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Revised and Enlarged, of The Sources of Stcmdard English, 
Globe 8vo. 9s. 

"That such a book can now be written in such a shape, is a sign of the vast 
steps' which have been made within the last few years, by clear and scientific views 
of history and philosophy. It comes nearer to a History of the English Language 
than anything that we have seen since such a history could be written without 
confusion and contradictions. Mr. Oliphant firmly grasps the truth, that English 
is English, and always has been English, and not anything else. In clearness and 
precision he is a century or two in advance of Mr. Marsh and writers of that date. 
He shows all along that he has been working his philology, as alone it can be 
safely worked, under the wing of history."— iSatwrday Review. 

" Mr. Oliphant has produced a most useful and opportune book. He has traced, 
in an interesting and popular way, the changes of letters, inflections, forms, and 
words during the whole course or our language. It is neither too technical nor 
too long to prevent the general reader understanding and eiyoying the book, while 
he gets sound information from it." — Athenceum. 

"The volume before us has all the force and flow of original composition, all 
the freedom of an independent thinker, and is yet remarkable for fidelity to detail 
and historical precision in recording the facts of transition in our language."— 
John Bull. 

" This book is in reality one of the most interesting works on the History of 
the Language which has yet been written for the use of the student. It is a book 
which should be read by all students of the good old tongue ; a book which would 
help to form the taste of all intelligent readers."— jEdiwxitwwia? Times. 

" An exceedingly able book, containing clear views clearly expressed. It is just 
such a work as general readers have for several years been feeling the want of. 
Ample materials lay ready for the work, and they could not have found a better 
exponent than Mr. Oliphant He has produced by far the best history of our 
language yet written. It is a model of well-digested scholarship."- Tfce Examiner. 

" In a popular but yet scholarlike way, Mr. Oliphant has traced the gradual 
change of our language from Anglo-Saxon into modern English ; and has given an 
amusing account of Good and Bad English in 1873."— iJeport of the Early English 
Text Society far 18U. 

" Mr. Oliphant has done good service in bringing together, and making easily 
accessible, much of this hitherto rare learning. Ten years ago not a page of this 
book could have been vrritten."— The Nation (New York). 

" To read the sixth chapter is as healthful an exercise as to walk thirty miles as 
the crow flies. It is from first to last a most exciting raid against Dr. Johnson 
run mad. Mr. Oliphant has managed to put together a rare variety of monstros- 
ities, slang, bombast, twatldle, and general absurdity, all illustrative of the style 
of speech and writing of this age. There is, withal, a series of spicy anecdotes 
arranged as illustrative footnotes. These form as entertaining reading in their 
way as Dean Ramsay or Hislop. Taken, however, along with the text, they are 
specially efiective."— Dum&ar<(m Herald. 

" Mr. Oliphant has wrought out a good idea in a very able way. He is merci- 
lessly severe on modem writers of gaudy English, and certain preachers, to whom 
he devotes a scarifying chapter."— jBri«M Quarterly Review. 


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VOL. 11. 




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AH rigtits reserved. ^ 

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Shaeesfebe's English. 


1586 A new Period . . . . . . . 1 

1587 Harrison^s Second Edition of his Work . . 2 

The Romance words 3 

Customs of his day ...... 4 

Churchyard ; Ellis's Letters .... 5 

1590 Sir Roger Williams on War .... 6 

The Romance words ...... 7 

Webbe; Nash 8 

1592 His Pierce Penniless ...... 9 

The Romance words . . . . . .10 

1593 Another Work by Nash 11 

Tarlton's Jests 12 

Lambarde ....... 13 

1598 Hall's Satires . . . . . . .14 

Shakespere ; Titus; Love's Labour Lost . . 16 
The Foreign words . . . . . .16 

All's WeU that Ends WeU 17 

Taming of the Shrew 18 

Comedy of Errors . . . . .19 
Two Gentlemen of Verona . . . . .20 
Henry VI.— Part 1 21 

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1590 Henry VL— Part II. . . . . . .22 

Henry VI.— Part III. 


Merry Wives of Windsor 


King John 


Richard II. . . . 


Richard III 


Midsummer Night's Dream 


Alliteration is laughed at 

. 29 

Merchant of Venice 


Henry IV.— Part I. . 


Henry IV.— Part II. . 


Fohy accommodate, quality 


Romeo and Juliet 


Much Ado ; Henry V. 


As You Like It 


Twelfth Night ; Othello 


Hamlet .... 


FUy husband, favours . 


Lear .... 


Macbeth ; Timon 


Measure for Measure . 


Pericles ; Troilus and Cressida 


Naughty, pass hy, brush 


Cymbeline ; Winter's Tale . 


Tempest .... 




Julius Caesar 


Antony and Cleopatra 


Henry Vm. . 


1599 Patient Grissil . 


1600 Tarlton's Jests ; Kemp 


1605 Vere ; Ben Jonson ; The Fox 

. 53 

1609 The Silent Woman . 

. 54 , 

1610 The Alchemist . 


1608 Armin's Nest of Ninnies 

. 56 

Norden ; Overbury ; Letters 

. 57 

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1608 Of the Time of James 1 58 

The Foreign words 59 

Captain John Smith of Virginia .... 60 
The Foreign words . . . . . .61 

1614 Wotton; Gentleman ,,.... 62 

1615 The Fisheries; Brathvaite 63 

1618 Mynshul on Prisons . , .... 64 

1620 Drummond ; Smith's Writings .... 66 

His Sea Terms 66 

The Adjectives, Verbs . . . . .67 

The Foreign words ...... 68 

Letters of the Time of James 1 69 

The Verbs 70 

The Foreign words . . . . . .71 

Notice of Pym, Bacon, Raleigh . . . .72 

History of Newmarket 73 

1625 Letters of the Time of Charles I. . . . .74 

The Foreign words ...... 75 

Letters of Wotton and Howell . . . .76 

The Nouns . . . . . . .77 

The Foreign words . . . . . .78 

Old Customs 79 

1627 Abbot's Account of his Trials .... 80 
1630 Carey and Naunton ; Mabbe's Translation . . 81 

The Nouns 82 

The Verbs 83 

The Adverbs 84 

The Foreign words . . . . . .85 

Old Customs 86 

1635 Letters of the Time of Charles 1 87 

Howell's Letters 88 

The Foreign words . . . . . .89 

Wotton's Letters . . .... .90 

1640 Bell's Version of Luther ; Peacham . . .91 

1645 Howell's Letters 92 

Wallington's Notices 93 

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^•^' PAGE 

1650 Weldon 94 

Howell's Letters 95 

The Foreign words 96 

1656 Choice Drolleries .. . . . . .97 

1661 Merry Drollery 98 

Sir Dudley North's Letters 99 

Milton's Works 100 


Dryden's English. 

1663 Butler's Hudibras 101 

The Nouns . 102 

The Foreign words 103 

• Proverbs 104 

1666 Sprat's Review of Sorbi^re 105 

Wycherley ; Love in a Wood . . . .106 

The Nouns, Verbs 107 

The Foreign words 108 

Gentleman Dancing Master 109 

Country Wife 110 

Plain Dealer . . . . . . .111 

The Romance words 112 

1667 Dryden's two Comedies . . . .113 
1671 The Rehearsal 114 

To hedge, slapdash 115 

1677 Petty's Political Arithmetic . . . .116 

1678 Butler's Hudibras (Last Part) . . . .117 
Lives of the Norths 118 

1680 Aubrey's Lives 119 

The Foreign words 120 

Contemporary Letters 121 

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1693 Congreve; Old Bachelor 122 

Double Dealer 123 

Love for Love 124 

The Romance words . . . . . .125 

Way of the World 126 

The Romance words 127 

1698 Collier's Short View 128 

The Romance words 129 

Proverbs 130 

1699 Defence of the Short View 131 

Bentley on Phalaris . . . . .132 

Adjectives, Verbs 133 

The Foreign words 134 

Vanbrugh ; The Relapse 135 

The Foreign words 136 

The Provoked Wife 137 

iEsop . . . . . . . . 138 

The False Friend 139 

Confederacy; Mistake. . . . . .140 

Farquhar ; Love and a Bottle . . . .141 

Constant Couple 142 

Sir Harry Wildair 143 

Inconstant; Twin Rivals 144 

Recruiting Officer 145 

Beaux Stratagem . . . . . .146 

1 704 Cibber's Careless Husband 147 

1708 Mrs. Centlivre's Busy Body 148 

1711 Gay; Swift 149 

The Adjectives 150 

Pronouns, Verbs . ...... 151 

The Foreign words 152. 

1712 Proposals for improving English . . .153 

Pope ; Addison 154 

Arbuthnot's John Bull 155 

1720 TickeU; Steele 156 

Vanbrugh's later Plays 157 

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A.D. , PAGE 

1720 Swift; The Provoked Husband . . . .158 

1730 Lives of the Norths . 

. 159 

Adjectives, Verbs 


The Romance words . 


Swift's latest Works . 


1744 Pope; Matthew Bishop 


Nouns, Verbs 

. 164 

The Foreign words 


1749 Smollett's Gil Bla^ 


The Substantives 


Adjectives, Verbs 


Many new Phrases 


Adverbs . 


The Foreign words 


Pickle, prime, lions 


Garble, parties, establishment . 


Proverbs . 



Dr. Johnson's English. 


Dr. Johnson . . . . . . .175 

Foote's Plays 176 

1748 Knights; Taste; Englishman in Paris . . .177 
1756 Englishman Returned ; Author * . . .178 
1760 Minor 179 

1762 Lyar; Orators 180 

1763 Mayor of Garratt 181 

1765 Patron; Commissary 182 

1770 Devil on Two Sticks ; Lame Lover . . .183 

1771 Maid of Bath 184 

1773 Nabob; Bankrupt 185 

1774 Cozeners 186 

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1870 Confusion of meanings 223 

Baboo's English . 224 

American corruptions . . . . . .225 

Misuse of the letter h 226 

Vile style of Sermons . . . . . .227 

Debt due to Greek . . . . . . 225 

Ignorance of the old Grammar . . . .229 

Our borrowed words ...... 230 

The Queen's Speech 231 

1886 Mr. Arch's mistake 232 

Improvement abroad 233 

Vagaries of Lingua Anglica 234 

A hint from Chaucer 235 


Examples of the New English. 

Wickliffe; Pecock 236 

Lever 238 

Cowley 239 

Gibbon 240 

Morris . . . . . . . . 242 

Hints on studying English 244 

Index 245 

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It is not only the beginning of Shakespere's public life 
that determines the opening year of a new Period. A 
marked difference in English prose will be seen, if we com- 
pare Hooker's stately march with the writings of Fulke and 
other divines of 1580.^ English literature was now about 
to put forth her whole strength. Tyndale, Coverdale, and 
Cranmer had done much to settle our language, and their 
works have been read in the ears of rich and poor for the 
last 300 years ; Shakespere, the employer of no fewer 
than 15,000 English words, was now to appear. It would 
be hopeless, indeed, for me to add aught to the praises so 
lavishly heaped upon the mighty Enchanter by all good 
judges both at home and abroad ; be it enough to say that 
the lowest English clown, who, wedged tight among his 
fellows in some barn, listens breathless to Lear's outbursts 
or to lago's whispers, is sharing in a feast such as never 
fell to the lot of either Pericles or Augustus, of Leo the 
Tenth or Louis the Fourteenth. In the last twelve years 
of Elizabeth's life, London had privileges far beyond any 
favours ever bestowed on Athens, Kome, Florence, Paris, 

^ Many of the divisions formerly adopted in mapping out English 
literature are very absurd. Some make Mary's reign the end of one 
period, and the earliest years of Elizabeth's reign the beginning of 
another period ; what difference is there between the two ? 



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2 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

or Weimar ; the great Queen might have gathered together 
in one room Spenser, Shakespere, Bacon, and Hooker ; to 
say nothing of her other guests, the statesmen who out- 
witted Rome, the seamen who singed the proud Spaniard's 
beard, the knights who fought so manfully for the good 
cause in Munster, in Normandy, and in Flanders. No- 
where does the spirit of that high-reaching age breathe 
stronger than in Spenser's verse ; how widely apart stands 
his Protestant earnestness both from the loose godlessness 
of Ariosto, and from the burning Roman zeal of Tasso, 
that herald of the coming Papal reaction ! A shout of 
triumph burst forth from England when the Faery Queen 
was given to her in 1590 ; our island had at last a great 
poet, such as she had not beheld for two Centuries. Now 
began the Golden age of her literature ; and this age was to 
last for about fourscore years. Many a child that clapped its 
tiny hands over the earliest news of the Armada's wreck, 
and that saw Shakespere act in his own plays, must have 
lived long enough to read the greatest of all Milton's works. 
I begin with the contemporaries of the first half of 
Shakespere's public life. Harrison brought out a second 
edition of his * Description of England' in 1587, adding 
many fresh passages. The a is clipped ; apjposer (exam- 
iner) becomes poser, i. 35. The g still comes into heighfer 
(heifer), the old heahfore, ii 2. The old character 3 still 
appears; in ii 165 we read of "Dr. Bellowes alias 
Bel3is." The h is inserted in yellowhamer, ii 17; amore 
was an Old English word for avis. We see Tihaidts 
written for the well-known Theobalds, I 332. The 
n is inserted in poringer, ii. 72. Among the new Sub- 
stantives are snapper (pistol), butt eind, ringdove, bullfinsh, 
drain, a cockeshot, Londoner, a moone shine night. The old 
shrew still stands for a rogue, i. 284. We heard of the 
sivin^ of youth about 1550 ; Harrison puns on the two 
senses of this word ; " Youth will have his swinge, although 
it be in a halter," i. 284. The word n^g is specially 
applied to a Scotch horse, ii. 5. The word barrow (porcus) 
can no longer stand alone, as of old ; barrow hogs, ii. 1 2. 
The old word botvr, after a long sleep, is once more applied 

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to an English peasant, ii. 14. There is the phrase i^ was 
my luck to, etc.,' ii. 166. We see the Adjective unskUfull, 
il 165 ; the context shows that skill here keeps its old 
sense of ratio. There is the new phrase a little something 
(to eat), L 163 ; also an idiom of the Demonstrative Pro- 
noun that seems to come from the Latin, that so religious 
an act, ii 16. There is the new verb otUhid, i. 300 ; I think 
this is almost the first time that bid (offerre) is connected 
with sales. Men have begun to take in tabaco, i. Iv. ; here 
the in was soon to be dropped. They may be overtaken 
(with drink), i 152 ; robbers keepe high imies, p. 230 ; 
hence their later technical term, "keep the road.'* The 
verb cobble is used in scorn ; cabling shifters, p. 34. Eng- 
land used to make the Pope's pot seeth, p. 63 ; the noun 
potboiler is a curious late invention of ours. In ii 68 we 
have the idiom there was to speke of scarsdie a brooke / here 
we transpose. Farmers scoiore their drains, ii. 149. We see 
titles given of courtesie, i 115 ; here we change of into by. 

Among the Romance words are single minded, to incroch, 
burser, 'at point blanke, a franke (the coin), aviary, linnet, 
retrograde, water-cov/rse, incamp, well mounted ; chymist, ii. 166, 
with a y, sanctioned by neither the French nor the Arabic. 
In i 1 1 1 the ministerie stands for the clergy, a new sense 
of the word. A staid man (a new term) is defined as a 
married man who stays in the place of his abode and does 
not wander about, p. 133. A man's lawyers are called 
his counsdlours, p. 205. Many simples go to a compound 
medicine, p. 327 ; here the adjective is made a substantive. 
In ii 31 we read of the guantitie (size) of an eagle. The 
word comitryman takes the meaning of compatriot, p. 136. 
The sans gains ground ; even such a sturdy Englishman 
as Harrison says that something is sans remedie, i. 152. 
The Latin alias is used to mark more than one form of 
name; Bellowes alias Bel^is, ii 165. We hear of tabacco 
being in great vogue, i. 326. 

Harrison evidently dislikes the constant translations of 
Bishops, i 16. The Church was so plundered, that the 
best wits resorted to physic and the law, p. 37. The see 
of Llandaff was worth scarcely £155 a year; the last 

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4 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

Bishop, on being called for in Court, answered, " the daffe 
(stnltus) is here, but the land is gone," p. 58 ; Harrison pre- 
tends that he does not know what was here meant. At 
the Universities the rich had encroached on the poor, and 
scholarships were shamefully jobbed, p. 77. The well-known 
scandal about Cranmer having been an hostler arose from 
his membership of a h/oM at Cambridge, p. 87. Wealth 
was increasing, trials at Nisi Prius had multiplied thirty- 
fold of late years, p. 102. Harrison rebukes the Puritans 
for some of their crotchets, pp. 109 and 110. He mourns 
over the practice of sending gentlemen's sons to Italy, 
whence they brought home atheism and sodomy, p. 130. 
Any slave landing in our country at once became free, p. 
134. England kept more idle servants for mere show 
than any other nation, p. 135. A yeoman was called, not 
master, but goodman ; as goodman Smith, p. 137. The 
nobles employed French cooks for the most part, p. 144 ; 
they set great store by Venice glasses; even poor men 
would have glass if they could, p. 147. No subject in 
Europe could vie with the Lord Mayor of London, p. 151. 
There is a long description of Parliament ; speakers in the 
House of Commons were not allowed to mention their 
opponents by name ; no vile, seditious, unreverent, or bit- 
ing words were used (prisca gens mmtalium /). There 
were no afternoon sittings, except on some urgent occasion, 
p. 177. Three or four hundred rogues were hung every 
year, p. 231. Stoves were now just beginning to come in, 
p. 235 ; also hills (of fare), p. 272. Hardly any English- 
man walked abroad without a dagger, p. 282. The sale of 
game by gentlefolks was thought very degrading, p. 305. 
Gardens had been wonderfully improved within the last 
forty years ; foreign plants from all quarters of the world 
were daily brought in, p. 325. Every man was turning 
builder, however small his plot of ground might be, p. 341. 
The very boors had their fish ponds, ii. 1 7. The pike bore 
different names, according to his age ; frie, gilthed, pod., 
jacke, picker ell, pike, hice, p. 18. Hops had of late years 
been planted with great success ; one man had made in one 
year £130 from a plot of twelve acres, p. 134. 

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Churchyard's * Challenge ' dates from 1593; it is printed 
at the end of Harrison's * Description.* Here we see Boh^ 
p. 171, our contraction of Kobert; in the same page stands 
^e crust Cards are shuffled, p. 173. Our barmaid appears 
as "the girle that keepes the barre," p. 169. 

I take some phrases of this age from Dr. Murray's 
Dictionary. Spenser, about this time, has the new word 
antelope, said to be derived from the later Greek ; he has 
also amazement, a word now coming in, for alarm; and 
inveigle, the derivation of which is undecided. A seaman 
makes about, or changes the course of his ship ; hence the 
later cry, about ship / There is the medical noun afterbirth, 
which was to be later employed in a diflFerent sense. There 
is acrosticke, which is duly explained. A man breaks oft' 
abruptly; our first sense of abrupt was "unrestrained." 
There are batailon, to bandie words, to batten, artless, bantling, 
baneful ; baffle and balk come to mean cheat and disappoint. 

In the 'Letters,' printed by Ellis (1585-1600), Pmilet is 
written as well as Paulet ; there is the Scotch Glams, also 
Glames, Eeversions, posts, etc., are styled good thinges ; 
we read of glass houses for manufacturing; a trade that 
arose in England in 1567. Another Adverb, imitating 
forward, becomes an adjective, "to be bacward in the 
service." The some is suppressed; make wars to purpose. 
As to Numerals, dates are much shortened ; the time q/" 88; 
that is, 1588. One hAy puts down another; the verb run, 
is used in a new sense, roone her fortune ; hence " run a 
risk." A phrase like it did go had long been known ; 
there is now an insertion, it did more than terrify us 
(Camden) ; elsewhere stands rw one did so much as thinke, 
etc. ; Coverdale had an idiom like this. The phrase undei^ 
hand stands for clam. There is the Dutch verb trick (de- 
sign), to trick a coat. Among the Romance words is 
cabinet (for letters) ; we hear of the trayned Bandes. A 
man is exstreame sicke; here the adjective stands for the 
adverb. A person says, "I have no place (right) at Court;" 
hence "it is my place to speak." The word possess takes 
a new meaning, " she was possessed (informed) that," etc. 
The word check comes to express something more than 

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6 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

a taunt, without checke or controule. There is the Greek 

There are many pieces, in Arber's 'English Gamer,' 
ranging between 1586 and 1598 ; these come mostly from 
Hakluyt's * Voyages/ The a replaces eo ; the old steorhoi'd 
becomes starboard, v. 509. There are the new Substantives 
sailmakeTy midship ; swivel, p. 314, comes from the oiAswifan 
(revolve). In p. 326 rockets and wheels are called fire- 
works ; this last word has gained a new meaning since 
Gascoigne*s day. Men work by spells, p. 514; there was 
an Old English spelung (turn, change). A ship may live 
in a sea, p. 526. Blood is made to spin under the lash, 
vii. 54 ; hence our spin along. There is the preposition on 
haft mast, p. 319; this, revived after a long sleep, was 
soon to become ahaft. There is the Scandinavian eddy, 
and two Dutch words, dock (for ships), i. 21, and ligier 
hook (ledger), i 20 ; this last is so heavy that it lies or 
ligs, and is not easily moved. Among the Romance words 
are rarify, to stuff (a skin), hourglass, hrize (breeze), shallop, 
careen, skiff (esquif). The old noun rout had hitherto 
meant crowd ; it takes the new meaning of defeat in v. 31, 
put it to the rout The yerh furl, v. 500, comes irom fardel. 
There is tragicomedy. We have the Portuguese molasses, 
ii. 121, where the first syllable represents mel ; also the 
Spanish legarto (the future alligator). The word renegado is 
explained in ii. 17; it is afterwards called runnagate, p. 20. 
There are the Eastern caravan and scimitar; also junk, 
guinea hen, guava. The Greek idcea (idea) appears in 
a poem, v. 55, with the accent on the second syllable ; 
the Muse is called camelionrlike in the same stanza. We 
see, by some of the above words, what strides English 
commerce was now making. 

Sir Roger Williams wrote a * Discourse of Warre ' in 
1590; he was a good authority on the subject, having 
served four years in the Spanish army. Great is the 
power of prejudice; he tells us that the Spaniards, in 
spite of their exploits, were a pitiful set. 

He inserts the r in the French coutelas (curtilace). He 
has the new Substantives scoutmaster, sand hag, spur (some- 

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thing jutting out, as a ravelin). He speaks of men as 
hands, p. 30; and employs the tenn Netherlanders, He 
has a new use of raw, writing about rawe men (soldiers) ; 
he talks of a wet ditch. He uses lose in a very serious 
sense, we were lost men, p. 58. We have seen nemo est qvin 
Englished ; we now have few men but knowes ; he is fond 
of this Present Plural. The under is prefixed to a Komance 
noun, an under officer. He tells us that the forelorne hope 
is an Almaine phrase, p. 46. 

Among the Komance words are commissions (of officers), 
mechanickes, squadron, mutiner, cavalerie, Sergeant Maior, 
stockatto, pallisatto, musketier, cavalgade (riding service), a 
convoy, counterskerfe, gabion, parpet, ponton, ravelin, to in- 
trench, countermine, to second, plume. He speaks of leaders 
of good conduct, p. 6 ; this word we now usually apply 
in a more peaceful sense. In p. 21 men ingage a fight ; 
hence the later engagement (pugna). The supports are 
spoken of as the seconds, p. 23 ; this word we now con- 
fine to duels. The word duetie is applied to soldier's work 
in p. 30; do duetie. The word curten is used in its military 
sense. Eegiments are under Ensignes and Cornets, p. 1 2 ; 
the Ensign leads men at arms; the Comet leads light 
horsemen, p. 30. The word bessorm stands for raw 
soldier, p. 12. The phrase in route (on the road) stands 
in p. 14; route had stood for via in the *Ancren Riwle.' 
Williams explains curtUace, "I meane a good broad sword," 
p. 18. Officers are cashed, p. 24; Shakespere used another 
form of this verb. Something carries a voge (is popular), 
p. 28 ; our first use of vogue, I think. Williams employs 
pistoll proof; Shakespere had already used shame-proof 
The soldier says that there are new military inventions 
always appearing, p. 29 ; he thinks little of archers, but 
says that the pike is the strength of all battles, p. 43. In 
p. 48 he holds it best to keep the foreign terms ; he can- 
not well call a casamate a slaughter house; here the 
Spanish matar misled him. The great Italian writer was 
renowned in England; we read of a machivel humour, p. 
55. In the same page stand The States (Dutch govern- 

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8 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Webbe published his * Adventures in the East ' in 1690 
(Arber's Reprint) ; he describes his slavery in Turkey, his 
tortures in a Spanish dungeon, and his feats at Ivry. He 
speaks of qaicklime ; we hear of a London merchant 
named Buggins, p. 29. Webbe still employs the old 
Adverbial ending; a sword is used flatling, p. 23 ; there 
is the revived idiom as large againe as (double), p. 25 ; in 
1350 we saw eft as fele; see vol. i. p. 46 of my book. 
The foreign words are carbine (musketeer) ; there is the 
torture strappado ; the Cady of the Turks is mentioned. 

Ferris published his * Voyage round the Coast to Bristol * 
in 1590 (Arbor's * English Garner,' vi. 153). The old 
word cove now stands for recessvs,' p. 161; there is also 
weather bound. Men are feasted royally. The adjective 
gallant is now first used for audax^ p. 1 65. 

In Lyly's ' Euphues ' (Arbor's Reprint) there are a few 
poems of the author's 4)rinted, dating from a little after 
1590. A man reads a woman over, p. 9; here the over 
means per^ as in our ** look him over." 

The Play of Sir Thomas More (Shakespere Society) 
dates from about 1590. We see bullie used as an endear- 
ing phrase, p. 19 ; we hear of hayday (prosperity), p. 41 ; 
we still preserve something like the old form heah (altus) 
in the hey-day of youth. A beard is in the stubble, p. 77 ; 
a new sense of the word. We see the adjective shagg, p. 
46, from the old sceacged ; hence shag tobacco. There are 
the new verbs rooke ( plunder) and sharke, (prey). Men 
tahe notice of a thing, and may see better dayes. Their blood 
is up, p. 16. There is the curious seaven poundes, odd 
monie, p. 12, where the and that should follow poundes is 

There is the Scandinavian verb dangle. Among the 
Romance phrases are trye conclusions; statist, p. 47, which 
soon made way for statesman. We see his mery humor, p. 
48 ; this phrase doubtless led to the coupling of wit and 
humour. A dramme is to be taken as physic, p. 93. 

Nash, Harvey's great enemy, is one of our most vigor- 
ous English writers; many of his new words and forms 
are used by Shakespere. I take his writings of 1589 from 

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Grosart's .edition, vol. i He has the new fishwife ; his 
wi'pe takes the further sense of id/m^ " a wipe over the 
shins," p. 232 ; the noun keeps its slang meaning to this 
day. We hear of an idlebie (idler), p. 13; so Shakespere 
has rudeshy ; both imitate the old Salopian loteU (adulter). 
A man may be' hissed ; here the verb becomes transitive ; 
enemies are hurled upon a heape, p. 252 ; hence our "struck 
all on a heap ; " there is the new compound heaven borne. 
The sound of a gun is expressed by the cry hotmse I p. 
244, like our hang I Among the Komance words are 
fygment and penman ; the verb arie takes the new sense of 
plorare, being opposed to laugh, p. 196. A well-known 
phrase of ours is foreshadowed in p. 219 ; I heard a hyrd 
sing more (a little bird told me, etc.). We have an allusion 
made to heraldic brags in p. 50, " some men spring from 
the coffer, not from the Conquest;" Hall was soon to 
repeat this. 

Nash published his * Pierce Penniless's Supplication to 
the Devir in 1592 ; I have before me Collier's edition of 
this piece. The y is used to express French ^ in lyne (he 
had lain), p. 60 ; it is added, as Countie (our earl\ p. 50. 
The n is added in the verb deafen, the old deave. The s is 
inserted in Lyly's verb out-trip ; outstrip appears in p. 38, a 
most curious formation. The old duns is now written dunce. 
Among the new Substantives are standish, gold-finder, 
huntsman, freshman (at Cambridge), booJcseller, key-hole, love- 
dream, inmate, newsmonger. We hear of Tom Thumb and 
Mother Bunch. There were certain coins known as two 
pences, p. xxx., a new formation. The old hug is now de- 
veloped into hugheare, p. 20. There is the curious compound 
dishwash, p. ^6, from the old wees (aqua) ; wo^h was later 
connected with pigs, in the play of Kichard III. Nash is 
fond of compounds; he has self-love, where our genteeler 
penny-a-liners talk of amour propre. He talks of a side of 
bacon, p. 47. The word box-keeper appears in p. 56 ; here 
box is connected with some place of amusement, but not 
with the theatre. Men proceed uith full saile (speedily), p. 
92 ; there is the new phrase a man of his word, p. 44. There 
is the curious word jymiam (toy), p. 30 ; hence the later 

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10 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

gimcrack, and perhaps the housebreaker's /emmy y see p. 98. 
The Germaines are distinguished from the Lowe Dutch in p. 
54. Among the new Adjectives are finical^ long-winded, 
many-headed, shallow-brained. "We hear of a flabberUn face, 
p. 25 ; this from the context seems to mean flabby, from the 
verb flap. The tearful Magdalene gives rise to mawdlen 
drunke, p. 55. We hear of kilcowe vanity/ p. 24; hence 
the later killjoy must have been formed ; and Shakespere 
has about this time a kill-courtesy. In p. xxv. we hght 
upon goe it, like trip it There is the emphatic transposition 
a little dwarf it ts, p. 35. Among the Verbs are bung up, 
hold him at the armes end. Palsgrave's adverb a stridling 
was mistaken for a Participle; hence Nash forms the 
verb straddle, with a vowel-change, p. xix. ; it is a wonder 
that a verb hedle was not compounded from hedling or 
headlong, A man is spite-blasted, p. 34 ; here the blast keeps 
its old sense flare. One man knees another, p. 45 ; Lord 
Derby has in his Iliad knee me no knees. At the beginning 
of a sentence in p. 57 stands setting jesting aside; we should 
cut this down into joking apart; the Dative us must be 
dropped before the Participle setting, as in Chaucer's con- 
sidering thy youth. We have take their flesh down a button- 
hole lower, p. 51. Stockings may be out at the heeles, p. 55 ; 
vicissim appears as by turns, p. 65. There is the new Inter- 
jection pish/ p. 29 ; also the conjurer's cry, hey, passe/ p. 
31. The Scandinavian words are rasher (of bacon), and to 
flunder (flounder), p. 49. 

Among the Komance words are discontent, formal, term 
time, mediocrity, positively, to dissociate, to humor them, to over- 
rule, Frenchify, Nash had travelled in Italy; he thence 
imported, as it seems, harlequin, pantaloun, Madona, 
cavaliero ; there is also the French form cavalier, which 
was to be so famous fifty years later. We hear of the 
impressions (editions) of a book, p. xiv.; the yeomanry 
are well to passe, p. 8, our " well to do ;" men turne over a 
new leafe, p. 47 ; a man may be trusted upon a bill of his 
hand (note of hand), p. 9. Persons may be braved, p. 23 ; 
and also graced, p. 25. Divines preach Calvin, p. 39 ; this 
is plainly an imitation oi preach Christ, We hear of pumps. 

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noun m p. zzu ; a man nas nis lauits. ine wora smpwrecfc 
is made a transitive verb in p. 287 ; in p. 284 we have an 
ek to the main chance; it would earlier have been to the 
main simply. Nash knew a m^n about totvn, p. 283, the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

12 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

new phrase for a frequenter of London. In p. 233 hay gee 
is the name of a ploughman ; the gee ho, addressed to horses, 
has lasted to our day. The Dutch words are mumpes, p. 
247, and hoyden, p. 251, as yet referring to a man. Nash 
is a critic in language ; he remarks in p. 262 that egregious 
is never used in English but in ill part ; he then blames 
Harvey for using putative, energetical, rascality, perfunctory, 
amicable, effectuate, extensively, and many other words. He 
himself talks of an inckehornisme, thus adding a Greek 
ending to a Teutonic root, like the later truism ; he has 
also euphuisme, nonpareil, and pdl melL He addresses 
Harvey as your worship, "according to your wonted 
Chaucerisme," p. 175; we still apply this old title of 
honour to a magistrate. 

Various writers of 1590 or thereabouts are quoted in 
the * Forewords to Stubbes' Anatomy' (New Shakespere 
Society). We hear of dissenters making barns their meeting 
place, p. 41 ; also of a resty jade, p. 38. Men swear fear- 
fully, p. 82 ; something is cleane out at the elbowes, p. 37. 
There is hicket, p. 39, from the Dutch hik; this was later 
to be written hiccough, being confused with cough. There 
is the Scandinavian a spicke and spanne new Uble, p. 38 ; 
span new had occurred in the year 1280 ; the spicke stands 
for nail. The Scandinavian pad (cushion) gives birth to a 
verb ; souls are benumbed and padded, p. 78. Among the 
Eomance phrases are waste paper, malcontent, stoical, turn off 
servants ; a pleasant fellow is called a merie greeke, p. 87, 
reminding us of Udairs play. We abuse our constitutions, 
p. 86 ; here Lyly would have added of body to the noun. 
There is the old form pentisse, p. 40. 

Tarlton's 'Jests' were edited by Mr. Halliwell in 
1844 ; we are here introduced to one of the greatest comic 
actors that ever trod the boards. The pieces printed 
in this book range between 1588 and 1593. There are 
both bon companion and boone companion, p. 82. The two 
forms cattells and chattells stand side by side in Tarlton's 
will, p. xiv. There is god bye, p. xxiv., for Harvey's god- 
bvyye (adieu). Among the new Substantives are backsvxyrd, 
wordmonger, wel wisher. The noun shew, p. 71, means a 

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pageant ; the word qmp gets a new sense and is used of 
words, p. 132. There is the new Adjective catlike. Men 
eating are said to be hard at Uy -p. S2 ; we have seen hard 
(yigoTOus) fighting. The word buxome seems to change from 
comis to hUaris, p. Ill; Imxome and hlith are here coupled, 
as later by Milton. Among the Verbs are, to wench, miss 
the likeness, well born ; the grow takes the sense of fi£fri, p. 
xiv., rruymy is growing due. The verb play is applied to 
music; play jigs on a tabor y p. 105. The verb dare now 
first forms a Past Participle; having dared to look, p. 51. 
There is the question as how ? referring to a previous state- 
ment, p. 100 ; Dickens was fond of this. Certain things 
are made by the bushell, p. xxiii. ; here the Singular with 
the Article prefixed replaces the Plural that had been used 
earlier. There is the Scandinavian word snug ; passengers 
go smigly down a river, p. xl. Among the Eomance words 
are scholarship, undecentnes, factotum, piedbald, insolent, splaie- 
footed. The phrase naturall sonne, p. xii, as yet does not 
imply bastardy. We hear of a red carrott nose, p. xxii., of 
the noble syence of deffenc-e, p. xii. A man qualifies for some- 
thing, p. XXV. A citizen wears a livery gowne ; a man is in 
print; he may be turned inside out, p. xxii.; he non est 
inventus, p. 133 ; he may be set non plus, p. 55 ; here we 
put at a after the verb. We hear of routes coupled with 
disorder, p. 134; hence the later row (tumultus). The 
word motto appears, p. 73, replacing the old posy. The 
verb Tarltonize is coined, p. xix., by Harvey, proving the 
widespread popularity of our actor ; it is like the Greek 
PhUippize. There is stigma, coupled with character (mark), 
p. xxxi. 

In p. 97 we have the proverb, "fainte harte never 
wonne faire lady ;" Lyly had had something like this. 
There are some very fair imitations of Chaucer's verse, p. 
xii. and 119. Thus the great bard's style was closely copied 
both at the beginning and at the end of this Century ; 
Spenser's imitation of him is well known. 

Lambarde gives in his Book, already quoted, p. 314, a 
list of the names of the Queen's ships in 1596 ; we remark 
among them the Fictorie, Nonpareille, Dreadnaught, Swift- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

14 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

swe ; there is the new frigate. In p. 355, which seems to 
have been written about this time, Burleigh is called a 
States man. 

In a poem of 1596 (Hazlitt, * Early Popular Poetry,' 
iv.) women dash (about) in coaches, a new sense of the 
verb, p. 258. Certain fools are called a messe, p. 261 ; 
here, I suppose, the idea of dirt comes in. The molde still 
stands for terra, p. 258. 

Hall, afterwards the well-known Bishop, brought out his 
Satires in 1598 ; he was not, though he claims to be, the 
first English Satirist, since Gascoigne went before him. I 
have here used the 1838 edition. The words knee and eye 
rime, p. 39. The t supplants d ; the Old English cudele 
appears as cuttle-fish, p. 58. The old rime, a good Teutonic 
word, is confused with the Greek rhythm, and becomes rhyme, 
p. 1 ; this absurd spelling ought never to be used in our 
time. There are the new Substantives cockpit, thistledown. The 
old seamestre (sartrix) still appears as sempster, p. 25 ; the ess 
was to come a Century later. A certain horse is called a 
Galloway, p. 72. There is the new word coockquean, p. 85, 
applied in a diflFerent sense from Heywood's cocqueen; it 
here stands for a man who allows his wife to play his part ; 
this word came down to Addison. Among the new Adjec- 
tives are flighty and many-sided ; clumsy is formed from the 
old clomsen (torpere). We hear of an unready poet ; the 
context shows that this is connected with unrced (malum 
consilium). Among the Verbs are sit above the salt, drink 
it dry, hidebound, p. 106, time was when, etc. Two new 
verbs are coined, to yea and to nay, p. 111. The old cringe 
is revived, after a very long sleep, p. 67. The old adverb 
sideling makes way for sideward, p. 59. Among the Ro- 
mance words are Ug-sounding, a pastoral, posthume (posthum- 
ous), plagiary, dose, kesi/rel, pocket glass, poetess, frontispiece. 
The verb accoast (accost), a late comer, takes the sense of 
approach. There is the Italian barretta, used by a priest, 
p. 90. In p. 69 men brag of their ancestors coming in 
with the Conqueror ; one of the first instances, I think, of 
this favourite English boast. The question of tenants' 
improvements is glanced at in p. 96. 

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the French caporal becomes corporal. We are told in this 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

i6 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

play that men were beginning to strike out the corrupt h 
from the old abhominable, which had been in use for 200 
years. The former verb escheat is pared down to cheat, 
and means fallere. The old epUheton also loses its last 
syllable. Among the new Substantives are madcap, horn- 
hook, merriment, braggart. One weapon is too much odds for 
another. A person knows his lady's foot; that is, the 
measure of it. One man will be friends with another ; a 
curious idiom, but Lyly had make friends, A new kind of 
time -piece appears; the dial makes way for the watch, 
which is here said to need watching. The word set is 
used in a new way in connexion with games, play a set of 
wit. We hear of a complexion of the sea-water green, 
Carlyle's sea green, Prussia or Spruce had rather earlier 
furnished us with a particular sort of fine dress ; hence 
the adjective spruce (smart). Among the Verbs we find 
gaze him blind, Fll make one (be one of you), the scene 
clouds, put him out (in playing his part). We do not over- 
come, but com^ over a person. A man's hand may be in, or 
it may be out ; in the former case ure is understood. The 
along is used by Shakespere to strengthen unth; together was 
to have the same force rather later; we here see come along 
with something. Foxe had written ever anon; Shakespere 
inserts and between the two words. The interjection la I 
appears, riming with flaw. We find the new Compounds 
health-giving, well-knit, short-lived, eagle-sighted, to oversway, un- 
bosom. The poet is never tired of compounding new 
verbs with en, as enfreedom (liberare). The Scandinavian 
words are flaw and loggerhead (stultus). Among the new 
Romance words are decrepit, interim, duello, sonneteer, votary, 
captivate, schoolboy, humorous, critic, a nuptial, junior, court- 
ship (courtly demeanour), accidentally, scurrility, verbosity, 
fairings, copy book. The common folk appear as the vulgar. 
We hear of a death's face, our death's head. There is the 
noun career, used of a horse ridden in the ring. The 
word favour now expresses donum; it is here given to a 
lady. She says that she will be her lover's fate, A man 
is perfect in his part. There are the Greek catastrophe 
(upshot) and pathetical. We see some new phrases that 

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appear in Nash about this time, as io handy, pell mdl, to 
humour, domineer, Imtton-hole, pedant ; also sham^proof, Kke 
Williams' pistol-proof. Alliteration is much laughed at in 
this play ; one of the characters says, " I will something 
affect the letter." We learn that there was a great dis- 
tinction between the sounds of dout and doubt, det and debt, 
cauf and calf ; neighbour was wrongly pared down to nebov/r. 
There are old phrases like day tuoman (ancilla), gig (whirle- 
gig), timber (aedificare), go woolward, white as whalesbone ; eyne 
is often used for oculi. 

All's Well that Ends Well. 

Here the I is struck out ; Stubbes' verb huggle becomes 
hicg. There are the new Substantives loneliness, the staggers, 
headsman ; we see purr, which is an imitation of the cat's 
noise. Honour is at the stake ; here we now strike out the. 
Land is sold for a song, a new phrase. A man is of able 
body; hence we were to form an Adjective. We see at 
your father's, where house is dropped ; this is imitated from 
Paul's (church). As to Adjectives, there is foul-mouthed 
(also in Nash) ; a woman is called a dear ; there is tell me 
true, where the last word should be an Adverb ; there is 
the curious phrase to jom like (similar) likes. Among the 
Verbs are mate (marry) fair; the old verb hent (capere) 
gives birth to hint (something caught up) ; it here appears as 
a verb. There are the phrases a hawking eye, sit down before 
a town, curd your blood, make a leg, you have him (that is, in 
your power), sleep out the time. A man is unsettled in mind. 
The old eke (augere) had long been asleep, at least in the 
South ; it is here revived in the phrase eke it out. An im- 
postor is smoked (detected), a well-known phrase for the 
next two Centuries. The old dugan (valere) appears once 
more, when a pretence will not do. There is the new ovl 
with it I The for is often used in these plays, in the new 
phrase, / am for other business, where bound must be dropped 
after am. There is the new hush/ Palsgrave's houische/ 
We see the Compounds many-coloured, kicksy-wicksy (mulier), 
to out-villain. There are the Eomance words naturalize, 

VOL. II. c 

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i8 THE NEW ENGLISH, [ohap. 

j^ejvdicate, spritely (alaciis), soldiership, prescription (medical), 
empiricks, powerful, musket (in the sense of a weapon), 
poniard, theorick (theory), inhuman, barricado. The old oath 
par ma fey is cut down to faith I Something is monstrous 
desperate ; the former word imitates marvellous, which was 
often prefixed to another adjective. There is the phrase 
that is the brief and the tediom of it; we say, "the long 
and short of it." There are the two forms debauch and 
debosh; the latter is still in Scotch use. The words 
dram and scruple appear as terms of measurement. We 
see the Italian caprido and coraggio ; also tucket, from 
toccata; Scott is fond of the tuck of drum. The word 
file is used in connexion with soldiers, and also with papers. 
A man lays siege to a woman and hopes to carry her ; a 
new sense of the verb. There is the curse damn me I 
without any Nominative. The noun remove seems to mean 
a stage on a journey ; the removes at Eton, are divisions 
which boys pass through. There is the piolite phrase at 
your service. We see tragedian, used by Nash ; and to try 
success, like that writer's try conclusions. There are old 
phrases like fore-goer, to reave. 

Taming of the Shrew. 

The y replaces ay, as piythee. Orrmin's hinderling is cut 
down to hilding. There are the new Substantives grey beard, 
footboy, rush candle. Something is a good hearing (piece of 
news). The word things is used in an indefinite way 
at the end of a sentence ; " ruffs and cuffs and things." 
We have seen ai'oss luck ; the new adjective is now con- 
nected with temper, as is very appropriate to this particular 
play ; cross in talk. Shakespere loves to use he and she for 
nmn and woman; we here see the proudest he; these he 
sometimes even makes Plural. There is / tell you what, 
where the last word stands for aliquid, a sense dating from 
the earliest times. A man, offering to share a bet, says, 
I unll be your half; Butler was to write, "I'll go his half." 
Among the new Verbs are pick out a scent (used of a dog), 
a pitched battle, Fll see thee hanged first, slip a dog, kill with 

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kindness. Some verbs take new constructions, as sup the 
dogs well ; here sup stands for cause to sup, A man minds 
the play (gives his mind to it) ; this new sense remains in 
mind your business, A match is clapped up; this was a 
favourite phrase for generations. One man takes another 
a cuflF ; this is the one phrase in which we keep the old 
verb bitaken (tradere), pared down to take in 1280. We 
see break a jest, a phrase much loved by Butler and Macaulay. 
The thou is suppressed in didst ever see? We find the 
scornful as if I knew not I here " you speak^' at the beginning 
of the sentence, must be dropped. There is the aflSrmation 
0' my word. The / am for you is repeated ; here the words 
dropped after the verb must be, "a combatant ready." 
There is the sarcastic cry, ho / The new Compounds are 
deep-mouthed, flap-eared, loose-bodied (gown) ; hence comes a 
new use of body. The be is prefixed to verbs, as be-mete, 
bedazzle ; there is also outvie. There is the Scandinavian 
gust (flatus). The Komance words are to budge, gamut. 
We hear of a set of books. A man practises music on 
instruments ; the word suUor is now connected with love ; 
a chamber is dressed up. The word moral is used to denote 
the point aimed at by a fable. Much Italian was now 
being brought in ; mi perdonate heads an English sentence. 
The jolly, imitating the Northern gay, is prefixed to another 
adjective ; a jolly surly groom, like our "jolly good licking ;" 
the surly here bears its old sense, lordly, domineering. A 
man has direction (orders) how to do a thing. Something 
is past compare. We see here pantaloon, formal, pumps 
(shoes), to brave me; all used by Nash about this time. 
There is the old phrase it skills not. 

Comedy of Errors. 

The substantive slug appears, applied to a man ; a ship 
is said to be in her trim. A person, when sullen, is different 
from the man he was. There is the new adjective helpful ; 
a conclusion is bald; a ship is slow of sail (in sailing). Among 
the Verbs are do me the favour to, to weep away my beauty : 
Shakespere is fond of away in this sense. In the old put him 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

20 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

to 56a, .the pronoun is now dropped. The Present still stands 
for the future ; there is the threat tioi a creature enters ! A 
man dines Jortli ; we change this into out New nouns are 
coined ; every why hath a wherefore. There is a time for all 
things ; a woman starves for a look from her husband ; 
where the verb stands for hunger for. There is the Scan- 
dinavian raft. The Romance words are fallacy^ in huff^ 
senselesSy fortune-teller y catch cold ; Harvey's periwig appears as 
peruke, A man has a charge (something entrusted to him) ; 
he may be possessed (mad), where an evil spirit is under- 
stood. The word genius stands for ghost. A man is 
denied (forbidden) to enter a house ; hence, a Century later, 
a person denied himself to a visitor. Among the new 
Compounds are sovl-killing, self -harming, life-pi'eserving, 
hollow-eyed. The en or in is once more used in the new 
verb insconce ; here Dromio puns on the two new meanings 
of sconce, caput and ahsconsa. There is the very Northern 
phrase half an hour since {a.go). We see the old otherwhere 
and tender him (care for him). 

Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

There are many puns in this play, as lover, lubber ; meat, 
maid ; lost, laced, showing how different Shakespere's pro- 
nimciation was from ours. The a replaces e, as thwart. 
The i is struck out ; love's (is) a lord. The t becomes th in 
swarthy, and here the y is something new. Launce makes 
a pun on the verb sew, which seems to show that it was 
pronoimced like so. Among the new Substantives is tell-tale. 
The kind is employed in a new sense -y he is a kind of came- 
leon, like the French esphce. There is the Adjective child- 
like (filial); this we now use in a different sense. The 
word sharp takes the new meaning of callidus. The word 
dear takes the sense of amans ; a lady bears dear good mil 
unto a man. Ther6 is the new Verb shelve ; a chamber is 
built shelving. We have see his way to, give us leave (pardon 
us), fetch and carry, make abode (stay). An achievement 
comes off; a favourite phrase of ours now. The question 
is asked, what is your news ? The Participle is again treated 

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as an adjective ; a feeling line (letter). A painter, in his 
art, flatters his sitter. There is the cry, what ! gone ? here 
15 5^ is suppressed. The preposition is set after the Pass- 
ive verb, as you are staid for. The Pronoun is needlessly 
added to the verb in hark thee I we have seen fare thee well. 
The verb be is dropped after if ; " love, if haply won, is a 
gain." The why is placed in the middle of a sentence ; 
" if lost, why then (it is) a lab®ur won." A man says, " I 
will, and there an end ; here we put is after there, A lady 
wishes to undertake a journey, mth my honour ; here the 
last word should be intact. There are the new Compounds 
enthrall, sun-hight^ heaven-bred, spaniel-like, after-love. The 
Romance words are sluggardized, to tutor, to plot, love affairs, 
concert (musical). The ending ism was in favour at this 
time, even though the root might not be Greek ; we see 
braggardism, A lady has perfections (perfect qualities), a 
curious use of the Plural. The verb close gets the new 
meaning of congredi; the noun 7nurmur, taking a new 
sense, is now used of a current. A man serves me a 
trick. There is to grace him, also used by Nash. We see 
the definition of a wom/in^s reason ; " I think him so, because 
I think him so." It is hinted that something is plain as 
the nose on a m^n^s face. There are the old phrases pinfold 
(a pound), wood (insanus), mood (ira), owe (possidere), love 
her too, too much ; the quaint still bears two distinct mean- 
ings, elegans and callidus, 

Henry VI. — Part I. 

The a is clipped ; Lydgate's apposayle (question) appears 
as puzzle. There are the new nouns ratsbane, pitch (of a 
building), life-blood; the ite appears again in Talbotites 
(followers of Talbot). Among the Adjectives are gloomy, 
hapless; the king is called a wooden thing. The nomina- 
tive who, when it is the first word, is sometimes wrongly 
used, as who join'st thou with ? There are the Verbs fight 
it out, beat a dead march, true born, take exceptions at, keep off 
aloof. The answer to a question begins with, why, no 1 ^ 
favourite idiom of Dr. Johnson's. There is now^ Sir, to 

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22 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

you I here / turn is dropped. We have the Compounds 
raw-bonedy Nero-like, ever-living, bold-faced, strong-knit (used of 
limbs), over-tedious, war-wearied, ill-boding, dizzy eyed. The 
en is prefixed to the verbs gird and rank; Talbot enacts 
wonders ; this verb had hitherto been connected with 
laws. There is the Scandinavian intransitive verb hurry. 
Among the Eomance words are massacre, sentinel, a march 
(musical). The word terms now stands for conditions; 
colours (vexilla) are used by the soldiery. A j[)eal had 
hitherto been connected with bells and trumpets ; it now 
refers to ordnance. The law term puny is now brought 
into common life, meaning parvus. There is the phrase 
choice spirits, here referring to devils ; we now use the 
phrase in a very diflferent sense. We see the old phrases 
foeman, give arms (heraldic), for the nonce, rascal deer ; some 
of these doubtless owe their preservation to Shakespere. 
Talbot, about to die, says that " All our lives are hazarded 
in one small boat;" hence our "we are in the same 

Henry VI. — Part IL 

There are two forms of one .verb in one line ; watch 
thou and wake. The final en is clipped in the Past 
Participle chid. Among the Substantives is deathsman ; 
we read of the pitch of a falcon's flight. There is hob- 
nail ; the first syllable is akin to hump and means a pro- 
jection ; the hob of a fireplace and the Jwb of a wheel 
were to come later. An ilHterate man has a m^rk to 
himself, not a signature. There are the Adjectives cloudy, 
coal-black; friends may be hollow. Among the Verbs are 
lay claim unto, knit his brow, see into him, a jaded groom, to 
set copies. The new sense of dare appears once more — 

" "What dares not "Warwick, if false Suffolk dare him ? " 

The Participle is prefixed to the Adjective in raging mad. 
We read of boding owls ; this verb was henceforth to bear 
an evil meaning only. We find a far-off look, where the 
Adverb is treated as an Adjective. There is / thought as 
much, a continuation of an idiom of 1480 (do as much for 

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you). The / cannot hut had long been known ; the he is 
now brought in, it cannot he hut, etc., an imitation of the 
Latin. The of and on are interchanged as usual, / go of 
message. The on ende (in the end) of 1220 gives birth to 
a well-known phrase, my hair is fixed on end. There are 
the new Compounds dear-hought, tear-stained, crest-fallen, 
pale-faced, shag -haired, thrice-famed, well-proportioned, un- 
hloodied, hlimt-mtted, untutored, overgorge, silken-coated, hlood- 
hespotted. There is the new verb forewarn. An old man 
is said to be in his chair-days; he sits still. There is 
the Dutch doit, a small coin. The Eomance words are 
prospect, lohhy, a handitto slave (outlaw), peroration, mechamical 
(artizan), single combat, trivial. The word tragedy now 
stands for a "scene of bloodshed." We hear of hoy^ 
copies (of writing), a new sense of the word. We see the 
phrase there's the question, referring to a previous statement ; 
here we now substitute that for there. We come upon 
Nash's new expression, the main chance; this earlier had 
been simply the main. There is fealty, a much more correct 
form than the fewty oi 1310. There are the old forms 
alderliefest, y-clad, uneath (vix), ken (videre), whereas {uhi, 
of place), cast away (perdere) a man, a doom (sentence), a 
corrosive. The presently and hy and hy both keep their old 
meaning ^o/mt^. We see the words hezonian and second 
(adjuvare), used about this time by Sir Koger Williams ; 
also the point hlank of Harrison's later work. There is the 
word hind (servus), preserved in the North ; also even 
(just) now ; the form mickle comes often. We have the 
proverb, " a staff is quickly found to beat a dog." 

Henry VI.— Part IH. 

Here we see fire and hour made dissyllables ; Renry is 
once sounded as Henery. There is the new Substantive 
dislike. The Adverb is now placed after the noun in com- 
pounding, thou setter up and plucker down of kings. There 
is the new Adjective wishful (Butler's future wistful) ; also 
high pay. Among the Verbs are take offence, to cloud joys. 
The Weak Participle mowed supplants the rightful mown. 

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24 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

There is the Adverb abreast, not the old on abreast; her 
faction is fidl as strong as ours ; here the fvll stands for 
fv^ly. A huntsman is asked to go along ; here toith us is 
dropped ; come along was soon to follow, and to oust older 
synonyms. A man is marked for the grave ; the for denot- 
ing purpose or destination ; there is also revenge for me I 
England is safe if true within itself ; here the verb be is 
dropped. There are the Compounds unpeople, to bechance, 
Ul-beseeming, home-bred, fast-falling, hardest-timbered, unload, 
big-swoln, misproud, unlicked. There are the Romance 
words, common soldier, poltroon, captivate. Something is of 
no Tnoment (weight). There are the old phrases inly (inter- 
nally), forspent, laund (saltus), lade (haurire), as good to chide 
(you might as well chide). We see the proverb, " beggars, 
mounted, run their horse to death." 

Merry Wives of Windsor. 

Here the ou replaces e, as ouphe for elf ; hence came 
the later oaf The final n is clipped, as coz for comin. 
There are the new Substantives shovelboard, tinderbox, pepper- 
box, burning-glass, a go-between, rattle. We hear of the East 
Indies ; there is the phrase as good luck would have it. The 
Verbal noun breeding appears ; FalstaflF is a gentleman of 
excellent breeding. The word gang loses its honourable 
meaning, and is used of vulgar plotters. A mother is said 
to be strong against a match ; here, as before, the Adjective 
stands for an adverb. There is a new phrase for express- 
ing eminence, " she is as virtuous as any in Windsor, who- 
e'er be the other" Among the Verbs is clapperclaw, al§o lead 
the way, know the world, clap on sails, throw cold water on it, 
run through fire and water for you. The new verb drawl is 
formed by adding I to draw. FalstaflF talks of hedging, 
which here seems to mean shuffling. There is the phrase 
hark you hither. The over is now repeated for emphasis ; I 
have told them over and over ; here we add again. We 
have seen be rid of it ; we now have ease me of it. The of 
is dropped; half Windsor is at his heels. There is the 
oath Ois me, where a ^ is clipped ; also what the dickens is 
his name ? here the strange word is said to be akin to the 

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Dutch. There is welladayl which seems a compound of 
the old walawa and the later alack a day. The other Com- 
pounds are unkennel, idle-headed, heart-break. There is the 
Dutch verb rant ; the Scandinavian sprac (agilis), which I 
have heard in Somerset ; the Celtic flannel. Among the 
Eomance words are notebook, meteor, truckle-bed, madrigal. 
The noun port gives birth to portly, an epithet applied by 
FalstaflF to his belly. There is mien (vultus), a word which 
gave rise to much squabbling a hundred years later. The 
noun^ass gets a new meaning, for it is connected with 
fencing. We hear of the firm fljxture of a lady's foot ; we 
now use this word in a very different sense. The word 
mummy comes to us through France from the Persian mom 
(wax). The old urchin (hedgehog) now stands for an elf ; 
for elves took, it was believed, the shape of that animal. 
There is out at heels, used also by Nash ; his Queen's English 
appears here as the King's English, The old phrases are 
shent (disgraced), go against the hair, he is of n^o having 
(property), middle earth (terra), tall man of his hands. 

-King John. 

Here the substantive bounce (the verb had meant pulsar e) 
gets the new sense of strepitus ; to speak bounce. Among 
the Adjectives are Sightless (unsightly), wiry, cold comfort ; 
the substantive is made an adjective, as a kindred action. 
We see the new Genitive of it on the way to supplant the 
rightful his; it (its) grandam. Among the Verbs are coop, 
half-blown (rose), moike a stand, sing him to rest, A soldier 
plays upon his enemies (with cannon). A deserter falls 
over to the enemy ; a compound of falling away and going 
over. The verb startle is now made transitive ; on the 
other hand, thrill is made intransitive. We see from first 
to last. This from had hitherto very seldom expressed 
owing to ; but we now see she speaks not from her faith but 
from her need ; so, later, a thing is done from curiosity. 
The phrase drink to him had long been known ; we now 
see taste to him (for his benefit). There is the new Mercy 
on me/ also zounds 1 (God's wounds) ; this lasted for two 

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26 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

Centuries. The Compounds are downtroddm, all-changing, 
cold-blooded, twice-told, red hot, high born, endear, enJcMle. 
The Romance words are voluntaries (volunteers), counter- 
check, confine, humorous (whimsical), depend, discard, misplace, 
savagery. Cannon are mounted; wrpngs are pocketed up ; 
colour comes and goes. The old auntre it makes way for 
another form, venture it A lady is called a book of beaviy. 
The verb souse had long meant m£rgere; an eagle now 
souses annoyance (plunges down upon it) ; a strange trans- 
formation of meanings. The taste yren of 1483 now be- 
comes toasting iron, and is used of a sword. Nash wrote 
about this time, setting jesting aside; but we see in this 
play the Passive Ablative Absolute all reverence set apart. 
The old phrases are forwearied, to round in his ear, states 
(men of dignity) ; the to keeps its old meaning dis in the 
new verb to-spend (scatter asunder). There is our common 
saying " (put) the better foot before " (foremost). 

Richard II. 

There is the Substantive walking-staff; a man is allowed 
odds in a contest. Wars confound kin with kin, and kind 
with kind. We have seen too too ; but here an adjective 
is repeated, as a little little grave; this is not common in 
English ; sterling is applied to something besides money ; 
if my word be sterling. The ill now replaces sick, as before 
in Harvey ; " I am in health, I breathe, and see thee ill ; " 
this is addressed to the dying Gaunt ; sick in the old sense 
is now confined to the sea and to Americans. The Pronoun 
appears in a new sense; " the king is not himself," referring 
to full possession of natural powers. Among the Verbs are 
stand out (rebel), stand condemned, burn itself out, an eye is 
glazed, sin gathers head, cut oui his way; here we drop the out. 
We see how shall we do for money ? here the do is valere ; 
this led to " what shall we do for it ; " here the do is facere. 
The do is used to express emphasis ; the castle, says one 
nobleman, contains no king ; the answer is, it doth contain 
a king. Nouns are turned into verbs ; grace me no grace, 
nor uncle me no uncles ; this is in answer to the greeting, 

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my gracwus uncle / There is the Adverb drunkenly, which I 
wonder our land of topers ever let drop; also wistly, the future 
wistfully ; the i here is something new. The to is employed 
in denoting greetings ; off goes his bonnet to an oysterwench ; 
there is also the cry, to horse ! The Compounds are wrath- 
kindled, a-ten-times-barred-up chest, a too-long-withered flower, 
to undeaf, to uncurse, overproud, to overpower, unkinged, shrill- 
voiced. In the King's speech, after stopping the single 
combat, there are no less than three of these long com- 
pounds in three lines. The Komance words are casgue, 
combatant, monarchize, point of honour, slavish. There is the 
verb holla, not to be confounded with the old halloo. A 
glove may be worn by a knight as a lady's favour; 
hence the later favours at weddings. The word scope had 
already meant aim, and also power ; it now means room or 
opportunity. As to old phrases, there is the Southern 
Present, "foes hath scope ;" there is the Northern Present, 
" there lies two kinsmen." Both the Northern and Southern 
meanings of navnely appear in Shakespere. 

Richard III. 

Here the u replaces e, as jut from the French /e^^^. 
The noun wreck is used of something besides ships ; a 
lady's face, when spoiled, is called beauty's wreck. The 
noun heart stands for ruthlessness ; have the heart to do it ; 
Barbour had used the phrase in another sense. The name 
Jack is used in scorn, much like Joan in the other sex ; 
" many a gentle person is made a Jack." The adjective 
raw is applied to air. Clarence is drowned in fulsome 
wine ; here the sense of unpleasantness comes in from the 
old ful (turpis) ; this sense lasted down to Congreve's time. 
As to the Verbs, hair stands on end, a dream mukes im- 
pressions. The verb sound (fathom) may now be applied to 
a man. In let me alone to entertain him, the Infinitive is 
something new. We see bring him along. Something is 
upon record (not merely traditional) ; this comes from the 
law-term, on the record. The verb assign, followed by to, 
must have been the model for limit each to his charge. The 

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28 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Compounds are ensnare, begnaw, bunch backed, care-crazed, 
high-reaching, snail-paced, the All-seer (Deus), and the Sub- 
stantive after-hours. The verb outshine is coined, but means 
emicare, not as we now use it. The Romance words are 
unfashionable, royalize, incapable, rely, index, instinct, complot, 
momentary. The verb descant is no longer connected 
with music. The word savage now means crudelis. The 
word suddenly takes the meaning of cito ; this seems 
to come from the Italian phrase subito. The word expe- 
dition gets the new sense of celeritas, Richard is styled 
the right idea of his father; we talk of the very ideal. 
The noun flourish is now connected with trumpets. The 
French tache gives birth to tetchy (fretful), applied to 
a child ; this is a term objected to as vulgar by Miss 
Rosamond Vincy. The word note now stands for epistola. 
Soldiers are quartered in certain places. There is the 
phrase to punch him full of holes ; this new verb comes from 
the French poinson (bodkin). A crown rounds a brow; 
we use the verb only in rounding off a sentence. A man 
plies the touch when he makes an experiment ; this became 
later, put it to the touch. The verb stay imitates abide, and 
takes an Accusative ; stay dinner, A man comes upon his 
cue; this theatrical term is brought into common life. 
Our Plural statues appears as statuas. The old phrases are 
to overgo (surpass), recure (recover), a many sons ; a priest is 
still addressed as Sir John, 

Midsummer Night's Dream. 

Here the pun on ace and ass shows how the a was sounded 
in the former word. The word briar is made to rime in 
place with fire, in another with dedre. There are the Sub- 
stantives merriments, dew drop, rouglicast. The word hnack 
gets the new sense of toy ; hence came knick-kn/ick sixty 
years later. A woman is called a duck; a new term of 
endearment, common to the Germans and Danes. The 
name Nicholas is pared down to Nick; it is Bottom's 
Christian name. Gower's svmerday is changed ; "a proper 
man as one shall see in a sum,mer's day," There is the 

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question, whaXs your will ? which is now confined to Scot- 
land. We hear that sweet hay hath no fdlow (rival). 
There is Wyntoun's curious idiom of pronouns, peep with 
thine own fooVs eyes. There is the Adjective waggish. As 
to the new Verbs, Tyndale's mmise is repeated. We see 
hody it forth, where Pecock's verb bears a new sense. 
There is swagger ; Palsgrave had swagge (move from side to 
side). The old hoi (ferire) now becomes intransitive ; I hob 
against her lips. We have seen a well-spoken man ; we now 
find the curious / am drawn, referring to the sword ; this is a 
true English extension of the Passive. We see take hands, 
a made man, I make hold with you ; here myself is dropped 
after the verb. A runner is out of hreatk The toith once 
more bears the sense of apvd, in what's the news with thee ? 
Palsgrave's cheek by cheek is altered into cheek hyjole. There 
is the Interjection, me/ which must have come from 
Gascoign's Ah me/ There are the Compounds hean-fedy 
faTicy-free, to superpraise, fiery red, light-heeled, hedahhleJi 
honey hag, crook kneed, entwist, homespun, fairy land, ha/mp^aft 
man. There is the Scandinavian "to skim milk" The 
Romance words are rehearsal, officious, rheumatic, flouret, 
ninny, a mimick. We hear of single blessedness ; sickness 
is catching (apt to catch hold), lie Teutonic ring takes 
the French suffix, and we have ringlet (little circle) ; the 
word here means a dance. The verb haunt now refers to 
something unearthly, as a ghost. We hear of the report 
of a gun, and of the manager of revels. Men carry sport 
well ; here we place on after the verb. There is a phrase 
dating from about 1590; a kill -courtesy. We see the 
Northern word neif (pugnus). The old forms and phrases 
are other soTne, quern, they waxen, thorough (per) ; the Genitive 
moones (lunse) is made a dissyllable, a very late instance ; 
this is at the beginning of Act II. Alliteration is once 
more laughed at — 

** With bloody blameful blade, 
He bravely broach'd his boiling bloody breast." 

There is the old saying, "the man shall have his mare 
again," which was in use for nearly 200 years; it was 

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30 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

altered from "the mare shall have his man again;" see 
vol. i. p. 467 of my book. 

Merchant of Venice. 

The a replaces e, as warmth for the old wefrw)pe. There 
is the Substantive death! s head, and the new phrase wealth 
of wit, A horse is called Dobbin; we hear of Black Monday, 
and of the wUds of Arabia ; this last must have been an 
imitation of wealds. The end of a sentence is called a 
ftdl stop. A lucky stroke in business is a hit Among 
the Adjectives are swanlike, snaky, laughable; we hear of 
a little scrubbed boy ; that is, no bigger than a shrub, the 
old scrob ; hence Bunyan was to talk of "a sorry scrub." 
An eye is big with tears. Something is wished dark (con- 
cealed) ; hence our " keep it dark." The inland is used as 
an adjective ; an inland brook ; this word bore a very 
different sense in the oldest times. The usage of the too 
seems to have been followed by much ; " with much much 
more dismay." There is a good example of the thou and 
you, when Antonio, in his first meeting with Shylock, uses 
the scornful pronoun, even when asking for a loan. We 
see the ungrammatical between you and L The a is prefixed 
to a proper name, to mark either distinguished virtue or 
vice; Portia is called a Daniel, Among the Verbs are 
inlay, outstare, stake down ; there are the expressions draw 
money, make offers, a losing suit, to play on words, you are gone 
(ruined), come fairly off (escape). Bassanio shows a swelling 
port in expenditure ; here is one remote source of our slang 
noun swell. Eyes overlook a lady ; we should say, look her 
over. A painter does the features in a picture ; it is asked, 
how could he see to do them 1 here the intransitive verb is 
followed by the Infinitive of purpose. The have now takes 
the meaning of peimittere ; I HI have no speaking, Shakespere 
is fond of phrases like, I am to learn. The over had long 
expressed iterum ; we now see pay it twenty times over. The 
adverb easier is used instead of the rightful easilier. Some- 
thing is purchased from out the state ; here an of is dropped. 
The Compounds are two-headed, wry-necked, green-eyed, bosom 

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lover (hence bosom friend), school days. There is the Scandi- 
navian squander. The Komance words are competency, cite 
(books), line of life, gormandize, vasty, a million (of money), 
organs (bodily), difference (certamen), to curb. The verb 
entertain now governs something abstract, as a stillness of 
mind ; hence our entertain hopes. Two men are compromised 
(agreed on a bargain). The verb bar means exdpere ; I bar 
to-night. Something is insculped upon gold ; the verb sctUp 
has been revived in our day, coming from sculptor. We 
see envious plea ; this, like the later invidious, has nothing 
to do with envy, but means molestus. We hear of human 
gentleness, with the accent on the u; this word had already 
been written humane by Eden. The old phrases are thrift 
(good luck), to wive a woman, complexion (natural quality), 
in his danger (power), posy (motto) ; the word fulsome, ap- 
plied to ewes, bears its old sense of copiosus, as in 1230. 
The Old English sam (the Latin semi) appears for the last 
time in the corruption sandblind (lialf blind). There is the 
old pleonasm more elder. The some month or two reminds us 
of the Old English sum man (a man). There is the proverb, 
"it is a wise father that knows his own child;" we use the 
converse of this. 

Henry IV. — ^Part I. 

The a is clipped; attach becomes tack; napkins are 
tacked together. The interchange between r and / is seen 
in the proper name Hal, The I is added ; the old dunne 
becomes dwindle. The n replaces // Palsgrave's verb 
kyttell becomes kitten. The Substantives are woolsack, hand- 
saw, summer-house, bluecap. There is the abusive term 
you thing / We hear of beads of sweat, of men of leading, 
metal may be on a sullen ground; the noun luggage is 
coined from lug (trahere), imitating baggage. The love of 
jingle continues, as skimble skamble stuff. The Adjectives 
are be better than my word, thafsflat, where a strong assurance 
is meant ; the word plump takes the new sense of pinguis. 
Among the Verbs are waylay, to re-tell, daff aside ; also take 
horse, give him his due, hold his countenance, a man is blown 
(out of breath), an advance on Palsgrave's active blow. 

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32 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

The old set out (ornare) is now changed to set off. There 
is the solemn threat, you^U hear of it (unless something be 
done). There is our common / know a trick worth two of 
that. The verb share is coined from the noun share ; the 
noun itself had come from the old shear (tondere). The so 
appears in a new construction ; it was great pity, so it was, 
that, etc. The of follows the verb accept; accept of grace. 
We see it was the death of him (not his death) ; this is the 
continuation of a very old idiom. A man is in drink. 
Something is cut through and through. The Interjections 
are Odsbody / humph, and whew, used in whistling. The 
Compounds are blood-stained, moss-grown, mouth-filling, a 
crop -ear, the lag -end, water-colours ; the verb forethink 
(prophecy in thought) is coined; this is very different 
from the old forthink (repent), which had lasted into this 
Century. The Celtic words are brisk and lag ; the latter 
appears in lag-end, soon to become fag end. The Komance 
words are rascally, falsify, pouncet box, paraquito, perpendicular, 
joint-stool, oily, capitulate, poop, sympathize. We see sperma- 
ceti, where the last half of the word represents the genitive 
of cetus (whale) 3 something unusual in English. Palsgrave 
had connected the noun temper with the body ; it is here 
connected with the mind. We see rendezvous, and we may 
be sure that Shakespere did not spell it thus. The old 
words are franklin, mammet (doll, idol), micher, moldwarp, 
good cheap, take with the manner (in the act). There is the 
proverb give the Devil his due. 

Henry IV. — ^Part II. 

The n is struck out in the middle of a word; Manning^s 
vanward becomes vaward. There is the noun bluebottle ; a 
man proposes to tell a good thing (joke), which will please 
the wits of men. The word poll (caput) is connected with 
a parrot. The word crib now takes the sense of tectum; 
bulk (cumulus) now means magnitudo ; thews refer here to 
the body, no longer to the mind, as of old. We hear of 
the wildness (roystering habits) of youth. A health is given 
at the table. Falstaflf is called a hulk; hence our Parti- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


ciple hulJdng, A warrior has the day^ which stands here 
for victoria. A girl is meat for your master. As to Adjec- 
tives, we hear of a long (ingens) loan ; hence long odds, a 
long price. The lonely of 1350 is now cut down to lone; a 
lone woman. The old still-born is revived after a long 
sleep. There is the new verb slight (contemnere) ; also 
untwine. The old fob (decipere) of 1360 gives birth to 
fub off ; this verb is repeated three times for the sake of 
emphasis ; hitherto England had merely doubled her words, 
as mx/re and more. There are the phrases take a pride to, 
hook on (to), toss in a blanket, bear your years well, give you 
my word, school broke up, stop his wages, lay odds. Mrs. 
Quickly*s remarks on the verb swagger show that it was 
just coming into use. Men fall foul (attack each other) ; 
hence comes a foul in a boat race. There is our well- 
known vulgarism, he was took. The well is used in a new 
sense ; well on your way / there is the new Adverb helter 
skelter. A man gives over a business when half through ; 
here tdth it would have been added earlier. A person is 
deaf to the hearing of anything good. The enemy is said 
to be west of the forest ; this of had long before been used 
to express distance. There is the oath upon my soul ! The 
Compounds are peach-coloured, basket hilt, broadside (of can- 
non), good limbed, muster-book, title-leaf, dining chamber, fang- 
less, after-times, sober blooded, outweigh, enrooted, encircle. There 
is hold (of a ship), from the Dutch hoi. The tide makes a 
stUl-stand ; this reminds us of Germany ; we moderns come 
to a stand still. The Komance words are a vent, disgorge, 
drollery, a compownd, man of action, appliances, soldierlike, sure 
card, private soldier, chimes (of bells), military men, valuation, 
wnfix, intelligencer, favourite, potations, duteous, intervallums, 
stained with travel. There is hautboy, written howboy twenty 
years later. The word security now stands for bail. Pistol 
is called a fustian rascal. The verb accommodate (attribute) 
had been known two generations earlier ; it now takes the 
new sense of fwrnish ; " accommodate him with a wife ; " 
the sense is so new that Shallow admires it much. We 
hear of a nobleman's quality (rank), a new sense of the 
word. We come upon the vapours of the brain ; this was 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



to be a well-known phrase a Century later. Men cry hate- 
upon a nobleman ; hence the later ary shame. The word 
faifrmis (it was well worked about 1800) represents two 
ideas ; a fammis (notorious) rebel, and a famous true subject. 
We have here the curious kickshaws, from qudque chose. 
There is caraway, from the Spanish corruption of an Arabic 
word; also the Italian hon<i roba (meretrix). The old 
phrases are m^inqueller, qmver (impiger), the trade (cursus) 
of danger, by the rood / womb (of a man). 

KoMEO AND Juliet. 

The new Substantives are ladybird, dove house, steerage, 
earliness, jaunt, slug-a-bed, Tybalt is the prince of cats ; 
hence the common tibby. The word meat takes a new 
sense ; an egg is full of meat. We hear of a word and a 
blow, of the hollow of a man's ear ; also of the pink of cour- 
tesy. The word cotguean appears, used by Hall about this 
time. The Adjectives are snowy and mis-behaved. The 
words my man stand for " the man I want ; " the phrase 
was so new as to provoke comment from Mercutio. The 
one, like the French on, represents ego ; may one ask ? may 
not one speak f The new Verbs are swash and waddle ; we 
see take the wall of, set cock-a-hoop, play a tune, look your last, 
a winning match. The speed bears a new sense, / am sped 
(hurried out of life). A person is doivn late (is come down- 
stairs). The of appears in a new sense ; " she was weaned 
of all the days of the year upon that day." We see for all 
this same (in spite of this speech I have heard), Pll hide me; 
this led to our common all the same at the beginning of a 
sentence. The new Compounds are grey-coated, coachmaker, 
upturned, bescreened, fashion-monger, fishify, be-rime, wUdgoose- 
chase, fiery-footed, unmanned, black-browed, heartsick, torch- 
bearer, tempest-tossed, chambermaidj ratcatcher. We hear of a 
th/ree-hours-wife. The word crow-keeper, differing from the 
usual run of compounds, means " something that keeps off 
crows ; " hence the later bird-keeping. There is the noun 
switch, from the Dutch swick. The Romance words are 
atomy (atom), duellist, poultice, sum it up, professed friend, 
a tender (proffer), vault (for burial). There is ambuscado as 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


well as the older ambush, Capulet is past his dancing days/ 
here the first word is a Verbal noun and not a Participle ; 
like a mnning match in the same play. A man is proof 
against enmity; the more usual construction at this time 
was shams-proof. An idiot appears as a natural. Strata- 
gems are practised on a woman j hence Scott's to practise on 
her life. Men entertain thoughts ; something like this we 
have seen in a former play. The old phrases are by my 
holidam (haligdom), by my fae (par ma fei), merchant (nebulo), 
weal or woe, runagate, lay thee along (at full length), to hoar 

Much Ado about Nothing. 

The I and the r are inserted in waggle and smirch ; so 
the old dreosan (cadere) produces drizzle. There is the new 
Substantive crossness; something is a thought browner. 
There is the phrase merry as the day is long, the windy side 
of care. A man proposes to make a woman half himself 
(his wife) ; hence the later phrase " his better half." As 
to Verbs, we see take time by, the top ; this last word was 
to become forelock twenty years latter. A man stands out 
against some one (resistit).. There is stand thee by, like sit 
him down. We find wish him joy of, give way unto. We see 
have a quarrel to you; this is a continuation of the idiom 
twenty to one (contra). A person is in fault. Benedick 
names as Interjections, ha/ ha! he I The Compounds are 
trencherman, overkindness, un^tcracker (hence "to crack jokes"). 
The Romance words are libertine, harpy, ominous, blank verse. 
The word action takes the new sense of pugna. Benedick 
is engaged, not to marry, but to fight at his lady's behest. 
We read of the promise of a man's age; hence the later 
promising youth. There is a pun on the two meanings of 
cross, adversari and benedicere y " if I can cross him any way, 
I bless myself every way." A man is civil as an orange ; 
here Seville is glanced at, a favourite pun of this Century. 

Henry the Fifth. 

Here replaces ce, as clover for the old cloRfer, The 
new Substantives are warming pan, leapfrog. There is the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

36 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

phrase we may he none the wiser (be ignorant of it) ; some- 
thing like this had come in 1360. The of it appears as a 
pleonasm ; as Nym's thafs the humour of it The Verbs are 
dishearten, cap, as " cap a proverb." We see take them up 
short, set the teeth ; the verb mind (admonere) gets the sense 
of its modem representative remind, and is followed by of 
The verb shog loses its old sense agitare, and means progredi. 
We see out of work, out of beef The if seems to be used in 
the sense of fortasse / " one Bardolph, if your Majesty know 
the man." There is the new aspiration, for a Muse! 
The Compounds are hydra-headed, full fraught, war-worn, ever 
running, love suit, impound, enfeeble, enround, which was later 
to give place to surround. The Dutch words are sutler and 
linstock The Komance words are spirited, coranto, defunct, 
cursorary (cursory), demonstrate, with the accent on the first 
syllable. We see cash (pecunia) from caisse, money box. 
There is humorous, which here means giddy or fanciful. 
We see trossers (trousers) ; here we have added an r to the 
French trousses. There is the old noun hawcock, like Skel- 
ton's daucock. The Scotch dialect is imitated; Captain 
Jamy uses aile ligge (jacebo) ; also gude (bonus) and sal 

As You Like It. 

A new Adjective is coined ; underhand means. Instead 
of lam he, we find lam that he, the poet's favourite synonym 
for man. We know the Old English the harder, the better ; 
an all is now prefixed to this the ; as all the better. There 
is the new Verb puke (vomere), probably connected with 
spew, like the German spucken (spuere). The verb sweep 
now gets the sense of procedere / sweep on. Something is 
on sale, like the later be on duty ; here the idea of destina- 
tion comes in ; as a youth is said to be on his promotion. 
The Compounds are outstay, lack-lustre, heart-whole, love- 
prate, forest -bom. There is the Celtic hawk (clear the 
throat). The Komance words are marketable, second childish- 
ness, purlieu, the lie direct. There is the curious co-mate. 
Jaques is said to be full of matter; something like this had 
come about 1320. The stage word exit is made a -noun 

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and becomes a Plural. The old phrases are Idll them up, I 
cannot go no further, God ild you, erewhUe, leer (facies), / thinJc 
he be transformed; here be is beth, which often stood for erU» 
The very imitates too / your very very Rosalind, There are 
new phrases ; a person has not a word to throw at a dog, too 
much of a good thing, a womun of the world. 

Twelfth Night. 

The a replaces 0, as strap for the Old English stropp ; 
also Sir Toby's phrase hob, nob (hab, nab), which has led to 
a later verb. The d is inserted, as scoundrel, from the 
Northern scunner-eL The I is added, as caterwaul. The new 
Substantives are knitter, dodpole, undertaker (of a quarrel). 
Men are addressed as my hearts, a new phrase that occurs 
also in * Patient Grissill,' of the same date as this play. 
Among the Verbs are cut a caper, make (take) good view of 
me, I know my place, wind up a watch, put quarrels on him ; 
I have lately seen " put a rudeness on me," a phrase placed 
in an American's moutk A man may be thou-ed, as 
Raleigh was by Coke ; rather later, Maria uses the 
Interjection, la you ! There is the Dutch manakin. The 
Romance words are a mute, to front, catch (song), obstruction. 
The word kickshaw refers here to masques and revels, not 
to dishes. Malvolio is advised to be surly with servants ; 
here the adjective keeps its old sense of superbus. The 
verb accost, brought in twenty years earlier, had meant " to 
sail along side of /* it now takes HalFs new sense of assail- 
ing, or fronting a lady, as Sir Toby tells us. We hear of a 
man's outward character (appearance) ; we now apply the 
word to his inward disposition. The new Compounds are 
eye-offending, giddy paced, fire-new (our later brand-new), stain- 
less, love thoughts, bumrbailiff. The old Five Wits (senses) 
are mentioned by the Clown. 


The g is prefixed, for the verb graze (touch slightly) 
appears ; this is said to come from the Romance radere, 
rasum ; it may be connected with the earlier verb glace, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

38 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

meaning the same. The r replaces I ; the old tdibant be- 
comes turban. Among the new Substantives are whipster, 
hairbreadth ; the hero is called his Moorship, and the thick- 
lips. The noun sniper as well as woodcock, expresses stultas. 
We see dead-drunk. Among the Verbs are the new phrases, 
its is nofto be found, fleets bear up to a port, lead by the nose, 
give the cause away, a foregone conclusion. The old verb 
paddle is now used of the hand. We see the phrase, fis 
neither here nor there (it bears not upon the case). The 
Scandinavian words are fluster and squabble. Among the 
Komance phrases are billet a soldier, purse thy brow together, 
deliver a tale, remembrance (love-token), and relume, after- 
wards used by Pope. The phrase remove in the . sense of 
occidere was something new, as Roderigo's comment shows. 
A lady is said to be perfection. The word personal is much 
used in this play; my personal eye (my own eye). The 
word ability stands here for mental power. The new Com- 
pounds are knee-crooking, high-v)rought, night-brawler, unmake, 
unpin, wind instrument, sea mark, green-eyed, spirit-stirring, 
ear-piercing, ill-starred. We see the verb enmesh. There 
are the old forms to bob (trick), to fordo, to conject, mystery 
(trade), exhibition (gift) ; Othello kills himself, because he 
is great of heart ; the adjective is used in the * Ancren 
Riwle ' to express something coarse or unbending. The 
repetition of a word, for the sake of emphasis, is seen; 
wish him post, post haste. Some phrases had only lately 
come into use ; as no way but this; good nature ; cast (cashier) 
an officer had been foreshadowed by Gascoign's cast clothes, 


The ea replaces i, as tweak for the old tvjich ; the u 
replaces we, as sultry from sweltry. The ch replaces k, as 
ditcher for diJcer ; the r is added, for gihe produces the 
verb gibber. The new Substantives are truepenny, outbreak, 
crash, bung hole, a falling-off, kettle drum. We see romage 
(stowage), whence the verb rummage was to come. The 
word spring now may mean a snare for birds. The word 
slip here stands for the outbreaks of youth, falls from 

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virtua The word edge takes the new meaning of irriior 
mentum ; give him further edge ; to egg and to edge are two 
forms of one verb. The substantive sheen, the Old Eng- 
lish sdne, reappears. There are the phrases in my heart of 
heart, do yeoman^ s service ; I have been sexton, man and boy, 
thirty years. There is the new Adjective fretful ; Hamlet 
is not fit (ready to do something) ; here the usual preposi- 
tion following is absent ; this fit has been lately revived. 
Among the Verbs are unfledged, to beetle, unhousel, unanealed, 
overtop, unhand, out-Herod, reword, to mouth, chapfallen, A 
man is harrowed with fear ; a garden grows (runs) to seed. 
The adjectives sicJdy and muddy are turned into transitive 
verbs. The old substantive husband (paterfamilias) gives 
birth to a new verb ; to husband my means. A man saws 
the air. Melancholy sits on brood over something ; this is 
the first hint of the future sense of the verb brood. A part 
may be overdone ; a ship gives us chace. There is the ques- 
tion, how came he dead ? here there seems to be a confusion 
with become. As to Prepositions, we find taJce him for all 
in all ; dead, for a ducat. The in, imitating the French, is 
used of direction ; two crafts meet in one line. There is a 
new Preposition, aslant the brook. The bvi (tantum) is 
prefixed to rww ; even but now. The new Interjections are 
pvh! pah! and hillo / There is the Scandinavian verb 
bhat. Among the Eomance words are palmy, battalion, 
cap a pe, summit, urmerve, to sugar, bourne, inoculate, robustious, 
dismantle, rhapsody, presentmsnt (image), potency, petard, hectic 
(fever), bilboes. The favours of a lady are here understood 
in the worst sense of the word. There is the adjective 
flush, soon to be connected with money. We see the new 
impatient curse, 0, confound the rest ! The Compounds are 
self -slaughter, blastment, prison house, co-mingle, giantlike, heoAyy- 
headed, spendthrift. The old words and phrases are rede 
(consilium), depe, dout (do out), bear in hand (accuse), cart 
(currus) of Phoebus, anchor (hermit), wUl he nill he, even 
Christian, Mbe ; too, too solid, quietus, to both your honours (to 
the honour of you both). There are some words and mean- 
ings that had lately come in, such as hobby horse. Stany- 
hurst's verb tower is applied to passion ; a towering passion. 

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40 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Tarlton's limd (impetus) reappears when Laertes, in a riotous 
'head^ overbears officers. The King talks of skill in fencing 
being a very ribband in the cap of youth; we alter this into 
feather, Polonius puns on the word tender; he hears that 
Hamlet has made tenders of affection to Ophelia ; " do you 
believe his tenders, as you call them ? " (it was evidently a 
new noun) ; " tender yourself more dearly." 


The n is prefixed, as nun/^le ; the final t is clipped, as to 
squinny. The new Substantives are placket ; the hMow of 
a tree ; the rfuan is added to another substantive, as beggar- 
man ; there is the dog's name Tray, We see the new 
Adjectives goatish and unsightly ; the latter replacing the 
former si^^/ess (indecorus). There is a curious substitu- 
tion of the Accusative for the Nominative in Pronouns ; / 
would not be thee. There is the new Verb elbow ; Edgar, 
when about to disguise himself as a madman, says that he 
will elf his hair ; the verb shows the supposed connexion 
between fairies and folly, as may further be seen in oaf 
(ouph). As to Prepositions, a man holds lives in mercy ; 
this seems a confusion with in his danger (power) ; at my 
mercy was soon to be used by the author. We further 
see fis not in thee to grudge ; Foxe had had something like 
this idiom. The for had been used to express length of 
time ; it now further expresses length of space ; there^s 
scarce a bush for many miles about. There is the Dutch 
word glib (voluble); the Scandinavian aroint, and the 
Celtic pother. The Eomance words are to devest, dependants, 
cadent, garb, jovial. Things may be rich or rare, Moore's 
future phrase. The word oily is used in the new sense of 
callidus. The emphatic very is now applied to time ; this 
very evening, A man measures his length (falls on the 
ground). The Spanish was so well known that we find 
the verb carbonado. The new Compounds are wide-skirted, 
unfeed (unrewarded), dark-eyed, fleshrnent, hot-blooded, thunde7'- 
hearer, belly-pinched, unbonneted, to outjest, foster-nurse, fvUl- 
fiowing, toad-dotted, cheerless; there is the curious disquantity 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


(diminish) and guestrist (searcher), a compound of Latin and 
Greek. There is one compound longer than usual ; the to- 
wnd-fro conflicting wind. The old-fashioned phrases are that 
self (same) metal, comfortable (benignus), gast (terrere), meiny 
(sequela), mother (dolor), deer (animal), sit you down. The 
go still expresses ambulare; ride more than thou goest. The old 
fordeman reappears, when Lear's daughters fordoom them- 
selves ; this word has nothing to do with Lord Macaulay's 
foredoomed, A phrase of Gower's is repeated ; poor Tom is 
acold. The Somersetshire dialect, as usual on the stage, is 
put into the mouth of the counterfeit peasant. The it is 
too had of 1570 is here repeated; also Levins' mop and 
mow, and Lyly's slipshod, 


The replaces a, as swoop for swap; the i replaces ou, 
as shirr the country, A new meaning is given to the word 
spdl, which is now used in connexion with the black art. 
There are the new Adjectives fitful, brinded, and slab ; the 
iorm&r fiendlike is revived. We have seen remove in the 
sense of ocddere; we now hear of Duncan's taking off. 
There is the Scandinavian verb cow. The Komance words 
are disloyal, supernatural, to drug, multitudinous, incarnadine, 
comhcstion, masterpiece, alarum bell, dauntless, diminutive, pris- 
tine. The magot pie, our magpie, comes from the French 
Margot, There is the Northern while (until) then, put into 
Macbeth's mouth. The new Compounds are unsex, even- 
handed, trumpet -tongued, firm -set, demi-wolf, whey face, thick- 
coming, unreal, hell broth, bodement, high placed, overfraught, 
faith-breach, to disseat, dareful. We see the old phrases hors 
(equi), latch (capere), cling (contrahere), weird, afeard, angerly, 
farrow (a brood) ; also Gower's feverous. There is the new 
verb infold, Ainong words lately come in we see hoodwink, 
flighty, make faces, play false. A new idiom of Fulke's, as 
regards to, is repeated ; applaud thee to the echo, 


We hear of the water of a diamond ; a man is the very 
soul of bounty. There are the new Verbs ooze and befriend; 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

42 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

men freeze a petitioner ; the Gods may be sm/m into shud- 
ders ; a person is a made-up villain ; this verb implies hypo- 
crisy or pretence, like the later make-up of an actor. The 
Numeral is now used of age, uncoupled with any substan- 
tive ; a son of ten (years). The Romance words are a touch 
(of a painter), to pencil^ society, dear a man (from debt), con- 
fectionary, personate, dedmaiion, A person is called another 
man's creature (servant). Manslaughter is brought into 
form (fashion) ; hence the later it is bad form. There is on 
the present, which we make at present. The new Compounds 
are wniirable, curlpate, king-kUler, There are the old words 
spilth, fang (capere), ort (reliquiae) ; I con you thanks. There 
is Stanyhurst's new verb slink. 

Measure for Measure. 

The is inserted in Lodotvick (Ludwig). The I is added, 
as gnarled from knur, a knot in wood. The d is added, 
as AU-hoUond (halowene. Omnium Sanctorum). There is 
the new Substantive burgher, and the new phrase thy 
belongings. Angelo is said to be shy, that is, averse to 
women ; the word is taking a new meaning. We see the 
new phrase in the wrong, where a substantive is dropped. 
A man puis in (pleads) for something threatened ; here his 
word must be dropped after the verb. A person is plucked 
by the nose. We have seen grani to be spoused; the In- 
finitive now follows believe and other verbs of thinking or 
knowing ; whom I believe to be rrwst strait. The intensive 
all is set before an adverb ; fwere all alike as if we had them 
ru>t; this resembles the all one to me oi 1200. As to Pre- 
positions, we see fis pity of him, the Duke of dark comers 
(he who frequents them). There is dull to all proceedings ; 
the to had before followed deaf. The Romance words are 
sanctimonious, to parallel;vulgarly ; Shakespere forms, not only 
thy belongings, but onr concernings. The verb admit (permit) 
is not as yet followed by of. The verb figure stands for 
imagine ; in Scotland, figure that now/ is a constant phrase. 
Angelo is said to be so vulgarly and personally accused ; I 
suppose this must mean " accused to his face ; " this gives 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


one of the first hints of our personal abuse. We read of a 
China dish; traffic with the East was now making great 
strides. We find character with the accent on the first 
syllable ; the word seems here to mean no more than stamp 
or mark ; " a kind of character in thy life." The new Com- 
pounds are thick-ribbed, shoe-tye, and the noun promise-breach, 
an after-dinner's sleep. There are the verbs instate and ensky. 
The old words are eld, yare, touze (vellere), giglot; winters still 
express the Latin anni, and other stands for the Plural alii ; 
Lucio is an inward (intimate) of the Duke's ; there is the 
Comparative w/ore mightier, 


There is the new Substantive Tnalkin, a scarecrow. The 
word length now means the range commanded by a weapon ; 
within my pistol's length, very different from the old spear^s 
length. The new Verbs are befit, overfed; thwart, the thwert 
of 1230, is revived; Pericles thwarts (crosses) the seas. 
A man takes liking with (to) a woman; here we insert a 
before the .first noun. The verb mind is employed in a new 
sense ; not minding (caring) whether I dislike or no. The to 
appears in a new phrase, showing exact measurement ; (she 
has my wife's) stature to an inch. There is the Dutch lop, 
and the Scandinavian shrivel. The Romance words are 
trumpet forth, vegetives (vegetables), a substitute, she is paced 
(trained); hence came our later thoroughpaced. The new 
Compounds are deathlike, silver-voiced, after-nourishment; there 
is fitment (duty) ; our author was very fond of this m^nt. 
The old phrases are wanion, gin (incipio) ; there is the old 
superlative of the Adverb, the rudeliest welcomed. Some old 
forms are appropriately put into Gower's mouth; allperishen, 
ne aught escapen, sleep hath yslaked; also dern (obscurus), i-uis, 
neeld (needle). We see Tarlton's buxom, with the sense of 
hilaris ; Stanyhurst's sea room ; also seafarer, which reminds 
us of Harrison. 

Troilus and Cressida. 

The i replaces a, splat becomes split (findere). The new 
Substantives are goer-between, dog-fox, book of sport. The 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



word chest takes the new meaning of pectus. Soldiers charge 
on heaps (in masses). An adverb is made a substantive ; the 
direct forthright The adjective naughty is employed in a 
light jesting way ; would he not, a naughty man ! The that is 
employed after an affirmation ; Mil lay, . . . / can tell them 
that ! The all, in its new sense, may go before the Plural ; 
he is all eyes. The scornful sv^h is employed ; you are such 
a woman / The Verbs are overhulk us, lay out a corpse, ships 
draw deep ; the verb ken, as at sea, expresses distant view ; 
I ken his gait A man may be unread; wares will sell ; 
this last change must come from he in selling. There is the 
curious Imperative, do not do so. There is another repeti- 
tion in you must be watched, must you ? The Adverbial phrase 
here, there, and everywhere expresses ubiquity. The phrase 
pass by the way had long been used ; we now find the new 
phrase, misers pass hy beggars. The Accusative, expressing 
measurement, follows mthin ; " he will lift as much, within 
three pound." There is the Interjection pho ! There is the 
Scandinavian wheeze, which had appeared in Yorkshire 200 
years earlier. The Komance words are priority, deracinate, 
prescience, orifice, a convive (banquet), prqpugnation, embrasure 
(amplexus), colossus, A ship is now called a convoy. Some- 
thing catches the eye ; a new meaning of the verb. Wyn- 
toun's verb bru^h (ruere) gives rise to the Plural noun, 
brushy of the war. The day is closed up ; this phrase is now 
confined to the ranks of soldiers. There is the new 
adjective spritely ; we make this much more Teutonic in 
form. Ajax is called a "very man per se;" this recalls 
the old A per se. Praise may be too flaming. The word 
liberality (knightly behaviour) occurs in the catalogue of a 
true man's virtues. Pride is said to carry it (win the 
victory). Music may be sung in parts. The new Com- 
pounds are sodden-witted, under-honest, self-assumption, great- 
sized, copper nose; there is the curious his fat-already pride. 
We have bi-fold (duplex) ; this has led to later compounds, 
like birweekly. The en appears in entomb, enrapt. The old 
phrases are sperr up (claudere), Greekish, lustihood, pash, 
feeze, frush. Hector is called " too free (noble) a man." A 
sword is bloodied; this is the Old English verb blodgian. 

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Among the phrases lately brought in are drayman, crusty 
(morosus), ward (avertere), plaguy proud, you dog ! 


As to the Substantives, catsguts appear in connexion 
with music ; there is hare-hell^ stowage, the crack of a voice, 
the spring of a trunk. The king, when in a forgiving mood, 
says pardovUs the word; the mot dlordre that our penny-a- 
liners are so fond of. The adjective Romish is connected 
with the city of Rome, not with religion. As to Pronouns, 
we have the shes (women) of Italy; there is the unusual 
phrase, by hers and mine adultery ; Matzner here quotes the 
Old English mid gelpeahtunge ]>ine and mine; but in this 
last instance the pronouns follow the noun. We further 
see my every action (every action of mine). The Verbs are 
draw (sword) on him, make no stranger of me, how the case 
stands uMh her, miss my way ; the first hint of laying a 
ghost appears in unlaid ghost. The verb is dropped after 
although, as it had been dropped after if ; although the victor, 
we submit. As to Prepositions, there is hy the way (the 
later hy the lye), used by Imogen, when summoned to Milford 
Haven. We have seen off from, which is now transposed ; 
carried from of our coast. There is the curious Interjection 
ods pittikins I We see the Celtic Irogue (shoe). Among 
the Romance words are passable, unreduced, stupify, air (of 
music), air yourself, mountaineer. The phrase give satisfac- 
tion is employed by Cloten in the duellist's sense. lachimo 
uses religion in Horace's sense of scruple. The new Com- 
pounds are evil-eyed, overrate, overpay, half-worker, lawbreaker, 
tanling (youth tanned by heat) ; there is bed-chamber, which 
was about this time brought into the Revised Bible. The 
old phrases are witch (magus), limb-meal, jet (swagger), 
inward (yisceTa), fore-show, rap (urgere); the very old idiom 
of 1303, one the truest (truest of all), comes twice over. 
Gascoign's verb quail and Lyly's within ken reappear. 

Winter's Tale. 

The r is added, the plant lavande becomes lavender. The 
new Substantives are eye-glass, numbness, a break-neck ; the 

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46 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

Adjective /air is made a substantive in the Vocative my fair, 
addressed to Perdita. Three words are turned into one 
substantive, "I multiply with one — we-thank-you,'^ Men 
are got out by twos and threes. The Verbs are draw a stake, 
she holds together (is not dismembered), cut U out by pattern, 
to queen it, hit an image (likeness). There is a phrase that 
has come down to us, I trust her no further than when I see 
her. There are the Interjections ifecks (the Irish faix), 
tirra lirra (revived by Lord Tennyson), lo you now ! mercy 
onusl There is the Scandinavian greensward. The Romance 
words are unintelligent, pre- employ, process-server, hubbub 
(houpe, houpe), to pair with. The word graceful here ex- 
presses sanctus. One king pays a visitation to another. A 
heart dan^ces. A Participle is made an adjective in a pro- 
mising course. The new Compounds are distinguishment, 
bed-swerver, spotless, honour-flawed, honey-rmuthed, weak-hinged, 
unearthly, tradesman. The old phrases are neb (rostrum), 
losel, bug (bugbear), bame (child), carver (sculptor). We 
see Stany hurst's adjective limber ; also his verb dish (set in 
a dish) ; and Tusser's dibble. 


The V replaces /, as vetch for feche ; the m replaces n, as 
lime for line, linden ; the final t is clipped, for gorsi becomes 
goss, our gorse. We have often seen el become ew in 
English and French ; the reverse takes place here, for the 
sea mew appears as mell. The new Substantives are mmn- 
calf, hint, pignut, a fresh (a stream). The Adjectives are 
heedful, dusky ; the word dry takes the new sense of sitiens ; 
so dry he was for sway. The Verbs are take in sail, take 
his life, born to be hanged, set to a tune, make a mistake ; the 
verb free appears again after a long sleep ; peg and breast 
are made verbs. There is the Adverb rootedly, and the cry, 
(get) out of our way I here the pronoun is new. The a/ 
replaces the former in; at my mercy. We have the 
imitation cock-a-doodle-doo. There is the Dutch swabber. 
The Eomance words are precursor, test, abstemums, frippery, 
meander. There is the new sense be collected; also to re- 

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member thee of it ; this verb was later confused with mind^ 
meaning the same, and remind was the upshot. Prosper© 
is safe for hours ; that is, out of our way. The noun tu/m 
expresses something new; to walk a turn. The verb troll is 
now applied to singing. There is the Italian cry, coragio I 
which was to be very common in this Century. The new 
Compounds are wide-chopped, bat-fowling, open-eyed, sour-eyed, 
footfall, lass-lorn, grass-plot, wasp-headed, sickleman, cloud-capt, 
strong-based, spell-stopped, bestir, betrim. There is side-stitch, 
which was known earlier as stic-adl ; also the new adverb 
inch-meal. The old words and phrases are teen, tang, lush, 
learn (docere), wMe-ere (a little time before) ; man of sin 
and ' cat mountain seem to be borrowed from Tyndale. 
Ariel is called to his master by the cry, come away I we see 
thefy are both in either^s power. Among tb^ plirases lately 
brought in are Nash's outstrip, Lambard's gather to a head, 
Puttenham's enforce, Gosson's c?ialk (forth) the way, Tusser's 
in a pickle, Sidney's bedim, and his merely (omnino) ; as 
we^re merely cheated of our lives ; also the new curse, a mur- 
rain on it I The Northern phrases are murky, bosky (not 
bushy), lea, I am woe far it, 


The in c^ is made to rime with through, Act ii. Scene 
3. There is the new Substantive flier; the word weal (short 
for comrrwn wealth) often occurs. The word poll here 
stands, not only for caput, but for numerus, as in Overbury 
a year or two later. Phrases such as handful now pave 
the way for a city full of them. The word hound is now 
used as a term of reproach. There is a curious use of the 
Relative, my knees who bowed. The one, standing alone, is 
made Plural, as had happened to other Numerals ; by ones, 
by twos. The new Verbs are to wheel, to side, to nose it; 
the old bustle is revived. Men take in toums, a favourite 
phrase of this Century ; here we drop the in, Aufidius 
gets off (effugit). A man is caimihally given, where the 
adverb replaces a dative. The shall is repeated as a noun; 
mark you his absolute shall; as we say, ^^must is for the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

48 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Queen." We see thifs off (over), Shakespere's former 
inch meal is changed ; dk hy inches ; in against the hair, the 
last word now becomes grain. Something is at stake; 
here the is dropped before the noun. Kome is to be 
shaken about your ears. There is the alliterative from face 
(head) to foot. The Romance words are particularize, 
percussion, emharguement, rectorship, pre - occupy, gangrene, 
precipitation, trier, stallion; there are the phrases charge 
home, the common file, points of the compass, stand in request, 
turn up the white d the eye (show reverence). We see 
rapture, for which the Teutonic Participle rapt had pre- 
pared the way. The new Compounds are soft-conscienced, 
wiactive, tender-bodied, harvest-man (formed like sicklemxin) 
promise-breaker, false faced, outdo, disbench, brow-bound, to 
over-peer, fore-advised, sued-for, time-pleaser, rank-scented, 
heart -hardening, to unclog, foxship (cunning), apron-man, 
garlick- eater, unswayable, packsaddle. The old words are 
bale, ruth, anhungry, manchild, to mamock, wreak (vengeance), 
atone (act together), the many, kam (crooked) ; the proper 
name Malkin was still so common that it stands for 
ancUla; the old sooth (flatter) recalls the Old English ge- 
solp (adulator). Among the words lately brought in are 
Lyly's horse drench and read lectures to, Carew's stand your 
lord; also to trail pikes, a phrase of 1580. There is pass 
a man for consul; the save him trouble of 1603 gives 
rise to save me a journey, 

Julius CiESAR. 

The i is dropped ; the adverb gentler stands for gentlier. 
Among the Substantives are the back of his hand, a mis- 
giving ; Portia calls herself the half of Brutus ; hence the 
later better half There is the phrase though last, not least. 
We see what trade are you? this may come from the 
Northern whatkin (what kind of). Caius is said to bear 
Ccesar hard ; this led to bear hard on, later in the Century ; 
there is have a hand in a thing. There is bear a hand over 
him, whence comes " keep a tight hand over him.'* The 
as is more than once used for the Relative ; that gentleness, 

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TV. ] T£t£ NE W ENGLISH, 49 

08 I was wont to have. Men are on the spur ; this new 
phrase is also used by Vere about 1606. The Ro- 
mance words are villager, liable, pre-form, phantasma, dis- 
member, undeserver. We hear of a touching loss, of the foumd 
of a ladder, of the genius of a man (his mental powers) ; 
so in the 'Tempest' my worser genius occurs. The new 
Compounds are chirrmey top, ferret eyes, sleek headed, master 
spirit, noblest-minded, a climber upwards, to oversway, over- 
earnest, wati/red, barren spirited; we see Ul-tempered blood, 
showing the source of our HI temper. There are the old 
words to scandal (slander), have aim (guess), /«? / (halt !) ; 
the phrase samng of thy life (vit4 except^) recalls the old 
be giving of thanks, where the of is not needed. There 
are Harrison's get the start of, Stanyhurst's wMz, and 
Hall's breathless. There are the Northern dank and to 
stem. We see the old pun on all and anvl ; also n^w is 
it Rome, and room enough. 

Antony and Cleopatra. 

Among the Substantives we remark the swell of the 
sea ; lady trifles, where the first substantive stands for the 
adjective. An attendant is addressed as my good fellow. 
We have seen the shall ; we now have " give the dare to 
him." Boars are roasted whole. There is a game called 
fast and loose ; we see dwarfish. The phrase any thing is 
used as an Adjective; "sweet Alexas, most any thing 
Alexas!" In this play many nouns are made verbs; as 
to demure, to widow them,. We see reel the streets, make a 
fortune, take her own way, a tearing groan; hence our 
tearing passion, Caesar does the honour of his lordliness to 
his captive; the first hint of our "doing the honours." 
There is Fulke's new idiom once more repeated, round even 
to favltiness (to a fault). The old gearn to feohte is the 
parent of don^ to your hand, which comes here. There is 
from head to foot, where head replaces the former face. We 
see a new Inteijection ; 0' covldst thou speak/ There is 
the Scandinavian scuffle. The Romance words are pre- 
science, competitor (pronounced in our way), a tinct (whence 


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50 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

tint), disaster^ to solder, tabourine, cUadel, varletry (low crowd), 
posture, intrinskate, A scene of dissembling is played. The 
word command stands for power of commanding ; I have lost 
command ; this sense of command occurs in Vere about the 
same time. There is the Plural pyramides, where all the 
four syllables are sounded; the last was soon to be cut 
short. We hear of a termagant steed; the former word 
was later to be confined to women. The adjective savage 
is now made a substantive. The old phrases are ear 
(arare), chare (opus), worm (anguis), hind (natura). The 
new Compounds are shrill -tongued, heart-breaking, inroad, 
lust-wearied, all-honoured, undinted, high-coloured, seedsman, 
world-sharer, outroar, cold-hearted, full-fortuned, soulless, their 
after-wrath, leave-taking. The verb forspeak is coined in 
imitation of forbid. There is the verb encloud. Among the 
lately-arrived words are Stubbs' dislike, and Stanyhurst's 
bard. The Northern phrases are a knowing man, tight 
(alacris), rimer (poeta). 

Henry VIII. 

The a is prefixed ; bode (nuntiare) is made abode, imitat- 
ing abide. The Substantives are folding door, broomstaff 
(Swift's future broomstick), a work (fortress), springhalt. 
Wolsey is said to be the end of a plot ; we should say, at 
the bottom of it. The word depth means "what I can 
sound ;" beyond my depth. The new phrase fc/r goodness^ 
sake comes twice over. The word town seems ^to take its 
literary sense, as an author is said to amuse the town; 
Shakespere in his Prologue calls the audience " the first 
and happiest hearers of the town." The Adjectives are 
a fit fellow, a bold, bad man (often repeated since); we 
hear of first good company ; we now change the second 
word into rate. The Verbs are bosom up, talk wild, take her 
out (to dance), healths go round, blow a coal, put her in anger 
(our in a passim), bring me off, a face is drawn (in death). 
The verb bore seems to take the new meaning of persequi ; 
Wolsey bores Buckingham with some trick; we now use 
the word in a lighter sense. The old overrun and the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


later (ywtrun are brought into close connexion in the First 
Scene, " we may outrun that which we run at, and lose by 
overrunning." The fairly is employed in a new sense; 
fairly seated. The of now follows upward; upward of 
twenty years. The Romance words are cry up (laud are), 
revokern&niy ratify, rectify, vivd wee. The adverb merely here 
expresses tantum. The assembly, of Cardinals is called 
the Conclave ; this mistake has often been repeated since ; 
the Conclave can exist only when a Papal election is in 
hand and the Cardinals are shut up. We hear in the 
Epilogue that many come to the . play house to hear the 
ci7y abused; this must mean the burghers, as opposed to 
the courtiers and gallants. Wolsey tells Katharine — 

"You turn the good we offer into envy." 

This word envy must here stand for evil or mischief; hence 
later an evil or unpleasant task was to be called invidious. 
The new Compounds are self-drawing, to outworth, to outstare, 
to outgo, top-proud (like top-heavy), mountain-top, unqueened. 
The words lately brought in are Fulke's traduce, Webbe's 
firewm'k, Stanyhurst's verb shower, and his daring (audax), 
Harrison's not (nought) to speak of, flowing (abundans), 
dating from 1586, and also to sit a mule, dating from 
1600. There is a new English phrase foreshadowed; no 
mean's pie is freed from his ambitious finger. 

As to the great bard's later contemporaries, the play 
of 'Patient Grissill' (Shakespere Society) seems to have 
been written about 1599; the printed copy dates from 
1603. We have the form good bye, p. 67, already seen 
ten years earlier. Among the Substantives is a hop of 
my thumb (infant), p. 63 ; Palsgrave had here upon for of 
The word scum is used in an abusive sense to a man, p. 43, 
Among the Verbs we see take it up upon trust. Men eat 
us out of house and home, p. 76 ; the two last words are 
an addition since Barclay's time. The must appears in a 
new sense; must is fcyr kings, p. 63 (kings can command). 
In p. 67 we have hufty tufty, whence humpty dumpty seems 
to come ; it here answers to pell mell There is the cry, 

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52 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

onoe^ itaicey tkrice 1 p. 13. Among the Romance words are 
cwrvei^ enthrone, an applaud (plaudit), booby, from the Spanish 
bobo. Something unknown is Greek to a man, p. 1 7 ; this 
was soon to be repeated in the play of * Julius Cassar/ 
An Euphuist is brought on the stage, who recuperates the 
use of his limbs, p. 42, and employs such strange words 
as compliment, prefect, fastidious, capricious, misprision, sin- 
theresis of the soul, p. 19. A Welsh couple are introduced, 
who boast of British blood, p. 69. 

The Book called *Tarlton's Jests' was printed about 
1600 by some old friend of his ; it was reprinted by Mr. 
Halliwell, together with other works connected with Tarl- 
ton. In p. 8 tiie word oar stands for waterman ; a pair of 
oars call him. The word bumpsie stands for ehius, p. 8 ; 
it perhaps led to bumptious, used by Miss Bumey about 
1800. In p. 20 stands the retort, the rrwre fool you I The 
that is used like so ; he would follow, thai he would ! some- 
thing like this had appeared in 1350. There is the new 
verb snuffle, p. 9 ; formed by the usual addition of I to an 
old verb. There are play the beast, sit^U horse, beat him 
at his own weapon, A bet is taken by the cry. Done/ 
p. 8. Men laugh heartily, p. 14. The Romance words are 
put to a nonplus, stable room, and the new curse, a murren of 
U/ p. 6. 

Kemp wrote the account of his * Dance to Norwich ' in 
1600; it is in Arber's 'English Garner,' vii. The new 
Substantives are pipe (for smoking), a rise (leap) ; whence 
comes "get a rise out of him," p. 24 ; a man takes a. jump; 
he may have his skin full of drink; we read of the overseer 
(of a match) ; also of a penny poet, A CJeltic surname is 
called a Mac, p. 36. Kemp proposes to call a spade a spade, 
p. 34. A rogue, escaped from the stocks, tries to outrun 
the constable, p. 27 ; a famous phrase in the future. There 
is the Scandinavian noun squall, which seems here to be a 
synonym for a squib, p. 37. The Romance words are 
concise, violin, balladrsinger, well deserving, A good fellow is 
called a true Troyan, Knaves are addressed in the third 
person, as " their Rascalities," p. 35. The word turnpike 
comes now to mean a barrier on the highway, p. 32. The 

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trade of advertising seems to have begun ; Kemp talks of 
the pitiful papers pasted on every post, p. 34. 

The word adjutant is used by Holland about this time 
to translate the military legatus. The word tobacconist 
occurs in the year 1604 ; see ' Pierce Penniless/ p. 95. 

In Hore's * History of Newmarket * we see about this 
time the phrases fiM sports^ hard riding^ maid of honour. 

The Commentaries of Sir Francis Vere, drawn up about 
1606, may be found in Arbor's * English Gamer,' vii. The 
ye still expresses the French ^, as in the proper name 
Sinklyer (Sinclair), p. 164. There are the new substantives 
goumTnan, ship's broadside. The Adjectives are flat-bottomed, 
in cold Uood, p. 95. The Verbs are hold good (hold the 
ground fast), hem them in, bear the brujit, men swarm ; the 
verb beat is applied to ships ; thej beat off and on in p. 83 ; 
they lie off and on in -p. 97. A man rides on the spur, p. 
116 ; a phrase which appears in the play of 'Julius Caesar ' 
much about this time. There are the Eomance words, a 
redoubt, disband, countermand, a chain bullet (hence chain shot\ 
hamd grenade, hMt, officer's commission, magazine (of food), 
the enemy rmts (fugit), embryo, present (arms). A general 
commands (in the technical sense), and also has the command 
of men; guns command a point, p. 127. The verb mend takes 
a new sense in mend his pace. We read of a ship's chasing 
pieces, whence the later stem-chasers. In p. 119 the men 
at the head of the Dutch government are called the States. 

There is a pamphlet of 1608 in Arber's 'Enghsh 
Gamer,' i. 79 ; here we see usquebaugh, pigeon hole, the 
dead (slack) teim, and Ben Jonson's word waterworks. 
Bacon about this time talks of acoustique art ; we generally 
substitute u for the Greek ou in borrowed words. 

I now consider Ben Jonson's three most famous plays ; 
I have used the edition of 1732. Even in that year the 
form moile is used for mule, p. 10. I first take the play 
acted in 1605. 

The Fox. 

The a replaces i ; Lyly's caUsh becomes cabbage, p. 24. 
Among the new Substantives are water-works, mother of 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

54 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

^earl^ conundrvm. The word sparh is usqUot juvenis, p. 32. 
A woman puts on her best looks, p. 40. The edge of a 
man's oratory is taken oflF, p. 78. A person is called " old 
glazen eyes,^^ p. 80. Writers may be happy (curiosa felicitas) 
in their productions, p. 46 ; a new sense of the Adjective. 
Among the Verbs stand blow glass, stiffen, give her the air 
(here we drop the), have the refusal ; there is the Shakes- 
perian a face is dravm (when in sickness) ; a secret comes 
out; men, when disappointed, are said to be sold, p. 3, 
a phrase still held to be slang. There is stand upon my 
guard, stand affected; a certain colour is taUng (alluring), 
p. 16. The Northern holt (mere) now appears in London, 
p. 33. There is the Interjection puhl and happy me/ 
perhaps from well is me! We see the Scandinavian word 

The Eomafnce words are obstreperous, stupid, notion, 
opiates, cabinet counsellor, nerves, vertigo, artful, meridian 
(clime), diary, voluptuary. Men engross a person ; we hear 
of a sanctified lye, p. 8; the verb was henceforth often 
applied to hypocrisy. The word advices is used for 
epistolce, p. 33 ; and fortune takes the new sense of opes, p. 
51. We see correspondence applied to letter-writing, p. 61. 
The word rank stands for high dignity, p. 64. There is the 
French sou, the Italian gazet and ciarlitano; piazza is revived 
in England after a long sleep ; King Alfred had written 
plcetsa. A patron is echoed by his parasite, a new phrase, 
p. 41. There is tarpaulin, p. 62, whence the British tar 
gets his name ; it comes from a tarred palling (pallium). 
We see dogmatical and assassinate. The very old some-deal 
(somewhat) faulty is found in p. 90. There are the 
Shakesperian phrases masterpiece, personate, vapours of the 
spleen, rapture, shrivelled, clodpole ; also lay the devil, your 
creature (servus), and none the wiser. 

The Silent Woman. 

This play was brought out in 1609. We see the con- 
tracted 'em (illos) in constant use, the Old English hem. 
The new Substantives are h&i'se race, burn (vulnus). 

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The word rook now expresses nebula; bodies (boddice) 
appears, p. 39, much as the French corset comes from corps. 
The noun pounds is dropped in a man of two thousand a year, 
p. 72. A man is soft-spoken; there is a famous phrase of 
this Century in p. 42, we told him his ovm, where a man is 
to be confounded. The indefinite it is added to give ; he 
has given it you (hit you), p. 61 ; there is the odd phrase a 
she-one (female), p. 70. Among the Verbs are stave off 
(a metaphor from a bear fight), a man comes about (round) 
to an opinion, he is wouml up high and insolent, he hits of 
a good thing, p. 73 {hit off or hit on). There is the I told 
you sOf with which our kind friends console us after a mishap, 
p. 64. A man takes a certain street in his way, p. 9. There 
is our common now I think onH, p. 75, in the middle of a 
sentence. There is a new use of to ; perform the second part 
to heTy p. 57 ; hence the phrase of the next Century, " play 
up to an actor." As to Eomance words, we hear of orange 
women^ a common-place felloWy dining-room, essayist, laudanum. 
The verb flourish is connected with a sword, p. 9. The 
word assu/rance is on its road to mean impudentia ; a woman 
of an excellent assurance, p. 50. A man walks the round, 
p. 73 ; there is the phrase by no mortal means, p. 75. We 
hear of false teeth, of good (high) company, a China house 
(frequented by ladies), a bravo (sicarius) ; the name of Don 
Quixote is now known in England. The Vocative Domine 
Doctor is used to a learned man ; this was employed later 
by Wycherley, and is the source of Dominie Sampson, A 
lady expresses in phrases, p. 38 ; we should add the Accusa- 
tive herself. There is the old form Christen (Christian), 
p. 13. We see the new Shakesperian mannikin, jovial, 
tweak, warming-pan, and favours (granted by a lady). 

The Alchemist. 

This was acted in 1610. There is the contraction 
penn'orth. The old Southern form suster (soror) is revived, 
in the mouth of a country bumpkin, who also uses the 
East AngUan mauther (puella), which was to appear again 
in * David Copperfield.' There are the Substantives dog- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

56 THE NEW ENGLISH, [ohap. 

holly cracker (firework), dock (for prisoners). The word 
younker now me&ns juvenis, p. 94. A man is said to have 
no head to bear wine, p. 55. Among the Verbs are mre- 
dravm, keep my dislmice, live by his wits, see dovhle, A man 
is said to be 50 doum (dejectus), p. 80 ; the Adverb stands 
for an Adjective. The word rank is dropped, when a 
woman will not marry under a knight^ p. 42. A professor 
has a gift of teaching m the nose, p. 81 ; we should change 
in into through. 

The Romance words are laboratory, stUl, receiver, syringe, 
pimp, bonny-bell. Memory may be treacherous, p. 34 ; 
powder is primed, p. 93. We hear of men of spirit, p. 54. 
Spanish phrases appear, as a Don, a Grande (grandee) ; we 
read of pieces of eight. The Turkish chiause appears in p. 
1 1 ; a man is said to be no chiause (impostor). The word 
chair now gains its pre-eminence ; a man is presented with 
the chair (best place) in a gambling assembly, p. 53. 

We see the old mammet (idol) still used for a doll, p. 95 ; 
there is the Shakesperian uxilk a turn. The origin of our "your 
word is law " is seen in p. 1 2 ; your hummer must be law. 

Armin, one of the original actors of Shakespere's plays, 
published his 'Nest of Ninnies' in 1608 ; it was reprinted 
for the Shakespere Society, 1842. He has the nouns 
dumpling and fisticuffs; he uses jack in connexion with 
roasting, and also with drinking, pp. 23, 32. He talks of 
the coole of the evening, p. 22. The adjective sweet now 
begins to be used ironically; the sweete youth is heard of 
in p. 27 ; a score of years later the persecuted Abbot 
speaks of his enemy Laud as a sweet man. There is the 
verb outswear him. A Preposition is made a verb, as had 
happened to down ; he ups and tels (him), p. 43 ; A^ up with 
it, a less marked form of verb, had occurred in 1340. In 
p. 44 we read of the presence, where the Royal presence is 
meant. There is the proverb first comes, first served, p. 25. 
Alliteration preserves a very Old English phrase, gams and 
glee, p. 7. We see from Armin's work how common it was 
for country gentlemen to keep fools in their houses ; after 
this time these went out of fashion ; Archy in the Stuart's 
palace was nearly the last of them. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Norden wrote his 'Surreyor's Dialogue' in 1608; 
extracts from this may be found at the end of Harri- 
son's * England ' (New Shakespere Society). The aw 
becomes 0; hemshaw appears && Jieririsho, p. 182. There 
is the Western contraction toilet for the hayloft; in p. 196 
we see the pleonasm hay tallet, which survives to our day. 
Taunton Deane is contracted into Tamdeane, p. 194, and is 
called the Paradise of England. The two forms of one word, 
hedge and hay, are here distinguished ; the latter is a dead 
fence that may be pulled down at the end of each year, 
p. 196. The nouns are, a feed, fire-wood, hather (heather) ; 
the word toll is here derived from the Latin tollo, p. 181 1 
The word upland no longer stands for rus, but is contrasted 
with low-lying land, p. 194. There is the phrase it were 
not amisse, that, etc., p. 177. The Romance words are 
nursery (of trees), ingenor (engineer for draining) ; the verb 
prize stands for cestimare, p. 190; the ize was coming in, for 
there is gentlelize (play the gentleljian), p. 194. A few 
bondmen remained, even in 1608 ; see p. 177. The drain- 
ing of the fens in the Eastern Counties had already begun, 
p. 185. The furnaces in Surrey and Sussex were speedily 
devouring all the wood, p. 191. These two shires contained 
more fish ponds than any twenty other shires in England, 
p. 192. 

The ill-fated Overbury wrote his * Observations on his 
Travels ' in 1 609 ( Arber's * English Gamer,' iv. 299). There 
is the new phrase, a treaty is on foot, p. 302. We see Ben 
Jonson's give law to, ^. 314; also, the poll (number) of 
an army, as in the play of * Coriolanus/ dating from about 
this time, p. 302. We find magazine (of powder), deTno- 
erotic, obnoxious, subaltern, chicanery, men stand punctually 
(punctiliously) upon their honour. 

Overbury, in a work of 1614, uses the word about for 
almost; "much about gentlemanlike;" see Dr. Murray's 
* Dictionary.' 

We now consult the 'Letters,' printed in *The Court 
and Times of James I.' (1848), ranging between 1603 and 
1615. The t replaces k, as letters of 7nart (marque), p. 48. 
The initial s is struck out; we hear of a squinancy or 

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58 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

qainseyy p. 134. Among the new Substantives are hride- 
mauy bridecake. Hymen is called the soul of a masque 
(mainspring), a new sense of the word, p. 42. A traveller 
sees the sights of a certain town, p. 140 ; eminent persons 
are called men of mark, p. 174; something puts life into 
trade, p. 279 ; a man gives no shadow of offence, p. 294 ; 
news comes from good handsy p. 334. A certain plotter's 
hand was in the pie, p. 37 ; a man's fortune is at a stand, p. 
351. What we call a jockey was a rider in 1615 ; see 
p. 383 ; a new pastime was now taking root, and King 
James was always going to Newmarket. Charles Blount 
is spoken of by his title as Devon, not Devonshire, p. 61. 
The term Romish Catholic is used by a courtier, p. 180, 
where men of lower rank would have said papist ; we also 
find Catholic, p. 253. A man has an Oliver for a Rowland, 
p. 187. The term Cambridge men is used, p. 239. The 
East India Company send an ambassador to the Great 
Mogul, p. 352. There is a new phrase for debt; a man is 
many pounds worse than naught, p. 140. We hear of a 
hard (poor) bargain, p. 210. 

Among the Verbs are overlieat, take him as he fornid him, 
fall foul of (rebuke), a drawn match, sleep it out, make a 
reasonable way (progress), build upon a h&pe, set it on foot, 
put a trick on you, spin out their hopes, show our teeth, hush 
(up) the matter, see into the bottom of this. The old sense 
of sway (flectere) comes out, when a fact sways the jury, 
p. 1 6. Innocent men are drawn in by plotters, p. 1 9 ; a 
favourite phrase throughout this Century. A contractor 
underwrites in business, p. 84 ; the underwriter of this 
time answered to our subscriber, p. 263 ; here men are 
sued in Chancery for not pajring up their calls, as we 
should now say. A project goes away (ends) in smoke, p. 
291 ; this simile is borrowed, as we are here told, from 
chemical processes. Expense is cut off, ^, 233 ; we should 
substitute down for the off. The new cant word roaring 
boy comes up in p. 322. An idiom of the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury is revived; Italy is being held dangerous, p. 138; 
still more curious is a patent being drawing (in drawing), 
p. 177. 

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In the year 1605 a curious change appears ; however had 
been used for tamen in Foxe, in the middle of a sentence ; 
in p. 59 it seems to express in any case; "the king is 
resolved he will have Sedan howsoever " (howsoever things 
go) ; this sense is still used in the North. Certain pass- 
engers on board ship come /o, p. 65 ; I suppose anchor is 
here dropped. There is the phrase tncst him far, p. 172. 
The old preposition on baft had reappeared in 1590 after 
a sleep of 350 years ; we now find a slight change, ahafi 
the mainmast, p. 66. The old for translates, as before the 
Conquest, g[uod spectat ad ; a dying man prepares himself 
both for God and the world, p. 135 ; we are at a low ebb for 
money, p. 328. The on stiU expresses future purpose ; we 
are upon jprojects, p. 290, The phrase on either hand seems 
to lead to he is on the mending hand (on the mend), p. 365. 
The Passive Infinitive had long followed for, it now follows 
about ; the afternoon was spent about order to be taken for, 
etc., p. 47. 

There is the Celtic dudgeon, p. 38. 

Among the Eomance words are false alarm, cube, 
methodical, equerry, barrack, national, undervalue, to intrigue. 
There are the new phrases save him trouble, mince the matter, 
to press sailors, come close, in full cry, pardons pass the Seal, 
a parliament man (member). An officer is refused a company 
(of soldiers), p. 50 ; Burbage's company (of actors) appears 
in p. 253. The ambassadors of the States of Holland 
are called the States, p. 68. We see self-conceitedness, p. 89 ; 
the Romance word was on its way to a low meaning. In 
p. 317 the Kouse remonstrates unto a man his temerity; 
lower down, the King remonstrates with the House. The 
Commons proceed to personal invectives against misdoers, 
p. 346 ; this word personal is very loosely used in our day ; 
even when a man is assailed for his public conduct only, 
he at once complains of personal abuse. We are told in 
p. Ill that the phrase natural son sometimes receives a 
base interpretation ; this had been hitherto usual in Latin, 
but not in English. A nobleman talks of his papers which 
he leaves behind him. The verb inquire now bears a friendly 
sense; inquire kindly after you, p. 255. The noun seconds 

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6o THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

(supports) is used in connexion with a duel, p. 272. The 
word indecmt is used in our sense, when the Essex divorce 
is referred to, p. 273. The word farmer, as employed in p. 
286, refers to the Customs. Silver, when tried, comes to 
the totich, p. 287 ; hence the later ^^ his fate to the touch, 
A lady says that she shall lose her character, p. 293; 
this sense is new. There is the new dogmatize, p. 262. 
A book is in gtuirto, p. 268. The Houses appoint a sub- 
committee, p. 51 ; this suib has ousted the proper under in 
our sub-vxiy. The very is prefixed to early, I think for the 
first time, p. 164. Wotton's famous definition of an 
Ambassador was written in a book or album amicorum, p. 
201 j we also hear of the sanctum of your means, p. 309. 
The Courtiers are fond of sprinkling their English with 
French, as we see in these letters ; we light upon en passant, 
p. 145, and an entremets, p. 100. There is the Spanish 
embargo, also pmctUio. In 1603 the grand C^a(?wa; appears 
as the Turk's envoy, p. 24 ; one of these a few years later 
committed a fraud, whence came our verb chouse; Ben 
Jonson refers to this. There are the very old forms all 
other (alii), and be achrwwn of (acknowledge). 

In p. 162 Frotestancy is spoken of as something different 
from Puritanism; this was in 1612. Ten years later. 
Wither wrote a poem, branding Protestants as half-hearted 
men, always of the King's religion, ready to bow to Spain ; 
they see nothing in Rome to object to, except King-killing. 
Wither says that the sense of Protestant had become much 
altered of late years. 

Captain John Smith, the hero of Virginia, was one of 
the greatest men of action that ever bore that widespread 
name ; his works, with those of his friends, have been re- 
printed by Mr. Arber in 1884. I first take those ranging 
between 1607 and 1615. He substitutes u for ey, as 
grampus for grapeys, p. 60. He still preserves the old 
form elne (ulna). Among the new Substantives are Uet 
(insula), landman, inlet, paddle. We hear of a match in the 
cock of a musket, p. 36, of small shot, of frmch beanes, of 
the falls of a river, called also an overfall. The word toy 
is now applied to something concrete ; glasse toyes, p. xliii. 

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In p. 141 the Pronoun (mr is used in a new sense ; we each 
kill our man. 

Among the new Verbs are overburden, overtoil himself; 
also the phrases hear owr course, keep stroke (in dancing), p. 
Ixiv., make land. A man may gyve another so many yards 
in a race, p. xlviii. The verbs crop and lay out are used 
in a new sense ; in the next page husbandmen crop the 
ground ; in p. xc. a town is leyd out. There is a curious 
change from active to neuter in p. 110 ; the mast blew over- 

Among the Prepositions 9xe boU to a jelly, swear him 
of the Council. 

The Romance words are deamall (journal), rear Admired, 
equalize, plantation, ddightfuU, castles in the air, humorist 
(fanciful fellow), disgustfull. There is the French corps du 
guard in the middle of an English sentence, p. 80. The 
phrase illdisposed is applied to the mind, not to the body, 
p. xxxvi. ; sailors double a point, troops are exercised, a man 
is an exact villain (absolute, perfect), p. 151. The old re^, 
called raspes by Turner, becomes raspberry. There is a 
new use of pass ; get their passes (permissions), p. 84. A 
fort is jealous (suspicious) of a frigate, p. 114; hence the 
Scotch verb to jealous (suspect). A brave is used for "a 
fine fellow," ironically, p. 162, a very French idiom. A 
man learns his lecture, p. 160; there was always a close 
connexion between lecture and lesson. A building is re- 
covered (covered afresh), p. 154 ; a new employment of aii 
old verb. Not only France, but also Spain and Italy, 
were now supplying our Romance words; there is the 
active Participle pallozadoing, p. liii., where the last o, seen 
in 1590, still remains; men disimboge (clear out), p. Ixi. ; 
this Spanish word differs from the French form d^boucher ; 
there is maskarado, p. 124, referring to a dance by disguised 
Indians. Men are forced nolens volens to do something, p. 
155 ; the old untied he, nilled he, was going out. The 
very old phrase skul (school) of fish stands in p. 53 ; the 
other form shoal had already appeared. The old Polack is 
cut down to Pole, p. 129. There are the Indian words 
tomahauck and opassom (opossum). 

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62 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

In 1611 the English Bible was revised, and some 
phrases, unknown to Tyndale and Coverdale, were brought 
in ; thus the publican wmld not so much as lift his eyes ; 
here Coverdale's Infinitive do is dropped before so. About 
this time the old Neuter Genitive of he was changing from 
his into its; the last does not appear once in our Bible. 
These corruptions commonly begin with children, and are 
then passed up to women, and at last to men ; in this way 
many of our Strong verbs have become Weak, as helped for 
holpen. Too many writers in our day write sowed and 
mowed for the rightful Participles soum and mmim. 

In Sir Henry Wotton*s * Letters' (Edition of 1672), 
ranging between 1611 and 1615, we see the name Haward, 
p. 406, not Howard ; the aw and the ow must still have 
had the sound of French ou. We hear of the heat of war^ 
p. 423 ; a new use of the first noun ; a speech has some- 
what of the courtier, p. 422; here a man stands for an 
abstract quality. There is the verb mislay ; something 
drops from the pen, p. 414, the source of our "drop me a 
line." We still use both expect of him and expect from him ; 
the last of these may be seen in p. 422. The foreign 
words are ephemeral, and its opposite hectical (continuous), 
interlard, fractwre (of skull), clerkship. In p. 423 stands 
the phrase men of the best quality (rank); the last word 
had already appeared in Shakespere. Sir Henry's spirits 
boyl, apparently from joy, p. 425. He has the phrase 
God's saving Truth, p. 400 ; this occurs in the year 1611. 

Tobias Gentleman wrote a pamphlet enforcing the value' 
of our fisheries, in 1614 (Arber's 'English Garner,' iv. 323). 
He talks of the well of a boat, of cobles (boats), and ujork- 
yards. The German town Konigsberg appears here as 
Quinsborough, p. 332 ; the old form Spruda (Prussia) still 
survives, p. 329, whence come the spruce deals mentioned 
in p. 333. A ship is still said to be boone for a place, not 
the later bound, p. 345. There are the forms YarmmUhian, 
Thameser (Thames man); Roman Catholic is coupled with 
Papistical, p. 334. There is procedue (proceeds), feasible, 
braces (rigging) ; we see Jacobuses and twenty-shilling pieces, 
p. 334. 

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Another pamphlet on the Fisheries was written in 1615 
(Arher's * English Garner/ iii. 623). There are the new 
Substantives handspikey fish-hettle, wharfage, warehouse room, 
sixpenny nail, chopstick, cod liver ; the former landman becomes 
landsman, p. 649 ; the word sale is employed in a new way; 
have a sale for fish, p. 651. The new Adjective islandish 
(insular) is coined, p. 648. The Verbs are to stow goods, to 
fit ships for sea (the later fit out) ; the verb leat is applied 
to sales, as leat down the market, p. 651. A man may be 
out of purse (pocket), p. 635 ; the Dutch fish at our own 
doors, p. 648. The Romance words are dimensions, scupper, 
rest (for gun), careen, cure herrings, defray, joint-stock, gratuity 
(fee). The word fender (defender) stands for a long pole, 
p. 627; we connect the word with the fire-place. The 
East Angles still held to their k / masking is found in p. 
630, so mask has not yet become mesh, when nets are 
spoken of. Our author declares that he neither hates nor 
envies his Dutch rivals ; he confesses that many English 
had taken to piracy, p. 652. 

Brathwaite, who came from Westmoreland, brought out 
his * Strappado for the Diveir in 1615 ; it has been lately 
reprinted by Mr. Roberts. The y is added ; the adjective 
shag becomes shaggy. There is I'ave, on the road to Fve, 
p. 89. Shakespere's spritely now becomes sprightly. The 
w is struck out ; huswif gives birth to husses (hussies), p. 
131. The initial w is replaced by I; Willy becomes 
Billie, p. 129; this new form comes from the North. 
Another Northern phrase is fry (semen), applied to human 
beings, not fish; we hear of the younger frie, p. 74. A 
question is asked, in the name of fate, p. 150. A mushroom 
is suggested for an upstart's crest, p. 134. A man bears 
the name of Franke (Francis), p. 86 ; and Bettie stands for 
EKza, p. 165. Among the Adjectives are toilesome and 
stock still. 

The verb shark once more appears, p. 150, whence came 
sharker, our sharper ; the noun shark is used of a man, p. 
53. We see also besprinkle, inbred, love-crossed. There are 
the phrases, take a cup too much, make her market The 
singular is appears in the sentence, ifs you prostitutes that. 

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64 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

etc., p. 151, differing from Wickliffe's ye it ben. There is 
the new phrase U seems bout (about) time, p. 124. The 
chorus /a la la appears in p. 134. 

Among the Romance words are art-full (artistic), p. 2, pot- 
hardy (pot valiant), sciolist, to midiate strife, to shrew Ms face, 
sceleton, tyre woman, obvious, infringe, to gallant it, paramount, ' 
We hear of a coach' t lady, p. 48 (in a coach). Shakespere's 
new French word is printed a rende voue and a randa vou. 
In p. 156 stands the cant phrase lay in lavender (pawn). 
We read of the Cockney Ciitie, p. 163 ; here the Londoners 
get their new name. The Greek metropolis expresses 
London in p. 32, a sad mistake in language. There is 
Pantomime, used of a person who imitates all things, p. 
126; a man is Tantalized, p. 262. The cotton manufactory 
had made such strides that the poet speaks of his Kendal 
countrymen as cotteneers, a new word, p. 198,. and says 
punningly that all things cotton well with them ; he praises 
the neighbouring house of Curwen. 

He writes an imitation of the Northern dialect in p. 129, 
and he here uses the words and forms »with (cito), lither 
(malus), lug (smns), fodder {pBter), youd (ivit), spear (rogare), 
fute-sare, bawbee, sicker, siller, sike an ene (such a one) ; the 
name Peggy also appears. The very old forms Greequish, 
lording, God wot, and imn (separare) are once more found. 
A pamphlet of 1617 (Arbor's * English Gamer,' iL 199) 
gives us the word prosped glass (telescope) ; the enemy has 
the wind of us, and lays us aboard, p. 201. 

Mynshul in 1618 published his * Essays on a Prison ; ' I 
have used the reprint of 1821. The a replaces o ; the old 
knoppe (villus) becomes nap, p. 80. He has the new Sub- 
stantives key-turner (turnkey) and street-walker; these are 
both used of jailers, p. 59. There is^^ of truce. Jack of all 
trades, p. 50. In p. 83 a bankrupt is called a bursten 
citizen ; hence, in America, speculators bust up. In p. 88 a 
person takes hold on timers forelocke ; we have slightly altered 
the phrase. We find the new Romance words essay ^a 
treatise), hackney coach, mutton chop. The old coyen (blandish) 
takes a de and becomes decoye (used of a man), p. 61. 
There is a new use oi fashion in p. 62, very common about 

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this time; a man of reasonable fashion (conduct). The 
oath damrmee had become so common that it appears as a 
noun, p. 86 ; ten thousand dammees. We see the very old 
drake (draco) in p. 79 ; the ignis fatuus ov fire drake, 

Drummond's notes of his conversations with Ben Jon- 
son about 1620 (Shakespere Society) give us the follow- 

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66 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

hagU (hack, mangle), p. 575 ; Palsgrave has hmk for our 
verb higgle in dealing. The r is inserted, as cartrage (car- 
touche), p. 789. The word negro is transposed, becoming 
neger (nigger), p. 191. The w is struck out, as coxon, 
boteson, pp. 802 and 797. 

