. iii. 1 1 Dardanium, 
vel Dardanum, sc. aurum, ornamentnm aureum], 
a golden bracelet. 

1606 SIIAKS. Tr. f, Cr. Prol. 13 On Dardan Plaines. 1813 
HYRON lir. Abydos n. iv, Of him who fell the Dirdan's ' 
arrow. 1818 Ch. Har. iv. i, The Dardan Shepherd's 
prize. 1596 SHAKS. Merch. V. in. ii. 58 The Dardanian 
wiues. i63 COCKERAM, DardaneanArt, Witchcraft. 1648 
HERRICK Hesper., To Julia, About thy wrist the rich Dar. 
danium. 

Dard(e, obs. f. DAKT, and dared (see DARE .). 

[Dardy-line : see List of Spurious Words^ 

Dare (de-u), v. 1 Pa. t. durst (dwst\ dared 
(<lerd) ; pa. pple. dared. Forms : see below. 
[One of the interesting group of Teutonic preterite- 
present verbs, of which the extant present is an 
original preterite tense : see CAN, Dow, etc. OE. 
durran, pres. dearr, durron, pa. dorste, = OS. gi- 
durran, -dar, -durrun, -dorsta, MLG. doren. Jar, 
dorfti, dorste, OKris. dilra, (dtir or dor^, dorste, 
OHG. gi-turran, -tar, -lurrun, -torsta, pa. pple. 
gilorran, MHG. turren, tar, turren, torste, subj. 
torste, Goth, ga-daursan, -dars, -daursun, subj. 
i/anrsjau, -datirsta; belonging originally to the 
third ablaut series ders-,dars-, durs-, Aryan dhers-, 
Mars-, Mrs- : cf. Skr. dhrsh-, perf. dadharsha, to 
be bold, Or. Oapa- t 6paa- in Spaavs bold, Sapnnv 
to be bold, OSlav. drfizate to be bold, dare. In 
ON., the word is wanting, its sense being supplied 
by the weak verb/oru. It is also lost in mod.Ger. 
and Du. ; in MDu. it appears to have run together 
with the verb dorven, =OK./uir/an to need (see ] 
THAR) ; hence in Du., durven is to dare ; and i 
Ger. diirfen in some of its uses approaches the 
sense ' dare '. These two verbs have also fallen 
together under a d form in sume Frisian dialects; ' 
and in ME. there was some confusion between them, 
dar being sometimes written for t/iar, while, on the 
other hand, th- forms (some of them at least from 
Norse) appear with the sense oldar : see A. 9 lx;low. 

The original 3rd sing. pres. he dare, and pa. t. durst, re- 
mained undisturbed to the modern period, in which the 
transitive senses tB. 1 1.) were developed; but early in the 
l6th c. the new forms dares, itarcif. appeared in the south, 
and are always used in the transitive senses, and now also 
in the intransitive sense when followed by to. In the ori- 
ginal construction, followed by the in6nitive without to, 
dare, durst are still in common use (esp. in the negative 
' he dare not ', ' he durst not ') ; and most writers prefer ' he 
dare go ', or ' he dares to go ', to ' lie dares go '. The 
northern dialects generally retain ' he dare, he durst ', and 
writers of northern extraction favour their retention in 
literary English when followed by the simple infinitive 
without to.) 
A. Inflexions. 

1. Pres. Indie, a. wt sing, i dear'r, north. 
darr, 1-3 dear, 2-4 der, 3 Orm. darr, 3-6 dar, 
S - dare, (Sc. J dar, 8-0 daur). 

950 Lindisf. Cosf., Jerome's Prol. Fa pe ich darrhuclc 
hwoego. .to eccanne. c 1000 A'I.FRIC Gen. xliv. 34 Ne dc;ir 
ic ham faran. c laoo OHMIN 10659 N U darr l be nohht 
fullhtncnn. c iK>5 LAV. 6630 Ne der ich noht kennen. 
<i isag ^{- Markfr. 16 Speoken i ne dar nawt. a 1*40 
Urtisvn in Cott. Horn. 185 Mi leofman dear ich swa clipien. 
c io // 'ill. ralerrif_ 938 Y dar nou)t for schame. Ibid. 
3169, I der leye mi lif. c 1410 Avovi. Arlh. xxxviii, I dar 
lay. 1513 MURK in Grafton Ckroit. II. 770, 1 dare well 
avowe it. 1605 SHAKS. olacb. i. vii. 44 Letting I dare not 
wait ypon I would. 1711 ADDISON Sptct. No. 58 Fi, I dare 
promise my self. 17*5 RAMSAY Gfttt. Shefk. tl. iv, I daurna 
stay. 18. . [see examples in B). 

b. Hid sing, i dearst, (north. *darst), 2-3 
daerst, 24 derst, 3 Orm. darrat, 3-6 darst, 
darryst, daryst, 4-5 dari.st, 5 dnrste, 5- darest, 
(7 darst, 7- dar'st). p. north. 4- 6 dar, 4- dare. 

Bcownlf 1059 Gif flu. .dearst. .bidan. c ivfoLamb. Horn. 
27 pu ne derst cumen bi.foren him. c oo OKMIN 5614 patt 
tu Ne darrst nohht Drihhtin wrabbenn. c 1*05 LAY. 30375 
pu ne dxrst [c 1*75 darst] . . abiden . c 1385 CHAUCER L. G. *r. 
14^0 Hyfsif. ff Medea, Now daryst thow [r'.r. darstou] take 
this via^e. 1-1400 A'uw. Rose 2532 That thou resoun derst 
big^'nnc. c 1400 Lunfranc** Ciritrg. 303 Whanne bou. .ne 
tiarist not do it. 1470-85 MALORY Arthur x. Iv, Arte tbou 
a knygte and darste not telle thy name? 1616 K. C. Timrs' 



DAEE 

Whittle v. 2143 (Thou] daM rcpane. 18*7 MILTON /'. /.. 
n. 682 'Ihou. .That dar'it. advance. 

f. a 1300 Cunor M. 5668 (Colt.) How dare [v.r. dar] bou 
ua bi biober smile I c 1470 HKNHV H'allace in. 361 QoU, 
Scot, dar thou nocht prcift*? 1578 C,u,le I, Codlie Ballatei 
(1868) 1 16 How dar thow for mercy cry T 

O. yd sing. a. l dear r, north, darr, i 3 
dear, 2-3 der, 3 Orm. darr, 3-6 dar, 5- dre, 
(8-9 Sc. dur). B. 6 dareth, -yth, 6- dares. 

Beowulf 1373 Gif he gewcean dear, c 1175 Lamb. 
Horn, in He his men euian ne der. ri7S n rains of 
1 1 til 231 in O. A Misc. 153 Ne dar no eynl heom bidde 
fore. 1340 Ayent. 32 pet ne dar najl guo ine be pebe. 1381 
WVCUF Kan. x. 20 Ysaie dar. and icith. f 1400 MAUHDIV. 
(Roxb.) xii. 51 Ncrc bis see dare na man dwell. 14(3 
CAXTOM G. de la Tour F viij, A coueytous herte dar well 
Save- '549 Comfl. Scot/ 14 }il he dar be u Ixjld. 1509 
SHAKS. Much Ado in. i. 74 Who dare tell her so? 1603 
Meat, for M. v. i. 315 The Duke dare No more stretch this 
finger of mine, then he Dare racke his owne. 1630 DAVEHAMT 
Cruel Bro. l, A pretty curr ! Dare it bite as well as barke T 
1816 SCOTT Antiq. xxvi, ' Shew me a word my Saunden 
daur speak, or a turn he daur do.' ijo TKXMYKW In Mem. 
xlviii, Nor dare the trust a larger lay. 

f' '533 J- HEYWOOD Mery Play betw. "Johan, Tib, tic., 
The kokold. .for hU lyfe daryth not loke hether ward. 1605 
SHAKS. Matb. L vii. 46-7, I dare do all that may become 
a man, Who dares do more, U none. 1607 DDYDIN V'irg. 
CMPK III. 418 The fearful Stag dares for his Hind engage. 
1798 FmuK & HAMMOND in Anti-Jacobin No. 28 (1852) 140 
The man who dares to die. i8ia J. WILSON Istf of Palmt 

II. 241 Poor wretch ! he dares not open his eye. 18*6 EMEU- 
SON Eng. Traits, Lit. Wks. (liohn) II. 113 No pnest dares 
hint at a Providence which does not respect English utility. 

\ The present dare has been carelessly used for 
the [last dared or durst. 

1760 Imfostm Detected I. 232 He pretended that the 
marquis dare not appear abroad by day. 1811 A. BELL in 
Southey /,</i(i8)ll. 651 I wish I dare [ = durstj put them 
down among our books. 1847 MARHVAT ChiUr. N. Forest 
vii, He tola me he dare not speak to you on the subject. 
1857 KINGSLEY Tint Y. Ago I. 214 She was silent ; for to 
rouse her tyrant was more than she dare do. Ibid. 298 But 
she went into no trance ; she dare not 

2. Pres Indie, plural, o. I durron(-e), 3-3 dur- 
re, n, 3-4 duren, dorre(n, 4-5 durn;-e:, dore(n. 
-un, 4-5 dur, dor. ft. 3-6 north, der, 4-5 dar, 
(5-6 darne), 5- dare, (Sc. 7 dar, 8-9 daur). 

900 Bxda't Hist. i. xxvii. Resp. 5 (1890) 72 pact heo 
npwiht swelces nc durron xcfremman. c iao$ LAY. 25705 
pis lond cnihtes ne durren wid him mare na fehten [f 1*75 ne 
dorre bis lond cnihtes]. a ia5 Juliana 47 Hu durre $eT 
c 1*50 Gen. ff Ex. 2239 He ne duren fle weie cumen in. 
c 1290 6". Eng. Leg. I. 244/133 pat ne dorre we 1101131. 1340 
Ayenb. 38 pet. .nolleb o(>er nc dorre rijt do. 1381 WYCLIK 
Gen. xliv. 26 We dorun [1388 doren] not se the lace of the 
lord, c 1386 CHAUCER Can. Yfom. Prol. 4- 7*. 108 (Harl. 
MS.) As f>ay bat dor \r.r. dore, dur, dar 13 MSS. , dare] 
noujt schewen her presence, i 1400 in H'yclifs Sel. Wkt. 

III. 476 Nowdurne worldly prestis take so grete lordschipe 
upon hem. c 1400 MAUMJEV. (1839) xxvii. 271 Therforedur 
not the marchauntes passen there. 1401 Pol. Poems (Rolls) 

I_. 107 Privyly as }e doren. 

'377 
393 



ft. a 1300 Cursor Jlf. 17425 'Colt.) pan dar we saL i 
LANGI.. /'. /'/. H Prol. 152 We dar nou^le wel loke. I^, M 
//'///. C. iv. 314 Pore men der nat plcyne. 1400 MAUNDP.V. 
(1839) vi. 64 '1'hei dar wel werre with hem. c 1400 7 fit. 
Ltn'c u. (1560) 381/3 Ixmes scrvaunts . in no place darne 
ajipeare. 15. . Sir Andrrtv Barton in Snrtees Misc. 1890) 
64 To France nor Flanders we der not goc. 1561 WINJET 
'tractates i. Wks. 1888 I. 4 We dar not conlcmne. 1581 
Mri.CASiKK Positions xxxviii. (1887) 168 Ladies who dare 
write themselues. 1664 EVELYN AW. llort. (17391 186 We 
dare boldly pronounce it. 1861 DICKENS Gt. Effect, xxiii, 
How dare you tell me so? 

8. Pres. Subj. n. sing. I dyrre, 1-5 durre, 3-4 
dure, 4 derre, 4-5 dorre; //. 1-5 durren, 4-5 
durre. 0. 4- dare, 5 dair, (8-9 Sc. daur). 

Bcomtl/vfa tZ. 1 1380 Sec lif Su dyrre. ctS8 K. ALFUFII 
Botth. xiv. I t Hwaroer 5u durre ^ifpan. ctmtn Bestiary 
187 No3|t] wurdi, 8at tu dure loken up. a 1150 V-.i-l f, 
Nigkt. 1704 Non so kene, That durre abide mine onsene. 
c 1380 Sir rerumb. 451 Com on }if bov derre. c 1430 Pilgr. 
Lyf Manhode iv. xix, Soo bat she dune no more be so 
proud. Ibid. xxix. 101 If bou dorre entre . her in. 

/3. <I1J40 HAMPOI.K Psalterim. i pof a wrt.Jie clarethynk.- 
god is noght. 1380 [see B. i 1<J. 15*6 SKELTON Magnyf. 
3205 Here is my gluue ; take it vp, and tbou dare. 1591 
DAVIES Immort. Soul viii. ii, If we dare to judge our 
Makers Wilt Mott. Do it if you dare ! 

4. Past Indie, a. sing . l dorste, north, darste, 
2-6 derate, 1-6 dunte, 3 Orm. durrste, 4-6 
dorst, 4- durst, (5 darste, derste, drust, 5-7 
dirst) ; //. I dorston, 2-5 dorste n, durste n, 

I draste , 4-6 dorat, 4- durst. P. 6- dared, 
(8-9 Sf. daur-d). 

c 893 K. ALFRED Oros. iv. xi, H wicoer he w!5 Romannm 
winnan dorste. 918 O. E. Ckron. lEarle 104-, Hie ne 
dorston Jwet land nawer ^esecan. 011^4 Ibid. an. 1135 
Uurste nan man misdon wio o5er on his lime, c 1175 Lamb. 
Horn. 07 Da apostlas ne dursten bodian. c laoo ORMIN. 
2008 Forrbi durrste he sibbenn Don hise beowwess takenn 
Crist, c laoo Trtn. Coll. Horn. 139 He ne dorste for godes 
eie forleten. c 1850 Gett. ff E.r. 2593 Durste $he non lengere 
him for-helen. a 1300 Cursor M. 2928 (Cott. ) par again 
durst he not spek. 1:1300 Ha-.'elek 1866 Bu> dursten be 
[ ~ they] newhen him no more. 1340 Ayenb. 73 pe rabre . . 
banne bou dorstest. .consent!, a 1340 H AMI-OLE Psalter 
xxi. 18 His kirtil be whilke bai durst noght shere. 1380 [see 
B. aj. 1393 GowERC(W/I II. 174 He his mother derste love. 
( 1440 Partonofe 1075 And the hethen drust not abyde. 
1*1440 York Myst. xxiv. 14 How durst bou stele so stille 
away ! 1535 JOYB Afot. TindtiU 32 He stretched forth his 
penne..as Tarre as he dirst. 1583 HOLLYEANO Catnfo di 
/tor 219 Wentest thou to <eet I durst not. 1641 R. BROOKK 



DARE. 

Episc. 39 As Mercury once spared Jupiter's thunder-bolts 
which he dirst not steale. 1752 JOHNSON Rambler No. 204 
F n They durst not speak. 1849 MRS. CARLYLE Z.<?//. II. 88, 
I durst not let myself talk to you at Scotsbrig. 

ft. cx59o GREENE Fr. Bacon iv. 10 Lovely Eleonor, Who 
darde for Edwards sake cut through the seas. Ibid. iv. 18 
She darde to brooke Neptunus haughty pride. 1641 BUR- 
ROUGHS Siotu Joy 26 They dared not doe as others did. 
1650 FULLER Pisgah L 145 They dared not to stay him. 
1790 COWPER Let. to Mrs. Bodham 21 Nov., Such as I dared 
not have given. 1821 SOUTH F.Y in Q. Rev. XXV. 345 He 
dared not take the crown himself. 1848 DICKENS Dontbey 
xxx, Florence hardly dared to raise her eyes. 1864 J. H. 
NEWMAN Apologia 288, I dared not tell why. 1883 FROUDE 
Short Stud, IV. i. iv. 48 Any one who dared to lay hands 
on him. 

5. Past Subj. sing, as in Past Indie, pi, i dor- 
sten, 2 as in Indie. 

a xooo Boetk. Metr. i. 54 Gif hi leodfruman laestan dorsten. 
CI374 CHAUCEK Troy Ins i. 906 Yn loue I dorst [v.r. durst] 
haue sworn. 1377 LANGI-. P. PI. B. Prol. 178 pere ne was 
ratoun . . bat dorst haue ybounden be belle aboute be cattis 
nekke. 1556 Aurelio $ Isab. (1608) Cviij, What man. .that 
dorste haue tolde me. 

11 Tins Past Subj. or Conditional durst ( = would 
dare) is often (like the analogous could, would, 
should, oughf] used indefinitely of present time. 

c 1400-50 A le.tander 1673 Sire, bis I depely disire, durst I 
it neuyn. 1606 W. CRASHAW Rom. Forgeries 161 Do but 
promise that you will iudge without partialitie, and I durst 
make you fudges in this case. 1662 GLANVILL Lux Orient. 
(1682) 83, I confess, I'm so timorous that I durst not follow 
their example. 1761 STERNE Tr. Shandy III. xx, I have 
no desire, and besides if I had, I durst not. 1793 MRS. 
INCHBALD Midn. Hour n. i, I hear his vessel is just arrived, 
I durst not leave my house. T$&\ Private Secretary I. 132 
My mother does not drink wine and my father durstn't. 

6. Pres. Inf. a. i *durran, 2-5 durre(n, 3-4 
dur, 5 dura, doren, dorn, dore. . 5 daren, 
un, darn, (derre), 5- dare, (8-9 Sc. daur). 

a 1300 Cursor M. 22603 (Cott.) He a word ne sal dur 
speke. 1340 HAMPOLE Pr. Consc. 4548 Na man sal bam dur 
biry. c 1430 Pilgr. Lyf Manhode i. Ixxxi, J>er shulde noon 
dore resceyue it. c 1440 Prontp. Parv. 114 Darn, or durn 
(PYNSON darun, daren, or dorn>, aiideo. 1450 LONELICH 
Grail xiii. 538 They scholen not doren lyen. 1481 CAXTON 
Reynard (Arb.) 72 To dore to me doo suche a shame. 

|5. < 1400 MAUNDEV. (Roxb.)iv. 12 So hardy J>at he sail dare 
ga to hir. 1488 Cath. Angl. 89 Dare, audere, presumere, 
vsiirfiare. Ibid. 97 Derre, vsurfare, presnmere, audere. 
1715 DE FOE Fatn, Instruct, i. iii. (1841) I. 64 They shall 
not dare to despise it. 1816 SCOTT Old Mart, viii, 'They'll 
no daur open a door to us. 1 1841-4 EMERSON Ess., Self- 
RelianceVrks. (Bohn) I. 35 You cannot hope too much, or 
dare too much. 1871 MACDUFF Metn. Patmos xi. 153 We 
cannot dare read the times and seasons of prophecy. 

7. Pres. pple. and vbl. sb. 6- daring. 

1586 A. DAY Eng. Secretary n. (1625) 29 None now daring 
to take the same from you. 1889 Spectator 19 Oct., Power 
. . held on the tenure of daring to do, as well as daring to 
decide. 

8. Pa. pple. a. 5 ? dorr en |"cf. OHG. gitorran], 
dorre ; 6 dare. ft. 6-7, dial. 8-9 durst. 7. 6- 
dared. 

a. c 1430 Pilgr. Lyf Manhode n. v. (1869) 78 How hast 
thou dorre be so hardi? -1500 Melnsine xhx. 324 How 
one knyght alone had the hardynes to haue dare come. 

p. 1509 BARCLAY Shyp of Folys (1874* I. 207 They sholde 
not have durst the peoples vyce to blame. 1605 SYLVESTER 
Du Bartas \\. iii. Law, But lochebed would fainelif she 
had durst) Her deere sonne Moses secretly have nource't. 
1665 PEPYS Diary 11875-79) III. 315 A hackney-coach, the 
first I have durst to go in many a day. 1691 tr. Emilianne's 
Obs. Joum. Naples 217 They had not durst so much as to 
take one step. Mod. Sc. If I had durst do it. 

Y. 1529 in W. H. Turner Select. Rec. Oxford 65 They 
have dared to break out so audaciously. 1603 SHAKS. 
Mtas.for M. \\. ii. 91 Those many had not dar'd to doe that 
euill. 1883 Daily Tel. 10 Nov. 4/8 A simple monk had 
dared to consign a Papal decree to the flames. 

9. Forms with initial /, th [partly from Norse 
])ora,por$i (Sw. torde y Da. turae), partly confused 
with THAR to need] : Pres. Indie. 2 sing. 3-4 
therstou, pi. 3-4 we there, 5 they ther(not) ; Pa. 
Indie. 3 Jjurte, 3-4 therste, 4 therst, 5 thorst. 

c 1300 Havelok 10 pe wicteste man. .That |?urte riden on 
an! stede. (1300 St. Brandan 581 We ne thore oure 
maister i-seo. Ibid. 585 Hou therstou . . bifore him 
nemne his name? c 1300 Beket 1550 Hi ne therste a}e 
the Kinges wille nomore holde him so. [Also 895, 1156.] 
c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 2668 Was ^er ban no man |>at in wrabjic 
berst sen ys fas. 1460 Lybeaus Disc. 1155 The four gonne 
to fle, And thorst naght nyghhe hym nere. 1465 MARG. 
PASTON in Paston Lett. No. 506 II. 195 They say that they 
thernot take it uppon hem. 
B. Signification. 

I. intr. (Inflected dare, durst (also dares y 
dared.) 

1. To have boldness or courage (to do something) ; 
to be so bold as. a. followed by inf. without to 
(the original const.). 

a 1000 [see examples in A. above]. 1154 O. E. Chron., Ne 
durste nan man don o)>er bute god, a 1225 Juliana 42 
penne darie we & ne durren neuer cumen biuoren him. 
a 1300 Cursor M. 3586 (Cott.) Baldlik (>at dar i sai. 14. . 
[see examples in A. above]. 1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 395 
Whatsoever the king did, no man durst speake a worde. 
1611 BIBLE John xxi. 12 None of the disciples durst aske 
him, Who art thou? 1743 JOHNSON Debates in Par/tJi-jB?) 
II. 441 No man dared afterwards . . expose himself to the 
fury of the people. 1759 H. WALPOLE Corr. ted. 3' III. 
cccxxxv. 302 Two hundred and sixty-eight Sequins are more 
than I dare lay put. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. II. 74 
Nature has caprices which art dares not imitate. i86a 



32 

HISLOP Sc.Prov. 5 Ae man may steal a horse where anither 
daurna look ower the hedge. 

b. The inf. is ofteji unexpressed. 

1x1225 A net'. ./?. 128, & 3elpe3 of bore god, hwar se heo 
durren & muwen. 1350 Will. Pale me 2040, [1] missaide 
hire as \ durst. ^1380 WYCLIF Serin. Sel. Wks. I. 222 He 
mai be martyr if he dair. 1535-83 [see A. 4]. 1652 Cut,- 
PEPPER Eng. Physician (1800) 343, I have delivered it as 
plain as I durst. 1725 DE FOE Voy. round World {&$&) 
344 [They] brought them as near the place as they durst. 
1810 SCOTT Lady of L. i. xxi, The will to do, the soul to 
dare. 1852 Miss YONGE Cameos II. xxii. 238 John of Gaunt 
had favoured the reformer as far as he durst. 

c. with to and inf. 

In this construction the 3rd sing, is now dares and the 
pa. t. dared; but durst to was formerly used. 'None 
dared to speak ', is more emphatic than ' none durst 
speak '. 

<ri555 HARPSFIELD Divorce Hen. VIII (18781 269 The 
Counsel! . .neither durst to abridge or diminish any of them. 
1611 BIBLE Transl. Pref. 9 It were to be wished, that they 
had dared to tell it. 1619 BRENT tr. Sarpfs Connc, Trent 
(1676) 35 A Spanish Notary dared to appear publickly in 
the Rota. 1625 BURGES Pers. Tithes 6 No intelligent man 
durst absolutely to deny any of these Conclusions. 1677 
GALE Crt. Gentiles II. iv. 5 No one durst to breathe other- 
wise than according to the Dictates of her Law. 1836 W. 
IRVING Astoria I. 289 No one would dare to desert. 1870 
E. PEACOCK Ralf Skirl. III. 218 He did not dare to meet 
his uncle. 1848, 1883 [see A. 4]. 

2. (ellipt^) To dare to go, to venture. 

c 1380 Sir F crumb. 3726 Ferrer ne draste J?ay no}t for fere. 
1660 GAUDEN Browniig 151 There is nothing so audacious 
which wit unsanctified will not. .dare at in Heaven or Hell. 
1697 DRYDEN k'irg. Past. vi. 6 Apollo . . bade me feed My 
fatning Flocks, nor dare beyond the Reed. 

II. trans. (Inflected dares, dared.} 

3. To dare to undertake or do; to venture upon, 
have courage for, face. 

1631 MAY tr. Barclay's Mirr. Mindes n. 135 To dare all 
things, but nothing too much. 1704 SWIFT T. Tub xi, 
Should some sourer mongrel dare too near an approach. 
1827 HEBER \st Olympic Ode 14^, I will dare the course. 
1867 LADY HERBERT Cradle L. in. no To teach them forti- 
tude that they might dare all things, and bear all things for 
their Lord. 

4. To dare or venture to meet or expose oneself 
to, to run the risk of meeting ; to meet defiantly, 
defy (a thing). 

1602 SHAKS. Ham. iv. v. 133, I dare Damnation, .onely 
He be reueng'd. 1611 HEYWOOD Gold. Age i. Wks. 1874 
III. 7 A Crown 's worth tugging for, and I wil ha't Though 
in pursute I dare my ominous Fate. 1645 OUARLES Sol. 
Recant. 23 O whyshould'st thou provoke thy God, and dare 
His curse upon thy practise? 1701 ROWE Amb. Step-Moth. 
iv. i. 1738 If thou still persist to dare my Power. 1727-38 
GAY Fables \. xx. 36., I stand resolv'd, and dare the event. 
1844 LINGARD Anglo-Sax. Ch. (1858) II. xiii. 260 He hesi- 
tated not to dare the resentment of the pontiff. 1853 
C. BRONTE Villette vi, I saw and felt London at last.. 
I dared the perils of the crossings. 

6. To challenge or defy (a person). 

1580 LYLY Eupknes (Arb.>3i6 An English man. .[cannot] 
suffer, .to be dared by any. 1589 Hay any Work 37 What 
wisedome is this in you to dare your betters ? c 1620 Z. BOYD 
2 ion's Flowers (1855) 138 A gyant tall, who darr'd him to 
his face. 1703 ROWE Ulyss. i. i. 270 The Slave Who fondly 
dares us with nis vain defiance. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa 
(i8n)VIII. 395 Woman confiding in and daring woman. 
1813 HOGG Queen's Wake 190 To range the savage haunts, 
and dare In his dark home the sullen bear. 

b. With various const., e.g. to dare (a person) 
to do something, to the fight, etc., t to dare out. 

1590 GREENE Orl. Fur. (1861) 92 With haughty menaces 
To dare me out within my palace gates. 1603 KNOLLES 
Hist. Turks (16381-148 He would . . meet the Rebell in the 
heart of Lydia, and there dare him bat tell. 1606 SHAKS. 
Ant. $ Cl. HI. xiii. 25, I dare him therefore To lay his gay 
Comparisons a-part. 163* RANDOLPH Jcal. Lovers v. viii, 
I dare him to th 1 encounter. 1672 BAXTER Bagshaiv's Scand. 
ii As children dare one another into the dirt. 1785 BURNS 
Halloween xiv, I daur you try sic sportin. 1847 MARRYAT 
Childr. N. Forest xvii, You wish to dare me to it well, I 
won't be dared to anything. 1873 BLACK Pr. Thule xxvii. 
451 He knew she was daring him to contradict her. 

III. Dare say. [From sense i.] a. properly. 
To be as bold as to say (because one is prepared 
to affirm it) ; to venture to assert or affirm. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 4509 1 Cott.) Bot i dar sai, and god it wat, 
'Qua leli luues for-gettes lat '. 4:1350 Will. Palerne 1452, 
I dar seie & so^liche do proue, sche schal weld at wille more 
gold ban }e siluer. f 1460 Play Sacram. 316 Neyther mor 
or lesse Of dokettis good I dar well saye. 1540-54 CROKF. 
13 Ps. (Percy Soc.) 7 My sute is heard . . I dare well saye. 
1570-6 LAMBAKOE Peramb. Kent (1862) 311 No Towne nor 
Citie is there (I dare say) in this whole Shire comparable . . 
with this one Fleete. 1614 BP. HALL Recoil. Treat. 759 
Who devised your Office of Ministery? I dare say, not 
Christ. 1690 BENTLF.Y Phal. 120 This I dare sayis the best 
and neatest Explication . . and . . I believe it the truest. 

b. transf. To venture to say ( because one thinks 
it likely) ; to assume as probable, presume. Al- 
most exclusively in the parenthetic * I dare say'; 
rarely in oblique narration, 'he dared say*. (In 
this use now sometimes written as one word, with 
stress on the first syllable.) 

Some dialects make the past daresaid, darsayed, dessayed. 

1749 FIELDING Tom Jones vn. xii, You give your friend 
a very good character, .and a very deserved one, I daresay. 
1768 STERNE Sent. Journ. I. 54 (The Letter), La Fleur .. 
told me he had a letter in his pocket . . which, he durst say, 
w ' suit the occasion. 1807 ANNA PORTER Hnngar. Bro. v, 
| Other women have admired you as much. .1 dare say'. .'O ! 
if it's only a " dare say " * cried Demetrius, shrugging up his 



DARE. 

shoulders. 1853 MRS. CARLYI.E Lett. II. 221, I daresay you 
have thought me very neglectful. 1885 SIR C. S. C. BOWEN 
Law Rep. 14 Q. B. D. 872, I daresay the rule was drafted 
without reference to the practice at common law. 

Dare (de^-i), v.% Obs. or dial. Also 3 deare, 
4 dere. [Known from ^1200; but not found in 
OE., though the early ME. darien suggests an OE. 
*darian. Perh. identical with the stem of MDu. 
and LG. bedaren to appease, abate, compose, calm, 
Flemish verdaren, verdarien to astonish, amaze ; 
but the word has not been found in the earlier 
stages of the Teutonic langs., and the primary 
signification and sense-development are uncertain.] 
I. intr. 

"\ 1. To gaze fixedly or stupidly; to stare as one 
terrified, amazed, or fascinated. Obs. 

a 1225 Leg. Kath. 2048 pe keiser. .dearede al adeadet, 
druicninde & dreori. 01250 Owl fy Night. 384 'Ich mai 
i-son so wel so on hare, Thejj Jch bi daie sitte an dare. 
c 1350 Will. Palerne 4055 pe king was kast in gret bou^t ; 
he dared as doted man for pe bestes dedes. 1444 Pol. Poems 
(Rolls) II. 218 The snayl gpth lowe doun, Darythe in his 
shelle, yit may he se no sight. 1526 SKELTON Magnyf. 
1358, I have an hoby can make larkys to dare. 1530 
PALSGR. 506/2, I dare, I prye or loke about me, je aduise 
alentour. What darest thou on this facyon ? me thynketh 
thou woldest catche larkes. 1549 THOMAS Hist. Italic 96 
The emperour. . constreigned Henry Dandolo. -to stande so 
longe daryng in an hotte basen, that he lost his sight. 

t 2. fig. To be in dismay, tremble with fear, lose 
heart, dread. Obs. 

c 1300 Cursor M. 21870 (Edin.) For he se sale rise and rute, 
mam man sal dere and dute. c 1340 Gaw. $ Gr. Knt. 2258 
For drede he wolde not dare, c 1440 York Myst. xxviii. 2 
My flesshe dyderis and daris for doute of my dede. 1513 
BRADSHAW St. Werburge i. 2654 Dredefully darynge comen 
now they be, Theyr wynges traylynge entred into the hall. 

f3. To lie motionless (generally with the sense 
of fear), to lie appalled ; to crouch. Also _/?., 
esp. in droop and dare. Obs. 

c 1220 Bestiary 406 Ne stereS je [5e fox] nojt of 3e stede 
. .oc dare5 so je ded were, a 1225 Juliana 42 penne darie 
we & ne durren neuer cumen biuoren him. c 1386 CHAUCER 
Shipmates T. 103 Thise wedded men bat lye and dare As 
in a fourme sit a wery hare, r 1420 Anturs of Art h. iv, 
The dere in the dellun Thay droupun and daren. a 1450 
Le Morte A rih, 2575 Knyghtis of kynges blode, That longe 
wylle not droupe and dare. ? a 1500 Chester PI. <Shaks. 
Soc.) II. 148 (Date of MS. 1592!, Builded thinges to grounde 
shall falle. .And men in graves dare. 

f4. To be hid, lie hid, lurk. Obs. 

a 1225 Leg. Kath. 1135 3ef drihtin, be darede in ure men- 
nesse, wrahte beos wundres. 1382 WYCLIF Mark vii. 24 And 
Jhesus .. mighte not dare or be priny [1388 be hid]. 14. . 
Epiph. in Tundale^s Vis. 107 The worm .. Dareth full oft 



There is moche pryde hydde in the grounde of thyne herte, 
as the foxe dareth in his denne. c 1440 Pronip. Parv. 113 
Daryn, or drowpyn or prively to be hydde, latito, lateo. 

fb. with indirect obj. (dative) : To be hid from, 
escape, be unknown to. 

1382 WYCLIF 2 Pet, iii. 5 It daarith hem [1388 it is hid fro 
hem] willinge this thing. Ibid. iii. 8 Oo thing daare aou not 
or be not unknowun. Acts xxvi. 26, I deme no thing of 
these for to dare him. 

II. trans. 

f* 5. To daze, paralyse, or render helpless, with 
the sight of something ; to dazzle and fascinate. 
To dare larks, to fascinate and daze them, in order 
to catch them. (Cf. sense i, quots. 1526-30, and 
DARING vbl. j. 2 ) Obs. 

1547 HOOPER Ans7i>. Bp. Winchester's Bk. Wks. (Parker 
Soc!) 203 Virtuous councillors, whose eyes cannot be dared 
with these manifest and open abominations, a 1556 CRAN- 
MER Wks. I. 107 Like unto men that dare larks, which hold 
up an hoby, that the larks' eyes being ever upon the hoby, 
should not see the net that is laid on their heads. 1602 
WARNER Alb. Eng. x. xxxix. (1612) 256 The Spirit that for 
God himselfe was made, Was dared by the Flesh. 1613 
SHAKS. Hen. VIU, in. ii. 282 Let his Grace go forward, And 
dare vs with his Cap, like Larkes. 1621 FLETCHER Pilgrim 
i. i, Some costrell That hovers over her and dares her daily. 
1671 TEMPLE Ess. Const. Empire Wks. 1731 I. 90 They 
think France will be dared, and never take Wing, while 
they see such a Naval Power as ours and the Dutch hover- 
ing about all their Coasts. 1860 SALA in Cornh, Mag. 
II. 239 A * dare ' for larks or circular board with pieces of 
looking-glass inserted, used in sunshiny days, for the pur- 
pose o? daring or dazing larks from their high soaring flight 
to within a distance convenient for shooting or netting 
them. 

f6. To daunt, terrify, paralyse with fear. Now 
dial 

1611 BEAUM. & FL. Maid's Trag. iv. \, For I have done 
those follies, those mad mischiefs, Would dare a woman. 
1627 DRAYTON Agincourt 97 Clifford whom no danger yet 
could dare. 1778 Gloss. Ex moor Scolding (ed. 9), Dere, to 
hurry, frighten, or astonish a Child. s.v. Thir, Dere, 
a Word commonly used by Nurses in Devonshire, signifying 
to frighten or hurry a Child out of his senses. 1864 CAPERN 
Devon Provinc., To dare, to frighten. He dare d we, he 
surprized me. / was dare^d, I was surprized. 

Hence Dared///, a. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 3044 Selcuth kni^tis, Sum darid 
\Dnbl. MS. dasyd], sum dede, sum depe wondid. 1563 
Homilies n. Idolatry in. (1^59) 252 They become a* wise as 
the blocks themselves which they stare on, and so fall down 
as dared larks in that gaze. 1678 DRYUEN <"</*> i. i, Then 
cowered like a dared lark. 



DABE. 

Dare, vJ obs. var. DKHE, to injure, hurt. 

Dare (deJ N , rf.i Also 6 darre. [f. DARE t.i] 

1. An act of daring or defying ; a defiance, chal- 
lenge. Now follocj. 

1594 .Firi/ //. Contention v, Can/. Euen when Ihou 
i. 1 1 ii. Dare. I tell thee Priest, Planlagcnets could 
neuer brooke the dare. 1600 HEVWOOU a Edw. IY Wlci. 
1874 I. 96 His defiance and his dare to warre. 1606 SIIAKS. 
Ant. ff Cl. i. ii. ii)i Scxlus Pompeius Hath giuen the dare 
- 



er , sai one o te men. 

f2. Daring, boldness. Obs. 

1595 MARKHAM Sir R. Criimilt Ixxvii, And yet, then these 
my darre shall be no lesse. IS96S|IAKS. i llm. H', iv.i. 78 
It lends. .A larger Dare to your great Enterprise. 

Dare (dej), sb* [f. DARE z/.2] A contrivance 
for 'daring' or fascinating larks. 

1860 SALA Hogarth in Cornh, Mar. II. 239 note. The 
dare' I have seen resembles a cocked hat, or chateau 
trm, in form, and is studded with bits of looking-glass, 
not convex, but cut in facets inwards, like the theatrical 
>rnament cast in zinc, and called a ' logic '. The setting is 



9 AtlutKium 28 Jan. 122/1 The dare for larks, or mirror 

surrounded by smaller ones, over the mantel-piece, which 
exercised many commentators [Hogarth's Distressed fuel]. 

t Dare, s&fl Obs. Also 5 dar. [A singular 
formed on Jars, OF. dars, dare, pi. of dart, dard 
dart, dace. The OF. pi. dars and nom. sing, dars 
became in Eng. darse, darce, DACE.] =DACE. 

[1314 in Wardrobe Ace. 8 Eiim. II, at/u Dars roches et 
pik 2i. &/.] C147S /'id. Vocab. in Wr.-Walcker 763/36 
Hie capita, a dar. 1621 DRAYTON Fofy-oti.xxvi, The pretty 
slender dare, of many call'd the dace. 1708 Honcux 
Rabelais i. iii, As large as a Dare- Fish of Loire. 1740 
R. BROOKES Art o/ Angling I. xxiii. 60 The Dace or Dare 
is not unlike a Chub. 

tDare, darre, si.* Obs. [Cf. F. dare, 'a 

huge big bellie ; also, Dole ' (Cotgr.).] ? A por- 
tion (or some definite portion). 

1518 Pa}ers of Earls of Cnmbrid. in Whitaker Hist 
Craven (1812) 308 Item, for herbes five dares.. for yeast, 
five dares. 1601 F. TATE Hoiiseh. Ord. Edw. If, 2 (1876) 
6 His livere. .shalbe a darre of bredde. Ibid. 9 He may 
take two darres of bred. 

Dare ( = </at), darh, var. of THAU v., need. 

Da-re-all, [f. DARE v.^ + ALL : cf. dare-devil] 
One who or that which dares all ; a covering that 
braves all weather, a ' dread-nought '. 

1840 T. HOOK Fitzherbert I. xi. 120 Enveloped in mackin- 
toshes, great-coats, dare-alls, boas and oilskins. 

Dared, ///. a. : see DARK v.* 
Dare-devil (.de>i|de:vfl), st. and a. [{. DARE 
.l + DEVIL : cf. cutthroat, scarecrcnu.] 

A. sl>. One ready to dare the devil ; one who is 
recklessly daring. 

794 WOLCOTT (P Pindar) Odes to Mr. Paine ii, I deemed 
myself a dare-devil in rhime. 1841 LYTTON in. <J- Morn 
(1851) 152 A dangerous, desperate, reckless dare-devil. 1874 
GRKKN Snarl Hist. x. i Robert Clive .. an idle dare-devil 
of a boy whom his friends had been glad to get rid of. 

B. adj. Of or pertaining to a dare-devil ; reck- 
lessly daring. 

1831 W. IRVING Alhambrall. 193 A certain dare-devil cast 
of countenance. 1860 MOTLEY Netherl. 1. 159 Plenty of dare- 
devil skippers ready to bring cargoes. 

Hence Da-re-devilish a., Da re-de vilism, 
Da-re-de'vilry, -deviltry (U.S.). 

1886 Blachw. Mag. CXL. 737 His faults were dare-devilism 
and recklessness. 1859 Sat. Xev. VIII. 24/2 The dare, 
devilry which prompts a respectable girl to make her way 
into the hauntsof vice. 1886 MRS. C. FRAUD Mils Jacobsens 
Chance I. vi. in The spice of dare-devilry in him was in 
piquant contrast to, etc. 1881 N. Y. Nation XXXII. 369 
No city has for courage and dare-deviltry surpassed Milan 

Dare-fish : see DABE sb$ 

t Da-refnl, a. Obs. rare. [f. DARE sbl or t.l 
+ -FUL.] Full of daring or defiance. 

1605 SHAKS. Macb. v. v. 6 We might haue met them dare- 
lull, beard to beard. 1614 SYLVESTER Part. Verities Royall 
994 Not by the Prowesse. .Of his owne darefull hand. 

Darer (deo-raj\ [f. DAKE.' + -EH.] One who 
dares or ventures ; one who challenges or defies. 

1614 RAIEIGH Hist. World II. v. iii. 16. 454 The best, 
and most fortunate of these Great Darers. 16*4 FLETCHER 
K uli a Wife in. v, Another darer come ? 1748 RICHARDSON 
Clarissa (1811) V. 348 Women to women, thou knowesl,are 
great darers and incentives. 1884 A. FORBES in Eng. llluit. 
"f.f- Dec. 150 Of such men as Cavagnari is our empire i.f 
India a thinker, a doer, a darer. 

DaTesome, a, dial. [See -SOME.] Venture- 
some, foolhardy. 

1864 L. N. COMVM Atherstone Priory I. 101, I don't like 
to see her so careless and daresome-like. 

Darf, var. of DEHF a. Obs., keen, and THARP v. 
Obs., to need. 

Dargftdajy). St. aiu\nort/i.dtal. Alsosdawerk, 
dawark, $ daurk, 9 daark, dark, darrak.darroch , 
dargue, daurg. [A syncopated form of daywei k, 
or dayivark, DAYWOKK, through the series of forms 
dawark, *daark, dark, darg, the latter being now 
the common form in Scotland.] A day's work, the 
task of a day ; also, a defined quantity or amount 
VOL. III. 



33 

of work, or of the product of work, done in a cir- 
tain time or at a ccitain rate of payment ; a task. 

CSM WYNTOUN Chron. ix. xiv. 44 (Jam.) That duleful 
dawerk that tyme wes done. 1489 Act. Audi!. 



. , &araur 

| we twa hae wrought. 1704 Statist. Ace. Scot. XII. 300 
A darg of marl, i.e. as much as could be cast up by the spad 

' 



in one day. 1818 Scorr Hrt. Midi, xxvi, I have a lang day's 
darg afore me. 1831-4 DE QUINCEV Cirsars Wks. 1862 IX. 
51 You did what in Westmoreland they call a good darroch 
1851 GREENWELL Coal-tr. Terms Northumb. if Dark. 21 
n r, a fixed quantity of coal to be worked for a certain 



And goes out himself to his day's darg. 

Hence Da-rg-dayg, days of work done in lieu of 
rent or due to the feudal lord. Da-rger, da-rker, 
Da-rgsman, day labourer. Da'rgtng, working 
as a day-labourer. 

8oi JAMIESON H'ater^Kelfie iv. in Scott Minstr. Sc. 

Bord., The dargcr left his thrift. 1807 I. STACC Poems 64 

The laird and dar'ker cheek by chowle, Wad sit and crack 

of auld lang seyne. 1788 R. GALLOWAY Poems 119 (Jam.) 

Glad to fa to wark that's killing. To common darjuing. 

1885 in D. H. Edwards Mud. Sc. Poets Ser. vm. 44 A bar- 

I gam . for drainin' or for dargin'. 1845 Whistle-binkie Ser. ill. 

T?^ ^ ^" amm dargsmen to put on their claes. 

Dari, - DUHRA, Indian millet or Guinea corn. 

1891 Daily Neva 28 June 2/8 Buckwheat, dari, and millet 

firm. Ibid. 27 Oct. 7/4 Linseed, buckwheat, dari, and millet. 

Darial, dariel(le, var. of DABIOLK Obs., pasty. 

Daric (dse-rik). Also 6-7 darioke, dari(o)que, 

7-9 darick. [ad. Or. Ao/xi*-<!t (properly an adj. 

agreeing with OTOTT//) stater).] A gold coin of 

ancient Persia, said to have been named from the 

first Darius. Also a Persian silver coin of the 

same design, specifically called sieves. 

1566 PAINTER PaL Pleas. I. 40 The King. . sent to the man 
. .a cuppe of golde and a thousand dances. 1586 T. B. La 
Primaud. Fr. Acad. 336 Two cups . . full, the one of Dariques 
of gold, the other of silver Dariques. 1665 SIR T. HERBERT 
Treat. (1677) 243 Timagoras . . had received a bribe of ten 
thousand Dariques or Sagittaries. 1767 SWINTON in Pkil. 
Trans. LVH. 273 note, The bow and arrow.. visible .. on 
a very curious Daric. 1879 H. PHILLIPS Notet Coins 5 The 
Persian Daric, of which an example in silver is shown. 
Darie, obs. form of DAIRY. 
Da-rii. Logic. A mnemonic word designating 
the third mood of the first figure of syllogisms, in 
which, the major premiss is a universal affirmative 
(a), and the minor premiss and the conclusion par- 
ticular affirmatives (i) ; thus, All A arc B ; Some 
C are A : therefore, Some C are B. 

I5S T. WILSON LegUe (1580) 27 Vnto the firste figure 
belong fower Modes . . Barbara, Celartnt, Darii, Ferio . . 
whereby every Proposition is knowne, either to be universal! 
or particular, affirmative or negative. 17x7 PRIOR Alma 
in. 383, I could . . With learned skill, now push, now parry. 
From Darii to Bocardo vary. 1869 FOWLER Ded. Logic 
(ed. 3) 99 Thus Disamis, when reduced, will become Darii. 

Daring (de>rin), vbl. sbl [f. DARE .' + 
-INO '.] The action of the verb DARE ' ; adven- 
turous courage, boldness, hardihood. 

1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. ix. (1632) 596 Incredible 
darings . .were not wanting. i6gi HOBBES Leviath. i. xv. 80 
As if not the Cause, but the Degree of daring, made Forti- 
tude. 1874 GREEN Short Hist. vii. 6. 406 The whole people 
had soon caught the self-confidence and daring of their 
Queen. 

t Da-ring, vbl. sb* Obs. [f. DARE p. 2 ] The 
action of the verb DARE * ; esp. the catching of 
larks by dazing or fascinating them (see DAREi.*5\ 

c 1440 Promt. Parv. 113 Darynge, or drowpynge, licitacio, 
latilatio. i6oa CAREW Cornwall (1811) 96 Little round 
nets fastened to a staff, not much unlike that which is used 
for daring of larks. 1704 Diet. Ritst.j Clap-net and Look- 
ing.glass ; this is otherwise called Donng or Daring. 1766 
PENNANT Zool. I. 150 What was called daring of larks. 
b. attrib. and Comb., as daring-glass, -net. 

1590 GREENE Neuer too late <i6oo> 8 They set out their 
faces as Foulers doe their daring glasses, that the Larkes 
that scare highest, may stoope soonest. 1616 SUKFI.. & | 
MARKH. Country Farme-jiv You. .shall with your horse and 
Hawke ride about her. .till you come so neere her that you 
may lay your daring-net over her. 1659 GAVDEN Tears of 
Church 197 New notions.. are many times.. the daring- 
glasses or decoyes to bring men into the snares of their . . 
damnable doctrines. 

Da-ring, ///. a. 1 [f. DARE i>.' + -ING -'.] 
1. Of persons or their attributes: Bold, adven- 
turous ; hardy, audacious. 

158* STANYHURST,*WS, etc. (Arb.) 143 A lolkye Thrasoni- 
cal huf snufic . . in phisnomye daring. 1596 SHAKS. i Hen. I /'", 
v. i. 91, I do not thinke a brauer Gentleman. .More daring, 
or more bold, is now aliue. 1667 MILTON P. L. vi. 129 Half 
way he met His daring foe. 1758 S. HAYWARD Serm. xvii. 



DABK. 

t 8. In quafciWz/^. comb, with another adj., ai 
daring-hardy. Obs. 

1593 S'/AKS. Kick. II, ,. iii. ,,3 On paine of death, no person 
bejo Ixjld ^>f daring hardle ai to touch Ihr 

Da-ring, ///. a.* Obs. Also 4 dareand. [f. 
DARK v.'^J Staring, trembling, or crouching with 
fear, etc. : see the vb. 



539 The daring insolence . . of prophane Sinners. 1855 
MACAULAY Hist. Eng. IV. 325 Montague, the most daring 
and inventive of financiers. 

2. transf. zndjfg. 

1617 MrnDLKTON & ROWLEY Fair Quarrel i. L 314 To 
walk unmuffl'd . . Even in the daring'st streets through all 
the city, a 1661 FULLER Worthies (1840) IIL 202 Witness 
\y imbleton in this county, a daring structure. 1697 ADOISON 
Ess. on Georgia, The last Georgic has indeed as many meta- 
phors, but not so daring as this. 1876 FREEMAN Norm. \ 
Conii. V. 39 This daring legal fiction. 



affrighted fowle. 

Daringly (deVrinli), adv. [i DABIKO///. a.i 
-t -I.v -.] In a daring manner. 

i6o< CHAPMAN, etc. Kastw. Hoe i. i. (R.), Prouder hopes 
which danngly o'eratrike Their place and meant. 1771 
Junius Lett. xlii. MO The civil rights of the people ire 
daringly invaded. 1848 MACAULAY 1/iit. Eng. II. 533 Men 
asked . . what impostor had so daringly and so successfully 
personated his highness. 

DaringneSB (de-rirjnes). [f. as prec. + -N 



Daring quality or charact< r. 

t6a MABBF. tr. Aleniati's Guzman eTAlf. ii. 70 Fu 
Daringnesse and of Lying. 1647 CLARENDON Hist. Kef. 



vii. (1703) II. 276 [Falkland), The daringnew of his Spirit'. 
1795 COLERIDGE Plot Discov. 40 The frequency and daring. 
ness of their perjuries. 1880 M. BETHAH-EOWAIDO l-'ore- 
stalled I. i. ix. 140 'I"he daringness of. .youth. 

II Dariole. Obs. Also 5 daryol (e, -iolle, -lal, 
yal, -eal, -ielfle, -yel. [a. F. dariolt (14th c.) 
a small pasty ' fijlcd with (lesh, hearbes, and spices, 
mingled and minced together' (Colgr.', now a 
cream-tart.] = CUSTARD I a. 

T a 1400 Morii Arth. 190 With darielles endordide, and 
daynteei ynewe. c 1410 Liber Cocorttm 1 1 862) 38 For darials. 
Take creme of almonde mylkc (etc.). c 1430 Two Cooktry. 
kits. 47 Darj'oles. Take wyne & fressche bro|, Clowes, 
Maces,& Marow..& put ber-to crane. .&]olkys of Eyroun. 
Ibid. 53 Darioles. c 1440 Ant. Cookery in Honstk. Ord. 
(1790) 443 Darvalys. 1664 ETHERBDCE Com. Revenge m. iv, 
I. .did buy a danole, littel custarde. [1813 SCOTT Quenlin 
D. iv, Ordering confections, darioles, and any other light 
dainties he could think of.) 

Dark (daik), a. Forms: 1-3 deorc, 3 dearo, 
dero, doro, dorok, dare, darck, deork, durc, 
3-6 derk, 4 deorke, durke, 4-6 derke, dirk'e, 
dyrk, 5 derck, dyrke, dork. 4-7 darkc, 6 darck, 
deareke, 6- dark. [OE. deoi c (repr. earlier "derk, 
with fracture of e before r + cons.) ; there is no 
corresponding adj. in the other Teutonic langs., but 
the OHG. wk. vb. tarchanjan, tarhntn, tcnhinen 
to conceal, hide, of which the \VGer. form would 
be darknjan, appears to contain the same stem 
derk, dark. In ME. there a a notable variant 
ttierk(e, fherke, thyrke, with the rare substitution 
of initial/, tA, for d, for which see TilEBK.l 

I. literal. 

L Characterized by (absolute or relative) absence 
of light ; devoid of or deficient in light ; nnillumi- 
nated ; said esp. of night. 

Beowulf 3584 Niht-helm xeswearc deorc ofer dryht- 
gumum. c 1000 Ags. Ps. lxxiii(i). 16 l>u dzl setlest and 
decree niht. a 1115 Juliana 30 Dreihen hire into dare 
{v.r. dorc] hus. citjt LAY. 7563 Hit were dorcke pibt. 
f 1340 Cursor M. 16783 (Trin.) pe day wex derker (pen |> 
a W- '47-*S MALORY Arthur xvl. xvii, Hit was soonc 
derke soo that he myght knowe no man. 1548 HALL Ckron. 
113 A verydarke night. 1568 GKAFTON Chron. II. 275 The 

fate was closed, because it was at that time darke. 1697 
>RYDEN I'irg. Geore. iv. 354 Lizards shunning Light, a dark 
Retreat Have found. 1751 JOHNSON Kamolcr No. 108 P lo 



1751 JO 

ept dark. 1861 . 
24 People lose their health in a dark house. 



. . 

The room was kept dark. 1861 FLO. NIGHTINGALE Nursing 



. i*7 J. C. 

WILCOCKS Sea Fisherman 190 They will bite when it U to 
pitchy dark that you can not see to bait your hook. 

t b. A dark house or toom was formerly con- 
sidered a proper place of confinement for a mad- 
man ; hence to keep (a person) dark, to keep him 
confined in a dark room. Obs. 

1590 SHAKS. Com. Err. iv. iv. 97 Both Map and Master is 
posscst . . They must be bound and laidc in some darke 
roome. 1600 A. Y. L. HI. ii. 421 Loue is meerely a mad- 
nesse, and . .deterues as wet a darke house, and a whip, as 
madmen do. 1601 AlFs Well iv. L 106 Till then He 
keepe him darke and safely lockt. 1630 MASSINGER Rene- 
gado iv. i, He. .charged me To keep him [a madman] dark, 
and to admit no visitants. 1687 JKFFERIES in Magd. Coll. 
< >\f. Hist. Soc. '61 This man ought to be kept in a dark 
room. Why dp you suffer him without a guardian ? 

O. Of luminous bodies: Dim; invisible. Dark 
moon = dark of the moon ; f dark star (see 1594 . 

a n3 ('. E. CAri'w. an. 1 106 Se steorra atywde innon Jwet 
tuowest he wics litel gebuht and deorc. 1551 RECORDS 
Cast. Knmul. (!5 5 6i 272 'ITiey . . that be cailAi Cloudy 
starres : and a lesser sorte yet named Darke starres. 1594 
BLUNDEVILJ-/IC. in. l xxiii. (ed. 7)328 Besides these, there 
be fourteene others [stars], whereof five be called cloudy, and 
the other darke, because they are not to be scene but of 
a very quick and sharpe sight. 1653 in Picton 7.'/W 
Munic. Kec. (1883) I. 192 Two lanthoms . . everie night in 
y* dark moone be sett out at the High Crosse. 1860 BART 
ixrrDict. Amer., Dark moon, the interval between the old 
and the new moon. 

2. Of clouds, the sky, etc. : Reflecting or trans- 
mitting little light; gloomy from lack of light, 
sombre. 

c looo Ags. Ps. Ixviii. [Ixix.] 14 Ado me of deope decrees 
wzteres. rugo X if. l.ff. I. 441 365 pat ludlokeste 
weder J at mi^hte beo . . Swart and deork and grislich. c 1325 
E. E. Allit. P. B. 1020 pe derk dede see hit is denied euer 

5 



DARK. 

more. 1460 CAPGRAVE Chron. 152 A wedyr so dirk and so 
lowd that men supposed the Cherch should falle. 1658 
WILLSFORD Natures Secrets 100 Cloudy and dark weather. 
1711 ADDISON Spect. No. 159 * 8 Those dark Clouds which 
cover the Ocean. 1870 C. F. GORDON-CUMMING in CM*. 
\\'ords 133/2 A deep valley, with dark hills on every side. 

3. Of the ordinary colour of an object: Approach- 
ing black in hue. 

1382 WYCLIF Lev. xiii. 6 If more derker were the lepre, 
antf not waxed in the skynne . . it is a scab, r 1400 Lou- 
franc's Cirnrg. 181 If be colour of his bodi be derk Oliver 
blac. 1606 SHAKS. Tr. $ Cr. r. i. 41 And her haire were not 
somewhat darker than Helens. 1795 SOUTHLY Joan of 
Arc v. 27 Her dark hair floating on the morning gale. 1800 
tr. Lagrange's Chem. II. 88 Two liquors, one of which has 
a dark and almost black colour. 1873 Act 36-7 Viet. c. 85 
3 Her name.. shall be marked on her stern, on a dark 
ground in white or yellow letters. 

b. Of the complexion : The opposite of fair. 

c 1400 Rom. Rose 1009 This ladie called was Beaute. . Ne 
she was derk ne broun, but bright. 1784 COOK Third Voy. 
v. iii. (R.), Their complexion is rather darker than that of 
the Otaheiteans. 1870 DICKENS R. Drood ii, Mr. Jasper is 
a dark man of some slx-and-twenty. 

C. Prefixed, as a qualification, to adjectives of 
colour: Deep in shade, absorbing more light 
than it reflects ; the opposite of light, (Usually 
hyphened with the adj. when the latter is used 
attributively.) 



dark mouse or almost black below. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. 
n. xxv, The bound of dark-brown doe. 1846 M'CuLLOCH 
Ace. Brit. Empire (1854) I. 223 The sheep, .many are grey, 
some black, and a few of a peculiar dark buff colour. 1863 
M. L. WHATELY Ragged Life Egypt M\\, 163 Clad in the 
ordinary dark-blue drapery. 
II. fig. 

4. Characterized by absence of moral or spiritual 
light; evil, wicked; also, in a stronger sense, char- 
acterized by a turpitude or wickedness of sombre 
or unrelieved nature ; foul, iniquitous, atrocious. 

/r 1000 Satan 105 (Gr.) Feond seondon re5e, dimme, and 
decree, c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Luke xi. 34 5if Hn eaje . . byS 
deorc call bin lichama by5 pystre. 1377 LANGL._ P. PL B. 
xix. 21 Alle derke deuelles aren adradde to heren it [}>e name 
of ihesus]. 1393 GOWER Con/. I. 63 Semende of light 
they werke The dedes, whiche are inward derke. 1593 
SHAKS. Rich. //, i. i. 169 My faire name . . To darke dis- 
honours vse, thou shalt not haue. Ibid. v. ii. 96 Thou fond 
mad woman Wilt thou conceale this darke Conspiracy? 
1663 J. SPENCER Prodigies (1665) 335 We shall find these 
consecrated weapons of infinite more force against the 
powers of the Dark Kingdom. 1733 POPE Ep. Bathurst 28 
It [gold] serves what life requires, But, dreadful too, the 
dark Assassin hires. 1792 MARY WOLLSTONECR. Rights 
Worn. v. 230 Sometimes displaying the light and sometimes 
the dark side of their character. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. 
I. 166 Associated in the public mind with the darkest and 
meanest vices. 1852 Miss YoNCECVw/vw II. xx. 216 A dark 
tragedy was preparing in the family of King Robert. 

5. Devoid of that which brightens or cheers ; 
gloomy, cheerless, dismal, sad. 

( ? 1000 Wanderer 89 (Gr.) Se ois decree lif deope fceond- 
J>ence|>. 1592 SHAKS. Rom. $ Jut. m. v. 36 More darke & 
darke our woes. 1636 HEYLIN Sabbath \\. 141 Then the 
times were at the darkest. 1715 DE FOE Fata. Instruct. 
i. i. (1841) II. s We don't see the house is the darker for it. 
1818 SHELLEY Rosalind ^ Helen 171 So much of sympathy 
to borrow As soothed her own dark lot. 1849 ROBERTSON 
Serm. Ser. i. iv. (1866) 76 To look on the dark side of things. 
1888 BRYCE Amer. Comm, II. xl. 90 The prospect for such 
an aspirant is a dark one. 

b. Of a person's disposition, etc. : Gloomy, 
sullen, sad. 

1596 SHAKS. Merch. J'. v. i. 87 The motions of bis spirit 
are dull as night And his affections darke as Erebus. 1705 
ADDISON JtalyQ.), Men of dark tempers. 1735 SOMERVILLE 
Chase i. 200 If in dark sullen Mood The glouting Hound 
refuse his wonted Meal. i86a CARLYLE Fredk. Gt. (1865) 
III. ix. x. 178 Ah, ah, you are in low spirits, I see. We must 
dissipate that dark humour. 

c. Of the countenance : Clouded with anger or 
dislike, frowning. 

1599 SHAKS. Ven. <$ Ad. 182 Adonis, .with a heavy, dark, 
disliking eye. .cries * Fie, no more of love ! ' 1821 SHELLEY 
Epipsych. 62 Art thou not.. A smile amid dark frowns? 
1852 MRS. STOWE Uncle Tom^s C. iii, 14 The brow of the 
young man grew dark. 

6. Obscure in meaning, hard to understand. 

c 1320 Cast. Love 71 pauh hit on Englisch be dim and 
derk. c 1380 WYCLIF Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 105 Men ben 
blyndid bi derke speche. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) V. 
279 Hisprophesie J?at is so derk. 1495 Act ii Hen. VII, 
c. 8 Which acte. .is so obscure derke and diffuse that [etc.]. 
1533 COVBRDALE 2 Chron. ix. i The quene of rich Arabia . . 
came.. to proue Salomon with darke Sentences. 1559 SCOT 
in Strype Ann. Re/. I. App. x. 30 This matter is . . darke, 
and of great difficultie to be . . playnlye discussed. 1626 
BACON Sylva 103 The Cause is dark, and hath not been 
rendred by any. 1687 R. L/ESTRANGE Annt>, Dissenter 44 
He 's a little Dark in this Paragraph ; but the Change of 
One Word will make him. .Clear. 1866 ARGYLL Reign Law 
vi, (1871) 209 These may seem far-fetched illustrations, and 
of slight value in so dark a subject. 

fb. Obscure in name or fame; little known or 
regarded. Obs. 

^1374 CHAUCER Boeth. m. ix. 83 What demest J>ou. .is bat 
a dirke |>ing and nat noble }>at is suffisaunt reuerent and 
mysty. 1551 TURNER Herbal i. Prol. A iij a, I . . darker in 
name, and farr vncler these men in knowledge. 1577-87 
HOUNSHKD Chron. III. 1221/1 She hath made hircouncell 
of poors, darke, beggerlie fellows. 



34 

C. Obscure to ' the mind's eye ', or to memory ; 
indistinct, indiscernible. 

1591 SHAKS. Ven. fc Ait. 760 If thou destroy them not m 
dark obscurity. 1610 'J emp. I. ii. 50 What seest thou els 
In the dark-backward and Abisme of Time 1 a 1800 
Cmvi'KK On Kiogr. Brit. 8 Names ignoble, born tobcforgot 
. .dark oblivion soon absorbs them all. 1810 Scon' Lady 
pff.. Ml. i, The verge of dark eternity. 

7. Hidden from viewer knowledge; concealed, 
secret. To keep dark : to keep secret (colloq.*}. 

1605 SHAKS. Lear I. i. 37 We shal expresse our darker pur- 
pose. . Know, that we haue diuided In three our Kingdome. 
1681 CKOWNE Hen. VI, n. 14 By your passions I read all 
your natures, Though you at other times can keep 'em dark. 
1861 DICKENS Gt. Jixfect. \, He hid himself . . kept himself 
dark. 1888 J. PAYN Myst. Mirliriiige xxiii, She kept it 
dark about the young lady who was staying with her. 

b. Of a person : Secret ; silent as to any matter ; 
reticent, not open, that conceals his thoughts and 

designs. 

1675 OTWAY AMUada n. i, But use such secrecy as 
stolen Loves should have, Be dark as the hush'd silence of 
the grave. 1706 J. LOGAN in Fa. Hist. Sac. Mem. X. 145 
He is exceedingly dark and hidden, and thoughts work in 
his mind deeply without communicating. 1738 POPE ///. 
Sat. n. 131 And Lyttelton a dark, designing knave. 1846 
PRESCOTT Ferd. * Isab. I. ii. 125 The dark, ambiguous 
character of Ferdinand. 1885 Century Jlfnf. XXX. 380/2 
Of course, I 'II keep as dark about it as possible. 

8. Of whom or which nothing is generally known ; 
about whose powers, etc., the public are ' in the 
dark'. 

Dark horse (Racing slang), a horse about whose racing 
powers little is known ; hence fig. a candidate or competitor 
of whom little is known or heard, but who unexpectedly 
comes to the front. In U.S. Politics, a person not named 
as a candidate before a convention, who unexpectedly 
receives the nomination, when the convention has failed to 
agree upon any of the leading candidates. 

1831 DISRAELI Yng. Duke v. (Farmer), A dark horse, 
which had never been thought of . . rushed past the grand 
stand in sweeping triumph. 1860 Sat. Rev. IX. 593/1 
A Headship, .often given by the College conclaves to a man 
who has judiciously kept himself dark. 1865 Sketches 
from Camb. 36 (Hoppe) Every now and then a dark horse 
is heard of, who is supposed to have done wonders at some 
obscure small college. 1884 in Harper's Mag. Aug. 472/1 
A simultaneous turning toward a 'dark horse '. 1885 BF.RESF. 
HOPE in Pall Mall C. 19 Mar. TO/I Two millions of dark 
men . . whose ignorance and stupidity could hardly be grasped. 
1888 Boston (Mass.) jfrnl. 19 June 5/4 That a dark horse is 
likely to come out of such a complicated situation as this is 
most probable. 1891 N. GOULD Double Event 8 When he 
won the Regimental Cup with Rioter, a dark horse he had 
specially reserved to discomfort them. 1893 Standard 
17 Apr. 6/6 Irish Wake, a ' dark ' son of Master Kildare. 

9. Not able to see ; partially or totally blind ; 
sightless. 06s. exc. dial. 

138* WYCLIF Gen. xlviii. 10 The eyen fbrsothe of Yrael 
weren derke for greet eelde, and cleerli he my}te not se. 
14. . Stacyons of Rome 321 in Pol. Rel. $ L. Poems (1866) 
124, I mayse now bat ere was derke. 1576 FLEMING Panopl. 
Epist. 242 So farre foorth as my dimme and darke eyesight 
is able to pearce. 1658 ROWLAND Moiiff. Theat. Ins. 1098 
Some there are, that cure dark sights by reason of a Cata- 
ract. 1768 Chron. in Ann. Reg. 203/1 Mr. Bathom has been 
totally dark for seven years. 1806 Meil. Jrnl. XV. 152 His 
other eye was nearly quite dark. 1875 Lane. Gloss., Dark, 
blind. ' Help him o'er th' road, poor lad, he's dark.' 

10. Void of intellectual light, mentally or spirit- 
ually blind; unenlightened, uninformed, destitute 
of knowledge, ignorant. 

c 1374 CHAUCER Boeth. in. ii. 67 Of whiche men be corage 
alwey. .seekeb be souereyne goode of alle be it so tat it be 
wib a derke memorie. 1513 BRADSHAW St. IVerbnrge 
cclxxxviii. Balade i, To be examined by my nidenes all 
derke. rti668 DENHAM (J.), The age wherein he liv'd 
was dark. 1667 MILTON P. L. i. 22 What in me is dark 
Illumine, what is low raise and support. 1688 SHADWEI.L 
Syr. Alsaiia iv, I am not so dark neither; I am sharp, sharp 
as a needle. 1774^ FLETCHER Hist. Ess. Wks. 1795 IV. 15 If 
you oppose his principles . . he supposes that you are quite 
dark. 1837 J- *? NEWMAN Proph. Office Ch. 184 Anglican 
divines will consider him still dark on certain other points of 
Scripture doctrine. [See also Dark Ages in 13 c.] 

H 11. Sometimes two or more fig. senses are 
combined, as in the Dark Continent = Africa. 

1878 H. M. STAN LEY (title), Through the Dark Continent. 
1890 (title), Through Darkest Africa. 1891 BOOTH (title), 
In Darkest England, and the way out. 

12. quasi-iMfe. a. In a dark manner, darkly. 
1600 SHAKS. A. Y. L. in. v. 39 Beauty . . I see no more in 

you Then without Candle may goe darke to bed. 1821 
JOANNA BAILLIE Met. Le%., Ld. John xv, Then dark lower d 
the baron's eye. 1865 Sketches from Camb. 36 A man may 
choose to run dark, and may astonish his friends in the 
final contest of the mathematical tripos. [Cf. dark horse 
in 8.] 

13. Comb. a. adverbial, as dark-closed, -em- 
brmuned, -flowing, -glancing, -rolling, -working ; 
b. parasynthetic, as dark-bosomed, -browed, 
-coloured, -complexioned, -eyed, -haired, -hearted 
(hence -heartedness), -leaved, -minded, -skinned, 
-stemmed, --veiled, -veined, etc. 

1594 DANIEL Cleopatra Wks. (1718) 278 Thou [Nemesis] 
from *dark-clos'd Eternity . . The World's Disorders dost 
descry. 1726-46 THOMSON Winter 813 Sables, of glossy 
black; and *dark-embrowned. 1868 LD. HOUGHTON Select. 
80 The "dark-flowing hours I breast in fear. 1812 BVRON 
Ch. Har. i. lix, Match me those Houries. .With Spain's 
dark-glancing daughters. 1x183$ M R S ' HEMANS Poems, 
Guerilla^ Leader's V&w, Through the *dark-rolling mists 
they shine. 1853 HICKIF, tr. Aristoph. (1872) II. 603 



DARK. 

0, *dark-shining dusk of night. 1859 TKNNVSON Lancelot $ 
Elaine 337 The face before her lived, *Dark-splendid. 1590 
SHAKS. Com. Err. \. ii. 99 *Darke working Sorcerers. 

1863 I. WILLIAMS ISaplisttry 11. xxvii, Dark-bosom'd, 
glorious sea! 1845 MRS. NORTON Child of Islands (1846) 
188 *Dark-browed and beautiful he stood. 1768-74 TUCKER 
Lt. Nat. (1852) II. 369 Whether 1 shall put on. .my *dark- 
coloured suit. 1840 R. H. DANA Be/. Must x. 24 A delicate, 
dark-complexioned young woman. 1605 SHAKS. Lear n. i. 
121 Out of season, threddmg*darke ey'd night. 1814 BYRON 
Corsair in. xvii, And now he turned him to that dark'd- 
eyed slave. 1813 SCOTT Tricrm. n. xxvii, Slow the dark- 
fringed eyelids fall. 1881 LADY HERBERT Edith 2 A bright, 
dark-haired young lady. 1862 M. HOI-KINS Hawaii 367 
In the time of our dark-heartedness. 1870 BRYANT Homer 

1. ii. 61 Forty Mark-hulled Locrian Barks. 1861 Miss 
PKATT Flower. Plants V. 105 The *Dark-leayed Sallow. 
1795 SOUTHEY Joan of 'Arc Vlll. 618 *Dark-minded man! 
1741 YOUNG Nt. Th, ii. 344 Quite wingless our desire, 
In sense *dark-prison'd. a 1600 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. Pref. 
3 The *dark-sighted man is directed by the cleere about 
things visible. 1701 Lond. Gaz. No. 3754/8 Missing.. 
Elizabeth Benson, .dark-brown Hair'd. .a little dark sighted. 
1885 MABEL COLLINS Prettiest Woman ix, The dark- 
skinned Russian women had made a hero of him. 1634 

"Dark- 
Mt. 

C. Specialized comb, or phrases : dark ages, a 
term sometimes applied to the period of the Mid- 
dle Ages to mark the intellectual darkness charac- 
teristic of the time; dark box (Photogr.}, a box 
totally excluding light, used for storing plates, etc. ; 
dark chamber, t (a) a camera obscura (ofa.) ; 
(b) Photogr. dart-room ; f dark-closet, dark 
glasses (see quots.) ; dark-house (see I b) ; t dark 
light = DEAD-LIGHT I ; dark-room (Pho/ogr.}, 
a room from which all actinic rays of light are 
excluded, used by photographers when dealing 
with their sensitized plates : see also I b ; dark 
slide (Photogr.}, the holder for the sensitized 
plate ; f dark tent, a camera obscura ; dark- 
well, an arrangement in a microscope for forming 
a dark background to a transparent object when 
illuminated from above. 

[1687 BURNET Trav. in. ii There is an infinite number of 
the Writers of the 'darker Ages.] 1730 A. GORDON Maffets 
Amphith.yfi A Theatre, .called so in the dark Ages, when 
such Names were given at random. 1837 HALLAM Hisi. 
Lit. I. 5 Gregory 1. .the chief authority in the dark ages. 
1857 BUCKLE Cn'ilis. I. ix. 558 During these, which are 
rightly called the Dark Ages, the clergy were supreme. 
1887 Brit, jfrnl. Photogr. Ii Nov. 713^2 Wind them on to 
rollers to be put into journal bearings in a Mark box.^ 1726 
LEONI Designs 3 b. Ward-robes or Cup-boards, which by 
a new name in the Art are called *Dark-closets. 1867 
SMYTH Sailor s Word-ok., *Dark g-lasses. shades fitted to 
instruments of reflection for preventing the bright rays of 
the sun from hurting the eye of the observer. 1683 Ravin 
Conscience 278 in Songs Lond. Prent. (Percy) 80 But, when 
the shop-folk me did spy, They drew their *dark light 
instantly. 1820 SCORESBY Ace. Arctic Keg. II. 452 We . . 
caulked the dark-lights. 1841 Specif. Claitdefs Patent No. 
9*93' 3 [Red light] allows the operator to see how to perform 
the work without being obliged . . to remain in a *dark 
room. 185* Specif. Nnvltm's Patent No. 179 Apparatus 
for taking photographic pictures without the use of a dark 
room. 1883 W. K. BURTON Mod. Pliotogr. (1892) 21 To 
purchase a ' dark-room lamp ' from a photographic apparatus 
dealer. 1887 Brit. Jrnl. Photogr. ii Nov. 717/1 Professor 
Stebbing exhibited a metal *dark slide. 1706 PHILLIPS 
(ed. Kersey), * Dark Tent, a Box made almost like a Desk, 
with Optick Glasses, to take the Prospect of any Building, 
Fortification, Landskip, etc. 1867 J. HOGG Microsc. i. ii. 83 
The use of a set of *dark- wells. 

Dark (daik), sb. Forms : 4-5 derk(e, 5 dirk, 
6 darcke, 6-7 darke, 6- dark. [f. DARK a. : cf. 
the analogy of light sb. and adj.] 

1. Absence of light; dark state or condition; 
darkness, esp. that of night. 

t Dark of the moon : the time near new moon when 
there is no moonlight : cf. dark moon s.y. DARK a. i c. 

a 1300 K. Horn 1431 He ladde hure bi be derke Into his 
nywe werke. c 1450 Miroitr Salnacioun 1906 To seke Crist 
in the derke with Lanternes and with fire brandes. 1533 



T. WILSON Rhct. (1580) 160 Gropyng in the darcke. 
ROWLANDS Betraying ofClirist Wks. 54 The Sunne was hid, 
nights darke approcht apace. 1626 BACON Sytaa I 276 If you 
come suddenly . . out of the Dark into a Glaring Light, the 
eye is dazeled for a time. 1651 Hartlib's Legacy (1655) ifo 
Gardiners and Husbandmen . . talking of the dark of the 
Moon. 1760 C. JOHNSTON CArjsal (1822) III. 116 He dares 
not to sleep by himself or be a moment alone in the dark. 
1801 tr. C. F. DAMBERGER'S Trav. Africa 122 If a boy is 
born.. in the dark of the moon. 1830 TENNYSON Ode to 
Memory iv, To dimple in the dark of rushy coves. 
b. The dark time ; night ; nightfall. 
c 1400 Destr. Troy 1079 The derke was done & the day 
sprange. a 1400-50 Alexander 4773 It drose to be derke. 
1718 LADY M. W. MONTAGUE Lett. hi. II. 73 Before we got 
to the foot of the mountain, which was not till after dark. 
1771 E. LONG Trial of Dog 'Porter', One evening after 
dark. 1833 HT. MARTINEAU Tale of Tyne i. 3 He quitted 
the keel . . just at dark. 1868 MORRIS Earthly Par. I. 93 
While day and dark, and dark and day went by. 
C. A dark place ; a place of darkness. 




