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u Game of hondes he loued y nou, and of wylde best, 
And hys forest and hys wodes, and mest >e nywe forest." 
Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle 

(concerning William the Conqueror) 

Ed : Hearne, vol. ii. p. 375 











jM'IA M *' 






Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 



PREFACE ..... ix 

I. Introductory , . 1 

II. Its Scenery . . 7 

III. Its Early History ...'. .20 

IV. Its Later History . . . 39 
V. Calshot Castle and the Old South-Eastern Sea-Coast 49 

VI. Beaulieu Abbey ...... 60 

VII. The South-Western Part. Brockenhurst, Boldre, Sway, 

Hinchelsea, and Burley . . . . .74 

VIII. The Central Part. Lyndhurst . . 85 

IX. Minestead and Rufus's Stone . . . .91 

X. The Northern Part. Stoney Cross, Bramble Hill, Fritham, 

Bentley, Eyeworth, Studley, and Sloden . 109 

XI. The Valley of the Avon. Fordingbridge, Charford, Brea- 

more, Ibbesley, Ellingham, and Ringwood . .116 

XII. The Valley of the Avon (continued). Tyrrel's Ford, Sopley, 

and Winkton . . . . .125 

XIII. Christchurch . . 129 



XIV. The Old South- Western Seaboard. Soraerford, Chewton 

Glen, Hurst Castle, and Lyniington . . , 145 

XV. The Gipsy and the West-Saxon . 158 

XVI. The Folk-Lore and Provincialisms . . . .172 

XVII. The Barrows ... 196 

XVIII. The Roman and Romano-British Potteries . . .214 

XIX. The Parish Registers and Churchwardens' Books . 226 

XX. The Geology 234 

XXI. The Botany . . 250 

XXII. The Ornithology . . . . . .258 


I. Glossary of Provincialisms ..... 279 
II. List of the Flowering Plants . .289 

III. List of the Birds .... .307 

IV. List of the Lepidoptera . . . . . 319 

Postscript ....,*. 328 
INDEX ... . 329 



























Of Mr. Sumner's etchings, a few words ought to be 
said. They, too, like Mr. Crane's illustrations, have not 
been taken at hap-hazard. They illustrate not only the 
Forest, not only such woods as Bushey Bratley and Sloden 
and Mark Ash, the d/x^aXo? of the Forest, but also its out- 
skirts, the valley of the Avon, Lymington, the Beaulieu 
and Boldre streams town and wood and sea. Further, 
too, Mr. Sumner's etchings have been made not at one 
season, but in the winter, the spring, and summer, so that 
they might illustrate that variety of tree-beauty which 
is the great charm of a forest. 


The New Forest from Bramble Hill (Sunrise), Frontispiece. 

Old Oak in Boldrewood, Title-page. PAGE 

View in Bushey Bratley .... 1 

The Entrance from Barrow's Moor to Mark Ash . 6 

The Stream in the Queen's Bower Wood . 7 

The Charcoal Burner's Path . 19 

The Cattle Ford . . . . . . .20 

View in Gibb's Hill Wood . .... 38 

The Millaford Brook .... .39 

The Woodcutter's Track ... 48 

Calshot Castle .... .49 

Norman Doorway at Fawley Church .... 59 

Arches of the Chapter House . . . . . .60 

Pulpit of the Refectory ...... 68 

Old Barn or " Spicarium" of Beaulieu Abbey . 70 

Chapel at St. Leonard's Grange ... .70 

Canopied Niche in St. Leonard's Chapel . .73 

View in Frame Wood ... . . 74 

View in the Queen's Bower Wood . . . 84 

View in the Great Huntley Woods 85 

The Woodman's Path . . .90 

Oaks in Boldrewood . 91 

llufus's Stone ... 96 

View from Castle Mai wood . 108 

View in Studley Wood . .109 

View in Puckpits Wood . . 112 

Yews and Whitebeams in Sloden 115 

The Avon from Castle Hill 1 i-g 

The Avon at Ibbesley ... .124 

Tyrrel's Ford . . 125 

The Avon at Winkton . . . . . 128 

The Priory Church, Christchurch . 129 


List of Illustrations. 


The Norman House, Christchurch . . . .133 

The North Porch and Doorway of the Priory Church . 144 

Chewton Glen .... .145 

Hurst Castle 157 

View in Mark Ash Wood . . .158 

The King's Gairn Brook . 171 

Anderwood Corner ..... 172 

Bushey Bratley (another view) . 195 

The Urns in Bratley Barrow . . . . .196 

Keltic Urn, Neck of Roman Wine- Vessel, and Flint Knives 206 

Barrows on Beaulieu Plain .... , 213 

Wine-Flask, Drinking-Cups, and Bowls . 214 

Necks of Oil-Flasks ... . 218 

Necks of Wine- Vessels and Oil-Flask . , 218 

Patterns from Fragments ... . 223 

Patterns from Fragments . . . 223 

Oil-Flask, Drinking-Cups, Bowl, and Jar . . 225 

Boldre Church ..... .226 

Norman Font in Brockenhurst Church . . 233 

The Barton Cliffs ...... 234 

Fossils from the Shepherd's Gutter Beds . . . . 244 

Fossils from the Brook Beds .... 249 

Barrows Moor Wood ..... . 250 

The King's Gairn Brook (another view) . . 257 

The Heronry at Vinney Ridge . . . 258 

Nests of the Honey and Common Buzzard . . 266 

View in Buckhill Wood ... . 276 

The Staple Cross . ... .288 

Gladiolus Illyricus . . . . . . .306 

The Kildeer Plover 318 

The Cicada 328 

Map of the Old South-Western Sea-Coast . to face page 149 

Plan of Sloden Hole ... . ,, 216 

Section of Hordle Cliff . 238 

Section of Beckton Cliff . , ., . 241 

Map of the New Forest . . 276 



UNDER the title of the New Forest, I have thought it 
best to include the whole district lying between the 
Southampton Water and the Avon, which, in the be- 
ginning of Edward I.'s reign, formed its boundaries. 
To have restricted myself to its present limits would 
have deprived the reader of all the scenery along the 
coast, and that contrast which a Forest requires to 
bring out all its beauties. 

The maps are drawn from those of the Ordnance 
Survey, reduced to the scale of half an inch to the 
mile, with the additions of the names of the woods 
taken from the Government Map of the Forest, and 
my own notes. 

The illustrations have been made upon the principle 
that they shall represent the scene as it looked at the 
time it was taken. Nothing has since been added, 
nothing left out. The views appear as they were on the 
day they were drawn. Two exceptions occur. The 
ugly modern windows of Calshot Castle, and the clock- 
face on the tower of the Priory Church of Christchurch, 
have been omitted. 


xiv Preface to the First Edition. 

Further, the views have been chosen rather to show 
the less-known beauties of the Forest than the more- 
known scenes. For this reason the avenue between 
Brockenhurst and Lyndhurst the village of Minestead, 
nestling half amongst the Forest oaks and half in its 
own orchards the view from Stoney Cross, stretching 
over wood and vale to the Wiltshire Downs, have been 
omitted. Every one who comes to the Forest must see 
these, and every one with the least love for Nature must 
feel their beauty. 

In their places are given the quiet scenes in the 
heart of the great woods, where few people have the 
leisure, and some not the strength to go quiet brooks 
flowing down deep valleys, and woodland paths trod 
only by the cattle and the Forest workmen. 

For the same reason, sunrise, and not sunset, has 
been chosen for the frontispiece. 

To the kind help of friends I am indebted for much 
special aid and information to the deputy surveyor, 
L. H. Cumberbatch, Esq., for permission to open various 
barrows and banks, for the use of the Government maps, 
as also for the Forest statistics ; to the Eev. H. M. 
Wilkinson, and T. B. Eake, Esq., for great assistance in 
the botany and ornithology of the district ; as also to 
Mr. Baker, of Brockenhurst, for the list of the Forest 

London, November 1862. 



SOME slight alterations have been made in Chapter III. 
in the arguments from Domesday, which, as also those 
upon the former condition of the district, have been 

In all other respects, with the exception of some few 
additions and corrections, the text is unaltered. 

LONDON, February 1863. 



IN the present Edition I am indebted to the kindness of 
the publishers for the opportunity of making several 

And here I may add a few words upon that love for 
natural scenery which has so spread during the last 
twenty years. It is due to many causes, not only to the 
reaction of feeling produced by our overgrown towns, 

xvi Preface to the Fourth Edition. 

not only to the facilities afforded by the railroads, not 
only to our artists, but more especially to the direct 
interest in Nature which the doctrine of evolution has 
aroused, and especially also to our new school of political 
economists, who, above all men, have preached the too- 
often-forgotten truth, that man cannot live by bread 

We may, indeed, rejoice that Epping Forest has lately 
been bought as a park for the people of London, but we 
should rejoice still more that the New Forest requires 
not to be purchased ; rejoice, too, that it has escaped the 
fate of nearly all our other great English forests, that it 
is not shorn of its trees like Charnwood and Needwood, 
nor spoilt by the smoke of coal-pits like Dean, but that 
it remains, not indeed now the hunting-ground of a king, 
but the park of the nation. 

J. R. WISE. 

LONDON. August 1882. 





View in Bushey .Bratley. 

No person, I suppose, would now give any attention to, much 
less approve of, Lord Burleigh's advice to his son "Not to pass 

2 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

the Alps." We have, on the contrary, in these days gone into 
an opposite extreme. We race off to explore the Rhine hefore 
we know the Thames. We have Alpine clubs, and Norway 
fishing, and Iceland exploring societies, but most of us are 
beyond measure ignorant of our own hills and valleys. Every 
inch of Mont Blanc has been traversed by Englishmen, but who 
dreams of exploring the Cotswolds ; or how many can tell in 
what county are the Seven Springs, and their purple anemones ? 
We rush to and fro, looking at everything, and remembering 
nothing. We see places only that we may be seen there, or else 
be known to have seen them. 

Yet to Englishmen, surely the scenes of their own land 
should possess a greater interest than any other. Go where we 
will throughout England, there is no spot which is not bound 
up with our history. Nameless barrows, ruined castles, battle- 
fields now reaped by the sickle instead of the sword, all proclaim 
the changes our country has undergone. Each invasion which 
we have suffered, each revolution through which we have passed, 
are written down for us in unmistakeable characters. The 
phases of our Religion, the rise or fall of our Art, are alike told 
us by the grey mouldings and arches of the humblest parish 
Church as by our Abbeys and Cathedrals. The faces, too, and 
gait, and dialect, and accent, of our peasantry declare to us 
our common ancestry from Kelt, and Old-English, and Norse- 
man. A whole history lies hid in the name of some obscure 

I am not, for one moment, decrying travelling elsewhere. 
All I say is, that those who do not know their own country, 
can know nothing rightly of any other. To understand the 
scenery of our neighbours, we must first see something of the 
beauties of our own ; so that when we are abroad, we may be 

Its Connection ivith the Past. 3 

able to make some comparisons, to carry with us, when we look 
upon the valleys of the Seine and the Rhine, some impression 
of our own landscapes and our own rivers some recollection of 
our own cathedrals, when we stand by those of Milan and 

The New Forest is, perhaps, as good an example as could 
be wished of what has been said of English scenery, and its 
connection with our history. It remains after some eight 
hundred years still the New Forest. True, its boundaries are 
smaller, but the main features are the same as on the day 
when first afforested by the Conqueror. The names of its woods 
and streams and plains are the same. It is almost the last, 
too, of the old forests with which England was formerly so 
densely clothed. Charnwood is now without its trees : Wych- 
wood is enclosed : the great Forest of Arden Shakspeare's 
Arden is no more, and only a fragment of Sherwood has 
been spared. But the New Forest still stands full of old 
associations with, and memories of, the past. To the historian 
it tells of the Forest Laws, and the death of one of the worst, 
and the weakness of the most foolish, of English kings. To 
the ecclesiologist it can show, close to it, the Priory Church 
of Christchurch, with all its glories of Norman architecture, 
built by the Red King's evil counsellor, Flambard ; and just 
outside, too, its boundaries, the Conventual Church of Romsey, 
with its lovely Romanesque triforium, in whose nunnery 
Edith, beloved by the English, their " good Maud," " bea- 
tissima regina," as the Chroniclers love to call her, was 

At its feet lies Southampton, with its Late Norman arcaded 
town-wall, and gates, and God's House, with memories of Sir 
Bevis and his wife Josyan the Brighte, and his horse Arundel 

B 2 

4 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

the port for the Roman triremes, and afterwards for the 
galleys of Venice and Bayonne where our own Henry V. 


" the grete dromons, 

The Trinite, the Grace-Dieu." * 

Within it, once in the very heart, stand the Abbot's house 
and the cloister walls of Beaulieu, the one abbey, with the 
exception of Hales-Owen, in Shropshire, founded by John. It 
can point, too, to the Roman camp at Buckland Rings, to the 
ruins of the Norman castle at Christchurch, to Henry VIII. 's 
forts at Hurst and Calshot, built with the stones of the ruined 
monastery of Beaulieu ; can show, too, bosomed amongst its 
trees, quiet village churches, most of them Norman and Early 
English, old manor-houses, as at Ellingham, famous in story, 
grey roadside crosses, sites of Roman potteries, and Keltic and 
West- Saxon battlefields and barrows scattered over its plains. 

For the ornithologist its woods, and rivers, and seaboard 
attract more birds than most counties. For the geologist the 
Middle -Eocene beds are always open in the Hordle % and 
Barton Cliffs inlaid with shell and bone. For the botanist and 
entomologist, its marshes, moors, and woodlands, possess equal 

But in its wild scenery lies its greatest charm. From every 
hill-top gleam the blue waters of the English Channel, broken 
in the foreground by the long line of the Isle of Wight downs 
and the white chalk walls of the Needles. Nowhere, in extent at 
least, spread such stretches of heath and moor, golden in the 
spring with the blaze of furze, and in the autumn purple with 

* Political Pieces and Songs relating to English History. Edited by 
Thomas Wright. Vol. ii., p, 199. 

The Chief Object of the Book. 5 

heather, and bronzed with the fading fern. Nowhere in England 
rise such oak-woods, their boughs rimed with the frostwork 
of lichens, and dark beech-groves with their floor of red brown 
leaves, on which the branches weave their own warp and woof 
of light and shade. 

Especially to its scenery I would call attention. This, above 
all, I wish to impress on the reader, seeing that beauty is 
one of the chief ends and aims of nature : and that the ground 
beneath our feet is decked with flowers, and the sky above our 
heads is painted with a thousand colours, to cheer man as he 
goes to his work in the morning, and to fill his heart with 
thankfulness as he returns at evening. 

Now, neither are scarcely ever seen. The flowers cannot 
grow in our stony streets : the glory of the morning and 
evening is blotted out by the fog of smoke which broods over 
our cities. 

As the population grows, our commons and waste lands 
disappear. Our large towns have swollen into provinces. 
Fashion sways the rich, Necessity compels the poor to live in 
them. As our wealth increases, our love for nature contracts. 
One, therefore, of the chief objects of this book is to show how 
much quiet beauty and how much interest lie beside our doors, 
to point out to the reader who may be jaded by the toils of 
Fashion or Labour where in England there are still some thirty 
miles of moorland and woodland left uncultivated, over which 
he can wander as he pleases. 

And here, if this book should induce any readers to visit 
the Forest, let me earnestly advise them to do so, as far as 
possible, on foot. I see but this main difference between rich 
and poor that the poor work to get money, the rich spend 
money to get work. And I know no better way for Englishmen 

6 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

to use their superfluous energies than in learning their own 
country by walking over its best scenes. 

I will only ask any one to make the experiment between 
walking and driving over the same ground ; and see how much 
he will learn by the one, how much lose by the other method. 
In the one case, he simply hurries or stops at the discretion 
of some ignorant driver, who regards him of less importance 
than his horses ; in the other, he can pause to sketch many 
a scene before invisible, can at his leisure search each heath 
or quarry for flowers or fossils, can turn aside across the field- 
paths to any village church, or wander through any wood which 
may invite him to its solitude, and, above all, know the pleasure 
of being tired, and the sweetness of rest in the noontide shade. 

The Entrance from Barrows Moor to Mark Ash. 

The General Beauty of the Woods. 



The Stream in the Queen's Bower Wood. 

As I said in the last chapter, one of the main objects of this 
book is to dwell upon the beauty of the Forest scenery. I 
chose the New Forest as a subject, because, although in some 
points it may not be more beautiful than many other parts of 

8 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

England and I am glad to think so, it gives, more than any 
other place, a far greater range of subject, in sea, and moor, and 
valley ; because too, the traveller can here go where he pleases, 
without any of those lets and hindrances which take away so 
much pleasure ; and, lastly, because here can best be seen 
Nature's crown of glory her woods. 

And, first, for a few words of general bearing upon this 
point. I do not think we ever estimate the woods highly 
enough, ever know their real worth, until we find some favourite 
retreat levelled to the ground, and then feel the void and irre- 
parable blankness which is left. Consider, too, the purposes to 
which Nature turns her woods, either softening the horrors of the 
precipice, or adorning spaces which else would be utterly without 
interest, or adding beauty to beauty. Consider, further, how 
she beguiles us when we are in them, leading us forward, each 
little rise appearing a hill, because we cannot see its full extent ; 
how, too, the paths close behind us, shutting us out with their 
silent doorways from all noise and turmoil, whilst the soft green 
light fills every dim recess, and deepens each pillared aisle, the 
floor paved with the golden mosaic of the sunlight. 

Consider not only their beauty, but their use, breaking, for 
'the plants, the fall of winter showers, and storing for them, 
against summer's drought, their wealth of springs and streams 
giving to the cattle shade from the heat, and shelter from the 
storm. This for the plants and beasts of the field, but for 
man, binding together the sandy shore, carrying off the fog 
and miasma from the marsh, raising the strongest bulwark 
against the sea, and truest shield against the pestilence. 

For all these things is it that the woods have been, since thd ) 
beginning of the world, the haunt of the flowers, the home o] 
the birds, and the temple of man. The haunt of the flowers, 

The Loveliness of Tree-forms. 

I say, for in the early spring, before the grass is yet green in the 
meadows, here they all flock white wood-anemones, sweet 
primroses, sweeter violets, and hyacinths encircling each stem 
with their hlue wreaths. The home of the birds ; for when the 
leaves at last have come, each tree is filled with song, and the 
underwood with the first faint chirping of the nestlings learning 
their earliest notes. As a temple for man, have they not been 
so since the world began ? Taught by their tender beauty, and 
subdued by their solemn gloom, the imaginative Greek well 
consecrated each grove and wood to some Divinity. The early 
Christians fled to " the armour of the house of the Forest," to 
escape to peace and quietness. Here the old Gothic builders 
first learnt how to rear their vaulted arches, and to wreathe their 
pillars with stone arabesques of leaves and flowers, in faint 
imitation of a beauty they might feel, but never reach.* 

Consider, too, the loveliness of all tree-forms, from the birch 
and weeping-willow, which never know the slightest formality, 
even when in winter barest of leaves, to the oak with its sinewy 

* It is worth noticing how, according to their natures, our English 
poets have dwelt upon the meaning of the woods, from Spenser, with his 
allegories, to the ballad -singer, who saw them only as a preserve for deer. 
Shakspeare touches upon them with both that joyful gladness, peculiar to 
him, and the deep melancholiness, which they also inspire. Shelley and 
Keats, though in very different ways, both revel in the woods. To Words- 
worth they are " a map of the whole world." Of course, under the names 
of woods, and any lessons from them, I speak only of such lowland woods 
as are known chiefly in England; not dense forests shutting out light and 
air, without flowers or song of birds, whose effect on national poetry and 
character is quite the reverse to that of the groves and woodlands of our 
own England. See what Mr. Ruskin has so well .said on the subject. 
Modern Painters, vol. v., part vi., ch, ix., 15, pp. 89, 90; and, also in 
the same volume, part vii., chap, iv., 2, 3, pp. 137-39 ; and compare 
vol. iii., part iv., ch. xiv., 33, pp. 217-19. 


10 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

boughs, strained and tortured as they are in this very Forest, as 
nowhere else in England, by the Channel winds.* Consider, 
too, Nature's own love and tenderness for her trees, how, when 
they have grown old and are going to decay, she clothes them 
with fresh beauty, hides their deformities with a soft green veil of 
moss and the grey dyes of lichens, and, not even content with 
this, makes them the support for still greater loveliness drapes 
them with masses of ivy, and hangs upon them the tresses of 
the woodbine, loading them to the end of their days with sweet- 
ness and beauty. 

All this, and far more than this, you may see in the com- 
monest woods round Lyndhurst, in Sloden, in Mark Ash, or 

Then, too, there is that perpetual change which is ever going 
on, every shower and gleam of sunshine tinting the trees with 
colour from the tender tones of April and May, through the 
deep green of June, to the russet-red of autumn. Each season 
ever joins in this sweet conspiracy to oppress the woods with 

Taking, however, a more special view, and looking at the 
district itself, we must remember that it is situated on the 
Middle-Eocene, and presents some of the best features of 
the Tertiary formation. Its hills may not be high, but they 
nowhere sink into tameness, whilst round Fordingbridge, and 
Goreley, and Godshill, they resemble, in degree, with their 
treeless, rounded forms, shaggy with heath and the rough sedge 

* In the lower part of the Forest, near the Channel, the effect is 
quite painful, all the trees being strained away from the sea like 
Tennyson's thorn. It is the Usnea barbata which covers them, especially 
the oaks, with its hoary fringe, and gives such a character to the whole 

The Forest as it was, and is. 11 

of the fern, parts of the half-mountainous scenery near the 
Fifeshire Lomonds.* 

On the sea-coast near Milton, rise high gravel-capped cliffs, 
with a basis of Barton clays, cleft hy deep ravines, locally known 
as " bunnies." Inland, valleys open out, dipping between low 
hills, whilst masses of beech and oak darken the plains. Here 
and there, marking the swamps, gleam white patches of 
cotton-grass, whilst round them, on the uplands, spread long, 
unbroken stretches of purple .heather ; and wide spaces of fern, 
an English Brabant, studded with hollies and yews, some of 
them as old as the Conquest. Here and there, too, as at 
Fritham, small farmsteads show their scanty crops of corn, or, 
as at Alum Green and Queen's North, green lawns pierce and 
separate the woods, pastured by herds of cattle, with forest pools 
white with buckbean, and the little milk wort waving its blue 
heath on the banks. 

These are the main characteristics of the New Forest, and, 
in some points at least, were the same in the days of the Ked 
King. Nature, when left to herself, even in the course of 
centuries, changes little. The wild boars, and the wolves, and 
the red deer, are gone. But much else is the same. The 
sites and the names of the Forest manors and villages, with 
slight alterations, remain unchanged. The same barrows still 
uplift their rounded forms on the plains ; the same banks, the 
same entrenchments, near which, in turn, lived Kelt, and 
Koman and Old-English, still run across the hills and valleys. 

* The reader must bear in mind that the word "forest" is here used, 
as it is always throughout the district, in its primitive sense of a wild, 
open space. And the moors and plains are still so called, though there 
may not be a single tree growing upon them. (See chap, iii., p. 35, foot- 

C 2 

12 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

The same churches rear their towers, and the mills still stand 
by the same streams. 

The peasants, too, still value the woods, as they did in the 
Conqueror's time, for the crop of mast and acorns, still peel off 
the Forest turf, and cure their bacon by its smoke.* The 
charcoal-burner still builds the same round ovens as in the days 
of William the Ked. Old-English words, to be heard nowhere 
else, are daily spoken. The last of the old Forest law-courts 
is held every forty days at Lyndhurst. The bee-master beo- 
ceorl still tends his hives, and brews the Old-English mead, and 
lives by the labours of his bees. The honey-buzzard still makes 
her nest in the beeches round Lyndhurst, and the hen-harrier on 
the moors near Bratley. 

I suppose this is what strikes most persons when they first 
come into the New Forest, a sense that amidst all the change 
which is going forward, here is one place which is little altered. 
This is what gives it its greatest charm, the beauty of wildness 
and desolateness, broken by glimpses of cultivated fields, and 
the smoke of unseen homesteads among the woods. 

Yet the feeling is not quite true. Like every other place 
in England, it has suffered some change, and moved with the 
times. Instead of the twang of the archer's bow, the sunset 
gun at Portsmouth sounds every evening. The South-Western 
Railway runs through the heart of it ; and in place of the 
curfew's knell, the steam whistle shrieks through its woods. 

We do not see the Forest of our forefathers. Go back eight 
centuries, and look at the sights which the Normans must 
have beheld, dense underwoods of hollies on which the red 

* The woods, in Domesday, are, as we shall see, generally valued by 
the number of swine they maintain. 

The Horclle Cliffs and the Avon. 13 

deer browsed ; masses of beech and chestnut, the haunts of the 
wolf and the boar ; plains over which flocks of bustards 
half-ran, half-flew ; swamps where the crane in the sedge laid 
its buff and crimson-streaked eggs ; whilst above grey-headed 
kites swam in circles ; and round the coast the sea-eagle slowly 
flapped its heavy bulk. Great oaks, shorn flat by the Channel 
winds, fringed the high Hordle cliffs, towering above the sea ; 
and opposite, as to this day, rose the white chalk rocks of 
the Needles, and the Isle of Wight, where at Watchingwell 
stretched another forest of the King's. And the sun would set 
as it now does, but upon all this further beauty, making a broad 
path of glory across the bay, till at last it sank down over 
the Priory Church of Christchurch, which Flambard was then 

Gone, too, for ever all the scenes which they must have had 
of the Avon, glimpses of it caught among the trees as they 
galloped through the broad lawns, or under the sides of Godshill, 
and Castle Hill crested with yews and oaks.* 

* For a justification of this general picture, I must refer the reader to 
the next chapter, where references to Domesday, as to the state of the dis- 
trict before its afforestation by the Conqueror, and the evidence supplied 
by the names of places, are given. I may add, as showing the former 
nature of the woods, that the charcoal found in the barrows, embankments, 
and the Roman potteries, is made from oak and beech, but principally 
the latter. Since, too, the deer have been destroyed, young shoots of 
holly are springing up in all directions, and another generation may, 
perhaps, see the Forest resembling its old condition. As a proof, beside 
the entry in Domesday, that the Hordle Cliffs were covered with timber, 
the fishermen dredging for the septama in the Channel constantly drag up 
large boles of oaks, locally known as " mootes." The existence of the 
chestnut is shown by the large beams in some of the old Forest churches, 
as at Fawley ; but none now exist, except a few, comparatively modern, 
though very fine, at Boldrewood. Further, the Forest could never, except 

14 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

These may all be gone, but plenty of beauty is still left. 
The Avon still flows on with its floating gardens of flowers 
lilies and arrowhead, and the loosestrife waving its crimson 
plumes among the green reeds. The Forest streams, too, still 
flow on the same, losing themselves in the woods, eddying round 
and round in the deep, dark, prison-pools of their own making, 
and then escaping over shallows and ledges of rolled pebbles, 
left dry in the summer, and on which the sunlight rests, and 

in the winter, have been very swampy, as the gravelly formation of the 
greater part of the soil supplies it with a natural drainage. Still, there 
were swamps, and in the wet places large quantities of bog-oak have been 
dug up, bearing witness, as in other countries, of an epoch of oaks, which 
preceded the beech-woods. Gough, in his additions to Camden's Britannia, 
vol. i., p. 126, describes Godshill as being in his day covered with thick 
oaks. When, too, Lewis wrote in 1811, old people could then recollect 
it so densely covered with pollard oaks and hollies that the road was easily 
lost. (Historical Enquiries on the New Forest, p. 79, Foot-note.) No one, I 
suppose, now believes that wolves were extirpated by Edgar. They and wild 
boars are expressly mentioned in the Laws of Canute (Manwood: a Treatise of 
the Lawes of the Forest, f. 3, 27, 1615), and lingered in the north of England 
till Henry VIII.'s reign. (See further on the subject, The Zoology of Ancient 
Europe, by Alfred Newton, p. 24.) I have hesitated, however, to include 
the beaver, though noticed by Harrison, who wrote in 1574, as in his time 
frequenting the Taf, in Wales (Description of England, prefixed to Holinshed's 
Chronicle, ch. iv. pp. 225, 226.) The eggs of cranes, bustards, and bitterns, 
were, we know, protected as late as the middle of the sixteenth century. 
(Statutes of the Realm, vol. iii., p. 445, 25 Henry VIII., ch. xi., 4 ; and 
vol. iv., p. 109, 3, 4, Ed. VI., ch. vii.) The last bustard was seen in the 
Forest, some twenty-five years ago, on Butt's Plain, near Eyeworth. It is 
a sad pity that the enormous collection of birds' bones, described as chiefly 
those of herons and bitterns, found by Brander amongst the foundations of 
the Priory Church at Christchurch (see Archaologia, vol. iv., pp. 117, 118), 
were not preserved, as they might have yielded some interesting results. 
We must, however, still bear in mind that there are far more points of 
resemblance than of difference between the Forest of to-day and that of the 
Conqueror's time ; especially in the long tracts of fern and heath and furze, 
which certainly then existed, pastured over by flocks of cattle. 

The Forest Sunsets. 15 

the shadows of the beeches, play, but in the winter chafed by 
the torrent. 

Across its broad expanse of moors the sun still sets the 
same in summer time into some deep bank of clouds in the 
west, and as it plunges down, flashes of light run along their 
edges, and each thin band of vapour becomes a bar of fire, and 
the far-away Purbeck hills gleam with purple and amethyst. 

The same sea, too, still heaves and tosses beneath the 
Hordle and Barton Cliffs, with the same dark patches, shadows 
of clouds, sailing over it, as its waves, along the shore, unroll 
their long scrolls of foam. 

These great natural facts have not changed. Kelt and 
Roman have gone, but these are the same. 

Nor must I forget the extragrdinary lovely atmospheric 
effects, noticed also by Gilpin,* as seen, under certain conditions, 
from the Barton Cliffs on the Isle of Wight and the Needles. 
Far out at sea will rise a low white fog-bank gradually stealing 

* Remarks on Forest Scenery, illustrated by the New Forest, vol. ii., 
pp. 241 -46 ; third edition. Some mention should here be made of Gilpin, 
a man who, in a barren, unnatural age, partook of much of the same spirit 
as Cowper and Thompson, and whose work should be placed side by side 
with their poems. Unfortunately, much of his description is now quite 
useless, as the Forest has been so much altered ; but the real value of the 
book still remains unchanged in its pure love for Nature and its simple, 
unaffected tone. It is well worth, however, noticing as showing the 
enormous difficulty of overcoming an established error that, notwithstand- 
ing his true appreciation of bough-forms (see vol. i., pp. 110-12, same 
edition), and his hatred of pollarded shapes, and all formalism (same vol., 
p. 4), he had not sufficient force to break through the conventional drawing 
of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, and his 
trees (see, as before, pp. 252-54) are all drawn under the impression that 
they are a gigantic species of cabbage. The edition, however, published in 
1834, and edited by Sir T. D. Lauder, is, in this and many other respects, 
far better. 

16 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

to the land, enveloping some stray ship in its folds, and then 
by degrees encircling the Island, whilst the chalk cliffs melt into 
clouds. On it still steals with its thick mist, quenching the 
Needles Light which has been lit, till the whole island is 
capped with fog, and neither sea nor sky is seen, nothing but 
a dense haze blotting everything. Then suddenly the wind lifts 
the great cloud westward, and its black curtains drop away, 
revealing a sky of the deepest blue, barred with lines of light : 
and the whole bay suddenly shines out clear and glittering, 
the Island cliffs flashing with opal and emerald, and the ship 
once more glides out safe from the darkness. 

A few words, too, must be said about the two principal tree- 
forms which now make the Forest. The oaks here do not grow 
so high or so large as in many other parts of England, but they 
are far finer in their outlines, hanging in the distance as if 
rather suspended in the air than growing from the earth, but 
nearer, as especially at Bramble Hill, twisting their long arms, 
and interlacing each other into a thick roof. Now and' then 
they take to straggling ways, running out, as with the famous 
Knyghtwood Oak, into mere awkward forks. The most striking 
are not, perhaps, so much those in their prime, as the old ruined 
trees at Boldrewood, their bark furrowed with age, their timber 
quite decayed, now only braced together by the clamps of ivy to 
which they once gave support and strength.* 

* The following measurements may have, perhaps, an interest for some 
readers: Girth of the Knyghtwood oak, 17 ft. 4 in. ; of the Western oak 
at Boldrewood, 24 ft. 9 in. ; the Eastern, 16 ft. ; and the Northern, in the 
thickest part, 20ft. 4 in. ; though, lower down, only 14ft. 8 in.; beech at 
Studley, 21 ft. ; beech at Holmy Ridge, 20 ft. The handsomest oak, how- 
ever, in the district, stands a few yards outside the Forest boundary, close 
to Moyle's Court, measuring 18 ft. 8 in. 

Individual Trees and Masses of Wood. 17 

The beeches are even finer, and more characteristic, though 
here and there a tree sometimes resembles the oaks, as if with 
long living amongst them, it had learnt to grow like them. The 
finest beech-wood is that of Mark Ash. There you may see true 
beech-forms, the boles spangled with silver scales of lichen, and 
the roots more fangs than roots grasping the earth, feathered 
with the soft green down of moss. 

But not in individual trees lies the beauty of the Forest, but 
in the masses of wood. There, in the long aisles, settles that 
depth of shade which no pencil can give, and that colouring 
which no canvas can retain, as the sunlight pierces through the 
green web of leaves, flinging, as it sets, a crown of gold round 
each tree-trunk. 

Let no one, however, think they know anything of the 
Forest by simply keeping to the high road and the beaten tracks. 
They must go into it, across the fern and the heather, and, if 
necessary, over the swamps, into such old woods as Barrow's 
Moor, Mark Ash, Bushey Bratley, and Oakley, wandering at 
their own will among the trees. The best advice which I can 
give to see the Forest is to follow the course of one of its 
streams, to make it your friend and companion, and go where- 
ever it goes. It will be sure to take you through the greenest 
valleys, and past the thickest woods, and under the largest trees. 
No step along with it is ever lost, for it never goes out of its 
way but in search of some fresh beauty. 

We see plenty of pictures in our Exhibitions from Burnham 
Beeches or Epping Forest, but in the New Forest the artist will 
find not only woodland, but sea. and moorland, and river views. 
There are. as I have said, when taken in details, more beautiful 
spots in England, but none so characteristic. Finer trees, 
wilder moors, higher hills, more swiftly-flowing brooks, may 


18 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

be found, but nowhere that quietness so typical of English 
scenery, yet mixed with wildness, nowhere so much combined 
in one. 

I say, too, this, strange as it may doubtless appear, that 
Government, whenever it fells any timber, should spare some 
of the finest trees for the sake of their beauty, and for the 
delight they will give to future generations. Cut down, and sawn 
into planks, they are worth but so many pounds. Standing, 
their value is inappreciable. We have Government Schools of 
Design, and Government Picture Galleries, but they are useless 
without Nature to assist the student. Government, by keeping 
here some few old trees, will do more to foster true Art than 
all the grants of Parliament. The old thorns of Bratley, the 
beeches of Mark Ash, and the yews of Sloden, will teach more 
than all the schools and galleries in the world. As we have laws 
to preserve our partridges and pheasants, surely we might have 
some to protect our trees and our landscapes. 

Lastly, from its very nature, the New Forest is ever beautiful, 
at every season of the year, even in the depth of winter. The 
colouring of summer is not more rich. Then the great masses 
of holly glisten with their brightest green ; the purple light 
gathers round the bare oaks, and the yews stand out in their 
shrouds of black. Then the first budding branch of furze 
sparkles with gold, and the distant hill-side glows with the 
red layers of beech-leaves. And if a snow-storm passes up 
from the sea, then every bough is suddenly covered with a silver 
filigree of whitest moss. 

This joyful tyranny of beauty is ever present, at all times and 
hours, changeful in form, but the same in essence. Year after 
year, day after day, it appears. 

I know, however, it is impossible to make people see this 


The proper Feelings ivith ivliicli to see Nature. 


beauty, which, after all, exists only in each beholder's mind. 
No two people see the same thing, and no person ever sees it 
twice. But, I believe, we may all gain some idea of the glory 
which each season brings some glimpses of the heaven of 
beauty which ever surrounds us -if we will seek for them 
patiently and reverently. They cannot with some be learnt 
at once, but, in degrees, are attainable by all ; but they are 
attainable only upon this one condition, that we go to Nature 
with a docile, loving spirit, without which nothing can be learnt. 
If we go with any other feeling, we had much better stay in a 
town amidst the congenial smoke, than profane Nature with the 
pride of ignorance and the insolence of condescension. 

The Charcoal-Burner's Path, Winding Shoot 

D 2 

20 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 



The Cattle Ford, Liney Hill Wood. 

ONCE the New Forest occupied nearly the entire south-west 
angle of Hampshire, stretching, when at its largest, in the 
beginning of the reign of Edward L, from the Southampton 
Water on the east, whose waves, the legend says, reproved 
the courtiers of Canute, to the Avon, and even, here and there, 

Modern Historians and the New Forest. 21 

across it, on the west ; and on the north from the borders of 
Wiltshire to the English Channel. 

These natural boundaries were, as we shall see, reduced in 
that same reign. Since then encroachments on all sides have 
still further lessened its limits ; and it now stretches, here and 
there divided by manors and private property, on the north 
from the village of Bramshaw, beyond Stoney Cross, near where 
Rufus fell, or was supposed to fall, to Wootton on the south, 
some thirteen miles ; and, still further, from Hardley on the 
east to Ringwood, the Rinwede of Domesday, on the west. 

In the year 1079, just thirteen years after the battle of 
Hastings, William ordered its afforestation. From Turner and 
Lingard down to the latest compiler, our historians have repre- 
sented the act as one of the worst pieces of cruelty ever com- 
mitted by an English sovereign. Even Lappenberg calls the 
site of the Forest " the most thriving part of England," and 
says that William " mercilessly caused churches and villages 
to be burnt down within its circuit;" * and, in another place, 
speaks of the Conqueror's " bloody sacrifice," and " glaring 
cruelty towards the numerous inhabitants."! To such state- 
ments in ordinary writers we should pay no attention, but they 
assume a very different aspect when put forward, especially in 
so unqualified a way, by a historian to whom our respect and 
attention are due. I have no wish to defend the character 
of William. He was one of those men whose wills are strong 
enough to execute the thoughts of their minds, ordained by 
necessity to rule others, holding firmly to the creed that success 
is the best apology, for crime. Yet, too, he had noble qualities. 

* England under the Anglo-Norman Kings. Ed. Thorpe, p. 214. 
t The same, p. 266. 

22 The New Forest . its History and its Scenery. 

Abroad he was feared by the bad, whilst at home such order 
prevailed throughout England, that a man might travel in safety 
"with his bosom full of gold " from one end to the other.* 

What I do here protest against is the common practice 
of implicitly believing every tradition, of repeating every idle 
story which has been foisted into the text either by credulity 
or rancorous hatred of, in fact, mistaking party feeling for 
history. The Chroniclers had every reason to malign William. 
His very position was enough. He had pressed with a heavy 
hand on the Old-English nobles, stripped them of their lands, 
their civil power, and their religious honours ; and failing to 
learn, had, like a second Attila, tried to uproot their language. 

The truth is, we are so swayed by our feelings that the 
most dispassionate writer is involuntarily biassed. We in fact 
pervert truth without knowing we do so. Language, by its 
very nature, betrays us. No historian, with the least vividness 
of style, can copy from another without exaggeration. The 
misplacement of a single word, the insertion of a single epithet, 
gives a different colour and tone. And, in this very matter of 
the New Forest, we need only take the various accounts, as they 
have come down, to find in them the evidences of their own 

* The Chronicle. Ed. Thorpe. Vol. i. p. 354. This, of course, must 
not be too literally taken It is one of those stock phrases which so often 
recur in literature, and may be found, under rather different forms, applied 
to other princes. 

f Voltaire was the first to throw any doubt on the generally received 
account (Essai sur les Mceurs et T Esprit des Nations, torn. iii. ch. xlii. 
p. 169. Pantheon Litteraire, Paris, 1836). He has in England been fol- 
lowed by Warner (Topographical Remarks on the South-Western Parts of 
Hampshire, vol. i. pp. 164-197), and Lewis, in his Historical Enquiries 
concerning the New Forest, pp. 42-55. 

The Account of Gulielmus Gemeticensis. 23 

I do not here enter into the question of William's right 
to make the Forest about this there can be no doubt but 
simply into the methods which he employed in its formation.* 
The earliest Chronicler of the event, Gulielmus Gemeticensis, 
who has been so often quoted in evidence of William's cruelty, 
both because he was a Norman, and chaplain to the King, really 
proves nothing. In the first place, the monk of Jumieges did 
not write this account, but some successor, so that the argument 
drawn from the writer's position falls to the ground. f In the 
second place, his successor's words are "Many, however, say 
(ferunt autem multi) that the deaths of Rufus and his brother 
were a judgment from heaven, because their father had destroyed 
many villages and churches in enlarging (amplificandam) the 
New Forest."| The writer offers no comment of his own, and 
simply passes over the matter, as not worth even refutation. 
His narrative, however, if it tells at all, tells against the 
common theory, as he states that William only extended the 
limits of a former chase. 

* Concerning the King's prerogative to make a forest wherever he 
pleased, and the ancient legal maxim that all beasts of the chase were 
exclusively his and his alone, see Manwood A Treatise of the Lawes of the 
Forest, ch. ii. ff. 25-33, and ch. iii. sect. i. f. 33, 1615. We must remember, 
too, that, before the afforestation, William not only owned by right of 
conquest, as being King, the large demesne lands of the Crown in the 
district, and also those estates of former possessors, who had fallen at 
Hastings, or fled into exile, but, as we know from Domesday, kept some 
as at Eling, Breamore, and Ringwood in his own hands. 

f Bouquet. Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, torn, xi., 
pref., No. xii. p. 14; and torn, xii., pref., No. xlix. pp. 46-48. Some account 
of him may be found in torn. x. p. 184, foot-note a, and in the preface of 
the same, volume, No. xv. p. 28. See also preface to torn, viii., No. xxxi., 
p. 24, as also p. 254, foot-note a. 

\ De Ducibus Normannis, book vii. c. ix. ; in Camden's Anglica Scripta^ 
p. 674. 

24 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

The account of Florence of Worcester is, on the whole, 
equally unsatisfactory. His mention of the New Forest, like 
that, by the way, of most of the Chroniclers, does not occur 
in its proper place at the date it was made when the wrong, we 
should have thought, must have been most felt but is suggested 
by the death of Kufus, when popular superstition had come 
into play, and time had lent all the force of exaggeration to 
what must always have been an unpopular event. Florence,* 
however, speaks in general terms of men driven from their 
homes, of fields laid waste, and houses and churches destroyed : 
words which, as we shall see, carry their own contradiction. 
Vitalis,f too, not only declares that the district was thickly 
inhabited, but that it even regularly supplied the markets of 
Winchester, and that William laid in ruins no less than sixty 
parishes. Walter Mapes,J who flourished about the middle 
of the twelfth century, adds further that thirty-six mother 
churches were destroyed, but falls into the error of making 
Eufus the author of the Forest, which of course materially 
affects his evidence. 

Knyghton, however, who lived in the reign of Kichard II., 

* Chronicon ex Chronicis. Ed. Thorpe. Vol. ii. p. 45. Published 
by the English Historical Society 

f Historia Ecclesiastica, pars. iii. lib. x., in the Patrologice Cursus 
Completes. Ed. J. P. Migne. Tom. clxxxviii. p. 749 c. Paris, 1855. 

j De Nugis Curialium Distinctiones Quinque, distinc. v. cap. vi. p. 222. 
Published by the Camden Society. 

De Eventibus Anglice, lib. ii. cap. vii., in Twysden's Historic Anglicance 
Scriptores Decem, p. 2373. I am almost ashamed to quote Knyghton, but it 
is as well to give the most unfavourable account. Spotswood, in his History 
of the Church of Scotland (book ii. p. 30, fourth edition, 1577), repeats the 
same blunder as Walter Mapes and Knyghton, adding that the New Forest 
was at Winchester, and that Rufus destroyed thirty churches. 

Vitalis, Walter Mapes, and Knygliton. 25 

is doubtful whether the number of churches destroyed was 
twenty- two or fifty- two, an amount of difference so large that 
we might also reasonably suspect his narrative, whilst he also 
commits the mistake of attributing the formation of the Forest 
to Eufus. 

Now, the first thing which strikes us is that as the writers 
are more distant in point of time, and therefore less capable 
of knowing, they singularly enough become more precise and 
specific. What Florence of Worcester speaks of in merely 
general terms, Vitalis, and Walter Mapes, and Knyghton, give 
in minute details down to the very number of the parishes 
and churches.* 

As far as mere written testimony goes, we have nothing to 
set against their evidence, except Domesday, and the negative 
proof of The Chronicle. Not one word does The Chronicler, 
who, be it remembered, personally knew the Conqueror f who 

* For the sake of brevity, let me add that William of Malmesbury 
(Gesta Regum Anglorum, vol. ii. p. 455, published by the English Historical 
Society, 1840), Henry of Huntingdon (Historiarum, lib. vi., in Savile's 
Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores, p. 371), Simon of Durham (De Gestis Regum 
Anglorum, in the Histories Anglicance Scriptores Decem, p. 225), copying 
word for word from Florence, Roger Hoveden (Annalium Pars Prior, Wil- 
lielmus Junior, in the Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores, p. 468), Roger of 
Wendover (Flores Historiwum, vol. ii. pp. 25, 26, published by the English 
Historical Society), Walter Hemingburgh {De Gestis Regum Anglice, vol. i. 
p. 33, published by the English Historical Society), and John Ross 
(Historia Regum Anglics, pp. 112, 113. Ed. Hearne. Oxford, 1716), 
repeat, according to their different degrees of accuracy, the general story of 
the Conqueror destroying villages and exterminating the inhabitants. 

t The Chronicle. Ed. Thorpe, as before quoted. Nor does the 
writer, when another opportunity presents itself at Rufus's death, mention 
the matter, but passes it over in significant silence. The same volume, 
p. 364. 


26 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

has related each minute event of his reign, exposed each short- 
coming, and branded each crime say of the cruelty of the affo- 
restation. Evidence like this, coming from such an authority, 
is in the highest degree important. The silence is most 
suggestive. It is impossible to believe, that so faithful an 
historian, had it been committed, should never have hinted 
at the devastation of so much property, and the double crime 
of cruelty and profanity in destroying alike the inhabitants and 
their churches. 

But the briefest analysis of Domesday, and a comparison 
of its contents with those of the survey made in Edward the 
Confessor's reign, will more clearly show the nature and extent 
of the afforestation than any of the Chroniclers. From it 
we find that about two-thirds of the district, including soine 
thirty manors, was entirely afforested. But it by no means 
carries out the account that the villages were destroyed and 
the inhabitants banished, or, according to others, murdered. 
In some cases, as on Eling manor, it is noted that the houses 
are still standing and the inmates living in the King's Forest. 
Further, we find that some of the manors, as at Hordle and 
Bashley, though considerably lessened, kept up their value. 
Others, as at Efford, actually doubled their former assessments. 
Still more remarkable, some again, as at Brockenhurst, Sway, 
and Eling, though reduced in size, increased one-third and 
two -thirds in value. One explanation can alone be given to 
such facts that only the waste lands were enclosed, and the 
cultivated spared. 

That this was the case we know for certain, for it is 
expressly stated that, in some instances, as at Walhampton, 
Lymington, and Bockford, only the woods are afforested, that 
in many more the pastures are exempted, as at Wootton, 

Analysis of Domesday. 27 

Batramsley, Oxley, Ossumley, Pilley, Boldreford, Vicar's Hill, 
Yaldhurst, Boldre, and numerous other places.* The manor of 
Totton, though close to the Forest, was not touched, although 
all the neighbouring estates were in various degrees afforested, 
simply because it consisted of only pasture and plough-land, 
whose value had increased no less than one-fourth. Nothing, 
therefore, can he more conclusive than that the Conqueror did 
not mercilessly make a total wilderness of the district, but, 
not without some consideration, chose and took only those parts 
which were suitable for the purposes of the chase. 

In the woods which were afforested people were allowed to 
live;f though, probably, they voluntarily left them, as labour 
could not there be so well obtained as in the unafforested parts.J 
In all other respects there seems to have been no disarrange- 
ment. Both on the outskirts and in the heart of the Forest, 
the villains and borderers still worked as before, carrying on 
their former occupations. The mills at Bashley, and Milford, 
and Burgate, all in the Forest, went on the same. The fisheries 
at Holdenhurst and Dibden were undisturbed. The salterns at 
Eling and Hordle still continued at work, showing that the 
people still, as before, sowed and reaped their corn, and pas- 
tured and killed their cattle. 

* See Domesday (the photo-zincographed fac-simile of the part relating 
to Hampshire; published at the Ordnance Survey Office, 1861), p. xxix. b, 
under Bertramelei, Pistelslai, Odetune, Oxelei, &c. 

f See in Domesday, as before, p. xxvii. b, the entry under Langelei " Aluric 
Petit tenet unam virgatam in Foresta." See, too, p. iii. b, under Edlinges. 

J See in Domesday, under Thuinam, Holeest, Slacham, Rinwede, p.iv.a; 
and Herdel, p. xxviii. b. 

See in Domesday, out of many instances, Esselei and Suei, p. xxix. b ; 
Bailocheslei, p. xiv. b ; Wolnetune and Bedeslei, p. xxviii. a ; Hentune, 
p. xxviii. b ; and Linhest, p. iv. a. 


28 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Again, in other ways, Domesday still more clearly contra- 
dicts the Chroniclers, as to the inhabitants being driven out 
of their homes. Canterton was held by Chenna of Edward, 
and still in Domesday, in part, remains in his possession. 
Ulviet, the huntsman, who had rented Eipley manor under 
Edward, still rents the unaiforested portion. His son, Cola, 
also a huntsman, holds, as his sub-tenant, land at Langley, 
which he had rented of Edward ; whilst his other son, Alwin, 
holds land at Marchwood, which, also, he had rented. Saulf, 
a West-Saxon thane, who had held land at Durley of Edward, 
now holds it at Batramsley, and his wife at Hubborn, which 
he had also rented of Edward.* 

Ulgar, a West- Saxon, holds the fourth of a hyde at Milford, 
just as he had held it of Edward ; with this difference, that it 
was now assessed at three-fourths of a rood, on account of the 
loss sustained by the woods being taken into the Forest. The 
sons of Godric Malf, another West- Saxon thane, hold the same 
lands which their father had held of Edward, at Ashley 
and Crow, as also the manors of Bisterne and Minstead, these 
last being rated considerably less than their real values, on 
account of the afforestations, and what we should now call 
severance. The West- Saxon Aluric rents property at Oxley, 
Efford, and Brockenhurst, which his father and uncle rented 
under Edward, and not only receives lands at Milford in 
exchange for some taken into the Forest, but actually buys 
estates at Whitefields from other West-Saxons. f 

* It is possible that whilst the survey was being taken Saulf died. If 
this be so, we find an instance of feeling in allowing his widow to still 
rent the lands at Hubborn, which could little have been expected. The 
name seems to have been misspelt in various entries. See Domesday, 
p. xxix. b, under Sanhest and Melleford. 

t Aluric is probably the physician of that name mentioned in Domesday, 

The Evidence of the District. 29 

Such facts must be stronger than any mere history compiled 
by writers who were not only not near the spot, but the majority 
of whom lived a long time after the events they venture so 
minutely to describe. 

But we have not yet exhausted the valuable evidence of 
Domesday. The land in the Forest district is rented at much 
less than in other parts of Hampshire, showing that it was 
therefore poorer, and not only the land, but the mills. Further 
and this is of great importance, as so thoroughly overthrowing 
the common account we find in that portion of the survey 
which comes under the title, "In Nova Forest a et circa earn," 
only two churches mentioned, one at Milford, and another at 
Brockenhurst, in the very heart of the Forest. Both stand 
to this hour, and prove plainly by their Norman work that, 
William allowed them to remain. 

Such is the evidence which The Chronicle and the short 
examination of Domesday yield. The country itself, how- 
ever, still more plainly proves the bias of the Chroniclers. 
The slightest acquaintance with geology will show that the 
Forest was never fertile, as it must have been to have main- 
tained the population which filled so many churches.* Nearly 

p. xxix. a, as holding land in the hundred of Egheiete. Not to take up 
further space, let me here only notice some few out of the many Old- 
English names of persons in Domesday holding lands in places which had 
been more or less afforested, such as Godric (probably Godric Malf) at 
Wootton, Willac in the hundred of Egheiete, Uluric at Godshill, in the 
actual Forest, and Wislac at Oxley. See Domesday under the words 
Odetune, Godes-manes-camp, and Oxelei, p. xxix. b. See, also, under 
Totintone, p. xxvii. a, where Agemund and Alric hold lands which the 
former, and the latter's father, had held of Edward. 

* Passing over the later and more highly- coloured accounts, we will 
content ourselves with Florence of Worcester, as more trustworthy, whose 

30 The New Forest . its History and its Scenery. 

the whole of it is covered with sand, or capped with a thick 
bed of drift, with a surface-soil only a few inches deep, capable 
of naturally bearing little, except in a few places, besides heath 
and furze. On a geological map we can pretty accurately trace 
the limits of the Forest by the formation. Of course, in so 
large a space, there will be some spots, and some valleys, where 
the streams have left a richer glebe and a deeper tilth.* 

But the Chroniclers, by their very exaggeration, have de- 
feated their own purpose. There is in their narration an 
inconsistency, which, as we dwell upon it, becomes more appa- 
rent. We would simply ask, where are the ruins of any of 

words are " Antiquis enim temporibus, Edwardi scilicet Regis, et aliorum 
Anglise Regum predecessorum ejus, hsec regio incolis Dei et ecclesiis 
nitebat uberrime." (Thorpe's edition, as before quoted.) Were this, even 
in a limited degree, true, the Forest would present the strange anomaly of 
possessing more churches then than it does now, with a great increase 
of population. The Domesday census, we may add, makes the inhabitants of 
that portion which is called " In Nova Foresta et circa earn," a little over 
two hundred. See Ellis' s Introduction to Domesday, vol. ii. p. 450. 

* In support of these statements, I may quote from the Prize Essay on 
the Farming of Hampshire, published in the Journal of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of England (vol. xxii., part ii., No. 48, 1861), and which 
was certainly not written with any view to historical evidence, but simply 
from an agricultural point. At pp. 242, 243, the author says : " The out- 
lying New Forest block consists of more recent and unprofitable deposits. 
This tract appears to the ordinary observer, at first sight, to be a mixed 
mass of clays, marls, sands, and gravels. The apparent confusion arises 
from the variety of the strata, from the confined space in which they are 
deposited, and from the manner in which, on the numerous hills and knolls, 
they overlie one another, or are concealed by drift gravel." And again, at 
pp. 250, 251, he continues : "Of the Burley Walk, the part to the west of 
Burley Beacon, and round it, is nothing but sand or clay, growing rushes, 
with here and there some 'bed furze.' .... The Upper Bagshots, 
about Burley Beacon, round by Rhmefield and Denney Lodges, and so on 
towards Fawley, are hungry sands devoid of staple : " and finally sums up 
by saying, "half of the 63,000 acres are not worth 1*. 6d. an acre," p. 330 

The Evidence of the Churches. 31 

the thirty or fifty churches, and the towns of the people who 
filled them ? Why, too, did not the Chroniclers mention them 
specifically? Why, further, if William pulled down all the 
churches, are the only two, at Brockenhurst and Milford, re- 
corded in Domesday * still standing with their contemporary 
workmanship ? Why, too, is Fawley church, with its Norman 
doorway, and pillars, and arches, formerly, as we know from 
another portion of Domesday, in the Forest, remaining, if all 
were destroyed ? And why, last of all, if the inhabitants 
were exterminated, was a church built at Boldre, in the very 
wildest part of the Forest, immediately after the afforestation, 
and another at Hordle ?f 

Had there been any buildings destroyed, all ruins of them 
would not have been quite effaced, even in the course of eight 
centuries. The country has been undisturbed. Nature has not 
here, as in so many places, helped man in his work of destruc- 
tion. They cannot, we know, have been built on, or ploughed 
over, or silted with sand, or choked with mud, or washed away by 
water. The slightest artificial bank, though ever so old, can be 
here instantly detected. The Keltic and West- Saxon barrows 
still remain. The sites of the dwellings of the Britons are still 
plainly visible. The Roman potteries are untouched, and their 
vessels and cups, though lying but a few inches under the 
ground, unbroken. We can only very fairly conclude that, 
had there been houses, or villages, or churches destroyed, all 
traces of them would not be gone, nor entirely lost in the 
preserving record of local names. 

* In that portion under " In Nova Foresta et circa earn." 
t Warner, vol. ii. p. 33, says Hordle Church was standing when Domes- 
day was made. This is a mistake. It was, however, built soon after, as we 
know from some grants of Baldwin de Bedvers. 

32 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

It has, I am aware, been urged that since the Old-English 
churches were chiefly built of wood, we are not likely to find 
any ruins. This may be so. But by no process of reasoning 
can the absence of a thing prove its former presence, Nor 
need we pay any attention to the argument drawn from such 
names as Castle Malwood, The Castle near Burley, Castle Hill 
on the banks of the Avon, Lucas Castle, and Broomy and 
Thompson Castles in Ashley Walk. These Castles are of the 
air mere names, invented, as in other parts of England, by 
the popular mind. At Castle Malwood there is the simple 
trench of a camp, and recent excavations there showed no traces 
of buildings ; whilst the Castle at Burley, and Castle Hill, and 
the others, were merely earthen fortifications and entrench- 
ments, made by the Kelts and West- Saxons. Nor must we 
be led away by the few Forest names ending in ton, the Old- 
English tun, which, after all, means more often only a few 
scattered homesteads than even a village, still less a town or 
city, in the modern sense of the word.* 

* Mr. Thorpe notices, in his edition of The Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 94, foot- 
note, its early use, in a document of Eadger's, A.D 964, in the sense of a 
town ; but in the first place it certainly meant only an inclosed spot. There 
appears to have been at some time, in the south part of the Forest, a church 
near Wootton, the Odetune of Domesday, where its memory is still preserved 
in the name of Church Lytton given to a small plot of ground. Kose, in 
his notes to the Red King, p. 205, suggests that Church Moor and Church 
Place indicate other places of worship. Church Moor is a very unlikely 
situation, being a large and deep morass, and could well, from its situation, 
have been nothing else, and, in all probability, takes its name, in quite 
modern times, from some person. But Church Place at Sloden, like Church 
Green in Eyeworth Wood, is certainly merely the embankments near which 
the Romano- British population employed in the Roman potteries, once 
lived, and which ignorance and superstition have turned into sacred ground. 
The word Lytton, at Wootton, however, makes the former position certain, 

The Evidence of Local Names. 33 

If, however, we look at the district from another point of 
view, we shall find further evidence against the Chroniclers. It 
was a part of the Natan Leaga * a name still preserved in the 
various Netleys, Nateleys, and Nutleys, which remain the 
Ytene of the British, that is, the furzy district, a title eminently 
characteristic of the soil.f Again, too, the villages and manors, 
such as Lyndhurst, Brockenhurst, Ashurst, and half a dozen 
more hursts, point to the woody nature of the place. Such 
names, also, as Boydon, the rough ground ; Bramshaw, the 
bramble wood ; Denny, the furzy ground ; Wootton, the Ode- 
tune of Domesday ; Stockeyford and Stockleigh, the woody 
place ; besides Staneswood, Arnwood, and Testwood, all more or 
less afforested in Domesday, clearly show the character of the 

but by no means necessitates that the church was standing at the afforesta- 
tion. Thus we know that in Leland's time a chapel was in existence at 
Fritham (Itinerary, ed. Hearne, vol vi f. 100, p. 88), which has since his 
day disappeared. It would, of course, be absurd to argue that all ruins 
which have been, or yet may be found, were caused by the Conqueror. 
Further, with regard to the castles, had there been any, they would most 
certainly have been noticed in Domesday, and it is most unlikely, knowing 
how very few existed in England at the Conquest, that five or six should 
have been clustered together in the Forest. The fact, too, of Rose's 
finding " minute fragments of brick and mortar/' lumps of chalk, and 
pieces of slate bored with holes, simply proves that persons have, subse- 
quently to the Normans, found the New Forest a most ungrateful soil. 
I may, perhaps, add that Mr Akerman, the well-known archaeologist, 
when, a few years since, exploring the Roman potteries in the Forest 
(for which see chapter xvii.), in vain tried there, or in other parts, to find 
any traces of old buildings. (Archceologia, vol xxxv p 97 ) 

* See Dr. Guest's Early English Settlements in South Britain ; Proceed- 
ings of the Archaeological Institute, Salisbury volume, p, 57. 

t " Nova Foresta, quse lingua Anglorum Ytene nuncupatnr," however, 
says Florence of Worcester (vol. ii. pp. 44, 45, ed. Thorpe) ; but the Keltic 
origin of the word is better. 


34 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

After all, the best evidence is not from such arguments, 
but in the simple fact that the New Forest remains still 
the New Forest. Had the land been in any way profit- 
able, modern skill, and capital, and enterprise, would have 
certainly been attracted. But its charms lie not, and never 
did, in the richness of its soil, but in its deep woods and 
wild moors.* 

Our view of the matter, then, is that William, like all 
Normans, loving the chase loving, too, the red deer, as 
the Old-English Chronicler, with a sneer, remarks, as if he 
was their own father converted what was before a half- 
wooded tract, a great part of which he held in demesne, 
inherited by right of being king, into a Koyal Forest, giving 
it the name of the New Forest, in contradistinction to its 
former title of Ytene. To have laid waste a highly-cultivated 
district for the purposes of the chase, as the Chroniclers wish 
us to believe, would have defeated his chief object, as there 
would have been no shelter then, nor for many years to come, 
for the deer : and is contradicted, as we have seen, both by 
Domesday, by the very nature of the soil, and the names 
of the places. 

The real truth is, that the stories, which fill our histories, 
of William devastating the country, burning the houses, mur- 
dering the people, have arisen from a totally wrong conception 
of an ancient forest. Until this confusion of an old forest with 
our modern ideas is removed, we can have no clear notions 

* The names of the fields in the various farms adjoining the Forest 
Furzy Close, Heathy Close, Cold Croft, Starvesall, Hungry Hill, Rough 
Pastures, &c. &c. are not without meaning. The common Forest 
proverb of " lark's-lees," applied to the soil, pretty clearly, too, shows 
its quality. 

Social Life in the Old Forests. 35 

on the subject. We must remember that an ancient forest did 
not simply mean a space thickly covered with trees, but also 
wild open ground, with lawns and glades. Its derivation points 
out to what sort of places it was originally applied.* The word 
hurst, too, which, as we have seen, is so common a termination 
throughout the district, means a wood which produces fodder for 
cattle, answering to the Old High-German spreidachj The old 
forests possessed, if not a large, some scattered population. For 
them a special code of laws was made, or rather gradually deve- 
loped itself. Canute himself appointed various officers Primarii, 
our Verderers ; Lespegend, our Regarders ; and Tinemen, our 
Keepers. The offences of hunting, wounding, or killing a deer, 
striking a verderer or regarder, cutting vert, are all minutely 
specified in his Forest Law, and punished, according to rank and 
other circumstances, with different degrees of severity. J The 
Court of Swanimote was, in a sense, counterpart to the Courts 
of Folkemote and Portemote in towns. A forest was, in fact, 
a kingdom within a kingdom, with certain, well-defined laws, 
suited to its requirements, and differing from the common 
law of the land. The inhabitants had regular occupations, 

* Manwood defines a forest u a certaine territorie of woody grounds and 
fruitful pastures." A Treatise of the Lawes of the Forest. London, 1619. 
Chap. i. f. 18. Wedgwood (Dictionary of English Etymology, vol. ii. 
p. 34) shows the true meaning of the word, by connecting it with the 
Welsh gores, gorest, waste, open ground, and goresta, to He open. 

\ See Mr. Davies's paper on the Races of Lancashire, Transactions of 
the Philological Society, 1855, p. 258 In Domesday, as before, under Cla- 
tinges, p. xviii. a, we find, " Silva inutilis," that is, a wood which has no 
beech, oak, ash, nor holly, but only yews or thorns, equivalent to the 
entry, ' Silva sine pasnagio," under Anne, p. xix. a. (See, too, Ellis, Intro- 
duction to Domesday, vol. i. p. 99 ) Whilst under Borgate, p. iv. b, we 
find, " Pastura quae reddebat xl porcos est in foresta Regis." 

J See Manwood, as before, ff. 1-5. 

The New Forest its 

its Scenery. 

enjoyed, too, rights of pasturing cattle, feeding swine, and 
- s cutting timber.* All this, as we have seen, went on as before, 
not so much, but still the same, in the New Forest. Manors, 
too, with the exception of being subject to Forest Law, remained 

* In the Charta de Foresta of Canute (Manwood, f. 3, sect 27) 
mention is made in the forests of horses, cows, and wild goats which are 
all protected ; and from sect. 28 it is plain that, under certain limitations, 
people might cut fuel. These, with other privileges, such as killing game 
on their own lands (see sect. xxx. f 4) for, by theory, all game was the 
King's were compensations given to the forester for being subject to Forest 

Further, from the Charta de Foresta of Henry III. (Manwood, ff. 6-11), 
we find that persons had houses and farms, and even woods, in the very 
centre of the King's forests ; and the charter provides that they may there, 
on their own lands, build mills on the forest streams, sink wells, and dig 
marl-pits, referring, most probably, in the last case, to tht New Forest, 
where marl has been used, from time immemorial, to manure the land ; and, 
further, that in their own woods, even though in the forest, they might 
keep hawks, and go hawking. (See f. 7, sects, xii , xiii.) 

It shows, too, that there was a population who gained their livelihood, 
as to this day, by huckstering, buying and selling small quantities of timber, 
making brushes, and dealing in bark and coal, which last article evidently 
points to the Forest of Dean (F, 7, sect, xiv.) 

We must not imagine that the Charta de Foresta of Henry III. was 
entirely a series of new privileges. They were, with some notable excep- 
tions, simply those rights which had been received from the earliest times 
in compensation for some of the hardships of the Forest Laws, and which 
had been wrested away, probably by Richard or John, but which had 
never been granted to those who dwelt outside the Forest. (On this point see 
especially " Ordinatio Forest e, ' 33rd Edward I , Statutes of the Realm, vol i. 
p. 144. And again, " Ordinatio Foreste," 34th Edward I., sect, vi., same 
volume, p. 149, where the rights of pasturage are re-allowed to those who 
have lost it by the recent perambulation made in the twenty-ninth year of 
the King's reign ) 

I think we may, therefore, gain from these clauses, especially when 
taken in conjunction with those of the Charta de Foresta of Canute, a tole- 
rably correct picture of an ancient forest that it consisted not merely of 

The Chroniclers refuted by Themselves. 

in the heart of it unmolested. According to the Chroniclers 
themselves, some rustics living on the spot convey, with a horse 
and cart, the Weeding body of Rufus to Winchester. According 
to them* also the King, previous to his death, must have feasted, 
with his retinue of servants, and huntsmen, and priests, and 
guests, somewhere in the Forest, implying means in the neigh- 
bourhood to furnish, if not the luxuries, the necessities of life. 
In Domesday we find, too, a keeper of the king's house holding 
the mill at Efford ; also implying, at least, in a very different 
part of the Forest, a neighbourhood which could not have been 
quite destitute and deserted. f At a later period, when the 
Forest Laws had reached their climax of oppression, persons 
in the Forest, as we learn from Blount and the Testa de Nevill, 
hold their lands at Lyndhurst and Eyeworth,J by finding pro- 
visions for the king and fodder for his horse. But more than 
all, Domesday, corroborated as it is by the physical charac- 
teristics of the country, by the evidence, too, of local names, by 
the Norman doorways, and pillars and arches at Fawley, and 
Brockenhurst and Milford, proves most distinctly and most 
distinctly because so circumstantially that the district was 
neither devastated, nor the houses burnt, nor the churches 
destroyed, nor the people murdered. 

Some wrong, though, was doubtless committed : some hard- 
ships undergone. Lands, however useless, cannot be afforested 

large timber and thick underwood, a cover for deer, but of extensive plains, 
still here preserved in the various leys grazed over by cattle, with here 
and there cultivated spots, and homesteads inhabited by a poor, but indus- 
trious, population. 

* See chapter ix. p. 97, footnote. 

f See Domesday, as before, p. xxix. b., under Einforde. 

J See chapters viii. p. 87, and x. p. 114. 

88 The New Forest ' its History and its Scenery. 

without the feelings of the neighbourhood being outraged. 
And the story, gathering strength in proportion as the Conqueror 
and his son William the Red were hated by the conquered, 
at last assumed the tragical form which the Chroniclers have 
handed down to us, and modern historians repeated. 

William's cruelty, however, lay not certainly in afforesting 
the district : it consisted rather in the systematic way in which 
he strove to reduce the English into abject slavery ; in the 
fresh tortures with which he loaded the Danish Forest Laws ; 
and in making it far better to kill a man than a deer. For 
these exactions was it that his family paid the penalty of their 
lives ; and the retribution befel them there, where the super- 
stitious West- Saxon would, above all others, have marked out 
as the spot fitted for their deaths. 

View in Gibb's Hill Wood. 

The True History of a Forest. 




The Millaford Brook, flaliday's Hill Wood 

WE need not dwell so long upon this as the former portion 
of the History, for in many cases it is nothing but a "bare recital 
of perambulations and Acts of Parliament. The true history of 

40 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

a forest is rather an account of its trees and its flowers and 
birds, than an historical narrative. Yet even here there are 
some important facts connected with the nation's life, and illus- 
trating the character of its kings. 

We meet with no perambulation of the New Forest until 
the eighth year of Edward I. the second ever made of an 
English forest and, by comparing it with Domesday, we may 
see how, since the Conqueror's time, the Forest had gradually 
taken the natural limits of the country the Avon and the 
Southampton Water bounding it on the east and west, and the 
sea on the south, and the chalk of Wiltshire on the north.* 

The next perambulation in the twenty-ninth year of the 
same reign is more noticeable,! as it disafforests so much. It is 
the same perambulation which we find made in the twenty- second 

* The following translation is made from the original in the Kecord 
Office Southt Plita Foreste, A viii. E. I. mi " The metes and boundaries 
of the New Forest from the first time it was afforested. First, from Hude- 
burwe to Folkewell ; thence to the Redechowe ; thence to the Bredewelle , 
thence to Brodenok ; thence to the Chertihowe ; thence to the Brygge ; 
thence to Burnford ; thence to Kademannesforde ; thence to Selney Water ; 
thence to Orebrugge ; thence to the Wade as the water runs ; thence to 
the Eldeburwe ; thence to Meche ; thence to Redebrugge as the bank of 
the Terste runs ; thence to Kalkesore as the sea runs ; thence to the Hurste, 
along the sea-shore ; thence to Christ Church Bridge as the sea flows ; 
thence as the Avene extends, as far as the bridge of Forthingebrugge ; 
thence as the Avene flows to Moletone ; thence as the Avene flows to 
Northchardeford and Sechemle ; and so in length by a ditch, which 
stretches to Herdeberwe." It is this old natural boundary which, as stated 
in the preface, we have adopted for the limits of the book. A copy of the 
original may be found in the Journals of the House of Commons, vol. xliv., 
appendix, p. 574, 1789. 

f This may also be found, with the perambulation made in the twenty- 
second year of Charles II., in the Journal of the House of Commons, 
vol. xliv., appendix, pp. 574, 575, 1789. It is also given in Lewis's Histo- 
rical Enquiries upon the New Forest, appendix ii. pp. 174-177. 

The Second Perambulation. 41 

year of Charles II., and nominally the same which is followed 
to this day. 

To understand the cause of the difference in these perambu- 
lations, we must, in fact, thoroughly understand the great move- 
ments which had been going on during the previous years, and 
the increasing power of the nobles and the people. From 
Henry III. had been wrung the Charta de Foresta, the terms 
of which had been settled before John's death. Still, little, or 
scarcely anything, was put into practical effect. In 1297, 
however, the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk not only refused to 
accompany Edward I. to Flanders, but, upon their suspension 
from their offices, issued a proclamation, complaining that the 
two Charters of the liberties of the people were not observed. 
On the 10th of October, a Parliament was assembled, and his 
son passed the " Confirmatio Cartarum," to which Edward, now 
at Ghent, assented. Still the two earls, from various causes, 
were not satisfied ; and in 1298 demanded that the perambu- 
lations of the different Forests should be made. In consequence, 
during the summer of the next year, the King issued writs 
to the sheriffs, promising that the commissioners should meet 
about Michaelmas at Northampton.* 

This was done : and the perambulation of the New Forest 
was carried out in strict accordance with the provisions of the 
Charta de Foresta, for the jurors who were employed expressly 
state that the bounds which they have determined were those 

* This is not the place to say more on this most important chapter of 
English history. See, however, on the subject, The Great Charter: and 
the Charter of the Forest, by Blackstone, Introduction, pp. Ix.-lxxii. 1759. 
For the oppressions which still existed under the shelter of the Forest 
Laws, see the preamble to the " Ordinatio Foreste," 34th Edward I. 
Statutes of the Realm, vol. i. p. 147. 


42 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

of the Forest before the reign of Henry II. ; and that all those 
places mentioned in the perambulation of 1279 and now omitted, 
were afforested by his successors, though they cannot say to 
what extent or by whom.* Most probably it had been reserved 
for John to show here, as in other cases, to what absolute 
madness selfishness will carry a man. 