Smith in 1626 published the first * Treatise on English 
Sea Terms,' p. 785. Among his new Substantives are 
lime stone, forecastle, tiller, locker, gunwayle, blocke (for ropes), 
the Davids ende (davitts), ringbolt, maine stay, hallyard, 
maine brace, studding sayl, weather bow, rammer, rattell snake, 
tattertimallion, p. 864. An Indy man (ship from India) 
is mentioned in p. 225, Indian corne in p. 261 ; the old 
Polonia becomes Foleland, p. 444. We had long talked of 
Easterlings (Germans) ; in p. 891 the men of West England 
are called Westerlings ; this is better than the later Ameri- 
can Northerner and Southerner, An English ship is called 
a red crosse, p. 262. The word pig is connected with lead, 
p. 331. The old word bug (ghost) is now applied to insects, 
p. 630. The word gang has not yet lost its honourable 
sense ; it expresses a party of sailors, pp. 647 and 655 ; 
hence the later jrress gang. The word arm appears in a 
new sense; hang at the yards arme, p. 657. The word 
draught stands for a plan or drawing, p. 699. The word 
swamp is now first used in our sense, p. 766. The Midships 
men, p. 789, are assigned to take charge of the first prize. 
The word sayler had not long been in use; in p. 791 it 
stands for an old hand, opposed to the younker or fore-mast 
man. The word berth here means secure position; keep 
your berth to windward, p. 797. A ship is hit between wind 
and water, p. 545 ; a well-known phrase. We hear of a 
three-inch plancke, p. 792 ; a concise new phrase of measure- 
ment, for the adjective tuide is dropped, just as in the oldest 
English a boy is said to be twelfwintre (old). A fine long 
compound appears in the fore top gallant sayle yeard, p. 793. 
We see bosome friend. The word waich had now so com- 
pletely supplanted dial that we read of watch-makers, p. 
871. We have already seen meeting place ; men now have 
a general m^etmg on public matters, p. 885 ; the old m>ote, 
standing by itself, had long gone out. 

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Among the Adjectives we meet with strong water 
(spirits), ill hlood (displeasure), a siiffe gale, a fresli gale. 
The Old English nep flod reappears as a nepe tide, p. 796. 
In this page, the word of command stidy (steady) is used, 
with no verb. We hear of shrubbie trees, pp. 205 and 
947, a contemptuous epithet which gave birth to scrubby; 
we have seen something like this in the 'Merchant of 
Venice.' In p. 432 the open is opposed to an ambuscade 
under trees. In p. 796 we read of a dead low watery hence 
the phrase dead water in our rivers. In p. 798 sails are 
halfe mast high, a very terse phrase. A colony is worth 
taking, p. 963; here Eden's the before the Verbal noun is 
dropped. Certain men are ru) better than they should be, 
p. 401; this waS applied to women about 1750. In p. 
cxxii. stands the worst is of these, with the consequence 
following ; we here now transpose certain words. 

The new Verbs are overhaul, hunicomb, dowse a sail, to 
pish away things (scornfully reject), p. 184 ; in p. 545 guns 
overrack an enemy's ship ; hence a vessel is raked. There is 
bring up the rear, wind bownd, spring a leak, fall foul of (here 
the Preposition is new), make land, make way (progress), 
land locked. The verb edge bears a wholly new meaning ; 
we edged towards her, p. 544. The verb blast is now con- 
nected with thunder and gunpowder, pp. 660 and 688. 
The verb sail now becomes transitive ; sayl a ship, p. 789. 
There are great changes in meaning, when men stake out 
land, p. 753, sling a sail, p. 791, lash fast graplins, p. 796. 
The old sense of trim (confirmare) survives in trim the boat, 
p. 799. The pimishment of hawling under the keele is 
mentioned, p. 790. The verb loufe (luff), here found, is 
derived from Layamon's nautical machine, the lof. The 
noun blood produces a new verb; a blouded souldier (ex- 
perienced), p. 963. Smith is fond of the Northern use of 
would for oportet ; six foot would be between the beams, p. 
792, There is the curious new Participial form, he having 
been raising, p. 845. The Infinitive is used as a noun ; 
have sufficient and to spare, p. 932. 

There is the new Adverb a drift, p. 226 ; also outward 
bound. There is the phrase a better voyage than ever, p. 

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68 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

943 ; here wm made at the end is dropped. The ever is 
prefixed to Participles, as ever-living actions, p. 742. The 
old adverb to-rihtes, seen in the year 1340, appears in its 
modern form, bring the ship to rights, p. 799 ; hence the 
later set to rights. 

The Dutch words are splice, marling spike, to sheare off, 
belay. The Dutch drill, akin to our thrill, is used of 
training soldiers, p. 963. 

The Scandinavian words are jury mast, keg. The log 
line, p. 799, is a piece of wood attached to a line to measure 
the rate of a ship ; this led later to log book. 

Among the Romance words are overture (proposal), pen- 
insula, returns (profits), howe (hoe), scale of proportion, to furl, 
trunnion, quarter deck, lanyeard, pendant, case shot, the object 
(aimed at), plush, directers (leaders). There are the phrases 
mother -countrie, glut the market, our contort (ship), a high 
commanding (station), word of command, to messe men (so 
many together), close fight (action). The verb emulate, p. 
367, means "to be jealous of;" this word has risen and 
not fallen since 1600. Men who act unwisely are called 
those furies, p. 482. We see the noun counterbuff, p. 580, 
which we have replaced by rebuff. Things in paper are 
opposed to things in effect, p. 605. Men observe (take 
observations at sea), p. 656. We see harping iron, the 
later harpoon, p. 790. The ship may be stanche, p. 79.3 ; 
this adjective is new. The word port is used as a word 
of command to the steersman, p. 796. The verb tack 
about is applied to a ship in the same page. The old 
panter (net) gives birth to painter (rope), p. 798. We 
hear of the music of howboyes, p. 838, showing the old 
sound of Shakespere's hautboy. In the same page Smith 
passes a Turk through the head ; hence " pass a sword 
through him." The word curiosity still bears its sense of 
elegance; but in p. 871 the Turks observe their religion 
with incredible curiositie (careful minuteness)-; here the 
word seems to be referred back to the Latin. The word 
pompous is used for majestic, in a good sense, in the same 
page. In p. 892 men of good ranke are mentioned, Ben 
Jonson's new sense of the word. The verb culturate is 

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used for oolere^ p. 934. There are the compounds overper- 
suade, overstrain. The Spanish comrado still keeps its last 
letter, p. 604. The Portuguese Utacola appears in' English 
as hittakell, p. 793 ; this box was later confused with ftin, 
and became binnacle, A Moor is called a molata (mulatto), 
p. 871. There are the American words moos (deer), 
hamacke (hammock). From the East come niounthsoune 
(monsoon, p. 795), coffa, sherbecke (sherbet), p. 856. We 
read of a yawning, p. 799, which loses its first letter in p. 
957 ; this word, the awning so well known to us, is said 
to come from the Persian awan (something suspended). 

Smith mentions Massachuset, p. 192, so early as the 
year 1616 ; he gives the names of some of the Virginian 
rivers, long afterwards made widely known by General 
Lee's campaigns. Smith first bestowed the appella- 
tion of New England in 1614, a name afterwards con- 
firmed by Prince Charles; see pp. 243 and 937. Our hero 
once passed through Russia, and was astonished at the 
misery of the mass of the people and at the gorgeous 
attire of the nobles, p. 868. He reports the Spaniard's 
brag, " the sunne never sets in the Spanish dominions," 
p. 962 ; this boast was later to be transferred to England. 
The word British is used for English in p. 287 ; though 
here there is no reference to Scotland. Smith complains 
that the Pilgrim Fathers counted his books, published 
before their voyage, as old Almanacks, p. 943 ; some have 
since applied this scornful phrase to History. He uses 
the old word gripe (griffin), p. 207, and the very old idiom 
the Kin^s daughter of Virginia^ p. 276. He still writes 
about the Emperour of Mmania, p. 828. In p. 953 he has 
the proverbs, many men, many mindes ; new Lords, new lawes. 

In the Letters, printed in *The Court, and Times of 
James I.,' between 1616 and 1625, the contraction &m 
appears, ii. 223. The new Substantives are nastiness, Lord 
Keepership ; the verb seethe, sodden, gives birth to suds, 
i. 468 ; the Old English shipwright is revived. The 
Queen's stamp (coinage) leads to the phrase " rimes of a 
certain stamp " (character), i. 390. A lady has hold upon 
a good thing (in the way of revenue), ii. 80. A youth is 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


called tht vMd oats of Ireland, ii. 85 ; does this already 
imply profligacy ? The word breeder (mater) is transferried 
from cattle to human beings, ii 108. A man takes a gripe, 
which leads to sickness, ii. 171 ; the gripes were to come 
later. We hear of a cross bill in Chancery, ii 66 ; hence 
the later cross suit. There is the main of a discourse, 
il 250 ; hence our in the main. We hear of the Cat and 
Fiddle (a tavern), i. 447. 

As to Adjectives, crazy is used for insanus, ii 1 9 ; a 
man is crazed in brain, ii. 37. We see high-handed; also 
a fine tuoman. In ii. 45 stands the best is (that) ; here thing 
is dropped. 

Among the Pronouns, we remark, "I have received 
yours *^ (your letter), ii 1. In ii. 196 stands have an ill 
year of it ; here the last word is used in the old indefinite 

As to the Verbs, a picture is crumpled and pickefred, 
i. 423 ; this last comes from the folds of a poke or bag, 
much as to purse up comes from purse. We see take it 
on my conscience, m^ake short work, what to do with himself, 
sink or swim, pull in his horns, have bees in his head, warm 
a house (with a feast), a leading case, strike home, tu) news 
stirring, set the saddle upon the right horse, give damages, bring 
him children, take him down (rebuff" him), take good liking to, 
make visits, sit out a play,- pull up a coach, take the alarm, 
speak big. The verb is disappears in the sentence, mxire 
respect than usual, i 407. In i 419 we have foreign 
princes, to let our own pass, can digest, etc. ; this shows the 
source of our let alone our ovm. Men had long laid 
wagers; they now lay money on a person, ii 71. They 
believe in a physician, ii. 89 ; the phrase had hitherto 
been theological They pitch their choice upon something, 
ii 156 ; hence came the phrase pitch upon (eligere). They 
are made believe that, etc., ii 242 ; the make usually im- 
plied force, not persuasion, as here. A person is cracked in 
wit, ii 358 ; the great Coke is said to be cracked, p. 373 ; 
a new sense of the word. Bacon says that the King has 
mMe a strange example of him, ii. 362. A man swallows 
(puts up with) indignities, ii 442. 

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Among the Adverbs are stand full in his face^ i. 408, 
ilie match is off ^ ii. ' 444. Men used to cast numbers ; a 
person here casts up the expense, ii. 153. The hack 
encroaches on the foreign re ; pay him hack. 

As to the Prepositions, we see under the rose, go over 
shoes (in the mire). We find in i 405 it is so much 
money out of her way (lost to her) ; in ii. 43 it is so much 
money in his way (gained to him). A man preaches no- 
thing near his father (up to his father's mark), ii. 50. A 
woman is not a wife with a witness, ii. 143 ; something like, 
with a vengeance. Men speak to a motion in Parliament, 
ii. 223. A blessing is given in a way of Amen, ii. 273 ; 
here we substitute hy the for in a, A man offers to take 
the sacrament wpon it (a statement), ii. 103; this is a 
development of stake upon it. The old hring to the stage 
now becomes hring upon the stage, il 105. 

There is the verb slap, akin to the German ; also rix 

Among the Romance words are politician, pressing debts, 
crying debts, enlarge (release), in good humour, rank him, post- 
age, clear a point, change of air, convulsions, extraordinary, in 
great state, interloper, a minor (juvenis), laconical, gain time, 
decline his company, press the point, resentment, negotiate., a 
manifest (manifesto), sedentary, gist, save his skin, to usher, a 
wa/r of diversion, sizer (at Cambridge), tenet, coarse language, pre- 
iendents (claimants), m/an^ry. A man is refreshed with money, 
i. 385 ; a well-known legal phrase now. Camden's Annals 
are said to have in them a living genius, i. 408 ; this is a 
new meaning of the word. The word customer is used of a 
man, not referring to any money dealings, i. 422 ; as we 
say, "an awkward customer." A tilting is performed very 
iridiffererdly ; here the last word takes the new meaning 
of malh, i. 394. We first hear of women of good fashion 
(conduct); then, a queen is visited by all the women of 
fashion in a city, ii. 263; in the last instance the phrase 
seems to slide into the sense that we now bestow upon 
it The word carry is used as we employ take ; she carried 
her daughter to her, i. 409 ; then grain is carried (har- 
vested), i. 423 ; carriage stands for curious in ii. 447 ; this 

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72 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

sense had appeared before in Capgrave. The word qimlUy 
now expresses rank ; gentlemen of quality, ii. 7 ; in Shake- 
spere it had expressed dignity, A nobleman travels in 
good equipage, ii. 25 ; this word as yet refers to servants 
only. We read of men in place, ii. 33 ; that is, holding 
office ; men take place of others, p. 398. A man is reserved 
(in his demeanour) towards another, ii. 48. A person is 
engaged (bespoken) when interest is to be exerted, ii. 53. 
The scholastic word pose now takes our meaning of puzzle ; 
something posts the heralds, ii. 84. The Queen is much 
indisposed, ii. 103 ; this refers to the body. The word 
impertinent gets the new meaning of impudent, ii. 111. 
The epithet absolute is coupled with a refusal, iL 153. We 
hear of a good offer for a young lady, ii. 156. A man lives 
providentially, ii 184; we should nowhere use providently. 
Not only money, but news, is coined, ii. 185. Dr. Usher is 
called a great scholar, ii. 227 ; hitherto the word had been 
used of lads only. We hear of a retired life, ii. 296. We 
read of one Pj^m, who delivers a neat (elegant) speech in 
the parliament of 1621 ; see ii. 277 ; this beginner was to 
make some noise in the world. Officials take the cream 
(the best) of all hereabout, ii. 293. A man dates in the 
old and new style, ii. 431. Gondomar's graces and faces are 
counterfeited on the stage, ii. 473 ; this use of the Plural 
is something new. The Scotch talked of moyens, not of 
means (opes), iL 7. There are the Spanish words peccadillo 
and junto ; we hear of the Dons. Mr. John Chamberlain, 
who wrote many of the letters here discussed, had already 
imported en passant ; he now has au reste and chef d'oeuvre ; 
our penny-a-liners should look back to him with all rever- 
ence. There is the Greek chimera (fancy). A preacher 
glances at Lord Bacon's Latinities, as he called them, 
ii. 172. The word list appears with the sense of catalogue, 
iL 54. Some indecent verses are called beastly gear, ii 58. 
The verb instate appears, ii. 60 ; it was soon to give birth 
to re-instate. Raleigh insulted upon Essex, ii 100 ; we now 
drop the preposition ; the two men are said to have been 
of different factions and fashions; here the Latin and French 
forms of one word stand very close, ii. 106. The com- 

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petitors for a certain place are called candidaii, ii. 219. A 
knight is disgentleised, ii. 242, a curious compound ; disarmed, 
in p. 256, bears a shade of meaning different from unarmed. 
The City (London) is opposed to the country, ii. 289 ; in 
other places it is opposed to the Court. There is the 
phrase a few memorandums, ii. 315. The word supernumer- 
ary , ii. 318, is much clipped in our days in theatrical par- 
lance. Lord Digby is commanded out, ii 399 ; we should 
substitute order for the verb. 

There is the very old form liUng either the other, ii. 122 ; 
also Ul talent (will), ii. 94, well apaid (pleased), L 424. 

We see in Ned Wymarke, L 420, the first of the Lon- 
don wits (not being public characters), whose good things 
are constantly quoted by correspondents. Gondomar is 
brought on the stage, and is counterfeited to the life, 
ii. 473 ; this is a favourite device to amuse the groundlings 
in our own enlightened days. A lady novelist puts living 
characters into her books, ii. 298 ; a pleasant fashion often 
repeated since. Young gentlemen form themselves into a 
club, bearing the name of TUyre tu ; these rioters kept the 
name until the Restoration, as Macaulay tells us. The 
parson and clerk are mentioned as conducting the service, 
the latter striking up psalms, ii. 377. The hum was a 
token of displeasure in 1623 ; see ii. 408 ; towards the end 
of this Century, it was a sign of approbation. There is 
the proverb, "blessed is the wooing that is not long a 
doing," ii. 146. 

We find about this time the Romance words risk and 

Some of the letters quoted in Hore's * History of New- 
market,' vol. i., range between 1618 and 1621. We read 
of the starter at a race ; also of a courtier who plies the 
backe-staires, p. 203. King James talks of indoor pastimes, 
a new Adjective, p. 300. The verb override, supplanting 
Dunbar's for-ride, is now employed in our sense of the 
term, p. 355; it had formerly only meant ride through; 
the over was in composition gaining the evil sense of the 
old for, A horse gets the lead, p. 346. King James re- 
ceives in a withdrawing chamber, p. 219 ; hence came 

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74 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

drawing room. We see the first trace, I think, of the 
change which has turned the old master, as a title of 
honour, into mister ; we read of the mister of a horse in a 
Paisley document, p. 360. Any one expressing sympathy 
for dumb animals was sure to be a Puritan ; we have seen 
Stubbes' remarks on bear-baiting ; in p. 355, another of his 
kidney, Mr. John Bruen, protests against mr horse-racers 
overriding their nags. 

I now turn to the * Court and Times of Charles I.,' 
between 1625 and 1630. The / is added to round oflf a 
word, as in permant and the fruit currant; the old con- 
nexion between g and y is well marked by the Londoners' 
pun, when their magistrates gave way as to the forced 
loan ; they called the GuUdhaU the yield all/h 211. There 
are the new Substantives stoppage, playhouse, bystander, bed- 
maker ; this last is found at Cambridge, ii. 76. The word 
collier expresses a ship ; we hear of the box oi 21. coach, 
i. 197. The ordnance plays redks among the enemy ; this 
word, which is Scandinavian, had long before expressed 
cursus or vagatio; it may be the parent of raking the 
enemy, or of running rigs. In i. 436 we hear of a £20,000 
widow, a new concise phrase ; also hoist him a peg highet^ 
i. 58. Among the Adjectives rusty gets the sense of invitus, 
i. 36 ; a metaphor clearly borrowed from locks. In L 106 
stands if the worst come to the worst. Men meet half way, 
i. 314. 

Among the new Verbs is install, bolt them out. There 
are the phrases with drums beating, colours flying ; overcome 
with kindness, cannon play upon a mark, a made tale (we say 
made up), spin out time. Two ministers of state understand one 
another, i 157; a new use of the verb. The old bicker 
had expressed, first batUe, then skirmish, as in Palsgrave ; 
the verb now implies mere squabbling, i. 168. The verb 
stagger becomes transitive, i. 268. There is a curious use 
of the Infinitive in L 243 ; know it to be a fable ; in ii. 2 a 
man has the honour to see you. 

The word back is used more freely; he was back with 
the king, i. 237 ; there is sooner or later, ii. 58. Money 
comes down upon the nail, i 123 ; men are turned out by 

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head and shoulder s^ i. 138 ; something is done by way of pre- 
vmting (forestalling) the House, i. 332 ; here by supplanted 
the former in ; liberty may be had so cheap as for the ask- 
ing, ii 21. The to now expresses towards; leagues to the 
Eastward of, etc., i. 266. 

There are the Celtic words pother and pet (ira). Among 
the Eomance words are postmaster, delinquent, caress, dis- 
count, demonstration (of joy), pest house, printing house, entremch 
(upon state affairs). We hear of the corranto (gazette), L 
44 j this takes a more French form, corrante, p. 82 ; the 
Edinburgh Courant was in being until February 1886. The 
army and navy were alike employed in an expedition against 
Spain ; hence the distinction sea captain has to be made, i. 
95. A college exceeds (in drink), i 109. The former self- 
conceited now becomes conceited, with the same meaning, i. 
179. Men carry away a fort, i. 259 ; here we now drop the 
adverb; they carry a resolution in Parliament, i. 337. 
The word Ixroach is used of doctrine as well as of ale, 
ii. 3. The former verb instate leads to the more common 
reinstate in the same page. The former noun manifeste 
takes the Italian form manifesto, ii. 7. The word faction 
now stands for turba, and this most appropriately is first 
seen in Ireland, ii. 9. A convoy is sent with provision 
to the camp, ii 26. Counsel move that something be 
granted, ii. 44. We hear of an out-fort, the parent of out- 
work, i. 6Q. A man's aninml spirits (vita) are suffocated, ii. 
73. A correspondent, giving news, is called my author, ii. 
78. The new phrase just now appears, ii. 81. Men cry 
their enemies quit, i. 205. The word gentleman is prefixed 
to other substantives, as gentleman recusants, i. 285. A- 
sermon is castrated, i. 295. The phrase gentleman of the 
short robe is opposed to lawyer, i. 342. There is the new 
phrase plunge him into grief, ii. 1 4. 

* There are old forms like hunger-starved, the hithermjost 
house, aUmement (reconciliation). The coach and six was 
coming into fashion, and is called a vanity of excessive 
charge and little use, i. 25. We find the first instance of 
a Eound Eobin in 1626; sailors write their names and 
marks in a good round circular form so that none might 

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76 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

appear for a ringleader, i. 187. The musketeer is set 
down as something very different from the soldier, i. 351. 
The harbinger still goes before his lord to hire] lodgings, 
i. 151. 

There is a * Treatise on Leather* of 1629 (Arber's 
* English Garner,' vi. 209). We read of the tojps of boots. 
The word turpentine comes from the Latin terehinthus; 
there is cabinet-maker. In p. 214 a chain doth concatenare 
merchants ; this Latin Infinitive in English is strange. A 
gentleman thundering through the streets in his caroch is 
called a Phaeton, p. 218 ; the vehicle of that name was to 
come four generations later. In the same page we read 
that at least 5000 coaches were to be found in London and 
Westminster. Every one, down to the serving men, de- 
lighted in wearing boots; one pair of these ate up the 
leather of six pair of shoes, p. 218. 

In Sir Henry Wotton's Letters, ranging between 1615 
and 1630, we see the surname Weake, p. 320, which 
appears in other works of the time as Wake, thus marking 
the gradual change in the sound of a. In Germany, also, 
change was at work ; for we see Hidelberg, p. 507 ; their ei 
seems to have lost the sound of French t ; their eu was 
also changing, for we see Closter Nyberg, p. 498 ; though 
there is also N&wbmg, p. 500. Sir Henry always writes of 
his Kentish home as Bodon, p. 566 ; it is now written 
Boughton, A house may be top heavy, p. 48. A project, 
like a bear's whelp, is to be licked into form, p. 512. We 
read of the key of an arch, of the way a painter stroaks in 
oil, p. 50; hence the strokes of a pencil There is the 
Dutch word landskip, p. 300 ; the last syllable answers to 
the ship in our friendship. Among the Eomance words are 
signalize, a coincident, staircase, tarrace (terrace), pastboard ; 
also a tender point, a toicchy time, a picture in little (minia- 
ture), mosaique, remember me to him. A certain Venetian is 
called the Generalissimo, p. 258. We read of an assassinate, 
p. 70, where we dock the last syllable. Wotton calls the 
colouring of statues an English barbarism, p. 53. 

I now come to James HowelFs Letters, ranging between 
1617 and 1630; I have used the edition of 1655. The 

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a is still sounded in the broad French way, for qmme 
stands for qiuilm, p. 229. The name Elwes is written 
MwaieSy p. 4. The old Belvoir or Beauvoir Castle is 
written Bever, p. 229 ; the e supplanting ew. The i is in- 
serted in stupendimtSf p. 202 ; something like the later 
tremenduom. The u replaces t, as to smtU for the old 
smitten (polluere), p. 169. The 00 Beems to be taking its 
modern sound of French ou ; for we read of the Coords 
(Curds) in Asia, p. 137. We are told in p. 134 that 
Gondomar used to pronounce boys (pueri) like buys ; in 1 300 
boy had the sound of bu. The s is clipped ; sherris (Xeres) 
becomes sherry, p. 199. 

Among the new Substantives are pit cole, blacking (for 
boots), a cast of countenance, life gard (of a King), endear- 
ment, waggery. The name Hans always stands for a Dutch- 
man, and lasted all through the Century; our sailors 
replaced this afterwards by Mynheer, We hear of a Buss 
(Moscovite). Howell asks for white UdsUn gloves, p. 20 ; 
this we have now shortened. In the year 1620 he talks 
of the /a^ end (worst part) of a city, p. 23; lag end had 
been used by Shakespere ; both forms seem to come from 
flag efnd (flagging end). We read of muddinesse of brain, p. 
39 ; bemuddle was to come later. Queen Anne used to call 
her daughter goody, Palsgrave, p. 77 ; this must represent 
good-wife; an unlucky Romanist was rather later flogged 
through London for using the scornful term ; see his case 
in Hailam. The word spear had expressed ^earman; in 
the same way, p. 84, Spinola is followed by old tough 
blades. The word landlady is now used of the mistress of 
lodgings, p. 130. The word blood stands for temper ; to 
breed ill blood, p. 121. In p. 142 we see tw? advantage in 
the earth ; hence our whai on earth, etc. The Infanta makes 
something her own business, p. 144 ; this is a survival of the 
meaning of the old bisegu (soUicitudo). Howell has weak- 
nesses (follies), p. 209 ; a new Plural 

Among the new Adjectives are sinewy, smutty, flaxen 
haired, hard throaty (guttural), vol. ii. p. 105. Palsgrave had 
written of a downright stroke ; this new adjective is now 
used of language, p. 19. The word vmhappy stands for 

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78 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

molestiiSy p. 30, being applied to riotous youths ; I have 
seen this sense used in our own days. Howell is fond of 
sending his dear love to his kinsfolk ; he is sometimes at a 
dead stand, p. 115. The word shy means simply invitus, p. 
1 48 ; hence to fight shy. 

We see the new Verb taper and the new phrases keep 
life and sovl together^ make a conquest of, make his person too 
cheap, gi/ve them the joy (congratulate), read him a lesson, 
look blanJc, stand for Parliament, cut him (out) work to do. 
The Participle seems to slide into the Adjective in a lash- 
ing master, p. 3, like " a hanging judge ; " there is also a 
standing (permanent) mansion house, p. 186, like "a stand- 
ing army." The to of the Infinitive is dropped in truly give 
him his due, he is, etc., p. 155. The Infinitive follows 
require; it requires one man to execute it, p. 186. The 
Passive Participle stands by itself in the town is given (up) 
for lost, p. 205 (for a lost town). A man heats the hoof, p. 
25 (ambulat) ; Dickens puts into the mouth of Charley 
Bates to pad the hoof An offer is waived (put aside), p. 73 ; 
this new meaning survives in our "waive an objection." 
Men bring their intents home to their aim, p. 86 (carry them 
out) ; we only " bring crimes home to a man." A suitor 
hangs off a, good while, p. 180; a new sense of the verb. 
We have seen pitch his choice upon ; this leads to pitch 
upon a place (choose it), p. 184. A man is hung his heels 
upwards, p. 30 ; here a with is dropped. A citizen is well 
to pass, p. 213; this curious Infinitive is added to the 
Adverb ; we say well to do. 

There are the Dutch words knapsack, boom (moles), 
plunder, Foxe's word landloper is specially attributed to 
the Dutch, p. 75. We see acdse, p. 12, which becomes 
excise, p. 93. 

Among the Eomance words are sign post, inaugurate a 
leader, brawny, referree, implicit, grot (also grotha), sugar plum, 
credential letter, obstreperous, recruit, cadet, valetudinary, deputy- 
lieutenant, decrepit, idolize, insolvent, reality, postillion, influx, 
ostentous. Some French words are spelt in italics, to show 
that they have not yet gained the right of English citizen- 
ship ; as reparty (repartee), grandeur, goytre, mode (fashion), 

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pickant (piquant), haugou ; this last Pope was to insert in 
his verse. Among the Spanish words are rodomontado, ropa 
de contrabando (Englished by "prohibited goods"), cargazon 
(soon to be cut down to cargo). There is the Italian halcone. 
We see the phrases, the hills of mortality, enjoy my health, a 
master of the language, push on my fortunes, this present (in- 
stant month), he quit with you, carry all hefoi'e him, reflect 
upon (bear hard on). We see the Greek symtome (sic), 
pericramium, enthusiast, encomium. The word oppidan, as at 
Eton, means a student boarding in the town, p. 13. The 
old for his lahour is replaced ; have a check for his pains, p. 74. 
The word cautelous stands for cautus, p. 95. We see their 
own cmfidents, p. 149 ; here we change the last vowel, and 
thus make a useful distinction. We have heard of minis- 
ters' places ; we read of what belongs to a servant's place, 
p. 186. We have seen Frenchify ; Howell was accused of 
being too much JDigbified, p. 191 (attached to Lord Digby). 
The Queen's servants are a matter of six score, p. 193, a new 
use of the French word. The word mimic bears the Passive 
sense simvlatus, p. 219; a mimic face. We hear of the 
Chineses, p. 226 ; a Plural to be used later by Milton. 
Buckingham, in his Spanish journey, carries a portmantle 
unde.r his arm, p. 127 ; our form of the word was to come 
seven years later. Howell begins a letter to his brother 
with Sir, p. 97 ; he presents his service to absent friends ; a 
phrase that lasted long. He rests (not remavns) your humble 
servitor, at the end of a letter, ii. 75. He speaks of the 
cauph-houses of Constantinople ; these were to be naturalised 
in England rather later. He talks of the suavity of the old 
Greek tongue, ii. 78. The word quarter bears the new 
sense of mercy among soldiers, i. 231. We hear of a gentile 
(genteel) shop, p. 230 ; this is very different from gentle. 
The oath dammy stands at the head of a sentence, p. 229. 
Howell tells us, p. 209, that swearing reigned in England 
more than anywhere else ; the Five Wounds had become 
the favourite Irish oath, while the Scot bade the Devil hale 
his soul ; for variety of oaths the English roarers put down 
all; this was in 1628. We are told that the well-known 
rimes about "the King of France with forty thousand 

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8o. THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

men" arose from the levies of Henry IV., just before his 
death, p. %^, Howell gives a fine picture of the Spanish 
King's greatness in 1623, p. 155; the Sun shone all the 
twenty-four hours upon some part or other of his countries. 
The Venetians were called Fantaloni, p. 227. Howell was 
not strong in philology ; he tells us, ii. 75, that the Poles 
and Hungarians speak dialects of the High Dutch ; he 
remarks on fadery modern brodery star, being common to 
Persia and Germany. The true explanation of this puzzling 
fact was to be given by another Welshman 150 years later. 
The great Harvey's influence was abroad in the land, as we 
see by the long medical dissertation, i. 150. There is an 
early notice of the art of talking on the fingers, ii 103; "a 
very ingenious peece of invention." In i. 233 we have the 
proverb ; a fool and his money is soon parted. 

In the year 1622 a pamphlet, treating of Turkish pirates 
(Arbor's * English Gamer,' iv. 581), has these new phrases ; 
to windward, boat hook, fetch her up (catch her up), p. 593. 
There is also reciprocal, touchhole ; Ben Jonson had talked 
of priming the powder ; in p. 602 men prime their pieces. 

In the year 1626 (* English Gurner,' i. 621) a man lays 
a foe dead, p. 609. In a paper on the army, p. 463, we 
find ensignrbearer, lantz privado, and the band, which has 
sergeants (drum majors). 

Archbishop Abbot wrote an account of his trials in 
1627 (* English Garner,' iv. 539). There is the curious my 
sending into Kent, p. 576 ; where the Verbal noun expresses 
the Passive, my being sent. The word crazy still expresses 
infirmus, p. 569. The word slovenly is now transferred from 
the body to the mind; something is done with slovenly 
care, p. 5i6, A man bolts out his thoughts ; a sermon falls 
flat ; things are kept in a straight course (keep him straight), 
p. 566. Shakespere's favourite en or in appears in ingreat 
himself (add to his greatness), p. 572. Queen Anne had 
been bitten with favourites, p. 574 ; hence bite (decipere) was 
to last long. The Eomance words are ea^pu/nge, refractory, a 
talented person, p. 556 ; this here merely means endowed. 
The phrase " there is no m^um or tuum^* (right of property) 
stands in p. 555. 

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Dr. Murray's Dictionary shows us that about this time 
amuse took the new sense of divert^ though the substantive 
bearing this meaning did not appear till forty years later. 
We now find hmnd box, arm chair, achnmoledgmerds (in the 
Plural), pallaquin (here we insert ti), hall (dance), which is 
imported for the second time, my little all. The anmsse 
had been dropped about the year 1 300 ; it now reappears 
as oneness. The Scotch began to prefix a to verbs, as amiss- 
kig ; Sir A. Alison is fond of awarding, Shakespere had 
employed aldeiiiefest aright, but in 1630 there is a corrupt 
usage of the comparative alder leefer. Dr. Ellis remarks on 
the English sounds of this time, that Ben Jonson was 
much inclined to the new fashions of pronouncing ; that 
dear and hear were sounded as now ; Milton in 1627 made 
swai/d rime with made, strays with hlaze ; ee was pronounced 
in our way throughout the Century. 

The Memoirs of Sir Eobert Carey and of Naunton 
were published together in 1808; they date from about 
1630. We still see the old sound of eau in a proper name; 
in p. 298 stands Bewford (Beaufort). The d replaces g, as 
the name Giordie, p. 75. There is cupboard, his crafts master 
(master of his craft), unmindful, Cecil, Lord Salisbury, is 
said to have been his father's ovm son, p. 288. Among the 
Verbs are cast in a good word for him, mar his ovm market 
(interest), the Queen was stirring (rising), troops are cut 
in pieces ; the Infinitive follows fit, 2^ fit to be master, p. 
145. Among the Eomance words are disembogue, contem- 
poraries, connive at, finesse (skill). A new sense is given to 
means; our means (opes), p. 154. In p. 199 militia means 
soldier's trade; in p. 218 it means vwrfare. In p. 283 a 
man is called a good piece of a scholar ; hence our " a bit of 
a scholar." There is the old phrase, each. with the other, p. 
214, where we say, "with each other." We are told in 
p. 204 that " the people hath it to this day in proverb, 
King Harry loved a man" (a well-built man). 

Aleman had many years earlier written his Spanish 
Eomance, the *Life of Guzman de Alfarache;' this rare 
book was Englished in 1623 by Mabbe ; I have used the 
edition of 1630. We see ho-boy (hautboy), p. 90, written 


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82 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

for the former howboy. The aw still stands for French om, 
as yawle (ululare), p. 121. The s is inserted, as isle (aisle), 
p. 22 ; here the old He (ala) was confused with He (insula). 
The h and / are added ; the old ramien (roam) gives birth 
to our ranible. The n is struck out ; Bale's stvink (bibere) 
becomes stuigge, ii. 208. The d replaces r ; the old parrok 
(park) becomes paddok, p. 82. There is the curious take 
his Q (cue) in p. 51. 

The new Substantives are twinge^ thimbleful, by -blow 
(nothus, p. 27), yongster, sweetbreads, homethrust, fiddle f addle 
(used of a girl, p. 167), drum head, fellow-feeling, peep of day, 
blind-marirbuffe, beginner, gold-beater, whisker ; this last is said 
to be so called from its likeness to a small brush with 
which dirt is whisked off. A painter produces lights and 
shadows, p. 3 ; we hear of calves plucke (viscera), p. 47 ; 
this in our own day was to give us a new word for virtus. 
A man is overthrown, horse and foote, p. 56. The word 
pitch expresses altUudo ; lads about my pitch, p. 141 ; hence 
our " come to such a pitch." Some evil happens, for my 
sinnes sake, p. 158; here we now drop the last word. 
There is the new mthdravnng room, p. 221, where we clip 
the first syllable. Certain youths are called chips of the 
same blocke, p. 229. A lad, when flogged, is brought to the 
blocke, p. 233 ; this survives at Eton. There is the curious 
Plural finenesses, a sjoionym for niceties, ii. 1 7 ; this perhaps 
paved the way for finesse; there is the odd formation 
meltingnesse of language, ii. 38. In ii. 97 the muchness of 
1440 stands for magnitudo ; "much of a muchness" was to 
come in 1730. A piece of plate is known by its ear-marke, 
our hall-marh We see wholesale opposed to retail in ii. 166. 
We hear of a box at the theatre, ii. 297. An Adjective is 
made a Substantive ; the duske of the evening. The word 
income expresses the new sense of trade, p. 5 ; further on a 
man has rent coming in, p. 104. The word dealer takes the 
new meaning of mercaior, p. 209. Gamesters have a large 
field for their skill, a new meaning, p. 246. We now hear of 
the knave at cards ; the noun hand is used of cards, ii. 123. 

Among the new Adjectives are washy, mealemotUhed, 
sharp sighted, short sighted, unsteady, broad-brimd, high flying. 

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(ypen handed. Times are hmd ; language may be fml ; a 
man must be cool (quiet). There are the phrases, my hare 
word J a full dozen, dark as piich, dead weighty a hrovm study, 
flush of money, fire-spitting devils, whence comes our spitfire. 
We hear of a having (covetous) mind, ii. 213, which may 
still be heard. We see had the worst come to the worst, 
p. 28, OS like as like could he, p. 158, he had a shrewd head 
of his own, p. 184. The old free, formerly applied to 
women, makes way for ladylike. The word mellow takes 
the new meaning of ehrius, p. 132. 

As to Pronouns, we see my junior. It is remarked that 
the Spanish vos answers to the scornful English thou, 
p. 1 1 5. A man plays his game. A woman is left to her- 
self, ii. 264 ; there is the new she-friend, like Shakespere's 
compounds. Our new Genitive its is printed it's, p. 231, 
and comes often. There is the curious have an ill night of 
it, ii. 73. A man is cha/ritie it selfe, p. 236. The any 
stands before a Numeral ; " he got more alms than any six 
of those beggars," p. 197. A man did not halfe like it, ii. 
30, an idiom that was just appearing. 

Among the Verbs we see take liberty, driven to base 
cowrses, make the hest of a had hargaine, put out money, rip 
up faults, slip the collar, drive a trade, keep life and soul 
together, lend her yov/r arm, cast about (cogitare), have a soul iy 
to save, ill bred, not trust me farther than he saw me, make a 
hole in thine estate, it ran in his head, my mind ran on it, the 
bond rums on, set me going, look as if he would have eaten 
him, a sliding knot, leap out of his skinne, he upon my wings, 
frost-bitten, driving rain, lose patience, set the hest foot before, 
have my wits about me, sit close to the collar (of a garment), 
keep the hall up, put me upon a plan, beat about the bush, live 
as merry as the day is long, scrape wealth together, draw their 
ca/rds, rnake work for the hangman, make an ill hand of it, 
give him line, drown the noise, the wind chops about, take it 
kinddy at your hands, dead as a herring. The verb stretch 
gets the new sense of pendere ; he should stretch for it, 
p. 7. The verb ra^^^e now means vituperare, ii. 18. We 
saw have the way (pas) in 1430; we here see have his 
will, ii. 44 ; we now, in this last, substitute way for will. 

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84 THE NEW ENGLISH. [ohap. 

The verb rumage had meant coUocare four years earlier ; 
it takes our sense of the word in ii. 130. The verb 
chitck is applied to women, as well as hens, p. 15 ; chiLcke 
for joy ; here we now add an /. The verb swinge conveys 
the new idea of size in the phrase a swinging pasiie, 
ii. 144. It is possible to work a judge, ii. 329 (bring in- 
fluence to bear on him). Stem men hold like nails, p. 7 ; 
hence our " hard as nails." There is the phrase run upon 
the score with him, p. 125 ; this doubtless led to run up a 
score with. The door flew open, p. 145 ; a new use of fly. 
We know our "have a rod in pickle for you;" the last 
noun is an improvement on Mabbe's coarser phrase, 
p. 240. We see unearth, applied to a fox ; we hear of 
made dishes, p. 106 ; maunder, (yver swollen, A new Passive 
Participle replaces the old stricken ; irons are strooke off, 
ii. 357. A very Old English verb is revived in ii 100 ; a 
man seats himself. The verb itch is followed by an In- 
finitive ; he itchH to he loose, p. 57. The Accusative follows 
go, as it before followed he, when measurement is expressed ; 
go a form higher, p. 112. There is a new way of ex- 
pressing g^z^oniam / heing that it is so, p. 247; the vulgar 
Mr. Hobson, in Miss Burney's * Cecilia,' is always using 
this phrase. Harrison had talked of holding out water; 
in ii. 79 something will not hold water (avail). In ii. 129 
a man sets up shop for himself, the old form of the phrase ; 
in p. 196 he sets up for himself A man sooths up the rich, 
ii 171 ; hence the up in later synonyms for flatter, hutter 
up, cocker up. There is our common all put together, ii. 195; 
when put replaces the old set, A man has served a long 
time, now going upon the twentieth year, ii. 231 ; we alter 
this into going on for twenty years. 

We see an Adverb used as an Adjective ; the farre side 
of a horse, ii 34 ; we should now say, the off side. We 
hear of a midling square room, ii. 204 ; this is a new 
adverb ; I remember it as a popular, but shortlived, catch- 
word in 1848, when middling was the answer to every 
question. A man may give an I (aye) or a No, ii. 202 ; 
these are here made substantives. 

As to Prepositions, of a truth leads to of conscience. 

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p. 240. The phrase rather late is expanded into somewhat 
of the latest, ii. 115. The of is added to admit ; a lady 
admits of a swain, iL 206. Something grows ovi of date 
(fashion), ii. 224. A man loses money to a woman, P* 21 ; 
humour is fitted to a hair, ii. 228. We may guess at a 
man, ii. 75. We see ujpon the by, i. 178, where upon was 
to be replaced by ly, twenty-five years later. There is a 
new phrase for prceterea; into the bargaine, p. 109, where 
thrown should begin the sentence. 

An Infinitive is turned into an Interjection in p. 145 ; 
to see the HI luck of it / this follows a precedent of the 
year 1580. 

The Scandinavian nouns are flippant, wads, lunch (lump) 
of pork, ii. 280 ; this word was later to give birth to our 
luncheon. There is the Dutch hanker, and the Celtic racket 

Among the Eomance words are itislave, rapsodie, lawsuit, 
liquidate, a proficient, superannuate, lumber, executions (for 
d.Qh\), pigs-pettitoes, sprain, cracknel, muster-master, chessman, 
billiards, jarre (of water), dis4nteressed, cupola, disfigure, quiet 
him, ostentation, exorbitant, close-fisted, nauseous, organize, tic- 
tack, house rent, a tvnze (tweeze), projector, cupping glass, tunny, 
outvie, straiten (confine), retiredness, empericke (empiric), love- 
letter, comfit, over-rented. The Latin phrases that occur are 
a sine qua non, his alter ego, eulogium, in statu quo. The 
Spanish words here brought into English are garrote (well 
known to the ruffians of our day), carrowaies, enamorado, 
duentia ; there are the two forms gecimine and jesmine ; the 
Spanish verb regalar (regale) comes in the English text, 
p. 230. We hear of passages between lovers ; of a trick 
of cards ; a thousand pitties, that, etc. ; an exercise is done 
for a degree ; a man acts the merchant ; a die is thrown, 
the French dd; the French verb choquer gives birth to a 
chocke (chuck) under the chin, p. 31 ; post horses run a 
stage ; eyes may be inflamed ; filth turns a man's stomach ; 
certain things are out of my element ; occasion offers ; we are 
paid in our own coyne ; one man claims kindred of another ; 
wrongs are pocketed, the Shakesperianjpoc^^^ up ; I quit scores 
with rogues ; money is fooled away ; actions are trenched 

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86 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

wpmi ; men are listed into the roll ; eyebrows are arched ; a 
maiden has a composed (serious) countenance. There are 
many new Plurals, as base courses, excesses, impertinencies, 
elegancies, delicacies (replacing the old delicates). We see 
poiimanteau in p. 158, and the form portmantua in the 
Index ; our mantua-maker is a relic of this confusion. There 
is the noun recipe, p. 31 ; which is still in use, as well as 
receipt. We see opinionate, ii. 204, which we have cut down 
to opine, A man becomes an Adonis, ii. 21. There is the 
cry, Presto, bee gone .^ p. 47. A rogue, when referred to, is 
called my gentleman, p. 55. A business is umpired, p. 101 ; 
this verb has been reyived in our own day. A man carries a 
high hand over his wife, ii. 7 ; we carry things with a high 
hand. There is disdeceive, which we make undeceive. The 
word machina still keeps its foreign form. The word fleame 
(phlegm) expresses tardiness in p. 148. The word equipage, 
p. 159, stands for dress; two generations later it was to 
express currus. The word direction, p. 163, takes the new 
meaning ofjussum. We hear of a woman's gallant, p. 164 ; 
here the old word takes a bad sense. The word pretender, 
an ill-omened word two generations later, seems to express 
adventurer, p. 214. The word curiosity keeps its old sense 
of elegance, p. 159 ; but in p. 231 it stands for a piece of 
rare workmanship ; in our day, we talk of a curio. We 
see indisposition, which here expresses oegritudo, ii. 73. 
There is ticket, from French etiquet. Something is said to 
make glorious porridge, ii. 216; the adjective was now 
beginning to be vulgarised. A man is bucketted with 
water, ii. 263 ; we now use the verb most diflPerently. 
There is Jesuitical, which in ii. 321 stands for hypocritical ; 
it is applied to a cloak. The Latin medium, printed in 
Italics, stands for middle course. 

English children, when inquisitive as to their birth, 
were told that they were bom in their mother's parsley 
bed, p. 25 ; the Spaniards here talked of a melon bed ; I 
believe that our nurses still, talk of the gold spade which 
digs up children. The source of catspaw appears in ii. 167 ; 
" take the cat by the foote, and therewith rake the coales 
out of the oven." " He threw stones on my house-top, 

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but when he found his own (tiles) to be of glass, he left 
his flinging." 

There are the Proverbs misfortunes seldom come aloney p. 
29, once a knave and ever a knave, p. 7, m>any a little makes 
a mickle, p. 50, which is rather different from Chaucer's 
phrase. There is a pun in ii 163, "the sea affords us 
soles, and the earth, men that have no souls;" this, 
perhaps, shows that sovl was now pronounced in our way. 

There are many old phrases here, as there is no ho 
(satiety), it is all Mm, kam (crooked), so farre forth that, 
etc., htmger-starved, nimme (steal), sedy (silly), to tighie (te- 
hee), p. 15 S, fall all along (at full length), lyther, other some, 
gig (whirlegig), hall (latrare), vwis (printed / wish), ii. 322, 
statua, taken in the vaanner, cochaey (dainty brat), to jet 
(swagger), out of his danger (power), I was / jper se I, ii. 
226. The too is often repeated, as too-too often, 

I return to the Letters in the 'Court and Times of 
Charles I.,' vol. ii., ranging between 1630 and 1640. 
We see Joseph cut down to Jo, p. 287. There are the new 
substantives Queen mother, iron-master. The Old English 
punt is revived as ponte, p. 133 ; this kind of boat could 
hold fourscore men. There is flam (mendacium), p. 1 78 ; 
Heywood had had flim flam. We hear of the heart of a 
country, p. 154. Bunyan was later to quote the proverb 
"every tub must stand on its own bottom;" in p. 159 
men are left to do the same. There is the new idiom, ^e 
is in a fair way to add, etc., p. 141. The old think well of 
leads to consider better thereof (thmk better of it), p. 162. 
A man has done something any time these two years, p. 189 ; 
here both at before any and in before these seem to be 
dropped. We read of two third parts of his army, p. 201 ; 
here we now drop parts. In p. 285 the beds are no bigger 
than so many coffins ; a new phrase which seems a pleonasm. 

Among the Verbs we see overmann a ship, block up a 
town, swallow an imposture. In duels, a man is called 
after offering an insult, p. 257 ; in the next Century 
out was added. Before this time men had swarmed; in 
p. 123 towns swarm with men. Judges give a man till 
Monday, p. 162; here time is dropped. In the following 

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88 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

phrase merni denotes something like id est ; he, I mean 
DcUbier, p. 206. 

Among the Romance words are incendiary, insurer, soap- 
boiler, combatant, scrutiny. In p. 99 men speak to the point; 
the latter word has here a particular reference, but we use 
the term in a general sense. Men are killed in the place 
(on the spot), p. 202 ; stede had formerly been used in a 
somewhat similar sense. We hear of a reprimand, p. 258 ; 
this comes from repremendum, through the French, a part 
of the Latin verb that seldom appears in English. In p. 
266 scenes stand for certain pieces of stage furniture, which 
are movable. We hear of exhibits (things shown), p. 151 ; 
our frequent Exhibitions have of late revived the word. 
Men declare themselves for a King, p. 155 ; here we now 
drop the Pronoun. A Duke is likely to close up with the 
Emperor, p. 174; hence the latter dose with an offer; this 
peaceful sense is very different from the warlike close with 
an enemy. Certain troops turn face about, p. 178; hence 
comes " right about face." The King has the smallpox 
\%TY favowrable, p. 204. A prisoner lies in the rules ; here 
a prison is meant. In p. 243 Bishop Williams delivers 
himself of the truth, that a bargain is a bargain. 

The form Swedeland, not Sweden, was used by English- 
men even after the death of the great Gustavus ; see p. 207 ; 
Dutchland still stands for Germany in the same year, p. 
205. Lord Mackay is called an Irish Scot, p. 125 ; this 
adjective had long been used to the North of the Tweed 
for Celtic ; on the other hand, Scot had by this time ceased 
to denote Hibernus, except in the old German monasteries. 

In HowelVs Letters, between 1630 and 1640, the former 
munition becomes ammunition, p. 253 ; in the same page 
Bullen is still written for Boulogne, the last syllable being 
sounded like French ^ as in Colen. Cause stands for 
because in p. 255, for the sake of the metre ; vanguard is 
cut down to van, p. 286, and Fhilip to Phil, ii. 64. We 
hear of rich dollars, p. 238 ; the English i and the German 
ei were taking the same new sound. The oi still expresses 
French i, as Japonois (Japanese), ii. 65. We see buys, ii. 
31, our buoys. The r replaces /, as handkercher, ii. 37. 

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Among the new Substantives are stonecutter (maker of 
tombs), bandstring, the MUky Way, haggard (barn). Wine 
has body, ii. 69 ; there is also the phrase a body politic, p. 
242 ; here the Adjective follows the Substantive, which is 
unusual. The German squires appear as younkers, p. 
244 ; we hear of Low Dutchmen, ii 72, who are ruled by 
the Hoghen Moghen (high and mighty Lords), ii. 26. There 
are the Adjectives half-witted, unclouded, hoi brained. 
Certain things must be weighed, take one time with another ; 
it is said of two Kings, p. 262, they have one another^ s sisters, 
a curious phrase. 

Among the new Verbs are side with, cripple ; a tale may 
be rambling, p. 237 ; the ashes of the dead are raked, ii. 
36 ; Strajfford kings it in Ireland, ii. 39. There are the 
phrases put pen to paper, wash my hands of it, drink himself 
to death. The idea of difference, denoted by from, is con- 
tinued in from subjects they become enemies, where the Catalans 
and Portuguese are referred to, ii. 30. The to is still 
used of measurement ; drink it to excess, ii. 71. 

There is the Scandinavian dub (societas), ii. 3, also 
baggammon, ii. 99. The Celtic words are metheglin and 
usguebagk The drink bangue (bang) is used in the East 
Indies, ii. 67. 

The new Eomance words are liquidate, domicill, collegue, 
impregnable, vapour (jactare), supercMious, vegetables, inebriate, 
fertilize, spasmaticdl (spasmodic), bagatel. Ambassadors 
speak in a high tone (politically). Howell sends news, to 
correspond with his friend's news (give him an equivalent), 
p. 259 ; hence we apply the verb to letter-writing. We 
hear that Platonic love is in fashion at the Court, p. 259. 
Ben Jonson keeps a Musceum, p. 265 (temple of the Muses). 
The verb oblige now takes the new sense oi gratify, ii. 8. The 
verb meind bears a new shade of meaning in mend his pace, 
ii 29. A man's style is polite (polished), ii. 32 ; the use 
of this was soon to be extended. We see invoice, not the 
true envois, p. 247 ; a triumph of the Latin form over the 
French. The adjective stands for the substantive in the 
fundamentals, ii. 12. We hear of verses of Jier cwnposure, 
ii 27 ; we have changed the sense of the last word. In 

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90 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

ii 31 stands our common non-sence, I think, for the first 
time. There is the Greek symbolize vnth and optics ; also 
the foreign cabal and elixar, 

Howell does not approve of the practice of muffling the 
face in the hat on entering Church, p. 274. There was a 
saw in his day, that a complete Christian must have the 
works of a Papist, the words of a Puritan, and the faith of 
a Protestant, il 23. He tells us, to our surprise, that 
Portugal affords no wines worth the transporting, ii. 69. 
He gives us the proverbs, the spectator oft-times sees more 
than the gamester, ii. 26, money is the sinew and soul of war, 
ii. 30, no news, good news, ii. 30. 

In Wotton's 'Letters and Treatises,' between 1630 and 
1639, the oi is still pronounced like French i, as Biscoigner, 
p. 178; the e is sounded in the same way, as Greham 
(Graeme), p. 212. There are the new words resettlement, 
taper-headed ; also the phrase get a gripe of you, which is 
called Scotch, p. 368. The word toil bears its old meaning 
of sapiens; Thucydides is called a wit, p. 81. The Grand 
Duke of Florence has a little of the merchant (in him), p. 
244 ; here the possessor is substituted for the thing 
possessed. Among the Romance words are signature, to 
decimate, Sardonick, retirement, oblique. The Latin Imperative 
quere stands at the head of a sentence, proposing a doubt, 
p. 103 ; hence our query. A nobleman starts on a voyage 
without the Queen's leave ; this is called a sally of youth, 
p. 165. Buckingham had always a vacant face; that is, 
unruffled, p. 171; the word has since degenerated in 
meaning. It had been proposed to put Ealeigh upon a 
Martial Court, p. 180; we transpose, and court-martial a 
man. A person takes a review of the city, p. 245 ; here 
the re seems needless. In p. 459 capital is opposed to 
interest; Dutch affairs are in question. In p. 476 Mercwry 
is used for various experiments. The Scotch rebels have 
but a brush welcome from Charles I., p. 582 ; the adjective 
has been revived in our day. A man is called " the syco- 
phant {per excellentiam)," p. 175 ; we now throw the Latin 
phrase into French. Five men are the parada (equipment) 
of the Prince's famous Spanish journey p. 214; our use 

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of the word seems to come from the French parade, which 
is slightly different in meaning. There are the Greek 
o&conomist, exotic, asthmatical, phenomenon, Buckingham 
returned from his excentricity (wanderings abroad), p. 223. 
A Cardinal is surrounded by banditi and bravi, p. 479 ; 
the latter are known to us through Manzoufs masterpiece, 
dealing with Wotton's time. We hear of Piccadillia hall, 
near Hyde Park, p. 458. There is much about the 
elections to Eton ; the recommendations of the King and 
of noblemen were a sore worry to Wotton, the Provost. 

A treatise by Clarendon, written about this time, is 
added to Wotton's writings, p. 184; a man is built for a 
Courtier, p. 186 ; this must stand for corn-tier's trade, the 
possessor for the thing possessed, as above. There is also 
the verb fascinate. 

Captain Bell translated Luther's * Table Talk' about 
1640; I have used the edition of 1840. The I is added, 
as to grabble (grope), a word of which Lord Macaulay was 
fond. The first is inserted in the adverb thoroughly. 
The Scotch name Jock produces horse-jockey, ii. 173, which 
seems as yet to mean only a groom ; we read of dub-laws, 
p. 100, violence opposed to written law. There is the new 
Adjective God-fearing, which comes often, evidently a trans- 
lation from the German. Among the Verbs is overwrought ; 
also play his reaks (rigs), ii. 123; this is said to be con- 
nected with wriggle. The Romance words are offensive, 
bigot, logician, paroxysm ; Si, man is served right, ii 9; the 
Participle confounded is used like damned ; corifounded pranks 
are played, ii. 36. As to old phrases, sUly still keeps its 
harmless sense of po&i' ; for Christ is compared to a silly 
sheep, i. 387. The old word grizzly still expresses durus, 
ii. 81. 

Peacham's * Worth of a Penny ' came out in 1641 ; it 
is in Arber's * English Garner,' vi. 245. We see nine 
pins, and the game ducks and drakes, p. 259 ; a wealthy 
fool, in Elizabeth's time, literally hurled his coin into 
the Thames in this way, and thus seems to have given 
rise to our application of the phrase to spendthrifts. 
The first cut (in a joint) is mentioned in p. 265. Tarlton is 

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92 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

referred to as once uttering nothing but monosyllables at 
table ; yes/ no/ that / thanks / true / p. 263. Friends used 
the greeting, glad to see you well I thus suppressing the first 
verb, p. 287. Men go for recreations, p. 284 ; here we set 
in after the verb ; dogs are wormed ; there are hrdken 
(ruined) knaves. A horse is at grass, p. 271. There is 
the very old treen (ligneus), p. 276. The Eomance words 
are paUle maille (the game), p. 283, coach hire, an ex- 
tinguisher, a boy may be captain of his form, p. 254, a 
spendthrift gallops through his estate, p. 258. There is the 
proverb, penny wise and pound foolish^ p. 267. The 
Russian Emperor is bracketed with the Dutch and 
Venetians as the best paymaster of soldiers, p. 286. 
Englishmen were so careless, that they always ordered a 
dinner at a tavern, without any question beforehand about 
the price, p. 274. The North still kept her old reputation 
for the tuneful art, as 400 years earlier; nobles and 
gentlemen delighted to hear Northern songs, p. 282. 

In Howell's Letters, mostly written in his London 
prison between 1640 and 1650, we see the n added to an 
old verb, making the new sweetn, ii. 34. There are the 
new Substantives bookman, pigsty ; there is the new-coined 
lastingnes (permanence), ii. 34 ; we now talk of a horse 
having no last, a still older form. Howell calls his body a 
skinfull of bones, iii. 5 ; the edge of the appetite is taken off, 
iii. 11. The word m^ot, ii. 45, takes the new sense of an 
odd fancy. 

Among the Verbs, dout takes the new sense of ferire, 
ii. 53. Something must be taken in a lump ; a letter comes 
to safe hand (reaches me), iii. 27 ; here we now transpose. 
Laws are binding, iii. 21 ; here the Participle represents an 
Adjective. They must rise betimes that can put tricks upon 
you, iii. 4; a saying slightly altered by us. In iL 89 
Howell calls himself a youth about the Town ; as Nash had 
done much earlier. 

Among the Romance words are scientifical, compatriot, 
independent, convex, gaol delivery, genuin, confer notes, crucible, 
to overact, cross -grained, susceptible of, procedure, farrago. 
There are the Greek pathetical, cosmopolite, amnestia (forget- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


fulness) ; the anti is compounded with modern words ; as 
an anti' Spaniard, ii 92 ; this kind of phrase was now 
coming into fashion. The word favour had meant donum ; 
we hear of nuptial favours for bands and hat, iii. 9. In iii 
17 the word meridian refers to the sun ; in iii. 15 it stands 
for country. Cardinal Richelieu, we are told in i. 292, got 
from Rome the distinguishing title of JSminency, There is 
the new phrase, this is enough in conscience, i 295 ; here we 
insert all. In iii. 13 great matters (things) are expected. 
A man's brain is touched (wounded), ii 95. Howell lies 
in lim^ (prison), ii. 101. The verb correspond is used of 
letter-writing in our sense, iii. 5. There is the Italian 
contrasto, meaning certamen, i. 300. The Reformed are 
opposed to the Roman Catholics, iii. 6. We hear of non 
entia, iiL 33 ; hence the later nonentity. We see ctvUUies 
and individuals, both in the Plural, iii 16, 38. Howell 
discards the old certainty for the new certitude, iii 4. The 
Muses are called nice girls, iii 27. 

There is the very old verb hansell ; too too nmny is used 
so late as 1647, iii. 35. The Turk is called the greatest 
Monarch upon earth, ii. 42. Snuff is referred to as 
smutchin, p. 1 1 ; this later became mushing ; it was most 
popular among the Spaniards and Irish in 1646. 

In Nehemiah Wallington's 'Notices of the Reign of 
Charles I.,' compiled between 1630 and 1640, amassed 
stands for amazed, p. xxiv., showing the old sound of a in 
the latter ; bead and yeet are written for bed and yet, show- 
ing the strong sound of the e ; towth supplants the old toth 
(dens), p. xvi ; this Northern pronunciation was taking 
root among the London citizens. We hear of the game of 
fives and oi & flagstaff. There is the new adjective sunshiny. 
There are the Romance cauliflowers, engines (to put out fires). 
Noy did knight's service to the players, p. 68. There is the 
old phrase upland countries, p. 122. A man, writing from 
York, gives "a smite of our condition " (small piece) ; this 
Northern word had appeared in the * Cursor Mundi.' 

In Wallington's 'Notices,' between 1640 and 1650, we 
see the change in the sound of au ; Haughton is written 
Horthan, i, xlviii On the other hand, the oy still retains 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



the sound of French mi; we hear of the town Foy^ our 
F(yweyy in Cornwall, ii. 266. The old corouns is written 
currans, without the t, ii. 323. The Persian caravan is cut 
down to van, ii. 76, the vehicle well known to us. There 
are the new Substantives deadness, milkwoman. Money is 
given in ium/p^ ii. 268. The sea is called the great pond, 
ii 306. The Old English Genitive Aors (equi) still survives 
in ii. 269, where horse meat is opposed to man's meat The 
old worship is supplanted by worth; men of worth, ii. 118. 
There are the phrases a sad business, to murder in their coole 
blood, ii. 143. As to Verbs, the most remarkable thing is 
the survival of the old Southern Plural of the Present ; as 
some doeth the like, i. lii. ; we see here the hoary old relic 
used in 1648, when the youth Dryden was about to try 
his wings. The verb bounce keeps its meaning oi pulsar e, 
to be seen in the year 1220; see i 289. There is our 
common this is not all, i. 224. We see the Scandinavian 
verb slam (ferire), ii. 94. Among the Romance words are 
dragooneer, mass house, brigade, bear garden, roundheaded, dis- 
affected, command in chief e. There are the phrases second a 
motion, ride double. Money is imbased (debased), i. 239 ; 
honesty will pay, i. xlix. 

Sir Samuel Luke, who afterwards sat for Hudibras, is 
mentioned with seven others as the bravest men on the 
Parliament side at Edgehill Fight, ii. 155. 

We see Old Nick used for the devil in the year 1643 
(Ebsworth's 'Merry Drollery/ p. 394); this some connect 
with nicoT, a spirit. 

Weldon published his 'Court of King James' in 1650; 
I have used the edition of 1817. The Scotch name Hume 
is now sounded Hewme, p. 3 ; the great Coke appears as 
Cook; the oo seems still to be sounded like o. The grip 
(grasp) of the earlier part of the Century is now written 
gripe, p. 57 ; we use both forms of the noun. A man is 
compared to a toole in the workman's hand, p. 10 ; the 
phrase seems to be new. We read of a man's law (manner 
of applying the law), p. 34. King James used to call 
dissimulation king-craft, p. 32. The burthenous of 1576 is 
now changed into burthensome, p. 27 ; a gentleman is ■ 

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Ivtd, p. 19. Among the Verbs are cmm into play, cut cards, 
it is to be hoped, keep early hours, take (paint) a picture, a 
man strikes in with a faction (connects himself with), p. 
30 ; perhaps this led to strike a trail, strike Ue, etc. There 
is the phrase on all hands (ubique), p. 21. The Romance 
words are trencher-scraper, letter-carrier, palliate, stiletto. We 
still read of the summa totalis of a man's words, p. iv. 
Before this time men were said to agree with air, food, 
and soil (this lasted down to 1700); but now, business 
does not agree with a man, p. 16. A phrase of Mabbe's 
is slightly altered in p. 27 ; carry ii with an high hand, 
A messenger is called an express in p. 30. In p. 42 
country dances are opposed to French danses, A man is 
hd one degree from a fool, p. 6. There is a variation of the 
Scandinavian pracka ; we have already seen a priggar (fur) 
in Awdeley; in p. 17 a man progs (begs) for suits at 
Court ; our prog comes from this, since food is the fruit 
of begging; Meg Merrilies says, sair I prigged and prayed. 
There is the phrase all the water runs to their mills, p. 19, 
applied to the Howards, who got everything at Court. 

In these times we read much of redcoats, arrears, and 
the self-denying ordinance. The following words come from 
Dr. Murray's Dictionary : upon this account (ob banc rem), 
aria-mode, adroit, avenue of trees, brought in by Evelyn. 
The old asparagus is corrupted into sparrowgrass. Hitherto 
eggs had always been addle ; the word is now turned into 
a Participle, Uke newfangled. We see the verb alarum, 
used in the, sense of tep-ere; it was to be contracted rather 
later. There is the curious noun nothingness compounded 
from nothing. In 1656 Blount uses alliteration; a most 
helpful word when the history of the English tongue is in 

In Howell's * Letters' (1650-1655) we see w^m in the 
Verses of the Preface, with the accent on the first 
syllable ; but in p. 44 we have idoea. The oy and au are 
still sounded like French on, especially in proper names ; 
we find Ployden (Plowden) and hauracane (hurricane) ; in p. 
83 both Pouls and Pauls stand for St. Paul's Church. In 
p. 86 a Shakesperian phrase appears in the guise of gig by 

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96 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

geml. There are the new Substantives spring-loch, a cooler, 
how-leggs; /oc^y is still used for a Scotchman, p. 34, and this 
was to last for more than a Century. In the North a wea 
hit is allowed to every mile, p. 67 (a mile and a bittock) ; 
this wea (via) may have had its influence on wee (parvus). 
In p. 76 we hear of a shagg dogg (rough coated); hence 
came Wycherley's shock dog and Pope's Shock. Edgehill 
was a toitgh battail, p. 38 ; a new sense of the Adjective. 
There are the Verbs buoy up, open a case; maids, when 
given in marriage, are put off, p. 20 (got off). The old way 
is changed into hy ; " I must tell you, by the by, that," etc., 
p. 31. A writer endeavours all along (along his whole 
course) to, etc., p. 78 ; here the preposition is set after the 
case governed. The at still retains the old friendly sense 
in p. 84; "you have bin often at me, that I should 
impart," etc. 

There is the Dutch vnse aker (wijs-segger, wise sayer), 
used scornfully in p. 19; Gibbon connects this curious 
word with the great name of Guiscard. Howell remarks 
on the strange fact that the Dutch crank (aeger) is used in 
English for well disposed, p. 5 1 ; it retained its first mean- 
ing in 1 560 ; in our days it means lively. 

Among the Romance words are parboU, the Univers, 
siesta, ejaculation, separatist, cajole, coalition, naturalist, 
tulyp, gendarmery, series. A face reflects in a glass (Pre- 
face); a new sense of the verb. The old word essence 
(being) gives birth to the Plural essences, with a very dif- 
ferent meaning, p. 5. The word latitude is no longer con- 
fined to geographers or navigators, but means libertas, p. 
19 ; soon the Latitude men (latitudinarians) were to appear. 
In the same page puppy stands for a fool. A letter is sent 
under the covert of another person, p. 59 ; a new sense 
of the word. A metaphor may be pressed hard, p. 61. 
Things appear by cross mediums, p. 11; a strange Plural ; 
there is also effluvium, p. 120. We see pulpiteer, p. 65 ; 
it has been revived by Lord Tennyson. The word failing 
stands ior peccatum, p. 92, and is very different from failure. 
Men present their rejects at the close of a letter, p. 26 ; 
a new Plural. Howell gives the derivation of the Shake- 

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sperian pourlieu, connecting it with forest, p. 40. He talks 
of the noblesse (nobiles), p. 53. 

He repeats the proverb in Mabbe; "he who hath 
glasse windowes of his own, should take heed how he 
throweis stones at those of his neighbours," p. 91. Also, 
" it is never over-late to mend," p. 92. He wishes a friend 
the old compliment of England, ** a merry Christmas and 
a happy new yeer," p. 28. Howell is a critic, for he 
says of the English, " we do not pronounce as we write, 
which proceeds from divers superfluous letters;" he objects 
to the silent e at the end of done, some, come. He takes 
credit for writing physic, favor, totmg, husines, star ; not 
physique, favour, toTigue, husinesse, starre. He omits what he 
calls the Dutch k in most words, writing logic, not logick ; 
see p. 125. 

Mr. Ebsworth has lately reprinted certain poems of 
1656 and 1661, called * Choice Drolleries.* The old 
form denay (deny) is still used ; the u replaces a, as clutter 
for clatter ; the word ale rimes sometimes with small, some- 
times with wait, p. 117; Shakespere's hinch hack becomes 
hunckt hack, p. 51. The new Substantives are hlohher lips, 
a sing-song (poem), p. 393. The word jaw takes its slang 
sense in p. 120; to open his jaw (utterance). The word 
glee is now applied to a piece of music that is sung, p. 
156. We hear of a nasty Irish hdng, p. 243, a corrupt 
form repeated in * David Copperfield * ; the old Scandina- 
vian hygging (habitatio) was confined to the North and 
East of our island. The name Susan is cut down to Site, 
p. 242. We hear of a Mood-shot eye, p. 12. Among the 
Verbs are to pot (kill) a man, p. 123, soldiers keep their 
ranks and files, p. 145. There is the Celtic rwggin. Among 
the Romance words are florist, dramatiske (dramatist), trouper, 
free quarter, which is described, since it was something new 
in !&igland, p. 59 ; men are caMed save-alls, p. 51. We 
hear of thy Ho go, p. 34 ; HowelFs former hougou. We hear 
of mackarum£s (maccaroons), p. 90. 

There is much of the Western dialect brought in, p. 57, 
as cKill (I will), zel (sell), my beasts be ago (gone), it was 
azee (seen); in this last the a replaces an old L In p. 73 

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98 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

there is an imitation of Old English, as y-tougU (doctus), 
hire (scientia) ; there is the old heart-blood, p. 87, and the 
obsolete lordings, p. 363. The Shakesperian Interjection 
facJcs is put into a Somersetshire clown's mouth, p. 290 ; 
it survives in Ireland as faix / 

Mr. Ebsworth has reprinted another work, the * Merry 
Drollery,' dating from 1661. In p. 225 slaughter is made 
to rime with both water and after ; this seems to show that 
the latter word was pronounced something like arter. In 
p. 13 both the Old English thriUing and the Dutch drillmg 
are applied to a sword boring a hole. Among the Sub- 
stantives are Jdng-killer, stingo, hrimmefi% Jevfs 'harp ; there 
is the cry, Jwt codlings/ p. 332. K tub is connected with 
preaching, p. 176. The word boor is used in scorn, p. 282. 
The word chit had meant catulus 300 years earlier ; it 
is now used of a girl, p. 162. The woman's name Pru- 
dence is now cut down to Prue. Among the Verbs are 
hwck under, with no Accusative following the last word, p. 
288 ; in to earth a fox, p. 300, a new verb is coined from 
a noun, very different from the old eardien (habitare) ; to 
unearth had come a few years earlier. Wit is said to flash, 
p. 66, a new application of the verb. Men hang up good 
faces, p. 208 ; hence " to pull a long face." We hear of 
a fizzling cur, p. 143. In p. 228 a man is off the hooks; 
one bursts out with a. ha hay ^, 221 ; there is the o^th fore 
George fis true / p. 318. We see the Dutch rummer. The 
Romance words are rasie (racy), fluent, mincepie, A man 
is called a Hector, p. 9 ; we read of Oliver's mermydons, p. 
254 ; of Presbyter Jack, and of Jack in aju^ler's box. In p. 
198 stands "the greatest Dons in town;" here English 
big wigs are meant. The word item is made a noun in p. 
23 ; and congey expresses a bow, p. 36. The word battle- 
dore, being confused with bat, is now applied to a toy, p. 
60. The word plaguy is used much like an Adverb; 
plaguy hard, p. 258. We read of a first couzen, p. 346, a 
new term ; chocolate also appears. 

Some of our commonest phrases are found ; thus, as 
soon find a needle in a bottle of hay, p. 79, as he brews, let 
him bake, p. 224, plain as a pike staffe; fetch them over the 

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a)als^ p. 228, no man v>ill touch her without a pair of tongues, 
p. 229. Bad verse is connected with the bellman, p. 179. 
In p. 89 we see — 

' ' Three children sliding thereabouts 
Upon a place so thin, 
That so at last it did fall out 
That they did all fall in." 

Something like the other two stanzas follows, but not 

The word Taffie stands for a Welshman, not Harrison's 
old David; the Celt uses her for she, p. 129. In 335 
Teg, the later league, stands for an Irishman ; also Shone 
(Shane) ; in p. 130 come the Irish words, Ohon^e, a Cram a 

A fox hunt is described, p. 39, the victim appearing as 
Beynold ; the Duke of Buckingham (Zimri) was a great 
lover of this pastime; and after 1660 it flourished more 
than in earlier ages. These * Drolleries ' are not very deli- 
cate ; but we see here the practice of printing a dash 
instead of unpleasant words; thus in p. 52 the word for 
meretrix is left unprinted ; it is the same with Chaucer's 
old word swive, p. 289. The old form snew occurs for a 
rime, instead of snowed, p. 30. 

We have some Letters of Sir Dudley North's, written 
about 1660, and preserved in his brother's ' Lives of the 
Norths;' see ii 302 of the edition of 1826. The df is 
clipped; brand n^tt; becomes bran new, p. 315. We have 
the sea terms, offing, and from stem to stern. A new Super- 
lative is coined, something like uppermx)st ; a. certain ship 
is the headmost of the fleet, p. 307. Among the Verbs 
are freshen, ship seas, weather an island. There are the 
foreign words, jamb of a door, rivulet, factory, and the 
Eastern sofa and dragoman. The father of Judge Jeflfreys 
used about this time to foretell that his son would die in 
his shoes (be hanged), p. 4. 

Here ends this division of the English tongue ; but the 
old-fashioned style was to last many years longer, side by 
side with the easier turn of phrase brought in at the Res- 

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lOO THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. iv. 

toration; this we see by Sir Thomas Erowne's writings. 
The chief objection to making IB 60 the year of partition 
is, that thereby Milton's works are divided. But his great 
masterpiece had little effect upon the subjects of Charles 
II., if we compare it with the works of young Dryden. 

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A NEW era begins with the Eestoration, though certain great 
works still in the future, works such as those of Milton and 
Clarendon, were yet to recall the old style of English, 
illustrated in the last Chapter. Swift, who was bom about 
this time, says many years later, when writing his 'Pro- 
posals for improving the English Tongue,' that Charles II. 
and his courtiers, who had long lived in France, wielded 
an evil influence ; the Court, which used to be the standard 
of propriety, became for fifty years the worst school in 
England for that accomplishment. Plays were now written, 
filled with affected phrases and new conceited words. Poets 
brought in the barbarous habit of cutting words short, 
to suit the measure of the verse. But in spite of Swift's 
complaints, this new period abounds with great prose 
writers, whose easy simple style is too much neglected 
in our days. Dryden led the way, and was followed by a 
noble band. 

Our attention is first called to a Satirist, whose wit did 
much for the cause of returned Eoyalty, and who was 
shamefully neglected by the party he served. Butler 
brought out the first two Parts of his * Hudibras' in 1663 
and 1664. He sounds the a both in the old and the new 
fashion ; for places rimes with classes^ mane with rein ; this 
double sound of a lasted for seventy years. The au sup- 
plants e, as jaunty for genty (genteel) ; it is sounded like o 
in the French way, for assault rimes with holt. The i sup- 

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102 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

plants a, as higgU for haggle. The word fire appears as a 
dissyllable in the line — 

" Tho* by Promethean fire made." 

The oi seems to change its sound ; coil as rimes with Rylas, 
jointure with mind fher. The old caprido becomes capriche, 
not far from caprice. The b replaces p, as drub for the old 
drepan (ferire). The final g is clipped in pudden. The p 
replaces t ; hicket becomes hiccup. The final t is clipped ; 
" fight upon tickf*' Mabbe's ticket. The w is not sounded ; 
sight vxm'd rimes with knighthood ; the phrases / ool, I ood 
are still used in some shires. The long videlicet is cut down 
to viz,y for the sake of a rime. 

Among the new Substantives are trustee, turnstile, on- 
slaught, ranter, locket, homeful. The old crone gives birth to 
crony, something like gossip. The word scum is now scorn- 
fully applied to human beings. The word hand is used as 
a term of measurement ; a certain gelding is twelve hands 
high. The word kite is applied to the well-known toy. 
Ben Jonson's pug (a puck, imp) is now used of a dog. We 
hear of the New Light of the Puritans, a phrase that lasted 
into our own Century. The ness is used to compound new 
Substantives, as selfishness. We see snippet, something 
snipped off. The phrase fop-doodle stands for stultus ; I 
suppose this paved the way for flap-doodle, which Marryat 
assures us is the stuff they feed fools on. There is our 
common out of harm's way, wholesale critics, the twenty miles 
an hour pace, a man beats the wind (by) three lengths, A 
new kind of Apposition appears, perhaps derived from the 
Classics ; something is done by inward light ; a* way as good. 

Among the new Adjectives are pyebald (no longer 
piedbald), two-wheeled, fallow (used of soil), humdrum, wistful, 
blustrous. Men fight like rmd ; here the adjective stands 
for the substantive. Acts are done in cold blood ; the cool 
blood of Wallington's time. Something is not worth the 
while (the time spent on it). The knight's religion is Pres- 
byterian true blue. The old diver of the year 1230 was per- 
haps confounded with the French adjective deliver ; we see 
our clever. The else takes a Plural sense ; all rivals else (alii). 

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There are the new Verbs to dry -nurse, to loop -holey 
squelch, slur, slaughter, wheedle, imbrangle ; from this last 
comes the noun brangle that Swift loved. There are the 
phrases bind him over, let lodgings, bear grutch to, go his half, 
lay in a stock, make use of, beat up quarters, run a-tilt at, keep 
pace with, as I see good (fit), smell powder, bring (in) money, 
make over to, take him down a peg, leave no stone unturned, 
fetch and carry. The take had long borne the sense of 
vadere ; we now have take after him (imitari), where aftefr 
bears its old sense of secmidum, A practice is made out 
lawful. The old reach adds to the sense of extendere the 
new meaning of pervenire; they reach a place. The phrase 
standing fight is opposed to pursuit ; this may have led to 
our slmjdrup fight The phrase hold forth is here confined 
to preachers; it had meant before proceed in a general 
sense. A Superlative Adjective produces a new verb, to 
worst him. The poet speaks of some conquerors, you know 
whom. There is the new phrase, "a head was musket- 
proof, as it had need to be," 

Among the Adverbs are hang off and on, on holidays or 
so, where the so must stand for such. The out comes more 
into play; the old cut him work of 1630 becomes cut work 
out. Men stand out (resist). 

As to the Prepositions, something is done on the same 
score (for the same reason), men are upon duty. The above 
is used in a moral sense; men ought to be above sfuch 
fancies. They depose to things, as before they spoke to a 
motion. They are bred to a trade, recalling the Old English 
to ]>am ]>e, when purpose is denoted. Instrumentality is 
expressed by a new phrase ; something is done by dint of 
hard words ; the old dint had meant idus. Manning had 
already had through dint of. 

The word troth, standing by itself, is used as an Inter- 
jection; by my is dropped. 

There are the Dutch blunderbuss (donderbuss, thunder- 
box), trigger (trekker, puller), drill (of soldiers), bumpkin 
(boomken, little tree, blockhead), brandy wine, which also 
appears in the contraction brandy. 

Among the Romance words are harangue, supplies, erdity, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

I04 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

notice^ jproletariariy lampoon^ rank and file, respective, join 
forces, trivial, hash, posture, romantic, identic, matter of fact, 
cross examine, a copper plate, your concerns, it concerns him, 
classic voriter, self interest, plumcake, fribble, patrol, quarter 
day. There are the Greek crisis, sarcasmus (also written 
sarcasm), io hector, statics, eccentrick From the Arabic 
comes, through the Eomance, talisman; the Turkish chiaus, 
already seen, has given birth to the verb chowse ; the 
London Coffie homes are mentioned. The French comrade 
still takes the accent on the last syllable ; we see ragoust, 
valet de chambre, champaign (wine), flambeau, also the Italian 
opera; cravat comes through France from Croatia. We 
have the Latin dassis, with its Plural classes, bearing the 
meaning of our class ; there is the strange Plural specieses ; 
also the phrase ex parte. The word tract (tractus) is 
applied to land. Something is broken in the carriage 
(while being carried). Heralds are said to cant (use 
technical terms) ; our canting heraldry bears a rather dif- 
ferent sense; cant is not yet connected with religion. 
There is the curious Plural noun carryings on, like our 
later goings on ; guns may carry low. One way of winning 
the love of ladies is said to be " swallowing toasts of bits 
of ribbon ; " toast was soon to stand for a lady. There is 
a well-known reference to "the place where honour is 
lodged" in the human frame. The word several plainly 
stands for multi in the phrase several different courses. The 
verb pump is used for enquire. There are the phrases 
cJiange hands, dissenting brethren, certain as a gun, to face 
about, man of honour, to cheer up, tobacco stoppei\ There is 
rally (in fight) from the Latin re, ad, ligare ; rally (banter) 
appears in Wycherley about the same time, and comes 
from radulare, radere. 

There are the very old phrases nim (capere), lidge (back 
of a horse), overthwart, jump (agree) with, 

A man is loth to look a gift-horse in the mouth ; fools 
count their chickens ere they are hatched ; two words to a 
bargain ; nine tailors make a man ; men bid the Devil 
take the hindmost. Hudibras is compared to a sculler, 

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**he'8 fain to love, 
Look one way, and another move. " 

This idea is a favourite one in our literature. A woman 
informs the hero, whom she has stricken down, that he 
has got her for a Tartar ; hence our " catch a Tartar." 

I take from Dr. Murray's Dictionary some words of this 
time, such as hmd (of music), barometer, banister, bargee, 
uftertJumght, air-jpumjp, adad / the parent of the Irish bedad / 
The word adventurer is now applied to one who lives hy 
his wits. Spelman in 1664 changed the old aerie into 
eyrie, thinking that the word must be derived from egg, 
Skeat gives us tattoo (beat of drum), from the Dutch tap 
and to. To this Century we owe smround, which is no 
translation from the French. 

In 1665 Dr. Sprat brought out a sharp Eeview of 
Sorbi^re's travels in England ; I have used the reprint of 
1708, which is added to a translation of the Frenchman's 
book. The old Depe is now written Diep (Dieppe), p. 109 ; 
the i being probably sounded as well as the e. Among 
the Substantives we see Billingsgate language, p. 158. 
England could still strike off the long compound unneigh- 
bourly, p. 171. Men may come in for a share of things, p. 
143. The to in 1220 had meant in the senses of; as "it 
stinks to God ; " Sprat continues this unusual meaning of 
to; how will this sound to him? p. 162. We had long had 
a right to anything ; we now find pretenders to learning, p. 
169. Among the Romance words are ill-natured, croumed 
heads, rarities, the French form charlatan, ferule, romancer, 
romance. We hear of an obliging gentleman, p. 109 ; of 
diverting doctrine, p. 168 ; here the Participle is used as an 
Adjective, a fashion much in vogue about this time. It is 
strange that this Anglican Doctor speaks of the Pope's 
disciples in England as Catholicks, p. 130. A man is 
hanged in effigie, p. 141 ; the word is printed in Italics as 
being Latin. We hear of the Belles Lettres, p. 154, a 
phrase not printed in Italics. We find polite learning, p. 
155; here the adjective does not mean courteous. The 
word genius had meant hitherto simply ingenium ;m p. 173 
we see the odd form geniuses (men of talent) ; the word, in 

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io6 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

this shifting of meaning, had followed in the track of the 
Teutonic mi. The adjective eoaireme is made a substantive ; 
the other extream, p. 156. An author has a manner of 
turning things, p. 163 ; hence turn a complimenty and many 
such phrases. The vain stuff oi 1580 now becomes simply 
stuff (nonsense), p. 164; it was soon to be used as an 
Interjection. The word surloin reappears in p. 175, after 
a long sleep ; the usual derivation of the term is a fable. 
There is the Greek pragmatical. We find the old phrase 
the King's ill-urlUers, p. 143. Sprat, in p. 159, touches on 
the Frenchman's complaint, that he could not understand 
the English pronunciation of Latin ; the defence is, that 
all nations speak Latin as they pronounce their Mother 
Tongue ; the English at this time must have sounded their 
vowels in a way very different from the French usage. 
Clarendon's remark is quoted in p. 170, that hardly any 
language in the world can translate the English phrase good 
nature ; this " ornament of our language " had certainly not 
been known a. Century earlier. The neglect of the unities of 
time and place on our stage is commented upon ; Sprat, happy 
critic, defends his country by saying, that for the last fifty 
years (that is, since Shakespere's death) the English stage 
has been guiltless of such absurdities, as this neglect implies, p. 
166. So famous were English divines, that the Dutch 
made bold with our sermons, as well as with our fishing, 
p. 173. The * Icon Basilike,' it appears, is a " book which 
we dare oppose to all the treasures of the Eastern and 
Western Languages," p. 173. 

Wycherley wrote his four * Comedies ' between 1659 and 
1671, if we may trust the dates he gave in his old age to 
Pope. His new words and phrases (many of them are 
repeated by Dryden) seem a lively comment on the tend- 
encies of the reign of Charles II. I begin with 

Love in a Wood.^ 
Here the aw is still used for French ou, as chawed 

1 I have used Leigh Hunt's * Old Dramatists ' (Routledge, 1880). I 
refer to the pa^es of this work here, and also when I come to Oongreve, 
Vanbrugh, and Farquhar. 

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(chewed) jests. The u supplants i, as snuh iot the old mib. 
There is the contraction dcmit (do not) ; the former gillot 
(puella) of 1530 makes way for jili^ which, moreover, be- 
comes a verb. The old cytere (cithara) gives birth to the 
fiddler's hit The h is softened ; the/^Ti (vagari) of 1440 
becomes jidgd^ p. 12. The / is added, as quibbky the old 
quip. Among the new Substantives are matchmaker, link- 
boy, pinner (vestis), marker (at tennis), shyness, pit (of 
theatre). The word fop has not yet got our sense of the 
word ; it seems to mean merely stuUiis, and is applied to a 
starched citizen, who makes no pretensions to dress ; toim- 
fops are mentioned elsewhere. The word mt no longer 
represents sapiens ; in p. 12 the court-wit, the coffee-wit, the 
judge-wit or critic are all described ; the first of these is 
able to write a lampoon ; in p. \^ wit stands for a riotous 
profligate. A parent calls her daughter huswife (hussy), p. 
17. The noun dun (creditor) is seen, due to the old verb 
dwaien (sonare) ; the dun thunders at your door. The old 
waschunge (lotio) becomes simply a wash. We hear of 
Park-time (time to go into the Park). The scornful Voca- 
tive child is addressed to a young person, p. 18. The old 
quacksalver is cut down to quack. Something is said to be 
of long standing, p. 22 ; Latimer had used the noun in a 
very different sense. Among the Adjectives we read of a 
happy thought, p. 30 ; like the happy vjriter of p. 16. 
There is the comment, "t'is yery flne," p. 26. A man is 
worse than his word, p. 33. . There is great confusion of 
the cases of Pronouns, as thee and I; us could not deny. 
In p. 33 stands it was me you followed ; hence our common 
it's me. The thee and you are often addressed to the same 
person in one speech. The it is used in a new sense ; 
sin/ie you will have it (the truth), p. 7. Among the Verbs 
are pid to the blush, keep up vdth, cock his hat, match ribbons, 
set me down (from a carriage), / take your word, keep him 
in countenance, take a liberty, disown, give me my revenge. A 
man draws with a woman, p. 5 ; hence a waggoner on the 
road was likely to draw up with (court) Jeanie Deans, as 
Scott wrote 160 years later. The old you mistake gives 
way to a new Passive form ; you are mistaken, p. 1 7. We 

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io8 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

have seen a tearing groan about 1610; in p. 17 we read 
of tearing (boisterous) wits, and in p. 41 of tearing ladies; 
hence come our tearing sprits. Our modem toss up is re- 
presented by ril throw wp cross or pUe, p. 18. A man 
looks his friend out, p. 26 ; we substitute up for out. Men 
unbend themselves, p. 30 ; here we drop the last word. 
A man proposes to make a disreputable girl honest by 
marrying her, p. 35. A woman has but one gown to her 
back, p. 20 ; this to stands for the earlier on and the 
later for. 

There is the Low German fob ; fob of liberality, p. 5 ; 
we use it only for watch-pocket 

The Eomance words are raillery, jackpuddin^, pomatwn, 
grimace, bib (of a child), cash-keeper, modish, counterplot. The 
word Mistress is still applied to an unmarried girl ; she is 
called Miss by a most respectful lover, p. 52, which is 
something new ; but the old miss, in its evil sense (miss- 
woman,, arnica), is seen in p. 30. The noun treat appears, 
and is plainly a novelty ; " fetch us a treat, as you call it,'* 
says an old-fashioned Alderman, p. 20, when ordering a 
collation ; this treai is also made a verb. We hear of a 
lady's style, p. 14; hence the later stylish. We read of 
chairmen and chairs, a new mode of conveyance. The word 
assignation, in its worst sense, stands in p. 27. Men play 
on the square (honestly), p. 25. A woman diverts her griefs, 
p. 33 ; a dance diverts her when sad, p. 35. We hear of 
the old Pall Mall, p. 1 3. There is the Italian gusto (taste) ; 
china appears in a catalogue of furniture, p. 20 ; coffee-house 
sages are by this time well known, p. 5. At taverns we 
meet with both the old drawer and the new waiter. There 
is the new phrase led captain. A man, to express his un- 
willingness to answer a question, replies with your servant, 
p. 8 ; the same phrase is afterwards used when a guest is 
welcomed, p. 48. A wit is severe upon certain things, p. 
12. A man is said to be solvable (solvent), p. 22 ; insol- 
vencies appear about this date. We see the noun rencounter, 
p. 25 ; our pressmen persist in going back to the French 
form of this word. A trick will not pass, p. 31 ; here, I 
suppose, observation ought to follow the verb. 

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As to Proverbs, we see walls have ears, famUiarity breeds 

The Gentleman Dancing Master. 

Here the i supplants eg, as a merry grig (Greek) ; the 
supplants a, as shock dog for Howell's shag dog ; we see 
the contraction won't, like don't The ch replaces t, as 
sploach (macula). There are the new Substantives but- 
ter -railk, half -crown, snuff -box, and sputter, formed from 
spout; we hear of a girl being in the teens, referring to 
thirteen, etc., p. 55. There is a hint of pin money, p. 67, 
where a bride asks for advance money, five hundred pounds 
for pins. The words gipsy, jade, and flirt are now applied 
to women ; we also hear of SLJUflirt, p. 53 ; jUt had already 
appeared. A man's luggage is called the things, p. 47. 
Great scorn is expressed for old Queen Elizabeth furnitwre, 
p. 67. Among the Adjectives is unthinking ; also hugeous 
glad ; hugely, like the later vastly, was to be long a favourite 
Adverb. The one stands for me ; you frighten one, p. 45. 
Among the Verbs are Fd have you to know, pick and choose, 
take up with it, stand corrected, cocked hat There is take the 
plie, p. 54, here marked as a new phrase ; it was loved by 
Macaulay. Among the Prepositions are at any rate, where 
the at supplants Heywood's in ; you are at your beastliness, 
heir to something, out of hurrwur ; the command is given, 
about (round) with her, p. 52, like bout ship. There is the 
Interjection pshaw I 

There are the Dutch words grum (afterwards supplanted 
by graff) and mump (cheat), which Macaulay used in his 

Among the Romance words are travesty, unconcerned, 
second hand coach, complaisant ; also beau mx)nde. A woman 
may be spirited away, p. 47. A coach ought to be sociable, 
p. 67 ; from this adjective a vehicle was afterwards 
named. We hear of advance money, p. 67 (money paid in 
advance). We see the proverbs dreams go by the contraries ; 
forewarned, forearm^. 

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The Country Wife. 

The initial h is dropped in the oath egad ; there are 
contractions like di (citizen) ; also Mnt (be not), p. 90, as 
in our modem haini you. Among the new Substantives 
are settlements (marriage), Gross breeding (in raising stock), 
strapper. We hear of love at first sight, a black coat 
(parson). The word seat now means a country ma/nsion, p. 
86. There is the name Biddy, We read of the drawing 
room at Whitehall, p. 74; forty years earlier this had 
been written withdrawing room. In p. 82 a speech is made, 
to which comes the retort, thafs a good one / here the one 
seems to express sentiment. Among the Verbs stand snack 
(go shares), p. 81 ; a new form of the old snatch. We 
have here fight your battleSy do yom business (ruin you), club 
with him, pin himself upon you. In p. 78 we hear of a tea- 
drinking fop. We have already seen considering thy youth 
in Chaucer; the Active Participle begins to be much 
developed about this time; in p. 97 stands supposing we had 
drunk; this is a Dative Absolute, (us) supposing, A new 
adverb appears ; devilishly deceived, p. 98. There was to 
be a new use of for ; Pll take care for one, p. 73 (for my- 
self) ; this led to I for OTie, Men love out of their rank, p. 
77. The new Interjections are Gemini and he he ; the 
laugh that rather later supplanted the old tehef There is 
the Scandinavian verb thrum, something like drum; also 
squab (pinguis). The Eomance words are operator (in 
physic), burlesque, to junket. We hear of a man unth a title 
(lord), a dressing room, man of pleasure, A quack is still 
addressed as Domine Doctor, p. 89. There is the new 
phrase in reckoning time, a quarter of a minute past eleven, 
p. 70. Both horses and ladies may be aired, ^, 74. People 
talk of their place-hmtse in the country, p. 74. A man is 
bubbled (tricked) of something, p. 81 ; a lady is squired 
about, p. 90. We see hocus poem ; the old derivation of 
this, hoc est corpus, is now given up. There is the very 
French idiom he has reason, p. 71 ; the form raillieur 
(railer, rallyer), p. T5, kept its ground for many years. 
Wycherley, a Salopian, uses the old word gamesome, which 

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v.] THE NE W ENGLISH. 1 1 1 

is first found in Salop. He talks of tovsing and mousing 
people, just as Tyndale had done. The town ladies freely 
use the Participle damned ; one of them spits to show her 
disgust, p. 110. In p. 79 stands the well-known story of 
the confessor who taught the hostler to grease the horses* 

The Plain Dealer. 

The a replaces e, as confidant j in the sense of a keeper of 
secrets. Shakespere's voluntary is now replaced by volvmr 
teer. The i replaces e ; the old on henhow becomes on kimr 
how, akimbo. There is the contraction d^ye for do ye. The 
old gobbet (piece of work) is cut down to job, p. 139. We 
see both the old tarpaulin (nauta) and the contraction tar. 
Among the new Substantives are nincompoop, catcall^ game 
cock, hunks. We see box (at a theatre), leading strings, 
wooden leg, woman of business, meeting heme, weather glass, 
holiday captain. The Scotch talk of an unfriend ; in p. 1 04 
a man is called my no friend. The Northern words dowdy 
and tiresome are brought to London. The word bully has 
lost its old kindly sense, and means a noisy coward, p. 137. 
There is the contraction Jerry for Jeremiah. A startling 
act done by a lady is related with the comment there^s for 
you, p. 113; I suppose a lady is dropped after the verb. 
Men laugh on yom side, p. 115 ; hence must come "laugh 
on the other side of your mouth." The Adjective stands 
for the adverb in p. 115, use him as bad (as others are used). 
Among the verbs are bilk, bid fair for, a chopping boy, snap 
him up (in talk), run the gauntlet, dip an estate, rig him out 
(with clothes), think better onH, play the card, take her off his 
hands. Some of these phrases, though 200 years old, are 
still reckoned slang. The phrase blow up seems to bear the 
sense of abuse in p. 105. A man is killing with ladies, 
p. 115 ; hence lady-killer. A person drops away money in a 
lawsuit, p. 119; here we suppress the adverb. The word 
shams passed from dedecus mto dolus, and became a new cant 
word in London ; men sham and put shams upon others, p. 
124; Macaulay classes this word with mob; both terms came 
into great vogue a few years later. In p. 107 the hero, in 

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112 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

one sentence, uses eight verbs compounded with (mi^ as 
ouihray^ etc. In p. 116 stands the polite / heg your pa/rdon. 
The verb to lawyer is coined in p. 129. There is the phrase 
one knows not where to have you, p. 130. The on and of are 
confounded as much as ever; "I wish I were weU out 
ow'/" stands in p. 119. Conjunctions are made nouns; 
something is not to be done upon ifs and ands, p. 120. 
There is the Interjection Ola/ p. 123. The Scandinavian 
words are slattem, doze. A word of Harvey's appears in 
the proper name Mrs. Hoyden, who calls people by their 
surnames, p. 113. 

Among the Romance words are cutlass, intrinsic, latitud- 
inarian, beef eater, vexatious, common-place chat, superfine, 
superannuated, nudities, musk cat, a cashier, joker, to refwnd, 
parry, push his fortune, sinecure, chamber practice. There 
are the French words billet doux, eclaircissement, faux pas. 
On the other hand, we read of a dmble-meaning saying, p. 
114; the French of this was soon to be in English use. 
We see the new coin, a guinea; also alcove, coming from 
the Arabic, though not directly. A man spunges (absorbs) 
wit, p. 104; hence "spunge on a friend for something." 
A convoy is a term now applied to a fleet, p. 109. The 
word animal is used as a term of abuse, p. 1 1 1 . A man 
may be an original, p. Ill, and may be a lady's aversion, 
p. 112. Eyes are said to languish, p. 113. One man may 
be the echo of another, p. 114. The Gazette is now appro- 
priated to martial matters, p. 114. There is the phrase 
impose upon you, where fraud must be dropped after the 
verb, p. 120. We hear of a lawyer's brief, also called his 
breviate, p. 121. We see in p. 120 how story came to mean 
mendacium ; a lawyer proposes to tell a fme story, a long 
story, etc., in Chancery. Some people call extortion the 
honest turning of a penny, p. 125. There is the phrase you 
may please to be gone, p. 135; we drop the two first words. 
A fencer pushes in guard, p. 137. A lady grants the last 
foAxmr, as they call i/, p. 138; this is a Shakesperian phrase. 
There is a phrase, afterwards employed by Pope with great 
eflTect, damn with faint praises, p. 104. The ladies begin 
to be fond of the term horrid. A lawyer bears a green 

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hag^ not a Uue one, p. 121. The rugged old man-hater, 
the counterpart to Moli^re's Misanthrope, embraces another 
man, p. 138; this mode of greeting, so strange to us, 
lasted down to the public life of the great Fox. There is 
the Shakesperian mamrmclc (frustum), p. 127 ; also the cry 
of remonstrance so, so! (gently!), p. 134; this had been 
used by Othello when slaying his wife. There is the Pro- 
verb/air words butter no cabbage, p. 139 ; we now tm*n the 
last word into parsnips, 

Dryden's comedy, *Sir Martin Marr-all,* dating from 
1667, was taken from Moli^re; many of Wycherley's new 
words appear again. The d is added to round oflf a word, 
as schollard, A grown-up person is called a baby. There 
are the compounds thick skulled and soft headed. Among 
the Verbs are let out (secrets), leave the field free, beat him to 
a mwmmy, it is thrown away upon you, a man hugs himself (is 
proud). No one confies near me (rivals me), a new phrase. 
There is the phrase teach your grandam Jiow ; here there is 
a break, so we cannot tell if the reference to eggs follows. 
We see and you go to that; our modern version of this is 
if you come to that. The verb ivish, about this time, often 
stands where we should say hope ; I wish it prove so. The 
form dog now replaces the former dodge; to dog a man. 
There is the phrase my blood is up. The for appears in a 
sense something like one of its meanings in 1 320 ; go thy 
ways for a fool. There is the oath ods bobs. Among the 
Romance words are Nonconfoi'mist, comical, serenade, poor 
devil, a grain of sense, Udall had written bear off a stroke ; 
this seems to lead to carry off (the business). A man may 
make fierce love; a fool is described as no conjuror ; this 
phrase Canning was long afterwards to apply to Addington. 
It is well to be on the sure side. There is lapsus linguoe, 
ignoramus, and virtuoso; the new town phrase, you have 
reason, is laughed at. A man is said to enter h propos, 

Dryden's * Marriage a la Mode' dates from 1673 ; here 
we catch our first glimpse of many a French word that has 
been later adopted into English. We find the new Sub- 
stantives helpmate, outwork ; a heat is connected with horses 
running ; jockey at the beginning of Act V. seems to be a 


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1 14 THE NE W ENGLISH. [chap. 

man who makes matches. We come upon jine things 
(speeches); the adjective arch seems to get its modem 
sense of sly ; an arch rogue. There is the curious embodi- 
ment of the adjective in an oath; by all that is holy. 
Among the Verbs are make his court to, thunder-struck, have 
the last word, whipped cream, things go off (are sold). The 
Infinitive seems to be made a noun; this hide and seek. 
Two Auxiliary verbs are coupled ; / must and will go. The 
verb nick now takes the sense of decipere ; spoiU bears a new 
sense, to spout French. Ben Jonson had talked of a man 
coming about to an opinion ; this is here altered into coming 
round. The off is employed in a new sense ; you are off 
from your mistress. As to Prepositions, we see vows to the 
contrary, behind the scenes, for that matter (leading to the later 
for the matter of that) ; the old at the most is now cut down 
to at most. Among the Eomance words are riding habit 
(used here of a man), incendiary (here wrongly said to be 
a new word), dessert, screw your face, introduce myself, be 
company to me ; lovers are said to bill ; there is the curious 
idiom, / congratulate your birth to you. The fine lady of the 
play (the actresses of the time did full justice to this part) 
airs her French and greedily covets any fine new phrase ; 
we find here maladroit, mon cher, mal a propos, the grand 
rrwnde, minuet, ballet, king's lev4e, chagrin, galhhe (carriage), 
nxiive, naiveU, ridicule, biensdance, contretemps, embarrass, double 
• entendre, penchant. We learn that amour is a better word 
than the old phrase intrigue; the words devoirs and manage 
are once more imported, for they seem to have long died 
out in England ; conversations (we now use the Italian form) 
stand for assemblies ; good graces are said to be novelties ; 
there is foible, a new form of the old fihle. The old sewte 
(secutio) had long been known in England ; the French had 
now corrupted their old word into suite, which is brought 
in in its turn ; we retain both suit and suite. There is the 
phrase " make the tour of France ; " another phrase, speci- 
ally marked as new, is what a figure of a man / Here 
Dryden brings before our eyes some of the fruits of the 

The Duke of Buckingham had his famous play, * The 

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V. ] TJIE NE W ENGLISH, 1 1 5 

Eehearsal,' acted in 1671; I here use Arber's Reprint. 
We see both % and aye still used for the old yea. The final 
n is clipped, when oomin is pared down to cmz (our ooz)^ p. 
99. As to the Substantives, the former hroomstaff now 
appears as broomstick. The old te^e (ligamen), which had 
been long disused, reappears in a moral sense, p. 71; 
people have tyes to their King, p. 37. The word ear is 
used in its musical sense, p. 63 ; certain dancers have no 
ear, no time, no thing, p. 63 ; most in our day would alter 
the last two words into no nothing. We read of business on 
the stage, p. 83 ; this technical word of actors had borne 
the sense of turbatio in 1520. We now often use go sls b. 
noun, as "he has no go in him ;" in p. 131 we find "there's 
go off for you ! " when actors are sent off the stage ; an In- 
finitive stands for a noun. The poet talks of his bold strokes, 
p. 75 ; a new sense of the word. The word head represents 
person in p. 104 ; a host feeds his guests at a crown a head ; 
this idiom must have come from ** so much a day," The 
author complains that his plays are turned back upon his 
hands, p. 55; a new phrase. We read of a knotty point / 
certain men agree in the main, p. 35 ; the word part must 
here be dropped. Fortified towns are said to have a weak 
side; hence the metaphor is transferred to other things, such 
as plays, p. 30. Among the Verbs we see to hedge in a bet, 
p. 23 ; this is said to be the act of a rook. There appears 
the phrase, so common in the next two generations, what do 
me I, but, etc, ? p. 93. Something may be grasped (under- 
stood), p. 49. The plot thickens upon us, p. 81 ; this is 
used by Mr. Bayes, referring to his play ; it has since be- 
come proverbial. His own good things strike him, p. 109 ; 
that is, hit his fancy. A man must live, as Bayes remarks 
in p. 93. He uses the short you are out, p. 77, when cor- 
recting a mistake. We see the source of slapdash in p. 67 ; 
" he is upon him, slap, with a repartee ; then he at him 
again, dash with a new conceit," p. 67. There is the Inter- 
jection ^A(W) / and the chorus hey down, dery down, p. 129. 
Among the Eomance words are refinement, flajolet ; the 
unities are mentioned, p. 30. A resolve is embraced, p. 75 ; 
the stage is cleared, p. 109. In p. 42 Jack with the lantern 

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1 16 THE NE W ENGLISH. [chap. 

is connected with night. There is the old form getd (not 
genteel). A favourite expression of the poet Bayes (Dryden) 
is gadsookers / also and all thaty which is constantly tacked 
on at the end of a sentence ; Pope used it at the end of a 
line. The hero once uses I purtest, & favourite asseveration 
for the next Century. He employs the French word ttuint 
when he thinks his lines very killing, p. 99 ; he calls him- 
self dara voyant, p. 73, which is now a term of Mesmerism. 
In p. 107 he says that he loves reasoning in verse ; cer- 
tainly no man ever surpassed Dryden in that majestic art, 
though his greatest efforts in this line were yet to come. 

Dr. Murray gives us aide-de-camp^ acclimatize, agio, banter, 
auxiliary, arson, atop of, thorough bass, basso rdievo, as new 
words of the time ; there is the Malay a muck The word 
amusement changes its meaning from distraction to recreation; 
diversion must be the connecting link. 

Sir William Petty, a man far beyond his age, wrote his 
* Political Arithmetic' about 1677; it was printed a few 
years later (Arber's * English Garner,' vi. 323). The new 
Substantives are cowheeper, ropemaker ; certain produce of 
the fields is called roots, p. 365; potatoes are called "a 
breadlike root," p. 352, a new Adjective. There is the new 
Verb outsell ; low lands are drovmed by wet weather, p. 370. 
A calculation is made in p. 382 of numbers, allowing for 
sickness ; this is a revived idiom, like Wycherley's supposing, 
and Butler's granting this, a year or two later. We have 
seen I cannot but, etc., in 1470 ; we now have, in p. 377, / 
can but wish, whence comes our / oTdy %msh. There is the 
new Adverb to leeward, p. 356 ; it is odd that we keep the 
Old English sound hleow in the Adverb, while we stick to 
the Scandinavian hlce in the noun lee. As to Prepositions, 
a calculation of numbers is made, head for head. The at of 
price is prefixed to a new phrase, at \1 year^ purchase, p. 
366. Something is lost upon the sale of certain goods, p. 
386 ; this seems to come from lend upon usury. There is 
the Scandinavian smuggle ; ketch (still surviving in our bomb- 
ketch) comes from the Turkish caique. ' The Eomance words 
are ad libitum, ad infinitum, quota, to underpeople, manufadure, 
plebian (plebeian), generality. Religion hath establishment in 

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certain parts, p. 343 ; our Church was later to be called 
" The Establishment." The Latin 'per ousts its Teutonic 
brother, 2*- p&r hea4f p. 353. The word standard now 
expresses rate of measv/rement, p. 381. A fond (fund) is 
made for security, p. 387. There is the compound sea-line. 
Petty tells us that the lawyers strongly objected to intro- 
ducing registries of titles, p. 345 ; many of our poor laboured, 
only to drink, p. 353. He points out the folly of restricting 
Irish trade, p. 375 ; he wishes that the Three Kingdoms 
may be united in one Parliament, p. 377. 

Butler brought out the third part of his * Hudibras ' in 
1678. He makes the last syllable of enjoy rime to way, p. 
240 and elsewhere ; the ou is still sounded in the French 
way, for hotise rimes with the last syllable of boutefeus, p. 
263. The oy still keeps its old sound of French ou in 
CroysadOy p. 270 ; the French sound of a is seen when 
Nature is made to rime with water, p. 322. Among the 
Substantives are better half (conjux), meeting-house, short-hand, 
trapes (a jade), whence our verb to trapes, raw heads and bloody 
bones, nest egg, gimcrack, jiggumbob (our thingumbob), weather- 
gage. In p. 229 we hear of the wear and tear of conscience. 
The word jockey seems to take the new sense of a rider of 
races in p. 239. There is the new phrase ^ay in kind, p. 
267. We see the new adjective fleet (citus). The word 
awkward bears the sense of morosus, p. 298, just as we 
now apply it to temper ; Palsgrave had employed it to 
English pervers. There is the phrase stark staring mad, p. 
207. A horse has a, further and a nearer side, p. 284 ; we 
now say the off and the near side. There is the curious 
grammar, who got who, p. 295, for the sake of the rime. 
Among the Verbs are lay himself out to, come in (into) play, 
a casting voice, do nx) good (eflfect nothing), lay them neck and 
heels, spring mines, go halves, go a share with, throw up the game, 
ring the changes, outwit There is an allusion to a well-known 
game ; love yowr loves with A^s and B's, p. 224. There is the 
favourite catch ; crossy I vjin; and pile, you lose, p. 300 ; here 
we now substitute heads and tails. We see the new use of 
the Active Participle, as in Wycherley and Petty; but 
granting (si) now we should agree, p. 212. As to Preposi- 

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1 18 THE NE W ENGLISH, [chap. 

tions, hd(m refers to dignity ; judge it below him, p. 200. 
A mare is in foal ; something is paid in fvlL There is the 
verb nab from Scandinavia. The Romance words are 
buffalo, detachment, pendulum, piqust (the game), the reserve 
(of an army), grill, stroll, parade, lisker, topic, miscarriage, 
contraband, old-fashioned, a clear stage, master-stroke, truckle to, 
carry double, square the circle. The word face now expresses 
impudentia, p. 197. The word specie stands iox pecunia, p. 
279; in specie must stand for in visible coin. In p. 295 the 
profession stands for the whole body of lawyers. In p. 271 
a mass stands for a Presbyterian minister; hence mass John; 
we saw Mas (mB&tev) parson in the year 1550. Racers win 
the post, p. 221 ; a new use of the word. Our adverb gen- 
teely appears in p. 244 ; genteel had been written gentil fifty 
years earlier. The word blackguard is still connected with 
menial occupation in p. 234. A man saves his tide, p. 249 ; 
this must come from saving time. The word nonplus is 
made a transitive v^rb, p. 251. A man is left perdu, p. 
284. We hear of French valets, p. 322 ; here de chambre 
is dropped; Irish footmen are bracketed with the foreigners. 
The word complaisance is pronounced with the accent on 
the first and third syllables, p. 217. There is the new 
phrase in order to an end, p. 307. We see old forms like 
advowtry, gallowses, card (chart); aches is still pronounced 
as a dissyllable, p. 217, and this was to last fifty years 

Many of the papers in the * Lives of the Norths* date 
from about 1680. We hear that Lord Sunderland and 
Titus Gates used to employ a most affected pronunciation, 
as faarty, taarn, saarve, traison (forty, turn, serve, treason), 
ii. 60. A certain party were called Trimmers ; Lord Guil- 
ford was nicknamed Slyboots, p. 169. There are the Verbs 
take fire, go to the expence, pick holes, kidnap ; this last verb 
shows that kid now bore the slang sense of puer, Jeffreys 
used to speak of " giving a lick with the rough side of his 
tongue," 4ir-0±~ When Tory healths were drunk, the cry 
huzza was raised, iiL 123 ; this was derived from Harvey's 
hussa (clamor), and was to be supplanted many years later 
by the Scandinavian hurrah. There are the foreign words 

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v.] THE NE W ENGLISH, 1 19 

privcUeeTy corsair (called also galley of Corso, iii. 80), resident 
(legatus), to mint ; we see the famous Tuob (mobile valgus). 
There is the proverb, " Anything for a quiet life," iii 390 ; 
we are told, in iii. 375, that the three best doctors are Diet, 
Quiet, and Merriman. The old phrase blind Bayard lasts 
even to this time ; it is applied to Sir Dudley North, iii. 
116. A phrase or two in the same book dates from about 
1690, as shares in a company; also tariff, an Arabic word 
that came to us through Spain and France. 

Aubrey wrote his * Lives of Eminent Men' in 1680, 
handing down to us a mass of priceless information ; these 
were published in 1813. The a replaces i, as landscape, p. 
401. The author tells us that his Wiltshire countrymen 
pronounced giiest as gast, p. 596. The y supplants e, as 
balcony. The old quoir of 1510 is now written choir, p. 260. 
The / stands for th in the phrase tw Uff'or kin to him, p. 364. 

Among the new Substantives are back-blow, hasty-pud- 
ding, cheapness, play-booke, priestcraft. We see tick (of a 
watch) formed from the sound, p. 203. Certain figures 
are Ug as the life, p. 233 ; we here drop the. The new 
words sham and shammer appear in pp. 244 and 245 ; the 
latter is explained to be a teller of harmless falsehoods. 
The Low Dutch and High Dutch languages are distinguished 
in p. 247 ; after this time the latter was usually supplanted 
by the term German. Mention is made of hookes and eies, 
p. 304, reminding us of one of the best puns of Bishop 
Wilberforce. The word gang is used scornfully of a 
dnmken company, p. 372. The ster is once more employed 
to compound songster (cantor), p. 446 ; the Old English 
sangistre had meant only cantatrix. We hear of a book 
published with cutts (engravings), p. 468. Raleigh spoke 
broad Devonshire, p. 519; here the substantive stands for 
the adjective. An unhappy life, led by a married couple, 
is expressed by dog and catt, p. 544. Aiaong the adjectives 
we remark hard student, a little (short) mile. A man keeps 
his coach, p. 219, a new use of the pronoun. There is a 
curious parenthesis in p. 625 ; on his (as he thought) death- 

Among the new Verbs are tag, simmer, fweshorten, un- 

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120 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

hmge ; there are the phrases cme to hive U, taken Ul (sick), 
knock him in the head, bring it in fashion, work problems, lodge 
money with, pick a hole in his coat (find fault), take wind (be- 
come known), set his name to (a book), sit for his picture, 
have one foot in the grave. The should is still used in the 
Old English way ; he told that he should meet (he met), p. 
202. The Infinitive is set first, for the sake of emphasis ; 
preach he did, p. 422. The imitation of the French Passive 
Participle was extended by Henry Marten, who divided the 
House into nodders and noddees, p. 437. Hudibras tooke ex- 
tremely, p. 262 ; here an Accusative is dropped ; we further 
hear of a taking doctrine in p. 372. People blesse them- 
selves that, etc. (express surprise that), p. 472. Sir Henry 
Savill would say, " give me the plodding student," p. 525 ; 
the Imperative here expresses the Latin malo. Thoughts 
darted in Hobbes' mind, p. 607 ; this is a new Intransitive 

As to Prepositions, people have a great loss in a certain 
man, p. 300; a continuation of an idiom of 1220. Children 
are left on the parish, p. 387. A man is upon tryall, p. 404. 
A person's genius lay to the mechanics, p. 496. 

There is the Dutch word plug ; also etch, which new art 
Aubrey explains, p. 401. 

Among the Romance words are j?(w<w;o,(?ra^ory6 (eloquence), 
lingua Franco (sic), pocket pistol, pocket book, humanist (so 
Boyle is styled), laboratory, remargue, remarguedble, catafalco, 
self-praise, oral, memoirs, prospect (view), ballot, urnbrella 
(shade for eyes, p. 508), intimate friend, an original (picture), 
fountains head, practitioner (medicus), magnifying glasse, u/nder- 
graduate, penurious. Stentorian, pictu/re in miniature, a great 
bargain, expunge. Girls learn the use of the Globes, p. 228 ; 
Bacon, the philosopher's father, is said to have built a 
Gothique house, p. 232 ; I suspect that this would now 
be called Tudor, A good view is called Belvidere, p. 235. 
A merchant retires from business, p. 247. A new noun 
is compounded from an Active Participle ; piercingness of 
eye, p. 321. A man is envoyi from a Queen to a Pope, 
p. 325 ; the accent is printed over the word. We hear 
of intrigues behind the curtaine (as they say), p. 350; Dry den 

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had already written behind the scenes. Milton's friend 
Skinner appears as chaire-man of the Rota Club, p. 372. 
The word minute is found in various senses ; the minutes 
of a meeting, p. 372 (a sense occurring in 1473) ; a minute 
watch is made, p. 386 ; Aubrey is minute in his statement, 
p. 594. Ben Jonson was very good company y p. 538 ; 
here comjpany stands for companion^ the thing for the person. 
The word exercise had been used in the last Century for 
prayer ; it stands in p. 562 for a schoolboy's performance. 
Harvey is called the inventor (discoverer) of the circulation 
of the blood, p. 628 ; we no longer use the word in this 
sense. Certain things escape my m^emmy, p. 630. There 
is liable, p. 617, which comes from ligare, tier. We see 
print shop, p. 401, which shows that print had come to 
stand for picture. The old quadrant of a College is replaced 
by quadrangle, p. 422. A man has interest with Govern- 
ment, p. 483. The adverb anonymously h printed in Greek 
characters in the middle of the English text, p. 243. 

In the contemporary Letters, prefixed to Aubrey's 
* Lives,' we see spring tide, bulky, oval, dragster (druggist), 
Premier Minister (applied to Clarendon), p. 62, pre-ingage, 
perfect it; proposdlls are connected with marriage, p. 153, 
but these here seem to mean money agreements. We hear 
that Boyle was laughed at, about 1691, for using new- 
coined words like ignore and opine, p. 159. Eabbi Smith 
of Magdalene writes that he is not cut out for a post, p. 210. 
Hickes talks of a DD, p. 11. Aubrey holds to the fashion 
of his father's days, when he puts scraps of Latin into his 
text, as in p. 594 ; this pedantry was soon to vanish. The 
word gin is still used in its old sense of contrivance, p. 608. 
We hear that coffee was drunk by the Rota Club so early as 
the year 1659 ; see p. 371. 

Among the new words of this time are nawjesake, slug 
(for shooting), to hitch, earshot, lapdog, sketch (from the 
Dutch), shabby (from scabby), rubber of a game, browbeat, dis- 
habille, sylph. The old form Abbatess (Abbess) still survives. 
Dryden used agreements, and the word was in vogue for 
fifty years ; it now usually appears in its French form. 
These two last words I have taken from Dr. Murray's 

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122 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Dictionary, which also gives us hallot box, hambow (bamboo), 
bandylegs ; there is avast, derived from the Dutch, like many 
other sea terms ; the aye is repeated twice when an answer 
is given, as ai ai 

Congreve's plays range between 1693 and 1700.^ I 
begin with 

Old Bachelor. 

The a replaces o, as in the oath gad 1 used by ladies of 
fashion. The u replaces o, as dmch under the chin, the 
French choquer. The p replaces k, as sharper for sharker. 
There is the childish pronunciation of turn and delous for 
come and jealous, pp. 161, 165; this is in a dialogue be- 
tween a coaxing husband and wife. The word physiognomy 
is cut down to phiz, p. 163 ; this habit of contraction was 
now coming in. Among the new Substantives are a blind, 
a whet, a hangdog, idler, prig (stultus). We hear of a good 
riddance, of a kid-leather glove, which we shorten; of a 
woman* s (lady's) m^n, p. 164. The word scribble is con- 
fused with scraul (crawl); hence we hear of a scrawl 
(epistola), p. 169. A maid is called an Abigail, p. 157. 
Among the new Adjectives are deathless, flashy; one 
adjective is prefixed to another, as devilish smart, p. 
153; an active participle is prefixed to an adjective, 
as a stvinging long cloak, p. 157; a passive participle is 
prefixed to an adjective, as damn*d hot, p. 153. The 
word great is used for noble ; was rwt that (sentiment) great ? 
p. 153; George Eliot is fond of the phrase "a great 
fellow." The word fvlsorae is now coupled with the idea 
of flattery, p. 150 ; ih.Qfoul (ful) here conveys the sense of 
nauseous. The it is used in the old indefinite way; have a 
happy time onH (of it), p. 160. There is the new Verb 
outgrow ; also the phrases put out of conceit with, sleep like a 
top, make me sick to hear you, show you up (stairs), have all 
the talk to yourself, mind your own business, know not what 
thou wovld^st be at, before I know where I am, unlicked cub, 
look like a Christian (be well dressed), make a night onH 

1 I use Leigh Hunt's *01d Dramatists* (Edition of 1880) for 
Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar. 

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(Mabbe had something like this), see (escort) him out of 
doorSf make up (repair) a reputation, p. 167. A man is 
put upon (deceived), p. 158; (people put a trick on him). 
The verb ogle is used in our sense, which differs much 
from that of the Sixteenth Century, p. 157. The verb 
(xrnie is suppressed in now ifs out, p. 169. A man is out 
of pocket, p. 152; he is down in the mouth, p. 163. 
Among the Prepositions are paid at dght, up to the ears. 
Hind to it, a papist in his heart, upon second thoughts, you have 
such a way with you. There is which way's the wind ^ p. 163 ; 
here a from must be dropped. There are a shoal of new 
Interjections, as bless me/ by the Lord Harry/ bye bye! (good 
bye), p. 161. I am slap dash down in the mouth; goodness 
have mercy upon me/ p. 167 ; suggesting our goodness (be) 
gracious/ Ladies begin sentences with hang me, if, etc. 
There are the forms pauh/ phuh/ the word in p. 175 is 
written pooh/ In p. 148 stands the dense take me, if ; this 
word had not appeared, I think, since the year 1400. 
There is the chorus toll-loll-dera, p. 163. We see our bluff, 
which seems to come from the Dutch ; it is here a proper 

Among the Komance words are April fool, Jesuit's 
powder, Madeira wine, dormarU, recollect, scurrilous. There 
are the phrases my interest is to, etc., business is not my 
element, force a smile, present (introduce) you, no matter for 
that, it sits easy on me, try on things, turn the corner, carry it 
too far, powder horn. The banker is encroaching upon the 
older goldsmith, p. 149. A sportsman covers a partridge, 
aiming his gun, p. 150. The word ungrateful bears the 
new sense of molestus ; an ungrateful office, p. 158, rather 
like the later invidious. Something happens the year round, 
p. 153 ; here we prefix all. The word entirely is used 
in its earliest sense of 1290 ; love thee entirely, p. 149. 
There is the old phrase sell it better cheap, p. 171. We 
have the proverb talk of the Devil, see where he comes, p. 

Double Dealer. 
There are the new Substantives hom^thust, dish of tea, 

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town talk^ hartshorn, fib. There is the curious Adjective 
uncomeataUe, p. 181. A person is not to be found high or 
low, p. 196. Among the Verbs m the curious Future 
form my father-in-law that is to he; also meet yowr match, 
meet my wishes, cut his teeth, to underbid, a strapping lady, 
shift the scene, wife-ridden (henpecked). The word over is 
used in a new sense; to have it over (overpast), p. 176. 
As to Prepositions,, we see he upon the broad grin, punctual 
to the minute. The new Interjections are crimine / used 
by a lady ; dear /p. 200 ; can it be short for dear 
God? the later dear me must have imitated ah me/ 
Among the Romance words are guzzle, misplace, curtain 
lecture, turn the tables, turn a compliment, turn up trump, 
change sides. The fashionable folk use many French 
words, as the hel air or brUlant, p. 179; look je ne sais 
quoi. The beau appears, p. 201 ; and belle was soon to 
follow. We see critically, p. 175, used for "in a critical 
moment." In the same page the word taste is used for 
nice judgment. A man is said to want a manner, p. 
179; this differs from manners. A person is called a 
mediocrity, p. 179. A man, when enraged, is said to be hi 
disorder, p. 183. We read of "virtue, religion, and such 
cant,^* p. 185 ; the last word still means "technical jargon." 
A lady is called an engaging creature, p. 190 ; a new sense 
of the verb ; these Participles were now much used as 
Adjectives. Something shocks a lady, p. 198; a new 
sense of the verb. There is asterism (our asterisk), p. 
187. We see the proverb cut a diamond with a diamond, 
p. 177. 

Love for Love. 

The e replaces a, as demm you, p. 214; the free-spoken 
lady here forestalling Mr. Mantalini. The old ou is 
written oo, in the oath oons/ (wounds!), p. 212. The 
former shamefast is corrupted into shamefaced, p. 218. 
There is the new Substantive flip (the sailor's drink) ; we 
find the cat of nine tails (flagellum), dirt pie, chip of the old 
block; we saw something like this in Mabbe. A young 

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V. ] THE NE W ENGLISH. 1 25 

lady is told to drop the vulgar noun smock^ and say 
linm^ p. 214. There is the coaxing he a good girl^ p. 
210, when the speaker wants to get something out of 
the lady. There is our common " I have looked for you 
like anything^'* p. 231 ; and the famous sister^ every way 
(in every sense), p. 213. The old Accusative hine (ilium) 
reappears, as- ^fi/ '71 (tell un), p. 218. Among the new 
Verbs are chuckle (perhaps from choke), henpecked; and the 
phrases look you there now, go to loggerheads, know his own 
mind. The old help still keeps its old sense oi prevent; "I 
was glad to help it (the length of my play) where I could," 
p. 202. A gentleman inserts says I into a sentence more 
than once, p. 207. In p. 223 is the question whafs here to 
do? we still hear "a great to do" (ado). There is the 
adverb womdy, used by a sailor, p. 226 ; woundy angry ; 
this may be the old wonder-angry, or some reference to the 
oath wounds. The sailor uses the oath mess (mass), p. 217, 
which, as a general rule, had died out ; an old nurse uses 
another old oath. Marry and Amen, p. 215 ; the last two 
words are new ; hoity toity stands in p. 219; and fiddle 
begins to come in ; there is the scornful answer to a threat 
of the rod, a fiddle of a rod / Among the Romance words 
are raffle, callous ; there are the phrases double down a page, 
in their true colours, pay the piper, force a tree (in growth), 
head quarters. We have the Italian solo and sonata ; tabby 
cat from the Arabic, in which utabi means a rich waved 
sUk. India furnished our bowl of pmich, p. 218, with its 
five ingredients. A young lady is known as Miss Prue ; 
this a few years earlier would have been Mistress Prue. 
The word second is made a substantive and is used of 
time, p. 219 ; minute had come a little earlier. The word 
blackguard seems to be on the way to change; it is no 
longer applied to the inmates of the kitchen, but to a 
lawyer, a parson, or the Devil, p. 219; the colour black 
being common to all these proposed helpers. The sailor 
' (he now first appears very prominent on our stage) uses the 
term turn in (go to bed), p. 222 ; in the same page we read 
of a, finished man, which here means "mature man." In p. 
221 we see a favourite rime of ours — 

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126 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

' * A soldier and a sailor, 
A tinker and a tailor. " 

We must not kiss and tell, p. 214. Silence gives consent, 
p. 218. 

Way of the World. 

The a is clipped, for attender becomes tender (navis), p. 
267. The e still keeps the sound of French ^, for scene 
rimes with maintain, p. 259. The e supplants a, as mem 
for JtujUam, madam, used by a maid; they now usually 
sound it as mum. The i replaces a / a rustic knight says, 
"I don't stand MX /, shall /" (shilly shally), p. 274. The 
'p replaces h ; the Shakesperian humhard here appears as 
bumper y p. 279. Among the new Substantives are swim- 
mingness (in the eye), soaker (drinker), punster; we see 
strong box, tale of a cock and hdly bible oath, A man pro- 
poses to turn his wife to grass, p. 275 ; I have met with 
grass widow in a work of this time, Connor's * Account of 
Poland.' There is the curt truce with your similitudes, p. 
267. The word/^p seems to slide into our sense of the 
word ; it is applied to a man who substitutes town notions 
for his old country ideas, p. 274. A maid's lover is called 
your Philander, p. 282 ; this has given us a new verb. 
The word time is applied to apprenticeship; out of your 
time, p. 274. There is the Adjective rantipole ; we hear of 
wry faces. There is our common phrase to say fairer, p. 
284. As to Pronouns, the difference between thou and 
you is well marked when the rustic knight greets his 
fashionable brother; wounded pride makes a wonderful 
difference between the Salopian's first and second sentence ; 
the whole scene is one of the best hits ever made by the 
Comic Muse. In p. 271 stands there was something in it. 
The all is prefixed to an abstract noun ; I am all obedience, 
p. 278. There is the hew Verb coo; also the phrases 
put on their grave faces, take her to pieces, call cousins, get 
nothing out of him, corns down (with money), p. 270, keep ' 
up my spirits, m^ke you advances (in love), make his addresses, 
TTie verb butter now takes the sense of adulari, p. 259. 
The verb knock up is used for- turbare, p. 263, referring to 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


a^ man at his lodgings. A person is set in to drinkingy p. 
276 ; perhaps this led to the noun set to. A maid, narrating 
a speech made by another person, interlards it with says he, 
six times over, p. 270. A growing girl is described as 
going in her fifteen, p. 283 ; hence came rising fifteen, A 
noisy man is requested to make his bear-garden flourish 
somewhere else, p. 287 ; this capital phrase Scott puts 
into the mouth of his Antiquary. A man is unbred, p. 
272 ; this was soon to be corrupted into underbred. A 
person hits off wit, p. 273 ; the off replaces an older of. 
The verb bear is followed by an Infinitive ; she will not 
bear to be catechised, p. 283. In p. 277 stands independent 
on her bounty ; this on we, as usual, change into of, though 
dependent keeps the true preposition. There is a remarkable 
phrase in p. 287, fe (his) advice all is owing ; this led to 
the new preposition o^mig to this (ob hoc), which appeared 
a few years later. In the same page persons are said to 
be within call ; that is, the limits of a call. In the phrase 
he is turned of forty, p. 272, we now drop the Preposition. 
As to Interjections, the old hfrlady is put into the mouth 
of the uncouth Salopian, p. 274; also anan? answering to 
our what do you mean? p. 277 ; this is the old anon, with 
its meaning much changed. Among the Eomance words 
are pulp, bobbin, cherry brandy, lingo, decoy duck, pincushion, 
odium. There are the phrases a turn of expression, half- 
pay, master key, the first impression. There are the 
French terms Ute-a-tite, governante, toilet, belle assem- 
bl4e, coquette; also olio, from the Spanish alia. Gaza 
and Mosul here furnish us with gauze and muslin. The 
vapours are now a recognised disease of the mind, p. 260. 
The word concern bears the meaning of anxietas, p. 265. 
One lady's favourite adjuration is, as I am a person 1 p. 270 
(great personage) ; in our day this person is used to snub an 
inferior. Men are toasted when healths are drunk, p. 278; 
a lady appears as a ioast, p. 272. We hear of a lady's airs, 
p. 272. The chaplain of a gaol is called the ordinary, p. 
273. We hear of passages in a man's life; a new phrase, 
p. 275. The word dbamdoned is used for God-forsaken; my 
abandoned nephew, p. 281. The verb tender keeps one of 

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128 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

its old senses in p. 261, a% you tender yowr ears; 6a5y still 
stands for doll, p. 283, and this was to last for twenty- 
years ; hence our Idby house ; fox keeps its Shakesperian 
sense of gladius, p. 285, in the Salopian's mouth. There 
is our common forgive and forget, p. 285 ; also snug's the 
word, p. 263 ; Shakespere had had pardon's the word (watch- 
word). A Salopian begs to be remembered to his friends 
round the Wrekin, p. 274 ; to these friends Farquhar was 
soon to dedicate one of his best plays. 

About this time we see the new words Qricket (the 
game), hank note, hankrupcy, base relief (replacing the Italian 
form of the word) ; a man may be assuming and hack his 
opinion ; dub takes the new sense of appellare. At the end 
of this Century ie was pronounced in our present way in 
bier and fusilier. The oi was still pronounced as ui in 
certain words, but choice and certain others were sounded 
as now. The oi sometimes bore the sound of our eye. See 
Ellis on Pronunciation, p. 134. 

In passing from Congreve to our next author, we go 
from the bale to the bote, as our forefathers would have said. 
Jeremy, Collier brought out his famous 'Short View of 
the English Stage' in 1698. We seem to have begun in 
some words to sound ea like the French i, for we see in- 
treague. There is both gentile and genteel, the old and the 
new form. The a changes to o, for the noun romp is 
formed from the verb ramp. The n replaces I; Pvlcinello 
becomes Punchinello, our Punch (* Defence of the Short 
View,' p. 13). Among the new Substantives are merry 
Andrew, finery, underplot We see woman of the toum 
(meretrix), p. 20. Collier is fond of top-lady, meaning 
chief heroine ; hence came the surname of a well-known 
writer. The phrase play the Turk is used for behaving 
cruelly, p. 166. The noun throw had hitherto been con- 
nected with dice ; in p. 101 a man has a throw at Ministers; 
shy is now commonly substituted for this throw. We read 
of B^ flight (of fancy), p. 167 ; of vaulting on the high ropes, 
p. 168. The adjective loose is made a substantive in give 
loose to, p. 163. A man betrays his trust, p. 213 ; here the 
noun stands for "something entrusted to him." So far 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

v.] THE NEW ENGLISH, \2i^ 

back as the year 1220, as we see by a poem of that date, 
EngKsh peasants had been loth to pay their tithes fairly; 
Collier is very angry at the jovial iiihe^ stealer's song, quoted 
in p. 193. In p. 150 stands the phrase he all of a (one) 

Among the new Verbs are overstock, weaken ; there are 
the new phrases keep it on its legs (keep it right), keep Ms 
feet, go a great way (in estimation, p. 28), come off with flying 
colours, he in a rising way, feed foul, make a figure, throw him 
off his guard, wind him ahout (round) their fmgers, fmd their 
account in, A man goes on (continues) reprimanding, p. 49 ; 
this old idiom is attached to another verb in I cannot for- 
hear [saying, p. 184. Collier has a new idiom more than 
once ; he does as good as own, p. 155 ; here the last word is 
an Infinitive ; we now turn it into the Present, and strike 
out the does, A man goes certain lengths, p. 160 ; in Scot- 
land they say, " when I come your length " (as far as your 
abode). Things strike the fancy, p. 160; rather later, a 
Princess is smitten with a nmn ; hence comes our " it strikes 
me that," etc. The verb sparkle bears a new sense ; sparkle 
in conversation, p. 224. The verb set up now comes to mean 
claim credit; he sets up for sense, p. 226. In p. 227 we find 
as like a spark as you would wish ; here an Infinitive at the 
end is dropped. In p. 97 stands the compound priest- 
ridden; in p. 160 a man is ridden by his jests; Congreve 
had already brought in wife-ridden. 

The as appears as a relative, answering to the Latin 
quod in quod sciam ; "the Lady, as I remember, does not 
treat," etc. As to Prepositions, a man refines upon theology, 
p. 37 ; that is, he tries to get rid of its corruptions. There 
is our common upon the whole, p. 126 ; rather later, this is 
written upon the whole matter ; some verb like taking our 
stand upon must be understood before the phrase. We have 
already seen / am (ready) for you ; we now have she is for 
pulling it (eager to pull it), p. 168. In p. 188 stands "bad 
enough in all conscience;'^ in p. 214 we have hand over head 

Among the Romance words are spectre, dromedary, un- 
designing, insufferable, misnomer, trying circumstances, flection 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

I30 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

(romance), sensation, high seasoned (of a jest), undeceive, 
the modems. The noun remove is used in chess, p. 99 ; 
here we cut off the first syllable. In the Preface a 
certain sin is said to be but one remme from worshipping 
the Devil. We see debauchee, in p. 1 3, printed as a common 
English word by that sound scholar, Collier ; I have seen in 
my own time the word printed in our newspapers as de- 
hauch4 / Even double entendre, a word in frequent use here, 
is not printed in Italics, p. 15. The verb engaged gets a 
new sense, and is used of a betrothed pair, p. 29. A period 
is made round, p. 56 ; we should say, rounded off. The word 
salvo is used for excuse, p. 77. Something gets the ascend- 
ent, p. 254. We hear of the very spirit and essence of 
vice, p. 280 ; spirits for drink were soon to follow.- The 
word principle is used for virtue, p. 287. The word 
equipage had hitherto been used for a train of servants ; 
but in p. 112 two Trojan heroes appear in an equipage 
of quality (currus). In p. 120 a man keeps himself with- 
in temper; hence comes keep your temper. In p. 114 
we see the phrase for which temper was used above, " to 
write with great command of temper.'''^ In p. 147 stands the 
verb spar (pugnare), from the French esparer ; our old 
Teutonic spar (claudere) seems to have long vanished. In 
p. 160 the two forms rallying and railing appear in one 
sentence. Collier tells us that "to date from time and 
place is vulgar and ordinary," p. 207 ; the verb seems to 
have been just coming in. The word stress (constraint) ap- 
pears to take the further meaning of weight ; lay stress upon 
it, p. 279. We hear of the characters in a drama, a new 
use of the word; a Bishop is called a solemn character, 
p. 200. 

There is the Proverb in p. 288, as long as there is life 
there^s hope. Collier uses the old phrases which were 
now becoming obsolete, conclude to do it, learn him to 
do it. We are told that sack-wine is a low expres- 
sion, p. 122. The phrase to quarrel a man, still pre- 
served in Scotland, is seen in p. 223. Collier stands up 

^ A. said, on hearing B. advised to keep liis temper in a dispute, 
»' Don't tell him to keep it ; tell him to get rid of it J " 

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for his profession, and says that there are not many good 
families in England but either have, or have had, a clergy- 
man in them, p. 135; "a parson is a name of credit." 
Lord Macaulay ought to have weighed this. We hear that 
swearing before women is reckoned a breach of good be- 
haviour, p. 59 j but certainly, in the plays of this time, 
oaths are put into the ladies' mouths. The curse damn is 
printed at full length, while Dr. Gates appears as Dr. 

