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And still later, when the Autumn 
Changed the long, green leaves to yellow, 
And the soft and juicy kernels 
Grew like wampum hard and yellow, 

Then the ripened ears he gathered, 

Stripped the withered husks from off them, . . . 

And made known unto the people 

This new gift of the Great Spirit. — Longfellow 



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In this series Book One has introduced the child to 
the study of geography in a most delightful and most 
effective way. After visiting homes in various parts of 
the world an introductory study is made of the different 
nations of the* earth. Book Two follows a wholly new 
method of treatment, avoids repetition of matter pre- 
sented in Book One, and guides the pupil to a much 
fuller knowledge and understanding of geography. 

Human geography is the keynote of the series. Em- 
phasis is given to the study of those factors that have a 
controlling influence upon the life and activities of people. 
The " New Geography " becomes an applied science of 
fundamental significance to all American citizens. 

The natural regions of the world, differing as they do 
in surface features, climate, and resources, have produced 
widely different occupations and modes of life. They 
serve, therefore, as the best units for study. 

Regional geography is not a new idea ; it is the goal 
toward which the best scientific thought and the best 
pedagogy have long been progressing. The simplicity 
and the logic of this approach has each year won new 
supporters. The one thing lacking has been a textbook 
constructed on this principle. 

Regional maps. The natural regions of the United 
States as shown in this book are the work of the 
geographers of the Association of American Geographers 
and of the United States Geological Survey. For the 
other countries of the world the leading authorities of 
several nations have been studied. The consistent use of 
one simple color scheme on the maps enables the pupil 
to gain most easily a picture of the different physical 
settings in which the scenes of huin3,ix Hffe are enacted. 

Other maps. A new "fiiid very u&efOT series of eco- 
nomic and commercial \njaps .eltow; gi:a,pHically the 
chief exports and im^0rt3;:Th&*ro'u'tes of inland trans- 
portation are also clearly shown. From these maps the 
essential facts of commercial geography can be readily 
comprehended and easily remembered. 

The relief and vegetation maps are also entirely new. 
By a skUlful use of color they show the relief, drainage, and 
distribution of vegetation. The series of colored rainfall 
maps indicate effectively the periods of heavy or of light 
rainfall that are of such great importance in agriculture. 

Comparative map studies are introduced as a new 
feature. With maps in the hands of each pupil, show- 
ing the relief, drainage, vegetation, rainfall, and distri- 
bution of population, the data are available for the 
solution of many excellent problems. 

Problem method. The understanding of the geographic 
conditions in a natural region is the fundamental basis 
for the discussion of problems relative to the life and 
occupations of the people living in that region. Numer- 
ous concrete problems and topics for discussion have been 
formulated, and many practical exercises that may be 
assigned for library or home study have been prepared. 

Picture study. The illustrations are accompanied by 
very full legends ; each view teaches some importa,nt 
fact. A remarkable series of aeroplane drawings of the 
great cities and their surroundings assists in a proper 
emphasis on urban geography. 

Mathematical geography. While all necessary infor- 
mation has been given as needed, mathematical geog- 
raphy in general has been postponed until the pupil has 
become familiar with the details that should serve as 
the basis for such world-wide or universal conceptions. 

The United States — a world power. At the close of 
the book the pupil is brought back to his own country. 
Against the background of world conditions he now 
examines our natural resources, the role they play in 
our industrial life, and the care that should be taken 
to conserve them. This leads to the treatment of our 
inland and foreign commerce and the development of 
our international relations and responsibilities. 

Acknowledgments. In the preparation of this book 
Mr. Frye, Mrs. Atwood, Mr. William T. Oliver, several 
map experts, many government departments, many 
railroads and chambers of commerce, the Pan American 
Union, and members of the author's staff and that of 
Ginn and Company have given most valuable assistance. 

The proof sheets were criticized by Miss Nellie B. Allen 
of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, by Mrs. Jane Perry Cook of 
the Chicago Normal College, and by Mr. Grant E. Finch 
of the Montana Normal School. 

To all the author expresses his sincere thanks. 

Harvard University 


• ,-. 420.6 










The United States 1 

Northern Division of the Appa- 
lachian Highlands (New England) 5 
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain . . 14 
Southern Division of the Appalachian 

Highlands 26 

Interior Highlands 38 

Central Plains 39 

Great Plains 53 

Rocky Mountains 59 

Western Plateaus 65 

Pacific Mountains and Lowlands . 70 ^ 

Comparative Map Studies ... 82 

Possessions of the United States 83 

Alaska 83 

Hawaiian Islands 87 

Panama Canal Zone 88 

Porto Rico 90 

Virgin Islands 91 

Philippine Islands 92 

Guam 95 

Samoan Islands 95 

The Nation as a Whole ... 98 

Canada 103 

Appalachian Highlands .... 103 

Laurentian Upland 104 

Hudson Bay Lowland 105 

Central Plains 105 

Great Plains 106 

Western Mountains and Plateaus . 108 

Newfoundland and Labkadok . 110 

Mexico Ill 

Centkal America 114 

West Indies 115 

Trinidad 120 

Bermud.\ Islands 120 

The Continent of North America 121 

Comparative Map Studies . . . 124 


Introduction 125 

Natural Regions 127 

Brazil 130 

The Guianas 134 

Venezuela 136 

Colombia 138 


Ecuador 138 

Peru 140 

Bolivia 142 

Chile 144 

Argentina 148 

Paraguay 152 

Uruguay 154 

Falkland Island.s 155 

Colon Archipelago 155 

Comparative Map Studies . . . 156 


Introduction 157 

Natural Regions 158 

Coast Line 162 

Influence of the Ice-Sheet.s . . 162 

Climate 163 

Natural Resources 163 

British Isles . 164 

Norway and Sweden 170 

Denmark 174 

Iceland 175 

The Netherlands 175 

Belgium 177 

Luxemburg 179 

France 180 

Switzerland 187 

Germany 189 

Austria 193 

Hungary 194 

Czechoslovakia 195 

Poland 196 

Baltic States 197 

Finland 197 

Ru.ssia 198 

Small Countries South of the 

Caucasus 200 

Ukraine 202 

Rumania 202 

Mediterranean Lan^s .... 203 

Spain \ . . 204 

Portugal 206 

Italy 207 

jugo.slavia 213 



Albania 213 

Bulgaria 214 

Greece 214 

Constantinople and the Turks . 215 

Comparative Map Studies . . . 216 


Introduction 217 

Natural Regions 220 

Climate 220 

Vegetation and Animal Life . 221 

Natural Resources 221 

British Possessions 222 

French Possessions 225 

Other European Possessions . . 228 

Independent Countries .... 229 

Comparative Map Studies . . . 230 


Natural Regions 231 

Climate 234 

Countries op Southwestern Asia 235 

Countries of West-Central Asia 239 

Siberia 240 

The Republic of China .... 242 

Japan 246 

Indo-China 249 

The Malay States 251 

India 252 

Small Countries in the Himalaya 

Mountains 254 

East Indies 255 

Comparative Map Studies . . . 256 


Australia 257 

New Zealand 263 

Pacific Islands 264 

Comparative Map Studies . . . 265 


North Polar Region 266 

South Polar Region 266 




World Geography 267 

The Earth ix the Universe . . 276 


ixtroduction 277 

Natural Resources of the United 

States 278 

Soils 278 

Forests 284 

Mineral Resources 286 

Water 295 

Fisheries 297 

Industries Dependent upon Im- 
ported Raw Materials . 299 

Inland Commerce 300 

Foreign Commerce 302 

Summary and Conclusion . . . 304 


Reference Books 


Geographical Explorations . . 

ii, iii 

World Production Maps . . . . 

iv, V 

Great Trade Routes .... 

vi, vii 

Tables op Area and Population 


Index and Pronunciations . . . 



Maps in Colors 

Africa, Physical (showing Natural. 

Regions) 218 

Africa, Political and Economic . . 227 

Africa, Rainfall and Population . . 230 

Africa, Colored Relief and Vegetation 230 

Alaska, Political and Economic . . 84 
Asia, Physical (showing Natural 

Regions) 232 

Asia, The Near East, Political and 

Economic 237 

Asia, The Far East, Political and 

Economic 247 

Asia, Political and Economic . . 250 

Asia, Rainfall and Population . . 256 

Asia, Colored Relief and Vegetation 256 
Australia, Physical (showing Natural 

Regions) 258 

Australia, Political and Economic . 260 

Australia, Rainfall and Population . 265 

Australia, Colored Relief and Vege- 
tation 265 

Canada, Political and Economic . . 107 

Central America, Political and Eco- 
nomic 118, 119 

Europe, Physical (showing Natural 

Regions) 161 

Europe, North Sea Countries, Polit- 
ical and Economic . . . . 171 

Europe, Central, Political and Eco- 
nomic 182, 183 

Europe, Eastern, Political and Eco- 
nomic 201 

Europe, Mediterranean Sea Countries, 

Political and Economic . . 208, 209 

Europe, Rainfall and Population . 216 

Europe, Colored Relief and Vegeta- 
tion 216 ^ 

Hawaiian Islands, Political and Eco- 
nomic 84 

Mexico, Political and Economic . 118, 119 

North America, Physical (showing 

Natural Regions) 122 

North America, Rainfall and Popu- 
lation 124 

North America, Colored Relief and 

Vegetation 124 \/ 

Philippine Islands, Political and Eco- 
nomic 93 

Porto Rico, Political and Economic 118, 119 

South America, Physical (showing 

Natural Regions) 126 

South America, Northern Section, 

Political and Economic . . . 135 

South America, Southern Section, 

Political and Economic . . . 145 

South America, Rainfall and Popu- 
lation 156 

South America, Colored Relief and / 

Vegetation ....... 156 ' 

United States, Physical (showing 

Natural Regions) 2, 3 

United States, Sectional Maps, Polit- 
ical and Economic 
New England States .... 13 
Southern States, Eastern Section . 23 
Southern States, Western Section 25 
Middle Atlantic States .... 35 
Central States, Eastern Section . 45 
Central States, Western Section . 55 
Northwestern States .... 73 
Southwestern States .... 76 
United States, Rainfall and Popula- 
tion 82 

United States, Colored Relief and 

Vegetation . 82 i. 


United States, Political (showing 

Railroads) 96 97 

West Indies, Political and Eco- 
nomic ....... 118, 119 

\Yorld Maps 

Average Annual Rainfall of the 

World 275 

Ocean Currents and the Tempera- 
ture of the Surface Water . . 275 
Geographical Explorations 

Appendix, Plate A 
Great Trade Routes 

Appendix, Plate B 

Black-and-White Maps 

North America 

Extent of Continental Ice-Sheet 
Panama Canal Zone .... 
United States 

Cattle-Producing Areas . 

Coal Resources 

Corn-Producing Areas . 

Cotton-Producing Areas 

Forest Areas 

Gold and Silver Resources . 

Iron and Copiier Resources 

Lead and Zinc Resources . 

Northeastern Industrial District 

Oil and Gas Resources . 

Sheep-Producing Areas . 

Sugar-Producing Areas . 

Territorial Expansion . 

■\\^estward Movement of Population 

Wheat-Producing Areas 
World Maps 

Cattle-Producing Regions . 

Coal-Producing Regions 

Cotton-Producing Regions . 

Iron-Producing Regions 

Silk-Producing Regions . 

WheatrProducing Regions . 

Wool-Producing Regions . 







Aeroplane Drawings 

Boston 9 

Chicago 50 

London 167 

New York City 30 

Paris 185 

Philadelphia 32 

Pittsburgh 33 

Rio de Janeiro 133 

San Francisco 79 

. Washington 101 




During the last hundred years the United States 
of Anaerica has become one of the busiest nations in 
the world. In every state, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and from the Canadian boundary to the Mexican 
frontier, most of the people are very busily engaged 
in some kind of work. Their occupations and many of 
their customs depend chiefly upon the geographic con- 
ditions in the regions where they live. 

We are a hopeful and enthusiastic people. We look 
forward to having better homes, more beautiful churches, 
and better schools. We want the people in the country 
to enjoy the advantages of good roads, mail service, the 
telephone, and many other comforts, and we look for 
better living and working conditions in the cities. 

Every boy and every girl in this country has an 
opportunity to rise to a position of great responsibility. 
The schools are open to all, and everyone who is able 
and willing to work hard may have the advantages 
of the highest and best education. Each one will have 
the responsibility of citizenship in a great nation. 

To fulfill the responsibility of citizenship, to help the 
home community, the state, and the nation, each one 
of us should understand the geography of this country ; 
and at this time, when the United States of America is 
taking a larger and larger part in affairs of world-wide 
importance, it is more necessary than ever before that 
we know also the geography of other countries. 

Variety in physical and human geography. Some 
parts of the United States are warm and other parts 
are cold ; some are well watered and forested, others 
have a moderate rainfall and are grasslands ; and still 
others are very dry. In some sections of the country 
there are plains, in some parts there are plateaus, and 
in other parts there are mountains. See map opposite 
page 82. Vast areas of rich soils have led to farming, 
and the extensive grasslands have invited many to 
raise cattle, horses, and sheep. The wonderful supplies 
of coal, oil, gas, and water-power, together with iron, 
copper, lead, and zinc, have made possible a most re- 
markable industrial development. People living on the 
coast, where there are good harbors, have very natu- 
rally become interested in commerce, and throughout 
the land many are engaged in ti-ade and transportation. 
Because the physical geography differs so widely in the 
many sections, the human geography varies also. 

Natural regions. For purposes of study, which should 
lead to an understanding of geography, the United States 
is divided into natural regions. See map on pages 2 and 3. 

A natural region is a portion of the earth's surface 
throughout which the geographic conditions which help 
to determine life do not differ greatly. When a natural 
region is very large, the climate in the distant parts 
will differ, and this difference must be considered in 
explaining the life of the region. 

Grei t Bear 120° Lake 

F Longitude 100° IWst ( 


O Giuu and Coaipaajr 


UNITED STATES (Pages 2, 3) 

1. Where are the young, rugged mountains of the United 
States ? the old, worn-down mountains ? 2. Name and locate 
tlie three large regions of plains in the United States. 

3. Tlie longest river in the world is on this map. Which 
one is it? See tables in Appendix. 4. The greatest system of 
fresh-water lakes in the world is on this map. Make a list of 

18. The routes of migration westward were of great im- 
portance in the settlement and development of this country. 
Frequent reference will be made to them in the text. Trace 
each one on the map. 19. What city has grown up where 
many of the western routes left the Missouri River? 

20. What was the easiest route through the Appalachian 
Mountains? 21. Which of the western routes avoided most 
of the mountains ? 22. Which of the western routes had the 
least desert country ? See map opposite paxje 82. 

23. Wiiat natural regions are crossed by the parallel of 40° 
north latitude? 24. What two states are separated by that 
parallel ? 25. In what natural region is (ireat Salt Lake ? 
Yellowstone National Park? the Grand Canyon? Mount 
Mitcliell ? Pikes Peak ? Mount Whitney ? 

26. In what region does the Mississippi River rise ? the 
Rio Grande? the Colorado River? the Tennessee River? 

Fig. 1. This steam plow is turning over the rich soil in the Great Plains. 

notice the gently rolling country and contrast it with the Rocky Mountains 

region shown in Fig. 2. Are any states entirely within the Great Plains ? 

What states are partly included in them ? 

the lakes. 5. Wiiat is the Continental Divide? Where is it? 
6. Can one go by water from Chicago or Duluth to Europe ? 
Describe the route. 7. The waters from what lakes flow over 
Niagara Falls ? See page 41, Fig. 74. 

8. What nations sent explorers to this country ? See Appen- 
dix,'Plate A. Where did they go? 9. What nation sent the 
men who sailed down the Mississippi River ? Who found the 
mouth of this river ? 

10. Learn to locate each of the natural regions. After 
studying the map, write the names of the regions in a list, 
close the book, and see if you can tell where each region is 

11. Add to your list of the natural regions the general 
elevation of each above sea level. 12. Which one of the 
western plateaus has, in general, the higher elevation ? 
13., Where' is the greatest delta on this map ? 

14. Suppose the sea withdrew to the edge of the continen- 
tal shelf, what states would be enlarged ? What state would 
gain the most land? 15. What parts of the United States 
have good harbors ? 16. Trace the southern limit of continental 
glaciation (ice action) from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. 
Through what states does it pass ? 

17. North of that line the land in the United States, ex- 
cept in tlie driftless area of Wisconsin and neighboring states;' 
has been covered by glacial ice. South of that line in the high 
mountains there were also glaciers. We must frequently refer 
to this line, for the surface features, soils, streams, and lakes 
north and south of it differ very greatly. 

Fig. 2. Glacier National Park, in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been 

set aside by our government as a vacation land for the people. It is a region 

of rugged mountains with glacier-covered peaks and heavily wooded slopes. 

In the valleys between the mountains are beautiful glacial lakes 

27. In what region does the Humboldt River end ? 28. What 
peak in Maine is in about the same latitude as j\Iont Blanc, 
Switzerland ? See eastern margin of map. 

29. What mountains in New York are about one degree 
farther north than Mount Vesuvius, Italy ? 30. Are the New 
England states and New York in the latitude of northern 
Europe or southern Europe ? 

31. Compare the latitude of Cape Henry with that of the 
Strait of Gibraltar. 32. Compare the latitude of Fuji Moun- 
tain, Japan, with that of the Grand Canyon in Arizona. 

33. Are the Himalaya Mountains of northern India as far 
north as the Sierra Nevada of California? 34. In general, 
how does the_ latitude of China and the Japanese islands 
compare with the latitude of the United States? 

35. What Atlantic seaport is in abont the same longitude 
as the Panama Canal? 3G. What is the difference in longi- 
tude from Boston to San Francisco ? 37. About how far, in 
miles, is it from Boston to San Francisco ? Use scale. 


Fig. 3. This is Lake Sunapee in New Hampshire, one of the thousands 
of beautiful lakes which are scattered among the hills and mountains of 
New England. Notice its irregular shape, its islands and wooded shores, 
and the cleared land surrounding the farmhouse at the right. In the distance 


beyond the lake you can see the rolling upland country of the old, worn- 
down Appalachians. What do the people of this region do for a living ? 
Can you explain why farming is difficult in this part of New England ? 
Why are there so many lakes in New England ? Of what use are they ? 

England states there are many areas of good soils, although 
much of the land is too hilly or too stony for farming. 

The rock formations (such as granite, marble, lime- 
stone, sandstone, and slate) of which the hills and 
mountains are made, and often the bowlders scattered 
about on the surface, are used as building materials. 
Much of the United States depends upon New England 
for granite and marble. i 

The seashore, the islands, the many beautiful lakes 
cellent harbors on the New England coast, and offshore, (Fig. 3), and the mountains serve as summer resorts, 
in the cold, shallow waters, fish have always been abun- They attract thousands of visitors each year, and in a 
dant. Forests once covered most of this region, and country where so many people live and work in large 
there are still extensive forests in the northern parts cities, such vacation grounds are a real natural resource 
of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Recently the of ever-increasing value. Many of the lakes serve as 
United States government has established a national reservoirs for city water supplies, others furnish ice, and 

New England 

In this portion of the United States, farming, lum- 
bering, and fishing were formerly the chief occupations, 
but now New England is a great manufacturing district. 
There must be some good reason for such a change. 

Natural resources. Use map on pmje 13. There are ex- 

forest in the White Moun- 
tains, and much of the land 
in that part of New Hamp- 
shire is being purchased by 
the government and will be 
reforested. Almost every 
farm in New England has 
a wood-lot which supplies 
fuel for the home. 

The broad, flat areas of 
the Connecticut River Low- 
land are the most extensive 
farm lands in this region 
(Fig. 4), but the lowlands 
bordering Lake Champlain 
in Vermont also have fertile 
soils. In each of the New 

Fig. 4. Much tobacco is grown in the southern part of the Connecticut 

River lowland. The leaves are picked and hung on racks like this to wilt 

in the sun. Then they are taken to the barns and dried. The Connecticut 

valley tobacco is used chieSy for making wrappers for cigars 

in many there are good 
supplies of fish. 

Another natural resource 
of very great importance, 
and one that helps to ex- 
plain why New England has 
become a manufacturing 
district, is the water-power. 
Most of the streams, large 
and small, have falls or 
rapids in their com'ses, and 
in those places dams have 
been constructed and mills 
have been erected. Many 
great plants have been built 
to transform the water- 
power into electric power. 


Fig. 6. Dairy herds like this are a very common sight in New England. 

In summer the cows graze over the grassy hillsides, but in winter they are 

fed indoors. The great cities of New England demand large quantities of 

milk and butter, and make dairying profitable for the farmer 

Even the Connecticut River, the largest stream in New 
England, is used to generate electricity. In several places 
a small stream has been dammed to generate electricity 
on a farm, so that the farmer may light his home and 
run machines with the power generated by the little 
stream that flows over his land. 

Climate. The rainfall in this region is enough for 
agriculture and for tree growth, and it is evenly dis- 
tributed; that is, about the same amount falls each 

The amount that falls in a year in New England is 
about 45 inches. See map on page 82. In any land 
where the rainfall is over 80 inches a year, as in the 
Amazon Basin, there is a very wet chmate. In places 
where the rainfall is less than 20 inches, as in some of 
our Western states, agriculture is unsafe without the help 
of irrigation. In the great deserts of the world the rain- 
fall is less than 10 inches a year, and in some, notably the 
Atacama Desert of northern Chile, it is almost nothing. 

Often during the winter "in New England there are 
very heavy snows, and though they cause much extra 
work and much inconvenience, they are a great pleasure 
to all who enjoy the winter landscape. The trees to be 
used for lumber are cut during the winter, and the logs 
are drawn over the snow to the streams. "When spring 
comes, the melting snows furnish water to the lakes and 
streams. These waters carry the logs to the mills, and 
there help to turn the wheels that generate power. 

Moisture in the air is very helpful in the spinning of 
cotton, and thus the climate of New England favors the 
development of one of the most important of the textile 
industries (Fig. 7). 

The average summer temperature is about 70 degrees, 
and during the winter the average temperatiu-e is about 
30 degrees. Temperatures as low as 40 degrees below 
zero are, however, not unknown to people in this part 
of the country. 

Such a climate, with large seasonal changes, forces the 
people to look ahead and provide for the future. New 
Englanders must build good, substantial houses, and, in 
order that their homes may be warm during the winter 
months, they must lay in supplies of fuel. Much of the 
food raised in the summer, such as potatoes and other 
vegetables, is put away for winter use, and during the 
winter months enough ice is cut and stored away to last 
for the next summer. In this way the climate tends to 
make people vigorous. 

Home work. 1. Find out how many inches of rain falls in your 
home district each year. For what crops is it sufficient ? Com- 
pare that amount with the amount that falls in New England each 
year. 2. Read about the life in a logging camp in the Maine woods. 

Note to Teacher. The home work planned in this book may 
often serve as library or desk work in school. In many cases it may 
be best to assign certain problems or exercises to Individual pupils or 
to committees to report upon. Encourage oral reports in class. 

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Fig. 6. This is one of the great manufacturing plants at Manchester, New 
Hampshire. It is located on the Merrimack River at a point where a water- 
fall occurs and provides power to run the machinery. This one mill turns 
out over two hundred million yards of cotton and worsted cloth each year. 

Water-power is a very valuable natural resource. Years ago it could be used 

only to turn the mill wheels directly, but now the falling water is made 

to generate electricity, and this hydroelectric power can be transmitted 

over great cables for use in factories which are hundreds of miles away 


Fig. 7. This is Fall River, Massachusetts, the largest cotton-manufacturing 
city in the United States. The city has water-power, but not enough for the 
industry ; most of the mills use steam power. Fall River has a safe, almost 
landlocked, harbor, deep enough for large passenger vessels and freighters. 

Advantages for manufacturing, — summary. The loca- 
tion of New England on the Atlantic seaboard, its many 
excellent harbors and its numerous rapid streams so 
well supplied with falls, the moist air, an invigorating 
climate, and a distribution of rainfall which supplies 
streams and reservoirs with water throughout the year, 
are factors which have made possible the rapid develop- 
ment of manufacturing. 

The construction of railroads and the improvement 
in steamship service have greatly assisted the industrial 
growth. Thousands of people have come to New England 
to work in the mills and factories. 

Settlements and occupations. The Pilgrims first landed 
near the tip end of Cape Cod, where Provincetown is 
located, but they soon sailed across the bay and estab- 
lished their first settlement at Plymouth. Each of the 
good harbors along the New England coast attracted 
settlers, and the largest coast cities have developed near 
the best harbors. 

Some of the streams are navigable {see map, p. 13), 
and at the head of navigation other settlements were 
started, such as Augusta and Bangor in Maine. 

The settlers who undertook farming needed trading 
centers where they could sell their products and buy 
their supplies, and towns soon began to appear in the 
better agricultural parts of the region. 

Little by little each of the seaports and each of the 
settlements increased in size. Lumbering and shipbuild- 
ing were undertaken, and many engaged in fishing. As 
ships became available and there were fish and lumber to 
use in trade, some commerce was undertaken ; and from 
those early days to the present time the New England 
people have become more and more interested in and 
dependent upon commerce. 

Locate Fall River on your map. How do the manufacturers get coal to make 

steam for their mills ? Where does the raw cotton come from ? Where do 

most of the manufactured cotton goods go ? Explain why New England is 

one of the two great cotton-manufacturing centers of the United States 

The mills demanded raw materials, and in response the 
ships brought large quantities of cotton from the South- 
ern states. Later, vessels brought cotton from Egypt to 
be manufactured into cloth in New England. Wool was 
first furnished from the sheep raised in the New England 
pastures. To-day wool is brought to Boston from all 
the leading sheep-raising countries of the world. The 
srtiall mills were increased in size, until now the New 
England mills are immense structures (Figs. 6, 8). 

With the introduction of railroads more raw materials 
were brought to this part of the country, food supplies 
were imported from the great agricultural districts in 
the interior of the United States, and the manufactured 
articles of New England were sent west and south to 
markets that increased rapidly in number and in size. 

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Fig. 8. Here are the great woolen mills at Lawrence, Massachusetts, on 
the Merrimack River. The Merrimack turns more factory wheels than any 
other river in the world. What other cities along this river have impor- 
tant water-power development? Where do the woolen manufacturers at 
Lawrence get their raw wool ? 



New Bedford, Fall River (Fig. 7), and 
Providence are at the heads of bays. 
The first two are important centers for 
the manufacture of cotton goods, and 
they depend largely upon ocean traffic, 
but Providence is far inland and is 
making more and more use of railroad 
service. It is one of the leading cities 
for the manufacture of silverware and 
brassware. New Haven and Bridgeport 
are busy manufacturing centers on the 
coast of Connecticut. Hartford is an 
important industrial city at the head of 
navigation on the Connecticut River. 

With the development of railroads 
much of the trade between the coast 
cities, which was formerly dependent 
The manufacture of shoes, which began in a small way, upon shipping by water, is now carried on by rail. This 
has become a very large industry. Hardware, cutlery, often saves a great deal of time. 

watches, and many kinds of jewelry are made on a large Vermont has no seacoast, but its largest city, Burling- 
scale. The lumbering and shipbuilding have continued, ton, has a good harbor on Lake Champlain. Burlington 
but now many of the vessels are made of steel. Much has a large lumber trade. 

of the wood of the forests is being made into pulp and A second group of cities in New England owe their loca- 
used in the manufacture of paper. tion to water-power sites. See map on page 13. Begin- 

In time the water-power proved insufficient, so coal ning again at the north, we find Lewiston and Auburn on 
was brought, chiefly from Pennsylvania, in order tha^t opposite banks of the Androscoggin River, Avhere there 
more mills and more factories could be built, and that is water-power. Near the mouth of the Saco are Bidde- 

Fig. 9. This is a steamship and railroad terminal at Portland, Maine. In the center, along the 

wharves, are the railroad tracks and the great storage warehouses. Can you explain the advantage 

of such an arrangement as this ? Portland is the largest city in Maine, with an excellent harbor, 

deep enough for the largest vessels. What are the chief exports and imports of Portland ? 

all of them could run throughout the year. 

Home work. On an outline map of the United States color in 
the boundaries of the New England states ; print in the abbre- 
viations of the state names ; add the names of the capitals and 
chief seaports. Keep this map and add to it as the study of the 
United States proceeds. 

Location and growth of cities. Use map on pacje 13. 
Those settlements that were so fortunate as to be located 
on good harbors or on navigable rivers have become 
important commercial centers. Beginning at the north 
we find Bangor and Augusta. They have the advantage of 
being seaports and also of being inland cities surrounded 
by productive lands. Lumbering has helped to develop 
these cities, for they are near the forests. 

Portland has an excellent harbor and has become 
one of the chief seaports of New England (Fig. 9). 
Portsmouth is the leading seaport of New Hampshire. 
Gloucester, on a very good harbor near Cape Ann, is an 
important fishing port (Fig. 10). 

Boston, the largest city in this group of states, and 
the capital of Massachusetts, has one of the best harbors 
in the United States. This seaport has the advantage 
of being nearer the great European coast cities than 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or any other Amer- 
ican port farther south on the Atlantic coast (Fig. 11). 

ford and Saco, another pair of cities on opposite sides of a 
stream, where there is power available. Lowell, Lawrence 
(Fig. 8), Nashua, Manchester, and Concord all depend 
in part upon the Merrimack River for power (Fig. 6). 
Holyoke is located where there are rapids in the 

Detroit i^ib. Co. 

Fig. 10. This is a codfish-drying yard at Gloucester, Massachusetts. A great 

many of the people of the town are engaged in the fishing industry. Some 

of them catch the fish, others cure and salt it, and still others buy and sell it. 

Massachusetts salt cod is sent all over the world 



Connecticut River, 
and power was se- 
cured by damming 
the stream. This city 
manufactures most of 
the high-grade paper 
made in the United 
States. At Pawtucket, 
Rhode Island, at Nor- 
wich, in Connecticut, 
and in numerous 
other places in the 
New England states, 
water-power has been 
developed for manu- 
facturing purposes. 

Often the water- 
power is used to 
generate electricity, 
and that form of 
energy is sent over 
wires for miles and 
miles, so that distant 
cities are furnished 
with electricity for 
lighting, for use as 
power in factories, 
and for running the 
trolley cars. 

A third group of 

j) Ginn ftnd Companj 

Fig. H. This is an aeroplane drawing of Boston. Describe the country surrounding Boston. What rivers enter Boston 
Harbor ? What are the good features of the harbor ? Boston imports more wool, hides, and skins than any other port in the 
world. For what are they used ? Boston is the leading fish market of the United States. What does Boston export ? How 
does Boston rank in size among the cities of the United States ? See tables in Appendix. What places of special historic 
interest are shown in the drawing ? Lynn is best known for shoes, Waltham for watches, and Quincy for granite. Harvard 
University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge. Wellesley College is located at the western 

margin of the sketch, on the shore of a small lake 

cities (and they are 

chiefly inland cities) may easily be remembered by asso- Barre, Vermont, has wonderful quarries in great hills of 

ciating with the name of the city the particular industry granite. Proctor and Rutland, in the same state, produce 

which has been developed there on a large scale. 

Starting in the north, Millinocket (Fig. 12) and Rum- 
ford Falls, in Maine, are making paper from wood pulp. 

"I Ur*ft{ Nottbcrn Pkpcr t'ompwi, 

Fig. 12. The town of Millinocket, Maine, has grown up around the largest 

paper mills in the world. At the left are the great piles of spruce wood 

ready to be ground into pulp. In the center is the main oflSce building of 

the plant. Explain the location of this industry here 

large quantities of marble. 