After this, nothing, with one exception, of any general 
importance occur s.f Having in his prosperity incurred all 
the odium of attempting to revive the hated Forest Laws, in 
his adversity Charles I. granted as security the New Forest, and 
Sherwood, and other Crown lands to his creditors.^ He had 

* " Quid et quantum temporibus cujuslibet regis rmllo modo eis constare 
potest." The conclusion of the perambulation Some little difficulty attends 
these perambulations. From Domesday, it is certain that the Conqueror 
afforested land on the west of the Avon at Holdenhurst, Breamore, and 
Harbridge And amongst the MSS of Lincoln's Inn Library we find a copy 
of a charter of William of Scotland, dated, curiously enough, " Hindhop 
Burnemuth, in mea Nova Foresta, 10 Kal. Junii, 1171." (See Hunter's 
" Three Catalogues," &c., p. 278, No 78, 1838.) It would seem, from what 
Edward s commissioners say. that these afforestations, which had taken place 
since Henry II. s time, were all made inside the actual boundaries of the 
Forest. It has been generally supposed that the perambulation in the 
eighth year of Edward I. was the first ever made of an English forest. 
This is not the case , for in the Record Office, in the Plita Foreste de Com 
Southt LIlI ti<J R H. III.', No. Ill, may be found the perambulation of a 
forest m the north of Hampshire 

t For a good account of all details connected with the history of the 
New Forest, see the Sub-Report by the Secretary of the Royal New and 
Waltham Forest Commission, Reports from Commissioners (11), vol. xxx. 
pp. 267-309, 1850 , and also the Fifth Report of the Land Revenue Com- 
missioners in 1789, published July 24th of that year, to be found also in 
the Journals of the House of Commons, vol xliv. pp 552-571. 

| See " The humble petition of Richard Spencer, Esq., Sir Gervas 
Clifton, Knight and Baronet, and others, to enter upon the New Forest and 
Sherwood Forest," &c, &c. Record Office. Domestic Series, Charles II., 
No. 8. f. 26, July 21st, 1660, 

Under the Stuarts. 43 

still learnt no lesson from the Ship-money, and would have 
pawned England itself, rather than yield to that obstinacy, which 
was but the other side of his weakness of character. 

With the decline of hawking and hunting, the Forest Laws 
fell into decay, and the Forests themselves were less regarded, 
and theii boundaries less strictly observed. Under the Stuarts, 
we find the first traces of that system, which at last resulted 
in the almost entire devastation of the New Forest. James I. 
granted no less than twenty assart lands agri ex-sariti there 
having been previously only three ; * and gave the privilege of 
windfalls to various persons ; f whilst officers actually applied to 
him for trees in lieu of pay for their troops : J and Charles II. 
bestowed the young woods of Brockenhurst to the maids of 
honour of his court. 

* MSS. prepared by Mr Record-Keeper Fearnside, quoted in the Secre- 
tary's Sub-Report of the Royal New and Waltham Forest Commission, 
Reports from Commissioners (11), vol. xxx. p. 342 

t See Grant Book at the Record Office, 1613, vol. 141, p. 127 "4th 
October, a Grant to Richard Kilborne, alias Hunt, and Thomas Tilsby (of) 
the benefitt of all Morefalls within the New Forest, for the terme of one and 
twenty years." 

I See "The humble petition of Captayne Walter Neale" for "two 
thousand decayed trees out of the New Forest, in consideracion" of 460/., 
which he had advanced to his company engaged in Count Mansfeldt's 
expedition Record Office Domestic Series, No 184, Feb , 1625, f. 62. 

See warrant from Charles II. to the Lord Treasurer Southampton, 
that " Winefred Wells may take and receive for her own use" King's 
Coppice at Fawley, and New Coppice and Iron's Hill Coppice at Brocken- 
hurst Record Office. Domestic Series, No. 96, April 1st, 1664, f. 16. 
Three years before this there had been a petition from a Frances Wells " to 
bestowe upon her and her children for twenty-one yeares the Moorefall trees 
in three walks in the New Forest, .... and seven or eight acres of 
ground, and ten or twelve timber trees, to build a habitation.'' The petition 
was referred to Southampton, who wrote on the margin, " I conceive this 

G 2 

44 The New Forest .- its History and its Scenery. 

Manwood, who wrote towards the end of Elizabeth's reign, 
had, long before this, predicted what must happen, and the 
straits to which the English navy, as we know was the case, 
would be reduced. In Charles I.'s time the Forests were in a 
shameful condition. The keepers were in arrears of wages, and 
paid themselves out of the timber.* The consequences soon 
came. There was nothing left but wind-shaken and decayed 
trees in the New Forest, quite unfit for building ships, f 
Charles II., however, in 1669, probably influenced by Evelyn's 
Silva, which appeared four years before, and had given a great 
impulse, throughout England, to planting, enclosed three 
hundred acres as a nursery for young oaks. But the waste and 
devastation still continued. At last, William III. legislated 
on the subject, for, to use the words of the Act, " the Forest 
was in danger of being destroyed ;" if and power was given to 
plant six thousand acres. In 1703 came the great hurricane, 
which Evelyn so deplores, uprooting some four thousand of the 
best oaks. 

an unfit way to gratify this petitioner, for under pretence of such Moorefall 
trees much waste is often committed.' Record Office Domestic Series, 
No. 34, April 2nd, 1661, f. 14 Hence the reason oi Charles's warrant in 
the case of Winefred Wells, as he knew that the Lord Treasurer was so 
strongly opposed to any such grants 

* See the report of Peter Pett, one of the King's master shipwrights, 
''Touching the fforests of Shottover and Stowood" Record Office 
Domestic Series, No. 216, f. 56 i. May 10th, 1632. The New Forest, 
however, seems from this report to have been much better in this respect 

t See " Necessarie Remembrances concerning the preservation of timber, 
&c.' Record Office Domestic Series Charles I,, No. 229, f. 114 
Without date, but some time in 1632. 

t 9th and 10th of William III , chap xxxvi . 1693 An abstract of the 
Act may be found in the Journals of the Houss of Commons, vol. xliv., 
appendix, pp. 576-578. 

The Commission of 1789. 45 

Nothing was done towards planting during the reigns of 
Anne and George I. ; * and Phillipson's and Pitt's plantations 
in 1755 and 1756 are the next, but they have never thrived, owing 
to the land not having been drained, and the trees not having 
been thinned out at the proper time. 

In 1789 a Commission was appointed, and revealed a terrible 
state of things. William's provisions had not only been set 
aside, but defied. Cattle were turned out, the furze and heath 
cut, and the marl dug by those who had no privileges. The 
Forest was, in fact, robbed under every pretext. The deer, from 
being overstocked, died in the winter by hundreds from starva- 
tion. On every side, too, encroachments were made by those 
whose business it was to prevent them. The rabbits destroyed 
the young timber, whilst the old was stolen. f 

In 1800 there was fresh legislation,^ but it does not seem to 

* To show how for years the Forest was neglected and robbed, we find, 
from a survey made in James I 's reign, 1608, that there were no less than 
123,927 growing trees fit for felling, and decaying trees which would yield 
118,000 loads of timber; whilst in Queen Anne's reign, in 1707, only 
1 2,476 are reported as serviceable. See Fifth Report of the Land Revenue 
Commissioners, Journals of the House of Commons, vol. xliv p. 563. The 
waste in James I.'s and Charles I 's time must have been enormous, for from 
the u Necessarie Remembrances" before quoted we find that there were not in 
1632 much above 2,000 serviceable trees in the whole Forest. 

f See, as before, Fifth Report of the Land Revenue Commissioners, 
pp. 561, 562, and especially the evidence of the under-steward, Ap- 
pendix, 583. As far back as February 20th, 1619, we find that James I. 
gave the Earl of Southampton 1,200Z. a year as compensation for the 
damage which the enormous quantity of deer in the Forest caused to his 
land. Letter from Gerrard to Carleton, Feb. 20, j|L 8 , Record Office. Do- 
mestic Series, No. 105, f. 120 Gilpin (vol. ii pp. 32, 33, third edition) 
states that m his day two keepers alone robbed the Forest to the value of 

{ Journals of the House of Commons, vol. xlvii. pp. 611-792; vol. Iv. 
pp. 600-784. 

46 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

have, taken much effect; though, in 1808, a new system of plant- 
ing upon a definite plan was introduced. 

In 1848 another Commission was appointed, and showed that 
the old abuses still lingered, that depredations were still com- 
mitted, and encroachments still made.* Law was at last 
restored. A great number of the claims were disallowed, and 
the rights of the commoners defined. So many head of cattle 
may now be turned out, by those who have Forest rights, 
through the year, except during the fence-month, which lasts 
from the 20th of June to the 20th of July, and the winter- 
hayning, from the 22nd of November to the 4th of May. Pigs, 
too, upon a nominal payment, may also be turned out for the 
mast and acorns during the pannage-month, lasting from 
September the 25th to the 22nd of November, by those who 
have a right to common of pannage ; whilst any person can, by 
applying to the woodmen, buy wood for fuel. 

Lastly, in 1851, the deer, the cause of so much ill-feeling 
and crime, were abolished, and the Crown thereby acquired the 
right of planting 10,000 additional acres.! These changes have 

* See the evidence in the Parliamentary Papers, 1849, Nos 513, 538 
Of the Forest Rights and Privileges, the secretary to the New Forest Com- 
mission writes : " The present state of the New Forest in this respect is 
little less than absolute anarchy." {Reports of Commissioners (11), vol. xxx. 
p. 357, 1850 ) It should be distinctly understood, as was shown in the last 
chapter, that these Rights had their origin as a compensation to those whose 
lands had been afforested by the King, and who were, in consequence, 
subject to the Forest Laws, and the injury done by the deer. Now that the 
injury is no longer sustained, and the exercise of the Prerogative has ceased, 
so ought also the privileges. The Crown, however, has not pressed this, 
and the Rights are thus still enjoyed. A Register of Decisions on Claims 
to Forest Rights, with each person's name, and the amount of his privileges, 
was published in 1858, 

f The present statistics of the Forest are Freehold estates, being private 

Recent Improvements. 47 

already effected much good both for the district and the inhabi- 
tants. The enclosures are now systematically drained ; and the 
Foresters find, in the works which are being carried forward, 
regular employment throughout the year.* A large nursery has 
been formed at Khinefield, and somewhere about 700 acres 
are annually planted, the young oaks being set between Scotch 
firs, which serve both as " nurses " to draw them up, and a 
screen to shelter them from the winds. Experiments, too, are 
being made to acclimatize several new trees, but it is premature 
to judge with what success. 

Further, I need scarcely add that all sorts of schemes, 
from the day when Defoe proposed to colonize the district 
with the Palatine refugees from the Rhine to the present, have 
been suggested for reclaiming the Forest. None have ever, 
from the nature of the soil, been found to answer ; and the 

property, within the Forest boundaries, 27,140 acres; copyhold, belonging 
to her Majesty's manor of Lyndhurst, 125; leasehold, under the Crown, 
600 5 enclosures belonging to the lodges, 500; freeholds of the Crown, 
planted, 1,000-, woods and wastes of the Forest, 63,000: total, 92,365 
acres. The value of timber supplied to the navy during the last ten years 
has been, on the average, nearly 7,000/. a year. The receipts for the 
year ending 31st of March. 1860, derived from the sale of timber, bark, 
fagots, marl, and gravel, and rent of farms and cottages, &c., were 
23,125/. 6s. 6rf. ; whilst the expenses for labour, trees, carriage of timber, 
and salaries, were 12.9132. 1*. 7d; thus showing a considerable profit. 
(From the Thirty-eighth Report of the Commissioners of her Majesty's 
Woods and Forests.) The management of the Forest is now in the hands 
of a deputy- survey or, three assistants, and eight keepers; whilst four 
verderers try all cases of stealing timber, turf, and furze. 

* See further, on the condition of the Forest population, chapters xv. and 
xvi. When stripping bark and leiiing timber in the spring, the men can earn 
considerably more than at other times. The average wages are two shillings 
a day for ordinary labourers, but all work, which can be, is done by the 

48 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

present condition is certainly, for many reasons, the best. 
The time will some day arrive when, as England be- 
comes more and more overcrowded, as each heath and 
common are swallowed up, the New Forest will be as much 
a necessity to the country as the parks are now to London, 
We talk about the duty of reclaiming waste lands, and making 
corn spring up where none before grew. But it is often 
as much a duty to leave them alone. Land has higher and 
nobler offices to perform than to support houses or grow corn 
to nourish not so much the body as the mind of man, to gladden 
the eye with its loveliness, and to brace his soul with that 
strength which is alone to be gained in the solitude of the moors 
and the woods. 

The Woodcutter's Track, between Mark Ash and Winding Shoot. 

The Old South-Eastern Coast. 




Calshot Castle. 

THIS corner of the Forest, once perhaps the most beautiful, 
is now the least known, because, to most people, so inaccessible. 
It lies quite by itself. No railway yet disfigures its fields and 
dells. The best way to see it and the whole Forest is to cross 
the ferry at Southampton, and land at the hard at Hythe. And 
as we cross, behind us, amongst a clump of trees, rises the ruined 
west end of Netley Abbey Church, and the modern tower on 
Henry VIII.'s Fort; whilst, lower down, the new Government 

50 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Hospital loads the shore with all its costly ugliness. If we 
have not, perhaps, yet reached the height of Continental pro- 
fanity which has turned the Convent of Cordova into barracks, 
and St. Bernard's Monastery at Clairvaux into a prison, and 
the Church of Clu,ny into racing stables, we yet seem to delight 
to place side by side with the noblest conceptions that ever 
rose in beauty from English ground, our modern abortions. 
There is not a cathedral town whose minster- square is not dis- 
graced by some pretentious shed. And now Government not 
only invades the country, but chooses above all, the better 
to display our folly, that place which the old Cistercian 
monks had for ever made sacred by the loveliness of faith 
and work. 

Hythe is only a little village, but as its name shows, once 
the port of the New Forest.* The Forest, however, has now 
receded from it, and in this chapter we shall see nothing of 
its woods. The district, however, is too important in a his- 
torical point of view to be omitted. The walk, even though 
it is not over wild moors and commons, is still very beautiful. 
True English lanes will lead us by quiet dells, with glimpses 
here and there through hedgerow elms of the blue Southampton 
water, down to the shore of the Solent. 

So, leaving Hythe f and going southward, skirting Cadlands 

* In the Rolls of Parliament, vol. i. p. 125, A.D. 1293, 21st Edward L, 
is an account of a vessel, the All Saints, " de Hethe juxta Novam Forestam," 
which, laden with wine from Rochelle, was wrecked and plundered on the 
Cornish coast. 

f A little beyond Hythe is a good example of Mr. Kemble's test (see 
the Saxons in England, vol. i., Appendix A, p. 481) for recognizing the Ancient 
Mark. To the north lies Eling, the Mark of the Ealingas, and in regular 
succession from it come the various hursts, holts, and dens, now to be seen 
in Ashuret, Buckholt, and Dibden. The last villrge has a very ^picturesque 

Fawley, Eling, Staneswood, and Redbridge. 51 

Park, we reach Fawley, the Falalie and Falegia of Domesday, 
where Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester, held in demesne, as 
Ahbey land, one hyde and three yardlands. The whole of 
the manor was thrown into the Forest, but in its place now 
are ploughed fields and grass pastures. The church, with its 
central tower, stands at the entrance of the village, and its 
handsome Komanesque doorway shows plainly that the Con- 
queror did not destroy every place of worship. The building 
was partially restored in 1844, but the pillars on the north 
side of the chancel were copied from the original Norman 
work, which, with the three piscinas and the hagioscope, give 
it a further interest to the ecclesiologist. 

church, its roof completely thatched with ivy, disfigured, however, by a 
wretched spire. In Domesday it possessed a saltern and a fishery, and a 
wood with pannage for six hogs (sylva de 6 porcis). Two hydes were 
taken into the Forest. Eling, at the same time, maintained two mills, 
which paid twenty-five shillings, a fishery and a saltern, both free from 
tax. The manor was bound, in the time of Edward the Confessor, to find 
half-a-day's entertainment (Jirma) for the King. For a curious extract 
from its parish register, see chapter xix. Staneswood (Staneude), which 
is more southward, also, according to Domesday, possessed a mill which 
paid five shillings, and two fisheries worth fifty pence. Farther north lies 
Redbridge, the Rodbrige of Domesday, which also maintained two mills, 
rented, however, at fifty shillings. This was the Hreutford and Vadum 
Arundinis of Bede, where lived Cynibert the Abbot, who, failing in his 
attempt to save the two sons of Arvald from Ceadwalla, delayed their 
death till he had converted them to Christianity. (Bede, Hist. EccL, 
torn, i., lib. iv., cap. xvi., p. 284, published by the English Historical 
Society.) All these places, with the exception of Redbridge, were more or 
less afforested. The district, however, seems to have been by far the most 
flourishing of any adjoining the New Forest, owing, no doubt, to the 
immigration which the various creeks invited, and the remains of salterns 
still show its former prosperity. Next to it came the Valley of the Avon, 
its mills often rented, in Domesday, by a payment of the eels caught in 
the river. 

62 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

After Fawley, the walk becomes more beautiful. We pass 
deep lanes and scattered cottages set in their trim gardens, 
when suddenly on the shore rises the round gray castle of 
Calshot, standing at the very end of a bar of sand, sepa- 
rating the Southampton water from the Solent. Though much 
repaired, it stands not much altered from Henry VIII. 's 
original blockhouse. Once of great importance, its garrison 
now consists of only the coastguard and a master-gunner. 
Its walls are still strong, measuring in the lower embra- 
sures sixteen feet through, but the upper storeys are much 
slighter. On the west side is cut the date 1513, whilst some 
stone cannon balls of the Commonwealth period show the im- 
portance Cromwell attached to the place. But the stronger 
fortifications of Hurst, and the new batteries in the Isle of 
Wight, have done away with its necessity, and it stands now 
only as a monument of Tudor patriotism and of Cromwell's 

But the place has older associations than these. In The 
Chronicle said Florence of Worcester we read f that, in 495, Cerdic 
and his son Cynric arrived with five ships, and landed at Cerdices- 

* Colonel Hammond, Governor of the Isle of Wight, in a letter to the 
Committee of Derby House, dated from Carisbrook Castle, June 25th, 
1648, speaks of "Caushot Castle as a place of great strength." (Peck's 
Desiderata Curiosa, vol. ii., book ix., p. 383.) In the reign of Elizabeth 
there were stationed here a captain, with a fee of one shilling a day ; a 
subaltern with eightpence ; four soldiers and eight gunners with sixpence 
each ; and a porter with eightpence. (Peck's Desiderata Ciiriosa, vol. i., 
book ii., p. 66.) And in 1567, we find the queen ordering " the mountyng 
of ordinance," probably to pay attention to Philip, who was expected to pass 
through "the narrowe seas." Record Office. Domestic Series, No, 43, 
Aug. 27. 1567, f. 52. 

t The Chronicle. Ed. Thorpe. Vol. i. p. 24. Florence. Ed. Thorpe. 
Vol. i. pp. 3, 4. 

Calshot, the Cerdices-ora of the " Chronicle." 53 

ora, and on the same day defeated the natives. No site has given 
rise to so much discussion as this Cerdices-ora. Mr. Thorpe 
in one place says it is not known, whilst in another, by an 
evident oversight, he fixes upon Charford.* Dr. Guest places 
it at the mouth of the river Itchen,f whilst Mr. Pearson and 
others have identified it with Yarmouth 4 Now, I think there 
can he little doubt, looking both at the etymology of the name 
and the situation, that Calshot is the true place. The land 
here runs out into the sea with no less than ten fathoms of 
water close to it, so that large vessels can to this day lie along- 
side the Castle. It is the first part, too, of the mainland which 
can be reached, and on its north side offers a safe anchorage. 
Besides, about four miles off stand some barrows, which, though 
we may not be able to identify them as covering those slain in 
the first battle which the West- Saxons fought, offer some 
presumption in favour of that theory. In the very word 
Calshot, and its intermediate forms of Caushot, Caldshore, and 

* Compare his edition of The Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 13, with note 1 at 
p. 4, vol. i., of Florence. 

f Early English Settlements in Great Britain The Proceedings of the 
Archcsological Institute, the Salisbury volume, pp. 56-60. It is, of course, 
not without much consideration that I presume to differ from Dr. Guest ; 
but surely the passages quoted from Bede refer to nearly 200 years after 
the arrival of Cerdic and his nephews, Stuf and Wihtgar, when their 
descendants would have been sure to have crossed over, finding the east 
side far richer than the cold, barren district where the New Forest after- 
wards stood. 

I The Early and Middle Ages of England, p. 56, foot-note. I may, 
perhaps, add, that Camden also placed it at Yarmouth ; Carte, at Charmouth, 
in Dorsetshire ; and Milner, at Hengistbury Head. Gibson, with some 
others, in his edition of The Chronicle (under nominum locorum explicatio, 
pp. 19, 20), alone seems to have fixed on this spot. Lappenburg, however, 
says that the site is no longer known. England under the Anglo-Saxon 
Kings. Ed. Thorpe, p. 107. 

54 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Cauldshore,* we may, without difficulty, recognize a corruption 
of the original Cerdices-ora of the Chronicle and Florence. 
The word is formed like the names of various places close by, 
such as Needsore (the under-shore) and Stansore Point.f But 
going farther back, we come much nearer to its original form 
in the old Forest perambulation made in the eighth year of 
Edward L, where it is spelt Kalkesore. J As then, Charford, 
on the north-east borders of the New Forest, is the represen- 
tative of Cerdices-ford, where Cerdic's last victory was gained 
over Ambrosius ; so here, I think, at the south-west, near Kal- 
kesore, now Calshot, was his first achieved. 

From this point the scenery completely changes. Instead of 
lanes and cultivated fields, the shingly beach of the Solent, 
covered in places to the water's edge with woods, sweeps away to 

* In a letter of Southampton's to Cromwell, 17th September, 1539 
(State Papers, vol. i. p. 617), it is called Calsherdes ; whilst in another 
letter of his, also to Cromwell (ElUs"s Letters, second series, vol. ii. p. 87), 
he writes Calshorispoynte. Leland, in his Itinerary (Ed. Hearne, second 
edition, vol. iii., p. 94, f. 78), speaks of both " Cauldshore " and " Caldshore 
Castelle ; " and again (p. 93, f. 77), calls it Cawshot, as it is also spelt in 
Baptista Boazio's Map of the Isle of Wight, 1591; whilst in the State 
papers of Elizabeth we find Calshord. (Record Office. Domestic Series, 
No. 43, f. 52. Aug. 27th, 1567.) I give these examples to show the 
number of variations through which the name has passed. No form is 
too grotesque for a corruption to assume. How names become cor- 
rupted, let me give an instance in the word Hagthorneslad (from the 
Old-English " hagajjorn," a hawthorn), as it is written in the perambula- 
tion of the Forest in the twenty-ninth year of Edward I., which in 
Charles II.'s time is spelt Haythorneslade, thus losing its whole signifi- 
cance, although to this day the word "hag" is used in the Forest for 
a " haw," or " berry." 

t The simple termination " ore " " ora," and not " oar," as spelt in the 
Ordnance Map, may be found within a stone's-throw of Calshot, in Ore 

J See previously, chapter Iv. p. 40, foot-note. 

The View near Eagle-Hurst. 55 

the west. Passing on to Eagle-hurst, and noticing the truth 
of the termination even to this day, let us sit down on the 
shore. Here is a view which should he remembered. In one 
sense the world cannot show its equal. Far away to the 
east stretches the low Hampshire coast, ended by the harbour 
of Portsmouth and its bare forest of masts. To the south, 
towards Spithead, rides the long line of battle-ships ; and 
round the harbours of the ' two Cowes sail fleets of yachts, 
showing how much still of the old Scandinavian blood runs in 
our veins of the spirit which finds employment in adventure 
and delight in danger. Steamers, with their black pennants 
of smoke, hurry down the narrow strait, carrying the news 
or the merchandise of the world ; whilst all is overshadowed 
by supreme natural beauty, the hills of the Isle of Wight 
standing boldly up, crested with their soft green downs, and 
their dark purple shadows resting fold over fold on the valley 
sides. Still continuing along the shore we reach Leap, a 
small fishing village, where boats ply across from its hard to 
the Island. Here, it is said, but I know not on what autho- 
rity save that worst tradition, that the Dauphin, afterwards 
Louis VIII. of France, embarked after the defeat of his army 
at Lincoln, and his fleet off Dover. Certain it is that he had 
adherents to his cause in the neighbourhood, especially in 
William de Vernon, whose arms were formerly blazoned with 
his own in the east window of the north aisle of the Forest 
Church of Boldre.* 

* At the date of the Dauphin's leaving England, William de Vernon 
was dead, which makes his embarkation at Leap less probable. Neither 
Roger of Wendover (vol. iv. p. 32. Ed. Coxe), nor Walter Hemingburgh 
(vol. i. p. 259. Ed. Hamilton), nor Ralph Coggeshale (Chronicon Angli- 

56 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

On somewhat better authority,* it rests that the unhappy 
Charles L, on the 13th of November, 1647, outwitted by his 
enemies and deceived by his friends, entrusted himself, after his 
flight from Hampton Court, to Colonel Hammond, and, embark- 
ing here, returned by Hurst to atone for the past by his life. 

But of greater interest is the Roman Road which connected 
Leap with Southampton and Winchester in one direction, and 
Ringwood and the west in another. Its traces may be found 
not only here but on the opposite side, where, still known by the 
Norman name of Rue Street, it passes westward of Carisbrook to 
the extreme south of the Island. f Its old appellation is pre- 
served, too, on this side in the name of a farmhouse King's 
Rue, and Rue Copse, and Rue Common ; and it is well worthy 
of notice that this word is even now sometimes used in the 
Forest, as in Sussex, for a row or hedgerow. Previous to it, 
however, there existed a British track, still clearly visible across 

canum. Bouquet. Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de In France, torn, 
xviii. p. 113 C.), nor the CTiromcon Turoneme (in the Veterum Scriptorum 
Amplissima Collectw of Martene and Durand, torn v. p 1059 B), nor 
Rymer's Fcedera (" De salvo conductu Domini Ludovici," torn. i. p. 222), 
say anything of the place of embarkation. 

* I believe on that of the Oglander MSS. in the possession of the Earl 
of Yarborough, but which I have never seen. Neither the Iter Carolinum, 
Herbert's Memoirs (London, 1572, p. 38), Huntington's account (same 
volume, p. 160), Berkeley's Memoirs (second edition, 1702, p. 65), The 
Ashburnham Narrative (London, 1830, vol. ii. p. 119), nor Whalley's letter 
in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa (torn ii., lib. ix , pp 374, 375), nor Hammond's, 
in Rushworth's Collection (part iv., vol. ii., p. 874), mention the place, 
though the latter would seem to indicate that the King sailed direct from 
Tichfield to Cowes. Ashburnham and Berkeley had, we know from 
Berkeley (Memoirs, same edition as before, p. 57) and Ludlow (Memoirs, 
1771, p, 93), previously gone by Lymington to the Island. 

f The road is marked in the map which accompanies Dr. Guest's paper 
on " The Belgic Ditches." The Archaeological Journal, vol. viii. p. 143. 

The Isle of Wight, the Vectis or Ictis of the Ancients. 57 

the Forest, especially near Butts Ash barrows, by its deep 
depressions. Both roads, though, can still tell us something 
of the past. The opinion of late philologists and geographers, 
with the exception of Lappenburg and Sir G. C. Lewis, has 
been against the idea that the Isle of Wight was the Vectis 
or Ictis of the ancients. The argument, however, against 
the passage in Diodorus Siculus,* that it would be so much 
easier for the first traders to have exported the tin from 
Belerium instead of bringing it by inland transport to the 
Island, and then shipping it to Gaul, is founded upon 
ignorance. Sea carriage was then far more difficult and 
dangerous than land conveyance. Ancient mariners were easily 
frightened, and their vessels put into land every night. As Sir 
G. C. Lewis further remarks, foreign merchants were always re- 
garded with jealousy and distrust, and the overland route would 
enable the traffic to be carried out through the whole distance by 
native traders.! 

Singularly enough, however, Warner J states that a large 
mass of tin was found on the very site of this old Koman road, 

* As the passage is so important, I give it in full : ' 
8' ei's d<TTpayd\(t}j> pvd/j.oi>s K0/J.iov(riv el's TWO, vrjff 
ovofJLa^ojJiev'rjv 5e "\KTLV Kara yap ras d/*7rwrets ava&pouvoptvov TOV fiera^v TOTTOV rats 
d/idcus el's TavTTfv Ko/j.iov(ri da\f/i\7J TOV KaTTirepov. "ISiov 8 TI (rvftfiaivet Trepl 
Tas Tr\r]criov vqaovs ras ywerat) Ket/u^as rrjs re Ei}/9t67n;s Kai TTJS TZpeTTaviKrjs. Kara 
fjih yap rds TrX^/atiy^Sas TOV yuerai> ir6pov tr\fjpov^vov vyaot tyalvovrai, Kara 8 
rds dfiirdreis aTroppeotiffris r^s flaXctTTTjs Kal TroXtiv rdirov dva&paivoijo-'rjs dewpovvrai 
xeppovrjaoi. Lib. v., cap. xxii., vol. i., p. 438. Ed. Dindorf. Leipsic, 
1828-31. Pliny, as Wesseling remarks, in his note on this passage, quoted 
by Dindorf, vol. iv. p. 421, by some mistake, makes the Isle of Wight 
(Mictis) six days' sail from England. See Sir G. C. Lewis's Astronomy of 
the Ancients, chap, viii., sect. iii. p. 453. 

t As before, sect. iv. p. 462. 

J The South- Western Parts of Hampshire, vol. ii. pp. 5, 6, 1793. 


58 The New Forest ; its History and its Scenery. 

or, rather, as the fact of the mere shapeless mass would prove, 
on the older British track. Not only, too, was tin brought here 
from Cornwall, but also, in later times, lead from the Mendip 
Hills. Pigs of it have been picked up on a branch of the same 
Roman road running from Uphill on the Severn to Salisbury, 
and from thence joining the Leap road. One of them, stamped 
with the name of Hadrian, is now in the Bath Museum. We 
are thus enabled to connect Leap with the famous passage of 
the Greek historian. 

Sir George Lewis's theory has, too, been singularly corro- 
borated in other directions, especially by the large quantities of 
bronze ornaments found during the excavations in the Swiss 
Lakes, 1853 and 1854, the metals of which could only have 
been brought there by an overland route. 

Further, too, we must not reject the account of Diodorus, 
because he says that at low tide the tin was carried over in 
carts. We must remember the extremely indefinite views of 
the ancients on all geographical subjects. The vaguest ideas 
were held, especially about Britain. Erring in a different 
direction, the mistake is not so bad as Pliny's, in making the 
Island six days' sail from England. There seems, however, a 
most natural explanation, that Diodorus, not having been there, 
took for granted the wild traditions and rumours which reached 
him, and which, even in these days, with only the slightest 
possible variation of form, still hold their ground with the 
Forest peasantry, in the legend that the stone of which Beau- 
lieu Abbey is built was brought over the dry bed of the Solent, 
in carts, from the Binstead Quarries. 

Still the passage is not without the further difficulty, that 
Diodorus seems, from the context, to have supposed that the 
Island was situated close to where the tin was dug. This, again, 

Exbury, and Beaulieu Heath. 


must be set down to that ignorance of geography, which has 
involved all Greek writers in such extraordinary mistakes. 

Leap itself is now nothing but a village, with a scattered 
agricultural population ; some few, however, maintaining them- 
selves by fishing in the summer, and in the winter by shooting 
the ducks and geese which flock to the creeks and harbours of 
the Solent. Leaving it, and still keeping westward, we come 
to the Beaulieu river, where, in the autumn, after the heavy 
floods from the Forest, the salmon leap and sport in the 
freshets. The road now winds past Exbury by the side of 
thick copses which fringe the river. At last, at Hill Top, we 
reach Beaulieu Heath, and, in the far distance, the green foliage 
of the Forest hangs cloudlike in the air, whilst down in the 
valley lies the village of Beaulieu. 

The Norman Doorway of Fawley Church.. 

60 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery, 



Arches of the Chapter House 

I SHOULD trust that, on a fine day, twenty miles are not too 
much for any Englishman. If they are, and any one should 
think the walk along the coast too long, Beaulieu may be 

The Foundation of the Abbey. 61 

reached by going direct from Hythe, across Beaulieu Common. 
The moor stretches out on all sides, flushed in the summer 
with purple heather, northward to the Forest, southward to 
the cultivated fields round Leap and Exbury. Passing " The 
Nodes,"* the road runs quite straight to Hill Top, with its 
clump of firs, which we reached in the last chapter. 

Down in the valley, hid from us by a turn in the road, lies 
Beaulieu. But a little farther on we reach part of the old 
Abbey walls, broken here and there, clustered with ivy, and 
grass, and yellow mullein, and white yarrow, whilst vine-clad 
cottages stand against its sides. The village is situated on a 
bend of the Exe, where, spanned by a bridge, the stream falls 
over the weir, formerly turning the old mill-wheel of the monks, 
and then, broadening with the tide, winds through meadows 
and thick oak copses down to the Solent. 

Although far more beautifully situated, the Abbey is not 
nearly so well known as its own filial house at Netley, simply 
because more out of the way. For a moment let us give some 
account of its foundation, illustrating as it does both King 
John's cruelty and superstition. The story, as told by the 
monks, is that John, after various oppressions of the Cistercian 
Order, in the year 1204, convened their abbots to his Parlia- 
ment at Lincoln. As soon as they came, he ordered his 
retainers to charge them on horseback. No one was found to 
obey such a command. The monks fled to their lodgings. 
That night the King dreamt he was led before a judge, who 
ordered him to be scourged by these very monks. The next 
morning John narrated his dream, which was so vivid that he 
declared he felt the blows when he awoke, to a priest of his 

* For an account of the barrows on Beaulieu Heath, see ch. xvii. 

62 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

court, who told him that God had been most merciful in thus 
simply chastising him in this world, and revealing the secrets 
of His will. He advised him at once to send for the abbots, 
whom he had so ill-treated, and to implore their pardon.* 

Some truth, doubtless, underlies this story. Certain it is 
that in the same year, or the next, John founded the Abbey at 
Beaulieu, then Bellus Locus, so called from its beauty, placing 
there thirty monks from St. Mary's, at Citeaux, endowing it 
with land in the New Forest, and manors, and villages, and 
churches in Berkshire ; exempting it from various services and 
taxes and tolls ; giving further, out of his own treasury, a 
hundred marks; and ordering all other Cistercian Houses to 
assist in the work. Not only did he do this, but he revoked 
his gift of the manor of Farendon, which, in the previous year, 
he had conditionally bestowed on some other Cistercian monks, 
and now transferred it to Beaulieu, making the House at Far- 
ingdon a mere offshoot from the larger building.f And the 

* Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum. Ed 1825, vol. v., p. 682 Num.ii. 
See Chromca de Kirkstall Brit. Mus. Cott. MSS. Doraitian. A xii., ft. 85 
86. The cause of John's enmity against the Cistercian Order may be gathered 
from Ralph Coggeshale, Chromcon Anglicanum, as before in Bouquet, 
Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, torn xviii pp. 90, 91. 

f Carta Fundatwnis per Begem Johannem, given in Dugdale (Ed 1825, 
vol. v. p. 683) ; and Confirmacio Regis Edu-ardi tertii super cartas Regis 
Johannis, Brit. Mus., Bib. Cott. Nero, A. xii., No. v, If. 8-15, quoted in 
Warner (South- West Parts of Hampshire, vol ii., Appendix, pp 7-14). 
There are, however, no less than three dates given for its foundation. The 
Annals of Parcolude, according to Tanner (Notitw. Monastica, Ed Nasmyth, 
Hampshire, No. vi. foot-note A), say 1201, which is manifestly wrong ; whilst 
John of Oxnede, better known as the chronicler of St. Benet's Abbey at 
Hulme (Chronica. Ed. Ellis, p. 107), with the Chronicon de Hayles et 
Aberconwey (Brit. Mus., Harl. MS., No. 3725, f. 10), and Matthew Paris, 
according to Dugdale, say respectively 1204 and 1205, though I have not 
been able to verify the last reference. 

The Dedication of the Abbey. 03 

abbot designate repaid him in his life-time by accusing his 
enemy, Stephen of Canterbury, before the Pope, for treason, 
and causing him to be suspended.* 

John died, and Henry III. not only confirmed the privileges, 
but granted several more in consideration of the great expense 
of the building, and Innocent III. gave it the right of a sanc- 
tuary. So the work proceeded. The stone was quarried prin- 
cipally from the opposite limestone-beds in the Isle of Wight ; 
and was brought over, says tradition, curiously illustrating 
the vague notions of ancient geography, which we have seen in 
Diodorus Siculus,f in carts. Not, however, till 1249, some 
forty-five years after its foundation, was the monastery finished. 
Henry himself, and his Queen, and Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 
and a long train of nobles and prelates, came to its dedication 
on the feast of St. John ; Hugh, the first abbot, spending no 
less than five hundred marks on the entertainment 4 

So, at last, the good work was accomplished, and men came 
here and lived, taking for their pattern the holy St. Benedict, 
and finding the problem of life solved by daily prayer to heaven 
and labour on earth. 

* Roger of Wendover . English Historical Society. Ed. Coxe, vol. iii. p. 344. 

t See the previous chapter, pp. 57, 58, foot-note. 

I Curiously enough, as Warner remarks (vol. i. 267), Matthew Paris 
gives two dates for the dedication, the first 1246 {Hist. AngL, torn. i. p. 710, 
Ed. Wats., London, 1640) ; and the second (p 770) 1249 ; not, however, 
1250, as Warner says, and who, followed by all later writers, totally mis- 
understands the passage, which means that, although the abbot spent so 
large a sum, yet the King would not remit him the fine he had incurred by 
trespass in the Forest, "Nee tamen idcirco aliquatenus pepercit rex, 
quin maximum censum solveret illi pro transgressione quam dicebatur 
regi fecisse in occupatione Forests." 

See Matthew Paris, in praise of the Cistercian Order. Same edition 
as before, torn. i. p. 916. 

64 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Here, to its sanctuary, in 1471, after she had landed at 
Southampton on Easter Day, the very day of the battle of 
Barnet, fled the Countess of Warwick, wife of the King-maker, 
slain on that bloody field.* Here, too, in 1497, after having 
raised the siege of Exeter, and deserted his troops at Taunton, 
fled the worthless Perkin Warbeck, not only an impostor, but 
a coward, closely pursued by Lord Daubeny and five hundred 
men. Persuaded, however, by Henry VII. 's promises, he left 
his shelter only to become a prisoner in the Tower, and finally 
to expiate his deceit at Tyburn. 

So years passed at the Abbey, the monks happy in saying their 
daily prayers, content to see the corn grow, and their vineyards 
ripen, and their flocks increase, knowing little of the troubles 
which raged in the outer world, save when some forlorn fugitive 
arrived. But even what is best becomes the worst. Time 
brought a change of spirit on all the monasteries. Long before 
the middle of the sixteenth century the stern earnestness of a 
former age had dwindled into effeminacy and sensuality. Piety 
had sunk into gross idolatry ; and faith, amongst the laity, had 
been corrupted into credulity, and, with the priests, into 
hypocrisy. The greatest blessings had festered into curses. 
It was so, we know, through all England. And Beaulieu 
must suffer with the rest of the monasteries. 

* Not Margaret of Anjou, as the common accounts say, who, landing at 
Weymouth, took refuge at Cerne Abbey. See Historic of the Arrival of 
Edward IV. in England, pp. 22, 23, printed for the Camden Society, 1838; 
and Hollinshed's Chronicles, vol. iii. p. 685 ; and Speed, B. ix. p. 866. 
Hall, however (The Union of the Families of Lancaster and York, p. 219), 
with Grafton, in his prose continuation of Hardyng (Ed. Eilis, 1812, p. 457), 
says it was to Beaulieu that Margaret fled. But they are evidently mis- 
taken, as Speed and Hollinshed, and the explicit and circumstantial narra- 
tive of the author of the Historic, show. 

The Dissolution of the Abbey. 65 

In 1537, the Abbey was dissolved, the last Abbot, Thomas 
Stephens, with twenty out of the thirty monks, signing the deed 
of surrender.* Stephens was pensioned off with a hundred 
marks ; and some of the monks received various annuities and 
compensations for their losses. So fell the monastery of 
Beaulieu, and its stones went to build Henry VIII. 's martello 
tower at Hurst, and its lead to repair Calshot,f to fight against 
the very Power which had raised it to its glory. 

Few abbeys have known so lovely a site. Placed close to the 
banks, it overlooked the Exe, formed by the tide more into a 
lake than a river. On every side it was sheltered : on the north 
by rising ground and the woods of the New Forest, and on 
the east again by the Forest and more hills, from whence an 
aqueduct brought down the water for the use of the monks ; 
and on the south and west all was guarded by the river. 

To this day the outer walls are in places standing, with 
the water-gate covered with ivy. And inside is the palace, 
placed amongst its own grounds, surrounded by elms. Above 
its doorway is cut a canopied niche, where stood the patron 

* The following list of books at Beaulieu, taken by Leland (Colled, de 
Rebus Brit., vol. iv. p. 149), just before the dissolution, will show what 
was in those days an average ecclesiastical library : " Eadmerus de Vita 
Anselmi, et Vita Wilfridi Episcopi. Stephanus super Eeclesiasticum, Libros 
Reg urn, et Parabolas Satomonis. Joannes Abbas de Fordd super Cantica 
Canticorum. Damascerms de Gestis Barlaam eremitce, et Josaphat regis 
Indies. Libellus Candidi Ariam " (most probably the De Generatione Dimna). 
" Libellus Victorini, rhetoris, contra Candidnm " (the Cnnfutatorium Candidi 
Ariani, written against the preceding work). " Tres libri Claudiani de 
Statu AnimcR ad Sidonium Apollmarem. Gislebertus super Epistolas Pauli. 
Prosper de Vita contemplativa et activa." 

f Ellis's Letters, second series, vol. ii. p. 87. For Henry VIII.'s 
enforcement of Wolsey's levies on Beaulieu, see State Pnpers, vol. i., part ii., 
p. 383. 


66 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

saint, the Virgin, and above runs the string-course, supported 
by its carved corbel-heads. But the whole building has been 
unfortunately defaced by a moat and turretted wall, built as 
a defence by one of the Montagues against French privateers, 
as also by the modernized windows.* 

The entrance -hall, too, like all the other rooms, has been 
sadly modernized, though its fine groined roof, springing from 
four shafts on each side, and a lancet window in the east 
wall, still remain. Upstairs, also, is left some oak panelling 
of Henry VIII. 's time, of the linen pattern, but covered over 
with paint. Eastward, in the meadow, stands the domus con- 
versorum, better known in the village, from its former occu- 
pants, as Burman's House. Passing through it, we suddenly 
come upon the green quadrangle once surrounded with cloisters, 
where the three arches leading into the chapter-house still 
remain. The black Purbeck marble shafts, and bands, and 
capitals, have, however, long since become weather-worn and 
decayed, though the Binstead and Caen stone still stands, here 
and there covered with ivy, crested with wall-flowers, and white 
and crimson pinks, and rusted with lichens. 

In the chapter-house are strewed the broken pillars which 
supported the groined roof, and the broken stone-seats which 
ran round the inside, whilst on the floor lie a stone coffin 
and gravestones. To the north of it stand the ruins of the 

Of the cloisters, the north alley is the most perfect, with 
its seven carols, where the monks sat and talked ; whilst above 

* Accounts of this palace probably, as Mr, Walcott says, the King's 
hunting lodge may be found in the Proceedings of the Archaeological 
Institute, 1846, p. 32, and the Rev. Makenzie Walcott's Church and Con- 
ventual Arrangement, p. 115. 

The Cloisters, Church, and Refectory. 67 

project the corbels which carried the cloister-roof. Here and 
there, too, as at the two north doors leading into the church, 
some of the original pavement still remains. 

The church, however, has long since been destroyed. 
Nothing, except a portion of the south transept, is left. The 
foundations, though, can be accurately traced, showing the nave 
and aisles, and the large circular apse at the east end. Scattered 
about, too, appear the tesselated floor, bright as on the day 
it was laid down, and the graves of the abbots, and of Isabella, 
first wife of Richard Earl of Cornwall.* 

Out in the fields beyond stand the ruins of a building, now 
a mere pinfold for cattle, called by tradition the Monk's Vine- 
Press, whilst the meadows beyond, lying on the slope of the 
hill, are still known as "the Vineyards."! 

But the refectory still remains on the south side of the 
cloisters, from which a doorway, still ornamented with iron 
scroll-work, used to lead. Ever since the Reformation it has 
served as the parish church, differing only in its appearance by 

* Her remains were lately discovered near the high altar, with part of 
the inscription on her gravestone. (See the Rev. F. W. Baker's account in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ccxiv. p. 63.) A carved head with a crown 
in the refectory preserves the memory of her husband, crowned at Aix-la- 
Chapelle King of the Romans, and whose heart was buried, in a marble 
vase, beside his wife. (Leland, as before, iv. 149.) Tradition says that 
Eleanor of Acquitaine was also buried here, but she lies with her husband 
at Fontevraud. 

f Warner (vol. i. 255) mentions that in his time there was still brandy 
in the steward's cellars made from the vines growing on the spot. Domesday 
gives several entries of wines (see Ellis's Introduction, vol. i. pp. 116, 117), 
though none in the Forest district. But the term ' Vineyards ' is still fre- 
quently found hereabouts as the name of fields generally marked by a 
southern slope, as at Beckley and Hern, near Christchurch, showing 
how common formerly was the cultivation of the vine, first introduced into 
England by the Romans. 


VS. ****, 


? 68 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Nv-Sa i 

'" its lack of orientation.* In 1746 it was repaired, and its original 

roof lowered, and its fine triplet at the south end spoilt by 
a buttress, and one of the lancets lighting the wall-passage on 
the west side also blocked up. Its walls, however, are now 
covered with common spleenwort, and wall-lettuce, and pellitory, 
whilst the narrow-leaved rue the " herb o' grace o' Sundays " 
with which the old churchyards used to be sown, shows its 
pale blue blossoms amongst the gravestones. 

Inside it is still more in- 
teresting. Here still stands 
the lovely stone pulpit, its 
panels rich with flower- 
tracery, approached by a wall- 
passage and open arcade 
springing from double rows 
of black Purbeck marble pil- 
lars. This was the old rostrum 
of the monks, where one of 
the brethren read to the rest 
at their meals ; so that, as 
St. Augustine says, their 
mouths should not only taste, 
but their ears also drink in 
the Word of God. Here, in 
this very village church, the 
old Cistercian monks obeyed 
Pulpit of the Refectory. the injunction of their order, 

* In Brit. Mus., Karl. MS, 892, f. 40 b, is an extract from a most 
interesting letter written in 1648, describing the state of the refectory, which 
seems, with the exception of the alterations made in 1746, to have been 
much the same as at present. 

Leonard's Grange. 69'^J, 


as they were wont in all Cistercian refectories, " When 
we enter, let us bare our heads, and going to our seats 
bend before the cross. Let us not behave idly, lest we give 
offence to any one. Let not our eyes wander, lest we give 
occasion for bickering, or quarrelling, or laughing ; but fulfil- 
ling the saying of the blessed Hugh of Lincoln, ' let us keep 
our eyes upon the table, our ears with the reader, and our 
hearts with God.'"* 

In the churchyard, plainly traceable by the ruined founda- 
tions, and mounds, and depressions, are the sites of the lavatory 
and kitchens, whilst in the fields beyond lie the fish-ponds. 
Everywhere, in fact, are seen the traces of the monks. Their 
walks still remain by the side of the Exe, overgrown with oaks, 
bright in the spring with blue and crimson lungwort, and sweet 
with violets, such as grew when Anne Beauchamp sought refuge 
here that dismal Easter day. 

Not only do the Abbey grounds, f but the whole district, 
show the size of the monastery. Going out of Beaulieu, upon 
the road to Bucklershard, we come upon the ox-farm of the 
monks, still called Bouvery, and still famous for its grazing 
land. A little farther, about the centre of their various farm- 
steads, at St. Leonard's, better known now as the Abbey Walls, 
stands part of the large barn, or spicarium, of the monastery, 
such as still remains in other parts of England at Cerne Abbey, 
and Abbotsbury, and Sherborne, and Battle Abbey 4 A modern 

* Quoted from Dugdale's MonasticonAnglicanum, by Warner, vol. i. p. 249. 

t It is pleasant to have to add that the present noble owner, the Duke 
of Buccleuch, has shown not only good taste and judgment in the restora- 
tion of the guest-house and the excavation of the church, but a wise liberality 
in throwing the grounds open to the public. 

% In Parker's Glossary of Architecture is given a list of some of these 
old barns. Vol. i. pp. 240, 241. 


The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

barn now stands within it, partly formed by its walls, but its 
original size is well shown by the lofty eastern gable, locally 
called the Pinnacle, which, covered with ivy, overhangs the road. 

The Barn of St. Leonard's Grange 

Close to the old farm-house, built from its ruins, stands a small 
roofless Decorated Chapel. The west window, and the arch of 

The Chapel of St Leonard's Grange 

the west doorway, still remain, and at the same end still project 
the corbels which supported the gallery. In the east wall are 
canopied niches, under which stood figures; and on the south 

The Chapel at Park Grange. 71 

the piscina, and the broken conduit where the water ran, and 
two aumbries are still visible, whilst opposite to them, in 
the present doorway, another aumbrie is inserted with its two 
grooves for shelves cut in the stone.* 

Close to St. Leonard's lies also the sheep-farm of the 
monks, still called Bargery, and still famous for its sheep-land. 
Nearer Bucklershard is Park Farm, another grange, where 
fifty years ago stood a chapel, smaller even than the one we 
have just seen, partly Early-English and Decorated. It was 
divided into two compartments by a stone screen reaching to 
a plain roof. The piscina in the south wall was finally used 
by the ploughmen to mix their wheat with lime, until the whole 
building was pulled down to enlarge the farm-house from whose 
south-east end it projected, f 

At these two granges the brethren worked in summer from 
chapter till tierce, and from nones till vespers. Here lived 
the ploughmen and artisans, the millers, and smiths, and car- 
penters, of the monastery. For them were these chapels built, 
lest either the weather or the roads might prevent them going 
to the Abbey Church 4 Here they all worshipped as one family, 
the serf no longer a serf, but a freedman, when he entered the 
service of the abbey. 

* Some curious leaden pipes, soldered only on one side, were dug up 
close by, which are worth seeing, as they show how late the process of 
running hollow lead pipes was invented. The earthenware pipes found 
with them are as good as any which are now made. At Otterwood Farm, 
on the other side of the Exe, pavement and tiles have also been discovered. 

f The chapel was standing in Warner's time. South- Western Parts of 
Hampshire, vol. i. pp. 232, 233 

I In Brit. Mus., Bib. Cott., Nero, A. xii., No. vii. f. 20 a b, is a copy of 
a Bull from Alexander I., giving permission to all the Cistercian Houses to 
hold service at their granges. 

72 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Farther away to the westward lies Sowley Pond, called in 
the Abbey Charters Colgrimesmore, and Frieswater, covering 
some ninety acres, formerly the boundary of the abbey estate, 
and used by the monks as a preserve for their fish. . Here 
once were iron -works, whose blast-furnaces were heated with 
wood and charcoal from the Forest, The iron-stone was brought 
from Hengistbury Head and the Hordle Cliffs, and after being 
melted was shaped by the tilt-hammers, and finally sent off 
inland to Reading, or shipped at Pitt's Deep. But like all the 
other ferraria of Sussex and Hampshire, these too have long 
since been stopped, driven out of the field by the Stafford- 
shire iron-works. Nothing now remains to tell their former 
importance but a few mounds and the village Forge-Hammer 
Inn, and a country proverb, " There will be rain when Sowley 
hammer is heard," whose meaning is fast being lost. 

Returning, however, to Beaulieu, let us once more look at 
the old abbey and the ruins of the cloisters, and try to imagine 
for ourselves the time when, secluded from the world, in the 
midst of the New Forest, the monks from Citeaux prayed and 
worked, clad in their coarse white woollen robes, and slept, 
according to their vow, on pallets of straw, giving shelter to 
the fugitive, and food to the hungry.* It is only by seeing 
some such grey ruins as these, still breathing of a long past 
religion, placed amongst the solitude of their own green meadows 
and woods, by the silent lapse of some stream flowing and ebbing 
with every tide, that we can at all understand the .meaning of a 
life of contemplation, and its true value. Along these cloisters 

* Even Layton saw their kindness, and pleaded for the poor wretches 
whom they had protected, Letter regarding Beaulieu Sanctuary from 
Layton to Cromwell. Ellis s Letters, third series, vol. iii. pp. 72, 73. 

The Present and the Past. 


paced the brethren, their eyes bent on the earth, their thoughts 
on heaven. Here tolled the great abbey-bell, its sound, full 
of solemn sweetness, borne not only over the lonely Forest, but 
down the river seaward to the tossing sailor. Here was that 
comfort, which could never fail, offered to the most desolate, 
and heaven itself, as a fatherland, to the exile. Here the great 
gate not only rolled back the noise of the world, but, to show 
that mercy is ever better than vengeance, stayed the hand of 
the law, and blunted the sword of the pursuer. 

In these days we are surrounded by noise and excitement. 
Everywhere is haste and its accompanying confusion. It matters 
not what we do, the fever of competition ever rages. We travel 
as though we were flying from ourselves. We write the history 
of things before they are accomplished, and the lives of men 
before they are dead. Surely there is some profit to be found 
in coming to a quiet village like this, if it will only give us 
some glimpses of a life which stands out in such strange contrast 
to our own. 

Canopied Niche in St. Leonard's Chapel. 

74 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 



View in Frame Wood, Brockenhurst. 

AT present we have seen nothing of the actual Forest. It is 
only as we go northward that we begin to enter its woods. 
Instead of the old Forest track, a road now runs from Beaulieu 
to Brockenhurst, along which we will go. So, leaving the 

Beaulieu Heath. 75 

village, and passing a few straggling half-timbered cottages, 
we reach Stickland's Hill, where, down in the valley, we can 
see the Exe winding round the old Abbot's House set amongst 
its green elms. Farther on we come to Hatchet Gate, and the 
Forest then spreads before us, with Hatchet Pond on our left, 
and Little Wood and the Moon Hill Woods on our right ; 
whilst, here and there on the common, rise scattered barrows. 

And now, instead of keeping to the road, let the reader make 
right across the plain, by one of the Forest tracks, to the woods 
at Iron's Hill. The stories, with which most books on the 
Forest abound, of persons being swamped in morasses, are much 
exaggerated. Mind only this simple rule wherever you see the 
white cotton-grass growing, and the bog-moss particularly fine 
and green, to avoid that place. 

And now, when you are fairly out on the moor, you will feel 
the fresh salt breeze blowing up from the Solent, and see the 
long treeless line of the Island hills in strange contrast with 
the masses of wood in front; whilst the moor itself, if it be 
August, waves with purple and crimson, except where, here and 
there, rise great beds of fern green islands, in the red sea 
of heath. 

Most of the finest timber at Iron's Hill and Palmer's 
Water has been lately cut. Keeping on, however, we shall 
again come out upon the road which leads down to the stream, 
close to a mill. Passing over the footbridge, we skirt Brocken- 
hurst Manor, where, at Watcombe, once lived Howard the phi- 
lanthropist, and so at last reach the village. 

So greatly has the Forest been reduced in size, that Brocken- 
hurst, once nearly its centre, is now only a border village. Its 
Old-English name (the badger's wood), like that of Everton, 
the wild-boar place, on the southern side of the Forest, tells 


76 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

its own story. It consists of one long straggling street, and a 
few scattered houses, with one or two village inns. Much of 
its wildness has been spoilt by the railroad ; and in consequence, 
too, of the adjoining manor of Brockenhurst, it appears even 
less than it really is in the Forest. Still, however, if the reader 
wishes to see the Forest woods and heaths towards the south, 
let him come here, and the village accommodation will only give 
an additional charm to the scenery. I, for my part, do not 
know that a clean English village inn, with its sanded floor, 
and its best parlour kept for state occasions, makes such bad 
quarters. It is a real pleasure to find some spots on the earth 
not yet disfigured by fashionable hotels. 

At Brockenhurst existed one of those tenures of knight- service 
once so common throughout England. Here Peter Spelman, an 
ancestor of the antiquary, held a carucate of land by the service 
of finding for Edward II. an esquire clad in coat of mail foi 
forty days in the year, and whenever the King came to the 
village to hunt, litter for his bed, and hay for his horse, which 
last clause will give us some insight into the often rough living 
and habits of the fourteenth century.* Here, too, not many 
years ago, droves of deer would at night, when all was still, 
race up the village street, and the village dogs leap out and kill 
them, or chase them back to the Forest. 

The church, one of the only two in the Forest mentioned 

* Blount's Fragmenta Antiquitatis. Ed. Beck with, p. 80, 1815. Testa de 
Nevill, p. 235 a (118). We know, however, that our forefathers, long 
before this, possessed beds, or rather cots, hung round with rich embroidered 
canopies. For their general love, too, of comfort and personal ornament 
and dress, we need go no further than to Chaucer's description of " Richesse," 
in his Eomaunt of the Rose. Englishmen, however, were still then, as now, 
ever ready to lead a rough life if necessary, and to make their toil their 

Brockenhurst Church. 77 

in Domesday,* is built on an artificial mound on the top of a 
hill, a little way out of the village, so that it might serve as 
a landmark in the Forest. f The church has been sadly muti- 
lated. A wretched brick tower has been patched on at the west 
end ; and on the north side a new staring red brick aisle, which 
surpasses even the usual standard of ugliness of a dissenting 
chapel. On the south side stands the Norman doorway, with 
plain escalloped capitals, and an outside arch ornamented with 
the indented and chevron mouldings. The chancel is Early- 
English, whilst the plain chancel arch which springs without 
even an impost from the wall, is very early Norman. Under one 
of the chancel windows rises the arch of an Easter sepulchre, 
whilst a square Norman font, of black Purbeck marble, stands 
at the south-west end of the nave. 

If the church, however, has been disfigured, the approach to 
it fortunately remains in all its beauty. For a piece of quiet 
English scenery nothing can exceed this. A deep lane, its 
banks a garden of ferns, its hedge matted with honeysuckle, and 
woven together with bryony, runs, winding along a side space 
of green, to the latch -gate, guarded by an enormous oak, its 
limbs now fast decaying, its rough bark grey with the perpetual 
snow of lichens, and here and there burnished with soft streaks 
of russet-coloured moss; whilst behind it, in the churchyard, 

* In that portion of it which comes under the title of " In Foresta et 
circa earn." See chap. iii. p. 31. 

f All over England did the church towers serve as landmarks, alike in 
the fen and forest districts. Lincolnshire and Yorkshire can show plenty of 
such steeples. At St. Michael's at York, to this hour, I believe, at six every 
morning, is rung the bell whose sound used to guide the traveller through 
the great forest of Galtres; whilst at All Saints, in the Pavement, in 
the same city, is shown the lantern, which every night used to serve as a 

78 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

spreads the gloom of a yew, which, from the Conqueror's day, 
to this hour, has darkened the graves of generations.* 

But the charm of Brockenhurst, as of all the Forest villages, 
consists in the Forest itself. To the north runs the small 
Forest stream, blossomed over in the summer with water-lilies. 
On the left lies Black Knoll, with its waste of heath and gorse, 
running up to the young plantations of New Park. On the 
right, Balmor Lawn, with its short, sweet turf, where herds 
of cattle are pasturing, stretches away to Holland's Wood, with 
old thorns scattered here and there, in the spring lighting up 
the Forest with their white may. 

Just now though, it is the southern part of the Forest we 
must see. So going back again for a little way upon the 
Beaulieu Road, and leaving it just above the foot-bridge for 
Whitley Lodge, let the reader go on to Lady Cross. Suddenly 
he will come out upon the northern edge of Beaulieu Heath, and 
see again the Island Hills. To the people in the Forest, the 
Island is their weather-glass. If its hills look dark blue and 
purple, then the weather will be fine ; but if they can see the 
houses and the chalk quarries on the hill sides, the rain is sure 
to come. 

Keeping straight on, with Lady Cross Lodge to our left, 
we enter Frame Wood, with its turf and its bridle roads winding 

* The following measurements may have some interest, and can be 
compared with those of the oaks and beeches in the Forest, given in 
chap. ii. p. 16, foot-note : Circumference of the oak, twenty-two feet eight 
inches. Yew, seventeen feet. An enormous yew, completely hollow, how- 
ever, stands in Breamore churchyard, measuring twenty-three feet four 
inches. There are certainly no yews in the Forest so large as these ; and 
their evidence would further show that at all events the Conqueror did not 
destroy the churchyards, As here, too, there remains some Norman work 
in the doorway of Breamore church. 

Boldre Church. 79 

under the Forest boughs. Down in the bottom runs the railroad 
bending away to the north. On the other side, the thick woods 
of Denny rise ; and the clump of solitary beeches on the top 
of the knoll shows the last remains of Wood Fidley, so well 
known as having given rise to the Forest proverb of " Wood 
Fidley rain," that is, rain which lasts all the day. 

Here you can wander on for miles, as far as the manor 
of Bishop's Ditch, belonging to Winchester College, which the 
Forest peasant will tell you was a grant of land as much as 
the Bishop of Winchester could in a day crawl round on his 
hands and knees. As to losing yourself, never mind. The real 
plan to enjoy the Forest is to wander on, careless whether you 
lose yourself or not. In fact, I believe the real method is to 
try and lose yourself, finding your greatest pleasure in the 
unexpected scenes of beauty into which you are led. 

There are plenty of other Forest rambles round Brockenhurst 
which must not be forgotten. Just at the western edge of 
Beaulieu Heath, about three miles off, stands Boldre Church, 
with its solitary churchyard surrounded by trees. On one side, 
it looks out upon the bare Forest ; and on the other, down 
into the cultivated valley. Most suggestful, most peaceful is 
this twofold prospect, telling us alike both of work and com- 
panionship, as, too, of solitude all of them, in religion, so 
needful for man. Its tower stands boldly out, almost away 
from the church, just between the nave and the chancel, 
serving formerly, like Brockenhurst steeple, as a landmark to 
the Forest ; whilst the long outline of the nave is broken only 
by the south porch, and its three dormer windows. Here 
Southey married his second wife, Catharine Bowles. And close 
to the north side, under the shadow of a maple, lies one of the 
truest lovers of Nature Gilpin, the author of the Scenery of the 

80 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

New Forest, with a quaint, simple inscription on his gravestone 
written by himself. In the church are tablets both to him 
and Bromfield, the botanist, a man like him in many ways, 
but who, dying abroad, was not allowed to rest beside him in 
this quiet graveyard. 

The south aisle is the oldest part, with its three Norman 
arches rising from square piers, whilst the north aisle is divided 
from the nave by a row of Early-English arches springing from 
plain black Purbeck marble shafts. In the east window of this 
aisle were once painted the arms of the Dauphin of France the 
fleurs de lis blazoned, as they were formerly, over the whole 
field, telling us the story of Lewis having been invited to 
England and crowned king by John's barons, and whose 
traditional flight at Leap has been mentioned. 

Down below, in the valley of the Brockenhurst Water, lies 
Boldre, the Bovre of Domesday, with its meadows and corn- 
fields. It is worth while to pause for a moment, and notice the 
corruption of Boldre into Bovre by the Norman clerks. The 
word is from the Keltic, and signifies the full stream 
(" y Byldwr "), and has nothing to do with oxen. We must, 
too, bear in mind that the various Oxenfords and Oxfords are 
themselves corruptions, and really come not from oxen at all, 
but Usk, literally meaning the stream-ford or stream-road, and 
are in no way connected with the various Old-English Eodfords 
to be found in different parts of the kingdom. This corruption 
of language we see daily going on in our own Colonies, but 
it is well to pause and remember that the same process has 
taken place in our own country. 

Passing over the bridge, and up the village, and under the 
railway arch, we once more reach the Forest at Shirley Holms, 
coming out on Shirley and Sway Commons. Here again, as on 

Hinchelsea. 81 

Beaulieu Heath, there is not a single tree, nothing but one 
vast stretch of heather, which late in the summer covers the 
ground with its crimson and amethyst. There is only one 
fault to be found with it, that when its glory is past it leaves 
so great a blank behind : its grey withered flowers and its grey 
scanty foliage forming such a contrast with its previous bright- 
ness and cheerfulness. 

But these two commons will at all times be interesting to 
the archaeologist and historian. On the north-east side lies the 
Koydon, that is, the rough ground, a word which we find in 
other parts of the Forest ; and not far from it is Lichmore or 
Latchmore Pond the place of corpses which is confirmed by 
the various adjoining barrows.* 

After this point, there is nothing to attract the traveller, 
unless he is a botanist, to the south. Wootton, and Wilverley, 
and Setthorns, and Holmsley, are all young plantations, whilst 
at Wootton the Forest now entirely ceases, though once stretch- 
ing five miles farther, as far as the sea. So let him make his 
way to Longslade, or Hinchelsea Bottom, as it is indifferently 
called, where about the middle of June blossoms the lesser 
bladderwort (Utricularia minor), and about the same time, or 
rather later, the floating bur-reed (Sparganeum natans). 

Above, rises Hinchelsea Knoll, with its old hollies and 
beeches ; and still farther to the north the high lands round 
Lyndhurst and Stony Cross crowned with woods. Westward, 
the heather stretches over plain and hill till it reaches 
Burley. Making right through Hinchelsea, and then skirting 
the north side of Wilverley plantations, we shall come to the 
valley of Holmsley, so beloved by Scott, and which put him 

* For some account of these barrows, see chapter xvii. 

82 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

in mind of his native moors, without seeing which once a year, 
he so pathetically said, he felt as if he should die. Its wild 
beauty, however, is in a great measure spoilt by the railroad, 
and the large trees which grew in Scott's time have all been 

Burley itself, which now lies just before us, is one of the 
most primitive of Forest hamlets, the village suddenly losing 
itself amongst the holms and hollies, and then reforming itself 
again in some open space. So thoroughly a Forest village, 
it is proverbially said to be dependent upon the yearly crop 
of acorns and mast, or " akermast," as they are collectively 
called. To the south-west stands Burley Beacon, where some 
entrenchments are still visible, and the fields lying round it 
are still called " Greater " and " Lesser Castle Fields," and 
" Barrows," and " Coffins," showing that the whole district has 
once been one vast battle-field. 

Close to the village are the Burley quarries, where the 
so-called Burley rock, a mere conglomerate of gravel, the 
" ferrels," or " verrels," of North Hampshire, is dug, formerly 
used for the foundations of the old Forest churches, as at 
Brockenhurst, and Minestead, and Sopley in the Vale of the 
Avon. The great woods round Burley have all been cut, 
except a few beech-woods, but here and there " merry orchards " 
mingle themselves with the holms and hollies, wandering, 
half-wild, amongst the Forest.* 

Turning away from the village, and going north-east, before 
us rise great woods Old Burley, with its yews and oaks, 
where the raven used to build ; Vinney Kidge, with its heronry 

* The word is from the French meri^e. At Wood Green, in the northern 
part of the Forest, a "merry fair" of these half- wild cherries is held once 
a week during the season, probably similar to that of which Gower sung. 

Mark Ash, Knyghtwood, and the Queen's Bower. 83 

at one extremity, and the Eagle Tree at the other; whilst 
behind us are the young Burley plantations. Here, near the 
Lodge, scattered in some fields, stand the remains of the 
" Twelve Apostles," once enormous oaks, reduced hoth in 

number and size, with 

" Boughs moss'd with age, 
And high tops bald with dry antiquity." 

And now, if the reader does not mind the swamps and if he 
really wishes to know the Forest, and to see its best scenes, it 
is useless to mind them let him make his way across to Mark 
Ash, the finest beechwood in the Forest, which even on a 
summer's day is dark at noon. Thence the wood-cutter's track 
will take him by Barrow's Moor and Knyghtwood, where grows 
the well-known oak. Here a different scene opens out with 
broad spaces of heath and fern, where the gladiolus shows its 
red blossoms among the green leaves of the brake; whilst on 
the hill, distinguished by its poplars, stands Rhinefield, with its 
nursery, and, below, the two woods of Birchen Hat, where the 
common buzzard yearly breeds. 

Keeping along the main road, which is just before us, 
nearly as far as the New Forest Gate, we will turn in at 
Liney Hill Wood, going through the woods of Brinken, and 
the Queen's Mead, and the Queen's Bower, following the course 
of the stream. 

Very beautiful is this walk, with its paths which stray down 
to the water's edge, where the cattle come to drink ; the stream 
pausing round some oak roots, which pleach the banks, linger- 
ing in the darkness of the shade, and at last going away with 

Few things, of their sort, can equal these lowland Forest 
streams, the water tinged with the iron of the district, flashing 

M 2 

84 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

into amber in the sunlight, and deepening into rich browns in 
the shade, making the pebbles hazel as it ripples over them. 

All the way along grow oaks and beeches, each guarded 
with its green fence of kneeholm, and furred with moss, which 
the setting sun paints with bands of light. And so, in turn, 
passing Burley and Khinefield Fords, and Cammel Green, and 
the Buckpen, where the deer used to be fed in winter, the path 
suddenly comes out by a lonely grass-field, known as the Queen's 
Mead, and immediately after enters the Queen's Bower Wood. 
At the farther end, a bridge crosses the brook by the side of one 
of the many Boldrefords in the Forest; and in the distance, 
across Black Knoll, shine the white houses of Brockenhurst. 

View in the Queen a Bower Wood. 

Road from Brockenhurst to Lyndhurst. 85 



The Great Huntley Woods 

As we leave Brockenhurst we find ourselves more and more in 
the Forest. The road to Lyndhurst is one long avenue of 
trees beeches with their smooth trunks, oaks growing in 
groups, with here and there long lawns stretching far away 

86 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

into distant woods. Most beautiful is this road in the spring. 
Stand on the top of Clay Hill, about the beginning or end of 
May, and you shall see wood after wood, masses of colour, the 
birches hung with the softest green, and the oak boughs break- 
ing into amber and olive, made doubly bright by the dark gloom 
of firs, the blackthorn giving place to the sweeter may, and the 
marigold on the stream to the brighter lily. 

On our left lies New Park, now turned into a farm, 
where in 1670 Charles II. kept a herd of red deer, brought 
from France, but previously used as a pound for stray cattle. 
Passing on by a roadside inn with the strange sign of the 
" Crown and Stirrup," referring to a pseudo-relic of Kufus's, 
preserved at the King's House, but which is nothing more than 
a stirrup-iron of the sixteenth century, we reach Lyndhurst 
the lime wood,* the capital of the Forest, the Linhest of 

William the Conqueror at one time held the manor, in his 
own hands, dependent on that of Amesbury. Here, after the 

* An objection, that the lime-tree was not known so early in England, 
has been taken to this derivation. This is certainly a mistake. In that fine 
song of the Battle of Brunanburh, we find 
" Bordweal clufan 
Heowan heajjolinde* 
Hamora lafan." 
(The Chronicle. Ed. Thorpe, Vol. i. p. 200.) 

The " geolwe lind " was sung of in many a battle-piece. Again, as Kemble 
notices (The Saxons in England, vol. i., Appendix A, p. 480), we read in 
the Cod. Dip., No. 1317, of a marked linden-tree. (See, also, same volume, 
book i., chap, ii., p. 53, foot-note.) Then, too, we have the Old-English 
word lindecole, the tree being noted for making good charcoal, as both it 
and the dog- wood are to this day. Any "Anglo-Saxon" dictionary will 
correct this notion, and names of places, similarly compounded, are common 
throughout England. 

The Church. 87 

afforestation, Herbert the Forester held one yardland, on which 
only two borderers lived, the rest of the manor, which was only 
two hydes. being thrown into the Forest.* Here, also, as at 
Brockenhurst, was another o the old feudal tenures; for, in 
the time of Edward L, William-le-Moyne held probably these 
same two hydes of land, which had been disafforested, by the 
sergeantry of keeping the door of the King's larder, f 

In the village stands the Queen's House, built in Charles II.'s 
time, and adjoining it is the Hall where the Courts of Attach- 
ment, or Woodmote, the last remnant of the terrible Forest 
Laws, are regularly held by the verderers, to try all cases of 
stealing fern and timber. 

Close by is the new, half-finished, church, standing in the 
old churchyard made famous by Mr. Kingsley's ballad. It is 
not fair at present to pass a final judgment. When the tower is 
added, and time shall have touched the walls with a soberer 
tone, its two great defects will have disappeared, though nothing 
can remedy the heavy and poverty-stricken window of the north 
transept with its flattened mullions, and a wretched chimney 
near the choir utterly spoiling the effect of the beautiful chancel 

* The entry in Domesday (facsimile of the part relating to Hampshire, 
photo-zincographed at the Ordnance Survey, 1861, p. iv. a) is as follows: 
" In Bovere Hundredo. Ipse Rex tenet Linhest. Jacuit in Ambresberie de 
firma Regis. Tune, se defendebat pro ij hidis, Modo, Herbertus forestarius 
ex his ij hidis unam virgatam (tenet), et pro tanto geldat ; alias sunt in 
foresta. Ibi modo nichil, nisi ij bordarii. Valet x solidos. Tempore Regis 
Edwardi valuit vi. libras." It is worth noticing that Lyndhurst is here put 
by itself, and not with Brockenhurst and Minestead, and other neighbour- 
ing places under " In Nova Foresta et circa earn ; " a clear proof; which 
might be gathered from other entries, that the survey was not completed. 

t Blount's Fragmenta Antiquitatis. Ed. Beck with, p. 183. 1815. Here 
the place is called Lindeshull. 