O s, p. 230. Another ill-sounding word is sometimes 

printed at full length, sometimes with a dash, pp. 82 and 
171, an inconsistency at which the Parson's enemies jeered. 
Next year Collier had to bring out his * Defence of the 
Short View ' in answer to Congreve and others. He uses 
the noun da^h for something left unprinted, p. 40. The 
verb %8 vanishes in Not unlikely, which constitutes a whole 
sentence, in answer to an excuse put forward, p. 42. 
Among the Verbs are hit a blot, coim to particulars, bring 
him in guilty, make it go down (the throat), rrwike sense onH (of 
it), it holds true. We have seen Butler's granting that ; we 
now find generally speaking, p. 75 ; a fit on the stage looks 
like business, p. 95 ; here the last word must be used in the 
actor's technical sense. Men no longer broke a jest, but 
cracked it, p. 110. There is the curious new verb wildred 
(lost in a mist), p. 81 ; we here prefix a be. There is the new 
parenthesis, women {take them altogether), etc., p. 24. There 
is a curious use of the Infinitive ; Congreve had written / 
care not; Collier answers. What, not care, etc. ; something like 
Shakespere's " what ! a young knave, and beg ! " We find 
a new use of prepositions in foreign to it, at a loss. The 
Romance words are exemplary, an unlimited range, fortuvjc 
teller. There is the verb misrepresent, p. 90, which Guizot 
thought a most happy English phrase. The word rampant 
had hitherto been confined to heraldry; we now find 
rampant profaneness, p. 107, We see the race and spirit 
of her discourse, p. 110 ; hence comes racy. The verb dins 
becomes transitive; to dine the poor, p. 121. We hear of 
an innuendo, p. 22 ; the only Latin gerund, I think, ever 
made an Enghsh substantive. Collier, sound scholar as he 
was, prints satyr for the Latin satira ; it is something like 

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132 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

the mistake in Syren, The word mistress, imitating master, 
is prefixed to a noun not a proper name ; this is Jlf***- Bride 
(sponsa), p. 35. An epithet is called perfectly expletive, p. 
37 j we now make the word a substantive. Another Past 
Participle is used as an Adjective ; he is so resigned, p. 44. 
A word carries (bears) a certain sense, p. 56. Collier in p. 
55 tells a story which shows that vehicle was a very new 
word; water in prescriptions was called the vehicle of 
physic j an apothecary looked out the word in Littleton's 
Dictionary, and then told his patient to take her physic in a 
cart or a wheelbarrow ! 

Our author has the Double Negative, nor never mil, "p. 
63, not in the same way neither, p. 69. He rebukes Con- 
greve for writing /e^r^c? instead oi frighted, p. 91 ; he tells 
us that the verb waft was almost worn out of use ; to waft 
a fleet meant to convoy it, p. 37. He declares that inspira- 
tion, standing by itself, is always taken in a religious sense ; 
and that it was the same with salvation, p. 50 ; we have 
altered this usage. Congreve is further rebuked for using 
Providence as a synonym for Fortune, p. 114, but Collier 
had himself used it for Devs, p. 115, as is pointed out. 

He, in 1700, published a * Second Defence of his Short 
View.' Here he has throw dirt, go to the expence of, mixt 
company, wink hard, a moral lies on the surface. The 
old over all (ubique) had gone out; but we see in the 
Preface " his manner is all over extraordinary ; " here the 
sense is ^^ throughout the book." The to is used to imply 
measurement; foid to the last degree, p. 31. Something is 
out of the question (beside the question), p. 122. We see 
parade (show), liberties (licentious tricks), p. 58. The ad- 
jective mobbish stands for coarse, p. 135; the substantive 
mob had not been known very long. Men are ill used, p. 
3 ; this adverb ill is seldom prefixed to a verb, except in the 
case of to ill use, to ill treat ; it is different with participles. 
Collier has the proverb thai that^s sawce for a goose is sawce 
for a gander, p. 37. 

Bentley, the King of scholars since Casaubon's death, 
and at the same time a writer of sound English, brought 
out his * Dissertation on the Epistles of Phalaris' in 

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1699; I have used the 1817 reprint of this masterpiece. 
There is the curious new form l\i for lighted^ p. 327; he 
has lit upon it. There are the new Substantives siariefr 
(of a calumny), slight (injuria). The word shuffle gets a 
new meaning, that of ddus^ p. Ivi. The word h4ney now 
expresses temper ; friends of his own Jddney, p. 421. The 
word tool may now be used of a man, p. 304 ; the first 
hint of this had appeared about 1650. We hear of 
certain ale called humtie dumtie ; this jingle is well known 
in the nursery rime. An old man is said to be past his 
work (power of working), p. 86. The new mtticism is a 
most curious compound of Teutonic and Greek, p. 88 ; I 
suppose it was suggested by Atticism and Anglicism, which 
appear in this book. Another bold compound is sameness, 
p. 140; a proof of the living power of the old ness. The 
Plural odds is treated as a Singular; a great odds, p. 137 ; 
this came, I suppose, from a great many. In p. 149 prizes 
are ready upon the spot ; this refers to place, not to time. 
A book is said to be in being, p. 407 ; a new phrase. 
We hear of the thread of a story, p. 397. 

Among the Adjectives are broad hint, lame argument, 
dirty trick, unfledged writers. Men are in the dark, p. 212. 
The word tall keeps its old meaning of elegans in p. 398 ; 
a tall compliment ; perhaps this was a phrase which Bentley 
brought from his native Yorkshire. 

There are the new Verbs to word, underjob, undersell ; 
and the phrases let the matter drop, pick holes in, dip in a book, 
beg the question, make a slip, bear hard on, hard put to it, strike 
coins, go out of his way to, etc., make a near guess, set him 
right, raise a dispute, pin my faith on, have the luck to, Bentley 
talks of a fictitious city, hearing South off of Utopia, p. 226; 
hence comes take the bearings, A certain scholar makes 
Socrates live for a certain time, p. 406. The Passive In- 
finitive is carried further; it is to be hoped that, p. 92 ; 
letters are to be had (may be found), p. 416. The new use 
of was, just coming in, is seen in p. 299 ; when you was 
aboy ; this was to last for more than a Century. 

Among the Prepositions we remark, improve upon his 
first modd, p. 200, where the Participle building seems to 

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134 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

be understood. A man is und&r a mistake (subject to), 
p. 328 ; epistles go under the name of Phalaris ; here hy is 
now sometimes substituted. A book is above ground (in 
existence), p. 367. Certain things are hetow my notice, p. 
365. Boyle's answer is helow even himself, p. 294. 

There is the word gruff horn the Dutch, p. 440. 

Among the Eomance words are collate, jejune, florid, 
piece of news, the piblic, operoseness, undeniable, hoopoe. 
There are the phrases morally sure, pay off a debt, lose his 
temper, mint a phrase, a round number, piece of critic (critique, 
criticism), p. 353. We see parodia, p. xxx., which had not 
yet taken an English ending. In the next page stands 
do him justice; two paragraphs further on comes the 
old form, to do him that right. The word fencing is moral, 
not physical, p. xxxi The word nice had long meant pre- 
cise, fastidious ; it is now coupled with knowledge, meaning 
exact, p. xlviii. The verb demur is taken from the law 
courts, and here means dubitare, p. 371. The word assur- 
ance takes the new meaning of impudentia. The word tour 
means circuit or compass, p. 392 ; that part of a man's life, 
which a writer means to embrace, is called the tour ; Dryden 
had already coupled this word with travelling. The word 
matter still bears its old sense of constraining cause, p. 408; on 
the other hand, for the matter of it, p. 285, stands for qu^d ad 
materiam spectat; this last phrase must be the parent o^for the 
matter of that. We see prose-writer in p. 156 ; a very differ- 
ent being from a proser. There is copier in p. 179, and 
copyist in p. 342. Boyle, who was an Earl's son, is said to 
challenge the title of Honourable, p. 237 ; this title had not 
been long in existenca The word beau had become so well 
established that beuu-ish appears, p. 285 ; we have always 
loved this ish. The verb explode is used in p. 419 in the 
sense of sibilare ; Arbuscula of old well knew what this 
meant. A manuscript now appears as an MS. Bentley 
uses the Plurals geniuses, chai'uses, and Salmasiuses, 

The Proverb threatened men live long is hinted at in p. 
231. A sophist makes a tide and flood, though it be but 
in a basin of water, p. 399 ; the ancestor of our " storm 
in a teacup." Bentley was assailed for using repudiate, con- 

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cede^ aliene, vernacular, timid, idiom ; but he says that all 
of these, as also negoce and putid, were in print before he 
used them ; he, in his turn, twits Boyle for using ignore, 
recognosce, and cotemporary ; this is said to be a word of 
Boyle's own co-position, p. xliv. Further on there is a dis- 
pute as to the use of mien, Bentley, when he comes to the 
Attic Dialect, has some fine remarks about the perpetual 
motion and alteration of languages, p. 283 ; here Boyle 
had laid himself terribly open to the Doctor's homethrusts. 
The latter, however, is for once caught tripping in p. 293; 
he remarks on the vast stock of Latin words brought into 
English since 1500, and then predicts that the two next 
Centuries will not be so fruitful of change ; he even thinks 
it possible to make the English tongue immutable I The 
great scholar's mistake has been since imitated by many 
an English author on philology. But change and decay are 
the law of all living tongues. 

Vanbrugh's earlier comedies (Leigh Hunt's edition) 
range between 1697 and 1706. I first take 

The Eelapse. 

Here the a in chaste keeps its old sound, for it rimes 
with^as^, p. 333. The ow changes from French ou to 0, 
for shows rimes with heaux, p. 302. Lord Foppington seems 
to have been one of the first to introduce a new sound of 
ou; for he pronounces home as hause, something in the Ger- 
man way ; so foul is pronounced faul by the Nurse, p. 332; 
fifty years later we were to write Row for the Hindoo Rao, 
The nobleman sounds destroy and joy like destray and jay, p. 
334 ; the verb had certainly borne this sound some Centu- 
ries earlier. The s is struck out ; she doesn't appears as 
she don% p. 322. Among the new Substantives are side 
box, tucker, blunder-head (dunderhead), a Godspeed, ground 
floor, whitewash, highwayman. We read of a qualm of con- 
science, p. 307 ; the old qv^alm had hitherto implied only 
physical pain. In p. 317 stands "she thinks you hand- 
some;" the answer is, "that's thinking half seas over; one tide 
more brings us into port;" in other words, the journey is 

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half done ; Farquhar, about ten years later, uses the term in 
our later sense, implying the drunkard's goal, p. 661. 
The epithet draggletailed is applied to a girl, p. 320 ; here 
the r is inserted into Harvey's daggleiaU, A house is said 
to be too hot to hold me, p. 325. There is a good illustration 
of thou and you in p. 314; the younger brother uses the 
courteous you, while he has any hope of getting money out of 
my Lord ; all hope vanishes, and he forthwith breaks out 
into the scornful thou. There is the idiom a thousand of her, 
p. 328 (such as she is) ; here some word like copies must be 
dropped. There is our familiar cry of approbation, this is 
something like a wedding, p. 333. As to the new Verbs 
formed from nouns, coins may be milled, p. 326 ; women 
are seamed with small pox, p. 330. There are the phrases 
put a stop to, though I say it that should not say it, drain 
your invention dry, to last thy time. In p. 20 a \ivmg falls; 
we should add in after the verb. The verb go stands for 
are; as chaplains now go, p. 327. A country squire uses 
the third person for the first no less than six times in one 
sentence ; what does I? I comes up, etc. There is the Adverb 
swimmingly, formed from the Participle. We find a great 
change in p. 314; in anyway is supplanted by any haw 
(how) ; suggested, I suppose, by in any way how so ever. 
As to Prepositions, we see after all, where the after means 
in spite of ; in p. 329 stands a good woman in the bottom; 
we here substitute at for m. There is the Interjection by 
the mass / put into a country squire's mouth. A nurse 
cries. Ah, goodness ! the full form of this is in Congreve. 
In p. 304 stands good hye f ye; here the ye in truth comes 
twice over. There is the Celtic darn, the Scandinavian 
skewer, and the Dutch verb shamble (schampelen, to stumble). 
Among the Eomance words are thorough-paced, peeress, to 
scamper, stroller. There are the French de haut en bas, 
degag4, and the old wish bon voyage. We hear of the side 
face (profile) and full face, p. 306. A man proposes to 
make love in a cavalier manner ; we see by the context that 
this means off-hand, so as to create surprise, p. 310. There 
is the curious compound mad-doctor, p. 334, where the first 
word means insanorvm, not insanus. In p. 332 a madam 

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stands for a lawful wife ; earlier in the Century it had re- 
presented something very different. The sense of discurrere 
is very plain in a regiment scours (fugit), p. 323. We see 
incognito and the posse (comitatus) ; also syringe. There 
are the proverbs stolen pleasures are sweet, p. 320, virtiie is 
its ovm reward, p. 328, kissing goes hy favour, p. 328. 

The Provoked Wife. 

There are here several contractions; whimsy, rake-hell, 
and plenipotentiary become whim, rake, and plenipo. Among 
the new Substantives is water-wagtail ; also a moot point, 
from motian (disputare). A servant is ordered to take 
away the things (dishes, etc.), p. 344. Friends are hand 
and glove, p. 342. We have the new Adjective whimsical ; 
debtors are shy of their creditors, p. 348 ; here a preposi- 
tion follows the adjective. Among the Verbs are come out 
with a thing, make a blunder, pig together. The Past Parti- 
ciple is made a Superlative, as the damnedest companion, p. 
343. The Infinitive is dropped ; a man says he wished to 
do something, atid she vmild not let me, p. 342. A fine 
lady asks, was you in love? p. 346; the was had been 
sanctioned by the great Bentley. In p. 338 stands she 
takes for granted that ; here a thing is dropped before the 
Participle. A man wants to he caned, p. 343, that is, "re- 
quires the cane." Another is roaring drunk, p. 349 ; this 
phrase preserves to our day the old Participle applied to 
noisy roysterers since the days of James I. There is the 
cumbrous higher than any woman, let f other he who she will, 
p. 340, The verb tUter appears here, and seems to be 
connected with the old te^hee, which still flourished. A 
man is well huUt, p. 359 ; a new sense of the verb. The 
use of the /ar is extended ; provoke me far, p. 337. There 
is a curious instance of the double form in p. 343 ; hring 
you quite off of her. Fulke*s peculiar use of to is repeated; 
virtuous to a fault, p. 341 ; Shakespere had used a phrase 
slightly diflfering from this. Among the new Romance 
words are raree show, stays (of a lady). There is the 
French impromptu. The weaker vessels are spoken of as 

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138 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

ilie sex, p. 344, as if the masculine gender was nothing. 
The noun lozenge^ no longer heraldic, now means a small 
cake. We hear of a frisk, a word afterwards used by Dr. 
Johnson when knocked up by his two young friends. 
There are the phrases an age since, I am positive. There is 
the old Comparative adverb /airZier, p. 346. 

We see the German ja pronounced in English as yaw, 
p. 392. A rustic pronounces /ai^^ Sisfeath, p. 373; some- 
thing like fey-ath, I suspect. The Abigail's mem here 
appears as mam^, p. 386 ; our ma'am. There are the new 
Substantives wristband, humpback, bob-wig, dead weight The 
word hunter is used of a horse, not of a man, p. 380. We 
hear of an ill run at dice, p. 381. There is the new Adjec- 
tive foppish, applied to dress ; a girl may be forward ; a 
man is free to own, etc. ; a favourite Parliamentary phrase 
in later times. There is the curious phrase much fewer 
lovers, p. 383. Among the Verbs are give yourself airs, let 
into the secret, draw up addresses, tip the wink, have the whip- 
hand of you, tease me to death ; here the Verb takes a milder 
sense than before. In p. 375 bleed is used for to pay money. 
The question is asked in p. 387, why so cold? here the verb 
is dropped. In p. 376 sidle is an adverb ; to go sidle, the 
old sidling. There is the Interjection blood and oons, used 
by a sporting knight. The Romance words are a feint, 
guarantee, airs and graces. There is the phrase bar that 
(except that), p. 373 ; the Imperative, in this sense, 
is new. We see, by a verse in p. 378, that the accent 
was now thrown on the last syllable of the substantive 
gallant Eent may be screwed up, p. 380 ; a girl may be 
provoking, p. 386. We hear of a vast honour, p. 385 ; 
vastly was to be the favourite adverb in the next Century. 
In p. 385 we read of the best match that offered (presented 
itself). In p. 383 a man is reduced within ambsace of hang- 
ing ; this old phrase was at this very time cut down to ace by 
other writers. Guns are now in use for sporting, and Arch- 
bishop Abbot's crossbow seems now to have become obsolete. 

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The False Friend. 

The a is used in p. 403 to express hesitation in the 
middle of a sentence ; that — a — folks are mortal. The s is 
struck out; it was not becomes it wan't, p. 410; here we 
now insert an r. There are the new Substantives backside 
(pars posterior), backwardness. The substantive stretch is 
found in p. 406 ; certain faculties are on the stretch, a meta- 
phor taken from the rack, as the context shows. A man 
says to his friend, who is betrothed, " we are going to be 
married then 1 " physicians are fond of this we, identifying 
themselves with their patients. The this is made the last 
word in the sentence, while is does not appear ; a humdrum 
marriage this / p. 400. Among the Verbs are have it upon 
the very tip of my tongue ; and the Shakesperian to mind me of 
my duty, p. 402 ; remind was to come much later in the 
Century. A man shines (is brilliant), p. 397. The Parti- 
ciple is again used as an Adjective ; this seeming neglect, p. 
401. A person objects to something proposed ; Fd as soon 
undertake tQ, etc., p. 401 ; a new phrase. The if ... not is 
employed to mark surprise ; if he is not equipped far a house- 
breaker / p. 404. The upon keeps its hostile sense ; have 
designs upon him, p. 399. Among the Eomance words are 
triste, cong4, papa, decamp. We see fermeU used in p. 407, 
showing how late is our form firmness, which was yet to 
come. A play is called &, piece, p. 394. A man, as well as 
a paper, may be copied, p. 396. A person takes his party 
(resolution), p. 398 ; a very French idiom. One man in- 
dulges something to another man, p. 402, an idiom that 
Gibbon loved. When ladies, formerly dear friends, quarrel, 
the formal Madam is resorted to, if they address each 
other, p. 399. The word perfect is employed in a new 
sense ; a perfect stranger, p. 401. There is the phrase make 
allowances, p. 410 ; hitherto the Singular would have been 
here used. There is the Italian in fresco (in the open air), 
p. 404; the in is now al. We see the old form The 
Groyne (Corunna). The word quaint is still used for elegant, 
p. 398. 

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140 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

The Confederacy. 

The a/m supplants a in law you mw / p. 419. The y is 
added, as deary , p. 438. There are the new Substantives 
kettledrum^ bookkeeper, Jack-a-dandy. We have the adjective 
gim (elegans), p. 418; this was much used all through 
the Eighteenth Century. There is the phrase sick as a 
dog. An adjective is used as a substantive; a woman 
is hailed as Mistress Useful, p. 430. The old war ex- 
presses the Latin cave; war horse/ p. 435. There is 
our common one, two, three, and away/ p. 435. Among 
the Verbs are thank you kindly, tired off my legs, raise 
money, stand upon the defensive. The old alack leads to the 
new Interjection good lack/ p. 412. From the Dutch 
come growl and the call ahey f (ahoy), p. 424, showing that 
oy still kept the sound of French ^. Among the Eomance 
words are set of false teeth, turn about upon his heel, in the 
fund (at bottom), pin money, despotic, touched (in his wits). 
The verb fix is used for settle, much as the Americans use it 
now ; fix my affairs, p. 416. A youth is called in p. 438 
an all to-he-powdered rascal; a very late instance of this 
perverted idiom of the old to (dis). In p. 425 we learn 
that patience is a virtue. 

The Mistake. 

The noun trollop appears, addressed to a woman, p. 443. 
The window of a carriage is called the glass, and may be 
drawn up, p. 458. A reception may be cool, p. 442 ; in p. 
448 we light upon sharp's the word (watchword), like the 
former snug's the word. Among the Verbs are talk him into 
if, glaring colours. We see the Imperative walk off, p. 453 ; 
in former times this had been simply walk / There is belle 
as well as beau; also escort. The old form of 1550, potgun, 
still survives, p. 451. 

Farquhar's plays range from 1698 to 1707 (Leigh 
Hunt's ^ Old Dramatists '). I begin with 

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Love and a Bottle. 

The a is added ; dad becomes dadda. The English ou 
may fetill be sounded in the French way, for house rimes 
to sous (the copper), p. 512 ; Lord Foppington would have 
pronounced hmse very differently. We hear that the beaux 
sounded the oath zoons as ssauns^ p. 492. The Exchange 
is cut down to Change, p. 504. Farquhar, an Irishman, 
lops the th from Jvdith, 496. Among the new Substan- 
tives are biUl dog, top knot, vMl i tK wisp, plaything, cock 
sparrow, hoarding school. We hear of a young shaver, p. 
496 ; a book is bound in calves^ leather; steps are con- 
nected with dancing, p. 493. The word trip has the sense 
of excursion, p. 512 ; this we saw in the 'York Mysteries' 
of 1360. Men take sntish (snuff), p. 492, whence the 
Scottish sneeshing. The word breath is used in a new 
sense; fifteen lies told in a breath, p. 497. Among the 
Verbs are hamstring and dap (in the sense of plaudere). 
There are the phrases wet a commission, scrape acquaintance, 
I thank my stars, my own bom brother, put to the test, a 
watch runs down. In p. 487 the walks fill; this sense 
evidently came from are in filling. A man shams the beau, 
p. 502; this is an advance upon shamming finery. The 
verb get stands for fi^i; get drunk, p. 501. In p. 504 / 
should guess appears for / guess; hence our common / 
should say. A secret is to be dusted (thrashed) out of the 
bearer^ s jacket, p. 509 ; hence Macaulay threatened to dust 
the varlet's (Croker's) jacket. In p. 512 certain performers 
draw money (from the public) ; here we now drop the noun. 
Among the Prepositions we remark {was not fair of her 
to, etc., / am in for 7, p. 497, he answered the description 
to a T,^. 505. The cry bless me/ is used after a sneeze, 
but is pronounced rustical, p. 492. We see the verb 
cruise, derived from the Latin through the Dutch, reviving 
the sound of our disused croice (crux). Among the 
Eomance words are toper, costive, miscellany, empory (em- 
porium), counter (of shop). There are the phrases palm 
letters on you, fortune hunting, command money, stamd sentry. 

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fire-arms. We see the noun miss prefixed to a surname, as 
Miss Cross, p. 512 ; it may still be used in its bad sense, 
as opposed to wife, p. 490. The Plural circumstances 
stands for "condition of life;" suit ill with your circurrir 
stances, p. 491. We hear of the errata in a book, p. 499 ; 
also of the game of cross purposes, p. 501. A parson 
preaches methodical nonsense, p. 503 ; this seems a fore- 
taste of the name to be given to Wesley's followers thirty 
years later. A man comes critically (at a critical moment), 
p. 504. Farquhar makes his Irish countrymen use the 
endearing Vocative, dear joy/ p. 510; Berwick's dear joys 
(the Irish soldiery) were pronounced to be no match for 
the Brandenburgh and Swedish boys in 1688, as the 
ballad of that year, quoted by Macaulay, informs us. 
Chaucer's tehee still keeps its ground, p. 487, though hee 
hee was also known at this time. There is the proverb 
like master, like man, p. 490. 

The Constant Couple. 

Our author makes wmid a dissyllable in p. 539; this 
Scotch pronunciation must have been widely spread in his 
native Ulster. There are the new Substantives tide-waiter, 
shoulder -kn^t, nightfall, boorishness; men are sentenced at 
the Old Bailey, p. 535. Among the Adjectives we see 
short of money, he free with her, p. 534; here we turn 
the he into make; the adjective seems here to combine 
two of its oldest meanings, lil)er and potens. We hear of 
" the pride of beautiful eighteen " (of a girl of that age), 
p. 534 ; this is a new use of Numerals. Among the new 
Verbs are sour and rake (play the debauchee) ; also the 
phrases make a part (create it on the stage), p. 513, kill 
him dead. An officer is hroke (disbanded), p. 515; a cup 
is broken, where the Participle is not maimed. A testator 
talks of leaving a kinsman to the fee simple of a rope and 
a shilling, p. 532 ; hence our cut off with a shilling. The 
military commands, to the right ahout, as you were, march t 
are in p. 519. There is the chorus tall al de rail, p. 535, 
so well known to us. We find the Scandinavian douse 

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(ictus), p. 525. The Romance words are airy^ coUegiany 
uncase. Men decline patronising wit, p. 513; here decline 
imitates forbear and governs a Participle. The very 
French idiom to place money (invest it) appears in p. 517, 
The verb post gets a new meaning ; a father posts his son 
away to travel, p. 538 ; hitherto this had been applied to 

Sir Harry Wildair. 

There is the great contraction / anH for / am not, p. 
554. The noun fuss, formed from the old adjective, 
appears in p. 549. The new form Oxonian is seen in p. 
547. We find close-bodied, frumpish (morosus). There is 
the curious phrase run for it, p. 554 ; where it, I suppose, 
stands for life. Among the Verbs we find to head armies, 
get that in her head, make the best of a bad bargain, go snacks, 
something to show for it. There is the new Verb paw 
(handle). The expletive d! ye see is coming in. The old 
anon, Sir makes way for the new cry of the waiter, coming, 
coming, Sir! p. 546. There are the Interjections whiz/ 
stuff/ fiddle-sticks / p. 564. There are the Dutch words 
elope (ontloopen) and avast (hovd vast, hold fast); another 
sea word. Among the Eomance words are colic, pot com- 
pa/nion, refugee (ee seems to have been still sounded in the 
French way), salver, fwi'below, contour, family dinner, bank 
bill, dupe, saucebox (said to a girl). The word lecture stands 
for scolding, p. 545 ; love may be dressed up by poets, p. 
551. We had long had persons of guality ; the latter 
word is now used much like an adjective ; a gualUy air, p. 

545. A woman may be out of order (in poor health), p. 

546. There is the phrase as sure as fate, p. 558. The 
noun coquette had lately come into such frequent use, that 
it was made a verb ; to coquette it, p. 549. There is the 
gambling term sept le va, known to readers of Pope. So 
much the fashion was kissing now among Englishmen, that 
it was performed when one man was first introduced to 
another ; see p. 550 ; the custom was to last seventy years 

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144 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

The Inconstant. 

The y is struck put, as look 'ee for look yg, p. 581. Among 
the new Substantives we remark snapdragon (applied to a 
woman, p. 583), the make of an article; women have a 
devilish cast with their eyes, p. 565. Our Irish author talks 
of a hull (error), p. 566 ; this word had appeared in 1290. 
The word puss stands for hare. A woman is bidden to cry 
like a queen in a tragedy, p. 576 ; a well-known phrase of 
ours. There is the Adjective broad-bottomed, applied to a 
Dutch ship. The noun frolic now gives birth to frolicsome. 
The word da/tling is made an adjective ; their darling amuse- 
ment, p. 561. There is the new Verb to bully him, p. 572 ; 
money burns in my pocket. An adjective is turned into a 
verb; to muddy the water, p. 564. The verb is suppressed 
in all hands to work, p. 574. There is the phrase to be sure, 
put for assuredly, p. 582. A man, meaning to insult a lady, 
says he will take her off, p. 676; we should substitute down for 
the last word ; Foote was to use take off to express insulting 
mimicry. A person finds time heavy on his hands, p. 582. 
There are the Interjections um and boh / the latter being 
used as an insult, p. 572 ; bo had appeared in 1400. There 
is the Scandinavian verb to balderdash (dash wine with 
viler ingredients), p. 562 ; whence we have formed a noun. 
Among the Eomance words are unavoidable, stage coach, to 
pounce, identical, a finished gentleman. We read of the 
founder (of a feast), p. 562. One of the characters in the 
play bears the name of Bisarre (the future bizarre). A lady 
is addressed as my fair Innocence, p. 578 ; hence came Miss 
Innocence, etc. A man promises himself something, p. 579 ; 
a new phrase. We see my people, like the French gens, 
employed for my servants, p. 579. A lion has his jackal, p. 
574 ; this is the Persian shaghal. We see the Shakesperian 
do me right still used in pledging a health, p. 569. There 
is the proverb dead men tell no tales, p. 582. 

Twin Eivals. 

Among the new Substantives are brogue (dialect), wax- 
work, jack boot. We hear of the run of a play ; it was none 

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of my business (duty), p. 589. As to the Verbs, there is to 
drop a friend, to hand a lady, to come to (into) his estate. We 
see the phrase to some purpose (effectually), p. 587. There 
is the German hock (wine). Some Irish words are put into 
Teague's mouth, such as arrah and agra; his / expresses 
the English hw, as fat for what, p. 597 ; so Scott makes a 
Celt say ft^le for whistle. The old and true sound of a was 
kept in Ireland, though now lost in England ; we see rumm 
and tauk for name and take ; the an still expressed French 
L Among the Eomance words are heef steak, disprove, over 
caution, ask cross questions, spunging house. We hear of hot 
spirits for drinking purposes, p. 592, of a manteau maker, 
p. 602 ; the foreign word was confused much about this 
time with Mantua. 

Eecruiting Officer. 

Here the Salopian dialect appears, using u for i, as / 
1 ; inserting u, as Ruose for rose ; replacing / by v, as 
vether (pater). Sarah becomes Sally, p. 631, showing a 
well-known change. Among the new Substantives is 
deaver. A woman not far from her time is said to be in 
the straw, p. 614. An heiress is called a twenty thousand 
pounder, p. 623 ; here the old er is used to make fresh com- 
pounds. We hear of the chops of the Channel, p. 632. 
One officer addresses another as my dear hoy, p. 625. The 
word coxcomb has not here taken a new shade of meaning 
like fop ; the former is used of a thoughtful, constant man 
who is rather dull, p. 614, There is the new Adjective 
rakish, supplanting rake-helly ; the latter word is used in 
Farquhar's earlier plays. A youngster is called a bloody 
impudent fellow, p. 627 ; the first instance, I think, of this 
unpleasant prefix of which Swift was fond. We hear of a 
sum in hard money; our hard cash, p. 630. Congreve's un- 
bred is turned into underbred, p. 639. Among the Verbs 
are to shoot flying, meet us half way (morally), stake a horse 
(physically), make a bow, beat up for a corps. A comparison 
breaks, p. 617 ; we add down. There is the cry done / used 
in making an agreement, p. 619. We see the Interjection 


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146 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

rat me I p. 632, which must be a form of rot me ! Among 
the Eomance words are chevaux de frise, platoon, barrack 
mastery harridan, brevet, drum major, field officer, staff officer, 
market woman. In p. 612 we hear of the service (the army). 
There is the odd corruption sash (window), from the French 
chasse, Latin capsa, p. 618; in p. 632 stands sash (girdle), 
from the Persian shast. We read of articles of war, case of 
pistols, random shot, battle royal, the mail (of letters). In p. 
625 a lady is compared to a ship, and is called ajfurst rate; 
we now use this term as if it were an adjective. A person 
is said to be so pressing, p. 619. The verb compose is con- 
nected with music, p. 640, where a march is called a com- 
posure (composition). The Hungarian word hussar (twentieth 
man) appears in p. 622. Serjeant Kite talks of a rum 
duke, p. 619 ; this gipsy word comes from Rom-many, The 
old woxdiposy still stands for an inscription, p. 619. The 
he is used in the old Shakesperian way; the best Ae (man), 
p. 613. In p. 623, when something is discovered, it is 
said that now the murder's out. 

Beaux' Stratagem. 

We see the y added to a word ; in Udall's ever now and 
then the first word is altered into eoery, p. 642. The new 
Substantives are twang, the gripes, bogtrotter, tumbler (glass 
without a foot). A country squire plays whisk, p. 642, 
which afterwards became whist. An artist is called a 
famous hand, p. 658 ; hence our " a great hand at a game." 
In p. 567 r*i5> stands for conjux. There is the phrase too 
much a gentleman to, etc., p. 658 ; this would earlier have 
been too genteel to. As to Verbs, Palsgrave had used / 
dysyn a dystaffe (put the flax on it) ; this led the way to 
bedizzen him with lace, p. 649. We see smother unth onions, 
tip him with half a crown, a singing in your head, look hard 
at. As to Prepositions, we have he is sent for a soldier, 
spunge upon him; there is the Irish idiom, put into the 
priest's mouth; do you be after putting him, etc., p. 658. 
Among the Eomance words are sportsman^, marching regiment, 
corps (regiment), rolling pin (in the kitchen), easy chair, 

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soldieir of fortune^ purse-provd. We see on the tapis. In p. 
646 a man's head aches consumedly, a curious instance of 
forming an adverb from a Passive Participle. The verb 
engage takes the new sense of pugnare, p. 664. We see 
hoheay p. 660. 

There are a few extracts from Farquhar's * Letters,' p. 
lix. Here is found tongue (of a neat); the Phiral adjectives 
heroics and intimates are made substantives. 

Cibber brought out the * Careless Husband' in 1704. 
Words are much cut down, as Lud/ (Lord), hackney coach 
becomes simply hack There are the new Substantives 
coolness, coldness ; churchman stands for a constant worship- 
per at church. The old maw (stomach) is revived, and 
expresses appetite. The confusion between the Verbal 
Noun and the Participle is most plain in the phrase, " how 
shall I reconcile your temper with having made so strange 
a choice;" here having, if coupled with the with, is a 
Verbal Noun; if coupled with made, is a Participle; this 
idiom was now coming in. There is the Adjective hearty, 
used of a meal Two people are great ; we should here 
substitute thick. The ful is used to compound new Adjec- 
tives, as fandfvl. Among the Verbs are toss (throw) in 
some makeweight, not care three pinches of snuff, jilt him, 
stand her fire, start fair, split our sides, give her eyes to do it, 
stop at nothing to, etc., come up to (rival). The verb call 
stands for pay a visit. There is the curious get rid of, 
where the get stands for fieri; a sense now coming in. 
There is the new verb ividen, in imitation of which broaden 
has since been formed. There is take time by the forelock, 
slightly altered from the last form of the phrase. Among 
the Prepositions may be remarked upon the wing, to a nicety, 
out of patience. There is the Interjection tayo I our tally 
ho I Among the Komance words are partie quarrie (sic), 
nonchalance, chaise (currus), tea table, overacted, prude, chmry 
cheek, scene (in private life). A woman may cry her eyes 
ovi, or cry herself sick, and may use a man like a dog. There 
is the new zest, a French word which comes from the same 
Greek verb as schism. People grow particular (in their 

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148 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

attentions). A lady's reputation is said to be the common 
toast of every public table. A man is absent (in mind). 
There is 'pool^ a receptacle for the stakes ; the eggs laid b}'^ 
the 'pcmle, 

Mrs. Centlivre's play, *The Busy Body/ dates from 
1708. Here giuirdian is shortened into gardy, balcony re- 
places balcone ; a man, enraged with a girl, addresses her 
both as housemfe and hussy. The new Substantives are 
neckcloth, woman-hater, marplot; the old rout stands for 
strepUus, as in Tarlton ; here^s a rout ! our row. We hear 
of a Irowti musket early in the play; hence must have 
come Brovm Bess ; something is ill-timed, I lose much of 
my Spanish; that is, of an accomplishment I have made my 
own. There is the vulgarism all them creatures, here a 
Nominative. We see only stand for nil nisi ; it was only 
the old strain; here hut had been used of old. Among 
the Verbs are stitch a gown, give her his honour (promise), 
edge himself into, make mincemeat of him, take a song lower, 
A gate opens into the Park, a new phrase. Something 
will fetch men ; this stands for allicere. There is the new 
colloquial do ye know that, etc. The do had long stood 
before the Imperative ; we now see do hut mark. There 
is the new why, there fis now ; our that's just it, A man 
lists for a soldier, a S3monym for as, A Conjunction is 
made a verb; hut me no huts. There is the contracted 
oath s' death ! Among the Komance words are Court lady, 
peephole, miniature, inquietude. Impostors are exposed, a 
new sense of the verb ; a piece of service may be signal ; 
friends compare notes. In the Epilogue a well-known parson 
is called a Don; the use of the word survives at the 

About this time, ships come alongside; this adverb 
was ninety years later to be made a Preposition. We see 
ailment, the address of a letter, anythingarian, auctioneer, 
hasin (dock), bamboozle, which is also cut down to ham, 
following the fashion of these times ; attachment now takes 
the new sense of fidelity. See Dr. Murray's Dictionary 
for these phrases, which are new. 

Swift began his authorship with the *Tale of a Tub,' 

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which he completed by 1699. Here we see 5 prefixed to 
an older word ; Udairs 'plask become^ splash. There are 
the Substantives shoplifter, and trimmings (of a coat). There 
is the Adjective hook-learned ; something is said to be sheer 
wit, the adjective imitating the secondary sense of pure. 
There is the Participle taken short Among the Romance 
words are surtov^ (a garment), prizefighting, to dragoon, a 
verb we owe to Louis XIV., people are high in the fashion; 
here the article is new. 

In the ' Battle of the Books,' which dates from this time, 
the former riveret becomes rivulet ; the word turnpike still 
keeps its oldest meaning of " outwork to a Castle,'' but it 
had been elsewhere connected with roads. 

Swift wrote 'Mrs. Harris' Petition' in 1700; here the 
cloth stands for clericL The verb feel takes a new meaning, 
something like videri ; my pocket feels light. There is the 
phrase hate like the devil; and the common says Gary, 
says he. 

Swift's memorable practical joke upon Partridge the 
Astrologer in 1708 may be seen in Arber's * English 
Garner,' vi. 469. Here we find the word undertaker, con- 
nected with funerals, p. 490 ; there is the adjective showish, 
the later showy. Among the Verbs are brick a grave, make 
the best of your speed (way) ; a name sells an almanack 
(causes it to be sold). There are the Eomance words, the 
news paper, post office, philologer. 

In the same Volume may be seen Gay's * Present State 
of Wit,' dating from 1711. Here is the noun tell-tale, p. 
t') 10. A book may be skimmed ; something carries sail ; we 
hear of a French novel, and of men of letters, Boswell's literati. 
In p. 506 an author has provoked all his brothers round; 
here we should now transpose a little. 

Swift's * Journal to Stella' ranges between 1710 and 
1713. There is the contr&ctioiL poz for positive. Among 
the new Substantives are chop house, Christmas box, toyman, 
a go 'between, the whip hand of nie, a misunderstanding, pot 
hook (in writing), smft (passer), understrapper, speechmuker, 
finery, patchwork, saltwork, frame (of picture), cast (in eye). 
The word whelp is used of a man ; puppy had already been 

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I50 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

used in the same way. The word s/ep expresses consilium; 
make (take) wrong steps. The word hrealc is employed in a 
new sense ; a break in my journal. There is the new draw- 
hack, which is here said to belong to the jargon of the 
custom-house. We hear of a course of steel (medicine). 
Swift talks of a picture three quarter's length. The word 
thumper stands for mendacium. A man has not the 
soul of a chicken; hence an adjective was to be formed. 
The strange Plural be in hopes is used for sperare. Some- 
thing is nuts to a man ; that is, delightful. A book has a 
run, like the old course ; there is also a run of ill weather. 
A certain medical man is called a midwife, showing how 
modern was the transfer from women of this office. We 
see the new form seamstress ; this is Bishop Hall's sempster, 
the earlier sewstare. Swift says that his heart was in his 
mouth for fear. 

Among the Adjectives is uppish, a new word objected 
to by Swift ; there had once been an Old English word 
upahefednes (superbia). The old sick gave birth to more 
than one daughter adjective ; we have seen sickly; we now 
find sickish. The weather is said to be slobbery, our sloppy. 
There is the new phrase a black eye, the result of a blow. 
Men make remarks dryly ; here the dry implies a shade of 
mockery, something like UdalFs use of the word; the 
adverb was long spelt drily, though its parent was spelt 
dry, A paper of Steele's is called dry, implying that the 
reader finds it weary work. We see an open winter, fine 
doings, fine weather, a fine day, town is thin. Swift wishes 
his friends a merry new year; we alter this into happy. 
The word sad is much used ; a man is a sad dog ; some 
grapes are sad things. Swift is fond of setting bloody before 
another adjective, as bloody cold; in this he has many 
followers in our day. An adjective is made a substantive; 
as my gray (horse). Something is said to be like your 
politeness ; we usually prefix this like to impudence. The 
old great is used in Congreve's sense; Prince Eugene spoke 
something very greatly (nobly). The Lord Treasurer has 
a great day in the week (when he receives visitoi^). The 
adjective seems to stand for an adverb in I cannot say so 

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V. ] THE NE W ENGLISH. 1 5 1 

had of him as lie deserves. The Participle is treated as an 
adjective ; as a leading ca/rd. 

As to Pronouns, the it is once more used indefinitely ; 
as count upon it, that, etc. A storm spends itself. A man 
may have his reasons for doing a thing. A person is shown 
at Court who was who; quilk es quUk had come in 1290. 
The phrase he the fkst to go is altered into go off the first man. 
Swift says that he is three pa/rts asleep, a new phrase. We 
see thing stand for truth in the phrase there is nothing in if 
(the report). There is a new kind of comparison, " to be 
tucked up like any thing," "We see a new idiom in " so 
saucy, so pretending, so every thing," 

Among the Verbs are not care twopence, a horse runs (at 
grass), a pamphlet runs, drink like a fish (said of Bolingbroke), 
have other fish to fry, hring himself down (in fatness), cook a 
hook, strike up a friendship, draw upon a man for money, hurn- 
ing weather, stand fair to, get the laugh on my side, give her 
joy of it, put him out of pain, this is the devil and all to pay, 
cool his heels, leave no stone unturned, settle money on, write 
small, talk politics, go into mourning, spread lies, he is heart- 
hroke, I mil do it as soon as fly, toil (work) like a horse, think 
fit to. An officer must sell ; here commission is dropped. 
We have seen trapes (fsemina) in Butler ; Swift now uses 
the Participle traipsing. People think of going to Ireland ; 
here the first verb almost gets the new sense of statuere, A 
person is much marked ; there is no need here to name the 
fearful smallpox. A Participle is prefixed to an Adjective, 
as stewing hot. The Accusative follows come ; we came it (a 
number of miles). Swift leaves Chelsea for good, and calls 
this " a genteel phrase." The explanation you must know 
is put into the middle of a sentence. There is the new 
confusing idiom, dating after 1 700, " he owned his having 
heen in France." We have seen " rout up the country ; " 
Swift routs among papers. A verb is repeated to strengthen 
the idea conveyed; / donH care, I don't. He turns an 
Adjective into a verb ; Fll uppish you, for he disliked this 
new phrase. The future uMl is dropped in "Duke of 
Ormond speak 1 no ! " here a previous question is referred 
to. There is the new Verb embitter ; and new verbs are 

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in some instances formed from nouns; thus a picture is 
hoxed up; a libel is handed about; a man is cramjped in 
money matters. 

As to Prepositions, men are at cuffs ; the Minister is 
not at home, which Swift knew to be a lie. A motion is 
carried in the House almost two to one. There are the 
phrases brute of a brother, devil of a man. 

As to Adverbs, men are down in a fever; here, I 
suppose, the Participle cast is dropped. The nor is used 
for than ; " you are more used to it nor I," a sentence at 
which Swift laughs. 

Our Interjection lackadaisy is here foreshadowed in up 
adazy / hey dazy I The word deuce is much developed; 
where the deuce, etc., deface a hit, the deface he is/ 

There is the Dutch skate ; the Scandinavian sputter and 
bout (tempus). 

Among the Komance words are gasconade, tinsel, postage, 
simpleton, interpose, a dependant, to frank (letters), collar 
bone, port (wine), publisher, oculist, good offices, pease soup, 
doily, embroU, empower, presence of mind, pocket book, prime 
minister, half broiled (in the sun), magnifying glass, stuffing 
of meat, mettlesome, officiate, japanned, roll (panis), pay a 
visit, an undress, overprint. A man is worth a plum, a new 
sense of the word. Swift observes a fact to Harley ; that 
is, mentions something he has remarked ; henceforth observe 
was to bear the sense of dicere as well as videre. A man 
may have a fund of wit ; this differs from Petty's use of the 
word. Swift talks of his gallantry, meaning only comitas. 
The word farce now bears the sense of sham or unreality, 
A lady cants when parading her sorrow for her dead sister. 
The word tolerably stands for modicb ; tolerably wet. The 
word sensibly may express perceptibly. The verb reflect on 
bears the sense of attack. The word blackguard is taken 
from the kitchen, and is used laughingly for nebulo ; go 
to cards mth the blackguards, A state paper is called a 
pepperer. We hear of the penny post ; a woman is called 
Mrs, Boldface; people are exacting; one of the oddest 
freaks of fashion in our days is to turn this word into 
French ; a lady has an assembUe, The word chariot now 

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comes into common use. A man is denied to a visitor. 
The notice, that carriage has been paid, is inscribed on a 
package. Men make parties about dining together; our 
party was soon to have a wider sense. There is the new 
fireplace ; stead had earlier come into this word. The Im- 
perative stands for the Future negative in catch me at that I 
Swift uses dofuht in the old way for timer e ; I doubt he will 
not succeed. The possible is used after a Superlative ; the 
strongest hand possible, Chaucer had had something like this. 
There are the phrases poor as rats, natural as mother's milk. 
Swift is fond of using terrible as an adverb ; terrible rainy , 
terrible sleepy^ as we employ awful. We hear of green tea, 
Sydft's grandmother had a proverb — 

" More of your lining, 
And less of your dining." 

This he applies to Harley, who for years treated him to 
many meals, but to no Church preferment. 

From 1712 dates Swift's * Proposal' for improving the 
English Tongue, and some of his best poems were written 
about the same time ; also his * Essay on Conversation.' 
He strongly objects to dropping the e in the Past Participle, 
as rebu¥d, fledg'd. He condemns "the foolish opinion, 
advanced of late years, that we ought to spell exactly as we 
speak." In London alone words were clipped in one way 
at Court, in another way in the City, in a third way in 
the suburbs. A committee of those best qualified should 
be formed, to cast out absurd words and to revive certain 
fine old words that were obsolete. Swift pays a just tribute 
to the Bible and Prayer Book, which had kept our language 
fairly steady. He has the wild thought of fixing it for 
ever. It was Harley's duty to give order for inspecting 
and improving the English tongue. 

Swift makes strown rime with bone; it had hitherto 
borne the sound of French ou. The verb conjure (magically) 
has the accent thrown on the first syllable ; we throw this 
on the last syllable, when the verb stands for adjure; 
a curious and unusual way of marking a difference in 
meaning. There are the Substantives freethinker^ flounce 

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154 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

(in a dress); fellow is in constant use for homo. Something 
is taken in its proper light, A lady is said to be thirty, 
and, a bit to spare (something more). The old Nan gives 
birth to Nancy, The adjective smart now expresses acer, 
being applied to repartee. Something is placed in the 
strongest view (light). When a man marries a certain lady, 
he might have fancied (chosen) worse. Among the Verbs 
are take (ferre) a jest ; conversation runs low ; something 
is laughed out of doors. The hands may be fouled; this 
recalls the old form defoul, A man will have his joke. 
Something is nothing near so good as another article ; near 
had long expressed ferh. The upon still stands for post ; 
upon second thoughts. Among the Eomance words are 
disconcerted, inclusive, incurious, fustian words, baby face, 
centred. Something is not of any use, A town, when in 
danger, is called devoted. The word catechise is used of a 
man questioned about news. Swift discourses mournfully 
upon the changed meaning of raillery; of old it had meant 
turning a seeming reproach into an unexpected compli- 
ment ; in Swift's day it seems to have expressed nothing 
more than our well-known chaff. 

Pope's earlier poems date from about this time. He 
makes severe rime with prayer in * Eoxana.' He has the 
phrase master hand ; also the French rouleau, 

I give a few words from the *Tatler' (1709) and the 
* Guardian' (1713). There are the ^ubstsiuiiYGs slip-knot, 
roomful, horse laugh, dabbler (in politics) ; we see a top toast 
(lady), like Collier's top lady. The Adjective is repeated, 
which is rather rare in English, though it occurs in the 
Sixteenth Century ; a servant, in admiration, talks with 
emphasis of a fine, fine lady (DecemheT 20, 1709). The 
word smart gets a new meaning, that of finely dressed. We 
read that a storm gathers. Among the Eomance words is 
invalids ; the word plain is connected with a dish. 

Addison speaks of profile, relief (connected with a picture), 
grouppe, commandant, corps, defile, gasconade, maraud, pontoon, 
and reconnoitre, as scarcely recognised as English words. 
According to him, Milton's cornice, culminate, equator, and 
zenithweve terms above the comprehension of the common folk. 

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Arbuthnot's famous story of ' John Bull ' and his 
lawsuit came out in 1712; it maybe found in Arber's 
'English Gamer/ vl 537. The new Substantives are 
hog wash, yellow boy (guinea), dochwork, chuck farthing, all- 
fours (the game), stock jobber^ dray horse, rap over the finger 
ends; a match at cricket is mentioned. John Bull here 
becomes the type of Englishmen. 

Among the Adjectives are clodpated, randy. Money is 
called ready, p. 543 ; here we prefix the. There is 
numskulled in p. 555 ; and we hear of a numbed skull in p. 
614. A man is said to steal like the Devil, p. 634; that 
is, immoderately. 

Among the Verbs are see saw, blight, stunt, muddle (with 
drink); we know the old bimodered of 1280. There are 
the phrases run out in his praise, take a hint, know the world, 
give himself out for, split hairs, run a tick, a running knot, nip 
in the bud, slip it into his hand, bring it to bear, keep head above 
water, stick in the mud, self seeking, take it off my hands, break 
short, Eibbons are crimpt, p. 581 ; we apply the verb to 
cod. The verb cackle now means rider e, p. 608. 

Property is said to have been in your family, p. 646, a 
new sense of the in. There is the Scandinavian verb 

Among the Eomance words are puppet show, nursery 
maid, cookmaid, saucer eyed, pastry cook, Naples biscuit, elbow 
chair, scrubbing brush, scorbutic, sober as a judge, lead pencil, 
hysterical, chime in vnth, an alibi, impale (the torture), bone 
of contention, disinterested, balance (of an account), a deficit, 
parish boy, workpeople, lemonade, a determined air. The verb 
prevent may still express forestall, p. 648. Marlborough 
appears under the name of Hocus (perhaps from hocus 
pocus) ; the name was later to be made a verb. The verb 
cabbage expresses steal, p. 552. A tradesman posts his books, 
in the same page ; hence our phrase well posted up. The 
word rouly pouly, p. 636, is not an eatable, but seems to 
stand for some game. The word nice is now used of dishes 
pleasant to the taste, p. 616. A man talks of my own 
personal, natural, individual self, p. 620. The Frenchman 
touches upon his usage of his neighbours ; he is told not to 

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156 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

dwell upon that chapter, p. 645 ; a new meaning of the 
word ; we were soon to talk of the " chapter of acci- 
dents." There are some French phrases, as yield the pas ; 
feats of skill are performed by artistes, p. 546. The term 
clar obscur is connected with painting, p. 631 ; we now use 
the Italian form. There are the proverbs, one is never too 
old to learn, p. 548, possession is eleven points of the iaw, p. 
643, seeing is believing, p. 646. 

A few letters of the learned men of this time are pre- 
fixed to * Aubrey's Lives,' as published in 1813. We find 
woodcock still employed for stultus, for Whigs ate that bird 
on the anniversary of the death of Charles I. ; see p. 152. 
There is the phrase between whiles, used by Bishop Lloyd, 
p. 208. Men take copies (buy) of the great Hickes' Thes- 
aurus, p. 269. Hearne talks of tolerable (moderate) wealth, 
p. 248. Carte writes about making things palatable, p. 262. 
A member of the Charter House is followed to the grave 
by his confrhes, ii. 22 ; a man values himself on certain 
things, p. 24. 

From about this time date the words man midwife, nozzle, 
the Low German queer. There is Addison's mawkish (apt to 
cause loathing), said to come from mathek, mawk, a maggot. 
We see quidnunc, reservoir; a man may become a butt. There 
is the drink negus, invented by a Colonel of that name. 

Tickell and Steele paid their tribute to the deceased 
Addison in 1721 and 1722 ; their works may be found in 
Arber's * English Garner,' vi. 513-536. There is the 
phrase the foregoing (what had gone before), p. 519 ; throw 
upon paper expresses scribere, p. 535. There are the terms 
turn for business, retouch, unpromising, disingenuxms ; Addison 
resigned jv^hen he left office ; here no Accusative follows. 
He was delicate ; that is, scrupulous ; a new sense of the 
Adjective, p. 518. Steele is angry with Tickell for using 
the word priesthood for " the clerical profession ; " it was 
not thus employed by the real well-wishers to clergymen, 
p. 531. 

Steele brought out the * Conscious Lovers' about 1720. 
Here we see cub applied to a man; the noun spring is 
applied in a new sense, for we read of the spring in a lady's 

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step; the old noun hhom is revived after a long sleep. 
We have the Adjective stiff starched^ meaning much the 
same as our siuck wp. There are the Verbs cut a figure and 
strike out a living ; one of the former senses of strike was to 
coin. At had been prefixed to many Superlatives ; we now 
have at best, where a the is dropped. Among the Eomance 
words are artless; the pleader is opposed to the chamber' 
counsely the former practising in court; the Madam may 
be set before a Christian name, as Maddm FhUlis. There 
is such an old form as good V vf ye. 

Two plays of Vanbrugh's are said to date from 1720 or 
thereabouts (Leigh Hunt's * Old Dramatists '). The country 
servants give us a specimen of the Yorkshire dialect ; brave^ 
master^ rare are sounded Ireave, measter, reare, doubtless like 
the French L The u is inserted ; chirp becomes chirrup^ p. 
475. The new Substantives are toyshop^ mouthful, the tip 
top. There are the phrases brother officer, house of ill repute 
(fame). We had learnt to kill time, as appears by the com- 
pound time-killer, p. 475. The new Adjective upish here 
means " elated with drink," p. 477 ; with us uppish denotes 
nothing worse than elation with conceit. The thou was 
evidently going out of polite society in 1720; it is used 
only once in a long dialogue between two ladies, intimate 
friends, p. 474 ; the aged Ben tley, twenty years later, much 
affected the thou with his familiars; see his *Life,' ii. 401 ; 
Dr. Johnson sometimes used it. One of the ladies last re- 
ferred to regrets having rapped out the oath Gud^s 00ns ; 
this shows an improvement on the morality of 1700. 
Among the Verbs we see laugh it off, do the honours of a 
house, bear you harmless, come full drive, come flap on my face, 
take my chance, put out his arm, where all mention of joint 
is dropped. A man stumps about, p. 469 ; this verb had 
not appeared for almost five Centuries. You may ride the 
free (willing) horse to death, p. 479. There is the verb enliven, 
a most mongrel formation. Among the Romance words 
are broiled bone, high mettled. The old wunder god, wondrous 
good, led the way to a new compound, prodigious good, p. 
473, where the adjective stands for an adverb. There is 
the asseveration depend upon that, p. 474. We find the 

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158 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

phrase jmi cmnpanies, p. 462. We hear of a story without 
a head or taU, p. 481. There are the French words a ci- 
devant lawyer, and the suhstantive rencontre. 

Some of Swift's works date from 1720, as his * Letters 
to a Young Clergyman and to a Young Poet;' there are 
also some of his poems of the time. Here btUk, followed 
by a Genitive, may bear the new sense of major pars. 
Tliere is charwoman, dog's ear in a book ; we hear of an 
every day coat ; Stella is said to be tw chicken (in age). Among 
the Verbs we remark have men in my eye, fall into fits (with 
fright), lay a child to him, keep your seat, a voice quavers, dogs 
are wormed, ladies rattle. As to Prepositions, there are on 
all hands ; faults are nine in ten, owing to affectation ; what 
I would he at, where he stands for aim. Among the Eomance 
words are mince an oath, mangle a play, lamp hlack^ masterly, 
phUo-poet, tabda rasa. We see exactness, which many in our 
day change into exactitude; promptness and quietness have 
undergone the same fate. A man is equal to a charge; 
here the sense of capacity comes into the adjective. 

Swift protests against the use of obscure terms in 
sermons, which the women call hard words, and others call 
fine language. He rejoices that he has lived to see Greek 
and Latin almost entirely driven out of the pulpit. He 
objects to words such as eccentric, idiosyncracy, entity; 
preachers in his day seem to have been fond of the term 
pheruymena (sic). He has the good taste to praise the 
* Pilgrim's Progress.' 

About this time ahsolutely is used to emphasise nothing ; 
we hear of animal spirits ; and Gay gives us the proverb, 
" two of a trade can ne'er agree ;" Pope introduces us to 
the hathos; there are the phrases athletics and upon an 

The * Provoked Husband ' was written by Vanbrugh and 
Gibber before 1730. Among the new Substantives are wet 
nurse, scrape (mishap), a hurry, cudgel play. There are the 
phrases the wrong side the post, her hack is up ; the old trade 
still expresses course of things; "this was the trade from 
morning to night." Among the Adjectives is rantipol, 
formed from rant ; there is our curious phrase, referring to 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


money, a cool hundred ; we read of tip-top spirits ; men are 
merry as giigs, recalling Matthew Merrygreek. As to Pro- 
nouns, there is the corrupt thafs me ; a, man is no more 
(dead) ; nothing in the leasts where degree must he dropped ; 
much of a muchness is put into the Yorkshire servant's 
mouth. Among the Verhs are saddle with mortgages, do 
things handsome, thank you kindly, have an odd look, look you 
there now, pick a hit, make a push, you donH tell me so I Among 
the Prepositions are rwt for ever so much, hy wholesale, within 
call, obliged in honour to, etc. There are the Interjections 
ahem ! my stars I the last is used hy ladies. Among the 
Romance words are unaccountable, corkscrew; also engross the 
talk, turn of mind, lodge a petition, it is tum'd of two (o'clock), 
clear the way. We see vastly pretty ; an adverh that was to 
be worked hard all through this Century. The Devil is 
called the black gentleman. Parliament appears as our legis- 
lature, a curious misuse of a term. A man touches money 
(obtains it), a new sense of the verb. Coverdale had 
written cast up my nose at ; the cast now becomes turn ; a 
tum-vp nose was to come later. The Monument, in London, 
is called by a raw Yorkshire lad, "the huge stone post/* 
here the word still keeps its old sense of columna. There 
is the saw, " accidents will happen to people that travel." 

The * Lives of the Norths ' must have been written about 
1730 or earlier, before the death of Eoger North; I have 
used the edition of 1826. We see such a contraction as 
Bu^ks (the county) ; the aw bears its old sound, for parraw 
is written for the Turkish coin para. The e is sounded in 
the old way, for benes is written as the Scotch word for 
ossa, i 287. The ow seems to be pronounced in the 
modern way, as Gower is written for the Turkish Giaou/r, 
The t is added to the verb jole (knock the head or jole); 
we see out jolt in iii 209. 

Among the Substantives are landowner, heart of oak, dove- 
tail, shyness, shovmuxn, drawings, guesswork, eatables, thrust (of 
an arch), stack (of chimneys). We hear of a painter's first 
scratches (sketches), i. 9 ; he is called a picture-drawer, iii. 
280. Something unpleasant is death to a man, i. 47. Bad 
lodgings are called a hole, i 54. A certain monstrous pro- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

i6o THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

posal is called a swinger, something like our whopper. We 
read of runners (smugglers), ii 111; hence to run goods. 
The phrase head of the family seems to have been peculiar 
to the North, ii 213. The phrase good fellow is still used 
in its old sense for something like a debauchee, ii. 354. 
We read of a string of slaves, ii. 404, a new sense of the 
word. A contrivance for measuring distances, as you 
travel, is called a way-mser, iii. 217 ; here is a survival of 
the old wisian (monstrare). There is the phrase wheels 
within wheels, ii. 65. One more curious instance of the 
confusion between the Verbal Noun and the Participle is 
in iii. 121 ; "he feared the being made infamous." 

Among the Adjectives are gifted, leading question, forward 
scholar, sunk countenance, bad debt, free play. We talk of 
" making a long arm ; " in i. 287 a man makes a long neck, 
stretching forward. In ii. 190 awkward gets the sense of 
malus ; there was awkward morality in Butler. In iii. 
359 the bottle is too many for them ; a curious substitution 
of the Plural for the Singular. 

Among the Verbs are it worked well, set him right, a 
feeling wears off, lead him a life, far gone (in liquor), give 
handles for, etc., bring grist, keep him in order, to bed (to 
embed), lead the van (be prominent), to warm (irasci), wm-m 
himself into favour, take urribrage, what to make of him, blood 
him, take a bad turn, make free with, deaden, driven snow, 
come to terms, look out sharp, fasten upon him, name his price, 
make a good appearance, pin him down to, etc., keep chapeL There 
is underpull, a cant word of the time, i 36 ; "act as wire- 
puller,'' we should say. The see is employed in a new 
way ; he never saw a penny of her money, i. 88 ; we here use 
the poetic phrase, " the colour of her money." There is 
the curious roil (irritare), whence our verb rile seems to 
come ; see ii. 168. A barrister speeches to the jury, i 229. 
The verb haggle had meant secare about 1620 ; it is used in 
our sense, i. 416, imitating the higgle of Hudibras. Men 
used to bear off or ward a blow ; the two phrases are com- 
bined in ward off, ii. 43. Business is underdone, ii. 398 ; 
we confine this verb to meat. Seamen are overwatched 
(exhausted), iii. 98 ; this is said to be a phrase of their own, 

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and replaces the old forwaked of 1400. There are old 
phrases like childing (parturitio), and am thanks (grates 
agere), iiL 140. 

Among the Adverbs are these phrases ; something goes 
off hand, i. 25 ; a man is called all to nought (abused), ii. 
28 j this all to seems here to bear its old corrupt sense 
omnino, perhaps for the last time. We hear of a man's 
once-and-away entertainments ; we make this once in a way, ii. 
366. A stranger has out-of-the-way clothes, iii. 95. A 
ship is homeward bound. Our mostly had not yet arisen, for 
a man lives most alone, iii. 388. 

As to the Prepositions, we see upon the strength of, i. 99, 
hard upon him, have tiw^ to himself, A man is purged from 
off his legs, iii. 372 ; here we drop the/rom. 

Among the Romance words are emergens (emergency), 
party m/in, adept, investment, machinery, managery (system of 
trade), to pirate (steal), friction, scholarship. There are the 
phrases finish a hoy at school, ill, hitter pill, hard pinched, 
supplies (pecunia), personal attack, dress up a cause, carry his 
point, layrmn (as to law), screw (in money matters), he 
flourishing (healthy), where the pinch is, tickle with mirth, 
hackney writing, lines of policy, refuse plump, remains (of an 
author), to map streets, save his hacon. There are the foreign 
eclat, carte hlanche, connoisseur, cascade, villa, emhryo, premio, 
(premium), desperado, facsimile, pauper, fiat, emporium. 
There is the verb chouse, formed from the Turkish word 
long known in England ; moh is also made a transitive verb, 
i. 329. The adjective capital is sliding into our common 
sense of the term, "a capital mathematician," ii. 181. The 
word invidious seems to get the sense of rmlestus, very 
different from our envious, i. 137. The word guarded 
expresses cautus, i. 309. The word scrip, so famous in our 
commerce, is used for ticket in ii 389. The word fastidious 
stands for disgusting, ii 399. The word regimen is now 
connected with diet, ii. 416; it is used for system, or the 
rigime of our fine writers in iii. 362. The word branch 
stands iov pars in iii 146 ; a branch of the Customs. The 
substantive chief is used for head man and is not connected 
with war; the chief in the Treasury, iii. 154. Gresham's 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

i62 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

old verb assure becomes insure. Buckingham (Zimri) is 
called a premier minister, i. 97, though he was not the head 
of the ministry. A girl in a fit doubles herself ; we should 
add w^, i. 271. A man subsists himself, ii..350; here we 
drop the last word. We see the Italian scizzo (sketch), ii. 
211 ; we have preferred the Dutch form schets. 

There are the proverbs honesty is the best policy, L 40 ; 
Hobson's choice is no choice, i. 174. 

We read, iii. 280, that in 1660 scarlet was commonly 
called the King's colour, and Cavaliers wore red cloaks; 
this seems strange, considering how obnoxious Oliver's red- 
coats were at that time. Durham Cathedral, we are told, 
shows the most of Gothic antiquity of any in England, i. 
279. One of the great lawyers of 1 680 used to employ 
his native Gloucestershire dialect in Court, pronouncing 
although as althoff, i. 103. The Devonshire dialect is called 
the most barbarous in England, the North not excepted ; 
the Cornish are said to speak much better than their 
neighbours, i 249. 

Swift drew up his ' Directions to Servants ' and the * Me- 
moirs of Captain Creichton' about 1730. The y is added 
to a word, as goody ; goodies (sweetmeats) to be given to 
children. The famous Sir Ewen Cameron appears as 
Owen, showing that the ow might still sometimes bear the 
sound of French ou. The oy might still bear the sound of 
French ^, for General Mackay appears as M*Coy. The 
old dab (ictus) is revived after a long sleep. There is 
prog (cibus), derived from the verb prog (beg), seen about 
1650. There is titbit, shoulder-slip (of a horse), and the 
phrase loads of poems, where we should use lots; this 
comes in the verses written by Swift on his own death. 
Servants give warning. Something breaks into three halves ; 
in 1220 half had stood ior pars. We hear of a good bit, 
and a good sup ; our bite and sup. We hear of light money 
and of a bad night ; men may drink hard ; a poem is tran- 
scribed fair. Among the Verbs are better himself (of a 
servant), put the clock back, go upon the road (as a highway- 
man), take an hour to do it. Something is a shocking sight ; 
here the Participle seems to become an Adjective. A man 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


\&'£ui off his mettle; we use the phrase with on in the con- 
trary sense. A servant is advised to sink the money (appro- 
priate it). Servants rid up the hearth ; it is curious that 
Swift, in his * Directions,' employs this old verb in its 
Scotch sense, which is found in Wyntoun. Among the 
Romance words are gobble, bon w/)t, incognito^ great coat, pin- 
cushion, toupee, teapot, to liquor boots. Schoolboys have bar- 
ring outs ; a gate may be ftve-barred ; we hear of country 
members (of Parliament). Swift used to expose fools. There 
are the phrases try your hand, a false hey, a pair of colours. 
He talks of butlers decanting die, as they call it ; it seems 
to have been a new verb. A man may be a piece of a 
farrier ; here we substitute Vd for piece. Witnesses give a 
rogue a character; here good seems to be dropped. Children 
are called the masters and misses, and are under a governess, 
who is also called the tutoress. The old kitchen knave 
still appears as the blackguard boy. The liquor gin is men- 
tioned, coming from the French genevre (juniper). 

There are the common phrases, live a short life and a 
merry one, it is only a drop in the bucket 

In Aubrey's 'Lives' (Reprint of 1813) the phrase lend 
a helping hand, found in 1729, appears in p. 79, voL ii. 
Bishop Tanner talks of (printer's) devils and copj (for print- 
ing) ; this is in 1735 ; p. 107, vol. ii. 

We may here consider Pope's later poems. He makes 
face rime with brass ; on the other hand, he makes placed 
rime with waist. We hear of cow hide, used for binding. 
There is the phrase send wealth to the dogs ; go to the dogs 
was soon to follow. There are the Romance one dead level, 
fritter away, zigzag, liqueur, stucco. We find the Hindoo 
chintz. It was now that men began to write in magazines. 

From this time, or a little later, date the words bag fox, 
cm at-home, the Hindoo banyan day, and the Javanese 
ba/ntam. See Dr. Murray's Dictionary. 

Matthew Bishop published in 1744 an account of his 
campaigns by sea and land in Queen Anne's time; he 
enlisted in the regiment of Webb, well known to all 
readers of Esmond. The e replaces 0; a, ship is a fine 
sailer, p. 176; here a useful distinction between the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

1 64 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

vessel and the sailw is made. The (m may still express 
French ow, as the town Doway, The sound of the old au 
remains, for a sea fight is more than once called a 
numachia, Tyndale's verb cham appears as jam, p. 212. 
The author is fond of drove instead of driven ; we now often 
hear / was drnv to it ; the South always clipped the n of 
the Strong Participle. 

There is the Substantive Ireast-work. A bowl of punch 
is called a settler (composer), p. 124. The word shell 
is used in its military sense, p. 228. The word living 
takes the sense of diet ; good living, p. 233. The author 
talks of his right hand man (in the ranks), p. 209. 

Among the Adjectives are leg-weary, unthinking ; there 
is a hot press (for soldiers), p. 76. Our great often means 
firmus or validus ; a man has a great notion that, etc., 
p. 170. The word thoughtful reappears after a long sleep, 
and stands for anxius, p. 1 1 7. A more curious revival is 
that of the old solcen (slow, sulky), which is seen in p. 45 
in the form of sulky ; I think the word was never written 
for many Centuries after the Norman Conquest. 

Among the Verbs are the phrases load a gun, take in 
tow, have his own way, he in two minds whether, etc., take 
coach, take a walk, make the best of our way to, etc., make out 
(spend) an evening, to flash in the pan, take it by turns to, etc., 
run for dear life, go to the bottom {at sea), stave a puncheon, 
make interest to go, break the neck of the war, put him to his 
shifts. We saw sling a sail in the year 1620; we now 
find sling a firelock, p. 162. There is fly from his word, 
p. 130; here we substitute go. In p. 190 we have the 
French all ways ; that is, have them at a disadvantage. 
In p. 213 the cavalry back their horses (make them retreat); 
this difiers from the old senses of the verb. 

The old phrase of 1490, cast the lead, is replaced by 
heave lead, p. 248 ; Burke was fond of this expression for 
sounding, A child is raised (bred up), p. 268 ; this is still 
an American phrase. 

There is the Adverb seemingly, p. 161. The Preposi- 
tion upon appears in a new phrase ; have much time upon 
our hands, p. 131. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


There are the Dutch words yawl^ sloopy and smack 
(fragor) ; this last must be distinguished from our old word 
for gustus. 

Among the Romance words are scrutare (bureau), 
notoriouSy grandpapa, fluejicy, checkered, cockcade (sic), tJie 
general (call) which is beaten, boviac (bivouac), p. 184, 
insignificant, to regale, imposition (cheat). The word pertisen 
had appeared about 1555 ; the term now stands for the 
member of an irregular troop. There are the phrases a 
distant relation, speaking ti-umpet, on half allowance, to mess 
together, press gang, piece of rudeness, a round of shot, sentry 
box. The word canteen means pocvlum, p. 8 ; it is used in 
our modern sense, p. 138. We hear of fifty ^^ sail of the 
Line of Battle,'^ P- 21 ; here we now drop the two last 
words. We see first the old plumb porridge, p. 181, and 
then in p. 49 the new plumb pudding, A girl turns out 
undutiful, p. 98 ; this is an advance on the old turn Pro- 
testant. We read of a panickfear, p. 126; then we have 
the concise ^anic^, p. 183. The word satisfaction takes the 
further sense of comfort, p. 147. In p. 210 plundering 
soldiers behave like black-guards; here Swift's sense of 
Tiebulo is well developed ; the old use of the word was now 
obsolete. Paris is the capital of France, p. 236 ; here 
city is dropped. England had by this time made some 
progress in politics; Bishop says, in p. 263, that there is 
no Senate without an Opposition; this is something new. 
The spirit rum, said to be a Malay word, appears in 
p. 250. 

We see the old word drawer (at a tavern). Bishop says 
he acted as manciple to a party of four soldiers, p. 169. 
There is an old survival in p. 267 ; "an instrument of 
6o/A your destructions;" this stands for the old Genitive 
bother (amborum) ; here two persons are addressed. There 
are the proverbs a guilty conscience needs no accuser, p. 106 ; 
better luck the next throw (time), p. 211. The curse 
be damned is printed d — d in p. 85 ; a delicate veil for 
this word unknown to Parson Collier. When Bishop's 
regiment was broke in 1713, he composed the following 
lines — 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

i66 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

** God and a Soldier Men alike adore, 
"When at the Brink of Danger, not before ; 
The Danger past, alike are both requited, 
God is forgot, and the brave Soldier slighted " (p. 266). 

I remember seeing in the papers, soon after the sup- 
pression of the Indian Mutiny, that these lines, or some- 
thing very like them, were chalked up in a barrack ; the 
Indian Government in vain endeavoured to detect the 
inscriber. I little thought then that the lines were due to 
an old Malplaquet man. Can they have been handed down 
by tradition ] 

The translation of *Gil Bias,' usually assigned to Smollett, 
came out in 1749 ; the number of new English phrases is 
remarkable.^ There is the verb ken (scire) and discommend, 
tokens of the translator's Northern birth. The e becomes 
Uy as not care a curse (cerse, cress). The t becomes p, for 
we see popgun, the old potgun. The p becomes // the old 
handcops is replaced by handcuff. Among the new Substan- 
tives are foreground, spring gun, mantrap, outskirt, stalking 
horse, the fidgets, claptrap, stock play, chit chat, codger, quiz, a 
set-down, flirtation, blinkei's (oculi), pot house, a sickener, hitch, 
skinflint, cast (in a play), shopman, hread-hasket (venter), keep 
(victus), first floor, mainspring, makeweight, man cook, lady's 
maid, callboy, cockloft, a haul, chum, bird's eye view, blinds (of 
window), seedling, by-play, toad-eating, clodhopper, ownership, 
rapscallion, thieftaker, horsewhip, drum (of ear), eye tooth, a 
toss-up, deathblow, fogram, our fogy. There are the phrases 
kettle offish, hop skip and jump, tub to a whale, feather in his 
cap, maid of all work, hell upon earth, in her black books, every 
day wares, pretty pickings, neither chick nor child, a fly-by-night, 
a full house (theatre), in the same boat with him, flash in the 
pan, an eye to business, the weak side of his temper, be on the 
right side of thirty, beggar on horseback, on her last legs, nine 
times out of ten, the run of the house. An ugly woman is 
called a horse godmother, p. 12; a phrase long afterwards 
put into Sir Pitt Crawley's mouth. The word greenhorn is 

^ I have used Routledge's edition which bears no date. I take the 
date, assigned above, from the earliest copy of the book in the British 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


applied to men; it had been used of an ox about 1400. 
A certain lady is a bad matdi^ looking to the money side ; 
a man is a iimXch for his enemy. A gouty fellow is called 
old clialkstone, p. 41. The word inside gets a new meaning, 
that of venter ; the old innewearde (viscera) or innerds had 
dropped from polite society, and something had to be coined 
on the same lines. We have seen Mabbe's lunch (lump) ; 
this gave birth to luncheon, p. 64. We see cut meaning ictus, 
p. 169, not vulnus, as in Ascham. The old carl cat had long 
disappeared ; we now find torn cat. An actor is sent on the 
hoards (stage); we hear also of the green room, and the 
wings (in a theatre). Tusser's harth had meant shelter ; we 
now hear of a good berth (situation). The portentous noun 
hove is used of a man in p. 84. We see two different ways 
of compounding ; first a set-out (banquet) and a set-off; then 
an outset and an offset A man is called a hag of hones. The 
word seat is now used of the most useful part of a chair. 
A man talks of his feelings, and uses freedoms. We saw 
long before the phrase rrum of God; we now hear of a 
ladf/s man. Certain folk are called loose fish, p. 248 ; hence 
our odd fish. Money is called the wherevnthal, p. 260 ; there 
is the curious need-nots (thing not necessaries), p. 274. Each 
writer is said to have his own walk, p. 263. A tailor 
is called a snipper, A prime minister can give loaves and 
fishes. The verb twitter had been used by Chaucer ; a man, 
we now see, may be in a twitter. There is the curious com- 
pound truism ; witticism had already appeared. We have 
seen Don (dun) as a horse's name about 1400; the Scotch 
used the two diminutives don-ick, don-ick-y ; hence came 
the donkey (asinus), seen in p. 342, We hear of a help at 
dinner, a curious new use of the noun. A man is a pro- 
fessed hlacklegs, p. 369 ; here we clip the last letter. The 
word pad (latro) had long been known ; we now meet with 
a footpad, A man is called a rattle ; Goldsmith used the 
word in this sense, in his famous play. The word drawer, 
getting a new meaning, is used much like hureau. The 
word lordling is revived, after a sleep of 400 years, p. 439. 
A man does the thing genteelly, p. 39 ; this thing generally 
implies a money payment. The word way is used for 

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i68 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

genus; something "in the bread and water way," p. 26. 
Adverbs are made nouns; as the ups and dovms, the ins 
and outs. 

There are the new Adjectives chicken-hearted, rakish, 
rickety, unbearable, high flown, workmanlike, thick headed, long 
headed. The Active Participle is used as an Adjective ; as 
a floating idea, well-looking, unfeeling, forbidding in aspect, a 
standing jest, burning shame. We see sweet upon a girl, a 
nasty (cutting) witticism, a foul copy, a makeshift dinner, high 
life below stairs, hard cash, stone blind, light reading, ready cut 
and dry, ready furnished, small talk. Men may go from bad 
to worse ; here a substantive is dropped ; as also in the best 
of the joke was, etc. We see chuck full, p. 78, formed some- 
thing like the old himful. A verb may be used as an 
Adjective ; a knock down argument, p. 233. There is the 
phrase as broad as it was long, p. 270. We read of a 
thumping fortune ; Swift's thumper must mean " a great lie." 
A man has a wicked eye for certain things, p. 369 ; the 
meaning of the word here seems softened down to roguish. 
There is the curious snug ds a bug in a blanket ; I have 
heard rug substituted for the last word. Something costs 
next to nothing, p. 414. An actress is said to act with 
Jroac? humour, p. 423; Caxtonhad employed broad much 
like coarse. S-c^^ 6Ci-MXA., Jvuf.T3^, 

As to Pronouns, we have already seen a bad time of it ; 
in p. 6 stands this was not the worst of it ; in p. 427 some- 
thing is done for the fun of it A man is said to look with 
all his eyes, p. 196; "making a thorough use of them;" 
like Chaucer's "she was all herself." In p. 238 a man 
asks, what is it all about ? 

The new Verbs are lower (with medicine), skirt, groom, 
thread, catcall, dumbfound, nudge, pit, flop, goggle, string, over- 
draw (an account), snigger. We see make both ends meet, come to 
close quarters, cut a man (not know him), cut a flgure, cut a 
joke, cut him out (excel), cfid and run, cat my teeth of wisdom, 
hammer into him, draw the long bow (mentiri), put in his oar, set 
up a howl, toss up for heads or tails, show him the outside of the 
door, play a good knife and fork, laugh on the wrong side of my 
mouth, go to the hammer (auction), throw into the background. 

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throw into the shade, heart lies in the right place, work double 
tides, sing his heart out, bring him to his hearings, bring eggs to 
a had market, hite the dust, wipe off scores, kick his heels, keep 
up the hall, make himself up, make up my mind to, tJwugh I 
say it that should not, grown up, jit to hold a candle to, struck 
all in a heap, trump up a story, work the ship, mind what he 
was about, go off like a shot, open himself to, let the cat out of 
the hag, put his best foot foremost (slightly varying from 
Mabbe), stand in for a harbour, set every engine at work, set 
us going, get to the blind side of, give the go-by to, find my level, 
pipe all hands, lend a hand, set about doing it, make head or 
tail of, come across him, take it into his head, stamp her for, 
etc., ring a hob major, take a leaf out of his book, go the wrong 
way to work, his countenance fell, play up to her, not say " by 
your leave,'^ take French leave, live in clover, how the land lies, 
have the refusal of, get along with you, play into his hands, cut 
and come again, bum the candle at both ends, overhaul accounts, 
take away my breath, look blue, get on in the world, run her rig 
(wrig, wriggle), fight shy of, come round him, make himself 
scarce, blow his brains out, rest on his oars, throw off his balance, 
do things by halves, darken her doors, I have not done with you, 
fear lent me wings, fly into a passion, pick up acquaintance, cast 
Iwr for a part, stare like a stuck pig, take it or leave it, put up 
(to lodge), play second fiddle, blood ran cold, fire it off, go the 
length of his tether, take kindly to, that is all you know about it, 
lock-jawed, he wished to stand in my shoes, matters may come 
round, draw a man out. The verb take is employed in a 
new sense, as take him off (imitari) to the life ; Foote was 
soon to pun most happily on this new phrase. The Infini- 
tive is used much like a noun ; the give and take principle, 
p. 42; the ride and tie principle. We see thorough-bred used 
as a synonym for perfect, p. 117. The verb die is 
employed for ardere; die to be present, p. 119. The 
verb pluck is used in its University sense ; a candidate is 
plucked, p. 146. The verb shake is applied to the worn-out 
body; a man is shaken in constitution, p. 149. There is 
hurnhug, p. 150, which Mr. Skeat derives from hum (hoax) 
and bug (spectre). Men peg at their food, p. 167, a new 
sense of the word. The verb brood had meant fovere in 

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I70 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

1440; a man now hroods over his woes, p. 167. The 
verb dangle gets a new sense; dangle after a woman, p. 
169. Men had hitherto lain along ; they now stretch their 
length on the grass, p. 213. A man had been called 
(challenged) in 1630; our author adds the out, p. 222. 
A man, when dying, is said to be going fast, p. 234. The 
old holt had meant ruere ; this is made transitive ; to holt 
his dinner, p. 237. We have seen Barbour's get wit of ; 
we now find get wind of, p. 241. Travellers howl away in 
a chaise, p. 242. An actress comes aid on the stage, p. 
247 ; young ladies were to come out forty years later. We 
read of dashing hlades, p. 266 ; ciU a dash was soon to 
follow. Gil Bias sinks the secretary, p. 283 ; that is, drops 
all mention of his post. A man unhends, p. 288 ; here 
himself must be understood ; relax has been treated in the 
same way. The verb wound is now applied morally, not 
physically ; honour may be wounded, p. 295. There is a 
curious use of the Northern may he (fortasse) ; the question 
is asked, " will you not be mistress ] " the answer is, rmiy 
he so, and may he not The verb make had long meant 
vadere; in p. 359 a man made up to me; this is used 
physically; we use the phrase morally. The help imitates 
forhear, and governs a Participle ; he could not help smiling, 
p. 366. There is the phrase soften down passages, p. 400 ; 
a new use of the verb. Men ride the great horse, p. 407 ; 
we substitute high for great The verb draw is made 
intransitive; the curtain drew up, p. 427. The verb while 
is used in a sense very different from the old ihwilen; 
while away three weeks, p. 434. 

As to the Adverbs, the off comes very forward ; as he ill 
off, well off, off mth you/ heg him off. We come upon 
higgledy piggledy, p. 94. A man is dovm in the mouth, p. 
288. An author writes down to the comprehension of 
dolts, p. 407. Things are told straightforward, p. 306; 
here the adverb has not yet been made an adjective. 
Prepositions seem to be turned into adverbs ia she is not 
over and above hale, p. 338. A man figures away, p. 362. 
We see, (if so,) well and good, p. 364, a curious union of the 
adverb and adjective ; in p. 390 the well supplants the 

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v.] THE NEW ENGLISH. . 171 

good ; not think it well to delay. Time is t^p, p. 392. A 
patron looks a man over, p. 396 ; here the over must bear 
its old sense of per (thoroughly). We have seen Van- 
brugh's any how ; we now come upon somehow or other, p. 
42, where the how is used for way. 

Among the Prepositions we remark on the broad grin, 
on the simmer, on the alert, upon his good behaviour, on the spur 
of the occasion, on his travels, form myself on a hint, p. 197, 
like build on. There is out of our line ; at the long run is 
altered to in the long run, p. 69. A sportsman is in at 
the death, p. 89. Men are stretched at their length, p. 
142; hence "to measure his length." Men go to work 
full tilt, p. 209 ; here an at must be dropped. Something 
is within the reach of all, p. 69. A man is said to be half 
seas over, p. 88 ; Vanbrugh's old phrase is set apart to 
express ebrius. A person goes by a certain name, p. 113; 
this comes from the former call by the name. A man is 
under my thumb, p. 277. The with is dropped when men 
are cap in hand to, etc., p. 228. Music is loved to distrao- 
tion, p. 303 ; a new phrase. There is for the life of me, a 
strong asseveration; not for my life. In p. 369 look after 
a lad implies care. A man is between asleep and awake, p. 
387 ; here the preposition stands before an adjective, a 
curious idiom. 

There is the Interjection the deuce and all/ p. 298; by 
all the powers I p. 67. A man, whose thoughts are bent on 
the kitchen, swears, ods haricots and cutlets 1 p. 371; this 
kind of oath was to be much favoured by Bob Acres one 
generation later. 

We see the Scandinavian noun slang coupled with pro- 
fessional, p. 47 ; this was to supplant the old cant. 

There is the Celtic bother ; also fun, which is not con- 
nected with Skelton's fonny (stultus). 

Among the Eomance words are routine, love affair, gaol 
bird, the blue devils, touchwood, lazy-bones, nonentity, subter- 
fuge, money market, servants^ hall, coxcombical, rebuff, squad, 
firm (mercantile), tasteful, property-man (in theatres), saloon, 
scenery, outpost, scapegrace, percentage, stage effect, tureen, per- 
fcrrmance (theatrical), pugilist, practical joke, a show article, 

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172 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

religionist^ gay deceiver^ imjyressive, armchair, coffee room (of 
inn), rosy gilled, portfolio, brushwood, personality (abuse), post 
obit, clearance, respective, subaltern, octave (in singing), lantern- 
jawed, cholera morbus, p. 369, revoke, fountain head, hush 
iTumey, family likeness, pointless, barmaid, caricature, home de- 
partment. There are the phrases brush up learning, tricks 
on travellers, pay through the nose, on the carpet (tapis), case- 
hardened, smell powder, pay our respects to, paint it to myself, 
parade the town, round of amusement, in a pretty pickle, grease 
the wheels, nothing would serve but, a great catch (haul), be in 
cash, a running account, the chapter of accidents, free and easy, 
turn short round upon, the common run, pass muster, tinge of 
literature, hard featured, quarrel with my bread and butter, 
pass him off for, return to the charge, praise up to the skies, a 
speaking acquaintance with, vulgar dog, it was no joke, turn 
King's evidence, jugged game, train of thought, realize money, 
fault on the right side, report progress, A certain woman is 
called a p-etty piece of goods, p. 4. A commission (money 
payment) is drawn for services rendered, p. 12. In p. 21 
a path offers ; here itself is dropped. The word pickle is 
used to English nebulo, p. 38. We hear of a youth of 
good connexions, p. 39 ; that is, of respectable family. A 
woman is past her prime, p. 40 ; Gascoigne had employed 
prime of youth. In p. 85 stands " where do they expect to 
go to when they die ? " applied in joke to harsh usurers. 
A man forms himself, p. 197. Men colleague (keep com- 
pany) with certain fellows, p. 88 ; this later was written 
collogue. A hungry man gives a good account of his food, 
p. 6. Men had rolled (exulted) in Udall's time ; in p. 74 
men roll in luxury. A maid is a fixture (has a permanent 
post) in a family, p. 113. We now hear of the special 
pleader, p. 1 1 7. I have seen the word paraphernalia objected 
to in our time when applied indiscriminately ; our author 
showed the way in this matter. In p. 146 pigeon is used 
for dupe. In p. 154 a woman commands (has at her dis- 
posal) wealth. A man sees the lions (sights) of a town, p. 
156 ; this must have arisen from certain inmates of the 
Tower of London. A tutor is called a verb-grinder, p. 168 ; 
in our day this has become gerund-giinder, and the noun 

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V. ] THE NE W ENGLISH, 1 73 

g^ind has come to stand for troublesome work. The phrase 
it ocmrs to me (comes into my head) stands in p. 176. A 
man is above the common^ p. 185 ; here run is dropped. 
Something is revolting to our designs, p. 185 ; here the 
Participle means no more than opposed. But in p. 302 
virtue revolts at the idea. In p. 191 dressing stands for a 
thrashing. Money saved is called a man's savings, p. 192, 
something like the former sweepings. Facts are garbled, p. 
226 ; a new sense of the old verb. Women fall into these 
courses, p. 239 ; the noun had seldom been used in the 
Plural hitherto. The epithet battered is used of an old 
rake, p. 246. An angry man turns the house out at window, 
p. 255 ; we substitute out of doors, A host has \m parties, 
p. 297, a new word for entertainments ; hitherto people 
had made parties in common. The French soupgon is liter- 
ally translated in p. 282 ; " not a suspicion of literature in 
their talk." We hear of the literati, p. 299, which is cer- 
tainly more scholarly than litterateurs. The word funds is 
used ioT pecunia; a man hajs funds, p. 283. The verb roast 
is used for quizzing a person, p. 306. We hear of a true 
bill (charge) in common life, p. 321. We have seen accom- 
plished and finished used 'for perfect; in p. 322 a man is a 
consummate master. Some one is rusticated (sent to the 
country), p. 333 ; the word is now little known beyond 
the Universities. The word channel is used in an abstract, 
not a concrete sense, p. 338; "make enquiries in (through) 
a certain channel." The word luhicity is used for libido, 
p. 348 ; I see the word sometimes employed in our days 
by the refined gentry who think the Scriptural synonym 
too downright A man long lost turns «*^ in p. 351. A 
monk acts up to the rules, p. 352; we have already seen 
play up to, A rich man has an establishment, p. 368; a 
well-furnished household. The word roundabout is used 
as an Adjective ; Latimer had made it a Substantive. The 
home is also used for an Adjective in a homs question, p. 
383. We hear of the eoc-ministry, p. 403 ; these Latin 
prepositions, such as ultra and extra, were to become com- 
mon prefixes in English. Not only the body, but also the 
mind may be poisoned; see p. 434. We see the French 

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174 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. v. 

gourmand^ to encore^ ddhut, fUe champUre, depdt, calibre, coup 
de main, reconnoitre, amateur, to financier. There are the 
Italian finale, sotto voce, bravura, and the Portuguese palaver. 
The oran outang is mentioned. 

There are the proverbs it never rains but it pours, a nod 
is as good as a wink, what is got over the devil's back is spent 
under his belly, p. 297, it is a long lane where there is no 
turning, tlie proof of the pudding is in the eating, possession is 
nine (not Arbuthnot*s eleven) points of the law, there is reason 
in roasting of eggs. There are such old words and phrases 
as bob and Jfirk, both meaning ferire, happy man be his dole, 
we know a hawk from a hernshaw, p. 223, bona roba, any Joan 
(woman of low birth) ; there is Wycherley's strong assever- 
ation indeed and indeed. 

From this time dates the sailor's cry ahoy I (Vanbrugh's 
ahey f), also advertise (in the sense oi publicly announce), take 
aback, agenda, alfresco. See Dr. Murray's Dictionary. 

We have now come to the end of this period, so ad- 
mirable in its rejection of masses of long foreign words 
brought in before 1660, and therefore so admirable in the 
character which it has stamped upon English prose. This 
time is moreover illustrated by the names of our great 
poetical Satirists (few other countries can show such a 
band), Butler, Dryden, Swift, Pope, Johnson, the one 
following the other in quick succession. Moreover the 
English novel, starting to life under the auspices of Defoe, 
had in Fielding's hands sprung with marvellous growth to 
its highest development, much as the English stage, almost 
at its outset, had risen in the hands of Shakespere. But 
the name of Johnson, just mentioned, suggests that a new 
Period of English is about to open in the middle of the 
Eighteenth Century. 

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176 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

with the vicious Latinisms that he penned/ How forcible 
are his compounds, ^^ sji undubbable man," "wretched un- 
ideaed girls ! " and his verb, " I dovmed him with this ! " 
While on the subject of Johnson, one cannot help regret- 
ting that neither he nor his friends ever knew of the 
kinsmanship between the tongues of Southern Asia and 
Europe. Had the great discovery been made known far 
and wide rather earlier than it was, he and Burke would 
have found a safer topic for debate than the Eockingham 
ministry. How heartily would those lordly minds have 
welcomed the wondrous revelation, that almost all man- 
kind, dwelling between the Ganges and the Shannon, were 
linked together by the most binding of ties ! How warmly 
would the sages have glowed with wrath or with love, far 
more warmly than ever before, when talking of Omichund 
and Nuncomar, of the Corsican patriot and the Laird of 
Coll ! From how many blunders in philology would 
shrewd Parson Home have been kept ! No such banquet 
had ever been set before the wise, since the Greeks, 400 
years earlier, unfolded their lore first to the Italians, 
and then to the rougher Transalpines. It was not 
in vain that the new lords of Hindostan induced the 
Brahmins to throw open what had been of yore so care- 
fully kept under lock and key. But the main credit of the 
new feast must be given to others ; if the English brought 
home the game, it was the Germans who cooked it. 

To turn to matters nearer home, about this time the ish 
is added to old Adjectives, as haddish ; there is also babyish. 
Dr. Johnson, misled by the Greek achos, declared that we 
ought to write ache, not the old ake. Very soon accoucheur, 
acme, air-tight, abreast of came in ; for these, see Dr. 
Murray's Dictionary. 

From Footers plays, which range between 1748 and 
1776, we learn something of the speech of our fathers who 
conquered Bengal and Canada, and who laid the train that 
ended in American Independence. I begin with — 

^ I draw attention to the defence of Johnson's English put forth by 
a clever critic, and to the obvious answer that might be made ; see my 
' Old and Middle English,* p. 589. 

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The Knights (1748). 

We here see the new Substantive tantrums ; there are 
the phrases days of yore, happy dog ; Suhey appears as a 
variation of Susan. One of the knights speaks of my 
m/ister Jenkins, not our Mr. Jenkins ; the other says right, 
you, right ! the ancestor of our right you are ! There are 
the verbs grown out of knowledge and tramp it. We see 
the Eomance unaccountable; the papers (newspapers) are 
taken in. 

Taste (1752). 

There are the Substantives dauber (bad painter), luniber 
room, maiden name, chap (homo). The old Latiner (Latin 
scholar) is revived by an ignorant woman. There is 
sheriffalty, not sheriffdom ; a curious instance of a Romance 
ending to a most Teutonic word. We see the Adjectives 
priggish and peagreen; an extra syllable is added in worserer 
(pejor). There is the vulgarism "we left she!' Among 
the Verbs are leave you to yourselves, call up a look ; there 
is the auctioneer's going, going I A verb is dropped in all 
in good time. Various forms of vulgar speech occur, as / 
did not go to do it, I be got into, etc., we see'd him. The off 
had lately become prominent, a man declares off (renounces 
a bargain). There is the Romance dilettante ; a woman is 
perdigious fine ; the word poor is applied to a sum of money; 
poor ten poumls ; something is a thousand pities. We hear 
of a carriage called a phaeton. There is the proverb — 

"When House and Land are gone and spent, 
Then Learning is most exceUent." 

Englishman in Paris (1753). 

The new Substantives are pigtail, whipper in; the buck 
(dandy) of 1303 reappears, and a man is addressed as old 
buck; a homely person is called a John Trot. There is the 
curious idiom of Verbs, / intend calling ; " I am bent on 
calling " probably led to this. There is the favourite deny 
it who can ; a designing woman is said to play her cards well, 
VOL. IL n 

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178 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

Among the Romance words are roast beef, post chaise, figure 
dancer. Men who can use their fists are styled bruisers ; 
we hear of the j[)acket plying to Calais, in the days before 
steam came in. A girl sings and dances, but her friends 
doubt her execution. 

Englishman returned from Paris (1756). 

Here the old would is now printed U/Ou^d ; it is the same 
with should. A travelling tutor is called a bear-leader ; an 
attorney is hailed as good six and eightpence. A girl treats 
a lover to the thou, in sovereign scorn. Among the Verbs 
are hit your taste (the old strike), swear like a trooper, kick up 
a riot. The former toyho becomes tally ho ! there is also 
hmcs I the later yokks I There are many French words 
brought in by the travelled English booby; as portfmille, bon 
ton, badinage, persiflage, ensemble, fracas ; he uses hotel (a 
grand house in Paris). The word entrevue had appeared in 
the year 1500, it is now once more introduced in its foreign 
shape ; our interview was still in the future. There are, 
moreover, grotesque, exotic. A girl is described as the very 
individual lady who, etc. ; this individual was to be worked 
hard in the next Century. 

Author (1757). 

There are shortened forms like ^ec^ (Rebecca) and CaniaK 
Among the Substantives sire jackass, washerwoman, cow-heel; 
settlement is now used for colony; to do something is called 
an unfriendly thing. The Romance ending of oddity is 
remarkable. The word trade is appropriated to the body 
of publishers, " the trade." A youth is given the run of a 
place. As to Verbs, dishes are tossed up by the cook, a 
man is started in business. A verb is dropped in now. Sir, 
to you. A singer is said to be in voice. There are the In- 
terjections by Gosh/ and prodigious/ Dominie Sampson 
was to come later. Among the Romance phrases are otd- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


line^ fungus, jallop, rebus, half price, circulating library, to paper 
a room. Men move in high circles; books come out in 
numbers ; the word flame is applied to the woman you are 
in love with. A man dresses; that is, puts on his best 
apparel. A rambling story is called a riggrmnrowle (rigma- 
role) ; this is the old and respectable ragman roll. We see 
the drink called porter, from the burly class who were so 
fond of it. There are the proverbs, fin^ feathers make fine 
birds, money makes the mare to go. 

Minor (1760). 

The e is clipped; a plaudit is formed from the old 
plaudite. There are the new Substantives bag wig, henroost, 
a dip (in the sea), shipload. We hear of a lot at an auction ; 
of the Newcastle bur ; horses are kept for the turf ; a 
small house is called a box; a certain vegetable appears 
as greens; spankers and shiners are slang terms for coin. 
The phrase High-duichian (German) lasts even down to 
this time. Mrs. Cole thinks of dying a Roman (Koman 
Catholic) ; this word had been in Irish use two genera- 
tions earlier. Among the Adjectives are snub-nosed, left- 
handed (marriage), a psalm -singing countenance. A girl 
has a will of her oum. We find the Verbs scalp, jump 
at it. The Infinitive is once more used as a noun; we 
hear of knock me down doings ; here the me is new. Among 
the Romance words are itinerant, mimicry, sortment. An 
auctioneer touches up (praises) a lot ; a baron is of twenty 
descents ; there is the new compound, a never-failing chap ; 
the higher classes are the first people in the kingdom. Mr. * 
Prig is quite a jewel of a man; this quite had not been 
followed by an Article until about twenty years before this 
time. There is the French phrase, 2^ vis a vis (carriage). 
One rogue uses the curse levant me, but, etc. A sober old 
man is called old Square Toes, Mrs. Cole calls drink the 
good creature ; something like this survives in Ireland. A 
public school is mentioned ; here many vices are learnt at 
sixteen, and in this Foote is confirmed by Cowper. The 
new word Nabob (returned East Indian) appears. 

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i8o THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Lyar (1761). 

Here Barbara is cut down to Bah, A great liar is known 
at Oxford as the Bouncer, A woman may be a fright The 
new rout is bracketed with plays and balls, and differs from 
Tarlton's sense of the word. The word hilly is now con- 
nected with a house of ill fame. We come upon 'poktr ; 
certain things are said to be well (pleasant) in their way. 
There are the Verbs have at heart, what he is driving at. 
Something is beyond me (my understanding), a new use of 
the Preposition. A man surrenders at discretion; some- 
thing will not pass upon me. The old hut that still expresses 
nisi before a verb. Among the Eomance words are the 
dismals, private tutor, a mutter of fact fellow, distant relation, 
recollect yourself, sign himself Hopkins, There is the cry 
Iravo I the French hurgois (sic) smdfemm^ de chamhre. From 
America come wampum, warhoop, and the pipe of peace, A 
man begs, " in the college cant," to tick a little longer (re- 
main in debt) ; this cant was soon to make way for slang, 
A gift made to servants is called a compliment ; a stormy 
interview is spoken of as a scene. 

Early in the play mention is made of the cheap rural 
academies that abounded in Yorkshire ; these were to be 
unmasked, almost fourscore years later, by one greater than 

Orators (1762). 

The a is docked ; a vulgar man says cfuXely, not acutely. 
An Irishman talks of spoking ; here the a clearly bears 
the sound of French L The old hackney (horse) is cut 
down to hack; an Oxonian is named Tirehack. An Irish- 
man calls a coin a rap. We see the phrase there^s no know- 
ing. There is the Adjective funny, A man gets an office 
all hollow (with ease). The strange Nominative thee appears ; 
thee must learn ; this was adopted by the Quakers. A vulgar 
fellow talks about this here manner. Among the Verbs are 
speechify, hold your jaw, to seat breeches ; the approving cry 
hear him/ hear him! is put into an Irishman's mouth; 

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there is lay down the law, where the doitm is something new. 
A man is too fat for a ghost ; here to be must be dropped after 
for. We see the Celtic whisky. There is the Romance 
yerhp'ose; aAso field preacher. The Scotch and Irish dialects 
are freely drawn upon in this piece ; the Irishman comes 
out with the well-known nothing at all at all. It is stated 
that Irish hands come over every year to get in our harvest. 
It is remarked that the seventh son of a seventh son is 
bom a physician. 

Mayor of Garratt (1763). 

The i supplants a in make me a Mister (master), when 
Sir Jacob was in reality the title due to the person in ques- 
tion. The final s is clipped in jpost-chay. The w begins to 
supplant v/ Jerry Sneak thinks a woman werrylike Wenus; 
he also aa^s instead of asking ; a return to the old system. 
There are the Substantives drumstick (of fowl), heeltap, crib- 
bage, till (of shop), rumpus. A lazy fellow is called a lie-a- 
bed. The word snack, derived from snatch, stands for a 
hurried meal. A rude fellow is called a bear. A man 
tells a bit of his mind. Among the Adjectives we find sovmd 
as a roach (this is altered from the trout of 1290), thin 
as a lath ; a berth is pretty goodish ; the old phrase roaring 
boy is still preserved. Among the Verbs are Mil or cwre, 
come to a pretty pass, take it out (expend) in oaths, twig him, 
to flummer (decipere), home-brewed; here ale is dropped. 
We have seen / anH ; this last is now corruptly used for 
Tio/i est ; may be fami (it is not) is used by Jerry Sneak. 
Something may likely ensue ; this positive Adverb is now 
dropped in England (unless preceded by more or most) 
though it survives in Scotland. We see now for it, for the 
matter of that. The a, used by Wyntoun, still survives as 
an Interjection even down to these days of Wilkes ; the 
candidate Mr. Mug (meant for the great Duke of Newcastle) 
is hailed with shouts of A Mug ! A Mug I Among the Ro- 
mance words are disembody, form square, pursy, sure as a gun, 
regimentals, his locum tenens. A man is allowed so much 
for his podcet ; hence our pocket mmiey. There are such old 

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i82 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

phrases as insolent companion I (fellow), trail a pike, A 
well-known phrase occurs in this play, who can make a sUk 
purse of a sow's ear ? 

Patron (1764). 

Among the Substantives are chest of drawers, shutters, 
the making of me, A man is puff to the playhouse ; a coach 
bears the name of the Doncaster Fly, which contains inside 
passengers. The word odd is applied to a volume, where its 
brethren have been lost. Among the Verbs are thumb, 
nail (fix) him, pop off (die), something will not come amiss ; 
a person knows what he is about. There is the ironical / like 
your asking that 1 A man is asked if he has heard something ; 
he answers, hm) should I? Among the Interjections are 
Oh, dear me I the clownish servant still swears by the mass ! 
Among the Eomance words are p'ojile, trait (feature), jeu 
d^espi'it, bureau. The turnpike system had been so much de- 
veloped of late, that turnpike stands for road. We hear 
of capital (first rate) masters. A play is said to be bad, most 
infernal ; a new use of the last Adjective. We find here 
the saw, " no man is a hero to his valet de chambre." 

Commissary (1765). 

Here the ea is still much used, where it is now dropped ; 
as compleat ; it was perhaps pronounced like the French 
i. Among the Substantives are cutter (ship), whipper- 
snapper, bridemaid; there are shakes and thrills in the 
voice ; we now change the last of these into trills. A 
woman tells lies only in the way of her bu^ness ; something 
is the very life and soul of her trade. We see under your 
mark, where the last word stands for what you desire ; this 
survives in "that's about the mark." There is the very 
old idiom the woman's niece of the house. The like is added 
to Adjectives ; a genteel-like manner ; there is the jingle, a 
near and dear friend. The Numeral is used in a new sense ; 
. thafs one comfort, however ; here the last word answering to 
the Old English though bears the old sense in any case. 

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We see one^ two, three/ off you go/ There is the new 
phrase mnter sets in, A person takes legal advice on a 
point ; here the verb bears the sense of petere ; it may also 
mean seqiii. The forward has not altogether yielded to (m ; 
are you forward with it ? The Interjections are Loi'd help 
you / the oath marry still survives in the mouth of a servant 
maid. Among the Romance words are pawnhroking, landing 
place ; there is asylum. A coachman talks of his horses as 
beastesses. The old liquorish still stands for lecherous ; it has 
nothing to do with drink. 

Devil on Two Sticks (1768). 

The u replaces i in Scotch mouths, as wul and wut. 
The d is inserted ; the old howsumever appears as housom- 
dever. Among the Substantives are the hulls, hears, and 
lame ducks of the Stock Exchange, hand hUl ; hroad brim is 
a name applied to a Quaker. In sledgehammer, two Eng- 
lish words, each expressing malleus, are united. A physi- 
cian sends his patients to Brighthelmstone for a dip in the 
sea ; the town's name was soon to be shortened. There 
are the Verbs run up hills, play an engine, dropping wet ; 
this was later to become dripping. Ladies go out ; here 
visiting is dropped. A man appears in his own head of hair ; 
a new use of in. There is the Dutch adjective slim. The 
Romance words are small arms, holus, to fie off. The verb 
fix becomes intransitive ] fix on a plan. The word regiment 
is still used for the medical regimen ; the t at the end of 
the word was to seem strange thirty years later. 

Lame Lover (1770). 

Here the ee is added to a word ; a husband addressing 
his wife as lovee; deary had come much earlier. The u 
replaces a; husky is found. The game of hrag appears, 
along with loo. Certain entertainments are called drums. 
We hear of a limb of the law ; this limb is a very scornful 
term, in comparison with memhei\ We read of a number 
of nobodies ; here a new Substantive is coined for nonentity ; 

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i84 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

in our day it stands for a person of no rank. A man is a 
bit of a Macaroni We see unmeaning, muzzy, the lon^f and 
short onH ; here the phrase of 1450 is transposed. The 
Definite article is now placed before ladies' names, in imi- 
tation of foreign use, as the Harietta. The Plural is 
wrongly used in these sort of engagements, these sort of folks. 
There is the phrase alVs over (actum est). Among the 
Verbs are blackball, see people (visitors), send cards^; here we 
now put out after the verb. The verb match stands for 
find a mxitch to; "match a coach horse." There is the 
phrase a surprise upon her ; I remember this use of the 
preposition in one of Lord Eldon's judgments ; the upon 
also makes part of the Interjection upon my word I which 
is seen here. Among the Eomance words are trout stream, 
bullet headed, out of repair, my private opinion,, country cousin, 
greengage, it turned out to be, etc. Something is pronounced 
to be nonsense and stuff ; here we transpose. The Macaroni 
appear in London. We hear of a gentlewoman's gentlewoman ; 
we know best the masculine variety of this phrase. A 
scene is said to be prodigious moving ; a new sense of the 
Participle. A person is said to be better engaged (invited 
to a higher entertainment). A man is clear (certain) that, 
etc. ; Hallam was fond of the Adjective used in this sense. 
We read of Counsellor Puzzle; such a phrase as Lawyer 
Fawcett lasted still longer. 

A man has not a word to throw to a dog. Men of the 
world kissed each other in public, even in these times, when 
the great Fox was already a debater ; a buss is demanded, 
not far from the end of this play. The morals of lawyers 
must have much improved between the beginning and the 
end of Lord Eldon's career ; we see here a Sergeant coolly 
bidding his client to procure four witnesses, who are to 
perjure themselves. 

Maid of Bath (1771). 

There are the Substantives bow window and sandwich; 
the latter is printed with a capital S, taking its name from 
the peer of that name (Jemmy Twitcher). A man boasts 

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that he has a pretty neighhmrhood ; the last word here re- 
presents the good society around. A German of the name 
of Sour Crout is introduced. Among the Verbs are wheel 
(in a chair), cut a dash, go further and fare worse, to hurry- 
scurry, drop off (mori), gone to the dogs. Pope, the poet, is 
said in the Epilogue to have dashed his satire as he flew ; 
we should here add off to the verb. A Somersetshire 
clown hopes you do zee your way ; in that county they still 
say he do he for ed. There is a curious substitution of the 
of for on or in ; I am all of a trefrnble. There are the Ko- 
mauce words play-actor, coincide, coterie, a conversible woman, 
pass off wares ; here the off is new. 

Nabob (1772). 

The new Substantives are ship^s husband, a hack hand, 
clump, nut- crackers, wash-leather breeches. The verb crib 
stands for steal. Among Komance words is manoeuvre; 
bouquet puzzles the servant, till it is explained by nosegay ; 
Chaucer's tray, at dice, still represents the true old sound 
of French trois. A box of dice must be raised genteelly and 
gently ; the two forms stand side by side. An uncle speaks 
of his niece as his cousin. We hear of the cadets in the 
East India Company's service ; also of roupees. One man 
may catch a Tartar in another ; Butler had written some- 
thing like this. 

Bankrupt (1773). 

A famous town abroad appears as Spaw ; Diana is cut 
down to Dy, There are the Substantives hot-bed, swan- 
hopping. Something is said to be a bad business. The 
banker. Sir Robert, speaks of his place of business as his 
shop, A severe leading article is called a trimmer ; this is 
very diflFerent from the political party of ninety years 
earlier. The famous city of health is still called The Bath, 
Among the Adjectives is shouyy, a change from the showish 
of Addison's time ; bitter bad is formed, as cruel cold had 
been long before ; a lady, who takes long to die, is said to 
be tough. There are the phrases ragged as a colt, not worth 

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1 86 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

'powder and shot Among the Verbs are whitewash a creditor^ 
wrapt up in him, stop (payment), gut a home, slip through our 
fingers, throw out a hint, cram something upon me. Where the 
French said apropos, we see now we talk of it (our talking of 
that). . There is the advice look at home. There is a new- 
sense of do ; do (write) the articles ; to do galleries was to 
come much later. Goldsmith's famous fudge is made a 
verb; fudge things (into a newspaper). Among the Eo- 
mance words are solvent (able to pay, the old solvable), article 
(in papers), an atom of feeling. Provincials (men not Londoners), 
pass notes, receipt in full, private paper (of bankers), on a par, 
policy (of insurance), conductor (of newspaper), relict (vidua), 
to honour bills. It is odd to find here a culprit convinced, 
our convicted. A man's head is called his upper stmy. We 
see a girl called imposing and specious ; here the Participle 
seems to be about to slide from deceptive to majestic. There 
is the French douceur (donum); two men are called 
Messieurs Pepper and Plaister. 

We find here a good hit at the Society papers of the 
day ; a paragraph, accusing an innocent young lady of the 
vilest conduct, is concocted by her enemies and is readily 
printed. The editor remarks, " we must season higher, to 
keep up the demand." All the reparation he offers is to 
insert another paragraph contradicting the first. 

Cozeners (1774). 

Here troth is made to rime with oath; I have lately 
heard urroth (iratus) pronounced from the pulpit in the same 
way; a useful distinction from wrath. Among the Sub- 
stantives are stopgap, crimp (of soldiers), heart ache, blacking ; 
we read of tar and feathers, a. punishment then in vogue in 
America. Money is called the needful. Among the Verbs 
are ride matches, make up for lost time. Among the Ro- 
mance words are strait waistcoat (for lunatics), check for 
money, influenza, cotillon; hotels have now sprung up in 
London; we may remember Meg Dods's wrath at the 
foreign word for inn, many years later. A negi'o talks of 
Massa. There are two old phrases here ; other some, put 

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into an Irishman's mouth, and gobs of fat, Chaucer's gobbets 


We see slipshod, one horse chaise, and an addle brain, 
where the sound of adel, the old form of the Adjective, 
still remains. There is the Scandinavian skittle ground and 
smash, also the Celtic bludgeon. Among the Romance 
words we see police, so new as to be printed in Italics ; 
there are moreover sticking-plaister and James's powder. 

Capuchin (1776). 

A man, speaking with a brogue, has a tivist in his tongue. 
Men hunt in couples; a colt sheds his coat; there is the 
pious Lord send us safe ! something like this is the well- 
known send her victorious 1 As to a hard job, a man re- 
marks, it is but trying (we can but try). There are the 
Dutch easel and the German swindler. The word Domine, 
applied to the scoundrel parson, is in constant use through 
the piece. There is the Romance verb tally. 

Trip to Calais. 

The great Church of London is called by a native ** Old 
PowVs,'' a very late instance of this form ; we read of the 
Papishes. There are the Substantives messmate, shoeblack; 
men may be in a hobble, Londoners talk of his'n and our'n. 
The sea is said to be rumbustious. There is the Verb sulk, 
formed from the revived Adjective ; something ties my hands 
(checks me). We see the Scandinavian /wrry. There are 
the Romance tantamount, an airing, guinea pig ; one person 
is called the only decent (agreeable) man in town ; there is 
the curious transmogrify. One of the old senses of stomach 
(ira) is preserved in the adjective stomachful, applied to a 
girl. It is said of a stupid man, " he won't set fire to the 
Thames, and is no relation to Mr. Mat-clmvel (Machiavel)." 

About this time occur the phrases bagman, barrel organ, 
give leg bail, the above ; Swift's at jar becomes ajar ; see Dr. 

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i88 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

Murray's Dictionary. Other words now found are hize^ 
strum, and the verb loom. 

When Foote was drawing near the end of his career, we 
mark the revival of a very old and rare idiom in the West 
country, where it first arose. The wife of the well-known 
James Harris says in 1769 that an opera is being acted; 
not "is in acting;" the new idiom is repeated by her 
husband ten years later. Southey, followed by Coleridge, 
was to continue this usage, against which a long protest 
has been kept up, even in our own days ; but the idiom is 
now well established.^ 

I may mention as idioms of this age step after him, do 1 
I wish it was (not were), as sure as eggs is eggs, handsome is 
as haiddsome does (the two last are from Goldsmith), / dare 
say not. 

Miss Burney brought out her second novel, * Cecilia,' 
about the time that the weary American war was drawing 
to an end; I have used the edition of 1782 in five 
volumes. The ea is still used where we put e, as Eaton 
College ; the y is added ; a man is spoken of as hlaxky ; the 
y replaces a, as pappy ; the shill I, shall I of Congreve 
becomes shillyshally, v. 119. Among the new Substantives 
are freah, crockery, dustman, pap boat, flight of steps, damper, 
book-keeper, a take-in, a cut-up. We see child in arms, a call 
(requirement) for his money ; there are slops on the table, 
perhaps from the old slupan (dissolvere). A new garment 
appears, called a pin-a-fore, printed in Italics. A young 
lady sees life. There is an opening for a subject. The 
word warmth is used in a moral, not physical, sense. A 
man may be seen at the top of the tree. There is dog stealer 
and moreover dog-doctor (as we call him), iv. 156. The 
word things bears a new sense, vestes. The word hard- 
ship had hitherto stood for a certain condition; it now 
appears in the Plural, standing for res angustce. The name 
Henrietta is cut down to Benny, The old saT,e is revived 

^ This point is discussed by Mr. F. Hall in his work on ahle and 
reliahlef p. 28 ; also in his 'Modem English,* p. 321. But he seems 
unaware of the fact that the idiom was anything but new ; see my 
Book, i. 273 ; ii. 58. 

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once more, having a meaning different from saw ; to say all 
our say, iii. 225. A man has a head for business. Chair- 
men make a certain place their stand; we now connect 
the word with cabs. A lady, when ill, is said to be in a 
dangerous way, v. 182; hence " in a bad way." 

As to Adjectives, the old hnmh (parens), after a long 
sleep, is revived as near. We see girlish^ hulking, mean- 
looking, unmanly, high flown, rush-bottomed ; a figure is striking. 
The word high is coupled with a fever ; it is also used for 
haughty, iii 220 ; a man is called Squire high and mighty, 
V. 70. We hear of a lecture of two hours long, iii 301 ; 
here the last word should be length. Our authoress is 
fond of the French idiom that places the Superlative Ad- 
jective after the Substantive ; as a facility the most happy ; 
she was to write still viler English about 1830, when she 
brought out her father's life. A person is open to convic- 
tion ; an account is kept open with a creditor. The ad- 
jective stands for the adverb in the phrase behave pretty, 
V. 386 ; / was taken bad, ii. 14. 

The vulgar characters here drop the Pronouns that 
should precede a verb ; as warrant he did, ever see him 
do U? We saw it's me before ; we now find only me 1 
standing by itself, i 208. The half-crazed Albany startles 
polite society by using thou, not yaa. There is the new 
phrase hefr senior, i. 10. A man goes out in all weather, 
V. 46 ; this we now make Plural. A lady loves, with a 
zeal all her own, iii 246. The all seems to stand for 
exclusively ; a piece of news is all the report, v. 119, like 
** all the fashion." The all is dropped where we insert it 
in iii. 224; I must be paid(2SL) the same; that is, "what- 
ever happens." A family is not any so rich, v. 120 ; here 
thing is dropped. The nothing is much brought forward ; 
something costs a mere nothing ; a surgeon attends a man 
for nothing ; your father did nothing in that way (farming), 
ii 158 ; it was not for nothing she was accused of pride, 
ii. 1 1 9. Company is no such bad thing, iii. 1 48 ; here the 
such is not wanted. Instead of saying " Delville was not 
visible," there is the new turn of phrase rw Delville was 
visible, ii. 259. 

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I90 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

Among the Verbs are sA(?p, lollop; there are the 
phrases mkc with the world, run wp a building , what she did 
with herself, have the goodness to, feel our way, make interest, 
weep her thanks, lead to the subject, sink low in her opinion, 
draw her out, draw the line, be bent double, lost in thought, 
I go upon that, give you the meeting, born for each other, fill 
up time, wear an aspect, lose her heart to him, see into it The 
verb glare is used in a moral sense ; a glaring impropriety. 
We have seen the curtain draw up ; a chaise now drives off 
(is in driving). There is the curious Interrogative, used in 
polite society, yoM shall be there, sha^nt you? i. 36 ; here we 
should substitute are to for shall. The were still stands for 
esset ; it were as well omitted, iii. 202. We see a curious 
union of the Verbal Noun and the Participle in i. 85 ; 
there was 'no avoiding asking him. The verb clash is used 
otherwise than physically ; his humour clasJies with mine, 
iv. 293. A man does himself violence when he restrains 
himself, ii. 129. The verb shout is replaced by call out, 
ii. 135. The verb settle governs an Infinitive; settle to 
dance, iii. 6. A man makes a pun and asks, you take me ? 
V. 55. A new shade of meaning is seen in wear ; I wm'e 
a hole in my shoe, iii. 11. A man comes down (with his 
money), y. 56; after his death he cuts up/ not well, in 
the case before us, iii. 232 ; he had spent his money in 
hopping (giving balls), p. 233 ; this phrase must have been 
brought from the North. A lady steals a match upon her 
mother (gets married), v. 287 ; we substitute march for 
match. A fever is got under ; this is like the Passive was 
prevailed upon, which also occurs here. Certain things are 
said to tell well, p. 256 ; this evidently came from be in 
telling. A young lady is not come out, p. 259 ; this tech- 
nical phrase is printed in Italics, being something new. 
The verb ramhle is applied to the talk of a person in a 
fever. The re is prefixed at last to the old verb mind ; 
this common remind of ours is a very late comer. 

Among the Adverbs is highly in spirits, ii. 237, where 
we should say, in high spirits. The adverb, like the adjec- 
tive in 1710, is repeated for emphasis; I am sadly, sadly 
afraid, ii. 131 ; here the sad bears its old sense, gravis. 

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We have seen somehow ; in v. 123 it is said that every- 
body was no-how (awkwardly situated). The Preposition 
under is applied to a fresh noun; be under the necessity. 
There is the Scandinavian muggy, applied to weather, and 
the Celtic noun hump ; also flimsy. 

Among the Eomance words are a crush, dissipated 
(riotous), a fancy dress, to colour high (blush), money lender, 
ventilator, the horrors, old fashioned, gentleman at large, state 
of affairs, include in the party, cry herself to sleep, contrive to 
see her, touch his hat, pew opener, man-monkey, facile, dis- 
tressed for money, the poor^s rate, green grocer, raving mad. 
We find an ennuyS, chaperon, etiquette, protegee, figurante, 
reverie, pianoforte. The vulgar Briggs speaks of a gentle- 
man as Master Harrell; Cecilia addresses a labourer as 
Master (a practice I can well remember in my boyhood) ; 
an underbred woman angrily accosts certain chairmen as 
Misters; this is still an American usage. Something is 
guite too dismal, iv. 9 ; a phrase revived of late. A lady 
keeps a companion; this oflSce had been known twenty 
years earlier. We hear of the game Q in the corner, i. 41 ; 
here we now make puss the first word. A man sets off for 
the continent, iv. 48 ; here there is no capital letter. The 
word expression is now connected with the face. A man, 
in an asylum, is said to be confined. One unlucky wight is 
of no family ; here the adjective high must be dropped. 
An adverb is turned into an Adjective; / am grown so 
^(?(?r/y (unwell), ii. 51, 3 Qdlo\Ji^ji& well founded, y. ^. The 
word notion comes forward ; bring him up to high notions, ii. 
71 ; I have no notion of his wanting, etc., iii. 288. A shop 
undergoes declension, ii. 81. There is disgustful, where we 
have changed the last syllable. The old pi'omptness, after 
200 years of life, has a rival promptitude. We hear of a 
co-inddence of ideas, ii. 197. Every thing at a ball is quite 
in a style, ii. 202 ; a few years later the a was to be 
dropped. The beautiful old French word gay, always 
highly honoured in our hoary ballads, is degraded, and 
expresses debauchery; he was gay among the ladies, ii. 254 ; 
we heard enough of this peculiar sense of the word in Mr. 
Stead's trial in 1885. A person is taken too seriously, iii. 

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192 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

65 ; this our penny-a-liners now insist on turning back 
into French. The fine old phrase geidU or simple is put 
into a vulgar man's mouth, iii. 143. The word^^507i had 
borne a lofty sense in 1700; but it is here scornfully 
applied by a haughty aristocrat, referring to a man on 
whom he looks down, iii 234. A young lady ispresentedy 
p. 259 ; here at Court is dropped. Something cannot signify, 
p. 256 ; this usage of the verb without an Accusative 
following is new. An estate is put out to nurse; the Italics 
in the book betoken a new phrase, v. 193. A man talks 
of extra-interest, ii. 34; other Latin words, such as ultra, 
were soon to be prefixed to English words. A' vulgar 
man uses the French souse (the coin), v. 25 ; it seems that 
the second s was still sounded. A youth, when proposing, 
is said to put the quotum to a lady ; there is a world of 
emphasis in this the. A person is said to inhabit desultory 
(temporary) dwellings, v. 134; we confine the word to 
pursuits. A man threatens to summons another ; here an 
imitation of summoneas (in the writ) is brought into common 
life ; the former summon had been used in another sense. 
A lady wears a riding habU ; she also has a habit for a 
masquerade, i. 38. A man attacks his neighbour at a meal, 
i. 17 ; this verb is here employed jocularly for accost. A 
son is of great expectations, v. 82. The word capital still 
stands for magnus, as it had done all through the Century; 
a capital fortune, v. 117. Somebody courting a woman is 
said to cry snap, v. 1 1 9 ; in * Silas Mamer * the old clerk 
on a similar occasion says figuratively that he cried sniff, 
and his future wife cried snaff. It is said that a matter 
cannot rest here. A vulgar man uses obligated for coactus. 
Men are described as being out of sorts, a new phrase, v. 308. 
There is the very old adjective an ungain (awkward) 
business, v. 123. A man bobs his servants (hits or cheats 
them), V. 54 ; the old transitive verb did not last much 
longer. A nobleman's daughter uses I had as lieve, etc., iii. 
256 ; I have actually seen this fine old phrase set down as 
a vulgarism by some of the would-be critics of our day. 
The old proverb about the ill luck of listeners is referred 
to in iv. 13. 

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I may here remark that the ea, expressing French ^ 
lasted all through this Century; even after 1800 I have 
seen the verb flay printed flea, I give a curious story bear- 
ing on this point. About the year 1780 an old Scotch 
lady, born in Queen Anne's days, wanted a chme to take 
her into Perth, and wrote to order " the largest ckeme, that 
could be got." At the appointed time some men came out 
and set before her an enormous dieese. This tale has been 
handed down by Lady Nairne, who was the old lady's 
niece, and was present on the occasion, I think. 

Great is the contrast between Miss Burney's fashionable 
novels and the next work that I review ; this is Captain 
Grose's * Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue,' printed 
in 1785. Much of our slang appears here for the first 
time ; many of the terms here set down are anything but 
edifying. Several words are clipped ; we see davy (affidavit), 
dilly (diligence), a word to be made immortal by Canning ; 
witicm long, a shortening of damnation, said to be popular in 
Kent and Sussex; dispatch cock loses its first syllable; 
coachman becomes coachee; grogram had already produced 
grog. The a supplants e; the netty of Tusser becomes 
natty. The old gouk (stultus) is seen Sbsgawkey, The t 
is added ; there is the college term sport oak ; I suppose 
this must come from the old sperren (claudere). The final 
t is clipped; the rout (tumultus) becomes row at Cam- 
bridge. There are both the forms Welsh rare hit and JFelsh 

Among the Substantives are chickabiddy, body snatclier^ 
bubble and squeak, buggy, gigg (sic), bum boat, chatterbox, church- 
yard cough, cockrobin, cupboard love, fallalls, gumption, hurdy 
gurdy (formed from the grating sound), lickspittle, a lounge, 
mulligrubs, fireman, plumper (at elections), pot walloper (pot- 
boiler), quill driver, rattle traps, slam (at whist), slush, thing- 
umbob, timber toe, tuft hunter. The author in his Preface 
instances the nouns bore and twaddle as lately fallen into 
disuse ; alas, both the names and the things are still vigor- 
ous as ever. I now give a list of some new synonyms ; most 
of them are still reckoned slang, though a Century has 
passed since they appeared in print. 


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Adam's ale. 


Brown Bess. 

Red hair 




Cross old woman 

Old cat. 

An adept 

A dab. 


David Jones's locker. 





Ready speech 

Gab (gift of). 




Herring pond. 



Negro blood 

A lick of the tar brush. 

Light infantry man 

Light bob. 


Live lumber. 



An effeminate fellow 


An expert 

Old hand. 




Knowledge box. 





Blow with open hand 


Narrow escape 




Small beer 


Old maid 







Big man 


There are the phrases my eye Betty Martin^ like a hear 
with a sore ear (head), the whole kit of them (here the noun 
also stands for the contents of a soldier's Imapsack), a dead 
set (scheme), tag, rag, and bobtail, where the third noun is 
new. From Ireland come blarney, shillaley ; we still see 
Teaguelandj but Paddy now replaces league. From Cam- 
bridge comes gyjp ; from Oxford comes scout ; but these as 
yet were only errand boys; the townsmen of Oxford 
were called raffs by the students. A woman may be hailed 
as blasted brimstone. Some of our slang words have changed 
their meaning within the last Century; our duffer here 
stands for a cheat who deals in smuggled goods. Our 

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huffer here means nothing but an innkeeper or a stealer of 
animals ; hMs eye stands for a Crown Prince ; a shy cock is 
one whom fear of bailiffs keeps within ; mudlark means a 
hog ; snob means a shoemaker ; swag stands for a shop, in 
our days it refers rather to the shop's contents. Flummery is 
oatmeal and water boiled to a jelly; it is not very nourish- 
ing, so it is here applied to compliments. The word 
gUls is transferred from fish to men ; " rosy about the gills." 
The word jorum is here a synonym ioTJug ; we now transfer 
the word to the jug's contents. The word plu^k, used by 
Mabbe for viscera, now stands for audacia. The word scran 
means cibus ; we know the Irish " bad scran to you ! " A 
one-horse chaise appears as a sulky. The Irish called the 
Methodists swadlers. Mention is made of the New Drop, 
in connexion with the gallows. A shilling is called a 
twelver; sixers, tenners, and others were to follow. An 
infantry man appears as a foot wabler ; our wobble was to 
become very common later. A man wearing a wig is a 
wigsby, an epithet later applied to Major Pendennis ; we 
know the old rudesby. 

The new Adjectives are peckish, ramshackled, swivel eyed, 
ship shape, a white lie, the white feather (showing cowardice), 
a willing anivnal, a wet Quaker, a rainy day (misfortune). The 
Devil appears as the old one, A man may run tame about a 
house ; hence our tame cats. We hear of the late wake (lyke 
wake) j the former phrase provoked the wrath of Scott's 

Ainong the new Verbs are flabagast, gouge, mill (ferire), 
rough it, sconce (fine), slouch, spifiicate. There are the phrases 
box the compass, kick the bucket, shoot a cat (vomere), cock your 
eye, send to Coventry, not care a dam, dot and go one, die game, 
say Jack Robinson, go to kingdom come, lose leather, pig together, 
come out of a bandbox, ride rusty. There is clammed (starved), 
the verb so well known in Lancashire strikes ; the word 
had already appeared in that county in 1360. A man 
when drunk is said to be cut A rogue does his victim over 
(cheats him) ; here we now suppress the last word ; another 
phrase of the same kind is to come Yorkshire over him ; here 
the sense of overcome seems to appear. A man ruined is 

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196 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

said to be d^m. up ; the old fordone had vanished. There 
is the phrase knock off (cessare), here said to be borrowed 
from the blacksmith. The verb peel now becomes intransi- 
tive and stands for strip. To plant here stands for celare ; 
hence a plant came afterwards to represent dolus, A coach- 
man may spill his passengers. A man hanged for a crime 
is said to stretch for it. The fine old verb tout is now de- 
graded into a thief's term ; these gentry tout^ or see if the 
coast is clear ; innkeepers also tout for custom. A secret 
may be wormed out ; a new sense of the verb. 

There are the Adverb harum scarum and the phrase fee 
faw fum. 

There is the Celtic verb pmk; also lick (ferire), very 
different from the Teutonic word of the same soimd ; this 
Celtic lack had appeared in Cheshire about 1400. There 
are the Dutch gallipot and the Scandinavian chubby. We 
find the negro term pickaniny. 

Among the Eomance words are catchpenny, circumbendi- 
bus. Cicerone, demirep, lace (ferire), malingeror, bon vivant, 
a scamp, rrwveables, mute (at funerals), peppery, Jack tar, 
porker, powder monkey, pudding - headed, resurrection man, 
sleeping partner, smart money, a tandem, rule of thumb, I 
give a few slang synonyms — 






r Corporation. 
[Victualling office. 


Favourite pursuit 

Hobby horse. 

Bad soldier 

King's bad bargain 



Potato trap. 


Used up. 

There are the new phrases be japanned (enter into holy 
orders), one of easy virtue, jolly dog, round robin (a kind 
of remonstrance used in the Navy). A ship may be 
scuttled^ ; this Eomance word differs from the Scandinavian 
scuttle (fugere) of 1712. A man may catch a crab when 
rowing. Something may turn up trumps. The verb track 
here stands for vadere ; hence, I suppose, comes make tracks. 
An ensign is called a rag-carrier ; hence perhaps the Eag 

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and FamisL The pirate's flag is called the jolly roger ; 
the word roger had appeared earlier than rogue in our tongue ; 
see i. 512 of my book. A Philistine as yet means nothing 
but a bailiff or a drunkard. A mistress appears here as 
a peculiar; 400 years earlier she had been called a 
special. We hear that visitors to Oxford were termed 
lions ; lioness was to be used later in a similar way. What 
in * Oliver Twist' fifty years later is called the kinchin lay, 
appears here as the kid lay ; the last word meaning pro- 
fession. An huzza is said to be in the sea phrase a cheer ; 
the giving three cheers has to be here explained. We have 
already seen chum ; the derivation chamber fellow is here 
given ; the word belonged mainly to the Universities and 

Several old forms are preserved here; to ride Bayard 
of ten toes stands for ambulare; this horse Bayard had 
had a life of 400 years in our literature. A tender 
creature is still called tender Farnell, the old Petronilla. 
A fool is still called a nysey ; stultus had been Englished by 
nyse in 1303. Firemen appear aa flredrakes ; I suppose the 
last syllable is our old form of dragon. An oflBce gives a 
badge, a very ancient phrase for bearing heraldic arms. 
The old cotquean still survives as cot or quot. Irishmen are 
still called dear joys, as in the days of James IL 

I take from Dr. Murray's Dictionary the following 
phrases, dating from about this time, air-balloon, attitudin- 
izCy to augur, avalanche, backboards, to badger, bang goes 

Pegge, who knew Northern England well, must have 
written his * Anecdotes of the English Language ' about 
1800; I have used the edition [of 1814; he directs his 
attention particularly to the speech of Londoners. In their 
mouths the aa replaced au, as saacy, daater, p. 58. The i 
replaced in kiver ; it was inserted in stupendious and 
loveyer (lover) ; the i is dropped in the middle of curous. 
The author touches upon the bad habit of writing for the 
foreign ou in honour, favour, etc., p. 43. He mourns over 
the disappearance of A; in musick, publick, etc. ; no school- 
boy forty years earlier would have dared to drop this 

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198 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

letter in writing, p. 43. The g replaces 5 or sA, as 
squeedge, ruhhige ; Mrs. Gamp must have been in the bloom 
of her youth about this time. The d and t round off 
words in govmd and sermont; howsomdever is called a 
Cockney phrase, which is a mistake, p. 64. The I re- 
places r, as ohstropol(ms. The r replaces d, as the very 
moral (model). The r is transposed in skrimage. The v 
replaces w, as vig. Potatoes are shortened into taters. 
It will be observed here that the most hideous corrup- 
tion of all, that of the A, is not so much as mentioned ; 
traces of this were to appear a few years later. 

Among the new Substantives are drysalter, chunky piggin 
(can, whence cold pig). The word rean is put down as a 
gutter; in Gloucestershire it means a broad ditch. The 
word stole is set down among the strange words as a 
weasel.; it had appeared in the * Coventry Mysteries.' 
The word Londonism is coined, p. 54. Notice is called to 
the new word starvation, coined not long before by Dun- 
das, p. 38. A small man appears as a go-by-ground, p. 
374; this idiom began in the year 1280. Ah explana- 
tion is offered of posteses, the London Plural of posts, p. 
61 ; it is compared with goddesses. 

There are the Adjectives /rac^imAS, butter-fingered. The 
old gimm is given, with its synonjrm "neatly trimmed." 
The word lesser (minor) was much in London use; Dr. 
Johnson had protested against it; but it occurs in our 
best English classics. Pegge makes a curious blimder 
about alder (omnium) in alderliefest, thinking that it means 
oldest or best, and comparing it with the Cambridge Senior 
Optime / p. 99. His grammar is sometimes as bad as that 
of any of the Londoners assailed by him; to you and I 
it (seems), p. 302, is meant quite seriously. The old whai 
does me I was still alive, p. 218. The his self is remarked 
upon; ourn, yourn, hern, and his^n were spoken, but not 
written; this had been referred to by Wallis more than 
a Century earlier. 

Among the new Verbs are scrowdge (crowd), click, purr 
(kick) ; the last is well known in Lancashire. There is 
the saw grin and abide it, p. 353 ; boys rub through an 

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examination. There are wrong forms in London use, as 
unhelcTiown, he knowed, drawed, corned, shall us, learn you to, 
etc., / have got a mind to, they catch (caught), p. 139. A 
protest is made against he begun, he drunk, p. 24j5. There 
is the bad / have wrote, Bailey shows what English 
philology was in Swift's day, by pronouncing crew to be • 
the bastard praeterite, and crowd the right form, p. 108 ; 
thanks to Tyndale, crew is likely to be lasting. We are 
told that seamen make stove the Perfect of the verb stave, 
p. 244. Londoners ^t'i}! fetched a walk, p. 207 ; and asked 
what is gone with him? p. 247. They were fond of the 
Double Negative, dropped since Gresham's time, as / donH 
know nothing, p. vii The at least wise of 1580 is now 
cut down to least-wise, Pegge protests against since used 
as an adverb, p. 282 ; he little knew that it was the 
Northern form of ago. As to Prepositions, we hear that 
averse to is more common in speech than averse from ; both 
forms date from the beginning of the Seventeenth Century. 
Among the new Eomance words are entr6e, jpromenade, 
morgeau, outr4, an invito, p. 289, his forte, Spergne; galoches 
are once more brought over. We see Panorama, shawl. 
Amen clerk, smock frock ; a traveller is nowadays called a 
tourist, p. 313. The verb aggravate was used for lacessere; 
a vulgar phrase had arisen, to exchequer a man, p. 174 ; 
we county-court him. A protest is made against consequen- 
tial being used for pompous, p. 258; also against "he is 
a good character, ^^ p. 268 ; also against certain news being 
premature, p. 281. It is pointed out that ingenuity may 
imply either vnt or candour, p. 260. It is remarked that 
nervous had been applied to a muscular man until quite 
lately; about 1800 it was used of a man of weak nerves, 
p. 263. It is a contradiction in terms to talk of false 
orthography, p. 265 ; Lord Oxford had been guilty of a 
similar blunder, ill success ; this was as absurd as enjoying 
had health, p. 267. Pegge approves of the Participle con- 
vulsed, but not of the Perfect convulsed, p. 270 ; he prefers 
repelled to repulsed. He tells a story of a kind-hearted 
Mayor pardoning a culprit, and then asking him, "Am 
not I a pitiful Magistrate 1" "Yes, your Worship," p. 

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200 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

282. Pegge remarks on p-ecedent having one sound when 
a substantive, another sound when an adjective, p. 283. 
A reference is made to Byron's curious sea phrase in 
1780, we carried away ow mast (lost it), p. 294. Dry den 
and Addison are reproved for using antirchamber instead 
of antechamber, p. 274. Of old, a host used to promise 
to wait upon a guest (by his deputies); in Pegge's time 
the invited guest promised to wait upon his host, p. 289 ; 
this is said to be all wrong. 

Our author, who was capable of better things, talks 
about the unintelligible gabble of nine-tenths of the re- 
moter provinces, p. 76. The Cornish applied aunt and 
uncle to all elderly persons, p. 354 ; this usage was to pre- 
vail among the American negroes. Tyndale's word cham 
(chew) is still put down as peculiar to Gloucestershire, p. 
362. Berkshire still retained heal (tegere) ; donky is set 
down to Essex ; and its synonym neddy to Kingswood. 
Norfolk used the old seel (tempus) in the form sale; it, 
moreover, used elvish for spiteful, reminding us of Skelton's 
use of elf. 

There are the Kentish a God send, mixon (dunghill), nan ? 
(the old anan?), a thing is done in no time, p. 294. 
Cheshire gives the odd clussum (clumsy), one of the last 
uses of sum in forming new Adjectives. From Derbyshire 
come helive (statim), bout (extra) the Scotch but, ding (beat), 
nedder (adder), whick (quick); there is also the entreaty 
do it, of all loves / banksman had here replaced the banckman 
of 1598 in the colliers' mouths ; the en of the Midland 
still held its ground, as we tellen. From Lancashire come 
the old keen-bitten (sharp set), and the curious eye-breen (eye- 
brows) ; there is JV, the Scandinavian er (ego sum) ; such 
names as Antony a Wood were still known in this county, 
and this North Western a had been long before remarked 
by Lambard and Camden. There is the Northumbrian 
keel (coal barge). From Yorkshire come bran-span-new, 
chavel (chew), a good few, flaun (custard), mew (mowed), 
hinder end, look silly (poorly), Ize (ego sum) ; there is the 
fine phrase knife-gate (the run at a man's table) ; groyne, a 
swine's snout, is still pronounced gruin. 

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The words and forms here set down as Northern are 
indermore (inner), Uin (cessare) hoggle, brake (bush), brass 
(coppers), cranny, crevice, crunch, to favour (resemble), a flew, 
forthink (repent), fresh (tipsy), funny, gawd (toy), grew (grey- 
hound), gryze (swine), ha][)py man be his dole, hollin (holly), 
hurne (angulus), knock him over, latterly, lissom, make (a match), 
marry come up) by the mass I mi^ (displeasure), ne'ps (turnips), 
'pewit (lapwing), to potter, puggy (moist), thick (intimate), 
toddle, truck (fail), a long price ; for this last Shakesperian 
authority is given. A man, when nearly drunk, is said to 
be "^r^tty forward. 