I. 8 Above the Skyes they fix'd his blest abode, And from 
the Darks of Hell fetch'd up the God. 1883 S. LANIKR 
Eng. Novel 47 (Cent. Diet.) Those small darks which are 
enclosed by caves and crumbling dungeons. 



DARK. 



2. fig. .1 /,',!/> in l/i,- Juik : s< u I .KAI-.) 

.1369 CUM, I.,, /',./ l!l,, IIU fhe 609 Toderkc.u..,cu 

;.ll n.y lyhu. 1541 WVATT /V,,,-/. Psalm, |j. The Anthor 

iv, Lulu of (.race lli.it ilaik of sin did hiiic. 



35 



s turned 



8. Dark colour or shade ; spc(. in ,/r/. a part of 

;'/;/. 

light against 
- 



. . 

n picture in shadow, as opi used to a //;'/;/. 
1675 A. BROWNE Ars /'id. 90 Ever place light 
dark, aod d.uk :i.;.mist light. 1715 J. KK-HAKUSON Th. 
I ainlmg 113 A 1'iclurc sometimes consists of a Mass of 
I.icht . .s,,m,-i,m,-s..of a Mass of Dark at the bottom, 
another Lighter above that. i8>i CRAIG Ltd. Drawing 




the spots, but his dark.-.. 

b. fig. A dark spot, n blot. 

1637 SHIRLEY Lady of Pitas, l. i, Had not the poet been 
bribed to a modest hxprcssion of your antic gambols in 't, 
Some darks had been discovered. 

4. The condition of being hidden from view, ob- 
scure, or unknown ; obscurity. In the dark : in 
concealment or secrecy. 

1618 FKI.T.IAM Resolves i. xlii. 127 Vice . . ever thinks in 
this darke, to hide her abhorred foulnesse. 1643 SIR T 
BROWNE Relig. Med. n. 4, I am in the dark to all the 
world, and my nearest friends behold me but in a cloud 
a 1731 ATTERIIUKY (J.), All he says of himself is, that he is 
an obscure person ; one, I suppose . . that is in the dark. 1888 
BRYCK Aiuer. Coimmu. III. xcvi. 342 note. Such legislation 
. . is usually procured in the dark and by questionable means. 
t b. Obscurity of meaning. Obs. 

1699 RF.NTLEY Phal. 175 Ihe Threat had something of 
dark in u. 

6. In the dark : in a state of ignorance ; without 
knowledge as regards some particular fact. 

1677 W. HUBDARD Narrative n. 47 As to what hapned 
afterward, we are yet much in the dark. 1690 LOCKK 
Hum. If ud. u. xxiii. 28 If here again we enquire how 
this is done, we are equally in the dark. 1781 COWPEK 
Mutual Forbearance 9 Sir Humphrey, shooting in the 
dark, Makes answer quite beside the mark. 1791 BUBKE 
Corr. 11844)111. 185, I am entirely in the dark about the 
designs . . of the powers of Europe. 1802 M. EDGEWORTH 
Moral T. (1816) I. xix. 165, I hope you will no longer keep 
me in the dark. 1876 GLADSTONE in Contemp. Rev., June 2 
We seem to be. .in the dark on these.. questions. 

Dark ,da.ik),z>. arch, or dial. Forms: 4 durk, 
4-6 derke, 4-7 darke, 5-6 dirke, 6 dirk, 6- 
dark. [f. DAHK a.] 

fl. intr. To become dark; = DARKEN I. Of 
the sun or moon : To suffer eclipse. Obs. 

[cic-so Suppl. sKlfric's Vac. in Wr.-Wiilcker 175 Crepus- 
citlum, tweoneleoht, itel deorcung.] f 1340 Cursor M. 
'"749 (Trin.) Fro pcnne hit derked til he mone : ouer al the 
world wide. 14^30 LYDG. Chrou. Troy i. vi, The euening 
begon for to dirke. 1485 CAXTON Chat. Ct. 211 In the 
same yere the mime derked thre tymes. 01510 SKELTON 
Col. Chute 196 When the nyght darkes. 1506 H. CLAP- 
HAM Briefe BiUe II. 172 Sun darks, Starres fall, the Moone 
doth change her hue. 1606 SHAKS. Tr. $ Cr. v. viii. 7 With 
the vaile and darking of the Sunne. 

fir. 1400 Pol. Rel. A> L. Poems (1866) 236 Vnder sleube 
darkit be loue of holinesse. 

t 2. trans. To make dark ; = DARKEN 6. Obs. 
ciyn Rcket 1417 Overcast heo is with the clouden.. 
Whar thurf the churchcn of Engelonde idurked beoth 
echon. 138* WYCLIF i AYxraxviii. 45 Heuenes benderkid. 
CI477 CAXTON fftm 296, The ayer was derked and 
obscured with the quarcls and arowes and stones, c 1500 
Not-Br&ivne Maya 32 My somers day in lusty may is 
derked before the none. 1530 PALSGR. 506/2 What thyng 
hath darked this house . . me thynke they have closed up 
dyvers wyndowes. 1634 MILTON Camus 730 The winged 
air darked with plumes. 1715 RAMSAY Eclipse o/Suit ii, 
No cloud may hover in the air, To dark the medium. 
b. To cloud, dim, obscure, hide (something 
luminous). 

c 1380 WYCLIF Stl. Wks. II. 406 pe sunne mai be derkkid 
heter bi fumes bat shal cleer be erbe. -1489 CAXTON 
lilanchaniyn xx. 62 That derked the lyght of the sonne 
'557 TottelCs Alisc. (Arb.) 269 The golden sunne doth 
darke ech starre. 1591 CONSTABLE Saw. in. viii, The 
shadie woods seeme now my sunne to darke. 18. . MRS. 
BROWNING .S'i>ft Trav. 113 Though we wear no visor down 
lodark our countenance. 1850 Poems II. 5 The up- 
lands will not let it stay To dark the western sun. 
f3. To darken in shade or colour. Obs. 
c 1374 CHAUCER Baeth. l. i. 5 The wiche clobes a derkenes 
of a forleten and dispised elde had duskid and dirkid. 
'573 Art of Limning % Orpyment may be.. darked witli 
Okerde Luke. 

t 4. To darken (the eyes or vision) ; to blind. 
lit. andyff. 0/>s. 

c 1374 CHAUCER Bottk. i. i. 7, I of whom be sy?t plonged 
in teres was derked. c 1450 tr. De Imitationt m. xxxviii, 
In many be eye of intencion is dirked. 1508 FISHER Wks. 
(1876)305 Her syght should haue be derked. 1516 Pilg r. 
/Vr/ (W. de W. 1531) 10 b, He wyll blynde thy reason & 
derke thy conscyence. 1653 T. WHITFIELD Treat. Six/. 
Men ix. 40 The Sun . .darkes weake eyes. 

t b. intr. To be or become blind. Obs. 
a 1440 WYCLIF i Sam. iv. 15 [MS. Bodl. 377] Hcli..hise 
i?en derkeclen [v.r. dasweden], and he my^te not se. 
6. Jig. To obscure, eclipse, cloud, dim, sully. 
c 1374 CHAUCER Batik, l. iv. 20 |>e wiche dignite, for bei 
wolde derken it wib medelyng of some felonye. c 1430 
LYDG. Ijochas I. iv. (1544) 6b, Process of yeres .. hath 
. . Derked their renoune by fbrgetfulnes. 1559 Bp. Cox 
in Strype Ann. Ref. I. vi. 100 And shortly [shall] Christ 
Jesus be utterly forgotten, and darked as much, .as in the 
time of Papistry. 1579 SI-KNSKR Slu-f-h. Cat. Feb. 134 Thy 
wast bignes but cumbers the ground, And dirks the beamy 
of my blossomes rownd. 1608 SHAKS. Per. iv. Prol. 35 



Marina 
ful mar 



gets all praises. .This, .darks In Philoten an grace- 
ks. 1647 H. MORE Song of .V,./,/ Dcd. 4 Nor can 
ever that thick clou.L.dark the remembrance of yuur 
e Lustic. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. of Midi, xviii, ( )ne woman 
K enough to dark the fain-si plot that ever was planned 
I- O. nitr. To lie in the dark, to lie hid or unseen. 
" '3 <'"/'""' M- 25444 (Colt.) In hope i durk and dare. 
c'350 '*<//. Palerne 17 be child ban darked in his den 
demly him one. 1398 1 HEVISA ttarth. De P. R. xvn. clii. 
(495) 74 Abowte hegges lurkyth and dcrkylh venemouse 
*i m i e *V A' 4 "? l>f ' lr - Tr y '3285 Folis bat heron the 
iiii-lixly [of the Sirens] . derkon euon down on a depe slomur 
'447 BoonuM S.yntys (Roxb.>2i8 Darkyng in kavys and 

7. intr. To listen privily and insidiously, dial. 

1781 J. HUTTON Tour Cavet Gloss., To dark for tettl, 
lo hearken silently which side the opinion U of i8 
BROCKET N. Country Wdi., Dark, to listen with an in- 
sidious attention. ~* * " " 



Hence Darked///. a., Darking vbl. sb. 

fiojo [see i]. c-i 43 o LYDG. Citron. Troy Prol., Dyrked 
age. a 1541 WYATT(WW//. Atteucto/kisLme, My darked 
pangs of cloudy I noughts. 

Darken (.dauk'n), v. Forms: 4 derkn-en, 
darkn-en, derkin, 4-5 durken, 5 dyrkyn, 6 
dirken, -in, daroken, 6- darken, [f. DARK a. : 
see -N suffix 6. Cf. OHG. tarehanjan under 
DARK a. Not very common in ME. ; in later 
times it has taken the place of DARK v.'] 
I. intransitive. 

I. To grow or become dark, said csp. of the 
coming on of night. (Sometimes with down.) 

a 1300 Cursor M. 24414 (Cott.) pe aier gun durken [v.r. to 
derkin] and to blak. 13.. Thrush 4 Night. 4 in Kcliq 
Antia. I. 241 The dewes darkneth in the dale. 1731 POPK 
Ef. Hurlinglon 80 Behold Villario's ten years' toil complete 
His Quincunx darkens his Espaliers meet.. And strength 
of Shade contends with strength of Light. 1811 SHELI EY 
Protntth. Unh. i. 357 The Heaven Darkens above. 1863 
HAWTHORNE Old Home, London Sukurt (1870) 239, The 
chill, .twilight of an Autumn day darkening down. 
b. To become obscure. (With ufti,/rom.') 

if** WOLLASTOK Relig. Nat. ix. 309 When yonder blue 
regions and all this scene darken upon me and go out. 1848 
LVTTON HaroU i. i, The vision darkens from me. 

1 2. To lie dark, lie concealed ; to lurk privily 
after. Cf. DARK v. 6. Obs. 

c 1410 Anturs o/ Arth. v, Alle dyrkyns [v. rr. durkene, 
darkis] the dere, in the dym scoghes. 1508 DUNBAR Martit 
lyem. f Wcdo 9, I drew in dcrne lo the dyk to dirkin eflir 
myrthis. 

8. To become blind, lit. andyff. 

1580 HOLLYBAND Treat. Fr. Tong s. v. Entncltargcr, 
My sight diminisheth, darkneth, or waxeth darke. 1813 
SHELLEY Q. Mak 149 Man . . Shrank with the plants and 
darkened with the night. 

4. To become dark in shade or colour. 

1774 GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1776) II. 234 The complexions 
of different countries . . darken in proportion to the heat of 
their climate. 1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. 4. //. Jntlt. II. 39 
A bright angel darkening into what looks quite as much like 
the Devil. 1883 Hardimch's Photogr. Chetu. (ed. Taylor) 
248 Such papers darken in the sun. 

6. To grow clouded, gloomy, sad ; esp. of the 
countenance : to become clouded with anger or 
other emotion. 

1741 YOUNG Nt. Th. viii. 97 Where gay delusion darkens 
to despair! 1797 MRS. RADCLIFIE Italian xii, 'Do you 
menace me?' replied the brother,his countenance darkening. 
1814 SCOTT Redgauntlet ch. xvii, His displeasure seemed to 
increase, his lirow darkened. 1850 HAWTHORNE Scarlet L. 
lii, His face darkened with some powerful emotion. 

II. transitive. 

6. To make dark, to deprive of light ; to shut 
out or obstruct the light of. Also fig. 

1381 WYCLIF Im. xiii. 10 Al to-derkned is the sunne in 
his rising. 0533 DKWES Ititrod. Fr. (in Falser. 951), To 
darken, otscurer. im EDES Decades 345 The heauen 
is seldome darkened with clowdes. 1613 SHAKS. Hen. 
/''///, l. i. 226 Whose Figure euen this instant Clowd puts 
on, By Darkning my cleere Sunne. rf67 MILTON P. L. i. 
501 When Night darkens the Streets. ij8 STERNE Sent. 
Journ. (1775! I. 15 (Calais), I perceived that something 
darken'd the passage more than myself . . it was effectually 
Mons. Dessein. 1647 TENNYSON Princess iv. 295 You stood 
in your own light and darken'd mine. 1861 Idylls Dcd. 
17 Like eclipse, Darkening the world. 1864 Aylmcr's f. 
416 The tall pines That darken'd all the northward of her 
Hall. 1874 LOWELL Agassiz i. i, The veil that darkened 
from our sidelong glance The inexorable face. 

b. To darken (a person's} door or doors: emphatic 
for to appear on the threshold (as a visitor) ; usually 
with negative (expressed or implied). 

t79 FRANKLIN Busy-Body Wks. 1887 I. 341, I am afraid 
she would resent it so as never to darken my door again. 
1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa Wks. 1883 VIII. 237 If ever my 
sister Clary darkens these doors again, I never will. 1816 
Elaclnu. Mag. XIX. 11/1 You are the first minister that 
ever darkened these doors. 1841 TENNYSON Dora 30 You 
shall pack And never more darken my doors again. 

7. To deprive of sight, to make blind ; fig. to 
deprive of intellectual or spiritual light. 

'S48 UDALI., etc. Erasm. Par. Matt. iii. 30 That he 
might obscure and darken all men. 158* N. T. (Rhcm.) 
Rom. i. si Their folish hart hath been darkened. 1611 
BIBLE Ps. Uix. 23 Let their eyes be darkened, that they see 
not. 1758 S. HAYWARD Srrm. 41 We shall find the under- 
standing awfully darkned. 1843 CARLYLE fast ft Pr. 
(1858) 115 His eyes were somewhat darkened. 



DARK- LANTERN 

. 8. fig. To make daik or obscure in meaning nr 
intelligibility; to destroy the clearness of. 

.548-9 < Mar. . IU: I ;.,. 1'r.,,,,, , ;/ ( ; ,,. | Th,,.. j , 
more confounde, and darken, then decl:. 
files. 1611 HIIU.I. 7, 

counsel by words wilhoul knowledge? 1674 \ 
t.nthus, 20 You confound things tu^ul,. 
lo the darkning of them in your undentandinn. iili 
Cpwpu Hafe 769 They speak ihe wudoo of the >ks 
Which art can only darken and di.guiw. 1865 KINGILI 

. viii 11m belief was confiwed nd dLkenedby 
a cross-belief. 

9. fig. To clutid with something evil, painful, or 
sad ; to cast a gloom or shadow over. 

I 3 ,K r '. W '|- S " j- ('Sfo) "? He .. thai poiwneth. . nd 
eekethtp obscure and darken liisrstiiii;,ii.,n. ,606 SHAKS 
Ant. ,f Cl 1. iv n Euils enow lo da.ken ..II hi 

' 



. 

i r W A"(- ' 'V- v Wi " 1 lhe fore ' d """ 

n pr 5 ? , M k 3 ?? P" Mirth "' lh ' Vmt - 1 1* 1 G'"" " 
, : * f - ' ' ' * ' " e ' amc of the a post l . . was darkened by 
religious fiction. 1819 LYTTON Ditm-md 41 No, I will not 
darken your fair hopes. 1883 S. C. HALL Retroifecl II 
138 Domestic affliction., darkened the later yean of his lif, 

t b. To deprive (a person) of lustre or rcuow n to 
eclipse. Obs. 

1606 SHAKS. Ant. 4- Ct. in. I. 24 Ambition (ITie Souldien 
vertue) rather makes choice of losse. Then gaine wh'ch 
darkens him. o7 - Car. iv. vii. 5 And you are darkned 
'" 'III* action Sir, huen by your owne. 

1O. To make dark in shade or colour. 

1717 Pore Kloiui 168 Her gloomy presence Shades ev'ry 
How r and darkens ev'ry green. 1811 SHEU.IV C.inevra 16 
1 he bndal veil Which . . darkened her daik locks 1869 
t. A. PAHIIES Pract. Hygiene (ed. 3) 90 Organic matteT 
from the lungs, when drawn through sulphuric acid 
darkens It. 

Darkened (da-jk'nd), ///. a. [(. prcc. + -ml 
Made dark, deprived of light. ///. and fig. 

'733 POPE Hor. Sat. n. i. 97 The darken'd ^om. 1856 
DOVE l.og,c Chr.Failh v. I. 2. 368 Darkened and deluded 
as I am. 1871 MORLEY Vollaire (1886) 241 A generation of 
cruel and unjust and darkened spirits. 

Darkener (da-jk'naa). [-EE.] One who or 
that which darkens. 

1611 Core*., Noircisstur, a blacker, darkener, obscurer. 
1630 BRATHWAIT Kng. Centlem. (1641) 5 A great darkener 
and blemisher of the . . beauty of the mind. 1776 (;. CAMP- 
BELL Philos. Rhet. (1800) 1. 1. ii. 47 A sophister or darkener 
of the understanding. i866(;i ... ELIOT F.Holt III. xxxvii 
48 1 hat feminine darkener of counsel. 

Darkening da-Jk'nirj), vbt. sb. [-INO '.] 

1. The action of making or becoming dark. 



. 

of the understanding. 187$ DARWIN Insectiv. PI. vii. 144 
The . . darkening or blackening of the elands. 

2. Nightfall, dusk. St. 

1814 SCOTT U'av. Ixiii, It's near the darkening, sir. 1865 
MKS. CARLYLE Lett. III. 296 The cock b shut up. .from 
darkening till after our breakfast. 

Da-rkening, ///. a. [-INO 2.] Becoming or 
making dark. 

1715 POPK Odyss. ix. 213 A lonely cave . . with dark'ning 
lawrels covered o'er. 1800 HCRSCHEL in PhiL Trans. XC 
280 To try an application of the darkening apparatus to 
another part of the telescope. 1873 BLACK Pr. Thult 6 
Teaks . . still darker than Ihe darkening iky. 

Darkey : see DABKY. 

Darkfttl (daukful\ a. rare. [OE. deoxfull, 
f. deorc adi. DARK : see -FL'L.1 Full of darkness. 

niojo Liter Scinlilt. Ixi. (1889) 187 Eall lidiama bin 
dcorcfull byS. 1381 WYCLIF Malt. vi. 23 Jif th>n ei^e be 
wcyward, al thi body shal be dcrkful. c 1470 Hi M v 
Wallace viii. 1182 The nycht was myrk, our drayff the 
dyrkfull chance. 1633 T. ADAMS Kxf. 2 Peter i. 19 Pagans 
have a darkful night, 187$ M'CLELLAN AVro Test. 300 
l he horrible degradation of mankind to a darkful existence. 

t Da-rkhede, derkhede. Oos. Also durc- 
hede. [f. DABK a. + -hede, -HEAIL] Darkness. 

"97 R- GLOUC. (1774* 560 poru al be middelerd derkhede 
per was inou. c 1300 St. Bran-tax 37 Al o tide of the dai we 
were in durchede. 

Darkish (da-okif), a. [f. DABK a. + 
Somewhat dark : a. through absence of light. 

1557 SACKVILLE Mirr. Mag., Induct, ii. The dayes more 
darkishe are. 1659 60 PEPYS Diary (1870) I. 56 We drank 
pretty hard . . till it began to be darkish. 1777 HOWARD 
Prisons Eng. (1780) 178 The passages are narrow . . and 
darkish. 1858 GEN. P. THOMPSON Audi Alt. II. lxxvi.29 
A state of darkish twilight. 
b. in shade or colour. 

1398 TREvisA&wtt. De P. R. xix. xxiii. (1495) 877 Matere 
that LS dyinme and derkysshe and vnpnre. 1538 LELAKU 
I tin. IV. 124 The.. Colour.. is of a darkish deepe redde. 
'77S ADAIR Amer. fad. 6 Their hair is lank, coarse, and 
darkish. 1881 C A. YOUNG Sun 197 A scarlet ribbon, with 
a darkish band across it. 

Hence Da, rkishnesa. dnrki>h quality or state. 

'5*3 GOLDING Calvin on Deut. xc. 356 God held them in 
darkishnes, giuing them but a small last of his Grace. 

Da-rk-laTltern. A lantern with a slide or 
arrangement by which the light can be concealed. 

1650 FULLER Pisgah iv. iii. 45 The pillar of ihe cloud, the 
first and perfect pattern of a dark-lantern. 1680 HICKJRIN- 
GILL Mem rj Vaux is Vaujt though he carry a Dark- 
lanthorn and wear a Vizard. l8a8 SCOTT F. M. Perth v, 
Simon Glover. . now came to the door with a dark-lantern in 
his hand. 

b. slang. (See quot. ) 

a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crnv, A Dark-Lanthorn, the 
Servant or Agent that Receives the Bribe (at Court). 



DABKLE. 

Darkle (da-jk'l , v. [A modern word, evolved 
out of the adverb darkling analysed as a pple. 
Probably some parallelism to sparkling has been 
supposed. See next.] 

1. inlr. To lie darkling ; to show itself darkly. 
1819 BYRON Juan n. xlix, The night . . darkled o'er the 

faces pale And the dim desolate deep. 1855 IHACKERAY 
Newcoma Ixxv, The. .Founder'sTomb. .darkles and shines 
with the most wonderful shadows and lights. TXSALeutury 
Klag. 539 The . . fountain . . whose statues and bas-rehels 
darkled above and around a silent pool. 

b. To lie in the dark, conceal oneself. 
1864 THACKERAY D. Dmial viii, I remember half-a-dozen 
mendarkling in an alley. 

2. To grow dark. 

1823 BYHON Juan vi. ci, Her cheek began to flush, her 
eyes to sparkle, And her proud brow's blue veins to swell 
and darkle. 1870 MORRIS Earthly Par. II. nr. 330 Cold 
and grey, And darkling fast, the waste before her lay. 1880 
HOWELLS Unnisc. Country ix. 129 The houses darkled away 
into the gloom of the country. 

b. Of the countenance, etc.: To become dark 
with anger, scorn, etc. 

1800 MOORE Ode to A itncreon xvii. Note 7 Now with angry 
scorn you darkle, Now with tender anguish sparkle. 1855 
THACKERAY Atacwmwlni. (D.), His honest brows darkling 
as he looked towards me. 1886 lllnst. Land. News Summer 
No. 19 '2 Peltzer darkling at him with a wicked grin. 

3. trans. To render dark or obscure. 

1884 [see DARKLING B. 3]. 1893 National Observer 25 
Feb. 370 '2 The dramatist . . whose province it is to darkle 
and obscure. 

Da-rkless, a. nonce-wi. Free from darkness. 

1888 Daily News zq Sept. 5/1 In summer time the 'darkless 
nights' are enchanting. 

Darkling (da-aklirj), adv. and a. [ME. darke- 
liii, {. DARK a. + -LING, adverbial formative : cf. 
back-ling, flat-ling, grove-ling, half-ling.'] 
A. adv. In the dark ; in darkness, lit. 



chamber. 1590 SHAKS. Mids. N. ll. ii. 86 O wilt thou 
darkling leaue me ? 1633 T. ADAMS Exp. 2 Peter 11. i Our 
lamps, .at last go out, and leave us darkling. 1667 MILTON 
/'. /,. in. 39 The wakeful Bird Sings darkling, and in shadiest 
Covert hid Tunes her nocturnal Note. 1712 STEELE Spect. 
No. 406 r 7 Darkling and tir'd we shall the Marshes tread. 
1813 SCOTT Kfkely i. xxvi, Wilfrid is . .destined, darkling, to 
pursue Ambition's maze by Oswald's clue. 1859 TENNYSON 
r'ivien 732 He . .darkling felt the sculptured ornament. 

B. pres. pple. and a. [the ending being con- 
founded with the -ing of participles.] 
1. Being, taking place, going on, proceeding, etc. 
in the dark. 



glimpse of morning, and performs A darkling anthem at the 
gates of Heav'n. 1814 CHALMERS Enid. Chr. Revel, x. 285 
A single word from God . . is worth a world of darkling 
speculations. 1859 G. MEREDITH R. Feverel xx, Here like 
darkling nightingales they sit. 1863 MRS. OLIPHANT Salem 
Ch. xvi. 286 The mother and son hurried on upon their 
darkling journey. 

2. Characterized by darkness ; lying in darkness ; 
showing itself darkly ; darksome, obscure. 

1739 P. WHITEHEAD Manners 3 A doleful tenant of the 
darkling Cell. 1855 M. ARNOLD Balder Dead ii, And by 
the darkling forest-paths the Gods Follow'd. 1865 GOSSE 
Land ff Sea (1874) 20 Another, -brook that breaks out from 
its darkling bed beneath dwarf willows. 

fir. 1795 G. WAKEFIELD Reply to Age of Reason, Part II, 
24 To let the sun of your intellect shine out . . for the illu- 
mination of us darkling mortals. 1813 SCOTT Kokeby vi. xiv, 
Darkling was the sense ; the phrase And language those of 
other days. 1878 WHITE Life in Christ III. xix. 257 Some 
darkling sensation of pleasure or pain. 

3. Darkening ; obscuring. 

1884 LOWELL Poems, To Holmes, As many poets with 
their rhymes Oblivion's darkling dust o'erwhelms. 

4. Darkling-beetle, a black beetle, Blaps mor- 
lisaga, living in dark places, as cellars, etc. 

1816 KIRBY & Sp. Entomol. 11843) I. 335 Mr. Baker, .kept 
a darkling beetle (Blaps mortisaga) alive for three years 
without food of any kind. 1836-9 TODD Cycl. Anat. II 
863/2 The fifth section, -includes, -the darkling-beetles. 

Da'rkling, sb. nonce-wd. [See -LING.] A child 
of darkness ; one dark in nature or character. 
1773 J. Ross Fratricide I. 629 (MS.) I'll catch Th 
lous darkline fi.e. Cainl at his first recoil, And. tern 
175 The morning . . 



iinpetuo"us darkling [i.e. Cain] at fiis first recoil, And. tem- 
porize his hatred to my wish ! Ibid. I. i 
ought his darkling to the field. 



C 



Da'rklings, adv- rare. [f. DARKLING adv., with 
adverbial genitive : cf. backward, -wards, .etc.] In 
the dark ; = DARKLING adv. 

a 1636 Bp. HALL VVks. (1837-9) VII. 344 (D.) Idle wantoi 
servants, who play and talk out their candle-light, and then 
go darklings to bed. 1783 BURNS Halloween xi, To the 
kiln she goes then, An' darkling grapit for the bauks. 1847 
Tait's Mag. XIV. ii A kind of pantomime, .done dark 
lings m a lawyer's back shop. 

"b. At darklins is used dialectally. 

1870 E. PEACOCK Ralf Skirl. I. 282, I wonder you'r 
not scared to be with her by your sen at darklins. 

t Da'rklong, adv., obs. variant of DARKLING 
[Cf. headlong^ sidelong ;] 

1561 T. HOBY tr. Castiglwne's Conrtyer (1577) M vj a, Th 
two arose and wente to bed darkelong. 1577 EDEN & 
WILLKS Hist. '/>?'. 258 b, Darkelong without al pompe anc 
ceremonies, buryed in a dunghil. i6ao SHELTON Qni.\ 



36 

IV. xiv. 112 Sometimes he went dark-long and without 

L Darkly (daukli), adv. [f. DARK a. + -LY *. 
JK. had Jeorcllce ; but the word appears to have 
)cen formed anew in ME.] In a dark manner or 
vay. In OE. known only in they?f. sense ' darkly 
n a moral sense, horridly, foully'. 
c 1000 Gloss. Prudent. 142 Tclrtau, deorclice. 

1. In the dark ; in secrecy, secretly. 

c 1600 SHAKS. Sana, xliii, When I sleep, in dreams they 
my eyes] look on thee, And darkly bright are bright in 
ark directed. 1601 Alts Well IV. iii. 13, I will tell you 

thing, but you shall let it dwell darkly with you. 1631 
.VEEVER Auc. Fun. Man. 223 Bradwardin lieth buried in 
he South wall, somewhat darkly, a 1845 HOOD Irish 
'choolinaster vi, Tame familiar fowls . . sit darkly squatting. 

2. With a dark or sombre hue. 

1509 HAWES Past. Pleas. XLIV. ii, On his noddle darkely 
lamyne Was set Saturne. 1641 FRENCH Distill, v. 1 1651) 
39 Melt it not, onely let it darkly glow. 1794 SOUTHEY 
Sana, viii, How darkly o'er yon far-off mountain frowns i he 
gather'd tempest! a 1835 MRS. HEMANS Poems, Modern 
Greece, The river's darkly-rolling wave. 1843 MRS. BROWN- 
NO To Flush iii, Darkly brown thy body is. 

3. In a gloomy, frowning, ominous manner. 
1594 SHAKS. Rich. Ill, i. iv. 175 How darkly, and how 

deadly dost thou speake ! 1601 - Twel. N. II. i. 4 My 
tarres shine darkely ouer me. 1814 BYRON Corsair i. ix, 
His frown of hatred darkly fell. 1837 HAWTHORNE Twice 
1'old Y'. (1851) 1. v. 76 The men of iron shook their heads 
and frowned so darkly, that the revellers looked up. 

4. In an obscure, vague, or mysterious manner. 
1377 LANGL. /'. /'/. B. x. 372 Where dowel is, or dobet 

lerkelich }e shewen. c 1450 Merlin 53, I . . will speke . . so 
lerkly that they shul not vndirstonde what I sey. 1570 
FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 213 This booke was . . written of 
ett purpose very darkely. 1840 MRS. NORTON Dream 151 
darkly-worded spells. 1889 JESSOPP Coming of Friars i. 3 
Jecause he spoke so darkly, men listened all the more eagerly. 

5. With obscure vision ; dimly, blindly. 

<ri43o I'ilgr. Lyf Manhode n. Ivii. (1869) 98 Sum time 
hou shall se me thikkeliche and derkliche. 1526 Pilgr. 
Pcrf. (W. de W. 1531) 185 In this lyfe we se and knowe 
;od but confusely or derkly, as it were by a glasse. 1732 
^OPK Ess. Man n. 4 A being darkly wise, and rudely great. 
1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. a) I. 42? Are not we.. seeking to 
discover that which Socrates in a glass darkly foresaw ? 
Da-rkly, a. rare. [-LY 1 : cf. sickly] Dark- 
ooking, somewhat dark. 

i8ai CLARE fill. Minstr. II. 52 Sweet tiny flower of 
darkly hue. 

Da-i'kinans. Thieves' cant. [f. DAUK a. : the 
second element occurs also in crtukmans a hedge, 
lightmans the day, etc.] The night. 

1567 HARMAN Caveat 85, I couched a hogshead in a 
Skypper this darkemans. 1611 DEKKER Roaring Girle 
Wks. 1873 III. 216 With all whom I'le tumble this next 
darkmans in the strommel. a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant, Crem, 
Darkmans-Budgc . . one that slides into a House in the 
Dusk, to let in . . Rogues to rob. 1737 Bacchus tr Venus, 
Each Darkmans I pass in an old shady Grove. 1815 SCOTT 
Guy M. xxviii, Men were men then, and fought other in the 
open field, and there was nae milling in the darkmans. 

Darkness (dauknes). [OE. deorcnes, -nys, f. 
de.orc DARK a. + -nes, -nis, -nys, -NESS.] The 
quality or state of being dark. 

1. Absence or want of light (total or partial). 

a 1050 De Vitiis in Liter Scintill. (1889) 228 On (>yssere swa 
micelre deorcnysse. 1320 Cast. Love 1706 Another peyne 
they shull have of derknes. c 1385 CHAUCER /,. G. W. Prol. 
95 1 MS. Gg) And clothede was the flour . . ffor derknesse of the 
nyht. (1440 Pronip. Parv. 121 Dyrkenesse, obscuritas. 
1508 FISHER Wks. (1876) 50 Bytwene the shynynge lyght 
and black derknes. 1667 MILTON P. L. i. 63 No light, but 
rather darkness visible Serv'd only to discover sights of woe. 
1860 TYNDALL Glac. i. xxv. 188 An aperture through which 
the darkness of the chasm was rendered visible. 

2. The quality of being dark in shade or colour. 
0374 CHAUCER Boeth. I. i. 5 pe wiche clobes a darkenes of 

a forleten and dispised elde had[de] duskid and dirked. 
1413 LYDG. Pilgr. Smvle n. lix. (1859! 57 The f y re taketh 
smoke and derkenesse of the mater to whichehe is comoyned. 
1818 SHELLEY Laon xil. xxiii. 7 The glossy darkness of 
her streaming hair. 1856 RUSKIN Mod. Paint. IV. v. xvin. 
3 Darkness mingled with colour gives the delight of its 
depth and power. 

3. Want of sight ; blindness. 

1:1374 CHAUCER Troylns iv. 272 Ende I wil as Edippe in 
derknesse My sorowfull liff. 1568 TuRNER_//efAi/ in. 6 



4. Jig. a. The want of spiritual or intellectual 
light; esp. common in biblical imagery. 

Kingdom, power of darkness '. the empire of evil. Prince 
of darkness : Satan. 

CI340 Cursor M. 17881 (Trin.) J>o folk in dedly derkenes 
stad pis grete lijt made hem glad. 1382 WYCLIF Col. i. 13 
The which delyuerde vs fro the power of derknisses. 1526 
Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 4 The prynce of derknts.. 
our goostly ennemy the deuyll. 1531 TINDALE Exp. i Jo/in 15 
All that lyue in ignoraunce are called darknesse. 1654 
WHITLOCK Zootomia 140 A second famous Leader under the 
Prince of Darknesse. 1712 ADDISON Spect. No. 419 F 5 The 
Darkness and Superstition of later Ages. 1766 FOKDYCE 
Serin. Yng. Wotn. (1767) II. viii. 6 The powers of darkness 
. .concur, .in misleading. 1871 MORLEY Voltaire (1886) 229 
They [the clergy] were . . the incarnation of the average dark- 
ness of the hour. 

b. Absence of the 'light' of life; death. 

1388 WYCI.IF Job x. 21 Befor that Y go. .to the derk lond, 
and hilid with the derkness of deth. 1535 COVERD. Job x. 
21 To that londe of darcknes.se & shadowe of death. 1603 
SHAKS. Meas.for *!/. in. i. 14 If I must die, I will encounter 



DARLING. 

darknesse as a bride, And hugge it in mine armes. Mod. 
The d.-trkness of the tomb. 

5. Gloom of sorrow, trouble, or distress. 

c 1645 HOWELL Lett. (1650) I. 142 There is some dark- 
ness happened betwixt the two favourites. i8n SHELLEY 
Bigotry's Victim iii. 7 The darkness of deepest dismay. 

6. A condition or environment which conceals 
from sight, observation, or knowledge ; obscurity ; 
concealment, secrecy. 

i38a WYCLIF Matt. x. 27 That thing that Y say to 5011 in 
dercnessis, saye Jee in the lijt. 1543-4 Act 35 Hen. I'lII, 
c. i The vaile of darcknes of the vsurped power, .of the see 
and bishoppes of Rome. 1601 SHAKS. TtveL A', v. i. 156 To 
vnfold, though lately we intended To keepe in darkenesse, 
what occasion now Keueales. 1692 E. WALKER Epicittvf 
Mor. (1737) 'To the Author', Truth's still in darkness un- 
discovered. 1869 FREEMAN Norm. Cong. (1876) Ill.xii. 253, 
I found the question wrapp_ed in darkness. 1889 J. CORBETT 
Monk xiii. 191 This formidable figure that had arisen so 
suddenly and with such mystery, this man of daikness 
[Monk]. 

7. Obscurity of meaning. 

1553 T. WILSON Khet. (1580) 165 Poeticall Clerkes..de- 
lightyng muche in their owne darckenesse. a 1568 ASCHAM 
Scltolem. (Arb.) 156 The vse of old wordes is not the greatest 
cause of Salustes roughnes and darknesse. 1666 BOYLE 
Orig. Fortnes ff Qnal., Apt to occasion much darknesse 
and' difficulty in our enquiries into the things themselves. 
(11715 BURNET Own Time (1823! I. 279 He preached and 
prayed often himself, but with so peculiar a darkness. 

f Da-rkship. 06s. nonce-wd. [See -SHIP.] The 
personality of one who is dark. 

1707 E. WARD Hud. Rcdiv. (1715) n. 7 That his Darkship 
[i. e. a devil] was unable To terrify an English Rabble. 

Darksome (dauksz>m), a. [f. DARK it. + 
-SOME : cf. toilsome.'] 

1. Characterized (more or less) by darkness; 
somewhat dark or gloomy. Now chiefly a poetic 
synonym of dark, of vaguer connotation. 

1530 PAI.SGR. 309/2 Darkesome, tenebreux. 1549-62 STERN- 
HOLD & H. Ps. cxxxvi. 9 And Starres that doe appeare To 
guide the darksome night. 1667 MILTON P. L. 11. 973 By 
constraint Wandring this darksome desart. 1718 ROWE tr. 
Lucan 357 She seeks the Ship's deep darksom Hold below. 
1848 M. ARNOLD Sick King Bokhara, Alone and in a dark- 
some place Under some mulberry-trees I found A little pool. 

2. Somewhat dark in shade or colour ; sombre. 
1615 G. SANDYS Trait. 73 He hath a little haire on his 

vpper lip . . of a darksom color. 1667 MILTON P. L. xil. 185 
A darksom Cloud of Locusts swarming down. 1807 
WORDSW. White Doe iv. 56 With pine and cedar spreading 
wide Their darksome boughs on every side. 1879 DIXON 
Windsor 1. i. 2 Darksome clump, and antique tower. 

3. fig. a. Characterized by obscurity of meaning. 
1574 tr. Marlorafs Apocnlips i To the Fathers of olde 

tyme, Daniels vision seemed moste darkesome. 1597-8 Br. 
HALL Sat. in. Prol., Whose words wereshort, and darksome 
was their sense. 1626 BACON Sylva 1 900 Paracelsus and some 
darksome authors of Magic. 1838 C. SUMNER .Mem. t, Lett. 
(1878) I. 379 The darksome notes and memoranda which he 
made on the margin of the volumes he read. 

b. Characterized by gloom, sadness, or cheerless- 
ness. 

1649 ROBERTS Claris Bibl. ii. 24 All my darksome doublings 
fled away. 1719 D'URFEY Pills (1872)! V. 109 It is a darksome 
Passion. 1828 CARLYLE Misc. (1857) I. 199 His darksome, 
drudging childhood and youth, a 1845 HOOD Two Swans 
iv, In darksome fears They weep and pine away. 
C. Morally of dark character. 

1880 M'CARTHY Own Times IV. Ixvii. 532 Some rather 
darksome vices, .prove their existence in the character. 

Hence Da-rksomeness, darkness, obscurity. 

1571 GOI.DING Calvin on Ps. xviii. 12 Darksomnesse of 
water. 1583 Calvin on Dent. xlii. 248 Let vs not charge 
it [God's truth] with darksomenesse. 01642 SIR W. MON- 
SON Naval Tracts v. 495/2 The Darksomness of the Night. 

Darky, darkey (da-aki). [f. DAKK a. + -Y, 
dim. and appellative : cf. BLACKY.] 

1. The night, slang. 

1789 G. PARKER Life's Painter 124 (Farmer) Bless your 
eyes and limbs..! don't come here every darkey. 1836 
R. BURROWES Death of Socrates in Rel. Father Prout 
(1860) 269 Then at darkey we waked him in clover. 

2. A dark-tantern. slang. 

1812 J. H. VAUX Flash Diet., Darky, a dark lanthorn. 
1838 DICKENS O. Twist xxii, 'Crape, keys, centre-bits, 
darkies nothing forgotten ? ' inquired Toby. 

3. A negro, a blacky, colloq. Also attrib. 

1840 R. H. DANA Bef. Mast xxxiii. 120 The darkey tried 
to butt him. 1883 Century Mag. XXVII. 132 The manners 
of a corn-field darky. 1884. \<)th Cent. Feb. 246 A cofim of 
curious darkey workmanship. 

4. A blind man. dial. 

1807 J. STAGG Poems 144 A darky glaum'd her by the hip. 

Darling (daulin.), sli. and a. Forms: 1-3 
deorling, (i dior-, dir-, dyrling), 1-6 derling, 
(4-6 derlinge, -yng(e), 2-4 durling, -yng, 5-6 
darlyng(e, 6 darlinge, 6- darling ; also 3 deore- 



ling, 3-6 dereling, -yng, 4-6 deer(e)ling, -yng, 
6-8 dear-ling, (6 -inge, -yng(e). [OE. deorling, 
dlcrling, deriv. of dior DEAR : see -LING. Thence 
ME. dereling, derling, which subseq. became dar- 
ling, as usual with er followed by a consonant ; but 
the analytical dere-ling, dear-ling also continued 
in partial use till the iSth c. or later, as a dialectal 
or nonce-form.] 

1. A person who is very dear to another ; the 
object of a person's love ; one dearly loved. Com- 
', monly used as a term of endearing address. 



DARN 

, 888 K. ,l.i nil / '. \xxix. 10 Se K<xkunda an weald 
fccfr-il'o 1.' tiU.li..ilni:'..s I . -. r. deorlinfiasj. (897 -Grtrory'* 
/'tts(.\. ;y .1 l>i haniilu ft.i in ( .<wlrs (tirlingc. t 1OOO A(.KKic 
lltuii. (']']i<rijc) 1. 58 (llo.tw.) lohanncs sc GodsjMillrrtr, 
< 'i istrs dyrlitii;. it ixoo .l/f'/vi/ < ^it- }'is t 'i i--i -,cal one beon 
inou allc his ilmlin^'fs. c 1350 // 'ill, I'alerne 1538 Swetiup 
welcome ! Mi derwor|nj lU-rTiiii;. 1388 WVCI.IK Song Sol. i. 
i i My itcrlyng is to me a cluster of cipre tre. ? 111400 
( 'ht-sti'r flay* in. 372 And now farewell my darling decrc. 
1562 J. HKYWOOD /Vw. ft RptRr. (1867) 65 It is better to !; 
An nidi- rn.'iiis derlyng, than a yong mans werlyng. 1583 
Si. \NvtiLKsr sKneis ii. <Arb.) 61 rice, fle, my sweet darling. 
1714 < I,\Y S/ic/>/t. II 'eek v. no While on her UcarlinK's IJed 
her Mother sate. 184* TKNNYSON Gardener's Dau. 273 
The idol of my ycnith. The darling of my manhood. 1859 
Merlin ty y. 395 Answer, darting, answer, no. 

tb. A favourite, a minion. Obs, 
c 888 K. /KLFRKD/>WM. xxvii. g a 3'f 8c licodehis dysift. . 
j,wa wel swa his dyse^um deorlingum dyde. a 1400-50 
Alexander 3442 An aid derling of Darius was duke made 
of pers, 1530 PALSGR. ai^'i Dcrlyng, a man, mignon. 
15*8 HAI.L Ckron. (1809) 219 The Quenes dearfyngc 
William Uuke of Suffolke. 1579 J. STUBHKS Gaping Gulf 
K viij, The king, .had like to haue marred al, by lauishing 
out a word hereof to one of hys deerelyngs. a 1719 
ADOISON (J.), She became the darling of the princess. 
C. The favourite in a family, etc. 
c 1330 R. BRUNNEC/m>. (1810) soKnoute of his body gate 
sonncs |>re. . Knoute lufed[Harald]best, he was hisderlyns;. 
1675 Art Content m. iv. 5 9 'i*he most discountenanc'd 
child oft makes better proof, than the dearling. i7ia 
AHBUTHMOT John Bull in. ii, John was the darling! Me 
had all the good bits. 

d. One meet to be much loved, a lovable 
creature, a ' pet*. 

1799 SOUTIIKY King of Crocodiles u, Six young Princes, 
darlings all, Were missing. 1863 Miss BHADDON Eleanor's 
Viet. (1878) iii. 23 His duty towards those innocent darlings. 
1864 KINGSLEY in Life xxi. (1879) II. 173 With every flock 
of sheep and girls are one or two enormous mastiffs . . They 
are great darlings, and necessary against bear and wolf. 

2. transf. and Jig. a. of persons, as the darling 
of the people, etc. 

c os I--AV. 6316 Alfred be king, Englelondes deorling. Ibid. 
25576 pa spac Angel be king, Scotten-: deorling. 1548 UDALI,, 
etc. Erasm. Par. Luke Pref. 8 Wantons and derelynges 
of fortune. 1615 BACON Adv. Learn. H. xxiii. 36 Augustus 
Otsar. . when he was a dearling of the Senate. 1639 FULLER 
Holy War (1640) i A prince so good, that he was styled 
the Darling of mankind. 170* Eng. Theopltrast. 193 
Fortune turns.. every thing to the advantage of her Dar- 
lings. 1875 STUBBS Const. Hist, III, xxi. 508 Henry V was, 
as he deserved to be, the darling of the nation. 

b. of things. 

c 1430 Hymns Vifg. (1867) 25 Loue is goddis owne der- 
lin^c. 1577 tr. BitlTingers Decades (159,2) 303 Where God 
is, (litre also is Patience his derling which he nourisheth. 
1604 SHAKS. Oth. in. iv. 66 Take neede on't, Make it a 
Darling, like your precious eye. 1750 G. HL'CHKS Barbadoes 
Pref. i Then Oratory became their darling. 1870 EMERSON 
Soc. ff Solit., Work $ Days Wks. (Bohn) III. 67 Trade, 
that pride and darling of our Ocean. 
ftS. A name for a variety of apple. Obs. 
1586 COUAN Haven Health (1636) 101 The best Apples 
. .are Pepins, Costards. . Darlings, and such other. 
4. Comb , as darling-like adj. (nonee-wd.}. 
1873 BROWNING AW Coil. Nt.-cap 835 Her figure ? some- 
what small and darlinglikc. 

B. adj. [altrib. use of j(5.] Dearly loved, very 
dear; best-loved, favourite, a. of persons. 

[1509 HAWES Past. Pleas, xvi. Ixxli, Dyane derlyng pale 
as any leade.] 1596 SPENSER /'*. Q. iv. Prol. v, Dred infant, 
Venus dearling dove. 1667 MILTON P. L. n. 373 His 
darling Sons. 1736 W. THOMPSON Epiihalanrinm xiv. 9 
Our dearling prince. 1819 SHELLEY Cyclops 246 My darling 
little Cyplops. 1849 DICKKMS Day. Copp. xxxii, My un- 
changed love is with my darling child. 

b. of things. 

c 1600 SHAKS. Sonn. xviii. 3 Rough winds do shake the 
darling buds of May. 1645 FULLER Good Th. in Rod T. 
( 1841 1 64 To acknowledge my darling faults. 1701 W.WOTTON 
Hist. Rome, Marcus \. ^ Philosophy was his darling Study. 
J 799 COLERIDGE Dtvir$ Thoughts vi, The Devil did grin, 
for his darling sin Is pride that ape* humility. 1848 
MACAUI.AV Hist. Knf. I. 101 A few enthusiasts, .were bent 
on pursuing, .their darling phantom of a republic. 

Hence \ttoncc~wds.*) DaTliugt'. trans., to address 
as * darling' ; Da'rlingly adv. ; Da rlingness. 

1888 LADY V. SANDAKS Bitttr Refitnt. III. u. 23 They 
still darlinged and dearctl each other as heretofore, especially 
in the presence of others. 1873 BROWNING Red Colt. AV.- 
cap 1600 Writing letters daily, duly read As darlingly she 
hands them to myself. 1875 Aristoth. Apol. Wks. XIII. 
30 Right they named you . . some rich name . . KaJlistion ? 
Phabion for the darlingnessT 

Darloch, var. of DOHLACH. 

Darn (dam), v. Forms: 7-8 dern, dearn, 7- 
darn ; 9 Sc. dern. [Derivation unknown. 

The verb appears about 1600, and becomes at once quite 
common : it may be that this particular way of repairing 
a hole or rent was then introduced. The form suggests 
relationship to DERN (later d<im^ secret, hidden, and Us 
verb dern, darn to conceal, put out of sight ; but satis- 
factory connecting links between the two have not yet 
been found. On the other hand the Celtic derivation sup 
Bested by Wedgwood is absolutely inadmissible, Wei: 
darn * piece, fragment ' has no association with darning or 
mending in any way, and the sense ' patch ' given by Owen 
Pughc is correct only in the sense that a ' piece ' may be 
i!s'd to patch. The Welsh dantio hosan would mean ' to 
cut a stocking to pieces' with a knife'; 'to darn a stocking' 
is crcithio h<nan. (D. Siivan Evans, and Prof. Rhys.) 

trans. To mend (clothes, etc., t$p. stockings; by 
tilling- in a hole or rent with yam or thread inter- 



preti. 
Darn 
Chaivba- 
darn' 



37 

woven so as to form a kind of texture. (This is 
done willi a diiming-needle.) 

ci6op ^'. J:lh. llamch. Ilk. in Househ. Ord. dm) l;\ 
The Serjant hath fur his fee, all the covcrpannes, drinking 
towells, and other linen clothe . . that are darned. 1603 
HOLLAND ritttunh's Mar. 781 (K.) For spinning, weaving, 
denting and drawing up a rent. 1611 Com*, Rentraire 
. . to draw, dearne, or sow vp a rent in a garment. 1697 
/.unit. <rii3. No. 33O3/4 Breeches darned with Worsted at 
the Knees. 1710 STEKLE Taller No. 245 P 2 Four I'air 
of Silk-Stockings curiously denied. 1836 MRS. CARLYLE 
Lett. I. 63 The holes in the stair-carpet all darned. 1881 
BESANT & RKK Ctafl. of Fleet n. lii. 11883) "35 His grey 
stockings were darned with blue worsted. 

atsol. 1710 OAY Poems (17451 I. 231, I can sow plain- 

/ork, I can darn and stitch. 1875 1 lain Needlework 18 
The machine is not yet invented which can patch or darn. 

//c. 1641 Mil ION Church Govt. vi. f i8st) 128 To dearn up 
the rents of schisme by calling a councell. 

b. To thread one's way in and out between 
obstacles. 

1890 nlaclno. Mag. No. 897. 9/1 Lithe bodies . . darning 
themselves out and in of the many-coloured seething crowd. 

Darn, sb. [f. DABN v.] The net or result of 
darning ; a hole or rent mended by darning. 

1710 Land. Gat. No. 5868/9, i.. Muslin Apron, with a 
large Darn in the Bottom. 1851 Beck's Florist 40 Then 
she d . . wash my linen, or put a patch here and a dai n there. 
1870 Miss BIKD Rocky Mount. I. 245 One pair of stockings, 
such a mass of darns that hardly a trace of the original 
wool remains. 

Darn, var. of DERN a. and v. 

Darn, Darnation, Darned, perversions of 
DAMN, DAMNATION, DAMNED, in profane use. 
(Chiefly U.S.) 

1837-40 HAUBURTON Clockm. (18631 39 I guess they are 

I'etty considerable superfine darned fools. Ibid. (1873* 02 
' n it all, it fairly makes my dander rise. 1844 Jehu 
wincaa ii. in Halliwell Dut. (1865) I. p. xv, I'll be 
I'd if I know. 1848 LOWELL Biglow P. i. xiii, Ef you're 
arter folks o' gumption, You've a darned long row to hoe. 
1861 H. KINCSLEY Raxenshoe vi. ii).', My boy.. was lost 
in a typhoon in the China sea ; darn they lousy typhoons ! 
Darned (damd),///. a. [f: DAUNT.'] Mended 
by darning. 

1618 WITHER Brit. Rememb. v. 1019 Peec'd, and neatly 
dcarned. 1838 DICKENS O. Twist iv, A suit of thread-bare 
black, with darned cotton stockings. 1847 LD. LINDSAY 
Chr. Art I. 137 A piece of darned and faded tapestry. 
Darnel (daunel). Forms: 4-5 dernel, 5 
denial, -eU, darnelle, -ylle, -all, 6 dernell, (der- 
nolde). 6-7 darnell, -all, 4- darnel. [Occurs also 
in the Walloon dialect of Rouchy, 'darnelle, ivraie, 
lolium temuletiium ' ; ulterior history unknown.] 
1. A deleterious grass, Lolium ttmultnltim, which 
in some countries grows as- a weed among corn. 

Known first as the English name for the hlium of the 
Vulgate : .see COCKLE j*.' 2. The grass is now rare in Eng- 
land, but appears to have been much more common formerly 
when seed-corn was largely imported from _the Mediter- 
ranean regions, where the weed abounds. It is now held to 
be deleterious only when infested by ergot, to which it is 
particularly liable. 

c 1325 Metr. Horn. 145 Than com his fa, and seu nht thare 
Darnel, that es an iuel wede. (. 1340 Cursor M. 1 138 ( Fairf.) 
Kquete darnel [Colt., Gilt, zizanny, Triti. cokul] sal hit 
tie. 138* WVCLIF Matt. xiii. 25. < 1440 Promp. Pan. no 
DerneT, a wede, zizauia, lolliuin. 1513 FITZHERB. Hint. 
% 20 Demolde growelh vp streyght lyke an hye grasse, and 
hath longe sedes on eyther syde the stcrt. 1571 J. JONES 
Bathes Rjickstone 5 b, Some darnell is crepte in amongest the 
good corne. 1605 SHAKS. Lear iv. iv. 5. 1697 DKYUEN / 'irg. 
1'ast. v. 56 Oats and Darnel choak the rising Corn. 1741 
I.ontl. ft Country Brciv. \. (ed. 4) 10 Darnel is a rampant 
Weed and grows much among some Barley, especially in 
the bad Husbandman's Ground. 1799 Mid. Jrnl. II. 106 
Externally applied, darnel is said to produce anodyne 
properties. 1833 TENNYSON 1'oems 3 Then let wise Nature 
work her will And on my clay her darnels grow. 

b. Sometimes ujed as a book-name of the genus 
Lolium. Red darnel: Rye-grass, /.. pcrcnne. 

1647 FULLER Goad Tk. in Worse T. (1841' 109 There is 
a kind of darnel, called lolium mrrimum. 1794 MARTYS 
Kmssean's Sot. xiii. 143 Lolium or Darnel, has a one- 
leaved involucre containing one flower only. 

2. Loosely ' applied to Papaver Rhotas, or some 
other corn-field poppy' ; Britten Sc. Holland). 

1611 DRAYTON Poly-olb. xv. (R.), The crimson darnel 
flower, the blue-bottle and gold. 

3. fig. Cf. COCKLE. TARES. 

1444 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 216 Nor of thy lounge be nat 
rekVe'lees, Uttre nevir no darnel with good com. 1563 87 
FOXE A. * M. (1684) III. 501 The detestable darnel of 
desperation. 1590 H- BARKOW Brit/ Disctn: 3 [Satan] 
sowing his darnel of errors and tares of discord amongst 
them, a 1640 J. BALL A asm. te Cau ii. (1643) 12 A graine 
of good corne in a great dealc of darnell. 

attrib. 1868 LOWELL Under Willmis vi, No darnel fancy 
Might choke one useful blade in Puritan fields. 

4. attrib., and Comb., as darnel-lite adj. 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny II. 144 Darnell floure laid too, with 
Oxymell, curcth the gout, c liao Z. BOYD Zioa's Flowers 
(1855) 73, I dizzy am as fed with Darnall seede. 1834 Brit. 
HHSD. I. 511 f-'eslma loliticea, or darnel-like fescue. 

Darner ^daunai). [-EB.] 

1. One who darns. 

1611 COTGR., Rentraievr, a Seamster. .or Dearner. 1837 
HT. MARTINEAU Soc. Amer. III. 149 The humble stocking- 
darner. 1841 LANE Arab. Nts. III. 177 He look (the veil] 
forth from the shop, and gave it to the daruer. 

2. A darning-needle. 

1881 in CAVLFIKLD & SAWARD Diet. Needlework. 



DAKT. 

Darnex, darnick, obs. forms of DORSICK. 

Darning ('Ii jiij), vH. ii>. [-IKO '.] 

1 'I In- in timi or proccsa of filling up a hole in a 
faliric with thread or yarn in interwoven 
the result of such mending. 

1611 Co-run., Rtntrnicture. .adearning. . 

No. 5868/9, i long Muslin Apron . . lite middle flourished 
with Sprigs of true Darning. 188* .V/i. Karen's Temft. 
' lid her ' 



I. 311 



ity usually did 



darning* and mending* in 

her own apartment. 1886 B. C. SAWARD in Housewife I. iv. 
loo/i To understand grafting, patching, SWM darning, 
ladder darning, and corner darning, as well as plain darning. 

b. fig. ( ' Threading ' one's way in and out) 

1881 MRS. HOLMAN H L-NT TA/ArV. 7rrr. 114 Phccbe. .made 

her way by a darning process up to. -the official dignitary. 

2. Articles darned or to be daincd. 
Mod. The week's darning lay on the table. 

3. Comb. , as darning toork ; darning-ball, -la*t, 
an egg-shaped or spherical piece of wood, ivory or 
other hard substance, over which a fabric U 
stretched while being darned ; darning-needle, 
a long and stout needle used in darning ; darning- 
stitch, a stitch used in darning which imitates the 
texture of the fabric darned. 

1711 SHAFTESB. Charac. (1737) HI. 265 The gouty joints 
and darning-work . . by which, complicated periods are w 
curiously strung, or hook'd on, one to another. 1848 HOR. 
SMITH Idler ttpon town 54 This case . . containing two 
bodkins and a darning needle. 

Darnix, darnook, obs. forms of DOBNICK. 
Daroga, darogha (dar<7-ga). Anglo-lnd. 
Also 7 daruga, derega, droga, droger, 7-8 de- 
roga, 8 darouga, [a. Pers. and Urdu *j^-> 
dardghah, contr. )>* droghah governor, overseer.] 
j A governor, superintendent, chief officer, head of 
police or excise. Under the Mongols, the Governor 
of a province or city, but in later times gradually 
degraded. 

1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (16381 132 The Daraguad in 
person came. 66 J. DAMES tr. Olearius' Voy. Ambass. 
232 The Baily, or Judge of the City, whom they call 
Daroga. 1753 HANWAY 7'rav. (1762) 11. xv. 11.413 Orders 
beins given to the darougas . . not to let any one pass. 1815 
ELPHINSTONE Caithil (1842) II. 265 The Darogha of the 
Bazars fixed prices, and superintends weights and measures. 
1891 Daily News 19 July 7/3 The official . . sent it off to 
Gwalior by a daroga. 

Darr, obs. form of DABF. z>.' 

Darraign, -rain e, -rayne, -rein e, -reyne, 
etc., var. of DEHAIGN Obs. 

tDarrei*n, ". Old Law. [a. OF. darrain, 
derrein (still in various F. dialects dcrain. Jarain, 
etc. = F. dernier) : late 1-. *de-rctr,inus hinder, f. 
de retro (whence F. derriere) behind.] 

Last, ultimate, final ; =DEK.MKH. Darrein pre- 
sentment : the last presentation to an ecclesiastical 
' benefice (as a proof of the right to present) : sec 
quot. 1760. Darrein resort: ^ dernier restart. 

[iao* BRITTON iv. i, De assise de Dreyn Present. Ibid. 
IV. Xll7 5 Si le derreyn verdit soit contrarie at premer.] 
'SSS Acl ' M<"V 2nd Scss. c. 5 Any writ of assise of darren 
prcsenlment. i67m W. DK BRITAINK Interest Eng. Outek 
War 9 War is the darrein resort of every wise and good 
' Prince. 1760 BURN Keel. Law I. 26 Darrein presentment 
is a writ which lieth, where a man or his ancestor hath 
presented a clerk to a church, and afterwards uhe church be- 
coming void by the death of the said clerk or otherwise) 
a stranger presenteth his clerk to the same church, in dis- 
turbance of him who had last . . presented. 1833 Act 3-4 
Will. IV, c 27 J 36 And be it further enacted, That no . . 
Writ of Assize of novel disseisin. . Darrein-presentment. .or 
' Mort d'ancestor. .shall be broushl after the Thirty-first Day 
' of December One thousand eight hundred and thirty-four. 

Darse, obs. var. of DACE, a fish. 

Darst(e, obs. pa. indie, of DABE .l 

Dart (dait), sb. Also 4-6 darte, 7 Sc. dairt. 
[a. OF. dart, accus. of dan, dars, in I jth c. dani 
= Pr. dart, Sp. and It darJo] 

1. A pointed missile weapon thrown by the hand ; 
a light spear or javelin ; also applied to pointed 
missiles in general, including arrows, etc. 

c 1314 Guy II 'arm. > A.) 3488 I-iunces, swerde*, and dartes. 
c 1330 R. BRUNNE Ckron. (1810) 178 A darte was schot to 
bem, bot non wist who it schete. c 1400 Destr. 1 roy 10548 
Parys cast at the kyng . . pre dames. 1535 COVERDALE 
Prav. xxvi. 18 As one shuleth deadly arowes and dartes. 
i66a J. DAVIES tr. MaxdelsUs Trao. n. 156 They use no 
other Arms than the Dart, (which they cast, .dexterously . 
1718 POPE Iliad iv. 511 The sounding darts in iron tem- 
pests flew. 1840 THIRLWAU. Greta VII. 7 After a short 
siege, he was killed by a dart from an engine. 
\3. fig. 

1381 WYCUF Efh. vi. 16 The firy dartis of the worste 
enrnye. 1509 HAWES Past. Pleas, xu. i, Deth with his 
darte arest me sodenly. 1664 EVELYN K<U. Hart. (1720) 
201 The too parching Darts of the Sun. 1764 koto**; 

Tnsv. 231 Love's and friendship's finely pointed dart . a 1639 
PRAED Poems (1864) II. 259 The lightning's vivid dart. 

C. trans/. A kind of eel-spear (see quot. 1883) ; 
a needle-shaped piece of caustic used in surgery ; 

t a representation of a dart or arrow used to mark 
direction on a drawing, etc. (obs. ; the tongue or 

spear of flame produced by a blowpipe. 

1784 Sfecif. Waits Patent No, 1432. 9 The direction at 

motion of these . . wheels U shown by the darM. 1816 Aecvx 



DART. 

Clu-ni Tests (1818) 174 Expose it to the flame of a blowpipe 
dart. 1876 tr. Ziemsscn's Cycl, Mcd, IV. 80 Darts of equal 
parts of iodine and iodide of potassium prepared with 
dextrine atid made as fine as Carlsbad needles, are used_ . . 
with success in the treatment of. .hypertrophied tonsils. 
1883 G, C. DAVIES Norfolk Broads xxxi. (1884) 244 ** 
spear in use on the Ant and Thurne is the dart, and is made 
with a cross-piece, with barbed spikes set in it like the 
teeth of a rake. 

2. Zool. An organ resembling a dart : spec. a. 
The sting of a venomous insect, scorpion, etc., or 
that part which pierces the skin. b. A dart-like 
organ in some gastropods, having an excitatory 
function (see dart-sac in 8). 

1665 HOOKE Microgr. 163 The Sting of a Bee.. I could 
most plainly perceive.. to contain in it, both a Sword or 
Dart, and the poisonous liquor that causes the pain. 1768 
BEATTIE Minstr. i. x, It poisons like a scorpion's dart. 1860 
HAWTHORNE Marb. Faun jcx, His [a demon's] scaly tail, 
with a poisonous dart at the end of it ! 1861 HuLMEtr. 
Moquin-Tandon n. HI. ii. 84 Their [snails'] generative 
organs . . contain a copulative pouch, the dart enclosed in 
a sac. 1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 118. Ibid. 
481 Some Pulmonata and certain species of ^ Doris possess 
a dart, attached in the former to the female, in the latter to 
the male, duct. 

3. Dress-making. A seam joining the two edges 
left by cutting a gore in any stuff. 

1884 Dress Cutting Assoc. Circular^ To sew the Darts (or 
Breast Plaits) commence at the top, holding both edges 
even for one inch. 1893 Weldon's Ladies' JrnL XIV. 
252/3 The shape is fitted with hip darts. 

4. A name for the snake-like lizards of the genus 
Acontias (formerly supposed to be venomous 
serpents) from their habit of darting upon their 
prey ; = dart-serpent, -snake (see 8). 

1591 PERCIVALL Sp. Diet., Tiro t a caste, dart, also a ser- 
pent called a dart . . Acontias. 1607 TOPSELL Serpents 
(1608) 696. 1635 SWAN Spec. M. (1670) 440 The Dart taketh 
his name from his swift darting or leaping upon a man to 
wound and kill him. 

f6. The fish otherwise called DACE or DARE. 
1655 MOUFET & BENNET Health's Improy. (1746) 371 
Daces or Darts, or Dares, be of- .good Nourishment. 
b. Short for dart-moth : see 8. 

6. [f. the vb.] The act of darting; a sudden 
rapid motion. 

1721 K. BRADLEY Wks. Nat. 71 The first Dart they make 
at any thing. 1850 Arab. Nts* (Rtldg.) 306 A bird made 
a sudden dart from the air upon it. 1867 TROLLOPE C/iron. 
Barset II. Ii. 87 She rose quickly, .and prepared herself for 
a dart at the door. 

b. The act of casting a dart or pointed missile ; 
the range within which it may be thrown. 

1839 T. BEALE Sperm Whale 180 With their harpoons 
held above their heads ready for the dart. Ibid. 182 The 
whale continuing to descend the moment either of the boats 
got within dart of him. 

7. Australian slang. Plan, aim, scheme. 

1887 FARRELL How he died 20 Whose ' dart' was to ap- 
pear the justest steward that ever hiked a plate round. 
1889 BOLDREWOOD Robbery under Arms (1890) 29 The 
great dart is to keep the young stock away from their 
mothers until they forget one another. 1890 Melbourne 
Argus 9 Aug. 4/2 When I told them of my ' dart ' some 
were contemptuous. 

8. Comb., as dart-caster \ dart-holding, -shaped^ 
~ivounded adjs. ; dart-moth, a moth of the genus 
Agrotis, so called from a mark on the fore wing ; 
dart-sac, a hollow structure connected with the 
generative organs of some gastropods, from which 
the darts (2 b) are ejected ; dart- serpent, dart- 
snake, a snake-like lizard of the genus Acontias 
(-DART 4). 

1550 NICOLLS Thitcyd. 118 (R.) A certaine nomber of 
slingers and *dart-casters. 1647 H. MORE Song of Soul 
in, Ixviii, No fear of Death's *dart-holding hand. 1819 
G. SAMOUELLE Entomol. Compend, Index, *Dart-moths. 1848 
Proc. Benv. Nat. Club II. 329 Agrotis segetum (the Dart 
Moth\ and Agrotis exclamationis (the Heart and Dart 
Moth). 1870 ROLLESTON Anim. Life 49 A cylindrical hollow 
muscular organ, the *dart-sac. 1607 TOPSELL Serpents 
(1653) 697 Suddenly there came one of these ^Dart-serpents 
out of the tree, and wounded him. 1745 P. THOMAS Jrnl. 
Ansotfs Voy. 338 (C Good Hope-* The Eye-Serpent .. is 
also call'd sometimes the Dart~Serpent, from its darting 
or shooting himself forward with great swiftness. 1835-^6 
TODD Cycl. Anat. I. 203/1 *Dart-shaped mandibles. 1688 
J. CLAYTON in Phil. Trans. XVIII. 135 This I think 
may.. be referred to the *Dart-Snakes. 1843 J. DAYMAN 
tr. Dante's Inferno xxiv. 154 Though puffsnake, dart- 
snake, watersnake, she {Libya] boast, a 1400-50 Alexander 
225 Hire bewte bitis in his brest. .as he ware *dart-wondid. 
Dart (dait\ v. [f. DART sb. : cf. F. darder 
(igthc.) from dard.~\ 

fl. trans. To pierce with a dart or other pointed 
weapon ; to spenr, transfix. Also_/i. Obs. 

fi374 CHAUCER Troylns iv. 212 As the wilde bole., 
ydarted to the herte. 1557 Tottell's Misc. (Arb.) 234 Till 
death shall darte him for to dye. 1624 CAPT. SMITH 
I'ireinia \\. 32 Staues like vnto lauelins headed with bone. 
With these they dart fish swimming in the water. 1632 
LITHGOW Trav.x. 489 When death, .had darted King lames 
of matchlesse memory. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa Wks. 
1883 VI. 159 She . . darts dead at once even the embryo hopes 
of an encroaching lover. 1752 BOND in Phil. Trans. XLVII. 
431 (They] are never sure of darting a whale, till they are 
within a yard. 

2. To throw, cast, shoot (a dart or other missile) 

1580 NORTH Plutarch (1676) 770 Such other lauelins a 

the Romans darted at them. 1662 J. DAVIES tr, Mandehlo'i 



38 

Trav. 51 A kind of long headed Pike, which they dart with 
great exactness. 1770 LANGHORNE Plutarch 1(1879) ! 4*V 
He bound it fast to a javelin, and darted it over. 1839 
T. BEALE Sperm Whale 161 They .. sometimes get near 
-nough to dart the harpoon. 

3. transf. wAfg. To send forth, or emit, sud- 
lenly and sharply ; to shoot out ; to cast (a glance) 
jirickly and keenly. 

1592 SHAKS. Ven. fy Ad. 196 Thine eye darts forth the 
fire that burneth me. 1596 Tarn. Shr. v. ii. 137 Dart not 

L;ornefull glances from those eies. 1634 SIK T. HERBERT 
l'rav. (1638) 171 The Sunne darted his outragious beames 
so full upon us. 1676 Phil. Trans. XI. 680 (Fire engine) 

L'he water issuing out of the tube that darts it. 1703 
BOSMAN Guinea (1721) 246 The Camelion .. when a Fly 
comes in his way. .darts out his Tongue with utmost Swift- 
ness. 1784 COWPER Task n. 720 His gentle eye Grew 
stern, and darted a severe rebuke. 1835-6 TODD Cycl. 
Anat. I. 272/1 Darting the bill with sudden velocity into 

he water. 1852 THACKERAY Esmond i. viii, Her eyes . . 
darted flnshes of anger as she spoke. 

4. inlr. To throw a dart or other missile. 

1530 PALSGR. 506/2 These Yrisshe men darte best, or 
hrowe a darte best of all men. 1614 RALEIGH Hist. World 
i. 370 One Laodocus in darting. 1662 J. DAVIES tr. 

'Jlearius' t'oy. A mbass. 72 They pursue her [the whale) and 

dart two or three times more at her. 

5. To move like a dart ; to spring or start with 
L sudden rapid motion ; to shoot. Abo J$f* 

1619 FLETCHER False One n. i, Destructions darting from 
.heir looks. 1781 GIBBON Decl. f F. III. 1. 119 They dart 
away with the swiftness of the wind. 1794 MRS. RADCLIFFE 
Myst. Udolpho x\\'\ t A thousand vague fears darted athwart 
icr mind. 1851 M RS. STOWE Uncle Tom's C. xiii, ' No, no ', 
said little Ruth, darting up. 1885 Spectator 18 July 950/1 
A deer darts out of the copse. 1886 RUSKIN Prxterita I. 296 
The road got level again as it darted away towards Geneva. 

t Dartars. Obs. Also darters. [Corruption 
of F. dartre : see DARTRE.] A disease of sheep : 
;ee quots. 

1580 IVell of Woman Hill, Aberdeen A ivaj It perfytlie 
curis the exteriour scabbis, wyldefyre, dartens, and vther 
'Ithines of the skyn. 1587 MASCALL Govt. Cattle^ Shcepe 
, 1627)221 There is. .a certaine scab that runneson thechinne 
which is commonly called of the shepheards the dartars. 
1726 Diet. Rust. led. 3', Chin-scab^ a Scabby Disease in 
Sheep, .commonly call'd The Darters. 1741 Compl. Fain. 
Piece in. 496 There is a certain Scab on the Chin of Lambs 
at some Seasons, occasioned by their feeding on Grass 
covered with Dew ; it is called by the Shepherds the Dartars ; 
which will kill a Lamb if not stopt. 

Darted (da-ited),///. a. [f. DART v. +-EDM 

1 1. Pierced with, or as with, a dart ; punctured. 

c 1374 [see DART v. i]. 1622 H. SVDENHAM Serin. Sol. Occ. 
n. (1637) 161 With darted bosomes and imbalmed hearts. 
1763 C9LLINSON in Phil. Trans. LIV. 67 Several darted 
twigs [i.e. pierced by insects] were .. carefully examined, 
and opened. 

2. Thrown or shot as a dart ; sent or put forth 
suddenly and rapidly. 

1669 DRVDEN Tyran. Love iv. i, A darted Afandate came 
From that great Will which moves this mighty Frame. 
1671 Conq. Gran. i. i, The darted Cane, a 1711 KEN 
Edmund Poet. Wks. 1721 II. 314 Darted Pray'r returns for 
darted Spight. 1859 TENNYSON Vivien 935 With darted 
spikes and splinters. 

Darter (dautai). [f. DART v. +-EB 1 .] 

1. One who throws or shoots darts; a soldier 
armed with a dart. 

1565-73 COOPER Thesaurus s.v. Certus, laculis certus, a 
sure and cunning darter. 1580 NORTH Plutarch ^(1676) 391 
Appointing his Archers and Darters to hurl, .their Darts. . 
to the tops of the Houses, a 1656 USSHER Ann. (1658) 730 
Having a strong guard of darters and slingers. 1820 EDGE- 
WORTH Mem. I. 199 He was called Jack the Darter. He 
threw his darts, .to an amazing height. 1849 GnojEGreece 
II. liii. VI. 520 To organise either darters or slingers, 
f b. A harpooner. Obs. 

1724 R. FALCONER I'oy. (1769)8 The wounded Fish [dolphin] 
immediately flounces .. which the Darter observes, giving 
him Rope and Play. 

2. A person or animal that darts or moves swiftly. 
1818 BYRON Ch. Har, iv. Ixvii, The finny darter with the 

glittering scales. 

f 3. = DART sb. 4, dart-snake. Obs. 
1607 TOPSELL Serpents (1608) 696 Certain [serpents] in 
Hungary . . do leap upon men, as these darters do. 1820 
W, TOOKE tr. Luc i an I. 96 Innumerable asps .. darters, 
cow-suckers and toads. 

4. a. English name of the genus Plotus or family 
Plotidto of web-footed birds of the pelican tribe, 
with long neck and small head, found in parts of 
tropical Africa and America, and in Australia; so 
called from their way of darting on their prey. 

1825 GORE tr. BlumenbacKs Nat. Hist. v. 126 Ankinga, 
the Darter. P. ventre albo. 1881 MANVILLE FENN Off to 
Wilds xxx. (1888) 210 That curious water-bird, the darter, 
swimming with ks body nearly submerged, and its long, 
snakjr neck, ready to dart its keen bill with almost lightning 
rapidity at the tiny fish upon which it fed. 

b. //. The order Jaculatores in Macgillivray's 
classification of birds, comprising the kingfishers, 
bee-eaters, and jacamars ; from their habit of dart- 
ing upon their prey. 

5. A name for various fishes ; esp. the small 
fresh-water fishes constituting the N. American 
subfamily Etheostominx, of the family Percufa, 
which dart from their retreats when disturbed. 

1884 GOOUE Fisheries of U. S. 417 Darters are found in all 
fresh waters of the United States east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 1887 C. C.ABBOTT Waste-Land M'and. vii. 210 There 



DARWINIANISM. 

was a goodly company of little darters or etheostomoids . . 
all of one species the common tessellated darter. 

Darting (<la'Jthj),zV. rf. [-IKO'.] The action 
of the verb DAIIT, q.v. ; throwing or shooting of 
darts, etc. ; rapid movement as of a dart, etc. 