88 The Neiv Forest : its history and its Scenery. 

Inside, the red brick pillars of the arches of the aisles are 
clustered with black slate shafts, and banded with scroll-work of 
white Caen stone, the capitals carved with lilies, and primroses, 
and violets.* And above hangs a Perpendicular timbered roof, 
resting on the corbel heads of the martyrs and reformers of the 
Church of Melancthon and Cranmer, and Luther and Latimer, 
and the carved emblems of the Evangelists at the four 

In the choir and chancel the wall-colouring is more harmo- 
nious than in the nave, where there is a certain coldness and 
hardness, whilst the shafts are here wrought of rich Cornish 
marble. Over the communion-table is Mr. Leighton's fresco, 
a small piece of it now only completed an angel standing with 
outstretched hands, keeping back those virgins who have come 
too late to the bridegroom's feast, the despair and anguish of 
their faces further typified by the rent wall, and the melancholy 
dreariness of the owl.f 

* Let me especially call attention to the exquisite carving of some thorns 
and convolvuluses in the chancel. It is a sad pity that this part of the 
church should be disfigured by glaring theatrical candlesticks and coarse 
gaudy Birmingham candelabra. 

f I have only seen but the slightest portion of this fresco, so that it is 
impossible to properly judge of even the merits of this part. No criticism 
is true which does not consider a work of Art as a whole. At present, the 
angel with outstretched hands, full of nervous power and feeling, seems to 
me very admirable, though the position and meaning of the cloaked and 
clinging figure below is, at the first glance, difficult to make out ; but this 
will doubtless, as the picture proceeds, become clear The richness, how- 
ever, of the colouring can even now be seen under the enormous disadvan- 
tage of being placed beneath the strong white glare of light which pours in 
from the east window. Further, Mr. Leighton must be praised for his 
boldness in breaking through the old conventionalities of Art, and giving us 
here the owl as a symbol of sloth, and the wretchedness it produces. 


The Country round Lyndhurst. 89 

That there are defects in the church its greatest admirers 
would admit the poorness of the roof, the harshness produced 
by the introduction of so much white, as also the bad colour of 
the bricks, and a heaviness which hangs over the clerestory 
windows of the nave. But, on the whole, it stands as a proof 
I of the great advance during the last ten years of Art, as a 
cheering sign, too, that, amidst all the failures of Government, 
some taste and zeal are to be found amongst private persons. 

There is nothing else of interest in the village. Once here 
busy scenes must have taken place, when the King came to 
hunt with his retinue of nobles ; when down the street poured 
the train of bow-bearers, and foresters, and keepers, clad in 
doublets of Lincoln green, holding the dogs in leash. Then 
the woods rang with the notes of the bugle, and the twang of the 
bow-string sounded as the bolt, or the good English yard-shaft, 
brought down the quarry. Here, too, in the Civil War, were 
quartered grim Puritan soldiers, and prayers took the place 
of feasts.* Now, all is quiet. Nothing is to be seen but 
the Forest inviting us into its green glades. 

The people of Lyndhurst ought, I always think, to be 
the happiest and most contented in England, for they possess a 
wider park and nobler trees than even Royalty. You cannot 
leave the place in any direction without going through the 
Forest. To the east lie the great woods of Denny and Ashurst ; 
and to the north rise Outwalk and Emery Down, looking across 
the vale to Minestead, and below them Kitt's Hill, and the woods 
stretching away towards Alum Green. On the extreme west 
Mark Ash, and Gibb's Hill, and Boldrewood, rise towering one 
after the other ; whilst to the south stretch Gretnam and the 

* Herbert's Memoirs of Charles /., p. 95. 


90 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Great and Little Huntley Woods, which the Millaford Brook 
skirts, here and there flowing out from the darkness of the 
trees into the sunshine, the banks scooped into holes, and 
held together only by the rope -work of roots. 

These woods are always beautiful. Of their loveliness in 
spring we have spoken ; and if you come to them in summer, 
then the first purple of the heather flaunts on every bank, and 
edges the sides of the gravel-pits with a crimson fringe ; and 
the streams now idle, suffer themselves to be stopped up with 
water-lilies and white crowfoot, whilst the mock-myrtle dips 
itself far into the water. Then is it you may know something 
of the sweetness and the solitude of the woods, and wandering 
on, giving the day up to profitable idleness, can attain to that 
mood of which Wordsworth constantly sings, as teaching more 
than all books or years of study. 

The Woodman's Path, Bramble Hill. 

Roads from Lyndhurst. 




Oaks in Boldrewood. 

ABOUT four miles off from Lyndhurst lie Minestead and Kufus's 
Stone. There are three or four different roads to them. 
The most beautiful, though the longest, is over Emery 
Down, where, turning off to the left, you pass the woods 
of Kitt's Hill, and James Hill. Then crossing Millaford 

N 2 

H2 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Bridge, and skirting on each side of the road the beeches of 
Holme Hill, and passing through Boldrewood, you make your 
way eastward across the stream below the Withy Bed Hat, and 
go through the woods of Puckpits and Stonehard. 

Another road to the Stone is through Minestead by a foot- 
path which crosses Mr. Compton's park, dotted with cottages, 
each with its garden full in the summer and autumn of flowers 
yellow Aaron -rods, pink candy-tufts, colchicums, and marigolds, 
and tall sheaves of grey Michaelmas daisies. 

In the village stands "The Faithful Servant," copied from 
the well-known picture at Winchester College. A little farther 
on we ascend Stoneycross Hill, the village orchards full of Mary- 
apples and Morrisses mingling their blossoms, in the spring, 
with the green Forest oaks. As we reach the top, suddenly 
there opens out one long view. On the north-east rise the hills 
beyond Winchester ; but the " White City " is hidden in their 
valley. To the east lies Southampton, with its houses by the 
water-side; and to the north, across the woods of Prior's Acre, 
gleam the green Wiltshire downs lit up by the sunlight. 

Close to us, among its beeches, lies Castle Malwood, with 
its single trench and Forest lodge, where tradition and poets say 
Kufus feasted before his death ; and down in the valley stands 
the Stone which marks the spot where he is said to have fallen. 

It will be as well to repeat the story, as told by the two 
Chroniclers who give the fullest account, with all its omens and 
apparitions. The King had gone to bed on the evening of the 
1st of August, and was suddenly awoke by a fearful vision. 
He dreamt that he was bled, and the stream of blood, pouring 
up to heaven, clouded the very day. His attendants, hearing 
his cries to the Virgin, rushed in with lights, and stayed with 
him all that night. Morning dawned : and Robert Fitz Hamon, 

The Accounts of Malmesbury and Vitalis. 93 

his special friend, came to him with another dream, dreamt 
also that very night by a foreign monk then staying at the 
court, who had seen the King enter a church, and there seize 
the rood, tearing apart its legs and arms. For a time the image 
bore the insult, but suddenly struck the King. He fell, and 
flames and smoke issued from his mouth, putting out the light 
of the stars. The Red King's courage, however, had by this 
time returned. With a laugh, he cried, " He is a monk, and 
dreams for money like a monk : give him this," handing 
Fitz Hamon a hundred shillings. Still the two dreams had 
their effect, and William hesitated to test their truth.* At 
dinner that day he drank more than usual. His spirits once 
more returned. He defied the dreams. In spite of their 
warnings, he determined to hunt. As he was preparing, his 
armourer approached with six brand-new arrows. Choosing out 
two, he cried, as he gave them to Walter Tiril, Lord of Poix 
and Pontoise, who had lately come from Normandy, " The best 
arrows to the best marksman." The small hunting-party, 
consisting of his brother Henry, William of Breteuil, Walter 
Tiril, and Fitz Hamon, and a few more, set out. As they are 
leaving the courtyard, a monk from St. Peter's Abbey at 
Gloucester arrives. He gives the King a letter from Serlo, the 
abbot. It told how a monk of that abbey had dreamt that 
he had seen the Saviour and all the host of heaven standing 
round the great white throne. Then, too, came the Virgin 
robed in light, and flung herself at the feet of her Son, and 
prayed Him, by his precious blood and agony on the cross, to 
take pity on the English ; prayed Him, too, as He was judge 

* William of Malmesbury : Gesta Regum Anglorum. Ed. Hardy, 
torn, ii., lib. iv., sect. 333, p. 508. 

94 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

of all men, and avenger of all wickedness, to punish the King. 
The Saviour answered her, " You must be patient and wait : 
due retribution will in time befall the wicked." The King read 
it and laughed. " Does Serlo," he asked, " think that I believe 
the visions of every snoring monk ? Does he take me for an 
Englishman, who puts faith in the dreams of every old 
woman?"' With this the party once more sets out into the 
Forest, the woods still green with all their deep summer 

So they hunted all that noon and afternoon. The sun was 
now setting. Tiril and the King were alone. f A stag bounded 
by : the King shot and slightly wounded the quarry. On, 
though, it still bounded in the full light of the setting sun. 
The King stood watching it, shading his eyes with his hands. 
At that moment another deer broke cover. Tiril this time 
shot, and the shaft lodged itself in the King's breast.J He 

* Vitalis: Historic. EccL, pars, iii., lib x., cap. xii., in Migne : Patro- 
logice Ctirsus, torn, clxxxviii. pp. 751, 752; where occurs (pp. 750, 751) a 
most remarkable sermon, on the wrongs and woes of England, preached at 
St. Peter's Abbey, Shrewsbury, on St. Peter's Day, by Fulchered, first 
abbot of Shrewsbury, a man evidently of high purpose, ending with these 
ominous words : " The bow of God's vengeance is bent against the wicked. 
The arrow, swift to wound, is already drawn out of the quiver. Soon will 
the blow be struck ; but the man who is wise to amend will avoid it." 
Surely this is more than a general denunciation. On the very next day 
William the Red falls. 

f Malmesbury, as before quoted, p. 509. Vitalis, however, in Migne, 
as before, p. 751, says there were some others. 

J William of Malmesbury says nothing about the tree, from which 
nearly all modern historians represent the arrow as glancing Vitalis, as 
before, p. 751, expressly states that it rebounded from the back of a beast 
of chase (/era), apparently, by the mention of bristles (seice), a wild-boar. 
Matthew Paris (Ed. Wats., torn. i. p. 54) first mentions the tree, but his 
narrative is doubtful. 

The Death of William II. 95 

fell without a word or groan, vainly trying to pull out the 
arrow, which broke short in his hand. 

Thus perished William the Red. Tiril leapt on his horse. 
Henry galloped to Winchester, and the other nobles to their 
houses. One exception was there. William of Breteuil, fol- 
lowing hard upon Henry to Winchester, honourably declared 
the rights of the absent Eobert, to whom both Henry and 
himself had sworn fealty. William's body was brought on a 
cart to the cathedral, the blood from his wound reddening the 
road.* There the next morning f he was buried, unlamented, 
unknelled, and unaneled4 

* Malmesbury, as before, p. 509. The additions that it was a charcoal- 
cart, as also the owner's name, are merely traditional. 

t The Chronicle. Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 364. 

| Vitalis, as before, p. 752. Neither William of Malmesbury nor Vitalis, 
who go into details, mentions the spot where the King was killed. The 
Chronicle and Florence of Worcester most briefly relate the accident, though 
Florence adds that William fell where his father had destroyed a chapel. 
(Ed. Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 45). Henry of Huntingdon (Historiarum, lib. vii., 
in Saville's Scriptores Rerum Anglicarum, p. 378) says but little more, 
dwelling only on the King's wickedness and the supernatural appearance of 
blood. Matthew Paris brings a bishop on the scene, as explaining another 
dream of the King's, and gives the King's speech of " trahe arcum, diabole " 
to Tiril, which has a certain mad humour about it, as also the incident 
of the tree, and the apparition of a goat (Hist. Major. Angl. Ed. Wats., 
pp. 53, 54), which are not to be found in Roger of Wendover (Flores Hist. 
Ed. Coxe, torn, ii., pp. 157-59), and therefore open to the strongest sus- 
picion. Matthew of Westminster (Flores Hist. Ed. 1601, p. 235) follows, 
in most of his details, William of Malmesbury. Simon of Durham (De 
Gestis Regurn Anglorum, in Twysden's Histories Anglicans Scriptores Decem, 
p. 225), as, too, Walter de Hemingburgh (Ed. Hamilton, vol. i. p. 33), 
and Roger Hoveden (Annalmm Pars Prior, in Saville's Rerum Anglicarum 
Scriptores, pp. 467, 468), copy Florence of Worcester So, too, in various 
ways, with all the later writers, who had access to no new sources of 
information. Peter Blois, however, in his continuation of the pseudo 
Ingulph (Gales's Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores, torn. i. pp. 110, 111) is more 


The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

So runs the story as told by the Chroniclers. And to this 
day popular tradition not only repeats their tale, but points to 
the places associated with the event. Below our feet lies the 
lonely glen of Canterton, where the King is said to have fallen. 


Rufus's Stone. 

The oak from which, as the legend runs, the arrow glanced, is 
long since dead, but a stone marks its site, now capped over with 

vivid, and adds that the dogs were chasing the stags up a hill; but his 
whole book is very doubtful, and his account in this particular instance is 
irreconcilable with the others. Gaimar (L'Estorie des Engles. Ed. Wright. 
Caxton Society, pp. 217-224), who says that the King was hunting near 
Brockenhurst (Brokehest), gives a still more detailed account, but we are 
met by the same difficulties. Of later writers, Leland, in his Itinerary (vol. vi. 
f. 100, p. 88) states that the King fell at Thorougham, where in his time there 
was still a chapel standing, evidently meaning Fritham, called Truham in 
Domesday. Gilpin (Forest Scenery, vol. i. p, 166) mentions a similar tradi- 
tion ; so that there is a very reasonable doubt as to the spot itself being where 
the Stone stands, especially since, with the exception of the vague remark 
of Florence, none of the best Chroniclers say one word about the place. 
Thierry, in many minor particulars, follows Knyghton, whose authority is 
of little value, and I have therefore omitted all reference to him. 

The Value of Tradition. 97 

a hideous cast-iron case.* In the woods and in the village of 
Minestead still live some of the descendants of Purkess, who is 
reported to have carried the bleeding corpse in his charcoal-cart 
to Winchester along the road now known as the King's Koad. 
Twelve miles away, on the extreme south-west boundary of the 
Forest, close to the Avon, stands a smithy, on the site of the 
one where, the legend says, Walter Tiril's horse was shod, and 
which, for that reason, to this day pays a yearly fine to the 
Crown : and the water close by, where the fugitive passed, is 
still called Tyrrel's Ford. And Kufus lies in Winchester 
Cathedral, his bones now mixed with those of Canute ; and 
under a marble tomb, in the south aisle of the presbytery, 
sleeps his brother Richard, slain also like himself in the Forest. 
So runs the story, unquestioned save here and there by some 
few faint doubts. f As to the tradition, I think we may at once 
set aside its testimony. The value of mere tradition in history 
weighs, or ought to weigh, nothing. Here and there tradition 
may be true in a very general sense, as when it says the Isle of 

* Very much against my inclination, I give a sketch of the iron case of 
the Stone, which the artist has certainly succeeded in making as beautiful 
as it is possible to do. The public would not, I know, think the book com- 
plete without it. It stands, however, rather as a monument of the habit 
of that English public, who imagine that their eyes are at their fingers' 
ends, and of a taste which is on a par with that of the designer of the post- 
office pillar-boxes, than of the Red King's death , for the spot where he fell 
is, as we have seen from the previous note, by no means certain. We must, 
too, remember that there is no mention made by the Chroniclers of Castle 
Mai wood, but the context in Vitalis, as also the late hour mentioned by 
Malmesbury when William went out to hunt, show that he was at the time 
staying somewhere in. the Forest. 

| See, as before, Lappenberg's History of England under the Norman 
Kings, pp. 266-8 ; and Sharon Turner's History of England during the 
Middle Ages, vol. iv. pp. 166-8. 


98 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Wight was once joined to Hampshire ; but it is never particular 
in its dates, and is ever in too much hurry to compare facts. 
Tradition, as often as not, kills the murderer instead of the 
murdered ; and makes the man who built the place to have 
been born there. Tradition is, in fact, the history of the vulgar, 
and the stumbling-block of the half-learned. 

We will look at the broader bearings of the case. The first 
thing which strikes us is the fact that two other very near rela- 
tives of the Red King, his brother and his nephew, also lost 
their lives by so-called accidents in the New Forest. If we 
are to believe the Chroniclers, his brother Richard met his death 
whilst hunting there, according to one narrative, by a pestilential 
blast surely, at the least, a very unsatisfactory account ;* though, 
by another version, from the effects of a blow against a tree.f 
His nephew Richard was either wounded by an arrow through 
the neck, or caught by the boughs of a tree and strangled 
a still more improbable death ;{ whilst, according to Florence 
of Worcester, he was killed by the arrow of one of his own 
knights. We will only here pause to notice not only the 

* " Tabidi aeris nebula " are the words of William of Malmesbury. 
(Gesta Regum Anglorum. Ed. Hardy, torn, ii., lib. iii., sect. 275, pp. 454, 

f GuL Gemeticensis de Ducibus Normannorum, lib. vii., cap. ix. To be 
found in Camden's Anglica Scripta, p. 674. 

} This seems to be the meaning of a not very clear passage in William 
of Malmesbury. Same edition as before, p. 455. Vitalis, however, Historia 
Ecclesiastic^ pars 3, lib. x., cap. xi. (in Migne, Patrologice Cnrsm Com- 
pletus, torn, clxxxviii. pp. 748, 749), says he was shot by a knight, who 
expiated the deed by retiring to a monastery, and speaks in high terms both 
of him and his brother William, who fell in one of the Crusades. 

Ed. Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 45. Lewis, in his Topographical Remarks on 
the New Forest, pp. 57-62, is hopelessly wrong with regard to Richard, the 
son of Robert, a grandson of the Conqueror, whom he calls Henry, and 

The Character of William II. 99 

extreme improbability, but the contradictory statements in both 
cases, which will not, of course, increase the value of the same 
evidence concerning Kufus.* 

And now we will examine the version of his death. History 
is at all times subjective enough, but becomes far more so when 

confounds at p. 62 with his uncle; and makes both William of Malmesbury 
and Baker (see his Chronicle, p. 37, Ed. 1730) say quite the reverse of 
what they write. 

* As I am not writing a History of England during this period, my 
space will not permit me to enter into those details which, when viewed 
collectively, carry so much weight in an argument , but at all events, it will 
be well for some of my readers to bear in mind the character of William II., 
who in a recent work has lately been elevated into a hero. Without any 
of his father's ability or power of statesmanship, he inherited all his vices, 
which he so improved that they became rather his own. From having no 
occupation for his mind, he sank more and more into licentiousness and 
lust. (" Omni se immunditia deturpabat," is the strong expression of John 
of Salisbury. Life of Anselm, part ii. ch. vii., in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
torn. ii. p. 163. See, also, Suger, VitaLud. Grossi Regis, cap. i., in Bouquet; 
Recueil den Historiens des Gaules et de la France, torn. xii. p. 12. D. E.) 
Being lustful, he naturally became cruel ; not as his father was, on, at least, 
the plea of necessity, but that he might enjoy a cultivated pleasure in gloat- 
ing over the sufferings of others. From being cruel, too, he became, in its 
worst sense, an infidel ; not from any pious scruple or deep conviction, but 
simply that he might indulge his passions. (See that fearful story of the 
trial of forty Englishmen told in Eadmer : Hist. Nov., lib. ii., p. 48, 
Ed. 1633, which illustrates in a twofold manner both his cruelty and his 

To a total want of eloquence he joined the most inveterate habit of 
stammering, so that, when angry, he could barely speak. His physical 
appearance, too, well harmonized with his moral and mental deformities. 
His description reads rather like that of a fiend than of a man. Possessing 
enormous strength, he was small, thick-set, and ill-shaped, having a large 
stomach. His face was redder than his hair, and his eyes of two different 
colours. His vices were, in fact, branded on his face. (Malmesbury, 
Ed. Hardy, torn, ii., lib. iv., sect. 321, p. 504, whom I have literally 
translated.) [Let 

O 2 

100 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

written by unfriendly Chroniclers, who have good reasons for 
suppressing the truth. The story reads at the very first glance 
too much like a romance. In the first place, we have no less 
than three dreams, which are always effects rather than causes 
after-thoughts rather than prophecies, well fitted to suit the 
superstition of the times, and to deceive the crowd. Then, 
too, we find the old device of the armourer craving the King 
to take six brand-new arrows, by one of which at the hand of 
his friend he is fated to fall on the very spot which his father 
had laid waste, and where he is said to have destroyed a 

It may of course be urged that all this is in accordance with 
what we know of the eternal power of the moral laws, that the 
sins of the fathers are ever visited upon the sons to the third 
and fourth generations, and that time ever completes the full 
circle of retribution. But the flaw is, that this special judgment 

Let us look, too, at the events of his reign. Crime after crime crowds 
upon us. His first act was to imprison those whom his father had set free. 
He loaded the Forest Laws with fresh horrors. Impartial in his cruelty, 
he plundered both castle and monastery (The Chronicle, Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. 
p. 364). He burnt out the eyes of the inhabitants of Canterbury, who had 
taken the part of the monks of St. Augustin's. At the very mention of 
his approach the people fled (Eadmer : Hist. Nov., lib. iv. p. 94). Unable 
himself to be everywhere, his favourites, Robert d'Ouilly harried the 
middle, and Odineau d'Omfreville the north of England ; whilst his 
Minister, Ralph Flambard, committed such excesses that the people prayed 
for death as their only deliverance (Annal. Eccles. Winton., in Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, torn. i. p. 295). 

As The Chronicle impressively says, " In his days all right fell, and all 
wrong in the sight of God and of the world rose." Norman and English, 
friend and foe, priest and layman, were united by one common bond of 
hatred against the tyrant. It could only be expected that as his life was, so 
his death would be ; that he would be betrayed by his companions, and in 
his utmost need deserted by his friends. 

The Circumstances attending his Death. 101 

is too special. "Divine vengeance" and "judgment of God," 
the Chroniclers cry out one after another, and this is thought 
sufficient to account for three so-called accidental deaths. The 
moral laws, however, never fall so directly as they are here 
represented. Their influence is more oblique. The lightning of 
justice does not immediately follow each peal of suffering. 

Leaving, however, the Chroniclers' views to themselves, let 
us look further at some of the facts which peep out in the 
narrative. Why, in the first place, we naturally ask, if the 
King was shot by accident, did his friends and attendants 
desert him ? Why was he brought home in a cart, drawn by 
a wretched jade, the blood, not even staunched, flowing from 
the wound, clotting the dust on the road? Why, too, the 
indecent haste of his funeral ? Why, afterwards, was no inquiry 
as to his death made ? Why, too, was Tiril's conduct not 
investigated ? These questions are difficult to answer, except 
upon one supposition. 

Let us note, also, that they are all ecclesiastics, to whom 
the revelations of the King's speedy end had been made known, 
and that their special favourite, Henry, succeeded to the throne in 
spite of his elder brother's right. It is, certainly, too, something 
more than singular that when the banished Anselm should visit 
Hugh, Abbot of Cluny, that the Abbot should tell him that dur- 
ing the past night he had seen William summoned before God 
and sentenced to damnation, and that the King's death im- 
mediately followed : that further, on the next day, when he went 
to Lyons, his chaplain should be twice told by a youth of 
the death of William before it took place.* More than singular, 

* Eadmer: Vita Anselmi, Ed. Paris, 1721, p. 23. John of Salisbury: 
Vita Anselmi, cap. xi. ; in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, torn. ii. p. 169. William of 

102 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

too, are those words of Fulchered, spoken so openly and so dar- 
ingly, " The bow of God's vengeance is bent against the wicked ; 
and the arrow swift to wound is already drawn out of the 

Either all these persons were prophets, or accessories to the 
murder, or for there is one more solution the Chroniclers 
invented this portion of the story. If we admit this last supposi- 
tion, we cannot receive the other parts of the narrative without 
the greatest suspicion. We have almost a sufficient warrant 
to read them in an exactly opposite sense to what they were 
intended to bear. 

Let us remember, also, that Flambard, Kufus's prime 
minister, who was universally hated by the clergy, and who had 
lately banished Godric, of Christchurch, into Normandy, was 
instantly stripped of his possessions by Henry, and Godric 
reinstated, and the banished Anselm recalled ; and, lastly, 
and most important of all, that Tiril, who had just arrived 
from Normandy, was a friend of Anselm's,t and, further, that 
Alanus de Insulis, better known as le Docteur Universel, who 
lived not long after the event, actually says that in his opinion 
it was caused by treachery.J Surely all these facts and coinci- 

Malmesbury : Ed. Hardy, vol. ii., b. iv , sect. 332, p. 507. ; and Roger of 
Wendover, Ed. Coxe, vol. ii. pp. 159, 160. 

* Vitalis Historia Ecclesiastica, pars 3, lib. x. ; in Migne, Patrologice 
Cursiis Completus, torn, clxxxviii., pp. 750 D, 751 A. See previously, 
p. 94, foot-note. 

t Eadraer: Vita Anselmi, Ed. Paris, 1721, p. 6. 

J Baxter, in his Preface to his Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum, 
Ed. 1719, p. 12, entirely misquotes Alanus de Insulis (see Prophetica 
Anglicana Merlini Ambrosii cum septem libris explanationum Alani de 
Insulis. Frankfort, 1603. Lib. ii. pp. 68, 69), and completely misunder- 
stands the passage. Alanus, however (p. 69), seems to have no doubt that 
the King fell by treachery, " spiculo invidiae," as was foretold by Merlin, 

The Evidence of Alanus. 103 

dences point but one way. All tend to show, as plainly as 
possible, that Eufus fell by no chance, but by a conspiracy of 
his prelates, who held the crozier in one, and the battle-axe 

though he gives no other reason; and which by itself, resting on nothing 
further, would carry no weight. His account, though, of the general 
detestation of the Red King immediately before his death, as also the 
conversation of Hugh, Abbot of Cluny, with Ansel m (p. G8), is very sug- 
gestive, especially by the way in which it is introduced Alanas must 
have possessed far too shrewd an intellect to have believed in Merlin; 
though it might have suited his purpose to have appeared to have so done, 
as a veil and a blind, so that he might better say what his high position 
and authority would not in any other form have well permitted, but which 
still give to many points, as here, enormous significance and weight. 

Besides Gaimar and Alanus, Nicander Nucius also hints at treachery 
(Second Book of Travels, published by the Camden Society, pp. 34, 35), 
but his account is too vague to be of any service. We should, however, 
constantly bear in mind, with Lappenberg, that the best authority, The 
Chronicle, simply relates that the King was shot at the chase by one 
of his friends, without any allusion to an accident Not one word or 
fact else is given, except the appearance of a pool of blood in i:erkshire 
(at Finchhamstead, according to William of Malmesfiury), which we 
know, from other sources, was supposed to foretell some calamity, and 
which phenomenon science now resolves into merely some species of 
alga, probably either Falmella cruenta or Htematococcus sanguineus. 
Eadmer, with some others, in his Histona Nooorum, lib. ii. (Migne : 
Patrologice Cursiis Completes, torn. clix. p. 422 B) mentions a report, 
prevalent at the time, that the King accidentally stumbled on an arrow. 
Then follows, in the very next book (Migne, as before, p. 423 B), a 
singular passage, to be found also in his Life of Anselm, book ii. ch. vi. 
(Migne, as before, torn clvih p. 108 D), where, on the news of the Red 
King's death, Anselm bursts into tears, and, with sobs, cries, " Quod si 
hoc efficere posset, multo magis eligeret se ipsum corpore, quam illud, sicut 
erat, mortuum esse." Whether this wish sprang from the effects of some 
pangs of conscience as to William's death, or from an honourable feeling of 
natural emotion under the circumstances, as suggested by Sharon Turner, 
ft is hard to determine. From John of Salisbury ( Vita Anselmi, pars ii., 
cap. xi,, in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, torn. ii. p. 169), it would seem that 
Anselm thought that he was the direct cause, through God, of his death. 

104 The New Forest: its Historu and its Scenery. 

in the other hand.* The cause of their hatred is at once 
supplied by his refusing to pay St. Peter's pence denying the 
Pope's supremacy banishing Anseim promoting Flambard 
holding all the bishoprics and other offices which fell vacant f 
by his cruelties to their different orders at Canterbury and 
Crowland, and throughout England, whose enmity died not with 
his death, but made them believe that the tower of Winchester 
Cathedral fell because they allowed him to be buried in its 

Reading, in the Chroniclers, the life of the Red King seems 
like rather reading a series of plots against it, not by the 
English, who were too thoroughly cowed to make the slightest 

Wace, quoted by Sharon Turner (vol. iv. p. 169), says that a woman 
prophesied to Henry his speedy accession to the throne ; but I am not 
inclined to put any faith in this story, especially as Wace's account is in 
poetry, where a prophetical speech might after the event be given dramati- 
cally true, without being so historically. The same criticism must be 
applied to the still more detailed account of Gaimar, who vaguely accuses 
Tiril of conspiracy. No one, however, was likely to declare, for so many 
reasons, that the King was murdered. We must not expect such a state- 
ment, or even look for it in the Chroniclers ; we must seek for it in the 
contradictions, and absurdities, and prophecies which have gathered round 
the event. 

* Let no one be startled at the fact of ecclesiastics being assassins. We 
have on record during this very reign the deliberate confessions by monks 
of plots to murder their abbots, deeming they were doing God a service. 
We must further keep steadily in mind that prelates then united in their 
own persons both sacred and military offices. How much Henry was under 
the influence of the monasteries his marriage and his various appointments 
show. Their power was enormous. In fact, I believe that the Conqueror 
owed his success as much to them as Rufus his death, and Henry his 

t At the time of his death he held in his hand the archbishopric of 
Canterbury, the bishoprics of Winchester and Salisbury, besides eleven 
aQbacies, all let out to rent. The Chronicle, Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 364. 

Conspiracies against the King. 105 

resistance, but by his own prelates and barons.* His uncle Odo, 
Bishop of Bayeux, headed the first rebellion against him, as soon 
as he usurped the throne. William, Bishop of Durham, his 
own Minister, conspired against him. Bishop Gosfrith, with 
his nephew Kobert, Earl of Northumberland, rebelled in the 
west. Koger Montgomery rose on the Welsh Marches. Koger 
Bigod in the eastern, and Hugo of Grentemesnil in the Midland 
Counties hoisted the flag of revolt. t Such was England at the 
beginning of his reign. In 1096, his own godfather, William of 
Aldrey, justly or unjustly, was accused of treason, and died on 
the gallows. J William, Count of Eu, kinsman to the King, 
suffered a worse fate for the same crime. His steward, William, 
also a kinsman of the King's, was hung on a rood. Eudes, 
Count of Champagne, forfeited his lands. Others not only 
shared the same fate, but were deprived of their eyesight. His 
northern barons, headed by '.Robert of Mowbray, goaded to 
desperation by the Forest Laws, rose in revolt. Koger of Yvery, 
son of the Conqueror's favourite, led the Midland barons, and 
was obliged to fly, and all his vast estates, close to the 
New Forest, forfeited. Normandy, from whence Tiril had just 
come, swarmed with outlawed enemies, both churchmen and 
laymen. It was the nest where all the plots could be safely 

Knowing all this, knowing, too, that the conspiracies became 
more frequent as his tyranny increased, we can scarcely avoid 
coming to but one conclusion as to his death. 

It might suit the policy of the times to throw the guilt 

* The Chronicle, Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 356. 

t William of Malmesbury, Ed. Hardy, torn, ii., lib. iv.. sect. 306, p. 488. 

j The same, torn, ii., lib. iv.. sect. 319, p. 502. 

The Chronicle, Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 362 


106 The Neiv Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

on Tiril, but Tiril certainly did not shoot the arrow. We 
have his own most solemn declaration to various people, and 
especially, not once hut often, to Suger, the well-known Ahbot 
of St. Denis, when he had nothing to gain or lose, that he 
had on the day of the King's death not only not entered 
that part oi the Forest, but had not so much as even seen 

Tiril, however, was certainly implicated in the plot. His 
haste to leave the country arose, probably, not so much from 
a wish to escape as to convey the news of the success to 
Normandy : and popular tradition mistaking the cause, with its 
usual inaccuracy, fixed on the wrong person as the assassin. 
In after years, however, from some scruple of conscience, he 
expiated his share in the murder by a pilgrimage to the Holy 

Who shot the fatal arrow we know not, and, perhaps, shall 
never know. We must not expect to get truth in history, 
only, at the best, some faint glimmering. All is here confusion 
and darkness. John of Salisbury, who lived about the middle 
of the twelfth century, says it was as little known who killed 
the King as who slew Julian the Apostate. f The very spot 
where he fell is doubtful. One thing, however, seems certain, 
that he was slain, not, as the Chroniclers say, because his 
father made the New Forest, but through his own cruelties and 
excesses, by which he outraged both friend and foe. 

* Suger . Vita Lnd. Grossi Regis, cap. i (to be found, as before, in 
Bouquet, torn. xii. p. i'2 E.) See, also, John of Salisbury: Vita Anselmi; 
Migne : Patrologice Cursus Completus, torn, cxcix., cap. xii., p. 1031 B.; 
or. as before, in Wharton's Anglia Sacra^ torn. ii. p. 170. 

f Quoted by Sharon Turner : History of England, vol. iv. p. 167; See, 
as before, Migne : torn, cxcix., cap. xii., p. 1031 B. 

Direct Proof of the Murder tvanting. 107 

It is not single passages which alone leave this impression, 
but still more the cumulative force of the evidence. - The fact 
that all were gainers by his death, and the general abhorrence of 
the tyrant, are in themselves strong reasons. Not one, but all 
parties were bound together against him by the strongest of 
covenants hatred. The marked and bitter prophecies, which 
would not have been uttered were not their fulfilment ensured, 
the suspicious silence on all important points, the pretended 
dreams and omens, the abandonment of the body, the want 
of any inquiry into the cause of death, the connection between 
the Church party and Anselm with Henry L, and Anselm's 
connection again with Tiril, all serve to show the depth and 
darkness of the plot. 

His life throws the best light on his death. Head by it, 
by the extortions and atrocities which he committed, by the 
universal hatred in which he was held, the conclusion is inevit- 
able. Years of violence were the prelude to a violent end. 
The many failures in open revolt seem only to have taught the 
lesson of greater caution. And treachery at last succeeded, 
where plain courage had so often failed. 

Direct proof of the murder cannot be had, and must not be 
expected. Every one was interested in keeping that a secret 
by which all alike profited. To have declared it, would have 
covered the Crown with disgrace, and stained the hands of the 

Their own absurdities and contradictions form the best 
refutation of the common accounts. In details they are irre- 
concilable with each other. According to one, the King was 
alone with Tiril; to another, with all his attendants. One 
narrative declares that the arrow glanced from a boar, a second 
from a stag, a third from a tree. Even if we accept them, then 

P 2 

108 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

either the power of prophecy lasted much longer than is com- 
monly supposed, or, as we have said, the clergy were accessories 
to the murder ; we have no other choice. The last of these 
solutions is fatal to the common belief; and very few persons 
would, 1 suppose, venture upon the first. Nevertheless, the 
monk of Gloucester's dream was not yet to be fulfilled. The 
hour was not yet at hand for England's deliverance. As the 
Parliamentary party said in Charles the First's time " Things 
must become worse before they can mend." England had, 
therefore, to undergo a tyranny for more than a century longer 
till the evil became its own cure. Good was at length accom- 
plished. Out of all the woe and wretchedness came the Bill 
of Rights and the Charta de Foresta. 

View from Castle Malwood. 

Stoney -Cross. 




View in Studley Wood 

IF any one wishes to know the beauty of the Forest in autumn, 
let him see the view from the high ridge at Stoney-Cross. 
Here the air blows off the Wiltshire Downs finer and keener 

110 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

than anywhere else. Here, on all sides, stretch woods and 
moors. Here, in the latter end of August, the three heathers, 
one after another, cover every plain and holt with their crimson 
glory, mixed with the flashes of the dwarf furze. And a little 
later the maples are dyed, yellow and russet, by the autumn 
rains, and the beeches are scorched to a fiery red with the first 
frost, and the oaks renew, but deeper and more gloriously, the 
golden lights of spring, till the great woods of Prior's Acre 
and Daneshill burn with colour ; every gleam of sunshine, and 
every passing shadow, touching them with fresher and stranger 

To the east, about two miles along the Southampton Koad, 
lies the village of Cadenham, famous for its oak, which, like the 
Glastonbury thorn, buds on Christmas Eve. The popular 
tradition in the neighbourhood runs, that, as the weather 
is harder, it shows more leaves, and, refusing the present 
chronology, only buds on Old Christmas night. As in most 
things, there is some little truth in the story. Doubtless, in 
some of the mild winters which visit Hampshire, the tree shows 
a few buds, as at that time I have seen others do in various 
parts of the Forest. Of course, they are all nipped by the 
first approach of severe weather, which, however, seldom happens 
on the warm south-west coast till the new year. 

Down in the valley to the left of Eufus's Stone rise the 
woods of the Long Beeches, and Prior's Acre, and Danes- 
hill or Dean's Hell, where the word Hell (from helan, to 
cover) means nothing more than the dark place, like the Hell- 
becks in Yorkshire.* Beaten paths and walks stretch into 

* The word, however, is going out of use, and is more generally now 
softened into hill. We meet with it in the perambulation of the Forest 
made in the twenty-second year of Charles II." The same hedge reaches 

View from Bramble Hill. Ill 

the woods in every direction. Perhaps one of the prettiest is 
over Coalmeer Brook, and then through the thick beeches of 
Goalmeer Wood, where the honey buzzard builds, till we come 
to the King's Gairn stream, where the Bracklesham Clays, 
teeming with fossils, may, by digging, be reached.* 

Brook Common now opens before us. At its farther end 
stands Brook Wood, with its fine hollies and durmast oaks 
(Quercus sessiliflora). Passing the High Beeches to our left, we 
reach Shepherd's Gutter, a small stream, where the Brackles- 
ham beds again crop out with their blue and slate-coloured 

Going on through more woods, and then by clumps of old 
hollies and yews, we come to Bramble Hill. Perhaps, just 
above the Lodge, on the top of the hill, we gain the most exten- 
sive view of the Forest. Before us spreads one vust sea of 
woods, broken in the front by Malwood Kidge, and Brochis 
Hill, and then rolling its flood of green over Minestead Valley, 
and rising again wave-like, at Whitley, till lost among the moors, 
whilst the Isle of Wight hills seam the blue sky with their dark 

The village of Bramshaw, just a little way beyond, stands 
partly in both Hampshire and Wiltshire, and forms the Forest 
boundary. From its woods in former times the shingles for 
roofing Salisbury Cathedral were cut. Its church, although 
prettily situated, is scarcely worth seeing. Only an Early-Eng- 
lish window at the east end, and an arch on the south side, 
remain of the old building, now defaced by every variety of 
modern ugliness. In the churchyard stands a fine yew ; and 

Barnfarn from the right hand, right hy Helclose, as far as to a certain 
corner called Hell Corner. " 

* For the geology of this part of the Forest see chapter xx. 

112 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

a buttress on the north side is completely covered with the 
lovely common spleenwort. 

Coming hack, however, to Stoney-Cross, we will now go 
westward. Stoney-Cross itself consists of but a few tumble- 
down cottages, inhabited principally by the Forest workmen. 
Just beyond the last of them let us stop for a moment. To 
the south stretch more woods Stonehard, with its views across 
the valley, to the oaks of Wick and the plain of Acres Down, 
looking over Rhinefield and the valley of the Osmanby Ford, 
beyond Wootton, to the Needle Rocks, mass upon mass of 

View :n Puckpits 

woods. To the right of it lies Puckpits, where the badger 
breeds, and the raven used to build, and where still on a 
summer morning the honey buzzard comes flying up from 

Woods round Sioney -Cross. 113 

Mark Ash, and, circling for hours round the trees, will again 
fly back to its favourite haunt. 

All these woods there are for rambles, flushed in the spring 
with wood-anemones and wood-sorrel, set in the green moss 
and the greener heather of the bilberry. Nowhere, too, in the 
Forest, than in these woods, have I seen more lovely sunsets. 
Through some deep-cut oriel of the trees have I watched the 
sun begin to sink, each moment burning brighter, and then 
suddenly its great brand of fire would fall, reddening each 
tree trunk, and crimson billows of clouds come rolling east- 

Instead of following the Kingwood Road, beautiful as that 
is in many parts, especially at Woody Bratley, with its old 
thorn trees, we will turn off to the right. To the west now 
rises Ocknell Wood, and its clump of firs, a well-known land- 
mark, and beyond that lies the new Slufter Inclosure, and 
Bratley Plain, with its great graveyard of barrows. In front of 
us stretches the East Fritham Plain, with its three barrows, 
locally called " butts," the central known as Reachmore. At the 
second mound we will go into North Bentley Wood, following 
the wood-cutter's track. Very wild and unfrequented is this. 
Here a stray deer will bound across the road ; and sometimes a 
small herd of as many as six or seven are browsing on the ivy 
clinging to some tree just felled, startled at the slightest sound, 
and trooping off down the glades. The grey hen rises up at 
our feet from the heather ; and, as we enter the wood, the 
woodpecker shrieks out his shrill laugh, whilst a buzzard is 
heavily sailing over the trees. 

The road winds on through the valley amongst oaks flecked 
with silver flakes of moss, broken here and there by open glades 
and green spaces of fern. At last, we reach Queen's North Lawn, 


1.1.4 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

which leads us on the right to Fritham, standing on the hill top. 
In the valley below lies Eyeworth Lodge, with the powder mills 
lately built ; the Ivare of Domesday, and still so called by the 
peasantry, afterwards Yvez, where Eoger Beteston, in the reign 
of Henry III., held some land by the service of finding litter 
for the King's bed and hay for his horse whenever he came 
here to hunt.* 

Fritham is thoroughly in the Forest ; and few spots can 
equal it in interest. It may be the very place where Eufus fell : t 
but whether or no, close round it lie the barrows of the Kelt, 
and the potteries of the Koman, covering acres of ground, at 
Island's Thorn and Crockle, and Sloden and Black Bar, with the 
banks which mark the sites of the workmen's houses. { Close 
round it, too, encircling it on all sides, rise the woods of 
Studley, with their great beeches, and Eyeworth, famous for its 
well. Going along the West Fritham Plain we come to Sloden, 
with its thick wood of yews, standing, massive and black, in all 
their depth of foliage, mixed, in loveliest contrast, with clumps 
of whitebeams. Below runs the brook, flowing under Amber- 
wood, and winding among dark groups of hollies, lost at 
last in the deep gorge, shut in by the hills of Goreley and 

The best way to reach Fordingbridge is either to go by 

* Testa de Nevill, p. 237 b. 130. See, also, p. 235 b. (118). Through- 
out the Forest, as we have seen at Lyndhurst and Brockenhurst, were 
similar feudal tenures. Some held their lands, as the heirs of Cobbe, at 
Eling, by finding 50 ; and others, again, as Kichard de Baudet, at Red- 
bridge, 100 arrows. Testa de Nevill, as in the first reference; and 
p. 238 a. (132 ) 

t See previous chapter, p. 96, foot-note. 

J For some account of the contents of these barrows and potteries, 
see chapters xvii. and xviii. 

View from Goreley Hill. 115 

Ashley Lodge, and so through Pitt's Wood, and between the 
high, bare, half mountainous hills of Chilly and Blissford, 
coming out upon the turnpike-road near Blissford Gate ; or to 
follow the side of the Amberwood stream towards some scattered 
houses, called Ogdens. 

Here we leave the Forest, and its moors and woods, and, 
mounting Goreley Hill, see below us the church of Fording- 
bridge, and the Avon winding among its meadows. To the 
south Hengistbury Head lifts itself up in the distant horizon ; 
and beyond it again, but more to the west, stretches the blue 
line of the Portland Hills. To the north swell the rounded 
forms of the Wiltshire downs, and the spire of Salisbury 
starts out from the midst, and behind it towers the mound 
of Old Sarum. 

and White "beams in Sloden. 



; ; '316 

Forest: its History and its Scenery. 



The Valley of the Avon from Castle Hill 

THE Valley of the Avon should certainly be seen, both because 
large parts of its manors and villages once stood in the 
Forest, as also for the contrast which it now affords to the 
neighbouring Forest scenery. Nothing can be so different to the 
moors we have just left as the Valley. Though close to them, 
you might imagine you were suddenly transported into one of 


the Midland Counties, and were walking by the side of the /Q' ' 
Warwickshire, instead of the Wiltshire Avon. In the j; j)Jace of 
wild heathery commons and furzy holts, deep ]&uj&s 'wjr^^fcng 
by comfortable homesteads, thatched with -^or%^ki; rej&cl. 
Instead, too, of dark oak and beech woods,;Jhi^^^^s ate 

white in the spring with the scattered spray of ttie alacktHorn. 

t\ t * ' " 

and orchards glow with their crimson wreaths of flowers. 

Fordingbridge, formerly nothing else but Forde, now known 
to all fishermen for its pike and trout, in former days held 
the high-road into the Forest. On the bridge the lord of the 
manor, during the fence months, was obliged to mount guard, 
and stop all suspected persons, who could only on the north-west 
leave the Forest this way.* 

In Domesday its manor possessed a church and two mills, 
rented at 14s. %d. Though all its beech and oak woods, worth, 
on account of the pannage for swine, 20s. a year, were afforested, 
only three virgates of land were taken. Yet, notwithstanding 
this loss, it still paid the same rental as in Edward the Con- 
fessor's reign. 

The old hospital, dedicated to St. John, was dissolved by 
Henry VI., and its revenues annexed to St. Cross, near 
Winchester.! The church stands on the extreme south-west 

* Lewis: Topographical Remarks on the New Forest, p. 80, foot-note. 
I have not, however, been able to find his authority. A tradition of the 
sort lingers in the neighbourhood. Blount (Fragmenta Antiquitatis, Ed. 
Beckwith, p. 115. 1815) says that Richard Carevile held here six librates a 
year of land in chief of Edward I., by finding a sergeant-at-arms for forty 
days every year in the King's army. See, also, the Testa de Nevill, p. 231 
(101), No. 3. 

t Dugdale: Monasticon Anglicanum, Ed. 1830, vol. vi., part, ii., p. 761. 
Leland, however (Itin., vol. iii., f. 72, p. 88, Ed. Hearne), says it was given 
to King's College, Cambridge. 

118 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

side of the town, with its avenue of limes, and its yews, now 
spoilt by being dipt. The windows of the nave are Early 
Decorated, whilst those of the clerestory are Perpendicular. 
Against the north pillar of the south chancel arch is fixed a 
late brass. The upper part of the east window is spoilt by its 
ugly Tudor headings, and the lower portion by the Commandment 
tables. The high-pitched open Perpendicular roof of the north 
chancel, however, possesses some real interest, both on account 
of its height and its richness of detail, the tie-beams faced 
with mouldings, and the spaces above ornamented with tracery, 
and the braces below also carved, and the purlins enriched with 
bosses, whilst carved projecting figures bear up the whole. 

Before, however, the traveller leaves Fordingbridge he should 
go to Sandyballs and Castle Hill, where are still the remains 
of a camp, and traces of habitations, probably used in turn 
by Kelts, Eomans, and West-Saxons, and where, perhaps, 
Ambrosius entrenched himself before the battle of Charford. 
From here is one of the best views of the Valley. Behind us 
stands Godshill inclosure, and the Forest with its dark moors 
and woods. Below winds the Avon, with its orchards nestling 
on the hill side, stretching its silver coil of waters along the 
green meadows, the sunlight gleaming on each bend and turn. 

Looking up the stream, the village of Wood Green, and the 
woods of Hale, and the two Charfords, one by one appear. 
Charford is especially noticeable, formerly Cerdeford, without 
doubt the Cerdices-ford of The Chronicle and of Florence. Here 
it was for the last time that the gallant Ambrosius Aurelianus, 
Prince Natan-Leod, father of the great Arthur of Mediaeval 
legends, after his many defeats, rallied the forlorn hope of the 
Romanized Kelts. Here, too, he fell on the greensward by the 
side of the Avon, with five thousand of his men, and was buried 

Charford and Breamore. 119 

at Amesbury, which still preserves his name. Of the hattle we 
know nothing know only this, that the Keltic power in Wessex 
was broken, and that from henceforth the land from Winchester 
to Charford was called Natan-lea.* 

Close to Charford lies Breamore, the last of the Forest manors 
to the north-west mentioned in Domesday.^ The fine Eliza- 
bethan hall, burnt down a few years since, has been lately rebuilt, 
whilst the church stands close by in a graveyard full of old yews 
and laurels. The church has been most shamefully disfigured 
stuccoed outside, and whitewashed within. Still it is worth 
seeing. A Norman doorway, another proof that the Conqueror 

* The Chronicle, Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 26. Florence of Worcester, 
Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 4. 

f Same edition as before, p. iv.a. Its manor then belonged to that of 
Rockbourne, and was held in demesne by the Conqueror, as it had also 
been by Edward the Confessor. Two hydes and a half, and a wood 
capable of supporting fifty swine, were taken into the Forest. From the 
mention of a priest (presbyter}, who received twenty shillings from some 
land in the Isle of Wight, there may have been, though by no means 
necessarily, a church, situated, as the old yew would perhaps show, in the 
present churchyard, and of which the Norman doorway may be the last 

The Valley of the Avon, as was mentioned in chapter v., p. 51, foot- 
note, appears from its nature to have been, with the exception of the east 
coast, the most nourishing district of any in the neighbourhood of the 
Forest. It is worth, however, noticing that many of its mills were rented 
not only by a money value, but by the additional payment of so many eels. 
Thus at Charford (Cerdeford) the mill is rented at 15s. and 1,250 eels, 
and at Burgate (Borgate) the mill paid 10s. and 1,000 eels, whilst at 
Ibbesley (Tibeslei) the rental was only 10s. and 700 eels (Domesday, as 
before, pp. xix. a, iv.b, xviii. a). The latter place had two hydes, and 
Burgate its woods and pasture, which maintained forty hogs, taken into 
the Forest ; but Charford with its ninety-one acres of meadow-land, seems 
not to have been afforested, which, taken with other instances, shows that 
the best land was, as a rule, spared. 

120 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

did not destroy every church in the district, stands inside the 
south porch. A piscina, and brackets for images, still remain in 
the chancel. 

Eeturning to Fordingbridge we pass through Burgate, 
formerly belonging to Beaulieu Abbey, where the dogs of the 
Lord of the Manor, like those of the Abbot of the Monastery, 
were allowed to go " unlawed." The base of the old village 
cross still remains, but the head was, not long ago, broken to 
pieces to mend the roads. 

Our way from Fordingbridge lies by the side of the Avon, 
with the new chapel of Hyde or Hungerford standing on the top 
of the Forest range of hills. The road soon brings us to 
Ibbesley, the prettiest of villages in the Valley, with its cottages 
by the road-side, and their gardens of roses and poppies and 
sweet pease, and their porches thatched with honeysuckle. Three 
great elms overhang the river, spanned by the single arch of 
its bridge ; whilst the stream pours sparkling and foaming over 
the weir into the water-meadows, and in the distance the tower 
of Harbridge rises out from its trees. 

The sketch which is given at the end of this chapter is taken 
lower down in the fields, and shows another view not so well 
known. But the whole river is here full of beauty, winding, 
scarce knowing where, among the flat meadows, one stream 
flowing one way, and one another, and then all suddenly uniting, 
coming up with their joined force against the steep banks, dark 
in the shade of the trees ; and, being repulsed, flowing away 
again into the meadows, white with flocks of swans, and fenced 
in by green hedges of rushes and yellow flags. 

Going on we reach the avenue of elms which brings us to 
the Ellingham cross roads. Turning up the lane to the left we 
presently come to Moyles Court, just on the boundary of the 

Alice Lisle. 121 

Forest, looking out upon the woods of Newlyns and Chartley. 
Here lived Alice Lisle, and here are shown the hiding-places 
where, after the battle of Sedgemoor, she concealed Hicks and 
Nelthorpe. The fine old house, after having been for a long 
time utterly neglected, has, I am glad to say, been put in 
repair, and is now cared for by its owner as such a 
monument of the past deserves to be. The private chapel, 
remains, with its panelling and carved string-course of heads, 
and its "Ecce Homo" over the place where the altar once 

The story of Alice Lisle needs not to be told. She was 
found guilty of high treason not by the jury, but by the judge, 
the infamous Jeffreys, and was condemned, for an act of 
Christian kindness, to worse than a felon's death. 

In Ellingham churchyard, close to the south porch, stands 
a plain brick tomb under which she, and her daughter Anne 
Kartell, lie, with the simple words, " Alicia Lisle dyed the 
second of September, 1685 ; " and round the tomb, weaving 
its ever green chaplet, grows the little rue-leaved spleenwort. 

But another monument has been raised to her in our 
Houses of Parliament. In the Commons' corridor she stands, 
bent with age, resting on her staff; whilst opposite is another 
Englishwoman of whom we may be proud, Jane Lane, who, 
in her loyalty, would as willingly have sacrificed herself for one 
of the most ungrateful of princes, as Alice Lisle for the poor 

* In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1828, vol. 98, part ii., p. 17, is a 
sketch of the house, taken fifty years ago, which, with the exception of 
some parts now pulled down, much resembles its present condition. Alice 
Lisle is there stated to have been the daughter and co-heiress of Sir White 
Beconsawe, knt. of Moyles Court. 


122 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

And about eight miles away, across the Avon, in Dorsetshire, 
between two fields on Woodlands Farm, runs an old-fashioned 
double hedge, the central ditch choked up with hazel, and 
holly, and the common brake. About midway down, half in 
the ditch and half in the hedge, stands a pollarded ash, 
now bored into holes by the woodpeckers. This is Monmouth's 
Ash, and close to it, in the ditch, the duke, the miserable 
cause of so much misery, was seized, hid among the fern and 

To the ecclesiologist the little church of Ellingham 
(Adeling's hamlet) is full of interest. Within stands the old 
covered carved pew of Moyles Court, and a monument to one 
of its former owners. The plain rood-screen, with the stand 
for the hour-glass, and the marks of the pulpit still remain, 
formerly, as we can still see, painted blue like the chancel. On 
the south wall traces of the staircase to the rood-loft, as well 
as the entrance from the outside-, are also still visible. In the 
chancel the Early-English windows have been sadly mutilated. 
Over the communion-table hangs a picture of the Day of 
Judgment, plundered from some church in Port St. Mary, in 
the Bay of Cadiz, whose bad execution is only exceeded by its 
indecent materialism. In the south chancel wall is a double 
piscina. On the walls above the rood-screen, the twenty-first 
verse of the twenty-fourth chapter of Proverbs, and the twenty- 

* Monmouth, like a second Warbeck, was in all probability on his way 
through the Forest to Lymington, where Dore, the mayor, had raised for 
him a troop of men, and would assist him to embark. At Axminster, in 
Dorsetshire, there is a local MS. record, " Ecclesiastica, or the Book of 
Remembrance" made by some member of the Axminster Independent 
Chapel, of the sufferings of Monmouth's followers, which appears to have 
been unknown to Macaulay. 

Ringwood Church. 123 

fourth verse of the third chapter of Galatians, according to the 
version of the Geneva Bible, are roughly painted.* 

As in all the other churches of the district, the church- 
wardens have here from time to time shown their natural 
attachment to ugliness. The Early-English triplet at the east 
end has heen blocked up, the gravestones in the chancel defaced, 
and a brick porch patched on at the south side. 

The road now winds on by low water-meadows, pastured by 
herds of cattle, past Blashford Green, till we reach Ringwood, 
the Rinwede of Domesday.^ Here, at the Grammar School, 
was Stillingfleet educated. Here Monmouth wrote his three 
craven letters to James, the Queen Dowager, and the Lord 
Treasurer, imploring them to save that life which it was a 
disgrace to own. 

The old church has been pulled down, and a new one, 
modelled in every particular after it, has been built on its site. 
A church ought doubtless to tell its own date by its style. Yet 
it is far better that we should copy a moderately good speci- 

* There was formerly a cell here, subordinate to the Abbey of Saint 
Saviour le Vicomte in Normandy, to which it was given by William de 
Solariis, A.D. 1163, but dissolved by Henry VI., and its revenues annexed 
to Eton. Tanner's Notitia Mbnastica< Hants., No. xii. See, also, Dug- 
dale's Monasticon Anglicanum, Ed. 1830, vol. vi., part, ii., p. 1046. 

f Same edition as before, p. iv. a. The entry is remarkably interesting. 
Out of its ten hydes, four were taken into the Forest. In the six which 
were left, there dwelt fifty-six villeins, twenty-one borderers, six serfs, 
and one freeman. There were here 105 acres of meadow, a mill which 
paid 22s., and a church with half a hyde of land. On the four hydes 
which were taken into the Forest, fourteen villeins, and six borderers, who 
had seven ploughlands, used to dwell. How very much the woodland 
preponderated over the arable we may tell by the additional entry, that 
the woods maintained 189 hogs, whilst a mill in that part was only assessed 
at 30d., which facts may help us to form some opinion of the kind of soil 
that was in general afforested. The meadows, as usual, were not touched. 

R 2 

124 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

men than increase the number of modern abortions. At all 
events, this is faithfully restored, though utterly spoilt by the 
heavy galleries which flank it on every side. The Early-English 
chancel, with its recessed arcade, springing from polished shafts 
of black Purbeck marble, well shows the beauty of the original 
design ; whilst, on the chancel floor, lies a fine brass of the 
'fifteenth century to John Prophete, which, however, has been 
most shamefully defaced. The body is robed in a cope broidered 
with figures of saints St. Michael, and the Virgin and Child, 
St. Peter and St. Paul, St. Catharine and St. Faith, St. George 
and St. Wenefride. The head, with the hood thrown back, 
rests on a cushion, whilst the cope is clasped with a morse, 
enriched with an effigy of the Saviour, crowned with a halo of 

The Avon at Ibbealey. 

Road from JRingwood. 




Tjrrrel's Ford. 

AFTER we leave Ringwood the road for a mile or two is less 
attractive in its scenery. Still, here, as in every part of 
England, there is something to be seen and learnt. The Avon 
flows close by, famous for a peculiar eel, locally called the 
" sniggle" (Anguilla mediorostris) , which differs from its common 
congener (acutirostris) in its slender form and elongated under-jaw, 

126 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

and its habits of roving and feeding by day.* The river has, also, 
like some of the Norwegian streams, the peculiarity of forming 
ground ice.f For the botanist, along the hedge banks, the blue 
and slate-coloured soapwort is growing throughout the summer 
and autumn, with purple cat-mint and wild clary. In the 
waste places the thorn-apple shows its white blossoms ; whilst 
red stacks of fern and black turf ricks stand by every cottage 
door to remind us how close we are to the Forest. 

After we pass Bisterne,J the road becomes more interesting. 
To our right rises the range of St. Catherine's Hills, where 
remain the mounds of watch-towers and the traces of a camp 
and also of a chapel. Presently we come to Avon-Tyrrel and 
the blacksmith's forge, built on the spot where Tiril's horse 
is said to have been shod, and which pays a yearly fine of three 
pounds and ten shillings to Government. 

The actual Ford itself is some little way from the road. 
Round it stretch meadows, with strong coarse grass and sedgy 
weeds, branches of the Avon winding here and there, fringed by 
willows, the main stream flowing out broad and strong, with 
islands of osiers and rushes, where still breed wild duck and 
teal, the whole backed by the gloom of St. Catherine's Hills 
crested by their darker pines. The old road, used now only by 
the turf-cutters, crossing the former mill-brook, follows the bed of 
one of the many streams, till, reaching the river at its widest 

* See Yarrell's History of British Fishes, vol. ii. pp. 399-40 1. 

t On this phenomenon, see Lyell's Antiquity of Man, p. 139. 

} The Ordnance map here falls into an error, placing Sandford a mile 
too far to the south ; whilst it omits the neighbouring village of Beckley, 
the Beceslei of Domesday, and "The Great Horse," a clump of firs, so called 
from its shape, a well-known landmark in the Forest, and to the ships at 
sea, as also ' ; Darrat," or " Derrit " Lane. 

Sopley Church. 

part, it bends across, gaining a lane on the opposite side, which 
leads away past Ramsdown into Dorsetshire, and along which 
tradition says the knight rode to Poole. 

The next village we reach is Sopley, that is the soc leag, land 
with the liberty of holding a court of socmen ; just as the 
neighbouring village is called Boghamton (boclandj, the village 
of the charter-land, or, as we should now say, freehold. Its 
interesting little cruciform church, Early-English and Perpen- 
dicular, is dedicated to St. Michael. The Avon flows below, 
and the old manor-house, now a mere cottage, stands in an 
adjoining meadow. On the deep north porch rests the arch- 
angel, on a corbel head. The fine old oak roof of the nave 
was covered up some sixty or seventy years ago by a plastered 
ceiling ; but the corbel figures, playing the double pipe and 
viol, are still standing. In the north aisle are the heads of 
Edward III. and his queen. Two brackets for images project 
from the window in the north transept, whose jambs, now 
whitewashed over, were once painted with frescoes of the 
mystical vine, in green and red. Here, in the north wall, 
too, is an aumbrie, whilst the broken stone stairs to the rood- 
loft still remain. In the south transept a hagioscope, now 
walled up, looked into the chancel, where, on the floor, lie 
two Early Decorated figures, formerly placed in tombs under 
the rood-loft, and traditionally said to have been brought from 
a church at Ripley. In the east window burns the fiery beacon 
of the Comptons. 

Here, too, the whole of the church has been most impar- 
tially, and, I may add, successfully defaced. Everywhere has a 
snowstorm of whitewash fallen. I know not why we in these 
days should think that God delights in ugliness. Our fore- 
fathers at least thought not so. It would be well if for a 

128 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

moment we would consider how He adorns his own house, leads 
the green arabesque of ivy over its walls, and brightens the 
roof with the silver rays of mosses, and crowns each buttress 
with the aureole of the lichen. 

Leaving Sopley, we come to Winkton, the Weringetone of 
Domesday, where stood two mills, which were rented, as we 
have seen was often the case, by a payment of eels. 

The views here are full of quiet beauty ; the river winding 
along between its green walls of rushes, set with white and 
purple comfrey and yellow loosestrife, flowing into the darkness 
of the trees, and then again coming out by meadows, across 
which rises the Priory Church of Christchurch, standing out 
clear and sharp against the dark mass of Hengistbury Head. 

The Avon at 

The Interest in our Towns, 




The Priory Church from the Castle Keep. 

I HAVE determined to give a chapter to Chris tchurch, not 
because it contains more than many another town, but because 
it is a fair representative of the generality of small English 
boroughs. There is not a town in England, dating from even the 
Middle Ages, which is not full of interest peculiarly its own, and 
which does not possess memorials of the past which no other place 
can show. It has been proposed, by a no mean authority, to 
teach history by paintings and cartoons. But history is already 


1 BO The New Forest . its History and its Scenery. 

painted for us on our city walls, and written for us upon our 
gates and crumbling castles. Our towns are in themselves 
the best texts upon history. For what we have seen with 
our eyes, and touched with our hands, leaves a more vivid 
and more lasting impression than the closest study of libraries 
of histories. 

Further, the picture of a mediaeval town, as given in its own 
archives, with its own legislation, its peculiar manufacture, or 
import, forms, to some extent, the true social picture of the 
times. Its history reflects and not faintly the history of the 
day. Christchurch was never a town of sufficient importance to 
show all this in its municipal records. Yet, too, we shall see 
that they in another way are, like the town itself, full of interest. 
From a modern point of view there is nothing to be seen beyond 
three or four straggling streets and its manufactory of fusee 
watch-chains the only one in England. All its interest and 
associations lie with the past. The country round it, too, is 
equally bound up with that same past. To the north rises 
St. Catherine's Hill, which we saw from the valley of the Avon, 
with its oval and square camps, and rampart and double vallum, 
crested with the mounds of its Roman watch-towers. The 
river Stour winds along between rows of barrows. Hengist- 
bury Head is still fortified by its vast earthworks, and entrenched 
by deep ditches from the Avon to the sea.* Here the Britons 
saw the first swarm of fugitive Belg& land and spread themselves 
along the rich valleys of Dorsetshire. f Here, centuries after- 

* In Archaologia, vol. v. pp. 337-40, is a description, illustrated with 
a plan of these entrenchments, together with the adjoining barrows, must of 
which have been opened, but the accounts are very scanty and unsatisfactory. 

f See Dr. Guest on the " Belgic Ditches," vol. viii. of the 
Journal* D. 145. 

Before and after the Norman Conquest. 131 

wards, the West- Saxons watched the raven - standard of the 
Danes scouring down the Channel, and knew their course along 
the coast, at night, by the blaze of burning villages, and, in the 
day, by the black trail of smoke.* 

But to return to the town. Its Old-English names, Tweonea 
and Twinham-burn, were given to it from its situation between 
the rivers Avon and Stour. They were afterwards corrupted 
into the Norman Thuinam; which was lost in the name of 
its Priory, overshadowing the town with its magnificence. 

Here, in 901, came JEthelwald the ^Etheling, son of ^thered, 
in his rebellion against his cousin Edward the Elder, and seized 
the place. From Christchurch he fell back upon Wimborne, which 
lie fortified, exclaiming he would do one of two things, "Either 
there live, or there lie." That same night he fled to 
Northumberland . f 

From Domesday we find that its manor was held in demesne 
by the Conqueror, as also by Edward the Confessor, with a mill 
renting for 5s., whilst another, belonging to the Church, was 
worth but 3(M., and that thirty-one tenements in the borough 
paid a rent of IGdL Its woods, only, were inclosed in the 

The manor remained in the hands of the Crown till Henry I. 
bestowed it on his friend and kinsman Richard de Redvers, 
Earl of Devon, the ruins of whose castle still overlook the 

* Gibson, in his edition of The Chronicle in the " nominum locorum 
explicatio," p. 50, seems to think that Yttingaford, where peace was made 
between the Danes and Edward, was somewhere in the New Forest, deriving 
the word from Ytene, the old name of the district. Mr. Thorpe, however, 
in his translation of The Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 77, suggests that it may be 

f The Chronicle, Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 178. Florence of Worcester, 
Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. pp. 117, 118. 

S 2 

132 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Avon. Here his son Baldwin de Kedvers in vain fortified himself 
against Stephen. Here, too, lived his grandson William de 
Vernon, who helped to bear the canopy at Richard's second 
coronation at Winchester. Afterwards, the manor passed into 
the hands of Isabella de Fortibus, who, on her death-bed, sold 
it, with all her possessions, to Edward I., who well knew the 
value of. such a stronghold. Though Edward II. bestowed the 
estate on Sir William Montacute, yet the castle still remained 
in the hands of the Crown. 

It was standing, though no longer a fortification, in the 
Commonwealth period. Nothing, however, now remains but 
the mere shell of the keep, whose walls are in places four yards 

Below it stands what was, perhaps, the house of Baldwin 
de Redvers, also in ruins, and roofless, but still a capital speci- 
men of what is so rarely seen, the true domestic architecture 
of the twelfth century. Like all the other remaining houses of 
this period, it is a simple oblong, seventy-one feet by twenty-four 
broad, and only two stories high, placed for defence on a branch 
of the Avon, which serves as a moat. On the south-east it is 

* Grose, in his Antiquities (vol. ii., under Christchurch Castle), gives the 
following curious extract from a survey, dated Oct. 1656, concerning the 
duties of Sir Henry Wallop, the governor : " Mem. : the constable of the 
castle or his deputy, upon the apprehension of any felon within the liberty 
of West Stowesing, to receive the said felon, and convey him to the justice, 
and to the said jail, at his own proper costs and charges; otherwise the 
tything-man to bring the said felon, and chain him to the castle-gate, and 
there to leave him. Cattle impounded in the castle, having hay and water 
for twenty hours, to pay fourpence per foot." The fee of the Constable in 
the reign of Elizabeth was 8/ 0*. 9d. Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. i., 
book ii.. part. 5, p. 71. In the Chamberlain's Books of Christchurch we are 
constantly meeting with some such entry as, " 1564, ffor the castel rent for 
ij yeres xiijs. \d." " 1593, ffor the chiefe rent to the castel vi*. xi<tf. 

The Norman House. 133 

flanked by a small attached tower, now in ruins, under which 
the stream flows. The ground floor was divided in half by a 
wall, whilst the outer walls, thicker on the east and south sides, 
where more exposed to attacks than on the north and west, are 
pierced with deeply- splayed loopholes looking out on the stream. 
On this side was the hall, where lord, and guest, and serf, alike 
ate and drank, and slept on the floor. The other western half 
was divided into chambers and cellars, the kitchen probably 
standing in the courtyard. 


The Norman House. 

Above, approached by two stone staircases from within, and 
not, as in most cases, from without, was the principal dwelling- 
room, the solar, lighted on each side by three double lights, 
carved on their outer arches with zig-zag and billet mouldings, 
and on the south by a circular, and on the north by a fine 
double window, once richly ornamented, but now nearly destroyed. 
The fire-place, the only one in the house, is set nearly in the 
centre of the east wall ; and above it still stands, in the place of 
the old smoke -vent, the beautiful round chimney, one of the 
earliest in England, like the fire-place, hid in ivy. 

134 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

There seems, however, as in the case of the still older 
Norman house at Southampton, to have been no wall-passage 
connecting the building, as we might have expected, with the 
castle ; but like it, its entrances, of which there were three, 
one opening out upon the stream, were on the ground floor.* 

Coming down to later times, the great Lord Clarendon here 
possessed large property, and one of his favourite schemes was 
to make the Avon navigable to Salisbury. For this purpose it 
was surveyed by Yarranton, the hydrographer, who not only 
reported favourably of the idea, but proposed to make the harbour 
an anchorage for men-of-war, bringing forward the great natural 
advantages of Hengistbury Head, as also the facilities of pro- 
curing iron in the district, and wood from the New Forest, f 
All, however, fell to the ground with Clarendon's exile, and 
the harbour is now silted up with sand and choked with weeds. 

Nothing else is there to be mentioned, except the visit by 
Edward VI. to the town, from whence he wrote a letter to 
his friend Barnaby Fitz -Patrick, far superior to most royal 
letters. The lazar-house, which stood in the Bargates, has long 
since been destroyed. The old market-place has been lately 
taken down ; but in the main street, not far from the castle 
keep, remains, lately restored, one of those timbered houses 

* Descriptions of it will be found in Hudson Turner's Domestic Archi- 
tecture of England, vol. i. pp 38, 39. Parker's Glossary of Architecture, 
vol. i. p. 167 Grose's Antiquities, vol. ii. Hampshire; in whose time it 
appears to have been cased with dressed stones. In the Chamberlain's 
Books of the Borough, under the date of the sixth year of Edward VI., 
1553, we meet with repairs "for the house next the castle," which entry 
probably refers to some buildings belonging to the house, which, according 
to Grose, stretched away in a north-westerly direction to the castle. 

f England's Improvements by Sea and Land. By Andrew Yarranton, 
Ed. 1677, pp, 67. 70. 

The Chamberlain's Books. 135 

so common in the Midland counties and the Weald of Kent, 
with their dormer windows and richly-carved bressumers and 
barge-boards, but rarer in the West of England.* The glory, 
however, of the town, the Priory Church, still stands. Before 

* As we have said, the muniment chest of the Christchurch Corporation, 
like that of all similar towns, is full of interest. It contains absolutions from 
Archbishops to all those who assist in the ,~ood work of making bridges; 
letters from absolute patrons directing their clients which way to vote ; 
bonds from others that they will nut require any payment from the 
burgesses, or put the borough to any expense ; old privileges of catching 
eels and lampreys with "Iyer," and "hurdells de virgis," by all of which 
the past is brought before us. So, too, the Chamberlain's Books are most 
interesting. From them we can learn, year by year, the prices of wheat 
and cattle, the fluctuation of wages, the average condition of the day, 
and both the minutest outward events as also the innermost life of the 
town. The true social history of England is written for us in our Chamber- 
lain's Books. They have unfortunately never been made use of as they 
deserve. Thus let me give a few general quotations from those of Christ- 
church. In 1578 lime was 6d. a bushel, from which price it fell within two 
years to 2d. Stone for building we find about Is. a ton. Wages then 
averaged, for a skilled mechanic, from 7d. to Is. a day, and for a labourer, 
4d. ; whilst night-watchmen, in 1597, were only paid 2d. Timber, con- 
trary to what we should have expected, was comparatively dear. Thus 
in 1588 we find 9d. paid for two posts, and 20d. for a plank and two posts, 
whilst a few years afterwards a shilling is paid for making a, new gate. Of 
course in all these calculations we must bear in mind that money was then 
three times its present value. Turning to other matters, we learn that m 
1595, "a pottle of claret wine and sugar" cost 2s., whilst a quart 
of sack is only 12e?. In 1582, a quart of " whyte wine " is 5d., and twenty 
years before this a barrel and a half of beer cost 4d. Again, in 1562, the 
fourth year of Elizabeth, large salmon, whose weights are not specified, 
appear to have averaged 7d, a piece. A load of straw for thatching came 
to 2*. 6e?., and in some cases 3s., which in 1550 had been as low as 87., and 
never above 20of. Drawing it, or passing it through a machine, cost 4d. ; 
whilst a thatcher received Is. 4d. for his labour of putting it on the roof. 