In some shires the Old English sound clcefre, not clover, 
was still retained ; claver appears in the index ; Portingal 
was still sounded ; also regiment for regimen, pp. 62, 63. 
The adjective cuiious still means " scrupulously exact," p. 
^Q, The old vmbethink was still to be heard in London, 
p. 66 ; Pegge little knew that the first part of the word 
was akin to the Greek amphi ; hence he blunders most 
oddly about the old verb, as also about the phrase the tother, 
p. 75 ; this umhethink perhaps gave rise to unbeknovm. He 
remembered the old good morrow being used as a greeting 
in his youth, p. 276. The old cadawe (monedula) of the 
* Promptorium ' still survived as caw-daw. 

The last work I shall review is Miss Hawkins' novel, 
*The Countess and Gertrude,' published in 1811. It is a 
work that will still repay perusal; the authoress now and 
then throws light upon some of Boswell's heroes; her 
tales about the ruffian Baretti are curious. It is well 
worth our while to read a work so near our own time, 
published when the fathers of my co-aevals were being 
birched at school, and when Wellington abroad was making 
ready for his pounce on Ciudad Kodrigo. 

There is some clipping of Vowels ; we see ^pon honour. 
There must have been something peculiar about herd 
(audivi), which is pointedly written for heard, iv. 39. The 
i OT yis inserted in kiow (vacca), which is said to be Somer- 
setshire ; parlyament is here said to have been the pronunci- 
ation fashionable in 1811, ii. 268. The i replaces the old 
a, as he bid (jussit). The old form cloaths (vestes) is still 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

202 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

preserved. There is the bad habit of writing ndghhor, 
where the last vowel should be either u or ou. The ow still 
expresses the sound of French ou in cuckow, i. 11, a very late 
instance. The form chuse is still written for eligere. The 
p is struck out ; ]papa becomes pa. We now find tricks 
played with the letter h ; the evil habit was just coming 
in, which has now overspread the whole land South of 
Yorkshire ; a lad/s-maid talks of a himpeeral (imperial), 
iii 196; a rustic talks of a ot loaf, iv. 232; these are 
early instances of the vilest of all our corruptions in speech. 
In * Cecilia ' the madam had been most carefully sounded 
by ladies ; thirty years later this address becomes rrwJam, 

Among the Substantives are clubfoot, home-mmd, peg top, 
girlhood, Jew hoy, dust hole, errand man, dickey (of carriage), 
muff-taker, eye lash, job horse, work box, morning call, slipslop, 
side-speech, netting (work), merry thought (of fowls).. There 
is sick room; also sitting room, school room, and book room, 
which its honest owner refuses to call a library, saying he 
might as well call his bed room a cuUculum, iv. 30. We 
hear of fags at public schools; a girl may be fagged 
(wearied) ; a person takes the fag of doing something, ii. 
11. We still come across the old waiting woman, and the 
woman ; but the later lady's maid also appears ; the Queen's 
Bedchamber women still survive. There are the plurals 
littlenesses and roughnesses. We hear of a girVs make and 
figure, i. 189. We come upon blue stocking; these fair 
philosophers had been known for about thirty years. The 
shopwomen claim the title of ladies, ii. 6. The off horse 
now appears, the adverb replacing the further of 1678. 
Certain works are known as Sunday books ; churches are 
talked off as religion shops, ii. 79. We may follow the lead 
of others. The trees called evergreens are known, as we 
see by a passage in ii. 114. A person's kindness is shown 
in the set of her features, ii. 139. Something tedious is 
called a drag, ii. 252. We have the phrase a toad under 
a harrow. The word book-maker (used by Foxe) is revived 
in iii. 162; it is here used scornfully of petty authors. 
The word swim is made a noun ; give him a swim, iv. 71. 
We see outrigger, p. 273 ; it seems here to mean outrider. 

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A lady is addressed as my dear soul, p. 283. The word 
sheet may now refer to water, iv. 5. There is the phrase 
"this is her own look-out/' p. 50, where the Infinitive 
stands for the noun; in p. 62 comes "'twas all make 
believe." There is a habit coming in of calling a boy by 
two names in everyday life, as John Francis, p. 195. 

Among the Adjectives we see pinchbeck, buoyant, lack- 
adaisical ; we hear of bad words, of hot service, of a rough 
copy, of a hopeless child, of a good letter, of a short crop, of 
high words. A remark may be cutting ; something is not 
worth while; hitherto a possessive pronoun had been prefixed 
to the while, A person is in high good humour ; here the 
good humour seems to be treated as a substantive. The 
word clever is called in iii. 51 a happy general term of 
praise. A man, when ill, is said to be very bad, p. 91. A 
youth is called not very steady, p. 303 ; the adjective had 
been very seldom used hitherto. A boy is said to be 
pink and white. To some minds nothing is a dead letter, 
p. 179. The old adjective rum is revived in the form of 
roomy, A circumstance is said to be of the last import- 
ance, p. 223, a curious new phrase; something comes to 
much the same. 

As to Pronouns, an enraged nobleman addresses his 
wife as thou devU / i. 1 10 ; a very late instance of the scorn- 
ful thou. An inferior is addressed as Mrs, JVhai^s-your- 
name, iii. 97. The phrase "four in hand" is marked as if 
it was something new, iii. 72. People ride three in a chariot, 
iv. 187. 

Among the Verbs we find have it (a quarrel) out, run 
down (into the country), sow broadcast, give into a plan, a 
person is let down (in vigour), head the table, take it into his 
head, take him in tow, stand no chance, knock down with a 
feather, cut open leaves, let him off (forgive), behave her best, 
set the fashions, make head or tail of it, give me a fever, jump 
about (be active), make one^s flesh creep, he is dished for ever, 
do a great stroke, look high (as to marriage), do him credit, 
come of age, call him to order, heart-felt, care-worn, herd together, 
give herself a shake, make a point of it, take by surprise, money 
spins, may whistle for it. Certain phrases are marked to 

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204 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

show that they are new ; as take wine (at dinner), demean 
(lower) himself, flirt (as it is called, i. 89), get on (agree), poke 
(have an awkward carriage), a ball goes off well, set to (under- 
take work),sAoi^ himself (B,t a party ),/6^cA up (recover ground), 
give the scene (relate it), a ready made family. The well is 
dropped in the old we shall do well, i. 33 ; a certain lady 
will do for a wife, iv. 69. The verb demean yourself is 
evidently a new phrase for debase, iv. 3; but the retort 
comes, "I demean myself (behave) to your satisfaction ;'* the 
latter sense being very old; here the de is set before a 
Teutonic as well as before a Komance root. The Continent 
is said to be settled (at peace), ii. 126. There is a construc- 
tion with the Double Accusative in hear him his lessons, ii. 
258. We read of what is called scouting ridicule, iii. 33 ; 
hence "to scout the idea." Something is said to be all the 
go, iii. 280; here the Infinitive once more stands for a 
noun. Characters are said to shade into each other, iii. 
314; this verb evidently sprang from the noim. A lady 
is said to be spUt when her carriage wheel gives way, iii. 
346 ; there seems to be no idea of slang here. A report 
dies away, iii. 366, a new sense of the verb. A person 
rises (in the world) to he b. steward, iv. 3. We see the old 
form snift still written for our verb sniff, iv. 21. Some- 
thing is made up to us, iv. 25 ; here the idea of compensa- 
tion is expressed. The old durst seems by this time to 
have altogether made way for the corrupt dared. 

As to Adverbs, something is far from bad, i. 98 ; the far 
had not been prefixed in this way to an Adjective. A lady 
of quality uses the neither at the end of a sentence after 
another negative, ii. 61. There is the phrase to be wet 
through. A person is missed sadly, where the old sense of 
graviter remains, iv. 67. The former do but look gives rise 
to only look, p. 234. 

As to Prepositions, we find be all at sea, sit down to a 
bureau; the to, implying respect, is repeated in rise to them, 
iv. 8 ; the phrase " stupid to a degree " is denounced as a 
vulgarism, iv. 80, though some might talk of the Latin ad- 
modum; Collier had written to the last degree. There is to 
the backbone, used as a strong asseveration. We find / 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


was your age, i. 260 ; here an of must be dropped. There 
is the old confusion between of and on; any on 'em, ii. 
135; something is done on speculation, p. 162; people 
are on the move, p. 357. A woman is on her good behaviour, 
iii. 211. Men live within their income, p. 43. There is 
the imgrammatical between you and I and the post, p. 280. 
Something is out of drawing, p. 393. An artist colours 
from natu/re, p. 259 ; a person is hunedfrom her own house, 
iv. 328. 

The Interjections are ly the living Jingo I used by a 
lady, iii. 48; lawk-a-day / used by a maid, p. 196; thank 
goodness I p. 283 ; / declare to goodness / i 8 ; laws / 
iv. 44. 

There is the Celtic word poney. The following words 
are mostly Eomance; egotism, a statuary, watering place 
(town), family man, copyright, stimulus, ad libitum, dress ball, 
collection (of pictures), day -scholar, a convict, proof sheet, 
mahogany, vortex, shagreen, pace the room, festoon, veranda, per- 
sonify, interesting girl, decoy duck, tea garden, kitchen garden, 
the ludicrous, diplomatic, plethora, macaw, rascalities, music 
stand, picturesque, patronise (said to be a fashionable phrase, 
ii. 157), Indian ink, dignitary, volume of abuse, coating, veneer, 
respectful, mail coachman, ogre, umlerrate, falsities, in the course 
of things, to wafer it, pointer (dog), beef tea, cordon, nankeen 
boots, hookah, geranium, parasol, mail (coach), self-command, 
turn him over to, marry for money, an improving estate, save 
appearances, family-detail, hyppish, views (hopes), curricle, to 
sober her, a sub-lesson, a round dozen, the lower classes, horror- 
struck, private tutor, stage effect, superior woman, tragedy air, 
poppet, matter of course, the first people (in society), the net 
product, pinion his arms, subscribe to the truth of, to sober 
down. The French words are dSjeuner, aufait, 4lhve, demdd, 
en gar^, catalogue raisonnt (marked as something new), 
salon, charade, espionnage, bijou, gaucherie, tout ensemble, 
boudoir, soubrette, mdange, sdjour, hauteur, en masse, cordon, 
regime, glacier, parvenu, fa^e, patois. We see costume often 
marked in Italics, as being something new. The word 
manage is brought over again, I think for the third time. 
We see gala and tri^ ; also the Latin strata. People do 

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2o6 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

things m sUjUy which is marked as a new phrase ; a certain 
carriage is said to be a man's styUy L 358 (article patronised 
by him). Other new phrases, so marked, are manage (con- 
trive) to do it, i. b\y figure of fun, uncommon pretty y fi/ae 
felloWy sm-prising felloWy nice girl, capital horsey wait on (visit) 
a lady, famous good things, shocking had, a fellow at Eton, ii. 
264, confab y verMagCy commit himself y rrmke him such afigurCy 
a serums place (religious), a fancy farmer, A mother calls 
her baby old fellow, A lady is said to be the pest of the 
shops. We see exactitude, not the old exactness. In i 359 
stands every possible indignity; before this time the adjective 
would have been made the last word. There is the new 
phrase times without numbery ii. 37. The^t^s^ seems to get 
the sense of m in p. 153 ; A« just touched their heads. 
The curious old word abscission is pedantically used for 
separation, A lady may have brilliant offers ; sl man may 
pay her some attention. The very old humorsome (whimsical) 
still survives, ii. 337. A girl is now called a young persony 
p. 405. We hear of visiting tickets (cards), iil 3 ; also of 
tickets. The sense of decorum is expressed by decencyy p. 
20. A man objects a fault to another, p. 29 ; a very Latin 
idiom. What we now call purism is seen in this same page 
as purity. There is the cry, what a mercy thaty etc.! p. 48. 
A man takes leave properly (with propriety), p. 73. The 
nice was coming into great vogue ; a nice young many nice 
young people, A protest is made against the common habit 
of speaking of pulse as Plural ; " your pulse are weak," p. 
102. In p. 262 personalities stand for compliments. There 
is bride-electy which seems in our day to have been crushed 
hyfiangee, A man is pronounced to he just nobody y p. 276 ; 
a very common phrase in Scotland. The word am&nahle is 
used in the new sense of tractablCy p. 365. We read of a 
bowling road, p. 382 ; here the first word seems to be a 
Verbal noun. In iv. 16 niceties stand for dainties. A 
woman is famous for notability (household management), 
p. 43. A father, who will not give in to an extravagant 
son, is called a beasty p. 58. We hear of a liberal (noble) 
genealogy, p. 75 ; the Old English freo might express the 
same. A silly lady antiieipates rail-ways in the streets of 

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London, p. 106; a truer prophet than our authoress 
thought. A schoolmistress talks of what is her jprovince, 
p. 184. Travellers have the carriage close, p. 191. The 
adjective superb is evidently a catchword of the time ; see 
p. 229. A woman makes herself the fashion, p. 307. The 
old vastly still survives, as vastly well,i. 96. 

It seems that governesses were sometimes very badly 
treated, i. 359. It was a new thing for noblemen and their 
wives to go themselves to the shops of tailors and dress- 
makers, iii 191. The old terms for a father had been 
Square-toes and Hunks; these were now succeeded by the 
more respectful Old Gentleman, iii. 225 ; governor was to 
come later. The fine lady of the book, seemingly about 
forty, and all that is charming, declares that she likes a 
snuff-box, iii. 269 (was a snuff-taker). The old gig (giglot) 
still survives ; an Earl talks of a girl as a little painted gig, 
iii. 369 ; indeed the word comes to mean stultus, and is 
transferred to men, p. 393. The authoress thinks it very 
audacious that a bastard, though moving in the best society, 
should address a nobleman's son as my dear fellow, p. 393. 
We see that fast young ladies were well known in 1811; 
a long list of their tricks, played on their friends, is given 
in iv. 137. Children, coming in after dinner, had to drink 
the health of every one at table, iv. 197 ; I myself have 
heard some of these victims in later years describe their 
sufferings on these occasions. 

Here I think it advisable to pause, in analysing English 
authors. I hope that some one will take up my task, and 
analyse the authors of our own Century. But I doubt if 
such a task can be achieved by one man alone; a com- 
mittee of philologers must work together to this end. A 
hard task in truth it is ; for instance, all the eighty volumes 
of * Punch ' must be carefully studied, if the latest idioms 
are to be remarked. Let us hope that the same spirit that 
has inspired Dr. Murray's contributors will urge scholars to 
the work I set before them. 

I here mark a few new idioms, to be found in Scott's 
Eomances and later writers ; a far other (different) tone from, 
too had of you to, etc., beyond his hour, under way, over forty. 

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somehow or other, no circumstance whatever, it being dark, only 
that (were it not that), in proportion as ; we have seen all 
rivals else (alii) in Butler ; the else is now made a Genitive ; 
somebody else^s may be found in Dickens about 1840. 

I have halted at 1811 ; about that time the EngUsh 
Muse was once more soaring aloft ; her happiest efforts have 
mostly been made at the moment when English knights 
have been winning their spurs abroad ; and this remark is 
as true of Wellington's time as of the days of the Black 
Prince or Raleigh. Nine or ten English writers, who are 
hkely to live for ever, were at work soon after 1800. Scott 
rose aloft above his brethren ; but he was dethroned in his 
own lifetime (never had such a thing been known in our 
literature) by a greater bard than himself. Byron had the 
good taste to tread in the path followed by his Northern 
rival ; both of them in their diction set the simplicity of 
the early part of the Fourteenth Century above all the 
gewgaws of certain later ages. Now it was that such 
words as losel and leech awoke after a long sleep. Bishop 
Percy, though Dr. Johnson laughed, had already led the 
English back to old wells, streams purer than any known 
to Pope. Bums had written in his own dialect verses that 
were prized by the high and the low alike. Coleridge's 
great ballad betokened that the public taste was veering 
round; he also turned the eyes of England to the vast 
intellectual wealth that was now being poured into the lap 
of Germany. All the diflferent nations of Europe had come 
to know each other better. Voltaire had many years earlier 
told his countrymen that an old Warwickshire barbarian had 
lived, whose works contained grains of gold overlaid with 
much rubbish ; something might have been made of the 
man, had he lived at Paris at the right time and formed 
himself upon Eacine, or better still, upon Monsieur Arouet. 
Somewhat later, Schiller^, a^ : Mtnzoni " aUke felt the 
English spell. 

Thanks to the poetr}'^ of Bums and to the prose of 
Scott, the fine gentlemen of London and Oxford began to 
see what pith and harmony were lurking in the good old 
English of the North : woidd that every one of our shires 

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likewise had its laureate ! ^ But Scott's romances, the 
wholesomest of all food for the mind, have borne fniit ; we 
have in our own day seen many attempts, like those of Mr. 
Barnes in Dorset, to bring the various dialects of England 
(they are more akin to Middle English than to New Eng- 
lish) before the reading public. How many good old words, 
dropped by our literature since 1500, might be recovered 
from these sources ! If our English Makers set themselves 
earnestly to the task (they have already made a beginning), 
there is good hope that our grandchildren may freely use 
scores of Chaucer's words that we ourselves are driven to 
call obsolete. Lockhart, Macaulay, Davis, and Browning 
have done yeoman's service, in reviving the Old English 

Prose has followed in Poetry's wake. No good authors 
of our time, writing on a subject that is not highly scientific, 
would dream of abusing language as Gibbon did, when he 
cleverly in many passages elbowed out almost all Teutonic 
words, except such as Ais, fo, of, and the like. Cobbett 
roused us from foreign pedantry ; and if we do not always 
reach Tyndale's bountiful proportion of Teutonic words in 
his political tracts, we at least do not fall below the pro- 
portion employed by Addison. In proof of this, let any one 
contrast the diction of our modern English writers on Charles 
V. (Sir W. Stirling Maxwell, for instance) with the Latin- 
ised style wherein Dr. Eobertson revels when handling the 
same subject. That fine passage, in which Mr. Froude 
sets before us the Armada leaving the Spanish shore, would 
have been altogether beyond Himie a hundred years ago. 
Mr. Carlyle has had many disciples, whose awkward efforts 
to conjure with his wand are most laughable; but one 
good result at least has followed — the stem rugged Teuton- 
ism of the teacher is copied by his apes. 

It is amusing to look back upon what was thought 

^ Dr. M'Crie, in an early page of his attack on Scott's *,01d Mortality,* 
says of * Guy Mannering,' ** We are persuaded not one word in three is 
understood by the generality of (English) readers." The 'Quarterly 
Review,* vol. xv. p. 139, was so astoundingly ignorant as to call that 
novel "a dark dialect of Anglified Erse. Surely there must be a 
great difference between readers in 1815 and in 1886. 


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sound English criticism only fifty- six years ago. In a^ 
sharp attack on Dr. Monk's ' Life of Bentley,' the Edin- 
burgh Eeviewerof July 1830 lifts up his voice against such 
vulgar forms as hereby, wherein, hereupon, caught up, his holt 
was shot, fling away his credit, a hatch of fragments, it lay a 
bleeding, I know not whether Dr. Monk could have ex- 
plained the a in the last phrase ; but it seems pretty certain 
that he was one of the pioneers who brought us back to a 
homelier style of English.^ Most men in our time would 
allow that a writer of prose may go so far back as Tyndale, 
a writer of poetry so far back as Chaucer, in employing old 
words; this rule would have jarred upon the mawkish 
Eeviewer's feelings. Let each of our English writers, who 
has a well-grounded hope that he will be read a hundred 
years hence, set himself heart and soul to revive at least 
one long -neglected English word. It may be readily 
allowed that an imitation of the French Academy on our 
shores would never come to any good; still a combina- 
tion of our crack writers to eflfect much-needed reforms in 
spelling and word -building would lend fresh lustre to 
Queen Victoria's reign. More ought to be done by men 
who have some idea of the Old English grammar, than was 
done by Gibbon and Robertson. 

The change from Latinism back to Teutonism may be 
seen in speaking as well as in writing. Whatever we may 
think of Mr. Gladstone's Irish University Bill in 1873, 
none can gainsay that the last few sentences of his great 
speech, uttered the moment before his defeat, were a master- 
piece of wholesome English. But of all our Parliament 
men, none in our day has employed a racier diction than 
Mr. Bright. He has clearly borrowed much from the great 
Sixteenth Century; he sometimes seems to be kindled 
with the fire of one of those Hebrew prophets, whom Tyn- 
dale and his friends love to translate into the soundest of 
English. Pitt the elder, as we hear, knew nothing well 
but the Faery Queen ; Pitt the younger took for his pattern 
the great speeches in the First Book of Paradise Lost: 

^ I grieve to say that he is guilty of " on the tapis ;" a vulgarism 
more suited to a schoolgirl than to a scholar. 

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VI. ] THE NE W ENGLISH, 2 1 1 

Mr. Bright has gone still further back in search of a model. 
There is nothing pleasanter in our literature than the fond 
reverence with which each man, who is worth aught, looks 
back to the great spirits that have gone before. 

Lord Tennyson, a countryman of Robert Manning's and 
a careful student of old Mallory, has done much for the 
revival of pure English among us ; not the least happy of 
his efforts has been the deathbed musings of his ' Northern 
Farmer.' Further strides in the right direction have been 
made by Mr. Morris. His ' Sigurd,' more than any poem 
of late years that I know, takes us back to 1290 or there- 
abouts, and shows us how copious, in skilful hands, an 
almost purely Teutonic diction may be. It is hopeless to 
attempt the recovery of the English swept away in the 
Thirteenth Century ; but Mr. Morris, in many places, cuts 
down his proportion of French words to the scale which 
Chaucer's grandfather would have used, had that worthy, 
when young, [essayed to make his mark in literature. It 
may be said of Mr. Morris as of Spenser, " he hath labored 
to restore as to their rightful heritage such good and naturall 
English words as have been long time out of use, and 
almost cleane disherited." So swiftly are we speeding along 
the right path, in poetry at least, that ere many years we 
may even come to take a hearty general interest in our 
old title-deeds that still lie unprinted. We may see the 
subscribers to the Early English Text Society reckoned, not 
by hundreds, but by thousands.^ Our German and Scan- 
dinavian kinsfolk will then no longer twit us with our 
carelessness of the hoard so dearly prized abroad; like 
them, we shall purge our language of needless foreign 
frippery, and shall reverence the good Teutonic masonry 
wherewith our forefathers built. 

A writer, who has gone through the English monuments 
of the last Twelve Centuries, may fairly be asked his 
opinion of the English written and spoken in the year of 
grace 1886. As I am about to attack vulgarity in English 
writing, I think it advisable to state exactly beforehand 

^ The Secretary of the Society is W. Dalziel, Esq., 67 Victoria 
Road, Finsbury Park, London, N. 

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212 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

what is my own position in this matter. I have a prefer- 
ence, much as Lord Macaulay had, for the words both Teu- 
tonic and Eomance that are stamped with the authority of 
the great writers of Dryden's school, the men of Swift's 
lifetime. At the same time, I heartily welcome any foreign 
word that fills up a gap, such as the 4chelon movement, 
and others of the same kind. We have resorted to the 
French for our words of cookery, soldiering, and dress, 
for the last 600 years. To French models we owe the 
clearness, as to our Teutonic forefathers we owe the pith, 
that is the mark of the best English, i How a writer with 
these ideas can be called a purist, I cannot guess. I freely 
acknowledge that our clippings and parings in past ages 
must be viewed with tolerance. The whole history of lan- 
guage for thousands of years has been one of gradual corrup- 
tion ; no tongue has been so pared away as the English, and 
this was true even in 1303. It must not be imagined that 
this is wholly to be deplored. For instance, we know how 
important the phrase/orm/owrs, right/ is to the British army. 
How would the officer in command like to have to pro- 
nounce the word fethoweras ? this we can tell to have been 
the Old English form of four, from what we know of the 
Sanscrit, the Welsh, and the oldest monuments. Northern 
and Southern, of our own language. We are a naval and 
commercial nation ; the words shouted by the Captain to 
his men in a storm or in a sea-fight must be as short and 
clipped as possible. We have seen various complaints 
uttered against our many monosyllabic words ; most differ- 
ent are these from the long compounds in which our kinsmen 
the philosophers of India, sedentary beings, clothed their 

Wide is the gap that yawns between scholar's English 
and penny-a-liner's English. England has been greatly 
privileged in having had such a model as Lord Macaulay. 
His Essays, written in a good homely style, are sold by 
thousands wherever our tongue is spoken ; our people have 
a prejudice in favour of buying what they can readily un- 

^ How cumbrous is the construction of the great mass of German 
prose ! 

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derstand. Meanwhile, pretentious works that discuss in 
high-sounding terms what they call "the Philosophy of 
History " very soon find their way to the butterman and 
the pastry-cook. Lord Macaulay is a writer to be imitated 
by young beginners, especially in his moderately short 
sentences, and in his choice of words, for very seldom does 
he use a term later than Swift's time, thereby shutting out 
a mass of modem sewage, dear to the hearts of our penny- 
a-liners. Hence some of our lovers of fine writing bite their 
thumbs at him, and brand him as a purist. He makes very 
plain the vast difference between real knowledge and sham 
refinement ; for instance, he tells us that Lord Cutts bore 
the honourable nickname of the Salamander; any one of 
our newspaper writers would be shocked at this old word, 
for which they now substitute soubriguet. Lord Macaulay 
writes masterpiece and not chef cPoeuvre ; he shrinks from 
sprinkling his pages with French phrases, like a lady 
novelist ; Mr. Trevelyan has, in this respect at least, by no 
means improved on his uncle's diction when writing the 
' Life of Fox.' 

Gibbon was equally careful, admirable French scholar 
as he was, to write English alone in his text ; he will have 
nothing to say to the scores of French words that had been 
hovering round our doors, in the vain hope of naturalisa- 
tion, for a hundred years before his time. It is a great 
treat to read Gibbon as expounded by his last commentator 
Mr. Morison, scholar by scholar. But the later writer might 
well have taken a lesson from the Master, and stuck to 
plain English terms ; what would Gibbon have said on read- 
ing that he was rdpandu at Paris'? nor is this the only 
blemish of the kind. I have lately seen such words as 
hUise in the works of grave divines, who think blunder and 
folly beneath them ; their antics of this kind remind one 
of the probable performance of ponderous Dr. Johnson, had 
he chosen to imitate the capers of an opera girl. 

I thought that I had lighted on an author free from 
the usual vulgarities, when I began to read Mr. Hodgkin's 
great work on * Italy and her Invaders.' But I was soon 
to stumble on phrases like litUratem, chevelure, clienUle, all 

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214 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

inserted in the English text. What would the author's 
great predecessors, Gibbon and Milman, have said to this 
barbarous lingo % 

Our middle class (we beheld something of this kind in 
the Thirteenth Century) has an amazing love of cumbrous 
Latin words, which have not long been in vogue. This is 
seen in their early life. Winchester and Eton may call 
themselves colleges, Harrow and Kugby may call them- 
selves schools; but the place, where the offspring of our 
shopkeepers are taught bad French and worse Latin is 
an educational establishment or a polite seminary. The books 
used in our National schools show a lofty disdain for home- 
spun English. As the pupils grow older, they do not 
care to read about a fair lady, but they are at once drawn 
to a female ^possessing considerable personal attractions, A 
brawl \^ a word good enough for a scuffle between peasants; 
but when one half -tipsy alderman mauls another, the 
brawl becomes a fracas. Ah 4meute is a far genteeler word 
than a riot, A farmer, when he grows rich, prides him- 
self on being an eminent agriculturist. The corruption is 
now spreading downward to the lower class; they are 
beginning to think that an operative is something nobler 
than a workman}- We may call King David a singer ; but 
a triller of Italian trills must be known as a vocalist. Our 
fathers talked of healing waters; our new guide-books 
scorn even the term medicinal ; therapeutic is the word be- 
loved by all professors of the high polite style. Pope's 
well-known divine is being outdone; our ears are now 
become so polite, that sins must be called by new names, 
at which Wickliffe and Tyndale would have stared. A man 
must on no account be called a dnmkard ; he has only pro- 
clivities to intemperance, I see that a hospital has lately been 
founded for inebriates, a new-coined Substantive of which 
Bunyan's Mr. Smoothtongue might have been proud. The 
Quarterly Keview, when handling Mr. Greville's Diary, 
was mawkish enough to object to his writing the word 
bastard, though he got the word from St. Simon, a most 

^ May I not here ask with Theocritus, tU 6^ ir6dos rCov (KTodep 
ipydrq. dvdpi ; 

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well-bred nobleman. It is amusing to read that Lord 
Macaulay was taken to task for having written this obnoxious 
word by an unlucky man who had not been born in wed- 
lock. I cannot imagine how his feelings (perhaps I ought 
to say sibsceptibilities) could have been soothed, had Lord 
Macaulay written "an individml of illegitimate origin^ 
Shade of Cobbett ! we are now forbidden to call a spade 
a spade ; our speech, like Bottom the weaver, is translated 
with a vengeance. 

But let us watch an Englishman of the average type setting 
to work upon a letter to the * Times.* ^ The worthy fellow, 
when at his own fireside, seldom in his talk goes beyond 
plain simple words and short sentences, such as Mr. Trol- 
lope puts into the mouths of his heroes. But our friend 
would feel himself for ever shamed in the eyes of his 
neighbours, were he to rush into print in this homely 
guise. He therefore picks out from his dictionary the 
most high-sounding words he can find, and he works them 
up into long-winded sentences, wholly forgetting that it is 
not every man who can bend the bow of Hooker or 
Clarendon. The upshot is commonly an odd jumble, with 
much haziness about who, whichf and their antecedents. The 
writer should look askant at words that come from the 
Latin ; they are too often traps for the unwary.^ The 
Lady of the even trench and the bristling mound is indeed 
a high and mighty Queen, when seated on her own throne ; 
she has dictated the verse of Catullus and the prose of 
Tacitus ; her laws, given to the world by the mouths of 

^ Here is a gem, wliich occurs in a letter to the * Times ' of May 5, 
1873. The writer sets up to be a critic of the English drama ; the 
blind leads the blind. " Such representations are artistically as much 
beneath contempt as morally suggestive of compassion for the per- 
formers, not to speak of some indignation that educated and respon- 
sible people should sanction such exhibitions." He also talks of 
"partaking an intellectual pleasure." Yet the writer of this is most 
likely no fool in private life. 

2 I have seen a begging letter containing the words, "I have be- 
come so deaf that I cannot articulate what people say to me." I once 
heard a showman say of a baboon : " The form of his claws enables 
him to climb trees with the greatest felicity. " I know people who 
talk of diseases being insidiwics, confusing the adjective witli 

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216 THE NEW ElStGLlSH, [chap. 

heathen Emperors and Christian Popes, have had wondrous 
weight with mankind. But no rash or vulgar hand should 
drag her into English common life ; her help, in eking out 
our store of words, should be sought by none but ripe 
scholars, and even then most sparingly.^ 

I once heard a country doctor say, "Let m.^'permie 
your chest." 2 This too common love of Latinised tawdri- 
ness is fostered by the cheap press; the penny-a-liner 
is the outcome of the middle class. As I shall bestow 
some notice upon these individtuilsy to use the word dearest 
to their hearts, I think it as well first to say what I mean 
by the scornful term. The leading articles in some of our 
daily papers are the work of scholars and gentlemen, who 
write much in the style of our great authors of 1700. As 
to some of our weekly papers (I need not give names), a 
steady perusal of them is in truth a liberal education, most 
cheaply procured. Their merit as English authors is beyond 
that of Chaucer, for they cast aside a huge pile of Eomance 
words that he never knew, that they may employ almost as 
great a proportion of Teutonic words as he did in his prose. 
Grood English is not confined to London; the names of 
certain admirable journals, published in Scotland, York- 
shire, and Lancashire, will occur to many of my readers. 

But when we go a little lower down, we alight upon 
the penny-a-liner. His two best -beloved quotations are 
coign of vantage and the light fantastic toe. He it was who, 
having never heard of the works of Wheatley or Cardinal 

1 In my younger days, the term reduplication used to be confined 
to the Greek grammar ; but I see that one of the cheap papei*s has 
begun to employ this word for the action known hitherto to English- 
men as repetition. A little learning is indeed a dangerous thing. 

2 Mr. Charles Butler had called the Bull, by which Pius V. deposed 
Elizabeth, illaudahle. He was twitted by a hot Protestant for apply- 
ing so mild an epithet to so hateful an act. The Roman Catholic 
answered that he had had in his mind Virgil's * Busiris ; * he quoted, In 
support of his phrase, Aulus Gellius, Heyne, and Milton. Had he 
but used in the hrst place some plain English adjective to express his 
meaning, much angry ink would have been left unshed. See his 
'Vindication against Mr. Townsend's Accusations,' pp. 112-114. Mr. 
Hazard, the American, published in 1873 a very good book on San 
Domingo ; but he will ndt hear of settling in a country ; locating, ac- 
cording to him, is the right word to use. 

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Bona, named a certain party in the English Church 
ritualists; this was about twenty years ago. He may 
always be known by his love of words fresh from Gaul 
(thus he calls his brethren his confrhres\ and by his fond- 
ness for Latin words that came in after Pope's death. 
He looks upon Sir A. Alison's text, well bestrewn with 
French phrases, as a far nobler pattern than the works 
of Mr. Hallam or Bishop Thirlwall. With him dangers 
do not grow, but they " assume proportions of considerable 
magnitude." He scorns to abuse or revile his foes, much 
more to rate or miscall them, so long as he can vituperate 
them.^ It is a wonder to me that the pressmen have not 
long ago enriched our tongue with the verbs existimate and 
autumate, making a dead set at the vulgar think and deem. 
They will not begin or even commence ; they inaugurate and 
initiate, and they will soon incept. The state of France 
after 1871 has given them two glorious words, r^uvenescence 
and recuperation. In a letter on prison discipline, printed 
in the * Times ' of September 5, 1872, we j&nd the wondrous 
^ov^ penology ; the writer compounds Latin with Greek, and 
knows not how to spell the Latin he has compounded. 
Whatlwould become of our unhappy tongue, had we not 
the Bible and Prayer Book to keep us fairly steady in the 
good old paths'? Our forefathers thought our mansion 
weather-tight, but these lovers of the new-fangled are ever 
panting to exchange stone and brick for stucco.^ When the 
Irish Protestants were revising their Prayer Book, some 
years ago, one luckless wight, a lover of what they call 
" ornate phraseology," was not ashamed to propose an alter- 
ation of our grand old Teutonic name for the Third Person 
of the Trinity. It is needless to say what a reception this 
piece of unwisdom met with from a scholar like Archbishop 
Trench. No vulgar hands should be laid on the Ark. 

One of the philological feats of our age has been the 
Kevision of the New Testament. I am here concerned 
with nothing but the English words adopted by the Ke- 

^ George III. and Dr. Johnson, in their famous interview, spoke of 
the vituperative habit as * * calling names. " Frisca gens mortalium ! 
' that they would learn **deductum ducere carmen /" 

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2i8 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

visers. They had it in their power to produce a version 
that should be accepted by the whole of the English-speak- 
ing race ; all they had to do was to keep every word that 
was not clearly obsolete or an evident mistranslation. Before 
beginning their work, they had pledged themselves to this 
course, as Dean Burgon reminds us. Instead of carrying 
out their promise, they made the most wanton and needless 
alterations even in those parts of the Testament which are 
constantly quoted. One would have thought that a well- 
known sentence like hy this craft we have our wealth, under- 
stood all over the land, might have been left as they found 
it ; but no ; the vulgar appetite for change was too strong 
for them ; craft must be altered into something else, just as 
thief must be altered into robber. It is a pity that some 
record of their proceedings from day to day cannot be pub- 
lished ; how Archbishop Trench must have fought against 
the sagacious pranks of his brethren ! They have had their 
reward ; their version has not the least chance of replacing 
the work of 1611. But some good has followed; their 
brethren, the Old Testament Eevisers, took warning by the 
general chorus of disgust, and were much more sparing in 
their corrections of the good old English. I could wish 
that a small committee of sound English scholars, men of 
reasonable common sense, might go over the whole work, 
keep every old word that is not plainly a mistranslation, 
put an explanation now and then into the margin, and 
bring forth fruit worthy of our Nineteenth Century. The 
New Testament Eevisers (at least the majority) would be 
quite capable of plastering with whitewash the triforium 
of Westminster Abbey, if they ever took it into their heads 
to set up for architects.^ 

We all owe much to the Correspondents of the daily 
journals. Some of them write sound English; but the 
penny-a-liner is to be found in their ranks. His Babylonish 
speech bewrayeth him ; he will call an Emperor " a certain 

^ Had the suggestions from the American Revisers been listened to, 
the effect would nave been even worse ; these gentry seem to wish to 
get rid of every trace of the Archaic. I suppose that they array the 
Saints, in their painted windows, in coats and breeches of the most 
modem cut. 

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exalted Personage ; " a favourite at Court becomes ^^^ 'persona 
grata!' 1 After all, it is hard to grudge him his chance of 
showing off that he learnt Latin in youth. Such stuff 
cannot be served up, day after day, if it does not hit the 
taste of the English middle class — a taste thoroughly 
corrupt A writer of this kind must have readers like- 
minded with himself. Let me borrow his beloved jargon 
for one moment, and wound his amour propre by asking 
what is his raison d'itre ? The penny-a-liner's help is often 
sought by an Editor, who knows what good English is, yet 
employs these worthless tools. Surely the Editors of our 
first-class journals should look upon themselves as the 
high priests of a right worshipful Goddess, and should let 
nothing foul or unclean draw nigh her altars. Cannot 
these lower journeymen of the Press be put through a 
purification, such as an examination in Defoe, Swift, or 
some sound English writer, that a good style may be 
formed before the novice is allowed to write for the 
journal 1 If the great authors named were set up as models 
for young writers, we should never hear of fire as " the 
devouring element," of the spot where something happens 
as " the locale," or of a man in his cups as " involved in 
circumstances of inebriation." ^ It would be barbarous 
indeed to ask the writers to learn a new tongue ; but we 
only beg them to go back to what they learnt from their 
mothers and their nurses. 

One of the critics in the ' Saturday Eeview,' who turns 
his attention to novelists, is an earnest champion of sound 
English, and I could wish that he were invested with full 
authority over some of his brethren in that journal, who talk 
about the personnel and ineptitude, I was amused last year 
by the outcries of a luckless lady writer, upon whom he 
brought down his lash for some very vile writing ; she pro- 
tested in print that she had used no word that could not 

^ Our English newspapers never speak of each other by their names ; 
it is always * ' a morning Contemporary, " or * * a weekly journal of some- 
what caustic proclivities." How different is this from the manly 
straightforward usage of the French papers ! 

2 This last gem I saw myself in a Fenny Paper of October 1872. 
HcBc ego non agitem f 

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220 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

be found in the English Dictionaries. Imagine the state 
of mind of any being who thinks that the mass of sewage 
found in our Dictionaries may safely be raked into for the 
benefit of our generation ! Such a sentence as deracinate 
the cecity of mvlierosity would, in the lady's eyes, be a sound 
English sentence fit for our time. Our writers, male and 
female, will confine themselves, if they be wise, to words 
used by the best English authors of the school of Dryden and 
Swift, unless there be some good reason for using later ware. 
A sharp-eyed gamekeeper nails up rows of dead vermin 
on a bam door. Even so our Editors ought once a month 
or so to head their columns with a list of new-fangled 
words, the use of which should be forbidden to every 
writer for their journals ; to be sure, the vermin unhappily 
are not yet dead. In this list would come, I hope, many 
words already gibbeted in this chapter, together with 
solidarity, egoism, colldborateur, acerbity, dubiety, donate, banal- 
ities, I could wish that our Editors would further confer 
the right of citizenship on useful foreigners like proteg4 and 
employ^, promoting them to the level of mortgagee. Why 
has not naivetd taken an English form long ago ? But 
things seem to go in the contrary direction ; thus we lay 
aside the noun signer for signatory. May I give a hint to 
young writers who want a subject for their pens? Let 
them think of posterity, and set to work to record the 
changes in our speech that go on under their eyes. There 
is something pathetic in the mass of poems and novels that 
every year cumber the booksellers' shops and speedily pass 
into the butterman's hands. Let young authors turn away 
from poems and novels (wherein hardly one man out of 
fifty makes a lasting name for himself), and let them be- 
take themselves to philology. The intending writer should 
begin by steeping himself in the writings of Skeat, 
Sweet, Morris, and Earle; he should then set down 
whatever may occur to him as strange or novel in 
the writings of our day; or he may record the peculi- 
arities of his own shire. His work, he may be sure, will 
be read with interest scores of years hence ; and he will 
be promoted to company higher than that of Msevius and 

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Bavius on the other side of Styx. I can speak from 
experience ; I have often found a philological fact or two, 
well worth knowing, wrapped up in a mass of idle verbiage, 
the production of some little -known author whose work 
has happened to fall into my hands. I have fastened 
eagerly upon the grain or two of wheat in the bushel of 
chaff. Every one can help ; the more the marksmen, the 
greater the chance that the target will be hit. One author 
acts upon another ; I myself have good cause to bless the 
day in 1869 when I bought at a railway-stall Dr. Morris's 
'Specimens of English Authors,' ranging from 1230 to 
1400. Up to that time I had never studied with thorough- 
ness my great subject ; thenceforward I had my work cut 
out for me for many years of my life. 

There is no such target for a shrewd critic as tawdry 
vulgarity, a truth well known to Moli^re. Let the young 
recruits, whom I hope to enlist, come down with all their 
force upon the vile English of our day. May a whip be 

put into every honest hand to ; but it would be too 

rude to continue the quotation. The hunt is up; the game 
is afoot. The very day I am writing this (January 18, 
1886) the 'Daily Telegraph,' in a leading article, talks 
about a fecund land spring. The * Times ' is not behind 
hand ; it seemed able to froisser somebody's feelings a day 
or two earlier. It is well seen that Mr. Delane is in his 
grave. What strikes me most is the eagerness of our 
penny-a-liners to get rid of fine old words employed by our 
most classic writers, and to replace these terms by French 
words. Shakespere has written, in one of his most quoted 
passages, and so he plays his part. This party used as above, 
might seem to be a hallowed word in the eyes of all lovers 
of good English ; nothing of the kind ; for the last twenty 
years the penny-a-liner has been striving to bring in the 
French rdle instead of this part. Scriptural authors keep 
holiday; this must be turned into he en fUe. Scott wrote 
of the harden of a song; it must make way for refrain, 
Napier wrote sound l&iglish, and talked of occupying 
ground; the military writers of our day choose to translate 
this into terrain; with them swordsmen become sabrev/rs. 

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222 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

Hogarth made a mistake in not painting the R(m4^s Pro- 
gress, If a criminal be seized on his way to Dover, he is 
at once described as en route tOj etc. ; why this dead set 
should be made at the harmless on the way ^ is a puzzle. 
Why should the old abode, stamp, slang, actress, denial, fre- 
qaenter, idler, mishap, guest be utterly abrogated in favour 
of habitat, cachet, argot, artiste, dementi, haUtvd, fidneur, con- 
tretemps, inviti ? It has been lately discovered that sea-sick- 
ness and honeymoon are very vulgar in their English dress ; 
so all the same must appear as qiuind m^me, I give in one 
sentence some of the latest antics of the Victorian penny- 
a-liner. " The revanche commences to be a quantity rUglige- 
able; but I fail to see that this new departure in haute 
politique is a factor that commends itself to the public." 
One of the latest freaks of these queer beings is to substi- 
tute littoral for coast, a most classic word. Why should 
they not be consistent and talk about the Bdne ; let them 
get rid of the vulgar Teutonic synonym. Thackeray made 
Lord Kew deliver an harangue with spirii; this word is in 
our time altered into verve, A Duke or a Duchess prob- 
ably talks about the wedding breakfast ; the hateful Teu- 
tonic word is at once translated into French, when the 
festivities are described in print. Scott was plainly ill- 
advised in calling a novel the Betrothed ; the word fiance 
has quite ousted bride-elect; I suppose the title of Manzoni's 
masterpiece would be translated by something like the 
French word. May one ask why arrihre penshe, rapproche- 
ment, fait accompli, aperga, entente, repertoire, insouciance, 
vraisemblance, parlementaire cannot be turned into English ? 
I suppose it will soon be the correct thing to talk of the 
Bristol dmeutes. Even Mr. Froude talks about enceinte 
(pregnant) in his History ; he might have found the right 
English word in the first Chapter of the New Testament. 
The old abstract is thrown aside for precis and r4sum6 ; 
dower and dowry for dot ; the old sojourn, a most classical 
word, for sijour. If these gentry admire French so much, 
let them learn a lesson from Voltaire ; he never expunges 
fine old classic French words from his clear prose that he 
may replace them by English or German terms. 

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Napier would have written, "the battery was placed 
there, because the enemy was near ; " this I saw the other 
day thus handled, " the battery had its raison d'Ure in the 
proximity of the enemy." The old folly must give way to 
ineptitude ; a man's work may be called perfunctory, but on 
no account slovenly, A great man, as he used to be called, 
now becomes an eminent personality. Peculiarities appear 
as idiosyncrasies. The words lethal, bellicose, participator, 
virile, prevision, decapitate, and innocuous bid fair to thrust 
out altogether their good old Teutonic equivalents. 

Our penny-a-liners should read Thackeray's description 
in *The Newcomes' of old Tom Sargent, a portrait evi- 
dently drawn from the life ; one of the characteristics of 
this pressman of the old school is, that he has a library of 
sound old English books at home. Imagine the disgust 
of the venerable Thomas (He never gushed in his life) if he 
had heard himself dubbed a litterateur; I have actually 
seen this word applied by Englishmen to Thucydides. 
One of the worst effects of half-educated men writing in 
our daily papers is this, that they take a word which has 
borne a certain meaning for Centuries, and confer upon 
this word a new meaning, totally distinct from its old 
sense. Our uccident and fatality (baleful influence) have 
for ages borne distinct meanings ; but within the last few 
years an accident that ends in death has been christened a 
fatality. The old wanton was a sound English word, but 
it is now almost driven out by gratuitous; this last had 
previously borne a very different meaning, that had been in 
vogue for ages. Let us suppose that an eminent man has 
been bred a charity boy; our newspapers would write, 
" this eminent personality was assailed by gratuitous per- 
sonalities on account of his gratuitous education."^ This 
sentence brings before us the glaring folly of conferring 
more than one meaning upon a foreign word in modem 
times. To initiate into mysteries dates from Foxe's time ; 

1 Every writer, who prints his travels, calls his book * Personal 
Adventures.' Lord Plunket, when asked the meaning of this, supposed 
that there was the same wide difference between what was Real and 
what was Personal in travels, as in the law of property. 

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224 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

our penny-a-liners, about twenty-five years ago, began to 
employ initiate as a synonym for begin. Not only a woman, 
but a play, is sympathetic. One penny paper never talks 
of brethren, but always of congeners; others talk of confrhres, 
A common old phrase always needs expansion ; play the 
man, writes Lord Macaulay, using the good old phrase of 
the Tudor Century. Any writer of our day who has any 
self-respect would translate this into " assume an attitude 
indicative of virility." He would, moreover, never talk of 
a first step, but of an initial proceeding. An attempt is also 
made to change our spelling for the worse; Follie has 
appeared, and I suppose that ^^ Sallie in our alley" will 
soon be a fait accompli Old forms must make way for 
new ones ; thus certitude threatens to make end of certainty, 
I have just seen in a lady's novel (she is far above the 
usual run) the monstrous pre-shadow; does she suppose that 
the cHAfore is quite obsolete? She twice talks oi bond, fides; 
Latin is a sad trap for ladies. Can anything be more 
monstrous than the last syllable oifolMorist? 

A heartless joke seems to be played upon our fellow- 
subjects in India when desirous of learning English ; their 
text-books are evidently English works crammed full of hard 
words, such as are found in metaphysical treatises. This 
accounts for the wonderful Baboo's English that is some- 
times printed for our amusement. Cannot these poor 
heathen be grounded in simple English books like those 
of Defoe and Goldsmith? Cannot they be taught the 
great truth, that the main stress of a sentence, if it is 
meant to be good English, ought to be thrown on the 
Verb and not on the Substantive ? ^ 

Clearness is a noble characteristic of the French lan- 
guage ; in English this quality is far more common in poetry 
than in prose. ^ Hence it is that English poetry is, as a 
general rule, far better than English prose ; in France and 

^ Compare tlie sentence, "the extension of the French ri^ht wing 
involved a parallel movement on the part of the Germans," with this ; 
" the French extended their right wing ; the Germans were therefore 
forced to make a parallel movement. " 

2 Clearness is the groundwork of Lord Macaulay's great popularity 
with thousands of readers. 

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Spain the converse of this holds good. We fasten eagerly 
upon what we can understand, and we toss aside what is 
dark and obscure. I make bold to prophesy that Mr. 
Browning's ballads (would that we had more of them !) will 
be read long after some of his more pretentious perform- 
ances have been forgotten. How many, who fancy them- 
selves able to write prose, wrap up their ideas in a cloud 
of long words ! they think that they shall attract hearers 
by their much speaking, or rather writing. 

Our American kinsmen have made noble contributions 
to our common stock of literature ; the works of Irving, 
Motley, Marsh, Bryant, Longfellow, are prized on both sides 
of the Atlantic alike. Dr. March by his Comparative 
Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon language, a work to which I 
owe so much, has shown us that in some things American 
scholarship aims at rivalling German thoroughness. But 
Englishmen cannot help being astonished at one thing in 
his book : he writes labor ^ honor, etc., instead of following 
the good Old English spelling. Here is one of the few 
instances in which the pupil, strong in his right, may 
make bold to correct the master. Our English honour, the 
French honure or honneu/r (honorem), takes us back 800 
years to the bloody day, big with our island's doom, when 
the French knights were charging up the slope at Senlac 
again and again, when striving to break the stubborn 
English shield-wall. The word honure, which had already 
thriven in Gaul for 1100 years, must have been often in 
the conquerors' mouths all through those long weary hours; 
it was one of the first French words that we afterwards 
admitted to English citizenship ; and it should abide with 
us in the shape that it has always hitherto worn. If we 
change it into honor, we pare down its history, and we lower 
it to the level of the many Latin words that came in at the 
Eeformation : from the Bastard of Falaise to the English 
Josiah is a great drop. Let us in this, as in everything 
else, hold to the good old way ; and let our kinsmen, like 
ourselves, turn with dislike from changes, utterly needless, 
that spoil a word's pedigree. To maul an old term, whether 
English or French, is to imitate the clerical boors who 


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226 THE NEW ENGUSHi [chap. 

wrought such havoc at Durham and Canterbury within the 
last Century or so. 

As I have made a few strictures upon American vagaries, 
I ought, in common fairness, to acknowledge that no 
American fault comes up to the revolting habit, spread over 
too many English shires, of dropping or wrongly inserting 
the letter K Those whom we call " self-made men " are 
much given to this hideous barbarism; their hopes of 
Parliamentary renown are too often nipped in the bud by 
the speaker's unlucky tendency to " throw himself upon the 
'Ouse." An untaught peasant will often speak better 
English than a man worth half a million. Many a needy 
scholar might turn an honest penny by offering himself as 
an instructor of the vulgar rich in the pronunciation of the 
fatal letter. ^ Our public schools are often railed against 
as teaching but little ; still it is something that they enforce 
the right use of the h upon any lad who has a mind to lead 
a quiet life among his mates. Few things will the English 
youth find in after-life more profitable than the right use 
of the aforesaid letter. ^ The abuse of it jars upon the ear 
of any well-bred man far more than the broadest Scotch or 
Irish brogue can do. These dialects, as I have shown, 
often preserve good Old English forms that have long been 
lost to London and Oxford. ^ 

There are two things which are supposed to bring fresh 
ideas before the minds of the middle class — the newspaper 
on week days, and the sermon on Sundays. We have seen 
the part played by the former ; I now turn to the latter. 

^ I make a present of this hint to those whom it may concern ; I 
took it from Thackeray, who introduces a Frenchman, the instructor 
of Mr. Jeames in the art of garnishing his EngUsh talk with French 

2 The following story sets in a strong light the great difference be- 
tween the speech of the well-bred and of the untaught in England. A 
servant, who had di'opped into a large fortune, asked his master how 
he was to pass muster in future as a gentleman. The answer was, 
** Dress in black and hold your tongue. 

' A Scotch farmer's wife once said to me, finding me rather slow in 
following her talk when she spoke at all fast, *'I beg your pardon, 
Sir, for my bad English." I answered, "It is I that speak the bad 
English ; it is you that speak the true Old EngHsh." It is delightful 
to hear the peasantry talk of sackless (innocens), and he coft (emit). 

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Many complaints have lately been made on the scarcity of 
good preachers ; one cause of these complaints I take to 
be, the diction of the usual run of sermons. The lectern 
and the reading desk speak to the folk, Sunday after Sun- 
day, in the best of English ; that is, in old Teutonic words, 
with a dash of French terms mostly naturalised in the 
Thirteenth Century. The pulpit, on the other hand, too 
often deals in an odd jargon of Romance, worked up into 
long-winded sentences, which shoot high above the heads 
of the listeners.^ I have myself heard a curate turn Addi- 
son's govemmmt of the world into cosmic regime. Swift com- 
plained bitterly of this jargon a hundred and seventy years 
ago ; and the evil is rife as ever now. Is it any wonder 
then that the poor become lost to the Church, or that they 
go to the meeting-house, where they can hear the way to 
Heaven set forth in English, a little uncouth it may be, but 
still well understood of the common folk ? A preacher has 
been known to translate " we cannot always stand upright " 
into " we cannot always maintain an erect position." ^ Who 
can make anything out of the rubbish that follows, "a 
system thus hypothetically elaborated is after all but an 
inexplicable concatenation of hyperbolical incongruity 1 " ^ 
This reads like Dr. Johnson run mad; no wonder that 
Dissent has become rife in the land. If we wish to know 
the cause of the bad style employed in preaching by too 
many of the Anglican clergy, we must ask how they have 
been taught at our Schools and Universities. Much heed 
is there bestowed on Latin and Greek, but none on 
English.* What a change might be wrought in our 

^ How channiiig, in 'Memorials of a Quiet Life,* is the account of 
the scholarlike Augustus Hare's style of preaching to his Wiltshire 
shepherds ! He had a soul above the Romance hodgepodge. 

^ Barnes, * Early England,' p. 106. Such a preacher would miss the 
point of that wittiest of all proverbs, " An empty sack cannot stand 
upright. " 

^ Mr. Cox, who treats us to this stufif (* Recollections of Oxford,* p. 
223), says, "Such sentences, delivered in a regular cadence, formed too 
often our Sunday fare, in days happily gone by. *' 

* I for some years of my Ufe always thought that our English long 
was derived from the Latin longtcs. Every grammar and dictionary, 
used in schools, should have a short sketch of Comparative Philology 

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228 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

pulpits if lads at public schools were given some knowledge 
of our great writers from Chaucer and Wickliffe downwards, 
instead of wasting so much time on Latin verses, that do 
no good in after life to three-fourths of the students ! A 
lad of average wit only needs sound English models to be 
set before him, and he will teach himself much. What 
good service might Oxford do if she were to establish yet 
another School, which would enforce a thorough knowledge 
of English, and would, moreover, teach her bantlings a new 
use of the Latin and Greek already learnt ! The works of 
March, Morris, Max Miiller, and others would soon become 
Oxford text-books in one of the most charming of all 
branches of learning. Surely every good son of the Church 
will be of my mind, that the knowledge of English is a 
point well worth commending to those who are to fill our 
pulpits. Our clergy, if well grounded in their own tongue, 
would preach in a style less like Blair's and more like 
Bunyan's. Others may call for sweetness and light ; I am 
all for clearness and pith.^ But we are getting into the right 
path at last. The London University holds examinations 
in English. The great French University is often assailed, 
but it has at least this merit ; it enforces on every French 
lad a most thorough knowledge of his mother tongue. 

While we are on the subject of schools, it may be pointed 
out that Greek has done much in the last three centuries 
to keep before us the fact, that English will lend itself 
readily to high-sounding compounds. Old Chapman long 
ago set us on the right tack ; Milton followed ; and our 
boys at school talk glibly of wide-swaying Agamemnon and 
swift-footed Achilles ; thus the power of compounding has 
never, altogether left us. Would that we could also fasten 

prefixed. I know that I was fourteen before the great truths of that 
science were set before me by Bishop Abraham's little book, used in the 
Lower Fifth form at Eton. In those days what we now call Aryan 
was termed Indo-Germanic. 

^ There is an old Oxford story, that a preacher of the mawkish 
school, holding forth before the University, spoke of a well-known 
beast as "an animal which decency forbids me to name." The beast 
turned out to be the one nearest of kin to the preacher himself; 
Balaam's reprover, to wit. 

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any one of our prepositions to our verbs at will ! I believe 
it is mainly owing to the study of Latin that forsooth and 
wont have been kept alive by schoolboys construing scilicet 
and soleo in the time-honoured way. It is pleasant to find 
one bough of the great Aryan tree lending healthy sap to 
another offshoot. 

I have dipped into many writers on the English Lan- 
guage, and I am struck with the large proportion of them 
who have set about their task without ever having read what 
is called an Anglo-Saxon Grammar. Dean Alford was the 
type of this class. I wonder if there be an instance known 
of a Frenchman, a Spaniard, or an Italian undertaking to 
write upon the mysteries of his national tongue without 
having first carefully studied the Latin Grammar as a 

It is a pity that Grammar seems unable to use terms 
easily understood by the common folk ; something of this 
kind may be remarked so far back as JElfric. There are 
many sentences in Dr. Maetzner's English Grammar, as 
translated by Mr. Grece, that must be a standing puzzle 
to any student ; for my part, I find it much easier to con- 
strue Cicero's Latin text than to understand the English 
sentences I have referred to. Sound English criticism too 
often calls forth a growl of annoyance from vulgar vanity. 
If any one in our day sets himself to breast the muddy tide 
of fine writing, an outcry is at once raised that he is pant- 
ing to drive away from England all words that are not 
thoroughly Teutonic. The answer is : no man that knows 
the history of the English tongue can ever be guilty of such 
unwisdom. Our heedless forefathers in the Thirteenth 
Century allowed thousands of our good old words to slip; 
our language must be copious, at any cost ; we therefore by 
slow degrees made good the loss with thousands of French 
terms. Like the Lycian, whom Zeus bereft of wit, we took 
brass for gold. Thanks to this process, Chaucer had most 
likely as great a wealth of words at his beck as Orrmin 
had, 200 years earlier. But, though we long ago repaired 
with brick the gaps made in our ruined old stone hall, it 
does not follow that we should daub stucco over the brick 

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230 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

and the stone alike. What a scholar mourns, is that our 
daws prank themselves in peacocks' feathers; that our 
lower press and our clergy revel in Romance words, brought 
in most needlessly after Addison and Swift were in their 
graves. What, for instance, do we want with the word 
exacerbate instead of the old embitter f The former is one 
of the penny-a-liner's choicest jewels. Is not the sentence, 
workmen want more pay, at least as expressive as the tawdry 
operatives desiderate additional remuneration^ At the same 
time, no man of sense can object to foreign words coming 
into English of late years, if they unmistakably fill up a gap. 
Our hard-working fathers had no need of the word ennui; 
our wealth, ever waxing, has brought the state of mind ; 
so France has given us the name for it. The importer, 
who first bestowed upon us the French prestige, is worthy of 
all honour, for this word supplied a real want. Our ships 
sail over all seas ; English is the chosen language of com- 
merce; we borrow, and rightly so, from the uttermost 
shores of the earth ; from the Australians we took kangaroo; 
and the great Burke uses taboo, which came to him from 
Otaheite.^ What our ladies, priests, soldiers, lawyers, 
leeches, huntsmen, architects, and cooks owe to France, 
has been fairly acknowledged. Italy has given us the 
words ever in the mouths of our painters, sculptors, and 
musicians. The Portuguese traders, 300 years ago, helped 
us to many terms well known to our merchants Germany, 
the parent of long-winded sentences, has sent us very few 
words; and these remind us of the Thirty Years' War, 
when English and Scotch soldiers were fighting on the 
right .side.2 To make amends for all this borrowing, 
England supplies foreigners (too long enslaved) with her 
own staple, namely the speech of free political life.^ In 

^ Burke (the friend of Hare, not the friend of Fox) has given us a 
new word for suppress. Another famous Galway house has given us a 
name for irregular justice executed upon thieves and murderers. Since 
1880 we have had the new verb Boycott, 

* The word plunder is due to this war. The Indian Mutiny gave 
us loot, and the American Civil War created the bummer, called of old 

^ I take the following from * D'Azeglio*s Letters to his Wife, ' p. 
244 (published in 1871) : ** Abbiamo avuto qui Cobden, il famoso dell* 

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this she has had many hundred years' start of almost every 
nation but the Hungarians ; she has, it is true, no home- 
bom word for cmi'p d'dtat ; but she may well take pride in 
being the mother of Parliaments, even as old Rome was the 
source of civil law.^ 

But it is sad to see one of the most majestic of our 
political forms debased into a well-spring of bad English. 
Few sights are more suggestive than that of a British 
Sovereign, the heir of Cerdic, enthroned and addressing 
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal with the Commons; 
while the men of 1215 look down from their niches aloft 
upon their good work. The pageant, one after Burke's 
own heart, takes us back 600 years to the days when 
was laid the ground-plan of our Constitution, much as it 
still stands ; the speech deals with facts bearing upon the 
welfare of two hundred and fifty millions of men. But the 
old and pithy style of address, such as Charles I. and 
Speaker Lenthall employed, is now thought out of place ; the 
Sovereign harangues the lieges in a speech that has become 
a byword for bad English. We have taken into our heads 
the odd notion that long sentences stuffed with Latinised 
words are more majestic than our forefathers' simplicity of 
speech ; the bad grammar, often put into the Sovereign's 
mouth, smacks of high treason. The evil example spreads 
downwards ; it is no wonder that official reports are often 
a cumbrous mass of idle wordiness.^ A wholesome awe 
of long sentences would wonderfully improve the Official 

Anti-Com-Laws-Leagiie. Ho dovuto far Tinglese puro sangue, piii che 
si potesse, coi speeches e i toast, che sono stati i seguenti : * a S. M. Carlo 
Alberto^alla Queen Victoria — a Cobden.'" The great patriot, as we 
see, makes rather a hash of his English. We also supply foreigners 
with sportsmanlike terms ; le groom atiglais est pour le cheval frangais. 

^ Coup d^itat reminds me of one effect of Napoleonism. The greatest 
of French Reviews says in an article on Manzoni (July 15, 1873) : 
**quantite de termes, qui n'etaient permis qu'aux halles, ont passe 
dans le langage de la cour." Paris is here meant. 

« In the ' Daily Telegraph,' July 18, 1873, will be found a letter from 
an Official representing the Lord Chamberlain ; while rebuking a Man- 
ager for bringing the Shah on the stage, he so far forgets himself as to 
talk of ** altering the make-up. " But he at once pulls himself up after 
this slip, and goes on to speak of " making modifications of the person- 
ality 01 the principal character." 

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232 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 

style, and would save the country many reams of good 
paper. As it is, too often from the Government scribbler's 

"Nonentity, with circumambient wings, 
An everlasting Phoenix doth arise." 

Now that I have touched upon matters Parliamentary, 
I may fix the date of my work by calling attention to a 
funny mistake made by Mr. Arch on January 26, 1886, in 
the new Parliament, just before Lord Salisbury resigned. 
A Scotch member had talked of hinds (labourers), the Old 
English word that is preserved in the North, but not in 
the South. Mr. Arch knew of Ivunds only as female deer ; 
he suspected an insult to his class, and asked the Tories 
opposite, " How would you like to be called goats ? " It is 
no disgrace to Mr. Arch that he is not acquainted with 
Northern English ; but what shall we say of this leading 
article in the * Daily Telegraph,' on January 29, couched 
in its own classic style ; " we would not engage that all other 
members will be prepared to endorse the nomenclature. 
What if hmd be an old Saxon term % Does it follow that 
its survival in North Britain is a thing to be approved of 1" 
Then follows some stuff about Gurth the swineherd, and 
Hodge countenancing a memento of thraldom. Do the 
French discard paysan, which has come down from days of 
thraldom ? Common sense says that a fine old word, which 
conveys no insult to any one, is a thing very much to be 
approved of; "all other members" are not idiots. The 
writer of the article I have quoted is worthy of a place 
among the Kevisers of the New Testament ; he would prob- 
ably replace hind by exterior employ^, 

I have heard, that when Canning wrote the inscription 
graven on Pitt's monument in the London Guildhall, an 
Alderman felt much disgust at the grand phrase, "he 
died poor," and wished to substitute " he expired in indigent 
circumstances." Could the difference between the scholar- 
like and the vulgar be more happily marked ? I have 
lately seen another kind of alteration earnestly recom- 
mended — it is short rede, good rede ; and it sounds like a 

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loud call to come and do likewise. Mr. Freeman says in 
1873, on reprinting his Essays written long before : — 

*' In almost every page I have found it easy to put some plain 
English word, about whose meaning there can be no doubt, instead of 
those needless French and Latin words which are thought to add 
dignity to style, but which in truth only add vagueness. I am in no 
way ashamed to find that I can write purer and clearer English now 
than I did fourteen or fifteen years back ; and I think it weU to 
mention the fact for the encouragement of younger writers. The 
common temptation of beginners is to write in what they think a more 
elevated fashion. It needs some years of practice before a man fully 
takes in the truth that, for real strength and above all for real clear- 
ness, there is nothing like the Old English speech of our fathers. " ^ 

We have before our eyes many tokens that the old 
ways of our forefathers have still charms for us, though 
our tongue has been for ages, as it were, steeped in French 
and Latin. Take the case of children brought to the font 
by their godfathers ; Lamb long ago most wittily handled 
a long list of fine girlish names, and avowed at the 
end — 

"These all, than Saxon Edith, please me less." 

One of the signs of the times is the mari^ed fondness for 
the name Ethel; we cannot say whether the heroine of 
Mr. Thackeray or the heroine of Miss Yonge is the pattern 
most present to the parental mirid. I faiow of a child 
christened Frideswide, though her parents have nothing to 
do with Christchurch, Oxford. This is one of the straws 
that shows which way the wind is blowing. With all our 
shortcomings, we may fairly make the Homeric boast that 
in some things we are far better than our fathers. A 
hundred years ago Hume and Wyatt were making a ruth- 
less onslaught upon the England of the Thirteenth Century : 
the one mauled her greatest men ; the other (irreparable 
is the loss) mauled her fairest churches. We live in better 
times ; we see clearly enough the misdeeds of Hume and 
Wyatt : ought not our eyes to be equally open to the sins 
of Johnson and Gibbon ? For these last writers the store 
that had served their betters was not enough ; disliking 

^ Mr. Freeman's * Essays,' Second Series, Preface. 

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234 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

the words in vogue at the beginning of their Century, they 
gave us a most unbecoming proportion of tawdry Latinisms, 
which are to this day the joy of penny-a-liners. But 
already improvement is abroad in the land ; Cobbett first 
taught us a better way ; we have begun to see that the 
Eighteenth Century (at least in its latter half) was as wrong 
in its diction as in its History or its Architecture. We 
are scraping the stucco off the old stone and brick, as the 
Germans and Danes have done. Ere long, it is to be 
hoped, the most polysyllabic of British scribblers will find 
out that for him Defoe and Fielding are better models than 
Johnson or Gibbon. The great truth will dawn upon him 
that few men can write forty words unbroken by a semi- 
colon, without making slips in grammar. He will think 
twice before he uses Latin words, such as ovation, in a 
sense that makes scholars writhe. He will never discard a 
Teutonic word without good reason ; and if he cannot find 
one of these fit for his purpose, he will prefer a French or 
Latin word, naturalised before 1740, to any later comer. 
Fox had some show of right on his side, when he refused 
to embody in his History any word not to be found in 
Dryden ; though the great Whig might surely have borne 
with phrases used by Swift and Bolingbroke. 

Lingua Anglica is a variable being, as she appears in 
our days ; she is sometimes to be met with abroad, dight 
in comely apparel ; plain in her neatness, she seems fond- 
est of the attire she brought with her from over the sea, 
though she shrinks not from wearing a fair proportion of 
the French gear which she cannot now do without, thanks 
to her unwisdom in the Thirteenth Century. Arrayed on 
this wise she can hold her own, so skilful judges say, 
against all comers ; she need not fear the rivalry of the 
proudest ladies ever bred in Greece or Italy. But some- 
times the silly wench seems to be given over to the Foul 
Fiend of bad taste ; she comes out in whimsical garments 
that she never knew until the other day ; she decks her- 
self in outlandish ware of all the colours of the rainbow, 
hues that she has not the wit to combine ;^ heartily ashamed 
^ The word jpeTwlogy, to wit. 

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of her own home, she takes it into her head to ape foreign 
fashions, like the vulgarest of the pretenders upon whom 
Thackeray loved to bring down his whip. In these fits 
she resembles nothing so much as some purse-proud up- 
start's wife, blest with more wealth than brains, who thinks 
that she can take rank among Duchesses and Countesses 
by putting on her back the gaudiest refuse of a milliner's 
shop. Let us hope that these odd fits may soon become 
things of the past ; and that the fair lady, whom each true 
knight is bound to champion against besetting clowns, may 
hold up before English scholars, preachers, and pressmen 
alike that brightest of all her jewels, simplicity. 

"Your tennes, your coloures, and your figures, 
Kepe hem in store, til so be ye endite 
Hie stile, as whan that men to kinges write. 
Speketh so plain at this time, I you pray, 
That we may understonden what ye say."^ 

^ Chaucer, the 'Clerkes Prologue.* 

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(About A.D. 1380.) 

St. John, Chapter X. 

Treuli, treuli, I seie to 30U, he that cometh not in by the 
dore in to the fold of the scheep, but sti3eth up by another 
weye, is ny3t thef and day thef. Forsothe he that entrith 
by the dore, is the schepherde of the scheep. To this the 
porter openeth, and the scheep heeren his vois, and he 
clepith his owne scheep by name, and ledith out hem. 
And whanne he hath sent out his owne scheep, he goth 
bifore hem, and the scheep suwen him ; for thei knowen 
his vois. Sothli thei suwen not an alien, but fleen fro 
him ; for thei han not knowen the voys of alyens. Jhesu 
seide to hem this proverbe ; forsoth thei knewen not what 
he spak to hem. 


Bishop Pecock, Repressor of over much Blaming 
OF the Clergy, Vol. I. 86. 

(About A. D. 1450.) 

Certis in this wise and in this now seid maner and bi 
this now seid cause bifille the rewful and wepeable destruc- 

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cioun of the worthi citee and universite of Prage, and of 
the hoole rewme of Beeme, as y have had ther of enforma- 
cioun ynou3. And now, aftir the destruccioun of the 
rewme, the peple ben glad for to resorte and tume a3en 
into the catholik and general faith and loore of the chirche, 
and in her^ pouerte bildith up a3en what was brent and 
throwun douu, and noon of herholdingis^ can thrive. But 
for that Crist in his prophecying muste needis be trewe, 
that ech kingdom devidid in hem silf schal be destruyed, 
therefore to hem ^ bifiUe the now seid wrecchid myschaunce. 
God for his merci and pitee kepe Ynglond, that he come 
not into lijk daunce. But forto turne here fro a3en unto 
our Bible men, y preie 3e seie 3e to me, whanne among 
you is rise a strijf in holdingis and opiniouns (bi cause 
that ech of you trustith to his owne studie in the Bible 
aloon, and wole have alle treuthis of mennys moral conver- 
sacioun there groundid), what iuge mai therto be assiyned 
in erthe, save resoun and the bifore seid doom * of resoun % 
For thou3 men schulden be iugis, 3it so muste thei be bi 
uce of the seid resoun and doom of resoun ; and if this be 
trewe, who schulde thanne better or so weel use, demene, 
and execute this resoun and the seid doom, s& schulde tho 
men whiche han spende so miche labour aboute thilk 
craft % And these ben tho now bifore seid clerkis. And 
therefore, 3e Bible men, bi this here now seid whiche 3e 
muste needis graunte, for experience which 30 han of the 
disturblaunce in Beeme, and also of the disturblaunce and 
dyverse feelingis had among 30U silf now in Ynglond, so 
that summe of 30U ben clepid Doctourmongers^ and summe 
ben clepid Ojnnioun-holders, and summe ben Neutralis, that 
of so presumptuose a cisme abhominacioun to othere men 
and schame to 30U it is to heere ; rebuke now 30U silf, for 
as miche as 3e wolden not bifore this tyme allowe, that 
resoun and his doom schulde have such and so greet 
interesse in the lawe of God and in expownyng of Holi 
Scripture, as y have seid and proved hem to have. 

1 Their. 2 xheir tenets. ^ Them. 

* Judgement. 

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238 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. 


lever's sermons.^ 

(A.D. 1550.) 

As for example of ryche men, loke at the merchauntes 
of London, and ye shall se, when as by their honest voca- 
cion, and trade of marchandise God hath endowed them 
with great abundaunce of ryches, then can they not be 
content with the prosperous welth of that vocacion to 
satisfye theym selves, and to helpe other, but their riches 
muste abrode in the countrey to bie fermes out of the 
handes of worshypfuU gentlemen, honeste yeomen, and 
pore laborynge husbandes. Yea nowe also to bye person- 
ages, and benefices, where as they do not onelye bye landes 
and goodes, but also lyves and soules of men, from God 
and the comen wealth, unto the Devyll and theim selves. 
A myschevouse marte of merchandrie is this, and yet nowe 
so comenly used, that therby shepeheardes be turned to 
theves, dogges into wolves, and the poore flocke of Christ, 
redemed wyth his precious bloud, moste miserablye pylled 
and spoyled, yea cruelly devoured. Be thou marchaunt of 
the citye, or be thou gentleman in the contrey, be thou 
lawer, be you courtear, or what maner of man soever thou 
be, that can not, yea yf thou be master doctor of divinitie, 
that wyl not do thy duety, it is not lawfull for the to have 
personage,' benefice, or any suche livyng, excepte thou do 
fede the flocke spiritually wyth Goddes worde, and bodelye 
wyth honeste hospitalitye. I wyll touch diverse kyndes of 
ryche men and rulers, that ye maye se what harme some 
of theim do wyth theyr ryches and authoritye. And 
especiallye I wyll begjmne wyth theym that be best 
learned, for they seme belyke to do moste good wyth 
ryches and authoritie unto theim committed. If I there- 
fore beynge a yonge simple scholer myghte be so bolde, 
I wolde aske an auncient, wyse, and well learned doctor of 
divinitie, whych cometh not at hys benefice, whether he 
were bounde to fede hys flocke in teachynge of Goddes 
^ Arber's Reprint, p. 29. 

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worde, and kepyng hospitalitie or no % He wolde answere 
and saye : Syr, my curate supplieth my roume in teach- 
3mge, and my farmer in kepynge of house. Yea but master 
doctor by your leave, both these more for your vauntage 
then for the paryshe conforte : and therefore the mo suche 
servauntes that ye kepe there, the more harme is it for 
your paryshe, and the more synne and shame for you. Ye 
may thynke that I am sumwhat saucye to laye synne and 
shame to a doctor of diyinitie in thys solemne audience, for 
some of theim use to excuse the matter, and saye : Those 
whych I leave in myne absence do farre better than I 
shoulde do, yf I taryed there my selfe. 


(Works, printed by Sprat in 1668. ) ^ 

How this love came to be produced in me so early, is 
a hard question : I believe I can tell the particular little 
chance that filled my head first with such Chimes of 
Verse, as have never since left ringing there. For I re- 
member when I began to read, and to take some pleasure 
in it, there was wont to lie in my Mother's Parlour (I 
know not by what accident, for she her self never in her 
life read any Book but of Devotion), but there was wont 
to lie Spencers Works : this I happened to fall upon, and 
was infinitely delighted with the stories of the Knights, 
and Giants, and Monsters, and brave Houses, which I 
found every where there : (Though my understanding had 
little to do with all this) and by degrees with the tinckling 
of the Khyme and Dance of the Numbers, so that I think 
I had read him all over before I was twelve years old, and 
was thus made a Poet as irremediably as a Child is made 
an Eunuch. With these affections of mind, and my heart 
wholly set upon Letters, I went to the University ; But 
was soon torn from thence by that violent Publick storm 
which would suffer nothing to stand where it did, but 
^ Page 144, near the end of the Volume. 

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240 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 

rooted up every Plant, even from the Princely Cedars 
to Me, the Hyssop. Yet I had as good fortune as could 
have befallen me in such a Tempest ; for I was cast by it 
into the Family of one of the best Persons, and into the 
Court of one of the best Princesses of the World. Now 
though I was here engaged in wayes most contrary to the 
Original design of my life, that is, into much company, and 
no small business, and into a daily sight of Greatness, both 
Militant and Triumphant (for that was the state then 
of the English and French Courts), yet all this was so far 
from altering my Opinion, that it onely added the confir- 
mation of Keason to that which was before but Natural 
Inclination. I saw plainly all the Paint of that kind of 
Life, the nearer I came to it ; and that Beauty which I did 
not fall in Love with, when, for ought I knew, it was reall, 
was not like to bewitch, or intice me, when I saw that it 
was Adulterate. I met with several great Persons, whom 
I liked very well, but could not perceive that any part of 
their Greatness was to be liked or desired, no more then I 
would be glad, or content to be in a storm, though I saw 
many ships which rid safely and bravely in it : A storm 
would not agree with my stomach, if it did with my 
Courage. Though I was in a crowd of as good company 
as could be found any where, though I was in business of 
great and honourable trust, though I eate at the best 
Table, and enjoyed the best conveniences for present sub- 
sistance that ought to be desired by a man of my condition 
in banishment and publick distresses; yet I could not 
abstain from renewing my old School-boys Wish in a Copy 
of Verses to the same effect, 


(A.D. 1776.) 

Chapter I. 
In the second century of the Christian -^ra, the empire 

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of Rome comprehended the fakest part of the earth, 
and the most civilised portion of mankind. The frontiers 
of that extensive monarchy were guarded by ancient renown 
and disciplined valour. The gentle, but powerful, influ- 
ence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the 
union of the provinces. Their peaceful inhabitants en- 
joyed and abused the advantages of wealth and luxury. 
The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent 
reverence : the Roman senate appeared to possess the 
sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the 
executive powers of government. 

Chapter II. 

It was once proposed to discriminate the slaves by a 
peculiar habit ; but it was justly apprehended that there 
might be some danger in acquainting them with their own 
numbers. Without interpreting, in their utmost strictness, 
the liberal appellations of legions and myriads, we may 
venture to pronounce that the proportion of slaves, who 
were valued as property, was more considerable than that 
of servants, who can be computed only as an expense. The 
youths of a promising genius were instructed in the arts 
and sciences, and their price was ascertained by the degree 
of their skill and talents. Almost every profession, either 
liberal or mechanical, might be found in the household of 
an opulent senator. The ministers of pomp and sensuality 
were multiplied beyond the conception of modern luxury. 
It was more for the interest of the merchant or manufacturer 
to purchase, than to hire his workmen ; and in the country, 
slaves were employed as the cheapest and most laborious 
instruments of agriculture. To confirm the general observa- 
tion, and to display the multitude of slaves, we might allege 
a variety of particular instances. It was discovered, on a 
very melancholy occasion, that four hundred slaves were 
maintained in a single palace of Rome. 


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242 THE NEW ENGLISH. [chap. 


(A.D. 1872). 


friend, I have seen her no more, and her inouming 
Is alone and unhelped — ^yet to-night or to-morrow 
Somewhat nigher will I be to her love and her longing. 
Lo, to thee, friend, alone of all folk on the earth 
These things have I told : for a true man I deem thee 
Beyond all men call true ; yea, a wise man moreover 
And hardy and helpful ; and I know thy heart surely 
That thou holdest the world nought without me thy fosterling. 
Come, leave all awhile 1 it may be, as time weareth, 

With new life in our hands we shall wend us back hither. 

Page 47. 

One beckoneth her back hitherward — even Death — 

And who was that. Beloved, but even I % 

Yet though her feet and sunlight are drawn nigh 

The cold grass where he lieth, like the dead, 

To ease your hearts a little of their dread 

1 will abide her coming, and in speech 

He knoweth, somewhat of his welfare teach. 

Hearken, Pharamond, why camest thou hither % 

I came seeking Death ; I have found him belike. 

In what land of the world art thou lying, Pharamond % 

In a land 'twixt two worlds ; nor long shall I dwell there. 

Who am I, Pharamond, that stand here beside thee % 

The Death I have sought — thou art welcome ; I greet thee. 

Such a name have I had, but another name have I. 

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Art thou Grod, then, that helps not until the last season % 
Yea, Grod am I surely \ yet another name have I. 
Methmks as I hearken, thy voice I should wot of. 
I called thee, and thou cam'st from thy glory and kingship. 
I was King Pharamond, and love overcame me. 
Pharamond, thou sa/st it. — I am Love and thy master. 
Sooth did'st thou say when thou calPdst thyself Death. 
Though thou diest, yet thy love and thy deeds shall I quicken. 
Be thou God, be thou Death, yet I love thee and dread not. 
Pharamond, while thou livedst, what thing wert thou loving ? 
A dream and a lie — and my death — and I love it. 
Pharamond, do my bidding, as thy wont was aforetime. 
What wilt thou have of me, for I wend away swiftly % 
Open thine eyes, and behold where thou liest ! 
It is little — the old dream, the old lie is about me. 
Why faintest thou, Pharamond % Is love then unworthy % 

Then hath God made no world now, nor shall make hereafter. 
Wouldst thou live if thou mightst in this fair world, 
Pharamond ] 

Yea, if she and truth were ; nay, if she and truth were not. 

long shalt thou live ; thou art here in the body, 
Where nought but thy spirit I brought in days bygone. 
Ah, thou hearkenest ! — And where then of old hast thou 
heard it % 

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244 THE NEW ENGLISH, [chap. vii. 

mock me not, Death ; or, Life, hold me no longer \ 
For that sweet strain I hear that I heard once a-dreaming ; 
Is it death coming nigher, or life coming back that brings it % 
Or rather my dream come again as aforetime % 

Look up, Pharamond ! canst thou see aught about thee % 

Page 76. 

It is a shame for any Englishman to look coldly upon 
his mother tongue, and I hope that this Book may help 
forward the study of English in all its stages. Let the 
beginner first buy the * Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels,' 
with Wickliflfe's and Tyndale's versions ; these, printed in 
four columns side by side, make a moderate volume, and 
are published by J. Smith, Soho Square, London. Let 
hina next get Thorpe's * Analecta Anglo-Saxonica ' (a glos- 
sary is attached), published by Arch, Cornhill ; the extracts 
given here range from the year 890 to 1205. Then let 
him go on to Dr. Morris's * Specimens of Early English,' 
which will take him from 1230 to 1400; Mr. Skeat's 
* Specimens' will bring him down to 1579 ; these last two 
books come from the Clarendon Press, and are sold by 
Macmillan and Go. The great English works, from 1579 
to 1886, may be supposed to be already well known to all 
men of any education. The thoroughgoing English student 
must always keep his eye fixed upon Dr. March's * Anglo- 
Saxon Grammar ' (Sampson Low, Son, and Marston), upon 
Dr. Morris's * Historical Outlines of English Accidence' 
(Macmillan and Co.), upon Skeat's and Murray's ' Diction- 
aries.' He will, it is to be hoped, forthwith become 
a subscriber to the Early English Text Society. May 
many an Englishman begin his studies in his own tongue, 
mindful of Virgil's line : 

" Antiquam exquirite Matrem." 

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A, clipped at the beginning, i. 
46,80,82, 140,151,198, 
234, 245, 253, 274, 276, 
289, 295, 324, 399, 452, 
475, 514, 515 ; ii. 2, 21, 
31, 126, 180. 

clipped at the end, i. 293. 

prefixed, i. 82, 337, 515, 
570 ; ii. 50. 

prefixed in Scotland, ii. 81. 

inserted, i. 373. 

struck out of the middle, i. 

added, ii. 141. 

set before a Verbal Noun, i. 
97, 418. 

stands for qiiidam, i. 147. 

stands for m, i. 97, 291, 450. 

replaces cb, i 12, 118, 172, 
248, 254, 410. 

replaces ai, i 383, 410. 

replaces an, i. 217, 429, 486. 

replaces (13, i. 172. 

replaces au, i. 231, 375, 474. 

replaces aw, i. 241. 

replaces awe, i. 214. 

replaces e, i. 6, 9, 16, 18, 
50, 53, 54, 61, 83, 96, 
118, 140, 161, 172, 181, 
198, 215, 224, 251, 256, 
289, 293, 333, 347, 355, 

361, 375, 381, 410, 425, 

452, 557,583, 694,616; 

ii. 20, 30, 111, 119, 193. 
replaces ea, i 25, 118. 
replaces eo, i 96, 118 ; ii. 6. 
replaces ge, i. 334, 594. 
replaces i and y, i. 56, 177, 

253, 292 ; ii. 10, 53, 97, 

replaces 0, i. 96, 140, 173, 

220,567; ii. 37,64,122. 
replaces of, i. 368, 386, 566. 
replaces on, i, 153, 555. 
replaces u, i. 56. 
represents at, i. 417. 
represents liave, i. 350. 
represents he, i. 289, 314, 

399, 530; ii. 15. 
represents one, i. 142, 177, 

334, 544. 
sounded broad, i. 253; ii. 77, 

93, 117, 135. 
its old sound long kept in 

Ireland, ii. 145. 
its sound doubtful, ii. 97, 101, 

bears the sound of French S, 

i. 590, 616; ii. 65, 76, 

81, 157, 180. 
prefixed to Numerals, i 414. 
denotes hesitation, ii. 139. 

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A, corruptly placed before a 
Participle, i. 407, 416 ; ii. 
added to a word for rhythm, 

i 565. 
supplants other letters in 

affected speech, ii 118. 
stands as an Initial for a 

Christian name, 1. 542. 
how sounded, ii. 28. 
set before Nouns as a cry, i. 
117, 118, 230, 325; ii. 
A one, i. 114. 

A per se, i. 224, 312 ; ii. 44. 
A, B, C, i. 551. 
A! my God, i. 317. 
A, prefixed to English surnames, 
especially in Cheshire, i. 541, 
581 ; ii. 200. 
A, prefixed to a name, in admira- 
tion, ii. 30. 
Aa replaces aw, ii. 197. 
Aback from, put, i. 251. 
Aback, take, ii. 174. 
Abaft, ii. 6, 59. 
Abandoned, i. 490 ; ii. 127. 
Abay, bring to, i. 350 ; see 6ai/. 
Abbatess, ii. 121. 
Abbey loon, i. 381. 
Abbot, Archbishop, ii. 80, 138. 
Abbots, rank of English, i. 

Aberdeen, i. 86. 
Abergavenny, i. 534. 
Abide by, i. 235, 374. 
Abigail, an, ii. 122. 
Ability, ii. 38, 
Ablatives Absolute, i. 139, 143, 

Able, the Romance ending, i. 
132, 324. 

Able, tacked on to Teutonic roots, 
i. 36, 142, 152, 276, 348, 
Able, i. 37, 42, 596; ii. 17. 
Able, be, replaces mov)^ i. 415. 
Able-bodied, ii. 65. 
Able to kill (be killed), i. 405. 
Ableness, i. 421. 
Ably, i. 182. 
Aboard him, i. 291. 
Abode, make, i. 367 ; ii. 20. 
Abominable, ii. 16. 
About, L 15, 165, 261. 
About = almost^ ii. 57, 64. 
About him (on his person), i. 

47, 115. 
About ship ! ii. 5. 
About to, used for the Future, 

i. 384. 
About (turn about), i. 268. 
About us (in our neighbourhood), 

i. 596. 
About with her ! ii. 109. 
Above, i. 32, 57, 87, 88. 
Above ground = in existence, ii. 

Above such things, be, ii. 103. 
Above ten, i. 337. 
Above, the, ii. 187. 
Above the common, ii. 173. 
Abraham, Bishop, ii. 228. 
Abraham man, i. 574. 
Abreast, i. 274 ; ii. 24, 176. 
Abroach, i. 323. 
Abroad, i. 101, 296, 358, 369, 

Abrupt, ii. 6. 
Abscission, ii. 206. 
Absent in mind, ii. 148. 
Absent to himself, i. 323. 
Absent you, to, i. 113. 
Absolute, i. 187 ; ii. 72. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Absolutely (certainly), i. 337 ; 

ii. 158. 
Abstain them from, i. 217. 
Abstract (abstracted), i. 378, 612. 
Abstract, an, ii. 222. 
Abuse, i. 324, 476, 512, 537. 
Academy, the French, ii. 210. 
Accent, thrown back, i. 120. 
Accept of, ii. 32. 
Access, have, i. 277. 
Accident, i. 118, 149, 337, 476 ; 

ii 223. 
Accidents will happen, ii. 159. 
Accommodate, ii. 33. 
Accompany in music, i. 612. 
Accomplished, ii. 173. 
Accord, of his own, i. 434. 
Accord with, i. 166, 177. 
Accordant to, i. 1 30. 
According as, i. 434. 
According to, i. 157, 358. 
Accordingly, i. 38. 
Accost, ii. 14, 37. 
Account, lay his, i. 539. 
Account, on this, ii. 95. 
Accusative and Infinitive, i. 186. 
Accusative, curious Idioms of, i. 

100, 162, 420, 546,560; ii. 

40, 204. 
Accusative, dropped, i. 430, 546. 
Ace, one less, i 432. 
Ace, within an, ii. 138. 
Ache, i. 256, 453, 560 ; ii. 118, 

Achievement, i. 530. 
Acion, the Suflix, added to words, 

i. 274, 317. 
Acknowledge, i. 618. 
Acknowledgments, ii. 81. 
Acknown of, be, ii. 60. 
Acolde, i. 173, 254 ; ii. 41. 
Aeon, the town, i. 298. 

Acordaunt to, i. 8. 
Acorn, i. 119, 2^4. 
Acoustic, ii 53. 
Acquaint, i. 94. 
Acquaintance = friends, i. 133. 
Acquaintance, have his, i. 132. 
Acquaintance, his, i. 410. 
Acquaintance, make, i 90. 
Acquainted, bring him, i. 458. 
Acres, Bob, ii. 171. 
Across, i 55, 233, 242, 284. 
Across him, come, ii. 169. 
Acrostic, ii 5. 
Act the merchant, ii. 85. 
Act up to, ii. 173* 
Action, man of, ii. 33. 
Action (pugnajy ii 35. 
Action, take an, i 112, 244. 
Actions at law, i. 242. 
Acumen, i 468. 
Ad replaces a, i 155, 317. 
Adam Bede, i 558. 
Adam's ale, ii. 194. 
Addington, ii. 113. 
Addison, i 500, 523 ; iil4, 154, 
Addle brains, i 606 ; ii. 187. 
Addled, ii. 95. 

Address, i 178, 294 ; ii 15. 
Address himself to, i. 557. 
Address letters, i. 490 ; ii. 148. 
Addresses, make his, ii 126. 
Adieu, i 172, 179. 
Adieu, to make, i 115. 
Adjective, used as Substantive, 

i 32, 45, 166, 353, 362, 

440, 473 ; ii 3, 46, 102. 
has a Substantive prefixed, i. 

used as Adverb, i. 300, 562, 

615 ; ii 5, 17, 24, 111, 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Adjective, used as Verb, ii. 151. 

placed after the Substantive, 
i. 222 ; ii. 89. 

new formed, i. 323. 

made the last word, i. 323, 

prefixed to a Pronoun, i. 611. 

dropped, ii. 66. 
Adjectives, two coupled, i. 54, 

147, 237. 
Adjutant, ii. 53. 
Administration, i. 9 ; to take, i. 

Admiral, i. 230. 
Admit, ii. 42. 
Admit of, ii. 85. 
Admitted that, i. 472. 
Ado, i. 192, 580. 
Adonis, an, ii. 86. 
Adoration, i. 618. 
Adore, i. 572. 
Adrift, ii. 67. 
Adultery, i. 317. 
Advance of money, an, ii. 109. 
Advances, make, ii. 126. 
Advantage of,' take, i. 50, 128. 
Adventure, at, i. 515. 
Adventure it, i. 124. 
Adventurer, an, ii. 105. 
Adventurers, i. 301. 
Adventures, at all, i. 450. 
Adverb, placed before the Noun, 
i. 16, 99. 

placed after the Verbal Noun, 
i. 36, 141. 

placed before the Verb, i. 128, 

made a Preposition, i. 242. 

made a Substantive, i. 325 ; 
ii. 44, 168. 

made an Adjective, i. 312, 
432, 440, 456 ; ii. 5, 1.91. 

Adverb, compounded afresh, i. 
312, 547. 

made a Verb, i. 363. 

replaces an Adjective, i. 576. 
Advertising, ii. 53, 174. 
Advice (avis), i. 166. 
Advice, by, i. 308. 
Advice, take, i. 330. 
Advices (epistolce), ii. 54. 
Advise, i. 93, 155. 
Advocate, i. 155, 160. 
Advoultry, i. 409, 466 ; ii. 118 
Adze, i. 583. 
M is clipped, i. 452. 
M is used, i. 539. 
AE, used by Coverdale, i. 438. 
^ghwaer, i. 526. 
iElfric, i. 336 ; ii. 229. 
^thelred. King, i. 32. 
Afar, i. 140. 
Afar off, i. 417. 
Afeard, ii 41. 
Affectation, i. 490, 612. 
Affected, i. 549, 620. 
Affected, stand, ii. 54. 
Affection, i. 470. 
Affectionate, i. 227. 
Afford, i. 278, 338, 381, 459. 
Affreyd, the, i. 406. 
Afield, i. 211. 
Afire, i 151. 
Afloat, i. 19, 372. 
Afoot, i. 411. 
Aforehands, be, i. 513. 
Aforesaid, i. 49. 
Aforetime, i. 330. 
Afraid (for afeard)^ L 419. 
Afraid, I am, = think, i. 195, 

Afraid of, i. 81. 

Afraid than hurt, more, i. 607. 
Afresh, i. 373, 417. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Africa, i. 554, 556. 
After, i 8, 437 ; ii. 103. 

how sounded, ii. 98. 

followed by going ^ i. 164. 
After benefits received, i 148. 
After a sort (kind of way), i. 61 7. 
After putting, be (Irish phrase), 

ii. 146. 
After that, follows now, i. 164. 
Afterbirth, an, ii 5. 
After-cast, an, L 177. 
After-dinner's sleep, ii. 43. 
After-gathering, i. 436. 
After-hours, ii. 28. 
After-love, ii. 21. 
Aftermath, i. 405. 
After matter, an, i. 291. 
Afternoon, the, i. 292. 
After-nourishment, ii. 43. 
Afterpart, i. 264. 
Afterthought, i. 177 ; ii. 105. 
Aftertimes, ii 33. 
Afterwards, i 357. 
After- wrath, ii. 50. 
Again, different forms of, i 256, 

its different meanings, i. 261. 

compounds with, i. 624. 

translates r«, i 24. 

replaces eft, i. 416. 

follows flw large, ii. 8. 

follows flw ma/wg, i 46. 

used so strengthen a verb, i. 
Again and again, i. 460. 
Against, dropped, i 233. 

used in betting sentences, i. 

Against him, go, i 544. 
Against it^ to make, i. 275. 
Age, come of, ii 203. 
Age, I was your, ii. 205. 

Age since, it is, ii 138. 

Age, the suffix, is added, i 122, 

Age, to, i. 264. 
Aged, i 210, 264. 
Agent, i 385. 
Agentship, i. 530. 
Ages (soBCula), i 222. 
Aggravate, ii. 199. 
Aggrieve, i. 47. 
Aghast, i 227. 
Aght {opes\ i. 67. 
Aghwere, i. 213. 
Agincourt, Poem on, i. 233. 
Aglifte, i. 18. 
Agnijs castus, the, i 182. 
"^CgoTi 7 ; ii 199. 
Ago, made a noun, i 135. 
Agog, i 462. 
Agone, mistaken by Caxton, i. 

Agony, i 138. 
Agra, the Irish, ii. 145. 
Agree, idioms of, i 182, 243, 

244, 247, 248, 309. 
Agreeable, i. 118, 243, 309. 
Agreements, ii 121. 
Agrees with him, it, ii. 95. 
Agriculturist, ii 214. 
Aground, i. 25, 387. 
Ah, new form of a, i. 319. 
Ah me! i 588; ii 29, 124. 
Aha ! i 435. 
Ahead, i 367, 460. 
Ahem! ii 159. 
Ahoy! ii 140, 174. 
Ai replaces a, i. 140, 339, 343, 
346, 360, 361, 386, 410, 
436, 473. 

replaces ap, i 119. 

replaces ar, i. 590. 

replaces e, i. 579 ; see ii. 138. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ai, German sound of, i. 214. 

Aiblins, ii. 15. 

Aide de camp, i. 358. 

Ail you to, i 84, 109. 

Aille, rimes in, i. 134. 

Ailment, ii. 148. 

Aim, i. 18, 21, 459. 

Aim (guess), to have, ii. 49. 

Aim, take, i. 498. 

Air, give her, ii. 54. 

Air, pun on, i. 321. 

Air, take the, i 164. 

Air, to, i. 463 ; ii 45, 110. 

Airs and graces, ii 138. 

Airs, give yourself, ii 138. 

Airs, her, ii. 127. 

Aisle, i. 82, 344, 483 ; ii. 82. 

Ajar, i 365; ii 187. 

Akimbo, i 182 ; ii 111. 

Akin to, i 566. 

Alack, i 273. 

Alack a day, i. 5. 

Alarm, i 444, 496. 

Alarm bell, ii. 41. 

Alarm, take the, ii 70. 

Alarm, to, ii 95. 

Alarum, i 65, 395, 443. 

Albeit, i. 160. 

Album, i 588 ; ii. 60. 

Alchemist, i. 131. 

Alchemist, Ben Jonson's, i. 263 ; 

ii 55. 
Alcove, ii 112. 
Alder, i. 161. 
Alderliefer, ii. 81. 
Alderliefest, i 588 ; ii. 23, 81, 

Aleman, ii. 81. 
Alerta, ii 15, 171. 
Alewife, i 97, 107. 
Alexander, the, i. 2, 38, 72, 

161, 314. 

Alexander, alliterative Poem on, 

i 42. 
Alexander, clipped, i. 362. 
Alfarache, Guzman de, ii. 81. 
Alford, Dean, ii. 229. 
Alfred, King, i 31, 74, 137, 

206, 271, 422 ; ii 54. 
Algorism, i 31. 
Alguazil, ii. 15. 
Alias, ii. 3. 
Alias, an, ii. 15. 
Alibi, an, ii. 155. 
Alien, i 139, 317. 
Aliene, ii 135. 
Alike,!. 172,390. 
Alison, Sir A, i 348; ii 81, 

Alive, i. 457. 

All, added to a sentence, i. 110, 

has a backward reference, i. 

rounds off a sentence, i. 486. 
All alike as if, ii 42. 
All alone, i 125. 
All along, ii. 96. 
All and each, i 213. 
All and every, i 117, 301. 
All and singular, i. 387. 
All and some, i 565, 457. 
All at sea, ii. 204. 
All but, ii 15. 
All celerity, with, i. 576. 
All-changing, ii. 26. 
All conscience, in, ii. 129. 
All eyes, he is, ii. 44. 
All four, on, i 45. 
All fours, the game, ii 155. 
All Hallow even, i. 540. 
All Hallows, by, i 548. 
All Hallontide, i 519, 575. 
All her own, a zeal, ii. 189. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



AU herself, i. 110; ii. 168. 

All his eyes, with, ii. 168. 

All his heart, with^ i. 175. 

AU HoUond, ii. 42. 

All hollow (with ease), ii. 180. 

All-honoured, iL 50. 

All in a tale, i 644. 

AU in all, i 429. 

All in good time, ii. 177. 

All is not gold that glitters, i. 

All is over, ii. 184. 
All is well that ends well, i. 501. 
All-knowing, i 527. 
All loves, of, ii 200. 
All merciful, i 612. 
AU obedience, I am, ii. 126. 
All of a piece, ii 1 29. 
AU of a tremble, ii. 185. 
AU one as, i. 296 ; ii 42. 
AU over, i 593, 696 ; ii 132. 
AU ready, i. 126. 
AU round, provoke them, ii. 149. 
AU seer, the, ii 28. 
All that, ii 116. 
All that in them Hes, i. 290. 
AU that is holy, by, ii. 114. 
All the better, ii. 36. 
AU the go, ii 204. 
AU the powers, by, ii. 171. 
AU the report, it is, ii. 189. 
AU the same, i 125 ; ii 222. 
AU the woe in the world, i. 99. 
All the world over, ii 65. 
AU their best, trust, i 228. 
All their comforts, i. 543. 
AU things considered, i. 277. 
AU this, i 397. 
All this same, for, ii. 34. 
All to be powdered, ii. 140. 
All to nought, call, ii. 161. 
AU to pieces, i 47. 

All to pieces, the idiom mistaken, 

i 318, 401, 408, 452, 563, 

All way, by, i 175. 
All your fault, i 451. 
Allay, i 146, 216, 256. 
AUege, i. 34. 

Allegiance, upon his, i 539. 
Allen, i 392, 474, 539. 
AUeskynnes (aU kinds of), i. 116. 
AUigator, ii. 6, 65. 
AUiteration, i 2, 174, 274, 314, 

538, 562, 583, 589, 610, 621 ; 

ii. 17, 95. 
AUiteration laughed at, i 135 ; 

ii 29. 
Alliterative Lancashire poems, i. 

Allot, i 276, 475. 
Allow, i 14. 
Allow (allocare), i 210. 
Allow (jpermiUere), i 221, 222, 

538, 614. 
Allowances, make, ii. 139. 
Allowing for, ii. 116. 
Alloy, i. 103, 560 ; ii 15. 
AUsowlen College, i 473. 
Allude to, i 490. 
Almains, i 485. 
Almanacks, old, ii 69. 
Almayne, i 22, 50,495 ; ii. 7, 69. 
Almayne, Emperor of, i 167. 
Almighty, i. 612. 
Almondsbury, i 267, 400, 489. 
Almost, i 127, 379, 432. 
Alms, i 35, 77, 221, 275, 437. 
Almsgiver, i. 146. 
Almshouse, i 240, 258. 
Alnwick, i. 305. 
Aloft, i 372. 

Alone, made a Plural, i. 58. 
Alone, stand, i. 480. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Alonely, i. 480. 

Along (at length), ii. 35, 87. 

Along, come, i. 461; ii. 24, 27. 

Along on, i. 172, 177. 

Along with, ii. 16. 

Alongside, ii 148. 

Aloof, i. 435. 

Alp (elephas), i. 18. 

Alphabet, i. 551. 

Alphin, L 538. 

Aba (omnium), corrupted, i 14, 
33, 79, 316, 344. 

Already, i. 332, 417. 

Also, i. ^69. 

Alterations in manuscripts and 
books, i 404, 409. 

Alther ; see alra. 

Although, strangely pronounced, 
ii. 162. 

Although takes no Verb after it, 
ii. 45. 

Altogether bom, etc., i. 417. 

Alway foreseen that, i. 269. 

Am to think, I, i. 607 ; ii. 

Amadas, Sir, i. 66, 67. 

Amain, i. 482. 

Amazed, ii. 93. 

Amazement, ii. 5. 

Ambsace, within, ii. 138. 

Ambuscado, ii. 34. 

Amen clerk, ii. 199. 

Amenable, ii. 206. 

America, L 369, 374, 380, 386, 
450, 535, 536; ii. 176,180, 
186, 188, 218, 225, 230. 

Americans preserve old words 
and idioms, i. 79, 100, 126, 
133,143, 144,219,341,419, 
431, 461, 497, 509, 565, 569, 
590, 616; ii. 11, 191. 

American usage, i. 184, 252, 

315 ; ii 26, 37, 64, 66, 69, 
140, 164, 200, 216, 226. 

Amidst, i 97. 

Amiens, i 162. 

Amis and Amiloun, the Poem, 
i 14. 

Amiss, come, i 396 ; ii 182. 

Amiss, not, ii 57. 

Amiss, pun on, i 221, 509. 

Amissing, ii 81. 

Ammunition, ii 88. 

Amore (avis), ii. 2. 

Amorous on, i 129. 

Amour, an, ii. 114. 

Amour propre, ii. 9, 219. 

Amours, i 457, 619. 

Amuck, ii. 116. 

Amuse, i 337. 

Amusement, ii. 116. 

Amy, i 583. 

An hunting, go, i 154. 

An one, i. 163. 

Analogies, false, i 4, 21, 155, 
198, 254, 269, 292, 301, 453, 
454, 465, 483, 535, 591. 

Anan ! ii 127, 200. 

Anatomy, an, i. 535. 

Ance, the Suffix, added to Teu- 
tonic roots, i 245, 249. 

Anchor, cast, i. 377. 

Anchor, come to an, i 613. 

Anchor, lie at, i 457. 

Anchor, ride at, i. 500. 

Anchor, to, i. 500. 

Anchoress, i. 104. 

Anchorite, i 238 ; ii. 39. 

Ancient, an, i. 60, 618. 

Ancients, military, i. 570. 

Ancle, i 3. 

Ancren Riwle, the, i 7, 8, 24, 
29, 36, 59, 102, 137, 151, 
254,370,396,408; ii 7, 38. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



And, Participles in, i. 19, 271, 

confused with French an<, i. 
And (e<), dropped in a sentence, 

ii. 8. 
And I were you, etc., i. 457. 
And it were but, i. 417. 
And that I can, i. 175. 
And which is more, i. 614. 
Andirons, L 4. 
Aneal, to, i. 6. 
Anear, to, i. 602. 
Anelida, i 112. 
Anent, i. 168, 278, 375, 473. 
Anew, i. 57. 

Anger, put her in, ii. 50. 
Angerly, i. 576 ; ii. 41. 
Angle, to, i. 295. 
Angler, i. 266. 
Anglian dialect, i. 74. 
Anglicism, an, ii. 133. 
Anglified Erse, ii. 209. 
Anglo-Israelites, i 610. 
Anglo-Saxon, Grammar of, ii. 

225, 229, 244. 
Anhungry, ii 48. 
Anights, i. 101. 

Animal (term of abuse), ii. 112. 
Animal spirits, ii. 75, 158. 
Animals, Puritan kindness to, 

i. 615 ; ii 74. 
Anise seed, i 264. 
Anne of Bohemia, i. 77. 
Anne of Denmark, ii. 77, 80. 
Anne, Queen of England, ii. 193. 
Annihilation, i. 509. 
Annoy, i 7, 119, 231, 453. 
Annueler, i. 148. 
Anon, i. 138, 288 ; ii 127. 
Anon, anon ! i 460. 
Anonymously, ii 121. 

Another, dropped before d«, i. 

Another, thou art (the retort), 

i 566. 
Another guess, i 44, 612i^' — 
Another man than, i. 357. 
Another such, i. 175. 
Answer, i 153. 
Answer at his peril, i. 310. 
Answer for, i 248. 
Answer, give, i. 176. 
Answer, have his, i 267. 
Answer, make, i 228. 
Answer, put in, i 273. 
Answer to, i 55, 115, 157, 391. 
Ant, i 140, 234. 
Ant, ending of the Participle, i. 

A'nt, for am not, ii 143, 181. 
Ante-chamber, ii. 200. 
Ante-date, an, i 291. 
Antelope, ii. 5. 

Anti, prefixed to words, ii. 93. 
Antic, i 498, 549. 
Antinomians, i. 150. 
Antiquary, i 517, 580. 
Antiquary, Scott's, i. 78 ; ii 127. 
Antique, i. 498. 
Antique, an, i 465. 
Antiquities, i 229. 
Antiquity, i. 238. 
Antithesis, i. 473. 
Anton, i. 12. 
Antony, i 135, 297. 
Anturs of Arthur, the, i 66, 67. 
Any, i. 45, 153. 

needlessly inserted, i 79. 

supplants a, i. 322. 
Any further, i 323. 
Anyhow, ii 136, 171. 
Any kind of, i 99. 
Anykins, i 225. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Any longer, i. 221, 322. 

Any matter whatsoever, i. 595. 

Any more, i. 40. 

Any one man alive, i. 306, 544; 

ii. 83. 
Any one person, i. 277. 
Any rate, at, i. 500. 
Any so rich, not, ii. 189. 
Any state whatsoever, i. 181. 
Any thing near it, i. 515. 
Any time, i. 33. 
Any time these years, ii. 87. 
Any way, i. 384. 
Any way, in, ii. 136. 
Any where, i. 46, 125. 
Any wise, on, i 46. 
Anything for quiet life, ii. 119. 
Anythingarian, ii. 148. 
Apace, i. 50. 
Apaid, i. 554 ; ii. 73. 
Aparry, i. 540. 
Apart, i. 103. 
Apart, put, i. 310, 331. 
Ape (imitator), i. 540. 
Apiece, i. 239. 
Apish, i. 286. 
Apology for the Lollards, the, i, 

184-187, 287, 531. 
Apothecary, i. 168. 
Appeach, i. 205. 
Appeal, i. 245. 
Appearance, make his, i. 545. 
Appius, play of, i. 563. 
Apply (ask), i. 149, 388. 
Apply business, i. 382. 
Appoint a day, i. 404. 
Appointed (equipped), i 382. 
Appointment ( = promise) i. 433. 

Appointment, break, i. 324, 433. 
Appointment, keep, i. 526. 
Appointment, make, i. 467. 

Appose, i. 133, 409. 

Apposition, example of, ii. 102. 

Appraise, i. 478. 

Approach, i. 130. 

Approaches, make, i. 387, 556. . 

Appropriations, Church, i. 222. 

Approve (lavdare), i. 222. 

Approver, i 15, 132. 

Appurtenants, i. 132. 

April Fool, ii. 123. 

Apron, I 257, 484. 

Apron man, ii. 48. 

Apropos, i. 236. 

Aqua vitSB, i. 496. 

Aquinas, i. 554. 

Arabic, i. 246, 514, 596 ; ii. 3, 

34, 104, 112, 119, 125. 
Arable, L 339, 457. 
Arbitrors, i. 231; 
Arbuthnot, Dr., ii. 155, 174. 
Arch {arcvs\ i. 120. 
Arch {earg), i. 235. 
Arch, Mr., ii 232. 
Arch rogue, ii. 114. 
Archdeacon, i. 506. 
Arched brows, ii. 86. 
Archery, English, i. 499, 558. 
Arches Court, i 103. 
Ard, the Suffix, i. 152. 

attached to Teutonic words, i. 

85, 121, 258, 264. 
Ardeme, John, i. 191. 
Are, for he, i. 415. 
Argosy, L 593, 600. 
Argue, i. 239. 
Ariosto, ii. 2. 
Aristotle, i. 471, 528. 
Arm a lady, to, ii. 65. 
Arm in arm, i. 115. 
Arm, take his, i 560. 
Armata, an, i. 529 ; ii. 209. 
Armful, i. 88. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Armin, the writer, ii. 56. 

Armlet, i. 445. 

Armourers, i. 197. 

Arms, heraldic, i. 52. 

Arms, to give them, ii. 22. 

Arm's length, at, i. 540. 

Arms, to ! i. 92, 319. 

Aroint, ii. 40. 

Arrah ! ii. 145. 

Arrant, i. 103, 381. 

Arras, i. 216. 

Array, i. 9, 178, 448. 

Array, break, i. 90. 

Array, keep, i. 578. 

Array, set in, i. 324. 

Arrear, i. 29. 

Arrear, run into, i. 277. 

Arrest, put under, i. 248. 

Arrived to, i. 179. 

Arrowhead, i. 348. 

Arry {Ariui)^ i. 298. 

Arsie versee, L 489. 

Artichoke, i. 514, 585. 

Article, to, i. 245. 

Articles, i. 299. 

Articles, give in, i. 217. 

Articulate, to, i. 548. 

Articulate, misuse of, ii. 215. 

Artillery,!. 132, 217, 498, 499. 

Artist, i. 364, 612. 

Artiste, ii. 156, 222. 

Arundel, Archbishop, i. 77. 

Arundel, Lord, i. 528. 

Aryan letter change, i. 211. 

Aryan word, forms of, i. 537; ii. 

228, 229. 
As, prefixed without need, i. 41, 
91, 116, 127, 130, 177, 

prefixed to a Participle, i. 53. 

follows an Adjective, i. 203, 

As, answers to quod^ i. 308. 

used wrongly for qu\i, 508 ; 
ii. 48, 49. 

replaces swa, i. 188. 
As certain as, i. 177. 
As ever I heard, i. 488. 
As far as I can hear, i. 177. 
As far as I know, i. 127. 
As for, i. 36. 
As good as, i. 195. 
As good luck was, i 568. 
As how, i. 203 ; ii. 13. 
As I best could, i. 111. 
As I may so speak, i. 521. 
As I remember, ii. 129. 
As if I (scornfully), ii 19. 
As many, i. 86. 
As many as, i. 414. 
As much as they may do to, i. 

As much as to say, i. 110. 
As regards, i. 34. 
As sure as I stand here, i. 210. 
As sure as life, i. 177. 
As though, i. 488. 
As to, i. 36. 
As touching, i. 53, 130. 
As true as, i. 202. 
As well as we can, i. 46, 235. 
As who saith, i. 175, 429. 
As yet, i. 127. 
As you were, ii. 142. 
Ascend, i. 280, 336. 
Ascendent, get the, ii. 130. 
Ascension Eve, i. 216. 
Ascham, i. 486, 496-499, 536, 

548, 549, 572-574, 587, 602, 

624 ; ii. 167. 
Ashamed of, i. 428. 
Ashamed to, i. 316. 
Ashbumham Manuscript, i. 78. 
Ashes, colour of, i. 112. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ashore, i. 565. 

Asia, words from, i. 536 ; ii 176. 

Aside, L 101, 110, 176, 191. 

Ask, a couple in church, i. 307. 

Ask at me, i. 435. 

Ask banns, i. 105, 184. 

Ask in marriage, L 283, 289. 

Ask question, i. 54. 

Askance, i. 131. 

Askew, i. 227, 578. 

Asking, for th6, ii. 75. 

Aslant, ii. 39. 

Asleep, i. 44, 97. 

Aslope, i. 238, 531. 

Asparagus, i. 514. 

Aspen, i. 254. 

Assassin, i. 30 ; ii. 76. 

Assault, make, L 277. 

Assay, i, 47, 203. 

Assemble, i. 65. 

Assemblies, social, i. 615 ; ii. 

Ass-head, i. 505. 
Assign to, ii. 27. 
Assignation, ii. 108. 
Assise = size, i. 289, 569. 
Assise, take, L 307. 
Assisours, i. 10. 
Assoil, to, i. 419. 
Assot, to, i 615. 
Assuming, ii. 128. 
Assumption, Poem on the, i. 13. 
Assurance, ii 55, 134. 
Assure, i. 385, 569 ; ii. 162. 
Assured manner, i. 111. 
Assuredly, i 374, 396. 
Ast (asked), i. 199. 
Asterisk, ii. 65, 124. 
Astern, i. 555. 
Astir, i. 91. 
Astray, i. 411. 
Astrology, i. 537, 616. 

At, used for to, i. 68. 

used for wpxid^ i. 139, 186. 

expresses distance, L 165. 
At all, i. 47, 105, 128. 
At all at all, the Irish, ii. 181. 
At best, ii 157. 
At do, i. 198. 
At each other, i. 519. 
At eighteen, i 403. 
At every word, i. 483. 
At first, i. 47. 
At four shillings, i. 10. 
At fourteen years, i. 398. 
At him ! i. 467. 
At him, she was, i. 59, 210. 
At him, in a friendly sense, i. 

417 ; ii. 96. 
At home, an, ii 163. 
At my word, i. 566. 
At no hand, i 548. 
At one another, i. 519. 
At one, be, i 110. 
At our last being with you, i. 

At prayers, i 171. 
At so many years' purchase, ii. 

At the long way (at length), i. 

At the spear point, i. 519. 
Atheist, i 549, 573. 
Athelstan, i 170. 
Athirst, i 151. 
Athwart, i 335, 547. 
Atom of feeling, ii. 186. 
Atone (act together), ii 48. 
Atonement, i 412, 426, 427, 

445, 455 ; ii 75. 
Atop of, i 28 ; ii. 116. 
Attachment = fidelity, ii 148. 
Attachment, legal, i 216. 
Attack = accost, ii 192. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Attain, i. 22. 

Attainder, i. 294. 

Attaint, i. 22, 178, 205, 245, 

Attempt a man, i. 474, 577. 
Attempted to be won, i. 385. 
Attend, i. 9, 132, 179, 204, 279, 

309, 529. 
Attendance, i. 286, 367. 
Attic Dialect, the, ii 135. 
Atticism, an, ii. 133. 
Attorney, i 6, 433. 
Attorney, letter of, i 309. 
Au, its varying sounds, i. 87 ; 
iL 93, 98, 101. 

sounded like a, i. 161 ; ii. 145. 

sounded like French ow, i. 
161, 539; ii. 95, 164. 

replaces a, i. 179, 426. 

replaces aZ, i. 87. 

replaces e, ii 101. 

used instead of 00^ ii. 141. 

sounded in the German way, 
i. 612; ii 135. 

changes its sound in France^ 
i 231, 386. 

the German sound of, i 235. 
Aubre/s Lives, i 567 ; ii. 119- 

121, 156, 163. 
Auchinleck, contracted, i. 361. 
Auchinleck Poems, the, i 14, 18. 
Auction, ii 15. 
Audience, give, i 114, 360. 
Audience, in the, i 419. 
Audience (spectators), i. 317, 

Audit accounts, i. 291. 
Auditor, i 8, 604. 
Audley, the Chancellor, i 482. 
Auger, i 4, 287, 368. 
Aught I know, by, i 101. 
Aught, as still as, i 111. 
vOl. il 

Augrim, i 31, 553. 
Aunt, i 179. 

its use in Cornwall, ii. 200. 
Auricular confession, i 551. 
Aurora, i. 236. 
Austere, i 21, 34, 140. 
Australia, ii. 230. 
Austria, i 530, 557. 
Author, i 483 ; ii 75. 
Authoress, i. 603. 
Authority, i 274, 538. 
Authority, of, i. 148. 
Authority, under, i. 186. 
Authorize, i 149. 
Auxiliary Verbs, i 16, 27. 

coupled together, i 147 ; ii 
Avast 1 ii 122, 143. 
Avaunt, i 178, 236. 
Avenge, i 126, 335, 418. 
Aventure, at all, i. 337. 
Avenue, ii. 95. 
Aver (property), i 149, 255. 
Average, on the, ii. 158. 
Averse to, ii. 199. 
Aversion, her, ii. 112; 
Avignon, i 221. 
Avise, its new sense, i 93. 
Avised to, i 66. 
Avoid I i 65, 418. 
Avowing of King Arthur, the, i 

Avoy, i 178. 

Aw, its varying sounds, i 2, 240, 
268, 283, 304, 361, 366, 
411; ii62, 82, 106, 140, 
159, 185. 

stands for all in Scotland, i 
311, 438. 

replaces e\ i. 229. 
Await, i 128, 178, 297 ; see 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Award, i. 50. 

Away, added to Verbs, i. 358 ; 

ii. 19. 
Away, lay it, i. 511. 
Away the tyranny ! L 178. 
Away with it ! i. 378. 
Away with it, I may, i. 341. 
Away you go, i. 40. 
Awdeley, the Prose writer, i. 

574, 575, 601 ; ii. 95. 
Awdlay, the Poet, i. 51, 232, 

233, 266, 322, 477. 
Awe, i. 38. 
Aweary, i. 515, 570. 
Awful, prefixed to Adjectives, i. 

300, 312. 
Awhile, i. 315. 
Awkward, i. 206, 312 ; ii. 117, 

Awkward, an adverb, L 34, 

Awkwardly, i. 456. 
Awl, i. 283, 360. 
Awning, ii. 69. 
Awry, i. 173. 

Axe, to, i 140, 181 ; see asA;. 
Axon's reprint of Caxton, i. 329. 
Ay, made a dissyllable, i. 578. 

for a, i. 107, 269, 304. 

for e^, i. 237. 

replaces yea, i. 198. 

sounded differently from e, i. 

heads a sentence, i. 372. 
Ay me ! i. 687. 
Ay, so, i. 204. 
Aye, aye, ii. 122. 
Aye (semper), i. 390. 
Aye (yes), i. 483, 527; ii. 84, 

Ayenbite of Inwyt, the, i. 9, 14, 

23-81, 36, 41, 44, 57, 66, 

145, 185, 187, 327, 382, 398, 

Ayle (aviw), i. 288. 
Ayle, many rimes in, L 518. 
Aytoun, i. 623. 
Ay where (uhiqiie), i. 83 ; see 

Azeglio, ii. 230, 231. 

B is struck out, i. 7, 87, 173, 
311, 483, 518, 525, 559 ; 
ii. 110. 

inserted, i. 97, 172, 227, 255, 
263, 289, 300, 347, 366, 
438; ii. 17. 

added, i. 193. 

confused with to, i. 49 ; ii. 63. 

replaces/, i. 227. 

replaces Pfi, 594 ; ii. 102. 
B, know from a bull's foot, i. 

Bab (Barbara), ii. 180. 
Babe = doll, i. 454. 
Babees' Book, the, i. 323, 356, 

360, 382, 559. 
Baboon, i. 148. 
Baboos, ii. 224. 
Baby, i. 101 ; ii. 113, 128. 
Baby=p*er, i. 323. 
Baby face, ii. 154. 
Babyish, ii. 176. 
Bachelery, i. 52. 
Bachelor, i. 182, 229, 292, 444, 

Back ! i. 560. 

Back again (ifieonasm^. 417. 
Back door, i. 366/^ 
Back hand, a, ii. 185. 
Back, have him by the, i. 546. 
Back, he was, ii. 74. 
Back is up, her, ii. 158. 
Back lane, i. 575. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Back.of liand, the, ii 48. 
Back reckonings, i. 305. 
Back side of house, i. 272. 
Back, to ; its many meanings, i. 

262, 363,396; ii 128, 164. 
Back, to look, i. 234. 
Backbite, i 233. 
Back-blow, ii. 119. 
Backboards, ii. 197. 
Backbone, to the, ii. 204. 
Backgammon, ii 89. 
Background, throw into, ii. 168. 
Backside, ii. 139. 
Backslider, i. 438. 
Backstairs, ii 73. 
Backsword, ii. 12. 
Backward, i 11, 21. 
Backward and forward, i. 404. 
Backward, made an Adjective, 

ii. 6. 
Backward, to ring, i 295. 
Backwardness, ii. 139. 
Backwater, i 151, 498. 
Bacon, the Chancellor, i. 408, 

621 ; ii 2, 63, 70, 72. 
Bacon, the Chancellor's father, 

ii 120. 
Bad, differences of meaning in, 

i 254. 
Bad {(BgeT\ ii. 203. 
Bad bargain, i. 79. 
Bad business, ii 185. 
Bad debt, ii 160. 
Bad name, have, i 126. 
Bad night, ii. 162. 
Bad of you, too, ii. 207. 
Bad time of it, ii. 168. 
Bad to worse, from, ii 168. 
Bad turn, take, ii 160. 
Bad words, ii 203. 
Baddish, ii 176. 
Badge, i 81. 

Badger, a dealer, i 596. 
Badger, the animal, i 406. 
Badger, to, ii 197. 
Badness, i 275. 
Bae, of sheep, i 363. 
Baffle, i 513 ; ii 5. 
Bag and baggage, i. 506. 
Bag fox, a, ii 163. 
Bag of bones, ii 167. 
Bag, to, i 210. 

Baggage, i 367, 378, 404 ; ii 

applied to a woman, i 394, 
Bagman, ii 187. 
Bagpipe, i 122. 
Bags (ve«^), i. 44. 
Bagwig, ii 179. 
Bail a man, i 548. 
Bailey, Mr., ii 199. 
BaiUff, i 180. 
Baillie, i 94, 247, 304, 310, 

Bainbridge, Cardinal, i 368. 
B'aint (are you not), ii. 110. 
Bait (edere\ i 458. 

{^e$cd)^ i 178. 

for fishing, i. 283. 

(lacessere), i 487. 
Bakemeat, i. 122, 436. 
Bakker mare, i. 68. 
Balcony, ii. 148. 
Bald as coot, i 423. 
Bald conclusion, ii. 19. 
Balderdash, i. 603 ; ii 15, 144. 
Baldrick, i. 59. 
Bale (cervmna), ii. 48, 65. 
Bale, Bishop, i. 482, 517 ; ii 82. 
Bale highest, bote nighest, i. 

530, 560. 
Bale of goods, i. 64. 
Bale, to, i. 86 ; ii. 15. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Balk, to, i. 95 ; ii. 5. 

Balk {},rahi), i. 79, 195. 

Ball (a dance), ii. 81. 

Ball-bat, i. 305. 

Ball, keep up the, ii. 83, 169. 

Ballad, i. 136, 618. 

Ballad idiom, i. 90. 

Ballast, i. 352. 

BalUol CoUege, i. 574. 

Ballyrag, to, i. 372, 396. 

Bam, ii. 148. 

Bamboozle, ii. 148. 

Ban, to, i. 435, 446. 

Band (chain), i. 436. 

Band, in dress, i. 500, 541. 

Band, in regiment, ii. 80. 

Band of music, ii. 105. 

Band (tumia)y i. 200. 

Band, to, i. 385. 

Bandbox, ii. 81. 

Bandbox, come out of, ii. 195. 

Banditti, ii. 91. 

Bandog, i. 40, 146, 268. 

Bandylegs, ii. 122. 

Bandy words, ii. 5, 17. 

Baneful, ii. 5. 

Bang ! ii. 9. 

Bang, it goes, ii. 197. 

Bang, the drink, ii. 89. 

Bang, to, i. 526. 

Banish him the town, i. 243. 

Bank, for money, i. 319, 495. 

Bank (mound), i. 19. 

Banker, ii. 123. 

Bankman, in pits, ii. 15, 200. 

Bankrupt, i. 569. 

Banneret, i. 182, 599. 

Bannock, i. 349. 

Banns of marriage, i. 7. 

Bantling, ii. 5. 

Banyan day, a, ii. 163. 

Baptiser, the, i. 413. 

Baptism, i. 97, 103, 551. 

Baptisms, curious, i. 106. 

Bar in the Courts, i. 10, 39, 274, 

Bar of the sea, i. 477. 

Bar, to, ii. 31. 

Baratresse, i. 603. 

Barbarians, i. 162, 330. 

Barbarise, i. 617. 

Barbarous, i. 296. 

Barbour, i. 67, 80, 81, 86-96, 
219, 225-227, 229, 244, 259, 
269, 294, 299, 311, 367, 416, 
434, 467, 535, 542, 546 ; ii. 
27, 170. 

Barclay, i. 103, 124, 209, 227, 
229, 356, 360, 374, 375-382, 
393, 402, 407,412,418,447, 
459, 471, 480, 504, 650, 673, 
574 ; ii. 51. 

Bard, i. 599 ; ii. 50. 

Bare word, my, ii. 83. 

Barebreech, i. 599. 

Barefaced, i. 534. 

Bare-foot, i. 220. 

Bare-footed, i. 220. 

Bare-handed, i. 188. 

Bare-legged, i. 315. 

Barely, i. 58. 

Baretti, ii. 201. 

Bargain, a great, ii. 120. 

Bargain, into the, ii. 85. 

Bargain is a bargain, ii. 88. 

Bargain, two words to, ii. 104. 

Barge = ship, i. 313. 

Bargee, i. 236; ii. 105. 

Bargeman, i. 236. 

Bark (navis), i. 460. 

Bark, to, i. 172. 

Barley bree, i. 225. 

Barley com, i. 268. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Barley meal, i. 258. 
Barlow, Bishop, i. 473. 
Barmaid, ii. 5, 172. 
Barnacles (spectacles), i. 665. 
Barnard, i. 53. 
Barnard Castle, i. 475. 
Bame (child), ii 46. 
Barnes, Mr., i. 75; ii. 209, 227. 
Barnes, the martyr, i. 507. 
Baron, I 182. 
Baronet, i. 288, 599. 
Barren has the accent on the 

last syllable, i 446. 
Barren spirited, ii 49. 
Barretta, a, ii. 14. 
Barring out, a, ii. 163. 
Barrister, L 497. 
Barrow, Bishop, i. 467. 
Barrow (hill), i 98, 582. 
Barrow hog, ii. 2. 
Barrowful, i. 356. 
Barton, a, i 632. 
Bas relief, ii. 128. 
Base, i. 92, 389, 451, 496, 532, 

Base a thing, to, i. 533. 
Base born, i. 489. 
Bases, the, L 65. 
Bashaw, i. 528. 
Bashful, i. 245, 323, 374. 
Basin, Tale of, i. 50. 
Bask, i. 178. 
Baskefysyke, i. 108. 
Basket, i. 51. 
Basket hilt, ii. 33. 
Bass, i. 360. 
Bastard, ii. 214. - 
Bastardize, i. 549. 
Bastile, i. 237. 
Bastinado, i. 569. 
Bat (the animal), i. 144, 234. 
Batch, i. 260; ii. 210. 

Bate (quarrel), i. 184. 

Bate, to, i. 151. 

Bates, C, ii. 78. 

Bat-fowling, ii 47. 

Bath (the city), ii 185. 

Bath, visited, i 588, 595. 

Bathe in blood, i 63. 

Bathe with tears, i. 589. 

Batte (Bartholomew), i. 586. 

Battels, i 187, 579. 

Batten, to, ii. 5. 

Battered rake, ii. 173. 

Battle, accent on, i. 120. 

Battle, do, i. 153. 

Battle, gage, i 285. 

Battle, give, i. 54. 

Battle, make, i. 544. 

Battle royal, ii. 146. 

Battledoor, i. 265 ; ii. 98. 

Bavaria, i 213, 214, 236. 

Baw ! i 101, 302. 

Bawbee, ii 64. 

Bawcock, i 371; ii 36. 

Bawd, i 98, 306, 464. 

Bawdy, i 99. 

Bawl, i 582. 

Bawling, i 263. 

Bawn, i 529. 

Bay, a horse, i 131. 

Bay, architectural, i. 65. 

Bay, at the, i 69. 

Bay, bring to, i 350. 

Bay, hold to, i 45, 457. 

Bay, to, i 52. 

Bay tree, i 439. 

Bay window, i 402. 

Bays, i 559. 

Bayard, the horse, i 21, 51, 67, 

98; ii 119, 197. 
Bayes, Mr., ii 115, 116. 
Bayfield, the martyr, i. 477. 
Be, is prefixed, i. 25, 178, 372, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



392, 396, 599, 602, 611; 

ii 19. 
clipped, L 78, 234, 342, 600 ; 

(es«e), coupled with an Active 

Participle, i 323, 387, 441, 

coupled with many Verbs, L 

dropped at the end of a sen- 
tence, i. 302. 
Be about your business, i. 399. 
Be as be may, L 7. 
Be (cn'e), ii 37. 
Be got to, I, ii. 177. 
Be, not are^ i 415. 
Be (sie), is dropped, i. 7 ; ii. 21. 
Be taken heed to, i. 221. 
Be ye he, i 188. 
Beach, L 580. 
BeadroU, i. 352, 501. 
Beads, L 99, 259, 535. 
Beads of sweat, il 31. 
Beaker, i. 220. 
Bean-fed, ii 29. 
Bear and forbear, i. 585. 
Bear charges, i. 290. 
Bear date, i. 248. 
Bear fight, i. 525. 
Bear garden, ii 94, 127. 
Bear good face, i. 235. 
Bear hand over him, ii. 48. 
Bear hard on, il 48, 133. 
Bear him down, 121. 
Bear him hard, ii 48. 
Bear himself for, i 214. 
Bear in hand (accuse), ii 39. 
Bear love to, i 344. 
Bear off a blow, i 488 ; ii 113, 

Bear out, i 296, 366, 457. 
Bear = rude fellow, ii. 181. 

Bear south-west, i. 536 ; ii 133. 

Bear them heavy, i 192. 

Bear to be, etc., i 546; ii 127. 

Bear up for port, ii 38. 

Bear up train, i. 242. 

Bear with him, i 429. 

Bear with sore head, ii 1 94. 

Bear your half, i 497. 

Bear your part, i 250. 

Bear your years well, ii 33. 

Beard is on, his, i 547. 

Beard, to, i 341. 

Bearings, bring to his, ii 169. 

Bearings, take the, ii 133. 

Bear-leader, ii. 178. 

Beast = ox, i 366. 

Beast = stingy, ii 206. 

Beasts = armorial supporters, i 

Beastesses, i 614 ; ii 183. 
Beastliness, i 261 ; ii 109. 
Beastly drunk, i 379. 
Beat about the bush, i. 586. 
Beat a march, ii. 21. 
Beat black and blue, i 18, 295. 
Beat (conquer), i 242. 
Beat down, i 63, 164, 169; ii. 

Beat her wings, i 169. 
Beat him at his own weapon, ii 

Beat him to death, i 153. 
Beat his brain, i 511. 
Beat it into him, i 486. 
Beat off and on, ships, ii 53. 
Beat out, i. 169. 
Beat the bush, i 503. 
Beat to a mummy, ii. 113. 
Beat up for a corps, ii. 145. 
Beat up quarters, ii 103. 
Beat (weary), i. 405. 
Beaten way, i 544. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Beater of street, L 376. 
Beating together of, i. 141. 
Beatrice, i 259. 
Beau, i. 183; ii. 124, 140. 
Beauchamp, i 166, 254, 289, 

Beau-ish, ii 134. 
Beaufort, the name, ii. 81. 
Beaufort, Cardinal, i 243, 247. 
Beaulieu, L 292, 475. 
Beaumaris, i 352. 
Beaumont, i. 289, 298. 
Beauties, L 136, 445, 489. 
Beautify, i 443. 
Beauty, spelling of, i. 43, 120. 
Beaver hat, i. 122. 
Beaver (hat), i 447. 
Because of, L 418. 
Because that, L 419. 
Bechance, to, ii. 24. 
Beck (nu«t*s), i 151, 287. 
Beck (Kehecca), ii 178. 
Becloud, i 611. 
Become replaces weorth, i 69. 
Becon, i 28, 505, 506, 557. 
Bed, bring to, i 384. 
Bed of oysters, i 556. 
Bed of river, i 535. 
Bed of state, i 447. 
Bed, to (embed), ii 160. 
Bedabble, ii 29. 
Bedad, ii 105. 
Bedaub, i 602. 
Bedazzle, ii 19. 
Bedchamber, ii 45. 
Bede,i 137, 296. 
Bede woman, i 289. 
Bedeck, i 586. 
Bedew, i 27. 
Bedfellow, i 340, 381. 
Bedford level, i 581. 
Bedim, i 611; ii 47. 

Bedizen, ii. 146. 

Bedlam, i 352, 428, 604. 

Bedmaker, ii 74. 

Bedouins, i. 161. 

Bedraggled, i 255. 

Bedridden, i 32. 

Bedswerver, ii 46. 

Bedtime, i 348. 

Beef, i 254. 

Beef eater, ii 112. 

Beef, out of, ii 36. 

Beefsteak, ii 145. 

Beef tea, ii 205. 

Been and procured, I have, i. 243, 

Been to make, I have, i 79, 487. 
Beer, i 281, 495. 
Beer brewer, i. 360. 
Bees in his head, i 565; ii. 70, 
Beet, i 514. 
Beetle-blind, i 428. 
Beetle-browed, i 99. 
Beetle-headed, i 542. 
Beetle, to, ii. 39. 
Beeves, i 17. 
Befit, to, ii. 43. 
Befool, i 178. 
Before God ! i 508. 
Before the Council, a matter, i 

Before the wind, i 178. 
Before, used for /ore, i 278. 
Beforehand, get, i 538. 
Befriend, i 175; ii 41. 
Beg from door to door, i 504. 
Beg him off, ii 170. 
Beg my bread, i 251; see also 

Beg or borrow, i 33, 50, 232. 
Beg (petere), i 611. 
Beg the principle, i 617. 
Beg the question, ii 133. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Beget with cliild, i 176. 
Beggar, to, i 429. 
Beggarliness, i. 484. 
Beggarly, i. 413. 
Beggar-man, i 38; ii. 40. 
Beggars on horseback, ii 24, 166. 
Beggars should be no choosers, L 

Beggary, L 98. 
^ggingj go a, i- 121, 591. 
Begging letter, i. 568. 
Begift, to, i 396. 
Begin, prefixed to Adjectives, i 

Begin the world again, i. 476. 
Beginner, ii 82. 
Beginning, everything has, i. 

Begnaw, ii 28. 
Begone, i 667. 
Begone for a fool, i. 47. 
Begrimed, i 367. 
Behalf, i 110, 325. 
Behave her best, ii 203. 
Behave herself, i 284, 321. 
Behave pretty, ii 189. 
Behaving, i 284. 
Behaviour, i 149, 325. 
Behind the hand, i 461, 474. 
Behind, there is more, i 127. 
Behind thy back, i 21. 
Behindhand, i. 384. 
Behither, i 384. 
Behold! i 418. 
Beholden, I am, i. 58. 
Beholding (regai'ding), i 279, 

Beholding to, I am, i 479. 
Behoveful, i 214. 
Behoves, he, i 35, 94. 
Behoves, it, i 36, 70. 
Behowl, ii. 29. 

Being, a, i 35, 174, 373, 411, 

Being and to be, i 338. 

Being dark, it, ii. 208. 

Being (domm), ii 97. 

Being, followed by Active Parti- 
ciple, i 246; ii 68. 

Being, followed by Passive Parti- 
ciple, i 244, 416; ii 68, 160. 

Being, here is good, i 416. 

Being in, i 276; ii 133. 

Being, is dropped, i. 346. 

Being, preceded by is (is being 
put), i 273 ; ii 188. 

Being that it is so, ii 84. 

Being, the Participle, i. 158. 

Being, to have, i 262. 

Being waned (the moon), i. 387. 

Beknave, i. 372. 

Belabour, i 648. 

Belay, to, ii 68. 

Beldame, i 190; ii 11. 

Belfry, i 66, 165. 

Belgie, i 696. 

Belie, to, i 333. 

Belief (creed), i 356. 

Believe, I can, i. 368. 

Believe, I well, i 58. 

Believe in a man, ii 70. 

Believe it to be true, i 277; ii 

Believe, make him, ii. 70. 

Believe, make them to, i 164. 

Believe me, i 295. 

Believe the best, i. 476. 

Belike, i 127. 

Bell, a woman's name, i 382. 

Bell, Captain, ii. 91. 

Bell, seven of the, i 305. 

Bell, to, i 46, 602. 

Bell, to bear, i 194. 