1565-73 Coot'EK Thesaurus, Campus iacnlatoritts, a fielde 
where men exercise darting. 1626 BACON Syh'a 944 Sudden 
Glances, and Darlings of the Eye. 1694 Ace. Sev. Late 
Voy. II. (1711) 220 Their Fishing ordinarily is darting, their 
Darts are long, strongly barbed. 1756 MOUNSEY in Phil. 
Trans. I. 21 Pain on the stomach, .with darlings inwardly. 
1839 T. BEALE Sperm Whale 161 They then make use of 
:he lance either by darting or thrusting. 

Da'rtiiig, ///. a. [-ING^.] That darts (see 
the verb). 

1. trans. Shooting darts ; shooting or casting 
forth like a dart. 

1606 SHAKS. Ant. ft Cl. in. i. I Now darling Parlhya art 
thou slroke. 1634 MILTON Comns 753 Love-darling eyes. 
c 1825 LONGF. Burial of Minnisink vii, With darting eye 
and nostril spread. 

2. inlr. Moving or shooting swiftly like a dart. 
1664 EVELYN Kal. Hort. (1729) 197 The sudden darting 

Heat of the Sun. 1859 TENNYSON Enid 1318 They vanish'd 
panic-stricken, like a shoal Of darting fish. 

Hence Da'rtingly adv., Da'rtiug-ness. 

1674 N. FAIRFAX BulkffSelv. 129 When we give a darting- 
ness to outcasts [i.e. missiles]. 1840 WORCESTER, Dartingly. 

Dartle (.daut'l), v. rare. [A modern dim. and 
iterative of DART v. : cf. sparkle.] To dart or 
.shoot forth repeatedly (trans, and intr.). 

1855 BROWNING My Star, My star that dartles the red 
and the blue. 1893 Athenxwn 18 Mar. 346/2 He. .showed 
me Ihe cheslnut logs which spit and dartle, the birch logs 
which smoke and moulder. 

Dartless, a. Without a dart. 

1769 S. PATERSON Another Trav. II. 184. 

Da'rtnian. A soldier aimed with a dart. 

1605 SYLVESTER Du Bartas 11. iii. Vocation 304 Without 
an aime the Dart-man darts his speare. 1838 THIRLWALL 
Greece III. xix. 98 Archers and dartmen. 

Dartoid (daMtoid), a. Atiat. [mod. f. Gr. 
8af>T-o? DARTOS + -OID.] Like or of the nature of 
the dartos. 

1872 F. G. THOMAS Dis. Women (ed. 3) 635 The dartoid 
sacs of the labia majora. 1890 THANE Ellis' Anat. (ed. 11) 
445 The subcutaneous layer in the scrotum . . is named the 
dartoid tissue. 

II DartOS (dautis). Anat. [mod. a. Gr. Sapros 
flayed, excoriated, verbal adj. of Scipftv to flay.] 
The layer of connective and unstriped muscular 
tissue immediately beneath the skin of the scrotum. 

1634 T. JOHNSON Parey's Chintrg. 119 The epididymis or 
dartos. 1875 FLINT Phys. Man V. 314 A loose, reddish, 
contractile tissue, called Ihe dartos, which forms two distinct 
sacs, one enveloping each testicle. 

Dartre (da'Jtaj). [F. dartre, of doubtful ety- 
mology : see Diez, Litlre, and Diet, des Sciences 
Med. XXV. 648. For an earlier adoption of the 
word into Eng., see DAKTAKS.] A vague generic 
name for various skin diseases, esp. herpes ; also, 
a scab or the like formed in such diseases. 

1829 BATEMAN Synops. Cntan. Dis. (ed. 7) Pref. 15 The 

j ._ i* _/ t .: i_ -o_. /* n..J.. 



is herpes. 1843 Sn . . 

72 Boils and ' dartres ' formed near the seat of pain. 

DartrOUS (dautras), a. [ad. F. dartreux, i. 
dartre : see prec.] Pertaining to or of the nature 
of dartre : applied to a peculiar diathesis. 

1830-47 TODD Cycl. Anat. III. 190/2 Dartrous diseases of 
the skin. 1881 PIFFARD Therap. Skin 126 The rheumic or 
dartrous diathesis, as it is called in France, is the predispos- 
ing cause, 1 believe, of eczema, psoriasis, and pityriasis. 

DaTtsman. [f. dart's] =DARTMAN. 

1770 J. Ross Epitaph on Friend II (MS.) Death dread 
dartsman ! . . May strike thee sudden in life's blooming May. 

Darvis, darvish, obs. forms of DERVISH. 

Darwinian (daiwi-nian), a. (sb.) [f. proper 
name Darwin.+ -IAN.] 

fl. Of or pertaining to Erasmus Darwin (1731- 
l8o2\ and to his speculations or poetical style. 

1804 Etlin. Rev. July 297 One objeclion . . to the Darwinian 
modulation with which Mr. Sotheby's versification is in- 
fected. 1842 MRS. BROWNING Bk. of Poets Wks. 1890 V. 
279 A broad gulf between his [Wordsworth's] descriplive 
poetry and that of the Darwinian painter-poet school. 

2. Of or pertaining to the celebrated naturalist 
Charles Darwin (grandson of Erasmus Darwin, 
1809-1882), and to his scientific views or observa- 
tions, esp. his theory of the evolution of species: 
see DARWINISM 2. 

1867 (title) The Darwinian Theory of the Transmutation 
of Species. 1881 Knowledge 9 Dec. 128/1 The principles 
which will guide us in ihe choice of subjects will be Darwinian 
to wit, natural selection and the survival of the fitlesl. 

b. as it, A follower of Charles Darwin; one 
who accepts the Darwinian theory. 

1871 HUXLEY Crit. ft Addresses 11873) =5' Mr. Mivart is 
, less of a Darwinian than Mr. Wallace, for he has less faith 
in the power of natural selection. 1881 A thenxum 29 Oct. 
566/1 Mr. Balfour is a practical Darwinian. 

Darwi'iiianism. [f. prec. + -ISM.] 
fl. Imitation of the style of Erasmus Darwin 
see prec. I). Obs. (iioiue-nse.\ 

1804 Eilin. Rev. July 297 We c.iu substantiate our charge 
of Darwinianism. 



DARWINISM. 

2. The Darwinian theory of evolution ; -D.ui- 
\VIMMM 2 ; also, a 1'arwinian idiom or phrase. 

1883 K. M. UNDKKDOWN in A". -V Q. 13 Oct. 384/2, I know 
not if any one. .has noticed a literary ancestor, to use a l>:u- 
winianisin, fir lh;U of Francis I after I'.ivi.i. 1893 J. H. 
STIRLING (tifts), Darwinianism : Workmen and Work. 

Darwi-nical, a. rare-". DAUWINIAN 2. 
Ilcncc Dnrwi'nically adv. 

1864 Hrxt.i v I.nv .\t'ri. (1870) 334 It is one thing to say, 
I t.u u ink-ally, that every detail observed in an animal's 
structure is of use to it [etc.). 

Darwinism (da'awiniz'm). [-ISM.] 

1 1. The doctrine or hypothesis of Erasmus 
Darwin. Obs, (nonce-use.) 

1856 Ii. W. RICHARDSON Life T. Sofivith (1801) 156 Mr. 
Sopwith described the hypothesis of the development of 
living things from a primordial centre. That, said Reade, 
is rank Darwinism. It was the first time I had heard that 
word used, .it had reference to Erasmus Darwin. 

2. The biological theory of Charles Darwin con- 
cerning the evolution of species, etc., set forth 
especially in his works entitled 'The Origin of 
Species by means of Natural Selection, or the pre- 
servation of favoured races in the struggle for life ' 
(1859), and ' The Descent of Man and Selection in 
relation to Sex' (1871). 

1871 Atht-Hznm 15 July 8^ It is impossible to reconcile the 
Doctors of the Church with the Doctors of Darwinism. 
1876 RAY LANKRSTKR tr. Htucke[s Hist. Creation I. i The 
scientific theory. . commonly called . . Darwinism, is only a 
small fragment of a far more comprehensive doctrine. 1889 
A. R. WALLACE (title), Darwinism, An exposition of the 
theory of Natural Selection with some of its applications. 

So Da-rwinist, a follower of Darwin, a Dar- 
winian. Darwini stic a., of or pertaining to 
Darwinism. Da'rwiniie z>.,to speculate or theorize 
after the manner of ( Erasmus or Charles) Darwin. 

1883 Set. <y Lit. Gossip \. 79 Interesting to every sincere 
Darwinist. 1875 tr. Schmidt's Desc. fr Danv. 292 Decisive 
in favour of Darwinistic views. 1881 Athenaeum 27 May 
663/2 In connexion with Darwinistic explanations 01 ends. 
1880 Nature XXI. 246 Coleridge invented the term ' Dar- 
winising' to express his contempt forthe speculations of the 
elder Darwin. 1886 Contemp. Rev. Sept. 435 Darwinizing 
sociologists. 

Darwinite (Urawitwit), **.' (a.) [-ITE.] 

A. si. A follower of Charles Darwin; a Dar- 
winian. 

i86a lllxst. Lmd. Neon XLI. 41/1 Here are Darwinites 
..reviving the doctrine of Lord Monboddo that men and 
monkeys are of the same stock. 1885 Atttetixum 8 Aug. 
171/2 A wave of reaction against what we may term the 
ultra-Darwinism of the Darwinites. 

B. aJj. - DARWINIAN 2, 

1867 KINGSLEY Let. in Life xxiL '1883) 280 Can you tell 
me where I can find any Darwinite lore about the develop* 
ment of birds? 

Da'rwinite, sb.- Min. [Named by Forbes 
1861 after Chas. Darwin: see -ITB.] A synonym 
of \VlIITNEYITE. 1861 in BRISTOW Gloss. Mix. 104. 

Dary, obs. form of DAIRY. 

II Das (das). Also dasse. [Du. das = Ger. dachs, 
OIIG. tlahs: WGer. * fa/is, whence also med.L. 
taxiis badger. In sense I retained by Caxton in 
his English version of Reynard ; in sense 2 belong- 
ing to the Dutch of South Africa.] 

fl. Abadjjer. 06s. 

1481 CAXTON Reyiiard iv. (Arb.) 7 Tho spack Grymbart 
the dasse. Ibid. xvii. 39 The beres, the foxes, the cattes 
and the dassen. 

2. The daman or rock-badger of the Cape. 

1786 SI'ARRMAK Voy^. Cape G. //. 309 Those little animals 
which . .by the colonists are called dasses or badgers. 1838 
W. H. R. READ in fenny Cycl. XII. 419 (s.v. Hyrax) Its 
name at the Cape is the Dasse, which is, I believe, the 
Dutch for a badger. 1884 WOOD in Sunday llfag. Nov. 719/1 
The most successful Das hunter. 

t Dasart. Obs. rare. [f. tfase, DAZE v. + -ABD : 
cf. MDu. Jasacrt (Oudemans), in Kilian dacsaerd 
a fool.] A dazed, stupefied, or inert person ; a 
dullard; = DASIBERD, DASTAHO I. 

a 1400 Minor Poems I'lTittm flfS. 333 Ouur-al mai^t bou 
comen and go, Whon a Moppe dasart schal tot so. 

t Dascan, v. Sc. Obs. Also daskan, dascon. 
[perh. for DESCANT.] To ponder, consider. 

c 1579 MONTGOMERIE Navigations 227 They daskand 
farther : What if the Quene war deid? a 1600 BUREL in 
Watson Coll. Sc. Poems II. 45(J amJ Than did I dascan 
with my sell, Quhid.lcr to heuin or unto hell, Thir persouns 
suld pertene. 163* LITHGOW Trav. vit. 328 To dascon this, 
remarke, when they set land, Some this, some that, doe 
gesse, this Hill, that Cape. 

Dase, obs. form of DACE, DAZE. 

Basel 1, obs. form of DAZZLE. 

Dasewe : see DASWEN v. Obs. 

Dasey, obs. form of DAISY. 

Dash (daef 1 ,*. 1 Forms : 3-4 dasse, 3-5 daaohe, 
4 dasscho, 46 dasshe. 4 7 dashe, 6- dash. 
[ME. i/asc/ifn, Jassen, found (11300, perh. from 
Norse : cf. Sw. daska to drub, Sw. dial, to slap with 
open hand. Da. daske to beat, strike ; but an ON. 
*i/asi-a is not recorded, and the word is not known 
in WGer. It may be a comparatively recent 
onomatopoeic word, expressing the action and 
sound of striking or driving with violence and 



80 

smashing effect : cf. clash, crush, fash, flash, smash, 
etc. The trans, and intr. uses are exemplified 
almost equally early, and there is no definite 
evidence as to their actual order ; cf. T)r**H v.] 
I. Transitive senses* 

1. To strike with violence so as to break into 
fragments ; to break in pieces by a violent stroke 
or collision ; to smash. Now generally with com- 
plement, as to dash to pieces ; but the simple dash 
is still said of the action of wind or rain in beating, 
bruising, and disfiguring flowers or plants. 

1*97 R. GLOUC. (1734) 51 pe pykes smyte hem bora out . . 
And daschte and a dreynte fourty schippes. Ibid. 540 [Thci] 
with axes thuder come, & that jat to he we, & to dasse. c 1330 
Arlk, $ Merl. 9051 (Matz.i The hors chine he dassed a-to. 
1387 THEVISA Hidden (Rolls) III. 63 [He was] al to daubed 
so |>at no bing of his body my^te be founde. 1503 SHAKS. 
3 Hen. (*/, in. it. 98 The splitting Rockes. .would not dash 
me with their ragged sides. 1610 7Vw/*. i. ii. 8 A braue 
vcssell . . Dash'd all to peeces. 1641 ROGERS N tinman 143 
As if one should with his foolc dash a little chikls house of 
oystershels. 1748 Anton 1 * \'oy. \\. i. 116 He fell amongst 
the rocks, and was dashed to pieces. 1847 TENNYSON Princ. 
v. 139 Altho' we dash'd Your cities into shards with catapults. 
1891 GARDINER Student's Hist. Eng.i \ The waves had dashed 
to pieces a large number of his ships. Mod. The roses were 
beautiful, before they were so dashed by the wind and rain. 
b. To strike violently against. 

(Without implication of smashing.) 

1611 COTGH., Talemonser t to cuffe, or dash on the lips. 



. t 

//A^r. of State in /far/. Mix. (Main.) III. 405 With 
the like thunderbolt, to dash the heads of the sacred Empire. 
1776 GIBBON Decl. <V /'. I. xxv. 746 The oars of Theodosius 
dashed the waves of the Hyperborean ocean. 1843 J. MAR- 
TINEAU Chr. Life (1866) 349 Like brilliant islands .. vainly 
dashed by the dark waters of human history. 

2. To knock, drive, throw, or thrust (atvay, 
down, out, etc.) with a violent stroke or collision. 

c 1*90 S. Eng. Leg. I. 344/147 And daschte be tie/ [ = teeth] 
out of is heucd. a 1400-50 Alexander 3882 A brand and a 
bri)t schild bremely he hentis . . Dasches dragons doun. 
159* SHAKS. Rom. $ Jul. iv. iii. 54 Shall I not . . dash out 
my desperate braines. 1664 H. MORE Afrit. Iniq. 268 It 
[rain] is naturally drunk in, not dash'd in by force, a 1700 
DRYDEN (J.), The brushing oars and brazen prow Dash up 
the sandy waves. i8a8 SCOTT /'. M. Perth ii, Dashing from 
him the snake which was about to sting him. 1833 HT. 
MARTINRAU Munch. Strike x. 113 While she, dashing away 
her tears, looked for something to do. 

f b. To drive impctuously/0rM or out, cause to 
rush together. Obs. 

1513 I.D. BKRNERS f-roiss. \. clvii. 191 Then thenglyshmen 
dashed forthe their horses after the frenchmen. Ibid I. 
cccxlii. 538 Lorde Langurant. .couched his speare..and so 
dyde Bernarde, and dasshed to their horses. 1577-87 HOLIN- 
SHED Ckron. III. 922/2 The king . . pulled downe his visar 
. .and dashed out such a pleasant countenance and cheere, 
that all. .reioised verie much. 

3. To throw, thrust, drive, or impel (something 1 ) 
against, upon, into (something else) with a vio- 
lence that breaks or smashes; to impel (a thing) 
into violent and destructive contact with something: 
a. a solid body. (AlsoySJf.) 

1530 PALSGR. 507/1 He dasshed my heed ajraynst the 
postes. 1568 GRAFTON Ckron, II. 24 He foorthwitn dashed 
his spurres into his horse and fled. 1614 KAI.MI.H ///. 
n'ortti H. 376 In so doing he dasheth himself against a 
notable Text. 17*4 R. FALCONER Vpy. (1769)62 Lest another 
Wave should dash me against it [the rock}. 1820 SCORKSBV 
Ace. Arctic Keg. I. 401 A violent storm of wind dashed her 
. .stern first, against a floe of ice. 1861 HUGHES Tom Brtntm 
at Oxf. vii. (1889) 61 [He] dashed his right fist full against 
one of the panels. 

b. To splash (water or other liquid) violently 
upon or against something. 

1697 DRYDEN Virg. Georg. i. 457 The Waves on heaps are 
dashd against the Shoar. 1839 T. BEALE Sperm Wliale 
350 Dashing the salt water in our faces. 

f C. With reversed construction : To dash one 
in the teeth with (something) : to ' cast it in one's 
teeth '. Obs. (Cf. CAST v. 65^ 

1530 PALSGR. 507/1, I dasshe one in the tethe with a lye or 
aglosynge tale, Jtmbonckt . .What nedest thou to dasshe 
me in the tethe with the monave thou haste lente me. 

4. To bespatter or splash ,a thing with anything 
(e. g. water or mud) cast with force or violence 
upon or against it. 

1530 PALSGR. 507/1, 1 dasshe, I araye with myer, Jt crotte. 
Your horse hath all to dasshed me. 1670 MILTON Hist. Kng. 
\Vks. vi. i 1851 ) 268 The Sea . . came fowling on, and without 
reverence l>oth wet and dash'd him. 1604 Ace. Sev. Late Voy. 
ii. (171 1) 166 Some Whales blow Itlood to the very last . .and 
these dash the Men in the Long-boats most filthily. 1785 H. 
WALPOLE Mod. Gardening * RA Vast basins of marble dashed 
with perpetual cascades. 1875 HF.PFOKD Sailor t Pocket Bk. 
viii. 1 1877) 307 The face may be dashed with cold water. 
Jig. xfex Bk. Ditcipl. CM. Scot. Pref., Some will dash you 
by the odious name of Puritan. 1633 G. HERBERT Ttmflt t 
Marie Magd, iii, Her sinnes did dash Ev'n God himself. 
b. To put out (fire) by dashing water upon it. 

1610 SHAK& Temp. \. \\. 5 But that the Sea . . Dashes the 
fire out. 1844 DICKENS Mart. Chus. xxvii, Rows of fire- 
buckets for dashing out a conflagration. 

C. pa.pple. Marked as with splashes. 

1578 LVTE Dodoens \\. xliv. 2oa Floures . . pondered or 
dashte with small spottes. 1797-1804 BEWICK Brit. Birds 
(1847) I. 119 The top of the head, the back, and the tail 
black : the rump is dashed with ash. 1850 TENNYSON /'/ 
Mem. 1 xxx iii. 1 1 Deep tulips dash'd with fiery dew. 1871 
BLACK Pr. ThxU xxvii. 452 The sea was dashed with a wild 
glare of crimson. 



DASH. 

6. To affcti or qualify 'asythiny) u>itk an ele- 
ment of a (iiffercnt strain thrown into it ; to mingle. 
temper, fjiKilii'y, dilute with tome (usually inferior) 
admixture. Also 

1546 Confut. N. Sha V*M A. iii (R.X Yoore termoni diohcd 
ful of sorowful teares and depe tighingi. 1516 COOAN Hm-cn 
//Va/Mcvii, 116361 108 Hoyle ificm [fruit] againc with af- 
ficient tugar, to dash them with sweet water. 168* SIR T. 
Bnowm Chr. Mar. . 1756) 40 Notable virtue* arc ftotnctimc* 
dashed with notoriou* vice*. 16*4 tr. front? t Merc. Comfit. 
v. 137 Vinegar, .dashed with water, .it an Antidote a^ 
drunkenness. 171* AoOttOH -S/Vt /. No. 267 F 8 To da%h the 
Truth with Fiction. 1843 LEVEK 7. Hinton vi, Dash the 
lemonade with a little maraschino. 1853 TKRNCM /'rvrvrfa 
141 The pleasure* of tin. .are largely dashed with its pains. 
b. Coal-mining. To mix ffire-<lamp) with air 
till the mixture ceases to be inflammable. 

1851 GHEENWF.LL Coitl-tratff Ttrins Northnmb. * Dvrk. 
ai Dashing Air. Mixing air and gas together, until . . the 
mixture ceases to be inflammable. 

6. fig- To destroy, ruin, confound, bring to 
nothing, frustrate, spoil (a design, enterprise, hope, 
etc.) : cf. to smash. In 16-171*1 c. the usual word 
for the rejection of a bill in Parliament, and fre- 
quent in various applications; now Obs, exc. in 
to dash '.anyone's) hopes. (Cf. next.) 

15*8 Btgfftir 1 * Petit, agtt. Popery in Stltct. t/arl. Mite. 
(1793) f 53 He shall he excommunicated, and then be all his 
actions dashed ! 1563-87 FOXE A. 4 M, (1506) 169 All the 
hope of Anselme was clash t. "1577 Sin 1'. SMITH CVwrwra*. 
En*. (16331 92 As the cry of yea or no i* bigger so the 
wed 



is allowed or dashed. 16*7 DMAYTON Aginconrt 4 A warre 
with France, must be the way To dash this liilL a 1696 UP. 
HALL Rtm. ll'ks. (i66ot 59 Those hopes were no sooner con- 
ceived than dasht. 1697 DAMPIF.R Voy. (1698) I. 157 So the 
design was wholly dashed. 1710 I'tm-KAt x Orif. Tithet'iv. 
214 To dash what arguments may be brought from hence, 
1840 Chartist Circular No. 5. 225 This dashes the bit-by-bit 
system [of reform]- 1861 PKARSXIN Early f Mid. Agtt Eng. 
141 Dunstan's hopes were again dashed by the news of 
Edward's death. 

7. To cast down, depress ; to daunt, dispirit, dis- 
cournge. 

1550 COVER DALE Spir. Perlt v t How small soever their 
temptation or plague is, their heart is dashed. 1579 L. TOM- 
SON Calvin sScrtu. Tim, 466/1 We shalbe all dasht that our 
prayers do but scare in the ayre. 1604 SHAKS. Otk. in. iii. 
214, 1 see, this hath a little dash'd your Spirits. 1676 DRYUEN 
Aurengz. \\. i. 524 Why did you speak? you've dash'd my 
Fancy quite. 1791 COWPER Odyss. ix. 395 We, dash'd with 
terror, heard the growl Of his big voice. 1840 I>i< KI-NS< >/r/ 
C. Shop xxvi, This discouraging information a little dashed 
the child. 1891 Miss DowiE^fWin Karp. 167 Somewhat 
dashed, we went down . . to the spot where my horse had 
fallen with me. 

b. To confound, put to shame, abash. 

1563-87 FoxE/1.^- M.( 1506) 1574/2 Frier Itutknham. .was 
so dashed, that neuer after nee durst peepc out of the pulpit 
against M. I.HUIIKT. 1588 SHAKS. /.. L. L. v. ii. 585 An 
honest man, looke you, and soon dasht. 1634 MILTON Com MS 
447 Chaste austerity . . that dashed brute violence With 
sudden adoration and blank awe. 17*6 VAX JIM. & Cm. Prov. 
//nst. ii. i, The Girl . . has Tongue enough : she wua'nt be 
dasht. 1766 FORDVCE Strm, Yng. Worn. (1767) II. xiiL aj6 
From her a. .look, .will dash the boldest offender. 1860 
TRENCH Sertn. Wettm. Abbey x. 108 Dashed and abashed as 
no doubt for a moment she was. 

fc. Phr. To dash (a person) out of countenance 
(conceit, courage}. Obs. 

1530 PALSGR. 507 /i, I dassbe out of countenaunce or out 
of conceyte, Je rent con/tis. 1576 FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 
162 Your lice-rest friends . . damnified, and dashed out of 
courage. 1598 GRENEWEV Tacitus' Ann. in. xiv. (1622) 85 
Cause sufficient, to haue dasht the best practised out of 
matter. 1617 HIERON Ir'ks. (1619-20) II. 408 It would dash 
him quite out of countenance. 1754 RICHARDSON Gramiison 
I. xi. 61 In order to dash an opponent out of countenance 
by getting the laugh instead of the argument on his side. 

8. To put down on paper, throw off, write, or 
sketch, with hasty and unpremeditated vigour. 

17*6 WOOROW Corr. (1843) III. 234 Please dash down any- 
thing that is proper for me to help. 17*8 POPE Dune. it. 47 
Never was dash'd out, at one lucky hit, A fool, so just a copy 
of a wit. 1771 FOOTE Maid of B. EpiL Wit*. 1799 II. 201 Hi* 
ready pen be drew, And dash'd the glowing satire as he flew. 
1847 TF.NNYSON Print, tv. 121 Ourself . . into rhythm have 
dash'd The passion of the prophetess. Ibid. v. 414 Then 
came a postscript dash'd across the reft. 1859 KINGSLEY 
Misc. (1860) II. 15 The impressions of the moment, .dashed 
off with a careless but graceful pen. 

0. To draw a dash through (writing) ; to strike 
out, cancel, erase, efface. Now rare or Obs. 

1549-6* STBRNHOLO & H. Ps. Ixix. 29 And dash them 
cleane out of the booke of hope. 1576 FLEMING //?'//. 
Epist. 80 A faulte in writing is dashed out with a race of the 
penne. 1581 SIDNEY Asir. 4- Sttlla t in Arb. Garner I. 528 
And now my pen these lines had dashed quite. 1607 TOP- 
SELL h'our-f. Beasts\\fy$ 212 Before the snow be melt, and, 
the footings dashed. 1670 WOOD Life (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) II. 
109 He would correct, alter, dash out or put in what he 
pleased. 1896 FROUDB Hist. Eng. I. 454 She took a pen 
and dashed out the words. 

b. To draw (a pen) vigorously through writing 
so as to erase it 

1780 COWPER Tablt T. 769 To dash the pen through all 
that you proscribe. 

10. To mark with a dash, to underline. 

1836 T. HOOK G, C.nmey I. 17 The infinite pains I took to 
dash and underline the points. 1871 Athenmttm 13 May 583 
He did so dash his initials at the end of letters. 

11. slang, or folloy Used as a euphemism for 
' damn ', or as a kind of veiled imprecation. 



DASH. 

1812 H. & T. SMITH Rej. Addr. t G. Bamiuell, Dash my 
wigs, Quoth ne, I would pummel and lam her well. 1844 
John Chaivbacoit ii. in HalHwell Diet. (1865) I. p. xv, Dash 
my buttons, Moll I'll be darn'd if I know. 1852 DICKIONS 
Bleak Ho. III. \. 7 Dash it, Tony . . you really ought to be 
careful. 1865 Mut. Fr. n. viii, Dashed if I know. 
II. Intransitive senses. 

12. To move, fall, or throw itself with violence or 
smashing effect ; to strike in violent collision 
against (upon, etc.) something else. 

f 1305 Saints' Lives in E.E, P. (1862) 80 J>at weber bigan 
to glide . . her hit gan dasche adoun . . Ac in be nor}> half of 
J>e churche. .ber ne ful no^t a reynes drope. c 1400 Melayne 
964 Dede he daschede to the grounde. 1638 BAKER tr. 
Balzac's Lett. II. 43 In my way there are. . many stones to 
dash against. 1694 Ace. Sev. late Voy. n. (1711) 168 The 
Whale, .doth strike about with his Tail and Finns, that the 
Water dasheth up like Dust. 1724 R. FALCONER Pay. 
(1769) 62 The Tempest was very much abated, and the 
Waves not dashing so often. 1842 TENNYSON Day-dream, 
The Revival ii, And all the long-pent stream of life Dash'd 
downward in a cataract. 1801 E. PEACOCK N. Brendan II. 
418 The full force of the Atlantic is dashing on the cliffs. 
fig. 1638 D. FEATLEY Strict. Lyndom, \. 102 Lyes dash 
one with the other, and truth breakes out of the mouth of 
the lyar. 

13. Of persons: To throw oneself with violence, 
such as would overthrow obstacles or resistance ; 
to go, run, or rush with sudden impetuosity, or 
with spirited or brilliant action. Alsoyfg-. (Const, 
with var. preps, and advbs.) 

c 1300 A". Alts. 2837 The gate, .up he brak ; In to the cite* 
he con dassche. ^1330 Arth. $ Merl. 6293 (Matz.) Forth 
dassed the king. a. 1533 LD. BERNERS Hiton Iviii. 200 Y 
sarazyns dasshed in to the prese to haue rescued Huon. 
1506 Pitas. Quippes Upstart Gentlw. in Hazl. E. E. P. 
IV. 258 Our wantons now in coaches dash, From house to 
house, from street to street. 1682 DRYDEN Abs. ft Achit. 
n. 414 Doeg. .Spurred boldly on, and dashed through thick 
and thin, Through sense and nonsense. 1794 MRS. RADCLIFFE 
Myst. Udolpho xviii, Dashing at the steps below. 1823 
BYRON Juan vm. liv, [He] Dash'd on like a spurr'd blood- 
horse in a race. 1870 MORRIS Earthly Par. III. iv. 377 [He] 
rode on madly. .Dashed through the stream and up the 
other bank. 1886 RUSKIN Pr&terita I. vii. 230 To leave 
her card on foot at the doors of ladies who dashed up to 
hers in their barouche. 1802 GARDINER Student* s Hist, 
ting, n Ca:sar .. dashed at his stockade and carried it by 
storm. 

b. Said of action with pen or pencil. 

a 1680 ROCHESTER An Allusion to Horace(&.), With just 
bold strokes he dashes here and there, Showing great 
mastery with little care. 

f 14. To clash. Obs. 

c 13525 Coer de L. 4615 Trumpes blewen, labours dashen. 

15. colloq. To make a display, 'cut a dash'; 
dash off, out, to burst off, come out, with a dash. 

1786 Francis, the Philanthr. I. 159 Bidding fair to dash 
out, when he was qualified by manhood and experience. 
1800 HKLENA WELLS Const. Neville III. 68 He intended to 
dash off as a star of the first magnitude in the circles of 
fashion. 1806 SURR Winter in Lond. (ed. 3) III. 215 That 
blade dashes most confoundedly, .he is a princely fellow, to 
be sure. 1807-8 W. IRVING Salntng. (1824) 290 Every lady 
. .dresses and dashes. 

III. 16. Comb. a. with verb + object, as 
f dash-buckler, a swaggering fellow, swash- 
buckler; b. with the verb-stem used attrib., as 
dash-pot, a contrivance for producing gradual 
descent in a piece of mechanism, consisting of a 
cylinder or chamber containing liquid in which 
a piston moves; a hydraulic buffer; dash-wheel 
(see quot.). See also DASH-BOARD. 

1567 FENTOM Trag.Disc. 123 b, A traine of *dashbucklers 
or squaring tospottes. 1861 Sci t Amcr. 30 Mar. 196/2 The 
*' dash pot ' which Watt invented to graduate the descent of 
the puppet valve into its seat. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. 666 
s.v. Cut-oft \ To seat them without slamming, the valve-stems 
are provided with dash-pots. Ibid.^Dash-nvheel. (Bleach- 
ing.] A wheel with compartments revolving partially in 
a cistern, to wash and rinse calico in the piece, by alter- 
nately dipping it in the water and then dashing it from side 
to side of the compartments. 

Dash, z>.2 : see after DASH sb.- 

Dash (daef), sb.^ Forms : 4 dasch, 5-6 dasshe, 
6 dasche, dashe, 6- dash. [f. DASH T/.] 

1. A violent blow, stroke, impact, or collision, 
such as smashes or might smash. 

(With quot. 1577 cf. DASH v. 2.) 

a 1375 Lay-Folks Mass-Bk. App. jv. 351 Wib his hed he 
yaf a dasch A^eyn be Marbelston. 1470-85 MALORY Arthur 
x. Ixxix, Syr Ector . . gaf sire Palomydes suche a dasshe with 



Anglo-Lat. 22 Let me alone, or I will give you a dash on 
the teeth. 1725 DE FOE I'oy. round World (ifyo) 258 The 
water, falling from a height . . and meeting in the passage 
with many dashes and interruptions. 1727-46 THOMSON 
Summer 1114 The dash of clouds, or irritating war Of fight- 
ing winds. 1858 LYTTON H'/tat will he do ? i. v, Whistling 
. .in time to the dash of the oars. 

f 2. fig. in phrases at (the] first dash, at one (or 
a) dash : cf. stroke, blow (F. coup']. Obs. 

1550 BALE Apol. 37 (R.) He heapeth me in, an whole halfe 
leafe at a dash, out of Saynt Augustyne. 1391 SHAKS. 
T Hen. VI t i. ii. 71 She takes vpon her brauelyat first dash. 
1627 H. LESLY Serm. bef. Majesty 4 Wee are not made 
absolute entire Christians at the first dash. 1681 W. ROBERT- 
SON Phraseol. Gen. (1603) 753 What? At first dash so to jear 
and frump your friend? 1699 W. HACKE Voy. 11.9 In .. 
danger, to lose both our Lives and all our substance at one 



40 

dash. 1710 Ace. Last Distemp. Tom Whigg n. 48 De- 
signing to immortalize himself and his Patron at a Dash. 

f 1 3. Jig. A sudden blow or stroke that casts down, 
confounds, depresses, dispirits, etc. ; an affliction, 
discouragement. Obs. 

1580 Apol. Prince of Orange in Phoenix (1721) 1. 450 That 
the Course of his Life be found blessed, .without any dash, 
blow, stumbling. 1629 RUTHERFORD Lett. v. (1862) I. 48, 
I have received many, .dashes and heavy strokes, since the 
Lord called me to the ministry. 1637 Ibid. I. 287 The glory 
of manifested justice in giving of His foes a dash. 1730 T. 
BOSTON Mem. vii. 134 This gave me a sore dash. 

4. The violent throwing and breaking of water 
(or other liquid) upon or against anything; a splash ; 
a sudden heavy fall of rain ; \concr. a portion of 
water splashed up. 

1570 LEVINS 35/5 A dashe, /a&?s, aspersio. 1612 T. TAYLOR 
Comm. Titus i. 8 To giue her harbour . . till the dash and 
storme be ouer. 1677 W. HARRIS tr. Lemery's Chym. (ed. 3* 
602 During the ebullition.. a great many little dashes of 
water do fly about, a 1700 B. E. Diet, Cant. Crew s.v. 
GHS^ We say a Dash ofKain^ for a sudden, short, impetuous 
Beat of Rain. 1804 AM. Jrnl. XII. 247 Dr. Macneil 
seems, .to think the sponging is better than the dash. 1848 
MRS. GASKELL M. Barton (1882) 12/1 ' He 's coming round 
finely, now he *s had a dash of cowd water.' 

b. The sound of dashing ; tsp. the splashing 
sound of water striking or being struck. 

1784 COWPER Task i. 186 Music not unlike The dash of 
Ocean on his winding shore. 1820 SCOTT Abbotxxxv, Why 
did ye not muffle the oars 1 . . the dash must awaken the 
sentinel. 

5. a. A small portion (of colour, etc.) as it were 
dashed or thrown carelessly upon a surface. 

1713 BERKELEY ss. in Guardian v. Wks. III. 161 The 
rosy dashes of light which adorn the clouds of the morning 
and evening. i88-| J. T. BENT in Macm. Mag. Oct. 426^1 
Syra is almost entirely a white town, relieved now and again 
by a dash of yellow wash, 

b. A small quantity (<?/" something) thrown into 
or mingled as a qualifying admixture with some- 
thing else ; an infusion, touch, tinge. UiUftQy jfo 

1611 SHAKS. Wint. T. v. ii. 122 Now (had I not the dash 
of my former life in me) would Preferment drop on my head. 
1678 CUDWORTH Intell. Syst. 802 A thing .. not sincerely 
good, but such as hath a great dash or dose of evil blended 
with it. 1697 DAMPIER l^oy. (1698) J. 293 It makes most 
delicate Punch ; but it must have a dash of Brandy to 
hearten it. 1712 ADDISON Spect. No. 299 Pa, I . . resolved 
that my Descendents should have a Dash of good Blood in 
their Veins. 1820 W. IRVING Sketch-Bk. 1.335 There was 
a dash of eccentricity and enterprize in his character. 

fc. A slight specimen, a touch; CAST sb.c). Obs. 
a 1672 WOOD Life (1848) 161 He gave A. W. a dash of his 
office. 

6. A hasty stroke of the pen. 

1615 STEPHENS Satyr. Ess. (ed. 2) 414 And thus by meere 
chaunce with a little dash I have drawne the picture of 
a Pigmey. a 1656 HP. HALL Rem. Wks. (1660^ 310 With one 
dash to blot it out of the holy Calender. 1691 RAY Creation 
I. (1704) 41 That this was done by the temerarious dashes of 
an unguided Pen. 1803 MACKINTOSH Def. Peltier Wks. 1846 
III. 246 Fifty Imperial towns have been erased from the list 
of independent states, by one dash of the pen. 

7. A stroke or line (usually short and straight) 
made with a pen or the like, or resembling one so 
made : spec. a. Such a mark drawn through writ- 
ing for erasure, b. A stroke forming part of a 
letter or other written or printed character, or used 
as a flourish in writing, c. A horizontal stroke of 

varying length ( , , ) used in writing 

or printing to mark a pause or break in a sentence, 
a parenthetic clause, an omission of words or letters 
or of the intermediate terms of a series, to separate 
distinct portions of matter, or for other purposes. 
d. Mus. A short vertical mark (') placed above 
or beneath a note to indicate that it is to be per- 
formed staccato, e. A linear marking, as if made 
with a pen, on the wings of insects, etc. 

*5S* HULOET, Dashe or stryke with a penne, litura. 1594 
BLUNDEVIL Exerc. i. iv. (ed. 7) 12 Having cancelled the first 
figure of the multiplyer, by making a dash thorow it with 
your Pen. 1607 DKKKER IVestw. Hoe . Wks. 1873 II. 297 
Marke her dashes, and her strokes, and her breakings, and 
her bendings. 1612 BRINSLEY Lndus Lit. xiii. (1627) 177 
Making a dash with a pen under every fault. 1712 ADDISON 
Spect. No. 470 F jo The Transcriber, who probably mistook 
the Dash of the I for a T. 1733 SWIFT Poems, On Poeiry t In 
modern wit all printed trash is Set off with num'rous breaks 

and dashes . 1824 L. MURRAY Eng. Gram. (ed. 5) 

I. 406 The Dash, though often used improperly . . may be 
introduced with propriety, where the sentence breaks off 
abruptly. .A dash following a stop, denotes that the pause 
is to be greater than if the stop were alone. 1848 RIMBAULT 
First Bk. Piano 63 The Dash requires a more separate and 
distinct manner of performance than the Point. 1880 MUIH- 
HEAD 6Vr/.jIntrod. 13 Passages that are illegible in the MS, 
. -are indicated by dashes, thus . 

8. A sudden impetuous movement, a rush ; a 
sudden vigorous attack or onset. Also _/*-. 

1809 ADM. COCHRANE in Naval Ckron. XXVI. 164 Our 
loss in this little dash has. .been severe 1861 HUGHES Tom 
Browti at Oxf, v. (1889) 36 He. .made up his mind . .to make 
a dash., for something more than a mere speaking acquaint- 
ance. 1885 Matich. Exam. 25 Feb. 5/2 The dash was sue- 
cessfully made across the desert to Metammeh. 

9. Spirited vigour of action; capacity for prompt 
and vigorous action. 

1796 Mod. Gulliver's Trav. 50, I began now to suspect 
I was with sharpers . . and correcting my dash, betted 



DASHEE. 

cautiously. 1808 WELLINGTON in Gurw. Dcsp. IV. 95 The 
affair . . was occasioned . . by the imprudence of the officer, 
and the dash and eagerness of the men. 1866 LIVINGSTONE 
Jrnl. I. v. 120 In dash and courage they are deficient. 

10. A gay or showy appearance, display, parade : 
usually in phr. to cut a dash, to make a display 
(see CUT v. 25), in Sc. to cast a dash. 

1715 PENNECUIK Tiveeddale 16 (Jam.) Large orderly 
terrace-walks, which in their summer verdure cast a bonny 
dash at a distance. 1771 FOOTE JMaid of B. \. Wks. 1799 II. 
213 The squire does not intend to cut a dash till the spring. 



. 

a 1774 FERGUSSON Poems (i^) II. 32-33 (Jam.) Daft gowk, 
. . Are ye come here . . To cast a dash at keikie's cross 1 1842 
P. Parley's Ann. III. 246 Mrs. ClofFwasforcuttingadash, 
giving large dinner-parties, 1887 Punch 12 Mar. 125/1 My 
wife and girls will wish to cut a dash. 

11. Sporting. A race run in one heat. (17. S.} 
1881 Standard 7 Sept. 5/2 They have certainly coined . . 

the word * dash ', to signify a race run in one heat. 

12. =DASH-BOAIID i. 

1874 in KNIGHT Diet. Mech. 1893 (used by an Oxford 
coach-builder in letter). 

13. The DASHER of a churn, esp. the plunger of 
the old upright or dash-churn ; hence dash-boards, 
the fixed beaters in a barrel-churn. 

1847 i HALLIWELL. 1877 in N. W. Line. Gloss. 

14. Comb, dash-guard, the metal plate which 
protects the platform of a tram-car from being 
splashed by the horses ; dash-lamp, a carriage 
lamp fixed in the centre of the dash-board or 
* dash ' ; f dash-line = DASH sb. 7 ; dash-rule 
{Printing}* a * rule ' or strip of metal for printing 
a dash across a column or page. Also DASH-BOARD. 

1684 R. H. School Recreat. 120 The dash Lines . . above 
and below, are added only when the Notes ascend above the 
Staff, or descend below it. 1874 KNIGHT Diet* Mech.) Dash- 
rule. 

II Dash, sb2 [Corruption of DASHEE, through 
taking the pi. dashees as dashes.] A gift, present, 
gratuity ; DASHEE. 

1788 FALCONBRIDGE Afr. Sleeve Tr. 7 The Kings of Bonny 
. . to whom . . they usually make presents (in that country 
termed dashes). 1867 SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk., Dash, the 
present with which bargains are sealed on the coast of 
Africa. 1881 Mem. Geo. Thomson ix. 119 We called in the 
head man and gave him a dash proportioned to the kindness 
with which he had received us. 

Hence Dash v., to give a present to, to ' tip *. 

1861 DU CHAILLU Eqnat. Afr. xiii. 191, 1. .offered todash 
him (give him some presents). 1881 Mem. Geo. Thomson 
x. 139 The head man had dashed him a hog. 

Dash, adv. [The stem of DASH v. used ad- 
verbially : cf. bang, crash, etc.] \Vith a clash : see 
the various senses of the sb. and vb. 

i6ya VILLIERS (Dk. Buckhm.) Rehearsal HI. I. (Arb.) 67 
T'other's. .at him again, dash with a new conceipt. a 1700 
DRVDEN (J.), The waters . .with a murmuring sound, Dash, 
dash, upon the ground, To gentle slumbers call. 1787 
'G. GAMBADO' Acad. Horsemen (1809) 22 Fall in with 
a hackney coach, and he [a horse] will carry you slap dash 
against it. Mod. The boat went dash against the rocks. 

Da'sli-board. [f. DASH v. and sb. + BOARD.] 

1. A board or leathern apron in the front of a 
vehicle, to prevent mud from being splashed by 
the heels of the horses upon the interior of the 
vehicle. Also, movable sides to a cart for the 
same purpose (Halliwelll. 

1859 LANG \Vand. India- 172 He fell asleep, his feet over 
the dashboard, and his head resting on my shoulder. i88z 
Miss BRADDON Mnt. Royal I. Hi. 77 If you fasten the reins 
to the dashboard, you may trust Felix. 

2. The spray-board of a paddle-wheel. 

3. Arch. A sloping board to carry off rain-water 
from the face of a wall. 

1881 Every Man his own Mechanic 1298 A piece of 
wood attached to the face of the wall at an angle and called 
a dash-board. 

4. In a chum : see DASH sb^- 13. 
Dash-buckler: see DASH v. III. 
Dashed (dsefO,///. a. [f. DASH v. i -ED*.] 

1. Struck violently against or by something ; 
splashed ; mingled, tempered, etc. : see the verb. 

1646 CRASHAW Stefs to Temple Poems 53 Torn skulls, and 
dash'd out brains. 1647 H. MORE Song ofSonl\\\. App. 
Ixvii, Their dashed bodies welter in the weedy scum. 1772 
Town 4- Country Ma%. 88 Half a dozen glasses of dashed 
wine. 1879 Spectator^ Sept. 1126/2 Seeing it [the garden] 
present a more or less dashed appearance. 

2. Marked with a dash, underlined. 

1859 DARWIN in Life fy Left. (1887) II. 154 Your dashed 
'induce' gives the idea that Lyell had unfairly urged 
Murray. 

3. slang or colloq. A euphemism for 'damned* 
(see DASH v. n). Hence Da-sliedly adv. 

1881 W. E. NORRIS Matrimony III. 300 A dashed pack 
of quacks and swindlers. 1888 J. PAYN Prince of Blood I. 
xi. 187 He would find himself dashedly mistaken. 

H Da'shee, sb. Also 8 dasje. [Given by Atkins, 
1723, in a List of * Negrish words' used oil the 
Guinea Coast.] A gift, present, gratuity. 

Hence Dashee v. , to 1 jestow a dashee on, to * tip '. 

1705 BOSMAN Guinea (1721^ 450 After giving them their 
Dasje or Present, I dealt with them for the Ivory. 1723 
J. ATKINS Voy. Guinea (1735) 60 The Negrish Language 
itlti-rs a little in sailing . . Some Negrish words . . Attee ho, 
how do you do? Dashee, a Present.. Tossn^ be gone. 
J 'arra, sick, etc. Ibid. 64 There is a Dashee expected before 
Ships can wood and water here. //>/*/. 100 The Fetish. .whom 



DASHEL. 

they constantly Dashee for Health and Safety. Ibid. 169 
"I'hat Captain, .li.ul. .dashce'd his Negro Friends to go on 

L.iani ;mtl hack it. 

tDa'shel. Obs. In 6 dasshel(l. [f. DASH . 

+ -KI, I, -I.K instrumental, as in thrtshcl, handle] 
A brush for sprinkling holy water; anaspergillum. 

1501 WUtefJ. .Viwrc.Somerset Ho. >, A Holy Water pott 
cum le da-shell. 1540 1m: o/l'latt in Greene Hist. Worcester 
II. App. 5 A holy water tynnell of sclvcr and gylte, and 
a dMdMl to the same, selver and gylte. 

Dasher (<.\x jsi). [-EK '.] 

1. A person who (lashes ; spec, one who ' cuts 
(i dash ' ; n dashing person ; a 'fast ' young woman 
(colloq^. 

1790 DlimiN Sea Songs, Old CKV// (Farmer), My Poll, 
once a dasher, now turned to a nurse. 1801 MAR. Ki ,<,i - 
WORTH Almeria (1832)392 She was astonished to find in hi(;h 
life a degree of vulgarity of which her country companions 
would have Mm ashamed ; but all such things in high life 
go under the general term of dashing. These young ladies 
viereiiashers. 1807 W. IRVING Salmag. (18241 3*' To charier 
a curricle for a month, and have my cypher put on it, as is 
done by certain dashers of my acquaintance. 1887 Pall 
MallG. 23 Nov. 3/2 The fast married woman of fashion. . 
the unmarried dasher of the same species. 

2. That which dashes ; spec, the contrivance for 
agitating the cream in a churn. 

1853 7rnl. R. Agric. Soc. XIV. i. 74 The old-fashioned 
barrel-churn, the dashers of which are fixed. 1871 O. W. 
HOLMES Poet Brealcf.-t. i. (1885) 26 The empty churn with 
its idle dasher. 

3. = DASH-BOARD i. U.S. 

1858 O. W. HOLMES One-lwss Shay, Boot, top, dasher, 
from tough old hide. 1859 Pro/. Brtalt/.-t. \, (1891) 14 
lly no means, .to put their heels through the dasher. 

4s. Applied to a hunting-cap. 

i8o Sporting Mag. XX. 314 Two new pair of Cordovan 
boots, .and a black velvet dasher from the cap-maker. 

6. A (lashing attempt, movement, etc. coltoq. 

1884 Punch 18 Oct. 186/1 Drop your curb, pluck up heart, 
And .; > at it a dasher ! 

Dashing (darjin), nil. sb. [-INO i.] 
1. The action of the verb DASH (q.v.), in various 
senses. 
1580 HOLLYBAND Treas. Fr. Tortf, Heurtcmcnt, a dash- 



awaken'd her. 1820 HAZLITT Lect. Dram. Lit. 15 The roar 
and dashing of opinions. 

2. Splashing; concr. a dash or splash (of mud, 
etc.) ; plaster dashed or laid roughly npon a wall ; 
Jiff, aspersion. 

1591 PKRCIVALI. Sf. Diet., Salficaduras, dashings, con- 
s/ifrsiones. 1598 FLORIO, Zaccarille. .dashings or spots of 
dart or mire. 1655 FULLER Ch. Hist. v. iv. 24 There is no 
dashing on the credit of the Lady, nor any the least insinua- 
tions of inchastky. 1809-11 MAR. EDGEWORTH Absentee ix, 
The dashing was oft" the walls, no glass in the windows. 

3. colloq. The action of ' cutting a dash ' ; showy 
liveliness in dress, manners, etc. 

1801 [see DASHER i]. 1806 SURR Winter in Land. II. n Mere 

ips of popularity mere dots of dashing. 01847 MRS. 
HERWOOD La:ty of Manor I. ix. 381 That most tasteless and 
disgusting style of manners which for some years past has 
obtained the name of dashing ; by which term is generally 
understood all that is ungracious, ungenteel, and repulsive. 

4. Comb, dashing- iron, the iron frame by which 
the dash-board is fixed to the carriage ; dashing- 
leather, a leathern dash-board. 

a 1841 HOOK Martha, They slipped over the dashing iron 
between the horses. 1704 W. FELTON Carriages (1801) 
1. 206 A dashing leather is fixed on the fore part of a Carriage, 
to prevent the dirt splashing against the passenger. 

Da/shing, ///. a. [-INQ 2.1 

1. That dashes; that beats violently against some- 
thing ; splashing. 

c IMS E> E. A Hit. P. C 313 py stryuande stremez . . In on 
daschande dam, dryuez me ouer. 1628 EARLE Microcosm., 
TaHcrtm (Arb.) 34 Like a street in a dashing showre. 1839 
T. BEALE Sperm Whale 391 The howling winds and dash- 
ing waves. 

2. Characterized by prompt vigour of action ; 
spirited, lively, impetuous. 

1796 Bp. WATSON Apo2. Bible 271 Even your dashing 
Matthew could not be guilty of such a blunder. 1796 BURKK 
Lett, noble Ld. Wks. 1842 II. 267 In the dashing style of 
some of the old declaimers. 1874 GREEN Short Hist. li. 7. 

(5 A bold, dashing soldier. 1891 E. PEACOCK N. Brendon 
. 8 He drove away at a dashing pace. 

3. Given to fashionable and striking display in 
manners and dress ; that is a ' dasher'. 

1801 MAR. EDGEWORTH Belinda xix, Mrs. Freke..was 
a dashing, fashionable woman. 18x4 W. IRVING T. Trtiv. 
II. 39 She had two dashing daughters, who dressed as fine 
as dragons. 

b. transf. Of things: Fashionably showy; 
stylish, ' swell '. 

1816 I. SCOTT I 'is. Paris (cA. 5)75 The dashing colonnade 
of the Garde Meuble. 1847 Dp. QI-INCEV Sf. .'//'/. A' vi. 
(1853) 12 A dashing pair of Wellington trousers. 

Dashingly (die-JirjlP, adv. [-LV-.] In a 
dashing manner or style. 

1803 CHALMERS Let. in 7.//(i8.si) I. 476 They were deter- 
mined to go dashingly to work. 1837 HA\VTHORNE Twi, c 
Ti>ld Talcs (1851) I. xvi. 25 In a smart chaise, a dashingly 
dressed gentleman and lady. 1870 DASEVT Ann. tfmSwi 
Life (ed. 4) iii. 69 None of that dashingly destructive 
work. 

VOL. III. 



\. 



41 

t Da-shism. Obs. nonce-ivd. The character of 
having dash, or being a ' dasher '. 

V 8 ? i ; K -"1 X . Wi ".''r K~t". xxviii. iR.i, He most fight 
amid, before his claim to complete heroism, or dashism, can 
i be universally allowed. 

Dash-pot, Dash-wheel : see DASH v. III. 
Dashy (dx'fi\ a. [f. DASH v . and sb. + -Y.] 

1. Showy, ostentatiously fashionable, stylish ; 
= DA8Hmu///. . 3, jb. colloij. 

i8u Ftlackw. Mag. XI. 399 New rugs, with swans and 
leopards, all so dashy. 1835 fra ser's Mag. XII. 180 Dashy 
suburban congregations. 

2. Characterized by hastiness of execution. 

1844 I.D. BROUGHAM A. Lunel III. v. 147 The style was. . 
somewhat dashy, and here and there a little indistinct. 

8. Marked with dashes or strokes, nonee-use. 

1856 DICKENS Lett. (1880) I. 425 Many a hand[writing] 
have I seen.. some loopy, some dashy, some large, some 
small. 

t Dasiberd. Obs. Also dasy-, daysy-, 
dosa-, dose-, doia-, dossi-, doziberd e, dose- 
beirde. [The better form is prob. dasyberd = 
dazy-btard: see DAZY a. inert, dull. Miitzner 
compares I,G. ditsbdrt, and the same notion ap- 
pears in Lowland Sc. dulbart, dttlbert = dull-beard, 
dullard.] A stupid fellow, dullard, simpleton. 

c 1400 Sowdont Bat. 1707 Trusse the forth eke. sir Dasa- 
berde. 14 . Norn, in Wr.-Wulcker 694/22 Hie duribuccus, 
a dasvberd. 1468 Medulla Gram, in Promp. Parv. 114 
Dttribuccus, bat neuer opened his moub, a dasiberde. Ta tcoo 
Chester PL xii. 5 (MS. of 1592) There is a Doseberd [i-. r. 
Dosseberde] I wolde dear, That walkes about wyde-where. 
Ibid. 94 Some other sleight I must espie This Dosaberd [v.r. 
Doziberde] for to destroy. 

Dasill, dasle, obs. forms of DAZZLE. 

Dasje, Daskand : see DASHEE, DASCAK. 

Dasometer, bad form for DASYMETER. 

Dass, Sc. var. of DK.S.S, layer, stratum, ledge. 

Dasse, var. DAS ; obs. form of DASH. 

Dassel(l, obs. form of DAZZLE. 

II Da-ssy. [ad. Dn. dasje, dim. of das, DAS.] 
The Cape daman, Hyrax capensis ; =DAS 3. 

i88a MRS. HICKFOBD Lady Trader 106 A dassy. or rock 
rabbit. 

Dastard (da-staid', sb. and a. Also 6 daster. 
[Known only from 15th c. Notwithstanding its 
French aspect (cf. bastard) it appears to be of Eng. 
formation. The Promptorium identifies it in sense 
with dasiberde ; cf. also dasart, of kindred deriva- 
tion and meaning; these make it probable that the 
element dost is = dased dull, stupid, inert, f. dose, 
DAZE; cf. other native formations with the suffix 
-ard, as dasart, drunkard, dullard, laggard, slug- 
gard.] A. sb. 

fl. One inert or dull of wit, a dullard ; a sot. Obs. 

CI440 Promp. Pan: in Dane, or dastard, or he bat 
spekythe not yn tyme, oridurus. Jbid. 114 Dastard, or 
diillarde, duribuctius (P. vel duribnctus). c 1440 York 
Myst. xxxii. 88 What dastardis ! wene ye be wiserpan we T 
1509 BARCLAY Shyp of Fairs (1570! 192 These dronken das- 
tardes . . drinke till they be blinde. 1*30 PALSCR. 212/1 
Dastarde, estovrdy, butarin. 155* HULOET, Dastard, 
excors. .socors, vecors. 

2. One who meanly or basely shrinks from danger ; 
a mean, base, or despicable coward ; in modem use, 
esp. one who does malicious acts in a cowardly, 
skulking way, so as not to expose himself to risk. 

[1470-84 MALORY Arthur ix. iv, As a foole and a dastard 
to alle knyghthode.] 1516 SKELTON Magnyf. 2220 Thou ' 
false harted dastarde, thou dare not abyde. c 1537 Thersites 
in Hazl. DoJslcy I. 395, I shall make the dasters to renne 
into a bag, To hide them fro me. 1593 SHAKS. Kick. II, I. 
i. 190 Before this out-dai-'d dastard, a 1661 FULLER Worthies 
(1840)111.41 He was, though a dwarf, no dastard. 1715 POPE 
Iliad II. 427 And die the dastard first, who dreads to die. 
1770 LANGHORNE Plutarch (1879) II. 602/2 The greatest 
dastard and the meanest wretch in the world. 1808 SCOTT 
Marm., Lochinvar, A laggard in love and a dastard in 
war. 1870 BRYANT Iliad I. it. 52 What chief or soldier 
bears a valiant heart, And who are dastards. 

B. adj. Characterized by mean shrinking from 
danger ; showing base cowardice ; dastardly. 

c 1489 CAXTON Blanchtirdyu liv. 219 Casting away his 
dastard feare. 1591 Nobody * Someb. (1878) 292 The 
dastardst coward in the world. i6oa ind Pt. Return fr. 
Parnass. in. v. (Arb.) 48 To waile thy haps, argues a das- 
tard minde. 1715 POPE Odyss. iv. 447 A soft, inglorious, 
dastard train. 1866 NEAI.E Sequences $ Hymns 125 We 
fling the dastard question from us t 

C. Comb., as dastard-Hie adj. or adv. 

1835 LVTTON Rietizi i. iii. The clients of the Colonna, now 
prcsM iv.;, dastard. like,round the disarmed and disabled smith. 

t Da'stard, v. Obs. [f.prec. : cf. Cow ARD p.] 
trans. To make a dastard of; to cow, terrify. 

1593 NASHE Christ's T. (1613! 73 My womanish stomacke j 
hath serued me to that, which your man-like stomackes are 
dastarded with. 1620 SHELTOM Quix. III. xxvi. 186 The \ 
Scholar was frighted, the Page clean dastarded. 1665 I )HVI N T 
I rid. Etnpr. u. i, I'm weary of this Flesh, which holds us 
here, And dastards manly Souls with Hope and Fear. 

t Da-stardice, -ise. Obs. [f. DASTAKD sb. 
+ -ise, -ICE, after COWARDICE.] Mean or base 
cowardice. 

1603 FLORIO jfontaifnt ni. v. (1634^ 498 His faintnesse, 
d.lstardise, and impertmencie. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa 
Wks. 1883 VII. 143, I was upbraided with ingratitude, 
dastardice, and [etc.]. 



DASYPHYLLOUS. 

Da'Stardize, f. [f. DAHTAHII sb. + -uz : cf. 
('(MV.UINI/.K (of same age).] - IJAMT.IIID v. 

c I&45 Hnwci.L Lett. (,c, 5 .>) II. 16 To daMardiie or cow 
your spirits. ,11700 DKVIIKH I I.I, Such things As .would 
clastardize my courage. 174* KlaUBOmi llarium 11811) 
IV. 208 ITie moment I beheld her, my heart wu datUrd- 
i/.ci. 1841 Taift Mag. 561 To lie ..duurdiwd in the 

llllst. 

DastardlineM (cla-sUUdliiu ). [f. DASTARDLY 



+-.\B8S.] The (juality of being dastardly, 
dullness of wit : stupidity. 

. -_. j^-, 43 '/"hat our appe- 

tites obaye reon : and neyther runne before it, nether for 



1 1. Inertness or dullness of wit ; stupidity. Obs. 
.SS3 CJRIIALO Cicero's Offices \. (1558) 45 '/"hat our i 



sloulh or dastardlineue drmgge behind it. i7 KECOUK 
lYketlt. Yiij, But for euery mater to require ued. .it might 
seme mere dastardlineftse. 

2. Mean or base cowardliness. 

1561 T. HOBV tr. Cat/if tiont' i Courtyer \. Civb, DM. 
tardlines or any other reprochc. i6i> T. TAVLUH Camm. 
Titus i. 14 Ala, our dastcrdlines, and timidilie, that faint 
before dales of triall. 1684 M ASTON Ex}. Lord's Pr. Wk. 
1870 I. 223 Observe Peter's dastardliness. .a question of the 
damsel s overturns him. 1807 F. WRANUHAH Serin. 'It ami. 
Script. 10 Their proverbial dastardliness of character. 

Da-stardling. notife-ivd. [f. DAHTAKD sb. + 
-Lixn, dim. suffix.] A contemptible dastard. 

1800 COLERIUGI Ficahm. iv. til 53 Will he, that dastard- 
ling, have strength enough [elc.Jt 

Dastardly .dirstiidh;, a. [f. DASTARD sb. + 
-LY i.] 

1 1. Inert of mind or action ; stupid, dull. Obs. 

1567 MAPLET Gr. Forest 06 b, The Owle is called the 
dastardly Bird : she U of such slouth and sluggishnesse 

2. Like or characteristic of a dastard ; showing 
mean or despicable cowardice. 

157* FLEMING Panofl. F.fist. 251 A feareful, cowardly, 
and dastardly loute. 1603 KNOLLES Hist. Turks (16381 333 
Losing courage continually, and daily growing more base 
and dastardly. 17*1 HUME Hiil. Knf. II. xxix. 157 The 
Swiss infantry . . behaved in a dastardly manner and deserted 
their post. 1855 M ALAI LAV Hist. Enf. IV. 207 The most 
dastardly and perfidious form of assassination. iSra SPL-K- 
CEOS Treas. Dav. P. Iv. 12 III. 19 The slanders of an 
avowed antagonist are seldom so mean and dastardly as 
those of a traitor. Mod. A dastardly outrage. 

tDa-stardly, adv. Obs. [-LV -'.] Like a 
dastard ; in a cowardly manner. 

iSSa HULOET, Dastardly, or lyke a dastarde, tusillani- 
miter. 01649 DHUMM. OF Hutnu. Stiamachia Wks. (1711) 
aoi And the brave men of Scotland all the while shall ly still 
quiet, .calling dastardly upon a parliament 

t Da'stardness. Obs. [-XKSS.] 

1. Inertness of understanding, stupidity, dullness. 
1551 HULOET, Dastardnes, socordia. 1561 TURNER 

Herbal u. N iij b, By dastardnes and weiknes of mynde. 

2. Base cowardice, dastardliness. 

109 HOHMAN Ir'ulg. 55 He rebuked him of his dastardnes 
and pekishnes. 1639 FULLER Holy ll'nr iv. xix. (1840) in 
The daslardness of the Egyptians made these mamalukes 
more daring. 

Bastardy (dcrstaidi). arch. Also 6-7 -le. 
[f. DASTARD sb. + -Y, after coward)/, bastardy.'] 
The quality of a dastard ; base or mean cowardice. 

1588 ALLEN Admon. 19 The whole world deriding our 
effeminate dastardie. 1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. viii. 
22 Farre from any suspition of dastardy. a 1640 JACKSON 
Creed XI. xxiv. Wks. A. 461 Which did especially aggravate 
the Israelites dastardy. 1706 COLLIER Kejl. Ridic. 298 We 
must bear with those that are above us . .without dastardy 
and baseness. 1850 BLACKIE jfschylus II. 168 Why run 
ye thus, .into the hearts of men Scattering dastardy? 

Daster, -liness, obs. var. DASTARD, -I.I.VKSS. 

tDaswen, v. Obs. Also 4-5 due we n. 
[Closely related to dase-n, to DAZE. The suffix 
may be as in henvtn, harwen, hartwen, occurring 
beside herijen, herien, mod. harrow and harry, 
from OE. hcrrian. The word would thus be 
a parallel form to *dasi)en, 'dasien, from dasi) 
adj. : see DAZY.] intr. Of the eyes or sight : To 
be or become dim. 

1381 WrcLir Dtut. xxxiv. 7 The ey)e of hym (Moses) 
doswed not. i Sam. iii. 2 Heli leye in his place, and 
his eyen daswidcn. (1386 CHAUCER Manciple's Prof. 31 
Thyn even doswen eek (r. rr. dasewen, dasen, dasowebe]. 
1*1430 Hymns I'irg. 11867) 8 Myn i)en daswen, myn heer 
is hoore. c 1440 Promf. Parv. 114 Daswyn* {printed 
I>osrnyn'], or messen as eyys (H., P. dasyn, or myssyn as 
eyne), calif o. 1496 Dh'es It Paut. (W. de W.) vm. xvi. 
343 Age. .feblenesse, dasewynge of syght. 

b. fa. pple. 

c 1384 CHAUCEK II. Fame n. 1 50 Thou nttest at another 
booke Tyl fully dasew)-d ys thy looke. 14.. HOCCLE\-K To 
/'. Bedford 9 Myn yen hath custumed bysynesse So 
daswed. 14(3 CAXTON <;. dt la Tour F j b, Ye be daicwed 
and sore dyseased of your syght and wytte. 

Dasy(e, obs. form of DAISY, DAZY. 

Dasyll, cbs. form of DAZZLE. 

Dasymeter (d*si-mftai). Improperly daao-. 
[mod. T. Gr. Saov-s dense -r ptrpov measure.] An 
instrument for measuring the density of gases. 

1871 YEATS Teckn. Hist. C omm. 404 The manometer, or 
dasometer, for finding the density or rarity of the atmosphere. 
1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mcch., Dasymeter . . consists of a thin 
glass globe, which U weighed in the gas and then in an 
atmosphere of known density. 

Dasyphyllqna (drain las), a. Bat. [f. Or. 

Saffu-t rough, hairy + <f>v\\-of leaf + or.s.] ' Having 
hairy or woolly leaves ' (Syi. Sff. Lex?). 

6* 



DASYPOD. 

Dasypod (clje'sippd). Zool. [f. generic name 
Dasypus, ad. (Jr. Tmoinrovs, SaaviroS-, hairy or rough- 
footed.] Of or pertaining to Do^ypus, a genus of 
armadillos ; an animal of this genus. Hence 
Dasypodid sb., Dasy podine a. 

II JDasyprocta fdsesiptipkti). Zool. [mod.L., 

f. Gr. SaavirpojKT-os having hairy buttocks (f. Saaii-s 
hairy + TT/JCUKTOS buttocks).] A genus of South and 
Central American rodents, the agoutis. Hence 
Dasypro-ctid a. (sb.*, Dasypro'otine a. 

1875 BLAKE Zool. 67 Hares are rarest in South America, 
where their place is occupied by the Cavies and dasyproctine 
Rodents. 

Dtisypygcil (drcsipai'gal), a. ZooL [mod. f. 
Gr. SaavTwy-os (f. Saav-s hairy 4 nD-vr) rump, but- 
tocks).] Having hairy buttocks, rouyh-bottomecl. 

1875 BLAKE Zool. 17 The higher dasypygal or anthropoid 
Apes. 

Dasyure ^dje'sii'u-M). Zool. [ad. mod.L. 
dasyurtts, f. Gr. Saav-s rough, hairy + oiipa tail.] 
An animal of the genus Dasyurus or subfamily 
Dasyurinx, comprising the small carnivorous 
marsupials of Australia and Tasmania, also called 
' brush-tailed opossums ' or ' native cats '. 

1839-47 TODD Cycl. Anat. III. 261/2 The Opossums re- 
semble m their dentition the Bandicoots more than the 
Dasyures. 1881 Times 28 Jan. 3/4 The smaller pouched 
herbivores have their slayers in the ' native devil (sarco. 
p/iilits), and in the dasyures or native cats. 

Hence Dasyu'rine a. Zool., belonging to the 
subfamily Dasyurinx. 

1839-47 TODD Cycl. Anat. III. 260/1 In. .its hinder feet 
3tyrmecobins resembles the Dasyurine family. 

Dat, obs. form of DAUT v., Sc. to fondle. 
Data (dt'i-ta), pi. of DATUM, q.v. 

Datable, dateable (d^-tab'l), a. [f. DATE 

v. + -ABLE.] Capable of being dated. 

1837 frasfr's Mag. XVI. 401 Dateable contemporary 
inscriptions. 1884 A tkenxnm 19 Jan. 94/1 The oldest datable 
Reynolds in the gallery. 

Datal (d^'-tal), a. rare. [f. L. datum DATE + 
-AL.] Of or pertaining to date ; chronological. 

1882 Bradshaws Rail. Manual, The Parliamentary 
Intelligence, .first appears in datal order. 

Datal, dataller : see DAYTALE, DAYTALER. 

Datary 1 (cU T1 'tari). [ad. mod.L. datdrius, It. 
datario, f. L. dat-iim, It. data, DATE : ancient L. 
had datarius adj. in sense ' to be given away '.] 

1. An officer of the Papal Court at Rome, charged 
with the duty of registering and dating all bulls 
and other documents issued by the Pope, and re- 
presenting the Pope in matters relating to grants, 
dispensations, etc. 

1527 KNIGHT in Pocock Rec. Ref. I. xxviii. 58 The datary 
hath clean forsaken the court. 1533 BONNKR Let. to Hen. 
VIII in Froude Hist. II. 145, I desired the datary to adver- 
tise his Holiness that I would speak with him. 1691 W. B. 
Hist. Roman Conclave i. 2 The Datary, the Secretaries, 
and all such as have in their keeping the Seals of the 
deceased Pope, are obliged to surrender them. 1825 C. 
BUTLER Bk. R. C. Church 112 The lips of a Roman datary 
would water at the sight of a bill of an English proctor. 

t 2. An expert in dates ; a chronologer. Obs. rare. 
1655 FULLER Cft. Hist. m. v. 7 Die qninto Elphegi. I am 
not Datary enough to understand this, a 1661 Worthies 
I. (1662) 329 Let me onely be a Datary, to tell the Reader, 
that this Lord was created Earl of Portland, February 17 
[1632]. 

Da'tary '-. [ad. mod.L. dataria : see prec.] 
The office or function of dating Papal bulls and 
other documents ; a branch of the Apostolic 
Chancery at Rome separately organized in the 

1 3th c. for this and other purposes : see prec. 

1645 HOWELL Lett. (1650) I. 55 Besides the temporal 
dominions, he hath . . the datary or dispatching of bulls. 

1667 Lond. Gaz. No. 146/1 The next day. . the Datary was 

kept open, and several businesses dispatcht. 1838 J. R. 

HOPE SCOTT Let. in Mem. (1884)!. ix. 168 It is supposed to 

be in the Datary. 
b. attrib. or adj. 
1688 BURNET Lett. Prcs. State of Italy 113 It may bring 

in more profit into the Datary Court. 
Date (df'tl, rf.l [a. OF. date (13th c. in Littre), 

now datte : L. dactyl-its, a. Gr. SawruXos date, orig. 

finger. The OF. came through intermediate forms 

*dactde, dacte ; cf. Pr. dactil, datil, Sp. datil, Oil. 

dattilo (whence Ger. dattel, etc.), mod. It. daltcro.'] 
1. The fruit of the date-palm (Phccnix dactyli- 
fera), an oblong drupe, growing in large clusters, 

with a single hard seed or stone, and sweet pulp ; 

it forms an important article of food in Western 

Asia and Northern Africa, and is also dried and 

exported to other countries. 
c 1290 .S 1 . Eng. Leg. I. 380/1 1 5 A }eord of palm cam in is 

bond . . be jeord was ful of Dates, c 1400 Lanfranc's Ciritrg. 

307 It is schape as it were be stoon of a date, r 1400 

MAUNDEV. (Roxb.) viii. 30 Palme treesse berand dates. 1553 

EDEN Treat. Nr.ve Ind. (Arb.) 19 A tree . .which bringeth 

foorth dates lyke vnto the Palme tree. 1655 MOUFET & 

BENNET Health's Improv. (1746) 297_ Dates are usually put 

into stew'd Broths . . and restorative Cullices. 1712 tr. 

Pome? s Hist. Drugs 1. 136 Dates, .serve for the Subsistence 

of more than an hundred Millions of Souls. 1870 YEATS 

Nat. Hist. Comtit. 183 The best dates come to us from 

Tunis, via Marseilles. 



42 

Z. The tree which bears dates, the date-palm 
(rhccnix dactylifera^. Wild Date: an Indian 
species, P. sylvestris. 

a 1400 I'islill of Susan 89 per weore growyng so grene pe 
Date wib be Damesene. ?f47S $?* {<""<' Degrc 36 The 
boxe, the beche, and the larel tre, The date, also the 
damyse. 1742 COLLIER Orient, Eel. iv. 51 The date, with 
snowy blossoms crown'd ! 1866 Treas. lift. 878 I\hccuix\ 
sylfcstris, called the Wild Date, is supposed by some 
authors to be the parent of the cultivated date. 

f 3. Name ol a vaiiety of plum. Obs. 

1664 EVELYN Kal. Hort. (1729) 214 Plums, Imperial, Blue, 
White Dates. 

4. Comb., as date-fruit, -grove, -stone, -tree ; 
date-bearer, a date-tree bearing fruit ; date- 
brandy, an intoxicating liquor from the fermented 
sap of the date-tree ; date-disease, a distemper 
also called Aleppo boil; date-fever = DENGUE 
(see quot.) ; date-palm = sense 2 ; date-plum, 
the fruit of species of Diospyros (N.O. Ebenacese), 
having a flavour like that of a plum ; also the tree 
itself ; date-shell, a mollusc of the genus Litho- 
domus, which burrows in stone or rock ; so called 
from its shape ; cf. It. dattero, dattilo ' also a kinde 
of hard shell fish' (Florio 1598); date-sugar, 
sugar from the sap of the wild date-tree of India ; 
date-wine, wine made by fermenting the sap of 
the Phccnix dactylifera and other species. 

1880 L. WALLACE Ben-Hitr 225 The sky palely blue through 
the groinery of countless "date-bearers. 1827 MAGINN Reit- 
noseit Lieut, in Forget-me-not, *Date-brandy was not to his 
taste. 1873 tr. Ziemssen's Cycl. Med. II, 508 At Port 
Said . . it [dengue] was epidemic every year at the season 
of the date-harvest, and thus acquired the name of *date- 
fever. 1884 J. COLBORNE Hicks Pasha 85 The river . . is 
lined with stately 'date-groves. 1837 M. DONOVAN Dom. 
Econ. II. 347 The phccnix dactylifera or Mate-palm. 1877 
A. B. EDWARDS Up Nile iii. 57 A dense, wide-spreading 
forest of stately date-palms. 1866 Treas. Bot. 411 The fruit 
of the Chinese *Date Plum, D[iospyros] Ka/;i t is as large as 
an ordinary apple . . D. virginiana is the Virginian Date 
Plum or Persimon. .The fruit.. is an inch or more in dia- 
meter. 1881 Syd. Soc, Lex., Date plum, Indian, common 
name for the fruit of the Diospyros lotus. 1851 WOODWARD 
Mollnsca 266 The ' Male-shell ' bores into corals, shells, and 
the hardest limestone rocks. 1696 AUBREY Misc. (1721) 60 
Take 6 or 10 *Date-stones, dry. .pulverize, and scarce them. 
1840 Penny Cycl. XVIII. 104 *Date-sugar is not so much 
esteemed in India as that of the cane, c 1400 Rom. Rose 
1364 Fyges, and many a *date tree There wexen. 1535 
COVKRDALE Song Sol. vii. 7_ Thy stature is like a date tre. 
1601 HOLLAND Pliny xui. iv. (R.), Date-trees love a light 
and sandie ground. 1851 GftOTF-Greece IL Ixix. IX. 47 The 
soldiers, .procured plentiful supplies, -of *date-wine. 

Date (dfH), si'? Also 5-6 Sc. dait. [a. F. 
date, OF. also datte (i3th c. in Littre) = Pr., Sp., 
It. data fern. : L. data fem. sing, (or neuter) of 
datus given. In ancient L., the date of a letter 
was expressed thus ' Dabam Komssprid. Kal. Apr. ', 
i.e. 'I gave or delivered (this) at Rome on the 
3 ist March', for which the later formula was 
' Data Ronue, given at Rome ', etc. Hence data the 
first word of the formula was used as a term for the 
time and place therein stated. Cf. postscript, etc.] 

