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Full text of "New flora and botany of North America, or, A supplemental flora, additional to all the botanical works on North America and the United States. Containing 1000 new or revised species"

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[Reprinted from Torreya, Vol. 7, No. 9, September, 1907.] 



THE DATES OF RAFINESQUE'S NEW FLORA AND 
FLORA TELLURIANA 

By John Hendley Barnhart 

As far as I am aware, no question has ever been raised con- 
cerning the rehabiUty of the dates given on the title-pages of any 
of the works of Rafinesque. His Autikon Botanikon, to be sure, 
is dated 181 5-1840, while no portion of the text was pubhshed 
until 1840; but this text was intended to illustrate an herbarium 
which the author had accumulated during the years 1815-1840, 
so that the meaning of the date he gives is manifest. 

About a year ago I noticed in the Flora Telluriana (4 : 27) a 
brief criticism of Gray's monograph of the Melanthaceae of 
North America, which was not published until November, 
1837 ; * and this, of course, showed that Rafinesque's criticism 
could not have been published earlier than that date. A hurried 
examination revealed further internal evidence of the erroneous 
dating of the Flora Telluriana and its companion-work, the New 
Flora of North America, but the investigation of the subject was 
not carried very far at that time. 

When the last number of the North American Flora was in 
press, it became necessary for Dr. Small to decide upon the 
relative priority of Mesynunn Raf. (" 1836") and Catliartolinuni 
Reichenb. (1837), and this led to the study of which the results 
are here reported. 

The New Flora of North America was undertaken by Rafin- 
esque as a supplement to the works previously published by 
others upon the same topic ; and as a result of his labors upon 

J=: •* Gray, A. Melanthacearum Americae Septentrionalis Revisio. Ann. Lye. Nat. 
"^Hist. N. V. 4 : 105-140. N 1837. 

• 177 



178 

it. lie was led to uiuiertake tlie preparation of its "sequel," the 
Flora Telluriana. ilcalin^ with the plants of the rest of the world. 
The pages of these two works contain many descriptions of " new 
genera" of plants, so that the dates of their appearance are of 
considerable importance. As the books themselves are quite 
scarce, a brief preliniinar\^ account of them may not be out of 
place. 

Each was planned to consist of six " parts " or volumes, but 
was completed in four. Each of the eight parts is separately 
paged, and has a separate title-page and subtitle of its own ; and 
each is dated " 1836." 

New Flor.-v and Botanv of North America 
First part. Introduction, Lexicon, Monographs. 100 pages. 

1836. 
Second part. Neophyton. 96 pages. 1836. 
Third part. New Sylva. 96 pages. 1836. 
Fourth part. Neobotanon. 112 pages. 1836. (This contained 

also a general title-i)age for the entire work, dated 1836.) 

Flora Telluriana 
P^inst part. Introduction and Classification. 103 pages. 1836. 
Second part. Centuria I, II, III, IV. 112 pages. 1836. 
Third part. Centuries V, VI, VII, VIII. 1 00 pages. 1836. 
Fourth part. Centuries IX, X, XI, XII. 135 pages. 1836. 

(This contained also a general title-page for the entire w^ork 

dated 1836.) 

Of these eight parts, the first part of the New Flora was the 
first to appear. It contained a dedication dated at Philadelphia, 
September, 1836; and pages 73-80 are occupied by a mono- 
graph of the genus Kuhiiia, dated October, 1836. These facts 
alone are sufficient to make one suspect that perhaps the eight 
parts were not all issued before the end of that year ! There is 
not lacking other internal evidence on this subject, in addition to 
the citation of Gray's monograph (Fl. Tell. 4 : 27 ; also New Fl. 
4 : 103, where the date of " Grey's " paper is distinctly stated as 
" ^^1)7 ")■ I^'lora Telluriana, part 3 (which in turn is cited by 



179 

New Fl. 3 : 41, 51), on page 57 refers to Bot. Reg. //. igo6 (i 
N 1836 !); and on page t^-j to Bot. Mag. //. 3540 (i D 1836 !), 
which could not well have reached Philadelphia before the end 
of the year 1836. Flora Telluriana, part 4 (which in turn is 
cited by New Fl. 4 : 56, 57, 6^, 98), on page 124 cites Bot. Reg. 
pi. igjS (i My 1837). But, in spite of these references, I know 
of no internal evidence that the two works were not completed 
before the end of the year 1837. 

From internal evidence, too, it is possible to arrange the parts 
serially, in the order in which they were printed. This may be 
done by means of the exact citations, by page, of one work by 
the other; chiefly of the Flora Telluriana by the New Flora. 
The result is as follows : New Fl. I ; Fl. Tell. I ; Fl. Tell. II ; 
New Fl. II; Fl. Tell. Ill; New Fl. Ill; Fl. Tell. IV; New 
Fl. IV. 

In order to approximate more closely than might otherwise be 
possible the exact dates of issue of each of these parts, the series 
of letters written to Torrey by Rafinesque during the years 
1836 to 1839, and preserved in the Torrey correspondence at 
the New York Botanical Garden, was searched, and the search 
was well rewarded, as is shown by the following quotations : 

September 5, 1836. — "I having leisure have resolved to be- 
gin to print my New flora of North Amer. by alphabetical 
order. . . . When this Work is printed, my botanical labors 
from 1802 to 1836, in America, will be better known." 

December 21, 1836. — "My flora proceeds very slowly & 
was even suspended awhile for lack of a compositor that could 
print Botanical terms ! . . , I have concluded to close the Lexi- 
con of monographs very abruptly, and give instead selected 
monographs & my N. Genera & species." 

This shows that only ten days before the close of the year 
1836 even the printing of the first part of the New Flora was 
not completed. 

April 18, 1837. — "I wanted to surprise you with a great 
Botanical Work — my Flora telluriana ... to which I was led 
by my New flora of N. Amer,, but I could only print 2 parts or 
volumes. I. Classes & Orders. 2d. 400 N. Gen. my other 
engagts have compelled me to suspend for a while." 



180 

B\' the middle of April, 1837, then, had been printed one part 
of the New Flora and two of the Flora Telluriana. 

October 24, 1837. — "I am still going on slowly with my 
New flora of N. America and I^'Iora telluriana at once. ... I 
have circulated but few copies of the numbers published, wishing 
to surprise you and all Botanists when the whole shall be out ; 
but if you wish to see them earlier I may send you 5 numbers 
of 100 pages Svo each very soon, and more next March." 

From this it appears likely that a second number of the New 
Flora had appeared when this letter was written, and that a third 
number of the Flora Telluriana was nearly ready; or else that 
the two parts were nearl)' read}' to be issued together. 

January 10, 1838. — "My New flora or Mantissa begun to 
print in 1836 is still going on & altho' interrupted by my flora 
Telluriana & 2 works published this Spring (i. The Universe. — 
2. Safe Banking) is proceeding as fast as correct exam, can allow. 
I wished to issue the whole work together ; but I shall be com- 
pelled to issue when half is ready 3 numbers of 100 pages as in 
Flora tellur. My 3d N. on the Trees and Shrubs or a New 
sylva is not quite ready." 

At the end of 1837, then, three numbers of the Flora Telluri- 
ana had been issued, and two of the New Flora, but on January 
10, 1838, the third part of the New Flora was " not quite ready." 

March 20, 1838. — "I have long ago concluded 600 pages of 
my Supplemental Flora & Flora Telluriana or 6 parts. If I had 
not undertaken these 2 works together, the first would have been 
completed ere now, but will be ere. 1840." 

The third part of the New Flora had evidently been published 
since the date of the January letter. It appears that Rafinesque 
still intended each work to consist of six parts, and for this reason 
allowed himself until 1840 to complete them. 

February i, 1839. — " My 4th part or Volume of New flora 
was completed so as to give you time to go on with your flora. 
I also completed my Flora telluriana in 4 Vol. or 1225 articles. 
But immed' after begun & have concluded last Dec' my 
Synopsis of N. G. & Sp. of Trees & Shrubs of N. Amer." 

From this it appears that prior to December, 1838, both the 



181 

Flora Telluriana and the New Flora had been completed. The 
last sentence refers to Rafinesque's Alsographia Americana, 
which was dated 1838, and from his own statement above was 
probably issued in December of that year. 

The extracts from Rafinesque's letters show that few, if indeed 
any, copies of either the Flora Telluriana or the New Flora had 
been actually distributed until three parts of each had been 
printed (in the spring of 1838); but, as he says in the letter of 
October 24, 1837, " I have circulated but few copies of the num- 
bers published," we must give him the benefit of the doubt, and 
assume that he had distributed a few copies. 

Rafinesque's Bulletin of the Historical and Natural Sciences 
was an advertising sheet issued by him at irregular intervals from 
1834 to 1839. No. 7, dated "Spring of 1838," is devoted 
chiefly to the two works here under discussion. He says in part : 
" I had long contemplated to give a New Flora of North America. 
... I resolved ... to add the improvements on Natural class- 
ification. These last, however, increased so much under my re- 
vision, as to become a work by itself, and a companion rather 
than addition to our Flora. Both works were begun in 1836, 
and our plants would all have been published by this time, if I 
had not thus been compelled to double these botanical labors. I 
once proposed to issue the whole at once when completed, but 
this delay and others arising from different pursuits and labors, 
have induced me to publish the parts as soon as printed, and now 
that 3 parts of each (being half a volume,) are published, I issue 
this Bulletin to acquaint the Botanists of Europe and America 
with" them, " Each work is to consist of 6 parts of 100 to 120 
pages, thus forming a volume large octavo of 600 to 700 pages, 
which shall be completed in 1840 or sooner. . . . The 6 parts 
now printed, 3 of each work, will be sold together for ^5." 

The dates of the two works under discussion, as nearly as they 
can be determined from the evidence here submitted, may be 
summarized as follows : 

New Flora Part I. 1836 (December). 

n. 1837 (second half). 
HI. 1838 (first quarter). 
IV. 1838 (late in year). 



182 

Flora Telluriana. Part I. 1837 (first quarter). 

II. 1837 (first quarter). 

III. 1837 (November or December). 

IV. 1838 (near middle of year). 
New York Botanical Garden. 



f6lK 



NEW FLORA 




NORTH AMERICA, 



BY 



PROF. RAFINESaUE. 



FIRIST PART. 

Introduction, Lexicon, Monographs. 

P HILABELP HIA 



*.' 



"^ 1836. 



:f^ 5)7 



1 1\ T R O D. I. E X I C O :\, &Cy 

AND BOTANY 

OP 

NORTH AMERICA. 

BEING A SUPPLEMENTAL FLORA, 

To the various Floras and Botanical Works of Michaux, 
Muhlenberg, Pursh, Nuttall, Elliot, Torrey, Beck> Ea- 
ton, Bigelow, Barton, Robin, Hooker, Riddel!, Darling- 
ton, Schweinitz, Gibbs, &c> 

Besides the general works of Linneus> Wildenow 
Vahl, Vitman, Persoon, Lannark, Decandole, Sprenge!, 
Jussieu, Adanson, Necker, Lindley, &c. Containing 
nearly 500 additional or revised New Genera, and 1500 
additional or corrected New Species, illustrated by 
figures in Autikon Botanikon. 

BY C;^Sr RAFINESQUE, A. M.— PH. D. 

Prof, of Botany, the historical and natural sciences — = 
Member of many learned Societies in Paris, Vienna, 
Bonn, Bruxelles, Bordeaux, Zurich, Naples, &c. and 
in Philadelphia, New York, Cincinnati, Lexington, &c. 



The Floral wealth in this wide land concealed. 
Will be at last by learned care revealed. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

PRINTED FOn THE AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER. 

18 3 6. 



DEDICATION. 

To all my fellow Botanists in the United States ol 
North America, and chiefly to those who are endeavor- 
ing to complete and illustrate our Botany — I dedicate 
these pages, results of 24 years of observations and re- 
searches. 

But above all, to my friends, colleagues, or contribu- 
tors now living, and to the memory of the worthy de- 
parted, Elliot, Collins, Schweinitz, Pursh, Conrad, Brad- 
bury ... in grateful remembrance of their worth and 
kind help. . . . . D. D. D. 

Philadelphia, September, 1836. 

THE AUTHOR. 



INTRODUCTION. 

After many years of active researches in 
the continent of North America, I was medi- 
tating to write a new Flora of it ; but was long 
dubious in what form to produce it. To enu- 
merate and describe all the plants of this vast 
region in a proper form and natural classifica- 
tion, would be a very acceptable labor, but a 
very arduous task, to which, altho' I felt quite 
competent, it was not possible to think of, ow- 
ing to the expense of it, particularly if many 
figures were given. All our Botanists have 
shrunk from this undertaking, except Hooker 
in his Flora of Canada and Boreal America, 
now publishing by the help of patronage. Zeal 
alone does not avail in this as in collecting, 
other pecuniary means are required. 

It has been found more practicable and near- 
ly as useful by our Botanists to publish abridg- 
ed Floras on the Ijinnean plan, of which Mi- 
chaux and Pursh gave the example; while Nut- 
tall, Torrey, Eaton, Beck, &.c. have followed 
nearly the same path. Elliot alone has some- 
what enlarged his labor, and produced a most 
egregious work. 

None but such condensed or compiled works 
on our Botany, have been found acceptable to 
all and saleable; while the elaborate and learn- 
ed works, full of discoveries and ample re- 
searches, can only be appreciated by a few, and 
even often excite the envy of the learned ri- 
vals. 



',^-? ^.•' i (\ ^ 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

Under such predicament, I was compelled 
to decide upon a middle course; and I therefore 
undertook this work as a Supplemental Flora 
of North America, a kind of mantissa and ap- 
pendix to all my predecessors, avoiding there- 
by much expense and trouble in accumulating 
all the scattered materials and fragments alrea- 
dy published: altho' I endeavored to collect 
them whenever I had to frame some peculiar 
careful monographs of neglected Genera or fa- 
milies. The illustration by figures of my New 
Genera and New Species will be kept apart in 
mpt. to be sold apart to any institution or indi- 
vidual that wish to possess them, as well as my 
botanical specimens, general Herbarium, and 
original typical sets collected together under 
the name of my Autikon Botanikon. 

I have called this work, a Neio Flora of North 
America, and such it is in fact : a real Flora, 
although not classed by the false sexual system, 
nor even my own improved natural method, 
but arranged diflerently. I do not even know 
yet exactly how it will be gone through ; but 1 
propose to commence by a sample of a Lexi- 
con to be contrasted with the manual Lexicon 
of Eaton, and go on with monographs of inte- 
resting Genera or Families, with a Sylva of my 
New Trees and Shrubs, a JSeogenylon or ac- 
count of New Genera, and a Neohotanon or 
compendium of new species. I may, however, 
deviate from this plan if needful or desirable, 
and I hope to conclude the whole by a general 
Index, both alphabetical and classified natural- 
ly of all the Families and Genera. 

While I was preparing this work, I found 
myself so often perplexed and involved into dif- 
ficulties, by the actual improper framing of Ge^ 



INTRODFC'TION. 5 

ncra, that I was compelled to take up the suh- 
ject of Generic retbrm simultaneously with this 
new flora. This has greatly increased my la- 
bors and delayed the publication ; but vastly 
enlarged my field of botanical researches, now 
based on generic accuracy. 

In fact till lately most of the Botanists, both 
here and elsewhere, were perfectly satisfied 
with the Linnean Genera, and thought they had 
done their utmost when they referred the Lin- 
nean or new species, quite at random to those 
Linnean Genera ; often avoiding or neglecting 
to notice their peculiar floral characters, not 
seldom at variance with the Genera referred 
to. The labors of Adanson, Jussieu, Necker, 
Moench, Lamark, ifec. upon generic reforms 
were often overlooked or neglected. At last a 
better feeling has been prevailing, and the mo- 
dern improvers Decandolc, Agardh, Robert 
Brown, Lindley, &.c. have restored many of the 
old Genera, or further corrected generic no 
mcnclature. 

As I rank among these botanical reformers 
ever since 1808 when I first published new Ge- 
nera, and 1815 when I published the outlines of 
my reformed Natural Families, it was just 
and proper that I should resume these investi- 
gations, now that I mean to give the results of 
a whole life of botanical travels, discoveries and 
arduous researches. This shall then be done 
in a colateral work published at the same time, 
but kept apart, which I shall call Flora tcllu- 
riana or synoptical mantissa of 2000 new fa- 
milies, Genera and species of plants of the whole 
earth. There most of my generic and other 
reforms will be elucidated, and 1 shall merely 
refer to them in this N. Amer. Flora. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

Here, the new species of this continent shall 
be chiefly attended to. They arc often in as 
great a disorder as the Genera; many are occa- 
sionally blended into one, or improperly deter- 
mined and settled. To give their synonymy is 
not always an easy task, nor are the varieties to 
be overlooked. Many botanists mistake real 
botanical species for varieties or viceversa. In 
fact all species might have been varieties once^ 
jind many varieties are gradually becoming spe- 
cies by assuming constant and peculiar charac- 
ters. This is an interesting feature of botanical 
philosophy, which I shall properly explain and 
prove hereafter. 

This new Flora is very far, therefore, from 
being a compilation of former labors: it is quite 
an original work, chiefly based upon my indivi- 
dual researches and discoveries, during 36 years 
of botanical travels and exertions, whereof 24 
were spent in North America, the main field of 
my scientific rambles and labors. 

It may perhaps be useful to give here an out- 
line of my botanical travels in North America, 
whereby it will be perceived that I have survey- 
ed and examined more States and regions than 
any other Botanist perhaps except Nuttall. 
Thus I was enabled to detect a great number of 
N«w Species, and examine many plants alive in 
full bloom in their native wilds. It would be 
well if botanical writers would thus detail us their 
actual excursions and ex})lorations. 

Some plants are quite local or have very nar- 
row limits of growth, others are only in bloom 
for a few hours or days. Many early vernal 
]>lantsofthe Genera Dodccatlieon., Clhitonia^ 
Vernasolis, Viola, Peltmidra^ Cijpripedium,, 
&/C. can onlv be seen in narrow localities during 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

the month of May. Others of the Genera Gen- 
tiana, Kuhnia., Ecllpta, Spiranthcs^ Aster, 
iS»oZ/<Zfir^o, with many radiate Genera, are quite 
late and autumnal, found chiefly in October : 
therefore they had escaped the notice of our 
Botanists, who chiefly botanize or travel in 
summer. 

Other plants are confined to Mountains, or 
Pinelands, or Western Glades, or deep 
Swamps, which must be visited by turns, if 
we wish to collect them. I have sometimes 
looked in vain for years for some particular 
plants^ at the very places where they are known 
to grow, because I was not in the due season : 
this happens to all Botanists, and it is very im- 
portant for collectors to know the precise epoch 
of blooming and seeding. What escapes one 
of them may be met by another a little earlier 
or later. There are besides years when some 
plants bloom more abundantly, and others like 
the Miegia, Enslenia, Slc. only bloom once in 
many years. 

I came to North America in 1802, and tra- 
velled chiefly on foot until 180 1, over New Jer- 
sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and 
Virginia, from the Juniata to the Sea Shore, 
and from the Alleghany Mountains beyond 
Easton, to the Potomac beyond Washington 
and Alexandria. Some of the results of my 
discoveries in those three yearsof early travels 
were published in 1808. 

In 1805 I left America for Europe, where 1 
remained till 1815. On my return to this con- 
tinent in that year, 1 was shipwrecked on the 
shores of Connecticut, and lost all my former 
Herbals and collections, both American and 
European. 



S INTKODUC'TlON. 

Therefore being deprived of all my first la- 
bors ill Botany, Zoology, and Mineralogy in 
that memorable year 1815, I had to begin 
again my researches and collections, which I 
pursued ever since with renewed zeal, always 
at my own sole expense. I spent 1813 and 
1816 in the States of New York, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania chiefly. In 1816 I went to 
explore as far as Lake Champlain, Vermont, 
and the Saranac Mountains, near the sources 
of the Hudson River. In 1817 I went to the 
Mattawan and Kiskanom, or Catskill Moun- 
tains, and explored Long Island, where I dwelt 
awhile. 

But my great travels in the West began in 
1818, I made a tour of 2000 miles as far as the 
Wabash River, crossing twice the Alleghany 
Mountains on foot, and exploring Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Kentucky, &/C. Some of the 
results of my former discoveries in that jour- 
ney were published in 1819, in the Physical 
Journal of Paris, in 80 new Gen. of Plants, and 
70 New Gen. of Animals. 

Having been appointed Professor of Natural 
Sciences in the IJniversity of Lexington, in 
Kentucky, I went there in 1819, crossing a 
third time the Alleghany Mountains, through 
the Cumberland road of Maryland, still on foot, 
as I never would cross these beautiful moun- 
tains in any other way, in order to botanize all 
the while, and I was rewarded by many new 
plants. 

I spent seven years in Kentucky in 1826, 
exploring that State thoroughly, and making 
excursions to Ohio, &/C., my longest journeys 
were in 1823, when I went West as far as the 
Rivers Cumberland and Tennessee near their 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

snoullis, and next East to the falls of the Cum- 
berland River and the Wasioto or Cumberland 
mountains. 

In 1825 I undertook a long journey through 
Ohio, and Virginia, crossing the Alleghany 
mountains of Virginia, and returning by the 
Alleghanies of Pennsylvania, always on foot. 
Next year, 1826, I left Kentucky and settled 
in Philadelphia : but took a very long botanical 
journey in the way, going through Ohio to 
Sandusky on Lake Erie ; thence to Buffalo, 
Niagara, Canada, the New York Canal, &c. 

My excursions in 1827, were to the Sea 
Shores of New Jersey, and thence to Troy, the 
Taconick mountain, and through Massachu- 
setts to Boston, returning by a different road. 
In 1828, I went to the Alleghany mountains 
of the North on the Lehigh, the Schooley 
mountains of New Jersey, and Mattawan 
mountains of New York. In 1829, 1 went to 
the Pine-barrens of New Jersey, and as far as 
Connecticut. In 1830, I made a second jour- 
ney to the Kiskanom mountains of New York. 

Several botanical excursions and journeys 
were undertaken in 1831, in Delaware, New 
Jersey, and the Taconick mountains. While 
in 1832 I visited Maryland twice, the second 
time I explored the Cotocton mountains of 
Maryland, and Alleghany mountains as far as 
Sherman Valley and the Juniata, quite at 
leisure, residing some times at the top of the 
mountains. 

In the year 1833 I proposed to visit the 
Apalachian mountains as far as Alabama : but 
was prevented by an accident and heavy rainsj 
I only went as far as those of Virginia, and 
again in the Cotocton mountains. — In a second 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

journey I undertook to visit the sources of the 
river Delaware, and Susquehannah, exploring 
first the Pine barrens and Sea shores of New 
Jersey, next going from Albany over the Hei- 
delberg mountains to the Lake Utsiantha 
source of the Delaware at the foot of the Kis- 
kanom mountains, and Lake Otsego source of 
the Susquehannah. 

The year 1834 saw me twice in the Alle- 
ghany mountains of the north, once by follow- 
ing the course of the Delaware, the second 
time westward by the Welsh mountains, Cone- 
wago mountains, Albany mountains. Locust 
mountains to the Pottsville mines and the 
source of the Schuylkill river, returning by 
Mauchchunk and Allentown. 

My travels of 1835 were in the Central Al- 
leghanies up the River Juniata and Susque- 
hannah, exploring the mountains of Peters, 
Buffalo, Wiconisco, Mahantango, Tuscarora, 
Jack, Seven mountains, &c. with their Val- 
leys. An account of all these travels and ex- 
cursions is given by me more at length in my 
liife of travels and researcJies^ published ear- 
ly in 1836. Since then I have chiefly explor- 
ed South New Jersey and the pine barrens. 

Although these journeys were often under- 
taken with the additional ulterior view to col- 
lect Fossils and Animals, my favorite science 
and pursuit of Botany was always my main ob- 
ject. I always travelled with my botanical col- 
lecting book and reams of paper to preserve my 
plants : and thus I have been enabled to collect 
in 20 years, since 1816, a most valuable Her- 
barium, rich in new species, rare plants, and 
complete Monographs; which have been in- 
creased by exchanges and purchases, chiefly of 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

Southern plants ; not having been able to ex- 
plore as yet the Southern States, deterred by 
the bad roads, unhealthy climate, scanty fare, 
heavy expenses and state of society. A pedes- 
trian Botanist is not always very welcome 
there. 

During so many years of active and ardu- 
ous explorations, I have met of course all kinds 
of adventures, fares and treatment. I have 
been welcomed under the hospitable roof of 
friends of knowledge or enterprise, else laugh- 
ed at as a mad Botanist by scornful ignorance. 
Often deemed a herbalist and wandering doc- 
tor by the vulgar, I have allowed or indulged 
this harmless belief, and thereby elicited from 
many quarters the local knowledge of medical 
facts, which I have published in my Medical 
Flora of the United States. 

I have seldom met with liberal enlightened 
men, who could believe that I was actuated by 
the pure love of knowledge and science ; yet I 
have found such worthy men sometimes and 
their names are gratefully impressed on my me- 
mory. Such were J. D. Clifford, Alex. Walsh, 
Mess. Knevels, Adlum, Dr. Schultz, D. Jack- 
son, H. Clay, Clinton, Meade, Maclane, Wells, 
Thompson, Aldie, &.c. who without being Bo 
tanists, or at most mere florists, could appre- 
ciate my pursuits and facilitate my researches. 
As to Botanists and Zooligists I made it a point 
to search for them and enjoy their society, mu- 
tually imparting our knowledge. 

Such a life of travels and exertions has its 
pleasures and its pains, its sudden delights and 
deep joys mixt with dangers, trials, difficulties, 
and troubles. No one could better paint them 
than myself, who has experienced them all; but 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

I must be brief in conveying a slight idea of 
them. 

Let the practical Botanist who wishes like 
myself to be a pioneer of science, and to in- 
crease the knowledge of plants, be fully prepar- 
ed to meet dangers of all sorts in the wild 
groves and mountains of America. The mere 
fatigue of a pedestrian journey is nothing com- 
pared to the gloom of solitary forests, when not 
a human being is met for many miles, and if 
met he may be mistrusted ; when the food and 
collections must be carried in your pocket or 
knapsack from day to day ; when the fare is 
not only scanty but sometimes worse; when 
you must live on corn bread and salt pork, be 
burnt and steamed by a hot sun at noon, or 
drenched by rain, even with an umbrella in 
hand, as I always had. 

Musquitoes and flies will often annoy you or 
suck your blood if you stop or leave a hurried 
step. Gnats dance before the eyes and often 
fall in unless you shut them ; insects creep on 
you and into your ears. Ants crawl on you 
whenever you rest on the ground, wasps will as- 
sail you like furies if you touch their nests. 
But ticks the worst of all are unavoidable 
whenever you go among bushes, and stick to 
you in crowds, filling your skin with pimples 
and sores. Spiders, gallineps, horse-flies and 
other obnoxious insects will often beset you, or 
sorely hurt you. Hateful snakes are met, and 
if poisonous are very dangerous, some do not 
warn you off' like the Rattle-snakes. 

You meet rough or muddy roads to vex you, 
and blind paths to perplex you, rocks, moun- 
tains, and steep ascents. Fou may often loose 
your way, and must always have a compass 



INTRODI'4 TTON. 13 

with you as I luid. You may he lamed in 
chmhing rocks for plants or hrcak your limhs 
by a fall. You must cross and wade through 
brooks, creeks, rivers, and swamps. In deep 
fords or in swift streams you may lose your 
footing and be drowned. You may be overta- 
ken by a storm, the trees fall around you, the 
thunder roars and strikes before you. The 
winds may annoy you, the fire of heaven or of 
men sets fire to the grass or forest, and you may 
be surrounded by it, unless you fly for your 
life. 

You may travel over a unhealthy region or 
in a sickly season, you may fall sick on the road 
and become helpless, unless you be very care- 
ful, abstenious and temperate. 

Such are some of the dangers and troubles 
of a botanical excursion in the mountains and 
forests of North America. The sedentary bo- 
tanists or those who travel in carriages or by 
steamboats, know little of them ; those who 
merely herborize near a city or town, do not 
appreciate the courage of those who brave 
such dangers to reap the botanical wealth of 
the land, nor sufficiently value the collections 
thus made. 

Yet although I have felt all those miseries, T 
have escaped some to which others are liable. 
I have never been compelled to sleep at night 
on the ground, but have always found a shel- 
ter. I have never been actually starved, nor 
assailed by snakes or wild beasts, nor robbed, 
nor drowned, nor suddenly unwell. Tempe- 
rance and the disuse of tobacco have partly 
availed me, and always kept me in health. 

In fact I never was healthier and happier 
than when I encountered those dangers, while a 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

sedentary life has often made me unhappy or 
unwell. I like the free range of the woods and 
.if^lades, 1 hate the sight of fences like the In- 
dians ! The free constant exercise and pleasu- 
1 able excitement is always conductive to health 
and pleasure. 

The pleasures of a botanical exploration ful- 
ly compensate for these miseries and dangers, 
else no one would be a travelling Botanist, nor 
spend his time and money in vain. Many fair- 
days and fair-roads are met with, a clear sky 
or a bracing breeze inspires delight and ease, 
you breathe the pure air of the country, every 
rill and brook offers a draught of limpid fluid. 
What delight to meet with a spring after a 
thirsty walk, or a bowl of cool milk out of the 
dairy ! What sound sleep at night after a long 
day's walk, what soothing naps at noon under 
a shaded tree near a purling brook ! 

Every step taken into the fields, groves, and 
hills, appears to afford new enjoyments, Land- 
scapes and Plants jointly meet in your sight. 
Here is an old acquaintance seen again; there 
a novelty, a rare plant, perhaps a new one ! 
greets your view : you hasten to pluck it, exa- 
mine it, admire, and put it in your book. Then 
you walk on thinking what it might be, or may 
be made by you hereafter. You feel an exul- 
tation, you are a conqueror, you have made a 
conquest over Nature, you are going to add a 
new object, or a page to science. This peace- 
ful conquest has cost no tears, but fills your 
mind with a proud sensation of not being use- 
less on earth, of having detected another link 
of the creative power of God. 

Such are the delightful feelings of a real bo- 
tanist, who travels not for lucre nor paltry pay. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

Those who do, often think only of how much 
the root or the seed or the specimen will fetch 
at home or in their garden. 

When you ramble by turns in the shady 
groves, grassy glades, rocky hills, or steep 
mountains, you meet new charms peculiar to 
each ; even the gloomy forest aftbrds a shady 
walk. TiVery rock, nook, rill . . . has peculiar 
plants inviting your attention. When nothing 
new nor rare appears, you commune with your 
mind and your God in lofty thoughts or dreams 
of happiness. Every pure Botanist is a good 
man, a happy man, and a religious man ! He 
lives with God in his wide temple not made by 
hands .... 

To these botanical pleasures may be added 
the anticipation of the future names, places, 
uses, history, &/C. of the plants you discover. 
For the winter or season of rest, are reserved 
the sedentary pleasures of comparing, studying, 
naming, describing and publishing. A time 
may come, when if all plants are well known, 
little will be left to be done, except seeking rare 
plants or occasional deviations and varieties ; 
but a long while will elapse before this may 
take place, since so few of our plants are com- 
pletely known as yet. Then will begin the la- 
bors of the draftsman, the collector of rare 
plants and roots, or the seeking of special and 
generic deviations. 

In this another wide field of researches will 
be open to the enquiring mind. My thoughts 
have often been led thereto when noticing 
singular deviations. I admit like Adanson, 
Necker and liinneus himself that plants do 
vary gradually and constantly, although often 
very slowly, both in the specific and generic 



16 IJNTKODUCTION. 

characters. I refer to these authors for exani- 
ples so often met in gardens ; but I have chief- 
ly attended to this in the woods and fields 
where quite spontaneous. 

The process is by the seedlings being some- 
what different from the parents, and thus evinc- 
ing a deviation of typical mould, that may be, 
or may not be, propagated again. H it is, this 
soon assumes a permanence, becoming a per- 
manent variety if the deviation is slight, such 
as mere color of flowers, size of stem, leaves, 
Slc; but becoming a New Species! if at last 
several deviations are permanently combined. 
A tendency to such deviations is sometimes met 
even in the various annual shoots of the peren- 
nial plants, or shrubs and trees, that are not al- 
ways alike to those of the preceding years. 

The specific deviations which I could men- 
tion are numberless, this work will be full of 
them, as all new species are in fact such per- 
manent deviations of growth, unless they are 
widely different from all former species. The 
oldest type of the species may probably be 
found in the most common with most numerous 
individuals, while those called rare or with few 
individuals as yet must be the newest in order 
of time. 

Generic deviations are more rarely observed 
or noticed, because less evident and very slow- 
ly produced, or not so easily propagated; but I 
shall mention here some very striking instances 
of them ; while many more are to be met with 
in all the Genera, where the characters are 

polymorphous, expressed by SO . . . Oil SO, 

3-5 fidis, 4-5 andris, 3-4 stylis. Capsule with 
4 or 5 valves, one or many seeds, &lc. 

1. I have seen in a garden a Tulip with 5 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

petals only and 5 stamens. That was even a 
deviation from the family ! 

2. I have met with a Tecoma bearing a ca- 
psule with 3 valves, the generic character is 
bivalve. 

3. Asters and Solidagos with the ligules 
mixt with the florets, forming a kind of peloric 
genus which I have called Mictanthes. 

4. The Aster discoideus of Elliot or my 
genus Atiactis, has no rays, it must have been 
a deviated genus like Kclipta from Verhesina. 
I have met some Asters with the rays so short- 
ened as to be almost invisible. 

5. My G. GoNONcus has two sorts of flowers 
and seeds on the same plant, uniting the char- 
racters of Polygonun and Persicaria. 

6. My G. Stttrandra appears to have origi- 
nated once from Convallaria or rather Majan- 
ihemuni^ just like Paris from Trillium. 

7. Many monoical and dioical plants return 
to Polygamy and hermaphroditism. This is the 
case with some of our Vines, Vitis, Morus, Ur- 
tica, CallitricJie, ^c. 

8. Nothing more common than monstruous 
deviations by addition or deficiency of parts, 
which are as many links of generic varia- 
tions. 

Of all the European Floras, that in which 
generic and specific deviations are most expli- 
citly stated and best detailed, is the Flora Li- 
thuanica of Gilibert, where many similar ano- 
malies may be noticed. 

Therefore the result will be that our species 
and genera are not quite permanent as suppos- 
ed, but are gradually producing deviations of 
forms ; when these are floral thev are of course 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

generic, and may after centuries form New 
Genera. 

Hybridity also multiplies species : this pro- 
cess is much more common in plants than ani- 
mals ; but it is often difficult to detect in the 
wild plants the real parents. Unless they are 
both found growing near the hybrid, and it has 
the traces of both forms, we may as safely 
ascribe it to a natural deviation of frame, call- 
ed Peloric if floral and generic. 

Some Eotanists have different ideas of Ge- 
nera, species, and varieties : their errors and 
my corrections will be found in the principles 
of my Floratelluriana. I merely recapitu- 
late here my ideas of them, deduced from 40 
years of botanical observations. 

Species include all the individuals perfectly 
alike in all their parts — Varieties are slight ca- 
sual deviations — Pinoles are permanent varie- 
ties, such as are called Breeds among ani- 
mals. 

Genera are the groups of species that have 
similar floral characters and sometimes a simi- 
lar habit. Whenever a species has different 
floral forms it must be a peculiar genus. 

Such are the natural distinctions of those 
two groups, any others must be unnatural and 
improper ! All species may have been varie- 
ties once, except the original types or ancestors 
of the genus, and all uctual varieties may be 
incipient species. 

My views of the natural method will be gi- 
ven in my Flora Telluriaisa, where 1 shall 
correct and improve my former classes, orders 
and families of 1815 in Analysis of Nature. 
I have adopted and studied the natural method 
since 1800, 1 have always tried to improve it. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

I have always been opposed to the Linnean 
system and its blunders ; but the natural me- 
thod has had so long, and has perhaps yet, so 
many anomalies, that unless they are rectified, 
the study of affinities will be impeded. Jus- 
sieu had a crowd of generxi incerta sedis, or 
annexed to orders without belonging thereto, 
which were a Dedalus of ambiguity. The mo- 
dern Decandole, Richard, Lindley, Agardh 
have partly improved this Labyrinth ; but the 
clue to guide us is now in our hands ! Let 
every genus that does not agree in general 
frame and characters be removed, and placed 
elsewhere, as I have done. When this is done 
and generally adopted we may hope to reach a 
perfect classification : while that of Lindley for 
instance, is as yet quite loose and inaccurate, 
as bad as Adanson or Necker's ; since one 
fourth of his genera do not agree to the com- 
mon characters ascribed, and some orders have 
none at all . . . 

This is the ambiguity and absurdity carried 
from Species and Genera to the National Or- 
ders ! unless restricted or exploded in all in- 
stances, we can have no correct nomenclature 
nor classification. What absurdity to have an 
order without definition., like the patched genera 
Gentiana and Convallaria for instance ! a 
false definition that does not apply to all 
the Genera or Species, is equal to no definition 
at all . . 

Our North American Botanists were very 
late in noticing the natural method, and even 
now hardly admit of it, or else without restric- 
tion on its defects. From 1802 to 1804 I was 
perhaps the only one that followed that new 
path. Barton, Muhlenberg, and others of that 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

period would not even listen to it. Correa 
alone began to give lectures on it towards 1816, 
I vainly tried to introduce it in 1817. Pursh, 
Elliot, Torrey, Nuttall, Eaton, Bigelow, &c. 
all wrote their works on the sexual plan. Ea- 
ton alone added thereto the orders of Jussieu 
to his manual ; yet he was amazed when Tor- 
rey pubhshed his edition of liindley ! Since 
he and Hooker have begun to open the path in 
England, Beck and Torrey have begun to fol- 
low, while a few others begin to incline to- 
wards it : yet Adanson had disclosed it since 
1763, and Robin Flora of Louisiana used it in 
1807. 

Its progress will be slow here, because it re- 
quires application and study, and my improve- 
ments require besides accuracy and perspicui- 
ty. It will be easier to follow the blunders of 
liindley as formerly those of Linneus without 
investigation. My own labors on families and 
genera will perhaps meet the fate of those of 
Adanson and Necker, and be denied belief or 
assent for half a century like theirs ; but the 
time will come at last to grant me justice, and 
admit me among the classical improvers of the 
science. 

Jealousy of my great labors and discoveries 
may influence some ; but I hope that real Bo- 
tanists ought always to be impartial. Torrey 
is my friend, although we differ in our views of 
Genera and Species, Nuttall has done so much 
already and has so much yet to bring forth 
from Origon, that he need not be jealous of my 
labors. Many other Botanists profess to value 
them. I know of no one that is my avowed foe 
like Dr. Harlan is for Zoology — I have been 
liberal and friendly to all, if they do not reci- 



INTRODUCTION. 2 1 

procate, it must be out of bad and improper 
feelings. 

I have had warm friends and patrons for 
awhile ; but I have been deprived of them all 
by death already, J. D. Clifibrd, Z. Collins, D. 
Clinton, Dr. Mitchill, Dr. Jackson, were such. 
May I meet similar new patrons in my old 
age! -h 

Although this Flora will exhibit me as a 
learned Botanist, accurate observer, and zeal- 
ous discoverer, it does not afford me the means 
of appearing as a Draftsman, Collector of spe- 
cimens, Medical Botanist, &c. for which I 
must refer to my other works. Medical Bota- 
ny with 100 figures, my Autikon Botanikon, 
sic. 

I have written my Botanical Works in 4 
languages, Latin, French, Italian and English ! 
I now write this entirely in English in order to 
make it available to all our Botanists ; but my 
Flora Telluriana will be partly in Latin, at 
least for generic and specific characters. 

It is usual for accurate Botanists to state the 
kind o^ botanical evidence that they can give, 
which is usually expressed by v. v. meaning- 
seen alive — V. s. seen dry, &c. but this may be 
very delusive since many plants seen alive are 
only seen in gardens and not in their natural 
state, or the floral characters have not been ex- 
amined. Greater accuracy should be required 
and I state at once that all the plants I describe 
have been met alive, and collected by me in 
their native soils, in bloom and seeds unless I 
otherwise state the facts ; whether seen with- 
out seeds, or only in gardens. 

As to dried or 'preserved plants, they may 
also have been with or without seeds ; always 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

with flowers however and carefully examined 
generically; although it is not always easy to 
see well the minute floral characters of dry 
specimens. As to the inside of the seeds, their 
fallacious anatomical structures never perplex 
me ; I leave them to Anatomists with the in- 
side of roots and fibres : microscopical observa- 
tions are always useless for practical descrip- 
tive Botany, as all genera and families have 
outward evident floral forms peculiar to each. 

When plants have not been seen actually 
alive or dry, I quote as usual the books, au- 
thors or figures, that have imparted their 
knowledge; but few such plants will however 
be mentioned here, this being rather intended 
as a collection of my own observations : yet in 
complete monographs or revised Genera it will 
be needful to compare all the species and facts. 
It is to be regretted that our botanists too of- 
ten neglect the labors of their colleagues, by 
not comparing all previous or proposed spe- 
cies : whereby they can only give us imperfect 
monographs. 

Severul authors have mistaken foreign 
plants of distant regions for our own. Many 
such are found in Thunberg, Gmelin, Loureiro, 
&,c. that are different species from Japan, 
Sibiria or Anam. Decandole has recommend- 
ed to compare again every plant deemed native 
of several remote regions, and I shall often do 
it. 



23 



FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA. 

BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY AND LOCALITIES. 

Botanical Geography has lately been much 
attended to since Wildenow, Decandole and 
Humboldt have written upon it. Dr. Picker- 
ing alone has specially written upon that of 
North America, and although I do not admit 
of all his conclusions, nor think his map quite 
correct, yet he has opened the way. 
* The Earth is divided into botanical regions, 
where a peculiar growth of trees and plants are 
found; these regions although sometimes well 
defined in Islands and Physical regions, must 
necessarily blend in large continents near their 
limits. 

Wildenow supposed that groups of moun- 
tains were the nucleus of these regions, and 
that the floras expanded "around; others think 
that mountains often divide the botanical as 
well as physical regions. In North America 
both seem to be partly the case. 

Decandole had only three botanical regions 
in North America, north of Mexico, the Atlan- 
'^lic or Apalachian extending to Florida and 
Missouri, 2d the Origonic or the Origon moun- 
tains and plains of the West. 3. the Boreal 
common to boreal Asia and Europe. Picker- 
ing has proved that following the level of the 
land, the Boreal or Canadian extends South 
over the Alleghany mountains, while the Mexi- 
can region extends North into Texas and Ark- 
ansas. 



24 BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Eaton has supposed that our Atlantic region 
was divided in two hy the Potomac, the Nor- 
thern, and the Southern that winds round the 
mountains to the far West including all the 
Western States. 

These are of course exclusive of the three 
great regions of the Southern parts, Mexico, 
Central America and the Antilles. 

I have rectified these views since 1832 by 
increasing our regions to seven; to which I 
have given the names of Boreal, Canadian, 
AUeghanian, Floridian, Louisianian, Texan 
andOrigonian: each of these is perfectly distinct 
and distinguished both by physical features and 
peculiar Genera of plants. 

1. Boreal Region, including the Polar re- 
*^ gion, Greenland, Iceland, Labrador, Hudson 
• Bay and New Sibiria. This wide region, is 

very similar to the Boreal parts of the Old 
Continent, Lapland and North Siberia, forming 
perhaps only one wide circle around the Arctic 
Pole. It is the poorest of all the American 
Floras, with very few trees and shrubs, chiefly 
evergreen, and with the lower classes of plants 
preponderating, such as Mosses, Lichens, Al 
gas, &.C. but few Fungi. The floral season is 
very short, hardly three months from June to 
August. 

2. Canadian Region. This forms a broad 
belt across the Continent including Nova Sco- 
tia, New England, Canada, the countries 
around the Lakes, and the vast lacustral plains 
of the West. It has spurs in the northern Al- 
leghanies, the Saranac, Taconick, and Kiska- 
nom mountains. It is distinguished by the pre- 
vailing Firs, Willows, and Birches, the Gene- 
ra Linttea, Diervilla, Parnassia- H^'^-- 



BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. 25 

Kibes, Coptls, JSemopanthes, Comariim, 
Caltha, &^c. a.nd an abundance of Mosses, Li- 
chens and Fungi, not however exceeding one 
half of the whole number The floral season of 
five months, from May to September. 

3. Alleghanian Region. This has for nu- 
cleus the Alleghany mountains of Pennsylva- 
nia, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, &c. called 
Apalachian south of Potomac and Wasioto 
or Cumberland to the West : this region winds 
all around East and West into the hilly or 
broken country. It is distinguished by the 
abundance of trees, oaks, radiate plants, fungi, 
grasses, leguminose, hypericines, with the pre- 
vailing genera Hicoria, JCalmia, Trilliutn, 
Azalea, Vitis, Rhododendron, Hydrangea, 
Heuchera, Lactuca, Solidago, Rosa, S^c. the 
Mosses and Lichens are yet abundant,but now 
form only a small proportion of the whole, while 
the Fungi are become about one third of the 
whole. It is remarkable that here the trees 
and shrubs although yet of the same Genera as 
in Europe are nearly all unlike in species. — 
Floral season from April to October. 

4. Floridian Region. This begins in the 
North by a narrow belt in the marshy and san- 
dy Islands or Shores, pine woods and swamps 
of Long Island and New Jersey, widening 
gradually in the plains of Virginia, Carolina, 
Georgia, ascending the hills and south Apala- 
chian mountains which run west into Alaba- 
ma, occupying the whole of Florida, Alabama, 
&c. \ It blends in South Florida with the An- 
tillian flora of Bahama and Cuba, in the moun- 
tains with the Alleghanian flora, and west with 
the Louisianian. It is distinguished by Mag 
nolias and Pines, Palms and Yucas : the pecu- 



26 BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

liar Genera Clethra, Fothergila^ PassiHora^ 
Chionanthus, Lantana, MarshaUia, Xerophy- 
lum, Pinkneya^ Halesia^ LeiopJiylum, Hudso- 
nia, &/C. with many species of Ilex, Ludwigia^ 
Rhexia, Viburnum, Lobelia, Slc. Here the 
Mosses, Lichens and Fungi greatly decrease, 
while the grasses, rushes, ferns, aroides, lilies 
and akin greatly increase. It is the richest of 
our Botanical regions in Species, and Vegeta- 
tion is unceasing, there are flowers in every 
month, even in January. 

5. Louisianian or Missourian Region. 
The actual state of Louisiana hardly belongs 
to this ; but the ancient Louisiana is the nu- 
cleus of it, extending into the plains of Tennes- 
see, Kentucky, Illinois, Arkansas, Missouri, 
and up into the vast plains of the Upper Mis- 
souri. The cradle of it appears to be the Ozark 
mountains. It is distinguished by the Pacan- 
tree, the Bowtree, tho Amorphas, the Planera, 
Cladrastis, peculiar Pavias and Poplars ; with 
abundance of Cacti and Ferns ; but scanty 
Mosses, Lichens and Fungi : with the peculiar 
Genera Miegia, Collinsia, JBellis, Leucospora, 
&c. Floral season from March to November. 

6. Texian Region. This extends over the 
wide plains between Louisiana and Mexico, 
and probably over New Mexico : the nucleus 
may be the Taos mountains ; botanical spurs 
extend into Arkansas and the Colorado Valley. 
It is very Httle known as yet, but the produc- 
tions are intermediate between Mexican and 
Louisianian, with abundance of Cactides and 
Canebrakes. The floral season lasts nearly the 
whole year as in Florida. 

7. Origon Region. This extends over the 
Origon mountains and the hilly country west 



BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHV. 27 

of it. We do not know it thoroughly as yet, 
but what we know of it, is very peculiar. We 
may hope that Nuttall will describe it botani- 
cally. It has perhaps several divisions, the 
mountains, sea shores, and new Albion or new 
California to the South. It bears the same 
^ botanical relation to Sibiria than the AUegha- 
nies do to Europe. It is distinguished by pecu- 
liar trees, Firs, Oaks, Maples, the singular 
Garrya tree, many species of Ribes, Lupimis^ 
Pentostemon, Cactus, Mimulus, &/C. with 
peculiar Genera Calochortus, Eutoca, Las- 
tJienia, CoUomia, Aegochloa, Lewisia, Clar- 
Ma, <Slc.— The Labiate, Hypericines, Grasses, 
Fungi and Mosses appear to be scanty. Lili- 
acea abound, but the Orchides are very few. 
The floral season extends from March to No- 
vember in New Albion, but is much shorter in 
the mountains and to the North. 

Besides the above great Regions of this Con- 
tinent, there are several other Local Regions, 
more confined in limits, but well distinguished 
by peculiar vegetation or growth of trees. The 
principal of these are 

1. The swampy pine region, where grow the 
Schubertia and Cupressus thyoides, from New 
Jersey to Louisiana, with many peculiar water 
plants. These swamps are unlike marshes by 
being sandy and having a clear yellow water. 

j^In the dry places prevail Pines, Hudsonia, &c. 

2. The Sandy Shore Regions all along the 
margin of our Sea from Long Island to Flori- 
da; Ilex and Myricas prevail, also shrubs, 
plants, with palms in the South. The rocky 
shores of the North are very unlike this. 

3. The Alpine Region or Summits of High 
mountains, where few trees are found, while 



28 BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

many peculiar plants grow only there. In the 
Alleghanies they partake of the Canadian flo- 
ra, and in the White mountains of the Boreal 
flora. 

4. The Prairie Regions of the West, with 
few trees, but a profusion of fine plants, Dode- 
catheons, Tradescantias, Helichroas, Gentians, 
Radiate flowers, &-c., some peculiar shrubs 
and hardly any Acotyle plant. There the flo- 
ral season begins in March or sooner as you go 
South. 

5. The Limestone Region of Florida, with a 
profusion of fine plants, Ludwigias, Rhexias, 
&c. and many peculiar shrubs. 

6. The Limestone Region of the Ohio, form- 
ing a bassin in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky ; 
it has a very scanty flora, few shrubs in the 
woods, no Kalmias nor Vacciniums, but among 
trees many Asiminas and Pavias, with abund- 
ance of social grasses or congregated plants. 

1. The Apalachian and Wasioto Region, or 
of the hills and mountains from Kentucky to 
Georgia : this has a distinct flora from the Al- 
leghanies and Florida shores, many Rhodo- 
dendrons, Azaleas, Magnolias, and a crowd of 
fine plants; many yet new in the Unaka or Iron 
mountains, the northern nucleus of it, as well 
as in the peninsula of Florida, Alabama, &c. 

Besides these great localities I will add se- 
veral smaller localities of great botanical inte- 
rest by the numerous new plants which they 
have afforded me. Every botanist knows some 
similar place ; but those which I may boast to 
have discovered or first well explored deserve 
to be commemorated. They are 

1. The neighborhood of Quaker Bridge and Cedar Bridge in the centre 
of the Pinelands of New Jersey. — 2. The neighborhood of Mullica Hill in 
New Jersey — 3. The sea Islands of New Jersey. — 4. The source of the river 



BOTAMCAL GEOGRAPiiy. 39 

Delaware in New'York at Utsianlha Lake in Oqiiage monntains.— The Kis- 
kartom or Catskill mountains of New York.— 6. The Dismal Swamp of De- 
laware. — 7. Sherman \alley m the Alleghanies. — 8. The Cotocton moun- 
tain.sof Maryland and Virginia cut through by the Potomac— 9. Valley of 
Loyalhannah in west Pennsylvania.— 10. Falls of the river Potomac.— 11. 
Falls of the river Cumberland in Wasioto hills of east Kentucky — 12. The 
serpentine rocks of Chester and Maryland.— 13. The Wiconisco, Tuscarora 
and Central mountains of ihe Alleghanies. — 14. The summit of the Allegha- 
nies in Marj'land. — 15. The Cacapon mountains of Virginia. — 16. The prai- 
ries of Bigbarren river in Kentucky. — 17. The Wasioto Hills and mountains 
of Kentucky, or Knob Hills, with their knoblicks.— 18. The banks of the 
Wabash, and glades near them. — 19. The neck of land between the mouths 
of Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, with the glades of South Kentucky 
and Tennessee. — The shores of Lake Erie near Sandusky. 

I hardly need add the far famed fall of Nia- 
gara, the head and falls of the Hudson, the Ta- 
conick and Mattawan mountains, and in fact 
every ridge of the Alleghanies. They are all 
interesting botanical spots to fisit; but in or- 
der to detect all their plants, you must visit 
them at least three times, in the Spring, Sum- 
mer and Fall, or every month from May to Oc- 
tober, and even some plants of short floral du- 
ration may then escape you. How can we then 
hope to know all our productions, except gra- 
dually and by repeated explorations. I have 
never been able to meet the Hainiltonia, nor 
Centunculiis, nor Parnassia in full bloom, and 
many rare plants were only found once by me 
during 24 years of exploration. 

It is a mistake to imagine that all our plants 
are sylvan or nemorose, because forests abound 
in our Continent, The plants growing under- 
neath the shade of trees are not even the major 
number, and we must look for many in mea- 
dows, glades, fields, swamps, sea shores, banks 
of rivers, brakes, (these are peculiar places in 
woods or glades where ferns, canes or grasses 
prevail,) salt licks, rocky hills and cliffs, moun- 
tains tops, near springs and brooks. 

The distribution of the plants in these loca- 
lities, and the distribution of peculiar tribes 



30 BOTANICAL GEOORAPHV. 

over the whole continent, would form an inte- 
resting theme, which although partly conjec- 
tural and never quite exact, might lead to phi- 
losophical reflections and deductions. Some 
problems remain to be solved on the subject. 
Why are our North American trees chiefly of 
European and Siberian Genera, but unsimilar 
in species.'' 

Why are our shrubs still more dissimilar both 
in genera and species ? 

Why are our grasses and cyperacea so often 
similar in species, while the other monocotyle 
plants are all different? 

Why are the minute and simple Acotyle 
plants, such as Algas, Lichens and Fungi, near- 
ly identic in the two Continents ? 

Why are Mosses and Hepatica so often si- 
milar, while the ferns are less so, and offer 
many new forms.'' 

Why are many similar forms offered by the 
tribes of Ranunculacca, Labiate, Juncides, Ro- 
sacea, Polygonides, Lysimachides, Veronicides, 
Borragines, Bicornes, Caryophyles, Amenta- 
cea ? &/C. 

Why are so many dissimilar genera and spe- 
cies found among the Violacea, Irides, Aspho- 
delides, Orchides, Gentianides, Apocynea, 
Corymbifera, Hypericea,Malvacea, &c. of both 
continents ? 

Why are some families quite lacking in N. 
America ? Such as Rutacea, Guttifera, Pro- 
tacea, Epacrides, &c. 

Why do the tropical genera so seldom extend 
into Florida ? 

Why is the vegetation of Boreal America to- 
tally unlike that of Austral America.'' 



BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. 31 

Why have we so few Crucifera, UmbelUfera 
and Narcissides, compared to Europe and Af- 
rica ? 

Why are the two shores of North America, 
east and west, so unHke to each other in vege- 
tation ? 

These queries and others of a similar nature 
may exercise the ingenuity of speculative Bo- 
tanists, or amuse their idle hours; but they are 
facts and as such deserve our notice. 

Another interesting study is that of our na- 
turahzed plants. We have so many that they 
appear to invade the fields and drive out the na- 
tive plants in some instances ; but it is by no 
means certain but that some deemed natura- 
lized, were not really native. Such at least 
must have been the case with Verbascum thap- 
siis^ Hypericum perforatum, Dauciis carota, 
Anthemis cotula, Origarm'm vulgare, &c. 1 
gave a long list of the naturalized plants in my 
dissertation of 1808, some have since disappear- 
ed, while others have appeared instead out of 
gardens. But few American plants have be- 
come spontaneous in Europe, Phytolaca decan- 
dra and Cenotis canadensis are mentioned as 
such ; but we have received several hundreds, 
besides some few from the Antilles and inland 
Decandole has properly stated that naturalized 
plants even when not spontaneous, but exten- 
sively cultivated in the open air ought to be ad- 
ded to every general flora, and Eaton has fol- 
lowed that advice with us. 

It appears that even previous to the discovery 
of America by Columbus, our Indian tribes had 
received or imported from abroad or the South, 
several trees and plants. I have at least evi- 
dently ascertained historically that this was 



32 BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

the fact with the Maize, Mayzea cerealis (Zea 
mays of L) the Orange tree, the Chicasa 
plumb Primus angustifolia^ the Catalpa tree, 
the Peach tree, and the holy plant Nelumbiurn 
luteum! besides several kinds of Beans, Tobac- 
co, Potatoes, Squashes, Pumpkins and Melons 
that were cultivated by our native tribes before 
Columbus or at least the invasion of Soto be- 
tween 1540 and 1543, and subsequent French 
and English colonies. 

The number of Genera and Species of each 
botanical region, and their proportion of Trees, 
Shrubs, Plants, Herbs, Grasses, Ferns, Mosses, 
Lichens, Fungi, &c. is not only variable in 
each, but difficult to fix, owing to the great 
number that are common to several blending on 
the limits. In general the Trees, Shrubs, Ferns 
and Grasses, increase in number from North to 
South, while the Acotyle plants diminish ; but 
Fungi are most numerous in the Alleghanian 
region, by Schweinitz account of them they 
nearly equal the Phenogamous plants. 

However all the calculations heretofore made 
were erroneous, depending on the peculiar 
knowledge of the writer and his limited views 
of Genera. Forster said they were only 1200! 
in 1771, Eaton in 1833 said exactly 5267! 
Torrey about 8000 ! I say 15000 and am near- 
er the truth : at least 10,000 are Vascular 
plants in the whole of North America, north of 
Mexico, with about 5000 cellular plants, where- 
of nearly 300 are trees or palms. Our largest 
Flora, the Floridian contains 6000 species at 
least, while the smallest, the Boreal, has hard- 
ly 1000 species, and no more exist in the Lime- 
stone region of Kentucky. The number of Ge- 
nera will depend on the reformed view and cor- 
rection of them. 



MONOGRAPHS, 

WITH NEW GENERA SPECIES AND 
VARIETIES OF VASCULAR PLANTS 
CHIEFLY. 

ABALON Adanson. Veratrun L. Heloni' 
as Alton and all our Botanists. Melanthimn 
Walter, Diclinotrys Raf. meaning two beds 
racemes. 

Dioical. Corolla Cpetals linear, Stamens 6 
filiform longer, anthers bilobed adnate. Pistil- 
late flowers with 6 rudiments of stamens, pis J 
til Sgrooved, 3stigmas sessile reflexed. Cap- 
sule ovate Sgrooved 3celled, cells with many 
seeds angled acute. Habit, Caulescent, leaves 
scattered, flowers in long racemes. 

Adanson good name meaning not in a ball, 
was applied to the Helonias of L. as this Ge- 
nus must certainly be divided, this good old 
name ought to prevail, unless mine of Diclino- 
trys is prefered. Linneus made many blunders 
on this plant, uniting to Veratrum and calling 
it V. luteum altho' the flowers are white. We 
know only one Sp. as yet ; but it has many vari- 
eties or deviations. The divided stems are 
found so far apart, that no fecundation can take 
place. The sterile plants are more common 
than the others. This pistilate become fertile 
at a great distance from them. 

Abalon (or Diclinotrys) albiflorum Raf. 
1817. Melanthiiim dioiciun Walter, Helonias 
lutea ! Aiton &;C. Hel. dioica Mx. Pursh, 
Elliot, Torrey, Beck, Eaton .... I 

Very smooth, stem angular, leaves cuneate 
lanceolate, subacute, enerve : raceme cylindri" 
cal, pedicels short, petals linear obtuse. 

5. 



34 ABALON. 

Varieties and deviations 1. Pumilutn,6 or 8 
inches, leaves narrow, linear above. Mts Alle- 
ghany, rare. 

2. Sylvaticum, large, bipedal, low^er leaves 
broader and thick, cuneate nearly obtuse : 
crowded on the stem. In woods. 

3. Serpentarium, raceme elongate flexuose 
like a Snake. 

4. Spicatum, flowers nearly sessile forming 
a long spike, the pistillate flowers remote 
Kentucky .... 

5. Obovatum, radical leaves petiolate obovate 
nervose, obtuse, stem leaves remote cuneate 
few obtuse. Alabama and Florida : perhaps a 
species, fertile flowers very remote. 

Flowers white, the pistillate greenish not so 
crowded — found from Maine to Missouri and 
Floridas, in meadows, glades and woods. 
Root tuberose premorse, medical, see my med- 
ical flora. 

Figures. Autikon Raf. 1 to 5. 

ABAMA of Adanson. His good Genus 
was wrongly named Tofielda by Hudson ; but 
some American Sp. united to it, being distinct, 
I called them Conradia or Leptilix in Neog. 
1825. Nuttal has named another Genus Con- 
radia in 1834. I therefore restore the Aba- 
ma for our Tofieldas and thus reform the 
characters. 

Abama. Cahx small 3dentate. Corolla 6- 
parted obtuse alternate longer. Stamens 6fili- 
form on the corolla and opposite. Pistil one 
conical 3angular. 3 Styles spreading short, 
stigmas capitate. One capsule 3celled, 3val- 
ved, valves bifid above, cells with 2 or more 
seeds — Habit leaves ensiform, flowers white 
racemose, peduncles commonly triflore. — Con- 



ABAMA. 35 

taining 2 Sub-genera 1. leptilix Raf. Caules- 
cent, petals broader, capsule 3angular, cells 
two seeded — 2 Trianthum Nuttal, Stemless 
petals narrow, capsule globose, cells with many 
terete caudate seeds, 

ToFiELDA Subgenus Paltri3ia Raf, Differs 
from Abama, by petals equal, stamens longer 
subulate, dilatated at the base. Styles none or 
very short, stigmas sessile or nearly so, flat, 3 
distincts pistils and capsules, gibbose, opening 
inside, few seeds angular curved. Stemless 
flowers almost spiked. This applies to our 2 
species : the European are, T palustris ^ hor* 
ealis. see Tofielda. 

Narthecium Smith. No calix, corolla of 
perigone 6parted spreading persistent. Stam. 
6 hirsute, pistil one Sangular, one style stigma 
Sdentate. Capsul triangular Scelled many 
seeds caudate. Type N. ossifragum and one 
American Sp. 

Therefore the Abama with the capsule of 
Narthecium has the calix of Tofielda: the 
Narthecium of Jussieu which is the Tofielda 
has 6 pistils, stigmas and capsules. Decandolc 
ascribes to Tofielda a capsule with 3 or 6 cells ! 
much confusion arose from the rarity of those 
plants and incomplete descriptions. 

1. Abama (Leptilix) scabra Raf. Tofielda pu^ 
bens Elliot, Melanlhium racemosum Walter. 
Stem naked above glandular rough, leaves ensi- 
form acute smooth, upper small, peduncles as long 
as the flowers 2 to 4 fasciculate, capsule 3gone. 
In Carolina and Alabama wet pines. Root 
perennial tuberose. 

Stem. 1 or 2 feet, flowers green tipt with pur- 
ple, estival, petals lanceolale and obovate. 

2. Abama (Triantha) pubens Raf Narthe- 



36 - ABBOTIA. 

clum Mx. Anthericum caliculatum Gronovius. 
Tofielda puhescens Nuttal (fee. Scape pubes- 
cent raceme obloni^ interrupted, capsule globose, 
leaves ensiform — From Delaware to Carolina, 
rare; flowers greenish white, petals linear cu- 
neate. Found in Virginia by me. Figure of both 
Autikon 6 and 7. — 

The other 2 species called Nartliecium by 
Mx. Tofielda by Persoon, and all our botanists, 
are unknown to me ; but very distinct, and per- 
haps each the type of another subgenus, since 
they appear to differ more by the flowers than 
the leaves. 

3. A. pusiLLA Raf. smooth, leaves very short, 
scape filiform, flowers few nearly sessile, calix 
separate from the corolla, capsule globose. — 
Lake Mistassin. Subgenus Desmipus Raf. 

4. A. GLUTiNosA Raf. Glutinose, stemless, 
capsule ovoidal double of corolla. — Lake Mis- 
tassin. Perhaps a Leptilix. 

ABBOTIA Raf. very distinct from Triglo- 
chin by 3 Stamens only, more akin to Triste- 
mon or the triandrons Sp of Juncus. See those 
Genera. Named after Abbot the Botanical and 
entomological painter. 

Calix or perigone simple 3 or 4-leaved, mem- 
branous, deciduous. Anthers sessile, common- 
ly 3 seldom 1 or 2, Pistils 3 or 4 cohering. 
Stigmas sessile glandular cleft. Capsules 3 or 4 
gibbose one seeded, united by spungy mem- 
branes like false cells (Elliot) — Stemless, leaves 
linear, flowers racemose. 

1. A. FiLiFORMis Raf. Triglochin triandrum 
Mx. Elliot and all our Botanists — Leaves fili- 
form, equal to scape, flowers clustered on the 
spike and on short pedicels, capsules gibbose 
half connected. — In Carolina and Florida in 



ABIES. 



37 



marshes. Scape terete 6 inches, flowers oft with a 
fourth part. — Figures. Autikon Raf. 8— Ic. N. 
Sp. 1. Seen dry. 

2. A. PALusTRis Raf. Triglochin palustre 
L &.C. Leaves hnear shorter than scape, race- 
me slender, flowers remote erect, capsules con- 
nected Hnear equal to pedicels — Found on 
Lake Erie, pedal, leaves very narrow obtuse, 
scape terete — Figure Autikon Raf 9. Seen 
alive. 

3. A. PUMiLA Raf Triglocliin harrelieri 
Loesel flora gallica, not in Fersoon nor Decan- 
dole — Leaves linear thick equal to scape, race- 
me 4 or 5 flore, capsules connected linear-oblong 
longer than pedicels — Found on Lake Cham- 
plain, annual, 2 or 3 inches high, leaves nearly 
convex beneath, obtuse.— Fig. Autikon Raf 10. 
Ic. N. Sp. 2. seen alive. 

ABIES. This good Genus of fine trees dis- 
tinguished by Tournefort, Adanson, Jussieu 
and all the correct botanists, was wrongly uni- 
ted to Pinus by Linneus. The Firs are not 
Pines ! the habit is very different, and Jussieu 
has given a long description of the peculiar 
fructification. The region of Oregon has afford- 
ed many new Firs, well described by Lewis in 
1812 and in Atlantic Journal. 

1. A. TRiGONARaf 1832. Bark and branches 
scaly, leaves densely scattered, petiolate tri- 
gone acuminate and stiff".— In Oregon, gigantic, 
200 to 300 feet high, trunk 40 feet around, 
leaves 3-fourths of an inch long, one tenth 
wide. Gigantic Fir. 

2. A. HETEROPHYLA Raf 1832. Bark ri- 
mose, leaves distichal petiolate, very unequal, 
sulcate above, glaucous beneath ; cones termi- 
nal ovate flexible.— In Oregon, reaching 180 



38 ABIES. 

feet, leaves one fourth to one inch long, but all 
one twentieth wide. — OddleaJ Fir. 

3. A. AROMATicA Raf 1832. Branches bul- 
late balsamiferous, leaves densely scattered 
forming 3 rows, sessile lanceolate obtuse, flexi- 
ble sulcate and shining above, gibbose beneath. 
— In Oregon, reaching 100 feet, blisters on the 
branches filled with a fine aromatic balsam, 
leaves very small one eighth of an inch long, 
one sixteenth wide. Aromatic Fir, 

4. A. MicROPHYLA Raf 1832. Bark rimose, 
branches not bullate, leaves densely scattered 
forming 3 rows, sessile acute sublanceolate. — 
In Oregon, reaching 150 feet high, like the last, 
but yielding no balsam, leaves still more min- 
ute, only one-twelfth of an inch long, one 24th 
wide, wood white and tough. Scaly Fir. 

5. A. MUCRONATA Raf 1832. Bark scaly, 
branches virgate, leaves scattered very narrow, 
rigid and oblique, sulcate above, pale beneath: 
cones ovate acute, scales rounded nervose mucro- 
nate. — In Oregon, reaching 150 feet, leaves sub- 
balsamic, one inch long, one 20th wide, cones 
very large two 1-2 inches long. Large cone Fir. 

Var. palustris. Only 30 feet high, branch- 
es spreading. In swamps. 

6. A. FALCATA Raf 1832. Bark scaly, 
leaves in 3 rows, 2 rows upright, one row de- 
clinate falcate, all linear lanceolate with tri- 
gone petiols: cones fusiform obtuse at both 
ends. — On the sea shore of Oregon, rising only 
35 feet, leaves three 4ths of an inch long, one 
5th wide. Sickle Fir, 

Oi the Atlantic Firs we have 7 or 8 species, 
all called Pinus ! 

7. A. TAxiFOLiA Raf Pinus •) Lambert and 
Eaton. Yew leaf Fir. 



ABRUS. 



39 



Var patula Raf. Autikon 11. Branches 

spreading, leaves obtuse, entire hardly glauce- 

ous.— Cumberland mts. Spreading Fir. _ 

8. A. BALSA3I1FERA Michaux. Balsam Fir- 

9. A. FRASERi Raf. Pinus Pursh. Double 

Spruce Fir. 

10. A. CANADENSIS Mx. Common Spruce 

lir. 

11. A. NIGRA Raf. A. denticulata Mx. Pinus 
nigra. Aiton. Black SpruceFir. 

12. A. RUBRA Raf. Pinus Lambert. Red 
Spruee Fir. 

13. A. ALBA Mx. Pinus Lambert. White 
Spruce Fir. All these dwindle to dwarf vari- 
eties on the White mts. and in North Canada. 

ABRUS. This tropical Genus extends to 
Florida ; but our Sp. has not been described ; 
the A. precatorius is said to have 3 varieties 
with red, white and yellow seeds. They must 
be again compared, also, the Asiatic, AntiUian 
and Floridan plants. Linneus once mixt those 
plants with the Glycine. 

ABUTILON. Tournefort, Mahinda Dil- 
len, Sida Linneus &c. This good old Genus 
hardly preserved except by Adanson, is per- 
fectly distinct from Sida by the many truncate 
and 3 seeded capsides around a hollow in a 
stellate and campanulate form, 10 to 20 with as 
many styles, the Sida having only 5. There 
are many species of it ; not yet well distin- 
guished, perhaps all the multicapular Sidas of 
Linneus belong to it, or to the Genus Dia- 

desma. 

1. A. MOLLissiMUM Raf. A cordatum Med. 
flora. Autikon. 12. Soft like velvet, leaves or- 
bicular cordate acuminate, erose crenulate, 
no long petiols ; peduncles axillary pauciflore 



40 ABUTILOW. 

short, capsules 12-15 hairy bicorne 3 seeded. 
— Sida ahutilon L. and all the Botanists, but 
with many varieties, perhaps species ? all an- 
nual with small yellow flowers. 

Var paliistris. Stem 2 to 6 feet, leaves 
crenulate, peduncles triflore, 2 sterile. Swamps 
of Carolina. Vernal. Elliot, 

Var. ruderale. Stem 2 to 6 feet, leaves 
nearly entire, peduncles 3-5flore. Common 
among rubbish, in woods and old dry fields 
from New England to Kentucky. Estival. 

Var. unijlorum Raf. Stem pedal or less, 
simple, few leaves, nearly entire, peduncles 
uniflore, or only one flower. In waste grounds, 
rare. 

Whether our American varieties are identic 
with those of Europe, Sibiria, India &,c. is 
doubtful: the European has stem 5 feet high, 
large entire leaves, peduncles uniflore, calix 
canaliculate &.c. 

2. A. DECARPUM Raf. 8ida ahutiloides Ja- 
quin. Lavatera ! Americana L — Tomentose, 
leaves cordate acuminate, crenate, peduncles 
uniflore as long aspetiols, 10 capsules 3 seeded. 
--In South Florida, Stem 3-4 pedal. Hardly 
different from some of the varieties above, but 
capsules less on longer peduncle. Mistaken 
for a Lavatera and deemed fruticose by Lin- 
neus, a double blunder. 

3. A. CRispuM Raf Sida crispa L. ifec, ap- 
pears to differ from the others by white flowers. 
a multilocular inflate cristate fruit: certainly 
no Sida : Michaux and Elliot did not s ee it, 
must be examined again. It probably belongs 
to Cristaria. Leaves oblong cordate, acu- 
minate and crenate. In Florida and Baha- 
ma. 



ACAKIA. 41 

The Sida rhombifolia, S. stellata, S. vir- 
gata^ S. cardajiisea, must belong to Dia- 
desma, which see. The authors enumerate 
120 species of this Genus, improperly blended. 
Anoda and Cristaria of Cavanilles have been 
properly separated ; while Napea of Linneus 
has been very improperly united to it. Other 
Genera are hidden in the jumbled Sidas. The 
true Ahutilon has calix not 5angular, nor pe- 
tals obliquate as in Dladesma and Sida, 

ACAKIA Adanson who spelt Akakia, but 
mispelt Acacia by Wildenow, which being pro- 
nounced Acasia becomes blended with Cassia ! 
One of the many genera blended with Mimo- 
sa by Lin. We know already 14 Sp. of Mi- 
mosas in N. America, which may as well be 
enumerated here at once. They are rare 
plants in herbals, because difficult to dry, the 
leaves falling in the process. Eaton has only 
7 species. 

1. AcAKiA FARNESiANA Wildcnow Slc. In 
Louisiana, native. 

2. A. JULiBRisiN. W. native of Asia, but 
naturalized in Carohna, Virginia and as far 
north as Philadelphia in gardens. Beautiful 
tree 20 to 25 feet high, splendid when in bloom. 
Pods flat as in Darlingtonia, probably a partic- 
ular genus. Julihrisin arhorca R. 

3. A. LUTEA Leavenworth, (Eaton.) In Al- 
abama, pods ovate, differ from farnesiana by 
unarmed, folioles numerous and pod ovate. 

4. A. cooLEYi Eaton. A. anomyma ! To- 
rey W. pi. 106. Leaves bipinnate, very irrita- 
ble, flowers capitate white, legumes long li- 
near smooth. In Arkansas. 

AcAKiA has the pods unilocular and bivalve, 
Ftrait. Amosa of Necker. 



42 ACAKIA. 

Mimosa has pods multilocular by transverse 
partitions. 2. Sp. 

Darlimgtonia Dec. pods unilocular bivalve, 
flat often falcate. 5 Sp. 

ScHRAJ^KiA. Wild, pods unilocular quadri- 
valve. 2 Sp. 

5. Mimosa pudica L. which is said by Bar- 
tram to grow spontaneous in Louisiana, deemed 
a weed ; but perhaps it is another Sp. see fl 
JLud 445. 

6. Mimosa chionacantha Raf. fl. lud. 331. 
M. ehurnea Robin. Perhaps not even a Mi- 
mosa, altho' the fruit is similar ; but the flowers 
are different. 

M. pudica typical Sp, has cal. trifid, no co- 
rolla, 3 or 4 stamens; but this Sp. cal. and 
corolla irregular, many stamens : therefore 
type of another Genus Eburnax, Raf fruti- 
cose cespitose aculeate, spines gemimate diver- 
gent strait snowy lucid, heads of flowers glo- 
bose, pods strait terete glutinose. — Sandy 
fields of Florida and Louisiana. 

7. Darlingtonia glandulosa Dec. Mimosa 
Mx. Acacia W &c. Pods strait. 

8. D. iLLiNOENSis Dec. Mimosa Mx. Acacia 
hrachyloha W. Mg. &c. The Acacia mia- 
onensis of Don & Mg. Cat, is perhaps this Sp. 
also, and their A, divaricata of Carolina the 
glandulosa ; both undescribed, but made out 
distinctly by Mg. I found at the falls of the 
Cumberland R. in Kentucky, one of these, but 
without flower nor seed in September. 

9. D. INTERMEDIA Torrcy W. pi. 107, good 
description, copied by Eaton, on Arkansas R. 

10, D. BREViFOLiA Raf. Herbaceous, inerme, 
stem 4angular striated, leaves very short bipin- 
nate by 3 pairs of 10 to 12 folioles oblong 



ACALYPHA. 43 

acute pubescent ; pods unequal linear contor- 
ted, end hooked. — In West Louisiana and 
Texas, small plant, minute leaves and flowers 
in peduncled head. Figure in Autikon rare. 14. 

11. D. ViRGATA Raf. fl. lud. 444. Acacia. 
Mimosa Virgata Bartram. Stem erect, 
branches virgate, leaves bipinnate ; pods ob- 
long on long peduncles, and lunate broad flat 
contorted. — On the shores of Florida, Herba- 
ceous perennial, flower of a pale greenish yel- 
low. Omitted by all our botanists. 

12. ScHRANKiA Wild. Nuttal wrongly says 
only one species known ! Eaton joins to it the 
M. sensitiva of the hot houses ! the type is the 
M. quadrivalvis of Linneus, which includes se- 
veral Sp. of which I give two. — 

13. S. UNCINATA W. M. intsia Walter, M 
horridula Mx. Prickles hooked, branches an- 
gular, leaves bipinnate, peduncles geminate, 
pods oblong (Elliot) linear terete (Mx.) prick- 
ly — Virginia to Florida. Well described by 
Elliot, flowers purple, vernal. 

14. S. 3IEXICANA Raf. M. 4:-valvis L. Hous- 
ton fig. Prickles hooked, branches quadrangu- 
lar, leaves bipinnate, partial ternate, pedun- 
cles axillary, pods linear subulate 4 angular 
prickly. — In Mexico sea shores, and probably 
in Texas. 

ACALYPHA of Linneus, Cupameni of 
Adanson. Genus well known and natural, 
well described by the authors, who have adopt- 
ed the good linnean name, rather than the ma- 
labaric name of Adanson. It is a tropical and 
Asiatic Genus extending to North America. 
Persoon has 38 Sp. (Linneus had only 5) and 
there are more, since only two arc admitted of 
N. A. out of the whole. I have ascertained 9 at 



44 ACALYPHA. 

least. Being an unsightly Genus, it is neglected by 
the Botanists; but many other Sp. exist per- 
haps in Florida and the South: few of them 
know well their 2 species, and blend them con- 
tinually ' in herbals, having united 3 species in 
A. Virginica. All have alternate leaves. 

1. A. VIRGINICA L. or A. CRENULATA Raf. 

Stem erect, nearly simple, pilose ; leaves longer 
than petiols, oblong-lanceolate, crenate obtuse 
pubescent punctate : flowers axillary few mon- 
oical, shorter than petiols, involucre crenate. — 
From New England to Carolina. Pedal and 
annual, leaves small uncial. Seen alive. Esti- 
val. Capsule hispid. 

Figures. Autikon. Raf. 21. 

2. A. BREviPEs Raf. Hardly pubescent, 
stem erect angular simple; leaves on very 
short petiols, narrow lanceolate, acute, nearly 
entire: flowers axillary, few monoical, involu- 
cre laciniate. — N. Jersey to Alabama and Ken- 
tucky. Annual 3 to 6 inches high. The A. 
virginica of many Botanists. Seen alive since 
1804. Estival, capsule hispid. 

Figures. Autikon. Raf 22. 

Var. Linearis. Leaves ijearly linear and en- 
tire. 

Var. puhescens^ stem and petiols hairy, leaves 
lanceolate, A. Virginica Michaux. 

3. D. DivARicATA Raf. Pubescent, branches 
opposite divaricate ; leaves on short petiols, 
ovate obtuse crenate ; flowers axillary few mo- 
noical, equal to petiols, involucres sessile, laci- 
niate. Virginia, Kentucky &.c. annual spread- 
ing 1 or 2 feet, Estival, seen alive. 

A, Virginica of some Botanists. Capsule 
hispid. 

Figures. Autikon Raf. 23 



ACALYPHA. 45 

4. A. RHOMBoiDEA Raf. nearly smooth, stem 
virgate nearly simple ; leaves on long petiols 
ovate rhomboidal, acute, serrate ; Involucre pe- 
dicellate, laciniate, shorter than petioles, flow- 
ers monoical caps, hispid. — Pennsylvania to 
Ohio, Alleghanies &.c. annual, estival, pedal. 

A. caroUniana of Michaux and all our Bo- 
tanists except Walter and Elliot. Eaton says 
Darlington was the first to find it North ; but 
Muhlenberg and I found it in 1802, deemed 
then the same as the next. 

Figures. AutikonRaf 24, Lamark tab 780. 

5. A. CAROLiNiANA Walter, Elliot. Stem 
strait hairy, leaves on long petiols, oval lance- 
olate 3 or 5 nerved, pilose, acuminate, serrate, 
base subcordate, spikes axillary and extra, mo- 
noical, involucres sessile laciniat©, capsules 
echinate. — Carolina and Florida. Annual, Es- 
tival. Leaves large 2 or 3 inches, involucre 
small, spikes elongate 2-4 inches : totally dif- 
ferent from last, this might be called A. echina- 
ta. Elliot was doubtful of the Genus. 

6. A. URTiciFOLiA Raf. Stem erect angular 
grooved smooth ; leaves ample ovate acute on 
long pubescent petiols, base acute, serrate, tri- 
nerve with a few hairs : flowers axillary mono- 
ical, 2-3 involucres laciniate or palmate, ciliolate, 
capsules scrobiculate or dotted, smooth. In 
West Kentucky and Tennessee, discovered in 
1818. Sesquipedal, estival, annual. Near the 
last, but smooth, leaves with only a few ad- 
pressed hairs above, flowers not in spikes, few, 
and capsules with sunken dots. Seen alive. 

Figure Autkon Raf. 25. 

7. A. DiGYNEiA Raf. fl. Louis. 369. Stem 
herbaceous ramose tomentose, leaves petiolate, 
oblong lanceolate, dentate, villose : involucres 



46 ACANTHUS. 

flat ciliate, 2 pistillate flowers on the peduncle 
of the staminate flower. — In Louisiana, stem 
2 feet, flowers axillary only 3, authers almost 
in a spike. No figure. 

8. A. FRUTicuLosA Raf. fl. Louis. 368. Shrub- 
by, branches divaricate, rufous tomentose, 
leaves petiolate ovate dentate : involucres invo- 
lute unequally dentate, a single pistilate and 
staminate flowers. — In Louisiana, stem 2 feet, 
with many slender branches, flowers axillary 
geminate. No figure. 

These two last species neglected by our Bo- 
tanists, are very distinct and approximate to 
the tropical species. Linneus states his A, 
virginica to grow in Jamaica and Ceylon, 
quoting the figures of Brown and Plukenet ; 
they must apply to other kinds, which may be 
called 

9. A. JAMAicENsis Raf. Fruticose, leaves 
ovate-lanceolate longer than petiols, serrate, 
scabrous: Spikes axillary, involucre multifid 
(Lin.) but cordate crenate (Brown) — In Ja- 
maica and perhaps in Florida, shrub 4 to 5 
feet high. See Brown, Lunan and Jamaica au- 
thors. Very different from all ours, perhaps 2 
Sp.there. 

10. A. ZEYLANICA Raf. In Ceylon, certainly 
more distinct yet, but I have no materials at 
hand on it. 

ACANTHUS of Lin. Genus foreign to N. 
America, the following doubtful species may be 
a Pedicularis. 

A. RUBENS, Raf fl. Louis. \ 104. Leaves 
inerme soft, clasping, broadly sinuate. — In 
Louisiana near New Orleans ! A. mollis Ro- 
bin. Stem 3 to 4 feet, flowers pale red. 
^ Var Minor smaller, leaves deeper sinuate, 
flowers remote 



L.. '' ■ " ACER. 47 

ACER ; pronounce Aker not Aser. Of the 
useful maples, I hardly need give a Monograph, 
as they are so well known, and the G. Negun- 
dium is now separated, except by Eaton and 
such incorrect botanists. Yet some Sp. are not 
yet well settled, Nuttal unites the A. glahrum 
with A. circinatum Pursh : the A. coccineutn 
Mg. is only a variety of A. ruhrum; manySp. 
are blended as A, sacharinum because they 
produce sugar. 

A singular blunder has prevailed for this 
Genus. All trees are feminine in Latin, what- 
ever be the gender of the generic name : thus 
we say Quercus alba, Salix nigra, Lirioden- 
dron tulipifera <fec. but in some neutral names 
like this we make the species neutral also ! I 
never could find a botanist or latin scholar to ex- 
plain the cause or propriety of this contradiction. 

See Michaux, Elliot, Nuttal, Eaton Slc. for 
the species ; but I may present a better view of 
them divided into six sub Genera. 

I. EvoTRiuM Raf. Polygamous. Calix 5 fid, 
petals 5, stamens 8, fruits smooth flowers in 
racemes, leaves lobed, A, tstriatum, 2. A, spica- 
turn. 

II. Sacharodendron Raf. Polygamous. Cal. 
5fid bearded, no petals? Stamens 6 to 10, fruits 
smooth, flowers fasciculate, leaves lobed. 3. A. 
sacharinum, 4 A. harhaturn, 5 A, nigrnm, 6 
A. circinatum, Pursh glahrum, Torey. 

III. Clinotrox (old name) Polygamous. Cal. 
petaloid smooth 8-12 parted, no petals, stamens 
4 to 6, with a globular gland at the base of each, 
fruits smooth, flowers agregate with a scaly in- 
volucre, leaves lobed. 7. A. ruhrum, and the 
Var. Coccineum Mg. 

IV.Eriocarpum Rvif. Polygamous. Cal. mem- 



48 ACER. 

branous 5 toothed, no petals, stamens 4 to 6 
without glands, fruit hairy, flowers glomerate, 
leaves palmate or angular. 8 A. dasycarpum, 
and a N. Sp. from Oregon. 

9. A. viRGATUM Raf. many stems and branch- 
es virgate, leaves on long petiols, rounded an- 
gular crenate acute. — Mentioned by Lewis and 
Clarke as a small white maple, bark white : 
perhaps another Var of A. circinatum, but our 
white maple is the dasycarpum. Seen dry, 
without flowers. 

V. Negundo or Negundium Raf 1808. Dec. 
Beck. Dioical, without complete flowers. Cal. 
minute 4-5 dentate, no petals, anthers 4 to 5 
sessile, fruit smooth, flowers racemose pendu- 
lous, leaves pinnate or ternate. 10. A. or N. 
fraxinifolmm,\en.\es ternate and pinnate, fo- 
lioles unequallyjdentate, the lasttrilobed. — 11 A. 
or N. TRiFOLiATUM Raf. fl. Tex. 8. leaves ter- 
nate, folioles ovate oblong entire, smooth, acute, 
the last Sdentate. — In Texas and Arkansas, 
branches green, flowers 4androus. Seen dry. 
figure Autikon rare. Ic. N. Sp. — 12 A. or N. 
lobatum Raf. leaves nearly simple, triparted or 
trilobed, sublaciniate. Apalachian Mts. Seen 
alive, figure Autikon rare. Ic. N. Sp. 

VI. Sphendamus Raf. (old name) Dioical, 
Cal. 6 parted, no petals, stamens 9, long hairy, 
fruits hairy ? flowers in erect racemes, leaves 
digitate. 13. A. ^nacrophylum Pursh. leaves 
digitate hairy beneath, segments trilobed, re- 
pand dentate. In Oregon, and another N. Sp. 
or Var. 14. A. palmatum Raf. leaves wide 
palmate, 5parted, smooth, segments 3 or 5 fid, 
lobed and dentate. On the R. Oregon, leaves 
on long petiols equal to leaves, they are broader 
than long, 12 inches wide, 8 long. A tree 40 
feet high. Seen dry. fig. Ic. N. Sp. 



ACER., 49^ 

By Hooker account the Sp'fendamtis or A. 
fnacrofjhijhim has Ca!. smooth oval, 5 petals 
obovate, 10 Stamens hairy at base, flowers yel- 
low fragrant. He ha^ properly described the 
A. circinatiim and it must form a 7th Subgenus, 
as follow. 

VII. Antadenium Raf flowers corymbose 
trioical polygamous Cal. 5[id hirsute, 5 oetals 
crisp linear, carnose disk, 5 glands opposite to 
petals and one pistil in fertile flowers, 8 Sta- 
mens and 2 pistils in sterile flowers. 

Our Maples present then many anomalies in 
their flowers, and are only united by their two 
winged fruit. They form now a peculiar fa- 
mily, akin to the Frarlnus. These Sections 
will soon become as many Genera of it ; they 
must be compared with the European and Asia- 
tic Sp. 

ACER-OTIS Raf 1817 meaning Ears 
without horns, bad because compound of 2 
other genera, a tree and a bird : Same as 
ACER-ATEs Elliot 1820 (no horns) quite as bad, 
derived from Acer, and there is another Aceras 
beside^ among Orchidea, 3 mistaken names! 
I have changed mine to Otanema, which See 

ACHANIA Aiton and correct botanists, 
Malva-msciis ! of Cavannilles, Nuttal and 
other incorrect botanists, as if a Sp. of Maha 
Differs from Hibiscus by berry Sseeded. Not 
in Eaton. 

1. A. MALVAviscus Ait. Hibiscus do L. 
Louisiana and Texas. 

2. A. MOLLIS Ait. In Florida. Both seen 
alive in gardens. 

3. A. FLORiDANA Raf Malvci-viscus do 
Nnttal. Herbaceous, hirsute, leaves cordate 
ovate crenate in short petiols, peduncles nod- 

7 



50 ACHILEA. 

(ling. — In Florida, small leaves and flowersv 
near to A. pilosa. Seen dry. 

ACHILLEA. Weil known natural Genus, 
which has been increased to 7 N. American 
species. 

L A. MILLEFOLIUM. L. the common yarrow 
or milfoil, see my medical flora : our American 
Sp. is not introduced, it has been deemed pecu- 
liar by some botanists, having stronger medical 
properties,and it has produced several varieties, 
that are becoming species ! All in Autikon. 

Var. 7'osea, with rose colored flowers. 

Var. carnea, flowers of a pale flesh color. 

Var. pumila. Dwarf, 4 to 6 inches high. 

Var temiifolia. Leaves nearly glabrous, with 
slender well divided segments, almost pecti- 
nated. 

2. A. GRACILIS Raf. fl. texensis 12. Stem slen- 
der stiated, leaves remote, narrow smooth, lower 
petiolated recurvate, pinnate, folioles narrow 
laciniate, corymb small glomerate. — In Arkan- 
sas and Texas, only inches high, fl. white. 

3. A. PTARMICA, doubtful, seen by few botan- 
ists, undescribed: perhaps same as 7. 

4. A. SETACEA, near gracilis, differs by 
leaves mucronate pilose. 

5. A. LANULOSA Nuttal. A. tomentosa Pursh 
not Wildenow nor Hooker. Silky, segments 
crowdetl, corymb composite. In Missouri and 
Oregon. 