Brockton, Lynn, and Haverhill, in Massachusetts, manu- 
facture more boots and shoes than any other three cities 
in the United States.- Worcester is best known for its 
iron and steel works. It has large wire mills and many 
machine shops. Springfield is a prosperous city in the 
Connecticut valley and is an important center for the 
manufacture of cars, automobiles, and firearms. 

Waterbury and Ansonia in Connecticut are best known 
for their brass ware. South Manchester has made a spe- 
cialty of manufacturing silk (Fig. 13). Willimantic is a 
cotton-manufacturing city. 

Woonsocket, in Rhode Island, has excellent water-power 
and is an important center for woolen manufacture. 

Home work. On an outline map place the imports and exports 
of any city in which you are especially interested. The Chamber 
of Commerce of that city will usually furnish you the necessary 
information. As the study progresses this exercise could well be 
repeated for several cities and certainly for the home town. 



Explanation of New England Sceneey 

Mountain-making. Long, long ago — undoubtedly 
millions of years ago — the rocks in this part of the 
continent were compressed. They were folded and forced 
high into the air. That made mountains throughout 
most if not all of New England. 

Wearing down. Rains, winds, changes of temperature, 
freezing of water in the cracks of rocks, helped to break 

up the mountain 
tops, as the rocks 
are being broken 
up on the top of 
Mount Washing- 
ton and all high 
mountains to-day. 
Little by little, 
streams cut their 
valleys deeper and 
deeper, and took 
the loose material 
away to the sea. 
A long period fol- 
lowed, when the 
land was being 
worn down and 
the high moun- 
tainswere reduced 
to low mountains 
or to hills. 

Ice invasion. While the streams were at work cuttinar 
down the highlands a more remarkable thing happened. 
A great ice-sheet formed on the land east of Hudson Bay 
(Fig. 14). For years more snow fell each winter in that 
region than melted in the following summer. Thus a 
great snowbank was formed. In the bottom of that snow- 
bank, as the snow was compressed, ice was formed, in 
much the same way as ice is formed when you press 
a snowball in your hands. In time the huge ice mass 
began to move. As it advanced it gathered stones and 
rocks and soil, so that when it came into New England 
it was rock shod. As it moved southward it wore off 
the hill-tops and broadened the valleys (Fig. 15). 

This great ice-sheet covered even the highest moun- 
tains in New England. On the top of Mount Washington 
there are stones that the ice-sheet left there, and on the 
top of Mount Monadnock, in southern New Hampshire, 
the bare rock surfaces still show the scratches that 
were made by the stones frozen into the base of the ice- 
sheet when it passed over this summit. The glacier ad- 
vanced until its southern margin was in the Atlantic Ocean 
(Fig. 14). The islands of Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket 
were in part covered by the ice. On the southernmost 

'■) Kcjstone Vievf Cu- 

Fig. 13. This woman is sorting and weighing skeins 
of raw silk in a silk mill at South Manchester, 
Connecticut. Connecticut is the only New England 
state which has developed an important silk- 
manufacturing industry- 

shores of Marthas Vineyard there are rocks that the glacier 
carried from the mainland and left there when it melted. 

About half of Long Island was covered by the ice- 
sheet, and the belt of hills that extends from east to 
west through the middle of the island is made of stones, 
sands, and clays left by the ice (Fig. 39). That belt of 
hills is a part of the deposit left by the glacier and 
marks the southern limit of ice advance in that region. 

Retreat of the ice. When the climate grew warmer, the 
ice slowly melted away. All the stones that were in the 
glacier were left on the ground. The streams that came 
from the melting glacier washed some of the sands and 
gravels southward, and in many places made great plains 
of that loose material. This explains why New England 
has so many bowlders, and why in some places the soil is 
sandy and gravelly. 

Waterfalls, rapids, and lakes. As the ice melted 
farther to the northward the material which it left 
blocked many of 
the stream courses. 
The rivers had to 
find new ways to 
the sea. In doing 
this they some- 
times had difficul- 
ties. There was 
hard rock to be 
cut away. This 
is the explanation 
of the falls and 
rapids. Streams 
commonly have 
falls or rapids 
where they cross 
hard rock. Other 
streams were so 
blocked by the de- 
posits of glacial 
material that the 
waters could not 

get out, and so hundreds of ponds and lakes came into 
existence. Where such ponds and lakes have been 
drained there are fertile meadow lands. 

Note to Teacher. Each pupil should be encouraged to make a 
collection of pictures and to prepare a portfolio or a scrapbook. Adver- 
tising booklets, newspapers, and magazines will furnish an abundance 
of material. As the study of geography proceeds, the pupils should 
bring to class the pictures they have obtained of the country under 
consideration, and thus additional illustrations, in which the pupils are 
especially interested, will be available for each lesson. 

Home work. 1. Arrange your own pictures of New England 
in groups showing the scenery or occupations 2. Write at least 
fifty words of description about each one. 

Fig. 14. This map shows the extent to which 
North America was covered by ice in the glacial 
period. Where were the four great centers of 
snow accumulation ? Which of these centers has 
an ice-sheet to-day ? 



Inlets and harbors. When the ice advanced through 
the valleys to the coast, it deepened these valleys and 
dug out great quantities of the earth. When it retreated, 
there were deeper channels which helped to make the 
large inlets where the best harbors are now located. The 
retreat of the ice from Boston Harbor left hills of earth 
that rise above the sea as islands, and these islands are 
a natural protection for the harbor. 

Sinking of the land. Another wonderful thing has 
happened which has helped New England. The land near 
the shore has been depressed, or lowered, and the sea 
waters have advanced into the mouths of the rivers. For 
this reason New England is said to have a " drowned 
coast." The drowning and the ice action have made 
the coast irregular and produced the good harbors. 

') Uenrj U. P.fcbody 

Fig. 15. This is Crawford Notcli in the White Mountains of New England. 
Notice the gently rounded, forest-covered slopes, and contrast them with 
the sharp, rugged peaks in Fig. 2 on page 4. The White Mountains are 
part of the old, worn-down Appalachian Highlands, which form the highest 
land in the eastern United States 

The rock islands off the coast of Maine and New 
Hampshire are due chiefly to the sinking of the land. 
They are hill-tops, standing with only their heads out 
of the water (Fig. 16). We shall find that the eleva- 
tion of many lands above sea level has been changed ; 
some of them have been depressed and others have been 

Lafayette Park. A portion of Mount Desert Island 
on the coast of Maine has been set aside as the Lafayette 
National Park. This is the first national park east of 
the Mississippi River. 

Summary. Almost everything of natural origin in New 
England has proved to be a real resource to man: the 
harbors, the streams with their water-power, the forests, 
the soils, and the underlying rocks. The moist climate, 

Fig. 16. Bar Harbor is one of the many beautiful summer resorts on the 

Maine coast. The islands which you can see in the view are just the tops 

of hills which used to stand entirely above water. Because the coast has 

sunk, Maine is said to have a "drowned shore line" 

with enough rainfall for farming and for the lakes and 
streams, has proved to be a natural resource. The moim- 
tain scenery, the many lakes, and the seashore are true 
natural resources. As a busy people we need play- 
grounds, we need vacations, and these restful and beauti- 
ful spots are now of great value to us. 

The future. New England will always be an industrial, 
or manufacturing, district. There are natural advantages 
here which will continue to give this part of the country 
the leadership in certain lines of manufacturing. The 
forests, now in part held by the government, will be 
more wisely cared for. The fishing interests should be 
conserved. The great supplies of building stone will 
last almost indefinitely. Market-gardening, dairying, 
and poultry-farming may all be developed much more 
extensively, and the planting and care of apple trees 
should be promoted. With scientific care many of the 
abandoned farms will again become productive. 




1 ^- -(j»)i _ i|»u"lT> '^' 


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Fig. 17. The woolen mills at Winooski, Vermont, owe their location to the 

falls of the Winooski River. More and more of the New England waterfalls 

are being harnessed and made to produce power for industry. What are the 

chief products of New England manufacture ? 



Problems and review questions. 1. Where were the first settle- 
ments of white people in this region ? 2. What natural advan- 
tages led to the location of these settlements ? 3. What natural 
advantages led to the more rapid growth of Boston ? 4. What 
disadvantages did the early settlers find in this region ? 

6. To what occupations did the forests lead ? the water-power ? 
6. Where are there wood-pulp mills ? 7. For what is the pulp 
used ? 8. Why was sheep-raising undertaken by many New Eng- 
land people? 9. What factors led to the abandonment of New 
England farms ? 

10. What leading cities have been much benefited by a loca- 
tion on the coast? 11. What cities have developed at the head 
of navigation on certain of the rivers ? 12. What river in New 
England has been most used in developing water-power ? 

13. Why are the mouths of the New England rivers wide and 
deep ? 14. What is the largest river in New England ? 15. What 
are the chief manufactured products of New England ? 16. Why 
has New England become a manufacturing region ? 

17. Name a leading cotton-manufacturing center ; a woolen- 
manufacturing center ; two cities where boots and shoes are made 
in large numbers. 18. Could New England get along easily 
without importing foods from other regions ? Why ? 

19. What foods has New England in such quantities that some 
may be exported? 20. Where does the fuel for New England 
come from ? How is it sent ? 21. Why should there be so many 
large bowlders in the fields ? 22. Why do we find scratched and 
polished rock surfaces along the coast of Maine and on many 
of the mountains ? 

23. How much of New England was formerly covered by ice ? 
24. Where did this ice come from ? 25. How was the ice formed ? 
26. Why did the ice disappear ? 27. Why do the farmers build 
stone walls about their fields in New England ? 28. How do the 
attractive summer resorts along the coast and in the mountains 
benefit New England ? 


Maine. The White Mountains that center in New Hamp- 
shire extend northeastward into Maine, but do not reach quite 
to the eastern border of the state. Note on the map the 
curving brown line which runs from Saddleback Mountain 
to a point near Houlton. North of this line the land bor- 
dering the old, worn-down mountains is a plateau country. 
South of this line the land is part of the Coastal Hilly Belt. 

All of Maine is within the Appalachian Highlands, where 
there is a pleasing variety in the surface features. Lakes and 
streams are abundant. The irregular coast has numerous pic- 
turesque inlets and islands. 1. Locate Mt. Katahdin and give 
its elevation. 2. Name two navigable rivers ; three large lakes. 

IJew Hampshire. The center of scenic interest in this state 
is Mt. Washington, and the outlook from the summit is over 
the Presidential Range and the beautiful lake district in the 
bordering hilly country. The lowlands near the Connecticut 
River and small areas among the hills of the Coastal Belt 
furnish attractive opportunities for farming. The state is 
fortunate in having large supplies of good building stone, 
extensive forests, and an abundance of water-power. 

Vermont. The Green Mountains extend from north to 
south through this state. In the northwest are the fertile 
agricultural lowlands that border Lake Champlain, and in the 

southeast the farm lands of the Connecticut River Lowland. 
The mountains are forested and furnish large quantities of 
lumber. The granites and marbles of the mountains are used 
as building and ornamental stones, and the valleys between 
the ranges are used as farm lands. Water-power is available 
in many places. 

Massachusetts. This state is fortunate in having a great 
variety in surface features and soils. The Connecticut River 
Lowland is between two belts of old, worn-down mountains. 
To the west are the Berkshire Hills. They represent the 
southward extension of the Green Mountains. To the east 
are the Central Highlands of Massachusetts. They are the 
southward extension of the White IMountains. Farther east 
is the Coastal Hilly Belt, and in the extreme southeast a little 
of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Cape Cod, Nantucket, and 
jMarthas Vineyard are in the Coastal Plain region and have 
light, sandy soils. The hills and mountains contain building 
stones, much of the land is suitable for farming, and nearly 
every stream furnishes water-power. 

Rhode Island. This is tlie only state entirely within the 
Coastal Hilly Belt. The sinking of the land has allowed the 
sea to advance inland and form Narragansett Bay. Here 
there are good harbors and many islands and peninsulas that 
furnish attractive sites for seaside homes and resorts. 

Connecticut. Near the coast this state is hilly, and the hills 
become higher to the north and northwest near the old, worn- 
down mountauis. The Connecticut River Lowland crosses 
from Hartford to New Haven, but the river leaves the Low- 
land at Middletown and flows southeastward to Long Island 
Sound. The manufacturing centers of this state are fortu- 
nate in being near the great markets of the city of New York. 


1. Are the products of New England all used there, or are 
some exported ? 2. What countries do New England manu- 
facturers draw upon most for raw material ? 3. Why should 
the New England farmers give so much attention to dairy- 
ing, gardening, and poultry-raising ? 

4. Where do the grains and meats come from that are ex- 
ported from Boston and Portland ? 5. What conditions off- 
shore make favorable fishing grounds ? 6. What are the 
chief crops of the Connecticut River Lowland ? 7. Where 
is maple sugar made in large quantities ? 

8. Where is granite obtained ? Where is marble obtained ? 
9. How may the irregular coast line of New England, which 
has given such good harbors, be explained ? 

10. What rivers in New England are navigable ? 11. To 
what state do Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard belong? 

12. What state in this group is without a seacoast? 
13. What water route is there from Burlington, Vermont, 
to the sea? 14. Is Boston or Buffalo farther from^ the 
equator ? See western margin of map. 

15. Compare the latitude of Providence with that of Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 16. What city in France is in about the same lati- 
tude as Bangor, Maine ? See eastern margin of map, 17. What 
New England states border on the Canadian frontier ? 

Note. For a study of New England cities see pages 8 and 9. 





D Lone. TV yy—t E from 70^ Creen^wich 






Scale of statute miles 


Scale of kilometers 



■k State capitals 
=3w Navisrable rivers 

• Chief seaports 

'¥ Large water power sites 



I Uplands and 
I plateaus 

I Old. worn-down 

Military Camp 

Camp Devens, D 6 


Johns •( 





> 1 D 




Caribou 1 


Heron . 
Ai ai/aah L.Q- 





\\\ Ft.Fairfi|ld, 

' Presfljif 

), :rloin'^ " 

■^^ 'Houlton^ 
Island Falls 

Co, I 

/nATS Bartop 

rtuHington HarTlwick -ville JIv.»nca8tci^_ 
'■■'^ " - •  - Whjudeld Gorham 



Island f North 
Pond l.Stratfcrtl 

-„ . , , -r •■ ii^Vo, Wilton 0,1-1',"^'"* W3nterp6rt 

Morristown r-nrfnnJtNorthomb rland'^'^V'''' ' , '-'•i''^"na •WateVville | i 
—■'•'" — -J^yj  *WinsIow 


• Bristol •NorthfioW 
Williumstown* *> Wellsfl 

WoodsviHe ^- ", 

iLaka /L 


Mi^d dlebury, -, 

Zprandon .Bethel 

VT. J, -I--V" •./. 

Hartford-jrHanover - Osaipe 

^i)it*hallV 1 

rrot. N.H. , 




, i^'**^^- Milii'notltfet^lt 

I Lake ' \ ' ' 

(irijunville'*' Schoodif L. . 

■- '-■ I 

' Brownvitfc' ^ ' 

'^,,.Saddleback 'Mtri- .Dexter 




^Lincoln e 






_ Anson. ;^Newp5rtJ^Ba„go, 
<f "S,';^?^ _F"i.-»eld, '"'VX\"„.„L.. Bucksp4 


•Bethel •% 
Norway ■:• 


■^t.lVt hington.'L 

Falls . -£■- 

j .Augusta 


I Lakes ^■. ^ 






/ -JiANAN 


^ .,^^'""'"'^ 
GarJtaur, Hockporti 

_,LewiBton„. , Kockhiiiil 

.-?<• Lisbon •Richmondv,. .. 

&iA£wi.SLM#ct. - ^Xx 






r.t ri^anaan .\k-i-ojltth " 



1 Berwick 


I "' I i . ,, vvinasoif Franklin .'•Lacdnia J~-e ' . ?j;Jaco 

IludstnPalU'- !;• r>''o'''^* „->/ NewpW •! FarminatoAS ^"f '°''<' BWdefordj 

\ ,-r-r ^ ilawletSprmKfieW.Vi • ifSunaphe A= >Kfenne" 

W Vf Dofet.t-he3ter. '11 C'""pont. ^^'^ R^hestX 

.BeriningtonX •!, Manchcstert^s^: -Exeter iSv^s of siCoals 

7IT~~2tWS>iiSi£l_NiiahuaT\^MTi tli;'?r""""'* * 
aius Grieniieid fC^jTTS'RcnSS^Tt^^La wreT 

1 '''a''^/ •'' L03STER 




I. «o„n,s ar;-^ , TGarun«ri i^f^Lo^e,, '-VJGIoucest 

/^OBarrfjIttn ) HolWeiCj . ^■^V^'^^orcester * ' 
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Lf An»<iii.i. .\ 

louth Bay 

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ro luAopc 







Monomoy Pt. 



fie TJK« B»'*i» j?^ Sound 
* '■ i \ r'/>- ^"*° naiJtucketi. 





A 74 





D i^ne. 71" »Vm( E flvm 70' OrMnrmo* 



® Clan and Coiiipaof 



Fig. 18. The Cape Cod Canal in Massachusetts was opened in 1914. It 
connects Cape Cod Bay with Buzzards Bay, making a short, safe route from 
Boston to Long Island Sound, in place of the long, dangerous trip around 
the Cape. Here is a tugboat passing through a liftbridge over the canal. 

lateroktian^ Film bcrucc, luo- 

The canal is 8 miles long, 100 feet wide, and 25 feet deep, making it possible 
for large vessels to pass through it. Its cost was twelve million dollars, 
but already it has saved merchants and shippers many times that amount. 
Locate the canal on the map on page 13. In what natural region is it? 


To open the study of this natural region, examine 
each of the pictures from Fig. 18 to Fig. 39, reading 
the statements below the pictures. Make a list of all 
the facts you discover in this way. What are the occu- 
pations of the people ? Is the country rough or smooth ? 
Is it wet or dry ? Are any rock ledges shown ? Are there 
any great bowlders in the soil, as in New England ? 
What are the principal crops? Make a list of the sea- 
ports shown in the views. What parts of this area appear 
to be the warmest? The maps and the text will sup- 
plement what has been learned by studying the pictures. 

Climate. The Coastal Plain extendi so far from north 
to south that the cUmate at one end 
differs greatly from that at the other 
end. The temperature along the Gulf 
coast is about 85 degrees in summer 
and about 50 degrees in winter. 
Farther north, along the Middle 
Atlantic states and the southern 
shores of New England, the summers 
are warm, but the winter temperature 
often falls below zero. Many of the 
beaches of New Jersey, Long Island, 
and eastward to the end of Cape Cod 
are used as summer resorts, and many 
of the beaches in the South, especially 
in Florida, are winter resorts. 

The Gulf Stream flows northward 
along the Atlantic coast ; it brings 
warm waters northward and keeps 

Fig. 19. These are brave men of the United States 

Coast Guard. They patrol the coast and go to the 

rescue of ships in distress. This view shows one 

of their large life-saving boats 

the air near the coast, both over the sea and over the 
land, somewhat warmer than it would otherwise be. 
Along the east Gulf and Atlantic coast, within this 
region, the rainfall varies from 40 to 60 inches a year. 
That is enough for agriculture. West of the Mississippi 
River the rainfall decreases from about 50 inches to 20 
inches near the Rio Grande. At the Mexican frontier 
agriculture is uncertain unless irrigation is practiced. 

Storms often originate over the warm waters of the 
tropics and start inland across the Gulf coast or north- 
ward along the Atlantic coast. These storms commonly 
bring rain to the coastal lowlands. Some of the storms 
are dangerous to coastwise shipping, but the United 
States Weather Bureau stations in 
the West Indies and on the mainland 
now send out warnings by wireless, 
so that sea captains may know when 
such storms are near and what way 
they are traveling. The captain who 
receives such warning may change 
his course and thus avoid meeting 
the storm. 

Natural resources. The Atlantic 
and Gulf Coastal Plain includes ex- 
tensive areas of good farming land. 
In many places the soils are light 
and sandy. Such soils, when fertil- 
ized, are suitable for the raising of 
fruit and vegetables. In Long Island, 
in New Jersey, and farther south 
near each of the larger cities the 

Undorwood & UBdexwood 









4^*^ 5 













. ._ ^. 











> . / 


IpiKg^^' ~.C7" 

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On the map on page 25 
notice in what parts of 
Louisiana and Texas nat- 
ural oil, or petroleum, and 
natm*al gas have been dis- 
covered (Fig. 24), and in 
what parts of Texas coal 
is found. The coal in the 
Coastal Plain region of Texas 
is lignite, a soft, brown coal, 
somewhat woody in ap- 
pearance. The coal farther 
north, in the Central Plains 
portion of the state, is bi- 
tuminous, the grade com- 
monly known as " soft 
coal," and very widely 
used in manufacturing. 
Louisiana and Texas also 
have important sulphur beds, which provide the largest 
source of supply in the country. 

The navigable rivers and the harbors of the Coastal 
Plain must also be counted among the chief natural re- 
the lowlands are used for cultivating rice (Figs. 21, 22). sources of this region. Notice on the maps on pages 23 
The great alluvial, or river-made, lands near the Missis- and 25 how many of the rivers of this region are navi- 
sippi River and on the Mississippi delta are wonder- gable, and what seaports are located near their mouths, 
fully fertile, and there large crops of sugar (Figs. 25, 26), Occupations. Agriculture is quite evidently the chief 
rice, and cotton are raised. occupation in this region. Many farmers who formerly 

Offshore, the shallow waters which cover the conti- thought that the Central Plains region was the best part 
nental shelf abound in fish, many varieties of which are of the country to live in have migrated to the southern 
used as food. The quiet waters of the drowned river plains, where it is not necessary to spend much for warm 
mouths provide great quantities of oysters, and the clothing or for coal. The settlers may work out of doors 
wann waters which surround the southern end of Florida most of the time, and such healthful work is becoming in- 
contain large numbers of valuable sponges and turtles, creasingly attractive to large numbers of American people. 

Coastal Plain soils are used 
for market-gardening and 
fruit-raising. In other parts 
of the Coastal Plain the 
lands are vised for genei-al 

Deposits of phosphate 
rock are available in several 
localities (see inaj), p. 23), 
and that rock, when pul- 
verized, makes an excellent 
fertilizer (Fig. 20). 

A large part of the 
Coastal Plain is still over- 
grown with a pine forest. 
This forest is one of the 
most valuable of the nat- 
ural resources, and fur- 
nishes much of the lumber 
used in the Southern states and even in the Northern 
states for building purposes. There are also large cypress 
groves in the Southern states, where lumber is obtained. 

Near the coast, where the climate is warm enough, 

Fig. 20. This is a phosphate-mining plant in Florida. The phosphate 

rock is dug out of pits, loaded onto little cars, and carried to the crushers, 

where it is ground up. The state of Florida produces half the world's 

supply of phosphate rock. For what is it used ? 

EcjatoM VUw Co. 

Fig. 21. These men are cultivating a rice held on the Coastal Plain. Rice 

is not a native grain of North America, but came originally from Asia. In 

1694 the governor of South Carolina planted a little rice in his garden, and 

it grew 80 well that the industry was started in this country 

Fig. 22. After the rice is harvested it is threshed in a machine which 

separates the kernels from the straw. This view shows the threshing 

machine and the stack of straw in the background, and in the foreground the 

bags of rice ready to be shipped. What states produce rice ? 



Fig. 23. These negroes are picking cotton on a Southern plantation. As 
yet no one has invented a successful machine for picking the cotton fiber 
and seeds from the pod, so the work is done by hand. What are the chief 
cotton-growing states ? In what two natural regions is the cotton grown ? 

The greatest cotton-producing region in the world is 
located in the Southern states, where the climate is warm 
(Fig. 23). The large farms are called plantations. The 
cotton crop requires the help of thousands of people. 
In the fields there is the work of planting, cultivating, 
and harvesting. The cotton fiber must be picked from 
the bolls by hand and carried to the cotton gins, where 
the lint cotton is separated from the seeds and baled. 
It is then ready for market. 

The seeds of the cotton are sold to the oil mills. In the 
mills the seeds are first put through a process by which 
all the short lint left on them by the gin is removed ; 
this is called linters and is used for making mattresses 

and guncotton, and for other purposes. The hulls are then 
removed from the seed. The cottonseed hulls make ex- 
cellent feed for cattle and are nearly as valuable for this 
purpose as hay. The oil is then pressed out of the seed ; 
cottonseed oil is used as a substitute for olive oil and 
lard and for other purposes. The residue of the seed, 
after the oil has been extracted, is called cottonseed-oil 
cake ; this cake is ground into meal, and cottonseed 

Fig. 24. The petroleum fields of the Gulf Coastal Plain are dotted with 
derricks like these, each built over an oil well. The Gulf Field, as the oil 
legion of Louisiana and Texas is called, was opened up about 1900, and 
since then these two states have become very important producing centers 

Fig. 25. Railroad lines run through the broad fields of sugar cane in 

Louisiana, and as the cane is cut it is loaded onto the cars and taken to the 

mills, where it is crushed and the juice extracted. Louisiana produces 

eleven twelfths of the total sugar-cane crop of the country 

meal is used for cattle feed and for fertilizer. It is ver}' 
rich in nitrogen and is largely used in commercial 
fertilizers for furnishing this element. 

The Southern cotton plantations have a dangerous 
enemy in the cotton-boll weevil, an insect which attacks 
the cotton plant and destroys the fibers in the boll. The 
United States government is making a great effort to 
kill off these insects in the areas where they have estab- 
lished themselves, and to prevent their causing further 
damage by spreading to other cotton-growing districts. 

More and more of the cotton grown in the Southern 
states is now being manufactured into cloth in the South. 
The cotton mills are operated by water-power, steam- 
power, and hydroelectric power. 

From the earliest days of colonization rosin and turpen- 
tine have been obtained from pine resin. These products 
are commonly called naval stores, because they were 
used in preparing wooden ships for the water (Fig. 32). 

In New Jersey the sands of the Coastal Plain are used 
in the manufacture of glass, and the clays from the low- 
lands have led to the establishment of the pottery business. 

Since the discovery of petroleum, or natural oil, in 
Louisiana and Texas these states have rapidly developed 
a large oil business. Large quantities of the petroleum 
obtained from the ground are piped to ports on the 
coast and then shipped to industrial centers. A great 
amount of sulphur is mined in these two states, and 
Louisiana produces great quantities of salt. 



History of settlement. 
The Coastal Plain is espe- 
cially interesting to us 
from a historical stand- 
point. Provincetown, pro- 
tected by a curved sand 
bar, or hook, at the tip end 
of Cape Cod, has grown 
up near where the Pil- 
grims first landed in Amer- 
ica before making their 
settlement at Plymouth. 

When settlers came to 
Delaware Bay, to Chesa- 
peake Bay, and to the 
mouths of navigable riv- 
ers farther south, they 

moved upstream to the head of navigation. That was 
at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain. See maps on 
pages 23 and 35. At that line falls were encountered 
in the rivers, and the ocean-going vessels had to stop. 

Where falls were met in the James River, Richmond 
was established. The colonists who moved up Chesa- 

Fig. 26. This is a great sugar refinery in Louisiana. The raw sugar, which is the crystallized juice crushed from 

the cane, is brought here to be purified. First it is melted, then filtered and cleared, and finally recrystallized into 

the white sugar of commerce. Where does the raw sugar for this refinery come from ? 

that were there. The line connecting these cities is called 
the/aZZ line. It is the western boundary of the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain, and it continues westward, forming the 
northern boundary of the eastern part of the Gulf 
Coastal Plain. See map on pages 2 and 3. 

In the Southern states a number of early settlements 
peake Bay located Baltimore at the inner margin of were made near the mouths of the larger rivers, and 
the Coastal Plain. Those who attempted to go up the they became seaports, such as Wilmington (North Caro- 

Schuylkill stopped at the falls in that river and founded 
a settlement that has grown into the great city of Phila- 
delphia. In trying to go up the Delaware River, falls 
were encountered where Trenton is now located. 

Columbia, in South Carolina, is at the head of naviga- 

lina), Charleston, Savannah, Jacksonville, Mobile, and 
New Orleans. 

Several of the early Spanish and French explorers came 
to the mouth of the Mississippi and went up that river 
into the interior of the continent. See Appendix, Plate A. 

tion, as are Augusta, Macon, and Columbus in Georgia, The names in the Mississippi Valley, such as New Orleans, 
and Montgomery in Alabama. Many other cities have Baton Rouge, and St. Louis, suggest that the French 
grown up along this inner margin because of the falls nation was interested in this part of North America. 

O Ktjn 

Fig. 27. The Coastal Plain sands of the shores 
of sonthern Florida support a large growth of 
coconut palms. This view shows the clusters 
of coconuts growing around the trunk of the tree 

Fig. 28. These men are harvesting Indian River pine- 
apples. Pineapple-growing has recently become an 
important industry in southern Florida. What con- 
ditions make fruit-raising profitable in Florida ? 

Fig. 29. Oranges are the most important of the 
Florida fruits. Thousands of acres are covered 
with thriving groves. Some of the groves contain 
lime and grapefruit trees as well as orange trees 



Fig. 30. Tampa, Florida, is situated on the margin of the Gulf Coastal 
Plain at a point where a small river enters Tampa Bay. This view shows 
the river and the flat land on which the city is built. The lower channel 
of the river (at the right) has been deepened to allow large vessels to enter 

The Atlantic portion of the Coastal Plain, as far south 
as Florida, is a part of the original territory obtained from 
Great Britain by the treaty of 1783, following the Ameri- 
can Revolution. Florida was purchased from Spain in 
1819. Louisiana and Arkansas are a part of the Louisiana 
Territory purchased from France in 1803, and Texas was 
annexed to the United States in 1845 (Fig. 191). 

Until after the Revolutionary War almost all of the 
white people in North America lived in southern New 
England or on the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Belt 
north of Georgia (Fig. 190). " Piedmont" means at the 
foot of the mountain. 

Origin of the plain. The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal 
Plain was formerly under the ocean. At that time the 
continental shelf (see map opposite page 82) was more 
than twice as wide as it is to-day. Rivers from the lands 
brought sands, gravels, and clays to the shore line, just 
as they are bringing such materials to the seashore to-day. 
The sands, gravels, and clays thus deposited offshore 










y^fifc^-' TiiA ■j't^'i^t liB^H 


















Vnnnahei bj £«. Div. N. J. Agr. Ci^U- 

Fig. 31. This is a common sight along the shores of Delaware Bay. The 

farmers bring their tomatoes to the wharves in wagons and trucks and 

load them onto fiat scows bound for the canneries at Baltimore. Thousands 

of tons of Coastal Plain tomatoes are canned every year at Baltimore 

from the bay. Tampa is the chief port of export for the Florida phosphate. 
The railroad tracks over which the phosphate is carried from the mines to 
the storage elevators are at the right in this view. Where is this product 
sent from Tampa ? What other products are exported from this Gulf port ? 

built up a plain underneath the shallow ocean waters. 
Later the land rose, the sea retreated, and the Coastal 
Plain came into existence. 