Belle, a, ii 124, 140. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Belle of beauties, i. 194. 
Belles Lettres, ii. 105. 
Bellman, i 80; ii. 99. 
Bellow, to, i. 602. 
Bellows, L 119, 595. 
Bellringer, 1 612. 
Belly bazid, L 405. 
Belly-M, i. 334, 439. 
Belly-love, i. 426. 
Belly-pinched, ii 40. 
Belong, i. 25. 
Belongings, thy, ii 42. 
Below, i 62; ii, 118, 134. 
Belvidere, a, ii. 120. 
Belvoir, i. 207, 254; ii. 77. 
Belwether, i. 200. 
Bemired, i. 392. 
Bemuddle, to, ii. 77. 
Bench babbler, i. 517. 
Bench, the, 1 540, 589. 
Bencher, L 497. 
Bend steps, i 235. 
Bend to it, i. 169. 
Benedictines, i 623. 
Benefit of, tate, i. 613. 
Benighted, i. 607. 
Bensy, benste, i. 7, 199. 
Bent double, ii. 190. 
Bent (inclination), i. 497. 
Bent, they are, i. 316. 
Bent to die, L 476. 
Bentley,i. 174, 400; ii. 132-135, 

137, 157,^210. 
Benumbed, ir 54, 612. 
Bequest, i 19. 
Bergh (hill), i. 98. 
Berime, to, ii 34. 
Berkeley, i. 150. 
Berkshire, i. 208 ; ii. 200. 

its contraction Befrk^ i. 302. 
Bernard, St., i. 502. 
Berners, Lord, i. 407. 

Berth, i. 585; ii. 66, 167. 

Besaiel, i 214. 

Bescreen, ii 34. 

Beseke, i 578. 

Beshrew, I, i 126. 

Beside, its two meanings, i 128. 

Beside their wit, i 292. 

Besides, i 161, 181, 418. 

Beslobber, i 101. 

Besom, i 146, 361. 

Besot, i 521. 

Bespatter, i 334. 

Bespeak him, i 267. 

Besprinkle, ii 63. 

Bess, i 355. 

Bessonio (soldier), ii. 7. 

Bessy, i 259. 

Bessy, Song of the Lady, i 177. 

Best beloved, i 165. 

Best clerk, not the, i. 449. 

Best do, best have, i 460. 

Best, do my, i 387. 

Best foot before, set, ii. 83, 1 69. 

Best, for the, i 40. 

Best headed, i 568. 

Best, hunters of the, i. 57, 66. 

Best I can do, i. 340. 

Best is, that, etc., ii. 70. 

Best of a knight, i 91. 

Best of any creature, i 125. 

Best of anything, i. 82. 

Best of bad bargain, make, ii. 83. 

Best of him, have, i 529. 

Best of joke was, ii 168. 

Best of, make the, i. 486, 544. 

Best of my power, to, i 384, 391 , 

Best of your speed, make the, ii. 
149, 164. 

Best open it, i 492. 

Best spoken, i 307. 

Best to be got, i. 585. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Best to tbe, i. 177. 

Bestial (cattle), L 166. 

Bestir him, L 243 ; iL 47. 

Bestir his stumps, i. 473. 

Bestow, i 7, 235. 

Besweat, 1 392. 

Bes weltered, i 602. 

Bet, take a, L 546. 

Bet, to, i. 5, 23, 496. 

Betake, i. 602; ii 19. 

Betake me, i 280. 

Betise, ii. 213. 

Betrim, to, iL 47. 

Betroth, i. 7, 219. 

Betrothed, the, ii. 222. 

Better born, i. 403. 

Better cheap, ii. 123. 

Better children weep than old 

men, i. 501. 
Better engaged, ii. 184. 
Better foot foremost, ii. 26. 
Better, for the, i. 269. 
Better half, his, ii. 35, 117. 
Better, have the, i. 123, 249. 
Better himself, ii 162. 
Better in fight, the, i. 83. 
Better is us than, i. 38. 
Better late than never, i. 135. 
Better lived, L 570. 
Better luck next throw, ii. 165. 
Better man of us, which, i. 565. 
Better = more, L 209. 
Better ply than break, i. 460. 
Better said than done, i. 280. 
Better than ever, ii. 67. 
Better than my word, ii. 31. 
Better, thou hadst been, i. 108. 
Better, to, i. 186. 
Better to, she had, i. 283. 
Better, we desire no, i. 542. 
Better winded, i. 318. 
Betterer, the, i. 383. 

Betting phrases, i. 312, 320, 461, 

493, 546, 561, 603. 
Betty, i. 98, 259 ; ii. 63. 
Between asleep and awake, ii. 

Between man and man, i 568. 
Between thy teeth, i. 28. 
Between, to go, i. 51. 
Between whiles, i. 461 ; ii. 156. 
Between you and I, ii. 30. 
Between you and I and the Post, 

ii. 205. 
Between you both, i. 171, 238. 
Betwixt yellow and red, i. 129. 
Bevy, i. 223, 282, 482. 
Bewail, i. 138. 
Beware of, i. 36. 
Bewe Sirs, i. 193. 
Bewildered, ii. 131. 
Bewitch, i. 7. 
Bewly, i. 9. 

Beyond his hour, ii. 207. 
Beyond me, it is, ii. 180. 
Beyond their power, i. 418. 
Bezonian, ii. 23 ; see Bessonio. 
Bi, clipped at the beginning, i. 

Bib, to, i. 65. 

Bibble babble, i. 451, 552. 
Bible clerk, i. 395. 
Bible, diction of, i. 250, 321, 

327, 335, 621, 622 ; ii. 45, 

62, 153, 217. 
Bible men (Lollards), i. 276 ; ii. 

Bible oath, ii. 126. 
Bicker, i 455 ; ii. 74. 
Bid (invitare), i. 83. 
Bid (jus8us\ i. 411, 464. 
Bid (offerre), connected with sales, 

ii. 3. 
Bid fair to, ii. 111. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bid farewell, i. 153. 

Bid, he, ii. 201. 

Bid him God speed, i. 416. 

Bid him welcome, i. 441. 

Bid our bread, i. 15. 

Bidding, at thy, i. 55. 

Bidding, do his, i. 20. 

Bidding Prayers, i. 158, 160. 

Biddy, ii. 110. 

Bide his time, i. 312. 

Bier, i. 254, 333 ; ii. 128. 

Bi-fold, ii. 44. 

Biforbar (prohiher€\ i. 278. 

Big and bold, i. 191. 

Big as life, ii. 119. 

Big-boned, L 592. 

Big breasted, i. 497. 

Big-swollen, ii. 24. 

Big with tears, ii. 30. 

Bigg (build), i. 350. 

Bight, a, i. 535. 

Bigness, i. 567. 

Bigog ! i. 57. 

Bilge, to, i. 548. 

Bilk, to, ii. 111. 

Bill, a, i. 55, 167, 220, 303, 

385, 419, 448, 571, 577. 
Bill, Dean, i. 526. 
Bill, for Will, i. 49, 496 ; ii. 63. 
Bill himself, to, i. 491. 
Bill of credit, i. 569. 
Bill of fare, ii. 4. 
Bill of his hand, i. 542 ; ii. 10. 
Bill of sale, i. 477. 
BiU, to, i. 11 ; ii. 114. 
Bills of mortality, ii. 79. 
Billet, i. 528. 
Billiards, ii. 85. 
Billingsgate language, ii. 105. 
Billiter Street, i. 254. 
Billow, i. 548. 
Bind him hand and foot, i. 39. 

Bind him over, ii. 103. 

Bind him prentice, i. 476. 

Bind him subject, L 191. 

Binding, laws are, ii. 92. 

Binnacle, ii 69. 

Birch, i. 286, 396. 

Bird bolt, L 562. 

Bird, caught with chaff, i. 333. 

Bird is flown, i. 503. 

Bird-keeping, ii. 34. 

Bird-lime, L 258. 

Bird of one feather, i. 599. 

Bird sing, I heard, ii. 9. 

BirdVeye view, ii. 166. 

Birder, i. 560. 

Birthright, i. 411. 

Birth-sin, L 570. 

Birth soil, L 601. 

Biscay, ii. 65. 

Bishop, Matthew, ii 163-166. 

Bishop, to, i. 7, 106, 420. 

Bishops, English, their learning, 

i. 597. 
Bishoplike, i. 547. 
Bishoprick, the, used of Durham, 

i. 207. 
Bismarck, L 86. 
Bison, i. 536. 

Bit of a farrier, ii. 163, 184. 
Bit of his mind, iL 181. 
Bit supplants deal, i. 287. 
Bit to spare, iL 154. 
Bitch clout, i. 315. 
Bitch (meretrix), L 500. 
Bite and sup, ii. 162. 
Bite (decipere), ii. 80. 
Bite (of fish), I 606. 
Bite-sheep, a, i. 541, 558. 
Bite the dust, il 169. 
Bitter bad, ii 185. 
Bitter pill, ii. 161. 
Bittern, i. 132, 370, 594. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bittock, i 484. 

Bivouac, ii. 165. 

Bizarre, ii 144. 

Bl is added, ii. 82. 

Blab, a, L 113. 

Blab, to, i 208. 

Blabber-lipped, i. 350. 

Black, a, L 364. 

Black and white, in, L 456. 

Black books, in her, i 124 ; ii 

Black-browed, ii. 34. 
Black coat = parson, ii. 110. 
Black eye, after blow, ii 150. 
Black gentleman, ii. 159. 
Black his shoes, L 575. 
Black in the mouth, L 543. 
Black lead, i 594. 
Black mail, L 526. 
Black, make white, L 447. 
Black Monday, i. 52 ; ii 30. 
Black pudding, i 567. 
Black rent, i 216, 476, 526. 
Black to white, in chess, i. 332. 
Blackader, i 219. 
Blackamoor, i 364, 412. 
Blackball, to, ii 184. 
Blackbird, i 485. 
Blackguard, i 552 ; ii 118, 125, 

152, 163, 165. 
Blacking, ii 77, 186. 
Blackish, i 413, 456. 
Blackleg, ii 167. 
Blacksmith, i 383. 
Blackthorn, i 266. 
Blacky, ii 188. 
Bladder, i 118, 448. 
Blade (himi7Ui\ i 110. 
Blade (miles)^ ii 77. 
Blades' Life of Caxton, i 250, 

301, 352. 
Bl8D, i. 60, 84. 

Blain, i 138. 

Blame to him, no, i 291. 

Blame-worthy, i. 56. 

Blanch stuff, i 553, 605. 

Blanche, poem on, i 110. 

Blank, a, i 385, 491. 

Blank charts, i. 553. 

Blank, to make, i 487. 

Blare, i 441, 591. 

Blarney, ii 194. 

Blasphemy, Barclay on, i 380. 

Blast = a slander, i 478. 

Blast com, i 440. 

Blast slanders, i 567. 

Blast with powder, ii 67. 

Blastment, ii 39. 

Blather, i 59, 308, 394. 

Blaze, i 586. 

Blazing clothes, i 153. 

Blazing colour, i 277. 

Bleak, i 543. 

Blear, i. 59. 

Blear-eyed, i 99. 

Bleddre, i 7. 

Bleed a dishful, i. 16. 

Bleed = pay money, ii 138. 

Blend, i 616. 

Bless himself, i 416,519; ii 120. 

Bless me! ii 123, 141. 

Blessed end, i 373. 

Blessed (ironical), i 232. 

Blessed the wooing, not long 

doing, ii 73. 
Blesseder, i 99. 
Blessedlocur, i 224. 
Blessedness, i 413. 
Blickling Homilies, the,i. 14,314. 
Blight, ii 155. 
Blind, a, ii 122. 
Blind alley, i 562. 
Blind as beetle, i 224. 
Blind excuse, i. 452. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Blind Harry, the poet, i. 311. 
Blind-manVbuff, i. 579 ; ii 82. 
Blind side, on the, L 174, 589 ; 

ii 169. 
Blind to it, ii 123. 
Blinds, ii 166. 
Blindfold, i 198. 
Blindworm, i 348. 
Blink eyed, i 586. 
Blinkers, ii 166. 
Blister, i 266. 
Blithely, i 17. 
Bio, i 19, 255, 393. 
Bloat, to, ii. 39. 
Block, a, i 156, 178, 580. 
Block a matter, i 228. 
Block, for flogging, ii 82. 
Block for hats, i 586. 
Block for ropes, ii ^^, 
Block up, ii 87. 
Blockhead, i 484. 
Blockhouse, i 365. 
Blockish, i 570. 
Blood (a man), i 399, 587. 
Blood and ouns ! ii. 138. 
Blood-bespotted, ii. 23. 
Blood him, to, ii 160. 
Blood iron, i 405. 
Blood is up, ii. 8, 113. 
Blood = nobility, i 162, 447. 
Blood ran cold, ii. 169. 
Blood red, i 456. 
Blood royal, i 128, 323. 
Blooded soldier, a, ii 67. 
Bloodguiltiness, i 439. 
Bloodhound, i 57. 
Bloodshed, i 507. 
Bloodshot eye, ii. 97. 
Blood-stained, ii. 32. 
Bloodsucker, i 535. 
Bloodsupper, i. 450, 506. 
Bloodthirsty, i 439. 

Bloody bone, i 524. 

Bloody impudent, ii. 145, 150. 

Bloody, to, ii. 44. 

Bloom, ii 157. 

Blot, a, i 130. 

Blot, hit a, ii 131. 

Blot, to, i 114. 

Blotting paper, i 462. 

Blouse (woman), i 584. 

Blow a man to ashes, i 515, 519 

Blow a tune, i 90. 

Blow (breathe), i 195, 457. 

Blow (curse), i 186, 189. 

Blow glass, ii 54. 

Blow hot and cold, i 545. 

Blow off, hats, i 591. 

Blow out his brains, ii 169. 

Blow out the light, i 225. 

Blow over, storms, i 580. 

Blow overboard, the mast, ii 61. 

Blow (slander), i 208. 

Blow the nose, i 559. 

Blow (trumpets blow), i 233. 

Blow up = abuse, ii 1 1 1. 

Blow up (evertere), i 545. 

Blow up (of music), i 295. 

Blown (out of breath), ii 31. 

Blown wide, i 341. 

Blown with fly, i 394. 

Blowzy, i 584. 

Blubber lips, ii 97. 

Blubber, to, i 59, 457. 

Bludgeon, ii 187. 

Blue represents two old words, 

i 19, 60, 190, 255, 393. 
Bluebeard, i 540. 
Blue-bottle, i 514 ; ii* 32. 
Bluecap, ii 31. 
Blue-devils, ii 171. 
Blue-stocking, ii 202. 
Blues (blue clothes), i 211. 
Bluff, ii 123. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Blunder, i. 59, 110, 156. 
Blunder, make, ii. 137. 
Blunderbuss, ii. 103. 
Blunderer, odd derivation of, i. 

Blunderhead, ii 135. 
Blunt, i. 286, 290. 
Blunt-witted, ii 23. 
Blunt's '* Key," L 159. 
•Blur, to, L 395. 
Blurt out, i. 591. 
Blush, L 183. 

Blush, at the first, i. 58, 477. 
Blush, put to the, ii. 107. 
Blush to myself, L 608. 
Bluster, L 64, 233. 
Blustrous, ii. 102. 
Bo ! L 190, 372. 
Bo-peep, play, 1 429. 
Boar pig, i 583. 
Board, above, L 548. 
Board a lady, i 608. 
Board a ship, to, L 312. 
Board, go to, 1 457. 
Board, hold to, i. 122. 
Board = maintenance, i. 300. 
Board = men sitting at it, L 568. 
Board, under, i 548. 
Board wages, i. 475. 
Boards = theatre, il 167. 
Boarder, i. 604. 
Boarding school, ii. 141. 
Boat, in the same, iL 22, 166. 
Boat-hook, ii. 80. 
Boatswain, L 281, 541 ; ii. 66. 
Bob {dedpere), il6; ii38, 174. 
Bob (Robert), ii. 5. 
Bob, to (intransitive), ii. 29. 
Bobtails, i. 497. 
Bobwig, ii 138. 
Bocardo, i. 604. 
Boccaccio, i. 113. | 

Bocton in Kent, ii. 76. 

Boddice, ii. 55. 

Bode, to, i. 45. 

Bodement, ii. 41. 

Bodily, i 28. 

Boding, in bad sense, ii 21. 

Bodkin, i 130. 

Body and soul, coupled, L 99. 

Body forth, to, ii 29. 

Body in wines, ii 89. 

Body (man), i 357, 439. 

Body = nave, i 594. 

Body of me ! i 563. 

Body politic, i 491 ; ii. 89. 

Body snatcher, ii 193. 

Body, to (embody), i 277. 

Boeice, i 25, 151, 507. 

Bog, i 92, 595. 

Bogard, i 436. 

Boggle, i 208 ; ii 201. 

Bogtrotter, ii 146. 

Boh ! ii. 144. 

Bohea, ii 147. 

Bohemia^ i 137, 213, 214, 324, 

428; ii 237. 
Boho I i 395. 
Boice, i 184; see Boeice. 
Boi^, i 17, 18, 99. 
Boil (hullire), i 96; ii. 62. 
Boil (pustula), i 96, 333. 
Boil to a jelly, ii 61. 
Boiling, give it a, i. 226. 
Boisterous, i 578. 
Boja, the Italian, i 18, 99. 
Bold, its different meanings, i. 

Bold, bad man, ii 50. 
Boldface, Miss, ii 152. 
Bold-faced, ii 21. 
Bold, to make, ii. 29. 
Bold to, so, i 84, 369, 607. 
Boldero, i. 319. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bole, i. 59. 

Boleyn, Aune, i. 475, 479. 

Bolingbroke, ii. 151, 234. 

Bolster, to, i. 235. 

Bolster up, i. 477. 

Bolt (chain), i 99. 

Bolt dinner, ii 170. 

Bolt (rush), L 228; il 54, 170. 

Bolt them out, ii. 74, 80. 

Bolt, to (fetter), L 99. 

Bolt upright, i. 124. 

Bolt, upright as a, i. 123. 

Bolting cloth, i. 3. 

Bombast, L 513, 587. 

Bon (good), used in English, i. 

Bon viage, L 381, 518; ii. 136. 
Bona fide, i 551, ii. 224. 
Bona roba, ii 34, 174. 
Bond, i 20. 
Bond (man), i. 258. 
Bond runs on, ii 83. 
Bond, true as, 1 110. 
Bondmen in England in 1608, 

Bondslave, i. 598. 
Bone of contention, L 504, 580; 

ii. 155. 
Bone, to pick, L 571. 
Bones and blood, the oath, 181. 
Bones (dice), i 370. 
Bones (scruples), i. 290, 589. 
Bonesetter, i. 319. 
Bonfire, L 263, 348, 383, 458. 
Bonner, L 145, 477, 507, 508, 


Bonnet, of men, L 94, 269, 446. 
Bonnet, of women, i. 444, 465. 
Bonny, i 371, 491. 
Booby, ii 62. 
Book, make a, i 387. 

Book of beauty, ii. 26. 
Book of sport, ii. 43. 
Book up complaints, to, i 599. 
Book, without, i. 135. 
Books, be in thy, i. 606. 
Books come out, L 544. 
Books, turn over, L 508. 
Bookbinder, L 157. 
Bookish, L 485. 
Book-keeper, ii 140, 188. 
Book-learned, ii 149. 
Bookmaker, i 540; ii 202. 
Book-man, ii 92. 
Book-oath, i 564. 
Book-room, ii. 202. 
Bookseller, ii. 9. 
Book- worm, ii 11. 
Book- writer, i 616. 
Boom {mol€s)y ii 78. 
Boon companion, ii 12. 
Boor, i 235, 479, 554; ii 2, 98. 
Boorde, Dr., i 494-496, 503, 

Boorishness, ii 142. 
Boot, i 50. 
Booted, i 199, 202. 
Bootless, i 45. 

Boots, come on and ofl*, i 402. 
Boots not, it, i. 284. 
Booty, i 331. 
Booze, i 3. 
Boozy, i 511. 
Bordeaux, i 370. 
Border, i 168. 
Bordure, i. 339. 
Bore, a, ii 167, 193. 
Bore of gun, i 586. 
Bore, to, ii 60. 

Bom brother, my own, ii 141. 
Bom down, i 126. 
Bom for each other, ii 190. 
Bom into life, i 277. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bom man, thy, i. 126. 

Born to be hanged, ii. 46. 

Born to do it, i. 59. 

Bom to thraldom, i 128. 

Borough, i. 44, 182, 583. 

Borough town, i. 98. 

Borow, for German hurg^ i. 366. 

Borow (surety), i. 494. 

Borrow represents two old words, 

i. 106, 347. 
Borrow on a thing, i. 511. 
Borrowing leads to sorrowing, i. 

Borsholder, L 554. 
Bosky (bushy), ii 47. 
Bosom-creeping, i 569. 
Bosom-friend, ii. 66. 

Bosom-lover, ii. 30, 31. 

Bosom up, to, ii 50. 

Boswell, i 362; ii. 149, 201. 

Botch, i. 144. ^^ 

Both ends meet, make, ii. i^^. 

Both in either's power, ii. 47. 

Both your honours, to, ii. 39, 165. 

Bother, to, ii 171. 

Bothers (amhorum), i 316. 

Botoner, i 289, 290, 344; see 
William of Worcester. 

Botrowse, i 344, 345. 

Bottle nose, i 379, 565. 

Bottle of hay, i 132. 

Bottom, at, ii. 136. 

Bottom, go to the, ii 164. 

Bottom of heart, i. 484. 

Bottom = ship, i 530. 

Bottom = valley, i 595. 

Bottomless, i 136, 413. 

Bough, i 121. 

Bought and sold, i 5. 

Boulogne, how written, ii. 88. 

Bonn to, i 82, 193, 451; ii. 62. 

Bounce ! i 395; ii 9. 

Bounce, a, i 370. 
Bounce (pulsare), ii. 94. 
Bounce, t^ speak, ii. 25. 
Bouncer (liar), ii. 180. 
Bouncing girl, i 399. 
Bound in a sum, i 129, 207. 
Bound into England, i. 55. 
Bound of duty, i 580. 
Bound to help, i 126. 
Bound to his lord, i 170. 
Bounds (fines), i. 30. 
Bounden duty, i 373. 
Bounteousness, i 261, 470. 
Bountifulness, i 490. 
Bounty, i 470, 490. 
Bounty (a feat), i. 93. 
Bourbon, the Constable, i 622. 
Bourse, i 530. 
Bout, ii. 152. 
Bow {arcm), i 348. 
Bow in hand, with, i 174. 

Bow legs, ii 96. 

Bow, make a, ii 145. 

Bow (prora), i 21. 

Bow window, ii. 184. 

Bow wow, i. 580. 

Bowels (pity), i 250, 252. 

Bower (bowmaker), i 347, 496. 

Bowl away in chaise, ii 170. 

Bowl, to, i 262. 

Bowls, i 295. 

Bowling road, a, ii 206. 

Bowline, i. 21. 

Bowsprit, i 21, 82, 287. 

Bowyer, i 496. 

Bowzing ken, i 575. 

Box {alapa), i 130, 566. 

Box at theatre, ii 82, 111. 

Box-keeper, ii. 9. 

Box of coach, ii 74. 

Box (small house), ii 179. 

Box, to, i 564. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Box up, to, ii. 152. 
Boy, L 18, 254; see hoik. 
Boy, my, i. 565. 
Boycott, to, iL 230. 
Boyish,!. 579, 611. 
Boyle, Bentley's enemy, ii. 134. 
Boyle, the Chemist, ii. 120, 121. 
Boys (addressed to men), i. 201. 
Boys, oddly sounded, ii. 77. 
Boys or Boyce, i 25, 151, 161, 

Brabble, to, L 559. 
Brace, a, 1 310, 603. 
Brace, to, L 86. 
Brace-girdle, i. 26. 
Bracelet, i. 216. 
Brache (canis), i. 60, 594. 
Bracken, i. 64. 
Brackish, L 556. 
Brackley, Friar,! 289, 290, 292. 
Bradford, the martyr, i. 507,540, 

541, 543, 544, 546, 554. 
Brae, 1 20, 92, 496, 520. 
Brag, the game, il 183. 
Brag, to, i. 463. 
Braggart, ii. 16. 
Brain, i 174. 

Brain him, i. 202, 262, 377. 
Brainless, i 357. 
Brainsick, i. 283. 
Brake (bush), I 322 ; ii 201. 
Bramble, L 118. 
Bran new, ii 99. 
Bran span new, ii. 200. 
Branch = part, ii. 1 6 1 . 
Brand (a mark), L 614. 
Brand (ends), i. 57. 
Brand, to, i 186. 
Brandon, i. 390. 
Brandy, ii 103. 
Brass bold, i 601. 
Brass (coppers), ii 201. 
VOL. n. 

Brass pot, i 207. 
Brassy (impudent), i. 580. 
Brast (burst), i 524. 
Brat, i 363, 584, 586. 
Brathwaite, ii 63. 
Brattle, i 361. 
Bravado terms, i 591. 
Brave, i 282, 364, 374, 620. 
Brave, a, ii 61. 
Brave as brave may be, i 587. 
Brave him, ii 10, 19. 
Bravery, i 520, 592, 609. 
Bravo ! ii 180. 
Bravo, a, ii 55, 91. 
Brawl, i 92 ; ii 214. 
Brawly, i 364. 
Brawn, i 56, 597. 
Brawnfallen, i 587. 
Bray, to, i 336, 602. 
Brazen, to, i 515. 
Brazen-faced, i. 542. 
Brazier, i. 258. 
Breach in walls, i. 556. 
Breach of peace, i 174, 352. 
Bread basket (venier), ii. 166. 
Breadlike, ii 116. 
Breadth, i 161. 
Breadth of a hair, i 606. 
Break (breach), i 270. 
Break fast, i. 235. 
Break heads, i 51, 206. 
Break horses, i. 330. 
Break, in a journal, ii. 150. 
Break jests, ii 19, 131. 
Break (as a merchant), i 562. 
Break loose, i 226, 228. 
Break matter to, i. 290. 
Break of day, i 380, 436. 
Break off, i 36, 153. 
Break open a chest, i 536. 
Break out, i 235. 
Break out in blotches, i. 457. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Break {ruere), L 90, 290. 
Break short, ii 155. 
Break Sunday, i. 27. 
Break the bank, i. 587. 
Break the stream, L 580. 
Break to shivers, i. 416. 
Break up, i 191, 306, 356. 
Break with him, i. 369. 
Breakfast, i. 325, 364 ; ii. 222. 
Breakneck fall, i. 500 ; ii. 45. 
Breast high, L 519. 
Breast, to, ii. 46. 
Breast- work, ii 164. 
Breastplate, L 12^. 
Breath, draw, 1 114. 
Breath in my body, while, 1455. 
Breath, out of, ii 29. 
Breath, take, L 384. 
Breath, told in a, ii. 141. 
Breathe horses, i. 274. 
Breathe ourselves, i 565. 
Breathing time, i 540. 
Breathless, iL 49. 
Breaux, L 345. 

Bred in the bone, what is, i. 319. 
Bred to a trade, ii 103. 
Breech (girdle), L 439. 
Breech of gun, i 686. 
Breech, posteriors, 1 526. 
Breech, to bear, i 396. 
Breed, a, L 361. 
Breed forth, L 39. 
Breed, to, L 67, 254, 282, 416. 
Breed up youth, i. 573. 
Breeder, i 583 ; ii 70. 
Breeding, man of, ii 24. 
Breeze, i 556 ; ii 6. 
Breeze = quarrel, ii 196. 
Brembre, Mayor, i 150. 
Brew, as, so bake, ii 98. 
Brew-house, i 97, 340. 
Brew (intransitive), i 533. 

Brew thin, i 287. 

Brew, to, i. 377. 

Brew- wife, i 340. 

Brewage, i 484. 

Brewery, i 290. 

Brewis, i 85. 

Brewster, i 2, 97, 258. 

Briar, i 410. 

Bribe, i 130. 

Bribe taker, i 527. 

Briber, i 102, 490. 

Bribery, two senses, i. 309, 409. 

Brick, i 268. 

Brick a grave, ii. 149. 

Brick dust, i. 583. 

Brickbat, i 540. 

Bricklayer, i 353. 

Bridal, i 300. 

Briddis i^pvlli), i. 276. 

Bride elect, ii 206, 222. 

Bride, St, i 88. 

Bridecake, ii. 58. 

Bridegroom, i 44, 152, 411. 

Bridemaid, ii 182. 

Brideman, ii 58. . 

Bridge of nose, i 348. 

Bridle in teeth, take, i. 504. 

Bridle, to, i 189, 564. 

Brief, a, i 359. 

Brief and tedious of it, ii. 1 8. 

Brief of lawyer, ii 112. 

Brig, i 388. 

Brigand, i 154, 214, 364. 

Brigantine, ii. 292. 

Briggate, i. 74. 

Bright, Mr., ii 210, 211. 

Bright green, i. 57. 

Brighthelmstone, ii 183. 

Brilliant offers, ii 206. 

Brimful, i 456. 

Brimmer, ii. 98. 

Brimstone, a, ii 194. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Brinded, ii. 41. 
Bring down the price, L 244. 
Bring him children, ii. 70. 
Bring himself down, in size, ii. 

Bring home to his aim, ii. 78. 
Bring it in fashion, ii. 120. 
Bring me off, ii 50. 
Bring on the stage, ii. 71. 
Bring -out words, i. 114. 
Bring them on way, L 47, 416. 
Bring to bear, i 430, 431 ; ii. 

Bring to effect, i. 340. 
Bring to pass, i 384. 
Bring to the point, L 58. 
Bring to the stage, i. 605. 
Bring up, i. 157. 
Bring up rear, ii. 67. 
Bring with child, i. 153, 176. 
Bring you acquainted, L 153. 
Bringage, i. 338. 
Bringer out, a, i 121. 
Bringer up, a, i. 399. 
Brisk, ii 32. 
Bristles, i 119. 
Bristol, L 152, 182, 215, 220, 

344, 345, 353y 398 ; ii. 222. 
Bristow, i 215. 
Britain, L 364. 

Britain, Great, L 227, 298, 539. 
Britain needed by all lands, i. 

British Army, ii. 212. 
British Monarchy, i 593. 
British Museum, L 328 ; ii. 166. 
Britons (English), i 520 ; ii 69. 
Britons (inhabitants of Britain), 

L 380. 
Britons (Welsh), i. 137, 554, 

581 ; ii. 52. 
Brittany, i. 89, 227. 

Brittle, i. 7, 96, 151. 

Broacl^ to, i. 132, 521 ; ii. 75. 

Broad arrow, i 258. 

Broad as it was long, ii. 168. 

Broad awake, 1 562. 

Broad bottomed, ii 144. 

Broad brim, a, ii 1 83. 

Broad brimmed, ii 82. 

Broad cloth, i 246, 573. 

Broad ditch (the Channel), i. 61 9. 

Broad grin, on, ii 124. 

Broad hint, a, ii 133. 

Broad humour, ii 168. 

Broad (plain, coarse), i 123, 175, 

328, 363, 599, 606, 616. 
Broad seal of England, i 527. 
Broad sword, i 535. 
Broadcast, sow, ii. 203. 
Broaden, to, ii 147. 
Broadside of cannon, ii 33, 53. 
Brocage, i 98. 
Brogue (dialect), ii 144. 
Brogue (shoe), ii 45. 
Broider, origin of, i 67, 410, 

510, 540. 
Broil (bum), i 550 ; ii. 152. 
Broil (quarrel), i. 528. 
Broke, officers are, ii 142. 
Broken backed, i 39, 456. 
Broken English, i 533. 
Broken into, he was, i 46, 
Broken knaves, ii 92. 
Broken legged, i. 99. 
Broken meat, i 239. 
Broken sleep, i. 587. 
Broken winded, i 405. 
Broken words, i. 202. 
Broker, i. 98. 
Brood geese, i 519. 
Brood, sit on, ii. 39. 
Brood, to, i. 254 ; ii. 39, 169, 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Brook, to {tolerare\ i. 291, 430. 
Broom, i. 334, 464. 
Broomstaff, ii 50. 
Broomstick, ii. 116. 
Brothel house, L 376. 
Brothel {nebulo\ i. 146. 
Brother officer, ii. 157. 
Brother = Puritan, L 521. 
Brotherhood, i. 14, 67, 491. 
Brotherly, L 209. 
Brougham, i 594. 
Broune, John, L 220. 
Browbeat, to, ii 121. 
Brow-bound, ii 48. 
Brown as a berry, i. 123. 
Brown Bess, ii 148, 194. 
Brown bread, i 122. 
Brown musket, ii 148. 
Brown paper, i 620. 
Brown study, ii. 83. 
Browne, Sir T., ii 100, 175. 
Browning, i 199, 333. 
Browning, Mr., ii 209, 225. 
Brownists, i 616. 
Brownnetta, i 603. 
Bruce, Robert, i 21. 
Bruce, Poem on, i. 87. 
Bruen, Mr., ii. 74. 
Bruges, i. 328. 
Bruin, i 199, 333. 
Bruiser, a, ii 178. 
Brunetto Latini, i 130, 131, 

Brunne, Robert of, i. 2, 18-23, 

71, 138, 289, 462. See 

Brunt, i. 169, 595 ; ii 63. 
Brush, a, i 236, 303, 528. 
Brush, to, i 227, 320,323, 463 ; 

ii 44. 
Brush up learning, ii. 172. 
Brushes of war, ii. 44. 

Brushwood, ii 172. 

Brusque, ii 90. 

Brute beast, i 297. 

Brute of a brother, ii 152. 

Bubble, i. 55. 

Bubble and squeak, ii 193. 

Bubble, to, i. 282. 

Bubble, to (trick), ii. 110. 

Buchanan, i 567. 

Buck (dandy), ii 177. 

Buckbasket, i 101. 

Bucket, i 130. 

Bucket, kick, ii 195. 

Bucket, to, ii 86. 

Buckhound, i 484. 

Bucking time, i 413. 

Buckingham (Villiers), the fii-st 

Duke, ii. 79, 90, 91. 
Buckingham (Villiers), the second 

Duke, ii 99, 114, 162. 
Buckle together, i 443. 
Buckram, i 249, 263. 
Bucks, the county, ii 159. 
Buckwheat, i. 514. 
Bud, i 234. 
Budge fur, i 395. 
Budget, i 372, 477. 
Buffalo, i 537. 
Buffer, ii. 195. 

Buffet (piece of furniture), i. 271. 
Buffoon, i 620. 
Bug (big wig), i. 565. 
Bug (insect) ii. 66. 
Bug {larva), i 263, 436, 439, 

603; ii 46, 169. 
Bugbear, ii 9. 
Buggins, ii 8. 
Buggy, ii 193. 
Bugles, ornaments, i. 615. 
Build, i 97. 

Build upon hope, ii. 58, 171. 
Building up of, i 121. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Buildings, L 141. 

Built for it, ii 91. 

Built well, man is, ii 137. 

Bulgaria, 162. 

Bulgaria, abusive term derived 

from, i. 24, 588. 
Bulk, i. 263, 587; ii. 32, 158. 
Bulky, il 121. 
BuU {efrrw\ ii 144. 
Bull, John, i 215; ii 155. 
Bull beef, i 587. 
Bull dog, ii. 141. 
Bullen (Boulogne), i 558. 
Bullet, i 510. 

Bullet, has its billet, i 588. 
Bullet-headed, ii 184. 
Bullfinch, ii 2. 
Bullion, i 216. 
Bullock (little bull of the Pope's), 

i 480. 
Bulls and bears, ii. 183. 
BulPs eye, ii 195. 
Bully, a, i 548; ii 8, 111, 180. 
Bully him, ii 144. 
Bulrush, i 258. 
Bulstrode, i 230. 
Bulwark, i 234, 236. 
Bum, i 295, 296, 370. 
Bum bailiff, ii 37. 
Bum, to, i 263. 
Bum vay ! i 567. 
Bumble bee, i. 235, 454. 
Bumble, to, i 129. 
Bum-boat, ii 193. 
Bump, i 593. 
Bump, to, ii 191. 
Bumper, ii. 126. 
Bumpkin, ii 103. 
Bumpsy, ii 52. 
Bumptious, ii 52. 
Bunch-backed, ii 28, 97. 
Bunch of keys, i 540. 

Bunch, to, i 453. 

Bung, i. 263. 

Bung-hole, ii 38. 

Bung up, ii. 10. 

Bungle up, i 690. 

Bungler, i 372, 426. 

Bunny, i 583. 

Bunting, i 371. 

Bunyan, i 97, 385, 509, 645; 

ii 30, 87, 214, 228. 
Buonaventura, i 73. 
Buoy, a, ii. 88. 
Buoy up, to, ii. 96. 
Buoyant, ii 203. 
Bur (Zap2?a), i 263. 
Bur (Newcastle), ii. 179. 
Burde (pulliui), i 560. 
Burden, of ship, i 245. 
Burden, of song, i 131 ; ii 221. 
Burdenous, i 592. 
Burgh, i 238. 
Burgher, i 588; ii 42. 
Burghmaster, i 558. 
Burglary, i 482. 
Burgon, Dean, ii 218. 
Burgundy, its different forms, i. 

298, 428. 
Burial, i 283, 343. 
Buried in sin, i 147. 
Burke, Edmund, i 63, 362; ii 

164, 176, 230, 231. 
Burke, Sir Bernard, i 230. 
Burke, the murderer, ii 230. 
Burleigh, ii. 14; see Cecil. 
Bum candle at both ends, ii. 189. 
Bum his purse, of money, i. 684. 
Bum in my pocket, ii 144. 
Burn itself out, ii 26. 
Bum over his head, i 378. 
Bum (xivu8\ i 582. 
Bum {vulnu8\ ii 54. 
Bumet, i 344. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Burney, Miss, L 321; ii. 52, 84, 

188, 193. 
Burning-glass, ii 24. 
Burning shame, iL 168. 
Burning weather, ii 151. 
Bums, i 103, 362 ; ii. 208. 
Burnt offerings, i 138. 
Burrow, i. 44, 334, 583. 
Bursar, L 527. 

Burst out into tears, i 94, 202. 
Burst up, i 348 ; ii. 64. 
Burthensome, ii 94. 
Bury a person (lose by death), 

i. 302. 
Bury replaces delve^ i. 70. 
Bury, the town, i. 234, 238, 453. 
Bury, to, i. 119, 157, 453. 
Bush, beat about the, ii 83. 
Bush, go about the, L 429. 
Bush of hair, i. 376, 381. 
Bushel, i. 9. 
Bushel, by the, ii. 13. 
Business, i. 26, 36, 135, 146, 

258, 328, 383, 392, 454. 
Business, do your, ii. 110. 
Business, go about your, i. 518. 
Business, I have no, i. 387. 
Business, make it his, L 228; ii. 

Business, none of my, ii 145. 
Business, theatrical, ii. 115, 131. 
Business, what, have you, etc., i. 

Business, woman of, ii 111. 
Busk, to, i 554. 
Buskin, i 450. 
Buss, i 373, 614. 
Bustle, i 101; ii 47. 
Busy as bees, i. 123, 606. 
Busy body, ii. 26, 412. 
Busy brushing, to be, i 507. 
Busy fellow, i 456. 

Busy him, to, i 214, 312. 

But and if, i. 186, 435. 

But how to, i 406. 

But made a noun, i 128, 515. 

But me no buts, ii 148. 

But = ?im, i 267. 

But now, i 461; ii 39. 

But = 2uiw, i 20, 21, 41, 278. 

curious idioms of, i 204, 398, 
417, 461, 562. 
But rather, i. 417. 
But, set after an oath, i. 449. 
But that, i 165; ii 180. 
But = the old ne hut, i 299; ii 

But to the point, i 373. 
But yet, i 46. 
Butchery, i 581. 
Butler, the poet, i. 207, 334 ; 

ii 18, 19, 23, 101-105, 116, 

117, 131, 151, 160, 174, 

185, 208. 
Butler, the General, i 392. 
Butlers, the Irish, i. 476. 
Butt end, ii 2. 
Butt (meta), i 263, 266. 
Butter-fingered, ii 198. 
Butter melts in his mouth, i 509. 
Butter, to, i 432 ; ii. 126. 
Buttermilk, ii. 109. 
Buttery, i 241. 

Buttonhole lower, a, ii. 10, 17. 
Buxom, i 336, 602. 

changes its meaning, ii. 13, 43. 
Buxomness, i. 598. 
Buy, i 338. 
Buying again, i 259. 
Buzz, to, i 429. 
Buzzard, a blind, i 149, 192. 
By, i 112, 142, 168, 195, 203. 

connected with Fractions, i. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



By, dropped after a Comparative, 
i. 469. 

expresses contra, i. 377, 418. 

expresses secundum, L 28. 

governs an Infinitive, i. 126. 

R taking her (peculiar idiom), 
i. 245. 

supplants atfi, 291. 

supplants in, ii. 75. 

supplants wpon, ii. 85. 

used in solemn adjuration, i. 

used of an agent, L 14, 28, 37. 

when coupled with come, 
means adipisci, i. 46. 
By and by, L 13, 109, 177 ; ii. 23. 

change in its meaning, i. 377, 
404, 447, 566. 
By-blow (nothus), ii. 82. 
By, by, lullay, i. 356. 
By our Lady! i. 129. 
By-play, ii 166. 
By the bye, ii. 45, 85, 96. 
By the way, i. 418 ; ii. 45. 
By way of, i. 34. 
By your leave, not say, ii 169. 
Bye, bye (farewell), iL 123. 
Bye, placed before nouns, as hye- 

talk, i. 508. 
Byegone, i 212. 
Byre, I 467, 579. 
Byrl, to, i. 83. 
Byrlady ! i. 499; iL 127. 
Byrlakin ! i. 395. 
Byron, Lord, i. 109, 316 ; ii 208. 
Byron, the Admiral, ii. 200. 
Bystander, ii. 74. 

C, struck out, i. 120. 

inserted, i. 146, 173, 255, 

289, 600. 
prefixed, i. 255. 

C replaces k, i. 404, 535. 
replaces p, i. 162, 575. 
replaces que, ii. 97. 
replaces s, i. 144, 161, 173. 
sounded in sclattis (slates), i. 
Cabbage, i. 608 ; ii. 53. 
Cabbage = steal, ii. 155. 
Cabin, i. 179. 
Cabinet-maker, ii, 76. 
Cable, to, i. 463. 
Cabot, i. 353, 535. 
Cackle (laugh), ii. 155. 
Cadaw, i. 263 ; ii. 201. 
Cade, Jack, i. 292. 
Cade (sheep), i. 347. 

Cadet, ii. 78, 185. 

Cadger, i. 226, 361. 

Cadmon, i. 74. 

Cage (prison), i. 577. 

Caitiff, i. 331. 

Calas family, i. 494. 

Caldron, i. 241. 

Cales, for Cadiz, i. 535. 

Calf (stuUus), i. 466, 492. 

CaH (sura), i. 130 ; ii. 17. 

Calfhill, i 570-572. 

Caliban, i 196. 

Calicut, i. 364. 

Caliph, i. 552. 

Calk a ship, i. 462. 

Calk (calculate), i. 432. 

CaU a book again (back), i. 472, 

Call a conference, i. 587. 

Call all to nought, ii. 161. 

Call = awake, i. 533. 

Call cousins, ii. 126. 

Call = estimate, i. 377. 

Call in a patent, i. 506. 

Call in (visit), i. 458, 613. 

Call into question, i. 580. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Call is made a noun, i. 586 ; 

ii. 188. 
Call names, i. 100, 278, 294, 

297, 344, 544. 
Call out (shout), ii. 190. 
Call out (to duel), ii. 87, 170. 
Call = pay a visit, ii. 147. 
Call to accounts, i. 338, 508. 
Call to mind, i. 7. . 
Call to order, iL 203. 
Call to remembrance, L 293. 
Call up a look, ii. 177. 
Calls, pay in business, ii, 58. 
Callboy, iL 166. 
Caller (fresh), i. 365. 
Calling, his, i. 411. 
Callot, i. 297, 510. 
Callow mouse, i. 23. 
Calm, L 178, 376. 
Caltrap, i. 218. 
Calver, L 454. 
Calves' leather, ii. 141. 
Calvin, i. 95, 524. 
Calvinist, i. 557. 
Cambrick, i. 477, 507. 
Cambridge, i. 22, 76, 137, 473, 

496, 541, 574, 597, 610; 

ii. 4, 9, 11, 71, 74, 193, 

194, 198. 
Cambridge, Earl of, i. 212. 
Cambridge man, a, i. 540 ; ii. 

Cambyses, play of, i. 566. 
Camden, ii. 5, 15, 71, 200. 
Came to him to speak, it, i. 

Cameleon-like, ii. 6. 
Cameron, Sir Ewen, ii. 162. 
Camisado, a, i 519. 
Camp (fight), i. 584. 
Camping land, i. 259. 
Can but wish, I, ii. 116. 

Can do no less, i. 168, 389. 
Can encroaches on may^ i. 415. 
Can say no better, i 249. 
Can say none otherwise, i. 543. 
Can (sa'O, i. 125, 553. 
Can tell them that, I, ii. 44. 
Canakin, i. 376. 
Canal, i. 264. 
Cancel, to, i. 274. 
Candidatus, ii 73. 
Candle, set before Devil, i. 304. 
Candle's end, L 190. 
Candlemas Play, L 375, 393. 
Candy (Crete), i. 280, 420. 
Cane, a, i. 506, 537, 608. 
Canker, i. 571. 
Cankered, i 435. 
Cannibal, i. 536, 552. 
Cannibally given, ii. 47. 
Canning, i. 254; ii. 113, 193, 

Cannot be but, ii 23. 
Cannot but, ii. 23, 116. 
Cannot see but, i. 278. 
Canoe, i 536, 556. 
Canon Law, i 69. 
Cant, of heralds, ii. 104. 
Cant (technical jargon), ii. 124, 

152, 171, 180. 
Cant, to, i 507, 575. 
Cant, used for Kent, i. 507. 
Cantab, ii. 178. 
Canteen, ii. 165. 
Canterbury, i 23 ; ii 226. 
Cantons, i. 552. 
Canvass, to, i. 433, 549. 
Caorsins, i 24. 
Cap in hand, ii. 171. 
Cap, of woman, i. 269. 
Cap, to, i 559, 561 ; ii. 36. 
Cape (headland), i. 132. 
Cape (part of dress), i. 254. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Capel (horse), i. 101. 

Caper, cut a, ii 37. 

Capgrave's Chronicle,!. 297-299, 

307, 308 ; ii. 72. 
Capias, make out a, i. 310. 
Capital (magnus), i. 92, 154 ; 

ii. 161, 182, 192, 206. 
Capital of country, ii. 165. 
Capital, opposed to interest, ii. 90. 
Caprice, ii. 102. 
Captain, i. 92, 146, 329, 369 ; 

ii. 92. 
Captain General, i 360, 537. 
Captain, prefixed to a surname, 

i 389, 527. 
Captive, lead, i. 138. 
Car, i. 165, 168. 
Carat, i. 537. 
Caraway, ii. 34. 
Carbonado, ii 40. 
Carcase, i. 618. 
Cardigan pasture, i 598. 
Card = chart, i. 450, 512. 
Card = medical prescription, i. 

Card, play the, ii. 111. 
Cards, played, i. 303, 338, 360, 

616; ii. 118. 
Cardinal, pun on, i. 447. 
Cardmaker, i. 192, 197. 
Care not though, i. 661. 
Care three pinches of snuff, ii. 

Care to have it, ii. 120. 
Care twopence, ii. 151. 
Care-crazed, ii. 28. 
Career, ii. 16. 
Careful of, i. 517. 
Careful (sad), i. 315. 
Careless Husband, the, ii. 147. 
Carew, Sir Peter, i. 613, 578, 

592 ; ii. 48. 

Carey's Memoirs, ii. 81. 

Carfax, i 155. 

Cargo, ii. 79. 

Cark, i. 69. 

Carl cat, ii. 167. 

Carle, i. 251, 255, 298, 505, 

Carline, i. 290. 
Carlins of Naples, i. 566. 
Carlyle, ii. 16, 209. 
Carnal, i. 167, 447. 
Carnation, i. 613. 
Caroch, ii 76. 
Carol, i. 111. 
Carouse, i. 666, 569. 
Carp, change in its meaning, i. 

Carp (speak), i. 70, 452. 
Carpenter's Tools, the Poem on, 

i. 107. 
Carpet, i. 216.^ 
Carpet gentleman, i. 568. 
Carpet knight, i. 698. 
Carpet, on the, ii. 172. 
Carriage, i. 92, 236, 299 ; ii. 

Carriage, broken in the, ii. 104. 
Carriage, close, ii. 207. 
Carriage paid, iL 163. 
C«irriage, put down a, i. 246. 
Cairier, a, i. 263, 308. 
Carrion crow, i. 612. 
Carrion, its variations, i. 34. 
Carrot, i. 614. 
Carrot nose, ii. 13. 
Carrots (red hair), ii. 194. 
Carry a resolution, ii. 76. 
Carry a sense, ii. 132. 
Carry all before him, ii. 79. 
Carry away our mast, ii. 200. 
Carry (by storm), ii. 18, 44, 76. 
Carry hay, i. 291 ; ii. 71. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Carry hiin away, i. 467. 
Carry his point^ ii. 161. 
Carry it too far, ii* 123. 
Carry low, ii. 104. 
Carry off a situation, i. 488, 
Carry off the business, ii. 113. 
Carry (on) sport, ii. 29. 
Carry sail, ii. 149. 
Carry = take, ii. 71. 
Carryings on, ii. 104. 
Cart before the horse, i. 491. 
Cart (currvs), i 117, 174 ; ii. 

Cart's tail, i. 640. 
Carte blanche, i. 553. 
Cartridge, ii. 66. 
C^ve, i. 21, 312, 458, 590. 
Carver, i 212, 259, 302 ; ii. 

Carving knife, i. 238, 268. 
Carving, Treatise on, i. 382. 
Case-hardened, ii. 172. 
Case, in, i. 24, 164, 180. 
Case, in good, i. 432. 
Case, in no, i. 388. 
Case, I put, i. 209. 
Case, I set, i. 127. 
Case, legal, i. 479. 
Case of pistols, ii. 146. 
Case of relics, i. 55. 
Case stands, ii. 45. 
Casemate, ii. 7. 
Cash, be in, ii. 172. 
Cash (money), ii. 36. 
Cash soldiers, i. 552 ; ii. 7. 
Cashier, to, i 552. 
Cask, i. 556. 
Cast a shoe, i. 11, 457. 
Cast about, ii. 83. 
Cast accounts, i. 82. 
Cast an old shoe for luck, i. 


Cast anchor, i. 176. 

Cast at heels, i. 589. 

Cast calves, i. 307. 

Cast for a part, ii. 169. 

Cast himself away, i. 41, 392 ; 

ii. 23. 
Cast, in an action, i. 449. 
Cast in a play, ii. 166. 
Cast in his teeth, i. 416. 
Cast lead, i. 104 ; ii. 164. 
Cast lots, i. 20. 
Cast of countenance, ii. 77. 
Cast of eye, ii. 144, 149. 
Cast of hawks, i. 454. 
Cast ofl&cers, il 38. 
Cast over your country, i. 518. 
Cast robes, L 589 ; ii. 38. 
Cast (trick), i. 67. 
Cast up expense, ii. 71. 
Castaway, i 41, 411. 
Casting voice, ii. 117. 
Castle come down, a, i. 541. 
Castle (vill^e), i. 139, 196. 
Castles in air, ii. 61. 
Castles in Spain, i. 402. 
Castrate sermons, ii. 75. 
Cat and Fiddle, ii. 70. 
Cat of mountain, i 419, 438 ; 

ii. 47. 
Cat of nine tails, ii 1 24. 
Cat, old (woman), ii 194. 
Cat out of bag, let, ii. 169. 
Cat, phrases about, L 51, 502, 

Catcall, ii. 111. 
Catcall, to, ii. 168. 
Catch, i. 95, 102, 262, 264, 

299, 510. 
Catch, a, i. 603 ; ii. 172. 
Catch a mate, i. 10. 
Catch cold, ii. 20. 
Catch fire, i. 102. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Catch him tripping, i. 566. 

Catch his death, i. 67. 

Catch hold, i 429. 

Catch me at it, ii. 153. 

Catch the eye, ii 44. 

Catch who can, i. 176. 

Catching sickness, a, ii 29. 

Catchpenny, ii 196. 

Catechise, for news, ii. 154. 

Catechism, Scotch, i 525. 

Cateran, i 363, 371. 

Caterer, i. 39, 507. 

Caterpillar, i 411. 

Caterwaul, i. 126 ; ii 37. 

Cathay, i. 162. 

Catholic, i 552 ; ii. 58, 105. 

Catholicon, the, i 346-349. 

Catlap, ii 194. 

Catlike, ii 13. 

Cato quoted, i. 160. 

Cats and dogs, like, i. 590 ; ii. 

Catsguts, ii 45. 

Catspaw, ii 86. 

Cattle, i 94, 204, 208, 240, 
294, 309, 365, 389, 395, 
421, 463, 553 ; it has vari- 
ous meanings. 

Catullus, i 442 ; ii 215. 

Caulk, to, i 288. 

Cause = because, ii. 88. 

Cause, give, i. 544. 

Cause, give away the, ii. 38. 

Cause of his being here, i 217 

Cause, to, i 132. 

Cause why, i. 131, 234. 

Causeway, i 21, 264, 

Caustic, i 612. 

Cautelous, ii 79. 

Caution money, i. 265. 

Cavalier, ii 10, 136. 

Cavanagh, i 352. 

Caveat, i 516. 
Caveat emptor, i. 407. 
Cavendish, i. 386. 
Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, i. 

532-534, 568. 
Caxton, i 78, 125, 154, 318, 

324, 327-337, 338, 349, 

363, 407, 417, 455, 492, 

511, 578, 582, 587 ; ii. 

Cease, i 132, 205, 436. 
Cecil, the name, i. 54, 146, 

220, 240. 
Cecil, the statesman, i 531, 

568. See Burleigh. 
Cecilia, the Novel, ii 84, 188- 

192, 202. 
Celtic, i. 19. 
Censer, i 257. 
Cent, a, ii 11. 
Cent per cent, i 568, 589. 
Centlivre, Mra, ii. 148. 
Cereiponies, master of, i. 384. 
Ceremony, lose no, i. 518. 
Certain as a gun, ii 104. 
Certain sooth, i 294. 
Certain to have, i 35. 
Certify, i. 419. 
Certitude, ii. 93, 224. 
Cervantes, i 622. 
Cess (tax), i 578. 
Ch replaces c and A;, i. 15, 88, 
161, 179, 234, 255, 347, 
453, 594;'ii38, 176. 

replaces ic/i, i 493, 564. 

replaces q^ i 302. 

replaces », ii. 65. 

replaces «^, i 184,'232. 

replaces «, i 329 ; ii 109. 

comes into words, i. 403. 

encroaches on French «, i 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Chafe, i. 211. 

Chaff (raillery), ii. 154. 

Chaffer, i. 49. 

Chaffinch, i. 257. 

Chaft, i. 347, 361, 437, 535. 

Chain, L 347. 

Chair = best place, ii. 56. 

Chair days, his, ii. 23. 

Chairman of a company, ii. 121. 

Chairmen, ii. 108. 

Chairs, for conveyance, ii. 108. 

Chaise, ii. 147, 193. 

Chaldeeish, i. 446. 

Chalice, i. 8. 

Chalk for cheese, i. 480. 

Chalk out the way, i. 605 ; ii. 47. 

Chalkstone, ii. 167. 

Cham, to, L 435 ; il 164, 200. 

Chamber, be of the, i. 177. 

Chamber counsel, iL 157. 

Chamber fellow, ii. 197. 

Chamber, keep her, i. 176. 

Chamber of presence, i. 549. 

Chamber play, i. 229. 

Chamberer, a, i 285. 

Chambering, i. 229. 

Chamberlain, John, iL 72. 

Chambermaid, ii. 34. 

Chambers, of gun, i. 309. 

Champ, to, i 435, 453. 

Champion (field), i. 406. 

Chance, take my, i. 15 ; ii. 157. 

Chance, to, i. 410. 

Chancellor, the voyager, i. 535. 

Chandelier, i. 65, 269. 

Chandler, i. 179. 

Change blows, i. 534. 

Change = exchange, i. 249 ; ii. 

Change hands, ii. 104. 
Change his note, i. 580. 
Change his thought, i. 95. 

Change in speech, Chaucer's 

allusion to, i. 116. 
Change, make, i. 90. 
Change mind, i. 367. 
Change of raiment, i. 479. 
Change places, i. 500. 
Change sides, ii. 124. 
Change, to, i. 561. 
Change, with, i. 55. 
Changes, the weather, i. 579. 
Channel, i. 154, 264, 605 ; 

u. 173. 
Chap (/k)mo), ii. 177. 
Chap (scismra), i. 535. 
Chapel, keep, iL 160. 
Chapfallen, L 587 ; ii. 39. 
Chapman, ii. 228. 
Chapped, i. 204. 
Chaps (Jaucei), i. 535. 
Chapter, i. 289 ; ii. 156. 
Chapter of accidents, ii. 172. 
Character, L 9, 238, 432 ; ii. 13, 

37, 43, 60, 130, 163, 199. 
Charcoal, L 57. 
Chare {opus) ii. 50. 
Charge, give in, i. 127. 
Charge, have a, ii. 20. 
Charge, have the, i. 233. 
Charge home, iL 48. 
Charge, lay to his, i. 369. 
Charge, of their own, i. 374. 
Charge, take, i. 94. 
Charge, to, i. 6, 49, 346, 507, 

519, 569. 
Chargeable, i. 569. 
Charger (dish), i. 216. 
Charges, bear, i. 343. 
Chariot, L 65, 520 ; ii. 152. 
Charitable, L 285, 358, 419. 
Charitably, L 419. 
Charity begins at home, i. 150. 
Charity, in, L 285, 291. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Charity (love), I 412. 

Charlatan, ii. 54, 105. 

Charlemagne's wain, i. 156. 

Charles L, ii. 69, 74, 87, 90, 
156, 231. 

Charles II., ii. 100, 101, 106. 

Charles V., i. 386, 425, 538, 
619 ; ii. 209. 

Charles VII., i. 214. 

Charles the Bold, i. 328. 

CharWs wain, i. 156, 536. 

Charlock, \, 4, 253. 

Charming, i. 591. 

Chamel, i. 167. 

Charter House, i. 151, 219, 424. 

Charter party, i. 506. 

Chartered, i. 490. 

Charwoman, i. 365; ii. 158. 

Chary, i. 485, 491. 

Chase (a wood), i. 81. 

Chase, give, i. 235, 387 ; ii. 39. 

Chase, to, i. 95, 102, 154, 264. 

Chasing pieces, ii. 53. 

Chateau, how sounded, i. 537. 

Chattels, i. 294, 365, 508 ; ii. 

Chatterbox, ii. 193. - 

Chaucer, i. 6, 7, 8, 12, 31, 43, 
51, 67, 74-77, 81, 82, 91, 
95, 101, 102, 103, 105, 108, 
109-137, 141, 142, 144, 
147-151, 156, 157, 160, 
172-174, 177-179, 183, 
184, 186, 194, 196, 201, 
204, 207, 209, 210, 218, 
223, 226, 234, 235, 237, 
240, 245, 249, 252-255, 
261, 265, 286-288, 290, 
292, 293, 299, 305, 309, 
313, 316, 326, 329, 336, 
339-341, 350, 353, 361, 
363, 365, 370, 376, 377, 

384, 393, 401, 429, 438, 
439, 441, 443, 445, 447, 
456, 475, 476, 501, 505, 
• 554, 573, 574, 588, 591, 
595, 600, 621 ; ii. 10, 87, 
99, 110, 142, 153, 167, 168, 
185, 187, 209-211, 216, 
228, 229. 

Chaucer, imitations of, i. 77, 
400-404 ; ii. 12, 13. 

Chaucer, praise of, i. 337, 365, 
499, 588, 589. 

Chavel, to, ii. 200. 

Chaw = chew, ii. 106. 

Cheap, idioms of, L 162, 165, 
486, 531, 584 ; il 32. 

Cheap, make himself, ii. 78. 

Cheap, the street, i. 5, 134. 

Cheapen, to, i. 299, 343. 

Cheaply, i. 547. 

Cheapness, ii. 119. 

Cheat {fallere\ ii. 16. 

Cheat, for escheat, i. 254, 378. 

Cheater,!. 574. 

Check, a, i 233, 550. 

Check, a, for money, ii. 186. 

Check accounts, i. 388. 

Check = control, ii. 5, 6. 

Check (malum), i. 22. 

Check, to, i. 118, 266, 421. 

Check, to give, i. 544. 

Checkmate, i. 115, 397. 

Chedzoy, i. 344. 

Cheek by cheek, i. 461. 

Cheek by jowl, ii. 29, 95. 

Cheer, its various meanings, i. 
17,' 18, 41, 42, 65, 66, 130, 
392, 495. 

Cheer, to, i. 108. 

Cheers, three, ii. 197. 

Cheerful, i. 236. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Cheerily, i. 47, 512. 
Cheering, i 604. 
Cheerless, ii. 40. 
Cheesecake, i. 258. 
Cheesemonger, i. 360. 
Cheke, Sir John, i. 624. 
Chemise, i. 12. 
Chemistry, words of, i. 133. 
Cheping town, i. 14, 336. 
Chequer, i. 41. 
Cherbourg, i 217. 
Cherry, i. 4. 
Cherry cheek, ii. 147. 
Cherry ripe, i. 281. 
Cherubims, i. 420. 
Cheshire, i. 184, 189, 287, 367, 

395, 581 ; ii. 196, 200. 
Chess board, i. 533. 
Chess, the game of, i. 329-332. 
Chess, to set, i. 332. 
Chessman, ii. 85. 
Chest of drawers, ii. 182, 
Chest (^edui)^ ii. 44. 
Chester, i. 468. 
Chester Mysteries, i. 186, 286- 

Chete (re«), i. 574, 601. 
Chevy Chase, i. 280. 
Chicheley, i. 77, 214. 
Chichester, Bishop of, i. 543. 
Chick nor child, ii. 166. 
Chickabiddy, ii. 193. 
Chicken, i. 16. 
Chicken, no, ii. 158. 
Chicken, soul of a, ii. 150. 
Chicken-hearted, ii. 168, 
Chickweed, i. 257. 
Chief, L 19, 60, 272, 374, 618 ; 

ii. 161. 
Chief, hold in, i. 90. 
Chief staple, i. 249. 
Chiefest, i. 40, 421. 

Chiefly, i. 187. 
Chieftain, i. 87. 
Chilblain, i 495. 
Child, go with, i. 42. 
Child in arms, iL 188. 
Child, lay to him a, ii. 158. 
Child, replaces childhood, i. 128. 
Child, the scornful address, ii. 

Child, this (I myself), i. 575. 
Child's play, L 82. 
Childing (parturitio), ii. 161. 
Childish pronunciation, ii. 122. 
Childlike, ii 20. 
Children, awkward questions of, 

ii. 86. 
ChiU (chilly), I 606. 
dullness, L 606. 
Chime in with, ii. 155. 
Chimera, ii 72, 
Chimney, i 32. 
Chimney preacher, i. 517. 
Chimney sweeper, i. 360. 
Chimney top, ii. 49. 
China dish, ii 43, 108. 
China house, ii. 55. 
Chinese, i 529, 537. 
Chineses, ii. 79. 
Chink, i 262, 540. 
Chintz, ii 163. 
Chip, i 120, 122. 
Chip chow, chorus, i. 493. 
Chips of the block, ii 82, 124. 
Chirp, i 120, 255. 
Chirrup, ii 157. 
Chit, i. 142. 

Chit, applied to a girl, ii. 98. 
Chit chat, ii 166. 
Chivalry, i. 227. 
Chock full, i. 148, 268 ; ii 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Chocolate, ii. 98. 

Choice spirits, ii. 22. 

Choice, the, i. 54, 177, 191, 
279, 363, 369. 

Choicest, i. 519. 

Choir, i. 579 ; ii. 119. 

Choke, i. 148, 602. 

Choler, i. 392. 

Cholera morbus, ii. 172. 

Cholerick, i. 31. 

Cholmondeley, i 352. 

Choose, i. 136, 161. 

Choose, might not but, i. 306. 

Choose the least of two evils, i. 

Chop, a blow, i. 305, 427, 540. 

Chop, a jaw, i. 361, 535. 

Chop house, ii. 149. 

Chop logic, i. 394. 

Chop, to, i. 58, 117, 165, 195, 
307, 357, 515 ; ii. 83. 

Chops of Channel, ii. 145. 

Chopological, i. 425. 

Chopping boy, ii. 111. 

Chopstick, ii. 63. 

Chorister, i. 82, 264, 302, 581. 

Chorusses, i. 615. 

Chosen to, i. 128. 

Chough, i. 161. 

Chouse, ii. 66, 60, 109, 161. 

Chrisom, i. 571. 

Christ help! i. 462. 

Christ's day (Easter), L 555. 

Christ's Kirk on the Green, i. 467. 

Christen, to, i. 105. 

Christendom, meanings of, i. 3. 

Christian, a, i 214, 339, 340, 
489, 529. 

Christian = good, i. 553, 558. 

Christian, look like a, ii. 122. 

Christian name^ L 489 ; repre- 
sented by a letter, i. 542. 

Christian, the name, i. 152, 

Christianlike, i. 511. 

Christianly, i. 547. 

Christmas box, ii. 149. 

Christmas comes but once, i. 

Chub, i. 266. 

Chubby, il 196. 

Chuck, i. 122; ii. 84. 

Chuck ! i. 395. 

Chuck farthing, ii. 155. 

Chuck under chin, a, ii. 85, 

Chuckheaded, i. 542. 

Chuckle, ii. 125. . 

Chuflf, i. 258. 

Chuffy, i. 258. 

Chum, ii. 166, 197. 

Chunk, ii. 198. 

Church, made masculine, i. 280, 

Church, man of, i. 383. 

Church prayers in English, i. 

Church, to, i. 262. 

Churchman, i. 393. 

Churchman= constant worship- 
per, ii. 147. 

Churchwarden, i. 352, 354. 

Churchyard cough, ii. 193. 

Churchyard, the Poet, ii. 5. 

Churl, i. 20, 24, 98, 122, 255, 
298, 334, 412, 505, 563. 

Churl hemp, i. 405. 

Churlish, i. 122, 429. 

Churn, a, i. 263. 

Chuse, to, ii. 202. 

Chymist, ii 3. 

Cibber, Colley, ii. 147, 158. 

Cicely, i. 240. 

Cicerone, ii. 196. 

Cider, i. 144, 264. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Cinder, i. 161. 
Cipher, i 462, 669, 609. 
Circle, square the, ii. 118. 
Circles, in high, ii. 179. 
Circuit, i. 168, 450, 592. 
Circulating library, ii. 179. 
Circumbendibus, ii. 196. 
Circumcide, i. 144. 
Circumcise, i. 420. 
Circumstance (context), i. 434^ 

470, 617. 
Circumstance, peculiar use of, i. 

Circumstances, i. 24; ii. 142. 
Cirencester, contracted, i. 240. 
Cis, i. 98, 371. 
Cit, a, ii. 110. 
Cite, to, i. 461, 472. 
Citizen, i. 32. 
City full, a, ii. 47. 
City = London, ii. 51, 73. 
Civil, i. 516, 553. 
Civil law, i. 270. 
Civil, pun on, ii. 35. 
Civility, i. 389, 489. 
Ck replaces c^, i. 539. 
replaces ^, i. 120. 
aack, i. 7, 78, 255. 
Clack clack, i. 454. 
Clad, i. 96. 
Claes, Scotch, i. 625. 
Claim kindred, ii. 86. 
Claim, to, i. 373. 
Claim to, lay, ii. 22. 
Clairvoyant, ii. 116. 
Clamber, i. 263. 
Clammy, i. 263, 456. 
Clamp, a, i. 360. 
Clan, i. 626. 

Clap = clack, i. 224, 255. 
Clap hands in a bargain, L 430. 
Clap in prison, i. 381. 

Clap off, i. 5. 

Clap on him, i. 312. 

Clap on sfdl, ii. 24. 

Clap {plavdere)j ii. 141. 

Clap (speak), i. 7. 

Clap to, i. 127, 195. 

Clap up match, ii. 19. 

Ckpper, i. 28. 

Clapperclaw, to, ii. 24. 

Claptrap, ii 166, 

Clar obscur, ii. 156. 

Clarendon, ii. 91, 101, 106, 

121, 215. 
Claret, i. 266, 351. 
aaret (blood), ii. 196. 
Clash, i. 63, 363, 600 ; ii. 190, 
Clasp, i. 5. 
Class, ii. 104. 
Cktter, i 18. 
Clavers, i. 69. 
Claw me, claw thee, i. 423. 
Clay, i. 694. 
Clay-daubed, i. 63. 
Clay ground, i. 405. 
Clayey, i 142. 
Clean from, i. 317. 
Clean leg of horse, ii. 16. 
Clean, make, i. 138. 
Clean {omnino\ i. 112, 437. 
Clean running, i. 349. 
Cleanliness, i. 402, 439. 
Cleanly, mistaken use of, i. 154. 
Clear, i. 108, 163, 266, 517, 

649, 584 ; ii. 184. 
Clear, make, i. 629. 
Clear seeing, i. 331. 
Clear, to, i. 38, 196, 212, 336 ; 

ii. 42, 71, 115, 169. 
Clearance, ii. 172. 
Clearly, i. 241. 
Clearness, i. 233. 
Cleave {findere), L 330. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Cleave {h€erere\ i. 94, 441. 

Cleave like burs, i. 381. 

Cleaver, a, ii 145. 

Cledgie, i. 594. 

Cleft, a, i. 136. 

Cleges, Sir, Poem of, i. 108. 

Clem (starve), L 64; ii. 195. 

aement VII., i. 539. 

aepe up, i. 175, 452 ; ii 39. 

Clepid miracles, i. 147. 

Clergy, Collier on the, ii. 131. 

Clergyman, i. 516. 

Clerk of council, L 215. 

Clerk, to parson, ii. 73. 

Clerk, various meanings of, i. 

39, 207, 208, 222, 240. 
Clerkly, i. 228, 516. 
Clever, ii. 102, 203. 
Click, to, ii. 198. 
Climate, i. 168. 
Climb, i. 7. 

Climber upwards, a, ii. 49. 
Clincher, i. 353. 
Cling (conirahere), ii. 41. 
Clink, i. 5. 
Clipper, i. 20. 
Clipping of words in England, 

ii. 153. 
Clitter clatter, i. 451. 
Cloaths, ii. 201. 
Clock, i. 80, 276, 349. 
Clock back, put, ii. 162. 
Clock, dropped after Numerals, i. 

125, 194. 
aock strikes, i. 202. 
Clock, used with Numerals, i. 

Clocksetter, i. 613. 
Clockwork, ii. 155. 
aod, i. 169, 256, 517. 
Clodhopper, ii. 166. 
Clodpated, ii. 155. 


Clodpole, ii. 37, 54. 

Clog, a, i. 204. 

Clog, to, i. 480. 

Cloke (hidden thing), i. 412. 

Cloke, to, i. 384. 

Close, a, i. 74, 80, 274, 552. 

Close bodied, ii. 143. 

Close, dropped before upon, i. 

Close (end), i. 620. 
Close fisted, ii. 85. ' 
Close handed, i. 506. 
Close, keep, i. 458. 
Close quarters, to, ii. 168. 
Close (secret), i. 309, 506, 508. 
Close, to, i. 331 ; ii. 21. 
Close, to come, ii. 59. 
Close up, il 44, 88. 
Close weather, i. 467. 
Close with, ii. 88. 
Cloth, lay the, i. 90. 
Cloth of work, i. 220. 
Cloth (used for the clergy), i. 

149, 150, 215 ; ii. 149. 
Clothes, i. 57, 146, 199, 532. 
Clothier, i. 234. 
Clothing, i. 411,439. 
Clothmaking, L 244. 
Clottered, i. 126. 
Clou, the French, i. 406. 
Cloud-capt, ii. 47. 
Cloud, to, iL 16, 23. 
Cloud, under a, i. 396, 614. 
Cloudy, ii. 22. 
Clout (ferire), ii. 92. 
Clouted cream, i. 495. 
Clove foot, i. 220. 
Clover, ii. 35, 201. 
Clown, i. 364, 559. 
Clownish, i. 611. 
Club foot, i. 367 ; ii. 202. 
Club law, ii. 91. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Club (societas), ii. 89. 

Club with, ii. 110. 

Clum ! i. 129. 

Clump, a, i. 162 ; ii. 185. 

Clumsy, i. 34 ; ii. 14. 

Clussum, ii. 200. 

Clutch, i 97. 

Clutches, i. 226. 

Clutter, ii. 97. 

Clym, for Clement, i. 295. 

Co, prefixed to words, i. 196, 

240, 516, 616. 
Coach, i 569, 603. 
Coach and six, ii 75. 
Coach, take, ii. 164. 
Coached lady, ii. 64. 
Coachee, ii. 1 93. 
Coachmaker, ii. 34. 
Coachman, i. 605. 
Coal black, i. 175 ; ii. 22. 
_Coal hole, i. 540. 
Coalpan, i. 411. 
Coalpit, i. 505. 
Coals, i. 352. 
Coals, carried to Newcastle, i. 

Coals, fetch them over, ii. 99. 
Coals, to bear, i. 599. 
Coarse, i 221, 566 ; ii. 71. 
Coast, i. 65 ; il 222. 
Coast clear, i. 677. 
Coat armour, i. 115, 219. 
Coat of animals, i. 585 ; ii. 15. 
Coating, ii. 205. 
Coats, be in their, i 529. 
Coax, i. 620. 

Cobbett, ii. 209, 215, 234. 
Cobbler, i. 101, 234. 
Cobbling, ii. 3. 
Coble (boat), ii. 62. 
Cobweb, i. 104, 151, 423. 
Cock a doodle, ii. 46. 

Cock a hoop, set, ii. 34. 
Cock and bull talk, it 126. 
Cock and pye, by, i. 525. 
Cock boat, i. 236. 
Cock-crowing, i 151. 
Cock his hat, ii. 107. 
Cock of hay, i. 426. 
Cock of musket, ii 60. 
Cock of pistol, i. 567. 
Cock of the game, i. 606. 
Cock of the school, i. 484. 
Cock on his dunghill, i. 156. 
Cock on the hoop, i. 495. 
Cock pheasant, i. 1 1. 
Cock robin, ii. 193. 
Cock sure, i. 394. 
Cock sparrow, il 141. 
Cock your eye, ii. 195. 
Cock's body, i. 462. 
Cock's bones, i. 129. 
Cock's crow, i. 251. 
I Cocks nouns ! i. 493. 
I Cock's wound, by, i. 51. 
Cocked hat, ii. 109. 
Cocker (cock fighter), i. 200. 
Cocker, to, i. 263, 497. 
Cockerell,i. 258. 
Cockfighting, i. 297. 
Cockhorse, i. 594. 
Cockish, i. 542. 
Cockloft, ii. 166. 
Cockney, i. 51, 121, 604 ; ii. 

64, 87, 198. 
Cockpit, ii. 14. 

Cockscomb,i.258,482,485, 584. 
Cockshot, a, ii. 2. 
Cocky, i. 480 
Cocoa, i. 536, 593. 
Cod liver, ii. 63. 
Codger, ii. 166. 
Codling, i. 258 ; ii. 98. 
Coffee, ii. 69, 121. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Coffeehouse, ii. "79, 104, 108. 

Coffee room, ii. 172. 

Coffin, i. 230, 489. 

Cog (boat), i. 21. 

Cog, to, i. 498. 

Coil, keep a, i. 566. 

Coin an answer, i. 604. 

Coin (money), i. 614. 

Coin news, ii. 72. 

Coin, paid in our own, ii. 85. 

Coin worth, i. 209. 

Coincidence, ii. 191. 

Coincident, a, iL 76. 

Coke, Chief Justice, ii. 70, 94. 

Cold blood, in, ii. 53, 102. 

Cold blooded, ii. 26. 

Cold comfort, ii. 25, 

Cold (cool), i. 373, 376, 573. 

Cold hearted, ii. 50. 

Cold in the head, i. 23. 

Cold meat of us, make, i. 46. 

Cold pig, ii. 198. 

Cold, take, ii. 108. 

Coldingham papers, i. 168, 212, 

247, 269, 300. 
Coldness, ii. 147. 
Coleridge, ii. 188, 208. 
Collar, i. 265, 559. 
Collar bone, ii. 152. 
Colleague, to, il 172. 
Collected, be, ii. 46. 
Collection, a, i. 420. 
Collections of Plutarch, i. 488. 
Collepixie, 1. 485. 
Collier, i. 44. 
Collier, Jeremy, ii. 128-132, 

154, 165, 204. 
Collier (ship), ii. 74. 
Collier^s Dramas, i. 351, 359, 

360, 400, 467, 482, 558, 

CoUigener, i. 577. 

Collop, i. 98. 

Cologne, i. 151, 346, 366, 558 ; 

ii. 88. 
Colonel, i. 506, 528, 580. 
Colony, i. 536. 

Colour comes and goes, ii. 26. 
Colour high (blush), ii. 191. 
Colour of rose, i. 323. 
Colours give, i. 500. 
Colours, in true, ii. 125. 
Colours of ladies, i. 613. 
Colours, pair of, ii. 163. 
Colours (vexilla), ii. 22. 
Colours, wear, i. 112, 527. 
Coltish, i. 123. 
Columbus, i. 535, 
Co-mate, ii. 36. 
Comb, a, i. 260, 544. 
Come about, i. 7 ; ii. 55, 114. 
Come across, ii. 169. 
Come and gone, i. 54. 
Come away, i. 316, 356^ 409 ; 

ii. 47. 
Come by, i. 314. 
Come by it, L 46. 
Come by itself, i. 380. 
Come Christmas, i. 21, 210. 
Come down with money, ii. 126, 

Come home as wise as he went, 

i. 486. 
Come, followed by Infinitive, i. 

Come in for, ii. 105. 
Come in his mind, i. 45. 
Come in (rent), ii. 82. 
Come in (submit), i. 382. 
Come in with, i. 206. 
Come in with (up with), i. 548. 
Come into a thing, i. 508, 546. 
Come it (the journey), ii. 151 
Come life, come death, i. 299. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Come near me (rival me), ii. 

Come of age, i. 83; ii 203. 
Come off = come along, i. 126, 

219, 316. 
Come off = escape, ii. 30. 
Come off = take place, iL 20. 
Come on, i. 190, 230. 
Come out (be known), i. 100 ; 

ii. 54,170, 190. 
Come (out) in silks, i. 607. 
Come out with it, i. 202 ; ii. 

Come over him, ii. 16. 
Come round, ii. 169. 
Come round him, ii. 169. 
Come round to, ii 1 14, 
Come strong, i. 306. 
Come thereto, it is, i. 16. 
Come to, i. 251. 
Come to (anchor), ii. 59. 
Come to any good, i. 369. 
Come to a sum, i. 147. 
Come to have it, i. 15, 545. 
Come to him, if ought, i. 207. 
Come to himself, i. 27. 
Come to my knowledge, i. 278. 
Come to pass, i. 335. 
Come to that, ii. 113. 
Come to the joining, i. 460. 
Come to the truth, i. 251. 
Come to this point, it is, i. 251, 

Come up, i. 278. 
Come up to (rival), ii. 147. 
Come weal, come woe, i. 1 1 7. 
• Come what would, i. 544. 
Come when it will, i. 371. 
Come Yorkshire over him, ii, 

Comed, for cwme^ ii. 199. 
Comedy, i. 155,259. 

Comelily, i. 128. 

Comeliness, i. 258. 

Comely, is, i. 414. 

Comer, i 152, 162. 

Comes of dicing, what, i. 202. 

Comfits, i. 432. 

Comfort, i. 31, 37, 65, 138, 310, 

391,443, 618. 
Comfortable, i. 37, 324, 358, 

443 ; ii. 41. 
Comicar, a, L 395. 
Coming, a, L 272. 
Coming in, the, i. 439. 
Coming, sir ! ii. 143. 
Coming to, a, L 259. 
Comings together, L 141. 
Co-mingle, ii. 39. 
Command, i. 48, 60, 169, 274, 

376, 452, 575, 620 ; ii. 53, 

68,73,94, 172. 
Command, the noun, ii. 50, 53, 

Commandment, make out, i. 

Commence an action, i. 358. 
Commence master, i. 591. 
Commend, i. 146, 279, 376, 

Commendam, in, i. 313. 
Commerce, English, i. 530. 
Commission (money payment), 

ii. 172. 
Commission of the peace, i. 577. 
Commissioner,! 274. 
Commissions, make out, L 325. 
Commit himself, ii. 206. 
Commit to memory, i. 613. 
Commit to prison, i. 310, 470. 
Committee, L 483, 568. 
Commoder, a, L 196, 564. 
Common law, i. 49. 
Common man, i. 207. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Common place, i. 551, 571 ; ii. 

Common Pleas, i. 242. 
Common run, the, il 172. 
Common sense, i. 520. 
Common senses, i. 473. 
Common table, L 527. 
Common woman, L 149. 
Commoner, i. 53, 468, 469. 
Commons, i. 21, 149, 182, 438. 
Commons (fields), i. 474. 
Commons (food), i. 579. 
Commons, House of, usage of, 

ii. 4. 
Commonweal, i. 21, 393. 
Commonwealth, i. 287, 376, 

393, 412, 446. 
Commune, i. 5. 
Communed, to be, i. 253. 
Communion of goods, i. 505. 
Communion, the, i. 265. 
Companies, military, i. 149, 

445 ; ii. 59. 
Companion (fellow),!. 6 1 4 ; ii.l 82. 
Companion (lady's), ii. 191. 
Company, be good, ii. 121. 
Company, be in, i. 499. 
Company, do, i. 136. 
Company, hold with,i. 126. 
Company, in trade, i. 556. 
Company, keep you, i. 367. 
Company manners, i. 60. 
Company, much, i. 138. 
Company of actors, ii. 59. 
Company of heaven, i. 207. 
Company (society), i. 450 ; ii. 55. 
Company, weep for, i. 356, 614. 
Company with, to, i. 166, 279. 
Comparative of Adverbs,changed, 

i. 330, 620. . 
Comparatives formed, i. 279. 
Compare notes, ii. 148. 

Comparison breaks (down), ii. 

Comparison, in, i. 167, 433. 
Comparison, out of all, i. 488. 
Comparison, to, i. 145. 
Comparisons odious, i. 237, 

Compass about, i. 138, 166. 
Compass, needle of, i. 454. 
Compass, to, i. 138. 
Compasses,!. 533, 570. 
Compassion, have, i. 27, 136. 
Complain on, i. 418. 
Complaints, give in, i. 310. 
Complaisance, how pronounced, 

ii. 118. 
Complexion, i. 609 ; ii. 31. 
Compliment, i. 603. 
Compliment = present, ii. 1 80. 
Compliment, turn a, ii. 124. 
Compose music, ii. 146. 
Composed countenance, ii. 86. 
Compositor, i. 230. 
Compost, 1. 356, 585. 
Composure = composition, ii. 89. 
Compound, to, i. 353, 367, 483, 

Compounds, long, ii. 66. 
Compounds, new, i. 100. 
Compounds, strange, i. 97. 
Compounding power, i. 1; ii. 15. 
Compromised (agreed), ii. 31. 
Compt, day of, i. 95. 
Comrade, i. 354; ii. 69, 104. 
Con books, i. 356. 
Con you thanks, ii. 42, 161. 
Concatenate, ii. 76. 
Conceit, i. 132, 208, 322, 378, 

489, 559, 607, 609. 
Conceit, put out of, ii. 122. 
Conceits, in your own, i 419. 
Conceited, i. 490, 591 ; ii. 75. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Concern (anxiety), ii. 127. 
Concern him, L 308. 
Concerning,!. 214. 
Concemings, your, ii. 42. 
Conclave, ii. 51. 
Conclude, i. 9, 155, 243, 389, 

421 ; ii. 130. 
Conclusion, i. 133, 420. 
Condemned in a sum, i. 231. 
Condescend, Scotch law term, i. 

Condition, on, i. 111. 
Condition (state), i. 331. 
Condition, under, i. 248. 
Conduct, i. 30, 291, 477 ; ii. 7. 
Conducts, at Eton, i. 187. 
Conduit, i. 30, 161, 400. 
Confab, ii. 206. 
Confess, i. 618. 
Confesflio Amantis, i. 172. 
Confession, i. 618. 
Confidant, ii. 79,^111. 
Confide, i. 618. 
Confined (in asylum), ii. 191. 
Confound, i. 92, 463. 
Confound them ! ii. 39. 
Confounded pranks, ii. 91. 
Confrere, i. 339 ; ii. 156, 217, 

Confused, to be, i. 55, 92. 
Confusedly, i. 432, 578. 
Confusion of English words, i. 

82, 93, 104, 141, 143, 157. 
Confusion, put to, i. 90, 228. 
Conge, i. lag, 388 ; ii. 98. 
Congener, ii. 224. 
Congratulate it to you, ii. 114. 
Congregation, i. 420. 
Congress, ii 11. 
Congreve, i. 426, 616; ii. 27, 

122-128,129, 131,132, 136, 

150, 188. 

Conject, to, ii. 38. 
Conjecture, i. 448, 463. 
Conjure, the accent on, ii. 153. 
Conjure, various meanings of, 

i. 48, 95, 288. 
Conjuror, no, ii 113. 
Connexions, good, ii 172. 
Connor, ii 126. 

Conquest, brags about, ii. 9, 14. 
Conquest = conquered land, i. 

Conquest of, make, ii. 78. 
Conscience, enough in, ii 93. 
Conscience, of, ii. 84. 
Conscience, on my, ii. 70. 
Conscionable, i. 512. 
Consequential, ii. 199. 
Conserves, i 529. 
Consider better of it, ii. 87. 
Consider him ( = pay), i 592. 
Consideration, for a, i. 434. 
Consideration (respect), i. 433. 
Considered that, i 131. 
Considering this, i. 131, 186, 

292, 397 ; ii 10, 110. 
Conspire, i 420. 
Constable, i 189. 
Conster, to, i. 609. 
Constitution, i. 538, 596, 609 ; 

ii 12. 
Construction of sentences altered, 

i 416. 
Constructions, foreign, i. 275 ; 

ii 189. 
Construe, i. 102, 196. 
Consume, i. 445. 
Consumedly, ii 147. 
Consummate master, ii. 173. 
Consumption, i. 297, 434. 
Contemporary, ii 81, 135. 
Contents of letter, 1. 359. 
Context, i. 434, 470, 617. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Continent, the, i. 536; ii. 191. 
Continue, i. 38, 139. 
Continue sending, i. 369. 
Contract, i. 9, 609. 
Contractions in words, i. 7, 25, 
73, 87, 107, 120, 140, 198, 
199, 206, 209, 268, 302, 
352, 361, 386, 396, 475, 
481, 482, 492, 506, 510, 
534, 559, 563, 565, 566, 
575, 578, 582, 583, 586, 
590, 592, 600 ; ii. 57, 88, 

Contradiction, i. 411. 

Contraries, by, i. 498. 

Contrary, the, i. 24, 34, 118, 

Contrary, to the, ii. 114. 

Contrary wise, on the, i. 37, 322. 

Contrasto, ii. 93. 

Contrive, i. 19, 193. 

Conundrum, ii. 54. 

Convene to (Scotch ph rase), i . 2 4 8 . 

Conventicle, i. 187, 247. 

Conversation (assembly), ii. 114. 

Conversation, have his, i. 29, 
38, 95. 

Convert, to, i. 445. 

Converts, i. 279. 

Convey, i. 21. 

Convey, by deed, i. 609. 

Convey = thieve, i. 395, 400, 

Convict, to, i. 149. 

Convince, i. 149. 

Convince = convict, ii. 186. 

Convocation, a, i. 310. 

Convoy, i. 87, 226, 269 ; ii 7. 

Convoy, a, ii. 44, 75, 112. 

Convoyer, i. 313. 

Convulsed, ii. 1 99. 

Cony, i. 5, 437, 583. 

Coo, to, ii. 126. 

Cook a book, ii. 151. 

Cooks and pottage. Proverb, i. 

Cookery, i. 51. 

Cookery, Poem on, i. 225, 432. 
Cool blood, in, ii. 94, 102. 
Cool his heels, ii 151. 
Cool hundred, a, ii. 159. 
Cool of the day, i 413 ; ii. 56. 
Cool (quiet), ii. 83. 
Cool reception, ii. 140. 
Cool, to, i 453. 
Cooler, a, ii 96. 
Coolness, ii. 147. 
Coop, to, ii. 25. 
Coot, i 144. 
Cope, i 254. 
Cope of heaven, i. 146. 
Cope, to, i 48, 301, 30^. 
Copen (enter e)y i 235. 
Copier, ii. 134. 
Copies of books, take, ii. 156. 
Copies, set, ii 22, 23. 
Coping-stone, i. 542. 
Co-position, ii. 135. 
Copper, i 119. 
Copper nose, ii 44. 
Copperfield, David, i. 263, 583 ; 

ii 55, 97. 
Copse, i. 549. 
Copy a man, ii. 139. 
Copy book, ii. 16. 
Copy, for printing, ii. 163. 
Copy, take a, i. 367. 
Copyist, ii. 134. 
Copyright, ii. 205. 
Coquette, i 372. 
Coquette it, ii. 143. 
Cor Rotto, i 529. 
Coragio ! ii. 47. 
Coral, i 269. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Corby, i. 62. 

Cordial medicine, i. 462. 

Cordilliers, i. 364. 

Cordwainer, i. 207. 

Cork, i. 264. 

Cork, of bottle, i. 466. 

Cork, to swim with, i. 472. 

Corkscrew, ii. 159. 

Corn fed, i. ^89. 

Corn, the Will of, i. 156. 

Corncrake, i. 17. 

Corner of belly, i. 381. 

Comer, turn the, ii. 123. 

Cornerwise, i. 330. 

Comet, iL 7. 

Cornish, the, i. 494, 624. 

Comwall, ii. 162, 200. 

Coronach, i. 363. 

Coronership, i. 274. 

Corporal, ii. 15. 

Corporate body, i. 379. 

Corporation, i. 246. 

Corporation (belly), ii. 196. 

Corps du garde, ii. 61. 

Corpse, i. 8, 103, 133. 

Corpse, lay out, ii. 44. 
Correct, i. 445. 
Correct, for press, i. 378. 
Correctedly, i. 620. 
Correspond with, ii. 89, 93. 
Correspondence, ii. 54. 
Corrosive, a, iL 23. 
Cormpt, i. 30, 136, 229, 331, 

Corsair, ii. 119. 
Corse (body), i. 437. 
Corser (usurer), i. 145. 
Corset, ii. 55. 
Corsing (usury), i. 12, 527. 
Corvee, i. 31. 
Cosmic regime, ii. 227. 
Cost him his life, i. 429. 

Cost, put to, i. 219. 

Costs, i. 29, 292. 

Costermonger, i. 360. 

Costious, i. 276. 

Costlow, i. 473. 

Costume, ii. 205. 

Cotquean, i. 500 ; ii. 14, 34, 

Cottage, i. 122. 

Cottager, i. 524. 

Cottar, i. 101, 525. 

Cotteneer, ii. 64. 

Cottes plut ! i. 449. 

Cotton, i. 168, 593. 

Cotton (agree), i 603 ; ii. 64. 

Cotton Galba, Version, i. 107. 

Cough, i. 101, 121: 

Could, alteration in spelling, i. 

Could (might), L 59, 125, 404. 

Could replaces should and would y 

i. 387. 
Council, i. 145, 166. 
Counsel (a lawyer), i. 179. 
Counsel, be of, i. 217. 
Counsel, man of, i. 242. 
Counsel, take, i. 39, 138, 471, 

Counsel, to, i. 6, 310. 
Counsellors = lawyers, ii. 3, 184. 
Count chickens ere hatched, ii. 

Count upon it, ii. 151. 
Countenance, change, i. 620. 
Countenance fell, ii 169. 
Countenance, hold his, ii. 31. 
Countenance, keep, 1377. 
Countenance, keep him in, ii. 


Coimtenance, make, i. 251. 
Countenance, out of, i. 528, 649. 
Countenance, to, i. 205. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Counter tenor, i. 156. 
Counter, to, i. 490. 
CounterbufF, ii. 68. 
Counterfeit, i. Ill, 419, 446. 
"Countess and Gertrude," the 

book, ii. 201-207. 
Counting (accountant's work), 

i 149. 
Counting so many, i. 213, 292. 
Country, accused before the, i. 

Country cousin, ii. 184. 
Country dance, ii. 95. 
Country gentleman, i. 577 
Country (rM«), i. 464. 
Country seat, i. 603. 
Country (shire), i. 22, 231, 534. 
Country squire, i. 589. 
Countryman (compatriot), ii. 3. 
Countryman, my, i. 231, 264. 
Countryman (of the same shire), 

i. 612. 
County, i. 208. 

County (a count), i. 532 ; ii. 9. 
County court, to, ii. 199. 
Coup d'etat, ii. 231. 
Couple, a plural form, i. 385. 
Couples, wedded, i. 210. 
Courage, take, i. 416. 
Courant, the (newspaper), ii 75. 
Courier, i. 118. 
. Course, bear our, il 61. 
Course, have his, i 209. 
Course, make out, i. 228. 
Course, matter of, i. 266. 
Course, of greyhounds, i. 476. 
Course of dishes, i. 60. 
Course of kind, i. 82. 
Course, to, i. 189, 498, 534. 
Course, to set, i. 536. 
Courser, i 39, 167. 
Courses, fall into, iL 173. 

Court card, i. 549. 

Court, make his, ii. 114. 

Court Martial, ii 90. 

Court of Love, the poem, i. 402. 

Court rules, that, i 217. 

Court, to, i 552, 609. 

Courtesy, i 107, 145, 434, 571, 

Courtesy, Book of, i 285, 332. 

Courtesy, titles of, ii. 3 . 

Courtezan, i 231. 

Courtezan, change of meaning, 
i 550. 

Courtier, i 48, 178, 589. 

Courting, i 381. 

Courtly, i 323, 402. 

Courtman, i. 121. 

Courtship, ii. 16. 

Cousin, first, ii. 98. 

Cousin german, i 132, 553. 

Cousin, used for niece, ii. 185. 

Cove (man), i 575. 

Cove (recessm), ii. 8. 

Co vent Garden, i. 447. 

Coventry Mysteries, the, i. 306, 
313-318, 397, 403, 555 ; 
ii 198. 

Coventry, send to, ii. 195. 

Cover, a, i. 280. 

Cover a man at chess, i 332. 

Cover a mare, i. 464. 

Cover a partridge, ii. 123. 

Coverdale, i 3, 51, 53, 59, 194, 
221, 229, 323, 327, 358, 
398, 402, 405, 412, 413, 
416, 417, 419, 422, 427, 
435-446, 450, 451, 454, 460, 
494, 506, 525 ; ii 1, 5, 62, 
Coverdale, his Memorials, i. 530. 
Covered, to be (hat), i. 561. 
Covering, of book, i. 462. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Covert, i. 519; ii. 96. 

Covet him to be, i. 251. 

Covet, to, i. 138. 

Covey, i. 264, 282. 

Cow heel, ii. 178. 

Cowhide, ii. 163. 

Cow kicks over the pail, i. 504. 

Cow, to, ii. 41. 

Cowkeeper, ii. 116. 

Cowley, i. 601 ; ii. 239. 

Cowper, i. 32, 43, 165, 613 ;| 

ii. 179. 
Coxcomb, ii. 145. 
Coxcombical, ii. 171. 
Coxswain, ii. 66. 
Coy, i. 464, 604, 609. 
Coyish, i. 559. 
Coz (cousin), ii. 24, 115. 
Cozen, to, i. 558. 
Crab (apple), i. 608. 
Crab, catch, ii. 196. 
Crabbed, i. 57. 
Crabbedness, i. 208. 
'Crack, a, i. 362, 368. 
Crack jokes, ii. 35, 131. 
Crack lips, i. 316. 
Crack nuts, L 348. 
Crack of voice, the, ii. 45. 
Crack (sirepere), i. 458. 
Crack words, i. 7, 126, 147, 

Cracks of war, i. 88. 
Crackbrain, i. 567. 
Cracked (mad), ii. 70. 
Cracker = firework, ii. 56. 
Cracker (lie), i. 7. 
Crackling, i. 438, 458. 
Craft, yields to trade, i. 475 ; 

ii. 218. 
Crafts (craftsmen), i. 150. 
Craftiness, i. 261, 413. 
Craftsman, i. 151, 310. 

Craftsmaster, i 433 ; ii. 81. 

Craggy,' i. 89. 

Craig (throat), i. 312. 

Crakow, i. 162. 

Crakowis, i. 107, 

Cram it on me, ii. 186. 

Cramp, i. 101, 113. 

Cramped, in money, ii. 152. 

Crane (engine), i. 88. 

Crank, i. 258. 

Crank (a beggar), 1577. 

Crank (ceger), ii 96. 

Cranke (falling sickness), i. 576. 

Cranky, i. 368. 

Cranmer, i. 138, 241, 478, 479, 

510, 523, 524, 542, 543, 

548, 550, 553 ; ii. 1, 4. 
Cranny, ii. 201. 
Crash, a, ii. 38. 
Crash, to, i. 263. 
Cravat, ii. 104. 
Craven, i. 600. 
Crawl, i. 202. 
Crawley, Sir Pitt, ii. 166. 
Crayfish, i. 218, 535, 594. 
Craze, i 340. 
Crazed, i. 352 ; ii. 70. 
Crazy, L 17, 371, 614; ii. 70, 

Creak, i. 370, 560. 
Cream = best part, il 72. 
Cream = crism, i. 548. 
Cream of experience, i. 599. 
Creased, i. 498. 
Create an Earl, i. 217. 
Creation of lords, i 479. 
Creator, i. 102. 
Creature, i. 102, 204. 
Creature = servant, ii. 42, 54. 
Creature, the good, = diink, ii. 

Credence, i. 471. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Credence, dine on, i. 364. 

Credence, hard of, i. 367. 

Credit, bill of, i. 569. 

Credit, do him, ii. 203. 

Credit in trade, i. 676. 

Creed, in English, i. 169. 

Creek, i. 411. 

Creel, i. 268. 

Creeping beast, i. 164, 438. 

Creichton, ii. 162. 

Crept, for CT(ype^ i. 46. 

Crept in, they are, i. 148, 415. 

Crescent, i. 263. 

Cress, L 614. 

Cressy, i. 76, 76, 266. 

Crestfallen, ii. 23. 

Crevice, i. 60 ; ii. 201. 

Crew, i. 293, 386, 698, 609. 

Crew or crowed, ii. 199. 

Crib, a, i. 437 ; ii. 32. 

Crib (steal), ii. 186. 

Cribbage, ii. 181. 

Crick, i. 268. 

Cricket, game of, ii. 128, 155. 

Crimean war, i. 270. 

Crimp ribbons, ii. 165. 

Crimp soldiers, ii. 186. 

Cringe, ii. 14. 

Cripple, to, ii. 89. 

Cristen = Christian, ii. 55. 

Critic, i. 618 ; ii. 16. 

Critic (critique), ii. 134. 

Critically, ii. 124, 142. 

Croatia, ii. 104. 

Crockery, ii. 188. 

Croice, i. 8, 462. 

Crokers, i. 696. 

Cromwell, Oliver, i. 396, 432, 

460 ; ii. 162. 
Cromwell, Thomas, i. 424, 473, 

476, 476, 522, 560. 
Cromwell, son of Thomas, i. 477. 

Crone, i. 130. 

Crony, ii. 102. 

Crookback, i. 39, 354. 

Crook-kneed, ii. 29. 

Croon, to, i. 204. 

Crop, i. 122. 

Crop-ear, ii. 32. 

Crop the ground, ii. 61. 

Crosier, i 148; 679. 

Cross, i. 8, 130, 147, 260, 427, 

Cross bars, i. 488. 
Cross bill, a, ii. 70. 
Cross breeding, ii. 110. 
Cross-examine, iL 104. 
Cross-grained, ii 92. 
Cross is made an Adjective, i. 

670 ; ii. 18. 
Cross keys, i. 518. 
Cross legs, i. 468. 
Cross men, L 645. 
Cross or pile, ii 108, 117. 
Cross out, i 348, 399. 
Cross over, i. 458. 
Cross purposes, ii. 142. 
Cross questions, ask, ii. 146. 
Cross roads, i. 695. 
Cross the sea, i. 646. 
Cross, the Verb, pun on, ii. 35. 
Cross way, a, i. 346. 
Cross wise, i 100, 240, 432. 
Cross writing, to, i. 307. 
Crossail, i 61, 175. 
Crossbow, i. 236, 293. 
Crossed, a pilgrim, i. 86. 
Crossness, ii. 36. 
Crosspatch, i. 372. 
Crotchet, i 206, 691. 
Crouch (cross), i 466. 
Crouchback, i. 8. 
Crow, the tool, i. 107. 
Crow, to pull, i. 202, 376. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Crowd, to, L 602. 

Crowkeeper, ii. 34. 

Crowley's Epigrams, L 525. 

Crown, i. 119. 

Crown a head, at, ii. 115. 

Crowned King, the poem, i 212. 

Crow's feet, under the eyes, i. 

Croxton's will, i. 179. 

Croydon Races, i 699. 

Croysado, ii. 117. 

Cruel {ficetr\ i. 93, 108, 131, 

Cruel cold, ii. 185. 

Cruelties, i. 22. 

Cruelty, i. 229, 550. 

Cruelty protested against, i. 615. 

Cruise, a, L 263. 

Cruise, to, ii. 141. 

Crumble, i. 226. 

Crumple, i. 255. 

Crunch, to, ii. 201. 

Crusade, i. 248, 313, 366, 539 ; 

ii. 117. 
Crush, a, iL 191. 
Crust and crumb, i. 511. 
Crust, to, i. 498. 
Crusty, i. 566 ; ii. 45. 
Cry and crow, L 202. 
Cry banns, L 7. 
Cry halves, i. 575. 
Cry harol, L 463. 
Cry hate on him, ii 34. 
Cry havock, i. 301. 
Cry her eyes out, ii. 147. 
Cry herself sick, ii. 147, 191. 
Cry out on, i. 148. 
Cry takes the meaning plorare, 

ii. 9. 
Cry them acquittance, i. 600, 

Cry them quit, ii. 75. 

Cry up something, i. 222. 

Crying debt, a, ii. 71. 

Cub, i. 462. 

Cub, applied to a man, ii. 156. 

Cubit, i. 138. 

Cucking stool, i 3. 

Cuckold, i. 234, 403, 606. 

Cuckow, ii. 202. 

Cucumber, i. 438. 

Cuddie, i 247, 362. 

Cuddle, i. 399. 

Cudgel play, iL 158. 

Cue, i. 571 ; ii. 28. 

Cue, written Q, ii. 82. 

Cuff (manica), i. 101. 
Cuff, to, i. 462. 
Cuffs, be at, ii. 152. 
Cultoquhey, i. 189. 
Culturate, ii. 68. 
Culverin, i 309, 519. 
Cumbersome, i. 390, 496. 
Cumbrous, i. 89, 390. 
Cumin, the name, i. 230. 
Cummer, i. 196, 364. 
Cunning, i. 12, 42, 414. 
Cunningest, i. 114. 
Cup and lip, proverb about, i. 

Cup, to, i. 322. 
Cup too much, take, ii. 63. 
Cups, in his, i 531, 540. 
Cupbearer, i. 480. 
Cupboard, i. 61 ; ii. 81. 
Cupboard love, ii. 193. 
Cur dog, i. 296. 

Curate, i. 37, 55, 110, 265, 336, 
its new sense, i. 479, 509. 
Curator (curate), i. 102, 106. 
Curd your blood, ii. 1 7. 
Curds, i. 101. 
Curds, the people, ii. 77. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Cure (cover), i. 397. 

Cure, do the, i. 145, 176. 

Cure of souls, i. 53. 

Cure, to, i. 145. 

Curfew, i 265. 

Curio, a, ii. 86. 

Curiosity, i. 154, 433, 472 ; 
ii 68, 86. 

Curious, i. 29, 41, 279 ; ii. 

Curiedness, i. 454. 

Curlpate, ii. 42. 

Curmudgeon, i. 599. 

Currant, i 226, 310, 596 ; ii. 
74, 94. 

Current, gutter, i. 463. 

Current, money, i. 367. 

Currents set East, i. 536. 

Curry comb, L 583. 

Curry favour, i. 233. 

Curse, worth a, i. 98; ii. 166. 

Cursed speaking, i. 412. 

Cursedest, i. 57. 

Cursedly, i. 157. 

Cursedness, i. 78, 79. 

Cursor Mundi, New Versions of, 
i 13, 67, 69. 

Cursor Mundi, the, i. 7, 12, 14, 
15, 33-36, 40, 47, 63, 67, 
81, 91, 101, 103, 107, 128, 
137, 143, 145, 160, 163, 164, 
171, 198-202, 205, 217, 
234, 268, 289, 399, 443; 
ii. 93. 

Curtain, behind the, ii. 120. 

Curtain lecture, ii. 124. 

Curtain, of wall, ii. 7. 

Curteis, Thomas, i. 424. 

Curtsy, a, i. 319. 

Curtsy to, i. 493. 

Custom-house, i. 345. 

Custom, payable, i. 49. 

Customed to, i. 337. 

Customer, a, i 285, 344. 

Customer = man, ii. 71. 

Custoses, i. 301. 

Cut a figure, il 157, 168. 

Cut a joke, ii. 168. 

Cut and come again, ii. 169. 

Cut and run, ii. 168. 

Cut cards, ii. 95. 

Cut down, i. 495. 

Cut = drunk, ii. 195. 

Cut (engraving), ii 119. 

Cut (go), i487, 513, 556. 

Cut him out, ii 168. 

Cut him work to do, ii. 78. 

Cut {id\M\ ii. 167. 

Cut in a joint, the, ii. 91. 

Cut in pieces, troops, ii 81. 

Cut my coat after cloth, i. 503. 

Cut (not know) men, i 267 ; 

ii 168. 
Cut, of clothes, i 10, 105. 
Cut off, i. 528, 602. 
Cut off expense, ii. 58. 
Cut open, ii. 203. 
Cut out, i. 544. 
Cut out by pattern, ii. 46. 
Cut out for it, ii 121. 
Cut out his way, ii 26. 
Cut out work, ii. 103. 
Cut short, i 498, 573. 
Cut teeth, ii 124, 168. 
Cut, to, i 458. 

Cut up, i 431, 544 ; ii 190. * 
Cut up, a, ii. 188. 
Cut (vulnu8\ i 497, 557, 573. 
Cute (acute), ii. 180. 
Cuthbert's banner, i 466. 
Cutlass, ii 67. 
Cutpurse, i 98. 
Cutt (secavit), i. 415. 
Cutter (engraver), i. 594. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Cutter (ship), ii. 182. 

Cutter (swaggerer), i. 601. 

Cutthroat, i. 586. 

Cutting of vines, a, i. 283, 454, 

Cutting remark, ii. 203. 
Cuttle-fish, i. 257 ; ii. 14. 
Cutts, Lord, ii. 213. 
Cymbal, i. 259. 

D, prefixed, i, 514. 

added to words, i. 4, 61, 94, 
249, 351, 368, 373, 451, 
453, 472; ii. 42, 113, 
inserted, i. 121, 151, 160, 
161, 256, 289, 318, 333, 
518, 540, 600 ; ii. 37, 
struck out in the middle, i. 
50, 141, 208, 289, 305, 
345, 438, 447, 540. 
clipped at the end, i 32, 193, 
206, 241, 535, 575, 592 ; 
ii. 99. 
doubled, i. 256. 
replaces j and soft g^ ii. 81, 

replaces «, i. 256, 305, 583. 
replaces t%, i. 13, 68, 116, 
170, 247, 270, 298, 304, 
338, 352, 381, 411, 494, 
replaces r, i. 199 ; ii. 82. 
confused with g^ i. 344. 
Dab (adept), ii. 194. 
Dab (icto), ii. 162. 
Dabble, i. 538. 
Dabbler, ii. 154. 
Dad, i. 287. 
Dadda,ii. 141. 
Daff aside, ii. 31. 

Daffadondilly, i. 583. 

Daffe,i. 9, 101, 287 ; ii. 4. 

Daffodil, i. 256, 514. 

Daft, i. 260. 

Dagger, i. 166. 

Daggered, i. 164. 

Daggers drawing, at, 617. 

Daily, i. 195, 300. 

Daily Telegraph, the, ii. 221, 

231, 232. 
Dainty, i. 60, 456. 
Dairy, i. 10, 121, 130. 
Daisy, i. 4, 254. 
Dam, i. 166, 404, 406, 434. 
Dam, not care a, iL 195. 
Damage, i. 337, 419. 
Damages, give, ii. 70. 
Dame, addressed to a poor woman, 

i. 300, 449. 
Dame, counterpart to master, i. 

516 ; ii. 11. 
Dame, prefixed to names, i. 241, 

353, 564. 
Dammee, a, ii. 65, 79. 
Damn me! ii. 18, 131. 
Damn their souls, to, i. 310. 
Damn with faint praise, ii. 112. 
Damnation (condemnation), i. 

Damned, i. 149, 199, 364, 564, 

577 ; ii. Ill, 122. 
Damned, printed with a dash, ii. 

Damnedest, the, ii. 137. 
Damp, i. 64. 
Damper, a, ii. 188. 
Damsel, i. 138. 
Damson, i. 529, 583. 
Dan, title of honour, i. 131, 

479, 588. 
Dance, of a heart, ii. 46. 
Dance on his lap, i. 500. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Dance, on the, i. 402. 
Dancing days, his, ii. 35. 
Dancing discussed, i 615. 
Dandelion, i 365. 
Dandie Dinmont, i. 4. 
Dandiprat, i. 385, 465, 604. 
Dandle, i. 462. 
Dandy = Daniel, i» 518. 
Danegilt, i. 152. 
Danelagh, i. 108. 
Danes, i. 582 ; ii. 234. 
Danger, old sense of, ii. 31, 40, 

Danger, run in, i. 569. 
Dangerous way, in a, ii 189. 
Dangle, ii. 8. 
Dangle after her, ii. 170. 
Danish influence, i. 1, 74. 
Dank, ii. 49. 
Dankish, i. 497. 
Dano Anglian, i. 72, 333. 
Dante, i. 109, 622. 
Dapper, i. 263, 456. 
Darby, bands, i. 567. 
Dare be bold to, i. 377. 
Dare be bound, I will, i. 478, 

Dare = challenge, i. 608; ii. 22. 
Dare, give the, ii. 49. 
Dare lay, I, i. 41. 
Dare say not, I, ii. 188. 
Dare to love, i. 115. 
Dares, he, i. 203. 
Dared, having, ii. 13. 
Dared replaces durdy i. 430 ; ii. 

Dareful, ii. 41. 
Dareth {audet)y i. 467; 
Daring = bold, i. 602 ; ii. 51. 
Dark as pitch, ii. 83. 
Dark = concealed, ii. 30. 
Dark comers, Duke of, ii. 42. 

Dark-eyed, ii. 40. 

Dark, in the, ii. 133. 

Darken her doors, ii. 169. 

Darkish, i. 439. 

Darkling, i. 284, 460. 

Darknesses, i. 139. 

Darksome, i. 456. 

Darling amusement, ii. 144. 

Darn, to, ii. 136. 

Dart, to, ii. 120. 

Dash about, women, ii. 14. 

Dash, answering to slap, ii. 115. 

Dash, at the first, i. 540. 

Dash, cut a, ii. 170, 185. 

Dash lines, i. 611. 

Dash = mix, i. 372. 

Dash (off), satire, ii. 185. 

Dash out of countenance, i. 457. 

Dash stands for something un- 

printed, ii. 131. 
Dashing blades, ii. 170. 
Dastard, i. 79. 
Date, out of, ii. 85. 
Date, to, ii. 130. 
Datheit, i. 17. 
Daub, L 65. 
Dauber, ii. 177. 
Daunt (dandle), i. 500. 
David = Welshman, i. 595 ; ii. 

Davies' York Records, i. 343, 

Davits, the, ii. 66. 
Davy, Adam, i. 6, 73. 
Davy (affidavit), ii. 193. 
Davy Jones, ii. 194. 
Daw, i. 263,347,371. 
Dawkin, i. 51. 
Dawson, i. 305, 560. 
Day after the fair, i. 368. 
Day before the fair, i. 466. 
Day breaks, i. 440. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Day, dropped after a Saint's 

name, i. 80. 
Day has been, when, i. 614. 
Day = judgment, i. 145, 412. 
Day, keep his, i. 39. 
Day labour, i. 276, 593. 
Day = law, i. 482,542. 
Day peeps, i. 587. 
Day, the Printer, i. 429, 431. 
Day time, i. 484. 
Day = victory, i. 538 ; ii. 33. 
Day woman, ii. 1 7. 
Daybreak, i. 454. 
Daylight, i. 82. 
Days, in my, i. 318, 323. 
Daysman, i. 412, 437, 455, 524. 
Dayspring, i. 268. 
Dazed, i. 34, 63. 
Dazing, a, i. 426. 
Dazzle, i. 334. 
D.D., a,ii. 121. 

De, clipped at the beginning, i. 

set before Teutonic roots, i. 
11 ; ii. 204. 
De Lyra, i. 425. 
Dead and gone, i. 322. 
Dead drunk, ii. 38. 
Dead hands = mortmain, i. 146. 
Dead lame, i. 174. 
Dead letter, ii. 203. 
Dead level, ii. 163. 
Dead loss, i. 569. 
Dead man, be a, i. 486. 
Dead men tell no tales, ii. 144. 
Dead of night, i. 532, 576. 
Dead oppressed, i 174. 
Dead set, a, ii. 194. 
Dead sleep,!. 110, 209. 
Dead stand, at, ii. 78. 
Dead term, the, ii. 53. 
Dead, the, i. 4. 

Dead, the, substituted for deai\ 

i. 413. 
Dead traffic,!. 613. 
Dead water, ii. 67. 
Dead weight, ii. 83, 138. 
Deaden, to, ii. 160. 
Deadly wound, i. 113. 
Deadness, ii. 94. 
Deaf ear, lay, i. 86. 
Deaf to it, ii. 33, 42. 
Deafen, to, i. 202 ; ii. 9. 
Deal, a great, i. 152, 334, 540. 
Deal at cards, i. 516. 
Deal boards, i. 569 ; ii. 62. 
Deal, by a (much), i. 295. 
Deal (make a bargain), i. 340. 
Dealer, a, ii. 82. 
Dealing (conduct), i. 305. 
Deans, David, i. 467. 
Deans, Jeanie, ii. 107. 
Dear, a, ii. 1 7. 
Dear bought, ii. 23. 
Dear fellows, my, i. 602. 
Dear friend, i. 251. 
Dear God, ii. 124. 
Dear good will, ii. 20. 
Dear joys (Irishmen), ii. 142, 

Dear love, i. 251 ; iL 78. 
Dear me! ii. 124, 182. 
Dear, my, i. 563. 
Dear soul, ii. 203. 
Dear, the Interjection, ii. 124. 
Dear, the Vocative, i. 44. 
Dearly beloved,!. 417. 
Dears, my, i. 201. 
Dearth, i. 10. 
Deary, ii. 140, 183. 
Death of him, be the, ii. 32. 
Death, put to, i. 48, 82. 
Death, stone to, i. 56. 
Death, take[on it, i. 546. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Death, take thy, i. 127. 

Death to him, it is, ii. 159. 

Deathbed, i. 251. 

Deathblow, ii. 166. 

Death-dying, i. 99. 

Deathless, ii. 122. 

Deathlike, ii. 43. 

Death's door, at, i. 439, 473. 

Death's face, ii. 16. 

Death's head, ii. 16, 30. 

Deathsman, ii. 22. 

Deave, to, i. Q%, 

Debasement of words, i. 6, 24, 

42, 62, 122, 123, 468, 484, 

541, 543, 573, 609 ; ii. 24, 

191, 196. 
Debate, i. 60, 325. 
Debauch, ii. 18. 
Debauchee, ii. 130. 
Debenture, i. 291. 
Debonnaire, i. 190. 
Debosh, ii. 18. 
Debt, in, i 205, 289. 
Debt, out of, i. 129. 
Decant, i. 507. 
Decant ale, ii. 163. 
Decay (become poor), i. 501. 
Decease, i. 21, 240. 
Deceived in you, i 284, 308, 

Decency, i. 620, 621 ; ii. 206. 
Decent (agreeable), ii. 187. 
Decent (becoming), i. 474. 
Deck, to, i. 211, 233, 377, 381, 

Declare, i. 65, 588 ; ii. 88. 
Declare off, ii. 177. 
Declare to goodness, I, ii. 205, 
Declension (decline), ii. 191. 
Declination, i. 577. 
Decline, followed by Participle, 

ii. 143. 


Decorum, L 551, 573. 

Decoy, ii. 64. 

Decoy duck, ii. 205. 

Deduce, i. 463. 

Deduct, i. 246, 463. 

Deed-doer, i 540. 

Deed doing, the, i. 146, 435. 

Deed, in very, i. 480. 

Deed, legal, i. 180. 

Deed of arms, i. 24. 

Deed of gift, i. 353. 

Deem, i. 140, 296. 

Deeming, to my, i. 288. 

Deep calls to deep, i. 440. 
! Deep in his books, i. 565. 
j Deep-mouthed, ii. 19. 
I Deep of winter, i. 454. 
I Deep rooted, i. 209. 

Deeply read, i 428. 
' Deepness, i. 540. 

Deer, i. 30 ; ii. 41. 

Deer = cem, i. 39, 40. 

Deface, i. 211. 

Defame, i. 145. 

Defeat, i. 246, 294. 

Defence, to, i. 512. 

Defend, i. 133, 331. 

Defensive, on the, ii. 140. 

Defer, i. 464. 

Defile, i. 169, 280, 350. 

Definite Article, the, i. 142. 

Defoe, i. 557 ; ii. 174, 219, 
224, 234. 

Defoul, ii. 154. 

Deft, i. 10, 194, 260. 

Defy, i. 40. 

Degree from a fool, one, ii. 95. 

Degree of 60 minutes, i. 167. 

Degree, stupid to a, ii. 204. 

Degree, take, i. 221. 

Degree, to the last, ii. 132, 204. 

Degrees in navigation, i. 450. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Degrevant, Sir, i 80, 81. 

De'il (devil), i. 598. 

Delacion (mova)^ i. 318. 

Delane, Mr., ii. 221. 

Delay, make, i. 81. 

Delectabilities, i. 253. 

Delectable, i. 167. 

Delicate, i. 617, 620; ii. 156. 

Deliciosities, i. 253. 

Deliciousest, i. 37. 

Deliver a speech, i. 620 ; ii. 38 

Deliver (robber's term), i. 577. 

Deliverance = delivery, i. 320. 

Delivered of a child, i. 13. 

Dell, i. 66. 

Delphos, i. 174. 

Demands, make, i. 168. 

Demaus, Mr., i. 408. 

Demean = debase, ii. 204. 

Demean us, i. 273, 341 ; ii. 204. 

Demerits (services), i. 520. 

Demi-devil, i. 299. 

Demigod, i. 567. 

Demi- wolf, ii. 41. 

Demosthenes, i. 528. 

Demster, i. 70. 

Demur, i. 292, 478 ; ii. 134. 

Demure, i. 285. 

Dennis (woman's name), i. 541. 

Dent, i. 43, 85. 

Dented, i. 604. 

Deny, i. 144, 184, 193 ; ii. 97, 

Deny = forbid, ii. 20. 
Deny it who can, ii. 177. 
Depart, i. 21, 105, 138, 342, 

382, 419, 463, 569. 
Depart this world, i. 529. 
Depeach, a, i. 478. 
Depend upon that, ii 157. 
Dependent on, ii. 127. 
Depose a king, i. 182. 

Depose as witness, i 331. 
Depose to things, ii. 103. 
Deposition, take, i. 544. 
Deprived, i. 65, 463. 
Depth, i. 141 ; ii. 50. 
Deputy Lieutenant, i. 352 ; ii. 

Derby, Lord, i. 511 ; ii. 10, 
Derbyshire, i. 404 ; ii. 200. 
Derision, have in, i. 270, 435. 
Derivations, false, i. 332, 582. 
Derworthy, mistaken, i. 157, 

Descant, i. 149 ; ii. 28. 
Descents, of many, ii. 179. 
Describe (mark out), L 155, 420. 
Descry, i. 112, 551, 578. 
Desert, the, i. 38. 
Deserts, our, i. 115. 
Deserve to, etc., i 35, 403. 
Designs upon, have, ii. 139. 
Desire to, i. 285, 342, 463. 
Desk, L 119. 
Deskatered, i. 11. 
Desmond, i. 577. 
Despair of, L 160. 
Despatch, make, i 569. 
Despatch matters, i. 470. 
Desperate, i. 474, 553, 573, 

Despisable, i 144. 
Despite, in, L 86. 
Despoil, i. 464. 
Destraught, i. 173, 382. 
Desultory = temporary, ii. 192. 
Detect, i. 279, 392. 
Determine, i 95, 144, 154,339, 

Determined air, ii. 155. 
Detraction, i 471. 
Deuce ! i. 196. 
Deuce ace, i. 335. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Deuce, phrases connected with, 

ii. 152, 171. 
Deuce take me, ii 123. 
Dever, do his, i. 20. 
Dever, put them in, i. 324. See 

Device, i. 183, 385. 
Devil and his dam, i. 197. 
Devil, comes into oaths, i. 64, 

129, 196, 204, 358, 429, 

448, 511. 
Devil for my money, i. 516. 
Devil his due, give, ii. 32. 
Devil looking over Lincoln, i. 

Devil of a man, ii. 152. 
Devil, printer's, ii. 163. 
Devil take hindmost, ii. 104. 
Devil. to pay, i. 191 ; ii, 151. 
Devilish, i. 421; ii. 122. 
Devilishly, ii. 110. 
Devilkins, i. 267. 
Devilry, i. 88, 615. 
Devoir, i. 119; ii. 114. See 

dever and endeavour, 
Devon, ii. 58. 
Devonshire, i. 281, 344, 361, 

375, 438, 485, 501, 554, 

567 ; ii. 162. 
Devonshire, to talk, ii. 119. 
Devoted (in danger), ii. 154. 
Devotion, at her, L 136, 478, 

Devotion = money, i. 490. 
Devotion, to, i. 118. 
Devotions, i. 30, 230. 
Dew, i. 25. 
Dewdrop, ii. 28. 
Dewlap, i. 405. 
Di, clipped at the beginning, i. 

Dial, i. 236, 276, 551 ; ii. 66. 

Diamond cut diamond, ii. 124. 

Diana, i. 56. 

Dibble, i. 583 ; ii. 46. 

Diccon, i. 189. 

Dicconson, i. 300. 

Dice, i. 132. 

Dick, i. 88. 

Dickens, the writer, ii. 13, 78, 

Dickens, what the, ii. 24. 
Dickey, of carriage, ii. 202. 
Dickson, i. 88. 
Dictate = set up for master, i. 

Did not I, etc., i. 441. 
Did, prefixed to Verbs, i. 354, 

refers to a Verb in a previous 
sentence, i. 576. 
Did what I could, i. 394, 
Diddle diddle, i. 394. 
Diddle, to, i. 518. 
Didst ever? ii. 19. 
Die away, of a report, ii. 204. 
Die for it, I will, i. 457. 
Die for laughter, i. 114. 
Die game, ii. 195. 
Die in his shoes (be hanged), ii. 

Die is thrown, ii. 85. 
Die to be present, ii. 169. 
Dieppe, i. 219 ; ii. 65, 105. 
Diet (assembly), i. 311. 
Diet him, i. 434. 
Diet, Quiet, and Merryman, ii. 

Diets, be at, i. 294. 
Difference, make, i. 277, 
Difficulty, make, i. 277. 
Diffidence, i. 385. 
Diffuse, to be, i. 378. 
Dig in ribs, i. 185, 531. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Dig supplants delve^ i. 416. 
Dig with spurs, i. 457. 
Digby, Lord, ii. 73. 
Digby Mysteries, the, i. 350, 

Digbify, to, ii. 79. 
Dight = dress, i. 437. 
Dignity = man of quality, i. 229. 
Dignity = quality, i. 520. 
Dike(/o«sa),L96, 321, 345,354. 
Dike {jfiumi), i. 227, 354, 436. 
Dilemma, i. 620. 
Diligence, do, i. 27, 95. 
Dilly, ii. 193. 
Dim sighted, i. 560. 
Dimpled, i. 587. 
Dine forth, ii. 20. 
Dine the poor, to, ii. 131. 
Ding dong, i. 559. 
Ding, to (beat), ii. 200. 
Dining chamber, ii. 33. 
Dining room, ii. 55. 
Dinner, make his, i. 486. 
Dinner time, i. 80. 
Dint of,by,ii. 103. 
Dint, through, i. 21. 
Diocese, i. 146. 
Diomede, i 116. 
Dip an estate, ii. 111. 
Dip in a book, ii. 133. 
Dip in the sea, a, ii. 179. 
Direct something to, i. 115, 301, 

Direction of letter, i. 391. 
Direction = orders, ii. 19, 86. 
Directions to Servants, Swift's, 

ii. 162. 
Directly, i. 294, 307, 533. 
Directly contrary, i. 187. 
Director of Monasteries, i. 477. 
Directory, a, i. 603. 
Direful, i. 615. 

Dirge, i. 5, 50. 
Dirt, i. 199. 
Dirt pie, ii. 124. 
Dirty trick, ii. 133. 
Dis, prefeiTed to mts, i. 265, 383. 
Disable, i. 303, 353. 
Disappoint, i. 443, 462, 509. 
Disarm, ii. 73. 
Disbench, ii. 48. 
Discharge his oath, i 518. 
Disclothe, i. 545. 
Discommend, i. 549 ; ii. 166. 
Discover, i. 179, 211, 443. 
Discretion, age of, i. 180, 470. 
Discretion, surrender at, ii. 180. 
Disease, i. 55, 133, 225, 270, 

Disembogue, ii. 61. 
Disgentleise, to, ii. 73. 
Disgrace, to, i. 618. 
Disguise in liquor, i. 561. 
Disgustful, ii. 191. 
Dish, i. 119, 475. 
Dish of tea,iL 123. 
Dish, to, i 599 ; ii. 46, 203. 
Dishclout, i. 370. 
Dishearten, ii. 36. 
Dishome, i. 285. 
Dishonesty = dishonour, i. 444. 
Dishonour, i. 289. 
Dishwash, ii. 9. 
Disjune, i. 364. 
Dislike, i. 508 ; ii. 23, 50. 
Dismal, i. 112. 
Dismals, the, ii. 180. 
Disrait, to, i. 145. 
Dismount, L 496. 
Disorder, be in, ii. 124. 
Disown, ii. 107. 
Dispatch cock, ii. 193. 
Dispatch = haste, i. 585. 
Dispatch, to, i. 38.9, 448. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Dispend out, i. 229. 

Dispense with, i. 187, 222, 299, 

Display, i. 60, 345. 
Dispone, 1. 241. 
Disport, i. 60, 188. 
Disposed, L 38, 115, 132, 342, 

360, 391. 
Disposition, i. 118, 342. 
Disquantity, to, ii. 40. 
Disseat, to, ii. 41. 
Dissent, i 229, 392. 
Dissenting brethren, ii. 104. 
Dissolute, i. 618. 
Distance, keep your, ii. 56. 
Distance of so much, i. 167. 
Distemper, to, i. 464. 
Distill waters, i. 222, 465. 
Distract, i 382. 
Distraction, love to, ii. 171. 
Distrain, 1.212. 
Distrust, i. 383. 
Disworship, i 285. 
Ditch, i. 96. 
Ditch, the broad = English 

Channel, i. 619. 
Ditcher, ii. 38. 
Dither, to, i 199. 
Divers (quidam), i. 325. 
Diversion, ii. 116. 
Divert, ii 108. 
Diverting, ii. 105. 
Dividend,!. 616. 
Divil,i 119. 
Divine, a, i. 29, 65. 
Divine service, i. 269. 
Divisions of English, i. 1; ii. 1. 
Dizzy, i. 32. 
Dizzy-eyed, ii. 22. 
Do (act), for them, i. 330, 416. 
Do, added to Verbs, ii. 188. 
employed to save the repe- 

tition of a previous Verb, i 
Do, encroached on by put, i. 

(for dugan\ i. 210, 341, 487 ; 
iil7, 26, 204. 

for Tnake, i. 341, 452. 

influenced by faire, i. 27. 

prefixed to a verb in Somer- 
set, ii. 186. 

(rem agere), i. 307. 

set before a Verb, L 375, 416. 

used for emphasis, ii. 26. 
Do all that in me is, i. 39, 147, 

Do articles, ii. 186. 
Do as much for you, i. 340. 
Do as we bid you, not as we do, 

i. 424. 
Do but mark, ii. 148, 204. 
Do (cheat) a man, ii. 195. 
Do = done, i. 339. 
Do for money, what shall we, ii. 

Do (get) her forth, i. 59. 
Do it as soon as fly, ii. 151. 
Do it over, i. 524. 
Do it was death, to, i. 545. 
Do mine endeavour, i. 520. 
Do more than terrify, ii. 5. 
Do much with him, i. 487. 
Do not do so, ii. 44. 
Do or die, i. 312. 
Do out the candle, L 458. 
Do so much as think, ii. 6. 
Do thee right, i. 587. 
Do the features in painting, ii. 

Do the thing genteelly, ii. 167. 
Do things handsome, ii. 159. 
Do well to, i. 438. 
Do what he do can, i. 210. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Do with herself, ii 190. 
Do ye know that, ii. 148. 
Dobbin, ii. 30. 
Dock, for prisoners, ii. 56. 
Dock, for ships, i. 384 ; ii. 6. 
Docket, i. 204. 
Doctor, i. 38, 102, 248. 
Doctor monger, i. 276 ; ii 237. 
Doctor, prefixed to a surname, i. 

292, 496. 
Document (proof), i. 526. 
Dodge, a, i 564. 
Dodge, to, L 564. 
Dodkin, i 658. 
Dods, Meg, ii 186. 
Dodsley's Collection of Plays, i. 

399, 481, 526, 563-566. 
DofF, i 43, 268, 304, 448. 
Dog better than dead lion, i. 

Dog bolt, ii 55. 
Dog cheap, i. 450. 
Dog days, i 540. 
Dog doctor, ii 188. 
Dog drives out hound, i 250, 

454, 592. 
Dog fox, ii 43. 
Dog has a day, i 501. 
Dog hole, i 485. 
Dog in the manger, i. 585. 
Dog Latin, i 513. 
Dog star, i 601. 
Dog tiger, i 535. 
Dog, to, i457 ; ii 113. 
Dog weary, i 485. 
Dog, you, ii. 45. 
Dog's ear, in book, ii. 158. 
Dogs, go to the, ii 163, 185. 
Dog's life, i. 485. 
Dogs, Treatise on, i 592. 
Dogberry, i 203, 389, 544. 
Dogged (brutish), i. 517. 

DoggisM. 469. 

Doggrel, 1. 123. 

Doggrel, specimens of, i 281. 

Dogmatise, ii 60. 

Dogstealer, ii 188. 

Doing away of it, i. 36. 

Doing, his, i 540. 

Doings and sayings, i 528. 

Doit,i 558; ii 23. 

Doited, i 227. 

Dole (division), i 270, 561. 

Doleful, i 38. 

Doll (arnica), i 564. 

Dollar, i 569, 612. 

Dollop, i 538. 

Dolour, i 314. 

Dolphin, i 254. 

Dolt, i 531. 

Dom, sufl&x attached to French 
roots, i 200, 319. 

Domain, i 130. 

Domestic servant, i 291. 

Domineer, ii 17.' 

Dominicans, i 23, 518, 552. 

Dominie, i 479; ii 65, 110, 187. 

Domus, rules for declining, i. 

Don Quixote, i 249 ; ii 55. 

Don, the title, i 479 ; ii. 56, 72, 
98, 148. 

Don, to, i. 448. 

Done, I am (morior), i. 45. 

Done, the cry when a bet is 
taken, ii. 52. 

Done, the cry when an agree- 
ment is made, ii 145. 

Done to it, something is, i. 17. 

Done up, ii 196. 

Done with age, i. 487. 

Done with you, I have not, ii. 

Donkey, ii 167, 200. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Donning, i. 199. 

Don't (do not), ii. 107, 109. 

Don't, I, repeated for emphasis, 

ii. 151. 
Doom, i. 94, 214, 254 ; ii. 23. 
Doom, to, 1. 602. 
Doomsman, i 141. 
Doorkeeper, i. 438. 
Doos (doves), i. 255, 315. 
Dormant, lie, i 293. 
Dorp, i 603. 

Dorset, i. 7, 35, 75 ; ii. 209. 
Dotage, i. 61. 
Dotard, i. 121. 
Dote (dower), I 392. 
Dote on, i. 129, 372, 456. 
Dotehead, i. 427. 
Douai, ii. 164. 
Douai Bible, i. 619. 
Double Accusative, i. 39, 44, 

243 ; ii 204. 
Double as much, i. 179. 
Double chinned, i. 155. 
Double dead, i. 490. 
Double dealing, i 355. 
Double double beer, i. 593. 
Double down a page, ii. 125. 
Double entendre, i 155, 292 ; 

ii 114, 130. 
Double Genitive, i 104, 117, 

224, 325, 351, 534, 553 ; ii. 

69, 182. 
Double herself, ii. 162. 
Double Infinitive, i 55, 580. 
Double man, i. 264. 
Double meaning, ii. 112. 
Double, more than, i. 179. 
Double Negative, i 330, 388, 

483, 494, 528, 568 ; ii. 37, 

132, 199. 
Double of it, i. 60, 520. 
Double quick, i. 397. 

Double the Cape, to, i. 556 ; ii. 

Double tides, work, ii. 169. 
Double times more, i. 166. 
Double, to (deceive), i. 551. 
Double tongued, i. 187. 
Doublefold, i. 103. 
Doubt (fear), i 178, 464; ii. 

Doubt, no, i. 147, 222, 418, 

515, 620. 
Doubt thee not, i. 329. 
Doubtful, i. 181, 264. 
Doubtless, i 78, 111, 127, 197. 
Douceur (gentleness), i. 538. 
Douceur (gift), ii 186. 
Dough, i 104. 
Doughtiness, i. 212. 
Doughty, i. 79, 440. 
Douglas, Gavin, i. 255, 365, 

Doulce, I 388. 
Douse {ictiui)y ii. 142. 
Douse, to, i. 449. 
Dout (put out), i. 448 ; ii. 39. 
Dove house, ii. 34. 
Dovecote, 1. 281. 
Dovelike, i 611. 
Dovetail, to, ii. 159. 
Dowager, 1 385, 476. 
Dowbiggin, i. 270. 
Dowdy, i 21 ; ii. 111. 
Dower, i. 244, 392 ; ii. 222. 
Down = downcast, ii. 56. 
Down going, i. 258. 
Down in fever, ii. 152. 
Down in the mouth, ii 123, 

Down late, be, ii. 34. 
Down, made a Preposition, i. 64. 

made a Verb, ii. 176. 
Down (plumage), i. 178. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Down the wind, i. 498. 

Down, the wood is (felled), i 

Down to them, write, ii. 170. 
Down was the sun, i. 136, 169. 
Down with it, i. 442. 
Downs, the (sea), i 242. 
Downcast look, i. 114. 
Downfall, i. 485. 
Downhill, a, i. 540. 
Downright language, ii. 77 
Downright stroke, i. 456. 
Downsitting, a, i. 439. 
Downtrodden, ii. 26. 
Dowry, i. 21 ; ii. 222. 
Dowse sails, ii. 67. 
Dowsing, the name, i 541. 
Doxy, i. 574. 
Doze, to, ii. 112. 
Dozen, i. 101, 102. 
Dozens, by whole, i. 511. 
Drab, i. 372, 454. 
Draft of proclamation, i. 383. 
Drag, i 256. 
Drag, a, ii. 202. 
Drag for fish, i. 459. 
Drag (loiter), i. 459. 
Dragger, i. 232. 
Draggle, i 357, 365. 
Draggle-tailed, i. 591 ; ii. 136. 
Dragoon, to, ii. 149. 
Drain, a, ii. 2. 
Drain it dry, ii. 136. 
Drake {draco\ ii. 65. 
Drake, the seaman, i. 535. 
Dram, i. 264 ; ii. 18. 
Dram, as physic, ii. 8. 
Draught, i. 121. 
Draught (a drawing), ii. QQ, 
Draught (a paper), i. 209. 
Draught ox, i. 300. 
Draughts, the game, i. 209. 

Draw, i. 256. 

Draw a bill, i. 340. 

Draw a treatise, i. 35, 354. 

Draw breath, i. 90. 

Draw cards, ii 83. 

Draw covers, i 602. 

Draw deep, ships, ii. 44. 

Draw, hang, and head, i. 299. 

Draw him out, ii. 169, 190. 

Draw in, i. 610 ; ii. 58. 

Draw in one line (pull together), 
i. 504. 

Draw long bow, ii. 168. 
, Draw money, ii 30, 141. 
! Draw near to, i 90, 206. 
I Draw on him, ii. 45. 
j Draw on him for money, ii. 151. 
I Draw rivers, i 81. 
t Draw the line, ii. 190. 
Draw to end, i 194. 
Draw up addresses, ii. 138. 
Draw up, of curtain, ii 170, 190. 
Draw up window, ii. 140. 
Draw with a woman, ii 107. 
Drawback, a, ii 150. 
Drawer, at tavern, ii. 108, 165. 
Drawer (bureau), ii. 167. 
Drawers, the garment, i 576. 
Drawing, out of, ii. 205. 
Drawing room, i 580 ; ii. 74, 

Drawings, ii. 159. 
Drawl, i 232, 357 ; ii 24. 
Drawn, I am, ii 29. 
Drawn match, ii. 58. 
Draw-well, a, i. 38. 
Dray, i 256, 475. 
Dray horse,\ii 155. 
Drayman, ii. 45. 
Drayton, i 397. 
Dread Lord, i 213. 
Dread, no, i 147, 201. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



two meanings, i, 

Dreadful has 

260, 272. 
Dreadnought, the ship, i. 597 ; 

ii. 13. 
Dream he bare, dream he shod, 

i. 117. 
Dream, its construction altered, 

i. 17. 
Dream of doing it, i. 505. 
Dream-reader, i 68, 184. 
Dreams go by contraries, ii 109. 
Dredless, i 111. 
Drench, its new senses, i. 143, 

Dress ball, ii. 205. 
Dress himself to, i. 52. 
Dress meat, i. 52. 
Dress (powers), L 39, 60, 81, 93, 

Dress up chamber, ii. 1 9. 
Dress up, in poetry, ii. 143, 161. 
Dress (vestire), i. 196 ; ii. 179. 
Dress vineyards, i. 419. 
Dress wounds, i. 309. 
Dresser, the board, i. 265. 
Dressing room, ii. 110. 
Dressing (thrashing), ii. 173. 
Dribbler, i. 510. 
Driblet, i. 454. 
Drift (purpose), i. 42, 366. 
Drill, Dutch form of thrill, ii. 98. 
Drill soldiers, ii 68, 103. 
Drily, ii 150. 
Drink, be in, ii. 32. 
Drink deep, i. 3, 101. 
Drink heil! i. 189. 
Drink himself to death, ii. 89. 
Drink is in, wit out, i. 494. 
Drink it dry, ii. 14. 
Drink it up, i. 320. 
Drink like fish, ii. 151. I 

Drinking penny, i 568. \ 

Dripping, of meat, i. 226, 454. 