6. A. ASPLENiFOLiA. Pursli, kuowu by ob- 
tuse segments. 

8. A. MiJLTiFLORA Hookcr. Ptarmica Rich- 
ardson. Stem erect, leaves long lanceolate ser- 
rate pinnatif, segments serrulate, nearly smooth, 
corymb composite, rays very short. In North 
Canada. Is it the ptarrhica of Newyork ? 



ACHLYS. 



51 



ACHLYS Dec. Hooker. Leontice triphy- 
ia Smitli, certainly a peciilitir genus. Cal. o. 
Cor. o. Many naked stamens around a naked 
pistil, anthers bilabiate bilobe, stigma sessile 
oblique concave, fruit monosperm. Put by 
Hooker next to Leontice, by Dec. next to Jeff- 
ersotiia, unlike either except in habit and anth- 
ers. Nearer to Diphylleia, differing by the 
many naked stamens, — A. triphyla Dec. H. 
Radical leaves with long petiols, 3 sessile foli- 
oles flabellate, reticulate, repand sinuate : Scape 
with a spike ot white flowers. Perennial. N. 
W. America. 

ACHRAS SAPOTA L. said to grow in South 
Florida and Texas : see medical flora vol, 2 

ACHYRANTHES, Our Sp. of this Genus 
appear to form a peculiar Genus indicated by 
Elliot, see Steiremis. The genera akin Gom- 
phrena, lllecebriim, Celosia are yet in great 
<Jonfusion like this; see Adoketon, Phylepi- 
dum, Xerandra of mine, and Pliiloxerus. 

The A. repens of Elliot was a Gomphrena 
of Linneus. 

AC3IELLA Richard, helepta Raf. Neog. 
33. Differs from Heliopsis by Perianthe sim- 
ple, or nearly so. The seeds in both are ob- 
ovate, and truncate without teeth : leaves oppo- 
site, flowers peduncled, autumnal, yellow rays, 
disk blackish. 

I. Subgenus. Erpota, Raf. Perianthe 12 seg- 
ments, rays 5 to 12 tridentate, seeds compres- 
sed, sub4gone, chaff obovate. Creeping plants 
annual ? 

I. A. Repens Persoon &c. Anthernis do. 
Walt. Spilanthiis do, Mx. Well described 
by Elliot. Creeping, leaves oval-lanceolate too- 
thed, trinerve, peduncles long axillary terminal, 
rays about 12. — In Carolina. 



>>-5 ACMELLA. 

2. A. NUTTALiANA Raf A. occidentcdis Nut- 
al. Creeping, leaves ovate crenate petiolate 
hardly trinerve, rays 5 to 8. — Louisiana, peri- 
anthe minute. The occidentalis of South 
America has the seeds terete, 5 rays , leaves 
large trinervate serrate, stem erect, 5 entire 
rays: it was the Anthemis trhiervis of L. 

II. Sub. G. Helepta. Perianthe equal seg" 
ments 10 to 12, rays 6 to 12, narrow, nearly en- 
tire, seeds 4 gone not compressed, chaff setac- 
eous — Plants erect of ten simple and iiniflorCj 
leaves petiolate trinervate^ Perennial. 

3. A. nudicaulis Raf. stem sulcate smooth, 
naked above uniflore, leaves ovate acuminate 
serrate, base acute, rays 6 to 8 obtuse. — In 
Cumberland Mts. and East Kentucky with all 
the following. Stem bipedal, leaves roughish 
.above, pale beneath, flower large. Seen alive. 

4. A. FLAvicAULis Raf. Stem smooth striate 
yellowish foliose, leaves ovate acute serrate, 
dower nearly sessile, perianthe segments ovate 
obtuse, rays 10 to 12 obliqualy retuse. — Bipedal, 
leaves not pale beneath, flower large. Seen 
alive. 

5. A. PARviFOLiA Raf. Stem smooth sulcate, 
leaves crowded at the base, small ovate acute 
serrate, flower ped uncled, rays 6 to 8 retuse 
notched. — Pedal, small leaves and flower, seg- 
ments of perianthe lanceolate acute as in near- 
ly all. Seen alive. 

6. A. LANCEOLATA Raf Stem rough sulcate fo- 
liose, leaves lanceolate acuminate serrate, flow- 
er subsessile, rays 6 to 8 obtuse. — Over one foot, 
leaves thin pale beneath, flower middle size with 
broader rays. Seen alive. 

I have united these plants to Acmella, altho' 
the habit is very different from the others, near^ 



ACMISPON. 53 

er HeUopsis. These 4 figured in my Autikon 
U to 14. 

ACMISFON Raf. Atl. jour, meaning jioint 
hooked. Diifering from Trlgonella, Bticer- 
ates, Platycarpos and Lotus. Even Torrey 
said that it ought to be a genus, and Bentham 
unites it to Hosaclda. 

CaUx deeply 5 cleft, vexillum and wings equal, 
pod stipitate smooth strait, compressed, swelled 
and hooked at the point. Leaves ternate^S'dky , 

1. A. sERicEUM Raf Lotus do. Pui*sh, Tri- 
gonella amerlcana, Nut. T. E. well described 
by Nuttal, flowers axillary, solitary, subsessile. 
From Missouri to Carolina, rare, probably 2 sp. 
blended : both seen dry. 

2, A. MULTiFLORUM Raf. pedunclcs axillary 
and terminal, multiflore nearly in a spike or um- 
bel. Missouri. Is not the Carolina plant this ? 
or a peculiar sp ! Which is the Hosackia par- 
shiana of Bentham 1 The true Hosackia have 
pinnate leaves, pods cylindrical, keel rostrate 
instead of tlie pods. 

ACNIDA of Linneus. Genus better known 
since Michaux corrected account, copied by all 
our botanists except Elliot. But the original 
A. canahlna L. is not known to our botanists; 
they all mean that of Michaux. Linneus de- 
scribed his species as follow. — A. canabina. 
Root flexuose, stem white, petiols purplish 
smooth, leaves pinnate velutlne., folioles 5 to 
7 narrow acute, spikes axillary foliose, fl. fem. 
cal. 2phyl. 5 styles. In Virginia salt marshes. 
Such a plant with pinnate leaves cannot be of 
this Genus. Could Linneus have described the 
leaves of another plant mixt with Acnida flow- 
ers ? Could this be over again his Dalisra hir- 
ta found by no one since ? Sir James Smith 



54 AC\[IDA. 

the possessor of the Linnean herbarium has not 
mentioned this curious fact. 

1» A. OBTUSIFOLIA Raf. A. cannahina Mx. 
and all hi.'^ copists. Stem angular solid, leaves 
on long petiols, lanceolate, base acute, end ob- 
tuse, panicle of spikes foliose, bracts subsessile 
capsules or fruits smooth with acute or obtuse 
angles, (leaves lanceolate, capsules smooth with 
acute angles Mx.) — In Virginia. As found fur- 
ther North, it has broad lanceolate leaves, ob- 
tuse entire, stem solid from 3 to 5 feet high, py- 
ramidal, panicles foliose. Raf. Autikon. 4. Seen 
alive. 

Var. retusa. leaves notched at the end. 

Var. pumila. Stem pedal simple, leaves lan- 
ceolate. 

Var. procera. Stem much branched, 5 feet 
high. 

2. A. sAociFOLiA Raf. 1817. Stem solid, an- 
gular above, leaves on long petiols, narrow lan- 
ceolate mucronate, panicles foliose, capsules 
granular 5 unequal angles obtuse tuberculate. — 
From Long Island to Ohio near streams. Stem 
annual 2-4 feet high, leaves like willow. — Raf 
Autikon 5. Seen alive. 

3. A. RusocARPA Mx tab. 50. Stem fistular 
angular lofty, leaves on short petiols, acute, ov- 
al lanceolate, capsules rugose with obtuse an- 
gles. The place of growth not mentioned, 
stem thick, 6 to 8 feet high, leaves acute at both 
ends. 

4. A. ELLTOTi Raf. A. cannahina Elliot. 
Stem subfistular, slightly angular, leaves on long 
petiols, ovate lanceolate, subcrenulate, acute ; 
panicle naked, capsules with 3 to 5 angles ob- 
tuse or acute, slightly rugose. — Banks of 
streams in Carolina and Florida. Stem 4 to 8 



ACONITUM. 



55 



feet high, leaves 2 to 5 inches long, petiols 1 to 
3 inches. The only sp. found by Elliot who 
was doubtful about it. 

ACONITUM. This singular natural genus 
of all the botanic d writers, is far from being 
w ell understood : we see by DecandoUe and 
Smith that many doubtful species exist ! and 
that our A. iincinatum is a triple species! many 
kinds grow in Oregon as in Siberia, and I am 
able to present some of them. 

A. UNciNATum L. Smith. Elliot. Stem near- 
ly twining downy, leaves smooth, base truncate^ 
3 to 6 lobes 3dentate, 3nerve acute, flowers 
clustered, pedicles ramoses lax downy, 2 oblong 
bracts, hood unguiculate convex rostrate, wings 
round hairy 3 to 5 capspules. — This is the origi- 
nal linnean sp. described by Smith in Sup. to 
Rees Cyclopedia, from the linnean herbarium, 
and the specimen sent by Bartram, collected in 
the AUeganies, not near Philadelphia as stated 
by L. Smith quotes the figure of Curtis Mag, 
1119. The flowers are large violet color, 
known to few botanists. The description of El- 
liot appears to agree. 

2. A. scANDENS Raf. Stem climbing very lof- 
ty, leaves trifid, flowers small in axillary pani- 
cles — At the peaks of Otter in Virginia, merely 
indicated by Pursh as a variety, but quite dis- 
tinct : growing 9 feet high. 

3. A. FLEXuosuM Raf Smooth, stem erect 
flexuose, leaves palmate 3 or 5fid, lobes rhom- 
boidal lanceolate acute, hood conical rostrate — 
High Mts. Unaka of Carolina, flowers blue. 
A. Iincinatum, of Michaux and Eaton. 

4. A. TRiiNCATUM Raf Stem erect flexuose 
smooth multiflore, leaves glaucous beneath, 
broadly truncate at the base, trilobe, lobes ob- 



56 ACONiTU3I. 

long acute, entire or bifid or 2-4 serrate pe- 
duncles divaricate ebracte 2-4 flore, hood 
convex lower petals ciliate outside — In West 
Kentucky and Illiriois, pedal, upper leaves near- 
ly sessile, lobes nearly entire at right angle, 
flowers small on pedicels, violet purple. Seen 
alive. Autikon 3. Perhaps the real type of 
A. jlexuosuin and A. divergens. 

5. A. mvKRGENs llaf. Smooth, stem nearly twi- 
ning with (livergesit branches, leaves coriaceous 
deeply trilobed, flowers terminal 3 to 4, hood 
conical, spur inclined twisted, capsules 3 — In 
mountain swamps of the Alleghanies, flowers 
large purple, leaves with 3 equal lobes — A. un- 
cinatam Dec. Torrey, Beck. A. voluhile 
Muhlenberg. 

6. A. coRDATUM Raf. Smooth, stem erect 
flexuose, nearly simple ; leaves en long petiols 
cordate palmate, 5 lobed, clefts acute, lobes un- 
equal oblong broad and bifid or trifid acute mu- 
cronate ; flowers terminal on long pedicels 2 to 
5, hood convex conical, petals elliptic, capsules 
3 — In Ohio and Kentucky in rich woods ; about 
one foot high, flowers large deep blue : very 
rare. Undescribed till now, sent to Europe ^by 
me as the A. uncinatum of my florula Kent. 
Seen alive 1818. 

Var. Bijlorum, semipedal, 3 leaves, 2 flow- 
ers. Cumberland Mts. Figures, Autikon rar. 
1 — Icones n. sp. 1. 

7. A. NAPELLus L. Said by Muhlenberg to 
grow in Virginia, and by Hooker to grow in O- 
regon. Bartram found it in his travels in Flo- 
rida, but he meant probably another sp. Ours 
undescribed as yet. 

8. A. FiscHERi Reichenberg. ill. ac. 22. A. 
nasutum Fischer, Spr. Hooker, Eaton, Seringe 



Leaves broadly laciniate, raceme paniculate, hood 
conconical, spur bent, nectaries erect — In Oreg- 
on and Kainskatka, different from the A. nas- 
vtuin of South Europe. 

9. A. oREGoissENSE Raf. Smooth erect, 
segments digitate, Sparted, segments pinnatifid, 
narrow acute; Hs. racemose erect, hood conical 
very obtuse, spur strait-In Oregon, stem simple 
1 or 2 feet, flowers large blue 5 to 10. Compare 
with A. kelleri of Siberia. Seen alive in gar- 
dens. 

Figures, Autikon rar. 2. — Ic. N. Sp. 2. 

10. A. DELPHINIFOLIU3I Decaudolc. Stem 
erect downy above ; leaves with many pinaati- 
fid segments, raceme few flowered, hood con- 
vex acute. — On some Islands of the N. W. 
Coast. Stem to 20 inches high. Called var. 
Aniericnnam^ and two other var. deemed vari-* 
eties of A. napelluc^ by Hooker. 

ACORUS, well known Genus, which I have 
increased to G species. 1. A, veras of Asia. — = 
2. A. gramlneus of China. 3. A. Eiuropeiis 
in raed. fl. page 2, with three American species. 

1. A. AMERicANus Raf. mcd. fl. fig. 1. Leaves 
and scapes broad gladiate, scape longer ; spa- 
dix submedial lateral, capsules oblonsr acute. — 
From Canada to Missouri and Virginia. Esti- 
val, 2 or 3 feet high. 

2. A. FLORiDANLs Raf. A. calamus Elliot 
&LC. Leaves broad gladiate longer, scape shor- 
ter, triangular, one side concave, sunnnit gladi- 
ate ; spadix near the end, stamens exserted 
capsules oval obtuse. — Florida to Carolina. — = 
Sca-pe only one foot high, fl. vernal. 

3. FLEXuosus Raf. fl. tex. 29. Leaves grami- 
niform narrow shorter, scape longer flc'xuose 
triangular, one side concave, end like leaf; spa- 

8 



58 ACROANTIIES. 

dix medial. — Texas to Tennessee, dwarfish, 
one foot high, vernal. Autikon rar. Ic. n. sp. 

ACROANTHES Raf. 1818, Dcxvaux 1810. 
Mierostylis Nuttal 1818 ! Beck 1833 ! Lindley 
Gray . . . Malaxis sp. Michaux and authors. 
Ophrys Lin ... A very distinct Genus by habit 
and liowers, ascertained by me since 1802, na- 
med and described ten years before Nuttal's 
subgenus, since made a Genus, by others who 
have neglected to restore my previous name, 
meaning nncolortdfioicers. 

Orchid ea with hulbose root, stem icith a 
medial sheathing leaf, raceme with bracts and 
scattered minute green flowers. — Sepals nar- 
row connivent, the two inner narrower; lip 
erect cuculate, dilatate: Column minute bear- 
ing 2 anthers terminal annexed. Gray says one 
anther with 2 cells and 4 pollens. Nuttal said 
2 unequal anthers, one with a single pollen! 
which must be by abortion. Capsules globose, 
often abortive. 

1. AcR. LAxiFLORA Raf. unifoUa 1808. — 
Malaxis unifolia Mx. ophioglossoides Pers. 
Mierostylis ophioglossoides N. Beck Slc. — 
Stem harly angular, leaf ovate subcordate acute 
raceme oblong and lax, peduncles filiform ; se- 
pals linear, inner filiform, lip emarginate tooth- 
ed in the middle. — From Newyork to Carolina, 
rare, Estival, in shady groves under trees. — 
Stem 6 to 10 inches high, flowers greenish. — 
Seen alive 1802. Figures in Pluk. aim. 435. f. 
4 and my Autikon 41. Ic. rar. 60. 

2. AcR. oBTTJsiFOLiA Raf. Scape angular, 
leaf cordate elliptical obtuse, raceme lax elong- 
ate, peduncles filiform ; sepals oblong, inner lin- 
ear, lip furcate or hastate, toothed in the mid- 
(]le. — In Alabama and Georgia, probably the 



ACROSTICHU^r. 59 

plant of Elliot. My specimen is 10 inches, the 
leaf large and broad, sheathing the stem, which 
has two other sheaths at the base, bracts small 
squamiform round. Autikon 42. Ic. 61. 

3. AcR. ACUMINATA Raf. Microstijlis bra- 
chypoda Gray. Stem triangular, two angles 
winged, leaf ovate (acute?), raceme elongate 
slender, pedicels short adpresssed ; sepals oblong 
inner linear, lip hastate, trilobe, 2 lobes rounded 
middle one acuminate. — Shady swamps of On- 
eida and Herkimer in New York. Estival, 
stem 2 to 6 inches. Deemed akin to the next 
European sp. by Gray ; which I add to show the 
distinction. 

AcR. ciLiFOLiA Raf Opiirys cilifolia &. O. 
fnonophylos L. Malaxis Persoon, Microstylis 
Lindley. Stem triangular, leaf ovate acute 
ciliolate, raceme slender as long as stem, pedi- 
cels short patent, sepals ovate, inner lanceolate 
lip entire concave acuminate. — Swamps of Prus- 
sia and the Alps. Perhaps two sp. are even 
blended here ; but I have no materials to dis- 
tinguish them properly : let the European bota- 
nists do so; but restore my genus Acroanthes 
1808 adopted by Desvaux. 

ACROSTICHUM, this linnean genus is now 
distributed into 14 Genera, since Smith and 
Wildenow reform of the ferns ! Woodsia, Schi- 
zea and Woodwardiu belonged once to it ! the 
A. lanceolatum is become the Nephrodium ac- 
rostichoides of India, not ours, both of my ge- 
nus Synotelis. His A. platineuron is our As- 
plenium ebeneum. His A. polypodioides is our 
Polypodium incanum — A, ilvense is Woodsia 
— A. oreolatum is Woodwardia — A. lineatum 
Mg. is Schizea Pusilla ? 



>/ 



GO ACTAEA. 

Our only sp. left in it has even probably been 
mistaken for another. 

1. A. MAiiiTiMvyili,3.f, A. aureumMx. Pursh 
Pinnate, smooth, pinnules stipitate oblong entire 
obtuse or acute. — Sea shore of Florida, large 
fern, unligured as yet, compare with next again, 

2. A. AUREUM L, (Bogs of Antilles , often fig- 
ured) gigantic fern 5 to '0 feet high, pinnate, 
pinnules sessile cuneiform oblong oblique obtuse, 
veins reticulated. The Ongpi of Sumatra uni- 
ted to this, is a third sp. 

ACTAEA Linneus united thereto sp. with 
capsule instead of berry, other botanists have 
united Cimicifuga with it, having many cap- 
sules ! a double blunder. The real Actaeas 
have a real berry, not opening. We have two 
sp. distinguished by me since 1802 ; but Muh- 
lenberg prevented me to publish them, because 
both deemed then var. of Actea spieata : while 
Bigelow has published them since as peculiar. 
The blue berry species is the Caulophylum. 

1. A. RUBRA Raf. Big. hrachypetala Sl am-- 
ericaua of others. Petals acute shorter than 
stamens, last leaf trilobe, berries red. Deep 
woods from Canada to Kentucky, and Carolina. 

2. A. ALBA Raf. Big. Beck pachypoda Elli- 
ot. Petals truncate longer than stamens, last 
leaf ovate, berries white, 5 seeded on thick pe- 
duncles often white also..— Canada to Carolina. 
Leaves in both bi-triternate, flowers white ver- 
nal, see med. fl. Seen ahve. Autikon. 

Actea racemosa see Botrophis serpeutaria. 

ACTINEA Jussieu or Actinella of Persoon, 
adopted by our botanists, being identic with Ac- 
tinia a genus of animals, was changed by me to 
Ptilepida 1817, which see. 

ACTIMERIS Raf. mispelt Actinomeris by 
Nuttal, who proposed it. Well distinct from all 



ACTIIVIERIS. Gl 

the akin genera with winged stems, and my 
Cauloma that has naked seeds. It has even 
2 subgenera, and Auoincrls is (jviite distinct. 

I. Oliglosis liaf. Perianthe iiniseriai, raj'^s 2 
to 3, seeds marginate, alternate leaves. 

1. A. SQUARROSA N. Coi'eopsis altermfoJia 
L. Leaves scabrous, lanceolate serrate. — Can- 
ada to Florida : several varieties ; but the Alba 
iclthout rays, is a peculiar Genus ! Anomeris. 

Var. procera, tall, 6 to 10 feet high, flowers 
paniculate. Coreopsis procera Aiton. 

Var. pancijlora, stem simple, few flowered, 
leaves lanceolate^ serrate. 

Var. serrulata, Stem simple few flowered, 
leaves oblong lanceolate serrulate. — the A. pau 
ciflora Nutal, hardly distinct from the last. — 
Kentucky and Florida. All seen alive. Autikon. 

The A. alata N. of Mexico, with opposite 
leaves is probably congeneric with Verbesirm 
siegesbeckia my G. AnffinaMha. 

II. Megactelis Perianthe biserial 10 to 12, 
seeds ha r illy marginate, leaves alternate sessile, 
Perhaps belonging to my G. Canloma. 

2. A. heliantiwicles N. Leaves lanceolate 
acute serrate, hairy beneath, flowers coarctate, 
perianthe linear lanceolate rays 9. — Ohio to 
Louisiana. Seen alive. 

3. A. Ellioti Raf A. helianthoides, E. Stem 
and leaves scabrous, ovate lanceolate serrate 
acute, flowers corymbose, perianthe oval, rays 
10 to 12. — Georgia and Alabama. Stem 2 to 4 
feet, terete winged. Seen dry. 

ACTISPERMUMRaf. misspelt Aetinosper- 
miun by Elliot, from Actijiea ! BaJdimia mul- 
tlflora N. differs from BaJdtnna by perianthe 
biserial not imbricate, perianthe with Ggone 
Ctoothed cells, pappus simple starlike. 



62 ADELIA. 

A. MULTiFLORUM Raf. Smooth, multiflore, 
leaves alterne sessile linear, perianthe acumi- 
nate. Florida Slc. Well described by Nuttal 
and Elliot. 

ADELIA of Michaux and Brown, not of 
Linneus, is Borya of Wildenovv 1805, and 
Persoon, not Labillardiere 1804, yet adopted by 
our botanists; but changed to Bigelowia, by 
Smith 1820, not of Raf 1817. What a jum 
ble of blunders ! yet must be changed again 
or united to my Nudilus which see. 

ADENARIUM Raf 1816, Dec. Differs 
from Arenaria^ by having large glands inter- 
posed between the v^tamens and a different ha- 
bit. Honkenya of Erhart, not of Wildenow, 
Another genus Adenaria of Kunth since, must 
also be changed to Decadenium, Raf. 

1. A. peploides, Raf. Arennria, do. L. Suf- 
fruticose, leaves fleshy ovate acute subserrate.-r 
Europe, Sea shore, seen dry. 

2. A. Maritirmim Raf Holosteum succulen-. 
turn L. Arenaria peploides of Amer. bota- 
nists. Herbaceous dichotome, leaves fleshy o- 
vate obtuse entire petals obovate— Atlantic shores 
of N. America from New England to New Jer- 
sey, in sand, flowers white, vernal, terminal and 
in forks. Seen alive. Nuttal refers to this, the 
American Holosteum of L. who must have 
mistaken the glands for trifid petals, but he says 
leaves elliptic. Figures Autikon. Ic. n. sp. 

ADENOCAULON of Hooker, N. G. near 
Tussilago, differing by naked seeds without 
pappus. A. bicolor, stem glandular, leaves cor 
date subtrilobe angulate dentate. From Oregon. 
Akin to Acmella, differing by want of chaff in 
the phoranthe. 

ADENOGYNA Raf 1825. Type the Saxi^ 



ADIANTllUM. 63 

fraga sarmentosa of Japan, introduced into 
N. America, and spontaneous in Kentucky. — 
Genus very distinct by petals unequal, 2 lower 
longer, pistil glandular. See my monograph of 
Saxifraga genus and tribe, including N. Gen. 
Hemieva, jDitriclita, Steiranisia^ blended with 
Saxifraga by HookeiS altho' as good genera as 
his Eriogyna and LfptarJiena. 

ADIANTHUM pedatum Raf Med. fl. tab. 
2., the only tSp. well known to all botanists. 

ADIKE Raf. 1815, An. Nat. ancient name 
of some Nettles. A very peculiar Genus dis- 
tinct from Urtlca, by perfect smoothness, and 
pellucid stem and leaves, bearing in N. Ameri- 
ca the peculiar names of Richwced, Coolweed, 
and Clearweed, never nettles. My name mis- 
spelt Adesia by Eaton ! I had spelt it Adicea, 
I now restore the original Greek name of Dios- 
corides. 

Monoical, Calix similar in both, 3partite, 
sepals linear thick obtuse or cylindrical, erect. 
Stamens 3 elongate no nectary. Fertile fl. with 
persistent calix, a sessile capitate stigma. Seed 
ovate compressed — Habit annual, stem erect 
thick, leaves opposite petiolate serrate, very 
smooth, trinerve, flowers estival in axillary and 
dichotome corymbs, Sometimes a fourth part 
added; but the Genus does not depend so 
much on number as the consimilar peculiar ca- 
lix. 

1. Ad. pumila Raf Urtica pumila L. stem 
filiform dwarf, base naked, leaves ovate obtuse, 
lower entire, upper deeply crenate-serrate with 
an obtuse point, margin subciliolate, petiols 
shorter than leaves : corymbs pauciflore short. 
In the Alleghany Mts. and near Philadelphia at 
Manayunk. Stem 2 to 5 inches, pellucid round 



C4 ADLUJ^IIA. 

leaves small, flowers fe jv. Liiineus says in Ca^ 
nada Aquosls, stem digital, i have tbunfl his 
real sp. uiikno vvn to many botanists who mistake 
the next lor it. 

Var. 1. Minima, biuncial, few leaves on 
short petiols. Figures, Autikon Raf. 

3. A. GLABERIM4 Raf. Med. fl. {Urtica pu- 
mila, Mx and all our botanists except Elliot.) — 
Stem round fleshy pellucid ; leaves on long pe- 
tiols, oval acuminate, lucid, serrate: corymbs 
dichotomous multiliorc.—- The most common 
species all over the U. States, stem one or 
two feet high, thick often diaphanous ! leaves 
large extremely smooth. — Var. nimosa, stem 
and corymbs branched. — Autikon Raf. 

3. A. LANCEOLATA Raf {JJrtlca pumila ¥A- 
liot) stem obtusely quadrangular, fleshy and 
branched ; leaves on long petiols, lanceolate 
acuminate, serrate, with some hairs above ; co- 
rymbs multiflore, some recurved. — Stem pedal 
branching from the base. In Carolina, Elliot's 
description is original ; but his diagnosis bor- 
rowed to make it agree with the last. 

4. A. RiioMBOiDEA Raf Stem round dwarf, 
branched at the base ; leaves on long petiols, 
ovate rhomboidal or subdeltoid, base entire, end 
with obtuse point, sides crenate serrate not cili- 
olate; corymbs multiflore often foliolate and 
recurved. 

In Kentucky, rare, stem 6 to 8 inches, near 
to A pumila, but larger stem and leaves, peti- 
ols equal to leaves except on branches. Seen 
alive. — Figure, Autik. Raf. 

ADLUMIA Raf 1808, Dec. Beck. Noticed 
as a genus as early as 1804 in the garden of 
the collector indium, and also iothe Alleghanies 
at Peter's Mt. only mdicated in 1808, since well 



ADOKETON, 65 

established by Decandole and begining to be 
adopted. Very distinct from Corifdalis by Cor- 
olla bigibose by 2 spurs as in Dielytra, but 4 
petals spungy and coalescent, persistent over 
the pod. 

A. ciRRHosA R. D. B. Fiimaria fungosa Al- 
ton, JP. recta Mich. Corydalis of many botan- 
ists. Scandent cirrhose, leaves decompound, 
racemes laxiflore axillary. — In the Alleghanies 
from M attawan Mts. to Apalachian Mts. Per- 
rennial. 

Var. rupestris. Trailing on rocks, leaves 
cespitose. 

Var. clalior. Traihng up trees 10 feet high, 
leaves remote. 

Var. tilha &/ rosea, with white or rose flow- 
ers instead of usual pale incarnate. All seen 
alive. 

ADNARIA Raf. fl. lud. probably a subgenus 
of the Codorolla or Vacciniums with bell flow- 
ers which see. 

ADOKETON Raf Mus. N. Sc. 1. Akin to 
LaJiayea, distinguished as follows — petals en- 
tire, stigma trilobe, capsule few seeded. 

LaJiayea misspelt Hagea by Persoon (dedica- 
ted to Lahaye) has petals emarginate, stigma 
entire, capsule polysperme. 

Both have Cal. 5ph. 5 petals, 1 style, cap- 
sule unilocular, trivalve, trigone, seeds central. 
Leaves opposite, — Nat. family of Dionidia. 

1. A. UNIFLORUM Raf. Stem uniflore, leaves 
ovate minute, calix and petals acute equal, — 
On the summit of the Unaka Mts. of N. Car- 
olina, one inch high, flower white vernal. Seen 
dry, Ic. n. sp. 

2. A. SAXATILE Raf. Mus. Nat. Sc. Mleceb- 
rum alsinefolium Scopoli. Stem multiflore, 
leaves oval acute, calix segments hooded, petals 



66 ADONIS. 

longer oblong obtuse, capsule 6 seeded — Rocks 
of Mt. Gallo near Palermo, and in Spain. Seen 
alive in 1812, described 1817. 

ADONIS. Decandole has reformed this ge- 
nus, the two linnean sp. being the type of two 
sections, the annual having 6 to 8 petals con- 
cave, style strait : the perennnial (Consiligo) 
8 to 15 spreading flat petals, style hooked. 

A. RiPARiA Raf. {A. autumnalis of N. A- 
merica, wrongly deemed exotic) stem ramose 
striate, leaves glaucous crowded tripinnate mul- 
tifid, pinnules crowded linear, end trifid acute 
flowers terminal, solitary sessile, petals 6 to 8 
concave round. — Margins of streams. West 
Kentucky to Louisiana, pedal, annual, flower 
scarlet, base darker spotted. Real native. Au- 
tikon. 

A, autumnalis of Europe has stem slender, 
leaves short, remote, flower pedicellate, petals 
obcordate, and grows in fields. 

ADORIUM Raf. fl. Miss. Marathrum Raf. 
1819, N. G. 22, this name was very good ; but 
Dec. having a Hipomarathrum which must 
become Marathrum^ I have changed it for 
greater accuracy. Both were Greek names of 
umbelliferous. Humboldt has also another 
Marathrum. 

It differs from Seseli by involucres, involucels 
5 leaves unilateral membranous, calix 5toothed, 
petals ovate acuminate involute, fruit oblong, 
angular striate. Leaves opposite, many sterile 
flowers. 

1. A. crassifolium Raf. Seseli divaricatum 
Pursh, Nuttal. Branches divaricate, leaves thick 
pinnatifid, peduncles rigid. — On the R. Mis- 
souri. Well described by Nuttal, fl. yeflow ver- 
nal. Seen dry. Figure in my Autikon rar. 



ADOXA. 67 

ADOXA MosciiATELiNA L. Said by Torrey 
and Hooker, to grow in boreal America and the 
Oregon mts. undescribed. My specimens 
from Europe. Genus near to Panax and Ar- 
alia. 

ADVENTINA Raf. Radiate. Perianthe 
globular 5 phyle, Sepals connivent equal ovate 
acute. Phoranthe fiat chaffy. Rays 5 fertile, 
equal small and opposed to sepals, ligules short 
trilobe white, ovary and seed shut between the 
sepals and internal palea or chaff, similar to se- 
pals oblong and thus bivalved, style very short 
bifid, pappus paleaceous multifid. Floscules of 
the disk minute yellow complete, chaff lanceo- 
late flat, corolla tubular 5toothed, stamens and 
style inclosed, pappus campanulate multifid.— 
Seeds black oblong compressed bivalved in rays, 
oblong terete in disk. Leaves opposite, flowers 
terminal. 

1. PARviFLORA Raf. Stem slender branched 
diffuse smooth, leaves petiolate ovate acute an- 
gular dentate, lower rounder, upper nearly ses- 
sile and entire ; flowers terminal lax — Growing 
spontaneous for several years in the orchard 
of Bartram's Garden, come with seeds from 
the South. Annual, Estival, pedal. Leaves 
thin smooth, flowers very small, white rays har- 
dly exserted. Very different from any known 
genus, nearest Achillea, but habit calix and seed 
unlike. Named after its adventitious produc- 
tion near Philadelphia. Probably a Florida 
plant. Seen alive. 

Figure Autikon 5, and Ic. n. sp. 5. 

2. A. ciLiATA Raf. Stem thick pilose, tricho- 
tome and dichotome, leaves petiolate ovate ser- 
rate ciliate, flowers in forks or terminal subcor- 
ymbose— Found with the last, but in a different 



68 ADVENTINA. 

place and season : smaller, but flowers larger. 
Autumnal, annual, 6 to 10 inches high, hardly 
ramose or nearly simple. Messrs. Carr owners 
of Bartram's garden cannot account for the 
spontaneous production of these plants and sev- 
eral others in their garden. 

Figure Autikon 6. Icon. n. sp. 6. 



I must conclude here this beginning and mo- 
del of a proper Lexicon of our N. American 
Flora. To continue the whole Flora even in 
this concise form, would fill several large vol- 
umes. This specimen contains about 40 arti- 
cles and Genera, whereof many are new, and 
includes nearly 150 species, whereof many were 
undescribed. 

North America, excluding the Mexican States 
contains probably 2000 Genera and 10,000 spe- 
cies of trees and plants, exclusive of the Cel- 
lular or Cryptogamic plants ; but including 
Palms, Grasses and Ferns, Shrubs and Vines . . 
Our Botanists know or admit of hardly more 
than one half. Botanical Works are filled with 
plants neglected by them, because rare and lit- 
tle known. Our Herbals or Botanical Collec- 
tions contain a crowd of plants as yet unnoticed 
and undescribed. Baldwin's Herbarium has 
been a Botanical mine for 20 years past, for Elli- 
ot, Nuttal, Torrey, &.c. and will continue so a 
long while. Nuttal will soon increase the Ore- 
gon Western Botany by perhaps 1000 N. Sp. — 
Whoever applies to the proper study of a single 
Genus or family increases or doubles our know- 
ledge of it. Torrey has lately increased our 
Cyperacea alone to 25 genera and 326 species 
and he has not exhausted this tribe ; but omit- 



CONCLUSION. 69 

ted many genera and synonyms. 

Meantime my own Herbarium and Autikon 
contains about 1200 New Genera and New Spe- 
cies discovered and collected since 1802, but 
chiefly from 1815 to this time; and whereof but 
a small part has been published or indicated as 
yet. It is therefore to these that I must apply 
myself at first in order to make known my dis- 
coveries and labors w itli the hidden wealth of 
our Flora. I shall however at the same time 
give many discriminating monographs of Fam- 
ilies and Genera, to elucidate their critical and 
correct knowledge. 

The New trees and Shrubs of North Ameri- 
ica which I have discovered and ascertained 
might form a separate volume ; but 1 may add 
them if practicable. As I have stated already, 
arrangement is of little consequence now in 
botanical works ; since every botanist changes 
the serial order, by misunderstanding the real 
steps of nature in organized vegetables. If I 
was to offer a very elaborate series of real cor- 
rected NATURAL ORDERS as I did in 1815, they 
would be deemed improper by those who now be- 
gin to dabble in them, and give us jumbled fam- 
ilies without pectillar essential characters, and 
without proper names, as they constantly go 
on to do the same with Genera and Species. 

I seldom was able to publish a botanical w ork 
exactly as I wished in the proper style and plan. 
I can only collect and afford new materials, ob- 
servations and criticisms for better times or 
moods. Yet my actual labor, is as much a Flo- 
ra as that of Michaux or Pursh, since it includes 
more new discoveries, and may only pass over 
the wellknown and settled plants. But whene- 
ver doubts or disparities occur, they will deserve 



CONCLUSION to 

my attention and critical investigation. The 
40 articles of this Lexicon have already proved 
how many striking mistakes and palpable errors 
of Linneus, Michaux, Pursh, Hooker, Nuttal, 
Beck, Eaton, Torrey, Elliot, and others exist 
undetected and unnoticed by our writers and 
compilers. At this rate the 2000 Genera will 
afford 5000 similar blunders. 

It is a weary and ungrateful task to revise er- 
rors ; but it must be done : Since every expo- 
sed error is equal to a discovery. I shall not 
even spare my own, as we are all liable to them, 
and we improve by age and experience. If all 
would be as careful and as liberal as I am, 
the science might soon cease to be involved in 
hidden groups of neglected genera and species, 
or in useless synonyms of mistaken plants, and 
improper names. 

Meantime in order to name properly my new 
American plants, it has been needful to study 
over again and revise many Genera and Natu- 
ral families ; since several are yet in utter con- 
fusion, by the usual practice of Botanists to refer 
plants at random, and without attending to the 
actual characters, to force them into genera 
where they do not belong. 

This arduous undertaking was indispensable, 
and has led me to revise, reform, divide and fix 
several natural families and a crowd of genera ; 
but such a labor altho' connected with our Amer- 
ican Botany, applies nevertheless to the whole 
Globe, and has become my Synopsis Flora 
Telluriana, or synoptical Mantissa of 2000 
New Genera, Species, Orders, &c., which will 
be the companion to this North American Flora, 
and the complement of my Botanical researches. 

Being in hope of obtaining the Herbarium of 
my late friend Z. Collins, which contains many 



CONCLUSION. 71 

new and rare plants collected by himself, besides 
Kin, Boyken, Baldwin, Nuttal, Elliot, Ware, 
Leconte, Schweinitz, &.c., from Florida and Ar- 
kanzas to Labrador, I may find there additional 
materials for this Flora ; therefore, the delay 
that may occur in the publication of the num- 
bers, will be compensated by the additional new 
plants I may be able to describe. 

I shall either continue to give monographs of 
some remarkable or rich genera, beginning with 
Knhnia, Gentiana, Lechea, Hypericum^ Slc, 
or I may give series of new Species from inte- 
resting localities. 

I may also pay particular attention to our 
New Genera, many of which are improperly 
referred as yet to akin Genera. 

As to the Natural Orders of our Plants, my 
general views and examples have been given in 
my preface, and will be found in the Introduc- 
tion to the Flora Telluriana. 

It is again recommended to our Botanists to 
study well the natural affinities and disparities 
of Genera and Species, both of which they have 
often heretofore either neglected or overlooked. 



72 



NEW GENUS OLSYNIUM. 



A very fine New Genus from Oregon, has 
been blended with Shnjrinchium by the Enghsh 
Botanists, which I have called Olsynium, mean- 
ing hardly united. It differs by the Corolla 
campanulate, the long free stamens only united 
at the base, 3 stigmas &.c, and belongs to the 
same natural family of Galaxidia, distinguished 
from Iridia by stamens not quite free. 

OLSYNIUM. Corolla of 6 petals campanu- 
late, each oblong, striate. Stamens 3, filaments 
free and subulate, base contracted above the 
united base. Style elongate, stigmas 3 acute. 
Ovary and fruit as in Siryrinchium. Roots 
fibrose, leaves sheathing, spatha bivalve, biflore. 

Olsynium grandiflorum Raf. Siryrhichi' 
um grandiflorum. Douglas in Bot. register 
1634. Bot. magazine 3509. Stem compressed, 
leaves shorter, acute, spatha unequal margin 
membranose, flowers twin drooping deep purple. 

A lovely and graceful plant, discovered at the 
falls of Oakanagan on the Oregon River. It 
is hardy, flowers vernal large, nearly two inches, 
but never spreading flat as in Siryrinchium. 



NEW FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA. 



MONOGRAPH 
OF THE GENUS KUHNIA, 

WITH REMARKS. 

BY PROF. C. S. RAFINESaUE. 

OCTOBER 1836. 



This curious Genus has appeared to puzzle 
many Botanists, the species being rare and lo • 
cal, have been seen by few of them, and they 
have often copied each other, or mistaken those 
seen. Sir James Smith has given a good ac- 
count in Rees Cyclopedia, of some old blunders 
about it ; but many more remain to be detected : 
the original linnean species having again been 
found on the very spot where Dr. Kuhn proba- 
bly procured the specimen he took to Linneus, 
affords the opportunity to do so, and to notice 
at the same time the other kinds discovered by 
Elliot and myself. 

Dr. Adam Kuhn was but a poor botanist and 
hardly deserved to have such a fine Genus 
named after him : he has written nothing ; but 
only gave the first linnean Lectures in North 
America. It appears that he did not even find 
himself the first Kuhnia, but it was brought to 
him, and he had the only merit to take it to 
Linneus, who flattered by having a Student 
coming to him from Pennsylvania, and struck 
by the anomaly of the Stamina, dedicated the 
same to him as a new Genus. Schoepf has 
written that having applied to Dr. Kuhn to know 
the locality of the plant, he could not tell, not 



74 MONOGRAPH 

having found it himself. Meantime Gaertner 
having proved that the chief hnnean distinction 
of separate stamina was wrong, since the plant 
he described as the same, bad syngenesious 
stamina : the Genus became fixed by the strik- 
ing character of plumose seeds, and well dis- 
tinguished by it from Eupatorlum; but he wrong- 
ly called it CrltoTiia, mistaking it for a Crito- 
nia of Brown, which Smith states to be the 
Eupatorium dalea^ with scabrous pappus. All 
the sp. oi Eupatorium have more or less such 
a scabrous or dentate pappus. The alternate 
leaves are no character of the Kuhnia since I 
have found a species with opposite leaves, and 
the very Kuhnia of Linneus has sometimes 
such leaves below. 

The plant of Gaertner tab. 174, who only 
figured the seeds, has been made since a second 
Sp. of the Genus, and called Kuhnia critonia ; 
but I shall show by Wildenow and others pres- 
ently, that it is by no means positive that he 
was mistaken, since the original Kuhnia of 
Linneus, offers sometimes on the same plant 
the characters of both species ; Ventenat and 
Persoon unite both again. 

Sir James Smith regreted that these plants 
were not introduced as yet in the English Gar- 
dens. In Loudon Cyclopedia of plants they 
are not mentioned as introduced in 1829, being 
omitted. Yet in the second edition of Sweet 
Hortus Brittanicus, published in 1830, I find 3 
species mentioned as introduced, the K, eupa- 
torioides in 1812, K. critonia in 1816, and K, 
rosmarinifolia in 1827. But they must be 
very scarce, and they had not been figured yet 
in the magazines^ nor elucidated by English 
Botanists. 



OP KUIINIA. 75 

Ventenat united to this Genus the Eupatori- 
urn canescens of Ortega, a plant of Cuha, and 
called it K, rosmarini folia ; he was followed 
by Persoon in this. 

Michaux perhaps never saw this plant since 
he does not mention their locality nor distinction 
and has only one Critonia Kuhnia which no 
one can prove to be Gaertner's. Muhlenberg 
never saw these plants alive and ascribes to 
both white flowers. Pursh meantime gives yel- 
low flowers to K. critonia^ but quotes no local- 
ity. Wildenow's account appears to be made 
up of Linneus and Michaux account, making 2 
Sp. of them. Lamark copied Linneus and his 
fig. tab. 26 is K. eiipatorioidcs. Poiret has 
copied Michaux and Ventenat. 

W, P. C. Barton in his flora philadelphica 
1817, states to have found the linnean plant on 
the rocks of the Schuylkill R. above Lemonhill; 
but Nuttal in 1819 ascribes that very same lo- 
colity for the sp. K. critonia : and it is there 
also that in 1836 has been found by Mr. Du- 
rand and myself the Linnean plant, which I 
suspect to be identic with that of Gaertner. 

It is said that the Eupatorium alternifoliutn 
of Sibiria, figured by Arduin, is also the same 
plant, and Sir James Smith could find no dif- 
ference in the specimen sent by Arduin to Lin- 
neus. Yet is very strange that the same plant 
should grow near Philadelphia and on the Al- 
taic mts. of Asia, and hardly any where else : 
since it is not in the Flora of Hooker and there- 
fore does not extend to Canada, nor the central 
and western parts of North America. Nor is 
it found in the floras of Louisiana and Missouri. 
Therefore the Sibirian plant must again be 



76 MONOGRAPH 

compared with ours, and will be found different, 
in fact Lamark has noticed some difference in it. 
Torrey in 1826, and Beck in 1833, in their 
floras of the Northern States have both the lan- 
nean and Gaertnerian species, but have never 
found them growing wild, since they quote no 
locality, but merely copy the characters of oth- 
er authors, stating Pennsylv. and Virginia, as 
the native place of both. Beck besides ascribes 
pale yellow flowers to K. critonia, as Pursh 
(but Torrey says white) and Torrey a pubes- 
cent stem. But all the species with whitish 
flowers, turn yellow in drying, and a pubescent 
or glandular Stem belongs to many: while Smith 
describes his as smooth ; but this varies on the 
same plant. 

In 1818 I discovered in Kentucky a narrow 
leaved sp. which I mistook for the K. critonia^ 
but have since found very different from the K, 
critonia of Elliot 1824, who is the only one that 
has described it properly ; but his plant is even 
probably different from Gaertner's : while my 
plant is perfectly distinct by the fulvous pappus, 
stated to be white in all the others ; I called it 
K. media in 1833 but K. fiilva would be a bet- 
ter name. I found it in 3 localities of Ken- 
tucky and even on the banks of the Ohio. 

In September 1823 in my visit to the falls of 
the R. Cumberland, in the Wasioto hills of 
East Kentucky, a beautiful botanical spot visited 
by no Botanist but myself, I again detected 
another sp. of l^uhnia, quite distinct by oppo- 
site elliptic short leaves. I named it K. ellip- 
tica^ and it is described in 1833 in my Herb. 
Rafinesquianum. 

Elliot has 3 Species of Southern "Kuhnia in 
the 2d volume of his flora of Southern States 



OF KUIINIA. 



7> 



1824, and all appear to be new, his K. critonia 
is that of Mx. probably and nearer to K. ros- 
marinifoUa, yet distinct, and I named it K. tu- 
herosa in 1833. His K. eupatorioides '( deem- 
ed doubtful by himself, altho' very near the Lin- 
nean Sp. is somewhat peculiar, and perhaps 
distinct, it is my K. dasijpia. It is from the 
prairies of Alabama. There also grow his 3d Sp. 
K. glutlnosa, a new sp. which I possess and is 
quite distinct. It has been adopted by the com- 
piler Eaton, with the other usual 2 sp. in 1833 
in his manual of Botany, Gth edition, who never 
saw any of the plants; he ascribes with Pursh to 
K. critonia, pubescent and petiolate leaves ! 

Few of these botanists appear to have taken 
the trouble to consult the original description of 
Linneus, Arduin and others, and thus they as- 
cribe the characters at random. The original 
Eupatorkirn alternifoUum had Stem terete 
puhescent, leaves Lanceolate, petiolate, decur- 
rent, triuncial, rough: corymbs multiflore 
compact, calix striate. This is the Siberian 
plant of Arduin tab. 20. But Linneus in his 
last edition decribes the K. eupatorioides with 
Stem rigid and branches in the middle smooth, 
leaves alter ne suhjjetiolate hroad lanceolate 
serrate rugose, uncial, upper ones linear lan- 
ceolate entire ; corymbs small ; w hich agrees 
perfectly with the plants found near Philadel- 
phia in 183G. Yet he refers to it the above 
disparate plant of Arduin, and also the figure 
of Plukenet 87. 2 ! best figured in his son's de- 
cads tab. II. Meantime the plant of Gaertner 
is described by Smith with entire leaves, linear 
lanceolate and corymb paniculate pauciflore. 

Yet Michaux's plant (with Gaertncr's name) 



^8 MONOGRAPH 

is pubescent, leaves linear lanceolate, commonly 
entire, punctate beneath, flowers paniculate. 

All these disparities evince that this fine ano- 
malous and rare Genus has been misunderstood 
and improperly described by nearly all the bot- 
anists. Now at last in 1830, the original Lin- 
nean and Kuhn's plant having been found wild 
on the very identical spot, whence carried to 
Linneus, many specimens collected, of several 
varieties growing together, and roots, seeds and 
specimens sent to England by Dr. James 
Mease : the original species will become better 
known. Meantime I presume that the follow- 
ing comparative view of the Species actually 
known will be acceptable to the Botanists and 
Horticulturalists. 

These plants altho' not very conspicuous, are 
not destitute of beauty, by their elegant shape 
and plumose seeds. They are all hardy peren- 
nials with thick roots ; they blossom in Sep- 
tember, and assume their feathery appearance 
in October. 

1. K. eupatorioides L (Critonia of many 
authors), exactly as described by Linneus : only 
add, root brown perpendicular with lateral fi- 
bres, lower leaves trinerve, subpetiolate or base 
attenuated, 1 or 2 inches long, a few are oppo- 
site sometimes, stem terete striate, whole plant 
covered with minute glands mistaken for pubes- 
cence by some ; perianthe striate glandular, 
flowers pale yellowish white, pappus white. 
Rocky banks of the R. Schuylkill near Phila- 
delphia, in a single spot near the rail road 
bridge : 3 varieties 1 P?/?Yfm?V7«/i5tripedal, low- 
er leaves lanceolate, entire at both ends, branch- 
es and corymbs pyramidal with entire narrow 
leaves. 2 \m\corymhosa. Stem simple, leaves 



OF KUIINIA. 79 

narrow lanceolate, somewhat serrate in the mid- 
dle, fioAvers in a multiflore compound corymb. 
3 Var. angnstifolUc, stem simple pedal leaves 
linear lanceolate entire, flov.ers in a simple 
pauciflore corymb. These 2 last are probably 
the Qritonia of Gacrtner and others, yet they 
are perhaps nothing else but various ages of the 
plant? but since they have been mistaken for 
species, they must be properly noticed. 

2. K. altaica Raf. If the Sibirian plant is 
distinct as probable, it may be distinguished by 
Stem really pubescent, leaves triuncial alterne 
rough decurrent, lanceolate base not attenuated. 
This is Eup. alternifoUum Arduin tab. 20, and 
Linneus in first editions. 

3. K. dasypia Raf. enpatorioides Elliot. 
Stem branched pubescent, leaves alternate, lan- 
ceolate unequally serrate, glandular punctate, 
triuncial, rough above, pubescent beneath ; 
flowers paniculate white, pappus white. Mea- 
dows of Alabama and Georsfia. 

4. K. glutinosa Elliot, glutinose pubescent, 
leaves lanceolate alterne sess. serrate laciniate, 
upper entire; flowers corymbose panicled. Mea- 
dows of Alabama, well described by Elliot, who 
sent me a specimen. Stem bipedal, branched, 
viscose glands mixt with hairs ail over. 

5. K. eUiptica Raf. discovered 1823 descri- 
bed 1833. Stem striate pubescent, branches 
and leaves opposite, leaves sessile smooth, elliptic 
uncial, serrate in the middle, glandular beneath, 
flowers whitish in lax multiflore corymbs, pap- 
pus cinereous — Falls of the R. Cumberland, 3 
feet high; very handsome species. The 1^. gla- 
bra of my monograph 1833 which I mistook for 
the linnean sp. is only a variety of this with 
stem smooth, leaves subpetiolate, flowers less 
lax. I found it in the Alleghany mts. on the 



80 KUIINIA. 

Monongahela in 1825. Var. montana. 

6. K. taherosa Raf. 1833. K. critonia Mx. 

and Elliot exclus. Syn. Root tuberose, stem 
virgate striate pubescent; leaves alternate sessile 
linear entire, pubescent, margin revolute, flow- 
ers paniculate white, exterior sepals of the peri- 
anthe reflexed, pappus white. — In Carolina, dry 
soils, well described by Elliot but under a wrong 
name. 

7. K. fulva Raf. disc. 1818 descr. 1833 as 
K. media : entirely smooth, stem striate vir- 
gate, lower leaves opposite, upper alternate, all 
sessile linear lanceolate entire, long pale be- 
neath and not glandular; flowers paniculate yel- 
lowish, pappus fulvous — On the banks of the 
Ohio and hills of East Kentucky, about 2 feet 
high, leaves 3 inches, down or pappus very pe- 
culiar by its color. I sent my 2 N. Sp. to Decan- 
dole; but have not yet seen the 5th volume of his 
Synopsis. I possess yet several specimens of 1, 
5 and 7 to furnish to botanists, and they are 
figured in my Autikon. and Ic. rar. 

8. K. inibesceus Raf. mon. Entirely pubes- 
cent, stem virgate striate, leaves subpetiol. lan- 
ceol. nearly entire, punctate, fl. paniculate, pap- 
pus fulvescent — Seen dry, said to grow in the 
mts. Alleghany, perhaps only a variety of the 
K. tuberosa, or fulva or K. eupatorioides ; 
but the down was not white in the specimen: 
probably mistaken by many for the 2 usual spe- 
cies, \vhence the difference of descriptions. I 
deem the color of the down truly essential. 

9. K. rosmarhfifoUaj Vent. Pers, &c. Leaves 
canescent linear lanceolate semiamplexic. very 
entire, margin revolute, peduncles terminal uni- 
flore, fl. purple, pappus white ? In Cuba, com- 
pare it with K. taherosa ; but the flowers sep- 
arate them. Enp. canescens Ortega dec. 34. 



81 



MONOGRAPH OF AMPHICARPA AND AKIN GENERA. 
OF THE GROUP TETRODES. 

G. AMPHICARPA Elliot. The Genus 
Glycine of Linneus, a strange medley of species 
without common characters, is now divided in 
many Genera requiring yet discrimination and 
revision. As early as 1804 I had proposed to 
Muhlenberg the Genus Tetrodea for Gl. mo- 
nolca, comosa, subterranean having a tubular 
4toothed calix, and I indicated this G. in 1808. 
But in 1818 Elliot established with them his G. 
Amphicarpa,whichhRs been generaly received. 
Decandole wrongly spells it amphicarpea. but 
as each of these 3 sp. may be the type of a pe- 
culiar Genus, I shall now revise it and add sev- 
eral sp. 

Amphicarpa Calix tubular sub campanulate, 
base obtuse or gibbose, 4 teeth acute subequal. 
Petals equal oblong keel obtuse, wings Itoothed 
vexillum adpressed or incumbent. Stam 9-1. 
Stigma capitate. Pod stipitate, oblong, com- 
pressed acuminate by the style, 3-4 seeds sub- 
reniform. Sometimes the lower flowers soli- 
tary without petals nor stamens, perfect fl, 
racemose and hracteolate. Perennials, 

LoBOMON Raf. cahx campanulate, base acute, 
unequaly 4toothed. Petals and stamens as 
above, but commonly apetalous flowers dioical 
or monoical, with 5 minute sessile united an- 
thers. Pod flat semi ovate acute, without style, 
one side strait, 2 seeds lenticular. Annuals 
Flowers axillary, not racemose, no bracts, 
(Name ancient.) 

Geolobus Raf. calix campanulate, 4fid, up- 
per segment notched. Petals unequal, keel and 
wings oblong, vexillum obovate striate notched. 
11 



82 G. AMPHICARPA. 

Pod compressed round acute, one seed lenticu- 
lar, Peduncles blflore bibractate, flowers yel- 
low, pods hiding in the grounds which the 
name implies. Annuals. 

The 3 Genera have twining or flexuose sterna, 
and stipulate trifoliate leaves, roots creeping 
flowers estival. 

1. Amphicarpa viLLosA Raf. Gl. comosal 
L. &LC . . . Twining, stem and leaves hairy, fo- 
lioles subequal ovate oblong acute soft, the lat- 
eral obliqual : racemes short 5-9flowered, bracts 
ovate acute striate, calix hairy — In Alabama 
and Mississipi. Folioles uncial equal to petiols, 
flowers white tiptwith purple. Linneus having 
only said of his Gl. comosa, leaves hirsute, ra- 
cemes small lateral, flowers blue, seeds with 
purple spots : it is impossible to identify it. 
Torrey, Beck and Elliot omit it ; while Nuttal 
deems it the real type of Gl, monoica. My des- 
criptions and specimens will fix my sp. to which 
1 give new names to avoid ambiguity. 

2. Amph. ciliata Raf. stem twining filiform 
round with reflexed hairs, leaves on long peti- 
ols, smooth but ciliate, folioles unequal, lateral 
sessile obliqual trapezoidal, medial petiolate 
rhomboidal rounded acute : raceme elongate 
equal to petiols, peduncled and multiflore, 
bracts obovate obtuse biflore, calix smooth — 
Apalachian Mts of Virginia and Carolina, disc. 
1825, flowers white, very distinct species. 

3. Amph. heterophyla Raf. monoica Nut- 
tal. Stem twining filiform angular with reflex- 
ed hairs, leaves on short petiols variable but 
shining scabrous and ciliate, subequal but either 
ovate lanceolate acute or else ovate elliptical 
obtuse : raceme elongate, multiflore, bracts 
rounded striate, calix smooth — In the Aflegha- 
ny mts. of Pennsylv. flowers white. 



G. AMPHICARPA. 83 

4. Amph. Ellioti Raf. monoica Elliot. G/. 
tnonoica ? L. stem twining angular with reflex- 
ed hairs, folioles ovate lanceolate subequal,thin, 
acute, scabrous above, petiols long: racemes 
pendulous commonly sterile, calix hairy gib- 
bose. Pods of imperfect flowers ovate one seed- 
ed — In Carolina, Virginia &.c. Flowers white 
and violet. Doubtful sp. yet, since Elliot says 
in diagnosis leaves glabrous^ and in description 
hairy ! He confirms the existence of imperfect 
flowers in racemes, cultivated for these pods 
like Arachis, but Linneus says these subterra- 
nean flowers are solitary ! It would be hard to 
say what Michaux, Pursh, Torrey, Hooker, 
Beck, Eaton &:c mean by their monoica^ which 
they do not describe, blending 4 or 5 sp, under 
that false name ; most of them have all the 
flowers perfect and fertile. 

5. Amph. deltifolia Raf stem twining with 
reflexed hairs, petiols short, folioles scabrous 
ciliate ovate deltoid, lateral obliqual, medial 
rhomboidal : racemes short equal to petiols, 
erect pauciflore, bracks ovate acute striate — 
From Canada and Missouri to New Jersey, the 
most common kind and probably the monoica 
of many botanists, but without imperfect flow- 
ers ; all with whitish petals, although many are 
abortive several Var. 1. hicarnata, 2 procera 8 
feet high &c. 

6. A3IPH. cuspiDATA Raf stem twining an- 
gular hairy, hairs patent fulvous, petiols very 
long, folioles ample ovate cuspidate nearly 
smooth, lateral obliqual : racemes elongate ra- 
mose, racemules 3-4flore, bracts ovate obtuse 
striate, equal to pedicels, calix smooth — Mts. 
Cumberland of East Kentucky, disc. 1823. 
Leaves large 3-4 inches, petiols 6-8 inches : 
flowers small, white. 



84 , G, AMPHICAHPA. 

Ail these plants are called Pea-Vines or 
Binders, and are much relished by cattle. 
They entwine over plants and shrubs, in woods 
and among rocks. All in my Autikon. Their 
blossoms are estival. 

7. LoBOMON AcuTiFOLiuitfRaf. Twining quite 
hispid, hairs adpressed, folioles equal ovate a- 
cute, glaucous and reticulate beneath : pedun- 
cles filiform l-3flore, bracts ovate lanceolate, 
calyx smooth, pods pubescent — Ohio, Illinois 
&c : flowers minute monoical or dioical, com- 
monly apetalous, sterile sessile, but fertile and 
pods with pedicels. 

8. LoBo SAIIMENTOSU3I Raf. Glycine do W. 
Amphlc. do Elliot .... Twining glabrous, fo- 
lioles ovate acute, peduncles filiform triflore, 
calix villose, pods smooth — Carolina, flowers all 
apetalous and seeds grey, spotted with black. 

9. Lob. obtusifolium Raf. Pilose, hairs 
spreading, twining stem, folioles elliptical ob- 
tuse or retuse, cuspidate glaucous, some ovate 
or rounded : flowers sessile, calix hirsute, pods 
sessie geminate pubescent — In Kentucky &c, 
monoical, flowers apetalous, upper ones sterile, 
2-3axillary sessile. 

10. Lob. montanum Raf. Glycine montana 
Raf. atl. Journ. Dioical, smooth, stem erect 
flexuose, folioles ovate acute ; peduncles uni- 
flore, pods and calix smooth — On the rocks of 
high hills in the Alleghanies of Pennsylvania, 
Juniata and Sherman Valleys. Only semipe- 
dal and root annual. 

The fecondation of these plants is a problem, 
and their apetalous structure a great anomaly. 
All in Autikon except 8. They form a pecu- 
liar group Tetrodes Raf. by their curious ano- 
malies, with Amphicarpa and the 2 next for<>- 
ign plants. 



G. AMPHICARPA. 85 

11. Geolobus flavus Raf. Glyc. suhterra- 
nea L. Stem procumbent flexuose, petiols erecti 
trigone, folioles oblong obtuse smooth : pedun- 
cles axillary drooping biflore, two bracts ovate 
incumbent over the 2 flowers — In South Ame- 
rica and perhaps Florida ? 

I must add here for further discrimination 
another fine N. G. united as usual to Glycine, 
and akin to the above. 

Triendilix Raf. calix 4fid closed, only 3 
petals concealed within it. Pods linear terete 
poly sperm. Perennial,, ttcining, peduncles 
axillary, jlowers minute. 

12. Triendilix clandestina Raf. Glycine 
do W. Pers . . . stem twining, villose silky, fo- 
lioles lanceolate, silky beneath, peduncles ter- 
nate uniflore — In Australia. Leaves with 3 
folioles as in all the true Glycine tribe. Tri- 
endiUx means three within the calix, abrevia- 
tion from Triendokilix,Geolobus means Earth- 
pod. Lobomon is an ancient Greek name for 
some kind of peas er beans. 



MONOGRAPH OF PELTANDRA. 

I noticed this Genus as early as 1804, I as- 
certained it in 1816, and published it in 1819 
in my Essay on 50 N. G. in Journal de Phy- 
sique Paris. It has been adopted by many Bo- 
tanists ; Torrey doubted it in 1817, yet in 1821 
he has admitted but misnamed it Lecontea, a 
double blunder, since there was another Lecon- 
tea! and my previous name was better. Beck 
in 1833 changed it again through ignorance of 
my previous claim to Renselaria. Each knew 
only of one type, while I have ascertained many: 



85 MONOGRAPH OF 

they had been blended in Arum and Caladl- 
um. The whole tribe of Aroides was in utter 
confusion ; but is rectified in my Flora Tellu- 
riana. 

PELTANDRA Raf. meaning shield sta- 
mens, 1819. Arum L. &.c Calla Mx. Caladium 
Elliot, Lecontea Torrey 1824, Renselaria 
Beck 1833. 

Spatha narrow involute tubulose, side split 
spadix inclosed quite geniferous, terete obtuse, 
pistils inferior, stigmas sessile capitate. An- 
thers confluent (sterile at the end of the spadix) 
peltate crenate multilocular on the sides. Ber- 
ries globose unequal 1 to 5 ovate seeds. Sea- 
pose leaves simple commonly cuspidate^ root 
tuberose. 

Remarks. This Genus includes several aqua« 
tic plants or growing in damp soils and mea- 
dows, while the other Aroides commonly avoid 
the Waters. They may be known by this pe- 
culiarity even out of bloom, as also by the cus- 
pidate leaves. The berries are green and con- 
taia a jelly with commonly several seeds, but 
often one only by abortion. Those seeds were 
eaten by the Indians, even the leaves are edible 
when boiled; the roots are thick, and tuberose, 
but not properly turnip like as in other Aroides. 
The flowers are vernal, and last only a few 
days in May or June, they do not bloom every 
year. Michaux reduced them to Calla that 
has mixt flowers and a style, because one sp. 
has a flat spatha as Calla ; this may form a 
Sub Genus. 

Leucospatha, Spathe cuculate, end dilatate, 
4 to 5 seeds — Peltandra, spathe involute, end 
narrow, 3 to 5 seeds. 

Renselaria, Ditto, Ditto, 1 or 2 seeds. 



PELTANDUA. 87 

1. Pelt^andra undulata Raf. 1819. Petiols 
equal to leaves striate dimidiate, leaves sa- 
gittate nndulate oblong cuspidate lobes oblong 
obtuse, scape striate terete punctate of black, 
spatha subequal, base inflate, split in the mid- 
dle, margin undulate, end narrow involute. In 
the Alleghany and Mattawan mts, also in New 
Jersey &.c, it flowers in June, spathe lucid 
blackish green, margin yellow, spadix white, 
young petiols glandular, leaves 5 to 10 inches 
long. This was the type of my Peltandra 
having 3 to 5 seeds. It is hard to say which 
Authors have seen that species but blended it 
with the next. It was probably the real Arum 
Virginicurn of Clayton and Linneus. 

2. Peltandra canadensis Raf. Arum sa- 
gittatum foliiselongatis, Charlevoix pi. canad. 
fig. 81. Arum Virginicum of many botanists, 
Lecontea virg. Torrey. Renselaria virg. Beck. 

Petiols elongate terete not punctate, leaves 
oblong flat hastate cordate, cuspidate, lobes ob- 
tuse: scapes several subcarinate, spatha lan- 
ceolate involute, margin undulate — In Canada, 
New York, New England and Pennsylvania. 
This is the type of Renselaria having only 1 
or 2 ripe seeds, easily known by flat leaves se- 
mipedal, long petiols not dimidiate &lc. 

3. Peltandra latifolia Raf. Petiols short 
dimidiate flat above, leaves broad triangular 
sagittate, undulate cuspidate, lobes divaricate 
obtuse ; scapes several terete incurved, berries 
often one seeded — In the waters of marshes, 
ponds, creeks, in south New Jersey and Dela- 
ware, leaves often one foot long and broad : not 
rare there, but seldom found in flowers. It be- 
long to subgenus Renselaria, but is quite dis- 



88 MONOtillAPII OF 

tihct from the last. The P, Walteri is very 
akin, hut has acute lobes. 

4. Peltandra heteropliyla Raf. Petiols une- 
qual terete, leaves variable oblong cuspidate, or 
ovatoblong hardly sagittate or nearly auriculate 
or base often entire obliqual, lobes unequal 
rounded short or ovate obtuse — With the last 
in the same places, even near Philadelphia in 
the Schuylkill, but rare, seldom seen in flovv^ers, 
berries 1-3 seeded, different leaves out of the 
same root. 

5. Peltandra hastata Raf. Arum Virgin- 
icum Elliot. Petiols vaginated at base, leaves 
equal in length oblong, hastate cordate acumi- 
nate, lobes subacute ; spatha oblong acute re- 
pand, spadix equal, — In Carolina and Florida, 
it blossoms in April there says Elliot, the ber- 
ries have several seeds, and thus it is a Leu- 
cospatha like the next. 

6. Peltandra alba Raf. Calla sagittifolia 
mx. Caladius glaucum Elliot. Leaves glaucous 
hastate cordate acuminate, lobes oblong obtuse 
divaricate, petiols elongate ; scape short, spatha 
cuculate oval lanceolate, white, end dilatate — 
In Carolina and probably all over the southern 
States; Elliot says the berries are red and 
with several seeds. The white flowers and red 
berries will distinguish this ; they are both green 
in the others. This will be the type of Leucos- 
patha and may have some other peculiar char- 
acters in the flowers to make it a Genus — Thus 

1 have fully ascertained 4 sp. in the North and 

2 in the South ; but there are 2 other doubtful 
sp. there. 

7. Peltandra Walteri Raf. Arum sagitti- 
folium Walter, Arum Walteri Elliot. Leaves 
triangular sagittate, angles divaricate acute. 



PKLTANDHA. 89 

In Carolina, not well described, but very near 
P. latifolia, said to be larger than P. kastata 
with similar flowers. 

8. Peltandra angustifolia Raf. Calla Vir- 
ginica Var. Michaux. Leaves hastate cordate 
narrow oblong, lobes obtuse, spatlia elongate 
incurved — Virginia &c, in this sp. Michaux 
has blended probably the sp. 1, 2 aud 4, but the 
narrow leaves and incurved spatha indicate a 
peculiar species. 



MONOGRAPH OF LECHEA. 

AND THE SUBGENERA MENANDRA, EUDIEXA ^C» 

Linneus had only two sp. of Lechea^ having 
reduced to that Genus the Menandra of Gro- 
vonius. His L. minor and major jfigured in 
Amer. Acad. 3. tab. 1. have been apphed at 
random by nearly all the botanists to any other 
Species, till Michaux who added 3 sp. and 
Wildenow L. verticill^ita of India, which I 
doubt to be of this Genus, as it appears to be 
strictly North American. I shall now increase 
it to 21 sp. and divide it into 3 subgenera that 
miglit perhaps become as many Genera. 

The essential characters of this Genus were 
also widely mistaken. Linneus put it into tri- 
andria trigynia, altho' the stamens vary from 3 
to 12, and there are not 3 styles, but a single 
trilobe sessile plumose stigma ! The Capsule 
is not one seeded as stated by most of Authors, 
unless sometimes by abortion ; but it has 3 or 
6 seeds : nor is that capsule 31ocular nor with 
double valves as stated by others, it is strictly 
unilocular, with 3 free placentas mistaken for 
valves, or partitions. The calix is not single 
12 



90 3IONOGRAPH OF 

as stated, but commonly double, the outward 
of 2 sepals, being mistaken for bracts, altho' 
they persist in the fruit, and are quite similar to 
the extra sepals of the Cistidian tribe to which 
this Genus evidently belongs, notwithstanding 
the reduced stamens and seeds. This Genus 
is in fact so nei3r to Anthelis (Helianthemum 
T.) that the main distinction consists only in 3 
petals instead of 5, and it is supposed that the 
original L. major of Lin. was also his Cistus 
canadensis ! or a variety of it ! 

Characters of LECHE A if kept as a single 
Genus. Calix double and persistent, external 
bipartite seldom lacking,sepals narrower, inter- 
nal tripartite. Petals 3 small narrow, equal 
obtuse and fugacious. Stam 3 to 12, filiform, 
anthers bilobe. Stigma large sessile capitate 
trilobe floccose or plumose or papillose. Cap- 
sule unilocular trivalve, 3 to 9 seeds inserted on 
3 small free placentas, sometimes only one by 
abortion. Small annuals or perennials with 
terete stiff branching stem, leaves ternate or 
ojJjfosite scattered simple entire and sub- 
sessile, flowers estiral evanescent paniculate 
or racemose, not yellow — Vulgar name Pin- 
weed, 

1. ME?fANDRA, FI. Virg. of Gronovius. Ex- 
ternal calix with 2 short sepals or almost lack- 
ing. Stamens 6 to 9, seeds 1 to 3. Leaves 
often ternate, and flowers racemose. Peren- 
nials. 

2. Lechea, Ext. cahx equal in length to the 
internal. Stamens 6 to 12, seeds 1 to 3. floic- 
ers spicate panictdate, some stems sterile, 

3. ErDiEXA Raf, (well 2 external) Ext. ca- 
lix longer than the internal. Stamens 3 to 6. 
Seeds 3 to 9. Chiefly annuals. 



LECHEA. 91 

The mistakes about these plants have arisen 
from few Botanists seeing their anthesis or full 
bloom, which like many Cistides, only last a few 
hours towards noon: the petals soon after 
wither, and the stamens collapse or are glued 
to the stigma. But the characters now assum- 
ed on the persistent respective length of the ca- 
lix, will always be perspicuous. I have speci- 
mens of all the described species. 

MENANDRA. 

1. L. PULciiELLA Raf. quite smooth, stem 
stiff virgate, leaves scattered long linear acute ; 
flowers paniculate and lax in naked racemes, 
bracts none, ext. sepals subulate, internal ovate 
obtuse, petals elliptic obtuse incarnate, capsule 
obovate. — In the Pine barrens of New Jersey, 
probably extending South; probably the Ij, 
racemidosa of many Botanists, but not Mx. 
which is pubescent with ciliate leaves. It is a 
very pretty sp. when in full bloom in August, 
the calix being red inside, the petals incarnate 
the large stigma v/hite. The erect stiff stem 
produces hundreds of flowers at once, it is 
about one foot high, and only branched above. 
Several varieties 1. Minor ^ only 2 to 4 inches 
high, panicle leafy. 2. Elegans, over a foot 
high, panicle fastigiate. 3. Pyramidalis. 
Branches pyramidal. 

2. L. ciNEREA Raf. (L. thymifolia Mx. Slc) 
adpressed pubescent,cinereous fastigiate, leaves 
scattered narrow linear adpressed; racemes 
paniculate pauciflore subnaked, flowers canes- 
cent outside, sepals lanceolate acute, capsule 
oblong longer. — In Florida and Georgia : deem- 
ed L. racemidosa by Collins, easily known by 
its color, perhaps the real thymifolia ? 

3. L. TERNiroLiA Raf. (Menandra ramis ter- 



93 MONOGRAPH OF 

nis, Gronov.) Stem paniculate above, adpressed 
pubescent, leaves and branches mostly ternate 
cuneate acute ciliate nearly smooth ; racemes 
paniculate lax nearly naked, peduncles elon- 
gate, capsules oblong — In Virginia, New Jer- 
sey and probably elsewhere. This must be the 
real L. racemulosa of Mx. who quotes Grono- 
vius. Pedal, calix colored of red as in L, 
pulchella. 

4. L. FURFURACEA Raf. Pubesccnt pulveru- 
lent, stem erect, branches fastigiate above, 
leaves narrow linear scattered nearly obtuse ; 
racemules terminal naked,pedicels unequal,ext. 
cal. subulate very short, internal rounded, cap- 
sules globose — In Kentucky and Illinois, 6 to 
10 inches high, flowers greenish oatside, with 
a yellow furfie. Nearest to L. cinerea, easily 
known by the mealy pubescence and globose 
capsules. 

5. L. LAXIFLOUA Raf smooth, stem erect 
paniculate, branches lax, leaves scattered li- 
near cuneate acuminate ciliate ; racemes scat- 
tered lax, flowers remote naked, pedicels elon- 
gate, calix and capsules ovate — In New Jersey' 
Pine Woods with L. pulchella, to which akin, 
difference in leaves chiefly, flowers green not 
red outside. Var bremfolia semipedal, fl. red- 
ish, leaves shorter more cuneate hardly ciliate. 

6. L. TENUiFOLiA Mx. Elliot or L. verna Raf. 
L. juncifolia Walter) humble dumose pilose, 
stems assurgent, branches spreading, leaves 
scattered subulate linear, racemes paniculate 
divaricate ; flowers remote axillary solitary, 
capsules globose large — said to grow on the R. 
Santi of Carolina, and to blossom earlier than 
any other in April and May, no external calix 
according to Elliot, yet very near to some En- 
diejca with long ext. calix. 



LECHEA. 93 

7. L. RECURVATA Raf. Hispid assnrgent, 
branches opposite and ternate, leaves broad 
oblong acute at both ends ciliate ; racennes spi- 
cate recur vate unilateral, pedicels very short, 
sepals oval, capsules globose — In Carolina and 
Virginia, akin to L. ternifolla (perhaps the 
true Menandra of Gr.) leaves and fruit differ- 
ent, calix redish, seeds convex and concave. 

LECHEA OR LEKEA. 

8. L. MucRONATA Raf, precis 1814. villosa 
Elliot 1820, major of Walter and Mx not Lin. 
— Villose, stem erect, sterile stems prostrate, 
leaves opposite and ternate below, chiefly lan- 
ceolate, mucronate, on short petiols ; flowers in 
compound spikes axillary to foliaceous bracts, 
ext. sepals acute reflexed in anthesis, internal 
sepals obtuse, capsules ovate villose. — From 
New England to Carolina, the most common 
sp. but not the linnean L. 7najor with leaves 
rough above, tomentose beneath and scattered 
flowers ; which is the real Cishis Canadensisl 
Flowers subsessile,ext. sepals linear, adpressed 
in the fruit, internal sepals lanceolate, petals 
lanceolate obtuse, commonly 3 seeds oblong 
acute with an angle inside. Several varieties 
1. Simplex my original sp. stem nearly simple, 
leaves oblong cuneate, bracts oblong. " 2. Ra- 
mosa, branches spreading above, leaves ovate 
lanceolate, bracts lanceolate. Original speci- 
men sent me by Elliot from Carolina. 3 Ses- 
silifloi'a, leaves lanceolate, petiols very hairy, 
branches fastigiate, spikes axillary and short, 
flowers sessile. From Missouri. All peren- 
nials. 

9. L. iiETEROPTiYLA Raf. L. miuor Smith, 
stem paniculate above, adpressed pubescent, 



94 MONOGRAPH OF 

leaves commonly ternate, lower obovate, sub- 
sessile, upper cuneate and linear petiolate acute 
smooth ; racemes panicul. lax subnaked, pedi- 
cels equal to fl. Internal sepals lanceol. acute 
carinate, capsules ovate — Kentucky and Illi- 
nois in woods and glades, trigone, ext. sepals 
subequal linear. Several varieties, 1 major, 
2 minor, 3 parvijfora, lower leaves caducous, 
flowers small fuscate. It has no sterile stems. 
Perennial, 

10. h. GLOMERATA Raf. smooth, branches 
short adpressed, leaves variable oblong, lanceo- 
late or cuneate, petiolate mucronate ; flowers 
axillary and terminal on short pedicels, glome- 
rate, sepals ovate acute carinate, capsules sub- 
globose — Apalachian mts. pedal, no sterile 
stems, calix trigone over the fruit, external se- 
pals linear — Perennial. 

11. L. coRYMsosA Raf. stem erect rough, 
above pilose corymbose, leaves petiolate broad 
oblong nearly obtuse, pubescent, ciliate ; flow- 
ers corymbose, pedicels equal to flowers, sepals 
round concave, ext. linear, capsules globose — 
Mts. Alleghany, 6 to 12 inches high, leaves 
small, capsules large with 3 to 6 seeds, disco- 
vered 1818, 

12. L. suRcuLosA Raf. stem with spreading 
branches, sterile stems prostrate pilose, with 
leaves ternate ovatoblong acute ciliate petiolate 
branches smooth with leaves opposite and al- 
ternate smooth linear ; flowers paniculate, pe- 
dicels equal, bracts subulate, ext. sepals linear, 
internal ovate acute, capsules ovate — In Penn- 
sylvania on dry hills, the L. minor of some Au- 
thors, stem 3 to 6 inches, leaves and flowers 
small. 

13. L. REVOLUTA Raf. minor of Lin. not of 



LECMEA. 95 

Smith nor other Authors. Stem erect, bran- 
ches opposite and ternate, leaves 3-4nate or op- 
posite, lower ovate, upper Hnear lanceol. scat- 
tered petiolate, smootli above, pubescent be- 
neath, margin revokite, flowers paniculate — 
Found by Kalm in Canada woody glades. 
This description is taken from Linneus alto- 
gether, and agrees very well with some speci- 
mens I have from the Alleghanies of Pennsylv. 
the flowers are small, the capsules ovate &c, 
Smith says L. blended others with this. 

14. L. viRGATA Raf. stem simple virgate pu- 
bescent, leaves scattered or 2-3-4 nate mixt, 
petiolate linear cuneate ciliate acuminate ; ra- 
cemes axillary short paucifiore, pedicels equal 
to fl. sepals ovate acute carinate, external lin- 
ear, capsules ovate. — In the Ailegh. Mts. pe- 
dal, var. 1. J5rei7/^orrt, semipedal, lower leaves 
oblong, short, racemes very short 2-3flore. 2 
Bracteata pedal, lower leaves oblong, racemes 
longer than leaves, base foliose ; end 5-7flore. 
The sp. 9, 10 and 14 with carinate trigone ca- 
lix deserve perhaps to form another subgenus 
TROPE^DRIA Raf. 

15. L. FLORiDANA Raf. suiooth, diffuse ra- 
mose, branches filiform, leaves scattered, mi- 
nute linear, racemes paniculate paucifiore na- 
ked, pedicels long unequal, sepals and capsules 
ovate — Found by Mr. Ware in Florida, small 
subdichotome, few leaves and flowers ; habit of 
JEudiexa, but the ext. calix equal in length, 
tho' narrower as usual : probably annual. 

EUDIEXA. 

16. L. SECUNDiFLORA Raf. smooth, stems 
diffuse paniculate, leaves scattered lax narrow 
Hnear, racemes subspicate, flowers remote se- 



96 >IOi\OGRAPn OF 

cund, pedicels short, ext. cal. double of the in- 
ternal linear, internal silky lanceolate, capsules 
oblong — Discovered 1823 in the glades of West 
Kentucky, rare, 6 inches high, small flowers, 
petals white oblong obtuse, stigma red, 3 oblong 
seeds in the capsules. It blossoms in June and 
July. Annual. Is it L. thymifolia Smith? 
which is an Eudiexa ! certainly not that of Mx. 
neither have the leaves like thyme. 

17. L. PAUciFLORA Raf. adpressed pubescent 
stem humble diffuse ramose, leaves scattered, 
slender,linear cuneate, imbricate rather obtuse, 
flowers few scattered extraxillary, pedicels 
short, sepals smooth, external a little longer, 
capsules globose — Near the Sea Shore in Long 
Island and New Jersey, small plant only 3 
inches high, it blossoms in July. Annual. 

18. L. BREviFOLiA Raf. adpressed pilose, 
branches fastigiate, leaves scattered petiolate 
short, lanceolate or oblong ciliolate mucronu- 
late ; racemes erect, bracteoles linear lanceol. 
flowers secund, pedicels equal, ext. sepals not 
much longer, capsules ovate — Mts. Apalaches, 
semipedal, very distinct sp. by petiolate short 
leaves. Annual. 

19. L. UNiFLORA Raf. Smooth, stem slender 
angular with few leaves, above naked, subuni- 
flore, leaves scattered adpressed narrow linear 
cuneate ; sepals membranaceous, ext. sepals 
oblong obtuse not much longer, internal ovate 
obtuse, capsule globose about 6 seeded — Sum- 
mit of the Alleghany Mts. of Maryland, disc. 
1825, only 3 or 4 inches high, only 5 or Cleaves 
and 1 or 2 flowers. Capsule commonly with 6 
oval seeds. 

20. L. STELLATA Raf. Pilose, stem erect 
nearly simple, leaves 3-4nate petiolate elliptic 



lechea. 97 

mucronate. upper leav es alternate lanceolate : 
racemes foliose, pedicels shorter, ext. sepals 
very long, capsules ovatoblong — New York and 
Ohio, often mistaken for L. mllosa^ pedal, es- 
tival, sepals linear and ovate. 

21. L. sESSiLiFLORA Raf. adprcssed pilose, 
branches diffuse virgate, leaves scattered, 
spreading, petiolate, linear ciliate acute ; flow- 
ers axillary subspicate or glomerate sessile,ext. 
sepals linear not much longer, internal lanceo- 
late. In Florida and Alabama, near to \i, 
/>rti«6*/^orrt, main difference leaves petiolate ci- 
liate acute. Near also to I^. floridana, but 
flowers sessile. 

It would have been diflicult to designate 
which of these plants may have been seen and 
blended with those of Michaux by our Botanists 
since Torrey, Beck, Nuttal, Pursh, Katon, El- 
liot &c seldom describe those they have seen, 
and never noticed the peculiar characters of 
the calix, capsules and seeds, on which I have 
chiefly based my subgenera and species; most 
of which are very distinct, and not likely to be 
overlooked again, if my characters are duly at- 
tended to, and even more sp. may be detected. 

As to L. verticillata of the East Indies, it is 
probably a peculiar Genus, being stated to have 
the habit of Spermacoce, with opposite leaves 
elliptic serrulate, smooth above, rough beneath, 
and the flowers verticillate. Is it a Rubiacea 
with adherent ovary ? 

The L. chinensis of Loureiro is still more 
widely different, being a Commelineal (of what 
Genus?) according to Smith and Dunal. The 
monograph of Smith in Rees cyclop, may be 
consulted, he has exposed the blunders of L. 
and expressed a wish for a better labor like 

13 



98 MONOftRAPH OF LECHEA. 

mine on this Genus, having only 6 sp. of it, and 
Dunal in Decandole 1824 has no more, he chie- 
fly copies Elhot. We lack good figures of 
these plants, that with our Hudsonias chiefly 
represent the Cistian tribe in N. America. 

If ever this G. must be again illustrated, let 
the monographer copy the original descriptions 
of all the Authors, and compare them. Mine 
are all original and chiefly out of living speci- 
mens. 

The L. minor of Smith had sub corymbose 
flowers and carinate calix, being probably my 
L. heterophyla. That of Pursh and Dunal 
can hardly be identified by me : that erroneous 
name must be omitted. The Ij. major of 
Bigelow is Anfhclis ro5wi«rmf/o//«, in Decan- 
dole who makes a Subgenus Leeheoides of all 
our Americaan Anthells, see my monographs 
of Hndsonia and Anthelis. (lielianthemum.) 

Lechea was dedicated to Prof Leche of Abo 
by Linneus, it must be pronounced Ijekea and 
perhaps spelt so. Menandra of Gronoviiis 
might have been adopted instead, although the 
meaning moon stamens does not properly 
apply. 



END OF FIRST PART, 



99 



INDEX OF GENERA, 

SUBGE^VERA AND SVNONYMS OF THE LEXICON. 

Synonyms are in Italics— References to 
the Pages 



Abalon page 33. 
Aba ma 34. 
Abbottia 36. 
Abies 37. 
Abrus 39. 
Abutilon 39. 
Acakia 41. 
Acalypba 43. 
Acanthus 46. 
Acer 47. 

Acerotis Acerates 49. 
Achania 49. 
Achillea 50. 
Achlys 51. 
Achras 51. 
Achyranthes 51. 
Acmella 51. 
Acmispon 53. 
Acnida 53. 
Aconitum 55 
Acorus 57. 
Acroanthes 58. 
Acrostichum 59. 
Actaea 60. 
Actinea, actineUa 60. 
Actimeris 60. 
Actispermum 61. 
Adelia 62. 
Adenarium 62, 
Adenocaulon 62. 
Adenogyna 62. 
Adianthum 63. 



Adike 63. 
Adicea 63. 
Adlumia 63. 
Adnaria 66. 
Adoketon 65, 
Adonis 66. 
Adorium 66. 
Adoxa 67. 
Adventina 67. 
Anomantha 61. 
Anomeris 61. 
Arenaria 62. 
Amphicarpa 81. 
Amosa 41. 
Anthericum 36. 
Antadenimn 49. 
Anthemis 51. 
Balduina 61. 
Bigelowia 62. 
Borya 62. 
Caladium 86, 
Calla 88. 
Cauloma 61. 
Clinotrox 47, 
Coridalis 63. 
Coreopsis 61, 
Conradia 34. 
Critonia 73. 
(jupameni 43. 
Darlingtonia 42. 
Datisca 53, 
Diadesma 41. 



iOO 



INDEX. 



Diciinotrys 33. 
Eburnax 4% 
Eriocarpum 47. 
Eudiexa 90. 
Evotrium 47. 
Eupatorium 73. 
Fiimaria 63. 
Geolobus 81, 85. 
Glycine 81. 
Helepta 52. 
Helonias 33. 
Holosteum 62. 
Horikenya 62. 
Julibrisin 41. 
Jiincus 36. 
Kuhnia 73. 
Lavatera 40, 
Lechea 89. 
Leptilix 34. 
Leontice 51. 
Ti€Contea 85. 
Leucospatha 86. 
Lobomon 81. 
Lotus 53. 
Malaxis 58. 
Mahnviscus 49. 
MahincJa 39. 
MaratJirum 66. 
Melanthium 33. 
Megactelis 61. 
Menandra 90. 
Microstylis 58. 
Mimosa 42. 



Narthecium 35. 
Negimdiuni 48. 
Nudilus 62. 
Oliglossis 61. 
Olsynium 72. 
Ophrys 59. 
Otanema 49. 
Paltrima 36. 
Pedicularis 46., 
Peltandra 85. 
Pinus 37. 
Ptilepida 60. 
Renselaria 86. 
Saccharodendrun 47. 
Saxifraga 63. 
Schrankia 42. 
Seseli 66. 
Sida 39. 
Sisyrincbium 72. 
Sphendamus 48. 
Spilanthus 51. 
Synotelis 59. 
Tetrodea 81. 
Tojjelda 34. 
Triantha 35. 
Triendilix 85. 
Tristemon 36. 
Triglochin 36. 
Trigonella 53. 
Urtica 63. 
Vacciniutn 65. 
Veratrum 33. 
Verbeshm. 61. 



NOTICE. 



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rr=== —n T= - ==7! 

NEW FLORA 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA, 

BY 

PROF. RAFINESaUE. 

SECOi^D PART. 

Neophyton. 

PHILADELPHIA 

1836. 

■" 



]^EOpnyToi\ 

NEW FLORA 

AND BOTANY 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA. 

BEING A SUPPLEMENTAL FLORA, 

To the various Floras and Botanical Works 
of Michaux, Muhlenberg, Pursh, Nuttal, El- 
liot, Torrey, Beck, Eaton, Bigelow, Barton, 
Robin, Hooker, Riddell, Darlington, Schweinitz 
Gibbs, &c. 

Besides the great works of Linneus, Wilde- 
now, Vahl, Vitman, Persoon, Laniark, Decan- 
dole, Sprengel, Jussieu, Adanson, Necker, 
Lindley, &c. Containing nearly 500 additional 
or revised New Genera, and 1500 additional 
or corrected New Species, illustrated by figures 

in AUTIKON BOTANIKON. 

BY C. S. RAFINESaUE, A. M.— PH. D. 

Prof, of Botany, the historical and natural sciences — 
Member of many learned Societies of Paris, Vienna. 
Bonn, Bruxelles, Bordeaux, Zurich, Naples, &c. and 
in Philadelphia, New York, Cincinati, Lexington, &c. 



The Floral wealth in this wide land concealed. 
Will be at last by learned cure revealed. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER. 

1836. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



NEW FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

A complete history and biography of our 
Botanists and botanical writers, would form a 
very interesting preamble to a general Flora, 
but might be misplaced in this mantissa, be- 
sides occupying too much space. The history 
of orders. Genera and Species, or the account 
of their names, forms, qualities, cultivation &.c. 
might be a work of itself, but shall be partly 
attended to in the descriptive parts : the me- 
dical and economical uses of 600 medical gene- 
ra, have been already detailed in my medical 
Flora, to which I shall add at some future 
period a Supplement upon 200 additional me- 
dical Genera, since ascertained or elucidated. 

It was my intention to insert here an alpha- 
betical Catalogue of all our Botanists and 
their works or labors ; I had collected ample 
materials for this ; but as I hope to obtain 
additions thereto, I will delay it for another 
number of this work : meantime I shall be 
happy to receive any such information of all 
th« Botanists who may yet be unknown to me. 