The surface soil was enriched by the decay of vege- 
table matter, and in time this whole region became 
clothed with plant life and with great forests. Most 
of the materials 
which make up 
the Coastal Plain 
are soft and loose. 
Even a boy would 
have difficulty in 
finding a stone to 
throw. Instead 
of bowlder walls, 
as in New Eng- 
land, the early 
inhabitants built 
picturesque rail 
fences. In place 
of marbles, gran- 
ites, sandstones, 
limestones, and 
other hard rocks 
similar to those 
that form the Ap- 
palachian High- -' 
lands, the materials of the Coastal Plain usually consist 
of loose sands, gravels, marls, loams, and clays. 

Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the broad inlets, 
farther south are estuaries, or drowned river mouths,, 
due to a late sinking of the coast. 

Sand reefs and sand dunes. Use maps on pages 23 ^ 
25, and 35. Along the shores of the Coastal Plain the: 
waves have built sand reefs which inclose, or nearly in- 
close, lagoons. These offshore reefs become natural break- 
waters. There is one over 100 miles long on the coast, 
of Texas ; and in the CaroUnas, Cape Lookout and Cape^ 

li'Dd«rwood A Underwood. 

Fig. 32. Savannah, Georgia, is the largest market 

in the country for naval stores. The wharves ar* 

crowded with barrels of rosin, tar, and turpentine,. 

ready for export. Where will they be sent ? 



Hatteras are parts of sand reefs which project as great 
points into the Atlantic Ocean. Along the New Jersey 
and Long Island coasts there are also offshore reefs. 

The sands washed up by the waves on these reefs are 
commonly blown into sand dunes, so there is usually a 
line of low hills bordering the coast. 

When a sand reef is formed near the mouth of a river 
or a harbor, the end of it is usually curved. At the open- 
ing of New York harbor, Rockaway Beach on Long Island 


^^^BH^^/ y^ Mir 



Fig. 33. This is a view in the business section of Houston, Texas. The 

broad, well-surfaced street, wide sidewalks, and fine business blocks are 

typical of the enterprising cities of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Locate Houston 

on your map. What are its chief business activities, and why ? 

and Sandy Hook on the New Jersey side are both curved 
(Fig. 52). The tip end of Cape Cod was formed into a 
curved reef, or hook, by the work of waves and shore 
currents. This hook protects the harbor of Province- 
town. All the land about Provincetown is sand. The 
hills here are made of sand blown up by the winds. 

Fig. 34. Galveston is built on the end of a sand bar and is open to the full 

force of the waves from the Gulf. In 1900 the city was destroyed by 

hurricane waves, and since then this great cement sea wall has been built 

in order to prevent another such disaster 

Coral islands. Along the shore of Florida, where the 
sea waters are suflficiently warm, corals have grown and 
made little islands and reefs. Corals grow in clear ocean 
waters w^here the temperature does not fall below 68° 
Fahrenheit and where the depth is not more than 120 feet. 
We shall find that there are coral animals in the tropical 
seas all around the earth where there are clear, shallow 

Mississippi delta. At the mouth of the Mississippi 
River is one of the largest deltas in the world. Each 
year the river brings millions of tons of sediment to the 
Gulf. If all the material brought in one year were placed 
on a square mile, it would be nearly 270 feet high. 

When the river water meets the still water of the 
Gulf of Mexico, it loses its velocity and so is forced to 
drop whatever it is carrying. • The deposits appear first 
as bars opposite the mouth of the river, and the la^er 
is forced to divide and form two mouths. This procesis 
continues until there are several mouths. 

Each distinct mouth is called a distributary. It takes 
water away from the main stream and thus does a work 
that is quite different from the work of a tributary. 

ii^ l}ttna fMbiuhiai Co- 

Fig. 35. New Orleans is located on a broad bend of the Mississippi River 
about one hundred miles above its mouth. This view shows part of the 
city and in the distance the low, flat land of the Mississippi delta across 
which the river winds its way. Can you explain the origin of this delta ? 

The river channel has been deepened so that the largest ocean steamers 
can reach New Orleans, making it the most important seaport on the Gulf 
of Mexico. Locate New Orleans on your map. What are its exports? 
With what countries does it trade? What are some of its chief imports? 



Fig. 36. Here is a view in a Mississippi pecan orchard. The nuts are 

spread out in trays according to grades and sizes. Nut-raising is a growing 

industry in our country, in which the South and the Far West lead. Nuts 

are very nutritious, and their use as food is increasing rapidly 

Future. The Coastal Plain is a large region with 
enough rainfall for agriculture, and with such good soils 
that it will surely become a more and more important 
agricultural district. The presence of large supplies of 
phosphate rock that may be used to fertilize the light 
sandy soils is most fortunate. The trees should be cared 
for by trained foresters, and thus the supply of timber 
and pitch can be made permanent. More nut-bearing 
trees and more fruits can be raised (Figs. 36, 37, 38). 
More of the swamp lands should be drained. 

The Mississippi River can be in part controlled and 
forced to deposit more silts on its flood plain. Thus 
wet lands are built up and made suitable for farming. 
Men should learn how to control this river in such a 
way as to prevent disastrous floods. In this way it would 
be possible to save some of the rich soils that the river 
is all the time carrying to the Gulf of Mexico. 

The lowlands of Florida are being drained and made 
available for agriculture. The seaside resorts are certain 
to become more and more 
popular as the cities of 
this country become more 
crowded. The Coastal 
Plain will easily accom- 
modate a much larger 
population, and with in- 
telligent, scientific care 
the soils will yield greater 
crops, and all who live 
there may be prosperous. 

The excellent harbors 
of the Atlantic and Gulf 
Coastal Plain encourage 
foreign commerce. With 
the ever-increasing trade 
of the United States with 
the countries of South 
America, Central Amer- 
ica, Mexico, and the 
West Indies the states 
of the Atlantic and Gulf 
Coastal Plain are sure 
to be greatly benefited. 

Fig. 38. A single peanut vine, showing 
the full-grown nuts and the little nodules 
on the roots which extract nitrogen 
from the air in the soil and store it up 
for food for the vine. When the plant 
decays, the nitrogen from the nodules 
enriches the soil 

Fig. 37. This is a field of Virginia peanut vines. The blossoms come out 

near the base of the vine and are at once covered with earth. Thus the 

peanuts develop underground but are attached to the branches of the vine, 

not the roots. What are the uses of the peanut ? 

Problems and review questions. 1. How may the absence of hard 
rocks in the Coastal Plain be explained ? 2. What is the reason 
for the great bays indenting this coast ? What is an estuary ? 
3. How are deltas formed ? What proof is there that the Missis- 
sippi Kiver made the delta at its mouth ? 

4. What is the relationship of the continental shelf to the 
Coastal Plain ? 5. How were the sand reefs bordering the coast 
formed ? 6. Explain the presence of sand dunes on many of 
these reefs. 7. Explain the formation of lakes in the Mississippi 
River flood plain. 

8. Why did the early settlers who came to this coast move in- 
land rather than settle on the shore ? 9. Why did they stop and 
build settlements at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain ? 
10. Where were some of the early settlements ? 11. What is the 
fall line ? j 

12. Why is this part of the United States an agricultural dis- | 
trict ? 13. What conditions found here are favorable for raising 
cotton, rice, sugar cane, citrous fruits, tobacco ? 14. What indus- 
tries have the southern forests developed ? 15. In what part of 
Louisiana has oil been discovered ? 16. What European peoples 
sent exploring parties to this portion of America ? 



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Fig. 40. These are the great steel works at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where 
iron is made into hard, strong steel. The making of steel is one of the most 
important manufacturing industries in our country, for without steel very 
little manufacturing, building, or transportation would be possible. Steel 


We shall open the study of this region by examining 
several maps. 


( Use map on pages S and 3 and refer also to maps on pages 13, S3, and 35) 

1. This division of the Appalachian Highlands extends from 
the Hudson River to central Alabama. How far is that ? Use 
map scale. 2. What are the mountain and plateau subdivisions 
of this region ? 

3. Where is the Blue Ridge ? 4. Where are the Catskill 
Mountains ? Of what plateau are they a part ? 5. How high 
is Mount Mitchell, North Carolina ? Is Mount Washington, 
New Hampshire, as high ? 6. North of Virginia, which way 
does the drainage go from the Appalachian Mountains ? 

7. Which way does it go from the southern part of the 
Appalachian Mountains ? 8. What are the larger rivers in 
the northern part ? in the southern part ? 9. What states are 
within or partly within this division of the Appalachian High- 
lands ? 10. What natural regions border the Appalachian 
Highlands? '  

Home work. 1. Select any pictures you have of this part of 
the country and bring them to school. 2. Write brief studies of 
your pictures, like those under the views in this book. 

An industrial region. This division of the Appalachian 
Highlands is a great industrial region. It is one of the 
busiest sections of the United States. It includes the 
densely populated districts in New York, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania, and extends southwestward to the in- 
dustrial section of northern Alabama. Locomotives, steel 
rails, steel vessels, warships, guns, and munitions are 
manufactured here on a large scale (Fig. 40). The Dela- 
ware valley has become the greatest shipbuilding district 

is necessary for all kinds of machinery ; farmers must have implements 
made partly of steel ; great buildings need strong steel frameworks ; loco- 
motives and automobiles must have many steel parts. In what ways does 
the manufacturer depend upon the miner, and the miner upon the farmer ? 

in the world. Most of the steel trusses for the bridges 
and the steel beams for the great skyscrapers are made 
in this region, as well as all kinds of heavy hardware. 

Mining and lumbering are very important occupations 
in this part of the United States, and in places much of 
the wood of the forests is made into pulp which is used 
in making paper. Most of the cities are manufacturing 

Natukal Resources 

Sources of power and raw materials. There are large 
supplies of coal, oil, gas, and water-power in this region. 
These are sources of power, and man must have power 
in all manufacturing pursuits. 

Iron is found in the Appalachian Mountains and in 
the Adirondacks, and great quantities are brought from 
the Lake Superior district. 

There are many seaports, many waterways, and a net- 
work of railways (Figs. 42, 43). Raw materials are readily 
brought to this region, and manufactured articles are 
easily shipped to all parts of the world. 

To understand the great development of the indus- 
trial life in this region it will be necessary, as well as 
interesting, to study certain of the natural resources 
upon which it is dependent. 

Coal is found in the ground, usually in great layers. If 
mining men know that coal is to be found deep below the 
surface, they sink a shaft (which is like a well) into the 
ground until they reach the coal seam. Then the coal is 
broken out and brought to the surface. Little by little 
the men underground take out the coal under acres or 
square miles of the land, while the surface of that land 
is perhaps being used for agriculture (Fig. 41). 



The coal resources in this 
region, and farther west in 
the great Mississippi Valley, 
underlie thousands of square 
miles. The United States 
is wonderfully fortunate in 
having svtch vast quantities 
of coal. 

Natural oil and gas. When 
indications of oil or gas are 
noticed, deep holes are bored 
into the ground ; and if there 
is oil or gas there, it will 
come toward the surface 
through pipes that are put 
down as the boring proceeds. 

Gas is commonly used as 
fuel or for lighting purposes. 
Natural oil, or petroleum, 
furnishes a large number of 
useful products. As it comes 
from the ground it is usu- 
ally a thick, dark-green substance 


Fig. 41. The layers of sandstone, shale, limestone, coal, and fire clay shown 
in this drawing were nearly horizontal when they were made, but they 
were all upturned when the Appalachian Mountains were formed. The 
rain and the rivers wore away some of the surface, and men discovered the 
seams of coal. Then the men dug a deep hole, or shaft, and drove tunnels 
that crossed the layers of coal. Now the miners can easily break out the 
coal and let it drop into small cars that are taken to the shaft and lifted 
to the surface. The fire clay is also mined. In coal fields away from the 
mountains the layers of coal are usually horizontal 

channels and are having a 
difficult time to cut them 
away. In such places falls 
and rapids occur, and there 
men construct dams and 
put in power plants. 

Sometimes the force of 
the falling water is usedi 
directly to turn mill wheels 
and thus keep machinery 
running. Often the falling 
water turns wheels that 
generate electricity. This 
is changing or transforming 
one kind of energy into 
another. Such plants are 
called hydroelectric plants. 
The electricity is a very 
convenient form of energy 
and may be used for the 
benefit of man in many 
different ways. 

When it is heated, Salt and gypsum are found at a number of places in 
naphtha and gasoUne are driven off as vapors and may New York State (Fig. 72). The salt is far below the sur- 

be condensed into liquids. Kerosene is another product. 
Our common oils for machinery come from petroleum. 
Vaseline is one of the products, and also paraffin, which 
is used in making candles. 

Water-power. In addition to the fuels as sources of 
energy there is a remarkable amount of water-power in 
this region. The map on page 21 shows where a num- 
ber of the large water-power plants are located. The 
waterfalls in the northern part of the district are due 
to the changes in drainage, caused by the glaciers, just 
as those in New England were caused (p. 10). South 
of the land of glacial action (see map, p. 21) water-power 
is developed where streams have hard rocks in their 

face and is a great layer of rock. The gypsum is also a 
layer of rock, but it is nearer the surface than the salt. 
These deposits are a proof that there were formerly inland 
seas in this part of North America. When the seas dried up 
the salt and gypsum that had been in the water were left. 

Map and picture studies. Use the maijs on pages 23 and 35. 
1. Make a list of the resources that man gets from the ground in 
the Southern Division of the Appalachian Highlands. 2. "Which 
ones, when used, are gone forever ? 

3. Which ones may be used more than once ? 4. Study Fig. 41. 
6. Where is iron shown on these maps ? 6. What building stones 
are shown ? There are other excellent building stones in this region. 

Home work. 1. Find out how coal was made. 2. Find out how 
coke and other valuable products can be obtained from coal. 





^^__ % 





* "^^^'''^^i>^r^ 



Fig. 42. Here is a section of one of the great railroads of the state of New 

York, where six tracks run parallel to one another. Above each track is the 

•ignal which tells the engineer whether to go ahead or to slow down. If it 

is upright, the track is clear; if it is down, there is a train ahead 

Fig. 43. The electric engine is fast coming into use on our modern railroads. 

It makes traveling far cleaner and more comfortable and ia easier to run 

than the steam engine. It carries no coal car and needs no stokers. How 

will the increased use of hydroelectric power afiect railroading ? 



Fig. 44. This little girl is feeding the chickens on Fig. 45. These little kids live on the same farm. Fig. 46. These are the fine, strong oxen which are 

a government experiment farm in Maryland. Our Goats are not very common in the United States, used in the mountainous parts of the Southern 

government runs many experiment stations in and the government is experimenting to see Appalachians for hauling logs in places where 
order to discover the best farming methods whether goat-raising would pay the farmer railroads have not been built as yet 

Soils. Soils are of the greatest importance to a com- 
munity, and it is wise conservation to keep up their 
fertility. For this purpose special nitrogen-fixing crops 
(Fig. 38), such as clover and alfalfa, or soy beans and 
peas, may be planted, and fertilizers may be used. The 
continuous prosperity of our nation will depend more 
upon the fertility of our soils than upon any other one 
of our natural resources. 

In the northern portion of this region (including most 
of New York State), the northern part of New Jersey, 
and a little of Pennsylvania the soils are of glacial origin. 
See map on page 21. The glacial soils vary because they 
are made of different kinds of rocks, which were ground 
up, or pulverized, by the movement of the glacier ; some 
are stony, some are heavy clays, others are sandy and 
gravelly, but most of them are fertile soils. 

South of the line of ice action the soils were made 
during long periods of rock decay (Fig. 48). Those periods 
were probably millions of years in length. Each time 
that the rocks are heated by the sun and then cooled they 
expand and contract and thus are weakened. Each time 

that water freezes in the cracks of the rock it expands 
and opens the cracks a little more, just as the formation 
of ice may break a bottle or a pitcher. Each time that 
a root gets into a crack and grows it helps to widen the 
crack, and sometimes roots of trees break rocks. As 
plants decay and as animals burrow through the loose 
material the soil becomes finer and finer until a surface 
loam is made. 

Forests. See Figs. 49, 50, and 51. The soil in a forest 
is loose and porous, and much of the rainfall easily sinks 
into the ground. Thus there is less water to rush down 
the hillsides and cause floods. The water which sinks into 
the ground percolates through the soil and gradually finds 
its way into the streams, thus preventing them from dry- 
ing up. In the shade of the forest also the surface water 
evaporates slowly. Thus droughts are prevented. In 
portions of this region where the forests have been 
removed from the mountain sides heavy rainfalls often 
cause disastrous floods. At other times droughts occur 
because the rain waters, instead of sinking into the 
ground, have poured down the hillsides and been lost. 

, ,• sflimwawgwifi 


Fig. 47. Dairying is very important in the Southern Appalachians. The 

great round dairy bam in which this herd of cattle lives will hold four 

hundred and fifty cows. In the center of the barn is a big silo, in which one 

thousand tons of green feed can be stored for the cows to eat in winter 

Fig. 48. This is a farming scene in a part of the Southern Appalachians 

which is south of the glacial line. Notice the careful way in which the 

soil has been plowed and left in clean, even furrows, ready for planting 

the seed. How have the soils in this part of the region been made? 



Fig. 49. In the mountains of South Carolina and Georgia the lack of snow 

makes it impossible to haul the logs from the lumbering districts on sleds. 

Instead they are often taken out over narrow-gauge railroad lines. In this 

view the great logs are being loaded onto the cars by a steam crane 

Fig. 50. Sometimes the logs are allowed to slide down a trough, or chute, 

from the mountain side to the sawmill. This view shows the chute in the 

background, almost hidden by steam, and the mill where the logs are 

sawed into boards. What is the advantage of using the log chute ? 

The roots of the trees help to bind the soils and keep Location and growth of cities. At the southeast margin 
them on the mountain slopes. The presence of the forest, of the highlands are the fall-line cities, beginning, at the 
therefore, is beneficial in ma"ny ways, in addition to sup- north, with New York and ending, at the south, with 

plying lumber, wood pulp, and pitch. 

To-day there are national forests in the southern por- 
tions of the Appalachian Mountains. The government 
has purchased thousands of acres, where trees will be 
planted and cared for by trained foresters. 

Climate. The prevailing winds throughout this belt 
come from the southwest, and many of the storms that 
pass over the country come from the 
southwest and move northeastward. 
Some storms come from the west 
or northwest and then change and 
move northeastward. 

In the higher mountains the rain- 
fall amounts to over 60 inches a 
year, but in the lower portions of the 
country the annual rainfall is from 
40 to 50 inches. Heavier rainfall in 
the higher mountains is due to the 
fact that the winds coming to these 
mountains must rise to such eleva- 
tions that the water-vapor in the air 
is cooled and forms tiny drops of 
water that float in the air as clouds 
until the drops become too large, 
when they fall as rain. The rainfall 
in this region is sufficient for all 
agricultural uses and for domestic 
and industrial purposes. The water- 
power is chiefly dependent upon the 
heavy rainfall in the mountains. 

CvurtMj ut Um U. S- Forest bentofl 

Fig. 51. These men are fighting a forest fire in the 
Southern Appalachians. Fires of this kind are 
usually started through carelessness, and they de- 
stroy millions of dollars' worth of timber each year 

Montgomery, Alabama. See majis on pages 23 and 35. 
Each of these cities is located on navigable waters, and 
most of them have the advantage of water-power. 

Another group of important cities includes those located 
within the Appalachian Highlands on large rivers ; such 
cities as Harrisburg and Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania and 
V/heeling and Huntington in West Virginia. 

A third group of leading cities 
includes those that owe their loca- 
tion to the presence of some partic- 
ular natural resources. Birmingham, 
Alabama, is near the iron and coal 
of the southern Appalachian Moun- 
tains, and Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, 
in Pennsylvania, are in the midst of 
the hard-coal field of that state. 
Many of the cities of this natural 
region owe their location to the 
local development of prosperous 
farming communities. 

The business of a manufacturing 
city may be divided into three parts : 

(1) the gathering of raw materials; 

(2) the manufacture of commodities ; 
and (3) the distribution of the manu- 
factured goods. To carry on its busi- 
ness each industrial center demands 
good transportation facilities to and 
from the city, and some source of 
power to turn the wheels of its mills. 



The city of New York has the largest population of all 
the cities in the world and outranks all others in export 
and import trade. Its excellent harbor affords a port 
for the largest vessels (Fig. 52). Raw materials may be 
brought from all parts of the world to this center, and 

In addition to its commercial advantages, New York is 
but a short distance from a large supply of fuel. From 
the Appalachian fields coal and oil are quickly and easily 
brought to the city for use in the large factories. 

The leading industries in New York are the manu- 

manufactured goods may easily be shipped to all parts facture of clothing and machinery, printing and book- 
of the world. This location on the seashore, therefore, making, meatrpacking, and the refining of sugar. New 
\s one of the most desirable places in the United States York has become the leading financial center of the 
for a city. In addition, New York has the advantage of world. There are many banks and insurance companies 

with large capital, and most of the 
great industrial houses of America 
have offices in the city (Fig. 53). 
The borough of Brooklyn devel- 
oped as a large independent city 
across the river from New York 
City, but it has now become a 
part of the metropolis. It is an 
important center for the refining 
of sugar "and the roasting and 
grinding of coffee and spices. 

Eastward from Brooklyn and 
northward along the banks of the 
Hudson River are chains of 
suburban towns where Inany of 
the people live who work each 
day in the metropolis. 

To the west, across the Hudson' 
River, are Hoboken, Jersey City, 
and Newark. These three cities 
are in New Jersey, but they have 
many of the same great geo- 
graphic advantages that New 
York City has. 

In addition to the busy indus- 
trial and commercial life of the 
city. New York is one of the 
leading educational and musica 
centers of this country, and it is for- 
tunate in having wonderful collec- 
tions of natural history and of art. 

© ijiCD and Companj 

Fig. 52. This is an aeroplane drawing of New York City and its surroundings. The city originally occupied 
only the island of Manhattan, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Trace the outline of the island in this 
view. In the last twenty-five years the city has grown so fast that it has spread out over the surrounding 
territory until it now includes nearly all the area shown in this view east of the Hudson River and all of 
Staten Island. The mainland west of the Hudson is part of the state of New Jersey 

being at the mouth of an important river. Northward 
from New York is the busy highway of travel through 
the valley of the Hudson, and equally important is the 
valley of the Mohawk, leading westward from Albany. 
By the Hudson-Mohawk route supplies of raw material 
for manufacture, and great quantities of food, are brought 
from the rich agricultural lands of the interior. 

During the French and Indian War and the American 
Revolution the valley of the Hudson was a center of 
great struggle, for its possession by an enemy meant the 
separation of the only two thickly- settled districts of 
America and the isolation of New England (Fig. 39). 

Picture study. Study Fig. 62 carefully. 1. What natural advan- 
tages has New York as a port ? 2. Describe the kind of country 
around the city. Using this aeroplane view, with Fig. 39 and the 
map on page 35, answer the following questions : 3. To what 
natural region do Staten Island and Long Island belong ? 4. In 
what natural region are IVIanhattan Island, Jersey City, and 
Newark located ? 5. In what state is Sandy Hook ? 6. Why should 
there be sand bars near the entrance to New York harbor ? 7. Whal 
great natural highway leads northward from New York ? 8. Whj 
is most of the trade between New York and the West carried oiT 
over this highway rather than over a direct route from New York 
to Chicago ? 9. What industrial cities other than New York are 
shown in Fig. 52 ? 10. Where do they get their raw materials ? 
their fuel ? 



Fig. S3. This view shows the lower end of Manhattan Island as it appears 
from the west bank of the Hudson. This is the business and financial center 
of New York City, and the office buildings are commonly known as sky- 
scrapers, because they are so high. The waterfront here is lined with long 

Yonkers is chiefly a city of residences for people who 
are in business in the city of New York. 

Albany, the capital of New York, is near the head of 
tidewater on the Hudson (Fig. 54). To the west is the 
Mohawk Valley, with the Erie and Barge canals ; to 
the north is the Champlain Valley, leading to Canada ; 
to the east is the best route to Boston ; and to the south 
is the Hudson Valley route to New York. Albany is at 
the crossing of great trade routes. See maj) on page 21. 

Troy is located at the head of steamboat navigation on 
the Hudson River and near the eastern end of the New 
York Barge Canal. It is famous for the manufacture of 
collars, cuffs, and shirts. 

Schenectady, on the Mohawk, manufactures electrical 
supplies and locomotives (Fig. 55). 

Utica is another Mohawk River city ; it is one of the 
leading knitting and cotton mill cities in the coimtry. 

piers which jut out into the river. Between them are the deep-water docks, 
which receive the largest ocean liners. How is the general shape of New 
York favorable to shipping ? What are its principal exports ? With what 
countries does New York trade chiefly ? What are some of its imports ? 

Syracuse was located near certain salt springs which 
have led to the development of a large industry. Railroad 
trade-routes and waterways have led here to the growth 
of manufacturing. Many automobiles and bicycles are 
made in Syracuse. 

Note. For other cities in New York State see page 34. 

Philadelphia was founded by the famous Quaker, 
William Penn. The name "Pennsylvania" means Penns 
loootls, and "Philadelphia" means brotherly love. Here 
is the famous Independence Hall (Fig. 58), where one 
may see the old bell that first rang out the good news 
that the Declaration of Independence had been signed. 

The city is located on the Delaware River and is one 
of the largest and best seaports of the United States. 
Before the opening of. the Erie Canal it was the first city 
of the country (Fig. 56). It now ranks third in size. 

Fig. 54. Albany, the capital of New York, stands on the steep west bank 
of the Hudson River, 160 miles from its mouth. Approaching the city from 
the river, you can see the large public buildings on the hill, and below, 
along the water-front, the docks, railroad stations, and river boats. Albany 

y Felluwicrail Pliow Sfaop, AlbKDy 

is an important railroad center. At the right in this view is the bridge 
over which all trains from the east must pass to enter Albany. Locate 
this cit_y on the map on pages 96 and 97. How many transportation routes 
can you trace which pass through Albany or have their terminals there ? 



Iron and coal are not far away, and 
Philadelphia has become an industrial 
center. More locomotives are made here 
than in any other city. The chief 
exports come from the great natural 
resources of Pennsylvania. The wheat 
and flour shipped from Philadelphia 
come by rail from the fertile fields of 
the interior of the continent. 

Washington and the District of 
Columbia are very near the falls of the 
Potomac, but Washington was not 
located for industrial or commercial 
purposes. A more detailed description 
of the capital city, its location and its 
buildings, will be found on page 101. 

Pittsburgh. The early routes of westward migration led 
settlers to the headwaters of the Ohio Kiver in western 
Pennsylvania. See map on pages 2 and 3. Here, at the 
junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, the 
city of Pittsburgh stands to-day (Fig. 57). In the year 1753 

Fig. 65. This is a great locomotive-manufacturing plant at Schenectady, New York. Its buildings 
cover acres of land. Schenectady is the center of the locomotive-manufacturing industry of New 
York ; the state produces about one fourth of the locomotives of the country. What are the essential 
materials for this industry ? Where do the locomotive manufacturers of Schenectady get them ? 

George Washington, then a young man of twenty-one, 
was sent to warn the French away from the Allegheny 
valley. He reported that the point where the Mononga- 
hela and Allegheny rivers came together was a very 
favorable situation for a fort. Accordingly, in 1754, 

the British began to 
build a fort there, 
but before it was 
finished this was 
seized by the French 
and given the name 
Fort Duquesne. The 
following summer 
Washington tried to 
retake the fort. This 
attempt resulted in 
the beginning of the 
French and Indian 
War, which ended 
in the withdrawal 
of the French from 
the territory and the 
renaming of Fort 
Duquesne after the 
great English states- 
man, William Pitt. 
The water routes 
made this site favor- 
able for the location 
and growth of a 
large city. Excellent 
sandstone for glass- 
making is found in 
the Ohio valley, and 
Pittsburgh is famous 
for its plate glass 

in &ad Companj 

Fig. 56. The beginning of the city of Philadelphia was made at the falls of the Schuylkill River, where it tumbles down 
from the hilly country of the Appalachians to the level Coastal Plain. As the city gradually grew in size it came to occupy 
all the land between the Schuylkill and the Delaware, and to-day the larger river is much the more important. Its channel 
has been deepened so that large ocean vessels can reach Philadelphia, and twenty miles of wharves along the river front 
make it possible for hundreds of ships to dock here at one time. For this reason, although Philadelphia is one hundred 
miles up the river from the sea, it is really a seaport and has a large foreign trade. This aeroplane view shows parts of two 
different natural regions. What are they ? How do they differ in appearance ? What are the chief exports of Philadelphia ? 
Where do they come from ? Where are they sent ? What is imported in return ? 



and glassware. Since 
coal, iron, limestone, 
oil, and gas were 
available, Pittsburgh 
became the leading 
center in this coun- 
try for the manu- 
facture of iron and 
steel. As the iron 
and steel industries 
expanded, more iron 
was required than 
it was possible to 
secure in Pennsyl- 
vania. By that time 
the wonderful sup- 
plies of iron in the 
Lake Superior region 
had been discovered, 
and these ores are 
now brought by boat 
to points on Lake 
Erie, and then by 
rail to Pittsburgh 
to supply its great 
blast furnaces. 

The city enjoyed 
a most remarkable 
development while 

railroads were being built throughout the United States, is located on the Susquehannah River within the moun- 
The iron and steel industries made possible the rapid tain area. Coal, iron, and steel are easily available, and 
construction of railroads, and thus helped Pittsburgh therefore manufacturing has been undertaken. 

G GinB wtd Compear 

Fig. 57. Pittsburgh has grown up at the point where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers join to make the Ohio Rirer. 
The first settlement was made on the little point of land between the two rivers. From that small beginning the city has 
grown to the size which this view shows, spreading out over the tongue of land between the rivers and taking in the settle- 
ments on the opposite banks. This aeroplane drawing shows the kind of country which you would see if you were to travel 
through the Appalachian Plateau. Can you describe it ? Why was this spot a natural place for a city to grow up ? What 
are the important resources of the region around Pittsburgh ? What are the chief industries of the city ? How does it rank 
in population among the cities of the United States ? See tables in Appendix 

to grow. Later the introduction of 
steel skeletons for the great office 
buildings, the use of steel in making 
freight and passenger cars, and its 
substitution for wood in a thousand 
other ways brought a great amount 
of business to this center of iron and 
steel manufacture. 

Scranton and Wilkes-Barre are in the 
midst of the chief field of hard coal 
in the United States. Iron and steel 
are available, and with their supply 
of coal these cities have become in- 
dustrial centers. Reading is beauti- 
fully located on the east bank of the 
Schuylkill on the margin of the 
Appalachian Mountain belt. It is a 
busy manufacturing city, specializing 
in cotton and woolen goods and boots 
and shoes. Harrisburg, the capital, 

Fig. 58. No building is dearer to the people of the 
United States than Independence Hall in Phila- 
delphia. Here the Declaration of Independence 
was signed in 1776 and the United States Consti- 
tution adopted in 1787 

Baltimore is located on the inner 
margin of the Coastal Plain. It is 
within easy reach of fuel and of 
the iron and steel manufactured in 
Pennsylvania, and the making of 
hardware is one of the important 
industries in this city. Baltimore 
receives large quantities of tobacco 
for manufacture. To-day much of the 
tobacco comes from the West Indies 
and other tobacco-growing countries 
in the tropics, as well as from the 
states to the south and southwest. 

Note. For a further study of cities in this 
natural region see pages 22 and 34. 

Rural occupations. In order to 
learn what the people in the rural 
parts of this region do for a living, 
study Figs. 44-48. 




([7se also map on page 31) 

New York State is very fortunate in having a great variety 
of surface features, soils, and natural resources. The water- 
ways and water-power are exceedingly valuable. 