At the same time a load of clay, either for making mortar or for the actual 
material of the walls, the "cob," or "pug" of the provincial dialect, was 

136 The Neio Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

describing it let us give some account of its history. Its earliest 
buildings were founded by some of the secular canons of the 
order of St. Augustine, probably on a spot used for worship by 
the Eomans.* Mention of it is made in Domesday as existing 
in Edward the Confessor's reign, and as possessing five hydes 
and one yardland in Thuinam, as also its tithes, and the third 
of those of Holdenhurst.f The present building, however, dates 
only from the time of Flambard, who rebuilt the church, pulling 
down the earlier building with its nine cells.J And in Henry I.'s 
reign, Baldwin de Kedvers brought in the regular instead of the 
secular canons, and placed them under the first prior, Keginald. 
With this change new privileges and grants were made. 
Kiches flowed in on every side. Not only were the Redvers 

5d., a price at which it had stood with some slight variations for many 

To conclude, the smallest things are noted. Thus a thousand " peats," 
perhaps brought from the Forest, cost, in 1562, 15e?., whilst a load of 
" fursen," still the local plural of furse, perhaps also from the same place, 
was 8d. Nothing in these accounts escapes notice. In 1586 a "coking 
stole," the well-known cathedra stercoris, the Old-English " scealfing-stol," 
is charged 10t/ ; whilst a collar, or, as it is elsewhere in the same book 
called, " an iron choker for vagabonds," cost 14d 

* In Arcfuzologia, vol. iv. pp. 117, 118, is a letter from Brander, the 
geologist and antiquary, describing a quantity of spurs and bones of herons, 
bitterns and cocks, found on a part of the monastic buildings, showing that 
the site had been previously occupied. 

| Holdenhurst had ten hydes and a half taken into the Forest (Domes- 
day, as before, iv. a). It then possessed a small church, and, as we find 
one mentioned in the charter of Richard de Redvers in Henry I.'s 
reign, we may fairly conclude that this, too, was not destroyed by the 
Conqueror. There were also there fisheries for the use of the hall. 

J Cartulanum Monasterii de Christchurch Twinham. Brit. Mus., Cott. 
MSS., Tib. D. vi., parsii., f 194 a. This chartulary was much injured in 
the fire of 1731, but has been restored by Sir F. Madden. Quoted in 
Dugdale's Monasticon Anghcanum, vol. vi. p. 303, Ed. 1830. 

The Dissolution of the Priory. 137 

benefactors, but the Courtenays, and Wests, and Salisbury's, into 
whose hands the manor of Christchurch came.* 

Like most other ecclesiastical buildings, we hear but little 
of it till its dissolution. From its state we may be able to 
judge of the general condition of the monasteries, and how 
imperative was the change. 

Leland f tells us that the Priory possessed but one volume 
a small work on the Old-English laws. Their own accounts 
show us that the rules of St. Augustine had long been forgotten. 
Drunkenness had taken the place of fasting ; and instead of giving 
they now owed.J Tradition, too, adds that the brethren were 
known in the town as the "Priory Lubbers." To this had the 
Austin Canons sank. So it was throughout England. Abbot 
and poorest brother were alike steeped in sensuality, and be- 
nighted in ignorance. 

Of the last prior, John Draper, we catch some faint glimpse 
in a letter from Robert Southwell and four other commissioners 
to Cromwell, dated from Christchurch, the 2nd of December. 
He appears to have been a man who trimmed his course with 

* For further information, especially on the fortunes of the De Redvers 
family, and minor details, which I think would hardly interest the general 
reader, see Brayley's and Ferrey's work on the Priory of Christchurch, 
London, 1834, pp. 6. 11. 22 : and Warner's South-west Parts of Hampshire, 
vol. ii. pp. 55-65, which, notwithstanding some errors, is a most painstaking 

f Collectanea de Rebus Britannicis, Ed. Hearne, vol. iv. p. 149. 

I The possessions of the house were large, and brought in above 600/. a 
year. Yet we find that the brethren were in debt in every direction. At 
Poole, Salisbury, and Christchurch, they owed 411. Ws. 6d. for mere neces- 
saries. There was due 24/. 2s. Sd. to the Recorder of Southampton for 
wine : and a bill of 8/. 13s. 2d. to a merchant of Poole, for " wine, fish, and 
here." Certificate of Monasteries, No. 494, p. 48. Record Office. Quoted by 
Brayley and Ferrey, Appendix No. vi., pp. 9, 10. 


138 The New Forest its History and its Scenery. 

the breath of authority, utterly selfish, utterly despicable. Not 
one word does he appear to have raised on behalf of his priory. 
Not one sigh did he utter for the old, nor one aspiration after 
the new religion. Thus the commissioners write: "Our 
humble dewties observyd unto y r gudde Lordeschippe. It 
may lyke the same to be advertised that we have taken the 
surrender of the late priorye of Christ Churche twynhm, wher 
we founde the prior a very honest, conformable pson, And the 
howse well furnysshede w* Jewellys and plate, whereof som be 
mete for the King 8 majestie is use as A litill chalys of golde, a 
gudly lardge crossc doble gylt, w l the foote garnyshyd w* stone 
and perle, two gudly basuns doble gylt having the Kings armys 
well inamyld, a gudiy great pyxe for the sacramet doble gylt, And 
ther be also other things of sylv, right honest and of gudde 
valewe as well for the churche use as for the table resyvyd, and 
kept to the Kings use." * Before the Dissolution came, whilst 
matters still trembled in the balance whilst still there was hope 
that Protection would, for a little time longer, be given to hypo- 
crisy, and Authority to sloth, he pleaded with Henry.f Now, when 
all hope was lost, when the end had arrived, the commissioners 
compliment him as the " very honest, conformable person." 
Had he previously been in earnest they must have written very 
differently. By his conformity he purchased his peace. And 
so, after giving up his priory, he was allowed to depart with a 
pension, to finish his life as he pleased, at the Prior's Lodgings 
at Sumerford Grange. There he died ; and was buried in front 
of what had been his own choir ; and his chantry still remains in 
the south choir aisle. Of the conventual .buildings, which stood 

* Brit. Mus., Bihl. Cott., Cleopatra, E. iv., f. 324 b. 
f "Petition of John Draper." Amongst the Miscellaneous MSS. of 
the Treasury of the Exchequer, Record Office. 

The Norman Work on the Outside. 139 

on the south side of the church, nothing remains except the 
fragments of the outer wall and the entrance lodge, built by 
Draper, with his initials still carved on the window label. A 
modern house stands on the site of the Befectory ; and in 
digging its foundations, some tombs of the fourth century were 
found.* Other traces remain only in the names of the places, 
as Paradise Walk, by the side of the mill stream, and the 
Convent meadows, where, in an adjoining field, are the sites 
of the fishponds of the brethren. 

The church stands at the south-west of the town, on a rising 
ground between the two rivers, its tower alike a seamark to the 
ships and a landmark to the Valley. But the first thing which 
strikes the visitor is not so much the tower, as the deep, 
massive north porch, standing right out from the main building, 
reaching to its roof, with its high-recessed arch, and its rich 
doorways dimly seen, set between clusters of black Purbeck 
marble pillars, and ornamented above with a quatrefoiled niche. 

Standing here, and looking along the north aisle, the eye rests 
on the Norman work of the transept, the low round arches inter- 
lacing one another, their spandrels rich with billet and fishscale 
mouldings ; whilst beyond rises the Norman turret, banded with 
its three string-courses, and enriched with its arcades, the space 
between them netted over with coils of twisted cables. 

This is true Norman work, such as you can see scarcely any- 
where else in England. And imagine what the church once 
was a massive lantern -tower springing up from the midst, the 
crown of all this beauty. 

Beyond all this lovely Komanesque work, rises the north 
choir aisle, with its quatrefoiled parapet, whilst above gleam 

* Archceologia, vol. v. pp. 224-29. 
T 2 

140 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

the traceried windows of the choir, with their flying buttresses ; 
and heyond them again stands the Lady Chapel, surmounted by 
St. Michael's loft, ugly and vile. 

Entering, and standing at the extreme south-west end, we 
shall see the massive Norman piers rise in long lines, lightened 
by their columns, and relieved by their capitals, the spaces 
above each arch moulded with the tooth ornament. Above 
springs the triforium with its double arches, some of their pillars 
wreathed with foliage, the central shafts chequered in places 
with network, and woven over with tracery. Above that again 
runs the clerestory, now spoilt, whilst an open oak roof, hid by a 
ceiling, but once rich with bosses and carved work, encloses all. 

To go into details. The porch and north aisle are Early- 
English, whilst a Norman arcade runs the whole length of the 
south aisle. The tower, and choir, and Lady Chapel, are Per- 
pendicular, and the nave, as far as the clerestory windows, 

Passing through the rich rood-screen, which, however, sadly 
blocks up the way, we reach the choir, with its four traceried 
windows on either side, and clustered columns, from which 
springs its groined roof with bosses of foliage and pendants 
bright with gold, whilst the capitals of the shafts and the 
quatrefoils of the archivolts are rich with colour. The stalls 
are carved with grotesque heads and figures, like those in the 
Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, at Stratford-upon-Avon. 
Before us now stands the lovely reredos, illustrating the words 
of Isaiah, " There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of 
Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots." Jesse sleeps 
at the bottom, his hand supporting his head, whilst David, with 
his fingers on his harp-strings, and Solomon, sit on each side, 
the vine spreading upwards, bearing its leaf and full fruit in 

The Eeredos and Salisbury Chapel. 141 

Mary, to whose Son the Wise Men are offering their presents. 
Such is the screen, and had the execution been equal to the 
design, it would have been the finest in England. The carving 
seems, however, never to have been finished, and certainly in 
parts only to have been roughly cut by some inferior hand, and 
never to have received the last touches of the master-artist. 
Even now, in its present condition, it stands before those of 
Winchester and St. Alban's, inferior only to that of St. Mary's 


Passing on we come to the Lady Chapel, with its traceried 
roof. Under the east window are the remnants of another rich 
screen. The high altar, too, with its slab of Purbeck marble 
cut with five crosses, remains, whilst two recessed altar tombs 
to Sir Thomas West and his mother stand in the north and 
south walls. 

But what we should especially see, both for its beauty and 
its interest, is the Chantry Chapel, built for her last resting- 
place by Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, mother of Cardinal 
Pole. It stands in the north choir aisle, its roof rich with 
arabesque tracery and carved bosses, telling a curious story in 
our English history. Attainted of treason the Countess was 
confined two years in the Tower before she suffered. When the 
day of execution came, she walked out on the fatal Tower Green ; 
and still firm still to the last resolute refused to lay her head 
on the block. " So should traitors do," she cried, " but I am 

* I know nothing equal to this last screen in the delicacy of its carving, 
seen in bracket, and canopy, and the flights of angels ; in the deep feeling 
especially manifest in the central bracket, with the Saviour's head crowned 
with thorns, but surrounded with fruit and flowers, typical of His sufferings 
and the world's benefits ; and in the grave humour, not out of place, as 
allegorical of the world's pursuits, which peeps forth in the figures over the 
two doorways. 

142 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

none ; " and the headsman was obliged to butcher her as best he 

In the same letter before quoted from the Commissioners lor 
the Suppression of Monasteries, dated from Christchurch, occurs 
this passage : "In thys churche we founde a chaple and monu- 
met curiosly made of cane [Caen] stone pparyd by the late 
mother of Kaynolde pole for herre buriall, wiche we have causyd 
to be defacyd, and all the armys and badgis clerly to be delete. "f 
To this day the vengeance of Henry's commissioners is visible, 
her arms being broken, and the bosses defaced, though her 
motto, " Spes mea in Deo est," can still be read. 

At the end of this aisle, under the east window, lie the 
alabaster effigies of Sir John Chydioke and his wife. The 
knight, who fell in the wars of York and Lancaster, wears 
his coat of mail, his head resting on his helmet, and his hands 
clasped together in prayer. At the western end, adjoining the 
north transept, stand two oratories with groined roofs, enriched 
with foliated bosses, whilst the capitals, from which the arches 
spring, are carved with heads 4 

In the south choir aisle stand more monuments, amongst 
them the mortuary chapel of Kobert Harys, with his rebus 

* Lord Herbert's Life and Reyne of King Henry VIII., p. 468. 1649. 
See, however, Froude: History of England, vol. iv. p. 119, foot-note. 

f The year, as was generally the case, is not given to this letter, but 
simply December 2nd. From internal evidence, however, it was certainly 
written in 1539 j for we know that the Priory was surrendered Nov. 28th 
of that year. Why, then, two years before her death, the commissioners 
should speak of the " late mother of Raynolde pole " I know not. 

| Below the north transept, part, perhaps, of Edward the Confessor's 
church, is a vault, which, when opened, was stacked with bones, like the 
carnary crypts at Grantham, in Lincolnshire, and of the beautiful church at 
Rothwell, in Northamptonshire the "skull houses," to which we so often 
find reference in the old churchwardens' books. 

The former Beauty of the Church. 143 

sculptured on a shield ; and the chapel of Draper, the last 
prior, noticeable lor its rich canopied niche over the doorway.* 

And now that the reader has seen each part, let him go 
back to the west end, and sweep out of sight the whole thicket 
of pews, and break down the rood-screen blocking up the 
view, and looking through and beyond it, past the long line 
of Norman bays, with their sculptured tables, and past the 
chancel, imagine the stone reredos, as it once was, shining 
with gold and colour, all its niches filled "with statues, and the 
windows above blazing with crimson and purple, through which 
the sunlight poured, staining the carved stalls and misereres, 
and then he will have some faint idea of the former glory 
of the church, f 

Most interesting is it, too, from another point of view. 
Since the Austin canons were more especially concerned with 
man's struggle in daily life, their churches assumed a parochial 

* In the south choir aisle the broken sculptures represent the Epiphany, 
Assumption, and Coronation of the Virgin. Little can be said in praise of 
any of the modern monuments. The best are Flaxman's " Viscountess 
Fitzharris and her three Children," and Weekes's " Death of Shelley." Some 
of the others should never have been permitted to be erected, especially 
those which disfigure the Salisbury chapel. The new stained window at 
the west end adds very much to the beauty of the church. 

f For further details the student of architecture should consult 
Mr. Brayley and Mr. Ferrey's work, before referred to, of which a new 
edition is much needed, as also Mr. Ferrey's paper in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for Dec., 1861, p. 607, on the naves of Christchurch and Durham 
Cathedral, both built by Flambard, and a paper on the rood-screen 
in the Archaeological Journal, vol. v- p. 142 ; and also a paper read at 
Winchester, September, 1845, before the Archaeological Institute, on Christ- 
church Priory Church, by Mr. Beresford Hope, and published in the 
Proceedings of the Society, 1846. An excellent little handbook, by the 
Rev. Makenzie Walcott, the Honorary Secretary of the Christchurch 
Archaeological Association, may be obtained in the town. 

1.44 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

character. Hence we here have the spacious nave, so different 
to that of the old Nunnery Church of Bomsey, the west tower 
and doorway absent at Romsey and the lovely north porcn 
looking out to the town. 

The whole building, I am sorry to add, is sadly out of 
repair. Restoration has been going on for some time past ; but 
here, as in all similar cases, money is much needed. Surely 
men might give something, if from no higher motive than of 
keeping up a memorial of the piety of a past age. We inveigh 
against Cromwell and the Puritans against the sacrilege of 
horses stabled in the choir, and the stalls turned into mangers; 
against the sword which struck down the sculptured images, 
and the fire which consumed the carved woodwork. But the 
harm which the Puritans wrought is little compared with ours, 
in allowing the loveliness of our churches to rot by our negli- 
gence, and their sacredness to perish by our apathy. 

The North Porch and Doorway. 

The Old South-Western Sea-Coast. 




Che'W'ton Glen. 

LITTLE 1ms been seen of the sea, except from Calshot Castle 
to Leap, Though, too, the sea-coast here, as there, is no 


.146 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

longer in the Forest, jet if we miss this walk we shall lose 
some of the most beautiful scenery in the district. 

As we leave Christchurch by the Lymington Road, Mudeford 
lies on the right, and Burton, with its Staple Cross, on the left. 
Few things are more touching than these old grey relics of the 
past, standing solitary in our cross-roads, the dial united with 
the Cross, to show both how short was man's life, and where 
lay his only salvation. But we now profane them, and turn 
them, as here, into direction posts, or break them up, as at 
Burgate, to mend the road. 

Both villages will some day be more sought after than at 
present, for at Burton lived Southey, with his friend Charles 
Lloyd, and sang the praises of the valley in better verse than 
usual. At Mudeford, Stewart Rose, the author of The Red 
King, built Gundimore, where, in 1807, Scott stayed, writing 
Marmion, and riding over the Forest exploring the barrows. 
In the same village Coleridge lodged during the winter of 

* Scott used to admire the Red King ,- but his praise must have 
been far more the result of friendship than of unbiassed criticism. The 
following lines, from Rose's MS. poem of "Gundimore" (quoted in 
Lockhart's Life of Scott, p. 145, foot-note), are interesting from their 
subject, and at the conclusion, though the idea is borrowed, are really 
fine : 

" Here Walter Scott has wooed the Northern Muse, 
Here he with me has joyed to walk or cruize ; 
And hence has pricked through Ytene's holt, where we 
Have called to mind how under greenwood tree, 
Pierced by the partner of his ' woodland craft,' 
King Rufus fell by Tiril's random shaft. 
Hence have we ranged by Keltic camps and barrows 
Or climbed the expectant barK, to thread the Narrows 

Chewton Glen. 147 

A little way along the main road lies Somerford, once one 
of the Granges of Christchurch Priory . Its barns and stables 
are partly built from the prior's lodgings, whose site may here 
and there be faintly traced ; and tho chapel, which in Grose's 
time was still standing, with tho initials of the last prior, John 
Draper., cut on the window labels. 

The best plan, however, is not to go along the road, but tho 
shore as far as Chewton Glen, and there climb up the cliff. The 
sands are white and hard, strewed with fragments of iron-stone, 
and large septaria, from which cement is made, and for which, 
farther on, a fleet of sloops is dredging a little way from the 
shore. In the far distance gleam the white and black and orange- 
coloured bands of sand and clay scoring the Barton cliffs.f 

The glen, or " bunny," as it is locally called, runs right 
down into the sea ; the high tide rushing up it, and driving back 
its Forest stream. Down to the very edge it is fringed with 
low oak copses, covered in the spring, as far as high-tide mark, 

Of Hurst, bound westward to the gloomy bower 
Where Charles was prisoned in yon isbnd tower. 

.* * : * * 

Here, witched from summer cea and softer reign, 
Foscolo courted Muse of milder strain. 
On these ribbed sands was Coleridge pleased to pace 
Whilst ebbing seas have hummed a rolling base 
To his rapt talk." 

* Antiquities, vol. ii., where there is a sketch of the Grange as it was 
in 1777. 

f For the geology of High Cliff, Barton, and Hordle Cliffs, see 
chapter xx. There are not many fossils in either the grey sand or the 
green clay before you reach the "bunny." Plenty, however, may be found 
in the top part of the bed immediately above, known as the " High Cliff 
Beds," and which rise from the shore about a quarter of a mile to the 
east of the stream. 

U 2 

148 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 


W b,' O S 


il .2 if 

= ^: o ,u 


''. I I ! 

with blue bells, and 
strewed witb yellow tufts 
of primroses. In the 
summer, too, the ground 
is as deep a green with 
ferns as the oak leaves 
above ; whilst the stream 
flows between banks bor- 
dered with blue skull- 
cap and purple helle- 

Then, as you climb 
up to the down, on the 
opposite side, stretches a 
view, hard to be matched 
in England either for 
extent or beauty. On 
one side rolls the Eng- 

* Chewton is not men- 
tioned in Domesday. Beckley 
(Beceslei), which is close 
by, where there was a mill 
which paid thirty pence, had 
a quarter of its land taken 
into the Forest ^ whilst 
Baishley (Bichelei) suffered 
in the same proportion 
Fernhill lost two-thirds of 
its worst land, and Milton 
(Mildeltune) half a hyde and 
its woods, which fed forty 
hogs, by which its rental 
was reduced to one-half. 

The View opposite to Chewton Glen. 149 

lish Channel, indenting the shore with its deep bay as far as 
the land-locked harhour of Christchurch, shut in by Hengist- 
bury Head and the white Swanage rocks ; and, on the other, 
it sweeps away by the long beach of Hurst and its round gray 
castle. Opposite, glitter the coloured sands and chalk cliffs 
of Alum Bay, and the white Needle Rocks running wedge- 
shaped into the sea. Farther eastward, rise the treeless downs, 
and the breach opens across the Island to Freshwater Gate, 
and the two batteries, built into the cliff, one by one appear : 
the long scene ended at last by the houses of Yarmouth the 
Solent still winding onward, like some great river. 

An uninterrupted path runs, for some three or four miles, 
along the top of the cliff the scene constantly changing in its 
beauty. Below hangs a broken under-cliff, shelving down to the 
sea, strewed here and there with blocks of gravel, the grass and 
furze growing on them just as they fell. On the shore stretch 
long reaches of yellow sand, separated by narrow strips of 
pebbles, and patches of dark green Barton clay, embossed with 
shells, and studded with sharks' teeth. 

Passing the Coastguard Station and the Gangway, we reach 
Becton Bunny very different to Chewton, but equally lovely, 
with its bare wide gorge, and its beds of furze and heath fringing 
the edge of the cliff.* Very beautiful, too, are the summer sun- 
sets seen from this point the sun sinking far down the channel, 
lighting up the coloured sands of Alum Bay purple and gold, 
tinting the white chalk cliffs with rose and vermilion, the 

* At this point the Marine Beds end, and the Brackish -Water series crop 
up ; and then, lastly, the true Fresh-Water shells commence the Paludinae 
and Limnseae, with scales of fish, and plates of chelomans, and bones of 
palaeotheres, and teeth of dichodons. See, further, chapter xx. 

150 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

crimson of the sky floating on the waves as they break along 
the shore. 

Still following the path along the top of the cliff, we pass the 
grave-yard, where stood the old cruciform church of Hordle 
once in the middle of the village, but now only a hundred yards 
from the sea. Nothing of it remains except some blocks of 
Grey Wethers, used for its foundation, and too large to be 
removed. Very interesting are these stones, brought up from 
the shore, where, now and then, one or two may be seen at low 
tide, tumbled from the drift above the same stones as those at 
Stonehenge, left on the top of the chalk. Gone, too, are its 
mill and its six salterns, mentioned in Domesday, and the village 
itself removed inland. The sailors, however, dredging for 
cement-stone or for fish, sometimes draw up great logs of wood, 
locally known as " mootes," which may perhaps tell of the 
salterns ; or the time when the Forest stretched to the sea. The 
salterns of the Normans and the Old-English have suffered very 
different fates. In Normandy the sea no longer reaches to their 
sites,* whilst here it has long since rolled over them. 

Beyond this again is Mineway, reminding us, by its name, 
of the time when the iron-stone was collected on the shore and 
taken to the Sowley furnaces to be smelted. f Farther on, down 
in the valley made by the stream, which turns the village mill, 
mentioned in Domesday, lies Milford. The church spire rises 

* See Lappenberg's England under the Anglo-Norman Kings. Ed. 
Thorpe, p. 89- 

f Yarranton, in that strange but clever work, England's Improvement 
by Land and Sea (Ed. 1677, pp. 43-63), dwells at length on the quantity of 
iron-stone along the coast, and the advantage of the New Forest for making 
charcoal to smelt the metal. He proposed to build two forges and two 
furnaces for casting guns, near Ringwood, where the ore was to be brought 
up the Avon. 

Hurst Beach and Castle. 151 

up prettily amongst its trees, and the church itself is a good 
example of our village churches, built in three or four different 
styles. The tower is Early-English, surmounted by a string- 
course of Norman heads. In the north side stands a curious 
inserted doorway, with trefoil heading, whilst two Norman 
arches remain in the nave joined by Early-English, springing 
from black Purbeck marble shafts. 

To the south stretches the long Hurst beach, formed, in 
much the same way as the more famous Chesil Bank, of 
the rolled pebbles brought up from the Barton Cliffs by the 
strong tides aided with the westerly gales, making a breakwater 
to the whole of the Solent. Now and then close to it appear the 
floating islands, known as the Shingles, sometimes rising for 
only a few hours above the sea, and at others remaining long- 
enough to become green with bladderwort and samphire. 

Across to the Isle of Wight, at the narrowest point, it is only 
a mile ; and so fast does the Solent tide,* when once the ebb is 
felt, pour itself along the narrow gorge, that it fills up Christ- 
church Bay, higher than at the flood, thus making, in fact, 
a double high-water. At the extreme end stands Hurst Castle, 
built by Henry VIII., from the ruins of Beaulieu Abbey. 
Whatever opinion we may have of Henry's private character, 
there can be but one as to his foresight and energy in defending 
the country. Much for this may be forgiven. Hall wrote in no 
exaggerated strain when he said : " The King's highness never 

* " That narrow sea, which we the Solent term, 

Where those rough ireful tides, as in her straights they meet, 

With boisterous shocks and roars each other rudely greet ; 

Which fiercely when they charge, and sadly when they make retreat. 

Upon the bulwark forts of Hurst and Calshot beat, 

Then to Southampton run. Polyolbion, book ii. 

152 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

ceases to study and take pains both for the advancement of 
the commonwealth of this his realm of England, and for the 

defence of the same Wherefore, his Majesty in his 

own personne took very laborious and painful journeys towards 
the sea-coasts. Also, he sent dyvers of his nobles and coun- 
sellors to view and search all the portes and dangers in the 
coastes, .... and in all soche doubtful places his Highness 
caused dyvers and many bulwarks and fortifications to be made."* 
And of them, Hurst Castle, like Calshot, which we have seen, 
was one, and still stands, additionally fortified by guns, and 
guarded by the far better defences of lighthouses, and beacons, 
and telegraph stations.! 

Here it was, on the 1st December, 1642, Charles I. was 
brought, after holding his mock court at Newport, by Colonel 
Cobbit, who had seized him in the name of the army. Here, 
too, he still showed all the foolish childishness which Laud had 
taught him, putting faith in the omen of his candle burning 

* Hall's Union of the Families of Lancaster and York, xxxi. year of 
King Henry VIII, ff 234. 235, London, 1548. 

f From Peck (Desiderata Curiosa. vol. i., b. ii., part iv , p. 66) we find 
that in Elizabeths reign the captain received 1*. 8d. a day; the officer under 
him, Is. ; and the master-gunner and porter, and eleven gunners and ten 
soldiers, Qd. each, which in Grose's time had been increased to Is. (Grose's 
Antiquities, vol. ii., where a sketch is given of the castle). Hurst, on account 
of its strength, was to have been betrayed, in the Dudley conspiracy, to the 
French, by Uvedale, Captain of the Isle of Wight. (Uvedale's Confession, 
Domestic MSS., vol vii., quoted in Froude's History of England, vol. vi. 
p. 438.) Ludlow mentions the great importance of Hurst being secured to 
the Commonwealth, as both commanding the Isle of Wight and stopping 
communication with the mainland (Memoirs, p. 323). Hammond, in a 
letter from Carisbrook Castle, June 25th, 1648, says it is "of very great 
importance to the island. It is a place of as great strength as any I know 
in England " (Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. ii., b. ix., p. 383). 

Charles I. at Hurst. 153 

brightly or dimly,* which detracts so much from any interest 
we might otherwise feel for him in his days of care and sorrow. 
A closet is shown where he is said to have been confined, and 
where his Golden Rules are said to have hung; but from Herbert's 
memoirs, evidently neither the room where he lived or slept. f 
Herbert's account of Hurst is so graphic that I give it nearly in 
full : " The wind and tide favouring, the King and his attend- 
ants crossed the narrow sea in three hours, J and landed at 
Hurst Castle, or Block House rather, erected by order of King 
Henry VIII., upon a spot of earth a good way into the sea, 
and joined to the firm land by a narrow neck of sand, which is 
covered over with small loose stones and pebbles ; and upon both 
sides the sea beats, so as at spring tides and stormy weather the 
land passage is formidable and hazardous. The castle has very 
thick stone walls, and the platforms are regular, and both have 
several culverines and sakers mounted. . . . The captain 
of this wretched place was not unsuitable ; for, at the King's 
going ashore, he stood ready to receive him with small observance. 
His look was stern. His hair and large beard were black and 
bushy. He held a partizan in his hand; and, Switz-like, had 
a great basket-hilt sword on his side. Hardly could one see a 

* Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs of the two last Years of the Reign of 
King Charles /., Ed. 1702, pp. 87, 88. 

f Warwick calls the King's rooms "dog lodgings" (Memoirs, p. 334) ; 
but it is evident from Herbert (Memoirs, p. 94) that both Charles and his 
attendants were well treated, which we know from Whitelock (Memorials 
of English Affairs, p. 359 ; London, 1732) was the wish of the army, as 
also from the letter of Colonel Hammond's deputies given in Rushworth 
(vol. ii., part iv., p. 1351). Of Colonel Hammond's own treatment of 
the King we learn from Charles himself, x ;ho, besides speaking of him as 
a man of honour and feeling, said "that he thought himself as safe in 
Hammond's hands as in the custody of his own son " (Whitelock, p. 321). 

J Evidently a misprint for three-quarters of an hour. 


154 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery 

man of more grim aspect, and no less robust and rude was his 
behaviour."* The account is very life-like, though some allow- 
ance must be made for Herbert's prejudices against this gaunt 
Puritan captain, who, we learn, by-and-by became more civil. 
Colonel Cobbit, in whose charge the King was, seems to 
have treated him with uniform respect and kindness. Charles 
stayed here six-and-twenty days, walking along the beach, 
watching the ships passing up and down the Solent, and receiv- 
ing the cavaliers of Hampshire, who came for the last time 
to pay their respects. Then, at last, he was suddenly taken 
away to show at Whitehall a better courage and wisdom in 
death than in life. 

About three miles from Milford, on the mouth of the Boldre 
Water, lies the port of Lymington, the Mark of the Limingas, as 
the neighbouring hamlet of Pennington is that of the Penn- 
ingas.f Its manor, like that of Christchurch, once belonged to 
Isabella de Fortibus, and was given, with some other possessions, 
by Edward I., to her rightful heir, the Earl of Devon, whose 
arms are still quartered with those of the Corporation. It 
is another of those towns, which, like Christchurch, though in a 
very different way, is associated with the past. It has no 
monastic buildings, no ruins of any kind, no church worth even 
a glance. Yet, too, it can tell of departed greatness. 

From the coins which have been dug up in the town, and the 
camp at Buckland Rings, J it was evidently well known to the 

* Herbert's Memoirs, pp. 85-86. 

f A Keltic derivation for both places has been proposed, but it is not on 
critical grounds satisfactory. 

1 Gough possessed a brass coin inscribed Tetricus Sen. rev. Laetitia 
Augg., found here; and adds that in 1744 nearly 2 cwt. of coins of the 
Lower Empire were discovered in two urns. Camden's Britannia, Ed. Gough, 
vol. i. p. 132. 

The History of Lymmgton. 155 

Romans. In Domesday, the famous Roger cle Yvery held one 
hyde here; but its woods were thrown into the Forest, and 
for this reason the manor was only rated at one half. No 
mention is made of its salt-works, though we know, from a grant 
of Richard de Redvers, in 1147, confirming his father's bequest 
of the tithe of them to Quarr Abbey, that they were then 
probably in existence.* Larger than Portsmouth, in 1345, 
it contributed nearly double the number of ships and men 
to Edward III.'s fleet for the invasion of France. We must 
not, however, conclude that it has decreased. f Larger now than 

* The grant is given in the Appendix to Warner's South- West Parts of 
Hampshire, vol. ii., p. i., No. 1. 

f Like those of Christchurch, the Corporation books of Lymmgton 
are full of interest, though they do not commence till after 1545, the 
previous records being generally supposed to have been burnt by 
D'Annebault in one of his raids on the south coast. Du Bell ay, how- 
ever, who, in his Memoires, has so circumstantially narrated the French 
movements, says nothing of Lymington having suffered, nor can I find the 
fact mentioned in any of the State papers of the time. Take, for instance, 
the following entries from the Chamberlain's books: 

" 1643. Quartering 20 soldiers one daie and night, going 

westward for the Parliam* service . . xvi.s. ij.d. 

1646. For bringinge the toune cheste from Hurst Cast ell ij.s. 

1646. Watche when the allarme was out of Wareham iiij..s. 

1 646. For the sending a messenger to the Lord Hopton, 
when he lay att Winton with his army, with 
the toune's consent xiiij.s. 

1648. For keeping a horse for the Lord General's man iij.s. x.d. 

1650. Paid to Sir Thomas Fairfax his souldiers going 

for the isle of Wight with their general's passe xij.s." 

Such entries to an historian of the period would be invaluable, as showing 
not only the state of the country but of the town, when the town-chest had 
to be sent four miles for safety ; and proving, too, that here (notice the 
fourth entry), as elsewhere, there were two nearly equally balanced factions- 
one for the King, the other for the Commonwealth. I may add that a little 

X 2 

156 Tfie New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

ever, like so many other old towns, it has not increased in a relative 
proportion with younger rivals favoured hy the accidents of 
position or commerce. Like, too, all other similar ports, it has 
its tales to tell of French invasions, and, like similar boroughs, 
of the Civil War ; but they are merely traditional, and, therefore, 
vague and unsatisfactory. Loyal from first to last, it is said to 
have at its own cost supplied with provisions the ships of Prince 
Charles, when he lay in the Yarmouth Roads, hoping to rescue 
his father from Carishrook. In still later times, carried away 
by Protestant sympathies, it espoused the cause of the imbecile 
Monmouth, the mayor raising some hundred men to join his 

Most of the places round Lymington, Buckland Kings, 
Boldre Church, Sway Common, with its barrows, we have 
already seen. A little, though, to the eastward, at Baddesley, 
near Sowley Pond, formerly stood a Preceptory of the Knights 
Templar, and afterwards of those of St. John of Jerusalem. At 
the Dissolution it was granted to Sir Thomas Seymour, and 
again by Edward VI. to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, but sub- 
sequently, under Mary, restored to the Hospitallers. Nothing of 
it is now left.f 

Here, then, at Lymington, we have been the whole circum- 
ference of the Forest. I do not know that I have omitted 
anything of real interest. Mere idle gossip, vague stories, I have 

book has been privately printed, of extracts from the Lymington Corpora- 
tion books, from which the foregoing have been taken. It would be a very 
good plan if those who have the leisure would render some such similar 
service in other boroughs. 

* Warner's Hampshire, vol. i , sect, ii., p. 6 ; London, 1795. See, too, 
previously, ch. xi., p. 122, foot-note. 

f See Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, vol. vi., part ii., p. 800. Tanner's 
Notitia Monastica. Ed. Nasmyth, 1787 Hampshire. No. iv. 

The Value of a Love for Nature. 


left to those who care to write, and those who like to read such 
things. The geology, and botany, and folk-lore of the district, 
to which it was impossible to do more than to make general refe- 
rences, will be found in the succeeding chapters. As was before 
said, in the wild commons and woods themselves I have myself 
taken the greatest interest, and wished to impress their beauty 
on the reader, feeling that a love for Nature is the mainspring 
of all that is noble in life, and all that is precious in Art. I do 
not know either that I have anywhere exaggerated. On the 
contrary, no words can paint, much more exaggerate, the love- 
liness of the woods. And of all walks in the district, this over 
the Hordle and Barton Cliffs is by no means the least beautiful, 
though no longer in the Forest. 

Hurst Castle. 

158 r Uie New Forest : its History and its Scenery, 



View in Mark Ash. 

MANY people have a vague notion that the gipsies constitute 
the most important element of the population of the New Forest, 
whereas, of course, they are mere cyphers. An amusing enough 

The Stanleys, Lees, and Burtons. 159 

French author, in a work upon England, has devoted a special 
chapter to the New Forest, and there paid more attention to the 
gipsies than any one else, and entirely forgets the West- Saxon, 
whose impress is indelibly marked, not only in the language, but 
in the names of every town, village, and field. 

As, however, every one takes a romantic interest in these 
nomads, we must not entirely pass over them. Here and there 
still linger a few in whose veins run Indian blood, against whom 
Henry VIII. made bad laws, and Skelton worse rhymes. The 
principal tribes round Lyndhurst are the Stanleys, the Lees, and 
Burtons ; and near Fordingbridge, the Snells. They live chiefly 
in the various droves and rides of the Forest, driven from place 
to place by the policeman, for to this complexion have things 
come. One of their favourite halting-places is amongst the low 
woods near Wootton, where a dozen or more brown tents are 
always fluttering in the wind, and as the night comes on the 
camp-fires redden the dark fir-stems. 

The kingly title formerly held by the Stanleys is now in the 
possession of the Lees. They all still, to a certain extent, keep 
up their old dignity, and must by no means be confounded with 
the strolling outcasts and itinerant beggars who also dwell in the 
Forest. Their marriages, too, are still observed with strictness, 
and any man or woman who marries out of the caste, as recently 
in the case of one of the Lees, who wedded a blacksmith, is 
instantly disowned. The proverb, too, of honour among thieves 
is also still kept, and formal meetings are every now and then 
convened to expel any member who is guilty of cheating his 

Since the deer have been destroyed in the Forest, life is not 
to them what it was. They are now content to live upon a stray 
fowl, or hedgehog, or squirrel, baked whole in a coat of clay, 

160 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

and to gain a livelihood by weaving the heather into mats, and 
brooms, and beehives. 

They are, however, mere wanderers, and have nothing to do 
with the soil. It is with the West- Saxon that we are most 
concerned. And in the New Forest he will be found just such 
another man as his forefather in the days of William the Red, 
putting the same faith in visions and omens which made the 
King exclaim, on the morning of his death, upon the news of 
the monk of Gloucester's dream, " Do you take me for an 
Englishman ? " believing firmly in groaning ash-trees, and oaks 
which bud on Christmas-eve, and witches who can turn them- 
selves into hares, and that the marl which he digs is still red 
with the blood of his ancient foes the Danes.* 

Here, as we have seen in Hampshire, at Calshot, on the 
borders of the Forest, Cerdic landed. Here he defeated the 
Britons, and established the kingdom of the West-Saxons. 
Here the West -Saxon Alfred rallied his countrymen and 
crowned defeat with victory. ' Here, too, stood the capital of 
Wessex, Winchester, in whose cathedral lie the old West- 
Saxon kings. Here, then, if anywhere, we should expect to 
find West- Saxon characteristics and a West- Saxon population. 

As is well known, after the battle of Hastings, the West- 
Saxons, with one or two exceptions, succumbed willingly enough 

* I may seem to exaggerate both here and in the next chapter. I wish 
that I did. For similar cases in the neighbouring counties of Dorset and 
Sussex let the reader turn to the words "hag-rod," "maiden-tree," and 
" viary-rings," in Mr. Barnes's Glossary of the Dorset Dialect; and vol ii. 
pp. 266, 269, 270, 278, of Mr. Warter's Seaboard and the Down. I hesitate 
not to say that superstition in some sort or another is universal throughout 
England- It assumes different forms : in the higher classes, just at present, 
of spirit-rapping and table-turning, more gross than even those of the 
lower ; and I am afraid really seems constitutional in our English nature. 

The West-Saxon Element. 161 

to the Conqueror, who lived amongst them ; whilst the North- 
men across the Humber bid him defiance. Every one must 
to this day notice the extreme deference, almost amounting to 
a painful obsequiousness, of the lower classes in the southern, 
compared with their independent manner in the northern, parts 
of England. We find, too, mingled, however, with characteristics 
from other sources, the West- Saxon element not only in the 
appearance of the long-limbed Forest peasantry, with their 
narrow head and shoulders, and loose, shambling gait, but also 
in their slowness of perception. They betray, too, to this hour 
that worst Teutonic trait of fatalism, observable in all their 
epitaphs, and in their daily expression, " It was not to be," 
applied to anything which does not take place. Notwith- 
standing, too, their apparent servility, an amount of cunning- 
ness and craft peeps out, which in a different age compelled 
the Conqueror to make special laws against assassination.* 

Much must be set against these drawbacks. Enslaved to 
an extent which no modern historian has dared to reveal, and 
can only be fully conceived by the dreadful story of The Chronicle, 
treated as beasts rather than even slaves, the West- Saxons 

* Of the extreme difficulty of classification of race in the New Forest 
I am well aware. I have, however, taken such typical families as Purkis, 
Peckham, Watton, &c., whose names are to be met in every part of the 
Forest, as my guide. Often, too, certain Forest villages, as Burley and 
Minestead, though far apart, have a strong connection with each other, and 
a family relationship may be traced in all the cottages. A good paper 
was read, touching upon the elements of the New Forest population, by 
Mr. D. Mackintosh, before the Ethnological Society, April 3rd, 1861. Of 
the Jute element, which we might have expected from Bede's account of 
the large Jute settlement in the Isle of Wight, and Florence of Worcester's 
language (as before, ed. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 276), few traces are to be found. 
See, however, on this point, what Latham says in his Ethnology of the 
British Isles, pp. 238, 239. 


162 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

showed, under the Normans, a spirit of obedience and an adapt- 
ability to changed circumstances which are above praise. Let us 
give the West- Saxon labourer credit for it both then and to this 
day, that though the most ill-paid and ill-fed in England, he 
bears his heavy yoke of poverty without a murmur. 

Turning to another side of his character, we find him loving 
the same old sports as in the days of Alfred. He still follows 
the hounds on foot, and when there were deer in the Forest, 
naturally killed them. Wrestling and cudgel-playing have been 
continued till the last few years close to the northern boundaries 
of the Forest. The old Hock-tide games were till a late period 
kept up in the northern parts, and " Hock-tide money" was not 
so very long ago paid as an acknowledgment for certain Forest 
privileges. Heartiness and roughness still go hand in hand with 
him as with his forefathers. But a heaviness of intellect is 
always visible, and, as with all his race, a sadness oppresses 
his mirth. His dress to this day, too, bespeaks his nation- 
ality. He still wears what is locally called the " smicket," and 
sometimes the " surplice," the Old-English smoc, named also 
the tunece. It is still, too, as formerly, tied round the waist 
with a leathern band. His legs are still cased, as we see 
the Old-English in their drawings, with gaiters, known as 
"vamplets," or "strogs," equivalent to the "cockers" of the 
Midland Counties, which do not reach quite so high as the former, 
and " mokins," which are merely made of coarse sacking. 

And now let us see how far he has made his presence felt 
on the district and in the language. But we must beware of 
overstraining our theory. No portion of our history is, in its 
details, so difficult as the English Conquest. None, to any 
statement which may be made, requires so many qualifications. 
The first faint flow of the Teutonic immigration was felt long 

The Keltic Element in the Provincialisms. 163 

prior to Caesar's invasion centuries before the main wave burst 
over the country. We must, too, carefully bear in mind that in 
Wessex, more than in any other part, the conquerors and con- 
quered were blended together.* They mixed, however, every- 
where far more than is commonly allowed. Our language bears 
testimony to the general fact. The many Keltic household 
words in daily use are the best evidence. 

Here in the New Forest I may mention that the form 
"plock" is used instead of the common block (bloc), and that we 
have, as, perhaps, throughout the West of England, " hob," in 
the sense of potato -hob a place where potatoes are covered 
over, instead of " hog " (hwg), noticed by Mr. Davies in his 
list of Keltic words in Lancashire. Further, we find the terms 
"more" (maur), for a root, "mulloch," for dirt, and " bower- 
stone," for a boundary-stone. t Here, too, as in other places, 
the Britons have left the traces of their rule on the broader 
natural features of the country on the rivers, as the Exe 
(y (9} wysg, the current), and Avon (Afon, the river), and Avon 
Water, near Setthorns, and Boldre (y Byldwr, the full stream), 
and Stour ([G]wys-dwr, the deep water), and in the district 
itself, in the now almost forgotten name of Ytene. We find 
their influence, too, perhaps, in such local names of villages 

* See Dr. Guest's paper on " The Early-English Settlements in South 
Britain," Proceedings of the Archceological Institute, Salisbury volume, 
1851, p. 30. 

f This, of course, is not the place to go into so difficult a subject. I 
need not refer the reader to Mr. Davies's paper in the Philological Society's 
Transactions, 1855, p. 210, and M. de Haan Hettema's Commentary upon 
it, 1856, p. 196. On the great value of provincialisms, see what Miiller 
has said in The Science of Language, pp. 49-59. In Appendix T., I have 
given a list of some of those of the New Forest, which have never before 
been noticed in any of the published glossaries. 

Y 2 

The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

and fields as Penerley, Denny, Fritham, Cocketts, Cammel 
Green, and Flasket's Lane. As might be expected, the traces 
of the Danes are very much less ; and I hardly like even to 
venture on the conjecture that the various " Nashes " along 
the coast are corruptions of n<zs. Here, in the Forest, we 
have no Danish "thorpes" or "hys." There are no Carlbys, 
as in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, but plenty of Old-English 
Charltons, and Charlmoors, and Charlmeads. No Norse "forces" 
run here, as in the north of England, but only " rides." No 
" denes " open out to the sea, as in Durham, but only " chines" 
and " bunnies." No Jutish " ings " are dwelt in, as in Kent, 
but only "tons" and "leys." Here, in fact, the people of 
Cerdic have identified themselves with the land, and have left 
their impress, now unchanged for more than thirteen centuries, 
on all the towns, and hamlets, and homesteads. 

Thus we find on the eastern side of the Forest, formerly in 
it, Eling, the Mark of the Ealingas, Totton, the Mark of the 
Totingas ; on the south, Lymington and Pennington, the Marks 
of the Limingas and Penningas ; and on the west, Fording- 
bridge, the Mark of the Fordingas, and Ellingham, that is, 
Adeling's Hamlet, Adelingeham, in Domesday, where some of 
the neighbouring woods are to this hour called Adlem's 

We will not press, as a proof of descent, the number of 
Old-English surnames, which may easily be collected in the 
district. We must remember that they were not used, in our 
modern sense, till long after the Norman Conquest ; and when 
adopted, people were more likely to choose them from English, 
than from Norman or other sources. Such evidence establishes 

In other ways, however, do we find the Old-English nomen- 


The Old-English Element in the Names of the Places. 165 ,* 

t^ t, 

clature telling us the history of the people and the country ; in 
Hengistbury Head, on the south-west, reminding us of the 
white horse the Hengest of the High-German,* and Calshot 
at the east, spelt as we know in Edward I.'s time, Kalkesore ; 
on the north-west in Charford the old Cerdices-ford of The 
Chronicle ; on the south in Darrat (Danes-rout) and Dane- 
stream, whose waters, the peasant maintains, still run red with 
the hlood of the conquered. 

Everywhere we meet similar compounds, in Needsore, 
which the Ordnance map spells Needs-oar, and thus loses the 
etymology, which, like the Needle Kocks, means simply the under 
(German nieder) shore ; in the various Galley Hills, corrupted 
into Gallows Hills, which have nothing to do with the later, but 
the older instrument, which contained the signal-fires, and are 
connected with the words " galley, "f to frighten, and " galley- 
baggar," a scarecrow, both still heard every day, from the Old- 
English gcelan. 

We find the same impress in Lyndhurst, Brockenhurst, 
Ashurst, and, as we have before said, in various other hursts, { in 
the different Holmsleys, Netleys, Beckleys, Bentleys, Bratleys, 

* In the charter of confirmation of Baldwin de Redvers to the Con- 
ventual House of Christchurch, quoted in Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, 
vol. iii., part i., p. 304, and by Warner, vol. ii., Appendix, p. 47, it is called 
Hedenes Buria, which may suggest that the word is only a corruption. I 
do not for one moment wish to insist on the personal reality of Hengest, 
but simply to notice the fact of the High-German word for a horse being 
prominent in the topography of a people whose ancestors used so many 
High-German words. See Donaldson, Cambridge Essays, 1856, pp. 45-48. 

f On this word as explaining ShakspeareVgallow" in King Lear (act iii. 
sc. 2), see Transactions of the Philological Society, part i., 1858, pp. 123, 124. 

I See ch. iii., p. 33. 

In the parish of Eling we have Netley Down and Netley Down-field, 
the Nutlei of Domesday. Upon this word which we find, also, in the 

166 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

Stockleys, all from the Old-English leag ; in the various tons, as 
Wootton, Winkton, Everton, Burton, and Hinton ; in Gore and 
Goreley, the muddy places ; in Culverley, the dove lea ; in the 
Roydons and Rowdouns, the rough places ; in Rhinefield, the 
brook field ; and in Brockis Hill, the badger's hill. 

Take only the very names of the fields and we shall meet the 
same element, as in the Wareham field, the fishing place field ; 
Conygers and Coneygar,* the King's ground, to be met in 
every village ; in the linches, as Goreley Linch, that is, Goreley 
Headland, or literally, the dirty-field headland; in Hangerley, 
the corner meadow; Hayes, the enclosure, with all its com- 
pounds, as Westhayes, Powelhayes, Crithayes, and Felthayes ; 
in such terms as Withy Eyot, that is, Withy Island ; and the 
different Rodfords " hrySeranford "the cattleford, the Old- 
English equivalent to the Norman Bovreford. 

We meet, too, in daily life, such words as hayward for the 
North-Country " pinder; " barton, literally the barley place, in- 
stead of the Keltic "crooyard;" the same Old-English element 
in the names of the flowers, as bishop-wort (bisceop-wyrt), one of 
the mints, from which the peasant makes his " hum-water ;" 
cassock (from cassuc), any kind of binding weed, and cammock 
(from cammec), any of the St. John's worts, or ragworts; clivers 
(from clife, a bur), the heriif ; and wythwind, by which name 
the convolvulus is still known, the Old-English " wi^-winde." 

north of Hampshire, in the shape of Nately Scures and Upper Nately 
(Nataleie in Domesday} as the equivalent of Natan Leah, the old name of 
the Upper portion of the New Forest, see Dr. Guest, as before quoted, p. 31. 
* A Keltic derivation has, I am aware, been proposed for this word. It 
is to be met with under various forms in all parts of the Forest. The Forest 
termination den (denu} must, however, be put down to this source See 
Transactions of the Philological Society, 1855, p. 283. 

Verbal Characteristics of the West-Saxons. 167 

These words, however, belong more especially to the next 
chapter. To descend from generals to particulars, let us notice 
some of the verbal characteristics by which a West-Saxon popu- 
lation may be distinguished. As a rule it may be laid down 
that the West- Saxons give a soft, and the Anglians and North- 
men a hard sound to all their words. Thus in the New Forest 
we find the West- Saxons saying burrow for barrow ; haish for 
harsh ; pleu for plough ; heth for heath, instead of the "hawth " 
of the Eastern rapes of Sussex ; mash for marsh ; Gerge for 
George; slue for sloe, and again, for slough, the " slow " of the 
north ; bin for been, and also being ; justle for jostle, as in 
Nahum, ch. ii. v. 4 ; athert for athwart ; wool for hole ; ballat 
for ballad, or, as it is pronounced in the more northern counties, 
ballard ; ell for eel ; clot and clit for clod ; stiffle for stifle ; ruff 
for roof, and so on. Thus, too, we meet here not with Deepdene, 
but Dibden, spelt in Boazio's map of 1591, Debden. No 
Chawton, but only Chewton occurs, no Farnham, but only 
Fernham and Fernhill. 

The West- Saxons, too, have a peculiar drawl. So in the 
New Forest we may hear them saying pearts for parts ; stwoane 
for stone ; twereable for terrible ; measter (master), instead of 
the Anglian " muster ;" and yees instead of the Sussex "yus." 
As others have also remarked, the West- Saxon substitutes a 
for o. So here we get lard for lord ; nat for not ; amang for 
among ; knap for knop ; shart for short ; starm for storm ; and 
Narmanton for Normanton. Not only this, but the West- Saxon 
in the New Forest substitutes a for e, as in agg for egg, and lag 
for leg. He not only retains the hard g, but gives a k when 
he can, as in kiver for cover, and aker for acorn, the " aitchorn " 
of the Anglian districts. Let us notice, too, that he always 
changes the / into a v, as vern for fern, vire for fire, evvets 

168 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

for effets, voam for foam, as written by Chaucer, vail for fall, 
and fitches for vetches, as we find it in Ezekiel, ch. iv. v. 9. 

To go further into these distinctions is here impossible. As 
are the people so is the language. By an analysis of the 
published glossaries of Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, and Sussex, I find 
that the New Forest possesses above two-thirds of the two 
former, differing here and there only in pronunciation, whilst of 
the latter it scarcely possesses one-tenth, proving plainly that the 
people are West- Saxons rather than South, descendants of 
Cerdic more than of Ella.* 

Turning from these minor characteristics, and looking at 
the people themselves as they once were, and as they now stand, 
much might be added as to the unequal race which the West- 
Saxon has run with the Anglian and the Northman, and its 
effect on his character. The most casual observer even, in going 
over so small a space as the New Forest, must have noticed how 
Nature has favoured the Northern and Midland counties in their 
sources of wealth and industry. The great home-trade of 
the Middle Ages has entirely deserted the South. Once, too, 
all our men-of-war sailed from what are now small ports on 
the south coast. Our fleets were manned by crews from the 
Isle of Wight, and Lymington, and Lyme, and the neighbouring 
harbours. The seamanship of the West-Country was England's 

* See what Mr. Cooper says with regard to the affinity of the western 
dialect of Sussex, as distinguished from the eastern, to that of Hampshire, in 
the preface (p. i.) to his Glossary of Provincialisms in the County of 
Sussex. For instance, such Romance words as appleterre, gratten, ampery, 
bonker, common in Sussex, are not to be heard in the Forest ; whilst many 
of the West-Country words, as they are called, used daily in the Forest, as 
charm (a noise see next chapter, p 191), moot, stool, vinney, twiddle 
(to chirp), are, if Mr. Cooper's Glossary is correct, quite unknown in 

Smuggling in the last Century. 169 

right arm.* But now the ironfields of Staffordshire have 
put out the furnaces. The coal mines of Durham have de- 
stroyed the charcoal trade, and taken away the seamanship. 
The brine-pits of Cheshire have dried up the salterns which 
covered the south-western shores. Of course, this loss of 
material prosperity has told on the intelligence and morals of 
the district. 

In the New Forest itself, till within the last thirty years, 
smuggling was a recognized calling. Lawlessness was the rule 
during the last century. Warner says that he had then seen 
twenty or thirty waggons laden with kegs, guarded hy two 
or three hundred horsemen, each hearing two or three " tubs," 
coming over Hengistbury Head, making their way, in the open 
day, past Christchurch to the Forest. At Lymington, a troop 
of bandits took possession of the well-known Ambrose Cave, on 
the borders of the Forest, and carried on, not only smuggling, 
but wholesale burglary. The whole country was plundered. 
The soldiers were at last called out, the men tracked, and 
the cave entered. Booty to an enormous extent was found. 
The captain turned King's evidence, and confessed that he had 

* It is surprising, in looking over the musters of ships in the reigns of 
Edward II. and Edward III., to see how few Northern ports are mentioned. 
The importance, too, of the South-coast ports, which were sometimes sum- 
moned by themselves, arose not only from the reasons in the text, but from 
being close to the country with which we were in a state of chronic warfare. 
See, too, the State Papers, vol.i., p. 812, 813, where the levies of the fleets 
in 1545, against D'Annebault, with the names of each vessel and its port, 
are given; as also p. 827, where the neighbouring coast of Dorset is 
described as deserted, in consequence of the sailors flocking to the King's 
service. I think that I have somewhere seen that' our sailors were once 
rated as English, Irish, Scotch, and the "West Country," the latter 
standing the highest. 


170 The New forest : its History and its Scenery. 

murdered upwards of thirty people, whose bodies had been 
thrown down a well, where they were found.* 

Such was the state of the New Forest in the last century. 
But as recently as thirty or forty years ago every labourer was 
either a poacher or a smuggler, very often a combination of the 
two. Boats were built from the Forest timber in many a barn ; 
and to this day various fields far inland are still called " the dock- 
yard mead." Crews of Foresters, armed with " swingels," such 
as the West-Saxons of Somerset fought with in the battle of 
Sedgemoor, defied the coastguard. The principal " runs " were 
made at Beckton and Chewton Bunnies, and the Gangway. 
Often as many as a hundred " tubs," each containing four 
gallons, and worth two or three guineas, or even more, would 
be run in a night. Each man would carry two or three of 
these kegs, one slung in front and two behind ; or if the cliff 
was very steep, a chain of men was formed, and the tubs passed 
from hand to hand. 

All this has been done within the memory of people not so 
very old. Men were killed at Milton. Old Becton Bunny 
House was burnt to the ground. A keg was carelessly broached, 
and the spirit caught fire from the spark of a pipe. Every 
person was in fact engaged in smuggling: some for profit, 
many merely from a love of adventure. Everywhere was under- 
stood the smuggler's local proverb, " Keystone under the hearth, 
keystone under the horse's belly."f 

* From an old chap-book, The Hampshire Murderers, with illustra- 
tions, without date or publisher's name, but probably written about 1776. 

f That is to say, the smuggled spirits were concealed either below the 
fireplace or in the stable, just beneath where the horse stood. The expres- 
sion of " Hampshire and Wiltshire moon-rakers " had its origin in the 
Wiltshire peasants fishing up the contraband goods at night, brought 
through the Forest, and hid in the various ponds. 

Present Condition of the Foresters. 171 

Now nothing either in smuggling or poaching is to any 
extent attempted. In the one case the crime is unprofitable, in 
the other the temptation is withdrawn. Labour, too, is more 
plentiful, and the Government works of draining and planting in 
the Forest employ most of the Foresters. 

Many a man, however, can still tell how he has baited a 
hook, tied to a bough, with apples to snare the deer ; how he 
has pared the faun's hoof to keep the doe in one place, till he 
wanted to kill her. But now the deer are all gone, except a few, 
only seen now and then, wandering about in the wildest and 
loneliest parts. As to re-stocking the Forest, we can only say, 
with good Bishop Hoadley, respecting Waltham Chace, "the 
deer have already done enough mischief." 

The King's Gairn Brock. 


.172 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 



Anderwood Corner. 

INTIMATELY bound up with the race are of course the folk-lore 
of a district, and what we are now pleased to call provincialisms, 
but which are more properly nationalisms, showing us the real 
texture of our language ; and in every way preferable to the 

The Value of Provincialisms. 173 

Latin and Greek hybridisms, which are daily coined to suit the 
exigencies of commerce or science. 

Provincialisms are, in fact, when properly looked at, not so 
much portions of the original foundations of a language, as 
the very quarry out of which it is hewn. And as if to com- 
pensate for much of the harm she has done, America has 
wrought one great good in preserving many a pregnant Old- 
English word, which we have been foolish enough to disown.* 
Provincialisms should be far more studied than they are ; for 
they will help us to settle many a difficult point, where was 
the boundary of the Anglian and the Frisian ; how far on the 
national character was the influence of the Dane felt ? how 
much, and in what way, did the Norman affect the daily business 
of life? 

Still more important is a country's folk-lore, as showing the 
higher mental faculties of the race, in those legends and snatches 
of song, and fragments of popular poetry, which speak the 
popular feeling, and which not only contain its past history, but 
foreshadow the future literature of a country ; in those proverbs, 
too, which tell the life and employment of a nation ; and those 
superstitions which give us such an insight into its moral 

Throughout the "West of England still linger some few 

* See Dictionary of Americanisms, by J. R. Bartlett, who does not, 
however, we think, refer nearly often enough to the mother-country for 
the sources of many of the phrases and words which he gives. Even the 
Old-English inflexions, as he remarks, are in some parts of the States still 
used, showing what vitality, even when transplanted, there is in our 
language. Boucher, too, notices in the excellent introduction to his 
Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words, p. ix., that the whine 
and the drawl of the first Puritan emigrants may still in places be 

174 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

stray waifs and legends of the past. In the New Forest Sir 
Bevis of Southampton is no mythical personage, and the peasant 
will tell how the Knight used to take his afternoon's walk, 
across the Solent, from Leap to the Island. 

Here in the Forest still dwell fairies. The mischievous 
sprite, Laurence, still holds men hy his spell and makes them 
idle. If a peasant is lazy, it is proverbially said, " Laurence has 
got upon him," or, "He has got a touch of Laurence." He 
is still regarded with awe, and harrows are called after him. 
Here, too, in the Forest still lives Shakspeare's Puck, a veritable 
being, who causes the Forest colts to stray, carrying out word 
for word Shakspeare's description, 

" I am that merry wanderer of the night, 
When I a fat and bean-fed horse beguile 
Neighing in likeness of a filly foal." 

(Midsummer Nighfs Dream, Act ii., Sc. 1.) 

This tricksy fairy, so the Forest peasant to this hour firmly 
believes, inhabits the bogs, and draws people into them, making 
merry, and laughing at their misfortunes, fulfilling his own 


" Up and down, up and down, 
I will lead them up and down ; 
I am feared in field and town, 
Goblin, lead them up and down." 

(Midsummer Night's Dream, Act iv., Sc. 2.) 

Only those who are eldest born are exempt from his spell. The 
proverb of "as ragged as a colt Pixey" is everywhere to be 
heard, and at which Drayton seems to hint in his Court of 

Faerie : 

" This Puck seems but a dreaming dolt, 
Still walking like a ragged colt." 

He does not, however, in the Forest, so much skim the milk, or 

Legends and Poetry. 175 

play pranks with the chairs, but, as might be expected from the 
nature of the country, misleads people on the moors, turning 
himself into all sorts of shapes, as Shakspeare, Spenser, and 
Jonson, have sung. There is scarcely a village or hamlet in 
the Forest district which has not its " Pixey Field," and " Pixey 
Mead," or its " Picksmoor," and " Cold Pixey," and " Puck 
Piece." At Prior's Acre we find Puck's Hill, and not far from 
it lies the great wood of Puckpits ; whilst a large barrow on 
Beaulieu Common is known as the Pixey's Cave.* 

Then, too, on the south-west borders of the Forest remains 
the legend, its inner meaning now perhaps forgotten, that the 
Priory Church of Christchurch was originally to have been built 
on the lonely St. Catherine's Hill, instead of in the valley where 
the people lived and needed religion. The stones, however, 
which were taken up the hill in the day were brought down 
in the night by unseen hands. The beams, too, which were 
found too short on the heights, were more than long enough 
in the town. The legend further runs, beautiful in its right 
interpretation, that when the building was going on, there was 
always one more workman namely, Christ than came on the 

So, too, the poetry of the district has its own characteristics, 
which it shares with that of the neighbouring western counties. 
The homeliness of the songs in the West of England strangely 

* All over the world lives a similar fairy, the same in form, but different 
in name. His life has been well illustrated in Dr. Bell's Shakspeare' s Puck 
and his Folk-lore. In England he is known by many names " the white 
witch," " the horse-hag," and " Fairy Hob ;" and hence, too, we here get 
Hob's Hill and Hob's Hole. For accounts of him in different parts see espe- 
cially Allies' Folk-lore of Worcestershire, ch. xii. p. 409, and Illustrations of 
the Fairy Mythology of A Midsummer Night's Dream, by J. 0. Halliwell. 
Published by the Shakspeare Society. 

176 The New Forest its History and its Scenery. 

contrasts with the wild spirit of those of the North, founded 
as the latter so often are on the border forays and raids of 
former times. None which I have collected are direct enough 
in their bearing on the New Forest to warrant quotation, and I 
must content myself with this general expression. * 

To pass on to other matters, let us notice some of the 
superstitions of the New Forest. No one is now so super- 
stitious, because no one is so ignorant as the West-Saxon. One 
of the commonest remedies for consumption in the Forest is 
the " lungs of oak," a lichen (Sticta pulmonaria) which grows 
rather plentifully on the oak trees; and it is no unfrequent 
occurrence for a poor person to ask at a chemist's shop for 
a " pennyworth of lungs of oak." So, too, for weak eyes, 
" brighten," another lichen, is recommended. I do not know, 
however, that we must find so much fault in this matter, as 
the lichens were not very long ago favourite prescriptions with 
even medical men. 

Again, another remedy for various diseases used to be the 
scrapings from Sir John Chydioke's alabaster figure, in the 
Priory Church of Christchurch, which has, in consequence, been 
sadly injured. A specific, however, for consumption is still to 
kill a jay and place it in the embers till calcined, when it is 

* The most popular songs which I have noticed in the Forest and on its 
borders are the famous satire, " When Joan's ale was new," which differs 
in many important points from Mr. Bell's printed version : ** King Arthur 
had three sons :" " There was an old miller of Devonshire," which also 
differs from Mr Bell's copy and 

" There were three men came from the north, 
To fight the victory ;" 

made famous by Burns' additions and improvements ; but which, from 
various expressions, seems to have been, first of all, a West-Country song, 
sung at different wakes and fairs, part of the unwritten poetry of the nation. 

Superstitions. 177 

then drunk at stated times in water. Hares' brains are recom- 
mended for infants prematurely born. Children suffering from 
fits are, or rather were, passed through cloven ash-trees. Bread 
baked on Good Friday will not only keep seven years, but 
is a remedy for certain complaints. The seventh son of a 
seventh son can perform cures. In fact, a pharmacopoeia of 
such superstitions might be compiled. 

The New Forest peasant puts absolute faith in all traditions, 
believing as firmly in St. Swithin as his forefathers did when 
the saint was Bishop of Winchester ; turns his money, if he 
has any, when he sees the new moon ; fancies that a burn is 
a charm against leaving the house ; that witches cannot cross 
over a brook ; that the death's-head moth was only first seen 
after the execution of Charles I. ; that the man in the moon 
was sent there for stealing wood from the Forest a superstition, 
by the way, mentioned in a slightly different form by Eeginald 
Pecock, Bishop of Chichester, in the fifteenth century.* And 
the "stolen bush," referred to by Caliban in the Tempest (Act ii. 
sc. 2), and Bottom in the Midsummer Night's Dream (Act vi. 
sc. 1), is still here called the " nitch," or bundle of faggots. f 

Not only this, but the barrows on the plains are named after 
the fairies, and the peasant imagines, like the treasure-seekers of 
the Middle-Ages, that they contain untold wealth, and that the 
Forest wells are full of gold.t 

I do not mean, however, to say that these beliefs are openly 

* The Repression of Over-much Blaming the Church, edited by Churchill 
Babington, vol. i., part, ii., ch. iii., p. 155 

t Dr. Bell takes quite a different view of these passages in his Shak- 
speare's Puck and his Folk-lore. Introduction to vol. ii. p. 6. The simple 
explanation, however, seems to me the best. 

t See ch, xviii. p. 197. 

A A 

178 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

avowed, or will even be acknowledged by the first labourer who 
may be seen. The English peasant is at all times excessively 
chary no one perhaps more so of expressing his full mind ; 
and a long time is required before a stranger can, if ever, gain 
his confidence. But I do say that these superstitions are all, 
with more or less credit, held in different parts of the Forest, 
although even many who believe them the firmest would shrink, 
from fear of ridicule, to confess the fact. Education has done 
something to remove them ; but they have too firm a hold to be 
easily uprooted. They may not be openly expressed, but they 
are, for all that, to my certain knowledge, still latent. 

Old customs and ceremonies still linger. Mummers still 
perform at Christmas. Old women " go gooding," as in other 
parts of England, on St. Thomas's Day. Boys and girls " go 
shroving " on Ash Wednesday ; that is, begging for meat and 
drink at the farm-houses, singing this rude snatch : 

' I come a shroving, a shroving, 
For a piece of pancake, 
For a piece of truffle-cheese * 
Of your own making." 

When, if nothing is given, they throw stones and shards at 
the door.f 

* The best cheese, the same as "rammel," as opposed to "ommary," 
which see in Appendix I. 

f In the Abstract of Forest Claims made in 1670 some old customs 
are preserved, amongst them payments of " Hocktide money," " moneth 
money," " wrather money " (rother, hryfcer, cattle-money), " turfdele 
money," and ''smoke money," which last we shall meet in the Church- 
wardens' Books of the district. The following is taken from the Bishop 
of Winchester's payments . " Rents at the feast of St. Michael, 3s. 8d. 
For turfdeale money, 3.?. Qd. Three quarters and 4 bushels of barley at 
the feast of All Saints. Three bushels of oats, and 30 eggs, at the Purifi- 
cation of the Virgin Mary." (p 57.) 

Love-rhymes and Proverbs. 179 

Plenty, too, of old love superstitions remain about ash 
boughs with an even number of leaves, and " four-leaved" clover, 
concerning which runs a Forest rhyme : 

" Even ash and four-leaved clover, 
You are sure your love to see 
Before the day is over." 

Then, too, we must not forget the Forest proverbs. " Wood 
Fidley rain," " Hampshire and Wiltshire moon-rakers," and 
" Keystone under the hearth," have already been noticed. But 
there are others such as "As yellow as a kite's claw," " An iron 
windfall," for anything unfairly taken, " All in a copse," that is, 
indistinct, " A good bark-year makes a good wheat-year," and 
" Like a swarm of bees all in a charm," explained further on, 
which show the nature of the country. Again, "A poor dry 
thing, let it go," a sort of poacher's euphemism, like, " The 
grapes are sour," is said of the Forest hares when the dogs 
cannot catch them, and so applied to things which are coveted 
but out of reach. " As bad as Jeffreys" preserves, as through- 
out the West of England, the memory of one who, instead of 
being the judge, should have been the hangman. Again, too, 
"Eat your own side, speckle-back," is a common Forest expres- 
sion, and is used in reference to greedy people. It is said 
to have taken its origin from a girl who shared her breakfast with 
a snake, and thus reproved her favourite when he took too much. 
Again, " To rattle like a boar in a holme bush," is a thorough 
proverb of the Forest district, where a " holme " bush means an 
old holly. Passing, however, from particulars to generals, let 
me add for the last, " There is but one good mother-in-law, and 
she is dead." I have never heard it elsewhere in England, but 
doubtless it is common enough. It exactly corresponds with the 
German saying, " There is no good mother-in-law but she that 

A A 2 

180 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

wears a green gown," that is, who lies in the churchyard. The 
shrewdness and humour of a people are never better seen than 
in their proverbs. 

Further, there are plenty of local sayings, such as " The 
cuckoo goes to Beaulieu Fair to buy him a greatcoat," referring 
to the arrival of the cuckoo about the 15th of April, whilst the 
day on which the fair is held is known as the " cuckoo day." 
A similar proverb is to be found in nearly every county. 
So, also, the saying with regard to Burley and its crop of mast 
and acorns may be met in the Midland districts concerning 
Pershore and its cherries. Like all other parts of England, the 
Forest is full, too, of those sayings and adages, which are con- 
stantly in the mouths of the lower classes, so remarkable for 
their combination of both terseness and metaphor. To give an 
instance, "He won't climb up May Hill," that is, he will not 
live through the cold spring. Again, " A dog is made fat in two 
meals," is applied to upstart or purse-proud people. But it is 
dangerous to assign them to any particular district, as by their 
applicability they have spread far and wide. 

One or two historical traditions, too, still linger in the 
Forest, but their value we have seen with regard to the death of 
the Red King. Thus, the peasant will tell of the French fleet, 
which, in June, 1690, lay off the Needles, and of the Battle 
of Beachy Head its cannonading heard even in the Forest 
but who fought, or why, he is equally ignorant. One tradition, 
however, ought to be told concerning the terrible winter of 1787, 
still known in the Forest as "the hard year." My informant, 
an old man, derived his knowledge from his father, who lived in 
the Forest in a small lonely farm-house. The storm began in 
the night ; and when his father rose in the morning he could 
not, on account of the snow-drift, open the door. Luckily, a back 

Words in connection with the Forest. 181 

room had been converted into a fuel-house, and his wife had 
laid in a stock of provisions. The storm still increased. The 
straggling hedges were soon covered ; and by-and-by the woods 
themselves disappeared. After a week's snow, a heavy frost 
followed. The snow hardened. People went out shooting, and 
wherever a breathing-hole in the snow appeared, fired, and nearly 
always killed a hare.* The snow continued on the ground for 
seven weeks ; and when it melted, the stiffened bodies of horses 
and deer covered the plains.f 

And now for a few of the Forest words and expressions, many 
of which are very peculiar. Take, for instance, the term 
" shade," which here has nothing in common with the shadows 
of the woods, but means either a pool or an open piece of ground, 
generally on a hill top, where the cattle in the warm weather 
collect, or, as the phrase is, "come to shade," for the sake of 
the water in the one and the breeze in the other. Thus " Ober 
Shade " means nothing more than Ober pond ; whilst " Stony 
Cross Shade " is a mere turfy plot. At times as many as a 
hundred cows or horses are collected together in one of these 
places, where the owners, or " Forest marksmen," always first 
go to look after a strayed animal. Nearly every " Walk " in 
the Forest has its own " Shade," called after its own name, and 
we find the term used as far back as a perambulation of the 
Forest in the twenty-second year of Charles II., where is men- 
tioned " the Green Shade of Biericombe or Bircombe." 

It affords a good illustration of how words grow in their 

* Against tracking hares on the snow and killing them with " dogge or 
beche bow," was one of the statutes of Henry VIII., made 1523 (Statutes of 
the Realm, vol.iii., p. 217). 

t In that winter 300 deer were starved to death in Boldrewood Walk, 
Journals of the House of Commons, vol. xliv., pp.561, 594. 

182 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

meaning, and imperceptibly pass from one stage to another. It 
originally signified nothing but a shadow, and then the place 
where the shadow rests. In this second meaning it more 
particularly became associated with the idea of coolness, but 
gradually, whilst acquiring that idea, quite contrary to Milton's 
" unpierced shade " (Paradise Lost, B. iv. 245), lost the notion 
of that coolness being caused by the interception of light and 
heat. In this sense it was transferred to any place which was 
cool, and so at last applied, as in the New Forest, to bare spots 
without a tree, deriving their coolness either from the breeze 
or the water. 

Another instance of the gradual change in the meaning of 
words amongst provincialisms may be found in " scale," or 
" squoyle." In the New Forest it properly signifies a short 
stick loaded at one end with lead, answering to the "libbet" of 
Sussex, and is distinguished from a " snog," which is only 
weighted with wood. With it also is employed the verb 
"to squoyle," better known in reference to the old sport of 
" cock-squoyling." From throwing at the squirrel the word was 
used in reference to persons, so that " Don't squoyle at me " at 
length meant, "Do not slander me." Lastly, the phrase, now 
still common, "Don't throw squoyles at me," comes by that forced 
interpretation of obtaining a sense, which nearly always reverses 
the original meaning, to signify, " Do not throw glances at me." 
And so in the New Forest at this day " squoyles " not unfre- 
quently mean glances. 