In the last Century our Botanists were few 
and mostly foreign travellers. From 1800 to 
1816 they had gradualy increased, but from 
1816 to 1836 for 20 years past, I have had the 
pleasure to see the lovely Science of Botany 
gradualy spreading, and the number of Bota- 
nists greatly increased, chiefly in the North ; 
while now this Science begins to be taught in 
schools, and thus acquires many votaries. 

The Floras published last Century were 

chiefly Gronovius or Clayton's Flora Virginica, 

^nd Walker's Flora Caroliniana, both very 



4 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

superficial; but Kalm, Bartram, Castiglione, 
Schoepf, Barton, Mason, Muhlenberg, Mi- 
chaux, Cutler, Bosc, Kin, Denke, (fee. had 
then begun their researches. The first general 
Catalogue of the North American plants then 
known was published in 1771 by Forster ; the 
second by Muhlenberg in 1812 : our first Flora 
by Michaux (editor Richard) came out in 1803, 
the second by Pursh in 1814; no other has 
since been attempted, except Nuttal's on Gene- 
ra and the periodical compilations of Eaton, 
owing to the vast increase of materials, as Bo- 
tanists began to settle themselves over the 
States, making the new attempt no easy task. 
But several local or Sectional Floras have 
been published that have greatly added to our 
general knowledge of particularly regions. 

Among these must be particularly mentioned 
with praise. 

Elliot — flora of the Southern States, under 
the modest title of sketch of Botany. 18 16 to 
1820. 

Robin — flora of Lousiana, revised and im- 
proved by myself in 1817. 

Torrey — flora and Compendium of the North- 
ern States, 1826. 

Beck — Botany of the Northern and Mid- 
dle States, 1333. 

Bigelow — Flora Bostoniensis. 

W. P. C. Barton — Flora Philadelphica. 

Hooker — Flora of the British possessions, or 
Canada and Boreal America, including New 
Sibiria yet in progress. 

Darlington, Florula Cestrica 2 editions. 

Torrey — Florula or plants of upper Missouri 
collected by James. 

Nuttal — ^^Florula of Origon Mts. collected by 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 5 

Wyeth, Florida by Ware and his florula Ar- 
kanzica — Besides my own florulas Mandanen- 
sis, Texensis, Oregonensis, Arkanzica, Oliien- 
sis, Missourica, «Slc. But the number of mere 
Catalogues has been much more numerous ; 
they are of course superficial and full of mis- 
taken plants or names yet they have been use- 
ful in enlarging our views of the range of plants, 
and the localities of the rare ones. They be- 
gan last Century by Muhlenberg flora Lan- 
castriensis, and Cutler of Massachusets full of 
mistakes — The principal in this Century have 
been. 

Drayton — plants of South Carolina. 

Rafinesque — Florulas Delawarica and Co- 
lumbica, 1804. 

Barton — Florula Philadelphica. 

Torrey — Flora of New York. 

Green — Catalogue of plants of the State of 
New York. 

Brereton — Flora of District Columbia. 

Mrs Gambold — Florula Cherokensis, first 
female Botanical writer. 

Riddell — Flora of the Western States, with 
some new Sp. 

S Florula of Natchitoches. 

Rafinesque — Florula Kentukensis, 1824. 

Short and Eaton — Catalogue of Kentucky 
plants. 

Gibbs — Florula of plants near Colombia. 

Williams — Plants of Florida. 

Schweinitz — Plants of North Pennsylvania. 

Bradbury — Florula Missurica. 

Hooker — Florula Islandica. 

Tully — Plants of New Haven, Connecticut. 

Muhlenberg — General Catalogue of North 
American Plants. 1812 and 1818. 



6 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Eddy — Flora plandomensis in Long Island. 

Croom and Loomis — Plants of Florida. 

Monographs of Families or Genera are far 
more useful than Catalogues, because they en- 
large our knowledge of Species, and make us 
acquainted with them. Among these I must 
chiefly mention Schweinitz — Fungi and He- 
patica — Carex and Viola. 

Torrey — On Cyperacea. 

Grey — On Rhynchospora. 

Leconte — On Utricularia, Ruellia. 

Dewey — On Carexides nearly 200Sp. deem- 
ed still a Genus. 

Rafinesque — On Vitis. Trillium, Gentiana, 
Heuchera, Houstonia, Rosa, Lysimachia. 

Michaux — On Oaks or Quercus. 

Muhlenberg — On Willows or Salix. 

Bosc — On Fraxinus. Nuttal, on Sarrazinia. 

Muhlenberg, on Grasses. 

Halsey, on Lichens. 

Sylvas or Dendrologies are also monographs 
of our Trees and Shrubs ; tbey have been given 
by Marshall, Philadelphica 1784. 

Castiglione, in Italian 1790. 

Vangenheim. in Germany with figures. 

Michaux, in France with figures, and a late 
compiled translation has lately appeared in 
New England with wood cuts. 

My New Sylva or Supplement to our Trees 
and Shrubs, will be additional in this work. 

Iconographical Works like those of Catesby, 
Abbot, Lamark illustrations, the Enghsh Bota- 
nical magazines ^c. are too costly to succeed 
with us — Dr. W. P. C. Barton, flora of North 
America on this plan, could only extend to a 
couple of volumes and about 120 Species ! His 
Medical Flora and that of Bigelow extended 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 7 

only to a few selected medical plants — mine has 
100 wood cuts — Brereton botanical Journal, a 
Horticult. Journal in Baltimore, another in 
Philadelphia by Landreth, have only reached 
one or a few numbers. Audubon in his splen- 
did work on Birds, has given many inaccurate 
figures of Trees and Shrubs, similar to those of 
Catesby — The best figures were those of Mi- 
chaux and Pursh, but those of Hooker now ex- 
ceed them still. I have published few of my 
own; many engraved in 1807 for me, were 
mostly lost before publication. I have reserved 
my labors in that way for my Icones rariorum 
yet mpt. and my Autikon Botanikon or plan 
of Self figures by specimens : of which Grey's 
Grasses is as yet the only imitation with us. 
A splended flora of Newfoundland was be- 
gan in France, but has not been completed. 

The miscellaneous or partial labors on our 
Botany are very numerous, including tracts, 
essays, descriptions of single plants &c,. scat- 
tered in the transactions of our learned societies, 
Journals and periodicals &c, to seek for them 
is often a task or difficult matter. Several mo- 
nographs of New Genera and Species are thus 
scattered Jeffersonia, Heterandra^ Tullya, 
liophactis, Polanisia, Nemopafithes, Col- 
linsia, Clintonia. Many may be found in 
Silliman's physical Journal. 

Nuttal's Genera of N. America and Eaton's 
manual of Botany are two of the most striking 
and useful as general miscellanies. Eaton's 
has had the luck to go through several editions 
as a school book ; but each Edition is different, 
enlarged or revised ; yet very defective in 
general, and lacking nearly all my new plants. 



8 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Several elements of Botany by Locke, Richy 
Comstock, Sumner, Nuttal, Grey, and others 
have been published for the use of Schools 
chiefly. None have yet made us familiar with 
the improvements of Decandole, Richard, 
Agardh &c. Lindley has been reprinted. My 
improvements in philosophical Botany will be 
recapitulated in the Introduction to my Flora 
Tellukiana. 

My own miscellaneous works are not few, 
New Genera and Species, 1808 in Mitchell's 
Med. and Phil, repository. Elements of Semi- 
ology — Analysis of Nature — Reviews of Pursh, 
Nuttal, Eaton, Elliot, Bigelow &c. Decad& 
of new plants 1818 — 50 New Genera of plants 
1819— Neogenyton or 66 New Genera 1825 
Annals of Nature 1820.— medical flora 1828 
to 1830— Atlantic Journal 1832 with 150 N. 
G. or Sp. — Herbarium Rafinesquianum 1833. 

Botanical remarks and novelties in the Brux- 
cells Annals of Science 1820 — New plants in 
Mirror of Sciences 1814 — Precis des Decouver- 
tes 1814 &c,. &c. 

In fact I have been accused of having scattered 
too much my botanical discoveries and labors ; 
but I mean now to concentrate them in this 
work. Nuttal's rare plants of Florida and 83 
new of various parts, with Asa Grey 4 rare 
plants of New York are miscellaneous labors 
like mine. 

Our Botanists besides writers may be divided 
into Collectors, Travellers, Amateurs and Hor- 
ticulturalists. 

Those who have written but little, or merely 
some sketch, are Baldwin, Croom, Thomas, 
Aikin, Conrad, Oakes, Peck, Houghton, School- 
craft, Waterhouse, Locke, James, Halsey, 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 9 

Kmmons, Cooper, Torrey, Leavenworth, Mitch- 
ell, Pickering, Boykin, Short, Peters, H. H. 
Eaton, Loomis,Cooley,Clinton, Booth, Leitner, 
the two brothers Green and Leconte with some 
others. Several are yet living and may do 
more hereafter. 

Those who have never published any thing, 
ciltho' they collected Herbals, and were practi- 
cal Botanists, are chiefly Collins, Miller, Wray, 
Pitcher, Hall, Vanvleck, Lyons, Herbemont, 
Habersham, Squib, Enslen, Boykin, Williams, 
Hitchcock, Kingston, Ingalls, Simmons, Gri- 
swold,Gates,WhitIow,Knevels,Steinhauer,Gais- 
senhauer, Durand, Griffith, Fisher, Mac Wil- 
liams, with many others mentioned by Elliot, 
Hooker and Eaton as having helped their labors. 
These collectors are often very useful to the 
others by imparting specimens, localities and 
facts : their number is increasing, and several 
may yet become writers or improvers. 

It is from such that I have received much 
help by gifts or exchanges of specimens, new 
facts and observations. I have reckoned par- 
ticularly among my friends and assistants, Col- 
lins, Durand, Miller, Short (2 brothers and a 
sister) Walton, Hall, Carr, Hingston. Mac Wil- 
liams, Vanvleck, Gaissenhauer, Ward, Mease, 
Bradbury, Kin, Ridgely, Mrs. Holley born 
Austin, Hart, Crocket, Limner, Duval, Law- 
rence, Knevel. &c. 

But I have received also many specimens 
from professed Botanists, Muhlenberg, Torrey, 
Beck, Schweinitz, Elliot, Cutler, Eaton, Brad- 
bury, Brickell, Halley. Short, Eddy &'c. all 
American Botanists, chiefly by exchanges of 
my own or purchases; besides some Ameri- 
can plants received form foreign Botanists 

2 



10 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Decandole, Sheperd, Haworth, Tratenick, Sei- 
ber, Moricand, Bory, Swainson, Romer, &.c. 

Botanical travelers who merely come to ex- 
plore our Plants in order to send them to Eu- 
ropean Gardens or Herbals,are also numerous : 
the fruits of their exertions are chiefly made 
known to us by European Writers. Such were 
Kalm, Mason. Michaux, Vanderschot, Casti- 
glione, Bosc, Palissot, Turpin, Acosta, Rich- 
ardson, Goldie, Drummond, Douglass, Macnab, 
Enslen, Lyons, Kin, Bradbury, Rustan, Berich. 

Among our native traveling collectors, I must 
mention Bartram, Lewis and Clark, James, 
Schoolcraft, Baldwin, Peters, Cozen, Ware, 
Wyeth, Gates, Houghton, Pitcher, Walton, «Slc. 
who have often explored far regions, and dis- 
covered many new plants. 

The distant regions of Origon have chiefly 
been visited by Makenzie. Langsdorf, Scooler, 
Douglass, Wyeth, Nuttal, Walton ^'C. While 
the Regions of Florida, have been explored by 
Bartram, Roberts, Williams, Cozen, Kin, Bald- 
win, Ware, Croom, Gates, Leitner, &.c. But 
both as well as Texas will afford novelties for 
many years to come, and I have myself many 
of them to describe in this Work, received from 
various quarters. 

Amateurs as Horticulturalists, or friends of 
Science, or Patrons of explorers, rank also 
among the promoters of Botany ; I may men- 
tion among those known to me or who have 
helped my researches, Clinton, Forrest, Mease, 
Adlum, Marshall, Clifford, Shultz, Carr, 
Walsh, Betton, Haines, Sitgraves, Mrs. Wal- 
lace, Mrs. Betton <^e : many more exist all 
over the United States ; Stephen Van Rensa- 
laer has been a great patron of Eaton : Ma- 
clure and Collins of various Botanists. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 11 

Lastly general Works on Botany are indis- 
pensable to all those who wish to know well 
the plants of these and other consimilar regions. 
The w orks of Linneus, Wildenow,Persoon,Vit- 
man, Romer and Shultze, Sprengel, Decandole, 
Lamark, Martyn, and Smith in Rees Cyclope- 
dia, profess to describe all the known plants of 
the earth ; and altho' they all lack many yet, 
they give us the gradual knowledge of the iin- 
proving Science. 

In Loudun Cyclopedia of plants we find only 
the plants cultivated in England, in Dumont 
Botaniste Cultivateur those in France. In 
Alton Hortus Kewensis many American plants 
were first described, and others are now yearly 
in the Botanical Register of Lindley, Bot. ma- 
gaz. of Hooker, 

But as many of our plants have been mistaken 
elsewhere, or blended with akin foreign plants, 
it is even often necessary for the exact Botan- 
ist to consult the original works on the plants of 
the Antilles, Europe, Sibiria and Japan, The 
floras Jamaicensis of Brown, Swartz, Lunan 
hortus Jamaicensis, Gmelin flora Sibirica, 
Thunberg flora Japonica, and the floras of 
England and France, must occasionally be stu- 
died to verify our plants. Many new sp. have 
been mistaken by them for ours- 

In all these writings there is something to 
glean or to learn. Thus the correct Botanist 
has an ample field even in comparing Books, 
ascertaining Synonyms, similarities and diver- 
tities He must have a rich Herbarium besides 
or else many to study and consult. How few 
of our Botanists take this trouble ? they prefer 
compiling, copying errors and misnomers. How 
few visit the great Herbalsof Muhlenberg, Nut- 



12 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

tal, Torrey, Elliot, Schvveinitz, and my own . , , 
now either deposited in public institutions, or 
accessible to all. Torrey and myself at any 
rate, are ever ready to communicate with Bo- 
tanists, answer enquiries, or solve difficulties. 
Botanical compilations are most useful when 
they include all the previous plants ; but our 
American Compilers are always deficient, be- 
cause they neglect through various motives to 
collect all the published information ; thus the 
plants of Bartram, Lewis, Robin, Castiglione, 
Brickell, Bosc <^c with my own, have often been 
omitted. 

The best Herbals or Collections of our floras, 
are besides mine,those of Torrey in New York, 
Elliot in Charleston, Beck in Albany, Bigelow 
in Boston, Short in Lexington .... Those of 
Nuttal, Schweinitz, Baldwin, and Muhlenberg 
are preserved in Philadelphia, chiefly at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences. My friend Du- 
rand is now collecting here an extensive Amer- 
ican Herbal. That of Collins was very val-^ 
uable, and is now added to mine. Others less 
rich in species are scattered chiefly in Boston, 
New Haven, New York, Baltimore, Charleston, 
Columbia, Washington, New Orleans, Cincin- 
nati &c. But some families of Plants are very 
rare in these Herbals, not being easily preserv- 
ed, such as Palms, Yucas, Cactides, Fungides. 

Few are aware how difficult it is to collect 
an extensive American Herbal with many rare 
plants ; those made in limited localities or gar- 
dens are easy enough to acquire ; and they are 
useful to students ; but Herbals of all the States 
and Regions for the learned, with notes, re- 
marks, compared foreign specimens . . . are ac- 
quired only by many years of travels and re- 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 13 

searches, exchanges and purchases. I calculate 
that mine containing over 10,000 species and 
50,000 specimens, has cost me nearly $ 2000 
in actual expenses of time, money, travels, pa- 
per, boxes,correspondence,transportation, books 

of reference &c. 

Other Botanists acquire fine Herbals at the 
risk of their health and life. Botany having also 
its martyrs ; among whom I will mention Lyons, 
Pursh, Berrich, Baldwin, Conrad, H. H. Eaton, 
Walton, Ward, Hart, Drummond, Douglass <$-€ 
who have fallen victims to their zeal in arduous 
travels, or from diseases contracted by their 
labors : although some did perhaps fall victims 
to alcohol rather than Botany, like Pursh . . . 
and others (Schweinitz and Berrich) were 
rather Victims of Tobacco ! both foul poisons 
and destroyers of human life. Botanists are 
however generaly sober and healthy, the pur- 
suit of this Science is calculated to improve 
their habits and health. Baldwin,Waterhouse, 
and Conrad were victims of Phthisis and ini- 
proper food ; Botany probably lengthened their 
lives, as it has mine after finding out how to 
overcome this disease by my medical knowl- 
edge of our plants. 

In voyages by Sea or Steamboats, some Bo- 
tanists have been wrecked like myself, losing 
their collections, and not always so happy as to 
escape even with life like myself in 1815. I 
have had also some narrow escapes on the 
Ohio. Lherminier lost all his collections like 
myself in Carolina. 

The rewards for all these dangers and ex- 
penses are scanty as yet with us. We have 
few professorships of Botany, and this useful 
science is too much neglected in our Schools. 



14 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Botanical works must even be printed at pri- 
vate expense, as have been most of mine (except 
my medical flora) and the sales do not pay the 
expences. We often meet besides with envy or 
detractors, scorn or neglect. We must there- 
fore find our own reward in the self-satisfaction 
of having done well, and deserved if not obtain- 
ed due credit, also in the pleasures inherent in 
collecting, studying and describing the gifts of 
Flora, besides the grateful kindness of some con- 
genial friends or well wishers. 

Nothing is more unkind, and yet how com- 
mon, than to hear myself assailed with the 
questions, why do you not give us your netc 
plants ? why are they not found by every 
body ? . . . ! This perversity of ideas and feel- 
ings, would be best answered by saying in iro- 
nical style, why do you not give me your mo- 
ney ? and value my rare plants ? or why are 
you lazy or blind / . . . . I am tired to repeat 
— Go to the mountains and glades, every month 
of the year, go where I found them at the same 
season and you will find them. Spend $ 500 in 
the pursuit, if you will not buy my specimens — 
However one half of my new plants are already 
in the hands of Botanists, having sent them or 
exchanged or sold to 20 of them. Short, Rid- 
dell, Hart ^c have found again several of my 
Western plants, those of Robin will be found 
in Atakapas and Texas, those of Kin in the 
peninsula of Florida ^c. 

A crowd of rare plants of Michaux, Pursh, 
Nuttal &c are unknown to most of our Botan- 
ists. Many plants described by European Bo- 
tanists Linneus, Aiton, Lamark, Decandole, 
Hooker, Lindley, Wildenow «fec, are equaly 
rare with mine, and unknown to many of our 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 15 

Botanists. They were chiefly found by foreign 
travellers, collectors or gardeners and sent to 
Europe. Kalm, Kin, Noisette, Kingston, Drum- 
mond, Lyons, Bradbury &.c found many such 
in their remote explorations, and so have I. 
Whoever therefore neglects my discoveries is 
either jealous of them, or unable to distinguish 
plants. But careless Botanists are often blind to 
disparities and overlook those rare species, I 
did so myself once and deemed with Muhlen- 
berg that 15 species of our Lactucas were all 
L. elongata ! thus blending and overlooking 
distinct sp. So they do to this day,and then they 
say they cant see them ! 



NORTH AMERICAN NEOPHYTON. 

I shall dedicate the second part of this flora 
to describe some of my most remarkable New 
Herbaceous Plants either new Genera or new 
Species, reserving the new Trees and Shrubs 
for the New Sylva of the third part. They 
shall be enumerated at random rather than by 
monographs, as I shall refer to them in my fu- 
ture Monographs and natural arrangement. I 
possess specimens of the whole, and they are 
all figured in my Autikon and Icones rariorum 
by those numbers here employed. 
^ 201. ODOGLOSSA Raf. meaning toothed 
ligule. A new Genus near to Coreopsis and 
Vernasolis, but differing by the neutral rays, 
and male floscules mixt in the disk. 

Perianthe double, both octophylous, the in- 
ternal colored. Phoranthe convex, chaffs seta- 
ceous and few. Rays 8 neutral, rudiment of 
Ovary linear bidentate, tube flat imperforate, 



16 NOR HI AMERICAN 

ligule or lamina elongate venose, end bifid, sides 
unidentate. Disk with many florets, male and 
perfect inixt, Ovary obovate hardly bidentate, 
florets tubulose Sdentate, stamens free at the 
end, style hardly bifid. In male florets ovary 
entire, anthers often quite free. Seeds obo- 
vate black hardly bidentate. Perennial, habit 
of Vernasolis, hitt root fiot creeping. 

202. Odoglossa iieterophylla Raf. stem 
virgate, naked above, pauciflore sulcate smooth, 
branches very long uniflore, naked polygonal ; 
leaves rugose beneath, radical petiolate cune- 
ate obtuse entire, inferior petiolate pinnatifid, 
lobes oblong obtuse 3 to 7, the last larger, me- 
dial leaves sessile oblong entire. External pe- 
rianthe ovatoblong obtuse nervose, the internal 
elliptic — In Alabama, Georgia and West Ten- 
nessee, rare, stem pedal or more, root fibrose, 
flowers vernal ? rays yellow nearly one inch 
long, perianthe yellowish. I have not yet found 
any synonym to this curious plant. 

203. LAXANON Raf. Name of Dioskori- 
des for a Lapsatia, to which Genus it is akin, 
in family of Glossanthia or Cichoracea, but 
diflfers by naked seeds and simple perianthe. 

Perianthe simple 5 to 7 parted, without cal- 
icule. Ligules 10 to 15, seeds ovatoblong stri- 
ate naked, pappus none, phoranthe naked. 
Habit of Krigia. One type. 

204. Laxanon parviflorum Raf. smooth, 
stem ramose terete, branches incurved, leaves 
graminiform linear lanceolate, entire obtuse,up- 
per ones nearly opposite ; flowers terminal, pe- 
dicels elongate unequal filiform pubescent, 3 to 
5 subumbellate, perianthe smooth, sepals ovate 
acuminate — Sent me from Alabama, pedal dif- 
fuse, flowers yellow very small. This is evi- 
dently a very distinct plant. 



NEOPHYTO>\ l**^ 

205. EPATITIS Raf. a name of Diosko- 
rides for Eupatorium. A Genus akin to it 
and Mikania, but ^vithout calicule and the 
florets reduced to the minimum number of 2 
or 3. 

Perianthe simple 2 or 3 sepals, no calicule, 
floscules 2 or 3 longer tubular 5fid, seeds com- 
pressed linear, pappus simple pilose, phoranthe 
naked. Habit of Mikania and Cacalia. 

206. Epatitis obliqua Raf. smooth, stem 
angular erect, leaves petiolate obliqual cordate 
or subsagittate, (one side rounded, another sa- 
gitate) acute dentate, flowers corymbose fasci- 
culate, peduncles pubescent, bracts linear, se- 
pals of perianthe cuneate oblong obtuse flat — 
sent me from Oregon, pedal and higher, flow- 
ers white and small. It is akin to the Cacal- 
ia alpina of Sibiria, but the leaves are not 
properly cordate, nor flowers with 5 florets. 

207. ROPALON Raf. name of Teophrastus 
for a Nymphea, to which it is akin, but lacks 
the petals. 

Calix Ophyle, no petals, anthers many sub- 
sessile, stigma with 12 or more rays truncate. 
Remainder and habit as in Nuphar. 

208. RoPALON sAGiTTATUM Raf. Nymphca 
sagittifoha Wild. Elliot, N. longifolia Mich, 
&,c — leaves oblong obtuse sagittate, fruit ovate. 
— In Carolina and Florida in waters, leaves 6 
to 8 inches, elongate, flowers estival yellow. 

209. Lobelia cladlomesa Raf. smooth, stem 
erect angular, with short branches in the mid- 
dle, leaves all linear acute adpressed entire : 
flowers racemose adpressed, capsules subin- 
flate equal to pedicels — sent me from Alaba- 
ma, 1 or 2 feet high, flowers blue estival size 
of L. inflata, leaves one inch or more, bracts 

3 



18 NORTH AMERICAN 

subulate oft equal to pedicels, segments of ca- 
lix lanceolate acute unequal. 

210. Lobelia parvifolia, R. smooth, stem 
procumbent ramose diffuse flexuose, leaves few 
small, lower spatulate obtuse subentire, medial 
oblong subserrate, upper linear entire acute, 
flowers subracemose lax, pedicels longer than 
leaves, segments of calix linear — Apalachian 
mts. flowers small bluish. Seen alive in gar- 
dens spontaneous. Annual. 

211. Lobelia paniculata R. stem striate 
naked above, leaves pubescent obovate spatu- 
late obtuse repand, mostly radical, only 1 or 2 
on stem ; raceme ramose subpaniculate, flow- 
ers scattered lax, bracts subulate equal to pe- 
dicels — mts. Alleghany, rare, annual, stem bi- 
pedal, flowers white small. Probably a devia- 
ted sp. from L. claytoniana, disc. 1818. 

212. Lobelia incur v a R. glaucous pubes- 
cent, stem erect branched, leaves linear cune- 
ate obtuse ; flowers axillary racemose, pedicels 
incurved subequal to leaves, segments of calix 
lanceolate acute— Florida, annual, pedal, flow- 
ers small and blue, akin to L. Kalmi and con- 
similar blended sp. 

213. Lobelia falcata R. glaucous smooth, 
stem simple, leaves long linear falcate acute en- 
tire, lower subcuneate ; raceme lax leafy, flow- 
ers equal to leaves, calix linear acute — found 
on Lakes Erie and Ontario, very near to the 
true L. Kalmi of Canada, but with longer fal- 
cate leaves, flowers larger pale blue, probably 
a deviation, collected 1825. 

214. Lobelia fistulosa R. stem round 
smooth fistulose slender, leaves scattered re- 
mote linear acute revolute adpressed; fl. ra- 



NEOPHYTON. Id 

cemose, bracts subulate glandular longer than 
pedicels, segments of calix linear very long . 
equal to corolla — sent me from Alabama, pe- 
dal, flowers blue middle size, corollas elongate, 
capsules turbinate. 

I have several other N. sp. and Var. of this 
pretty Genus ; see my monograph ; my L. ni" 
vea descr. 1820 will also be there again. 

215. DiPSAcus cuNEiFOLius Raf. stem an- 
gular aculeate, lower leaves petiolate, cuneate 
obtuse, crenate, upper leaves sessile cuneate or 
lanceolate acute entire : head spherical, invo- 
lucre unequal falcate subulate aculeate, chaff 
spinose not hooked — In some valleys of the 
Alleghany mts. and in some glades of Ken- 
tucky, disc. 1818, pedal, annual, very different 
from D. syhestris and fidlonutn. 

216. TROPITOMA Raf anomalous or pe- 
loric Genus, sprung from Desmodiiim leiican- 
thum ! calix urceolate bilabiate, upper lip bi- 
dentate, lower tridentate, corolla not papiliona- 
ceous, petals 5uneq. patent, one superior larger 
or vexillum round emarginate, 4 inferior smal- 
ler equal oblong obtuse. Stamens 10 mona- 
delphous, filaments free above divaricate sub- 
equal, anthers small round. Ovary stipitate 
oblong compressed, style lateral subulate, stig- 
ma simple acute. Pod with 1 or 2 articula- 
tions obliqual ovate, one seed oblong compres- 
sed in each. Habit of Desmodiiun. One 
type, the name means cut keel. 

217. Tropitoma PARADOxARaf. erect, leaves 
few, folioles 3 on long petiols ovate rounded 
acute scarcely pubescent, pale beneath, flowers 
terminal 1 to 3 — Discovered 1821 in the hills 
of central Kentucky, semipedal, annual, flowers 
white. Rare. 



20 ??ORTH AMERICAJS: 

218. Menyanthes latifoua R. folioles suh- 
petiolate ample ovate or obovate entire suba- 
cute, scape subequal to leaves with a lanceo- 
late sessile leaf, raceme lax, bracts short ovate 
obtuse — Found in Origon by Walton with the 
next : both akin to 31. verna of my med. flora. 
Robust plant, perennial, ultrapedaL 

219. Menyanthes tijidentata R. folioles 
sessile small obovate tridentate, scape much 
longer than leaves and naked, bracts ovate 
— Orifgon, pedal, perennial ? 

220. Chlonanthes (Chelone) tomentosa 
Raf. leaves subsessile broad lanceolate acumi= 
nate serrate, base entire, tomentose and grey 
beneath ,• fl. axillary and terminal fasciculate 
nodding — In the mts. of Virginia, stem bipedal^ 
leaves 4 to 6 inches long, 1 or 2 broad, fl. white,, 
perennial, rare. I have modified into Chlo- 
nanthes, the absurd name of Chelone that 
meant turtle ! as if a flower was a reptile ! 

221. Asarum parvifolium R. stemless,leaves. 
twin radical on long petiols, pilose broad reni- 
form emarginate, peduncle erect, flower large 
tubular smooth tridentate — On the top of mts. 
in North Carolina, small plant only 2 inches 
high, leaves half imcial perennial, flower dark 
purple, as large as in others. 

222. AsARUM FURCATUM R. caulescent fur- 
cate pubescent, leaves twin reniform subacute^ 
peduncle erect, flower campanulate trifid pu- 
bescent — Apalachian mts? leaves four times 
as large as the last, yet flowers equal in size 
and same color, but deeper divided. Peren- 
nial. 

223. AsARUM medium R. stemless pubescent, 
leaves opposite on long villose petiols, cordate 
reuiform acute, peduncle short floxuosc villose. 



NEOPHYTON. 21 

calix base villose, end smooth, tripartite, seg- 
ments lanceolate — From Missouri and upper 
Lakes, perennial, semipedal, flowers cinereous 
or fuscate ; the A. canadense differs from all 
these by smooth reniibrm leaves, calix reflex- 
ed &c. 

224. AsARUM ROTUNDiroLiuM R. caulescent 
erect villose, leaves 4 opposite rounded cor- 
date, flower terminal subsessile nodding smooth- 
ish campanulate trifid. — Brought by Walton 
from Origon mts. near A. eiiropeum, which 
differs by 2 broad reniform leaves, fl. pedun- 
cled trilobe <J'C, perennial, flower dark purple. 

225. Hedyotis geniculata R. smooth, stem 
geniculate 4gone, leaves fasciculate lanceolate 
acute, margin scabrous, pale beneath ; fl. axill. 
solitary, segments of calix linear equal, tube of 
corolla filiform twice longer than calix — Was 
ioto hills of Kentucky, semipedal, annual, 
leaves uncial, flowers purple, their limb cam- 
panulate 4fid, apparently a true Hedyotis, al- 
though I did not see the ripe fruit ; not a Stel- 
motis the calix being equal. 

226. Galeopsis Montana R. dwarf glau- 
cous, leaves few remote petiolate ovatoblong 
acute serrate pilose, flowers terminal only 1 to 
3 calix not pungent — Summit of Oquago mts. 
near Utsiantha Lake in New York, small an- 
nual, only ,3 to 4 inches high, flowers incarnate, 
Probably a deviation from G, tetrahit, but as- 
pect very unlike. 

227. Eustachya vel Leptandra oppositi- 
FOLiA Rafj leaves opposite sessile ovate acute 
(not acuminate) serrulate smoothish, equal to 
internodes, spike simple — mts. Apalaches of 
Virginia, perennial, sesquipedal, flowers white 
small, very distinct from the narrow leaved, 
whorled sp. of this Genus. 



22 NORTH AMERICAN 

228. M YCTANTHES (mixed flowers) Raf. 
anomalous or peloric Genus occasionally form- 
ed by some Asters and Solidagos — Difference, 
flowers often concrete or coalescent, with ligu- 
les and floscules intermixt, perianthe imbri- 
cate unequal foliaceous. I have noticed seve- 
ral types. Is it a diseased state ? but the 
plants were healthy. 

225. Myctanthes punicea R. like Aster 
puniceus, but stem simple, 2-3flore, leaves lan- 
ceolate — observed near Philadelphia, flowers 
terminal purplish. 

230. Myctanthes latifolia R. stem sim- 
ple uniflore, leaves sessile elliptic acuminate 
subserrate, flower terminal sessile purplish — 
collected in the Alleghany mts. bipedal. 

231. Myctanthes axillaris R. similar to 
Solidago nemorosa, but flowers axillary and 
solitarv, yellow — mts. Alleghany, pedal. 

233." ALISETA (Plantain) Raf. Radiate 
Genus near to Arnica — Perianthe in double 
series, each of ten spreading folioles. Phoran- 
the flat alveolate, chaffs carinate long acute. 
Floscules tubulose 5fid sterile. Ligules or rays 
about 20 fertile tridentate narrow. Seeds It- 
near, pappus simple deciduous. Habit of Ar- 
nica, scapose, uniflore — But very different 
Genus by calix, chaiffs, sterile florets <Slc. It is 
nearer to the next Genus Peritris in some re- 
spects. Single type. 

233. Aliseta plantaginea R. radical leaves 
lanceolate or cuneate entire hirsute acute, 
scape terete smooth, with a single subulate 
scale, uniflore, folioles of perianthe ovate lan- 
ceolate smooth — Sent me from Florida, prob- 
ably biennial, root short with many fibres, leaves 
2 or 3 inches long, scape 6 inches, flower large 
2 inches, rays yellow, disk fuscote. 



NEOPHYTON. 23 

234. PERITRIS (around triple) Raf. A- 
nother Genus akin to Arnica distinct by habit 
and triple perianthe — Perianthe in triple se- 
ries, outer shorter with few lax folioles, the 2 
inner equal and adpressed. Phoranthe flat 
naked. Rays few tridentate. Seeds oblong 
compressed pubescent, pappus simple. Habit 
of Jacobea, caulescent corymbose. — Perian- 
the nearly like Aliscta with the addition of a 
calicule, but chafts lacking and habit unlike. 

235. Peritris ovatifolia R. puberulent, 
stem erect subangular lower leaves petiolate 
ovate serrate acute, petiols winged, upper leaves 
sessile ovate lanceol. serrulate or entire ; co- 
rymb ramose racemose, peduncles erect, bracts 
subulate, folioles of perianthe lanceolate — Flo- 
rida and Alabama, pedal, perennial, fl. yellow, 
perianthe smooth, calicule or outer pubescent. 

236. Arnica brevicaulis Raf. smooth, sea- 
pose, leaves obovate and cuneate, obtuse, un- 
equally crenate and laciniate, scape shorter 
than leaves and with flowers umbellate, bracts 
lanceol. wooly in the axiles. peduncles unequal, 
some very long, striate uniflore with 1 or 2 su- 
bulate bracteoles, perianthe lanceolate, wooly 
at the base. — Sent me from Alabama, stem 
only 4 inches, leaves 6, flowers large yellow, 
few rays, pappus white, seeds oblong angular 
smooth. This appears a real Arnica near A. 
nndicaulis, the perianthe being simple. 

237. Bellis parviflora Raf. stem branched 
diffuse, leaves sessile oblong acute entire sca- 
brose, peduncles terminal long naked, rays^ 
linear — In Kentucky on rocks, rare, annual, 
semipedal, leaves small, flowers white estival 
very small half size of B. integrifolia. 

238. Bellis kutajis Raf. stem simple uni- 



34 ' NORTH AMERICAN 

flore striate, leaves remote sessile cuneate 
acute entire pilose ciliate, flower nodding — In 
the glades of West Kentucky, annual, flowers 
vernal white same size as B. integrifolia, 
which grows by millions in those glades, where 
I found them all in 1823. These plants really 
belong to the G. Bellis and not EcUpta as 
deemed by Sprengel, nor Brachyeome of Cas- 
sini, genus based on Bellis aculeata and cilia- 
ris of Australia, to which Lessing has wrongly 
united B. integrifolia. In order to contrast 
my species I must add this and also the Texan 
species. 

239. Bellis integrifolia Mx. and Amer. 
Authors. Eclipta do Spr. Brachyeome xan- 
thocomoides Lessing — smoothish,stem branch- 
ed multiflore erect, branches 1 or 2 flore, low- 
er leaves petiolate spatulate obtuse, upper ses- 
sile cuneate acute not ciliate, flowers erect 
rays oblong — All over the Western States, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, 
Tennessee <f*c in glades, vernal white flowers, 
stem 6 to 15 inches high erect, 3 to 12 flowers, 
not seen by Pursh, nor Nuttal till he went to 
Arkanzas, a proof that a very common plant 
may escape notice if you do not visit the loca- 
lities in due season. Several varieties 1 pum- 
ila 3 inches high, 3 flowers only, 2 elata, ses- 
quipedal, multiflore, 3 cartiea flowers of a 
blushing color, ^c, all annuals. 

240. Bellis ciliata Raf B. integrif. Hook- 
er hot. mag. 3455. Pubescent, stem erect mul- 
flore, lower leaves petiolate spatulate obtuse 
base ciliate, upper sessile oblong acute ciliate, 
peduncles naked erect, rays cuneate — annual, 
found by Drummond in Texas, and probably 
extending to Louisiana and Arkanzas, blended 



NEOPHYTON. 25 

with the last by Hooker, his description in- 
cluding both, his figure appears the texan plant 
which has been sent me by Torrey, and I des- 
cribe original specimens of Drummond ; it has 
also a var. trijlora, with leaves all acutish and 
only 3 flowers. The folioles of the perianthc 
are lanceolate acuminate in all the sp. not 
linear as Hooker says, the seeds are obovate 
pubescent. 

211. ParTHENIUM ANGUSTIFOLTUM Raf StCUl 

virgate angulate smooth, above rough, lower 
leaves petiolate narrow cuneate or oblong cre- 
nate obtuse rough, upper leaves sessile ovato- 
blong ; flowers corymbose globose, fol. of pe- 
rianthe ovate rounded acute — In the barrens or 
glades of West Kentucky, 2 or 3 feet high, 
petiols long, leaves G to 8 inches long, 1 or 2 
broad. Very distinct from the 3 next sp. all 
are estival and perennial. 

242. Partiienium pumilum Raf. stem dwarf, 
striate, smooth, lower leaves petiolate obovate 
crenate obtuse rough, upper cuneate sessile 
nearly entire acute; corymb glomerate, fol. of 
perianthe ovate acute rough — In the mts. Wa- 
rioto or Cumberland, stem smooth striate semi- 
pedal, leaves rough small, flowers white. 

243. Partiienium sinuatum Raf. stem sul- 
cate elate smooth, leaves nearly glabrous ru- 
gose, radical ample petiolate ovate deltoid sin- 
uate laciniate, obtuse, stem leaves sessile am- 
plexicaule ovate repand sinuolate; corymb 
sessile glomerate, fol. of perianthe rounded — 
Mts, of Virginia, probably blended with iie 
next by Authors, but by no means integrlfoU- 
um ! large leaves, lower often 10 inches long 
decurrent on the petiols, flowers few globular 
whitish. Stem commonly 3 feet high. 

4 



^ NORTH AMERICAN 

244. Parthenium amplectens Raf. P. in- 
tegrifolium L. and Authors? Stem angular 
rough elate, leaves all rough ovate oblong am- 
plexicaule serrate acute, corymb lax, fol. of pe- 
rianthe ovate rounded acute carinate. — Glades 
of Kentucky, 2 to 4 feet high, leaves 3 to 6 
inches long, lower hardly attenuate at base, 
flowers whitish. P. integrif. is a name illu- 
sive and to be abolished, it was given by Lin. 
in contrast with P. hysteropliorus with multi- 
fid leaves, that now is a peculiar Genus. The 
Linnean sp. figured in Dillen and Plukenet had 
leaves ovate crenate hirsute, lower with cari- 
nate petiols, upper sessile, flowers snowy white, 
tip of perianthe black, and may still be diff*er- 
ent from all mine, found in Virginia, might be 
called P. dillenianurn ? — The sp. of Elliot is 
still somewhat different, it may be called P. 
elliotamim? stem 1 or 2 feet striate roughish, 
leaves rough toothed ovate lanceolate ; lower 
sessile, upper amplexicaule — as near to P. an- 
gustifolium as to this. See 280. 

245. Urtica verna Raf. nearly smooth, 
stem simple slender, leaves remote opposite pe- 
tiolafe acuminate laciniate serrate, the lower 
cordate, medial ovate, upper lanceolate ; male 
spikes inferior shorter than petiols, female fl. 
glomerate above, glomerules nodding geminate 
peduncled. — Kentucky and other Western 
States, in woods, flowers vernal in may, pedal, 
leaves small, a true Urtica with male fl. 4 part- 
ed 4andre. Var. gracilis very slender virgate, 
leaves small none cordate. 

246. OxALis rupestris Raf. stem erect an- 
gular rufous pilose, leaves glaucous smooth, 
folioles obcordate, sinus obtuse, peduncles lon- 
ger than leaves 3-5flore, sepals lanceolate, pe- 



NEOPHYTON. 27 

tals retiise obovate. — On the cliffs of the River 
Kentucky, 8 to 12 inches high, flowers large 
pale yellow, estival. 

247. OxALis CESPiTosA Raf. creeping, ces- 
pitose pilose, stems assurgent, petiols filiform, 
folioles obcordate ciliate, sinus acute, pedun- 
cles filiform longer than ieaves 2-3ilore, pedi- 
cels equal to flowers, bracts linear, petals obo- 
vate double of calix, capsules pilose — Glades of 
West Kentucky and West Tennessee, abund- 
ant, vernal, found in May and June 1823: near 
to O. lyo7iiy 3 to 5 inches, forming small tufts, 
leaves small, flowers large one inch broad pale 
or lemon color. 

248. Capsella acutifolia Raf. stem simple 
smooth, radical leaves short pinnatifid, pinnules 
ovatoblong dentate acute, stem leaves sagittate 
lanceolate very acute subentire amplexicaule, 
raceme naked, silicules short deltoid hardly 
emarginate, pedicels long filiform spreading. — 
In the Alleghany mts. pedal annual with white 
flowers and estival, as all the sp. of this Genus 
of Mench, Ventcnat and Decandolc, who ad- 
mits of only one sp. C. bursa., with 4 varieties 
mitior, integrif. coronopif. apetala ; but I 
have 8 or 10 sp. in my herbal, whereof 6 from 
N America, and many more exist perhaps in 
Africa and Asia. 

249. Capsella integrifolia Raf Var. do 
Dec ? stem slender simple radical leaves cun- 
eate acute, attenuate in petiol at the base, quite 
entire, stem leaves oblong acute sessile not sa- 
gittate entire, silicules deltoid emarginate — 
Hills of Pennsylv. and Kentucky, semipedal, 
certainly as distinct a sp. as can be ! leaves 
not even toothed as in the next, nor sagittate 
above. 



28 NORTH AMERICAN 

250. Capsella den TATA Raf. dwarfish stem 
simple nearly naked radical leaves petiolate 
cuneate or obovate toothed, stem leaves 1 or 2 
sagittate linear, raceme lax elongate, silicules 
deltoid truncate shorter than pedicels. — In mts. 
Alleghanies, 3 or 4 inches high only, akin to 
last, but leaves toothed and upper sagittate. 
Is it the Var. minor of some botanists ? 

251. Capsella bifida Raf. several stems, 
radical leaves oblong toothed, stem leaves sa- 
gittate entire glaucous roughish, racemes elon- 
gate, silicules oblong base acute end bifid, pe- 
dicels subequal. — In Pennsylvania glades, pe- 
dal, annual, very distinct by silicules longer 
than broad and almost bifid, no runcinate 
leaves &c. 

252. Capsella furcata Raf. all leaves spa- 
tulate oblong obtuse entire or hardly toothed, 
silicules broad furcate, pedicels equal — In Can- 
ada and Europe, semipedal, distinct by the pe- 
culiar silicules broadly obdeltoid, wider than 
long, and uniform leaves, quite obtuse. 

253. Capsella amblodes Raf. all leaves pin- 
natifid, acute, pinnules often angular, silicules, 
shorter than pedicels, oblong cuneate obtuse, 
emarginate — sent me from Europe as a varie- 
ty of C. bursa, probably also in N. America, 
annual dwarfish 3 to 4 inches high only, quite 
peculiar silicules, and uniform leaves. 

254. Capsella bursa Raf. non Auct. 
Tlilaspi bursa pastoris L. and most of our 
botanists. Radical leaves pinnatifid runcinate, 
pinnules entire,stem leaves oblong sagittate den- 
tate, silicules shorter than pedicels deltoid tri- 
angular base and corners acute, hardly emar- 
ginate — In Europe, introduced in fields and 
the roads in N, America, pedal and sesquipe- 



NEOPHYTON. 29 

dal, nearest to C. aciitifoUa, chief difference 
in pinnules entire less acute broader, silicules 
quite triangular with acute angles. — It is pro- 
bable that these plants are deviations sprung 
from each other, but some are really native of 
wild localities and not introduced : to deem 
them mere varieties would be preposterous, 
since they differ as widely in leaves and fruits 
as any acknowledged species of Sinapis or 
Lejjiduim, which ought on such fclse princi- 
ples be made but single species. I have not yet 
met in America the C. coronopifolia of Eu- 
rope having leaves with narrow remote seg- 
ments. The monstruous deviation called ape- 
tala by Opiz and Decandole, is evidently an in- 
cipient New Genus formed in Europe, not even 
of this family, having no petals, 10 stamens, in- 
stead of 4 petals and 6 stamens ! I call it Opi- 

ZIA BURSOIDES Raf 

255. Calystegia riparia Raf. sepium of 
Amer. hot. not L. nor Europe. Procumbent, 
twining, leaves cordate oblong, lobes rounded 
seldom acute, peduncles unitlore terete very 
long, calicule longer than calix ovate concave 
obtuse — annual, on the margins of rivers, 
streams and marshes in New Jersey and New 
York, flowers estival white incarnate. Mista- 
ken by our botanists for the Convolvulus sepi- 
um of Europe, Calystegia sepium of R. Brown 
and Pursh ; a smaller plant not climbing, leaves 
and flowers smaller. 

255. Brunella microphylla Raf. stem pi- 
lose geniculate dwarf, leaves very small smooth 
subentire obtuse, lower ovate on long petiols, 
upper oblong subsessile, heads subsessile glo- 
bose or ovate, bracts scariose reniform venose 
ciliate acuminate — summits of mts. in Allegha- 



30 NORTH AMERICAN 

nies and Kiskanom mts. only 2 or 3 inches 
high, leaves not half an inch, flowers small pur- 
ple vernal. Annual like all the species ? 

257. Brunella sessilifolia Raf. stem te- 
rete branched rough above, branches brachi- 
ate, leaves sessile narrow lanceolate acute en- 
tire smooth, margin rough, heads oblong, bracts 
cordate acuminate ciliate, calix ciliate colorate 
— Florida sesquipedal, leaves 2 or 3 inches 
long, heads elongate 3 inches long, calix red, 
flowers purple, handsome sp. near Br. inter- 
media of Europe, but leaves entire and smooth. 

258. Brunella petiolaris Raf. smooth, 
stem simple subterete, leaves on long petiols, 
lower obovate or cuneate entire obtuse, upper 
lanceolate acute subdentate, heads ovatoblong 
short, bracts ciliate reticulate cuspidate cor- 
date, calix smooth cuspidate — In Kentucky 
pedal, radical leaves smaller, upper leaves long 
narrow triuncial, flowers estival as in nearly all. 

259. Brunella hirsuta Raf. Hirsute rough, 
stem simple 4gone, leaves remote petiolate cre- 
nate, lower ovate obtuse, upper elliptic oblong 
subacute, heads short truncate, bracts hirsute 
ciliate acuminate, calix ciliate acute — Illinois 
and Missouri, pedal, flowers bluish purple. 

260. Brunella cinerea Raf. creeping vil- 
lose cinereous, radical leaves petiolate round 
and ovate, obtuse crenate, upper leaves oblong 
or linear nearly entire margin involute, heads 
oblong sessile,bracts reniform acum.cihate, ca- 
lix hirsute at the base — Florida, Alabama, 
Wasioto mts. and hills of Kentucky, biennial, 
vernal very distinct, although akin to last and 
next. Stem semipedal, leaves small uncial, 
heads 2 inches long, calix as in most sp. upper 
lip Sdentate, lower bifid ciliate. 



NEOPIIYTON. 31 

261. Brunella iieterophyla Raf, smooth 
erect, leaves petiolate subcrenate repand, radi- 
cal ovate rounded obtuse, on stem ovate or 
oblong, heads sessile ovate short — on mts. Alle- 
ghany, akin to the last, but annual estival erect 
smooth, green not ash color. 

262. Brucella cordata Raf. stem erect 
simple red, pilose above, petiols ciliate, leaves 
smooth ovate acute subentire pale beneath, 
lower cordate serrate, heads oblong sessile with 
2 oblong leaves, bracts reniform reticulate cili- 
ate — Alleghany mts. pedal, fine species, calix 
red, corol purplish blue, estival. 

263. Brunella reticulata Raf. stem erect 
smooth, leaves petiolate elongate ovatoblong 
entire, acute at both ends, heads on a hairy pe- 
duncle, oval short, bracts reticulate acuminate 
ciliate, calix smooth — in Ohio, Kentucky ^c, 
fine species, sesquipedal, leaves 3 or 4 inches 
long, spike short hardly over one inch, calix 
with lips 3dentate and bifid as usual, but quite 
smooth. Akin to the last but differs by entire 
leaves and short heads not sessile. 

264. Brunella rosea Raf. dwarf, stem de- 
cumbent hairy above, leaves petiolate smooth 
oblong and lanceolate acute subentire, lower 
crenate, heads oval subsessile, bracts scariose 
reticulate cordate ciliate acuminate — in the 
Turkey mts. of Alleghanies, only 2 to 4 inches 
high, stem 4gone, angles with a few hairs, 
leaves uncial, heads uncial or less, flowers es- 
tival of a fine rose color different from all the 
others. Very distinct sp. only slightly akin to 
Br. microphyla in habit, but nothing else, calix 
ciliate. A variety has shorter heads and more 
crenate leaves, stem nearly erect. Var, hrevi- 
flora. 



32 NORTH AMERICAN 

265. Brunella obtusifolia Raf. stem erect 
hairy above, leaves petiolate ovate obtuse en- 
tire or subrepand, heads oblong subsessile bracts 
scariose colored ciliate reniform acuminate ; 
calix colorate ciliate — in Pennsylvania 4'^? 
more similar to Br. vulgaris of Europe than 
any other, pedal, estival, perennial, bracts and 
flowers red. These 10 sp. of Brunella (mis- 
called Prunella by error of the press) are us- 
ually blended (when seen by our botanists) with 
the Br. pennsylvanica of Muhlenberg : to unite 
such diversities is preposterous. The real 
pennsylvanica which is the vulgaris of others 
differs from this my obtusifolia by creeping 
roots, ascending stems, leaves ovatoblong acute 
toothed at the base, &c. I have even yet sonie 
other American and European blended sp. in 
my herbal, or at least striking varieties, some 
with white flowers. 

266. BucHNERA MissuRicA Raf. rough pu- 
bescent, stem adscendent base hirsute, leaves 
opposite and alternate crowded imbricate lan- 
ceolate subentire, radical ovate, upper ones 
small subulate squamulose remote, flowers in 
short spike, alternate at base, bracts subulate 
short — Glades of Missouri and Illinois, pedal, 
perennial, calix urceolate, tube of corolla slen- 
der strait. 

267. BucHNERA ANGUSTiFOLiA Raf stcm vir- 
gate terete nearly smooth, naked above, leaves 
remote linear obtuse entire roughened by white 
hairs, flowers scattered sessile in the spike — in 
Alabama, sesquipedal, capsules globose in ca- 
lix ovate Slobed. These two sp. are quite dis- 
tinct from B. americana, see 298. 

268. CupiiEA ALBiDA Raf. stem simple hum- 
ble pauciflore, leaves petiolate ovate lanceolate 



NEOPIIYTON. 33 

hardly viscose pubescent entire obtuse, flowers 
axillary subsessile, calix hispid striate, petals 
white cuneate small — in the Alieghanies of 
Pennsylvania, only found once in 1833, north 
of Garble, annual, semipedal,quite distinct from 
C viscosissima having many purple flowers, 
stem much branched and clammy, leaves nar- 
rower lanceolate <^*c. 

269. CoMANDUA OBOVATA Raf. stcm ramose 
angular striate, leaves oboval subobtuse, um- 
bellules 3-5fiowered, pedicels equal to flowers, 
bracts obovate equal to pedicels — mts. Aliegha- 
nies pedal. The Thcsium umbellatum of L, 
has been well described as a N. G. Comandra 
by Nuttal, but he neglected the species thereof, 
and so have done all our botanists, there are 
now 7 or 8 sp. of this G. and I will distinguish 
5 sp. of it, all blended by our careless Authors. 
All have white estival flowers. 

270. Comandra elliptica Raf. stem angu- 
lar hardly branched, leaves broad oblong ellip- 
tic acute, umbellules sub Sflowered, pedicels 
shorter, bracts lanceolate equal to pedicels — 
common, pedal, estival, probably the C. ?«m- 
belUilata of Nuttal and most of our Botanists. 

271. Comandra obtusi folia Raf. stem an- 
gular branched above, loaves imbricate narrow 
oblong obtuse, umbellules 3-5fl. pedicels very 
short or wanting, bracts subulate — ^Ohio to 
Illinois, semipedal, 

272. Comandra media Raf. stem terete stri- 
ate ramose, leaves broad oblong acute, umbell- 
ules l-3flore, pedicels equal, no bracts — in New 
Jersey and Virginia, pedal. 

273. Comandra cuneifolia Raf. stem slen- 
der subangular, leaves lax cuneate nearly acute 
umbellules 3-5flore, pedicels very short, bracts 

5 



34 NORTH AMERICAN 

ovate short — West Kentucky, discovered 1823, 
pedal. I possess all these sp. which are such 
wide deviations as to be sp. rather than va- 
rieties. 

274. Hydrastis trifolia Raf. stem flexu- 
ose three leaved, Iflore, leaves ample, lower pe- 
tiolate, 2 upper sessile, reniform 3-51obed, un- 
equally serrate ciliolate, lobes ovate acute, glau- 
cous beneath, flower sessile at the third leaf — 
West Kentucky, over one foot high, lower leaf 
inches wide. This Genus was thought mon- 
otype, if this is not a N. sp. it is a very singular 
deviation of form, as H. canadensis has always 
2 leaves not ciliate &:.c. Flower white early 
vernal. 

275. GEiiANiu?.! LENTicuLUM Raf. Pilose, 
stem erect slender sulcate branched, leaves op- 
posite and alternate on long petiols 5-7parted 
segments linear lanceolate entire acute, pedun- 
cles biflore shorter than petiols, calix sepals lan- 
ceolate nervose aristate, seeds lenticular pu^ 
bescent — West Tennessee and Kentucky, pe- 
dal, flowers small, petals purple, estival, annual, 
in glades. 

276. Geranium pedatum Raf. smooth, stem 
diffiise filiform striate, leaves alternate on long 
petiols small pedate 7-9fide, segments linear, 
medial cuneate trifid, peduncles very long, fili- 
form l-2flore, calix sepals ovate enerve acumi- 
nate, seeds oblong smooth. — Glades and Prai- 
ries of West Kentucky and Illinois, semipedal, 
annual, flowers small purple vernal. 

277. Isanthus pumilus Raf. smooth, stem 
dwarf hardly ramose, leaves subpetiolate lan- 
ceolate acute hardly trinerve, pedicels uniflore 
short, equal to calix, shorter than leaves, calix 
ciliate — Glades of West Kentucky and Tenn- 



NEOPHYTON. 35 

essee, annual estival, only 3 to 4 inches high — 
leaves not ciliate, but the calix instead. 

278. IsANTHUs PUBESCENS Raf. quite pubes- 
cent, stem branched, leaves sessile trinerve lan- 
ceolate acute, peduncles biflore curved sub- 
equal to leaves longer than calix — Mts. Wasi- 
oto or Cumberland of East Kentucky, annual, 
pedal. This is nearer to /. ceruleus of Mx. 
my Is. ciUatus which has however leaves ovate 
lanceolate ciliate, short peduncles and is nearly 
viscid. 

279. IsANTHUs MULTiFLORUs Raf. smooth, 
very branched, leaves sessile linear lanceolate 
uninerve, peduncles multiflore, pedicels shorter 
than calix — with the last in the Wasioto hills, 
semipedal, annual. Thus this monotype Amer- 
ican Genus is now increased by me to 4 spe- 
cies ; they are all estival and commonly grow 
in Limestone soils, I have perhaps another 
doubtful from Texas, with obovate leaves. 

280. Partiienium hispidum Raf. stem flex- 
uose sulcate hispid, hairs white, lower leaves 
obovate base acute, the lowest on a long hispid 
petiol, upper leaves sessile oblong and ovate, 
base truncate, all acute with large unequal 
teeth ciliolate, slightly hispid on both sides, 
flowers corymbose glomerate sessile tomentose 
pale fulvous — another sp. of this American 
Genus, from the Glades of Arkanzas and Texas 
humble, hardly over a foot high, with stiff white 
hairs, only one radical petiolate leaf, few leaves 
all different in size and shape, flowers fulvous 
white, perianthe with ovate obtuse sepals. 

281. Triosteum CONNATU3I Raf. perfoliatum 
and majus of some hot — stem sulcate pubes- 
cent, leaves connate ovate rhomboidal acumi- 
*iate undulate, rouarh above, tomentose ^^eneath 



36 NORTH AMERICAN 

axils 1 or 2flore, flowers sessile calix unequal 
linear pubescent — in the Alleghany mts. bipe- 
dal, corol rufous red subequal 51obed, berries: 
purple. Of this Genus our botanists admit only 
two species perfoliaturn and angustifoliumy 
but the first also called majus by some con- 
tains many blended species, and it is hard to 
say which is meant by each, as few give origi- 
nal descriptions : this is the sp. of Elliot. I 
shall increase this Genus to 8 sp. quite distinct, 
they are all perennial estival plants, with stem 
simple and axillary flowers, commonly found 
in limestone or sandy soils. The roots of all 
are medical and febrifuge, see my medical 
flora. 

282. Triosteum molle Raf. entirely villose 
sofl;, leaves subconnate broadly oblong acumi- 
nate undulate repand, villose above, tomentose 
beneath, axils triflore, flowers subpedunculate 
— Received from Missouri, bipedal. 

283. Triosteum villosum Raf. stem striated 
villose, leaves sessile ovate acute base attenu- 
ate, smooth above, villose beneath, axils multi- 
flore upper sterile, flowers sessile, calix lanceo-^ 
late — in the sandy soils from Maryland to New 
Jersey, bipedal, or tripedal corol short dark 
purple, berries purple. 

284. Triosteum pumilum Raf. stem dwar- 
fish sulcate villose, leaves sessile oblong elliptic 
acute, villose beneath, axils uniflore, flowers 
sessile calix villose long linear — on the Apala- 
chian mts. of Virginia, only one foot high or 
even less, quite distinct from Tr. angustifolium, 
probably the minus of some botanists. 

285. Triosteum angustifolium L. Elliot 
&c, stem hairy, leaves subconnate lanceolate 
spatulate acuminate slightly scabrous, axils 



NEOPHYTON. 37 

nniflore, flowers pcd uncled — in Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee and Apalachian mts. of Carolina, 2 or 3 
feet high, corol yellow, berries red. I collect- 
ed this in the glades of West Kentucky, 

286. Tkiosteum iiispidum Raf, stem flexu- 
ose striate hispid, leaves sessile ovate spatulate 
acuminate smooth ciliolate, axils uniflore, flow- 
ers sessile, ovary hispid, calix smooth linear 
lanceolate — in the glades of West Kentucky 
with the last, but quite distinct by broader 
smooth leaves quite sessile, corol orange color. 

287. Triosteum levigatum Raf. entirely 
smooth, stem fistular, leaves sessile ovate rhom- 
boidal acute at both ends, axils 2-3flore, flowers 
sessile, berries safron color — on the Apalachian 
mts. of Georgia and Alabama, seen alive in 
gardens, quite distinct by perfect smoothness 
of stem and leaves, flowers small orange color, 
berries also or nearly safron color. 

288. Triosteum obovatum Raf, stem fistu- 
lar tomentose, leaves sessile obovate broad am- 
ple acuminate tomentose beneath, axils 2-3flore 
fl. sessile, berries red — from New York to Illi- 
nois, the most common sp. in the Western 
States, often mistaken for the Tr. majus, quite 
difterent from my connatum by sessile obovate 
leaves, larger than in any other, stem 3 to 4 
feet high. 

289. Phryma media Raf. subpubescent, 
leaves petiolate equally serrate, lower cordate, 
upper ovate acute, last pair sessile, bracts su- 
bulate shorter than calix — in Kentucky, annual 
and estival like all the species. Our botanists 
admit of only one, but it offers so many devia- 
tions that I have collected 3 incipient sp. 
which I add with the real type of Phr, lepto- 
stachya. 



38 NORTH AMERICAN 

290. PiiiiYMA PUBESCENs Raf. pubescent, 
leaves subsessile ovate or elliptic, subcordate 
acuminate ciliate unequally crenatc, last pair 
entire, bracts subulate equal to calix — Allegha- 
ny mts. pedal, flowers purplish. 

291. Phryma parvieolia Raf. smooth, 
leaves all petiolate ovate oblong equally serrate 
bracts shorter than caHx — Alleghany mts. pe- 
dal, leaves small uncial, flowers white. 

292. Phryma leptostachya L. 4*c. smooth, 
leaves ditlbrme lower petiolate ovate base acute 
deeply serrate, upper sessile ovate often en- 
tire, bracts equal to calix — the most common 
kind, from New York to Carolina, 1 or 2 feet 
high. If all the above are mere varieties of 
this, they aflbrd a fine illustration of incipient 
species forming under our eyes in our woods. 

293. THECANISIA Raf. a N. G. of Spi- 
rea tribe, near to Filipendula — cal, 5fid. per- 
sistent reflexed, petals 5, stamens few 12 to 15, 
pistils 3-5 stipitate with a style, stigma capitate. 
Fruit 1 to 5 thecas unequal stipitate oblong 1- 
3seeded. Herbaceous jierennial idants icith 
lobed or palmate leaves siibj)imiate, stipulate, 
flowers paniculate. — The essential character 
besides habit is found in the stipitate unequal 
pistils and fruits, the types are Spirea lobata 
and discolor, but others probably belong here, 
and I add two. The name means unequal 
thecas. 

294. Thecanisia lobata Raf. Spir. do Au- 
thors leaves subpinnate smooth, folioles Slobed, 
the last 71obed, lobes lanceolate doubly serrate, 
panicle cymose compound — from Carolina to 
Alabama in hills, large plant 3 to 4 feet high, 
flowers rose colored. 

295. Thecanisia ponpurea Raf. stem stri- 



NEOrilYTON. 31) 

ate, leaves smooth, pinnate palmate triparted, 
medial lobe large petiolate 3-51obed, lobes 
oblong acute, laciniate dentate, stipules oblong 
serrate, panicle lax naked — in Tennessee and 
West Kentucky, 2 or 3 Icet high, flowers pur- 
ple, probably blended with the last, chiefly dis- 
tinct by lobes and panicle. 

296. TiiEc. ANGusTiioLiA Raf. stem striate 
flexuose, leaves palmate rugose, reticulate be- 
neath, 5 to 7lobes lanceolate acuminate une- 
qually serrate, stipules foliose laciniate, panicle 
lax. — Mts. of North Carolina and Georgia, 
very distinct by narrow lobes, flowers purplish. 

297. Thec. discolor Raf. Spirea do P. &c, 
stem angular sulcate, leaves subtrifoliate, lobes 
ovate acuminate unequally serrate, white to- 
mentose beneath, middle foliole cordate trifid, 
some small pinnules interjected ovate sessile, 
stipules small, panicle interrupted coarctate — 
Apalachian mts. a beautiful sp. 1 or 2 feet high, 
flowers white. 

298. BuciiNERA LEVicATJLis Raf. stem vir- 
gate fistular quite smooth, above naked angular, 
leaves remote narrow lanceolate entire acute 
rough, spike short flowers alternate — Florida, 
a very distinct sp. stem 2 feet high very slender 
and smooth, leaves small uncial opposite sessile, 
spike uncial, flowers few small sessile alternate, 
bracts ovate acute half length of corolla. This 
with 26G and 267, increase to 4 our N. Amer. 
sp. they have probably all been blended in B. 
americana which is quite distinct by roughness 
and opposite flowers &c. They are all estival, 
growing in glades out of woods, and dry black 
in herbarium. 

299. ECLIPTA of L. a good Monograph 
of this Genus is much wanted, I shall attempt 



40 NORTH AMERICAN 

it for our N. Am. sp increased to 6, wliile our 
botanists know only 2 or 3, and blend half a 
dozen with E. erecta of South America, quite 
different from ours. These plants are estival 
or autumnal, all annual, with a similar habit of 
opposite sessile leaves, flowers often axillary 
and geminate. All have the perianthe biserial, 
many narrow rays and the seeds naked ; with 
a bristly phoranthe, whereby they differ from 
JSellis, and the habit is totally unlike ; but some 
sp. are stated to have besides a small bristly 
pappus, such are E. proctimbeiis of Elliot and 
my E. ciliata fl. Lud. which therefore approx- 
imate to Verhesina and Galmsoga, and are 
perhaps two peculiar Genera Paleista and Ca- 
cotatiis. As to E. hrachypoda Mx. which 
was Amellus carolinianus Walter, with pen- 
tandrous florets, no one else has seen it since, not 
even Elliot, and it will perhaps be found also a 
peculiar Genus or a Paleista. 

300. EcLiPTA LONGiFOLTA Raf. stcHi crcct 
slender weak trichotome nearly smooth, leaves 
sessile long lanceolate, acute at both ends, uni- 
nerve remotely serrate, nearly smooth, flowers 
erect axillary and terminal 2 or 3 together, pe- 
duncles unequal hispid, sepals of perianthe un- 
equal oval or lanceolate acute ciliolate — a very 
distinct sp. from E. erecta mistaken for it by 
nearly all the botanists, growing from Florida 
to New Jersey near streams, lately found by 
me near Philadelphia at the mouth of the 
Schuylkill, Stem 2 or 3 feet high, leaves re- 
mote 4 to 8 inches long, hardly one broad, 
flowers whitish autumnal, seeds brown 4gone, 
obovate. I add for contrast the others E. 
erecta ! 

301. EcLiPTA DUBiA Raf. E. erecta Pursh, 



NEOPIIYTON.^ 41 

Elliot &.C erect dichotoiiie strigose, leaves sess- 
ile lanceolate base attenuate, remote serrate, 
triplinerve, flowers geminate, peduncles long, 
sepals of perianthe ovate acuminate — Virginia 
to Florida in gravelly soils, flowers estival : 
thus very different from last, but I have not 
seen it, it may have been badly described, there- 
fore is dubious. 

302. EcLiPTA FLEXuosA Raf. E. erecta L. 
^c. Stem erect nearly simple hirsute subflex- 
uose, leaves sessile lanceolate undulate une- 
qually serrate triplinerve, flowers 2 or 3, pedun- 
cles wooly, sepals of perianthe ovate — in Guy- 
ana and South America, biennial 2 or 3 feet 
high, thus totally unlike the two above. 

303. EcLiPTA TiNCTOKiA Raf E. erecta 
Wild. Pers. cj'C. stem erect strigose, leaves ses- 
sile oblong lanceolate remote serrate — in Asia 
and Egypt, used to die black, certainly differ- 
ent again from all the American sp. but requir- 
ing a better description. 

304. EcLiPTA SI31PLEX Raf stem erect sim- 
ple strigose above, lower leaves ovatoblong ob- 
tuse petiolate, upper oblong or lanceolate ses- 
sile acute uninerve, subentire, hardly strigose 
nearly smooth, flowers solitary axillary or ter- 
minal, sepals of perianthe ovatoblong acute — 
sent me from Alabama and Tennessee as JE. 
procumbens although quite erect. A small sp. 
semipedal, with few leaves and flowers, leaves 
1 or 2 inches long. 

305. EcLiPTA SULCATA Raf stem erect tri- 
chotome sulcate nearly smooth, leaves narrow 
lanceolate sessile acute, subserrate in the mid- 
dle, nearly smooth, peduncles geminate une- 
qual hispid, sepals of perianthe ovate lanceo- 
late acute — Louisiana, sent me by Riddell as 

G 



42 NORTH AMERICAN 

the E. procumhens ? nearer my longifoUa^ but 
leaves only *2 or 3 inches long, stem sulcate, 
sepals broader but not acuminate as in E. 
dubia. 

306. EcLiPTA DiciioTOMA Raf. E. erecta 
Nuttal in Collins herb, stem erect dichotome 
smooth, leaves small sessile lanceolate and 
oblong acute entire or subserrulatesubstrigose, 
flowers 2 or 3 axillary and terminal, peduncles 
short subhispid, sepals ovate acute. Arkanzas, 
found by Nuttal, mistaken also for E. erecta^ 
quite distinct, stem slender 3 or 4 feet high, 
leaves remote uncial, sometimes small leaves on 
the lower peduncles, imitating short branches, 
flowers small smooth, seeds brown oblong sub 
4gone. 

307. EcLiPTA PUMiLA Raf. dwarf hispid 
rough, stem simple erect l-3flore, leaves sessile 
lanceolate acute or obtuse subentire, flowers 
axillary solitary, peduncle short, sepals oblong 
— Mts. Cumberland of East Kentucky, 1 or 2 
inches high only, perhaps a deviation of E. 
simplex. 

308. EcLiPTA NUTANS Raf. stem decumbent 
or assurgent flexuose trichotome rough above, 
leaves sessile strigose, oblong lanceolate or cun- 
eate hardly serrate acute uninerve, on the 
branches linear lanceol. entire, flowers axiflary 
and terminal geminate nodding, peduncles very 
short, sepals ovate lanceolate acute — in Ken- 
tucky also the banks of the Ohio and Potow- 
mak, pedal or less, leaves small uncial, flowers 
very small- This has probably been the E. 
procumhens of Mx and many botanists, but 
not of Elliot and others. It has some varieties 
1 pauciflora, assurgent nearly simple few flow- 
ers, 2 diffusa leaves often cuneate below, most- 



NEOPHYTON. 43 

ly oblong. This is the only prostrate sp. I have 
seen, and it is often assurgent. 

309. PALEISTA Raf. Perianthe uniserial 
8-lOsepals unequal serrate fimbriate, rays nu- 
merous 24-30 short linear 2dentate, fioscules 
4fid 4androus, phoranthe with fringed bristles, 
seeds 4gone tuberculate, crown with a thick 
margin and a pencil of short bristles. Pro- 
cumbent, radicant branched, leaves opposite, 
jloicers commonly geminate^ — Thus this G. 
differs from Eclipta in perianthe, chaff and 
seeds. 

310. Paleista procumbens Raf. Eclipta do 
Elliot not others. Procumbent strigose tricho- 
tome, leaves sessile triplinerve long lanceolate 
remotely serrate, peduncles elongate, 1 or 2, 
sepals of perianthe lanceolate acute serrate 
fimbriate — in Carolina and Florida in damp 
soils, flowers small white estival and autumnal : 
certainly quite distinct from my Eclipta nu- 
tans, nearer to E, longifolia in some things. 
I add to this the doubtful E. brachypoda not 
seen by me, but to contrast them. 

311. Paleista? brachypoda Raf. Eel. do. 
Mx &.C Amellus Carolin. Walt, prostrate di- 
varicate, leaves lanceolate nearly entire, pe- 
duncles 1-2 very short, sepals oval lanceol. 
fioscules Sandre — in Carolina Slc perhaps a 
peculiar G. or subgenus to be called Brachy- 
poda prostrata ! 

312. CACOTANIS Raf. Perianthe conical 
imbricate, with many rows of sepals, many 
rays, chaff bristly, seeds compressed notched 
crowned by a few small bristles. Leaves al- 
ternate, flowers terminal. — I united this plant 
to Eclipta in 1817 by a mistake, the habit is 
totally unlike our Ecliptas. It differs from all 



44 NORTH AMERICAN 

the genera blended in Verhesina by many rays 
and bristly seeds, from GaUnsoga by the pap- 
pus not paleaceous &c. The generic name 
means bad herb. 

313. Cacotanis ciliata Raf. Eclipta do fl. 
lud 214. Stem erect terete smooth, leaves al- 
terne sessile remote linear smooth ciliate thick 
—in West Louisiana, 2 or 3 feet high, flowers 
few terminal one inch broad, rays white, disk 
yellow. Autumnal. Smell like Ciciita, taste 
acrid, deleterious. 

314. CLIPTERIA Raf. Perianthe nearly 
uniserial 8-10 unequal sepals, phoranthe con- 
vex bristly, rays none, florets crowded, seeds 
naked. Dichotome, leaves alternate, floicers 
terminal geminate — very distinct Genus known 
at first sight from Eclipta by alterne leaves, 
and flosculose flowers. The name means defi- 
cient around. 

315. Clipteria DicHOTOMA Raf. stem erect 
smooth dichotome, branches biflore, leaves sess- 
ile oval oblong acute nearly entire uninerve 
smooth, peduncles geminate elongate, sepals of 
perianthe ovate long acuminate — Sent me 
anonymously from West Tennessee and the 
Chacta Country, stem bipedal, leaves and pe- 
duncles uncial, flowers green and small. I had 
first called it Eclipta levigata, but it appears a 
peculiar genus by habit, even if there should be 
short rays, my specimens have none, but the 
dry Ecliptas seldom show them. Could this be 
the GaUnsoga parviflora of Mg. Catal. men- 
tioned by no one else/ it is certainly not the pe- 
ruvian plant. 

31G. DIPLOSTELMA Raf, Radiate, pe- 
rianthe oblong turbinate imbricate sepals une- 
qual, margin scariose external short. Rays 



NEOPHYTON. 45 

few oboval, floscules few tubular, phoranthe 
naked, seeds oblong smooth crowned by a dou- 
ble pappus, external short paleaceous scariose, 
internal bristly longer. Annual ramose, leaves 
alternate, flowers ternnnal — a [)rctty little 
Genus near Bellis in habit, quite distinct by 
few rays and seeds. I find it under the name 
of Actiearnopiis (in Collins herb) Genus un- 
known to me and the name cant apply, the 
seeds and not the fruit being stellate. My 
name means a doubfe croivn. I have 3 sp. of 
it. 

317. DiPLosTELMA PI .iiiLA Raf. dwarf erect 
ramose strigose, branches angular uniflore, 
leaves sessile entire, lower cuneate or spatulate 
obtuse, lower linear cuneate acute, sepals of 
perianthe lanceolate acute rays about 5. — 
Texas and Arkanzas a small annual plant 2 to 
4 inches high, with many slender branches and 
leaves, flowers estival, rays apparently white 
obtuse subentire, floscules 5 to 8 only, seeds and 
pappus fulvous. Found by Nuttal in Arkanzas. 

318. DiPLOSTELMA RADIANS Raf. strigosc 
erect, branches flliform pauciflore, lower leaves 
petiolate spatulate obtuse entire, upper few li- 
near acute, sepals lanceolate cuspidate rays 
obt. 8 — collected by Drummond in Texas, G to 
8 inches high, flowers smooth, white, rays cun- 
eate 8 to 10, floscules fewer 4 to 7. 

319. DiPLOsTELMA FiLiFORMis Raf. crcct, 
branches filiform rough, much divided, branch- 
lets naked uniflore, leaves entire sessile, lower 
cuneate obtuse, upper subulate linear short, se- 
pals lanceolate fringed at the end, rays about 4 
— collected in Texas by Drummond, sent me by 
Torrey without name, to 8 inches high, leaves 
small, reduced to scales above, sepals more 



4G NORTH AMERICAN 

scariose fewer, rays 3 to 5, floscules 4 to 5. 

320. Lax ANON dlversifolium Raf. quite 
smooth, stem and branches fiexuose, radical 
and lower leaves narrow pinnatifid segments 
oblong miequal remote falcate, upper leaves 
graminiform obtuse entire, umbels 2-3flore, pe- 
duncles unequal smooth, filiform, sepals of pe- 
rianthe ovatoblong obtuse — in Arkanzas, col- 
lected by Nutta!, found in Collins herb, among 
the Krigias as a N. G. not named : it is a se- 
cond sp. of my Gr. Laxaiion see 204. Habit of 
a Krigia, lower leaves similar 4 or 5 inches 
long, stem pedal, leaves narrow 2 or 3 inches 
long, the 2 last subopposite forming a kind of 
involucre to the small umbellule, seeds ovate 
oblong striate. 

321. BAPTISIA Vent. &.c. This fine Ge- 
nus of N. Amer. plants had been blended with 
the African Sophoras and Podalyrias till lately. 
Even now it includes 3 or 4 distinct Genera ! 
Our compilers had only 8 sp. Nuttal had added 
3 hardly congeneric, I shall add some others, 
and thus we shall have 15 sp. but now distribt- 
ed in 4 Genera of which I will give short mo- 
nographs. They are Baptlsla, Mlpasia, La- 

sinia and Perlcmdon which differ more 

in habit and characters, than from the akin 
Genera Podahjria, Thermopsis, Rqfnia, Tern- 
pletonla, Pitcheria &lc. 

Baptisia Raf calix urceolate unequally 4fid 
one tooth often emarginate, petals subequal pa- 
pilionaceous, vexillum emarginate revolute 
wings cailose or toothed inside, keel subequal 
obtuse, stamens 10 free unequal, style curved 
simple, stigma obtuse. Pod stipitate ovate or 
globose ventricose smooth polysperm. — Peren- 
nial planjls, leaves trifoliate subsessile^ not 



NEOPIIYTON. 47 

reticulate, stipules obsolete, fiowers yelloic 
racemose or solitary terminal, bracts obso- 
lete. 

322. Baptisia tinctoria of Authors. Raf. 
med. H. tab. 11. Smooth, much ramose, terete 
foHoles sessile obovate rhomboidal subobtuse, 
racemes nodding pauciflore pod turgid ovate — 
common plant from Canada to Louisana in 
woods, but it has several varieties or deviations, 
some of which are assuming the rank of sp. Var. 
1. procumbens, 2. thamnoldes, 3. parmfolla 
&c, estival, 

323. Baptisia retusa Raf. smooth folioles 
obovate emarginate or retuse ample, branches 
uniflore — this appears entitled to be deemed a 
sp. the leaves are 4 times as large, the flowers 
twice as large, stem less ramose erect 4 feet 
high. Found in West Virginia and East Ken- 
tucky. 

324. Baptisia spiierocarpa Nut, pL rar. 52. 
smooth, branches angular canaliculate, folioles 
sessile obovate oblong obtuse retuse, racemes 
erect multiflore, pods subglobose — in Arkanzas 
near streams, folioles uncial, flowers large deep 
yellow on short pedicels. In my specimens the 
raceme is not terminal as stated by Nuttal who 
first described this plant in 1834 Journ. Ac. 
N. Sc. 

325. Baptisia albiflora Raf. Alba Authors. 
Smooth, branches terete, leaves on short peti- 
ols, folioles elliptic base acute end obtuse, ra- 
ceme erect elongate multiflore, flowers white 
pods obovate — from Carolina to Alabama and 
Louisiana, vernal. Some Var. 1. latifoUa, 2. 
glatica, 3. mucronata, 4. retusa ^-c, perhaps 
incipient sp. but all easily known by the fine 
white flowers. Perhaps a peculiar subgenus 
?^7/'»/^/V/ Jinf h^r r^nriii npfiolaite IcavGs &c. 



48 NORTH AMERICAN 

32G. PaPASIA Raf. diff. Baptisia calix 
canipanulate base acute, petals unequal on 
long claws, ve.xilliuii shorter reflexed, wings 
longer, keel equal to vexillum, stamens sube- 
qual, stigma acute, pod oblong terete acumi- 
nate. Leaces ivlth stipules^ floivers blue ra- 
cemose. — This Genus or subgenus is known at 
first sight by the flowers, calix, longer wings 
and pod, stipules &c. The name implies its 
constant locality near streams. 

327. RiPAsi.\ CERULEA Raf. Bapt. Podalyria 
Sophora australis or cerulea of Authors. 
Smooth, branches terete, stipules lanceolate, 
leaves on short petiols, folioles sessile cuncate 
subacute, raceme erect elongate multiflore. — 
On the margin of rivers from the Potomak and 
Ohio to Louisiana and Florida, estival. Some 
Var. 1. obtiisifolta, 2. rlwinbtfolia, 3. ma- 
crostachya &c. 

328. LASINIA Raf diff. Baptisia, calix 
often hairy vexillum obcordato short, base auri- 
culate, wings not callose, pistil quite hairy, style 
also at the base, pod subsessile, hairy oblong 
acuminate : Perennial jylants more or less 
hairy ^ leaves reticulate with stipules and flow- 
ers with bracts or else axilkwy, yellowish or 
greyish — This group will be easily known by 
the hairy habit most intense in the pistil and 
pod, bracts, deeply cleft vexillum &.c Michaux 
had 3 such hairy kinds, Elliot suspected there 
were more, and I shall increase them to 7 
species. 

329. Lasinia reticulata R. Bapt. lanceo- 
lata and uniflora of Authors. Stem smooth di- 
chotome angular sidcate, stipules minute, leaves 
subsessile, folioles petiolate oblong obtuse base 
cuneate, minutely nervose reticulate on both 



NEOrHYTON. 49 

sides, flowers axillary and subraceniose bracts 
lanceolate — in Carolina, Florida and Alabama, 
leaves 2 or 3 inches long, flowers vernal dark 
yellow. 

330. Lasinia fulva Raf. branches terete 
and pubescent, stipules obsolete, leaves and fo- 
lioles sessile, smooth oblong elliptic base acute, 
end obtuse retuse, minutely nervose reticulate 
on both sides, flowers chiefly axillary, some 
racemose, bracts oblong hairy calix pubescent 
pistil and pod fulvous very hairy. — Tennessee 
and Arkanzas, leaves uncial, flowers small of a 
dull fulvous yellow. A very distinct sp. proba- 
bly blended among B. villosa which includes 
several sp. according to Elliott. 

331. Lasinia bicolor Raf. (or grandifolia) 
stem dichotome pubescent, leaves petiolate, sti- 
pules linear, folioles sessile obovate or elliptical 
base acute, end obtuse or emarginate, margin 
ciliate, pubescent beneath, reticulate above, ra- 
cemes short ovate pauciflore — in Arkanzas 
and Texas, beautiful striking sp. leaves larger 
than in any other about 3 inches long, stipules 
petiols and calix pubescent, racemes with 8 or 
10 flowers crowded large of a dull yellow with 
a large purplish spot at the base of the vexillum 
nearest to B. mollis of Mx. but very different 
from the next. 

332. Lasinia pallens Raf stem sulcate 
nearly smooth, pubescent above, stipules lan- 
ceolate, leaves sessile, folioles sessile oblong 
cuneate obtuse emarginate pubescent beneath, 
racemes oblong pauciflore, calix acute — Alaba- 
ma and Apalachian mts. leaves biuncial, ra- 
ceme triuncial of 10 or 12 larse flowers of a 
dull yellow. Still nearer L. mollis, teeth of ca- 
lix acute as in it, but very little hairy and not 

1 



50 NORTH AMERICAN 

at all soft. The above 4 sp. are quite distinct, 
and may be the B. villosa or mollis of some 
Authors, which 1 add here tor contrast and 
comparison, although 1 have not seen them. 

333. Lasinia cinerea Raf B. villosa of Au- 
thors, stem and leaves beneath pubescent, sti- 
pules linear, leaves subsessile, folioles elliptic 
obtuse — in Carolina, Michaux says the flowers 
are pale, Elliot calls them grey. 

334. Lasinia mollis R. Bapt. do Mx. ^c. 
Quite pubescent soft decumbent, stipules lan- 
ceolate folioles, leaves petiolate, folioles rhom- 
boidal lanceolate, calix acute — in North Caro- 
lina, flowers dark yellow, omitted by Elliot, dis- 
covered by Mx. found by Nuttal on the Cataw- 
ba ridge, leaves 2 inches long one wide, pod 
small oblong acuminate. 

335. Lasinia bracteata Raf. Bapt. do Mg. 
Elliot, Slg leucophea Nuttal &c — quite pubes- 
cent hispid, branches angular divaricate, leaves 
and folioles sessile, stipules large ovate acute, 
folioles cuneate obtuse, racemes multiflore se- 
cund, bracts large lanceolate — from Carolina 
to Louisiana and Missouri, fine striking sp. fo- 
lioles 3 inches long narrow, young leaves yel- 
low beneath, flowers large on long peduncles, 
called ochroleucous by Nuttal, grey by Elliot, 
they are become brown in my Specimen. 
Vernal. 

Decandole appears to have misunderstood 
some of these sp. he divides the bracteata and 
leucophea, while he deems the first the mollis 
of Mx. but has another mollis of Nuttal .... 

336. PERICAULON Raf. calix campanu- 
late unequaly 4fid, upper bidentate, petals e- 
qual papil. not spreading, vexillum carinate e- 
marginate amplectens not rellexed, stamens 10 



NEOPHYTON. 51 

free equal, pistil stipitate, style curved, stigma 
acute, pod stipitate smooth subglobose acumi- 
nate swelled, seeds renit'orm. Leaves simple 
amplexicaule reticulate, Jloicers axillary soli- 
tar i/ pednnclcd yelloiD — (lienus quite distinct by 
habit, petals, stamens, pod &c which has been 
shuffled by turns into Crotalaria, Sopliora., 
Podalyria, Kafnia, Baptisia ! 5 Genera . . ! 
my name means around stem. Perennial and 
vernal. 

337. Pericaulon perfoliatum Raf. (5 Gen- 
era do of Authors !) stem terete, subramose, 
leaves perfoliate rounded elliptic both ends ob- 
tuse reticulate smooth glaucous — Carolina to 
Florida, sandy hills, aspect of Buplevrum per- 
foliatuin, flowers pale yellow. My specimens 
are from Kin, in Collins herb. Dillen and 
L. describe it with cordate ovate leaves, do 
they mean another sp / P. cordatum Raf . . . 

338. Pericaulon microphylum Raf. Bapti- 
sia do Nut. rar. 53. stem ramose, leaves sessile 
obovate rounded, upper amplexicaule coales- 
cent with rounded stipules — West Florida and 
Alabama, lately described by Nuttal, flowers 
and pod as in the last. 

339. EAPLOSIA Raf (to be smiple) difl'. 
Pericaulon, cal. camp. 4fid subequal, petals un- 
equal on long claws, keel large much longer ob- 
tuse, wings oblong, vexillum obovate revolute, 
ovary conical desinent into a strait subulate style, 
stigma acute smooth. Pod substipitate conical 
smooth. Leaves simple sessile smooth reticu- 
late, stipules none, flowers racemose bracte- 
ate yellow. — A fine distinct Genus by habit, pe- 
tals, pod &c : Nuttal did not see the flowers, 
the leaves become fuscate in drying, lucid 
above, dull beneath. 



52 ^ORTH AMERICAN 

340. Eaplosia ovata Raf. Baptisia simpli- 
cifolia Croom and Torrey, and Nuttal '( pi. rar. 
51. stem flexuose striate, leaves broad ovate 
quite sessile, base rounded, end obtuse or re- 
tuse, raceme spiked, bracts ovate acute longer 
than the short pedicels — in West Florida, dis- 
covered by Croom, specimen sent me by Tor- 
rey, sesquipedal, subramose above, leaves large 

3 inches long 2 wide, raceme subterminal 3 or 

4 inches long, flowers forming a spike by short 
peduncles, calix canescent inside, teeth large 
ovate, petals dull yellow. Nuttal states his 
specimen to have had oval rhomboidal leaves, 
thus nearer the next and perhaps a variety, 
rhomhoidea. 

341. Eaplosia longifolia Raf. stem flex- 
uose sulcate, leaves oblong, elliptic subrhom- 
boidal, base attenuate semiamplexicaule, end 
obtuse rounded — sent me from Alabama with- 
out flowers, but evidently akin to the last, leaves 
of same color and texture, minutely nervose re- 
ticulate above lucid blackish, beneath dull fus- 
cate ; but shape quite different larger 5 or 6 
inches long, only 2 wide in the middle where 
swelled, both ends attenuated, and base a little 
decurrent. 

342. DREPILIA Raf. calix campanulate 
subequal 5fid. petals pupilionaceous subequal, 
vexillum revolute, stamens 10 free, style filiform 
stigma minute smooth, pod substipitate falcate 
compressed acuminate moniliform polysperm. 
Perennial, leaves petiolate trifoliate stipulate, 
jloicers racemose siibverticillate yellow — this 

Genus has been improperly united to Ther- 
mopsis of R. Bruon which has calix bilabiate, 
pod linear strait &:c, a Siberian Gr. based on So- 
phora fabacea. Drepilia derives from little 
scythe. It is very akin to Sjisinia. 



NEOPIIYTON. 53 

343. Drepilia khombifolia Raf. Cytisus do 
Pursh. Therinia Nut. Tlienoopsis rhombif. 
Hooker fl. bor. t. 47. Th. oregonensis Dec — 
leaves petiolate rhomboidal silky beneath, sti- 
pules rounded foliaceous, raceme subsessile in- 
terrupted — Missouri and Origon, my specimens 
are from Brad burr y, roots creeping, stems pe- 
dal angular. 

This will conclude our Leguminose plants of 
Sophora tribe, the VirgUla is a tree and my 
N, G. Cladrastis, the Soph, sericea is subdia- 
delphous forming my N. O. Vexibia. I shall 
now give another interesting monograph of our 
Crotalarias. 

244. CROTALARIA. Linneus had only 23 
sp. we have now about 150 ! but many hetero- 
genous sp. are blended even by Decandole, see 
my flora telluriana for N. G. meantime most of 
our N. American sp. form a very natural group; 
our Authors have only 5 mostly deemed var. of 
C. sagittalis by Mx. some ascertained by Pursh 
and Elliott, but misnamed, since sagittalis, le- 
vigata and pai'viJJora are exotic plants. I 
shall revise them and increase to 10 sp. having 
all simple leaves and long peduncles opposite to 
leaves, bracteate commonly multiflore, stem 
often winged^ by decurrent stipules, like a re- 
versed arrow, mostly annuals, flowers bibrac- 
teate yellow estiva!. They must form a sub- 
genus locauJon (arrow stem) with the similar 
kinds of South America &c. 

345. Subg. locAULON Raf. calix campanul. 
deeply 5fid subequal subbilabiate, equal to pe- 
tals papil. Vexillum obcordate reflexed, keel 
acuminate longer than wings, stamens 10 mo- 
nadelphous at base, split behind, filaments al- 
ternate longer bearing 5 round anthers com- 



54 NORTH AMERICAN 

monly sterile, 5 shorter with oblong anthers bi- 
locular. Pistil subsessile, style lateral longer 
than stamens, stigma obtuse hairy, pod subses- 
sile oblong turgid obtuse mucronate on one side 
black and smooth polysperm, seeds small reni- 
form shining rattling. Habit as above stated. 