1. Where is the chief fruit-producing district? 2. What 
mineral resources are shown in New York? 3. What special 
reason was there why the people of this state should develop 
dairy farming and gardening ? 

Buffalo is at one end of important trade routes from the 
Great Lakes to the Atlantic, and New York and Boston are 
at the other ends of those routes. Immense supplies of food 
and raw materials for manufacture are brought to Buffalo. 
Power is supplied from the coal, oil, and gas fields of the 
states farther south and by wire from Niagara Falls. The 
city has therefore become a manufacturing. center. 

Rochester owes its start to the water-power at the falls of 
the Genesee. Later the Erie Canal, the railroads, and recently 
the Barge Canal, by furnishing good transportation facilities, 
have helped to make it a prosperous manufacturing city. 

Note. For other cities in New York State see pages 30 and 31. 

Pennsylvania. 1. What natural regions extend into this 
state ? 2. What sources of power are indicated on the map ? 
3. In what part of the state are the oil and gas fields? 4. The 
coal in the western part is soft, or bituminous; that in the 
east is hard coal, or anthracite. 5. What are some of the im- 
portant agricultural products ? 6. What navigable rivers are 
available to the people of this state? 

Agriculture is important, but fully twice as many people 
in Pennsylvania are engaged in mining and manufacturmg 
as in farming. 

Note. For cities in Pennsylvania see pages 31, 32, and 33. 

New Jersey. 1. What natural regions extend into this 
state ? 2. What mineral resource is found in the mountain 
belt? 3. What resource has led to the development of the 
pottery industry ? 4. What source of power led to the location 
and helped in the growth of Trenton ? of Paterson ? 

Newark is the largest city in the state. It is a manufactur- 
ing center specializing in patent leather, jewelry, paints, and 
thread. There are many large copper smelters here. Jersey 
City enjoys the advantage of New York harbor. It is a 
busy manufacturing city. Paterson leads all American cities 
in the manufacture of silk. 

Trenton, the capital, is at the head of navigation on the 
Delaware. It is a fall-line city and the center of the pottery 
industry of New Jersey. Camden, opposite Philadelphia, is 
an important shipbuilding center. Many who work in Phila- 
delphia have their homes in Camden. Atlantic City is one 
of the most attractive seaside resorts along the New Jersey 

Delaware. 1. What natural regions extend into this state ? 

2. What coal and iron fields are accessible to Wilmmgton ? 

3. What advantages has this city in transportation routes ? 
Wilmington is located where two small streams from the 
upland hilly belt have rapids in their courses and furnish 

water-power. It is a fall-line city and the most important in- 
dustrial center in Delaware. Its population is about one half 
of that of the state. 4. Locate on the map the canal which 
connects Delaware and Chesapeake bays. 5. What fruit from 
Delaware is best known ? 6. Dover, the capital, is centrally 
located in a good agricultural region. 

Maryland. 1. What natural regions extend across this 
state ? See map on pages 2 and 3. 2. What sources of power 
are there in the state? 3. What are the chief crops of 
the lowland area? 4. What industries do the shallow salt 
waters of Chesapeake Bay encourage ? 5. What is the chief 
seaport of this state ? 6. Opposite the mouth of Chesapeake 
Bay the imports and exports are shown. With what countries 
is most of the trade carried on ? 

Annapolis is beautifully located on the shores of Chesapeake 
Bay. It is the capital and contains the United States Naval 
Academy. Baltimore (see p. 33). 

Virginia. 1. What natural regions extend into this state ? 
The soil of the Coastal Plain is light and sandy, suitable for 
raising fruits, vegetables, and peanuts. 2. What appears to 
be the leadmg product of the Piedmont Belt in this state ? 
3. What important mineral resource is found in the mountain 
area? The majority of the people in Virginia are engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. Along the coast and m Chesapeake 
Bay oyster fisheries are very important. 

Richmond, the capital, is a fall-line city. The water-power 
available is used in numerous large manufacturing indus- 
tries. Norfolk is fortunately situated near Hampton Roads. 
It receives large supplies of coal from the highland region 
and has become one of the chief coaling stations for vessels 
on the Atlantic coast. Norfolk is one of the largest peanut 
markets in the world. 

West Virginia. Agriculture is the chief occupation of the 
people of this state, and yet West Virginia is very well sup- 
plied with mhieral resources and forests. 1. What sources of 
fuel are available ? 2. What large navigable river is on the 
northwest border of the state ? 

Huntington is the largest city in the state. It is located on 
the Ohio River and has the advantages of both railway and 
water transportation. Charleston, the capital, is in the midst 
of one of the greatest coal districts of the state and is sur- 
rounded by rich oil and gas fields. 

Wheeling is another large city in West Virginia on the 
Ohio River. It is situated about 60 miles below Pittsburgh. 
Large supplies of coal and iron are available, and this city, 
like Pittsburgh, has become a great manufacturing center. In 
addition to the iron and steel mills there are large glass works. 


1. Name three important seaports in this group of states. 
2. What food supplies do the coast cities import in large quan- 
tities ? 3. From what countries do the foods chiefly come ? 
4. What raw materials are imported for manufacture ? 

5. What city in Europe is in about the same latitude as 
New York? 6. Is Chicago farther north than New York? 
7. What city on the Mississippi River is in about the same 
latitude as Washington, D. C. ? 


Loneiluda C W—l 7^° from D Gr««iiipi'c* 76° 






Scale of statute miles 

Scale of kilometers 

100 300 

"ic State capitals 
Navi^rablo rivers 

I Lowlands 

# Chief seaports 
I , I Uplands and plateaus 


I I Central plains 


] Old. wom-down 
I mountains 

Military Camps 

(J) Madison Barracks. D 2 li Chandler Field. E 4 

® Camp Upton. F 3 ® Langley Field. D 6 

(5) Camp Dix. E 3 ® Plattsburg. F 1 

® Camp Meade. D 4 ® Ft.Niagara. C 2 

® Camp Lee. D 5 ® Ft.Myer. D 4 
® Miti 


N T. 



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I Marion 


SHEfc^P Wheeling 


/ A K 


11 r A R I o 


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ir>?r ^"W^T^^ 

'Jar ne.stcjwnf'&'' «. 

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Warifen A^^ 


irning " 

 t „\U<iberty ^"'«°Viip vi 

\ WeUsboro) , 'g'jTowai — , --, .j  ' . /,, ii 

Oil Ci 

ll-lButlettoATS . 
r FallaJlL 

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■~ uboi3_^* "ClIki'RT'l. *fa/i. /WVTAsfilei, , N^ton "figmt^'i^f^^''\gf^f-\ 


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\|w]Brii!£tbn ,„di„»„ Tyrone 


Moundsvin*«|S^hS?jSjnionIowil-- rhamhersLn^' "^-^ /r-'^'"''' ? '\"'''?,i'hes^^ljj^'^^'*rt?tj, * / 

1 Ga.li4min,,,„ Oi^«H?nnon. K , • , '/^y-W^^to^^^.^inltF^ "^ ^-^ ' 

/a., ..■diiS:- _. o* i W *r'* EllOns ,'/.#k .,^ ... ^. 


v-oPPtn GOODS 



,t iUi^erW^rA. 






Dosbafo** \ 

Front [ioy^J 

• Warrciiton  
LiUray j \ 
!• ShenandpaK^ 


Cape Ma 

M'ilfocdQVQ^Henlopen ! 

peftgev»wn ^J^^ 

Kr^ K];,- .Stone 
lit Ga), .V. ^<A«< 

83' Savannah'B 

80^ l-ongituJe C 

B (., 

(Q (iitiii ami C'oinpiiiiy 



the interior sea was forced to with- 
draw, and a part of the uplifted land 
was so compressed that the rocks were 
folded and the Appalachian Mountains 
were made. The Blue Ridge and Great 
Smoky Mountains are parts of the 
ancient land which bordered the in- 
land sea. The ridges in New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, the Virginias, and south- 
ward into Alabama are made of the 
upturned edges of great layers of rock 
formed in that ancient sea. 

The next chapter in the history was 
the wearing down of the land by rivers. 
Each stream undertook the task of 
cutting a valley and of carrying some 
Explanation of the physical features. After studying of the land back to the sea. This work is still going on, 

the life in this very busy section of the United States, and the rivers have made wonderfully interesting valleys. 

where so many millions of people live, it is interesting The great notches in the Appalachian Highlands, such 

Courteaj of tne M. Y. Ceutiia R. R. 

Fig. 59. This is the Clinton Range in the Adirondack Mountains, one of the most beautiful spots 

in the eastern United States. The Adirondacks are located in the northern part of the state of 

New York. Their slopes and summits are covered with dense forests, and scattered among them 

are beautiful lakes. Are these mountains young and rugged or old and worn down ? 

to understand the great physical history of the region. 
Over much of this part of the United States there 
was formerly an inland sea. That sea stretched west- 
ward from what is now the Piedmont Belt into the 
present Mississippi Valley. At that time the Piedmont 
Belt was a mountainous region. Rivers carried sands, 
gravels, and clays into that inland sea. In shallow, 
marshy places about the margin of the sea vegetable 
matter accumulated which later was buried and made 
into coal ; bog iron ores were made ; limestones were 
formed which later were changed into marble ; and the 

deposits of salt 
and gypsum were 
left after por- 
tions of the sea 
had evaporated. 
During a long, 
long period the 
sands and clays, 
the vegetable matr 
ter, and the iron 
accumulated on 
the sea bottom. 
These deposits 
came to be thou- 
sands and thou- 
sands of feet in 
depth. Then, by 
means of a great 
co.„«, ., u. s. o^:^ s^., crustal movement 

Fig. 60. This is the famous Natural Bridge in in the outer part 
Virginia. It has been carved out of limestone rock r j.i^ parth the 

by the stream which flows under it. To-day the , , tj j 

bridge is 200 feet above the stream land was uplifted. 

as the Delaware Water Gap, the one near Harrisburg, 
and the one at Harper's Ferry, were cut by the streams. 

Courlesj of C. P. Berkej 

Fig. 61. This is the big Croton Dam near Croton, New York. It is part of 

the system of waterworks which supplies the great city of New York with 

pure water from the hilly region along the Hudson River. Why is a good 

water supply very important to a great city ? 

Later the same great ice-sheet which invaded New 
England also covered most of New York State, a part 
of Pennsylvania, and the northern part of New Jersey 
(Fig. 39). As in New England, the ice disarranged the 
drainage and made many waterfalls (which now we 
look upon as natural resources) and many lakes ; for in- 
stance, those in the Adirondacks (Fig. 59), the Finger 
Lakes of New York State, and the beautiful lakes of 
northern New Jersey. When the ice melted away, a 
new soil was left over the invaded country. Vegetation 



began to grow on these new soils, and when men first 
came to live here it was a forested or grass-covered region. 
The time since the glacier melted away is estimated 
at about twenty-five thousand years. During that time, 
or what is called the postglacial period in North America, 
relatively little has been done, for it is but a short period 
in the history of this region. Man has caused the chief 
changes in the landscape since the ice melted away. 

Home work. 1. On your outline map of the United States, 
color in the boundaries of the Middle Atlantic states ; print in the 

names of the states ; 
locate and name 
the capital of each 
state. 2. JIake a 
list of at least fifty 
useful articles made 
of iron or steel. 

^ Kcj.waa Viow Co. 

Fig. 62. These are the middle falls of the Genesee 

River at Portage, New York. The river drops 

ninety feet here and offers an opportunity for 

extensive water-power development 

Future. There 
is no doubt that 
this region, with 
its great abun- 
dance of natural 
resources, will 
become increas- 
ingly prosperous. 
Its many cities 
will grow larger, 
greater manufacturing plants will be established, and 
more railroads will be built. As yet but little of the 
available water-power is used. The forests should be 
guarded and their cutting and planting directed by 
expert foresters, in order that they may become a 
permanent source of lumber, pulp, tar, and turpentine. 
We have neglected too long in America the care of 
our trees. The coal, oil, and gas should not be wasted. 

Fig. 63. Lumbering in the Adirondacks is made easy by the winter snows. 

A great load of logs like this can be brought out of the woods on a sled, 

which slips over the snow so easily that a single pair of horses can draw 

it. Contrast this with Figs. 49 and 50 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the three main 
subdivisions of the Appalachian Highlands southwest from the 
Hudson River ? 2. Why should the central division be moun- 
tainous ? 3. Why did this region not become princii)ally an 
agricultural region ? 

4. What led to the development of manufacturing ? 6. What 
must man do to get natural oils and gases out of the ground ? 
(J. Where are the chief sources of water-power in New York 
State ? 7. How is salt secured from the mines at Syracuse, New 

8. Why should the Appalachian Mountains have heavier rain- 
fall than the land on either side ? 9. What natural advantages has 
New York City? AUmny ? Philadeli)hia? Harrisburg ? Pitts- 
burgh ? Birmingham ? 10. What determined the location of the 
cities on the southeast margin of this natural region ? 

11. What influence did the Aj)palachian Highlands have upon 
the distribution of settlements in North America before the 
Revolutionary War ? 12. What were the chief lines of westward 
migration followed by the pioneers through these highlands ? 

Fig. 64. These large iron furnaces are located near Birmingham, Alabama. 
A great iron and steel industry has grown up in this district, because the 
mountains contain the three raw materials which are absolutely essential 
to it, — coal, iron, and limestone. These furnaces are filled with layers of 
coke (made from coal), iron ore, and limestone. A great blast of air is 

pumped continually through the furnaces, making the coke burn fiercely. 
This melts the iron out of the ore. The impurities combine with the lime- 
stone, and the liquid metal is allowed to run off into little troughs. This 
metal, when hardened, forms the pig iron of commerce. Where is the other 
great iron and steel district in the southern division of the Appalachians ? 



Fig. 65. These men are sorting and packing apples in the famous Ozark fruit 

region. The Ozark Plateau is especially well fitted for fruit-growing, 

because it is almost never visited by destructive frosts. Can you explain 

this ? Notice how the man at the left is finishing packing the barrel 


Physical features. Use maps on pages 25 and 55. In 
southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and eastern Okla- 
homa are the Interior Highlands. They are a westward 
continuation of the Appalachian Highlands. In the south 
the Ouachita Mountains are like the Appalachian Moun- 
tain ridges, made of the upturned edges of hard layers 
of rock. The valley of the Arkansas River is just north 
of these mountains, and still farther north come the 
Boston Mountains. These mountains have been carved 
out of a plateau by rivers which have cut their valleys 
deep into the plateau surface. The St. Francis Moun- 
tains in Missouri are composed of very ancient rocks like 
those in the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina. 
The rest of the region, north of the Boston Mountains, is 
a low plateau more or less dissected by rivers. It is called 
the Ozark Plateau (Fig. 65). See map opposite page 82. 

West of the Ouachita Mountains, and rising above 
the plains, are two small mountain areas, one known as 
the Arbuckle Mountains and the other as the Wichita 
Mountains. In many parts of the country they would 
be called hills. They rise from 400 to 1500 feet above 
the surrounding plains, but there are so few elevations 
in that region that they are called mountains. 

This region extends northward to the Missouri River 
and northeastward to the Mississippi River. The White 
and Arkansas rivers are the chief drainage lines in the 
southern portion of the region. 

Natural resources and occupations. This region is nota- 
bly rich in lead and zinc. The mines occur chiefly in 
southwestern Missouri and northern Arkansas (Fig. G6). 

The Boston Mountains and the neighboring country to 
the north are heavily forested, so that lumbering is one 
of the principal occupations in northern Arkansas. 

The Arkansas valley is a fertile farm land bordering 
the Arkansas River, and many of the smaller valleys are 
suitable for farming. The raising of fruit has become 
an important occupation in northern Arkansas and 
southern Missouri. 

Cities. Jefferson City, the capital of Missouri, is located 
at the northern margin of the Interior Highlands and 
on the Missouri River. Springfield and Joplin in Missouri 
are among the more important places, and Fayetteville, 
Arkansas, where the state university is located, is in the 
midst of a farming and fruit-raising district. Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, is a manufacturing and trading center. Near 
that city are coal, oil, and natural gas which may be 
used for fuel. 

Future. The future of this region depends chiefly upon 
the further development of the mining of lead and zinc, 
and upon agriculture and forestry. The Ouachita Moun- 
tains are as yet but sparsely settled. They serve as a 
grazing land, and perhaps, with the ever-increasing 
demand for wool, more sheep will be raised there. 
The large supplies of fuel near Fort Smith and farther 
west in Oklahoma should encourage an expansion in 

Problems and review questions. 1. Name and locate the moun- 
tain areas within this region. 2. What are the chief occupations 
of the people ? 3. What further use might be made of the moun- 
tainous portions ? 4. What large river flows through this region ? 
What other navigable streams are available ? 5. What are the 
chief natural resources ? 6. Why is there not a large population 
in this region ? 7. Name the chief cities of this natural region. 

5 Keystone View Co. 

Fig. 66. This is a view of the zinc and lead mines near Joplin, Missouri. 

At the left is the tall shaft house, which is built over the mine. At the 

right, the building with the tall chimneys is the smelter, where the lead 

and zinc are melted and separated from the sulphur in the ores 



. s 


»_^* a::^ ^ . — ^ ^ _ 

Fig. 67. This is an aeroplane view of the beautiful falls of the Niagara 
Kiver. On the left are the American Falls and on the right the Horseshoe, 
or Canadian, Falls. Because they belong partly to the United States and 
partly to Canada, the two governments have made a treaty regarding the 


This is not only a remarkable farming district but it 
is so fortunate in waterways, water-power, coal, oil, gas, 
and many mineral resources that it has become a great 
industrial district. It is one of the busiest regions in 
the United States. 

Location and extent. Use map on pages 2 and 3. The 
Central Plains form part of each of the states of the 
upper Mississippi Valley and extend eastward into New 
York State. They extend westward from the Appala- 
chian Highlands, and northward from the Coastal Plain 
and Interior Highlands, to the margin of the Laurentian 
Uplands. East of Lake Superior the boundary of the 
Central Plains region is north of the United States. 

Fig. 68. These men are Michigan grape-growers. They raise the sweet 
Concord and Niagara grapes which are popular throughout the country as 
table fruit. In what part of Michigan is this industry located ? In what 
other parts of the eastern United States is grape-growing important? 
Why are these areas near bodies of water? 

Wide World Photo* 

use of the water-power. If all the water flowing over the falls were used, 
5,800,000 horse-power could be developed for use in manufacturing. But 
this would destroy the beauty of the falls, so the two governments have 
agreed never to use more than one fourth of the available water-power 

In traveling westward we do not find a sudden change 
in the type of country when passing from the Central 
Plains to the Great Plains. We gradually leave a well- 
watered region, where general farming is carried on and 
where there are wood-lots and some forested areas, and 
come into a country where there is little but broad 
expanses of grasslands suitable for grazing. 

Supplement this study of the map by a careful exam- 
ination of Figs. 67-91, inclusive. 

Climate. The prevailing winds in the Central Plains 
are from the southwest, and the storms which bring the 
daily weather changes move eastward over the area. In 
the southern portion, where the Central Plains extend 
into Texas, the weather is never very cold ; but far to 
the northwest, in Minnesota and the Dakotas, the ther- 
mometer falls to 30 and even 40 degrees below zero 
during the winter. 

Snows are heavy in the northern portion but light 
in the southern parts. The rainfall, except at the very 
western margin, is enough for agriculture, and much 
of it comes during the growing season of the plants. 
See rainfall map on jJage 82. 

The Great Lakes modify the climate by cooling the air 
that blows over them in summer and warming the air 
that blows over them in the fall. That is because the 
lands become heated more rapidly than the bodies of 
water, and when fall comes they cool off more rapidly 
than the water. Sometimes the heat that is given off 
by the water prevents frosts on the lands near by. This 
is especially true in the southern peninsula of Michigan, 
and so that part of the state has become a fruit^raising 
district (Fig. 68 and map, p. 45). The western part of 
New York State and the northern part of Ohio are also 
for this reason excellent fruit-producing districts. 



addition of decayed vegetable and animal matter always 
helps to make a good soil. 

Oil and gas. The chief center for the refining of oil 
near Chicago is Whiting, Indiana. When the oil flows 
from the ground or is pumped out, it is commonly put 
into reservoirs or tanks, or started directly through 
large pipe lines to the centers where it is to be used. 

Fig. 69. The blue grass of Kentucky makes an excellent quality of hay and 
has given its name to the north central part of the state, which is known 
as the Blue Grass Country. The men in this view are working the seed out 
, , of the hay and putting it in bags for market 

Natural Resources 

Soils. First in importance are the soils. They are 
fundamental to the prosperity of any people. This exten- 
sive area is especially fortunate in having a large variety 
of very fertile soils. Throughout the greater part of the 

Fig. 70. The rich limestone soils of Kentucky have made it the leading 

tobacco-producing state in the country. Much of the tobacco is grown under 

covers of white cloth, as shown in this view. What are the other important 

products of Kentucky ? How have the Kentucky soils been made ? 

Oil is pumped through pipes from the Kansas oil fields.. 

northern portion most of the soils are of glacial origin, as far as Chicago, — a distance of nearly 600 miles. The 
The great ice-sheets (Fig. 14) which invaded the United oil from southern Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio is sent in 
States covered a large portion of the Central Plains, that way to the outskirts of Chicago. Part of the oil 

See map on images 2 and 3. Each 
time the ice came it brought Cana- 
dian soils. It ground up, or pulver- 
ized, the rocks as it moved southward, 
and upon melting left everything 
that it had picked up on its way. 

In the driftless area of the upper 
Mississippi Valley {see map, p. 45) 
there are no glacial soils, and south 
of the limit of ice action the Cen- 
tral Plains are without glacial drift. 
In those parts the soils have been 
formed by the decay or breaking up 
of the rock formations. Shale is 
simply a hardened clay, and when 
softened and broken up into small 
particles it becomes a clay again. ' 
Limestones also make clay soils. The 
rich soils of the Blue Grass Coun- 
try of Kentucky came from the 
decay of limestones (Figs. 69, 70). 
When sandstones are broken up fine 
enough, they make sandy soils. The 

Underwood k Underwood 

Fig. 71. In Minnesota the iron deposits are so near 
the surface that mining consists simply in digging 
out the ore from the sides of a great pit in the 
earth and loading it onto cars which are run 
directly into the pit 

of Oklahoma is sent northward, and 
part is sent southward for shipment 
from Gulf ports. Much of the Texap. 
oil is piped to the Gulf ports. 

The natiural gases have long been 
used as a source of fuel and light in 
the districts where they are found. 
When a hole is bored into the rocks, 
where there is gas, the gas will come 
out freely and must be captured and 
stored for use. In some portions of 
the country, where preparations have 
not been made to save the gas, it has 
all escaped. Sometimes the escaping 
gas from wells has become lighted 
and for many years has burned day 
and night like a great torch. The 
gas thus wasted could have brought 
comforts and even wealth to thou- 
sands of people. 

Coal and iron. When coal and iron 
are found near together, manufactur- 
ing industries are almost certain to be 



developed. This was the case in the Appalachian High- 
lands, where Pittsbm-gh and Birmingham are located, 
and in the chain of cities at the eastern margin of the 
Appalachian Highlands. 

The coal supply in this region is abundant. There 
are thousands of square miles underlain with a good 
grade of soft, or bituminous, coal. At each locality 


Fig. 72. Along the water front at Buffalo you can see the big lake freighters 
loading and unloading their cargoes. Hundreds of these freighters are in use 
on the Great Lakes, running between the eastern and western ports. What 
products do they carry going east? going west ? At what ports do they call? 

where tests have been made, there is more than one 
seam or layer of coal beneath the surface. 

The iron used in the Central Plains comes from the 
Laurentian Uplands just outside the region (Fig. 71). 
The iron is shipped to Milwaukee, Chicago, South 
Chicago, Gary, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Erie, and 
Buffalo. Each one of these cities has been greatly bene- 
fited by the supply of iron coming by water, and by the 
nearness of the coal and oil fields. 

C'ourCeBj of Dr. Johu M. Clarke 

Fig. 73. This is a model of a salt-producing plant in New York. The salt is 
found in a bed 100 feet thick and 2200 feet underground. Fresh water is forced 
down the pipe beneath the derrick at the right and allowed to dissolve all 
the salt it can. Then the brine is pumped up the pipe at the left into tanks, 
where heat is used to evaporate the water. The unrefined salt which is left 
is then cleaned and purified and finally put into barrels ready for market 

Salt has been discovered far below the surface of the 
ground at several places in New York and in the south- 
ern part of Michigan. New York contains some of the 
most valuable salt mines in the world, and Michigan 
now produces thousands of tons of salt each year. 

Waterways. The Great Lakes furnish the most re- 
markable continuous route of inland waterways in the 
world, and are the largest bodies of fresh water (Fig. 74). 
In St. Marys River, which flows from Lake Superior to 
Lake Huron, there are rapids ; and in the Niagara River 

Copper is brought from the Lake Superior mining there are falls (Fig. 67). The rapids of the St. Marys 

district to each of the large industrial cities on the 
Great Lakes. Some of it is reshipped for use in the 
more distant Eastern cities. 

Lead and zinc. Much of the lead and zinc ores of the 
Interior Highlands is shipped northward to the vicinity 

River are avoided by the two Soo Canals, one on the 
Canadian side and one on the American side ; and the 
falls in the Niagara River (Fig. 67), that made all travel 
by boat between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario impossible, 
are avoided by the Welland Canal. See map on page 35. 
By means of these canals a continuous waterway is pro- 

of Chicago. In addition to that supply the Central Plains 

have a lead-and-zinc-producing district which extends vided from Lake Superior to the St. Lawrence River 

from southwestern Wisconsin 

into northwestern Illinois. 

Lead and zinc smelters are 
located at La Salle and Peru, 
Illiuois, where there is coal 
that ia used in smelting the 
ores. Chicago and the other 
manufacturing cities of the 
Central Plains are ready to buy 

such useful metals as fast as ^^S- "^^^ This diagram shows the total depth of each of the Great Lakes and the height of its surface above 

thp ^mpltintr nlants arp nhlo tr» *** level. Study the figure carefully. Which lake has the highest elevation above sea level? Between what 

* " two lakes is there the greatest difference in elevation ? What is the deepest lake ? the second deepest ? Are 
produce them. all t^e lake bottoms below sea level ? What river carries the lake waters to the ocean ? 



Portions of the St. Lawrence River are so blocked by The Mississippi River has been dammed at Keokuk, 
rock islands and rock ledges in the channel that canals Iowa (Fig. 75), and the electricity generated there is 
have been built parallel to 'parts of the stream. With transmitted more than a hundred miles to be used for 

the help of these canals 
ocean-going vessels may go 
directly from the mouth 
of the St. Lawrence to the 
westernmost lake ports. 

In addition to being of 
great value in commerce, 
the Great Lakes provide 
large supplies of fish and 
furnish water to many of 
the cities on their shores. 
The lakes are a constant 
source of pleasure to those 
who live near them or have 
opportunities to travel upon 
them. Thousands of summer 
homes border their shores. 

The Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and many of their 
tributaries are navigable. See maps on jmges 45 and 55. 
They form a wonderful system of inland waterways that 
are now used a great deal but should be used more as 
trade with Central and South America increases. 

Water-power. To-day part of the water on the Amer- 
ican side of Niagara Falls, and part on the Canadian 
side, is taken off through great tubes, or tunnels, and 
made to turn huge wheels. In the power plants these 
wheels are connected with dynamos so that electrical 
energy is generated. This energy is not only used near 
at hand but is sold to consumers many miles away. 
Some of the power is utilized to run factories and car 
lines and to furnish light in neighboring cities and 
towns. Niagara Falls are thus harnessed and made to 

Fig. 75. This is the great dam across the Mississippi River at Keokuk, 
Iowa. Over 300,000 horse-power is developed here, and of this 60,000 horse- 
power goes to St. Louis over a transmission line 137 miles long. Why is it 
wise to harness the rivers of the United States in this way ? 

light and power. 

Power is also obtaine'd 
where the waters of the 
Chicago Sanitary Canal are 
discharged into the Des 
Plaines River. By cutting 
a deep canal the waters of 
Lake Michigan have been 
forced to flow southwest- 
ward. The canal was cut 
in order to carry the sew- 
age from the Chicago dis- 
trict into the Mississippi 
drainage system. 

In numerous other places 
water-power has been em- 
ployed on a smaller scale, 
and many more streams can be so utilized. 

Forests and their uses. When settlers came into the 
region of the Central Plains, timber was abundant. 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota were over- 
grown with forests of soft woods. The southeastern por- 
tion of the region had a very valuable forest of hard 
woods. There still remains a great deal of timber, but 
the rapid increase in population, with the conseqiient 
demand for building material, has led to the destruction 
of many of the forests. Farmers needed lumber for their 
homes, barns, and fences, and the building of large cities 
demanded great quantities of lumber; fm^niture had to 
be made ; factories and packing-houses required boxes ; 
wooden blocks were used in paving streets ; and wood 
was needed in the making of railway and street cars. 

accomplish a great amount of work for man (Fig. 67). To-day other materials are taking the place of wood. 

Fig. 76. This is one of the great automobile-manufacturing plants at Detroit. 
Its buildings cover 64 acres of ground, and it turns out $40,000,000 worth of 
automobiles each year. Twelve thousand people get their living by working in 
the difierent departments of this great factory. The first modern automobiles 

were made in France, but the United States now manufactures and exports 
more than any other country. Detroit is the center of the industry in this 
country, and the automobiles and motor trucks manufactured here are sent 
all over the world. Where are the raw materials for this industry obtained ? 



Grand Rapids, Michigan, owes its development largely Limestones, which supply the lime needed in making 
to the furnitm-e business. Chicago is a great lumber mortar, are almost everywhere available, and some of 
market and also a furniture-manufacturing center, the limestones have just the right composition to be 

Vessels from northern lake ports 
bring huge loads of lumber to the 
docks bordering the Chicago River. 
The quantities of lumber which were 
easily accessible to Detroit led people 
in that city to manufacture all kinds 
of vehicles. When the automobile 
was invented, plants which had 
formerly manufactured wagons and 
carriages turned easily to the man- 
ufacture of motor cars, and Detroit 
has become the chief center of this 
industry (Fig. 76). South Bend, In- 
diana, was a center to which lumber, 
as well as iron and steel, could con- 
veniently be brought ; and the man- 
ufacture of Avagons, carriages, and 
plows has developed there on a large 
scale (Fig. 77). 

But all of this important work 
could have been accomplished with- 
out the destruction of the great forests if care had been 
taken in the cutting of tlie trees. Mature and defective 
trees might just as well have been cut and the others 
allowed to grow. Scientific conservation of the forests 
would have meant a permanent supply of excellent 

Building materials. Throughout most of the Central 
Plains the glacial materials at the surface are valuable 
in construction work. Sands and gravels have been 
used for road material, for roof coverings, and more 
recently in large quantities in concrete construction. 
Glacial clays have been 
made into common build- 
ing brick. There are brick 
plants which have been 
turning out thousands of 
bricks nearly every day for 
years in order to supply the 
demand due to the rapid 
growth of the large cities. 
The clays have also been 
used to make tiles (Fig. 78) 
and terra cotta. There are 
clays other than those of 
glacial origin, and there are 
shales which can be crushed 
and used as clays in the 
manufacture of terra cotta. 