1. The specification of the time (and often the 
place) of execution of a writing or inscription, 
affixed to it, usually at the end or the beginning. 

c 1430 Starts 1'uer 97 in Bailees Bk. 33 In bis writynge, 
bou? |>er be no date, 1512 Act 4 Hen. Ylll, c. 10 A paire 
of Indentures, .the date wherof is the xij 11 ' daie of Aprill in 
the secound yere of your . . reigne. 1630 LD. DORCHESTER 
in Ellis Orig. Lett. n. 267 III. 259, I nave received your 
Letters of severall dates. 1712 STEELE Sped. No. 320 p 4 
A long Letter bearing Date the fourth Instant. 1817 W. 
SELWYN Law Nisi Priiis (ed. 4) II. 883 The policy should 
be dated. .The insertion of a date may tend to the discovery 
of fraud. 1837 MACAULAY Bacon Ess. 1854 I. 353/2 A public 
letter which bears date just a month after the admission of 
Francis Bacon. 1837 Penny Cycl. VII. 330 A three-halfpenny 
piece, .bearing the date of 1599. 

2. The precise time at which anything takes 
place or is to take place ; the time denoted by the 
date of a document (in sense i). 

c 1330 R. BRUNNE Chron, (1810) 47 pat tyme he died . . pe 
datewasabousand&sextenemo. 1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. xui. 
269 In be date of owre dry^te, in a drye apprile, A bousande 
and thre hondreth tweis thretty and ten. c 1400 MAUNDEV. 
(Roxb.) iii. q pe date when bis was writen..was ii m j[ere 
before be incarnacion of Criste. 1607 SHAKS. Titnon IL I. 22 
His days and times are past, And my reliances on his fracted 
dates Haue smit my credit. 1776 7'rial of Nnndocomar 
74/2 When was it? I only remember the sum: I do not 
remember the date. 1838 LYTTON Leila n. i, That within 
two weeks of this date thou bringest me . . the keys of the 
city. 1893 Weekly Notes 68/2 Up to the date at which he 
received notice. 

b. More vaguely : The time at which something 
happened or is to happen ; season, period. 

c 1325 E. E. A Hit. P. A. 540 pe date of be daye be lorde 
con knaw. c 1400 MAUNDEV. (1839) iii. 18 The Date whan 
it was leyd in the Erthe. 1639 tr. Du Bosq's Compl. Woman 
n. 32, I would faine know . . of what date they would have 
their Habits. 1647 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. \. (1843) r 7/ 1 
From these . . circumstances, .the duke's ruin took its date. 
1764 GOLDSM. Trait. 133 Not far remov'd the date, When 
commerce proudly flourish'd through the state. 1828 
CARLYLE Misc. I. 222 Up to this date Burns was happy. 

3. The period to which something ancient 
belongs ; the age (of a thing or peison). 



DATE. 

c 1325 E. E. Allit. P. A. 1039 Vchon in scrypture a name 
con plye, Of Israel barnez folewande her datez, pat is to say, 
ns her byrb whatez. 1576 FLEMING Panoftl. Epist. 415 This 
our common wealth, last in date, but first in price. 1699 
lip. NICOLSON To Ralpk Thoresby (T.), The best rules for 
distinguishing the date of manuscripts. 1832 W. IRVING 
Alhambra I. 50 The Torres Vermejos, or vermilion towers 
..are of a date much anterior to the Alhambra. 1864 
TKNNYSON Aylmer's /''. 80 When his date Doubled her own. 
1869 FREEMAN Norm. Conq. (1876) III. xiii. 291 Rich in 
antiquities of Roman date. 

4. The time during which something lasts ; 
period, season ; duration ; term of life or existence. 

13.. Chron. Eng. 972 in Ritson Met. Rom. II. 310 Thah 
the sone croune bere The fader hueld is date here, f 1386 
CHAUCER Can. Yeoni. Prt'l. fy T. 858 Neuere to thryue were 
to long a date, c 1440 LYUG. Secrees 421 So to perseuere 
and lastyn a long date, c 1534 tr. Pol. Verg. Kng. Hist. 
(Camden) I. 153 Miserablie fimshinge the date of her dayse. 
1667 MILTON /*. L. xn. 549 Ages of endless date Founded 
in righteousness. 1676 DRYDEN Avrengz. iv. i. 1725 To 
lengthen out his Date A Day. 1782 COWPER Lett, u Nov., 
When the date of youth is once expired. 1890 R. BRIDGES 
Shorter Poems in. vi, Her [a flower's] brief date. 

5. The limit, term, or end of a period of time, or 
of the duration of something. Obs. or arch. 

1325 E. E. Allit. P. A. 492 per is no date of hys god- 
nesse. 1447 BOKENHAM Seyntys (Roxb.) 41 Fer in age I am 
runne and my lyves date Aprochith faste. 1557 Tottcll's 
Misc. (Arb.) 129 The dolefull dayes draw slowly to theyr 
date, a 1600 RAI.EIGH Poems, Reply to Marlowe vi, But 
could youth last, and love stil breed, Had joyes no date, nor 
age no need, e 1600 SHAKS. Sonn. xiv, Thy end is Truthes 
and Beauties doome and date. 1712-4 POPE Rape Lock HI. 
171 What Time would spare, from Steel receives its date. 
1784 COWPER Task v. 529 All has its date below ; the fatal 
hour Was registered in Heaven ere time began. 

f 6. ? A fixed decree. Obs. [Cf. med.L. datum 
'statutum, decretum' (Du Cange).] 

c 1470 HENRY Wallace n. 195 Is this thi dait, sail thai our 
cum ilkane ? On our kynrent, deyr God, quhen will thow 
rew ? Ibid. vi. 97 What is fortoune, quha dryfiis the dett so 
fast ? [v. r. drawis the dait]. 

7. Phr. Out of date (attrib. out-of-date) : out of 
season ; no longer in vogiie or fashion, or suitable 
to the time; obsolete, antiquated ; also anW., as 
in to go out of date, to become obsolete or old- 
fashioned. {Brought, written, posted) up to date : 
said in book-keeper's phrase of accounts, a journal, 
ledger, etc. ; hence, fig. up to the knowledge, re- 
quirements, or standard of the time (colloq.). 
..... ' -" ^' - '>-" - - 



anger's out of dat< 



in. vi. 13 (1740) 432 With his wire 



1608 ROWLANDS Hum. Looking Gl. 10 Choller is past, my 
ite. 1707 COLLIER Rejl. Ridic. 291 Till 
"ORTH Exam. 
Slanders and 

out-of-date" Reflections. 1824 MEDWIN Confers. Byron 
(1830) I. 124 Shakespeare's Comedies are quite out of date ; 
many of them are insufferable to read. 1868 FREEMAN 
Norm. Cong. (1876) II. App. 538 An idea which had alto- 
gether gone out of date. 1890 DILKE Probl. Gr. Brit. I. 
p. vii, I., tried to bring my volumes up to date. 1893 
IVestrn. Gaz. a Mar. 6/3 The two gentlemen, .who inventea 
the Gaiety burlesque ' up to date ' and gave this detestable 
phrase to the language. 

8. Com}., as date-stamping; date-line, a line 
relating to dates ; spec, the line in the Pacific Ocean 
(theoretically coincident with the meridian of 180 
from Greenwich) at which the calendar day is 
reckoned to begin and end, so that at places east 
and west of it the date differs by one day ; date- 
mark sb., a mark showing the date ; spec, a letter 
stamped upon gold or silver plate, denoting the 
year of manufacture ; hence as v6. (nonce-wd^, to 
mark with something that shows the date or age. 

1880 Libr. Univ. Kntrail. VIII. 80 'Date-lines . . occur in 
the Pacific Ocean between islands that have received dates 
by eastward, and . . by westward communication. 1892 
N. Y. Nation 21 Apr. 304/1 He has provided an index, but 
. . so simple a device as the running date-line should not 
have been neglected. 1850 Ecclesiolog ist X. i8i_It is devoid 
of distinctive Mate-marks, except the vague pointed vault- 
ing. 1890 Whitaker's A hnanack 636 By the following table 
of date-marks "the age of any piece of plate manufactured in 
London and assayed at Goldsmiths' Hall may be ascer- 
tained. 1891 Times 12 Oct. 9/5 Each one [guess] has been 
date-marked, so to speak, by the peculiar beliefs . . of the 
time or of the place. 1886 Pall flail G. 12 Aug. 5/2 The 
"date-stamping apparatus on the counter [of a ticket-office]. 

Date (d't), v. [f. DATE sb* : cf. F. dater, Sp. 
datar to date.] 

1. trans. To affix the date to (a writing, etc.) ; to 
furnish or mark with a date. A letter is said to 
be dated from the place of writing named in it. 

1433 E. E. Wills (1882) 94 Dated, jere & day aboveseyd. 
1530 PALSGR. 507/1 Bycause you use nat to date them 
[letters], 1 wotte nat whyther to sende to you. 1682 SCAR- 
LETT Exchanges 100 A Bill dated the 3oth of January. 




bat 



,'2 A blank transfer . . neither dated nor executed by the 

~nk nor stamped. 

2. To ascertain or fix the date or time of (an 
event, etc.) ; to refer or assign to a certain date, lo 
reckon as beginning//w (some time or event). 

1430 LYDG. Chron. Troy Prol., Of theyr death he dateth 
not the yeare. 1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia 297 That the 
yeare of their Maioralty may date the building, or repaire 
of some Conduit. 1694 PRIOR Hymn to Sim ii, From the 
blessings they bestow, Our times are dated, and our eras 



DATED. 

move. 1710 S\ui i .Mail. Kdu.ation, I date fnmi tin , ., i.i 
the corrupt method of education anioli;* us. 1844 Liv.Aim 
.Iwc/'.S.ir. I'll. (iB 5 fi) II. i.v. 52 Kvery Christian < 
which dali-s its oriuin from any period before the Kcforma. 
linn. 1865 TVLIIR l.ar.yilii/. .I/,,;,, v. ,,, The art of dalin" 
i v< tit-.. 

b. To reckon chronologically or by c I. -lies. 

181 . HVKON To <"/,-. nicssington iv, My life is not dated 
b* fWn Thai are moments whkh act as a plough. 1837 
DISK.M.II \'fn,'li,i ii. i, Life is not dated merely by year-. 
O. abiol. To count the litnc, reckon. 

a 1742 HKNTLKV (J.>, Whether we begin the world so many 
millions of ages ago, or date from the late irra of alwut six 
thousand years. 1807 Ale:/. Jriil. XVII. 27 Six full days 
had.. passed.. dating from the time when the eruption ap- 
peared. 

f3. Tu put an end or period to. 0/>s. 

1589 GREENE Menaphon (Arb.) 25 Alledging how deatli at 
the least may date his miserie. i6ia T. TAYLOR Ctnnin. 
J'ilns iii. i The precept is ntucr dated, but in full force. 
<n6i8 SYLVESTER Efist. v. n His matchlessc Art. that 
never age shall date. 

1 4. To assign a time or duration to. 06s. rare. 

1676 HAI.E Contempt, i. 67 The studies of 1'olicy, Methods 
of War. .are all dated for the convenience and use of this life. 

t 5. To give (oneself) out as. Obs. rare. 

i6ia CHAPMAN Widmoes T. Plays 1873 III. n A Spartan 
Lord, dating himsclfe our great Viceroics Kinsman. 

t 6. To date from : to refer or ascribe to (a par- 
ticular origin). Oh. rare. 

1735 N. ROBINSON Th. Physick 150 As we have dated the 
immediate CUM of all Acute Diseases, especially Fevers, 
from the Contraction of the Solids. 

7. ititr. (for re/I.) To bear date, be dated ; to be 
written or addressed/r<7/ (a specified place). 

a 1850 ROSSETTI Dante , Circ. i. (1874) 27 Dante's sonnet 
probably dales from Ravenna. 1874 DEUTSCH Kent. 363 
Arecent.. edition dates Wilna 1852. Mod. The letter dates 
from London. 

8. To assign itself or be assigned to a s]>ectncd 
time or period ; to have its origin, take its rise 

from a particular time or epoch. 

<ii8*8 E. EVERETT (WebsterVf he Batavian republic dates 
from the successes of the French arms. 1846 GROTK Greece 
l. i. I. 68 The worship of the Sminthian Apollo dates before 
theearhest periods of jEoIic colonization. 1856 KAXE. -I -,-/. 
E-rpl. I. xi. 27 We learned that the house dated back as far 
as the days of Matthew Stach. 1868 FREEMAN Norm. Cong. 
(1876) II viii. 177 Two stately parish churches, one of them 
dating from the days ot' Norman independence. 

b. To rank in point of date or standing with. 

iSa? HOOD Plea Mids. Fairies xxviii, For we are very 
kindly creatures, dating With Nature's charities. 

Date, obs. form of DAUT v. Sc., to fondle. 

Dateable : see DATABLE. 

Dated (d^'-ted), ///. a. [(. DATE v. (and rf.2) 
+ -ED.] 

1. Marked or inscribed with a date. 

1731 POPE Ep. Burlington 135 To all their dated Backs 
he turns you round ; These Aldus printed, those Du Siieil 
has bound. 1881 H. B. WHEATLKY Cath. Angl. Pref. p. ix, 
The Catholicon is specially valuable as a dated Dictionary. 

f2. Having a fixed date or term. Obs. 

1586 MARLOWE ist Ft. Taml'iirl. n. vi, The loathsome 
circle of my dated life. 1591 NASHE/*. Peniles!e(eA. 2) 18 b, 
That can endow your names with neuer dated glory. 1718 
D'URFEY Grecian Heroine in. ii. in New Operas (1721) 
X22 His dated time comes on. 

Dateless (duties), a. [-LESS.] 

1. Without a date, bearing no date, undated. 

1644 PRYNNE & WALKER Fiennes's Trial 5 A Note, .with- 
out name or date, with a datelesse, namelesse Paper in- 
closed. 1798 W. TAYLOR in Monthly Rev. XXVll. 514 
A dateless account . . inserted after the edict for its abolition. 
1801 Spectator 4 Apr., Here is a dateless letter. 

2. Having no limit or fixed term; endless. 

'593 SHAKS. Kick. II, i. iii. 151 The datelesse limit of thy 
deere exile. 1614 DARCIE Birth of Heresies 108 Thy date- 
lesse fame. i8si SHELLEY St.lrvyne Prose Wks. 1888 I. 219 
A dateless and hopeless eternity of horror. 1870 I.OWELL 
Simfy Wind. (1886) 164 Immortal as that dateless substance 
of the soul. 

8. Of indefinite duration in the past ; so ancient 
that its date or age cannot be determined ; im- 
memorial. 

1794 COLERIDGE Poems, Kelig. Hftisings, In the primeval 
age a dateless while The vacant shepherd wandered with his 
flock. 1814 WORDSW. Excursion vi. Wks. (18881 493/2 From 
dateless usage which our peasants hold Of giving welcome 
to the first of May. 1849 RUSKIN Set'. Lamps tii. fi 4. 66 
The dateless hills, which it needed earthquakes to lift, and 
deluges to mould. 

4. dial. Out of one's senses, crazed; insensible. 

1863 MRS. GASKELL Sylvias L. II. 263 Mother is gone 
dateless wi' sorrow. 1867 E. WAUOH Dead Man's Dinner 
19 (Lane. Gloss.) They . . laid her upo' th' couch cheer, as 
dateless as a stone. 

Hence D.vtclessness, the quality of being date- 
less ; the absence of a fixed limit of time. 

1660 T. M. Hist. Independ. iv. 91 The Officers of his 
| Monk's] Army, .agreed, .that the Parliament intended.. to 
perpetuate the Nations slavery by their datelesness. 

Dater .d^-twX [-EB '.] a. One who dates. 
b. An apparatus for date-stamping. 

1611 COTGK., Dataire, a dater of writings . . the dater, or 
dispatcher, of the Pope s Bulls ; an ordinarie Officer in the 
Court of Rome. 1887 RicliforcTs Circular, Perpetual hand 
daters. 

DatSe, obs. form of DEATH. 
Dapeit, dapet, etc. i sec PAHET. 
Datholite, enon. var. of DATOLITE. 



43 

Dating (d.-'tin), vbl. sb. [-!'.] The action 
of the verb PATH, i|.v. 

1678 Trials of Ireland, t,c. in He was thin in \juaAun .. 
as I suppose by the dateim- of his Letters. 1891 Ii. N p. Hot- 
MIX iii .llJ,-,, 1. 1- 1, m 10 Jan. 61 2 As other dating, of hi, ate 
ap|>arently advanced one year, his dating requir:* to be in- 
qoirad into. 

Dation (d/'-Jan). [ad. L. dation cm, n. of action 
from dare to give.] The action of giving, f a. 
A/at. A dose. b. Civil Law. A rendering of L. 
datio, . dation, the legal act of giving or con- 
ferring, e.g. of an office; esp. 01 distinct from 
donation. 

1656 HLOUNT Glossogr., Dalim. a giving, a gift, a dole. 
1657 TOMLINSOM Renou's Disp. 163 That .. quantity of 
a medicament which is prescribed . . is a Dosis, lor DosU U 
Dation. Gloss., Dation, the quantity or dosis of any 
medicament that is administred to the patient at once. 1889 
in Century Diet, (in sense b). 

P Datisca (dati-ska). Bat. [mod L. (Linnaeus 
gives no source'.] The name of a genus of mono- 
chlamydcous exogens (N.O. Datiscacex) ; D. can- 
ttal'ina, the Cretan or Bastard Hemp-plant, is 
indigenous to Nepaul and the Levant ; its leaves 
contain a colouring matter known as datisca-yt'.low, 
used in dyeing silk, etc. Hence Datt scin, a gluco- 
side, C a H w O, a , allied to salicin, obtained from 
the leaves and root of Datisca. Dati-cetin, 
C|j H lo O,, a crystalline product of the decomposi- 
tion of clatiscin. 

1863-71 WATTS Diet. Chem. II. 306 The leaves contain a 
peculiar colouring matter, datisca-yellovi. Ibid. 307 Pure 
datiscin forms colourless silky needjes.. By boiling with 
strong potash-ley, it is decomposed with formation of ilatis- 
cetin. 

Datisi (datai'ssi). Logic. The mnemonic term 
designating the mood of the third figure of syllo- 
gisms in which the major premiss is a universal 
affirmative (a\ and the minor premiss and con- 
clusion particular affirmatives (', t). 

The initial d indicates that the mood may be reduced to 
Darit of the first figure ; the s following the second vowel, 
that this is done by simple conversion of the minor premiss. 

.'55J. WILSON Logilte(\$o'\ 30 The third figure. Da. All 
hipocrii.es count will workes hie holines. ti. Some hipo- 
cntes have been Bishoppes. si. Therefore some Itishoppes 
have coumpted will workes hie holinesse. 1654 Z. COKE A rt 
Logick (1657) ij6 The Modes of this Figure are six. Called, 
Darapti, Felapton, Disamis, Datisi, Bocardo, Ferison. 
1864 HOWEN Logic viL 200. 

Datism (d^i-tiz'm). rare. [ad. Gr. A&nauvs 
' a speaking like Datis (the Median commander at 
Marathon), i.e. speaking broken Greek' (Liddell 
& Scott).] Broken or barbarous speech ; a fault 
in speaking such as would be made by one not fully 
acquainted with the language. 

1617 MINSHEU Ductor, Datisme, when by a heape of 
Synonimaes wee rehearse the same things. 1891 Sat. A'ev. 
14 Nov. 554/2 We can understand that a small Athenian boy 
should commit a Datism in Latin : but we cannot see why 
the Roman boy should make a neuter verb transitive. 

Datival (dflsi-val), a. Gram. [(. L. dativ-us 
(see next) + -AL.] Belonging to the dative case. 

1818 Monthly Mag. XLVI. 322 Instead of the genitival 
and datival terminations. 

Dative (d^'-tiv), a. and sb. [ad. L. dativ-us of 
or belonging to giving, f. dal-tis given ; in grammar 
rendering Gr. CH>Tiicfj(wTwciif , from Soniefa of giving 
nature, f. SOT-OS given.] A. adj. 

1. Gram. The name of that case of nouns in 
Aryan and some other languages which commonly 
denotes the indirect or more remote object of the 
action of a verb, that to or for whom or which we 
do a thing, or to whom we give a thing. 

c 1440 Gcsta Rom. xci. 416 (Add. MS.) The thrid Falle is 
datif case, for there arc some that are prowde for they mow 
gyve. 1580 HOLLVBAND Trcas. Fr. Tong, A. .serueth many 
times to expresse the Datiue case : as Je Fay donne A tnon 
pere, I gaue it to my father. 1668 WII.KINS KfalCAar. 352 
The Dative Case b expressed by the Preposition (ToX 1879 
ROBY I. nt. Gram. iv. ix. ( 1130 The Dative case is used in 
two senses only : (A 1 It expresses the indirect object. .(Bt It 
is used /nvrYiW/Vrv/y in a quasi-adjectival sense. Mod. The 
pronouns me, thee, hint, her, us, you, them, which we now 
use both as direct and indirect objectives, were originally 
dative forms ; the original accusatives are disused. 

1 2. Disposed to give ; having the right to give. 
Obs. rare. (In first quot. with play on sense i.) 

14.. Piers of Fullham 368 in Hazl. E. P. P. II. 15 To 
knowen folke that ben dalyn : Their purches be called ablattf: 
They haue their i?en vocatif. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Dative, 
that giveth, or is of power to give. 

t 8. Of the nature of a gift ; conferred or be- 
stowed as a gift. (Krea. opposed to native.} Obs. 

1570-6 LAMBARDE Perait>. Kent (1826) 453 All Nobilitic 
and Gentrie is either, Native, or Dative, that is to say, 
commeth either by Discent, or by Purchase (i. e. acquisi- 
tion). 1661 MORGAN Spit. Gentry in. iii. 28 The first Native 
. .the second Dative, being given in rewards. 

4. Law. a. That may be given or disposed of at 
pleasure; in one's gift. b. Of an officer: Ap- 
pointed so as to be removable at pleasure : opposed 
to perpetual. O. St. Law. Given or appointed by 
a magistrate or a court of justice, not by a testator 
or by the mere disposition of law ; pertaining to- 



DATURA. 

uch appointment : as in executor dative, an exe- 
cutor ap|X>intcd by decree of the commissary when 
none has been appointed l.y the deceased, an ad- 
niinistr.ilor ; decree dative, a <licrcc appointing an 
executor dative ; testament dative, the decrrc 
confirming and conferring full title on an t 
dative ; tutor dative, a tutor appointed by the ( 'ouil 
on the failure of tutors-nominate and tuton-at- 
law; tutory dative, the office of a tutor dative, 
d. Tutor dative, in Rom. Law, one appointed by 
the testator, as distinguished from tutor of live. 

1S3S-6 Act 27 Hen. nil, c. 28 1 15 Pryoun or govemoun 
datylT & removable from lyme to tyme. 1575 T. Ituntar v, 
/>. Hunter in Ualfour I'racticlii 115 Sum tutorii ar Iota- 
mentaris, sum tutor is of law, and sum ar tutoris dative The 
tutor dative is maid and gcvin be the King. 1*51 N. BACON 
Disc. Govt. Kng.u. vi. 1 1739) 29 They shall certify., whether 
| a Prior be perpetual, or dative, ijti AYLIFFE Parrrftn 6j 
Those are tcnn'd Dative Kxecutpn who are appointed rach 
1 by the Judges Decree, as Administrators with ui here in 
England. 1754 ERSKINE I'rinc. Sc. Lam (1809) 85 If no 
tutor of law demands the office, any person .. may apply for 
a lutory-dative. 1796 \title\ The Testament Dative, and 
Inventory of the dehu . . justly owing to umquhile Robert 
Bums, .at the lime of his decease, .faithfully made out and 
given up by Jean Armour, widow of the said defunct, and 
executrix qua relict, decemed to him by decreet dative of the 
Commissary of Dumfries. 1848 WHARTON Lait> l.ex.. 
Dative., that which may be given or disposed of at will and 
pleasure. 1861 Sat. Kcv. 25 May 542 In the fourth year of 
Henry V, all the dative alien priones were dissolved and 
granted to the Crown. 1880 MUIRHKAO Gains L f 154 
Tutors appointed in a testament by express nomination are 
called tutors dative ; those selected in virtue of a power of 
option, tutors oplive. 

B. sb. (ellipL use of the adj.) 
1. Cram. Short for dative case : see A. 
igio WHITINTON ( 'ulg. 1 1527) 1 1 Somtyme in the stede of 
genytiue case he wyll haue a dalyue. 1751 HARRIS Hermes 
n. iv. 11786) 287 The Dative, as it implies Tendency to, is 
employed, .to denote the Final Cause. 1*61 MAX MULLEK 
Sc. Lang. vi. 208 The locative may well convey the mean- 
ing of the dative. 

attrib. 1868 G. STETOENS Runic Mon. I. 260 Other 
examples of this, .dative-ending. 
t 2. St. Law. A decree dative : see A. 4 c. Obs. 
1564 Act of Sederunt 24^ July iJamA We haif given .. 
power to our saids Commissaries of Kdinburgh, to give 
datives, and constitute. . executors. datives. 1666 Instruct. 
CominissariesmActsSedt. iS5J-i79op.95 If neither nearest 
of kin, executor or creditor shall desire to be confirmed, .ye 
shall confirm your procurator fiscal, datives always being 
duly given thereto before . . After the said datives (but before 
confirmation). 

Datively (d^-tivli), adv. [f. prec. + -LY-.] 
Gram. In the dative case ; as a dative 

1886 Century Mag. XXXII. 898 The pronoun of the first 
or second person, used datively. 

Dativo- ;(l<"Urv), combining form of L. dativus, 
DATIVE, used in adverbial comb, with other ad- 
jectives. 

1881 F. HALL in Amer. Jml. Philol. HI. 17 Our infitii- 
' tive, where to precedes it, having been generally, of old, 
dativo-gerundial [i.e. of the nature of a dative gerund). 

Datolite (dartotoit). A/in. Also erron. datho- 
lite (If'enur). [Named by Esmark 1806: irreg. 
f. initial part of Gr. barfiaOat to divide + -Xi0o 
stone : see -LITE.] 

A borosilicate of calcium, occurring in glassy 
crystals of various colours, in white opaque com- 
pact masses, or in botryoidal masses (botiyolite}. 

1808 T. ALLAN Names of Min. 26 Datholile. 1868 DANA 
Jlfiii. 382 Datolite is found in trappean rocks. 

Dattock idartjJk . [Native name in W. 
Africa.] The hard mahogany-like wood of a West 
African tree, Dctarium senegalense, N.O. Legumi- 
tiesae ; aho the tree itself. 

1884 MILLER Plant-n., ' Dattock ', of W. Tropical Africa. 

II Datum ^i-tfcn). PI. data (d^-ta% [L, 
datum given, that which is given, ncut. pa. pple. 
of dare to give.] A thing given or granted ; some- 
thing known or assumed as fact, and made the 
basis of reasoning or calculation ; an assumption 
or premiss from which inferences are drawn. 

1646 HAMMOND Wks. (16741 ' *4 8 iStanf.) From all this 
heap of data it would not follow that it was necessary. 
1691 T. H[ALK) Ace. ffew Invent. 128 Out of what Data 
arises the knowledge. 1737 FIELDING Hist. Register Dcd., 
All., will grant me this datum, that the said, .person is a man 
of an ordinary capacity. 1777 PRIFSTLEV Matt, tf Spir. 
11782) I. xii. 146 We have no data to go upon. 1807 HfTTON 
Course Math. II. 350 The omission of a material datum in 
the calculation, .namely, the weight of the charge of pow- 
der. 1888 BRYCB Amer. Comnnv. HI. Lxxvi. 9 The his- 
torical and scientific data on which the solution, .depends. 
b. Comb., as datum-line, -plane. 

1855 H. SPENCER Print. Pivchol. 11872) II. vi.viii, Moun- 
tains . . can have their relative heights determined only by 
reference to some common datum-line, as the level of the sea. 
1869 R. B. SMYTH GoldfieUs I'ictoria 609 Datum Water- 
Level, the level at which water was first struck in a shaft 
sunk on a reef or gutter. i88s GKIKIE 7Y-T/-M-. Geol. \tr. 
(1885) 925 The lines of stratification may be used as datum- 
lines to measure approximately the amount of rock which 
has been worn away. 1885 Science 19 June 409 The hori- 
zontal datum. plane adopted by German craniofogists. 

II Datura (dat'u-ra). Sot. [mod.L. ad. Hindi 
Mat lira, native name of D.fasttusa and D. Metel, 
common Indian species u-ed to stupefy and poison.] 



DAUB. 

A genus of poisonous plants ,N.O. Solanac&v), of 
which D. Stramonium is the Strammony or Thorn- 
apple, supposed to be a native of Western Asia, 
but now half naturalized over the warmer temperate 
regions of the world ; it is a powerful narcotic. 

1662 J. DAVIES tr. Rlanilcldo's Trav. 104 A drug which . . 
stupefies his senses. .The Indians call this herb Dtmtrt>, 
Doittry^ or Datura, and the Turks and Persians, Diititlct. 
i86a BEVBRIDGE Hist. India II. iv. iv. 126 From Hindoos 
was first learned, .the benefit of smoking datura in asthma. 

attrit). 1883 Century Mag. XXVII. 205 Large white 
datura blossoms. 

Hence Datu-rine (aUo Datu-ria% the poisonous 
alkaloid found in the Thorn-apple and other 
species; =ATHOPINE. 

1832 R. CHRISTISON Poisons (ed. 2^ 726 A peculiar alkaloid, 
which has been named Daturine or Daturia. 

Dau, var. of DAUW. 

Dau (Cursor J\I. 5108, etc.) : see I) AWE and DAY. 

Daub (dgb), v. Forms : 4-7 daube, dawbe, 
4-5 dobe, 5 doybe, 5-6 doube, 6-9 dawb, J 
daub. [a. OF. daube-r : L. dcalbare to whiten 
over, whitewash, plaster, f. de- down, etc. + albare 
to whiten, f. allnts white. The word had in OF. 
the senses ' clothe in white, clothe, furnish, white- 
wash, plaster"; in later F. 'to beat, swinge, 
lamme (Cotgr.) ; cf. curry, anoint, etc. All the 
English uses appear to come through that of 
' plaster '.] 

1. trans. In building, etc. : To coat or cover (a 
wall or building) with a layer of plaster, mortar, 
clay, or the like ; to cover (laths or wattle) with 
a composition of clay or mud, and straw or hay, 
so as to form walls. (Cf. DAB v. 8.) 

c 1315 E. K. Allit. P. B. 313 Cleme hit [the ark] with clay 
comfy with-inne, & alle be endentur dryuen daube with- 
outen. 1382 WYCUF Lev. xiv. 42 With other cley the hows 
to be dawbid. 1483 Cath. Angl. 102 Dobe, lincre, iUinere. 
1489 CAXTON Ftiytes pf A. n. xxxiv. 145 Thys bastylle muste 
be aduironned with hirtlels aboute and dawbed thykke with 
erthe and clay thereupon. 1515 BARCLAY Egloges iv. (1570) 
C iv/i Of his shepecote dawbe the walles round about. 1530 
PALSCR. 507/2 Daube up this wall a pace with plaster . . 
I daube with lome that is tempered with heare or strawe. 
1605 SHAKS. Lear n. ii. 71, I will tread this vnboulted 
villaine into morter, and daube the wall of a lakes with him. 
c 1710 C. FIENNES Diary (1888) 169 Little hutts and hovels 
the poor Live in Like Barnes . . daub'd with mud-wall. 
1877 N. IV. Line. Gloss. 243 Stud and mud walling, build- 
ing without bricks or stones, with posts and wattles, or laths 
daubed over with road-mud. 

absol. 1523 FITZHERB. Sum. 37 He shall bothe thacke 
& daube at his owne cost and charge. 1642 ROGERS Naa- 
tttatt 534 He falls to dawbing with untempered mortar. 
fig. i6-< Bp. HALL Contcmpl., O. T. xir. vi, He.. is 
faine to dawbe up a rotten peace with the basest conditions. 

2. To plaster, close up, cover over, coat with some 
sticky or greasy substance, smear. 

1597-8 BP. HAI.L Sat, vi. i. (R.), Whose wrinkled furrows 
. .Are daubed full of Venice chalk. 1614 Recoil. Treat. 
174 Take away this clay from mine eyes, wherewith alas 
they are so dawbed up. 1658 A. Fox tr. Wnrtt? Surg. 
n. xxviii. 190 She had been plaistered and dawbed with 
Salves a long time. 17x9 DE FOE Crusoe (1840) II. xv. 309 
We daubed him all over.. with tar. 183* LANDER Adv. 
Niger II. via. 26 The women daub their hair with red clay. 

fig. 1784 COWPER Task v. 360, I would not be a king to 
be. .daubed with undiscerning praise. 

b. To smear or lay on (a moist or sticky sub- 
stance). Also j /?,f. 

1646 FULLER Wounded Consc. (1841) 289 For comfort 
daubed on will not stick long upon it. 1750 E. SMITH 
Compl, Housewife 309 With a fine rag daub it often on the 
face and hands. 

c. To bribe, 'grease', slang. (Cf. qnot. 1876 in 
DAUB so. 2.) 

a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crem, Dumbing, bribing. 1785 
GROSE Diet. I'ulg. Tongue, The cull was scragged [hanged) 
because he could not dawb. 

3. To coat or cover with adhering dirt ; to soil, 
bedaub. Also_/ff. 

a 1450 Knt. de la Tour (1868) 31 Her heles, the whiche is 
doubed with filthe. 1535 JOYE Afol. Tindak 50 Dawbing 
eche other with dirte and myer. 1651 C. CARTWRIGKT Cert. 
Relif. i. 5 Such . . verities, as would have adorned, and not 
dawb'd the Gospel. 1661 PEPYS Diary 30 Sept., Having 
been very much daubed with dirt, I got a coach and home. 
1721 DE FOE Mem. Cavalier (1840) 197 The fall plunged 
me in a puddle . . and daubed me. 1768-74 TUCKER LI. 
Nat. 11852) II. 596 Filthy metal that one could not touch 
without daubing one's fingers. 1840 DICKENS Old C. Shop 
in, To daub himself with ink up to the roots of his hair 
1881 BESANT & RICE Chapl. of Fleet i. xi. (18831 89 My name 
is too deeply daubed with the Fleet mud; it cannot be 
cleansed. 

f4. To soil (paper) with ink, or with bad or 
worthless writing. 06s. 

1589 Marprel. Rpit. (18431 6 When men have a gift in 
writing, howe easie it is for them to daube paper, a 1618 
BRADSHAW Unreas. Separation (1640) 81 In the proofe of 
the Assumption he daubs sixe pages. 1792 SOUTHEY Lett. 
(1856) I. 7 The latter loss, to one who daubs so much, is 
nothing. 

6. In painting : To lay on (colours) in a crude or 
clumsy fashion ; to paint coarsely and inartistically. 
Also absol. 

1630 [see DAUBED]. 1642 FULLER Holy f, Prof. St. v x 
394 A trovell will serve as well as a pencil! to daub on such 
thick course colours. 1693 DRVDEN- tr. Du Fresnoy's Art 



44 

of Painting (L.), A lame, imperfect piece, rudely daubed 
over with too little reflection, and too much haste. 1796 
BURKE Rt-gic. Peace \. Wks. VIII. 147 The falsehood of the 
colours which [Walpole] suffered to be daubed over that 
measure. 1840 Hoon Up the Rhine Introd. 4 It had been 
so often painted, not to say daubed, already. 1867 TROLLOPS 
Chron. Barset II. ,1.77 He leaned upon his stick, and daubed 
away briskly at the background. 

1 6. To cover (the person or dress) wtth finery or 
ornaments in a coarse, tasteless manner ; to bedizen. 
Obs. or dial. 

^11592 GREENE & LODGE Looking Glass Wks. (Rtldg.) 
124/2 My wife's best gown, .how handsomely it was daubed 
with statute-lace. 1639 tr. Du Bosq's Compl. Woman n. 
32 They dawb their habits with gold lace. 1760 WESLEY 
Wks. .1872) III. 13 A person hugely daubed with gold. 
1876 M'hitby Gloss. s.v,, Daub'd out, fantastically dressed. 

f 7. fig. To cover with a specious exterior ; to 
whitewash, cloak, gloss. Obs. 

1543 BECON Agsi. Swearing Early Wks. (1843) 375 Perjury 
cannot escape unpunished, be it never so secretly handled 
and craftily daubed. 1594 SHAKS. Rich. Ill, in. v. 29 So 
smooth he dawb'd bis Vice with shew of Vertue. 1678 
YOUNG Serm. at Whitehall 29 Dec. 31 To dawb and palliate 
our faults, is but like keeping our selves in the dark. 1683 tr. 
Erasmus 1 Morix Enc. 114 They dawb over their oppression 
with a submissive flattering carriage. 1785 [see DAUBED]. 

f b. absol. or intr. To put on a false show ; to 
dissemble so as to give a favourable impression. 
c. To pay court with flattery. Obs. or dial. 

1605 SHAKS. Lear iv. i. 53 Poore Tom's a cold. I cannot 
daub it further. 1619 W. WHATELY God's Husb. ii. (1622) 53 
Whatauailed it Ananias and Saphira, to dawbe and counter- 
feit? 1619 W. SCLATER Exp. i Thess. (1630) 288 With 
such idle distinctions doe they dawbe with conscience. 
1650 BAXTER Saints'. R. in. xiii. (1662) 508 Do not daub 
with men, an4 hide from them their misery or danger. 
a 1716 SOUTH (J. \Letevery one, therefore, attend the sentence 
of his conscience ; for, he may be sure, tt will not daub, nor 
flatter. 1876 Whitby Gloss., Daubing, .paying court for the 
sake of advantage. 1877 Hohlt-rness Gloss., Daub, to 
flatter, or besmear with false compliment, with the object of 
gaining some advantage. 

Daub;dgb),.f& [f.D.u'B^. In some dialects (dgb, 
dab), whence the spelling dab : cf. DAB $b.\ 12.] 

1. Material for daubing walls, etc. ; plaster, rough 
mortar ; clay or mud mixed with stubble or chaff, 
used with laths or wattle to form the walls of cot- 
tages, huts, etc. Hence wattle and daub (also dab]. 

1446 Yatton Church-iv, Ace. (Somerset Record Soc. 82), 
Item for ryses for the dawbes .. ijrf. 1481-90 Hmvard 
Hoiiseh. Bks. (Roxb.) 514 Payd . . for biyngyng of dawbe 
and cley in to the said castell. 1587 blanch. Crt. Leet 
Rec. (1885) II. 18 For y j cartage of any mucke, dunge, 
dawbe, clay. 1622 R. HAWKINS voy, S. Sett (1847) 113 The 
soyle.. which, with water, .they make into clay, or a cer- 
taine dawbe. 1857 LIVINGSTONE Trav. xix. 369 Traders' 
houses, .built of wattle and daub. 1876 R. F. BURTON Gorilla 
L. II. 22 Heaps of filthy hovels, wattle and daub and dingy 
thatch. 1884 Cheshire Gloss. 279 A raddle and dobe house. 
b. Anything that is daubed or smeared on. c. 
Jig. Insincere compliments, flattery, dial. 

1602 Narcissus 209 (1893) Though with the dawbe of 
prayse I am loath to lome her. 1693 DRYDEN Juvenars 
Sat. vi. (R.), She duely, once a month, renews her face; 
Mean time, it lies in daub, and hid in grease. 1877 Holder' 
ness Gloss.) Daub, hypocritical affection. 

2. An act or instance of daubing. 

1669 A. BROWNE Ars Pic/. (1675) 82 And with two or 
three dawbes of your great Pencil, lay it on in an instant. 
1721 KELLY 6V. Prov. 256 (Jam.) Many a time have I gotten 
a wipe with a towel ; but never a daub with a dishclout before. 
1876 Whitby Gloss.) Daub o' /' hand, a bribe; compensa- 
tion. ' They got a daub o 1 1' hand for 't.' 

3. A patch or smear of some moist substance, 
grease, colouring, etc. 

1731 SWIFT Poems, Beautiful Young Nymph, [She] must, 
before she goes to Bed. Rub off the Dawbs of White and 
Red. i88x TYLOR Anthropol. 418 Their bodies painted with 
black daubs. 



4. A coarsely executed, inartistic painting 




L-enu> j,ne uinrence 01 aouiuoirom aaauo. 1039 IUARRYAT 
Diary in Amcr. ist Ser. I, 292 A large collection of daubs, 
called portraits of eminent personages. x88o A. H. HUTH 
Buckle 1. 1. 15 A coarse daub of a picture. 

5. attrib. or Comb,, as daub-hole. 

1848 S. BAMFORD Early Days i. (1859) 13 An old timber 
and daub house. 1875 Lane. Gloss., Daub-hoil, daub-hole, 
a clay or marl pit. 

Daubed (dbd), ///. a. [f. DAUB v. + -ED.] 

Plastered or coated with clay, paint, or sticky 
matter ; fig. bedizened, bearing a specious exterior. 
ci3*s E. E. Allit. P. 6.492 In^at cofer bat watz clay 
daubed, c 1420 Pallad. on Husb. \. 785 Hym Hketh best 
a daubed wough. 1581 PETTIE Guazzo's Civ. Conv. in. 
(1586) 125 b, Those dawbed, pargetted, and vermilion died 
faces. 1598 MARSTON Pygmal. 135 Glittering in dawbed 
lac'd accoutrements. 1630 SIR S. D'EwEs Jrnls. (1783) 67 
This daubed piece . .the face hath no similitude. 1785 SARAH 
FIELDING Ophelia I. xxv, The painted canvas is most 
innocent ; but the daubed hypocrite most criminal. 

Dauber (dgbsj). [f. DAUB v. + -KB*. In 

sense i prob. going back to K^r.daubour, in med. 
L. daubator whitewashes plasterer.] One who or 
that which daubs. 

1 1. One who plasters or covers walls with mortar, 
clay, etc.; a plasterer; one who builds with 
daub. Obs. 



DAUBING. 

\c 1300 Lib. Cast. Edu<. /, I. 99 (Godef.) De plastrers, de 
daubours, deteulers.] 1382 WYCLIF Isa. xli. 25 Asadaubere, 
or a pottere to-tredende the lowe erthe. 1398 TKEVISA 
liarth. De P. K. xvi. ii. ^1495) 553 Claye i* tough erthe.. 
and ableth to dyuers werkes of dawbers. 14*9 Liber A lints 
(Rolls Ser. i I. 289 Carpenters, masotins, plastrers, daubers, 
teulers. < 1515 Cocke LorclCs /?. (Percy Soc.t 10 Parys 
plasterers, daubers, and lyme borners. 1535 COVERDAI.E 
2 Kings xii. 12 To them that buylded and wroughte in the 
house of the Lorde, namely, to the dawbers and masons. 
1601 CORNWALLYES Ess. xi, Straw, and durt good only for 
Thatchers, and Dawbers. 1641 MILTON Aniiitativ,\\. (1851' 
240 Yet this Dauber would daub still with his untempered 
Mortar. 1816 in Peel Spen Valley (1893) 288 [A plasterer 
who] under the sobriquet of Dick Dawber was known far 
and near, a 18*5 FORBY Voc. E. Anglja, Dauber, a builder 
of walls with clay or mud, mixed with stubble or short 
straw. . In Norfolk it is now difficult to find a good dauber. 

f2. One who puts a.false show on things; a hypo- 
critical flatterer. Obs. 

1642 ROGMRS Naaman 425 Put case, thou wert under the 
Ministery of a d.iwber and flatterer. 1653 BAXTER Mctli. 
Peace Consc. 388 Meddle not with men-pleasers and daubers. 
1692 E. WALKER Epictctus' Mor. Ixxi, If praised, he can 
despise The fulsome Dawber, and his Flatteries. 

3. A coarse or unskilful painter. 

1655 FULLER Ch. Hist. i. i. i They were not Artists in 
that Mystery . . being rather Dawbers then Drawers. 1697 
DRYDEN Virg. (1806) II. 150 It hath been copied by so 
many sign-post daubers. 1751 SMOLLETT Per. Pic. (1779) 
II. xlii. 55 What is the name of the dauber who painted 
that? 1880 Manck. Guard. 31 Dec., They will see . . in 
David Cox something more than a dauber. 

4. U. S. A species of sand-wasp : from the way 
in which it daubs mud in forming its nest. 

1844 GOSSE in Zoologist II. 582 The little boys, .informed 
me that these were the nests of dirt-daubers. 1889 in FAR- 
MER A mericanisms. 

6. Anything used to daub with ; e.g.*. rag-brush 
or stump used to put blacking upon boots, where 
it is spread by the blacking-brush. 

6. = DABBKU i b (Ogilvie). 

Daubery, daubry (clg-bari, dg-bri). [f. 
DAUBEK : see -ERY.] The practice of daubing ; 
the specious or coarse work of a dauber. 

1546 BALE Eng. Votaries i. (1550' 9 To patch up that 
dauberye of the deuyll, their vowed wyuelesse and hus- 
bandles chastite. Ibid. 89 Thys dyvinite of yours is but 
dongyshe daubry. 1598 SHAKS. Merry W. iv. ii. 186 She 
workes by Charmes, bySpels, by th' Figure, & suchdawbry 
as this is. 1693 W. FREKE Sel. Ess, xxii. 123 We should 
have a graceful embroidery, not a daubery in expression. 
1830 Eraser's Mag. II. 114 He. .could colour either side of 
any question brought before him with gay daubery, 1876 
Whitby Glass,, Daubery . . applause doubtfully deserved ; 
cajolery ; the purport of an inflated announcement. 

Daubing (dg-bin), vbl. sb. [-ING 1 .] 

1. The action of the vb. DAUB in various senses. 
Chinking and daubing', see CHINKING vbl. sb.^ 2. 

1393 LANGL. P. PI. C. ix. 198 Peers . . putte hem alle to 
werke, In daubyng and in deluyng. 1486 Nottingham 
Rcc. III. 241 Temperyng of morter, and, lattyng and dawb- 
yng at |>e hous. 1544 Churclfw. Ace. Si. Giles t Reading 70 
To a mason for lathyng [an]d dawbyng iiij' 1 . 1656 Artif. 
Handsom. 115 [They] used such . . dawbings of black, red, 
and white, as wholly changed the very naturall looks. 1658 
A. Fox Wurtz" Surg. in. xv. 263 To prevent this swelling 
. . much salving, dawbing, anr~ ~' : ~~ 
1743 Land, fy Country Brew. 
foul Puddles, whose ill Scent 

always ready to affect and damage the Utensils and Worts. 
1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. II. 432 note, Blackening a 
character which was black enough without such daubing. 

b. The putting a false show on anything (obs.} ; 
hypocritical flattery. 

1655 SANDERSON Serm. II. Pref., That all court chaplains 
were parasites, and their preaching little other than daub- 
ing. 1681-6 J. SCOTT Chr. Life in. (1696) 390 God .. sees 
through all the Dawbings and Fucu's of Hypocrisie. 1766 
SMOLLETT Trav. II. xxix. (Jodr.), Without any daubing at 
all, I am very sincerely your very affectionate humble 
servant. 1803 SCOTT Let. Miss Seward in Lockhart xi, 
Such exaggerated daubing as Mr. Hayley has bestowed 
upon poor Cowper. 

C. Painting coarsely or inartistically ; hence, a 
coarsely or Badly executed painting. 

1654 WHITLOCK Zootcntta 491 No such, .offensive Sight as 
Pencill-dawbing. 1680 OTWAY Orphan Ded., Hasty dawb- 
ing will but spoil the picture. 17^13 POPE Guardian No. 78, 
I knew a painter . . make his dawbings to be thought originals 
by setting them in the smoak. 1752 FOOTE Taste \. Wks. 
1799 I. 9 How high did your genius soar? To the daubing 
diabolical angels for ale-houses. 1870 E. PEACOCK Ralf 
Skirl. III. 194 Worth a housefull of Verrio's daubings. 

2. Material with which anything is daubed ; 
esp. mortar or clay used in daubing walls ; rough- 
cast. 



. . much salving, dawbing, annomting, &c. they have used. 
,'43 Land. $ Country Brew. in. (ea. 2) 186 Corrupt and 
foul Puddles, whose ill Scents and nasty Daubings are 



1382 WYCLIF Ezek. xiii. 12 Wher is the dawbynge, that 36 
dawbiden [1611 the dawbing wherwith ye haue dawbed it]? 
1598 FLORIO, Etnpiastro, a plaister, a daubing. 1650 BULWER 



Anthropomet. 158 To force and wrong Nature with Bird- 
lime, Chaulk, Dawbing, and such trash. 1736 LEONI A Iberti's 
Arc/lit. I. 49 b, They. . are not too hasty to lay the second 
dawbing over this. 1806-7 A. YOUNG Agric. Essex (1813) 
1 . 49 The old cottages are generally of clay daubing, a 1848 
CARLTON New Purchase I. 61 (Bartlett) The interstices of 
the log wall were ' chinked 'the chinking being large 
chips and small slabs . . and the daubing, yellow clay . . 
splashed in soft. 

b. According to Knight, Diet. Mech. (U.S.), 
a synonym of DUBBING for leather. 

3. attrib. and Comb. 

1540 MS. Ace. St. John's Hasp., Canterb., For a dawbyng 
forke jrf. 1660 FISHER R us ticks Alarm Wks, (1679) 473 



DAUBING. 

SIK Ii .. shifting and canvcsing, and d.uit>iii^ doings in 
bain isafxii h moment. itfiGiuiERCVw'urfDjatThi 
old Norman polish Lime and Hairi-likc il.uil.inK ciisiuim:. 

Datrbing,///. a. [-I.M; -'.] That daul s ; csf. 
that Ix'datibs with flattery (olis.). Hence Dau b- 
ingly adv., in a daubing manner. 

i6 Gn.xAi.1. Chr, in Arm. y. i 3 (,669) 84 He hath hii 
d. nib ing I'rc.-ichers.. with their soul- flattering. i676Wv, nni- 
I.KY /'/. />,a/er i, She . . hates the lying, masking, daubing 
world. 1681 S. PoRiur-.E Medal R,i: Ep. 2 As much to the 
life, as the pretended Whiggs Heroc nio-,1 d.inliiii^ly was 
lately aimed at, by the Author of the Medal. 1719 W 
DUNCOMBE in y. Duitcombe's Lett. (1773) I. 239 The daub- 
ing syuophanl. 

Daubreelite (dp'br/bit!. Min. [f. as next + 
-L1TK ] A black sulphide of chromium, found in 
meteoric iron. 

1891 Pall Hall C. 17 Sept. 7/2 The.. constituent parts of 
meteoric iron are . . numerous compounds, such as ferrous 
sulphide (iroilitc), sulphide of chromium (daubrcelile), 
calcium sulphide (oldhamite). 

Daubreite -dp-brz.oit). Min. [Named 1867 
after M. Daubre'e, a French mineralogist : sec -ITE.] 
A native oxy-chloride of bismuth. 

1876 Amer. Jrnl. Sc. Ser. 111. XII. 396. 

Daubry : see DAUBERY. 

Daubster (dg-bstaj). [f. DAVR, DAVBRB: see 
-S.TKR.] A clumsy painter ; a dauber. 

1853 Rp-ADECAr. Johnstone\\. 63 The young artist laughed 
the old daubster a merry defiance. 

Dauby (d-bi), a. [f. DAUB si. + -Y.] 

1. Of the nature of or resembling daub ; sticky. 
1697 DRYDEN I'irg. Georg. iv. 54 Th' industrious Kind 

With dawby Wax and Flow'rs the Chinks have lin'd. 1787 
MARSHALL Rur.Ecan. Kast Norfolk Gloss., Dauby, clammy, 
sticky ; spoken of land when wet. 1884 Uptoti-ott-Sa-ern 
Gloss., Dauby, damp and sticky ; used of bread made from 
' crown ' wheat. 

2. Given to daubing: dirty.etc. (see quots.). dial. 
i8 ROBINSON Whitly Glass., Dauby, untidy, dirty. 

Dauby Jolts, slovenly people in household matters. 1877 
N. W. Line. Glass., Dauby, dirty. 'What a dauliy bairn 
thoo art'. 1877 Holderness Gloss., Dauby.. (?) feignedly 
affectionate ; (3) gaudily dressed, without taste. 

3. Of the nature of a daub. 



Daud : see DAU sA.- and v. 

Daudle, var. of DAWDLE. 

Daugh, daucb. (dax, dax w ). Se. Mining. 
[Etymol. uncertain : the form points to an earlier 
dalgh, dal) ; cf. DAUK.] See quots. 

'793 USE Hist. Rutherglen 289 Dangh, a soft and black 
substance, chiefly of clay, mica, and what resembles coal- 
dust. 1807 HEAURICK A rran 217 The dauch which separates 
the two seams of coal. 1859-65 PAGE Geol. Terms, Douk, 
Dank, or Daitg/t, applied in mining to beds or bands of 
hard, tough clay or clayey admixture ; generally without 
lamination, and more or less compact and homogeneous. 

Hence Daxi chy a., of the character of daugh. 

1807 HEADRICK Arran 217, 8 or 10 inches of a dauchy 
till. 1845 WhistUbinkie (Sc. Songs) (tSoo) I. 373 The ice is 
dauchie. 

Daughter (dg-taa). Forms : a. i dohtor, -ur, 
1-3 dohter, 3-4 doujter, -ir, 3-5 dojter, -ir, 
ur, 3-6 (9 dial.) dowter, 4 dohuter, -ir, -yr, 
dowsghtur, douther, 4-5 doghtir, -ur, douter, 
4-5 (8 Sc.} doghter, 4-6 daughter (dowghter, 
5 doughtur, dughter, dowtir, -yr, Jjowjtur, 
thowghter, 5-6 St. doohtir, 5-9 Sf. doohter, 6 
doughtour, Se. douohter). 0. (6 dial, dahtorr, 
doffter, 6-7 dafter), 6- daughter (riming with 
after in Pilgr. Prog., etc.). Plural: see below. 
[A Com. Teutonic and Common Aryan word of 
relationship, OE. dohtor (-ur, -cr) = Ol-'ris. dechter, 
OS. dohtar (MDu., Du., LG. dochter), OHG. tohter 
(MHG./oA/fcr, Ger.tochter}, ON. ditter (:-</oAter), 
(Sw., Nonv. dotter, Da. datter), Goth, dauhtar: 
OTeut.*rtW</iV; corresp. to pre-Germanic *dliuktfr 
from original *dhiigli3tc'r, whence Skr. duhitar-, 
Zend duySar, Armen. dustr, OSlav. dililT, Lith. 
Juki!: cf. also Or. Oirfdrrjo. Generally referred to 
the verbal root *dhugh-, Skr. duh- to milk. 

The normal modern repr. of OK. dohtor, ME. do)- 
ter, is daughter, still used in I (>th c., and now repre- 
sented by Sc. dochter, dowchter, north. Eng. dowter. 
The form daughter appeared ir. the l6th c. (substi- 
tuted in Cranmer's ed. of the Bible for Tindale's 
and Coverdale's daughter, whence in all later ver- 
sions, and always in Shakspere and later writers). 
It appears to be of southern origin, and analogous 
to the southern phonetic development of bought, 
sought, thought : a Wells will of 1531 has dahtorrs : 
cf. the mod. Somerset and Devon (da'taa). 

In OE. the dative sing, was dekter; genitive dohtor 
(sometimes dehtcr? ; the uninflected genitive continued in 
use to the i6th c. The plural shows a variety of forms, viz. 
OE. dohtor, -ur, -er (like the sing.>, tiohtru, dohtra, North- 
umb. ilohtfr, dohtcro ; the first of these app. did not survive 
the OE. stage ; the form in -tf, -<z, is represented in early 
ME. by Layamon's dohtere, dohtre ; but Layamon has 
also dahtren, which survived in S. W. dialect to 1500. Ormin 
has dohhtrcss. and the later text of Layamou dohtrts, which 
is always found in northern ME., and became the standard 



45 

loim. Ail umlaut plural defter a|.| i Mid- 

Kind AUatrmUtt I'min of 14th c. and the Tray-book of 
< i ! i ; il occurs elsewhere with inflexional endings dehlrtn, 
ttcit, r,s : cf. brether brethren. Tile unfixedneis of the 
form is seen in this, that the earlier text of I*ayamon hai 
l.olh dahtrrt and dohlr,-it, the later both <*/ 
dohtrts; the MSS. of Chaucer also show both daitflitres 
and doiifhtrcn. Halt .Mcidtnhad has dohtren and dehtt t y/, 
the Alliterative Poems dejter and dejteres. 

With the OE. plural forms, cf. OFris. dahtera and dah- 
tcren,OHG. tahter, tah/era, tohterun, MHC., with umlaut, 
tdhter, Ger. tfchtcr, LG. dechter. The original Teutonic 
nom. pi. was "dohtrit, in early Norse runes dohtrit, whence 
regularly Norse deetr, ddcttr; a corresponding OE. 'dcehter, 
'Jehler is not found, but the ME. West Midland i/.-f/.-r 
may be its descendant. The other forms in the various 
languages are later, and analogical. For OE. dohtor, 
doktru, -ra, see the similar forms under BROTHKR : it is 
possible that those in -rtt, -ra, northern *m, are assimilated 
to -as, -or stems like lombru, -ra, -era. MK.<>yf, dejtreit 
exemplify the usual passage of vowel plurals in early 
southern MK. into the < type, and Ormm's dohtress the 
early ascendancy of plurals in the north and midlands. ) 

A. Illustration of the plural forms. 

t a. OK dohtor, -ur, -er ; dohtra, -ru, -ero j 
ME. 2-3 dohtere, -tre. 

c looo Ags. Ps. xliv. 10 Cynincga dohtor \filix refuiii}. 
[bid. cxlill. 15 Hcora dohtru [filix eorum}. c 1000 Af I. 
Gasp, Luke xxiii. 28 Eala dohtra hierusalem [<: 950 .'.itidtsf. 
dohtero, ^975 Riishw. dohter, c iroo Halton dohterj. 
c ijoj LAY. 24509 Comen. .bere hehere monnen dohtere. 
t P. 4 dejter, 4-5 deghter. 

c 1315 E. E. Allit. P. B. 939 Loth & his lef, hys luflyche 
dejter. CI4OO Destr. Tray 1474 Sonnes . . ffyue . . and bre 
deghter. Ibid. 1489 Of his Deghler by dene . . One Creusa 
was cald. 

t7- a doohtren, 3 dohteren, -trcn, dojtren, 
4 douh-, dou}-, doghtren, 4-5 doughtren. 

a 1175 Cott. Ham. 225 Jede"ir sunen and dochtren. e laoj 
LAY. 2924 J>e king hefde breo dohtren \c 1*75 dohtres]. 
c 1130 Hall Mtid. 41 pa schalt . . teamen dohtren & sunen. 
1197 R.GLOt'C. (17241 509 Hor wiues & hor do;tren. <ri3> 
Cast. Lave 289 Koure douhtren hedde be kyng. e 1374 
CHAUCER Troylus iv. Prol. 22 Oye herynes nyghttes dough- 
tren thre, 1480 CAXTON Chran. Eng. xiii. 15 Tho ii eldest 
doughtren wolde not abide till Leyr hir fadre was deede. 
t. deghtren; 3-5 dehtren, 5 deytron. 

c 1130 Hali Meid. 19 Alle hise sunnen and alle hise dehtren. 
14. . Ckron. Rug. 543-5 in Ritson Ane. Metr. Rom. (1803) 
II. (MStz.), Edward hade . . Nine dehtren ant five sones. 
c \iftoChron. Vihd. 367 pe Bysshop. .sayde deytron ycham 
fulle hevy. 

. t dohtres, f doughters, etc. ; daughters. 

cnoo Trin. Call, Ham. 19 To suncs and to dohtres. 
c 1*50 Gen. <y /,'.<. 1092 Loth and his dohtres two. c 1300 
flavelok-ji-j Hauelok..And hise two doutres. t 13*5 A'./.'. 
A Hit. P. B. 814 His two dere dojterez. c 1340 Cursor M. 
18983 (Fairf.) 5oure sones and joure dou^tris. c 1386 CIIAUCEK 
Nun s Pr. T. 555 Eek hir doghtres two [v.rr. doughtres, 
doubters, dowhters, doughteryn). c 1450 Merlin 3 He had 
thre doughters and a sone. 1535 COVERDAI.E Acts ii. 17 
Youre sonnes and youre doughlcrs. 1539 CRANMER ibij. 
Youre sonnes and youre daughters. 

t C 4 deghteres, -tres, deijteres, dejttera. 

a lyiCtCursor M. 9623 Sir, o bi deghteres am I an. f 13*5 
E. E. Allit. P. B. 890 )>y wyf & by wy^ez & by wlonc 
dcjtters. Ibid. B. 933 His wyf & his wlonk dejteres. 

B. Signification. 

1. prop. The word expressing the relation of 
a female to her parents; female child or offspring. 
The feminine term corresponding to SON. 

o. Form doughter. Obs. exc. dial. 

c 1000 Aft. Cusp. Matt. xx. 37 Se Se lufaS sunu oS5e 
dohtor [7'. r. dohtur] swybur bonne me. c 1160 Hatton G. 
ibid., Se be Iufe5 sune ooOe dohter. c IKXJ Trin. Coll. Ham. 
197 His seuen sunes and brie dochtres. c 1340 Cursor M. 
155 i Trin.) Mary also hir doubter mylde \v.r. dotthter, 
douther]. 14. . Nominate in Wr.-Wulcker 691 17 Hie getter, 
a dowghter husband, c 1449 PECOCK Repr. v. iii. 500 Marie 
. .bare sones and dou^tris after that sche. .bare Crist. 1535 
COVERDALE Eztk. xvi. 44 Soch a mother, soch a doughter. 
[Sc. and dial. 1609 SKENE Reg. Maj. 33 Gif there be moe 
dochters nor ane, the hcretage sail be divided amonst them. 
1714 RAMSAY Tea-t. Misc.(\iy$)\. 8 I'm come your doubter's 
love to win. 1793 BURNS Let. to Cunningham 3 Mar., Do 
you know the. .old Highland air called ' The Sutor's Doch- 
ter'? 1863 TynesiJe Songs 34 For he a dowter had.) 

0. Form daughter. 

1531 W. BADE in Wells Wills (1890) 1 14 To my to dahtorrs 
a kow. 153* T. BUDU ibui. (18901 183 To their eldest dafters. 
1539 CRANMER Matt. ix. 18 My daughter is even now 
diseased. 1596 SIIAKS. Taut. Shr. i. i. 245 So could I 'faith 
boy. to haue the next wish after, That Lucentio indeede had 
Baptistas yongest daughter. 1684 BUNYAN Pilgr. II. (Han- 
serd Knollys ed.) 339 Dispondencie, good-man, is coming 
after, And so also is Much-afraid, his Daughter. 1749 
FIELDING Tom Jones vi. vii, The misery of all fathers who 
are so unfortunate as to have daughters. 1847 TENNYSON 
Princ. v. 310 'Boys!' shriek 'd the old king, but vainlier 
than a hen To her false daughters in the pool. [dial. 1864 
CAPURN Devon Proviiic., Darter, daughter. 1837 DICKENS 
Pickw. viii, ' My da'ater.*) 

2. trans/. A female descendant ; a female mem- 
ber of a family, race, etc. ; a woman in relation 
to her native country or place. (Cf. CHILD 9."! 

t 1000 .-/jfi. Gosf. John xii. 1 5 Ne ondrscd bu Siones dohtor. 
c 1160 Ilalt,m G. ibid., Nc on-dned bu be Syones dohter. 
1381 WYCLIF Judg. xiv. i A womman of the doujtris of 
iTiilislien. r- Luke xiii. 16 This doujtre of Abraham. 
xxiii. 28 Domtris of Jerusalem. 16^7 MILTON P. L. I. 453 
The Love-tale Infected Sions daughters with like heat. 
1813 BYRON Clt. liar. u. Ixxxi, Danced on the shore the 
daughters of the land. 1833 TLSSYSON Lady Clara i. The 
daughter of a hundred Earls. 1850 In Mem. Cone), ii, 
A daughter of our house. 1855 The Brpok 69 A daughter 
of our meadows. 



DAUGHTER. 

3. Used u a terra of affectionate adilns to a 
woman ur giil by an ulilcr (icnon or one in a su 
|i-iinr rrlation. ( '/is. or ardi. 

. 1000 .-!,(,. i, t -if. Matt. ix. 11 (Jelyf dohlor. bin xeleafa be 
fcehielde. c 1130 Hali Mtid. 3 (her me dobter he eft. 
1381 WfCUf Matt. ix. jj And Jhesu* . . saide, DouVer, 
haue thou trut ; ihi faith hath nude tine saaf. 1534 
TINDALE ibid., I)oui[hter, be of good con fort. (So 1535 
CoVERDALU, 1539 CHASMICR, 1597 Gtiuva, 1581 Rhehiu; 
1611, daughter J 1591 SIIAKS. Kani. f, Jut. iv. i. 39 Are 
you at leisure, Holy Father, now ?../>/. My leisure strucv 
me, pensiue dau-;hlt-r, now. 1790 Cow nn Odvtity xxill. 79 
To whom thus Kuryclea, nure belov'd. What word, my 
daughter, hath ocaped thy lips T 

4. A girl, maiden, young woman (with no express 
reference to relationship). Obs or arch. 

1381 WYCLIF Song Sol. ii 2 As a lilie among thomei, to 
my leef among do}tre. 14(3 CAXTON Cala K viij b, If 
a doughter drynkc of the water.. >f she be a mayde >be 
shal crye. 1611 BIBLE J'ra-c. xxxi. 29 Many daughters haue 
done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. 1818 SHELLEY 
Kci'oll of Islam viii. it 9 She is some bride. Or daughter 
i>f high birth. 

6. fig. A woman viewed in relation to some one 
whose spirit she inherits, or to some characteristic 
quality, pursuit, or other circumstance. (A He- 
braism of Scripture.) (Cf. CHILD it, 13.) 

1381 WVCI.IF Keel. xii. 4 And alle the do)tris of the song 
shut become doumh. i Pit. iii. 6 A Sare obeschide to 
Abraham . . of whom )e ben dou^tres wel doynge. 1738 
WKSI.EY tt'kt. (18721 I. 158 A daughter of affliction came to 



daughter ! 

6. fig. Anything (personified as female) con- 
sidered in relation to its origin or source. 

c 1130 HaliMeid. 15 Vre wit is godes dohter. \ypAytnb. 
26 Fole ssame. -is. .dorter of prede. 1667 MILTON P.L. ix. 
653 God. .left that Command Sole Daughter of his voice. 
1718 POFK Dune. I. 12 Dulnes-s. .Daughter of Chaos and 
eternal Njght. i8o\Voniisw. Ode tc Duty i Stern Daughter 
of the Voice of God ! O Duty ! i8ao SHELLEY The Claud 
vi, I am the daughter of earth and water. Matt. Italian, 
the eldest daughter of ancient Latin. 

b. Applied to the relation of cities to their 
metropolis or mother-city ; in Scripture to the 
smaller towns dependent on a chief city. 

1535 COVERDALE "Josh. xv. 47 Asdod with the doughters 
[1611 towns) and vyllages thcrof. Mod. Carthage the 
famous daughter of Tyre. 

c. Duke of Exeter s daughter. Scavenger's [cor- 
ruption of Sl!cvingloifs~\ daughter : names given to 
instruments of torlure of which the invention is 
attributed to the Duke of Exeter and Sir W. 
Skevington, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, 
respectively. So gunners daughter, the gun to 
which seamen were lashed to be flogged. See 
Gt'NNER, SCAVENGER. 

'1641 FULLFR //*>/> ff Prof. St. iv. xiii. 301 A daughter of 
the Duke of Exeter invented a brake or cruel rack.) a 1700 
B. E. Diet. Cant. Crm, Duke o/ Exeter's Daughter, 
a Rack in the Tower of Ixjndon, to torture and force Con- 
fession ; supposed to be introduced by him. 17*0 Stan's 
,Ym (ed. Slrype 1754) I. I. xiv. 66/a The Brake or rack, 
commonly called the Duke of Exeter's daughter because he 
was the deviser of that torture. 1878 J. GAIXUNER Rick. Ill, 
iv. 125 Being, .a prisoner in the Tower, in the severe embrace 
of the Duke of Exeter's daughter '. 

7. altrib. and Comb, 'usually yff.), as daughter- 
branch, -bud, -city, -house, -is/anil, -language, 
-state; daughter-like adj.; daughter-cell {Sift.]-, 
one of two or more cells produced by the fission 
of an original or mother-cell. 

1586 T. B. LaPrimattd. l-'r. Acatt. 510 The rare example 
of daughter-like pietic. 1614 RALEIGH Hist. World II. ix. 
{ i i R.) A fruitful vine planted by the well side, and spread 
her daughter-branches along the wall. 1641 M I I.TON Reform. 
Wks. (1847)21 This Britannic empire, .with all her daughter- 
islands about her. a 1711 PRIOR Celia to Damon 104 And 
when the parent rose decays and dies . . the daughter-buds 
arise. 1871 MARCUS DODS tr. St. Aug. City ('/(.>'./ I. 107 
How, then, could that be a glorious war which a daughter, 
state waged against its mother ? 1876 // 'agner's Gen. 
Pathol. 92 The tlaughter-cells separate after complete divi- 
sion. 1876 Bosw. SMITH Carthage 5 The Phoenicians alike 
of the parent country and daughter cities. i88a VINCI 
Sachs' Rat. 139 One of the two daughter-cells (the Apical 
Cell) remains . . similar to the mother-crll. 1886 Aur. BENSON 
Prayer at openint Col. * Ind. E.ilttb. May 4, That all the 
daughter-lands of her Realms and Empire may be knit 
together in perfect unity. 

Hence Daughter-fa! a. (<wr<M/.\ full of 
daughters. Dan ghtcrhood, (a) the condition of 
being a daughter ; (i> daughters collectively (cf. 
sisterhood . Dan gfhterkin (nottfe-wd. after Ger. 
tochterchcn}, little daughter. Datrghtcrlcu a., 
without a daughter. Dan. jfhterling nonce-led.), 
little daughter. Dan'ghterahlp (nonct-iiii.}, the 
condition or relation of a daughter. 

1830 CARLYLC in far. Krv. 4 Cant. Mite. V. 45 In a 
daughter-full house. 183$ Tail's Mag. II. 101 The 
motherhood of Great Britain . . and the unportioned daugh- 
terhood. 1890 I. PULSFORD Loyalty ta Christ I. 250 
Daughter, thou hast lost thy divine daughterhood. 1858 
CARLYLE l-redk. Gt. II. x. i. 571 His poor little Daughter- 
kin. 1393 GOWKR Con/. III. 305 Ye shull for me be 
doughlerles. 1887 CoritMM Mag. Oct. 434 Wifeless and 
dau^hterless. i8 C. BRONTE I'illette XM. il>. , What 
am t to do with this daughter or daughterlinz of mine? 



DAUGHTER-IN-LAW. 

1808 SOUTHKY Lett. (1856) II. 65, I shall not condole with 
you on the daughtenuuDi 
Dau'ghter-in-law. [See BUOTHER-IN-LAW.] 

1. The wife of one's son. 

1382 WYCUK Rttth i. 22 Thanne cam Noemy with Ruth 
MoabitCj hir doubter in lawe. (1440 Pi-amp. Parv. 129 
Do^tyr m lawe, mints, 1611 BIUI.E Matt. x. 35 The 
daughter in law against her mother in law. 1886 UKSANT 
Cliildr. Gilteon U. xxxii, A mother is difficult to please in 
the matter of daughters-in-law. 

2. = STEPDAUGHTER. (Now considered incorrect. 
Cf. FATHER-IN-LAW 2.) 

[1530 PALSGR. 215/1 Doughter in lawe, belle Jille.] 1841 
Gcntl. Mag. I. 312 Isabella, daughter of the late Lieut. 
John Raleigh Elwes . . and daughter-in-law to I. Brown, 
M.D. 

Daughter-law.NowrfzVz/. = DAUGHTER-IN-LAW. 

1526-34 TINDALE Matt. x. 25 The doughterlawe ageynst 
her motherlawe. 1567 TURBERVILLE Ovid's Epist, 36 
(Halliw.) Thy father would not entertaine In Greece a 
daughter-lawe. 1888 ELWORTHY /K. Somerset Word.bk., 
Darter-law, (always) daughter-in-law. 

Daughterly (d-t3.ili\ a. [f. DAUGHTER + 
-LY 1 .] Pertaining to or characteristic of a daugh- 
ter ; such as becomes a daughter ; filial. 

a 1535 MORE IVks. 1449 (R.) Youre very daughterly dealing. 
1562 LEIGH Annorie (1597) 96 b, Mooued to knowe their 
seuerall actions and daughterly loue. 1794 HURDIS Tears 
Affect. 45 To relate . . the soft tale Of daughterly affection. 
1871 H. Ii. FORMAN Our Living Poets 231 The mere fear 
lest our wives and daughters should . . become less wifely 
and daughterly. 

Hence Dau'ghterliness. 

1664 H. MORE Exf>. 7 Epist. B ij b, The Womanishnesse or 
Daughterlinesse, if I may so speak, of the Church of Rome. 
1882 Argasy XXXIV. 280 She cared for her with a tender 
daughterliness. 

Dank <dk). Mining. Also (Sc.) dalk, dawk, 
(north Eng.) dowk. [The earlier Sc. form was 
evidently dalk, but the north Eng. points to dolk : 
the etymology is obscure ; cf. DAUGH.] See quots. 

1795 Statist. Ace. Stirling!. XV. 329 (Jam.) Below the 
coal, there is eighteen inches of a stuff, which the workmen 
term dalk. 1829 SOPWITH Mines A iston 7J/<vr 108 In Alston 
the contents of the unproductive parts of veins are chiefly 
described as dowk and rider. The former is a brown, friable, 
and soft soil. 1859 65 PAGE Geol. Terms, Dank or Dawk, 
a mining or quarry term for bands and beds of tough, com- 
pact, sandy clay. 1873 Stvatedale Gloss., Dowk, tenacious 
black clay in a lead vein. 1876 Mid-Yorks. Gloss., Dmuk, 
a mine-working of a stiff clayey nature. Nidderdale, 

Da.uk, daukin : see DAWK, DAWKIN. 

t Dauke. Obs. rare. [ad. L. daucns, daucuin 
carrot.] The wild carrot, Daucns Caro/a. 

c 1450 AIjthita (Anecd. Oxon.) 47 Daucus creticus . . gall, 
dauk. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury u. 73/1 The Dauke, or 
wild Carrot [hath] flower white. 

Daulk, obs. form of DALK 2. 

Daulphin, obs. form of DAUPHIN. 

Dault, var. DALT ; obs. pa. pple. of DEAL v. 

Daun, obs. form of DAN 1. 

t Daunch, a. Obs. Fastidious. 

c 1460 Tmuuelcy Myst. xvii. 509 Begyn I to rekyn I thynk 
alle dysdayn For daunche. 1888 SKqfuld Gloss., Daitnch, 
adj. fastidious, over nice, squeamish. 

Dauncherous, obs. form of DANGEROUS. 

Daunder, Dauner, Daunger : see DANDER, 
DANGER. 

t Datrnsel, v. Ot>s. [a. OF. daunceler, dan- 
telcr to caress, dandle, f. dansele, dansele damsel, 
girl.] To caress, make much of, coax. 

1362 LANGL. P. PI. A. xi. 30 Luytel is he loued or leten bi 
pat such a lessun redeb, Or daunseled [f. r, dauntid] or 
in for)j. 1393 Ibid. C. vn. 20 (MS. F.) Demed for her 



dn 



doyngus & daunselde [other MSS. excited] many obure. 

Daunt (dnt),. Also 4-6 daunte, dawnt(e, 
4-7 (4-6 Sc.) dant. [a. OF. dante-r (i2-i4th c. 
in Littre), var. of donter (mod.F. domptcr) = Pr. 
doitar:L. domitare, freq. of doinare to tame, 
subdue. (For the a of danter, cf. DAN rtl.l)] 
I. 1 1. trans. To overcome, subdue, vanquish. 