346. CiiOT. or loc, linearis Raf. C. sagit. 
var. linearis Mx. smooth virgate erect, leaves 
linear elongate sessile ucute stipules linear 
erect hardly decurrent ; peduncles elongate tri- 
flore, bracts and calyx linear lanceolate cilio- 
late, pods subterete — from Carolina to Louisi- 
ana, received from Alabama, annual, estival, 
stem erect slender pedal, leaves long narrow^, 
2 or 3 inches long, stipules well marked, pe- 
duncles very long 4 or 5 inches, with 1 or 2 
bracts in the middle, flowers small near togeth- 
er. Pods longer and narrower than in the 
others, nearly terete oblong quite black. 

347. Crot. or loc. longipes Raf sagittalis ? 
Dec. smooth assurgent, stem well winged, leaves 
sessile narrow lanceolate acute, stipules lanceo- 
late erect foliose decurrent, peduncles very 
long incurved biflore, bracts and calix linear 
lanceolate hispid — sent me from Alabama, 
large bipedal, leaves 3 or 4 inches long, half 
inch broad, stipules large uncial, peduncles 6 
to 8 inches long, with a bract in the middle, 
flowers small, pods not seen. 

348. Crot. or loc. pilosa Raf parviflora 
Roth Dec. P. El. &.C. excl. syn. Mx. non par- 
vifl. Thunberg- W. Sm — erect ramose, pilose 
hirsute, leaves subsessile oblong lanceol, ciliate 
mucronate. stipules short irregular subdecur- 
rent, peduncles short subracemose 3-5flore, 
bracts and calix ciliate linear lanceol. pods tur- 
gid oblong — from Pensylv. and New Jersey to 



NEOPHYTON. 55 

Carolina and Missouri, small semipedal, leaves 
short uncial, peduncles biuncial flowers small, 
petals shorter than calix, pods brown. The 
Cr. parviflora Thunherg, miscalled pnrvifolia 
by Persoon is Ah'ican and has ovate tomentose 
leaves. Annual estival, some Var. 1 Simplex 
leaves mostly oblong, in Pine Woods, 2 Jlexu- 
osa lower leaves oblong obtuse, upper narrow 
lanceolate, Missouri. Formerly thiswas called 
C. sagttalis, and Beck, Torrey, Eaton . . . 
make 2 sp. of it, without any disdnction ! 

349. Crot. or loc. cuneifolia Raf. Purshi 
Dec. levigata ? Pursh. sagittalis Elliot. Smooth 
erect, leaves cuneate oblong mucrenate glau- 
cous beneath, upper leaves ciliolate, stipules 
lanceolate divaricate decurrent, peduncles short 
2-3fl. pubescent, bracts and calix lanceolate — 
Carolina to Florida, sent me as Cr. sagittalis, 
probably blended with the next by Elliot, leaves 
biuncial quite cuneate at base, stipules broad, 
flowers small. 

350. Crot. or loc. lunulata Raf. sagittalis 
var. oblonga Mx. stem assurgent pilose ramose, 
leaves subpetiolate nearly smooth elliptic or 
ovatoblong obtuse cuspidate glaucous beneath 
ciliolate, stipules lunulate lanceol. decurrent 
ciliate, peduncles short l-2flore, bracts and ca- 
Hx lanceolato pilose, pod uncinate. — Carolina 
to Florida, my specimen from W. Florida, 
large plant sesquipedal, branches erect, leaves 
uncial, flowers small, peduncles biuncial, pods 
brown uncial oblong, with a hooked acumen. 
Stipules quite crescent shaped, very distinct sp. 
probably perennial like the next. 

351. Crot. or loc. ovalis. P. El. Slc stem 
pilose prostrate, branches angular erect not 
winged, leaves ovate or obovate or elliptic 



56 AOKTII A3IERICAN 

smooth ciliate subpetiolate obtuse or retuse 
glaucous beneath, stipules minute not decur- 
rent, peduncles elongate racemose 3-6flore, 
bracts linear calix hirsute lanceolate, pod obo- 
vate — from Carolina to Florida and Alabama, 
stem sesquipedal, leaves miciai or less, pedun- 
cles 4 to 8 inches long, petals exceeding a lit- 
tle the calix, pods uncial. Perennial, some 
Var. 1 Ohovata many leaves obovate, 2 jjar- 
vifolia &LC. 

352. Crot. or loc. pumila Raf. Dwarf pros- 
trate branches flexuose hispid diffuse angular, 
leaves elliptic rounded subsessile obtuse or re- 
tuse rugose, stipnles obsolete, peduncles very 
short uniflore, bracts linear, calix lanceolate 
hirsute — Florida and Georgia, perennial, only 
2 or 3 inches hvAi or long, leaves and flowers 
very small. Habit of Polygonum aviculare. 
Probably a deviation of the last. 

353. CiioT. or loc. sagittalis L. &lc stem 
erect hirsute winged above, leaves lanceolate 
petiolate hairy beneath, stipules bifid decurrent 
peduncles racemose — in Guyana and Brazil, 
quite different from all ours. Decandole ap- 
pears to omit it, and applies the name to ours, 
perhaps to 347. 

354. Crot. (loc ?) flexuosa (Eaton.) Suf- 
fruticose, branches flexuose, leaves obovate den- 
tate hairy, flowers corymbose downy — Caro- 
lina, quite distinct since shrubby with toothed 
leaves: not seen, I find it only in Eaton, who 
forgets to quote the Author. 

355. Crot. (loc ?) scariosa Raf. suffruticose 
branches erect simple slender terete silky, 
leaves adpressed sessile lanceolate acute entire, 
silky white beneath, peduncles subradical with 
scariose scales, flowers subcapitate, involucre 



NEOPHYTON. i7 

scariose, bracts and calix broadly lanceol. sil* 
ky — Texas and Arkanzas, submuliicaule 5 or 
6 tnches high, only woody at the base, no sti- 
pules, floriterous stems or peduncles 3 or 4 
inches long, scales fulvous vaginate, flowers 5 or 
6, yellow, vexillum large round longer than 
calix. 

35G. Crot. (Ioc?) asarifolia Raf. Pros- 
trate puberulent, stem simple slender angular 
not winged, leaves on long petiols broadly cor- 
date obtuse entire, stipules obsolete, peduncles 
axillary short l-2flore, bracts and calix lanceo- 
late — Texas, collected by Druinmond, a very 
distinct sp. by petiolate leaves, probably not a 
locaulon, yet flowers similar small, petals equal 
to calix, annual ? leaves remote petiols uncial, 
leaves one inch broad but shorter, pods not 
seen. 

357. Crot. (Ioc ?) alatipes Raf. smooth, 
stem angular flexuose, leaves on winged cune- 
ate petiols, oblong acnte base subcordate, reti- 
culate above, stipules lanceol. scariose striate, 
flowers racemose terminal, bracts similar to sti- 
pules equal to pedicels — South Florida, herb, 
of Collins, not named, evidently of this group, 
but not a locaulon ! probably a peculiar subge- 
nus {Alatipes Raf.) calix short with a subulate 
calicule beneath, petals subequal, keel quite 
curved acute, vexillum reflexed, pod not seen. 
It must be compared with the tropical sp. 
Quite smooth all over, perennial, leaves rigid 
2 or 3 inches long, petiols uncial, some lower 
leaves smaller oboval retuse, spikes slender cur- 
ved 3 uncial, flowers small saffron yellow. 

Decandole has another from N. Amer. Crot. 
platycarpa of Link, which hardly differs from 
Cr. pilosa, and is probably var. simplex^ by its 

8 



gg NORTH AMERICAN 

oblong leaves ; the name of platycarpa is an 
absurdity in a Genus having always turgid 
pods : if really with flat pods it is not of this 

Genus ! 

358. GERARDIA and akin genera— Sir 
James Smith has stated in Rees Cycl. that 
this Genus of Plumier was based on the G. tu- 
ber osa only, and that Linneus in adopting it had 
united thereto many plants that ought to be 
separated if with ditferent characters : this is 
the fact with all our North American sp. which 
must even form 3 or 4 peculiar Genera. Nuttal 
deemed them confused, forming 2 sections with 
purple and yellow flowers as near Digitalis as 
Gerardia ! I have reformed this G. in flora 
Tellur. I now mean to revise all our species, 
which I mostly possess and amount to over 20. 
Some of these were once united to Rhinanthus 
Chelone and Erinus ! but Seymeria, Pagesia, 
Dasistema,and others, have been already distin- 
guished. I shall add many others. 

Character of real Gerardia. CalixSfid, co- 
rolla tubulose bilabiate, upper lip emarg. erect, 
lower 31obe, reflexed, middle lobe bifid, lateral 
lobes emarginate. Stamens 4 didynamous 
smooth, anthers smooth, a style, stigma obtuse. 
Capsule bilocular oligosperm, partitions con- 
trary to valves, dehiscent below. Roots tube- 
rose, leaves opposite entire, flowers axillary 
yellow. Several tropical sp. blended in G. tu- 
berosa. 

359. Lopiiantiiera Raf. differs by coroHa 
campan. 51obed, the anthers crested, leaves 
divided &c. Type G. delphinifolia of Asia 
^•c. The African sp. form the G. melasma of 

Berg. 

360. AUREOLARIA Raf. calix campanuK 



XEOPHYTON. 



59 



semi 5fid subeqiial segments simple, corolla 
campanul. ventricose, limb 51obed obliqual,lobes 
siibequal entire. Stamens 4 didyn, filaments 
hairy as base, anthers hairy not crested, base 
bifid biaristate. Capsule dehiscent above. 
Roots perennial, leaves opposite, flowers 
terminal bracteate yellow — This will include 
nearly all our golden sp. except G. pedicularis 
&/C. The name implies the golden flowers. 

361. AuREOLARiA viLLOsA Raf. Gcr. do 
Muhl. Ger. flava L. &c. Easily known by its 
pubescence often all over, leaves oblong, the 
lower sinuate. Several var. 1. mrgata, 2 
sinuata, 3 montana all leaves entire, 4 heter- 
ophyla Mg. leaves very different and sinuate. 

362. AuREOLARiA LEviGATA Raf. Gcrardia 
do Raf. annals Nat. 99, G. lanceolata Muhl. 
Cat ? Q,uite smooth, leaves subsessile lanceo- 
late acute entire, pale beneath, bracts ovate 
lanceolate, flowers subsessile, teeth of calix 
ovate obtuse — in the Mts. Alleghanies and 
Cumberland from Pennsylv. to Kentucky, disc, 
by me 1818 descr. 1820 in my annals, stem 1 
or 2 feet high mostly simple faintly 4gone pur- 
plish, bracts small, flowers large yellow estival. 
Var. 1. ramosa, 2 alter nifolia some leaves and 
most of the flowers alternate. 

363. AuREOLARiA RETICULATA Raf. Stem as- 
surgent terete smooth simple, leaves sessile o- 
blong and cuneate entire acute, rough above 
and on margins, beneath smooth reticulate, 
flowers racemose peduncled, bracts linear cun- 
eate, teeth of calix ovate acute — Florida and 
Alabama, pedal, stem dark purple, leaves bi- 
uncial. 

364. AuEUEOLARiA cuNEiFOLiARaf. smooth, 
stem simple terete, leaves sessile cuneate acute 



§& NORTH AMERICAN 

sinuate dentate, flowers racemose, bracts linear 
entire, peduncles equal to calix. segments lan- 
ceolate — Mts. Alleghany rare, stem pedal dark 
purple, leaves 2 to 4 inches, upper narrow, ca- 
lix broadly camp, subbilabiate, corollas large. 
Very different from Gerardia cuneifolia of 
Pursh, nearer to A. glauca. 

365. AuREOLARiA RUPESTRis Raf. Gcr. do. 
R. Atl. Journ. p. 154. quite smooth, stem fistu- 
lose purplish, leaves petiolate bipinnatifid seg- 
ments deep lanceolate acute remote, sinusses 
rounded, upper leaves oblong pectinate lacirii- 
niate. racemes often ramose, bracts lanceol. en- 
tire, flowers secund peduncled, segments of ca- 
lix lanceol. acute— in the Alleghany Mts. on 
rocks, Tuscorora chain &c, probably blended 
with the next by Authors, 2 or 3 feet high, often 
ramose, leaves large below and twice cut, nar- 
rower above, flowers smaller than in the other 
kinds. 

366. AuREOLARTA GLAUCA Raf. Gcr. do. Ed- 
dy, Eaton, Tor. Beck, G. quercifolia Pursh, 
Elliot. G. flava Walter, Rhinanthus Virgini- 
cus L. — Quite distinct from the last by larger 
size, stem solid glaucous, leaves subsessile the 
lower sinuate pinnatifid, attenuate at both ends, 
a little rough, upper entire, raceme paniculate, 
bracts linear, segments of calix linear elongate 
— from I^ong Island to Carolina and West in 
the prairies of Kentucky, where it attains 6 
feet var. 1. Glgnntea, 2 purpurea stem pur- 
plish. 

367. PANCTENIS Raf. (quite combed) 
diff". Aureolaria, calix urceolate 5fid segments 
unequal foliaceous pectinate or crenate. Co- 
rolla hairy outside, stamens quite hairy, cap- 
sule polysperm. Flowers axillary, this may 



NEOPHYTON. 61 

be deemed a subgenus of the last if liked, but 
is very distinct and may as well be a Genus. 

368. Panctenis peok ularis Ilaf. (or Au- 
reolaria) Gerardia do L. <fcc. Well known 
common species very branched and clammy 
villose, segments of calix crenate serrate or la- 
ciniate. Var. 1 ramoslsshna, 2 pumila, 3 
simplex ^c, but 2 other varieties appears to 
be wide deviations and incipient sp. sprung 
from this. 

369. Panctenis pectinata Raf. Ger. pedic. 
var pectinata Nut. leaves ovate pectinatly sub- 
bipinnatifid softly villose, peduncles short, seg- 
ments of calix pectinate — found by Nuttal in 
pine woods of Carolina, by myself in pine woods 
of Alleghanies, sesquipedal. 

370. Panctenis pumila Raf. dwarf, leaves 
lanceolate, crenate or pectinate hardly pinnati- 
fid, petiols elongate, segments of calix only cre- 
nate — Alleghany Mts. found in bloom later than 
any other in Autumn, roots large thick branch- 
ed, stem only 3 inches high, leaves small not 
bipinnate, flowers as large as usual, whole plant 
quite hairy but not clammy. Could it be a late 
Autumnal shoot thus deviating to form a pecu- 
liar species ? 

371. AGALINIS Raf. (remarkable flax.) 
Calix campanul. 5 dentate, often truncate, teeth 
subequal not obliqual. Corolla widely cam- 
panulate 5 lobes rounded equal obliqual often 
ciliate. Stamens didyn. villose, anthers bicus- 
pidate at base, dehiscent lateraly. A style, 
stigma obtuse compressed. Capsule globose 
bilocular, bivalve quite split, polysperm. Chie- 
Jly annuals^ slender stems and leaves, floic- 

ers axillarii and terminal purplish — a very 
distinct natural Genus having the habit of flax, 



52 NORTH AMERICAN 

with toothed calix and purple flowers es^ival 
and Autumnal, leaves and flowers chiefly oppo- 
site, leaves always sessile. 

372. Agalinis PALusnas Raf. Ger. purpu- 
rea L. <Slc. that name applied to all. It will 
be known by its locality near marshes, stem 
branched rough 4gone, leaves broad linear 
rough, flowers subsessile and large, teeth of ca- 
lix elongate and broad. From New England 
to Carolina, ses(juipedal. Var. Corymbosa 
branches crowded corymbose, 2. dimiricata 
slender divergent, 3 ramosissima, 4 virgata 
&c, but the next appears to be distinct. 

373. Agalinis longifolia Raf. stem simple 
4gone smooth, leaves long linear smooth thin 
margin rough, flowers subsessile, teeth of calix 
long subulate, — Near streams New Jersey to 
Virginia, stem 6 to 12 inches only, while leaves 
2 or 3 inches long, often alternate above, flow- 
ers rather large. 

374. Agalims MAiiiTiMA Raf Gev. do Raf. 
med. rep. 1808. Nuttal 1818. G. purpurea 
var. crassifolia Pursh. Quite smooth, stem 
branched, leaves linear thick convex beneath 
enerve, flowers on peduncles shorter than leaves, 
calix crenate, teeth short obtuse — on the Sea 
shores from New England to Chesapeak bay. 
Stem 2 to 8 inches high, flowers smaller. A 
very distinct sp. one of the few of my early dis- 
coveries in 1802/ adopted by our botanists. 
Var. 1. pumila, 2 or 3 inches high, 2 gracilis 
less branched slender leaves remote.' 

375. Agalinis virgata Raf. quite smooth, 
stem simple virgate angular, leaves adpressed 
narrow linear, flowers racemose opposite on 
short peduncles, teeth of calix short acute — 
glades of Pine woods in South New Jersey near 



NEOPIIYTON. 63 

Miillica Hill tf'C, annual, estival,6 to 15 inches 
high, leaves short seminncial equal to interno- 
des, shorter or remote above, flowers size of A 
maritima, peduncles eqnal to calix. This is 
most likeiy the erecta of Walter. 

376. Agalinis corymbosa Raf stem smooth 
angular filiform branches terminal corymbose 
virgatr, leaves adpressed setaceous linear sca- 
brous with a thick nerve, flowers alternate sub- 
sessile, teeth ot calix broad acute — Carolina 
and Florida, stem 1 or 2 feet very slender, 
leaves small semiuncial, flowers rather large. 
It appear to ditier from the G. plukeneti of El- 
liot by the leaves, rough and broader, less 
branches, shorter peduncles and alternate 
flowers. 

377. Agai^inis plukeneti Raf. Ger. do El- 
liot. Pluk. phyt. t. 12. f. 4. not seen by me, ap- 
pears to ditfer from last by stem much branch- 
ed, setaceous smooth leaves, peduncles longer. 
Carolina. 

378. Agalinis perennis Raf. Ger. linifolia 
Nut. El. &c Perennial creeping roots, stem te- 
rete virgate smooth,few virgate branches, leaves 
smooth long linear thick, flowers terminal race- 
mose smooth, peduncles subequal to the upper 
leaves, teeth of calix remote short acute — Ca^ 
rolina to Florida, a very distinct sp. from my 
A. virgata, nearer A. maritlma ; distinct from 
all by the roots that are annual in others. My 
specimen is from Florida, and has leaves near- 
ly 2 inches long, rather divergent, flowers few 
remote, corolla smooth not pubescent and ci- 
liate as in most species, peduncles nearly 
uncial. 

379. Agalinis fasciculata Raf. Ger. do 
Elliot. I have not seen this sp. but it appears 



64 NORTH AMERICAN 

to diiTer from all mine by the tall rough rigid 
stem 3 to 5 feet high, leaves opposite and ter- 
nate with axillary fascicles, rough linear, flow- 
ers subsessile and teeth of calix linear longer 
than in any — Sea Islands of Carolina. 

380. Agalinis tenuiiolia Vahl. and all hot. 
hut Elliot suspects some sp. are blended since 
Nuttal calls the leaves rough, but his own spe- 
cimens in Collins herb, are smooth. Easily 
known by complete smoothness stem 4gone, 
leaves linear, corolla short small smooth, pe- 
duncles as long as leaves, teeth of calix small 
acute — from Canada to Florida and Missouri, 
autumnal, woods and glades var. 1 paniculata 
2 ramosissima 2 feet high Elliot. 3 humilis 
semipedal few branches, 4 saxatilis leaves lon- 
ger, branches divaricate. 

381. Agalinis setacea Raf. Ger. do Pursh. 
smooth, stem subramose terete filiform, leaves 
setaceous, peduncles filiform longer than leaves 
corolla short, teeth of calix minute acute — 
New Jeri^ey to Alabama and Kentucky, Illi- 
nois in glades,flowers as in the last. Var. humi- 
lis 6 to 10 inches, 2. major 1 or 2 feet more 
branched. 

382. Agalinis obtusifolia Raf. quite smooth 
and glaucous, stem subramose angular filiform, 
leaves setaceous sulcate, end obtuse callose, 
flowers racemose, peduncles much longer than 
leaves, corolla short, teeth of calix minute re- 
mote callose — West Tennessee, Alabama and 
Florida, distinct from last by angular stem and 
leaves with a deep furrow, obtuse at the end, 
all other kinds have acute leaves. Stem with 
few slender branches, leaves and flowers often 
alternate ; corolla smooth shallow or broadly 
campanulate. 



N EOPHITOA'. 65 

383. Agalinis yiLiFooA Raf. Ger. do Nut. 
Ell. I have not seen this sp. of Florida, it ap- 
pears to difter hv terete stem, leaves filiform, 
carnose, corolla large similar to A. palustris, 
calix likewise. 

384. Agalinis micropiiylla Raf. smooth, 
stem virgate terete costate sulcate, leaves re- 
mote adpressed scattered minute linear obtuse, 
flowers spicate snhsessile, peduncles shorter 
than calix, teeth short acute, corolla smooth 
ciliate shallow — in Florida, collected by Le- 
conte (Collins herb) very slender, few alternate 
branches, few leaves 2 or 3 lines long, stem 
deeply grooved and ribbed not angular. Flow- 
ers small similar to those of A. glauca. Quite 
distinct from next by stem, leaves and pedun- 
cles. 

385. Agalinis aphylla Raf. Ger. do Nut. 
El. smooth, stem virgate nearly simple 4gone 
leaves opposite like scales ovate acute deci- 
duous, flowers racemose opposed, peduncles 
elongate triple of calix, teeth minute acute — 
Carolina to Florida. My specimen is only pe- 
dal, and in fruit, quite aphyllous, capsules ovate, 
there are 2 other doubtful sp. of this Genus, 
Ger, leucanthera fl. lud. 155, which is probably 
a var. of Ag. temijfolia G. 2. Ger. Jiammea 
of Bartram travels omitted by all later botanists, 
is perhaps a Russelia ! for G. auriculata see 
next Genus. 

386. TOMANTHERA Raf. calix Sparted 
unequal, corolla smooth venose, rotate campan- 
iilate Slobed, lobes rounded 2 superior larger, 
stamens 4 didynamic very unequal, 2 of double 
length, filaments smooth flexuose, anthers smooth 
bipartite, the 2 cells unequal,dehiscent lateraiy, 
Btvle flexuose, stigma obtuse. Capside ovate 

9 



66 NORTH AMERICAN 

acute bivalve as in Agalinis. Same habit an- 
nuals, leaves opposite sessile, floicers axillary 
purplish — A very distinct G. by calix, stamens 
and anthers, corolla as in Seymeria, but purple. 
The name applies to the split anthers. 

387. ToMANTHERA LANCEOLATA Raf. Erinus ! 
africanus Muhl. stem simple hirsute, leaves lan- 
ceolate acute entire pubescent, flowers subsess- 
ile, segments of calix ovate lanceolate pubes- 
cent — A very rare plant deemed doubtfiU be- 
cause never described. In Pensylv. and Ca- 
rolina, my specimen of Collins herb, was collec- 
ted by Dr. Cleaver in New Jersey, it is annual 
only 4 inches high, with a thick stem of a dark 
purple, leaves few small 4 to 8 lines long, flow- 
ers large, size of Agalinis tenuifolia, calix sub- 
foliose, corolla smooth. Never met by me in 
25 years of researches! 

388. TOMANTHERA? AURICULATA Raf, Gcr- 

ardia do Mx. and all our copists, who have 
never seen it nor described it ! by Michaux 
short account it difters by stem nearly simple 
very rough, leaves ovate lanceolate auriculate, 
flowers quite sessile — in Illinois and also Loui- 
siana : I have not seen it and it must be better 
described. 

389. DASISTEMA Raf. J. Sc. phys. 1819. 
Calix urceolate 5fid, segments unequal foliace- 
ous dentate. Corolla with a short thick tube 
wooly inside, limb rotate Slobed, lobes subequal 
concave wooly at the bottom. Stamens 4 didyn 
short wooly, anthers mutic smooth, a 5th sterile 
stamen, style short, stigma clavate. Capsule 
as in Aureolaria, seeds winged. Perennials, 
leaves dwided opposite, floicers spicate brae- 
teate yellow, — This N, G. of mine disc. 1818 
published 1819 with my 50 N. G. is quite pe- 



NEOPHYTON. 67 

culiar having the calix of Panctenis, but sta- 
mens unlike all. 

360, Dasistema auriculata Raf. quite vil- 
lose, stein 4gone ramose, leaves petiolate broad- 
ly lanceolate, the lower auriculate at base, me- 
dial truncate at base, upper acute at base, all 
crenate serrate subobtuse, bracts sessile ova- 
toblong, flowers subsessile, calix crenate — on 
the banks of R. Ohio in West Kentucky and 
Illinois, estiva], fine plant 3 or 4 feet high, 
leaves 2 to 4 inches long, flowers large golden 
yellow. 

391. Dasistema 3IACR0PHYLLA Raf. Seyme- 
ria do Niittal tj'c Erinus pinnatif ? Mg. stem 
ramose, leaves nearly smooth subsessile, lower 
elongate pinnatifid or sinuate, upper lanceolate 
entire, flowers subsessile, segments of calix en- 
tire ovate — found by Nuttal in Ohio, I have his 
specimen in Collins herb, whereby I have as- 
certained what I already surmised, that it is 
really a sp. of this Genus and not Seymeria, 
Nuttal says the stamens are smooth, but involv- 
ed in the wool of the base, he meant the an- 
thers, the filaments being also wooly. Tall 
plant, leaves 3 to 6 inches lons^, flowers yellow. 

392. SEYMERIA Pursh. ArzELiAGm. not 
Smith. Calix camp, deeply 5fid. subequal. co- 
rolla rotate campanulate deeply 51obed, lobes 
subeqnal, stamens 4 very short subequal quite 
smooth, except at insertion subsessile deflexed, 
anthers oblong smooth emarginate, incumbent, 
two equal cells opening by ovate terminal pores. 
Style filiform declined, stigma obtuse. Capsule 
bivalve ovate 21oc. polysperm, seeds minute. 
Annuals^ leaves opp. and alt. small divided^ 

flowers axillary yelloic — a very distinct Genus 
mistaken by Nuttal who gave the character out 



68 NORTH AMERICA?^ 

of his S. macrophylla., the stamens and pores 
are quite different. Elliot has better under- 
stood the characters and the 3 sp. which I all 
possess. 

393. Seymeria tenuifolia Pursh. N. E. &c. 
Afzeha cassioides Gm. Gerardia afzeha Mx. 
branches terete rough, leaves smooth setaceous 
lower pectinate pinnatifid, upper subcntire, flow- 
ers racemose, peduncles subequal to leaves, seg- 
ments of calix linear — Carolina to Alabama, 
stem 3 or 4 feet (Elliot) much branched, small 
slender leaves, calix quite cupular at base with 
rounded sinusses and linear segments, corolla 
with purple dots inside, segments oblong obtuse, 
capsule smooth. 

394. Seymeria pectinata Pursh 4'C, Vis- 
cose pubescent leaves pectinate pinnatifid, seg- 
ments of calix cuneate — Carolina to Florida, 
although Nuttal calls this common, Elliot did 
not see it, and I have fewer specimens than of 
the last. Branched, leaves short, calix with 
deeper and broader segments, sinusses obtuse, 
corolla and capsule pubescent. 

395. Seymeria iieterophyla Raf. S. jack- 
soni E. viscose pubescent, branches virgate, 
leaves oblong lanceolate, lower pinnatifid seg- 
ments oblong the last larger, upper leaves en- 
tire or auriculate, peduncles equal thereto, seg- 
ments of calix oblong deeply parted — a very 
distinct sp. which Elliot deemed doubtful. Ala- 
bama and Georgia, my specimen from Leconte 
C. H, 2 to 4 feet high, branches incurved sub- 
terete, leaves minute very short, calix almost 
Sparted, corolla small segments ovate obtuse, 
style short. 

396. DASANTHERA Raf. 1817. Calix 5 
parted unequal, corolla campanul. 51obed une- 



NEOPIIYTON. (>9 

tjual, stamens 4 unequal, anthers villose. Leaves 
opposite serrate, jloicers purple — to complete 
the compared account ot^ ail the Gerardias I 
add this Genus, with some others not seen by 
me, and very little known, which must be des- 
cribed better hereafter. This appears medial 
between Atireolaria and Das i sterna, but the 
calix and purple corollas ditfer from both. 

397. Dasantiiera iruticos\ R. Gerardiado 
Pursh &c shrubby, leaves lanccol. serrate sub- 
petiolate, flowers racemose bracteate. — Origon 
Mts. only seen dry by Pursh and Torrey. 

398. Dasantheka? cuneifolia Raf. Ger, do 
Pursh «^»c perennial, branches erect, leaves 
cuneate unequaiy serrate, upper alternate, pe- 
duncles axillary longer than leaves or bracts — 
Florida, disc, by Bartram but not his ffammea, 
of doubtful Genus not even seen by Elliot. Ca- 
lix Sparted and purple flowers. 

390. PAGESIA Raf. fl. hid. calix Sparted 
unequal, upper segment larger, corolla tube 
ventricose limb rotate bilabiate, upper lip re- 
flexed flat emarginate, lower trilobe. Stam 4 
didyn. style and stigma simple, capsule as in 
Aureolaria. Leaves oppos. sessile, flowers ra- 
cemose white — This G. of mine 1817 is akin to 
all the above, but distinct by the calix bilabiate, 
white corolla 4^c. 

400. Pagesia leucantiia Raf fl. lud. 149. 
Stem weak decumbent 4gone ramose, leaves 
sessile ovatoblong serrulate smooth, axils biau- 
riculate, flowers racemose on long peduncles, 
segments of calix striate — in West Louisiana 
and Texas probably, disc, by Robin, many 
weak stems pedal, white smooth flowers, cap- 
sule oval polysperm. This may be the white 
flowered Ger. aurieulata of I^ouisiana hinted 
at by some botanists. 



70 NORTH AMERICAN 

401. OVOSTIMA Raf. Cal. campanul. 5 
fid, segments unequal leafy entire. Corolla 
tubular ventricose smooth limb large spread- 
ing with 5 lobes subequal rounded. Stamens 
4 didjn. included, filaments subequal smooth ; 
anthers obtuse base sagittate bifid bicuspidate 
21ocul. opening lateraly,sutures pubescent. Style 
elongate strait, stigma capitate ovatoblong 
acute nodding. Capsule small inclosed. Pe- 
renjiial 'f leaves opposite petiolate, Jloicers 
axillary white — a singular Genus partaking of 
the characters of many akin, but distinct by 
calix, stigma and white flowers as in Pagesia. 
The name means ovate stigma. 

402. OvosTiMA PETioLATA Raf. quito smooth 
stem simple terete purplish, leaves opp. petio- 
late oblong lanceolate both ends acute, lower 
repand or with remote unequal obtuse teeth, up- 
per subentire, flowers subsessile, segments of ca- 
lix ovatoblong — Florida or Alabama, received 
without name with many other rare plants. I 
first called it Aureolaria pallida, but have been 
able to ascertain it since as a N. G. near Pa- 
gesia ; I have not the ripe fruit however. Stem 
sesquipedal, leaves thin pale beneath 2 or 3 
inches long, flowers large nearly 2 inches long, 
segments of calix longer than camp, base, co- 
rolla thin apparently white or very pale ochro- 
leucous. 

403. RUSSELIA Jaq. Jus. W. not of Lin. 
junior which is Vahlia. Calix Sparted, corolla 
tubulose limb spreading bilabiate, upper lip 
emarginate, lower longer trilobe stamens 4 
didyn. inclosed. Capsule acum. subuniloc? 
valves inflexed. Leaves oppos. peduncles ax- 
illarij jlovners red or scarlet — this fine tropi- 
cal Genus must be added to our Flora. Gal- 



NfiOfHlTOX. 71 

vezia of Dombey in Jussieu united thereto by 
W. P. differs by calix 5fid, tube ventricose be- 
low and capsule globose. 

404. IliissELiA JUNCEA. Zuc. in bot. reg. 
1773. Branches 4gone erect virgate, leaves 
minute petiolate ovate subentire, peduncles lili- 
forni subbitlore — Texas and Mexico, llowers 
scarlet. 

405. RussELiA FLAMMEA Raf. Gorardia do 
Bartr. trav p. 412. stem ramose pyramidal, 
leaves lanceolate t flowers in a pyramidal foli- 
ose panicle — Alabama, indicated GO years ago 
by Bartram, and still not in any work nor gar- 
den as yet : although a splendid plant 4 feet 
high, crowded with large scarlet flowers, tubu- 
lar and bilabiate ; therefore referable to this 
Genus, unless it is a new one to be called Fla- 

MARIA COCCINEA Raf. 

406. MACRANTHERA Torrey 1835. Con- 
radia Nuttal 1834 but not of Martins. Calix 
deeply 5fid, corolla tubular border 5fid sube- 
qual. Stamens 4 subequal exserted, filaments 
hairy, anthers linear sagittate. Style long fili- 
form, stigma simple or bifid. Capsule ovate 
acum. polysperm, as in Aureolaria. Peren- 
nials, leaves opposite cJimded, flowers axilla- 
ry racemose yellow on long reflexed incurved 
peduncles. — I adopt the name of Torrey in- 
stead of Conradia already twice employed, by 
myself in 1825 for my Leptilix Neog. 25 for the 
American Tofieldas, see Abama 1st part, and 
also by Martius, Macranthera is not however 
a very good name as the anthers are not very 
long, the name of ToxoPBS (Raf.) meaning in- 
curved peduncles would have been better, but 
the 2 sp. known (and there may be more) ap- 



7*2 IVORTH AMERICAiV 

pear types of two subgenera differing as Panc- 
tenis and Aureolaria. 

407. Mac R ANTHER A LEcoNTi Torrej (or 
Toxopus gymnanthes Raf.) leaves smooth pe- 
tiolate ovate lanceol. sinuate pinnatifid, bracts 
and segments of calix linear lanceolate entire 
in Florida and on the R. Alatamaka, 2 or 3 
feet high, flowers autumnal deep yellow. Tor- 
rey states the stigma to l)e simple and yet his 
figure shows it quite bifid and bilamellar. 

408. Macrantiiera fusciiioidrs T. Benth 
(or Toxopus calycinus or Tomilix bracteata 
Raf) Conradia Nut. rar. 41. fig. Smooth 
leaves petiolate lanceolate sublyrate pinnatifid, 
bracts ovate sinuate, segments of calix lanceo- 
late unequal foliose serrate — in" Alabama, fine 
large plant with golden flowers, the calix is 
nearly as in Panctenis, and the stigma certain- 
ly simple, these two characters indicate a sub- 
genus if not a Genus ! my TomiHx meaning cut 
calyx. 

409. APENTOSTERA Raf. (no fifth ste- 
rile) Calix 5parted subequal, corolla ventricose 
campanul. bilabiate, upper lip erect bilobe, low- 
er trilobe. Stamens 4 didyn. anthers villose, 
no fifth sterile filament. Capsule ovate acute, 
seeds angular not winged. Leaves opjjosite, 
flowers axillarij, racemose purplish — this N. 
Gr. of Origon is probably fecond in sp. It links 
the Gerardia group with the Pentostemon. 
Totaly unlike our real Chlonanthus (chelone) 
having the corolla convex short and winged 
seeds. Pentostemon which now includes a 
crowd of sp. that must be divided into 5 Gen- 
era, differ by the fifth filament and various co- 
rollas. Also near to Pagesia. 

410. Apentostera secundiflora Raf. Pen- 



NEOPHYTON. 73 

tost, scouleri Lind. hot. reg. 1277. Suffruti- 
cose, leaves cuneate serrate, upper linear ob- 
tuse entire, flowers subracemose secund — Ori- 
gon, large purple flowers. Akin to Dasanthe- 
ra fruticosa 397. 

411. Apentostera trifi.ora Raf. Chelone! 
nemorosa Lind. bot. reg. 1211. Herbaceous, 
leaves ovate acum. serrate, upper aniplex. cor- 
date, peduncles axiHary triflore — Oiigon, quite 
similar to the last in the structure of flowe. s, 
yet put into a different Genus by Lindley ! 

412. LEPTEIRIS Raf. (minute sterile) 
calix 5parted, corolla tubulose incurved beard- 
ed inside, limb 51obed subequal. A minute ru- 
diment of a fifth sterile stamen. Leanrs oppos. 
narrotc, floivers glomerate verticiUate whitish 
— another and nearer link to Pentostemon, dis- 
tinct from it by corolla and habit quite pecu- 
liar ; akin to Russelia and Pagesia. 

413. Lepteiris parvifloka Raf. Pentoste- 
mon micranthum Nut. cat. 83. Smooth, leaves 
linear lanceol. acute entire subamplex. flowers 
spicate paniculate glomerate in whorls, seg- 
ments of calix lanceolate — Ongon, stem slen- 
der pedal, seen dry, collected by Wyeth. 

I must end here this long survey of the Gen- 
era akin to Gerardia, without attempting yet 
all those akin to Pentostemon. They are fur- 
ther removed from Digitalis to which Nuttal 
compared them. Thus we have already 12 Gen- 
era and 40 sp. of plants akin to Gerardia or once 
added thereto, many of which are quite rare 
plants seldom seen by our botanists ; some are 
beautiful and yet hardly known in Gardens. 
There must be others in the Pdissouri and Ori- 
gon regions. It is a fact that in this tribe the 
colors of flowers indicate Genera \ I have not 

10 



74 NEOPHYTON 

yet seen the labor of Hooker on the Gerarclia. 

414. SCHWALBEA AMERICANA L, &C. I 

have several specimens of this fine and rare 
plant, collected from New Jersey to Carolina ; 
yet I never could meet it myself in 25 years of 
botanical herborizations ! I mention this to show 
again how easy it is for careless botanists to 
overlook my new and rare plants or blend them 
with others, if such plants escape my keen re- 
searches. Well described by Elliot. The al- 
ternate leaves and capsule with partition form- 
ed by the valves, remove thisG. from the group 
of Gerardias. 



monocotyi.es. 

' Although 1 wish to be concise I have been 
compelled to dwell upon some Genera impro- 
perly known, and thus give again monographs 
instead of mere insulated new species ; this 
plan will be preferred by those who like to 
compare the whole at once. Having till now 
described Dicotyles only, I now mean to give 
some new or rare Monocotyles in the remain- 
der of this second part of my Fora ; the third 
part whereof will be chiefly upon trees and 
shrubs. 

415. UNISEMA Raf. 180S. Med. fl, 1830. 
Fl. tell. 6. Beautiful distinct Genus of mine bas- 
ed on the various species blended in Pontede- 
ria cordata ! with a fruit quite peculiar simi- 
lar to Grasses ! which our botanists have hesi- 
tated to adopt, altho' they knew it was good, 
having verified the fruit ! — Perigone coroUi- 
form bilabiate 6fid, stamens 6 unequal filiform 



MONOCOTYLES. 75 

incurved. Style filiform, stigma simple. Fruit 
a single oblong seed covered by the marcescent 
6 ribbed pcrigone, perisperm farinaceous, em- 
bryo flesliy central terete. Aquatic plants, 
roots jlcshii creeping, leaves radical petiolate, 
stem unifoliate articulate, spadix terminal 
spicate icith a vaginal spatha below the base, 
Jtoicers blue. — Thus quite a natural Genus, 
widely ditierent from Pontederia and the akin 
Genera Kadakia, Carigola, Gomphima, Piaro- 
pus, Lunania or Endolimna see my flora tell. 
This forms the type of a peculiar family Unis- 
E3IIDES 1815 near to Aroides and Typhacea, 
the spike is a real spadix. I have given a long 
history of this G. in my Medical flora. 

416. Unisema deltifolia Raf. m. fl. fig. 93. 
Radical leaves oblong deltoid obtuse, base acute 
or truncate, stem leaf subsessile similar undu- 
late base subreniform ; spike terete, peduncle 
subequal to spatha, segments of flowers oval 
obtuse — in West Kentucky, Tennessee, Ala- 
bama and Florida. Stem 3 feet, leaves 5 to 8 
inches long, spke 3 inches. 

417. Unisema peduncularis Raf purshiana? 
Raf m. fl. (angustifolia ? Pursh) This differs 
from last by leaves truncate or subcordate the 
stem leaf on a long petiol, the peduncle of the 
spike twice or thrice as long as the spatha, seg- 
ments of flower linear lanceolate — Carolina to 
Florida. Spike shorter hardly 2 inches. Var. 
parrifolia, leaves 3 or 4 inches long only, spike 
only one inch, peduncle and petiols not quite so 
long. My specimens of both have all obtuse 
leaves, none are acute. 

418. Unisema media Raf. m. 11. 3. Leaves 
oblong cordate obtuse consimilar, spike terete 
peduncle longer than spatha, segments oblong 



76 NEOPHYTON 

obtuse — New York to Carolina, called P. an- 
gustif. by many, not at all deltoid, lobes deep 
rounded, breadth of leaves about one third of 
length, spikes 2 or 3 inches long. Var. angus- 
tifolia leaves still narrower, Var. alhijlora with 
white flowers. 

419. Unisema acutifolia Raf. 6 P. cordata 
Lamark. Leaves cordate acute, spike terete, 
segments oval oblong — Carolina found by Bosc, 
I have not seen it yet, is it a Var. of U. lati- 
folia? 

420. Unisema iieterophylla Raf. 8. Leaves 
oblong lanceolate obtuse, base subcordate or 
truncate, stem leaf cordate on long petiol, spike 
oblong, peduncle equal to spatha, segments li- 
near oblong — New York to Louisiana, found at 
Trenton falls of Delaware and on the R. Ohio, 
a small plant, 12 to 18 inches high, leaves 1 to 
3 inches long very narrow, therefore the P. an- 
gustif. of some botanists. Var. lanceolata^ 2 
stenocardia. 

421. Unis. lancifolia Raf. fl. tex. 27. Pont, 
lanceolata Mg. Elliot. Leaves linear lanceol. 
base rounded or acute, end acute — Florida to 
Texas. Leaves 3 or 4 inches long broader 
than in last, sometimes ovatoblong, but really 
acute. 

422. Unis. obliquata Raf m. fl. 4. Leaves 
more or less obliqual with unequal sides, obtuse 
oblong cordate or subhastate, spikes ovatoblong 
peduncles equal to spatha, segments linear ob- 
tuse — from New Jersey to Virginia, about 2 
feet high, leaves 4 to 6 inches long, spikes one 
inch. 

423. Unis. latifolia Raf 5. Pont, cordata 
of most botanists. Leaves ovate broadly and 
deeply cordate very obtuse, spike oblong terete 



MONOCOTYLES. 77 

peduncle equal to spatha, segments oval — the 
most common kind from New Jersey to Flori- 
da, in marshes and streams, 3 to 5 feet high, 
leaves nearly as broad as long. Var. i.Elatior, 
2 undulata, 3 pallida, 4 albijlora »J»c. 

424. Unis. mucronata Raf. 1808 m. fl. 7. 
Leaves narrow oblong, base broader cordate ; 
end with a long obtuse point, spike terete, seg- 
ments oblong — found by Mr. Kingston in Vir- 
ginia 1800, seen in his herbal. 

425. Unis. rotundifolia Raf. m. fl. 9. Leaves 
rounded obtuse hardly cordate at base, spike 
oblong, segments oval — Kentucky and Illinois. 
Stem weak, one foot high, leaves small about 2 
inches. Not the Ponted, rotundif. of Linneus 
and South America,which appears the real type 
of Pontederia having a trilocular capsule. — 
Thus I have increased this fine Genus to 10 sp. 
and they may be more : to deem them mere 
varieties would be preposterous ; but they may 
be specific deviations of a single original type. 
These plants were called IVampi by the Indi- 
ans and the seeds eaten by them. They are 
now called Pickerelweed in the Northern 
States. The articulated stem at the leaf ai.d 
spatha is similar to that of those Amaryllis 
lately divided on that score. 

426. CLINTONIA Raf. 1817,18 19. Anals 1820 
Med. fl, 1830,atl, j. 1832,adopted by Beck 1833; 
not the Clintonia of Lindley 1829 v, hich is my 
Gynampsis 1833 — Beautiful distinct G. of mine 
indicated since 1817 in my reviews, described 
in 1819 in Silliman's Journal and 50 iM. G. of 
plants : it is formed by the plants blended in 
Dracena boreal is and since united to Conval- 
laria and Smilacina ! that have quite a pecu- 
liar habit and a bilocular berry, striking char- 
acter common with Styrandra, but this has only 



78 neopht:ton 

4 stamens. See my med. flora article Sigillaria, 
and my flora lellur. for the Genera blended in 
Convallaria and Dracena. The characters of 
Clintonia are perigone corolliform 6parted 
campan. deciduous, 6 stamens inserted at the 
base, filiform, anthers oblong, style compressed, 
stigma bilobe compressed. Berry bilocular, 
cells polysperm. Roots creeping perennial, 
stem scapose leafy at the base only, flowers 
terminal geminate or umbellate whitish, ber- 
ries blue — they are rare plants of the Canada 
region and the highest Mountains, flowers ver- 
nal, called Cuscum by the Linapian tribes. 
Dedicated to my friend the worthy D. Clinton 
a worthy Philosopher, NaturaUst and Botanist 
as eminent as Jefferson. Beck reduces the sp. 
to C. borealis and multiflora which are each 
the type of a subgenus, but include several sp. 
and varieties, that I have carefuly studied. 

427. Subgenus Cuscumia Raf. (or Podani- 
siA if too barbarous) flowers 2 to 5 no bracts, 
sepals oblong or lanceolate opening like a bell, 
style equal or longer than stamens, stigma bi- 
lobed. Only 2 or 3 leaves, flowers ocliroleu- 
coiis, peduncles unequal. 

428. Subgenus Onyxula Raf. flowers um- 
bellate 7 to 15 with one or more minute bracts, 
sepals unguiculate or base attenuated, claws 
erect, limb oboval spreadihg or rotate, style 
shorter than stamens, stigma notched. Several 
leaves 4 to 7 subradical, flowers white, pe- 
duncles eqaal. 

429. Clintonia (Cusc) biflora Raf. Three 
similar leaves elliptic cuneate acuminate cili- 
ate, scape smooth elongate biflore, peduncles 
erect unequal, sepals lanceolate obtuse berries 
rounded — Apalachian Mts. or Southern Alle- 



MONOCOTYLES. 



79 



ghanies, flowers medial whitish, style longer 
than stamens, stigma quite bilobe, leaves 5 or 
6 inches long, scape 7 to 8. 

430. CI. biflora Vcir. InimiUs differs by 
smaller leaves more cuneate, 3 to 4 inches long, 
scape 4 to 5. 

431. Cl, (disc) TuiFLORA Raf. Leaves 3 
dissimilar unequal, 2 elliptical, 1 lanceol. smal- 
ler, all ciliate acute, scape pubescent elongate 
triflore, peduncles unequal pubescent erect, se- 
pals oblong obtuse berries globular — Mts. Alle- 
ghanies on rocks in summits of ridges, humble, 
leaves 4 to 5 inches long, scape 5 to 6, flowers 
pale, commonly 2 peduncles opposite shorter in- 
curved with nodding flowers, one erect longer. 
Var. tridens, the peduncles subequal like a tri- 
dent. 

432. Cl. (Cusc) angustifolia Raf. subcau- 
lescent, leaves 3 similar alternate elongate nar- 
row cuneate lanceol. acumin. ciliate, scape 
smooth subequal to leaves,commonly 5flore, 
peduncles unequal flexuose, sepals oblong ob- 
tuse, berries globular— summits of Central and 
Northern Alleghanies, larger plant nearly pe- 
dal, with narrow leaves 8 to 10 inches long and 
only one wide, flowers smaller than in the two 
last, but berries larger. 

433. Cl. (Cusc) falcata Raf. Leaves 3 dis- 
similar, 2 broad lanceol. acum. one narrow lan- 
ceol acute falcate, all smooth like scape elon- 
gate 3-4flore, peduncles subequal erect, berries 
oblong — found only once in fruit on the summit 
of the Oquago Mts. leaves equal in length about 
6 inches, scape 9 inches, peduncles elongate 
uncial fastigiate. 

434. Cl. falcata Var. tridens. Raf. 2 leaves 
radical elliptical lanceol, one on the stem quite 



80 NEOPHYTOJf 

narrow falcate, scape triflore, peduncles pubeS' 
cent shaped like a trident. Also on the Oqua- 
go mts. 

435. Cl. (Cusc) podanisia Raf. annals 118. 
Leaves 3 similar elliptical acute ciliate, scape 
pubescent double of leaves, umbel 4-5flore pu- 
bescent, peduncles very unequal mostly incurv- 
ed, flowers ereet, sepals lanceolate acute, ber- 
ries globular. — summit of Backbone mts. of Al- 
leghanies, leaves 4 inches long, scape 8 inches, 
flowers large whitish. 

436. Cl. (Cusc) nutans Raf. 1819. borealis 
Beck 1833. Convallaria and Smilacina bore- 
alis of some botanists P. N. E. not in Mx. nor 
Torrey. Subcaulescent, leaves 3 to 4 similar 
obovate or broadly elliptical acuminate ciliate, 
scape longer 5-6flore smooth, peduncles une- 
qual nodding, sepals oblong obtuse, style shor- 
ter, berries oblong — Kiskanom and Oquago 
mts. Alleghanies of Pennsylv. and the most 
common kind, yet not seen or overlooked by 
some botanists, quite distinct from the last by 
larger flowers not white but yellowish; and o- 
blong berries as in Cl. falcata, 8 to 10 inches 
high. A fine specimen has 3 leaves and 6 
flowers. 

437. CL nutans Var. hifolia Raf differs by 
2 leaves, umbel 4flore, peduncles erect sube- 
qual. Mt. Pocono of Alleghanies. 

438. Cl. nutans var. ftexipes Raf differ 
leaves twin long elliptic acute, scape flexuolate 
elongate 3flore, peduncles pubescent unequal 
flexuose, berries ovate oblong. Mts. Tuscoro- 
ra and Mahantango of Alleghanies, scape pe- 
dal, flowers pale. Perhaps rather a var. of Cl. 
triflora. 

439. Cl. (Cusc) ophioglossoides Raf cau- 



MOJVOCOTYLES. 8l 

lescent, only one radical leaf obovute acute ci- 
liate, a stem leaf smaller oblong lanceol. acute, 
scape pubescent 4flore, peduncles pubescent un- 
equal, 2 shorter incurved, 2 longer erect, ber- 
ries globular — Sent me from Michigan, semi- 
pedal, leaves 3 or 4 inches. Is it a var. or de- 
viation of CI. podanisia ? 

440. Cl. (Cusc) latifolia Raf Leaves 4 
similar short broad subovate abruptly acum. ci- 
liate, scape elongate 4flore, smooth, peduncles 
erect subequal, sepals oblong, obtuse, style e- 
longate, berries oblong — Mts. Taconick and 
hills of New England, probably in Canada also, 
scape pedal, leaves 4 to 6 inchc^!, flowers ochro- 
leucous larger even than in Cl. nutans, with 
style longer than flower, a large bilobe stigma, 
leaves really broadly oval. 

441. Cl. (Cusc) biumbella Raf. Leaves 3-4 
similar elliptical ciliate, scape with 2 umbels 
the lateral 2-3flore, the terminal 4flore, pedun- 
cles smooth unequal, petals lanceolate obtuse, 
berries globular and oboval — Mts. Alleghany, 
pedal, fruits singular unequal in size and shape. 

442. Cl. biumbella Var. aitoni Raf. Cl. ai- 
toni Raf atl. J. p. 120. Dracena borealis Ait. 
Andr. repos. t. 206. Leaves undulate not cili- 
ate ? scape flexuose, 2 umbels 3-4flore nodding 
berries globular — from Canada «Lnd Hudson 
Bay, cultivated in England. Is it a peculiar 
sp. to be called Cl. imdulata or Aitoni ? the 
figure in Andrews represents the stigma as o- 
blique truncate dilatate emarginatei 

443. Clintonia (Onyxula) pakviflora Raf 
annals 117. Leaves 5-6 elliptical or lanceo- 
late acuminate, margin and nerves ciliate, scape 
equal to leaves pubescent, umbel 5-6flore bract 
obsolete, peduncles erect equal, sepals ungui- 

11 



83 NEOPHYTON 

culate spatulate obtuse, berries globular. — Sum- 
mit of the Central Alleghanies of Maryland, 
only found once in 1818 on a single rock, small 
plant 4 or 5 inches high, flowers snowy white 
not spotted very small, limb of sepals rotate 
obovate. Certainly distinct from all the next. 

444. Clintonia (Onyx.) oDORATARaf. Dra- 
cena borealis Big. Conval. umbel. Mx. Eat. 
Smilacina do. P. N. E. T. Leaves oblong 
elliptical with an obtuse point, ciliate, but nerves 
smooth, scape elongate pubescent above, umbel 
multiflore 9-l5flore, a short oblong bract, pedun- 
cles subequal, sepals unguiculate spatulate un- 
dulate ovatoblong obtuse, berries globular — 
Mountain bogs from Canada to Carolina says 
Beck, never met by me, my specimen is from 
Collins H. and has only 9 flowers, they are 
white and small but larger than the last, Mi- 
chaux says they are odorous and have some red 
dots ; no other kind is odorous. This is the 
only sp. known or acknowledged by Torrey and 
others, who have never travelled in the Mts. in 
the vernal season. 

445. CL odorata var. decantha R. my CI. 
decantha of atl. J. only differ by 10 flowers pe- 
tals lanceolate (acute ?) 4 leaves oblong acute. 
— In the Mts. of Virginia, seen dry. 

446. CI. odorata var. multiflora Raf. my 
CI. multifl. of atl. J, only differs by leaves large 
elliptical acute, scape pedal smooth, umbel of 
12 to 15 flowers, white sepals obovate acute ? 
— Seen in the herb, of Torrey as Conval. um- 
bellata, from Canada, is it odorous ? is it rath- 
er a var. of the next sp ? 

447. Clintonia (Onyx) fulva Raf Leaves 
ample cuneate elliptical acumin. glaucous cili- 
ate, nerves smooth, soape subequal sulcate cos- 



MONOCOTYLES. 83 

tate, pubescent above, umbel multiflore (16) 
peduncles unequal some forked fulvous villose, 
bracts obsolete sepals unguiculate ovatoblong 
acute, berries globular — found in Collins herb. 
as Conv. umbel, certainly not the same as the 
last, distinct by leaves, scape sulcate, larger 
flowers nearly as large as in CI. podanisia, ap- 
parently fulvous or nankin color, leaves 8 inches 
long. 

448. Clintonia (Onyx) glomerata Raf. 
Leaves 3-4 similar obovate elliptical obtuse ci- 
liate, scape equal villose above, umbel multi- 
flore, bract lanceolate elongate, flowers subses- 
sile glomerate pubescent — Apalachian and 
Wasioto Mts. my specimens have the flowers 
not quite unfolded with a longer bract. Only 
3 to 4 inches high, quite distinct by obtuse 
leaves and sessile hairy flowers. — Thus I hate 
noticed about 20 sp. or striking var. of this 
pretty G. I had only 7 in my remarks of 1832. 
None of our Botanists know them, because rare 
vernal and alpine ; or when seen mistaken for 
a single kind ! yet I venture to say they all ori- 
ginate from 4 or 5 original types. 

449. ETHEOSANTHES Raf. Neog. 42. 
fl. tell. 27. Near Tradescantia, difference Ca- 
lix and Corolla unequal, one petal larger con- 
cave,stamens 6 unequal curved villose, 3 longer. 
Stem ramose, flowers racem^ose without spa- 
tlias — a fine Genus described by me as early 
as 1825, seen alive since 1820 in the gardens 
of Kentucky where received from Louisiana. 
I collected 50 specimens and have sent it to all 
my correspondents. I sometimes spelt the 
name Eothinajithcs, both mean evanescent 
flowers. 

450. Etheosanthes cimata Raf. stem erect 



84 NEOTPHYTON 

dichotome, leaves ovate acute undulate ciliate, 
flowers racemose secund. — Texas and Louisi- 
ana, fine plant 3 feet higli, leaves 2 or 3 inches 
long, flowers large blue, the 3 petals are quite 
evanescent, lasting only one hour expanded to- 
wards noon, but the calix is persistent as in 
Tradescantia. See in fl. tellur. my reform of 
the Genera blended in Tradescantia ; without 
attempting to give a complete Monograph of 
our real Tradescantias (which now amount to 
about 15 species:) I shall here chiefly enu- 
merate my new species and varieties. 

451. Tradescantia Virginica L. this well 
known linnean sp. may be known by the lan- 
ceolate smooth leaves, long foliose involuci:e 
of multiflore umbels and villose calix; but so 
many sp. and var. are blended with it in gar- 
dens and herbals that it is needful to attend to 
many other cifferences, as wilt be seen below 
in my Nevv^ sp. 

452. Trad. Virginica Var, alba. Hooker 
b. m. 3501. this white flower variety is not my 
Tr, ohiensis. 

453. Trad, ohiensis Raf. precis 146. Leaves 
flat linear acute smooth, umbel multiflore, in- 
volucre longer than flowers, calix smooth. — In 
Ohio, flowers white, described in 1814 from a 
specimen of Dencke given me by Vanvleck, but 
I have not met it in Ohio, and it may be a var. 
of my Tr. levigata. 

454. Trad, mrginica Var. purpurea Raf. 
differ by leaves narrow lanceolate, 6 to 10 in- 
ches long, umbel pauciflore 5-6fl. petals purple 
— seen only in gardens, not met spontaneous, 
yet probably a peculiar sp. Tr. purpurea. 

455. Trod, virgin var. harhata Raf. differ 
by umbel, pauciflore 5-6fl. calix smooth except 



MONOCOTYLES. 85 

a tuft of hairs at the tip — very different from 
my Tr. barbata, only seen in gardens, leaves 
broad, involucres large long not bearded. 

456. Trad, virgin, var. ramosa Raf. 3 to 4 
feet high much branched, with large leaves and 
flowers. Another garden variety. 

457. Trad, virgin, var. angustifolioi Raf. 
Probably the real type of Virginica, since the 
most frequently found wild by me on the R. 
Schuylkill, the hills of Maryland and Virginia. 
Stem simple pedal, leaves linear lanceolate very 
long, longer than stem, 6 to 9 inches, flat and 
margin ciliate at the base. Umbel multiflore 
6-12flovvers nodding, 2 foliose involucre flat 
subequal 3 to 4 inches long, peduncles and ca- 
lix pilpse, flowers rather small, vernal in May. 
Roots perennial fasciculate. If a peculiar sp. 
it may be called Tr. ciliata. 

458. Trad, levigata Raf. Quite smooth ra- 
mose, leaves narrow lanceolate elongate flat 
glaucescent, base dilatate undulate and vagi- 
nate, umbels terminal and axillary multiflore 
glomerate, involucres foliose lanceol. unequal, 
calix smooth glaucous or incarnate — in the A- 
palachian Mts. of Virginia and Carolina, intro- 
duced in our gardens, 2 feet high, very pretty, 
flowers blue. A var. incarnata has flesh co- 
lored flowers. 

459. Trad, barbata R^f. Smooth simple, 
leaves linear lanceol. canaliculate pale elongate 
erect ; umbel pauciflore involucre subunifoliate 
very short, peduncles unequal erect; calix 
bearded at the tip as well as the involucres — 
Illinois and West Kentucky, pedal, flowers blue 
4 to 5. Several varieties. 

460. Trad, barbata var. pumila Raf. diff*. 
semipedal, invol. bifoliate base swelled. Ken- 
tucky. 



86 NEOPHYTOX. 

461. Trad, barbata var. trachiloma Raf. 
Diff. Leaves and invol. rough or subciliolate on 
the margins, two invol. very unequal. Ken- 
tucky. 

462. Trad, canaliculata Raf. atl. J. p. 
150. Ctuite smooth simple slender, leaves 
slender linear narrow canaliculate, falcate um- 
bel pauciflore, invol. short flat very unequal, 
flowers smooth nodding. — In Kentucky and 
Missouri; estival blue flowers, stem pedal, dif- 
ferent from Tr. levigata by narrow hollow fal- 
cate leaves few flowers &/C, described since 
1832 in Atlantic Journal. 

463. Trad, rupestris Raf. atl. J. 150. 
Simple smooth, leaves elongate narrow canali- 
culate, umbel multiflore, invol. foliose divari- 
cate very long, peduncles pilose — Cliffs of Ohio 
and Wabash R. it has the leaves like the last 
and flowers like 457. Estival pedal. 

464. Trad, brevicaulis Raf. atl. J. 150. 
Stem simple very short flexuose, leaves much 
longer narrow nearly flat carinate, sheaths tu- 
bular cihate, umbel pauciflore, invol. similar to 
leaves, peduncles and calix very pilose — Illi- 
nois and Kentucky, stem 5 to 6 inches high, 
flowers blue and small vernal. 

465. Trad, pumila Raf. Nearly stemless 
quite pilose, scape l-2inches strait, leaves few 
lanceolate ciliate, umbel multifl. 8-12fl. involu- 
cres foliose subequal larger and broader than 
leaves, pilose, peduncles filiform unequal pilose, 
calix pilose — a very fine singular sp. found near 
the Kentucky R. in abundance in a single spot 
in 1821. Q,uite dwarf and with long soft hairs, 
sometimes quite scapose, leaves longer than 
stem radical commonly 2 with membran. 
sheaths. Flowers quite large blue vernal. 



MONOCOTYLEiS. 87 

466. Trad, pilosa Lehman 1827. Hook. b. 
m. 3291. Stem flexiiose nodose villose above, 
leaves broadly lanceol. undulate pilose, umbels 
terminal multiflore, involucres foliose, pedun- 
cles and calix villose. — Louisiana and Florida. 

467. Trad. AXILLARIS Raf. subaspera? Lo- 
diges cab. flexuosa Raf. atl. J. 150. Stem ra- 
mose sulcate often flexuose, leaves broad lan- 
ceolate flat pubescent pale beneath, margin 
rough, umbels axillary subsessile, involucres 
lanceol. short peduncles and calix villose. — In 
Central and West Kentucky, estival, flowers 
dark blue handsome, stem 2 or 3 feet high, 
leaves one inch broad 4 to 6 long, rather rigid. 
Var. flexuosa^ stem dichotome zigzag. 2 sub- 
aspera leaves roughly pubescent, 

468. Trad, discolor Raf. virginica var, pi- 
losa Lindl. hot. reg. 1055 ? Stem strait pilose 
simple, leaves lanceolate divaricate ciliate,glau- 
cous and pilose beneath, umbel terminal mul- 
tiflore lax, involucres foliose divergent, pedun- 
cles short nodding pilose like the calix — In 
Florida and Alabama, stem pedal and bipedal 
leaves like the last, but thin, smooth above, not 
rigid nor rough. Var. ramosa^ branched, 
leaves narrow lanceolate. 

469. Trad, reflexa Raf. Quite smooth, 
stem subramose slender purplish, leaves remote 
narrow lanceol. falcate flat, sheaths swelled, 
umbels multiflore glomerate, the rameal with 
unifoliate involucre, the terminal with 2 foliose 
falcate reflexed invol. peduncles often reflexed, 
calix ciliate at the end— Alabama, sent me as 
Tr. virginica ! near to levigata and barbata, 
distinct l)y few leaves far apart 6 to 8 inches long 
only half inch broad, pale beneath, stem I or 2 



88 NEOPHYTOPr 

feet high, flowers small, umbels crowded 12 to 
24 flowers. • 

470. Trad, reftexa var. drepisia Raf. diff". 
umbels pauciflore 6-8fl. 2 invol. quite equal fal 
cate. Alabama. 

471. Trad, rosea Mx. Carolina to Louisi- 
ana, very distinct sp. by many short involucres, 
smooth graminiform leaves and rosate flowers. 

472. Trad, rosea var. paucijlora Raf. Tr. 
graminifolia Raf. atl. J. 148. differs by few un- 
equal flowers in the umbel. Florida and Ala- 
bama. 

473. Trad, divaricata Raf. atl. J. 148. 
Leaves remote divaricate oblong lanceolate, 
umbels multiflore, invol. 2 subequal lanceol. di- 
varicate, calix smooth. — In Florida, near the 
next, but quite smooth and umbels different. 
Seen in the herbal collected by Gates. 

474. Trad, riparia Raf stem simple, leaves 
oblong lanceolate flat abreviate smooth, base 
and sheaths ciliate, single terminal umbel 3-5 
flore, involucre 2-3foliose subequal, peduncles 
short erect calix bearded — a very distinct and 
rare sp. only found once in 1818, in the bed of 
Green R. in Kentucky tiear the mouth of it, 
and since received from Alabama ; it has the 
habit of a Commelina, the stem only 6 to 10 in- 
ches high, leaves shorter than in any other kind 
1 to 3 inches long, thin and smooth, invol. sim- 
ilar, flowers pale blue as in Commelina, estival, 
blossoming in August. 

475. DioscoREA MEGAPTERA Raf. scandcnt, 
leaves alternate smooth cordate acuminate 7 to 
9 nerved, petiols elongate spikes axillary ra- 
mose lax, fruit large uncial fulvous rounded 
with 3 wide wings — in Kentucky, estival, near 
to D. villosa but smooth and fruit uncommonly 



MONOCOTYLES. 89 

large, emarginate at base, leaves pale beneath. 
This tropical Genus extending to N. America 
has there many more sp. only two were known, 
I shall add 6, they have all perennial thick roots 
called yams. 

470. DioscoREA HEXAPiiYLLA Raf. crcct, 
leaves whorled by 6 on very long petiols, sub- 
cordate shortly acuminate smooth glaucous be- 
neath with 11 fulvous nerves, spikes whorled 
ramose filiform, flowers often geminate — Apal- 
achian Mts. of Virginia, stem rigid brown tri- 
pedal. Near to D. quaternata, first leaves op- 
posite, 

477. DioscoREA REPANDA Raf stem flexuose 
scandent, leaves whorled by 4 below, alternate 
above, petiols equal to leaves filiform sulcate 
hairy above, leaves smooth ovate acuminate 
base reniform, margin repand, beneath glau- 
cous 11 nerved, spikes short, capsules small fus- 
cate — Virginia and Alabama in hills, leaves 
large truly repand hardly cordate, apex falcate 
acuminate. 

478. DioscoREA liONGi FOLIA Raf. scandent, 
leaves ovatoblong base deeply cordate, lobes 
elongate proximate, apex acuminate, smooth 
concolor 5nerved, lateral forked — sent me from 
Alabama without flowers, leaves 6 inches long 
3 broad. 

479. DioscoREA sativa L. cult, in Florida, 
and perhaps wild also. 

480. DioscoREA bulbifera L. The sp. was 
found at Mobile by Bartram (trav. p. 439) cul- 
tivated GO years ago. It is remark^le by the 
large kidney bulbs 1 to 3 together axillary of 
leaves, tasting like the Yam root. My speci- 
mens have large cordate leaves 8 to 10 inches 
long, quite smooth acum. with 7 nerves lateral 
forked. 12 



90 NEOPHYTON 

481. PROVENZALIA Adansonl763.Raf. 
fl. tel. 679. Calla L. and Authors which is root 
of Cala-dium. Cala-mus ^^c ..... Of this bo- 
real G. only one sp. is admitted said to be com- 
mon to both continents, but I shall now describe 
4. C. ethiopica is a peculiar Genus, which I 
call Otosma ; C. ociilta of Loureiro another 
that I call Spirospatiia, see fl. tel. Calla ought 
to have been written Callaion ! see Smith. 

482. Proveazalia (or Callaion) palustris 
Raf. Leaves similar cordate subacuminate, 
scape equal to petiols, spatha ovate cuspidate 
— in boreal Europe and America, Canada, ^c. 
Var. 1. parmfolia leaves uncial. 

483. Provenzalia (or Callaion) heterophy- 
la Raf. Leaves dissimilar reniform or cordate 
acute, or rounded cordate obtuse, scape equal to 
petiols, spatha elliptic cuspidate — Hudson bay 
and Sibiria. probably also Origon, rhizome or 
radicant stem articulated with fibres, leaves on 
long petiols unequal in size and shapes from 
1 to 3 inches long or broad. 

484. Provenz. (or Callaion) brevis Raf. 
Leaves ovate base subcordate subobliqual, apex 
acuminate, petiols very long, scape very short, 
spatha elliptic retuse cuspidate — Lakes and 
Swamps of the Alleghanies, Mt. Pocono and 
others. Roots fibrose matted very long, petiols 
thick 6 to 8 inches long, leaves 3 to 4 inches 
long, scape about 3 inches high. 

485. Proveaz. (or Callaion) bispatha Raf. 
Leaves ovate base cordate end obtuse or hard- 
ly acute, scape equal to petiols, spatha double 
large ovate acuminate not cuspidate, divari- 
cate — from Origon collected by Walton, pe- 
tiols and scapes thick : flowers very peculiar by 
the double divergent spathas (anomaly in the 
family of Aroides) foliaceous 2 or 3 inches long 



MONOCOTYLES. 91 

base amplexic. subalternate, spadix large ellip- 
tic, leaves 4 inches long, 3 broad. This shall 
form my subg. Callaion. 

486. Typiia crassa Raf. atl. J. p. 148. lati- 
folia of Amer. bot. not L. stem humble foliose, 
leaves equal to stem, flat above, convex be- 
neatli at the base and not vaginate, end obtuse, 
spikes united and thick subequal, a bract be- 
tween them ovate lanceol. membranaceous — 
Canada to Maryland and Missouri. Stem only 
3 to 4 feet high, spikes 4 to 6 inches long, one 
inch thick, lower brown very dense, leaves half 
inch broad. In marshes as all the sp. 

487. Typha elatior Raf atl. J. p. 148. la- 
tifolia Elliot and Southern botanists not L. stem 
gigantic, leaves shorter broad flat base vagi- 
nate, end acute, spikes confluent terete without 
spatha — Carolina to Kentucky, 8 to 10 feet 
high, stem round solid and smooth, leaves one 
inch broad. These 2 sp. are certainly differ- 
ent from the latifolia of Europe. 

488. Typha spiralis Raf. atl. J. p. 148, la- 
tifolia Sw. Lunan ^c. Leaves spiraly contor- 
ted, ensiform and vaginate at the base, end flat 
thick obtuse, spikes annexed each with a spa- 
tha — Florida, Cuba and Jamaica, mistaken 
also there for the latifolia, different from T. do- 
mingensis. 

489. Typha gracilis Raf angustifolia of 
Amer. bot. not L. stem slender, leaves equal 
narrow flat glaucous acute, beneath hardly con- 
vex and striated, spikes subequal slender wide- 
ly divided without spathas — New Jersey to Vir- 
ginia in marshes and near streams, 4 to in- 
ches long, divided by a bare space of 2 or 3 
inches. 

490. Typha angustifolia L. 4'^. My spe- 
cimens of this European sp. differ from the last 



93 NEOPHYTON 

by very long leaves 3 or 4 feet long, thus longer 
than stem less glaucous, same breadth but 
concave or canaliculate above, beneath quite 
convex and subangular, spikes unequal, lower 
or female 8 or 9 inches long, upper or male 
only 4 or 5 inches separated only by a space of 
one inch. 

There is another undescribed sp. in Origon, 
and several in Asia, Australia, &.c, besides the 
T. domingensis, media and minor, ail different 
from ours. 

491. Iris floridana Raf. nearly stemless 
glaucous, leaves graminiform carinate trinerve 
not gladiate, scape uniflore shorter than leaves, 
petals spatulate obtuse smooth, 3 patent larger 
and 3 reflexed — Florida and Alabama, small 6 
inches high, scape 4 inches, stigmas yellow 
pandurate obtuse. A striking species with 
small white flowers, ovary filiform striate, bract 
subulate. 

492. Iris bifloiia (or virgata) Raf. stem 
slender virgate bisulcate biflore, leaves gladiate 
narrow graminiform nervose, striate, 2 spathas 
membran. larxeol. striate peduncles filiform, 
petals narrow beardless unguiculate below, tube 
very short. — Cheroki Mts. of Unaka, found by 
Mrs Gambold, Collins Herb, stem bipedal quite 
virgate few leaves, upper very short, spatha 
convolute acute subequal, ovary oblong, tricos- 
tate pinched above at the union with the co- 
rolla that is hardly tubular at base, flowers mid- 
dle size, petals pale blue cuneate obtuse, the 3 
inner petals not much shorter, stigmas or rather 
styles deeply divided to the base similar to 'pe- 
tals but bifid at end. By this and corolla al- 
most a subgenus to be called Stenilis. If bi- 
flora is preocupied it will be my I. virgata. 

493. Ijiiis convoluta Raf. stem slender te- 



, MONOCOTYLES. 93 

rete uniflore, leaves slender convolute striate 
mucronate, spatha bivalve striate, petals beard- 
less subeqiial oblong end ftabellate, stigmas lan- 
ceolate acute — Arkanzas and Texas, another 
very peculiar sp. of this fine genus, one or 2 
feet high, leaves long but shorter than stem, 
spatha convolute elongate inclosing the long 
ovary, flower large versicolor, petals fulvous 
edged with white, large end rounded tinged 
with blue like the stigmas. 

494. Iris bhevicaulis Raf. fi. lud. 55. stem 
angular pauciflore very short flexuose, leaves 
gladiate very long, terminal flowers geminate, 
spathas bivalve lanceol. equal to flowers, petals 
and stigmas beardless narrow subequal — Louis- 
iana to West Kentucky, seen alive 1823, disc. 
by Robin long before, neglected as usual by 
our botanists. Stem only 6 to 10 inches 3-5 
flore, leaves 12 to 18 inches, mostly radical, 
flowers very l^rge vernal, white with blue tin- 
ges and base yellow, capsules hexagon e. 

495. Iris glumacea Raf. stem raigular fis- 
tular flexuose pauciflore, leaves shorter gladi- 
ate striate, flowers solitary and geminate, spa- 
thas 3-5valve glumaceous ovate, petals beard- 
less spatulate spreading yellowish white — 
Glacies of Alleghany Mts. akin to last, yet very 
distinct by broad glumaceous spathas, 3 petals 
much smaller, tube of corolla slender elongate. 

496. Iris glumacea var. angustifoiia Raf. 
difl" by stem not flexuose, leaves narrow gladi- 
ate, 2 or 3 flowers, spathas fulvous, petals pale 
yellow^ — in the glades of IlHnois, if a peculiar 
sp. it may be called 1, pallens, 

497. Iris aurea Raf. atl. J. p. 80. Stem 
strait biflore, leaves longer broadly gladiate, 
end acum. falcate, flowers geminate beardless, 
3 petals obovate entire, 3 lanceolate undulate. 



94 NEOPHYTOTC. 

Stigmas dilatate notched — in the ponds of high 
AUeghanies, discovered by Mr. Carr on the 
Pocono Mt. and brought by him to Bartrams 
garden, where seen ahve and compared with /, 
pseudacorus very akin, but with bifid toothed 
stigmas. 3 or 4 feet high, flowers small golden 
yellow, the 3 inner petals shorter than stigmas, 
equal to anthers,capsules oblong deeply sulcate. 

498. Iris fulva Mg. cuprea P. N. E. ru- 
bescens Raf fl. lud, 56. This sp. of Louisiana 
is easily known by its flowers of a coppery or 
brick red color. I have seen it alive in gar- 
<iens since 18 17- and ascertained that my I. ru- 
bescens was only a var. of it with leaves rather 
longer, and flowers darker brick red. Vernal. 

499. Iris lacustris Nut. Dwarfish creeping 
stemless uniflore, leaves longer glaucous narrow 
gladiate,spatha convolute lanceol. acum. shorter 
than tube, petals beardless obovate subequal 
3 patent spotted, 3 erect, stigmas shorter bifid 
dentate — On Lake Erie &c, disc, by Nuttal, 
found by me again 1825 and seen also in gar- 
dens, vernal in May. Scape only one inch 
high, flower 3 to 4 inches long, tube rather lon- 
ger than sepals, flower with a faint iris smefl, 
of a violaceous color with a large saffron spot 
on 3 petals and dark dots on the claws and base 
of sepals. Leaves strait erect 6 to 10 inches 
long, often marginated with white. My des- 
cription is original and made on the Hving plants. 

500. Iris tripetala Walt. El. Hooker b. 
mag. 2886. tridentata Pursh. A fine rare sp. 
from Carolina and Florida, easily known by the 
narrow leaves and 3 inner sepals very short 
tridentate. Well described by Elliot and Hook- 
er, my specimen is from Elliot ; the flower ap- 
pears blueish, the 3 large sepals unguiculate, 
end flabellate, the 3 smaller reflexed. 



MONOCOTYLES. 



m 



Thus I have given here 10 sp. of Iris, either new or quite 
rare ; this account doubles our knowledge of this Genus, of 
which we have now about 20 sp. I possess nearly all the 
others Iris cristata, verna, virginica (these 3 often blended 
like the 3 next) versicolor, prismatica, gracilis, hexagona,. 
missurica, sibirica, tenax figured by Hooker 3343 and Lind- 
ley 1218. These two last are from Origon. I shall perhaps- 
resume a monograph of this pretty genus. 

APPENDIX. 

My Genus DiPLosTELMA 316 which Nuttal had wrongly 
reduced to Mctinocarpus in Colhns herb, (there is no such 
genus, he meant probably Actinospermum o'l EAVioX) lias been 
described by him under the name Chetanthera in his new 
plants 78, without any reference to former name! whence it 
escaped my notice ; but he has onl)^ one sp. Ch. asteroides (a 
bad name) which is my Dip!, piimila, the rays are violet and 
the blossoms are veraal. I have added 2 other sp. and my 
name is the best, although Nuttal's dates of 1834, Chetanthe- 
ra means bristly anthers, while this is not the case, he ought 
to have named it Chetopappu^, but as the pappus is double and 
different mine is the best and must be retained. 



INDEX OF GENERA. 

SUBGENERA and SYNONYMS of this NEOPHYTON. 

Synonyms are in Italics — References to the 
numbers. 



Afzelia 392. 
Agalinis 371 to 385. 
Alatipes 357. 
Aliseta 233. 
Apentostera 409 to 411 
Arnica 236. 
Asarum 221 to 224. 
Aureolaria 360 to 366, 
Baptisia 321 to 341. 
Bellis 237 to 240. 
Brunella 256 to 265. 
Biichnera 266,267,298. 
Cacotanis 312. 
Calla 481. 
Calystegia 255. 



Capsella 248 to 254, 
Chetanthera, Apx. 
Chlonanthes ) 220. 
Chelone ^ 

Clintonia 426. 
Clipteria 314. 
Comandra 269 to 273. 
Conradia 406. 
Crotalaria 344 to 357. 
Cuphea 268. 
Cuscumia 427. 
Cytisus 343. 
Dasanthera 396-8. 
Dasistema 389 to 391. 
Desmodiuni 216. 



96 



INDEX. 



Dioscorea 475 to 480. 
Diplostelma 316 to 319, 

Apx. 
Drepilia 342. 
Dracena 426. 
Eaplosia 339 to 341. 
Eciipta 299 to 315. 
Epatitis 205. 
Erinus 387.391. 
Etheosanthes 449. 
Eustachya 227. 
Galeopsis 226. 
Galinsoga 314. 
Geranium 275-6. 
Gerardia 358 to 388. 
Hedyotis 225. 
Hydrastis 274. 
locaulon 345 to 357. 
Iris 491 to 500. 
Isanthus 277-9. 
Lasinia 328 to 335. 
Laxanon 203 to 320. 
Leptandra 227. 
Lepteiris 412. 
Lobelia 209 to 214. 
Loplianthera 359. 
Macranthera 406. 
Menyanthes 218-19. 
Myctanthes 228-30. 
Nymphea 208. 
Odoglossa 201. 
Onyxiila 427. 
Otosma 481. 
Ovostinia 401. 
Oxalis 246-7. 
Pagesia 399, 400. 



Paleista 309-11. 
Panctenis 367 to 370. 
Partheniiim 241 to 244, 

280. 
Pentostemon 409 to 

412. 
Pericaulon 336 to 338. 
Peritris 234. 
Phryma 289 to 292. 
Podalyria 321 to 341. 
Pontederia 415 to 425, 
Provenzalia 481 to 485, 
Rafnia 336. 
Ripasia 326. 
Ropalon 207. 
Russelia 403 to 405. 
Schwalbea 414. 
Seymeria 391 to 395. 
Smilacina 426 &c. 
Sophora 321 to 343. 
Spirea 293-7. 
Spirospatha 481. 
Stenilis 492. 
Thecanisia 293-7. 
Therniopsis 343. 
Thlaspi 248 ^-c, 
Tomanthera 386-8. 
Tomilix 408. 
Toxopiis 406. 
Tradescantia 451 to 

474. 

Triosteiim 281 to 288. 
Tropitoma 2l6. 
Typha 486 to 490. 
Unisema 415 to 425. 
Urtica 245. 



END OF SECOND PART. 



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« 



NEW FLORA 



OF 



€ 



NORTH AMERICA. 



PROF. RAFINESaUE. 









€ 



New Sylva. 



P HILADELP HlJl 



1836. 






— — — — a— — — — wa — ^^— ^^— ^"^— ^'— — ^*"^ 

NEW FLORA 



OF 

HOBTH AMSHIOA. 

BEING A SUPPLEMENTAL FLORA, 

To the various Floras and Botanical Works 
of Michaux, Muhlenberg, Pursh, Nuttal, El- 
liot, Torrey, Beck, Eaton, Bigelow, Barton, 
Robin, Hooker, Riddell, Darlington, Schweinitz 
Gibbs, &c. 

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now, Vahl, Vitm^ji, Persoon, Lamark, Decan- 
dole, Sprengel, Jussieu, Adanson, Necker, 
Lindley, &c. Containing nearly 500 additional 
or revised New Genera, and 1500 additional 
or corrected New Species, illustrated by figures 

inAuTIKON BOTANIKON. 

BY C. S. RAFINESaUE, A. M.— PH. D. 

Prof, of Botany, the historical and natural sciences — 
Member of many learned Societies of Paris, Vienna. 
Bonn, Bruxelles, Bordeaux, Zurich, Naples, &c. and 
in Philadelphia, New York, Cincinati, Lexington, &c. 



The Floral weallh in this wide land concealed. 
Will be at last by learned care revealed. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER. 



NEW SYLVA OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Or the New and revised Trees, Shrubs 
and Vmes observed, collected, and ascertain- 
ed or corrected between 1802 and 1836, by 
C. S. Rafinesquc ^*c : all figured in my Au- 
TiKON and IcoNEs unless otherwise stated. 

The Trees and Shrubs of North America 
have received very early attention, because 
they could usually be cultivated in Europe in 
the open grounds ; several were introduced 
there long ago : Duhamel wrote chiefly upon 
them about one hundred years ago. Michaux 
and his son were sent to collect them for the 
public nurseries of France. Partram and Mar- 
shall collected them here for English nurseries, 
and Marshall published in Philadelphia about 
50 years ago, a general account of those known 
to him. He was followed and improved upon 
by Castiglione in Italy and Vangenheim in 
Germany, who both wrote on North American 
Trees and Shrubs, publishing figures of many. 
In England Miller, Trew, Catesby <fec, publish- 
ed also many figures of them in their works ; 
but they were all exceeded by Michaux junior 
who after publishing the splendid Monograph 
of American Oaks of his father, printed both in 
French and English a very good special work 
on our Trees. 

Watson, Jacquin and others have since pub- 
lished iconographical dendrologies, and several 
monographs have appeared ; among which de- 
serve peculiar notice, those of our Willows by 
Muhlenberg, Wildenow, Smith 4'C, Pines and 
Firs by Lambert, our Ash trees by Bosc in- 
creased by him to 27 species, and my N. Am. 
Roses 1820 increased to 25 species, with my 



4 NEW SYLVA 

N. A. Grape Vines 1830, increased to 40 spe- 
cies, just as good and proper as the 40 willows 
and 3G oaks of our Authors. 

All our botanical writers have of course at- 
tended more or less to our trees ; but the only 
late special work upon them is an American 
Sylva with wood cuts published in 1832 by D. 
Browne in Boston, which however only contains 
150 trees and shrubs, being a kind of abridg- 
ment of the larger work of Michaux junior, 
with all its faults and omissions, having forgot- 
ten like him, the Genera Sorbus, Aronia, and 
others, with many Cherry and Plumb trees, 
Ash trees. Willows and Poplars, ^-c. Besides 
all the large Shrubs and Vines, Palms and 
other monocotyle woody plants. 

A true Sylva ought to include besides Trees, 
all the Shrubs that form the undergrowth of 
forests or fringe the banks of Rivers, In fact 
there is no actual difference between them in 
size ; since all young trees are shrubs, and 
many shrubs become trees when old or in 
warmer climates. It is commonly stated that 
Trees have only one stem, while shrubs have 
several shoots ; but many of our tress have 
several stems, while many shrubs assume the 
appearance of small trees by having only one. 
The distinction is therefore merely nominal, as 
between Rivers and Creeks, Lakes and Ponds, 
Mountains and Hills .... 

Bushes or under shrubs unite likewise the 
shrubs to plants, the difference being the per- 
manent perennial stem. 

Twining or trailing shrubs are called Vines 
and creepers and belong also to the sylvan 
Flora ; but there are Vines that are not woody, 
therefore perennial or annual Vines. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 5 

Tne woody structure and permanence over 
ground during Winter under a state of hyber- 
nation, with evergreen leaves or sleeping buds, 
might most properly distinguish this series of 
Vegetation, and Xylogy might be a better term 
to apply collectively to their knowledge than 
Dendrology and Thamnology. 

Every one of the Botanical Regions of North 
America is distinguished by peculiar Trees, 
Shrubs and Vines ; in fact they form the most 
prominent feature of each by their size and per- 
manence. See my botanical regions. 

Although so much attention appeared to be 
paid to these ornamental and useful produc- 
tions, it was only lately that the multitude of 
our Pines, Oaks, Willows, Poplars, Ash trees, 
Hicories, Vines, Roses &c have been ascer- 
tained: and it is a fact that many Genera are 
as yet little attended to or in utter confusion ; 
many species and varieties being overlooked or 
blended as were formerly those of Oaks, Ash 
trees before Bosc &c: my own sp. of Rosa and 
Vitis, well distinguished by me, are neverthe- 
less invisible to some blind Botanists around 
me. I have been engaged for years in study- 
ing the fine Genus Primus^ now divided into 
Prunits, Cerasus, Padtis, Orospodias &.c, 
and instead of 20 I know 30 or 40 species of it. 
I have discovered and possess a crowd of N. 
sp. belonging to the Genera Vrinos, Ilex, Spi- 
rea, Ceanothus, Rhamnus, Celtis, Pavia^ 
Hydrangea, Viburnum, CaprlfoUum, Evo- 
nymus. Clematis &c. I have even some new 
Genera of shrubs to describe in this Sylva. 

The Genera Vacclnlum and Andromeda, 
must be divided into many, and quite reformed, 
revised, corrected as to sections and species. 



Ci NEW SYLV A 

Calyccmthus, Hamamelts, Crategzis, Vibur- 
num &c demand also a new revision. Abies 
and Aker have been partly corrected in the 
Lexicon of first part. Salix and Populus cer- 
tainly require to have subgenera or better sec- 
tions. 

Much therefore remains to be done to de- 
tect, describe and name properly all our woody 
plants. I hope to do something towards it in 
this New Sylva. My reward will probably be 
as usual a denial of justice and neglect of my 
species, until they shall be introduced at great 
cost into the European Nurseries. It is said 
that a gardener that introduces a new Tree or 
Shrub in England, often makes a great deal of 
money by it ; but the learned Botanist who by 
20 years of travels and exertions detects the lo- 
cality, sends specimens or seeds, is unreward- 
ed : nay it is expected that he should give 
aicay his specimens and seeds ! If like myself 
he has discovered 100 or 200 new trees and 
shrubs, he is expected to give them all away 
for nothing ! and not believed unless he does ! 

In the name of justice, pray why is a Botan- 
ist to be denied the privilege of Nurserymen 
and Sellers of plants ? Michaux was paid for 
his collections and informations, Bosc has been 
rewarded. Vanderschot was sent from Ger- 
many on purpose to collect seeds of trees by 
the Prince of Lichtenstein who has planted for- 
ests of American trees there. 

If I had been attended to and rewarded I 
could have introduced into our gardens, nurse- 
ries, and those of Europe, all my new Grape 
Vines and Roses, with 100 other fine trees and 
shrubs discovered by myself between 1802 and 
1836. If they are yet unknown there or are very 



OF NORTH AMERICA. « 

rare, it is because after paying myself all my 
expenses of travelling, collecting, preserving &g 
I cannot afford to double them for others with- 
out reward. 

Some of our trees have a wide geographical 
range, being found from Canada to Louisiana, 
such are Cornus florida, Cercis canadensis, 
many Oaks, Maples &c ; but others are con- 
fined to narrower hmits, or even few localities. 
The Magnolia macrophyla, Virgilia or rather 
Cladrastis, Hamiltonia, Bigelowia, Frank- 
liniay Planera Slc have each been met with 
only in 3 or 4 places as yet by botanists, altho' 
probably growing in others ; but when found 
they are commonly abundant in the station. 
There are however solitary trees and shrubs 
that are never or but seldom found in groves or 
social groups ; such are some Favias, Caly- 
canthus, Crategus, &c, with many that I shall 
enumerate in this Sylva. 

The foliation, floration and semination of our 
woody plants, deserve to be better studied as 
to periods and duration, in order to seek them 
at the proper times and places. 

Their station is not always in Groves and 
Forests ; many are only found on the Sea 
Shores, these are called maritime — others in 
sands, or among rocks, in high Mountains, or 
along the banks of streams, or in marshes and 
swamps : they must be called arenarian, rupes- 
tral, montaneous, riparian and palustral. 

As to foliation they must be divided into 
evergreens and deciduous. These last vary 
much in the time they put on and drop off their 
leaves. I have made 4 series of them in my 
dissertation on the foliation of our Trees, 1. 
Early leaves of long duration as Willows, Ma- 



8 



NEW SYLVA 



pies, Larch &c, 2. Early leaves of short dura- 
tion as in Pavias, Prunus &c. 3. Late leaves 
of long duration, as in Ash trees. Oaks, Ches- 
nuts ^c, 4. Late leaves of short duration, as in 
Catalpa, Liriodendron &c ; but the exact times 
vary by 2 months from Canada to Florida, and 
in Florida many deciduous trees become nearly 
evergreens 

The floration is either early or late vernal as 
in most species, before the leaves or with them 
Early or Late estival ; but few are serotine or 
autumnal as Hamamelis. The few hyemal 
trees may be deemed very early vernal. The 
duration of these flow ers is seldom larger than 
half a lunation, some only last a week or a 
few days; whence they must be watched. Se- 
mination is more lasting, as seeds succeed the 
flowers, and are often a long while ripening ; 
in some they even last on the trees and shrubs 
over the Winter. 