Jh^^^H^'i^ j^^ JjpBPJWriB 








K ^^MM^ 

liMl^^ -J^jM 



1, > - 



fj^jF ° ^^£S|S^HHE9^. ' 


Fig. 77. This is a motor plow, one of the many 
modern agricultural implements which are manu- 
factured in the great cities of the Central Plains 
for use on the farming lands 




^^ WKk 


Fig. 78. This is a great plant in Illinois for the manufacture of sewer pipes. 

The pipes are molded from clay and then put into the kilns and baked until 

they are very hard. The kilns are the circular buildings with white-domed 

roofs. Where does the clay for this industry come from ? 

used in making cement. The total 
supply of limestones that can be used 
in making cement is enormous. This 
is of great importance since concrete 
construction has become so common. 
Limestones are also used in building 
roads and in laying the foundations 
of buildings. 

At Bedford, Indiana, one of the 
best building stones in America is 
found. It is a limestone with a re- 
markable uniformity of color and 
texture, which makes it possible to 
carve decorative features out of it. 
The Bedford limestone is sent to 
many parts of the United States. 

In some places sandstone is ground 
up into sand and used in manufactur- 
ing glass and certain kinds of bricks. 
The granites and marbles used in 
the Central Plains must be shipped 
in from other geographic regions. 

Home work. If there is a brickyard near your home, find 
out where the clay comes from and how it is made into bricks. 

Summary of natural resources. This region is a leader 
in both agricultural and industrial life. Of first impor- 
tance are the level or gently rolling lands with their 
rich soils and abundant summer rainfall. Then there 
are the coal, oil, and gas which furnish heat and power. 
Next come the waterways and available water-power, the 
supplies of salt, lead, and zinc within the natural region, 

and iron and copper from 
just outside. Add to these 
the forests, the various 
building materials, and the 
ease with which railroads 
may be built, and it may 
be truly said that no area 
of equal size in the world is 
so fortunate in amount and 
variety of natural wealth. 
Under these circvtmstances 
it is not strange that so 
many men have migrated 
westward from the cities 
of the East to make their 
homes and their livelihood 
in the Central Plains. 




Kentucky. 1. What natural regions extend into this state? 
2. What part of the state is the roughest ? 3. Wliat navigable 
rivers are available? 4. The central and western portions 
have excellent soils, and agriculture is the leading occupation 
in Kentucky. What appears to be the leading agricultural 
product of Kentucky ? 

5. What mineral resources in this state are indicated on 
the map ? 6. Locate Mammoth Cave. In this vicinity over 
40 miles of wonderful underground passageways have been 
explored (Fig. 91, p. 52). 

Frankfort, the capital, is in the midst of the famous Blue 
Grass Country, where there is a rich clay soil. Louisville, the 
largest city, is at the Falls of the Ohio, where there is excel- 
lent water-power, and it has become a manufacturing center. 
Covington is an important industrial center opposite Cincinnati. 

Ohio. 1. What natural regions extend into this state ? 
The eastern portion is much rougher than the central and 
western parts. 2. What part of Ohio has glacial soils ? See 
map on pages 2 and 3. 

3. What are the chief crops ? 4. What sources of fuel are 
found iu the state ? 5. What navigable waters border the 
state? G. Judging from the products, name the leading 
occupations. 7. Describe the location of the capital. 

Cleveland (Fig. 79). Toledo is on the highway of travel and 
shipment east and west. It is fortunate in having an excellent 
harbor with about 20 miles of docks. Dayton is a manufacturing 
cent|F and is in the midst of a prosperous farming district. 
Cincinnati has over 10 miles of water front and very good 
railroad connections. 

Indiana. 1. Describe the surface features of this state. 
2. What navigable waters are available ? 3. What are the 
chief farm products ? 4. What sources of fuel are there in 
the state ? 

Indianapolis, the capital, is an important railroad center and 
is surrounded by most productive farming lands. An abun- 
dance of raw material and coal is available, and therefore 
manufacturing has been undertaken. Evansville is an important 
railroad and industrial center on the Ohio River. 

South Bend (see p. 43}. Fort Wayne is an important trading 
and manufacturing city. Terre Haute is in the midst of a pros- 
perous farming district and is a busy trading center. Gary is 
the steel-manufacturing center of northern Indiana. 

Illinois is entirely within the Central Plains and has a 
rolling surface. It is a land of rich soils underlain with mineral 
resources of very great value. 1. What are the chief agricul- 
tural products ? 2. What other products come from the farms? 

3. What are the sources of fuel and power? 4. What 
navigable waters border or are within the state of Illinois? 
5. What large cities are located on navigable waters ? 6. Why 
is the central location of Springfield favorable for a capital city ? 

Chicago is so situated that raw materials come by water and 
by rail to supply the great factories of this city. What in- 
dustries have the farm products developed in Chicago ? See 
Figs. 88, 89, and 90. 

Peoria is beautifully located on a high bluff bordering the 
Illinois River near large grain-producing areas. East St. Louis 

is an important railroad center and has also the advantage 
of transportation by water. Trading and manufacturing are 
actively carried on. Rockford is in an excellent farming district 
and is also a manufacturing center. 

Michigan. 1. What natural region extends throughout the 
southern peninsula of Michigan ? 2. What natural regions 
extend into the northern peninsula ? 3. What bodies of water 
border these two great peninsulas? 4. Judging from the 
products, describe the leading occupations of the people in 
the different parts of this state. 5. What mineral resources 
are indicated ? 6. Name and locate the capital 

Detroit is the largest city in ^Michigan. See also page 43 and 
Fig. 76. 

Grand Rapids («ee p. 43}. Saginaw and Bay City are manufac- 
turing centers on the Saginaw River. Flint is one of the leading 
cities in the manufacture of automobiles. Kalamazoo is in a rich 
farming land and is favored by excellent railway service. 

Wisconsin. 1. What natural regions extend into this state ? 
2. What is meant by the " driftless area" ? 3. What navigable 
waters are directly available? 4. Wliat mineral resources 
are shown on the map of Wisconsin? 5. What are the 
leading farm products ? 6. Why should dairying be profit- 
able here ? 

Madison, the capital, is beautifully situated on the shores of 
two small lakes. It is the educational center for the state and 
contains many attractive public buildings. Milwaukee, the 
largest city in the state, has the advantage of being on Lake 
Michigan and near a very productive farming district. It is 
a commercial and manufacturing center. 

Superior is fortunately located at the head of Lake Superior 
in the vicinity of iron, lumber, and grain. Racine and Kenosha 
are important centers for the manufacture of automobiles and 
various kinds of farm implements. Oshkosh is on the shore of 
Lake Winnebago near a good farmmg district and has large 
sash and door factories. 


1. Name five natural advantages that the people have in 
this part of the country. 2. Locate the so-called corn belt. 
Why are swine raised m large numbers in this belt ? 3. What 
state produces a large supply of beet sugar ? 

4. Where are the tobacco-raising regions in these states? 
5. To what places should you go to see the mining of copper, 
iron, lead, zinc, or coal ? 6. What food supplies do the people 
in this district get from the Great Lakes ? 

7. The greatest harvester plant in the world is in Chicago. 
Why is that a good location for this industry ? 8. Why has 
Chicago become a great meat-packing center ? 9. What Atlan- 
tic coast city is in about the same longitude as Cleveland ? 

10, What large city in Canada is in about the same latitude 
as Duluth? 11. Is Omaha or Chicago farther from the equa 
tor ? 12. Where should you like to go for a summer vacation 
within these states ? 13. Plan out a pleasure trip and describe 
what you should expect to see. 

Home ivork. Add the boundaries of these states to your map 
of the United States. Print in the names of the states, the capitals, 
and a few of the large cities. 






(7b Michigan) 





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Fig. 79. This is the Superior-Detroit High Level Bridge, which spans the 
Cuyahoga River at Cleveland. It is made of steel and concrete and is high 
enough to allow the tallest smokestacks and masts of the Great Lakes vessels 
to pass under it. Cleveland is one of the most important ports on the Great 

Lakes and is also a great industrial city. Iron ore from the Lake Superior 
district is sent down the lakes to Cleveland, and coal comes by rail from the 
fields of the Appalachian region. What are Cleveland's chief industries ? 
How does Cleveland rank in size among the cities of the United States ? 

Problems and review questions. 1. What natural regions border 
the Central Plains ? 2. How do the Great Lakes modify the 
weather conditions near them ? 3. Which part of the Central 
Plains has glacial soils ? 4. Where is the Blue Grass Country ? 
5. In what ways is natural oil, or petroleum, transported ? 6. What 
uses are made of natural gas ? 7. Does the mining of the coal in 
the Central Plains interfere with the use of the surface for farm- 
ing ? 8. If the coal were used at the mines to generate electricity, 
what saving of work would that mean ? What other arguments 
are there in favor of this plan ? What arguments are there against 
this plan ? 9. How did there come to be great deposits of salt in 
parts of this region ? 

Settlement and Industrial Development 

Early explorations. Plate A in the Appendix shows 
the early routes of exploration into the interior of the 
continent. Certain headwaters of the St. Lawrence and 
Mississippi river systems are so near together that the 

Fig. 80. This is a view in the business district of Buffalo, showing the broad 

streets and handsome buildings. The city gets its electricity for light and 

power from Niagara Falls, twenty miles away. Locate Buffalo on your map 

and explain its commercial importance. What are its chief industries ? 

early explorers carried their boats and outfits from one 
river system into the other. In Wisconsin there is a short 
portage from the Fox River (which flows northeastward 
into Green Bay) to the Wisconsin River. The city of 
Portage is located just where the early explorers crossed 
from the St. Lawrence system into the Mississippi system. 
See map on jMge 45. This was the route followed by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673, on their ti'ip from the 
Great Lakes down the Wisconsin and Mississippi to the 
mouth of the Arkansas. On their return they came up 
the Illinois and portaged to Lake Michigan. 

In 1682 La Salle, on his third trip into this region, 
portaged from the south branch of the Chicago River to 
the Des Plaines and thence went down the Illinois. See 
Appendix, Plate A. On this trip he followed the Missis- 
sippi River to its mouth, taking possession of the coun- 
try in the name of France and calling it Louisiana in 
honor of Louis XIV. 

The explorers who went westward through the Appa- 
lachian Mountains of Pennsylvania soon came to the 
headwat^s of the Ohio River. See maj) on p)ages 2 and 3. 
This river was used as a highway of travel duiing the 
early days of migration into the Central Plains. Some 
who came by way of the Mohawk valley to the shores 
of Lake Erie turned southward into the Ohio and fol- 
lowed it to the southwest. 

Many from Pennsylvania and Virginia moved south- 
ward between the long Appalachian Mountain ridges 
and finally found in Cumberland Gap (see -niap on 
pages 2 and 3, K 3) an easy route to the westward. 
Some of these immigrants settled in the hilly country 
of eastern Kentucky and eastern Tennessee, but many 
of them pushed on beyond the Appalachian Plateau into 
the Central Plains. In all cases the lakes and rivers 
guided the early explorers. 



Fig. 81. This is a view of the Duluth-Superior harbor as it appears from 
Duluth. The narrow tongue of land in the center of the picture once ex- 
tended entirely across the harbor. Two ship canals have been cut through 
this tongue of land, one leading into the harbor of Duluth and the other 

Migrations westward. At the close of the American 
Revolution a great many people from New England and 
the Middle Atlantic states went westward and settled 
in the great agricultural lands of the Central Plains. In 
those days land travel was chiefly by wagons or oxcarts. 
As the number of people increased, larger and larger 
settlements were made, and these grew into prosperous 
farming communities. Owing to the building of railroads 
many of the small towns have become cities. Columbus 
(Ohio), Indianapolis (Indiana), Springfield (Illinois), and 
Des Moines (Iowa) are examples of cities located in the 
midst of prosperous farming districts. 

Location and growth of cities. The location of cities 
is greatly influenced by changes in the means of trans- 
portation or, as we may call it, by breaks in transpor- 
tation. When men who are traveUng by water find it 
necessary to abandon their boats and go overland, they 
must vmload their goods, usually stay overnight, and 
purchase a new outfit. Such delays mean that people 
begin to congregate where there are breaks in transpor- 
tation. A little hotel is built, stores are opened to ac- 
commodate the travelers, trading begins, and, as the 
demands increase, more and more goods are brought 
there to be sold. As the population increases, manufac- 
turing may be undertaken, a railroad may be built to 
this place, and soon a city has been established. 

Lake ports. Many cities in the Central Plains region 
have developed as lake or river porta where there are 
advantages in transportation. See map between pages 95 
and 98. Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland (Fig. 79),. Toledo, Detroit, 
Milwaukee, and Chicago are the larger lake ports of the 
Central Plains. Duluth and Superior are large lake ports 
in an adjoining natural region. 

Each one of the lake ports is located at a break in 
transportation. To-day iron ore is brought by train to 
Superior and Duluth and then transferred to lake vessels 

Pbotognph ttj MuKcDiic, Duluth 

into the harbor of Superior. These canals allow the largest lake vessels 
to enter the harbor. Great quantities of ore and grain are brought to Duluth 
and Superior by rail, loaded on the freighters, and sent east by the Great 
Lakes. Explain the importance of Duluth and Superior as shipping centers 

(Fig. 81). Wheat and lumber also come to these ports 
and are transferred to vessels. Grains and manufactured 
products from Chicago and farther west are loaded onto 
vessels leaving that port (Fig. 88). Thovisands of auto- 
mobiles are shipped by water from Detroit. Buffalo 
receives large quantities of foods and raw materials from 
the west, and reships much of it by canals or by rail to 
cities farther east (Fig. 80). 

Part of the iron ore brought to Sandusky, Cleveland, 
Erie, and other Lake Erie ports is used in those cities, 
but large quantities are transferred to freight cars and 
sent on to Pittsburgh. On the return westward many 
of the vessels take coal and manufactured goods for 
deUvery to the upper lake ports. The railroads transfer 
the products of the farms to the large cities on the 
shores of the lakes and distribute throughout the country 
the manufactured goods from the cities. The lake ports 
are therefore very busy places, where great cargoes of raw 
materials and manufactured goods are being exchanged. 

11") C. J. Uibbud 

Fig. 82. Minneapolis, located at the Falls of St. Anthony on the Mississippi 

River, is the greatest flour-milling center in the world. Over 100,000,000 

bushels of wheat are made into flour here every year. The city is also a 

great lumber center. Can you explain the location of these industries ? 






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Fig. 83. St. Louis is located on the right bank of the Mississippi River 
just south of the points where the Missouri and the Illinois rivers enter the 
main stream. The city, which has nearly twenty miles of river frontage, is a 
very important river port and a very busy railroad center. At the right in 

River ports. Cincinnatj, Louisville, St. Louis, Kansas City, 
Omaha, St. Paul, and Minneapolis are the larger river ports 
within this region. Minneapolis started as a lumber 
town. Logs were sent downstream from the forests of 
Minnesota. Later, when railroads had been built and 
the great Northwest was open for settlement, large quan- 
tities of wheat began to move eastward and flour mills 
were erected at Minneapolis, until that city has become 
the leading flour-milling center in the United States 
(Fig. 82). St. Paul has also become an important manu- 
facturing and railroad center and is a large lumber 
market (Fig. 84). 

this picture is one of the great bridges which connect St. Louis with the 
east bank of the river. In the center are some of the large buildings of 
the city. Locate St. Louis on your map. What are the advantages of its 
location ? What are its chief industries, and why have they developed ? 

coming to the city manufacturing has developed (Fig. 85). 
Louisville and Cincinnati are the leading Ohio River ports 
in this natural region. 

Note. For additional study of cities see pages 44 and 54. 

Farming. In the study of agriculture in this region 
we shall begin at the south and work north and west. 
In Kentucky, in the Blue Grass Country, there is a rich 
clay soil, where more tobacco is raised than in any other 
part of the United States (Fig. 70). This is also a good 
district for general farming. 

The famous corn belt stretches from east to west 

St. Louis was a trading center in the early days of throughout the Central Plains, with a width of about 
settlement, and since it was near the junction of the two hundred miles. In traveling through that portion 
Missouri and the Mississippi, it was a natural outfitting of the country during the summer we can see thousands 

point for travelers (Fig. 83) 
The leading cities on the 
Missouri River are located 
where transportation west- 
ward in the early days was 
interrupted. The overland 
routes of migration to the 
Pacific coast started from 
Kansas City. See map on 
pages Sands. To-day there 
are magnificent bridges 
across the river, and travel 
may go on without inter- 
ruption. But the cities once 
established have continued 
to grow in population and 
importance. Omaha is a 
river city, but it owes its 
growth chiefly to railroads 

^•'■S-Tt _J 



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Fig. 84. St. Paul, the capital of Minnesota, is situated across the Mississippi 
River from Minneapolis, and the two are known as the "Twin Cities." They 
form a very important railroad center, and four transcontinental railways 
pass through them. Name the other chief railroad centers in the Central Plains 

of acres of gently rolling 
country where com is grow- 
ing (Fig. 86). The com belt 
is in the well-watered por- 
tion of the Central Plains 
and gradually comes to an 
end in the west as the coun- 
try becomes drier. At the 
western end, in Kansas and 
Nebraska, an occasional dry 
season means the loss of a 
corn crop. 

Corn is a heavy product 
to ship, and the farmers 
have found that instead of 
marketing com it is much 
more profitable to feed it 
to hogs and cattle and then 
sell the stock when they are fattened (Fig. 87). This is 

It was made the terminus 

of the Union Pacific Railroad, which, with its connections, the reason why corn and swine appear so commonly 

was the first transcontinental railway route. Omaha has side by side on the economic maps of the Central 

become a great railroad center, and with raw materials Plains region (pp. 45, 55). 



Fig. 85. This is a portion of the busy industrial district of Omaha. The 
buildings in the picture include the car-shops of the Union Pacific Railroad 
and a great plant for the smelting and refining of gold and silver ores. Be- 
cause of its location Omaha has become a very important agricultural and 

The farmers also raise horses, mules, and sheep. The 
green cornstalks, if put into silos, make good winter 
fodder for stock. Some of the fields are always reserved 
for raising oats, barley, wheat, and vegetables. The 
zone where most of the oats are raised is a little farther 

industrial center. Seventeen railroads meet here. What do they bring to 
Omaha ? What do they take away ? In the early days of westward migra- 
tion Omaha was one of the points from which the pioneers set forth on their 
journey westward. What trails did they follow ? See map on pages 2 and 3 

Oklahoma, we pass into drier and drier regions, where 
wheat can be raised more profitably than corn or oats. 

The broad, level country in the valley of the Red 
River in Canada and the United States has been called 
the " Bread Basket of the World." It is a wonderful 
wheatrproducing district, for the soils are very fertile. 
The latest machines for planting and harvesting are 
used on this land. 

Near each of the large cities in the Central Plains dairy 
farming, market gardening, and the raising of poultry 
have been undertaken on a large scale. Many of the 
dairy products from southeastern Wisconsin and north- 
em Illinois are shipped to all parts of the United States. 

Fig. 86. This farmer is standing beside his corn crop to show how tall it 

has grown. Proper seed selection and soil preparation have produced an 

abundance of large, well-filled ears. What states are included in the corn 

belt ? What other crops are grown in this belt besides corn ? 

north, running through northern Indiana, Illinois, and 
Iowa. It begins before the corn belt ends. See maps on 
pages 45 and 55. 

The great wheat belt begins before the oat belt ends, 
and wheat becomes a more and more important crop to 
the northwest and west. Wheat-raising has an impor- 
tant relationship to the climate. It needs from three 
to four months of weather without frost in which to 
grow and ripen. Wheat also needs rain in the early 
part of its growth, but during the ripening period it 
matures better if the climate is dry and there is plenty 
of sunshine. To the northwest, in Minnesota and the 
Dakotas, and to the west, in Nebraska, Kansas, and 

Fig. 87. These little pigs are among the many thousands which are raised 

in the corn belt. The rich corn is just what they need to make them fat, so 

nearly every corn farmer also raises hogs. For this reason the corn belt is 

the greatest hog-exporting region in the world 

Wisconsin has more dairy cows than any other state except 
New York and leads in the production of butter and cheese. 

Home work. 1. Find out the meaning and value of rotation of 
crops. 2. \Vhat is meant by winter wheat ? by spring wheat ? 



Influence of farm life upon cities. With the produc- 
tion of such great crops of grain, mills were estab- 
lished in the chief centers of population, where these 
products might be worked into the form of foods. With 
the raising of swine, cattle, and sheep the meat-packing 
business has developed. Chicago became the center for 

fields and the quick harvesting of great crops. This led 
to the invention of the most helpful farm implements 
the world has ever known. 

The first chilled-steel plow was made by a man who 
settled on the banks of the little river where South 
Bend is now located. That one tool has been wonder- 

this business and still ranks first (Fig. 89), but now fully helpful to the entire country. The little blacksmith 
Kansas City, Omaha, Fort Worth, East St. Louis, and shop has grown into immense foundiies and factories, 
other cities have large meatrpacking establishments, where some of the best plows in the world are made 

(Fig. 77). The great 
reapers and binders, 
mowing and thresh- 
ing machines, gang- 
plows, and gasoline- 
motors have been per- 
fected here in the 
Central Plains. 

To give farmers- 
the comforts of run- 
ning water in their 
homes, dairy barns, 
and pastures, wind- 
mills were needed. 
The light metal wind- 
mills were perfected 
to meet this demand. 
They are wonderful 
labor-saving devices 
and encourage us to 
make much more use- 
of the wind. Some- 
day many farmers- 
may have windmills 
to generate electric- 
ity, which may be 
held in storage bat- 
teries and used as- 
it is needed about 
the farm buildings. 
Every new home- 
had to be furnished. 

Fig. 88. This is an aeroplane drawing of Chicago. The low, flat land on which the city is built was once covered by the 
waters of the lake. The curved margin of the upland southwest of Chicago marks the old shore line. Chicago has no 
natural harbor, but by widening and deepening the mouth of the Chicago River and protecting it by breakwaters an excel- 
lent harbor has been made. The river itself, which used to flow into the lake, has been transformed into a drainage 
canal by which the waters of Lake Michigan flow into the Illinois River and finally into the Mississippi. How has the 

location of Chicago favored its development ? 

More and more food was needed within this region, 
but the production of food has gone far beyond the 
local needs, and the Central Plains now supply large 
quantities of food to other parts of the United States 
and to many foreign lands. 

The farmers needed implements, and at South Bend 
(Indiana), Chicago and Moline (Illinois), Racine (Wis- 
consin), Davenport (Iowa), and many other cities great 
plants have been established for the manufacture of 
different kinds of farm equipment. Special machinery 
was needed to make possible the planting of immense 

New kitchen outfits were needed. Sewing machines, 
washing machines, churns, wagons, carriages, pianos, 
and automobiles were called for. The prosperous farm- 
ing districts made large demands upon the cities for 
manufactured articles. 

Home work. 1. On an outline map show the routes by which 
the early explorers and settlers came into the Central Plains. 
See map on pages 2 and 8. 2. Add the boundaries of these- 
states to your map of the United States. Print in names of 
states, capitals, and a few large cities. 3. Select the five largest 
cities and work out with the maps what must have been important 
factors in determining the location of each city. 



Mining. The coal mined in this region and the oil Physical Geography 

and gas produced here supply heat for the homes and Land made in the sea. The Central Plains were 
power for the ever-increasing number of railroads and formerly covered by an interior sea that spread north- 

factories as well as for the steamships on the lakes 
and rivers. The oil and gas produced in excess of the 
local demand are sent to other parts of the country. 
The demand for the lead, zinc, and salt has kept the 
mines of Missouri, the upper Mississippi Valley, central 

ward from the Gulf of Mexico and covered this part of 
the United States. In that sea the sandstones and lime- 
stones that underlie the region were made. 

Uplifting of the land. The land was next uplifted, 
and the sea was forced to retreat. Rains fell and rivers 

New York, and southern Michigan busy producing these began their work of cutting up the land and taking the 
valuable minerals. loose material back to the ocean. 

Manufacturing. With the rapid development of agri- Coming of the ice. Next came the Ice Age, when the 
culture and mining, the great increase in population, and great continental glaciers invaded the Central Plains. In 
the construction of railroads, came 
large demands for manufactm-ed 
articles. We have mentioned the 
call from the farmers for such arti- 
cles. The city populations also 
needed homes. They needed furni- 
ture, clothing, food, books, maga- 
zines, and papers, and were ready 
to buy many luxuries. Industrial 
life developed in response to this 
ever-increasing demand. Now many 
useful articles made in this region 
are shipped to other parts of the 
United States and to distant lands. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What 
were the routes of the early explorers into 
the upper Mississippi Valley ? 2. What 
are the chief navigable waterways in the 
Central Plains ? 3. How have they been 
improved by man ? 4. How may they be 
made more serviceable to man ? 5. Where 
are there great water-power plants in the 
Central Plains ? 6. What uses have been 
made of the wood from the forests ? 
7. What building materials other than 

wood are available ? 8. Why should cities be located at breaks 
in transportation? 9. Why do farmers in the corn belt usually 
raise swine ? 10. What are some of the modern improvements 
enjoyed on the farms ? 11. How does the development of farming 
influence life in the cities ? 12. How have the industries of the 
cities influenced life on the farms ? 

13. Why should the Central Plains of the United States be an 
industrial as well as an agricultural district? What sources of 
power are there ? What raw materials for manufacture are avail- 
able ? What metals are mined in this region ? What very useful 
metals are found in large quantities in an adjoining region and 
easily brought to the industrial centers ? What means of trans- 
portation are available ? Where are the customers ? 

14. What agricultural advantages have these plains? Did 
iBost of the soils originate in this region ? Is there enough 
rainfall for agriculture without irrigating the lands ? Which 
portion has the greater rainfall ? What means of transportation 
are available for the modern farmer ? 

Fig. 89. Chicago is the largest meat market in the world. The stockyards are located near the great 

meat-packing plants. They contain thousands of pens to which the cattle, sheep, and hogs are taken 

from the railroad cars and kept until they are purchased by one of the packing companies. From what 

regions do these different kinds of live stock come to Chicago ? To what points is the meat sent ? 

the eastern portion of the region it was a part of the 
same great ice-sheet which covered the northeastern por- 
tion of the United States and advanced into the Atlantic 
Ocean. West of the Mississippi the ice came from an- 
other center, which was west of Hudson Bay (Fig. 14). 
Two great ice-sheets, therefore, moved southward from 
Canadian territory into the upper Mississippi Valley. 
They crossed the region of the Great Lakes and met 
south of the driftless area of southwestern Wisconsin 
and the adjoining states. The southern limit of ice 
action and the driftless area are shown on the map on 
pages 2 and 3. 

Retreat of the ice. In time the climate became warmer 
and the great ice-sheets melted away. They left a 
mantle of clays, sands, gravels, and bowlders, much as 
they did in other regions. 



Fig. 90. This is a view of part of the lake front at Chicago, a little south 
of the mouth of the Chicago River. A fine, broad boulevard follows the 
lake shore, along which there are many hotels and tall office buildings. 
Chicago is the second largest city in the United States, and although it is 

a thousand miles from the ocean, it is one of the greatest ports in our 
country. Using Fig. 88 and the maps on pages 45 and 55, answer the follow- 
ing questions : What products are brought to Chicago by boat ? Where do 
they come from ? What is the chief industry at South Chicago and Gary ? 

The Great Lakes. Before the ice melted entirely away, The former outlets of the Great Lakes are now occu- 
lt stood for a time over the valleys of the Mohawk and pied by small rivers, but the broad valleys which formerly 
St. Lawrence rivers, and during that time the water from had large rivers when the lake waters drained through 

the western Great Lakes flowed through other outlets 
to the south. Lake Superior drained by way of the St. 
Croix River into the Mississippi ; Lake Michigan drained 
by way of the Illinois River into the Mississippi ; and 
for a time the waters in the basin of Lake Erie drained 
by way of the Maumee and Wabash rivers into the Ohio. 
Later the waters from the Lake Erie basin joined those 
of the Lake Huron basin and flowed westward across 
Michigan, by a route which is now followed in part by 
the Grand River, into the basin of Lake Michigan. Dur- 
ing this time the water from the Great Lakes found its 
way to the Gulf of Mexico. 

When the ice melted farther back to the northward, 
the valley of the Mohawk was uncovered and the drain- 
age from the Great Lakes turned eastward, draining for 
a time through the Mohawk valley into the Hudson. 
Thus the Mohawk 
valley once held a 
mighty river, and 
the lake waters en- 
tered the sea near 
the point where the 
great city of New 
York now stands. 

When the ice 
had melted still 
farther northward, 
and the valley of 
the St. Lawrence 
was uncovered, the 
drainage from the Great Lakes chose that northern route 
because it was the lowest route available. The Great 
Lakes are drained by the St. Lawrence River to-day. 

Fig. 91. In the southern parts of Indiana and Illinois, and in Kentucky, boys have found holes in the 
ground through which they can descend into great underground rooms. In places they can crawl along 
tunnels from one room to another. This is because the layers of rock are made of limestone, which the 
underground waters easily dissolve away, leaving the great caves and tunnels. In some of the caves the 
roofs and walls are covered with beautiful crystals made by the water. Sometimes, when only a small 
portion of the roof of the cave is left, it forms a natural bridge like the one at the right in this figure 

them are valuable for farm lands. They are very attrac- 
tive routes for railroads and canals. From Chicago south- 
westward in the ancient lake outlet there is an old canal 
known as the Illinois and Michigan Canal, a new Sani- 
tary Canal, and several railroads. In Ohio and Indiana, 
canals and railroads follow the former outlets of Lake 
Erie. The Mohawk valley is the route of the Erie and 
New York barge canals and of trunk lines of railroads. 

Home work. 1. From the tables at the end of the book make 
a list of the chief lake ports in the order of population. Do the 
same for the large river cities. 2. How many of the twenty-five 
largest cities in the United States are in the Central Plains ? 
3. Which is the second largest city in the United States ? 

Future. Without any doubt agriculture will continue 
to be the chief occupation within this Central Plains 
region, manufacturing will be second, and mining third. 

With these occu- 
pations there has 
come a great trans- 
portation business. 
Thousands of peo- 
ple will always be 
needed by the rail- 
road and steam- 
ship companies. An 
increasing popula- 
tion will continue 
to demand a larger 
and larger number 
of traders, store- 
keepers, and men and women connected with the office 
work of large business interests. Thus it seems certain 
that the region will increase in prosperity. 



Fig. 92. The drainage basin of the Judith River in Montana is one of the 
parts of the Great Plains where there is enough moisture to raise grain 
without irrigation. This view of the basin was taken at harvest time and 
shows the broad, level surface which is so well suited to the production 

of grain. The harvesters are being drawn over the fields by a tractor, 
which makes it possible to cut many acres in a very short time. The chief 
crop here is wheat. Where is this wheat made into flour ? Where is it finally 
used ? What other kinds of grain are raised in the Great Plains region ? 


causing floods in the spring by melting the snow fields. 
In winter there are fierce storm winds, which bring snow 
The Great Plains region, east of the Rocky Moun- and sleet and are called blizzards. Tornadoes sometimes 
tains, is an open, unforested grassland (Fig. 92). Here cross the plains during the summer. Such a storm travels 
life has been affected by climate more than by any other with a great funnel-shaped cloud accompanied by terrific 
geographic factor. winds which blow down houses, barns, fences, and bridges 

Climate. When the rainfall in any region is below 20 and do a great deal of damage. Occasionally a house is 
inches a year, the success of agriculture is uncertain unless turned around so that it faces in a new direction. A 

the lands are irrigated. If the rain averages between 10 
and 20 inches, grasses will flourish but the region will not 
be forested. The prevailing winds are from the southwest, 
and they give up most of their moisture on the seaward 

roof may be taken off, and the furniture may be carried 
away by the wind. In Texas cold winds, called northers, 
sometimes come very suddenly and cause rapid changes 
in the temperature. The abundance of sunshine in this 

slopes of the high mountains before reaching this section region is favorable to agriculture, and with the help of 

of the country. See map on page 82. Rain-bearing winds irrigation large crops are produced, 
from the Gulf of Mexico bring some rainfall to the Texas Natural resources. The grasslands, which have made 

end of the Great Plains, especially in summer. the grazing of stock possible, are the most important of 

During the warm season the temperature on the plains the natural resources. The soils, especially in the broad 

near the Canadian border commonly ranges from 70 river bottoms, are exceedingly fertile, and large crops of 

to 90 degrees, and in the 
cold season the thermome- 
ters register 10, 20, and 
even 40 degrees below zero. 
At the Texas end of the 
Great Plains the winter 
temperature averages about 
45 degrees and the summer 
temperature averages about 
k5 degrees. Thus the Great 
Plains have what is called a 
continental climate. There 
are great extremes in tem- 
])erature and moderate or 
hght rainfall. 