There is, too, the word " hat," which in the Forest takes 
the place of " clump," and is nearly equivalent to the Sussex 
expression, " a toll of trees." I have no doubt whatever that the 
word had its origin in the high-crowned hats of the Puritans, 
the " long crown " of the proverb ; and in the first place referred 

Words in connection with the Trees. 183 

only to tall isolated clumps of trees. Now, however, it does not 
merely mean a clump or ring, as the "seven firs" between Burley 
and Ringwood, and Birchen, and Dark Hats, near Lyndhurst, 
but any small irregular mass of trees, as the Withy Bed Hat in 
the valley near Boldrewood. 

Then of course, in connection with the Forest trees, many 
peculiar words occur. The flower of the oak is called "the 
trail," and the oak-apple the " sheets axe," children carrying it 
on the twenty-ninth of May, and calling out the word in derision 
to those who are not so provided. The mast and acorns are 
collectively known as "the turn out," or "ovest;"* whilst the 
badly-grown or stunted trees are called " bustle-headed," equiva- 
lent to the " oak-barrens " of America. 

Other words there are, too, all proclaiming the woody nature 
of the country. The tops of the oaks are termed, when lopped, 
the " flitterings," corresponding to the " batlins " of Suffolk. 
The brush-wood is still occasionally Chaucer's " rise," or " rice," 
connected with the German reis ; and the beam tree, on account 
of its silvery leaves, the "white rice."t Frith, too, still means 
copse-wood. The stem of the ivy is the " ivy-drum." Stumps 
of trees are known as "stools," and a " stooled stick" is used 
in opposition to " maiden timber," which has never been touched 
with the axe ; whilst the roots are called "mocks," "mootes," 
"motes," and "mores." But about these last, which are all 
used with nice shades of difference, we shall have, further on, 
something to say. 

* I have never in the Forest met the old phrase of " shaketime," or 
rather " shack-time," as it should be written, and still used of the pigs 
going in companies after grain or acorns, according to Miss Gurney, in 
Norfolk. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1855, p. 35. 

t On this word, see Appendix I., under " Hoar- Withey," p. 283. 

184 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Nor must we forget the bees which are largely kept through- 
out the Forest, feeding on the heather, leading Fuller to remark 
that Hampshire produced the best and worst honey in England. 
The bee-season, as it is called, generally lasts, on account of the 
heath, a month longer than on the Wiltshire downs. A great 
quantity of the Old-English mead medu is still made, and it 
is sold at much the same value as with the Old-English, being 
three or four times the price of common beer, with which it is 
often drunk. The bees, in fact, still maintain an important 
place in the popular local bye-laws. Even in Domesday the 
woods round Eling are mentioned as yearly yielding twelve 
pounds' weight of honey. As may therefore be expected, when 
we remember that the whole of England was once called the 
Honey Island, here, as elsewhere, plenty of provincialisms occur 
concerning the bees.* 

The drones are here named "the big bees," the former word 
being in some parts seldom used. The young are never said 
to swarm, but "to play," the word taking its origin from their 
peculiar flight at the time : as Patmore writes, 

" Under the chestnuts new bees are swarming, 
Falling and rising like magical smoke." 

The caps of straw which are placed over the " bee-pots," to 
protect them from wet, are known as the "bee-hackles," or 
" bee-hakes." This is one of those expressive words which 
is now only found in this form, and that, in the Midland 
Counties, of " wheat hackling," that is, covering the sheaves with 
others in a peculiar way, to shelter them from the rain. About 

* By a decree of the Court of Exchequer, in tne twenty- sixth year of 
Elizabeth, the keepers were allowed to take all the honey found in the 
trees in the Forest. 

Folk-lore about Bees. 185 

the honeycombs, or, as they are more commonly called, " work- 
ings," the following rhyme exists : 

" Sieve upon herder,* 
One upon the other ; 
Holes upon both sides, 
Not all the way, though, 
What may it be? See if you know." 

The entrance for the bees into the hive is here, as in Cam- 
bridgeshire and some other counties, named the " tee-hole," 
evidently an onomatopoieia, from the buzzing or " teeing " noise, 
as it is locally called, which the bees make. The piece of wood 
placed under the " bee-pots," to give the bees more room, is 
known as "the rear," still also, I believe, in use in America. 
The old superstition, I may notice, is here more or less believed, 
that the bees must be told if any death happens in a family, 
or they will desert their hives. It is held, too, rather, perhaps, 
as a tradition than a law, that if a swarm of bees flies away 
the owner cannot claim them, unless, at the time, he has made 
a noise with a kettle or tongs to give his neighbours notice. It 
is on such occasions that the phrase " Low brown " may be 
heard, meaning that the bees, or the " brownies," as they are 
called, are to settle low. 

So also of the cattle, which are turned out in the Forest, we 
find some curious expressions. A " shadow cow " is here what 
would in other places be called "sheeted," or "saddle-backed," 
that is, a cow whose body is a different colour to its hind and fore 
parts. f A " huff" of cattle means a drove or herd, whilst the 

* A local name for a sieve, called, also, a " rudder ;" which last word is, 
in different forms, used throughout the West of England. 

f For other words applied to cows of various colours, see Barnes's 
Glossary of the Dorset Dialect, under the words " capple-cow," p. 323 ; 
" hawked cow," p. 346 ; and " linded cow," p. 358. 

B B 

186 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

cattle, which are entered in the marksman's books, are said to be 
"wood-roughed." A cow without horns is still called a "not 
cow " (knot), exactly corresponding to the American " humble " 
or "bumble cow," that is, shorn, illustrating, as Mr. Akerman 
notices,* Chaucer's line, 

" A not bed had he, with a brown visage." 

In the Forest, too, as in all other districts, a noticeable point 
is the number of words formed by the process of onomatopoieia. 
Thus, to take a few examples, we have the expressive verb to 
" scroop," meaning to creak, or grate, as a door does on rusty 
hinges ; and again the word " hooi," applied to the wind 
whistling round a corner, or through the key-hole, making the 
sound correspond to the sense. It exactly represents the harsh 
creaking, as the Latin susurrus and the tyiQvpiafjLa of Theo- 
critus reflect the whisperings of the wind in the pines and 
poplars, resembling, as Tennyson says, " a noise of falling 
showers." Again, such words as " clocking," " gloxing," 
applied to falling, gurgling water ; " grizing," and " snag- 
gling," said of a dog snarling; " whittering," or "whickering" 
exactly equivalent to the German wiehern of a young colt's 
neighing; " belloking," of a cow's lowing are all here com- 
monly used, and are similarly formed. Names of animals take 
their origin in the same way. The wry-neck, called the 
" barley-bird " in Wiltshire, and the " cuckoo's mate " and 
" messenger " elsewhere, is in the Forest known as the 
" weet-bird," from its peculiar cry of " weet," which it will 
repeat at short intervals for an hour together. So, too, the 

* Glossary of the Provincial Words and Places in Wiltshire, pp. 37, 38. 
London, 1842. 

The Onomatopoetic Theory in Provincialisms. 187 

common green woodpecker is here, as in some other parts of 
England, called, from its loud shrill laugh, the " yaffingale." 
The goat-sucker, too, is the " jar-bird," so known from its 
jarring noise, which has made the Welsh peasant name it the 
" wheel-bird " (aderyn y droell), and the Warwickshire the 
" spinning-jenny." In fact, a large number of birds in every 
language are thus called, and to this day in the cry of the 
peacock we may plainly hear its Greek name, rawc 

Of course, we must be on our guard against adopting the 
onomatopoetic theory as altogether explaining the origin of 
language. Within, however, certain limits, especially with a 
peculiar class of provincialisms, it gives us, as here, true aid.* 

Again, as an example of phrases used by our Elizabethan 
poets, preserved only by our peasantry, though in good use in 
America, take the word "bottom," so common throughout the 
Forest, meaning a valley, glen, or glade. Beaumont and Fletcher 
and Shakspeare frequently employ it. Even Milton, in Paradise 
Regained, says 

"But cottage, herd, or sheepcote, none he saw, 
Only in a bottom saw a pleasant grove." 

(Book ii. 289.) 

In his Comus, too, we find him using the compound "bottom- 
glade," just as the Americans speak to this day of the " bottom- 
lands " of the Ohio, and our own peasants of Slufter Bottom, 
and Longslade Bottom, in the New Forest. 

" Heft," too, is another similar instance of an Old-English 
word in good use in America and to be found in the best 
American authors, but here in England only employed by our 

* See Miiller's Science of Language, pp. 345-351 ; and compare Wedg- 
wood, Dictionary of English Etymology, introduction, pp. 5-17. 

B B 2 

188 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

rustics. To " heft " (from hebban, with the inflexions, hefest, 
" hefS," still used), signifies to lift, with the implied meaning of 
weighing. So, " to heft the bee-pots," is to lift them in order 
to feel how much honey they contain. The substantive " heft " 
is used for weight, as, " the heft of the branches." 

Again, also, the good Old-English word " loute " (lutari), to 
bend, bow, and so to touch the hat, to be heard every day in the 
Forest, though nearly forgotten elsewhere in England, may be 
found in Longfellow's Children of the Lord's Supper - 

" as oft as they named the Redeemer, 
Lowly louted the boys, and lowly the maidens all courtesied." 

In fact, one-half of the words which are considered Ameri- 
canisms are good Old-English words, which we have been foolish 
enough to discard. 

Let us now take another class of words, which will help to 
explain difficult or corrupt passages in our poets. There is, for 
instance, the word "bugle" (buculus), meaning an ox (used, 
as Mr. Wedgwood* notices, in Deut. xiv. in the Bible, 1551), 
which is forgotten even by the peasantry, and only to be seen, 
as at Lymington and elsewhere, on a few inn-signs, with a 
picture sometimes of a cow, by way of explanation. I have 
more than once thought, that when Rosalind, in As You Like it 
(Act iii., sc. 5), speaks of Phoebe's " bugle eyeballs," she means 
not merely her sparkling eyes, as the notes say, but rather her 
large, expressive eyes, in the sense in which Homer calls Here" 

To give another illustration of the value of provincialisms 

* Dictionary of English Etymology, p. 260. Man wood uses " bugalles" 

as a translation of buculi. A Treatise of the Lawes of the Forest, f. iii., 
sect, xxvii., 1615. 

Words used by Shakspeare now Provincialisms. 189 

in such cases, let us take the word "bumble," which not only 
in the New Forest means, in its onomatopoetic sense, to buzz, 
hum, or boom, as in the common proverb, " to bumble like a 
bee in a tar-tub," and as Chaucer says, in The Wife of Bath's 


" A bytoure bumbleth in the myre," 

but is also used of people stumbling or halting. Probably, in 
The Merry Wives of Windsor (Act iii., sc. 3), in the passage 
which has been of such difficulty to the commentators, where 
Mrs. Ford says to the servants, who are carrying Falstaffe in 
the buck-basket "Look, how you drumble," which has no 
meaning at all, we should, instead, read this word. It, at all 
events, not only conveys good sense, but is the exact kind of 
word which the passage seems to expect. 

Again, the compound " thiller-horse," from the Old-English 
" fill," a beam or shaft, and so, literally, the shaft-horse, 
which we find in Shakspeare under the form of " thill-horse " 
(Merchant of Venice, Act ii., sc. 2), is here commonly used. 

Then there are other forms among provincialisms which give 
such an insight into the formation of language, and show the 
common mind of the human race. Thus, take the word " three- 
cunning,"* to be heard every day in the Forest, where three has 
the signification of intensity, just as the Greek rp/c in compo- 
sition in the compounds TpiapaKap, TpitraflAioc, and other forms. 
So, too, the missel-thrush is called the " bull-thrush," with the 
meaning of size attached to the word, as it is more commonly 
to our own " horse," and the Greek iWoc, and the Old-English 
hrefen, raven, in composition. 

* Cunning, I need scarcely add, is here used in its original sense of 
knowing, from the Old-English cunnan, as we find in Psalm cxxxvii. v. 5. 

190 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

As might be expected, from what we have seen of the popu- 
lation of the Forest, the Romance element in its provincialisms 
is very small. Some few words, such as " merry," for a cherry ; 
" fogey," for passionate ; " futy," for foolish ; " rue," for a 
hedge ; " glutch," to stifle a sob have crept in, besides such 
Forest terms as verderer, regarder, agister, agistment, &c., but 
the majority are Teutonic. Old-English inflexions, too, still 
remain. Such plurals as placen, housen, peasen, gripen, fuzzen, 
ashen, and hosen, as we find in Daniel, ch. iii. v. 21 ; such 
perfects as crope, from creep ; lod, from lead ; fotch, from fetch ; 
and such phrases as "thissum" ("Jrissum"), and "thic" for 
that, are daily to be heard. 

Let us, for instance, take the adjective vinney, evidently 
from the Old-English fane, signifying, in the first place, 
mouldy ; and, since mould is generally blue or purplish, having 
gradually attached to it the signification of colour. Thus we 
find the mouldy cheese not only named "vinney," but a roan 
heifer called a " vinney heifer." The most singular part, how- 
ever, as exemplifying the changes of words, remains to be told. 
Since cheese, from its colour, was called "vinney," the word 
was applied to some particular cheese, which was mouldier 
and bluer than others, and the adjective was thus changed into 
a substantive. And we now have " vinney," and the tautology, 
"blue vinney," as the names of a particular kind of cheese as 
distinguished from the other local cheeses, known as " ommary " 
and " rammel."' 

So also with the word "charm," or rather "churm," signi- 
fying, in the first place, noise or disturbance, from the Old- 
English cyrm. We meet it every day in the common Forest 

* See ch. xvi. p. 178. 

Words used by Milton now Provincialisms. 191 

proverb, " Like a swarm of bees all in a churm," whilst the 
fowlers on the coast talk also of the wild ducks " being in 
a churm," when they are in confusion, flapping their wings 
before they settle or rise. We find it, too, in the old Wilt- 
shire song of the " Owl's Mishap," to be sometimes heard on 
the northern borders of the Forest : 

" At last a hunted zo ver away, 

That the zun kum peping auver the hills, 
And the burds wakin up they did un espy, 

And wur arl in a churm az un whetted their bills." 

The word was doubtless in the first place an onomatopoieia, 
denoting the humming, buzzing sound of wings. Since, how- 
ever, it was particularly connected with birds, it seems to have 
been used in the sense of music and song by our Elizabethan 
poets, and by Milton. Thus : 

" Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet 
With charm of earliest birds." 

(Paradise Lost, Book iv. 642.) 
And again : 

" Morn when she ascends 
With charm of earliest birds." 

(Paradise Lost, Book iv. 651.) 

Here, however, in the New Forest, we find the original significa- 
tion of the word preserved. 

Let us further notice one or two more words, which are 
used by Milton and his contemporaries, and even much later, 
but which are now found in the Forest, and doubtless elsewhere, 
as mere provincialisms. Thus, though we do not meet his 
" tale," in the sense of number, as in Z/ * Allegro, 

" And every shepherd tells his tale, 
Under the hawthorn in the dale ; " 

192 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

that is, number of sheep : we find its allied word " toll," to 
count. " I toll ten cows," is no very uncommon expression. 
Then, too, we have the word " tole," used, as I believe it 
still is in America, of enticing animals, and thus metaphorically 
applied to other matters. So, in this last sense, Milton speaks 
of the title of a book, " Hung out like a toling sign-post to 
call passengers."* 

Again, too, the bat is here called " rere-mouse," rennie- 
mouse, and reiny-mouse,*f- the Old-English hrere-mus, from 
hreran, " to flutter," literally, the fluttering mouse, the exact 
equivalent of the German fledermaus. On the other hand, the 
word fliddermouse, or, as in the eastern division of Sussex, 
flindermouse, and elsewhere flittermouse, does not, to my 
knowledge, occur. In the Midland counties it is often known 
as " leathern wings " (compare ledermaus) ; and thus, Shak- 
speare, with his large vocabulary, using up every phrase 
and metaphor which he ever met, makes Titania say of her 
fairies : 

" Some war with rear-mice for their leathern wings." 

(Midsummer Night's Dream, Act ii., sc. 3.) 

To take a few words common, not only to the New Forest, 
but to various parts of the West of England, we shall see how 
strong is the Old-English element here in the common speech,. 
The housewife still baits (betan, literally to repair, and so, when 

* Apology for Smectymnus, quoted by Richardson. The word is even 
used by Locke. 

f Miss Gurney, in her Glossary of Norfolk Words, gives "ranny " as a 
shrew-mouse. Transactions of the Philological Society, 1855, p. 35. The 
change of e into a is worth noticing, as illustrative of what was said in the 
previous chapter, p. 167, of the pronunciation of the West- Saxon. 

Words in the Bible now Provincialisms. 193 

joined with fyr, to light) the fire, and on cold days makes it 
blissy (connected with blysa, a torch). The crow-boy in the 
spring sets up a gally-bagger (galan, in its last meaning to 
terrify), instead of the "maukin" of the north, to frighten 
away the birds from the seed ; and the shepherd still tends his 
chilver-lamb (cilferlamb) in the barton (here tun, literally the 
barley enclosure). The labourer still sits under the lew (hleow, 
or "Meow's," shelter, warmth) of the hedge, which he has been 
ethering ("efter," a hedge); and drives the stout (stut, a gadfly) 
away from his horses ; and feels himself lear (lames, emptiness), 
before he eats his nammit (non-mete), or his dew-bit (deaiv-bite). 
If we will only open our Bible we shall there find many 
an old word which could be better explained by the Forest 
peasants than any one else. Here the ploughman still talks of 
his "dredge," or rather "drudge," that is, oats mixed with 
barley, just as we find the word used in the marginal reading of 
Job xxiv. v. 6. Here, too, as in Amos (chap. iv. v. 9), and other 
places, the caterpillar is called the " palmer-worm." Here, also, 
as in other parts of England, the word "lease," from the Old- 
English lesan, is far commoner than glean, and is used just as 
we find it in WyclinVs Bible, Lev. xix., 10 : " In thi vyneyeerd 
the reysonus and cornes fallynge down thou shalt not gedere, 
but to pore men and pilgrimes to ben lesid thou shalt leeve." 
The goatsucker is known, as we have seen, not only as the 
"jar-bird," but as the "night-hawk," as in Leviticus 
(chap, xi., v. 16) and Deuteronomy (chap, xiv., v. 15) ; and 
also the " night-crow," as we find it called in Barker's Bible 
(1616) in the same passages. So also the word "mote," in the 
well-known passage in St. Matthew (chap, viii., v. 3), is not here 
obsolete. The peasant in the Forest speaks of the " motes," 
that is, the stumps and roots of trees, in opposition to the 

C C 

194 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

smaller " mores," applied also to the fibres of ferns and furze, 
whilst the sailor on the coast calls the former " mootes," when 
he dredges them up in the Channel.* 

With this I must stop. I will only add that the study of the 
"West -Saxon dialect in the counties of Hants, Wilts, and Dorset, 
is all-important. As we go westward we shall find it less pure, 
and more mixed with Keltic. As is well known, the Britons 
lived with the Old-English in perfect harmony in Exeter. Their 
traces remain there to this day. In these three counties, there- 
fore, are the most perfect specimens of the West-Saxon dialect 
to be found. Mr. Thorpe has noticed in the Old-English text 
of Orosius, which is now generally ascribed to Alfred, the 
change of a into o and o into a, and also the same peculiarity in 
Alfred's BoetliiusJ This we have already, in the last chapter, 
seen to be purely West- Saxon. I have no doubt whatever that 
at even the present day it is not too late to find other points of 
similarity, and make still clearer the West- Saxon origin of the 
Corpus Christi manuscript of the Chronicle^ and how far even 
Alfred and St. Swithin contributed to its pages. These are 
difficult questions ; but I feel sure that much additional light 

* The word " more " was in good use less than a century ago ; whilst 
the term " morefall," as we have seen in chapter iv. p. 43, foot-note, was 
very common in the time of the Stuarts. Mr. Barnes, in his Glossary of 
the Dorset Dialect, pp. 363, 391, gives us " mote," and " stramote," as " a 
stalk of grass,' 1 which serve still better to explain St. Matthew. 

f Thorpe's Preface to the English translation of Pauli's Life of Alfred 
the Great, p. vi. 

J Thorpe's Preface to The Chronicle, vol. i., p. viii., foot-note 1. See, 
however, Lappenberg's History of England under the Anglo- Saxon Kings; 
translated by Thorpe, Literary Introduction, p. xxxix. ; and the Preface to 
Monumenta Historic^ Britannica, p. 75, where, as Mr. Thorpe notices, the 
examples quoted, in favour of the Mercian origin of the manuscript, are 
certainly, in several instances, wrong. 

Mixture of Elements in our Language. 195 

can even yet be obtained. Sound criticism would show as much 
difference between our local dialects, whether even Anglian, 
or South, or West- Saxon, as between the Doric and Attic 
of Greece. I have dealt only with the broader features of 
the Old-English tongue, as it is still spoken in the Forest. 
Enough, however, I trust, has been shown of the value of pro- 
vincialisms, even when collected over so limited a space. Every- 
where in England we shall find Teutonic words, which are not 
so much the mould into which all other forms have been cast, as 
the living germ of our language. Mixed and imbedded with 
these, as we have also seen, we shall meet Keltic and Romance, 
by both of which our language has been so influenced and 
modified. Let us not be ashamed to collect them; for by 
them we may explain not only obscure passages in our old 
authors, but doubtful points in our very history. 

Bushey i3ratley (Another View). 


196 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 



w. c 

The Urns in Bratley Barrow. 

IT is much to be regretted that Sir Walter Scott has left no 
account of his excavations of various barrows in the Forest. 
However little we may be able to determine by the evidence, 
or however conjectural the inferences which we may draw, there 

Barr OIL'S on the East Side. 197 

will, at least, be this value to this chapter, that it will put 
on record facts which otherwise could not be known. 

The barrows lie scattered all over the Forest, and are known 
to the Foresters by the name of " butts," some of the largest 
being distinguished by local appellations. As in other parts 
of England, and as in France, superstition connects them with 
the fairies ; and so we find on Beaulieu Plain two mounds 
known as the Pixey's Cave and Laurence's Barrow. 

My own excavations have been entirely confined to the Keltic 
barrows in the northern part of the Forest.* But we will 

* I may as well add that a little way from where the Bound Oak for- 
merly stood, near Dibden, and between it and Sandy Hill, lies a small mound, 
thirty yards in circumference, and three feet high in the centre, surrounded 
by an irregular moat, from which the earth had been taken. This I opened 
in 1862, driving a broad trench from the east to the centre, and another from 
the south to the centre, which, as also the west side, we entirely excavated ; 
digging below the natural soil to the depth of four feet. Nothing, however, 
was found, though I have no doubt charcoal was somewhere present. 

Beyond this, in Dibden Bottom, rises a large mound, from twenty to 
thirty feet high, apparently of a sepulchral character, known as Barney 
Barns Hill. Proceeding, close to Butt's Ash End Lane, and near the Roman, 
or rather British, road to Leap (see chap v., p. 56), stand two barrows, the 
northernmost one hundred and the southernmost eighty yards in circum- 
ference. Farther away, in Holbury Purlieu, are three more, each with 
a circle of about seventy yards. To the west of these, in the Forest, as 
shown in the illustration at page 213, rise four more, the three farthest 
forming a triangle. Beyond these, again, about three-quarters of a mile 
distant, near Stoneyford Pond, lie four others, respectively ninety, one 
hundred, and seventy yards in circumference. To the north rise three 
more, known as the Nodes , the westernmost about one hundred yards in 
circumference ; the other two, which are ovaler and form twin barrows, 
being one hundred and fifty and one hundred yards. Two more stand on 
the side of the Beaulieu road to Fawley. All these, with others on 
Lymington Common and near Ashurst Lodge, and on the East Fritham 
Plain, still remain to be explored. For the barrows opened by the Rev. J. 
Pemberton Bartlett, on Langley Heath, see farther on, page 211. 

198 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

first of all take those on Sway and Shirley Commons, opened 
by Warner.* The largest stands a little to the east of Shirley 
Holms, close to Fetmoor Pond, measuring about a hundred 
yards in circumference, and surrounded by three smaller mounds 
varying from thirty to fifty yards, and two more nearly in- 
distinct. These two last are, I suspect, those opened by 
Warner, where, after piercing the mound, he found on the 
natural soil a layer of burnt earth mixed with charcoal, and 
below this, at the depth of two feet, a small coarse urn with 
" an inverted brim,"t containing ashes and calcined bones. 

Some more lie to the northward, and are distinguished by 
being trenched. Two of these also were opened by Warner, 
but he failed to discover anything beyond charcoal and burnt 

His opinion was that these last belonged to the West- Saxons 
and the former to the Kelts, who were slain defending their 
country against Cerdic. So large a generalization, however, 
requires far stronger evidence than can at present be produced. 

Warner, too, is besides wrong in much of his criticism, such 
as that the Teutonic nations never practised urn-burial ; whilst 
the banks in which he sees fortifications may be only the 
embankments within which dwelt a British population. 

Still there is some probability about the conjecture. A 
little farther down the Brockenhurst stream are Ambrose Hole 
and Ampress Farm, both names unmistakeably referring to 
Ambrosius Aurelianus, or Natan-Leod, who led the Britons 

* South-western. Parts of Hampshire, vol. i. pp. 69-79. 

f Warner probably meant an overhanging I rim, such as is common 
to most of the early Keltic cinerary urns, or, perhaps, one like that of the 
left-hand urn in the illustration at p. 196, which is more contracted than 
the others. He unfortunately gives us no dimensions. 

Barrows on Sivay Common and Bratley Plain. 199 

against their invaders. Nearer Lymington, too, stands Buck- 
land Rings,* a Roman camp, with its south and north sides 
still nearly perfect, to which, perhaps, Natan-Leod fell back 
from Calshot. 

All this, however, must he accepted as mere conjecture, 
A more critical examination of these harrows is still wanting. 

Close to them, however, lies Latchmoor or Lichmoor Pond, 
the moor of corpses, a name which we meet again a little to the 
westward in Latchmoor Water, which flows hy Ashley Common. 
The words are noticeable, and in connection with .Darrat's 
(Dane-rout) stream, which is also not far distant may point 
to a very different invasion.! 

And now we will pass to the barrows which I have opened. 
The first are situated on Bratley Plain, as the name shows, a 
wide heath, marked only by a few hollies and the undulations of 
the scattered mounds. The largest barrow lies close to the sixth 

* This camp was probably, since coins of Claudius have been found there, 
occupied by Vespasian, when he conquered the Isle of Wight. A bronze 
celt was found here some eighty years ago, and came into the possession 
of Warner. Others have been discovered, in great quantities, in various 
parts of the Forest, two of which are engraved in Archceologia, vol. v., 
plate viii., figs. 9 and 10. Brander, too, the well-known antiquary, found 
others at Hinton, on the west border of the Forest (Archceologia, vol. v. 
p. 115). Mr. Drayson has also picked up two flint knives at Eye worth, 
which are figured, showing both the under and upper surfaces, at p. 206. 

t As in Derbyshire all barrows are marked by the terminal low hlu>w, 
a grave, so in the Forest they seem particularized by a reference to the 
Old-English he. Thus, near the Beaulieu barrows we find Lytton Copse 
and Common, and at the west end of the Forest, not far from Amber- 
wood, meet another Latchmoor I may notice that just outside the Forest, 
in Darrat's Lane a .word which often occurs we find a place, near some 
mounds, called " Brands," equivalent to the " Brund " of Derbyshire, and 
having reference to the burning funeral pyre. (See Bateman's Ten Years' 
Diggings, Appendix, p. 290.) 

200 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

milestone on the Kingwood Koad. In a straight line to the 
north, at the distance of a quarter of a mile apart, rise three 
others, whilst round it on the east side lie a quantity of small 
circles, so low as hardly to be discernible when the heather 
is in bloom. An irregularly shaped oval, it rose in the centre 
to a height of nearly six feet above the ground, measuring 
sixteen yards in breadth, and twenty-two in length, with a circum- 
ference of from sixty to sixty-five. On the south side was a 
depression from whence the gravel had been obtained. We first 
cut a trench two yards broad, so as to take the centre, and at 
about two feet and a half from the surface came upon traces 
of charcoal, which increased till we reached the floor. A few 
round stones, probably, as they bore some slight artificial marks, 
used for slinging, and the flake of, perhaps, a flint knife, were 
the only things found, and were all placed on the south side. 
We now cut the mound from east to west, and on the east 
side, resting on the floor, we discovered the remains of a Keltic 
urn. The parts were, however, in a most fragile state, and 
in some instances had resolved themselves into mere clay, 
and we could only obtain two small fragments, sufficient to show 
the coarseness and extreme early age of the ware. No charcoal 
nor osseous matter could be detected adhering to the sides, 
which, as we shall see, is generally the case. 

Hound it, as was stated, lie a quantity of small grave-circles, 
varying from twenty-five to ten yards in circumference, and 
scarcely better defined than fairy-rings. Two of these I opened, 
and they corresponded with the mounds on Sway Common 
examined by Warner, in having a grave about three feet deep, in 
which we found only charcoal. This was, however, the only 
point of resemblance, as they had no mound, and contained no 
urn. One fact is worth noticing, that they were dug in a 

Contents of one of the Bratley Barrows. 201 

remarkably hard gravelly soil, so hard that the labourers 
made very slow progress even with their pick-axes. I did not 
excavate any more, as they were all evidently of the same 
character. The choice of such a soil, especially with the instru- 
ments they possessed, may, perhaps, show the importance which 
the Britons attached to the rite of burial. 

About a quarter of a mile, or rather less, from this great 
graveyard lay a solitary mound, two feet and a half in height, 
having a circumference of twenty-seven feet, a very common 
measurement, but without any trench. Upon digging into it 
on the east side we quickly came, about four inches from the 
surface, upon a patch of charcoal and burnt earth. Proceeding 
farther, we reached two well-defined layers of charcoal, the 
uppermost two feet from the top of the barrow. A band of 
red burnt earth, measuring five inches, separated these two beds, 
in both of which in places appeared white spots and patches 
of limy matter, the remains of calcined bones. In the centre, 
as shown in the illustration, we found a Keltic urn. Imbedded 
in a fine white burnt clay, which had hardened, placed with "its 
mouth uppermost, and ornamented with a rough cable-moulding, 
and two small ears, it stood on the level of the natural soil, 
rising to within sixteen inches of the top of the mound. 

Digging on both sides, we discovered two more urns im- 
bedded in the same hard white sandy clay, so hard that it had 
to be scraped away with knives. Like the first, they were made 
by hand, and when exposed quite shone with a bright vermilion, 
which quickly changed to a dull grey. The paste, however, was 
a light yellow, mixed with coarse gritty sand. And the three 
were placed, as shown by the compass, exactly due north-east 
and south-west. 

A plain moulding ran round the south-west urn, which was 


202 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

considerably smaller and not so well baked as the other two, and 
had very much fallen to pieces from natural decay. This was 
placed eight inches lower than the central urn. 

The northernmost was the same size as the central, though 
differing from it in the contraction of the rim, and when dis- 
covered was perfectly whole, but was unfortunately fractured by 
being separated from a large furze root, which had completely 
twined round the upper part. It, too, was placed on a lower 
level, by four inches, than the central urn. The two extreme 
urns were exactly five feet apart, and the interiors of them all 
were blackened by the carbon from the charcoal, burnt earth, 
and bones, which they contained. 

Looking at their rude forms and large size, their straight 
sides, their wide mouths, the thickness, and the rough gritty 
texture of the paste,* the absence of nearly all ornamentation, 
and, with the exception, perhaps, of a slinging stone, of all 
weapons, we shall not be wrong in dating them as long anterior 

* I certainly think that these urns were fired, though imperfectly. As 
Mr. Bateman remarks, sun-baked specimens soon return to their original 
clay. See Appendix to Ten Years' 1 Diggings, p. 280. 

These three urns, with all the other fragments of cinerary vessels 
found in the Forest, I have placed in the British Museum, where they 
have been restored. The artist has represented them exactly as they 
appeared on the second day of digging. The fractures in the central urn 
were caused by an unlucky blow from a pick-axe. The measurements are 
as follows : 

The north-eastern urn Circumference at top . . 3 ft. 

bottom . 1 6 in. 

Total height. . . . 1 4 

The central urn The same. 

The south-western urn Circumference at top . . 2 9 ,. 

.> bottom . 1 : , 4 ,. 

Total height. . . . 1 H 

Contents of the Urns. 203 

to the Koman invasion how long a more minute criticism 
and a greater accumulation of facts than is now possessed, can 
alone determine. 

There are, however, one or two points peculiarly noticeable 
about this barrow first, the enormous quantity of burnt earth, 
suggesting that the funeral pyre was actually lit on the spot, 
which certainly was not the case in most of the other barrows, 
where the charcoal is only sprinkled here and there, or appears 
in the form of a small circular patch on the floor. Secondly, 
the two bands of charcoal, so full of osseous matter, would 
certainly go far to prove, what has been surmised by Bateman 
and others, that the slaves or prisoners were immolated at the 
decease of their master or conqueror. 

Again, too, the different sizes and positions of the urns 
may, perhaps, indicate either degrees of relationship or rank of 
the persons buried. And this theory is somewhat corroborated 
by the contents. The central urn was examined on the spot, 
and, like all the others, with the exception of a round stone 
slightly indented, contained burnt earth, limy matter, and at 
the bottom the larger bones, which were less calcined, but 
which, owing to the want of proper means, we could not 
preserve. The other two were opened at the British Museum. 
At the bottom of the north-easternmost were also placed bones 
in a similar condition, amongst which Professor Owen recog- 
nized the femur and radius of an adult. The smallest urn also 
showed bones placed in the same manner at the bottom, but in 
this case smaller, and amongst them Professor Owen deter- 
mined processus dentatus, and the body of the third cervical 
vertebra, and was of opinion that they were those of a person 
of small stature, or, perhaps, of a female. This is what might 
have been expected. And the fact of their being put in tne 


204 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

smallest vessel, which, as we have noticed, was placed below 
the level of the others, certainly indicates a distinction made 
in the mode of burial of persons of either different ages or 

The fact, too, that all the larger bones were placed by them- 
selves at the bottom is worth noticing, and shows that they 
must have been carefully collected and separated from the burnt 
earth and charcoal of the pyre. 

About another quarter of a mile off rise two more barrows, 
measuring exactly the same in circumference as the last, though 
not nearly so high, being raised only sixteen inches above the 
ground. Upon opening the southernmost, we soon came, on 
the east side, upon traces of charcoal, which increased to a 
bed of an inch and a half in thickness as we reached the 
centre. Here we found an urn of coarse pottery exactly similar 
in texture to those in the previous barrow. It was, however, in 
such a bad state of preservation, and so soft, from the wetness 
of the ground, that the furze-roots had grown through the sides, 
and it crumbled to bits on being touched. Some few pieces, 
though, near the bottom, we were able to preserve. Its shape, 
however, was well shown by the form which its contents had 
taken. It seems to have been, though much smaller, exactly 
of the same rude, straight-sided, and wide-mouthed pattern 
as the other urns, measuring seven inches in height, and in 
circumference, near the top, two feet two inches, and at the 
bottom, one foot four inches. The cast was composed entirely 
of burnt stones, and black earth, and osseous matter, reduced to 
lime, in which the furze-roots had imbedded themselves. 

The fellow barrow, which was only about fifty yards distant, 
and whose measurements were exactly the same, contained also 
charcoal, though not in such large quantities, and fragments 

Contents of Barrow near Ocknell Pond. 205 

of an urn placed not in the centre, but near the extreme western 
edge. The remains here were in a still worse state of decom- 
position, and we could obtain no measurements, but only one 
or two pieces of ware, which, in their general coarseness and 
grittiness of texture, corresponded with the others, and not only 
showed their Keltic manufacture, but their extreme early date.* 

This last mound, I may add, was composed of gravel, 
whilst the other was made simply of mould : and two depres- 
sions on the heath showed where the material had been 

About two miles to the north-east, close to Ocknell Pond, 
lies a single barrow of much the same size as these two, though 
a great deal higher, being raised in the centre to three feet 
and a half. We began the excavation on the east side, pro- 
ceeding to the centre, but found nothing except some charcoal, 
and peculiarly-shaped rolled flints, placed on the level of the 

We then made another trench from the north side, and 
close to some charcoal, about a foot and a half below the raised 
surface, came upon the neck of a Koman wine vessel (ampulla). 
Although we opened the whole of the east side, we could not 
find the remaining portion. The barrow bore no traces of 
having been previously explored, nor did the soil appear to have 
been moved. The fracture was certainly not recent, and it is 
very possible that some disappointed treasure-seekers in the 

* I am inclined to think that here, as in the similar instance on Fritham 
Plain, the urns were put in the mound entire, and not, as is sometimes the 
case, in fragments. The pieces had no appearance of being burnt after 
the fractures had taken place, which were here simply the result of decay. 
See on this point Bateman's Ten Years' Diggings, pp. 191, 192, where 
Mr. Keller's letter to Sir Henry Ellis on the subject is given. 

206 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Middle Ages had forestalled us, and time had obliterated all 
their marks in opening the mound. 

From the position of the vessel at the top of the barrow, 
there had evidently been a second interment. The remains, 
however, are in accordance with what we might have expected. 
The barrow is situated not far from the Romano -British 

Neck of Roman Wine Vessel. Keltic Urn, and FJint Knives. 

potteries of Sloden, and close to it run great banks, known as 
the Row- ditch, marking, in all probability, the settlements of a 
Romano-British population.* 

* Instances have been known where the top of a Roman cinerary urn 
has been taken off, and replaced ; but, from the narrowness of the neck, I 
hardly think this vessel was used for such a purpose. I give with it also 
a late British urn found, some twenty years ago, in a barrow outside the 
present Forest boundary, in a field known as Hilly Accombs, near Darrat's 
Lane, which has been previously mentioned. It measures 6 inches in height, 
and has a circumference of 1 foot 9 inches round the top, and 1 foot at the 
base. With it was discovered another, but I have been unable to learn in 
whose possession it now is, or what has become of the Roman glass unguent 
bottle found in Denney Walk (see the Antiquities of the Priory of Christ- 
church, by B. Ferrey and E. W. Brayley, p. 2, foot-note). The two flint 

Barrows on the West Fritham Plain. 207 

On Fritham Plain, not far from Gorely Bushes, lies another 
vast graveyard. The grave-circles are very similar in size to 
those round the large barrow on Bratley Plain, though a good 
deal higher, with, here and there, some oval mounds ranged 
side by side, as in a modern churchyard. In the autumn 
of 1862, I opened five of these, with the same result of finding 
charcoal in all, though placed in different parts, but in all 
instances resting on the natural ground, and giving evidence 
of only one interment. As in other cases, the grave-heaps were 
often alternately composed of mould and gravel. No traces 
of urns or celts were found, but in one or two a quantity 
of small circular stones, with indistinct marks of borings, 
which could hardly have accidentally collected. 

About a quarter of a mile off, on the road to Whiteshoot,* 
lies, however, a square mound, measuring nine yards each 
way, and averaging a foot and a half in height. On opening 
it on the north side, we came upon the fragments of an 
urn, but so much decayed that we could only tell that they 
were, probably, Keltic. On the west side, another trench, 
which had been made, showed the presence of charcoal, which 
kept increasing till we reached the centre, where we found 
what appeared to be the remains of three separate urns, placed 
in a triangle at about a yard apart. These also were in the 

knives were discovered by Mr. Drayson, near Eyeworth Wood, and some- 
what resemble the chipping found in the largest barrow at Bratley, and 
were, perhaps, cotemporary. The conchoidal fracture may be well seen in 
specimen on the right-hand side. The celts found by Warner and Brander, 
with others in the possession of Gough, mentioned at p. 199, foot-note, were 

" There are two large heathy tracts known as Fritham Plain ; the one 
to the east, where stand several large trenched barrows, which still remain 
to be opened ; and the West Plain, where these excavations took place. 

208 The Neic Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

same decayed state, and crumbled to pieces as we endeavoured 
to separate them from the soil. With some difficulty we 
managed to preserve a few fragments which were identical with 
those which had been previously discovered in the other barrows 
at Bratley. They contained, like most of the other vessels, 
burnt stones and white osseous matter reduced to lime. There 
seems, however, to have been some difference in their texture 
with that of the fragments found on the north side, which were 
less gritty and coarse, and which bore no traces of charcoal or 

We will now leave Fritham, and cross Sloden and Amber- 
wood Plantation. Not far from Amberwood Corner, and above 
Pitt's Enclosure, stand two barrows. The largest was opened 
thirty years ago by a labouring man, who, to use his own 
language, " constantly dreamt that he should there find a crock 
of gold." His opening was rewarded by discovering only some 
charcoal. In 1851, the Rev. J. Pemberton Bartlett also explored 
it with still less success. It is, however, a remarkable barrow, 
and differs in character from any of the preceding, being com- 
posed in the interior of large sub-angular flints, and cased on 
the outside with a rampart of earth. Beyond it lies another, 
very different in style, being made only of earth. This was 
also opened by Mr. Bartlett, who found some pieces of charcoal, 
and small fragments of a very coarsely-made urn. 

* An attempt to examine this barrow had been previously made, but 
the explorers had opened a little to the south-west of the spot where the 
pottery lay. It is just possible that the large square in Sloden may be of 
the same character. I cut a small opening at the western end, but it is 
impossible, on account of the trees, to make any satisfactory excavation. 
Whatever might have been its original purpose, it was certainly never the 
site of a church, as is commonly supposed. See ch. iii., p. 32, foot-note. 

The Barroivs on Butt's Plain. 209 

About a mile away on Butt's Plain rise five more barrows, 
and beyond them again two more. Of the first five, two were 
explored by Mr. Bartlett, who was unsuccessful, and two by 

The two which I opened lie on the right of the track leading 
from Amberwood to the Fordingbridge road. The northernmost 
was considerably the largest, having a circumference of fifty 
yards, and was composed simply of gravel and earth. In it 
we found only a circle of charcoal placed nearly in the centre 
on the level of the ground. 

The other was more remarkable. It measured only thirty 
yards in circumference, but was composed in the centre of raised 
earth, above which were piled large rolled flints, making a 
stratum of from two to three feet in depth on the sides, but 
gradually becoming thinner as it reached the centre, which was 
barely covered. It thus totally differed from that near Amber- 
wood, where the earth flanked the stones instead of being the 
nucleus round which they were placed. In it we found a circle 
of charcoal ingrained with limy matter, a few remains of much 
calcined bones, and a fine stone hammer bored with two holes 
slantwise, to give a greater purchase to the handle. 

Besides these, I opened a solitary barrow situated between 
Handycross Pond and Pinnock Wood, close to Akercombe 
Bottom. It measured twenty- seven yards in circumference, 
and three feet in height. After digging into it near the centre, 
we found in the white sand, of which the mound was chiefly 
composed, a good deal of charcoal on and below the level of 
the ground, but failed to discover any traces of an urn, although 
we went down to a considerable depth. 

Further, a solitary oval mound stood on the south side 
of South Bentley, half way between it and Anses Wood. It 

E E 

210 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

measured two feet and a half in height, twelve yards in length, 
and seven in breadth. This also I opened, hut failed to find 
even any remains of charcoal, and, from the easy-moving nature 
of the soil, am inclined to suspect that it was modern, and 
raised for some other purpose than that of burial. On the 
east side was a depression filled with water, from whence the 
soil was taken. 

The most remarkable barrow, if it can be so called, in this 
part of the Forest, is at Black Bar, at the extreme west end 
of Lin wood, measuring nearly four hundred yards in circum- 
ference, and rising to the height of forty feet or more. It is 
evidently in part factitious, for upon sinking a pit ten feet 
deep we reached charcoal mixed with Roman pottery, but not 
of a sepulchral character. 

In its general appearance the mound is not unlike the 
famous Barney Barn's Hill, in Dibden Bottom, and close to 
it rises another, known as the Fir Pound, not much inferior 
in size. I made other openings on the top and sides, but 
discovered nothing further. To excavate it thoroughly would 
require an enormous time, and would in all probability not 
repay the labour. It looks, however, by the depressions on the 
summit, as if it had once been the site of Keltic dwellings. 
And this is in some measure corroborated by a small mound 
close to it, where, as if apparently left or thrown away, we 
found placed in a hole a small quantity of extremely coarse 
pottery the coarsest and thickest which I have ever seen. 
Again, too, in a field close by, known as Blackheath Meadow, 
we everywhere met traces of Romano-British w r are, very similar 
in shape and texture to that in Sloden, described in the next 

The whole district just round here is most interesting. 

The Bar rows on Langley Heath. 211 

About a mile to the north is Latclimoor Stream and Latchmoor 
Green, marking, doubtless, some burial-ground ; and not far 
off stands one of those elevated places, common in the Forest, 
with the misleading title of Castle. 

I must not, too, forget to mention some barrows on Langley 
Heath, just outside the present eastern boundary of the Forest, 
and especially interesting from being situated so near to Calshot, 
where, as we have seen, Cerdic probably landed. Seven of them 
were opened by the Kev. J. Pemberton Bartlett. The mounds, 
averaging about twenty yards in circumference, were, in some 
cases, slightly raised, as much as a foot and a half, though 
in others nearly on a level with the natural surface of the soil. 
In them all was found a single grave, though, in one instance, 
two, running about three feet in depth, and containing only 
burnt earth and charcoal. They thus exactly corresponded, 
with the exception of the slight mound, with those on Bratley 

With this we must conclude.* It would not be difficult to 

* To assist the archaeologist, I have marked on the map the sites of all 
the barrows of which I am aware. In the British Museum is a small urn, 
found in a barrow at Broughton, on the borders of Hampshire, about 
twelve miles north of the Forest, measuring three inches in height, and, 
though so much less, somewhat resembling, with its two small ears, as also 
in the general character and texture of its ware, those found in the Bratley 
barrow. The Rev. J. Oompton also informs me that some years ago a 
plain urn was discovered in a barrow on his father's property at Minestead, 
in the Forest. I hear, too, that other urns have been found in barrows near 
Burley on the west, and near Butt's Ash Lane on the east side of the 
Forest, but they have long ago been lost or destroyed, and I am unable 
to learn even their general form. I trust, therefore, permission will not 
be granted to open the mounds which are unexplored, except to those who 
can produce some credentials that they are fitted for the task, and are 
doing it from no idle curiosity, but legitimate motives. Too much harm 

E E 2 

The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

frame some theory from these results. I, however, here prefer 
to allow the simple facts to remain. As we have seen, the 
barrows in this part of the Forest, like all others of the same 
period, contained nothing, with the exception of the single stone - 
hammer, and the slinging pebbles, and the flake of flint, but 
nearly plain urns, full of only burnt earth, charcoal, and human 
bones. No iron, bronze, nor bone-work of any sort, was found, 
which would still further go to prove their extreme early age. 
Curiously enough, too, no teeth, bones, nor horn-cores of 
animals were discovered, as so often are in Keltic barrows.* 
Like all others, too, of an early date, there seem to have been 
several burials in the same grave, though this, as on Fritham 
Plain, is very far from being always the case. Some little 
regularity evidently prevailed with the different septs. Some, 
as at Bratley, placed the charred remains in a grave from two 
to three feet in depth ; others, as at Butt's Plain, on the mere 
ground. On the other hand, a good deal of caprice seems to 
have been exercised as to the materials with which each barrow 
was formed, and the way and the shape in which it was built, as 
also the arrangement of the charcoal. 

Further, perhaps, the different grades of life and relation- 
ship were marked by the presence and position of the urns. 

has been already done, and too many barrows have been already rifled, 
without any record being made of their contents. Nearly all that we 
know of Kelt or Old-English we learn irom their deaths. Their history is 
buried in their graves. 

* In Mr. Birch's Ancient Pottery, vol. ii. pp. 382, 383, will be found 
a list of the notices of the various discoveries of Keltic urns, scattered 
through the different Archaeological Journals and Collections, which will 
save the student much time and labour. A most valuable paper on the 
subject, by Kemble, was published in the Archwological Journal vol xii. 
number 48, p. 309. 

General Summary of Facts. 


Whether this be so or no, it is certain that the mounds here 
which contained mortuary vessels were, as a rule, more elevated, 
and in nearly all instances placed by themselves. The fact, too, 
of the cube-shaped mound with its remains of four urns should 
be kept in mind. 

Little more can with certainty be said. The flint knives 
which have been picked up in the Forest, the stone hammer 
in the grave, the clumsy form and make of the urns, the 
places, too, of burial in the wide furzy Ytene, in after-times 
the Bratleys, and Burleys, and Oakleys, of the West- Saxons- 
all show a people whose living was gained rather by hunting 
than agriculture or commerce. 

Barrows on JSeaulieu Plain, 

214 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 



Wine-Flask, Drinking-Cups, and Bowls. 

FROM time to time the labourer, in draining or planting in the 
Forest, digs down upon pieces of earthenware, whilst in the 
turfy spots the mole throws up the black fragments in her 
mound of earth. The names, too, of Crockle Crock Kiln 
and Panshard Hill, have from time immemorial marked the site 
of at least two potteries. Yet even these had escaped all notice 
until Mr. Bartlett, in 1853, gave an account of his excavations, 
and showed the large scale on which the Komans carried on 

The Potteries at Anderwood and Oakley. 215 

tbeir works, and the beauty of their commonest forms and 

Since then both Mr. Bartlett and myself have at different 
times opened various other sites, and some short notice of their 
contents may, perhaps, not be without interest. 

Fifty years ago, when digging the holes for the gate-posts at 
the south-west corner of Anderwood Enclosure, the workmen 
discovered some perfect urns and vases. These have, of course, 
long since been lost. But as the place was so far distant from 
the potteries at Crockle, I determined to re-open it. The site, 
however, had been much disturbed. Enough though could be 
seen to show that there had once been a small kiln, round which 
were scattered for three or four yards, in a black mould of about 
a foot and a half in depth, the rims, and handles, and bottoms 
of vessels of Eomano-British ware. The specimens were entirely 
confined to the commonest forms, all ornamentation being 
absent, and the ware itself of a very coarse kind, the paste 
being grey and gritty. 

About a mile and a half off, in Oakley Enclosure, close to the 
Bound Beech, I was, however, more fortunate. Here the kiln 
was perfect. It was circular, and measured six yards in circum- 
ference, its shape being well-defined by small hand-formed 
masses of red brick-earth. The floor, about two feet below 
the natural surface of the ground, was paved with a layer of 
sand-stones, some of them cut into a circular shape, so as to 
fit the kiln, the upper surfaces being tooled, whilst the under 
remained in their original state. As at Anderwood, the ware 
was broken into small fragments, and was scattered round the 
kiln for five or six yards. The specimens were here, too, of 

* Archaoiogia, vol. xxxv. pp. 91-93. 

*J16 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

the coarsest kind, principally pieces of bowls and shallow dishes, 
and, perhaps, though of a different age, not so unlike as might 
at first sight be supposed to the 

" Sympuvium Numse, nigrumque catinum, 
Et Vaticano fragiles de monte patellae." 

These appear to be the only kilns which, 'perhaps from the 
unfitness of the clay, were worked in this part of the Forest, 
and were used only in manufacturing the most necessary utensils 
in daily life. 

Of far greater extent are the works at Sloden, covering 
several acres. All that remains of these, too, are, I am sorry 
to say, mere fragments of a coarse black earthenware. And 
although I opened the ground at various points, I never could 
meet with anything perfect. Yet the spot is not without great 
interest. The character and nature of the south-western slope 
exactly coincide with Colt Hoare's description of Knook Down 
and the Stockton Works.* Here are the same irregularities in 
the ground, the same black mould, the same coarse pottery, the 
same banks, and mounds, and entrenchments, all indicating 
the settlement of a Romano-British population. Half-way down 
the hill, not far from two large mounds marking the sites of 
kilns, stretch trenches and banks showing the spaces within 
which, perhaps, the potters' huts stood, or where the cultivated 

* See, too, Mr. Carrington's " Account of a Romano-British Settlement 
near Wetton, Staffordshire," in Bateman's Ten Years' Diggings, pp. 194- 
200. I have never found any stone floors, but this may be accounted for 
by the difficulty of procuring paving-stones in the district. The best guide 
which I know for discovering any ancient settlements is the presence of 
nettles and chickweed, which, like the American "Jersey-weed," always 
accompany the footsteps of man. These plants are very conspicuous in the 
lower parts of Sloden, as also at the Crocide and Thorn potteries. 


The Crockle Potteries. 


fields lay, whilst at one place five banks meet in a point, and 
between two of them appear some slight traces of what may 
have been a road.* 

At the bottom of the hill, but more to the south-westward, 
stands the Lower Hat, where the same coarse ware covers the 
earth, and where the presence of nettles and chickweed shows 
that the place has once been inhabited. 

The Crockle and Island Thorn potteries lie about a mile to 
the north-east. At Crockle there were, before Mr. Bartlett opened 
them, three mounds, varying in circumference from one hundred 
and eighty to seventy yards, each, as I have ascertained, con- 
taining at least three or four, but probably more, kilns. As 
the lowest part of the smallest and easternmost mound had 
not been entirely explored, I determined to open this piece. 

* The spot where these banks intersect each other is known as Sloden 
Hole, and is well worthy of notice. The annexed plan will best show 

the character of the place. The 
largest bank is that which runs 
to the south-west, measuring four 
yards across, and proving by its 
massiveness that it is a Roman 
work. Upon digging, as shown in 
the plan, at the point of intersec- 
tion, we found pieces of iron and 
iron slag, sandstone, charcoal, and 
Roman pottery similar to that 
made in Crockle. Many of these 
banks run for long distances. That 

to the south-east reaches the top of Sloden Green, about half a mile off, 
whilst the north-east bank stretches for nearly a mile to Whiteshoot. There 
are, too, other banks scattered about Sloden, which, if examined, would 
doubtless yield similar results, but none are so well denned as these. The 
largest bank which I know in the district stretches from Pitt's Enclosure, 
in a south-easterly direction across Anderwood, and so through the southern 
parts of Sloden. 

F F 


218 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Beginning at the extremity, we soon came upon a kiln, which, 
like the others discovered by Mr. Bartlett, only showed its 
presence by the crumbling red brick earth. An enormous old 
oak-stump had grown close beside it, and around the bole were 
heaped the drinking-vessels and oil-flasks, which its now rotten 
roots had once pierced. 

Nothing could better show, as the excavation proceeded, 
the former state of the works. Here were imbedded in the 
stiff yellow putty-like clay, of which they were made, masses 

Necks of Oil-Flasks. 

of earthenware, the charcoal, with which they were fired, still 
sticking to their sides pieces of vitreous-looking slag, and 
a grey line of cinders mixed with the red brick earth of the 
kiln. The ware remained just as it was cast aside by the 

Necks of Wine- Vessels and Oil-Flask. 

potter. You might tell by the bulging of the sides, and the 
bright metallic glaze of the vessels, how the workman had over- 
heated the kiln ; see, too, by the crookedness of the lines, 

Contents of the Crockle Potteries. 219 

where his hand had missed its stroke. All was here. The 
potter's finger-marks were still stamped upon the bricks. Here 
lay the brass coin which he had dropped, and the tool he had 
forgotten, and the plank upon which he had tempered the clay.* 

* The most noticeable specimens which I discovered were a strainer or 
colander, a funnel, some fragments of " mock Samian " ware ; part of a 
lamp, with the holes to admit air, as also for suspension ; and some beads 
of Kimmeridge clay, proving, by being found here, their Roman origin. 
The iron tools of the workmen had been dropped into the furnace, and 
were a good deal melted. The wood owed its preservation to the fer- 
ruginous soil in which it was imbedded, and was in a semi-fossilized state. 
Nothing less slight than a plank could have lasted so long. The finger- 
marks and impress of the hand were very plain on one of the masses of 
brick-earth. The coin, I am sorry to jsay, is too much worn to be recog- 
nized. These, with the other vessels, paterce, urceoli, lagence, pocula, aceta- 
bula, &c., I have placed in the British Museum, where is also Mr. Bartlett's 
rich collection. The patterns, with the necks of ampulla: and gutti, as also 
the specimens at pages 214, 225, will, I trust, give some general idea of the 
beauty of the ware, and can be compared with those given by Mr. Akerman 
in Archoeologia, vol. xxxv. p. 96, and by Mr. Franks in the Archaological 
Journal, vol. x. p. 8. The commonest shape for a drinking- vessel is the 
right-hand figure at page 225, known in the Forest, from the depressions 
made by the workman's thumb, as a " thumb pot." Sometimes it is met 
with considerably ornamented, and varies in height from three to ten inches. 
The principal part of the pottery is slate-coloured and grey, and faint 
yellow, but some of a fine red bronze and morone, caused by the over- 
heating of the ovens. The patterns are thrown up by some white pigment, 
though a great many are left untouched by anything but the workman's 
tool. When chipped, the ware, by being so well burnt, is quite siliceous. 
This manufactory, as its size would show, was not confined to merely sup- 
plying the wants of the immediate neighbourhood, but probably, with others 
at Alice Holt and elsewhere, furnished a great part of the South of England 
with its earthenware, for fragments of the same make, shape, and texture, 
have been found at Bittern (Clausentum), and Chichester, though doubtless 
a similarity of workmanship prevailed amongst many of the potteries. The 
so-called crockery of the southern part of the Forest is nothing else but 
the plates of turtles imbedded in the Freshwater marls. 

F F 2 

220 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

The Island Thorn potteries had been so thoroughly opened 
by Mr. Bartlett, that I there made but little further explorations, 
and must refer my readers to his account,* only here adding 
that the ware scarcely differed, except in shape and patterns, 
from that at Crockle. 

About a mile westward stands Pitt's Enclosure, where in 
three different places rise low mounds, two of which, since 
the publication of his account, have been opened by Mr. Bartlett, 
but from which he only obtained fragments. 

The third, which I explored in 1862, was remarkable for 
the number of kilns placed close together, separated from each 
other only by mounds of the natural soil. In all, there were 
five, ranged in a semicircle, and paved with irregular masses 
of sandstone. They appear to have been used at the time at 
which they were left for firing different sorts of ware. Close 
to the westernmost kiln, we found only the necks of various 
unguent bottles, whilst the easternmost oven seems to have 
been employed in baking only a coarse red panchion, on which 
a cover (operculum), with a slight knob for a handle, fitted. 
Of these last we discovered an enormous quantity, apparently 
flung away into a deep hole. 

Near the central kilns we found one or two new shapes and 
patterns, but they were, I am sorry to say, very much broken, 
the ware not being equal in strength or fineness to that at 
Crockle. The most interesting discovery, however, were two 
distinct heaps of white and fawn-coloured clay and red 'earth, 
placed ready for mixing, and a third of the two worked together, 
fit for the immediate use of the potter. 

Near to these works stretch, on a smaller scale, the same 

Archceologia, vol. xxxv. pp. 95, 96. 

Potteries at Ashley Rails and Black Heath. 221 

embankments which mark the Sloden potteries. One is particu- 
larly noticeable, measuring twenty-two feet in width, and run- 
ning in the shape of the letter Z. In the central portion I cut 
two trenches, but could discover nothing but a circle of charcoal, 
looking as if it was the remains of a workman's fire, placed on 
the level of the natural soil. Another trench I opened at the 
extreme end, as also various pits near the embankment, but 
failed to find anything further. 

At Ashley Kails, also, close by, stand two more mounds, 
which cover the remains of more ware. These I only very par- 
tially opened, for the black mould was very shallow, and the 
specimens the same as I had found in Pitt's Wood. 

Besides these, there are, as mentioned in the last chapter, 
extensive works at Black Heath Meadow at the west-end of Lin- 
wood, but they are entirely, like those in Sloden, Oakley, and 
Anderwood, confined to the manufacture of coarse Komano- 
British pottery. This last ware seems to differ very little in 
character or form. The same shapes of jars (copied from the 
Roman lagence) were found by Mr. Kell near Barnes Chine in 
the Isle of Wight,* though at Black Heath, as in the other 
places in the Forest, handles, through which cords were probably 
intended to pass, with flat dishes, and saucer-like vessels (shaped 
similar to patera), all, however, in fragments, occurred. f 

* See Journal of the ArchcBological Association, vol. xii. pp. 141-145, 
where some figures of the jars are given. 

f In Eyeworth Wood I have found pieces of Roman wine and oil flasks, 
but they were left here by the former inhabitants, and not made on the 
spot. The place known as Church Green is evidently the site of a habita- 
tion. In the autumn of 1862 I made several excavations; but there was 
some difficulty attending the work, as the ground had been previously 
explored by the late Mr. Lewis, the author of the Historical Inquiries on 
the State of the New Forest. The evidence, however, of the Roman pottery 

222 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Such is a brief account of the potteries in the Forest. Their 
extent was, with two exceptions, restricted to one district, where 
the Lower Bagshot Sands, with their clays, crop out, and to the 
very same bed which the potters at Alderholt, on the other side 
of the Avon, still at this hour work. 

The two exceptions at Oakley and Anderwood are situated 
just at the junction of the Upper Bagshot Sands and the Barton 
Clays, which did not suit so well, and where the potteries are 
very much smaller, and the ware coarser and grittier. 

The date of the Crockle potteries may be roughly guessed by 
the coins, found there by Mr. Bartlett, of Victorinus.* These 
were much worn, and, as Mr. Akerman suggests, might be lost 
about the end of the third century ; but the potteries were 
probably worked till or even after the Komans abandoned the 

There is nothing to indicate any sudden removal, but, on the 
contrary, everything shows that the works were by degrees 
stopped, and the population gradually withdrew. None of the 
vessels are quite perfect, but are what are technically known as 
" wasters." The most complete have some slight flaw, and are 
evidently the refuse, which the potter did not think fit for the 

The size of the works need excite no surprise, when we 

was sufficient to show its occupation during the Roman period, and to 
dispel the illusion that it was ever the site of a church. On the north-east 
side of the wood are the remains of a fine Roman camp, the agger and 
vallum being in one place nearly complete. 

* I may add that Mr. Drayson also possesses coins of Victorinus, and 
Claudius Gothicus, found in various parts of the Forest, the last in one 
of the " thumb-pots," with 1700 others, perhaps, indicating the period when 
the Crockle and Island Thorn Potteries were in their most nourishing 

The Patterns and Shapes of the Ware. 


remember how much earthenware was used in daily life by the 
Komans for their floors, and drinking-cups, and oil and wine 
flasks, and unguent vessels, and cinerary urns, and boxes for 

Patterns from Fragments. 

money. The beauty, however, of the forms, even if it does not 
approach that of the Upchurch and Castor pottery, should be 
noticed. The flowing lines, the scroll-work patterns, the narrow 
necks of the wine-flasks and unguent vessels, all show how well 

Patterns from Fragments. 

the true artist understands that it is the real perfection of Art 
to make beauty ever the handmaid of use. 

Another thing, too, is worthy of notice, that the artist was 
evidently unfettered by any given pattern or rule. Whatever 
device or form was at the moment uppermost in his mind, that 
he carried out, his hand following the bent of his fancy. Hence 
the endless variety of patterns and forms. No two vessels are 
exactly alike. In modern manufactures, however, the smooth 

224 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

uniformity of ugliness most admirably keeps down any symptoms 
of the prodigal luxuriance of beauty.* 

We must, however, carefully beware of founding any theory, 
from the existence of these potteries, that the Forest must there- 
fore have been cultivated in the days of the Conqueror. The 
reason why the Romans chose the Forest is obvious, not from 
its fertility, but because it supplied the wood to fire the kilns ; 
the same cause which, centuries after, made Yarranton select 
Ringwood for his smelting-furnaces. We must, too, bear in 
mind that after the Romans abandoned the island the natives 
soon went back to their primitive state of semi -barbarism ; 
and further, that the interval between the Roman occupa- 
tion and the Norman Conquest was nearly as great as that 
between ourselves and the Conqueror a period long enough 
for the Kelts, and West- Saxons, and Danes to have swept away 
in their feuds all traces of civilization. 

But what we should see in them is that beauty of form, 
which in simple outline has seldom been excelled, proclaiming 
a people who should in their descendants be the future masters 
of Art, as then they were of warfare. 

The history of a nation may be more plainly read by 
its manufactures than by its laws or constitution. Its true 
aesthetic life, too, should be determined not so much by its list 

* In Archceologia, vol. xxxv. p. 99, Mr. Akerman has given a series 
of patterns, which show the variety of designs according to the fancy 
of each workman. The pattern on the right-hand side of our second 
illustration at p. 223 is used as a border in the toga of the later Roman 
empire. The height of the wine vessel at p. 214 is seven inches and a half; 
of the oil-flask at p. 225, five inches ; of the largest drinking cup, five 
inches: and the smallest, three inches and three-quarters; the jar, two 

The Presence of the Romans. 225 

of poets or painters, as by the beauty of the articles in 
daily use. 

And so still at Alderholt, not many miles off, the same beds of 
clay are worked, and jars, and flasks, and dishes made, but with 
a difference which may, perhaps, enable us to understand our 
inferiority in Art to the former rulers of our island. 

What further we should see in the whole district, is the way 
in which the Komans stamped their iron rule upon every land 
which they conquered. Everywhere in the Forest remain their 
traces. Urns, made at these potteries, full of their coins, have 
been dug up at Anderwood and Canterton. Nails at Cadenham, 
millstones at Studley Head, bricks at Bentley, iron slag at 
Sloden, with the long range of embankments stretching from 
wood to wood, and the camps at Buckland Kings and Eyeworth, 
show that they well knew both how to conquer in war and to 
rule in peace. 

Oil-Flask, Drinking- Cup a, Bowl, and Jar. 

G G 

226 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 



Boldre Church. 

As the monasteries of former days preserved the general records 
of the times, so, in a minor degree, do our churches preserve 
the special history of our villages. In the social life of the past 
our Church Books are the counterpart of our Corporation Books, 
performing quite as much for their own parishes as the latter 
for their boroughs; not only giving, in the register, a yearly 
census of the population, but by the Churchwardens' Accounts 
the social and religious life of each period. 

The Late Date of the Registers. 227 

Added to this also the clergyman, having nowhere else 
to chronicle them, has often entered in his register the pass- 
ing events of the day ; so that this further possesses, at times, a 
wider historical interest than could have been expected, giving 
us often glimpses of the views of men, who, however unsympa- 
thetic with the changes and fortunes of the hour, still carry, from 
their office and position, some not inconsiderable weight. 

All these books are far too seldom consulted. The few notes 
we shall make are by no means given as examples of what may 
be elsewhere found, but must be looked upon only as extracts 
from the books of a district, where we naturally could expect 
little of any general interest. 

The New Forest has never been, since registers became the 
law of the land, the scene of any of the great events of English 
history never the theatre of the Civil Wars, as the Midland 
Counties, where entries of victories and defeats, and battles and 
sieges, are mixed with the burials and births. 

Various causes, too, especially the scanty and scattered 
population, have contributed to the late date at which nearly all 
the Forest registers commence.* Still, at Eling, there occurs 

* The following dates prior to 1700 of the Parish Registers in the 
Forest district are taken from the Parish Register Abstract: Accounts and 
Papers: 1833, vol. xxviii (No. 13), p. 398 : 

Eling .... 1537 

Christchurch . 1586 

Milford . . . 1594 
Boldre . . . .1596 

Ellingham , . . 1596 

Bramshaw (loose leaves) 1598 

Fordingbridge '. . 1642 

Beaulieu . . . 1654 

Ibbesley . . . 1654 

Milton . . .1654 

Lymington . . .1662 

Dibden . . .1665 
Fawley .... 1673 

Breamore . . .1675 

Sopley . . .1678 

Minestead . . . 1682 

Ringwood . . .1692 

Brockenhurst 1693 

G G 2 

The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

' the second earliest parish register in Hampshire, beginning one 
year before Cromwell's Act has been passed ; showing, as was 
before noticed, that this part of the Forest was always the richest, 
and, consequently, the most civilized.* In this register we find 
the following most interesting entry : 

" 1654. Thomas Burges, the sonne of William Burges and 
Elizabeth Kussel, the daughter of Elizabeth, the now wife of 
Stephen Newland, were asked three Sabbath dayes, in the Parish 
Church of Eling: sc : Apriel 16th, Ap r 23rd, Ap r 30th, and were 
marr : by Kichard L d Crumwell, May xxii d ." 

I need scarcely add that it was under the Protector that an 
Act of Parliament was passed in 1653, enabling any persons, 
after the due proclamation of the banns in the church or chapel, 
or in the market-place, on three market days, to be married by 
a simple affirmation before a magistrate ; thus in a remarkable 
way nearly anticipating modern legislature.! The Protector's 
son, at the date of this entry, was probably living at Hursley, 
about ten miles away to the north. 

Going across to the other side of the Forest, we shall, at 
Ellingham, find, in the Churchwardens' Books, an entry in a 
different way quite as interesting. The leaf is, I am sorry to 
say, very much torn, and, towards the lower part, half of it is 
wanting. I give, however, the extract as it stands, indicating 
the missing passages by the breaks : 

* See chapter v., p. 51, foot-note, 

t Part of the Act is quoted in Burn's History of Parish Registers, 
second edition, pp. 26 and 27, and where, at pp. 159, 160, 161, are given 
several examples of this kind of marriage amongst them, that of Oliver 
Cromwell's daughter Frances, in 1657, from the Register of St. Martin's-in- 
the Fields. 

Licence for Eating Meat. 

"Martii 13. Anno dom. 1634. A special license, granted v * * 
by the moste reverende ffather in God, William Lord Arch- < 
bishop of Canterbury his Grace, under his Grace's hand and 
seale, used in the like grants, dated the nyneteenth day of 
ffebruarie, Anno dom. 1634, and second yeare of his Grace's 
translation. And confirmed by the Letters patents of our 
Sovraigne Lord Charles the King's ma. tie that now is .... 
Under the Greate Seale of England ffor S r White Beconsaw of 
this parish and county of Southton .... (and) Dame 
Edith hys wife ffor the tyme of their naturell (lives) .... 
to eate flesh on the daies phibited by the Lawe .... 
(upon condition of their giving to the) poore of the pish 
. . . . Thirteene shillings . . . ." 

Whether or no the knyght and his lady were to give the 
sum yearly, as seems most probable, it is impossible, from the 
torn condition of the leaf, to say. Their daughter was the 
noble Alice Lisle. The licence, of course, refers to the prohi- 
bition against eating meat on Fridays and Saturdays, and other 
specified times, first made by Elizabeth for the encouragement 
of the English fisheries, which had even in her reign begun to 
decay.* And now that we are on the subject of Church- 

* Burn, in his History of Parish Registers, second edition, pp. 171, 
172, 173, gives several similar instances of such licences. These most valu- 
able books at Ellingham are, notwithstanding the incumbent's care, in a 
shocking state of preservation. I trust some transcript of them may be 
made before they quite fall to pieces. Ellingham also possesses another 
book containing the names of the owners of the different pews in the church 
in 1672, invaluable to any local historian. In the beginning of this book are 
inserted a number of law-forms of agreements, wills, and indentures, pro- 
bably for the use of the clergyman, who was, perhaps, consulted by his 
parishioners in worldly as also spiritual matters. In the Register there is, 
unfortunately, no mention of the death of Alice Lisle, as the burials are torn 
out from 1664 to 1695. 

230 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

wardens' Books, let me give some brief extracts from those of 
Ellingham : 

" 1556. Itm for waxe ..... ixd. 

Itm for a gyrdle ..... iijd. 
Itm for waxe and for makynge of y e pas- 

chall and fontetapers . . . xvd. 
First payed for a rod (rood) . . . xijs. 
Itm payed for the paschall and fonte- 
tapers ijs. viijd." 

" 1558. First payed for the pascall and fonte- 
tapers ...... xxijcL 

Itm payed for frankeincense . . id." 

Such notices well prove how quick and strong was the 
reaction from Protestantism to Catholicism when favoured by 
the State. Again, to still further show the variety of entries, 
let me make some extracts from the Fordingbridge Church- 
wardens' Books : 

" 1636. I tm for a fox-head . . . . I 8 
I tm for one badgers head . . .010 
I tm for one fox-head 1 0" 

Among miscellaneous notices, as giving the average wages of 
the day, and the prices of various articles, let me add also the 
following from the same accounts : 

" 1609. I tm laide out for a pint of muskadine . vii d " 

" 1616. I 1 for viij dayes' worke for three men . xxiij 8 

I* for a new beel-Rope .... iij 8 iiij d 

I* for a daye's worke for three men . iij 8 iij a 

I* for a booke of artykeels . . . iij 8 

Contents of Churchwardens' Books. 231 

I* for mates (mats) about tho Com- 

munyon tabelle .... xiij d 

I fc payde the Person for keeping the 

Stocke . . . . . . ii 3 iii d " 

These accounts, too, like all others, are full of items for 
the repairs of the bells and bell-ropes, confirming what may 
be found in the narratives of old French and Italian travellers 
concerning our English passion for bell-ringing. The following 
looks very much like cause and effect : 

" 1636. Itm to the Ringers one y e Kinges daye. ij s vj d 
Itm for one belroape . . . . i 8 iv d " 

The "King's day" was that on which the King ascended the 
throne. Again, to show the mixed and varied contents of the 
Churchwardens' Books, we will once more go back to those of 
Ellingham. Under the date of 1556 we find : 

" Itm for a baudericke of the great bell . . xij d 
Itm for a lanterne ..... viij d 
Itm for nailes and sope .... iij d " 

Under the head of " Layinges out in the secunde yere," meaning 
1557, we meet : 

" Itm for a pot of claye ... iij d 

Itm payed for ij bokes . . . . x 8 
Itm payed for smoke sylver . . . ij 8 xi d " 

And, again, under the " Layinges out in the thyrdde yere," 
we find : 

" Itfh payed for storynge of the tythynge 

harnesse ...... xviij d 

Itm for white lether . . . . . iij d 

Itm for lyme and vj creste tyles . , , xxi d 

232 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Itm for surplus for the clerke (clergyman) . iij s 
Bin for smoke silvar ..... xvij d " 

All these entries, to the church historian, and no less to the 
general student, cannot be without peculiar interest. The 
smoke silver, which so frequently occurs, is either the money 
paid for certain privileges of cutting fuel, which, as we have 
seen, was formerly the case in the Forest, or an assessment 
on the houses according to the number of hearths, but more 
probably the former.* The general reader will scarcely care 
for more, but I trust elsewhere to give further extracts from 
these most interesting books. 