The majority of our Northern trees and 
shrubs belong to the Amentaceous tribe, the 
Conifers, Rosacea and Senticose, Pomacea, 
Bicornes, Viburnides, Hederacea &.c. As we 
advance South ; we meet a great variety of 
Rhamnides,Fraxinides, Magnolides, Ribosides, 
Akerides, Vitides, Ulmides, Cistides, Araliacea, 
Terebinthides, Lonicerides &c, while when we 
reach Florida and Texas, several other natural 
families appear, the Rubiacea, Cactides, Lau- 
rinia, Eleagnides. with the palms and yucas of 
the Endogenous series. There also gradually 
appear the fruticose Malvacea, Leguminose, 
Saxifragides, Labiate, Hypericina ^c which 
are either unknown or rare towards the north 
or even the middle regions of North America. 

Few kinds of trees and shrubs are found in 



OF NORTH AMERICA. V 

the Missourian regions, with its vast central 
plains ; there they chiefly fringe the banks of 
streams, seldom forming groves and forests. 
This scanty dispersion prevails also more or 
less into the Origon Mts. and Shores, extending 
South to New Mexico, California, Texas and 
even Mexico ; where the thick extensive For- 
ests of the Alleghanian and Canadian regions 
are unknown. This straggling growth of Trees 
prevails also to a certain extent from Louisi- 
ana to Florida where groves are intermixt with 
meadows, glades, sand flats, cane brakes, 
swamps &/C, and even in the Western States, 
on both sides of the River Oiiio, the trees are 
not so thick set, being far apart and with fewer 
shrubs for undergrowth. 

Of the extensive tribes of Composites, Cru- 
ciferous, Euphorbides, Alsinides, Dianthides, 
Geranides, &c hardly any are shrubby in North 
America, while so many are such elsewhere. 
Our shrubby Vines belong chiefly to Sarmen- 
tacea, Rhamnides, Bignonides, Woodbines, 
Smilacea ^c. 

All the tribes of European and Siberian trees 
or shrubs are found also in North America,and 
nearly all their Genera likewise, except the 
Heaths, Daphnes, and a few others. But the 
American Sylva can boast of a greater num- 
ber of species in all the Genera, with several 
peculiar tribes and many American Genera ; 
such as Liriodendron, Magnolia, Asimina.Ara- 
lia, Catalpia, Hamamelis, Fothergilla, Gordo- 
nia, Dirca, Diervilla, Comptonia, Hicoria, A- 
morpha, Gleditsia, Robinia, Cladrastis, Chi- 
onanthus, Cephalanthus &.c. 

It is very remarkable that nearly all the A- 
merican trees, and shrubs except some boreal 
2 



10 SEW SVLVA 

Willows, Brambles, Currants, Vacciniums ^c 
are specifically distinct from their congeneric 
kinds in Europe. The same fact appears in N. 
W. America and Origon, where most are dis- 
tinct irom the Asiatic Species. In that region 
the prevailing Genera are Salix, Populus, Abies, 
Pinus, Ribes, Riibus, Yaccinium, Crategus, 
Cactus, Prunus, i^uercus, Aker, Juniperus, 
Fraxinus &c with but few peculiar Genera ; 
but we lack as yet a proper account of all the 
sylvan productions of that region, and even 
many trees have not been described, much less 
the shrubs and vines, which are very abund- 
ant. 

Trees and shrubs may be known by their fo- 
liage as well as flowers ; in fact they are thus 
distinguished by Gardeners and the ignorant : 
their blooming is generally very short, but the 
seeds or fruits last longer, and are good indica- 
tions of Genera. Even their bark and wood is 
of use to discriminate them. It is always im- 
portant to notice if the leaves are opposite or 
alternate, distichal or spiral, simple or com- 
pound, entire or jagged &.c, since these pecu- 
liarities of frondose habit almost always indi- 
cate generic distinctions. 

The North American Mountains cradles of 
our trees had been disguised by nicknames and 
mistaken heights, generally estimated too low. 
I shall restore and use throughout this work the 
original names. Thus I call the highest by the 
oldest name of Okigon (which means hollow 
noisy ground or Bits. OUgonunk in Linapi) 
those misnamed rocky Mts. shining Mts. and 
Chipewyan Mts. the snowy peaks of which rise 
20 to 25 thousand feet. — The Apalachian Mts. 
are the Southern Alleghanies, the highest be- 



Ol NORTH AMEHICA. 11 

ing the Unala or Iron Mts. of North Carolina, 
their Western ridges are the Waswto Mts. 
vulgarly Cumberland Mts : the lofty Kiskanom 
and Oqnago Mts are the N. E. end of the Al- 
ieghanies nicknamed Catskill : the Mattawan 
Mts. are those highlands broken through by the 
Hudson, and East becoming the Taconic Mts. 
The Saranac Mts. are those at the head of 
the Hudson R. misnamed Peru Ptlts. The 
Wapanunk are the White 3Its. highest of New 
England with naked or unwooded summits, a 
rarity in this continent. 



NEW SYLVA. 

501. XEROMALON Raf. calix adherent 
globular, disk hairy, crown Sparted, sepals une- 
qual foliaceous persistent serrate. Petals 5 
oboval concave subequal. Stamens 15 perigyne 
subequal erect, subulate, base nearly monadel- 
phous, anthers bilocuiar elliptical. Ovary ad- 
herent, styles 5 filiform distinct, stigmas capi- 
tate truncate. Fruit umbilicate crowned 
a dry hard pomum, inside 51ocular 5seeded, 
seeds cartilaginous oblong compressed nearly 
winged around. Shrub with alternate leaves 
ami terminal floiters — This Genus has affini- 
ties with Fyrus, Aronia, Mesjnlus, Crategus 
&.C, being of same family : it differs from all by 
the unequal calix, 15 stamens, and dry fruit ; 
the seeds are nearest Aro?iia, yet I apprehend 
it has been blended with Crategus, if already 
described elsewhere ; but I could not find any 
sp. to agree. Discovered 1818, the name 
means dry apple. Only one species; but all 
*u^ en. of Crategus and Mespilus with serrate 



12 NEW SYLVA 

or laciniate calyx must be compared, and per- 
haps are akin ,or form another Cenus near this: 
Cr. pornifolia is nearest, but is thorny with va- 
riable leaves, solitary fleshy fruits, with 5 or 6 
laciniate sepals, reflexed oblong neither ner- 
vose nor acuminate. Cr. tomentosa of the 
South is a different sp. Cr. pyrifolia has co- 
rymbs and 3 styles only. I shall return on 
these in my monograph of the Pomaceous 
tribe. 

502. X. OBOVATUM Raf. Autikon. Branches 
round inerme pnbescent above, leaves subses- 
sile obovate unequally serrate, base entire, end 
acute, lucid above, puberulent beneath ; pedun- 
cles terminal pubescent commonly geminate, 
bracts sessile lanceolate dentate, sepals spread- 
ing ovate lanceolate acuminate nervose serrate 
puberulent, fruit globose semirugose — a small 
shrub hardly 2 feet high, flowers white blossom- 
ing in June, fruit redish rather large. Found 
on the summit of the Alleghany Mts. in Mary- 
land only twice in June and October 1818. 
Seen no where else, probably grooving also fur- 
ther South in the Apalachian Mts. of Virginia. 

503. NESTRONIA Raf. Dioical. male fl. 
calix campanulate quadrifid, segments ovate 
obtuse spreading. Petals none. Stamens 4, 
inserted at the summit of the tube, opposite to 
segments but shorter, filaments linear flat, an- 
thers oval bilocular dehiscence pubescent. Ovary 
totaly lacking. Fern. fl. . . Fruit monosperm 
Drupe? Shrub with opposite leaves, and 
multiflore peduncles — singular new Genus, the 
name is derived from Knestron greek name of 
Daphne, since although the female plant is 
lacking, I have little doubt by the free calix 
that it belongs to the Daphnidia family and has 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 13 

a free one seeded berry. It will be with Dir- 
ca and Lagetta tlie third American Genus of 
it; but by the 4 stamens and opposite leaves, 
it is nearest to Striithiohi, that diflers however 
by calix filiform, Sglands and is not dioical. 
Two types if both are congeneric. 

504. N. UMBELLULA Raf. Autikon. Anony- 
mos Boyken in Collins herb. — Branches hardly 
4gone, leaves on short pctiols, ovate rhomboi- 
dal acute at both ends, very entire and very 
smooth, thin membranaceous ; peduncles ax- 
illary longer that petiols 3-5fiowered umbellate, 
partial equal to calix — discovered by Dr, Boy- 
ken in Georgia, but not named, probably found 
also in Florida : a small shrub, branches brown 
leaves unequal very thin, one or two inches 
long, flowers small, probably somewhat yellow- 
ish, brownish when dry. 

505. Nestrojvia? undulata Raf. Physic nut 
or Indian olive, Bartr. trav.p. 41. leaves broad 
lanceolate on short petiols : entire undulate 
smooth, drupes solitary pedunculate yellow olive 
like — I refer to this new Genus, a small shrub 
2 or 3 feet high found 60 years ago by Bartram 
in the hills of Georgia, and omitted by all our 
Betanists. Bartram only saw the fruit, and if 
I am right in my conjectures we have thus the 
fruit of Nestronia. Before obtaining N. um- 
hellula I had considered that it was a new Olea 
or Aclelia of Michaux ; but it agrees with none 
while it agrees much better with my Nestro- 
nia, although still a peculiar species by nar- 
rower undulate leaves. The fruits are yellow 
like an olive on long slender erect peduncles, 
Bartram says it was used by the Indians as a 
charm to entice game. These two shrubs may 
be easily distinguished at first sight from Nyssa 



14 NEW SYLtA 

and Hamiltonia by the opposite leaves. I sus- 
pect that the Rhamnus / cuneatus of Hooker 
flora and Origon may be a third sp. having op- 
posite leaves it can be no Rhamnus ! Hooker 
did not even see the unfolded flowers. It might 
be called TV. cuneata Raf leaves petiolate cun- 
eate entire, smooth above, pubescent beneath, 
branches rusty pubescent, fl. capitate axillary 
peduncled bracteate. 

208. Celastrus acuminattts Raf. Autikon, 
an C. myrtifolius ? L. ad Virg. not Jamaica! 
erect ? branches subangular, leaves petiolate 
ovate or oblong, serrulate, base acute obliquate, 
end long acuminate falcate ; flowers terminal 
racemose paniculate peduncles ramose— disco- 
vered in 1825 in the Apalachian Mts, of Vir- 
ginia, where also Linneus indicates the locality 
o^ the C. mi/rt if ollus ; but this Jamaica plant 
of Sloane differs by ovate acute leaves not acu- 
minate nor oblique. Both C. mtfrtifoUus and 
hullatus are omitted or denyed by our compi- 
lers, but the last is now cultivated in Europe, 
and has entire oval leaves. Because Nuttal 
and Elliot have not yet found them, they are 
doubted ; let them be sought where they grow, 
in the Unaka Mts. This is a tall weak shrub 
with thin smooth leaves larger than in C. 
scandens 3 to 5 inches long, the lower oval, 
the upper nearly lanceolate, flowers white size 
and form of C. scandens, raceme not simple 
but compound. 

507. AiioRPHA PUNCTATA Raf Autikon. 
Smooth, folioles elliptical obtuse, but cuspidate, 
punctate beneath, base petiolate with a subu- 
late stipule ; spikes terminal curved cylindri- 
cal — a fine shrub with purple flowers, folioles 
small, spikes 3 or 4 inches long. Discovered 
by Bradbury in the upper Missouri. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. , 15 

508. SoRBus RiPARiA Raf. Autikon. Branch- 
es rugose, folioles 9 to 15 oblong sessile, base 
oblique entire, end acute equaly niucronate 
serrate, odd leaf petiolate broader acununate ; 
corymb paniculate, berries pisiform globular. 
—A small tree 10 to 20 feet high, growing on 
the margins of Rivers, the Missouri, upper 
Mississipp, lower Ohio, Wabash, Illinois ; but 
rare. The fruit is very small commonly of a 
saffron color with 3 seeds oval compressed in- 
closed in a tough shell, and thus nearly a drupe 
sometimes only one seed by abortion. Near 
S. microcarpa, which however has folioles 
acum. unequally serrate, not obliquate, berries 
scarlet and larger. Here the folioles are 2 or 
3 inches long, pale beneath, quite smooth, pe- 
tiols compressed at the base. The g«ius Sor- 
Bus must be preserved, although some writers 
wrongly unite it to Pykus : it is known at 
first sight by the pinnate leaves, and the calix 
not persistent nor crowning the fruit. It would^ 
be better to unite to it all the tristyle sp. ot 
Cratesfus than to abolish it. 

509. TPvILOPUS Mitchell, or HAMAME- 
LIS Linneus, name posterior? This G. has 
puzzled the Botani.^ts, Jussieu wrongly united 
it to Berberides. It has now be made the sin- 
gle type of the Hamamelides ; but it is so near 
to my ScLERANTiiiDES, that it must probably be 
united thereto as a subfamily. Only 3 species 
were known; besides the doubtful varieties of 
Walter ; but I have observed 6 species, and 
therefore shall now give their Monograph. They 
may be called hyemal shrubs, since they blos- 
som late in the autumn, after the leaves have 
begun to fall. 

510. Tr. or H. virginica Raf. med, fl. tab. 



16^ NEW SYLVA. 

45. Leaves ovate and obovate obtuse repand, 
base obliquely cordate, smooth ; flowers sessile 
clustered by 3 to 5, calix and fruit pubescent — 
the names of Tr. or H. riparia or hyemalis, 
would have been better, since it only grows on 
the margins of streams from New JEngland to 
Carolina. It is in bloom in December and 
January, even when the snow is on the ground, 
and the fruit is ripe in the spring. Branches 
punctate. 

511. Tr. or H. nigra Raf. Autikon. Leaves 
ovate and obovate, acute, repand subsinuate, 
base oblique obtuse not cordate, smooth and 
coriaceous, brown or blackish above, rusty and 
lucid beneath, flowers and fruits solitary. — On 
the Mountains Alleghany of Pensylv. and Vir- 
ginia, in«dry hills, shrub 6 to 10 feet high, found 
in bloom in Obtober 1818. Var. Catesbiana 
figured by Catesby, leaves ovatoblong, quite 
acute, serrate repand, is it a sp ? 

512. Tr. or H. estivalis Raf, Autikon. 
Leaves obovate acute, repand erose, base obli- 
qual obtuse not cordate, smooth thin and green 
on both sides, flowers geminate mostly axillary 
— small shrub 3 to 5 feet high growing in West 
Kentucky and probably further west also, near 
streams, but blossoming in July when in full 
leaf: these leaves are thin and not leathery as 
in 510. Discovered in 1818 and 1823. 

513. Tr. or H. rotundifolia Raf. Autikon 
H. macrophyla P. E, Leaves orbicular or 
broadly ovate, base obliqual subcordate, repand 
sinuate obtuse, beneath reticulate roughly 
punctate, flowers subpedicellate 3-4 — A large 
shrub, leaves only 3 to 4 inches long, not larger 
than in 510, 511, thus macrophyla was a bad 
name. First found in Alabama by Lyon,deem- 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 17 

ed doubtful by Elliot, but 1 have received spe- 
cimens from Alabama and Georgia and des- 
cribe it anew^. The branches are round and 
smooth, not punctate nor geniculate as in 509, 
the fruit is rounded and pubescent, not sessile 
as in 509. 

514. Tr. or H. dentata Raf. Autikon. 
Leaves oboval acute with unequal acute teeth, 
base obliqual cordate, flowers sessile clustered 
— In Canada and New England, flowers poly- 
gamous and odorous as in most species, nearest 
to 509, but leaves smaller while shrub larger 
often 10 to 12 feet high. Mistaken for H. Vir- 
ginica by many or for a variety. 

515. Tr. or H. parvifolia Nut. R. aut. 
Leaves oblong obovate obtuse, undulate cre- 
nate, pubescent beneath, flowers agregate, ca- 
lix oblong colored. — Mts. Alleghany of Penn- 
sylvania yet very different from 210, a small 
shrub 3 to 5 feet high with smaller leaves : yet 
deemed only a var. of 509 by Eaton, Beck, T. 
4*c. They will probably deem all these 6 sp. 
as mere varieties also : yet they have good pe- 
culiar characters. As to those of Walter they 
must yet be described, since all the species are 
more or less polygamous and some even dioi- 
caly so. See Fothergilla for other natural 
affinities. 

LONICERA or CAPRIFOLIUM. 

I shall begin now. the account of my new or 
rare Loniceras or Honeysuckles by those of 
fhis Genus, their main type. They are all ver- 
nal, and blossom so early that the flowers are 
not easily seen in their native localities. 

216. L. or C. RUPESTRis Raf. Autikon. 
3 



18 NEW SYLVA 

Smooth erect, leaves sessile obovate or round- 
ed, glaucous cartilaginous retuse, floral connate 
cycloidal ; flowers in whorls of 4 peduncles op- 
posite biflore, berries oblong black — on the 
lime rocks of Kentucky and Illinois, rare, seen 
only in 3 localities, one at a Cave on the Elk- 
born creek, 3 or 4 feet high, branches of a pale 
color. It blossoms in April, so early that I al- 
ways missed to see the full bloom : near to C, 
fiamim but different. 

517. L. ELLiPTicA Raf. Autikon. Climbing 
smooth, leaves all connate elliptic obtuse glau- 
cous beneath subundulate not reticulate, floral 
connate in a single ellipse ; flowers subsessile 
small purple, base gibbose — in the Apalachian 
Mts. of Virginia and Carolina, seen alive in 
gardens There are two varieties, 1 Macro- 
phyla with long leaves 6 inches by 3, the sec- 
ond Minor small leaves 2 inches by one. Does 
the doubtful undescribed C. ruhriitn of fi. 
Louis. 248 belong here ? 

518. L. ovATA Raf. Autikon. Climbing 
smooth, leaves all sessile ovate acute ; flowers 
in axillary pedicelate corymbs, corols incarnate 
tube slender — on the same Mts. Apalaches rare, 
only met once, leaves small, flowers middle 
size. 

219. L. RETICULATA Raf. Autikon. Erect 
smooth, branches angular, leaves all connate 
cycloidal neither acute nor retuse, beneath 
white and reticulate ; flowers axiflary and ter- 
minal berries red — shady hills of Ohio and Mts. 
Wasioto of East Kentucky, very small shrub 
only 2 or 3 feet high, leaves ample, the lower 
nearly elliptical, flowers not seen, near C. gra- 
tiiin, but branches and leaves different. 

520. L. ERiENsis Raf. Autikon. Erect, 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 19 

branches brown, villose above, leaves all ses- 
sile smooth ovate mucronate, fuscate above, 
pale and reticulate beueath ; bracts ovate vil- 
lose, flowers villose outside — on the shores of 
Lake Erie, flowers large white and red : near 
to L. hirsuia but this is quite hairy with obo- 
vate acum. leaves, the floral connate. 

521. L. AcuTiioLiA Raf. Autikon. Climb- 
ing flexuose smooth, leaves all connate subo- 
vate acute, terminal cycloidal biacute, glau- 
cous beneath ; flowers axillary and terminal pe- 
dicelate corymbose, corol small gibbose incar- 
nate — in the Mts. Alleghany, leaves ample 3 
to 4 inches long. Near to L. parvijlora, 
and L. eUiptica 516, distinct from both by 
acute leaves and corymbose flowers, 

522. L. DENTATA Raf. Autikon. Erect 
smooth, leaves all connate oblong acute, re- 
motely toothed, glaucous beneath, terminal 
united like a bell biacute ; berries sessile ter- 
nate red at the bottom of the bell — near the 
last by acute leaves, yet different from all by 
toothed leaves. Flowers not seen. In the up- 
per Alleghanies and Kiskatom Mts. 

523. L. ANGusTiFOLiA Raf. or Kantemon do 
Raf. Autikon. Erect evergreen, branches 
round, leaves elliptic or cuneate all sessile, base 
acute, end obtuse, lucid above, glaucous and 
reticulate beneath : flowers naked verticillate, 
4-6sessile, berries oval with a marginal crown — 
in Florida, sent to me dr}^ in fruit. Leaves 2 
inches long, some very narrow, none connate, 
the entire marginal calix appears to persist on 
the berries. Near to L. or K. cUiosum, but 
leaves neither ciliated nor ovate nor any con- 
nate. 

This pretty Genus will thus be more than 



20 NEW SYLVA. * 

doubled by me ; we had 7 sp, L. hirsuta^ 
flava, parviflora, ciliosa, grata, douglasi ; 
besides sempormrens, which is hardly of 
this Genus, and I have added 8 sp. There are 
also peculiar sp. in Origon of which I will add 
one, thus 9 sp. 

224. C. HispiDULUM Lindl. hot. reg. 1761. 
Hispid all over, stem weak prostrate, leaves 
petiolate cordate ovate obtuse glaucous be- 
neath, upper sessile ; umbel pedunc. stamens 
exerted— found by Douglass in N. W. Amer- 
ica, fl. red small scentless, umbels trifid, glo- 
merules with 2 bracts. 

525. DISTEGIA Raf Lonicera and Xylos- 
teon of Authors. Flowers geminate inclosed 
within 2 large bracts calix entire. Corolla ur- 
eeolate, base saccate swelled,' limb unequaly 5 
fid. stam. 5 subequal style filiform declinate^ 
stigma 2-3iobe, berry 2-31ocular, at maturity 
subunilocular 1 or 2seeded. Habit of Xylos- 
ieiim which differs by naked twin berries, corol 
not swelled, stigma entire &c. This must at 
any rate be a subgenus of it. Notwithstanding 
the restoration of Caprifolium, Xylosteum, 
Diervilla &c, these must again be revised. I 
think that Lonicera must have at last 4 sub- 
genera, and besides 3 N. G. out of Xylosteon. 

1. Caprifolium. Calix entire corolla bilabi- 
ate 1-4, tube terete. 

2. Cypheola Raf.. diff. tube gibbose or swel- 
led below, as in C. parviflorum, ellipticum, acu- 
tifohum, hispid ulum 4'C. 

3. Kantemon Raf cal. 5dentate, cor. sub- 
equal 5fid tube fusiform or clavate. C. sem- 
pervirens, ciliosum, angustifolium &c, which 
deserve to be a Genus ! the stigma is capitate, 
berry 3 loc. cells 2 to 4 seeds. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 21 

4. Eunemiiitn Raf. cal. Sdent. cor. bilabi- 
ate 4-1, tube filiform very long, flowers gemi- 
nate as in Xylosteon. This also might be a 
Genus. The type is C. longiflorum of Nipal, 
Lindl. b. reg. 1232, with leaves petiolate oblong 
lanceolate acute smooth, fl. axill. pcdunc ber- 
ries white, honicera gUibrata belongs to it 
perhaps, although the tube is short. 

Meantime my G. Distegia has 2 types, Lo- 
nicera ledebouril and mvolucrata, which is 
my. 

526. Distegia nutans Raf. Xylosteon invo- 
lucr. Richardson, Dec. Lonic. do Spreng. 
Lindl. b. reg. 1179. Leaves petiolate ovate 
oblong acute, pilose beneath, fl. axil, drooping 
— at Hudson bay and Boreal America, flowers 
small yellow. 

527. Xylosteon PUNicEUM Raf. Symphorea 
do. Loudon, Lonicera do Hooker bot. mag. 2469. 
Leaves cordate ovate petiolate acute concolor 
smooth ; peduncles axillary biflore, berries dis- 
tinct. — Canada, flowers red. Loudon made 
this a Sijmphoria^ but it appears a Xylosteon. 

528. Sympiioria heterophyla Raf. leaves 
petiolate ovate and obovate, lobate or entire, 
obtuse and acute, upper elliptical, flowers glo- 
merate terminal naked, berries white — from 
Missouri, seen alive in gardens, probably a sin- 
gular deviation of S. alba our Snowberry. 8. 
rubra js called Raccoon berry. 

529. DiEiiviLLA LONGiFOLiA Raf. Autikon. 
Leaves with short petiols, oblong ovate 4 to 6 
inches long, acuminate serrate, base subcor- 
date or obliqual, beneath glaucous reticulate 
peduncles 2-3flore — .if this is only a variety of 
Diervilla canadensis^ it is like the next, a wide 
deviation and incipient sp. A shrub 3 to 5 



23 NEW SYLVA 

feet high, with large leaves, and few small flow- 
ers, often axillary. On the Oqiiago Mts. of 
New York, north end of AUeghanies, it blos- 
soms late in August. 

530. DiERviLLA PARViFOLiA Raf Stem or 
branches decumbent, leaves with short petiols, 
uncial, ovate acuminate serrulate, lower round- 
ed, fl. terminal subsessile 1 to 3^ — in the Mts. 
Alleghany, leaves seldom over one inch long. 
The real D. canadensis is a shrub of 5 to 10 
feet high with ovate leaves, and trichotome co- 
rymbs of flowers. I noticed in this sp. or de- 
viation a very long style with a large stigma 
like the head of an Amanita, convex above, 
concave beneath. 

531. Sapindus acuminata Raf. S. saponaria 
Elliot and North Am. hot. not Lin. and Antil- 
les ! Leaves with 8 or 9 pairs of folioles alter- 
nate lanceolate acuminate obliqual entire, pe- 
tiols simple striate, calix with 2 larger sepals, 
4 to 6 petals lanceolate base hairy — in Florida, 
Carolina, Alabama c5*c, seen alive in Bartram's 
garden : wrongly mistaken for the Antillian sp. 
which is very different by winged petiol. A 
tree 20 to 30 feet high, pistil trigone, 3 united 
styles, 3 obtuse stigmas, 3 united capsules ven- 
tricose monosperm. The S. marglnata of 
Wild, and Dec, found also in Florida and 
Georgia and the S. sapowaria of Mx. differs by 6 
pairs of folioles not acuminate, and half wing- 
ed petiols as in real S. saponaria, I have both 
our compilers call them both by that old name. 

Genus VISCUM, 

532. Viscu3i SEROTINUM Raf. purpur. and 
verticil, of some hot. stem thick terete ru- 
gose 2-3chotome geniculate, leaves oppo- 
site evergreen subpetiolate, obovate ob- 
tuse hardly unincrve thick ; flowers trifid 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 23 

monoical axillary spicate, male spikes terete 
verticillate triandrous shorter than leaves, fe- 
male spikes glomerate, herries snowy white. — 
Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, &:c, parasitical 
shrub on trees, it blossoms late in the fall and 
till December, flowers yellowish, almost simi- 
lar to those of Genus Osi/i'ts (see my disserta- 
tion,) discovered 1819, indicated 18*20 as new. 
We have in N. Amer. at least 3 sp. of Viscum 
with white berries, blended with V. album of 
Europe by Walter, Muhlenberg &c, or with 
V. flavens and verticillntum of South Amer. 
and Antilles by Pursh, Elliot <Slc, but quite dif- 
ferent from all these. This is the Western sp. 
the berries are snowy white persistent in Win- 
ter, purplish when dry ; thus perhaps V. pur- 
pureum of some botanists. 

533. Viscum ochroleucum Raf. V. verti- 
cillatum Elliot Nut. Tor. not L. album Walt, 
not L. flavescens Pursh, Beck, not Swartz — 
Branches terete opposite or quternate genicu- 
late leaves subsessile obovate obtuse trinerve 
ofl:en quaternate, spikes nearly equal to leaves 
axillary often 4nate, flowers 3-4fid, 3-4andr. 
berries spiked yellowish white. — From New 
Jersey to Florida, parasitical, stem 1 or 2 feet, 
flowerrj very small vernal April and May. 

534. Viscu.M LEucARPUM Raf. fl. lud. 251. 
exclus. syn ? stem articulate very branched, 
leaves opposite sessile oblong obtuse, flowers 
sessile axillary glomerate, glomerules pauciflore 
2-3flore and 2-3berries white — in West Louisi- 
ana and Texas probably, distinct by the few 
flowers, probably enervate also. 

535. Viscum oblongifolium Raf V.rubrum? 
auct. Branches rugose, leaves petiolate oblong 
or narrow elliptic, base acute, end obtuse, se- 



24 NEW SYLVA 

mitrinerve, rugose, spikes very short, berries 
solitary oblong (red ?) — my specimen is from 
Florida, there also grow the V. ruhrum of L. 
and Catesby, stated to have lanceolate leaves ; 
not seen by Elliot nor any of our Authors. 
Mine is now better described. 

536. ViscuM RUGosuM Raf. purpureum ? of 
some Authors ! Branches rugose, leaves petio- 
late oboval or broad elliptic obtuse trinerve ru- 
gose ; spikes very short, berries spicate ternate 
or geminate oboval white, but red when dry — 
in Delaware and Virginia, often on the Nyssa. 
The V. purpureum seen by few botanists is sta- 
ted to have retuse avenous leaves, my speci- 
mens have 3 nerves reaching beyond the mid- 
dle of the leaves. 

Therefore it is evident that this Genus was 
quite obscure to our botanists, who had seen 
few species, and mistaken those seen. Neither 
Smith nor Elliot had seen the V. rubrum and 
purpureum, and only copied the errors of Lin- 
neus, who blends 2 or 3 species in V. purpu- 
reum^ with purple and white berries, the sp of 
Plumier and the Antilles is probably the real 
species, yet Smith deems it the V. huxifolium. 
The 2 sp. of the Bahama Islands figured by 
Catesby appear different from all ours, and are 
thus. 1. V. vulram of Cat. 2. t. 81. leaves petio- 
late cuneate obtuse concave, berries red globu- 
lar spiked verticillate. 2. V. purpureum. Cat. 
2. t. 95. leaves petiolate obovate obtuse enerve, 
berries purple turbinate racemose opposite, pe- 
duncles swelled. 

The blunders of Linneus on this Genus are 
egregious, see the criticism of Smith in Rees. 
His V. terrestre ! is a Lysimachia ! He has 
blended 2 sp. in V. verticillatum, the real sp. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 25 

Kyf Jamaica is Aphyllous and perhaps not of this 
Genus ; the other is V. huxifoUum I of Smith 
with leaves ovate obtuse trinerve, and berries 
safron color. Yet our American Botanists per- 
sist to this day to call 2 or 3 of our species by 
that name ! others unite our sp, to the V. fla- 
vens of Schwartz and Jamaica with ovate ve- 
nose leaves and yellow berries! none of our sp. 
have ovate leaves, they are obovate ! Such are 
the blunders of our best Botanists, and yet they 
pretend that our Botany is well known and our 
shrubs &.C properly named . . ! 

537. DiosPYRos ciLiATA Raf. Branches di- 
varicate pubescent, leaves ovate and obovate or 
elliptic shortly acummate, smooth above, pu- 
bescent beneath when young, margin ciliated, 
Bowers axillary, solitary or geminate subsessile 
— Florida, seen alive in gardens, only a shrub 
5 to 6 feet high, much spreading, branches te- 
rete ash color, leaves very unequal and various 
on the same branch, 1 to 3 inches long, smooth 
beneath when old, but always ciliate, petioles 
short, peduncles still shorter, calyx flat 4lobed 
corolla ovate urceolate end 4iobe, lobes broad 
short, stamens 8 to 12, anthers just protruding. 

538. Cephalanthus obtusifolia Raf. bran- 
ches nearly hexagone, leaves ternate petiolatc 
ovate elliptic obtuse not acuminate, base subo- 
bliquate, beneath smooth yellow glaucous,nerves 
subpubescent — ^sent me from Missouri, also 
seen in West Kentucky : differs from both C 
puhescens and C. acuminatus or occidentalis. 
The peduncles of heads has verticillated scales 
the corolla is slender equal to stamens, but the 
style is twice as long ; flowers estival white and 
fragrant. It forms a shrub 5 to 6 feet high 
growing as the others near streams, 

4 



26 NEW SYLVA. 

Genus CHRYSOBALANUS. 

This tropical Genus near to Prunus extends 
to Florida and we have several sp. only one 
was known, I shall describe 4. 

539. Chrysob. oblongifolius Mx. Branch- 
lets redish rugose, leaves subsessile oblong or 
subcuneate undulate, acute at both ends, lucid 
reticulate quite smooth, flowers terminal pani- 
culate, dichotome and trichotome, calix white 
tomentose — in Florida, leaves 3 inches long, 
yellowish minutely reticulate on both sides, 
flowers small white, calix campanulate acute, 
stamens smooth. Not less than 3 sp. appear to 
have been blended by our Authors with this. 

540. Chrysobalanus retusa Raf. Branch- 
es dark purple leaves subsessile entire, oblong 
base acute, end obtuse retuse emarginate, re- 
ticulate and quite smooth on both sides, above 
coppery lucid, beneath pale yellowish less lucid 
— found by Nuttal in Georgia and Alabama, 
not named but Genus ascertained (Collins herb.) 
It differs from Clir. oblongifolius by the re- 
tuse leaves of a metalic color above, 3 to 4 
inches long, over one broad, but 2 other sp. 
have evidently been blended by Michaux and 
Nuttal. 

541. Chrysobalanus incanus Raf. Var. of 
oblongif. Mx. leaves oblong oboval, white and 
wooly beneath — Florida. This must certainly 
be distinct from the 2 above, having no speci- 
men I cannot describe it better. 

542. Chrysobalanus (Spondolobus) pruni- 
FOLius Raf. Branches smooth, leaves petio- 
late ovate serrulate acute at both ends, base bi- 
glandular, both sides smooth not reticulate,- 
flowers racemose, raceme pauciflore, drupes 
oblong — from Florida, in the Herbarium of 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 27 

Collins, mistaken for Bumelia ! leaves small 1 
inch long, quite similar to those of Prunus ! ra- 
cemes terminal 5-6flore, no bracts, pedicels 
long, calix broad flat campanulate 5dentate per- 
sistent, 5 petals obovate, stamens about 15 al- 
most monadelphous at the base, filaments sub- 
ulate, pistil on a thick thorus. oblong acute pro- 
minent, style lateral incurved or flexuose, stig- 
ma obtuse. I have not seen the ripe fruit, but 
the young fruit is unlike any Prunus being o- 
blong elongate acute like a pod one side strait. 
I have united this shrub with this Genus for 
the lateral style ; but it deserves to be a pecu- 
liar subgenus by the calix, thorus, stamens &c, 
a connecting link with Padiis, I propose to call 
it Spondolobiis Raf, meaning j}lumh-pod. 

543. CnuysopnyLUM ludovicianum Raf. fl. 
lud. 165. C, glahruni Robin not L. Spinose, 
leaves oblong lanceolate acute, silky beneath, 
flowers fasciculate axillary — in West Louisiana 
and Texas, only seen by Robin, mistaken for 
C. glabi'um of Antilles, but this has smooth 
leaves. Omitted by our compilers and added 
here to recall it to their dull memory. A shrub 
8 to 10 feet high, flowers small greenish, calyx 
5parted, stigma sessile, berry globular, seeds 
compressed. 

544. CHRysopnyLUM Cainito var. rotundifo- 
lium Raf Leaves on short petiols rounded 
ovate acute at both ends, veins paralel, above 
shining lucid brown, beneath silky lucid rusty, 
flowers geminate, pedicels longer than flowers, 
fruit oboval rounded. — South Florida, and Flo- 
rida Keys, A small tree, branches smooth 
ashy brown, leaves alternate coriaceous thick 
beautiful almost round very entire 2 or 3 inch- 
es long, nearly as broad, with a single thick 



28 NEW SYtVA, 

nerve and many paralel veins. Flowers scat- 
tered, very small. My specimens labelled C« 
cainito appear to form another variety or de- 
viation,^ perhaps it is a peculiar sp. as many 
have beon blended in C. cainito with round and 
oval fruits. 

Genus BUMELIA, 

545. BuMELiA UNDULATA Raf. Branchcs 
inermous subopposite striate brown, leaves ter- 
minal alternate on long petiols, broad elliptic 
smooth minutely reticulate on both sides, base 
acute, end obtuse, margin undulate entire ; 
flowers scattered fasciculate shorter than pedi- 
cels — a small tree from South Florida, labelled 
JB. salicifolia in Collins Herbal, but quite 
distinct from the Bahama and AntillTan sp. 
with narrow acuminate leaves. This has 
leaves 2 or 3 inches long and 1^ or 2 broad,, 
quite obtuse and even somewhat retuse at the 
end, petiols 1 or 2 inches long : flowers not ax- 
illary scattered below the leaves 2 to 5 togeth- 
er, seldom solitary, calix smooth, sepals ovate 
acute, fruit oval style persistent. 

546. BuMELiA ARACHNoiDEA Raf. ArborcSf- 
cent, inermous ? branchlets dark purple subru- 
gose, leaves petiolate fasciculate cuneate oblong 
entire obtuse, smooth and reticulate above, be- 
neath and petiols hairy arachnoidal, flowers on 
short pedicels fasciculate rufous hairy — in Ar- 
kanzas and Texas, large tree 40 to 50 feet 
high, leaves about 4 inches long and one broad, 
not lucid, dull on both sides, minutely netted 
nerves above, tomentose like spider webs be- 
neath, very acute at base and very obtuse at 
end. Flowers very small and short, sepals of 
calix ovate obtuse. The B. ohlongifolia of 
Nuttal is akin but differs by being a small tree 



OF NORTH AMERICA, 29 

15 to 20 feet high, leaves smooth (so says Nut- 
tal although Eaton calls them hairy beneath) 
not so cuneate, branches thorny, flowers sub- 
sessile 4'C. 

547. BuMELiA DENTicuLATA Raf. shrubby 
inermous 1 branchlets smooth rugose, leaves 
petiolate thin, broad oval elliptic, base acute, 
end subacuminate, margin remotely denticulate 
smooth on both sides, flowers solitary on long 
erect filiform pedicels, calix smooth, sepals 
round — from Florida, leaves 2 or 3 inches long 
with a few remote obtuse teeth on the sides, 
texture very thin, with veins rather than nerves 
slightly reticulate, pedicels over one inch long, 
stiff* although filiform, flowers pretty large 
smooth. A very distinct species. 

548. BuMELiA? SERRULATA Raf. shrubby 
inermous, branchlets cinereous with white dots 
leaves subopposite petiolate smooth, obovate 
elliptical acute at both ends serrulate glauces- 
cent beneath minutely veined reticulate with 
some scattered hairs — from Apalachian Mts. 
of Alabama small shrub, leaves small pale 
green, nearly glaucous beneath. Collected by 
Lyons, my specimen of Collins herbal has no 
flowers, but is labelled a new Bumelia, We 
have thus at least 10 sp. of this Genus with the 
6 already known, and I have nearly all in my 
Herbarium ; but one requires correction, 2 or 
3 sp. being perhaps blended under B. lanugi- 
nosa. My specimens collected by Ware in 
Florida have leaves elhptic obtuse or acute, 
hairy rusty beneath like the branches, and flow- 
ers thickly glomerate rufous hairy, is it a pe- 
culiar sp. B. rufa ? Raf. while the B. lanugi- 
nosa of Elliot and Authors, has leaves ovate 
lanceolate tomentose beneath, a third var. is 



30 NEW SYLVA 

the var. sericea or B, chrysophyloides of fl. 
Louis, with similar leaves, but silky silvery and 
ffilded beneath. 

549. Genus ANTHELIS. 

The Genus Cistus of Linneus was a medley 
of 150 heterogenous species, the modern botan- 
ists in restoring Helianthemum of Tournefort 
overlooked the perfect identity with Helian- 
THus ! both meaning Sun flower. To avoid 
this equivocal name I changed it in 1812 in my 
Chloris Etnensis to Anthelis being a transpo- 
sition (flower of the sun) this correction is indis- 
pensable. Of this Genus 5 sp. have been des- 
cribed as North American, and with 5 others 
from Mexico and Brazil form a peculiar group 
or subgenus quite American ; Decandole calls 
this group Lecheoldes owing to the similarity 
with Lechea, but if it is to become a Genus in 
future this derivation will not do. I am going 
to add several new sp. thereto and thus venture 
to call it HoRANTHES flowers of an hour. 

S. G. HORANTHES, sepals 5, external 2 
narrow, internal 3 margin scariose, petals 5 yel- 
low, stamens few 12 to 20, stigma capitate 
large sessile or subsessile, capsule glabrous uni- 
loc, 3 valve— small suffruticose plants, leaves 
opposite below, no stipules, flowers evanescent 
or petals fugacious. The H. tripetala of Mex- 
ico is probably a Lechea ! all our sp. are es- 

tival. 

550 Anthelis (Horanthes) pouanisia Raf. 
erect pulverulent pubescent, stem virgate sim- 
ple, leaves adpressed linear cuneate acute mar- 
gin reflexed; flowers in axillary fascicles, or 
racemes, pedicels unequal, one terminal much 
longer, calix with 3 oval sepals, 2 linear equal, 
cap^sule oval equal to calix — on the Red River 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 31 

in Arkanzas Louisiana and Texas, stem pedal 
base suffruticose, leaves one inch long narrow, 
flowers small, calix cinereous pubescent. 

551. Antiielis (Horanthes) arenaria Raf. 
many procumbent stems nearly smooth, leaves 
linear acute sometimes ciliate, pedicels axillary 
uniflore equal to leaves, 3 sepals membranace- 
ous rufous smooth trinerve ovate acute, 2 linear 
subciliate — in sands of Pine barrens in South 
New Jersey and Florida, first discovered by 
Kin in 1801. Root large deep, many short 
diffuse stems, leaves small, flowers rather large. 

Monograph of CELTIS. 
I mean to give a complete account of the 
N. American sp. of this Genus, increased to 15 
kinds whereof 9 are trees and 6 are only shrubs. 
Linneus had only one, Lamark and others in- 
creased it to 3 or 4, our latest compilers have 
only 4 sp. although I had added 3 others as 
early as 1817 ; but this Genus was little attend- 
ed to, the species being very similar in habit 
have usualy been blended, even when seen, and 
often reduced by the leaves rather than flow- 
ers. They are known indiscriminetly by the 
vulgar names of Nettle tree, Beaver wood, 
Hackberry, Dogcherry, Cherry elm, Hoopash, 
Slc ; they bear vernal blossoms, and edible ber- 
ries, leaves distichal alternate, the wood is hard 
and valuable ; but they are rather uncommon 
in our forests except two kinds. 

552. Celtis canina Raf Am. M. M. 1817 
Decads 6. Tree with smooth bark, branch- 
lets smooth angular dotted, leaves ovate acu- 
minate, unequaly uncinate serrate trinervate, 
base acute entire obliqual unequal, smooth on 
both sides but wrinkled above, and axils of 
nerves pubescent beneath, fruit red globular 



32 NEW SYLVA 

solitary axillary, pedicels longer than petiols--* 
a small tree 15 to 25 feet high, discovered 1816 
in the State of New York, near the Mattawan 
Mts. it blossoms in April and May, the branch- 
es are spreading, covered with glandular dots. 
Torrey insisted that this was the C. occidenta- 
lis of Linneus, and yet believes it perhaps, 
therefore I will give the contrasted account of 
that sp. from my specimens, confirmed by the 
ample descriptions of Lamark, Smith and El- 
liot. 

553. Celtis occidentalis L. and Authors. 
C. uRTiciFOLiA Raf a better name — tree, bark 
rimose, branchlets pubescent angular not dot- 
ted, leaves ovate acuminate subequaly uncinate 
serrate trinervate, base acute entire obliqual 
unequal, young leaves villose,old leaves smooth 
even above, beneath quite pubescent, petiols 
pubescent, fruit purple globular solitary axilla- 
ry, on pedicels subequal or shorter than petiols. 
— A large tree 30 to 70 feet high, spread thin- 
ly from New England to Carolina, flowering in 
March and April. — Thus it differs from the 
last by the bark branches, being larger, quite 
pubescent, leaves also larger 3 to 5 inches long, 
fruit sweeter dark purple, Elliot says the sterile 
flowers are frequently ternate. The C. aus- 
trails of Europe hardly differs except by 
rougher leaves and black fruit. The C tenu- 
ifolia, pumila, alba &.c had all been deemed 
varieties of this by turns, and even Nuttal deems 
the C.cordata as such! they might as well unite 
all the sp. of Asia and the Antifles into one! 

554. Celtis alba Raf fl. lud. 68. Var. in- 
tegrifolia of Amer. Authors, not the C. integrif. 
of Lamark, african sp. — Tree with smooth bark 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 33 

branchlets tomentose, smooth when older sub- 
angular dotted, leaves broadly lanceolate entire 
gradualy acute, base acute obliqual unequal 
trinervate, quite smooth on both sides, glaucous 
above, nerves reticulate beneath, fruits red 
small globular solitary or ternate, axillary on 
pedicels equal to petiols — a very distinct spe- 
cies, well described and named by me as early 
as 1817, neglected by our compilers ; I have 
specimens collected in Arkanzas by Nuttal as 
a N. sp. or mistaken for the C integrifoUa of 
Senegal, which is totaly unlike having round 
and rough leaves &.c. It grows in Missouri, 
Arkanzas, Louisiana and Texas. Fine shady 
tree 40 feet high, bark whitish and scaly, cool- 
ing and anodyne. Leaves 2 or 3 inches long, 
one wide, of a whitish color, being glaucous 
above, while beneath less so, flowers small 
green; anthers opening as in Laurus says 
Robin, 2 hairy stigmas. Berries small red 
sweet. Blossoms in March. 

555. Celtis fuscata. Raf. C. longifolia 
Raf. fl. tex. 9. Tree, branchlets smooth suban- 
gular verrucose, leaves smooth oblong lanceo- 
late acuminate trinervate, fuscate base acute 
obliqual unequal, margin equaly serrate, be- 
neath reticulate, pedicels equal to petiols — a 
small tree from Florida, Texas and also the 
Island of Cuba, where collected by Jalambic : 
quite distinct from the rough leaved sp. of the 
Antilles with broad or cordate leaves. Some 
of the leaves are broadly lanceolate,others quite 
narrow, commonly 2 inches long, their color is 
peculiar brownish, dark above, yellowish be- 
neath. My specimens have no fruit. Found 
anonymous in Collins Herbarium. Var. tex- 
ensis was my C. longifolia of 1833 only differ- 

5 



-31 n;ew sylva- 

ence leaves base truncate, roughish above. 

556. Celtis sALiciFOLiA Raf. Tree, branch- 
lets terete pilose with white dots, leaves oblong 
elongate narrow subacuminate sharply serrate^ 
base obliqual acute trinervate,potiols and nerves 
pubescent — in Arkanzas and Louisiana, a small 
tree 20 feet high, leaves 2 to 4 inches long simi- 
lar to some Willows but quite obliqual, very 
different from all the narrow leaved kinds, 
nearer to C. occidentalis, but very different 
leaves. Is it a deviation of C, fuscata 1 chief 
difference in terete pilose branches, nerves pu- 
bescent ^c. 

557. Celtis levigata W. Loud. Leaves 
unequaly cordate obliqual acuminate nearly en- 
tire, smooth on both sides — in Louisiana, small 
tree 20 feet high. I have not seen it, it was 
described in Wildenow Enumeration, I copy 
the notice from Loudun Cyclop, of plants. It 
appears different from all the cordate leaved 
kinds by the smooth leaves, and from my 7nori- 
folia and patula by obliqual acuminate leaves. 

558. Celtis morifolia Raf. C. cordata of 
some botanists ? — Tree, branchlets redish hir- 
sute angular or striate, leaves ovate oblong ser- 
rate acute or acuminate, base subcordate or 
truncate, slightly obliqual, scabrose above, be- 
neath smooth pale reticulate,nerves yellow hir- 
sute, petiols pubescent, pedicels longer than pe- 
tiols — this is one of the 3sp. blended and call- 
ed Hackberry in the Western States. This is 
a tree 20 to 40 feet high, the branches have 
neither warts nor dots. Leaves 3 to 5 inches 
long, 1 or 2 wide, becoming quite smooth be- 
neath when old, but always rough above hardly 
trinervate, but nerves regular and reticulate. 
Found in Illinois, Kentucky ^c, if I remember 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 35 

right the berries are blackish and ovate ; but 
my specimens have no tVuit. It has evidently 
been often mistaken for the next, which has 
shorter thicker leaves more acuminate, more 
cordate and more obliqual, quite pubescent be- 
neath ; it is nearer to C micranthes of Antil- 
les differing chiefly by larger serratures, pubes- 
cent branches, petiols ^'C. 

549. Celtis crassifolia Lamark and many 
Authors, C. cordata Persoon and others — tree, 
branches terete rough, leaves broadly ovate 
acuminate, unequaly serrate, base cordate obli- 
qual, thick or subcoriaceous, rough on both 
sides, peduncles mostly biflore — a small tree 15 
to 40 feet high, with large dark thick leaves 
quite rough, common from West Pennsylvania 
to Missouri and Kentucky, blossoms in May. 
Berries black large sweet, called Hackberries 
or by corruption Hagberries, Hogberries. 

560. Celtis reticulata Torrey, Eaton. 
Leaves broad cordate pubescent subcoriaceous, 
subentire, subobtuse, base unequal obliqual, pa- 
pillose scabrose above, reticulate prominent 
nerves beneath, peduncles uniflore — in the 
Western parts of Missouri and Arkanzas ex- 
tending probably to the Origon Mts. found by 
James described by Torrey ; I have not seen 
it and only copy his account to show that it 
differs no more from C. crassifolia than my 
C. morifolia, all 3 have cordate leaves and re- 
ticulate nerves, whence the name is not very 
proper. Is it a tree or a shrub ? compare C. 
patula. 

561. Celtis maritima Raf. 1817. Decads 
7. Shrubby, branchlets terete tortuose pubes- 
cent, leaves ovate acuminate trinerve rough on 
both sides with large equal serratures, base 



36 ViEVr SYLVA 

broad nearly cordate obliqual, petiols and 
nerves pubescent, pedicels subequal to petiols, 
a small crooked shrub 3 or 4 feet high growing 
on the downs of the sea shores from Long Is- 
land to Chesapeak. It blossoms in May, the 
branches are cinereous and slightly dotted, 
leaves small uncial. Very near to the next, 
but distinct by locality and acuminate rough 
leaves, 

562. Celtis pumila Raf. C, occid var. pu- 
mila Mg. and some others, but not Pursh nor 
his copists. — Shrubby, procumbent, branchlets 
slender terete subtomentose, leaves thin ovate 
acute with large equal serratures, base trun- 
cate hardly obliqual trinervate both sides near- 
ly smooth, petiols and nerves hardly pubescent 
— in the Alleghany Mts. from Pennsylvania to 
Virginia. A small low shrub only 2 feet high 
or long. Leaves hardly over one inch, hardly 
acuminate rather acute, very thin and green, 
with very large teeth. This is marked in Col- 
lins Herb, as the real pumila var of Muhlen- 
berg, but it appears that all our 6 shrubby sp. 
must have been blended under this name ; I 
shall now distinguish them properly although 
the synonyms are difficult to fix, owing to all 
copying Pursh rather than describe what they 
saw. The large teeth and truncate base will 
distinguish this from all others besides the pro- 
cumbent stem. 

563. Celtis tenuifolia Raf (or parvifolia) 
C. pumila Pursh, T. B. Sec. C. occid. var. 
tenuif Lam. Pers. Nuttal ? &.c — shrubby erect 
branches divaricate, branchlets angular smooth 
leaves uniform ovate acuminate, serrulate in 
the middle, base acute obliqual unequal entire 
trinervate, both sides smooth, pedicels axillary 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 37 

uniflore longer than petiols, fruits round oboval 
brown — a shrub 3 to 5 feet high, erect with 
spreading branches, found by myself in the hills 
of Maryland, blossoming in May, said to grow 
also in the Mts. of Virginia and in Louisiana, 
easily known by the few small teeth, leaves 1 
or 2 inches long rather thin. 

504. Celtis heteropiiyla Raf. shrubby, 
branchlets smooth terete rugose, leaves multi- 
form, ovate or cordate, oblong or lanceolate, 
base hardly obliqual rounded or cordate, end 
acute or acuminate, margin entire or with a 
few teeth, but all smooth thin with nerves reti- 
culate beneath, pedicels axillary uniflore longer 
than petiols, young fruits ovate — sent me from 
Alabama, a very singular species offering all 
kinds of leaves on the same small branches (1 or 
2 inches long) yet unlike any of the other shrub- 
by kinds. Is it the C. pnmila found by short 
and Riddell in Kentucky ? 

565. Celtis patula Raf shrubby diffuse, 
branches divaricate, branchlets angular smooth 
leaves uniform cordate acute, entire or serru- 
late in the middle, rough above, beneath smooth 
reticulate, base not obliqual, petiols and pedi- 
cels very short — from Florida, humble shrub, 
branches quite divergent, sometimes reflexed, 
leaves over one inch long and broad, pale above 
as in C. alba. Near to C. reticulata^ which 
differs chiefly by leaves pubescent obliqual 
obtuse. 

566. Celtis floridana Raf shrubby, branch- 
lets angular pubescent above, petiols pubescent 
very short, leaves broad ovate obliqual acute 
serrulate in the middle above rough rugose, be- 
neath reticulate by grey pubescent nerves, pedi- 
cels short but longer than petiols, fruit depres- 



38 NEW SXLVA 

sed ? — Florida and Alabama in the hills, leaves 
uncial, base and end quite entire, middle teeth 
small but close subequal. 

Genus ULMUS. 
Without giving a complete monograph of all 
our Elms, I will try to rectify and improve 
this Genus by adding 5 to those already known 
or admitted. There are several overlooked sp. 
of it, since Thomas has quite lately described 
the v. racemosa from New York : the others 
known are V. americana, nemoralis, fulva 
and alata^ to which I shall add U. longifolia, 
oboimta, alba, dentala and dimidiata. ; thus 
we know already 10 N. Amer. Sp. and there 
are more perhaps, those of Origon are not yet 
described. 

567. Ulmus longifolia Raf. shrubby, 
branchlets slender smooth striated, leaves on 
short petiols, smooth on both sides, thin, oblong 
elongate, base subcordate hardly obliqual, end 
acuminate, margin duplicate serrate — Alaba- 
ma and Tennessee, near to Jj. alata, but branch- 
es not winged and leaves longer subcordate. A 
shrub 8 to 10 feet high, leaves 3 to 4 inches 
long about one wide, 

568. Ulmus obovata Raf Tree, branches 
patent, branchlets terete smooth rugose, leaves 
ample on short petiols obovate acuminate, base 
obtuse obliqual. margin duplicate serrate, near- 
ly smooth above, villose beneath — in Kentucky 
and Illinois, a tree 30 to 40 feet high, with 
large leaves 4 to 6 inches long, 3 to 4 wide, 
near to the two next which differ by oblong 
leaves and white hanging branches, or ovate 
rough leaves &:c. 

569. Ulmus alba Raf fl. hid. 387. U. Amer. 
Var, pendula of Authors— Tree with hanging 



OF NORTH AMKRICA, 39 

branches, bark whitish, leaves oblong, base 
acute obli(iual, duplicate dentate, roughish and 
lucid above, villose beneath — in Louisiana and 
other States, 50 to 60 feet hii|;h, long flexible 
branches. As this with the last and next are 
often blended under the vulgar name of White 
Elm, I must add what I consider as the real 
U, Americana. 

570. Ulmus A3IEUICANA L. Autliors : (sessi- 
lis Raf. better name.) Tree, branches divar- 
gent, branchlets terete smooth rugose, leaves 
subsessile ovate acuminate, duplicate serrate, 
base very obliqual subcordate, above rough, be- 
neath soft hardly pubescent — chiefly in the Al- 
leghany mts. large tree 60 to 80 feet high, 
leaves 3 to 4 inches long 2 or 3 broad. Thus 
quite distinct from both the preceding. 

571. Ulmus dentata Raf. Tree, branchlets 
terete smooth, leaves ample and thin, on long 
petiols, obovate, base acute entire, not obli- 
qual, large sharp teeth above, end subacumi- 
nate, smooth on both sides, fruits fasciculate pe- 
duncled oblong bifid fimbriate on the sides — a 
fine new Elm, sent me from Alabama as U, 

Julva,, but totaly unlike, much nearer to U. ne- 
moraUs ? which diflfers by oblong leaves and 
sessile flowers. Leaves very large G to 7 in- 
ches long, 3 to 4 broad, petiols over one inch 
longer than in any other sp. the large subequal 
teeth are only in the upper half, fascicles of 
flowers multiflore, pedicels filiform, calix cam- 
panulate,stamens exserted, pistil cuneate oblong- 
bifid by the 2 styles. It is called the yellow 
Elm. 

572. Ulmus dimidiata Raf shrubby, branch- 
lets smooth angular, leaves on very sliort peti- 
ols, quite smooth biforme, some smaller ovate 



40 NEW SYLVA, 

acute, some larger oblong acuminate dimidiate, 
all equaly serrate, base very obliqual, often one 
side decurrent the other reduced in size or di- 
midiate. — In Florida and Georgia, shrub 8 to 
12 feet high, leaves pale subcoriaceous, 1 or 2 
inches long, in the narrow leaves the base of 
one side is removed upwards of the petiol and 
that side is much reduced in size whence the 
name : unlike any other sp. very singular and 
curious, fruit not seen. The fine U. alata is 
alone somewhat akin in size of shrub and leaves 
I have found that fine sp. in Kentucky and 
have it also from Tennessee and Arkanzas. 
The TJ. pinguis or fat Elm of Louisiana must 
be compared and distinguishedif different from 
both. The JU. pumila of Walter is said to be 
the U. alata. 

This fine and useful Genus was thus like 
Celtis in great disorder, Linneus united six 
European sp. in his U. campestris ! and we 
have nearly as many in our White Elms ! It is 
now supposed that U. nemoralis is the Vlane- 
ra aquatica and also Rhamniis carpinifolia ! 
being put into 3 Genera! and although Sir James 
Smith doubts the fact, he acknowledges having 
seen only one kind. I have not yet obtained the 
Planer a and cannot clear the subject; but all our 
botanists distinguish it from U. nemoralis^^Mho' 
they cannot show distinct specimens of both, if 
two they are both called Water Elm. Elliot 
omits the U. nemoralis, but describes twice 
the Planera in pentandria and polygamia ! 
I hope my remarks and new sp. will make this 
Genus better known. Ahelicea or Planera 
will only be perhaps a subgenus of Ulmus, 
merely distinguished by polygamy and capsule 



or NORTH AMERICA. 41 

swelled obliqual reticulate or squamose. 3 sp. 
Abelicea cretlca, sihlrica, and aquatica our 
own. 

573. PLEUROSTENA Raf, fl, tel. 413. 
Calix rhomboidal 5fid unequal. Stamens 5 
subequal, stigmas 3 sessile. Seed conical lon- 
ger than calix, unequal trigone, one side nar- 
rower. Floicers axillary polygamous. One 
of the 20 Genera blended in Polygonum^ re- 
vised by me in fl. tel. The type of this is a 
small western shrub. The name means nar- 
row side. 

574. Pleurostena serotina Raf. Polyg. do 
Raf. All nat. 93. Sutfruticose, stem striate 
much branched, branches angular virgate, 
leaves nearly sessile ovatoblong acute smooth, 
sheaths split lacerated, flowers axillary fasci- 
culate — discovered and published in 1820, a 
small shrub 2 or 3 feet high woody only at the 
base, quite autumnal blossoming late in Octo- 
ber, growing in fields and glades in Kentucky. 
Leaves quite small, flowers green 2 to 5 to- 
gether on short peduncles, often polygamous 
by the abortion of stamens. Different from 
&topinaca fl. tel. 405 or Polygonella of Mx, 
which I have also. 

575. SPERMAULAXEN Raf fl. tel. 416. 
Monoical, male fl. campan. 4-5fid, segments 
subequal obtuse colorate. Stam 4-5 very short, 
female fl. similar larger more unequal, seg- 
ments erect obovate, stigmas 2-3sessile. Seed 
pyramidal double of calix trigone, base con- 
crete, one side concave canaliculate. Shrub- 
by fl. spiked — another very distinct G. of same 
tribe akin to the last, to which perhaps belong 
also the exotic sp. blended as Polyg. ochreatum 

6 



42 NEW SYLVA 

and grandiflorum. The name applies to the 
sulcate seed. 

576. Spermaijlaxen diciioi omus Raf. stem 
shrubby dichotome sulcate, leaves petiolate 
oblong lanceol. acute smooth, margins rough, 
sheaths obsolete, spikes filiform, flowers remote 
some a,re peduncled — Florida, found without 
name in Col. herb, flowers small purplish male 
and female on same spike, no tubular sheaths 
but instead a small subulate deciduous stipule 
in some leaves and flowers. 

577. TOXYLON Raf. 1817 in Mus. Nat. 
Sc. misprinted loxylon (an I for a T) correct- 
ed in Med. flora Vol. 2 page 268. Maclura of 
Nnttal 1818 posterior name, and a Genus of 
shells was since called after Maclure who was 
no botanist ! Morus or Brussonetia tincto- 
RiA ! of Sprengel Kunth and Torrey ! not of 
Linnens, quite a different tree ... I was the 
FIRST to describe this Genus of trees and give 
it a better name than Nuttal. His name how- 
ever was adopted by some botanists, while 
others blundered so far as to blend it with the 
tropical RIorus tinctor'ia of Linneus, I cor- 
rected this mistake in 1830 in my m.edical flora, 
Nuttal has also corrected it in 1834 in his plants 
of Wyeth ; but v/ithout mentioning my previous 
name ! — I gave a long account and history of 
it in 1817 to which I refer Amer. Monthly 
Mag. Vol. 2 p. 118, and will only recapitulate 
the main characters here : adding the real M, 
tlnctoria (to evince the difference) which forms 
the Genus Fusticiis. 

Characters of ToxYi.us Raf. flowers dioical 
in catkins, male fl. calix 5parted, 5 stamens, 
female fl. in globular fleshy catkins, calix im- 
mersed pentagonal concrete, Ovary oboval 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 43 

Simple deciduous filiform villose stigma simple 
fruct a fleshy sjncarpe or concrete berry by 
coalescent berries verrucose tesselated as in 
Artocarpus, forming many cells at the periphe- 
ry, each Nvith one seed obovate. Spinose tree 
with alternate distichal leaves^ J'ruits large 
axillary. — Thus intermediate between Arto- 
carpus and Fusticus. My name means Boic- 
iDood (loxilon would have meant arrow-wood) 
one of its name. 

578. ToxYLON MACLURA Raf. T. pomiferum 
Raf. 1817. Madura aurantiaca Nuttal 1818, 
Eaton. Brouss.tinctoria Spr. K. Torrey! Leaves 
smooth lucid ovate acuminate petiolate entire, 
a recurved spine near their base, fruits orange 
like, axillary subsessile drooping — in Arkanzas, 
Texas and upper Missouri, a small tree 20 to 
30 feet high, branches spreading, leaves 2 to 4 
inches long, petiol about one inch, fruits size 
and shape of an orange, nearly same color, but 
structure like the bread frujt or pine apple, con- 
taining a sweet amylaceous milk. Wood yel- 
low tough and heavy, used to make excellent 
bows, bark affording a fine flax. Tree easily 
raised from cuttings and layers, forming excel- 
lent hedges. Called Ayac by the Indians, also 
Bow-wood, yellow wood, stinking wood, Osage 
apple. — I made two oversights in my first ac- 
count of this valuable tree in 1817, calling the 
leaves serrate and wood used for arrows. Seen 
alive in many gardens with flowers and fruits. 
Nuttal calls the nerves puberulent beneath, they 
are only so when young, the flowers and styles 
are yellow. 

579. FUSTICUS Raf. Fustic tree differing 
from MoRus or Mulberry by female Catkins 
globular, flowers distinct, calix scariose 4par- 



44 ?5EW SYLVA 

tite, sepals unequal obovate obtuse, ovaiy obo- 
vate corapressed, a single style terminal smooth 
filiform tlexuose, a single stigma. Fruit a glo- 
bular compound berry or syncarpe by baccate 
calix as in Morus, concrete at the base but. 
distinct at the end, seeds compressed. Trees 
distichal serrate leaves, fruHs axillary jjen- 
dulous — several blended species. If the good 
name of Fusticus does not appear classical 
enough, I propose for substitute Sukaminea a 
name of Dioskorides for the Mulberry. This 
G. is nearer Broussonetia than Morus and Tox- 
ylon. The first only differs by fem. calix tubu- 
lar 3-4dentate, style lateral, seed elavate : the 
Morus differs from all 3 by the double styles 
and stigmas, with the oblong fruits. My G. 
Calostima fl. tel. 589 which was the Urtica 
baccata of L. is akin to all these, a connecting- 
link with Basella, it differs by the many radia- 
ted stigmas and racemose fruits not forming a 
syncarpe. All are deemed to belong to the 
tribe of Urticides or Nettles, forming a peculiar 
group MoRiDEs by baccate seeds. Sir J. Smith 
regreted that the blended Fustic trees had not 
been well distinguished, I shall try to distin- 
guish 4 of them. 

580. Fusticus glamra Raf. Broussonetia 
tinctoria Jalambic in Collins herb. Branches 
terete inerme yellowish punctate of white, pe- 
tiols very short, leaves quite smooth ovatoblong 
repand or serrate in the middle only, baseobli- 
qual subcordate, end acuminate elongate, fe- 
male catkins on short peduncles — in South 
Florida and Cuba. It is on this sp. that I have 
framed the Generic character. Leaves 2 or 3 
inches long without spines, catkins small not 
one fourth of Toxylon, It is probably this sp. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 4» 

that is meant by some writers, but I cannot as- 
certain tlie synonyms ; yet I can voucli that it 
is quite unUke my Toxylon, having seen both. 
The flowers are pale yellow, styles of same co- 
lor, fruits not seen. 

581. FusTicus VERA (or tinctoria) Raf. 
Morus tinctoria Lin. syst. nat. Mant. not sp. pi. 
Miller, Brown, Sloan, Smith &c. Bark yellow 
leaves oblong acute entire rough, base obliqual 
cordate, no spines — in Central America, Yuca- 
tan, Jamaica &c the real Fustic of dyers, a 
large tree 60 feet high, fruits sweet eatable 
size of a nutmeg. 

582. Fi sTicus xANTHoxv LOxN Raf. Morus do 
Lin. Syst. nat. et Mant. 4D5. Smith, Morus 
tinctoria Lin. sp. pi. Poiret, Jaq. t. 247. Fluk. 
phyt. t. 239. Bark grey, leaves ovatoblong 
acute serrate nearly smooth, base obliqual, 
spines axillary half uncial equal to petiols. — 
From Yucatan to Bahama, it is the Bastard 
Fustic a smaller tree 40 feet high, it was the 
original M. tinctoria of L. but he since descri- 
bed the real one above : Lamark again blends 
them ; but they are quite distinct botanicaly 
and economicaly as proved by Smitii, the wood 
being less valuable as a dye. Perhaps found in 
Florida. 

583. FusTicus TATAiiiA Raf. M. tinctoria L. 
Sm. Poiret 4°c. Tatai-iba Marcgrave hist. braz. 
119 fig! Bark grey, leaves petiolate ovate lan- 
ceol. acumin. serrate or repand smooth, base 
acute not obliqual nor cordate, no spines, fruits 
subsessile — Brazil, a very distinct sp. figured 
150 years ago. A very large tree, v> ith leaves 
like the Beech tree. Fruit pretty large sweet- 
ly acid eaten with wine and sugar, the flowers 
are pale, the styles brown. I have verified the 



4G NEW SYLVA. 

figure — the Q,uecluie of Orinoco mentioned by 
Caiilin p. 15. is probably another Fustic, the 
fruit is green and sweet falling as soon as ripe. 

584. BR0uss0x^^KTiA papyuifeua Duhamel, 
W. i^^c Papyria of Lamark, Morus papyrifera 
L. Sin. &.C. A well known useful tree native 
of Japan and Polynesia, now introduced in the 
open grounds of Europe and America, quite 
common in our gardens where it bears the 
winter pretty well, altho' injured sometimes 
by frost. We have only the male trees. 

Genus MORUS. 

585. Morus alba L. &.c. A well known 
tree, now widely spreading with us, almost wild 
in some localities. White Mulberry. This is 
said to be constantly monoical, but the other sp. 
are often dioical and polygamous. 

586. Morus nigra L. &c. Black Mulberry, 
also cultivated for the fruit. — The best Mono- 
graph of this Genus are those of Lamark and 
Smith, including the Fustic trees however ; but 
Lamark has a new American sp. M. canaden- 
sis, and Wildenow another M. Scabra, I can 
add 4 others besides the M. multicaulis. Eaton 
has only 3 ! Nuttal admits the M. scabra. I 
have 9 whereof 7 seen alive and one dry. 

587. MoKus RUBRA L. cur well known Red 
Mulberry found from Canada to Louisiana. It 
has some Var. 1 pallida fruits pale, 2 hetero- 
phijlla with all the leaves unlike. Often dioi- 
cal like all our American kinds. It is even 
stated that the same trees often vary each year 
in their sexes ? 

588. Morus riparia Raf. distinct from M. 
rubra by long petiols, spjooth leaves ovate deep- 
ly cordate, seldom lobed lateral, quite smooth 
and thin crenate serrate, acute not acuminate, 



OF IVORTfl AMKRICA. 47 

and not obliqual at base. Found in tlie Alle- 
ghany mts. on the banks of the Susquehanah, 
leaves 3 to 5 inches long nearly trinerve at base 
nerves yellow quite smooth, berries dark red, 
called the wild black Mulberry, or Water Mul- 
berry. A pretty tree growing even among 
rocks. 

589. MoKiJS CANADENSIS Lamark. leaves 
ovate obliqual base rounded not cordate, ser- 
rate nearly sniooth long acuminate — in Canada 
Maine and the Alleghanies, called the Rock 
Mulberry, fruits not seen. 

590. MoRus PARviioLiA Raf. Monoical, pe- 
tiols long and slender, leaves small and smooth, 
ovate acute or obtuse not lobate, equaly sub- 
crenate, base truncate often obliqual, fruits short 
on very short peduncles. — Mts. Alleghanies and 
Apalachian, called the Indian iHulberry, said 
to have been cultivated by the Indians, often 
mistaken for the White JJulberry, the fruits 
being very small ovatoblong of a flesh color and 
sweet. Leaves only 1 or 2 inches long, not so 
thin as in M. riparia, petiols over one inch, 
Male catkins on same branches, with longer 
peduncles, segments of calix rounded. Styles 
very short. 

591. Mouus scABRA W. enum. Leaves am- 
ple thin trilobed, base cordate, rough on both 
sides, pale beneath, serrate, large teeth inter- 
jected in the sinusses, fruits terete black acid — 
in Louisiana called the black Indian Mulberry, 
communicated to me by Jyt. Mease. Leaves 5 
to 8 inches long and wide, lobes acute not acu- 
minate, lateral lobes oblong, terminal oval or 
narrosvest at base. 

592. MoRus TOMENTosA Raf. fl. lud. 379. 
Leaves broadly cordate acuminate dentate, 



48 NEW SYLVA. 

above lucid rough, beneath tomentose, spikes 
often nionoical, fruits oblong white — in Louisi- 
ana, well noticed by me in 1817 in my flora of 
Louisiana where detected by Robin. It is the 
White Mulberry of the S. W. often mentioned 
by the old travellers. A large handsome tree, 
bark white and smooth, it blossoms in March, 
male catkins terete and loose, female shorter 
and thicker, but they are generaly united, the 
male flowers being then at the base. 

593. MoRus MULTicAULis Raf. and of Gar- 
deners, not introduced yet into our books, nor 
do I find any botanical account of it, even in 
Loudun Cycl. A small shrub with many stems 
and ample leaves, cordate rounded not obliqual, 
nor lobed, crenate, acute, somewhat rough, but 
thin. I have seen leaves one foot long and 
wide. Native of China and the Philipines, late- 
ly introduced and much esteemed as the most 
productive for the breeding of silk worms and 
easy gathering of leaves. But all our Mul- 
berries are eaten by the silk worm, and the M. 
rubra produces a fine strong silk. — As the sub- 
ject of silk culture now begins to attract much 
attention, I hope this account of all our Mul- 
berries will be acceptable. 

N. O. EMPETRIDIA Raf. 1815. Empe- 
TREAE Nut. 1818, Don 1826, Torrey 1835 ! 

I first noticed this order in my Analysis of 
Nature 1815, therefore Torrey is wrong to as- 
cribe the discrimination of it to Nuttal 3 years 
after, who had besides deemed it only a section 
of Conifera ! while I had perhaps properly unit- 
ed it to Phytolacca ! and if the berry is multi- 
locular they are quite akin notwithstanding the 
remote habit. I have since in my Flora tellur. 



OF NORTH AMEIIICA. 49 

033 revised it and separated by the unilocular 
berry, reducing to Saucocidia the Genera Phy- 
tolaca, Raxamaris, Schefferia &c, and to Ri- 
viNiDiA the pretended Chenopodea with a ber- 
ry. — The Empetrides are more akin to those 
than to Euphorbides and Celastrides, and are 
quite unlike to Conifera. The genera belong- 
ing thereto are Grubbia, Coilosperma, Batis, 
Ceratiola &.c besides the types Empetrum and 
Colema . . . but the Genera Skimmia, Nandi- 
na, Melicytus &c are very near also. The 
whole requires a careful revision. 

594. COLEMA Don 1826. EuleucumRaf. 
1886 fl. tel. Dioical, calix 5-6parted, stamens 
3 to 4, style 3-4parted, berry 3-41ocular, 3-4 
sperm. Evergreen shrubs^ hahit of heaths^ 
flowers terminal and axillary glomerate — 
This had been based on the Empetrum album 
of L. but our sp. may be of quite a different 
Genus, the real Colema having the ternary part 
constant, no style but 3 stigma, a berry nearly 
monolocular when ripe. Therefore it must 
form the subgenus Euleuca, and our sp. with 
heterogonal parts and stamens, a style, and pro- 
bably a 41ocular berry must form a subgenus 
Endammia Raf. if not a Genus, meaning in 
sands, 

595. Colema arenaria Raf. or Endammia 
ericoides Raf Empetrum conradi, Torrey 1835. 
Cespitose procumbent smooth, leaves subverti- 
cillate and alternate, narrow linear acute glan- 
dular, margin revolute, flowers glomerate and 
capitate — in the sandy tracts among the Pine 
woods of New Jersey, first noticed by Kin in 
1800, who gave it to me as an American heath 
in 1802, found by me in 1804 near Pemberton, 
long before Conrad, and twice again in 1833 at 

7 



50 NEW SYLVA. 

\ 

Cedar bridge ; but always without flowers and 
eeeds. It must blossom in winte^ or very sel- 
dom. Torrey only saw the flowers dry and in 
a garden and omits to state the time, his ac- 
count is however very good. It is a small ever- 
green shrub 5 to 10 inches high, much branch- 
ed and growing in patches like the Hudsonia. 

596. Ceratiola ericoides Mx. and all bo- 
tanists, Hooker hot. mag. *2758. From Caro- 
lina to Florida, well described by Michaux, El- 
liot, Hooker &c. I have many specimens, in 
which the leaves are mostly fallen as in the dry 
Heaths. 

597. Empetrum purpureum Raf. E. nigrum 
Mx, and all our Amer. botanists, not of Lin. 
and European hot. E. rubrum Lapilaye fl. — 
Procumbent smooth, leaves scattered crowded, 
lower patent, upper imbricate, oblong linear 
sessile uninerve obtuse flat on both sides, thick- 
ish, berries purple, sessile equal to the leaves 
and costate — in Canada, Labrador, Newfound- 
land, White Mountains, Lake Superior, near 
the rocky shores. Michaux who first noticed 
this blended it with the boreal sp. of Europe, 
and has been followed by all our subservient 
botanists except Lapilaye who has blended it 
with E. rubrum of Austral America in his New- 
foundland Flora. My specimen is from La- 
brador and has red berries strikingly like those 
of Phytolaca ! Those of our Botanists who saw 
the berries are few, they mostly copy Michaux! 
is there a sp. in boreal America with black ber- 
ries ? My sp. is perfectly distinct, the branch- 
es are terete smooth but sulcate among the 
leaves, these are only 2 or 3 lines long, with a 
single nerve beneath not at all revolute and 
hardly any verticillate ; the flowers and berries 



OF NORTH AMERICA, 51 

are solitary near the end, calix scaly of about 
6 unequal ovate and obovate scales persistent 
much shorter than the large berry which has 
about 9 oblong seeds and is crowned by as many 
thick stellate clavate stigmas. 

598. Empetrum nigrum L. and all European 
bot. A boreal plant of which I have specimens 
from Sweden and the Alps. They answer to 
the Linnean description of it by leaves quater^ 
nate petiolate ovate lanceolate obtuse, berries 
black subsesslle. Therefore quite difterent 
from our American species ; but I have also 
specimens from Sibiria and the Alps nearer to 
our sp. and therefore there may be two species 
in Europe as probably also with us. Wilde- 
now thus say E. nigrum has oblong revolute 
leaves. 

599. Empetrum crassifolium Raf. smooth 
procumbent, leaves 3-4nate petiolate linear ob- 
tuse thick, fiat above, convex enerve beneath, 
patent crovvded. — Sibiria and perhaps other 
parts, my specimens have no berries, and but 
few flowers, leaves 3 lines long, quite thick, 
sometimes sulcate beneath, but not nerved,some 
appear to be fistular : flowers as in E. nigrum, 
sent me as such. Is it found in Origon ? berries 
probably black. 

Shrubby LABIATE. 

600. RAFINESaUIA or Diodeilis R. fl. 
tel. 750. Cunila, Melissa and Gardoquia of Au- 
thors ! . . Calix tubular strait striated subbilabi- 
ate upper lip bidentate, lower tridentate, mouth 
closed by hairs, corolla tubular erect bilabiate, 
upper lip concave notched, lower 31obe subequal 
stamen.s 4 remote, anthers cordate bilobe, seeds 
smooth. Shrubby, floivers axillanj red, — A 
very fine peculiar Genus forced into 3 alien 



52 NEW SYLVA 

Genera, I have proved in flora tellur. how dif- 
ferent is Gardoquia. It is one of the Genera 
to which I give my own name, and if any one 
cavils at it I offer a second abridged from 
Diodontocheilis ! that 1 may not lose the mer- 
it of my sagacity in ascertaining this Genus. 
I have already two sp. of it. 

601. Rafinesquia coccinea fl. tell. 751. 
Cunila ! do Hooker, Melissa! do Spr. Gardo- 
quia ! hookeri Benth. Don. Lindl. b. reg. 1747. 
Shrubby smooth, leaves obovi^te sessile suba- 
cute, peduncles axillary l-3flore — A small 
shrub of Florida with handsome large scarlet 
flowers, branches terete sub 4 angular, leaves 
commonly remote small. 

602. Raf. coccinea var. obtusifolia Raf. 
differ, branches more 4angular, leaves equal to 
internodes obtuse one third inch long, flowers 
scarlet ever one inch long. 

603. Rafinesquia angustifolia Raf. sufi'- 
ruticose, branches filiform hardly angular,Ieaves 
sessile smooth oblong or cuneate obtuse crow- 
ded above, peduncles very short uniflore — in 
Alabama, smaller shrub still with narrow 
leaves and smaller flowers rather red than scar- 
let. Given me as a var. of R. coccinea by Du- 
rand ; it is very near Gardoquia chilensis in 
habit, but quite unlike in the calix and flowers. 

604. PILOBLEPHIS Raf. Satureia and 
Cephalothymus Benth. Quite a peculiar G. 
discovered by Bartram 60 years ago, unnoticed 
by all our botanists, altho' in their herbals ! un- 
til Bentham found it in Banks Herbarium, but 
he left it with Satureia as a subg. with an im- 
proper name, mine means ciliated head. It 
differs as much from Satureia as Pycnanthes 
does, both by characters and habit. Shrub 



or NORTH AMERICA. 53 

iDitJi habit of Ericas and Empetrum, flowers 
capitate without involucre, but many ciliate 
imbricate bracts, calix large membranaceous 
5fid subequal campanulate, corolla nearly as in 
Satureia, 4 filaments and anthers, seeds 1 or 2 
at the bottom of the large calix — this will pro- 
bably be like Pycnanthes an American Genus 
of many sp. but now I know of only one type. 
All the Satureias are foreign to America. 

605. PiLOELEPHis RiGiDA (or ericoidcsj Raf. 
Satureia rigida Bartr. 1775, Bentham. Anon- 
ymos N. G. Baldwin in Collins herb. Shrubby 
decumbent, branches terete rigid leaves imbri- 
cate linear obtuse smooth margin revolute, flow- 
ers in terminal globular heads, bracts linear 
lanceol. obt. hairy ciliate as long as flowers — 
Shores of Florida, in sands, small procumbent 
Shrub quite evergreen, flowers incarnate con- 
cealed among the bracts. If this shrub has 
been unnoticed for 60 years (after Bartram) in 
our books, I may hope that in 60 years licnce 
my new plants will also be properly noticed 
again ! . . . . Bartram did not describe it, I de- 
scribe my new plants ! Baldwin found it again 
in 1816 and deemed it a new genus as I do, 
altho' he neglected naming it like so many other 
rare plants of his. 

606. AuDiBERTiA iNCANA Bcuth. Lindl. b. 
reg. 1469. Sufli'uticose glaucous, leaves cune- 
ate and obovate, flowers verticillate, bracts or- 
bicular ciliate — Origon, a N. G. of Bentham 
with habit of Origanum, but very distinct by 2 
stamens like Cunila, flowers blue, calix ovate 
bilabiate, upper lip entire, lower bifid, corolla 
tubular, subbilab. upper lip bifid, lower trifid, 
medial lobe notched, anthers dimidiate. Not 



54 NEW SYLVA 

in Eaton, nor any of the above shrubby Labiate. 

MONOGKAPH OF CEANOTHUS. 

This pretty and useful natural Genus de- 
serves a complete examination, being now great- 
ly increased in species : they are all small 
shrubs, or bushes, but some are perennials. 
Linneus had only one, Michaux, Bigelow, Nut- 
tal Hooker and myself have added many others, 
altho' Eaton enumerates only 6. All have es- 
tival white flowers in thyrsoid corymbs, but C 
azureus has blue flowers. Leaves alternate 
with short petiols. Roots red and medical see 
my Med. flora. This G. commonly united to 
the Rhamnides, rather belongs to the Phylici- 
des with Phylica, Bumalda, Brunia, Hovenia, 
Colletia, &c, having all fruits coccular as in 
Euphorbides ; but the stamens are opposed to 
petals and often inserted thereon. The Asiatic 
and African sp. of this G. appear to form pecu- 
liar genera, the asiatic form the G. Carpode- 
tus, the Polynesian the G. Pomaderis, and the 
African must form my G. Hypoma, see fl. tel. 

607. Ceai^othus officinalis Raf. Med. fl. 
2 p. 205. Americana L. and Authors, now be- 
come an absurd name, the whole G. being 
American — Shrubby, branches terete smooth 
fuscate leaves ovatoblong acum. serrate trinerve 
pubescent and pale beneath, petiols pubescent, 
base rounded, panicles lax terminal or on long 
peduncles angular, pubescent, pedicels gemi- 
nate or fasciculate — from Canada to Alabama 
and Louisiana, 2 or 3 feet high, leaves 2 or 3 
inches long, end often obtuse altho' acumiftate, 
flowers very small, panicles often with one or 
two small leaves. Var. 1. Ocatus, leaves 
rather oval, 2 Acutus all the leaves acute, 3 



or NORTH AMERICA. Di> 

Paniculatus large compound ovate panicles. 4 
Foliosus, with foliose panicles. 

608. Ceanothus glomeratus Raf. americ. 
Elliot. Shrubby branches pubescent angular 
fuscate, leaves ovatoblong acute at base and 
apex, serrulate trinerve, petiols and nerves pu- 
bescent fulvous, panicles glomerate axillary on 
long hairy peduncles, pedicels short crowded 
with lanceolate bracts — in Virginia, Carolina, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky &.c commonly 
blended with the last, leaves smaller with fus- 
cate or rufous nerves pale beneath with few 
hairs except on the nerves, flowers on smaller 
panicles glomerate crowded larger, the small 
bracts often fall off in the anthesis. Var. fus- 
catus, with dark fuscate branches and nerves, 
even leaves fuscate above, flowers quite glome- 
rate. Both 2 or 3 feet high. Root more as- 
tringent and darker red. 

609. Ceanothus latifolius Raf. americ. 
var. tardiflora Eaton. Shrubby, terete pubes- 
cent fuscate, leaves broadly oval, base subcor- 
date, unequaly serrate acute trinerve, petiols 
hirsute, quite villose and glaucous beneath, pan- 
icles lax ovate compound axillary, peduncles 
villose cinereous bifoliate — Glades of West 
Kentucky and Tennessee, stem 2 or 3 feet, 
leaves large 3 or 4 inches long, 2 or 3 wide, 
panicles with shorter peduncles, but long pedi- 
cels. 

610. Cean. herbaceus Raf. 1808 Tor. Beck 
Eaton (or C. levigatus) C. perennis Pursh, 
Nut. El. Perennial, quite smooth, stem simple 
annual terete fuscate, leaves ovate acum. base 
acute, trinerve serrulate, glaucous beneath 
nerves fuscate, panicles laxthyrsoidal — Virgin- 
ia and Carolina near streams, disc, by Hings- 



56 NEW SYLVA, 

ton in 1800 at the falls of the Potowmak, where 
found by me again, stems 1 or 2 feet high sel- 
dom branched, leaves as large as in C. glome- 
ratus, peduncles,and flowers similar to it,butnot 
glomerate quite lax. 

611. Cean. ELLiPTicus Raf Shrubby, leaves 
remote elUptical hardly serrulate trinerve ob- 
tuse, beneath puberulent, raceme thyrsoidal 
small on short petiols and bracteated — Apala- 
chian Mts. of Georgia and Alabama, Cheroki 
and Wasioto Mts. one or two feet high, leaves 
small on very short petiols, flowers small with 
bracts as in C. glomeratus. 

612. Cean. virgatus Raf. intermedius Mg. 
El. P. N. Shrubby, branches elongate slender 
virgate subangular smooth rusty, leaves broadly 
lanceolate acute subserrate trinerve, nerves and 
petiols pubescent, racemes short corymbose lax 
— from Virginia to Florida, pedal or sesquipe- 
dal, with some long branches at the base, leaves 
small uncial narrow, panicles quite small on 
long peduncles, formed by two or 3 small um- 
bels. 

613. CeANOTHUS ? ATROPURPUREUS Raf. 

Shrubby, quite smooth, branches terete spread- 
ing rigid dark purple, leaves subsessile oblong 
entire, lower acute, upper obtuse, not trinervate, 
tip of petiol and base of main nerve often bear- 
ded — I refer protem to this Genus, a doubtful 
shrub of Florida, found without flowers in Col- 
lins Herb, owing to the similarities of habit 
with the last and next sp. but it may turn out to 
be something very different, perhaps an Ilex ? 
or Bumelia ? Leaves just like the last in size, 
but entire or slightly erose, and petiols exceed- 
ingly short. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 57 

614. Cean. sanguineus P. N. Hook. Eat. 
Shrubby, branches purple, leaves subsessile cun- 
eate oblong serrate pubescent beneath, panicle 
axillary glomerate, flowers crowded — regions 
of Missouri and Origon, seen dry, shrub 3 feet 
high. 

615. Cean. glandulosus Raf. ovalis Big. 
Beck, Eat. ovatus Dec. intermedins Hook. fl. 
interm. var. corymbos. Mg. Perennial ? stem 
sulcate pubescent, leaves ovatoblong obtuse 
some obovace, glandular crenate trinerve, pe- 
tiols and nerves pubescent, panicle terminal 
corymbose formed by lax umbels — Canada and 
Lake Champlain, a very distinct sp. my speci- 
men is quite heterophylous, the name of Ova- 
lis does not apply, blended with my Southern 
C. virgatus by Hooker, leaves 1 or 2 inches 
long, large flowers, peduncles calix and corols 
white. Apparently not shrubby. This was 
my Forrestia thyrsoides of 1808 but it is not 
even a subgenus, unless the glandular leaves of 
this and the 3 next appear to indicate one. 

6 16. Cean. velutinus Hook. fl. tab. 45. 
Shrubby, leaves rounded elliptic coriaceous 
glandular dentate trinerve, white tomentose be- 
neath, panicles tenninal thyrsoidal foliose at 
base— in the Origon Mts. not seen by me, adop- 
ted from the good figure of Hooker, and I add 
two others of his to complete this monograph. 

617. Cean, levigatus Hook. fl. differs from 
last by, quite smooth, panicle quite foliose, flow- 
ers glomerate— found at Nutka by Menzies. 

618. Cean. bicolor Raf thyrsiflora Esholtz 
and Hook. fl. shrubby, branches angular, leaves 
subsessile oblong trinerve, nerves pilose, glan- 
dular serrate, panicle thyrsoidal base foliose— 
New Sibiria in N. W. America, calix blue, pe- 

8 



58 NEW SYLVA 

tals white, whence my name, since all the sp. 
are thyrsifiore. 

619. Cean. azureus Desf. ic. 232. Lod. cab. 
110, Edw. b. reg. 291. Dec. Shrubby pubescent 
leaves ovatoblong acute rough serrate, beneath 
tomentose, panicle thyrsoidal, base foliose, flow- 
ers blue — in Mexico, New Mexico and Texas, 
an elegant species. 

620. Cean. microphylus Mx. E. &c. Shrub- 
by much branched, quite smooth, branches di- 
vergent, leaves fasciculate minute oboval or 
rounded obtuse trinerve, racemes terminal co- 
rymbose — Florida, Georgia, Alabama, a very 
peculiar sp. habit unlike the others, but like the 
next, flowers vernal as in the Southern species. 

621. Cean. serpyllifolius Nut. Eat. De- 
cumbent bushy, branches filiform, leaves mi- 
nute nearly smooth elUptic ovate obtuse serru- 
late, petiols and nerves strigose, panicles axill- 
ary peduncled pauciflore glomerate — Florida, 
very small, habit of thyme like the last, and 
probably both ought to form a subgenus. Is it 
only a var. of it ? Elliot has blended both ; disc 
by Dr. Baldwin near St. Mary. 

Genus EVONYMUS. 
Without giving a complete monograph of 
our sp. I can greatly increase them having 4 
or 5 new ones to describe. They form 3 sub- 
genera with opposite leaves and axillary pedun- 
cles. This G. had been wrongly united to 
Rhamnides, since the stamens are alternate to 
petals, and the fruit is peculiar, ^ belongs to a 
peculiar family (with Tobira) near to the Ce- 
lastrides. Tobira differs by 6 stamens and 
caps 31oc. polysperm. 

622. Platomesus Raf. calix 41obed, 4petals, 



OF NORTH AMERICA, 59 

4 stamens, capsule commonly 4lobe 41oc. 4 
sperme. 

6^3. Pentinius Raf. cal. Sdentate, 5 petals, 

5 stamens, capsule commonly 51obe 51oc. 5 
sperme. 