Occasionally very warm 
winds cross the plains, dry- 
ing up the grasses and 
crops in summer, and even 

Fig. 93. This is a field of full-grown kafir com. You can see by the meas- 
ure at the right that it is six feet high. Kafir corn is a drought-resisting 
plant, well suited to the dry conditions of the Great Plains. Can you name 
other drought-resisting plants ? 

wheat (Fig. 92), kafir corn 
(Fig. 93), and alfalfa are 
raised. In North Dakota 
large quantities of flax are 
grown. Irrigation is prac- 
ticed in many of the valleys. 
In Wyoming, Montana, 
and North Dakota there are 
extensive beds of lignite, 
which is a low-grade coal. 
Bituminous coal is found 
near the base of the moun- 
tains in Montana, Colorado, 
and in New Mexico. There 
are also oil fields in Wyo- 
ming and Colorado, and it 
is very likely that more 
may be discovered in other 
parts of this natural region- 




The change from the Central Plains to the Great Plains 
is very gradual. The land is higher in the west, the soils 
are more sandy, and there is less rainfall. The changes iji 
geographic conditions are such as to make the activities of the 
people in one region quite different from those in the other. 

Mimiesota. 1. What natural regions extend into this state? 
See map on pages 2 and 3. 2. What part of the state is without 
any glacial soil ? 3. Explain the numerous lakes. 4. What 
navigable river rises in this state ? Find its source. 

5. What is the chief mineral resource ? See Fig. 71. 
6. What are the chief farm products ? 7. Name and locate 
the capital. See page 48 and Fig. 84. 8. What is the largest 
city in Minnesota ? See page 48 and Fig. 82. 

Duluth (Fig. 81) is the gateway to and from the Great Lakes 
and is second only to New York in the volume of tonnage 
which it handles. It is the principal shippmg point of Amer- 
ican iron ores, and one of the great grain markets of the world. 

Iowa. 1. Is any part of this state outside of the Central 
Plains ? 2. What portion of the state is without glacial soils? 
3. What navigable rivers border Iowa? 4. Judging from the 
products, name the leading occupation. 

Des Moines, the capital and largest city, is near the coal 
fields and has become a manufacturing center. It is one of 
the leading cities in the insurance business in the United 
States. Sioux City is the largest city in northwestern Iowa ; it is 
an important railway center. Davenport is on a high bluff over- 
looking the Mississippi River ; it is a manufacturing and trad- 
ing center. Dubuque is also on the Mississippi River and is an 
active manufacturing city. Cedar Rapids is in the midst of a 
most productive farming district and is fortunate in having 
water-power available. Meat-packing and the making of 
cereal foods are its chief industries. Waterloo is noted for the 
great variety in its manufacturing. 

Missouri. 1. What mountains are in this state ? What 
plateau ? What plains ? 2. What mineral resources are im- 
portant ? 3. What navigable rivers are available ? 4. What are 
the chief farm products ? 5. Describe the location of the capital. 

St. Louis is the largest city in Missouri and ranks with the 
leading cities of the nation in commerce and manufacturing 
(Fig. 83 and page 48). Kansas City is located on the western 
boundary of the state on the Missouri River, but owes its 
development largely to the railways. It is in the midst of a 
prosperous farming and stock-raising district. St. Joseph is 
the metropolis of northwestern Missouri and is a very busy 
trading and meat-packing center. 

North Dakota. Most of this state is in the Great Plains 
natural region. The eastern part is a fertile lake bottom ; the 
central portion is mantled with glacial soils and is an excel- 
lent farming land ; but the western part, where the rainfall is 
light, is useful chiefly as a grazing country. 

1. What are the chief occupations of the people ? 2. What 
river that rises near the headwaters of the Minnesota flows 
northward into Canada? 3. What are the chief farm prod- 
ucts of North Dakota ? 4. What fuel is found in this state ? 
5. Where is the population densest ? Why ? 6. Is irrigation 
practiced in this state ? 

Bismarck, the capital, is on the Missouri River in a district 
where agriculture and dairying are taking the place of graz- 
ing. Fargo sprang into existence with the coming of the rail- 
road and owes its development to the fertility of the valley 
of the Red River. Grand Forks was first a fur-trading post, but 
the railroads have made it an important distributing point, 
and the fertile soils of the Red River Valley have attracted 
farmers into that part of the state. 

South Dakota. 1. What natural regions extend into this 
state ? 2. The Black Hills are a range of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. What is the highest peak in this range ? 3. What 
metals are found in the state ? 4. What must be the occupa- 
tions in the different parts of South Dakota ? 

Pierre, the capital, is one of the largest stock-shipping 
points in the state. Sioux Falls has the advantages of water- 
power from the Big Sioux River and excellent railroad con- 
nections. This city has shared in the prosperity and growth of 
the great northwest agricultural and grazing regions. Aberdeen 
is another city that owes much to the western railroads and 
to the development of farming. 

Nebraska. 1. What natural regions extend into this state ? 
2. What large river forms the eastern boundary ? 3. What 
are the chief products of Nebraska ? 4. Judging from the 
products, name the two chief occupations. 

Lincoln, the capital, has been benefited by the many railroads 
that enter the city. It is a manufacturing center and the seat 
of the leading educational institution of the state. Omaha, the 
metropolis of the state, is a leading manufacturing and meat- 
producing center and an important stock market (Fig. 85). 

Kansas. 1. What natural regions extend into Kansas? 

2. What part of the state is most densely settled ? Why ? 

3. What sources of fuel are available ? 4. What are the 
chief farm products? 5. Judging from the products of this 
state, name the chief occupations. 6. Name and locate the 

Kansas City, Kansas, is opposite the city of the same name 
in Missouri. It is the largest city in Kansas and is an impor- 
tant meat-packing and trading center. Wichita has prospered 
as the farming and stock-raising of Kansas have developed, 
and it is near some of the great oil and gas fields of Kansas. 


1. Where does the 20-inch rainfall line cross these states ? 
See map on page 82. 2. From what district do the great flour 
mills at Minneapolis get their wheat ? 3. What are the chief 
markets for the cattle raised in these states ? 

4. What is the notable change in occupation between the 
dry and wet parts ? 5. Does the corn belt extend into these 
states ? 6. As you go to the northwest from the corn belt, 
what do you find the farmers raising ? 

7. What interesting sights should you expect to see if you 
went ill a house-boat from St. Paul to St. Louis ? -Describe 
such a journey taken in summer. 8. Compare the latitude 
of Denver Avith that of Springfield, Illinois. 9. What large 
Gulf port is in about the same longitude as Kansas City, 
Kansas? 10. Which is farther from the north pole, Duluth 
or Spokane ? 


D Long. 98 West E from 96 Grten F wich 94' 




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Scale of statute miles 

\ i Cald 


I Eurekl^S* -, S 

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;t IndcMtndcnte Z. ColuSgus. 

well -a. City ^;^j Coffeyvill*^ 

Scale of kilometers 

&o 100 aoo 300 


"A* State capitals 

=== Navig^able rivera 

1 Up lands and 

National irrigation projects ^ — -/ 

] Lowlands V 

I (Coastal plain) L. 

I Central plains V 

I Great plains I 



W Longitude E Wezl /rom96 Grttnwlch F •CaIveston94 ' 

\.l' .^'"^"'MirZme'i Vnjonvfille 

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' plateaus 

1 Old, worn-down 
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1 Yountr. ruifsred 
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® Giiin and Company 



away, and visiting became very com- 
mon among the people. That extreme 
hospitahty has continued to the present 
day. The people welcome strangers and 
are most cordial to everyone. 

Passing of the open range. More and 
more settlers came to the Great Plains ; 
the raising of cattle and sheep grew to 
be very profitable; the call of the grqat, 
industrial centers farther east for meat, 
wool, and leather steadily increased. 
Railroads were constructed. Still more 
settlers came, the land had to be divided 
among the different ranchmen, and 
fences were built. The days of the open 
Early exploration. The early routes of migration west-, range have now nearly passed, but grazing remains the 
ward from the Missouri River are shown on the map mostimportantindustry of the Great Plains (Figs. 94, 95). 
(pp. 2, 3). Most of the outfitting was done where Kansas A modern. ranch. A well-equipped, modern ranch will 
City is located. Many exploring parties sta;rted west- have headquarters in some valley. There the home and 
ward by way of the Santa Fe trail, crossing the plains numerous barns, sheds, and corrals will be built. Near 



»..fe|feA;^r, ^_^^;_aa.jJa^^^^^ |i|||W||||| 

Fig. 94. Millions of cattle graze over the Great Plains of Texas. This is a herd of fine-blooded 
Herefords, an English breed of cattle which the ranchmen raise in great numbers because they can 
fatten them quickly. To what great centers are these cattle sent when ready for market ? Why is 
Texas a particularly favorable locality for cattle-raising ? Can you describe a Texas cowboy's life ? 

to the southwest and going through New Mexico to 
avoid climbing the Rocky Mountains. The Oregon trail 
led through the valley of the North Platte, and the 
California trail branched off from the Oregon trail at 
the point where Ogden (Utah) is located, and crossed 
the Great Basin region. The Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion of 1804-1806 followed the Missouri River far to 
the northwest. 

Ranch life. A few of the fur traders, trappers, and 
miners who followed the trails westward decided to settle 
in the Great Plains. They chose the valley bottoms for 
their homes and began raising horses and cattle. The 

the home there will be fields suitable for raising hay, 
alfalfa, and possibly some grain. 

The ranch must be supplied with modern harvesting 
machinery and a large number of strong work horses 
or a few motors. The saddle horses are used chiefly by 
the men or boys who ride out to oversee the cattle or 
to drive them to pasture or to some place for shipment. 
The prosperous ranchmen of to-day all use automobiles 
for going to town or for transporting supplies. 

During the summer while the sheep and cattle are in 
large fenced pastures, feeding on native grasses, the ranch- 
man and his many helpers are engaged in the fields at 

land belonged to the government, and there were no home. When fall comes the cattle and sheep are driven 
fences. Those were the days when each man's cattle into the fields near the home, where for several v/eeks 
mingled with those of his neighbors, and every season it they may graze and later, when the grass is gone or the 
was necessary, with the help of cowboys, to round up ground is covered with snow, they may be fed conveniently, 
the stock and brand all the calves. This was done before 
the calves left their mothers ; and as the mothers had 
all been branded' when they were young, the ownership 
of the calves was known. 

Later many undertook the raising of sheep. Sheep 
are able to graze on lands where cattle would starve, 
and cattle will not graze after sheep have been on the 
range ; hence the necessity of separate ranges. The 
sheep are always put on the poorer ranges. 

For years and years all of the land was freely used 
by all the people. The ranchmen all helped each other 
and were most hospitable. They usually traveled on 

horseback and stopped wherever night overtook them. Fig. 95. The men on horseback m this picture are cowboys who ride over 
If they happened to be at another man's home, they the plains looking after the great herds of cattle. Back of them is a rope 

went in and made themselves comfortable, whether the Z'V ^^'''' '"""^ ^'"\ '\f "T""' .f'' ^'''"" '"V'n'' "'^ 

' Sheridan, Wyoming. Locate Sheridan on the map on page 73. Describe 

owner was at home or not. No one was ever turned the country and the climate there 



Farming. The large rivers that rise 
in the mountains where there is a 
heavy rainfall with much snow furnish 
water for irrigation, and thus farming 
of a more general nature has been 
undertaken near the main streams. 
Large quantities of hay and grain are 
raised to feed to the stock. Alfalfa 
fields, when well irrigated, will yield 
from two to four crops a year. Alfalfa 
is a member of the clover family, and 
it helps to enrich the soil by taking 

nitrogen from the air. The practice Fig. 96. Xhe farms of the Great Plains are so large that much of the work must l,c aoue by 

of dry farming is now adding to the machinery. This is a threshing outfit, which separates the kernels of grain from the stalks. The 

, . . , . . . 1 . • engine which provides the power is at the left, while the threshing machine itself is at the right 

production of grains in this region. 

Along the eastern margin of the Great Plains some 
wheat and corn are raised. Where there is corn there 
are usually hogs, as in the Central Plains. See map on 
j)cirje 55. Near the western margin, especially in Colo- 

ranching district and has developed a large business in 
coal and oil. Cheyenne is located at the base of the 
mountains in Wyoming, at a break in transportation, 
where, in the early days of settlement, many weary 

rado, large crops of potatoes and sugar beets are raised, travelers stopped to rest and change their outfits before 

Cities. At the western margin of the Great Plains, starting on over the mountains. Denver is located just 

near the base of the Rocky Mountains, there are several east of the mountains (Fig. 99). Smelters, where the 

large cities. In the north is Great Falls (Montana), where ores from the mountains could be treated, were early 

there is excellent water-power, which is used to generate established at this city. Railroads have greatly helped 

electricity. The electricity is used locally for light and the growth and prosperity of Denver as well as all other 

power, and some is sent to Butte and Anaconda for use cities in the Great Plains. 

in the mines and in the smelters. Many of the railroad 
trains that cross the Rocky Mountains of Montana are 
run by electricity generated at Great Falls. 

Billings (Montana) is a noted sheep center and one of 
the principal wool markets of the country. Sheridan 
( Wyoming) is in the midst of an active and prosperous 

l£) KejitcDa Vkw Co- 
Fig. 97. Another farm machine is the hay-loader, which rakes up the hay 
and loads it on the wagon. This saves all the labor of pitching it by hand. 
The machine in this view is at work in an alfalfa field in the Great Plains. 
How many other agricultural machines can you name ? Where are they 
manufactured ? Where are the largest numbers of them used ? 

From Colorado Springs the view of the mountains is 
magnificent. This city is on the plain east of the foot- 
hills and has become a popular resort. Pueblo is located 
at one of the gateways into the Rocky Mountains. Here 
great smelters have been built to take care of the ores 
produced in the mountain region. Trinidad is situated 
in the midst of a busy coal-mining section. 

Throughout the middle portion of the Great Plains 
the chief towns are on the lines of the railroads or in 
the fertile valleys. 

Explanation of the Great Plains. The underlying rocks 
of this region were made chiefly in an inland sea that 
once reached from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic 
Ocean. Sea bottoms are usually nearly level; and when 
the land rose and the sea retreated, a plain came into ex- 
istence. In portions of western Texas one may travel for 
miles and miles without seeing a single stream or a single 
valley. The land looks like a vast sea bottom from which 
the waters have been withdrawn. Streams crossing from 
the western mountains eastward have brought vast quan- 
tities of fine material which they have spread over the 
surface of the plains. In northern Montana and in 
parts of the Dakotas there are glacial soils. Instead of 
being coarse, like the soils which the ice-sheet left in 
New England, these glacial soils are fine, and especially 
well suited for raising grain. See map on jjages 2 and 3. 



Fig. 98. The Bad Lands of the Great Plains are cut up into all kinds of 

strange shapes and forms. This particular area is appropriately called 

Toadstool Park. Locate the Bad Lands on the map on page 55. Can you 

explain the cause of these curious surface features ? 

Bad Lands. In portions of the Great Plains, especially 
in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska, are areas 
that are called the Bad Lands. Here the rainfall is light, 
and the soil and subsoil consist of soft clays and shales. 
When rains do come they are usually in the form of 
severe storms, and the water falls in great abundance 
for a short period, as from a cloud-burst. The water cuts 
the soft material into fantastic forms (Fig. 98) and car- 
ries the soil away. The rough land is very bad to travel 
over and therefore received its descriptive name. The 
Bad Lands are wonderfully interesting places to visit, 
however, and in the masses of clay are found the bones 
of some of the largest animals that have ever lived in 
the history of the world. 

Black Hills. The Black Hills of South Dakota and 
Wyoming {see map, pp. 2, 3) are an outl3dng range of 

the Rocky Mountains. They were formed by the folding 
and uplifting of the rocks. The rains and streams have 
taken away the top of the great fold and uncovered the 
core rocks, where gold, iron, tin, lead, and zinc have been 
discovered (Fig. 100). Since the Black Hills rise above 
the level of the Great Plains, they receive more rainfall 
than the plains, and their slopes are forested. The dark 
evergreen trees of the forest suggested the name for the 
hills, which from a short distance look almost black. 

Future. The irrigation works in the Great Plains are 
sure to be extended and improved. Much more of the 
land can be used for dry farming. In addition more and 
more drought-resisting crops will be introduced, and in 
these ways agriculture will increase in the region. The 
coal deposits in Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas 
will certainly be mined more extensively in the future. 
The chief occupation of this region, however, will con- 
tinue to be the raising of cattle and sheep. There is every 
condition here to favor the future development of this 
great industry on an even larger scale than at present. 

Problems and review questions. 1. How is agricultural life 
usually affected if the rainfall drops below 20 inches a year? 
2. Why do the Great Plains have light rainfall ? 3. What storm, 
winds are somewhat common in this region ? 4. Where are most 
of the farms and homes located ? 

5. Which routes through this region did the early pioneers to 
the Far West follow ? 6. What do you understand by a general 
round-up? 7. Explain the growth of the larger cities at the 
western margin of the Great Plains. 

8. What are the chief crops of these Plains ? 9. Where is 
there a large area in the Great Plains with no valleys ? 10. Why 
are the Bad Lands so rough ? 

Home work. 1. Place on an outline map the large rivers that cross 
the Great Plains. 2. Make a list of the ten largest cities of the 
Great Plains and a similar list of the ten largest cities of the 
Central Plains. Use Appendix tables. Compare the total popula- 
tions in these two groups. 3. Make a list of the foods produced 
in the Great Plains and compare them with those which are raised 
in the Central Plains. 4. Read aloout Buffalo Bill's life in the West. 

Fig. 99. Denver, the capital of Colorado, is located on the western edge of the 
Great Plains, about fifteen miles from the front range of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. In this picture you can see the snow-covered Rockies in the distance. 
Study your maps and explain why Denver has become such an important city 

Fig. 100. Lead, South Dakota, is an important mining center in the Black 
Hills. The rugged mountains of this region are rich in gold, silver, lead, 
copper, and iron ores, and Lead contains one of the largest gold mines of 
the world. Explain the relation between the Black Hills and the Great Plains 



Fig. 101. These men are preparing fora trip into the Rocky Mountains. After 

they have strapped their baggage securely on the backs of the mules, they 

will mount their horses and start off on the mountain trail, leading the mules. 

What resources make it worth while for men to explore the mountains ? 


Early explorations. Some of the men who went west- 
ward to California along the trails of migration shown 
on the map (pp. 2, 3) returned to the Rocky Mountains 
and here discovered gold in the stream gravels. They 
usually camped by a mountain stream, and one in the 
party would take some of the gravel from the stream 
bed, wash it, and test it for gold. In that way many of 
the first mining camps of the West were located. Some 
men picked up beautiful specimens of copper ore ; others 
found pieces of lead and zinc ores among the loose 
rocks in the canyons. 

In the early days of settlement the mountain forests 
had an abundance of large game, and trout were plenti- 
ful in the streams. To one who loved the out of doors 
the life among the mountains was delightful, and it 
continues to be so to-day. There is still some game, 
and the streams are kept stocked with fish. 

Prospecting for ores. Men would spend weeks or even 
months hunting for a gold dejwsit, and many of them 
made wonderful discoveries. There are thousands of 
old log cabins in the mountains that were formerly the 
homes of prospectors. Whenever a rich discovery was 
announced, hundreds of people would rush in. The first 
mining was always placer mining, but later tunnels 
were driven into the hills, shafts were sunk, and simple 
mining machinery was installed (Fig. 103). 

In those early days, when there were no railroads or 
wagon roads, all of the mining equipment was brought 
into the mountfiins on the backs of horses, mules or even 
little burros. Mines were sometimes established high 
up on a mountain, where it seemed as if no animal 
lould go. To-day there are many mines to which all 
tlie supplies are brought on the backs of animals that 
come up narrow trails (Fig. 102), and in some places 
the ores are sent down the mountains on pack animals. 

Fig. 102. This procession of mules is off for the mines in the mountains, 

each animal carrying two heavy planks bound to a packsaddle. The lumber 

will be used in the mining operations. The mule, although small, is strong 

and sure-footed and makes a very useful pack animal in the mountains 

Coal, oil, gas, and marble. Near the mountains, espe- 
cially in Wyoming, where there is an open, basin-like 
area between the ranges, coal, oil, and gas have been 
found. In Wyoming most of the coal is sub-bituminous ; 
that is, coal of a grade not quite as good as bituminous. 
Central Colorado is one of the very few places in the 
United States, outside of eastern Pennsylvania, where 
anthracite coal is mined. The Colorado mountains also 
furnish large quantities of excellent marble. 

Home work. 1. Get together your pictures of the Rocky 
Mountains and of life in this region and bring tliem to school. 
2. On your outline map of the United States color the national 
parks in the Rocky Mountains. 3. Find out the value of an 
ounce of gold, an ounce of silver, a pound of lead, a pound of 
zinc. 4. Find out which of these metals is the heaviest. 

Fig. 103. Ore deposits are discovered where the mineral veins reach the 
surface of the earth. The prospectors first examine the vein carefully to 
find out in what direction it runs in the ground ; they then " stake out a 
claim," or mark the land they want to hold for mining; samples of the 
vein are taken and analyzed ; if the value is sufficient, lumber and machinery 
are brought in, a mill is constructed, homes are built, and the men begin to 
sink a vertical shaft, like a well, and drive tunnels to one side or the other 
until they strike the vein. The miners can then blast out the ore, load it 
upon little cars which are pushed along the tunnels to the shaft, and hoist 
it to the surface, where it is put through the mill 



Ranch life. Some of the Western explorers were at- the mountains, above the timber line (Fig. 105). Here 
tracted by the rich soils in the valleys and in the open a shepherd and his dogs will live all summer long with 
parks between the mountain ranges. There, in the midst about two thousand sheep. Every few days the camp 

of most beautiful scenery, 
they chose to build their 
homes. In those early days 
most of the settlers became 
ranchmen. Their cattle and 
sheep could graze almost 
anywhere. The ranchmen 
would drive them into the 
mountains during the sum- 
mer, and in the winter feed 
them in pastures near their 
homes. During the summer 
a ranchman would ride out 
occasionally to see that his 
stock was getting along well 
and had plenty of salt, but 
he would spend most of his 
time in the fields near home, 
raising hay and alfalfa, so that he 
might be prepared to feed the stock 
during the winter. 

The Rocky Mountain region is not 
yet densely settled, but the more de- 
sirable farm lands have been taken 
up. Large areas of the mountain 
region are included in the national 
parks or national forests. There is 
some open range, where anyone who 
chooses may pasture stock, but most 
ranchmen now have a particular val- 
ley for their cattle and a definite area 
where their sheep may graze during 
the summer. Those who do not own 
grazing lands may pasture their stock 
on an open range or get permits to 
turn them into a national forest. 

The assignment of grazing lands 
in the national forests is made by 
officers of the government, and each 
ranchman pays a small fee for every 
animal pastured. It costs the ranch- 
man each year about 37 cents per 
head for cattle and about 7 cents per 
head for sheep. 

Fig. 104. These men are branding a calf. It looks very cruel, but it really 

does not hurt the animal much. While one man holds him, the other takes 

a hot iron and singes off the hair in the form of the owner's mark, or brand. 

Why is branding necessary in the West ? 

Fig. 105. These sheep are grazing on one of the 

open pastures high up in the San Juan Mountains. 

What season of the year is it ? Can you explain 

the absence of trees here ? 

tender will bring him a sup- 
ply of food and perhaps 
help him to move his camp 
to a fresh grazing field. 

By September, when the 
nights in the high moun- 
tains become very cold and 
when heavy snows are quite 
likely to fall, the shepherds 
begin to drive their flocks 
into the foothills and later 
out to the pastures where 
they are to be fed and pro- 
tected through the winter. 
In the spring the shearing 
is done. The warm coats 
of the sheep are clipped, 
and the wool is shipped to 
market. Immediately after the shear- 
ing comes the dipping (Fig. 106), and 
after that the sheep, with their lambs, 
return to the mountains. The sheep 
must be branded each year, for the 
brand is of paint. Even the lambs 
are usually branded. 

Orchards. Many of the mountain 
valleys have proved to be good places 
for raising fruit (Fig. 108). Large 
quantities of apples, pears, peaches, 
and plums are raised. Most of the 
fruit must be shipped to city markets. 
Some of it is canned. 

Location and growth of cities. 
Within the mountain area the loca- 
tion of certain of the larger cities 
has been determined by the discovery 
of rich ores. Beginning in the north, 
we find that the chief mining centers 
include Coeur d'Alene in Idaho, Butte, 
Helena, and Virginia City in Montana, 
and Leadville, Cripple Creek, Ouray, 
Telluride, and Silverton in Colorado. 
Most of the smaller cities in the 
mountains owe their location and 

The sheep must be carefully guarded, so that bears, growth chiefly to the local development of ranches 

wolves, coyotes, or mountain lions may not get them, or of orchards, but in every case the construction of 

They must be kept in the pastures assigned to them, railroads has greatly benefited the cities. 

and therefore a shepherd is left with each flock. Most note. For a special study of the cities in the northern and southern 

of the sheep pastures are in huge open basins high in sections of the Rocky Mountains see pages 72 and 77. 



Native vegetation. The lower 
slopes of the mountains and the 
lands between the ranges, called 
either valleys or parks, are grasslands. 
Next higher come the forests, and 
above the timber line there is more 
grass. The highest peaks, the very 
steep places, and the areas of loose 
rock are without coverings of vege- 
tation. The trees of the forests are 
chiefly pines, spruces, and hemlocks. 
Among these great evergreen trees 
there are some birch trees and little 
frvoves of quaking aspen. 

National forests. Many of the for- 
ests in the Rocky Mountain region 
are now under control of the govern- 
ment. They belong to all the people 
and are cared for by men trained in 
forestry. Each forest is divided, and 
a forest ranger is assigned to each 
section. He rides over the trails, 
watching for possible forest fires, and 
sees that the ranchmen keep their 
herds and flocks in the proper pas- 
tures. It is his business to count the cattle and sheep 

Fig. 106. At the dipping season the sheep are 
pushed into a trough and forced to swim through 
a solution which kills the ticks, little creatures 
that live on the skin of the animal and spread 
deadly disease 

lumber business near the national 
forests may purchase from the gov- 
ernment such trees as the forester 
marks for this purpose. Burned-over 
districts are replanted by the Forest 

The range riders often have their 
homes in the beautiful canyons 
among the mountains. Each man 
keeps several excellent saddle horses. 
In the morning a fresh horse is caught 
and saddled, and the ranger starts 
off for a day's ride over some of the 
wonderful forest trails (Fig. 192). In 
many places the trails are along the 
very tops of the mountains. In 
southern Colorado there is a trail 
known as the Continental Divide 
trail, which follows the great water- 
shed for nearly a hundred miles (Fig. 
109). As the ranger rides over it the 
forests appear on either side below 
him. He can see for miles and miles 
and can easily detect the beginning 
of a forest fire. In some places outr 
look towers have been built for the rangers. There are 

that enter the national forest each spring and to mark telephones connecting the ranger stations, so that the 

the trees which may be cut for lumber. Each ranch- 
man or settler is allowed by law a certain amount of 
wood every year from the national forests. This is to 
help him with his buildings and fences. If the ranch- 
man wants more wood than his allowance, he may buy 

men can quickly comrfiunicate the news of a fire or of 
stray sheep or cattle. 

When a forest ranger must be gone overnight or 
possibly for two or three days, he usually puts a camp 
bed, a supply of provisions, possibly his fishing rod, and 

it from a national forest. Those who wish to go into the a few cooking utensils on the back of a small mule and 

Fig. 107. This is Silverton, Colorado, on a winter evening. Silverton is a 

typical ^ocky Mountain mining town, which has grown up because of the 

rich deposits of gold, silver, lead, and zinc ores which have been found in 

the surrounding mountains. Locate Silverton on your map 

p. II. Truutnan, Cnnon Cuj, Cvlo. 

Fig. 108. On cold nights the Colorado fruit-growers burn oil in their or- 
chards. The cloud of smoke which rises from the flaming oil pots hangs 
over the orchard like a blanket and prevents the heat of the earth from 
escaping. In this way the fruit trees are protected from frost 



Fig. 109. The trail over the Continental Divide in Colorado zigzags up 

over the slopes and is so narrow that the horses must go in single file. 

Trace the line of the Continental Divide on your map. At what points did 

the early pioneers cross it ? See map on pages 2 and 3 

starts off on a saddle horse, leading the pack animal. 
With such an outfit he can travel and live independently, 
for his hotel travels with him. His route may take him 
through a beautiful canyon or high over the mountains. 
He may follow a trail in the forest or be far above the 
timber line, where the sheep are grazing. For his camp 
he will select a place where there is good grass for his 
saddle horse and pack mule and a supply of water and 
firewood. The pack and the saddles are taken off, and 
the animals are turned out to graze overnight. He may 
catch a few mountain trout and then build a fire and 
cook his evening meal. A few fir boughs, properly laid 
down, make a good bed for him. Next morning after 
breakfast he must pack up and start over new trails, 
through deep canyons, or over high crest^lines, by beauti- 
ful lakes and wonderful waterfalls. Such is the ranger's 
life in summer. During the winter he supervises the 
cutting of timber. 

Home work. Make out as long a list as you can of the different 
varieties of trees that grow in the forests of the United States. 

CourtMj of Wiswall Brot. ftnd Deurer Tourist BureM 

Fig. 111. In winter, when the snow is deep in the Rocky Mountains, it is 

hard to keep the railroad tracks clear so that the trains may go through. 

This view shows five engines pushing a railroad snowplow up grade. Why 

is the snowfall so heavy in this region ? 

Fig. 110. This is a distant view of the Rocky Mountain National Park. It 

is in the heart of the Rockies in north central Colorado, and its peaks rise 

to more than thirteen thousand feet. Locate this park on your map. How 

many of our national parks aie in the Rocky Mountains ? 