Turning back to the Registers, let me add from the Ibbesley 
Parish Register Book, as so few people have seen a specimen, 
an entry of an affidavit of burial in a woollen shroud, in com- 
pliance with the Act passed in 1679, for the encouragement of 
the woollen manufacture in England.f It thus runs, placed 
opposite to the entry of the person's burial, and written in 
the same handwriting: "Jan. 9 th , 16t?, I rec d a certificate 
from Mr. Roger Clavell, Justice of y e peace at Brokenhurst, 
that Thomas King and Anthony King, sons of Anthony King, 
deceased, did make oath before him, the sayd Roger Clavell, 
that the aforesayd Antony King was buried according to the 
late Act of Parliament," 

* See Notes and Queries. First Series, vol. ii., pp. 344, 345. In the 
Churchwardens' Books of Fordingbridge we find "1609. For smoke- 
mony, for makynge and deliveringe of the bills xvj d ," which would confirm 
the first explanation given in the text. 

t 30 Car. II., cap. iii. See Journals of the House of Commons, vol. viii., 
p. 650 ; ix., p. 440. In Burn's History of Parish Registers, second edition, 
p. 117, may be found a much more complicated affidavit than those given in 
the text. 

Certificates of Burials in Woollen. 233 

And again, opposite to the entries of their deaths, we find 
" November 11 th . Certified by John Torbuck, Vicar of Elling- 
ham, y* Edward Baily and Nicholas Baily, of Ibsely, were 
buried in woollen only." 

Pope's lines on Mrs. Oldfield need hardly here be quoted. 
To conclude, of the parish books in the district let me only say 
that at Fordingbridge may be found an inventory of all the 
church furniture for 1554 ; and at Ibbesley, lists of collections 
"towards the redemption of the poor slaves out of Turkey," 
" for the poor French Protestants," " for the redemption of 
captives," and " for the distressed Protestants beyond the sea," 
all testifying to the social and moral condition of the people, 
without which it is impossible to give the history of any district 
or any country. 

The Norman Font in Brockenhurst Church. 

H H 


The New Forest .- its History and its Scenery. 



The Barton Cliffs 

I HAVE endeavoured, whenever there was an opportunity, to point 
out the natural history of the Forest, feeling sure that, from a 
lack of this knowledge, so many miss the real charms of the 

The General Geological Character. 235 

country. " One green field is like another green field," cried 
Johnson. Nothing can be so untrue. No two fields are ever 
the same. A brook flowing through the one, a narrow strip 
of chalk intersecting the other, will make them as different 
as Perthshire from Essex. Even Socrates could say in 
the Phcedrus, TO. /LLEV ovv \o>pta Kai TO. SfvSpa ouSfv p. sOsXti 
8iSa<TK6iv* and this arose from the state, or rather absence, 
of all Natural Science at Athens. Had that been different he 
would have spoken otherwise. 

The world is another place to the man who knows, and to the 
man who is ignorant of Natural History. To the one the earth 
is full of a thousand significations, to the other meaningless. 

First of all, then, for a few words on the geology of the 
Forest ; for upon this everything depends not only the 
scenery, but its Flora and Fauna, the growth of its trees and 
the course of its streams. Throughout it is composed of the 
Middle-Eocene, the Osborne and Headon Beds capping the 
central portion, with their fluvio-marine formation. The Upper 
Bagshot develops itself below them, and is succeeded by the 
Barton Clays, so well exposed on the coast, and finally by the 
Bracklesham Beds, which crop out in the valley of Canterton, 
trending in a south-easterly direction to Dibden. 

Here, then, where the New Forest stands, in the Eocene 
period, rolled an inland sea, whose waves lashed the Wilt- 
shire chalk hills on the north, moulding, with every stroke of 
their breakers, its chalk flints into pebbles, dashing them against 
its cliffs, as the waves do at this very hour those very same 
pebbles along the Hurst beach. Its south-western boundary- 
line between Ballard Head and the Needles was rent asunder by 
volcanic action, and the chalk-flints flung up vertically mark to 
this day the violence of the disruption. 

HH 2 

236 The New Forest ' its History and its Scenery. 

Long after this the Isle of Wight was altogether separated 
by the Solent from the mainland, but still ages before the historic 
period. The various traditions, as to the former depth of the 
channel, how Sir Bevis, of Southampton, waded across it, how, 
too, the carts brought the Binstead stone for building Beaulieu 
Abbey over the dry bed at low water, have been previously 
given. The passage, too, in Diodorus Siculus has been already 
examined,* and there can be no doubt, notwithstanding his also 
making it, like the traditions, a peninsula at low water, that his 
Ictis is the Isle of Wight and not St. Michael's Mount. The 
mere local evidence of the mass of tin, the British road more 
like a deep trench than a road still plainly traceable across 
the Forest, the names along it corresponding with that of its 
continuation in the Island, would alone, most assuredly, show 
that this was the place whence the first traders, and, in after- 
times, the Romans, exported their tin. We must, however, 
remember that the channel of the Solent was caused by de- 
pression rather than by excavation; and that at this moment 
an alteration in the levels, as noticed by Mr. Austen,f is going 
on eastward of Hurst Castle. 

The drift, which spreads over the whole of the New Forest, is 
not very interesting. No elephants' tusks, or elks' horns, so far 
as I know, have ever been discovered. A few species of Terebm- 
tula and Pecten, some flint knives, and the os inominatum, of 
probably Bos longifrons, mentioned farther on, are the only 

* See chap, v., pp. 57, 58. It is just possible that by his " TO.Q 

Diodorus may mean the Shingle Islands, which we have described 
in chapter xiv. p. 151, and whose sudden appearance and disappearance 
would lead to the most extravagant reports. 

| "On the Newer Deposits of the Sussex Coast:" Geological Journal, 
vol. xiii. pp. 64, 65. 

The Middle-Eocene at Hordle and Barton. 237 

things at present found. Still, in one way, it is most inte- 
resting, as completely disproving the Chroniclers' accounts that, 
before its afforestation by the Conqueror, the district of the Forest 
was so fertile. The fact is a sheer impossibility. No wheat 
could ever be grown on this great bed of chalk-gravel, which is 
varied only by patches of sand. 

But nowhere, perhaps, in the world can we see the strati- 
fication of the upper portion of the Middle-Eocene better 
than at Hordle and Barton, as the sea serves to keep the 
different strata exposed. The beds dip easterly with a fall 
of about one in a hundred, though, at the extreme west, at 
High Cliff, it is much less, and here and there in some few 
places they lie almost horizontally.* At Hordle they seem 
to have been deposited in a river of a very uniform depth. 
There is but one single fault in the whole series, just under 
Mead End, where all the beds have alike suffered. Here and 
there, however, they are deposited with an undulating line ; 
and here and there, too, a rippled surface occurs, caused by the 
action of small waves. The river appears to have varied very 
much in the amount and force of its stream, as some of the beds, 
where the shells are less frequent, have been deposited very 
rapidly, whilst others, where the organic remains are more 
abundant, have been laid on very slowly and in very still water, f 

It will be impossible to examine all the beds. One or two, 
however, may be mentioned. And since the beds rise at the 
east we will begin from Milford. First of all, at Mineway, there 

* In the coast-map at p. 148, the principal beds are marked, so that, I 
trust, there will be no difficulty in finding them. 

f For the direction of the river from east to west, see a paper " On the 
Discovery of an Alligator and several New Mammalia in Hordwell Cliff," 
by Searles Wood, F.G.S. : London Geological Journal, No. 1., pp. 6, 7. 

238 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

runs a remarkable band of fine sand, the " Middle Marine Bed," 
discovered some twenty-five years ago, by Mr. Edwards, and 
subsequently successfully worked by Mr. Higgins. It is seldom, 
however, exposed for more than a few yards; but that is sufficient 
to show, that after the elevation of the beds beneath they once 
more subsided, and the sea came over them again, and after that 
they were once again elevated. 

Just below Hordle House rises the " Crocodile Bed," run- 
ning out of the cliff about three hundred yards from Beckton 
Bunny. The lowest part of it teems with fish-scales, teeth, 
crocodile plates, ophidian vertebrae, seed vessels, and other 
vegetable matter, very often mixed in a coprolitic bed, just 
beneath a band of tough clay, the specimens being more frequent 
to the east than the west. The accompanying section (I.) will, 
perhaps, not only serve to show the situation of the bed, but 
also those above and below. My measurements will be found 
to differ slightly from Sir Charles Lyell's* and Dr. Wright's;! 
but this is owing to their having been taken in different places. 

Immediately under the "Leaf Bed," which, as seen in the 
opposite section, rises from the shore to the west of Hordle 
House, comes the lowest bed of the Lower Freshwater Series, 
formed of blue sandy clay sixteen feet in thickness, from whence 
Mr. Falconer obtained so many of his mammalian remains.^: 

* " The Freshwater Strata of Hordwell Cliff, Beacon Cliff, and Barton 
Cliff:" Transactions of the Geological Society, second series, vol.ii., p. 287. 

f " Stratigraphical Account of the Section of Hordwell, Beckton, and 
Barton Cliffs :'* The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, June, 1851. 
In making these measurements I was very greatly assisted by the Rev. 
W. Fox, who was most untiring to ensure accuracy. 

J See the Geological Journal, vol. iv., p. 17 ; as also, Professor Owen's 
Monograph on " The Fossil Reptilia of the London Clay," published by the 
Palaeontographical Society, 1850, p. 48. 

Section of Hordle Cliff. 


SECTION I. of Hordle Cliff, a little to the west of Hordle House. The beds 
here incline at an angle of 5. 

Ferruginous flint gravel interstratified with sand 
18 feet. 

Light blue marl in the upper part running into 
sand 12 feet. 

Ligneous bed 12 inches. 

Bluish marl running into shades of light grey, 
caused by the comminuted shelly matter 
15 feet. 

Ligneous bed 9 inches. 
Green marl 3 feet 6 inches. 

Limestone 4 inches. 

Lignite 1 inch. 

Green marl 5 feet 4 inches. 

Grey sand portion of Dr. Wright's Crocodile 
Bed 4 feet. 

Fossil bed 9 to 13 inches. 

2 1 Bands of tough brown clay, not continuous. 

c Coprolite bed appearing here and there, and 
always full of organic remains. 

Sand bed, uncertain 1 foot 8 inches. 
Light blue marl 4 feet 6 inches. 
Grey sand 2 feet 5 inches. 

Leaf bed, which here rises from the beach 
18 inches. 

The present sea-shore. 

?40 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

It is a bed, however, which is seldom open, and can be 
worked only at particular tides. It may easily be recognized as 
lying between the Leaf Bed and the well-marked Lignite Bed, 
which shows the first traces of salt-water, and where, in the 
lower portion, Neritina concava may be abundantly found. This 
last bed may be well seen at Beckton Bunny (SECTION II.) . The 
lignite, however, though it will give a good deal of heat, will not 
blaze. Locally it is sometimes used for making black paint. 

SECTION II. of Beckton Cliff immediately to the west of the Bunny. 

Flint gravel scarcely more than 3 or 4 feet, with 
an uncertain band of white sand. 

Lignite 3 inches. 
Brown clay 3 inches. 
Lignite 3 inches. 

Marl and sand 2 feet 2 inches. 

Ligneous bed, containing shells much broken 
8 inches. 

Grey sand 2 feet 4 inches. 

Orange-coloured sand, with very few fossils at this 
point, though plenty eastward 15 feet 9 inches. 

Olive bed. Fossils abundant 27 feet 3 inches. 

The present sea-shore. 

Passing on to Beckton Bunny we reach the first true bed 
of the Lower Marine Formation, which rises a little eastward of 
that ravine. I have distinguished it as the Olive Bed, from the 

The Olive and Chama Beds. 241 

abundance of specimens of Oliva Branderi, forming the 
equivalent to number eighteen in Dr. Wright's arrangement, 
and which, when worked, emits a strong smell of sulphur. 

Immediately under the Olive Bed, as seen in the opposite 
section (II.), taken immediately on the west side of the Bunny, 
rises grey sand, seventeen feet and a half in thickness, possess- 
ing only a few casts of shells. The next bed, however, composed 
also of grey sand, rising about three hundred yards farther on, 
is, perhaps, the richest in the whole of this Marine series, and 
its shells the best preserved. It may at once be recognized 
by the profusion of Chama squamosa, from which it has been 
called the Chama Bed. Specimens of Area Branderi and Solen 
gracilis may be found here as perfect as on the day they were 
deposited. t 

A little farther on, nearly under the Gangway, rises the 
Barton clay, encrusted with Crassatella sulcata.* And here, 

* Some of the most characteristic shells in this bed may perhaps be 
mentioned : 

Pleurotoma exorta. Sol. Scalaria reticulata. Sow. 

Terebellum fusiforme. Lam. Scalaria semicostata. Sow. 

Murex minax. Sol. Littorina sulcata. Pilk. 

Murex asper. Sol. Solarium plicatum. Lam. 

Murex bispinosus. Sow. Hipponyx squamiformis. Lam. 

Typhis pungens. Sol. Fusus porrectus. Sol. 

Voluta ambigua. Sol. Fusus errans. Sol. 

Voluta costata. Sol Fusus longaevus. Lam. 

Voluta luctatrix. Sol. Bulla constricta. Sow. 

Dentalium striatum. Sow. Bulla elliptica. Desk. 

I scarcely need, I hope, refer the reader either to Mr. Edwards' Mono- 
graph on the Eocene Mollusca, 1849, 1852, 1854, 1856, or to Mr. Searles 
Wood's Monograph on the same subject, both in course of publication by 
the Palseontographical Society. There is an excellent table of the Barton 
shells, by Mr. Prestwich, in the GeologicalJournal, vol. xiii. pp. 118-126. 


242 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

on looking at the cliff, we may notice how all the beds, as 
they rise westward, gradually lose their clayey character, and 
run into sand, which will account for this part of the cliff 
foundering so fast. The water percolates through the sand 
down to the Barton Beds, and the loose mass above is thus 
launched into the sea. 

Below the Barton Coastguard Station rises another bed of 
green clay, containing sharks' teeth and the bones of fish. 
About a mile farther on, the High Cliff Beds emerge rich with 
Cassis ambigua and Cassidaria nodosa. And below them, 
seen in the channel of the stream flowing through Chewton 
Bunny, rises a bed of bright metallic-looking, green clay, the 
Nummulina Prestwichiana Bed of Mr. Fisher, containing sharks' 
teeth and some few shells. Beyond, a little to the west of High 
Cliff Castle, occurs the well-marked Pebble Bed, the commence- 
ment of the Bracklesham Series, containing rolled chalk flints, 
and casts of shells. Next follow grey sands full of fossil 
wood and vegetable matter, marked by a course of oxydized 
ironstone-septaria. Then succeeds another Pebble Bed, and 
lastly appear the grey Bracklesham Sands.* 

We have thus gone through the principal beds, both of the 
Freshwater and Marine Series, as far as they are exposed in this 
section along the sea-coast. The fluvio-marine beds stretch away 
eastward as far as Beaulieu and Hythe, but their clays here con- 
tain very few shells. On the other hand, the Bracklesham Beds 
trend away northward towards Stoney- Cross, appearing in the 
valley, and cropping out again on the other side of the 
Southampton Water. 

* For the High Cliff Beds, see Mr. Fisher's paper on the Bracklesham 
Sands of the Isle of Wight Basin, in the Proceedings of the Geological 
Society, May, 1862, pp. 86-91, whose divisions are here followed. 

The Hunting Bridge Beds. 243 

Some few words must be said about them. The highest 
beds, known as the Hunting Bridge Beds, occur in Copse 
St. Leonards, not far from the Fritham Eoad.* In a descend- 
ing order, separated by thirty or forty feet of unfossiliferous 
clays, come the Shepherd's Gutter Beds, to be found about 
half a mile lower down the King's Gairn Brook; and below 
them, again, separated by forty or fifty feet of unfossiliferous 
clays, and situated somewhat more than a mile lower down the 
same stream, rise the Brook Beds. Still farther down, too, 
from some shells very lately discovered at Cadenham, it is sup- 
posed that the Cerithium Bed of Stubbington and Bracklesham 
Bay will be found, but this is not yet ascertained. 

The Hunting Bridge Beds I have never examined, but 
subjoin their measurements, as also their most typical shells, f 

* All these beds are shown in the large map by the word " Fossils," 
there not being space enough to particularize each bed. 

f These beds were discovered by Mr. Fisher in 1861, and for the 
following measurements I am indebted to Mr. Keeping. We find, about 
one hundred yards in a south-eastward direction from the point where the 
footpath from Brook to Fritham crosses the stream, (1) the Coral Bed, 
the equivalent of that at Stubbington, full of crushed Dentalia and 
Serpulce, six inches. (2) Sandy light blue clay, with very few fossils, 
seven feet. (3) Verdigris -green and slate -coloured clay, characterized near 
the top by a new species of Dentalium, Serpulorbis Morchii (?), and Spondylus 
rarispina. The other typical shells are Valuta Maga, several species of 
Area and Corlnla gallica, five feet. It is in this bed that large roots of 
trees and ferns are found. 

No persons, however, I should suppose, would think of examining any 
of these beds without first consulting Mr. Fisher's most valuable paper on 
the Bracklesham Beds in the Proceedings of the Geological Society, May, 
1862. And I should further most strongly advise them, if they wish to 
become practically acquainted with the beds, to procure the assistance of 
Mr. Keeping, of Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight. 

I may here also mention that a well is at the present moment being 
sunk at Emery Down, and which, as I learn from Mr. Keeping, gives the 

II 2 

244 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

and must here content myself to give a general description of 
the Shepherd's Gutter and Brook Beds. The former, the 
equivalent to the Nummulina Bed at Stubbington, Bracklesham, 

Shells from the Shepherd's Gutter Beds. 

and White-Cliff Bay, is so called from a small stream at the 
foot of Bramble Hill Wood, about a mile due north of the 
King's Gairn Brook. The measurements are as follows : 
(1) Gravel from one to five feet ; (2) light-coloured clay, with 

following interesting measurements: (1) Beds of marl, containing Valuta 
geminata, discovered forty years ago, at Outwalk Hill, by Sir Charles Lyell, 
and now re-discovered, and a small MargineUa, seven feet. (2) Bed of 
bluish sandy clay, which becomes, when weathered, excessively brown. 
This bed, very rich in fossils, which are in a good state of preservation, is 
equivalent to what is now called the Middle Marine Bed, at Hordle and 
Brockenhurst, sixteen to nineteen feet. (3) Hordle Freshwater Beds, con- 
taining two species of Potanomya, and comminuted shells, fifteen feet. (4) 
Upper Bagshot Sands, measuring, as far as the workmen have gone, twenty 
feet, and below which lies the water at the top of the clay. The important 
point to be noticed is the extreme thinning out of the Hordle Freshwater 
Beds, which, from the depth of two hundred and fifty feet at Barton, have 
here shrunk to fifteen. Mr. Prestwich has suggested that these beds, as 
they advance in a north-easterly direction, become more marine, which seems 
here to be confirmed. 

The Shepherd's Gutter Bnl*. 245 

a few fossils sparingly distributed, five to six feet ; (3) Turri- 
tella carinifera bed, one foot and a half; (4) fossil bed, charac- 
terized by Conus deperditus, and the abundance of Pecten 
corneus within a few inches of the bottom, one foot and a half. 

It is worth noticing that these, like all the Bracklesham 
beds, roll. In a pit which Mr. Keeping and myself dug we 
found there had been a regular displacement of the gravel, and 
that the beds rose at an angle of thirty degrees, whilst the 
fossil bed was three feet lower on one side than the other of 
the pit. In another, after cutting through a foot of gravel, in 
which we found the os inominatum, of probably Bos longifrons* 
and a bed of sandy clay about two feet in thickness, we came 
upon a deposit of gravel about four inches thick, lying in the 
depressions of the stiff brown clay which succeeded, and in 
which still remained roots and vegetable matter. Thus we can 
plainly see that, after the clay had been deposited, vegetable, 
and perhaps animal, life flourished. Then came the gravel, 
carrying all before it, and in its turn, too, was nearly swept 
away, and only left here and there in a few scattered patches. 

Perhaps, nothing is so startling as this insecurity of Iife 
As was the Past so will be the Future, guided, though, always 
by that Law, which at every step still rises, moving in no circle, 
but out of ruin bringing order, and from Death, Life. 

The Brook Beds I can best describe for the general reader 
by an account of a pit which Mr. Keeping and myself made. 
It was sunk about 20 feet from the King's Gairn Brook, and 
measured about 6 yards long by 4 broad. We first cut through 

* I say probably, for Professor Owen, who examined the specimen, states 
that it is of a bovine animal of about the same size as Bos longifrons, 
but does not yield sufficiently distinct characters for an exact specific 

246 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

a loamy sand, measuring 3 feet, and then came upon 19 inches 
of gravel, where at the hase stretched the half fossilized trunk 
of an oak, and a thick drift of leaves mixed with black peaty 
matter, the remains of some primaeval forest. Three feet of 
light-coloured clay, unfossiliferous, succeeded; and then came 
the Corbula Bed, with its myriads of Corbula pisum, massed 
together, nearly all pierced by their enemies, the Murices. Stiff 
light - coloured clay, measuring 18 inches, followed, revealing 
some of the shells, which were to be found so plentiful in the 
next stratum. Here, at the Pleurotoma attenuata Bed, our 
harvest commenced, and since Mr. Keeping has worked these 
beds, no spot has ever yielded such rich results. Every stroke 
of the pick showed the pearl and opal-shaded colours of the 
nautilus, and the rich chestnut glaze of the Pecten corneus, 
whilst at the bottom lay the great thick-shelled Cardita plani- 
costce. Inside one of these were enclosed two most lovely 
specimens of Calyptrcea trochiformis. Mr. Keeping here, too, 
found a young specimen of Natica cepacea (?), and I had the 
good fortune to turn up the largest Pleurotoma attenuata ever 
yet discovered, measuring 4J inches in length, and 3^ inches 
in circumference round the thickest whorl. 

"We were now down no less than 8 feet. And at this stage 
the water from the brook, which had been threatening, began 
to burst in upon us from the north side. We, however, with 
intervals of bailing, still pushed on till we reached the next 
bed of pale clay, measuring from 7 to 8 inches, containing 
Cassidarice highly pyritised, and sharks' teeth, amongst which 
Mr. Keeping discovered an enormous spine, measuring at least 
10 inches in length, but we were unable to take it out perfect. 
The water had all this time been gaining upon us, in spite of 
our continuous efforts to bail it with buckets. We, however, 

The Brook Beds. 247 

succeeded in making the Voluta horrida bed, which seemed, at 
this spot, literally teeming with shells. Each spitful, too, 
showed specimens of fruit, earbones, fish-palates, drift-wood, 
and those nodular concretions which had gathered round some 
berry or coral.* 

At this point, the water, which was now pouring through the 
side in a complete stream, and a rumbling noise, showed danger 
was imminent. Hastily picking up our tools and fossils we 
retreated. In a moment a mass of clay began to move, and 
two or three tons, completely burying our bed, fell where we had 
stood. Founder after founder kept succeeding, driving the 
water up to higher levels. We procured assistance, but precious 
time was lost. Night began to fall, and we were obliged to leave 
unworked one of the richest spots which, in these beds, may, 
perhaps, ever be met. 

As it was, we found no less than sixty-one species, including 
in all 230 good cabinet specimens, which, considering the small 
size of the pit, and our limited time, and the great disadvantages 
under which we worked, well showed the richness of these beds. 

* I had intended to have accompanied this description with a group of 
some of the best fossils from this pit, including the fruit, fish- spines, and 
palates, and the large Pleurotoma attenuata. It was, in fact, commenced by 
the artist. But the specimens were obliged to be so greatly reduced, that 
the drawing gave no complete idea of their form and beauty, and would 
only have confused the reader. I have, therefore, contented myself with 
figuring at p. 249, in its matrix of clay, the rare Natica cepacea (?), which 
has passed into Mr. Edwards' fine collection, and who has kindly allowed 
me the use of it, with the characteristic Cassidaria nodosa, and a lovely 
Calyptrcea trochiformis, found, as mentioned, inside a Cardita. At p. 244, 
the specimens given from the Shepherd's Gutter Beds are Cerithium 
trilinum (Edw. MS.}, Voluta uniplicata^ and, in the centre, a shell, showing 
oblique folds on the columella, which Mr. Edwards thinks may be identical 
with Fusus incertus of Deshayes. 

248 The Neiv Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

Merely, however, collecting fossils for collecting's sake is 
useless. The aim of geology is to enable us to understand 
how this world was made how form followed form, how type 
after type took life and then passed away, and the higher 
organization ever succeeded the lower. The Middle-Eocene 
ought to be to us particularly interesting, separating us, on the 
one hand, from those monsters which had filled the previous 
Age, and, on the other, presenting the first appearances of those 
higher mammals which should serve the future wants of man. 
The pterodactyle no longer darkened the air. The iguanodon 
now slept in its grave of chalk. A new earth, covered with new 
types and new forms, had appeared. It is a strange sight which 
the Hordle Cliffs unveil. Here, beneath a sun fiercer than 
in our tropics, the crocodile basked in its reed beds. Here the 
alligator crimsoned the stream, as he struck his jaws into his 
victim ; whilst the slow tryonyx paddled through the waves, and 
laid its eggs on the sand, where its plates are now bedded. 

The very rushes, which grew on the river banks, lie caked 
together, with the teeth of the rats which harboured in them. 
The pine-cones still, too, lie there, their surfaces scarcely more 
abraded than when they dropped from the tree into the tepid 
waters. Along the muddy river shore browsed the paloplothere, 
whilst his mate crashed through the jungle of club-mosses. 
Groves of palms stood inland, or fringed the banks, swarming 
with land-snakes. Birds waded in the shallows. But no 
human voice sounded : nothing was to be heard but the scream- 
ing of the river-fowl, and the deep bellow of the tapir-shaped 
palaeothere, and the wolf-like bark of the hysenodon. 

This description is no mere fancy, but taken from the 
remains actually discovered in the Hordle Cliffs. I have had no 
need to borrow from the fossils of the Headon and Binstead 

Europe and America formerly joined. 249 

Beds, or the caves of Montmartre. On these cliffs, too, is 
scored the history of the past. Here lie the little Nuculce, still 
crimson and pink as when they first settled down through the 
water into their hed of sand ; and teeth of dichodons still bright 
with enamel. The struggle of life raged as fiercely then as 
now. And the pierced skull of the palaeothere still tells where 
it received its death-wound from its foe the crocodile. 

But other things do they reveal. They plainly show, as 
was, I believe, first suggested by Mr. Searles Wood, that in 
the Middle-Eocene period Europe and America were connected. 
The pachyderms of Hordle are allied to the tapirs of the New 
World. The same alligators still swim in the warm rivers of 
Florida : and the same type of sauroid fish, whose scales 
spangle the Freshwater Beds, is now only found in the West. 

Shells from the Brook Beds. 

K K 

250 The New Forest : its History and &3 Scenery. 




Barrow's Moor Wood 

CLOSELY connected with the geology of the Forest are its 
flowers. And though mere geology could not tell us the whole 

Effects of the Soil. 251 

Flora of a district, yet we might always be able, by its help and 
that of the latitude, to give the typical plants. Close to the 
chalk, the Forest possesses none of the chalk flowers. No bee- 
orchis or its congeners, although so common on all the neigh- 
bouring Wiltshire downs, bloom. No travellers'-joy trails 
amongst its thickets, although every hedge in Dorsetshire, 
just across the Avon, is clothed in the autumn with its 
white fleece of seeds. No yellow bird's-nest (Monotropa 
Hypopitys) shades itself under its beeches, though growing 
only a few miles distant on the halk. 

Still, here there are some contradictions. The chalk-loving 
yew appears to be indigenous. Several plants which we might 
reasonably expect, as herb-Paris, the bird-nest orchis (Neottia 
Nidus-avis), and the common mezereon (Daphne Mezereum), 
are wanting. 

Owing to the want of stiff clay, no hornbeams grow in its 
woods, except, perhaps, a few in one or two cold " bottoms." 
No Solomon's seal or lilies of the valley whiten its dells. No 
meadow-geranium waves its blue flowers on the banks of the 

On the other hand, the plants too truly tell the character 
of the soil. In the spring the little tormentil shows its bright 
blossoms, and the petty-whin grows side by side with the 
furze, and the sweet mock-myrtle throws its shadow over the 
streams. In the summer and autumn the blue sheep's-bit 
scabious and the golden-rod bloom, with the three heathers. 
In the bogs the round-leaved sundew is pearled with wet, and 

* In one place only in the Forest, on some waste ground at Alum 
Green, have 1 seen this plant. 

KK 2 

252 The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. 

not far from it the cotton-grass waves its white down, and the 
asphodel rears its golden spike. 

These are the commonest flowers of the Forest, and grow 
everywhere over its moors. In its dykes and marshes, the 
common frog-bit and the marsh-pimpernel spring up in every 
direction. The buckbean, too, brightens every pool on the 
south side, and is so common near the Avon that many of the 
fields are called " the buckbean mead," whilst in the northern 
parts it is known as " the fringed water-lily." 

Very rich is the Forest in all these bog-plants. In Hin- 
chelsea and Wilverley Bottoms grow the water - pimpernel 
(Samolus Valerandi) , the lesser bladder- wort, and the bur-reed 
(Sparganium natans) floating on the water. Here, too, perhaps, 
the easternmost station known for it, blossoms the butterwort 
(Pinguicula Lusitanica), with its pale delicate flowers. In 
the autumn, also, the open turf grounds round Wootton are 
blue with the Calathian violet ( Gentiana Pneumonanthe) ; whilst 
its little bright congener (Cicendia filiformis) blossoms in all 
the damp places. 

Owing, also, to the presence of iron, the Forest possesses 
no less than seventeen or eighteen carices. The little thyme- 
leaved flax, too (Radiola millegrana), grows in all the moist, 
sandy dells. 

From this general view it will be seen that the true Forest 
plants are not so much " sylvestral "as " ericetal," and 
"paludal," and "uliginal." Besides these groups, however, 
the Flora of the district further divides itself into the " littoral 
plants" along the sea-shores and estuaries, and the "pascual" 
flowers of the valley of the Avon. In the former division, 
owing to the want of rocks, no Statice spathulata grows on 
its sea-board. No true sampnire (Crithmum maritimum) 

Effects of the Climate. 253 

blossoms. The beautiful maiden's-hair fern, once so plentiful 
on the neighbouring coast of the Isle of Wight, is also from the 
same cause wanting. 

Still, great beauty blooms on the Forest streams and shores. 
In the latter part of the summer, the mudbanks of the Beaulieu 
river are perfectly purple with the sea-aster, whilst the sea- 
lavender waves its bright blue crest among the reed-beds washed 
over by every tide. 

The valley of the Avon is characterized, as may be expected, 
by the commoner species, which are to be found in such situa- 
tions. Here, and in the adjoining cultivated parts, which once 
were more or less a part of the Forest, we find the soap-wort 
(Saponaria officinalis) and the thorn-apple (Datura Stramo- 
nium), and those colonists which always harbour close to the 
dwellings of man. Other considerations remain. The situation 
and climate of the New Forest, of course, have a great effect 
on its plants.* The two myrtles and the sweet-bay grow under 
the cliffs of Eagleshurst, close to the Solent, unhurt by the 
hardest frosts. The grapes ripen on the cottage-walls of Beau- 
lieu nearly as early as in Devonshire. I have seen the coltsfoot 
in full blossom, near Hythe, on the 27th of February ; and the 
blackthorn flowers at Wootton on the 3rd of April. 

The area of the New Forest comes under Watson's Sub- 
province of the Mid- Channel, on the Southern belt of his Infer- 
agrarian zone. Its position lies exactly half-way between his 
Germanic and Atlantic types. The former shows itself by 
Dianthus Armeria, and Pulicaria vulgaris, growing near March- 
wood and Bisterne. The latter by such examples as Cotyledon 

* On this point see what Bromfield observes in his Introduction to the 
Flora Vectensis, p. xxvi. 

254 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

umbilicus, Pinguicula Lusitanica, Briza minor, and Agrostis 
setacea. The " British " and " English " types are, of course, 
plentifully represented.* 

Looking, too, at the trees and shruhs which are indigenous, 
we shall find them also eminently characteristic. In spite of 
what Caesar says, the heech is certainly a native, pushing out 
in places even the oak. The holly, too, grows everywhere in 
massy clumps. In the spring, the wild crab (Pyrus Mains) 
crimsons the thickets of Brockenhurst, in the autumn the 
maple. The butcher's broom stands at the foot of each beech, 
and the ivy twines its great coil round each oak, and the 
mistletoe finds its home on the white poplar. 

After all, the trees, and not the flowers, give its character to 
the New Forest. In the spring, all its woods are dappled with 
lights and shades, with the amber of the oak and the delicate soft- 
gleaming green of the birch and beech. In the autumn, the 
spindle-tree (Euonymus Europceus) in the Wootton copses is 
hung with its rosy gems ; and the trenches of Castle Malwood 
are strewed with the silver leaves of the white-beam. 

To return, however, to the plants, let us notice how some 
particular families seem especially to like the light gravelly soil 
of the Forest district. Take, for instance, the St. John's-worts, 
of which we have no less than six, if not more varieties. The 
common perforated (Hypericum perforatum) shines on every 
dry heath, and the square-stalked (quadrangulum) in all the 
damp boggy places. The tutsan (Androscemum) is so common 
round Wootton that it is known to all the children as "touchen 

* In Appendix II. I have given a list of all the characteristic plants of 
the New Forest to assist the collector; and, I trust, comprehensive enough 
for the botanist to make generalizations. 

The Ferns. 255 

leaves," evidently only a corruption of its name ; and its berries 
are believed throughout the Forest to be stained with the blood 
of the Danes. The rarer large-flowered (calycinum) grows, 
though not, I am afraid, truly wild, in some of the thickets 
round Sway. In all the ponds, the marsh (elodes) springs 
up, whilst the creeping (humifusum) trails its blossoms 
over the turf of the Forest lanes, and the small (pulchrum) 
shows its orange -tipped flowers amongst the brambles and 

Take, again, the large family of the ferns, of which seventeen 
species are distributed throughout the Forest. First and fore- 
most, of course, stands the royal fern (Osmunda regalis), which 
may be found from the sea-board to Fordingbridge, rearing its 
stem in some places six feet high, and covering in patches on 
the southern border, as at Beckley, nearly a quarter of an acre. 
It grows in Chewton Glen, in all the lanes in the neighbourhood, 
on Ashley Common, close to the Osmanby Ford River, and rears 
its golden-brown pannicles in the boggy thickets near Rufus's 
Stone. But before it, in beauty, stands the lady-fern, with its 
delicate fronds and its tender green, growing in the open spaces 
of the beech woods, as at Stonehard and Puckpits, and bending 
over the Forest streams in large leafy clumps. Then, too, in 
all the large woods grows the sweet-scented mountain fern 
(Lastrea Oreopteris) ; and on every bank the hart's-tongue spreads 
its broad ribbon-like leaves, and the fertile fronds of the hard- 
fern spring up feathery and light, whilst from the old oaks 
the common polypody droops with its dark green tresses. The 
common maiden -hair (Asplenium Trichomanes), too, hangs on 
the walls and Forest banks ; and on Alice Lisle's tomb, at 
Ellingham, the rue-leaved spleenwort is green throughout the 
whole year. On Breamore churchyard wall and Ringwood 

256 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

bridges grows the common scale-fern, whilst in the meadows 
of the Avon springs the adder's-tongue's green spear. 

Nor must we forget the brake, common though it be, for this 
it is which gives the Forest so much of its character, clothing it 
with green in the spring ; and when the heather is withered, and 
the furze, too, decayed, making every holt and hollow golden.* 

And now for some other plants, without reference to their 
species, but simply to their beauty. On Ashley Common and 
the neighbouring grass-fields grows the moth-mullein ( Verbas- 
cum llattaria), dropping its yellow flowers, as they one by one 
expand. In the neighbouring pools, as far as Wootton, the 
blossoms of the great spearwort (Ranunculus lingua) gleam 
among the reeds. There, also, the narrow-leaved lungwort 
(Pulmonaria angustifolia), with its leaves both plain and spotted, 
opens its blue and crimson flowers so bright, that they are 
known to all the children as the "snake-flower," and gathered 
by handfuls mixed with the spotted orchis. And the ladies' 
tresses, too (Spiranthes autumnalis), shows its delicate brown 
braid on every dry field on the southern border. 

Besides these, the feathered pink (Dianthus plumarius) 
blooms on the cloister-walls at Beaulieu ; and the Deptford 
pink (Dianthus armeria) in the valley of the Avon at Huckle- 
brook, near Ibbesley. The bastard-balm (Melittis melissophyllum) 
flaunts its white and purple blossoms over the banks of Wootton 
plantation, whilst at Oakley and Knyghtwood the red gladiolus 
crimsons the green beds of fern. 

* Besides these we have all over the Forest Lastrea Filix-mas, and dilatata, 
and Asplenium adiantum nigrum, and Polystichum angulare, with its varieties, 
angustatum and aculeatum, found near Fordingbridge. My friend, Mr. Rake, 
who discovered angustatum, found also, in February, 1856, near Fording- 
bridge, Lastrea spinulosa, but it has never since been seen in the locality. 

The Commonest Flowers. 


Briefly, let me say that, as is the Forest soil, so are its 
plants. Nature ever makes some compensations. The barrenest 
places she ever clothes with beauty. If corn will not grow, she 
will give man something better. In the great woods the colum- 
bines and tutsan shine in the spring with their blue and yellow 
blossoms, and the wood -sorrel nestles its white flowers among 
the mossy roots of the oaks. In the more open spaces the fox- 
gloves overtop the brake, and in the grassy spots the eyebright 
waves its white-grey crest ; and not far off are sure to gleam 
faint crimson patches of the marsh-pimpernel, half hid in moss ; 
whilst the swamps are fringed with the coral of the sundew. 


The Kind's Gairn .Brook (Another View). 


258 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 



The Heronry at Vinney Hidge. 

To describe the Fauna of the Forest is beyond the purpose of 
this book, and would, beside, require a life-time to properly 

The Wild Ponies and Boars. 259 

accomplish. I can only here deal with the ornithology as I 
have with the hotany. I do not know either that the general 
reader will lose anything by the treatment. A scientific know- 
ledge is not so much needed as, first of all, a sympathy with 
nature, and a love for all her forms of beauty. The great object 
in life is not to know, but to feel. But, before we speak of 
the birds, let us correct some errors which are so common with 
regard to the animals. It is quite a mistake to talk of wild 
boars or wild ponies roaming over the Forest. There is not 
now an animal here without an owner. The wild boars intro- 
duced by Charles L, and others brought over some fifty 
years ago, are seen only in their tame descendants sandy- 
coloured, or " badger-pied," as they are called, which are turned 
out into the Forest during the pannage months.* 

So, too, the Forest ponies never run wild, except in the 
sense of being unbroken. Lath-legged, small-bodied, and 
heavy-headed, but strong and hardy, living on nothing in the 
winter but the furze, they are commonly said, without the 

* The Forest would afford a good field for deciding the controversy as 
to whether our tame pigs are descended from the European Wild Boar. 
(See Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1861, p. 264; and Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History, Third Series, vol. ix. p. 415.) Certain 
it is that here are some breeds distinct in their markings. I must 
not, too, forget to mention Coronella lavis (Boie), which is found in the 
Forest, as also in Dorsetshire and Kent. This is the Coronella austriaca 
of Laurenti, and afterwards the Coluber lavis of Lacepede. It might 
be mistaken for the common viper (Pelias berus), but differs in not being 
venomous, as also from the ringed snake (Natrix torquata) in having 
a fang at the hinder extremity of its jaws, the peculiarity of the genus 
Coronella. It feeds on lizards, which its fang enables it to hold ; drinks a 
great deal of water ; and Dr. Giinther, of the British Museum, to whom I 
am indebted for the above information, tells me that it crawls up the furze 
and low bushes to lick the rain off the leaves. For a list of the Lepidoptera 
of the New Forest, see Appendix IV. 

L L 2 

260 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

slightest ground, to be descendants of the Spanish horses which 
swam ashore from the disabled ships of the Armada. 

And now for the ornithology. The thick woods, the lonely 
moors and holts, attract the birds of prey; the streams and 
marshes the waders ; whilst the estuaries of the Beaulieu, and 
Lymington, and Christchurch rivers, and the Solent, afford a 
shelter in winter to the geese and ducks driven from the north. 

Again, too, the peculiar mildness of the climate has its effect 
on the birds as well as the plants. The martin and the swallow 
come early in March and stay till the end of November ; that is 
to say, remain full three-quarters of the year. I have heard, too, 
the cuckoo as early as April llth and as late as July the 12th. 
The warblers, whose arrival depends so much on the south-east 
winds, may not come earlier than in other parts of England. 
They certainly, however, in the southern and more cultivated 
parts, where food is plentiful, stay here later than in the Midland 
Counties; and I have heard the whitethroat singing, as on a 
spring day, in the middle of October. 

We will begin with the birds of prey. Gilpin (vol. ii. p. 294) 
mentions a pair of golden eagles, which, for many years, at 
times frequented King's Wood, and a single specimen, killed 
near Ashley Lodge. These, however, with the exception of 
one shot some twenty years ago over Christchurch Harbour, are 
the last instances of a bird, which can now be seldom seen 
except in the north of Scotland. Yarrell,* too, notices that the 
sea eagle (Aquila albicilla) is sometimes a visitor in the district, 
but though I have been down under the Hordle and Barton Cliffs, 
day after day, for often six months together, I have never seen a 
specimen. It, however, sometimes occurs in the winter, and is 

* Vol. i p. 26. 

The Birds of Prey. 261 

mistaken for its rarer ally ; and the Eagle Tree at the extreme 
west end of Vinney Ridge commemorates where one was shot, 
some fifty years ago, by a Forest-keeper. The osprey, however 
(Falco haliceetus), still frequents the coast in the autumn, 
and circles over Christchurch Harbour fishing for his prey, 
where, as Yarrell mentions, he is well known as the " grey- 
mullet hawk," on account of his fondness for that fish. 

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), which breeds on 
the high Culver Cliffs of the Isle of Wight, and in the Lulworth 
Rocks, is in the summer a regular visitor, and scours the whole 
country. No year goes by without some half-dozen or more 
being killed. 

Its congener the hobby (Falco subbuteo), known in the Forest 
as " the van-winged hawk," comes about the same time as the 
honey-buzzard, building in the old, deserted nests of crows and 
magpies, and even, as in one case, to my knowledge, in that 
of the honey-buzzard. The bird, however, is becoming scarce. 
For several years I have known a pair or two build in Buckhill 
Wood, of which a sketch is given at the end of this chapter, 
but last year none came.. It lays generally about the beginning 
of June, though I have received its eggs as late as July 12th. 
Yarrell says that their number is three or four; but, with 
Mr. Hoy,* I have never known the bird lay more than three, 
and very often only two. 

ffhe goshawk (Falco palumbarius) and the rough-legged 
buzzard (Falco lagopus) are very rarely seen ; but, I fear, the 
kite, although so plentiful in Gilpin's time, has nearly deserted 
this, like all other districts. Once, and once only, has it been 

* Illustrations of the Eggs of British Birds, by W. C. Hewitson, 
vol. i. p. 27. 

262 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

seen by Mr. Farren. The honey-buzzard, however (Falco 
apivorus), comes regularly over from Germany about the end 
of May, attracted, in some measure, perhaps, by its favourite 
food, the larvae of wasps and bees, but chiefly by the wide range 
of the woods. At Mark Ash and Puckpits I have frequently, 
for an hour together, watched a couple, sailing with their wings 
outspread, allowing the wind, on a boisterous day, to catch 
them, till it almost veered them over ; just circling round the 
tops of the beeches, sometimes even " tumbling," like a pigeon, 
and answering each other with their sharp, short cry, prolonged 
every now and then into a melancholy wail. Its favourite 
breeding stations are amongst the tall beech-woods round Lynd- 
hurst, in Mark Ash, and Gibbs Hill, Puckpits, Coalmeer, Prior's 
Acre, and the oaks of Bentley and Sloden. The nest is always 
placed in the old one of a crow, or even the common buzzard, 
whose young by that time have flown, and sometimes made on 
the top of a squirrel's "cage," the birds contenting themselves 
with only re-shaping it, and lining the inside with fresh green 
leaves. The fact of a squirrel's " cage " being used will account 
for the nest being sometimes found so low, and on a compara- 
tively small tree. No rule can therefore be laid down as to its 
position. I have known the bird build in very different situa- 
tions. Mr. Eake found its nest in Sloden, on the forked bough 
of a low oak, not thirty feet from the ground. In 1860 a pair 
built, not very much higher, in the overhanging branch of a 
beech in Puckpits ; and, in the same year, another pair reared 
their young on the top of a fir in Holmy Ridge Hill. And in 
1861 and 1862, I knew of two nests, not fifty yards apart, in 
Mark Ash, each placed nearly at the top of the very tallest 
beeches in the wood, at least seventy or eighty feet from the 
ground. As so little appears to be known about its breeding 

The Breeding Habits of the Honey -Buzzard. 263 

habits, I may as well add a few more words. It seldom arrives 
till the beginning of June, when the leaves are thick on the 
trees, and immediately commences its nest, for which purpose it 
seems only to come, as it immediately departs when the young 
birds can fly. Pairs have been known, however, not to lay till 
the end of July ; and, I am assured by one of the Forest 
keepers, not sometimes till even the beginning of August ; but 
these are, doubtless, cases where the birds have been robbed of 
their first eggs. It differs from the common buzzard in not 
flying away when disturbed during incubation, but merely 
skimming round the top of the tree in small circles, uttering 
its short, shrill cry, sometimes both male and female perching 
on the branch of a neighbouring tree, and remaining undisturbed 
by shouts or cries, whilst the nest is being reached. At these 
times a kind of stupidity seizes the bird. It has, to my know- 
ledge, on several occasions, remained in the nest till, a boy has 
touched its feathers, and returned as soon as he left. 

As a further illustration, I may add, that in one of the nests 
before mentioned, in Mark Ash (June 7th, 1862), was only one 
egg, which was taken. The birds, however, did not forsake, 
and another, which was also taken, was laid on the third day. 
Even then the birds did not desert, but after the interval of two 
more days laid a third egg, about one-half smaller than usual, 
and in shape somewhat resembling a peregrine's. 

On another occasion, June llth, 1859, a pair bred in a high 
beech in Coalmeer Wood, near Stoney Cross, and though fired at 
more than once did not desert. The female, however, was first 
shot, when the cock, nothing daunted, took his partner's place, 
and sat on the eggs, and in a day or two afterwards shared her 
fate. In the nest were two eggs, which, with the exception 
before mentioned, I have never known exceeded. Those in my 

264 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

collection vary in colouring from the light dull vermilion, which 
so often characterizes the merlin's eggs, to a deep rich morone, 
tinted, especially in newly-taken specimens, with a delicate 
crimson hloom.* 

A few words more. The birds are not much seen in the 
day, hut generally early in the morning. Whilst the hen bird 

* As so few opportunities occur of weighing the eggs of the honey- 
buzzard and hobby, the following notes, most carefully made by Mr. Rake 
and myself, may not be without interest : 

Honey-buzzard's nest, taken June 16th, in a low fork of an oak-tree in 
Anses Wood, contained two fresh-laid eggs: 

First egg (apothecaries' weight) . loz. 3dr. Isc. 5gr. 

Second egg (very slightly dinted) . loz. 2dr. 2sc. lOgr. 
Honey-buzzard's nest, taken June 24th, in Ravensnest Wood, near 
Brook, in the higher branches of a tall beech, overhanging the road. 
This nest had been deserted, and the two eggs were very much 
addled and hard set : 

First egg . , . . .loz. 4dr. Osc. lOgr. 

Second egg loz. 3dr. 2sc. lOgr. 

Hobby's nest, placed in a nest which, in 1861, had been occupied by a 
honey-buzzard, was taken in Prior's Acre, June 21st, and contained 
three fresh-laid eggs, now in Mr. Rake's cabinet : 

First egg .... 6dr. Osc. Ogr. 

Second egg 5dr. 2sc. lOgr. 

Third egg (very slightly dinted) . . 5dr. 2sc. Ogr. 
Hobby's nest, taken in South Bentley Wood, July 12, contained two 
eggs hard sat upon and addled : 

First egg 5dr. 2sc. 15gr. 

Second egg (cracked) .... 5dr. Osc. 14gr. 

With these weights may be compared the following : Egg, supposed to 
be that of a merlin, taken with two others which were broken, June 17th, 
1862, near Alum Green, in the hole of a beech, rather sat upon, weighed 
4dr. Isc. lOgr. Two fresh -laid eggs of kestrels, taken at the same time, 
weighed 4d. 2sc. 15gr. Other eggs of kestrels, however, have weighed con- 
siderably more ; and two others, also laid about the same time, came to 
5dr. 5 gr. 

The Habits of the Common Buzzard. 265 

sits on the eggs, the cock perches close by in some tall thick 
tree. Perhaps from this very affection for their young arises 
their seeming stupidity, and the ease with which they are killed. 
Some years ago a keeper found a nest with two young birds in 
Bentley Wood, and on purpose to secure them tied them by 
their legs to a small tree, where the old birds regularly came 
and fed them. But the strangest fact with regard to their 
breeding is that before they finally decide upon a nest they will 
line several with green leaves and small leafy twigs. Lastly, 
I may add that though I have examined many nests, I have 
never found any traces of their being, as is related by some 
writers, lined with wool. If there was any wool it was probably 
placed there by the bird which had previously inhabited the nest. 
The common buzzard (Falco buteo) is a resident all through 
the year in the Forest, and may now and then bo seen towering 
high up in the air, so high that you would not at first notice 
him, unless you heard his wild scream. It is not, however, 
nearly so plentiful as formerly. He is a sad coward, and the 
common crow will not only attack, but defeat him. Once or 
twice I have seen their battles during the breeding season. 
The jays, and magpies, too, and even the pewits, will mob him, 
the latter striking at him almost like a falcon. Its favourite 
breeding-places are in the Denny and Bratley Woods, Sloden, 
Birchen Hat, Mark Ash, and Prior's Acre. Several nests 
are yearly taken, for the bird generally breeds when the bark- 
strippers are at work in April and May. A series of its eggs, 
in my collection, taken in the Forest, show every variety of 
colouring from nearly pure white to richly blotched specimens. 

In the breeding-season the birds are excessively destruc- 
tive. A boy who climbed up to a nest in the spring of 1860 
told me that he found no less than two young rabbits, a grey 

M M 

266 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

hen, and two thrushes as provision for two nestlings. However, 
there is always some compensation, for in one which I examined 
were the skeletons of two snakes and a rat picked to the hone. 

The accompanying vignette will, I trust, although the nests 
are so exactly alike, be of some interest. Whilst the artist 
was sketching the honey-huzzard's nest, the old hird, the first 
which I had noticed in 1862, made its appearance and circled 
round the tree, uttering its peculiar short shrill squeak. This 
nest, which had been repaired in the previous year, the dead 
beech-leaves still hanging on to the twigs, was between forty 
and fifty feet from the ground ; whilst that of the common 

Common Buzzard's Nest 

Hcnej-Buzzard's Nest. 

buzzard, who, whilst sitting, had, a month before, been killed, 
was upwards of seventy feet, and placed on the very topmost 
boughs of a beech, on which tree was also the other. 

But more important than even the nesting of the honey- 

The Breeding Habits of the Merlin. 267 

buzzard is that of the merlin (Falco cesalon), which fact has 
never yet been, so far as I know, noticed as occurring in the 
New Forest. In the winter this little hawk is sometimes seen 
hunting, as it does in Ireland, the snipe, although but few 
specimens find their way to the bird-stuffer. It lingers on, 
however, to the summer, but the opportunities then of watching 
its habits are more rare, as the foliage of the woods is so thick. 
In 1859 and 1861 Mr. Farren received two nests with three 
eggs, taken in old pollard hollies growing in the open heath, 
which in every way corresponded with those of the merlin, 
being considerably smaller than those of kestrels. Unfortu- 
nately, however, he could not procure the parent birds, and 
the fact of the merlin's nesting remained doubtful. In 1862 
he was at last successful, and on May 22nd discovered a nest, 
placed in the hole of a yew, also containing, like the others, 
three eggs, from which the male bird was shot. Both the bird 
and eggs are now in my collection, the latter being somewhat 
richer and darker in colour than those which I have received 
from the Orkney and Shetland islands. The important fact, 
however, to be noticed is that, as Temminck remarks, the birds 
in a woody country build in trees, whilst in the north of Britain, 
where there is no timber, they adapt themselves to the country, 
and lay on the ground.* 

* As the instances of the breeding of the merlin, especially under these 
circumstances, will always be very rare, I may as well add my own personal 
observations. In the spring of 1861 I received three eggs taken not far 
from the Knyghtwood Oak, and said to have been found in the hole of a 
beech. As I am not in the habit of paying any attention to the mere stories 
which are so plentiful, I did not, therefore, examine them with any atten- 
tion, and put them aside as merely kestrel's. After, however, Mr. Farren's 
communication to me, I looked out particularly for this little hawk, but 
only once saw it in the open ground, near Warwickslade Cutting, from 

M M2 

268 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

The marsh and hen-harriers, too, frequent the moors and 
heaths of the Forest, especially the latter, locally known as the 
" blue hawks." Some few pairs of these breed here, and in 
1859 a nest containing three young birds was found near Picket 
Post by a woodman, and another in 1862, with three eggs, on 
Beaulieu Heath. One of the Forest keepers described the fern 
for some distance round a nest, which he discovered, as com- 
pletely trodden down by the young birds, and so littered with 
feathers and dirt that, to use his words, the place had 
exactly the appearance of a goose-pen. A woodman, too, who 
in 1860 was set to watch a pair near Ocknell, gave me an 
interesting account of his seeing the old birds breaking off 
the young tops of the fern to form their nest. I have never 

whence it flew up, perching for a moment on a holly, and then making off 
to the woods. On June 4th, however, I observed a hen bird fly out of a 
hole, about twenty feet from the ground, in an old beech in Woolst one's 
Hill, on the east side of Haliday's Hill Enclosure. There were, how- 
ever, no eggs. On the 5th I went again, and the bird, when I was about 
fifty yards from the tree, again flew off. Still, there were no eggs. I 
did not return till the 9th, when the nest, now pulled out of the 
hole, had been robbed. It was made of small sticks, and a considerable 
quantity of feather-moss, and some fine grass, and in general character re- 
sembled the nests of the bird found by Mr. Hewitson in Norway. In the 
holes were the bones of young rabbits, but these had, from their bleached 
appearance, been brought by a brown owl, who had reared her brood there 
in the previous summer. I afterwards learnt where the three eggs had been 
taken in 1861 ; but there was nothing, with the exception of a few sticks, in 
the hole, which was in this case about ten feet from the ground, and placed 
also in a beech on the edge of Barrowsmoor. Great caution, however, must 
be exercised regarding the merlin's eggs ; for I am inclined to think that the 
kestrel, contrary to its usual practice, sometimes also breeds in the Forest 
in the holes of trees. The egg mentioned at p. 264, foot-note, brought to 
me on June 17th, 1862, I have every reason to believe is a merlin's, but 
could not quite satisfy myself as to the evidence. 

The Harriers and Owls. 269 

myself been fortunate enough in the Forest to find their 
nest, hut I have often watched a pair on Black Knoll and 
Beaulieu Heath skimming over the ground, pausing to hover 
just above the furze, then flying forward for some ten or twenty 
yards, turning themselves suddenly sideways ; and then again, 
for a minute, poising, kestrel-like, beating each bush, and 
every now and then going up a little higher in the air, but 
quickly coming down close over the cover. 

Passing from the falcons, let us look at the owls, of which 
the Forest possesses four, if not more, varieties. The com- 
monest is the tawny (Strix aluco), whose hooting fills the woods 
all through the winter. At Stoney Cross I have repeatedly 
heard, on a still November night, a pair of them calling to one 
another at least two miles apart. It not only breeds in holes 
of trees, but in old crows' -nests, and will often, when its eggs 
are taken, lay again within a week. The barn owl, strange 
to say, is not much more abundant than the long-eared (Strix 
otus), which breeds in the old holly-bushes, generally taking- 
some 'magpie's nest, where it lays three eggs. Karer still is 
the short-eared (Strix brachyotus), which visits the Forest in 
November, staying through the winter, and in the day-time 
rising out of the dry heath and withered fern.* 

Leaving the owls, let us notice some of the other birds. 
Many a time, in the cold days of March, have I seen the wood- 
cocks, in the new oak plantations of Wootton, carrying their 
young under their wing, clutching them up in their large plaws. 
Here, on the ground, they lay their eggs, which are of the 
same colour as the withered oak-leaves a dull ochre, spotted 

* For some account of the little owl (Strix passerina), see Appendix III. 
under the section of Stragglers, p. 314. 

270 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

and clouded with brown, and are thus easily overlooked. About 
the same time, or even earlier in February the raven will 
build, or rather used to, in the old woods round Burley. In 
1858 the two last nests were taken, the eggs being somewhat 
smaller than those which I have received from the Orkneys. 
Another of its breeding stations was in Puckpits, where, how- 
ever, it has not built for the last four seasons. Formerly the 
bird was common enough, as the different Kavensnest Woods 
still show ; and old men in the Forest have told me, in direct 
opposition, however, to what Yarrell says,* that when, as boys, 
taking its eggs, they were obliged to arm themselves with stones 
and sticks to drive off the parent birds, who fiercely defended 
their nests with their claws and bills. Now it is nearly extinct, 
though a pair may sometimes be seen wherever there is a dead 
horse or cow in the district. 

Then, when the summer comes, and the woods are green and 
dark, the honey-buzzard skims round the tops of the trees ; and 
the snipe, whose young have not yet left the swamps, goes 
circling high up in the air, " bleating," as the common people 
here call the noise of its wings, each time it descends in its 
waving, wandering flight ; whilst out on the open spaces the 
whinchat, known throughout the Forest, from its cry, as the 
" furze hacker," jerks itself from one furze branch to another ; 
and flitting along with it fly a pair of Dartford warblers. 

And as, too, evening draws down, from the young green fern 
the goatsucker, the "night-crow" and the "night-hawk" of the 
district, springs up under your feet, and settles a few yards off, 
and then flies a little way farther, hoping to lead you from its 
white marble-veined eggs on the bare ground. 

* Vol. ii. p. 57. 

The Winter Birds. 271 

buch scenes can the Forest show to the ornithologist in 
spring and summer, nor is it less interesting to him in the 
winter. Here, as he wanders across some moor, flocks of field- 
fares and missel-thrushes start out of the hollies, and the ring- 
ousel skulks off from the yew. A bittern, its neck encircled 
with a brown frill of feathers, is, perhaps, wading by the stream ; 
and hark ! from out of the sky comes the clanging of a wedge- 
shaped flock of grey-lag geese. 

Instead of a chapter a volume might be written upon the 
ornithology of the New Forest, especially about the winter 
visitants the flocks of pochards, and teal, and tufted-ducks, 
which darken the Avon, and the swans and geese which whiten 
the Solent. I have stood for hours on the beach at Calshot, and 
watched the faint cloud in the horizon gradually change into a 
mass of wings beating with one stroke, or marked string after 
string of wigeon come splashing down in the mid-channel. 
Little flocks of ring-dotterels and dunlins flit overhead, their 
white breasts flashing in the winter sun every time they wheeled 
round. The shag flies heavily along, close to the water, with 
his long outstretched neck, melancholy and slow, and the cry 
of the kittiwake sounds from the mud-flats. 

To leave, however, the winter birds, and to pass on to more 
general observations, let me notice a curious fact about the 
tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris) in the southern parts of the 
Forest. Here there are large plantations of firs, and conse- 
quently but few holes in the trees. To make up for this 
deficiency, I have twice found the creeper's nest placed 
inside a squirrel's " cage," showing the same adaptability to 
circumstances which is met with in the whole animal creation. 
Here, too, in these thick firs build great numbers of jays ; and 
I have, when climbing up to their nests, more than once seen 

272 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

a squirrel coming out with an egg in its claw or mouth. I 
should have been inclined to have doubted the fact had I not 
seen it. The sucked eggs which are so often found must, there- 
fore, be attributed quite as much to the squirrel as the magpie 
or the jay, who have so long borne the guilt. Of course, too, 
from the great extent of wood we should expect to find the 
woodpeckers very plentiful. The common woodpecker, known 
as the "yaffingale" and " woodnacker," is to be seen darting 
down every glade. The greater-spotted (Picus major) is not 
unfrequent, and the lesser-spotted (Picus minor) in the spring 
comes out of the woods and frequents the orchards of Burley 
and Alum Green, boring its hole in the dead boughs. 

And here let me notice the tenacity with which the greater- 
spotted woodpecker, whose nesting habits are not elsewhere in 
England so well observable, clings to its breeding-place ; for I 
have known it, when its eggs have been taken, to lay again in 
the same hole, the eggs being, however, smaller. Mr. Farren 
tells me that he has observed the same fact, which is curious, as 
its ally, the green woodpecker, is so easily driven away, by even 
a common starling. 

The presence of the great black woodpecker (Picus martins) 
has long been suspected, especially since a specimen has been 
killed in the Isle of Wight, and a pair have been seen near 
Christchurch.* Mr. Farren, in 1862, was fortunate enough 
not only to see the bird, but to discover its nest. On the 
ninth of June, whilst in Pignel Wood, near Brockenhurst, he 
observed the hen bird fly out of a hole placed about six feet 
high in a small oak, from which he had earlier in the season 
taken a green woodpecker's nest. Hiding himself in the bush- 

* larrell, vol. ii. p. i39. 

The Heronry at Vinney Ridge. 273 

wood, he saw, after waiting about half an hour, the hen return, 
and had no doubts as to its identity. An endeavour, how- 
ever, to secure her in the hole, with the butterfly-net which 
he had with him, was unsuccessful. He was afraid to leave 
the eggs, as some woodmen were working close by, and so lost 
any other opportunity of making the capture. The eggs, now 
in my collection, were four in number, one being slightly 
addled, and are the only specimens ever taken in England. 
They were laid on the bare rotten wood, the bird finding the 
hole sufficiently large, as Mr. Farren had widened it when 
taking the previous eggs. It is, however, remarkable that 
such a shy bird should have built in such a scattered and thin 
wood as Pignel, close to a public thorougfare, and where the 
woodmen had for some time past been constantly felling timber. 
But what gives the Forest so much of its character is the 
number of herons who have lately established themselves in 
various parts. You can scarcely go along a stream-side with- 
out surprising some one or two, which, as you approach, 
flap their large slate-coloured wings, and fly off with a rolling, 
heavy motion, circling in the air as they go. Down at Exbury, 
at the mouth of the Beaulieu river, they may be seen in com- 
panies of threes and fours, wading in the shallows, probing 
their long bills into the mud and sand ; and then, as the tide 
comes up, making off to the freshwater ponds. They are, 
however, 1 am afraid, rather persecuted, as they never long 
here remain at one breeding station. They first took up their 
abode in Old Burley Wood, and then removed to Wood 
Fidley, and subsequently to Denney, and finally to Vinney 
Ridge. In 1861. fifty pairs, at least, must have built in its tall 
beeches. On a fine early spring morning, a long grey line of 
them would perch on the neighbouring green of Dame Slough, 


274 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

picking up the twigs of heather and flying off with them to 
line their great platforms of nests ; and then sailing down to 
the Blackwater stream, in the " bottom " close by, to fish. In 
the morning and evening, and, in fact, all through the day, one 
incessant clamour was going on, and under the trees lay great 
eels, which had fallen from their nests. 

Last year the numbers were greatly decreased, the birds 
having been, perhaps, driven away by the woodcutters and 
charcoal-burners employed to cut down the surrounding timber. 
The sketch which stands at the head of this chapter was taken 
in June too late in the year to show any of the nests, but 
several young birds were still hovering round who had not 
even then quite quitted. A small colony has, too, established 
itself at Boldrewood, where I trust it will be protected; for 
few birds possess so much character, and give so much beauty 
to the landscape. 

Before we conclude, let us glance at some other peculiarities 
of the Forest district, and its effects on its birds. It is not 
too far westward for the east winds to bring the hoopoe, so 
common in Sussex. Throughout the summer of 1861, a pair 
were constantly flying about and hopping on the " Lawn " near 
Wilverley Forest Lodge. The black redstart (Sylvia tithys) 
and the fire-crest (Regulus ignicapillus) just skim its borders 
in their westerly winter migrations. Small flocks of dotterel 
make it their halting spot for a few days in spring, on their 
way to their northern breeding-places. In the winter, its mild- 
ness brings numbers of siskins, some few bramblings, and the 
common and even the parrot crossbill, escaping from the frosts 
of the north. 

Other things may be mentioned. The hawfinches do not 
stay all the year round, as might be expected, or, at least, only 

General Summary. 275 

one or two pairs, simply because there are no hornbeams in 
the Forest, nor gardens to tempt them with their fruits. The 
chough, too, is seldom seen, its eggs and young being plundered 
in the Isle of Wight cliffs and the Lul worth rocks. It is now 
extinct in Sussex, and will soon be in the New Forest. Yet 
these birds were once so numerous in England, not only 
damaging the crops, but unthatching the barns and houses, 
that a special Act of Parliament was passed against them.* 
Twopence for a dozen heads were given. People were, under 
various penalties, bound to destroy them, and parishes were 
ordered to keep chough and crow nets in repair. 

There is, unfortunately, no other forest in England by which 
we can make comparisons with the ornithology of the New 
Forest. In Churchill Babington's excellent synopsis of the birds 
of Charnwood Forest, we find only one hundred and twenty-five 
species, but little more than one-half of those in the New Forest. 
Out of the three hundred and fifty-four British birds the New 
Forest possesses seventy-two residents, whilst it has had no less 
than two hundred and thirty killed or observed within its boun- 
daries, f With this we must end. I am afraid it is too late to 
protest against the slaughter of our few remaining birds of prey. 
The eagle and kite are, to all purpose, extinct, in England, 
and the peregrine and honey-buzzard will soon share their fate. 
The sight of a large bird now calls out all the raffish guns 

* Passed in the twenty-fourth year of Henry VIII., 1532. Statutes of 
the Realm, vol. iii., p. 425, 426. It should, however, be remembered that 
under the term chough was in former times included the whole of the 
Corvidce. Shakspeare's " russet-pated choughs " are evidently jackdaws. 

f In Appendix III. is given a list of all the birds hitherto observed in 
the New Forest District, as also more special information, which I thought 
would not interest the general reader. 


276 The New Forest : its History and its Scenery. 

of a country-side. Ornithologists have, however, themselves to 
thank. With some honourable exceptions, I know no one so 
greedy as a true ornithologist. The botanist does not uproot 
every new flower which he discovers, but for he loves them 
too well carefully spares some plants to grow and increase ; 
whilst few ornithologists rest content till they see the specimen 
safe in their cabinets. This, I suppose, must be, from the 
nature of the study, the case. Still, however, the love for 
Nature, and the enthusiasm which it gives, must be regarded 
as a far greater offset. And here let me, for the last time, say 
that I feel sure that nobody knows anything of the true charms 
of the country who is ignorant of natural history. With the 
slightest love and knowledge of it, then every leaf is full of 
meaning, every pebble a history, every torn branch, gilded with 
lichens, and silvered with mosses, has its wonders to tell; and 
you will find life in the dust, and beauty in the commonest 

View in Buckhill Wood. 






I COULD easily have expanded the following glossary to three times its 
size, but my object is to give only some specimens of those words which 
have not yet found their way into, or have not been fully explained 
in Mr. Halliwell's or Mr. Wright's dictionaries of provincialisms. The 
following collection is, I believe, the first ever made of the New Forest, 
or even, with the exception of the scanty list in Warner,* of Hamp- 
shire provincialisms, which of course to a certain extent it represents, 
more especially those of the western part of the county. A separate 
work, however, would be needed to give the whole collection, and the 
following examples must here suffice. 

Of course I do not say that all these words are to be found only 
in the New Forest. Many of them will doubtless be elsewhere dis- 
covered, though they hitherto, as here, have escaped notice. The 
time, however, for assigning the limits of our various provincialisms 
and provincial dialects has not yet arrived. 

* Collections for the History of Hampshire, by Richard Warner, vol. iii., 
pp. 37, 38. A brief list of Hampshire words will also be found in Notes and 
Queries, First Series, rol. x., No. 250, p. 120. Mr. Halliwell, in his account of 
the English Provincial Dialects, p. xx., prefixed to his Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words, mentions a MS. glossary of the provincialisms of the Isle of 
Wight, by Captain Hemy Smith, of which he has made uce. 



Glossary of Provincialisms. 


The use of the personal pronoun "he," as, throughout the West 
of England, applied to things alike animate and inanimate, and the 
substitution of " thee " for you, when the speaker is angry, or wishes 
to be emphatic, may be here noticed. In the Forest, too, as in parts 
of Berkshire, a woman when employed upon out-door work is some- 
times spoken of in the masculine gender, as the Hungarians are 
falsely said to have done of their queen on a certain memorable occa- 
sion. The confusion of cases which has been noticed by philologists 
is here, as in other parts of England, rather the result of ignorance 
than a peculiar character of the dialect. 

ADDER'S-FERN. The common poly- 
pody (Polypodium vulgare), so called 
from its rows of bright spores. The 
hard-fern (Blechnum boreale) is known 
as the " snake-fern." 

ALLOW, To. To think, suppose, con- 
sider. This word exactly corresponds to 
the American " guess " (which, by the 
way, is no Americanism, but used by 
Wiclif in his Bible : see Luke, ch. vii. 
v. 43), and is employed as often and 
as indefinitely in the New Forest. If 
you ask a peasant how far it is to any 
place, his answer nearly invariably is, 
" I allow it to be so far." " Sup- 
pose," in Sussex, is used in much the 
same way. 

BELL-HEATH. See Red-heath. 
BED-FURZE. The dwarf furze (Ulex 
nanus), which is very common through- 
out the Forest. 

BLACK-HEATH. See Red-heath. 
BLACK-HEART, The. The bilberry 
( Vaccinium Myrtillus), the " whim- 
berry" of the northern counties, which 
grows very plentifully throughout the 
Forest. It is so called, by a singular 
corruption, the original word being 
hartberry, the Old-English heorot-berg, 
to which the qualifying adjective has 
been added, whilst the terminal sub- 
stantive has been lost, and the first 
totally misapprehended. To go " heart- 
ing " is a very common phrase. (See 
Proceedings of the Philological Society, 
vol. iii. pp. 154, 155.) 

BRIZE. To press. " Brize it down," 

means, press it down. Is this only 
another form of the old word prize, 
preese, to press, crowd ? 

BOUGHT. A tree, which instead of 
running up straight is full of boughs, 
is said to be "boughy." It is also 
used generally of thick woods. Akin 
to it is the old word buhsomenesse, 
boughsomeness, written, as Mr. Wedg- 
wood notices (Dictionary of English 
Etymology, p. 285), buxomeness by 

BOWER-STONE, A. A boundaiy-stone. 
Called a " mere-stone " in some of the 
Midland Counties. Perhaps from the 
Keltic bwr, an inclosure, intrench- 
ment ; just as manor is said to be 
from maenawr, a district with a stone 

BOUND-OAK. See Oak, Mark-. 

BROWNIES, The. The bees. See 
chap, xvi., p. 185. 

BROW. Mr. Halliwell and Mr. Wright 
give this as a Wiltshire word, in the 
sense of brittle. In the New Forest it 
is applied only to short, snappy, splinter- 
ing timber of bad quality. 

BUCK, The. The stag-beetle, so called 
from its strong horn-like antennae. The 
children, when catching it, sing this 

" High buck, 
Low buck, 
Buck, come down." 

It is also called pinch-buck. The female 
is known as the doe. See " Bryanston 
Buck," in Mr. Barnes's Glossary of the 


Glossary of Provincialisms. 


Dorsetshire Dialect, appended to his 
Poems of Rural Life. 

BUNCH, A. A blow, or the effects of 
a blow ; and then a blotch, burn, scald, 
pimple, in which latter senses " bladder " 
is also often used. The verb " to bunch," 
to strikers sometimes heard. See Wedg- 
wood (vol. i. p. 269, and vol. ii. p. 263) 
on its allied forms. Used by Pope, Iliad, 
bk. ii. 328. 

CAMMOCK, The. (From the Old- 
English cammec, cammoc, camrnuc.} The 
various species of St. John's-wort, so 
plentiful in the neighbourhood of the 
New Forest ; then, any yellow flower, 
as the fleabane (Puhca dysentericd) 
and ragwort (Senecio Jacobcea). In 
Dorsetshire, according to Mr. Barnes, 
it only means the rest-harrow (Ononis 

CASS, A. A spar used in thatching, 
called in the Midland and North- Western 
Counties a " buckler." Before it is made 
into a cass, it is called a " spargad." 

CATTAN, A. A sort of noose or 
hinge, which unites the " hand-stick " 
to the flail. It is made in two parts. 
The joint which joins the " hand-stick " 
is formed of ash or elm, whilst that 
which fits the flail is made of leather, 
as it is required to be more flexible 
near the part which strikes the floor. 
Mr. Wright and Mr. Halliwell give as 
a North-country word the verb " catton." 
to beat, with which there is evidently 
some connection. 

CHILDAG, A. A chilblain. Often 
called simply a " dag," and " chil- 

GLEET, A. More generally used in 
the plural, as "cleets." Iron tips on a 
shoe. Hence we have the expression, 
" to elect oxen," that is, to shoe them 
when they work. 