Dripping pan, i. 302. 

Drive a bargain, L 127, 343. 

Drive a trade, ii. 83. 

Drive dust in his eye, i. 282. 

Drive him to the wall, i. 503. 

Drive off, the chaise, ii. 1 90. 

Drivel, i. 59, 376. 

Driveller, i 454. 

Driven snow, ii. 160. 

Driven to it, ii. 183. 

Driver, i. 280. 

Driving at, what he is, ii. 180. 

Driving rain, ii 83. 

Drizzle, ii 35. 

Drolleries, Choice, ii 97, 99. 

Drollery, ii 33. 

Drone, to, i 42, 458, 462. 

Drop a friend, ii. 145. 

Drop away money, ii 111. 

Drop dead, i 169. 

Drop from his pen, ii. 62. 

Drop in, i 594. 

Drop in bucket, a, ii. 163. 

Drop, let it, ii 133. 

Drop oflF(die), iil85. 

Drop, of gallows, ii. 195. 

Dropmeals, by, i. 596. 

Dropping wet, ii 183. 

Dropsy, i 7. 

Drought, i. 97. 

Drouth, i 97. 

Drove, a, i. 44, 438. 

Drove (driven), ii. 164. 

Drover, i 583. 

Drow-en, curious, i 245. 

Drown = kilI, i487. 

Drown noise, ii. 83. 

Drownd, to, i 453. 

Drowned by rain, ii 116. 

Drowned rat, i 486. 

Drowsy, i 371. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Drub, to, ii. 102. 

Drudge, i. 130. 

Drudgery, i. 492. 

Drugeter, ii. 121. 

Drum (assembly), ii. 183. 

Drum head, ii 82. 

Drum of ear, ii. 166. 

Drum, to, L 602, 603 ; ii 110. 

Drumly, i 255. 

Drummond of Hawthomden, i. 

623 ; ii. 65. 
Drums beating, colours flying, ii. 

Drumstick, of fowl, ii 181. 
Drunk as the Devil, i. 62. 
Drunk dry, it is, i 351. 
Drunkard, i 362, 376 ; ii. 214. 
Drunkenest, i. 506. 
Drunkenly, ii. 27. 
Drunkenness in England, i 512 ; 

Drunkensome, i 185. 
Dry-nurse, to, i 613 ; ii. 103. 
Dry, of a joke, i 485. 
Dry, of cows, i 261. 
Dry shodj i 441. 
Dry (thirsty), ii 46. 
Dry thread on, not one, i 404, 

Dry, to, i 201. 
Dry (weary), ii 150. 
Dryden, i 230, 623; ii 94, 

100,101,106,113-116, 120, 

121, 134, 174, 200, 212, 

220, 234. 
Drysalter, ii 198. 
Dub (to call), ii 128. 
Dublin,i289, 598, 600. 
Duck, i 97, 180. 
Duck in blood, i 604. 
Duck, term of endearment, ii 


Duck, to (bow), i 358. 
Duckling, i 454. 
Ducks and drakes, ii 91. 
Dudgeon, ii. 59. 
Dudley, Prior of, i 324. 
Duds (clothes), i 558, 576. 
Due, i 96, 120, 210,217. 
Due and lawful, i 231. 
Due, give him his, ii 31. 
DuflFer, i 9,515 ; ii 194. 
Dug, a, i. 462. 
Duke, how sounded, i 7, 52, 96, 

Duke, title of, i 309. 
Dukedom, i 319. 
Dukery, i 154, 338. 
Dulce, i 533. 
Dulcet, i 295. 
Dull to it, ii 42. 
Dullard, i 258, 264. 
Dullish, i 183. 
Duly, i 79, 210. 
Dumb show, i 590. 
Dumbfound, ii 168. 
Dump, fall in a, i 462. 
Dumpish, i 497. 
Dumpling, ii 56. 
Dumps, in, i 372. 
Dun, a, ii. 207. 
Dunbar, i 361-365, 383, 393, 


584 ; ii. 73. 
Dunce, i 473, 506, 600 ; ii 9. 
Dundas, ii 198. 
Dunghill, i. 16. 
Dunmail's Raise, i. 64. 
Dunmow, flitch of, i 103, 134. 
Durham, i 207, 247 ; ii 162, 

During, i 95, 156. 
Durst not be brought, i 546. 
Dusk, the, ii. 82. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Dusky, ii. 46. 

Dust his jacket, ii. 141. 

Dust hole, ii 202. 

Dust = money, ii 1 94. 

Dust, to, i 586. 

Dustman, ii 188. 

Dutch (German), i. 50, 452, 485, 

512,514; ii80, 119,179. 
Dutch (Hollandish), i 332, 335, 

337, 362, 366, 527, 554,587, 

621 ;ii63, 89, 97, 106, 119. 
Dutch sea terms, i 352 ; ii. 122, 

141, 143, 165. 
Dutchland (Grermany), i. 214, 

425, 554 ; ii 88. 
Duteous, ii. 33. 
Dutiful, i 450. 
Duty, i 172, 240, 490. 
Duty, be on, ii 36, 103. 
Duty debt, i 465. 
Duty, do, i. 95 ; ii. 7. 
Duty of parsons, i. 550. 
Dwarf, i 4, 361. 
Dwarf-money, i 597. 
Dwarfish, ii. 49. 
Cwell, i. 8. 

Dwell, its two meanings, i 262. 
Dweller, i 141. 
Dwellings, i 141. 
Dwindle, ii 31. 
D'ye (do ye), ii 111, 143. 
D'ye hear, i 335. 
Dy (Diana), ii 185. 
Dye, in grain, i 132, 151. 
Dyer, i. 49. 

Dying day, her, i 467. 
Dyle (de'il), for devil, i 598. 

E, clipped at the beginning, i. 
25, 140, 254. 
clipped at the end, i 56, 198, 
300,359,442 ; ii 179. 

E, struck out, i 54, 120, 135, 

140, 218, 240, 254, 329, 

333, 475, 483, 578, 594 ; 

ii 153. 
inserted, i 151, 157, 283, 

added, i 254, 318, 535. 
restored in a word, i 614. 
pronounced like French ^, ii. 

65, 90, 126, 154, 159. 
pronounced at the end, i. 350, 

not pronounced at the end, i 

347, 410. 
replaces a, 1. 26, 87, 121, 146, 

161, 226, 304, 333, 337, 

392, 398, 539 ; ii 124, 

replaces cp, i 140, 157, 254. 
replaces ea, ii 201. 
replaces ei, ii. 1 7. 
replaces eo, i 96, 172, 304,333. 
replaces ew^x. I56, 157, 207, 

254, 289, 304, 352 ; ii 65, 

replaces t, i. 32, 42, 119, 194, 

replaces io, i. 61. 
replaces iw, i. 225. 
replaces 0, i 56, 96, 119, 

140, 161, 172, 410,539; 

ii 163. 
replaces oi, i. 304. 
replaces (m, i 19, 365, 694. 
replaces w, i 223, 254, 365. 
replaces m, i 5, 452. 
replaces y, i 119. 
is sometimes silent at the end^ 

favoured in Salop, i 6, 14, 15, 

38, 43, 84, 86, 96, 232, 

250, 282, 314, 321. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



E, favoured in Haropshire and 

Kent, i 49, 539. 
Ea replaces eat*, i. 298. 

replaces t, ii. 38. 

replaces ia, i 347. 

favoured by Tyndale and 
Udall, i. 408, 483. 

its old sound, i. 75 ; ii. 93, 
182, 193. 

its later sound, ii. 81 128, 
Each, i. 68. 
Each other, i. 33, 63, 170, 208 ; 

ii. 81. 
Each such man, i. 277. 
Eadie (beatus), i. 8. 
Eadie, Dr., i. 435. 
Eagle drives out em, i. 345. 
Eagle-sighted, ii. 16. 
Ealdfader (avm), i. 221, 348. 
Ear, give, i 186. 
Ear, go in at one, etc., i. 402. 
Ear, have no, ii. 115. 
Ear-mark, ii 82. 
Ear-piercing, ii. 38. 
Ear, to, i. 524 ; ii. 50. 
Ear up, to, I 486. 
Ears, about your, ii. 48. 
Ears made glow by talk, i. 503. 
Ears, set by the, i. 292. 
Ears, up to the, ii. 123. 
Earable, i. 456. 
Earlier, i. 381. 
Earliest, i. 498. 
Earliness, ii. 34. 
Early and late, i. 79. 
Early English Text Society, ii. 

Early hours, keep, ii 95. 
Early, its sound, i 272. 
Early to rise is physic fine, i. 


Earshot, ii 121. 

Earshrift, i 426, 551. 

Earth a fox, ii 98. 

Earth movings, i 139. 

Earth, none in the, ii. 77. 

Earth, to (bury), i. 363.- 

Earthen, i 429. 

Earthish, i 428. 

Earthquake, i 411. 

Earthquaking, i 157. 

Earthy, i. 428. 

Ease, ill at, i. 30. 

Ease me of it, ii 24. 

Ease, set at, i 238, 416. 

Ease, take his, i. 126. 

Easel, ii 187. 

Easement, i. 168. 

Easier, the Adverb, i. 278 ; ii 

East Anglia, i 11, 88, 95, 
175, 214, 234, 237, 255, 
256, 259, 270, 271, 289, 
297, 303, 304, 324, 333, 
350, 351, 444, 582-584 ; ii 
55, 63. 

East Indies, ii. 24. 

East Midland, i 56, 72, 73, 74, 
138, 327. 

Easter lamb, i 412. 

Easterlings, ii. 66. 

Eastern words, ii. 6, 69, 99. 

Eastlake, Lady, i. 504. 

Easy chair, ii. 146. 

Easy man, i 132, 154. 

Easy on, sit, ii. 123. 

Easy (slow), i 118. 

Easy virtue, of, ii. 196. 

Eat cake and have it, i 502. 

Eat down grass, i 595. 

Eat head ofl; i 147. 

Eat him out of house, i 377 ; 
ii 51. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Eat it with hogs, i. 584. 

Eat mellow, i. 695. 

Eat out of doors, i 307. 

Eat up the country, i. 595. 

Eat your words, i. 544. 

Eatable, i. 348. 

Eatables, ii. 159. 

Eating hpuse, i. 258. 

Eau, old sound of, i. 292 ; ii 

Eaves, 1 19, 56. 
Eavesdropper, i. 575. 
Ebsworth, Mr., ii. 97, 98. 
Ecce signum ! i. 351. 
Eccentric, ii. 104, 158. 
Eccentricity = wandering, ii. 91. 
Echelon, i. 22 ; ii. 212. 
Echo, applaud to the, ii. 41. 
Echo him, ii. 54. 
Echo of another, be, ii. 112. 
Eclipse, i. 67. 
Eclogues, Barclay's, i. 381. 
Ecstasy, i. 313. 
Ed, added to words, L 83, 142, 

362, 374, 405, 445, 490. 
Eddy, ii. 6. 
Ede, for Edith, i. 224. 
Eden, the writer, i 450, 535- 

537, 552, 656, 693, 601 ; ii. 

31, 67. 
Edge, give him, ii. 39. 
Edge himself into, ii. 148. 
Edge of appetite, ii. 92. 
Edge of oratory, ii. 54. 
Edge, set on, i 323. 
Edge towards, to, ii. 67. 
Edged tool, L 44, 169. 
Edinburgh, i. 74. 
Edinburgh Review, the, ii. 210. 
Edit, to, i. 378. 
Edith, St., Legend of; i. 224 ; ii. 


Editors' freaks, i. 365. 

Edward I., i. 5, 23, 43, 67, 313, 

Edward II., i. 9, 77. 
Edward III., i. 50, 75, 76, 172, 

211, 234, 266, 572. 
Edward IV., i. 297, 300-303, 

308, 323, 325, 327, 338, 

Edward VI., i. 483, 509, 519- 

521, 624, 629, 537, 641, 

548, 654. 
Ee encroaches on m, i 61. 

encroaches on eo, i. 61, 161. 

sounded like French ^, ii. 65, 
93, 143. 

added to a word, ii. 183. 

sounded like French i, i. 359, 
567 ; ii. 81. 

rimes with eye^ ii. 14. 
Een (ocul'i), i. 184. 
Eerie, L 118. 
Effect, in, i. 178. 
Effect, take, i. 127. 
Effect, to this, i. 596. 
Effigy, ii. 106. 
Effluvium, ii, 96. 
Effrontery, i. 466. 
Eft, the reptile, L 594. 
Egad! ii. 110. 
Egg, to, i. 528, 540 ; ii. 39. 
Eggs, L 96, 225, 256, 282, 33G, 

Eggs to bad market, ii. 169. 
Eglamour, the poem, i. 52. 
Egment, i. 67. 

Egregious, i. 671, 620 ; ii. 12. 
Ei(eh!), i. 25, 129. 
Ei is shortened, i. 172. 
Ei, the German, i. 514 ; ii. 65, 

76, 88. 
Eighteen, beautiful, ii. 142. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Eighth, i. 104. 

Eighty-eight, the year, ii 5. 

Either the other, ii 73. 

Either {uterqtiejy i 414, 

Either (vel), i. 139. 

Eke, revived, i. 611. 

Eke, to, i 203, 526 ; ii. 17. 

Elbow, be at his, i. 484. 

Elbow chair, ii. 155. 

Elbow room, i. 495. 

Elbow, to, ii 40. 

Elbows, out at, ii. 11. 

Eld, i. 194, 572 ; ii. 43. 

Eld, to, i. 401. 

Elderly, i 428. 

Eldership, I 564. 

Eldon, Lord, i. 44 ; ii. 184. 

Element, my, ii. 85, 123. 

Elephant, i 25, 31. 

Elf, i. 362, 393 ; ii. 200. 

Elf, to, ii 40. 

Eliot, George, ii. 122. 

Elite, the, i. 155. 

Elizabeth, for Isabella, i. 354. 

Elizabeth, Queen, i. 399, 529, 
530, 541, 554, 555, 567, 
578,599,619-621 ; ii. 1, 91. 

Elk, i 227. 

Ell, I 257. 

Ellen, i. 179. 

Ellipses in English, i. 10, 16, 
21, 55, 81, 105, 109, 112, 
169, 245, 273, 316, 329, 
351, 449, 566, 567, 571, 
576, 595 ; ii. 62. 

Ellis on Pronunciation, i. 578, 
612; ii. 81, 128. 

Elne (ulna\ ii. 60. 

Else, i. 45. 

Else is made a Genitive, ii. 208. 
needlessly inserted, i. 128. 
takes a Plural sense, ii. 102. 

Eke not, the idiom, i. 115. 

Elsewhere, i. 432. 

Elvish, i. 287, 456 ; ii. 200. 

Elwes, ii. 77. 

Ely, i. 225. 

Elyot, Sir Thomas, i. 468-472, 

490, 496, 516, 573. 
Em, for the old herriy ii. 54. 
Embattled, i. 92. 
Embellish, i. 169, 254. 
Ember, i 255. 
Ember day, i 254. 
Embitter, ii. 151, 230. 
Embody, i. 521. 
Embolden, i. 458. 
Emboldish, to, i. 217, 415. 
Embrace (follow after), I 357. 
Embrake, to, i. 487. 
Embroider, i. 265. 
Emeute, ii 214, 222. 
Eminency, the title, ii. 93. 
Emmet, i 140. 
Emplead, i 49, 250. 
Employ, i 187, 293. 
Employ^, ii 220. 
Emprise, of none, i 177. 
Empty-handed, i 586. 
Emulate, ii 68. 

En and in, side by side, i 246. 
En, the Infinitive ending, pre- 
served, i 289. 

clipped at the end of chidden, 
ii 22. 

encroaches on the et\ i. 38, 72. 

prefixed to Teutonic roots, i. 
53, 56, 143, 238, 393, 
451, 468, 465, 602; ii 
16, 22. 

sign of the Female in nouns, 
i 302. 

remains in the Plural of the 
Present, i 321 ; ii 200. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Enact, i. 215 ; ii 22. 

Enamoured, i. 553. 

Enbusy myself, i. 458. 

Enceinte, ii 222. 

Encircle, ii. 33. 

Enclave, i 248. 

Enclose lands, i. 585. 

Encloud, ii. 50. 

Encyclopaedia, the, i. 160. 

End (death), i. 155. 

End, hair fixed on, ii. 23. 

End, in the, i. 251. 

End of an old song, i. 393. 

End of a plot (bottom of it), ii.50. 

End of it (at the bottom of), i. 5 1 7. 

End of, make, i. 33. 

End, set on, i. 400, 548. 

End, to this, i. 155. 

End up a siege, i. 219. 

Ende, Participle in, i. 9, 15, 95, 

Endear, ii. 26. 
Endearment, ii. 77. 
Endeavour, idioms of, i. 324, 

331, 360, 378, 409, 519. 
Endelang, i. 195, 548. 
Endenture, witnesseth, i. 208. 
Endite, i. 464. 
Endlessly, i 189. 
Endlessness, i. 32. 
Endow, i. 67, 149, 199, 208, 

231, 453. 
Ends meet, make both, ii. 168. 
Endue, i. 376, 453. 
Ene, the Genitive Plural, i. 8, 

Enemy (Devil), i. 155. 
Enfaunt {;i^vi^\ i 239. 
Enfeeble, ii. 36. 
Enforce, ii. 47. 
Enfreedom, to, ii. 16. 
Engage a fight, ii. 7, 147. 

Engaged (bespoken), ii. 72^ 130. 

Engaged to fight, ii. 35. 

Engaging creature, an, ii. 124. 

Engine, i. 469. 

Engine to work, set, ii. 169. 

Engineer, ii 57. 

England a new Israel, i. 610. 

English, better, i. 617. 

English Church, the, i 596. 

English language, not stable, i. 

English, spoken by Bede, etc., 

i 296, 554. 
English, to, i 472. 
Englishery, i. 383, 389. 
Englishman, used for Briton, i. 

Engrave, i 458, 595. 
Engross, i 49. 
Engross him, ii 54, 159. 
Engross writing, i. 462. 
Enjoin, i 232. 
Enjoy, i 38, 217, 498. 
Enjoy health, ii. 79, 199. 
Enkindle, ii 26. 
Enlighten, i 143. 
Enliven, ii. 157. 
Enmesh, ii. 38. 
Ennui, i 119 ; ii. 230. 
Enough and toomuch,i447,543. 
Enough, good as a feast, i 502. 
Enough, in the Plural, i. 90. 

various forms of, i 87. 
Enough of, i 125. 
Enough to do to, etc., i. 580. . 
I Enough to live on, i 84. 
Enquire, i 453. 
Enrooted, ii. 33. 
Enround, ii. 36. 
Ensample, i 94. 
Ensample of, make, i 429. 
Ensample them, i 176. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Enseer, a, i. 472. 

Ensign-bearer, ii. 80. 

Ensigns, i 229, 528 ; ii. 7. 

Ensky, ii. 43. 

Ensnare, ii. 28. 

Ensue (scgwi), i. 296, 419. 

intransitive, i. 474. 
Ensure thee, I, i 82. 
Entail, a, i. 92. 
Entail, to, i. 417. 
Entail, to break, i. 296. 
Entent, to that, i 163. 
Entents, to all, i. 273. 
Enter into, i 139, 266. 
Enter names, i. 49. 
Enter of record, i. 244. 
Enter to him, i 391. 
Entered in religion, i. 532. 
Entertain, i. 385, 533 ; ii. 31, 35. 
Entertainment, i. 570. 
Enthrall, i. 274 ; ii 21. 
Enthronise, i. 179. 
Entirely (thoroughly), i. 55, 1 10 ; 

ii. 123. 
Entomb, ii. 44. 
Entreat (|)e^e), i. 395. 
Entreat {tractare\ i. 167, 248, 

274, 307, 421. 
Entreaty, i. 274. 
Entrench upon, ii. 75. 
Entwist, ii. 29. 
Entwit, i. 451. 
Envious {mole8tm\ ii. 31. 
Envoy, ii. 120. 
Envy = evil, ii. 51. 
En wrapt, ii. 44. 
Eo, struck out, i. 254. 
Eou replaces ttow, i. 411. 
Epicure, i. 395. 
Epithet, ii. 16. 
Equal, i. 133, 297, 374, 483 ; 

ii 158. 

Equal = just, i 444. 
Equalness, i. 419. 
Equipage = chariot, ii 130. 
Equipage = dress, ii. 86. 
Equipage, of ship, i 369. 
Equipage = servants, ii. 72, 130. 
Er, tacked on to Nouns, i 121 ; 
ii 145. 

tacked on to French roots, i. 

tacked on to Adverbs, i 275. 
Erasmus, i 422, 473, 479, 580. 
Ere now, i 611. 
Erewhile, ii. 37. 
Ergo, i 102. 

Erkenwald, St, Legend of, i 169. 
Errand, do, i. 94. 
Em (eagle), i 22, 345, 594. 
Em, the suffix, almost gone, i. 

Errand, do, i 94. 
Errand man, ii. 202. 
Errata, ii. 142. 
Erse, i 361. 

Es, Northern Plural, replaces en^ 
i 72. 

Genitive, no longer attached, 
i 121, 

added to a word, i. 4 ; ii. 29. 
Escapade, i. 591. 
Escape being delivered, i. 488. 
Escape, make, i. 544, 592. 
Escape me, i. 434. 
Escape memory, ii. 121. 
Escape with life, i 237. 
Escheater, i 378 ; ii. 16. 
Esquire, i 521. 
Esquire, for the body, i. 479. 
Ess, added to a Teutonic root, i. 
57, 114, 138, 141, 174. 

added to other roots, i. 104. 
Essay, i. 337. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Essences, ii. 96. 

Essex, i. 543, 594 ; iL 200. 

Essex Homilies, the, L 72. 

Establishment, Church, ii. 116, 

Establishment (household), ii. 

Estate, come into, ii 145. 

Estate, its meanings, l 111, 130, 
166, 178, 204, 322, 331, 

Estates, the Three, i. 181, 192, 
303, 509. 

Esteem, i 357, 367, 464. 

Esther, i. 438. 

Estre, no longer a female end- 
ing, i. 97. 

Et cetera, i. 232, 530 

Et, tacked on to Teutonic roots, 
i. 311. 

Etc. (et cetera), printed, i 621. 

Etch, to, ii. 120. 

Eth, the old ending of the Pre- 
sent Plural, L 435 ; ii 94. 

Ethel, ii. 233. 

Etheldreda, St., Legend of,i 225. 

Ethics, i 155. 

Eton, i 55, 165, 187, 243, 303, 
342, 395, 491, 534, 583, 
602 ; ii 18, 79, 82, 91, 188, 

Eu, sound of the German, ii. 76. 
supplants eZ, i 50, 386. 
supplants w, i. 172. 

Euclid, i 170. 

Euphues, i 605. 

Euphuists, i. 494 ; ii 52. 

Evangelise, i 618. 

Evelyn, ii 95. 

Even-handed, ii 41. 

Even heir, i 322. 

Even (just) contrary, i. 35. 

Even makes way for co, i. 516. 

opposed to oM^ i 174, 194. 

prefixed to nouns, i 25, 142 ; 
ii. 39. 
Even now, ii. 23. 
Even, we are, i 57. 
Evening, make out an, ii. 164. 
Evens and odds, i 589. 
Events, at all, i 450, 477, 569. 
Eventually, i 252. 
Ever and a day, i 432, 460. 
Ever and anon, ii. 16. 
Ever anon, i 547. 
Ever, inserted needlessly, i. 79. 
Ever living, ii. 22, 68. 
Ever now and then, i 488. 
Ever running, ii. 36. 
Ever since, i 165, 460. 
Ever so little, i 556. 
Evereither, i. 277. 
Evergreens, ii 202. 
Everilk, mistaken by Caxton, 

i 318. 
Everlasting, from, i. 440. 
Every comfort possible, i. 132. 
Every five, i 51, 54. 
Every inch of him, i. 488. 
Every man for himself, etc., i. 

Every man living, i. 209. 
Every mother's son, i. 18. 
Every now and then, i 488 ; ii. 

Every other day, i. 36. 
Every second line, i. 385. 
Every side, on, i. 547. 
Every third step, i 163. 
Everybody, i 125, 440, 457. 
Everyday coat, ii 158, 166. 
Everything, so, ii 151. 
Everwick (York), i. 353. 
Evesham, the Monk of, i 321. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Evidence (legal document),!. 444. 

Evil doer, i. 151. 

Evil done to, I am, L 390. 

Evil eyed, ii. 46. 

Evil, it is, waking a dog, i. 601. 

Evil meaning (false), L 260. 

Evil-mouthed, L 174. 

Evil will, i 27, 437. 

Evil willed, i. 185. 

Evils, of two, choose least, i 252. 

Evilness, i. 426. 

Ew, supplants aw, i. 7, 347. 

supplants eaZ, i 3, 87. 

supplants to^ i. 321. 

supplants (m, i. 411. 

supplants (m^ i. 151, 172, 438. 

supplants u^ L 52, 82, 96, 
120, 184, 234, 275, 304 ; 
ii 94. 
Ewe (water), i. 9. 
Ewen, St, i. 345. 
Exact (perfect), ii. 61. 
Exacting, to be, ii. 152. 
Exactitude, ii. 206. 
Exactness, ii 158, 206. 
Examination, connected with 

school work, i 229. 
Examine, to, i, 392. 
Example, for, i 432. 
Example of him, make, ii. 70. 
Exceed, i 96, 246 ; ii. 75. 
Exceeding, i 167, 285,396, 418. 
Exceedingly,, i 312. 
Excellence, your, i 238, 244. 
Excellency, his, i 670. 
Except (nm), i 389. 
Except that, i 216. 
Exception, put and take, i 309, 

Exceptions at, take, ii 21. 
Excess, drink to, ii 89. 
Excessive, i. 285. 

Exchange is no robbery, i. 501. 
Exchange is up, i 607. 
Exchange, letter of, i 291. 
Exchange, the King's, i. 303. 
Exchequer, i 41. 
Excise, i 569 ; ii 78. 
Excuse me, i 318. 
Excused, have me, i 54. 
Execute him, i 325. 
Execution, do, i 82, 129. 
Execution, in music, ii. 178. 
Execution man, i. 567. 
Executor, i 198. 
Exercise for a degree, ii. 86. 
Exercise of a schoolboy, ii 121. 
Exercise (prayer), i. 649. 
Exercise, take, i 628. 
Exercise troops, ii 61. 
Exeter, i. 271, 274, 293, 310, 

343, 530. 
Exeunt, i 80, 399. 
Exhibit up, i 553. 
Exhibition (gift), ii 38. 
Exhibition (maintenance), i 303. 
Exhibits, ii 88. 
Exinanite, i 619, 622. 
Exit, ii 36. 
Ex-ministry, ii 173. 
Expect o/ and /rom, ii 62. 
Expect (think), i 17. 
Expect to go to, where, ii. 172. 
Expectations, of great, ii 192. 
Expedition, have, i. 270. 
Expedition of army, i 338. 
Expedition (speed), ii 28. 
Expend encroaches on spe/nd^ i. 

Expense, go to the, ii 118, 132. 
Expire, of a truce, i 216. 
Expletive, ii 132. 
Explode (hiss), ii 134. 
Exploit, i 464. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Expose impostors, ii. 148, 163. 

Expositor, i 379. 

Expound, i 35, 94, 317. 

Express, i. 66. 

Express messenger, i. 317, 388 ; 

ii 95. 
Express, to, ii. 55. 
Expression of face, ii 191. 
Expressly, L 94, 148. 
Expropriate (not a verb), i. 280. 
Extend drives out stretch and 

reach, i. 241, 294, 331. 
Extortioner, i 321. 
Extra, a common prefix, ii 173, 

Extreme, i 354, 389, 529 ; ii. 

5, 106. 
Ey replaces eoh, i 254. 

written for a, i 311. 

written for t, i 268. 

written for 0, i 337. 
Eyas (hawk), i 281. 
Eye, i 19. 

Eye and Betty Martin, ii 194. 
Eye-glass, ii 45. 
Eye, it was in his, i 580. 
Eye of the wind, i 560. 
Eye-offending, ii 37. 
Eye service, i 420. 
Eye, to, i 415. 
Eye to business, ii 166. 
Eye, to have an, i. 27. 
Eye, to have them in my, ii 158. 
Eye to the main, i 608. 
Eye to the main chance, ii 11. 
Eye-tooth, ii. 166. 
Eye-witness, i 614. 
Eyes, put out, i 48, 127, 320. 
Eyes set, i 1 76. 
Eyes set in his head, i 533. 
Eyes to do it, give her, ii 147. 
Eyes water, i 170. 

Eyeball, i 601. 
Eyebreen (brows), ii 200. 
Eyelash, ii 202. 
Eyesight, i 276. 
Eyne (oculi), ii. 17. 
Eyrie, i 282 ; ii 105. 

F, struck out in the middle, i 
32, 40, 290. 

inserted, i 120. 

replaces gr, i 4. 

replaces hw, ii 145. 

replaces |7, ii 166. 

replaces th, i 87, 301, 302 ; 
ii 119. 

replaces v, i 393. 
Fa la la, ii 64. 
Face about, to, ii 104. 
Face about, turn, ii 88. 
Face drawn in death, ii 50, 54. 
Face, hang up good, ii. 98. 
Face, have the, i 549. 
Face him down, i 462. 
Face (impudence), ii 118. 
Face of the world, in open, i.488. 
Face out the matter, i 526. 
Face, set a good, i 387. 
Face to feu^e, i 35. 
Face to foot^ from, ii 48. 
Face, to your, i 372. 
Face, with what, i 488. 
Faced, i. 396. 
Facere aquam, i 51, 442. 
Faces, make, ii 41. 
Facilely, i. 382. 
Facsimile, ii 161. 
Fact, i 613. 
Faction, ii. 72, 75. 
Factor (agent), i 291, 368. 
Faculty, the, i 364, 551. 
Fader (pater), the old form, ii 64. 
Fae, by my, ii. 35. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Faenza, L 392. 

Faery Queen, the, ii 2, 210. 

Fag, at school, ii 202. 

Fag end, i 579 ; ii 32, 77. 

Fag of it, take the, ii 202. 

Fag, to, i. 579 ; ii 202. 

Fail him, i 95. 

Fail of, i 63. 

Fail to do, i 58. 

Fail to him, i 392. 

Failing (j}eccatvm\ ii. 96. 

Failing that, i 392. 

Failings, i 275. 

Fain to flee, i 298. 

Faint heart never won fair lady, 

i 610 ; ii. 13. 
Faint-hearted, i 264. 
Fair and free, i 170. 
Fair and soft, i 115. 
Fair and softly, i 432. 
Fair cjiance, i 209. 
Fair, different meanings of, in 

the Promptorium, i 260, 261. 
Fair fall you ! i 175. 
Fair friends, i 44. 
Fair, my, ii 46. 
Fair of her, not, ii 141. 
Fair {omnino\ i 15. 
Fair one, i 194, 619. 
Fair or foul, i 105. 
Fair passage, i 538. 
Fair spoken, i 298, 307. 
Fair, the Adverb, i. 12. 
Fair, to offer, i. 547. 
Fair, to transcribe, ii 162. 
Fair way to, he is in a, ii 87. 
Fair (woman), the, i 226, 402. 
Fair words, i 152, 538. 
Fair words break no bones, i. 

Fair words butter no cabbage, 

ii 113. 

Faire, the French verb, its in- 
fluence in England, i 27. 

Fairest of fair, i 123. 

Fairfax Version of the Cursor 
Mundi, i 67. 

Fairings, ii 16. 

Fairlier, ii 138. 

Fairly, i 28 ; ii 51. 

Fairness (justice), i 201. 

Fairy, a, i 178. 

Fairy groats, i 597. 

Fairyland, ii 29. 

Faith-breach, ii 41. 

Faith discussed, i 470. 

Faith ! my, i 349; ii. 18. 

Faith of his body, by, i 217. 

Faix, ii 46, 98. 

Falkirk, i. 50. 

Fall (accidere), i 114. 

Fall away, i 153, 191. 

Fall away, become lean, i 457. 

Fall a weeping, i 202, 418, 460. 

FaU flat, ii. 80. 

Fall flat to the ground, i 350, 

FaU foul, ii 33, 58, 67. 

Fall, give a, i 226. 

Fall, have a, i 176. 

Fall in, i 290. 

Fall in a rage, i 164. 

Fall in debt, i. 61. 

Fall in to do it, i 213. 

Fall in with, i 544, 545. 

Fall (of a living), ii 136. 

Fall of the leaf (Autumn), i 497. 

Fall on, i 86. 

Fall out (happen), i 544. 

Fall out (quarrel), i 306, 545. 

Fall out (sally), i. 441, 442. 

Fall over to, ii 25. 

Fall praying, i 164, 394, 450. 

Fall sick, i 153, 164. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fall to, i. 163. 

Fall to it, i. 94, 110, 246, 544. 

Fall together by the ears, i 431. 

Fall to speak, i 114. 

Fall void, i. 529. 

Falls of a river, iL 60. 

Fallals, ii. 193. 

Fallen (night was), i 90. 

Falling down of, i. 141. 

Falling off, a, ii. 38. 

Falling together, i. 152. 

Fallings (cases), i 321. 

Fallow deer, i. 296. 

Fallow soil, il 102. 

False-faced, iL 48. 

False key, ii 163. 

False orthography, ii. 199. 

False teeth, ii. 65. 

False to him, i. 113. 

False- tongued, i. 174. 

Falsehood, i. 80, 234. 

Fal8taff,i, 351, 572. 

Falter, L 57. 

Familiarity begets contempt, i. 
275 ; ii 109. 

Family, be in your, ii. 155. 

Family man, ii. 205. 

Family names, absurd deriva- 
tion of, i. 230. . 

Family, of no, ii. 191. 

Family (servants), i. 533. 

Famish, i. 285. 

Famous (great), i 618 ; ii. 34, 

Famous hand, a, ii. 146. 

Fan, a, i. 567. 

Fanatical, i. 517. 

Fancies (knicknacks), i. 252. 

Fanciful, ii. 147. 

Fancy, i. 38, 82, 304, 434. 

Fancy, do his, i 130. 

Fancy dress, a, ii. 191. 

Fancy farmer, a, ii. 206. 

Fancy free, ii. 29. 

Fancy, have, 1 113. 

Fancy, take, i. 387. 

Fancy, to, i 516 ; ii 154. 

Fane, i 360. 

Fang, to, i. 343 ; ii 42. 

Fangs, i 535. 

Fangless, ii 33. 

Fantom, i 173. 

Far and wide, i. 322. 

Far as ye know, i 316. 

Far away more, i 91. 

Far be it, i 143. 

Far best of, i 573. 

Far better, i 206. 

Far, by, i 28. 

Far casting, i 154. 

Far fetched, i 515. 

Far forth, so, ii. 87. 

Far from bad, ii. 204. 

Far from being, i 432, 461. 

Far go, in speaking, i. 302. 

Far gone, i 195, 222, 243 ; ii. 

Far hence, i 398. 
Far in with, i 492. 
Far more, i 91, 611. 
Far off, i 373, 403. 
Far-off look, a, ii. 22. 
Far on, i 500. 
Far other tone, a, ii 207. 
Far, provoke me, ii. 137. 
Far reaching, i 509. 
Far seeing, i. 485. 
Far side of, i. 41 ; ii. 84. 
Far spent, i 384, 417. 
Far to it, i. 46. 
Far too long, i 611. 
Farce, i 205, 454, 462 ; ii 

Farding, i. 594. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fare, a, connected with money, 

i 288. 
Fare = a passenger, i. 560. 
Fare foul with, i. 269. 
Fare (play at dice), i 465. 
Fare, to, its meanings, i 203. 
Fare with you, i. 210. 
Fare you well, i 478 ; ii. 21. 
Farewell supper, i. 507. 
Farm, i 168, 215, 582. 
Farm, set to, i. 192. 
Farm, take a, i. 306. 
Farmer, i. 145, 406. 
Farmer of customs, ii. 60. 
Farquhar, ii 128, 136, 140- 

Farrow (a brood), iL 41. 
Farthest, i. 288. 
Farthest, by the, i. 291. 
Fashion, i. 43, 229, 265, 438, 

463, 552 ; ii. 71, 72, 149. 
Fashion = conduct, ii. 64, 65, 

Fashion, make her the, ii. 207. 
Fashion monger, ii. 34. 
Fashion, out of, i. 341. 
Fashion, to, i. 196. 
Fashions, i. 378, 524. 
Fast and loose, ii. 49. 
Fast as his bones would carry 

him, i. 547. 
Fast asleep, i. 175. 
Fast bind, fast find, i. 58, 501, 
Fast bread and water, i. 450. 
Fast falling, ii. 24. 
Fast young ladies, ii. 207. 
Fasten on, ii. 160. 
Fastidious = disgusting, ii 161 
Fastolf, i 288, 310. 
Fat-already pride, his, ii. 44. 
Fat benefice, i 147, 192. 
Fat fed, i 500. 

Fat fleshed, i 413. 

Fat headed, i 267. 

Fat in the fire, i. 503. 

Fat, made a Substantive, i 440. 

Fatal (doomed), i. 578. 

Fatality, ii 223. 

Fate, be his, ii. 16. 

Father children, to, ii 160. 

Father replaces fai/er^ i 350, 

351, 383. 
Father's grandsire, i 155. 
Father's (house), at, ii 17. 
Father's own son, his, ii 81. 
Fatherhood, i 162, 174. 
Fatherland, i. 439. 
Fatherliness, i 540. 
Fathom, a Plural fonh, i 338. 
Fathom water, to, i. 556. 
Fatigate, i 379, 471. 
Fatigue, i 471. 
Fattish, i 110. 
Faugh ! i 585. 
Fault, a good, i 567. 
Fault, his own, i 309. 
Fault, in, ii. 35. 
Fault on right side, ii. 172. 
Faults, escaped in printing, i. 

Faultfinder, i 599. 
Favour (beauty), i 191, 211. 
Favour, do me the, i 33, 117 ; 

ii 19. 
Favour (gift), ii 16, 27. 
Favour = resemble, ii 201. 
Favour, take him into, i 352,. 

Favour, to have, i 371. 
Favours, nuptial, ii. 93. 
Favours of a woman, ii 39, 55, 

Favourable, have a disease, ii. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Favoured, well, i. 400. 

Fawn, i 161, 285. 

Faxe (hair), i 396. 

Feact, the form, i. 448. 

Fealty, ii. 23. 

Fear lent me wings, ii. 169. 

Fear me, I, i 306, 316, 330. 

Fear of their lives, i. 308. 

Fear, put in, i. 215. 

Feared = frighted, ii. 132. 

Feared, it is to be, i. 447. 

Fearful, its two senses, i 413. 

Fearfully, swear, il 12. 

Feast, i. 225, 529. 

Feastful day, i. 548. 

Feat, i. 613. 

Feather his nest, i. 599. 

Feather in his cap, ii. 166. 

Featherbed, i. 61. 

February, the new form, i 353. 

Fee a man, i. 309. 

Fee fawfum, ii. 196. 

Fee, its meanings, i. 20, 95, 

200, 346. 
Feeble Qwrtms), i. 586. 
Feeble, the recruit, i. 9. 
Feed, a, il 57. 
Feed eyes on, i. 400. 
Feed foul, ii. 129. 
Feed it fat, i. 147. 
Feed the fire, L 441. 
Feed wars, i 544. 
Feel a man (sound him), i. 242. 
Feel a thing (be the worse for 

it), i. 617. 
Feel our way, ii. 190. 
Feel yourself (in health), i. 283. 
Feels light, it, ii. 149. 
Feeling letter, a, ii. 21. 
Feeling of the mind, 1112. 
Feeling wears off, the, ii. 160. 
Feelings (opinions), i. 2 7 5 ; ii. 1 6 7 

Feet, keep his, ii. 129. 

Felicity, il 215. 

FeU {callidu8\ 1 105, 170, 209, 

Fell imon8\ 171. 
Fellow (boy), at Eton, il 206. 
Fellow, different meanings of, i. 

replaces /ere, 1 340, 427. 
Fellow (doughty man), 1 107. 
Fellow feeling, ii. 82. 
Fellow (man), il 154. 
Fellow = rival, il 29. 
Fellow (wife), 1 368. 
Fellowship (band), 1 135, 250. 
Fellowship, fall in, 1 290. 
Fellowship, to, 1 251. 
Female, 1 17. 
Fen, its meanings, 1 19. 
Fence (defence), i. 198. 
Fence, the art of, 1 499. 
Fenced, 1 435. 
Fencibles, i. 85. 
Fencing (enclosure), i. 309. 
Fencing (moral), il 134. 
Fend himself, 1 465. 
Fend off, 1 65. 
Fender, il 63. 
Fenny, 1 497. 
Fere {socius) becomes obsolete, i. 

Ferk, to, i. 45 ; ii. 174. 
Ferly (wonder), 1 82. 
Ferret eyes, ii. 49. 
Ferret, to, 1 236. 
Ferris, il 8. 
Ferry man, 1 348. 
Ferry place, 1 264. 
Fetch a compass, 1 545. 
Fetch a leap, i. 545. 
Fetch = allure, ii. 148. 
Fetch and carry, ii. 20, 103. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fetch a note, i. 558. . 

Fetch a walk, il 199. 

Fetch her up (catch), ii. 80. 

Fetch it about^ i. 544. 

Fetch the Downs, i. 369. 

Fetch up, ii. 204. 

Fetching (alluring), i. 545, 578. 

Fetlock, i 86. 

Fettle, to, i. 64. 

Feud, deadly, i. 387. 

Fever took him, i. 114. 

Feverish, i. 178. 

Feverous, ii 41. 

Few, a, i 352. 

Few but know, i. 308 ; ii. 7. 

Few enough, i 457. 

Few know, and fewer care, i. 

Few lines, write, i. 529. 
Few or none, i. 189. 
Few (quidam), i. 111. 
Few words, man of, i. 238, 484. 
Few words to the wise suffice, i. 

Fewer, much, ii. 138. 
Fewer the better, i. 457. 
Fewness, i 261. 
Fian9^, ii. 222. 
Fib, i. 258 ; ii. 124. 
Fiche, to, i 465. 
Fickle, i. 594. 
Fiddle! ii. 125. 
Fiddle faddle, ii. 82. 
Fiddle, play second, ii. 169. 
Fiddle stick, i. 348. 
Fiddle with hands, i. 459. 
Fiddlesticks ! ii 143. 
Fidelity, i 471. 
Fidget, ii 107. 
Fidgets, the, ii. 166. 
Fie, i 17. 
Fie for shame ! i. 129. 

Fie on you ! i 397. 

Field for skill, ii 82. 

Field free, leave, ii. 113. 

Field officer, ii. 146. 

Field or no field, i 519. 

Field piece, i 549. 

Field preacher, ii. 181. 

Field {jpugna\ i 219. 

Field sports, ii 53. 

Field, take the, i 21, 52, 90. 

Fieldfare, i. 4. 

Fielding, ii. 174, 234. 

Fiendlike, ii. 41. 

Fiends, like, i 147. 

Fierce, i 173. 

Fierce love, make, ii. 113. 

Fiery, i 174. 

Fiery footed, ii 34. 

Fiery red, ii 29. 

Fig for it, i 403, 563.' 

Fight the field, i 486. 

Fight it out, i 519 ; ii 21. 

Fight shy of, i 169. 

Fight your battles, ii. 110. 

Fighting men, i 140. 

Figure away, ii 170. 

Figure = imagine, ii 42. 

Figure make a, ii 129. 

Figure, make him a, ii. 206. 

Figure of a man, what a, ii. 114. 

Figure of fun, ii. 206. 

Filbert, i 174. 

Filch, to, i. 5. 

File, military, i 578 ; ii 18. 

File of papers, ii 18. 

File (polluere)y i 437, 525, 564. 

File, word of abuse, i 190. 

Filibuster, i. 601. 

Fill, look his, i. 44. 

Fill their bellies full, i. 369. 

Fill, the walks, ii 141. 

Fill up time, ii 190. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fill water, i. 556. 

Fillip, i. 462. 

Filly, i. 288. 

Filth,! 119. 

Filtliiness, i. 413. 

Finance, i. 246. 

Finances, i. 528. 

Find, as a jury, i. 306. 

Find fault with, i. 416. 

Find him to school, i. 450. 

Find in his heart to, i. 114. 

Find my level, ii. 169. 

Find none to, i 86. 

Find their account in, ii. 129. 

Find their way, i. 83. 

Find the means, i. 309. 

Find the means to, i. 482. 

Find things on him, i. 343. 

Fine, i. 169, 228, 267, 357, 

456, 485, 501, 543, 564 ; ii. 

70, 114, 150, 158. 
Fine feathers make fine birds, 

ii. 179. 
Fine gold, to (refine), i. 33, 249. 
Fine, it is very, ii 107. 
Fine language, jokes on, i. 450, 

Fine, used as an Adverb, i. 39. 
Fineness, i 303, 594, 606. 
Finenesses, ii. 82. 
Finery, il 128, 149. 
Finesse, ii. 81, 82. 
FingaU, i. 599, 600. 
Finger in pie, ii. 51. 
Finger posts, i. 562. 
Finger, to, i 136, 457. 
Finger's end, at, i. 428. 
Finical, ii 10. 
Finished man, a, ii 125, 144, 

161, 173. 
Fir mast, i. 345. 
Fire a gun, i 457. 

Fire and water, run through, ii. 

Fire drake, ii 65, 197. 
Fire made a dissyllable, ii. 23, 

Fire-new, ii. 37. 
Fire spitting, ii. 83. 
Fire, take, ii 118. 
Fire, to, i 136, 172, 533. 
Fire, to give, i 580. 
Fire tongs, i. 302. 
Fire without smoke, none, i. 

Firearms, ii 142. 
Firebrand, i. 515. 
Firelock, i 568, 586. 
Fireman, ii. 193. 
Fireplace, i 280 ; ii. 153. 
Fireside, i. 540. 
Firewood, ii 57. 
Firework, i 555, 586 ; ii 6, 51. 
Firing, i 319. 
Firkin, i. 291. 
Firmness, ii. 139. 
Firm-set, ii. 41. 
First and foremost, i. 100. 
First and furthermost, i. 250. 
First, at the, i 21. 
First come, first served, i. 134 ; 

ii 156. 
First father, i 25. 
First floor, ii 166. 
First fruits, i. 138. 
First in the field, i. 66. 
First letter in English, i 168. 
First people, the, ii. 179, 205. 
First, not firstly, i. 388. 
First rate, a, ii. 146. 
First rate company, ii 50. 
First thing I do, following a 

verb, i 457. 
First to last, from, ii. 25. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Firstling, i 411. 

Firstly, i. 560. 

Firth, for frith, i. 88. 

Fisli, a loose, ii. 167. 

Fish, added to a noun, i. 257. 

Fish day, i 583. 

Fish for things, i 544. 

Fish, his book, i. 450. 

Fish kettle, ii. 63. 

Fish or flesh, etc, i. 424, 503. 

Fish that comes to net, etc., i. 

Fish the water, i. 290. 
Fish to fry, other, ii 151. 
Fisher, Bishop, i. 373, 385, 396, 

403, 417, 426, 444. 
Fisheries, English, ii. 62, 63. 
Fisherman, i. 38, 536. 
Fishify, to, ii. 34. 
Fishing Treatise, a, i. 266. 
Fishmonger, i. 191, 197. 
Fishwife, iL 9. 
Fist = handwriting, i. 478. 
Fisticuffs, ii. 56. 
Fit, a, i 123, 568. 
Fit {congram\ i. 194, 260 ; 

ii 39, 50, 81. 
Fit ships for sea, iL 63. 
Fit> to, i 59, 243, 498, 607. 
Fit to hold candle to, ii. 169. 
Fits, by, i 511. 
Fits, fall into, ii. 158. 
Fitchew, i. 579. 
Fitful, ii. 41. 
Fitment (duty), ii. 43. 
Fitted to a hair, ii. 85. 
Fitting, i. 195. 
Fitzherbert, i. 404-407. 
Five-barred, ii 163. 
Five-fingered grass, i 514. 
Five Wits of the Soul, i. 357. 
Fivers, i 486. 

Fives, the game, ii 93. 

Fix on, ii 183. 

Fix, to, i 53, 297 ; ii 140. 

Fixation, i 178. 

Fixed, to have it, i. 476. 

Fixture of a foot, ii 25. 

Fixture = permanent, ii. 172. 

Fizgig, i 370. 

Fizzling cur, ii 98. 

Flabbergast, to, ii 195. 

Flabberkin, ii 10. 

Flag {acoru8)y i 263. 

Flag of truce, ii 64. 

Flag, to, i 486, 578. 

Flag {vexiUum)f i 360, 462. 

Flagon, i. 47. 

Flagstaff, ii 93. 

Flake, a, i 4, 169. 

Flam, ii 87 

Flame = love, ii 179. 

Flaming praise, ii 44. 

Flanders, ii. 2. 

Flank, i 107, 519. 

Flannel, ii 25. 

Flap-doodle, ii. 102. 

Flap-eared, ii 19. 

Flap, to, i 17 ; ii 10. 

Flare, i 505. 

Flash, i 488. 

Flash in the pan, ii 164, 166. 

Flashes, wit, ii. 98. 

Flashy, i 601 ; iil22. 

Flask of powder, i 596. 

Flatji 41, 59, 114. 

Flat as cake, i 485. 

Flat-bottomed, ii 53. 

Flat = fool, ii 194. 

Flat lie, i 616. 

Flat South, i 432. 

Flat, that's, ii 31. 

Flats and sharps, i 492, 605. 

Flats, the, i 353. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Flatling, ii. 8. 

Flatly, i. 647. 

Flatter, in painting, ii. 21. 

Flattery, i 294. 

Flaunt, i 659. 

Flaw, i. 263, 361 ; ii. 16. 

Flaxen, i. 576. 

Flaxen-baired, ii. 77. 

Flay, ii. 193. 

Flea biting, i 500. 

Flea in ear, i. 503. 

Flebergebet, a, i 500. 

Fledge, i 263, 561. 

Fledgeling, i. 477. 

Flee (volare)y i. 496. 

Fleece, to, i. 644. 

Fleet {cUu8\ ii. 117. 

Fleet, to, i 161, 234. 

Flemings, i 5, 22, 235, 325, 

329, 477, 612. 
Flemish, i 333. 
Flesh creep, make, ii. 203. 
Flesh hook, i. 11. 
Flesh shambles, i. 348. 
Flesher, i. 348. 
Fleshly, i. 152, 440. 
Fleshment, ii. 40. 
Fleshy, i. 110, 152, 440. 
Fletcher, a, i 108. 
Flight of fancy, ii 128. 
Flight of steps, ii. 188. 
Flight, put to, i. 90. 
Flight, take, i 21. 
Flight, take to, i. 63. 
Flighty, ii. 14, 41. 
Flim flam, i. 500 ; ii. 87. 
Flimsy, ii 191. 
FHnch, i 29, 559. 
Fling, have a, i. 486, 590. 
Fling, its meanings, i. 90, 226, 

311, 469. 
Flip and flap, i 372. 

Flip, the drink, ii. 124. 

Flippant, ii 85. 

Flirt, i 536, 545, 602 ; ii 204. 

Flirt, a, ii 109. 

Flirtation, ii 166. 

Flit, to, i 431, 435. 

Flittermouse, i 28, 567. 

Floating idea, ii. 168. 

Flock bed, i 594. 

Flodden, i 351, 370, 371. 

Flood, i 119. 

Floods of eloquence, i. 619. 

Floods of tears, i 606. 

Flop on my face, come, ii 157. 

Flop, to, ii 168. 

Florence (the name), i. 629. 

Florin, i 102. 

Flounce, of dress, ii. 153. 

Flounce, to, i 488. 

Flounder (fish), i. 282. 

Flounder, to, ii 10. 

Flourish, a, i 581 ; ii 28. 

Flourish sword, ii 55. 

Flourish, to, i 30, 551. 

Flourisher of words, i 154. 

Flourishing (healthy), ii. 161. 

Flout, i 266, 531. 

Flow, a, i 373. 

Flower and Leaf, the, i. 403. 

Flower of flowers, i 113. 

Flower, to, i. 30. 

Flowers, in his, i 154. 

Flowing (abundant), ii. 51. 

Flowret, i. 402. 

Flue, a, ii 201. 

Fluke, i. 603. 

Flummer, to, ii 181. 

Flummery, ii. 195. 

Flurry, ii. 187. 

Flush game, i 282. 

Flush of money, ii. 39, 83. 

Flush, to, i. 183. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fluster, ii 38. 

Flute, i 4, 131. 

Flux of blood, i. 139. 

Fly-bitten, i. 371. 

Fly, blown with, i. 394, 397. 

Fly-boat, i 601. 

Fly-by-night, a, ii. 166. 

Fly (currus)^ ii 182. 

Fly flap, i. 268. 

Fly for fishing, i. 266. 

Fly from his word, ii. 164. 

Fly in my face, i 544. 

Fly into passion, ii 169. 

Fly open, ii 84. 

Fly out in rage, i 613. 

Fly out of his skin, i 287. 

Fly the realm, i. 508. 

Flyer, ii 47. 

Flying colours, come off with, 

ii. 129. 
Flying report, i 508. 
Flyting, i 364. 
Fnesen, i 126. 

Fo, sound of disgust, i 372, 488. 
Foal, be in, ii 118. 
Foal, cast a, i 394. 
Fob, a, ii 108. 
Fob (deceive), i 54 ; ii 33. 
Foeman, ii 22. 
Fog, i 496. 
Fogram (fogy), ii. 166. 
Foh, i 685. 
Foible, ii 114. 
Foil, a, i 589. 
Foil for fencing, i 593. 
Foist, to, i 498. 
Fold arms, i 114. 
Folding door, ii. 50. 
Foljambe,i 301. 
Folk of shot, i 218. 
Folk, the, i 437. 
Folks, i 435. 

Folklorist, ii 224. 

Follies, i 616. 

Follow (baptize), i. 105, 223 ; 

also fallen. 
Follow the camp, i. 545. 
Follow the chase, i. 294. 
Follow till to-morrow, but, etc., 

Followed that, it, i 111. 
Following = accordingly, i. 59. 
Following {comitatu8)y i 348. 
Fon him, i 202. 
Fond, i 54, 142, 147. 

its new meaning, i 456. 
Fondle, i 600. 
Fondness, i 146, 298. 
Fonny, i 371. 
Fool and his money, at debate, 

i 685 ; ii 80. 
Fool it away, ii 85. 
Fool, king's, i. 211. 
Fool of him, make, i 191. 
Fool to tell, i 235. 
Fool's fancy, her, i 229, 375. 
Fools, kept by the gentry, ii. 56. 
Fools not a few, i 377. 
FooFs paradise, i 448. 
Fooleries, i 516. 
Foolish, i 114. 
Foolish I, i 611. 
Foolisher, i. 570. 
Foolishness, i 378. 
Foolscap, i 486. 
Foot, get on, i 90, 311. 
Foot, have on, i 354, 355. 
Foot (infantry), i 439. 
Foot in the grave, have one, 

ii 120. 
Foot is asleep, i 465. 
Foot, know her, ii 16. 
Foot, of measurement, i. 20, 586. 
Fool^ on, i 64 ; ii. 57. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Foot, set, L 282. 

Foot, set on, i 487 ; ii. 68. 

Foot, to, i. 394, 400. 

Foot to stand on, no, i. 202. 

Foot-wabbler, ii. 195. 

Foot with, keep, i. 486. 

Foot with, to hold, i. 290. 

FootbaU, i. 468, 616. 

Footboy, ii 18. 

Foote, ii 144, 169, 176-188. 

Footfall, ii 47. 

Footman (servant), i 238, 316. 

Footman (soldier), i 302. 

Footpad, ii 167. 

Footpath, i 438. 

Footstep, i 268. 

Fop, i 263, 370 ; ii 107, 126, 

Fop-doodle, ii 102. 
Fopperies, i 540. 
Foppington, Lord, ii 136, 141. 
Foppish, ii. 138. 
For, dropped before tlwi (guia)y 
i 330. 

equal to after, i 117. 

equal to as being, i. 11, 47 ; 
ii 113. 

equal to contra, i. 378. 

equal to malgrh, i 203. 

equal to quod spectat (wi, ii 69. 

equal to until, i 105. 

follows Adjectives, i 136. 

implies change, i 6, 92, 183. 

prefixed to French roots, i. 
92, 149, 178, 203, 204. 

prefixed to Verbs in the North, 
i 318, 462. 

prefixed to Verbs, i 46, 79, 
278, 353, 363, 416. 

stands between the Noun and 
Infinitive, i 148, 191, 

For, used in betting sentences, i. 

492, 603 ; ii 39. 
For a king, a gift, i 81. 
For a woman, merry, i 384, 388. 
For a wonder, i 322. 
For all in all, ii 39. 
For all that, i 101. 
For all this same, ii 34. 
For all time, i. 498. 
For evermore, i. 230. 
For fear (lest), i 369. 
For good, leave, ii 151. 
For him to do it, it is, i 301, 

330, 488. 
For his part, i 177. 
For his time, learned, i 617. 
For it, to depart, i 569. 
For miles about, ii 40. 
For one, I, i 335. 
For other business, I am, ii 1 7. 
For pulling it, she is, ii 129. 
For search to be had, i. 310. 
For shame ! i 15. 
For the life of me, ii. 171. 
For you, I am, i 190 ; ii 19, 

Forasmuch, i 160, 216. 
Foray goods, to, i. 65. 
Forbear saying, I cannot, ii. 

129, 143, 170. 
Forbear, to, i. 469. 
Forbid him the town, i. 63. 
Forbidding in aspect, ii. 168. 
Forbode, a mistaken coinage, i. 

Forby, i 436. 
Forcast, i. 126. 
Force a smile, ii 123. 
Force (army), i. 84. 
Force him to, i 462. 
Force, no, i 35, 37, 110, 118, 

342, 395, 433. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Force, o^ i. 569. 

Force trees, ii. 125. 

Forced meat, i. 51. 

Forced translation, i. 617. 

Forces not, it, i. 553. 

Fordele {commodum\ i. 78. 

Fordo, ii. 38. 

Fordoom, ii 41. 

Fore-advised, ii. 48. 

Fore and aft, ii. 65. 

Fore epistle, i. 432. 

Fore, go to, L 335. 

Fore part, i. 167, 264. 

Fore, prefixed to nouns, i. 291. 

Fore-show, ii 45. 

Fore-top-gallant, ii 66. 

Forecast, i 3, 114, 126, 438. 

Forecastle, i. 290 ; ii. 66. 

Forecourt, i 442. 

Foredoom, ii 41. 

Forefinger, i 452, 484. 

Forefront, i 433. 

Foregather, i. 390. 

Foregoer, i 97, 270 ; ii 18. 

Foregoing, the, ii 156. 

Foregone conclusion, ii 38. 

Foreground, ii. 166. 

Forehorse, i. 344. 

Foreign constructions translated, 

i 275. 
Foreign pronouns imitated, i. 

Foreign to it, ii 131. 
Foreigner, i 297. 
Foreknowledge, i 411. 
Foreland, i 57, 151. 
Foreleader, i. 472. 
Foreleg, i 606. 
Foreman, i 344, 540. 
Foremast man, ii. 66. 
Foremost, i 611. 
Foremost father, i 153. 

Forenoon, i. 290. 
Foreship, i 85. 
Foreshorten, ii 119. 
Foreskin, i 411. 
Forest bom, ii. 36. 
Forethink, ii 32. 
Forethought, i 79, 189. 
Forewarn, ii. 23. 
Forewarned, forearmed, ii. 109. 
Foreword, i 25, 242. 
Forfeit, i 172, 191. 
Forgetful, i 120, 346. 
Forgive and foi^et, ii 128. 
Forlore, i. 452. 
Forlorn hope, i. 477 ; ii 7. 
Form (bench), i 154. 
Form = fashion, ii. 42. 
Form, in better, i 279. 
Form, in schools, i. 192. 
Form myself on, ii 171, 172. 
Forms of one word vary, i. 9, 

30, 31, 32, 47, 50, 80, 98, 

104, 112, 132, 373, 419, 

Former feet, i 592. 
Former = forefather, i. 519. 
Former part, i 594. 
Former supplants /orw, i. 14, 

Fomenst, i 227, 390. 
Fornication, do, i 143. 
Forrest, Father, i 476. 
Forridden, i 363 ; ii 73. 
Forsooth, ii 229. 
Forspeak, to, ii. 50. 
Forspent, i. 573 ; ii. 24. 
Forswear the land, i 296. 
Fortescue, i 78, 272, 305. 
Forth and backward, i 251 
Forth (p'ocul), i 547. 
Forth used for on, i 432. 
Forthbringer, a, i 259. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Forthbringing, my, i. 240. 
Forthcoming, i 384. 
Forthink, ii. 32, 201. 
Forthright, the, ii 44. 
Forthwith, i. 244. 
Fortired, i. 226. 
Fortunate, i 227. 
Fortune, good, 1 227. 
Fortune, goods of, i 147. 
Fortune hunting, ii. 141. 
Fortune make a, ii. 49. 
Fortune of the world, 1310. 
Fortune (<)pe8), il 54. 
Fortune replaces liflode^ i. 305. 
Fortune teller, ii. 20, 131. 
Fortune, to, i. 108, 178, 409. 
Fortunes, to know, i. 577. 
Fortunes, to tell, i 556. 
Fortuned, well, i 227. 
Forty in the hundred, i. 515. 
Forward, come, i 544. 
Forward, go, i. 440, 474. 
Forward, made a Substantive, i. 

made an Adjective, 312, 440, 
606 ; ii. 6, 138, 160, 201. 

made a Verb, i. 391. 
Forward (onward), ii 1 83. 
Forwardly, i312. 
Forwardness, i. 468. 
Forwearied, ii. 26. 
Foster, a, i 83, 257, 298, 305. 
Foster nurse, a, ii. 40. 
Foughten, have, i 435. 
Foul, i. 414. 
Foul copy, ii 168. 
Foul faU him! i 175. 
Foul fiend fetch him, i. 123. 
Foul gamester, i 606. 
Foul hands, to, ii 154. 
Foul land, i 67. 
Foul language, ii. 83. 

Foul-mouthed, ii. 17. 

Foul play, i 251. 

Foul scorn, have, i. 399. 

Foul shame, i 235, 484. 

Foul weather, i. 450. 

Founder (the trade), i. 207. 

Four cornered, i. 264. 

Four (discussed), ii 212. 

Four fold, yield aft«r, i 142. 

Four horsed, i 143. 

Four in hand, ii 203. 

Fowey, ii 94. 

Fowl of prey, i 175. 

Fowl, to, i. 295 

Fowling piece, i 610. 

Fowls (poultry), i 62, 475. 

Fox, female, i 223. 

Fox (gladius), ii 128. 

Fox hunting, i 56, 223, 471 ; 
ii 99. 

Fox that ye are, i. 114. 

Fox, the statesman, i. 426 ; ii. 
113, 184, 213, 230, 234. 

Foxe, the writer, i 156, 157, 
223, 374, 382, 392, 459, 
477, 478, 483, 505, 507, 
517, 539-555, 560, 565, 
566, 573, 577, 581, 605, 
606, 619 ; ii 16, 40, 59, 78, 
202, 223. 

Foxship, ii. 48. 

Foxy, i 428. 

Fractions, how expressed, i 147, 
248, 580. 

Fractious, ii 198. 

Fragility, i 358. 

Frame (condition), i 371, 372, 

Frame (fabric), i. 260. 

Frame of picture, ii. 149. 

Frame of timber, i. 5 30. J 

Frame, to, i 85. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



France, politics of, i 211. 
France, rimes about the King 

of, ii. 79. 
Franchise, L 160, 642, 577. 
Franciscans, i 73, 137, 623. 
Frank, i. 49, 331. 
Frank and open, i. 388. 
Frank (free) carriage, i 507. 
Frank letters, to, ii 152. 
Frank, the name, ii. 63. 
Franklin, a, ii. 32. 
Fraught, i 47. 
Fray (pugna), L 22, 80. 
Fray, to, i 435, 452. 
Freak, i 601 ; ii. 188. 
Freckle, i 130, 226. 
Frederick II., Emperor, L 338. 
Free and easy, ii. 172. 
Free bom, i. 66. 

Free children (a mistake), i. 139. 
Free horse, i 340, 605. 
Free (lordly), i. 16, 170, 620 ; 

ii. 44, 83, 206. 
Free of cap, i 569. 
Free of the guild, i. 128, 344. 
Free play, ii. 160. 
Free prison, in, i 542. 
Free school,.!. 479. 
Free speech, i. 505. 
Free to, ii. 46. 
Free to own, he is, ii. 138. 
Free to sing, i. 235. 
Free (willing), ii. 157. 
Free wills, i 389. 
Free with her, be, ii 142. 
Free with, make, ii. 160. 
Freebooter, i. 568. 
Freedom (nobleness), i. 361. 
Freedom of towns, i 310, 542, 

Freedoms, i 244 ; ii 167. 
Freeholding, i 85. 

Freeman, Mr., ii. 233. 

Freemason, i 16, 170, 552. 

Freemasonry, Poem on, i 1 7, 1 7 1 . 

Freestone, i 16, 170. 

Freethinker, ii 163. 

Freewill offering, i 436. 

Freeze a petitioner, ii 42. 

French and English combined, i. 
167, 264. 

French and English forms of one 
word, i 171. 

French armour, names for, i 67. 

French beans, ii 60. 

French connection with Scot- 
land, i 229. 

French constructions, i 8, 24. 

French cooks, ii. 4. 

French endings, attached to 
Teutonic roots, i 348. 

French endings supplant Teu- 
tonic, i 166, 236. 

French English laughed at, i. 
618, 624. 

French form of proper names, i. 

French forms brought over, i. 

French forms preferred to Latin, 

French forms translated, i. 247, 
248, 271. 

French idioms, i 17, 179, 180, 
186, 284, 586 ; ii 120, 139, 
143, 189, 219, 229. 

French imitated, i. 330. 

French, in accounts, i 239. 

French, in cards, i 688. 

French influences on English, i. 
1, 2, 29, 43, 66, 74, 98, 103, 
107, 112, 132, 133, 134, 
588 ; ii. 101, 212, 224, 226, 
230, 234. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



French law words, i. 354, 612. 
French leave, take, ii. 169. 
French meanings of words, 1 

French military words, i. 519. 
French, new forms supplant the 

old, i. 172. 
French old forms, i. 21, 48. 
French Perfects made Strong, i. 

55, 307. 
French pronoun translated into 

English, i. 364. 
French sporting words, i. 223, 

224, 236. 
French teach us letter writing, 

i. 231. 
French trades, names of, i. 197. 
French translated literally, i. 

French University, ii. 228. 
French word, not Latin, in 

Church matters, i. 149. 
French words are a puzzle, i. 31. 
French words inserted, i 56, 80, 

134, 213, 284, 292, 313, 

331, 357, 518, 588, 603, 

613, 621 ; ii 60, 72, 78, 

213, 214, 217. 
French words rejected, i. 329 ; 

ii. 232. 
French words, shoals of, i. 23, 

197, 337, 471, 480 ; ii. 104, 

112-114, 116, 124, 127, 

136, 137, 139, 154, 156, 


191, 199, 205, 222. 
French words take a Teutonic 

form, L 173, 579. 
French words translated, i. 43. 
French yok^d with English, i. 

29, 65, 132, 285. 
Frenchified word, a, i. 178. 


Frenchify, to, ii. 10, 79. 

Frenzy, i. 38. 

Fresh gale, ii. 67. 

Fresh in memory, i. 383. 

Fresh meat, i. 108. 

Fresh (merry), i. 147, 261, 283 ; 

ii. 201. 
Fresh (sober), L 374. 
Fresh = stream, ii^ 46. 
Fresh to assail, i. 33. 
Freshen, to, ii. 99. 
Freshly bom, i. 154. 
Freshman at Cambridge, ii. 9. 
Fret, to, i. 175, 189, 260, 392, 

Fretful, ii. 39. 

Fretted (omatus), i. 32, 458. 
Friar, to, i. 358. 
Friend in court, i. 376, 400. 
Friend of hers, i. 330. 
Friends, make, ii. 16. 
Friends, they are good, i. 40. 
Friends together, they are, i. 28. 
Friend's turn, do, i. 127. 
Friends with him, be, ii. 16. 
Friendleser, i 14. 
Frieze, i. 264, 334. 
Frigate, ii. 14. 
Fright, be a, ii. 180. 
Frisian, i 24. 
Frisk, a, i. 462 ; ii. 138. 
Frisk (fresh), i. 495. 
Frisk, to, i. 400, 
Frisker, a, i 495. 
Frisky, i. 294. 
Frith, the martyr, i. 477. 
Fritters, i. 419. 
Friuli, i. 539. 
Frizzle, to, i. 558. 
Froissart, i. 48, 291, 407. 
Frolic (joyful), I 579. 
Frolicsome, ii. 144. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



From himself =0M^ of his wit, i. 

From is dropped, ii. 123. 
From Nature, to colour, ii. 205. 
From off, ii. 45. 
From on high, i. 191. 
From out it, ii. 30. 
From over sea, i. 243. 
From=jper, i 183. 
From so far, i. 86. 
From subjects they become 

enemies, ii. 89. 
From supplants o/, i 317 ; ii. 

From whence, i 414. 
Front, a, i. 465, 581. 
Frontier, i. 344. 
Frostbitten, ii 83. 
Froth, i 59. 

Froude, Mr., ii. 209, 222. 
Frozen, i. 32, 438. 
Frugality, i. 471. 
Fruit, i. 119. 
Fruiterer, i. 454. 
Frump, i. 263. 
Frumpish, ii. 143. 
Frush, to, i. 236 ; ii. 44. 
Fry, applied to children, iL 63. 
Fry in his own grease, i. 86. 
Fry {8emen)y i. 204. 
Frying pan, i 264. 
Frying pan into the fire, i. 502. 
Fub off, ii. 33. 
Fuddle, ii. 65. 
Fudge, ii. 186. 
Ful, the Suffix, i. 27, 123, 181 ; 

ii. 147. 
Fulke, the writer, i. 616-619, 

623 ; ii 1, 41, 49, 51. 
Full as strong, ii 24. 
Full, at, i 47. 
Full brother, i 228. 

Full butt, i 146. 

Full cry, in, ii 59. 

Full dozen, a, ii 83. 

Full drive, come, ii. 157, 

Full face, ii 136. 

Full flowing, ii 40. 

Full fortuned, ii. 50. 

Full fraught, ii 36. 

Full gaUop, i 532. 

Full grown, i. 177. 

Full growth, come to, i. 453. 

Full house, a, ii 166. 

Full in the face, i 563 ; ii 71. 

Full man, i 111. 

Full of grace, i 421. 

Full, pay in, ii. 118. 

Full point, i 607, 612. 

Full sail, with, ii. 9. 

Full sized, i 603. 

Full South, i 584. 

Full stomach, on, i 461. 

Full stop at the end of sentence, 

ii 30. 
Full, the Substantive, i. 26, 52. 
Full tilt, ii. 171. 
Full wind, i 454. 
Fully fed, i. 460. 
Fulness, i 25. 
Fulsome, ii 27, 31, 122. 
Fulsomeness (copia), i 286. 
Fimie (ira), i 132. 
Fumous (iratus), i 292. 
Fun, ii. 171. 

Fun of it, for the, ii. 168. 
Fund, a,ii. 117, 152. 
Funds, ii 173. 
Fundamentals, the, ii. 89. 
Funeral service, i 324. 
Funny, ii 180, 201. 
Furies (madmen), ii. 68. 
Furl, to, ii 6. 
Furlough, i 548. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fumivall, Mr., i. 2, 82, 297, 

466, 524. 
Furor, i. 356. 

its other forms, i 378. 
Furred, i. 10, 89. 
Furs, i. 205. 
Further, i. 70, 128. 
Further afield, i. 61. 
Further and fare worse, ii. 

Further is made an Adjective, i. 

295, 428. 
Further side of a horse, ii 117, 

Further than wall he cannot go, 

Furtherance, i. 193. 
Furthermost, i. 485. 
Furthest, i 128. 
Furthest, at, i. 213. 
Furze, i. 583. 
Fuss, a, ii 143. 
Fustian, i 119 ; ii 33, 154. 
Fustle (whistle), ii 145. 
Fy, new ending for Verbs, i 

465, 614. 

G supplants (?, i 43, 57, 393. 
replaces 6, i 255, 365, 397. 
replaces « or «^, ii 198. 
replaces to, i. 366. 
replaces c^, i. 583. 
replaces v, i 614. 
is struck off the end of a word, 

i 32 ; ii 102. 
is clipped at the beginning, ii. 

is thrown out in the middle, 

i 50, 57, 88, 97, 135, 
' 146, 438, 453. 
inserted in French words, i. 

172, 173. 

G softened into j, i 199, 256, 
315, 365, 463, 594. 

softened into y, i. 256. 

is hard in Norfolk, i 80, 297, 
319, 333. 

is sometimes preserved, hard, 
i 346, 347, 411. 

is still prefixed to Ipsvoichj i 
353, 476. 

is prefixed, i 600 ; ii 37. 
Gab, gift of, ii. 194. 
Gabble, i 598. 
Gad ! ii 122. 
Gad, to, i 202. 
Gadfly, i 456. 
Gadzookers, ii 116. 
Gaelic, i 87, 313. 
Gaffer, i 349, 664. 
Gag, i 263, 454, 469. 
Gaggle, of a goose, i 282. 
Gain a man, i 603. 
Gain time, ii 71. 
Gainer (readier), i 614. 
Gainsay, i 234. 
Gait, i 376. 
Galauntise, i 368. 
Gale, i 84. 
Gall {viUmi8)y i 64. 
GaUant, i 282, 374, 452, 609 ; 

ii. 8. 
Gallant {adulter), ii 86. 
Gallant, the accent on, ii 138. 
Gallants, i 156. 
Gallantness, i 282. 
Gallantry, ii 152. 
Galley slave, i 603. 
Gallipot, ii 196. 
Galloglass, i 352. 
Gallop a horse, ii. 14. 
Gallop over service, i 616. 
Gallop, put him to, i 486. 
Gallop through an estate, ii. 92. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Galloway, i. 19. 

Gallows, prefixed to an Adjective, 

i. 611. 
Gallowses, i. 540 ; ii 118. 
Galoshes, i 132. 
Gambling terms, i. 236. 
Gambol, L 361. 
Game, i 25, 405. 
Game and glee, ii. 56. 
Game = gambling, i. 376. 
Game goes, how, L 202. 
Game-man, i. 25. 
Game, play his, ii. 83. 
Game, to, i. 469. 
Gamecock, ii. 111. 
Gamekeeper, i. 353. 
Gamely, i. 46. 
Gamelyn, the Poem, i. 38. 
Gamesome, i. 45 ; ii. 110. 
Gamester, i 558. 
Gaming house, i. 614. 
Gammer, i. 349, 564. 
Gammer Gurton^s Needle, i. 

Gammon, for gambon, i. 483. 
Gammon (game), i 287. 
Gamp, Mrs., ii 198. 
Gan go, i. 16. 
Gang, a, becomes debased, ii. 24, 

Gang (ire), disappears in the 

South, i. 98. 
Gang of sailors, ii. 66. 
Gang through with, i. 270. 
Gaol, i. 120, 293. 
Gaolbird, ii. 171. 
Gaol delivery, ii. 92. 
Gaoler, i. 102, 120. 
Gap, i. 130. 
Gar, to, i. 83, 84, 96. 
Garble, to, i. 246; ii. 173. 
Gardiner, Bishop, i. 422, 507- 

511, 543, 544, 548, 560, 

655, 565. 
Gardinge (garden), i. 438. 
Gardner's Letters of Richard III., 

i. 344, 352, 366. 
Gardy (guardian), iL 148. 
Garish, i. 235. 
Garland, i. 5, 96. 
Garlick eater, ii. 48. 
Garment, i. 63, 101. 
Gamer, i. 30. 
Gamett, Mr., i. 351. 
Garnish, i. 19, 256. 
Garret, i 34. 

Garret, for Gerald, i. 481. 
Garrison, i. 269. 
Garrote, ii. 86. 
Garter, i 4. 
Garth, a, L 205. 
Gascoigne, the Chief Justice, i. 

Gascoigne, the Poet,i. 522, 579, 

586-590, 592 ; ii 6, 14, 29, 

38, 45, 172. 
Gascon traders, L 132. 
Gasp, i. 178. 
Gasp at his last, L 276. 
Gasp to the last, i. 614. 
Gast {terreTe\ ii 41. 
Gat toothed, i. 129, 606. 
Gate, go their, i 521. 
Gate, out of my, i 200. 
Gather (assemble), i 94, 176, 

Gather flesh, i 587. 
Gather head, ii 26. 
Gather (intelligere\ i 527. 
Gather myself together, i 459. 
Gather to a head, ii. 47. 
Gather together, i 138. 
Gathers, a storm, ii 164. 
Gathering together, a, i. 259. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Gaudy, L 371. 

Gaudy day, i. 472, 473, 612. 

Gauger, i. 462. 

Gaunt, the town, L 263, 309. 

Gauntlet, run the, ii. 111. 

Gauze, ii. 127. 

Gavelkind, L 245. 

Gawain, the Poem on, i. 56-60. 

Gawky, i 11 ; ii 193. 

Gay, a kind of expletive, L 313 ; 
ii. 19. 

Gay deceiver, ii 172. 

Gay girl, L 44, 48. 

Gay = good, i. 369, 491. 

Gay is degraded, ii. 191. 

Gay, the poet, ii. 149, 158. 

Gaytrigg, Dan John, i. 53, 76. 

Gaze, L 130. 

Gaze him blind, ii. 16. 

Gazette, ii. 54, 112. 

Ge, clipped at the beginning of 
a word, i. 15. 

Gear, much used, i. 368, 455. 

Gee ho! ii 12. 

Gelding, i 141, 236. 

Gemini ! ii. 110. 

Gemman, i 510. 

Gendarmery, i 529. 

General, a, i 637, 693. 

General, in, i. 30. 

General, placed after a Substan- 
tive, i 222. 

General (the call), ii 166. 

Generalissimo, ii. 76. 

Generally, i. 23, 148. 

Generally speaking, ii. 131. 

GJenerations of generations, i. 1 44. 

Genesis and Exodus, the Poem, 
i 289. 

Genitive, a new, i 121, 147. 

Genitive, corrupt form of in his^ 
i 272. 

Genitive, curious construction of, 

i 169,229, 231, 315, 439. • 
Genitive Plural, the old, i 8, 

276, 346. 
Genitive, the old, thi-own aside, 

i 162. 
Genius, i 178 ; ii 20, 49, 71, 

Genoa, i 167, 309. 
Genoese, how spelt, i 50, 162, 

Gent (gentleman), i 526, 678 ; 

ii 116. 
Genteel, i 667, 613 ; ii 79, 

118, 128, 185. 
Genteel-like, ii 182. 
Gentiles, i 102. 
Gentility, i. 30. 
Gentility = paganism, i 552. 
Gentle and simple, i. 62 ; ii. 

Gentle, its change, i 93, 102, 

299, 567, 613. 
Gentle sex, the, i. 616. 
Gentlefolks, i 649. 
Gentlelize, ii 67. 
Gentleman, applied to a priest, 

i 356. 
Gentleman at large, ii. 191. 
Gentleman bom, i. 66. 
Grentleman harbinger, i 619. 
Gentleman, my, ii 86. 
Gentleman, prefixed to Substan- 
tives, ii 75. 
Gentleman, Tobias, ii 62. 
Gentleman, used as a Vocative, i. 

Gentleman usher, i. 353. 
Gentlemanlike, i 488. 
Gentlemanly, i 292. 
G^entleness, i 157, 358. 
Gentler, for gentliery ii. 48. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Gentles (maggots), i 586. 
Gentles, the, i 62, 132, 229, 

Gentlewoman, her, i. 285. 
Gentlewoman's gentlewoman, ii. 

Gently, ii. 185. 
Gentry, i. 132, 596. 
-Geordie, ii. 81. 
G^eo^ge, fore ! ii 98. 
George II., i. 230. 
George III., il 217. 
George, the, an inn, i 339. 
George, the ornament, i. 366. 
G^erman hand in writing, i. 510. 
German sounds, i. 213, 214, 

324, 472, 494, 514 ; il 65, 

76, 88, 135, 138. 
German supplants older words 

for that nation, i. 486 ; ii. 10, 

German word for Court, i. 117. 
Germany, i. 22, 298, 412, 530, 

557, 592, 610, 620, 621, 

624; ii 91, 176, 208, 211, 

212, 230, 234. 
Gerund-grinder, ii 172. 
Gesta Romanorum, the, i 250- 
253, 352, 374, 423. 

Second Version of, i 320. 
Geste {hi8toria)y i 43, 256, 411, 

Gestour {trag(edus\ i. 166. 
Get along with you, ii 169, 
Get = beget, i 78, 342. 
Get=j^t, ii 141, 147. 
Get him down, i 295. 
Get him (himself) to drink, i 1 26. 
Get him out, i 235. 
Qet himself to, etc., i 416. 
Get him up, i 436. 
Get it done, i 390, 391. 

Get loose, i 592. 
Get nothing out of him, ii. 126. 
Get off (escape), ii. 47. 
Get on (agree), ii. 204. 
Get on courser, i 228. 
Get on foot, i. 90. 
Get on in the world, ii. 169. 
Get =pervenirey i 332, 354, 374. 
Get rid of, ii 147. 
Get that in her head, ii 143. 
Get to do it, i 324. 
Get under a fever, ii. 190. 
Get up gay (dress), i 363. 
Get up (surgere), i 440. 
Get you gone, i 646. 
G^ewgaw, i 266. 

Gh, much in use, i 68, 120, 

replaces gr, i 337. 

replaces /i, i 32, 85, 104, 161 ; 
ii 2. 

replaces k, i 333. 

not sounded hard, i 161, 
266, 306. 

is needlessly inserted, i. 305, 

is thrown out, i 315. 

is sounded in Salop, i. 359. 

the Flemish character, i. 329. 
Ghent, i 22. 
Ghost, i 337, 516. 
Ghost, give up, i 42. 
Giantlike, ii. 39. 
-|-Giaour, ii 159. 
Gib, for Gilbert, i. 88, 269. 
Gibbe, a cat, i 401, 451. 
Gibber, to, ii 38. 
Gibberish, i 435. 
-Gibbon, i. 189, 258. 
Gibbon, the historian, i. 408 ; ii. 

96, 139, 175, 209, 210,213, 

214, 233, 234,240. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Gibbs, i. 338. 

Gibe, i. 562. 

Gibraltar, i. 121. 

Giddy, i 606. 

Giddy paced, iL 37. 

Giff-gaff, L 517. 

Gift horse in mouth, look, i. 

501 ; ii. 104. 
Gift under trust, i. 278. 
Gifted, ii. 160. 
Gig, flirting woman, i. 370 ; ii. 

Gig = whirligig, i. 117 ; ii. 17, 

87, 193. 
Giggle, i: 377. 
Giglot (loose woman), i. 190 ; ii. 

43, 207. 
Gil Bias, translation of, ii. 166- 

Gilbertson, i. 88. 
Gill (mere^na), i. 500. 
Gills {fauces\ i. 64 ; ii. 195. 
Gillian, i. 446. 
Gilliflower, i 465, 482. 
GiUot, i. 583; ii. 107. 
Gim (elegant), ii. 140, 198. 
Gimcrack, ii. 10, 117. 
Gin (contrivance), ii. 121. 
Gin (incipio)y ii. 43. 
Gin (snare), i 107, 469. 
Gin, the liquor, ii. 163. 
Gingerliness, i. 614. 
Gingerly, i. 395. 
Gip at Cambridge, ii. 194. 
Gipsy, for Egyptian, i. 371, 

395,577 ; ii. 109. 
Giraldus Cambrensis, i. 271. 
Gird, a, i 557. 
Gird (ferire), i. 545. 
Girl, i. 10, 44, 99, 101, 122, 

399, 439, 485, 500. 
Girlhood, ii. 202. 

Girlish, ii. 189. 

Girth, i. 86. 

Give an inch, take ell, i. 502. 

Give and grant, i. 212. 

Give and take, L 90. 

Give and take principle, the, ii. 

Give arms, heraldic, i. 396 ; ii. 

Give as good again, i. 486. 
Give as good as he brought, i. 

Give 'em, i. 480. 
Give (fail), i 498. 
Give fair words, L 387. 
Give herself a shake, ii. 203. 
Give him his due, ii. 78. 
Give him so much, in race, ii. 

Give him till Monday, ii. 87. 
Give him to understand, i. 568. 
Give himself out for, ii. 155. 
Give into it, ii. 203. 
Give it up, i. 112. 
Give it you (hit you), ii. 55. 
Give me = malo, ii. 120. 
Give me a fever, ii. 203. 
Give out (proclaim), i. 544, 569. 
Give over, i. 273, 369, 458. 
Give (relate), the scene, iL 204. 
Give stead to, i. 36. 
Give the go-by to, ii. 169. 
Given to understand, i. 571. 
Given up for lost, ii. 78. 
Glace, L 238, 264, 355 ; ii. 37. 
Glad to see you, ii. 92. 
Glader, a, i. 121. 
Gladliest, i 165. 
Gladsome, i. 108, 123, 142. 
Gladstone, Mr., i. 213, 506, 557, 

583 ; ii. 210. 
Glammis, ii. 5. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Glance, i. 238, 355. 

Glance at, i. 467. 

Glaring colours, ii. 140. 

Glaring impropriety, ii. 190. 

Glass, draw up, ii 140. 

Glass houses, ii 5. 

Glass windows, Proverb about, 

ii 86, 97. 
Glassy, i 237. 
Glazed eye, ii. 26. 
Glazier, i 152, 197. 
Glean, i 65. 
Glebe of parsons, i 222. 
Glee, i 19, 88. 
Glee (musical), ii 97. 
Glen, i 92. 
Glib, ii 40. 

Glim (candle), i 576 ; ii 194. 
Glimmer, i 47, 121. 
Glimmer = fire, i 576. 
Glimmering, i 515. 
Glimpse, i 121. 
Gloaming, i 227. 
Gloat, i 589. 
Globe, a, i 570. 
Globes, use of the, ii 120. 
Gloomy, ii 21. 
Glorious, in bad sense, i 149, 

Glorious porridge, ii. 86. 
Gloss, i 464. 
Gloss, to, i 347. 
Gloucester, Robert of, i 73. 
Gloucester, son of Edward III., 

i 181. 
Gloucester, the town, i 87, 305, 

482, 521. 
Gloucestershire, i 5, 10, 11, 74, 

85, 86, 120, 150, 198, 216, 

223, 225, 321, 333, 408, 

411 ; ii 162, 198, 200. 
Glover, i 197. 

Glower, i 55. 

Glow-worm, i 234. 

Gloze, i 347. 

Glum, i 508. 

Glut, a, i 540. 

Glut the market, ii 68. 

Gnarled, ii 42. 

Gnash, i 349, 464. 

Go a begging,* i 100. 

Go about to do it, i 1 6. 

Go a form higher, ii. 84. 

Go against my heart, i 202. 

Go a great way, i 613 ; ii 129. 

Go a pilgrimage, i 7. 

Go as chaplains, ii 136. 

Go = be current^ i 416. 

Go = be sold, i 170, 534. 

Go-between, a, ii 24, 149. 

Go beyond (defraud), i 416. 

Go by ground, a, ii. 198. 

Gk> by the name of, ii 171. 

Go for a fool, ii. 113. 

Go for favour, i 391. 

Go from my promise, i 476. 

Go further and fare worse, i. 

Go hang, i 487. 
Gk) high in bidding, i. 478. 
Go him forth, i 176. 
Go his half, ii 18, 103. 
Go (in) for it, ii 92. 
Go it, ii. 10. 
Go mourning, i 440. 
Go off (are sold), ii 114. 
Gk) off for you, there's, ii. 115. 
Go off, guns, i. 605. 
Go off like shot, ii 169. 
Go off the first, ii 151. 
Go off well, ii. 204. 
Go on reprimanding, ii. 129. 
Go out for to see, i. 138. 
Go out of his way to, ii. 133. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Go out (visiting), ii. 182. 

Gk>, pun on, L 360. 

Go = reach, i. 220. 

Go sorrowful, i. 127. 

Go supplants /are, i 210. 

Go to, i. 262, 487. 

GU) to do it, I did not, ii. 177. 

Go to fools to school, i. 661. 

GU) to my heart, i 334. 

Gk> to the worst, i. 345. 

Go upon that, I, ii. 190. 

Go upon twentieth year, ii. 84. 

Gk> up to examination, i. 608. 

Ck) = walk, i 459, 663 ; iL 41. 

Go with (agree with), i. 644. 

Go with child, i. 42. 

Goad, i. 4. 

Goal, i 469. 

Goatish, ii. 40. 

Gobbet, 1409; ii. 111. 

Goblin, i, 101, 164. 

Gobs of fat, ii. 187. 

Gkxi before their eyes, have, i 

God be thanked, i. 462. 
Gkni bless my soul, i. 127. 
Gk)d bless you, i. 462. 
God builds church. Devil chapel, 

i 557. 
God, by, i. 101. 
God-fearing, ii. 91. 
God forbid, i. 109, 143, 418. 
God, forms of, i. 527. 
God have you in keeping, L 168. 
God help and St. John, i. 562. 
God ild you, ii. 37. 
Gbd knoweth by what, etc., i. 

God of love's name, the, i. 117. 
God rest thy soul, i. 210. 
God sends us cooks, etc., i 499. 
God speed the plough, i. 562. 

God speed you, i. 127, 323. 

God-tearer, a, i. 512. 

God's board, i. 160. 

God's man, i. 10, 527. 

God's sake, for, i. 129. 

God's traitors and ours, L 247. 

God willing, i. 367. 

Gk)d wot, ii. 64. 

God wot how, i. 115. 

God would have it> as, i. 556. 

God yield you ! i. 52, 268, 564. 

Goddess, i 57, 601. 

Godlike, L 601. 

Godling, a, i. 580. 

Godly, i. 340, 417,601. 

Godsend, i 64 ; ii 200. 

Godspeed, a, ii. 135. 

Godward, to, i. 583. 

Goer, i. 97, 162. 

Gber-between, ii. 43. 

Goes, money, i. 10. 

Goggle eyed, i. 144, 436. 

Goggle, to, ii 168. 

Gk)ing down of the Sun, i. 163, 

Going = dying, ii 170. 
Going, going, the auctioneer's, ii. 

Going in her fifteen, ii. 127. 
Going in, the, i 27. 
Going out, the, i 439. 
Going to be, was, i. 322. 
Gold that glitters, not all, i. 

Goldbeater, i. 197 ; ii. 82. 
Gk)ldfinder, ii. 9. 
Goldsmith made a Proper name, 

i 180. 
Goldsmith, the writer, i. 381 

588; ii 167,186,188, 224. 
Goldsmithy, i. 275. 
Golly ! i 79. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Gondomar, ii. 72, 73, 77. 
Gbne = ruined, ii. 30. 
Gone to, well, i 202. 
Gone with him, what is, ii. 199. 
Goneril, i. 320. 
GJood account of, give, ii. 172. 
Good and all, for, i 451. 
Good and goodly, i. 482. 
Good and true, i. 49, 272. 
Good appearance, make, ii. 160. 
Good as dead, as, i 414. 
Good as gone, as, i. 249. 
Good as his word, i. 599. 
Good as own, he does, ii. 1 29. 
Good at a journey, i. 406. 
Good behaviour, on his, ii. 171, 

Gk)od-bye, its history, i. 590 ; ii. 

Good cheap, i. 23. 
Good, come to, i. 27. 
Good comes of it, i. 221. 
Good creature, i. 204; ii. 179. 
Good day ! i 204. 
Gk)od days, your, i. 100, 315. 
Good debt, i. 542. 
Good, do (be of use), i. 273 ; ii. 

Gk>od end, make, i. 54. 
Gk)od face, make, i. 316. 
Good face on it, set, i. 518, 564. 
Good faith, i. 113. 
Good fellow, i. 3, 505, 573 ; ii. 

Good fellow, my, ii. 49. 
Good fellows (heretics), i. 392. 
Good fellowlike, i. 505. 
Good fellowship, i. 146, 468. 
Good few, a, ii. 200. 
Good for anything, i. 330. 
Good, for no, i. 16. 
Good for nothing, i. 413. 

Good, for (omnino), i. 428. 
Qood for us to be here, i 139. 
Goodfgirl, be a, ii 125. 
Good God! 1129. 
Good grace, his, i. 271. 
Good graces, ii 114. 
Good heart, take, i 1 1 7. 
Good hope, be in, i 341. 
Good humour, in one word, ii. 

Good lack ! ii 140. 
Good lady, his, i 54, 479. 
Good letter, a, ii 203. 
Qood=^liben8, i, 428. 
Qood limbed, ii 33. 
Gk)od long day, i. 576. 
Good lord to him, be, i 150. 
GkK)d lordship = favour, i 247. 
Gk)od luck was, as, i 568. 
Good luck would have it, ii. 24. 
Good Madam, i 478. 
Good man (husband or master), 

i54, 375, 408, 485, 540. 
Gbod man, in a parenthesis, i. 

Good many, i 531. 
Qood mine own ! i 529. 
Good morn, i 204. 
Good morrow, i. 1 29, 600 ; ii. 20 1 . 
Good nature, i 285, 577 ; ii 38, 

Good natured, i. 591. 
Good night, i. 195. 
Good one, that's a, ii. 110. 
Good opinion, have, i. 345. 
Qood part, take in, i 354. 
Good round sum, i. 613. 
Good ship, the, i. 68, 296. 
Good Sir, i. 64. 
Good thing (joke), ii 32. 
Good things (posts), ii. 5, 69. 
Good time, in, i 110. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Good time, in childbirth, i. 542. 

Good to, be so, i. 383, 384. 

Good to chide, as, ii. 24. 

Good to, do, i 27. 

Good to him, i. 53. 

Good tongue in his head, keep, 

Good turn for me, do, i. 251. 
Good way off from, i. 417. 
Good wife, i. 531, 540 ; ii. 77. 
Good will, her, i. 390. 
Good will to, i. 36. 
Good wine needs no bush, i 189, 

Good word for him, ii. 81. 
Good word, my, i. 114. 
Goods and chattels, i. 156, 220. 
Goods moblez, i. 241. 
Goodies (sweetmeats), ii. 162. 
Goodliness, L 485. 
Goodman Smith, ii. 4. 
Goodness ! ii. 136. 
Goodness have mercy on me, ii. 

Goodness sake, for, ii. 50. 
Goodness to, have the, ii. 190. 
Goodrich, Bishop, i. 539. 
Goody, ii. 77. 
Googe, i. 582. 
Gk)ose may get it, i. 342. 
Goose (stult'us), i. 521. 
Gooseberry, i 454. 
GorbeUied,i. 371. 
Gore (blood), i. 592. 
Gore, to, i. 106, 298. 
Gorse, ii. 46. 
Gosh, by, ii. 178. 
Gosling, i 237. 
Gk)8pel-like, i. 542. 
Gospel or no, L 518. 
Gospel, sooth as, i. 20. 
Gospel = truth, i. 468. 

Gospeller, a heretic, i 393, 558. 

Gospeller, priest who reads the 
gospel, i 371, 455. 

Gossamer, i 122. 

Gossip, change in meaning, i. 
283, 287. 

Gossip, to, i. 486. 

Gossipred, i. 7, 540. 

Gosson, i. 604, 605 ; iL 47. 

Got a mind to, I have, ii. 199. 

Got under the devil's back, etc., 
ii. 174. 

Gotham, fools of, i. 198. 

Gothic, i. 143, 252, 417, 498, 
511, 574; ii244. 

Gothic, applied to Architecture, 
ii 120, 162. 

Gotten, he had, i. 94. 

Gotten or to be gotten, i. 218. 

Gottingen Version of the Cursor 
Mundi, i. 13. 

Gouge, to, ii. 195. 

Gourmand, i. 489. 

Gove {daitm)y i. 288. 

Governess, ii. 163. 

Governor, i. 65, 420 ; ii. 207. 

Gower, i. 74, 79, 117, 120, 123, 
124, 133,144, 166,171-179, 
182, 189, 194, 208, 215, 
226, 235, 242, 244, 254, 
256-258, 316, 365, 378, 382, 
393, 469, 474, 517, 566, 
601 ; ii. 28, 41, 43. 

Gowk, i. 11 ; ii. 193. 

Gown, i 64, 80. 

Gown to her back, have, ii. 108. 

Gownman, ii. 53. 

Grabble, to, ii. 91. 

Grace (a title), i. 309, 360, 383. 

Grace, by my good, i. 201. 

Grace {decu8\ i. 489. 

Grace Dieu, the, L 193. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Grace, of king's, L 355. 
Grace, stand in her, i 133. 
Grace, take him to, i. 316. 
Grace, to, ii. 10, 21. 
Grace to, have the, i. 434. 
Grace, to serve, L 377. 
Graceful (igratm), L 279. 
Graceful (sanctiLs), ii. 46. 
Graces, i. 31, 299 ; ii. 72. 
Graces, doing, i. 139. 
Gracious goodness, her, i 390. 
Gracious (jgratiis), i 65. 
Gracious {'prohm\ i. 154, 294. 
Graciouser, L 30. 
Gradely, a Lancashire word, i. 

62, 68. 
Graff, to, i. 168, 411, 453. 
Graft, to, ii 411, 453. 
Grafton, i. 446, 552. 
Grain, against the, i. 461 ; ii. 

Grain (com), i. 242. 
Grain, to dye with, i. 462. 
Gramercy, i 16, 337, 399, 516, 

Grammary, i. 347. 
Grampus, i. 226, 395 ; ii 60. 
Granary, i. 30. 
Grand paunch, a, i 551. 
Grandee, ii 56. 
Grandeur, ii 78. 
Grandfather, i 221. 
Grandmother, i 179, 221, 604. 
Grandpapa, ii 165. 
Grandsire, i 155. 
Grandsire's father, i 329. 
Granted, take for, ii 137. 
Granting =5 confession, i 93. 
Granting this, ii 116, 117, 131. 
Grasp, i 144 ; ii 115. 
Grass, at, ii. 92. 
Grass plot, ii. 47. 

Grass, turn her out to, ii. 126. 

Grass widow, ii 126. 

Gratis, i 448, 619. 

Gratuitous, ii 223. 

Gratuity, i 479. 

Grave face, put on, ii 126. 

Grave-porer, i 601. 

Grave, to, i 348. 

Graven things, i 143. 

Gravestone, i 151. 

Gravity, i 529. 

Gravy, i 51. 

Gray, my, ii 150. 

Grayling, i 266. 

Graze (devolare), i 264 ; ii. 37. 

Grazier, i 405. 

Grazing, i 477. 

Grease my hands, i 395. 

Grease the wheels, ii 172. 

Greasing horses* teeth, story of, 

ii 111. 
Great, dropped before deal,i, 334. 

encroaches on much, i. 39, 
273, 337. 

replaces goody i 290. 
Great black dog, i 54. 
Great boast, small roast, i 512. 
Great cheap, i 23. 
Great coat, ii 163. 
Great cry and little wool, i. 

Great day, have a (for visitors), 

ii. 150. 
Great deal, i 24, 152, 162, 277, 

Great fat horse, i 147. 
Great fools, i 147. 
Great friends, i 290, 547. 
Great gentleman, i. 136. 
Great good, i 27. 
Great-grandfather, i 463. 
Great gun, i 233. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Great-hearted, i. 260. 

Great horse, ride, the, ii. 170. 

Great man, L 24. 

Great many, new idiom of, i. 

457, 631. 
Great nund to, have, i. 158. 
Great (much) people, i 166. 
Great = nohle, ii. 122, 150. 
Great notion, that, ii. 164. 
Great of heart, ii 38. 
Great piece of money, i. 540. 
Great sized, ii. 44. 
Great stroke, do a, ii. 203. 
Great = thick, ii 147. 
Great uncle, i. 243. 
Great way, hy a, i. 486. 
Great while, i. 456. 
Great will to, he had, i. 224. 
Greatest clerks, proverb about, 

i. 341. 
Greatness, L 162. 
Greatness of bone, L 595. 
Grecian (Greek scholar), i. 530, 

Greedygut, i 524. 
Greek Aorist Participle, L 387. 
Greek (a rogue), i. 447. 
Greek endings, i. 166 ; ii 14, 

21, 41, 217. 
Greek, influence of, i 149, 179, 

349, 434, 528, 581; ii 176, 

Greek (our form of * the word), 

i 172. 
Greek scholarship, i 408, 422, 

423, 527. 
Greek, the language, i 449, 574 ; 

ii 176. 
Greek to a man, it is, ii 52. 
Greek words brought into Eng- 

Hsh, i 508, 551, 589, 590, 

603, 610, 615, 617, 621 ; 

ii. 5, 6, 11, 16, 53, 64, 72, 
79, 90-92, 105, 147. 

Greek words in their own char- 
acter, i 489, 528, 551, 573, 

Greekish, ii 44, 64. 

Green bag, lawyer's, ii 112. 

Green cloth, clerk of, i. 293. 

Green-eyed, ii 30, 38. 

Green room, ii. 167. 

Green (stvMvs), i. 123. 

Green tea, ii 153. 

Greenhorn, i 199 ; ii 166. 

Greenish, i 117. 

Greenland, i 23. 

Greens (vegetables), ii 179. 

Greensward, ii. 46. 

Greenwood tree, i. 267. 

Greeting, send, i. 301. 

Greeting ways of, i 621. 

Greg (Gregory), i. 51. 

Gregory's Chronicle, i 156, 181, 
208, 217, 242, 292, 301. 

Gresham, i 78, 248, 530, 567- 
570, 612 ; ii. 161, 199. 

Greville's Diary, ii 214. 

Grey beard, ii 18. 

Grey coated, ii 34. 

Grey haired, i 260. 

Grey headed, i 439. 

Grey mare best horse, i. 494, 503. 

Gridiron, i 141. 

Grieve (gerefa), i 342. 

Grievous costly, i. 300. 

Grievousness, i. 36. 

Griffins, i 240. 

Grig, i 493 ; ii 109. 

Grilse, i 338. 

Grin and abide it, ii 198. 

Grind colours, i 469. 

Grind his teeth, i 86. 

Grind (troublesome work), ii. 173. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Grindal, i 677. 

Grip, ii. 94. 

Gripe (eagle), i 594 ; il 69. 

Gripe (gripes), ii 70. 

Gripe of you, get, il 90. 

Gripes, the, ii. 146. 

Gripings, i. 411. 

Grips, hold thy, i. 226. 

Grist, bring, ii 160. 

Grizzel, i. 67. 

Grizzled, i 364. 

Grizzly (rfwriia), ii. 91. 

Groat (the coin), i 99, 544. 

Grocer, i 207. 

Grog, ii. 193. 

Grograine, i 533. 

Groin, i 204. 

Groom connected with horses, 

i 67, 269. 
Groom, for gonu^ ii. 44, 67, 99, 

152, 311. 
Groom of chamber, i 239, 339. 
Groom, to, ii 168. 
Grose's Slang Dictionary, ii. 193- 

Gross, i 297, 372, 406, 632, 

604, 617. 
Gi*oss, in, i 238. 
Grot, ii 78. 
Ground, break, i 343. 
Ground {causd)^ i 270. 
Ground encroaches on wax, i. 26 1 ; 

ii 13. 
Ground floor, ii. 136. 
Ground, get, i 451. 
Ground, give, i 519. 
Ground, go to, i 86, 318. 
Ground, metal on, ii 31. 
Ground, take, i 219. 
Ground, to, of a ship, i 457. 
Grounds (fields), i 473. 
Groundage, i 340. 

I Qroundedly, i 647. 
j Groundings, the, i 226. 
I Groundsel, i. 453. 
, Groundwork, i 568. 

Grovel, to, i 262, 460, 559, 599. 

Grovelling, its history, i 61, 
169, 262, 669, 599. 

Grow encroaches on iWKc, i 261 ; 
ii 13. 

Grow grasses, i 496. 

Grow into, i 177, 389. 

Grow, to, i 378, 389. 

Grow to be, etc., i 163. 

Grow upon him, i 600. 

Growl, old use of, i. 335. 

Growl, to, ii 140. 

Grown out of knowledge, ii 1 77. 

Grown up, ii 169. 

Grown, well, i 126. 

Growth, i 453. 

Groyne, the (Corunna),i 89, 298 ; 
ii 139. 

Grub, a, i 281. 

Grub (food), ii 194. 

Grudge, i 138, 419, 518. 

Grudge to, bear, ii. 103. 

Gruff, ii 109, 134. 

Qrum, ii 109. 

Gualtier, i. 333. 

Guard, push in, ii. 112. 

Guard, the king's, i 366. 

Guard, upon my, ii 54. 

Guards, i. 331. 

Guarded (cai^w«), ii 161. 

Guardianship, i. 343. 

Gudgeon, i. 488. 

Gu^'s oons ! ii 157. 

Guerdon, i 96, 116, 172. 

Guess at, ii. 85. 

Guess, give my, i 644. 

Guess, I, i 126, 143, 198, 341. 

Guess (to divine), i. 459. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Guesswork, ii. 159. 

Guest, i. 43, 256, 411,492. 

Guide a thing, i. 310. 

Guide us, God! i. 313. 

Guild, i. 4. 

Guildhall, i 150 ; ii. 74. 

Guilford, Lord, ii. 118. 

Guilleville, De, his poem, i. 237. 

Guilty, i. 17. 

Guilty, bring him in, ii. 131. 

Guilty conscience needs no ac- 
cuser, ii 165. 

Guinea pig, ii. 187. 

Guinea, the coast, i. 536. 

Guinea, the coin, ii. 112. 

Guiscard, ii. 96. 

Guise, for gke^ i. 119. 

Guise, take up, i. 210. 

Guise, the Duke of, i. 672. 

Guizot, ii. 131. 

Gull (bird), i. 345. 

Gull, to, i. 512. 

Gulp, to, i. 462. 

Gumption, ii. 193. 

Gun, for hand-gun, i. 468, 519. 

Gun-maker, i. 515. 

Gun stones, i. 233, 540. 

Gunner, i. 192, 302. 

Gunpowder, i. 293, 454. 

Gunshot, i. 386, 480. 

Gunwale, ii. 66. 

Gup ! i. 372. 

Gush, i. 421 ; ii. 223. 

Gust, a, ii. 19. 

Gut (canali8)y i. 518. 

Gut, to, i. 262 ; ii. 186. 

Gutter, a, i. 65. 

Gutter, to, i. 604. 

Guy Mannering, ii. 209. 

Guy of Gisbome, ballad on, 
i 206, 266. 

Gyves, i 101, 321. 

H is clipped at the beginning, i. 
18, 146, 193, 256, 323, 
438, 453; ii. 198, 202,226. 

is prefixed, i. 161. 

is inserted, i 483 ; ii. 2. 

is sounded in the middle of a 
word, i. 350, 534. 

is dropped in the middle, i. 
141, 438 ; ii 16. 

is punned upon, i 560. 
Ha, ha, ii 35, 98. 
Hab or nab, i 504 ; ii. 37. 
Habendum clause, the, i 220. 
Haberdasher, i 131. 
Hability, i 421. 
Habits (clothes), i. 552 ; ii 192. 
Hack (a hackney horse), ii 180. 
Hack (cut), i 459. 
Hack (hackney coach), ii. 147. 
Hack, smaU, i 457. 
Hackney a horse, i 600, 611. 
Hackney coach, a, ii. 64. 
Hackney man, a, i 500. 
Hackney writing, ii. 161. 
Hackneys (women), i. 605. 
Had I wist, proverbial, i 171. 
Had it not been that, i. 284. 
Had, not to be, i 595. 
Had (would have), i 415. 
Haddock, i 256. 
Haggard, i 601, 611. 
Haggard (barn), ii 89. 
Haggis, i 225. 
Haggle, i 459 ; ii 66, 160. 
Haggler, i 598. 
Hail a ship, i. 569. 
Hail fellow well met, i 598. 
Hail to thee, i. 403. 
Hair, against the, i 461, 573 ; 

ii 25, 48. 
Hair of the dog that bit him, i. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hairbrain, i. 92. 
Hairbreadth, i. 66, 507 ; ii. 38. 
Hakluyt, ii 6. 
Hal (Hany), ii 31. 
Hale and whole, i 15. 
Hale if,ra}me\ i 107, 416. 
Half, added to Numerals in the 
North, i 35. 

placed before an Accusative, i. 

placed before a Passive Parti- 
ciple, i 280. 
Half a dozen, i 192, 220. 
Half a guess, i 486. 
Half a loaf, proverb about, i. 

Half a suspicion, i. 544. 
Half an eye, i 428. 
Half, better, ii 48. 
Half, be your, ii 18. 
Half big enough, i 299. 
Half-blown, ii. 26. 
Half-crown, ii 109. 
Half-gods, i 135, 152. 
Half-himself (his wife), ii 35. 
Half-hour, i 219. 
Half in wrath, i 174. 
Half kind to him, not, ii. 65. 
Half, like it, not, ii 83. 
Half-mast high, ii 67. 
Half-moon, i 601. 
Half-pay, ii. 127. 
Half-price, ii 179. 
Half seas over, ii 135, 171. 
Half-sister, i 57. 
Half-sleeping, i 458. 
Half so much, i 325. 
Half-through, ii 33. 
Half-turn, make, i 544. 
Half- warned, half-armed, i. 502. 
Half-way, i 460 ; ii 74. 
Half Windsor, ii 24. 

Half-witted, ii. 89. 
Half- word, a, i 111. 
Half- worker, ii 46. 
Halfpence, i 140. 
Halfpenny ale, i 99. 
Hali Meidenhad, the, i 1 10, 670. 
Halifax guillotine, i 697. 
Hall, Bishop, ii 9, 14, 34, 37, 

49, 150. 
Hall, Mr. Fitzedward, ii 188. 
Hall, the Chronicler, i 513, 530, 

Hallam, i 182 ; ii 77, 184, 

Halliwell, Mr., i 83, 160, 170, 

219, 247, 297, 326, 354, 

359, 382, 389, 529 ; ii 12, 

Halloo, to, i 59, 332 ; ii 27. 
Hallows (mnctijy i 451. 
Hallyard, ii 66. 
Halpworth, i 267, 482. 
Halve, to, i 209, 348. 
Halves, by, i 39, 548. 
Halves, go, ii 117. 
Halves, three, ii 162. 
Hamburgh, i 319. 
Hamilton, Archbishop, i 525. 
Hamlet, a, i 22, 94. 
Hamlet, the play, i 130; ii38. 
Hammer, go to the, ii 168. 
Hammer into him, ii 168. 
Hammer (out) words, i. 602. 
Hammerman, i 438. 
Hammock, ii 69. 
Hamper (pack up), i. 63. 
Hamper, to, i 47. 
Hampole, i 9, 30-38, 43, 45, 

56, 67, 65, 75, 97, 140, 141, 

142,151, 161,163,167,193, 

236, 244, 276, 370, 400, 438, 

468, 610. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hampshire, i 49, 224, 292. 
Hamstring, to, ii. 141. 
Hanaper, clerk of, i 293. 
Hand a lady, to, ii 145. 
Hand and glove, be, iL 137. 
Hand, at cards, ii 82. 
Hand, at no, i. 548. 
Hand, be in, L 202. 
Hand-bill, ii 183. 
Hand-book, i. 541. 
Hand, buy at first, i 246. 
Hand, done to your, ii 49. 
Hand, have in, i 176, 282. 
Hand, have on, i 53, 448. 
Hand, hold thy, i 202. 
Hand in it, have, ii 48. 
Hand, in measuring, ii 102. 
Hand in the pie, his, ii 58. 
Hand is in, while, i 200 ; ii 

Hand is out, ii 16. 
Hand it about, ii 152. 
Hand, make his (a purse), i 482. 
Hand, out of, i 59. 
Hand over head, ii 129. 
Hand, set to, i 318. 
Hand to hand, i 86, 461. 
Hand to it, put (sign), i 476. 
Hand to mouth, from, i 376. 
Hand with him, be in, i 341, 

Hand, worthy knight of his, i 

Hand = writing, i 174, 306. 
Handcrafty men, i 302. 
Handcuff, ii 166. 
Handful (in measuring horses), i 

Handful of men, i. 519 ; ii 47. 
Handgrips, i 484. 
Handgun, i 290, 325. 
Handkerchief, i 454 ; ii 88. 


Handlyng Synne, the poem, i. 

4, 18, 20, 56, 73, 78, 109, 

137, 253, 500. 
Hands, back upon my, ii 115. 
Hands, get it into your, i. 340. 
Hands, have his full, i 503. 
Hands = men, ii 7, 144. 
Hands, news from good, ii. 58. 
Hands off ! i 557. 
Hands, off his, ii 111, 155. 
Hands, on all, ii 95, 158. 
Hands, take, ii 29. 
Hands, with aU, i. 88. 
Handsaw, ii 31. 
Handsome, i 84, 362, 428, 455, 

Handsome is as handsome does, 

ii 188. 
Handspike, ii 63. 
Handy, i 361. 
Handy-dandy, i 98. 
Handy craft man, ii 29. 
Handywork, i. 437. 
Hang by, a, i 604. 
Hang, draw, quarter, i 146 
Hang me, if, etc., i 565; ii. 

Hang off, ii 78. 
Hang off and on, ii 103. 
Hang on hand, i 239. 
Hang on his arm, i. 560. 
Hang the head, i 111. 
Hang together, i 544. 
Hangdog, ii 122. 
Hanged be he, that, etc., i 86, 

137, 202. 
Hanged, I will be, i 544. 
Hanged (intransitive), i. 415. 
Hanged, thou be, i 394, 599. 
Hanger (on), i 515. 
Hanger, the weapon, i 399. 1 
Hanging matter, i. 484. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hangings, i. 260. 

Hangman, i. 98, 258. 

Hangment, i. 258. 

Hanker, ii. 85. 

Hans, i. 426 ; ii. 77. 

Hanse towns, the, i. 245, 303. 

Hansell, to, ii. 93. 

Hap that hap may, i. 563. 

Hap, the noun, i. 29. 

Hap to, you may, i. 266, 299. 

Haphazard, i. 563. 

Hapless, ii. 21. 

Haply, i. 46, 101, 138, 184, 

235, 438. 
Happen on a thing, i. 440. 
Happily, i. 46, 101. 
Happily luckily, L 460. 
Happy, i. 32. 
Happy dog, ii. 177. 
Happy go lucky, i. 460. 
Happy hand, make, i. 587. 
Happy man, be his dole, i. 502 ; 

ii. 174, 201. 
Happy me I ii. 54. 
Happy thought, ii 107. 
Happy time of it, have, ii, 122. 
Happy writers, ii. 54. 
Haps, as, i. 42. 
Harbinger, i. 88, 123, 289, 

386 ; ii. 76. 
Harborous, i. 409, 554. 
Harbour, i 83, 88. 
Harbour, to, i. 537. 
Hard at hand, 1. 442. 
Hard at it, ii. 13. 
Hard bargain, ii. 58. 
Hard but, it shall be, i. 20, 461. 
Hard by, i. 363. 
Hard case, i. 319. 
Hard cash, ii. 145, 168. 
Hard (ctto), i. 46. 
Hard-featured, ii. 172. 

Hard fighting, i. 228 ; ii. 13. 

Hard frozen, i. 154. 

Hard hearted, i. 110. 

Hard, it stood with him, i. 295. 

Hard of belief, i. 158. 

Hard pinched, ii 161. 

Hard pressed, i. 9. 

Hard put to it, ii 133. 

Hard riding, ii 53. 

Hard set, i 228. 

Hard stead, be, i 194, 

Hard student, ii 119. 

Hard throaty, ii 77. 

Hard timbered, ii. 24. 

Hard times, ii. 83. 

Hard, to drink, ii 162, 

Hard upon them, i 322 ; ii. 

Hard (via), i 100, 143. 
Hard with you, go, i 210. 
Hard words, ii. 158. 
Hardest, at the, i 284. 
Hardiesse, i 29. 
Hardly, i 143, 272. 
Hardness, with, i. 272. 
Hardships, ii 188, 
Hardware, i 594. 
Hardy, for hmd^ i 112. 
Hare, Augustus, ii 227. 
Hare lip, i 575. 
Harebell, ii. 45. 
Hark in your ear, i 566. 
Hark thee, ii. 21. 
Hark you hither, ii. 24. 
Harley, ii 152, 153. 
Harlot, i 190, 350, 412, 454. 
Harlotry, i 191. 
Harm doings, i 156. 
Harm done, no, i 607. 
Harm's way, out of, ii 102. 
Harman, his book, i 675. 
Harmful, i 27. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hannless, bear you, ii 157. 
Harmless, hold him, L 168. 
Harness, L 48, 180. 
Haro ! 1 17, 101. 
Harold, King, i 75, 234. 
Harp on a string, i. 503. 
Harp on it, i. 307. 
Harping iron, ii 68. 
Harpsfield, i 551. 
Harquebuss, i. 382. 
Harrier, i 484. 
Harris, Dr., ii 188. 
Harrison, L 594-598 ; ii. 2-5, 

23, 43, 49, 51, 57, 84, 99. 
Harrow with fear, ii 39. 
Harrowing Hell, the Poem on, 

i 72, 314. 
Harry out, to, i 65, 110. 
Harry, the name, i 51, 181, 

199, 310, 425. 
Harsh, i. 229. 
Hart, i 118. 
Hart of grese, i 81. 
Hart^ pun on, i 183. 
Hartshorn, ii. 124. 
Harum scarum, ii 196. 
Harvest (Autumn), i 236, 584. 
Harvest home, i. 583. 
Harvest man, ii 48. 
Harvey, the physician, ii. 80, 

Harvey, the writer, i 427, 590 ; 

ii 8, 11, 12,13,20,26, 112, 

118, 136. 
Has beens, one of the, i 27. 
Has replaces haXh^ i 333. 
Hash, ii 104. 
Hassock, i 263. 
Hast no tongue ? i 109. 
Haste, in all, i 175. 
Haste (in haste), i 272. 
Hastily, i 6. 

Hastings, i 75. 

Hastier, i. 542. 

Hasty pudding, ii 119. 

Hatches of ship, i 44. 

Hatchment, i 529, 530. 

Hate like poison, i 465. 

Hate like the Devil, ii. 149. 

Hateful, i 123. 

Hatred, i 525. 

Hatter, i 157. 

Haughty, i 199, 579. 

Haul, a, ii. 166. 

Haul imder keel, ii. 67. 

Haulser, i 384. 

Haunt, to, ii. 29. 

Hautboy, ii. 33, 68, 81. 

Hautgout, ii 79. 

Have (affirm), i 595. 

Have and to hold, i 66. 

Have (at a disadvantage), ii 164. 

Have at thee ! i 58, 137, 563. 

Have been waiting, we, i 125, 

Have (behave), i 286. 
Have done, i 186, 333. 
Have done cursing, i. 186. 
Have (faceTe\ i 125. 
Have (find), ii. 133. 
Have, followed by the Infinitive, 

Have had (put for had)^ i. 90. 
Have him (for husband), i. 492. 
Have him (in his power), ii. 17. 
Have him to her husband, i 41 7. 
Have him to speak, i 168. 
Have his joke, ii. 154. 
Have I not ? i 565. 
Have it out, ii. 203. 
Have it (the news), i 175. 
Have it to the longer liver of 

you, i 341. 
Have (know) Latin, i. 544. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Have on a garment, L 417. 
Have (permittere), ii. 30. 
Have spies out, i. 90. 
Have to myself, i. 128. 
Have us for recommended, i. 

Have with ye ! i. 663. 
Have you not ? i 664. 
Have you to know, I, ii. 109. 
Havelok, the, i. 8, 18, 19, 38, 

72, 86, 161, 314. 
Haver (possessor), i. 484. 
Having been, prefixed to the 

Past Participle, i. 528. 
Having been raising, iL 67. 
Having (covetous), ii. 83. 
Having, prefixed to the Past 

Participle, i. 287, 387. 
Having respect to, i. 344. 
Having, the noun, i. 3 ; ii. 25. 
Having, twofold use of, ii. 147, 

Havock, cry, i. 301. 
Havour, i. 3, 325, 389. 
Hawes, the poet, i. 521, 523. 
Hawk from hemshaw, know, ii. 

Hawk, in the throat, i. 603 ; iL 

Hawkin, i. 51, 97. 
Hawking eye, a, ii. 17. 
Hawking, Treatise on, i. 281. 
Hawkins, Miss, ii 201. 
Hawkins, the seaman, i. 555, 

Hay, hay ! i. 59. 
Hay (hedge), ii 67. 
Hay rick, i 495. 
Hay, while sun shines, make, i. 

380, 504. 
Haycock, i 348. 
Hayloft, i 583. 

Hazard, Mr., ii. 216. 

Haze, ii 188. 

Hazel eyes, i 606. 

He and his, i. 89. 

He and she (male and female), i. 

124, 363. 
He, curious use of, i 315, 401 ; 

ii 18, 36, 146. 
He (for him\ i. 248. 
He (for laughter), ii 36, 110, 

He here {hic\ i 414. 
He = on«, i 286, 306. . 
He to feel (being to feel), i 273. 
Head above water, keep, ii 155. 
Head and ears, over, i 461. 
Head and shoulders, turn out 

by, ii. 76. 
Head answer, i 49. 
Head armies, to, ii 143. 
Head (chief), i 19, 49, 618. 
Head for business, ii. 189. 
Head for head, ii. 116. 
Head for wine, ii. 56. 
Head, get, i. 579. 
Head, give him his, i 605. 
Head {impetus^ i 579, 606 ; ii. 

Head in hand, i 69. 
Head, make, i 545, 579, 587. 
Head master, i. 604. 
Head of a discourse, i. 468. 
Head of ale, i 497. 
Head of cattle, i. 594. 
Head of family, ii. 160. 
Head, of his own, i 145. 
Head officers, i 366. 
Head of the house, i 302. 
Head, on mine own, i 34. 
Head or foot (tail), i 541. 
Head or tail of, make, ii 169, 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Head or tail, story without, ii. 

Head oyer heels, i. 61. 
Head (person), ii 115. 
Head-quarters, ii. 125. 
Head servant, i. 406. 
Head table, to, ii. 203. 
Head, take, i. 545. 
Head, take it into his, ii. 169, 

Head to foot, from, ii. 49. 
Head to tail, turn, i. 544. 
Head to wed, my, i. 312. 
Headland, L 348. 
Headlong, i 321 ; ii. 10. 
Headmost^ the, yl 99. 
Headship, i. 616. 
Headsman, ii. 17. 
Headspring, i 235. 
Headstrong, i 428. 
Heady, i. 290. 
Heady ale, i. 595. 
Health at table, a, ii. 32, 50, 

Health-giving, ii. 16. 
Health, have his, i. 538. 
Health (salvation), i. 412. 
Healthful, i. 336. 
Heap, hurl on a, iL 9. 
Heap (<wr6a), i. 409. 
Heaps (masses), ii. 44. 
Heaps of joy, i. 540. 
Hear for certain, i. 344. 
Hear him! ii 180. 
Hear him his lessons, ii. 204. 
Hear of it, you will, ii. 32. 
Hear of mercy, i 112. 
Hear tell, i 415. 
Heard tell on, i. 498. 
Hearing, good (news), ii 18. 
Heame, i 524; ii 156. 
Hearsay, i 25, 454. 

Heart-ache, ii 186. 
Heart, at cards, i 516. 
Heart beats, i 117. 
Heart bleeds, i 613. 
Heart-blood, ii 98. • 
Heart-break, a, ii. 25. 
Heart-breaking, ii. 50. 
Heart-broke, ii. 151. 
Heart-burning, i 528. 
Heart, by, i 114. 
Heart (compassion), i. 85. 
Heart-felt, ii 203. 
Heart, go to my, i. 334. 
Heart-hardening, ii. 48. 
Heart, have at, ii 180. 
Heart, have none to help, i. 90. 
Heart in right place, ii. 169. 
Heart is set to, i. 316. 
Heart, lay to, i 186. 
Heart, leave his, i 174. 
Hearty my (endearing), i 44. 
Heart of a country, ii. 87. 
Heart of gold, i 492. 
Heart of grace, take, i 458, 501, 

Heart of hearts, i 8, 163; ii 

Heart of oak, i 26, 405 ; ii. 

Heart, out of, i. 547. 
Heart (ruthlessness), ii 27. 
Heart, set on, i 81, 188. 
Heart, take, i. 86, 384. 
Heart, with all my, i. 115. 
Hearts, my, ii. 37. 
Hearten, i. 54, 457. 
Hearthstead, i. 280. 
Heartily, laugh, ii. 52. 
Heartless, i. 85. 
Heartsease, i 122, 454. 
Heartsick, ii. 34. 
Heartstring, i 348. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Heart whole, ii. 36. 
Hearty meal, iL 147. 
Heat, in racing, ii. 113. 
Heat {yra)y i 528. 
Heat of war, ii 62. 
Heats, i 329. 
Heathen, i. 439. 
Heathenish, i 439. 
Heather^ i 361 ; ii. 57. 
Heave lead, to, ii. 164. 
Heaven-bom, ii. 9. 
Heaven-bred, ii. 21. 
Heaven of heavens, i. 163. 
Heavy-headed, ii. 39. 
Heavy on his hands, time, ii. 

Hebrew, i 408, 423. 
Hebrician, i. 617. 
Heckle, i. 4. 
Hector, a, ii. 98. 
Hector, to, ii. 104. 
Hed,' added to roots, i. 26, 401. 

supplants hood,^ i. 426. 
Hedge, i 121, 256, 333, 346; 

ii. 57. 
Hedge curate, L 466. 
Hedge priest, i. 572. 
Hedge the law, i. 194. 
Hedge, to, ii 24, 115. 
Hedgehog, i 266, 454. 
Hedgerow, i. 482. 
Heedful, ii. 46. 
Heel, to, i 592. 
Heels, at his, i 59. 
Heels, cast at, i. 589. 
Heels, out at, ii. 25. 
Heels, set him by the, i. 399. 
Heels, take him to, i 486. 
Heels, take his, i 486. 
Heels upwards, ii 78. 
Heeltap, ii. 181. 
Heidelberg, ii. 76. 

Heifer, ii. 2. 

Heigh ho, i. 295. 

Height, i 329. 

Height (altitude) take, i. 613. 

Heighten, i 453. 

Heights, the, i 142. 

Heir apparent, i. 92. 

Heir, male, i 92. 

Heir to it, ii 109. 

Heirs males, i 529. 

Heirloom, i 221, 354. 

Hekst (highest), i 560. 

H^las, i 133, 179. 

Held replaces holden^ i. 562, 

587, 592. 
Hell, i 559. 
HeU broth, ii 41. 
Hell-driven, i 611. 
Hell, to live, i. 616. 
Hell upon eaa^h, ii 166. 
Hellish, i 614. 
Hell's (new Genitive), i 32. 
Help a dog over a stile, i 503. 
Help at dinner, a, ii. 167. 
Help, followed by an Active 
Participle, ii 170. 

made a Weak Verb, i 84. 
Help, help I i 92. 
Help him to it, i 147. 
Help me Gk)d, as, i 111. 
Rel^^ prevent, i 282 ; ii. 125. 
Helped supplants holpen, i. 322, 

441 ; ii 62. 
Helpful, ii 19. 

Helping (service), i 121, 228. 
Helpmate, ii. 113. 
Helter skelter, ii 33. 
Hem ! i 395, 399. 
Hem {a/rctare)y i 602 ; ii 53. 
Hem, to (cough), i 318. 
Hemlock, i 254. 
Hen pheasant, i. 11. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Henchman, i. 258, 376, 403. 
Hending, Proverbs of, i 604. 
Henny (Henrietta), ii. 188. 
Henpecked, ii. 125. 
Henroost, ii. 179. 
Henry IV., i 182, 192, 193, 

209, 234, 242. 
Henry IV. of France, ii. 80. 
Henry V., i. 77, 212-216, 219, 

220, 233, 234, 249, 290, 

326, 328. 
Henry VI., i. 232, 234, 247, 

290, 303. 
Henry VII., i 351, 364, 367, 

359, 366-368, 373, 380, 

396, 534. 

Henry VIII., i. 358, 376, 380, 
382, 384, 386, 387, 389, 

397, 446, 452, 471, 480, 
604, 606, 507, 622, 534, 
643, 545, 550, 581, 597, 
698; ii 81. 

Henry, sounded as three syl 

lables, ii. 23. 
Henry, the Minstrel, i 311. 
Hent (capere\ i. 452. 
Heo, i. 232. See ho (ilia). 
Her {iUorvm), I 330. 
Her lane (Scottish), i. 13. 
Her man (peculiar), i. 124. 
Her (Welsh use of), i 449 ; ii. 

Herb, L 323. 
Herd (pastor), i. 435. 
Herd, to, i. 100. 
Herd together, ii. 203. 
Herdess, i. 114. 
Here (army), i. 82, 166, 386. 
Here away, i. 349. 
Here, in answer to a call, i. 351. 
Here is the door, there the way, 

i. 503. 

Here nor there, i. 177. 

Here, there, and everywhere, ii. 

Herebert, i. 75. 

Hereford, Earl of, i. 43. 

Hereford, the translator, i. 138. 

Herefordshire, i. 220. 

Herefordshire Poems, i 101. 

Heretofore, i. 335. 

Hereupon, i. 267 

Heriot, a, i. 386. 

Hem, i 85, 255. 

Hems, curious, i. 321. 

Hemshaw, i. 130 ; ii. 57. 

Hero to his -valet, ii. 182. 

Herod, i. 206. 

Heroics, ii. 147. 

Heron, i. 29. 

Heronsew, i. 130. 

Herring, dead as a, ii. 83. 

Herring pond (sea), ii. 194. 

Hers, i 330. 

Hers and mine adultery, ii. 45. 

Hertford, Lord, i. 496. 

Hesiod, i. 349. 

Hester, i. 438. 

Hevelow, the cry, i. 85. 

Hew not too high, etc., i 504. 

Hew small, to, i. 226. 

Hexameters, English, i. 198 
280, 281, 407. 

Hey day, i 493. 

Hey day = prosperity, ii. 8. 

Hey diddle diddle, i. 666. 

Hey down derry, ii. 116. 

Hey ho ! i. 493. 
Hey nonny nonny ! i. 101, 530. 
Hey, pass, ii. 10. 
Hey troUy lolly ! i. 630. 
Heywood, i. 78, 381, 393, 424, 
466,467, 484, 499-506, 517, 
559, 608 ; ii. 14, 87, 109. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hiccough, iL 12, 102. 

Hick, i 98. 

Hickes, Dr., ii. 121, 166. 

Hid, lie, i 441. 

Hide and seek, ii. 114. 

Hidebound, ii. 14. 

Hideous, i. 157. 

Hiding-place, L 264. 

Higden, i. 60, 160. 

Higgle, to, ii. 102, 160. 

Higgledy piggledy, ii. 170. 

High and holy, i. 457. 

High and low, i. 79. 

High and mighty, i. 147 ; ii. 

High board, L 51. 
High bom, ii. 26. 
High climbing, i. 428. 
High coloured, ii. 50. 
High Court of Parliament, i. 1 8 1 , 
High Dutch, i. 249 ; ii. 179. 
High fed, i. 662. 
High fever, ii. 189. 
High flown, ii. 168. 
High flying, ii. 82. 
High German, i. 50, 72. 
High good humour, ii. 203. 
High hand, carry, ii. 86, 95. 
High handed, ii. 70. 
High honour, i. 403. 
High learning, i 428. 
High life below stairs, ii. 168. 
High mettled, ii 157. 
High minded, i 367, 413. 
High, on, i. 437. 
High or low, to be found, ii. 95, 

High pay, ii. 23. 
High placed, ii. 41. 
High reaching, ii. 28. 
High rigged, i. 497. 
High ropes, the, ii. 128. 

High sea, i. 329. 

High, sing, i. 111. 

High table, i. 57. 

High time, i. 201. 

High way, i 10. 

High wines, i 147. 

High words, ii. 203. 

High wrought, ii 38. 

Higham Ferrars, i. 77. 

Higher hand, have the, L 126. 

Highest, i. 32. 

Highest, in the, i. 413. 

Highlandmen, L 227. 

Highly honoured, L 69, 212. ; 

Highly in spirits, ii. 190. 

Highly pleased, i. 261. 

Highness (height), i 329. 

Highness (the title), i 193, 270, 

309, 386, 474. 
Hight (assure), i. 212. 
Highwayman, ii. 135. 
Higler, i 598. 
Hildebrand, i 558. 
Hilding, ii. 18. 
HiUo ! ii. 39. 
HiUock, i 484. 
HiUs and dales, i. 251, 357. 
Hilltop, i 601. 
Hilly, i. 456. 
Himself, he is not, ii. 26. 
Himself (itself), i. 124. 
Himself replaces ^tm, i. 163. 
Hind(/amwiw«),i. 267; ii. 23,232. 
Hinder end, ii. 200. 
Hindering made an Adjective, 

L 176. 
Hindmost, i 89. 
Hindermost, L 411. 
Hindersome, i. 185, 362, 390. 
Hindoo, ii 163. 
Hindrance, i 249. 
Hine (un), the old, ii 125. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hing, to, i 539. 

Hinge, to, L 539. 

Hint, ii. 17, 46. 

Hint, take, ii 155. 

Hip, have Mm on, i. 503, 546. 

Hips and haws, i. 612. 

Hire out^ L 431. 

His ane replaces hmi ane, i. 69. 

His coach, keep, ii 119. 

His faults, he has, ii. 11. 

His'n, ii. 187, 198. 

His reasons, have, ii 151. 

His sel^ ii 198. 

His, used to express the Geni- 
tive, i 153, 225, 272, 486. 

Hiss a man, ii. 9. 

Historical, i 618. 

Hit an image (likeness), ii 46. 

Hit (lucky stroke), ii 30. 

Hit of a good thing, ii. 55. 

Hit off wit, ii. 127. 

Hit (strike), i 442. 

Hit the pin, i 314. 

Hit the time, i 584. 

Hit your taste, ii. 178. 

Hitch, a, ii 166. 

Hitch, to, ii 121. 

Hither bank, the, i 542. 

Hithermost house, ii 75. 

Hitherto, i 411. 

Hn, a late instance of, i 255. 

Ho ! an arresting cry, i. 443 ; 
ii 49, 87. 

Ho, or hucy OT?ieo (iUa), i 56, 61, 
67, 80, 96. 

Hoar {8enescere\ ii 35. 

Hoard, to, i 607. 

Hoarse, i 52, 97, 347. 

Hoary, i 318, 321. 

Hob (jwvenis), i 182. 

Hob nob, i 504 ; ii 37. 

Hob of fireplace, ii. 22. 

Hob, the name, i 5. 

Hobbes, ii 120. 

Hobble, be in a, ii 187. 

Hobbledehoy, i 182, 585. 

Hobby, i 220. 

Hobby horse, i 6 1 5 ; ii 39, 1 96. 

Hoblob, i 601. 

Hobnail, ii 22. 

Hobson, Mr., ii. 84. 

Hobson's choice, ii 162. 

Hock (wine), ii 145. 

Hocks, i 535. 

Hocktide, i 582. 

Hocus, ii. 155. 

Hocus pocus, ii. 110, 155. 

Hod, i 583. 

Hoddy doddy, i 92. 

Hodeman blind, i 579. 

Hodge, i 121 ; ii. 232. 

Hodgkin, Mr., ii 213. 

Hof! i351. 

Hog, i 25. 

Hog (ovis), i 405. 

Hogarth, ii 222. 

Hoggish, i 579. 

Hoghen Moghen, the, ii 89. 

Hoglin, i 52, 601. 

Hogrel, i 601. 

Hogshead, i 216. 

Hogwash, ii 155. 

Hoist, ii 233, 510. 

Hoity toity, ii. 125. 

Hold ! i 576. 

Hold at arm's end, ii 10. 

Hold back, i 282. 

Hold for king, i 241. 

Hold forth, i 91, 147; ii. 103. 

Hold good, ii 53. 

Hold ground, i 202. 

Hold hard against him, i 429. 

Hold, have a, i. 20. 

Hold his countenance, ii. 31. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hold his own, i 21. 

Hold house, i 13. 

Hold, keep his, i. 176. 

Hold money on, i 330. 

Hold notes, i. 11. 

Hold of ship, ii 33. 

Hold out, i 544, 568. 

Hold (out) against, L 389. 

Hold out water, i 595 ; ii 84. 

Hold (remain on), i 7, 190. 

Hold still, i 202. 

Hold thee close, i 114. 

Hold together, ii. 46. 

Hold true, ii. 131. 

Hold up a boy, when flogged, 

ii 11. 
Hold up hand, i 295. 
Hold up your manship, i 307. 
Hold water, ii 84. 
Hold with hare, run with hound, 

i 503. 
Holden, i 562. 
Hole = bad room, ii 159. 
Hole in estate, make, ii 83. 
Holes and comers, i 540. 
Holidam, by my, ii 35. 
Holiday captain, ii 111. 
Holiday, hold, i. 348. 
Holiday, keep, ii. 221. 
Holidays, the, i 57. 
Holily, i 91, 417. 
Holland, i 233, 583, 586, 587. 
Holland shirt, i 315, 532. 
Hollin (holly), ii. 201. 
Holinshed, i 594. 
Holla, to, ii 27. 
Hollow eyed, ii. 20. 
Hollow friends, ii. 22. 
Hollow hearted, i 616. 
Hollow of a tree, ii 40. 
Hollo wness, i 583. 
HoUowness, His, i 528. 

Holocaust, i 420. 

Holpen, i 322, 408, 602. 

Holy Hallows, i 104. 

Holy Head, the, i 578. 

Holy of holies, i 163. 

Holy Bood, L^ends of, i 56, 

Home, at ( = ready), i 79, 427. 
Home, be it ever so homely, 

etc., i 585. 
Home-bom, i 595. 
Home-bred, ii. 24. 
Home-brewed, ii 181. 
Home-coming, i 54, 135, 172. 
Home (country), i 595. 
Home, he will be, i 596. 
Home, hit me, i 507. 
Home-made, i 595. 
Home, not at, ii 152. 
Home question, ii 173. 
Home, the Scotch family, i 269. 
Home, to pay, i 484. 
Homeliness, i 121. 
Homelty, jomelty, i 363. 
Homely, i 110, 140, 183, 232, 

376, 413, 428, 456, 543. 
Homer, i 499. 
Homespun, ii 29. 
Homethrust, ii 82, 123. 
Homeward bound, ii 161. 
Homilies of 1120, i 28. 
Homilies of Edward VL, i 617, 

521, 524. 
Homilies of Elizabeth, i 526, 

Honest, i 29, 65. 
Honest loses its first letter, i 453. 
Honest, make her, ii 108. 
Honest woman, i 444. 
Honesty is best policy, ii 162. 
Honey bag, ii. 29. 
Honey-mouthed, ii 46. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Honey, my, i 44. 
Honeycomb, to, ii. 67. 
Honeyed, i. 362. 
Honeymoon, ii. 222. 
Honeysuckle, L 151. 
Honour clianges its accent, i. 132. 
Honour, do him, i. 136. 
Honour-flawed, ii. 46. 
Honour, give his, ii. 148. 
Honour, have in, i. 416. 
Honour, lords of, i 81. 
Honour loses its first letter, i. 