<ri3oo A". Alls. 1312 Sone he wol daunte thy maigne ! 
1375 BARUOUK Bruce IV. 602 The lord persy. .Dantit suagat 
an the land, 1391 CHAUCER Boeth. iv. vii. 147 Hercules . . 
dawntede be proude Centauris. 1509 HAWES Past. Pleas. 
IV. xii, He mette an hydeous gyaunt. .With his great strokes 
he did hyra daunt. 1349 Coinfl. Scat. i. 21 The riche 
monarchic of rome, quhilk dantit ande subdeuit al the 
varld? 1610 HOLLAND Camden's Brit. (1637) 256 Being 
now daunted by time, there remaineth an heape of rammell 
and rubbish, witnessing the ruines thereof. 

t 2. To tame, break in (an animal). Obs. 

1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. xv. 393 Makometh . . Daunted 
a dowue, and day and ny}te hir fedde. 1481 CAXTON 
Jlfyrr. u. vt. 72 Bullys whiche. .haue homes that remeue 
about hym so that noman may tame ne daunte them. 1549 
Conipl. Scot. xvii. 145 Sum of them began to plant treis, 
sum to dant beystis. 1369 NEWTON Cicero's Olite Age 43 a, 
To dauute fierce horses. 

1 3. fig. To bring into subjection, subdue, tame ; 
to hold in subjection, control. Obs. 

1303 R. BRUNNE llandl. Synne 8420 pat bou mayst nat by 
flesshe daunte Be not harfor yn wanhope. c 1390 CHAUCER 
TriM 13 Daunt thi self that dauntest otheres dede. c 1423 
JAS. I (Scotl.) Good Counsel in Kingis Q. (1884) 51 Sen 
word is thrall and thocht is only free, Thow dant thi twnge, 
that pouer has and may. 1533 GAU Richt I'ay (1888) 14 
Thay quhilk wil nocht suffer god to dant and rewl thaymc 
. .efter his halie wil. 1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. I. ii. iv. vii. 
(1651) 163 It daunts whole kingdoms and cities. 



46 

f b. To cast down, put down, quell. Obs. 

? a 1400 Arthur 113 He daunted (>e proude 8: hawted \>e 
poure. 1513 75 Diurn. Occnrrents (1833) 144 To dant the 
insolence of George erle Huntlie. 1594 G. W. SKNIOK /VtVC 
Verses Spenser's Amorctti> Dawnting thereby our ntigh- 
boures auncient pride. 1709 STRYPE Ann. Kef. I. xlvii. 511 
The secretary in a letter .. trusted the Queen's Majesty 
would proceed here in such sort, as both these mischiefs 
would be daunted. 

4. To abate the courage of, discourage, dispirit ; 
to put in awe, abash ; to overcome with fear, in- 
timidate, cause to quail. (The current sense.) 

c 1475 RanfCoilyar 600, I dreid me, sa he dantit the, 
thow durst not with him deill. 1568 GRAFTON Cht vti. II. 
615 This discomfiture, .daunted the hartesof the. .Gascons. 
1596 SHAKS. Tain, S/tr. i. ii. 200 Thinke you a little dinne 
can daunt mine eares? 1614 BP. HALL Recoil, Treat. 1063 
True Christian fortitude . . may be overborne, but it cannot 
be daunted. 1781 GIBBON Decl. $ /''. II. xxxii. 227 The 
spirit of their chief was not daunted by misfortune. 1863 
GEO. ELIOT Romola \\. iv, She was not daunted by the 
practical difficulties in the way. 

t 5. To daze, stupefy. Obs. exc. dial. 

1581 MULCASTER Positions xiii. (1887) 62 Such as . . haue 
their senses daunted, either thorough dreaming melancholic, 
or dulling phleame. 1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. i. 18 Much 
daunted with that dint her sence was dazd. 1847-78 
HALLIW., Daunt, .in the provinces, to stun, to knock down. 
f II. 6. To dandle, fondle, caress. Obs. 

1303 R. BnuNNE Handl, Synne 4880 pe fadyr . . pe chylde 
dauntede on hys kne. 1383 WVCLIF Isa. Ixvi. iz Vp on the 
knes men shul daunte 5ou. 14. . Prose Legends in Anglia 
VIII. 132 Wib siche woordes & cosses dauntynge hir 
body. 1483 Cat/i. Angl, 92 To Dawnte (A. or to cherys), 
blanditr act fire. 

t b. absol. To toy. Obs, rare. 

a. 1529 SKELTON Image ipocr, 225 Some daunte and daly 
. .in the blak ally Wheras it ever darke is. 

III. 7. Herring Fishery. To press salted 
herrings into the barrel with a 'daunt . 

1733 P. LINDSAY Interest Scot, 201 The largest Herrings 
. .repackt by themselves, and sufficiently served with fresh 
Salt, daunted and well oyled. 1891 Rep. Deputation Fishery 
Board Scot, to Continent 7 No daunting should be used, 
when the barrel is fully filled up, but it is most desirable on 
the first filling up. 

Daunt, sb. [f. DAUNT v.] 

1 1. The act of daunting ; dispiriting, intimida- 
tion ; a check. Obs. 

a 1400 in Leg. Rood 139 pe deuel. .Mony folk In-tohellehe 
clihte. Til \>e crosses dunt $af him a daunt. 1573 TWYNE 
SEneid. xi. Ii iv b, O Tyrrhene dastardes still ? What daunt 
within you re hartes doth light ? 1640 UP. REYNOLDS Passions 
xxvii. 279 In a sudden daunt and onset of an unexpected evill. 

*h 2. Dandling, caress. Obs. 

a 1548 Thrie Priests Pcblts in Pinkerton Sc. Poems I. 43 
(Jam.) Of me altyme thow gave but lytil tail ; Na of me 
wald have dant nor dail, 

3. Herring Fishery. A disc of wood, usually 
made of two barrel heads nailed together cross-wise, 
used to press down salted herrings in the barrels. 

1890 Reg it I. Branding Herrings {Sc. Fishery Board) 5 
The daunt must be used with all repacked herrings. Ibid, 6 
The. .herrings then left in the barrel, .shall be pressed down 
. .steadily and uniformly, by daunt or otherwise. 

Daunted (dented), ///. a. Also 4-6 Sc. 
dantit, -yt. [f. DAUNT v. + -ED 1.] 

fl. Tamed, subdued, brought under control ; 
trained (quot. 1530). Obs. 

c 1375 Sc. Leg, Saints ) Jacobus 350 pe oxine [sokkit] to be 
wane mekly As bai had bene wel-dantyt ky. 1487 Sc.Acts 
Jos. ///, c. 18 Davntit hors depute to werk & nocht to be 
sadill. 1530 LYNDESAY Test. Papyngo 277 Maisteris of 
Museik, to recreat thy spreit With dantit voce and plesande 
Instrument. 1560 HOLLAND Crt, Ifcnns Pro!. 229 Be dantit 
refrenatioun, A man may. .alter his Inclinatioun. 

2. Dispirited ; overcome with fear. 

1577-87 HOLINSHED Chron. I. 176/2 The forepart of his 
dawnted host. 1771 MRS. GRIFFITH tr. Viand's Shipwreck 
143 The daunted look with which he eyed us. 1867 JEAN 
INGELOW Poems t Story Doom vn. 46 The daunted mfghty 
ones kept silent watch. 

Hence Dan'nteduess. 

1660 G. Fox Salut. to Chas. //, 6 God struck thy Fathers 
Party with dauntedness of spirit. 

Daunten : see DAUNTOX v. Sc. 

Daunter (d'ntai). Also 6 Sc. danter, -ar. 
[f. DAUNT 0. + -EB 1 .] 

1. One who daunts ; f a snbduer, vanquisher. 

1513 DOUGLAS JEneis iv. Prol. 226 Danter of Affrik, Queue 
fundar of Cartage. 1553 LYNDESAY Monarche 4183 The 
danter of the Rornanis pompe and glorye. 1586 WARNER 
Alb. Eng. i. vi.(R.), The danter then of trespassers. 

t 2. A tamer (of horses), horse-breaker. Obs. 

1513 DOUGLAS JEneis vii. iv. 84 Kyng Picus, Dantar of 
horss. 1549 Compi, Scot. xvii. 151 The maist perfyit indus- 
treus horse dantars of macedon. 

Daunting (d^'ntirj), -vbl. sb. [-ING *.] The 
action of the verb DAUNT; vanquishing; taming; 
caressing ; discouragement, intimidation. 

c 1400 Rom. Rose 4032 Man may for no dauntyng Make 
a sperhauke of a bosarde, c 1440 Promp.Parv. nsDawnt- 
ynge, or grete chcrsynge, ./?><?. 1581 MULCASTKR Positions 
xli. (1887) 235 It is a great daunting to the best able man. 
1654 E. JOHNSON tt'ond. Work. Provid, 117 Tothedanting 
of every proud heart. 

Dau'nting, ///. a. [-ING-.] That daunts: 
intimidating, etc. ; see the verb. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 21343 (Cott.1 Leon dantand har.sk and 
herd. '"1585 I'airc Em in. 1052 As for his menacing 
and daunting threats. 1677 GILIMN Demand. (iS67) 467 



DAUPHINESS 

A daunting and commanding authority over the consciences 
of men. 1847 E.MKHSON I'ocins, Monadnoc Wks. (Bohn) 1. 
439 Open the daunting map beneath. 

Hence Dau'ntiiigly adv., Daivntiiigness. 

1794 BURNS ftl'P/iersons Farewell^ Sae dauntingly gaed 
he. 1613-18 DANIUL Coll. {list. Eng. 4 (D.J As one who 
well knew., how the first cuents are those which incusse 
a daungtingnesse or daring. 

Dauntless (d-ntK-s),fl. [f. DAUNT z/. (hardly 
from the sl>.} + -LESS.] Not to be daunted ; fear- 
less, intrepid, bold, undaunted. 

1593 SHAKS. 3 lien. VI, m. iii. 17 Let thy dauntlesse 
minde still ride in triumph, Ouer all mischance. 1667 
MILTON P. L. i. 603 lirowes Of dauntless courage. 1761 
GRAY Fatal Sisters 41 Low the dauntless Earl is laid. 
1817 SCOTT (title\ Harold the Dauntless. 1874 GREEN 
Short Hist. viii. 5, 514 Laud was as dauntless as ever. 

Hence Dairiitlessly adv., Datrntlessxiess. 

1813 SHELLEY Q. Mab vn. i(j6 Therefore I rose, and 
dauntlessly began My lonely., pilgrimage. 173076 BAILEY 
(folio), Daunt lesness, a being without Fear or Discourage- 
ment. 1876 BANCROFT Hist. U. S. VI. xlviii. 292 Shelby. . 
among the dauntless singled out for dauntless ness. 

Daunton, danton (d -ntan), v. Sc. Forms : 
6-7 dantoun, 5-9 danton, 7-9 daunten, 8-9 
daunton. [A derivative form of DAUNT v. ; perh. 
a mistaken form of daunten pres. inf. (in Chaucer, 
etc.). Always spelt danton, -oun in earlier Sc., as 
dant was then regularly used for daunt^\ = DAUNT 
v. : To subdue, tame, intimidate, etc. 

1535 STEWART Cron. Scot. II. 8 How the Emprioure 
Theodocius send ane Armie..to dantoun this foirsaid Oc- 
taueus. a 1573 KNOX Hist. Re/. Wks. 1846 I. 371 This 
wonderouse wark of God . .aucht to have dantoned hir furie. 
1599 JAS. I BaaiA. Awpoi> in. 121 Use. .to ride and danton. . 
couragious horses. 1609 BP. W. BARLOW Answ. Nameless 
Cath. 121 To enforce a grant, or daunten the Prince. 1681 



COLVIL Whigs Sapplic, (1751) 128 Who once at Rome, his 

fride to danton, His nose saluted with a panton. c 1794 
!URNS SoMfft Blade red Rose, An auld man shall never 



daunton me. 1837 R. NICOLL Poems (1842) 162 Its sadness 
shall never danton me. 

Hence Dairntoned///. a., tamed, broken in. 

1597 SKENE Qiton. Attach, c. 48 n Bot it is otherwise of 
a tame and dantoned horse \de equo domito\. 

Daunz, obs. form of DAN 1. 

Dauphin (d^-fin). Fr. Hist. Forms : a. 5-6 
dolphyn, 6 dolphyne, dolphine , doulphyn, 
6-8 dolphin ; . 5 daulphyn, 6-7 daulphin, 
7- dauphin, [a. K. dauphin (earlier daulphin, 
in I5th c. also doffin] ~ Pr. dalfin: pop. L. *dal- 
p/iiuuSj for L. dclphin-tis (ad. Gr. SeX^x'? dolphin), 
whence Sp. deljin. It. delfino. In earlier use Eng. 
had daulphin, also dolphyn, -in, the same as the 
name of the fish ; dauphin is after mod. F., since the 
1 7th c. See DOLPHIN.] The title of the eldest 
son of the King of France, from 1349 to 1830. 

Originally a title attached to certain seigneuries : Dauphin 
of the Viennols, Dauphin of Auvergne. According toLittre*, 
the name Dauphin, borne by the lords of the Viennois, 
was a proper name Delphinus (the same word as the name 
of the fish), whence the province subject to them was called 
Danphint. Humbert III, the last lord of Dauphine 1 , on 
ceding the province to Philip of Valois In 1349, made it 
a condition that the title should be perpetuated by being 
borne by the eldest son of the French king. 
a. Form daulphin, dauphin* 

1485 CAXTOX Paris fy V. i A ryche baron daulphyn and 
lord of the lond. a 1577 SIR T. SMITH Commiu. Eng. < 1633) 
44 In France the Kings eldest Sonne hath the title of 
Daulphin. 1614 SELDKN Titles Hon. 172 The sonne and 
helre apparent of the French King is known to all by the 
name of Daulphin. 1681 NEVILE Plato Rediv. 107 The 
Barons call'd in Lewis the Dauphin. 1871 MORLEY Voltaire 
(1880) 159 To celebrate the marriage of the dauphin. 

. Form dolphin, dolphyn, doulphyn. (Rare 
after 1670.) 

1494 FAHYAN Chron. vn. 500 Kyng lohn. .sent sir Charlys 
his sone, dolphyn of Vyenne, into Normandy. i53oPALSGK. 
214/2 Doulphyn, the frenche kynges eldest sonne. 1559 
Mirr. Mag., Salisbury xxiii, Charles the Dolphyn our chief 
enemy. 1591 SHAKS. i Hen. y/ t r. i. 92 The Dolphin Charles 
is crowned King in Rheimes. 1670 COTTON Espernon \\. v. 
216 The Joy all good Frenchmen were full of, for the Birth 
of the young Dolphin. 1708 T. WARD Eng. Ref. (1716) 140 
The Scottish Queen Had to the Dolphin married been. 

f2. attrib. or adj. =DELPHIN, q.v. Obs. 

1705 HEARNE Collect. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) I. 14 The Dauphin 
Edition of this Author. 

Hence fDauphinag-e (dolphynage}^ Dauphinate, 
the rule or jurisdiction of a dauphin (of Viennois). 

1494 FABYAN Chron. vn. 498 In this yere the dolphyn of 
Vyen . . solde his dolphynage vnto the Frenshe kj/ntje. 
1884 J. WOODWARD in .A 7 . <5- Q. 16 Aug. 137 The dauphinate 
of Viennois was then vested in the Crown. 

DauphinesS (defines). Forms : a. 6 dol- 
phines, dolphynesse, etc.; 0. 6 daulph-, 7- 
dauphiness. [f. DAUPHIN + -ESS ; the F. title 
is dauphine.] The wife of the dauphin. 

1548 HALL Chron. 230 b, The dolphin & his dolphines. 
Ibid. 240 b, The Ladye Elizabeth, entiteled Dolphynesse of 
Vyen. 1596 DANETT tr. Comines 202 The Lady Daulphinesse. 
1685 Lond. Gaz. No. 2048/3 The King accompanied with 
the Dauphin and Dauphiness. 1712 SWIFT Jrnl. Stella. 
ii Feb., It is very surprising this news to-day, of the dauphin 
.uphiness both dying within six days. 1860 FROUDE 



and dauphtt 
Hist. En?. 
Queen of Sc r 

Daur, Sc. f. DAKK. Daurg, var. of DAHO Sc. 



Hist. En?. VI. 364 The dangerous competition of the 
Queen of Scots and Dauphiness of France. 



DAtJT. 

Dailt, dawt (dgt), v. Se. Also 6-S date. 
[Etymology unknown. 

If dtint, (ta-vt, is, as it appears to be, the proper form, it 
ought to represent an original dall : cf. Sc. //////, maul, 
saitt, etc. ; but the two i-l7th c. examples of date from 
Scotch writers of Knjjli^h make even this doubtful. Dalt 
suggests (l:tel. ifnlta foster-child; but, though the word 
appears to be exclusively Scotch, there is no evidence 
pointing to a Gaelic origin. Connexion with DOTK, doat 
is excluded by the fart that Sc. tin, aw, does not answer 
to Kng. t~> from any source. Cf. also DAUNT v. 6.J 

trans. To pet, fondle, caress, make much of. Also 
absol. 

1500-20 DUNBAR Pt-tit. Cray Horse 49, I was nevir dautit 
into stabell, My lyf lies bene so miserable. 1573 1 'om >m-nJ. 
Vfric/Unes 228 in Sat. Poems Kef. (1891) I. 285 Quha 
preissis vprichtlie To scrue the Lord mon. na wayts dres to 
daut thatiie daiutelie. a 1598 KOLLOCKE Passion 401-2 
(Jam.) The father will make much of his sonne, and allure 
him. .so the Lord dates and allures us. 1633 W. STRUTIIF.R 
True Happiness 123 Though he datted the Patriarchs by 
the famiharitie of his divine presence. 1637 RUTHKRFOBD 
Lett. (1862) I. 461, I am dawtcd now and tlien with pieces 
of Christ's love and comforts. 1786 HUHNS 1'oefs Welcome 
to Child ii, I, fatherly, will kiss and daut thee. 1853 J. 
MILNE yrnl. m Life xiii. (1868) 203 My Lord surely dawts 
his weak foolish child. 

Hence Dauted, Dawted /// a., petted, fondled. 

1636 KUTHHRFORD Lett. (1862) I. 193, I am handled as 
softly and delicately as a dawted child. l6oa Scot. Presbyt. 
A/of .(1738) 105 Will not a Father take his little dated Davie 
in his Anns 1796 MACNEILI. Will it Jean Ivii, The tenderest 
mither, Fond of ilk dear dauted wean. 1851 Ctiwbrld. 
Gloss., Daivtfl, caressed, fondled. 

Dantie, dawtie ,<lg-ti\ Se. Also dawty. 
[f. prec. or its source : hut a formation with the dim. 
and appellative -ie, -Y, from a verb, is unusual.] A 
person caressed or indulged ; a darling, pet, 
favourite. 

1676 J. FRASER Autobiog. in Select. Biog. (Wodrow Soc.) 
II. 89, I was no dawty. 1717 P. WALKER Remark. Passages 
122 (Jam. i Giving an account of old Quintin Dick, one of 
his Dawtics. 1823 GALT Entail I. xix. 156, ' I hae thought 
o' that, Gir/y, my dawty ', said he. 

II Dauw (dau). Also dau, dow. [South African 
Dutch form of the native name.] A South African 
Sjiecies of zebra, Kquus llurchellii, approaching 
the quagga in character. 

x8oa Sporting Mag. XX. 140 Two sorts of wild horses, the 
Dau and the Kwagga. 1847 Nat. Encycl. I. 265 The 
indigenous Pachydermata are . . the zebra, the dauw, the 
qu.t.:.;:u 

t Davach, -och. Sc. Hist. In 7 dawaoh(e. 
[Olr. dabach, dakhach vat, tub (perhaps as a corn- 
measure) ; cf. the similar uses of pint, pottle, and 
gallon, as measures of land in Anglo-Irish. In 
medL. davaca (erron. -ata). 

A conjectured derivation from danth ox, is erroneous. 
Dabach occurs as a land-measure in the ' Book of Deir '. 
(Coidelica (ed. 2) 217.1] 

An ancient Scottish measure of land, consisting 
in the east of Scotland of 4 ploughgatcs, each of 8 
oxgangs ; in the west divided into twenty penny- 
lands. It is said to have averaged 416 acres, but its 
extent probably varied with the quality of the land. 

1609 SKENE tr. Qtion. Attack, xxiii. it Provyding that 
the husband man did haue of him the audit parte of ane 
dawache of land [war?, of ane oxgait of land], or niair 
[itnitts dajtace ferrtf Tel plus]. 1794 Statist. Ace. Scot. 
XIII. 500 There is a davoch of land belonging to this parish. 
1797 Ibid. XIX. 290 A davoch contains 32 oxen-gates of 13 
acres each, or 416 acres of arable land, c \Bs-jHcnM Tales 
tf Sk. VI. 269 Heir to seven ploughgates of land, and five half 
davochs. 1854 C. INNKS Orig. Paroch. Scot. II. 335 By an 
ordinance of King John BaTliol in 1292 eight davachs of 
land, including the islands of Egge and Kuine, were among 
the lands then erected into the Sheriffdom of Skey. 1878 
E. W. ROBERTSON Hist. F.ss. 127 Davoch, a large pastoral 
measure at one time answering to the plough-gate, though 
in actual extent 4 times as large. 

Davenport (da; - v'npoJt). Also devonport. 
[Said to be from the maker's name.] A kind of 
small ornamental writing-table or escritoire fitted 
with drawers, etc. 

(Remembered in 1 845.) 1853 Pract. Mechanic's Jrnl. VI. 
212 This very elegant and convenient desk is similar to an 
ordinary Devonport. 1875 Argosy May 329 At her daven- 
port, pen in hand, sat her ladyship. 

attrib. 1883 Itarfi-r's Mag. Jan. 235/1 An inlaid daven- 
port desk. 

Daver (<U T I-VDJ), v. dial. [Of unknown etymo- 
logy ; possibly I and II are different words.] 

I. Scotch and north. Eng. intr. To move or 
walk as if dazed or stupefied, to stagger ; also to 
be benumbed, trans. To stupefy, stun, benumb. 

c 1600 BUHEL in Watson Collect, ii. (17061 30 (Jam.) Bot 
taurcn and dauren, Like ane daft doitit fule. 1785 Jrttl. 
/r. Lantt. 6 in Poems Bnchan Dial. (Jam.), We bein wat 
wou'd soon grow davert to stand, .i' the cauld that time o 1 
night. 1796 MACNEILL IVillfi Jean Ixiii, Sec them now 
how changed wi' drinking ! . . Davered, doited, daired and 
blinking. i8ao St. Kathleen III. 115 (Jam.) 'Here's the 
bed, man! Whare. . are ye davering to?' 1814 R. SWINBURNE 
in J. Kaino Mem. J. Hodgson (1858) II. 43, 1 am somewhat 
darcrcd about the vignettes. 

II. south-west. Jial. intr. To fade, wither. 



Alsoyf^-. (In first quot. causative or trans.) 

i6ai J. REYNOLDS Coift Rirenge ast. Murder \. v. 154 
As if time and .is;e had not power to wither the Llossomes of 
our youth, as the Sunne hath to dauer the freshest Roses 



47 

and Lillies. i6ai W. YONGE Diary 61 (The) hedge*.. 
davered as if they had been scorched with lightning. 1654 
VILVAIN Kpit. Ess. VIL 4 My Piety 'gan to daver [L. lake- 
fncta cadebat\. 1787 GK' ,- , />.r,r, to fade 

like a flower. /'rrv//. 1864 CAPKRN /J.TW/ j'ni'hu , Thy 
heart is like the daver 'd rose. 1880 W. Connvalt (jtoss., 
Daver, to soil ; to fade as a flower. 

Davey: see DAVY. David, obs. form of DAVIT. 
Davi-dian : -DAVII>I*T. 

1885 R. W. DIXON Hist. CH. Ens. "I- V" T" 8 "'" 
Davidians I );>vi-.|>, (ieorgists, or Family of Love, which .. 
gave trouble in the reign of Klizabeth. 

Da'vidist. [f. personal name David + -IST.] 

1. One of a fanatical sect founded by David 
George or Jorcs, a Dutch Anabaptist of the i6th 
century. Also Daviti- Georgian, -jorian, -jurist. 

1657 BAXTER Af>st. Quakers 13 Down to the Oavid- 
Georgians, Wegehans, FamilisN, and the like of late. 
1717-51 CHAMBERS Cyel. , Dav idists . . a sect of heretics. 
1881-3 SCHAFV Kncycl. Kelig. Ktumil. II. 1471 The ' David- 
jorists ', and other uproarious Anabaptists. 

2. A follower of David of Dinant. 
Davidsonite (d^'-vidssnsit). Min. [Named 

1836 after Dr. Davidson of Aberdeen : see -ITE.] 
A variety of beryl found near Aberdeen. 

1836 T. THOMSON Min. I. 247. 

[David's quadrant or staff, error for Davifs 
quadrant: see QUADRANT, STAFF, and List of 
Spurious Wonh^\ 

Davie : see DAVY. 

Da-vlely, adv. Sc. Spiritlessly, listlessly. 

1789 BURNS Elegy on 1788, Observe the vera nowte an' 
sheep, How dowf and daviely they creep. l85in JAMIESON. 

Davina (Min.) : see DAVYNB. 
Da-vist: =DAVIDIST. 

1885 R. W. DIXON Hist. at. Eng. III. aoi. 

Davit (dae'vit, d^-vit). Naut. Forms : 4 daviot, 
7 dauid, -yd, -ed, 7- davit. [Formerly also 
David, and app. an application of that Christian 
name, as in the case of other machines and tools. 
Cf. F. davier, the name of several tools, etc., altered 
from daviet (Rabelais) = Daviet, dim. of OF. J>avi 
David ; the tool was still called david by joiners in 
the 1 7th c. (Hatzfeld and Darmesteter).] 

1. a. A curved piece of timber or iron with 
a roller or sheave at the end, projecting from a 
ship's bow, and used as a crane to hoist the flukes 
of the anchor without injuring the side of the vessel ; 
n fish-davit, b. One of a pair of cranes on the 
side or stem of a ship, fitted with sheaves and 
pulleys for suspending or lowering a boat. 

(1373 in Normait-Fr. Inttenttire in RtleyZoW. Mcm.jjo 
(transl.\ 30 ores, i daviot, for the same boat.] i6aa R. 
HAWKINS I'oy. S. Sea (1847) 188 His boate fitted with .. 
tholes, dauyd*, windles, and other. 1636 CAPT. SMITH Accid. 
I'ng. Seamen 12 1'he forecastle, or prow . . the fish-hooke, 
a loufe-hooke, and the blocke at ihe Dauids ende. 1697 
Seaman's Grant, ii. 10 The Daitid. .is put out betwixt the 
Cat and the Lonfe, and to be remoued when you please. 
1691 T. H[AI.E) Ace. AVro Invent. 125 Bills, Catheads and 
Davits. 1769 FALCONER Diet. Marine (177615. v., The davit 
. . b employed to fish the anchor. 1820 SCORESBV Ace. 
A relic Keg. 1 1. 106 The boats are . . suspended from davits or 
cranes fixed on the sides of the ship. 187$ J. C. WILCOCKS 
Sen FishertHan 48 Crane-davits of galvanised iron, in shape 
of the ordinary boat-davits. 

2. Comb, davit-oast, a heavy spar used as a crane 
on board ship ; davit-guy, a rope used to steady 
a davit ; davit-roll, the roller or sheave of a davit ; 
davit-rope, the lashing which secures the davit to 
the shrouds when out of use. 

1794 NELSON in Nicolas Diif. I. 434 Our 'davit-cast 
unfortunately has broke it's windlass. 1893 R. Kin.lsG 
Many Invent. 364 Stop, seize and fish, and easy on the 'davit- 
guy. 1793 SMEATON Kdystone L. $ 143 A strong hawser . . 
being passed . . over the "davit-roll . . the anchor and chain 
were then let down. 

Davite (tte'-vait). Min. [See quot.] A variety 
of AH.'XOOEN or native sulphate of alumina. 

iSaS MILL in Brandt's O. Jml. 379, I shall therefore take 
leave to call it Davite in honor of Sir Humphry Davy. 

Davoch : see DAVACH. 

Davretucite ^divr^zoitV Min, [Named 1878 
after the Belgian chemist Ch. Davreux : see -ITE.] 
A hydrous silicate of alumina and manganese found 
in Belgium. i88a in DANA Min. App. iii. 35. 

Davy ' (d<?i'vi\ In full Davy lamp, Davy's 
lamp. [Named after the inventor.] The miners' 
safety-lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy, in 
which the flame is surrounded with wire-gauze, so 
as to prevent its communication to explosive gases 
outside the lamp. 

1817 FARADAY in B. Jones Life I. 241 The great desidera- 
tum of a lamp to afford light with safety : . . merely to refer to 
that which alone has been found efficacious, the Davy. 
1880 C M. MASON Forty Shires 15 The men find fault with 
the Davy. 

Davy - (d^i-vi). slang. A vulgar shortening of 
AFFIDAVIT, esp. in phr. to take one's davy ( = ' to 
take one's oath '). 

1764 O'HARA Midas n. iv. Farmer), And I with my davy 
will back it, I'll swear. 1785 CAIT. GROSE Diet. Vulgar 
Tongue, I'll take my davy of it. 1871 M. COLLINS Mra. It 
Merck. I. vi. 210 [They] take their solemn oath and davy 
that they didn't do it. 



DAW. 

Davy Jones ' vi <i/r>-nz). Alto limply 
Davy. In nautical slang : Th<- spirit of the ea; 
the sailors' ili-vil. lia->yjon,'.'i ..r />ary't) locker : 
the ocean, the deep, tip. as the giave ol those who 
perish at sea. 

1751 SMOi.ir.TT/Vr. Pie. xiii. (Brewer), This same Davy 
Jones, according to the mythology of sailors, ii the I'm 
presides over ail the evil spirits of the deep. 1790 1> 
Poor "Jack iii. And if to old Davy I should go, friend Poll. 
Why you will ne'er hear of me more, c 1790 J. WILLOCK 
I'oy. 12 The great bugbear of the ocean is Davie Jone. .At 
the crossing of the line . . [they call] out that Davie Jones 
and his wife are coming on board and that every thing must 
be made ready. 1803 .Varal Chrvn. X. 510 The . . seamen 
would have met a watery grave ; or, to use a seaman's 
phrase, gone to Davy Jones's locker. 1839 MARRVAT/'AOO/. 
Skip xli, 1 thought you had gone to Davy's locker. 

Davyne (d^'-vin). Min. fad. Ital. davina, 
named 1835 after Sir Humphry Davy.] A variety 
of nephelite, from Vesuvius. 

i8a6 Atner. Jrnl. Sc. XI. 257 Davina (Davyne). 1869 
PHILLIPS Vesta<. x. 992 Davyne, a hydrous ncpheline, is 
found in cavities of ejected blocks of gray lava on Somma. 

Davynm (^viflm). Cheat. [Named after Sir 
Humphry Davy, with termination -um as in pla- 
tinum, etc.] The name given by Kern in 1877 to a 
supposed metal of the platinum group, announced 
by him as discovered in Russian platinum ore. 

1879 WATTS Diet. Chem. VIII. 626. 

Daw (dj>), sb. Also 5 8 dawe, 6-8 Sc. da. 
[Known only from the ijth c. (so the compound 
ca-daw, CADUOW) : its form points to an OE. 'dawe 
(: dawd 1 fromairjtKa 1 ), in ablaut relation to OHG. 
taha, MHG. take (Gothic type *dfhwS, OTeut. 
*d6hwd -.de-liwa). Mod. HG. dialects have dcihi, 
diiche, dacha; MHG. shows a dim. form tahele 
(OHG. *ldliala'), mod.G. dahle, since l8lh c. dohle ; 
whence med.L. tatula. It. tafcola.] 

1. A small bird of the crow kind (Corma mone- 
dula) ; now commonly called JACKDAW. 

1431-50 tr. Hidden (Rolls' IV. 307 A poore sowter in- 
formcde a dawe to speke. 1530 PALSGR. 212/1 1 ).iwc, a fuule, 
cornei/lt. 1604 DRAYTON (hale 188 The iheevish Daw, and 
the dissembling Pye. 1713^ SWIFT Poetns, Salamander, 
Pyes and daws are often stil'cl With Christian nick-names 
like a child. 1851 CARLYLK Sterlinf L iii. (1872) 14 Old 
ruinous castles with their ivy and their daws. 

2. fig. Applied contemptuously to persons, f a. 
A silly fellow, simpleton, noodle, fool. Obs. 

c Ijoo Vng. Children's Bk. 140 in Bakees Bk. (1868) 25 At 
thi tabull nober cradic ne claw. Than men wylle sey bou 
arte A daw. 1560 INCELEND Disob. Child in Had. Dodsley 
1 1. 285, I never saw One . . in so easy a matter . . thus play 
the daw. 1563 Homilies n. Idolatry in. (1859' 236 O seely, 
foolish, and dastardly daws. 1608 J. DAV Loot frickes i. i. 
How the daw Secures ore his rustic phrases. 

b. A lazy person.sluggard ; o. An untidy woman, 
slut, slattern. .SV. 

c 1460 Tmuneley Myst. 26 Hot if God help amang I may 
sit downe daw to ken. 1500 o DUNBAR fiance ^ acidly 
Synnu 71 Mony slute daw and slepy duddronn. 1513 
DOUGLAS jfcneis xiii. Pro). 184, I will my cunnand kepe, 
I will nocht be a daw, I will nocht slepe. 1598 FER<;UW>H 
Sc. Prov., A year a nurish, seven year a da. 1768 Ross 
Helenare 135 (Ja m -) B U ' ' * tnat """ ginning I'll never 
be braw, But gae by the name of a difp or a da. i86a 
A. Hiswr I'rtn'.Scot. 16 A morning's sleep Is worth a fauld 
o' sheep To a hudderin-dudderin daw. 

O. With reference to the fable of the jay in pea- 
cock's plumes. 

1731 FIELDING Mod. Hnlb. ll. ii. That ever Heav'n shou'd 
make me father to such a drest up daw 1 

8. Comb., as fdawoook, lit. a male jackdaw; 
fig. = sense a a ; t dawpate = sense i a. 

'SS* J- HKYWOOD Spider f F. xcii. Where 'dawcocks in 
doctrine have dominacioun. i<8i W. ROBERTSON Phrasal. 
Gen. 11693) *' Wn brought hither this fool in a play ; this 
very daw-cock to lead the dance, a 15*9 SKLTO A fit. 
Garncsche <ji, Lyke a doctor 'dawpate. 1561 J. HKYWOOD 
Prov. tf Epig. (1867) 187 Thou arte a very dawe pate. 

Daw, rf.,obs. form of DEW ; see also DAWB.DAT. 

f Daw (<:$), f. 1 Ofe.exc.5V-. Forms: I da^ian, 
23 dajen, 3-5 dawe(u, 6- daw. [OE. datfan, 
corresp. to MDu. daghen, Du. and LG. dagtn, 
OHCi. tagbt, G. tagen, to become day, f. \VGcr. 
dag- DAY. Since the OE. chanpe of a to * did not 
take place in the vb., the latter is daw, against the 
sb. day : cf. draw, dray, saw, say, etc. In northern 
dial, sometimes inflected dew, dawen, after the 
strong verbs blow, snow, etc. In i6th c. Sc. erro- 
neously spelt dall tdietfall.fa, etc.] 




Ninian 1417 One be morne, as It 3"ew day. i47-*5 
MALORY Arthur xvn. ii, Within a whyle it dawyd. 
b. with day ^or morning') as subject. 
c laoo Trin. Coll. Horn. 103 Ac alse wat swo pe bridde dai 
dagtfl. c 1375 HARBOUR Tny-kk. n 797 And whene be day 
was dawyne lyght. 1393 LAKGL. P. PL C xxt 471 1 Tyl pe 
day dawede these damseles daunsede. c 1 



1475 R 



. 

365 Vpon the mome airlie, quhen the day dew. i$i3 
DOUGLAS jKntis XIIL ProL t8a As menstralis playng Tke 
ioly day nr.o amait. a 1*05 MONTGOMERIK Poemi, T*t 
ffiflil is mirgone i Hay ! nou the day dauis. l6ia DAY. 
TON Poly^lk. x. (N.X The other side from whence the 



DAW. 

morning daws. 1789 BURNS Happy Trio, The cock may 
craw, the day may daw. 1837 R. NICOLL Poems (1842) 97 
Nor hamewith steers till morning daw. 

C. fig. 

a 1225 Ancr. R. 352 Hwon he bet is ower lif daweS and 
springeS ase b e dawunge efter nihtes beosternesse. 1377 
LANGL. /'. /Y. B. xvm. 179 loye bygynneth dawe. 

2. To recover from a swoon, 'come to ' ; to awake 
from sleep ; - ADAW v. 1 I. 

1 1314 Guy Warw. (A.) 558 Adoun he fel a-swounie, & when 
he gan to dawei [etc.]. 1674-91 RAY N. C. Words 19 To 
Daw, in common speech is to awaken : to be dawed, to 
have shaken off sleep, to be fully awakened. 

3. trans: To rouse or awaken from sleep or a 
swoon ; to revive, ' bring to '; = ADAW z.' 2. 

1470-85 MALORY Arthur XL x, The Quene . . felle to the 
erthe in a dede swoune, and thenne syr Bors took her vp, 



... 

breake her slepe. .She thought t'o'daw her now as sfie had 
done of olde. 1612 DRAYTON Poly-olb. vi. 90 Thinking her to 
daw Whom they supposed fain m some inchanted swound. 

t Daw, v? Obs. rare. [f. DAW s&.] intr. ? To 
play the 'daw' or fool. 

1596 SIR J. SMVTHE in Lett. Lit. Men (Camden) 92 That 
I would . . ryde lobbinge and dawinge to rayle at your Lord- 
ship. 

t Daw, v? Obs. rare. [Aphetic f. ADAW v.'~, 
q.v.] trans. To daunt, subdue, frighten. 

1616 B. JONSON Devil an Ass iv. iv, You daw him too 
much, in troth, Sir. 1664 H. MORE Myst. Iniq. 545 Ex- 
ternal force imprints Truth and Falshood, Superstition and 
Religion alike upon the dawed spirits of men. 

Dawache : see DAVACH. Dawoock : DAW sb. 

Dawd, var. of DAD sl>.- 

Dawclle (dg'd'l), v. Also daudle. [Not in 
Bailey ; nor in Johnson's Diet, (though used by 
himself in 1781). It apparently became common 
about 1775 (at first chiefly in feminine use). 
Ussher's example (a 1656) was prob. local or dia- 
lectal. Supposed to be a local variant of DADDI.K, 
but used in a more reprehensory sense, perh. by 
some association with DAW sb. sense 2 b.] 

1. intr. To idle, waste time ; to be sluggish or 
lazy ; to loiter, linger, dally. 

a 1656 USSHKR Ann. vi. (1658) 382 While he stood dawdling 
was taken short in his undertakings. 1781 JOHNSON 3 June 
in Hosivell, If he'll call on me, and dawdle over a dish of tea 
in an afternoon. 1796 JANE AUSTEN Pride # Prej. xx. 97 
Mrs. Bennet, having dawdled about in the vestibule to 
watch for the end of the conference. 1810 SCOTT Let. to 
D. Terry 18 Apr. in Lockhart, A propensity which . . the 
women very expressively call dawdling. 1866 RUSKIN Etli. 
Dust v. (1883) 90 You all know when you learn with a will 
and when you dawdle. 1872 BLACK Adv. Phaeton xxii. 307 
The rest of us dawdled along the road. 

2. quasi-/ra;zj. (usually with away). 

1768 MAD. D'AnBLAY Early Diary July, I could not.. 
ask for it. .and so dawdled and fretted the time away until 
Tuesday evening. 1873 BROWNING Red Cott. Nt.-Cap 230 
Dawdle out my days In exile here at Clairvaux. 1887 
Spectator 21 May 696^ To employ with profit many hours 
that might otherwise be dawdled away. 

Dawdle (dg'd'l), sb. Also 8 daudle. [f. prec.] 

1. One who is the personification of dawdling; 
esp. a dawdling girl or woman. 

a 1764 LLOYD Chit-Chitt Poet. Wks. 1774 I. 185 Be quick 
why sure the gipsy sleeps ! Look how the drawling daudle 
creeps. 1800 MRS. HEKVEV Mourtray Fam. III. 141 Mrs. 
Thornley was rather too much of, whatshe [Mrs. M.] called, 
a dawdle, to please her. 1843 F. E. PAGET Pageant 118 
His wife . . was . . one of those helpless, indolent dawdles that 
are fit to be nothing but fine ladies. 1879 BARING-GOULD 
Germany I. 392 The sharp clever boy goes into business, the 
dunce or dawdle into the army. 

2. The act of dawdling. 

1813 LADY BURGHERSH Lett. (1893)38 What with dawdles 
and delays of the German post-boys. 1876 GREEN Stray 
Stud. 70 The evenings are . . a dawdle indoors as the day 
has been a dawdle out. 

Dawdler (d dloiX [-EB l.] One who dawdles ; 
an idler, loiterer. 

1818 TODD, Dawdle, or Dawdler, a trifler ; a dallier ; one 
who proceeds slowly or unskilfully in any business. A low 
word. 1849 THACKERAY Pendetinis (1850) I. 280, I have been 
a boy and a dawdler as yet. 1888 J. PAYN Myst. Mirbri,l<;e 
xv, Your habitual dawdler the man who never keeps his 
appointments by any chance. 

Dawdling (dg'dlirj), vtl. sb. [-ING !.] The 
action of the verb DAWDLE. 

1819 [see DAWDLE v. i]. 1849 THACKERAY Lett. 13 July, 
Ryde. -would be as nice a place as any. .for dawdling, and 
getting health. 1875 B'NESS BUNSEN in Hare Life II. viii. 
457 With old age comes dawdling, that is, doing everything 
too slowly. 

Dawdling, ///. a. [-ING 2 .] That dawdles ; 
characterized Dy dawdling. 

1773 MAD. D'ARBLAV Early Diary 3 May, The mother is 
a slow, dawdling, sleepy kind of dame. 1782 Diary 
8 Dec., With whom I had a dawdling conversation upon 
dawdling subjects. 1843 MRS. CARLYLE Lett. I. 265 The 
dreaming, reading, dawdling existence which best suits me. 

Hence Dawdlingrly adv. 

1860 Sat. Rev. IX. 145/1 Some very important Bill which 
. . has been dawdlingly postponed from day to day. 

Dawdy, Sc. dial. f. DOWDY. 

Dawe (daue, daw), dawen, dawes, obs. 
forms or inflexions of DAY. Dawes was the early form 
of the pi. = days ; dawen was originally dative pi. , but 



48 

when reduced lo iawt,dtne,daae,ihe > came some- 
times to be treated as sing. : see DAY 1 3 a /9, and 1 7. 

Dawen, obs. f. DOWN sb. 

Dawenyng.e, obs. form of DAWNING. 

Dawerke, obs. form of DAYVORK. 

Dawing (dg'in.), vbl. sb. Obs. exc. Sf. Forms : 
I dasung, 3 dawung, 4 daghyng(e, 3-6dawyng, 
4- dawing, (5 dayug, 7 dauing, 8 dawin). [OE. 
dagung, from dayan to become day, to DAW. 
After 1400, northern and chiefly Scotch, being 
displaced in Eng. by DAWNING.] 

1. Dawn, daybreak ; morning twilight. 

c poo tr. Bxda's Eccl. Hist. in. xix. (xxvii.) 242 pa eode [he] 
ut in dagunge of bam huse. a toooO.E. Ckron. (Laud MS.) 
an. 795 Betwux hancred and da?;unge. a 1225 Ancr. K. 
20 Bi nihte ine winter, ine sumer ibe dawunge. 1375 BAR- 
DOUR Bruce vn. 318 [Thai] Com on thame in the dawyng, 
Richt as the day begouth to spryng. c 1420 Armv. Art/i. 
Iv, Erly in the dawyng Come thay home from hunting. 
1313 DOUGLAS slineis m. viii. 29 The dawing gan . . wax reid, 
And chasit away the sterris. a 1605 MONTGOMERIE Misc. 
Poems, Solsequium 40 The dauing of my long desyrit day. 
c 1794 BURNS As f was a wandering lii, I could na get 
sleeping till dawin' for greetin'. 

f2. Recovery from swoon, 'coming-to'. Obs. 
(See DAW v. 2, 3.) 

1530 PALSGR. 212 Dawyng, gettyng of lyfe, resuscitation. 

t Dawing, fpl. a. Ola. exc. Sc. Also 4 north. 
dawande. [f. DAW .' + -ING -.] Dawning. 

c 1325 E. E. A Hit. P. C. 445 fe dawande day. 

t Dawish (d-ij~), a. Obs. [f. DAW sb. + -ISH.] 
Like or characteristic of a daw ; silly, sluttish. 

1540 HYRDE tr. l-'ives" fnstr. CAr. Worn. (1592) Miij, 
Dawish, and brainlesse, cruell, and murderers. 1543 BALE 
Yet a Course, ffC. 59 (T.) Such dawishe dodypols. 1603 
CHAPMAN All Fools in Dodsley (1780) IV. 167 If he [a jack, 
daw] fed without his dawish noise He might fare better. 

Dawk (dgk\ ji. 1 dial. [app. the same as 
DALK 2 .] A hollow in a surface; a depression, 
furrow, incision. 

1703 MOXON Mecti. Exerc. 66 This Iron, .would not make 
Gutters on the Surface of the Stuff, but (at the most) little 
hollow dawks. Ibid. 82 The Iron of the Fore-plane, .makes 

freat Dawks in the Stuff . . The Iron . . will yet leave some 
)awks in the Stuff for the Jointer, .to work out. 

Hence Dawk v., to make a hollow or incision in. 

1703 MOXON Mech. Exerc. 203 The Chissel . . might run 
too fast into the Work, and dawk it. 1847-78 HALLIWF.LL, 
Dank, to incise with a jerk, or insert a pointed weapon with 
rapidity. 

I Dawk, sb?, dakCdjJk, dak). Anglo- Ind. Also 
8 dog, dock, 9 dork, dauk. [Hindi and Marathl 
dak, perh. related to Skr. drak quickly.] Post or 
transport by relays of men or horses stationed at 
intervals; a relay of men or horses for carrying 
mails, etc., or passengers in palanquins. 

To travel dak : to travel in this way. To lay a dak : to 
arrange for relays of bearers or horses on a route. 

1727 [see b]. 1780 H. F. THOMPSON Intrigues of Nabob 76 
(Y. ), I wrote . . for permission to visit Calcutta by the Dawks. 
1781 Hicky's Bengal Gaz. 24 Mar. (Y.), Suffering People to 
paw over their Neighbour s Letters at the Dock. 1809 
VISCOUNT VALENTIA Tram. India, etc. (iSitl I. ii. 49 My 
arrangements had been made for quitting Burhampore . 
not only had the dawk been laid, but [etc.], a 1826 HEBER 
Narr. Journey fad. (1828) 1.328 In the line of road I am most 
likely to follow..! am not certain that any Dak exists. 
1840 E. E. NAPIER Scents For. Lands II. vi. 193 By having 



bearers posted at stated distances, which is called travelling 
1 dawk ', long journeys are made in a comparatively brief 
space of time. 1861 HUGHES Tom Brmun at O.rf. xliy.lD.), 
After the sea voyage there isn't much above loco miles to 
come by dauk. 

b. atlril>. , as dawk- or dak-bearer, choky, journey, 
traveller, etc. ; dak bungalow (rarely house), 
a house for the accommodation of travellers at 
a station on a dak route. 

1727 A. HAMILTON Nnv Ace. E. Ind. I. 149 (Y.) Those 
Curriers are called Dog Chouckies. 1706 in Seton-Karr 
Select. Calcutta Gaz. II. 185 The re-establishment of Dawk 
Bearers upon the new road. a. 1826 HEBER Narr. Journey 
Ind. (1828) I. 277, I will . . bring it safe on to the next dak- 
house. 1853 Calcutta Ret*. July-Dec. 175 The dak bunga. 
lows, the modern form of the Mogul Serais. 1866 TREVELYAN 
(title). The Dawk Bungalow. Ibid. (1869) 98 Too old 
travellers to expect solitude in a dawk bungalow. 

Dawk, var. of DAUK. 

Dawkin. dial. [? dim. of DAW.] a. A fool. 
b. A slattern. Hence Dawkinly adv., foolishly. 

1565 CALFHILL Answ. Treat. Crosse (1846) 236 (D.) Then 
Martiall and Maukin, a dolt with a daukin, might marry 
together. 1674^ RAY N. C. Words 13 Dawgos or Dawkin, 
a dirty, slattenng woman. 1746 COLLIER (Tim Bobbin) 
View Lane. Dial. Wks. (1862) 52 After looking dawkinly- 
wise a bit. 1875 Lane. Gloss., Davikin, a dull, stupid per- 
son. Dawkinly, stupidly, foolishly. 

Dawly, obs. form of DOWLY a. and adv. 

Dawn (dgn), sb. [Appears late in 1 6th c., the 
earlier equivalents being DAWING, DAWNING. App. 
f. the verb-stem (see next) ; cf. break in ' break of 
day' (quoted 1584). ON. had dagan, dogun dawn, 
f. daga to dawn, / dagan, at dagan at dawn : but, 
notwithstanding the likeness of form, there is no 
evidence that this is the original of the Eng. word.] 

1. The first appearance of light in the sky before 
sunrise, or the time when it appears ; the beginning 
of daylight ; daybreak. 



DAWNED. 

77 igk dawn, dawn appearing above a bank of clouds on 
the horizon ; low dawn, dawn appearing on or close to the 
horizon. 

1599 SHAKS. Hen. V, iv. t. 291 Next day after dawne. 
1603 Uleas. for M. iv. ii. 226 Come away, it is almost 
cleere dawne. 1697 DAMPIER I'oy. I. 498 With such dark 
black Clouds near the Horizon, that the first glimpse of the 
Dawn appeared 30 or 40 degrees high, .it is a common saying 
among Sea-men . . that a high dawn will have high winds, 
and a low dawn, small winds. 1778 Bp. LOWTH Tratisl. 
Isaiah xxvi. 19 Thy dew is as the dew of the dawn. 1832 
TENNYSON Death Old Year ii, He will not see the dawn of 
day. 1852 Miss YONGE Cameos II. viii. 101 The assault had 
begun at early dawn. 

2. fig. The beginning, commencement, rise, first 
gleam or appearance (of something compared to' 
light) ; an incipient gleam (of anything). 

1633 P. FLETCHER Purple Isl. xn. xlvi, So spring some 
dawns of joy, so sets the night of sorrow. 1752 JOHNSON 
Rambler No. 196 F 2 From the dawn of manhood to its de- 
cline. 1767 Babler II. 100 If he possesses but a dawn of 
spirit. 1823 LAMB Elia, Ser. I. Old Actors, You could see 
the first dawn of an idea stealing slowly over his counten- 
ance. 1878 STEWART & TAIT Unseen Univ. ii. 50. 69 
From the earliest dawn of history to the present day. 

3. attrib. and Comb., as dawn-animal, -animal- 
cule (see quots.), -dew, -goddess, -light, -streak; 
dawn-illumined, -tinted adjs. ; downward adv. 

1873 DAWSON Earth fy Man ii. 23 Eozoon Canadettse . . 
its name of ' *Dawn-ammal ' having reference to its great 
antiquity and possible connection with the dawn of life on 
our planet. 1876 PAGE Adv. Text-bk. Geol. x. 189 The 
organism, Eozoiin Canadense, or *Dawn-animalcule of 
Canada. 1856 MRS. BROWNING Aitr. Leigh l. Poems VI. 24 
A dash of "dawn-dew from the honeysuckle. 1877 J. E. 
CARPENTER tr. Title's Hist. Relig. 107 The Sun-god . . and 
the ^dawn-goddess. 1820 SHELLEY Ode to Liberty xi, As on 
a *dawn-illumined mountain. 1850 MRS. BROWNING Poems 
II. 326, I oft had seen the *dawnlight run As red wine, 
through the hills. 1873 LOWELL Among my Bks. Ser. n. 
221 The *dawn-streaks of a new day. 1822 SHELLEY Hellas 
963 "Dawn-tinted deluges of fire. 1881 W. WILKINS Songs 
of Study 44 In joyful praises *dawnward rolled. 

Dawn (dgn), v. Also 6 daune, dawne. 
[Known only from end of ijth c., since which it 
has displaced the earlier verb DAW. App. deduced 
from DAWNING, q.v. Cf. also DAYN .] 

I. 1. itttr. To begin to grow daylight : said of 
the day, morning, light ; also simply with it. 

1499 PYNSON Promp. Parv., Dawnyn or dayen [< 1440 
dawyn], auroro. 1526 TINDALE Matt, xxviii. i The Sabboth 
daye at even which dauneth the morowe after the Sabboth 
[WYCLIF bigynneth to schyne, Geneva & 1611 began to 
dawne]. 2 Pet. i. 10 Vntill the daye dawne. c 1532 
DEWES Introd. Fr. in Palsgr. 938 To dawne, ajoumcr. 
1611 BIBLE Matt, xxviii. i In the ende of the Sabbath, as 
it began to dawne towards the first day of the weeke. 1711 
STEELE Sfect. No. 142 p 5 Before the Light this Morning 
dawned upon the Earth. 1726 Adv. Capt. R. Boyle 23 As 
soon as ever the Morning dawn'd. 1860 TYNDALL Glac. i. 
xxi. 150 Day at length dawned and gradually brightened. 
b. trans/. To begin to shine, as the sun or 
any luminary. 

1702 ROWE Tamerl. v. i. 2017 Women, like Summer 
Storms are Cloudy . . But strait the Sun of Beauty dawns 
abroad. 1811 HEBER Hymn, Brightest and best of the sons 
of the morning, Dawn on our darkness. 1832 TENNYSON 
Margaret v, Look down, and let your blue eyes dawn Upon 
me thro' the jasmine-leaves. 

2. fig. To begin to develop, expand, or brighten, 
like the daylight at dawn. 

1717 POPE Efiil. to Jervas 4 Where Life awakes, and 
dawns at ev'ry line. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. I. 412 In 
the year 1685 his fame.. was only dawning. 1852 Miss 
YONGE Cameos I. xxviii. 234 When prosperity dawned on the 
elder brother. 

3. To begin to brighten, with or as with the light 
of dawn. 

1647 CRASHAW Poems 165 When the dark world dawn'd 
into Christian day. 1651 Fuller's Abel Rediv., Zanchiits 
390 Zanchius. .became such a light.. that many parts in 
Christendome dawned with the luster of his writings. 1832 
TENNYSON (Enone 46, I waited underneath the dawning 
hills. 

b. transf. To begin to appear, become visible. 

1744 AKENSIDE Pleas. Imag. I. 146, I see them dawn ! 
I see the radiant visions, where they rise. 1812 J. WILSON 
Isle of Palms m. 307 Its porch and roof of roses dawn 
Through arching trees. 

4. fig. Of ideas, facts, etc. : To begin to become 
evident to the mind; to begin to be understood, 
felt, or perceived. Const, on, upon. 

1852 MRS. STOWE Uncle Tom's C. xv. 129 The idea that 
they had either feelings or rights had never dawned upon 
her. 1866 G. MACDONALD Ann. Q. Neighb. ix. 137 It 
dawned on my recollection that I had heard Judy mention 
her Uncle. 1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) V. 66 The distinc- 
tion between ethics and politics has not yet dawned upon 
Plato's mind. 

II. ff>. trans. To bring to life; to arouse 
or awake from a swoon, resuscitate ; = DAW v. 3. 

1530 PALSGR. 507/2, 1 dawne or get life in one that is fallen 
in a swoune, je reuigore . . I can nat dawne him. 1551 
T. WILSON Logike (1580) 33 If Alexander dawned a weake 
Soldiour when he was almoste frosen for cold. 1593 MUN- 
DktDe/.CmtrariesTi After he had dawned him to remem- 
brance by the helpe of vinager and colde water. 

Dawne, obs. form of DOWN sb. 

Dawned (dond, //. dg-mkl),///. a. rare. [f. 
DAWN v. + -En I.] That has begun to brighten. 

1818 KEATS F.ndym. I. 94 The dawned light. 

Dawner, var. of DANDER v. Sc. 



DAWNING. 

Dawnger(e, etc., obs. forms of DAM;K<I, etc. 

Dawning (ilj'nirj), vbl. sl>. Also 4 dawynyng, 
4 5 dawenyng(,e, 4-6 dawnyng(e, 5-6 daun- 
>ng(e. [Known before 1300, when it appears 
beside the earlier DAWINO (from DAW v., OK. 
dagung, dag-tan), which it gradually supersede il. 
The corresponding verb to dawn, which has simi- 
larly displaced <tew,isnot exemplified till the ijth 
c., and appears to have been deduced from dawn- 
ing ; the sb. dawn appeared slill later, app. from 
the vb. As M 1C. daw-en had also an early doublet 
form daij-cn,day-yn (see DAY z>.'), so beside daicen- 
yns; is found tiaijen-ing, daicn-ing, dain-ing (si e 
|)\VNZ'.). No form corresponding to dawening, 
dawning is recorded in OK., and it was probably 
from Norse ; Sw. and Da. have a form dagning 
(OSw. daghning c 1 300), either from daga to dawn, 
with suffix -n-ing, as in kvaS-n-ing, saS-n-ing, tal- 
n-ing, etc. (Vigf. Introd. xxxi), or from a deriv. 
vb. *dagna.\ 

1. The beginning of daylight ; dawn, daybreak. 
In reference to time, now poetic or rhetorical. 

l97 R. GLOUC. 11724) 557 To Ktmingwurbe hii come in 
be dawninge. ' 1385 CHAUCER /. G. li'. 1188 Dido, The 
dawenyng vp rist out of the se. 1387 TRKVISA Higiiln 
(Rolls) VI. 439 Chasede his enemyes al |*at dawenynge [v.r. 
dawyn^]. 1470-85 MAI.ORV Arthur x. Ixxxvi, Vppon a day 
in the daunjnge. 1480 CAXTON Caron. Eng. ccvii. 189 
Erly in the dawenynge of the day. 1586 COGAN Haven 
Health ccxliii. (1636) 311 Drinke it in the morning at the 
dawning of the day. 1601 SHAK.S. Ham. i. i. 160 The Bird 
of Dawning. 1711 W. ROGERS t'oy. 104 So we ran North 
till Dawning. 1810 SCOTT Latly ojfL. I. xxxii, At dawning 
to assail ye. Here no bugles sound reveille 1 . 1858 KINGSLEV 
J'otms, Night Hint 13 Oh sing, and wake the dawning. 
b. trans/. The east, the ' orient '. 

1879 BUTCHER & LANG Odyssey 215 Those who dwell 
toward the dawning. 

2. fig. The first gleam or appearance, earliest 
beginning (of something compared to light). 

a i6ia DONNE Btadaparot (1644) 17 A man as. . illustrious, 
in the full glory and Noone of Learning, as others were in 
the dawning, and Morning. 1607 DRYDEN Virg. Geore. 1.68 
In this early Dawning of the Year. 1781 GIBBON Dec). 4 F. 
III. liii. 314 In the ninth century, we trace the first dawn- 
ings of the restoration of science. 1843 PRESCOTT Mexico 
(1850) I. 75 The dawnings of a literary culture. 1856 SIR B. 
BRODIE Psychol. Inq. I. v. 198 That principle of intelligence, 
the dawning of which we observe in the lower animals. 

Dawning, ///. a. [f. DAWN v. + -mo2.] That 
dawns ; beginning to grow light, a. lit. 

1588 SHAKS. Tit. A. n. ii. 10 Dawning day new comfort 
hath inspir'd. 1667 MII.TON P. L. xn. 423 Fresh as the 
dawning light. 1791 COWPER Iliad xi. 60 The dawning 
skies. 1843 TENNYSON Two Voices 405 The light increased 
With freshness in the dawning east. 

b. fig. Showing its early beginning, nascent. 

1697 DRYDEN I'irg. ;Eneid(i.\ In dawning youth. 1751 
JOHNSON Rambler ^a. 165 f 5 Those who had paid honours 
to my dawning merit. 1879 FARRAR St. PauHiWj) 765 The 
distinctive colour of the dawning heresy. 

Dawnt(e, obs. form of DAUNT. 

Dawsonite (dg-sanaitj. Mitt. [Named 1874, 
after Sir J. W. Dawson of Montreal: see -ITE.] 
A hydrous carbonate of aluminium and sodium, in 
white transparent or translucent crystals. 

1875 Amer. yrnl. Sc. Ser. HI. IX. 64 On Dawsonite, 
a new mineral. 

Dawt, Dawtie (-y) : see DAUT, DAUTIE. 

Day (elf'), J*. Forms : I dees, 2 de ? deij, dai}, 
2-3 dsei, dei, da}, 3 (Orm.) dajj, 3-j dai, 3- day, 
(5-6 dale, daye, 6 Sc. da). PI. 3- days (3-5 
dawes ; dat.pl. 2-6 dawen, dawe ; daw, dau ; 
see below). [A Com. Teut. sb. : OE. dxg (dfff, 
pi. dagos, -a, -urn) = OFrie. dii, dey, di, OS. dag 
(MDu. dock (g/i), Du. dag, MLG., LG. dag), 
OHO., MHO. tac(g\ G. tag, ON. dag-r (Sw., Da. 
dag\, Goth, dag-s : OTeut. *dago-s. In no way 
related to Y,.dics ; usually referred to an Aryan vb. 
dhagh-, in Skr. dah to burn : cf. Lith. dagos 
hot season, OPruss. dagis summer. From the 
WGer. dag, OE. had regularly in the sing. dseg, 
drges, diege in the plural dagos, daga (later -ena), 
dagum. This phonetic exchange :' survived in 
early ME., so that while in the sing, the final } 
was regularly palatal (see forms above ; gen. dxei)es, 
dsies, deies, daies, daye^f&sA. dseije, date, etc.), the 
pi. was ^from dagos), dajes, dahes, dajhes, dawes, 
genit. (: daga, -ena} daga, dawene, dahetu, dajcn, 
dat. (lJmtm} dajon, -en, daghcn, dawen, dawe, 
daw, dau. The last survived longest in the phrase of 
dawe ' from (lifeYdays ' (see 1 7 and ADA WE), and in 
in his dawe, etc. (see 13 a {). But soon after 1200 
plurals phonetically assimilated to the sing. (d;rjes,~~ 
ifaijes, daies) occur, and at length superseded the 
earlier forms.] 

A. Illustration of early forms. 
a. plural, nom. and accus. 

i 1000 .-I^T. Cosp. Matt, xxviii. 20 Ic beo mid eow ealle 
l.r^:is. c 1160 Hattim G. ibid., Ich beo mid eow ealle dajes. 
1200 ORMIN 4^56 SefThe da^hess. rzsos I.AV. 8796 Kif 
VOL. III. 



49 

d.Tije \c IJTS dawes). aitmtiff. Kath. 1844 A! beiwiulf 
dahes. 01215 Alter. K. 70 J>reo dawes. 1197 R. GLOUC. 
("724) 383 pre dawes & nan nio. 1399 /V/. I'xins , UolU I. 
377 As it is said by eldcrr.e da is. i- 1430 LYI>G. Bochas VI. 
i. ('554> '-Mi, I" i>>>' last dawes. 

Ii. //. 

fxoco Ags. J's. ci. 21 On midle minre daxena. ciooo-U'J. 
Gasp. Malt. iv. 2 He faste feowurtig daga [/./WiV/feuortix 
daga, Hallim G. feorti^ da^cs). c 1175 l.amb Ham. 87 
Fiam bam ester lid fifti daja. c 1105 LAY. 3615 pe fora 
wurcn agan feuwerti dawene [1:1175 daijes]. Ibid. 4605 
Vndcr fif dawene \f 1175 daijene] ?c.:n^ heo comen to bis;* 
londe. a 1115 Leg. A ath, 2503 Twcnti dahene )ong. 
7. pi. dat. : see also 1 3 a /5. 

c looo Ags. Cosp. Malt. xxyi. 61 JKtitr brym dagum [xxvii. 
63 daxon). r 1160 ItattonG. ibid., Alfter brem dajen. c 1175 
J.ainl'. Ham. 89 On moyses da^en. c 1105 I^AY. 5961 Hi heore 
aldre daiwen \c 1175 dawes]. < 1300 A'. A Hi, 5631 In twenty 
dawen. c 1300 St. Marf arete 3 lii oldc dawe Patriarch he 
was wel he}, c tya Sir Tristr. 2480 Etenes bi old dnyn 
Hiid wroujl it. c 1430 Freemasonry 394 After the lawe That 
was y-fownded by olde dawe. 

S. In some places dajcn, dawen, may be nom. 
or ace. plural. 

f 1175 Lamb. Hont. 119 Ic seolf beo mid eow alle daien 
[OE. ealle dagas). 

*. The genitive sing. OE. dxgcs, early ME. daies, 
etc., was formerly used adverbially, by day, on 
the day (Ger. da Tagsj : see l b ; it survived in 
ME. bi daies, a daies, A-DAYB, mod. now-a-days. 
B. Signification. 
I. The time of sunlight. 

1. 'The lime between the lising and setting of 
the sun' (J.); the interval of light between succes- 
sive periods of darkness or night ; in ordinary usage 
including the lighter part of morning and evening 
twilight, but, when strictly used, limited to the time 
when the sun is above the hoiizon, as in ' at the 
equinox day and night are equal '. Break of day : 
dawn: see BUEAK, DAYBREAK. 

This is the artificial day of astronomers : see ARTIFICIAL. 
It is sometimes called the natural day (Gcr. nnturlichrr 
tag\ which however usually means sense 6. 

ciooo ^ELFRIC Gen. i. 5 God..het bzt leoht dies & (> 
beostra niht. c woo Trin. Coll. Horn. 358 pu }ifst be sunne 
to be dai}, be mone to be nichte. c ino.9. Eng. Leg, 1.97/173 
In bat prison bat Maide lai twelf dawes and twelf ni^t. 
c 1340 Cursor M. 390 (Trin.) To pane be day fro be nyjt. 
c 1400 Lan/ranc't Cirurg. 41 Ofte tymes in be dai & in ^ 
nyjt. 15*3 LD. BERNERS Froiss. I. cxxviit. 155 It was then 
nyne of the day. 1580 BARETylfr. B 1200 The Breakeof the 
dale. iso DAVIES Immort. Smiivl. (1743) 15 O Light, which 
mak'st the Light which makes the Day. 1635 N. CARPENTER 
Gear. Del. i. v. 106 The longest day is equall to the longest 
night. 1770 GOLDSM. Da. Ull. 15 How often have I bless'd 
the coming day. 1807 ROBINSON Arclueol. Gratca in. xxv. 
331 The more ancient Greeks distinguished the natural day 
that is, the time from the rising to the setting of the sun 
into three parts. 1840 Penny Cycl. XVI. 326/1 At North 
Cape . . the longest day lasts from the isth of May to the 
29th of July, which is two months and a fortnight. 

b. Const. The notion of time how long is ex- 
pressed by the uninflected word (repr. an original 
accus. or dative), as in day and night, all (the") 
day, this day, and the like ; the notion of time 
when (without respect to duration) was expressed 
in OE. by on da'i, early ME. on, tippon dai, o day, 
a-day ; also by the genitive dsegcs, esp. in the collo- 
cation dieges andnihles, and in far days, far forth 
days, = ' far on in the day ', still used in I yth c. 
(see FAR adv. 3 c) ; about 1 200 we find bi dajes, 
and soon after bi daie by day. See BY prep. 19 b. 
c looo Ags. Gosp. Mark v. 5 Symle dxges & nihtes he was 
on byrrenum. c 1200 Trin. ColL Horn. 87 Swiche hertes 
fondeS be fule gost deies and nihtes. ciioo OHM is 11333 
Heold Crist hiss fasste . . Bi da^hess & bi nahhtess. a 1150 
Owl *r Night. 341 Ri daie ]?u art stare-blind, c 1350 Hymn 
to Virgin 357 Min hope is in be da} & nicht. a ijpoCursor 
M. 15159 (Coll.) Ilk night of oliuete To be mont he yodc . . 
And euer on dai be folk he gaf O godds word be fode. 1386 



(18681 45 She happed to abide so longe on a sonday that it 
was fer dayes. 1513 MORE in Grafton Chron. II. 778 The 
pageauntes were a making day and night at Westminster. 
a 1563 BALK Set. Wks. (Parker Soc.) 120 It is far days and 
ye have far to ride to night. 1600 HOLLAND Livy_ XLV. xxxvi. 
1225 It was so far form dayes as being the eighth houre 
therof. 1697 DRYDEN I'irg. Georg. m. 318 Untir'd at Night, 
and chearutl all the Day. 1835 THIRLWALL Greece I. 319 
He might prosecute his voyage as well as by day. 1848 
MACAULAV Hist. Eng. (1880) I. iii. 184 The bags were car- 
ried, .day and night at the rate of about five miles an hour. 

2. In before day, at day daybreak, dawn. 

a 1300 Cursor M.6io6 (Gott. 1 pat bai Sould vte of hous cum 
bi.for day. (14x0 Avow. Artk. ix, To ride this forest or 
daye. 1576 FLEMING Panopl. Efist. 39 A little before 
day. 1719 DE FOB CrtHgt (1840' II. ii. 48 They got up in 
the morning before day. 1793 NELSON in Nicolas Disp. 
I. 309 This morning at day we fell in with a Spanish. .Ship. 

3. Daylight, the light of day. 

c 1340 Cursor Af. 86^6 1 Fairf. ), I hit khew qu en h it was day. 
138* WYCI.IF Rom. xiii. 13 As in day wandre we honestly. 
c 1489 CAXTON Sonnet ofAymon ix. 223 Whan Reynawde 
sawe the day, he rose vp. 1580 NORTH Plutarch (1676) 355 
Such as could see day at a little hole. i66j J. DAVIES tr. 
OleariHs' fey. A mbass. 276 In his Conversion of the darkest 
Night to bright Day. 1710 STEELE Taller No. 142 Pi She 
had now found out, that it was Day before Nine in the 
Morning. 1719 DE FOE Crusoe (1840) II. x. 318 It was 



DAY. 

broad day. 1(83 Sirvricson Treasure til. m. xiii. (1886) 
107 It was as plain u day. 

k.Jfp A light like that of day ; ' daylight ' in 
a difficult question. 

1667 MAUVKI.I. ( err. Ixxx. Wk. 1872-5 II. 225, I can not 
yet see day in the businetue, betwixt the two Houm. 1701 
Ron I'amerl. v. i. 2191 They cut a Day around 'em. 

t4. One of the perpendicular divisions or' li: 
of a mullioned window. [F. jour, mcd.L. dies.} 

[1409 ll'itl o/ ll'are (Somerset Ho.), Lego vna fenrura 
trium dicnim.] 1447 H'ill Hen. *'/ (Hare's MSS. Caiui 
Coll.), In the east ende of the v' Ouier thalbe sat a great 
gable window of vij daies. 1484 Will o/lhocke (Somerxt 
Ho.), A wyndow . . of iii dayes. a 1490 BOTOKEI I tin. 
(Nasmith 1778) 296 Et qiuelibet fenestra. .continet tm dayes 




a mullioned window. 

6. Mining. The surface of the ground over a 
mine. Hence day-coal, -drift, -hole (see also 24 . 
1665 Pkil. Trans. I. 80 By letting down Shafts from the 
Jay (as Miners speak'. 1676 HOIK. SON it,,/. XI. 763 
According as the Day-coal heightens or deepens. 1708 
J. C. Comfl. Collier (1845! 33 Draw your Coals to Bank (or 
Day) out of the Pit. 1747 HOOSOM Miner's f>,'ct. N iij b, 
The Ore that is found on the Tops of Veins, especially near 
to the Day. 1881 RAYMOND Mining Gloss., Day, the surface 
of the ground over a mine. 

II. As a period, natural division, or unit of 
time. 

6. The time occupied by the earth in one revolu- 
tion on its axis, in which the same terrestrial meri- 
dian returns to the sun ; the space of twenty-four 
hours, reckoned from a definite or given point. 
Const, during, in, formerly on, o, a, retained in 
twice a day, etc. : see \prcp.* 8, 8 b. 

The solar or astronomical day is reckoned from noon to 
noon ; and, as the length of this time varies (within narrow 
limits) according to the time of the year, its mean or average 
length is the mean solar day. 1 ne cn'il day in civilized 
countries generally Is the period from midnight to midnight, 
similarly adjusted to its mean length. Ancient nations 
variously reckoned their day to begin at sunrise, at noon, or 
at sunset. The sidereal Any is the time between the succes- 
sive meridional transits of a star, or specifically of the first 
point of Aries, and is about four minutes shorter than the 
solar day. (The term natural day is sometimes used in 
this sense, sometimes in sense i.) 

(950 Lindisf.Gosp. Matt. xv. 33Drio dogorfcee oerhuunas 
mec mid. c looo ALFKIC Gen. i. 5 pa wa-s geworben scfeu 
and moreen an da:*. IHd. ii. 3 God gebletsode bone seofeSan 
da:$ and bine ^ehalxade. c 1175 Ltiinb. Horn. 87 Fram }>nn 
halie hester del boo italde fifti da}a to bisse deie. c 1*05 
LAV. 19316 preo dxies (< 1175 da^e*) wes be king wuniende 
bore, saw R. GLOUC. (1724' 144 A ft in fyftene dawes . . To 
London he wende. 1382 WYCLIF Acts ix. 9 He was thic 
daies not seynge. 1501 T. NORTON Calvin's Inst. i. 10 b, 
Symonides. .desired to haue a daies respite graunted him to 
study vpon it. a 1631 DONNE f'oems (1650) 6 Hours, daies, 
months, which are the rags of time. i8au BYRON Werner 
I. i. 377 Twenty years Of age, if 'I is a day. 1831 BREWSTE* 
Nttvton (18551 I. xiii. 365 We may regard the length of the 
day as one of the most unchangeable elements in the system 
of the world. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Sqr"s. T. 108 In the space of o day 
natureel, (This is to seyn, in foure and twenty houresL 
1398 TREVISA llartA. de I'. R. ix, xxt (1495) 358 Some daye 
is artyfycyall and some nature!!, .a nature!] daye conteynyth 
xxiiij houres. 1^51 RECORDE Cast. Knowl. (15561 244 The 
Natural! daye, .is commonly accompted from Sonne nsinge 
one daye, to Sonne rising the nexle daye. 1764 MASKELYNK 
in /'////. Trans. LI V. 344 The interval between the transit 
of the first of Aries across the meridian one day, and its 
return to it the next day, is called a sidereal day.. The 
interval between the transit of the sun across the meridian 
one day, and his transit the next day, is called an apparent 
solar day. 1811 WopDHousEXf/nw. xxii. 222 The interval 

p 'at. 
the 



or average length ; and this quantity is called a mean solar 
day. Ibid. 14/3 The length of the sidereal day is found to 
be uniformly 23 hours, 56 minutes, or more accurately 
33* 56" 4' -093. 

t b. All days : always, for ever. Obs. 

c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt, xxviii. 30 Ic beo mid eow ealle 
dagas [Lindisf. allum dajum). c 1160 //niton C. ibid., Ich 
beo mid eow ealle da}es. 1480 CAXTON CArtm. Ef. cii, For 
that time forth losten Britons the royame for al dayes. 
t C. A day's travel ; a day's journey. OPS. 

136* LANGL. /'. /V. A. x. i Sire Dowel dwelleb. .not a day 
hennes. 1624 CAPT. SMITH yirginia i. 4 A Towne called 
1'omeiock, and six dayes higher, their City Skicoak. 

7. The same space of time. esp. the civil day, 
treated (without reference to its length) as a point 
or unit of time, on which anything happens, or 
which fixes a date. Const, on, upon (ME. o, a- : 
cf. A/r<r/.l 8, A adj.* 4'. 

c looo Ags. Cost. Matt. xx. 19 And bam bryddan dx*e he 
arist. HU O. E. Chrm. Laml MS.) an. 1135 D(al) ober 
dei ha he lai an slep in scip. o 1400 c unor M. 5108 Colt.) 