Water-power. When the rain falls in these high moun- 
tains, it collects in little rivulets, which unite to make 
mountain streams. These often descend through the 
canyons as rushing torrents. The snows which fall 
nearly every month in the year contribute water to the 
streams, especially during the summer season. Where 
the streams come to cliffs or precipices in their courses, 
there are waterfalls. Near the mining camps, where 
power is needed for running the drills, hoisting the ores, 
running the mills, and lighting the mines, the water- 
power is often utilized to generate electricity. The 
power plant is usually located near a waterfall, and 
the electricity is transmitted by wire over the tops 
of mountains, if neces- 
sary, to where the mines 
are located. Most mining 
towns are lighted by 
electricity. At Shoshone, 
Colorado, nearGlenwood 
Springs, is one of the 
very large power plants. 
From this point electric- 
ity is transmitted over 
copper conductors, sup- 
ported on steel towers, for 
distances of more than 
150 miles. Denver and 
many of the cities and 
mines in central Colo- 
rado receive power from 
the Shoshone plant. 

A few of the railroads 
in the Rocky Mountains 
are now run by elec- 
tricity, and some day all 
of them may be oper- 
ated by electric power. 

££0^^ 4^A^89i 






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t£) (jrcpiirj dc Ciitnej, Our*y, Colo. 

Fig. 112. High up on the slopes of the 
mountains, where there is much snow 
and only a little vegetation, live thou- 
sands of wild Rocky Mountain sheep 



Problems and review questions. 
1. What tirst attracted men to 
settle in tliis region ? 2. Describe 
the life of a prospector. 3. What 
are now the chief resources 
within this region ? 4. Why 
should stot'k-raising be profitable 
among the mountains ? 5. Why 
must the sheep be guarded ? 

6. Where are their summer 
feeding grounds ? 7. Why should 
the government charge a board 
bill for sheep and cattle that 
graze in the national forests ? 
8. What are the various duties 
of a forest ranger? 9. What 
sources of power are there in 
this region ? 

10. Why should the mountain 
scenery be considered a valuable 
natural resource to the American 
people ? 11. What occupations 
may attract more settlers to the 

Eocky Mountain region ? 12. What has determined the location 
of the larger cities in this region ? Give several examples. 

13. How much rain falls in these mountains ? See map on 
page 82. 14. How do seasonal changes in climate affect the life 
of the stock-raiser? of the forest ranger? 

PbotoKTKph by Hajnes 

Fig. 113. These are a few of the thirty thousand elk which roam through 

the Yellowstone National Park. Our government is making a great effort 

to preserve the wild animal life of our forests and plains by enforcing 

strict laws about hunting. Why is this wise ? 

each mountain fold was 
cut by streams and by 
glaciers. The rock that was 
in ,the center, or was the 
core of the mountain range, 
appears now in the peaks, 
while the upturned rocks 
in the foothills on either 
gide are what is left of the 
great layers that made the 
top of the fold, or arch. 

In some places in the 
Rocky Mountains, when the 
earth was being folded and 
uplifted, volcanoes broke 
out and built up mountains 
of lava mixed with rock 
fragments that were thrown 

Mountain scenery. 

into the air. Great sheets 
of lava poured forth and covered hundreds of square 
miles of the surrounding country. 

National parks. In northern Montana at the east 
margin of the mountain area is Glacier National Park. 
This is a region of magnificent mountains, beautiful 
No one can visit the Rocky Moun- lakes, many small glaciers, and with forests, shrubs, 

tains without wondering how they were made, why 
the rocks in some places stand straight up and in 
otlier places are horizontal, why in some places they 
are sandstones and hmestones and in other places 
granites, marbles, or great thick layers of lava. The 
entire region is a real wonderland of natural beauty. 

grasses, and an alpine flora that add to the beauty of 
almost every view (Figs. 114, 116). 

Yellowstone National Park is chiefly in northwestern 
Wyoming. It is a region where there were many active 
volcanoes. Below the surface there are hot rocks which 
heat the waters circulating through the cracks and 

Fig. 115. Diagram of a mountain fold the top of 
which has been cut away 

Fig. 114. This is one of the ninety glaciers from 

which Glacier National Park takes its name. They 

are the small remnants of the great continental 

ice-sheet which once spread over this area 

The outer por- 
tion of the earth, 
in the region of 
the Rocky Moun- 
tains, was com- 
pressed, and the 
rocks were arched , 
or upfolded, as in 
Fig. 115. Rain.s, 
winds, frosts, and 
glaciers all helped 
to wear away the 
tops of the folds. 
Little by little 

fissures, and the 
waters come out of 
the ground as hot 
springs and gey- 
sers (Fig. 119). 

Rocky Moun- 
tain National Park 
is in the central 
part of northern 
Colorado. This is 
a region of high 
mountains, broad 
valleys, and fine 
forests (Fig. 110). 

R. E. Matbla 

Fig. 116. Glacier National Park also contains 

many beautiful lakes. They occupy, parts of the 

valley floors which were broadened and deepened 

by the glaciers. This one is Lake Ellen Wilson 



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5 Gifford (for Nonliera Pacific R.R.) 

Fig. 117. The Great Falls of the Yellowstone River are among the wonders Fig. 118. The beautiful hot-spring terraces in the Yellowstone National 

of Yellowstone National Park. The water falls over a sheer precipice three Park have been built up by the white limy deposits from the cooling 

hundred feet to the canyon below. How do these falls compare in height waters of the springs. These terraces are gorgeously colored with bands of 

with those of Niagara ? Locate Yellowstone National Park on your map bright red and yellow, while the water in the pools is a deep blue-green 

Ice age in the mountains. When the continental ice- Future. We have found the chief occupations in this 

sheets formed in Canada and advanced into the north- region to be mining, grazing, farming, lumbering, and 

em part of the United States, there were thousands of fruit-raising. More and more people are sm-e to settle 

smaller glaciers in the Rocky Mountains. At that time here and go into one or another of these lines of work, 

snows accumulated near the summits to such great There is a wonderful supply of water-power in the 

depth that ice was formed, and the ice moved down the mountains, and relatively little of it is used. It is prob- 

canyons, deepening each gorge and carrying away the able that some day all the people will have electricity 

loose material. for lighting and heating their homes and for running 

Many of these glaciers reached the foothills of the their sewing and washing machines and their saws for 

ranges and some advanced for short distances over the cutting firewood. Electricity could be used for cooking 

bordiering lower lands. The deposits of morainal material and for ironitig in the mountain homes. Perhaps this 

indicate how far the glaciers extended over the lowlands, will come about sometime, when the rhountain com- 

. In time the climate changed ; there 
was less snowfall in the mountains ; 
all of the glaciers became smaller 
because of melting, and most of them 
disappeared (Fig. 114). 

The glaciated canyons have the 
glacial drift, or moraines, in them ; 
for when the ice melted, it left on 
the bottom of the canyon all the 
stones, sands, gravels, and clays that 
it was carrying. In some places these 
moraines blocked the drainage, and 
lakes were formed . Sometimes the ice 
gouged out the solid rock and made 
basins where waters have accumu- 
lated and formed lakes. 

In places the main canyons were 
deepened so much more than the 
tributary valleys that the tributary 
streams now fall from the side val- 
leys into the main canyons, thus 
making many beautiful waterfalls. 

Pbotograpb by Uftjaes 

Fig. 119. "Old Faithful," the most famous Yellow- 
stone geyser, erupts regularly every sixty-five min- 
utes, throwing a stream of hot water one hundred 
and twenty feet into the air 

munities plan to cooperate. 

The forests will be a constant 
source of lumber and will afford 
pleasure to all who live in them or 
visit them. The harmless varieties 
of wild game should become more 
abundant. Airships may be used to 
patrol the forests. Each year thou- 
sands of busy people will seek a 
change from the active life of our 
large cities in a vacation spent in this 
region of magnificent scenery, good 
fishing, and cool summer climate. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Ex- 
plain briefly the ways in which these high 
mountains were made. 2. Are there any 
glaciers in the Rocky Mountains to-day ? 
3. What signs of ancient glaciers are there 
in the mountains ? 4. Where did these 
glaciers form ? 5. Why did they dis- 
appear ? 6. By what natural forces are the 
mountains worn down ? 7. What national 
parks are within this region ? 



WESTERN PLATEAUS their ancestors settled long ago, when they feared the 

These plateaus extend from north to south between attacks of hostile tribes. In many of the canyon walls 

the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Cascade and there are the rmns of ancient clifE-dwellings (Fig. 120). 

Sierra Nevada on the west. The chief subdivisions are Those people made their homes where they could easily 

the Columbia Plateau, the 
Great Basin, and the Colo- 
rado Plateau. See map on 
pages 2 and 3. 

A problem. Use map op- 
posite page 82. Suppose we 
think of a high plateau 
country in the temperate 
zone nearly surrounded by 
mountains. Suppose there 
are canyons more than a 
mile deep in the plateau, 
and mountain ranges rising 
from 2000 to 5000 feet above 
its general level. The region 
has a very dry chmate with 

Fig. 120. In the Mesa Verde National Parle in Colorado are the wonderful ruins 
of the cliff-dwellers, a prehistoric people who made their homes under the over- 
hanging cliffs of the great wooded mesa. This is the Cliff Palace, the largest 
of the dwellings. It is 300 feet long and originally contained 200 rooms 

fight off enemy tribes. The 
cliff-dwellers irrigated the 
lands in the canyons, raised 
vegetables, and hunted wild 

White settlers. The white 
people who have settled in 
this plateau region have 
been attracted by the rich 
deposits of minerals in the 
mountain ranges of the 
desert or by the fertile soils. 
The lands about the margin 
of the desert are most easily 
irrigated, and many of the 
cities and towns are on the 

less than 10 inches of rainfall annually over the greater edge of the desert, where great irrigation projects have 

part, but with from 10 to 20 inches in certain portions, been developed. See maps on pages 73 and 76. The 

What would primitive peoples do for a living in such white people often get their water from the neighboring 

a region ? Where would they make their settlements ? mountains. Reservoirs are made, and the waters are 

Would civilized people want to Uve there ? What occupa- piped for many miles to the settlements. The mining 

tions would they find profitable ? Where would they build towns must of course be located near the place where 

their homes ? What would they do for water ? This is the ores are discovered. This means that they are in 

a large geographic problem, and it is a real problem or near the desert ranges. 

for the people who are trying to make a living in the Rainfall. When a land is surrounded or nearly sur- 

great plateau region of our Western states. rounded by mountains it is quite sure to be a semidesert. 

Native tribes. Several tribes of Indians now live possibly a desert. The winds that cross our plateau states 

on these plateaus. They make their settlements near come chiefly from the southwest. They take up an 

the streams in order to .have drinking water and a abundance of moisture as they pass over the Pacific 

chance to irrigate some of the land (Figs. 121, 123). Ocean, but as the air rises to cross the Coast Ranges and 

In America some 
of the tribes of 
Indians practiced 
irrigation before 
the white men did. 
These people raise 
sheep and horses. 
The Navajo Indi- 
ans are good shep- 
herds. They are 
also expert weav- 
ers and make 
much of the wool 
from their flocks 
into blankets. 

Some of the In- 
dian tribes Uve on 
mesa tops, where 




Fig. 121. liiia io a typical village of the Colorado Plateau. It is located in the dry valley, or "wash," 

as it is called, of one of the tributaries of the Colorado River. The little stream which flows at times 

through the wash furnishes water for irrigating the fields. Notice the low, flat-roofed buildings and, 

in the distance, the barren, level surface of the plateau 

then the Cascade 
Mountains or the 
Sierra Nevada, the 
moisture is forced 
out and falls as 
rain or snow on 
the windward sides 
of the mountain 
ranges. When the 
air descends into 
the plateau region, 
it becomes warm. 
Warm air tends to 
take up more mois- 
ture; so the winds, 
as they pass east- 
ward across the 
plateaus, tend to 



dry up the country rather than to give up their moisture. 
Some of the local mountain ranges within this semidesert 
region succeed in getting a little rain 
from the winds. Trees and grasses 
will grow on these mountains, while 
the surrounding plateau surface will 
have little but sagebrush, grease- 
wood, cacti, and yucca (Fig. 122 and 
map opposite page 82). 

Changes in temperature. In all 
arid regions the temperature varies 
greatly between night and day. 
When there is little or no moisture 
in the air, the ground during the day 
becomes very warm. In summer the 
stones are so hot that it is uncomfortable to touch them. 

Fig. 122. This is the beautiful choUa cactus, one 

of the plants which grow on the dry Colorado 

Plateau. The prickly spines which surround the 

stem are characteristic of desert vegetation 

been relied upon disappoints the travelers, and a " dry 
camp" must be established. Here no one has any water 
to drink or for use in washing. The 
cook may have provided a keg or 
bag of water to be used in cooking. 
At such camps the horses are the 
most unfortunate, but horses that 
live in arid regions get along with- 
out drinking as often as those that 
live where there are streams. Those 
who have attempted to cross the 
desert portions of the plateaus with- 
out guides and without water have 
been most miserable. Many have 
died from thirst. In some places 
water could undoubtedly be secured by drilling deep 

The air just above the ground also becomes very warm, holes into the ground, but that would be very expensive. 
In the southern part of this 

region the temperature rises 
to 120 degrees Fahrenheit 
during the summer days. 
When night comes the heat 
passes off through the air 
very rapidly ; the stones 
and earth become cold, and 
the air above the ground 
loses its heat. The tempera- 
ture continues to fall until 
sunrise of the next day, and 
the hours just before the 

Fig. 123. This is one of the Indian villages of the arid Southwest. The 

houses are made of adobe, or bricks of sun-dried clay, and are grouped about 

an open central square, or plaza. Why are the houses not made of wood ? 

What do the people do for a living ? 

Physical Features 

The Columbia Plateau is 
made of extensive flows of 
lava. The lava poured out 
of . the earth along great 
cracks, or fissures, and 
spread over the country. 
One flow followed another 
until the lava was over a 
mile in depth. It filled up all 
the low places and buried 
hills and even mountains. 

sun rises are the coldest of all the twenty-four hours. To-day the mountains that remain, of which the Blue 

Water supply. 

To provide drinking-water in the 
drier parts of the 
plateaus is one of 
the most difficult 
problems. Every 
exploring expedi- 
tion should plan 
to have an Indian 
guide who knows 
the exact location 
of the streams and 
springs. The cus- 
tomary plan is to 
move from one 

Mountains of Oregon are a good example, are nearly 

buried in lava. 

Later on, rivers 

cut their valleys 

through the lava, 

and two of them, 

the Columbia and 

the Snake, have 

made wonderful 

canyons in the 

plateau. In the 

canyon walls of 

the Snake River, 

far below the 

spring to anot her, present surface of 
and the location the country, can 

Fig. 124. This is a Hopi Indian house near the 

Grand Canyon. It is built exactly as the ancestors 

of the Hopis built their homes centuries ago, and 

in it live a large number of Hopi families 

of water deter- 
mines the length 
of a day's tramp. 
Sometimes a 
spring that has 

be seen the out- 
lines of the old 
hills which were 
buried by great 
outflows of lava. 

Fig. 125. This Hopi Indian girl is very skillful in 
the art of basket-making. The weaving of beau- 
tiful baskets and rugs, often wonderfully colored, 
is an important industry among these Indians 



Great Basin. South of the Columbia Plateau, and in- magnificent scenic feature on the earth (Fig. 126). For 
eluding most of Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, 250 miles the Colorado River has cut a gorge into the 
and California, there is a region bounded by mountains plateau ; in one place this gorge is nearly 6000 feet deep. 

where there is inland drainage ; 
that is, the streams cannot flow 
to the sea. The rains that fall 
on the neighboring mountains 
flow into the basin, where most 
of the streams either dry up or 
sink into the ground. A few 
streams empty into lakes, some 
of which have no outlets. The 
best example of this kind of lake 
is Great Salt Lake, where the 
water contains nearly as much 
salt as it can possibly hold in 
solution. Each stream that flows 
into the lake brings in some salt, 
and as the water is lost from the 
lake by evaporation the lake has 
become more and more salty. 

Dming the ice age, when the 
climate was less dry, this lake was 
a thousand feet deeper than it 
is now and spread over much of 
western Utah. At that time it 
had an outlet to the Snake River 
and was a fresh-water lake. 

Between the mountain ranges 
in this basin region there are 

large quantities of sands and gravels and fine soils, which 
streams have brought from the mountains and spread out 
on the lower lands. The soils are excellent and, when 
water is brought to them, wonderful crops are raised. 

Death Valley is in the Great Basin. It is east of the 
Sierra Nevada in southern California and is the lowest 
land area in the United 
States. The bottom of the 
valley is from 250 to 280 
feet below sea level. 

Colorado Plateau. South- 
east of the Great Basin, and 
including parts of Utah, 
Colorado, Arizona, and New 
Mexico, is the Colorado 
Plateau {see map, p. 76). 
This is probably better 
known and more remark- 
able than any other plateau 
in the world. Its fame is 
due chiefly to the Grand 
Canyon, which is the most 

Fig. 126. If you could stand beside the Indian in this picture, 
you would be looking out over the greatest gorge in the world, 
^the Grand Canyon, which the Colorado River has carved in 
the level plateau of Arizona. The opposite rim of the canyon 
is twelve miles away, and the river itself is over a mile below 

Fig. 127. This is one of the four great natural bridges in southeastern Utah, 

which are the largest in the world. The people standing on top give an idea 

of its great size. Compare this view with Fig. 60. How do you suppose this 

bridge could have been made in so dry a region ? 

If ten columns the size of the 
Washington Monument were 
placed one upon the other, rising 
from the stream level, they would 
not quite reach the elevation of 
the rim of the canyon. If all of 
Mt. Washington above sea level 
could be placed in this gorge, 
its summit would rise only a few 
feet above the rim. From the 
rim of the gorge the river at the 
bottom of the canyon appears no 
larger than a tiny brook. 

In its most magnificent portion 
the canyon is from 10 to 12 miles 
wide, and yet in the clear, dry 
air of the desert the farther wall 
appears to be much less than a 
mile away. The canyon is per- 
haps most remarkable for its 
coloring and for the great variety 
in the rock formations. Each 
layer of rock has some distinc- 
tive shade. There are bands of 
red, green, brown, and gray. 
One layer, about 500 feet thick, 
has a brilliant red color ; this 
layer is so situated that it may be seen from any point 
on the rim. Bordering the canyon on the south there 
is a forest of yellow pines with beautiful open parks. 
In the canyon itself the vegetation is chiefly that of a 
desert, with sagebrush, a few cedars, and cacti. 

Sitting on the rim of this great gorge, one sees the 

colors change from hour 
to hour with the change 
in the sun's position or as 
clouds shade one portion or 
another. Sometimes clouds 
form below the rim. Light- 
ning is seen to flash through 
the clouds, thunder is heard, 
and rain falls in the canyon. 
As the storm clears away, 
the whole scene changes ; 
the vegetation has been 
freshened and the rocks 
that have been moistened 
during the rain have a 
peculiar brilliancy of color. 



Fig. 128. This is Bingham, one of the important mining centers of Utah. 

Notice the way in which the city has spread up the two valleys which meet 

in the foreground of the view. In the background is the mountain of copper 

ore which caused the development of the city 

The waters of Great Salt Lake are pumped into fields 
surrounded by dikes and then allowed to evaporate. 
As the water is taken up into the air the salt is left on 
the ground ; later it is plowed up and sent to a refinery, 
where it is prepared for market. 

Growth of mining centers. Bingham in Utah (Fig. 128), 
Reno, Carson City, Virginia City, Tonopah, and Goldfield in 
Nevada, and Jerome, Globe, Clifton, and Bisbee in Arizona 
are among the many mining centers that have grown 
up in this region. Gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and 
some other minerals are obtained. 

Farming and fruit-raising with irrigation. Wonderful 
changes have been made through irrigation. Large 
areas of dusty sagebrush deserts have been transformed 
into beautiful, green, and productive garden spots. 
Just west of the Wasatch Mountains in Utah, in the 
If one descends to the stream, as is possible at a few fertile valley of the Jordan River, there is a chain of 

places by following carefully made trails, the water is 

seen to be yellow. It is about the color of coffee with 

cream in it. When a sample of the water is taken and 

allowed to stand, a thick layer of yellow mud settles to 

the bottom. This mud tells the story of the making of 

this wonderful gorge. The canyon was carved and is still 

being deepened by the stream which flows through it 

and by the little streams that flow down the canyon 

walls. This work has taken millions of years. 

Home work. 1. Read about the cliff-dwellings in the Mesa Verde 
National Park. 2. Read about the Navajo, the Aconia, and the 
Hopi Indians. 3. Read a special description of the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado River. 

Discovery of natural resources. See maps on pages 73 

and 76. As white men came to know this part of the 

western country, they discovered certain portions where, 

with the help of irrigation, agriculture could be carried 

on very successfully. They also discovered gold, copper, 

silver, and iron. Borax has been found within this 

region, and there are many places where salt is secured, the Wasatch Mountains in the midst of irrigated lands. 

In Idaho, bordering the valley of the 
Snake River, and in Washington, near 
the Columbia River, there are sev- 
eral large irrigation projects. Spokane 
(Washington) (Fig. 129) has grown up 
on the very margin of the Columbia 
Plateau, at the edge of the mountain 
belt. At Wenatchee in the Columbia val- 
ley, in the Yakima and Boise valleys, 
and in many other places there are 
wonderful orchards (Fig. 132). 

The national irrigation projects in 

Fig. 129. The falls of the Spokane River provide valuable water-power for the city of Spokane and ^J^g plateau region are located near the 

make possible its manufacturing industries. This view shows the lower falls as they rush over the . » ,, rpi . j 

great dam. Above the dam is the power plant which transforms the water-power into electric power, margins OI tne area. lUe Waters USett 

How many other cities can you name which have developed because of water-power ? COme from neighboring mountains. 

Fig. 130. Salt Lake City was founded in 1847 in the desert just west of the 
Wasatch Mountains. By irrigation from the mountain streams this desert 
region was made fertile and productive. To-day the city is an important 
railroad terminus and the business center of the irrigated farming country 
which surrounds it. Locate Salt Lake City on your map 

agricultural settlements where irrigation is practiced. 
Ogden, Salt Lake City (Fig. 130), and Provo, three of the 
largest cities in Utah, are located at the western base of 



Dry farming. In certain parts of the Columbia Plateau 
where the soils are rich, but where there is not sufficient 
water for irrigating the land, the settlers practice dry 
farming. The soils are carefully cultivated so as to 
make the surface material as fine as possible. That will 
delay the evaporation of moisture. 

In places great crops of wheat are raised where for- 
merly nothing but sagebrush grew. The roots of the 

Fig. 131. This sturdy pair of horses is hauling a load of baled hay to mar- 
ket in central Washington. This part of the state receives a light rainfall, 
but irrigation and dry farming have turned it into a good farming country. 
What are the principal products of this area ? 

wheat reach far down into the ground and there find 
some moisture. With some crops the soil is cultivated 
very frequently. 

These methods are adding large areas to the lands 
that may be used for producing foods. 

Future. More of the waters coming from the moun- 
tains will be utilized in irrigating the margin of the 
western plateaus (Fig. 133). Then more people can be 
accommodated there and more foods can be raised. The 
water-power in certain of the mountain valleys near 
the margin of the desert and in the canyons within the 
desert makes possible the generation of electricity for 
light and power in the cities and towns. 

Mining in this region will certainly continue to 
develop, and with the constant extension of railroads 
more and more of the mountain ranges will become 
easily accessible, and this will make it possible for 
poorer grades of ore to be mined at a profit. 

The dry farming in eastern Washington and Oregon 
has not reached its limit. It will undoubtedly be in- 
creased, thus adding to the- crop yield of the region. 

Washington is the gateway to Alaska. With its ex- 
cellent harbor and shipping facilities there is promise 
of great development in the entire Puget Sound region. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why do more people live in 
the southern portion of the plateaus than in the northern portion ? 
2. What do the native people do there to make a living ? 

Fig. 132. The city of Wenatchee, Washington, is situated on the banks of 

the Columbia River. The broad, river-made plain is used as orchard land. 

The rainfall is under twenty inches a year, which is much less than the 

fruit trees need, and therefore all the orchards are irrigated 

3. Why did the ancestors of these native people build their 
homes in caves, on the tops of mesas, or on the cliffs of the can- 
yons ? 4. Why is there so little rainfall in this region ? 5. How 
does the dryness of the area affect the changes in temperature 
from night to day ? 

6. What is the coldest time in the twenty-four hours ? Why ? 
7. What geographic factors influence the routes of travelers and 
the location of camps in the desert? 8. How was the Columbia 
Plateau made ? 9. What is meant by the Great Basin region ? 
10. In which plateau is the Grand Canyon ? 

11. What have you ever seen that is higher than the walls of 
the Grand Canyon ? 12. How was the canyon made ? 13. To 
what natural regions do the mountains of Arizona and the plateau 
of southern New Mexico belong ? See map on page 122. 

14. What great natural resources have white men discovered 
in the plateau region ? 15. What factors have controlled the loca^ 
tion of the cities ? 16. What will help to make this part of the 
country suitable for larger populations in the years to come ? 

Fig. 133. The great Roosevelt Dam in Arizona was built by the government 

to store up the waters of the Salt River for irrigation. The Salt River 

Irrigation Project is one of the many undertaken by our government to 

water the dry lands of the West and make them fit for farming 



Fig. 134. This is Crater Lake, Oregon. It occupies the huge hole which was 
left long ago when a great volcanic mountain collapsed into itself. This 
mountain was one of a range of volcanoes which were built up by many out- 
pourings of hot lava long before man came to live on the earth. The other 


Coming of the pioneers. In studying the country west 
of the Mississippi River we have several times referred 
to the great rush to California when gold was discovered 
there in 1848. The trails from the Central Plains west- 
ward led the exploring parties through several natural 
regions to this westernmost portion of the United States. 
See map on jJdges 2 and 3. Some came in at the south, 
where the climate was dry and warm, and some crossed 
the Sierra Nevada and went directly to the mining 
districts in the mountains. Others, who followed the 
Oregon trail, came by the Columbia River through the 
Cascade Mountains to the region where Portland is now 
situated. The life in the mountainous portion of this 
region developed most naturally from the discovery of 
mineral wealth. In the lowland areas the occupations 
were determined by the conditions of soil and climate. 

mountains of the range did not collapse and to-day they are cold, rugged 
peaks, covered with ice and snow (see Figs. 147, 150). The lava clifis which 
form the rim of this lake are a thousand feet high, and rising out of its 
clear, blue waters is a beautiful little volcanic cone called Wizard Island' 

Placer mining. The first mines were in the sand and 
gravel deposits of certain valleys of the Sierra Nevada. 
Some of the gold is in the form of pebbles or nuggets,, 
but more is in the form of grains as fine as sand. Some 
of it is a gold dust. The stream deposits that contain 
the gold must be washed in order to separate the gold 
from the sand and gravel. This is done by running the 
deposits through long boxes. The gold is heavier than 
the sand and gravel and therefore sinks to the bottom 




A ^ ' 


Fig. 185. These men are at work near Fresno, California, stacking alfalfa 

hay with the help of a derrick. The dry summers of the central valley of 

California are especially favorable to alfalfa-growing, and the farmers often 

cut it three or four times a season. Explain the climate here 

Fig. 136. There are no better dairy farms in the country than those in the 

central vailey of California. The cows in this region have green feed the 

year round, which is a great advantage to dairying. In what ways do 

the conditions for dairying here difier from those of New England ? 

of the boxes, where it is caught and held behind small 
crossbars. This method is called placer mining. 

Vein mining. The prospectors realized that the orig- 
inal source of the gold which they found in the gravels 
must be somewhere upstream, and they searched through 
the mountains to find the mineral veins which carried 
the gold. Many of the veins were discovered, and this 
led to mining underground. Great shafts were sunk 
and tunnels driven (Fig. 103). Some of the hills have 
been honeycombed, and the miners now go thousands 
of feet down into the earth for the ores. 



Climate. The prevailing 
west winds that come from 
over the Pacific Ocean to 
the northern portion of the 
Pacific coast bring an abun- 
dance of moisture, and the 
rainfall is heaAry, reaching 
100 inches a year on the 
western slopes of the moun- 
tains in Oregon and Wash- 
ington. Farther south the 
rainfall decreases, and in 
southern California it is 
often very light. During a 
part of each year the winds 
of southern California come 
from over the land and 
bring little or no rainfall to 
the coastal region. They come from a very dry region. 

The winds that come from over the Pacific Ocean have 
the temperature of the air over the water, and as that 
changes but little from summer to winter, there are 

Fig. 137. This man is picking grapes in his vineyard in the valley of 

California. These grapes will be dried to make raisins. Why is the 

valley of California a favorable place for the cultivation of vineyards ? 

Where are the other grape-raising centers of the United States ? 

rich soils in the lowland 
belts between the great 
mountain ranges (Figs. 135, 
136). In southern California 
the soils are exceedingly 
fertile, and with the help of 
irrigation large crops are 
raised. The lowlands as 
they appear on the map do 
not look extensive enough, 
to be as important as they 
are ; but in the valley of 
California, shut away from 
the Pacific Ocean by the 
Coast Ranges, the climate 
is just right for raising 
grain and fruit. In the 
north, barley, rice, apples, 
pears, peaches, and grapes are the chief products 
(Fig. 137). In southern California, plums, apricots, 
oranges, lemons, olives, figs, walnuts, and almonds are 
produced (Fig. 138). The abundant rainfall on the 

not such great ranges in temperature along the coast as mountains furnishes sufficient water for irrigating the 

there are farther inland. 

In the lowland area the climate is never very cold. 
The rainy season is during the winter, when the upper 
air is colder ; thus, as the winds rise to cross the moun- 
tain, they are more quickly chilled and forced to give 

lowlands, and in the valley of California and in 
the southern part of the state, irrigation is carried on 
by the most modern methods. 

Drying fruits. Since the rainfall is light, especially in 
the southern portion, fruits may be dried out of doors. 

up their moisture. In the high mountains the winters The long days of sunshine are just what is needed 

are cold and there are heavy snowfalls. to dry plums and grapes into prunes and raisins. 

Agriculture. In the early days the number of miners Few places in the world have a climate and soil so 

increased rapidly and more food was needed. This led well suited to the raising and drying of fruits as the 

many people to begin farming and fruit^raising on the central and southern portions of California. See Fig. 139. 

Fig. 138. This picture shows one of the great groves of orange, lemon, and 

grapefruit trees which are cultivated with the help of irrigation in southern 

California. These are called citrous fruits. How does the climate of southern 

California compare with that of the citrous-fruit area of Florida ? 

Fig. 139. In the valley of California, during the rainless summer months, 

acres of land are covered with trays of fruit drying in the sun. The trays 

in this picture contain prunes. Peaches, pears, apricots, raisins, currants, 

and berries are also dried in this way. Explain the climate here 




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Fig. 140. This is a typical scene in the Pacific Northwest. The square- 
rigged sailing vessels are lying at anchor in the river, waiting to be loaded 
with timber for foreign markets. To what ports will they sail ? What con- 
ditions make the Pacific Northwest the finest lumber district in the world ? 

Lumbering. The forests in Oregon and Washington 
are the most luxuriant in the United States. They are 
made up chiefly of fir, cedar, and spruce, and they have 
made possible the production of large quantities of 
lumber. In southwestern Oregon there are magnificent 
forests of northern yellow pine (Fig. 142). Tacoma, 
Seattle, and Portland are lumbering centers and send 
lumber to the great cities of the Mississippi Valley. On 
Puget Sound and on the Columbia River vessels from 
almost all the countries of the world may be seen taking 
on cargoes of lumber (Figs. 140, 141). 