624. Physcondra Raf. calix inflate mem- 
branaceous entire or subcrenate, petals 4 or 5, 
anthers 4 or 5 sessile, capsule 4 or 5 sperme. 

625. EvOxVYMus (Platom) cuneatus Raf. 
Branches terete smooth, leaves cuneate acute 
serrulate smooth, peduncles triflore longer than 
petiols, petals 4 oblong obtuse — Origon region, 
shrub 4 or 5 feet high, branches naked below 
nearly articulate, petals white, fruit not seen, 
leaves uncial terminal. 

626. EvoN. (Platom) heterophylus Raf. 
Branches subangular smooth subrugose, leaves 
dissimilar cuneate or obovate acute, or ellipti- 
cal acuminate, entire or serrulate, rugose be- 
neath, peduncles biflore elongate longer than 
petiols, pedicels divaricate, petals 4 obovate ob- 
tuse, fruits smooth — Apalachian Mts. shrub 4 
feet high, petals white, fruits incarnate 2 to 4 
lobed. 

627. EvoN. (Platom.) acuminatus Raf. 
Branches terete smooth, elliptic acuminate, 
base acute, subcrenate, some lower ones obtuse 
or retuse, peduncles elongate l-2flore, petals 4 
cuneate obtuse, fruits smooth deeply lobed. — 
— Origon and Sibiria, has been blended pro- 
bably with E. europeus, which I have also and 
diflfers by smaller narrower entire leaves and 
peduncles multiflore as long as leaves. This 
has large leaves on long petiols, the petals white 
fruits red with 2 or 4 lobes. 

628. EvoN. (Pentinius) muricatus Raf- a- 
mericanus L. ^. Branches 4gone smooth, 



60 NEW SYLVA 

leaves subsessile ovate or lanceolate acute or 
acum, serrate, peduncles l-3flore, petals 5 obo- 
vate, capsules muricate verrucose — from Cana- 
da to Carolina in Mts. Shrub 4 to 6 feet high, 
branches rigid, leaves middle size, petals green- 
ish white with rose tinge. Several varieties 1. 
Biflorus, leaves all ianceoL acum. subserrate, 
peduncles all biflore, petals rounded unguicu- 
late. 2. Obliquatus, leaves ovate lanceol. 
commonly obliqual, peduncles uniflore. Mts. 
Alleghanies. 

629. EvoN. (Pentinius) sarmentosus Raf. 
amer. var. sarm. Nut. Eat, ^^c. Stem sar- 
mentose 4gone radicant, leaves subsessile ovate 
lanceol. acute undulate crenate opaque lucid, 
peduncles 2-3flore, fruits scabrous — Rocky 
woods of the Alleghany Mts. and River Sus- 
quehanah, certainly a distinct sp. forming a 
Vine 10 to 20 feet high with many slender 
branches. 

630. EvoN. (Pentinius) angustifolius Lyon, 
Pursh, El. Eat. <!^c. A rare species of the A- 
palachian Mts. of Georgia and Alabama, not at 
all doubtful, my specimen from Lyons in Collins 
Herb, has slender 4gone branches, leaves re- 
mote subsessile narrow lanceol. acute falcate 
entire, peduncles erect uniflore with 2 setace- 
ous bracts. 

631. EvoN. (Platom) atropurpureus Jaq. 
and all Authors. A fine shrub 6 to 15 feet 
high, assuming the appearance of a small tree, 
near streams chiefly from Carolina to Kentuc- 
ky, Missouri and Origon, flowers dark purple, 
3 Var. 1. oblongifolius, 2 latifolms leaves 
ovate and obovate acum. 3, grandifolius large 
elliptic leaves 5 to 8 inches long. 

632. EvoNYMUs (Physcondra) obovatus Nut. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. '61- 

&c. A very small sp. well described by Nut- 
tal, creeping pedal, found from New England 
to Ohio. Almost a peculiar Genus by the shape 
of calix, but petals as in E. muricatus — Thus I 
have nearly rectified this G. and 8 sp. of it. 
My N. sp. are distinct from E. verrucosus and 
latifolius of Europe which I have. 

Natural family of SPIRADIA. 
The Linnean Genus Spirea has been kept 
nearly entire by Decandole but divided into 
subgenera, that differ so much in habit and 
characters that they ought to become Genera. 
Filipendula of Tournefort, Aruncus of Adanson, 
Gillenia of Mench, now generaly adopted, and 
Purshia of Decand. are certainly peculiar Gen- 
era, as well as my G. Thecanisia, Epicostorus 
&c. As early as 1815 I formed a new family 
the Spirades in my Analysis of Nature page 
173 with these Genera, adding Rhodalix, Ba 
silima, Drymopogon; the Genera Tigarea, Neil 
lia ? Tetracera, Suriana, tf-c probably belong 
to it. This natural family is quite distinct from 
the Poterides and Senticoses by the fruit cap- 
sular with lateral styles and opening valvular. 
Gillenia, Aruncus, Thecanisia, Filipendula 
that are not frutescent will be illustrated else- 
where and in my fl. tellur. I now propose to re- 
vise the shrubby Genera chiefly, which are Spi- 
rea, Physocarpa, Basilima, Schizonotus and 
Epicostorus. The Monographs of Spirea by 
Smith in Rees, Poiret in Cycl. and Seringe in 
Decandole are by no means perfect even as to 
species and synonyms and I shall rectify them. 
I have verified many kinds by the figures of 
Pallas in flora Rossica, which had not always 
been properly applied and quoted. 



62 NEW SYLVA, 

633. SPIREA Raf. calix 5fid persistent 
campanul. bearing on a glandular ring the 5 pe- 
tals and stamens 20 to 30, Pistils 5 free sessile, 
styles lateral, 5 free capsules sessile equal open- 
ing inside oligosperni. Shrubs with simple al- 
ternate leaves^ Jloicers paniculate, thyrsoidal, 
branches racemose spicate or corymbose. The 
name ought to have been written Spiraia, it 
answers to the Subgenus Spirenia of Seringe. 
Chamedryon has umbellate or corymbose 
flowers. 

634. Spirea tomentosa L. &c. Dec. Beck. 
Stem angular nearly simple, rusty tomentose, 
leaves petiolate ovate lanceolate, acute at both 
ends, unequaly serrate, beneath white tomen- 
tose, panicle ample compound racemose, calix 
and capsules fuscate villose — This is the origi- 
nal sp. of Kalm, Lin. <^'C found near Philadel- 
phia and from New York to Carolina ; but so 
many sp. have been blended with it, that near- 
ly all the synonyms apply to others. A small 
shrub 2 to 4 feet high, flowers purple handsome 
estival. Eaton had many var. of this in his first 
editions as myself in Med. flora, that are my 
next distinct deviations or Sp. the real var. are 
1. alblflora, 2 elatior. 3, ramosa with a few 
branches, and the next. 

635. Spirea tontentosa, var. virgata Raf. 
(Elliot) Branches virgate rusty tomentose leaves 
rugose above, petals small hairy outside often 
trilobe — Hills of Carolina and Apalachian Mts. 
large 4-6fcet, often ramose. 

636. Spirea rosea Raf. diff*. 634, leaves lan- 
ceolate remotely serrate acute, fulvous tomen- 
tose beneath, panicle lax, peduncles as long as 
calix — West Kentucky to Alabama, disc, by 
Mrs. Holley, a beautiful shrub with fine rosate 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 63 

flowers, it deserves to be deemed a peculiar sp. 
by narrow leaves not white beneath, and lax 
rose flowers. 

637. Spirea ferxjginea Raf. stems angular 
simple fuscate tomentose, leaves oblong cune- 
ate sessile, broadly serrate, beneath rusty to- 
mentose, panicle ample Ibliose at the base, 
branches spicate, flowers subsessile, calix and 
capsules rusty rugose scabrous — East Kentuc- 
ky, Mts. Wasioto and Apalachian, shrub 2 or 3 
feet high, woody at base, fl^owers purple : easily 
known by the color, cuneate leaves, spikes and 
capsules. Var. angu^tifolia, leaves narrow 
cuneate, spikes slender. Pine barrens of New 
Jersey. 

638. Spirea glomerata Raf. tomentosa 
Med. fl. tab. 88 stem simple terete sulcate fus- 
cate tomentose, leaves petiolate elliptic or ova- 
toblong jagged serrate, beneath fulvous tomen- 
tose, panicle slender spicate, flowers subsessile 
glomerate, calix fulvous tomentose — Alleghany 
Mts. very small suffruticose pedal without bran- 
ches, flowers small incarnate. Near to Sp. ro- 
sea, but different leaves, sessile flowers quite 
jagged or duplicate serrate, nankin color be- 
neath. Var. 1 major, bipedal, 2 pallida. 

639. Spirea glomerata var. cinerea Raf. 
differ, virgate, stem subterete not striate, ashy 
tomentose, leaves also beneath, and calix like- 
wise — Pine barrens of New Jersey, pedal, flow- 
ers quite glomerate sessile redish. 

640. Spirea parvifolia Raf. Stem branch- 
ed angular purplish smooth, branches tomen- 
tose, leaves sessile small elliptic base entire, 
serrate above, beneath grey tomentose, panicle 
spicate glomerate, flowers sessile, crowded, ca- 



64 NEW SYLVA. 

lix and capsules grey tomentose — Canada, Lake 
Champlain, Saranac and Oquago Mts. a small 
ramose shrub pedal, flowers incarnate, leaves 
only half inch long. — All the above sp. agree in 
nothing but the tomentose leaves beneath, to 
deem them all varieties would be preposterous, 
as no character including them all could be fram- 
ed ; but they afford like the 8 blended sp. of S. 
salicifolia, fine illustrations of real natural spe- 
cific deviations, similar to those of the Genus 
Azalea ! now admitted as species. 

641. Spirea salicifolia L. Dec. &c. Q,uite 
smooth, branches elongate terete yellowish, 
leaves subsessile broadly lanceolate equaly ser- 
rate, acute at both ends concolor, panicle ra- 
cemose compound base foliose, bracts oblong. 
— In North Europe, Sibiria and Origon, my 
specimen is simple 2 feet long, leaves 3 inches 
long one wide, flowers white peduncled crowd- 
ed. Five other American sp. have been blend- 
ed with this by all the botanists, which altho' 
deviations perhaps are totally distinct from this: 
I have compared them all carefully and ascer- 
tained excellent peculiar characters in each, 
they only agree in having thin smooth leaves 
and the branches of the panicle nearly corym- 
bose. Var. Slhirica Pallas fl. Ross. t. 21. dif- 
fer branches yellowish, leaves unequaly serrate 
panicle lax not foliose, flowers large incarnate. 
Perhaps a peculiar species Sp. Sibirica Raf. 

642. Spirea flexuosa Raf. salicif. of many 
Amer. bot. alba? Erhart. Mg. Q,uite smooth, 
branches flexuose angular redish, leaves petio- 
late oblong lanceol. deeply serrate, base entire 
cuneate pale beneath, panicle racemose base fo- 
liose, no bracts — Mts. Alleghanies and hills 
from Canada to Virginia, pretty shrub ^ to 4 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 65 

feet high, leaves only two inches long, flowers 
small white estival. If it is the sp. alba of Er- 
hart it is also found in Sibiria. 

C43. Spirea amena Raf. 1808. Quite smooth 
branches fuscate terete below angular above, 
leaves imbricate sessile oblong or elliptical 
sharply serrate,some obovate below, panicle ra- 
cemose ovate naked. — 'From New Jersey to 
Kentucky, perhaps Origon and Sibiria,as I have 
received it also as Sibirian, similar to the last 
but distinct by stem flowers larger incarnate,no 
petiols and leaves smaller commonly uncial. 
Var. paucijlora, leaves oblong lanceolate or 
narrow elliptic serrulate, panicle capitate al- 
most simple with few large pink flowers. Sibi- 
ria, this is Sp. salicifolia var. b. Pallas fl. ross. 
tab. 22. branches flexuose. 

644. Spirea ov ATA Raf Quite smooth, shoots 
simple virgate terete rugose purplish, leaves 
subsessile ovate acute imbricate deeply serrate 
or jagged, lower obovate, panicle racemose 
glomerate, base not foliose, some oblong bracts 
— Mts. Alleghanies, Wasioto and Apalachian, 
stems simple 1 or 2 feet high, only woody at 
base, leaves uncial or smaller, flowers white. 

645. Spirea carpinifolia W. enum. Wat- 
son dendr. 66, Loudun Cycl. Quite smooth, 
leaves ovate eUiptic acute at both ends coarse- 
ly serrate, panicle racemose spreading — Said to 
be from North America, flowers white, not 
seen, nearest to my Sp. ovata, stated by Muh- 
lenberg to be the same as my Sp. corymbosa, 
but that is not paniculate ; therefore a doubtful 
species. 

646. Spirea heterophyla Raf Quite smooth 
branches angular purplish, lower leaves round- 
ed or lobed, medial obovate, upper elliptical. 



66 SEW SYLVA 

all subpetiolate acute and sharply serrate, pan- 
icle racemose not foliose but with linear bracts 
— Alleghany Mts. and Alabama, 2 or 3 feet 
high ramose, leaves biuncial very broad, flowers 
white. A very distinct sp. 

647. Si'iREA ciLiATA Raf. salicif. Elliot. Stem 
angular pubescent, leaves sessile imbricate con- 
similar cuneate acute, base entire, ciliate, sharp- 
ly serrate upwards, panicle racemose glomerate 
elongate, bracts hnear — From the River Wa- 
bash to Carolina near streams chiefly, a very 
peculiar sp. quite ciliolate, middle nerve often 
also, bipedal, leaves small uncial, flowers white 
Var. 1. petiolata, leaxes subpetiol. broader, 2 
multijlore panicle ramose. 

648. Spirea obovata Raf. dec. 25. crena- 
ta Tor. Eat. Mg. hypericif. var Beck, chame- 
drif Pursh. C^uite smooth cespitose suffruti- 
cose creeping, branches flexuose angular red- 
ish, leaves similar obovate subsessile obtuse, 
base acute entire, upwards unequaly serrate, 
corymbs racemose terminal, bracteoles linear, 
petals obovate crenate undulate — Rocky sum- 
mits of Mattawan and Kiskanom Mts. of iVew 
York disc. 1817, descr. 1818 in my decads, 
mistaken or omitted by all our botanists, proba- 
bly a boreal plant. Shoots or branches assur- 
gent woody only 4 to 16 inches high, leaves un- 
cial concolor, panicle thyrsoidal ovate formed 
of small lateral corymbs, thus forming a pass- 
age to the subg. Chamedryon, flowery white 
blossoming in June. Having obtained speci- 
mens of the real Spir. crenata, ulmifolia and 
chamedrifolia I can vouch that this is quite dif- 
ferent and no Chamedryon. Var. Sibirica of 
Pallas nameless fig. t. 26 f. 2, merely differ by 
narrow leaves nearly entire glaucous beneath. 



or NORTH AMERICA. 67 

649. Spirea bkacteata Raf. levigata ? L. 
or of some botanists. Quite smooth, branches 
terete yellowish, leaves quite sessile oblong en- 
tire, base cuneate, apex obtuse cuspidate, some 
mixt ovate elliptic, panicle racemose, bracts 
ovate acute — Sibiria and New Sibiria, proba- 
bly a large shrub, branches thick, leaves 2 or 4 
inches long, one broad, base almost semiam- 
plex. panicle compound, flowers white race- 
mose. In my specimen some elliptical smaller 
leaves intermixt. Not quite answering to Sp. 
levigata see below, yet sent me as such. 

650. Spirea cuneifolia Raf. Herb. Quite 
smooth branches terete dark purple, leaves ses- 
sile cuneate entire, apex very obtuse cuspidate, 
panicles axillary and terminal racemose, bracts 
subulate — Origon and New Albion, a fine hand- 
some shrub disc, by Walton, quite different 
from last by red flowers, small bracts and large 
leaves 3 to 6 inches long, quite cuneiform or ta- 
pering from end to base. The real Sp. levi- 
gata of Lin. is akin to both these sp. but it ap- 
pears to differ by lanceolate glaucous less ob- 
tuse leaves and white flowers, (some botanists 
call the cuneate leaves lanceolate ! which is the 
reverse tapering from base to end) while Smith 
blends the Sp. altaica with it, which I add for 
contrast. 

651. Spirea altaica Pallas fl. ross. t. 23. 
Stem terete redish, leaves fasciculate sessile 
cuneate acute repand glaucous, racemes pani- 
culate axillary and terminal, bracts lanceolate. 
— Altaic Mts. flowers white large, capsules 
large smooth 2sperme, leaves 2 or 3 inches 
long, not cuspidate nor obtuse ; thus quite dif- 
ferent from the two last. Is it the real levigata 
of Linneus as deemed by most of botanists ? 



08 NEW SYLVA. 

652. Spirea douglassi Hook. fl. Pubescent-, 
leaves elliptic apex serrate, white hairy be- 
neath, panicle oblong, calix reflexed, capsules 
smooth— N. W. America, flowers small, near 
to Sp. tomentosa, no more different from it than 
my removed deviations. 

653. Spirea menziesi Hook. fl. differs from 
last only by leaves smooth beneath, yet made a 
species by Hooker. 

Subgenus Chamedryon Ser. Dec. only differ- 
ence flowers umbellate or corymbose, calix of- 
ten nervose or venose. . 

654. Spirea (Ch.) chamedrifolia L. Jaq. 
and Europe. Smooth, branches cinereous su- 
bangular, leaves petiolate obovate entire obtuse 
base acute or unequaly repand lobed or jagged 
near the end, racemes terminal simple corym- 
bose, pedicels filiform lax — Carpathian and 
other European Mts. many short branchlets, 
leaves small thin uncial, flowers really in a co- 
rymbose racemes, the lower having long slen- 
der pedicels, petals white rounded. My des- 
cription is original from a specimen of Jacquin, 
introduced here to compare it with the blended 
kinds. 

655. Spirea (Ch.) versifolia Raf. chame- 
drif. Pallas ft. t. 15. Sm. Hooker fl. bor. &c. 
Smooth, branches terete redish, leaves petio- 
late acute at both ends ovate serrate, base en- 
tire, the lower dupHcate serrate ovate lanceol. 
flowers subumbellate — Sibiria and New Sibiria, 
flowers white, almost in umbels since pedicels 
fasciculate, thus distinct from the last, and 
leaves quite unlike ; but Pallas says the leaves 
are variable, probably many species are even 
blended here, one of which 1 can ascertain. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 69 

656. Spirea (Ch.) daurica Raf. chamedrif. 
Tar. Pallas t. 15. differs by leaves elliptic pu- 
bescent nearly entire, crenate above, tomentose 
beneath — Daurian Mts. of Sibiria, nearer to Sp. 
douglassi than the Sp. versifolia, but flowers 
not paniculate. 

657. Spirea (Ch.) ulmifolia Scop. t. 22. 
W. P. Sm. chamedrif. Amman Lind. b. reg.. 
1222 ! Smooth, branches slender flexuose an- 
gular, leaves petiolate ovate laciniate serrate 
acute, base entire subacute, floAvers terminal 
corymbose crowded, pedicels filiform often with 
a subulate bract — Mts. of Europe and Sibiria, 
my specimen is an original one of Scopoli from 
Carniolia. and agrees perfectly with the figure 
of Lindley with mistaken name : totaly differ- 
ent from Sp. chamedrif. leaves and flowers lar- 
ger. 

658. Spirea (Ch.) eetulifolia Pallas fl. t. 
16. not Pursh. Smooth, shrubby branches te- 
rete redish, leaves subsessile ovate rounded la- 
ciniate serrate, yellow beneath, flowers termi- 
nal corymbose lax — Sibiria and New Sibiria ? 
flowers white. 

659. Spirea (Ch.] ostryfolia Raf. betuli- 
folia Pursh not Pallas. Suffruticose, quite 
smooth, shoots terete redish, leaves petiolate 
acute at both ends ovatoblong laciniate ser- 
rate except at the base, apex often obliqual, 
glaucous beneath, corymb, pauciflore simple fo- 
liose crowded — Alleghany Mts. of Virginia 
found there 1825, intermediate between the 
last and the next, semipedal, leaves 2 inches 
long quite thin, flowers white. Var. ptimila, 4 
inches high flexuose few leaves the lowest large 
duplicate serrate, corymb glomerate, Wasioto 
Mts. 



70 NEW SYLYA 

660. Spirea (Ch.) corymbosa Raf. 1804, 
precis 1814, Mg. 1812, 1818. Lod. cab. (or 
sp. glauca Raf.) carpinifolia ? W. SufFruticose 
quite smooth, stem angular redish, leaves peti- 
olate ovatoblong acute at both ends, unequaly 
serrate entire at the base, quite glaucous al- 
most white beneath, corymb terminal multiflore 
compound subfoliose each peduncled crowded 
— Alleghanies of Pennsjlv. Maryland and Vir- 
ginia on dry ridges, stems pedal often annual 
leaves 1 or 2 inches long, nerves prominent be- 
neath, flowers white in large multiflore corymbs 
with 1 to 3 small ovate entire leaves, flowers 
nearly level large, stamens long. By a mis- 
print I stated this sp. to be trigynous in my pre- 
cis 1815, it is Sgynous. I discovered this plant 
in 1804 and communicated it to Muhlenberg. 
Sp. glauca would be a better name as there are 
so many corymbose kinds. 

661. Spirea (Ch.) repens Raf. corymbosa 
Torrey, Beck, Eaton &.c. Stems suflruticose 
creeping, shoots terete redish erect, leaves ses- 
sile smooth variable obovate oblong and ovate, 
obtuse or acute, unequaly serrate, base entire, 
pale beneath, corymb terminal compound com- 
pact fastigiate subfoliose, stamens elon ate. — 
Lake Champlain, Mts. Saranac and Oquago, 
shoots 4 to 6 inches long, leaves uncial, flowers 
small pale incarnate. Var. pubescens^ leaves 
oblong obovate pubescent beneath, stem pedal 
and flowers pale rose color. This is the Sp. 
corymbosa of the above Authors, said to be pu- 
bescent. My specimens are all glabrous. Do 
they mean the next species ? 

66'2. Spirea (Ch.) crenata L. Bar. t. 564. 
Smith hypericif. var. crenata Dec. not Beck. 



OF NORTH AMERICA, 71 

Puberulent or pulverulent, branches angular 
purplish, leaves petiolate glaucous cuneate en- 
tire or apex crenate dentate obtuse, base acute, 
smooth above, trinerve and puberulent beneath, 
corymbs terminal on branchlets pauciflore sub- 
umbellate, stamens very short — Europe from 
Spain to Hungary ; my specimen is from Hun- 
gary, with branches ramose not virgate, leaves 
small semiuncial, flowers white, corymbs 5-7 
flore, pedicels puberulent sometimes with a su- 
bulate bract. This Linnean sp. is not Ameri- 
can, Hooker has it not, Smith has proved that 
several sp. were blended, the Sibirian is my 
next. Even Linneus in taking barrelier's plant 
as type, mistook others for it and called the 
leaves ovatoblong, he meant obovate oblong. 
The name being equivocal and liable to objeC' 
tions, might be changed to Sp, pulverulenta 
Raf. 

663. Spirea (Ch.) denticulata Raf. cre- 
nata Pallas, fl. 1. 19. Wild. Pers. &lc. Smooth, 
branches yellowish, leaves sessile obovate or 
cuneate denticulate acute upwards, beneath 
glaucous, lower leaves petiolate ovate denticu- 
late, corymbs lateral pauciflore — Sibiria and 
probably New Sibiria, flowers white ; even Pal- 
las speaks of some varieties, one with laciniate 
trinerve leaves may be a distinct Sp, laciniatal 
Raf. 

664. Spirea (Ch.) japonica Raf. crenata 
Thunb. fl. Smooth, branches virgate, leaves pe- 
tiolate lanceol. hardly serrate, flowers umbel- 
late, calix campan. deeply 5fid. petals emargi- 
nate — in Japan, called there Awaju, another 
mistaken reference to Sp. crenata, quite dis- 
tinct from all, nearer to the next by the um- 
bels. 



t^ K£W SYLVA. 

665. Spirea (Ch.) italica or reticulata 
Raf. hypericifolia Sm. and many Authors, type 
in Bocc. mus. t. 96. Quite smooth, branches 
angular purplish, leaves sessile cuneate entire 
obtuse concolor, beneath nerves reticulate, flow- 
ers in small pauciflore umbels sessile at the end 
of branchlets, calix venose, each segments ovate 
with 3 veins — Native of the hills of Umbria in 
Italy where discovered by Bocconi, and again 
by Sir James Smith see Rees Cycl. it has be- 
come common in gardens, where it is blended 
with the next, and botanists have been perplex- 
ed for its locality: hypericifolia having become 
equivocal ought to be changed as I propose. 
Leaves small semiuncial not glaucons nor tri- 
nerve, but slightly trinervate sometimes, umbels 
of 3 to 7 flowers, petals white obovate. 

666. Spirea (Ch.) virgata Raf. hypericifo- 
lia of Lin and many botanists, hyper, var. plu- 
kenetiana Dec. Hooker, Beck. Pluk. aim. 218. 
5 — Branches fuscate angular rugose virgate, 
leaves sessile cuneate obtuse or retuse, entire 
smooth above, pubescent and glaucous beneath, 
nerves with paralel branches not reticulate, um- 
bels pauciflore lateral subsessile foliose at base, 
pedicels angular, calix decangular at base, seg- 
ments uninerve. — This is the real American 
Species, so long deemed doubtful, native of bo- 
real America and New Sibiria, common in our 
gardens ; flowers vernal in white umbels almost 
sessile at first, but peduncled and foliose as the 
leaves unfold, these are small semiuncial nearly 
similar to the last in shape and size, but thick- 
er and quite different beneath, the calix is very 
peculiar by its 10 angles or nerves. Var. hook- 
eriana Raf. Leaves smooth entire, umbels 
corymbose sessile, of N. W. America is proba- 



OF x\ORTII AMEKICA. 73 

bly a peculiar species near to my Sp. crenata, 
as it cannot be Sp. italica ! It must be better 
described, and may be called Sp. Iiookeriana 
R. It is akin to Sp. japonica. I hope to have 
thus ascertained many obscure or lost species, 
and elucidated the whole genus ; in order to 
remove the difficulties I have been compelled 
to introduce some species not strictly Ameri- 
can, but have greatly increased ours also. This 
will conclude the true G. Spirea, I shall now 
describe the akin blended Genera. 

6G7. PHYSOCARPA Raf. subg. of Ser. 
(or Physotheca.) Ditf. Spirea, calix. deeply 5fid, 
pistils 3 united at base, capsules 3 coalescent 
swelled smooth, apex free bivalve, leaves lobed, 
flowers in short corymbose racemes hractea- 
ted — Thus it differs as much as Gillenia but 
has not a tubular calix. 

668. t*HYsoc. RiPARiA Raf. Spirea opulifo- 
lia L. «^c. Var. tomentella Dec. Beck. Branch- 
es angular pale, leaves petiolate ovate rounded 
or oblong unequaly serrate often lobed or trifid 
acute quite smooth, beneath pale trinervate, 
corymbs terminal, bracts oblong or laciniate, 
pedicles filiform pubescent, calix tomentose 
acute, capsules smooth much swelled — From 
Canada to Carolina, Louisiana and Missouri, 
on the banks of streams. Shrub 5 to 10 feet 
high, leaves 2 or 3 inches long, flowers white 
with pink shades, capsules fulvous or fuscate, 
seeds rounded yellowish. This has always been 
deemed the Sp. opulitblia by our botanists, and 
it was really that of Linneus, since he gives A- 
merica as its only locality ; but now many 
others must be separated. Var. 1. parHfolia, 
2. arhorea. 

669. Physog. opulifoiia or glabra Raf. Sp. 

10 



74 NEW SYLVA 

opulif. Dec. and many botanists. Var. glabra 
Hooker. Cluite smooth, branches angular ci- 
nereous, leaves ovate trilobe, petiolate, dentate 
or crenate, corymbs terminal, bracts ovatobiong 
pedicels smooth, calix smooth obtuse, capsules 
smooth compressed at the end — Mts. of East 
Europe, Sibiria and Origon. Very distinct 
from the laot by many characters, entitled to be 
a species, seeds obovate yellow. 

670. Physoc. tomentosa Raf. Sp. capitata 
Pursh, Eat. Sp. opulif. var. tomentosa Hook, 
fl. Leaves ovate sublobate, doubly dentate, re- 
ticulate and tomentose beneath, corymbs ter- 
minal crowded subcapitate on a long peduncle, 
calix tomentose — Origon, another distinct sp. 
blended by Hooker, aitho' distinguished by 
Pursh and others. The Sp. monogyna of Tor- 
rey is also reduced to Sp. opulif. by Hooker, 
while it is even a peculiar Genus ! See the next. 

671. EPICOSTORUS Raf. atl. J. page 144. 
Sp. monogyna Tor. rocky mts. 119. Eaton <!^c, 
Sp. opul. var. monogyna ! Plook. fl. Calix cam- 
panul. 51obed, petals 5, stamens 20 inserted on 
a circular free torus or base monadelphous, pis- 
tils 1 or 2 stipitate, with a style,capitate stigma, 
capsules 1 or 2 compressed not swelled free 
villose bivalve trisperme. Habit of Fhyso- 
carpa, pedicels few, no bracts. — Epic, monta- 
Nus Raf. as above. Leaves rounded ovate base 
subcordate, subtrilobe, incise, dentate pubes- 
cent beneath, corymbs on short peduncles pau- 
ciflore, pedicels filiform calix obtuse pubescent 
— in the Origon mts. disc, by James, descr. by 
Torrey 1827, mistaken by Hooker since, ascer- 
tained by me in 1832, the generic name means 
20 on a torus. 

672.^ SCHIZONOTUS Raf. calix rotate 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 75 

deeply 5fid colorate villose, petals 5 equal ve- 
nose, stamens 20 inserted on a torus adnate to 
the base of calix, pistils 5 equal sessile, capsu- 
les 5 sessile tomentose monosperm. Habit of 
the paniculate Spireas. I have adopted this 
Genus and name on the suggestion of Lindley, 
who proposed to unite to it "ihe next, but the 
habit is too different. Schizonotus appears to 
mean Split back and I do not know how it ap- 
plies unless the capsules o})en outside. 

673. ScHizoNOTus DISCOLOR llaf. 8pirea do 
Pursh, Torrey Dec. ariafolia Sm. Hook. Lind. 
b. reg. 1365. Leaves petiolate ovatoblongsub- 
lobate and laciniate serrate, white villose be- 
neath, flowers terminal paniculate racemose, 
pedicels and calix villose, petals oblong with 3 
veins — Origon region and Mts. A very pecu- 
liar shrub, quite different from my Thecanisia 
discolor 297, to which I refered by mistake the 
Sp. discolor of Pursh, flowers white, leaves cal- 
led elliptic by Smith, ovate by Pursh and Torrey 
but they are realy ovate oblong. 

674. BASILIMA Raf. 1815. Sorbariasubg. 
Ser. Schizonotus liind. Cal. patent Sparted 
smooth not colorate, base acute, petals 5, sta- 
mens 15 to 20 inserted at the base of the calix, 
pistils 4 to 5 sessile, capsules 4 to 5 unequal ses- 
sile smooth monosperm. Large shrubs with 
the foliage of Roses and Sorbus, leaves alter- 
nate stipulate oddly pinnate, folioles oppo- 
site sessile, flowers bracteolate panicidate or 
corymbose — This fine natural Genus is certain- 
ly more different from Sjnrea than "Lowea is 
from Rosa ! it may be known at first sight by 
its habit. 

675. Basilima sorbifolia Raf Sp. do L. 
&.C. Pallas fl. t. 24. Quite smooth, branches 



76 NEW SYLVA. 

terete flexuose, leaves with 11 to 21 folioles 
broad lanceol. acuminate duplicate serrate, sti- 
pules oblong entire, flowers paniculate crowded, 
panicle oblong, bracteoles lanceol. equal to the 
short clavate pedicels — Sibiria and New Sibiria 
in N. W. America, a large shrub, with fine in- 
carnate odorous flowers, folioles 1 or 2 inches 
long. My specimens have racemose panicles 
before anthesis, becoming glomerate in full 
bloom. 

676. Basilima PYGMEA Raf. Sp. sorbif. var. 
pygmea Pallas fl. t. 25. Quite diflerent from 
the last by folioles broader less acum. ovate 
lanceol. laciniate and flowers corymbose — Mts. 
of Sibiria and probably in boreal America, a 
small dwarf shrub. Not seen but the figure of 
Pallas is strikingly diflerent. It must not be 
blended with the Sorbus pumila of Origon, that 
has edible berries. 

Monograph of HYDRANGEA. 

Linneus had only one species, our botanists 
have gradualy increased them to 4 ; but I shall 
still further increase them to 10. They are all 
shrubs growing in mountains and hills on rocks 
and near streams, blossoms estival. Ihe Ge- 
nus had been united to the Saxifragides, but 
Lindley dreamt that it was to be united to the 
Caprifoliacea ! with berries and monopetal co- 
rollas ! It really belongs to the Natural family 
of DicEKACEA in the Nat. Order Ascadia, 
which includes all the Saxifragides with ovary 
and capsule coalescent or inferior. It includes 
two subgenera. 

Apleria. Flowers uniform consimilar. 

Megasteira. Flowers dissimilar, the exterior 
enlarged neutral radial, as in Opulus, 3-4fid un- 
equal. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 77 

The habit is peculiar, leaves opposite petio- 
late, flowers terminal cyniose or paniculate. It 
is therefore a natural Genus, having atlinities 
with the Myrtoides, Hederacea and Viburnides. 
The Gr. Itea and Cunonia ditler by free pistil. 

677- Hydrangea (Apl.) vulgaris Mx. P. B. 
E. Sec arborescens L. Slc. Branches terete 
sulcate pale, leaves ovatoblong acuminate, 
equaly serrate smooth pale beneath, petiols and 
nerves pubescent, base rounded, cymes naked 
pubescent uniform, 2 oblong bracts — Alleghany 
Mts. and hills from Pennsylv. to Carolina and 
Kentucky, B to 5 feet high, leaves *2 or 3 inches 
long, flowers white and small. Var. carnea^ 
flowers incarnate. 

678. Hydr. (Apl.) paniculata Raf. Quite 
smooth, branches terete fuscate, leaves ovato- 
blong both ends acute, glaucous on both sides, 
nearly entire or remotely dentate, 6'yme panicu- 
late lax with oblong sessile bracts — A very dis- 
tinct Sp. found without locality in Collins herb, 
probably from Origon and Sibiria, leaves large 
4 inches long 2 wide, petiols shorter uncial 
slightly ciliolate, flowers niuch larger than in 
the last, with large lanceolate, petals, calix an- 
gular, stamens erect longer than petals. 

679. Hydrangea (3Ieg,} acuta Raf. Bran- 
ches sub angidar purplish, leaves ovatoblong un- 
equaly serrate, acuminate, base acute entire, 
pale beneath, nerves puberulent, cymes pubes- 
cent naked hardly radiate, bracts small ovate — 
Apalachian Mts. Leaves very thin, cymes 
small, commonly with 1 to 3 small neutral flow- 
ers unequaly trifid acute white. Thus a pas- 
sage to the subgenus Megasteira. 

680. Hydr. (Meg.) GLAucARaf. radiata glau- 



^y NEW SYLVA. 

ca Mg. Branches terete biangular, leaves o- 
vate serrate acum. base rounded, beneath glau- 
cous smooth, upper leaves subsessile, cymes ra- 
diate, neutral rays 3-4fid — Alabama and Alle- 
ghanies, leaves thin large, flowers white, rays 
with unequal rounded segments. Capsules as 
in most species with 10 prominent nerves. 

681. Hydr. (Meg.) rotundifolia Raf. 
Branches angular rough, lower leaves petiolate 
rounded and orbicular acum. serrate, base not 
cordate, rough above, pale beneath, nerves 
rough pubescent, upper leaves sessile ovate 
base acute, cymes radiate, rays 3-4fid large 
rounded obtuse. — Wasioto Mts. of Kentucky 
and Virginia on rocks, 3 to 4 feet high, leaves 
small, flowers large white, rays very large un- 
equal. 

682. Hydr. (Meg.) heterophyla Raf. 
Branches subangular, leaves elliptic, base cor- 
date or truncate or obliquate, apex acumin. 
falcate, unequaly serrate, beneath concolor ; 
nerves puberulent, upper leaves rounded base 
rounded, cymes hardly radiate pubescent, rays 
ovate acute. — Wasioto Mts. of Kentucky disc. 
1823 with the last, akin but distinct by leaves 
and rays, these sometimes lacking. 

683. Hydr. (Meg.) cordata Pursh. E. «&c. 
Branches angular,leaves firm rounded base sub- 
cordate, dentate shortly acuminate, rough above 
beneath concolor veins reticulate smooth, cymes 
radiate, rays many ovate acute, 2 oblong bracts 
— Virginia, Carolina, Kentucky &lc on rocks, 
humble shrub 2 to 4 feet high, with larger 
thicker leaves, and ample cymes. 

684. Hydr. (Meg.) amplifolia Raf. Branch- 
es subangular leaves on very long petiols thin 
ample ovate, lower subcordate at base, smooth 



or NORTH AMERICA. 79 

acumin. laciniate serrate pale beneath, cymes 
hardly radiate, bracts oblong — Banks of the 
Delaware and Susquehaimah in Alts, Allegha- 
nies, a large shrub G to 10 feet high, leaves very 
large 5 to 8 inches long, petiols 3 to 5 inches, 
cymes ample, only 1 or 2 neutral rays. 

685. Hydr. (Meg.) discolor Raf. Branches 
angular, leaves elliptic acumin. base often acute 
serrulate, beneath whitish closely tomentose, 
cyme villose subradiate, bracts 2 lanceol. fal- 
cate sessile, rays small obovate acute — Apala- 
chian Mts. often blended with the next proba- 
bly, but distinct by leaves and rays, shrub 6 to 
10 feet high, seen alive in gardens. 

686. Hydr. (Meg.) nivea ]\Ix. P. E. ^c. ra- 
diata Walter. Branches terete dark purple, 
leaves firm ovate acum. base subcordate, ser- 
rate, rugose above and pubescent along the 
nerves, beneath snowy white tomentose, cymes 
subradiate, rays lanceolate — Apalachian and 
Unaka Mts. on the R. Santi &c, elegant shrub, 
well described by Elliot, my speciniens are but 
slightly cordate, flowers white late vernal. 

687. Hydr. (Meg.) quercij olia Bartr. trav. 
ic. Pursh, E. 4*c. A well known shrub, now 
common in our gardens, found by Bartram in 
the Cheroki mts. 60 years ago, published and 
figured in his travels 45 years ago, yet omitted 
by Wild. Pers. and all till Pursh ! Easily known 
by the lobate leaves and large thyrsoid panicle 
of pink flowers many neutrals: Bartram says 
it grows on the R. Oconi and in North Alaba- 
ma near streams, has many divergent stems 5 
to 6 feet high, the bark peals as in Physocarpa, 
the broad oboval neutral flowers are at first 
rosate, but gradualy change to red, purple, rus- 
ty and brown. 



80 KEW SYLVA 

FAGUS and CASTANEA. 
The Beech and Chesnut trees so unhke and 
easily known by their fruits had _been kept sep- 
arate by the old Botanists, but Linneus took the 
fancy to unite them under his Fagus. — This 
linnean blunder was never assented to by the 
French Botanists, and now after 100 years the 
two genera are again acknowledged. But as 
to our American Sp. they are yet miscalled and 
deemed the same as the European ; which is 
erroneous, none of our trees being quite identic! 
I must therefore revise them and add some 
new kinds. 

688. Fagus alba Raf. sylvatica of Amer. 
bot. not L. nor Europe. Bark smooth white, 
branchlets terete cinereous, leaves on short pe- 
tiols ovate lanceol. dentate'~ ciliate, acute at 
both ends, green concolorf aments on short pe- 
duncles, nuts ovate mucronate obtusely trigone 
— Our white Beech tree, common all over N. 
America, 50 to GO feet high, leaves 2 or 3 in- 
ches long. Dioical or polygamous, 

689. Fagus heterophyla Raf. Bark and 
branches grey, branchlets terete, leaves subpe- 
tiolate ovate obovate rhomboidal and elliptic, 
acute at both ends, remotely uncinate serrulate 
above, sometimes jagged on one side, margin 
and nerves pilose, surface yellowish green con- 
color, aments on long filiform pilose peduncles, 
nuts ovate angles obtuse — Our Grey Beech is a 
rare tree, smaller than the last, occasionaly 
met in the dry hills of the Alleghanies, leaves 
thin about biuncial of a yellowish cast, quite en- 
tire till the middle then serrulate and subacu- 
minate. 

690. Fagus ferruginka Ait. purpurea of 



or NOllTlI AMERICA. 81 

some botanists. Bark redish, branchlets terete 
sulcate dark purple, leaves subpetiolate ovato- 
blong remotely serrate acuminate, base acute 
or obtuse often obliqual, margin ciliate, young 
nerves pilose, surface rusty, pale beneath, a- 
ments on thick peduncles, nuts ovate acute with 
sharp angles — our Red Beech is found from 
New England to Missouri, the wood has a red- 
ish tinge like the bark, leaves 2 or 3 inches 
long, monoical, female flowers with many linear 
smooth bracts. A large tree 50 to 100 feet 
high. 

691. Fagus nigra Raf. Bark fuscate, branch- 
lets blackish teretej_sulcate, leaves subsessile 
ample ovate rhomboidal, acumin. base acute, 
margin denticulate, surface dark green glossy 
on both sides, nuts acute angles sharp — This 
tree called Black or Brown Beech is sparingly 
found with the others, 40 to 70 feet high, 
branches so dark purple as to be almost black, 
leaves very large 4 to 5 inches long. 

692. Fagus rotundholia Raf. fl. tex. 10 
atl. J. 177. Bark fuscate, branchlets terete 
fuscate, leaves petiolate rounded repand acute, 
petiols margins and nerves above and beneath 
silky pilose, aments commonly geminate on 
short and thick peduncles silky like the bracts 
■ — A very distinct Sp. first described by me in 
1833, it appeara to have an extensive range, it 
first appears in Arkanzas and Texas, extend- 
ing to Origon and Sdbiria, perhaps even to Eu- 
rope, where several' blended Sp. exist which I 
shall shortly notice for contrast with ours. This 
Beech tree is smaller than the others 20 to 30 
feet high, leaves 1 or 2 inches long and broad. 
It may be, called the Silky Beech. 

693. Fagus sylvatica L. &c. Branches 

11 



S2 ?fEW SYLVA 

diffuse fuscate, leaves petiolate ovate acute sub- 
serrate undulate, smooth glossy yellowish, mar- 
gin villose, peduncles filiform villose, nuts ovate 
angles obtuse — Europe and Sibiria. Var. san- 
guinea leaves red. 

694. Fagus ASPLENiroLiA Raf. Leaves ovate 
serrate laciniate or lanceolate lobulate — Eu- 
rope and Sibiria, a small tree. 

695. Castanea vesca W. P. Dec. &c. Fa- 
gus castanea L. 4^c, Leaves petiolate lanceo- 
late acuminate, serrate by mucronate uncinate 
teeth, smooth beneath, capsules echinate dis- 
perme, nuts large dimidiate smooth mealy in- 
side — South of Europe, very large tree, nuts 4 
times as large as ours, darker, farinaceous not 
oily, one side flat, the other convex. 

696. Castanea Americana Raf. 1804. vesca 
var. amer. W. P. and the Amer, botanists. 
Branchlets fuscate rugose, leaves petiolate o- 
blong lanceol. acum. remotely mucronate ser- 
rate, beneath glaucous and smooth (pubescent 
in young leaves,) aments fasciculate spicate in- 
terrupted glomerate, capsules echinate 3-5seed- 
ed, nuts small ovate apex villose acute, coryla- 
ceous sweet inside — AH over North America 
from Canada to Louisiana and Origon, quite a 
peculiar Sp. ascertained by me since 1804 in 
my fl. columbica. A smaller tree than the Eu- 
ropean only 40 to 60 feet high, growing in dry 
and rocky ridges and Mts. leaves 4 to 8 inches 
long, fruits quite unlike the European Chesnuts, 
small similar to filberds in size and taste, sweet 
oily, and edible raw, while the European must 
be boiled or roasted being acerb. Nuttal has 
well described the fructification. Var. 1. an- 
GusTi FOLIA Raf. Leaves very long and narrow 



OF NORTH AMERICA, S3 

lanceolate, on the Susquehanah. 2 Var, lati- 
folia. Leaves broader and shorter, rather acute 
than acum. High Mts. a small tree. Perhaps 
these are two incipient Sp. I regret that I did 
not see the fruits. 

697. Castanea pumila of late Authors, Fa- 
gus do L. &c, our well known Chincapin nut, 
edible sw^eet, from Delaware to Florida. Var. 

fulva Raf. Leaves broader often nearly obo- 
vate, almost fulvous beneath, nerves quite so, 
aments compact. Alleghany Mts. 

698. Castanea nana Mg. El. Eat. alnifolia 
Nut. a small shrub 2 or 3 feet high with ovate 
lanceol. leaves, almost obtuse, subtomentose be- 
neath, capsules monosperm — Carolina to Flo- 
rida, in sandy tracts, creeping. 

699. CLADRASTIS Raf. fl. Kent. 1824, 
Neog. 1825. Virgilia Sp. Mx. and others. Ca- 
lix gibbose campan. unequaly 51obed, petals 5 
unequal unguiculate, superior larger obovate 
notched, 4 oblong obtuse subcordate at base. 
Stamens 10 free unequal filiform, pistil stipitate 
oblong, style curved compressed, stigma acute. 
Pod stipitate linear flat membranaceous poly- 
sperm, seeds oblong. Trees with odly pinnate 
leaves and racemose white flowers^ without 
bracts. As soon as I found this tree in Ken- 
tucky in 1821 I ascertained that it was not con- 
generic with the African Virgilias which have 
calix bilabiate, 2 of the petals cariniform, stig- 
ma obtuse, seeds lenticular &c. The name 
means brittle branches. 

700. Cladrastis tinctoria (or albiflora) 
Raf. Virgilia lutea Mx. ic. Nut. Eat. Dec. 
Kentukensis Dumont. Smooth tree. Leaves 
5-7folioles petiolate alternate ovate acumin. en- 
tire, glaucous beneath, the odd larger ovate 



84 NEW SYLVA 

rhomboida], base acute, flowers in simple lax 
nodding racemes, white odorous, pods smooth. 
— From Kentucky to Alabama, but very local, 
a fine tree 30 to 50 feet high, branches brittle, 
wood branches petiols and nerves yellow, leaves 
ample, folioles 3 to 6 inches long very smooth. 
Flowers white fragrant like those of Robinia, 
not yellow as stated by Nuttal and after him by 
many, even Decandole ! Michaux does not say 
so, in his colored trees they are white, his im- 
proper name lutea applied to the wood not the 
flowers, Nuttal did not see the flowers and mis- 
took his meaning. 1 have seen them ! The 
wood is yellow and dies yellow like Fustic. 
The vulgar names are yellow wood and yellow 
Locust. The V. Kentukensis of Dumont Cour- 
set (Botaniste cultivateur) is only the young 
tree before blooming. It blossoms only in May 
for one week on the banks of the River Ken- 
tucky. I shall add two other new Genera 
rather akin but with yellow and blue flowers. 
They all belong to the Leguminose, suborder 
Lomentaria with free stamens, and natural 
family of Sophorides. 

701. ZANTHYRSIS Raf. calix persistent 
campanul. equaly Sdentate, petals 5 subequal 
cuneate obtuse, 1 narrower, 10 stamens sube- 
qual, pistil stipitate, podogyne villose longer 
than calix, ovary smooth terete curved, style 
very short, stigma acute, pod stipitate podo- 
gyne tomentose, pod falcate subterete, seeds . . 
Tree with odly pinnate leaves, no bracts^ 
thyrsoidal yelloiv floicers^— This Genus is 
nearer Sophora than the last, but has some very 
peculiar characters, the name applies to the 
yellow thyrsus. 

702. Zanthyrsis paniculata Raf Virgilia 



or KORTH AMERICA. 85 

aurea Collins herb, not of Authors. Branches 
fuscate siibangular and piiberulent, leaves with 
many folioles sessile oblong obtuse nearly 
smooth concolor, petiols pubescent, panicle ter- 
minal foliose lax, peduncles 2-3flore — South 
Florida and Cuba, a small tree, habit and leaves 
like Amorpha and Virgjlia, folioles 21 to 25 half 
uncial. Flowers in a lax compound raceme 
forming a panicled thyrsus, small and yellow, 
half size of Cladrastis. The podogyne is very 
remarkable by its length and white hairs. I 
add for contrast the real Virgilia aurea of 
Africa. 

703. Virgilia aurea Lam. t. 326. f. 1. 
Wild. Pers. Poiret Sm. Dec. Shrub, leaves 
with many folioles petiolate elliptic obtuse 
smooth glaucous beneath, raceme simple with 
small lanceolate bracts, pods shortly stipitate 
oblong compressed reticulate, seeds lenticular 
— In Abyssinia in East Africa ! thus totaly un- 
like our American plant and having the char- 
acters of the African Virgilias, calix bilabiate, 
petals unequal, 2 cariniform, a short smooth 
stipes to the pod. Flowers golden, called white 
by mistake in Poiret. 

704. AGASTIANIS Raf. Virgilia, Sophora, 
and Broussonetia ! of Authors. Calix bilabi- 
ate, lips 2 and 3 dentate, petals 5 unequal, vex- 
illum oval emarginate larger, 4 oblong biauri- 
culate at base, 2 connivent'cariniform. Stam. 
10 unequal free persistent, pistil terete shortly 
stipitate, a style, stigma obtuse. Pod oblong 
tomentose convex on both sides. iShrub with 
odly pinnate leaves^ floivers blue in simple 
racemes with bracts — This fine shrub has been 
shuffled in several Genera, I deemed it myself 



85 NEW SYLVA. 

a Cladrastis in 1825, but am now convinced 
that it is realy a peculiar Genus as deemed by 
Ortega ; but his name of Broussonetia had 
been employed, mine means remarkable blue, 

705. Agastianis secundiflora Raf. Brous- 
sonetia do. Ort. dec. 7. Virgilia do. Cav. t. 401. 
Pers. Sm. Sophora do. Dec. Branches angular, 
leaves with ll-15folioles subsessile oval smooth 
rigid, petiols swelled at base, racemes tomen- 
tose secundiflore, pedicels with 3 bracts, 1 at 
base, 2 beneath the calix — Mexico and Texas, 
a pretty shrub with handsome blue flowers, the 
vexillum or large petal pale blue. Decandole 
says the pods are moniliform as in Sophora, but 
he did not see them : even if they are the calix 
and petals are different from the real Sophoras, 
still more so from those with 4gone or monos- 
perm pods that must form the Genera Gonon- 
dra and Aplenda Raf. 1815, and fl. tel. 
Monograph of CHIONANTHUS. 

This Genus of the Fraxinides family is very 
near to the Ornanthes,'differing only by a drupe 
for fruit and simple leaves. Linneus had only 
Ch. Virginica of N. Amer. some presumed va- 
rieties were since noticed, but I have been able 
to ascertain 6 species quite distinct, although 
forming a very natural Genus ; called vulgary 
Fringe trees : they are all small trees, with 
handsome panicles of vernal white flowers, and 
opposite leaves quite entire. The Sp, of South 
America and Ceylon &:c must be examined 
again and will probably form peculiar subgene- 
ra if not Genera. Mayepea, Linociera and 
Thouinia must be restored. All our Sp. have 
a small 4fid calix, 4 linear petals and 2 stamens 
not 4 as Mayepea. 

706. Chionanthus 3iariti3ia Raf. Virg. L. 



or NOllTII A3IERICA. 87 

&.C. var. marit. Pursli Eat, Beck. Branches 
terete fuscate pubescent, leaves petiolate obo- 
vate elliptical membranaceous obtuse or acute 
pubescent beneath, panicles multiflore lax, 
bracts ovate and oblong, peduncles mostly tri- 
flore, calix unequal, fruits elliptical purple — A 
small tree 10 to 30 feet high, growing near the , 
sea shores or near streams of the littoral region 
from New Jersey to Florida, leaves 3 to 4 in- 
ches long, commonly obovate, sometimes ellip- 
tical, panicles with many large flowers. Var. 
rhomhifolia Raf. leaves elliptic rhomboidal, 
base acute, end obtuse, bracts lanceolate. In 
Delaware, 

707. Chion. obovata Raf. domingensis? 
Lam. Quite smooth, branches terete whitish 
with round warts, leaves subsessile obovate 
rounded, base acuminate, apex very obtuse, 
panicles cymose pauciflore lax, peduncles bi- 
flore rigid divergent, bracts obovate sessile, ca- 
lix unequal, fruits ovate acute — Hills of Alaba- 
ma, large leaves 4 to 6 inches long, quite round 
at the end, firmer and broader than in the last, 
fewer flowers. Probably also found in the An- 
tilles and Florida. 

708. Chion. heterophyla. Raf. virginica 
Mx. Leaves petiolate obovate acute or elliptic 
acuminate or ovate lanceolate pubescent be- 
neath, nerves rufous, panicles lax pauciflore, 
bracts sessile ovate or oblong, peduncles 1-3 
flore, calix subequal, fruits ovate subacute — A- 
palacbian and Wasioto Mts. medial between 
Ch. maritima and montana. 

709. Chion. Montana Raf. virg. L. var. 
mont. P. B. E. Branches smooth pale 4anr 
gular rugose with oblong warts, leaves firm sub- 



88 ^EW SYLVA. 

sessile ovate lanceol. acute at both ends, glau- 
cous beneath and smooth, nerves fuscate hardly 
puberulent, panicles multiflore compact, pedun- 
cles triflore, bracts ovate or oblong, calix equal, 
fruits oval. — Alleghany and Apalachian Mts. 
from Virginia to Georgia, a small tree 4 to 10 
feet high, leaves 3 to 4 inches long. The warts 
are singular oblong with a fissure. 

710. Chion. longifolia Raf. Branches su- 
bangular pubescent fuscate, leaves subpetiolate, 
oblong lanceol. undulate acum. at both ends, 
nerves fuscate pubescent, racemes simple elon- 
gate paucilKore lax pubescent bracts elliptic, 
peduncles filiform l-2flore, calix equal — Lou- 
isiana and Texas, leaves 6 to 8 inches long, 
about 2 wide, flowers rather smaller than in 
the others : fruits not seen. 

711. Chion, angustifolia Raf. virginica? 
Elliot, virg. angustif Ait. Quite smooth, bran- 
ches pale subangular with flat ringed warts, 
leaves petiolate lanceolate acute or acuminate 
glaucous beneath, panicles lax pauciflore, bracts 
ovatoblong, peduncles mostly triflore, calix sub- 
equal elongate — Carolina and Florida, a very 
distinct Sp. by leaves very narrow, 8 to 4 inches 
long, but hardly one broad, flowers small, fruits 
globular. Very peculiar warts on the stem 
round flat with a circular concentric furrow. 
Shrub 3 to 10 feet high (Elliot.) Var. cylin- 
drica Elliot, with long cylindrical multiflore 
panicles. 

712. FORESTIERA Foiret 1811, Bige- 
lowia Smith 1821 not of Raf. 1817- Adelia 
Brown and Michaux not of Lin. Borya of 
W^ildenow and Persoon, not of Labilardiere 
and Poiret. See my article Adeha in first part; , 



t)F NORTH AMERICA. 89 

I have since ascertained that Forestiera was 
the first unemployed name given to this Genus 
by Poiret, and must be adopted by all correct 
Botanists ! This Genus thus made ambiguous 
in name is also somewhat doubtful in charac- 
ters, because the dioical flowers are difficult to 
examine : it contains probably many species 
as these shrubs are unnoticed unless met in 
bloom. They are very near to Fraxinus by 
the flowers, and Chionanthus by the fruit, and 
simple opposite leaves: Thus evidently of the 
same natural family. But like Fraxinus they 
include several subgenera, that ought perhaps 
to be Genera, and I will consider them as such 
in order to distinguish them better. 

713. Forestiera Poir. Raf. Dioical, calix 4 
parted persistent, 2 or 3 anthers on a single 
central filament, fem. fl. calix 2 or 4 parted 
iinequal,no corolla, one pistil with style and bilobe 
stigma. Fruit a berry drupaceous one seeded, 
seed cartilaginous sulcate or rugose. Shrubs 
with coniTnonkf entire opposite leaves and la- 
teral sessile flowers. This includes most of 
the species; but they must all be examined 
again, in bloom. 

714. CARPOXIS Raf. (sharp fruity Poly- 
gamous ? Calix 4parted Stamens 4 inserted in 
the calix (Elliot,) calix with a 5th smaller seg- 
ment outside and more than 4 stamens, each 
on a filament. Fem. fl. ternate on fascicled 
peduncles, no calix, pistil oblong, no style, stig- 
ma sessile acute. Drupaceous berry oblong 
acuminate, seed sulcate. Shrubs often thorny, 
leaves <^c as in Forestiera. I have followed 
the figure of Michaux which shows almost a 
polyandrous flower ? and the whole quite dif- 
ferent from the others. Elliot justly doubts the 

12 



90 NEW SYLVA 

genus of his Shrub ; it must be evidently a pe- 
cuHar one near to Nudilus and some Ilexides 
to be compared, as well as my Genus Nestro- 
nia 503. 

715. NUDILUS Raf. fl. tex. 1. in Atl. J. 
176 and Herb. Raf. Dioical, male fl . , . . fem. 
fl. no calix nor corolla, pistil ovate, a long style, 
stigma capitate. Drupaceous berry ovate one 
seeded. Shrubs with opposite or suhalterne 
leaves, flowers lateral peduncled. This is the 
only Genus I have been able to examine alive, 
and I only met the female flowers, which have 
really no calix as in some Fraxinides, whence 
the name of Nudilus. I shall now enumerate 
12 species belonging to those 3 Genera, altho' 
our botanists have only 3 or 4, Elliot and Eaton 
only two. 

716. FoRESTiERA LiGUSTRiNA Poirct, AdcHa, 
Borya, Bigelowia of Authors. Leaves thin sub- 
petiolate lanceolate oblong entire, fruits ovate 
— In Illinois and Tennessee, habit of liigustrum, 
only found by Michaux, not in Elliot nor Ea- 
ton, not seen by me. 

717. FoRESTiERA DisTicHA (or licterophyla) 
Raf. Borya distichophyla of Nuttal. Quite 
smooth, branches divergent subterete levigate 
grey, leaves distichal subsessile thin entire, mar- 
gin scabrous, uninerve, the lower ovate, the up- 
per lanceolate or oblong acute, bud scales acu- 
minate pungent — found by Nuttall in East 
Tennessee on the banks of Frenchbroad River. 
My specimen is from him in Collins Herb. A 
tall shrub 12 to 16 feet high, leaves small un- 
cial or less. Flowers and fruits not seen. 

718. FoRESTiERA VERRUCOSA (or glauca) Raf. 
Branches terete verrucose, leaves petiolate co- 
riaceous glaucous entire obtuse elliptic or sub- 
oboval, base acute, fruits fasciculate peduncu- 



T 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 91 

late oblong obtuse— found in Florida by Dr. 
Baldwin and mistaken for F. ligustrina by Col- 
lins altho' nearer F. porulosa. The warts are 
remarkable similar to those of some Chionan- 
thus, unequal oblong flat rimose, the leaves are 
uncial quite glaucous on both sides, slightly re- 
ticulate and with no pores beneath, but a few 
scattered white small warts or dots, probably 
an Aecidium or parasitical fungus ; the berries 
are similar to Barberries as long as the pedun- 
cles, and dark purple. 

719. FoRESTiERA PORULOSA Poirct. Adclia 
do Mx. Borya do W. P. Elliot. Leaves cori- 
aceous sessile oval lanceol. obtuse, margin re- 
volute entire, beneath porulose punctate arid 
rusty— Sea shore of Florida, flowers and fruits 
not seen, even by Elliot. 

720. FoRESTiERA cuNEiFOLiA Raf. Branch- 
es rugose subangular, leaves petiolate cuneate 
lanceol. acute entire smooth, a single rufous 
nerve, fruits lateral subternate naked ovate 
acute subsessile — Discovered in fruit by Dr. 
Ward on the banks of the Wabash, seen alive 
without flowers. It may be a Nudilus or some- 
thing else, altho' quite near F. ligustrina, but 
leaves quite cuneate and often alternate, uncial, 
neither coriaceous nor membranaceous. 

721. FoRESTiERA cAssiNOiDEs Poir. Adclia 
Br. t. 36. Borya W. P. &-c. Leaves petiolate 
oblong obtuse coriaceous smooth, margin revo- 
lute, beneath reticulate— Antilles and South 
Florida. 

722. FoRESTiERA (or Carpoxis) nitida Raf. 
Borya do Loud. Cycl. Leaves opposite and 
alternate ovate acute serrulate shining — This 
and the two next, I only find noticed in Lou- 
dun Cyclop, of plants, who does not quote his 
Authorities, but given them as North American, 



WZ NEW SYLVA. 

They may be of a different Genus and approx- 
imate to Carpoxis by the leaves not quite entire, 
728. Forest, (or Carp.) prinoides Raf. 
Borya Loud. Leaves ovate lanceolate serrate 
— Is it Ilex prinoides ? flowers green, leaves 2^ 
inches long, one broad. 

724. Forest, (or Carp.) retusa Raf. Borya 
Loud. Leaves alternate tapering in short pe- 
tiols, retuse emarginate mucronulate very 
smooth glaucous. — Very near to my Ilex retusa 
but that is a real Ilex with 4seeded berries. 

725. Carpoxis spinosa Raf. Adelia acumi- 
nata Mx. ic. 48. Borya W. P. &.c. Bigelowia 
Sm. Branches spinose, leaves petiolate, rhom- 
boidal, lanceolate, serrate (entire in the figure) 
acute smooth, fruits subternate drooping oblong 
rostrate acuminate — Carolina and Georgia, 
margin of streams, the description and figure of 
Michaux do not agree, and Elliot Sp. appears 
distinct. Leaves uncial, fruits long on filiform 
peduncles. Stamens over 4 ? 

726. Carpoxis inermis Raf. Borya acumi- 
nata Pursh, Elliot &c. Branches not spinose, 
leaves oval lanceol. attenuate at both ends pe- 
tiolate membranaceous serrulate — Carolina, 
only seen dry by Elliot, who says that it has 
really 4 stamens. 

727. NuDiLus PARADOXUS Raf. fl. tex. &-c, 
duite smooth, branches terete, leaves opposite 
and altern. lanceolate sessile acute entire fas- 
ciculate, fem. fl. peduncled racemose 2-4flore — 
from West Kentucky to Texas, very rare, a 
small shrub 3 to 5 feet high, flowers small ver- 
nal before the leaves, which are uncial rather 
thin and commonly alternate, berries ovate 
black ? but not seen ripe. 

728. FRAXINUS Lin. and all Authors, 
This Genus ought to follow the last, and I could 



OP NORTH AMERICA. 93 

give a Monograph of 32 Species at least, while 
our Authors have only 7 or 8 ; but Bosc and 
Loudun have noticed 27 North American Sp. 
while Wildenow and Persoon had only 10. 
However I have but a dozen Sp. in my Herba- 
rium often without flowers or fruits, and I must 
delay this labor ; when I will easily prove that 
this extensive Genus must be divided into 5 
Genera at least, and I am now going to estab- 
lish them. 

729. Fraxinus Raf. "^all the Species with 
naked flowers, without calix as in Nudilus, 2 
stamens, and fruit a winged samare. Leaves 
pinnate, floicers paniculate polygamous. 

730. LEPTALIX Raf. Those differing by 
a small calix 4dentate &.c. Such as Fr. caro- 
liniana, acuminata, jnibescens, jiiglandifolia 
and many other American Sp. but Bosc has not 
noticed this important character. 

731. ORNANTHES Raf. 1815. Ornus P. 
Pursh, B. E. &c. Quite different by having 
not only a calix, but also a corolla of 4 petals 
as in Chionanthus . . Ornus being the root of 
many names I changed it to Ornanthes mean- 
ing the flowering Ash : 3 Sp. at least O. rotun- 
difolia, mannifera and Americana. 

732. APLILIA Raf. Flowers and fruits to 
be examined and described, leaves simple. 
Probably more than a subgenus. Two Sp. at 
least. A macrophyla and laciniata, the Fr. 
simplicifolia of late Authors. 

733. SAMARPSES Raf. A minute triden- 
tate calix, stamens 3 ? Fruit a peculiar samare 
obovate with 3 wings like Halesia, seed trian- 
gular, heaves pinnate — This must constitute 
a very peculiar genus, the flowers must be bet- 
ter described. 

734. Samarpses tkiptera Raf. Fraxinus do 



94 NEW SYLVA. 

Nuttal, Elliot. Folioles about 7 obovate entire 
subsessille obliquate, villose and pale beneath, 
nerves smooth — In the Oak forests of Car- 
olina. 



APPENDIX. 

I must conclude here this third part of my 
New Flora and first of my New Sylva, not be- 
ing able to include in it all our New Trees and 
Shrubs as I expected, owing to the need I had 
to enlarge my labors by illustrations and mono- 
graphs of compared or revised Genera and Spe- 
cies of Trees and Shrubs. Another part shall 
be required for this New Sylva ; since I have 
only revised one half of what I intended. In the 
prolific Genera Quercus, Salix, Populus, Betu- 
la, Hicoria, Kalmia, Mimosa, Magnolia, Illici- 
um, Azalea, Ribes, Rubus, Calycanthus, Tilia, 
^c. I have few additions to make, and I have 
already illustrated elsewhere the G. Vitis, Rosa 
Abies, Aker &:c. But there is nevertheless a 
number of Genera as yet untouched that require 
revision or additions — such are — Andromeda, 
Vaccinium, Rhamnus, Ilex, Viburnum, Loba- 
dium, Aesculus and Pavia, Prunus and akin 
Cerasus, Padus . . . The Coniferes, Pomiferes, 
Hypericines, Malvaceous . . . and also Myrica, 
Nyssa, Fraxinus, Artemisia, Lantana . . . be- 
sides all our Palms, Yucas, Smilax, Zamia, 
Cactus and Upuntia. 

Several of our small Genera are pretty well 
settled, such as Olea, Catalpa, Callicarpa, Pte- 
lea, Pinkneya, Staphylea, Fothergilla, Dirca, 
Menziesia, Mylocarium, Bejaria, Illicium, Ho- 
pea, Halesia, Corylus, Carpinus, Platanus . . . 
But others have great additions or improve- 
ments to receive, for instance Clethra, Aralia, 
Asimina, Chiococca, Cyrilla, Itea, Sambucus, 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 95 

Berberis, Arbutus, Myrtus, Ficus, Avicennia .~. 

There is also a number oi" new or rare Trees and Shrubs 
discovered in Florida and described by Bartram 50 or 60 
years ago, that are not yet received by our supine Botanists 
— others of Robin disc, in 1802, described 1807 and by me 
again in 1817 in Florula Ludoviciana, are yet quite neglected 
by them — Even those few noticed or well ascertained by 
Lewis and Clarke 30 years ago, in Origon,are hardly known. 
All these ought to have been long ago added at least as Sy- 
nonyms or in an Appendix to our Botanical Works, and 1 
mean to do so, unless introduced by me in the proper mono- 
graphs ; I will now add here the names of the most remarka- 
ble among them. 

Among Bartram's Trees orShrubs of Florida were Nyssa 
coccinea, Lycmm salsum, Corypha repens and obliqua, 
Areca floridaiia R. (Corypha palma B.) Erythrina corallo- 
dendron, Magnolia fragrans and acuta Raf. and several Sp. 
of Michaux long before him,Quercus incana and many others, 
many Sp. of Azalea, Aesculus, Myrica, Lantana, Prinos, An- 
dromeda . . . also Cupressus purpurea Raf. Rhizophora con- 
jugata, Agave vivipara, Carica papaya or ftoridana Raf. . . . 
Besides several new Genera, my Xiphodendron, Nestronia, 
Sc^erotris, Piloblephis &c. 

Among those of Lewis and Clarke are my Sorbus pumila, 
Sambucus ceruleus, Juniperus radicans, Betula rupestris, Pi- 
nus humilis and macrocarpa, Pyrus fuscata . . . besides sev- 
eral Sp. of Cactus, Ribes, Vaccinium . . . and all my new 
Firs see Abies. 

Among those of Robin and Louisiana to be admitted in our 
Sylva, are my Laurus ludoviciana, Fraxinus discolor, undu- 
lata and lacera, Arbutus obtusifolius, Cornus polygama, As- 
cyrum grandiflorum, Hypericum rostratum and fulgidum, 
Tilia stenopetala, Frangula fragilis, Prunus stenophyla, Gle- 
ditsia heterophyla, Ptelea tomentosa, Hicorius integrifolia, 
Cassine ramulosa, £cc . . . Besides my N. G. Chimanthus, 
Adnaria, Diplonix, Pseudopetalon, Philostemon ... all des- 
cribed since 1817! 

We should look in vain for these Trees and Shrubs in the 
Works of our Compilers and neglectful Botanists. They 
will all be noticed again in my New Sylva, or given as sy- 
nonyms when rectified. 

END OF THE THIRD PART. AND NEW SYLVA FIRST 
PART 



INDEX OF GENERA. 

SUBGENERA AND SYNONYMS OF THIS NEW SYLVA. 

Synonyms are in Italics — References to the numbers. 



Abelicea 572. ' 

Jlddia 712. 
Agastianis 704-5. 
Amorpha 507. 
Anthelis 549-51. 
Aplenda 705. 
Apleria 676. 
Aplilia 732. 
Audibertia 606- 
Bdsilima 674-6. 
Bigelowia 7 J 2 . Borya 712. 
Broussonetia 577 to 584, 704. 
Bumelia 51^5-8. 
Caprifolium 5 1 6 to 525. ^ 
Carpoxis 714, 725. 
Carpodetus 607. 
Castanea 695-98. 
Ceanothus 607 to 621. 
Celastrus 506. 
Celtis 5 52 to 566. 
Cepbalanthus 538. 
Cepkaloihymus 604. 
Ceratiola 596. 
Chamedryon 653. 
Chionanthus 706 to 711. 
Chrysobalanus 539 to 542. 
Chrysophylum 543-4. 
Cistus 549-51. 
Cladrastis 699, 700. 
Colema 594. 
Cralegus 501. 
Cuni/a 600. 
Cypheola 525. 
Diervilla 529-30. 
Liodeilis 600, 
Diospyros 537. 
Distegia 525-6. 
Empetridia page 48. 
Empetrum 594 to 599. 
Endammia 595. 
Epicostorus 671. 
Euleucum 594. 
Eunemium 525. 
Evonymus 622 to 632. 
Fagus 688 to 694. 
Forestiera 712 to 725. 
Fraxinus 728 to 734. 
Fusticus 579 to 583. 
Gardoquia 600. 



Gonondra 705. 
Hamamelis 509 to 515. 
Horanthes 549-51. 
Hydrangea 677 to 687. 
Hypoma 607. 
Kantemon 523-5- 
Leptalix 730. 
Linociera 706. 
Lonicera 516 to 530. 
Madura 577. 
Mayepea 706. 
Megasteira 676 
Melissa 600. 
Morus 577 to 593. 
Nestronia 503-5. 
Nudilus 715, 727. r .^ 
Ornanthes (Ornus) 754* .' 
Pentinius 623, 632. 
Physcondra 624. 
Physocarpa 667-70. 
Piloblephis 604-5. 
Planora 572. 
Platomesus 622. 
Pieurostena 573-4. 
Polygonum 573-6. 
Pomaderis 607. 
Pyriis 508. 
Rafinesquia 600.3. 
Rhamnus 505, 572. 
Samarpses 733-4. 
Sapindus 531. 
Satureia 604. 
Schizonotus 672-3. 
Sophora 701-4. 
Sorbaria 674. 
Sorbus 508. 
Spermalauxen 575-6. 
SpiKADiA page 61. 
Spirea 633 to 676. 
Spondolobus 542. 
Symphoria 528. 
Toxylon 577-8. 
Trilopus 509-15. 
Ulmus 567 to 572. 
Virgilia 699 to 705. 
Viscum 532-6. 
Xeromalon 501-3. 
Xylosteon 527. 
Zanthyrsis 701-2. 



NOTICE. 



This Work will contain six similar parts 
forming a thick Volume of over 600 pages, the 
price of which is $ 5 for Subscribers or Contri- 
butors, or Booksellers, each number One Dol- 
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The Flora Telluriana is a companion to this, 
same form, size and price. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THIS WORK. 

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% 



c 



NEW FLORA 



OF 




NORTH AMERICA, f 



BY 



4. 



PROF, RAFINESaUE. 



1'// 



FOURTH PART. 

Neobotanon. 



PHILJIDELPHIJI 



-»»•••«— 



1836. 



NEW FLORA 

AND BOTANY 



OF 



IVORTH A ^1 ERICA 



OR 



A SUPPLEMENTAL FLORA, 

ADDITIONAL TO ALL THE BOTANICAL WORKS ON 
NORTH AMERICA AND THE UNITED STATES. 

Containing 1000 new or revised Species. 

BY C. S. RAFINESaUE A. M. Ph. D. 

Prof, of Botany, the Historical and Natural 
Sciences, member of many learned Societies. 

IN FOUR PARTS. 

I Lexicon and Monographs. 

II Neophvton &c. 

III New Sylva &c, 

IV Neobotanon &c — with Introductions, 
Sketches, Notes, Indexes, &c. 



The floral wealth in this wide land concealed 
Will be at last by learned care revealed, 

PHILADEI^PHIA. 

1836. 

Price Five Dollars — $20 for 5 Copies. 



rVEOBOTAIVOIV. 



NEW FLORA 

AKD BOTANY 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA. 

BEING A SUPPLEMENTAL FLORA, 

To the various Floras and Botanical Works 
of Michaux, Muhlenberg. Pursh, Nuttal, El- 
liot, Torrey, Beck, Eaton, Bigelow, Barton, 
Robin, Hooker, Riddell, Darlington, Schvveinitz 
Gibbs, <Slc. 

Besides the great works of Linneus, Wilde- 
now, Vahl, Vitman, Persoon, Larnark, Decan- 
dole, Sprengel, Jussieu, Adanson, Necker, 
Lindley, &c. containing nearly 500 additional 
or revised New Genera, and 1500 additional 
or corrected New Species, illustrated by figures 

inAuTIKOJV BOTANIKON. 

BY C. S. RAFINESaUE, A. M.— PH. D. 

Prof, of Botany, the historical and natural sciences — 
Member of many learned Societies of Paris, Vienna, 
r.onn, Bru.vlles, Bordeaux, Zurich, Naples, &c. and 
in Philadelphia, New York, Cincinati, Lexington, &c. 



The Flhral wecdlh In this wide land cucealed. 
Will be at last by learhtd cure revealed 



PHILADELP HIA: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER. 

1836. 



NOTICE. 

Botanists and Naturalists are informed that 
this work and nearly all my other works, man- 
uscripts, figures, specimens c^c now forming a 
long Catalogue in my Bulletins, may be had 
from me either sold and exchanpied for their 
own works, if they are not too costly. — My pub- 
lished works extend besides IJotany, to all the 
other branches of Natural History, American 
History, Monuments and Languages, Ethno- 
graphy and Geography, Astronomy with Celes- 
tial and Biblical Philosophy ; Travels, Journals 
and Miscellanies &c.^ — The Catalogues are 
given or sent gratis. 

The other works to be produced by myself 
gradualy until 1840 and 1850, will also be nu- 
merous — my History of the American Nations 
before and after Columbus was suspended after 
two volumes were issued ; but shall now be re- 
sumed speedily, and the next volumes comprize 
the History of the Tsalagis or Cherokis. — Of 
the Tols, Chols, Chontals &c, and other Atlan- 
tic Nations of Central America. — Of theMuyz- 
cas and other Nations of New Grenada. — Of 
the Nations of Austral America ^^c. These 
being some of the most obscure parts of Ameri- 
can History, may become very interesting, and 
my researches will throw some new lights on 
those Nations, their origines, events and civili- 
zation. 



INTRODUC TIO N . 
To the Fourth and last Part. 

I have already explained that the delay in 
the completion of this work, was mainly owing 
to the contemporaneous publication of my 
Flora Telluria^a, where I inserted the natu- 
ral classification, main principles of natural 
Botany, and nearly '2000 newor revised Genera 
or Species (under 1225 articles) whereof many 
from North America likewise. I now conclude 
this work like the Fl. Telluriana in 4 parts, 
which will include over 1000 new Species with 
some new Genera, many revised Monographs 
<Slc ; but yet this is merely one half of what I 
have ready to publish on our Flora, in order to 
correct the glaring errors and omissions of our 
Botanists. 

Whereas Prof. Torrey has been at last indu- 
ced to undertake a general Flora of North 
America, a task which 1 had suggested to him 
many years ago, I shall delay my future addi- 
tions^ and corrections until after his Flora is 
published. I call it his Flora, although he hopes 
that Nuttal and others will help him, because 
he means to insert in it only what he has seen 
and ascertained, according to his own notions 
of Species and Genera, overlooking varieties 
and deviations of specific or generic Types; an 
error into which he has fallen in common with 
several other Botanists, who have reluctantly 
adopted the natural methods of Botany. — But 
time wall rectify these absurd and obsolete no- 
tions, and as we now restore, adopt and value 
the labors, genera and varieties noticed by the 
fathers of correct or natural Botany, Adanson, 
Jussieu, Necker, Richard. Lamark Sec, those of 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

our modern Improvers will be along with mine 
properly valued in due time — There is a ten- 
dency to resist improvements and neglect facts 
for awhile by the old scho;)ls of science, which 
are afterwards taken hold of by more liberal and 
enlightened teachers or pupils. 

Therefore my own Flora and that of Torrey 
will not interfere in the least, but be supplemen- 
tal to each other ; while his labor will proba- 
bly save me the trouble of writing many Mo- 
nographs, or verifying many synonyms and quo- 
tations. When his Flora will be concluded, I 
shall have me; ely to publish my additions to it, 
in order to complete our real General Floka, 
of all the plants actualy known to me or others. 

It is well known that notwithstanding the 
greatest industry and exertions, it is not possi- 
ble for any botanist (or even a set of them) to 
collect or see all the plants of a vast region like 
our own: therefore there are many plants known 
only to. myself or a few others ; and if besides 
they are short sighted, or lack the botanical sa- 
gacity of ascertaining generic and specific char- 
acters, it may happen that they will overlook 
many such, even when met with in the woods 
or in herbals. 

As I think that I am gifted with a peculiar 
sharp sigacity in discriminating Genera and 
Species of Plants and Animals, it behoves me 
to use it in order to rectify these objects and 
the sciences relating thereto. — It is what I have 
often done, am now doing, and will continue to 
do as long as I live, not being prevented by the 
sneer or neglect or any one. whom I consider 
less sagacious than myself, who cannot discri- 
minate between the most conspicuous charac- 
ters blended by the Linneists or modern Blen- 
ders and Shufflers. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

One of my main future works will be a conf- 
plete Sylva of North America on our Trees and 
Shrubs reduced to natural orders. Another en 
our Ferns &c. There will bo much to do yet 
in all the botanical classes, before they be pro- 
perly rectified and made permanent. There is 
an ample field of observations and researches in 
the vast regions extending from Florida to 
Texas, Origon and Boreal America, and con- 
taining more Gen. and Sp. than Europe; even 
excluding the Mexican and Tropical States till 
Panama, that afford a vegetation equaly fruitful. 
Some of my future Monographs of the Genera 
or groups Prunus, Plantngo, Gentiana<t Eu' 
phorbia, Vaccinmm^ Andromeda SlcvjiW con- 
tain from 40 to 80 Species. 

In this last part of my Supplemental Flora, I 
will chiefly describe some of the most select and 
rare plants or shrubs which I have in my Her- 
barium ; they are all figured in my Autikon 
like the others. — And I can vouch that they 
are all as good and genuine Species as any of 
our modern botanists, and much better than 
one half of the linnean Species of old, often 
blending half a dozen ; as in the Genera Gera- 
nium^ Lichen^ Conferva, Agaricus, Aster, Eu- 
phorbia, Veronica, Jnsticia, and 100 similar 
families rather than Genera, that included 10 
to 50 Good natural Genera, comingled as men 
are comingled with the Monkeys, and Bats with 
Birds ! ! ! by many ignorant men or pseudo- 
philosophers lacking the sagacity of perceiv- 
ing distinctions of parts and forms. 



J^EOBOTANON 

OR SELECTED NEW PLANTS ^C. 

DICOTYLES. 

735. OTAMPLIS Raf. Dioical, perigone 
Gphyle, Ssepals internal narrower, male fl. 6 sta- 
mens monadelphous at base. Female fl. ovary 
single ovate, stigma sessile large capitate sublo- 
bate. Fruit a single monosperm berry ? Volu- 
ble, leaves alternate, Jl. axillary racemose — 
Akin in habit (fee to Menispermum, but not 
even of same family, lacking the multiple ber- 
ries; it must form with Pseliiim of Loureiro 
another small family of plants, the PSELIDES 
distinct by single ovary and the stamens not op- 
posed to equal petals. Pselhim of Lour. Mart. 
Bosc, Smith, Decand. &lc differs by Perigone 
with 4 sepals, 6 free stamens in male flowers, 
stigma Ifid. The Ps. heterophylum is a twin- 
ing shrub, with alternate entire leaves, growing 
in Anam of Asia. Otamplis derives from Ear- 
ed Vine, 

736. Otamplis vitifolia Raf. stem twining 
striate, leaves on long petiols palmate or lobed, 
Snerved, glaucous beneath, base reniform, lobes 
acuminate entire, ovate in lower leaves, sinusses 
obtuse ; racemes shorter than petiols subcom- 
pound. — A large herbaceous Vine, leaves quite 
smooth, lower ample 6 to 8 inches broad, petiols 
8 to 10 inches long, upper smaller with 3 short 
lobes, racemes hardly over one inch long, flow- 
ers small geminate or ternate, whitish, sepals 
ovatoblong obtuse deciduous, the inner ones 
smaller and whiter. On Red River in Arkan- 
zas and Texas. My specimens are marked a 
N. G. akin to Menispermum in Collins Herba- 
rium, 



NORTH AMERICAN 9 

737. DIDIPLIS Raf. 1833. Calix persistent 
campanulate 4fid, segments unequal acute. Co- 
rolla none. Stamens 2, filaments exerted, an- 
thers rounded, stigmas 2 subsessile. Capsule 
globular bilocular polysperm. Leaves oppo- 
site, flowers axillary sessile. — A very distinct 
Genus blended with Peplis by Nuttal and De- 
candole, which has a calix 12fid and 6 stamens! 
the Peplis indica with spicate flowers, calix 8 
dent. 4 stamens &lc, is also a peculiar Genus 
Nexilis Raf. meaning not with 6, while Didi- 
plis means two doubling. 

738. DiDiPLis LINEARIS Raf. atl, J. and flo- 
rula tex. 16 — Peplis diandra Nuttal in Dec. 
prodr. — Stem terete ramose, leaves sessile prox- 
imate decussate patent linear obtuse uninerve, 
flowers sessile solitary axillary. — An aquatic 
plant of Red River, Texas and Arkanzas,habit 
of Callitriche, leaves narrow elongate uncial, 
flowers small green. In Collins Herb, it was 
marked a N. G. near Lythrum. 

739. DiPHYLEiA CYMOSA Mx. This fine plant 
seen by few, is so rare that its existence was 
doubted by some of our skeptics, notwithstand- 
ing the two fine figures of Michaux. It is a 
vernal plant of the Unaka and Cheroki Mts, 
where few botanists have dwelt or travelled. 
My specimen in Col. Herb, was collected by 
Lyons, and is in fruit, the angular stem has only 
one leaf 6 inches broad, very angular but hardly 
dentate, the cyme is trifid and ramose, berries 
subovate obliqual. If it is a deviation it may 
be called var. trifida. 

740. DISCOPLIS Raf. Dioical, male fl . . . 
female fl. calix persistent oval hirsute 4dentate, 
ovary sessile sub4gone warty, stigma sessile 
large sulcate. Fruit inclosed in calix, indehis- 

2 



10 NEOBCn. 

cent Akena or nut bilocular disperme, outside 
compressed discoidal rugose, 2 sides compressed 
sulcate, edges echinate, integument thick and 
hard, 2 oblong seeds inside. Herbaceous, leaves 
opposite, flowers in slefider spikes — a most 
singular N. G. with very peculiar fruit, proba- 
bly akin to the Euphorbides, or rather Tragi- 
DES, but the male flowers are required to ascer- 
tain positively the natural affinities, perhaps 
even a typical Genus if they have 4 stamens in- 
serted on a similar calix. The name means 
discus armed. 

741. DiscoPLis SERRATA Raf. stem weak 
2-3chotome flexuose smooth, leaves remote pe* 
tiolate ovate serrate acute ; spikes terminal 
filiform, bracts oblong longer than short pedun- 
cles. — From South Florida and Cuba, my spe- 
cimeUiS one foot high collected by Kin, stem fus- 
cate, leaves acute at both ends yet subdeltoid 
and even sometime subcordate, some white 
hairs scattered above, spikes subracemose naked 
slender 3 to 4 inches long, with minute bracts, 
flowers small subsessile, the^ lower ones com>- 
monly abortive, remote and green, quite hairy. 

742. Plantago multinervis Raf. Scapose, 
leaves petiolate subpilose broad lanceolate, at- 
tenuate at both ends, remotely dentate 9 nerved; 
scape longer sulcate hirsute, spike elongate, 
flowers scattered or interrupted, flowers smooth, 
calix carinate, bracts subequa) ovate acute, 
style elongate persistent — found in Florida by 
Kin (Col. Herb.) near to PL inierrupta which 
differs by entire leaves, with few nerves, shorter 
leaves and flowers, short bracts, calix not cari- 
nate &/C . , . Here the leaves are 6 to 8 inches 
long, nearly 2 broad, spikes 6 to 10 inches long. 
Capsule disperme. 



NORTH AMERICAN 11 

743. Plantago albiflora Raf. scapose, 
'leaves petiolate ample ovate, acute at both ends 
base repaiid dentate, 7nerved, very smooth ; 
scape longer striate subpilose below, spike elon- 
gate imbricate, at base subverticillate, flowers 
smooth, calix and bracts scariose oblong acute, 
style elongate persistent pubescent. — In West 
Kentucky and Tennessee, leaves to 8 inches 
long 3 to 4 broad, subglaucescent, spike very 
long pedal, calix whitish scariose with a green 
nerve. Akin to PL cordata but not at all 
cordate. 

744. Plantago texensis Raf. Scapose, silky 
pilose, leaves elongate sessile linear obtuse 
hardly trinerve, scapes equal or longer terete, 
spike ovate and oblong dense imbricate, bracts 
and calix ovate obtuse villose, segments of co- 
rolla rounded concave, capsule disperme, seeds 
elliptic concave. — A very distinct sp. of Texas 
and Arkanzas, leaves semipedal, broader above^ 
spikes from half inch to two inches long. 

745. Plantago linearis Raf Scapose, 
leaves sessile linear elongate entire quite smooth 
obtuse trinerve rugose ; scape terete pubescent 
above, spike oblong dense, bracts linear triple 
of flowers, calix oblong obtuse. — In Florida 
found by fJaldwin or Kin, nameless in Coll. 
•Herb. Perennial as most sp. leaves 2-4 inches 
iong, bracts remarkably long, spike short uncial. 

746. Plantago globosa Raf. Scapose, leaves 
sessile lanceolate uncial, base wooly, entire un- 
cial, scapes longer filiform sulcate, spike glo- 
bose minute dense, bracts and calix scariose 
fulvous ovate acute. — Small, akin to PL indica 
and my PL atrofasca, leaves seldom over one 
inch, scapes 2 or 3 inches long, spike quite ca- 
pitate very small as in PL indica. From South 



V2 NEOBOT. 

New Jersey to Florida in sandy soil, near Sea 
Shores, 

747. Plantago amblodes Raf, Scapose, 
leaves subsessile uncial oblong cuneate ?rinerve 
large obtuse teeth, margin and nerves ciliate ; 
sca{3cs hardly longer pubescent angular, spikes 
oblong densiflore pubescent, bracts equal ovate 
acute — Another small sp. from the banks of 
Arkanzas and Yazou Rivers. Some leaves are 
subpectinate by elongate teeth. 

1 have described above 6 of my most distinct 
s[). of this Genus, 2 others Fl. gonophyla and 
atrofusca of Illinois are in Atlantic Journal 
page 150 ; but I have in my Herbarium a crowd 
of other N. Sp. and varieties, some of which are 
blended with VI. cordata^ media, lanceolata^ 
major ^c of our botanists ; when I shall pre- 
pare a Monograph of this G. they shall be dis- 
tinguished. I have called them P/. elliptical 
compressa, crassifolia, undulata, repanda., 
rolundifolia^ riparian longipes, pycnanthes, 
paticiflora, pilosa, brevifolia, breviseapis, 
erlorhiza, serpentaria, peregrina, balduini. 
. 748. LiTTORELLA FLExuosA Raf. This G. 
was not deemed American, and this sp. will 
form perhaps a N. G. when examined alive ; it 
is at least a subgenus, which I call Xamotris 
(dwarf raceme) and it differs by calix unequal, 
imhricate segments of inner perig. or corolla 
also unequal. Habit scapes racemose with- 
out bracts. Scapose, leaves cespitose linear 

obtuse falcate smooth, base wooly, entire or 
with a few scattered gashes, uninerve ; scapes 
shorter flexuose racemose pauciflore — Sent me 
from Alabama and found in Arkanzas by Nut- 
tal. deemed by him a nameless Plantago in Coll. 
herb, annual, leaves 1 or 2 inches long narrow, 



NORTH AMERICAN 13 

scapes with 5 to 7 flowers on long pedicels, ca- 
lix lanceolate acute, segments of corolla linear 
acute, 3 or 4 as in Littorella, some flowers ge- 
minate. 