Sumtyme men . . weren hool in be same dai. 15*3 Lix 
BERNERS Froiss. I. cxl. 167 Some day y* one part lost, and 
some day the other. 1533-4 Act 25 Hen. f//f.c. 21 | 25 
Before the saide .xii. daie of Marche. 1600-11 ROWLANDS 
four Knaves (Percy Soc.i 75 They say. The belter the day 
the better the deede. 1704 NF.LSON Fest. 4- Fasts L (1730) 
16 The first Day of the Week called the Lord's Day. i6 
tr. Gregory's Astron. I. 262 You need only to know what 

7* 



DAY. 

Day of each Month the Sun enters a Sign of the Ecliptic, 
and compute one Degree for every Day from thence. 1799 
F. LEIGHTON Let. to J. Boucher 21 Sept. (MS.', Pray treat 
me with a letter on an early day as parliament folks say. 
1865 TKOLLOI'E Bclton Est. x. 109 She would return home 
on the day but one after the funeral. 

b. Phrase. One day : on a certain or particular 
day in the past ; on some day in the future. So 
of future time, some day \ and of the present or 
proximate future, one or some of tliese days. 

1535 COYERDALE i Sam. xxvii. i One of these dayes shal 
I fall into the handes of Saul. 1586 A. DAY ling. Secretary 
II. 11625) 66 His meaning is one of these daies to entreate 
your paines hitherwards. 1594 SPENSER Amon-tti Ixxv, 
One day I wrote her name upon the strand. 1613 SHAKS. 
Hen, VIII, ii. U. 22 The King will know him one day. 
1659 B. HARRIS Parival's /rait Age 53 Had it not been, to 
revenge himself one day, upon the Spaniards. 1838 DICKENS 
O. Twist xxxvi, You will tell me a different tale one of 
these days. 1855 SMEDLEY H. Coverdale xxxv, Some of 
these days I shall be obliged to give him a lesson. 

III. A specified or appointed day. 

8. A specific period of twenty-four hours, the 
whole or part of which is assigned to some parti- 
cular purpose, observance, or action, or which is 
the date or anniversary of some event, indicated by 
an attributive addition or by the context; e.g. 
saints' if ays, holy days, New Years day, Lady-day, 
Christmas-day, St. Swithiris-day, fay-day, rent- 
day, settling-day, birth-day, wedding-day, corona- 
tion-day, etc. (See the various defining words.) 

c irj$ Lamb. Horn, ii Nu beoS icumen .. ba halie da^es 
uppen us. 1297 R. GLOUC. (1724) 368 A Seyn Nycolas day 
he com. c 1450 St. Cnthbert (Surtees) 7007 Ilk sere . . In be 
day of bedis deying. 1577 HOLINSHED Citron. IV. 504 To 
put us in mind how we violate the Sabboth daie. 1595 
SHAKS. John v. i. 25 Is this Ascension day? 1600 J. PORY 
tr. Leo's Africa Aij, At London this three and fortieth 
most joifull Coronation-day of her sacred Majestic. 1600. 
1615 J. STEPHENS Satyr. Ess. (ed. 2) 222 Like a bookesellers 
shoppe on Bartholomew day. 1835 HONE Every-day Bk. I. 
TOO In each term there is one day whereon the courts do not 
transact business. .These are termed Grand days in the inns 
of court ; and Gaudy days at the two Universities. 1884 
Christian IVorldg Oct. 764/1 Lord Hramwell. .had spoken 
of Saturday as ' pay-day, drink-day, and crime-day '. 

b. Last day (OE. ytemesta dm), Day of Judge- 
ment or of Doom, Doomsday , Judgement day, Day 
of the Lord, of Accounts, Retribution, Wrath, 
Great Day, etc.: the day on which the dead 
shall be raised to be 'judged of the deeds done 
in the body'. See also the various qualifying 
words. 

971 Blickl. Horn. 57 Seo saul . . onfehb hire lichoman on 
ba;m ytmestan daj^e. a 1300 Cursor M. 27362 (Cott.) t>e dai 
of wreth, 1382 WYCLIF 2 Pet. iii. 10 Forsothe the day of 
the Lord shal come as a theef. c 1386 CHAUCER Pars. T, 
P 305 He schal 3elde of hem account at be day of doome. 
a 1400 Frymcr(iBgi)B2 Haue mercy of me whan bowcomest 
in be laste day. a 1333 LD. BERNERS Hnon clviii. 606 Vnto 
the day of lugemente. 1583 STUDBES Anat. Abus. n. (1882) 
86 The generall resurrection at the last day. Hid. n. 96 At 
y gret day of the Lord. 1690 LOCKE Hum. Untl. II. xxvii. 
(1695) 187 In the great Day, wherein the Secrets of all Hearts 
shall be laid open. 1746-7 HERVEY Medit. (1818) 75 The 
severer doom, and more public infamy, of the great day. 
1860 PUSEY Min. Profh. 109 The Day of Judgment or 
vengeance. 

f e. Hence in early versions of N. T. = Judge- 
ment : a literal rendering of Gr. finipa, in reference 
to the Judgement Day. 06s. 

1382 WYCLIF i Cor. iv. 3 To me it is for the leeste thing 
that I be demyd of 3011, or of mannis day [TINDALE, Rhein. 
daye, CRANMER, Geneva, 1611, 1881 judgement], a 1628 
PRESTON New Covt. 19 He would not regard to be judged 
by mans day, as long as he was not judged by the Lord. 

9. A day appointed, a fixed date, esp. for payment. 
c 1175 Lamb. Hani. 35 Ne beo he nefre swa riche forS he 

seal benne is dei cumeS. c 1290 S. Eng. Leg. I. 250/334. 1387 
TREVISA Higden III. i89(lrfatz.) pe dettoures my5te noujte 
pay here money al here day. c 1400 Gamelyn 792 He wold . . 
Come afore be Justice to kepen his day. c 1300 Merch. * 
Son in Halliwell Nugx Poet. 21 In cas he faylyd hys day. 
1535 STEWART Cron. Scot. I. 556 The king of Scottis. .come 
thair to keip his da. 1596 SHAKS. Merck. V. i. iii. 165 If he 
should breake his daie, what should I gaine By the exaction 
of the forfeiture? 16.. DRYDEN(J.),Or if my debtorsdonot 
keep their day. a 1883 in J. G. Butler Bible Work II. 343 
Christ, in the interval between the resurrection and ascension 
keeps day with his disciples. 

b. A day in each week (or other period) fixed 
for receptions, etc. ; a day on which a hostess is 
' at home '. 



50 

IV. A space of time, a period. 

fll. A space (of time). Its extent is usually de- 
fined by the accompanying words. Now Cbs. or Sc. 

1451 Paston Lett. No. 171 I. 227 They have be fals both 
to the Clyffordys and to me thys vij yeere day. c 1470 
HARDING Chron. Proem xxii, Who laye afore Paris a moneth 
daye. 1550 CROWLEY E^igr. 1462 You shall. .lende but for 
a monethes day. 1552 T. GRKSHAM m Strype Eccl. Mem. 
II. App. C. 148 No man convey out any parcel of lead five 
years day. 1568 E. TII.NF.Y Disc. Mariage Cj, I could 
recite many examples . . if the time woulde suffer mee. You 
have yet day ynough, quoth the Ladyjulia, ^1670 HOBBES 
Dial. Com. Laws 145 Which Statute alloweth to these 
Provisors Six weeks Day to appear. 1825-79 JAMIESON, 
A mont/t's day^ the space of a month ; A year's dtiy t the 
space of a year. 

f 12. Time allowed wherein to be ready, esp. for 
payment; delay, respite; credit. Obs t 

c 1386 CHAUCER Frankl. T. 847 And him bysecheth ..To 
graunte him dayes of the remenaunt. 1428 E. E. Wills 
( 1882) 82 To have ther-of resonable daies of paiement. 1523 
LD. BERNERS Froiss. I. ccxiii. 263 The truce, .is nat expired, 
but hath day to endure vnto the first day of Maye next. 
153 Arth. Lyt. Bryt. (1814) 477, I giue her daye for 
a moneth, & truse in the meane season, 1576 GASCOIGNE 
Steele Gl. (Arb,) So When drapers draw no games by giuing 
day. 16x4 BP. HALL Recoil. Treat. 616 Ye Merchants . . 
make them pay deare for daies. 1644 QUARLES Barnabas 
$ B. 18 I'll give no day . . I must have present money. 1659 
RUSHW. Hist. Coll. I. 640 That he might have day until the 
25 of October, to consider of the return. 

13. The time during which anything exists or 
takes place ; period, time, era. 

a. expressed more literally by the //. : e. g. in 
the days of King Arthur ^ days of 'old ', in those days, 
in days to come, men of other days, etc. Better 
days : times when one was better off ; so evil days. 

c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 3 O'Sre men be waren bi bo dajes. 



, day'. 

10. =*Day of battle or contest', day's work on 
the field of brittle : esp. in phrases to carry get, 
win, lose the d.iy. p. FIELD, and CABBY 15 cj etc. 

1557 TUSSER zoo Points Hitsb. xci, The battell is fought 
thou hast gotten the daye. 1600 E. BLOUNT tr. Conestagrio 
23 Without his aide the day would be perillous. 1643 
ROGERS Naaman 492 Shew us how we may get the day of 
our adversary. 1659 B. HARRIS ParivaVs Iron A & 196 The 
Imperialists, thinking the Day was theirs. 1721 R. BRADI.FY 
H ks .Nature 139 , The Silk Worm at present carries the 
Day before all others of the Papilionaceous Tribe. 1848 
MACAULAY Hist. Eng. 1 1. 168 The bloody day of Seneff. 



in his dayes he Dubbede knihtes. 1470-65 MALORY A rthur 
x. Ixxxvi, Yet had I neuer reward . . of her the dayes of my 
lyf. 1513 DOUGLAS Mneis xin. ix. 69 Twichyng the stait, 
quhilum oe days gone, Of Latium. 1548 HALL Chron. 
239 b, Of no small^authoritie in those dayes. 1576 FLEMING 
Panopl, Epist. A ij, I know not where we shall nnde one in 
these our dayes. 1614 BP. HALL Recoil. Treat. 953 What 
sonne of Israel can hope for good daies, when hee heares 
his Fathers were so evil!? i6^a CULPEPPER Eng. Physic. 1 83 
An Herb of as great Use with us in these dayes. 1732 
BERKELEY Alciphr. vi. 26 The Jewish state in the days of 
Josephus. x8p6 FORSYTH Beauties Scot I. IV. 102 The whole 
town bears evident marks of having seen better days. 1848 
LVTTON Harold i. i, In the good old days before the Monk- 
king reigned. 1880 T. FOWLER Locke \. j During his 
undergraduate and bachelor days. 

f- . In this sense, esp., ME. used dawen, dawe, 
from the OE. dat.pl. onpxm da&um. When dawe 
(daw] began to be viewed as sing., dawes was often 
used in the pi. 

c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt, iii. t On bam dajum com lohannes. 
r 1160 Hattott G. ibid., On bam da^en. c 1200 Trin. Coll. 
Horn. 47 Swich beu wes bi ban da$en. c 1275 LAY. 397 After 
ban hepene lawe bat slot [ = stood] jn ban ilke dawe. a 1300 
Cursor M. 4082 iCott.) Als it bitidd mikel in baa dauus 
[v.r. be aide dawes]. c 1314 Guy IVarw. (A.) 3852 Non 
better nar bi bo dawe. c 1386 CHAUCER Frankl. T. 452 
Felawes, The which he had y-knowen in olde dawes. c 1430 
LYDG. Kockas HI, xiii. 86 b, Neuer. .in their dawes. c 1430 
Freemasonry 509 (Matz.) Suche mawmetys he hade yn hys 
dawe. 1501 DOUGLAS Pal. Hon. in. xliv, Tullus Seruillius 
douchtie in his daw. 

b. expressed more fig. by the sing. Now esp. 
in phrases at or to this or that day, at the present 
day, in o^tr own day, at some future day, etc. 

1382 WYCLIF John xiv. 20 In that day 50 schulen knowe, 
for I am in my fadir, and 3ee in me. 1578 TIMME Calvin 
on Gen. 242 Which Men at this day call Cairum. 1611 
BIBLE Ezek. xxx. 9 In that day shall messengers goe foorth 
from me in shippes. 1662 STILLINGFL. Orig. Sacr. i. vi. i 
To this day.. the Coptites and antient Egyptians call the 
end of the year i>ei<n. 1771 SMOLLETT Humph. Cl. I. 23 
Apr., The inconveniences which I overlooked in the high 
day of health. 1805 SCOTT Last Minstr. Introd. 4 His 
wither'd cheek and tresses grey SeemM to have known 
a better day. 1848 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. I. 403 To this 
day Palamon and Arcite..are the delight both of critics 
and of schoolboys. 1875 JOWETT Plato (,ed. 2) V. 48 They 
were, .more just than the men of our day. 

(&} The day : the time under consideration, time 
(now or then) present. (Cf. the hoitr, the moment.} 
Order of the day. see ORDER. The day. Sc. for 
TO-DAY, q.v. 

18x4 SCOTT Wav. xlii, ' But we maun a 1 live the day, and 
have our dinner. 1839 SIR C. NAPIEU in W. N. Bruce 
Life iv. (1885) 127 Funk is the order of the day. 1893 W. 
P. COURTNEY in Academy 13 May 413/1 The gardens were 
planned by the best landscape gardeners of the day. Mod. 
Men and women of the day. The book of the day. 

14. With personal pronoun : Period of a person's 
rule, activity, career, or life ; lifetime, a. vising. 

1297 R- GLOUC. (1724) 376 Heye men ne dorste by hys 
day wylde best nyme no^t. 1300 Cursor M. 8315 (Cott.) 
Salamon . . sal be king efter bi dai. c 1300 Bcket 649 Heo 
that was so freo and hej bi myn ancestres daye. c 1400 
Gamelyn 65 Thus dalle the knight his lond by his day. 
a 1500 Childe of Bristowe 360 in Hazl. E. P. P. I. 124 Yet 
dwel y stille in peyn..tyl y haue fulfilled my day. 1795 
SOUTHEY Joan of Arc \\\. 293 Holy abbots honoured in their 
day. 1850 L. HUNT Antooiog. (1860) i, I have had vanities 
enough in my day. 

b. \npl. Time of one's life, span of existence. 
To end one's days : to die. 



DAY. 

1466 Paston Lett. No. 552 II. 282 Like as the said John 
Paston deceased had in any time of his (,'aie.s. 1484 CAXTON 
Curtail i That thou myghtest vse thy dayes in takyng 
companye wyth me. 1513 MOKE in Grnfton Ckrett. II, 756 
In his later dayes. .somewhat corpulent. 1526 PUgr. Perf. 
(W. de \V. 1531) 289 b, They had neucr feled suche before, 
in all theyr dayes. a 1533 LD. BERNKRS Ilnc-n Ixv. 222 
There myserably he shall ende bis dayes. c 1600 SHAKS. 
Sonn. xcv, That tongue that tells the story of thy days. 
1600 E. BLOUNT tr. Conestaggio 304 The griefe he conceived 
..hastened his daies. 1697 DKVDEN Virg. Georg. iv. 815, 
I at Naples pass my peaceful Days. 1867 FREEMAN Norm. 
Cong. (1876) I. App. 753 The kingdom of Burgundy was 
now in its last days. 

15. Time of action, period of power or influence. 
Proverb. A (every} dog has his (a] day. 

1550 Q. ELIZ. in Strype Keel. Mem. II. xxviii. 234 Notwith- 
standing, as a dog hath a day, so may I perchance have 
time to declare it in deeds. 1562 J. HEYWOOD Prov. fy 
Epigr. (1867) 30 But as euery man saith, a dog hath a daie. 
1602 SHAKS. Ham, v. i. 315 The Cat will Mew, and Dogge 
will haue his day. 1633 B. JONSON Tale Tub n. i, A man 
has his hour, and a dognis day, 1703 ROWE Ufyss. i. i. -jt 
Suffer the Fools to laugh. .This is their Day. 1837 CARLYI.K 
Fr.Rev. I. i. 2 Each dog has but his day. 1841 Mi ALL 
Nonconf. L i Diplomacy has had its day, and failed. 1850 
TENNYSON In Mem. Prol. v, Our little systems have their 
day, They have their day and cease to be. 
V. Phrases. 

16. A-DAY, A-DAYS, q.v. (see also i b) ; BY DAY, 
BI-DAT (see i and Iii' prep. 19, 20) ; by the day 
(BY $rep. 24 c) ; TO-DAY. 

f 17. Of daw(e (OE. type *of dagim, ME. of da- 
jen, ofdaje, of dawe, of dawes, of daw (day\ a daw; 
corruptly on, to daw(e] : in to bring, do of or out of 
dawe, life's dawe, to deprive of life, to kill ; to be of 
dawe, to be dead. Obs. See also ADA WE adv. 

a 1225 Juliana 31 He walde don hire . . ut of dahene. 
a 1300 Cursor M. 4168 (Gb'tt.) pan wil na man of vs mak 
saue, pat we him [Joseph] suld haue clone of daue [v.rr. on 
dau, of daghe]. Ibid. 7808 (Fairf.) He me be-sogt . . I sulde 
him bringe on Hues dawe [v.rr. o dau, o daw, of dawe]. 
1300 Seyn Julian 193 pat heo of dawe be. 11325 E. E. 
A llit. P, A. 282, 1 trawed my perle don out of dawez. ? a 1400 
Morte Arth. 2056 That cure soveraygne sulde be distroyede, 
And alle done of dawez. (1420 Chron. Vilod. 107 Mony 
a mon was b 1 day y do to dawe. c 1425 WYNTOUN Cron. 
vin. xxxi. 119 De erfe bus wes dwne of day. 1513 DOUGLAS 
sEneis n. iii. 58 He was slane, allace, and brocht of daw. 

18. This or that day week (in Sc. eight days), 
twelve months , etc. : used of measurement of time 
forward or backward : the same day a week or 
a year after or before. 

1526 TINDALE Acts x. 30 This daye nowe ,mj. dayes 
I fasted. 1651 CROMWELL Lett. 3 Sept. (Carlyle), The third 
of September, (remarkable for a mercy vouchsafed to your 
forces on this day twelvemonth in Scotland). 1801 ELIZ. 
HELME St. Margaret's Cave III. 244 On the day month 
that he had made the dreadful avowal. 1815 BYRON 
Let. to Moore 10 Jan., I was married this day week. 1865 
KINGSLEY Her&v, xv. (1877) 189 Let Harold see how many 
. .he holds by this day twelve months. Mod. He is expected 
this day week (or, in Sc., this day eight days). 

19. Day about, on alternate days in rotation, 
each on or for a day in his turn : cf. ABOUT, 
A. 5 b. Day by day, on each successive day, 
daily, every day in its turn (without any notion 
of cessation) ; also attrib. Day after day, each 
day as a sequel to the preceding, on every day 
as it comes (but without intending future continu- 
ance). (From) day to day, continuously or with- 
out interruption from one day to another (said of 
a continuation of state or conditions) ; also attrib. 

15.. MOFFAT Wyf of Anchtinmichty (Bannatyne MS.), 
Content am I To tak the pluche my day about. 

1362 LANGL. P. PI. A. vin. 177 What bou dudest day bi 
day. c 1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. Prol. 175 In whiche me 
thoughte I myghte, day by day, Dwellen alwey. c 1440 
Promp. Parv. 1 12 Day be day, or ouery day, q-uotidie. 1548-9 
(Mar.) Bk. Com. Prayer 2 b, Te Deum, Day by day we mag- 
nifie thee. 1771 MRS.. GRIFFITH tr. Viand" 1 * Shipwreck 178, 
I cannot give you, day by day, an account of this, .journey. 
1836 KINGSLEY Lett. (1878) I. 38, I am sickened by its day- 
by-day occurrence. 1865 Herew. xv. (1877) 195 Passing . 
each other day by day. 

1830 TENNYSON Poems 33 A world of peace And confidence, 
day after day. 

1297 R. GLOUC. (1724) 505 Fram daye to daye hu dude 
the mansinge. 1483 Calk. Angl. 88 From Day to day, die 
in dient t in dies, diet int. 1556 Anrelio <$ I sab. (16081 I iij, 
From daye to daye you have beane worse. 1605 SHAKS. 
Macb. v. v. 20 To morrow, and to morrow, and to morrow, 
Creepes in this petty pace from day to day. 1712 ADDISON 
Spect. No. 445 F 3 Whether I should still persist in laying 
my Speculations, from Day to Day, before the Publick. 
1883 Manch. Exam. 8 Dec. 4/1 For day-to-day loans the 
general charge was 2 to 2$ per cent. 

20. AH day : the whole day ; f every day : see 
I b, and ALDAY. All days : always, for ever : see 
6 b. Better days : see 1 3 a. EVEUY-PAY, FIRST DAY, 
q.v. Good day : see GOOD. Late in the day : see 
LATE. Now-a-days^ t now bi-dawc : see Now and 
A-DAYS, One day^ one of these days : see 7 b. The 
other day : two (or a few) days ago : see OTHER. 
Some day, some of these days : see 7 b. Time of 
day : hour of the clock, period of the world's history, 
etc. : see TIME. The day after (or before} the fair : 
too late (or too early) ; see FAIR so.' 1 Days in 
Bank, Days of 'Grace, etc.: sec BANK- 2, GRACK,etc. 



DAY. 

Also Au, FOOLS' HAY, AHCKNMON, liLACK-LKTTtn, 
l.\wri:i, DAY, etc. : sec these words. 

VI. Attiilmtivc uses and Combinations. 
21. Tin- common use of the possessive genitive 
i/ay's (ns in other nouns of time) somewhat restricts 
ihe simple attributive use of Jay. The genitive is 
used in, e.g., the day's duties, needs, sales, takings \ 
a Jays length, sunshine; a day's fighting, journey, 
inarch, rest ; a day's alltnvanre, fast, fay, provi- 
sions, victuals, wiiges, etc. So with the pi. two 
</ays' journey, three days' pay, etc. Sec also 
DAYSMAN, DAY'M WOIIK. 

a lljo Owl ff Night. 1588 That gode wif . . Havelh dales 
kare and nijtes wake. 1388 Wvojp Lulte ii. 44 The!., 
camen a daies iourriey [138* the wey of a day]. 14x2 F.. /-.'. 
Wills (1882) 50 Myn eche daies gowne. 1548 HALL tVmw. 
228 b, Ponderyngc together yestardayes promise, and two- 



case , as the saying is. A distance ol three days journey. 

22. Such combinations as eight days when used 
attrib. may become eight-day. 

1836 [see EIGHT]. 1847 Nat. Encyct. \. 413 Six-day 
licenses may be granted. Mod. An eight-day clock. 

23. General combinations : a. simple attrib. 'of 
the clay, esp. as opposed to the night, the day's', 
as day-beam, -blush, -glory, -goti, -going, -hours, 
-season, -spirit ; ' of a day, as a period of time, a 
day's', as day-bill, -journey, -name, -respite, -sum, 
-ticket, -warning. 

1813 HOGG Queen's Wake 265 The "day-beam . . O'er 
Queensberry began to peep. 1825 D. L. RICHAKUSON 
.Sonnets 60 The day-beams fade Along the crimson west. 
1824 BYRON Jinn xv. Uii, A single day-bill Of modern 
dinners. 1813 Br. Abydos 11. xxviii, When the May- 
blush bursts from high. 1827 Blackm. Mag. XXI. 81 Why, 
* Day-god, why so late ? 1638 JACKSON Creed tx. xxiv. Wks. 

...if . ._.. - .1 -f.^i- _i i- i .%-- j : 




in to relieve the night-workers. 1630 BRATHWAIT Eng. 
Gentlcm., Our Ordinary Gentleman, whose May-tjiske is 



to relieve him. 1846 KEDLE Lyra Innoc. (1873) 50 How 
soft the *day-wind sighed. 

O. With agent-nouns and words expressing action, 
' (that acts or is done) by day, during the day, as 
distinguished from night', as day-devourer, -drudge, 
-flier, -lurker, -nurse, -seller, -sleeper ; day-drrnvsi- 
iifss, -fishing, -journeying, -reflection, -slumber, 
-somnambulism, -vision ; also adjectives, as day- 
appearing, -flying, -shining, etc. 

1821 SHELLEY Fragments, Wandering i, Like a "day- 
appearing dream. 1715 POPE Odyss. xtx. 83 A May-devourer, 
and an evening spy! 1851 Meandering* of Mem. I. 149 
'Day-drowsiness and night's arousing power. 1840 CAR- 
I.YLE Heroes (18581 237 Show him the way of doing that, 
the dullest "daydrudge kindles into a hero. 1643 WALTON 
A ng/eri*6 There is night as well as 'day-fishing for a Trout. 
1889 A. R. WALLACE flam'iuum 248 "Day.ffying moths. 
1876 GEO. ELIOT Dan. Der. IV. Ixiv. 274 In leisurely 'day- 
journeying from Genoa to London. 1657 TOMLINSON Ketivii's 
Disp. 4 Jugglers, "Day-lurkers. and Deceivers. 1725 POPE 
(iJvss. iv. 1063 The "day-reflection, and the midnight- 
dream ! 1889 Tablet 3 Aug. 167 Two classes of flower-girl- 
the "day-sellers and the night-sellers. 1580 SIDNEY Arcadia 
(1622) 2 The "day-shining starres. 1549 CHEKE Hurt Sedit. 
(1641! 41 "Day.sleepers, pursse-pickers. 1836-9 Toon Cycl. 

I a,it.\ I. 767/2 The bat . . awoke from its deep 'day-slumber. 
1849 H. MAYO Truths in t'i'f. Suferst. vi. 86 Let me 
narrate some instances, .one of "day-somnambulism. 1677 
GALE Crt. Gentiles II. in. 58 Their night-dreams and day- 
visions whereby they divined things. 

d. objective or objective genitive, as day-dis- 
pensing, -distracting, -lov ing adjs. ; day-hater, -pro- 
longer; e. instrumental, as day-lit, day-wearied 
adj.; f. adverbial, as day-hired, -lasting, -lived 
adjs. ; g. similative and parasynthetic, as day- 
liri'j/it, -ilear, -eyed adjs. 
1590 T. WATSON /'* (Arb.) 159 Virgo make fountains 



Day-god, why so late? 1638 JACKSON Creed tx. xxiv. Wks. 
VIII. 353 Betwixt three of the clock and the "day-going. 
1660 STURMY Mariner's Mag. it. 77 The upper half of the 
circle.. is the "Day-Hours, and trie lower., is the Night- 
Hours. 1483 Cat*. Angt. 88 A "Day iornay, dicta, c 1489 
CAXTON Sonnet of Aymon xix. 429 A *day respvte is worthe 
moche. a 1568 COVERDALE Bk. Death \. xxi, K either need 
to fear any inconvenience by night, neither swift arrow in 
the "day-season. 1850 MRS. BROWNING Poems II. 274 Thy 
"day-sum of delight. ^1530 LD. BERNEKS Arth. Lyt. Btyt. 
(1814) 443 To be redy at a "day warning. 

b. attrib. ' Pertaining to or characteristic of the 
day, existing by day, diurnal ' ; as day-bell, -bird, 
-breeze, -clothes, -guest, -haul, -moth, -shift, -task, 
-watch, -watchman, -wind. 

15.. Talt of Basyn. 172 in Hazl. E. F. P. III. 51 The! 
daunsyd all the ny}t, till the son con ryse ; The clerke rang 
the 'day-bell, as it was his gise. 1774 WHITE in Phil. 
Trans. LXV. 266 It does not withdraw to rest till a quarter 
before nine . . being the latest of all "day-birds. 1808 J. 
BARLOW Columb. n. 540 The 'day-breeze fans the God. 
1644 A. BURGESSE Magistrates Commission 15 It ought to be 
your "day-care and your night-care, and your morning-care. 
1856 EMERSON F.ng. Traits, Voy.to F.ng. Wks. (Bohn) II. , 
12 The master never slept but in his "day-clothes whilst on | 
board. 1654 WHITLOCK Zootomian If griefe lodges with 
us over night, Joy shall be our "Day Guest. 186* E. J. 



51 

of thy Maic-brighl fine, a 1591 GRKKNE & LODGK I.wki*x 
Glitsse (iWn) 124 The day-hruht eyes that made me tec. 
1785 Ili'BMs aW / f. tn J. Lafnuli xvii, Somr May >' 
ing owl 1715 I'MI ('C/MI \\. i ... The M;ty-dislracting 
iti' in... 1796 I. 1 1 A* SSMI M. / .'. ins 4y 'Pay-eyed Fancy. 
1597 DAMIJ. ( IT. It'an it. c, The May.hater, Minerva's 
bird. 1751 l-,iintl. li'HH>lling II. 1 5<> "Day-hired Ser- 
\anls 1649 DktMM. OK HAWTH. J-'ain. Kpiil. Wkx. 11711) 
139 "Day-lasting ornaments. 1885 K. I STEVKNSON Dyna- 
miter 136 The broad, daylil unencumbered paths of uni- 
versal scepticism. 1839 BAILEY Ftslnt v. (1848) 48 Things 
bom of vice or "day-lived fashion. 1814 J. BOWKINC; Data- 
i'inn Anthiil. 158 " Day-prolonger summer's mate. 1595 
SHAKS. J t >hn v. iv. 35 Feeble, and May-wearied Sunne. 

24. Special combinations: t day-and-ni'ght- 
shot, the name of some disease; day-befo re 
attrib., of the previous day; day-boarder, see 
lio.MiDKU ; f day-body, a person taken up with 
the things of the day ; day-boy, a school-boy (at 
a boarding-school) who attends the classes but goes 
home for the evening, as distinguished from a 
BOA HUER, q. v. ; day-clock, a clock which requires 
to be wound up daily ; day-coal (sec 5) ; f day, 
day ! a childish expression for ' good day ', ' good- 
bye ' (cf. ta-ta) ; day-degree (see quot.) ; day- 
drift, -hole (see quot. and 5) ; day-eye (Coal- 
mining), a working open to daylight ; day-gang 
t a. a day's march or journey (obs.) ; b. a gang of 
miners, etc., forming the day-shift; day-gown, 
a woman's gown worn by day ; day-holding, the 
holding of an appointed day (for arbitration) ; day- 
hours (//.), those offices for the Canonical Hours 
which arc said in the day-time; day-house ( Astral. >, 
a house in which a planet is said to be stronger 
by day than by night (Wilson Diet. Astral.) ; 
t day-liver, one who lives for a day, or for the 
day ; dayman, one employed for the day, or for 
duty on a special day ; day-nettle : sec DEAD- 
NETTLE and DEA-NETTLE ; day-room, a room occu- 
pied by day only ; ) day-set, sun-set ; day-shine, 
day-light ; t day-shutting, close of day, sunset ; 
day-stone, a naturally detached block of stone 
found on the surface (see 5) ; day-streak, streak 
of dawn ; day-student, a student who comes to 
a college, etc. during the day for lectures or study, 
but does not reside there ; day-ticket, a railway or 
other ticket covering return on the same day ; also, 
a ticket covering all journeys or entrances made by 
the purchaser on the day of issue ; day-tide (poet.,) 
day-time ; day-wages, wages paid by the day ; 
) day-wait, a watcher or watchman by day ; 
day-wa-rd sb., ward kept by day; dayward a. 
and adv., towards the day; day-water, surface 
water (see 5). 

1527 ANDREW Bninswyke's Distyll. Waters Kijb, The 
same water is good agaynste a sore named the Maye and 
nyght sholte. i88 COBBETT Sfrtit., Drunkenness 45 No- 
body is so dull as the Maybefore drunkard. 1567-8 ABP. 
PARKER Corr. 310, I trust, not so great a "day-body, .but 
can consider both reason and godliness. 1848 THACKERAY 

Van. Fair II. xxi, Georgy was, Tike some do/en other pupils, 
only a "day-boy. 1888 BURCON Lives 12 Git. Men I. iii. 
303 The attempt was made to send [him], .as a day-boy, to 

Rugby school. 1859 GKO. ELIOT A. Bedt 38 No sound .. 
but the loud ticking of the old "day-clock. 171* ARBUTIINOT 

John Bull iv. vii, Bye ! bye, NIC ! . . Won't you like to 
shake your 'day-day, Nic? 1784 P. OLIVER in T. Ilntchin- 
son's Diary II. 213 Day, day ! Vrs, P. Oliver. 1886 Daily 

News 17 May 3/4 The result b expressed in May-degrees, 
a day-degree signifying one degree of excess or deficit of 



drifts or day lic-lts, galleries or inclined planes driven from 
the surface so that men can walk underground to and from 




of his land Mai-ganges thre. 1840 T. A. TROLLOPE Summ. 
Britt. II. 163 When the day-gangs come up, and those for 
the night go down. 1889 I'all Mall G. 14 Nov. 1/3 Another 
"day gown for a well-known society woman. 1565 in Child 
Marriages (E.E.T.S.) 44 Ther was diuerse Male-holdingcs 
to get them to abide together ; which they neoercold bringe 
to passe. 1891 /'<t// Mall. G.\\ Feb. 5/1 The coal is won by 
means of a May hole. i8jS P- FREEMAN Prine. Div. Service I. 
220 There is, however, attached to each of these ' "day-hours ' 
a 'mid hour' Office. 1630! IKI'MM.OF H\vmt.HjmmtoFairrst 
Fair, "Day-livers, we rememberance do lose Of ages worn. 
1880 Times 8 Oct. 8's The Liberal secretaries . . mentioned 
the names of the chairmen, treasurers, executive ' "daymen ', 
and captains of the respective wards. i88a NARES Seaman, 
ship ted. 6) 08 Marines, Idlers or Daymen. 18*3 NICHOLSON 
Pract. Builder 577 A Small County Prison . . A spacious 
"day room on the ground floor, c 1386 CIIAUCEE Clerk's 7". 7 18 
At May set he on his way is goon, i- >8aa Hv I>IX>ES Pyg- 
malion Poems 154 By moon, or lamp, or sunless "day shine 
white. 187* TENNVSON Garttk <y /. 1065 Naked in open 
dayshine. 1673 in Picton L'fool ilunie. Rec. 11883! I. 316 
That every puulick house hang out lanthornes. -till 8 a clock 
at night, from May shutting. 1877 A. H. GREEN Pars. 
Gfol. x. 83. 441 "Day-stones. 1859 CLOUGH Difsyehtis 83 
The chilly "day-streak signal. 1883 Durham I 'ni-.'. Jrnl. 
17 Dec. 141 Sorry indeed to see the "day-student system 
becoming the rule. 1846 Raihimy Keg. III. 248 "Day 
ticketsThe charge is a fare and a half. 1818 KEATS 
EHilym. III. 365 At brim of May-tide. 16*5 tr. Camden's 
Hist. Elii. i. i683) 49 Souldkrs, Servants, and all that took 



DAYBOOK. 

li.iy \V. V , f T i' >ir labour. <i ISO GuCtXIC Orfk.i 

i) XII. 86 A labourer fur day wage*. 1496 
1'iret f, I'auf. iW. de W.) v. >i i 

a Maycwayl- .'fluraell. 1597-1609 It'. A'/.//Wjf 

i AW/i 4',(J' f j. Anti.e<>l. .Ii..s.), Viyilw* vr 
dicbu ' <laywarde. 187* I.ANIII I'txmt, Pmlin 

'/"> ever Mayward thou art ileMJCwl drawn 

1698 CAY in I'hil. 'Irani. XX. 369 A nieer "Day-Wai 
immediately fmm Ihe Cloud*. iSo < i i ..//*/ 

Stock 198 A poor clay, .extremely retentive of day-water. 

tDay, .' Oh. In 3 dnlen, dailen. [A 
form of DAW v., assimilated \oday ib.] To rlawn. 

c iao< LAV. 21726 I.ihten hit gon dxaen (c 1175 da)eic]. 
21854 Fairc hit gon da;i)en. 26940 Hit a^on dar)en (< 1*75 
da}cvO. c 1*75 Mid. 1694 A morwc bo hit da^cde t* i*>5 
dawedej. c 1440 Pnniif. J'lirt'. 112 Dayyn, or wexyn day. . 
du-sfo. Ibitt. 114 Dawyn idem est. quod dayyn (PvMiox 
dayen], aurora, c 14160 Twiietey My ft. Jatof- 108 Fare- 
well now, the day daye>. 1483 f.i/A. Anfl. 88 To Day, 
diere, ditscert. 

Hence Day Ing- vbl. sh. =PAWIO, DAWKINO. 

14*0 Antttrs of Arth. \x\vii, In be daying of be day. 
t' 153* Dewcs Introd. J-r. in PaUgr. 937 At the aayeng, 
a fajoitrnfr. 

i Day, v.- Obs. [f. DAY tb. ; in several dis- 
connected senses.] 

1. trans. To appoint a day to any one ; to cite or 
summon for an appointed day. [trans!. Klem. 
daghen.~\ 

1481 CAXTON AYv<"v/(Arb.) 19 That he shold be sente 
fore and dayed eniestly agayn, for l[o] abyde suche luge- 
ment. 

2. To submit (a matter) to, or decide by, arbi- 
tration. Cf. DAYMENT. 

1484 (see DAYIHG rW. j*.J. 1580 LUPTOM Sh-oitaiij They 
hauebin enforced when all their money was. -spent, to haue 
their matter dayed, and ended by arbitrament. 

3. To give (a person) time for pa\ment; absol. 
to postpone payment (.Cf. DAY sb. it.) 

1566 WAGER Crtull Debter, The most part of my deblters 
have honestly payed, And they that were not redy 1 have 
gently dayed. 1573 TVSSER Husb. IxiL (1878 139 111 
husbandrie daieth, or letteth it lie : Good husbandrie paieth, 
the cheaper to bie. 

4. To appoint or fix as a date. 

1594 CAKEW Tasto 11881) 114 So when the terme wai 
present come, that dayd The Captaine had. 

6. To measure by the day ; to furnish with days. 

1600 ABP. ABBOT Kjcf. Jonah 545 Is it nothing that their 
life is dayed and houred, and inched out by a fearful God 
and terribleT 1616 l!i DDES tr. Aerodins' Parent's Han. 168 
Natural! duty, can neither be dayde nor ycard, nor deter- 
mined by age, or eldership. 1839 lUlLEY f'ttlns xiii.liS^) 
122 When earth was dayed was morrowed. 

6. To year and day : to subject to the statutory 
period of a year and a day. 

1523 FiTZHP-RB. Sttru. 28 b, And put them in sauegarde to 
the lordes vse till they be yered and deyd. a 1626 W. SCLATEH 
Serin. Expcr. (1638) 186 Whiles favours are new, we can . . 
say, God be thanked ; but, once year'd and day'd, they 
scarce ever come more into our thought. 

Day, var. of DEY, dairywoman. 

t Dayage. Obs. [! f. DAT so. + -AOE.] ? De- 
muiTage. 

1592 m Picton L'fool Munic. Rec. (1883) I. 70 (Varioiu 
heads under which dues were claimed). . Ferriage ; Daiage ; 
Lastage ; Wharfage ; Keyage ; Cranage. 

f Day-bed. OH* A bed to rest on in the day- 
time ; a sofa, couch, lounge ; trans/, (the using of) 
a lied by day. 

1594 SHAKS. Kiet. Ill, ill. vii. 72 (Qo. He U not lulling 
on alewd day bed. a 1613 OVERBI'RY Ckarac., Ordinarie 
l-emer Wks. (1856) in A bench, which in the vacation of 
the afternoons he uses as his day-bed. Distatttr 117 
He is a day-lied for the Devill to slumber on. 1818 SCOTT 
Kob Roy xxxix, An old-fashioned day-bed, or settee. 1831 
CAPT. TuELAWNvXrfp. Yotmter Son II. 193 Day-beds, fetid 
air, nightly waltzes and quadrilles, rob her of youth. 

Dayberry. local. (Comw.) Also deberry 
(Devon \ dabberry (Keni\ A local name of the 
gooseberry, chiefly in its wild form. 

1736 PEGCE Kenticisms, Datberries pi., gooseberries. 
1847-78 HALLIWELL, Deberriei, gooseberries. Devon. 1880 
Corn-wall Gloss., Day-berry, the wild gooseberry. 

Day -blindness. A visual defect in which 
the eyes sec indistinctly, or not at all, by daylight, 
hut tolerably well by artificial light. 

1834 GOOD Study Med. fed. 41 1 1 1. 145. 1838 Penny CycL 
XI Li 14/2 Nyctalopia, night-vision, or day-blindness, prob- 
ably ne%er occurs as a separate disease. 

Daybook, day-book. A book in which the 
occurrences or transactions of the day are entered ; 
a diary, journal ; t also, a book for daily use or 
reference ; Naut. a log-book (ofis.). 

1580 HOLLYBAND Trras. Fr. Tang, Pafier inmal. a 
daybooke. 1583 }. HICINS tr. Jumns' Xomncbitor M.\ 
Diarimn . Kegistre journel . . A daie I woke, coonioiiw surh 
acts, deedes, and matters as are dailie done. 1603 Flamio 
Montaigne (1634) in The daybooke of houshold affaires. 
1615 K. BRUCH (titlti Gerhard's Soule's Watch; or a 
Day-booke for Ihe devout Soule, consisting of one and 
fiflie Heavenly Meditations. 1654 TAI L'omm. Ps. v. 4 
The young Lord Harrington, and sundry others, kept 
Journals, or Day-books, and oft read them over, for an help 
to Humiliation. 1709 STEELE Taller No. 10 f 3, I see 
a Sentence of Latin in my Brother's Day-Book of Wit. 
1866 MBS. GASKELL U'hti and D. I. 328, ' I don't like hw 
looks', thought Mr. Gibson to himself at night, as over his 
daybooks he reviewed the events of the day. 1867 SMYTH 
Sailffi't H'trd-b*., lify-bftk, an old and better lame foe 
the log-book 



DAYBREAK. 

b. Book-keeping. Originally, a book in which 
the commercial transactions of the day, as sales, 
purchases, etc., are entered at once in the order in 
which they occur ; now, very generally restricted to 
a book containing the daily record of a particular 
class of transactions, ns a Purchases Daybook, 
Sales Daybook, and more especially used of the 
latter, in which credit sales are recorded. 

In Book-keeping by Double Entry, often a synonym of 
the Wastehooki whence transactions are posted in the 
Journal; in the methods of Single Entry commonly used 
by tradesmen, the book in which goods sokl on credit are 
entered to the debit of the purchaser, and whence they are 
posted into the Ledger, is called variously Daybook or 
Journal. 

1660 T. WILI.SFORD Scales of Commerce 208 The Diary, or 
Day-book, ought to be in a large folio. 1682 SCARLETT 
Exchanges 222 In some Fairs they use only to note the 
Resconter in their Day-books, or Memorial, or Pocket- 
Books that can be blotted out again. 1727-51 CHAMBERS 
Cycl. s.v. Book, The waste-book, .is in reality a journal or 
day-book ; but that name being applied to another, the 
name waste book is given to this by way of distinction . . 
Journal-book or day-book, is that wherein the affairs of each 
day are entered orderly down, as they happen, from the 
waste-book. 1887 \Vestm. fiev. June 276 The ledgers and 
daybooks of everyday business life are his guides. 

Daybreak. [Cf. BREAK ^.41 and j^. 1 2.] The 
first appearance of light in the morning; dawn. 

1530 PALSGR. 804/1 At daye breake, attjour creuer. 1683 
BURNET tr. More** Utopia (1684) 81 It is ordinary to have 
Publick Lectures every Morning before day-break. 1841 
LANE Arab. Nts. I. 17 Between daybreak and sunrise. 

aitrib, 1825 WATERTON H'and, S. Amer. i. i. 99 The 
crowing of the hannaquoi will sound in thine ears like the 
daybreak town-clock. 

So f Day-breaking, the breaking of the day. 

1598 GRENEWEY Tacitus 1 Ann. i. xiv. (1622^26 At day 
breaking, the legions .. abandoned their standings. 1647 
{title}. The Day-breaking if not the Sun-rising of the Gospel 
with the Indians in New England. 

Day-daw. 6V. = next. 

Day-dawn. Chiefly poetic. The dawn of day, 
daybreak. 

1813 COLERIDGE Remorse iv. ii. 53 His tender smiles, love's 
day-dawn on his lips. 1857 S. OSBORN Qitcda/i ix. IOQ The 
daydawn had already chased the stars away. 1887 MORRIS 
Odyssey iv. 192 Now doth the Day-dawn speed, And at hand 
is the mother of morning. 

Day -dream. A dream indulged in while 
awake, esp. one of happiness or gratified hope or 
ambition ; a reverie, castle in the air. 

1685 DRYDEN Lucret. (T.), And when awake, thy soul but 
nods at best, Day dreams and sickly thoughts revolving in 
thy breast. 1711 STEELE Spect. No. 167 F 3 The gay 
Phantoms that dance before my waking Eyes and compose 
my Day-Dreams. 1815 SCOTT Guy M. iv, We shall not 
pursue a lover's day-dream any farther. 1864 C. KNIGHT 
Passages Work. Life I. i. 122 The realities of life had cured 
me of many day-dreams. 

attrib. 1829 I, TAYLOR Enthus. ix. 231 The object of day- 
dream contemplation. 

So Day-dream v., to indulge in day-dreams ; 
Day-dreamer ; Day '-dreaming* vbl. sb. ; Day- 
dreamy a., pertaining to day-dreams. 

i8zo W. IRVING Skctch-Bk., The Vvyag?, One given to 
day-dreaming, and fond of losing himself in reveries. 1873 
SYMONDS Grk. Poets xi. 376 All day-dreamers and castle- 
builders. 1884 Athenaeum 6 Dec. 738/1 The girl . .who sits 
day-dreaming in a vignette. 

Dayerie, -ry, obs. forms of DAIRY. 

Dayesie, dayesegh, obs. forms of DAISY. 

t Day -fever. Obs. A fever of a day's dura- 
tion or coming on in the day-time ; the sweating- 
sickness, ephemera anglica pcstilens of old authors. 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny II. 155 Those who vpon the Suns 
heat haue gotten the headach or a day-feuer. 1610 
Camden's Brit. \. 24 That pestilent day-fever in Britaine, 
which commonly wee call the British or English swet. 

Day -flower. A flower that opens by day ; 
spec* in U. S. the genus Commelyna or Spider- 
wort. 

1688 R. HOLME Armoury n. 99/2 The Virginian Spider- 
wort.. may be called the Day Flower, for it opens in the 
day, and closes in the night. 1866 Treas. Bot., Day-flower, 
an American name for Commelyna. 

Day-fly. An insect of the family Ephemeridfe.^ 
which in tne imago or perfect state lives only a few 
hours or at most a few days ; an ephemerid. 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. 330 A foure footed flic . . it liueth 
not aboue one day, whereupon it is called Hemerobion 
(z. a day-ffy\ a 1711 KEN Preparatives Poet. Wks. 1721 
IV. 36 This Fly.. Never lives longer than a single Day; 
'Tis therefore styl'd a Day-Fly. 1860 GOSSE Rom. Nat. 
Hist. 15 The triple-tailed larvae of dayflies creep in and out. 

Day-house : see DEY-HOUSE. 

t Daying, vbl. sb. Obs. [f. DAY 7>. 2 ] The 
action of the verb DAY, esp. arbitration, settle- 
ment of a dispute by * daysmen '. 

1484 Ckurchw. Ace. St. Dnnstan's, Canterb., Spent at the 
dayng betwene Baker and the paryshe. 1556 I. HEYWOOD 
Spider $F. K iv,Tobie at a newe pryce Or brmge. .To an 
vncertentie by douwtfull daying. Ibid. O iij, That we male 
name our daisetnen to this daiyng. 1565 JEWEL Dcf. Apol. 
(1611) 42 Our Doctrine hath bin approued too long, to be 
put a daying in these daies. 1598 R. BERNARD tr. Terence, 
Andrta in. ii, If I doe obtaine her, why should I make any 
more daying for the matter? 1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit, ix, 
viii. 16 Neither indeed did Philip thus put the matter to 
daying. 



52 

tDayish, a. Obs. rare. [f. DAY sb. + -ISH.] 
Of or pertaining to dny ; diurnal. 

1393 TREVISA Karlh. de P. R. vm. ix. (Tollcm. MS.), 
Dayische signis [dinrita ; 1535 daye signes]. 

Dayl, obs. form of DALE sb.- 

Day labour, day-labour. Labour done as 
a daily task, or for daily wages ; labour hired by 
the day. 

CI449 PECOCK Repr., His dai labour, c 1653 MILTON 
Sonn. Blindness, ' Doth God exact day labour, light denied 2 ' 
I fondly ask. 1659 U. HARRIS 1'arival's Iron Age 245 
Such as escaped, fled into Holland, to save their unhappy 
lives by Day-labour. 1749 BERKELEY Word to Wise Wks. 
III. 446 By pure dint of day-labour, frugality, and foresight. 
1793 SMEATON Edystone L. 101 An expence . . as low, in 
regard to the value of day labour, as could . . be expected. 

Day:-la'bourer. A labourer who is hired to 
work at a certain rate of wages per day ; one who 
earns his living by day labour. 

1548 Act 2-3 Edm. VI, c. 13 7 Other than such as becne 
common day labourers. 1585 ABP. SANDYS Strm.(l&4U 104 
Should a king then . . prefer a mean artificer or a day- 
labourer before himself? 1632 MILTON L' Allegro 109 His 
shadowy flail hath threshed the corn That ten day-labourers 
could not end. 1699 Poor Man's Plea 16 In the Southern 
parts of England, where a Day-labourer can gain gs. per 
Week for his Labour. 1755 SMOLLETT Quix. (1803) IV. 43 
It makes me sweat like a day-labourer, a 1853 ROBERTSON 
Lect. Cor. xxiii. (1878) 171 A nation rmy exist without an 
astronomer, or philosopher, but a day-labourer is essential 
to the existence of man. 

So Day-la'bouring///. a., that works for daily 
wages. 

1739 CIBBER Afol. (17561 1. 313 The day-labouring actors. 
1810 Sporting Mag. XXXV. 213 Simpson is a day-labouring 
man. 

Dayless (d^-li-s), a. [f. DAY sb. + -LESS.] 

1 1. Without redress, resource, or result. Obs. 

[? Having lost his day, or the day.] 

(-1380 WYCLIF Wks. (1880* 92 es vanytes wasten pore 
mennus goodis & suffren hem goo dailes whanne bei han 
nedis to pursue. Ibid. 129 Pore men schullen stonde with 
oute & goo dailes but jif bei geten knockis. 1387 TREVISA 
Higden i Rolls) V. 159 His enemy was bigiled and passed 
dayles [in vanum}. 1519 HORMAN Vulg. 247 b, He came 
ageyne daylesse, or nothynge done [re infecta rediit}. 

2. Devoid of the light of day; dark. 

1816 BYRON Prisoner ofChillo n Sonnet, To fetters and the 
damp vault's dayless gloom. 1892 LD. LYTTON King 
Poppy Prol. 356 Gleaming thro 1 a dayless world. 

3. Not divided into days. 

1839 BAILEY Festus xix. 11848) 218 Deep in all dayless 
time, degreeless space. 

Daylight (d^-hit). 

1. The light of day. (Formerly also days light.} 
t To burn daylight : see BURN v. 1 1 b. 

a 1300 Cursor M, 6195 (Cott.) Drightin self bam ledd J>air 
wai . . Wit cluden piler on dai light. Ibid. 17344 par he o 
naman suld ha sight, Ne nankins leme o dais light, c 1386 
CHAUCER Can. Yeom. Prol. $ T. 328 A bak to walke inne by 
day-light. 1484 CAXTON Fables of Alfonsc (1889) i He 
had shame by daye ly^t to go in to the hows of his Frend. 
159* SHAKS. Rom, <J- Jul. \\. ii. 20 The brightnesse of her 
cheeke would shame those starres As day-light doth aLanipe. 
1715 Lond. Gaz. No. 5283/2 We. .resolved to pursue as long 
as we had Day-light. 1725 POPE Odyss. xvm. 353 The day- 
light fades. i86a DARWIN in Life $ Lett. (1887) I. 187 His 
Lectures on Botany were, .as clear as daylight. 

b. fig. The full light of knowledge and observa- 
tion ; openness, publicity. 

1690 LOCKE Hum. Und. iv. xiv. (1695) 374 God has set 
some things in broad Day-light ; as he has given us some 
certain Knowledge. 1836 EMERSON Eng, Traits, Character 
Wks. iBohn) II. 58 They are good at. .any desperate service 
which has daylight and honour in it. 1892 Law Times 
417/1 A healthy condition of such [jury] lists is not to be 
relied upon unless they are kept in plenty of daylight. 

c. To let daylight into : to open up, make a 
hole in ; to stab or shoot a person, slang. 

1793 A. YOUNG Example of France (ed. 3) 172 In the 
language of the streets, day-light is let into him. 1841 
Piinch^ I. 101/2 (Farmer) With the. .intention of letting day- 
light into the wittling department. 1890 lllustr. Lond. 
Nenvs Christm. No. 2/1 Some . . sharpshooter will . . let 
daylight into one of us. 

2. The time of daylight, the day-time ; spec, the 
time when daylight appears, day-break, as in before 
or at daylight. 

(In early use not clearly separable from i.) 

c 1205 LAV. 27337 pa bas ferde wes al idlht fa wes hit dai- 
light, a 1250 Owl fy Night. 332 From eve fort hit is dai-li?!. 
c 1400 Yiuaitw $ Gaiv. 233 Alsone als it was dayes lyght. 
a 1533 LD. BERNERS ffnon Ixvi. 228 To departe or it be day 
lyght. 1670 NARBOROUGH Jrnl. in Ace. Sev. Late Voy. i. 
(1694) 112 At Daylight the Wind was at South-West. 1836 
MARRYAT Midsh. Easy xiv. 51 Mesty was up at daylight. 
1885 E. ARNOLD Secret of Death 5 Ofttimes at daylight 
I would go To watch the sunlight flood the skies. 

3. A clear visible space or interval : a. between 
boats, etc. in a race; b. between the rim of a 
wine-glass and the surface of the liquor, which 
must be filled up when a bumper is drunk ; c. 
between a rider and the saddle, etc. slang. 

1820 SHELLEY (Kdipus Tyr. n. ii. 35 All, A toast ! 
a toast ! . . Dakry. No heel-taps darken daylights ! 1836 
E. HOWARD R. Reefer xliv, No heel-taps after, and no day- 
light before. 1884 Camb. Rev, 10 Dec. 132 After about a 
quarter of a mile, daylight was visible between the two boats. 

4. pi. The eyes, slang. 

1752 FIELDING Amelia \. x. <D.), If the lady says such 
another word to me.. I will darken her daylights. 1821 



DAY-RAWE. 

Bluckw. Mag. X. 586, 1 saw the storm . . through my half- 
bungcd-up daylights. 

5. (See quot.) 

1889 Century Dict. t Daylight, a name of tlie American 
spotted turhot, Lopliopsctta infu-itfata, a fish so thin as to 
be almost transparent . Also called windwv-pana. 

6. altrib. anil Comb., as daylight colour, etc. ; 
| daylight-gate, the going or close of the (lay. 

1613 T. Po i TS Disc. Witches (Chetham Soc.) IS ij b, The 
sayd Spirit . . appeared at sundry times unto her . . about 
Daylight-gate. 1704 NEWTON Opticks (J. \Their own day- 
light colours. 1753 HOGARTH Anal. Beauty xii. 95 A day- 
light piece. 1843 G. S. FABER Provinc. Lett. (1844) II. 301 
Through darkling suggestions rather than through day-light 
assertions. 1850 HT. MARTINKAU Hisf. Peace' II. 705 True 
to broad daylight English life. 

Hence (nonce-wii.} Daylijfhty a., full of day- 
light, as .1 picture. 

1880 W. SKVEKN in Afacin. Mag. No. 245. 379 A truthful 
simple Miiller, or a daylighty Cox. 

Day-lily. A. lily, the flower of which lasts 
only for a day ; a genus of liliaceous plants, 
Hcmerocallis, with large yellow or orange flowers. 

1597 GERARDE Herbal I. Ixxiii. (ed. 1633), Day-lilie. This 
plant bringeth forth in the morning his bud, which at noone 
is full blowne, or spred abroad, and the same day in the 
evening it shuts itselfe. 1706 J. GARDINER tr. Rapiti (1728) 
i. 48 (Jod.) Thou . . Shalt of daylily the fair name receive. 
1883 Garden 3 June 391/3 Bouquets are of yellow Day Lily. 

Daylle, obs. north, form of DOLE. 

Daylong <l<?''Vi))> a. and adv. [f. DAY sb. i- 
LONG : cf. life-long] a. adj. Lasting all day. 
b. adv. All through the day. 

1855 TENNYSON The Brook 53 His weary daylong chirping. 
1870 MORRIS Eartkly Par. I. I. 187 He mounted.. And 
daylong rode on from the north. Ibid. III. iv. 195 As firm 
as rocks that stand The day-long beating of the sea. 

Dayly(e, obs. forms of DAILY, DALLY. 

Day-mare. [After night-mare] A condition 
similar to night-mare occurring during wakefulness. 
Also altrib. 

'737 M. GREEN Spleen 39 The day-mare Spleen, by whose 
false pleas Men prove mere suicides in ease. 1796 COLERIDGE 
Biog.Lif. (1872) II. 744, 1 necessarily have day- mare dreams 
that something will prevent it. 1871 SIR!'. WATSON I'rinc. 
Physic (ed. 5) I. 737 A lady . . subject to these attacks of 
imperfect catalepsy : which have, .been called whimsically, 
but expressively, attacks of day-mare. 1889 LOWELL in 
Atlantic Monthly LXIV. 147 Help me to tame these wild 
day-mares That sudden on me unawares. 

t Day math, day's math. Obs. A day's 

mowing ; the extent of meadow-land mown by a 
man in one day ; cf. DAY-WORK 2. 

1669 WillofR. Mayor in Lichfield Merc. (1889) 23 Aug. 
8/1 Alsoe all that parcel! of meadow grounds, contayninge one 
acre or dayes math of ground for her naturall life. And 
after her deceyse, the above three acres or daye's workes of 
arrable land, and one day-math of meadow ground to my 
daughter, Ursula Mayor. 1804 DUNCUMB Herefordsk. I. 
Gloss. (App.), Day's math, is. .about a statute acre ; in other 
words, it is that quantity of grass usually mown by one man 
in one day, for trie purpose of making hay. 1864 SIR F. 
PALGRAVE Norm. If Eng. IV. 61. 

t Dayment. Obs. Also daiment. [f. DAY z>. 2 
+ -MENT.] Arbitration. 

1519 HORMAN Vulg. 204 b, Wylt thou be tryed by the 
lawe : or by dayment. 1561 J. HEYWOOD Prov. S; Efigr. 
(1867) 207 Many arbitterments without good dayment. 1580 
LUPTON Sivijila 117 To spende all. .that money and put it 
to dayment at last. 

I Dayn, v. Obs. [By-form of DAWN, assimi- 
lated to day] To dawn. So Dayeuing (in 3 



Do sprong 3e daiening. 1515 Sci't. Field 204 Sone after 
dayned the daie. Ibid. 422 Then dayned the daie. 

Dayn, -e, obs. forms of DEIGN. 

Dayn- : see DAIN-. 

1' Day-net. Obs. A net used by day in daring 
larks or in catching small birds ; a clap-net. 

1608 MACHIN Dumb. Knt. n, Madam, I would not have 
you with the lark Play yourself into a day net. 1621 
BURTON Artat. Me!. Democr. to Rdr. (1676) 3/2 As Larks 
come down to a day net. 1661 BOYLE Style of Strip!. 27 
Some he catches with light (as Larks with day-nets). 1766 
PENNANT Zool. (1768) II. 330 These nets are known in 
most parts of England by the name of day-nets or clap-nets. 

Daynous, var. of DEIGKOUS a. Obs. 

Day-owl. The diurnal or Hawk-owl, which 
seeks its prey in the day-time. 

1840 MACCILLIVRAY Hist. Brit. Birds III. 404 Syrnia 
Funerat, the Hawk Day-owl. Ibid. 407 Syrnia Nyctea, 
the Snowy Day-owl. 

Day-peep. Peep of day ; earliest dawn. 

[1530 PALSGR. 804/1 At daye pype, a In pipe du jour.] 
1606 Wily Beguiled in Hazl. Dotisley IX. 250 She'll run 
out o' nights a-dancing, and come no more home till day- 
peep. 1641 MILTON Ammadv. xiii. (1851) 231 The honest 
Gardener, that ever since the day-peepe . . had wrought pain- 
fully. i8a8 Scorr F. M. Perth v, Good night, or rather, 
good morrow, till day-peep. 

t Day-rawe, -rewe. Obs. [f. DAY + rawe, 

rewe, Row.] The first streak of day ; the dawn. 

c laoo Trin. Coll. Horn. 255 pu asteje so be daU rewe [>e 
deleS from dai? be deorke nicht. c 1*75 [see DAY-RED] 
1:1325 E. E. Alii/. P. B. 893 Ruddon of be day-rawe ros 
vpon vjten. (11400-50 Alixandtr 392 Qwen be day-raw 
rase he rysis be-lyfe. 



DAY-IIED. 

t Day-red. Ol-s. The red of the break of 
day; the rosy dawn. 

riooo Ags. Cnf. I.ukc xxiv. i On anum rcstc-d;cJe 
*yt* .-LT on taund hi* comun to ^cre hyrsenc. , u 
/WWv ,7 , /V. jfcr. , S2 (Cotton ligfiS engle, u? 
Nfej-nd [>J JW.J. daye-rcwe] blcwc8 heorc beme. 

Dayri, -no, -ry, obs. forms of DAIRY. 

t Day-rim. Ol>s, In i -rima, 3-3 -rime [f 
1 ).VY + KIM.] The ' rim ' or border of the (coming) 
day; the dawn. 

ciaaa in Thorpe's /,',. I. ^^Bosw.) Hwzt is oeos 8e 
a.-tih|> iwflo aris<:ndc dcgrlml ? c ,050 /'. in Wr.-Wnlcker 
175 Xw-oni, , dirarima. <r laoo Tria. Coll. Horn. 167 Hwat 
!?. '' ls ?" W1>S8 ta dai rieme ? a ujo >>/ f, Nicht 128 
\V one ich i-so arise verrc Other dai-rim other dai-stcVre. 

Day-rnle. Formerly, 'A rule or order of 
court, permitting a prisoner in custody in the 
King s Bench prison, etc. to go without the bounds 
of his prison for one day ' (Tomlins Law Diet.} 
also called day-writ. 

f 7SO W. STROUU ,Mem .37, I effected an Escape from the 
I ipstaff s Man, who had me out by a Dav-nile 
Sortiii M. XV 



53 



, ou y a av-nie 

Mf. XVI I. ,3, An officer confined LTc 

ebt and a gentleman in the 
, ng cacfi obtained a day-rul, , 

arrel cd. 1808 Svp. SMITH // *,. (,8 5 g) {. ,27/1 Absenting 



. . one c 

Bench for debt, and a gentleman in the same situation in 
Newgate, having cacfi obtained a day-rule, met, and 



-- v "-" " **- \o5y> A. 127/1 ADsenting 

themselves from their benefices by a kind of day-rule like 
prisoners in the King's Bench. ,813 I.AMB Prol. to Cole- 
ridge s htmm-se. Could Quin come stalking from Elysiali 
glades, Or Garnck get a day-rule from the shades. 

Day-scholar. A pupil who attends a board- 
ing-school for daily instruction without boarding 
there; a day-boy (see DAT so. 34). 

1833 HT. MARTINEAU Berkeley tlu> Banker i. i 5 The 
four elder ones, therefore, between four and nine years old 
became day-scholars only. ,85, MAYMEW Land. Labour 
(ed. 2) I. 284 iHoppc) He resumed his studies as a day. 
scholar at the Charterhouse. 

Day -school, a. An elementary week-day 
school, as distinguished from a Sunday school; or 
one carried on in the day-time, as distinguished 
from an evening or night school, b. A school at 
which there is no provision for boarding pupils, as 
distinguished from a boarding school. 

a 1785 in WALPOLE Letters to Horace Mann (F. Hall). 
l8 ??, }: HAICII (KUt\ A practical Treatise on Day Schools 
exhibiting their defects, and suggesting Hints for their Im- 
movement ,838 in Penny Cycl. XXI. 4, Headings : 
Number of Children of Working Classes attending. . Dame 
Schools and common Day Schools. . Number Uneducated in 
Week-day Schools. Ibid. 42 Number Attending Day or 
evening schools only . . Both day or evening and Sunday 
schools. 1841 /otd. XXI. 42/1 They found many thousands 
^/v^"?!'?"". ther day nor Sunday schools. ,840 DICKENS 
UtaL.AHCif viii, bhe maintained a very small day-school for 
Yollllir ;ullcs (if llronorf ionnt*. ilimnn.ji.inc .no.* u ir . 



1889 R. KIPLING 



. . 

e 30 It was decided that he should be sent to 
a day-school. Mod. (title) The Girls' Public Day-school 



, ~.r -,-* . .. _ -~.j -".. 

young ladies of proportionate dimensions. 
Willie Winkie 39 It v 
a day-schc 
Company. 

Dayse, obs. form of DAZE. 

Day -sight. A visual defect in which the eyes 
see clearly only in the daylight. 

1834 GOOD Study Med. (ed. 41 1 II. 147 Day-sight is said to 
lie endemic in some parts of France. 1851-60 in MAVNE 
hxpos. Lex. 

Daysman (d^-zmaen). [f. DAT sb. + MAN. 
tor sense i, cf. DAY v? 2, and DAYMEST.] 

1. An umpire or arbitrator ; a mediator, arch. 

,489 Plumflon Corr. 82 Sir, the dayesmen cannot agre 
us. ,535 COVERDALE Job ix. 33 Nether is there eny dayes 
man to reprouc both the partes, or to laye his honde be- 
twixteus. wNnu Custom \. ii.inHazl. Dodsltylll 14 If 
neighbours were at variance, they ran not straight to law 
Daysmen took up the matter, and cost them not a straw 
1611 BURTON .-I nat. Mel. Democr. to Rdr. (1657)50 They had 
some common arbitrators, or dayesmen, in every towne, that 
made a fnendly composition between man and man. 1681 
W. ROBERTSON Phraseol. Gen. (1639) 427 A days man or um- 
pire, arhter. ,746-7 HERVEY Medit. (1818) 15 Death, 
like some able daysman, has laid his hand on the contending 
parties. ,844 MACAULAY Sarirt Misc. Wks. 1860 11 128 
Spurning out of their way the daysman who strives to take 
his stand between them. 

2. A worker by the day ; a day-labourer. 

a 1639 WARD Serm. (1862) 105 (D.) He is a good day's- 
man, or journeyman, or tasker. ,706 PniLLlPs(ed. Kersey), 
Days-man,* Labourer that works by the Day, as a Thresher 
Hedger, etc. ,750 ELUS Country Hoxsnv. 16 (E. D S ) 
A day s-man, as we call them in Hertfordshire. ,868 
BUSHNELL Serm. Living Subjects in We .. pile up what 
we think good acts on one another, as some day's man 
might the cents of his wages. 

1 3. Obs. nonce-uses. (See quots.) 

1598. BACON Sacred Medit. (Arb.) 109 For we ought to 
be ilaies-men, and not to-morrowcs men, considering the 
shortnesse of our time. 1658 ROWLAND Moufet's Theat. Ins. 
951 We are in Pindars account but imnupm, Daiesmen, Le. 
of a dales continuance. 

Hence t Day sniauship, the office of a days- 
mnn ; reconciliation. 

,649 LIGHTFOOT Battle m. Wasf's Nest Wks. 1825 I. 407 
If you be so good a reconciler, I pray begin at home : the 
Evangelists need none of your day'smanship. 

Day-sprinaf. Daybreak, early dawn. Now 
chiefly Aw?, otfig. 

(1300 A". A Us. 4200 Day spryng is jolyf tide. 1381 WYCLIF 
706 xxxviii. 12 Whether . . thou . . hast shewid to the dai 
spring his place. 1516 34 TINDALE !.tike\. 78 The daye 
springe from an hye hath visited vs. ,555 EDEN Decades 
264 Ihe day sprynge or dawnynge oflne daye gyuelh 
a certeyne lyght before the rysinge of the soonne. ,67, 



I. 588 Ihe da> ;,,! rosy palm'd. ,817 II. 

MARTINHAI; ,S. Am.-r. II. ,8, The driver declared Ihat hr 
must wait for the day-spring, before he could proceed 
another step. ,875 SCRIVENER Lect. Text ,V. Test. 4 The 
thousand years and more which separated the Council of 
Nice from the dayspiing of the Reformation. 

Day-star. Also 3 -atern, 5 -sterne, -itarne. 

1. 1 he morning star. 

c ,000 jfcLmc Gen. xxxii. 26 Nu g8 d 
c ,000 Sax. Leedid. III. 270 Seo sunne & i 

5*52!li_ lt "!Si -""So [see DAV-RIM). 0,300 
f.. t. Psalter cix. 3 Bifore dai-stem gat I be. 14. . LYBG. 
lemfU o/Glas ,355 Fairest of sterres. .o VenuT.O myiti 
Ides, daister after n )3 t ,483 Cat*. Angl. 89 A Day- 
r*"?' %, \' el ? >u "/'>";ros. ,S7 FLEMING Panoft. 
'f"t. 39 Early in the morning, so soone as the day starre 
appeared. ,845 R. W. HAMILTON //. Eelnc. m. .ed 2) 
buch men are as day-stars, breaking the night and 
hastening the dawn. 

2. The sun, as the orb of day. poet. 

1598 SYLVESTER Di, fiartas it. ii. Ballon 577 His Hcav'n- 
tuned harp, which shall refund While the bright day-star 
ndes his glorious Round. ,637 M.LTON Lycidas 168 So 
sinks the day-star in the ocean bed, And yet anon reioirs 
his drooping head, And tricks his beams. ,789 WoRiww. 
'''<:*''if ' alk 190 Sunk to a curve, the day-star lessens 

3 /? S ne 8UlKe ' and drops lx:hind th<: hi:l - 
,j8j WYCLIF i Pet. i. , 9 Til the day bigynne for to iue 
lilt, and the day sterre springe in }oure herlis. c ,460 
(<net<J> Klyst. 118 Haylle lytylle tyne mop (the infant 
Jesusl Of cure credc thou art crop : I wold drynk on thy 
cop Lytylle day starnc. ,coo-aa DUNBAR Ballot of our 
Lady 26 Haile, bncht, be sicht, in hevyn on hiclit ! Hailc 
day sterne orienlale I ,738 WESLEY Hymns, We lift our 
y"?f 1 '. W<: 1 llft our Hearts lo Thee, O Day-Slar from on 
High ! ,876 BANCROFT Hist. U. S. III. xiii. 466 The day. 
star of the American Union. 

t Day-sun. Obs. The sun. rhetorical and fig. 
i 'S7 1 GOLDING CWri on Pi. xlix. 15 The chosen ..shall 
behold Christ the daysun. ,487 DC Mornay ix. us 
God..commaunded the daysunne to be, and it was don 
1577 rest. 12 Patriarchs (1604) 76 The day-sun of righteous- 

Day's-WOrk (d -i- Z| w;wk). (Also written as 
two words.) The work of a day, work done on or 
proper to a day. Also ~ DAYWOKK 2 (obs.\ 

,594 SHAKS. Rich. Ill, u. i. , Now haue I done a good daies 
work. ,6,0 W. FOLKINCHAM Art of Survey \\.rn. 59 Foure 
square Pearches make a Daiesworke, ,o Daie-workes 
a Roode. ,640 G. H. Witt* Recreations H ii a, Vour 
dayes work s done, each morning as you rise, c ,836 GEN 
P. THOMPSON Exerc. (1842) IV. 395 Paying him for more 
days-works. ,850 Kstdim. Navig. (Wade) lo The log- 
board, the contents of which are termed ' the log ', the 
working it off, ' the day's work '. 

Day-tale, daytal, data! (d/i-t/U, dji-tel,- 
d^i-t 1). [f. DAY + TALE reckoning, etc. In sense i 
parallel to nighter-tale in Chaucer, etc., where the 
sense ' reckoning ' appears to pass into that of ' the 
time counted or reckoned ' (to night or to day). 
There appears to be no direct connexion between 
this and sense 2.] 

1 1. Day-time. A daye tale : by day. Obs. 

,530 PALSCR. 699/2 A daye tale he scoulketh in corners 
and a nyghtes he gothe a thcvyng. 

2. The reckoning (of work, wages, etc.) by the 
day. Chiefly attrib., reckoned, paid, or engaged 
by the day, as in day-tale hand, la/mtr, wages, 
work, etc. ; day-tale man, a day-labourer ; day- 
tale pace, 'a slow pace' (Halliw.). 

1560 Siinim. Certain Reasons in Hart. Misc. (Malh.) II. 
478 Men that tookc dayetall wages. 164, BEST Farm Bts 
(Surtees) 45 It shall bee accounted but for halfc a day with 
those that worke with yow by daytaile. ,76, STERNE Tr. 
Shandy (1770) III. 143 (D.) Holla! you chairman, here's 
sixpence ; do step into that bookseller's shop, and call me 
a day-tall critick. 1770 HolmesfieldCrt. Rolls mSheffield 
Gloss. Addenda, Being daytall-man lo Malhias Webster. 
1788 W. MARSHALL Yorksh. Gloss. (E. D. S.), Daitle (that) 
(that is, day-tale\ adj. by the day ; as, ' daitle-man ', a day- 
labourer ; ' daitle-work , work done by the day. 1855 
ROBINSON Whitby Gloss., Daytal, tale or reckoning by the 
day. ,888 W. Somerset Word-bk., Day-tale fellow, Day. 
tale man, a labourer hired by the day. Hence a term of 
reproach, meaning a lazy, slack workman whose only care 
is to have his wages, ano' to dp as little as he can to earn 
them. ,80* Labour Commission Gloss., Datal hands, 
hands employed in cotton-mills at a fixed rate per week of 
56jt hours. 

Day-taler, dataller (d^-telai). local, [f. 
prec. + -BK !.] A day-labourer, a workman en- 
gaged and paid by the day. 

,875 Lane. Gloss., Dataller ,S. Lane.), Daytal-laooxrer 
(t urness), a day labourer. ,88, Manch. Guardian 29 Jan 
7/7 Hurst, dataller at Wharton Hall Collieries. i8M 
Engineer 13 Aug. 138/1 The wages were paid to datallers 
for packing and putting the roads in repair 



daye tyme 



Day-time. The time of daylight. 

'MS COVEROALE Ps. xxili]. 2, I crie in the ,. .,,,, c . . 
and in the night season, a 1616 BACON Ess. fame (\rb) 
579 In the day time she sittith in a Walch Tower, and 
flyeth, most, by night. 1781 PRIESTLEY Corrupt. Chr. II. 
v r *? ,; S M S '" the d y-' inl<: we re usual. ,856 KANE Arct. 

TS '*' 9S lm P'y' n 8 that I never sleep o' daytimes. 

Day-woman, dairy-woman : see DKY-. 

Day-work, day-work. [Cf. also DARG.] 

1 1. The work of a day ; - DAY'S WOBK. Obs. or 
north, dial. 

.1 ,000 Cfdmon's Exod. 151 ,Gr.) pzt he pxl diegweorc 



DAZE. 

x,eb.,hte. ( . MH WVXIOUM c/mr ynl xvL N 
man. .evyr herd, or saw befor. .A Daywerk to M Daywe.k 

> k '. '535 l ' //.,.. xni. I-.M I 

his daye worke. 1831 .S/v eimeni ) 'arkthirt I halet t Moni 
a daywark we ha' wrought togither. 

ta. The amount of land that could be worked 
(ploughed, mown, etc.) in a day. Obs 

[ 1170 Merton Coll. Ku. No. ,257 (Kssex) Sex Da 
wercata. terra, meat) ,3,-, 9 jgs. (Solneby'. ^. 
Caul. 7 Apr. (1892) 21), Grant from Richard de Twyidcona 
ii^w* foj 7* ' 3 1)a y w . orl ' of Land in Gudhurst. 149. 
'/ '" "S^eedt (Somerset Ho.), xi day werkes of land inl 
ir L. Kagot in l.ich field Merc. (1889) tl Aug. Sfi. 
xxviij day-warke of pea Xlj daye-warke offcarley . . xxliij 
daye-warKc of whel. 164, BET Farm Ilia. (Surtees) 38 The 
South Wandell close, with its buttomes, is 8 daywor^cs w 
will serve one mower 8 dayes. 