CLOSE. Hard, sharp. " It hits close," 
means it hits hard. 

COTHE. (From the Old -English 
" cofca, coSe.") A " cothe sheep," means 
a sheep diseased in its liver. The 
springs in the New Forest are said " to 


cothe" the sheep that is, to disease 
their livers. Hence we have such 
places as " Cothy Mead," and " Cothy 
Copse." Mr. Barnes (as before) gives 
the form " acothed," as used in Dorset- 

CRINK-CRANK. "Crink-crank words" 
are long words verba sesquipedalia 
not properly understood. (See Proceed- 
ings of Philological Society, vol. v. 
pp. 143-148.) 

CROW-PECK, The. The Shepherd's 
needle (Scandix-pecten Veneris) ; called 
also " old woman's needle." There is a 
common saying in the New Forest, that 
" Two crow-pecks are as good as an oat 
for a horse ; " to which the reply is, 
" That a crow-peck and a barley-corn 
may be." 

CRUTCH, A. (From the Friesic kroek, 
connected with the Old-English crocca, 
our crock). A dish, or earthenware 
pipkin. We daily in the New Forest 
and the neighbourhood hear of lard 
and butter crutches. The word 
"shard," too, by the way, is still 
used in the Forest for a cup, and 
housewives still speak of a " shard of 

CUTTRAN, A. A wren; more com- 
monly called a " cutty ; " which last 
word Mr. Barnes gives in his Glossary 
of the Dorsetshire Dialect, p. 331, but 
which is common throughout the West 
of England. As Mr. Barnes, p. 354, 
observes, the word is nothing more than 
cutty wren the little wren. (See 
" Kittywitch," Transactions of Philo- 
logical Society, 1855, p. 33.) 

DECKER, or DICKER, To. One of 
the old forms of to deck ; literally, to 
cover; from the Old-English "J^eccan ;" 
in German, decken. It now, however, 
only signifies to ornament or spangle. 
A lady's fingers are said to be deckered 
with rings, or the sky with stars. 

DEER'S-MILK. Wood-spurge (Eu- 
phorbia amygdaloides). So called from 
the white viscous juice which exudes 
from its stalks when gathered. 


Glossary of Provincialisms. 


DOUNT, To. To dint, or imprint. 
Formed, as Mr. Wedgwood remarks, 
of the kindred words, dint, dent, dunt, 
by an onomatopoetic process. We find 
the word in an old song still sung in 
the New Forest, ' A Time to remem- 
ber the Poor ?" 

" Here's the poor harmless hare from 

the woods that is tracked, 
And her footsteps deep dounted in 

DRAY, A. A prison ; " the cage" of 
the Midland districts. Curiously enough 
the old poet William Browne, as also 
Wither, speaks of a squirrel's nest as a 
"dray" still used, by-the-by, in some 
counties which in the New Forest is 
always called a " cage." In this last 
sense Mr. Lower adds it to the glos- 
sary of Sussex provincialisms (Sussex 
Archceoloyical Collections, vol. xiii., 
p. 215). I may further note that at 
Christmas in the Forest, as in other 
wooded parts of England, squirrel- 
feasts are held. Two parties of boys 
and young men go into the woods 
armed with " scales " and " snogs " 
(see chap. xvi. p. 182), to see who 
will kill the most squirrels. Some- 
times as many as a hundred or more are 
brought home, when they are baked in 
a pie. Their fur, too, is sought after 
for its glossiness. 

DRUM, Ivy-, An. The stem of an 
ivy tree or bush, which grows round the 
bole of another tree. 

DRUNCH, To. To draw up, press, 
squeeze. We find the substantive 
" drunge," with which it is evidently 
connected, given in Wright as a Wilt- 
shire pronunciation for pressure, or 
crowd. Mr. Barnes also, in his Glos- 
sary of the Dorsetshire Dialect, p. 235, 
gives the forms " dringe or " drunge," 
to squeeze or push. 

ELAM, An. An handful of thatch. 
Common both in the New Forest and 
Wiltshire. In the former three elams 
make a bundle, and twenty bundles 

one score, and four scores a ton. In 
the latter the measurement is some- 
what different, five elams forming a 

FESSEY. (From the Old-English 

fits, ready, prompt, quick). Proud, 

| upstart. In the glossaries of Wright 

and Halliwell we find " fess " given as 

the commoner form. 

FETCH, To. Used with reference to 
churning butter. "To fetch the butter," 
means, to raise the cream into a certain 

FIRE-BLADDER. A pimple, or erup- 
tion on the face. See " bunch." 

FLISKY. Small, minute. Used es- 
pecially of misty rain. 

FLITCH, or quite as often FRITCH. 
(From the Old-English flit, or geflit}. 
Not only as explained in the glossary of 
Wiltshire, impertinent, busy, but, by 
some boustrophedon process, good-hu- 
moured. " You are very flitch to-day," 
that is, good-natured. 

FLUDERS. Worms, which on certain 
land get into the livers of sheep, when 
the animal is said tobe"cothed." Called 
also " flukes," and " flounders." See the 
word " cothe." 

GAIT, A. A crotchet, or, as the vul- 

I gar expression is, a maggot. Used 

| always in a deprecatory sense. When a 

| person has done anything foolish he says, 

" this is a gait I have got." Doubtless, 

identical with " get " in Wedgwood, 

vol. ii. p. 144. 

GETTET. Sprung, or slightly cracked. 
Used throughout the West of England. 

GIGGLE, To. To stand awry or 
crooked. Said especially of small things, 
which do not stand upright. 

GLUTCH, To. (From the French 
en-gloutir). Not simply, to swallow or 
gulp, as explained in the glossaries, but 
more especially to stifle a sob. 

GOLD-HEATH, The. The bog-moss 
(Sphagnum squarrusum'), which is used 
in the New Forest to make fine brooms. 

GOLD-WITHEY, The. The bog-myr- 
tle, or English mock-myrtle (Myrica 


Glossary of Provincialisms. 


Gale), mentioned in Mr. Kingsley's 

New Forest ballad, 

" They wrestled up, they wrestled down, 

They wrestled still and sore ; 
Beneath their feet, the myrtle sweet, 
Was stamped in mud and gore." 

It grows in all the wet places in the 
Forest, and is excessively sweet, the 
fruit being furnished with resinous 
glands. It is said to be extensively used 
in drugging the beer in the district. 
GRAFF, or grampher. See Wosset. 
GROSS. Often used in a good sense 
for luxuriant, and applied to the young 
green crops, just as "proud," and 
" rank," or rather " ronk," as it is pro- 
nounced, are in the Midland Counties. 

GUNNEY- To look " gunney " means, 
to look archly or cunning. There is also 
the verb " to gunney." " He gunneyed 
at me," signifies, he looked straight at 
me. From the French yuigner. 

HACKER, FURZE-, The. The whinchat, 
so called from its note, which it utters on 
the sprays of the furze. 

HAME. There is a curious phrase, 
"all to hame," signifying, broken to 
pieces, used both here and in Wiltshire. 
Thus the glass, when broken, is said to 
be "all to hame," that is, " all to bits." 
The metaphor has been taken from 
"spindly" wheat on bad ground run- 
ning to halm, from the Old-English 
healm, noAv the West-Saxon peasant's 
" hame." " All to," I may add, is used 
adverbially in its old sense of entirely, 
quite, as we find it in Judges ix. 53. 
HARL, The. The hock of a sheep. 
HARVEST-LICE. The seeds of the 
common a,g\-imony(Ayrimoma eupatoria) 
and " heriflf" (Galium Aparine). See 
Clivers, chap. xv. p. 1 66. 

HELL. A dark place in the woods. 
See chap. x. p. 110. 

HERDER. A sieve. See chap. xvi. 
p. 185, foot-note. 

HILL-TROT, The. The wild carrot 
(Daucus Carota), used also in Wilt- 
shire. Most probably a corruption of 

O O 

el trot, oldrot, oldroot, and so from the 
Old-English. These last forms are 
given in Mr. Barnes' Glossary of the 
Dorset dialect, p. 336. 

HOAR-WITHEY. The whitebeam 
(Sorbus Aria), which, with its white 
leaves, is very conspicuous in the Forest. 
We find the word used in the perambu- 
lation of the Forest in the twenty-second 
year of Charles I., " by the road called 
Holloway, and from thence to Hore- 
withey, in the place whereof (decayed) 
a post standed in the ground." It is 
exactly the same as the " bar wi<Sig " 
of the Old-English. It is called also, 
but more rarely, the " white rice." See 
chap. xvi. p. 183. 

Hoo, To. To simmer, boil ; evidently 
formed, like so many other words, by an 
onomatopoetic process (See chap. xvi. 
p. 186). There is also the phrase, "the 
kettle is on the hoo," that is, to use a 
vulgarism, on the simmer, or boil. 

HOOP, To go a. To go where you 
like. " He is going a hoop," means, he 
is going to the bad. 

HUM- WATER. A cordial which is 
made from the common horse-mint 
(Mentha aquatica). Does " hum " here 
mean strong, as it is used in some 
counties with reference to beer? See 
chap. xv. p. 166. 

seph 's-ladder of the Midland Counties, 
common in all the cottage gardens round 
the Forest. It is curious to notice, 
amongst our peasantry, the religious 
element in the names of both the wild 
and cultivated flowers derived from 
Catholic times. Thus we have ladies' 
cushions, and ladies' tresses, and St. 
Peter's-wort, and St. John's wort, be- 
sides the more common plants, such as 
marygolds and ladysmocks, which eveiy 
one can remember. 

KITTERING. Weak. The more North- 
country word " tuly " is also heard in 
the same sense. 

LANCE, To. To jump, leap, or bound. 
Used especially of the Forest deer, which 


Glossary of Provincialisms. 


in dry weather are said " to lance " over 
the turf. 

LARK'S LEES, or LEASE, A. A piece 
of poor land tit only for larks, or, as the 
peasantry of the Midland Counties 
would say, only " fit to bear peewits." 
Mr. Halliwell gives the form "lark 
leers," as a Somersetshire phrase; but 
the above expression may be daily heard 
in the New Forest. 

LOUSTER. Noise, disturbance. " What 
a louster you are making," signifies, 
what a confusion you are causing. 

LUG-STICK. See Rug-stick. 

MALLACE, The. The common mal- 
low (Malvus sylvestris). Formed like 
bullace, and other similar words. 

MARGON. Corn chamomile (An them is 
arvensis). Called " mathan," through- 
out the Anglian districts. 

MARK-OAK, See Oak. 

MOKIN, or more generally in the 
plural, MOKINS. Coarse gaiters for de- 
fending the legs from the furze. See 
chap. xv. p. 162. 

MUDDLE, To. To fondle, caress, to 
rear by the hand. Hence we obtain the 
expression " a mud lamb," that is, a 
lamb whose mother is dead, which has 
been brought up by hand, equivalent to 
the " tiddiin lamb " of the Wiltshire 
shepherds. See Wosset. 

OAK, MARK-, A. The same as a 
" bound-oak," or boundary oak or ash, 
as the case may be, so called from the 
ancient cross, or mark, cut on the rind. 
As Kemble notices (The Saxons in 
England, vol. i., appendix A. p. 480), 
we find in Cod. Dipl. No. 393, " on San 
merkeden 6k," to the marked oak, show- 
ing how old is the name. I have never 
met in the New Forest Avith an instance 
of a " crouch oak " (from crois'), such as 
occurs at Addlestone in Surrey, and 
which is said to have been the " bound- 
oak of Windsor Forest (See The Saxons 
in England, as before, vol i. chap. ii. 
p. 53, foot-note). The "bound-oak," 
marked in the Ordnance Map near Dib- 
den, has fallen, but we find the name 

preserved in the fine old wood of Mark 
Ash, near Lyndhurst. In the perambu- 
lation of the Forest in the 20th year of 
Edward I. we read of the Merkingstak 
of Scanperisgh. The various eagle-oaks 
in the Forest are comparatively modern, 
and must not be confounded with the 
eagle-oak mentioned by Kemble (as 
above, vol. i. p. 480). 

OMART CHEESE. An inferior sort of 
cheese, made of skim-milk, called in most 
parts of England "skim Dick." See, 
further on, the word Rammel, and also 
Vinney, chap. xvi. p. 190. 

ONCE. Sometime. " I will pay you 
once this week," does not mean in con- 
tradistinction to twice, but I will pay 
you sometime during the week. 

OVERRUNNER, An. A shrew mouse, 
which is supposed to portend ill-luck it 
it runs over a person's foot. In Dorset- 
shire it is called a " shrocop," where the 
same superstition is believed. See 
Barnes' Glossary of the Dorset Dialect, 
p. 382. 

anger. " You have no need to get in a 
panshard," is a most common saying. 
See "peel," further on. 

PATCHY. Testy. Said of people 
who proverbially " blow hot and cold." 

PEEL, A. A disturbance, noise. " To 
be in a peel," means, to be in a passion. 
Used in much the same sense as the word 
" pelt," which is rightly explained in 
the glossaries as anger, noise, rage, 
though it is, perhaps, more spoken ol 
animals than "peel." "What a pelt 
the dog is making," that is, barking, 
would be said rather than " peel." 

PICKED. Sharp, pointed. " A picked 
piece," means a field with one or more 
sharp angular corners. 

PITT. Love. " Pity is akin to love," 
says Shakspeare, but in the West of Eng- 
land it is often the same. 

PLASH, A. A mill-head. Winkton is 
locally called Winkton Plash, this exactly 
corresponding to the Werihgetone of 
Domesday, with its two mills "adaulam." 

Glossary of Provincialisms. 


PUCK, To. To put up sheaves, es- 
pecially of barley and oats, which are 
called "pucks." Used throughout the 
West of England in contradistinction to 
" hiling," applied only to wheat, which 
is placed in "hiles." In Dorsetshire, 
however, this last operation is called 
" stitching." See the word " stitch " 
in Mr. Barnes' Glossary of the Dorset- 
shire Dialect, p. 391. 

QUAR, A. The udder of a cow or 
sheep, when hard after calving or 
lambing. Beer also is said to be 
" quarred," when it drinks hard or 

QUAT-VESSEL, The. The meadow- 
thistle (Carduus pratensis), which is 
common in the New Forest. 

RAMMEL CHEESE. The best sort of 
cheese, made of cream and new milk, 
in contradistinction to Omary,or Arnary, 
cheese, and Hasskin cheese. 

RAMMUCKY. Dissolute, wanton. " A 
rammucky man," means a depraved cha- 

RAMWARD, or rather, ramhard. To 
the right. A corruption of framward, 
or fromward. So " toard," or " toward," 
means to the left, that is, towards you. 
Both words are used throughout the 
West of England, and are good examples 
of what Professor Miiller would call 
"phonetic decay." With them may be 
compared the sailor's terms " starboard " 
and "larboard," on which see Wedg- 
wood, Diet. of English Etymology ', vol. ii., 
p. 310. See, too, Miss Gurney on the word 
" woash," which in the Eastern Counties 
is equivalent to "ramward." Glossary of 
Norfolk Words Transactions of the Phi- 
lological Society, 1855, p. 38. 

RANTIPOLE, The. The wild carrot 
(Daucus carota), so called from its bunch 
of leaves. Used also in Wiltshire. See 

RED HEATH. The three heaths which 
grow in the New Forest Erica tetralix, 
Erica cinerea, and Calluna vulgar is, 
are respectively known as the bell, black, 
and red heaths. 

j REIAVES. The boards or rails put 

j round waggons, so as to enable them to 

take a greater load. Used throughout 

the West of England. See Mr. Barnes' 

Glossary under the word Riaves, p r 375. 

RICK-RACK. This is only used of the 
weather, as "rick-rack weather," that is, 
stormy, boisterous weather, and far 
stronger in meaning than the more com- 
mon phrase, "cazalty weather." It is 
evidently from the Old-English rec, 
vapoury, cloudy weather, and well serves 
to explain the meaning of Shakspeare's 
"rack," a cloud, in the well-known pas- 
sage in the Tempest (Act iv. sc. 1), 
which has given rise to so much contro- 
versy. Miss Gurney (Transactions of 
the Philological Society, 1855, p. 35), 
notices that " rack " is used in Norfolk 
for mist driven by the wind. 

RONGE, To. To kick, or play, said 
of horses. 

RUBBLE, To. To remove the gravel, 
which is deposited throughout the 
Forest in a thick layer over the beds of 
clay or marl. The gravel itself is called 
" the rubblin." 

RUE. A row, or hedgerow. See 
chap. v. p. 56. In the Forest some of 
the embankments, near which perhaps 
the Kelts and West-Saxons lived, are 
called Rew- and Row-ditch. I have, 
too, heard of attics being called " lanes," 
possibly having reference to the " ruelle" 
by which the space between the curtains 
was formerly called. 

RUG-STICK, also called a LUG-STICK. 
A bar in the chimney, on which " the 
cotterel," or " iron scale," or " crane," 
as it is also called, to which the kettle 
or pot is fastened, hangs. We find the 
word still used in America as the " ridge- 
pole " of the house, which helps us at 
once to the derivation. 

SCALE, or squoyle. See chap. xvi. 
p. 182. 

SCULL, A. (From the Old-English 
scylan, and so, literally, a division). A 
drove, or herd, or pack of low people, 
always used in an opprobrious sense. It 


Glossary of Provincialisms. 


is properly applied to fish, especially 
the grey mullet which visits the coast ii 
the autumn, and so metaphorically t( 
beggars who go in companies. Milton 
uses the word 

" sculls that oft 

Bank the mid sea." 

Paradise Lost, Book vii 

Shakspeare, too, speaks of " scaled 
sculls" (Troilus and Cressida, Act v 
sc. 5). The expression " school ol 
whales," which we so often find in Arctic 
and whaling voyages is nothing but 
this word slightly altered. According 
to Miss Gurney's Glossary of Norfolk 
words transactions of the Philological 
Society, 1855), the word "school" is 
applied to herrings on the south-eastern 
coast. Juliana Berners, in the Boke of 
St. Albans, curiously enough says that 
we should speak of " a sculke of foxes, 
and a sculle of frerys." Quoted in 
Miiller's Science of Language, p. 61. 

SETTY. Eggs are said to be " setty " 
when they are sat upon. 

SHAMMOCK, To. To slouch. "A 
shammocking man " means an idle, 
good-for-nothing person. Applied also 
to animals. " A shammocking dog," 
means almost a thievish, stealing dog, 
thus shoAving how the word is akin to 
shamble, scamble, which last verb also 
signifies to obtain any thing by false 

SHEAR, AFTER-, The. The second 
crop of grass. Called in the Midland 
Counties "the eddish," and also the 
"latter-math," or " after-math." 

SHEETS'-AXE, A. An oak apple. 
See chap. xvi. p. 183. 

SHELF, A. A bank of sand or pebbles, 
or shallow in a river, or even the ford 
itself. Milton uses the word in Comus : 

" On the tawny sands and shelves." 
Hence we got the adjective " shelvy," 
also in common use, and employed by 
Falstaffe "The shore was shelvy and 
shallow " ( The Merry Wives of Windsor, 
Act Hi., sc. 5). It is this latter word, | 

which Mr. Halliwcll and Mr. Wright 
must mean instead of " shelly," and 
which they define as "an ait in a river." 
The word is probably from the same 
Scandinavian root as shoal. 

SHIM. Lean. " He's a shim fellow," 
that is, thin. It is used, I see from 
Mr. Cooper's glossary, foi v a shadow, in 
the western division of Sussex ; and I 
think I have somewhere met with it in 
the sense of a ghost. 

break off short. Thus gravel is said to 
shock off at any particular stratum, or 
" list," or " scale," as it would be called. 
See the following word. 

SHOCK, A. Not applied merely to 
corn, but to anything else. "A shock 
of sand " means a line or band of sand, 
called also a " list," or " lissen," or 
" bond," or " scale," and sometimes 
" drive : " which last, however, has a 
more particular reference to the direc- 
tion of the stratum. 

SIZE. Thickness, consistency. " The 
size of the gruel " means its consistency. 
SKIMMER-CAKE, A. A small pud- 
ding made up from the remnants of 
another, and cooked upon a " skimmer," 
the dish with which the milk is skimmed. 
Nearly equivalent to the " girdle-cake," 
north of England. 

SKROW. Shattered or battered. 
SLAB, A. A thick slice, lump, used 
like squab, which see. Thus we hear 
of " a slab of bacon," meaning a large 
piece. Opposed to " snoule," which 
signifies a small bit." I have just had 
a snoule," means I have only had a 

SLINK, A. " A slink of a thing," in 
>vhich phrase the Avord is only found, is 
alike applied to objects animate or in- 
animate, and means either a poor, weak, 
tarved creature, or anything Avhich is 
small and not of good quality. 

SLUT, A. A noise, sound. " A slut 
>f thunder," means a clap or peal of 
hunder. It is in this sense that the 
word is most generally used. 

Glossary of Provincialisms. 


SNAKE-FERN. The hard-fern (Blech- 
num boreale). See " Adder 's-Fern." 

SNIGGLE, To. To snarl. See chap, xvi., 
p. 186. SNIGGLE, A. An eel peculiar 
to the Avon. See chap, xii., pp. 125, 

SPELL, A. A fit, or start. Fain is 
said to come and go by " spells," that is, 
by shocks at recurring intervals. 

SPENE, A. In its first sense, like 
the Old-English spana, an udder of a 
cow. In its second, the rail of a gate 
or stile. 

SPINE-()AK. The heart of oak. This 
phrase points to the true derivation of 
44 heart of oak." The common theory 
Mr. Wedgwood has rightly classed 
under the head of "False Etymologies.'' 
See Transactions of the Philological 
Society, 1855. No. 6, pp. 62, 63. 

SPIRE-BED, A. A place where the 
" spires," that is, the reed-canary grass 
(Phalaris arundinacea), grow ; exactly 
equivalent to the Old-English hreod- 
bedd. On the outskirts of the New 
Forest at Redbridge, formerly Bedford 
Hreodford, literally, the ford of reeds 
the Test is to this day full of the same 
" spires," from which our forefathers 
gave the place its name. The river 
Caundle, in Dorsetshire, still, too, full 
of spire-beds, tells of a similar deriva- 
tion, not from the Teutonic, but the 
Keltic. The phrase " spire-bed," or 
" spear-bed field," is very common, 
meaning a particular field, near where 
the " spires " grow, which are used 
by plasterers and thatchers in their 

SPITH. (Another form of pith, from 
the Old-English " pitSa "). Strength, 

SPRACK. Not only quick, lively, brisk, 
active, as given in the glossaries, but 
neat, tidy. Used also in this last sense 
in Wiltshire. 

SPRATTER. The common guillemot 
(Una troiie}. In Norfolk (see Trans- 
actions of the Philological Society, 155, 
p. 37) we have " sprat-mowe," for a 

herring-gull ; and in Kent, " sprat-loon," 
for one of the grebes. 

SQUAB, A. Anything large. Thus 
" a squab of a piece," is constantly used 
in this sense. In a different meaning it 
is confounded with squat. So a thick- 
set, heavy person is called a " squab." 

SQUOYLES. Glances. See chap, xvi., 
p. 182. 

STABBLE. Marks, footprints, always 
used in the plural. This is another of 
those onomatopoetic words which Mr. 
Wedgwood might add to the forms 
step, stamp, stipple, all derived by a 
similar process. (See the Introduction 
to his Dictionary of Etymology, p. x.) 
In an old rhyme, common in the New 
Forest, upon a hailstorm, we find the 
word ; 

" Go round the ricks, 
And round the ricks, 
And make as many stabble 
As nine score sheep." 

STARRY. Used particularly of land 
which is stiff or unworkable, especially 
after rain, and opposed to " stoachy," 
which signifies muddy, as in the com- 
mon expression, " What a dreadful 
stoachy piece of ground." 

THRIFTY. Still used in its old deriva- 
tive sense of thriving, and so flourishing. 
Once or twice I have heard it applied to 
physical health, in the sense of being 
well, or " pure," as is the more common 

TINE, To. To tine a candle, does 
not now so much mean to light, from 
the Old-English tendan, to set on fire, 
as to snuff it. 

TUFFET, A. A lump of earth, or hil- 
lock. Hence we have " tuffety," in the 
sense 01 uneven, or covered with hillocks. 

TOLY. Weak, ailing. More common 
in the north of England. See " Kitter- 

TWIDDLE, To. To whistle. " The 
robins are twiddling," is a common 
phrase, and which fact is said to be a 
sign of rain. 


Glossary of Provincialisms. 

FAPP. i. 

VINNEY- CHEESE. See chap, xvi., 
p. 190. 

WAG, A. A breath, a slight wind. 
" A wag of air," means a gentle draught 
of air. In Dorsetshire we still have 
" wag-wanton " applied to the quaking- 
grass (Bnza media). See Barnes' Glos- 
sary of the Dorsetshire Dialect, p. 404. 

WASE, A. A very small bundle of 
straw, more particularly a wisp for clean- 
ing a horse. Used also, according to 
Mr. Cooper, in Sussex. 

WATER-TABLES. The side dikes 
along the road, which carry off the 
water. Common throughout the West 
of England. 

WEALD, To. To bring corn or hay 
into swathe, before putting it, as it is 
called, into " puck," which see. 

WEAN-GATE, A. (From the Old- 
English wcen-geat, literally, the waggon- 
door.) The tail-board, or ladder of a 

WELL-CROOK, A. A stick for ladling 
the water out of the shallow Forest 
pools and wells. Called in the Midland 
and Northern Counties a " lade-gorn; " 
and formerly "a well graper." (See 
Froude's History of England, vol. i. 
p. 41, foot-note. 

W T IMBLE, A. In addition to auger, 
as given in Wright and Halliweli's 

dictionaries, an instrument with which 
to take up faggots or trusses of hay. 

WIVVERY. Giddy. " My head is 
wivvery," is no uncommon expression. 
To wivver, given by Wright and Halli- 
well as used in Kent, is more especially 
employed here of the quivering flight 
of hawks, particularly of the kestrel and 

WOSSET, A. A small ill-favoured 
pig. The smallest pig in a " trip," to 
use a West-Country term for a litter, is 
known as the " doll," the same as the 
" nessle-tripe " of Dorsetshire ; whilst a 
pig brought up by hand is called a 
"graff," or " grampher," equivalent to 
" mud," in the phrase " mud-lamb," or 
" mud-calf," as also " sock," and " sock- 
ling," and " tiddling," used in various 

YAPE, To. Not merely to gossip, as 
given by Mr. Cooper in his Sussex 
Glossary, but to loiter. To yape about 
is used very much as is shammock. 
which see. 

YAW, To. To chop, reap. Used of 
cutting corn, peas, or beans. "Hack- 
ing," hoAvever, is generally the term 
applied to harvesting the last, when 
the reapers use two hooks, one to cut, 
and the other, an old one, to puii up 
the halm. 

The Stacle Cross, near Christoturch. 



THESE lists are not by any means put forward as exhaustive. Sub- 
sequent investigations must very much increase them. Still, I trust 
they will be found sufficient for botanists to generalize from, and useful 
as guides to beginners. To the kindness of the Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 
of Bisterne, I am n^ch indebted, as will be seen, for many new species 
and localities, as also for the special arrangement of the Graminece, 
Cyperacea, and Juncacea. 

The nature of the country will best help us to make the divisions. 
First, we have the true Forest district, with its heath, and bog, and 
woodland plants ; and next the valley of the Avon, with its meadow- 
flowers ; and, thirdly, the littoral plants, which we will at once take. 

GLAUCIUM LUTEUM, Scop., Yellow- 
horned Poppy. Leap. Eaglehurst, 46.f 

Sea-rocket. The sea-shore, Mudeford, 

The sea-shore near Calshot and Eagle - 
hurst, where, as Bromh'eld remarks 
(Flora Vectensis, p. 48), the young 
shoots are bleached by being covered 
with shingle, and then sent to the 
Southampton market, 56. 


Common Scurvy Grass. Hurst Castle, 

Scurvy Grass, Mudeford. R. Stevens, 
Esq., 72 d. 

Radish. Mudeford, 124. 

SILENE MARITIMA, With., Sea Blad- 
der Campion. The Shingles. Hurst 
Castle, 153. 


Chickweed. Common on the coast, 1 73. 

Spurrey. Mudeford, 174. 

Mallow. Salt marshes of the Beaulieu 
river, 208. 

Mallow. Hurst Castle, where Ray saw 
it. See, however, Bromfield in Pkyto- 
logist, vol. iii. p. 270; 210. 

mon Lady's Fingers. Barton Cliffs, 257. 

f The numbers after a plant refer to its numerical place in the London Cata- 
logue, whose nomenclature and arrangement have been followed. The English 
synonyms have been chiefly taken from Smith. 

P P 



Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. [APP. 

beach near Hurst Castle." Gamier and 
Poulter. Milford. Probably naturalized, 
as on the opposite coast near Yarmouth. 
" The Lymington Salterns," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson. See, however, Bromfield, in 
Phytologist, vol. iii. p. 212 j 3f2 

Hotly. Mudeford, 444. 

mon Fennel. Purewell Road, Christ- 
church, 476. 

lery. " March wood," W. A. Broom- 
field. " Mudeford and Beaulieu," Rev. 
H. M. Wilkinson, 450. 

Lachenal's Dropwort. " Mudeford," 
Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 471 * 

Small-flowered Thistle. Lanes near 
the sea-coast, 597. 

Wormwood. " The coast," W. Pamp- 
lin. " Salt marshes near Millbrook," 
W. A. Bromfield ; quoted in the New 
Botanist's Guide, 624. 

wort. Very common in the rivers at 
Beaulieu and Lymington, 641. 

Samphire. Key Haven and Hurst 
Beach, where Ray saw it, 657. 

Bindweed. Hurst Castle. Mudeford, 73 1 . 

GLAUX MARITIMA, Lin., Sea Milk- 
wort or Glasswort. Hurst Castle, 
Beaulieu Estuary, 894. 

Thrift. Hordle and Barton Cliffs, 
Beaulieu Estuary, 895. 

Lavender. On this and S". rariflora, 
see Bromfield, in Phytologist, vol. iii. 
p. 742 j 897. 

Plantain. The Beaulieu Estuary, 904. 
ing Goosefoot. Mr. Wilkinson gives 
" the seaside, Beaulieu," 908. 

Hurst Castle, where I first saw it in 
1859, with Mr. Lees, 918. 

" Mudeford," Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 

leaved Sea Orache. Estuary of the 
Beaulieu river, 924. 

BETA MARITIMA, Lin., Sea Beet. 
Mudeford, 925. 

SALSOLA KALI, Lin., Prickly Salt- 
wort. The sea-shore, Mudeford, 926. 


Goosefoot. Estuary, 927. 

Glasswort. " The Beaulieu river," 
Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 939. 


Knot Grass. " Mudeford," Borrer, 
C. C. Babington. (See Watson's New 
Botanist's Guide, Supplement, vol. ii. 
p. 570.) The Rev. W. M. Wilkinson has 
found it on the other side of the har- 
bour at Hengistbury Head, 940. 

ford," Borrer, and R. Stevens, Esq., 940.* 

mon Asparagus. " At Chri'stchurch," 
Gamier and Poulter. 

Arrow Grass. Marshes of the Beaulieu 
river, 1115. 

Grass Wrack. Southampton water, 
Hythe, 1137. 

Sharp Sea Rush. Beaulieu river, 1154. 

SCIRPUS SAVII, S. and M., Savis 5 
Club Rush. See Bromfield, in Phyto- 
logist, vol. iii. p. 1030 ; 1187. 

Club Rush. Mudeford, 1190. 

CAREX EXTENSA, Good., Long Brac- 
teated Carex. "The Beaulieu river," 
Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 1235. 

Sea Reed. The loose sand, Mudeford, 
where it grows with Triticum junceum, 

u] Peculiar to, or characteristic of, the Forest. 


Sea Hard Grass. Mudeford, 1323. 

Sea-wheat Grass. " Mudeford. On 
the New Forest side of the Avon, 
which is the only place I have ever 
seen it." Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 1327. 

wheat Grass. Mudeford, 1362. 


Barley. Very common along the whole 
of the east coast. " By the roadside 
from Cadenham " (more probably 
Hythe) " to Marchwood," W. A. Brom- 
field. See Watson's New Botanist's 
Guide, vol. ii., p. 571.; 1369.f 

Hard-grass. Mudeford, 1371. 

In the next division are placed more especially those plants whieli 
either grow only in the Forest, or form a peculiar feature in its land- 
scapes, such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Gentiana Pneumonanthe, 
Drosera rotundifolia, and intermedia, Narthecium ossifragum, Melittis 
Melissophyllum, and the Carices, AircB, and Agrostes generally. The 
rest will be found in the third division, as common both to the Forest 
and the adjoining districts. As the Ferns and St. John's -worts 
have been so fully mentioned in Chapter XXI., they will not be again 

Lily. Forest streams. Not so com- 
mon as the next, but still a feature, 36. 


Water Lily. In the Avon, and else- 
where in the district, 37. 

VIOLA CANINA, Sm., Dog's Violet. 
The violet of the Forest, but, of course, 
common in the district, 135. 

VIOLA LACTEA, Sm., Cream-coloured 
Violet. " Near Boldre," W. A. Brom- 
field. See Watson's New Botanist's 
Guide, vol. ii., p. 567 ; 135.* 

Round-leaved Sundew. Everywhere 
in the Forest, 138. 

row-leaved Sundew. Though not so com- 
mon as rotundifolia, it is equally distribut- 
ed throughout the Forest district, 139. 

Milkwort, 141. 

Moenchia. Common, 166. 

SAGINA SUBULATA, Wimm., Ciliated 
Awl-shaped Spurrey, 170.* 

Anemone, 6. 

Crowfoot. Streams and pools, not of 
course confined to the Forest, but still 
a conspicuous feature, 1 1. 

Three-parted-leaved Crowfoot, " with 
Limosella aquatica, in splashy places by 
the roadside, just beyond the bridge, 
as you leave Brockenhurst for Lynd- 
hurst," H. C. Watson, in a private 
letter, 11 * 

Crowfoot. Roads in the Forest, 22. 

Marsh Marigold. Forest pools ; but, 
of course, in the district generally, 26. 

Columbine. Very common round 
Wootton, but may be found with Hy- 
pericum androscemum in the old woods 
of Mark Ash, Gibb's Hill, Winding 
Shoot, and Boldrewood, 31. 

NYMPH^EA ALBA, Lin., White Water 

t Scirpus parvulus (R. and S.), mentioned by Rev. G. E. Smith as growing 
" on a mud-flat near Lymington," is now extinct. See Watson's Cybele Britan- 
nica, vol. iii. p. 78 ; and Bromfield, in the Phytologist, vol. iii., 1028. 

P P 2 


Floivering Plants of the New Forest District, f APP. 

Purple Sandwort, 175. 

Little Mouse-ear Chickwced, 194. 

Four-cleft Mouse-ear Chickweed, 194.* 
row-leaved Flax. 201. 

leaved Flax-seed. Common. The 
Rev. P. Somerville pointed it out to me 
in Beacon Bunny, growing close to the 
sea, 203. 

Lime, 212. 

ACER CAMPESTRE, Lin., Field Maple. 
Rather plentiful in some of the woods, 

Crane's-bill. On a rubbish heap, near 
Alum Green, where it had been natu- 
ralized, 231. 

sorrel. Very common, 243. 

Tree. Here and there a specimen may 
be seen, as at the north side of Wootton 
Enclosure, near the Osmanby Ford 
River, 245. 

Buckthorn, 247. 

Broom, 248. 

ULEX EuROP-fius, Lin., Furze, 

ULEX NANUS, Forst., Dwarf Furze. 
If any one wishes to see the difference 
between this and Europceus he should 
visit the Forest at the end of August or 
the beginning of Sept., 250. 

Green Weed. Common on the southern 
parts of the Forest, 251. 

GENISTA ANGLICA, Lin., Petty Whin. 
Everywhere, 253. 

ted Trefoil, 277. 

berry-headed Trefoil. Ashley Common, 

Smooth round-headed Trefoil, 278. 

Bitter Vetch, 312. 

PRUNUS SPINOSA, Lin., Sloe-tree, 314. 

PRUNUS AVIUM, Lin., Wild Cherry. 
Burley, 316.* 


Common Tormentil, 332. 

Marsh Cinquefoil. Bog of the Osmanby 
Ford River, below Wootton Enclosure , 

FRAGARIA VESCA, Lin., Strawberry, 

RUBUS ID^EUS, Lin., Raspberry. 
Young plantations, especially near 
Boldrewood, 339. 

Bramble, 340 

RUBUS suBERECTUS,Aud., Red-fruited 
Bramble. Wootton Enclosures, where 
it was first pointed out to me in 1859 
by Mr. Lees, 340 (3). 

leaved Rose. Not uncommon round 
! Ashley and Wootton, 341. 

mon Hawthorn, 360. 

PYRUS MALUS, Lin., Wild Crab, 363. 

vice Tree, 364. 

PYRUS ARIA, Sm., White Beam, 365. 

PYRUS AUCUPARIA, Gaert., Mountain 
Ash. Probably naturalized, 366. 

tain Willow Herb, 370. 

Isnardia. Found at Brockenhurst by 
Mr. Borrer ; Phytologiat, vol. iii. p. 368. 
See also iv. p. 754 ; 376. 

chanter's Nightshade. In most of the 
old woods, 377. 

Willow Herb. The Forest pools, 390. 

TILL^A MUSCOSA, Lin., Moss-like 
Tillsea. Everywhere in the Forest, 407. 

HEDERA HELIX, Lin., Common Ivy, 


Peculiar to, or characteristic of, the Forest. 


tree, 439. 

Marsh Pennywort. Throughout the 
Forest, 441. 

Sanicle. In most of the old woods, 442. 

VISCUM ALBUM, Lin., Mistletoe. 
Grows chiefly on the black poplar, es- 
pecially near Godshill. I have never 
seen it on the oak. Abundance of it 
may be found in the apple-trees in the 
Forest keeper's garden at Boldrewood, 

Elder, 504. 

SAMBUCUS EBULUS, Lin., Banewort. 
" Near Lyndhurst," T. B. Rake, Esq., 

Rose, 506. 

Common Honeysuckle, 508. 

GALIUM VERUM, Lin., Ladies' Bed- 
straw, 513. 


Wood Hawkweed, 568 (24). 

wort. Throughout the Forest, 594, 

CARDUUS MARIAN us, Lin., Blessed 
Thistle. Forest roadsides, 598. 

Thistle. Abundant in the southern part 
of the Forest round Wootton, 604. 

BIDENS CERNUA, Lin., Nodding Bur 
Marigold. Waste lands round and in 
the Forest. Has a fine effect on the 
landscape near Godshill ; common, 
however, throughout the district, 617. 


Hemp Agrimony. Gives a rich ap- 
pearance to the Forest streams ; but, of 
course, abundant elsewhere, 619. 

FILAGO MINIMA, Fries. The Least 
Cudweed, 634. 

Rod. Throughout the Forest, 642. 

Groundsel. This plant, with the com- 
mon nettle, is especially remarkable in 

the Forest, as an indication of the former 
existence of habitations. It may be 
noticed in Sloden,Eyeworth,and Island's 
Thorn, near the Romano- British pot- 
teries. (See ch. xviii. p. 216, foot-note.) 
wort. Throughout the Forest, 671. 

Nodding-flowered Hare-bell, 675. 

JASIONE MONTANA, Lin., Sheep's-bit 
Scabious, 687. 

ERICA TETRALIX, Lin., Cross-leaved 
Heath, 690. 

ERICA CINEREA, Lin., Fine-leaved 
Heath, 692. 

CALLUNA VULGARIS, Salisb., Common 
Ling, 695. 

Bilberry ; better known in the Forest 
as the " Blackheart," 703. 

Holly. Most abundant, 713. 

Ash. Scarce, 715. 

VINCA MINOR, Lin., Lesser Peri- 
winkle. Hedges round and in the 
Forest, as at Sway, Ashley, Canterton, 

Calathian Violet. Very plentiful some 
years at Wootton, 719. 

Gentianella. Damp places in the 
Forest. Rev. H. M. Wilkinson givef 
especially the neighbourhood of Burley s 

Common in most of the Forest pools on 
the South, 727. 

Dodder. Distributed through the 
Forest, on the heath and furze, 734. 

Mullein. Not common in the Forest. 
I have seen a few specimens on Ashley 
Common ; but, in 1861, a field near 
the new parsonage was covered with it 
and the viper's bugloss. Mr. Rake has 
found it growing at Gorely, on the 
north-west side of the Forest, 744. 


Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. [APP. 

row-leaved Marsh Speedwell. Not com- 
mon. Mr. Wilkinson gives marshy 
spots near Sandford and Crow, on the 
borders of the Forest, 753. 

mon Eyehright, 766. 

dow Cow Wheat, 770. 

Lousewort, 772. 

mon Lousewort, 773. 

Foxglove, 778. 

Mudwort. Found by Mr. H. C. Watson 
on the road from Brockenhurst to Lynd- 
hurst, after you pass the bridge from 
the former place, 788. 

Broom-rape. On the furze, especially in 
the northern parts of the Forest, 790. 

MENTHA AQUATICA, Lin., Water Mint, 
but of course throughout the district, 

Mint. I give this on the authority of 
Sole, quoted by Dawson Turner, as 
found in the Forest, 807 e. 

royal. Not uncommon, especially in 
wet places on the southern parts of the 
Forest, round Wilverley and Holmsley, 

Thyme, 810. 

Wild Basil, 815. 

Bastard Balm. Very plentiful on the 
outer bank of Wootton Enclosure, look- 
ing westward, 817. 

Sage, 818. 

Betony, 836, 

Skull-cap. Damp places in the Forest, 
especially round Wootton, 846. 


Narrow-leaved Lungwort. Very com- 
mon round Wootton, both with and 
without spots on the leaves. (See 
Watson's New Botanist's Guide, vol. ii., 
p. 569 ; and the Cybele Britannica, 
vol. iii., p. 488), 868. 

Butterwort. Bogs round Wootton ; 
Ashley Common, where the Rev. P. 
Somerville first pointed it out to me. 
Mr. Wilkinson also gives Sandford and 
Crow as localities, 874. 

Milfoil. Pools in the southern part of 
the Forest, as also on Ashley Common, 

Bladderwort. Hinchelsea Bog, where 
I found it in 1859, with Mr. Lees. The 
Rev. H. M. Wilkinson gives also ponds 
near Burley, and Mr. Somerville ponds 
at the Osmanby Ford stream, 877. 

Primrose, 678. 

Loosetrife, 889. 

pernel. In all the boggy places, 891. 

weed, 892. 

weed. Found it, with Mr. Lees, on 
Ashley Common, June 14, 1859. "The 
Beaulieu River," Rev. H. M. Wilkinson. 
It shows a decided partiality for the 
southern part towards the sea, 893. 


mon Shore-weed, 905. 

Wood Spurge, 974. 

nial Mercury, 976. 

QUERCUS ROBUR, Lin., the Oak, 988. 


fruited Oak. The finest in the Forest 
are now in the Brook Woods, 988 c. 


CARPINUS BETULUS, Lin., Hornbeam. 
Scarce, 990. 

ii.] Peculiar to, or characteristic of, the Forest. 


CORYLUS AvELLANA,Lin.,Hazel,991. 

Alder, 992. 

BETULA ALBA, Lin., Common Birch, 

POPULUS ALBA, Lin., White Poplar, 

POPULUS TREMULA, Lin., Aspen, 997. 

POPULUS NIGRA, Lin., Black Poplar, 

Osier, 1007. 

SALIX REPENS, Lin., Creeping Wil- 
low, 1017. 

MYRICA GALE, Lin., Bog Myrtle. 
The "Gold Withy" of the Forest, 

Late-flowering Lady's Tresses. Very 
common in the pastures near the Forest, 
and on the turfy spots of the Forest 
lanes on the southern part, 1033. 

flowering Lady's Tresses. Found by 
Bromfield and Mr. Bennett in bogs near 
Lyndhurst toll-gate. Phytologist, vol. iii. 
p. 909 ; iv. p. 754 ; 1034. 

Glen and woods running into the Forest. 
The Rev. P. Somerville also gives Ash- 
ley Common, 1039. 

ORCHIS LATIFOLIA, Lin., Broad-leaved 
Meadow Orchis. Hinchelsea Bog. Mr. 
Wilkinson also gives the neighbourhood 
of Burley, 1052. 

grant-scented Orchis. Very plentiful 
on the south side of the railway, between 
Burley and Batson's Clump, about a 
quarter of a mile above the large " Shade 
pond." To be found also between Bushy 
Bratley and Boldrewood, 1054. 

in most of the open parts of the Forest, 

discovered in the Forest by the Rev. 
W. H. Lucas. (See Phytdogist, Sept., 
1857.) Road from Boldrewood to Lynd- 
hurst j path from Liney Hill Wood to 

Rhinefield ; Oakley Plantation, near 
Boldrewood ; and the neighbourhood of 
the Knyghtwood Oak, where Mr. Rake 
and myself saw it in great abundance, 
July 11, 1862. In all these localities it 
is confined to the light sand, growing 
especially amongst the common brake, 
and seldom, if ever, extends into the 
heather, which grows close round. On 
some specimens which I forwarded, 
Mr. Watson observes, in speaking of the 
distinction between Gladiolus imbri- 
catus and Illyricus : " The New Forest 
plant has the obovate capsules, hardly 
so much keeled, however, as described 
by French botanists, unless the keel 
becomes sharper with advancing age.'* 

Daffodil. South side of the Forest near 
Wootton, 1073. 

Bluebell, 1093. 

Ruscus ACULEATUS, Lin., Butcher's 
Broom. The " Kneeholm " of the 
Forest, 1097. 

Common Frog-bit, 1107. 

ley and Chewton Commons. Pulteney 
gives " Sopley, near the Avon," 1 1 JO. 

Star-headed Water Plantain. " Barton 
Common," the Rev. P. Somerville, 1112. 


croz., Plan tain -leaved Pond-weed. 
Boggy streams, 1 134. 

TYPHA LATIFOLIA, Lin., Reed-mace, 

Reed-mace. Ponds at Wootton, 1148. 

rush Goose-corn, 1163. 

Wood Rush, 1169. 

LUZULA PILOSA, Willd., Broad-leaved 
Hairy Wood Rush, 1 1 70. 

Lancashire Bog Asphodel, 1 1 75. 

Rush. Bogs round Holmsley, 1 1 79. 

296 Flowering Plants of the Neiv Forest District. [APP. 

Beak Rush, 1180. 

Beak Rush. Valley of the Osmanby 
Ford stream, Rev. II. M. Wilkinson, 

stalked Club Rush, 1186. 

stalked Club Rush, 1196. 

Club Rush, 1198. 

Common Cotton Grass, 1200. 

CAREX PULICARIS, Lin., Flea Carex, 

Prickly Carex, 1209. 

CAREX OVALIS, Good., Oval-spiked 
Carex, 1211. 

CAREX REMOTA, Lin., Remote Carex. 
The Forest streams, 1214. 

brown Carex. Boggy places, 1217. 

CAREX ARENARIA, Lin., Sea Carex. 
The south side of the Forest, towards 
the sea. 

CAREX DIVULSA, Good., Grey Carex, 

CAREX VULPINA, Lin., Great Com- 
pound Prickly Carex, 1 222. 

CAREX FLAVA, Lin., Yellow Carex, 

CAREX FULVA, Good., Tawny Carex, 

CAREX PANICEA, Lin., Pink-leaved 
Carex, 1241. 

CAREX SYLVATICA, Huds., Pendulous 
Wood-Carex, 1247. 

pei'us-like Carex, 1249. 

CAREX GLAUCA, Scop., Glaucous 
Heath Carex, 1250. 

CAREX HiRTA,Lin.,HairyCarex,1257. j 

CAREX PALUDOSA, Good., Lesser 
Common Carex, 1260. 

CAREX RIPARIA, Curtis., Great Com- 
mon Carex, 1261. 

Canary Grass, 1269. 

AGROSTIS SETACEA, Curtis., Bristle- 
leaved Bent Grass. Broomy and 
Bratley. "Near Lymington," Turner, 

AGROSTIS CANINA, Lin., Brown Bent 
Grass, 1290. 

Bent Grass, 1291. 

AGROSTIS ALBA, Lin., Marsh Bent 
Grass, 1292. 

Purple-floAvered Small Reed. " Near 
Marchwood," W. A. Bromfield, 1295. 

AIRA C^SPITOSA, Lin., Turfy Hair 
Grass, 1300. 

AIRA FLEXUOSA, Lin., Wavy Hair 
Grass, 1302. 

Grass, 1303. 

AIRA PR^COX, Lin., Early Hair 
Grass, 1304. 

cumbent Heath Grass, 1315. 

MOLINIA C<ERULEA, Moench., Heath 
Purple Melic Grass, 1319. 

Fescue Grass, 1341. 

FESTUCA OVINA, Lin., Sheep's Fescue 
Grass, 1342. 

FESTUCA RDBRA, Lin., Creeping 
Fescue Grass, 1344. 

Mat Grass, 1370. 


Pillwort or Peppergrass. Bogs round 
Holmsley, 1419. 

Naked Horsetail, 1425. 

Proceeding now to the plants of the Valley of the Avon, and the 
cultivated districts round Christchurch, and Lymington, and Beaulieu, 
we shall be able to see those colonists which follow the footsteps of 
man, the pascual flowers of the meadows, and the Flora of the Avon. 

II. 1 Found in the Forest or the Valley of the Avon. 297 

Where not particularly named, the plants are in many cases found also 
distributed in the Forest ; but, being on the whole more characteristic 
of the Valley, are therefore inserted in this list. 

Meadow Rue, 4. 

Pheasant Eye. Mudeford, 9. 

Mouse-tail. Cornfields round Milton, 10. 

Ivy-leaved Crowfoot, 13. 

Pilewort, 1 4. 

Spearwort, 15. 

Spearwort. Used to be very common 
on Ashley Common (now enclosed), 
growing in the pools with Osmunda 
regal is, 16. 

Meadow Crowfoot, 19. 

Crowfoot, 20. 

bous Crowfoot, 21. 

Celery-leaved Crowfoot, 23. 

Small-flowered Crowfoot. " Hedge- 
banks between Bisterne andRingwood," 
Rev. II. M. Wilkinson. Ray and Brom- 
field give Lymington, 24. 

headed Rough Poppy. 40. 

Smooth-headed Poppy, 41. 

PAPAVER RH^AS, Lin., Field Poppy, 

Celandine, 45. 


White-flowered Fumitory, 48. 

ing Fumitory, 50. 

mon Fumitory, 51. 

Wart-Cress. 58. 

THLASPI ARVENSE, Lin., Penny-Cress, 

Shepherd's Purse, 63. 

Peppermint, 69. 

Mustard, 70. 

DRABA VERNA, Lin., Common Whit- 
low Grass, 79. 

Smock, 85. 

Marsh Butter-Cress, 86. 

Thale-Cress, 88. 

Winter Cress, 95. 

Winter or American Cress. " Grows 
on the bridge at Christchurch," Rev. 
H. M. Wilkinson, 97. 

Cress, 98. 

Cress, 99. 


mon Hedge Mustard, 102. 

Garlic, 107. 

flower. Walls of the Priory Church, 
Christchurch, 109. 

Mustard, 116. 

Wild Radish, 123. 

Common Rock Rose, 128. 

VIOLA TRICOLOR, Lin., Heartsease, 136. 

VIOLA HIRTA, Lin., Hairy Violet. 
" Grows at Bisterne," Rev. H. M. Wil- 
kinson. On the specific distinctions 
between this and the next, see what my 
friend the late Mr. Cheshire said in the 


298 Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. [API 

VIOLA ODOR ATA, Lin., Sweet Violet 

thered Pink. Cloister walls, Beaulieu 

Pink. First discovered by T. B 
Rake, Esq., on a bank in a lane near 
the Hucklebrook, Fordingbridge, where 
I saw it, with him, growing, June, 1862. 

mon Soapwort. The Christchurch and 
Ringwood Road, near the latter place ; 
Bashley, 151. 

SILENE INFLATA, Sm., Bladder Catch- 
fly, 152. 

SILENE ANGLICA, Lin., English 
Catch-fly, 155. 

Robin, 162. 

LYCHNIS DIURNA, Sibth., Red Cam- 
pion, 163. 

Campion, 164. 

Cockle, 165. 

bent Pearlwort, 167. 

SAGINA APETALA, Lin., Erect Pearl- 
wort, 169. 

SAGINA NODOSA, Lin., Knotted 
Spurrey, 171. 

Spurrey, 172. 

Thyme-leaved Sandwort, 178. 

tain-leaved Sandwort, 182. 

Chickweed, 185. 

Stitch wort, 186. 

STELLARIA GLAUCA, With., Glaucous 
Stitch wort, 187. 

leaved Stitchwort, 188. 

Stitchwort, 189. 

Chickweed, 191. 

Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed, 

leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed, 193. 

Flax, 202. 

MALVA MOSCHATA, Lin., Musk Mal- 
low. Lanes near the Forest, 204. 

Mallow, 205. 

leafed Dwarf Mallow, 206. 

Stork's-bill, 228. 

flowered Crane's-bill, 234. 

Dove's-foot Crane's-bill, 235. 

leaved Crane's-bill, 236. 

stalked Crane's-bill, 237. 

leaved Common Crane's-bill. In the 
neighbourhood of Fordingbridge, Mr. 
Rake found it growing abundantly, 
June 17, 1862, the only station of 
which I am aware. 

Herb Robert, 239. 

ONONIS ARVENSIS, Lin., Rest Harrow, 


Medick, 260. 

Common Melilot, 264. 

Trefoil, 267, 

" Gravelly pastures at Bisterne." Rev. 
H. M. Wilkinson. 268. 

Clover, 271. 

foot Trefoil, 275. 

Trefoil 281. 

II.] Found in the Forest or the Valley of the Avon. 299 

Yellow Trefoil, 282. 

LOTUS MAJOR, Scop., Large Bird's- 
foot Trefoil, 284. 

Bird's-foot Trefoil, 283. 

Bird's-foot, 291. 

VICIA CRACCA, Lin., Tufted Vetch, 

VICIA SATIVA, Lin., Common Vetch, 

VICIA SEPIUM, Lin., Bush Vetch, 

VICIA HIRSUTA, Koch., Hairy-podded 
Tare, 303. 

podded Tare, 304. 

LATH YR us PRATENSIS, Lin., Meadow 
Vetchling, 308. 

sweet, 317. 

leaved Spiraea. " Grows near Bisterne, 
but perhaps not truly wild," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson, 319. 

GEUM URBAN UM, Lin., Herb Bennet, 

GEUM RIVALE, Lin., Water Avens, 

mon Agrimony, 323. 


weed, 327. 

Cinquefoil. Sandy fields in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Forest, 328. 

Cinquefoil, 331. 

Barren Strawberry, 333. 

leaved Bramble, 340 (36). 

RUBUS CJESIUS, Lin., Dewberry, 340 

ROSA CANINA, Lin., Dog-rose, 351. 

ROSA ARVENSIS, Liri., Trailing Dog- 
rose, 353. 

mon Salad Burnet, 355. 


Piert, 358. 

French Willow-Herb, 367. 

Hairy Willow-Herb, 368. 

Small-flowered Willow-Herb, 369. 

Willow-Herb, 372. 

Square-stalked Willow-Herb (?), 373. 

Lin., Whorl-flowered Water Milfoil, 
" Sopley," Gamier and Poulter, Rev. 
H. M. Wilkinson, 380. 

Spiked Water Milfoil, 381. 

Water Starwort, 383. 

PEPLIS PORTULA, Lin., Water Purs- 
lane, 391. 

BRYONIA DIOICA, Lin., White Briony, 

Blinks, 394. 

rican Salad. First discovered by Mr. 
Hussey near Mudeford (see Phytologist, 
N. S. vol. i. p. 389). I received speci- 
mens from Dr. Stevens gathered at the 
same place, May llth, 1862. 

Knawel, 399. 

RIBES RUBRUM, Lin., Red Currant. 
With the next " at Bisterne, apparently 
wild," Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 404. 

berry, 406. 

SEDUM TELEPHIUM, Lin., Everlasting 
Orpine, 409. 

SEDUM ANGLICUM, Huds., English 
Stonecrop. " Avon Tyrrell," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson, 412. 

SEDUM ACRE, Lin., Biting Stonecrop, 

SEDUM REFLEXUM, Lin., Crooked Yel- 
low Stonecrop. This is only a casual 
escape. And, perhaps, like Sempervivum 
tectorum, ought to be excluded. See 

300 Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. [APP. 

Bromfield in Phytoloyist, vol. iii. pp. 372, 

mon Navelwort. " Road from Redbridge 
into the New Forest," W. Pamplin, 
quoted in Watson's New Botanist's 
Guide ; " Dragon Lane, Bisterne," Rev. 
H. M.Wilkinson, 418. 

Rue-leaved Saxifrage, 430. 

Lin., Opposite-leaved Golden Saxifrage, 

rous Moschatel, 437. 

Hemlock, 446. 

Procumbent Marshwort, 454. 

Least Water Marshwort, 455. 

mon Gout-weed, 457. 

Nut, 461. 

mon Burnet Saxifrage, 462. 

leaved Water-Parsnep, 465. 

Wfiter-Dropwort, 470. 


Parsley Water - Drop wort. Plentiful 
round Milford in 1859. See Brom- 
field in Phytologist, vol. iii. p. 405. 

Hemlock, 473. 

Fine-leaved Water-Dropwort, 474. 

Parsley, 475. 

Angelica, 482. 

Cow Parsnep, 487 

DAUCUS CAROTA, Lin., Common 
Carrot, 489. 

right Hedge Parsley, 493. 

TORILIS INFESTA, Spr., Spreading 
Hedge Parsley, 494. 

TORILIS NODOSA, Gajrtn., Knotted- 
Hedge Parsley, 495. 

SCANDIX PECTEN, Lin., Shepherd's 
Needle, 496. 

mon Beaked Parsley, 497. 

Chervil, 498. 

Hare's Parsley, 500. 

Goose-Grass, 515. 

Marsh Bed-Straw, 516. 

GALIUM SAXATILE, Lin., Mountain 
Bed-Straw. Perhaps this ought rather 
to come under the head of Forest 
Plants, 517. 

GALIUM MOLLUGO, Lin., Great Hedge 
Bed-Straw, 519. 

Grass, 523. 


Woodruff, 527. 

Valerian, 531. 

mon Valerian, 532. 

FEDIA OLITORIA, Vahl., Lamb's 
Lettuce, 534. 

FEDIA DENTATA, Bieb., Oval-fruited 
Corn Salad, 537. 


DIPSACUS PILOSUS, Lin., Shepherd's 
Rod. " Woods near Hale," T. Beaven 
Rake, 540. 

SCABIOSA SUCCISA, Lin., Devil's-bit 
Scabious, 541. 

Scabious, 543. 

dow Goat's Beard, 544. 

Echium-like Ox-tongue. ErTord Mill. 
Peniiington, 546. 

II. 1 Found in the Forest or the Valley of the Avon. 301 

Thrincia, 548. 

Hawkbit, 549. 

tumnal Hawkbit, 550. 

rooted Cat's-ear, 553. 

LACTUCA MURALIS, Less., Wall Let- 
tuce. Beaulieu and Ellingham churches, 

Thistle, 559. 

SONCHUS ASPER, Hoffm., Rough Sow 
Thistle, 560. 

Thistle, 561. 

CREPIS VIRENS, Lin., Smooth Crepis, 


ear Hawkweed, 568. 

row-leaved Hawkweed. " Bisterne," 
Rev. H. M. Wilkinson. 

HlERACIUM BOREALE, Fries., " Bis- 

terne," Rev. H. M. Wilkinson. 

delion, 588. 

wort, 590. 

Chicory, 591. 

ARCTIUM LAPPA, Lin., Burdock, 592. 

CARDUUS NUTANS, Lin., Nodding 
Thistle. Roadsides round the Forest, 

Thistle, 599. 

PALUSTRIS, Lin., Marsh 

ARVENSIS, Lin., Field 
ACAULIS, Lin., Dwarf 

Thistle, 601. 

Thistle, 602. 

Thistle, 606. 

ton Thistle, 608. 

Carline Thistle, 609. 

CENTAUREA NIGRA, Lin., Black Knap- 
weed, 611. 

CENTAUREA CYAN us, Lin., Corn- 
flower, 612. 

Knapweed, 613. 

Bur-marigold, 618. 

Tansy, 622. 

wort, 626. 

right Cudweed, 630. 

Marsh Cudweed, 632. 

weed, 635. 

Coltsfoot, 637. 

ERIGERON ACRIS, Lin., Blue Flea- 
bane. " Near Milton," Rev. P. Somer- 
ville, 639. 

SENECIO VULGARIS, Lin., Groundsel, 


Ragwort. "Bisterne," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson, 648*. 

INULA CONYZA, D. C., Ploughman's 
Spikenard. Sopley," Rev. H. M. Wil- 
kinson, 656. 


Common Fleabane, 658. 

Fleabane. " Marchwood," W. A. Brom- 
field (Phytologist, vol. iii. p. 433); 
"Bisterne," Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 

Daisy, 660. 

Corn Marigold, 661. 

Lin., Great Ox-eye Daisy, 662. 

verfew, 663. 

less Feverfew, 664. 

Wild Chamomile, 665. 

302 Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. [APP. 

Chamomile, 666. 

momile, 668. 

ANTHEMIS COTULA, Lin., Stinking 
Mayweed, 669. 

row, 672. 

CAMPANULA PATULA, Lin., Spreading 
Bell-flower. Avon Tyrrell. 676. 

nus's Looking-glass. " Corn-fields near 
Sandford," Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 

Privet, 714. 

mon Centaury, 724. 

CHLORA PERFOLIATA, Lin., Perfoliate 
Yellow-wort, 725. 

Bindweed, 729. 

Bindweed, 730. 

bane. Roadside bank near Ibbesley, 

Apple. Near Ringwood, on the Christ- 
church road. 

SOLANUM NIGRUM, Lin., Black Night- 
shade, 737. 

Nightshade, 738. 

Moth Mullein, 740. 

Moth Mullein, 743. 

Speedwell, 747. 

Thyme-leaved Speedwell, 750. 

Speedwell, 754. 

lime, 755. 

mon Speedwell, 756. 

mander Speedwell, 758. 

leaved Speedwell, 759. 

bent Speedwell, 760. 

baum's Speedwell. Mr. Rake found it 
in abundance not far from Fording- 
bridge, March, 1862, 762. 

Rattle, 765. 

Meadow Rattle, 767. 

rooted Figwort, 774. 

Figwort, 775. 

Snap-dragon. Milton and Somerford, 

Toad-flax, 781. 

LINARIA ELATINE, Mill., Sharp-point- 
ed Toad-flax, 783. 

LINARIA REPENS, Ait., Creeping 
Toad-flax. " Marchwood," Borrer, 784. 

Toad-flax, 785. 

Broom-rape, 793. 

mon Vervain, 798. 

SALVIA VERBENACA, Lin., Wild Clary. 
Roads near Christchurch ; keep of Christ- 
church Castle ; Beaulieu Churchyard, 

wort, 801. 

MENTHA SATIVA, Lin., Hairy Water 
Mint, 807. 

MENTHA ARVENSIS, Lin., Field Mint, 

Thyme. Fernhill Lane, 812. 

Officinal Calamint. Avon Tyrrel, 

AJUGA REPTANS, Lin., Common 
Bugle, 822. 

BALLOTA NIGRA, Lin., Black Hore- 
hound, 825. 

II.] Found in the Forest or the Valley of the Avon. 


LAMIUM ALBUM, Lin., White Dead 
Nettle, 828. 

bit, 830. 

bit, 831. 

Hemp Nettle, 834. 

Woundwort, 837. 

Woundwort, 838. 

Woundwort, 840. 

Ivy, 841. 

NEPETA CAT ARIA, Lin., Catmint. 
Near Bisterne, 842. 

mon Horehound, 843. 



Common Skull-cap. Chewton Glen, 
Beckton Bunny, 845. 

me-not, 847. 

Marsh Mouse Ear, 849. 

Marsh Ear, 852. 

Mouse Ear, 853. 

Yellow and Blue Mouse Ear, 

Gromwell, 856. 

mon Comfrey, 859. 

Borage, 861. 

LYCOPSIS ARVENSIS, Lin., Ox-tongue, 

Common Hound's-tongue, 866. 

ECHIUM VULGARE, Lin., Viper's Bu- 
gloss, 869. 

PRIMULA VERIS, Lin., Cowslip, 

Loosestrife, 886. 

Moneywort, 888. 

Man's Weather Glass, 890. 

PLANTAGO MAJOR, Lin., Greater 
Plantain, 901. 

PLANTAGO MEDIA, Lin., Hoary Plan- 
tain. "Beaulieu, on the clay," Rev. 
H. M. Wilkinson. 

Grass, 903. 

thorn Plantain, 905. 

Goose-foot, 910. 

Goose-foot, 911. 

Goose-foot, 914. 

Lin., Good King Henry, 917. 

leaved Orache. 922. 

ATRIPLEX PATULA, Lin., Spreading 
Orache, 923. 

phibious Persicaria, 933. 

Pale-flowered Persicaria, 934. 

Spotted Persicaria, 935. 

ing Persicaria, 937. 

mon Knot Grass, 938. 

Black Bindweed. On the difference 
between this and C. dumetorum, see Dr. 
Bromfield in the Phytologist, vol. iii. 
p. 765. 

reat Water Dock. The Avon , 943. 
RUMEX CRISPUS, Lin., Curled Dock, 

eaved Dock, 947. 

reined Dock, 948. 

304 Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. [APP. 

RUMEX coNGLOMERATus,Mur., Sharp- 
leaved Dock, 948*. 

RUMEX ACETOSA, Lin., Common 
Sorrel, 951. 

Sorrel, 952. 

Spurge, 962. 

Spurge. Near the coast, 971. 

Spurge, 972. 

URTICA URENS, Lin., Annual Stinging 
Nettle, 978. 

URTICA DIOICA, Lin., Perrennial 
Stinging Nettle, 979. 

mon Pellitory. Walls of Beaulieu Abbey, 

HUMULUS LUPULUS, Lin., Hop, 983. 

Elm. Rare in the Forest, 985a. 

SALIX CINEREA, Lin., Grey Sallow, 

LISTERA OVATA, Br., Common Tway- 
blade. Meadows round Christchurch, 

Helleborine. Chewton Glen. Rare. 
Mr. Rake, however, has found it 
growing abundantly in the neighbour- 
hood of Fordingbridge, August, 1862, 

ORCHIS MORIO, Lin., Green-winged 
Meadow Orchis, 1045. 

ORCHIS MASCULA, Lin., Early Purple 
Orchis, 1046.. 

Palmate Orchis, 1053. 

Iris, 1067. 

Snowdrop. " Bisterne, apparently wild, 
though it has, doubtless, at some time 
or another, been planted," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson, 1074. 

Garlic, 1083. 

Comm 11 Star of Bethlehem. " Bis- 

teme. Not truly wild," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson, 1090. 

Bryony, 1104. 

Chick weed-like American Weed. R. 
Stevens, Esq., M.D., found this straggler, 
"July 23rd, 1862, at Knapp Mill, in 
a ditch leading out of the Avon," 

Water Plantain, 1109. 

Arrow Head. The Avon, 1113. 

ing Rush. The Avon, 1114. 

Arrow Grass. Banks of the Avon, 


leaved Pond Weed, 1118. 

Pond-weed. 1124. 

Perfoliate Pond Weed, 1125. 

Pond Weed, 1126. 

leaved Pond Weed, 1132. 

Horned Pond Weed, 1 136. 

LEMNA MINOR, Lin., Lesser Duck- 
weed, 1138. 

Duckweed, 1140. 

LEMNA TRISULCA., Lin., Ivy-leaved 
Duckweed. The Avon, 1141. 

ARUM MACULATUM> Lin., Cuckoo- 
pint, 1142. 

branched Bur-reed, 1145. 

Branched Bur-reed. Found it, with Mr. 
Lees, in ponds at Wootton, 1 147. 

mon Rush, 1151. 

JUNCUS EFFUSUS, Lin., Soft Rush, 

JUNCUS GLAUCCS, Sibth., Hard Rush, 

ii.] Found in the Forest or the Valley of the Avon. 305 

flowered jointed Rush, 1156. 

ing-fruited jointed Rush, 1157. 

JUNCUS SUPINUS, Mrench., Whorl- 
headed Rush, 1159. 

fruited Rush, 1160. 

JUNCUS BUFONIUS, Lin., Toad Rush, 

Wood Rush, 1172. 

The Avon, 1184. 

Panicled Carex. '' Chewton Glen," 
Rev. H. M. Wilkinson, 1224. 

CAREX VULGARIS, Fries., Tufted Bog 
Carex, 1228. 

CAREX PALLESCENS, ijin., r aie v,ai\i/< M 

OAKEX PR^ECOX, Jacq., Vernal Carex. 

headed Carex, 1252. 

"Bisterne and Sopley," Rev. H. M. 
Wilkinson ; " Brockenhurst," Phyto- 
logist, vol. iv. p. 754 ; 1262*. 

Sweet-scented Vernal Grass, 1271. 

Timothy Grass, 1273. 

dow Fox -tail Grass. Rare in the 
Forest, 1278. 

Floating Fox-tail Grass, 1279. 

Fox-tail Grass, 1282. 

Reed. 1294. 

ARUNDO EPIGEJOS, Lin., Wood Reed, 

Grass, 1311. 

.vois, Oat-like Grass, 1312. 

HOLCUS LANATUS, Lin., Meadow Soft 
Grass, 1313. 


HOLCUS MOLLIS, Lin., Creeping Soft 
Grass, 1314. 

Whorl Grass, 1320. 

Meadow Grass, 1321. 

Sweet Grass, 1322. 

POA ANNUA, Lin., Annual Meadow 
Grass, 1328. 

POA PRATENSIS, Lin., Smooth-stalked 
Meadow Grass, 1331. 

POA TRIVIALIS, Lin., Roughish Mea- 
dow Grass, 1332. 

BRIZA MEDIA, Lin., Common 
Quaking Grass, 1335. 

BRIZA MINOR, Lin., Small Quaking 
Grass. " Corn-fields round Marchwood, 
perhaps introduced with the grain," 
r A. Bromfield, 1336. 

Dog's Tail Grass, 1337. 

Cock's-foot Grass, 1339. 

Fescue Grass, 1347. 

mon at Bisterae," Rev. H. M. Wilkin- 
son, 1347 b. 

Grass, 1348. 

BROMUS STERILIS, Lin., Barren Brome 
Grass, 1350. 

Rye Brome Grass, 1354. 

BROMUS MOLLIS, Lin., Soft Brome 
Grass, 1356. 

mon at Bisterae," Rev. H. M. Wilkin- 
son, 1356b. 

Slender False Brome Grass, 1357. 

TRITICUM CANINUM, Huds., Fibrous- 
rooted Wheat Grass, 1359. 

TRITICUM REPENS, Lin., Creeping 
Wheat Grass, 1360. 

LOLIUM PERENNE, Lin., Common Rye 
Grass, 1363. 

Barley, 1367 


306 Flowering Plants of the New Forest District. 

ley, 1368. 

Horsetail. 1420. 

Horsetail, 1422. 

Horsetail, 1424. 

The following additions to the list of Forest plants have been kindly 
sent by H. C. Watson, Esq., all noticed by himself in August, 1861, 
within three or four miles of Brockenhurst : 

Yellow Cress, 101. 

Yellow-spurred Violet, 135b. 

Smooth-leaved Willow Herb, 371. 

a description of this plant, see Phyto- 
logist, new series, vol. ii. p. 19.) 373 b. 


Creeping Persicaria. (Bromfield in the 
Flora Vectensis, p. 433, mentions it as 
growing in the Island.) 938. 

CAREX BINERVIS, Sm., Green-ribbed 
Carex, 1239. 

BROMUS ASPER, Lin., Hairy Wood 
Brome Grass, 1349. 

To these also may be added Coronopus didyma, mentioned by 
Bromfield (Phytoloyist, vol. iii. p. 210) as found along the coast, but 
which will, perhaps, be met inland. 

Gladiolus Iliyricui!. 



THE best plan is, perhaps, to arrange the birds in groups, and to give a 
short analysis of each section, so that the reader may be able to see at 
a glance the more characteristic as well as rarer species. We will first 
of all take the Residents. In making out this list I have been prin- 
cipally guided with of course certain exceptions by the rule of 
admitting every bird whose nest has been found upon reliable evidence, 
as we may be sure that for one nest which is discovered a dozen or 
more remain undetected. 

PEREGRINE FALCON. (Falco peregri- 
nus, Gmel.) As this bird breeds so near, 
both in the Isle of Wight and along the 
Dorsetshire coast, it may be considered 
as a resident. From different lists before 
me, ranging over several years, it appears 
to have been shot and trapped in the 
Forest at all seasons. 

MERLIN. (Falco eesalon, Gmel.) See 
Chapter XXII., pp. 266, 267. 

KESTREL. {Falco tinnunculus, Lin.) 

SPARROW HAWK. (Fako nisus, Lin.) 
More abundant than even the kestrel, 
especially in the southern part of the 

COMMON BUZZARD. (Falco buteo, Lin.) 
Breeds in nearly all the old woods, but 
is becoming scarce. See Chapter XXII., 
p. 265. 

MARSH HARRIER. (Circus cerugino- 
sus, Lin.) Rare. 

HEN HARRIER. (Circus q/aneus,Lin.) 
See Chapter XXII., p. 268. This bird 
has become much more numerous of 
late. No less than six or seven pairs 
were, I am sorry to say, trapped last year. 

R R 

LONG -EARED OWL. (Strix otus, 
Lin.) Not unfrequent. I have found it 
nesting round Mark Ash and Boldre- 
wood. Mr. Rake tells me that Amber- 
wood is also a favourite breeding station. 