749. RiviNA or Pieiicea acuminata Raf. 
Ric. hvis of Mg. and Nut. In Col. Herb, not of 
Antilles nearer to hrasiliensis ! — Herbaceous 
smooth, stem branched sulcate, leaves ovate 
oblong acuminate base rounded, margin subre- 
pand ; racemes axillary erect longer than leaves 
— From Florida to Arkanzas, 2 or 3 feet high, 
leaves 3 inches long thin and petiolate, racemes 
4 to 6 inches long, flowers white, sepals of peri- 
gone 4 ovatoblong obtuse persistent and green- 
ish after anthesis, stamens 4 or isopere as in 
the real G. Piercea of Miller, see my fl. tellur. 
635, Rivina having 8 or 12 stamens. Habit 
like Phytolaca but berries globular one seeded, 
types of x\at. Family Rivinidia fl. tel. 634, 

750. Rivina or Piercea obliquata Raf 
Riv. humilis of some Am. hot. not of Antilles — 
Herbaceous nearly smooth stem simple sulcate, 
leaves ovatoblong subrepand, base commonly 
obliqual, end attenuate obtuse and mucronate, 
petiols somewhat pubescent, racemes erect 
equal to leaves. — "^ everal sp. have been blend- 
ed in R. humilis, this is quite distinct, found in 
Florida by Baldwin; a small plant hardly pe- 
dal, leaves smaller 1 or 2 inches long, pubes- 
cence extendin^f sometimes to nerves and race- 
mes, these short with fewer and smaller flow- 
ers, sepals of calix linear oblong obtuse whitish, 
style elongate, stig. capitate — as our botanists 
have mistaken these two plants (they are not in 
Elliot) it may be needful to state that the real 
R. or P. hufnilis is frutescent quite pubescent, 
riot sulcate, with acuminate leaves and larger 



14 NEOBOT. 

red berries. — While R. or P. levis has stem 
terete, leaves not repand marginate of red, and 
ilowers redish also with obovate sepals. 

751. Pi.U3iBAGo FLORiDANA Raf. (ColHns 
herb) stem slender virgate angular, smooth, 
leaves minute ovate acute, spike slender base 
squamose denudate, flowers terminal few,bracts 
ovate reflexed, calix with stipitate glands. — 
This G. was not known to be N. American, the 
specimen of Collins was collected by Ware in 
East Elorida, it is pedal, with small leaves and 
flowers less than one inch long. 

752. Melothria nigra Raf. 1820, An. nat. 
112, M. pendula E. and most of our Authors, 
stem, filiform angular trailing, leaves roughish 
subreniform Slobed remotely denticulate, petiols 
filiform elongate, flowers polygamous and mo- 
fioical, peduncles uniflore, in the male multifl. 
berries globular smooth, pisiform black, — From 
Carolina to Kentucky, trailing 3 to 10 feet, 
leaves and flowers small, these yellow. It has 
several var. see my Monographs ; but all are 
distinct from the M. pendula of Antilles, Lin- 
tieus said that sp. grew from C^anada to Jama- 
ica, but I never found it in the Northern States, 
others have and ascribe to it a red berry, is it 
another sp. or the next ? In this the berries are 
shining black scarcely larger than a pea, 

753. MELOTfiuiA repanda Raf Stem sul- 
fate twining, leaves thick roughish cordate 5an- 
gular subtrilobe, repand sinuate, teeth obtuse 
mucronate, peduncles tmiflore, berries oblong 
©liveform smooth. — This is most likely the sp. 
of Linneus and many botanists, although L. as- 
cribes an oliveform tuberculate berry to his, 
petiols shorter than leaves and peduncles, I can- 
laot say if the berries are black or red, my spe- 



WORTH AMERICAN 15 

cimen is from Arkanzas. 

754. Melotiiria punctata Raf. stem fili- 
form angular, leaves cordate 5angular smooth- 
entire or subdentate, thin glaucous with minute 
black dots on both sides, petiols equal to leaves 
filiform ; peduncles uniflore, berries red elliptic 
oliveform smooth — sent me from New Orleans 
by Dr, Riddell as the M. pendula, the dots ap- 
pear black glands as in Hypericum, berries ap- 
parently red in the specimen, shape and size of 
a barberry. 

755. Melothria pendula (or edulis) L. 
Brown, Lunan. Sw, and Antillian Authors. — 
Seandent. petiols auriculate or alate, leaves 
rough trilobe or triangular subcordate sinuate, 
obtuse, fl. polyg. dioical, peduncles uniflore, 
berries pendulous ovate black size of a nutmeg. 
In Jamaica and the Antilles, totally unlike the 
two others, fruit very large eaten when ripe and 
pickled unripe says Lunan, probably also in 
Florida and cultivated in Louisiana. 

756. RIDDELIA Raf. family Cleomides— 
calix 5 sepals subequal, petals 5 unequal, sta- 
mens filiform short, commonly 5 subequal in- 
serted on a flat disk, ovary sessile oblong, stig- 
ma sessile obtuse. Pod sessile, linear compres- 
sed bivalve polysperme bilocular, partition 
contrary to valves, edges thick flattened. Jtru- 
tescent, leaves simple stipmate, alternate flow- 
ers, extra-axillary solitary. — Another pretty 
G. of the family Cleomidia, which now contains 
25 at least, (see my reform of it ; ) this is re- 
markable by habit and fruit near to the G. Pe- 
ri toma, Warea, N. Vodolobiis R. or Stanley a 
N. &c but distinct from all these, yet they all 
belong to my family of Cleomidks, not a sec- 
tion of Capparides. Dedicated to Dr. John 



16 NEOBOT. 

Riddell who sent it to me from New Orleans as 
an unknown G. with several other rare plants, 
he is the author of a Western Flora and disco- 
verer of many new plants there. If his name 
has been employed already, we may substitute 
Antiphyla serrata Raf. 

757. RiDDELiA ANTIPHYLA Raf. Loaves 
smooth lanceolate acute, equaly serrate, petiols 
short pubescent, stipules subulate ; peduncles 
extraxilary unifl. equal to petiols, sepals colored 
linear lanceolate acuminate pubescent, petals 
subequal cuneate obtuse, pod divergent strait 
equal to leaves — apparently a virgate shrub, 
branches fuscate terete rimose, leaves and pods 
uncial, almost opposite to each other, flowers 
yellow small, stamens 5 or 6, shorter than flow- 
ers. Pods fuscate smooth, seeds black com- 
pressed squared truncate. 

758. Sesuvium verkucosum Raf. prostrate 
roughened by warts, leaves thick petiolate obo- 
vate and cuneate obtuse entire, flowers axillary 
subsessile commonly solitary — a very distinct 
sp. with the habit of Portulaca oleracea, but en- 
entirely covered with rough tubercules and 
warts, when dry of a fulvous glaucous color al 1 
over, many branches, leaves small, flowers 1 to 
3 in the axils, campanulate, white inside, sta- 
mens many, and thus totaly unlike the S. pen- 
tandrum of Elliot which is my G. Squihbia 
maritima. This sp. was sent me from Arkan- 
zas and the Chacta Conntry, where it grows 
near streams on the Yazou and Salt River. 

759. Spergula falcata Raf. Diffuse de- 
cumbent smooth glaucous, leaves linear falcate 
acute, base connate, peduncles axillary equal to 
internodes and leaves, erect, segments of calix 
ovate obtuse equal to petals and capsule, — On 



NORTH AMERICAm 17 

the banks of the lower Ohio, and Missouri ri- 
vers, a small plant extending 3 to 6 inches with 
many short branches, leaves 3 lines long. 

760. DioNEA sEssiLiFLORA Raf. atl. J. 78. 
Petiols winged oblong or cuneate narrow, acute 
at both ends, leaves bilobe ; flowers sessile agre- 
gate 3 to 5, bracts lanceolate. — The beautiful 
G. Dionea is no longer monotype but has devia- 
ted sp. 1>. miiscipula the type is quite distinct 
from this by petiols broadly obcordate, flowers 
corymbose. Seen alive in our gardens as well 
as a variety Uniflora, smaller uniflore, with 
broader shorter leaves, petiols oblong acute 
winged. Both native of Carolina, flowers white 
estival, leaves irritable in all. This G. is the 
type of a Nat. Family Dionidia different from 
Alsinidia by single style. 

BORAGINES 

761. PuLMONARiA ELLiPTicA R. Icavcs ellip- 
tic acute at both ends, the radical on very long 
petiols, upper ovate ; flowers axillary peduncu- 
late nodding, calix with short segments lanceo- 
late acute. — In the Apalachian Mts. of Virginia 
and Carolina, stem smooth branched bipedal, 
flowers blue and small. 

762. LiTHosPERiviTJivi GRAciLE Raf. annual, 
silky villose, stem slender erect virgate naked 
below, leaves petiolate linear acute adpressed, 
flowers terminal subsessile, tube of corolla 
longer than calix, segments of corolla oblong 
obtuse. — A very striking sp. sent me from Ala- 
bama and found on Red River Arkanzas and 
Texas by Nuttal in Collins herb, where noted 
as perhaps a N. G. but I see no difference, un- 
less the fruit be different, the corolla is realy 
funnel shape, but the lobes deeper or longer. 
Stem semipedal nearly simple, leaves uncial 

3 



18 NEOBOT. 

sometimes revolute on the margin, flowers ter- 
minal axillary white and small. 

763. LiTHosPERMUM STRiGosuM Raf, quitc 
warty strigose, leaves sessile ovatoblong, fl. ax- 
ilary sessile, calix lanceolate rugose verrucose 
strigose, seeds fuscate obovate. — In Florida, 
found by Kin, my specimen is only in seed, pe- 
dal covered all over with white warts ending in 
a white rigid hair forming a great roughness, 
leaves uncial rigid, calix large unequal. 

701. LiTHOSFERMUM CUSPIDATUM Raf. Stcm 

erect ramose sulcate hirsute, hairs spreading, 
leaves linear lanceolate cuspidate rugose ciliolate 
hirsute rough ; flowers axillary solitary, subses- 
sile, seeds smooth lucid ovate fulvous not punc- 
tate. — In Alabama and Georgia, pedal, leaves 
uncial narrow, branches short erect angular. 
Very different from L. angusti folium Mx. 

765. LiTHosPERMUM ciLiATUM Raf. annual 
erect subdichotome above, hardly hispid, leaves 
sessile linear obtuse ciliate, flowers axillary sub- 
sessile, segments of calix linear ciliate as long 
as corolla. — Found by Hart on Red River and 
by Drumond in Texas, semipedal slender few 
leaves, flowers subracemose. 

766. LiTHOSFERMUM FLORiDANUM Raf. an- 
nual erect ramose canescent, hairs adpressed, 
stem terete, leaves linear lanceolate acute, flow- 
ers subracemose, calix equal to tube of corolla, 
seeds pilose. — In Florida much branched, leaves 
rather lax patent, linear on the branches, flow- 
ers chiefly pedunculate, but some sessile, with 
or without bracts, segments of calix more une- 
qual than usual, lobes of corolla obovate, seeds 
yellow pilose globular. 

I have thus added 5 sp. to this G. which had 
already 7 in Eaton, but some of these do not be- 



NORTH A.VIERICAN 19 

long to the Genus, the L. latifoUum forms my 
G. Cyphorlma 1819 having 5 pits outside' of 
the mouth of corolla, with 5 corresponding knobs 
inside. 

707. Batschia albiflora Raf. annual, glau- 
cous, hairs all over white adpressed, stem sim- 
ple, leaves petiolate ovate acute, flowers few 
terminal, tube of corolla equal to calix. limb 
campanulate large plicate hardly lobed. — On 
the River Arkanzas on sand bars found by 
Nuttal, deemed a N, G. but quite like Batschia 
although habit a little different and corolla less 
lobed, if a subgenus it may be called Onokiles 
a Grecian name of Anchusa. Pedal, first leaves 
opposite, small hardly uncial, flowers few large. 

768. Lvcorsis ? axillaris Raf stem flexu- 
ose angular, leaves sessile linear lanceolate 
slightly scabrous and pubescent, flowers axillary 
sessile, calix villose tomentose canescent — 
Found in Florida by Mr. Ware, marked a Ly- 
copsis in Coll, herb, but habit rather of Litho- 
spermum, small plant, leaves elongate, over one 
inch long. Very different from L. vlrginica^ 

0?,IBELLIFEROUS FLAJVTS. 

7G9, MESODISCUS Raf dioical involucre 
1 or none,involucels 2, male fl. with a thick len- 
ticular disk convex central, no calix ! no style I 
petals 5 obcordato, stamens 5 equal to petals, 
anthers globose bilobe, female fl. and seeds un- 
known .... Leaves commonly ternate, flow- 
ers icldte. — Very singular Genus, perfectly di- 
oical, which appears a paradox in this family of 
plants: several G. however are polygamous. 
Although the fruit is lacking yet this Genus ap- 
pears perfectly distinct and unlike any other 
except the next. I have 2 sp. of it, one of 
which is anomalous again by a triple compound 
umbel. 



fO NEOBOT. 

770. Mesodiscus simplex Raf. stem terete 
solid base subangular few leaved, leaves remote, 
petiols angular, folioles 3 entire oblong or lan- 
ceol. acute, middle one acuminate; umbel single 
involucre none, involucels 2 setaceous, 7 umbel- 
lules 9-12flore, pedicels unequal, petals obcor- 
date concave. — Sent me from Alabama, stem 
slender pedal or more, folioles uncial, last leaf 
a single linear foliole remote from umbel, flow- 
ers quite white. — Var. major has stem bipedal, 
the lower leaf with 5 folioles. 

771. Mesodiscus proliferus Raf. stem te- 
rete solid, leaves remote, petiols carinate, foli- 
oles 3 or .5 lanceolate entire very acute, some- 
times falcate : umbel thrice compound, first in- 
volucre with 5 linear folioles, second involucres 
none or one linear, commonly 5 umbellules, 
7-15flore, involucels 21inear, petals flat obovate 
scarcely obcordate. — Also from Alabama,leaves 
gometimes with only 2 folioles, the lower have 
5 subpinnate. Quite smooth and with white 
flowers like the last : the triple umbel is a great 
anomaly. 

772. ^^ AT ARIA R. ombelif. polygamous. 
Involucre none or 1 or 2 minute, involuces 3-6 
subulate. Calix minute 5toothed petals equal 
round obcordate incurved, 5short stamens, disk 
almost conical, 2 short styles divaricate. Seeds 
elliptic flat and thin, 5 striated, convexely in- 
curved, surrounded by a thick fungose white 
margin over both seeds. Leaves ternate, flow- 
ers ocliroleucons — united to Peucedanon by 
Nuttal (who did not see the perfect flowers) 
which differs by petals oblong, seeds oval wing- 
ed around, flowers yellow «^'C. Sataria was an 
ancient name of Peucedanon. A few male 
flowers are mixt in umbels. 



NORTH AMERICAN HI 

773. Sataria LINEARIS R. Peucedanon ter- 
naturn Nut. &,c. Stem virgate terete solid stri- 
ate, leaves few remote on long petiols, folioles 3 
sessile linear, very long and narrow, acute at 
both ends ; umbels axillary and terminal, invol. 
linear or none, umbelules 5-7 and pauciflore — 
In Alabama and Georgia, perennial smooth, 
commonly 3 leaves and 3 umbels, folioles 2 or 3 
inches long — Var. longipes 5 or 6 leaves, lower 
with petiols exceedingly long 10 to 18 inches, 
umbels l-2terminal. Flowers pale yellowish 
in both. 

774. KERASKOMION R.ombelif. both invol. 
2-3phyle, calix hardly Stoothed, petals obovate 
plicate, stam. filif. styles short divaricate. Fruit 
smooth globose as in Aethusa. Leaves decorti- 
posed,, timhels small,, Jlowers while,, axils huU 
hose — united to Cicuta by the Authors, nearer 
to Aethusa by invol. and seeds, quite peculiar 
by the bnlbose habit. The name was one of the 
Greek terms for Aethusa or Oenanthe. 

775. Kerask. bulbifeuum R. Cicuta bulbif. 
of most of our botanists — stem ramose terete 
fistulose, lower leaves triternate, others biter- 
nate or ternate, folioles linear serrate pectinate, 
upper simple entire, bulbs gemmular squamu- 
lose ; umbels terminal naked — a very singular 
plant growing on banks of streams from Canada 
to Virginia, described on the living plants, and 
found very different from Cicuta. Flowers es- 
tival, minute and white, sometimes hardly any 
but bulbs profuse, they appear to reproduce the 
plant, are real buds with oval acute scales (as 
in buds of trees.) Stem bipedal, leaves some- 
times subverticillate. It is doubtful whether 
the linnean plant is not different, Linneus says 



'22 x\EOBOT. 

stem angular and leaves capillary, Michaux 
says like Fennel. My plant is not such, but 
they may have seen bad specimens. 

Genus DAUCUS and akin. 
Here is a striking instance of the blending 
propensity of our Botanists, who do not take 
care to look sharp, overlooking the most evi- 
dent characters. I can speak with confidence, 
since I did the same for 20 years concerning 
our wild Carrots, until at last having noticed 
some kinds with bipinnatijid involucres and 
others with entire involucres^ I was led to no- 
tice observe and revise the genus and akin. It 
had even been supposed that our Carrots were 
naturalized, while they are found native in the 
wildest localities. My researches have already 
led me to ascertain 3 genera and a dozen spe- 
cies, all probably deemed D. carotta or pnsil- 
lus when seen by others. I'he nature of the 
involucres and seeds is essentialy generic here, 
else DciKCUs and Caucalis should be only one 
Genus. The G. Dasyspermum 295 of Necker 
which he says had a fruit hispid muricate all 
over, includes also several, since it was formed 
out of Tordyliuni,Conium, Ammi and Scandix ! 
having muricate seeds. 

776. DAUOUS Raf. involucres pinnate or 
multifid, partial with entire or trifid folioles. 
calix 5tc)othed, petals obovate emarg. inflexed, 
outer often larger radical unequal, heeds with 
4 aculeate v.ings. Leaves decomposed^ floic- 
ers white or red. — This is the type to which be- 
long the real Carrots : I must now add here for 
contrast all the Genera blended thereto. For 
the sp.see 783 to 792. 

777. TIRICTA Raf. involucres simple 
polvphyle, partial similar, flowers polygamous 



NORTH AMERICAN 23 

radiate. Calix entire, styles divaricate, stig- 
mas capitate, petals 5 unequal plicate involute. 
Seeds unequal oblong, with 1 or 3 ribs unequaly 
echinate cristate. Habit of Dauciis. The 
name was an ancient one for Daucus. 

778. TiRicTA DAucoiDEs Raf. stem virgate 
terete smooth ; leaves few, lower on long pe- 
tiols, upper sessile, bipinnate, folioles linear con- 
fluent cuspidate, margin rough ; 2 or 3 umbels 
on long peduncles, invol. 5-8phyle, linear entire, 
umbels multiflore longer. — In the Pine barrens 
of South New Jersey, root annual ? white per- 
pendicular not odorous as in Daucus, stem bi- 
pedal simple, leaves slender, flowers small white 
autumnal. Compare the Leptocaulis echinatus 
of Nuttal. 

779. BABIRON Raf involucre none, par- 
tial oligophyle simple. Flowers similar, none 
male nor radiate. Calix hardly 5toothed, pe- 
tals ovate obtuse flat equal. Fruit ovate round- 
ed smooth, seeds with several rows of small 
scaly tubercles. Habit of Amrni and Lepto- 
caulis. — How distinct from the last, the name 
was also an ancient one of Daucus in Egypt, 3 
sp. at least, some of which are among the hep- 
tocaulis of Nuttal in Decandole, but not of same 
Genus. 

780. Babiron pusillum Raf. annual quite 
smooth, stem simple filiform striate, leaves short 
2-3pinnate, segments linear acute, the upper se- 
taceous ; umbels trifid terminal filiform, invo- 
lucre none or 1 subulate, partial 3-4subulate, 
umbelules 3-5flore, pedicels unequal — sent me 
from Alabama, and by Dr. Torrey from Geor- 
gia as the Daucus pusillus ! see 788. Stem 4 
to 6 inches high redish, leaves small finely cut, 



24 NEOBOT. 

flowers minute few white. Nearer to hepto- 
caiiiis than to Daucus. 

781. Babiron divaricatum Raf. Daucusdo 
Walter, Lteptocaulis do N. Dec. Ammi do 
Pers, and again Ijigusticum pusillum Persoon! 
(Elliot) Sison pusillum Mx. Pursh, Elliot &c. 
— Annual slender smooth dichotome divaricate, 
leaves triternate multipartite segments linear or 
setaceous, umbel. 5-6fid, umbellules commonly 
triflore, pedicels equal, invol. 3 lanceolate mi- 
nute — in Carolina and Florida, bipedal not hum- 
ble, my specimens are in fruit, brown, realy 
warty, hardly squamose. Here is a sp. put in 
5 Genera! 

782. Babiron dichotomum R. Ammi divar- 
icat. Coll. herb. — Smooth dichotome, leaves 
short bipinnate. segments narrow linear, umbels 
2-4fid, umbelules 3-5flore, pedicels unequal, in- 
volucels 1 to 3 minute — annual like the others, 
with slender stems semipedal, branches diver- 
gent but not divaricate, more like B. pusillum 
than the last, but stem terete not striate nor sim- 
ple, the tubercles of the seeds more scaly. 
Florida. 

783. Daucus scadiophylus Raf. stem grow- 
ed retrose pilose, leaves few short tripinnate 
hirsute, segments linear acute ; involucres 5-6 
foliose hipinnatel partial simple as long as 
flowers, petals equal not radiate seeds hispid. — 
Florida, Alabama and Georgia, a Southern 
Daucus so unlike the others, as to be almost a 
N. G. I shall form a subgenus of it (with the 
next) GiNGiDiuM with involucres bipinnate pe- 
tals not radiate. This is pedal and bipedal, the 
involucres nearly similar to the leaves, flowers 
small, seeds oblong hispid between the muricate 
ribs. D, Ltiicidus, being the same as D. gin- 



OF NORTH AMERICA 25 

gidium, belongs to the same subgenusr 

784. Daucus scariosus Raf. stem grooved 
foliose retrose pilose, leaves 2-3pinnate, seg- 
ments lanceolate acuminate or cuspidate 5 invo- 
lucres 6-8 foliose hipinnate, partial unequal 
lanceolate white scariose, longer than flowers, 
some trifid. — Annual or biennal root not odor- 
ous, leaves long and narrow, nerved. — Var. sim- 
plex simple stem pedal, a single umbel, hardly 
hispid — Var. ramosus branched hirsute, invo- 
lucres hardly bipinnate, very long segments 
sometimes trifid. Found by myself in the glades 
of Pennsylv. autumnal, petals apparently not 
radiate, thus a Gingidium also. 

785. Daucus brevicaulis R. Scabrous, stem 
nearly naked, lower leaves nearly as long tri- 
pinnate, segments confluent oblong bifid mucro- 
nate ; involucres mostly trifid base scariose on 
the margin, linear elongate, partial linear and 
trifid shorter than flowers, petals radiate. — A 
singular sp. found in hills of Pennsylvania and 
near Philadelphia, with ample leaves 6 to 8 
inches long nearly as long as the stem, with 
broad segments, roots biennial hardly odorous 
branched. 

786. Daucus nudicaulis Raf. smooth, sub- 
scapose, scape naked grooved, leaves radical 
bipinnate segments linear laciniate cuspidate ; 
umbel lax, involucres 3-5fid setaceous, partial 
linear equal to flowers, margin scariose, petals 
radiate — found with the last, perhaps a devia- 
tion, but it has another deviation var. pitmila 
only 3 inches high, leaves larger than umbel 
quite linear — while the nudicaulis is 6 to 8 
inches high, with short leaves 3 inches long, root 
white tapering slender. 

787. Daucus levis R. Quite smooth, stem 
4 



26 NEOBOT. 

striate slender, leaves bipinnate small, segments 
linear acuminate ; mnbels small, involucres tri- 
fid shorter, partial simple, petals seldom radiate 
seeds echinate. — Not uncommon in fields and 
woods from New Jersey to Kentucky, pedal, 
leaves quite flat hardly nerved, stem not grooved 
terete. 

788. Daucus pusillus Mx. E. &c. annual, 
stem simple scabrous slender angular, leaves re- 
mote short bipinnate, segments linear acute, 
umbel single pauciflore, involucres trifid, par- 
tial simple, umbelules l-3flore, seeds with wings 
deeply crested. — A sp. deemed doubtful by 
many or a var. of D. carotta like the others, but 
quite distinct ; my specimen collected by Bald- 
win in Florida has only a few retrorse hairs, 3 
small leaves, a small umbel; the seeds are large, 
with white wings deeply cut into pectinate stiff' 
bristly crests. Perhaps a subg. hophioplis near 
Tiricta, 

789. Daucus brevifolius Raf, nearly smooth 
stem terete foliose not grooved, virgate, leaves 
short remote pinnate, folioles pinnatifid seg- 
ments oblong acuminate ; involucres trifid, par- 
tial simple, seeds oblong pubescent hardly echi- 
nate. — Alleghany Mts. &c, pedal, root branch- 
ed not odorous leaves 1 or 2 inches long only, 
umbels small, peduncles sometimes grooved and 
with a few hairs, seeds fuscate small, petals ra- 
diate — Var. Jiliformis, stem filiform striate, in- 
volucres setaceous. 

790. Daucus heterophylus Raf scabrous 
or subhispid, stem grooved branched foliose, 
leaves petiolate decomposed variable, the lower 
3-4pinnate,folioles confluent lanceol. acuminate, 
upper bipinnate, folioles remote linear cuspidate; 
involucres tripartite elongate setaceous, base 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 27 

niarginate of white, partial subulate marginate, 
seeds echinatc. — This is the most common sp. 
from Canada to Louisiana in fields and woods, 
nearest to D. carotta, but yet different. Root 
biennial odorous fulvous slender, stem 1 to 3 
feet high, leaves 3 to 6 inches long, large umbel 
lax at first, contracted at last. Some varieties 
or deviations. 

1. Var. Fiunaroides, Lower leaves liko 
Fumaria 4pinnate segments confluent, some in- 
volucres simple. 

2. Var. Asper, stem very scabrous, leaves 
shorter 2-3pinnate. 

3. Var. LaxifoUuSf nearly smooth, leaves 
with remote folioles. 

It will be sufficient to compare carefully these 
American sp. with the European to perceive 
their distinctions. There are at least 6 sp. in 
Europe blended in D. carotta ! or the garden 
kind native of the South, so easily known by 
large succulent root, stem hirsute deeply groo- 
ved, petiols carinate, broad decompound leaves, 
pinnate involucres &.c — they are D. maritimus. 
polygamous, exigmis, see Pers. Wild. Lam. 
^•c besides the 2 next, now before me. 

79L Daucus strigosus R. strigose covered 
with white bristly hairs, stem grooved, leaves 
subsessile, pinnate and bipinnate, folioles oblong 
laciniate or pinnatifid acute, involucres pinnate 
broad with a thick margin, partial simple lan- 
ceolate. — A very distinct sp. sent me from Eng- 
land as a wild carrot, the hair§ are thickly set 
stiff* and flat, petals radiate. 

792. Daucus agrestis R. stem grooved sca- 
brous, leaves remote subsessile base winged 
pinnate or bipinnate, folioles pinnatifid, seg- 
ments oblong cuspidate ; involucres pinnate or 



•28 NEOBOT. 

trifid base with a white marginal wing, partial 
lanceol. scariose. This is the wild Carrot of 
France and Germany different from the gar- 
den kind, root hard woody, stem 1 or 2 feet 
high, leaves 2 or 3 inches long, petals radiate. 
Also naturalized with us but scarce. 

Thus the G. Daucus must be reformed in G. 
and Sp. the foreign kinds form several other G. 
or Subg. such as 

793. VisNAGA Raf. invol. perianthiform mul- 
tipartite, segments trifid, partial polyphyle, um- 
bels phorantiform at base, petals inflexed bilobe, 
seeds oblong compressed striate smooth — united 
to Ammi as a subg. by modern botanists, but a 
peculiar G. seen alive. Types F. vera and 
meoides. 

794. Ballimon R. invol. o, 1 or 2simple,par- 
tial 2-5simple, seeds with a thick integument 
and 3 rows of uncinate spines — Types B. 9nu- 
ricatiun and maritimnm, both Daucus do, auct. 

795. Peltactila Raf, petals very unequal, 
seeds with spines bearing peltate Stars ! flow- 
ers commonly yellow. — Types P. grandiflora, 
parviflora, aurea, Jiispida &c all Daucus of 
Desf &c. 

796. Staflinus R. seeds semiterete turgid 
ciliate crinite — St. setifolius and cj-initus^ 
Daucus do auct. 

797. ENTASIKON Raf. Polygamous. In- 
volucres 2-3phyl. setaceous, partial simiUir. cal. 
with 5 unequal persistent teeth, petals 5 equal, 
obcordate inflexed, stamens 5 equal, styles 2 
thick ovate persistent, stigma obtuse. Fruit 
oblong smooth angular, lateraly divided by a 
lateral furrow. Leaves decomposed^ flowers 
white. — A very striking G. differing from all 
others known to me by the unequal calix and 



OF NORXfl A3IERICA. 29 

ovate styles. If it is a Trepocarpus of Nuttal, 
how did he neglect these singular characters ! 
The name was a Grecian name of a Chero- 
phylum. 

798. Entasikohi tenuifolium Raf. Atlia- 
manta clierophyloides Nuttal in Coll. herb. 
Trepocarpus aethusa ? Nut. in Dec. — Quite 
smooth, stem angular, leaves pinnate and bi- 
plnnate, folioles linear setaceous acute thin; 
umbels trifid opposed to leaves, ombellules 3-7 
flore, male fl. peduncled, fertile nearly sessile. 
— Found in Arkanzas by xN^uttal, foliage glau- 
cous minutely cut, stem yellowish, umbels pe- 
duncled lateral, flowers white, seeds 4 or 5 
times as long as broad, 

799. EntasikOx\? tuberosum R. Phellan- 
drmm do Nut. in Collins herb. Root tuberose, 
leaves bipinnate, folioles linear obtuse — another 
plant found in Arkanzas, by Nuttal and widely 
separated from the last, although hardly diffor- 
ent, except by broader obtuse folioles. The 
specimens are imperfect, but the roots are oblong- 
rugose twin ; in a note it is stated the stem 
rises 3 or 4 feet high, the upper leaves are near- 
ly simple, and the germination is acotyle ! 

800. UPOPION. Raf. Polygamous or even 
monoical. Involucres none. Calix 5dentate pe- 
tals ovate obtuse flat (dark purple) styles divar- 
icate. Seeds smooth elliptic each with 3 or 4 
unequal large wings, commissure costate. 
\jeaves simple ternate and pinnate, flowers 
dark purple, — This G. has been shuffled into 
Thapsia, Cnidium, Thaspium, Smyrnitun &c 
which like JZizia it must form a peculiar one, 
well distinguished from Thaspium having yel- 
low flowers, by its red flowers, petals not acu- 
minate, large unequal wings &c. The name 



30 NEOBOT. 

was an accient one of Thapsia, and I have as- 
certained 5 species, probably all deviations. 

801. Upopion pinnatum R. stem subangular, 
leaves pinnate, 5 folioles ovatob!ong sessile 
acute serrate, base truncate obliqiial- terminal 
base acuminate; fertile flowers subsessile,seeds 
with very unequal wings. — Discovered 1823 in 
West Kentucky glades and since in several 
other places, Alleghanies &c, pedal, or bipedal, 
perennial like all the sp. folioles 1 or 2 inches 
long, terminal often larger. Flowers estival as 
in all. 

802. Upopion lobatum R. stem striate, 
leaves all trifoliate, lateral folioles subsessile 
obliqual ovate acute serrate more or less lobed 
outside, terminal foliole petiolate, cordate ovate 
often trilobed ; umbels multiflore, fertile and 
sterile flowers on short peduncles seeds elon- 
gate with narrow wings. — In Pennsylvania the 
Alleghanies, Virginia &c, 1-2 feet high, leaves 
sometimes very large, and curiously or various- 
ly lobed or cut, flowers copious sometimes all 
fertile, but seeds unequal in size. — A var. Ri- 
gida or perhaps peculiar sp. has stem and um- 
bels stiff angular canaliculate, folioles large all 
unequal obliqual ovate oblong unequaly serrate, 
lateral sessile, medial base truncate auriculate 
on one side. 

803, Upopion trifoliatum R. stem angular 
striate, leaves all trifoliate, radical on very long 
petiols, folioles ovatoblong serrate, lateral obli- 
qual, terminal on a long petiol, base rounded or 
truncate ; none lobed ; umbels pauciflore, flow- 
ers shortly pefluncled.— The most common sp. 
from New Jersey to Kentucky, bipedal, petiols 
often pedal, folioles uncial, the middle one some- 
times deltoid. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 31 

804. Upopion heterophylum R. Thasjnum 
atropurp. auct. Stem striate, radical leaves 
simple cordate, stem leaves trifoliate, terminal 
foliole cordate or ovate, lateral ovate obliqual, 
all serrate ; flowers peduncled, male on longer 
peduncles. — This is the original sp. known and 
called 'J^myrnium atropurpureum by Lamark, 
leaves uncial, stem bipedal. So much like Zizia 
cordata in habits as to have often been mis- 
taken for a variety of it. 

805. UporioN coRDATUM Raf. stem simple 
angular, all the leaves simple cordate petiolate, 
acute unequaly serrate ; umbel single naked, 
flowers glomerate subsessile mostly fertile. — In 
the Alleghany Mts. evidently a very distinct sp. 
pedal, 3 radical leaves uncial, one lobate on the 
sides, two stem leaves remote larger. — These 5 
sp. oflfer a beautiful illustration of the forma- 
tion of species by gradual deviations of forms, 
from pinnate to single leaves. They have 
nothing left in common but smoothness and ser- 
rate leaves besides the flowers. 

806. ZiziA PARviFOLiA R. stcm virgate 
grooved pubescent like the petiols, radical 
leaves small cordate trilobe crenate, stem leaves 
sessile trifoliate, folioles unequal ovatoblong 
acute unequaly serrate, medial larger; umbel- 
ules pauciflore with unequal slender peduncles. 
— Very distinct from Z^ cordata by pubescence 
small leaves mostly half inch long only, stem 
pedal, flowers polygamous yellow, seeds oval 
with 3 prominent ribs. Found in the Allegha- 
ny Mts. 

807. SiuMis (Slum) hetekophyla Raf. stem 
simple fistulose costate, lower leaves on very 
long petiols trifoliate, folioles ovate serrulate, 
medial petiolate, middle leaves pinnate, 5 to 7 



32 NEOBOT. 

folioles lanceolate, upper leaf sessile trifoliate, 
lanceolate serrulate, involucres lanceolate re- 
flexed. — Found from New Jersey to Illinois, in 
waters, rare, pedal and bipedal, folioles about 3 
inches long, all serrulate sessile except the odd 
one ; umbel with about a dozen of umbellules, 
6 to 8 small folioles for involucres, the partial 
still fewer and smaller less reflexed, flowers 
white as in the Genus, quite distinct from S, 
latifolia and akin species. 

808. PHAIOSPERMA Raf. herb. 1833 
page 77. Polygamous, Invol, one, partial few. 
Calix 5dentate, petals obcordate involute, styles 
elongate, stigmas capitate. Fruit smooth fun- 
gose ovate convex with a thick integument, no 
ribs nor angles nor wings nor thicker edge. 
Leaves sometimes opposite, polytome, flowers 
white small, seeds brown. — This G. which was 
pronounced new by Torrey and a Polytenia by 
Nuttal, differs from it, as will be seen below,and 
chiefly by the involucre and the seeds convex 
and not concave outside. The name alludes 
to the brown seeds. I have corrected the char- 
acters by withdrawing from it Ph. verticillatay 
but uniting a new species. 

809. Phaiosperma trifida Raf. herb, stem 
dichotome subcostate, leaves alterne and sub- 
opposite cuneate triparted, segments oblong 
subequal tridentate ; involucre unique, partial 
2-4Hnear — discovered in 1823 in the Western 
glades of Kentucky, pedal, vernal, leaves short, 
flowers small, seeds of a bay brown. 

810. Phaiosperma pulverulenta Raf. glau- 
cous pulverulent, stem dichotome striate, leaves 
alternate triparted segments oblong pinnatifid ; 
involucre often lacking, partial 5-8 linear color- 
ed — In Florida, found by Kin or Baldwin, 



OF NORTH AMEUICA. 33 

anonymous in Coll. herb, covered by a scurf, 
well branched, leaves short, flowers nol so small 
nor so white, ajDparently ochroleucous in the 
specimen, umbels glomerate with many male 
flowers and very few fertile. The seeds not 
being ripe, I cannot be positive on the Genus, 
but the habit is quite near the last, the unripe 
seeds are ovate oblong smooth flat. 

811. PACHILOMA Raf. (thick edge) Po- 
lytenia Dec. add to characters. Polygamous, 
invol. none, partial few. Fruit elliptic or obo- 
vate with a thick margin, middle concave stri- 
ate. Type P. NUTALi Raf. PoL do Dec. Tor- 
dyliiim Amerlcanun? Nut. in Col. herb, stem 
dichotome grooved roughened, leaves alt. and 
opposite triparted, sei:;ments pinnatifid cuneate, 
last trifid ; involucels 3-5 linear, seeds elliptic. 
— Such are my specimens from Nuttal himself, 
and Arkanzas. 

812. Pachiloma verticillata R. Phaio- 
sperma or Polytenia do Raf herb.p. 7*7. Stem 
fistulose grooved, branches whorled rigid, leaves 
alterne and whorled bipinnatifid, pinnules cun- 
eate sublaciniate ; involucels 1-3 linear, fruits 
obovate — found in 1823 in Glades of West 
Kentucky, vernal, sesquipedal, a very distinct 
and singular sp. by tiie w horled habit, fruit sim- 
ilar to the last by the edges (fee, but not regu- 
larly elliptic broader above and thus obovate, 
hardly striate in the central hollow. 

I have yet several doubtful and rare ombelli- 
ferous plants from Florida, Alabama, Kentuky, 
Illinois and Arkanzas, which require further 
examination. My N. G. Orlmaria was des- 
cribed in Adantic Journal, in my Herb. Raf. 
p. 78 are 3 new Cherophylum and 2 new Arche- 
mora. My G. Ptiiimnium of 1818 has since 



34 KEOBOT. 

been called Dlscopletira by Decandole, my 
P^ junceurn disc, 1823 in West Kentucky is 
perhaps a Leptocaulis. My Thaspium tenui- 
Jolium R. herb, p 78 is neither of that G. nor 
a JZizia, but probably an Archemera also. The 
Ferula villoma which has been united to 4 or 5 
genera, must perhaps form a peculiar one which 
I have called Scadiasis. My G. Cyrtospermum, 
Lomatium, Cymospermum, Osmorhiza, Ma- 
rathrum or Adorion, have been either adopted 
or illustrated by Decandole. I now pass to the 
Eryngides that are a family distinct although 
akin to this. 

813. STREBLANTHUS Raf. atl. j. 1833 
p. 149. Flowers monoical in separate heads. 
Involucre 4-6phyle, folioles unequal entire, pho- 
ranthe cylindrical papillose, male fl. in ovate 
heads apetalous, calix 4fid,staniens 4 subsessile, 
female flowers in oblong heatis, calix adherent 
4 dentate persistent, pistil obovate punctate, pe- 
tals none or deciduous, styles 2 filiform persis- 
tent, stigmas capitate. Fruit crowned biparti- 
te in 2 seeds convex scrobicujate. Annual 
herbs smooth prostrate, leaves opposite sim- 
ple, heads axillary. — This character is taken 
from the first sp. but the G. probably contains 
many sp. and may be modiiied to comprize 
them : all the Eryngiums not perennial nor stiff*, 
nor with alternate stiff* leaves, must be examin- 
ed well, and may perhaps belon.^ here although 
some sp. may be polygamous, others with 5 sta- 
mens occasionaly. It forms now a striking G. 
of Eryngides by the monoical apetalous tetran- 
drous flowers. The Mr. cerrantesi of Mexico 
E. tenue or gracile, baldumi, prostratum of 
the Southern States may belong thereto. The 
name means deceitful flowers. 



OF NORTH AMERICA 35 

814. Streblanthus auriculatus _Raf, as 
above. Stems filiform flexuose, leaves subsessile, 
lower petiolate ovate lanceolate acuminate 
gashed or with 1 or 2 auricles, heads axillary 
solitary pedunculate — In the Western glades of 
Kentucky, flowers estival bluish, stems a foot 
long quite weak, leaves commonly with some 
notches, auricles unequal when double, involu- 
cres linear, papillas of phoranthe very short. 

815. Streblanthus heteropiiylus R. Eryn- 
gium prostratum Nut. stems filiform flexuose, 
leaves petiolate ovate elliptic and rounded, ob- 
tuse retuse or subacute entire, the upper some- 
times auriculate, heads axillary solitary pedun- 
culate — found in Arkanzas by Nuttal, and a real 
Streblanthus very similar to the last, chief dif- 
ference the great diversity of the leaves, quite 
entire. The Eryngium gracile of Elliot ap- 
pears to answer to this species. 

816. Streblanthus humilis R. Eryngium 
gracile Tor. not Bald. E. halduini Spr. Dec. 
smooth suberect dwarf, lower leaves petiolate 
ovate acute dentate, upper sessile lanceolate 
often triparted. heads axillary and terminal — 
from Tampa Bay in Florida, sent me byTorrey 
for the next, quite diflerent, only 3 inches high, 
involucres linear as long as heads, flowers blu- 
ish quite similar to the two last. 

817. Subgenus KL ONION Raf. differs by 
the phoranthe convex with stifl" subulate chaffs 
like bracts longer than flowers, and no involu- 
cre but those outer bracts,4 or 5 concave petals. 
— Here there is an approximation to Eryngium, 
the plants are stiflTer, the flowers spinescent, but 
there is no perianthe or involucre, the leaves 
are still opposite, the roots annual, there are 
some male flowers, and many have only 4 sta- 



'J6 NEOBOT. 

mens and petals. The name was an old CJreek 
one for Eryngium. 

818. Strebl. or Klonion gracile R. Eryn- 
gium gracile Baldw< in Coll. herb, stem slender 
costate, leaves all tripartite, segments lanceo- 
late or cuneate entire, hardly acute, heads spi- 
nescent pauciflore. — A very distinct sp. from 
Florida, detected by Baldwin ; but Elliot hav- 
ing mistaken it, another has been called by his 
name , see 816. I describe the original speci- 
mens labelled by Baldwin. Many stems semi- 
pedal simple probably prostrate, but stiffer than 
in others, axils of leaves often foliose, peduncles 
equal to leaves, heads flattened with few flow- 
ers, some stiff" spinescent chafls at the base in- 
stead of a perianthe, flowers white. 

810. Strebl. or Klonion tekuifolilm R. 
Eryngium polycephalum Baldw. in Coll. herb, 
stems erect dichotome filiform grooved, all the 
leaves tripartite, segments linear entire ; heads 
axilary and terminal minute ovate. — In Florida 
likewise, another very peculiar sp. more slender 
than the last, but difl'usely branched, with re- 
mote slender leaves, only 3 to 6 inches high, 
with many small heads of white flowers. 

820. ATIRSITA Raf. calix campanulate 
5fid subequal, corolla campanulate Slobed sube- 
qual, stamens 2 short not exerted, anthers glo- 
bose, ovary depressed, style very short, stigma 
emarg, capsule 2locular ? oligosperme. Scapose 
flowers capitate. — By a most extraordinary 
blunder of Nuttal and Collins, this apparently N. 
G. was referred to Eryngium ! by them, altho' 
it has the habit of Plantago : the ripe fruit is 
required to settle accurately the family, and all 
the characters must be verified on the living 
plant, as I would not destroy my two specimens 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 37 

by examining many flowers ; but I venture to 
deem it a N. G. near Veronica and Amphian- 
thus of Torrey. The name was an ancient one 
of Plantago of which it has quite the habit. 

'821. Atirsita pumila Raf. Eryngium gra- 
cile ! Nuttal, Er ! plantaginetim CoUins, leaves 
petiolate and subsessile, ovate smooth, uninerve, 
unequaly dentate or gashed, scape shorter than 
leaves terete villose, head ovoid — collected in 
Arkanzas by Nuttal, leaves and scapes hardly 
over one inch long, leaves variously cut, some- 
times nearly entire, with few or several teeth, 
scape thick very short, head small, without any 
visible bracts, calix and corollas obtuse, corolla 
hardly longer white, annual, vernal- One of my 
specimen appears a wixYieiy serrata, leaves sub- 
sessile subserrate, scape not longer than the 
head. 

822. Veronica terfoliata R. Leaves lan- 
ceolate smooth acute subserrate, base connate ; 
racemes axillary pedunculate pubescent, flow- 
ers fastigiate or geminate, bracts lanceolate as 
long as pedicels, calix segments equal ovate 
acute. — Florida, mistaken for a Jusiicia by 
Collins, near to V. ana<raUis^ but a larger plant, 
leaves 3 or 4 inches long, not entire but remote- 
ly serrate, racemes not much longer, flowers 
only above rather crowded, corolla blue hardly 
exceeding the calix. 

823, Veronica connata Raf. atl.j. 150. erect 
smooth, stem fistulose, leaves connate lanceo- 
late entire acute ; racemes axil, divaricate elon- 
gate lax, bracts linear half of pedicels. — West 
Kentucky near waters, annual, vernal, akin to 
V. scatellata, but broader and shorter leaves 
uncial, capsules bilobed compressed. In this 



■JO NEOBOT. 

and the last sp, the opposite leaves are reaiy 
connate. 

824. Veronica diffusa R. precox atl. j. 79. 
stem diffuse compressed pubescent, lower leaves 
opposite, upper alternate, on short petiols, ovate 
and rounded, serrate laciniate trinerve; pedun- 
cles' axil, solitary longer than leaves, capsule 
compressed emarginate, — Annual very early 
vernal blossoms blue and delicate in March and 
April, native of . . . naturalized on the Schuyl- 
kill near Philadelphia, I had called it V. pre- 
cox in 1832, but there is another sp. of that 
name. Stems often procumbent weak, one foot 
long, leaves small, flowers pretty large, pedun- 
cles long, capsules drooping, calix with ovate 
equal segments. Very different from V. cha- 
tnedrys and teucrium to which it is however 
related. 

825. Veronica sparsiflora Raf. atl j. 79. 
stem erect simple smooth terete solid, leaves 
opposite sessile cuneate entire obtuse smooth, 
upper oblong ; raceme terminal elongate lax 
pubescent, (lowers scattered, bracts linear ob- 
tuse, pedicels fihform longer, calix segments 
oblong obtuse, two shorter, capsules bilobed sub- 
compressed — a very distinct sp. from Arkanzas 
and Missouri, seen alive in gardens, annual, 
stem 1 or 2 feet high, leaves 1 or 2 inches, low- 
er almost petiolate, flowers vernal large hand- 
some purplish blue. By the calix quite une- 
qual it belongs to my subgenus Becabiinga. 

826. Veronica 3iollis Raf. erect softly vill- 
ose, leaves opposite sessile ovatoblong serrate 
acute, lower and radical oblong and cuneate 
nearly entire ; raceme terminal bracteate den- 
siflore, bracts lanceolate equal to flowers, calix 
lanceolate unequal. — From Origon seen alive 



or NORTH AMERICA, 39 

in gardens, entirely eovered with a soft vdvety 
pubescence, but not cinereous as in next, stem 
commonly pedal, radical leaves cespitose varia- 
ble larger some nearly obovate and obtuse, flow- 
ers vernal large handsome pale blue, style cla- 
vato, capsule not seen. 

S'Z7. Veronica cinerea Raf. erect cinereous 
villose, leaves alternate oblong cuneate acute, 
subcrenate in the middle, flowers terminal spi- 
cate very dense sessile, bracts lanceol. equal to 
calix, segments unequal ovate obtuse. — From 
Origon also, pedal, leaves uncial, spike terete, 
corollas dark blue or purple (almost brown in 
my specimen) contrasting with the canescent 
calix, stamens very long. Akin to V. incana 
but distinct by leaves &c, and also to the two 
proceeding, all three yet very difl[erent, this not 
at all racemose. — I have many other doubtful 
Veronicas of North America, and this Genus 
yet requires revisal in sp. as I did in Genera in 
Flora Telluriana. As 1 have 50 or 60 sp. of 
various parts in my Herbarium, I may hereafter 
write their monograph. 

828. ODACMIS Raf. calix 4parted decidu- 
ous, 4 small petals nearly similar and equal, 
stamens 4 hypogynous, filaments shorf, anthers 
biiobe. Ovary ^':eQ globular umruHcate, styles 
2 extremely short. Capsule nieinbranaceous 
utricular globular bilocidar, v.ith 2 or f<f\v seeds, 
opening by the concave umbilic above. Creep- 
ing annual kerb, leaves and fiowers fascicu- 
late. — A very singular N. G. of my nat. order 
Isostimia, and probably my family Galenjdia, 
with Galenia, Florkea&.c; also akin to S^ipe- 
TRiDKs which only differ by a berry as in Em- 
petrum and Fhytolaca, The habit is very pe- 



40 JNEOBOT. 

culiar, and the name is derived from the unci- 
nate teeth of leaves. 

829. Odacmis fascicularis R. smooth, stem 
creeping angular, leaves petiolate fasciculate, 
subrenifbrm with large hooked teeth, base sub- 
truncate without teeth, peduncles of flowers 
longer than petiols. — From Florida, collected 
by Kin or Ware, anonymous in Coll. herb, 
small plant prostrate, fascicles of leaves remote 
alternate, leaves with many nerves and only 
half inch wide. Flowers greenish, sepals 4 
ovate acute, petals 4 elliptic obtuse yellowish 
not longer than calix. 

830. BUINALIS Raf. dioical. Calix deeply 
Sfid persistent, base turbinate with 5 tubercles 
at the clefts, segments flat edged and crowned 
by a thick colored membrane. Corolla none, 
male fl. with 5 stamens perigynous inserted on 
the calix short filiform fertile, and 5 alternate 
sterile without anthers, sometimes lacking. In 
female fl. ovary ovate, style filiform elongate, 
stigma simple. Fruit Akena ovate smooth mo- 
nosperm. Stem articulate, leaves opposite 
sessile entire stipulate, flowers fascicled — a 
new G. of family AciiYKANrniDES differing from 
Amarantkides by a single style and stigma. 
It differs from my G. Steiremis in ff. tellur. by 
dioical single calix, free stamens, t^'C. It has 
the habit of Hcrniaria and Anychia to which it 
is also related but differs by dioical flowers and 
single style, besides the calix not angidar nor 
acute &c. The name was an old latin one of 
llerniaria. 

831. BuiNALis TLORiDANA Raf Ilcmiaria 
Americana Coll.herb. Anychia floridana Baldw. 
do — prostrate diftiise subdichotome furcate, 
leaves sessile cuneate or obovate, obtuse or sub- 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 41 

acute, entire thickish ; flowers sessile terminal 
in leafy ramulose lascicles. — In the sands of 
Florida, found by Baldwin, perennial, almost 
suffruticose, stems 3 to 6 inches long very ra- 
mose, stipules scariose ovate acuminate, leaves 
small 2 or 3 lines long quite brown in the dry 
specimens; flowers minute dark purple mar- 
gined of white,the ends of segments truncate al- 
most retuse forming a vault but not a hood,these 
flowers are at the ends of the small branches 
crowded with small leaves and stipules. 

832. Ai^YClIIA. Mx. The plants of this 
G. and offers akin forming a small natural 
group, have been blended with the G. Queria, 
Paronychia, Achyranthus tj-c, their synonymy 
and sp, are in utter confusion. Having shown 
to Torrey 4 sp, widely different in habit, leaves 
and flowers ! he pronounced them all varieties 
of Queria canadensis! They require as yet a 
monograph, and must be divided into 2 or 3 
Genera by the stamens, that must all be exam- 
ined again, since Michaux and Nuttal differ 
about them. I regret that I did not examine 
all mine when met alive. Meantime I will di- 
vide them into 3 subgenera or Genera, and add 
some new species. 

Subg. Anyciiia calix 5 parted persistent ur- 
ceolate or segments angular or nervose on the 
back,- end hooded acute. Stamens 3 to 5 fer- 
tile, none sterile ? 2 short styles, capsule utricu- 
lar monosperm. Annual dichotomous plants, 
leaves opposite sessile loith scariose siijfules, 
flowers in dichotomies, uncolored. 

833. Argykocoma Raf. Paronychia Nuttal 
not Tourn. Juss. difference, calix oblong, seg- 
ments cuspidate nervose on the back. Stamens 
5 fertile, 5 sterile ? style bifid 2 stigmas capi- 

6 



42 ISfEOBOT, 

tale. Perennial plants, stems simple, flowers 
terminal corymbose^ 

834. Plagidia Raf. difference from Any- 
chia, calix conical pentagonal, segments une- 
qual acuminate not hooded, stamens 5 fertile. 
Style bifid, 2 stigmas acute. Annual plants ? 
leaves ohliqual broader, flowers in dichoto- 
mies. The name derives from the double obli- 
quity of opposite leaves. All these genera be- 
long to Amaranthides. 

835. Anychia divaricata R. stem decum- 
bent puberulent very branched and divaricate, 
leaves oblong acute smooth, stipules ovate acute, 
flowers crowded striate sessile segments of ca- 
lix nervose. — A very distinct sp. blended as 
usual with Queria or A. canadensis, branches 
so divaricate as to be sometimes almost reflexed, 
leaves 3 lines long one broad, flowers small 
quite crowded at the end of branchlets. Found 
from the Alleghany Mts. to Kentucky on hills, 
estival, stems spreading 6 to 10 inches. 

836. Anychia lateralis R. atl. j. 16. stem 
erect divaricate pubescent, branches unilateral, 
leaves remote linear oblong acute, stipules lan- 
ceolate acuminate, flowers sessile striate often 
lax. — On the arid hills of Kentucky, possibly a 
var. of last, but smaller 1 to 2 inches high or 
long, leaves and stipules narrow, flowers similar 
ostival. 

837. Anychia fastigiata R. atl. j. stem 
erect pubescent, branches fastigiate, leaves 
linear cuneate acute adpressed granular be- 
neath, stipules lanceolate, flowers few on short 
peduncles, calix pentagonal hardly acute. — On 
the knob hills of Kentucky, habit so different 
from 835 as to indicate a sp. a very small plant 
1 to 3 inches high, leaves narrow, flowers with 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 43 

segments hardly acute, not nervose, A var. 
my A. conferta atl. j. has the same habit, but 
flowers crowded, leaves subserrulate. I have 
several other var. of this Genus, my A. poly go- 
noides is the 2d (A. canadensis or Nuttal and 
most of our botanists,) it is quite erect with nar- 
row longer leaves often uncial patent subciliate, 
flowers nervose acute. The A. capillaris N. 
is the real A. dlchotoma of Mx. quite distinct 
by broad leaves elliptic, stem filiform smooth, 
flowers as in 837. 

338. Anyciiia nudiflora R. smooth, erect, 
branches unilateral, leaves linear acute ; flow- 
ers in terminal naked cymes with few leaves, 
pedunculated, caliculated by radiate oval stipu- 
les, calix nervose hardly acute — from Fiorida 
collected by Kin, a small plant forming a pas- 
sage to Argyrocoma, but flowers as in Anychia 
and leaves small. 

839. Argyrocoma imbricata Raf. Parony- 
chia argyrocoma N. Anychia do Mx. has crow- 
ded leaves and flowers narrow linear elongate 
adpressed imbricate, flowers with imbricate 
silvery bracts or stipules. — While the A. dicho- 
toma which is Achyranthes do Linn, lllece- 
brum do Wild ^c, has flowers corymbose with 
lax and less silvery bracts ; both have the calix 
long with very thick dorsal nerves, end very 
acuminate. A third sp. is Par. sessiliflora N. 
but his p. herniarioides is probably of next 
Genus. 

810. Plagidia rufa Raf. Anychia hernia- 
roides Mx ? dichotome scabrous, much branch- 
ed fastigiate entirely rufous, leaves obliqual 
crowded elliptic mucronate ciholate, stipules 
lanceolate acuminate, flowers solitary. — Des- 
cribed from a specimen from Florida anony- 



44 NEOBOT. 

mous in Collins hei*b. apparently the plant of 
Mx. but I cant be certain as he omitted the sin- 
gular obliquity of the leaves almost as in Cha- 
masyke, and the striking rufous color almost 
like snuff of the whole plant even the stipules, 
about 3 inches high, leaves 3 lines long, quite 
obliqual at the base altho' sessile, flowers few 
and small. 

841. AMORGINE Raf. calix 5parted per- 
sistent caliculate, segments obtuse, convex out- 
side, canaliculate inside, 3 or 4 small scales at 
the base. Corolla none. Stamens 5 free short 
inserted on calix, anthers round, no sterile sta- 
mens. One style entire, stigma simple obtuse. 
Capsule utricular monosperni. Dichotome ar- 
ticulate, leaves opposite icith stipules, flowers 
terminal corymbose. — Another new G. par- 
taking of habit of Anychia, but flowers as in 
Argyrocoma yet colored and diflerent with sin- 
gle style as in Buinalis, Cadclaria &c, of family 
AcHYRANTiiiDES. The name was one of Dios- 
corides for Parietaria, 

842. Amorgine albescens Raf. smooth erect 
dichotome, leaves shorter than internodes linear 
cuneate acute, stipules lanceolate ; flowers co- 
rymbose crowded sessile naked albescent — 
Florida, anonymous in Collins herb, probably a 
larger plant than akin, stem rigid, leaves elon- 
gate almost like Argyrocoma uninerve drying 
black like them; flowers forming a compact 
corymb, sessile without bracts nor leaves except 
the short calicule, of a dirty white color or tin- 
ged of incarnate, A very distinct sp. and even 
G. overlooked or mingled in our Achyranthes, 
which form many Genera, Steiremis, Caraxe- 
ron, Phylepidum &c for which see my flora, 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 45 

Telluriana, where they are described, and I add 
here another new Steiremis. 

843. Steiri::»iis ciliata R. lllecebrum poly- 
gonoides Mx. Coll. herb, not of others ? Stem 
prostrate pilose, leaves opposite unequal, petio- 
late obovate rounded obtuse, base ciliate ; flow- 
ers in small axillary glomerules, bracts and seg- 
ments of calix scariose nervose ovate acumi- 
nate — in Florida and Georgia on Sea Shores, 
also in Louisiana, stems pedal with long soft 
hairs, the pair of leaves constantly unequal in 
size about 1 inch long, glomerules of flowers 
not longer than petiols whitish or fulvous. This 
is not tlie Achijranthes repens of Elliot, which 
is the type of my Steiremis, that has lanceolate 
leaves ; it is nearer my St. sessiUfolia fl. tellur. 
552, of Africa and .^pain, but with sessile acute 
leaves. The leaves appear thickish and when 
dry have vermiculate spots almost transparent 
when held to the light. 

844. BLUTAPARON Raf. calix double 
scariose persistent, external Sparted unequal, 
internal 5 parted unequal, segments flat not ner- 
vose. Stamens 5 free, hypogynous. Ovary 
quite flat round, 2 styles, stigmas obtuse, cap- 
sule lenticular nionosperm. Leaves opposite 
not stipulate^ jloicers terminal capitate. — A 
very peculiar G. of not family Amaranthides 
with the habit of Gomphrena, but quite diflfer- 
ent from it, and from lllecebrum to which it had 
been united by Linneus and others. The name 
is abridged from Bulutulaparon old latin name. 

845. Blutaparon breviflorum Raf. lllece- 
brum vermiculatum Mx. and N. Amer, smooth 
erect, leaves sessile linear cuneate acute thick, 
heads of flowers globose or depressed, seg- 
ments of calix oblong or elliptic obtuse, On 



46 NEOBOT. 

the sea shore of Florida collected by Dr. Bald- 
win, the good specimen in Coll. herb, has ena- 
bled me to fix this Genus and sp. very different 
from that of S. America. Stem erect terete, 
leaves uncial commonly longer than internodes, 
heads of flowers quite small depressed pauci- 
flore, flowers white seariose, two segments of 
the inner calix larger elliptic making the flow- 
ers appear compressed, fruit discoidal flat len- 
ticular, perhaps bivalve when ripe. I must add 
the linnean sp. for contrast. 

846. Blutaparon repens Raf. Illec. vermic. 
L. and of S. Amer. smooth creeping, leaves 
sessile linear carnose semiterete, heads of flow- 
ers oblong — Brazil, Guyana, Curazao, pedal, 
leaves like hyssop sometimes verticillate by 4. 

Thus I was right when in the first volume 
article Achyratithes, I stated that the plants 
akin thereto were in utter confusion: our botan- 
ists seldom verifying the Genera of their sp. 
We have yet the G. Oploteca, with my Xeran- 
dra, see fl. tel. 562, some real Celosias, and 
Gomphrena naturalized, and my Adoketon see 
first part, to which add that the Illecebrum al- 
sinefolium of Scopoli is another sp. different 
from my Ad. saxatile. 

847. CoRisPERMUM piLosuM Raf. pilose, stem 
angular, leaves alternate linear elongate uni- 
nerve, flowers in axillary glomerules ovate, se- 
pals seariose pilose ovate acuminate trinerve. 
— Found by Kin in Florida, realy of this G. 
hitherto not known as American, whole plant 
fulvous in the specimen and with scattered 
hairs, leaves 1 or 2 inches long narrow, glome- 
rules subovate, crowded and capitate at the top 
flowers imbricate glumaceous squarrose, 2 se- 
pals equal large, enclosing 1 single stamen fili- 



OF NORTH AMERICA 47 

form, anther round, seeds ovate lenticular. — 
Let it be remembered that these discoveries of 
Kin and Baldwin had been made 20 and 30 
years ago, laying dormant like those of Bar- 
tram in herbals. 

POLYGONUM and akin Genera. 
This Genus the shame of botanists as be- 
longing to 10 linnean classes ! was illustrated in 
my flora tellur. 401 to 434. I have described 
there many N. Amer. sp. and the new Genera 
Tracaulon, Spermaulaxen, Stopinaca, Ante- 
noron, Tovara, Pleurostena, Chulusiuniy 
Peutalis Slc. 1 shall merely add some other 
remarkable new species formerly included in 
Polygonum and Rumex divided also in 7 Gen- 
era 576 to 582 fl. Tellur. Having in my herbal 
about 100 sp. of these G. akin and reformed, I 
may yet revise the whole. 

848. Peutalis or Mitesia ligularis Raf. 
smooth fiHform, leaves lanceolate acute, sessile 
sheaths simple obsolete, racemes axil, and ter- 
minal filiform pauciflore, flowers remote, sheaths 
tubular ligulate obtuse equal to pedicels. — A 
curious little species, half pedal, deemed Polyg, 
mite by Collins, very different, leaves few uncial 
quite smooth, racemes with 3 to 7 flowers, each 
out of a singular sheath, calix incarnate 5lobed 
seeds lenticular. Apalachian Mts. of Carolina, 
Iron Mts. found by Lyons '( Mitesia may be a 
subg. of Peutalis, this appears a Peutalis by 
seed, I cant count the stamens usualy 6 in Peu- 
talis and Mitesia, but with 3 styles and trigone 
seeds in Mitesia. 

849. Peutalis or Mitesia floridaiva Raf. 
Polyg, N. sp. Baldw. smooth erect simple,leaves 
sessile narrow lanceolate nearly obtuse margin 
rough, sheaths tubular bristly, flowers in a sin- 



48 NEOBOT. 

gle terminal spike, slender pauciflore, adpressed 
subsessile in the bristly sheaths — Florida found 
by Dr. Baldwin and deemed new by him, stem 
pedal, leaves biuncial, spike uncial 7 flowers — 
I have also the M. hirsuta Raf. polyg. do of 
Walter, Elliot 4*^, collected by Baldwin in 
Florida, a singular sp. covered with long fulvous 
hairs, leaves broadly lanceolate, sheaths of 
flowers tubular obtuse nearly as in M. ligularis. 

850. Peutalis or mitesia diveugens R. 
smooth decumbent ramose, branches divergent 
or reflexed, leaves sessile narrow lanceolate 
acute margin smooth, sheaths scariose ciliate, 
racemes terminal filiform, sheaths valvular 
shorter than pedicels. — Dicovered 1818 in Ken- 
tucky, deemed Polyg. divaricatum then, but 
having obtained that plant it is quite different. 
Stem 2 feet long, branches diverging like a T 
not like a Y, even often reflexed, leaves equal 
to internodes 2 inches long very narrow, spikes 
as long, flowers white estival, seeds trigone and 
thus a true Mitesia, 

851. Peutalis or Heptarinia longifolia 
Raf. smooth erect ramose, leaves narrow lan- 
ceolate very long acuminate sessile, margin 
rough, sheaths scariose ciliate, racemes slender 
filiform spiked, sheaths tubular subciliate — Mt?. 
Alleghanies and hills of Pensylv, bipedal, leaves 
5 and 6 inches long, only half inch broad, flow- 
ers incarnate small autumnal, spikes uncial often 
geminate and interrupted at base. Flowers as 
in Hept. orientaUs with 7 stamens, 2 styles ex- 
erted, stigmas capitate, seed lenticular, 

852. Peutalis (discolenta) scabra Raf. 
stem dichotome erect subangular, rough above 
chiefly in the peduncles of spikes, leaves petio- 
late lanceolate acuminate, margins and nerves 



OF NOIlTll AMERICA. 49 

rough, slieatiis scariose mutic ; racemes many 
{jeduncled ovate and oblong, flowers fasciculate 
crowded. — One of the sp. akin to P. D. lapa- 
thifoi. bipedal, very branched, leaves 2 or 3 
inches long, spikes uncial or less, with a rough 
pubescence, flowers estival incarnate, seeds 
round flat with a hollow in each side and a thick 
obtuse edge. In Kentucky, Illinois &c. The 
Discolenta scahra ft. tel. 430 is a very different 
plant, perhaps even a Dioctis, and being smooth, 
it was by a mistake I described it for this : it 
must be called P. or D. punctata being quite so 
aud probably P. ptuictatuin of Elliot. 

853. Peutalis heterophyla Raf. smooth 
erect, lower leaves petiolate, oboval, or elhptic 
ciliate sometimes retuse, broadly lanceolate, up- 
per subsessile narrow, all glaucous beneath and 
with smooth margins, sheaths pilose ciliate ; ra- 
cemes short pauciflore compact, sheaths scari- 
ose smooth. — Singular sp. disc. 1824 in Alle- 
ghany Mts. of Virginia, perennial, lower leaves 
small uncial quite ciliate, medial large triuncial, 
ciliate only at base, upper not ciliate ; flowers 
of a dirty incarnate geminate in small racemes, 
seeds lenticular ovate obtuse. 

854. Peutalis glomerata Raf. smooth de- 
cumbent ramose diffuse, leaves sessile shortly 
lanceolate obtuse, margin smooth, sheaths mu- 
tic, flowers in numerous terminal glomerules, 
like little heads, sessile or ped uncled pauciflore, 
flowers subsessile — in Pennsylvania and Virgin- 
ia, annual, branches and leaves crowded, stem 
spreading about one foot, leaves small uncial, 
heads of flowers axil, or terminal, often inter- 
rupted divided in glomerules, flowers autumnal 
greenish white, seeds lenticular ovate, edges ob- 
tuse. 

7 



50 NEOBOT. 

855. Peutalis polystachya Raf. smooth 
erect ramose, leaves sessile lanceolate acute 
margin rough, sheaths scariose tubular aris- 
tate ; racemes paniculate branched, slender and 
lax, flowers commonly geminate, pedicels longer 
than sheaths — from Fennsylv. to Kentucky, 
stem bipedal with a profusion of spikes, leaves 
1 or 2 inches long, racemes as long axilary and 
terminal, flowers autumnal white, seeds ovate 
oblong compressed lenticular edge thick, 

856. Peutalis palustris Raf, stem simple 
smooth, leaves sessile lanceolate acute erect, 
with adpressed hairs on both sides glaucous be- 
neath, sheaths tubular ciliate ; spikes terminal 
pedunculate 1 to 3, filiform, flowers sessile, 
sheaths as long as flowers — a very pretty sp. 
growing in ditches and swamps from Vermont 
to New Jersey, deemed Polyg. punctatuin by 
some botanists, but not at all punctate, and 
very diflferent from the 2 punctate sp. of the 
North and South, Pedal, leaves biuncial, flow- 
ers rose color or incarnate, spikes slender un- 
cial, seeds lenticular, stamens 6, It must be 
recollected that Chulusium has 5 stamens, Peu- 
talis 6, Heptarinia 7, Dioctis 8, and Mitesia a 
trigone seed. As it is often difficult to count 
the stamens and some deem them variable, all 
those with lenticular seeds and 2 stigmas might 
be united as subgenera to Peutalis that answers 
to Persicaria which is not the Peach Tree ! 
Persica. 

857. Polygonum squamosum Raf. smooth 
erect terete ramose, branches short divergent, 
leaves and sheaths imbricate, leaves linear o- 
blong obtuse short, sheaths scariose scaly lan- 
ceolate acuminate ; flowers axillary sessile — in 
West Kentucky disc. 1818, habit quite peculiar 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 51 

by the scaly sheaths, leaves minute 2 lines long, 
flowers almost hidden in the scales as long as 
them and the leaves, estival. 

858. Polygonum rubricaule R. smooth, 
stems erect cespitose red simple angular striate, 
leaves minute few remote sessile deciduous 
linear obtuse, sheaths scariose lacerate fimbri- 
ate, flowers axillary sessile — hills of Pennsylva- 
nia,autumnal,very distinct by stems and sheaths, 
leaves sometimes only at end of branches and 
then imbricate, stems only 2 to 6 inches high, 
sheaths red, ciliate of white, flowers greenish 
and white. 

859. Polygonum nudiflorum Raf. smooth, 
stem angular ramose diffuse flexuose, base 
aphyllous, leaves terminal sessile oblong lanceo- 
late acute, sheaths scariose truncate mutic,flow- 
ers axillary to the lower sheaths and not to the 
leaves — in Alabama, stems semipedal, the low- 
er leaves fall very soon and thus leave the flow- 
ers naked, leaves half inch long, flowers com- 
monly geminate longer than sheaths, calix ur- 
ceolate green obtuse equal to seeds. 

860. Lapathon sylvaticum Raf. Rumex do 
An. nat. 91. Root tuberose, stem angular stri- 
ate simple, leaves petiolate ovatoblong flat en- 
tire acute at both ends; raceme elongate naked 
articulate, outer calix segments oblong obtuse 
small, inner segments ovate laciniate, one gra- 
nular — Western Kentucky and Illinois in w oods 
discovered 1818 described 1820 as a Rumex; 
but it belongs to the G. Lapathon of Tourn. 
Ad. which I have rectified thus, calix double 
unequal^ inner larger laciniate, one or more 
valces granular, stamens 6, styles 3. Pedal, 
estival, root fusiform, radical leaves not larger 
than stem leaves. 



52 NEOBOT. 

861. RuMEX or acetosa iieterophyla RaC 
root tuberose, radical leaves ovate and rounded, 
hastate or entire, acute or obtuse, stem leaves 
remote petiolate ovate acute repand, racemose 
pauciflore — Apalachian Mts. of Virginia, root 
oblong rugose, stem simple subangular, leaves 
all petiolate, the radical smaller, not hastate 
nor sessile on the stem, fiowei's but few and not 
in interrupted spike. 

862. RuMEX or acetosa integrifolta Raf. 
Root creeping, stem striate simple, leaves alJ 
petiolate ovate or lanceolate entire acute, radi- 
cal small ovate, caulinar few lanceolate, raceme 
filiform almost simple pauciflore — in Kentucky, 
semipedal, root not tuberose but perennial with 
fibres, leaves thin radical very sinall, very few 
on stem, flowers few remote. Although akin to 
the last, the root is quite different horizontal" 
slender as in next. 

863. RuMEX or acetosa agrestis Raf Ru- 
mex acetosella of many hot. root creeping,stems 
grooved cespitose, all the leaves petiolate o- 
blong or lanceolate hastate ; spikes paniculate 
filiform interrupted. — This is our common Sor- 
rel, of Europe and America, 6 to 12 inches 
high ; but there are other blended sp. in Eu- 
rope, since I have at least 3 others and one of 
them hardly different from R. hastatulus of 
Baldwin which I have also, his own specimen 
from Red River Arkanzas. I will describe 
them hereafter, I now merely give their strik- 
ing differences and also of 2 Rumex acetosa f 

1, JR. A. hastatula R. upper leaves sessile 
linear entire elongate. Europe and Red River. 

2. /?. A. hidentata R. leaves bidentate or 
entire oblong and linear,from Greece and Italy. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 



53 



3. E. A. rt^io-i^sfrt/rt R. leaves linear lanceo- 
late sagittate. Sicily and Creta. 

4. R. A. oUtoria R. Garden Sorrel, leaves 
oblong sagittate, upper sessile and narrow. 

5. 11, A. amj>lexica.dis R. Leaves ovate 
sagittate sessile aniplexicaule. Eastern Europe 
all in my herbal. 

861. Eriogonum annuuivi Coll. herb, annual, 
stem simple cinereous naked above, leaves al- 
ternate sessile oblong or cuneate acute white 
tomentose beneath ; umbels trifid, perianthes 
pedunculate multifl. campanul. 5 dentate tomen- 
tose. — Salt K. of Arkanzas probably found by 
Nuttal, pedal and bipedal, leaves uncial, umbel 
small branches pauciflore, with a flower in cen- 
ter. This beautiful N, Amer. G. is now greatly 
increased although only one known to Michaux: 
I shall now add 4 sp. to it. 

865. Eriogonum lateriflorum Raf. stem 
simple white tomentose aphylous and flocose 
above, leaves alternate lanceolate acute sessile, 
flocose above, tomentose beneath : umbel trifid, 
branches dichotome, flowers unilateral, perian- 
the subsessile campanul. subentire 2-3flore. — 
Plains of Missouri and Arkanzas found by 
Bradbury and Nuttal, anonymous in Coll. herb, 
stem bipedal without leaves above, the white 
wool partly flocase appearing like little warts 
or wrinkles, leaves 2 inches long, umbel multi- 
flore, flowers small. 

866. Eriogonum dioicum Raf. suff'ruticose, 
dioical, silky white, leaves petiolate verticillate 
cuneate lanceolate obtuse white beneath, um- 
bel with 6 involucres oblong sessile, perianthes 
glomerate sessile with obtuse teeth — found by 
Bradbury on River Platte, leaves 2 inches long, 
flowers in a double umbel multifid. My speci- 



54 NEOBOT. 

men from Bradbury is apparently only male. 

867. Eriogonum longifolium Nut. in Coll. 
herb, stem simple cinereous, radical leaves 
petiolate cuneate elongate smooth above, white 
tomentose beneath, stem leaves sessile linear, 
umbel dichotome, flowers lateral glomerate 
sessile, perianthe campanul. 5-6fid obtuse. — 
Ozage prairies (Nuttal) in Arkanzas, bipedal, 
lower leaves 6 to 8 inches long, becoming grad- 
ualy less and very small above, flowers rather 
dichotomous than umbellate in lateral clusters 
almost sessile, perianthe deeper cut than usual. 

EVOLVULUS and akin 
I have several N. American sp. that would 
be reduced to Evolvulus by habit and calix 
equal ; but this Linnean Genus must form many 
see fl. tellur. 1046 to 1054; while my speci- 
mens are often deficient in the flowers so as 
not be reducible easily to those genera, based 
on the shapes of corolla, styles &c : probably 
however most belong to my Stylisma of 1817. 

868. STYLISMA R. 1817. fl. tell, calix sim- 
ple subequal, corolla campanulate subentire or 
sub-tendentate, filaments 5 subequal villose at 
base, anthers sagittate, disk annular, style bi- 
parted, 2 stigmas globose, capsule 41ocular 
4sperme. — Perennials, peduncles axillary — 
The true Evolvulus differs by corolla rotate 
5fid, capsule 2locular 4valve disperme, 2styles. 

869. Stylisma iieteropiiyla Raf. Convolv. 
tenellus Muhl. in Coll. herb. C, trichosanthes 
Lee. in do, not of others — stem erect terete pu- 
bescent, leaves subsessile nearly smooth, lower 
obovate obtuse, upper elliptical obliqual acute, 
peduncles patent uniflore double of leaves with 
2 unequal oblong bracts, calix smooth, segments 
ovate acute — Florida and Georgia, a very dis- 



OF NORTH AMERICA 55 

tinct sp. stem iiedal, leaves small seliiiuncial, 
peduncles uncial, corolla nearly entire, stamens 
subequal, styles deeper cut, stigmas really glo- 
bose. Evidently not the C. tenellus of Elliot. 

870. Stylisma elliptica Raf. stem twining 
terete pilose, leaves petiolate elliptical hardly 
pubescent, base subcordate, end obtuse mucro- 
nate, peduncles uniflore subequal to leaves with 
two minute bracts, calix smooth, segments ovate 
acuminate, capsule hirsute — sent me from Ala- 
bama and Georgia, traihng or twining for 2 or 
3 feet, leaves uncial, style bifid, 2 globose stig- 
mas. My Styl. sherardi, Convolv. do Pursh. 
Elliot, a doubtful plant differs from this by leaves 
retuse and sessile flow^ers. 

871. Stylisma peduncularis Raf. Convolv. 
tenellus Lin ? Elliot Slc stem flexuose pilose, 
leaves subpetiolate elliptical obtuse mucronate 
ciliolate, base subcordate, peduncles elongate 2 
or 3 times the length of leaves 2 or Sflore, calix 
smooth, segments ovate acuminate bracts mi- 
nute, capsule bearded — Alabama and Florida, 
near the last but larger leaves, stiff long pedun- 
cles, style deeply divided, stigmas obtuse. The 
Conv. tenellus of Elliot only differs from my 
specimens by peduncles 3-5flore, calix ciliate 
<^c. — But his C. trichosanthes my ^tylisma do, 
differs much being quite tomentose &c. 

Having obtained both the Evolvulus sericeus 
of Cuba collected by Jalambic and that of Flo- 
rida from Baldwin ; they appear alike, except 
that the stem is nearly smooth in the Cuban 
specimen, pilose in the Floridan. 

872. DARLUCA Raf. calix Sparted equal 
persistent, corolla tubular hirsute outside irre- 
gular subbilabiate, lips 2 and Slobed, Stamens 



56 JVEOBOT. 

5 ? unequal, anthers bilobe, Oj^ary villose, style 
villose bifid, stigmas simple. Capsule villose 
2Iocular 2sperme. Habit of Stylisma — a very 
singular Genus nearly alike Stylisma and Evol- 
vulus in habit, leaves, calix, style he, but with 
irregular corolla, singular anomaly of the Con- 
volvulides, but already partly found in my G. 
Doxema 1020 fl. tellur. perhaps however of 
another family. Dedicated to Darluc, author 
of the Natural history and botany of Provence, 
who I think has been overlooked by all dedica- 
tors of Genera, if otherwise I substitute the 
name of Neleixa mg. not smooth outside. 

873. Darluca prostrata Raf. prostrate pu- 
bescent, leaves subsessile oblong obtuse or acute 
at both ends, peduncles uniflore incurved longer 
than leaves, with 2 alterne linear bracts, calix 
pilose, segments ovate lanceolate acute. — In 
Florida, found by Ware, anonymous in Coll, 
herb, with Evolvulus,but irregular corolla noti- 
ced. Stems terete elongate nearly simple,leaves 
semi uncial narrow oblong, p.odunclessubuncial, 
corolla very hirsute outside, capsule ovate in- 
closed in calix. 

874. EvoLviiLus ? cuNEiFOLius R, fl. tel. 1046. 
erect smooth, leaves linear cuneate acute, pe- 
duncles uniflore pilose longer than leaves, calix 
pilose linear capsule pilose longer than calix — 
Pine barrens of New Jersey, pedal, my speci- 
men has no corolla and is in fruit which appear 
unilocular with one or two seeds, 2 styles per- 
sistent, stigmas obtuse. Probably a subgenus 
or G. Plesilia Raf. but the corolla and sta- 
mens must be described, the calix as in Stylisma. 

As to the Convolvulus and Ipomea of Au- 
thors, they are illustrated at length and revised 
in my fl. tellur. 100 1 to 1054; being divided into 



or NORTH AMERICA $7 

many striking Genera, with several^ Amer. sp. 
introduced, I will merely add here two from 
Collins herbarium chiefly. 

875. Ipomea iiumilis Raf. Tp. heterophyla 
Col. herb, smooth, stem erect humble angular, 
leaves cordate palmate Slobed, lobes ovate and 
lanceolate acute, peduncles as long as leaves 
l-2flore, 2 subulate bracts, segments of calix 
ovate acute ciliate, hairs curved — South Florida 
and Cuba, annual, root slender, stem semipedal, 
leaves small similar, flowers red, calix with sin- 
gular cilia on the margin and back, white long 
and incurved. Very different from Ip. hetero- 
phyla of Mexico, a large climbing plant, with 
different leaves : both belong to the subgenus 
Hemilasis fl. tel. 1016 with very unequal calix. 

976. Q,uAMocTiTA MULTiFiDA Raf. Twining, 
smooth, leaves multifid laciniate, base truncate 
sinusses obtuse, segments linear and lanceolate 
acute, peduncles 3-5flore equal to petiols, calix 
acute — a curious sp. deemed a garden hybrid, 
produced by Q. cocchiea and Q. pinnata^G^\es 
variously cut, few alike, some reniform with 
shorter cuts, flowers handsome large purple, 
tube clavate, limb flat stellate pentagone, sta- 
mens exserted. Seen alive in gardens, where 
sometimes spontaneous. 

877. Panax lanceolatum R. Root slender, 
stem humble, folioles 3 to 5 subequal lanceolate 
acute sharply serrate sessile, the lateral obli- 
qual, umbel shorter than leaves — Mts. AUegha- 
nies, blended by some of our botanists with P, 
trifolhim that has folioles ovate and obovate 
much smaller and umbel much longer than 
leaves. This rises 8 to 10 inches, folioles over 
one inch long narrow : root slender, annual ? 3 
leaves as usual, 
8 



5iS KEOBOT. 

878. Paxax americanum R. quinquefoliiim 
var. do R. med. fl. t. 71. perennial, root fusi- 
form tuberose, stem streight, folioles 3 to 5 un- 
equal, petiolate, 3 large serrate cuneate acumi- 
nate, two small at base subovate, sometimes 
lacking,umbel equal to leaves. — This is the fa- 
mous American Ginseng found from Canada to 
Missouri, quite different from the Chinese or 
Tartarian sp. with 5 equal broad ovate leaves ! 
It has also some varieties, 1 ohovatum with 
broader leaves unequaly serrate, but still acute 
at base, 2 elatum, very tall, 3 feet high, perhaps 
only old age. For a long account of this plant 
see my med. fl.*2. page 52. 

ASCLEPIAS and akin 
^/ 879. GoNOLOBus BiFLORUs Raf. Coll. herb, 

prostrate hirsute, leaves small cordate ciliate 
acute on short petiols sometimes obliqual ; flow- 
ers geminate, peduncles equal to petiols — on 
Red River in Arkanzas and Texas, remarka- 
ble by small leaves and flowers, one fourth in 
size of G. hirsutus. flowers dark purple, lobes 
oblong obtuse : whole plant except corolla co- 
vered with soft white hairs. 

880. Ansonia tenuifolia R. stem suff'ruti- 
cose ramose smooth, branches pubescent, leaves 
narrow linear uninerve quite smooth, margin rie- 
volute, end obtuse — Florida found by Kin. One 
of the 3 sp. blended in A. angustifolia, which 
has leaves linear lanceolate, stem herbaceous 
pilose. The A. ciliata of Walter I have also 
and is quite distinct by flat leaves broader al- 
most lanceolate quite ciliate with several small 
lateral nerves. There are 3 similar deviations 
In A. latifolia with ovate acuminate leaves, 2d 
with elliptic acute leaves, A. elliptica, Sd with 
lanceolate leaves which is A. salicifolia, I have 



or NORTH AMERICA. 39 

all six. This G. is usualy misprinted Amsonia 
by a mistake: see Smith. 

88!. EciiiTEs sALiciFOLiA 11. suffrutlcose 
erect, all the leaves subsessile lanceolate acute 
sometimes obliqual, glaucous beneath — in Flo- 
rida, stems red, leaves 1 or 2 inches long;' it 
difters from E. difforrnis with unequal leaves 
mostly ovate acuminate, as Ansonia salicifoUa 
from A. latifolia. 

882. Cynanciium microphylum Rfif. clirnbr 
ing smooth, leaves opposite oblong acute base 
rounded, petiols very short, umbels axillary 
nearly sessile pauciflore — Florida, deemed an 
Asclepias in Coll. herb but very near Cyn. par- 
viflorum, evidently of same Genus, stem fili- 
form, leaves 2 to 4 lines long only, flowers mi- 
nute shorter than leaves, calix 5dentate, corolla 
5fid obtuse, 

883. Lyonsia cuspidata Raf. trailing smooth, 
lower leaves opposite, upper alternate, all linear 
flat remote, base acute sessile, end obtuse cus- 
pidate, umbels axil, subtriflore subsessile, fruits 
subulate smooth — Florida, deemed Cynanchum 
angustifol. by Collins, which is Lyonsia mariti- 
ma of Elliot, but that sp. differs by crowded 
opposite leaves acute canaliculate and thick, 
umbels multiflore. This has stems filiform, 
leaves 1 or 2 inches long very narrow, follicles 
as long. Lyonia was a mispelling. 

884. Anantherix grandiflora Raf. smooth 
stem flexuose grooved angular, leaves scattered 
sessile upper opposite oblong elliptic obtuse mu- 
cronate reticulate ; umbels terminal corymbose 
— a fine sp. collected by Kin in Arkanzas, pe- 
dal and ultra, stem thiciv with obtuse angles and 
deep grooves, leaves two inches long crowded, 
several terminal umbels 7-lOflore pedunculate, 



00 NEOBOT. 

flowers very large glaucous, segments of corolla 
patent ovate obtuse ; deemed a Calotropis by 
Collins, but a real Anantherix and by no means 
a Stylandra N. or Podostima E. To tbe same 
Genus appears to he\o\\g A sdepias conniveris of 
Baldw. Elliot &:.c which is very akin to this in 
leaves and flowers, but has stem terete and 
leaves opposite narrower, white ringed warts on 
the stem, I'll call it Anantherix verrucosa' 
my specimens are from Alabama. A. viridis 
N. differs by leaves narrov.er thick pubescent, 
umbels lateral subsessile <fec. 

985. OLIGORON Raf. Acerates Elliot. 
See my article Acerotis in first part. I have 
since divided them. My name is found in Di- 
oskorides for an Apocynum. Acerates was bad 
derived from Acer and Aceras. This G. will 
be easily known by the sessile scattered leaves, 
the erect umbels and 5 small shining tips upon 
the staminal apparatus, auricles adpressed with- 
out appendages. 

886. Oligoron longifolium Raf. Asclepias 
do Mx. Ascl, floridana Lam. Acerates longif. E. 
— Pubescent, leaves linear lanceolate elongate 
trinerve, umbels peduncled multiflore, auricles 
shorter than stamens — Carolina to Florida and 
Arkanzas, leaves 2 to 6 inches long, flowers tri- 
color, centre yellow, corolla white, tip purple. 
The structure of the central apparatus is very 
peculiar, the little lucid tips almost concealed 
in the wings. — Var. Hirsutum, several umbels 
with great many flowers 50 to 60, pedicels long , 
hirsute. 

887. Oligoron tenuifolium Raf. smooth, 
leaves narrow linear acute uninerve, margin 
revolute, rugose ; umbels sessile multiflore, au- 
ricles as long as stamens. — A very distinct sp. 



©F NORTH AMERICA. 6 J 

from Arkanzas, anonymous in Coll. herb, stem 
pedal slender, with obtuse angles above as in 
the last, leaves adpressed 2 to 4 inches long very 
narrow, umbels 1 or 2 terminal and lateral, 
flowers bicolor, corol green, centre pale red, 
the tips very conspicuous black purple. 

888. OTANEMA Raf. meaning auricles 
without Jilaments, Acerotis 1818, Asclepias El- 
liot and authors. Ditiers from last by central 
body with membranes for appendages above and 
no shining hard tips, leaves opposite umbels ax- 
illary sessile nodding. I have 3 sp. of it, all have 
simple terete stems and pubescent leaves, um- 
bels multiflore globose, flowers greenish «fec, 

889. Otanema latifolia Raf. leaves ellipti- 
cal or rounded, obtuse or retuse, mucronate pe- 
tiolate, undulate reticulate roughly pubescent 
rigid — from the AUeghanies to Kentucky in 
glades, pedal and sesquipedal, leaves nearly 2 
inches long, over one broad, sometimes almost 
round seldom obovate — Var. Retusa, all the 
leaves retuse. 

890. Otanema ovata Raf. leaves ovate or 
subovate, petiolate, acute flat, base often sub- 
cordate, roughly pubescent — from New Eng- 
land to Virginia, smaller plant ^ leaves chiefly 
uncial, flowers fewer, perhaps another var. of 
the last, petiols very short as in last. 

891. Otankma lanceolata Raf. Ascl. do 
Ives (fee. Ascl. nutans and viridiffora Raf. Mg. 
Pursh Slq, leaves lanceolate sessile flat, acute at 
both ends — from New England to Kentucky &,c. 
Leaves 2 or 3 inches long, narrow. These 3 
plants as in Ansonia and Upopion show the 
gradual deviation of species in shapes of leaves, 

892. Asclepias megalotis Raf. hardly pu- 
bescent, leaves opposite subsessile, elliptic base 



62 NEOBOT. 

cordate, end obtuse or retuse mucronate, mar- 
gin ciliolate, nerves reticulate, beneath almost 
glabrous; umbels lateral subsessile, multiflore, 
pedicels very short, auricles very large obovate 
truncate longer than stamens and appendages 
— Florida, sent me by Torrey as the A. obova- 
ta of Elliot, which is tomentose with obovate 
leaves and probably an Otanema perhaps even 
a var. of O. latifolia. This sp. is a real Ascle- 
pias, with curved subulate appendages in the 
auricles, leaves 2 or 3 inches long, one broad, 
flowers large white. 

893. AscLEPiAs ALBiFLORA Raf. Ascl.nivea? 
and A. incarnata of some Amer. Bot. stein pu- 
bescent, leaves ample thin nearly smooth sub- 
sessile, elliptical lanceolate, base obliqual, end 
acuminate, nerves pubescent; umbels terminal 
corymbose, auricles equal to stamens and ap- 
pendages — fine sp. from the Unaka or Iron 
Mts. of N. Carolina, seen alive in gardens,where 
deemed a white var. of A. incarnata, yet much 
nearer A. iiivea a sp. known to few : with 
broader shorter leaves, lateral flowers with 
green petals and whits centre says Linneus. 
This has flowers perfectly white small but hand- 
some, stem bipedal, leaves very large 6 inches 
long, two broad, 

I could add or rectify many other sp. of As- 
clepias, and give again my A. inaritima quite 
different from the smooth A. incarnata ; and 
my A. vanilla the deviation of A. quadrifolia 
with opposite leaves, but I must leave this for a 
monograph ; I have nearly all the numerous N. 
Amer. sp. A. cinerea, pvlchra,amena, pauper' 
cula,, amplexicaulis, obtusifolia, curassavica, 
laurifolia, peroplicifolia, variegata, phytola- 
coides ^c. I deem this G. must be divided 



Of NORTH AMERICA. 63 

into 8 subgenera by habit, which may become 
G. when the strange floral structure will be as- 
certained in all. 