8. Work done by the day and paid by daily 
wages; day labour. 

,380 NORTH Plntarch (1676) 950 With Masons that had 
their day-work. ,701 l.ond. Co,. No. 3786/4 Committed 
by one who does bay-work in Deplford and Woolwich 
V ards. , 7 LAEELYE We,tm. Br. 79 All the workmanship 

1. , g J,"^* 1 " te done ty Day- Work. 1851 Ord. * 
Sf? ' kngineen | ,6. 64 To stale the weekly delivery 

ot Materials and performance of Day-work. 

t Day-writ. Obs. - DAY-BULK. 

1809 'IOMLINS Laui Diet. .v.. It is against law lo grant 
Iibeny lo prisoners in execution by other writs than day 
writs tor rules). 

Daze (dA), v. Forms : 4-6 dase, (5 dayse, 
6-9 daiae), 6- daze. [ M E. dase-it, a. ON. *dasa, 
found in Icel. in the refl. dasa-sk to become weary 
and exhausted, e.g. from cold. Sw. dasa intr. to lie 
idle ; cf. Iccl. dasi a lazy fellow. Sense \ was pos- 
sibly the earliest in Eng. No cognate words appear 
in the other Teutonic langs.] 

I. trans. 1. To prostrate the mental faculties of 
(a person), as by a blow on the head, a violent 
shock, weariness, intoxicating drink, etc. ; to be- 
numb or confuse the senses; to stun, stupefy. 

c >3 [see DAZED ,1. a 1400-30 Alexander ym He was 
dased of be dint & half dede him semyd. c 1400 Dettr 
rroy 7654 The deire of his dynt dasit hym but litlT a ,563 
BALE Set. It ks. (Parker Soc.) 443 These things da^eth th>ir 
wils, and amazelh their minds. 1500 SPKNSER F. Q. ill. vii 
7 But shewd by outward signes that dread her sence did 
daze. ,669 DRYDEN Tyrannic Love iv. ii, Poor human 
kind, all dazed in open day. Err after bliss, and blindly 
miss their way. 1815 JAMIESON .r., He daises himself 
vith dnnk. 1848 MRS. GASKEI.L M. Barton xxiii, Jane 
Wilton was (to use her own word, so expressive to a Lanca- 
shire ear) dazed '. ,877 MRS. OLIPHANT Makers Flar. L 
26 A man dazed and bewildered by such a calamity. 

2. esf. To confound or bewilder (the vision) 
with excess of light or brilliance ; to' dazzle, lit. 



<"S9 SKELTON Ph. Sfarmvf 1103 She made me sore 
amased Vpon her when I gased. . My eyne were so dased 
,S7 B- GOOGE Pop. Kiued. i. (18801 it They are but 
tnimprye and deccytes, to daze the foolish eies. ,631 Hi-v- 
WOOD Fair Maid of West II. L Wks. 1874 II. 352 To daze 
all eyes that shall behold her state. ,847 TENNYSON Princ 
v. ii The sudden light Dazed me half-blind. ,864 SKI AI 
Uhlancts Poems 152 Shall earthly splendour that strong 
eyesight daze? 

3. To benumb with cold ; to blight or destroy 
with cold, north. Eng. and Sc. 

,340 HAMTOLE Pr. Contc. 6647 For-bi bat baL.Brynned 
ay here in be calde of malice, And ay was dased in chariti! 
,5,3 DOUGLAS &neis vii. Prol. 88 The callour air . . Dasing 
the bludc in euery creature. 1696 .Money maslenall Things 
Ixx. 52 They [birds) stay not loo long off, lest lh' Eggs be 
dazd. 1878 Mid-Yorkshire Gloss., Dtazt, lo blight or 
cause to pine from cold, as when vegetables arc frost. nipped 
or chickens die in the shell for want of warmth. 189, 
ATKINSON Moorland 336 He assumed that it [a water raill 
was dazed with cold. 

XI. intr. f4. To be or become stupefied or 
bewildered ; to be benumbed with cold ; to remain 
inactive or torpid. Obs. 

c >3K E. EAllit. P. C 383 per he (the king of Nineveh] 
cased in bat duste, with droppande teres. c 1460 Tomuley 
Myst. 28, I dase and I dedir For fcrd of that taylle. u 
Kynetr Hermit 418 in Hazl. E. P. P. I. 99 Hopys thou', 
I wold for a mase Stond in the myrc there, and dase Nye 
hand halve a deyT 1483 Cath. Angl. 90 To Dayse (A. 

/ Vuu lo ^ c ?" de ' ,', Mo E SoW"- So*'}* Wks. 
331/2 Whan his head first began lo dase, of that evill 
drynke. 

t6. Of the eyes or vision : To be or become 
dazzled. Obs. 

xv,. 13 ? 6 \ m ? A . SWEN )- 'S9 MORE Dyalog, iv. Wks. 252/1 
Which law if u were laied in their light.. wold make al 
Ihcyr ej-en dase. rfjj QL-ARLES EmU. lit. i. (1718) ,25 
Whose more than Eagle-eyes Can.. gaze Onglilt 'ring beams 
of honour, and not daze. 

t b. To gaze stupidly or with bewildered vision 
(after, upon). Obs. 

iM3 SKELTOH Carl. Laurel 641, I saw dyvers. .Dasyng 
after dottrellis. ,SK COVERDALE Dent, xxviii. 32 Thine 
eyes shal dase vpon them all the daye longe. 

6. Of bread or meat : To become DAZED (sense 
3). Now heal. 

,769 MRS. RAFTALD Eng. Housekpr. (1778) $4 Observe 
always to have a brisk clear fire, it will prevent your meat 
from dazing. 

7. ' To wither ; to become rotten or spoiled, 
from keeping, dampness, etc.' (Jamieson\ Sc. and 
north. /" 



eye 
2. 



DAZE. 

Daze (dJ'z), sb. [f. DAZE #.] 

1. A dazed condition : a. of the mental facul- 
ties ; b. A benumbed, deadened condition ; loss of 
virtue or freshness (north, dial.}. 

1825 JAMIESON, To get a daise, to receive such injury as to 
become rotten or spoiled, applied to clothes, wood, etc. 
1855 MRS. GASKELL North fy S. xix, I'm all in a swound- 
ing daze to day. 1870 DICKENS E. Drood\\, A little time 
and a little water brought him out of his daze. 

2. Min. An old name for mica (from its glitter"). 
1671 Phil. Trans. VI. 2103 Daze is a kind of glittering 

stone, .some softer, some harder, of different colours. 1715 
THORESBY Leeds 467 A brown daze, full of the small sparks 
of the Mica. 1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. Snpp., The word Daze 
takes in, with them [miners] every stone that is hard and 
glittering. 1788 Cronstedt's Min. 106 Glimmer, Daze, or 

Dazed (dJ'zd), ppl. a. [f. DAZE v. + -ED. Cf. 
ON. t/asad exhausted.] 

1. Benumbed in the mental faculties ; stupefied, 
bewildered. 

^1325 E. E. Allit. P. A. 1084, I stod as stylle as dased 
quayle. c 1425 WYNTOUN Cron. vi. iv. 56 He wes ban In 
hys Deyd bot a dasyd man. c 1440 Prontp. Parv. 114 
Dasyd,orbe-dasyd, vertigiuosns. 1501 DOUGLAS /W. Hon. 
i. xxvi, My daisit heid fordullit disselie. 1587 TURBKRV. 
Trag. T., etc. (1837) 317 It wil delight my dazed sprites. 
1789 BURNS -2nd Ep. to Davie iv, Whyles daez't wi' love, 
whyles daez't wi' drink. 1866 G. MACDONALD Ann. Q. 
Neighb. xxii. (18781 408 She looked dazed, perhaps from the 
effects of her fall. 

b. Dazzled with excess of light. 

1581 MABBECK Bk. of Notes 153 If for a while you fixe 
your sight thereon, dimnesse & darknesse doe follow your 
dazed eies. 1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. viii. 21 As where th' 
Almighties lightning brond does light, It dimmes the dazed 
eyen. 1870 MORRIS Earthly Par. I. it. 512 His troubled 

'es and dazed He lifted from the glory of that gold. 

"l. Benumbed or deadened with cold, north. 

15x3 DOUGLAS Ariel's v. vii. 58 The dasyt bluid . . Walxis 
dolfand dull throw myne unweildy age. 1674 RAY N. C. 
Words 14 Vze dosed, I am very cold. 1811 WILLAN W. 
Riding Gloss., Dazed, .benumbed with frost. 1873 Swale- 
dale Gloss., Dazzed, chilled. 

3. Spoiled in baking or roasting, by using a too 
strong or too slow heat, north, dial. 

1674 RAY N. C. Words, Dazed Bread, dough-baked. 
Dazed Meat, ill-roasted by reason of the badness of the 
fire. 1855 ROBINSON Whitby Gloss., A deazed loaf, the 
dough or paste ill baked, or when the leaven or yeast has 
failed in its work. 1876 Mid-Yorkshire Gloss., D$azcd 
bread is overbaked outwardly, and not enough baked 
within. 

4. Applied to anything that has lost its freshness 
and strength, as to wood when it loses its proper 
colour and texture. Sc. and north. Eng. 

1825 JAMIESON, Datsed ivud, rotten wood. 1892 Specifica- 
tion (Durham), No dazed wood to be used. 

Dazedly (d***xddli)yO&, [-LY 2 .] In a dazed 
way or manner; t inertly, torpidly (as from cold). 

13.. [see DAZEDNESS]. 1886 Miss BROUGHTON Dr. Cupid 
III. iv. 90 An idea dazedly flashes across her brain. 1888 
C/Mino. Jrnl. July 462 They looked dazedly at the judge. 

Da'zedness. [-NESS.] Dazed condition ; fthe 
state of being numbed or deadened with cold. 

1340 HAMPOLE Pr. Consc. 4006 Thurgh fire bat sal swa 
brinnand be, Agayn )?e dasednes [MS. Lansd. coldnes] of 
charite. 13.. MS. Tib. E.vii. fol. 24 Dasednes of hert als 
clerkes pruves Es when a man god dasedly loves, And 
slawly his luf in god settes. 1817 Blackw. Mag. I. 577 
What Dan [Chaucer] calls the dasedness of study. 

Dazel, -ell, -ile, obs. forms of DAZZLE. 

Dazement (d^'-zmenO. rare. [mod. f. DAZE 
v. + -MENT.] The state of being dazed. 

1853 ROBINSON Whitby Gloss., Debasement, a sensation of 
cold all over the body from checked perspiration. 1873 L. 
WALLACE Fair God vn. iv. 457 The king relapsed into his 
dazement. 

Dazie, dazied, obs. forms of DAISY, -IED. 

t Da'zineSS. Obs. rare 1 . [See DAZY a. and 

-NESS.] Dazedness, dizziness. 

1554 KNOX Godly Let. D iij, Oftentymes theyr posteritie 
are stryken with blindenes and dasynes of mynde. 

Dazing (d^-zin), vbl, sb. [-ING 1.] The action 
of the verb DAZE ; benumbing, stupefaction, as a 
condition or influence. 

a 1535 MORE De quat. Noviss.^V.?,. 101 When the dasyng 
of death, shall kepe al swete slepe oute of their waterye eyes. 
1535 COVERDALE Deut. xxviii. 65 The Lorde shal geue the 
there a fearfull hert and dasynge of eyes. 1577 B. GOOGK 
Heresbach's Hiisb. iv. (1586) 191 It helpeth against the 
dasing, or giddinesse of the heade. 1877 Holderness Gloss., 
Deeazins, a severe cold, especially in the head. 
fb. A disease of sheep ; =DAZYJ. Obs. 

1799 Ess. Highl. Soc. 111.404 (Jam.) Daising or V&nqirish. 
This disease, .is. .most severe upon young sheep. 

Da zing, ///. a. [-ING 2 .] That dazes ; fthat 
is dazed. 



ri3JS. E. Allit. P. B. 1538 Such adasande drededusched 
to his hert. 1531 FRITH Judgment upon Tracy Pref. (1829) 
245 Whether of a godly zeal, or of a dasing brain, let other 
men judge. 

Dazle, obs. form of DAZZLE. 

Dazy (tU 7i *zi), a. rare. [f. DAZE v. or sb. + -T.] 
a. In a dazed condition, b. Chill, chilling, be- 
numbing with cold (dial.}. 

1825 JAMIESON s. v., A daisie day, a cold raw day, without 
sunshine. 1880 BI.ACKMOKE Er'cnta vi. 30 With, .a head 
still weak and dazy. 



54, 

t Da'zy, sb. Obs. rare ~~ l . [f. DAZE v. or from 
prec. adj.] The *gid' or * sturdy', a disease of 
sheep and young cattle. 

1577 B. GOOGE Hercsbah"s Hitsb. (1586) 134 If your 
Bullocke turne round, and have the Dasye, you shal. .tcclc 
upon his forehead ; and you shall feele it with your 
thumbe. 

Dazzle (dse'zT), v. Forms : 5-7 dasel(,l, 6 
dasill, -yll, dazile, dasselfl, 6-7 dazel(l, dasle, 
6-8 dazle, (7 daisle), 6- dazzle. [In I5~i6th c. 
dasel, dask, freq. and dim. of dose, DAZE v. (esp. in 
sense 2).] 

fl. intr. Of the eyes: To lose the faculty of dis- 
tinct and steady vision, esp. from gazing at too bright 
light, (lit. andy?-.) Obs. 

1481 CAXTON Reynard (Arb.) 96 Faraucnturc his eyen 
daselyd as he loked from aboue doun. 1530 PALSGR. 507/1, 
I dasyll, as ones eyes do for lokyng agaynst the sonne or 
for eyeng any thyng to moche, etc. 1581 G. PETTIE tr. 
Guazzo's Civ. Conv. in. (1586* 156 b, Her eyes dazell witli 
the least beame thereof [the Sunne]. ij88 SHAKS. Tit. A. 
in. ii, 85. 1621 FLETCHER Pilgrim v. vi, Ped. Ha? doe I 
da/ell? Rod. Tis the faire Alinda. 1672 MARVKLL Reft. 
Transp, i. 64 His Eyes dazled at the Precipice of his 
Stature. 

t 2. To be or become mentally confused or stupe- 
fied; to become dizzy. Ol>s. 

1571 GOLDING Calvin, on Ps. xxxni. 5 How shamefully the 
most part of the world dazeleth at Gods righteousnesse. 
1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. I. ii. in. ii. (1651) 95 Many.. 
tremble at such sights, dazel, and are sick, if they look but 
down from an high place. 

3. trans. To overpower, confuse, or dim (the 
vision), esp. with excess of brightness. (Alsoyi^f.) 

1536 STARKEY Let. to Cromwell in England (ify$) p. xliii, 
Wyth a clere ye[ = eye] not dasyllyd wyth the glyteryng of 
such thyngys as are present. 1563 Mirr, Mag., Jane Shore 
xiii, Doth not the sonne dasil! the clearest eyes ? 1626 BACON 
Sylva 276 If you come, .out of the Dark into a Glaring 
Light, the eye is dazeled for a time, a 1640 J. BALL Attsw. 



, . 

to Can \, (1642! 88 You doe only raise a dust to daisle the 
eye. 1761 HUME Hist. Eng. II. xxviii. 135 He tried to 
dazzle the eyes of the populace by the splendour of his 



equipage. 1857 MRS. CARLYLE Lett. II. 334 The gas-light, 
which dazzles my eyes. 

absol. 1752 JOHNSON Rambler No. 207 Pi2 Light after 
a time ceases to dazzle. 

4. fig. To overpower or confound (the mental 
faculties), esp. with brilliant or showy qualities ; 
' to strike or surprise with splendour* (J.). 

1561 T. NORTON Calvin's Inst. \. xiv. 43 The excellence of 
the nature of Angels hath so daselled the mindes of many. 
1622 E. ELTON Compl. Sonet. Sinner (ed. 2) 04 Their vnruly 
passions . . dazeling and dimming their iudgements. 1643 
J. M. Soveraigne Salve Pref., Rhetorick may dazle simple 
men. 1711 ADDISON Sped. No. 112 F8 The ordinary People; 
who are so used to be dazzled with Riches. 1880 L. STEPHEN 
Pope iv. 97 Pope seems to have been dazzled by the amazing 
vivacity of the man. 
b. absol. 

1649 MILTON Eikon. xii. (1851) 434 If the whole Irishry of 
Rebels had feed some advocate to speak, .sophistically in 
their defence, he could have hardly dazl'd better. 1764 
GOLDSM. Trav. 336 Thine are those charms that dazzle and 
endear. 1879 M. ARNOLD Fr. Critic on Milton Mixed Ess. 
238 A style to dazzle, to gain admirers everywhere. 

5. To outshine, dim, or eclipse with a brighter 
light. Const, f down, out. rare, 

1643 BURROUCHES Exp. Hcsca v. (1652) 243 They can see 
..into the beauty of his wayes, so that it dazeleth all the 
glory of the world in their eies. 1647 WARD Simp. Cobler 
60 It hath not ray's enough left, to dazle downe the height 
of my affections. 1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. ty It. Jrnls. (1872) 
I. 47 This church was dazzled out of sight by the Cathedral. 

Dazzle (dse-z'l), sb. [f. prec.] 

f 1. Dazzled state or condition. Obs. 

1627-77 FELTHAM Resolves i. xxvii. 47 We meet with 
nothing but the puzzle of the soul, and the dazle of the 
minds dim eyes. 

2. An act of dazzling ; a brightness or glitter that 
dazzles the vision. 



(1004) 1. xiv. 144, I could see the take very well by the 
dazzle of the water. 1821 LOCKHART Valerius I. iv. 46 
Fatigued with the uniform flash and dazzle of the Medi- 
terranean waves. 1890 Spectator 13 Sept., One is taking 
precautions to avoid a draught or a dazzle. 

b. fig. 

1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia. 338 Through whose red and 
white.. the Glory of the Maker shineth with more Dazle 
than through any part of the Creation. 1846 RUSKIN Mod. 
Paint. I. i. i. i. 5 Amidst the tumult and the dazzle of 
their busy life. 

Dazzled ( Jarz'ld), ///. a. [f. DAZZLE .] 

1. Overpowered or confounded by too strong light 
or splendour. 

1581 J. BELL Hat/don's Ansm. Osor. 490 So forcible is the 
dazeled blindenes of selfe Love. <z 1628 Y*GBPnUL*Suhujf 
(1652) 89 [He] cleareth the daseled eyes of that army. 
<t 1628 Poems, Hutu. Learning xvi, Those dazled 
notions. .Which our fraile understanding doth retaine. 1811 
WORDSW. Sonn. ' Here pause, etc.', An accursed thing it is 
to gaze On prosperous tyrants with a dazzled eye. 1856 R. 
A. VAUGHAN Mystics (1860) II. ix. ii. 131 This indistinct 
and dazzled apprehension. 

2. Outshone or dimmed by a stronger light. 
1576 FLEMING Panofl. Efist. 292 As the bright beames of 

the Sunne passe the dimme and dazeled light of the Moone. 
1833 TENNYSON Fatiina iv, My spirit . . Faints like a dazzled 
morning moon. 



DE. 

Dazzlement (dayz'lmentX [-MENT.] 

1. The act of dazzling; a cause of dazzling. 

J ^33 J- DONE Hist. Septttagint 55 (T.) It beat bnck the 
sight with a dazlement. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. i. n. vi, 
Confused darkness, broken by bewildering cUucdcmcnts. 
1881 STKVENSON I'irg.Pnt-risq ;? 289 Many holes, drilled in 
the conical turret-roof of this vagabond Pharos, let up spouts 
of dazzlement into the bearer's eyes. 

2. The fact or condition of being dazzled. 

1840 CARLYLE Heroes v. (1858) 324 The blinkard d.i/xle- 
mcnt and staggerings to and fro of a man sent on an errand 
he is too weak for. 

t Da'ZzleneSS. Obs. rare- '. [app. for daz- 
zle<tness.~\ Dazzled condition. 

1581 J. HELL H addons Answ. Osor. 315 Overwhelmed 
with a perpetuall datelines of sight. 

Dazzler (dx-zlai). [-EK.] 

1. One who dazzles: said e.g. of a * showy* 
woman. Chiefly slang or colloq. 

a 1800 Cowi'ER tr. Anarvfftft Adam v. ix. Wks. 1837 X. 
383 Thou Lord immutable . . Thou dazzler and obscurer of the 
sun 1 1838 DICKENS Nich. Nick. xxxvi,Mr. Lumbey .shook his 
head with great solemnity, as though to imply that he sup- 
posed she must have been rather a dazzler. 1889 Columbus 
(Ohio} Dispatch 27 Sept., [He] appears to be one of these 
dazzlers. He succeeded in dazzling two of the jury. 

2. A dazzling blow, slang. 

1883 READE Many a Slip in Harper's Mag. Dec. 132/1 
The carter, .received a dazzler with the left, followed by 
a heavy right-hander. 

Da'Zzling, vbl. sb. [-ING 3.] The action of the 
verb DAZZLE ; the condition of being dazzled. 

i$7<) LANGHAM Card. Health (1633) 672 To take away all 
giddinesse and dasling of the head. 1581 PETTIE Guazzo's 
Civ. Conv. n. (1586) 95 If your eies bee able to beholde it 
without dazeling. 

Dazzling (.darzlin),///. a. [-IKG 2 .] 
1 1. That is, or becomes, dazzled or dazed. 
(See DAZZLE v. i, 2.) Obs. 

1571 GOLDING Calvin on Ps. Ixviii. 4 His hoarce throt and 
dazeling eyes, a 1503 GREENE Alphonsus (1861) 227 Do my 
dazzling eyes Deceive me? 1641 MILTON Reform, n. (1851) 
67 Unlesse God have smitten us. .with a dazling giddinesse 
at noon day. 1654 H. L/ESTRANGE Chas. 7(16551 3 This 
unexpected proposall put his Catholique majesty into such 
a dazling demur. 

2. That dazzles the eyes (esp. with brightness) ; 
bright to a degree that dazzles. 

1581 J. BELL H addon* s Answ. Osor. 216 b, Drivyng away 
the dazelyng darkenes of the ugly night. 1667 MILTON 
P. L. i. 564 A horrid Front Of dreadful length and dazljng 
Arms. 1791 COWPER Odyss. xxiv. 246 Clad in dazzling 
brass. 1841 BORROW Zincali I. ix. i. 155 In hot countries, 
where the sun and moon are particularly dazzling. 

3. fig. That dazzles the mind of the observer ; 
brilliant or splendid to a degree that dazzles. 

1749 SMOLLETT Regicide \. i, The fair one comes, In all the 
pride of dazzling charms array'd. 1839 DE QUINCEY Recoil. 
Lakes Wks. 1862 II. 113 A neighbourhood so dazzling in its 
intellectual pretensions. 



1696 TATE & BRADY Ps. cxxxix. 6 Too dazling bright for 
mortal Eye 1 1860 TYNDALL Glac. \. ii. 13 Its general surface 
was dazzling white. 

Dazzlingly (darzlinli), adv. [-LY-.] 

tl. In a dazzled manner. (See prec. i.) Obs. 

1610 Mirr. Mag., K. Bladud 56 [They] blinded are, and 
dazelingly they looke. 

2. In a dazzling manner ; to a degree that dazzles. 

a 171 x KEN Hymnotheo Poet. Wks. 1721 III, 322 His 
Scales the Sun-beams dazzlingly reflect. 1807 SOUTHEV 
Espriellds Lett. III. 99 Nothing was to be seen but what 
was perfectly and dazzfingly white. 1879 FROUDE Cxsarx. 
118 Pompey s success had been dazzlingly rapid. 

De, obs. Sc. form of DIE v. 

TJe, a dialectal (Kentish), foreign, or infantile 
representation of THE. 

Sometimes in early MSS. a scribal error for %>e=.the. 

II 3De. ! (df) A Latin preposition, meaning 
* down from, from, off, concerning*, occurring in 
some Latin phrases more or less used in English. 
The chief of these are the following : 

1. de bene esse (Law\ as of 'well-being', as 
being good, of conditional allowance for the 
present. 

' To take or do any thing De bene esse, is to accept or allow 
it, as well done for present,, .but [on fuller examination] to 
be allowed or disallowed, according to the Merit or Well- 
being of the thing in its own nature ' (Blount, Law Diet. 
1670'. 

1603 F.gerton Papers (CamderO 372 (Stanf.) Wherefore, de 
bene ess?, I have provisionally made a warrant redy for his 
Ma 1 ?-" signature. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr. s.v., The Court. . 
often orders that Defendant to be examined De bene esse, 
i. that his depositions are to be allowed or suppressed at the 
hearing, as the Judge shall see cause. 1885 Lain Rep. 
29 Ch. Div. 290 (Stanf.) The Court ultimately determined 
that it should be read de bene esse. 

2. de congrno, of CONG KU ITT. 

a 1623 W. PKMBI.E Justif. (1629) 33 When they tell vs, 
that faith merits justification de Congrno they intrap them- 
selues in grosse contradiction ; seeing to deserve deCongruo 
is not to deserve at all. 1841, 1856 [see CONGRUITY 5 a]. 

3. de facto, in fact, in reality, in actual existence, 
force, or possession, as a matter of fact. Very 
frequently opposed to de jure. Used also as an 
adj. ' actual, actually existing*, and then some- 
times so far anglici/cd as to be prefixed to its sb. 

xSoa W. WATSON Qnodlibets 73 (Stanf. > That the Pope 



DE. 

erred de fucio in the reconciliation of the French King. 
1638 t/iiiu.ixt.w. AV//C- Prot. i. iii. f 30 He may doe it de 
facto, but (ic inr,- hi- i ;inuot. 1691 NOHHIS Pratt. /J/*f. 29 
It will appear, that if t 1 /At to it is so. \(t&C,r(nvth Deism 12 
The Shiboleth of th< Church now is King William's de facto 
Title. 1765 Hi \tKSTONK Comm. i. 171 That temporary 
allegiance, which was due to him as icing de facto. 1870 
.{ jurfi below]. 1891 Law Kcfi. Weekly Notes 70/1 
'1 In: acts oflhedtf/ictp directors miynt. .bind the company. 
Hence f Defa'ctc-man fal-o defacto sfr.) t one 
who ruco^'iii/ed \VilHam III as kinjj de facto. 
t Defa-ctoship, a de facto standing, position, or 
title. 

1696 Grtnvth Deism 15 For these de ftutt>-mc.i\, and the 
Jacobites, were but lalt ly the same sort of People, Ibid. 
13 And when the King had better Titles . . yet he must be 

made to pay . . Dr. S Sixteen Hundred Pounds a Year, 

for a l^fj'actoship only. 1710 Managers' Pro ff Con 39 
The one allows the Defactoship of the Queen. 

4. de fide, of faith, to be held as an article of 
faith. 

1618 CHILUNGW. Relig. Prof. i. iii. f 5 Some (hold] that 
the Popes indirect Power over Princes in Temporalities is 
de i-iiie ', Others the contrary. 

6. de jure, of ri^ht, by right, according to law. 
Nearly always opposed to de facto ; like that also 
(though less usually), treated as an adj. ' legal ', 
and placed before the sb. 

1611 Court ff Times Jas. I (1848) I. 136 (Stanf.) Done de 
factfl, and not de jure. 1638 [see defacto above]. 1694 
Pott litiffoond, etc. 7 (Stanf.) Husband or Gallant, either 
way, Defacto or De jure sway. 1837 HT. MAKTINEAU 
Soc, Arner. II. 81 States that are de facto independent, 
without having anything to do with the question de jure. 
1870 IXJWKLL Stmfy Wind. (1886) 74 It is a de jure t and 
not a defacto property that we have in it. 

6. de novo, anew, afresh, over again from the 
beginning. Rarely as adj. = ' new, fresh ', and 
prefixed to sb. 

16*7 Court ff Times Chas. I (18^8) I. 304 (Stanf.) It is 
said they have opened de tioro Calais to our English trade. 
1817 PKKL in F.din. Ret 1 . XXIX. 121 We cannot make a 
constitution dc inn>o. 1847-9 Tono Cycl. Anat. IV. 143/2 
A de noz'o development of such texture. 1881 Med. Temp. 
Jrnt. XLIX. 18 In which it is developed by circumstances 

de nfft'O. 

7. de profundls, the first words of the Latin 
version of Psalm cxxx (cxxix^*=* Out of the depths 
'.have I cried)'; hence subst. a. the name of this 
psalm; b. a psalm of penitence; C. a cry from 
the depths of sorrow, misery, or degradation. 

1463 /Jury Wills (Camden) 18 Saying De prof awl is for 
me, for my fader and my moder. 1500-20 KENNKDiK/Vy//^ 
iv. Dunbar 447 With De profnndis fend the, and that 
failye. 1589 NASHE Prvf. Greene s filenaphon t'Arb.) 17 Let 
subiects fur all their insolence, dedicate a De profnndis 
euerie morning to the prcseruation of their Caesar. 1890 
Open Court 10 Apr. 2204/2 (Stanf.) The Labor cry, the new 
De Profnndis, the passionate psalm of the workers appeal- 
ing out of the depths of misery and degradation for more 
wages and less hours of daily toil. 

II. The French preposition de t a* (<b, anglicized 
di, d/ 1 , d<5, da\ meaning 'of, from', occurring 
in names of places, as Ashby de la Zouch, in terri- 
torial titles, as Earl Grey de Wilton, J.ord Talbot de 
Afalahide, and in personal surnames, as De Lisle y 
I? Israeli^ De Quincey ; also, in French phrases 
more or less in English use, as coup d\ ( taf y coup 
de main, etc. (see COLT) ; de hattt en has, from 
height to lowness, condescendingly as from a lofty 
position, with an air of affected superiority; de 
nouveau, anew, afresh ; de rigttcur, of strictness, 
(a matter) strictly or rigorously obligatory, according 
to strict etiquette ; de trop t too much, (one) too 
many, in the way. 

1697 VANBRITGII Relapse i. ii, Not if you treat him defiant 
en bas, as you use to do. 175* CHESTERF. Lett. (1792) III. 
274, I know no company in which you are likely to be de 
trop. 1773 GIBBON in Life ff Lett. (1869) 237 (Stanf.), The 
first chapter has been composed de nonvean three times. 
1848 THACKKKAY Van. Fair vi, ' I should only be de trop\ 
said the Captain. 1849 Pettdennis xxix, All the young 
men go to Spratt's after their balls. It \&de rigaeur, my 
dear. 1887 Illxst. Lond. .\\-ws 5 Mar. 269/3, I *J decidedly 
de trof this morning. Mod. On such occasions evening 
dress is de rigtteur. 

De-, prefix. The Latin adverb and preposition, 
used in combination wiih verbs, and their deriva- 
tives. A large number of verbs so formed lived on 
in French as popular words, or were taken over 
into that language in earlier or later times as 
learned words, and thence came into English, as 
decrcsc-frt, dccreis-tre, decrease ; defend- fre , defend- 
re, defend \ dcslderare^ dt'sire-r, desire. In later 
times English verbs, with their derivative adjec- 
tives and substantives, as also participial adjectives 
and substantives without any verbs, have been 
adapted directly from Latin, or formed from Latin 
elements, without the intervention of French. The 
following arc the chief uses in Lat. and Eng. 
I. As an etymological clement. In the senses : 

i. Down, down from, down to : as dtpeiulere to hang 
down, DKVKNM (Di CKMUNI. -i \CE, etc.); deponfre to lay 
down, l>ii'oNK, DI-TOSK; dfpritncre to press down, DE- 
IM NS ; (/, .s, cudi'rt' to ciimh tloun, Drstixn: dt-vnirt to 
gulp down, Di-:voi'R. So of English formation, UKHKKAK. 



2. Off, away, a>ide : ax decltnare to turn aside, DECLINE ; 

're to lead away, DEDUCE; dffeiidtre to ward off, 
DEPENI>; deportare to carry off, DEPORT; d?si&nt\re to 
mark off, I>i SK.NATK ; dfsisttfre to stand 

b. Away from oneself : a*. ttelegart to make over, DELB- 
<;A i c ; dtprecari to pray away, DEPRECATE. 

3. Down to the bottom, completely; hence thoroughly, 
on and on, away ; also methodically, formally : as dldtitnti*. 



to shout away, DECLAIM ; dtcldrdn- to make quite clear, 
DF.CI.ARB ; dfnudilre to strip quite bare, DENUDE; deplorare 
to weep as lost, DKH.OKK ; derelinqitire to abandon com- 
pletely, DERELICT ; despoliare to spoil utterly, DESPOIL. 

b. To exhaustion, to the dregs : an dicoquire to boil 
down or away, DECOCT; deliquetcirt to melt away, 
DELIQUESCE. 

4. In a bad sen.se, so a* to put down or subject to Rome 
indignity: as decifiire to take in, DECBIVB; deladJre to 
make game of, DKLUDE ; dtridere to laugh to scorn, 
DI-:KIDE; ditexttri to abominate, DETEST. 
^ 5. In late L., decomposites was used by the grammariai:s 
in the sense ' formed or derived from a compound (word) ', 
passing later into that of ' compounded over again, doubly 
or further compounded'; in tnis sense the word has in 
modern times been taken into chemistry, botany, etc. (see 
! 'MPOSITE, DECOMPOUND,!, and the prefix has been 
similarly used in other words, as DECOMPLEX, DEMIXTURE. 

6. In Latin, de- had also the function of undoing or 
reversing the action of a verb, e. g. arm tire to arm, dt- 
ti rmdre to disarm, decor&re to grace, dedtcor&re to disgrace, 
junge're to join, dejnneire to unyoke, velAre to veil, dt- 
veldre to unveil, and of forming verbs of similar type from 
substantives, as deartudre to dismember, from artttt mem- 
ber, joint, dicoiltireiQ behead, from collttm n*c\t, decor ti( tire 
to deprive of hark, from corticetn bark, dtfldrdre to rob of 
its (lowers-, from yrdrrw flower. A like notion was usually 
expressed in classical Latin by the prefix dis-\ e.g. cittglre 
to gird, discing/re to ungird, convenlre to agree, dtscotircnlre 
to disagree,yfifto join, disjungire, to disjoin, difflbulAre 
to unclasp, dlldrlc&re to uncorslet, discalce&tux unshod. In 
late L., rf/j-, Romanic des-, became the favoured form ; and 
although some L. words in df- lived on, or were by scholars 
adopted into the Romanic langs., all new compounds were 
formed with des-^ and many even of the Latin words in </' 
were refashioned in Romanic with des- : thus L. dearmdre^ 
decartt/ire^ dtcolSrdre^ dfcorticSre^ dfdigttArl^ dffanndre t 



desdegnare, de- and des-fortnare t de- t des<apitare^ OF. det- 
arnter t deschamer^ dticorckier, detdaigner^ de- and des- 
fortner, e/f- t dexapiter. In later F. ties- became, first in 
speech, and finally in writing, ///-, in which form it was 
identical with the df- of learned words from L. de-. In 
English, early words taken from OF. with dcs- retained this 
form (now altered back under Latin influence to <fVf-\as in 
disarm, disband, disburse, discoiour, disdain, disfrock, dis- 
join^ disrobe', but later words have de- t which, although 
coming from F. df- : OF. des- : L. dis- t is usually 'iewed 
and treated as identical with Latin de- \ e. g. debauch, ff- 
bord, defy, defile, depeoble, derange, develop. In some words 
both forms have passed into English, as disburse, t deburse, 
discard, \decetra, disconcert, \deconcerl, disfrock, defrock. 
In French the prefix des-, df-, has received an ever increasing 
extension as a privative, freely prefixed to verbs, as in 
dfbarasser, dfbrtttaliscr, dfcentraliser, dfconstiper, etc., or 
used to form verbs of the same type from nouns, as df- 
banqner, dfbonder, dfchaperonner, dffroquer, etc. From 
the free adoption of these into English, de- has here also 
become a living privative element, freely prefixed to verbs 
(esp. in -ize, -ate, -fy), and forming verbs of a similar type 
from substantives or adjectives. Hence : 

II. As a living prefix, with privative force. 

1. Forming compound verbs (with their derivative 
sbs. f adjs., etc.), having the sense of undoing the 
action of the simple verb, or of depriving (anything) 
of the thing or character therein expressed, e. g. de- 
acidify to undo or reverse the acidifying process, 
to take away the acid character, deprive (a thing) 
of its acid ; hence de-acidified^ -fying, -fication ; 
de-anglicize to undo the anglicizing of, to divest of 
its English character, render no longer English. 
Some of these are formed by prefixing de- to the 
original verb, but others are more logically analysed 
as formed with <Ar- + sb. or adj. + verbal suffix, the 
resulting form being the same in either case. In 
others, again, no corresponding simple verb is in 
use : e.g. decephalize, decerebrize, decolourize, de- 
fibrinaie. The older and more important of these 
words are given in their places as main words : 
e.g. DECHBISTIANIZE, DECOMPOSE, DEMAGNETIZE, 
DEMORALIZE, etc. Of others of less importance, 
of recent use, and of obvious meaning, examples, 
nearly all of the ipth c. (but decanonize 1624, de- 
cardittalize 1645), here follow. 

(The hyphen is conveniently used when the de- comes 
before a vowel, and sometimes elsewhere to emphasize the 
occasional nature of the combination, or draw special 
attention to its composition ; otherwise it is not required.) 

,De-afi'dify('Jied, -fication} ^ dc-a'erate, -ed,-ation^ t 
de-a'lcoholize (~ed t -izaffon t -ist\ de-a'tkalize (/), 
de-anr ericanize^ de-ana thematize, de-a'nglicize 
(-{), de-a-ppetize (~ing) t de-arse 'nuize (-ing), 
de-a*spirate (-ing, -ation, -ator\ debitu'menize 
(-ation\ dekrii'talize, debtcnnionizer^ decx'sarize, 
dtca'lvinize, deca'nonize (-o/;i), deca'mphorize t 
(/(< vrdinalize, deca suaHze (-0/1011), decathe-dralize t 
dece'lticize, deche'micalize (-atioti), decko'ralize t 
deci'ceronize, deci'tizenize^ decla' ssicizc , declassify) 
declericalize (-ation), decli'matize^ deconta'tenate, 
dtco-ncentrate (-ttion} y deconve'ntionalize, deco'p- 
perize (~ization}, dectrltivate, dedo'ggerelizc,dedo'g- 
mathe (~ed\ de-e'ducate, de-efcctrify, de-ele'ftrr.e 



DE-. 

defeu'tliliu, dt fir A ionize (-fd, *atiott\ 
wa/izf, defo'rtijy ttatc -ftf\, dt- 

ge-furalizf, , ,/,-. 

hea'thenizt, d* he' Hem '.< ndt'it , athisto 1 1 
df-ide'oliu (-ft/, -in ,{ t '-indivi'dn 

(-atiori), de-indt vi'duatc, de-indtt'striali-.e, de i n- 
su/arizf, de-integrate, Je-inUl!(\tttalizc ( <</, - . 
de-ita'lianize, dejansenize, deiwnkoizt, dftot. 
(-fd, -ation], deli'beralize, ddi'mithe* t/tlo-,.: 
dfma-rtialize, deme-ntholize (-ed\ deme'tallizt, 
deme' trie ize, dena'rcotize, dettu'cleate (-ed}) de-or- 
ganize (-<z/w), de-orie-ntalize. de-o ssijy(-fication\ 
de-o-zonize (-O/KW), depa-ganize, defa-ntheoni 
put out of the pantheon;, depa-rt 'tza/nzf, dfphifa'- 
sophize, dephy sicalhe (to do away with physical 
development ; -at ion} , depiedmontite, depolrti- 
calize t depri-orize (deprive of priority , dfprofe's- 
sienalize, depro'testaniize, deprovi*ncialize t dera'b- 
Hnize {-ation}, derelvgionite (-ing), deru'rafize, 
desa'xonize, desemi'ticize, desentime ntalize (-ed), 
deske fttoniu \io rid of its skeleton), dewctalite 
(-ati<m}t desupema'turalizc, dttara'nJulize (-ation}, 
dethe'orize (to divest of theories), devola'tilize. 

1786 Phil. Trans. LXXVI. IJH 'Deacidified nitrous air. 
1791 Ed in. Nnv Disp. 65 Calling them aerated and "de- 
aerated. 1876 URE Diet. Arts(<-A. g) IV 240 A flaik. .filled 
up with hot de-aerated water. i8o ll'cstin. Rev. XII. 18 
1 ne dirt and the stagnation, and the de-aeration of the 
water. 1866 Pall Mali G. 21 Sept. 11 Like blank cartridge 
or *dealcoholized wine. 1873 M. COLLINS Syr, Silchestert 
III. xxi. 336 It is a capital dealcoholist. 1877 KOBFRTS 
Handbk. Med. (ed. 3) I. 74 The substance consists of *de- 
alkalized fibrin. 1884 TENNYSON Befket \ ii. 176 Can the 
Kin^ "de-anathematise this York? 1883 F. HALL in A'. J . 
Nation XXXVII. 435/1 'Deanglicized Engluhmen. 1890 
Sat. Rev. 15 Feb. aoi/i He even thinks we must dc-anglici/c 
our language. 1888 Academy 28 Jan. 56 A *de -appetising 
feast of dry bones. 1876 F. DOUSK Grimm's L. App. F. aio 
They both *deaspirated the initial. Jbid.\ 12. 24 Similar 
deaspirating movements both in Greek and Sanskrit Ibid. 
8 22. 47, I have frequently observed, .that when a group of 
deaspirators are talking together, an k is rarely heard at all. 
1879 WHITNEY Sanskrit Gram. Index 478/2 Inspiration of 
aspirate mutes. i86a DANA Man. Geol. u. 410 The *dr- 
bitumentzation of the coal. 1801 Chicago Advance 30 Apr., 
Not merely to *' debrutalize * the police force, but to purify 
and ennoble it. 1871 DASENT Three to Ont I. 250 An 
eminent chiropodist and *debunn ionizer. i88a/W/Afo//L?. 
so May 3/2 The Republicans . . wish to decentralize, to 
*decasarize France. 183* SOUTH EY in Q. Kev. XLVIII. 
280 He did not talk of "decalvinizing certain of our pro- 
vinces, nor of dejansenuing certain corporations. 1891 
Chicago Advance 4 June, That this committee intended to 
de-Calvinize the church. 1624 T. JAMES in . !//. L'tsher't 
Lett. (1686) 318 He hath . . inlarged hU Book of Bochel's 
"Decanonization. c 1645 HOWE u. Lett. (1650) I. it. xix. 32 
He [the Cardinal of Guise] is but young, and they speak of 
a Bull that is to come from Rome to Mccardinalizc him. 
i8os T. H. NI'NS in Toynbee Record 30 There is being 
effected .. a permanent *dccasuali/ation of labour at the 
Docks .. The casual docker [must] lose his work. 1881 
Academy 28 May 388/3 Ireland is. .more * deceit ki>d now 
than the Scottish Highlands. 1878 Scrifatr** Mag. XVI. 
436/1 An aroma which no chemistry, or "dcthemitalizatiun 
is potent enough to retain. '864 Reader 19 Mar. 374/t 
Handel meant his oratorios to be choral works. This 
*dechoralUs them. 1873 H. A. J. Mi SRO Litcret. 473 One 
of the numerous artifices of Tacitus to "deciceronise the 
style of his annals. 1890 W/</w*' Ohio) Dispatch 27 May, 
Any. .plan of 'decitizenizing free Americans. 1848 CLOUCH 
in Lije if Lett. (1869) I. 125 The 'jeunes filles'..were 
*declassicised by their use of parasols. 1865 GaoTE Plato 
1 1. xxiy. 246 Logical exposition proceeding by way of 
classifying and *decla<u>ifying. 1870 .SV//. Rev. 12 Feb. 209^1 
Nor . . to allow its Bishops to "declericaltze any of its 
priests and deacons by a penny post letter. //., To 
accept . . a declericaluation which was not degradation. 
1870 Lit. Churchman XVI. 451/2 Englishmen who have 
lived much abroad seem to become *de-climatised in this 
particular. 1861 MRS. SPEIO Last Years /./. 157 So the 
whole concatenation "deconcatenated. 1893 Sat. Rev. 25 
Mar. 333/1 The style of the great Mr. Smith ..greatly 
*d conventionalized. 1784 B. FRANKLIN in Ann. Reg. 1817 
Chron. 381 The odious mixture of pride and beggary. . that 
have half depopulated and *decultivated Spam. 1890 J. 
DAVIDSON in Academy 15 Mar. 183/1 An example of the 
failure of high literary ability to'dedoggcrelisc it thoroughly. 
1878 Gi'RNKv Tertium Quid (1887' L 113 Hie ioyles*ncss 
and dulness of the ' dereliuionised * (more trufy *dedog* 
matised) life. 1887 Parish Problems 36 Poverty, care, 
work., had slowly *deeducated the Man! 1881 A'aturt 
XXIV. 21 Method of "de-electrifying woollen yarn. 1824 
Mech. Mag. No. 61. 77 Might not steam be further "de- 
electrized? Ibid., By following up the means which pro- 
duced it, namely, by de-electrization. 1871 EABLK Pkilot. 



. Tongue 445 'Deflection ized languages are said to be 
lytic. 1880 GRANT WHITE Every-Day Enf. 275 This 
dcformalizing of the English language. 1877 P. THOMSON 



in Bible Students' Aids 146 Antiochus *defortifies the 
Temple. 1885 ROMANES Jelly-fish 180 The 'degangiionated 
tissue. 1864 Reader 23 Apr. 511/3 It may be within the 
compass of critical science to '(^generalize portions of it 
into the suggesting particulars. 1839 AViv Monthly Mag. 
LVI. 454 The *degentilizing distinction above mentioned. 
1891 Pall Mall G. 7 Sept. 6/i His theory is that Germany 
is being fast 'de-Germanized. 1893 Chicago Advance 
31 Aug., The vast student-world was being *de-ncathemzed. 
1866 Pall Mall G. 8 Oct. 10 The urban population . . is 
either thoroughly *de-Hellenized, or is in the process of 
de-Hcllenization. 1865 W. KAY Crisis Hujfeldia** 27 
Their attempts to *de-historicue . . the oldest and most 
venerable document of human history. 1865 J. GROTK 
Treat. Mor. Ideas vii. (1876) 93 The notion . . was very early 
*de-idealired or positivized. 1890 W. S. LILLY Right 4 



DE-. 



56 



DEACON. 



Wrong 226 The fine arts, as they exist among us, bear 
witness, .to the deidealising of life, a 1866 J. GROTE Exam. 
Utiiit. Philos. v. (1870) 9^ Reason binds men together, and, 
if we may so speak, *demdividualizes them. Ibid,* The 
growth of virtue is a gradual deindividualization of men. 
1880 FAIRUAIRN Stud. Life of Christ xv. (1881) 262 Men 
Meindividuated are almost dehumanised. 1882 B. LEIGHTON 
in Standard 5 May, To *de-industrialize the population. 
i88a Daily Tel. 2 June, In the face of the tunnel that is to 
*de-insularise us. 1861 BAGEHOT Btog. Kss. (1881) 142 Years 
of acquiescing, .usually *de-intellectualise a parliamentary 
statesman before he comes to half his power. 1891 ABBOTT 
Philomythus 129 The de-intellectualising influence of this 
resolute faith in miracles. 1889 Pall Malt G. 16 Oct. 2/2 
The possibility of first ^de-Italianising the Sacred College. 
Ibid. 13 Nov. 2/2 The de-Italianizing of the Church. 1832 
Dejansenizing [see decahrinizing\. 1866 Pall Mall G. 
13 Aug. 3 Will a junker be allowed to *dejunkerize himself. 
1883 Spectator 27 Jan. 126 A certain amount of *delatinisa- 
tion and some simplification of phraseological structure. 
1835 Tails Afag. II. 461 To *dellberalize the principles of 
the youthful patriot. 1887 GURNEY Ttrtiumfytidll, 194 
Further liberalising and *delimitising the conditions of 
poetic appreciation. 1881 Ohio State Jrnl. 29 Jan., Worthless 
*dementholized oil. i7$4HuxHAM mP/til. Trans. XLVIII. 
861 Tin and copper . . are reduced to ashes, and *demetal- 
lized. 1883 Athenaeum 28 July 104/2 That passage, .should 
. . be forthwith *demetricized and turned into honest 



icst prose. 

1829 TOCNO, DURAND, etc. Mat. Med. The *denarcotize l t 
opium. 1891 POULTON & SHIPLEY tr. // 'eismann's Heredity 

II. 92 Boveri. .succeeded in rearing such *denucleated eggs 
by the introduction of spermatozoa. 1864 Ilomeivard Mail 
17 Oct. 901 The tendency, .is to * de-orientalize the European 
mind in India. 1881 Atkenzenm 9 July 42/3 Glimpses of 
Anglo-Indian life before it became de-Orientalized. 1874 W. 
A. MILLER Elem. Clicm. (ed. 5) II. 341 Ozonized air is also 
*deozonized by transmission over cold manganese dioxide. 
1873 C. B. Fox Ozone $ A ntozone 95 The deozonisation of air 
passing over densely populated towns. 1847-8 DE QUINCEV 
Protestantism Wks. VIII. 156 Rome, it was found, could not 
be *depaganised. 1859 Lit. Churchman V. 332/1 Among the 
slowly depaganized people. 1892 Harper's^ Mag. Sept, 
629/2 The bones of Mirabeau . .were carried in great pomp 
to the Pantheon in 1791; and were Mepantheonized . . 
a year or two later. 1885.! mericaii IX. 198 To *departizanize 
the public service. 1862 Sat. J?cr>. XIII. 21/2 The work is 
resumed, .in the Italian language, .as a means for Mepied- 
montizing the author's style. 1873 Contemp. Rev. XX. 831 
To press philosophy into its service is to *dephilosophize it. 
i872_S. BUTLER Ert-w/um xi. 99 A time of universal *de- 
physicalisation would ensue. 1859 Sat. Rev. VIII. 573/2 
Dr. Cullen has really . . *de-politicahzed the Irish priesthood. 
1866 DE MORGAN in Graves Life Sir IV. R. Hamilton (iSBq) 

III. 562 You cannot.. let him take any licence which can 
damage or *de-priorise anything you choose to write on 
your own subject. 1884 St. James's Gaz. 22 Mar. 4/1 It 
helps to some extent . . to *' deprofessionalize ' the English 
clergy. 1888 Mission Herald (Boston) Oct. 442 To *depro- 
testantize the nation. 1861 O. W. HOLMES Pages fr. Old 
Vol. Life (1891) 10 The camp is Meprovincializing us very 




derabbinisation is far advanced. 1878 *Dereligionized [see 



gradual de-religionizing of life. i8S8 H. F. LESTER Hartas. 
Maturin I. i. 7 The gradual process of *deruralizing his 
townlet. 1890 Daily News 10 Nov. 2/5 He hoped the 
Council would not entirely 'de-ruralise ' the park. 1869 
LOWELL Poems t Cathedr., A brain Mesaxonized. 1892 W. 
WATSON in Bookman Oct. 23/1 Grotesque efforts to get 
inside the English character and *de-Semiticise his own. 
1882 TRAILL Sterne vi. 88 That thoroughly *desentimental- 
ized ' domestic interior '. 1886 Blackiv. Mag. CX L. 747 She 
. .*deskeletonized the wretched closet with unsparing dex- 
terity. 1889 Harper's Mag. June 102/1 The way in which 
darkness isolates and *desocializes the citizen. 1883 MAUDS- 
LEY Body <$ Will in. iii. 258 Demoralization following de- 
socialization. 1885 Pall Mall G. 3 Sept. 5/2 He will steep 



be coined). 1883 A. B. EDWARDS in Academy 10 Nov. 309/2 
A *de-theorised American. 1868 Birm, Jrnl. Sept. 12 The 
oil. .has been "devolatilised, so that all danger of explosion 
is annihilated. 

2. Less frequently verbs (and their derivatives) 
are formed by prefixing de- to a noun (cf. L. de- 
fdmdre, F. defroquer), with the sense : a. To de- 
prive, divest, free from, or rid of the thing in 
question: as DEBOWEL (1375), deflesh, dcfoliage, 
deglaze, deglycerin, decrease, degum, dehamtle, de- 
horn (--), delawn, t demasl, demiracle, demonas- 
tery, f depark, dcprotcstant, detenant, f detnith ; 
depetticoated, dereligioned ppl. adjs. (Some of 
these have forms in DIS-, which is the usual prefix 
for words of this type.) b. To turn out of, dis- 
lodge or expel from, as decai-t, \deparliamcnt 
(1648) ; DECODKT, DEHUSK. 

1860 RUSSELL Diary India (1863' I. 299, I completed my 
journey, and was safely *decarted at the door of a substan- 
tial house 1837-40 HALIBURTON Clockm. I. 76 He was 
teetotally'defleshed.a mere walking skeleton. 1831 HUISK 
Mem (,,. IV ,57 The lovely rosebud fell defoliaged. 
1879 Smbwr's Mag July 402 They, .completely defoliate 
the trees. 1885 W. L. CARPENTER Soap t, Candles 15, The 
trench process .for *deglycerining neutral fats. 1887 
Encycl. Brit. XXII. 62/2 The fibres . . being now de- 
gummed, are separated from each other. 1893 in Chicago 
Acfi'ance 9 Mar., She had broken the cover of a tureen and 
denandled a china pitcher. 1888 Voice (N. Y.) 12 Jan 2 
Ihe champion of 'dehorning cattle. Ibid. 23 Feb. 7 That 
enthusiastic champion of dehorning, ' Farmer Haaf ' will 
soon issue a book : ' Every Man His own "Dehorner '. ' 1726 



AMHEKST Terry Fil. xxxix. 215 The bishop ought to lie 
*de-lawn'd- 1666 Lotul. Gaz. No. 89/4 Very little danuu'c, 
besides the *demasting of one Fireship. 1884 TENNYSON 
Becket in. iii. 137 For as to the fish, they Me-miracled the 
miraculous draught, and might have sunk a navy, c 1808 
BYRON Occas. Pieces xvi. note, Some, .monk of the abbey, 
about the time it was *demonastericd. aijoo B. E. Diet. 
Cant. Crew, Whet-s tones-park } a Lane . . fam'd for a Nest 
of Wenches, now *de-park'd. 1648 J. GOODWIN Right fy 
Might 19 The men *deparliamented by the Army. 1891 
Chicago Advance 14 Jan., She is not a *depetticoated 
virago, who wants to inaugurate a general swapping of sex, 
1890 Guardian 5 Nov. 1745/2 The result.. is, to use the 
phrase of The Times, the ( *deprotestanting' of the greater 
part of Ireland. 1835 Athenzeunt 443 The demoralized, 
*de-religioned invaders of privilege and property. 1883 
C. A. CAMERON in Pall Mall G. 4 Dec. 1/2 Many unsani- 
tary houses have been *dettmanted. 1647 WAUD Simp. 
Cooler 67 He feares there is Truth in them : Could he 
*de-truth them all, he would defie them all. 

3. By an extension of use de- is sometimes pre- 
fixed to adjectives or substantives, as in DEBARK, 
DECHEERFUL, DKGALLANT. DEDOCTOB. (Cf. dis- in 
discontent, dissatisfied, etc.) 
De-acidify, etc. : see DE- II. i. 
Deacon (drkan, -k'n),j/j. Forms : a. i diacon, 
deacon ; &. 2 diacno, diakne, 4 dyakne, pL 
diaknen ; 7. 2 dsecne, 2-4 dcakno, 3-5 dckne, 
(3 S en ' pl* deknene) ; 3-6 deken (-in, -on, -un, 
yn(e), 4 deeken (pi. deeknys), deooun, 4-6 
decon,decane, 5-6 deaken, deakon, 6 diacon(o, 
deacone, 5- deacon, [ad. L. diaconus, a. Gr. 
StaKovos servant, waiting man, messenger, whence 
spec, in Christian use, servant or minister of the 
church ; an order of ministers in the church. The 
OE. diacon (deacon} was a learned form immed. 
from the L. ; beside it there appears to have been 
a popular form *d;vcna (?from *di&cna, *dcxcna\ 
whence I2th c. divcne, deakne, and later dekne, pi. 
deakn-en. From dekne, deakne, came deken, deaken, 
whence under L. influence deacon. The early ME. 
diacne, dyakne was perhaps immed. a. OF. diacne t 
dyacne (i2th c. ; later diacre) ; it might also re- 
present a semi-popular OE. *diacna: cf. O.N. 
djdkn, djAkni* There were many intermediate forms 
of the word, from mixture of popular and learned 

1. Eccl. The name of an order of ministers or 
officers in the Christian church. 

a. In Apostolic times. 

_ Their first appointment is traditionally held to be recorded 
in Acts vi. 1-6, where however the title 6iaoi>os does not 
occur, but only the cognate words StaKci-eif (' serve 'J and 
Suuaada (* ministration '). 

ciooo ^LFRIC Homilies (Thorpe) I. 44 Da apostolas 
J^ehadodon seofon diaconas . . Dxra diacona wses se forma 
Stephanus. a 1300 Cursor M. 19482 (Cott.) Steuen .. was 
p I>e seuen dekens an. 1381 WVCLIF Phil. i. i Ppul and 
Tymothe . . to alie the hooly men . .at Philippis, with bischopis 
and dekenes. c 1450 MirourSalnacioim 4442 Deken Steven 
be his name. 1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. 419 Deacons were 
stewards of the Church, vnto whome at the first was com- 
mitted the distribution of Church-goods. 1611 BIBLE i Tim. 
ii. 8 Likewise must the deacons bee graue, not double 
tongued. 1783 PRIESTLEY Corrupt. Chr. II. vi. 20 The 
deacons generally administered the elements. 1875 MAN- 
NING Mission H. Ghost xv. 417 The Apostles set apart 
a special order the Sacred order of deacons to be ministers 
of the charity of Jesus Christ to His poor. 

b. In Episcopal Churches, a member of the 
third order of the ministry, ranking below bishops 
and priests, and having the functions of assisting 
the priest in divine service, esp. in the celebration 
of the eucharist, and of visiting the sick, etc. 

c 900 Bseda's Eccl. Hist. in. xiv. [xx.] (1891* 220 Honorius 
se zercebiscop. .jehalgode Thomam his diacon to biscope. 
iiza O. E. Citron.^ Se dsecne hsfdeongunnan Jx>ne godspel. 
c 1175 Lamb. Horn, 81 NucumctSbes diakne. c 1*90 S.Eng. 
Leg. I. 392/49 Preostes he made and deknene al-so. 1340 
Ayenb. 190 He acsede at onen of his diaknen. c 1386 
CHAUCER Pars. T. ^817 Folk that ben entred into ordre, as 
sub-dekin, or dekin, or prest. c 1450 St. Cuthbtrt (Surtees) 
6943 A preste sange at ane altere, And his dekyn at stode 
him nere. 1513 BRADSHAW St. IVerburge i. 2221 Whan the 
Deken redde the holy gospell. 1647 N. BACON Disc. Govt. 
Eng. i. x. 11739)18 Deacons, .attending upon the Presbyters 
to bring the offerings to the Altar to read the Gospel, to 
Baptize, and Administer the Lord's Supper, a 1771 GRAY 
Remarks Lydgates^ Poems Wks. 1843 V. 292 He was 
ordained a deacon in 1393, which is usually done in the 
twenty-third year of a man's age. 1844 LINGARD Anglo- 
Sax. Ch. (1858)!, iv. 133 The three orders of bishops, priests, 
and deacons. 

C. In the Presbyterian system, one of an order of 
officers appointed to attend to the secular affairs of 
the congregation, as distinguished from the elders^ 
whose province is the spiritual. (But they do not 
always exist, at least under this name, their func- 
tions, when they are absent, being performed by the 
elders.) d. In Congregational churches, one of 
a body of officers elected to advise and assist the 
pastor, distribute the elements at the communion, 
administer the charities of the church, and attend 
to its secular affairs. 

1560-1 Bk. Discipline viii. (heading), The Eyght Heid, 
tuiching the Electioun offElderis and Deaconis, etc... The 
office of the Deaconis. .is to receave the rentis, and gadder 



the almous of the Churche, to keip and distribute the same, 
as by the ministerie of the Kirk shall be appointed. Thay 
may also assist in judgement with the Mimsteris and 
Elderis. 1584 J. MELVII.L Dtary(\%$'2) 183 Ther salba twa 
Deacones : an till attend upon the box . . to collect and dis- 
tribut to the outward pure . . ane uther to haiff the cair of 
our awin inward indigent or diseased. 1644 OWEN li'fcs. 
XIX. 537-8. a 1647 T. HOOKER Sitmme Ch. Discipl. H. i, 
This Deacon being the steward or Treasurer of the Church, 
the thing for which he is mainly to be imployed . . is for the 
husbanding of the estate and temporalls of the Church. 

1647 ResoliftiotiS) etc. Congi'cg. Ch. Canterbury 30 Mar. 
(MS.\ The church . . did order that . . there bee 3 nomin- 
ated out of w ch on shall bee chose to the office of a Deacon. 

1648 J. COTTON Way Congreg. Ch. \\. 10 It is an Ordinance 
of Christ to elect Officers (Deacons and Elders), for this 
is the power and privilege of the Church of Brethren. 
a 1657 W. BRADFORD New Eng. Mem. 355 They had . . in 
our time four grave men for ruling elders, and three able and 
godly men for deacons. 1702 C. MATHER Magn. Chr. v. vii, 
The Office and Work of a Deacon is . . to keep the Treasury 
of the Church, and therewith to serve the Tables, which the 
Church is to provide fur, as the Lord's Table, the Table of 
the Ministers, and of such as are in Necessity, to whom 
they are to distribute in simplicity. 1884 R. W. DALK 
Congreg. Manual v. 116 In some Congregational churches 
there are both ' elders ' and * deacons '. 

*.M 

1642 WILTON Apol. Sweet, xi. (1851) 311 Their office is 
to pray for others, and not to be the lip-working deacons 
of other mens appointed words. 1796 C. BURNEY Mem. 
Mctastasio III. 170 As an old Deacon of Apollo. 1887 
Mission. Herald (Boston) Apr. 1^3 It [the African Lakes 
Company] acts as deacon to the mission stations themselves, 
caring for them in secular things. 

"|*2. Applied to the Levites, as an order inferior 
to the priests in the Jewish Church : cf. BISHOP 2. 

^ 1000 Ags. Gosp. John i. 19 pa I micas sendon heora 
sacerdas and heora diaconas fram lerusnlem. c 1175 Lamb. 
Horn. 79 J>er com a prost bi be weie. .and wende for&, per 
com an diacne. a 1300 Cursor M. 7009 (Colt, t For luue of 
a deken wijf, Mam man bar tint ^air lijf [cf. Judges xx. 4]. 
1388 WYCLIF Num. ii. 51 The dekenes schulen do doun the 
tabernacle, c 1449 PKCOCK AV/r. in. i. 280 To the dekenls 
were gouun xlviij citees. 

3. In Scotland, the president of an incorporated 
' craft ' or trade in any town ; formerly ex ojfficio 
a member of the town-council. 

1424 Sc. Acts Jas. 1 (1597* 39 like Craft suld haue ane 
Deakon. 1563 WINJET Four Scoir Thre Quest, xxxix. 
Wks. 1888 I. 102 As thair is in euery craft almaist ane 
decane [AfS. dekin]. a 1649 DRUMM. OF HAWTH. Hist. 
Jos. FWks.(i7ii)88 A deacon of the crafts is killed by the 
faction of the Hamiltons. 1771 SMOLLETT Humph. Cl. Wks. 
1806 VI. 260 The council [of the Edinburgh magistracy] is 
composed of deacons, one of whom is returned every year in 
rotation, as representative of every company of artificers 
or handicraftsmen. 1787 BURNS Brigs of Ayr 154 Ye 
dainty Deacons, an* ye douce Conveeners. 1828 SCOTT 
F. M. Perth xx, The presidents, or deacons, as they were 
termed, of the working classes. 

b. fig. A ' master ' of his craft ; a thoroughly 
capable man. 

1814 SCOTT Wav. xlvi, Yon man is not a deacon o' his 
craft. iSai GALT Entail III. x, 98, I had got an inkling 
o' the law frae my father, who was a deacon at a plea. 

4. Freemasonry. Name of a particular inferior 
office in a lodge : see quot. 

1813 J. ASHE Masonic Manual (1825) 227 The Deacons 
are then named and invested ; upon which the new Master 
addresses them as follows:' 'Brothers J. K., and L. M., 
I appoint you Deacons of this Lodge. It is your province 
to attend on the Master, and to assist the Wardens in the 
active duties of the lodge.' 

f 5. A set of eucharistic garments for a deacon. 

1534 in Peacock Engl. Ch. Furniture 201 A whole vest- 
ment for a preist w l deacon and subdeacon of white damaske. 
1552 Trans. Essex Arch. Soc. N.S. I. 14 Two chesables, 
oth r ways cawlyd deakyn and subdeaken. 1558 Wills $ 
Init. N. C. i. (Surtees 1835) 171 One Cope, a vestment and 
a deacon all . . of red silk. 

6. Comb., as deacon-seat (7. .$".), a long settee 
in a log-cabin, cut from a single log. 

1864 LOWELL Fireside Trav. 152 We sat down upon the 
deacon-seat before the fire. 1889 FARMER Americanisms^ 
Deacon staf t a lumberer's camp term . . why so called is diffi- 
cult to say.. unless, indeed, it is an allusion to the seats 
round a pulpit, facing the congregation, reserved for 
deacons. 

Dea'COn, v. U.S. colloq. or slang, [f. prec. sb.] 

1. trans, (usually to deacon off}. To read aloud 
(a hymn) one or two lines at a time, the congrega- 
tion singing the lines as soon as read, according to 
the early practice of the Congregational Churches 
of New England. Hencey?^. 

1845 T. W. COIT Puritanism 232 The insult . . was given 
by deaconing out, as the phrase goes, .the following verses 
from the 52d Psalm. 1848 LOWELL Bigloiv P. Ser. i. ix, 
Without you deacon offthe toon you want yourfolks should 
sing. 1888 Heartsease 4- RM 166 Well he knew to 
deacon-off a hymn. 1857 GOODRICH Remin. I. 77 (Bartlelt) 
The chorister deaconed the first two lines. 

2. To pack (fruit, etc.) with the finest specimens 
on the top. 

1866 LOWELL Biglow P. Introd., To deacon berries is to 
put the largest atop. 1868 Miss ALCOTT Lit. Women xi. 
(Farmer), The strawberries [were] not as ripe as they looked, 
having been skilfully deaconed. 

b. In various uses connoting unfair or dishonest 
dealing or the like (cf. to doctor} : see quots. 

1860 BARTLETT Diet. Amer., To deacon a calf is to knock 
it in the head as soon as it is born. Connecticut. 1889 
FARMER Americanisms, To deacon land* to filch land by 
gradually extending one's fences or boundary lines into the 



DEACONESS. 

highway or other common property. 1889 Century Diet. , 
Dfttco'ii to sophisticate ; adulterate ; ' doctor ' : as, to deacon 
wine or other liquor, slang. 

Dea*conal a., Dea*conate^., forms sometimes 
used instead of the more correct DIACONAL, -ATK. 

1890 Chicago Advance 7 Aug., Clerical hospitality . . 
dfjaomal hospitality. M~*ScHAwr JStuyet, Relir.Ktunvl. 
III. 2256 The subdeaconate [developed] from the deaconate. 
1891 Daily Ntws a Feb. 5/7 After a meeting of the 
deaconate. 

Deaconess vd/'kones). Forms: 6 decon-, 
diacon-, 6-7 deaconisse, 7 diacon-, deacon- 
ness, 8- deaconess, [f. DEACON + -ESS, formed 
after med.L. diaconissa* fern, of diaconus 1 . cf. F. 
diaconisse ,14-1 8th c.), now usually diacontssc^\ 

1. Eccl. a. The name of an order of women in 
the early church, ' who appear to have undertaken 
duties in reference to their own sex analogous to 
those performed by the deacons among men ' (Diet. 
Chr. Antiq.}. b. Also, in some modern churches, 
of an order of women having functions parallel to 
those of the deacons in the same, or intermediate 
between these and those of the women in sense 3. 

a 15*6 TINDALK Wks. 250 fR.) Phebe the deaconisse of the 
church of Cenchrts. 1561 T. NORTON Calvin* s Inst. iv. 89 
There were created deaconisses, not to delite God with 
singing and wyth mumbling not vnderstanded . . but that 
they should execute publike ministration towarde the poore. 
1685 UAXTER I'araphr. N. T. i Tim. iii. 11 The Deacon- 
nesses that then were appointed to some Care of Women, 
which Men were less fit for. 1709 J. JOHNSON CUrgym, 
Vade Af. n. 100 The office of Deaconesses was . . especially 
to attend women in the Baptistery, undressing and messing 
them again. 1847 MASK ELL Mon. Kit. III. p. xcv. note, 
The deaconesses of the primitive ages . . their functions 
being . . limited to the performance of mere secular duties, 
such as visiting the sick, and catechizing women. 1885 
Catholic Diet. s. v. ( [Deaconesses] were employed in assist- 
ing at the baptism of women.. In the tenth century the 
office was extinct in the West. .At Constantinople the office 
survived till 1190. 

1617 F. JOHNSON Plea xx. 317 To the Elders, .that rule 
the Church ; and to the Deacons and Deaconesses that serve 
and minister therein, n 1657 W. BRADFORD New Eng. Mem. 
355 They had.. one ancient widow for a deaconess. .She 
usually sat.. in the congregation with a little birchen rod 
in her hand, and kept little children in great awe from dis- 
turbing the congregation. She did frequently visit the sick 
and weak, and especially women. 1891 Bk. Ch. c/Scotl. ^3 
Women who being able to make Christian work the chief 
object of their lives. . having passed through two years' train- 
ing and service in connection with our Homes in Edinburgh 
or Glasgow, may apply to be set apart as Deaconesses by 
their kirk-sessions ana presbyteries, and will then.. be ex* 
pected to go to any part of Scotland where they may be 
required, there to work under the supervision of minister 
and kirk-session. 1893 British Weekly 30 Nov. 88/2 Miss 
Hargreave was a deaconess of Carr's Lane Church, and has 
been of great service in many ways. 

2. The name taken by certain Protestant orders 
of women with aims similar to those of Sisters 
of Mercy. 

1867 LADY HERBERT 'Cradle L. HI. 102 The Kaiserswerth 
Deaconesses . . have a school, hospital, and dispensary near 
the English Protestant Church. 1871 Daily News 4 Nov., 



Training Hospital, Tottenham. 

3. nonet-use. A deacon's wife. 

1858 O. W. HOLMES A nt.Breakf..f. (1883)221 Deacon and 
deaconess dropped away. 

4. Comb. 

1884 Pall Mall G. 10 Sept. a/i A deaconess-house was 
opened. 1803 Ch. Times 27 Jan. 81/1 The deaconess-widows, 
and the widows of the higher clergy. 

t Dea'conhead. 06s. [-HEAD.] = next. 

c 1400 Apol. Loll. 32 J>e minstri of presthed, & of dekunhed. 
1656 Burgh Rec. in J. Irving Hist. Dumbarton ski re (1860) 
534 The crafts of the said burgh sould enjoy the lyke fredome 
priviledge and deaconhead. 

Deaconhood (dfkanhud). [-HOOD.] 

1. The office of a deacon : sec DEACON sb. i b, 3. 
1381 WVCLIF i Tint. Prol., The ordynaunce of byschop- 

hood, and of the dekenehood. c 1449 PECOCK Kefir, in. ix. 
332 Dekenhode was profitable to his clergie. 

2. A body of deacons collectively. 
In mod. Diets. 

Deaconry (drkanri). [-RT.] 

1. The office of a deacon ; deaconship, diaconate. 
1483 Cath. Angl. 95 A Dekenry, diaconatns. 1560-1 Bk. 

Discipline v., Prnnlege of //., Tutorie, Curatorie, 
Deaconrie, or ony siclike. 1642 SIR E. DERING Sp. on 
Relig. 133 S. Paul calleth his Apostleship but a Deaconry. 
18*4 G. CHALMERS Caledonia III. v. 7. 474 An act annulling 
that incorporation for having a deaconry. 
b. A body of deacons collectively, 
a 1679 T. GOODWIN Wks. IV. iv. t88 (R.) The deacons of 
all those churches should make up a common deaconry. 

2. R.C.Ch. The chapel and charitable institution 
of a 'region ' of Rome, in charge of a cardinal or 
regionary deacon. 

1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals i. in. 67 The Chapels that 
were ordinarily united to these Religious houses, being 
called Deaconries. Ibid. \. in. 68 Deaconries, where the 
Cardinals had their Residence, and, .were call'd Cardinal 
Deacons, because of their residence in the Deaconry. 1751 
CHAMBERS Cycl., Deaconry is also a name still reserved to 
the chapels and oratories in Rome, under the direction of 
the several deacons, in their respective regions.. To the 
deaconries were annexed a sort of hospitals .. governed 
by the regionary deacons, called cardinal deacons, 1855 

VOL. III. 



57 

MILMAN Lat. Chr. (1864) II. in. vii. 117 The churches and 
monasteries, the hospitals, deaconries or ecclesiastical 
boards for the poor. 

Deaconship (drkanfip). [-SHIP.] The office 
or position of a deacon. 

1565 HARDINI. in Jewel Def. Apol. (1611)85 The Priest- 
hood & Deaconship. 1610 J. ROBINSON fust. Si-par. Church 
Wks. 11.^64 The office of deacon-ship which Chtist hath 
left by his apostles for the collection and distribution of 
the Church's alms. 1615 WADSWORTH in Bedell Lett, 13 
Priesthood is giuen by the deliuerie of the Patena . . and of 
the Chalice . . Deaconship by the deliuerie of the booke of 
the Gospels. 1681-6 J. SCOTT Chr.Life(\T^} III. 400 That 
none shall be.. ordained an Elder, till after he had well 
acquitted himself in the Deaconship. 1849-53 ROCK Ch. of 
Fathers IV. 51 In due time the Subdcacon was raised to the 
Deacon ship. 

t Dea'Ction. Obs. [ad. L. deaction-cm : DE- 

I. 3-] 

1656 BLOUNT Gfastogr., Deaction, a finishing or perfecting. 

Dead (ded), a. (sb.,aJv.) Forms: 1-3 d6ad, 
2-3 dted, (3 detcd , 2-7 ded, (4 deede, deid, 
did, Ayt'nti. dyad, dyead), 4-6 deed, dede, 5 
dey do, clyde, 6 dedde, 6-7 deade, (5- St. deid), 
6- dead. [A common Teut. adj. ; orig. pplc. : 
OE. alW-OFris. dad (\VFris., NFris. Jfad), 

05. dSd, MDu. dot(d\ Dn. dood, MLG. dot, dSd, 
LG. d6d, OHG., MHG. Itl (Ger. todt. tot}, ON. 
dauSr (Sw., Da. dod~), Goth. daups :-OTeut. 
*dau-do-z, pre-Teut. *dhau-ttrs, pa. pple. from vb. 
stem dau- (prc-Teut. d/tau-}, preserved in ON. deyja 
(:dau-jan) and in OS. doian, OHS. touwen, to 
DIE. The suffix is -- L. -tus, Gr. -TOS, Skr. -tat. 

The suffixal d in OTeut. 'daado-t, Eng. dead (pre-Teut. 
*itkauto' ***,*& opposed to the/ in iint<pn-z,d?iith I pre-Teut. 
*dhatftns\ shows the influence of the position of the stress 
accent on the Teutonic representation of original breath 
mutes, as set forth in Vemer's Law.] 

A. adj. I. Literally, and in senses directly con- 
nected. 

* Said of things that have been alive. 

1. That has ceased to live ; deprived of life ; in 
that state in which the vital functions and powers 
have come to an end, and are incapable of being 
restored : s. of men and animals. 

Beowulf 939 pa wies Heregar dead min yldra macs. 
c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. ix. 24 Nys bys mjeden dead, nu 
O. E. Cnron. (Laud MS.) an. 1135 J>at ilc 5r warth pe 
king ded. c 1205 LAY. 19229 Hire lauerd wes d.-ci! \c 1275 
dead], a 1300 Cursor M. 6130 (Cott.) Na bus. .pat par ne 
was ded [v.rr. deed, dede] man ligand. a 1400 Poems 
Vemoti MS. 534 Better is a quik and an hoi hounde pen 
a ded lyon. 1458 in Turner Dont. Arthit. III. 41 To drawe 
a deed body out of a lake. 159* SHAKS. Rom. * Jitl. v. i. 