BARN OWL. (Strix Jlammea, Lin.) 
Not so common as might be expected. 

TAWNY OWL. (Strix aluco, Lin.) 
The most common of the three. Very 
often this bird may be seen during the 
day in the Forest mobbed by thrushes 
and blackbirds, and taking refuge in 
some of the large ivy-bushes. 

MISSEL THRUSH. ( Turdus viscivorus, 
Lin.) Known throughout the Forest 
as the " Bull thrush." 

SONG THRUSH. (Turdus musicus, 


BLACKBIRD. ( Turdus merula, Lin.) 
ROBIN REDBREAST. (Sylvia rubecula, 

STONECHAT. (Sylvia rubicula, Lath.) 
Mr. Rake tells me that it breeds rather 
plentifully round Ogdens and Frogham, 
about two miles from Fordingbridge. I 
have also had the eggs brought me from 
<> 307 

BOB List of the Birds of the New Forest District. j>r>t> 

vincialis, Ks. and Bl.) Is sometimes 
very common in the Forest, and is 
generally to be seen in company with 
the whinchat. In some years, as in 1861, 
it is scarce. I have its nest, with two 
eggs, in my collection, taken by Mr. 
Farren,on Lyndhurst Heath, April 29th, 
1862 ; but it is always difficult to find, 
as the bird frequents, in the breeding 
season, the thickest part of the high 


cristatus, Koch.) Not uncommon. 
Known throughout the Forest as " The 
thumb bird." 

GREAT TITMOUSE. (Parusmajor, Lin.) 

BLUE TITMOUSE. (Parus cceruleus, 

COLE TITMOUSE. (Parus ater, Lin.) 
Far more common than the next. 

MARSH TITMOUSE. (Parus palustris, 

caudatus, Lin.) Known throughout 
the Forest as the "Long-tailed caffin," 
or "cavin." 

PIED WAGTAIL. (Motacilla Yarrellii, 
Gould.) Partially migratory. 

GREY WAGTAIL. (Motacilla boarula, 
Lin.) After some hesitation, I have 
decided to put this bird among the resi- 
dents. Yarrell (vol. i., 434) mentions it 
breeding near Fordingbridge, close to 
the upper boundary of the Forest. 

MEADOW PIPIT. (Anthus pratensis, 
Bechst.) The "Butty lark," that is, 
companion bird, of the New Forest ; so 
called because it is often seen pursuing 
the cuckoo, which the peasant takes 
to be a sign of attachment instead of 

ROCK PIPIT. (Anthus obscurus, Keys 
and Bl.) Inhabits the muddy shores of 
the south-eastern district. 

SKY LARK. (Alauda arvensis, Lin.) 

WOOD LARK. (Alauda arborea, Lin.) 
Mr. Rake found its nest on Goreley race- 
course, near Fordingbridge, on the 2nd 
of April, 1861, with three eggs. 

COMMON BUNTING. (Emberiza milia- 
ria, Lin.) 

schoeniclus, Lin.) 

YELLOW HAMMER. (Emberiza citri- 
nella, Lin.) 

GIRL BUNTING. (Emberiza cirlus, 
Lin.) I have had its eggs brought to 
me from the neighbourhood of Wootton ; 
and Mr. Farren found a nest with three 
eggs in 1861, close to the village of 

CHAFFINCH. (Fringilla ccelebs, Lin.) 
The " Chink " of the New Forest. 

HOUSE SPARROW. (Fringilla domes- 
tic a, Lin.) 

GREENFINCH. (Fringilla chloris, Lin.) 
HAWFINCH. (Frinyilla coccothraustes, 
Lin.) A few pair now and then certainly 
remain in the Forest to breed, though 
I have never been fortunate enough to 
obtain their eggs. Great quantities 
were killed at Burley in the spring ot 

GOLDFINCH. (Fringilla carduelisj^in.} 
BULLFINCH. (Loxia pyrrhula, Lin.) 
Always to be seen very busy in Novem- 
ber amongst the young buds just formed, 
in the cottage gardens near the Forest.) 
STARLING. (Sturnus vulgaris, Lin.) 
RAVEN. (Corvus corax, Lin.) Be- 
coming very scarce. See Chapter 
XXII., pp. 269, 270. 

CROW. (Corvus corone, Lin.) 
ROOK. (Corvus frugilegus, Lin.) 
JACKDAW. (Corvus monedula, Lin.) 
JAY. (Corvus glandanus, Lin.) 
dis, Lin.) " The yaffingale " and 
" woodnacker " of the Forest. 

jor, Lin.) Both this and the next are 
known throughout the Forest as the 
" wood-pie." 

(Picus minor, Lin.) 

CREEPER. (Certhiafamiliaris, Lin.) 
Builds in the holes of the old ash and 
thorn trees. See, however, Chapter 
XXII., p. 271. 


The Residents. 


( Troglodytes Europcem, 


NUTHATCH. (Sitta Europaa, Lin.) 
KINGFISHER. (Alcedo ispida, Lin.) 
Not very common, yet it may now and 
then be seen at Darrat's stream, near 
Lyndhurst, the brook in the Queen's 
Bower Wood, and the Osmanby Ford 
river, near Wootton. 

RINGDOVE. ( Columbapalumbus, Lin.) 
STOCKDOVE. (Columba anas, Lin.) 
Numerous, building in the holes of the 
old beech-trees. 

PHEASANT. (Phasianus Colchicus, 

BLACK GROUSE. (Tetrao tetrix, Lin.) 
Feeds on the young shoots of heather 
and larch, seeds of grass, blackberries 
and acorns, and I have seen it repeatedly 
perching in the hawthorns for the sake 
of the berries. The " heath poult " of the 

PARTRIDGE. (Perdix cinerea, Lath.) 

LAPWING. ( FaneZ/wscmtotas, Meyer.) 

HERON. (Ardea cinerea, Lath.) See 

Chapter XXII., pp. 273, 274. I have 

known a pair lay, in one instance, at 

Boldrewood, as late as June 23rd. 

COMMON KEDSHANK. ( Totanus calid- 
ris, Lin.) This bird is certainly a resi- 
dent throughout the year. I have 
repeatedly put it up during the autumn 
in some of the swamps near Stoney 
Cross, more especially in the evening, 
when it will hover round and round, 
just keeping overhead, not unlike a 
pewit. Several nests are yearly taken. 
Last year Mr. Farren found one near 
Burley, April 4th, with a single egg, 
and another, May 3rd, containing four, 
at Bishopsditch. 

WOODCOCK. (Scolopax rusticola, 
Lin.) Breeds in great numbers in some 

COMMON SNIPE. (Scolopax galli- 
nago, Lin.) The greatest numbers 
occur in December, though many re- 
main to breed not only in the "bottoms" 
of the Forest, but the meadows of the 
Avon. Mr. Rake informs me that a 

Sabine's snipe (Scolopax Sabini, 
Vigors), which is now generally re- 
garded as only a melanism of this 
species, was shot at Picket Post, Jan., 
1859. Another was shot not far from 
the borders of the Forest, at Heron 
Court, 1836. 

WATER RAIL. (Rallus aquations, 
Lin.) Most common in the winter. 
Some few, however, breed in the valley of 
the Osmanby Ford stream, where I have 
seen a pair or two in the summer time. 
COOT. (Fulica atra, Lin.) A 
straggler generally every year remains 
to breed on the Avon. 

MUTE SWAN. (Cygnus olor, Boie.) 
Large numbers belonging to Lord Nor- 
man ton's swannery may be always seen 
on the Avon, near Fordingbridge and 

WILD DUCK. (Anas boschas, Lin.) 
Breeds, like the teal, in most of the 
bottoms throughout the Forest, as also 
in the Avon. The fowlers round Ex- 
bury say that the wigeon, too, stays to 
nest ; but I do not know of any au- 
thenticated case. Mr. Rake has ob- 
served the tufted duck as late in the 
year as May. 

TEAL. (Anas crecca, Lin.) 
LITTLE GREBE. (Podiceps minor, 
Lath.) Known in the Forest as the 
di-dapper. A few breed in the Boldre 
Water, and, perhaps, even in the Osman- 
by Ford stream. Mr. Rake tells me 
that it breeds plentifully in the Avon, 
between Fordingbridge and Downton. 

GUILLEMOT. (Uria troile, Lath.) 
Locally known as the " spratter." 
RAZORBILL. (Alca torda, Lin.) 
CORMORANT. ( Carbo cormoranus, 
Meyer.) Locally known as the "Isle 
of Wight parson." 

SHAG. (Carbo cristatus, Tern.) 

HERRING GULL. (Larus argentatus, 

Briin.) It is to be seen at all seasons 

with the four birds above mentioned, 

Breeding like them in the Freshwater 

lifts of the Isle of Wight. The shag 

and the cormorant were the commonest 


List of the Birds of the New Forest District. [APP. 

birds along the south-east coast of the ; excellent account of the birds of the 

Forest in Gilpin's time (vol. II. pp. 172, 
302, third edition), but are now be- 
coming rare ; and Mr. More, in his 

Isle of Wight, doubts whether more 
than one or two pairs now annually 
breed in the Island. 

Thus the Forest possesses in all seventy- two residents. The common 
buzzard, the merlin, the henharrier, the three owls, and as many wood- 
peckers, with the nuthatch and the stockdove, well indicate its woody 
and heathy character. Upon comparing this with Mr. More's list of 
the residents of the Isle of Wight, we find that the Forest possesses 
fourteen more than that Island. The principal additions consist, as 
might be expected, of the common buzzard, black-grouse, green and 
great and lesser spotted woodpeckers, common snipe, and woodcock, 
although by the way the last, to my knowledge, breeds in the Island, 
as also probably the little grebe. 

The summer visitors are arranged by the date of the arrival of the 
main body, drawn partly from Mr. Eake's and my own observations. In 
a few cases, as a further criterion, I have given the dates of their 
nesting spread over the last four years. 

CHIFFCHAFF. (Sylvia rufa, Lath.) j 
Arrives about the middle and end of 

March. Common. 

WHEATEAR. (Sylvia cenanthe, Lath.) 
Follows very close after the chiffchaff ; 
but the bird is scarce. 

SANDMARTIN. (Hirwido ripana, 
Lath.) In 1862, Mr. Rake saw some 
specimens near Fordingbridge on 
March 15th, about a week earlier than 

MARTIN. (Hirundo urbica, Lin.) 
Arrives with the sandmartin about the 
end of March, though sometimes both 
are seen a little earlier. 

SWALLOW. (Hirundo rustica, Lin.) 

WRYNECK. (Yunx torquilla, Lin.) 
Generally to be heard about the end 
of March and beginning of April. 
Known in the Forest as the "Little 
Eten bird ; " and from its cry the <* Weet 
bird." Mr. Rake both heard and saw 
one as late as Dec. 5, 1861. 

REDSTART. (Sylvia phcenicunts, 
Lath.) Beginning of April. 

THICKNEE. ((Edicncemus crepitans, 
Tern.) It is possible that some may 
remain to breed. 

NIGHTINGALE. (Sylvia luscinia, 
Lath.) About the middle of May their 
nests are mostly found in the Forest. 

CUCKOO. (Cuculus canorus, Lin.) 
May 26 and June 1 are the dates when 
I have found its eggs placed, in one 
case, at Baishley, in a hedge sparrow's, 
and. in the other, on Beaulieu Common, 
in a titlark's nest. 

BLACKCAP. (Sylvia atricapilla, 
Lath.) Arrives about the beginning 
and middle of April. 

RAY'S WAGTAIL. (Motacilla cam- 
pestns, Pall.) Known in the New 
Forest as the " Barley bird," as it ap- 
pears about the time barley is sown. 
Probably does not breed. 

locustella, Lath.) Breeds in the young 
plantations, but is by no means common. 

SEDGE WARBLER. (Sylvia Phrag- 
mitis, Bechst.) Very scarce. 


The Summer Visitors. 


WILLOW WREN. (Sylvia trochilus, 
Lath.) Many are to be seen about the 
middle and end of April in the young 
enclosures, where I have frequently 
caught the bird on its nest. 

WOOD WREN. (Sylvia sibilatrix, 
Bechst.) Its nests and eggs are gene- 
rally found about the same time as the 
willow wren's. 

WHITETHROAT. (Sylvia cinerea, 
Lath.) Common. 

curruca, Lath.) Not abundant. 

WHINCHAT. (Sylvia rubetra, Lath.) 
Known throughout the Forest as the 
" Furze Hacker." 

TREE PIPIT. (Anihus arboreus, 
Bechst.) Common. 

REED WREN. (Sylvia arundinacea, 
Lath.) The five foregoing species come 
much about the same time, namely, the 
end of April, but the reed wren is ex- 
cessively scarce in the Forest, and I 
have only once or twice heard its note 
in the Beaulieu river. Mr. Hart assures 
me that it builds on the banks of the 
Avon, but its nest has yet to be found. 

LANDRAIL. (Gallinula crex, Lath.) 
About the end of April or beginning of 
May. A good many yearly build round 
Milton, and the south parts of the 
Forest, and even in the interior, as at 
Fritham and Alum Green. 

COMMON SANDPIPER. ( Totanus hy- 
poleucos, Tern.) A pair now and then 

remain to breed at Whitten pond, near 
Burley, and also at Ocknell. 

TURTLE DOVE. (Columba turtur, 
Lin.) Not uncommon. Makes a slight 
framework of heather for a nest, which 
it places in a furze bush or low holly. 
Is extremely shy, and easily forsakes 
its eggs. 

SWIFT. (Cypselus apus, Illig.) 

NIGHTJAR. (Caprimulgus Europeans, 
Lin.) Known throughout the Forest 
as the "Night Hawk," "Night Crow," 
"Ground Hawk," from its habits, and 
manner of flying. I have received its 
eggs at all dates, from the middle of 
May to the end of July. 

grisola, Lin.) Arrives about the same 
time as the three preceding, namely, 
the beginning of May. 

REDBACKED SHRIKE. (Laniuscollurio, 

HOBBY. (Falco subbuteo, Lath.) 
Generally breeds from the beginning to 
the end of June. Mr. Farren, how- 
ever, in 1861, found a nest containing 
three eggs so early as May 28th. See 
Chapter XXII. p. 261. 

HONEY BUZZARD. (Falco apivorus, 
Lin.) Never arrives before the end of 
May. See Chapter xxii. pp. 262-265. 

PUFFIN. (Mormon fratercula, Tern.) 
Comes to the Barton cliffs from the Isle 
of Wight, where it breeds. 

Here, as before, the list clearly indicates the nature of the country. 
The wheatear proclaims the down-like spaces on the tops of the hills, 
whilst the hobby and the honey-buzzard tell of the vast extent of woods. 
In the following division the winter birds speak, instead, of the morasses 
and bogs, and the river estuaries and mudbanks, which surround the 
Forest district. 

SHORTEAREDOWL. (Strix brachyotus, 
Gmel.) Not uncommon. Mr. Cooper, 
the Forest Keeper to whom I have before 
referred, tells me that in winter and late 
in the autumn for twenty years past he has 

invariably met specimens in heathy and 
marshy spots at Harvestslade between 
Burley and Boldrewood. A specimen 
was killed in November, 1860, in Dibden 
Bottom, by L. H. Cumberbatch, Esq. 

312- List of the Birds of the New Forest District. , [APP. 

FIELDFARE. (Turdus pilaris, Lin.) 
Large numbers frequent the Forest, 
where it is known as the "blacktail.'' 
It especially frequents the hawthorn, 
and seldom approaches the hollies till 
the berries of the former are all eaten. 

SISKIN. (Fingilla spinus, Lin.) Now 
and then taken by the birdcatchers. 

LESSER REDPOLE. (Fingilla linaria, 
Lin.) I should not be surprised if this 
was discovered to breed in the Forest, 
as so many pair are seen late in the 

CROSSBILL. (Loria curvirostra, Lin.) 
Not uncommon. In Dec., 1861, a large 
flock frequented the plantations round 
Burley. A few pair are sometimes to 
be seen in the summer, and Mr. Farren 
mentions a nest built in a fii'-tree in a 
garden near Lyndhurst, June, 1858, 
off' which the birds were shot, but un- 
fortunately not preserved, though their 
identity is beyond dispute. 

HOODED CROW. (Corvus comix, 
Lin.) Not unfrequent. 

GOLDEN PLOVER. ( Charadnus 
phi vial is, Lin.) 

RINGED PLOVER. (Charadrius hiati- 
cula, Lin.) Known, with the dunlin, 
in the neighbourhood of Christchurch 
and Lymington, as the " oxbird." 

SANDERLING. (Calidrif; arenaria, 
Leach.) Not uncommon on the coast, 
especially in Christchurch harbour. 

BITTERN. (Ardea stellaris, Lin.) 
Not a year passes without several speci- 
mens being brought to the bird stuffers. 
Mr. Rake tells me that five were killed 
close to Fordingbridge in the winter of 

CURLEW. (Numenius arquata, Lin.) 

GREEN SANDPIPER. (Totanus ochro- 
pus, Tern.) Rather common between 
Lymington and Calshot Castle. Mr. 
Rake informs me that a pair were shot 
at Hale, on the borders of the New 
Forest, April, 1858; and Mr. Hart 
tells me that he has shot several in 
the summer in Stanpit Marsh. In 
June, 1802, I saw several pair near 

Leap, so that it probably breeds on the 

JACK SNIPE. (Scolopax gallinula, 
Lin.) Mr. Cooper tells me that he has 
known this bird lie so close that he has 
walked up to it and caught it with his 

KNOT. (Tringa Canutus,Lm.') Not 
uncommon during the spring at Christ- 
church Harbour. Mr. Tanner has a 
specimen in his collection, knocked 
down with a stick by a boy. 

DUNLIN. (Tringa vanabilis, Meyer.) 
By no means uncommon. See Ringed 

GREY-LAG GOOSE. (Anser ferns, 

BEAN GOOSE. (Anser segetum, 
Gmel.) A stray bird from the Solent 
sometimes finds its way to Whitten and 
Ocknell ponds. 

BRENT GOOSE. (Anser bermcla, 
Illig.) Locally known as the "Bran- 

HOOPER. (Cyynus musicus. Tern.) 
PINTAIL DUCK. (Anas acuta, Lin.) 
WIGEON. (Anas Penelope, Lin.) 
COMMON SCOTER. (Anas mgra, Lin.) 
POCHARD. (Anas ferina, Lin.) 
Known along the coast as the " red- 
head " and " ker." 

SCAUP DUCK. (Anas marila, Lin.) 
TUFTED DUCK. (Anasfuliguta, Lin.) 
serrator, Lin.) Known to the fishermen 
at Christchurch as the " razorbill." 

cristatus. Lath.) Appears every winter 
in Christchurch harbour, and may be 
seen just cresting the waves, as they 
break under the Barton Cliffs. Mr. Rake 
informs me that specimens were killed 
at Breamore, November, 1855, and 
again, Jan., 1856. 

bus glacialis, Lin.) 

septentnonalis, Lin.) Not so common as 
the last. 

GANNET. (Su!a Bassana, Boie.) 


The Birds of Double Passage. 


bundus, Lin.) 

KITTIWAKE. (Larus tridactylus, 

COMMON GULL. (Larus canus, 

rus fuscus, Lin.) Used formerly to 
breed in the Freshwater Cliffs 'of the 
Isle of Wight. 

marinus, Lin.) 

The difficulty in the foregoing list has been to decide which species 
to insert or omit. Many which I have left out, others, perhaps, 
would have given, will be found placed amongst my last catalogue of 
stragglers. But before we take these, let me mention two birds of 
double passage which visit the Forest. 

RING-OUSEL. ( Turdus torquatus, 
Lin.) A few appear in the spring, but 
the greater body in the autumn, when 
they frequent the yews and mountain 
ashes, being especially fond of the sweet 
berries of the former. They will hide 
and skulk, much as a blackbird does, in 
the furze and brambles, and old thick 
hedges on the borders of the Forest. 
Mr. Rake sends me the following, inter- 
esting note: " An intelligent working 

man, somewhat, too, of an ornithologist, 
told me that a few years since he took 
its nest with four or five eggs, near 
Ringwood, having a distinct view of the 
bird as she left the nest." 

THE DOTTEREL. ( Charadrius mor- 
inellus, Lin.) Little flocks of them 
may be seen in the Forest in April, and 
again in the autumn ; but they stay only 
for a few days. 

These are the only two birds which I can satisfactorily class as 
being truly of double passage. The common sandpiper remains to breed, 
whilst the grey plover and the whimbrel are killed in the depth of 
winter. The common redshank, which is generally placed in this 
division, remains all the year, and the greenshank is seen in the 
summer, whilst the bar-tailed godwit appears too seldom to admit of 
being classified in this section. We will therefore go on to the next 
list, which includes all those birds that cannot be arranged in the fore- 
going divisions, with the rare stragglers which are driven here by 
accident, or only appear at uncertain intervals. 

GOLDEN EAGLE. (Falco chrysaetos, 
Lin.) The last seen was killed, accord- 
ing to Mr. Hart, about twenty years ago, 
at the mouth of Christchurch harbour. 

SPOTTED EAGLE. (Falco navius, 
Gmel.) A fine male specimen was shot, 
Dec. 28th, 1861, by a keeper of Lord 
Normanton's, in the plantations near 
Somerley. The bird had been noticed 
for some days previously hovering over 
the Forest. Mr. Rake, who saw it in 


the flesh, tells me that the wings 
measured six feet from tip to tip, and 
its weight was exactly eight pounds. 

cilla, Gmel.) See Chapter XXII., 
p. 260. 

OSPREY. (Falco haliceetus, Lin.) 
Might almost be classed as a icgular 
visitor in the autumn along the coast. 

GOSHAWK. (Falco palumbarius, Lin.) 
Sometimes a stray bird is killed. 

314 List of the Birds of the New Forest District. [APP. 

KITE. (Falco milvus, Lin.) Very 
scarce. Mr. Farren, however, in April, 
1861, was lucky enough to see a solitary 
bird ; and another, as L. H. Cumber- 
batch, Esq., informs me, was trapped at 
New Park, about six years ago, in the 

lagopus, Briin.) Mr. Rake informs me 
that a specimen was trapped near Ford- 
ingbridge, in the summer of 1857. It 
is, however, more generally noticed later 
in the year. 

LITTLE OWL (Strix passerina, Lath.) 
When Mr. Farren first mentioned this 
bird as breeding in the Forest, I was 
somewhat incredulous. Subsequent in- 
quiries, however, have left no doubt on 
my mind that the bird is sometimes 
seen, though mistaken for a hawk. Mr. 
Farren, as far back as 1859, found two 
eggs in a hole of an oak, which seem to 
have been those of this bird ; and in 
1862 I received information of a hawk 
laying white eggs in a hollow tree, but 
which were unfortunately broken. I 
hope, however, some day to be able to 
give more satisfactory information on 
the subject. 

cineraceus, Mont.) Mr. Hart has, during 
the last twenty years, received three or 
four specimens to stuff one in the 
winter of 1861. Mr. Farren saw a male 
bird, April, 1861. 

GREAT GREY SHRIKE. (Lanius excu- 
bitor, Lin.) A straggler is now and 
then killed by the Forest keepers. 

WOODCHAT SHRIKE. (Lanius rufus, 
Briss.) As some pairs are sometimes 
to be seen in the summer, I should 
not be surprised to hear of its 
breeding, more especially as Mr. Bond 
has obtained its eggs in the Isle of 

PIED FLYCATCHER. (Muscicapa atri- 
capilla, Lin.) A specimen was shot by 
the late Mr. Toomer, Forest keeper, 
June, 1857 ; but I cannot learn whether 
male or female. 

WHITE'S THRUSH. ( Turdus Whitei, 
Eyton.) Two specimens have been ob- 
tained ; one in the actual Forest shot by 
a Forest keeper, and which passed into 
Mr. Bigge's collection ; and the other, 
not far from its borders at Heron Court, 
by Lord Malmesbury, and which is 
figured in Yarrell, vol. i., p. 202. For 
the best account of this bird see Mr. 
Tomes' description in the Ibis, vol. i., 
number iv., p. 379, of a specimen killed 
in Warwickshire. 

GOLDEN ORIOLE. (Oriolus galbula, 
Lin.) A specimen was killed in the 
Forest by one of the keepers, some fifteen 
years ago. 

BLACK REDSTART. (Sylvia tithys, 
Scop.) I am almost inclined to put 
this, as Mr. Knox has done in his ex- 
cellent Ornithological Rambles (page 
193), and Mr. More in his list of the 
birds of the Isle of Wight, among the 
winter visitors, so many examples having 

turdoides, Meyer.) Mr. Fan-en, in June, 
1858, found between Brockenhurst and 
Lyndhurst, a nest, containing five eggs, 
which were supposed to be those of 
this bird, and were exhibited at a 
meeting of the Linnaean Society. They 
are now, I believe, in the collection of 
Mr. Seeley. 

ignicapillus, Nawm.) Sometimes seen 
in the winter, but rare. 

tatus, Lin.) Mr. Hart has once only 
received a specimen, killed in Stanpit 
Marsh, near Christchurch. The bird 
has also been killed in the Isle of 

micus, Lin.) I once received the eggs 
of this bird, taken amongst the reeds of 
the Boldre stream, the only instance, I 
believe, of its breeding so far south. 
The bird has also been seen near Christ- 
church, among the rushes close to the 
mouth of the harbour. 


The Rarer Visitors and Stragglers. 


garrula, Flem.) Mr. Hart tells me that 
a specimen was shot about twelve years 
ago at Milton, on the south border of 
the Forest. 

neglecta, Gould J Very rare ; but has, 
on Mr. Hart's authority, been killed. 

SHORT-TOED LARK. (Alauda brachy- 
dactyla, Leisl.) A specimen, caught 
not far from the Forest boundary, is 
now in the Rev. J. Pemberton Bartlett's 
aviary. See The Zoologist, March, 
1862, p. 7930. 

SNOW BUNTING. (Emberiza nivalis, 
Lin.) A few are occasionally seen 
during hard winters. 

BRAMBLING . (Fringilla montifringilla, 
Lin.) Occurs like the former bird only 
during severe frosts. Mr. Rake informs 
me that a pair were killed near Fording- 
bridge, in February, 1853. 

TREE SPARROW. (Fringilla montana, 
Lin.) Rare. 

MEALY REDPOLE. (Fringilla borealis, 
Tem.j Sometimes caught by the bird- 

PARROT CROSSBILL. (Loxia pityop- 
sittacus, Bechst.) Mr. Rake informs me 
that one was killed at Breamore, Nov. 
28th, 1855, out of a flock of a dozen, 
and that a few days afterwards several 
more were killed. 

rose MS, Tem.J A fine male was shot 
some twenty years ago, by Mr. Hart's 
brother, at Purewell. 

CHOUGH. (Pynhocorax graculus, 
Tern.) Becoming every year more 
scarce. See Chapter XXII., pp. 274, 

martius, Lin.) On its breeding habits 
in Sweden, see Mr. Simpson's account 
in the Ibis, vol. i., p. 264, which agrees 
about the bird not making a fresh hole, 
as described at pp. 272, 273. 

HOOPOE. ( Upupa epops, Lin.^) See 
Chapter XXII., p. 274. 


alpinus, Tern.) Mr. Hart informs me 
that a specimen was killed about ten 
years ago over Christchurch harbour. 

ROCK DOVE. (Columba livia, BrissJ 

rubra, Briss) Introduced many years 
ago by the late Mr. Baring, of Somerley; 
but very few, if any, arc left. 

QUAIL. (Perdix coturnix, Lath.) 
Sometimes to be seen amongst the 
covies of partridges in the fields adjoin- 
ing the Forest. 

GREAT BUSTARD. (Otis tarda, 
Lin.J The last bustard, as mentioned 
in Chapter II., p. 14, footnote, was seen 
about twenty- five years ago by one of 
the Forest keepers, near Eye worth Wood ; 
but though on horseback, he could not 
overtake the bird, which ran across 
Butt's Plain, aiding itself by flapping its 

LITTLE BUSTARD. (Otis tetrax 
Lin.) A female was shot some years 
ago near Heron Court ; and is in Lord 
Malmesbury's collection. See Ey ton's 
Rarer British Birds, p. 99. 

KILDEER PLOVER. (Charadrius 
vociferus, Lin.) This rare straggler, 
the only one ever known to have been seen 
in England, was shot, April, 1859, in a 
potato field close to Knapp Mill, near 
Christchurch, by a man of the name of 
Dowding, who was attracted to it by its 
peculiar flight, such as is described by 
Audubon, as also by its monotonous 
cry, from which its name is taken. The 
bird was brought in the flesh to Mr. 
Hart, and is now in the collection of 
J. Tanner, Esq. The vignette at p. 318 
well shows its difference from the com- 
mon ring dotterel. 

drius minor, Meyer.) Very rare. Mr. 
Hart has only had one specimen, brought 
to him many years ago. 

GREY PLOVER. ( Vanellus melano' 
gaster, Bechst.) Not uncommon during 
severe winters in the harbours along the 

TURNSTONE. (Strepsilas interpres. 

S S 2 

816 List of the Birds of the New Forest District. [APP. 

111.) Not uncommon. My friend, Mr. 
Tanner, has killed both male and female 
in summer plumage. 

OYSTER-CATCHER. (Hcpmatopus ostra- 
legus, Lin.) By no means uncommon. 

PURPLE HERON. (Ardea purpurea, 
Lin.) One or two specimens have 
occasionally been shot. 

LITTLE EGRET. (Ardea garzetta, 
Lin.) Mr. Rake informs me that one 
was said to have been shot some years 
ago at Hale, on the borders of the 
Forest. Yarrell mentions another (vol. ii., 
p. 554) killed, in 1822, on the Stour near 
Chris tchurch. 

SQUACCO HERON. {Ardea ralloides, 
Scop.) A solitary specimen, shot a few 
years ago at Christchurch Harbour, is 
now in Lord Malmesbury's collection. 
See Eyton's Rarer British Birds, p. 100, 
where Dewhurst must probably be a 
misprint for Christchurch. 

LITTLE BITTERN. {Ardea minuta, 
Lin.) Mr. Hart, to whom I am under 
so many obligations for notices of our 
stragglers, informs me that a fine male 
bird was shot, April, 26, 1862, on the 
borders of the Forest, at Heron Court, 
by one of Lord Malmesbury's keepers. 

NIGHT HERON. (Nycticorax ardeola, 
Tern.) Mr. Hart has occasionally re- 
ceived a specimen. 

GLOSSY IBIS. (Ibis falcinellus, Tern.) 
Mr. Hart killed a young pair in a mea- 
dow near Christchurch Harbour in Sep- 
tember, 1859. 

WHIMBREL. (Numenius phceopus, 
Lath.) Not so very uncommon during 
the late autumn and winter months along 
the harbours of the coast. 

fuscus, Leisl.) On the authority of Mr. 
Hart, who has killed it in Christchurch 

AVOCET. (Recurvirostra avocetta, 
Lin.) Mr. Rake informs me of a speci- 
men shot at Exbury, Dec. 1858. 

melanura, Leisl.) Mr. Hart received 
one in the spring of 1860, and a fine 

specimen was killed by one of the Forest 
keepers, some twenty years ago, on 
Ocknell pond. Hawker, who well knew 
the sea-coast of the New Forest, men- 
tions large flocks of " grey godwits " off 
Keyhaven, May, 1842, but he does not 
distinguish between this and the next 

BARTAILED GODWIT. (Limosa rufa, 
Briss.) Mr. Hart had two pair brought 
to him from the Mudeford Marsh, in the 
summer of 1861. 

RUFF. (Machetes pugnax, Cuv.) A 
specimen is now and then killed. 

GREAT SNIPE. (Scolopax major, 
Gmel.) Generally one or two may be 
seen in the Forest every winter. Mr. 
Cooper, the Forest keeper, to whom I 
have previously referred, tells me that 
during the last twenty years he has shot 
some six or seven specimens, and has 
seen as many more killed. 

SABINE'S SNIPE. (Scolopax Sabini, 
Vigors.) See Common Snipe (Scolopax 
gallinago), in the list of residents, 
p. 309. 

arquata. Tern.) 

LITTLE STINT. (Tringa minuta, 
Leisl.) Like the preceding, not so very 
unfrequent along the coast. 

PURPLE SANDPIPER. ( Tringa mari- 
tima, Briin.) Occasionally seen in 
Christchurch Harbour. 

SPOTTED CRAKE. (Gallinula por- 
zana, Lath.) Has been seen both in 
winter and summer ; and I should 
not be surprised to hear of its breed- 

BAILLON'S CRAKE. (Gallinula Bail- 
lonii, Tern.) A female was shot near 
Linwood, in the Forest, Nov., 1860. 

GREY PHALAROPE. (Phalaropus 
platyrhyncus, Tern.) Mr. Rake in- 
forms me that several specimens were 
killed on the Avon in the severe winter 
of 1855-6, and again in 1860-1. Mr. 
Tanner has a pair in his collection, 
shot in the mouth of Christchurch 
Harbour in summer plumage. 


The Rarer Visitors and Stragglers. 


albifrons, Bechst.) 

BERNACLE GOOSE. {Anser leucopsis, 
Bechst.) From Mr. Hart I learn that a 
pair were killed some years ago between 
Christchurch and Barton. 

tiacus, Jenyns.) From Mr. Rake I 
learn that a specimen was killed on 
the Avon, near Bicton Mill, February, 

BEWICK'S SWAN. (Cygnus minor, 
Keys and Bl.) 

SHOVELLER. (Anas clypeata, Lin.) 
Mr. Rake, in his manuscript notes, 
which he so kindly put in my hands, 
mentions that this and the gadwall and 
Bewick's swan, were killed on the Avon 
during the hard winter of 1855. 

GADWALL. (Anas strepera, Lin.) 

GARGANEY. (Anas querquedula, 

EIDER DUCK. (Anas mollissima, 

VELVET SCOTER. (Anasfusca, Lin.) 
Sometimes shot by the Mudeford fisher- 
men, but always outside the bar of the 

LONG-TAILED DUCK. (Anas glacialis, 

GOLDEN EYE. (Anas clangula, Lin.) 

SMEW. (Mergus albellus, Lin.) Seen, 
like the two previous, during hard 
winters on the Avon. Mr. Rake notes 
that one was killed at Breamore, Nov., 
1855 ; and Mr. Hart writes that he once 
saw a person kill tvvc at one shot in 
Christchurch Harbour 

GOOSANDER. (Mergus merganser, Lin.) 
Rather rare. Mr. Rake, however, in- 
forms me that one male and two or 
three females were killed near Fording- 
bridge in the winter of 1855. 

RED-NECKED GREBE. (Podiceps rufi- 
collis, Lath.) Rather rare. 

SCLAVONIAN GREBE. (Podiceps cor- 
nutus, Lath.) Very rare. Mr. Hart has 
never known an instance of one being 
killed, though he has received a specimen 
or two from the Dorsetshire coast. 

EARED GREBE. (Podiceps auritus, 
Lath.) Rather rare, but occasionally 
killed by the Mudeford fishermen. 

arcticus, Lin.) Occurs pretty plenti- 
fully during some winters along the 

LITTLE AUK. (Uria alle, Tern.) 
Found sometimes along the coast after 
a heavy storm. 

CASPIAN TERN. ( Sterna Caspia, Pall.) 
On the authority of Mr. Hart one was 
shot, about ten years ago, in Christ- 
church Harbour. 

COMMON TERN. (Sterna hirundo, 
Lin.) This, with the next, is sometimes, 
after a heavy gale, picked up in an 
exhausted state. I saw one which had 
been thus caught near Fordingbridge in 
September, 1861. 

ARTIC TERN. (Sterna arctica, 

LESSER TERN. (Sterna minuta, Lin.) 
Seen during a hard winter. 

BLACK TERN. (Sterna nigra, Briss.) 
A pair were, not long ago, shot by Mr. 
Charles Reeks, near the Old Bridge, 

LITTLE GULL. (Larus minutus, Pall.) 
Mr. Rake informs me that a pair of these 
rare birds were killed near Breamore, in 
November, 1855. 

GLAUCOUS GULL. (Larus glaucus, 
Brim.) A solitary specimen has, I 
believe, once been shot near Christ- 
church, by the Hon. Grantley Berkeley, 
in whose collection it is. 

COMMON SKUA. (Lestris catarractes, 
111.) Occasionally killed flying round 
Christchurch Head. 

droma Leachii, Tern.) Mr. Rake informs 
me that a specimen was picked up 
dead, near Fordingbridge, November, 

STORMY PETREL. (Thalassidroma 
pelagica, Vigors.) Frequently picked 
up dead, or exhausted, along the coast, 
after severe weather, with the wind 
blowing from the west. 

318 List of the Birds of the New Forest District. 

Adopting Yarrell's census, an analysis of these lists gives to the 
Forest district 72 out of the 140 British residents, 31 out of our 63 
summer visitors, 35 winter visitors, and of rarer birds and stragglers, 
90 ; or altogether, including the two birds of double passage, 230 species 
out of the whole 354. 

Since these lists were arranged, Mr. Rake sends me word, concerning 
the reed wren, that in the winter of 1858, a nest, evidently built the 
preceding summer, and exactly resembling that bird's, was found in a 
thick bed of reeds on the bank of the Avon, near Fordingbridge, but 
he has never seen the birds or eggs from the neighbourhood. 

With regard to the kildeer plover, I may add that several persons 
saw it in the flesh, and that Mr. Tanner received it soon after it was 
mounted. My only surprise is with Dr. Sclater (see the Ibis vol. iv., 
No. xv., p. 277), that a bird with so large a range of flight should not 
before this have been recorded as occurring in England. 

The vignette is, with a slight alteration of position, taken from Mr. 
Tanner's specimen. 

The Kildeer Plover. 



As, I am sony to say, I am entirely ignorant of entomology, Mr. Baker, 
who possesses one of the finest collections of Lepidoptera in the district, 
has kindly compiled the following list. For the sake of space the 
Tineina have been omitted. The arrangement followed is that of 
Stainton, and the whole list has, to ensure the greatest accuracy, been 
revised by F. Bond, Esq., F.Z.S. No attempt has been made to 
classify the rarer and more common species, as both so much vary with 
the season. 
















































The Lepidoptera of the New Forest. 























Ichneumon iforme 

















































































































The Lepidoptera of the New .Forest. 


BOMBYCINA. (Continued.) 




































































































































T T 


The Lepidoptera of the New Forest. 


NOCTUINA. (Continued:) 





















Margin a ta 
































































































































The Lepidoptera of the New Forest. 










































































































































T T 2 


The Lepidoptera of the New Forest. 


GEOMETRINA. (Continued.) 



















































































Variata, Haw. 







































The Lepidoptera of the New Fore fit. 










Vertical! s 


















Sambu calls 






Forfi calls 








Cine tails 































































Con tarn inellus 























The Lepidoptera of the New Forest. 
































































Opthalmicana (?) 














































































The Lepidoptera of the New Forest. 


TORTRICINA. ( Continued . ) 


































































































POSTSCRIPT. As a further addition to my list of plants, I have 
received the following from A. Gr. More, Esq., F.L.S. those without 
localities being communicated to him by the late Mr. Borrer as found 
in the Forest : 

Ivy-leaved Bell Flower. Near Lynd- 
hurst, 272. 

leaved Water Parsnep. See Bromfield, 
in the Phytologist, vol. iii. p. 403 ; 464. 

Trefoil. Near Lyndhurst. 683. 

Intermediate Bladderwort, 876. 

CAREX LIMOSA, Lin.,Green-and-Gold 
Carex, 1244. 

A word or two may here be added concerning the only true species of 
cicada (Cicada h&matoides} which we have in England, and which has 
hitherto been only found in the New Forest. Mr. Farren, in June, 1858, 
was fortunate enough to take a specimen sitting on the stem of the 
common brake, being attracted to it by its peculiar monotonous humming 
noise. On the second of June, 1862, he captured two others, which 
rose from the fern, with their curious zigzag flight, and at the same 
time heard two more. 

Mr. Farren, to whom I am indebted for the above information, has 
kindly sent me the following drawing, made by his brother, from one of 
the living specimens captured in the Forest. 

The Cicada. 




ABBACIES, held by William II., at the 
time of his death, 104 {foot-note). 

Abbey, Beaulieu, see Beaulieu. 

Abbey Walls, the, or St. Leonard's 
Grange, 69. 

Acquitaine, Eleanor of, buried at Beau- 
lieu Abbey, 67. 

Adages, in the Forest, 180 ; see also 

Adder's-tongue Fern, 256. 

Alanus de Insulis, on the death of 
William II., 102. 

Alexander I., Pope, bull from, 71 (foot- 

Amberwood Corner, barrows near, 208. 

Ambrosius Aurelianus, defeated by 
Cerdic, 118; his name preserved in 
the word Amesbury, 119; in Am- 
brose Hole and Ampress Farm, 198. 

Ancestry, our, 2. 

Anderwood Enclosure, Roman and 
Romano-British potteries at, 215. 

America, Old-English character of its 
provincialisms, 172. 

Anselm, foretold by the Abbot of 
Cluny of the death of William II., 

Anses Wood, mound near, 209, 210. 

" Apostles, the Twelve," 83. 

Assart lands, granted by James I., 43. 

Ash, Mark-, Wood, 17. 

Ashley Rails, Roman and Romano- 
British potteries at, 221. 

Attachment, Court of, 87. 

Augustine, St., injunctions to his 
canons, 69. 

Aurelianus, Ambrosius, see Ambrosius. 

Avon, the, at Castle Hill, 118; at Ib- 
besley, 120; at Winkton, 128; eel 
peculiar to, 125, 126. 

Avon, the Valley of the, 116; Flora of. 

Avon Tyrrel, 126. 


BABINGTON, Churchill, synopsis of the 
birds of Charnwood Forest by, 275. 

Baddesley, Preceptory of the Knights 
Templar formerly at, 156. 

Balm, Bastard (Melittis Melyssophyl- 
lum), in the Forest, 256. 

Bandits, troop of, at Lymington, 169. 

Bargery Farm, 7 1 . 

Barn, or spicarium, of Beaulieu Abbey, 
69, 70. 

Barney Barns Hill, 197 (foot-note), 210. 

Barrows, named after fairies, 177, 197; 
opened by Warner, 198; in the east 
part of the Forest, 197 (foot-note), 
211; on Sway Common, 198; on 
Bratley Plain, 199-205; near Ocknell 
Pond, 205, 206 ; near Darrat's Lane, 
206 (foot-note); on the West Frit- 
ham Plain, 207 near Amberwood, 
208 ; on Butt's Plain, 209 ; on Langley 
Heath, 211. 

Barton Cliffs, the, 147; Middle-Eocene 
beds of the, 4; atmospheric effects 
seen from the, 15, 16 ; geology of, 
421, 422. 

Beacon, Burley, 82. 

Beaulieu Abbey, its foundation and en- 
dowments, 62; its dedication, 63; the 
Countess of Warwick and Perkin 
Warbeck come to its sanctuary, 64; 
its dissolution, 65 ; beauty of its situa- 
tion, 65 ; the abbot's house, cloisters, 
and chapter-house, 66; church, 67; 
refectory, 67, 68; the pulpit of the 
refectory, 68; barn of, 69; granges 
of, 69-71. 

Beauty, exists in the beholder's mind, 
18, 19; God's love of, 127, 128; the 
chief end and aim of Nature, 5. 

Becton Bunny, 149; house burnt down, 

170; geology of, 240. 
j Beeches, measurements of, in the 
I Forest, 16 (foot-note). 



Bees, folk-lore about, 181. 

Bellas Locus, former name of Beaulieu, 

Bentley Wood, North, 113. 

Beteston Roger, tenure of, at Eye- 
worth, 114. 

Bible, words in the, now provincialisms, 

Birds, bones of, discovered amongst the 
foundations of the Priory Church, 
Christchurch, 14 (Joot-note); see Or- 

Bishop's Ditch, 79. 

Black Bar, large mound at, 210. 

Blackheath Meadow, Roman pottery at, 

Boghampton, village of, 127. 

Boldre, derivation of, 80; church, 79. 

Books, at Beaulieu Abbey, just before 
the dissolution, 65 (foot-note'). 

Botany of the Forest, '250-257; contra- 
dictions in the, 251 ; characterized by 
its soil, 251, 252; bog-plants, 252; 
carices abundant, 252 ; its position 
under Watson's system, 253, 254; its 
trees, 254; its St. John's Worts, 254, 
255; its ferns, 255, 256; other plants, 
256, 257. (See Appendix II., 289.) 

Bottom, meaning of the word, 187. 

Bowles, Caroline, married to Southey at 
Boldre church, 80. 

Bouvery Farm, 69. 

Bramble Hill, oaks at, 16; view from, 

Bramshaw, village of, 111. 

Bratley Wood, 113. 

Bratley Plain, barrows upon, 113, 199- 

Breamore, village of, 119. 

Brinken Wood, 83. 

Brockenhurst, derivation of, 75; tenure 
at, 76; church, 77; scenery round, 78. 

Brook Beds, the, 245, 246. 

Brook Common, 111. 

Buckholt, in Domesday, 51 (foot-note). 

Buckland Rings, Roman coins found at, 
154; described, 199. 

Burgate, village of, 120. 

Burleigh, Lord, his advice to his son, 
1, 2. 

Burley, 82; Lodge, 83. 

Bustard, last seen in the Forest, 14 

Butt's Ash Lane, barrows near, 197 
(foot-note'), 211 (foot-note'). 

Butt's Plain, barrows on, 209. 

Buzzard, Honey, breeding habits of, 
262-265; weight of the eggs of the, 
264 ( foot-note); common, breeding of 
the, 265, 266. 

CADKNHAM OAK, the, 110. 

Cadland's Park, 50. 

Calshot Castle, built by Henry VIII., 
52; mentioned by Colonel Hammond, 
52 (foot-note}; the Cerdices-ora of the 
Chronicle, 53; different forms of the 
name, 53, 54. 

Canterton, held by Chenna, in Domes- 
day, 28. 

Canute, Forest laws of, 35; Charta de 
Foresta of, extracts from, 36 (foot- 

Castle Hill, 118. 

Castles, so-called, in the Forest, 32. 

Catharine's, St., Hills, 126. 

Cattle, right of turning out, in the 
Forest, 46. 

Cerdices-ford, nowCharford, 54, 118, 

Cerdices-ora, probably Calshot, 52, 53. 

Chapel, chantry, of the Countess of 
Salisbury, 137, 138; of Robert Harys, 
143; of John Draper, 143. 

Charford, the Cerdices-ford of the 
Chronicle, 118. 

Charles I., his attempt to revive the 
Forest laws, 42 ; gives the New 
Forest as security to his creditors, 
42 ; embarks for Carisbrook from 
Leap, 56; seized by Colonel Cobbit, 
152 ; imprisoned in Hurst Castle, 
153, 154; how treated by Colonel 
Hammond, 153 (foot-note); by Colo- 
nel Cobbit, 154. 

Charles II. bestows the young woods 
of Brockenhurst to the maids of 
honour, 43 ; encloses three hundred 
acres for oaks, 44. 

Charnwood Forest, the birds of, 275. 

Chestnuts, formerly common in the 
Forest, 13 (foot-note). 

Chewton Glen, 147, 148. 

Chichester, Reginald Pecock, Bishop 
of, on the legend concerning the man 
in the moon, 177. 

Chough, its increasing scarcity, 275. 

Christchurch, 129 ; its Old-English 
names, 131; ^Ethelwald at, 131; in 
Domesday, 131 ; the castle of, 131, 
132; Norman House at, 132; Cham- 
berlains' Books of, 135 (foot-note}; 
Priory Church of, 135, 141-144; the 
conventual buildings of, 138, 139; 
legend of the Priory Church of, 175. 

Chronicle, The, on the afforestation of 
the New Forest, 25, 26; the great 
value of its evidence, 23. 

Church, its date should be told by its 
style, 123. 

Churches in the Forest mentioned by 
Domesday, still in part standing, 31. 



Church Green, in Eyeworth Wood, 32 

Church Lytton, at Wootton, 32, 33 

Church Moor, near Mark Ash, 32 


Church Place, at Sloden, 32 (foot-note). 
Churchwardens' Books, at Ellingham, 

extracts from, 229-231; at Fording- 

bridge, extracts from, 230, 231. 
Chydioke, effigy of Sir John, in the 

Priory Church of Christchurch, 142, 

176, 177. 

Clay Hill, view from, 86. 
Cluny, Hugh, Abbot of, foretells the 

death of William II., 101. 
Coleridge, at Mudeford, 145. 
Colgrimesmore, the ancient name of 

Souley Pond, 72. 
Commoners, rights of the, in the New 

Forest, 46. 

Coronella Icevis, 259 (foot-note). 
Corporation Books, extracts from the 

Christchurch, 135, 136 (foot-note); 

from the Lymington, 155 (foot-note). 
Court, Moyles, 120, 121. 
Crockle, Roman and Romano-British 

potteries at, 217-219; their probable 

date, 222. 
Cross, the Staple, 146; the, at Bargate, 


Cuckoo, sayings concerning the, 180. 
Customs, old, in the Forest, 178. 


Dauphin of France, arms of the, for- 
merly in Boldre Church, 80; em- 
barked at Leap, 55. 

Defoe, his plan for colonizing the Forest 
with the Palatine refugees, 47. 

Deer in the Forest, abolished in 1851, 
46; a few left, 113. 

Deer-stealing, method of, 171. 

Denny Wood, 79; heronry at, 273. 

Dibden, church at, 50, 51 (foot-note). 

Diodorus Siculus, quotation from, 57 

Dissolution of the religious houses, its 
need, 64, 137 ; of Beaulieu Abbey, 65 ; 
of Christchurch Priory, 138. 

Domesday, analysis and evidence of, on 
the afforestation of the New Forest, 
26, 27, 28, 29, 31; churches in the 
Forest still in part remaining men- 
tioned in, 31; Eling in, 51 (foot- 
note)-, Redbridge in, 51 (foot-note)-, 
Lyndhurst in, 87 (foot-note); Ford- 
ingbridge in, 117; Christchurch in, 
131; mills in, rented by a payment 
of eels, 128, 119 (foot-note); Ring- 


wood in, 123 (foot-note); Christ- 
church in, 131; "Beckley, Baisliley, 
and Milton in, 148 (foot-note); Lym- 
ington in, 155. 

Draper, John, the last prior of Christ- 
church Priory, character of, 137, 138. 

Drift, in the Forest, its contents, 236. 

Durham, Simon of, on the afforestation 
of the New Forest, 25 (foot-note); on 
the death of William II., 95 (foot- 

EAGLE, golden, the, 260; sea, the, 261. 

Eaglehurst, 59. 

Easter Sepulchre, at Brockenhurst 
Church, 77. 

Ecclesiastica, or the Book of Remem- 
brance, 122 (foot-note}. 

Edward I. issues writs for the perambu- 
lation of the Forest, 41 ; possesses the 
Castle of Christchurch, 132. 

Edward III., corbel head of, in Sopley 
Church, 127. 

Edward VI. at Christchurch, 134. 

Eel, peculiar to the Avon, an, 125. 

Eels, mills rented by a payment of, 119 
(foot-note), 128. 

Eling, in Domesday, 51 (foot-note); ex- 
tract from parish register of, 228. 

Ellingham, cross roads at, 120; Church 
of, 122, 123; extract from Church- 
wardens' Books of, 229, 230, 231. 

England, its peculiar interest to English- 
men, 2; ignorance of, by English- 
men, 2. 

Everton, etymology of, 75. 

Exbury, 59; herons feeding near, 273. 

Exe, the river, 69; derivation of, 163. 

FAIRIES in the New Forest, 174. 175. 

Falcon, peregrine, 261. 

Fawley, village of, 51; church, 51; 
Norman doorway of church, 59. 

Ferns in the Forest, 255, 256. 

Ferrels, or " Verrels," meaning of, 82. 

Fidley, Wood-, rain, meaning of, 79. 

Flambard, hated by the clergy, 102; 
builds the Priory Church of Christ- 
church, 136. 

Florence of Worcester, on the afforesta- 
tion of the New Forest, 24; on the 
death of William II., 95 (foot-note). 

Flowers. See Botany. 

Folk-lore, value of, 173; in the New 
Forest, 174-180. 

Font, Norman, at Brockenhurst, 77. 

Fordingbridge, 117; church of, 118; 
ancient tenure at, 117 (foot-note); 
extracts from Churchwardens' Books 
of, 230, 231. 

U 2 



Forest, meaning of the word, 10 (foot- 
note}; government of an ancient, 35, 
36; life in an ancient, 36 (foot-note). 

Forest-Laws. See Laws. 

Forest Rights. See Rights. 

Frame Wood, 78, 79. 

Fritham, country round, 114. 

Fritham Plain, East, 113; West, 114. 

Fulchered and William II., 94, 102. 

GEMETICENSIS, Gulielmus, on the affo- 
restation of the New Forest, 23. 

Geology, the, of the Forest, 234; in the 
Eocene period, 235; the drift and its 
contents, 236; the Middle-Eocene of 
the Hordle and Barton Cliffs, 237- 
242; the Bracklesham Beds in the 
valley of Canterton, 242-248; the 
great aim of, 248. 

Gilpin, author of Forest Scenery, his 
love for Nature, 15 (foot-note); buried 
in Boldre churchyard, 79, 80. 

Gipsies, principal families of, in the 
Forest, 159; their marriages, 159; 
their present mode of life, 159, 160. 

Godshill, in Gough's time, 14 (foot- 

Goreley Bushes, vast Keltic graveyard 
near, 207. 

Government, duty of, to protect the 
finest trees in the Forest, 18. 

Grange, St. Leonard's, 69; barn and 
chapel at, 70; Park, 71; Somerford, 
138, 147. 

Guest, Dr., on Natan-Leaga, 33 (foot- 
note); on Cerdices-ora, 53; on the 
" Belgic Ditches," 130; on the "Early 
English Settlements in South Bri- 
tain," 163 (foot-note), 166 (foot- 

Guesten-hall, the, of the Abbot's House 
at Beaulieu, 66. 

HALL, Union of the Families of Lancaster 
and York, by, quotation from, 151. 

Handycross Pond, barrow near, 209. 

Harriers, marsh and hen, 268. 

Hat, meaning of, in the Forest, 182, 183. 

Hatchet Gate, 75. 

Hawfinches, in the Forest, 274, 275. 

Heather, its one defect, 81. 

Hengistbury Head, derivation of, 165. 

Hemingburgh, Walter, on the afforesta- 
tion, 25 (foot-note); on the death of 
William II., 95 (foot-note). 

Henry III., confirmation of privileges to 
Beaulieu Abbey, by, 63. 

Henry VIII., patriotism of, 151, 152. 

Herbert's Memoirs, 153, 154 

Herons in the Forest, 273, 274. 

High Cliff Beds, the, 242. 

Hill Top, 59, 61. 

Hinchelsea, Bottom and Knoll, 81. 

History, our, written on the country, 2, 
129; tradition, value of, in history, 97, 
98; truth in, 106. 

Hoadley, Bishop, on the deer in Walt- 
ham Chase, 171. 

Hob, Fairy, 175 (foot-note). 

Hobby, the, 261; weight of the eggs of, 
264 (foot-note). 

Holland's Wood, near Brockenhurst, 78. 

Holly, springing up in the Forest, 12 

Holme Bush, explanation of a, 179. 

Holmsley, 81,82. 

Honey, the Forest, 184. 

Hoopoe, its occurrence, 274. 

Hordle, its church, when built, 31 (foot- 
note) ; churchyard, 150; Freshwater 
deposits at, 237. 

" Horse, the Great," 126 (foot-note). 

House, Burman's, at Beaulieu, 66. 

House, Norman, at Christchurch, 132. 

House, the Queen's, at Lyndhurst, 87. 

Hoveden, Roger, on the afforestation of 
the New Forest, 25 (foot-note); on 
the death of William II., 95 (foot- 

Howard, the philanthropist, lived at 
Watcombe, 75. 

Huntingdon, Henry of, on the afforesta- 
tion, 25 ( foot-note) ; on the death of 
William II., 95 (foot-note). 

Hurst, meaning of the word, 35. 

Hurst Beach, 151; Castle, built by 
Henry VIII., 151; Charles at, 152- 
154; importance of, 152 (foot-note). 

Hyde or Hungerford, 120. 

Hythe, village of, 50. 

IBBESLEY, view at, 120; extracts from 
parish register of, 232, 233. 

Ictis, the Isle of Wight, 57, 58. 

Idleness, profitable, 90. 

Innocent III., grants the right of a sanc- 
tuary to Beaulieu Abbey, 63. 

Insulis, Alanus de, on the death of 
William II., 102. 

Iron's Hill Wood, 75. 

Iron-works at Souley Pond, 72. 

Isabella de Fortibus, her possessions at 
Christchurch, 132; at Lymington, 

Island Hills, the, 78. 

Island Thorn, Roman and Romano- 
British Potteries at, 220. 



JAMES I. grants twenty assart-lands in 
the Forest, 43. 

Jar-bird, meaning of a, 187. 

John, King, his oppression of the Cis- 
tercian order, 61; founds Beaulieu 
Abbey, 62. 

KALKESORE, old name of Calshot, 54. 
Keltic element in the dialect of the New 

Forest, 163; in the topography, 164. 
Kestrel, eggs of, weight of the, 264. 
" Keystone under the hearth," meaning 

of the proverb, 1 70. 
King's Day, the, explanation of, 231. 
King's Rue, 56. 
Kitts Hill, 91. 
Knives, flint, found at Eye worth, 297 

Knoll, Black, 78, 84. 
Knyghton, on the afforestation of the 

New Forest, 24; his authority of no 

value, 95 (foot-note). 
Knyghtwood Oak, the, 16. 

LABOURERS in the New Forest, average 
wages of, 47 (foot-note). 

Lane, Jane, 121. 

Langley Heath, barrows on, opened by 
the Rev. J. P. Bartlett, 211. 

Lappenberg, his account of the afforesta- 
tion of the New Forest by William I., 
21; pn the Ictis of the ancients, 56. 

Latchmore Pond, 81, 199. 

Lawrence, the sprite, in the Forest, 

Law-Courts, last of the Forest, 12, 87. 

Laws, Forest-, Canute's, 35 ; made still 
severer by William I., 38; Charles I., 
attempts to revive, 42. 

Leap, 55; the spot where the Dauphin, 
Louis VIII. of France, embarked, 55; 
where Charles I. embarked, 56 ; 
British and Roman road at, 56 ; mass 
of tin found near, 57. 

Lease to, meaning of, 193. 

Leigh ton, Mr., fresco in Lyndhurst 
church by, 88. 

Leland on the death of William II., 96 

Lepidoptera, list of the Forest, Ap- 
pendix IV., 319. 

Lewis, Sir George C., on the Ictis of 
the ancients, 57; his theory corrobo- 
rated, 58. 

Lichens, used as specifics in the Forest, 

Lichmore Pond, 81, 199. 

Life, modern, its hurry and confu- 
sion, 73. 

Liney Hill Wood, 83. 

Lisle, Alice, 121. 

Loute, to, meaning of, 188. 

Lungs of oak (Sticta pulmonarid), used 
as a specific for consumption, 176. 

Lung-wort, narrow-leaved, the, 69, 256. 

Lymington, port of, 154; its history, 
155, 156; extracts from the Corpora- 
tion Books of, 155 (foot-note). 

Lyndhurst, derivation of, 86 (foot-note); 
church of, 87; scenery round, 89, 90; 
ancient tenure at, 86, 87; woods 
round, 90, 91. 

MALMESBURY, William of, on the 
afforestation of the New Forest, 25 
(foot-note); on the death of William 
II., 93, 94 (foot-note), 95 (foot-note); 
on the physical appearance of Wil- 
liam II., 99 (foot-note). 
I Map, Ordnance, mistake of the, 128 

Mapes, Walter, on the afforestation of 
the New Forest, 24. 

Mark Ash Wood, 17. 

Mead, made in the New Forest, 184. 

Merlin, breeding of the, in the Forest, 
267, 268 (foot-note); weight of sup- 
posed egg of, 161, 264. 
| Middle Marine Bed, the, at Mineway, 
237, 238. 

Milford, church of, 150, 151. 

Millaford Brook, the, 83, 90. 

Mills in the New Forest, comparative 
value of, by Domesday, 29 ; rented by 
a payment of eels, in Domesday, 119 

Milton, words used by, now provin- 
cialisms, 191. 

Milton, village of, mentioned in Domes- 
day, 148 (foot-note). 

Minestead, 92. 

Monastery, average library of a, 65 
(foot-note); life in a, 72, 73. 

Monmouth's Ash, 122. 

Monmouth, capture of, 122 ; writes to 
James, the Queen Dowager, and the 
Lord Treasurer, 123. 

Moon-Hill Woods, the, 75. 

Morefalls, the Lord Treasurer, South- 
ampton, on the evils of granting, 43, 
44 (foot-note). 

Moyles Court, 120, 121. 

Moyne, William le-, tenure of, at Lynd- 
hurst, 87. 

Mudeford, 146. 

NATAN-LEAGA, the name preserved, 33. 
Nation, history of a, how best read, 224; 

its aesthetic life, how best determined, 

224, 225. 



Nature, beauty the end and aim of, 5 ; 
her care for trees, 10 ; the proper 
spirit with which to see, 19. 

Natural history, its value, 235, 276. 

Needsore, 54 ; derivation of, 165. 

Netley Abbey Church, ruins of, 49; fort, 
49, hospital, 50. 

New Forest, the ; its connection with 
our history, 3; scenery of, 4 ; trees 
of, 16, 17 ; in the winter, 18 ; its 
boundaries in the reign of Edward I., 
20, 21 ; its afforestation by William I., 
21; value of land in Domesday, 
29; geology of, 4, 10, 29, 30, 234- 
249; botany of, 250, 257 (see also 
Appendix II., 289) ; ornithology of, 
258-276 (see also Appendix III., 
307); churches of, 4; the first and 
second perambulations of, 40 ; cha- 
racter of the second perambulation 
of, 41, 42; hills of, 10; its former 
woody nature proved by the local 
nomenclature, 33 ; general character 
of, 11; in the time of the Normans, 
12, 13; changes in, 12; granted as se- 
curity by Charles I. to his creditors, 42 ; 
its neglected state under the Stuarts, 
43, 44; William III. legislates for, 44; 
statistics of, 40, 47 (foot-note*) ; pre- 
sent management of, 47 (foot-note) ; 
assart lands in, granted by James I., 
42 ; hurricane in, 44 ; ethnology of, 1 60, 
161; smuggling in, 169, 170; deer- 
stealing in, i71 ; folk-lore of, 173, 
180; poetry of, 176 ; love supersti- 
tions of, 179; proverbs of, 179; local 
sayings, 179; provincialisms of, 181, 
195 (see, also, Appendix I., 279); 
traditions in, 96, 97, 180, 181; barrows 
of, 196-213 ; Parish Registers and 
Churchwardens' Books of, 226-233; 
Lepidoptera of, Appendix IV., 319. 

New Park, 86. 

Nodes, the, 197. 

OAK, the Cadenham, 110. 

Oaks, character of in the Forest, 16; 
measurements of, 16 (foot-note); 
" bustle-headed," meaning of, 183. 

Ocknell Wood, 113. 

Onomatopoieia, its occurrence amongst 
provincialisms, 186. 

Ordnance map, mistake of, 126 (foot- 

Ore Creek, 54 (foot-note). 

Ornithology of the Forest, 260; white- 
tailed eagle, 260; osprey, 261; hobby, 
breeding of the, 261 ; honey-buzzard, 
breeding habits of, 261, 263, 265; 
common buzzard, breeding habits of, 

265 ; merlin, nesting of, 267, 268 
(foot-note); harriers, 268; owls, 269; 
raven, breeding of, 270; winter birds, 
271; woodpeckers, 272; herons, 273; 
hawfinches, 274; chough, 275; census 
of birds, 275 (see also Appendix III., 

Ovest, meaning of, 183. 

Oxenford and Oxford, time derivation 
of, 80. 

PARIS, Matthew, on William II. 's death, 
94 (foot-note), 95 (foot-note). 

Parish Registers. See Registers. 

Park Grange, 71. 

Park, New, 86. 

Pennington, the village of, 153. 

Perambulation of the New Forest, the 
first, 40; the second, 40, 41; charac- 
ter of the second, 41, 42. 

Pigriel Wood, 272, 273. 

Pigs, right of turning out, in the Forest, 
46; breed of in the Forest, peculiar, 

Pitt's Enclosure, Roman and Romano- 
British potteries, at, 220. 

Pliny on the Isle of Wight, 57 (foot- 

Poetry of the New Forest, character of, 
175, 176 (foot-note). 

Ponies, Forest, 259. 

Potteries, Roman and Romano- British, 
214; at Crockle, first discovered by 
the Rev. J. Pemberton Bartlett, 215; 
at Anderwood, 215; at Oakley, 215; 
atSloderi, 216; at the Lower Hat, 217; 
at Crockle, description of, 218, 219; 
at Island Thorn, 220; at Pitt's En- 
closure, 220; at Ashley Rails, 221; 
at Black Heath, 221. 

Provincialisms, Keltic element in the 
New Forest, 163; the real character 
of, 173; in the New Forest, 181-195. 
(See also Appendix I., 279). 

Proverbs in the Forest, 179. 

Puck, the fairy, in the Forest, 174; 
names of fields, and woods, and bar- 
rows, derived from him, 175. 

Puckpit's Wood, 112, 113. 

Pulpit, the, of Beaulieu Refectory, 68. 

Purkess, family of, 97. 

Queen's Bower Wood, the, 83. 
Queen's Mead, the, 83. 
Queen's North, 11, 113, 114. 

RAVEN, its breeding in the Forest, 270. 

Reachmore Barrow, 113. 

Redbridge, in Domesday, 51 (fool-note). 



Redstart, Black, its periodical occur- 
rence in the Forest, 274. 

Refectory of Beaulieu Abbey, now the 
parish church, 67; pulpit of, 68. 

Register, Parish, at Eling, extract from, 
227,228; at Ibbesley, extracts from, 
233, 234; at Christchurch, 234; date of 
registers in the Forest, 227 (foot-note). 

Reredos, in the Priory Church of Christ- 
church, 140, 141 ; in St. Mary's Overie, 
141 (foot-note}. 

Rere-mouse, meaning of, 192. 

Rhinefield, nursery at, 47. 

Rich and poor, difference between, 5. 

Rights, Forest-, their origin, 36 (foot- 
note), 46 (foot-note). 

Ringwood, 123; fine brass at, 124. 

Rodford, derivation of, 166. 

Romans, why they chose the New 
Forest for their potteries, 224; their 
influence on the district, 225. See 
also Potteries and Buckland Rings. 

Rood-screen in Ellingham Church, 122; 
at Christchurch, 140. 

Rose, the Red King by, 33 (foot-note)-, 
Gundimore, extract from his, 146, 
147 (foot-note). 

Ross, John, on the aiforestation of the 
New Forest, 25 (foot-note). 

Rue Copse, 56. 

Rue, King's, 56. 

SALISBURY CHAPEL, the, in the Priory 
Church of Christchurch, 141. 

Salisbury, Countess of, her execution, 
141, 142. 

Salisbury, John of, on the character of 
William II., 99 (foot-note); on Wil- 
liam II.'s death, 106. 

Sanctuary of Beaulieu, the right of, 
given by Innocent III., 63; the Coun- 
tess of Warwick flies to the, 64; Per- 
kin Warbeck, flies to, 64. 

Sandyballs, 118. 

Screen, Rood-, in Ellingham Church, 
122; in the Priory Church of Christ- 
church, 140. 

Sepulchre, Easter, in Brockenhurst 
Church, 77. 

Serlo and William II., 93, 94. 

Setthornes, 81. 

Shade, meaning of the word in the 
Forest, 181, 182. 

Shakspeare, words used by, now provin- 
cialisms, 189. 

Sheets-axe, meaning of the word, 183. 

Shepherd's Gutter Beds, the, 244, 245. 

Shrewsbury, Fulchered, Abbot of St. 
Peter's at, prophetic words spoken by, 
94 (foot-note), 102. 

Sloden, Roman and Romano-British 

potteries at, 216. 

Sloden Hole, plan of, 217 (foot-note). 
Smoke Silver, 178 (foot-note)-, explana- 
tion of, 232. 
Smuggling, formerly carried on in the 

Forest, 169, 170. 
Snow-storm, great, in the Forest, 180, 

Solent, traditions concerning the former 

depth of, 58. 
Somerford Grange, 147. 
Songs of the New Forest, 175, 176 

Sopley, derivation of, 127; church of, 

Southey, married his second wife at 

Boldre Church, 80;^ at Burton, 146. 
Southampton, the Lord Treasurer, on 
the evils of granting moorefalls, 43, 
44 (foot-note). 
Southampton, Sir Bevis of, 3; ships 

built by Henry V. at, 4. 
Souley Pond, 72; iron- works at, 72. 
Spelman, Peter, tenure at Brockenhurst 

held by, 76. 

Spotswood, blunder of, 24 (foot-note). 
Squoyles, meaning of the word, 183. 
St. John's Worts in the Forest, 254, 255. 
Staneswood, in Domesday, 51 (Jbot- 


Staple Cross, the, 145. 
Stone, Rufus's, 96, 97. 
Stoney-Cross, views from, 110, 112. 
Streams, character of the Forest, 14; the 

best guide, 1 7 ; beauty of, 83, 84. 
Sunsets in the Forest, 15, 113; from the 

Barton Cliffs, 149, 150. 
Swanimote, Court of, 35. 
Sway Common, 80, 81 ; barrows on, 198, 

THOROUGHAM, now Fritham, the Tru- 
ham of Domesday, 96 (foot-note). 

Tiril, Walter, William II. gives him two 
arrows, 93; according to the Chroni- 
clers shoots the King, 94; his declara- 
tion to Suger, 106; his implication in 
the murder, 106; the cause of his sup- 
posed flight, 106; his friendship with 
Anselm, 102. 

Towns, historical interest in English, 
129, 130; their history, the history of 
the day, 130. 

Tradition, its value in history, 97, 98. 

Traditions in the Forest, 96, 97, 180, 

Trail of oak, the, meaning of, 1 83. 

Travelling, modern, style of, 2. 

Tree-forms, loveliness of. 9. 



Trees, their comparative value as stand- 
ing and cut, 18; in the Forest, 254. 

Truth, involuntarily perverted, 22. 

Tweonea, the ancient name of Christ- 
church, 131. 

Tyrrel's Ford, 97, 126. 

URNS found in Bratley barrow, 201, 
202 ; in Hilly Accombs barrow, 206 
(foot-note) ; in various other barrows, 
21 1 (foot-note) ; pieces of, in different 
barrows, 200, 204, 205, 207, 208. 

Usnea barbata, its abundance in the 
Forest, 91 (foot-note}. 

VALLEY OF THE AVON, its character, 

Van-winged hawk, the, of the Forest, 

"Vineyards, the," at Bsaulieu Abbey, 


Vinney, meaning of the word, 190. 
Vinney Ridge, 82, 83; heronry at, 273, 
Vitalis on the afforestation of the New 

Forest, 24; on William II.'s death, 

94, 95. 

WAGES, average, of labourers in the 
New Forest, 47 (foot-note). 

Walking, advantages of, over driving, 6. 

Warbeck, Perkin, takes refuge at Beau- 
lieu Abbey, 64. 

Warwick, Countess of, takes refuge at 
Beaulieu Abbey, 64. 

Wendover, Roger, on the afforestation 
of the New Forest, 25 (foot-note). 

West-Saxons, superstitious character of, 
still observable, 160, 161 ; love of 
sport, 162; peculiarity of dress, 162; 
verbal characteristics of, 167. 

Westminster, Matthew of, on the death 
of William II., 95 (foot-note). 

Whitebeams at Sloden, 114; at Castle 
Malwood, 254. 

Whiteshoot, square barrow near, 207. 

Wight, Isle of, atmospheric effects on 
the, 15; the Ictis of the ancients, 57, 
58; Pliny on, 57 (foot-note), 236. 

William I., his character, 21, 22; his 

right to make a forest, 23; posses- 
sions in the Forest, 23 (foot-note)', 
his love for the chase, 34; his cruelty 
and oppression, 22, 38. 

William II., his dream, as recorded, on 
the night before his death, 92, 93; 
his speech to the monk from Glou- 
cester, 94 ; his death, 94; his body 
brought to Winchester Cathedral, 95; 
his brother and nephew killed in the 
Forest, 98 ; his character 99 (foot- 
note)', the events of his reign, 100 
(foot-note) ; the cause of his death, 
101, 102, 103; hated by his clergy, 
104; plots against his life, 104, 105; 
his death read by his life, 108. 

William III., his legislation for the 
Forest, 44: not attended to, 45. 

Wilverley Plantations, 81. 

Wood, how sold for fuel in the Forest, 

Woodcocks, their breeding in the Forest, 

Woodmote, Court of, 87. 

Woodpecker, great black, breeding of 
the, 272. 

Woods, their beauty, 8 ; as dwelt upon 
by our English poets, 9 (foot-note) ; 
how valued in Domesday, 11, 12 
(foot-note); round Lyndhurst, 89, 90. 

Woollen, affidavits of 'burials in, 232, 

Wootton plantations, 81 ; woodcocks 
breed in, 269, 270. 

Worcester, Florence of. See Florence. 

YAFFINGALE, local name for the green 

woodpecker, 272. 
Yarranton, his report upon making the 

Avon navigable, 134; on the iron- 
stone of the coast, 151. 
" Yellow as a kite's claw, as," a Forest 

proverb, 179. 
Yews, measurements of various, 78 

(foot-note), at Sloden, 114. 
Ytene, the district of, 33, 163. 
Yvery, Roger de, leads the Midland 

barons, 105; possessed land at Lym- 

ington, 155. 


Printed by EALLANTYNK, HANSON 6r Co. 
Edinburgh &> London 


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