1. AscLEPiAS, leaves opposite, milky plants. 

2. ^ EPTixis leaves verticillate, not milky. 

3. Stethorhiza, not milky, leaves scattered, 
type A. tuber osa with all its varieties, decum- 
bens, splendens, imbricafa, obtiisifolia, angus- 
ttfolia, undulata^ oppositifolia ! &c. Here 
the sexual apparatus is borne on a pentagonal 
pillar as in Stylandra or Fodostimn, but this 
structure belongs also to Ascl. curassavica and 
others. 

894. ONISTIS Raf. calix campanulate 5den- 
tate equal, corolla campanul. subentire border 
pentagone. Stamens 5, filaments unequal thick 
short smooth inserted at base of corolla, an- 
thers equal linear 21ocular opening lengthways. 
Ovary round compressed, style long thick sub- 
clavate, stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule ? dis- 
coidal compressed bilocular disperme. Peren- 
nial, diffuse leaves alt. and oppos. flowers ax- 
illary solitary. — A singular N. G. found anony- 
mous among the Apocynes of Florida in Coll, 
Herb, but quite different except by habit, and a 
N. G. of CoNvoLvuLiDEs, different from all those 
established in my fl. tellur. 1001 to 1050 by 
the calix and pistil, corolla akin but not plaited, 
stamens quite as in that family. I have not the 
ripe fruit. The name was a grecian one for 
some Apocynum. 

895. Onistis longifolia Raf. creeping and 
quite smooth, stem branched diffuse, leaves ses- 
sile alterne and oppos. linear graminiform very 
long obtuse rugose ; flowers on axillary pedun- 
cles nodding — root white creeping terete now 
and then swelled up, stems diffuse or prostrate 



64 IfEOBOT. 

only a few inches high, leaves very long ribbon 
like, 3 or 4 inches in length, 2 lines broad ; fl. 
few of a dull yellowish purple, peduncles as long 
or longer, calix with 5 large equal teeth, nearly 
urceolate, corolla almost as in Physalis, subro- 
tate when full expanded. Thus habit of Cy- 
nanchum rather than Convolvulus. 

896. Hydrolea ovatifolia Raf. pubescent 
inerme, leaves ovate acuminate, flowers termi- 
nal fasciculate subsessile — very distinct sp. 
found in Arkanzas by Nuttal, anonymous in 
Coll, herb, stem simple pedal terete, leaves scat- 
tered uncial, flowers glomerate calix lanceolate 
hirsute, corolla blue puberulent, styles long, 
stigmas capitate depressed. 

897. Hydrolea paniculata Raf, pubescent 
spinose, leaves linear lanceolate acute, flowers 
terminal paniculate, subcorymbosej^edunculate 
— found by Kin in Arkanzas, pedal, a short 
stiff* spine at the axil of each leaf, panicle bear- 
ing 3 to 7 flowers at the end of the spinose 
branches, capsules bivalve globose, nearer to 
H. spinosa of S. Amer. than to H. caroliniana. 

898. LiNUM REFRACTUM R. Stem erect hard- 
ly angular pauciflore, leaves linear acuminate 
reflexed quite smooth upper oblong, branches 
few erect uniflore, calix ovate acute uninerve — 
Origon or Canada, pedal, leaves nearly uncial 
elongate narrow, shorter almost oblong on the 
branches, flowers apparently incarnate in the 
dry specimen, collected by Walton. There are 
other var. or sp. of Flax in N. Amer. L. vir- 
ginicum has var. oppositifoUum^ foliosumy 
pauciflorum Slc, 

899. NEZERA Raf differs from Linum, 
calix with 5 segments unequal in size or shape, 
stamens equal to calix, anthers obbng, style* 5 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 



05 



very long, stigmas thick oblong capsule 5 locu- 
lar. — Another G. of the family Limdia besides 
those of my fl. tellur. Habit similar, but the 
inequality of calix is very striking and generic. 
The name means not true Jfax, and several sp. 
of it are perhaps blended in Linum. 

900. Nezera caknea Raf stem terete vir- 
gate branched, leaves linear acut^ patent crow- 
ded, margin smooth, upper subulate distant, 
flowers racemose few, peduncles equal to flow-, 
ers, calix segments ovate acute, 2 larger round 
retuse, petals flabellate — in Florida, bipedal, 
leaves semi uncial acute at both ends, some- 
times imbricate on sterile branches; racemes 
terminal simple sub-.5flore, flowers large of a 
real flesh color or nankin, not incarnate. The 
segments of calix are very singular, two are dif- 
ferent larger rounded enerve retuse marginate 
of white, the petals are truly flabellate shaped 
like a fan. 

90 1 . Nkzera albiflora Raf. Linum striatum 
Walter in Coll. herb, stem virgate simple, sub- 
angular, leaves linear acuminate adpressed, 
margin rough, upper subulate, flowers subco- 
rymbose few, peduncles equal to calix, seg- 
ments ovate acuminate uninerve, petals obo- 
vate — Hills of Georgia and Carolina, pedal 
slender, leaves smaller and not so crowded as 
in the last, flowers with 3 corymbose branches 
bearing 2 or 3 flowers, the lateral on short pe- 
duncles, calix with unequal segments but of 
uniform shape, petals white smaller than in last 
and narrower obtuse not flabellate. Stem not 
striate as it ought to be in L. striatum of Wal- 
ter omitted by all our botanists. — I find in a col- 
lection of plants made in Texas by Drummond, 
(and sent me by Torrev without names, altho' 

9 



66 KEOBOT, 

he says that Hooker has named them m his 
compendium) two new Flax apparently of this 
Genus which I have designed as follows, 

1. Nezera (or Linum) ctispidata R. stem 
erect humble striate, leaves linear lanceolate 
cuspidate ; flowers corymbose few, segments of 
calix acute nervose, 2 larger ovate, 3 smaller 
ovate lanceolsvC, petals obovate retuse — Texas, 
semipedal, leaves 6-9lines long, flowers large 
apparently ochroleucous or yellowish white. 
Annual. 

2. Nezera (or Linum) imhricata R. stem 
erect rigid humble angular, leaves su^bulate im- 
bricate adpressed acuminate scabrous nervose, 
flowers dichotome erect, segments of calix sub- 
unequal, ovate acuminate nervose margin sca- 
riose — Texas, annual 3 to 6 inches high, leaves 
minute, flowers small incarnate ? capsule 5lo- 
cular, 5valve as in Nezera. 

902. THEROFON Raf. 1828. Eoykinia 
Nut. 1834 not of Raf. 1828. calix 5fid equal, 
semi-adherent, petals 5 elongate, stamens 5 in- 
closed inserted on calix, ovary 2-3fid base ad- 
herent, 2-3styles short, stigmas obtuse. Capsule 
2-31ocular polysperm, dehiscent inwardly above, 
psititions formed by double introtlexions. 
perennial, caulescent, leaves alternate, JIow- 
ers paniculate — a beautiful and rare G. of nat. 
order Diceracea not Saxifragides, discovered 
by Kin, named by me in 1828, the name being 
one of old for Aconiturn, and I had a G. Boy- 
kinia out of Ammania long ago. For another 
Boykinia see 996. 

903, Therofon napelloides Raf. Boykinia 
aconitifolia N. rar. 81. Heuchera palnmta 
Collins herb. — stem grooved viscid pubescent, 
leaves petiolate palmate 5-7fid laciniate multi- 



©F NORTH AMERICA 67 

nerve reticulate, petiols and nerves hirsute, pan- 
icle formed by corymbs of short seciind race- 
mes — handsome plant 1 or 2 feet high, not 
smootli as said Nuttal, but quite viscid by pedi- 
celate glands ap »earing rough when dry, leaves 
like Napellus, base truncate becoming acute in 
upper leaves less divided subsessile : flowers 
white on pedicels shorter than calix unilateral. 
It grows in the Unaka Mts. or Iron Mts. of 
North Carolina, a region full of new plants as 
yet. The habit when out of bloom is so like 
Aconittim napellus that it may be the doubtful 
plant of that name said to grow there likewise. 
Probably early vernal. 

904. TRIObANIS Raf, Campanulacea new 
G. or subgenus diff. from Legousia by calix 
with 3 unequal teeth, capsule with 3 unequal 
cells, — This is apparently a very material dis- 
tinction ; but in one or perhaps more sp. the 
corolla is besides lacking ! or very minute with 
5 short sessile anthers, and some deem it a va- 
riation ! it is indeed a strange one amounting to 
a Generic character ! and thus being perhaps 
a peloric Genus, a spontaneous late Generic for- 
mation ! the name means 3 unequal teeth, 

905. Triodanis scabra Raf. erect rough 
humble, leaves sessile oblon;; acute subentire, 
upper linear ; capsules axillary solitary terete 
curved crowned by 3 subulate teeth — annual, 2 
to 4 inches high, seldom with one or two 
branches, lower leaves broader subcrenate. 
Found by me 1823 in the glades near the mouth 
of the Tennessee R. and by Nuttal at Cedar 
prairies in Arkanzas ; but out of 1 specimens 
not one is in bloom, all are in seeds, probably 
very early vernal. 

908. Triodanis rupestris R. procumbent 



68 NEOBOT. 

diffuse smooth, leaves sessile reniform suben- 
tire, capsules axillary solitary oblong, crowned 
by ovatoblong teeth. — Annual also, discovered 
in 1818 on rocks near Baltimore out of bloom 
as early as May, and also in the Alleghany 
Mts. This was deemed by Torrey a peculiar 
state of Legousia amplexlcaulis, although that 
plant is erect rough, with different leaves and 
flowers. I consider them as great anomalies 
and curious pelorian Genus, as my Lobomon, 
Myctanthes Slc. 

907. Fedia iiEMioDEsRaf. dichotome, leaves 
obtuse, sessile ciliolate dentate at the base, 
lower spatulate, upper elliptic, flowers glome- 
rate sessile — in Arkanzas, anonymous in Coll. 
herb, semipedal, leaves 1 or 2 inches long, with 
2 or 3 large teeth on both sides at the base, but 
sometimes lacking, flowers terminal in small 
glomerules. 

908. Fedia ligulata Raf. dichotome above, 
leaves obtuse smooth entire, lower obovate or 
cuneate, upper ligulate, flowers glomerate, co- 
rollas with slender tube — another pretty sp. 
from Arkanzas and Louisiana, hardly pedal, 
leaves short uncial not ciliolate ; flowers white 
pretty, appearing pedicellated by the long tubes 
of corollas. 

909. Fedia ciliolata R. only once forked, 
leaves ciliolate, lower petiolate round or obo- 
vate, medial cuneate obtuse, upper oblong or 
lanceolate acute, base sometimes denticulate, 
flowers in bifid or twin glomerules, corolla short 
— in Kentucky and Illinois, 4 to 10 inches high, 
leaves small, longest uncial. It has several va- 
rieties or incipient Sp. 1 TernifoUa, semipedal 
leaves ternate, stem twice trifid, subtriflore — 2. 
Acuta, all the leaves acute entire, upper linear 



or NORTH AMERICA. 69 

flowers few — 3 Dentata, last lea^^es broad and 
denticulate at base. 

CORYMBIFEllES. 
Of this extensive tribe of plants, I have yet a 
crowd of new and interesting N. G, and sp. 
some of which have been given in the first part, 
I must here confine myself to some of the most 
striking, waiting to see what Decandole and 
Torrey will do ; good monographs of the G. 
Aster, Solidago, Erigeron, Heliartthus, Coreop- 
sis, Eupatorium, Liatris, Vernonia *Slc, or akin 
and blended are much wanted, and may be un- 
dertaken if not well settled by Decandole. 

910. NEACTELIS Raf. Flosculose, peri- 
anthe in triple series adpressed not ciliate, inner 
colored, phoranthe convex with subulate chaffs, 
floscules with tube and limb terete tubular, 
Sdentate, stamens and styles inclosed. Seeds 
without crown, linear compress( d. Leaves op- 
posite^ stem iinijlore nearly naked — A singu- 
lar Genus with habit of my G. Discomela (1825) 
and the Helianthea with naked stems, yet not 
radiate ; perhaps blended with them as did Col- 
lins, and as Elliot blended my G, Anactis with 
Aster, being his A. discoideus. Radiate and 
flosculose plants are always of different Genera 
even Senecio and Jacobea. My name means 
Sun icitJwut rays. By the seeds near to Es- 
peletia, Heliopsis, Kelepta, Acmella &.c. 

911. Neactelis strigosa Raf. Helianthus 
apetalus Coll. herb, stem virgate grooved nearly 
smooth and naked uniflore, lower leaves oppo- 
site oblong acute entire, thick strigose on both 
sides by white tubercles ending in a bristle, a 
few short alterne leaves higher up ; perianthe 
with segments ovate lanceolate acute — in 
Florida collected byKinn? stem 15 inches, 3 



70 



KEOBOT. 



pairs of leaves at base, one or two. inches long, 
lowest larger subpetiolate, 2 or 3 alterne sessile 
ianceol. adpressed remote further iip; but none 
within 8 inches of the flower, the strigose tuber-, 
cles very peculiar white unequal ending in a de- 
ciduous stiff white bristle. Flower black pur- 
ple as the disk of Dtscomela, one inch wide, 
segments of perianthe in 3 rows of 6 to 8 in 
each, the inner colored like the flower nearly 
acuminate, tube of fioscules not longer than the 
tubular limb. 

912. AIMORRA Raf. radiate, perianthe 
simple 8-lOpartite, rays 8-lOsubentire, phoran- 
the flat, chaffs obovate carinate, florets or fios- 
cules tubular without tube 5 dentate, stamens 
inclosed, stigmas exerted, seeds obovate 4gone 
with 4 minute teeth. Erect, leaves alternate, — 
Very near to my 6r. Helepta see first part arti- 
cle Acmella, main difference habit alternate, 
and toothed seeds : the name was applied by 
Dioskorides to a Chrysanthemum or Buphlhal- 
mum. 

913. AiMORRA ACUMINATA R. Acmclla alter- 
nifolia Baldw. in Coll. herb. — smooth erect.stem 
angular, leaves alt. petiolate ovate acuminate 
serrate in the middle, trinervate reticulate, 
branches short unifiore, segments of perianthe 
oblong obtuse — in Florida, stem pedal, leaves 
over one inch, flowers few yellow on short foliose 
peduncles or branches, rays apparently obtuse 
entire. 

911. Zinnia floridana Raf. stem solid fus- 
cate trifiore, leaves lanceolate, base dilatate 
subamplexicale, peduncle central very long cla- 
vate, segments of perianthe rounded, rays obo- 
vate — an indigenous sp. of this pretty Mexican 
Genus, found in Florida by Kin, in Georgia by 



•r NORTH AMERICA. 71 

Leconte, anonymous in Coll. herb, stem pedal 
quite smooth, leaves levigate over one inch long, 
peduncle 5 or (3 inches long, calix adpressed 
turbinate, rays pale red very broad about 8, the 
flowers at the end of the two branches sessile 
and perhaps abortive. 

915. BINDERA Raf. N. G. near Aster, 
Binder in Coll. herb. difl. Aster, pcrianthe in a 
double series, each of 10 to 12 adpressed equal 
scariose segments, rays about 15 entire acute, 
pappus sim[)le capillary fulvous as long as flo- 
rets, seeds ovate pubescent. Leaves scatttred 
sessile, flowers ichite, involucrtite — apparently 
distinct from all the G. lately removed from 
Aster by perianthe, dedicated to the discoverer; 
if not approved as he is not much known as a 
botanist, I will substitute Xalkitis a grecian 
name of Leucanthemum. 

016. BiNDERA (or Xalkitis) ciliata Raf. 
hirsute, leaves sessile cuneate acute, scabrose 
by adpressed hairs, margin stiflly ciliate ; flow- 
ers terminal few subsessile, involucrate by 2 or 
3 leaves, segments of perianthe linear acute pu- 
bescent whitish, rays white, narrow linear acute 
— discovered by Binder in Louisiana or Florida, 
branched, leaves uncial crowded, the lower less 
ciliate, the upper strongly ciliate, flowers uncial, 
perianthe with equal segments in each row, the 
inner row longer, pappus smooth silky fulvous. 

917. JALAMBICA Raf. Flosculose, peri- 
anthe 4f]d base campanulate 4gone, limb 
spreading, phoranthe flat naked with 4 flowers, 
2 larger fertile florets opposite, infundibuliform 
4fid segments reflexed, 4 stamens exerted elon- 
gated, anthers oblong, style bifid elongate, seeds 
oblong 4gone crown entire or 4gane 41obed? 
2 abortive florets or rays ? Anmial creeping^ 



72 NEOBOT. 

■m 

leaves opposite, flowers solitary — a singular 
little genus, of which I have 2 specimens and a 
figure of the minute flowers, made by Jalambic, 
and yet am doubtful of some of the characters, 
which must be verified upon the living plants. 
Dedicated to the discoverer, a botanist who 
gave many plants of Cuba and Florida to Col- 
lins : if already employed Neurelmis meaning 
worm like neraes may be substituted. 

918. Jalambica (or Neurelmis) pumila Raf. 
smooth, stems creeping prostrate filiform dicho- 
tome, leaves on long petiols opposite rounded 
deltoid obtuse entire with vermiculate nerves ; 
fiowers few terminal peduncled. — A minute 
plant only one or two inches long, found in Cuba 
or Florida by Jalambic, deemed by him a N. G. 
of Kyngen. frustanea or necessaria, leaves only 
2 lines long and broad, sometimes decurrent on 
the petiol, covered by very singular nerves in- 
terrupted and quite vermicular. Flowers very 
small yellowish, the 4 segments of perianthe 
ovate acute, almost all destroyed for examina- 
tion by Collins ; but this plant will be easily 
known when met again by the perianthe and 
leaves when the floral characters may be rec- 
tified. 

919. Lomaxeta verrucosa Raf. ITymeno- 
pappus corymbosus Baldvv. in Col. herb, Polyp- 
teris integrifolia Nut. El.— I introduce this rare 
plant to give the synonym of the real discoverer 
Dr. Baldwin, and rectify the thrice erroneous 
name of Nuttal, formed of Pteris ! 2 already 
employed by Lacepede for a fish, and 3 not well 
applying, mine means the marginate bristles 
of the pappus. In Florida and Georgia between 
the Rivers Alatamaha and Satilla B. — in a 
note he says the leaves resemble the back of 



©r NORTH AlVIBUICA. 73 

an aHiga^or, and in fact they are covered above 
with hard and rough warts whence my name. 

9 0. Baldiiina bicolor Raf. nearly smooth, 
stem grooved n ked above uniflore, leaves scat- 
tered sessile narrow cuneate obtuse entire,scales 
of perianthe adpressed broadly ovate acute, 12 
white rays cuneate unequaly trifid — another sp. 
of the real G. Balduina, habit exactly similar, 
but flowis larger with white rays and yellow 
disk. B. uniflora which I have must now be 
called B. luten. This was found by Leconte 
in Florida or Georgia and deemed a N. G. in 
Coll. herb, stem pedal, leaves uncial becoming 
less upwards, rays larger than in B. luteUj 
which has a leafy stem, the peduncle incrassate 
leaves broader adpressed and not crowded. 

921. Stevia ovata Raf. herbaceous pubes- 
cent, leaves opposite ovate acute serrate tri- 
nerve, corymb fa^tigiate, perianthe 4flore with 
4 segments linear oblong acute, pappus of 4 
short obtuse scales. — Texas and Arkanzas, col- 
lected by Walton, stem pedal, leaves small 
hardly uncial opposite subsessile, flowers yellow, 
florets tubular 4fid obtuse, stamens inclosed, 
seeds linear smooth compressed, crown or pap- 
pus or 4 very short obtuse scariose scales. 
Probably a subgenus Efetra by the disposition 
in 4 &c. All the N. Amer. sp. akin to Stevia 
appear to deviate as the 2 next Genera evince, 
even the Mexican sp. include 2, other G. the 
Mustella of Sprengel with double pappus, and 
my Tomista for St. pedata with perianthe 
camp, pappus truncate. 

922. OTHAKE Raf. diflf. Stevia, perianthe 
turbinate subSflore, segments about 8 nervose, 
florets with slender tube, limb ns long 5parted, 
anthers subsessile exerted, style elongate hispid, 

10 



74 fTEOBdi*. 

stigmas rsvolute, seeds elongate as long as pe- 
rianth obverse pyramidal 4gone, crowned by 8 
teeth or short scariose scales, annuals^ leaves 
alternate^ end callose^ flowers paniculate in-' 
carnate. This G, is perfectly distinct by the 
perianthe, deep cut florets, scaly crown, leaves 
&c. The name means warty apeXy the leaves 
ending in obtuse callosity, 

923. Othake TENUiroMUM Raf. Stevia cal= 
losa Nut. stem terete furfurascent, glandular 
above, leaves narrow linear thickish with ad= 
pressed hairs, panicle dichotome multiflore lax 
divaricate— in Arkanzas, pedal, leaves uncial 
often with fascicles at the axils, flowers on long 
naked peduncles, the segments of florets narrow 
long linear acute, segments of perianthe cune- 
ate acuminate. 

924. Othake longifolium Raf. stem angu- 
lar and glandular above, leaves broad linear 
elongate biuncial thin nearly smooth, panicle 
pauciflore corymbose, peduncles erect— also 
from Arkanzas, blended by Nuttal with the last, 
much smaller with larger leaves, semipedal, 
lower leaves sometimes opposite. 

925. XETOLIGUS Raf. diff*. Stevia, peri- 
anthe terete Sparted Sflore, segments equal lan- 
ceolate enerve, florets exerted with tubular limb 
5dentate, anthers inclosed, stigmas hardly ex^ 
erted revolute ; seeds linear crowned by a pap- 
pus of 2 or 3 long rough bristles coalescent at 
base into a membrane. Leaves opposite^flow 
ers corymbose incarnate.— Another very dis- 
tinct G. having the bristles of M//s/^//a without 
the scales, Stevia saliciJoUa with 2 bristles be- 
longs thereto, and will be my Xetoligus salici- 
folius. My ne^ne means fevn bristles. 

926. Xftougus brevifouxjs Raf. smooth, 



siem terete corymbose, leaves isessile oblong 
linear acute, the upper alternate, corymbs fas- 
tigiate foliose multiflore, peduncles and perian- 
thes pubescent, segments lanceolate acute pap-= 
pus of 3 bristles — from Texas or Louisana found 
by Binder, a tall plant probably perennial,leaves 
short uncial, flowers pale incarnate and hand- 
some profuse. 

LIATRIS and VERNONIA. 

These two Genera once blended in Serra^ 
tula (as so many other G, are in all akin) in» 
elude a crowd of fine plants deserving a good 
monograph. Of Liatris our compilers have 18 
sp. but I know many more, several being yet 
blended as varieties, and as they offer various 
inflorescence must be divided at least in 4 or 5 
subgenera: of Vernonia only 10 are in Eaton, 
my V. alblflora and missurica described atl j. 
1833 are omitted, and I have many more N. sp, 
Vern, longifolla^ latifoiia^ brevif'olia, crinlta^ 
humilis iSpc. I shall merely add here the subg, 
of Liatris and a few N. sp. 

927. LIATRIS Aiton.— 1 Subg. f^cariola 
Raf. perianthe squarrose ovate or hemisphe- 
rical, multiflore, pappus hardly plumose, flowers 
chiefly racemose or spicate, root bulbose — 2d. 
Teretiola perianthe oblong or terete imbricate 
adpressed, multiflore, flowers terminal few, root 
bulbose — 3d. Osmilis^. per. hemisph. adpres- 
sed multifl. pappus scabrous not feathered,flovv- 
ers corymbose or terminal, root not bulbose— 
4th Rfiodilis R. per. terete Sflore few scales 
colored, ligulate pappus realy feathery, fl. race- 
mose, root bulbose — 5th Eiithifrsis R. per. o- 
blong Sflore, few scales adpressed, flowers thyr- 
soidai, root not bulbose — 6th Corymhilis R. 



70 



NK0B09. 



per. campanulate adpressed pauciflore, fl. co- 
rymbose, root not bulbose ^^c. 

928. LiAiRis (Osmilis) a3Iplexicaulis R. 
stem grooved, leaves 5nerved obtuse, radical 
sessile ovate elliptic, on stem ovate amplexi- 
caule ; flowers corymbose, segments of perian- 
the cuneate obtuse — a fine odorous sp. blended 
with L. odoratisslma, same exquisite smell 
like Toncra beans, but weaker bipedal, with 
broader shorter leaves 2 or 3 inches long,many 
smaller flowers. The true L. odoratissimuni 
has radical leaves lanceolate acute uninerve 6 
to 10 inches long, on stem sessile short cuneate 
or oblong, few branches uniflore, perianthe fo- 
liose segments obovate. In Florida &. Georgia. 

929. LiATRis (Scariola) botrys R. stem an- 
gular rough, leaves smooth scattered linear lan- 
ceolate acute, lower longer petiolate, upper sub- 
ulate ; flowers racemose, peduncles longer than 
flowers somewhat scaly, bracts subulate, perian- 
the hemispherical, segments obovate obtuse 
margin red — a very pretty sp. of Florida and 
Georgia, more distinctly racemose than in any 
other, pedal lower leaves 4 to 6 inches, upper 
uncial, raceme as long as stem multiflore, flow- 
ers lax rather small but elegant, styles very long, 

930. LiATRis (Scariola?) uniflora Raf. 
smooth, stem angular grooved uniflore, leaves 
rigid linear lanceolate acute sessile, the lower 
elongate, tririerve middle nerve very thick ; pe- 
rianthe ovate base foliose segments ovate acu- 
minate squarrose — from Kentucky to Alabama, 
pedal, leaves nearly imbricate the lower 5 or 6 
inches long. Deviating from Scariola by sin- 
gle flower, perhaps a subg. Rigidilis ; but 
very akin to my L. rigida differing only by 2 
or 3 flowers, leaves scab/ous stem pilose. 



OF NpRTH AMERICA ^ * 

931. Vernonia brevifolia Raf. stem groov- 
ed pubusc(mt below smooth above, leaves short 
oblong, margm subentire revolute, very sca- 
brous above, pubescent and glaucous beneath ; 
flowers subuinbellate few, segments of perian- 
the lanceolate acuminate squarrose — in Alaba- 
ma near to V. balduini^ which has however 
leaves ovate serrate, here they are oblong, 
broader below, or subcuneate, narrow above 
nearly lanceolate, only uncial ; flower in a irre- 
gular umbel of about 1(/ flowers, naked, stem 
bipedal or less. 

932. Vernoma CRiNiTA Raf. smooth, stem 
grooved, leaves narrow lanceolate elongate with 
remote obtuse teeth ; corymb foliose, perianthe 
crinite by long lax subulate filiform segments — 
in Louisiana and Arkanzas near streams a tall 
sp. leaves 5 to inches long, only half inch 
broad in the middle, acuminate at both ends 
and sometimes falcate : flowers large perianthe 
hemispherical multifl. segments nearly all equal 
slender and forming a fringed cup as long as 
florets. 

933. Makshalma spiralis Raf. smooth sub- 
scapose, leaves radical linear lanceolate obtuse 
uninerve, scape elongate spirahj grooved, pu- 
bescent above, perianthe segments linear obtuse 
smooth — in Arkanzas and West Louisiana found 
by Binder, near to M. lanceolata, but quite dis- 
tinct, leaves narrower 3 inches long, scape twist- 
ed as some Xurides (not so in M. lanceolata) pe- 
dal, flower large incarnate. 

934. Marshallia TENuiFOLiARaf. stem sim- 
ple virgate grooved, naked and pubescent above, 
leaves scattered all narrow linear elongate acute 
perianthe segments linear acute pubescent — 
found by Baldwin on the sea shores of Florida 



^O IVEOBOr. 



and Georgia, nearer to M. cyananthera than 
M. angustlfolia, but leaves quite slender uni- 
nerve smooth, anthers also bluish — thus we have 
6 sp. of this pretty G. a 7th might be my 3'L 
pumila nov>' my G. T lerolepta Neog. 1825. 
EIJPATORIUM and akin 

This extensive G. is now divided into many 
Celestina, BrickeUia., Mikania^ Kalinia &c, 
besides my Eutrocliium with scariose terete 
perianthe, leaves verticillate kc, my Caradesia 
with perianthe hemispherical multiflore : thus 
reduced to the sp. with a definite number of 
florets and segments of perianthe, it is still pro- 
lific. The American Cacalias are very near, 
but form 3 peculiar Genera, my Epatitis 205, 
Mesadenia and Hasteola. 

935. MESADENIA Haf. perianthe 5flore, 
terete with 5 equal segments, phoranthe with a 
thick gland in the centre and 5 flowers around 
it, (this gland is an abortive neutral floret some- 
times evolved) calicule obsolete or only a small 
scale, florets with tubular limb deeply 5d, an- 
thers inclosed, stigmas 2 or 4 hardiy exerted, 
seeds smooth oblong or clavate, pappus downy 
capillary. Peremdals^ leaves alternate large 
thicklsh, Jlowrrs white corymhose or panicu- 
late. — A north American G. of many sp. quite 
distinct and natural by the singular structure of 
phoranthe, noticed by Elliot and Nuttul, the 
central gland is variable ovate acute, or angu- 
lar tridentate, or seldom changed into a neutral 
floret which has then the ovary dentate instead 
of downy. I have even noticed some flowers 
where there was only this neutral floret in the 
perianthe, lacking anthers and style, another 
anomaly is the quadruple stigmas of some florets, 
This G. is nearer Kleinia than Cacalia. Akin 



or JfORTH AWERICA. /« 

also to my Chondrophora (tli^ Chrysoconia 
nudata of N.) with a scaly phoranthe &.c. — 
I have prepared a monograph of 15 sp. \\here' 
of y are my own, M. dt.ntata^ rotundifolia, 
oblongata^ quinquejida^ cuneata, pulcei^ulentay 
lobata^besides my CacaUapttranlhes and pan- 
iculata of annals Nut. 1820, the old sp. are M, 
atriplicifolia^ reniformis^ ovata^ lanceotata^ 
plantaginea (the C. taberosa of N.) — as to the 
CcLcalia suaceolens L. which Elliot refers to 
Senecio^ it is my G. Hasteola distinguished by 
the anthers cristate. I will only add here a few 
of my N. sp. 

936. Mesadenia kotundifolia R. leaves 
rounded 3-5nerved entire or repand glaucous 
beneath, lower on long petiols, obtuse or retuse, 
upper sessile acute, flowers corymbose, seg- 
ments of perianths oblong obtuse enerve, mar- 
gin white — In the Musketong and Mahantango 
Mts. of AUeghanies, 2 or 3 feet high, lower 
leaves 3 or 4 inches long and broad with 5 
nerves reticulate, petiols 4 to 8 inches long, 
upper leaves uncial. 

9'57. Mesadenia dentata R. leaves broadly- 
ovate acute and acutely dentate 3-5nerved not 
glaucous, lower on short petiols, on stem sessile 
acuminate, flowers in compound corymb, seg- 
ments of perianth oblong acute suhtrinerve — in 
Alabama, very different from M. ovata with 
obtuse narrower leaves. Tripedal, leaves 4 to 
5 inches long, 3 or 4 broad, petiols 2 or 3 long, 
stem leaves 1 or "2 inches long, corymb with 
many branches and multiflore. 

938. M^ADENiA PULVERULENTA R, leaves 
petiolate onerved glaucous pulverulent on both 
sides, lower on long petiols broadly cordate acute 
angular, upper ovate or rhomboidal acute at 



80 KEOBOT. 

both ends, angular sinuate ; corymbs fastigiate, 
segments of perianthe lanceolate uninerve mar- 
gined — in the state of Delaware, 3-4feet high, 
lower leaves 4 to 6 inches long and broad, pe- 
tiols as long, on the stem uncial &c with a 
short petiol, variously cut in long sharp angles. 
The M. atripUcifoUa has leaves deeper cut,the 
upper deltoid, the M, oblongata has radical 
leaves oblong cordate obtuse. 

939. EuPATORiuM ciNEREUM Raf. pubescent 
cinereous, stem striate corymbose above, leaves 
alternate sessile, on stem lanceolate obtuse, bi- 
dentate lateraly, on branches linear entire ob- 
tuse; corymbules many pauciflore, perianthe 
Sflore, cinereous, segments elliptic obtuse cali- 
cule ovate obtuse — in Alabama &c,tripedal,stem 
at base redishwith cinereous pubescence, lower 
leaves greenish, upper ashy like the flowers, 
seeds black hispid, pappus cinereous. 

940. EuPATORiuM FULVUM Raf. roughly pu- 
bescent, stem simple terete grooved, leaves op- 
posite sesssilo oblong lanceolate serrate, acute 
at both ends, roughly punctate ; corymb fasti- 
giate, pedicels hairy white, bracts linear, peri- 
anthe oblong pauciflore, segments lanceolate 
acute glandular punctate, end fulvous mem- 
branaceous — in Alabama &.c, near to E. glan- 
dulosum of Mexico but leaves not ovate, habit 
of Kiihnia but pappus not plumose, stem 1-2 
pedal, leaves 2-3uncial, flowers fulvous before 
expansion. 

941. EUPATORIUM OrCARADKSIA PAUCIFLORA 

Raf. Hispidule humble, leaves thin on long pe- 
tiols ovate crenate, both ends acute; flowers 
terminal few 5-6, perianthe campanulate mul- 
tiflore, segments lanceolate acute unequal — 
Louisiana and JVIississipi found by Dr. Hart, 



or NORTH AMERICA. 81 

semipedal, leaves small entire at base, corym 
bule foliose, fiowers white incarnate. 

I have many other (hiubtful or rare sp. of this 
G. 3 were described 1832 in atl. jom-nal E. 
serratum., pfctiimlum^ rupestre,, some are in 
Florula LLuioviciana; us to Knlrochium I have 
prepared a monograph of it with many new 
species. 

HELENIUM of this G. I have 7sp. and 10 
varieties while our botanists admit only 3. 

9i2. Hllemum niscovATUM R. smooth 
stem dichotonie angular, leaves subdecurrent 
linear lanceolate acute entire uninerve, flowers 
on long naked peduncles, rays short flat, disk 
ovate concolor — this was labelled a Rudbeckia 
in Coll, herb, but is a real llelenium with tri- 
lid obtuse rays, bipedal, branches virgate, leaves 
iiriciai, flowers smaller than in others. In 
Florida. 

943. Helenium anceps R. stem compressed 
striate pubescent with 2 broad wings, leaves de- 
current oblong lanceolate acute entire smooth 
trinerve, flowers corymbose few, rays flat re- 
flexed, disk globular concolor. In Florida and 
Georgia found by Lecoiite, anonymous in Coll. 
iierb. pedal, leaves uncial, flowers large. 
p. 944. Helenium flexuosum R. smooth, stem 
ramose angular win?^fed, branches flexuose, leaves 
decurrejit lanceolate acute entire uninerve, flow- 
ers paniculate, rays flat reflexed, disk globular 
discolor — can this be IL canfdiculaium^ but 
the leaves are not serrate, nor rays grooved. 
Found on R. Wabash, bipedal, leaves 1 or 2 
inches, flowers middle size, discolor redish, not 
yellow as in other 5 in centre. 

945- Hei,en2um DicHOTOMiM R. pubescent 
rough, stem dichotomc corymbose striate wing- 
11 



$i 



KEOBOT. 



cd, lower leaves sessile cuneate remotely obtuse 
serrate, not trinervate, upper leaves decurrent 
lanceolate acute subcrenate, rays grooved ? disk 
globose discolor — another sp. akin to H.canal- 
iculatum, but not smooth nor properly serrate, 
stem bipedal quite dichotomous above, lower 
leaves 3 inches long, upper uncial, disk redish 
as in last, found in West Kentucky, 

946. Helenium traxiltihi li. nearly smooth, 
stem angular striate hardly winged, leaves sub- 
decurrent lanceolate elongate, both ends acu- 
minate, margin entire very rough ; flowers co- 
rymbose, rays flat reflexed, disk globose conco- 
lor — found in Indiana and Illinois, pedal, leaves 
large 2 or 3 inches long pale beneath, flowers 
few small. — H. autumnale nearest to this has 
serrate smooth leaves, and several varieties, an- 
gustifolium^ latifolium, lemgatum^hrevifolium 
longifoliuniy elatiim, patirifJorutn &^c, 
GLOSSANtllES 

This family also called Cichoracea and ^etni- 
flosculose, has been stated to be very deficient 
in North America ; but it is a mistake, 5 Genera 
alone Lactuca, Eimoxis, Hieracitim, Nar- 
halia and Krigia, include nearly 100 species; 
being as numerous as the Asters, they have 
been equaly involved in obscurity by blending 
or overlooking sp. which require careful mono- 
graphs, such as I have undertaken ; but must 
delay at present and only give a few striking 
novelties, as I wish to confine this flora to 1000 
articles at present. This continent is the cen- 
tral seat of Lactuca as it is of Vitis and Quer- 
cus, possessing 30 or 40 species of each. The 
Lactuca elongala of our blind botanists con- 
tained 12 or 15 sp.with leaves smooth or rough, 
entire or pinnatifid^ runcinate, sagittate, den- 



or NORTH AMERICA. 85J 

tate, sessile, arnplexicaiile,flowers spicate ot ra- 
cemose or paniculate ! &c, &.c. 

947. Lac TUCA angulata R. smooth gigantic 
stem fistulose, leaves pinnatifid broad, sinusses 
wide and ani:;ular. pinnules ovate angulate den- 
tate acute, base of nerves roughish, lower sub- 
petiolate angular; flowers paniculate, pedicels 
inequal, bracts subulate — Pennsylv. to l^en- 
tucky Slc stem 5 to 8 feet high, very thick, 
leaves ample thin pedal below, flowers very 
numerous. 

948. Lactuca maritima R. smooth, stem 
simple fistular, naked above, all leaves pinnati- 
fid sessile, pinnules remote unequal lanceolate 
angular ; flowers racemose lax few — on the 
Sea Shores and Sea Islands from Long Island 
to Virginia, stem bipedal purplish, leaves 3 or 
4 inches long slender, radical and on base of 
stem only, how diflerent from last. 

949. Lactuca axillaris R. smooth, stem 
fistulose foliose, lower leaves ample sessile ovate 
lyrate lobate, sinusses rounded entire, lobes 
rounded dentate, upper leaves lanceolate entire 
flowers in axillary spikes — Mts. Alleghanies, 
stem bipedal fuscate. leaves 2 or 4 inches long, 
flowers realy spicate sessile. 

950. Lactuca ova tifolia R. nearly smooth, 
stem solid striate, leaves sessile ovatoblong 
equaly denticulate, middle nerve rough, lower 
attenuate at base, flowers paniculate, peduncles 
scaly — in New Jersey and Pennsyl. stem fus- 
eate 2 or 3 feet high, leaves 2 or 3 inches long, 
veins reticulate. 

951. Lactuca pilosa R. stem fistular, base 
pilose, naked above, leaves all sessile lanceolate 
denticulate, beneath glaucous and subpilose. 
lower elongate attenuate into a petioi, flow&r* 



KEOBOT 



sabracemose few and small — Apalacliian Mis. 
of Virginia and Carolina, diflerent from L. 
hirsula by leaves entire,the loNver 6 to 8 inches 
long, stem 2 or 3 feet high. 
*^)952. EuNoxis (Agathyrsus) amabius Raf. 
^rnooth, stem subsoiid terete, leaves sessile am- 
ple ovate acute angular or denticulate, lower 
base decurrcnt cuneiform, floral oblong suben- 
tire, branches racemose paniculate pyramidal, 
peduncles elongate naked, flowers blue, pappus 
white — Mts. Aile-haTiy, 4 to 5 feet high, leaves 
4 to 10 inches long, a profusion of pretty blue 
flowers. I have changed Agathyrsus name 
already preoccupied for a G. of shells for Eu- 
noxis an ancient name of l^ettuce, and I give 
this sp, as a specimen out of a dozen sp. that I 
possess, the color of flowers and pappus is spe- 
cific in this Genus. 

953. Narbalia LATiFOLiA Raf. smooth, stem 
terete flexuose, leaves broad thin petiolate glau- 
cous beneath subdentate, lower on long petiols 
deltoid hastate broader than long, trinerve, lobes 
divaricate deltoid acute, upper leaves ovate acu- 
minate, racemes axillary, perianthe 5flcre 
Sparted — in Mts. Alleghanies, stem 2-3pedal, 
whitish sometimes rubicund, rndical leaves with 
petiols one f)ot long, leaf 10 inches broad 8 
long, upper leaves 2 or 3 inches long, flowers 
white drooping, perionthe incarnate. The pre- 
vious good name l^arbalia of Cassini adopted 
by Hooker must prevail over HarpnJijce of 
Don adopted by Beck later and formed from 
Horpa a shell. Even the G. must be divided, 
I give this as an instance of the real Narbalia, 
of which I have 25 species, those with multiflore 
perianthe form ray next Genus ; while the Pre- 
nantkcs tenidfoUa and pauciflora of Torrey 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 8S^ 

with plumose seeds are my G. FiUoriaof 1833 

Atlantic Journal. 

954. OPICRINA Raf. difl. from Narbalia, 
perianthe 10-15 segments commonly hirsute, 
multiflore, with 20 to 30 flowers indefinite — 
these are taller plants, exuding a milk intensely 
bitter, producing a bitter opium which the name 
implies ; the types are Op. crcpidinea and the 
next. 

955. Opicrina latifolia Raf. Prenanthes 
opicrina 1822. smooth, stem grooved ramose, 
lower leaves with winged petiols cordate or 
sagittate ovate, sinuate angular, upper ovate re- 
pand or denticulate ; flowers in racemose pan- 
icles fasciculate, perianthes nodding hirsute, 
pappus fulvous — in Central Kentucky rich 
woo<ls, 5 to G lieet high, leaves 4 to 10 inches 
long, flowers large ochroleucous, perianthes 
fuscate. Op. crepidinea ditfers by leaves ses- 
sile oblong lanceolate unequaly dentate. Op 
an^vsUlolin would be a better name. 

958. SITILIAS Raf. perianthe terete dou- 
ble multiflore both multipartite, external shorter 
adpressed, phoranthe naked, seeds smooth lin- 
ear oblong grooved, pappus long stipitate sim- 
ple capillary silky lulvous. — Caulescent, flow- 
ers frw. — This G. differs from Leontodon by 
pappus not plumose, from Borkhausia by terete 
adpressed perianthe and costate seeds. It was 
shuffled into 4 Genera! Leontodon^ Borkhau- 
sia^ Scorzonera, Chondrilla ! and now must 
form a 5th, the name was an ancient of Hiera- 
cium of which it has the habit — Type S. Caro- 
LiNiANA Raf. Borkausia do Elliot, see his sy- 
nonymy and description, wherein he has proba- 
bly blended the next Genus also. My specimen 



S6 NEOBOT. 

from Alabama, has oblong leaves with long teeth 
and only 2 flowers vellow. 

957. CllENAMON Raf. diflT. from Sitilias 
by outer perianthe unequal, pappus plumose, 
seeds curved compressed tesselated by longitu- 
dinal and transverse stria, scapose, corymbose 
— nearer to Picris than any other G. the name 
was that of Adanson for Picris, but different by 
perianthe realy double as in last and seeds not 
rugose transversaly alone but tesselate, besides 
habit scapose. 

958. Crenamon pectinatum Raf. smooth, 
1-eaves pectinate pinnatifid obtuse, very long and 
narrow, base attenuate entire, pinnules remote 
narrow obtuse, scape grooved corymbose 
3-6flore, peduncles very long with subulate 
scales. — Apalachian Mts. Unaka, leaves 6 to 8 
inches long, hardly half inch wide, pectinate 
like the horn of the Saw-Fish, scape pedal,flow- 
ers yellow, perianthe acute, outer rather une- 
qual. 

959. Krigia petiolaris R. stem flexuose fo- 
liose striate pauciflore, leaves all petiolate o- 
blong or obovate minute dentate laciniate, pe- 
duncles filiform, perianthes linear — in Alabama, 
3 to inches high, leaves only half inch or less, 
petiol uncial or longer, flowers small few, not 
rigidly erect as in Kr. virginica. 

960. Krigia intec.rifoma R. stem erect fo- 
liose grooved uniflore, leaves glaucous entire 
all dissimilar, radical petiolate elliptical obtuse 
or obovate acute, on stem amplexicaule acute, 
ovate or lanceolate, perianthe lanceolate — Mts, 
Alleghanies, how different from last, nearer to 
Kr. amplexicaiilis but smaller with entire 
leaves, one small flower pale yellow, not orange 
color. Semipedal, leaves 1 to 3 inches long,aU 



OF NORTH AMERICA 



87 



different in shape, yet ali entire, — of this diffi- 
cult G. once blended in Hijoseris, we have 12 
or 15 sp. and many varieties, difficult to distin- 
guish : the G. Aclujrastrum Necker and Cyn- 
t/iia Don, appear the same ; if different they 
must be better distinguished — as to Aposeris 
Necker with naked seeds, it differs but little 
from my Laxanon 203, of which it appears 
Apogon of Elliot is a 2d sp. his name was pre- 
occupied for a fish. Our Hieraciums must per- 
haps be divided, I had formed the G. Ophio- 
seris with many, but the 4 G. of Necker out of 
Hieracium must be verified and restored, they 
are Ar actum, Plancia, Wdlemetia, and Miegia 
now occupied by a grass, >' 

i 961. POLYGALA, this G. now forming a 
vast family must be divided by flowers and habit, 
as was suggested by many botanists. I did so 
long ago, proposing Triclisperma, Psychanthus, 
and Muraltia with many subgenera, that must 
soon become as in any Genera, I shall merely 
enumerate them here, reserving my labor on 
this family for a monograph. 

1. PoLYGALA stamens 8 diadelphous, corolla 
cristate. 

2. MuKALTiA Necker 1790, differs by corolla 
not cristate, once Heisteria of L. notof Jaquin, 
since adopted by L. type P. senega &c. 

3. Triclisperma Raf 1814, type P. pau- 
cifolia &c. 

4. Psychanthus Raf. 1814, type P, myrti- 
folia &.C. 

5. Sexilia R. stamens 6 sessile, corolla bila- 
biate cristate, type P. verticillata and all whorl- 
ed species, chiefly annuals. 

6. Plostaxis R. stamens 4, cor. fimbriate, 
fl. capitate, type P. lutea &.c. 



88 NEOBOT. 

8. AxTHALOGEA R. stam. 7-8, cor. 31obe fim- 
briate, stigma subsessile bilabiate, plumose on 
upper lip, some flowers deficient, type P. poly- 
gama. 

9. CoRYMBULA R.flovvers corymbose. — Subg. 
or («enus ? 

10. ZoROxusR. Chamebuxus T. flowers soli- 
tary. Ditto ? 

962. ASEMEIA Raf. diff". Polygala, calix 
4-5phyle, 2 sepals internal larger wing like, co-^ 
rolla cariniform base hirsute, subtrilobe, tip tu- 
berculate. Stamens 8 monadelphous very short 
anthers unilocular. Style elongate bearded 
above, stigma obtuse, capsule oblong semi-alate, 
cells mouosperm, seeds hispid. Habit of Poly- 
gala^ per eruilals, racemose leaves J! . alterne. — I 
give one of my N. G. very distinct from P. 
senega and akin, altho' sauie habit, the name 
means without vexillum. 

9G3, AsEviEiA rosbaR. Polyg. pubescens Mg. 
E. viridescens Walt, pubescent, stem hardly 
angular, branched, leaves linear lanceolate 
acute, calix 4phyle, wings obovate — in Carolina 
and Florida, pedal, pretty sp. flowers rose color, 
leaves uncial, racemes terminal lax, bracts subr 
jilate, short. 

J 9G1. AsEMEiA CARNEA Raf. smooth, stem 
simple angular leaves linear cuneate acute, 
calix Sphyle, wings ovatoblong — in Alabama 
and West Tennessee, probably blended with 
the last, pedal, leaves shorter, the lower cuneate 
and even obtuse, flowers pale flesh color or 
white with a pink tinge. 

965. AsEMEiA ALBA (or leptopsis) Raf. smooth, 
stem simple angular virgate naked above, leaves 
narrow linear, upper subulate, raceme spiked, 
flowers imbricate, calix 5phyle ? wings obovate 



OF NORTH AMERICA O^ 

— in Arkanzas and Texas, perennial, pedal 
slender, leaves very narrow half uncial, raceme 
terete unciul, flowers white small, on short pe- 
dicels ahnost imbricate, bracts hmceolate : this 
sp. may be a MurallMj I cannot determine the 
stamens,^ 

960. PoLYGALA (SexiHa) missuuica Raf. 
stem branched diffuse 4gone, leaves quaternate 
and opposite broad lanceolate smooth, base 
acute, end mucronate ; spikes terminal oblong 
imbricate — in the prairies of Missouri and Illi- 
nois, 3 to 4 inches high, leaves larger and 
broader than in others, tiowers white, not in fili- 
form spikes. Annual. 

967. PoLYGALA (Muraltia ?) rugosa Raf, 
stems angular prostrate, leaves alternate rugose 
lower cuneate obtuse,upper linear cuneate acute, 
flowers in slender spikes — on Lake Michigan, 
humble, 3 to 6 inches long, leaves less than one 
inch, flowers red, sessile in short spikes ; but 
very imperfect in my specimen, probably a Mu- 
raltia. 

968. PoLYGALA or PiLOSTAXIS HYEMALTS 

Raf. stemless, leaves all radical obovate obtuse 
capitule sessile squarrose oval, bracts lanceolate 
membranaceous as long as flowers — this and 
the next are blended in P. laiea var. nmia of 
Mx. but quite unlike our P. Itdea of New Jer- 
sey. Found by Baldwin and Nuttal in Florida 
and Georgia, blossoming in January, leaves un- 
equal uncial often spatulate, heads ^horter than 
leaves, flowers greenish, root annual. 

969. POS.YGALA or PILOSTAXIS NANA Raf. sub- 

scapose, leaves cuneate ami oblong, obtuse and 
acute, stem short with 1 or 2 leaves lanceolate, 
head oval squarrose, bracts subulate elongate, 
wings lanceolate acuminate — in Florida found 
12 



90 KEOBOT. 

by Ware in 1821, Stem 2 or 3 inches high, 
leaves half inch long, head large, flowers green- 
ish. I have a var of F. lutea near tills same 
size and habit, but with few leaves narrower, 
heads depressed, flowers reaiy bright yellow, 
wings broader obovate acuminate: it will be 
my var paiicifolia, and they all evince a ten- 
dency to deviate from /'. luUa. 
GENTIANIDES. 

This lovely family of plants wa<^ in utter con- 
fusion, as I have proved in rectifying it, in fl. 
tellur. 435 to 500, where many N. (j. and sp. 
are established. I have also restored the G, 
Anthop "gon, Pneimionanthe, Dasistepha, Ci- 
minalis,Cicendia, Tretorhiza &.c of former bo- 
tanists, neglected by the linnean blenders. I 
there gave also some new N. Amer. sp. and I 
still mean to give hereafter their complete mo- 
nograph, our species have been increased late- 
ly by myself and Hooker to 50 or 60, while 
Linneus had only half a dozen of this continent. 
I now must merely add some other interesting 
novelties. 

970. Antiiopogon incarnatum Raf. Genti- 
ana purpurea Muhl. fl. lancastr. Coll, herb, stem 
humble branched, branches compressed sub4- 
gone uniflore, leaves lanceolate, acute, lower 
subcuneate, calix4gone, segments ovate lanceol. 
acum, margin colored, 2 alt. narrower, corolla 
ciliate twice as long — another beautiful sp. of 
this fine G. discovered by Muhlenberg since 1790, 
found by myself in the Alleghanies 1804, since 
omitted or mistaken for a variety by our botan- 
ists (myself included) but now restored and fix- 
ed, only 6 to 10 inches high, with several erect 
branches, leaves uncial, narrower than in A. 
crinitum, broader than in A. virgatnm fl. tel. 



OF JJORTH AMERICA. 91 

472, flowers size of the first, but of an incarnate 
color, instead of blue, the cahx is margined of 
same color. Autiimn;»l. 

971. Antiiopogo.n Ar.BEscEXS Raf. stem te- 
rete trifid, leaves patent narrow lanceolate acute, 
peduncles terete, calix deeply 4fid, segments 
ovate lanceolate obtusely acuminate, 2 nar- 
rower lanceolate, corolla hardly longer than 
calix unequally denticulate — iiT Louisiana, col- 
lected by Riddel, sent me anonymous, very dis- 
tinct by smaller shorter flowers nearly white or 
blush color, leaves nearly as in A. virgatiim 
but broader and spreading, 2 inches long, flow- 
er only uncial. 

972. Anthopogon erevifolium Raf. humble, 
uniffore ? foliose anceps, lower leaves cnneate 
or spatulate acute, upper ovatoblong short * 
acute, calix with segments shorter ovate lan- 
ceol. acutely acuminate, corolla double of calix 
fringed — in Mts. Alleghanies of Lycoming Cy. 
Pennsylv. blossoming in November, stem 4 to 6 
inches high, leaves very short 4 to 6 lines long 
and reaching to near the flower, which is small 
though elongate uncial, apparently incarnate in 
the specimen, nearer to A. incarnatum than 
to A. crinitum^ perhaps a variety of it. — A. 
crinitutn diflers from all my 4 sp. by leaves 
ovate lanceolate subdeltoid, flowers large with 
rounded segments deeply fringed, peduncles 
naked 4gone &c. All belong to the G, An- . 
thopogon of Necker 1790, and have the calix 
unequal as in the whole family. 

973. Pleienta QuixQutNERViA Raf. stem 
terete trichotome, leaves broad oblong lanceo- 
late acute thin Snerved ; floAvers corymbose, 
calix base membranose, 6-7parted, segments fo- 
liose lanceolate, subequal to corolla segments 



911 i^EOBOT. 

oblong obtuse — in Louisiana, sent me by Rid- 
del as Sabatia gracilis ? pedal, not slender, fo- 
liose, leaves large often 2 inches long, flowers 
few white terminal, peduncles thick erect un- 
cial. My G. Phienia fi. tel. 497 includes all 
the Sabatias with unequal innltiple calix and 
corolla, 6-12 stamens, style erect. 

974. Plfienta leucantiia R. slender 2-3cho- 
tome branches anceps, leaves lanceolate acute 
hardly trinerve, flowers on long peduncles,calix 
8-lOparted linear, corolla double of calix, seg- 
ments cuneate obtuse — this is the Sab. gracilis 
of many botanists, but not of all, the true one 
not being a Pleienta ! on Sea Shores from 
South New Jersey to Florida, pedal, leaves un- 
cial, flowers- large and fine, sometimes 2 inches 
wide 

9T5. Sabbatia? nervosa Raf. ramose pau- 
ciflore, branches anceps, leaves ovate lanceo- 
late trinerve acute, peduncles axil, and termi- 
nal, calix base campanulate Sgone, segments 
linear elongate nervose, corolla as long as calix, 
segments broad obovate, trinerve at base — 
anonymous sp. of Nuttal, which deserves per- 
haps to be a genus Neurola Raf. by calix Sgone 
corolla nerved, stamens rolled up but not twist- 
ed, st3^1e declinate and with linear stigmas as 
in Sabbatia. From Arkanzas, 8 inches high, 
leaves small remote semi-uncial, flowers large 
over uncial incarnate? Neiirola arkanzica 
will be a better name. 

976. BILAMISTA Raf. calix deeply 5part- 
ed subequal, corolla marcescent tube campanu- 
late lOnerved, limb rotate Sparted, glandular 
appendages at the sinusses,stamens 5 free equal 
•filaments subulate exerted, anthers oblong 21o- 
cular, ovary compressed, style flexuose persis- 



or NORTH AMERICA. 93 

tent, stigma bilamellate broad, capsule elliptic 
2valve unilocular, polyspernie, seeds scrobicu- 
late inserted on 4 large placentas. Perennial, 
ramose, Jioipers axil, pedunculate — I now add 
another beautiful N. ir. to the Gentianides : it 
is next to Sivertia and Narketis, but with the 
calix and corolla of Sabatia <fec. My JSarke- 
tis fl. tel. 477 based on various sp. of pentan- 
drous Sicertias included even several G. this, 
another my Synallodia japonica, with 2 sta- 
mens united, formed by Sicertia rolata of Thun- 
berg; and Gentiana ^^/v/feyiA/^ with very une- 
qual calix and no appendages ? perhaps another 
Leimanisa R. the name of tins applies to the 
large bilameilate stigma, it shows beautifully 
the opposition of stamens essential to the Gen- 
tianides. 

9^7. BiLAMisTA GRANDiFLORA Raf. Gcutiana 
do Coll. herb, ramose 2-3dichotome, branches 
fastigiate terete rugose, leaves ovatoblong acute 
trine rve ; peduncles axilary and terminal rigid 
angular, calix segments subulate, corolla thrice 
as long, segments obovate obtuse — fine robust 
plant of Red river Louisiana and Arkanzas,ses- 
quipedal, leaves biuncial, flowers white/* (ful- 
vous in dry specimen and leaves blackened) 
very large 2 or 3 inches wide, nearly marces- 
cent and persistent like the style ; capsule large 
very peculiar black rugose, seeds numerous 
minute dotted: the glandular appendages are 
minute somewhat crested and at sinusses in- 
stead of segments. 

I have not yet exhausted the N. G. and sp. 
of this family, there are still others blended in 
Sicertia, Exacum, Chironia . . . and many un- 
noticed sp. of Sabatia, Pleienta, Xolemia . . . 



Px4 NEOBOT. 

see my medical flora and ft. tellur. for some of 
them. 

LABIATES. 

In this family much remains to be done even 
after the labors of Bentham and mine in fl. tel- 
lur. Our G. Pycinuithf'S, Teucrium Bruu- 
ndla, Lycopiis, Meutlia^ Salma, Blotiarda^ 
Scutellaria &c are yet susceptible of revision 
and improvement. My G. Euliemus 1830 
Med. fl. for Lycopus Virglnicus and akin sp. 
must be admitted like my lUephilia, Vlfclda^ 
Blephlloma and others of fi. teliur. I shall only 
add now a few presumed new species, others 
are in 2d part of this work. 

978. Mentfia cinewea R. cinereous pubes- 
cent, leaves subsessile ovatoblong acute sharply 
serrate, spikes terminal verticillate naked,bracts 
subulate equal to flowers, stamens included — in 
the Welsh Mts. of Alleghanies in Pennsylv. dis- 
covered 1804 again 1834, habit of M. tenuis 
less odorous, root creeping, many stems erect, 
pedal almost hirsute, leaves uncial quite cine- 
reous beneath, less above, spikes short, flowers 
small white, calix and bracts cinereous almost 
canescent. — I have several other sp. of Mint, 
BI. capilata, M, denlata, pfctlnata, ciliafa, 
tracliiloma &c, but some are doubtful, and the 
two last belong to Vulegiutn like BI. canaden- 
sis and horealis. 

* 

970. Vleckia eracteata R. leaves petiolate 
cordate acute grossly serrate, spike sessile 
bracts also and ovate acute foliose longer than 
flowers — in Florida, pedal, stem fuscate, leaves 
uncial not large, spike sessile, rather short, bracts 
large remarkable. This perhaps may form a 
subg. the habit and flowers are of Vleckia, but 
calix more campanulate striate with very une- 
qual teeth, Vsalioji Raf. see fl. tel. 786. 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 05 

980. Pycnantites saxatilis K. stem ramose 
tomentose, angles obtuse, leaves glaucous sub- 
petioiate ovate acuminate remotely serrate, 
hardly pubescent punctate reticulate on both 
sides; heads terminal sessile, bracts and calix 
lanceolate mutic canescent tomentose — in the 
Alleghany Mts. near the R, Susquehannah 
among stones and rocks, 1 or 2 feet high, 
branches patent, leaves ultra uncial, Capitules 
multiHore, stamens not exerted. — A var. cuni- 
loicles has stem smaller, leaves subsessile smal- 
ler son»etimessubentire. fiuhg. J^rac/iystemon. 

981. P\CNANTHES PARVIFOLIA R. SmOOth, 

stem branched acutely 4gone, leaves small sub- 
sessile ovatohl.ing eniire, ending by an obtuse, 
callose point ; heads terminal, sessile lax dicho- 
tome, bracts lanceolate nervose, the nerve pro- 
truding in a long stiff fulvous bristle, calix brist- 
ly — a very distinct sp. found by Leconte in Flo- 
rida and Georgia, anonymous in Coll. herb, pe- 
dal, while leaves 4 to 6 lines long, bristles of 
bracts as long as tkem formed by the nerve ex- 
tending out. Very different from P. aristata^ 
stamens not exerted. Perhaps a peculiar sub- 
genus Xetalix R. with all aristate sp. here the 
calix is equal else it would be a Titlljja, lower 
hp of corolla equaly trilobe, lobes short rounded 
upper ejitire ? as in Tullya. 

982. Pycnanthes ciliata R. stem branched 
pilose 4gone, leaves subsessile glaucous lanceo- 
late elongate acute at both ends subentire, 
smooth, margin and nerves ciliate, heads termi- 
nal sessile canescent pilose lax, bracts and calix 
subulate aristate bristles ciliate — in N. Jersey 
pine barrens and Maryland, noticed since 1802, 
deemed P. aristata by some, nearer to P. pi- 
losa, having both they are very different from 



96 NBOBOT. 

this, bipedal, leaves biuncial, inflorescence as in 
last, but bristles not rigid plumosely ciliate, co- 
rolla with upper lip emarginate, lower with 3 
elliptic lobes unequal. Probably another subg. 
also Blepliixtta Raf. — I have several other 
doubtful N- sp. of this G. Pycn. scabra, glan- 
dulosa, laxijlora &c. 

983. Blephii.ia brevipes R, stem fistulose 
hardly angular hirsute chiefly near the nodes, 
leaves on short petiols upper sessile, ovatoblong 
nearly obtuse subserrato, smooth, nerves pubes- 
cent ; whorls densiflore, bracts and calix hirsute 
lanceolate aristate — xilabama, leaves uncial,the 
floral are quite sessile, flowers white incarnate. 
One of the sp. blended in Monarda hirsuta, 
the real sp. is my BL nepetoides, a 3d is the 
next. 

984. Blepiiilia lanceolata R. stem deeply 
4grooved quite hirsute, leaves well petiolate lan- 
ceolate, base acute, end acuminate, margin re- 
motely serrulate ; flowers shorter than petiolsj 
bracts and calix lanceolate ciliate with long fili- 
form bristles — in Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, 
discov, 1818, well distinguished from BL nepe- 
toides with broad leaves and white flowers, by 
the narrow leaves and flowers pale incarnate, a 
large plant 3 to 4 feet high, much branched, 
lower leaves often ovate lanceolate, whorls 3 to 
5, the last without leaves. — There are also 3 sp. 
blended in Monarda ciliata, my BL pratensis, 
hremfolia and heterophyla. 

985. Teucrium levigatum Raf. quite smooth, 
stem with 4 thick obtuse corners and 4 grooves, 
leaves subsessile broadly lanceolate acuminate 
subequaly serrate ; raceme sessile lax oblong, 
bracts lanceolote equal to calix smooth angular. 
— One of the sp. blended in T. virginicum, that 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 97 

few botanists can distinguish from canadensc, 
and as both names neither apply nor convey 
any meaning, I propose to abohsh them, and 
give 7 good names instead for the sp. therein 
blended: they all are realy of this G. and have 
similar racemose habit. This has a yellow ra- 
mose stem sesquipedal, leaves 2 or 3 inches long 
spikes 3 to 6 inches long, flowers incarnate as in 
nearly all. Chiefly in Western States. 

986. Teucrium petiolaris R. puberulent, 
stem with 4 grooves and obtuse angles, leaves 
on long petiols ovate acute, equaly serrate, base 
acute entire ; raceme pedunculate terete dense 
tomentose, bracts acuminate equal to calix, the 
lower ovate, calix canescent not angular — how 
difl^erent from the last ! nearer to T. canadensc^ 
pedal, leaves biuncial not tomentose nor white 
beneath, raceme quite separated from the leaves 
and compact. In New Jersey, Long Id. and 
Virginia, often on the sea shore and with radi- 
cal surculi as in Eiihemiis, but this happens 
also in others. My T, riparmm or Qajiadense 
has ovate leaves rounded at base, tomentose 
white beneath, shorter petiols &c. 

987. Teucrium bracteosum R. nearly smooth 
stem grooved, angles obtuse, leaves on short pe- 
tiols, lanceolate unequaly serrate, acuminate ; 
raceme foliosc, flowers axillary tt) leaves and 
long bracts laciniate, upper entire, calix smooth 
not angular-— another very distinct sp. pedal, 
leaves 1 or 2 inches long, with flowers at the 
axils, pubescent beneath. In N. Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, the T. virginicum of some 
botanists. 

988. Teucrium lanceolatum Raf. and Col- 
lins, stem simple pubescent grooved, angles acute 
at both ends, subequaly serrate, nearly smooth, 

13 



98 NEOBOT. 

nerves pubescent, raceme sessile interrupted 
vvhorled, bracts subulate equal to ca ix canes- 
cent tonientose not angular — nearest to T. le- 
vigatum and T, virginicum, or rather my T. 
ohliquatmn with ovate obliqual leaves petiolate, 
unequaly serrate, pubescent beneath. This is 
found from New Jersey to Virginia, is pedal, 
leaves biuncial narrow, root nodose creeping as 
in most species. It was noticed by Collins as a 
N. sp. . 

989. Teucrium cinereum R. ramose pube- 
rulent, stem grooved angles acute, leaves sub- 
petiolate elliptic or broad oblong acute at both 
ends subequaly serrate, beneath tomentose but 
not white ; racemes elongate sessile slender, 
calix scattered cinereous pubescent angular sub- 
sessile, bracts subulate equal — in East Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee the Cumberland Mts. and 
Cheroki Mts. large sp. bipedal, leaves 3 to 5 
inches long, half as broad, raceme 6 to 10 inches 
long. — Thus our 7 Teucriums differ in stems, 
leaves, petiols, racemes^ bracts and calix, agree- 
ing in nothing but creeping root, erect stems, 
serrate leaves and incarnate racemose flowers. 

EUPHORBIDES. 
Although I had revised and corrected the 
Genera blended in Euphorbia, infl. tellur. 1168 
1190, I have yet the pleasure to add now 2 N, 
G. of North America, that would have been re- 
fered thereto. 

990. ZALITEA Raf Dioical, perianthe 
male campanulate 5fid, segments ovate acute 
erect, each having upon their base a lunulate 
gland. Stamens few short, several castrate or 
sterile filaments. Female . . . Leaves opposite 
narrow petiolate, flowers axillary sessile. — A 
singular G. perfectly new, anonymous in Collins 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 99 

herb, with habit quite pecuHar, next to Lepa- 
dena by glands opposite, but habit totaly unlike 
and perianthe not Slid, Zalitca was an ancient 
name of this family or Polygonum. 

991. Zalitea linearis R. stem grooved 
2-3chotome, leaves remote oppos. petiolate, 
linear, base acute, end mucronate, flowers sub- 
sessile, solitary in dichotomies and axils — an- 
nual smooth plant, erect ? but weak, subpedal, 
leaves distant uncial, not obliqual, flowers small 
green with 5 ovate segments, acute which is 
unusual in this tribe, inner glands yellowish lun- 
ulate, ends obtuse concavity beneath. Seeds 
not seen but probably as in Lepadena. It grows 
on Red River of LouisianajCotlected by Binder 

992. APLARINA Raf dioical and monoi- 
cal, perianthes uniflore, male perianthe tubular, 
minutely 41obe at top, lobes unequal ovate sub- 
serrate, a single stamen exerted borne upon a 
terete androphore, rudiments of some sterile. 
Female perianthe campanulate 81obe,lobes sub- 
entire 4 alterne shorter. Capsule villose, stig- 
mas 3 bilobe. Habit of Xamesijke. — Another 
G. remarkable by declinity and different peri- 
anthes, the male uniflore or monandrous. The 
name means simple stamen. There are many 
sp. of this G, blended in Euphorbia, I have late- 
ly noticed that E. hypericifoUa probably be- 
long to it. 

993. Aplarina prostrata Raf. prostrate pu- 
bescent, stems terete, dichotome, leaves petio- 
late obliqual ovatoblong acute, subserrate ; flow- 
ers in axils solitary subsessile — annual, laying 
flat on the sand where it grows in Pennsylvania, 
blended by myself with the akin G, until the 
flowers well examined, and perhaps other sp. 
belong also here. Several stems 3 to 6 inches 



100 WBOBOT. 

long, leaves minute 2 or 3 lines long, flowers 
very small, green but lobes white. 

094. Aplarina ? MiciioFHYLA li. prostrate 
smooth, steins terete ramose, leaves on short 
petiols rounded subcordate obliqual entire ob- 
tuse or retuse; flowers solitary pedicelate — in 
Louisiana and Texas, same size, but leaves verv 
minute only one line long, flowers few and so 
minute that I cannot avalyze them, they are ap- 
parently campanulate 41obe and male, no cap- 
sule being visible. 

995. Synexemia cuneifolia Raf, stems erect 
simple, leaves petiolate adpressed cuneate acute, 
stipules subulate ; flowers extra-axilary solitary 
or geminate pedunculate — Louisiana and Ar- 
kanzas, stems humble 2 to 4 inches high, leaves 
3 lines long, flowers minute. For my G. Sy- 
nexemia 1825 (Mascalanthus Nut. 1834) see 
my Neogenyton and fl. tellur. 1191, 

99^. ARKEZOSTIS Raf. Cucurbitacea 
near Melothria, , diflf. fl. hermaphr. and male, 
minute campanulate 5fid, ovary oblong constric- 
ted above,style with single stigma trilobe almost 
coadunate with 3 stamens monadelphous and 
syngenese covering it. Male fl. still smaller, 
stamens subsessile. Berry oblong trilocular 
trisperme ! Habit of Melothria, but flowers 
and berries subsessile. — A distinct G. probably 
blended in our Melothria chiefly different by 3 
seeded berries sessile. It was once sent me by 
Dr. Short as the Boyliinia trispora of Wray 
"and Nuttai, but my Tlierofon (see 902) is the 
only Boykinia published by Nuttai. My name 
was a classical one of Bryonia. 

997. Arkezostis quinqueloba R. scandent 
roughish, stem striate, leaves petiolate cordate 
Slobed, sinusses obtuse, lobes ovate acute re- 



©r NORTH AMERICA 101 

pand, middle lobe often trifid ; flowers axillary 
geminate or tcrnate subsessile — in Florida and 
Georgia, where first discovered by Dr. Boykin 
and called Melotlwia sessilis, but never pub- 
lished. Stem slender 3 or 4 feet high, climbing 
with tendrils, leaves 2 or 3 inches broad and 
long, flowers green very minute, berries not seen 
probably oval and black as in Melothria. 
SAMOLIDES. 

I conclude by 3 new plants of this family of 
mine established 1815 , . . which is now greatly 
increased since all the Houstonias, some Hedy- 
otis and several presumed Rubiacea will belong 
thereto. Decandole has by mistake deemed the 
Houstonias of Gentianides tribe, because he 
found the stamens opposite to corolla ; but then 
Samolus which is lately put with Primulacea, 
should also rank with Gentians ; yet the Samo- 
lides differ by adherent or inferior ovary as in 
Rubiacea, and these differ only by alternate sta- 
mens, essential character, little attended to till 
noticed by Jussieu in several flxmilies, but over- 
looked in Houstonia and Gentians. Every 
Genus with stamens isoperial or equal in num- 
ber to segments of corolla, must be verified and 
ascertained if opposite thereto. — The Oldenlan- 
dia or Hedyotis unifiora is a Samolides and a pe- 
culiar G. my Edrastima uniflora. The O. or 
H. glomerata is another G. with unequal calix^ 
my Stelmotis glomerata. 

998. Houstonia biloba Raf dwarf dicho- 
tome leaves linear oblong acute, lower petiolate; 
flowers axilary, peduncles equal to leaves, co- 
rolla tube campanulate, limb patent, capsule 
compressed obcordate bilobe — in Arkanzus, 
small plant 1 or 2 inches high, leaves 2 or 3 
lines long, flowers red, segments of calix linear; 



102 . NBOBOT. 

of corolla oblong obtuse, capsule almost like Ve- 
ronica, but semi adherent, 2locular, polysperme, 
seeds reniform. Probably a subgenus, Etoro- 
Tis Raf. meaning eared heart. 

999. HousTONiA GENicuLATA Raf. stem geni- 
culate 4gone assurgent, leaves subfascieulate 
lanceolate acute, margin rough ; flowers axilary 
solitary, corolla tube filiform, limb campanulate 
4fid — on the Wasioto hills of Kentucky, annual 
semipedal, leaves uncial pale beneath, flowers 
purple, calix linear, tube of corolla double of ca- 
lix. Another subgenus by peculiar corolla, I 
will call it GoNioTis, I have not seen the cap- 
sule. 

1000. HousTONiA. RETICULATA Raf. stcm gen- 
iculate 4gone erect, radical leaves petiolate 
obovate, on stem larger ovate acute trinerve, 
veins reticulate, margin rough, flowers terminal 
few corymbose, peduncles l-3flore, capsule glo- 
bose — Alabama, annual 3 to 4 inches high, akin 
to H. purpurea^ but radical leaves different and 
smaller, on stem often uncial, calix adherent 
with two thirds of ovary, segments linear. — A 
var. triflora has only 3 flowers, some leaves 
oblong mixt, either obtuse or acute. 

For other sp. of Houstonias see my mono- 
graph of 1820, it must form several subg. or 
even Genera. I have all our sp. H. serpylifo- 
lia, patens, rupestris, tenuifolia, longifolia, 
angustif. heterophyla, puhescens, purpurea, 
varians <^c and I may give another monograph 
of all the Samolides,of Samolus itself I gave one 
in my herbarium Rafinesquianum. 

I must now conclude this Flora, although I 
have left many families untouched in which I 
possess many novelties ; particularly in Gratio- 
lides, Acanthides, Personates, Scrophularia, 



OF NORTH AMERICA. 103 

Ludwigia, Oenothera, the Malvaceous, Cruci- 
feres, Hypericines, Leguminose, Verbenides, 
Caryophyles, &/C, besides all the Monocotyles, 
Asphodelides, Helonides, Xurides, Grasses and 
Cyperides, Ferns and Cryptogams .... which 
must be described in supplemental Monographs 
or peculiar additional works. 



APPENDIX. 

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

In the course of such elaborate works, there 
are always some corrections to make, for names, 
synonyms or facts that have escaped attention : 
while additions might be lengthened ad libitum. 
Only a few will be stated here, being chiefly es- 
sential corrections. 

IN FIRST PART LEXICON. 

1. Abalon. Add in syn. ChameliriuntWWd. 
Opliioslachys Redoute : all names posterior to 
Abalon of Adanson 1763.— In 1837 Grey has 
made it a subg. Chamelirium ! in G. Heloniasl 
calling it Hel, dioica like Pursh, and he redu- 
ces Helonias to H, hullata ! although quite dif- 
ferent : he takes no notice of the synonym of 
Thunberg, Melanthimn luteum of Japan,which 
is a third Genus blended my Siraitos aquati- 
cus fl. tellur. 865. 

2. Abama Adanson 1763 was perhaps pre- 
vious to Tojielda of Hudson (what date ?) com- 
pare my monograph, with that of Grey 1837. 
He has some additional sp. but his subg. Tri- 
antha Nuttal is the real Abama 60 years older! 
that must be a Genus as stated. 

3. AcROANTHES Raf. 1808, not 1818 as mis- 
printed, well named ten years before Nuttal. 

4. AcROSTiCHUM AUUEUM, Kuutli dcscribcs 



104 APPENDIX. 

under that name another sp. quite unUke it or 
my Acr. maritimum ! — I call it Acr. acuini- 
natum Raf. pinnulis lanceolate acuminate base 
rounded petiolate entire thin costatc, smooth 
above like stipes, beneath quite fructiferous all 
over. In Venezuela, ten feet high — I have 
found in Collins Herb, a very curious fern of 
Florida collected by Kin or Baldwin again as 
a doubtful Acr. aureum ? which forms a most 
beautiful and wonderful N. G. of dorsiferous 
ferns without Sori^ but with capsules uncon- 
nected punctiform scattered like minute dots. 
It shall be fully described and figured in my 
PTEKiK0N,a work now preparing. I announce it 
meantime as a great discovery proving that the 
capsules of Ferns may be solitary, and I call it. 

5, NESOmS BicoLOR Raf. smooth, bipin- 
nate, yellow beneath, pinnules sessile oblong 
creiiate lobate, base acute, end obtuse, above 
nervose flabelatc, behind enerve golden fur- 
furascent, capsules irregularly scattered. — Pe- 
dal, stipes brown shining convex behind, groov- 
ed before, piimules alternate, 25 to 33 on each 
branch, gradualy smaller and nearly confluent. 
In Florida — I have several other N. G. of 
Ferns, but none so beautiful and anomalous ; 
probably type of a new family Nesorides. 

6. Olsynium ; read Sisyrinchium throughout, 
misprinted Siryrinchium in the synonyms. See 
878 flora tellur. where it is again described, 
another sp. added, and the akin blended Genera 
compared and settled. 

Monograph of KUHNIA. 

Although I thought this monograph nearly 

complete, I have found other new sp. in Collins 

Herb, and I am told that Decandole in his' 5th 

volume just published has many sp. under 3 



APPtNDIX. 105 

Genera ! Kuhnia,Critonia and another? There- 
fore my labor shall have to be still further re- 
modeled hereafter, meantime I will give here 
the additional N. &p. making 14 altogether. 

7. KuHNiA GLOMERATA Raf. K. critottia ? 
Nut. in Collins herb, smooth, stem grooved, 
branches terminal corymbose short 3-5flore, 
leaves scattered subsessile lanceolate short re- 

. motely serrate, flowers subsessile glomerate, 
pappus fulvous — Apalachian Mts, pedal, leaves 
uncial, flowers forming small round heads par- 
ticularly after anthesis when they spread out. 

8. KuHNiA LATiFOLiA Raf K. critonia ! Coll. 
— nearly smooth, stem corymbose striate, leaves 
alternate sessile ovate oblong, grossly serrate, 
acute at both ends, very thin, on branches nar- 
row oblong subentire, branches l-3ffore, flowers 
pedunculate, pappus fulvous— in Florida, leaves 
almost as inK. elliptica, but longer biuncial, on 
branches uncial quite ditferent, never trinervate. 

9. KiJHNiA viRGATA Raf. smooth, stem and 
branches virgate, striate whitish, leaves scatter- 
ed sessile linear entire acute, flowers corym- 
bose, pedunculate, pappus fulvescent — in Caro- ^ 
lina and Florida, deemed K. eupat oroides by \ 
Collins, nearer the Critonias ; still nearer to K. 
tuherosa of Elliot. Tall plant, long slender 
branches, leaves uncial, perhaps K. albicaulis 
would be a better name. 

Three other sp. were blended in Coll. herb, 
as K. eupatorioides, wot a single one being that 
sp. since they had all fulvous pappus ; one was 
K.fulva, a 2d my K. pubescens from Cotocton 
Mts. on Potowmak, the 3d the next. 

10. KuHNiA DivARicATA Raf scabriuscule, 
stem grooved fuscate,branches paniculate divari- 

14 



106 APPENDIX. 

cate nearly naked, leaves scattered petiolate 
lanceolate grossly serrate, flowers corymbose 
pedunculate pappus fulvous — Apalachian Mts. 
tall plant, leaves uncial. 

11. KuHNiA ciNEREA Raf. cincrcous pubes- 
cent, stem grooved corymbose above, leaves 
scattered sessile adpressed linear lanceolate en- 
tire ; flowers fasciculate pedunculate cinereous, 
pappus fulvescent — a fine sp. found by myself 
in the Cumberland or Wasioto Mts. of East 
Kentucky and Tennessee, blended with K. pu- 
besce/ns, but now well distinguished and separa- 
ted. Bipedal, leaves biuncial often falcate, 
branches multiflore, perianthe of flowers quite 
cinereous, fioscules also, but not the pappus. 

II PART NEOPIIYTON, 

12. Laxanon 203, although very near to Lap- 
sana, Aposeris and Aptilon, it is quite distinct 
from all ; Aposeris of Necker differs by calicu- 
late perianthe ; my Aptilon which is the Apo- 
gon of Elliot, this name being employed by La- 
cepede for a G. of fish, differs by perianthe in a 
double series and seeds striate as in Crenamon. 
These Genera will form a small group of the 
Glossanthes, with naked seeds Aposerides Raf. 
I have found in Coll. herb, a second sp. of Lax- 
anon from Arkanzas, deemed a doubtful plant 
near Krigia by Nuttal, I call it. 

Laxanon heterophylum Raf. stem flexuose 
ramose, radical leaves narrow remotely pinna- 
tifid, segments lanceolate acute, stem leaves am- 
plexicaule, linear lanceol. acute, involucre bifo- 
liate unequal, umbels 2-5flore — Arkanzas, an- 
nual, 6 to 8 inches high, leaves 2 or 3 inches 
long, flowers on filiform erect pedicels, perian- 
the commonly 5partite, few florets or ligules, 
seeds ovate. 



APPFxVDIX. 107 

13. Tfiecanisia ponpiirea 205 read Thee, 
'purpurea. Compare this C with Aegopogon 
which is IJlmaria of others. 

14. DiPLosTELiviA 310, add Chelanthera Niit- 
tal, not of Ruiz and Pavan,norPersoon <fcc, tlius 
this name was even employed and not apply in<»' 
as stated in the note at end of part — Acticar- 
7iopus misprinted for Actinocarpus. 

15. Baptlsia 321, add B. versicolor s^nother 
beautiful sp. of this G. has been added from the 
S. W. which is either akin to B. albiflora, or 
perhaps a Riparia. 

Ill PART NEW SYLVA. 

16. CoLEMA 591, read Corema. 

17. CnioNANTiius MARITI3IA 70G. comparc 
with it and Ch. heteropliylus, the Ck. pubcs- 
cens of Kunth and South America; but it has 
red flowers, while all the North American sp. 
have white flowers. 

IV PART NEOBOTANCN. 

18. RiVINA or PlERCEA OBMQUATA 750; 

another proof that this is not the R. humiU»{\n- 
cluding many blended sp.) is found in Kunth, 
his plant of that name is described by him as 
smooth, with leaves ovate pubescent beneath 
shorter than racemes. From Mexico, perhaps 
another peculiar sp. R. mollis Raf. 

19. Lyonsia 883, this Lyonia of Elliot is pre- 
vious and very different from that of Nuttal, 
which is a section of Andromeda, that I have 
called Hemiclts meaning half vahes, as the 
fruit has 5 half valves alternate. Lyonia w ould 
be abnost like Aliionia, and the botanist name 
was realy Lyons. 



108 APPENDIX. 

20. Tkiodanis rupestris 90G, this is very 
near to the Campanula flagellaris of Kunth, 
perhaps of this Genus. His Mexican C. perfo- 
liata appears somewhat different from ours by 
flowers geminate and ternate ; yet Torrey would 
have all these to be varieties ! which is the type 
then and the prnnordial form? 

21. Helenium DiscovATUM 942, compare it 
with H. rnexicanum of Kunth, too shortly noti- 
ced bv him. 



E\D OF THIS FT.ORA- 



109 



INDEX. 

OF GENERA, SUBGENERA &C. 

Synonyms i?iUalics, families in small capitals^ 



Abalon, Apx 1 
Abama, Apx 2 
Acerates 885 
Acetosa 861-3 
Achyranthes 843 

ACHYRANTHIDES 830 

Acmella 913 

Acroanthes, Ap. 3 

Acrostichum, Ap. 4 

Agathyrsus 952 

Aiinorra 912 

Ammi 781-2 

Amorgine 839-41 

Anactis 910 

Anantherix 884 

Ansonia 880 

Anthalogea961. 

Antiphyla 756 

Anthopogon 970-2 

Anychia 830 to 840 

x\plarina 962 
C Apogon 960 
7 Aposeris Ap. 12 
I Aptilon Ap. 12 

Argyrocoma 833, 839 

Arkezostis 996 

Asclepias 979 to 893 

Asemeia 962-5 

Atliamantlia 798 

Babiron 779 to 782 
Balduina 920 
Ballimon 794 



Baptisia Ap. 15 
Batschia 767 
Bilamista 976 
Bindera 915 
Blephilia 983-4 
Blephixeta 982 
Blutaparon 844-6 

BORAGINES 761 

BorJcausia 956 
Boykinia 902 

Buinalis 830 

Cacalia 935 
Campanula, Ap. 20 
Caradesia 941 
Chionanthus, Ap. 1 7 
Chondrophora 935 
Cicuta 775 
Cleomides 756 
Cnidium 800 
Convolvulus 769 to 871 
Corema Ap. 16 
Corispermum 847 

CoRYMBIFERES 910 

Corymbilis 927 
Corymbula 961 
Crenamon 957 
Cynanchum 882 
Cyphorima 766 

Darluca 872 
Dasyspermum 776 
Daucus 776 to 796 



110 



INDEX. 



Didiplis 736 
Dionea 760 

DiONIDIA 760 

Diphyleia 736 
Diplostelma, Ap, 14 
Discolenta 853 
Discoplis 740. 

Echites 881 
Edrastima 998 
Entasikon 797-9 
Eryngides 813 
Erjngium813 to 821 
Eriogonum 864-7 
Etetra 921 
Etorotis 998 
Euhemus 978 
Eunoxis 952 
Eupatorium 935 to 941 

EUPHORBJDES 990 

Euthyrsis 927 
Evolvulus 868 to 874 

Fedia 997-9 

Galenides 828 
Gentiana 977 
Gentianides 970-7 
Gingidium 783 
Glossanthes 947 
Gonistis 999 
Gonolobus879 

Harpalyce 953 
Hasteola 935 
Helenium 942-6, Ap. 
21. 



Hejianthus 911 
iieniiclis, Ap. 19 
Heptarinia 851 
Herniaria 831 
Heuchera 903 
Hieraciiim 960 
Houstonia 998 to 1000 
Hydrolea 896-7 
Hymenopaptis 919 

Labiates 978 
Lactuca 947 to 951 
Lapathon 860 
Laxanon, Ap. 12 
Legouzia 904 
Leimanisa 776 
Leontodon 956 
Leptixis 893 
Leptocaulis 778-81 
Liatris 927-30 
Ligusticwn 7 84 
Linum898 
Lithospermum 962-6 
Littorella 748 
Lomaxeta 919 
Lycopsis 768 
Lyonsia 883, Ap. 19 

Marshallia 933-4 
Mascala?ithus 995 

Melothria 752-5 
Mentha 978 
Mesadenia 935-8 
Mesodiscus 969-71 
Mitesia 848-50 
Muraltia ml, 5, 7 
Mustelia 921 



IKDEX. 



HI 



Narbalia 953 
Neactelis 910 
Neleixa 972 
Nesoris Ap. 6 
Neurelmis 917 
Neurola 975 
Nezera 899 to 901 

Odacmis 828 
Oligoron 885-7 
Olsynium, Ap. 6 

Oi»IBELLIFER0US 769 

Onistis 894 
Opliioseris 960 
Opicrina 954 
Orimaria 812 
Osmilis 927-8 
Otamplis 735 
Otanema 889-91 
Othake 922-4 

Pachiloma 811-12 
Panax 877-8 
Paronychia 833 
Peltachila 795 
PepUs 738 
Psalion 979 
Peucedanum 773 
Peutalis 848 to 856 
Phaiosperma 808 to 

812 
Pliellandrlum 799 
PhyUanthus 995 
Piercea 749, 750, 

Ap. 18 
Pilostaxis 9G1, 8, 9 
Plagidia 834 



Plaiitago 742-7 
Pleienta 973-4 
Plesili 874 
Plumbago 751 
Polygala 761-9 
Polygonum 8l8 to 859 
Polypteris 919 
Vrenantlies 953 
Psalion 979 ^ 

PSELIDES 735 

Pselium 735 
Psychanthus 761 
Ptilimnium 812 
Ptiloria 953 
Pulmonaria 761 
Pycnanthes 980-2 

Quamoclita 876 

Rhodilis 927 
Riddellia 756 
Rivina749,750,Ap.l8 
Rumex 760-3 

Sabbatia 975 
Samolides 998 
Sataria 772 
Scadiasis 812 
Scariola 927-30 
Sesuvium 758 
Sexilia 961 
Sis on 781 
Sitilias 956 
Siuniis (slum) 807 
Smyrnmm 800 
Spergula 759 
Squibbia 758 



112 



INDEX. 



Staplinus 796 
Steiremis 843 
Stelmotis 998 
Stethorhiza 893 
Stevia 921-6 
Streblanthes 813 16 
Stjlisma 868-71 
Sicertia 977 
Synexemia 995 
Synallodia 976 

Teretiola 927 
Teucrium 985-9 
Thaspium 800 
Thecanisia, Ap. 13 
Therofon 902 
Tiricta 777-8 
Tomista 921 
Tordylium 811 
Trepocarpus 928 



Triclispernia 9G1 
Triodanis 904-6, Ap, 
20 

Upopion 800-5 

Veronica 822-7 
Vernonia 931-2 
Visnaga 793 
Vleckia 979 

Xalxitis 915 

Xamotris 748 
Xetalix 981 
Xetoligus925 

Zalitea 990 
Zinnia 914 
Zizia 806 
Zoroxus 961. 



NOTICE. 



This work has been concluded in 4 parts 
forming a vohmne of over 400 pages, the price 
being fixed at $ 5, but 5 copies are given for 
.$20. 

The continuations or supplements of this 
Flora will form another volume of 4 parts 
nearly similar, each sold for one Dollar to Sub- 
scribers. They will be a PxEiaKON or the Ferns 
of North America — a Dendrikon or Trees 
and Shrubs of N. America, — a Lirikon or the 
Lilies of N. America — an Agrostikon or the 
Grasses of North America. — The original 
figures by specimens will be sold apart and but 
few copies issued ; but the text printed as ad- 
ditions to this Flora — another ultimate Man- 
tissa or supplement to the Flora of Torrey may 
be published in 1840. 

The Flora Telluriana is another companion 
to this containing 1225 revised Genera, many 
of which are American, same size and price. 

Other Botanical Works of C. S. Rafi- 
jvESQiiE — Herbarium Rafinesquianum — Analy- 
sis of Nature — Atlantic Journal — Neogenyton 
— Precis — Roses, Vines and other Monographs 
— New plants of Sicily — Medical Flora of the 
United States &.c. 



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