6, I dreamt my Lady came and found me dead. 1606 
Tr. ff Cr. iv. v. 251 Where thou will hit me dead. 1660 
BOYLE New Exp. Phys. Mich. Digress. 360 The Bird . . 
within about a minute more would be stark dead. 1711 DE 
FOE Col. Jack (1840) 233 He was shot dead. 1795 BURKE 
Corr. IV. 239 Dead men, in their written opinions, are 
heard with patience. 1850 TENNYSON In Mem. Ixxiv. i As 
sometimes in a dead man's face. .A likeness. .Comes out 
to some one of his race. 

b. of plants. 

1381 WYCLIP Jude 12 Heruest trees with outen fruyt, 

twies deede, drawun up bi the roote. 1521 FISHER li'ks. 

(1876)326 As a deed stoke, a tree withouten lyfe. 1855 TEN- 

NYSON Maud i. iii. 14, I . . found The shining daffodil dead . 

C. of parts or organs of animals or plants. 

ciooo ^ELFRIC Interrog. Signtntl/(Anglia VII. 30), Mid 
3am deadum fellum. 1398 TRKVISA Barth. De f. K. xvl. 
xciv. (1495) 586 Salte fretyth awaye deed flessh. 1484 CAXTON 
JEsop v. x, He had kytte awey the dede braunches fro the 
tre. 1561 EDEN Arte Nanig. Pref. P jj b, Vnsensate by 
reason of dead fleshe. 1643 J. STEER tr. Exp. Ckyrurg. vii. 
27 If. .the skin be burnt dead. 1787 C. B. TRYE in Mid. 
Coinniun. II. 154 The absorbents will remove very little of 
dead bone. 1811 SHELLEY AJonais xvi The young Spring 
. . threw down Her kindling bud, as if she Autumn were, 
Or they dead leaves. 

d. Specifically used of that which has died of 
itself, instead of being killed or cut down when 
alive, as in dead shell (of a mollusc), dead wood, etc. 

1877 Encycl. Brit. VI. 5^9 Dead shells appear in some 
cases to be thus employed, but . . in most . . the [Hermit] crab 
kills the mollusk in order to secure its shell. 

U To be dead was anciently used in the sense ' to 
die ', and later in that of ' to have died ' ; also = 
' To die at the hands of anyone, to be put to death, 
be killed 1 . 

c looo. 4 fs. Gosp. Matt. xxii. 24 Gif hwa dead sy, & beam 
na:bbe. c 1*05 LAY. 196 After ba feouroer )ere he was dead. 
c 1340 Cursor Af. 14269 (Trin.) Alle that lyuen & trowen 
me Deed shul bei neuer be. c 1386 CHAUCER rrol. 148 Score 
weptc she if any of hem were deed. 1388 WYCLIP a Cor, v. 
14 If oon died for alle, thanne alle weren deed [A 1 . I', then 
all died]. (1557 Tottilft Mix. (Arb.) 169, 1 will be dead at 
once To do my Lady good.] 

138* WVCLIF Rom. v. 15 If thorw the gilt of oone many 
ben deed [iir#ow)> : Kktm. & K. V. ' many died ']. 1591 
SHAKS. Kcm. 4- jfr/i. v. iii. 310 Alas my liege, my wife is 
dead to night. 1605 l.tarv. iii. 292 Your eldest Daughters 
li.iue fore-done themselues, And desperately are dead, c 1676 
LADY CHAWORTH in iaM Rep. Hist. flfSS. Comm. App. v. 
34 I .ord Chesterlields lady is dead in her child-bed month. 
1784 JOHNSON Lett. 11788) II. 373 Macbean, after three days 
of illness, is dead of a suppression of urine. 1803 BFDDOES 
xi. 75 note, \ heard . . that he was dead of scarlet 



. 

a 1300 Cursor >I. 6688 (Cott.) Qua smiles his thain wit 
a wand, And he be deid vndcr his hand, c 1375 -V. Leg. i 



DEAD. 

Saints, A ndreai 8 For one be con bath ded bai were. 1460 
CAFGRAVE Chrm. 265 Condempned to be ded a> a tretoure. 
c 1477 CAXTON "Jason 10 How many men and. .women haue 
n and ded by thy poysons. 

2. licreft of sensation or vitality ; benumbed, 
insensible, a. Of parts of the body. (Also/fp.) 

Sec also DEAD PALSY. 

<r na< . i' t r. A 1 . 112 A lutel ihurt i ben eie derueS more 
! ben de8 a muchel iSe hele : vor bet fleschs is dendure bere. 
1398 TUKVISA llart/t. De P. K. iv. i. 1 1495) 77 Thynges that 
be deed and dystroyed wyth colde. 1590 SFENSEH 
l. vii. 21 The messenger of so unhappie ncwes Would faine 
have dyde : dead was his hart within. 1607 Tin si n. Ser. 
fr*tlli6i9l 593 'lliey take Serpents in the Winter lime, when 
they grow dead and stifle through cold. 1806 COLERIDGE 
in Flagg Life W. Allston (1893) 77 My head felt like another 
man's head; so dead was it [etc.]. 1893 }. HUTCHINSON 
Archives Surg. No. 12 111.311 The liability to 'dead fingers '. 
1H, I. 312 This pair of fingers on each hand had been liable 
for at least two yean to become ' dead ' in the morning after 
washing. 

b. Of persons: Dtathlike,insensib!c, in a swoon. 
06s. Also of sleep, a. faint. 

c 1369 CHAUCER Itethe Blataufa 127 She. .Wai wery, and 
thus the ded slepe Fil on hir. 1598 FLORID, Stpetre, a dead 
swoune, clecpe sleepe or drousie sicknes. 1610 SHAKS. 
Temp. v. i. 230 We were dead of sleepe. 1610 BAEROUCH 
Physick (1639) l. xx. 30 Coma.. may be called in English 
dead sleep. 1666-7 Pervs Diary 7 Feb. (D.),'He was fallen 
down all along upon the ground dead, .he did presently 
come to himself. 1751 FIELDING Amelia ill. ix. (!>.), We 
there beheld the most shocking sight in the world. Miss 
Bath lying dead on the floor.. Miss Bath was at length 
recovered. Mod. She fell on the floor in a dead faint. 

3. As good as dead in respect to (something) ; 
insensible to. 



1340 Ayr nl'. 240 He ssel by dyead to be wordle, and libbe 
to god. 1601 ? MARSTON Pasguil 4- Kalh. i. 307 You are 
dead to nattue pleasures life. 1647 N. BACON Disc. Govt. 



Eng. i. lix. (1739) 4 He that is in a Monastery is dead to 
all worldly affairs. 17*6 SHELVOCKE I'oy. round W or Id 324 
Obstinate fellows who were dead to reason. 1813 SHELLEY 

g. Mob v. 33 Sensual, and vile ; Dead to all love. 1874 
REEN Short Hist. viii. 550 Charles was equally dead to 
the moderation and to the wisdom of this great Act of 
Settlement. 

b. Hence, As good as dead, in some particular 
respect or capacity ; spec, in Lam, cut off from civil 
rights and so legally reckoned as dead. 

1710 POPE Let. to Cromwell 17 May, Dead in a poetical 
Capacity, as a damn'd Author ; and dead in a civil Capacity, 
as a useless Member of the Common-wealth. i8s8 WEBSTER, 
Dead. . In law, cut off from the rights of a citizen . . as one 
banished or becoming a monk is civilly dead. Blackstone. 

4. Destitute of spiritual life or energy. 

1381 WYCLJF Epk. it. I Whanne }e wercn deede in ^oure 
giltis and synnes. 1534 TINIMLE i Tim. v. 6 She that 
fiveth in pleasure, is deed even yet alive. 1651 HOBBES 
Leviath. i. viii. 35 To have no Desire, is to be Dead. 1668 
HOWE Bless. Righteous 11825) ^^ How often are men the 
deader for all endeavours to quicken them. 1703 COWPRR 
Staittas Yearly Bill of Mortality i, He lives, who lives to 
God alone. And all are dead beside. 1884 J. PARKER 
Apost. Life III. in There is no deader thing unburied. .in 
many places, than the professing Church of Christ. 

6. fig. Of things (practices, feelings, etc.) : No 
longer in existence, or in use; extinct, obsolete, 
perished, past ; esp. of languages, no longer spoken. 
(.See also DEAD LETTER.) 

1591 SHAKS. Two Cent. n. vi. 28 My Lone to her is dead. 
1641 J. JACKSON True Evang. T. i. 71 These.. are dead 
tenets and opinions, tyii ADDISON Sped. No. 285 P 5 The 
Works of Ancient Authors, which are written in dead 
Languages. 1847 TENNYSON Print:. VIL 327 My doubts are 
dead! 1861 BERESF. HOPE Eng. Cathettr. trjtfC. 167 The 
lapse from vernacular to dead tongue services. 1884 ). 
SIIARMAN Hist. Swearing vi. 102 Seeking to revive this 
dead past. 

** Said of things naturally tuithout life. 

6. Not enduwcd with life ; inanimate. 

1430 E . E. Wilts (1882) 85 Alle necessarijs longynge to 
housold of dede store. 1534 MORE On the Pauion Wks. 
1274/1 He made it haue abeyng, as hathe the dead stone. 
1636 SANDERSON Serm. II. 57 Shooting sometimes at a 
dead mark. 1718 ADDISON Nfect. Na 519 P6 There are 
some living creatures which are raised but just above dead 
matter. 1857 H. MII.LKR Test. Rocks iit. 156 The long 
ascending line from dead matter to man. 

b. Applied rhetorically, emphasizing the inert 
and negative qualities of mere matter. 
(In the quol. there are also associations with branch III.) 
cijfo WVCLIF U'kt. (18801 23 And bus besc rorae renneris 
beren be kyngys gold out of oure lond, and bryngcn aaen 
deed Iced, and heresie and symonyc and coddis curse. 
** Transferred applications of t/ie literal senses. 

7. Composed of dead plants, or of dead wood, as 
a Jead hedge or fence (opposed to quickset). 

1563 Hvu..<4r/t7nn/i.(i593)7 A.. rude inclosure. .made 
of. . bushes hauing no life, which wee name a dead hed^e. 
1686 PLOT Stafforiish. 357 For a dead-fence, none, .better 
. . than those heathy-turf walls. 1718 DOUGLAS in I'hil. 
Trans. XXXV. 567 The Fences consist of what they call 
dead Hedges, or Hurdles to keep out . . Cattle. 1805 
FORSYTH Beasities Scot/. I. 524 A dead hedge is generally 
placed on the top of the bank. 

8. Of, pertaining or relating to a dead person, 
animal, plant, etc., or to some one's death. 

(In some cases not easily separated from the attributive 
use in B. 6, or from dead, northern form of DEATH.) 

1580 SIDNEY Arcadia n. 11674) 130 (D.) The tomb, which 
they caused to be made for them wilh. .notable workman- 
ship, to preserve their dead lives. 1595 SHAKS. John v. vn. 
65 You breath these dead newes in as dead an eare. ifa 
R. MATIIEW V nl. Alex, i 89. 140 His water [was] shewn to 

0* 



DEAD 



58 



DEAD. 



two Doctors, whose judgement was th.it it was a dead water ; 
and. .he would die that night. 1712 J.JAMES tr. Le Blond's 
Gardening 173 It is more difficult to make Plants grow in 
Gaps and dead Places, than in a new Spot. 1791 W. COOMBE 
Devil npon Two Sticks (1817) IV. 182 It is what the medical 
people call a dead case, .a consultation, .to discover the dis- 
order of which their patient died. 1846 J. BAXTER Libr. 
Pract. Agric.(z<\.4) I. 399 (H op-grounng} When a dead hill 
occurs in a garden . . the following is the quickest mode of 
replacing it. 

t 9. Causing death, deadly, mortal. Obs. 

1400 Dcstr. Troy 1339 In a ded hate. Ibid, 11017 
Pyrrus..come .. pat doghty to dere with a dede stroke. 
1606 Choice, Chance, $c. (1881) 72 Beares a dead wound but 
as a little stripe. 1611 SHAKS. IVint. T, iv, iv. 445 Thou 
Churle, for this time (Though full of our displeasure) yet we 
free thee From the dead blow of it. 

10. Devoid of 'life* or living organisms; hence, 
barren, infertile, yielding nothing. (Cf. B. 4.) 

1577 B. GOOGE Heresbach's Hush. (1586) i. 21 b (iitarg.\ 
Though the land be as riche as may be, yet yf you goe any 
deapth, you shall have it barren \margin Dead mould]. 
1674 N. FAIRFAX Bulk fy Selv. 186 You cannot dig many 
spades in mold or growthsom earth, before you come at 
a dead soyl. 1747 HOOSON Miner s Diet, G ij b, Dead [is] 
where there is no Ore. .Deads are the Gear or Work got in 
such dead Places. 1806 FORSYTH Beauties Scot I, IV. 57 
A rich friable clay on a bottom of dead sand. 1820 SCORESBY 
Ace. Arct. Reg. II. 211 The parallel of 77 to 77$ is con- 
sidered a 'dead latitude' by the fishers, but occasionally it 
affords whales. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Meek., Dead-ground 
(Mining), a body of non-metalliferous rock dividing a vein, 
which passes on each side of it. 

II. Deprived of or wanting some ' vital ' or 
characteristic physical quality. 

11. Without fire, flame, or glow; extinguished, 
extinct. (Opposed to five, as in live coal.) 

1340 Ayenb. 205 A quic col bermnde ope ane hyeape of 
dyade coles. xo PALSGR. 212/2 Deed cole, charbon. z6n 
SHAKS. IVint. T. v. i. 68 Starres, Starres, And all eyes else, 
dead coales. 1639 HORN & ROB. Gate Lang. Unl. v. 46 
Wood burning is called a fire-brand; being quenched., 
a dead brand. 1833 H. COLERIDGE Sonn, xviii, The crack- 
ling embers on the hearth are dead. 1884 Illnst. Land, 
News 19 Jan. 66/3 Putting his dead cigar in his mouth and 
puffing as though it had been alight. 

12. Having lost its active quality or virtue. 

a. Of drink, etc. : That has lost its sharpness, 
taste, or flavour ; flat, vapid, insipid. ? Obs. 

1552 HULOET, Dead, pale, or vinewed to be, as wyne 
which hath lost his verdure, mnceo, 1580 BAKET Alv. D 
132 Dead and vnsauorie salt. 1596 N ASHE Saffron IValden 
115 A cup of dead beere, that had stood pawling by him in 
a pot three dayes. 1607 TOPSELI. Four-f. Beasts (1673) 430 
If . . it [Musk] lose the savour and be dead. 1664 EVELYN 
Pomona Advt., It will not ferment at all, and then the Cider 
will be dead, flat, and soure. 1747 WESLEY Prim. Physic 
(1765) 68 Dip a soft Rag in dead small Beer. 

b. Dead lime : opposed to quick-lime ; dead 
steam, exhausted steam. 

1831 Meek. Mat*. XVI. 79 In certain circumstances 
carbonate of lime is changed by burning into lime which 
does not heat with water, and which is called dead lime. 
1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech.^ Dead steam. 

13. Without colour or brightness: *fa. Of the 
countenance, etc. : Deadly pale, wan. Obs. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Doctors T. 209 With a face deed as aisshen 
colde. '1430 LVDG. Bochas in. xx. 91!}, With pale and 
dead visage. 1500-20 DUNBAR Tna Mariit Wemen 420, 
I drup with a ded luke, in my dule habit. 1567 R. EDWAROS 
Damon fy Pithias in Hazl. Dodsley IV. 98 Why is thy 
colour so dead? 1604 SHAKS. Otk. n. iii. 177 Honest lago, 
that lookes dead with greeuing. 1668 DRYDEN Maiden 
Queen n. i, The dead colour of her face. 

b. Of colour, etc. : Without brightness, dull, 
lustreless. (See also DEAD COLOUR. } 

1640 PARKINSON Theat. Bot, 483 Such like flowers, but of 
a udder or deader colour. 1720 DE FOE Cfipt. Singleton 
viii. (1840) 138 A thick moss . . of a blackish dead colour. 
1805-17 R. JAMESON Char. A/ in, 50 The principal colours are 
divided into two series, .bright colours, [and] dead colours; 
red, green, blue, and yellow belong to the first ; and white, 
grey, black, and brown, to the second. 1855 BRIMLEY Ess. 
58 The deader green of ordinary foliage. 1874 KNIGHT 
Diet. Meek., Dead-gold, the unburnished surface of gold or 
gold-leaf. .Parts of objects are frequently left unburnished 
as a foil to the. .burnished portions. 1883 J. MILLINGTON 
Are tue to read backwards ? 93 Paper of a brown or yellow 
tint, with a dead or non-reflecting surface. 

14. Of sound: Without resonance, dull, muffled. 
ci530 LD. BERNERS Arth. Lyt. Bryt. (1814) 289 The lady 

called them again, but. .very softely, for it was with a dead 
voice. 1580 BARET Ah). D 131 Ones voice, .neither dead in 
sowne, nor ouer shrill. 1660 BOYLE NeiuExp. Phys, Mcch. 
xxvil. 209 The Bell seem'd to sound more dead. 1675 WOOD 
Lf/e(Qx(. Hist. Soc.) II. 332 They being so cast, severall 
were found to be ugly dead bells. 1713 F. T. Shorthand 5 
The sound of D being like a flat dead T. 1783 BLAGDEN in 
Phil. Trans. LXXIII. 332 A solid, .metallic mass, .yielding 
a dull dead sound like that metal [lead]. 1847 MRS. SHER- 
WOOD Fairchild Fam. III. viii. no A dead sound of some 
heavy, though soft body, in the. .act of falling. 

15. Not fulfilling the normal and ostensible pur- 
pose. (See also dead-door (in D. 2), DEAD-EYE, 
DEAD-LIGHT i, DEAD WELL a.) 

1806 FORSYTH Beauties Scotl. IV. 381 A . . bridge . . over 
the water of Bervie, the dead arches of which have been 
fitted up as a town-hall. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. % Dead 
..2. False; as of imitation doors and windows, put in as 
architectural devices to balance parts. 

III. Without animation, vigour, or activity ; 
inactive, quiet, dull. 

16. Without vigour or animation, lifeless. 

a 1000 Seafarer 65 (Bosw.l Me hatran sind Dry nines 



dreamas Sonne &is deade lif. c 4 HOCCLEVE Learn to Die 
714 Where is your help now, where is your chiertee?. .al as 
deed is as a stoon? i0pToH8OHCaftw,fnm, Tim. 691/1 
To shewe that wee are Gods true seruants we must not go to 
work with a dead hand (as the prouerb is*. 1646 H. LAW- 
RENCE Comm. Angells 167 Patience without hope is the 
deadest thing in the world, c 1665 MRS. HUTCHINSON Man. 
Col. Hntchinson 24 Or can be gathered from a bare dtad 
description, a 1719 ADDISON (J. 1 , How cold and dead does 
a prayer appear, .when it is not heightened by solemnity of 
phrase from the sacred writings. 1856 EMERSON Eng. Traits, 
Race Wks. (Bohn) II. 22 Active intellect and dead con- 
servatism. 

17. Without active force or practical effect ; in- 
effectual, inoperative. (See also DEAD LETTER i.) 

c 1380 WYCLIF \Vks. (1880)22 $if it be ded feibasfendishan. 
c 1400 Apol, LolL 3 Seynt Jam seib, FeiJ> wi*p outun werkis 
is deed. 1548 in Vicarys^ Anat. (1888) App. iii. 133 Good 
and necessarye ordres ..with-out the which, all lawes and 
ordenaunces . . ar butt baryn, ded, and vayne. 1647 N. 
BACON Disc. Gc?>t. Eng. i. xvi, Nor was this a dead word ; 
for the people had formerly a trick of deposing their Kings. 
1842 J. H. NEWMAN Par. Serm. VI, xii. 179 To have been 
so earnest for a dead ordinance. 

18. Characterized by absence of physical activity, 
motion, or sound; profoundly quiet or still. 
(Cf. B. 2.) 

1548 HALL Chron. 107 In the dedde tyme of the night. 
1573 G. HARVEY Letter-bk. (Camden) 12 It was in the 
deadist time of winter. 1603 SHAKS. Meas.forM. iv. ii. 67 
'Tis now dead midnight, a 1610 KNOLLES (J.), They came 
in the dead winter to Aleppo. 1863 KINGLAKE Crimea 
(1876) I, xiv. 294 The dead hours of the night. 

lU. Without alertness or briskness, inert. 

1884 St. 'James' 1 s Gaz. 4 Apr, 6/1 His recovery [in rowing] 
is dead, but his work strong. 

20. Without commercial, social, or intellectual 
activity; inactive, dull. (Of places, seasons, trade, 
etc.). 

1581 RICHE Farewell (Shaks. Soc.) n TrarHque is so dead 
by meanes of thes foraine broiles, that [etc.]. 1615 STEPHENS 
Satyr. Ess. (ed. 2) 193 As much leasure . . in the most busie 
Terme, as in the deadest Vacation. 1665 Snrv. Aff. Net her I. 
25 Complaints against dead Trade. 1676 TEMPLE Let. to 
Sir W. Godolphin Wks. 1731 II. 395 This Place is now as 
dead as I have seen any great Town. 1758 JOHNSON Idler 
No. 55 F 10 Some [publishers] never had known such a dead 
time. 1774 FOOTE Cozeners H, Wks. 1799 II. 161 The town 
is thin, and business begins to grow dead. 1883 FROUDE in 
Mrs. Carlyle's Lett. I. 59 It was the dead season ; but 
there were a few persons still in London. 

b. Of capital or stock : Lying commercially 
inactive or unemployed, unproductive. 

1570-1 GRESHAM Let. 7 Mar. in Burgon Life II. 421 There 
Is yet in the Towre xxv or xxx M //. in Spannyshe monney ; 
which is great pity should lye there dead and put to no use. 
16*3 MALYNES Anc. Laiv-Merck. 325 They will not keep 
it by them as a dead stocke . . they must imploy it in trade. 
1691 LOCKE Lower. Interest 7 That so none of the money . . 
may lie dead. 1708 Land. Gaz. No. 4410/6 A considerable 
quantity of Arms and Ammunition, which were the dead 
Stock of the African Company. 1729 FRANKLIN Ess. Wks. 
(1840) II. 267 The money, which otherwise would have lain 
dead in their hands, is made to circulate again. 1813 SIR S. 
KOMILLY in Examiner 15 Feb. 101/2 A fund, out of which 
part of this salary was proposed to be paid, was the Dead 
Fund) amounting to qoool. 1818 JAS. MILL Brit. India 
I. i. iii. 44 The dead stock, as it is technically called. 

C. Of goods : Lying unsold, unsaleable, for 
which there is no market. 

1669-70 DRYDEN Tyrannic Love v. i, And all your goods 
lie dead upon your hands. 1681 R. KNOX Hist. Ceylon in 
Arb. Garner I. 390 And now caps were become a very dead 
commodity. 1879 HIBBS in CasselFs Techn, Educ. IV. 263/2 
A large quantity of finished articles lying as dead stock in 
the market. 

21. Of a ball in a game : Inactive (for the time 
being), out of play. 

1658 OSBORN Adv. Son (1673) 104 A place that seems 
equally inclined to different Opinions, I would advise to 
count it as Bowlers do, for dead to the present understand- 
ing. 1828 Boy's Own Bk.J) aversions (ed. 2) 55 If any player 
shall stop the ball intentionally, .it shall then be considered 
dead. 1844 Laws of Cricket xxxiii, If any fieldsman stop 
the ball with his hat, the ball shall be considered dead. 
1868 W. J. WHITMORE Croqitet Tact. 9 The term 'dead* 
ball is borrowed from cricket, and means the ball which, 
having just been played, has nothing actively to do for one 
turn. 

IV. Without motion (relatively or absolutely^. 

22. Of water, air, etc. : Without motion or cur- 
rent ; still, standing. (See also DEAD WATER.) 

a looo Gnomica (Exon.) 79 (Gr.) Deop deada waej dyrne bi5 
lengest, a 1552 LELAND Collect. 11774) II. 546 The Water of 
Forth beyond Banokesburne, a deade depe Water. 1601 
HOLLAND Pliny (1634) I. 55 The dead and slow riuer Araris. 
1653 WALTON A nglergi As he [theTrout] growes stronger, he 
gets from the dead, still water, into the sharp streames and 
the gravel. 1861 HUGHES Torn Brown dtf<Zr/Cxxxvi.(i88) 
357 The wind had fallen dead. 1867 BAKER Nile Trio. ii. 
32 The banks, .had evidently been overflowed during floods, 
but at the present time the river was dead. 

b. Mining. Having no current of air, unventi- 
lated. 

1867 W. W. SMITH Coat $ Coal-mining ij It would leave 
the mass of the openings inside of the working ' bords ' dead 
or stagnant. 

23. Said of parts of machines or apparatus which 
do not themselves rotate or move. (Cf. also dead- 
rope (in D. 2), DEAD-CENTRE 2, -LINE i.) 

1807 GREGORY Mechanics II. 474 One of these pulleys 
called the dead pulley is fixed to the axis and turns with it. 
1874 KNIGHT Diet. Meek., Dead.. 3. Motionless; as the 
dead spindle of a lathe, which does not rotate. 



se senses arise out of several of the preceding (cf. 18, 
) ; and in some cases there is a blending of two or 



24. Characterized by complete and abrupt cessa- 
tion of motion, action, or speech : as a dead stop, a 
sudden complete stop. 

1647 WARD Simp. Coblcr 19 Others . . are at a dead stand. 
1765 STERNE Tr. Shandy VII. xliii, My mule made a dead 
point. 1775 MAD. D'A RELAY Early Diary -, Lett. Dr. 
Bnrney Alar., My poor book at a dead stop now. 1853 
LVTTON My Navel \. xi, There was a dead pause. 1861 
DICKENS Gt. Expect, ix, The answer spoilt his joke, and 
brought him to a dead stop. 

b. Characterized by abrupt stoppage of motion 
without recoil ; cf. DEAD BKAT j<M 

1761 HIRST in Phil. Trans. LI I. 396 It did not stop in 
winding up, and scaped dead seconds. 1768 tr. /'. Le 2toy's 
A ttcwpts for finding Longitude 29 [The escapement] of my 
watches is a dead one. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Aleck., Dead- 
stroke hammer, a power-hammer which delivers its blow 
without being affected by the recoil of the shaft. 

V. Unrelieved, unbroken ; absolute ; complete ; 
utmost. 

Thes< 
22, 24) ; 
more notions. 

25. Of a wall, level, etc. : Unbroken, unrelieved 
by breaks or interruptions ; absolutely uniform and 
continuous. 

In dead tez>el there is at once the sense ' unrelieved, un- 
varied, monotonous ', and that of ' having no fall or inclina- 
tion in any direction, absolute '. 

1597 BACON Cottiers Good <$ Evil (Arb.i 143 It seemeth . . 
a shorter distance . . if it be all dead and continued, then if 
it haue trees or buildings or any other markes whereby the 
eye may deuide it. 1670 DRYDEN Cong. Granada ii. in. i, 
By the dead wall, you, Abdelmelech, wind. 1742 POPE 
Dutic. iv. 268 We bring to one dead level every mind. 1860 
TYNDALL Glac* i. xxii. 153, I become more weary upon 
a dead level . . than on a steep mountain side. 1868 YATRS 
Rock Ahead 11. i, On every hoarding and dead-wall. 1887 
LOWELL Democr. 19 To reduce all mankind to a dead level 
of mediocrity. 
fb. Flat. Obs. 

1782 Specif. Conivay's Patent No. 1310. 2 The oven, .has 
a dead or flat hearth. 

26. Of calm or silence : Profound, deep (passing 
into the sense of ' complete, absolute ': from 18). 

1673 LD. SHAFTSBURY in Coll. of Poems 248 That we may 
not be tossed with boisterous Winds, nor overtaken by 
a sudden dead Calm. 1783 BLAGDEN in Phil. Trans. 
LXXIII. 354 A dead silence on the subject seems to have 
prevailed. 1839 T, BEALE Sperm Whale 205 There was 
a ' dead calm ' . . not a breath of wind stirring. 1847 TENNY- 
SON Princ. iv. 371 We heard In the dead hush the papers 
that she held Rustle. 

27. Said of the lowest or stillest state of the tide, 
as dead low water, dead neap : cf. 31. 

1561 [see DEAD-WATER 3]. 1589 GREENE Menaphon (Arb.) 
29 The Ocean at his deadest ebbe returns to a full tide. 1626 
CAPT. SMITH Accid. Yng. Seamen 17 A lowe water, a dead 
lowewater. a 1641 SPELMAN Hist. Sacrilege (1698) 285 
Such a dead Neipe (as they call it) as no Man living was 
known to have seen the like, the Sea fell so far back from the 
Land at Hunstanton, 1679 DRYDEN Troil. * Cr. Pref., At 
high-flood of passion, even in the dead ebb, and lowest 
water-mark of the scene. 1724 Lond. Gaz, No. 6290/3 At dead 
Low-Water upon a Spring Tide. 1809 RENNELL in Phil. 
Trans. XCIX. 403 note, The. .accident happened at dead 
neaps. 1857 LIVINGSTONE Trav. xxxii. 669, I crossed it at 
dead low-water. 

28. In dead pull, dead strain, applied to the ab- 
solute or utmost exertion of strength to move an 
inert or resisting body ; sheer ; also to such tension 
exerted without producing motion. See also DEAD- 
LIFT. 

1812-6 PLAYFAIR Nat. Phil. (1819) I. 109 The weight 
which the animal exerting itself to the utmost, or at a dead 
Pull* is just able to overcome. 1855 BAIN Senses <$ Int. H. 
ii. 12 This power taking the form of movement as dis- 
tinct from dead strain. 1857 WHEWELL Hist. Induct. Sc. 
I. 73 We may have pressure without motion, or dead pull 
. . as at the critical instant when two nicely-mat cned 
wrestlers are balanced by the exertion of the utmost strength 
of each. 1890 B. L. GILDERSI.EEVE Ess. <$ Stud. 64 There 
are things that must be learned by a dead pull. 

29. Pressing with its full or unrelieved weight 
like an inanimate or inert body : see DEAD-WEIGHT. 

1781 COWPER Truth 354 But royalty, nobility, and state, 
Are such a dead, preponderating weight. 

30. Said of a charge, expense, loss : Unrelieved, 
absolute, complete, utter ; also, of outlay, Unpro- 
ductive, without returns. Dead rent : a fixed rent 
which remains as a constant and unvarying charge 
upon a mining concession, etc. 

a 1715 BURNET Own Time (1823) I. 452 The intrinsic 
wealth of the nation was very high when it could answer 
such a dead charge. 1757 Jos. HARRIS Coins 79 The defi- 
ciency upon the coins is so much dead loss to the public. 
1796 BURKE Regie. Peace i. Wks. VIII. 152 It required 
a dead expence of three Millions sterling. 1825 SCOTT Let. 
25 May in Lockhart, I am a sharer to the extent of ^1500 
on a railroad which will, .double the rent, .but is dead out- 
lay in the mean time. 1826 CORBETT Rur. Rides (1885) II. 
7 Those colonies are a dead expense to us without a possi- 
bility of their ever being of any use. 1893 SIR J. W. CHITTY 
in Law Times Re/>. LXVIII. 428/2 The royalty reserved 
was fourpence a ton. .the dead rent was 3o/. a year. 

81. Absolute, complete, entire, thorough, down- 
right. [Arising out of various earlier senses.] 

1660 SHARROCK Vegetables 20 Till the seed . . be come to 
a full and dead ripenesse. 1766 GOLDSM. Vie. If-', xii, I had 
them a dead bargain. 1805 SCOTT Let. to J. Ballantyne 
12 Apr., This is a dead secret. 1878 Print, I'rades JrnL 



DEAD. 



59 



DEAD. 



No. ^5. 15 We know lo a dead certainty thai [etc.]. 1883 
Century Mag, XXV. 372/2, I am in dead earnest. 

b. Quite certain, sure, unerring. (Cf. dead (er- 
tainty in prec. sense.) Dead shot^ one whose aim 
is certain death ; so dead on the bird. 

a 1592 < iiuvUNK y<is. /K, in. i. 203, i, I am dead at a pocket 
sir.. I can-.picke a purse as soone as any theefe in my 
countrie. 1681 CIIETHAM Angler's \'atie*m. x. $4 116891 104 
It's a dead Halt for a Trout. 1776 F. MARIOS in Harper's 
Mag. Sept. (1883) 547/2 It was so dead a shot they none of 
them said a word. i86 Miss MITI-OKU Village Ser. n. 
(1863) 330 A silent, stupid, and respectable country gentle- 
man, a dead vote on one side of the House. 1848 THACKERAY 
Bk. Snobs vli, He is a dead hand at piquet. 1853 DICKKNS 
Bleak Ho. xxvi, With a gun in his hand, with much the air 
of a dead shot. 1874 DASENT Half a Life II. 227 Those 
who do so. .are almost always dead plucks. 
C. Exact. 

Mod. Iron bars cut to a dead length are charged a little 
more. 

d. Direct, straight. /)oz</z0fW(Naut.) : a wind 
directly opposed to the ship's course. (Cf. C. 3.) 

1881 Daily Tel. 28 Jan.. It was a dead head-wind. 1888 
Harper's Mag. July 184 Keeping the sight of my rifle in 
a dead line for Gobo's ribs. 



VI. 32. Phrases, 
in literal sense). 



a. Dead and gone (usually 



1483 Monk of Eve sham iArb.> 62 He fownde me ded and 
gonne. i5i3SKELTON<7<zr/. Laurel my Qt one Adatne all a 
knave, dede and gone. x6oa SHAKS. Ham, iv. v. 29 He is 
dead and gone Lady, he is dead and gone. 1737 POPE Hor. 
Epist. n. i 34 Advocates for folly dead ana gone. 1840 
DICKENS Barn. Ritdqe xix, When she was dead and gone, 
perhaps they would be sorry for it. 

b. Dead as a door-nail* dead as a herring: com- 
pletely or certainly dead. 

c 1350 Will. Palertie 628 For but ich haue bole of mi bale 
I am ded as dorenail. 136* LANGL. P. PI. A. i. 161 Fey 
withouten fait is febelore ben 1101131, And ded as a dore-nayf. 
1593 SHAKS. a Hen. I'f, iv. x. 42 If 1 doe not leaue you all 
as dead as a doore naile. [1598 SHAKS. Merry W. n. iii. 
12 By gar.de herring is no dead, so as I vill kill him.] 1664 
BUTLER Hud. n. iii. 1148 Hudibras, to all appearing, 
Believ'd him to be dead as Herring. 1680 OTWAY Cains 
Marius 57 As dead as a Herring, Stock-fish, or Door-nail. 
1856 READE Nmert&o late Ix, Ugh 1 what, is he, is he Dead 
as a herring. 1884 Pall Mall G. 29 May 5/2 The Congo 
treaty may now be regarded as being as dead as a doornail. 
o. Dead horse : see HOUSE. 
d. 71? wait for dead merfs shoes : see SHOE, 

H The compar. deader and superl. deadest are in 
use where the sen^e permits ; chiefly in transf. and 
fig. senses (e.g. 4, 16, above). 
B. s&l (or absol.) 

1. a. sing. One who is dead, a dead person. 
Formerly with a, and with possessive dead's (dedes, 
dedis}. b. pi. The dead. 

i 1 175 Lamb. Horn. 5 1 Al swa me dea5 bi be deade. c 1340 
Cursor M. 18043 (Tnn.) pat dede [Lazarus] from de|> to lif 
he dijt. 1340 Ayenb. 258 Huanne me yzijj* here ane byrie 
bet is tokne bet ber is wybine a dyad. 1465 Paston Lett. 
No. 510 II. 202 Tochyng the savacyon of the dedys gode. 
1519 S. FISH Supplic. Beggers 2 Or elles they will accuse 
thededes frendes. 1601 SHAKS. Jut. C. ill. ii. 131, I rather 
choose To wrong the dead . . Then I will wrong such 
Honourable men. 1691 tr. Emiliattne's Frauds Rom. 
Monks 32 The Dead, raising himself the third and last 
time. 1850 TENNYSON In Mem. Ixxxv, So hold I commerce 
with the dead ; Or so methinks the dead would say. 

c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. viii. 22 And Iset deade bcbyrigean 
hyra deadan . c isoo Trin. Coll. Horn. 23 To demen be quike 
and be deade. 1426 AUDELAY Poems 7 Vysyte the seke . . And 
ben* the ded. 1661 COWLEY Disc. Govt. O. Cnunotll, The 
Monuments of the Dead. 1776 ADAM SMITH W, N. v. ii. 
(1869) II. 453 The transference of . . property from the dead 
to the living. 1842 TENNYSON Two Voices Ixix, Nor canst 
thou show the dead are dead. 

c. From the dead [orig. tr. Lat. a mortuis, Gr. 
tK vtitpuv, diro rtav vficpuiv in N. T.] : from among 
those that are dead ; hence nearly = from death. 

C95o Lindirf. Gasp. John ii. 22 MioSy uutudlice arise5 
from deadum. 1340 Ayenb. 263 pane bridde day a-ros uram 
be dyade. 1557 N. T. (Genev} Rom. xi. 15 What shal the 
receauing of them be, but lyfe from the dead ? 165* 
GATAKER Antinom. 5 His rising from the ded. 1728 DK 
FOE Col. 'jack (1840) 299 This was a kind of life from the 
dead to us both. x86a TROLLOPE Orley F. xiii, Her voice 
sounded. .like a voice from the dead. 

2. =Dead period, season, or stage. Dead of night, 
of winter: the time of intensest stillness, darkness, 
cold, etc. ; = ' depth ' (of winter). ) Dead of neap, 
the extreme stage of neap tide. (Cf. A. 18, 37.) 

1548 HALL Ckron. 109 b, In the dedde of the night . . he 
brake up his campe and fled. 1583 STANYHUBST &neis iv. 



_ r 4 My . ., 

winter. 1793 SMEATON Edystone L. 266 At dead of neap, 
when the tides run less rapid. 1807-8 W. IRVING Salmag. 
xx. (1860) 452 In the dead of winter, when nature is without 
charm. 1840 MACAULAY dive (1867) 25 At dead of night, 
Clive marched out of the fort. 

f3. = DEAD HEAT. 06s. 

1635 QUARLES Kmbl. x. lD.), Mammon well follow'd, Cupid 
bravely led ; Both touchers ; equal fortune makes a dead. 

4. Mining. Deads : earth or rock containing no 
ore (see A. 10) ; esp. as thrown out or heaped to- 
gether in the course of working. 

1653 MANLOVE RhyinedChrott. 271 Deads, Meers, Groves. 
1671 1'Iiil. Trans. VI. 2102 By Deads here are meant, 
that part of the Shelf which contains no metal. 1757 



. :'/. 1- ',<.} Noise, .a* if a cuddle had broke, and 
the deads were set a running \note, LOOM rubbish ;inrl 
broken stones of the mine). 1851 K.INCSI.KY Yeast xiii. (I > ), 
A great furze-en fl, full of deads ^th< 



iose are the earth-heaps V. 190 My "dcad- 



A gi 

they throw out of the shafl.s). 

t6. U. .Y. college slang. A complete failure in 
' recitation '. Obs. 

n 1856 Harvard Kef. 378 in B. H. Hall College W,ls. I, 
-- -of hU ig- 
connected 



Customs, One must stand up in the singleness of his ig- 
norance to understand all the mysterious feelings connected 
with a dead. 1857 llarvnrd Mag. Oct. 332, I had made 



a dead that day, and my Tutor's rebuke 'had touched my 
pride. 

U 6. The absolute sense is also used attrib., as in 
dead money, money paid for saying masses for the 
dead ; ileatl list, list of the dead, etc. See various 
examples under D. i, 3. 

Grammatically, these pass back again into the adjective 
uses in A, from which, m some cases, they are not easy to 
separate, as dead meat, the flesh of slaughtered animals, or 
flesh which is itself dead (in sense i) ; dead wool, the wool of 
dead or slaughtered sheep. 

1476 Churchiv. Ace. Croscombe {Somerset Rec. Sffc.) 5 
There U left of the ded money, .xlvi' j '. 1693 LUTTRELL 
Brief Ktl. (1857) II. 544 Some .. in the dead list were 
not killed, but made prisoners, a 1845 MRS. BRAY Narltigk 
xlii. (1884) 304 Examined into by the 'dead jury', for so 
was an inquest termed, at the date of our tale. 1851 MAY- 
HKW Lond. Lalwur I. 177 'Dead salesmen '.. that is, the 
market salesmen of the meat sent . . ready slaughtered. 1867 
SMYTH Sailor's Word.bk. s.v., Persons dying on board, .are 
cleared from the ship's books by a dead-ticket, which must 
be filled up in a similar manner to the sick-ticket. 1880 
Victorian Rev. Feb. 664 Unlimited supplies of dead beef 
available for export from the United States. 
C. adv. 

1. In a manner, or to a degree, characteristic of or 
suggesting death ; with extreme inactivity, stillness, 
etc.; utterly, profoundly, absolutely (as dead asleep, 
dead calnf) ; to extremity, ' to death ' (as dcait run, 
dead tired}. Cf. also dead sick (in D. a), DEAD 
D HUNK, etc. 

Often connected with the qualified word by a hyphen, and 
thus passing into combinations. 

[1393 GOWER Conf. III. 259 Wherof she swouned in his 
honde, And as who saith lay dede oppressed.] 1596 R. 
UINCHE] Diella (1877) 61 Leaden-footed gnefe, Who 
neuer goes but with a dead-slowe pace, a 1631 LAUD 
Serm. (1847) 125 Elias bid them cry louder ; their God was 
' asleep ' . . Yes, dead asleep. 1637 RUTHERFORD Lett. (1862) 
I. 267 Deferred hopes need not make me dead-sweir (as we 
used to say). 1717 BRADLEY J-'am. Diet. s.v. Hart, Dead 
run deer have upon occasion taken very great leaps. 1818 
KEATS Endym. i. 405 As dead-still as a marble man. 1840 
R. H. DANA Kef. Mast x. 24 In a few minutes it fell dead 
calm. 1841 MRS. CARLYLE Lett. I. 157 For all so dead- 
weary as I lay down. Ibid. I. 160 Whether I fainted, or 
suddenly fell dead-asleep. 1861 HUGHES Tom Brown at 
Oxford vi. 1 1889) 51 To drive into Farringdon. .both horses 
dead done up. 1881 Times 25 July 4/5 Her engines were 
going dead slow. 

b. With absolute or abrupt cessation of motion 
(or speech). (Cf. A. 24.) 

1856 WHYTE MELVILLE Kate Cffv., My companion stopped 
dead short and concealed her blushes in a glass of champagne. 
1865 DICKENS Mitt. Fr. ii. iv, He stopped dead. 

c. With the full weight of an inert body. (Cf. 
A. 29.) 

l8 J. C. WILCOCKS Sea Fislierman 83 What is this on 
my line which hauls as dead as if I had hooked a weed T 

2. Hence more generally : Utterly, entirely, abso- 
lutely, quite. (Cf. A. 31.) 

1589 NASHE Almond for Parrat 5 b, Oh he isoldedogge at 
expounding, and deade sure at a Catechisme. 1741 RICHARD- 
SON Pamela (1824 1 1. 62 A dead-spiteful, grey, goggling eye. 
i8a6 DISKAKLI Vtv. Grey i. v, He cut the Doctor quite dead 
to-day. 1857 R. TOMES Amer. in Japan ix. 196 Before the 
rice is 'dead ripe*. 1860 HOOK Lives Abps. (1862) II. ii. 
93 Only one horse . . which soon became dead lame. 1888 
GREENWELL (Sloss. Coal Tr. Terms Northuinb. $ Durk. 
(ed. 3) 2 The small coals . . are then passed over a second 
skreen, [to separate] the nuts . . and the dead small, or duff 
which falls through the skreen. 

3. Directly, straight. Dead against : lit in 
a direction exactly opposite to one's course \so 
dead on end) ; fig. (in a way) directly or utterly 
opposed to. (Cf. A. 31 d.) 

1800 C. STUKT in Naval Ckron. IV. 394 Carrying me dead 
upon the Shambles. 1840 DICKENS Barn. Rudge xxxiii, 
The wind and rain being dead against me. 1840 R. H. 
DANA Bef. Mast iv. 7 We continued running dead before 
the wind. 1851 DIXON W. Peait ix. (1872) 77 The council- 
lors were dead against his prayer. 1875 J. C. WILCOCKS 
Sea Fisherman 109 Observing . . that . . the wind was dead 
on end, and the sail ' would not be a ha'porth of good ' . 
D. Combinations (of the adj. or sb.). 

1. General combs, a. With other adjectives or 
participles (in adjectival or advli. const.) = ' so as to 
be or seem dead, as if dead, to death, etc.", as in 
deaii-blanched, -cold, -drifting, -frozen, 'grown, 
-heavy, -killing, -live (cf. DEAD-ALIVE), -living, 
-seeming, -set, -sounding, -speaking, -wounded; 
b. parasynthetic, as dead-coloured, -eyed, DEAD- 
HEARTED ; o. attributive combs, of the sb. ' of 
the dead ', as f Jead-burier, dead-land. 

1879 BROWNING Halbert <$ Hob 42 Temples, late black, 
dead-blanched. 1535 COVERDALB Ezek. xxxix. 14 They 
shal ordene men also to be "deedburiers. 1611 BEAUM. 
ff FL. Maid's Trag. n. U, Two "dead-cold aspicks. 1611 
COTGR., lilainte, pale . . whitish, Mead coloured. 1818 
KEATS En^tym. in. 411 A swoon Left me "dead-drifting to 



that fulal power. 1570 Ant Tragedie 16 in .Wi/. /'tfftm 
Kef. (i8vo) I. 83 Pail) of the face. ."Deid eyit, dram lyke, 
diifigurat wa< he. 1594 KYD Cvrnelia n. in Ha/I. lh>.lil,y 
V. 190 My "dead-grown ioyv 1819 Ki \T* ^nn., 1' 
of Leandfr, See how hli body dip* "Dead-heavy. 1993 
SHAKS. /-//< r. 540 With a ecu k:ilri<_e 'dcad-lulliuy eye. 1594 

Kiik. Ill .iv. i. 36 This dad. killing ncwes. 1871 I 
1'iim.Ctilt. II. 281 Mictlanteuctli, ruler of the dismal *dead. 
land in the shades below. 1501 S^Lv^^^^K l>u Hartal i. 

i iii. 94$ Th'admired Adamant, Whose '(lead-live power my 
Reasons power doth dant, 1605 Ibid. n. iii. Latin 694 
(I).) He smot the sea with his "dead-liuing rod. iw ItU. 
II. i. Imposture 260 M>ead"-ceming coals but quick. 18*0 
SCOTT MoHast. iii, Her quivering lip. and "dead-set eye. 
17*6 LRONI Albertfs Archil. I. 42 a. Of Stones, some, ore 
heavy and sonorous ; others are . . light, and 'dead sounding. 
1598 SYLVESTER DH Barias n. ii. iv. Columnes 717 The 
Guide of supplest fingers On (living-dumb, "dead-speaking) 
sinnew-singers. c 1400 Destr. Troy 6528 All bat met byln . . 
Auther dyet of his dynttes, or were "ded wondit. 

2. Special combs, dead angle (f'trti/.'-, 'any 
angle of a fortification, the ground before which is 
unseen, and therefore undefended from the parapet' 
(Stocqneler Milit. ntycl.) ; t dead-birth : see 
BIRTH 3 b ; dea-d-cart, a cart in which dead 
bodies are carried away (e.g. during pestilence) ; 
dea'd-clothes, the clothes in which the dead are 
dressed ; dead dipping, a process by which a 
' dead ' or dull surface is given to ornamental brass- 
work (Ure Diet. Arts 1*75' ; also dead-dipped 
ppl. a. ; dead doors (Naut.), doors fitted to the out- 
side of the quarter-gallery doors, to keep out water 
in case the quarter-gallery should be carried away 
(Weale 1850) ; dead-dress = dead-clothes; dead- 
end, a closed end of a water-pipe, passage, etc., 
through which there is no way ; also attrib. ; dead- 
tile-* dead-smooth file; dead fin, name for the 
second dorsal fin of a salmon ; dea'd-fire, the lumi- 
nous appearance called St. Elmo's Fire, supersti- 
tiously believed to presage death ; dead-flat (Naut.} , 

I that timber or frame in a ship that has the greatest 

I breadth; the midship-bend (\Veale 1850); dead- 
freight, the amount paid for that part of a vessel 
not occupied by cargo, when the vessel U chartered 
for a lump sum ; dea'd-hole (see quots. and cf. 
DEAD-WELL i) ; dea'd-house, a building or room 
in which dead bodies are kept for a time, a mor- 
tuary ; dead-latch (see quot.) ; dead march, a 
piece of solemn music played at a funeral proces- 
sion, esp. at a military funeral ; a funeral march ; 
doa'd-offlce, the office or service for the burial of 
the dead ; dead oi), a name given to those pro- 
ducts of the distillation of coal-tar which are heavier 
than water ; also called heavy oil; dead-plate, an 
ungrated iron plate at the mouth of a furnace, on 
which coal is coked before being pushed upon the 
grate; fdea'd-pledge = MORTGAGE ; dea'd-ri sing 
(JVaut.), ' those parts of a ship's floor or bottom, 
throughout her whole length, where the floor-tim- 
ber is terminated upon the Tower futtock ' (Falconer, 
Mar. Diet. 1830) ; dea-d-room, a room in which 
dead bodies are kept ; dead rope, (a) a rope that 
does not run in a block or pulley (Phillips 1 706) ; 
cf. A. 23 ; (ff) a bell-rope working on a half-wheel, 
for chiming ; dead-share (see quot. 1867, and cf. 
DEAD PAY) ; dead sheave, ' a scored aperture in 

| the heel of a top-mast, through which a second 
top-tackle pendant can be rove" iSmyth, Sailors 
\VorJ-bk. ; dead-shore (see quot.) ; dead-sick a., 
(a) as sick as one can be, prostrate with sickness ; 
t (V) sick unto death, death -sick (common in Cover- 
dale) ; t dea d-slay er, one guilty of manslaughter ; 
dead-smooth a., said of the finest quality of file ; 
dead-space : see quot. ; dead-stroke (Milliards), 
see quot. ; dea'd-struck, t -strooken ///. a., 
struck dead ; fig. struck with horror, paralyzed, 
etc. ; f dead-sweat, the cold sweat of death : 
= death-sweat ; dea'd-tops, a disease of trees (see 
quot.) ; hence dead-top attrib. ; dead-turn : see 
quot. ; t dead wed (Sc. wad) = MOKTOAGI. See 
also following words, DEAD-ALIVK to DEAD-WORK. 
1685 COOKK Marrow Chirurg. vii. ii. 269 The round [ Birth- 
wort] Is . . more effectual in moving speedily the Menses, 
"dead-Birth, and after-Birth. IT DE FOE Flag** (1840) 
35 Many .. were . . carried away in the "dead-carts. 1887 
Mar. 2/2 In Monte Video, .the dead carts 



. . . 

pass through the streets with dead and dying all mixed up. 
1861 RAMSAY Remin. Ser. n. 5 ' Those are fine linens you 
have got there, Janet.' ' Troth, mem . . they 're just the 
gudeman's "deed claes.' 1888 Contemp. Rn: Mar. 400 The 
men set themselves to dig out actual catacombs, while the 
women made dead-clothes. 1866 TIMMIKS Intlustr. Hist. 
/Birmingham 300 Burnishing, .furnishes a contrast to other 
portions of "dead dipped work. IHtt. 209 Dead dipping, .has 
now become the recognized mode of finish where acid U 
employed. 1879 Casselts Ttckn. Educ. IV. 299/2 'Dead 1 
dipping produces a beautiful frosted appearance on the work. 
1854 H. MILLER &*.*&*<. vii. (1857) 138 Like the pointed 
tags that roughen a "dead-dress. i8W Pall Mall G. 12 Oct. 
2/1 There are, of course, fire-cocks and valves on 'dead-nd>, 
but these are not efficient to thoroughly free water-pipes 
from incrustations and deposits. 1889 G. FINDLAY ling. 
Raihvay 109 This is what is termed a ' dead-end ' warehouse 

8*-a 



DEAD. 

. . the waggons come in and go out the same way, and cannot 
be taken through the warehouse. 1865 J. G. BERTRAM 
Harvest of Sea (1873) 88 About 1300 of these [salmon] were 
marked by cutting off the *dead or second dorsal fin . . 25 
were marked with a silver ring behind the dead fin. Ibid. 
138 Cutting off the dead fin is not thought a good plan of 
marking. 1854 H. MILLER Sch. $ Schw. (1858) 15 We 
looked up, and saw a *dead-fire sticking to the cross-trees. 
1 It's all over with us now, master,' said I. 1730-6 BAILEY 
i folio', * Dead Freight^ the Freight a Ship looses for want of 
being full, or the Freight paid by the Merchant, by agree- 
ment, tho' he has not sent his full Compliment of Goods on 
board. 1880 Clause in Charter-parties, Captain or Owners 
to have an absolute lien on the Cargo for all Freight, Dead- 
freight, and Demurrage due to the ship under this Charter 
Party. 1856 Jrnl. R. Agric. Soc. XVII. 11. 504 For these 
Mead-holes we would substitute cesspools . . The open cess- 
pools, or dead-holes, which are too frequently used. 1833 
Edin. Rev. LVII. 348 The keeper of the *dead-house. 
1850 Ecclesiologist X. 339 To the right of the lich-gate we 
have placed the ' Dead-House '. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., 
* Dead-latch, a kind of latch whose bolt may be so locked by 
a detent that it cannot be opened from the inside by the 
handle or from the outside by the latch-key. 1603 KNOLLES 
Hist. Turks 827 The ensigns were, .let fall, .a *dead march 
sounded, and heavy silence commanded to be kept through 
all the Campe. 1852 DICKENS Bleak Ho. xxi, That's the 
Dead March in Saul. They burysoldiers to it. 1858 FABF.R 
Life Xavier 446 Where there was no Christian burial 
ground, he dug the grave with his own hands, buried them, 
and then recited the *Dead-Office on the spot. 1849 
MANSFIELD in Jrnl. Chem, Soc. I. 250 The heavy oil whose 
extrication forms the second period of the process, is techni- 
cally called ' Mead oil'. 1854 RONALDS & RICHARDSON 
Chem. Technol. (ed. 2) I. 135 More heat [is] applied, until 
the distillation of the dead oil is complete. 1875 URE 
Diet. Arts III. 395 The dead oils . . are found in the very 
last portions that pass in the distillation of coal-tar. 1855 
LARDNER Museum Sc. $ ArtV, The fuel .. should be 
laid on that part of the grate nearest to the fire door, 
called the s dead plates. 1881 RAYMOND Mining Gloss. s.v., 
The gases evolved on the dead-plate pass over the grate 
and are burned. 1658 PHILLIPS, *Dead pledge, land or 
moveables pawned for money, which is to be the Credi- 
tours for ever, if the money be not repaid at the time 
agreed on ; it is also called Mortgage. 1664 E. BUSHNELL 
Coinpl. Shipwright 10 Then I set off the *Dead Rising. 
1691 T. H[ALE] Ace. New Invent. 120 The.. Stern-post, and 
Dead-rising up the Tuck, c 1850 in Rudim. Navig. ( Weale) 
114. 1835 WILLIS Pencillings I. i. 16 My friend proposed 
to me to Took into the Mead-room. 1751 CHAMBERS Cycl. 
Supp., *Dead ro^es, in a ship, are such as are not running, 
i.e. do not run in any block. 1846-54 OLIVER Monasticon 
Rxon. 269 Rung with a half wheel, or dead rope. 1872 
ELLACOMBE Bells of Ch, x. 359 At this time . . the bells 
were altered from the dead rope pull to the sally. 1517 
in ArcJueologia XLVII. 311 For xviij Medshares . . at 
v. s. a moneth vj. Ii. vj. s. 1867 SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk,, 
Dead-shares, an allowance formerly made to officers of the 
fleet, from fictitious numbers borne on the complement 
(temp. Henry VIIU, varying from fifty shares for an 
admiral, to half a share for the cook's mate. 1857 J. G. 
WILKINSON Egyptians t. Pharaohs 112 A single square sail 
. . raised or lowered by lifts running in Mead-sheeve holes at 
the top of the mast. 1823 in P. NICHOLSON Pract. Build. 
584 *Dead-shoar. 1850 WEALE Diet. Terms, Dead shore, 
a piece of timber worked up in brickwork to support a 
superincumbent mass until the brickwork which is to carry 
it has set or become hard. 1535 COVERDALE 2 Kings xx. i 
At that tyme was Ezechias Meedsicke. [So Isa. xxxviii. i, 
John iv. 47, etc.] ^1621 S. WARD Life of Faith (1627) 88 
When thou . . (as in a Sea-sicknesse) art dead sicke for the 
present, remember thou shalt be the better, .after. 1535 
COVERDALE Josh. xx. 2 Fre cities .. that a Meed sleyer 
which sleyeth a soule vnawarres . . may flye thither. 
1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. s.v., The grades [of files] are 
as follows : Rough. Middle-cut. Bastard. Second-cut. 
Smooth. *Dead-smooth. 1884 F. J. BRITTEN Watch $ 
Clockm. 79 Dead Smooth, .the cut of the finest kind of file. 
1887 BRUNTON Pharmacology, etc. (ed. 3) noo ^Dead-space : 
this name has been given by O. Liebreich to the part of 
a fluid in which no reaction occurs between substances 
dissolved in it. . . If the mixture be placed in horizontal 
capillary tubes the dead-space is at each end of the liquid. 
1873 CAVENDISH & BENNETT Billiards 193 A Mead-stroke 
is played by striking the white gently in the centre, or, if 
anything, very slightly below it. a 1593 MARLOWE Hero $ 
Leander i. 121 With fear of death Mead-strooken. 1597-8 
BP. HALL Sat, i. iii. (T.\ [To] appall The Mead-struck 
audience. 1839 DARLEY Introd, Beaum. cy Fl. Wks. I. 31 
Shakspeare himself scrawls bytimes with a dead-struck 
hand. 1609 HOLLAND A mm. Marcell. 390 Having a 
Mead sweat comming all over him, he died within a while 
after. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), *Dead-tops, a Disease 
in Trees : For large Plants that upon their Removal have 
had their tops cut off, are apt to die from the Place they 
were cut off at, to the next Sprig, or Branch, a 1711 KEN 
Sion Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 320 When they saw a dead-top 
Oak decline. 1888 S. P. THOMPSON Dynamo-Electr. Mach. 
(ed. 3) 405 In every dynamo the current, .is proportional to 
the speed less a certain number of revolutions per second. 
The latter number is familiarly known as the Mead-turns. 
1340 Ayenb. 36 Hy betakeb hyre londes and hare eritage 
me wed and Mead wed. 1609 SKENE Reg. Maj. 50 The 
secund. .ane deidwad. .is forbiddin in the Kings co'urt to be 
made or vsed. Because it is esteemed to be ane kinde of 
ocker or vsurie. 

Dead, sb.' 2 Also 3-6 ded, dede, 4- deid. The 
northern form of the word DEATH, formerly in 
regular use with Northern writers (dede), and still 
dialectal in Scotch (deid, pronounced dzd), esp. in 
certain locutions, e. g. tired to dead (deid}, to be the 
dead (deid} of&ny one. Also in many combinations, 
as dead-bell^ dead-candle, dead-rattle, dead-spoke, 
dead-thraw, etc. For examples of the simple word, 
see the forms under the various senses of DEATH 
sb. ; for the combinations see under the standard 
English forms DEATH-BELL, DEATH-THROE, etc. 



60 

In some instances it is difficult to decide whether dead- in 
combination is the sb. death, or the ordinary adj. And it 
is evident that later writers have often used phrases and 
combinations containing the sb., with the notion that it was 
the adj. Thus dead-bell could easily be understood as the 
bell of the dead, or rung for the dead, dead-sweat as the 
sweat characteristic of the dead. 

t Dead (ded\ v. Obs. exc. in local or nonce-use ; 
replaced by DEADEN. Forms : i de"adian, 4-5 
dede, 5-9 dead. [OE. deadian (also adcadiari] to 
become dead (corresp. to a Gothic *dauddn}, f. 
dlad, DEAD a* Branch II corresponds in sense to 
OE. dfydan, dydan to kill (Gothic *dattdjan, Ger. 
todteri} ; but is app. only a transitive use of the 
original intr. vb.] 

I. intr. 1. To become dead. a. ///. To die. 
cg$0 Lindtsf. Gosp. John viii. 21 And in synno iuero 

deada5e5. [^975 Rush. Gosp., In synnum lowrum ^e 
deodixaS.] [c 1050 Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 408/6 Fatescit, 
adeadab.] < 1420 Pallad^ on Husb. i. 752 The seed of thorn 
in it wol dede and dote, c" 1425 Seven Sag. 623 (P.) The 
holde tre bygan to dede. 

b. fig. To lose vitality, force, or vigour ; to be- 
come numb ; to lose heat or glow. 

c 1384 CHAUCER H. Fame n. 44 Al my felynge gan to dede. 
1626 BACON Sylva 774 Iron, as soon as it is out of the 
Fire, deadeth straight- ways. 1654 FULLER Ephejneris^tti. 
5 Their loyalty flatteth and deadeth by degrees. 

2. U.S. college slang. ' To be unable to recite ; 
to be ignorant of the lesson ; to declare one's self 
unprepared to recite * (B. H. Hall College Wds. & 
Customs, 1856). 

1848 Oration before H. L. of I. O. ofO. F., Be ready, in 
fine, to cut, to drink, to smoke, to dead. 

II. trans. 

3. To make dead (lit. andyijf.) ; to cause to die ; 
to put to death, kill, slay, destroy. 

1340 Cursor M, 13070 (Fairf.) Herodias couet lohn to 
dede. c 1374 CHAUCER Boeth. iv. iv. 127 Aftir bat be body 
is dedid by >e de(>e. 1591 SPENSER Teares of Muses 210 
Our pleasant Willy, .is dead . .With whom all joy and jolly 
merriment Is also deaded. 1594 NASHE Unfort. 7'rav. 52 
Tree rootes. .stubbed downe to the ground, yet were they 
not vtterly deaded. c 1624 LUSHINGTON Resurr. Scrm. in 
Phenix (1708) II. 480 This would murder His divinity, and 
dead His immortality. 1677 GALE Crt. Gentiles II. iv. 140 
By burning to set a marque, or to dead the flesh. 

4. fig. To deprive of some form of vitality ; to 
deaden : a. To deprive of sensation or conscious- 
ness ; to stupefy, benumb. 

i 

foi 

Ev. Man out of Hunt. I. iii, O my senses, Why lose you not 
your powers, and become DulI'd, if not deaded, with this 
spectacle? 1641 FRENCH Distill, iy. (1651) 06 It. .quickens 
any deaded member, as in the palsie. 1692 R. L'ESTRANGE 
Josephus' Antiq, vn. x, His hearing was deaded and lost. 
b. To deprive of force or vigour. 

1586 Epit, Sidney Spenser's Wks. (Globe) 572/2 Endlese 
griefe, which deads my life, yet knowes not how to kill. 
a 1631 LAUD Senn. (1847) 13 Let nothing dead your spirits 
in God's and your country's service. 1653 A. WILSON Jas. I, 
95 This, .deaded the matter so, that it lost the Cause. 1687 
SHADWELL Jtwenal Ded. Aiijb, In all Paraphrases upon 
the Greek and Roman Authors, .the Strength and Spirit of 
them is deaded, and in some quite lost. 
C. To render spiritually dead. 

1656 R. ROBINSON Christ all 108 Carnal security deads the 
heart. 1676 HALE Contempl. i. (1689)281, I have been very 
jealous . . of wounding . . or deading my conscience. 
d. To make dead or insensible to something. 

1612 T. TAYLOR Comm. Titus \. 7 Drunkennes is. .an 
oppressing, and deading of it [the heart] unto dutie. 1655 
GURNALL Chr. in Arm. (1669) 175/1 Thesense of this Gospel- 
peace will dead the heart to the creature. 

5. To deprive of its active or effective physical 
quality ; to deaden, make ' dead ', extinguish. 

1611 COTGR., Buffet^ .. deaded, as wine that hath taken 
wind, or hath beene mingled with water. 1626 BACON Sylva 
158 If a Bell hath Cloth or Silk wrapped about it, it 
deadeth the Sound more. 1653 J. WRIGHT tr. Camus 1 
Nature's Paradox 100 The Ashes of Love, whose coals 
were deaded on a sodain. 1657 W. COLES Adam inEden i, 
[Walnut oil] is better for Painters' use to illustrate a white 
colour than Linseed Oyl, which deadeth it. 1719 D'URFEY 
Pills (1872) V. 163 Common Prey so deads her Dart, It 
scarce can wound a noble Game. 1748 THOMSON Cast. Indol, 
i. Ixvi, When . . thy toils . . Shall dead thy fire, and damp 
its heavenly spark. 

6. To check, retard (motion or force) ; to destroy 
the force or effect of (a missile, etc.). 

1602 CAREW Cornwall 155 b, Great trusses of hay., to 
blench the defendants sight, and dead their shot. 1626 
BACON Sylva 15 Yet it doth not dead the Motion. 1663 
PEPYS Diary 15 Apr., Which, .in dry weather, turns to dust 
and deads the ball. 1670 Phil. Trans. V, 2067 The wind 
was at South-East ; which deads the Tydes there. 

7. U. S. college slang. ( To cause one to fail in 
reciting. Said of a teacher who puzzles a scholar 
with difficult questions, and thereby causes him to 
fail ' (B. H. Hall College Wds. & Customs, 1856). 

1884 J. HAWTHORNE in Harpers Mag. Aug. 386/2 Whose . . 
enquiry, ' What is ethics ? ' had deaded so many a promising 
. .student. 

Dead, obs. form of DEED. 

Dea'd-ali've, a. Also (chiefly U. S.}, dead- 
and-alive. Dead while yet alive ; alive, but with- 
out animation ; dull, inactive, spiritless. 

1591 SYLVESTER Du Bartas i. v. 953 Leaving a Post-hume 
(dead-alive) r.eed behind her. 1617 COLLINS Def. Bp. Ely 



DEAD DRUNK. 

453 The Monke that Hues in pleasure, and delicacie, and 
idlenesse, is dead aliue. 1794 Miss GUNNING Packet II. 103 
A dawdling, dead-alive, .drowsy subject. 1840 HOOD Up 
the Rhine 2 A. .dead-alive, hypochonclriacal old bachelor 
uncle, a 1862 THOREAU Lett. (1865) 198, I have performed 
this journey in a very dead and alive manner. 1868 HOLME 
LEE B. Godfrey xxvi. 138 This dreary . .dead-alive place. 

Hence Dcad-alivism. 

1887 JESSOPP Arcady 170 Dismal, dull, dead-alivism. 

Dead beat, dea-d-bea-t, s&.i (a.} Watch and 

Clock-making, etc. [DEAD a. 24 b.] A beat or 
stroke which stops ' dead ' without recoil. Usually 
attrib. or adj., as in dead-beat escapement. 

1768 tr. P. Le Roy's Attempts finding Longitude^ The 
dead beat is made upon a part that is unconcerned with the 
regulator. 1874 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., Dead-beat Escape- 
ment. This.. was invented by Graham about 1700. 1881 
MAXWELL Electr. $ Magn. II. 351 Galvanometers, in which 
the resistance is so great that the motion is of this kind, are 
c rtlled dead-heat galvanometers. 1882 J. MILNE in Nature 
XXVI. 628 Pendulum?, so far controlled by friction as to 
be ' dead-beat '. 

Dead beat, dea'd-bea't, ///. a. (sb?} [DEAD 

adv. i, 2.] 

A. adj. (or/fl. pple^} Completely * beat ', utterly 
exhausted, colloq. 

1821 P. EGAN Tom # Jerry (1890) 34 So dead-beat, as to 
be compelled to cry for quarter. 1836 HOOK G. Gurney \. 
218, I never was so dead beat in my life. 1887 SIR R. H. 
ROBERTS In t/te Shires ii. 30 His horse lay dead beat in 
a ditch beside him. 

B. sb. slang (U.S.}. A worthless idler who 
sponges on his friends ; a sponger, loafer. 

1877 BLACK Green Past. xli. (1878) 325 A system of local 
government controlled by 30,000 bummers, loafers, and dead- 
beats. 1882 B. HARTE Flip ii, Every tramp and dead-beat 
you've met. 

Dead-bell : see DEATH-BELL. 

Dea*d-born, ///. a. Now chiefly dial. Born 
dead, still-born. 

c 1330 King of Tars 914 The child ded-boren was. 1483 
Cath. Angl. 93 Dedeborne . . abortiuus. 1613 PURCHAS 
Pilgrimage ym. xiii. 812 Children which were dead-borne. 
1781 BLAND in Phil. Trans. LXXI. 357 The number of the 
children that were dead-born. 1840 R. BREMNER Excurs. 
Denmark, etc. II. 396 The dead-born and those who long 
wielded the sceptre, are laid side by side. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 26500 (Cott.) pe dedis. -bat forwit ded 
born ware, J>ai mai be quickend neuer mare. 1725 POPE 
Odyss. xx. 354 A Samian Peer.. who teem'd with many 
a dead-born jest. 1738 Epil. Sat. n. 226 All, all but 
Truth, drops dead-born from the Press. 1830 MACAULAY 
Southey, Ess, (1848) I. 222 The History. . is already dead : 
indeed, the second volume was deadborn. xSMCARLYLE^r. 
Rev. I. v. viii. 247 Messieurs of the dead-born Brogiie- 
Ministry. 

Deadbote : see DEDBOTE. 
Dea*d-ce:ntre. Mech. 1. = DEAD-POINT. 

1874 in Spends Diet, Engineering 161. 

2. In a lathe, a centre which does not revolve : 
see CENTRE 5. 

1879 HOLTZAPFFEL Turning iv. 44 The dead centre with 
loose pulley. Ibid, 45 The dead center lathe. 

Dea'd CO'lour. Painting. [DEAD a. i3b.] 
The first or preparatory layer of colour in a paint- 
ing. So Dea-d-colour v. trans., to paint in dead 
colour ; Dea'd-colouring" vbl. sb. 

1658 W. SANDERSON Graphice 63 First to speak of dead- 
colours. 1672 in H. WALPOLE Vertue's Anecd. Painting 
(1786) III. 128, 5 June, Dr. Tillotson sat . . to Mr. Lely for 
him to lay in a dead colour of his picture. 1788 SIR J. 
REYNOLDS Disc, xiv. (1876) 94 That lightness of hand which 
was in his dead colour, or first painting. 1843 H. GREENOUGH 
in Flagg Life IV. Allston (1893) 182 This dead color I paint 
solidly, with a good body of color. 

1658 W. SANDERSON Graphice 64 Pictures by a good 
Master, begun, and dead-coloured only. 1668 Excellency 
of Pen fy Pencil 82 In this Dead-colouring you need not be 
over curious . . the colours may be mended at the second 
Operation. Ibid. 101 For a light-red Garment, first dead- 
colour it with Yermilion. < 1790 IMISON Sch. Art II. 58 
After the student has covered over, or as artists term it, 
has dead-coloured the head. 1859 GULLICK & TIMBS Paint. 
230 The Dead-colouring is the first or preparatory painting, 
and is so termed because the colours are laid cold and pale 
to admit of the after-paintings. 

Dead-day : see DEATH-DAT. 

t Dea'd-dolng, ///. a. Obs. 'Doing to death', 

killing, murderous. 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. n. iii. 8 Hold your dead-doing hand. 
X594 Amoretti\, Those lilly hands, Which hold my life 
in their dead-doing might. 1633 B. JONSON Tale Tub n. i, 

p--i . -\j r_:_i..r..i ui_j.^^._j j i j_: i i_ 

[702 ' 

(1872) XI. 150 These dead-doing men. 

Dead drunk, dea*d - dru'nk, n. [DEAD 

adv. i : cf. dead-sick in DEAD T^ 2.] So drunk as 
to be insensible or unable to move, in a state of 
prostration through intoxication. He ice Dead- 
drunkenness. 

1590 BUTTES Dycts Dry D. P vij, They . . receive . . the 
smoak through a Cane, till they fall doune Dead-drunke. 
1603 SHAKS. Oth. \\, iii. 85. 1667 DRYDEN Wild Gallant 
v. IL 1709 STEELE Tatler No. 5 f i Cupid is not only Blind 
at present, but Dead-drunk. 1840 MRS. CARLYLK Lett. I. 
124 My penitent was lying on the floor, dead-drunk. 1837 
HAWTHORNE Twice Told T,, David S^van, An awful instance 
of dead drunkenness. 



Put up.. Your frightful blade, and your dead-doing look. 
1701 C. MATHER Afagn. Chr, i. ii. (1852) 53 Such dead- 
in^ things, as powder and shot. 1778 WESLEY Wks. 



DEADEN. 

Duado, obs. form of DK.HI, DKMI. 

Beaded// 1 /, a. : see DKAI> ">. 4. 

Deaden ilc'd'n), v. [i. DEAK a. + -UN": a 
comparatively recent formation, taking tlic place 
of the earlier DEAD v.'] 

I. 1. intr. To become dead (lit. and fig.} ; to 
lose vitality, force, vigour, biightncss, etc. 

1713 Lond. Gas. No. 6171/3 The Wind deadning .. we 
could not make the Way we expected. 1801 Souun v 
Tti,il,iha xii. viii, The dash Of the out-breakers deadtn'd. 
1835 .\'ftv Monthly Ma%. XI. 1 1 1. 157 The bells, which you 
hear loudly at first, begin to deaden. 1869 LOWELL Pictures 
/>;>/ir Applftiore vi. Yet they momently cool and dampen 
and deaden. 

II. trans. 

2. To deprive of life, kill (e.g. the tissues). 

1807 16 S. COOPER First Lines Surf. (ed. 5) 145 By which 
. . some of the fibres around the track of the ball are dead- 
ened. .1 /,./'. To deaden the nerve of the tooth. 

b. spec. (U.S.*) To kill (.trees) by 'girdling', i.e. 
cutting out a section of the bark all round ; to clear 
(ground) by killing the trees in this manner. 

I 7?5 ADAIR Amer. Ind. 405 They deadened the trees by 
cutting through the bark. 1855 W. SARGENT Braddock's Ex- 
ped. 84 A good woodsman will soon deaden a number of acres, 
which by the next seed-time will be ready for cultivation. 

8. Jig. To deprive of vitality, force, or sensibility; 
to benumb, to dull, 

1684-9 T. BURNET Th. Earth (J.), We will.. by a soft 
answer deaden their force by degrees. 1711 ADDISON Sped. 
No. 487 P3 That Activity which is natural to the human 
Soul, and which is not in the power of Steep to deaden or 
abate. 1798 T. JEFFERSON Writ. (1850) IV. 205 It deadens 
also the demand for wheat. 1863 WHYTE MELVILLE Gladia- 
tors II. 105 Any anodyne that could deaden or alleviate her 
pain. 1876 MOZLEY Univ. Serm. vi. (1877) 129 To benumb 
and deaden worship. 

b. To render dead or insensible to. 

a 1600 E. HOPKINS Serm. Acts xxvi. 28 (R.) How deadncd 
are they to those sinful ways, which before they much 
delighted in? 1874 G KEEN Short Hist. viii. i. 447 Its [the 
Bible's] words, .fell on ears which custom had not deadened 
to their force and beauty. 

4. To deprive of some effective physical quality : 
a. To deprive of lustre or brilliancy ; to make dull 
in colour or aspect ; to give a dull surface to (metal, 
glass, etc.) : see DEAD a. 13 b. 

' 1666 PF.PYS Diary 24 Oct.. He . . lays the fault of it upon 
the fire, which deadened .. tne glory of his services. 1706 
POPE Let. to Walsh 3 July, In painting, a man may lay 
colours one upon another, till they stiffen and deaden the 
piece. 1799 G. SMITH Laboratory I. 185 How to deaden 
the glass and fit it to paint upon. 1835 OWEN Anat. yertctr. 
AHIIH. ii. (L.), [It] deadens the whiteness of the tissue. 

b. To deprive (liquor) of sharpness or flavour, to 
make vapid. C. To make (sound) dull or indistinct. 
d. To reduce (quicksilver) from the liquid to the 
granular state in the process o