Honour, man of, i. 470 ; ii. 104. 
Honour, obliged in, ii. 159. 
Honour of it, do to him, ii. 49. 
Honour of Tutbury, the, i. 246. 
Honour, spelling of, i. 184, 289. 
Honour to him, i. 128. 
Honour to see, have, ii. 74. 
Honour, upon, i. 218, 363, 539. 
Honour, where lodged, ii. 104. 
Honour, with my, ii. 21. 
Honours, do the, ii. 157. 
Honours, take, i. 251. 
Honours, your (title of courtesy), 

i 630. 
Honourable, the title, ii. 134. 
Hood, the Suffix, drives out ^d, 

i. 7, 234, 245, 305. 
Hoodwink, i. 601 ; ii. 41. 
Hoof, beat the, ii. 78. 
Hook in, i. 531. 
Hook on, ii. 33. 
Hook or crook, i. 146. 
Hooks and eyes, ii. 119. 
Hooks, off the, ii. 98. 
Hooked nose, i 607. 
Hooker, i. 275 ; ii. 1, 2, 216. 
Hooker, uncle of the theologian, 

i. 591. 
Hoop, i. 255. 

Hooper, Bishop, i. 508. 

Hoopoe, ii. 134. 

Hoot, to, i. 43. 

Hop, a, i. 263. 

Hop (dance), i. 436. 

Hop (give dances), ii. 190. 

Hop o* my thumb, i. 455 ; ii. 

Hop, skip, and jump, ii. 166. 
Hope, be in good, i. 341. 
Hope-lost, a, i. 601. 
Hope, of great, i. 619. 
Hope the best, i. 486. 
Hope = i^inA;, i. 17. 
Hope to God, I, i. 136. 
Hope to have, in, i. 162. 
Hope to Heaven, I, i. 47. 
Hopes, be in, ii. 150. 
Hoped, it is to be, ii. 95, 133. 
Hopefuls, i. 519. 
Hopeless child, ii. 203. 
Hopkin, i. 352. 
Hopthumb, i. 604. 
Hor-docks, i. 405. 
Horde, i 536. 

Hore, Mr., i. 468 ; ii 15,53, 73. 
Horiloge, i. 349. 
Horizon, i 588. 
Horn, King, the Poem, i. 6, 13, 

Horn spoon, i. 78. 
Home, Parson, ii. 176. 
Hornpipe, i. 258, 612. 
Horrible busy, i. 369. 
Horrible sum, a, i. 299. 
Horrid, much used by ladies, ii. 

Hors (ejm, plural), i. 449 ; ii. 

Horse and foot {orrinino), ii. 82. 
Horse corser, i. 589. 
Horse drench, ii. 48. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Horse godmotlier, ii. 166. 

Horse laugli, i 558 ; ii. 154. 

Horse meat, ii. 94. 

Horse nest, i. 602. 

Horse play, ii. 11. 

Horse-race, i 468 ; ii. 54. 

Horse-racers, ii. 74. 

Horse, take, i. 298. 

Horse, to 1 ii. 27. 

Horse to the water, bring, etc., i. 

Horse, work like a, ii. 151. 

Horseback, i 162. 

Horseflesh, i. 351. 

Horsemanship, ii 611. 

Horsewhip, ii 166. 

Horstmann, Legends printed by, 
i 18, 40, 48, 53, 94, 169, 
224, 225, 237, 280, 326, 577. 

Horsy, L 123. 

Hosen, i. 576. 

Hospitality, keep, i. 143, 217. 

Host (army), L 138, 166. 

Hostel, at Cambridge, ii. 4. 

Hoste^ L 136. 

Hostler, i 166, 193, 357. 

Hot and cold, i. 57. 

Hot as a stew, L 318. 

Hot as a toast, L 503. 

Hot blooded, il 40. 

Hot brained, ii. 89. 

Hot haste, i 492. 

Hot^ have it, i. 114. 

Hot head, i 573. 

Hot language, L 283. 

Hot press, a, ii 164. 

Hot service, ii 203. 

Hot to hold me, too, ii 136. 

Hotbed, ii 185. 

Hotchpot^i 131, 233, 615. 

Hotel, ii 178, 186. 

Hothouse, i. 360, 454. 

Hotspur, i 298, 598. 

Hough, hough ! i 548. 

Hough, to, i 262. 

Hound, i 40, 592 ; ii. 47. 

Hoimd on, i 235. 

Hour, i 161, 453. 

Hour sounded as two syllables, 

Hour to do it, take an, ii 162. 
Hour's warning, at, i 396. 
Hourly, i 324, 402. 
House and home, i 123, 540. 
House, break up, i. 586. 
House, call up the, i 506. 
House, cousin of, i 174. 
House, hold, i 147. 
House, keep, i 396, 460. 
House of correction, i 593. 
House of Fame, Chaucer's, i. 

113, 116, 336. 
House of ill repute, ii 157. 
House, set up, i 576. 
Housebreaker, i. 104. 
Houseful, ii 102. 
Household, keep, i 306. 
Householder, i 157. 
Housekeeper, i 258. 
Housel, i 265, 422, 431, 557. 
Housemaid, ii. 202. 
Houseroom, i 555. 
House warming, i 594. 
Housewife, i 612 ; ii 148. 
Housewifely, i 409. 
Housewifery, i 258, 339. 
Housing, i 192. 
Hove dance, a, i 117, 174. 
Hove, to, i 50, 63, 176, 527. 
Hovel, i 257. 
Hover, to, i 63, 193, 251. 
How, oddly spelt, i. 305. 
How made almost a Relative, i. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



How translates French qyue^ i. 24. 

How and «?% connected, i. 7. 

How came lie dead ? ii. 39. 

How do they ? L 203. 

How do ye do ? L 590. 

How far, i. 28. 

How (however) well, i. 336. 

How I tremble ! i. 350. 

How, I wot not I i. 316. 

How is it that> i 7. 

How is this? i. 251. 

How it stands with, L 202. 

How it was with them, i. 251. 

How long ago, i. 416. 

How should he but, i. 28. 

How should I? ii. 182. 

How so? L 46. 

How so that (guammi)^ i. 217. 

How that, i 13, 186. 

How were it that, i. 243. 

Howbeit, i. 243, 244, 248, 269. 

Howe, howe ! L 196, 482. 

Howell, i. 612 ; ii. 76-80, 88- 

90, 92, 93, 96-97, 109. 
Howes, Parson, i. 290. 
However is followed by an Adjec- 
tive, i. 186. 

replaces howsoever, i. 81, 142. 

stands for tamen, i. 547 ; ii. 
Howl, to, i. 129. 

Howsoever (in any case), ii. 59. 
Howsomdever, ii. 183. 
Hoy (navisjy i. 352. 
Hoy troUy lolly ! i. 101. 
Hoyden, il 12, 112. 
Hubbard, I 305. 
Hubbub, ii. 46. 
Huchon, i. 348. 
Huck, to, i 459 ; iL 66. 
Huckle bone, L 318, 484. 

Huddle, i. 6, 640. 

Hudibras, ii. 94, 101-105, 117, 

118,120, 160. 
Hue and cry, i. 216. 
Huff, i. 506, 602. 
Huff-cap, i. 614. 
Huff-nosed, i. 605. 
Huff, Ruff, and Snuff, i. 666. 
Huffa! i. 351, 602. 
Huffle-scuffle,i. 611. 
Hug, i. 462, 614 ; ii. 17, 113. 
Hugely, i. 166 ; iL 109. 
Hugeous glad, ii. 109. 
Hugger mugger, i.l04, 305, 393. 
Hugh,i. 19,120. 
Hulk, a, ii. 32. 
Hulking, ii. 33, 189. 
Hull, i. 268. 
Hull, the town, i. 310. 
Hullelo ! i. 603. 
Hum! i.372. 
Hum,to,i. 114, 169. 
Human, i 482 ; ii. 31. 
Humane, i. 535 ; ii. 31. 
Humanity, i. 133, 145, 325, 

388, 434, 470, 571, 572. 
Humble, i. 181. 
Humble (sonare), i. 117. 
Humbleness, i. 434. 
Humbles, the, i. 525. 
Humblest servant, at the end of 

a letter, i. 309. 
Humbug, ii. 169. 
Humdrum, i. 563 ; ii. 102. 
Hume, ii. 209, 233. 
Hume, the family, i. 269 ; ii. 

Hummel Bunmiel, i. 117. 
Hummock, i. 536. 
Humorous, ii 16, 26, 36. 
Humour, applied to the mind, 

i. 493, 671 ; ii. 8. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Humour, ill, i. 5*73. 
Humour, in good, ii. 71. 
Humour of it, that's, ii. 36. 
Humour, out of, ii. 1Q9. 
Humour, to, ii 10, 17. 
Humours, i. 31, 131, 236. 
Humourist, ii 61. 
Humoursome, ii. 206. 
Hump, i 536 ; ii 22. 
Humpback, ii 138. 
Humph, ii. 32. 
Humphrey, dine with Duke, ii. 

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 

i 243, 323. 
Hums and haws, i 306, 460. 
Humtie-dumtie, ii. 51, 133. 
Hunched back, ii. 97. 
Hundred, in the (per cent), i 

Hundred Merry Tales, the, i 

Hundred or two, a, i 219. 
Hundred weight, i. 595. 
Hundreds (pounds), i. 505. 
Hungary, i 73 ; ii 146, 331. 
Hunger-rot, i 405. 
Hunger starved, i 488 ; ii 75, 

Hungred, I, i 33. 
Hunks, a,ii 111,207. 
Hunne, i 392. 
Hunt forests, i 81. 
Hunt in couples, ii 187. 
Hunter (a horse), ii 138. 
Hunting, discussed, i. 616. 
Hunting, go a, i 154. 
Hunting of the Hare, the poem, 

Hunting, Treatise on, i 223. 
Huntress, i 116. 
Huntsman, ii 9. 

Huome (home), i. 301. 
Hurdy-gurdy, ii 193. 
HurUiog, the game, i 208. 
Hurly-burly, i 65, 152, 534. 
Hurrah! iill8. 
Hurricane, i 536, 593. 
Hurry, a, ii 158. 
Hurry-scurry, ii 185. 
Hurry, to, i. 64, 540 ; ii. 22. 
Hurt, do, i 306. 
Hurt (offend), i 416. 
Hurt to death, i 335. 
Hurteth, it> i 498. 
Hurtful, i 595. 
Hurtle, i 35, 140. 
Husband (agricola), i. 405, 

Husband (housekeeper),^i 267. 
Husband, to,. i 262; ii39. 
Husbandman, i 329. 
Husbandry, i 98. 
Hush! ii. 17. 
Hush money, ii 172. 
Hush, to, i 129 ; ii 58. 
Husk, i 165. 
Huskiness, i 506. 
Husky, ii 183. 
Hussar, ii 146. 
Hussy, i 612; ii 63, 107, 

Hust or hist, i 447. 
Hustle, i 563. 
Hut^ i 6. 

Hutchinson, i 526-528. 
Huzza, i 591 ; ii 118. 
Hy,hy! i 189. 
Hysena, i 30. 
Hyde Park, i 529, 534. 
Hydra-headed, ii. 36. 
Hymn, i 145. 
Hymn-singer, i. 349. 
Hyppish, ii. 205. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



I inserted, i. 43, 95, 101, 227 ; 

ii. 77, 197, 201. 
thrown out of the middle, i. 

62, 67, 85, 146, 254, 298, 

329, 438 ; ii. 15, 20, 48, 

clipped at the beginning, i 

151, 314. 
clipped at the end, i. 12. 
added to nouns, to form Ad- 
jectives, L 89. 
takes the sound of Gferman 

dy i. 359 ; ii 65, 88. 
seems to take the sound of 

French I, i. 193, 347, 494. 
replaces a, i. 289, 376 ; ii. 

replaces cs, i. 539. 
replaces at, i. 301, 575, 590 ; 

ii. 65. 
replaces e, i. 5, 6, 32, 68, 119, 

146, 539, 567, 579, 612 ; 

ii. 111. 
replaces ea, i. 19. 
replaces ee, ii 109. 
replaces e/i, i 123. 
replaces ey«, i. 590. 
replaces 0, L 96, 119, 146, 

355 ; ii 197. 
replaces ow, ii 41. 
replaces moyi, 56. 
replaces w, i 19, 50, 56, 151, 

replaces y, ii. 150. 
is a mistaken prefix, i. 292. 
is favoured by Caxton, i 333. 
is pronounced like ay«, i 578 ; 

iil5, 115. 
used for m«, ii 198. 
(«gfo), dropped, i 52. 
repeated at the end of a sen- 
tence, i 586. 

la replaces at, i 119. 

replaces ea, i. 6. 

rimes with t, ii. 28. 
I am he, i 414, 440. 
I am in for it, ii. 141. 
I and he, i. 600. 
I for one, ii. 110. 
I is («wm), i. 184. 
I per se I, ii. 87. 
lago, i 16 ; ii. 1. 
Ice, break the, i 544. 
Iceberg, i 98. 
Iceland, i. 23. 
Ich (ego\ i 510, 564, 575. 
Icicle, i. 57. 

Icon Basilike, the, ii. 106. 
Id est, i 218. 

Idea, i 489 ; ii. 6, 28, 95. 
Idle-headed, i 25. 
Idleby, ii 9. 
Idler, i 473 ; ii 122. 
Idol, i 562, 618. 
le, a Kentish form, i 25, 119, 
332, 333. 

favoured by Tyndale and 
Gresham, i 410, 568. 

had the sound of ay, i. 314, 
368, 426, 467, 481, 531 ; 
ii. 65. 

is clipped at the end, i 453. 

has each syllable sounded, i 

is added to a word, i 532 ; 

is sounded in our way, ii. 

old German sound of, i 214. 

replaces «, i 579 ; ii. 105. 

replaces ea3, i 151. 

replaces t, i 600. 

replaces y, ii 224. 
If expresses surprise, ii. 139. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



If {f(yii(me\ ii. 36. 

K it were to do again, i. 544. 

If no, i. 443 ; ii. 45. 

If replaces oruf, i. 332. 

If so be that, i. 84. 

Ifs and wnds^ ii. 112. 

Ignis fatuus, ii. 65. 

Ignore, ii 121. 

Ilde (tiMM^,i305. 

He (I will), i 559, 589. 

Ilk (each) used in the North, i. 

Ilk (same), i. 140. 
Ilk same (that), i. 175. 
Ill, an, i 376. 
Ill at ease, i. 569. 
Ill beseeming, ii. 24. 
Ill blood, ii 67, 77. 
Ill-boding, ii. 22. 
Ill bred, ii 83. 
Ill brought up, i. 573. 
Ill disposed, ii 61. 
Ill disposition, i. 336. 
Ill fame, i 348. 
Ill-gotten goods never prosper, i 

Ill gotten, ill spent, 502. 
Ill hand of it, make, ii 83. 
Ill humour, i 573. 
Ill life, i 333. 
Ill (;rmlu8\ i 56. 
Ill name, i 375. 
Ill name is half-hanged, i. 502. 
Ill natured, ii. 105. 
HI night of it, have, ii 83. 

Ill replaces fiek^ i 590 ; ii. 26. 
Ill starred, ii 38. 
Ill success, ii. 199. 
Ill tempered, ii 49. 
Ill timed, ii 148. 
Ill treat, to, i. 578. 

ni usage, i 578. 

Ill use, to, i 578 ; ii 132. 

Ill weed grows fast, i 501. 

Ill will, i 94. 

Ill wilier, i 375 ; ii 106. 

Ill wind that blows no one good, 

Ill year of it, have, ii 70. 
niness, i 376, 496. 
Image, i 562, 618. 
Image, to, i 218. 
Imbecility, i. 550. 
Imbox, to, i. 548. 
Imbrangle, ii. 103. 
Imitations of Old English, i. 

400, 401 ; ii. 98. 
Immediately, i 214, 421. 
Imp, i 209, 541. 
Imperative, a corrupt, i. 140. 

employed in a curse, i. 416. 

is dropped, i 602. 

stands for the Future, i 58, 

the old, i. 321, 332, 337. 

two forms of, i. 283. 
Imperial crown of England, i. 

Imperials, the, i 477. 
Impersonal Verb governs an 

Accusative, i 251. 
Impertinent (impudent), ii. 72. 
Impertinent (not relevant), i. 

508, 571. 
Impesse, an, curious word, i. 

Impliedly, i 187. 
Imply, i 293. 
Importance, of, i. 367, 385. 
Impose upon, ii. 112. 
Imposing, ii 186. 
Imposition, i. 303 ; ii 165. 
Impossible to him, i. 34. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Impostliiime, L 347. 
Impound, to, ii 36. 
Impression, make, i 665 ; ii. 

Impressions, i. 115, 208, 549 ; 

ii 10, 127. 
Impressment (in the navy), i. 

Impropriations of livings, i 150, 

222, 481. 
Improve (in our sense), i. 482. 
Improve (rebuke), i 279, 419, 

Improve upon, ii 133. 
Improving estate, an, ii 205. 
In, clipped at the beginning, i. 

follows the Active Participle, 
i 158. 

may be instrumental, i 252. 

needlessly inserted, i. 291. 

preferred to ew, i 181, 265, 
349, 531. 

prefixed to Teutonic words, i 
143, 186, 611. 

replaces on, i 28, 86, 129, 

stands after arrive^ i. 86. 

struck out, i 91, 272, 330, 

used in compounding, i. 548. 
In at doors ! i 492. 
In at the death, ii. 171. 
In, harvest is, i 183. 
In him, it was, i 548. 
In loving of God, a new idiom, 

In primis, i 242. 
In such case, i 245. 
Inaugurate a leader, ii 78. 
Inbome, i 94. 
Inbred, ii 63. 


Inbring, to, i. 226, 350. 

Incall, to, i 186. 

Inch (insula), i 312. 

Inch, to an, ii. 43. 

Inches, by, ii. 48. 

Inchmeal, i 553 ; ii. 47, 48. 

Inchoative Verbs, i 460. 

Inclepe, to, i 143. 

Income, i 357, 615, 616 ; ii 

Incontinent (gtatim), i 285. 
Inconvenience (damnum), i 325, 

Increase, i 138. 
Incubus, i 155. 
Incumbent, the, i 217. 
Inde stands for ing in Verbal 

Nouns, i. 28. 
Indebted in, i 474. 
Indecent, i. 620 ; ii 60. 
Indeed and indeed, ii 174. 
Independent on, ii. 127. 
Indermore, ii. 201. 
India, ii 125, 166, 212, 224. 
Indiaman, a ship, ii 66. 
Indian com, ii 66. 
Indians, i 252. 
Indians and their words, ii 61. 

See Americans, i 556, 572. 
Indies, the, i 386. 
Indiflferentily (malh), ii 71. 
Indignation, have, i 153, 435. 
Indigo, i 636. 
Indisposed, ii 72. 
Indisposition, ii 86. 
Individual, i 470 ; ii. 178. 
Indoor pastimes, ii 73. 
Indorse, i 216. 
Indue, i 181, 199. 
Indulge it to him, ii 139. 
Indulgence, of^ i 211. 
Industry, i. 470. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Inebriates, ii. 214. 
Ineptitude, ii 219, 223. 
Infamous, i. 118. 
Infelt, i. 612. 
Infernal bad, ii 182. 
Infidel, i. 553. 

Infinitive Active, now changed 
for the Passive, i. 147 ; but 
not always, i. 170. 
curious idioms of, i. 33, 203, 
277, 284, 367, 441 ; ii 67, 
114, 115, 120, 131, 169, 
179, 204. 
follows /or, i 310. 
follows other Verbs, i 58, 59, 
163, 176,251, 377; ii. 30, 
42, 127. 
is dropped, ii 137. 
loses its final m, i 160. 
loses the to prefixed, ii. 78. 
made an Interjection, ii. 85. 
Passive follows abovJt^ ii. 59. 
Passive follows hnrnxj^ i. 235. 
Passive governs other Verbs, i 

Passive in use, i 430. 
stands for a Noun, ii. 203. 
Infirmities, i 138. 
Inflexions preserved in Kent, i. 

Infold, ii 41. 

Inform (teach), i 95, 229, 420. 
Ing stands for the final en, i. 
273, 274, 438, 494. 
the ending, is sometimes 
puzzling, i 164, 218, 222, 
written for eiwie and an^ in 
the Present Participle, i. 
138, 140, 197, 207, 247. 
Ings, ending, much used by 
Pecock, i 275. 

Ingang, i 98. 

Ingenuity, ii. 199. 

Ingoing, i 27. 

Ingot, i 130. 

Ingratitude, i 470. 

Ingreat himself, ii. 80. 

Inhuman, i 520, 593. 

Inhumanity, i 550. 

Initial, ii 224. 

Initiate, i 548 ; ii. 217, 223, 

Inkest (blackest), i 42. 
Inkhom, ill. 
Inkhom terms, i 484. 
Inkhomism, ii 12. 
Inkling, i 42, 507. 
Inland, ii 30. 
Inland men, i. 520. 
Inlay, to, ii 30. 
Inlet, i 12 ; ii. 60. 
Inly, i 115 ; ii 24. 
Inmate, ii 9. 
Inmost, i 437. 
Inn {domm\ i 173. 
Inn holder, an, i 193. 
Inner, i 272, 423. 
Innkeeper, i 497. 
Innocence, my feir, ii 144. 
Innocents, i 37. 
Innuendo, ii 131. 
Inquire after, ii 69. 
Inquisition, make, i 153, 437. 
Inroad, i 518 ; ii 50. 
Ins and outs, the, ii. 168. 
Insconce, ii 20. 
Inside out, turn, ii. 13. 
Inside passengers, ii 182. 
Inside, the, i 360, 371 ; ii 167. 
Insidious, ii. 215. 
Insolent, i 551. 
Insolvency, ii 108. 
Inspiration, ii. 132. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Install,!. 117; ii 74. 
Instance of, at the, i. 38, 186. 
Instant, in one, i. 379. 
Instate, to, ii 43, 72, 75. 
Instep, L 495, 560. 
Instructions, i. 230, 238, 389. 
Insult upon, ii. 72. 
Insure, to, L 265 ; ii. 162. 
Integer, i. 368. 
Intelligence (message), i. 471. 
Intelligence (news), i. 318. 
Intend a thing, L 248. 
Intend calling, I, ii. 177. 
Intend with him, i. 248. 
Intention, it was his, i. 93. 
Intercourse, i. 302. . 
Interest, L 244, 293, 474, 567. 
Interest, make, ii. 164, 190. 
Interest of money, i. 530. 
Interest, opposed to Capitaly ii. 

Interest to, it is my, ii. 123. 
Interest with, have, ii. 121. 
Interlacing, i 271. 
Interlude, i. 454. 
Intermingle, i. 433. 
Interpret, i. 138. 
Interrogative idiom, new, i. 564, 

Interrupt, i. 286. 
Interview, i. 385 ; ii. 178. 
Intimates, ii. 147. 
Intimation, L 270. 
Intransitive Verb, followed by 

an Accusative, i 16. 
Intrap, i 592. 
Intrigue, ii. 59, 114. 
Intromeddle, i 296. 
Intromit, L 30. 
Inure, i. 324, 351. 
Invalids, ii 154. 
Inveigle, i 482 ; ii 5. 

Inventor (discoverer), ii. 121. 
Invidious, ii. 51, 123, 161. 
Invite supplants bid, i 568, 

Invoice, ii 89. 
Inward (intimate), ii. 43. 
Inward parts, i 228, 373, 413 ; 

ii. 45, 167. 
Inwit, i 334. 

Ippomedon, the Romance, i. 188. 
Ipswich, i 352, 387. 
I're (ego mm\ ii 200. 
Ireland, i 119, 215, 598, 599, 

624 ; ii 75, 98, 194. 
Irish names, i 380. 
Irish phrases, i 39, 393, 475, 

476, 494, 592, 600 ; ii. 79, 

99, 105, 141, 142, 145, 146, 

179, 180, 181, 187, 195. 
Irish Scot, an, i 88. 
Irish = Scotch Gael, i 520. 
Irish, the, i 2, 7, 216, 352, 

495, 496, 546, 577, 624 ; ii 

93, 117, 118, 144, 197, 217, 

Irishry, i 87, 88, 389. 
Irks me, it, i 394. 
Irksome, i 260. 
Iron gray, i 405. 
Iron master, ii. 87. 
Iron, when hot, strike, i 386. 
Irons, i 57. 
Ironmonger, i 197. 
Irregular, ye are, i 205. 
Is («s*), contracted, i 592. 
Is is used to form a Genitive, i 

Ish, added to a French Verb, i. 

added to an Adjective, i 110, 
117, 183, 413, 456, 559, 
579, 611 ; ii 176. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ish, added to a Substantive, i. 
114, 283, 421, 485, 631, 
679, 611 ; ii. 134. 
implies degradation, i 429. 
replaces is at the end, L 61. 
Islandish, ii. 63. 
Islet, ii. 60. 

Ism, the ending, ii. 21, 133. 
Issue, i 41, 219, 366, 370, 580. 
1st, the foreign ending, i. 379. 
It> at the beginning stands for a 
Noun that is to foUow, i 
63, 176. 
dropped in a sentence, L 241. 
expresses yonder y i. 564. 
following a Verb, a new idiom, 
i. 10, 40, 110, 114, 124, 
394. I 

for edy at the end of Scotch 

Participles, i 87. 
Indefinite, heads the Sentence, 
i 83, 124, 163, 176, 184. 
is to foUow, i. 63, 176. 
peculiar use of, i. 7, 153, 
440, 476; ii. 107,122, 151. 
represents a long previous 
sentence, i. 185, 205, 358, 
405, 457, 543. 
stands for his, ii. 25. 
It ben (is), i. 38. 
It is I, i. 81, 414. 
It is ill stealing from a thief, L 

It is me, i 440 ; ii 189. 
It is two miles, i. 58. 
It self, i 440. 
It = there, i. 543. 
Italian forms, L 50, 494 ; ii. 1 1, 

Italian influence on English, i 
113, 471, 514, 574, 697, 
619 ; ii. 28. 

Italian words, i. 41, 102, 198, 
353, 406, 422, 466, 494, 
529, 552, 566, 669, 687, 
603, 614 ; ii 15, 18, 19, 34, 
54, 61, 79, 93, 104, 108, 
126, 128, 139, 162, 174. 

Italians, i 18, 368, 654, 606, 
621, 622 ; ii. 229. 

Italy, i 76, 610 ; ii. 4, 10, 230. 

Itch, ears, i 416. 

Itch to be, ii. 84. 

Ite, the ending, ii 21. 

Item, i 180, 220 ; ii 98. 

It*s (est), i 120. 

Ifs me, i 100, 440. 

It's you that, etc, ii. 63. 

Its, i 440 ; ii 62, 83. 

Itself, ctarity, ii 83. 

Itude replaces mss, ii. 158. 

IVe, ii. 63. 

I-wis, ii 43, 87. 

I3 for ge, i. 66. 

Ize (ego sum), ii 200. 

Ize, the foreign ending, ii. 11, 

J replaces ch, i 393. 

replaces d, i 690. 

replaces g, i 173, 199. 

replaces hi, i. 237. 
Jabber, i 435, 618. 
Jack, i 19, 174 ; ii 27. 
Jack and Gill, i 199, 393. 
Jack (armour), i 237. 
Jack boot, ii 144. 
Jack boy ! i 192. 
Jack fool, i 121. 
Jack in the box, ii. 98. 
Jack Jugler, the play, i. 564. 
Jack lout, i 510. 
Jack malapert, play, i 286. 
Jack of the hedge (a plant), i 6 1 4. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Jack, of trades, i 595 ; ii 64. 

Jack out of office, i. 503, 541. 

Jack (pike), ii. 4. 

Jack, for roasting, ii 56. 

Jack Bobinson, say, ii. 195. 

Jack sauce, i. 512. 

Jack Sprat, i. 567. 

Jack tar, ii. 196. 

Jack Upland, the Poem, i. 191. 

Jack with the bush, i. 381. 

Jack with the lantern, ii. 115. 

Jack would be a gentleman, 

could he speak French, i. 504. 
Jackadandy, ii. 140. 
Jackal, ii. 144. 
Jackass, i 121 ; ii. 178. 
Jackdaw, i 510. 
Jacket, i 107, 343. 
Jackpudding, ii. 108. 
Jackson, i 305. 
Jacobites (Dominicans), L 518. 
Jade, i. 16, 131 ; ii. 109. 
Jaded, ii 22. 
Jagged, i. 204. 
JaU, i 120, 302. 
Jak for Jacques, i. 93. 
Jam, to, i 435 \ ii 164. 
James, i 15. 
James I. of Scotland, i 94, 226, 

228, 307, 467. 
James II. of Scotland, i 269. 
James IV. of Scotland, i 368, 

James V. of Scotland, i. 390, 
James I. of England, Letters of 

his time, ii 57-60, 69-73, 94, 

James II. of England, i 623 ; 

ii 197. 
James, St, the Spanish city, i 

Jamy, i 280, 371. 

Jane, i 19, 220, 242. 
Janets i 98, 156, 198. 
Jangle, to, i 352. 
Janissaries, i 557. 
Jankin, i 19, 583. 
January, in Chaucer, i 201. 
January, the forms of, i. 338, 

Japan, to, ii. 152, 196. 
Japing stick, i 158. 
Jar of water, ii. 85. 
Jar ipaxji), i 467, 468, 500. 
Jar, to, i 393. 
Jargon, i 172. 
Jasper, i 199. 
Jaundice, i 151. 
Jaunt, i 563 ; ii 34. 
Jaunty, ii 101. 
Jaw, i 118, 268, 437. 
Jaw (utterance), ii 97, 180. 
Jealous (suspicious), ii 61. 
Jealous, to, ii 61. 
Jeddart justice, i 184. 
Jeer, i 548. 

Jeffreys, Judge, ii 99, 118. 
Jemmy, the tool, ii 10. 
Jenkins, Dr., i 574. 
Jenny, i 381, 583. 
Jeopard, to, i 246, 421. 
Jeopardize, i 246, 421. 
Jericho, to, i 563. 
Jerk, i 545. 
Jerkin, i 435. 
Jerome, St., i 423. 
Jerry. (Jeremiah), ii 111. 
Jervaux, i 473. 
Jessamine, ii. 85. 
Jest^ i 155, 173. 
Jest, take a, ii 154. 
Jest, to, i 379, 419, 426, 465, 

Jester, i 364. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Jesting with edged tools, i 606. 

Jesuitical, ii 86. 

Jesuits, i 623. 

Jet black, i 286. 

Jet (swagger), ii. 45, 87. 

Jet, the, L 123, 269. 

Jetty, i 549. 

Jew boy, ii 202. 

Jew's harp, ii. 98. 

Jew's money, i. 597. 

Jewel, Bishop, i. 557. 

Jewel of a man, i. 91. 

Jewel of him, have, i. 533. 

Jewishness, i. 540. 

Jib, the, i 564. 

Jig (dance), i. 559. 

Jigger (door), i. 575. 

Jilflirt, ii. 109. 

JiU, a, i. 541. 

Jill of Brentford, i. 466, 524. 

Jilt, ii 107, 109. 

Jilt him, ii. 147. 

Jingle, to, i 126. 

Jingles in English, i 98, 363, 

370, 451, 511 ; ii 182. 
Jingo, by the living, ii 205. 
Jis, by, i 399, 619. 
Joan, i 19, 98, 141, 198, 220, 

Joan, usual name for a poor 

woman, i 511, 612; ii 27, 

Job, a, ii. 111. 
Job, bare as, i 20. 
Job horse, a, ii. 202. 
Job, poor as, i 175. 
Job, to, i 263. 
Jobation, ii 194. 
Jobber, i 244. 
Jock, i 361, 467 ; ii 91. 
Jockey, a, ii 58, 91, 113, 117. 
Jocky, the name, i 371 ; ii 96. 

Joe (Joseph), ii 87. 

Joe, my, i 227. 

Jog, to, i 101, 580. 

John, i 69. 

John has his Joan, i 605. 

John Nokes, i 240, 616. 

John Trot, a, ii 177. 

John's College, St, i 574. 

Johnson, Dr., i 2, 123, 408, 

610; ii 21, 138, 157, 174- 

176, 198, 208, 213, 217, 

227, 233, 234. 
Join battle, i 291. 
Join companies, ii 158. 
Join hand to hand, i 379. 
Join hard to, i 417. 
Join issue, i 244. 
Join like likes, ii. 17. 
Joiners, i 212. 
Joining, i 274. 
Joint, out of, i 235. 
Jointly, i 34. 

Jointly or severally, i. 207. 
Joinville, i. 6. 
Joist, i 264. 
Joke, it was no, ii 172. 
Jokes against England, i 85, 582. 
JoUy dog, ii. 196. 
JoUy, prefixed to Adjectives, ii. 

Jolt, ii 159. 
Jolthead, i 427, 590. 
Jonas, i 139. 
Jones, i 592. 
Jonson, Ben, i 440, 616 ; ii. 53- 

56, 57, 60, 65, 68, 80, 81, 89, 

102, 114, 121. 
Jorum, ii 195. 
Jostle, i 462, 491. 
Journal, i 264, 288. 
Journey (pti^na), i 539. 
Journeyman, i 303, 310. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Jove, i 253. 

Jove, by ! i. 563. 

Jovial, ii 40, 55. 

Jowl, i. 118, 255, 347. 

Joy, give them, ii. 78, 151. 

Joy, my, i. 227. 

Joy, to, i. 145, 302, 421. 

Joyce, i. 244. 

Joye, the writer, i 403, 472, 

Joyless, L 18. 
Joyly (hilarl8)y i, 483. 
Judas kiss, i. 510. 
Judasly, i. 432. 
Judger, i. 378. 

Judgment replaces day^ i 412. 
Judgment seat^ L 421. 
Judgment, to my, i. 403. 
Judgment (wisdom), i. 476. 
Judy, ii. 141. 
Jug, a, i. 541. 
Jug, jug ! i. 395. 
Jugged game, ii 172. 
Ju^, how derived, i 36. 
July, for Julius, i. 340, 426, 

July, the month, i. 538. 
Jumble, i 115, 234, 370. 
Jump about (be active), u. 203. 
Jump (exactly), L 467. 
Jump, take a, ii. 52. 
Jump, to, i 462 ; ii. 104, 179. 
Junior, my, ii. 83. 
Junto, ii. 72. 
Jure, de, i. 303. 
Juror, i 321. 
Jury mast, ii. 68. 
Just an ounce, i. 133. 
Just man, I 13iB, 187, 618. 
Just nobody, ii 206. 
Just now, ii 75. 
Just, referring to time, i. 342. 

Just (so), i 466. 
Just lvix\ ii. 206. 
Justice, do him, ii 134. 
Justice Gaudy, i 551. 
Justice of peace, i 215. 
Justify (do justice on), i 14. 
Justify you, i 138. 
Justly, i 489. 
Jut, to, ii 27. 
Juvenal, i 144. 
Juvente, i 103. 

K added to a word, i 540. 

clipped after c, ii 97, 197. 

inserted, in Lancashire, i 68. 

prefixed, i 540. 

preserved in a Comparative 
Adverb and Superlative 
Adjective, i 97, 272. 

preserved in East Anglia, ii. 

replaces chy i 12, 61, 88, 112, 

replaces p, i 255, 589. 

replaces t, i 256, 506. 

softened, ii. 107. 

sounded in know, i 359. 

thrown out, i 199, 219, 249, 
Ka, ka ! i 488. 
Ka me, ka thee, i. 501. 
Kafirs, i 593. 
Kale, i 514. 

Kam (crooked), ii 48, 87. 
Kate, i 297, 315. 
Katherine of Aragon, i. 369, 

391, 477. 
Katherine, St., Legend of, i 48, 

Keek, to, i 129. 
Keel, i 531. 
Keel (coal barge), ii 200. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Keen bitten, ii. 200. 

Keep a wife, i 282. 

Keep a woman, L 480. 

Keep chapel, ii. 160. 

Keep from sin, i. 201. 

Keep his day, i 39. 

Keep his hour, i. 319. 

Keep in order, ii 160. 

Keep in play, i. 544, 620. 

Keep in nre, i. 606. 

Keep in with them, i. 644. 

Keep it close, i 127, 309. 

Keep it to his own knowing, i. 

Keep it to yourself, i 53. 
Keep, keep ! to a horse, L 129. 
Keep (maintain) a man, i. 190. 
Keep (march) on, i. 519. 
Keep no better, L 62. 
Keep of a Castle, i. 386. 
Keep off, ii. 21. 
Keep the road, robbers, ii. 3. 
Keep the sea, L 20. 
Keep to a thing, i. 62. 
Keep under, i. 481. 
Keep up with,ii. 107. 
Keep (vtc^tw), ii 166. 
Keep within doors, i 492. 
Keeper of lunatics, i 495. 
Keeper of the Seal, i 310. 
Keeping of a forest, i. 1 1. 
Keg, ii. 68. 
Kemble, i 256, 453. 
Kemp, the Jester, ii. 52. 
Kempe, Chancellor, i 272. 
Kempt (combed), i 120. 
Ken (kenning), i 606 ; ii 45. 
Ken (^^dri)^ i 195, 494 ; ii. 166, 
Ken {v{dere)y i 117 ; ii 23, 44. 
Kendal, ii 64. 
Kennel = canal, i 539, 605. 
Kennel of dogs, i 60. 

Kenning, a, i 117, 345. 

Kent, i 6, 8, 9, 20, 23-25, 28, 
35,37,49,72,74, 119,126, 
157, 161, 327, 328, 334, 
385, 554, 557, 579, 581, 582, 
607 ; ii 76, 193, 200. 

Kent, Maid of, i. 427. 

Ker, the family, i 386. 

Kerne, i 216, 352, 599, 604. 

Ketch, a, ii. 116. 

Kettle, i 255. 

Kettle of fish, ii 166. 

Kettledrum, ii. 38, 140. 

Key, in music, i 403. 

Key of arch, ii. 76. 

Key-turner, ii. 64. 

Keys to the door, i» 474. 

Keyhole, ii. 9. 

Kibe, i 154 ; ii 39. 

Kick, i 101. 

Kick against the prick, i 13^ 

Kick his heels, ii 169. 

Kick the bucket, ii 195. 

Kick up riot, ii. 178. 

Kickshaw, ii 34, 37. 

Kicksy-wicksy, ii 17. 

Kid-leather glove, ii 122. 

Kid(2?wer),iill8, 197. 

Kidnap, ii 118. 

Kidney, i. 4. 

Kidney bean, i 514. 

Kidney, of his own, ii 133. 

Kidskin gloves, ii. 77. 

Kildare, Earls of, i 388, 481. 

Kildare, Michael of, i 2, 3. 

Kilderkin, i 207. 

Kill care, i 41. 

Kill colours, i 487. 

Kill encroaches on queU, i 42, 
56,97, 416. 
prefixed to nouns, ii. 10, 29 

Kill him dead, ii. 142. } 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Kill or cure, ii. 181. 
Kill them down, i 440. 
, Kill them up, iL 37. 
Kill time, ii 157. 
Kill with kindness, ii. 18. 
Killing, with ladies, ii. 1 11. 
Kilt, i. 349. 

Kin, tacked on to men's names, 
i 61, 97. 

taken from men's names, i. 

tacked on to foreign words, i. 
98, 216. 
Kin and Icinji stand together, 
. ii. 26. 

Kin, be of his, i 128. 
Kin, of, i 177, 666. 
Kinchin cove, i 575. 
Kinchin lay, ii 197. 
Kind encroaches on Hw, L 61, 

Kind (mother) wit, i. 98. 
l^ind (nature), ii 50. 
Kind of chameleon, ii. 20. 
Kind, pay in, ii 117. 
Kindly, i 527. 
Kindly, take it, ii. 83. 
Kindly to, take, ii. 169. 
Kindness, i. 269. 
Kindred action, ii 25. 
Elindred to kindred, from, i. 290. 
Kine, i 333. 

King and Kaiser, i 200, 518. 
King at arms, i 548. 
King it, to, ii 89. 
King John, Bale's play, i 517. 
King-killer, ii. 42, 98. 
King's bad bargain, ii 196. 
King's Bench, the, i 234, 242. 
King's Chekyr, i 242. 
King's English, i 193, 212 ; ii. 


King's evidence, turn, ii 172. 
King's evil, i 454. 
King's high way, i 219. 
Kings of England, in Latin, 

i 356. 
King's peace, the, i 310. 
Kingcraft, i 621 ; ii. 94. 
Kingdom come, go to, ii 195. 
Kingdom, old form of, i 224. 
Kingfisher, i 258. 
Kingly, i 570. 
Kingsley, i. 85. 
Eansfolk, i 290. 
Kinswoman, i. 200. 
Kirk, i 618. 

Kirk a maiden, to, i 228. 
Kirkcudbright, i 306. 
Kirkgate, i 74. 
Kirkmen, i 247, 393. 
Kiss and tell, must not, ii 126. 
Kissing goes by favour, ii. 137. 
Kissing men, the custom of, ii. 

143, 184. 
Kit, i 92 j ii 107. 
Kit (Christopher), i 583. 
Kitchen clerk, i 149. 
Kite, the toy, ii 102. 
Kith and kin, ii 119. 
Kith, mistaken for A;m, i 12. 
Kitten, i 98, 460 ; ii 31. 
Kitten, to, i. 460. 
Kittle, i. 349. 
Kiver (cover), i. 140. 
Knack, i 111, 148. 
Knack (knicknack),i 451 ; ii. 28. 
ICnack to say things, i 611. 
Baiacker (harness maker), i 584. 
Kjiap, to, i 437, 446. 
Knapsack, ii. 78. 
Knaresboro, i 342. 
Knave, i 40, 62, 83, 110, 600. 
Knave at cards, i 566 ; ii. 82. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bjiavery, L 426. 

Knavish, i 306. 

Knee a man, iL 10. 

Knee-crooking, iL 38. 

Elnee-deep, i. 542. 

Kneen (genua), i. 237, 404. 

Knew why, unless he, L 294. 

Knickknack, ii. 28. 

Knife gate, ii 200. 

Knight errant, i 81. 

Knight's service, ii 93. 

Knightess, i 492. 

Knightly, i 174. 

Knit his brows, i 126 ; ii. 22. 

Knitter, ii 37. 

Knob, i 81. 

Knock down argument, a, i 168. 

Knock down with feather, ii 203. 

Knock him in the head, ii 120, 

Knock me down doings, ii 179. 

Knock off (ce8sare\ ii 196. 

Knock over, ii 201. 

Knock under, ii 98. 

Knock up a man, ii 126. 

Knop, i 362, 400. 

Knot of women, a, i 169. 

Knot slips, i 565. 

Knotty pointy ii 115. 

Knour, i 554. 

Know a man (greet him), i 59, 

Know a trick worth two, ii. 32. 
Know asunder, i 371. 
Know, do ye, ii 148. 
Know his own mind, ii. 125. 
Know it to be, ii. 74. 
Know my place, ii 37. 
Know not what, I, i 608. 
Know the length of his foot, 

i 607. 
Know the world, ii. 24, 155. 
Know what he is about, ii. 182. 

Know what is what, i 404. ; 
Know whafs o'clock, i 511. 
Know what thou wouldst be at, 

ii 122. 
Know what to make of it, i 61 3. 
Know where I am, before I, 

ii 122. 
Know where to have him, i 497 ; 

ii 112. 
Know which way to turn, i 544. 
Know which way wind blows, 

Know whom, you, ii 103. 
Know, you; at the end of a 

sentence, i 295. 
Know, you must, i 287 ; ii. 151. 
Knowed, he, ii 199. 
Knowing (cdllidtis), i 67, 306 ; 

Knowing, there is no, ii 180. 
Knowledge, i 161. 
Knowledge box, ii 194. 
Knowle(^e, come to his, i. 338. 
Knowledge, give, i 325. 
Knowledge of, have, i 416. 
Knowledge, take, i 176. 
Knowledge, to his, i 231, 2d8, 

Known, it is to be, i. 405. 
Known men (heretics), i 2 7 6, 39 2. 
Known to all, be it^ i 212. 
Knox, John, i 227, 385, 539, 

Konigsberg, ii. 62. 
Koran, i 622. 
Kye, i 446. 

L, added to a word, i 81, 257, 

453, 583, 598, 600, 604, 

614 ; ii 24, 31, 37, 42, 

52, 65, 84, 91, 107. 

inserted, i 82, 106, 161, 173, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



234, 257, 269, 347, 411, 

438, 484 ; iL 35. 
L, interchanges with dy i. 256, 

383, 535, 600. 
replaces w, i. 226, 257, 305. 
replaces r, i 234, 257, 518, 

540 ; ii 31, 146, 198. 
replaces «, i 257. 
struck out at the end, i. 311, 

626 ; ii 17. 
struck out in the middle, i. 

57, 141, 225, 269, 271, 

278, 301, 305, 370, 376, 

426 ; ii 178. 
L. a d., i 569. 
La! ii. 16. 
La Tour Landry, Book of, i 282, 

La you ! ii 37. 
Labour, i 132. 
Labour, for his, i. 299, 308. 
Labour of child, i 291, 444. 
Labour oxen, i. 406. 
Labour the jury, i 291. 
Labourer, i 101. 
Labouring man, i 319. 
Laches, i 342. 
Lack-a-day, to, i. 5. 
Lack-Latin, i 481. 
Lack-lustre, ii. 36. 
Lack of a better, for, i 477. 
Lack, what do you, i 399. 
Lackadaisical, ii 203. 
Lackadaisy, ii. 152. 
Lacquey, to, i 564. 
Lad and lass, i. 386. 
Lade (haurire\ ii. 24. 
Ladened, i 692. 
Lading, the, i 606. 
Ladle, i 122. 
Lady bright, i. 114. 
Lady Chapel, i 240, 555. 

Lady (concubine), i 62. 

Lady Day, i 454. 

Lady killer, ii. 111. 

Lady masker, i 523. 

Lady mother, i 339, 357. 

Lady, my, i 136, 212, 309. 

Lady of honour, i. 480. 

Lady (shopwoman), ii 202. 

Lady, the title, i 611. 

Lady trifles, ii. 49. 

Lady (wife), i 529. 

Lady's chamber, my, i. 448. 

Lady's maid, ii 166, 202. 

Lady's man, i 527 ; ii 167. 

Ladybird, ii. 34. 

Ladylike, ii 83. 

Ladyship, her, i 112, 113, 174, 

Ladyship, your, i 447, 478. 

Lag, i 381 ; ii 32. 

Lag end, ii. 32, 77. 

Lagarto (alligator), ii 65. 

Laird, i 361, 383, 495, 521. 

Lamb, the writer, ii. 233. 

Lamb, to, i 515. 

Lambs of believers, i. 427. 

Lambarde, i 579-582, 598, 606 ; 
ii. 13, 47, 200. 

Lambert, i 508, 509. 

Lambkin, i 611. 

Lame argument, ii 133. 

Lame duck, ii 183. 

Lame excuse, i 114, 642. 

Lamentation, make, i 251. 

Lancashire, i 13, 39, 40, 45, 
50, 56, 57, 61, 66, 67, 74, 
83, 93, 104, 107, 110, 130, 
156, 168, 184, 186, 200, 
208, 225, 246, 267, 301, 
378, 395, 396, 524, 526, 
540, 554, 576, 586 ; ii. 195, 
198, 200, 216. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Lancaster, Duke of, i. 76. 
Lance knight, i. 383. 
Lancet, i 225, 349. 
Lancing iron, i 463. 
Land lies, how the, ii. 169. 
Land, make, ii 61, 67. 
Land out of heart, i. 584. 
Land tilling, i 100. 
Land, to, i 266. 
Landed man, i 312. 
Lander (laundress), i. 54, 88. 
Landholder, i 215. 
Landing place, i. 548. 
Landlady, i. 426 ; iL 77. 
Landleaper, i 98, 200, 539, 572. 
Landlocked, ii. 67. 
Landloper, i 539 ; ii 78. 
Landlord of an estate, i 426. 
Landlord of houses, i. 292. 
Landman, ii. 60. 
Landowner, iL 159. 
Landscape, ii 76, 119. 
Landsman, ii 63. 
Lane, i 4, 49. 
Lane, make a, i 545. 
Lang syne, i 270. 
Language, evil, i 285, 301, 309. 
Languedoc, i 247. 
Languish, eyes, ii 112. 
Lantern-jawed, ii 172. 
Lantern of Ely Cathedral, i. 225. 
Lap in (dngere), i 435. 
Lapdog, ii. 121. 
Lappel, i 582. 
Lapwing, i 25. 
Larboard, i 64, 600. 
Large, at,i 110. 
Large length, in, i 278. 
Lark, i 4. 
Larry, i 474. 
Larum, i 289. 
Larum bell, i 548. 

Lash, i 115, 584. 

Lash fast, to, ii 67. 

Lash out, i 11, 565. 

Lashing master, a, ii 78. 

Lass, i 12. 

Lass-lorn, ii 47. 

Last, at, i 47. 

Last died, he that, i 216. 

Last (endTirance), i 88, 496 ; ii 

Last importance, of the, ii 203. 
Last (lastly), i 373. 
Last legs, on her, ii 166. 
Last (letter), my, i 568. 
Last, made to, i 176. 
Last, not least, ii 48. 
Last past, i 207. 
Last thy time, ii 136. 
Last to, etc., i 441. 
Last, unto my, i 238. 
Last word, have, i 451, 544 ; 

Lastingness, ii 92. 
Lastly, i 560. 
Latch, a, i 98. 
Latch, to, i 102 ; ii 41. 
Late days, upon, i 216. 
Late Pope, this, i 221. 
Lately, i 203, 352. 
Later end, i 224, 227. 
Latest, at the, i 180. 
Lath, i 257. 
Lather, i 616. 
Latimer, i 98, 400, 402, 479, 

480, 514-517, 528, 541, 550, 

553 ; ii 173. 
Latimer, a, i 85 ; ii. 177. 
Latin, i 74. 
Latin and French jumbled, i. 

Latin doggrel, 281. 
Latin endings clipped, i 141. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Latin forms as well as French, 
i. 8, 30, 35, 37, 67, 103,113, 
133, 155, 166, 167, 172, 187, 
209, 214, 215, 218, 246, 253, 
265, 279, 289, 297, 298, 302, 
314, 317, 342, 349, 358, 379, 
388, 418, 419, 434, 448, 489, 
495, 552, 613, 621 ; ii 72. 

Latin, how pronounced, i 466, 
554 ; ii. 106. 

Latin idioms, i. 186, 203, 217, 
240, 275, 408, 414; ii. 

Latin imitated, i. 240. 

Latin influence, i 1, 59, 68, 
187, 204, 227, 253, 271, 
331, 369, 374, 385, 597, 
600, 612, 623 ; ii 131, 214, 
215, 229. 

Latin supplant French forms, i. 
173; ii.89. 

Latin used for legal matters, i. 

Latin used for purposes of 
delicacy, i 473. 

Latin used for stage directions, 
i. 80, 287, 314, 493. 

Latin verse making, i 342. 

Latin words and phrases brought 
in, i 115, 182, 253, 342, 
420, 422, 445, 474, 489, 
608, 551, 619 ; ii. 85, 104, 
116, 135, 192. 

Latin of priests, bad, i. 106. 

Latinisms, ii 234. 

Latinist, i 530. 

Latinities, ii. 72. 

Latitude, ii 96. 

Latter, i 109. 

Latterly, ii 201. 

Laudable (laudatory), i. 225. ' | 

Laugh himself to death, i 153, 

Laugh in my sleeve, i 503. 
Laugh it of^ ii 157. 
Laugh it out of doors, ii 154. 
Laugh on my side, get the, ii. 

Laugh on the wrong side, i 237. 
Laugh on wrong side of mouth, 

ii 168. 
Laugh out loud, i. 377. 
Laughs that wins, he, i 501. 
Laughable, ii. 30. 
Laughing matter, i 515. 
Laughing stock, i 158. 
Launch, i 256. 
Launde (lawn), i 29 ; ii 24. 
Laundress, i 537. 
Laurel, i 18, 113,257. 
Lautrec, i 386. 
Lave (remainder), i 312. 
Lavender, ii 45. 
Lavender (pawn), lay in, ii 64. 
Laveroc, i 4. 
Lavish, to be, i 306. 
Law ! i 493. 
Law, i 156, 171, 482, 542 ; ii. 

Law and equity, i. 551. 
Law binds you, i 457. 
Law-breaker, ii 45. 
Law Courts, language of the, i. 

Law, do, i 137. 
Law, give, ii 57. 
Law, go to, i 4. 

(study law), i 341. 
Law, have, i 250. 
Law, have on him, i 252. 
Law, lay (down), i 374. 
Law of venery, i 223. 
Law, take the, i 20, 307. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Law tenns, i 49. 

Law, your humour is, ii. 56. 

Laws ! ii 205. 

Lawful, i 142, 208, 413. 

Lawgiver,! 185. 

Lawk-a-day, ii. 205. 

Lawmaker, i. 605. 

Lawn (the stuff), i. 216. 

Lawyer, i. 96, 256. 

Lawyer, to, ii. 112. 

Lawyers, morals of, ii. 184. 

Lay a child to him, ii. 158. 

Lay aboard, to, ii. 64. 

Lay about him, i. 84. 

Lay by a thing, i. 248. 

Lay corpse forth (out), i. 529. 

Lay devil, to, ii. 54. 

Lay down law, ii 181. 

Lay ghosts, i 451 ; ii 45. 

Lay heads together, i 112. 

Lay him dead, ii. 80. 

Lay him low, i 176. 

Lay him up by the heels, i. 578. 

Lay himseft out to, ii 117. 

Lay in stock, ii 103. 

Lay into her (press), i 613. 

Lay it to me, i 340. 

Lay (law). See le% i 317. 

Lay me down, i 437. 

Lay men up, i 538. 

Lay money on, ii. 70. 

Lay out language, i. 195. 

Lay out money, i 301. 

Lay out towns, ii 61. 

Lay siege, i 164. 

Lay them along the board, i. 

Lay to do it, i 585. 
Lay to thy hand, i 438. 
Lay traps, i 237, 480. 
Lay up money, i 290. 
Lay wait for, i 178, 416. 

Layamon, i 15, 32, 58, 72, 85, 
97, 100, 101, 128, 131, 151, 
164, 180, 185, 186, 207, 
217, 225, 227, 320, 335, 
363, 413, 438, 461, 475, 
482, 561 ; ii 67. 

Layman, i 221, 279. 
in law, ii. 161. 

Layton, Dr., i 473, 506, 507. 

Lazy, i 517. 

Lazy bones, ii. 171. 

Le Freine, Lay of, i 15. 

Lea, i 365 ; ii 47. 

Lead a process on, i 270. 

Lead by the nose, i 544 ; ii 38. 

Lead captive, i 138. 

Lead dance, i. 51. 

Lead, get the, ii 73. 

Lead hay, i 90, 225, 291. 

Lead him a dance, i 202, 307. 

Lead him a life, ii 160. 

Lead, his, ii 202. 

Lead pencil, a, ii 155. 

Lead proofs, i 270. 

Lead the van, ii 160. 

Lead the way, ii 24. 

Lead to the subject, ii 190. 

Leads of a house, i 447. 

Leading card, ii 151. 

Leading case, ii. 70. 

Leading, folk of her, i. 401. 

Leading, men of, ii 31. 

Leading question, ii. 160. 

Leading strings, ii 111. 

Leading, to give, i 221. 

Leaf of book, i 26, 276. 

Leaf or two, a, i 182. 

Leaf out of his book, takfe, ii 

Lea^ turn over the, i 507. 

League (bond), i. 353. 

I League (three miles), i 215, 331. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Leaguer, i. 375. 

Leak, i. 369. 

Leal dies out of the South, i. 70, 

471, 526. 
Lean-to, a, i. 259. 
Lean to love, L 402, 443, 448. 
Leap out of his skin, ii. 83. 
Leapyeaj, i 166. 
Leapers about, i 99. 
, Leapfrog, ii. 35. 
Lear, King, i. 254 ; ii 40. 
Learn (docere), i. 109, 437 ; ii. 

47, 130, 199. 
Learned, i. 123, 366, 383. 
Learned for his time, i 517. 
Learned in the law, i. 129, 

Learnedly, i. 517. 
Learner, its two senses, i. 260. 
Leasing, i. 437. 
Leasing-monger, i. 146. 
Least prefixed to Adjectives, i. 

Least way, at the, i. 123. 
Least wise, i. 596 ; ii 199. 
Leastways, i 91, 596. 
Leather, Treatise on, ii. 76. 
Leathers, i 453. 
Leave and licence, i 275. 
Leave beating of- Paul, curious, 

i 164. 
LeskYQ = cease frorrhy dropfi. 153. 

connected with testators, i 54. 

represents two old Verbs, i. 
Leave field tree, ii 113. 
Leave fighting, i 48, 437. 
Leave, give us, ii. 20. 
Leave him poor, i 607. 
Leave in the lurch, i 584, 591. 
Leave no stone untaken up, i. 

580 ; unturned, ii 103, 151. 

Leave off, i 8, 36, 141, 153, 

378, 436. 
Leave off shoes, i 545, 546. 
Leave out things, i 292. 
Leave, take, i. 22. 
Leave-taking, ii 50. 
Leave to others, i. 570. 
Leave undone, i 415. 
Leave us in our own hands, i. 

Leave you to yourselves, ii. 177. 
Leavings, his, i 675. 
Lecture = lesson, ii 61. 
Lecture (scolding), ii 143. 
Led captain, ii. 108. 
Led to believe, i 599. 
Ledge, i 263. 
Ledger, ii. 6. 
Lee,i 35, 157 ; ii 116. 
Lee, General, ii 69. 
Lee shore, i 611. 
Leech {hirvdo\ i 161. 
Leech (medicus), i 600 ; ii 208. 
Leeds, i 74. 
Leeful, i 142. 
Leek, i 218. 
Leer (fades), ii. 37. 
Leer, to, i 459, 462. 
Leeward, i.-555 ; ii 65, 116. 
Left for dead, i 290. 
Left-handed, i 349. 
Left-handed marriage, ii. 179. 
Left to herself, ii. 83. 
Left to the world, i 546. 
Leful (lawful), i 409. 
Leg bail, give, ii. 187. 
Leg (legacy), i 180. 
Leg, make a, ii. 17. 
Leg- weary, ii 164. 
Legs, keep it on its, ii 129. 
Legs, take him to his, i 458. 
Legs, take his, i 358. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Legend of Good Women, i. 135. 

Legends, Barbour's, i 94. 

Legerdemain, i 349. 

Leghorn, i 566. 

Lei (law), i 171, 205. 

Legislature, our, iL 169. 

Leicester, i. 482. 

Leipsic, ii 65. 

Leland, 1517, 581. 

Leman, i 123. 

Lemon, i. 167. 

Lend,i241,266, 366. 

Lend a hand, ii. 163, 169. 

Lend you ears, i 604. 

Lend your arm, ii 83. 
Length, i 161. 
Length, at good, i 383, 394. 
Length, at (torwiem), L 388. 
Length, at the (in the end), i. 

Length, at their, iL 171. 
Length (distance), i 296. 
Length of his tether, go, ii. 169. 
Length, on (at), i 195. 
Length, pistol's, ii 43. 
Lengths, by three, ii 102. 
Lengths, go certain, ii 129. 
Lengthen, i 43. 
Lengthener, i. 559. • 
Lengthy, i 89. 
Lent (from Xe/njS)^ i 97. 
Lent (qvx!drage8ima)y i 258. 
Lenten (spring), goes out, i 93, 

122, 152, 236. 
Leo X., i 383. 
Leof altered into k/(love), i 170. 

retained, i 201. 
Leominster contracted, i 426. 
Leopards three, England's arms, 

Lepanto, i 586. 
Leper, i 166. 

! Lesewes, i 582. 

Less, the ending of Adjectives, i. 
I 5. 

added to Nouns, i 111, 123, 
Less than an hour, in, i 404. 
Lessen, to, i 670. 
Lesser, i 314, 322 ; ii 198. 
Lessons in Church, i 226. 
Lessons (warnings), i 385. 
Lest dropped after for fear, i, 

Let a benefice, i 28. 
Let cry feasts, i 284, 452. 
Let down (in vigour), ii. 203. 
Let drive at, i 498. 
Let driving at, i 498. 
Let fall, i 644. 
Let flee at him, i 396. 
Let fly a, etc., i 20. 
Let him off, ii 203. 
Let (hindrance), i 174. 
Let it pass, to, ii 70. 
Let lodgings, ii 103. 
Let loose, i 340. 
Let me alone, i 46 ; ii 27. 
Let me go, i 416. 
Let of an estate, the, i 339. 
Let out invective, i 606. 
Let represents two old Verbs, i. 

the Eomance suffix, i 22, 
445, 454 ; ii 29. 
Let slip, i 189. 
Let the matter sleep, i. 544. 
Let them go hang them, i 202. 
Let this pass, i 447. 
Let to farm, i 216. 
Let t'other be who she will, ii. 

Let's (let us), i 659, 604. 
Letgame, a, i 113. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Letters, how addressed, i 215, 

Letters, men of, ii 149. 
Letters of mark, i. 303, 463. 
Letters patent, i. 154, 181. 
Lettice, i. 98, 315. 
Levant, to, ii. 179. 
Level, i. 29, 581. 
Lever, i 524 ; ii. 238. 
Levins, i. 467,578, 586 ; ii. 41. 
Levy war, i. 325. 
Lew, an old ending of Adjectives, 

Lew, lew ! i. 204. 
Lewd, its two meanings, i. 232, 

233, 282. 
Lewd {yilU\ i. 290. 
Lewdness (libido), i. 51. 
Lewgh (riait), i. 415. 
Lewis, i. 151, 172, 393. 
Liable, ii 121. 
Libbard, a, i. 32, 43. 
Libel (abusive), i. 478. 
Libel (indictment), i. 444. 
Liberal (noble), ii. 206. ;. 
Liberality, ii. 44. 
Liberally (like a gentleman), i. 

Liberties of London, the, i 577. 
Libertine, L 525. 
Liberty, go at, i 238. 
Liberty, is at her, i 417. 
Liberty of tongue, L 539. 
Liberty, set at, i. 307, 367. 
Liberty, take, ii 83. 
Liberty, take a, ii 107. 
Library, i 169, 318. 
Licensed in law, i 335. 
Lick-dish, i. 259. 
Lick (ferire),l 189 ; ii 196. 
Lick into form, ii. 76. 
Lick of tar-brush, ii 194. 

VOL. n. 

Lick-spittle, a, ii 193. 

Lick with rough side, a, ii 

Lie-a-bed, a, ii. 181. 
Lie a-dying, i. 416. 
Lie at road (ships), i 233. 
Lie direct, the, ii. 36. 
Lie, give the, i 611. 
Lie in, i 262, 458. 
Lie in my power, i 136, 157, 

Lie in thy head, i 252. 
Lie in wait, i 178, 416. 
Lie (lodge) in a town, i 233, 

Lie off and on, ii. 53. 
Lie open to, i 377. 
Lie South, i 685. 
Lie to hand, i 128. 
Lie to mechanics, genius, ii 120. 
Liege, i 65. 
Liege lord, i 47. 
Liege man, i 47. 
Lien (lain), i 119, 318, 426. 
Liers awayte, i 418. 
Lieu of, in, i 388. 
Lieutenant, i 87, 155. 
Lieutenant-General, i. 360, 587. 
Lieutenant of shires, i 597. 
Lieve, had as, i 221, 299 ; ii 

Lieve life ! i 44. 
Lieve Sir, i 29. 
Liever altered into rather, i. 

Liever nor, I had, i 268. 
Life and soul of trade, ii 182. 
Life and soul together, keep, ii 

78, 83. 
Life-blood, ii. 21. 
Life, for his (earnest), i. 569, 576. 
Life into, put, ii 58. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Life, on (alive), L 391, 396, 582. 

Life-preserving, ii. 20. 

Life, take his, ii. 46. 

Lifeguard, ii. 77. 

Lifelike (vtvox), i. 390. 

Lifetime, i. 44. 

Lift (air), i 39. 

Lift, give him a, i 270. 

Lift = steal, i 611. 

Lifting, stone of one hundred 

men's, i 32. 
Light bob, ii 194. 
Light, come to the, i 441. 
Light-fingered, i 495, 564. 
Light green, i 403, 456, 457. 
Light-handed, i 260. 
Light-headed, L 456. 
Light-hearted, i. 260. 
Light-heeled, ii 29. 
Light horse, i 456. 
Light, in its proper, ii 154. 
Light money, ii 162. 
Light of foot, i 39. 
Light of it, make, i 416. 
Light of love, i 281. 
Light reading, ii 168. 
Light, stand in his, i 122. 
Light went out, i 225. 
Lights and shadows, ii 82. 
Lights of a window, i 207. 
Lightening, i 71. 
Lighter (nai^is), i 353. 
Lightfoot, i 467. 
Lightly come, lightly go, i 108. 
Lightly, to, i 363. 
Lightsome, i. 123. 
Like, added to Active Participles 

to form Adverbs, i 28. 
added to roots to form Adverbs, 

i 9, 30, 547. 
replaces likd'iiy i 89, 216, 

542, 543. 

Like, used to form Adjectives, i. 
209, 312, 485, 505, 507, 
542 ; ii. 182. 
Like a chief, do it, i 280. 
Like a good girl, i 492. 
Like a man, die, i 396. 
Like an ass, he, i 508. 
Like an Emperor, i 476. 
Like anything, ii. 125, 151. 
Like as like could be, ii 83. 
Like as one pea to another, i.610. 
Like as possible, as, i 132. 
Like devils, fight, i. 351. 
Like enough, i 543. 
Like himself, do it, i 369. 
Like, if ye, i 202. 
Like manner, in, i 138. 
Like master, like man, i 25, 

518 ; ii. 142. 
Like-minded, i 413. 
Like of it, to, i. 587. 
Like state with, i 278. 
Like, the, i 532. 
Like the Devil, steal, ii 155. 
Like the knave I was, i 476. 
Like to be slain, had, i 543. 
Like to like will draw, i 380. 
Like, we are, i 15. 
Like your asking that, I, ii. 182. 
Like your impudence, ii 150. 
Like you to do it, it is, i 397. 
Like will to like, the Play, i 

Likelihood, i 245, 305. 
Likelihood, by all, i 457. 
Likeliness, i 121. 
Likely is made an Adverb, i. 

222; iil81. 
Likely, to, etc., i 136. 
Liken, to, i. 8. 
Likerous (lecherous), i 112 ; ii 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Likewise, i. 218. 

Liking (jucundys)y i. 53. 

Liking, take, ii. 43, 70. 

Liking, to your, i. 288, 667. 

Likings, i. 36. 

Likpot, a finger, i. 152. 

lilt, L 63, 117. 

Lily white, i. 62. 

Limb, i. 193. 

Limb-meal, ii. 45. 

Limb of law, ii. 183. 

Limbo, i 169, 604 ; ii. 93. 

Limber, ii. 46. 

Lime, i 206, 267. 

Lime (linden), ii 46. 

Lime stone, ii. 66. 

Limit him to, ii. 27. 

Limn, to, i. 161, 606. 

Limp (lame), i. 462; 

Lin, the Suffix, i 52. 

Linchpin, ii. 65. 

Lincoln green, i. 267, 282. 

Lincoln = its bishop, i. 185. 

Lincoln's Inn, L 173. 

Lincolnshire, i 20, 50, 73, 176, 

188, 230, 289 ; ii. 65. 
Lincolnshire way, i. 583. 
Line, L 264,«266. 
Line a purse, i. 613. 
Line and level, i. 103, 585. 
Line (Equator), i 593. 
Line, give him, ii. 83. 
Line, in one, ii 39. 
Line of family, i. 95, 211. 
Line of policy, ii 161. 
Line, to, i 130. 
Linen draper, i 207. 
Linen used for smoclc, ii. 125. 
Ling, added to nouns, i 258, 
477, 530, 541. 

used to form Adverbs, i 284. 
Lingering disease, i 187. 

Lingo, ii. 127. 
Lining, the, i 237. 
Link (torch), i 462. 
Linkboy, ii 107. 
Linseed, i 405. 
Linsey woolsey, i 348, 393. 
Linstock, ii 36. 
Lions of town, ii 172. 
Lions (visitors), ii 197. 
Lip-labour, i 568. 
Lippen, to, i. 361. 
Liquor, i 172. 
Liquor, to, i 616 ; ii 163. 
Liquorish, ii 183. 
Lisbon, i 537. 
Lissom, ii 201. 
List (catalogue), ii. 72. 
List for a soldier, ii. 148. 
List, I, i 202. 
List into a roll, ii. 86. 
List (pleasure), i 254, 539. 
Listeners are unlucky, ii. 192. 
Listless, i 174, 254. 
Listlessness, i 26. 
Lit (lighted), ii. 133. 
Literati, the, ii 173. 
Litter (of young), i 4. 
Litterateur, ii 173, 223. 
Little all, my, ii. 81. 
Little and little, i 100, 222. 
Little better, i 127. 
Little finger, learning in, i. 392. 
Little John, i 215. 
Little less, i 457. 
I Little mile, a, ii. 119. 
I Little of rubarb, a, i 297. 
' Little of the merchant, he has, 

ii. 90. 
Little ones, i 125, 414. 
Little said, soon mended, i. 561. 
Little short of, i 475. 
Little something, a, ii. 3. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Little too much, a, i. 457. 

Littleness, i. 348 ; ii. 202. 

Littoral (coast), ii. 222. 

Littr^, i. 48, 102, 116,132,172. 

Live, i 486, 570. 

Live and die with, i 20. 

Live in clover, ii 169. 

Live, of a ship, ii 6. 

Live on poor men, i. 148. 

Live the Gospel, i 546. 

Livelihood, i 259, 290, 301, 

305, 477, 483. 
Liveliness, i 484. 
Livelong, i 15, 413, 414, 456. 
Lively, i 260, 413, 500, 589. 
Lively and Lusty, i. 526. 
Liver, a virtuous, i 121, 162. 
Liveries, i. 534. 
Liverpool, i 302. 
Livery clothes, i 534. 
Livery gown, a, ii 13. 
Livery, horse at, i 342. 
Living (diet), ii 164. 
Living God, the (heretical), i. 

Living replaces liflode, i 199, 

245, 390, 426, 439. 
Living (way of life), i 152, 157, 

Livings of parsons, i 477. 
Livonian Tales, i 504. 
Llandaff, pun on, ii. 3, 4. 
Lloyd, i 302. 

Lo, behold, i 196, 418, 603. 
Lo you now, ii. 46. 
Load gun, ii. 164. 
Loads of poems, ii. 162. 
Loadstar, i 165. 
Loadstone, i 570. 
Loathsome, i 570. 
Loaves and fishes, ii. 167. 
Lob, a, i 397. 

Lobster, i 218, 594. 

Lobster (soldier), ii. 194. 

Lobster (stoat), i 351. 

Locale, the, ii 219. 

Locate, to, ii 216. 

Loch (lacm), i 92, 229. 

Lock and key, under, i 461. 

Lock-jawed, ii 169. 

Lock of gun, i 586. 

Lock of river, i 343. 

Lock the door on him, i 252. 

Lock up, to, i 277, 457. 

Locker, i 258 ; ii. 66. 

Locket, ii 102. 

Locksmith, i. 258. 

Lockyer, a, i 301. 

Lodge money with, ii 120. 

Lodge of masons, i. 80. 

Lodge petitions, ii 159. 

Lodged at, i. 307. 

Lodging, i 65. 

Lodging, take, i 176. 

Lodgings, i. 383. 

Lodowick, i 297, 505 ; ii 42. • 

Loft, a, i 39. 

Lofty, i 232. 

Log, i. 488. 

Log headed, i 565. 

Log line, ii. 68. 

Loggerhead, ii 16. 

Loggerheads, go to, ii 125. 

Loire, the, i 227, 247. 

Loiter, i 64, 263, 558. 

Loll, to, i 64, 101, 156, 277, 

Lollai (lullaby), i 3. 

Lollard Treatise in Foxe, i 222. 

Lollards, i 31, 76, 123, 160, 
184, 187, 214, 221, 222, 
225, 232, 247, 274, 276, 
279, 296, 371, 392, 393, 
423, 554. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Lollards. See " Apology for." 

LoUer, i. 98, 123, 277. 

Lollop, to, ii. 190. 

London, L 5, 49, 62, 72-74, 77, 
78, 89, ^4, 109, 130, 160, 
181, 182^ 222, 224, 234, 

. 235, 244, 245, 247, 250, 
259, 271, 301, 304, 310, 
325, 327, 359, 368, 383, 
452, 458, 531, 540, 556, 
567, 578, 581, 594, 621; 
ii. 1, 4, 73, 74, 93, 186, 
201, 208, 216,226, 238. 

London Guilds and Trades, i. 
95, 150, 157. 

London pronunciation, ii. 153, 
197, 198, 199: 

London University, ii. 228. 

London will, a, i. 156. 

Londoner, ii 2, 64. 

Londonism, ii. 198. 

Lone, ii. 33. 

Loneliness, ii. 17.. 

Lonely, i. 45 ; iL 33. 

Long ago, i. 5. 

Long (along), of thee, i. 295. 

Long and short of it, i. 20, 294 ; 
ii. 184. 

Long as large, as, i. 457. 

Long as life, there is hope, ii. 

Long boat, i. 233. 

Long bones, i. 350. 

Long bow, i. 269, 293. 

Long hair, short wit, i 504. 

Long (ingens), ii. 33, 201. 

Long lane, where no turning, ii. 

Long-lived, i. 209, 570. 

Long {longu8)y ii. 227. 

Long neck, make a, ii 160. 

Long of coming, i 341. 

Long run, at, i 210 ; ii 171. 

Long said, ye have, i. 203. 

Long-sided, i 294. 

Long summer's day, i 468. 

Long-tailed, i. 18. 

Long time ere, etc., i 175, 316. 

Long time passed, by, i 150. 

Long, to be, i 267, 307, 456. 

Long to, when with child, i. 

Long-winded, ii. 10. 
Long written for length, ii. 189. 
Loo, ii. 183. 
Looby, i 98. 
Loof, i 64. 
Look, a, i 254. 
Look about you, i 335. 
Look after him, ii 171. 
Look as butter would not melt, 

Look as if he would eat him, ii 

Look at home, ii 186. 
Look big, i 544. 
Look blank, ii 78. 
Look blue, ii 169. 
Look ere thou leap, i 423. 
Look for, i 547. 
Look hard at, ii. 146. 
Look high, i 565 ; ii 203. 
Look him out, ii. 108. 
Look like business, ii. 131. 
Look-out, her own, ii 203. 
Look out sharp, ii. 160. 
Look over him, ii 171. 
Look through fingers, i. 436. 
Look to be feasted, i 147. 
Look up a book, i. 287. 
Look upon (after), i. 406. 
Look {videri)y ill. 
Look wildly, i. 576. 
Look your last, ii. 34. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Look you there, now, ii 125, 

Looks, his, i. 169 ; ii. 54. 
LookingrgLws, i 535. 
Loom, its two senses, i. 259, 

Loom, to, ii 188. 
Loon, i. 363, 467, 520. 
Loophole, i. 59, 518. 
Loophole, to, ii 103. 
Loose, a, i. 497. 
Loose-bodied, ii 19. 
Loose end, a, L 500. 
Loose, get, L 592. 
Loose, go, i 290. 
Loose guns, to, i. 325. 
Loose prelates, i. 334. 
Loose to, give, ii. 128. 
Loosed, i 275. 
Loosen, i. 144. 
Loot, ii. 230. 
Lop, to, ii. 43. 
Lord ! i 372. 
Lord be praised ! (heretical), i, 

Lord General, i. 222. 
Lord Harry, by the, ii. 123. 
Lord help you ! ii 183. 
Lord it, i 544. 
Lord Keepership, ii. 69. 
Lord Lieutenant, i 496. 
Lord Mayor, i 611. 
Lord, my, i 194. 
Lord, my dear, i 182. 
Lord of companies (hosts), i. 

Lord Privy Seal, i 479. 
Lord, the (De'm)^ i 509. 
Lord, to, i 137. 
Lords and Commons, i 149. 
Lords and ladies ! i 287. 
Lords and masters, my, i 373. 

Lords of name, i 219, 376. 
Lord^s Supper, i 517. 
Lording, ii. 64, 98. 
Lordling, ii 167. 
Lordship, his, i 519. 
Lordship, your, i 113, 150, 

181, 182, 193, 194, 213, 

242, 247, 272, 293. 
Lore, i 541 ; leire^ ii 98. 
Lorn, i 115. 
Lorn and lost, i 282. 
Lose by kindness, i. 239. 
Lose her a thing, i. 431. 
Lose her heart to him, ii. 190. 
Lose himself, i 607. 
Lose him to be her husband, i. 

Lose his travail, i. 21. 
Lose it to him, i 325 ; ii 85. 
Lose leather, ii 195. 
Lose patience, ii. 83. 
Lose sight of, i. 556. 
Lose temper, ii 134. 
Losel, i 98 ; ii 46, 208. 
Loser, i 481. 
Losing suit, a, ii 30. 
Loss, at a, ii 131. 
Loss in him, have a, ii 120. 
Loss replaces hire^ i. 32. 
Losses, i. 300. 
Lost, i 172. 

Lost in thought, ii. 190. 
Lost labour, i. 164. 
Lost men, ii 7. 
Lot, at auction, ii. 179. 
Lot (multitude) of things, i 592 ; 

ii. 162. 
Loteby, i 401 ; ii 9. 
Lottery, i. 569. 
Louis XIV., ii 149. 
Lounge, a, ii. 193. 
Lounger, i 364. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Louping-on stane, i. 36. 

Lour, to, L 262. 

Lousy, i. 99. 

Lout, i. 481. 

Loutishness, i 492. 

Love, a, i. 114. 

Love, bear, L 209. 

Love-crossed, ii 63. 

Love dream, a, ii 9. 

Love, fall in, i. 457. 

Love,[make, i. 608. 

Love me little, love me long, 

i. 501. 
Love me, love my dog, i 502. 
Love my love with an -4, ii. 1 1 7. 
Love, my (to a woman), i. 78. 
Love of God, i. 115. 
Love or money, i. 86, 690. 
Love-prate, ii. 36. 
Love-sick, i. 456. 
Love-suit, ii. 36. 
Love them to be rich, i. 221. 
Love-thought, ii. 37. 
Love to lie, L 55. 
Love to thee, have, i. 127. 
Loves (amours), i. 619. 
Loveable, i. 36, 348. 
Lovee I ii. 183. 
Lovers {amid), i. 437. 
Loving and loved, the, i. 36. 
Loving-kindness, i. 412. 
Loving-tenderness, i. 210. 
Loving used as an Adjective, i. 

Lovingly, i. 213. 
Low Countries, the, i. 367, 386. 
Low Dutch, ii. 10. 
Low German, i. 72. 
Low living, i. 99. 
Low stands for many verbs, i. 

Low water mark, i. 534, 586. 

Lower, to, 1 468 ; ii. 168. 

Lowestoft, i. 339. 

Lowlily, i. 35. 

Lowry, i. 467, 474. 

Lowy, the, i. 581. 

Loyal, i 471. 

Loyalty, i 331, 452, 47L 

Lozenge, ii. 138. 

Lubber, i 399. 

Lubberly, L 528. 

Lubricity, ii 173. 

Lucca, i 103. 

Luck, i 263. 

Luck, good, i 334. 

Luck, to have the, ii 133. 

Luck to, it was my, ii. 3. 

Lud ! ii. 147. 

Luff, to, ii. 67. 

Lug, to, i 101, 584. 

I^iiggage, ii 31. 

Luke, Sir Samuel, ii. 94. 

Lukewarm, i 242. 

Lull, to, i 130. 

Lullaby, i 590. 

Lumber, ii 85. 

Lumber, live, ii 194. 

Lumber-room, ii 177. 

Lumber, to, i 372. 

Lumbering, i. 64. 

Lump, all in a, i 88 ; ii. 92, 94. 

Lump, to, i 613. 

Lumpish, i 237. 

Lunch (lump),ii 85, 167. 

Luncheon, i 595 ; ii. 85, 167. 

Lunge, i 256. 

Lurcher, i 447. 

Lurdan, i 13, 247, 446, 554. 

Lurde (heavy), i 572. 

Luscious, i 66, 260, 464. 

Lush, i 260 ; ii. 47. 

Lust (devoutness), i 26. 

Lust \liUdo\ i 254. 

Digitized by-VjOOQlC 



Lust {mlui\ i. 383. 

Lust (yolwpiai)^ L 427. 

Lust- wearied, ii 50. 

Lustihood, ii 44. 

Lustiness, i 135. 

Lusty, i. 383. 

Lusty Juventus, i. 603. 

Luther, i 385, 386, 392, 524, 
528, 624 ; ii. 91. 

Lutheran, i. 76. 

Ly, sometimes an awkward end- 
ing for Adverbs, i 91, 128, 
added to Numerals, i. 388. 
added to Participles, i 488. 
the ending, supplants lilce^ i. 

Lyard, i 98. 

Lychwake, L 104, 346 ; ii 195. 

Lydford Law, i. 184. 

Lydgate, 3, 46, 77, 178, 181, 
255, 267, 276, 285, 298, 
329, 350, 355, 358, 365, 
370, 378, 393, 404, 444, 
448, 452, 453, 465, 466, 
479, 521, 570, 584 ; ii 21. 

Lyly, i 605-611, 612, 615 ; ii. 
8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 41, 45, 48, 

Lynne, i 6, 14, 52, 80, 95, 
157, 253, 259, 262, 297. 

M replaces 5, i 255, 453. 
replaces n, i 85, 151, 162, 

257, 495 ; ii 46. 
is inserted, i 173, 347, 404, 
Ma'am, ii 138, 202. 
Mabbe, i 443 ; ii. 81-87, 95, 
97, 102, 123, 124, 167,169, 

Mabily, i 121. 

Mac, a, ii 52. 

Macaulay, Lord, i 22, 151, 200, 
285, 319, 344, 388, 393, 
520, 523, 554, 563, 622 ; 
ii 19, 41, 73, 91, 109, 111, 
131, 141, 142, 209, 212, 
213, 215, 224. 

Maccaroni, ii. 184. 

Maccaroon, ii 97. 

Macdowall, i 19. 

Macer, a, i 169. 

Machiavelli, i 293 ; ii 7, 187. 

Machine, ii 86. 

Machyn's Diary, i. 534. 

Mackay, ii 162. 

M*Crie, Dr., ii. 209. 

Mad Doctor, a, ii 136. 

Mad fellow, i 449. 

Mad, fight like, ii 102. 

Mad, go, i 194. 

Mad, to, i 508. 

Mad upon it, i 306. 

Madam ! i 342 ; ii 139. 

Madam, a, i 610 ; ii. 136. 

Madam Katherine, i 2 1 4 ; ii. 1 5 7. 

Madcap, ii 16. 

Madder, i. 49, 248. 

Madding mood, i 586. 

Made dishes, ii 84. 

Made for ever, they are, i 291. 

Made man, a, ii. 29. 

Made marriage, a, i 607. 

Made tale, a, i 153 ; ii 74. 

Made-up villain, a, ii. 42. 

Madeira wine, ii 123. 

Madge, i 492. 

Madly used, i 576. 

Madness, i 258. 

Madness to hope, i. 377. 

Madonna, ii. 11. 

MadriU (Madrid), i. 383. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Magazine, of powder, ii. 57. 
Magazines, written, ii. 163. 
Magdeburgh, how Englished, i. 

Maggot, i. 266, 349 ; ii. 92. 
Magnanimity defined,! 29, 471. 
Magnify, i. 138, 442. 
Magpie, i. 584 ; ii. 41. 
Mahound, i. 80, 362, 552. 
Maid of all work, ii. 1 66. 
Maid of honour, ii. 53. 
Maiden (ancilla), i. 180. 
Maiden knight, i. 397. 
Maiden name, ii. 177. 
Maidenlike, i. 511. 
Mail (coach), iL 205. 
Mail horse, i. 268. 
Mail (of letters), ii. 146. 
Main brace, ii. 66. 
Main chance, ii. 11, 23. 
Main, have eye to the, i. 608. 
Main, in the, ii. 115. 
Main = mainland, i. 556. 
Main = main sea, i. 619. 
Main = main stake, i. 601, 

Main of a discourse, the, ii. 70. 
Main post, i. 549. 
Main power, i. 387. 
Main sea, i. 428, 619. 
Main-stay, ii. 66. 
Mainland, i. 88, 535. 
Mainly, i. 603, 604. 
Mainmast, i. 568. 
Mainsail, i. 376. 
Mainspring, ii. 166. 
Maintop, L 368. 
Maize, L 536, 556. 
Majesty, i. 138. 
Majesty, your, i. 181, 368, 387, 

Major domo, i. 620. 

Make comes often in English, 
i. 261. 

replaces kt, i. 284. 

imitated from French /aire, 
i. 27. 
Make against us, i. 90. 
Make (a match), ii. 201. 
Make a rare prince, i. 567. 
Make as though, etc., i. 153, 284. 
Make away with, i. 366. 
Make believe, all, ii. 203. 
Make fifty with them, i. 90, 406. 
Make for a place, i. 312. 
Make glad, i. 3. 
Make good, i. 14. 
Make him (out) good, i. 28, 307 ; 

ii. 133. 
Make him to understand, i. 107. 
Make himself up, ii. 169. 
Make it go down,ii. 131. 
Make it stout, i. 10. 
Make it to be cried, i. 166. 
Make it to be {putare), i. 556. 
Make much to do, i. 16. 
Make no doubt, but, i. 476. 
Make, of a new, i. 359 ; ii. 144, 

Make one, I will, ii. 16. 
Make or mar, i. 202, 306. 
Make out lawful, ii. 103. 
Make over, i. 506 ; ii. 103. 
i Make six miles, i. 569. 
Make things worse, i. 565. 
Make up (charters), i. 114, 204. 
Make up for time, ii. 186. 
Make up (repair), ii. 123, 204. 
Make-up, the, ii. 42. 
Make up to him, i. 544 ; ii. 170. 
Make {vadere^ i. 487. 
Makebite, i. 601. 
Maker (Creator), i. 25. 
Maker of love, i. 573. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Maker (poet), i 361. 

Makes he here, what, i 492. 

Makeshift, I 584 ; ii 168. 

Makeweight, a, ii. 166. 

Making of me, the,i. 353 ; ii 1 82. 

Malaise, i. 392. 

Malandryn, L 299. 

Malapert, i. 381. 

Malay, ii. 116, 165. 

Male and female, i. 138. 

Male deer, i. 60. 

Male, pun on, i. 449. 

Malice, i 144. 

Malice aforethought, i 612. 

Malice, of a set, i. 429. 

Malignant, i 552. 

Malkin, ii 43, 48. 

MaUory, i. 78, 318, 323, 401, 

404, 408, 452 ; ii. 211. 
Malmsey, i. 351, 357. 
Maltese dogs, i. 593. 
Maltman, L 449. 
Maltster, i. 258. 
Mam (mother), i. 287. 
Mamelukes, i. 432. 
Mamma, i. 610. 
Mammet, ii. 32, 56. 
Mamock, to, ii. 48. 
Mamocks, i. 393 ; ii. 113. 
Man, a (indefinite), i 322. 
Man a ship, to, i 469. 
Man about town, ii. 11. 
Man added to other Substantives, 
i.38, 121, 141, 357; ii. 40. 

used for a cavididatey L 540. 

used for being ^ i. 267. 
Man, addressed to the reader, i. 7. 
Man (agent), i. 578. 
Man and boy (all), i. 497. 
Man and boy (altogether), ii. 39. 
Man and wife (all mankind), 

i. 350. 

Man-at-arms, i. 611. 

Man (at the University), i 590. 

Man-child, i 82 ; ii. 48. 

Man cook, ii. 166. 

Man eater, i. 592. 

Man enough to, L 455. 

Man he was, different from the, 

ii. 19. 
Man hunter, i 535. 
, Man, I am your, i. 242, 281. 
I Man I take him for, if, i. 507. 
Man I think, if he be the, L 366. 
Man I was, not the, i. 306. 
Man, indefinite ; replaced by 

they, i. 10. 
Man ladies, to,i. 605, 611. 
Man, make a, i. 318. 
Man midwife, i. 463 ; ii. 156. 
Man monkey, ii. 191. 
Man, my ! i. 194. 
Man nurse, i 463. 
Man of arms, i. 21. 
Man of counsel, i. 242. 
Man of God, L 19 ; ii. 167. 
Man of his word, ii 9. 
Man of sin, ii 47. 
Man of straw, i 598. 
Man of the EarFs, a, i. 325. 
Man of war, i 121, 227, 352, 

Man or mouse, be, i 485. 
Man-pleaser, i 420. 
Man proposes, Gkni disposes, i. 

Man (right thing), i 584. 
Man servant, i 138. 
Man shall have his mare again, 
. i 467 ; ii 29. 
Man that runs away, etc, i 491. 
Man to man, i 280. 
Man, woman, and child, i 376. 
Manage = apparatus, i 4 7 7. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Manager of revels, ii 29. 

Manage, to, i 548 ; ii 206. 

Mancer, the ending, i. 187. 

Manchester cotton, i 593. 

Manciple, ii. 165. 

Mancy, the ending, i. 166. 

Mandeville Treatise, the, i. 46, 
152, 160-168, 188, 219,429, 

Manful, i. 84, 152. 

Manfully, i. 251. 

Mangelwurzel, i. 514. 

Mangle, i. 230, 308 ; ii. 158. 

Manhood, i 212. 

Mania, i. 131. 

Manifesto, ii. 75. 

Manifold, i. 413. 

Mankind, i. 194. 

Manliness, i. 146. 

Manly, the Adjective, i 84, 526, 
the Adverb, i. 18, 251. 

Manner, a, ii. 124. 

Manner (act), i. 465 ; ii 32, 87. 

Manner and measure, i. 286. 

Manner (custom), i 279. 

Manner, in his best, i 18. 

Manner of going (on), i. 475. 

Manner of means, by no, i 319, 

Manners (conduct), i 279, 433. 

Manners (courtesy), i 60, 379. 

Manners, it is no, i 549. 

Mannered, well, i 103. 

Mannikin, ii 37, 55. 

Manning, i 9, 18-23, 25, 73, 
74, 84, 98, 104, 106, 109, 
131, 133, 141, 155, 167, 
188, 227, 230, 231, 253, 
264, 267, 275, 298, 307, 
311, 318, 320, 370, 372, 
387, 394, 426, 427, 553, 

607 ; ii32, 103, 211. See 

Brunne, Robert of. 
Mannish, i 114, 283. 
Manoeuvre, i 246, 556 ; ii 185. 
Manor, i 304, 331. 
Manqueller, i 409, 515, 567 ; 

Manred, mistaken, i 582. 
Manrent, i. 88, 219, 525. 
Mansion, Colard, i 329. 
Mansion house, i 596. 
Manstealer, i 411. 
Mansuetude, i 470. 
Manswear, to, i. 435. 
Mantalini, Mr., ii 124. 
Manteau maker, ii. 145. 
Mantlepiece, i 617. 
Mantrap, ii. 166. 
Mantua maker, ii 86, 145. 
Manure {fAercm)^ i 549. 
Manure, to, i 246, 556, 581. 
Many a fold = manifold, i 316. 
Many, a great, i 319 ; ii 133. 
Many a little makes a mickle, 

ii. 87. 
Many, a (^ur6a), i 554, 586 ; 

ii 48. 
Many coloured, ii 1 7. 
Many, confusion in the word, 

i 322, 457 ; ii. 28. 
Many hands make light work, 

i 190. 
Many headed, ii 10. 
Many men, many minds, ii. 69. 
Many Nouns combined, i 215. 
Many one, following a Plural, 

Many sided, ii. 14. 
Many small make a great, i. 

Many thanks ! i 200. 
Many was the man that, i 85. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Manzoni, ii. 91, 222, 231. 

Mar a child, i. 458. 

Mar your market, i. 644 ; ii. 81. 

Marbles, L 187. 

March, a day's journey, i 166. 

March, Dr., ii 225, 228, 244. 

March dust, peck of, i 538, 585. 

March hare, i 357, 371. 

March, to, i. 388. 

March with a country, i 1 66, 608. 

Marching regiment, ii 146. 

Marcia for Marsyas, i 118. 

Margaret, Queen of James IV., i. 

368, 388-392, 412. 
Margent, i. 386. 
Marigold,! 106. 
Marines, i. 592. 
Marion, i 350, 675. 
Marjoram, i 253. 
Marjory, i. 87. 
Mark {^cci)^ i. 416. 
Mark game, L 68, 282. 
Mark, get it to the, i 200. 
Mark, men o^ ii. 58. 
Mark, more weighty than «ee, i. 

335, 569. 
Mark (not a signature), ii. 22. 
Mark, pun on, i. 1 83. 
Mark i^dcim)^ L 42. 
Mark, under your, ii. 182. 
Marks on clothes, i. 576. 
Marked for the grave, ii. 24. 
Marked (with disease), ii. 151. 
Marker, a, ii. 107. 
Market beater, i. 376. 
Market, make, i 27, 28 ; ii. 63. 
Market-place, L 132. 
Markham, ii. 15. 
Markisesse, i. 130, 475. 
Marksman, i 598. 
Marlborough, Duke of, i. 360. 
Marlborough for Marburg, i. 426. 

Marling spike, ii. 68. 
Marplot,! 113 ; ii. 148. 
Marquis, i 22, 121, 167, 293. 
Marriage, how pronounced, i. 

Marriage of Wit and Science, i. 

Marriage Service in English, i. 

Marriages are made in Heaven, 

i. 601, 610. 
Marriott, i. 482. 
Marrow bones, L 118, 618. 
Marry ! i. 47, 69, 288, 516 ; ii. 

Marry and Amen! iL 125. 
Marry come up, ii 201. 
Marry Gup ! i. 395. 
Marry her to a man, i 66. 
Marry him into a family, i 284. 
Marry with you, i 342. 
Marryat, ii. 102. 
Marsh, the writer, i 622 ; ii. 

Marshal (groom), i. 364. 
Marshall (smith), i 331. 
Mart, i 249, 433. 
Marten, Henry, ii 120. 
Martial, i 672. 
Martial law, i 678. 
Mortiall, i 670-672. 
Martin, the writer, i 616-618. 
Martlet, i 267. 
Martyr, to, i. 444. 
Martyr, Peter, the Reformer, i 

Martyr, Peter, at the Spanish 

Court, i 635, 636, 537. 
Marvel, i 161, 167,322. 
Marvellous pale, i 445, 448 ; ii. 

Mary Jacobi, i 413. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Mary of England, L 436, 479, 

609, 539, 542, 550, 555 ; ii. 1. 
Mary, Queen of Louis XII., i. 

390, 391, 452, 475. 
Mary Queen of Scots, i. 54, 567. 
Mas Parson, i. 510. 
Mash, to, i. 253. 
Mash vat, i 4. 
Ma'ship (mastership), i. 492. 
Maskell, Mr., i 160. 
Masker, a, L 360. 
Masonry, Poem on, i. 169-171, 

Masquerade, ii. 61. 
Mass, by the, i 111, 384, 472 ; 

ii 125, 136, 182, 201. 
Mass house, ii 94. 
Mass, in, i. 216. 

Mass John,i. 233, 610 ; ii. 118. 
Mass me no massings, i 6 1 1. 
Massa,ii. 186. 
Massachusetts, ii 69. 
Massing priest, i 618. 
Massmonger, i. 557. 
Master a man (caU him so), i. 6 1 5. 
Master and man =all, i 449. 
Master, applied to a boy, i 476, 

Master, a Scotch title, i 521. 
Master, be my own, i 486. 
Master = conqueror, i 83. 
Master cowl, i. 553. 
Master Doctor, i 389, 496. 
Master Green, i 555. 
Master hand, ii. 154. 
Master = husband, i 292. 
Master John, i 231, 300. 
Master key, i 593 ; ii. 127. 
Master, my, i 231, 274 ; ii 177. 
Master of Chancery, i 217. 
Master of ship, i 368, 463. 
Master of the language, ii 79. 

Master pillar, i 285. 
Master spirit, ii 49. 
Master = superior, i 190 
Master, the title in England, i 

615; ii4, 191. 
Masters and misses, ii. 163. 
Masters, my, i 1 55, 317. 
Masterful, i 38, 65. 
Masterly, i 320 ; ii 158. 
Masterpiece, i 563 ; ii 41, 54, 

Mastery, i 38, 154. 
Match, a ; its senses, i 484, 497 ; 

Match a coach horse, ii 184. 
Match low, to, i 607. 
Match, make a, i 566. 
Match, to (equal), i 66. 
Match, to (marry), i 451. 
Matches, eyes are, i 616. 
Matchless, i 601. 
Matchmaker, ii. 107. 
Mate fair, to, ii. 1 7. 
Mate (fellow), i 281, 381. 
Mate of ship, i 628, 559. 
Mate replaces moke^ i 575. 
Mate, the Eomance, i 111, 233, 

Material, i 317. 
Mathematics, i 178. 
Matter against him, i 301. 
Matter (constraining force), i. 38, 

223,247,433; ii 134. 
Matter, for that, ii. 114. 
Matter, for the, i 490 ; ii 134. 
Matter, for this, i 192. 
Matter, full of, ii 36 
Matter (importance), i 17. 
Matter, makes no, i 342. 
Matter, no, i 37 ; ii 123. 
Matter, no great, i. 549. 
Matter of course, ii 205. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Matter of fact, ii 104. 
Matter of fact fellow, iL 180. 
Matter of life, i 444. 
Matter of six, a, iL 79. 
Matter of that, for, i. 192 ; ii. 

114, 134, 181. 
Matter (pu«), i 225. 
Matter to you, no, i. 518. 
Matter, what was the, i. 301. 
Matters go on, i 578. 
Matters stood, as, i 384 ; ii 93. 
Matthew, Mark, etc., the rimes, 

L 239. 
Matthew's Bible, i 435. 
Maturity, i. 470. 
Matzner, i. 100, 217, 406 ; ii. 

Maud, i 179, 269. 
Maudlin, i. 426 ; iL 10. 
Maugre, L 472. 
Maukin, L 570. 
Maunder, ii. 84. 
Mauteby, Margaret, i. 270. 
Mauther, L 263, 582 ; iL 55. 
Maw, ii. 147. 
Mawkish, i. 570 ; iL 156. 
May expresses ftcef, L 125. 

expresses jM)^e«^, L 177. 
May be, may not, iL 170. 
May-day, i. 403. 
May fall (perhaps), i. 90. 
May it be, stands ifor w ^f , L 108. 
May or not may, L 430. 
May, the month, i. 121. 
Mayflower, L 589. 
Maying, ride on, L 318. 
Maypole, L 563. 
Maze, L 136. 
Mazed, L 70, 554. 
Me, an expletive, i. 58. 

Reflexive, L 188, 486. 

used for I, iL 107, 159. 

Merman, Indefinite, L 49, 170, 

233, 322. 
Me-think, i. 441. 
Mea culpa, L 115. 
Mealy-mouth, L 500 ; iL 82. "^ 
Mean represents two old Verbs, 

L 82. 
Mean, a, L 108. 
Mean by it, L 113. 
Mean, hold the, L 132. 
Mean, I, L 114 ; ii. 88. 
Mean-looking, iL 189. 
Mean (purpose), i. 1 14, 1 1 5, 1 95, 

Means, a good, L 369. 
Means, by his, L 205, 385, 466. 
Means, by no, i. 309. 
Means of, by, L 132, 203. 
Means to be a soldier, what it, 

L 340. 
Means (ope«), ii. 81. 
Meaning (purpose), i. 135. 
Meantime, in the, L 30. 
Meanwhile, in the, i. 31, 48. 
Meanwhile, i. 261. 
Measly, L 534. 
Measure (con«t7tti7n), L 231. 
Measure his length, iL 40. 
Measure of man, take, i. 295, 

Measures, keep, L 545. 
Measures, take (carpentering), i. 

Meat and drink to him, i. 590. 
Meat for your master, ii. 33. 
Meat, give them, i. 219. 
Meat of egg, iL 34. 
Meat of orange, i. 532. 
Meaux, how pronounced, i. 217. 
Meazles, L 263. 
Medcalfe, Dr., L 574. 
Meddle, i. 6, 170. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Meddle or make, i. 544. 
Meddlesome, i. 239. 
Mediocrity, ii. 124. 
Meditacyons of the Soper, i 73. 
Medium, a, ii. 86, 96. 
Medlar, i. 266. 
Medley, i 24. 
Meet him half-way, i. 429 ; ii. 

Meet my wishes, ii. 124. 
Meet your match, ii. 124. 
Meeting, ii. ^Q, 
Meeting, give you the, ii. 190. 
Meeting-house, ii. Ill, 117. 
Meeting-place, ii 12, 66. 
Meg (Margaret), ii 226. 
Megrim, i 257. 
Melancholy, i 31. 
Mellow, i 257, 586. 

= ehnvA^ ii 83. 
Melly, i 60. 
Melted, confusion in this Verb, 

229, 441, 607, 617. 
Meltingness, ii. 82. 
Mem (madam), ii. 126. 
Member of Parliament, ii. 163. 
Memento, i 238. 
Memoirs, ii 120. 
Memorandum, i 245 ; ii 73. 
Memoria Technica, specimen o^ 

i 356. 
Memorial {scrvpiwm)^ i. 391. 
Memory, make, i 27. 
Memory, of good, i 186, 187. 
Memory (power of recollection), 

i 115, 490. 
Memory, within, i 581. 
Men, I shall make you, i. 202. 
Menage, i 292 ; ii. 114, 205. 
Mend as sour ale, i 502. 
Mend his pace, ii 53, 89. 
Mend (intransitive), i 406. 

Mend one, all shall be mended, 

i 561. 
Mend, on the, i 465. 
Mending hand, on the, i 594 ; 

ii. 59. 
Menial, i 144. 

Ment, the Suf&x, added to Teu- 
tonic roots, i 258 ; ii. 43. 
Mentz, i. 151, 214, 386. ' 
Mercantile terms, i. 569. 
Mercer's Petition, the, i 150. 
Merchandise, make, i 434, 447. 
Merchant (term of abuse), i 145, 

434, 464, 516 ; ii. 35. 
Merchants Venturers, i. 2 5 3 , 4 7 5 , 

Merchantman, i 357. 
Mercies sake, for, i. 102. 
Merciless, i 65. 
Mercury, i. 133 ; ii 90. 
Mercy, i. 8. 

Mercy, at my, ii. 40, 46. 
Mercy on, have, i 129, 144. 
Mercy on me ! ii. 25, 46. 
Mercy seat, i 420. 
Mere chance, i. 489. 
Mere motion, his, i 365. 
Merely {pmnmo\ i 612 ; ii. 47. 
Merely (ton^wm), ii 51. 
Mereswine, i. 218. 
Meridian, ii. 93. 
Mermaid, i 122, 240. 
Merrilies, Meg, ii. 95. 
Merriment, ii. 16, 28. 
Merry, i 119, 428. 

=jticundv>8, i. 261. 
Merry Andrew, i. 299 ; ii. 

Merry and wise, i 374, 392. 
Merry as cricket, i 457. 
Merry as day is long, ii. 35, 83. 
Merry as grigs, ii. 159. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Merry Christmas and happy- 
New Year, ii 97. 

Merry England, i. 249, 266. 

Merry for a woman, i 384. 

Merry in hall, etc., i. 586. 

Merry, it was never, i. 476. 

Merry, make, i. 16, 261. 

Merry men, i. 39, 40. 

Merry new year, a, ii 150. 

Merry thought, of fowls, ii. 202. 

Merry trotter, L 348. 

Merry weather, i. 261. 

Merry Wives of Windsor, L 254 ; 
ii. 24. 

Merry world, it was, L 527. 

Merrygreek, i. 493; ii. 12, 159. 

Mes dames, i. 687. 

Mesel (leper), i. 263. 

Mesh, L 113 ; ii. 63. 

Mess (party), L 323. 

Mess (plague), L 194, 550 ; ii. 

Message, do the, i. 176. 

Messieurs, ii. 186. 

Messings, i. 31. 

Messmate, ii 187. 

Mete, to, i 138. 

Metheglin, ii. 89. 

Methodical nonsense, ii 142. 

Metropolis, applied to an Arch- 
bishoprick, i 489. 

Metropolis, applied to London, 
i 169 ; ii 64. 

Mettle, off his, ii. 163. 

Mettle replaces mdal^ i. 492, 

Meum and tuum, ii. 80. 

Meuros (Melrose), i. 50, 386. 

Mew (prison), i 115. 

Mew, to (as cat), i 334. 

Meyny, i 8, 63 ; ii. 41. 

Micher, ii 32. 

Mickle, i 100, 288, 293 ; ii 23. 
Mid-age, of, i. 376. 
Mid- water, i. 89. 
Midden, a, i 34. 
Middle age, i 188. 
Middle aged, i 479. 
Middle class, rise of the, i. 323. 
Middle earth, i 553 ; ii. 25. 
Middlemarch, i. 313. 
Middlemost, i 438. 
Middling square room, ii. 84. 
Midge, i 365. 

Midland English form, a, i 171. 
Midship, the, ii. 6. 
Midshipsmen, ii 66. 
Midst, i 32, 161, 437. 
Midst of you, i 414. 
Midwife, used of a man, ii. 150. 
Mien, i 367 ; ii 25, 135. 
Miff (displeasure), ii. 201. 
Might and main, i 40. 
Might = could, i 296. 
Might, could, and would, i 147. 
Might overcomes right, i 502. 
Might, thou, i 447. 
Mights (powers), i 146. 
Mightily, i 417. 
Mightiness, i 439. 
Mighty rage, a, i 542. 
Mighty sore, i 435. 
Migraine, i 225. See megrim. 
Milch cow, i 15, 220. 
Mild a word, too, i. 606. 
Military words, i 587 ; ii. 7. 
Militia, ii. 81. 
Milk white, i. 66. 
Milkmaid, i 540. 
Milksop, i 122, 426. 
Milkwoman, ii. 94. 
Milky Way, the, ii 89. 
Mill, connected with coinage, i. 
240 ; ii 136. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Mill Uei-iri), ii. 195. 

Mill for paper, i. 580. 

Mill for powder, i 568. 

MiUer, i. 475. 

Milliner, i. 468. 

Million, i. 33, 67, 463. 

Milman, i. 640. 

Milman, Dean, ii. 214. 

Milne, i 801. 

Milner, i. 475. 

Milord, i. 590. 

Milton, i 109, 126, 318, 629, 

554, 679, 602, 622 ; ii. 2, 

13, 79, 81, 100, 101, 121, 

164, 216, 528. 
Mimic, ii. 79. 
Mince, i. 226, 464, 465. 
Mince an oath, ii 158. 
Mince the matter, ii. 59. 
Mincemeat of him, make, ii. 148. 
Mind a thing, ii. 19. 
Mind, be of one, i. 362. 
Mind, break her, i 451. 
Mind, call to, i 217. 
Mind, make up my, ii. 169. 
Mind (memorial), i. 410. 
Mind, out of, i. 56, 160, 216. 
Mind, put in, i. 238. 
Mind ran on it, ii 83. 
Mind, speak his, i 373, 465. 
Mind, to, i 143, 269, 398; ii. 

36, 43, 47, 139. 
Mind to do it, to, i 528. 
Mind to, I have got a, ii 199. 
Mind to it, give his, i 377. 
Mind (voluntcut), i 168. 
Mind what he is about, ii 169. 
Mind your own business, ii 122. 
Mind's eye, your, i 209. 
Minded, added to Adjectives, i. 

Minded to do it, i 367. 


Mine own self, i 414. 

Mine, yours, and England's 

enemies, i. 543. 
Mingere, the French word for, 

i 168, 442. 
Mingle-mangle, i 515. 
Minim, i 264. 

Minister (ambassador), i. 570. 
Minister justice, to, i 324. 
Minister, of the King, i. 37. 
Minister (priest), i 8, 24, 37, 

138, 274, 534, 618. 
Minister (servant), i 420. 
Ministry = clergy, ii. 3. 
Minor, in logic, i. 222. 
Minot, i 50, 627. 
Mint a phrase, ii. 134. 
Mint, Master of, i 216. 
Minute of a letter, i 325 ; ii. 

Minute past eleven, ii. 1 1 0, 121, 

Minutes go to a degree, i 167. 
Minx, i 488. 

Miracle Plays attacked, i 157. 
Mire, i 19, 21, 43, 188. 
Mirk, i 104-106, 143, 170, 

184, 265, 282. 
Mirror, i 29. 

Mirth, i 88, 99, 119, 428. 
Mis employed, not dis^ i. 444. 
Misanswer, i 283. 
Misbehavings, i 338. 
Miscall, i 278, 544. 
Miscarry, i 13, 131. 
Mischief, what a, i 668. 
Miscreant, i 210. 
Miscreant, its change, i. 615. 
Misdeformed, i 679. 
Miser, a, i 489, 659. 
Misfortunes seldom come alone, 

ii. 87. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Misgive, i. 114, 442. 
Misgiving, ii. 48. 
Misguided, i 354. 
Misliaps never come alone, i 

Mislay, to, ii 62. 
Mislike it, i. 673. 
Mislive, i. 64. 
Misliver, i. 426. 
Misname, i 394. 
Misnomer, ii. 129. 
Misproud, i. 371 ; ii. 24. 
Misrepresent, ii. 131. 
Misrule,! 178, 273, 400. 
Miss, a, i. 426. 
Miss a likeness, ii. 13. 
Miss my way, ii. 46. 
Miss, prefixed to surnames, ii. 

Miss, to, i. 441, 646. 
Miss, used to a girl, ii. 108, 125. 
Miss woman, i. 426, 452 ; ii. 108. 
Missing, to be, i. 467. 
Missive, i. 520. 
Mist, i 442. 
Mistake, L 13, 110. 
Mistake, make a, ii. 46. 
Mistake, under a, ii. 134. 
Mistaken English, i. 12, 68, 69, 
213, 232, 267, 259, 267, 
276, 332, 335, 366, 461, 

Mistaken, you are, ii. 107. 

Mister (master), ii. 74, 181. 

Misters, ii 191. 

Mistily, i 228. 

Mistime, i 176. 

Mistletoe, ii 15. 

Mistress, i 29, 301, 309, 392. 

Mistress {amica\ i 395, 451. 

Mistress, applied to a child, 479, 
610; ii 108. 

Mistress, prefixed to Nouns, ii. 

132, 140. 
Mistress, my, i 274. 
Mistrust, i 143. 
Misunderstanding, i 276 ; ii 

Misuse, i. 265. 
Mite, i 78. 

Mix with world, ii 190. 
Mixed company, ii 132. 
Mixon (dunghill), ii. 200. 
Mixture of languages, i 271. 
Mixture of Northern and South- 
em, i 84, 313, 321. 
Mizen, the, i 462. 
Mizzle, i 348, 442. 
Mizzled with wine, i 614. 
Mob, ii. Ill, 119. 
Mob, to, ii 161. 
Mobbish,-ii. 132. 
Mobile, moble, i 37, 86, 240. 
Mobocracy, i 581. 
Mock and mows, i. 332. 
Mock auction, i 516. 
Mock of, make, i 242. 
Mocks at, make, i 440. 
Models, i 587. 
Moderate sermon, i 479. 
Moderator, i 551. 
Moderners, ii 11. 
Modesty, i 470. 
Mogul, the Great, ii. 58. 
Moil, to, i 559. 
Molasses, ii. 6. 
Molde (terra), ii 14. 
Mold warp, ii. 32. 
Mole-catcher, i 683. 
Mole (macula), i 96. 
Mole (talpa), i 263, 454. 
Molehill, i 540. 
Moli^re, i 178, 289, 513 ; ii 
113, 221. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




MoUy, i 199. 

Molly, a, ii. 194. 

Molten, i. 229, 437, 441. 

Mome, i. 626. 

Moment, of no, ii. 24. 

Mon. See mun. 

Monasteries, suppression of, i. 

473, 482. 
Money changer, i. 196. 
Money, great piece of, i. 540. 
Money in hand, i. 301. 
Money is sinew of war, ii. 90. 
Money, make, i. 282. 
Money makes mare go, ii. 179. 
Money matters, i. 385. 
Money, put out, ii 83. 
Money spins, ii 203. 
Money, take up, i. 506. 
Money^s worth, i 146. 
Monger, tacked on to other 

nouns, i 122, 146, 191, 199, 

342, 343. 
Mongrel, i 484. 
Monied man, i 548. 
Monk, Dr., ii 210. 
Monkbams,the Laird of, i 104, 

Monkery, i 473. 
Monkey, i 466, 477. 
Monkey's allowance, i 590. 
Monosyllables, i. 589 ; ii 92. 
Monsieur, i 552. 
Monsoon, ii. 69. 
Monster, i 439, 481, 539. 
Monstrous, i 299, 517, 600; 

ii 18. 
Montague, Bishop, i 282. 
Mood (ira), ii 21. 
Moody takes a new sense, i. 

Moon, made of green cheese, i. 


Mooncalf, ii. 46. 

Moonshine, i 51. 

Moonshine in the water, i 503, 

Moonshine night, a, ii. 2. 
Moor, i 9, 43. 
Moor (Maumi), i 161. 
Moor, to, i 178, 556. 
Moorcock, ii 348. 
Moore, ii 40. 
Moorship, his, ii. 38. 
Moose, a, ii 69. 
Moot a case, i 469. 
Moot point, a, ii 137. 
Mop, i 263. 
Mop and mow, ii 41. 
Mop, to, i 332, 579. 
Mope, to, i 225. 
Mopish, i 225. 
Mopsy, i 601. 
Moral law, i 275. 
Moral of fable, ii. 19. 
Moral, the very, ii. 198. 
Morality, a, i 252, 454. 
Morally sure, ii 1 34. 
Morass, i 92. 
Morbus Gallicus, i 374, 380, 

425, 536. 
More, prefixed to a Comparative, 
i 428 ; ii 31, 43. 

replaces the old Comparative, 
i 163. 
More ado than needed, i 546. 
More afraid than hurt, i. 503. 
More and more, ii. 33. 
More at large, i. 241. 
More by half, i 59. 
More fool he, i 457 ; ii. 52. 
More harm, the, i 125. 
More haste, worse speed, i 491. 
More hurt than good, i 515. 
More I cannot promise, i. 607. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



More miles than two, L 62. 
More nice than wise, i. 613. 
More of this, i. 607. 
More pity, the, i. 52. 
More shame to him, L 476. 
More, Sir Thomas, i. 116, 319, 

408, 411, 420, 425, 428, 

429, 431, 433, 435, 475, 

477, 490, 494, 499, 530, 

532, 541, 549, 569. 
More, Sir Thomas, the Play of, 

ii 8. 
More than enough, i. 58, 402. 
More than half-dead, i. 319. 
More than usual, ii. 70. 
More the merrier, the, i. 169. 
More to God, he is, 1 148. 
Moris pike, i. 400, 499. 
Morison, Mr., ii. 213. 
Mom, i. 232, 272, 344. 
Morning, a Northern form, i. 

83, 94, 188, 293, 532. 
Morning call, ii. 202. 
Morning, its forms, i. 6, 140, 

332, 333, 412. 
Morocco, i. 162. 
Morris, Dr., i 23, 31, 60 ; ii 

220, 221, 228, 244. 
Morris, Mr. (the poet), ii. 211, 

Morrow, its two senses, i 44, 
344, 350, 412, 532. 

supplants morn^ i 80, 107. 
Morse, i. 536. 
Mortal enemy, i. 536. 
Mortal means, by no, ii. 55. 
Mortal stroke, i. 113. 
Mortgagee, ii. 220. 
Mortify (give in mortmain), i. 2 96. 
Moss-grown, ii. 32. 
Moss (mtt«ct/«), i. 165. 
Moss l^palni), i. 92, 267, 435. 

Most, all their, L 89. 

Most any thing Alexas ! ii 49. 

Most, at the, i. 92. 

Most beloved, i. 24. 

Most of all, i 79. 

Most of any thing, i. 153. 

Most of it, make, i 273, 486. 

Most part, for the, i. 165. 

Most, set before the Superlative, 

i 163, 320, 437, 483. 
Most wise, i 95, 175. 
Mostly, ii 161. 
Mot d'ordre, ii 45. 
Mot (must), i. 125. 
Mote (meeting), ii 66. 
Moth-eaten, i 416. 
Mother, i 350. 
Mother Brown, i. 339. 
Mother Bunch, ii. 9. 
Mother country, ii. 68. 
Mother of pearl, ii 53. 
Mother (the disease), i. 390 ; 

ii 41. 
Mother tongue, i. 276. 
Mother wit, i. 98, 480. 
Mother's milk, natural as, ii, 

Mother's son, every, i. 290. 
Motherly, i. 390. 
Mothership, your, i. 339. 
Motion, make a, i. 211. 
Motion, of your own, i 219. 
Motion, to, i. 342. 
Motto, ii 13. 

Motto of Edward III., i 75. 
Mould, to, i 262. 
Moulder, i. 469. 
Mouldy, i. 439. 
Moult, i 34. 
Mound, i 513, 555. 
Mount cannon, ii 26. 
Mountain top, ii 51. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Mountebank, i. 599. 

Mourn = wear mourning, i. 458. 

Mournful, i 589. 

Mourning, clothes of, i. 146. 

Mourning, go into, ii. 151. 

Mouse, applied to a lady, i. 565. 

Mouse, to, ii. 29. 

Mouser, i 258. 

Mouth-filling, ii. 32. 

Mouth, to, ii. 39. 

Mouths water, i. 536. 

Mouthful, ii 157. 

Move a cause, i 155, 219. 

Move, in law, ii. 75. 

Move (*re), i. 48, 332. 

Move, its forms, i. 32, 172, 

Move, on the, ii. 205. 
Move to tears, i. 385. 
Moveable, i. 161, 221, 240. 
Moveables, ii 196. 
Moving (pathetic), ii. 184. 
Mow, a, i 88. 
Mows, make, i. 437. 
Mowed (mown), ii 23, 62. 
Moyens (means), ii. 72. 
Mr. stands for Tnader, i. 274. 
MS. (manuscript), ii. 134. 
Much as his life is worth, as, 

i 486. 
Much as they can, as, i 147. 
Much good do it him ! i 486. 
Much goods, i. 415. 
Much = great, i 39, 99, 100, 

140, 293, 543. 
Much his friend, i. 478. 
Much in debt, i. 30. 
Much like, i 483. 
Much of a muchness, ii 82, 159. 
Much of it, make, i 273. 
Much the same, ii 203. 
Much to his regret, i 538. 

Muchness, i 26, 162, 266 ; ii 

Mud, i 21, 188. 
Muddiness of brain, ii. 77. 
Muddle, to, ii. 155. 
Muddy, to, ii 39, 144. 
Mudlark, ii. 195. 
Mudwall, i311. 
Mug, i579. 

Muggy weather, i 59 ; ii. 191. 
Mugwort, i257. 
Mulatto, ii. 69. 
Mulberry, i 514. 
Mulcaster, i 625. 
Mulligrubs, ii 193. 
Multiply by, etc., i 1 65. 
Multiply (intransitive), i. 166. 
Mum, i 204. 

Mum ! i 129, 372, 399, 462. 
Mum, to sit, i 374, 392. 
Mumble, i 101, 300. 
Mumbudget, play, i 557. 
Mumchance, i 448. 
Mumming, a, i 426. 
Mummy, ii. 25. 
Mump, to, i 200 ; ii. 109. 
Mumps, the, ii 12. 
Mumpsimus, i 174, 424, 471. 
Mun, mon, expresses the Future, 
i 16. 

expresses necessity^ i 41, 68, 
83, 168, 201, 493. 
Munch, i 101, 126, 349, 393. 
Muniments, i 92. 
Murchison, i 259. 
Murder will out, i 127 ; ii. 

Murderess, i 174. 
Murky, ii 47. 

Murmur, i 131, 419 ; ii 21. 
Murrain on it ! ii. 47, 52. 
Murray, Dr., i 14, 82, 86, 182, 

. Digitized by LjOOQIC 



211, 274, 337, 407, 497, 
530, 532, 538, 657, 578, 
612; YL 5, 16, 67, 65, 
81, 95, 105, 116, 121, 148, 
163, 174, 176, 188, 197, 
207, 244. 

Murray, the province, i. 227. 

Murtherous, i 440. 

Muscatel, i 446. 

Muscle, i 255. 

Muscovy, i. 534. 

Muse, to, L 34. 

Museum, ii. 89. 

Musliroom (upstart), ii. 63. 

Musket (hawk), L 266. 

Musket (weapon), ii. 18. 

Musketeer, ii 76. 

Muslin, ii 127. 

Mussulman, i. 562. 

Must expresses cupere, i 377. 
replaces mote, i. 70, 126, 201. 
replaces shall, i 546. 

Must and will, I, ii. 114. 

Must have built, i. 201, 415. 

Must, is for the Queen, ii. 47, 

Must live, a man, ii 115. 

Must you, added to a sentence, 

Mustachio, i. 687, 612. 

Muster, i. 22, 637, 572. 

Muster book, ii. 33. 

Musters, pass the, i. 589. 

Musty, i. 616. 

Mutiny, i. 607. 

Mutter, i. 114. 

Mutterus, i. 601. 

Mutual friend, i. 533. 

Muzzy, i. 614 ; ii. 184. 

My aU, i. 643. 

My dear beast, i. 44. 

My dear boy, ii. 145. 

My dear fellow, ii. 207. 

My, dropped before Lady, L 543. 

My every action, ii. 45. 

My good (patronising), L 529, 

My ladies, i. 58. 
My lady ! i. 300. 
My lady Changeable, L 209, 234. 
My lady my mother, i 220. 
My lady of Gloster, L 216. 
My lord, i. 24, 216, 333. 
My lord the Duke, L 14,^309. 
My man (the man I want), ii. 

My sake and the Gospel's, L 413. 
My serving you, i 638. 
My Spanish, lose, ii. 148. 
My younker (he of whom I talk), 

i. 602. 
Mynch (monacha), i 482. 
Mynheer, ii. 77. 
Mynshull, ii. 64. 
Myrmidons, iL 98. 
Mystery, i 144. 
Mystery man, i 262. 
Mystery of Freemasonry, i 171. 
Mystery (trade), ii. 38. 

N, added, i. 32, 141, 570 ; ii. 9, 

clipped at the beginning, i. 

103, 257, 368, 484. 
clipped at the end, i. 16, 19, 

25, 199, 217, 257, 302, 

367, 606; 1124,115,164. 
inserted in the middle, i. 32, 

83, 94, 97, 104, 186, 

212, 257, 524, 559; ii. 

2, 81. 
prefixed, i. 199, 257, 288, 

305, 355, 399, 453, 675 ; 

ii. 40. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



N replaces I, ii. 31, 128. 

replaces m, i. 234. 

replaces r, i. 386. 

thrown out of the middle, i. 
16, 19, 25, 44, 63, 97, 
151, 162, 173, 184, 232, 
237, 269, 347, 411, 426, 
447, 540, 594 ; ii. 32, 
Nab, to, ii. 118. 
Nabob, ii 179. 
Nag, i. 263 ; ii. 2. 
Nail him, ii. 182. 
Nail, money upon the, ii. 74. 
Nail on the head, hit, i. 447, 

Nails, hold like, ii. 84. 
Naime, Lady, i. 12, 385 ; ii. 

Naivete, ii. 220. 
Naked as bom, i. 576. 
Name, get him a, i. 376, 400. 
Name his price, ii. 160. 
Name is to it, his, i 474. 
Name of baptism, i. 303. 
Name of, in the, i. 308 ; ii. 63. 
Name, put his, i 472. 
Name, set his, ii. 120. 
Name them names, i. 100. 
Name to a dignity, i. 369, 391. 
Names, take their, i. 545. 
Nameless, i. 5. 

Nameless, he shall be, i. 371. 
Namely (prced^h), i. 419, 436, 

553, 604 ; ii. 27. 
Namely (videlicet), i. 436 ; ii 

Namesake, ii. 121. 
Nan, i. 288, 399 ; ii. 154. 
Nancy, ii. 154. 
Naogeorgus, i. 582. 
Nap of a coat, i 255 ; ii. 64. 

Nap, take, L 400, 455, 541. 
Napier, ii. 221, 223. 
Napkin, i. 216. 
Napoleon I., i 23. 
Napoleon III., i. 248. 
Napping, take him, i. 558. 
Narrow escape, i. 613. 
Nas but, altered, i. 337. 
Nash, i. 608 ; ii. 8-12, 17, 18, 

19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 47, 92. . 
Nassington, William of, i. 76. 
Nastiness, ii 69. 
Nasty, i 66. 
Nasty = cutting, ii 168. 
Nation (damnation), ii. 193. 
Native Scotsman, i. 312. 
Natives, i. 443. 
Natty, i 501,583 ; ii. 193. 
Natural, i419. 
Natural, a, ii. 35. 
Natural blessing, her, i. 538. 
Natural fool, i 236. 
Natural son, i. 346, 368 ; ii. 

means nothus, ii. 59. 
Naughtiness, i. 223. 
Naughty, i 62, 276, 304, 437, 

495, 497 ; ii 44. 
Naunt, i 305. 
Naunton, ii. 81. 
Nay, i 138. 

stronger than no, i 46. 

inserted in the middle of a 
sentence, i 111. 
Nay but, i 127. 
Nay, nay, i. 448. 
Nay sure, i. 547. 
Nay then, i. 319. 
Nay, to, ii. 14. 
Nay ti-uly, i. 460. 
Ne, coupled with yet before an 

Imperative, i. 108. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ne (nor), i. 213, 215, 604. 
Near (almost), L 65, 308 ; ii. 

Near and dear, ii 182. 
Near as I can guess, L 482. 
Near guess, a, ii 133. 
Near him, L 91. 
Near it, very ; as to number, i. 

Near my time (childbirth), i. 

Near (nearly), how, L 476. 
Near of kin, i. 94. See nigh of 

his hin. 
Near (parctui), ii. 189. 
Near run, a, i. 351. 
Nearer, i 32. 
Nearer together, i. 91. 
Nearest, i. 32, 607. 
Nearly, i. 560. 
Nearness, i. 245, 338. 
Neat, i. 489, 501, 583 ; ii. 72. 
Neatly, i. 66. 
Neatness, i. 520. 
Neatness = elegance, i. 593. 
Neb, i. 258, 436 ; ii. 46. 
Necessaries, i. 166, 253. 
Necessity of, i. 236. 
Necessity, under the,ii. 191. 
Neck and heels, lay them, ii 

Neck of disturbance, break the, 

i 544. 
Neck of land, i. 535. 
Neck of, on the, i. 497, 548. 
Neck of war, break, ii 164. 
Neckcloth, ii 148. 
Ned, i 575. 

Neddy (donkey), ii 200. 
Nede mote that nede shall, i. 1 76. 
Need be, if, i 80, 157. 
Need (cogrere), i 145. 

Need governs an Accusative, i 

105, 143, 184. 
Need nots, ii 167. 
Need to be, it had, ii 103. 
Needs, in the Plural, i 12. 
Needs must he run that Devil 

drives, i 393. 
Needs, the Adverb, i 278. 
Need^i to have been, etc., i 429. 
Needeth not rehearse, it, i 124. 
Needful, the (money), ii. 186. 
Needful takes the new sense of 

necessary, i 36. 
Neediness, i 366. 
Needisly, i 278. 
Needle in bottle of hay, ii. 98. 
Needle of compass, i 454. 
Needlework, i 141. 
Ne'er, i 411. 
Neese, to, i 263. 
Negro, i 536. 
Negus, ii 156. 

Neighbourhood, a good, ii 186. 
Neither comes after not, i. 442 ; 

ii. 132, 204. 
Neither here nor there, ii. 38. 
Neither less nor more than, i 

Neither . . . neither, i 384, 

417, 432. 
Nell, i 199, 399. 
Nelson, i 343. 
Nepe tide, ii 67. 
Neps (turnips), ii 201. 
Nero-Hke, ii 22. 
Nervous, ii 199. 
Nesing, i 437. 

Ness encroaches on hedy i 121, 
258, 454. 

used to compound new Sub- 
stantives, i 12, 32, 35, 36, 
53, 57,94, 141, 146, 162, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



185, 200, 223, 261, 279, 
292, 302, 359, 382, 413, 
421, 426, 434, 438, 447 ; 
ii 95, 102, 133. 

Nest ^%%^ ii 117. 

Net product^ ii. 205. 

Net (puru8\ i. 331. 

Nether Germany, i. 227. 

Netherbow, i 348. 

Netherer, the, i. 275. 

Netherlands, i 495. 

Nethermost, i. 438. 

Netify (make neat), i. 614. 

Netting, i. 513 ; ii. 202. 

Nettle, to, L 202, 262. 

Neuter in dispute, i. 638. 

Neutrals, ii. 237. 

Never a whit, i. 456. 

Never-failing, ii 179. 

Never (not) one, i. 39, 429. 

Never rains but it pours, ii. 

Never the later, i. 33. 

Never too late to mend, ii. 97. 

Never too old to learn, ii. 156. 

Nevemeither, i. 277. 

Neverthrift, a, i. 357. 

New broached, i. 521. 

New brooms, etc., i. 501. 

New come, i. 59. 

New England, ii. 69. 

New found Isle (land), i. 364, 
369, 380, 450. 

New leaf, turn over, ii. 10. 

New Learning, the, i. 473, 479, 

New Light, the, ii. 102. 

New lords, new laws, ii. 69. 

New, of the (anew), i. 278. 

New Orleans, i. 392. 

New Year's day, i. 57. 

News is none, i. 606. 

News stirring, ii. 70. 

Newcastle, i. 241. 

Newfangled, i 6, 373. 

Newgate, i. 121. 

Newish, i 579. 

Newman, Cardinal, i. 380. 

Newmarket, i. 499 ; ii. 58. 

Newness, i. 348. 

Newsmonger, ii 9. 

Newspaper, ii. 149. 

Newt, i 161, 257. 

Next cousin to, i. 484. 

Next door to, i 357, 484, 608. 

Next (nearest) way, i. 607. 

Next stands for at next, i. 115. 

Next to hand, come, i. 590. 

Next to nothing, ii. 168. 

Ni, final, clipped, i. 23. 

Nib, i 258. 

Nibble, i 204, 585, 600. 

Nice, Council o^ i. 572. 

Nice (discriminating), i. 282. 

Nice dish, a, ii. 155. 

Nice (elegant), i 294, 296, 321, 

489, 613 ; ii 93. 
Nice (exact), ii 134. 
Nice (fastidious), i 65, 239, 

464, 613. 
Nice (fooHsh), i. 572. 
Nice, for nais, i 467. 
Nice is much brought forward, 

ii. 206. 
Nice (lazy), i. 264. 
Nice (wanton), i 54, 296, 561. 
Nicely, i 565. 
Niceness, i 464, 615. 
Nicety, i 111, 464, 615; ii 206. 
Nicety, to a, ii. 147. 
Nicholas' clerks, St, i. 555. 
Nick, in the, i 580, 598. 
Nick (Nicholas), ii 28. 
Nick, Old, i. 334 ; ii 94. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Nick, to, i 206, 347, 406, 407, 

602; ii. 114. 
Nickname, L 267, 453 ; ii 213. 
Niggard, i. 98, 393. 
Nigger, ii. 66. 
Nigh (almost), i 46. 
Nigh him, i 91. 
Nigh of his kin, i 266. 
Nigh the sooth, go, L 127. 
Nigh, to shave, L 127. 
Nigh to sin, they are, i. 222. 
Nigh upon a thousand, L 384. 
Night brawler, ii. 38. 
Night of it, make, i. 341 ; ii 

Nightcap, i. 281. 
Nighted (benighted), i 318. 
Nightfall, ii 142. 
Nightgown, i 238. 
Nightmare, i 122. 
Nightshade, i. 514. 
Nil ye, i 139. 
Nim (copere), i. 262, 282, 452 ; 

ii 87, 104. 
Nim (ir«), i 6, 15, 18, 56, 170, 

.Nimble, i 227. 
Nincompoop, ii 111. 
Nine, i 97. 
Nine days' wonder, a, i 116, 

Nine in ten, ii 158. 
Nine lives like a cat, i. 501. 
Nine tailors make a man, ii. 

Nine times out of ten, ii 166. 
Ninepins, ii 91. 
Ninth, i 97. 
Nip, i 101, 204, 228. 
Nip in bud, ii. 155. 
Nippingly, i 488. 
Nipple, i 357. 

No inserted in the middle of a 
sentence, i 111, 377. 

replaces w)t^ i 163. 

stands by itself, i 492. 
No, a, ii 84. 
No better than they be, i. 542 ; 

ii 67. 
No blame to him, i 291. 
No circimistance whatever, ii 

No Delville was visible, ii. 189. 
No doubt of, i 374. 
No end of treasure, i 439. 
No fool to the old fool, i 501. 
No friend, my, ii 111. 
No game (joke) to, i 116. 
No great river, i 163. 
No how, i 91. 
No how, be, ii. 191. 
No ice tx) be seen, i 563. 
No kin's wise, in, i 280. 
No manner of man, i 283. 
No man's foe but his own, i 

No more ! i 203. 
No more (dead), ii 159. 
No more did I, i 163, 203. 
No more of this ! i 124. 
No more to you, i. 389. 
No news, i 531. 
No news, good news, ii. 90. 
No, no ! i. 443. 
No nothing, ii. 115. 
No one day, i. 632. 
No otherwise, i. 543. 
No penny, no pardon, i 429. 
No sooner, i 208. 
No such bad thing, ii. 189. 
No time, in, ii 200. 
No way, i 186. 

No way but this, i. 579 ; ii 38. 
No where at all, i. 460. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



No where else, i. 460. 

No wight living, i. 210. 

No wise, i. 91. 

No woman alive, i. 400. 

Nobbut, L 62, 140. 

Nobility, the, i. 465. 

Noble, i. 139, 164. 

Noble science of defence, ii. 13. 

Noble, the coin, L 102. 

Nobles, the, i. 230. 

Nobleness, her, i. 447. 

Noblesse, the, ii 97. 

Noblesses, your, i. 217. 

Noblest-minded, ii 49. 

Nobody, i 20, 440. 

Nobody = of small account, i 

543, 565 ; ii. 183. 
Nod as good as wink, ii 174. 
Nod, to, i 236. 
Nodders and noddees, ii. 120. 
Noddle, i. 263. 
Noddy, Tom, i 370, 467. 
Noel, i 56. 
Noggin, ii. 97. 
Noise, make, i 230. 
Noise runs, the, i 369. 
Noisome, i 185, 196, 231, 419. 
Nolens volens, ii 61. 
Nolt, i 496. 
Nominative dropped, i 290. 

supplants the Dative, i 42, 
108, 202, 273, 283, 299. 
Non est inventus, ii 13. 
Non prefixed to Nouns, i 215, 

prefixed to Teutonic words, 
i 271, 338, 387. 
Non-receipt, i. 529. 
Non-residence, i 217, 221. 
Nonage, i 215, 217, 271. 
Nonce, for the, i 127 ; ii 22. 
None of his, i. 79, 440. 

None of his to give, i 515. 

None of the wise, I be, i. 175. 

None of thy gold, i 85. 

None of you but, i 41. 

None other but, i 398. 

None otherwise, i. 330. 

None so blind as, etc., i 502. 

None supplants not^ i. 334. 

None the wiser, ii 36, 54. 

None to stop you, i 55. 

Nonentity, ii. 93. 

Nonpareil, ii 12, 13. 

Nonplus, put to a, ii 52. 

Nonplus, to, ii 118. 

Nonplus, to set, ii 13. 

Nonsense, ii. 90. 

Nook, i 81. 

Noon-day, i. 445. 

Noppy ale, i 456. 

Nor, i 151, 184, 188, 215, 
271, 282, 289, 293, 303, 
replaces ihan^ i 58, 268 ; 
ii 152. 

Nor never will, ii 132. 

Norden, ii 57. 

Norfolk, i 80, 104, 175, 215, 
242, 253, 264, 270, 288, 
289, 291, 303, 305, 315, 
319, 370, 432 ; ii 200. 

Norfolk, Duke of, i 386. 

Norman Conquest, effects of, i. 
22, 78, 345. 

Norman sounds, i 60. 

North, changes due to the, i 
33, 109, 127, 137, 157, 160, 
212, 224, 235, 243, 245, 
256, 324, 332, 394, 401, 
573, 578, 595 ; ii. 63, 208. 

North drops old forms, i. 79. 

North influenced by South, i 
74, 186. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



North-north-west, i. 112. 

North preserves old words, L 69. 

North, Roger, ii. 159. 

North, Sir Dudley, ii. 99, 119. 

Norths, Lives of the, ii 99, 118, 

Northern Church noticed, L 483. 

Northern dialect mimicked, i. 
393, 449, 520, 521. 

Northern forms supplant 
Southern, i. 77, 140, 151, 
299, 304, 328, 329, 330, 
333, 337, 343 ; ii 27, 47, 

Northern metres, i 499. 

Northern pieces, i 11, 110, 
141, 172, 189, 190, 218, 
320, 400, 402, 404 ; ii 92. 

Northern words altered into 
Southern, i 70, 267, 497. 

Northern words and phrases, 
peculiar, i 35, 37, 38, 41, 
55, 59, 68, 71, 78, 94, 99, 
100, 104, 116, 122, 124, 
140, 145, 150, 162, 181, 
182, 184, 192, 196, 
198, 199, 204, 206, 209, 
221, 234, 250, 267, 268, 
271, 275, 280, 288, 300, 
312, 314, 318, 335, 346, 
350, 364, 370, 371, 375, 
382, 398, 418, 421, 435, 
439, 441, 442, 444, 446, 
452, 458, 460, 461, 473, 
489, 491, 493, 496, 527, 
543, 546, 547, 558, 576, 
584, 586, 612 ; ii 39, 50, 
59,64, 111, 160, 162, 166, 
170, 190, 199, 201, 232. 

Northgate, Michael of, i 23. 

Northumbrian usages, i 558 ; 
ii. 200. 

Norwest, i 294. 

Norwich Guilds, i. 4, 50, 95, 

Nose drops, i 500. 
Nose it, ii 47. 

Nose out of joint, thrust, i 613. 
Nose, talk in the, ii. 56. 
Nose, under her, i. 195. 
Noses, cast up their, i. 440 ; ii 

Noses to grindstone, i 503. 
Nosegay, ii 185. 
Nostril, i 151. 

Not replaces no at the end of a 
sentence, i 186. 

supplants /or nothing, i 330. 
Not at all, i 210. 
Not at home, i 281 ; ii 152. 
Not caring whom, i. 466. 
Not doing, the, i 506. 
Not enough circumcised heart, 

a, i 546. 
Not for ever so much, ii 159. 
Not I ! ii. 15. 
Not if I know it, i 335. 
Not in thee to, it is, ii 40. 
Not never what, I, i 117. 
Not? (Nottingham), i 302. 
Not only not, etc., i 498. 
Not so, i 417. 

Not so much as (even), i. 488. 
Not so sound as it had been to 

be wished, i 570, 571. 
Not so sure but, i 476. 
Not so well but, i 165. 
Not that, etc., i. 417. 
Not to be found, he is, ii 38. 
Not to speak of , ii 51. 
Not unlikely ! ii 131. 
Not yet (stands by itself), i 188. 
Nots and nons, his, i. 515. 
Notability (management), ii. 206. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Notch, i 594. 
Note (epistola), ii 28. 
Note of hand, i. 542. 
Note of it, take a, i 544. 
Notes, my, i 520. 
Noteworthy, L 581. 
Nothing, a mere, ii. 189. 
Nothing at all, i. 209. 
Nothing doub^ I, i. 469. 
Nothing in it, ii 151. 
Nothing in that way, do, ii. 

Nothing in the least, ii 159. 
Nothing less, to mean, i 576. 
Nothing like it, i 209, 330, 

Nothing loth, i 7, 330. 
Nothing, much brought forward, 

ii 189. 
Nothing near him, preach, ii. 71. 
Nothing near so good, ii 154. 
Nothing (no charge) for, ii 189. 
Nothing short of, i 568. 
Nothing so great as, i 330. 
Nothing that, for, i 330. 
Nothing to be compared with, 

i 531. 
Nothing to the purpose, i. 223. 
Nothing would serve but, ii 172. 
Nothingness, ii 95. 
Notice, give, i 384. 
Notice of, take, ii. 8. 
Notions, high, ii. 191. 
Notwithstanding, i 55, 150, 

Nought (for it) but, i 402. 
Nought (not), i. 95, 281. 
Nought to do there, i 283, 320. 
Nought to say for himself, i. 

Nought venture, nought have, 

i. 501. 

Noun made a Verb, i 358 ; ii 
26, 49. 

prefixed to the Past Parti- 
ciple, i 1 76. 

turned into a Past Participle, 
i 83. 
Novel, a, ii 149. 
Novels (news), i. 79, 205. 
Novelty, i 109, 219. 
Now and again, i. 177. 
Now and then, i 372. 
Now, ensamples of, i 177. 
Now for, i 282 ; ii 181. 
Now, how is it ? i 202. 
Now I think on't ? ii. 55. 
Now is the time to, i. 387. 
Now ifs out, ii 123. 
Now that, i 164. 
Now, the Greek ouUf i 417. 
Now to you, ii 21, 178. 
Now we talk of it, ii 186. 
Nowadays, i 69, 101, 461. 
Nowt powis, to, i 467. 
Nozzle, ii. 156. 
Nudge, to, ii 168. 
Nuisance, i 113, 231, 273. 
Numb, to, i. 262. 
Number of beasts, a, i 47, 166. 
Numbers, books in, ii 179. 
Numbers {tv/rhce), i 313. 
Numbness, ii 45. 
Numerals, new idiom of, i 70, 

273 ; ii 5, 42. 
Numscull, ii 155. 
Nun, Poem on the, i 188. 
Nuncio, i 384. 
Nuncle, i 305 ; ii 40. 
Nimnishness, i 540. 
Nuntion, i 595. 
Nurse, i 52. 
Nurse, at, i 392. 
Nurse, put to, i. 497 ; ii 192. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Nursery of trees, ii. 67. 

NUrsle, i 463. 

Nurture (good breeding), L 10, 

171, 444. 
Nut-brown Maid, the, i. 367. 
Nut-crackers, ii 186. 
Nut-hatch, i 266. 
Nuts to him, ii 160. 
Nuzzle, to, L 463. 
Nysey {duUui)^ ii 197. 

O replaces a, i 6, 26, 61, 61, 

68, 70, 83, 104, 161, 197, 

232, 254, 267, 287, 344, 

347,361,408,668; ii41, 

109, 128. 
replaces ab, ii. 36. 
replaces au and ato, i 83, 

231 ; ii 67. 
replaces e, i. 26, 32, 36, 94, 

119, 140, 161, 172, 198, 

264, 366, 431, 514, 539. 
replaces ea, i 19, 172, 264. 
replaces eo, i. 38. 
replaces evs, i 324. 
replaces ^, i 64, 264, 321. 
replaces (m, i 87, ^19, 344 ; 

ii. 97, 197, 202, 226. 
replaces ow, i 66, 161, 329, 

339, 614, 606. 
replaces w, i 3, 38, 86, 184, 

198, 365, 667, 683, 690, 

replaces y, i 119, 410. 
is doubled, i 119, 266. 
is inserted, i 276, 361 ; ii 

42, 91. 
is sounded long, ii. 186. 
is thrown out, i 86, 238, 

255, 304. 
: its new sound, i 342. 
rimes with ow, ii. 47. 

= call for silence, i 129. 

couldst thou speak ! ii 49. 

O crimine ! ii. 124. 

O for a Muse ! ii 36. 

for <me is a mark of the 

South, i 96, 140, 167, 246, 

for we is a mark of the North, 

i 140. 
Ola! ii. 112. 
me 1 ii 29. 
0, O ! i 64. 

that he cursed is, i 375. 
that, the Optative, i. 443. 
Oa replaces o, i 80, 41 1. 

replaces (m^ i 600. 
Oaf, ii. 24, 40, 65. 
Oak apple, i. 348. 
Oak, simple, proverb about, i 

Oakum, i 668. 
Oar in his boat, have, i 491. 
Oar, put in, ii 168. 
Oar (waterman), ii. 62. 
Oaten cake, i 619. 
Oates, Dr., ii 118, 131. 
Oath, make, i 298. 
Oath, put to, i 403. 
Oath, take his, i 628. 
Oaths, i 24, 47, 59, 101, 105, 

111, 129, 160, 204, 262, 

288, 384, 462, 472, 608, 

616, 526, 548, 563, 677 ; 

ii 18, 25, 33, 79, 122, 171. 
Oatmeal, i 225. 
Obedience, the Latin, i 214. 
Obedient supplants obeyssant, i 

Obeisance, do, i 127. 
Object it to him, ii 206. 
Obligated, ii 192. 
Oblige, i 79 ; ii. 89. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Obliging gentleman, an, ii 105. 
O'Brien, L 481. 
Observe (at sea), ii 68. 
Obtain = hold ground, i. 351. 
Occasion, give, i 221. 
Occasion, take, L 186. 
Occleve, i 149, 208-211, 234, 

320, 375, 527. 
Occupy = ply business, i. 149, 

Occurs to me, it, ii. 173. 
Och ! i. 448. 

Ochiltree, Edie, i. 436, 623. 
Ockley, the writer, i. 599. 
Octavian, the Romance of, i. 

Odd comes South, i. 156. 
Odd ends, i. 576. 
Odd = exceptional, L 573. 
Odd = irregular, i 104. 
Odd is made a Substantive, i. 

Odd look, have, ii. 159. 
Odd man, the, i. 428. 
Odd or even, i. 174, 194. 
Odd =^Zwra, i 183, 383. 
Odd volume, an, ii. 182. 
Odds and ends, i. 451. 
Odds (difference), i 484, 519, 

541 ; ii. 26, 133. 
Odds, lay, ii 33. 
Oddity, ii. 178. 
Od'sbobs, ii. 113. 
Od's body ! ii. 32. 
Od*s haricot's, etc., ii 171. 
Od's me 1 ii 24. 
Od's pittikins ! ii. 45. 
Oe replaces eo, i 11. 

replaces e and 0, i. 240. 

replaces oy, i 398. 
Of does not govern the following 

Noun, i 614. 

Of, dropped before weight, i. 461. 
expresses anent, i 308. 
expresses beyond, i 330. 
new idioms of, i 148, 284, 

335, 337, 432, 461. 
not off, used to express dis- 
tance, i 474, 478 ; ii 33. 
prefixed to Possessive Pro- 
nouns, i. 39. 
prefixed to Verbs, i 46. 
replaces /or, i 417, 418. 
replaces have, i 448. 
replaces on, i 213, 252, 341; 

ii 23. 
replaces the old Genitive, i. 

used after Verbs of sense, i 8. 
used after Numerals, i. 334, 
341, 346. 
Of all the days of the year, ii. 

Of them replaces their, i 142. 
Of time byegone, i. 212. 
Off, added to afar, i 417. 
added to Verbs to express 

thoroughness, i 53. 
and of stand side by side, i. 

165, 417 ; ii 137. 
appears as an Adverb, i. 91, 

141, 153. 
is brought very forward, ii. 
Off and near side, ii. 117. 
Off and on, i 335. 
Off-day, i. 584. 
Off = distant, i 302. 
Off from her, ii. 114. 
Off-hand, ii. 161. 
Off his hand, i 91. 
Off-horse, the, ii 202. 
Off or on, i 567. 
Off = over, ii 48, 71. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Off side, the, ii. 84. 

Off with you, ii. 170. 

Offal, i. 226. 

Offence, take, ii. 23. 

Offer contumely, L 549. 

Offer for a lady, an, ii. 72. 

Offer (present itself), ii. 138, 

Offer (promise), i. 378. 
Offer skirmish, L 556. 
Offers, make, L 245 ; ii 30. 
Offers, occasion, ii. 85. 
Office, bear, L 277, 294. 
Office, do your, L 53. 
Office = place of business, i. 130, 

204, 393. 
Offices, L 204, 241. 
Officer = man of business, i 

Officer of ship, i. 556. 
Offing, the, ii. 99. 
Offscouring, i 411. 
Offset, iL 167. 
Oft-times, i. 140, 417, 432. 
Often diseases, thy, i 417. 
Oftener, L 310. 
Ogh ! L 603. 
Ogle, to, L 398 ; ii 123. 
Oh no ! i 443. 

Oho! i 111, 204, 335; ii 19. 
Ohone ! ii 99. 
Oi (see oy); its two oldest sounds, 

i 67, 87, 119, 151, 184, 

298, 339, 346, 495, 560 ; 

ii 185. 
sounded like 6y«, ii. 128. 
sounded like m, ii. 128. 
takes a new sound, i 140, 

141, 184, 359 ; ii 128. 
replaces « or ai, i 146 ; ii 

88, 90. 
replaces t, i 539. 

Oi replaces u^ i 87, 539 ; ii 53. 
replaces wt, i 119. 
rimes with i/, ii 102. 

on, i 6. 

Oily (callidus), ii 40. 

Ointment, i 138. 

Old acquaintance sake, for, L 

Oldage, i 17, 191, 410. 

Old Bailey, the, ii. 142. 

Old disappears, the, i 68-70. 

Old fashioned, ii 118, 191. 

Old fellow, ii 206. 

Old forms and words, i. 24, 69, 
104, 107, 216, 224, 267, 
287, 356, 361, 370, 393, 
396, 404, 408, 409, 423, 
437, 447, 451, 452, 494, 
514, 518, 532, 537, 553, 561, 
564, 566, 568, 572, 578, 
590, 594, 604,-611 ; ii. 43, 
87, 174. 

Old gentleman, i 599 ; ii. 207. 

Old glazen eyes, ii 54. 

Old hand, an, ii. 194. 

Old maid, i 454. 

Old man s darling, etc, i. 502. 

OU, of, i 128. 

Old one, the (devil), ii 195. 

Old Testament names come in, i. 

Oldcastle, i 214. 

Olden, i 232. 

Older, i 16. 

Oldest, i. 161. 

Oldly (of old), i 476. 

Oldness, i. 572. 

Olifant, i 265, 537. 

Oliver Twist, i 317 ; ii 197. 

Omnigatherum, i. 593. 

Omnipotent, i. 132. 

On ! i 533. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



On and m confused, i. 28, 317. 
and in, side by side, i. 442. 
dropped before a Noun, i. 

164, 272, 563. 
follows hxm^ i. 417. 
follows Verbs of fondness, i. 

implies hodilityy i 183. 
stands for the prefix ww, i. 

supplants /or^A, i. 59, 164. 
supplants 0/, i. 129, 144, 

165, 608 ; ii. 112, 205. 
On a quest, i. 39. 

On them ! i. 92, 467. 

Once a knave, ever a knave, ii. 

Once, at (statim), i. 461. 
Once, come at, i. 461. 
Once for all, i. 397, 417. 
Once, for this, i. 59. 
Once in a way, il 161. 
Once more, i. 86. 
Once, twice, thrice ! ii. 52. 
One, dropped before an Adjec- 
tive, i 27. 

its change of sound, i. 170. 

refers to a previous Noun, i. 

replaces 00, i. 357. 

stands after an Adjective, i. 
175, 234. 

the Indefinite, i. 486 ; ii 34, 
One after another, i. 322., 
One and all, i. 68. 
One and only, i 531. 
One and the same, i. 213. 
One another, i. 27, 414 ; ii. 89. 
One cause or other, 1 248. 
One comfort, ii. 182. 
One end to the other, from, i. 89. 


One have thou (a blow), i. 287. 
One horse chaise, a, ii. 187. 
One I could name, i. 117. 
One, I for, i. 335. 
One ill turn requires another, i. 

380, 501. 
One in twenty, i 498. 
One = myself, i. 565, 566. 
One of all the best, i. 175. 
One only, i. 337, 440, 531. 
One the fairest, i. 440 ; ii. 45; 
One thing, it is, to, etc., i 429. 
One three days, i. 570. 
One to one (man for man), i 91. 
One too many, i 608. 
One, two, three, and away, ii. 

140, 183. 
One way or another, i. 300, 340. 
One with him, i. 521. 
One word ere I go, i. 126. 
One year with another, i. 244 ; 

ii 89. 
One's, the Genitive, i. 206, 486. 
Ones, in the Plural, i. 125, 414 ; 

ii 47. 
Oneness, ii 81. 
Onion, i 226, 560. 
Only, is made a Superlative, i. 

is made Plural, i. 497. 

= nil nid, ii 148. 

wrongly transposed, i. 53. 
Only me, ii 189. 
Only that, etc., ii. 208. 
Onset, i 518. 
Onslaught, ii. 102. 
Onward, i 84, 109, 229. 
Oo, its new sound, i 359, 612 ; 

ii. 77, 94, 124. 
Ooned (united), i 277. 
Oons ! ii 124. 
Ooze, i 25, 153, 405. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ooze, to, ii 41. 
Open a case, iL 96. 
Open becomes intransitiye, i. 
402 ; ii 148. 

made a Substantive, i 348 ; ii. 
Open business, to, L 301. 
Open court, in, i. 486. 
Open-eyed, ii. 47. 
Open-handed, ii 83. 
Open himself to, ii 169. 
Open household, keep, i 358, 

Open-mouthed, i 630. 
Open sinner, i 261. 
Open to conviction, ii 189. 
Open winter, a, ii 160. 
Opening for a subject, ii 188. 
Opera, the, ii 104. 
Curative, ii. 214, 230. 
Opiate, i 136. 
Opine, to, ii 121. 
Opinion, I am of , i 370. 
Opinion, in my, i 346. 
Opinion made Masculine, i 279. 
Opinionate, to, ii 86. 
Opium, i 636. 
Oppidan, ii 79. 
Opposite meanings borne by one 

word, i 84, 111. 
Opposition, the, ii. 166. 
Or replaces other (omQ, i 128. 

stands for thm^ i 58. 
Or ever, i 284. 
Or more, added to Numerals, i. 

Oran outang, ii. 174. 
Orange, i 66. 

Orange, Prince of, i 570, 587. 
Orator, your, i. 292, 367, 389. 
Orcagna, i 109. 
Ordain, to, i 107. 

Ordeal, i 582. 

Order, keep, i 644. 

Order, out of (in poor health), ii. 

Order, set in, i 20. 

Order, take, i 233, 382. 

Order to an end, in, ii. 118. 

Ordinary (a meal), i. 660. 

Ordinary, of gaol, ii 127. 

Ordinary, the (in church matters), 
i 148. 

Ordnance of war, i 166, 219. 

Oresme, i 172. 

Organ of Satan, i 660. 

Organs of limbs, i 225. 

Original, i 9, 444. 

Original, an, ii. 112. 

Original (picture), an, ii 120. 

Oriloge, i 80, 167, 276. 

Orison, i 119. 

Orrmin, 8, 9, 13, 14, 32, 39, 
41,43,62,86,95, 124, 126, 
140, 143, 151, 160, 168, 
171, 172, 178, 185, 202, 
234, 240, 244, 276, 314, 
328, 343, 363, 365, 372, 
413, 417, 429, 485, 491, 
497, 531, 642 ; ii. 18, 229. 

Ort {relipd(B)y ii 42. 

Ostler, i 146, 193. 

Oth (until), disappears, i 25. 

OtheUo, i 579; ii. 37, 113. 

Other (alii), ii 43, 60. 

Other and sundry, i 212. 

Other {aut\ i 95, 451, 473. 

Other gate, i 44. See another 

Other some, ii 29, 87, 186. 

Other such, i 440. 

Other tone from, a fetr, ii 207. 

Others, a new form, i. 193, 290, 
363, 661. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Others, needlessly inserted, i. 

Otherways, i. 91. 
Otherwhere, ii 20. 
Otherwise than, i 186, 296. 
Ou, its modem sound, i. 369. 

its old sound, ii 117, 141. 

replaces a, L 3. 

replaces aZ, i. 50. 

replaces aio, i 2. 

replaces «, i. 43, 172, 293, 303, 
346 ; ii. 24. 

replaces i, L 453, 539. 

replaces 0, i 7, 15, 87, 119, 
289, 361, 539. 

replaces oi, i 3, 50. 

replaces it, L 3, 97. 

replaces t*o, i 161. 
Ought {oportd\ curious idiom 

of, i 213. 
Ought that, for, L 110, 115. 
Ought that I can see, by, L 108. 
Oughts = any things, i. 695. 
Ouphe, ii 24, 40, 65. 
Our man, ii 61. 
Our will and the men's, i 168. 
Our'n, ii 187, 198. 
Ours, i 414, 692. 
Ours two, i 79. 

Ous, added to an English Adjec- 
tive, i 276. 

replaces the old wis, i 312. 

takes the English signs of 
comparison, i 37, 185. 

used to form new Adjectives, 
i 439, 440. 
Out expresses super in composi- 
tion, i 129, 339. 

much used as an Adverb, i 

prefixed to Nouns, i 23, 341, 

Out, prefixed to Romance words, 

Out alas! i 196. 
Out and out the worthiest, i. 

Out at heels, ii. 10. 
Out, candle is, i 261. 
Out cast from, i 114. 
Out-chamber, i 189. 
Out-fort, an, ii. 75. 
Out, harrow ! i. 395. 
Out^herod, to, ii 39. 
Out, his eye is, i. 84. 
Out-isles, i 23. 
Out of apparel, i 478. 
Out of doors, i 417. 
Out of himself (beside himself ), 

i 283. 
Out of our line, ii. 171. 
Out of our way ! ii 46. 
Out of the way (absent), i 538. 
Out of the way = odd, i 112 ; 

ii 161. 
Out of the way, take = kill, i. 

Out, out, an Interjection, i 261, 

Out place, an, i 461. 
Out, seven years are, i. 435. 
Out-taken (except), i 247. 
Out, the bottom is, i 180. 
Out upon thee ! i 204. 
Out with it, ii 1 7. 
Out, you are, ii. 115. 
Outbid, to, ii 3. 
Outbray, to, ii. 112. 
Outbreak, ii 38. 
Outcast, i 26, 258. 
Outcast, to, i 194. 
Outcasting, the, i 26, 142, 258 
[Outcome, i 88. 
I Outcry, i 373. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Outdo, to, ii 48. 

Outface, to, i, 373. 

Outfall, to, i 219. 

Outgo, to, ii 61. 

Outgoing, i 3, 27, 141. 

Outgrow, ii. 122. 

Outhouse, i. 23, 575. 

Outing, i. 88, 259. 

Outjest, to, ii. 40. 

Outlandishlike, i. 573. 

Outlast, i. 584. 

Outlie, to, i. 580. ' 

Outline, ii 178. 

Outlive, i. 262, 288, 339. 

Outmost, i 85. 

Outpost, ii. 171. 

Output, i. 49. 

Outrance, i 379. 

Outr^, i 173. 

Outrider, i 122, 129. 

Outright, clipped, i 335. 

Outrigger, ii 202. 

Outroar, ii 50. 

Outrun, i 115, 129, 374, 384 ; 

ii 51. 
Outrun constable, ii 52. 
Outsell, to, ii 116. 
Outset, ii 167. 
Outshine, ii 28. 
Outside, the, i 360, 366, 371. 
Outside, the new Preposition, 

i 374. 
Outskirts, ii 166. 
Outstare, ii 30, 51. 
Outstay, ii 36. 
Outstrip, i 608 ; ii 9, 47. 
Outswear, ii 56. 
Outthruster, i 540. 
Outtrip, i 608 ; ii. 9. 
Outvie, ii 19. 
Outward bound, ii 67. 
Outward = foreign, i 367. 

Outward from = outside, i 374. ' 
Outward man, my, i. 479. 
Outweigh, ii 33. 
Outwit, to, ii. 117. 
Outwork, an, ii. 75, 113. 
Outworth, to, ii 51. 
Outvillain, to, ii 17. 
Ovation, ii 234. 
Over can be freely prefixed, i 1 44, 

expresses Latin de, i 37, 443. 

expresses the Latin 2?er,i 443 ; 
ii 8. 

prefixed to Eomance roots, i. 
21, 37, 278. 

supplants /or in compounding, 
i 548, 607 ; ii. 73. 
Over-acted, ii 147. 
Over again, i 524. 
Over against, i 418. 
Over all (above all things), i 92. 
Over all (vMqtLe), i 595. 
Over and above it, i. 278 ; ii. 

Over and besides, i 508. 
Over-earnest, ii 49. 
Over, have it, ii 1 24. 
Over, he was, i 21. 
Over head in water, i. 450. 
Over-many, i 367. 
Over-pay, ii 45. 
Over-persuaded, ii. 69. 
Over pool, the, i 442. 
Over = remaining, i 180. 
Over shoes, in mud, ii. 71. 
Over soon, i 33. 
Over story, the, i. 345. 
Over-tedious, ii. 22. 
Over that (moreover), i 244. 
Over their head, bum, i 378. 
Over too much, i. 372. 
Over, twenty times, ii 30. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Overall (uWgt^), begins to drop, 

Overbear a ship, i 442. 
Overblown, it is, i. 136, 431. 
Overbold, i. 403. 
Overbulk, to, ii 44. 
Overburden, to, ii. 61. 
Overbury, ii 47, 57. 
Overcharge, i 247. 
Overcome with kindness, ii. 74. 
Overcome work, i. 584. 
Overcrow, i 508. 
Overcmst, i 238. 
Overdeck, to, L 377. 
Overdo a part, ii. 39. 
Overdraw account, ii 168. 
Overer, the, i 275. 
Overfall, an, ii 60. 
Overfeed, ii 43. 
Overflown (overflowed), i 416. 
Overfraught, ii 41. 
Overgart, i 9. 
Overgo, to, ii. 28. 
Overgorge, ii. 23. 
Overgrow it, i 478. 
Overgrown, i 59. 
Overhale, to, i. 613. 
Overhand, get the, i. 94, 332. 
Overhaul accounts, ii 169. 
Overhaul, to, ii. 67. 
Overhead, i 365. 
Overhear, i 515. 
Overheat, to, ii. 58. 
Overkindness, ii. 35. 
Overlay, i 37. 
Overlip, i 151. 
Overlive, i 580. 
Overliver, i 262, 288. 
Overlook (look at), ii 30. 
Overlook (negligere), i 391, 430. 
Overman, i 12. 
Overmann, to, ii. 87. 

Overpeer, to, ii 48. 

Overplus, i 155, 180. 

Overpower, to, ii 27. 

Overproud, ii. 27. 

Overrack, ii 67. 

Overrate, ii. 45. 

Overreach (cheat), i 100, 589, 

Overreach (overtake), i. 20. 
Override (ravage), i. 45. 
Override (ride too hard), ii 73. 
Overroast, i 432. 
Overrun, i 21, 115, 374, 384; 

ii 50. 
Oversee, i. 430. 
Overseen, they were, i. 235. 
Overseer, i 207. 
Overseer of matches, ii 52. 
Overset, to, i 202,311. 
Overshoot, i 111, 458, 556. 
Oversight, i 338. 

has two meanings, i. 430. 
Oversleep myself, i 458. 
Overstock, to, ii 129. 
Overstrain, to, ii 69. 
Oversway, to, ii 16, 49. 
Overswollen, ii. 84. 
Overtake work, i 584. 
Overtaken with drink, ii. 3. 
Overt^, i 275. 
Overthrow, i 586. 
Overthwart, i 165, 335, 437, 

570 ; ii 104. 
Overthwartly, i 284. 
Overtoil, to, ii. 61. 
Overtop, to, ii. 39. 
Overtravail them, i. 144. 
Overture, make, i 367. 
Overwatched, ii. 160. 
Overworn, i 607. 
Overwrought, ii 91. 
Ow is clipped, i. 3. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ow replaces ao, i. 161. 

replaces au^ i 161. 

replaces aw, i 7, 298, 347. 

replaces ew^ L 344 ; ii 162. 

replaces ^, i. 319. 

replaces tgr, i 119. 

replaces o, i 94, 411, 610, 
600 ; ii 93. 

replaces o\ i 525, 592. 

replaces Uy i. 119, 425. 

replaces tw, i 107, 119. 

sounded in the modem way, 
ii. 159. 

sounded in the old way, 
ii 164, 202. 

sounded like o, i 359, 473 ; 
ii 135, 153. 
Owe ill-will to, i 497. 
Owe (possidere), ii 21. 
Owe replaces «, i 110. 
Owing for it, he is, i 290. 
Owing them, it is, i 207, 235. 
Owing to, i 177 ; ii 127. 
Owl, i 119. 
Owlet, i 491. 
Own boy, my, i 122. 
Own brother to, i 175. 
Own counsel, keep his, i 528. 
Own dear, thy, i 287, 350. 
Own fault, their, i 543. 
Own fool's eyes, thy, ii. 29. 
Own free will, of his, i 210. 
Own head of hair, his, ii 183. 
Own, make it his (learn), i 531. 
Own man, be mine, i 175, 543. 
Own, of his, i 85, 100. 
Own proper person, his, i 218. 
Own, two meanings of the Verb, 

Own use, have it to his, i 360. 
Owner, i 244. 
Ownership, ii 166. 

Oxford, i 72, 74, 137, 140, 
155, 232, 265, 473, 523, 
579, 597, 610, 624 ; ii 180, 
194, 197, 208, 226, 227, 
228, 233. 
Oxford, Earls o^ i 303, 426, 

Oxford, Lady, i 390. 
Oxford, Lord (Harley), ii 199. 
Oxford studies, i 191. 
Oxonian, ii 143. 
Oy replaces t, i 344. 

replaces o, i 18, 227, 483. 
replaces ui,L 7, 231. 
rimes with aie^ i 172, 232, 
254, 255, 286, 293, 410, 
438, 530, 565; ii 117, 
135, 140, 162. 
(see oi) takes a new sound, 
i 82, 113, 151, 161, 255, 
475, 579. 
stands for u, i 35, 89, 198, 
254, 274, 286, 438, 528 ; 
ii, 93, 95, 117, 200. 
Oyes, i 197. 

P, added to m, i 453. 

confused with /, i 32, 535. 

inserted, i 173, 215, 289, 
305, 386. 

replaces 6, i 120, 352, 438, 
453 ; ii 126. 

replaces c, i 162, 226, 600. 

replaces k, i 255 ; ii 122. 

replaces t, i 255 ; ii. 102. 

struck out, ii. 202. 
Pace, go the, i 176. 
Pace over, i 266. 
Pace, the ambassador, i 388. 
Pace, to, i 25, 121. 
Pace with, keep, ii 103. 
Pack a jury, i 541. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Pack-horse, i. 635. 

Pack-needle, i 98, 303. 

Pack off, i 395, 519. 

Pack-saddle, iL 48. 

Pack (term of abuse), i 394. 

Pack-thread, i. 305. 

Pack (turbo), i 14. 

Pack up, i. 202. 

Packer, a, I 303. 

Packet, i 369, 462. 

Packet at sea, ii 178. 

Pad (bundle), i 548. 

Pad (footpad), 587 ; ii. 167. 

Pad, to, ii 12. 

Paddle, a, ii 60. 

Paddle, to, i 460 ; ii 38. 

Paddock (toad), i. 200. 

Paddy, ii 194. 

Padlock, i 540 ; ii 82. 

Padua, i 474, 610. 

Pagans, i 187. 

Page (servant), i 225. 

Page, the poet, i 218, 234, 366, 

Pageant, i 148, 196. 
Paget, i 529. 
Pah I ii. 39. 
Pail,i 216. 

Pain, heaidea pine, i 193, 333. 
Pain of, under, i 186. 
Pain of, ujwn, i 131. 
Pain, put him out of, ii. 151. 
Pain, put to, i 33. 
Pain, take, i 282. 
Pain (to toil), i 60. 
Pains, for his, ii. 79. 
Pains taking, i 434. 
Painful, i 60, 264. 
Paiinful = bitter, i 577. 
Painter (rope), ii. 68. 
Painter, the trade, i 197. 
Painting, i 255. 

Pair gloves, a, i. 102. 

Pair, in the Plural, i 30, 218. 

Pair of pincers, i. 349. 

Pair of tongs, i 132, 349. 

Paisley, ii 74. 

Palatable, ii 156. 

Pale faced, ii 23. 

Paleme, William of; i 42, 67. 

Palisado, ii 61. 

Pall Mall, ii 108. 

Pall, to, i 178. 

Palm on you, ii 141. 

Palsgrave, i 262, 263, 360, 365, 
403, 405, 436, 452-466, 474, 
481, 490, 496, 498, 501, 
507, 573, 580, 598, 604, 
614 ; ii 10, 17, 29, 31, 32, 
51, 66, 74, 77, 117, 146. 

Palsy, i 141. 

Palter, i 61, 596. 

Paltry, i 183, 548. 

Pamper, i 106, 129. 

Pandar, i 116, 603. 

Pane, i 345. 

Pang, i. 373, 402. 

Panic, ii 165. 

Pannel, i 345. 

Pannel a quest, i 463. 

Pansy, i 462. 

Pant, to, i 205. 

Pantaloon, ii 19, 80. 

Pantomime, ii. 64. 

Pap-boat, ii 188. 

Pap, children's, i 219. 

Papa, ii 139, 202. 

Papelard, i 95. 

Paper, i. 60. 

Paper, a (important document), 
i 95, 354 ; ii 59. 

Paper, things on, ii. 68. 

Papers (newspapers), ii 177. 

Papishes, ii. 187. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Papist, i. 386, 552 ; ii 58. 

Papist in liis heart, ii. 123. 

Papistry, i 508. 

Pappy, ii 188. 

Par amours, 1 471. 

Par, on a, ii 186. 

Parada, ii. 90. 

Parade, ii. 91. 

Parade the town, ii. 172. 

Paramour takes its evil sense, 

i. 294. 
Paraphernalia, ii 172. 
Parcel gilt, i 533. 
Parcel meal, i 103. 
Parchment, i. 272. 
Pard^, the oath, i 160, 518. 
Pardon, I beg your, ii. 112. 
Pardon me, i 552. 
Parenthesis, the, i 129, 275, 

506, 551 ; ii 119. 
Parish, i 146. 
Parish clerk, i 131. 
Parish, left on the, ii 120. 
Parishioner, i 317. 
Parisian, i 179. 
Park time, ii. 107. 
Parker, a, i 180. 
Parker, Archbishop, i 517, 581. 
Parliament, Acts of, i. 353. 
Parliament man, a, ii. 59. 
iParliament of Fowls, the, i. 112. 
Parlour, i 204. 
Parlous, i. 209. 
Pamell, i 98, 557 ; ii. 197. 
Parodia, ii 134. 
Parrot, i 373. 
Parse, to, i 509. 
Parsnip, i 349, 496. 
Parson, i 9, 51, 265, 425. 
Parson Tully, i 343. 
Parson's leman, tender as, i 505. 
Parsonage, i 217, 222. 

Part and lot in, i 277. 

Part companies, i. 558. 

Part = depart, i 21. 

Part, do his, i 90, 250, 434. 

Part encroaches on d^aX^ i 166. 

Part, for his, i 177. 

Part good friends, i 52. 

Part (in music), i 368 ; ii 44. 

Part, it is his, i. 273. 

Part, make a, ii 142. 

Part, play a, ii. 221. 

Part = separate, i 60. 

Part, take a, i 209, 240. 

Part, take my, i 306. 

Part taker, i 421. 

Part taking = jjarto^er, i 187, 

Part to do it, our, i 301. 
Part with, have, i. 53. 
Part with his goods, i 55. 
Parts = qualities, i 319. 
Partial judge, i 270. 
Participle used as an Adjective, 
i 10, 53, 99, 176, 239 ; 
ii. 78, 124, 132. 
dropped, i 42, 59, 469. 
Active, new idiom of, i 398. 
Active replaces the Passive, 

i 216. 
Active stands for a Substan- 
tive, i. 85. 
Active confused with the 

Verbal Noun, i 131. 
Active made a Superlative, i 

Passive imitates the Latin, i 

59, 131, 148, 186, 213. 
Passive is made Plural, i 180. 
Passive used without a Noun, 

i 416. 
Passive has a Noun prefixed, 
i 63, 176. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Participles Active and Passive 
coupled, i. 36. 

Active take no Noun ac- 
companying, i 69, 164. 

Passive, two united, i. 99. 
Particle, i. 225. 
Particular, in, i. 463. 
Particular, in attentions, ii. 147. 
Particularly, i 180. 
Particulars, come to, ii 131. 
Particulars, the, i 385. 
Parties for dining, ii. 163, 173. 
Parties = parts, i. 145. 
Parting breath, i. 588. 
Partizan, i. 637 ; ii 165. 
Partly, i 369. 

Partridge, the printer, i 677. 
Party adversary, my, i 391. 
Party-coloured, i 241, 443. 
Party {horrw), i 561. 
Party, take his, ii. 139. 
Party to it, i 181, 244, 306. 
Pas, jdeld the, ii 156. 
Pasch, i 146, 343, 420, 538. 
Pasquil, i 472, 610, 516. 
Pass accounts, i 244. 
Pass (a permission), ii 61. 
Pass articles, i. 367. 
Pass artillery ^the mountains, i. 

Pass by a man, ii 43. 
Pass for (care for), i 674. 
Pass gifts, i 244. 
Pass him off for, ii. 172. 
Pass, in fencing, ii 25. 
Pass it over to, i 596. 
Pass, it will not, ii. 108. 
Pass, let it, i 382. 
Pass, muster, ii. 172. 
Pass night, i. 179. 
Pass not, I, i 509. 
Pass notes, ii 186. 

Pass off wares, ii 185. 
Pass-over, i 133, 266, 412, 420, 


Pass over (pmittere), i 419, 607. 
Pass = pierce, ii 68. 
Pass pike, i 649. 
Pass the Seal, ii 59. 
Pass time, i. 328. 
Pass, to, i 25, 121, 244. 
Pass, to such, i 489. 
Pass upon me, ii 180. 
Pass your credence, i 309. 
Passages between lovers, ii 86. 
Passages in his life, ii. 127. 
Passed play, I am, i 205. 
Passenger, i. 104. 
Passing-bell, i 467. 
Passing = beyond, i 167. 
Passing = excessive, i 167, 395. 
Passing forth (exitus), i. 155. 
Passing over of {prcnter^ i 131, 

Passingly, i 237. 
Passion = emotion, i 116, 378, 

433, 464. 
Passionate, i. 649. 
Passioned, i 310. 
Passive Voice extended, i. 140, 
147, 160, 177, 183, 239, 
241, 248, 275, 307, 341, 

replaces the Active, i 298. 
Passport, i 388. 
Past = ago, i 102. 
Past and Future Participles 

combined, i 250. 
Past, Present, and Future, i. 

116, 317. 
Past shame, i. 379. 
Past, the, i. 31. 
Pasteboard, ii. 76. 
Pastime, i 206, 358. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Paston Letters, the, i 230, 242, 

270, 288, 303, 339, 350, 

361, 367. 
Paston, Master, i 342. 
Pat (blow), i 62. 
Pat, hit it, i. 608. 
Pat, to, L 608. 
Patch, a, i 144. 
Patch, to, i. 429. 
Patch up, i 673. 
Patchwork, ii 149. 
Pate, i 437. 
Patent, take out, i. 306. 
Pater Patrise, i. 606. 
PaterfiEimilias, i. 236. 
Patience is a virtue, ii. 140. 
Patience, out of, i 488 ; ii. 147. 
Patience with me, have, i 418. 
Patient Qrissill, the play, ii 37, 

Patients, i. 103, 116. 
Patriot, i 681. 
Patron, i. 60, 111, 149, 224, 

437, 464. 
Patron = master of ship, i 613. 
Patronise, ii. 206. 
Patten, i 487, 618-621. 
Pattens, run on, i. 492. 
Pattern, i. Ill, 149, 224, 410, 

437, 464. 
Paulet, ii 6. 

Paul's Cross, i 157, 181. 
Paul's, St, i 103, 220, 665 ; 

ii. 96. 
Pauper, i 612. 
Pavement, i. 229. 
Paving stone, i 264. 
Paw, to, ii 143. 
Pawn, at chess, i 111, 329. 
Pawn = pledge, i 372. 
Pay becomes a noun, i 171. 

drives out flfiW, i 132. 

Pay had two meanings, i 31, 
191, 264. 

Pay at sight, ii 123. 

Pay day, i 476. 

Pay down, i 489. 

Pay her attention, ii. 206. 

Pay him back, ii 71. 

Pay, honesty will, ii 94. 

Pay off debts, ii 134. 

Pay our respects to, ii 172. 

Pay = pay out, i 285. 

Pay the piper, ii 126. 

Pay them their rent (defeat 
them), i 86. 

Pay through nose, ii. 172. 

Pay visits, ii 152. 

Paymaster, i 467. 

Pea green, ii 177. 

Peace, keep the, i 215. 

Peaceableness, i 141. 

Peacemaker, i. 249. 

Peach-coloured, ii 33. 

Peach men, to, i 399. 

Peach, the fruit, i 265. 

Peacham, ii. 91. 

Peachum, i 399. 

Peacock, i 2, 161, 241. 

Peaked, i 105, 314. 

Peal, a, i 4, 246, 444 ; ii 22. 

Pearl, the poem, i. 168. 

Peasant, i 627. 

Pease, i 26, 666. 

Pease soup, ii 152. 

Peats, i. 362. 

Peccadillo, ii 72. 

Peck of troubles, i. 484. 

Peckish, ii 196. 

Pecock, Bishop, i 78, 193, 221, 
223, 266, 273, 274-280, 289, 
293, 306, 327, 328, 342, 
381, 428, 432 ; ii 29, 236. 

Peculiar, a, ii. 197. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Peculiar to, i 531. 

Pedant, ii 17. 

Pedigree, i. 217, 603. 

Pedigrees, how drawn up, i. 214. 

Pedlar, i. 234, 347. 

Pedlar^s French (slang), i. 455, 

575, 576. 
Pedling, L 557. 
Peek, to, i 589. 
Peel (castle), i. 19, 94, 116. 
Peel off, to, i. 552. 
Peel, to, i. 219 ; ii 196. 
Peeler, a (impoverisher), i. 584. 
Peep of day, ii 82. 
Peep, to, i 205. 
Peeps, the day, i 587. 
Peeper (eye), ii. 194. 
Peephole, i 549 ; ii. 148. 
Peer, to, i 43, 96. 
Peers (nobles), i. 48. 
Peevish, i 99, 287. 
Peewit, i 371 ; ii. 201. 
Peg, i 263. 

Peg at food, to, ii 169. 
Peg higher, hoist him, ii 74. 
Peg into him, strike, i 619 ; 

ii 46. 
Peg, take him down a, ii 103. 
Pegge, ii. 197-201. 
Peggy, ii 64. 
Pegtop, ii. 202. 
Pelf, i 490, 620. 
Pelham, Lady, i 182. 
Pell mell, i 457, 603 ; ii. 12, 

Pellet, for gun, i 118, 819. 
Pelt, to, i 545. 
Pelting (paltry), i. 557. 
Pen, clerk, a, i 149. 
Pen things, to, i 385. 
Pen to a book, put, i. 480. 
Pen to paper, put, ii 89. 

Pen to paper, set, i 614. 
Pens, for cattle, i. 62. 
Penal laws, i 549, 616. 
Penance, i 139, 422, 446. 
Pence in the pound, so many, 

i 249. . 
Penguin, i 593. 
Penitence, do, i 133, 422. 
Penitentiary, i 264. 
Penknife, i. 258. 
Pennant, a, ii 74. 
Penn'orth, ii. 55. 
Penny-a-liners, ii 212, 216, 

Penny for your thought, i 503. 
Penny in the world, not, i 298. 
Penny poet, a, ii. 52. 
Penny post, ii. 152. 
Penny to bless him, no, i 504. 
Penny, turn a, i 374. 
Penny wise and pound foolish, 

ii 92. 
Penology, ii 217. 
Penrith, i 594. 
Penthouse (2?m<is8«), i 13, 453 ; 

ii 12. 
People, his (servants), ii 144. 
People, his (soldiers), i 42. 
People = hormneSf i 331, 388, 

People's voice is God's voice, i 

Peoplish (vulgar), i 116. 
Pepper a boy, i. 356. 
Pepper in nose, take, i 464. 
Pepper-box, ii. 24. 
Peppercorn, i 454. 
Pepperer, a, ii. 152. 
Peppery, i 464. 
Pepys, i 426. 
Per excellentiam, ii. 90. 
Per head, ii 117. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Per se, a man, ii 44. 
Perad venture, i 138. 
Perched, to be, i. 118. 
Percival, the Poem, i 284. 
Percula, Dame, L 197. 
Percute, to, ii 216. 
Percy, Bishop, L 75 *; ii. 208. 
Perdition, son of, i 139. 
Perdu, leave, ii 118. 
Peremptory, i. 604. 
Perfect, i. 292. 
Perfect in his part, ii 16. 
Perfect stranger, ii 139. 
Perfection, i 30, 133, 610. 
Perfection, she is, ii 38. 
Perfections, her, ii 21. 
Perform it out, i 115. 
Perfunctory, ii 223. 
Perhaps, i 3, 46, 236, 448. 
Perils, at all, i 63. 
Periwig, i 591 ; ii. 20. 
Periwinkle, i 454. 
Perk, to, i 515. 
Perkin (Peter), i 98. 
Pernel (Petronilla), i. 98. 
Persecute (pursue), i 445. 
Persian, i 266 ; ii 25, 69, 80, 

94, 144, 146. 
Person, a, i 35, 346 ; ii 206. 
Person, as I am a I ii. 127. 
Person = beauty, i. 136. 
Person = self, i 175, 211, 240, 

Person, used scornfully, ii. 192. 
Personage {corp^^ i. 303. 
Personage =vir, i 368. 
Personal discussed, i. 213, 470, 

571 ; ii 38, 43, 59, 155, 

Personalities (compliments), ii 

Personality (abuse), ii 172. 

Personality (man), ii 223. 

Personally, i 211, 217 ; ii 42. 

Personate, ii 42, 54. 

Perspective, i. 462. 

Pert, i 41, 381. 

Peruke, ii 20. 

Peruse (go through), i 406. 

Pest of shops, ii. 206. 

Pet (darling), i 363, 587, 613. 

Pet iyrci), ii. 75. 

Peter robbed to clothe Paxil, i 

Petition, put up, i. 246. 
Petitions, opening of, i 217. 
Peto, Cardinal, i 151, 475,539. 
Petrarch, i 173. 
Petroleum, i 608. 
Petticoat, i 264. 
Pettifogger, i 596. 
Petty captain, i 325, 420. 
Petty, Sir William, ii. 116, 117, 

Pew, i 102. 
Pew-fellow, i 618. 
Pewter, i 156. 
Pewterer, i 207. 
Ph replaces/, i 600. 
Phaeton, ii. 76, 177. 
Pharisee, i 139. 
Phenomena, ii 158. 
PhU (Philip), ii 88. 
Philander, ii 126. 
Philip II., i 529, 664, 622 ; ii 

Philippus son = Philip's son, i 


Philistine, ii 197. 
Philo-poet, ii. 158. 
Philologer, ii 149. 
Phip (PhiUp), i. 370. 
Phisnomy, i 361. 
Phiz, ii 122. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Phlegm, i. 453 ; ii. 86. 
Phlegmatic, i. 31. 
Phoo! ii 44, 115, 123. 
Phrase, a, i. 459. 
Physiognomy, i 178. Seej??iw- 

Piazza, i. 552 ; ii. 54. 

Picard forms, i 21, 466. • 

Piccadilly, ii 91. 

Pick a bit, ii. 159. 

Pick and choose, ii 109. 

Pick and steal, i 25. 

Pick-axe, i. 454. 

Pick-back, carry, i. 548. 

Pick his mind, i 607. 

Pick holes, ii 118, 120, 133. 

Pick it out, i 306. 

Pick (%o), i 25. 

Pick nose, i 237. 

Pick out scent, ii 18. 

Pick purse, i 429. 

Pick quarrel, i 290. 

Pick-quarrel, a, i 427. 

Pick teeth, i 170. 

Pick thank, i 209, 361, 393. 

Pick up acquaintance, ii 169. 

Pick up food, i 10. 

Pick words, i 176. 

Pickaniny, ii 196. 

Picked men, i 324, 486. 

Pickedest, the, i. 542. 

Pickers (thieves), i. 365. 

Pickle, i 226, 263, 526. 

Pickle, an ill, i. 584. 

Pickle, in a, ii. 47, 172. 

Pickle (TteftwZo), ii 172. 

Picklock, i 527. 

Pickwick, i 46, 140. 

Picture-drawer, ii. 159. 

Picture-maker, i. 570. 

Picture of comeliness, the, i. 609. 

Picture, take a, ii. 95. 

Piddle, to (trifle), i 498. 

Pie crust, ii. 5. 

Pie (eatable), i. 130. 

Piebald, ii. 102. 

Piece (bit) of a scholar,^ ii 81, 

Piece (cannon), i 464. 

Piece (man), i. 433. 1 

Piece of eight, ii. 56. 

Piece of his mind, i. 567. 

Piece of money, i 552 ; ii. 62. 

Piece of ordnance, i 385. 

Piece of plate, i. 220, 489. 

Piece of providence, i 552. 

Piece of rudeness, ii. 165. 

Piece of silver, i. 294. 

Piece of work, i 482, 489. 

Piece (picture), i 563. 

Piece (play), ii. 139. 

Piece, to, i 498. 

Piece (woman), i. 433, 563. 

Pied monk, i. 518. 

Piedmont, ii. 65. 

Pier of bridge, i 264. 

Pier of harbour, i. 533. 

Pier (pillar), i 532. 

Pierce Penniless, ii. 9. 

Pierce replaces ding^ i. 164. 

Piercing eyes, i 402. 

Piercingness, ii 120. 

Piers Ploughman, i 17, 44, 62, 
69, 74, 77, 84, 85, 93, 96- 
104, 120, 130, 155, 182, 
200, 222, 232, 250, 270, 
277, 282, 287, 303, 334, 
393, 400, 401, 590. 

Piety, i 6, 133, 187, 229, 346, 
483, 609. 

Pig of lead, ii. 66. 

Pig-nut, ii. 46. 

Pig-stye, ii 92. 

Pig-tail, ii 177. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Pig together, to, ii 137, 195. 
Pigs in a poke, two, i 121, 

Pig's pettitoes, iL 85. 
Pigeon (dupe), ii 172. 
Pigeon hole, ii. 53. 
Piggin, a, ii. 198. 
Pike, different names of the, 

ii 4. 
Pike (^wciM«), i. 131. 
Pike, the weapon, i 499, 513. 
Pike, to trail, ii 48. 
Pikeman, i 578. 
Pikestaff i 98, 465. 
Pilate's voice, a, i. 465. 
Pilchard, i 496. 
Pile (building), i 84. 
Piles, the ailment, i 587. 
Pilfer, i 491, 538. 
Pilgarlick, i 349. 
Pilgrim Fathers, the, ii 69. 
Pilgrimage, go a, i 153, 350. 
Pilkington, Bishop, i 558, 576. 
Pill, a, i 479, 609. 
Pill, to (plunder), i 219, 437. 
Pillar of repentance, i 524. 
Pillar to post, i 30, 382. 
Pillory, i. 3. 
PiUow, i 110. 
Pilot, i 137. 
Pimple, i 495. 
Pin (cn*«), i 399. 
Pin down to, ii 160. 
Pin faith on, ii. 133. 
Pin him to her sleeve, i 607. 
Pin himself on you, ii 110. 
Pin money, ii 109, 140. 
Pin, on a merry, i 134. 
Pin (pen), to, i 262. 
Pin's head, i 564. 
Pin's head in cartload of hay, i. 


Pins of cart, i. 4. 

Pinafore, ii 188. 

Pinch, i 3, 134, 370. 

Pinch, at a, i 399. 

Pinch, come to the, i 587. 

Pinch is, the, ii 161. 

Pinch, to, ousts tmwgf, i 591. 

Pinchbeck, ii 203. 

Pinchpenny, i 210. 

Pine ^anguish), i 262. 

Pined away, to be, i 415. 

Pinfold (pound), ii 21. 

Pinion, to, i 549. 

Pink, a, i 585. 

Pink and white, look, ii 203. 

Pink-eyed, i 394. 

Pink of courtesy, ii 34. 

Pink, to, i 556 ; ii 196. 

Pinnace, i 529. 

Pinnacle, i 55, 317. 

Pinner (rcsfis), ii 107. 

Pintpot, i 557. 

Pip, i 263. 

Pipchin, Mrs., i 613. 

Pipe all hands, ii. 169. 

Pipe for smoking, ii 52. 

Pipe of organs, i. 260. 

Pipe of peace, ii 180. 

Pipe of wine, i 207. 

Pipe, strain his, i 608. 

Pipe, to (set up his pipe), i 202, 

Pipes of the lungs, i 122. 
Pipes, put up your, i. 508, 558. 
Piping hot, i 123, 458. 
Pipkin, i 603. 
Piquant, i 388 ; ii. 79. 
Pique, i 528. 
Pish ! ii. 10. 
Pish away, to, ii 67. 
Pistle (epistola\ i 472. 
Pistol-proof, ii 17. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Pit coal, ii. 77. 

Pit for -pni, L 226. 

Pit, in the cheek, i. 455. 

Pit of theatre, iL 107. 

Pit pat, i. 600. 

Pit, to, ii 168. 

Pitch his choice on, ii. 70, 78. 

Pitch, of a building, ii. 21. 

Pitch of flight, ii. 22. 

Pitch (ina;), i 265. 

Pitch replaces fighi^ i. 58, 146. 

Pitch tents, i. 298. 

Pitch, the highest, i 573 ; ii. 

Pitch ifwqyu&ri)^ i 525. 
Pitch upon a place, ii. 78. 
Pitched battle, i 481 ; ii. 18. 
Pitchfork, i. 270. 
Piteous, i 25, 283, 331, 398. 
Pitfall, L 5. 
Pitfall, to, 219. 
Pith, i 412, 661. 
Pithily, i 278. 
Pities, a thousand, ii. 86. 
Pitiful, its two senses, i 550 ; 

ii 199. 
Pitifully, L 219. 
Pitt, i. 305 ; ii 210, 232. 
Pitted with, i. 353. 
Pittle-pattle, to, i 515. 
Pity, a great, i 133. 
Pity of him, it is, ii 42. 
Pity on, have, i 129. 
Pity, take, i 176. 
Pity's sake, for, i 52, 580. 
Placard, i 338, 477. 
Place, added to Teutonic words, 

i 22. 
Place = appoint, i 549. 
Place, give, i 202. 
Place, have, i 186, 277. 
Place, in a book, i 472, 573. 

Place, in the (on the spot), ii. 

Place (mansion), i 60, 81, 379. 
Place money, to, ii. 143. 
Place = office, ii 72, 79. 
Place of his body, every, i. 210. 
Place of worship, i 319. 
Place ousts dead^ i 335. 
Place, out of, i. 532, 661. 
Place = right, ii 5. 
Place, take his, i 176. 
Place, take (as built), i. 298. 
Place, take of others, ii 72. 
Place, take (succeed), i 645. 
Plack, the Scotch, i 495. 
Placket, ii. 40. 
Plagiary, ii 14. 
Plague, a, i 131. 
Plague (evil), i 439, 656. 
Plague take him, i 566. 
Plague, to, i 336. 
Plaguy, i 603. 
Plaguy proud, ii 45, 98. 
Plain as he can speak, i 617. 
Plain as nose on face, ii. 21. 
Plain as pikestaff, i 505 ; ii. 

Plain dealing, i 663. 
Plain dish, ii 154. 
Plain English, in, i 404, 508. 
Plain = frank, i 113,548. 
Plain opposed to Mountain, i. 

34, 346. 
Plain = simple, i 532, 561. 
Plain work of, make, i. 86. 
Plains, the, i 92. 
Plank, i 18. 
Plant (conceal), ii. 196. 
Plant (post) himself, i 533. 
Plantations (colonies), i 446 ; ii 

Plash, i 263. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Plasidas, Legend of, i. 577. 

Plasterer, L 197. 

Plate, i. 216. 

Platform, i 388. 

Platform = engraved sketch, i. 

Platform = scheme, i. 509, 550. 
Platina, i. 425. 
Plato, L 380, 489. 
Platonic love, ii 89. 
Plaudite, a, i. 591 ; ii. 179. 
Play, a game, i. 11, 111, 262. 
Play a good knife and fork, ii. 

Play a part, i. 312, 434, 613 ; 

ii. 221. 
Play a rival at a game, i 233. 
Play = a theatrical piece, i. 122, 

Play, come in, ii. 117. 
Play, come into, ii 95. 
Play engines, ii. 183. 
Play fair, i. 194. 
Play false, i 607 ; ii. 41. 
Play fast or loose, i. 544. 
Play for a stake, i. 519. 
Play = gamester's method, i. 468. 
Play her cards well, ii. 177. 
Play (hilaritas), i. 535. 
Play, in, I 461. 
Play, in his, i. 81. 
Play interlude, i. 58. 
Play into his hands, ii. 169. 
Play jigs, ii. 13. 
Play, keep in, i 544. 
Play of it, make a, i. 158. 
Play on a mark, cannon, ii. 74. 
Play on words, ii. 30. 
Play out, i. 431. 
Play the beast, ii. 52. 
Play the fool, i. 233. 
Play the man, 1 492 ; ii. 224. 

Play the tyrant, i. 115. 
Play, to (gamble), i. 601. 
Play tune, ii. 34. 
Play up and down, ships, i. 368. 
Play up to him, ii. 55, 169, 

Play upon, with cannon, ii. 25. 
Play with (trifle with), i. 498. 
Play you a prank, i. 564. 
Playbook, ii. 119. 
Player (actor), i. 319, 555. 
Player (gamester), i. 360. 
Playfellow, i 259, 427. 
Playhouse, ii. 74. 
Plaything, ii. 141. 
Plea {lis\ i. 310. 
Pleach, to, i. 406. 
Plead a cause, i. 322. 
Plead guilty, i 476. 
Plead is made a Strong Verb, i. 

Plead {rogare)y i. 60, 358. 
Pleader, a, ii. 157. 
Pleadings, i. 469. 
Pleasant (witty), i. 489. 
Please all parties, i. 490. 
Please, if ye, i. 467. 
Please, it is dropped before, i. 

Please it you to, etc., i. 342. 
Please replaces pay, L 51. 
Please to be gone, ii. 112. 
Please your Grace, i. 391. 
Pleases, do what him, i. 300. 
Pleases, he, i. 364. 
Pleaseth it, etc., i. 346. 
Pleasing to (gratus), i. 155. 
Pleasingly, i. 155. 
Pleasure, do you a, i. 367. 
Pleasure him, to, i. 509. 
Pleasure, its sound, i. 475. 
Pleasure, man of, ii. 110. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC | 



Pleasure, take your, L 394. 

Pledge, i. 154. 

Pledge, in drinking, i. 660. 

Pledge, lay to, i. 371. 

Pledge, set to, i. 442. 

Plempo, ii. 137. 

Plenteous, i. 36, 94, 161. 

Plentiful, i 374. 

Plenty stands after Plural Nouns, 

i. 188. 
Pleurisy, i. 512. 
Plod, to, i. 666. 
Plot (Zoctw), i. 101, 339. 
Plot = sketch, i. 359, 520. 
Plouglis, lay down, L 246. 
Plow going, have, i. 306. 
Plow, so spelt, i. 305. 
Plowtail, i. 406. 
Pluck at him, get a, i. 562. 
Pluck at the University, ii. 169. 
Pluck (avdada), ii. 195. 
Pluck by the nose, ii. 42. 
Pluck down, i. 188. 
Pluck up heart, i 17, 170. 
Pluck (viscera), ii. 82. 
Plucker down of kings, ii. 23. 
Plug, ii. 120. 
Plum porridge, iL 165. 
Plum pudding, ii. 165. 
Plum-tree pruner, i. 285. 
Plum, worth a, ii 152. 
Plumber, i. 212. 
Plump, refuse, ii. 161. 
Plump {rotundu8\ i. 497; ii 31. 
Plump (rusticvs), i 334. 
Plump together, to, i 441. 
Plumper (vote), ii 193. 
Plumpton Letters, the, i. 173, 

215, 242, 268, 300, 318, 

342, 353, 365. 
Plunder, ii 78, 230. 
Plunge him into, ii. 75. 


Plunge, like a horse, i 342. 

Plunket, Lord, ii. 223. 

Pluperfect replaces the Imper- 
fect, i 163. 

Plurals of Nouns, new, i. 329, 
383, 479. 

Ply = bend, i 132, 179. 

Ply him, i 115. 

Ply my business, i. 493, 549. 

Ply, ships, i 368. 

Ply, take the, ii 109. 

Ply the touch, ii 28. 

Plymouth, i 523. 

Poach, to, i 512. 

Pocket money, ii. 181. 

Pocket, out of, ii. 123. 

Pocket, to, i 591. 

Pocket up wrongs, ii. 26, 85. 

Pocket wrongs, ii 85. 

Pockets, i 191. 

Poesy, i 82, 151, 480, 581. 
See posy. 

Poetry = poem, i, 118. 

Pointj at the, i. 63. 

Point blank, at, ii. 3, 23. 

Point, give you a, i 1 90. 

Point, go to the, i 127. 

Point of death, i 187, 410. 

Point of departing, upon the, i 

Point of honour, ii 27. 

Point of it^ make a, ii 203. 

Point of joke, i 489. 

Point of law, i. 279. 

Point, prove his, i. 55. 

Point, to (place stops), i 549. 

Point, to the, i 112 ; ii 88. 

Points, at all, i 47. 

Points of a woman, i 84. 

Points of compass, ii 48. 

Points of faith, i 148. 

Points of war, i 605. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Pointing, i. 255. 

Poison, i. 87. 

Poison, hate like, i. 465. 

Poison the mind, ii 173. 

Poison works, i 595. 

Poitiers, changes in the word, L 

56, 495 ; ii 65. 
Poitou, i 151. 
Poke, a = pouch, i. 97. 
Poke (be awkward), iL 204. 
PokefuU, i. 320. 
Poker, ii. 180. 
Pol, Tre, Pen, etc., i. 494. 
Poland, L 162; ii. ^^, 
Pole, Cardinal, i 447, 475, 483. 
Pole (Polack), ii 61. 
Poles, Dukes of Suffolk, i. 304, 

Polecat) i. 130. 
Police, iL 187. 

Policy, its new senses, i. 509. 
Policy of insurance, ii. 186. 
Policy = political interest, i. 249, 

Polished speech, i. 211. 
Polite, ii. 89. 
Polite learning, ii. 105. 
Politic, i 539. 
Politics, i. 395. 
Political Songs, the, i. 180, 192, 

214, 219, 248, 296, 324. 
Poll axe, i. 85. 
Poll (caput), i. 507. 
Poll (numerus), ii. 47, 57. 
PoU, of parrot^ ii. 32. 
Poll, to, i. 138, 298. 
Pollute, i. 184. 
Polydore, Virgil, i. 582. 
Pomfret, i. 151. 
Pompey, i 174. 
Pompous, ii 68. 
Pond, i 141. 

Pond, the great (mare), ii. 94. 

Poney, ii. 205. 

Pontificalibus, in, i. 156, 169. 

Pooh, ii 123. 

Pool, for stakes, ii 148. 

Poor as rats, ii. 153. 

Poor devil, ii. 113. 

Poor fellow, i 252. 

Poor house, my, i. 465. 

Poor I, i 586. 

Poor me, i 564, 611. 

Poor people, i. 48. 

Poor present, i 268. 

Poor soul! i 570, 586. 

Poor ten pounds, a, ii. 177. 

Poor thing, i 102, 189. 

Poor Tom (madman), i. 574. 

Poor wretch, i. 479. 

Poor's rate, the, ii 191. 

Poorly, i 400, 463; ii. 191. 

Poorness, i 141. 

Poortith, i 26, 66, 78, 361. 

Pop off (die), ii. 182. 

Pop, to, i 63, 394, 457. 

Pope Catholic, i. 508. 

Pope-holy, i 509. 

Pope of Rome, i. 615. 

Pope, the poet, i 109, 153, 303, 
420,465,605; ii 38, 79, 96, 
106, 112, 116, 143, 154, 
158, 163, 174, 208, 214, 

Pope's Holiness, the, i 383. 

Popedom, i 570. 

Popehood, i 151. 

Popery, i 434. 

Popgun, i 492 ; ii 166. 

Popinjay, i 257, 373. 

Popish, i 423, 428, 448. 

Popistant, a,i512. 

Popular (commonplace), i 551. 

Porcelain, i 477. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Porcupine, i. 226. 

Pore, to, i. 43, 96. 

Porker, i. 4 ; ii. 196. 

Porpoise, i. 218. 

Porridge, i. 226, 433. 

Porringer, ii. 2. 

Port = bearing, L 172. 

Port means harbour, i. 65. 

Port = port-hole, i. 179. 

Port ! word of command at sea, 

ii. 68. 
Portage = burden, i. 245. 
Porter, the drink, ii 179. 
Portliness, i. 463. 
Portly, ii. 26. 
Portmanteau, ii. 86. 
Portmantle, ii 79. 
Portrait, i. 620. 
Portraiture (picture), i. 210. 
Portugal, i 23, 83, 386 ; ii. 6, 

69, 89, 90, 174, 201, 230. 
Pose, to, i 616; ii. 72. 
Poser, ii. 2. 

Positive, I am, ii 138. 
Posse, a, ii. 137. 
Possede, to, i 366. 
Possessed = informed, ii 5. 
Possessed = mad, ii 20. 
Possession, be in, i 30. 
Possession is eleven (nine) points 

of law, ii 156, 174. 
Possession, keep, i 340. 
Possession, put in, i 340. 
Possession, take, i 176. 
Possible, after a Noun, ii 153. 

before a Noun, ii 206. 
Possible, properly as, i. 35. 
Post alone (solitary), i 507. 
Post-chaise, ii 178. 
Post for letters, i 370, 391, 420. 
Post haste, i 272. 
Post haste, make, i 498. 

Post him away, ii. 143. 

Post his books, ii. 155. 

Post horse, i 476. 

Post letters, the, i. 594. 

Post, military, i. 249, 490. 

Post-office, ii. 149. 

Post = pillar, i 30, 382 ; ii 159. 

Post, speak to a, i 191. 

Post, to, i 549, 560. 

Post, win the, ii. 118. 

Postage, ii. 152. 

Posteriors, ii. 65. 

Postesses, ii 198. 

Postillion, ii. 78. 

Postscript, i. 388. 

Posy, i 480, 550, 588 ; ii 13, 

31, 146. 
Pot a man, to, ii 97. 
Pot, go to, i. 429. 
Pot-house, ii 166. 
Pot luck, ii 11. 
Pot may go to the water, etc., i. 

Pot of wine (bribe), i. 489. 
Pot seeth, make his, ii. 3. 
Pot shot, i. 492. 
Potato, i 536, 556. 
Potato trap, ii. 196. 
Potentate, i 149, 187. 
Potful, i 116. 

Potgun, i 492 ; ii 140, 166. 
Pother, ii 40, 76. 
Potherb, i 606. 
Pothooks, i. 11 ; ii 149. 
Potter, i 61. 
Potter, to, ii 201. 
Pottinger, i. 525. 
Potwalloper, ii 193. 
Pouch, i 118. 
Pouch up money, i. 565. 
Poulterer, i 212. 
Pound (enclosure), i. 141. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Pound, in Plural, i 413. 
Pound, to, L 143. 
Pound weight of gold, i. 242. 
Pounds, dropped after Numerals, 

ii 55. 
Pour, to, L 15. 
Powder and shot, i 218. 
Powder, for gun, i. 118. 
Powder horn, ii 123. 
Powder monkey, ii 196. 
Power, for money, i. 569. 
Powers (states), i. 385. 
Powers (strength), i. 385. 
Powers, the Mgher, i 144. 
PowFs (St. Paul's), ii 187. 
Pox, i 4. 

Poz (positive), ii. 149. 
Practice, a professional, i 320, 

Practice, put in, i 544. 
Practician, a, i 364. 
Practise music, ii 19. 
Practise on, ii 35. 
Practise, to = study, i 149, 171. 
Practise with, to, i 509. 
Praise up to the skies, ii 172. 
Praised, the Lord be, i 555. 
Praiseworthy, i 529. 
Pranked gowns, i 204. 
Pranks, play, i 372, 564. 
Prate, to, i 236. 
Prattle, i. 400. 
Prawn, i. 218. 

Pray (invitare\ i 65, 132, 404. 
Pray, prefixed to the Imperative, 

i 525. 
Pray your grace to, etc., i 391. 
Prayer Book, Anglican, i 91, 

158, 159, 167, 327, 329, 

435, 439, 523; ii 153, 217. 
Prayers, be in, i 33, 126. 
Preach Calvin, ii 10. 

Preachment, i 580. 
Precedence, Book of, i 297. 
Precedent, ii. 200. 
Precious knave, i 236, 350, 

Precious = precise, i. 130. 
Precious stone, i. 154. 
Precise (circumspect), i 463, 

Precise (imperious), i. 450. 
Predicament, in a, i. 385. 
Preface, i 242. 
Prefer him to office, i 244. 
Prefer, its two senses, i. 270. 
Prefix to Past Participle, i 109, 

140, 271, 323. 
Prefixes, English added to 

French roots, i 65. 
Pregnant argument, i. 116. 
Prejudice (wjvria), i 155. 
Prejudice (prejudge), to, i. 560. 
Premature, ii 199. 
Premier Minister, ii. 121, 162. 
Premisses, the (previous state- 
ments), i 325. 
Prene to earth, i ^2. 
Prentice, i 108. 

Preposition coupled with In- 
finitive, i. 24. 

gives birth to a Verbal noun, 
i 88. 

made a Verb, ii 56. 

separated from the Verb, i. 
55, 70. 

set after a Noun, i 121, 351, 
593 ; ii 65, 96. 

two combined, i 128, 144, 
191, 243, 278. 

used like Adverb, i 183, 
307 ; ii 170. 
Prepostor, i. 395. 
Presbyter Jack, ii. 98. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Presence of mind, ii. 152. 
Presence (royal), ii 56. 
Present a church, i. 160. 
Present (at Court), ii 192. 
Present, for this, i 489, 506. 
Present him with, i 83. 
Present, in, i. 86. 
Present (introduce), to, ii 123. 
Present memory, i. 550. 
Present mind, with, i. 520. 
Present oiEfences, to, i. 244. 
Present, on the, ii 42. 
Present Tense used for Future, 

i 546 ; ii 20. 
Present, the, i 31. 
Presents, these, i 181. 
Presently = by and by, i 377, 

Presently = forthwith, i 236 ; 

ii 23. 
Presently = present, i. 222. 
Presentment^ ii. 39. 
Pre-shadow, ii 224. 
Press for the wars, i. 505. 
Press-gang, ii. 165. 
Press him to pay, i 548. 
Press him upon her, i. 115. 
Press metaphors, ii. 96. 
Press on him, i. 93. 
Press points, ii 71. 
Press sailors, ii 59. 
Press the King, i. 93. 
Pressing debt, ii. 71. 
Pressing, make, i 109. 
Pressing, too, i 239 ; ii 146. 
Prester John, i 23, 162, 554. 
Prestige, ii 230. 
Presto, be gone, ii. 86. 
Presume of, i 608. 
Presumptuous, i. 443. 
Pretend (^oj^wiefti)^ i 550. 
Pretender, ii 86. 

Pretenders to, ii 105. 
Pretty, i 79, 234, 402, 606. 
Pretty business, i 482. 
Pretty, combined with Zittfo, i. 

Pretty deal, a, i 357. 
Pretty (/brtw), i 394, 402. 
Pretty goodish, ii. 181. 
Pretty maid (ironical), i 492. 
Pretty pass, come to a, ii 181. 
Pretty pickings, ii 166. 
Pretty piece of goods, ii 172. 
Pretty poetry, i. 497. 
Pretty while ago, a, i. 456. 
Prevail upon, ii 190. 
Prevent (forestall), i. 323, 433 ; 

ii. 155. 
Pnapish, i. 429. 
Pric6, put on, i. 58. 
Price so much, i 245. 
Price, stones of, i. 30, 190. 
Prick a sheriff, i 595. 
Prick-eared, i. 399. 
Prick (meto), i 206. 
Prick of Conscience, the, i 31. 
Pricker, i 520. 
Pricketh, it, i 124. 
Pride for a man to make, it is, 

i. 148. 
Pride himself, i. 27. 
Pride, take a, ii. 33. 
Pride will have a fall, i. 380. 
Prideaux, i. 578. 
Priest, i. 618. 
Priest-ridden, ii. 129. 
Priestcraft, ii 119. 
Priesthood, ii. 156. 
Priestly, i 306. 
Prig, a, ii. 122. 
Prigger (thief), i 575 ; ii 95. 
Priggish, ii 177. 
Prim, i 379. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Prime, i 379, 585. 
Prime minister, ii. 152. 
Prime of youth, i. 587. 
Prime, past her, ii. 172. 
Prime, to, ii. 56, 80. 
Primitive Church, i. 517. 
Primrose, i 257. 
Prince of each play, L 42. 
Princess, the title, L 479, 611. 
Principal of money, i. 548. 
Principal, our (ruler), i. 168, 

196, 450. 
Principle (virtue), ii. 130. 
Print, be in, ii. 13. 
Print, book in, i. 342. 
Print = edition, i 472. 
Print, put into, i. 476. 
Print shop, a, ii. 121. 
Printed in book, i. 191. 
Printed papers, i. 549. 
Printing days, our, i. 540. 
Printing house, ii. 75. 
Priors, rank of English, i. 324. 
Priscian, i. 476. 
Prison house, ii. 39. 
Prisoner takes its new meaning, 

i. 41, 102. 
Prisoner's base, i 106, 265, 

Prithee, i. 392, 400 ; ii. 18. 
Prittle prattle, to, i. 515. 
Privado, i 29. 
Private tutor, ii. 180, 205. 
Privy, i. 29. 

Privy Council, i. 92, 181. 
Privy Seal, i. 55, 209, 268. 
Privy, to, i. 177. 
Prize, a, i. 190, 388. 
Prize fighting, ii. 149. 
Prize, to, i. 92 ; ii. 57. 
Pro or contra, i. 508. 
Proceed upon it, i. 500. 

Process of time, i. 38, 111. 
Procure, i. 105. 
Prod, to, L 229, 438. 
Prodigious! ii. 178. 
Prodigious good, ii. 157, 177. 
Profane = secular, i. 346, 509, 

takes a baser sense, i. 617. 
Profess the law, i 509. 
Profess, to, i 551. 
Professed as Abbess, i. 178. 
Professed enemy, i. 617. 
Profession (occupation), i. 609, 

Profession, the (lawyers), ii. 118. 
Proffer you fair, i. 563. 
Profit, i. 470. 
Prog (beg), to, ii 95, 162. 
Prog (food), ii. 162. 
Progenitor, i. 214. 
Progress (peregrincUio), i. 398, 

Promise = assure, L 319. 
Promise = betroth, i. 493. 
Promise-breach, ii. 43. 
Promise-breaker, ii. 48. 
Promise himself something, ii. 

Promise, keep a, i. 330. 
Promise, make a, i. 306. 
Promise of his age, the, ii 35. 
Promised, I am, i. 341. 
Promising youth, ii. 35, 46. 
Promoter, i. 378, 550. 
Promotion, on his, ii. 36. 
Prompter, i. 264. 
Promptitude, ii. 191. 
Promptness, i 551 ; ii. 191. 
Promptorium Parvulorum, the, 

i. 206, 244, 253-266, 267, 

268, 283, 306, 319, 333, 

349, 355, 361, 365, 370, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



371, 375, 403, 660, 684; 

ii. 201. 
Prong, i. 317. 
Pronoun dropped, i. 109, 643 ; 

ii. 189. 
Pronouns, idioms of, i. 382. 
Pronunciation, changes in, i. 
r":.678, 604, 612. 
Pronunciation of Englisli, i. 

477 ; ii. 97. 
Proof, i. 254. 

Proof, added to Nouns, ii. 7. 
Proof against it, ii. 35. 
Proof, armour of, i. 605, 611. 
Proof ofi make, i. 377. 
Proof of pudding in eating, ii. 

Proof, put to the, i. 390. 
Proof sheet, ii. 205. 
Proofs, put him to his, i 429. 
Prop, i. 263. 

Proper man, a, i 132, 290. 
Proper name, a, i. 132, 617. 
Proper names, English, i. 2, 25, 

30, 83, 189, 220, 315, 3l9, 

347, 370, 424, 454, 525, 

540. See Surnames, 
Proper names of countries, i. 162. 
Proper person, in, i. 34, 156. 
Properly, i. 29 ; ii. 206. 
Property = propriety, i. 469. 
Prophecies, in English Church, 

i. 696. 
Prophet (forspeaker), i. 420. 
Propone, to, i. 230. 
Proportion as, in, ii 208. 
Proposals, marriage, ii. 121. 
Propose, i. 30. 

Propria quae maribus, i. 383. 
Proprietors, i. 303. 
Prose, i. 130. 
Prose, to, ii 181. 

Prose writer, ii. 134. 

Proseman, i. 620. 

Proser, ii 134. 

Prospect glass, ii. 64. 

Protector, the title, i 243. 

Proteg^, ii 220. 

Protest, I, i 588 ; ii. 116. 

Protestant, i 530, 558. 

Protestantism, description of, ii. 

Prototraitor, i. 581. 

Proudness, i. 454. 

Prove, i 19, 431. 

Prove it on him, i. 21. 

Prove wills, i 149. 

Proven, notj i 55. 

Provender, i 25, 30, 204. 

Proverb, i. 138. 

Proverbs, English, i 12, 25, 
107, 108, 116, 118, 134, 
135, 149, 160, 156, 169, 
171, 189, 190, 198, 211, 

237, 239, 249, 252, 275, 
297, 304, 319, 325, 333, 
341, 364, 372, 380, 382, 
392, 393, 397, 423, 424 
429, 449, 466, 477, 491, 
494, 499, 501 - 604, 512, 
517, 518, 620, 629, 530, 
638, 565, 657, 561, 585, 
592, 605, 610 ; ii 13, 23, 
24, 31, 32, 56, 69, 73, 86, 
87, 90, 92, 97, 104, 109, 
113, 130, 132, 134, 142, 
144, 153, 156, 158, 162, 
165, 174, 177, 179, 182. 

Provide, to, i 342, 379, 479, 

Provided that, i 180, 218. 
Providence (Dem), ii. 132. 
Providence (of God), i. 169, 

238, 470, 498. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Providentially, ii. 72. 

Providing that, i 216. 

Province, i 66. 

Province, it is her, ii. 207. 

Provincials, ii. 186. 

Provision, make, i. 358, 404, 

Provision = providence, i 367. 
Provision = victualling, i. 369, 

379, 464, 490. 
Provoking, be, ii. 138. 
Provust Marshall, i. 481. 
Prowl, i. 126. 
Prude, ii. 147. 
Prudent, i. 138. 
Prue, Miss, i. 426. 
Prue (Prudence), ii. 98. 
Prussia, L 162, 201 ; ii 16. 
Pry, to, i. 43. 
Ps for «, i. 339. 

is inserted, i. 344. 

is transposed, i. 121. 
Psalm-singer, i. 349, 552. 
Psalm-singing, ii. 179. 
Pseudo, a, i, 149, 179. 
Pseudo-prophet, i. 149. 
Pshaw! ii. 109. 
Public school, ii. 179. 
Public, the, ii. 134. 
Publican, i. 138. 
Publish books, i. 508. 
Publisher, ii. 162. 
Puck (pouke\ i. 84, 101, 603. 
Pucker, to, ii. 70. 
Pudding, i 3 ; ii. 102. 
Pudding-headed, ii 1 96. 
Puddle, i 21, 230. 
Puf (pooh), i. 204. 
Puff, in walking, i 519. 
Puff (mushroom), i 536. 
Puff to a playhouse, ii. 182. 
Puff up, i 416. 

Puffin, i 370. 

Puggy, ii. 201. 

Puh ! ii. 39, 54. 

Puke, ii 36. 

Pule, i 477. 

Pull, a, i 260. 

PuU = drink, i249, 316. 

Pull in a plough, i 63. 

Pull in horns, ii 70. 

Pull = row, i 136. 

Pull up coach, ii 70. 

Pull up thy heart, i 170. 

Pull, wrestle a, i 209. 

Pulpiteer, ii 96. 

Pulse, i 102 ; ii 206. 

Pulses, i 667. 

Pummell, to, i. 463. 

Pump, i 264. 

Pump, to, i 649. 

Pump, to (inquire), ii 104. 

Pumps (shoes), ii. 10, 19. 

Punch, an awl, i 320. 

Punch, bowl of, ii. 126. 

Punch, the paper, i 379 ; ii 207. 

Punch, to, i 141, 256, 453; 
ii. 28. 

Puncheon, i 569. 

Punchinello (Punch), ii 128. 

Punctual to the minute, ii 124. 

Puns, i 77, 160, 183, 221, 
234, 321, 360, 393, 425, 
447, 449, 481, 604, 507, 
609, 617, 528, 565, 558, 
660, 661, 563, 666, 570, 
672, 604, 610 ; ii. 2, 20, 
28, 36, 40, 49, 64, 87. 

Punster, ii 126. 

Punt, a, ii 87. 

Puny, i 520 ; ii 22. 

Pupil replaces scholar, i 652. 

Puppy, i 489, 693. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Puppy (fool), il 96, 149. 
Purblind, i 679. 
Pure fear, i. 179. 
Pure (^ymniw>\ i. 167. 
Purely (orrmino), i 111. 
Pureness, i. 617. 
Purgatory-raker, L 506. 
Purism, ii 206. 
Puritanism, i 555, 672. 
Puritans, L 563, 621 ; il 74. 
Purity, i. 617. 
Purl, to, i 612. 
Purlieu, ii. 97. 
Purport, to, i 310. 
Purpose, a, i. 5, 30. 
Purpose, he is in, L 30, 163. 
Purpose, of (on), i 180. 
Purpose, to, I 92, 236, 299, 

595 ; ii 5. 
Purpose, to some, ii. 145. 
Purr (kick), ii. 198. 
Purr, to, ii. 17. 
Purse, i 352. 
Purse, out of, ii. 63. 
Purse-proud, ii. 147. 
Purse, put by thy, i. 604. 
Purse up, to, ii. 70. 
Purser, 1 196, 378. 
Pursuivant, i 118. 
Pursy, i. 264. 
Purvey me of, i 252. 
Purvey, the writer, i. 137, 138, 

Purvey, to, i 243. 
Purveyance, i. 30, 238, 331. 
Push, i. 136, 193. 
Push, at a, i. 585. 
Push, make a, iL 159. 
Push of pike, L 549. 
Push on my fortune, ii. 79, 112. 
Puss, i 664, 614. 
Puss (hare), ii 144. 

Puss in the comer, ii. 191. 

Put away servants, i. 66y 68, 

143, 261. 
Put bills into the Council, i. 

Put by, to, i 508. 
Put (compelled) to it, i. 544. 
Put encroaches on do, i 48, 

Put him down, i. 53 ; ii 5. 
Put himself forth (forward), i 

176, 261. 
Put his hand to it, i. 476. 
Put in his power, i. 1 83. 
Putin (intruded), i 153. 
Put in my heart, i 442. 
Put in (plead) for, ii 42. 
Put in rime, i 111. 
Put in writing, i 3. 
Put it to them, i 54. 
Put me in his will, i 384. 
Put me on a plan, ii. 83. 
Put off, a, i 615. 
Put off (differre), i 153, 238. 
Put off in marriage, ii 96. 
Put on raiment, i 416. 
Put out candle, i 468. 
Put out eyes, i 320. 
Put out his arm, ii 157. 
Put out in his part, ii 16. 
Put out of the way, i 481. 
Put to his hand, i 153. 
Put to sea, i 90, 646 ; ii 19. 
Put to the law (send to study), i. 

Put together, i 261. 
Put two together, i 477. 
Put up a hare, i 189. 
Put up (accuse), i 508. 
Put up^odge),ii. 169. 
Put up things, i 591. 
Put up with, i 64. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Put upon (deceive), ii. 123. 
Put upon him (accuse him), 1 

Puttenham, i. 619-621 ; ii. 47. 
Puzzle, ii. 21. 
Pym, ii 72. 
Pynson, i 365, 375. 
Pyramid, ii 50. 

Qu replaces c, i 172. 

replaces X;, i 293. 
Quack {medicvs\ ii 107. 
Quack of duck, i 4. 
Quacksalver, i 604 ; ii 107. 
Quadrangle, ii 1 2 1 . 
Quadrant = instrument, i 537. 
Quadrant (quadrangle), i. 332, 

474, 537 ; ii 121. 
Quaflf, i 378, 496, 659. 
Quagmire, i 454, 698, 614. 
Quail, to, ii 45. 
Quaint, its senses, i 29, 111, 

137, 223, 279 ; ii 21, 139. 
Qualify for, ii 13. 
Qualities, i. 31. 
Quality air, a, ii. 143. 
Quality = rank, ii. 33, 62, 72. 
Quality, the (upper class), i 

520. . 
Qualm, its new sense, i 466 ; ii 

77, 135. 
Quandary, i 540. 
Quantity = size, ii. 3. 
Quarantine, i 280. 
Quarrel, i 30, 54, 172, 178, 

191, 420, 563 ; ii 130. 
Quarrel with bread and butter, 

ii 172. 
Quarrels on him, put, ii 37. 
Quarrelous, i 610. 
Quarry, i 224. 
Quarter before day, i. 112. 

Quarter days, i 344. 

Quarter, free, ii. 97. 

Quarter, give, ii 79. 

Quarter, in every, i. 296. 

Quarter of a mile, i 92, 369. 

Quarter of wheat, i 10. 

Quarter (of year), i 188. 

Quarter so far, a, i 388. 

Quarter soldiers, to, ii. 28. 

Quarter wages, i. 342. 

Quarter's stipend, i. 649. 

Quarters, your, i. 309. 

Quarterly Review, ii 209, 214. 

Quartermaster, i 378. 

Quarto, ii. 60. 

Quaver, i 298, 339 ; ii 158. 

Quay, i. 246, 345. 

Que, the French, hard to trans- 
late into English, i. 8, 17, 

Quean and queen, i. 98, 334. 

Queasy, i. 308. 

Queen Elizabeth furniture, ii. 

Queen it, to, ii. 46. 

Queen mother, ii 87. 

Queen's English, ii 11, 25. 

Queer;i 363, 575 ; ii 156. 

Quell = crush, i 56. 

QueU = kill,i 42,97. 

Queller, i. 598. 

Quenchable, i. 36. 

Queue, its two meanings, i. 334. 

Quentin Durward, i 416. 

Quern, i 298 ; ii 29. 

Query, i. 169 ; ii. 90. 

Quest = inquest, i 17, 39, 357. 

Question arises, i. 8, 310. 

Question but, no, i. 617. 

Question, come in, i. 544. 

Question, out of the, ii. 132. 

Question, put in, i 168. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Question, there's the, ii. 23. 
Question with, to, i. 419. 
Questions, put, i. 185 ; ii. 192. 
Questionist, i. 448. 
Questmonger, i 122, 199. 
Questrist, ii41. 

Quh replaces hw in the North, i. 

is an East Anglian form, i. 
Quibble, ii. 107. 
Quick (fiery), i. 515. 
Quick, on the, i. 394. 
Quick with child, i. 542. 
Quick-witted, i. 428. 
Quicken, i 186, 644. 
Quicklime, ii. 8. 
Quickly done, twice done, i. 

Quicksand, i. 281. 
Quickset, a, i. 406. 
Quid pro quo, i. 671. 
Quiddity, L 434. 
Quidnunc, a, ii. 166. 
Quietus est, have your, i 480; 

ii. 39. 
Quil, L 263. 
Quill driver, ii. 193. 
Quinsey, iL 68. 
Quintessence, Book of the, 1 

Quip, i 229 ; ii 13, 107. 
Quire (ca/rcer), i. 676. 
Quirk, L 608. 
Quit of her, be, i. 600. 
Quit of, m^e, i. 312. 
Quit scores with, ii. 86. 
Quit us like men, i. 291. 
Quit with, be, ii 79. 
Quite,i. 179, 373, 466. 
Quite a jewel, ii. 179, 191. 
Quite too digmal, ii. 191. 

Quiver (impiger), i. 396 ; ii. 34. 

Quiver (pharetra), i. 264, 268. 

Quiver, to, i. 90, 462. 

Quiz, a, ii. 166. 

Quod he, i. 116. 

Quod (prison), ii. 1 94. 

Quoit, i. 258. 

Quondam, a, i. 474, 616. 

Quorum, the, i. 243. 

Quoth I, i. 646. 

Quotha, i. 399, 447. 

K, added, i. 67, 61, 97, 193, 

267, 266, 283, 321, 339, 

411, 454, 468, 483, 538, 

540 ; ii. 36, 38, 46. 

clipped at the end, i. 193, 

224, 606. 
how pronounced, i. 296. 
inserted, i. 25, 44, 62, 86, 97, 
347, 411, 454, 510, 578, 
591, 619; ii. 6, 16, 36, 
66, 136. 
replaces d, ii. 198. 
replaces/, i. 464 ; ii. 88. 
replaces I, i. 299, 496 ; ii. 

replaces w, i. 464. 
struck out of the middle, i. 
11, 19, 113, 141, 161, 
167, 267, 298, 301, 342, 
476, 483, 492, 527. 
transposed, ii. 198. 
Rabbin, i. 562. 
Rabbit, i. 263, 462, 694. 
Rabble, i. 69. 
Rabblement, i. 676. 
Rabelais, i. 132, 460. 
Race, i 12, 172, 483, 491, 619, 

Race-brood, i. 601. 
Race, French raz, I 92, 399. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bace (genus), i, 551. 

Race of horses, i. 598, 599, 601. 

Race, run a, i 565. 

Race (spirit), ii. 131. 

Rache (dogX i. 594. 

Rack, in stable, L 222. 

Rack the rent, i. 558. 

Rack, to, i. 238, 527. 

Rack (torture), i. 333. 

Rack (vapor), i. 59. 

Racks, in the kitchen, l 220. 

Racket (noise), ii 85. 

Racket, play, i. 116. 

Raddle mark, i. 405. 

Radish, i. 462. 

RaflF, a, ii. 194. 

Raft, ii 20. 

Rafter, i 118. 

Rag carrier, ii. 196. 

Rag to hang about him, i. 484. 

Ragamuffin, i 98. 

Ragged as colt, ii 185. 

Ragged staff, i 296. 

Raging mad, ii 22. 

Raid, i 173, 311, 352. 

Rail, a, i 178 ; ii 65. 

Raa, to, i 302, 465; ii 130. 

Raillery, ii. 108, 154. 

Railleur, ii. 110. 

Railway, ii 206. 

Raiment, i. 253. 

Rain-beaten, i 394. 

Rain them out, i. 251. 

Rainy day (misfortune), ii 195. 

Raise a child, ii. 164. 

Raise a dispute, ii 133. 

Raise a tax, i 20. 

Raise money, ii. 140, 

Raise rents, i 515. 

Raise siege, i 469. 

Raise the country, i 114. 

Raisin, i 167, 242. 

Raison d'etre, i 433; ii 219, 

Rajah, i 536. 
Rake, a lean, i 601. 
Rake a ship, ii. 67, 74. 
Rake ashes, ii. 89. 
Rake-hell, i 64. 
Rake hell, to, i 487, 498. 
Rake (play the rake), ii. 142. 
Rake=:rakehell, ii 137. 
Rakehelly, ii 145. 
Rakish, ii 145, 168. 
Raleigh, i 567 ; ii. 37, 65, 72, 

90, 119, 208. 
Rally, i 92. 
Rally in fight, ii. 104. 
Rally, in jest, i 465 ; ii. 104, 

Ralph, i 87. 
Ram, to, i 202. 
Ram-skyt, i 200. 
Ramble, i 269 ; ii. 82, 190. 
Rambling tale, ii. 89. 
Rammer, ii 66. 
Rammish, i 130. 
Ramp, to, i 82, 445, 493 ; ii 

Rampalion, ii 11. 
Rampant, ii 131. 
Rampart, i 540. 
Rampier, i 578. 
Rampish, i 463. 
Ramshackled, ii. 195. 
Random, i 3, 162. 
Random, at, i. 557. 
Randy, ii. 165. 
Range, i 87. 

Range the country, i. 615. 
Rangership, i 353. 
Rank and file, ii. 97, 104. 
Rank (dignity), ii. 54, 68. 
Rank him, to, ii 7^. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Bank, keep, i 602. 

Rank, out of his, ii. 110. 

Rank-scented, ii. 48, 

Rank, take, i. 545. 

Rank, the Adjective, i 194, 

371, 497. 
Ranks of society, the old, i. 40. 
Rankle, i. 21, 106. 
Rant, to, ii. 25, 158. 
Ranter, ii. 102. 
Rantipole, ii. 126, 158. 
Rao, the Hindoo, ii 135. 
Rap (ic^i^), i. 42. 
Rap (oboltLs), ii 180. 
Rap out oaths, i. 573. 
Rap over fingers, iL 155. 
Rap (pulsare), i. 86. 
Rap (urgere), ii. 45. 
Rape, change in meaning, i. 246. 
Rapine, L 211. 
Rapscallion, ii. 166. 
Rapt, i. 322, 434 ; ii. 43. 
Rapt (rapture), i 476. 
Rapture, ii. 48, 54. 
Rare (eximivs), i. 568. 
Rascal, i. 6, 21, 183, 379, 385, 

433, 444, 462, 553 ; ii 22. 
Rascalities, their, ii 52. 
Rash, i 169, 414. 
Rasher of bacon, ii. 10. 
Raskabilia, i 538. 
Raspberry, i. 514 ; ii. 61. 
Rastell, i 448, 475. 
Rat me! ii 146. 
Rat-catcher, ii 34. 
Rate, a, i 187, 217, 379, 394. 
Rate, at any, ii 109. 
Rate (exprobrare), i 101, 130. 
Rates, the, i 482.' 
Rather, i 148. 
Rather die than, etc., i 112. 
Rather or (than), i. 241. 

Rather replaces lever , i 431. 
Raton, i. 4, 287. 
Ratsbane, ii 21. 
Rattle (a man), ii. 167. 
Rattle, of child, i 454 ; ii. 24. 
Rattle, to, i 5 ; ii 83, 158. 
Rattler out, a, i 276, 293. 
Rattlesnake, ii 66. 
Rattletraps, ii. 193. 
Ravel, to, i 603. 
Ravener, i 97. 

Ravin, the Substantive, i. 32, 

the Adjective, i. 227. 
Ravin, to, i 138. 
Ravish = ravin, i 445. 
Raw air, ii 27. 
Raw-boned, ii 22. 
Raw head and bloody bone, ii 

Raw (novu8\ i 272, 475, 534 ; 

Raynall for Reginald, i 1 89, 483. 
Raze, to, i 600. 

Re, prefixed to Teutonic words, 
i 153. 

much used in England, i 218. 
Re-pack, i 303. 
Re-take, i 247. 
Re-tell, ii 31. 
Re-word, to, ii 39. 
Reach, a, i 411, 484. 
Reach a place, ii 103. 
Reach it me, i 437. 
Reach (vomere), i 323. 
Read her over, ii 8. 
Read him a lesson, ii. 78. 
Read lecture, i 477 ; ii 48. 
Read lessons, i 302. 
Read on a book, i 317. 
Read, the Verb, confusion of, i. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Reading, man of, i. 540. 

Ready cut and dry, ii. 168. 

Ready furnished, ii. 168. 

Ready-made, i. 440. 

Ready-made family, ii. 204. 

Ready, make, i. 16, 435. 

Ready man, i. 152, 301. 

Ready (money), ii. 155. 

Ready to his hand, i. 128, 177. 

Ready wit, i. 175. 

Reak, ii 74. 

Real action, i 274 ; ii 223. 

Realise money, ii. 172. 

Reality, ii. 78. 

Really, i. 474. 

Realm, i. 22, 96, 161, 173, 376. 

Reals, i. 530. 

Ream, L 356. 

Rean (gutter), ii. 198.. 

Rear Admiral, ii. 61. 

Rear cattle, i. 405. 

Reason, i. 572. 

Reason in roasting eggs, ii 174. 

Reason, to have, ii 110, 113. 

Reason would that, i. 216. 

Reasonable large, i 615. 

Reasonable = moderate, i 407, 

Reave, to, i 211 ; ii. 18. 
Rebuke of it, to, i. 418. 
Rebuke {ofi^c^ynwm)^ i 308, 382, 

Rebuke, put to a, i. 292. 
Receipt, i. 215 ; ii 86. 
Receive to mercy, i. 113. 
Receiver, connected with thief, i. 

Recipe, ii 86. 
Reck not though, i 307. 
Reckless, forms of, i 329. 
Reckon, to (at sea), i. 536. 
Reckon to have, i. 387. 

Reckoning, i 28, 495, 536, 601. 
Reckoning that, etc., i. 384. 
Reckoning without host, i 501. 
Recommend, i 116. 
Reconcile, i 445, 571. 
Record, bear, i 283. 
Record, of, i 177, 182. 
Record, upon, ii. 27. 
Recover, i 140, 172, 255. 
Recover (cover afresh), ii. 61. 
Recovery, i 34, 285. 
Recruit, ii. 78. 

Recruiting System, the old, i. 9. 
Rection (insurrection), i. 559. 
Rector, i 102, 265. 
Recuperate, i 495 ; ii 52, 217. 
Recure (recover), ii 28. 
Recusant, i. 388. 
Recuyell, Caxton's, i. 327, 328. 
Red coats (soldiers), i. 396 ; ii. 

Red cross (English ship), ii 66. 
Red Cross of England, i 233. 
Red deer, i 365, 475. 
Red-hot, ii. 26. 
Redbreast, i 260, 402. 
Reddish, i 413. 
Rede, i 524 ; ii. 39. 
Redgauntlet, i. 502. 
Redshank, i 495. 
Reduplication, ii 216. 
Reech (vomer e\ i. 323. 
Reed, i 161. 
Reef of sail, i 178. 
Reek, i. 305. 
Reel, a, i 256. 
Reel the streets, ii. 49. 
Reel, to, i. 58. 
Refer, i 120. 
Refine upon, ii. 129. 
Reflect upon him, ii. 79, 152. 
Reflecting glass, ii. 96. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Reflexive Dative, the, i. 12, 185, 

224, 306, 363. 
Reflexive Verbs, L 176. 
Reformation, the, i. 327, 623. . 
Reformed, the, ii 93. 
Refrain (burden), i. 116, 131 ; 

ii. 221. 
Refresh, i. 145, 291. 
Refreshed with money, ii 71. 
Refuge, i. 265. 
Refugee, ii. 143. 
Refusal, have the, ii. 64, 169. 
Refuse a man, i. 166. 
Refuse office, to, i. 5. 
Regale, ii. 85. 
Regard, i. 433. 
Regard (cestimare), i. 420. 
Regard of, at, i. 128. 
Regard to, having, i. 248, 289. 
Regard to, take, i. 34. 
Regarding it, i. 279. 
R^me, ii. 161. 
Regimen, ii. 161. 
Regiment, i. 178 ; ii. 183, 201. 
Regiment, in the army, i. 528. 
Regratour, i. 244. 
Regulars (clergy), i. 181, 182. 
Rehearsal, the play, ii. 115. 
Rein, give her, i. 403. 
Reindeer, i. 536. 
Reinstate, ii. 72, 75. 
Rejoice, i. 38, 48, 217, 236, 

Rejoice of it, i. 418. 
Relation (kinsman), i. 359. 
Relation to, have, i. 245. 
Relatives, bad grammar as to, i. 
33, 429. 

curious idiom of, L 270. 
Relatives (kinsmen), i. 581. 
Relax, to, ii. 170. 
Release, make a, i. 267. 

Relics of feast, i. 609. 
Religion, its different senses, i. 

187, 188, 223, 279 ; ii 45. 
Religion shop, ii. 202. 
Religion, The, i 385, 482, 553. 
Religious and Love Poems, i. 

Reliquiae Antiquse, i 280. 
Relume, ii. 38. 
Remain, a, i 479. 
Remains, the, i. 580. 
Remember himself, i 551. 
Remember me to her, i. 569 ; 

ii 76. 
Remember (reward), i 385. 
Remember thee of it, ii. 416. 
Remembrance, call to, i. 416. 
Remembrance, have in, i. 168. 
Remembrance, put him in, i. 

Remind, ii 36, 47, 139, 190. 
Remonstrate, ii. 59. 
Remove, a, ii 18, 130. 
Remove, to, i 32, 48, 131, 255, 

546 ; ii 38, 41. 
Removed, cousins-, i. 553. 
Renaissance, the, i. 173, 403. 
Rencounter, ii. 108. 
Rend, i 416, 430. 
Rendezvous, ii. 32, 64. 
Renew, i 33, 153. 
Rennet, i. 560. 
Renovel, to, i. 389. 
Renown, i. 133. 
Repell, to, i 604 ; ii 199. 
Repent it, i 21. 
Repent of, i. 9. 
Repent you, i. 483. 
Repentance, i 446, 618. 
Repetition of words, i. 117, 277, 

434, 593 ; ii 26, 30, 33, 38, 

44, 154, 190. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Report (document), i 323. 
Report, make, i. 384. 
Report of gun, ii. 29. 
Report progress, ii 172. 
Repose trust in, i. 569, 613. 
Represent a play, i 320. 
Reprimand, ii. 88. 
Reproof^ put to, i. 316. 
Reproofs (opprobria)y L 138. 
Repropitiate, i. 619. 
Reprove = hold as bad, i. 508. 
Repulse, i. 471, 604 ; iL 199. 
Request, stand in, ii 48. 
Requiem, i 6. 
Require {jubere)^ i 212. 
Require {rogare), i. 60, 285 ; ii 

Reserved in demeanour, ii. 72. 
Residence, hold, i 277. 
Residence, keep, i 387, 457. 
Resident, i 227 ; ii 119. 
Resident ambassador, i 389. 
Residenter, a, i 288. 
Residue, i. 181. 
Resign, i 478 ; ii 156. 
Resign up, i 296. 
Resigned, be, ii. 132. 
Resistance, make, i 114. 
Resolute mind, i 368. 
Resolved mind, i 352. 
Resolved, we have, i. 389. 
Respect = glance, i 433. 
Respect of, in, i 169, 419, 433. 
Respects, in all, i 556. 
Respects, pay his, ii 172. 
Respects, present his, ii 96. 
Rest here, it cannot, ii. 192. 
Rest him sure, i 185, 224. 
Rest never till, i 251. 
Rest on his oars, ii 169. 
Rest (reliqui), i 381, 404. 
Rest, set at, i 114. 

Rest, spear in, i 357. 

Rest, take, i 202. 

Rest your servant, ii 79, 

Restful, i 27. 

Restfulness, i 353. 

Resting-place, i. 22. 

Restitution, i 368. 

Restoration, the, ii 101, 114. 

Restorative, i 179. 

Restore (restitiwe), i 48. 

Restore (stock), i 48. 

Resty jade, a, ii. 1 2. 

Resurrectio, i. 473. 

Resurrection man, ii 196. 

Retail, to, i 245, 273, 465 ; ii. 

Retire from business, ii 120. 

Retired life, ii 72. 

Retrieve, as dog, i 463. 

Return names, i 217. 

Return writs, i 157. 

Returns, ii 68. 

Reve, a, i 342. 

Revelation, by, i 176. 

Revenge, i. 229. 

Revenge for me, ii. 24. 

Revenge, give me my, ii. 107. 

Revenged, be, i 367. 

Reverence, do, i 164. 

Reverence, have in, i. 189. 

Reverence, to, i. 317. 

Reverence, your, i 242. 

Reverend father in Christ, i 1 68. 

Reverentloker, i 97. 

Review, take a, ii 90. 

Revisers of the Bible, i 409, 412, 
415, 416, 419, 437, 444, 
617, 621 ; ii 217, 218. 

Revolt at the idea, ii 173. 

Revolting to it, ii 173. 

Reward, i 8, 19, 32. 

Rewley Abbey, i. 473. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Reynard, i. 56. 

Reynard the Fox, Caxton's, i. 

Reynold, ii. 99. 
Reynolds, L 351. 
Rheum, i. 254. 
Rhino, ii. 194. 
Rhodes, the, i. 295. 
Rhyme, ii. 14. 
Rhythm, i. 470, 589, 590. 
Rib {c(mjux)f ii. 146. 
Riband, i. 249 ; ii. 40. 
Ribbon, L 249. 
Ribbons, match, ii. 107. 
Rich and rare, ii. 40. 
Rich dollars, ii. 88. 
Rich = laughable, i 51. 
Rich marriage (match), i. 490. 
Richard XL, i. 76, 157, 172, 181- 

183, 234, 553. 
Richard III., i. 5, 343, 344, 346, 

Richard the Redeles, Poem, i. 1 8 2. 
Richelieu, i. 622 ; ii 93. 
Richesse, i. 131, 418. 
Rickety, ii 168. 
Rid of it, i 340 ; ii. 24. 
Rid up the hearth, ii. 163. 
Riddance, a good, ii 122. 
Riddance of, make, i. 441. 
Ridden by jest, ii. 129. 
Ridden, he is, i 301. 
Riddle, to, i 106. 
Ride and tie principle, the, ii. 

Ride double, ii 94. 
Riie down one side, i 474. 
Ride in post, i. 476. 
Ride matches, ii. 186. 
Ride rusty, ii. 196. 
Ride the free horse to death, ii 



Ride three in chariot, ii 203. 

Rider (jockey), ii 58. 

Ridge, i 318, 333, 334, 453 ; 

ii. 104. 
Riding habit, ii 192. 
Riding-hood, i. 290. 
Riding-horse, i. 354. 
Ridings of Yorkshire, i 338. 
Ridley, Bishop, i. 509, 540, 

546, 551. 
Rievaulx, i. 87. 
Riff and raff, i 21, 292. 
Rift, i 61. 
Rift, to, i 460. 
Rig (back), i 38, 88, 435. See 

Rig him out, ii. 111. 
Rig, to, i. 367. 

Rigs, run, i 579 ; ii 74, 91, 169. 
Right dropped before a Noun, i. 

(jiis possidendi), i 374. 

prefixed to Adjectives, i. 193, 
Right about, to the, ii 142. 
Right and left, strike, i. 14, 28. 
Right as line, i 28, 237. 
Right, do him that, ii. 134. 
Right, do me, ii. 144. 
Right excellent, i. 391. 
Right hand (assistant), i. 481. 
Right hand man, ii. 164. 
Right high and mighty, i. 309, 

Right honourable, i 168, 212. 
Right (just) now, i. 127. 
Right, make all, i 21. 
Right mind, in, i 374. 
Right, of, i. 303. 
Right of, in, i. 146. 
Right or wrong, i 353. 
Right reverend, i. 306. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Eight, set him, ii 133, 160. 
Eight side of thirty, ii 166. 
Eight so, i. 284. 
Eight trusty, etc., i 216. 
Eight way to work, go, L 544. 
Eight worshipful, i. 271, 306. 
Eight, you, right, ii. 177. 
Eights, bring to, ii. 68. 
Eights, Plural, i. 121. 
Eighted, the ship, i. 176. 
Eighteous, L 94,. 289, 365, 411, 

438, 440, 618. 
Eightful heir, i. 175, 320. 
Eightfulness, i. 26. 
Eightwis = rightful, i. 310, 320. 
Eightwise, John, L 383. 
Eigmarole, ii. 179. 
EUl, i. 680. 
Eime, i. 470, 690. 
Eime is misspelt, ii 14. 
Eime or reason, i. 323. 
Eimer, ii. 50. 
Eimes altered, i. 80, 286. 
Eimes, Chaucer's, i. 135, 689. 
Eimes, identical ; the old usage, 

i. 12, 18, 398. 
Eimes, objected to, i. 574, 588. 
Eimes on the Months, i. 598. 
Eiming stanzas, i. 80. 
Eing a bob major, ii. 169. 
Eing changes, ii. 117. 
Eing in his ears, i. 486. 
Eing it out, L 1 26. 
Eing out bells, i. 611. 
Eing pigs, i. 538. 
Eing, to, i. 59. 
Eingbolt, ii. 66. 
Eingdove, ii. 2. 
Eingleader, i. 366, 510, 540. 
Eingletj ii 29. 
Eing worm, i 258. 
Eip up injuries, i 477 ; ii 83. 

Eipe, i 94, 124, 216, 217, 392. 

Eipe {docere\ i 387. 

Eise (a leap), ii. 52. 

Eise (an ascent), i 590. 

Eise betimes to put tricks on 

you, ii 92. 
Eise, prices, i. 377. 
Eise (rebel), i 64, 150. 
Eise to be, etc., ii. 204. 
Eise to them, ii 204. 
Eise up to honour, i. 595. 
Eise upon him, i 129. 
Eising again, the, i. 141. 
Eising fifteen, ii 127. 
Eising ground, i 519. 
Eising way, in a, ii. 129. 
Eisk, ii. 73. 
Eitson, i 266. 
Eitualist, ii 217. 
Eivulet, i 596 ; ii 99, 149. 
Eix dollar, ii 71. 
Eiz for risen, i 19. 
Eoach, i 263. 
Eoad, be at, i. 246. 
Eoad, go upon the, ii 162. 
Eoad horse, i 141. 
Eoad, its different meanings, i. 

Eoan, i 52. 

Eoar (tumuUus), i. 115, 411. 
Eoaring boy, ii 58, 181. 
Eoaring drunk, ii 137. 
Eoast brown, to, i 226. 
Eoast (quiz), ii. 173. 
Eoast whole, ii. 49. 
Eob Eoy, i 87. 
Eob,to, i 211. 
Eobber, ii 218. 
Eobe, gentlemen of the, ii. 75. 
Eobert III., i 168. 
Eobert of Lincoln, Bishop, i. 73. 
Eobert of Sicily, the Poem,i.230. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Robertson, Dr., ii. 209, 210. 
Robin, i. 22. 

Robin Goodfellow, i. 351, 424. 
Robin Hood ballads, i. 39, 40, 

103, 205, 248, 268, 312, 

Robin Hood, Geste of, i. 266. 
Robin redbreast, i. 370, 402. 
Robinet, i. 343. 
Robinet (redbreast), i. 349. 
Robinson, i. 215. 
Robinson, Ralph, i. 530-532. 
Robson, Mr., i 66. 
Rochet, i. 347. 
Rock {colMtA\ i 204, 435. 
Rock for roch^^ i. 57, 137. 
Rod for fishing, i. 266. 
Rod in pickle, have, ii. 84. 
Rod made for his own tail, i. 503. 
Rod = whip, i. 329. 
Roe of fish, i. 323. 
Roger (rogue), i 512. 
Roger, the jolly, ii. 197. 
Rogers, Dr., i. 226. 
Rogers, the martyr, i. 435. 
Rogerson, i. 220. 
Rogue, i. 574. 
Roil, to, ii. 160. 
Roister Doister, the play, i. 491- 

Rolandini, i. 230. 
Rale, i. 434 ; ii. 221. 
Roll (exult), i. 490 ; ii. 172. 
Roll ground, to, i. 406. 
Roll, to, i 132. 
Rolls of Parliament, i. 181, 207, 

215, 222, 243, 292, 302, 338, 

352, 365. 
Rolls, the Court, i. 236. 
Roller, a, i. 462. 
Rolling stone. Proverb about, i. 

297, 501. 

Roman Catholic, ii. 62. 
Roman (Catholic), a, ii. 179. 
Roman coins dug up, i. 597. 
Roman letters, i. 591. 
Romance and Teutonic coupled, 

i. 214, 275, 420. 
Romance endings attached to 

Teutonic roots, i 13, 17, 88, 

162, 191, 305 ; ii. 177. 
Romance preferred to Teutonic, 
, i. 196, 207, 213, 314. 
Romances translated, i. 1. 
Romanist, i. 517, 552. 
Romant, used for Old French, i. 

Romaunt of the Rose, the 

spurious, i. 400. 
Rome not built in a day, i. 501. 
Rome, pun on, ii. 49. 
Rome runner, i. 146. 
Romish, i. 429 ; ii. 45. 
Romish Catholic, i. 552 ; ii. 58. 
Romish Testament, i. 619. 
Romp, i. 445, 493 ; ii. 128. 
Rood, by the, ii. 34. 
Rood dies out, i. 147, 500. 
Rood-loft, i. 240. 
Roof of mouth, i. 281. 
Roof-tree, i. 258. 
Rooge, to, i. 602. 
Rook, at chess, i. 21. 
Rook (nebulo\ ii 55, 115. 
Rook, to, ii. 8. 
Room better than his company, 

i. 599. 
Room (chamber), i. 226, 333, 

Room, give him, i. 228, 429. 
Room = place at Court, i. 381. 
Room, take great, i. 90. 
Room, take up, i 594. 
Roomful, ii. 154. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Roomy, ii. 203. 

Root, dropped after to^, i. 221. 

Root, take, i 64, 402, 436. 

Roots (vegetables), yl 116. 

Rootedly, ii 46. 

Rope-ripe, i. 683. 

Rope's end, i. 297. 

Ropemaker, iL 1 16. 

Roper (ropemaker), i. 454. 

Ropy, i. 371. 

Rose, under the, ii 71. 

Rosebud, i 370. 

Rosemary, i 23, 257. 

Rostiren, a, i 65. 

Rota Club, ii 121. 

Rote, by, i 11. 

Rottock, i 484. 

Rouen, i 374, 386. 

Rouen, poem on the Siege, i 218. 

Rough-cast, a, i 605 ; ii 28. 

Rough copy, ii. 203. 

Rough hew, to, i 457. 

Rough it, ii. 195. 

Roughly {dAirl\ i 442, 456. 

Roughnesses, ii 202. 

Rouly-pouly, ii 165. 

Round a brow, to, ii 29. 

Round about environ, i 249. 

Round answer, a, i 229. 

Round (dance), i 469. 

Round dozen, ii. 206. 

Round in your ear, i. 351, 437 ; 

ii 26. 
Round number, ii. 134. 
Round of amusement, ii 172. 
Round of bacon, i 102. 
Round of beef, a, i 452. 
Round of ladder, ii 49. 
Round of shotj ii 165. 
Round off, to, ii 130. 
Round Robin, (petition), ii 75, 


Round Robin (the Host), i. 560. 

Round sum, i 29, 30. 

Round, wa^ the, ii 65. 

Roundabout, ii 173. 

Roundabouts, i 616. 

Roup, i 15, 54. 

Rouse, i 195, 462, 469, 589, 

Rout (a defeat), ii 6. 
Rout (assembly), ii. 180. 
Rout (fly), ii 63. 
Rout, to, i 195, 268 ; ii. 151. 
Rout (tumult), ii 13, 148, 193. 
Route (road), in, ii 7, 222. 
Rove (rob), i 430. 
Rove (wander), i 473. 
Rover, i 172, 311, 474. 
Row-barge, a, i 368. 
Row in the same haven, i 606. 
Row (series), i 7, 660. 
Row (uproar), ii 13, 148, 193. 
Rowland and Oliver, i 572. 
Rowland for Oliver, ii 58. 
Roy, i 296, 358, 397, 402, 427, 

443, 446-448, 463, 523. 
Royal, i 120. 
Royal service, i 41. 
Royally, feast, ii. 8. 
Royalties (revenues), i 650. 
Royalties, the, i 321. 
Rt is struck out of Fortescue, 

i 306. 
Rua (red), i 87. 
Rub him on the gall, i 603. 
Rub memory, i. 607. 
Rub on, i 306. 
Rub through, ii 198. 
Rub, to, i 101. 
Rubber, of game, ii 121. 
Rubbish, i 264, 464, 475. 
Rubble, i 273. 
Rubyfy, i 466. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Rudder, i. 266. 

Ruddock, i. 260. 

Ruddy, i 256. 

Rudesby, ii 9, 195. 

Rueful, i. 260, 289. 

Ruff, in dress, i. 405. 

Ruffian, i. 288, 364. 

Ruffle, to, i 92, 512. 

Ruffling, make, i. 476. 

Rug, i. 496. 

Rugged, i. 130. 

Ruinate, i. 496. 

Ruination, L 317. 

Rule, bear, i 396. 

Rule {imperitim\ i 617. 

Rule, in Chancery, i 273. 

Rule of thumb, ii. 196. 

Rule the roast, i. 108. 

Rule, the tool, i. 108, 574. 

Rule, to, i. 34, 196, 265, 304, 

Rules of a prison, ii 88. 
Rules of behaviour, i 239. 
Ruled by me, be, L 282. 
ftuler, a, i. 463. 
Rum (funny), ii. 146. 
Rum, the drink, ii. 165. 
Rumble, i 129, 209, 439. 
Rumbustious, ii. 187. 
Rummage, ii. 38, 84. 
Rummer, ii. 98. 
Rump, i. 263. 
Rumple, i. 129, 361, 606. 
Rumpus, ii 181. 
Run a tick, ii. 155. 
Run, at dice, a, ii. 138. 
Run (at grass), ii. 151. 
Run at riot, i. 429. 
Run, at sea, L 450. 
Run a-tilt at, ii. 103. 
Run away, he is, i. 180. 
Run away with (transport),! 498. 

Run courses, i. 352. 

Run down into country, ii. 203. 

Run down men, i 363, 400. 

Run for dear life, ii. 164. 

Run for it, ii. 143. 

Run her fortune, ii. 5. 

Run, hills, i. 595. 

Run him through, i 508. 

Run himself to death, i. 519. 

Run horses, i 468. 

Run in his debt, i. 60, 398. 

Run in his head, ii. 83. 

Run in ruin, i. 506. 

Run into arrear, i. 277. 

Run like mad, i 27. 

Run low, il 164. 

Run mad, i 492. 

Run matches, i. 529. 

Run milk, i 162. 

Run of a book, ii. 150, 

Run of a place, give him the, 

ii 178. 
Run of a play, ii. 144. 
Run of the house, the, ii 166. 
Run of weather, ii. 150. 
Run on ground, i 369. 
Run on with tongue, i 403. 
Run out, in brewing, i. 430. 
Run out in his praise, ii 155. 
Run over book, i 657, 591. 
Run riot, i 406. 
Run supplants ume, i. 224, 

Run sword through, i. 358, 608. 
Run tame about house, ii. 195. 
Run through book, i 277. 
Run up a building, ii. 190. 
Run up bills, ii. 183. 
Run wild, i 318. 
Run with (legal phrase), i. 147. 
Runs, a pamphlet, ii 151. 
Runabout, a, i 528, 584. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Runagate,! 167, 419, 485, 584; 

ii 6, 35. 
Runaway, i. 419, 485. 
Runner (smuggler), ii. 160. 
Runner (strainer), i. 323. 
Running account, ii 172. 
Running knot, ii. 155. 
Rupee, ii 185. 
Rush bottomed, ii 189. 
Rush candle, ii 18. 
Rush (tmpeitw), i 540. 
Rush, to, i 32. 
Russ, a, ii 77. 
Russell, Lord, i 507. 
Russell, the writer, i. 323. 
Russet, i 102. 
Russia, i 162, 302, 535 ; ii. 69, 

Rusticate, to, ii 173. 
Rustiness, i 376. 
Rustle, to, i 603. 
Rustling, i 154. 
Rusty (invittui), ii. 74. 
Rut, the seaman, i 450. 
Rut, to, i 102. 
Ruth, ii. 48. 
Ruthless, i 6. 
Rutland, i 2, 40, 74, 188, 220, 

Rutlandshire, i. 221, 534. 
Rutter (soldier), i 359. 
Ry, the Romance ending, i 121, 

Rye, i 50. 
Rymer, i, 180, 208, 212, 213, 

244, 247, 310, 338, 354. 

S, added to words, i 15, 32, 97, 
161, 257, 347, 357. 
is cli{)ped at the beginning, 
ii 57, 58. 

S is clipped at the end, i 61, 
116, 283 ; ii. 77, 181. 

is inserted, i 97, 116, 151, 
540, 561 ; ii 9, 82. 

is prefixed, i 112, 506, 540, 
568; ii. 149. 

is struck out of the middle, 
i 82, 305, 361 ; ii 135, 

supplants /, i 51, 68, 112, 
195, 267, 296, 298. 

supplants r, i 32, 121. 

supplants t, i. 500. 

supplants sj, i 179. 
Sabbath, keep the, i 202. 
Sabbath = Sunday, i 252, 380, 

506, 651, 562, 579. 
Sack, to, i 496. 
Sack (wine), i 399 ; ii. 130. 
Sackcloth, i. 54. 
Sackville, Lord, i. 559. 
Sacrament, Play of the, i 319. 
Sacrament upon it, take, ii. 71. 
Sacred is made an Adjective, 

i 236. 
Sacrifice, do, i. 176. 
Sacrifice, make, i 176. 
Sad business, ii 94. 
Sad dog, ii. 150. 
Sad (Jessu$)f i 94. 
Sad (gravis), i 387. 

takes the meaning of tristis, i 
44, 124, 201, 362, 414. 
Sad things, ii 150. 
Saddle-backed, i 497. 
Saddle, keep the,i 580. 
Saddle on right horse, ii. 70. 
Saddle with mortgages, ii 159. 
Saddlecloth, i. 405. 
Sadler, i 207. 

Sadler, Sir Ralph, i 478, 567. 
Sadly afraid, ii 190. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Sadly missed, ii. 204. 

Sadness (gravity), i. 393, 497, 

Sae (vwit^), L 590. 
Safe and sure, j. 241, 274. 
Safe for hours, ii. 47. 
Safe hand, come to, ii. 92. 
Safeconduct, to, i. 594. 
Safeguard, i. 308. 
Safely say, I dare, i. 67, 132. 
Saffron, i. 596. 
Sage, a, i 378, 618. 
Said and done, all is, i. 459. 
Said John, the, i. 168. 
Sail a ship, ii. 69. 
Sail his course, L 127. 
Sail is both Singular and 

Plural, 1 290, 311. 
Sail, make, i. 369. 
Sail near the wind, i. 176. 
Sail of the line, ii. 165. 
Sail, take in, ii. 46. 
Sail the sea, i. 228. 
Sail, under, i. 404. 
Sailed, they are, i. 604. 
Sailer (a ship), ii. 163. 
Sailing, three days', i. 152, 606. 
Sailmaker, ii. 6. 
Sailor, i. 589 ; ii. 66. 
Sailyard, i. 162, 260. 
Saint Helen's, i. 80. 
Saint, I am no, i. 551. 
Saint John, how pronounced, i. 

92, 242. 
Saint, move a, i. 509. 
Saint sounded like ^n, i. 92, 

Saint, to, i. 465. 
Saints' titles clipped, i. 339. 
Sal for ikaXl, i. 215. 
Sale, i. 49. 
Sale for goods, have, ii. 63. 

Sale, on, i 465 ; ii. 36. 

Sale, set to, i. 221. 

Sale {tempu8)y ii. 200. 

Salesman, i. 405. 

Salisbury, Earl of (Cecil), ii. 81. 

Salisbury, Earl of (Montacute), 
i. 213, 237. 

Salisbury, Earl of (Neville), i. 
240, 241. 

Salisbury use, i 313. 

Sally of youth, ii. 90. 

SaUy (Sarah), ii. 145, 224. 

Sally, to, i. 505. 

Salop, i. 2, 6, 9, 14-17, 38, 42, 
43, 44, 50, 51, 69, 74, 83, 
84, 96, 96, 99, 104, 107, 
170, 184, 209, 215, 220, 
224, 232, 233, 245, 250, 
261, 272, 282, 284, 301, 
320, 321, 343, 359, 383, 
385, 401, 570, 572; ii. 9, 
110, 111, 126, 127, 128, 

Salopshire, i. 478. 

Salt, above the, ii. 14. 

Salt on bird's tail, i. 607. 

Salter, i. 207. 

Saltness, i. 426. 

Saltwork, ii. 149. 

Salvation, its sense, ii. 134. 

Salvo, a, ii 130. 

Sam (Samuel), ii. 69. 

Sam = «emi, i. 348 ; ii. 31. 

Sambo, i. 556. 

Same, i. 95, 105. 

Same, all the, ii. 189. 

Same, for together, i. 78. 

Same manner as, i. 165. 

Same replaces ilk, i. 70, 151. 

Same token, by the, L 306. 

Same with, the, i. 154, 526. 

Sameness, ii. 133. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Samphire, i 585. 

Sampler, i 372 ; it 11. 

Sampson, letter from, i. 383. 

Sanctified lie, iL 54. 

Sanctuary, take, L 303. 

Sanctum, the, iL 60. 

Sand bag, ii. 6. 

Sand blind, i. 348, 579 ; ii. 31. 

Sand, to, i 114. 

Sand, used in Plural, i. 19. 

Sander (Alexander), i. 189. 

Sandwich, a, ii. 184. 

Sandy (Alexander), i 362. 

Sandys, Archbishop, L 669. 

Sanguine, i. 31. 

Sans, used in English, i 400, 

518, 620 ; ii. 3. 
Sanscrit, ii. 212. 
Sap, 1 253. 
Sapience, L 471. 
Sapling, i. 347. 
Sapphics, English, i. 604. 
Saracens in England, i. 238. 
Sargent, Tom, ii 223. 
Sarum Manual, a, i. 374. 
Sarum Missal, a, i. 159. 
Sash (girdle), ii. 146. 
Sash (window), ii. 146. 
Satchell, Mr., i 266. 
Satin, i. 112. 
Satire, misspelt, ii. 231. 
Satisfaction (comfort), ii. 165. 
Satisfaction, give, ii 45. 
Satisfactory, i. 616. 
Satisfy, i 477. 

Saturday Keview, the, ii 219. 
Sauce, i 29, 266. 
Sauce for goose, for gander, ii. 

Saucebox, ii. 143. 
Saucy, i 372. 
Saunter, i 194. 

Savage, i. 173 ; ii. 28. 

Savage, a, ii. 60. 

Save-alls, ii 97. 

Save and see, Jesus ! i 81, 203, 

Save appearances, ii. 205. 
Save = attend heedfully to, i. 

Ill, 149, 166, 196. 
Save harmless, i. 245. 
Save him trouble, ii. 48, 59. 
Save his bacon, ii 161. 
Save his skin, ii 71. 
Save money, i 499. 
Save the tide, ii 118. 
Save you a journey, ii. 48. 
Save your grace ! i. 17. 
Save your reverence ! i. 252. 
Saville, i 337, 338. 
Saville, Sir Henry, ii. 120. 
Saving (except), i 216, 225. 
Saving her reverence, i. 166. 
Saving of thy life, ii. 49. 
Saving (saltbs), i 194. 
Saving truth, God's, ii. 626. 
Savings, ii. 173. 
Savour of, i 38, 148. 
Savour things, i. 140. 
Saw the air, ii 39. 
Sawdust, i. 454. 
Sawny, i. 566. 
Sawpit, i 683. 
Sawyer, i. 212, 475. 
Saxons, written for English^ i. 

Say ! i 196, 253. 
Say any good of him, i 336. 
Say fairer, ii. 126. 
Say flat, i 176. 
Say, I, i 110, 399, 560. 
Say our say, to, ii. 189. 
Say so bad of him, ii 150. 
Say to it, i 116. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Say what I would, i. 586. 
Say yea or nay, i. 270. 
Says he, ii. 127, 149. 
Says I, il 145. 
Sayings, i. 411. 
Sayings and doings, i. 616. 
/SV, French, preferred to s or c, 
i 141, 162. 

is prefixed, i. 361. 
Scaithful, i. 89. 
Scald, to, i 35. 
Scale (disperse), i 382, 387, 

458, 545. 
Scalp, i. 394, 435. 
Scalp, to, ii 179. 
Scamp, i. 619 ; ii. 196. 
Scamper, to, ii. 136. 
Scan, to, i. 264, 565. 
Scandal, i. 619. 
Scandal, to, ii. 49. 
Scandinavian forms preferred to 

Old English, 3, 8. 
Scandinavian Language, i. 72, 

Scant, i. 113. 
Scant (mx), i. 229. 
Scantly, i 196, 229. 
Scantness, i. 121, 130. 
Scape, a, i. 596. 
Scapegoat, i 436. 
Scapegrace, ii 171. 
Scar («cc>pwto), i 144. 
Scarboro' warning, i 50.4, 604. 
Scarborough, i 50. 
Scarce itself, to, i. 179. 
Scarce, make himseK, ii. 169. 
Scarcity, i 137. 
Scarecrow, i 557. 
Scarlet, the King's colour, ii. 

Scate, i 263. 
Scatter, i 57, 458. 

Scavenger, i 332, 455. 

Scawage, i 332, 455. 

Scene, i 581 ; ii. 56, 88, 147, 

Scenes, behind the, ii. 114, 121. 
Sceptic, i 567. 
Sch replaces «», i 19. 
Schedule, i 181, 218. 
Schin for imll^ i 61, 225. 
Schism, i 187, 227, 618 ; ii 

Scholar, i 65, 552. 
Scholar (learned man), ii. 74. 
Scholar or unscholar, i 498. 
Scholarly, i 591. 
Scholarship, ii 13, 161. 
Scheie House of Women, the, i. 

Schollard, ii. 163. 
School broke up, ii 33. 
School days, ii. 31. 
School of dancing, i 615. 
School of fish, ii. 61. 
School = shoal, i 255. 
School, to, i 549, 691. 
Schoolboy, ii 16. 
Schoolboys' usages, i 281. 
Schoolfellow, i 631. 
Schoolman, i 468, 509. 
Schoolmaster, Ascham's, i 572. 
Schoolroom, ii. 202. 
Schowe 1 i 349. 
Science, i. 166. 
Scissors, i 118, 239. 
Scold, a, i 315. 
Scold, to, i. 25. 

Sconce for candle, i. 225 ; ii. 20. 
Sconce (fortress), i. 573. 
Sconce (head), i. 566 ; ii 20. 
Sconce, to (fine), ii. 195. 
Scoop, i 21. 
Scope, i. 593 ; ii 27. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Scorch, L 237. 

Score, on the same, ii. 163. 

Score (reckoning), l 466. 

Score, run upon the, iL 84. 

Score, to, i. 186. 

Scorn, think, i. 438. 

Scot and lot, i. 250. 

Scot free, i. 428. 

Scot (Hibemibs), ii. 88. 

Scotch forms of words, L 4, 63, 
87, 189, 311, 338, 343, 
361, 362, 368, 390, 494, 
496, 521, 525, 539 ; ii 36, 
81, 91, 142, 159, 167, 183. 

Scotch phrases, i. 4, 10, 13, 
14, 15, 20, 30, 34, 36, 39, 
40, 54, 55, 60, 62, 78, 81, 
92, 94, 126, 145, 163, 166, 
185, 200, 204, 205, 219, 
222, 225, 227, 228, 235, 
241, 247, 248, 255, 270, 
288, 289, 295, 296, 310, 
312, 313, 315, 361, 363, 
400, 419, 420, 439, 444, 
447, 479, 490, 499, 510, 
520, 526, 529, 533, 552, 
577, 594,599 ; ii. 2, 15,18, 
29, 35, 42, 61, 72, 79, 90, 
129, 130, 141, 181, 206, 
226, 232. 

Scotch, to, i. 210. 

Scotland, i. 117, 623, 624 ; ii. 

Scotland should unite with 
England, i. 499. 

Scots, bad archers, i. 558* 

Scotsman, i. 89, 244. 

Scott, Sir Walter, i. 12, 22, 52, 
64, 74, 78, 107, 147, 192, 
200, 218, 295, 364, 386, 
456, 485, 517, 576, 586, 
605, 613 ; ii 18, 107, 127, 

146, 195, 207-209, 221, 

Scoundrel, ii. 37. 
Scour drains, ii. 3. 
Scour {fugeTe\ ii. 137. 
Scour seas, i. 592. 
Scourer, i 93, 311, 324, 553. 
Scout, Oxford, ii. 194. 
Scouting ridicule, ii. 204. 
Scoutmaster, ii. 6. 
Scrab, to, i 336. 
Scrabble, i 437. 
Scrag, a, i. 488, 601. 
Scraggy, i. 252. 
Scramble, i, 646, 619. 
Scran {dhus), ii 195. 
Scrap, i 164. 

Scrape acquaintance, ii. 141. 
Scrape (mishap), ii 158. 
Scrape wealth together, ii 83. 
Scratch, i. 257, 329, 361. 
Scratch = a sketch, ii. 1 59. 
Scrawl, i 446 ; ii 122. 
Screech, i 15, 16. 
Screech owl, i 464. 
Screeches, i 606. 
Screw, i 596. 
Screw his face, ii. 64. 
Screw, in money matters, ii. 

Screw up rents, ii. 138. 
Scribble, i 291. 
Scribe, i 138. 
Scrimmage, i 311, 465. 
Scrip, i 138 ; ii 161. 
Scriptural proper names, i 139. 
Scripture man, i. 640. 
Scrivener, i. 29. 
Scrooge, to, i 348 ; ii. 198. 
Scrub, a, ii. 30. 
Scrubbed boy, a, ii. 30. 
Scrubbing brush, ii. 155. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Scrubby, ii. 67. 

Scrumple, L 361. 

Scrutiny, i. 385. 

Scud, to, i 488. 

Scudamore, i. 220, 482. 

Scuffle, ii. 49. 

Scull i^rernvd), i. 295. 

Scullery, i. 311. 

Sculp, to, ii. 31. . 

Scum, i. 28 ; ii. 51, 102. 

Scurvy, the Adjective, i. 371. 

Scut, a, L 370. 

Scutes (crowns), i. 214. 

Scuttle, a, i 348. 

Scuttle ship, ii. 196. 

Scuttle, to, ii. 155, 196. 

S'death, ii. 148. 

Sea captain, ii. 75. 

Sea coal, i. 244, 527. 

Sea-coast, i. 56. 

Sea-ish, i. 456. 

Sea, keep the, i. 20. 

Sea keeping, i. 249. 

Sea-line, ii. 117. 

Sea mark, ii. 38. 

Sea mew, i. 234 ; ii. 46. 

Sea room, i. 601 ; iL 43. 

Sea sick, i. 565. 

Sea sickness, ii. 222. 

Sea side, i. 16. 

Sea song, earliest, i. 559. 

Sea terms, English, ii. 66. 

Sea-tost, i. 602. 

Sea- water, green, ii. 16. 

Seaboard, i. 345, 370. 

Seafarer, ii. 43. 

Seafaring, i. 595. 

Sealskin, i. 106. 

Seamed with, ii. 136. 

Seamstress, ii. 150. 

Search, i. 21. 

Search, make, i. 306. 

Season, be in, i. 93. 
Season, out of, i. 372. 
Seasoned, i 51, 498, 585 ; ii. 

Seat breeches, to, iL 180. 
Seat, country, ii 110. 
Seat himself, ii. 84. 
Seat, keep your, ii. 158. 
Seat, of chair, ii. 167. 
Seat ofBaddle, i. 540. 
Seat («t^t6s), i. 565. 
Seat, take his, i. 188. 
Second, i. 145. 
Second best, i. 180. 
Second childishness, ii. 36. 
Second fiddle, play, ii. 169. 
Second hand, iL i09. 
Second (minute), ii. 125. 
Second thoughts, upon, ii. 123. 
Second, to, ii. 7, 23. 
Seconds, the, iL 7, 59. 
Secondarily, i. 434. 
Secondary, L 38, 145, 240. 
Secret, let into, ii. 138. 
Sect, L 214, 222, 382, 433. 
Secular (layman), i. 92. 
Secular (no monk), L 223. 
Secundum, the Latin, L 59. 
Security = bail, ii. 33. 
See a penny of it, iL 1 60. 
See anything of her, L 175. 
See better days, ii. 8. 
See double, ii. 56. 
See far in milestone, L 503. 
See far (of the mind), L 176. 
See game (sport), L 476. 
See good, I, ii. 103. 
See him out, ii. 123. 
See him safe, L 307. 
See his way to, ii. 20. 
See into him, ii. 22. 
See into the bottom, iL 58, 190. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



See life, ii 188. 
See no necessity, i. 476. 
See not but, I, i. 432. 
. See people (visitors), ii. 184. 
See, pun on, i 555. 
See saw, ii. 155. 
See («tfde«), i 118. 
See the ill-luck, to ! ii. 85. 
See thee hanged first, ii. 18. 
See thou do it, i 109. 
See to do it, ii. 30. 
See to it, i 27. 
Seed, grow to, ii. 39. 
See*d, we, ii. 177. 
Seedcake, i. 583. 
Seedling, ii. 166. 
Seedsman, ii 50. 
Seeing is believing, ii. 156. 
Seeing that, i 186, 282, 287, 

Seeing, the, i. 430. 
Seek unto, i. 443. 
Seek up, i. 431. 
Seem, as it would, i. 403. 
Seem, he would, L 472. 
Seem like sooth, i. 152. 
Seems to me, it, i 176. 
Seeming neglect, ii. 139. 
Seemingly, ii. 164. 
Seemliness, i. 620. 
Seen, be, i. 238. 
Seer, i. 138, 141, 437. 
Seize, i 80, 137. 
Seize on, i. 183. 
Seized as of freehold, i. 246, 

Seldom, made an Adjective, i. 

Self-assumption, ii. 44. 
Self-command, ii. 205. 
Self-conceitedness, ii. 59. 
Self-denying, ii. 95. 

SeK do, self have, i. 397. 
Self-drawing, ii. 51. 
Self-harming; ii. 20. 
Self-interest, ii. 104. 
Self-liking, i. 598. 
SeK-love, ii. 9. 
Self-minded, i. 429. 
Self-murder, i. 540. 
SeK = person, i. 175. 
Self-praise, ii. 120. 
Self-same, i. 27, 79, 194, 409. 
Self = same, ii. 41. 
Self-seeking, ii. 155. 
Self-slaughter, ii. 39. 
Self-will, i. 189. 
Self-willed, i. 185, 349. 
Self-willedly, i. 460. 
Self, with an Adjective before 

it, i. 611. 
Selfish, i. 429. 
Selfishness, ii. 102. 
Selfness, i. 611. 
Sell (cause to sell), ii. 149. 
Sell (commission), ii. 151. 
Sell (disappoint), ii. 54. 
Sell, it will, ii. 44. 
Sell life dearly, i. 533. 
Sell up, i. 294. 
SeUer (sadler), i. 197. 
Selves, your sweet, i. 605. 
Semblance, make, i. 27. 
Semi appears in English, i. 131. 
Semi-gods, i. 299. 
Semicircle, i. 450. 
Sempster, ii. 14, 150. 
Send cards, ii. 184. 
Send her victorious, ii. 187. 
Send packing, i. 544. 
Sending, my, ii. 80. 
Senior, a, i. 197, 342, 420, 

448, 474. 
Senior, her, ii. 189. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Sennight, i. 40. 
Sensation, ii. 130. 
Sense (meaning), i. 388. 
Sense of it, make, ii. 131. 
Sense (wisdom), i. 572. 
Senses = wits, i. 495. 
Senseless, i. 572. 
Sensible (perceptible), i. 149 ; 

ii. 152. 
Sensible (wise), i. 550. 
Sensitive wit, i. 279. 
Sent for a soldier, ii. 146. 
Sentence, give, i. 143. 
Sentence (opinion), i. 186. 
Sentences cnt down, i. 330. 
Sentences, long, i. 275. 
Sentry, ii. 73. 
Sentry, stand, ii. 141. 
Sept, a, i. 600. 
Sept le va, ii. 143. 
Sepulchre, i. 138, 321. 
Sequences in suit, i. 588. 
Seraglio, i. 614. 
Seraphins, i. 445. 
Sere (particular), i 572. 
Sergeant-at-arms, i. 549. 
Sergeant, in war, i. 519. 
Sergeant Major, ii. 7. 
Sergeant, of law, i 34, 102. 
Sergeant, the Bang's, i. 216. 
Seriatim Englished, i 318. 
Serious place, a, ii. 206. 
Seriously, take, ii. 191. 
Sermond, a, i 368, 392. 
Sermons, English, ii. 226-228. 
Serpentine, an engine, i. 234. 
Servant, Sir, your, i 134, 518 ; 

ii 108. 
Servant's hall, ii. 171. 
Serve (avail), i. 302. 
Serve chapel, i. 10. 
Serve him a trick, ii. 21. 

Serve him right, ii 91. 

Serve him so, i. 10. 

Serve him the same, i. 306. 

Serve his turn, i 432. 

Serve-image, a, i. 434. 

Serve (in war), i. 385. 

Serve salt, to, i 65, 226. 

Serve to tempt, i 178. 

Service, at your, ii. 18. 

Service, do him, i. 457. 

Service doing, i 272. 

Service in plate, i 448. 

Service, the (army), ii. 146. 

Service time, i. 526. 

Service to her, my, i 309 ; ii. 

Services, i 310. 
Serving-man, i 512. 
Servitude, i. 253. 
Set a bone, i 607. 
Set a chair, i 440. 
Set about doing it, ii 169. 
Set apart, reverence, ii 26. 
Set at one, i 307. 
Set = baffle, i 547. 
Set by (cMtimare), i. 437. 
Set by the ears, i 429. 
Set course, to, i. 536; 
Set down, a, ii 166. 
Set down = depose, i 153. 
Set down, from carriage, ii 107. 
Set fashions, ii 203. 
Set fast his face, i 138. 
Set forth {omare)y i 442. 
Set gems, i. 126. 
Set him out (proficisci), i. 59. 
Set himself to seek, i 416. 
Set in print, i 330, 472. 
Set in, seasons, ii. 183. 
Set in to drinking, ii 127. 
Set me going, ii. 83. 
Set men on him, i 90. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Set name to, ii 120. 

Set of books, a, ii. 19. 

Set of her features, the, ii. 202. 

Set of teeth, ii. 140. 

Set of wit, play a, ii. 16. 

Set ofl^ a, ii. 167. 

Set off (orwarg), ii. 32. 

Set off (proficisci), i. t360. 

Set on him (attack), L 66. 

Set out, a, ii 167. 

Set outward an army, i. 303. 

Set (resolved) on it, i. 228. 

Set, sun was, i. 86. 

Set the teeth, ii. 36. 

Set to a tune, ii. 46. 

Set to do it, i. 63. 

Set to (undertake work), ii. 204. 

Set up a craft, i. 310. 

Set up for himself, ii 84. 

Set up for sense, ii. 129. 

Set up howl, ii 168. 

Set up (magnify), i 442. 

Set up sail,i. 251. 

Set us going, ii. 169. 

Setter (dog), i 592. 

Setter forth of, i 293. 

Setter up of kings, ii. 23. 

Setting forth of army, i. 338. 

Setting it aside, ii 10, 26. 

Settle himself to, i 487. 

Settle himself to marry, i. 592. 

Settle money on, ii. 151. 

Settle = sink, i 580. 

Settle to dance, ii 190. 

Settled (at peace), ii 204.