The mills built to take care of this business have such 
remarkable machinery that huge logs 
from six to eight feet in diameter 
and fifty feet long are used. Such 
logs enter the mill, are sawed into 
great beams or into various sizes of 
boards, and are made ready to ship 
without having been touched by a 
man's hand. In these forests large 
quantities of spruce were cut to build 
aeroplanes f or'use in the World War. 

On the Coast Ranges west of the 
Puget Sound Lowland and on the 
mountains of California there are also 
large supplies of timber. In California 
the forests of red wood have furnished 
excellent lumber for buildings, and 
in that state are the largest trees in 
the world (Fig. 143). 

Salmon fishing. The cold streams 
coming from the snow-fields and 
glaciers in the Cascade Mountains 
a,re used by salmon for spawning. 






'Xxmi'j 1 :. 


The mature fish, leave the salt water 
when they are ready to spawn, or 
lay eggs, and start up one of the 
streams. The Columbia River and 
its tributaries and the small streams 
that flow into Puget Sound are 
favorite waters. The eggs are de- 
posited far upstream, and there the 
young salmon are hatched. They 
remain in the fresh water until they 
are a few inches long and then 
descend to the ocean. The greater 
part of their lives is spent in sea 
water, but by a remarkable instinct 
most of them return to spawn in 
the same stream where they were 
born (Fig. 145). 

The Indians are skillful in catch- 
ing salmon in these streams. Some- 
times they spear them ; sometimes 
they put traps near the banks of the 
river. White men use great fish 
wheels or stretch nets out into the 
rivers (Fig. 146). If nets are stretched 
completely across a stream, or if too 
many nets are placed in a river and 
kept there, the salmon in the stream 
are soon killed off. The government 
has made laws restricting the catch- 
ing of salmon but providing certain 
rights for all 

Fig. 142. A northern 

yellow pine in Oregon, 

225 feet high 

© Kejstone View Co. 

Fig. 141. The logs which are cut in the great 

evergreen forests of the Puget Sound country are 

chained together in great rafts and floated down 

the rivers to the coast 

who engage in 
this industry. 

OIL Several oil fields have been dis- 
covered in California {see map, p. 76), 
and that state has become one of our 
greatest producers of this very useful 
fluid (Fig. 144). 

Some of the oil comes from rocks 
that extend beyond the shore under 
the Pacific Ocean. This has led to a 
very interesting development of oil 
wells. Some of them are f-unk on the 
land near the shore ; others are drilled 
beyond the shore line, and in such 
cases the derricks can be seen rising 
out of the water. A pipe is put 
down through the sea water deep 
into the ground by which the oil 
can be brought to the surface just 
as well as if the pipe had been 
driven down on shore. 




CoaL Near Tacoma and at points near Coos Bay there 
are a number of large coal mines. The coal is in upturned 
and folded layers of rock, much as it is in the anthracite 
coal field of eastern Pennsylvania. In this western region, 
however, the coal has not been made so hard as that in 
the East, but it is a good grade of bituminous coal. 

Water-power. A 
second very im- 
portant soui'ce of 
power in this region 
is provided by the 
niunerous waterfalls 
and rapids which 
are present in most 
of the mountain 
streams. In many 
places hydroelec- 
tric plants have 
been put in and 
all the large cities 
have an abundance 
of electricity. 

Harbors.. A coast 
bordered by young, 
rugged mountains 
is certain to be 
without good har- 
bors unless the land sinks and allows the sea waters to 
enter the mouths of the rivers. Fortunately the land did 
sink on our Pacific coast, and the salt waters came in 
through the Golden Gate at San Francisco, at the mouth 
of the Columbia River, and at Puget Sound. At each 
of these places the mouth of a river is drowned and 
bays or estuaries have been formed. This has given the 
Pacific coast deep, sheltered waters suitable for harbors. 

Fig. 143. These trees are the giant sequoias of 

California. Some of them are from 25 to 35 feet 

in diameter and several hundred feet in height. 

Many are over two thousand years old 

Fig. 144. One of the chief oil fields of California is located near Bakersfield, 
at the southern end of the central valley. The California oil fields con- 
tribute about one third of the total production of the country. Why is it 
particularly fortunate that California has an abundant oil supply? 

The Pacific coast states are all benefiting by com- 
mercial relations with foreign countries. There is also 
some coastwise trade and an active business with 
Alaska. The opening of the Panama Canal has brought 
these growing Pacific coast ports into closer relations 
with all Atlantic ports. 

Mountain scenery as a natural resource. The sight of 
the beautiful mountain panoramas is refreshing to those 
who must stay in the busy cities in the rush of commer- 
cial and industrial life. Some enjoy their vacation out- 
ings in the mountains, and many make long expeditions 
through the canyons and climb to the lofty summits of 
the range. Camping among the mountains is an inspira- 
tion to study and to enjoy nature. Thousands of tour- 
ists visit the national parks in this region every year, 
and many go far into the wild parts of the mountains. 

Fig. 145. This is a Chinook salmon jumping a waterfall. Thousands of salmon 

run up the Pacific coast rivers every year, swimming against the current and 

jumping the falls. When they reach the quiet headwater lakes they lay 

their eggs and thsn drift back down the streams 

Fig. 146. As the salmon run up the rivers they are caught in great numbers. 

Here is a boatload of several thousand, the result of one^ day's fishing. These 

salmon will be taken immediately to the near-by canneries and put up in tins 

for export. Where will the canned salmon be sent ? 









T! 'tS 



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Fig. 147. This is part of the city of Seattle, and in the distance, sixty miles 

away, is Mt. Rainier. Seattle is situated on Puget Sound, and the summit 

of Mt. Rainier is 14,408 feet above sea level. Locate both on your map. 

What makes Seattle an important city ? 

Location and growth of cities. With the development 
of mining, agriculture, lumbering, and fishing, and the 
coming and going of people from foreign lands, a num- 
ber of large cosmopolitan cities have grown up. The 
chief seaports are shown on the maps (pp. 73, 76). They 
have the advantages of being inland and on protected 
waters. Many of the facts regarding the commerce 
are shown on those maps. Seattle (Fig. 147) and Tacoma 
have the advantage of the deep water of Puget Sound, 
and are both lumber centers. Both are fortunate in 
having a supply of coal near at hand. A canal at Seattle 
connects the Sound with a fresh-water lake. Here vessels 
are cleaned of barnacles, for the barnacles cannot live in 
fresh water. Seattle is a great outfitting point for people 
going to. Alaska and is the port most commonly reached 
on the return from Alaska. Most of the supplies for that 

territory pass through Seattle. At Bellingham (Washing- 
ton) and at Astoria (Oregon) there are immense salmon 

Portland is beautifully situated on the Willamette 
and Columbia rivers. These waters are navigable for 
ocean-going vessels, and Portland is the seaport for 
Oregon (Fig. 150). 

San Francisco is 
very favorably sit- 
uated just within 
the Golden Gate. 
It is the commer- 
cial center and the 
financial metrop- 
olis of the Pacific 
coast (Fig. 151). 

The four prin- 
cipal fruit-growing 
districts in the val- 
ley of California 
are near Stockton, 
Sacramento, Fresno, 
and San Jos^, but 
there are several 
other large fruit- 
growing districts. 
In the south, in 

Fig. 148. The state capitol of California at 
Sacramento is an exceptionally fine example 
of the domed type of architecture most com- 
monly used for our state and federal buildings 

the lowland bordering the coast, are Los Angeles and 
Pasadena. Pasadena is beautifully located near the base 
of the mountains (Fig. 149). Los Angeles adjoins Pasa- 
dena and extends by a narrow strip of land to the coast. 
It is the leading city in southern California. These 
cities are in the midst of a fruit-growing district. They 
attract large numbers of visitors during the winter. 

Fig. 149. Pasadena is located on lowlands that are composed of sands, 
gravels, and silts washed out from the mountains by streams. It is an 
exceptionally beautiful city. The streets are lined with a great variety of 
tropical trees such as the eucalyptus and palm. The rainfall is light, so 

^ Hear; U. Pcabodj 

the gardens must be irrigated and all the trees and lawns watered frequently. 
Because the city is situated between the mountains and the sea the climate 
is always mild, with no extremes of heat or cold. Can you explain this ? 
In this view notice the automobile road which zigzags up the mountain 



Fig. 150. Mt. Hood, one of the old volcanic mountains of the Cascade Range, 
towers like a giant above the surrounding ridges. It is 11,224 feet in 
elevation. The city in the foreground is Portland, Oregon, the most im- 
portant city in the state. How far away from Portland is Mt. Hood ? 

Picture study. Use Fig. 151. 1. How should you describe the 
land surface shown in this view ? 
2. Has the shore line heen elevated or 
depressed ? Give reasons for your an- 
swer. 3. To what natural region does 
this area belong ? See map on page 76. 
4. San Fi-ancisco Bay is about fifty miles 
long and ten miles wide. It is connected 
with the Pacific Ocean only by the nar- 
row strait of the Golden Gate. What 
advantage is there in this ? 6. How is 
the bay connected with the valley of 
California ? See map on page 76. 6. In 
what ways is the physical geography 
of this area favorable to commercial 
development ? 7. What are the chief 
exports and imports of San Francisco ? 
8. With what countries does San Fran- 
cisco trade ? 

National parks. The Pacific 
Mountains and Lowlands contain 
several of the most beautiful 
national parks in the country. 
Mt. Rainier National Park sur- 
rounds the beautiful peak of the 
same name, which is remark- 
able for the twenty-eight glaciers 
which descend its slopes (Fig. 156). 
Crater Lake National Park con- 
tains the most extraordinary crater 
lake in the world (Fig. 134). 
Yosemite National Park is an 
area of deep valleys, lofty peaks, 
and cascading waterfalls (Figs. 1 .52, 
153, 154). These and the other na- 
tional parks of the region appear 
on the maps on pages 73 and 76. 

Physical Featctres 

Sierra Nevada. At the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada 
there is a great crack, or fissure, in the earth. When 
the mountains were last uplifted, a slipping took place 
along that crack. The mountains undoubtedly rose very 
slowly, perhaps a few inches at a time, but they rose to 
elevations of from 10,000 to 14,000 feet above the sea. 
Standing on Mt. Whitney (14,501 feet high) one may 
look down a most wonderful mountain slope into the 
basin region to the east or view to the north and west a 
panorama of lofty peaks that extend to the westward 
until they reach the valley of California. 

When this huge mass of land was uplifted, the rivers, 
supplied with plenty of water by the moist winds from 
the Pacific Ocean, began their work of cutting it down 
(Fig. 154). Immense canyons were carved out, and 
during the Ice Age great glaciers formed in the high 
mountains and helped to deepen the canyons (Fig. 152). 

) Qinn knd Compkoj 

Fig. 161. This aeroplane drawing of San Francisco and its surroundings shows the location of the city on 
a hilly peninsula south of the Golden Gate. Before gold was discovered in California, San Francisco was 
only a small town, but as the prospectors and miners poured into the state after 1849 it grew very rapidly 
until to-day it is one of the leading seaports of the United States. How does San Francisco rank among 
the cities of the United States ? See tables in Appendix 



Fig. 152. Long ago Tenaya Canyon, in the Yosemite National Park, was 

carved by a river. Then it was widened and deepened by a glacier. To-day 

its floor is covered with a forest of evergreens. On the right is' the great 

granite Half Dome, rising nearly a mile above the valley floor 

Cascade Mountains. The Cascade Mountains, which 
seem to be a continuation northward of the Sierra Nevada, 
have been greatly uplifted by earth pressure, and here 
also the streams and glaciers have been at work cutting 
into the mountain mass, deepening the canyons, and 
carrying the loose material to lower levels. There are 
beautiful glacial lakes and superb waterfalls in these 

Volcanoes. In places in the Sierra Nevada, volcanoes 
have broken forth. Shasta is a magnificent volcanic 
cone. It is so high that the upper slopes are covered 
with snow all the year round, and there are glaciers 
on the summit. In the Cascade Range there are many 
more volcanoes (Fig. 156). Lassen Peak was active in 
1916 and 1917. 

Coast^Ranges. The Coast Ranges are even younger 
than the Cascades and 
Sierra Nevada. They are 
not so high as the Sierra 
Nevada or Cascades, and 
are still growing. They 
have in them rock forma- 
tions which have come up 
out of the ocean since the 
glacial period, and this is 
an indication of extreme 
youth in mountains. They 
have also been dissected 
by streams and by glaciers. 
On their western edge the 
waves are now actively at 
work cutting away the 
rocks, making sea cliffs, 
sea caves, and rock islands. 

The Pacific Ocean side of these ranges shows a series 
of terraces like gigantic steps, rising to at least 1500 
feet above the present sea level. These are benches 
made by the waves when the land was lower. Each 
time the land rose, a new bench, or terrace, was cut. 
The terraces prove that the land was under the sea, and 
the kinds of sea shells found on them show that they 
have been but re- 
cently uplifted. 

Since the last up- 
lifting of the coast 
the lands have been 
somewhat depressed, 
which accounts for 
the excellent har- 
bors which were de- 
scribed on page 75. 
Earthquakes. The 
young mountains in 
this region are still 
growing, and occa- 
sionally, as in all 
regions of young 
mountains, the little 
slippings along the 
cracks and fissures 
in the rocks cause 
earthquakes. There 
are certain cracks in 
the Coast Ranges 
where earthquakes have occurred since the white people 
settled there. Volcanoes are also commonly located in 
regions where the mountains are growing. . 

Lowlands. The lowlands of the Pacific coast region 

have received the wash 
from the mountains on each 
side. Sands, clays, and 
gravels and some glacial 
materials have been depos- 
ited here, making rich soils 
(Fig. 157). 

Future. The natural re- 
sources are varied and 
abundant and will lead to 
a greater prosperity. With 
the development of the 
nations in eastern Asia 
and the steadily increasing 
trade with Australia and 
New Zealand our Pacific 
coast states are sure to con- 
tinue their rapid growth. 

Fig. 153. These jagged peaks are the Three 
Brothers in the Yosemite National Park. The 
park, with its steep-walled canyons and 
cascading waterfalls, is one of the nation's 
beautiful playgrounds 

Fig. 154. These are the four great waterfalls in Yosemite National Park. 

From left to right they are Bridal Veil Falls, 620 feet ; Yosemite Falls 

— upper, 1430 feet, lower, 320 feet ; Vernal Falls, 320 feet ; Nevada Falls, 

594 feet. Of what value are these falls ? 



About fifty years ago Japan began to use modern 
industrial methods and has since developed rapidly in 
that direction, until now it is a great world power. 
China is just entering upon a period of internal develop- 
ment. Many of the valuable natural resources of that 
country have as yet been little used. The Chinese have 
lived chiefly as an agricultural people. They have 
great resources of coal, oil, and iron and many other 
metals. Industrial life there is sure to develop on a large 
scale, and that will lead to foreign commerce. China is 
now building ships to meet the demand of a growing 
trade, and commercial intercourse with the United 
States is increasing rapidly. 

Docking facilities on the Pacific coast must be 
enlarged. The history there will be somewhat like the 
history of the Atlantic seaports, where it has been 
difficult to build enough wharves to meet the ever- 

Fig. 155. This is the beautiful canyon of the Columbia River. The river rises 
east of the Pacific Mountains and is the only one which cuts its way across 
them to the ocean. Study the map on pages 2 and 3 and explain the impor- 
tance of the Columbia in the westward expansion of the American people 

increasing demand. With more foreign trade will come 
the necessity of more extensive railroad service for 
transporting imports and exports. A larger population 
will be needed to care for this business and to supply 
food for all who live in the region. Much of this 
growth will certainly take place in the next half-century. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What first led exploring 
parties into the Pacific iMouiitaiiis ? 2. By what routes did the 
early explorers reach California ? 3. What is meant by " placer 
mininj,'"? 4. Tell briefly the story of a gold nugget from the 
time it was in a mineral vein until it w.os found by a prospector. 
5. What sources of ywwer are there within this region? 6. Where 
(lid the soils on the lowlands come from? 7. Why is so much 
fruit dried in California ? 

8. Descrite briefly the life of the salmon. 9. What conditions 
are favorable to the development of lumbering on a large scale 

Fig. 156. This view of Mt. Rainier from Mirror Lake shows its rugged 

slopes covered with ice and snow. It has more glaciers than any other 

peak in the United States. Many of them are from four to six miles long, 

and they extend in all directions from the summit to the base 

in Oregon and Washington ? 10. Name the chief seaports in this 
region. 11. What different mountain i-anges are included in this 
region ? 

12. What grains are raised in the valley of California? 
13. What fruits are raised in California ? 14. What is the explana- 
tion of the formation of Crater Lake ? 15. Where should you go 
in this part of the United States to see a glacier ? 16. Explain the 
presence of Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay on the Pacific 
coast. 17. What signs are there that the mountains of this region 
are still growing ? 

18. What large city on the Willamette and Columbia rivers 
may be called a seaport? 19. With what countries is most of 
the trade from Seattle and Tacoma? 20. What are the chief 
imports from China and Japan to this country ? 21. Explain the 
presence of forests in the mountains of the Pacific coast states. 

Fig. 187. Looking out over the gently rolling lowland of the Willamette 
River it seems as if the valley were one great orchard. Rows of apple, 
pear, prune, and peach trees alternate with acres of strawberry plants and 
berry bushes. Why is the Willamette Valley so favorable for fruit-raising? 






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Fig. 158. Some years ago the United States government introduced rein- 
deer from Lapland into Alaska. Many of the Eskimos of Alaska have now 
learned to care for reindeer as farmers care for cattle. The Eskimos in this 
view live at Cape Prince of Wales. They have harnessed their reindeer to 

sleds and are hauling reindeer meat to market at Nome. How many miles 
is it from Cape Prince of Wales to Nome ? What will these Eskimos buy at 
Nome in exchange for their meat? Why do the Eskimos keep reindeer 
instead of cattle ? How many different uses of the reindeer can you name ? 

low that the mercury freezes in the thermometers. In 
the Far North in summer it is daylight throughout the 
twenty-four hours. The sun is highest at noon, when it 
is in the south, and lowest at midnight, when it is in 
the north. During the winter the days in Alaska are 
short, and in places the sun does not rise above the 
horizon for many weeks. 

Effects of climate. Many think that Alaska is so cold 
a country that no one but Eskimos would want to live 
there, and that the growing season is too short to raise 
even vegetables. That is not so. To-day there is a popu- 
lation of about 65,000 in this far northern territory. 
Near each of the larger settlements there are vegetable 
In southeastern Alaska there are large forests, wonder- gardens, and nearly every prospector has a little garden 
ful waterfalls, and such beautiful scenery that thoiisands patch beside his cabin. Timothy hay and oats are raised 



An investment. In 1867 we purchased Alaska from 
Russia for 17,200,000. Many people thought we paid too 
high a price. Since then we have taken from Alaska 
over $150,000,000 worth of gold, more than 11,000,000 
worth of silver, several million dollars' worth of copper, 
and some tin. Billions of tons of hard and soft coal have 
been discovered there. We are now taking 110,000,000 
worth of fish from the Alaskan waters each year, most 
of which are salmon. 

of people take the boat trip to Alaska 
just to see the mountains, the long 
fiords, and the glaciers. 

Home work. In Bancroft's " History of 
the Pacific States," or elsewhere, read about 
Bering's discovery of Alaska. 

Climate. The winds from the Pacific 
Ocean bring an abundance of mois- 
ture to the coastal region of southern 
Alaska. See map on page 124. They 
blow over waters of the ocean that 
have been warmed by the Japan cur- 
rent, and they therefore keep the 
Pacific coastal region from ever being 
extremely cold. 

During the summer season a tem- 
perature of 95 degrees in the shade is 
sometimes reached in the interior of 
Alaska and even as far north as the 

Fig. 159. This is a view of Chilkoot Pass during 
the Klondike rush for gold. With their outfits on 
their backs the gold-seekers formed a long line 
here, pulling themselves up over the mountain 
by means of a long wire cable 

in a few places. Strawberries will 
ripen. Cattle graze all winter long 
on certain of the islands near the 
Alaskan Peninsula, and there are 
many Pacific coast harbors that are 
free from ice all the year. 

People. When the report was circu- 
lated that gold had been discovered 
in Alaska, miners and prospectors 
from almost all parts of the world 
rushed to this new country in the 
hope of discovering a rich deposit of 
gold-bearing gravels (Fig. 159). The 
miners make up most of the popu- 
lation to-day. 

Along the Pacific coast there are 
several Indian tribes. They are in- 
dustrious and kindly. Many of them 
work in the canneries, some in the 

arctic circle, and some prefer to work at night rather than mines, and others in the forests, where lumbexing is 
during the day, because it is cooler when the sun is low. carried on. In the interior of the country small Indian 
The winter temperature in the interior is very low, — so settlements appear along the banks of the Yukon. 

I Giiui and Coiiipauy 



Fig. 160. These are the rugged coastal mountains along the Alaskan shore. 

The sharp peak in the middle distance is Mt. St. Elias. Its summit is 

18,000 feet above sea level. To the left of it is the great Malaspina Glacier, 

which extends from the foot of the mountains to the sea 

At Cape Prince of Wales, which is the nearest point 
in North America to Asia, and from there northward 
along the coast as far as Point Barrow, there are Eskimo 
settlements (Figs. 158, 162). 

Government. The people of Alaska elect delegates to 
Congress and have almost- complete control of local 
affairs. Since Alaska is a territory, the governor is 
appointed by the president of the United States. 

Problems and map studies. 1. What are the chief mineral re- 
sources of Alaska? 2. Name three important products shipped 
from Alaska to the United States. 3. What makes the coastal 
region of Alaska so favorable to the salmon? 4. What are the 
chief articles shipped to Alaska ? 

6. Why are there not more people engaged in farming there ? 
6. What are the chief cities of Alaska? 7. What is the most impor- 
tant inland city ? 8. What city is the capital of Alaska? the metrop- 
olis? See Fig. 163. 9. What is the largest river? 

10. Name the northernmost cape. 11. Explain the fiords and 
islands along the coast of Alaska. 12. What explanation can 
you suggest for earthquakes? 

13. Find the place where the 
sealskins come from. Study 
Fig. 164. 14. Who discovered 
Alaska ? See Appendix, Plate A. 

15. What bodies of water have 
been named in honor of him ? 

16. How much did we pay for 
Alaska? 17. Why should it be 
very warm in the valley of the 
Yukon during summer ? 

18. What ocean current helps 
to keep the coast of Alaska 
warm? 19. Explajn the heavy 
snowfall on the coast ranges 
where the glaciers are formed. 
20. Why is there less rainfall 

aft iiS^ 


Hfetam^^^^^j^ ~ 


Fig. 162. This Eskimo is paddling his kyak, which he has made by covering 
a framework of bones with skins tightly sewed together. He wears a sort 
of raincoat, which, when tied down over the opening in the boat, makes it 
water tight. In this rig he can ride the roughest waves with perfect safety 

in the interior of Alaska than there is along the seacoast ? 
21. Where do the Eskimos live ? 22. Of what value to the 
Eskimos are the reindeer ? 23. How do people travel in the 
Yukon valley in winter ? 24. Plan three sight-seeing trips in 
Alaska and describe the things you would see on each one of them. 

Fig. 161. Perry Island, one of the volcanic mountains of the Aleutian chain, 
rose suddenly from the sea, and when it was first discovered, steam was escap- 
ing from every crack and crevice. Later explosions blew it to pieces, and 
to-day it cannot be seen. Locate the Aleutian Islands on your map 

Natural Regions 

The Pacific coastal region. Bordering the coast there 
are magnificent high mountains. They are a continu- 
ation northward of the mountains in our Pacific coast 
states, and extend through British Columbia into Alaska 
and then follow the coast through the Aleutian Islands. 
These islands are the peaks of a mountain range which 
extends nearly to Asia (Fig. 161). 

The St. Elias Range, as seen from a vessel coasting 
along the Alaskan shore, is one of the most magnificent 
sights in the world (Fig. 160). 

The Coast Ranges are young and growing mountains. 
Earthquakes are common in this belt, and there are 
many active volcanoes. There is one volcanic region 
which has been appropriately called " the valley of ten 
thousand smokes." This region has been set aside by 
Congress as the Katmai National Monument. 

This coastal region has a 
number of excellent harbors, 
and in the southeastern part 
of Alaska there is a beauti- 
ful inland passageway shel- 
tered from the storms of. 
the Pacific by a series of 
large islands. Juneau, the 
capital of Alaska, is situated 
near the northern end of 
this inland passage. 

Mining is the chief oc- 
cupation in southeastern 
Alaska, although lumbering 
and the canning of salmon are important. Whaling 
stations have also been established here, and there are 
salmon, halibut, herring, and a few cod fisheries, which 
provide a living for many of the people. 



Never before in the history of the world has man 
attempted a task so large or so difficult as the construc- 
tion of this canal. There were three chief difficulties: 

(1) a range of hills which separates the two oceans ; 

(2) great seasonal floods in the Chagres River ; (3) tropical 
diseases. The line of hills has been pierced by the 
Culebra Cut, which is 250 feet deep (Fig. 171). To con- 
trol the Chagres River the Gatun Dam was constructed, 
which has caused the formation of Gatun Lake, the 
largest artificial lake in the world (Fig. 172). The 

Fig. 169. This is a photograph of a model of Kilauea, the active crater on 

the eastern slope of Mauna Loa. The circular pit in the foreground contains 

a lake of boiling lava. Surrounding it is the great floor of hardened lava, 

built up by many outpourings of hot liquid rock 


Ever since 1513, when Balboa climbed to the top of a 
hill on the Isthmus of Panama and looked off over the 
Pacific Ocean, men have talked of a water route through 
this narrow neck of land. France was the first country 
to attempt the construction of such a canal, and in 1880 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, the engineer who built the Suez 
Canal, began the work. This project failed because those 
in charge were unable to prevent the spread of tropical 
diseases among the workmen. 

In 1904 the United States acquired from the republic 
of Panama a narrow zone through the Isthmus (Fig. 172). 
Our purpose in securing this zone was to construct a canal 
for large ships from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. 

Pulliabers' Fhoto Ser 

) PubUBbeni' Plioto Service, Inc. 

Fig. 170. These are the Gatun Locks of the Panama Canal. They are three 

great water steps by which ships are lifted from the level of the Caribbean 

Sea to Gatun Lake. The locks are large enough for the largest vessels afloat. 

At the left is one of the electric locomotives used for towing 

Fig. 171. This great steamship is being towed through the Culebra 
Cut. Across the canal is Gold Hill, which has caused the blocking of the 
canal several times by slides from its slopes. The Culebra Cut was made 
through the mountainous backbone of the Isthmus, and was a very hard 
problem for the engineers who constructed the canal 

problem of fighting tropical diseases was very difficult. 
Forests and underbrush were cleared away, oil was spread 
upon the waters of the marshes and swamps to prevent 
mosquitoes from breeding, sanitary conditions were 
greatly improved, and every care was taken to prevent 
the spread of any contagious diseases which appeared 
among the workmen. 

About 260,000,000 cubic yards of material were 
handled in the construction of the Panama Canal. That 
amount of material would build a wall around the Dis- 
trict of Columbia 60 feet thick and a little over 500 feet 
high. If the material could be piled up around the earth 
at the equator, it would make a solid wall six feet thick 
and about nine feet high. 

The level of Gatun Lake, through which the canal 
route passes, is about 85 feet above the sea. That neces- 
sitated a series of locks near each end of the canal. With 
the help of electric motors at these locks a vessel may 
now pass from one ocean to the other in about ten hours 
(Fig. 170). The route of the canal through the lake is 
marked by buoys that are brightly lighted at night. 

Colon, the Atlantic terminal, is a supply station. Here 
ships can obtain almost anything they need. Storage 
bins for coal, machine shops, bakeries, and ice plants 
have been established at this terminal. 



The Pacific terminal of the 
canal is Balboa. It is fitted up 
as a repair station. With huge 
machine shops and modem dry 
docks, Balboa stands ready to 
receive any ship that needs re- 
pairing after its trip through the 

By means of the canal the 
Pacific*' coast ports of North 
America and South America may 
easily be reached from all Atlantic 
seaports. The opening of the 
Panama Canal shortened the 
water route from New York to 
San Francisco by 8000 miles and 
made all of our island possessions 
in the Pacific Ocean more valu- 
able. The United States govern- 
ment has fortified the canal, but 
it is open for the Mse of vessels 
of all nations. 

The canal is also of great 
advantage to the countries of 
western Europe, shortening the 
distance between their Atlantic 
ports and the Pacific ports of 
North and South America by 
thousands of miles. 

Home work. 1. Make a diagram 
showing the length of the canal, the 
height of Gatun Lake, the location 
of the locks at each end, and the 
location of Colon and of Panama. 
2. Which end of the canal is farther 
west ? 3. Find out how electric motors 
help vessels through the canal. 


Fig. 173. This is the city of Pananui, near 
is that the Pacific end 

i£) Ginn uid Comp&nj 

Fig. 172. This is a view of the Panama Canal Zone, showing the mountainous country through which the 
canal was cut. The Canal Zone (shown by the darker shading) is 10 miles wide and 50 miles long from 
deep water at Colon to deep water in the Gulf of Panama. The narrowest width of the canal is 300 feet, 
and its shallowest depth is 41 feet. The highest reach of its water surface, from the Gatun Locks to the 

Pedro Miguel Locks, is 85 feet above sea level 

Problems and review questions. 1. About 
how long is the rananui Canal ? 2. How wide 
is the Canal Zone? 3. How was the Gatun 
Lake formed ? 

4. Of what advantage is the lake ? 6. How 
is the canal route through the lake marked ? 
6. How high do vessels rise above sea level 
in crossing the Isthmus? 

7. How long does it take for vessels to 
pass from ocean to ocean through the canal ? 
8. What difficulties had to be overcome in 
building the canal ? 

9. What was done to prevent the spread- 
ing of tropical diseases ? 10. What South. 
American countries are most benefited by 
the canal ? 11. How did the opening of 
the canal increase the value of our Pacific 
islands ? 12. What did it do for Europe ? 

the Pacific end of the canal. Can you explain how it 
is the eastern end of the canal ? 



Fig. 174. This motor truck, loaded with Porto Rican sugar cane, is bound 

for the sugar mill. The sugar used to be hauled to the mills in oxcarts in 

Porto Rico and Cuba, but gradually motor trucks are taking their places. 

Why are motor trucks better for this purpose ? 


Porto Rico is in the torrid zone and is one of the four 
largest islands of the West Indies. In many ways it is 
a delightful place to live in, and certainly a most attrac- 
tive island to visit. The central portion is mountainous, 
and about the margin are the lowlands, which have 
been divided into farms. Many of the lower slopes of 
the mountains are cultivated. 

About three fifths of the people are white and the 
other two fifths are negroes or people with mixed blood 
(Fig. 177). , 

Porto Rico is not quite as large as the state of Connec- 
ticut ; it has a population of over a million. The island 
was ceded to the United States by Spain in 1898. At 
that time the great mass of the people were uneducated. 



Fig. 17S. Many of the broad, rich valleys of Porto Rico are used for raising 
tobacco. Large areas of the tobacco fields are covered with white cheese- 
cloth, which protects the plants from insects and the intense heat of the 
sun. Scattered over the fields are the sheds where the tobacco is dried 

There are many to-day who cannot read or write, but a 
system of free public schools has been established, and 
every effort is being made to have the children attend 
school at least a part of each year. 

Climate. The high temperature of this region is weak- 
ening, especially to white people. They must learn to 
work less vigorously than they would in the temperate 
zone, and plan to have a great deal of help. On the 
lowlands there is never frost or snow. The prevailing 
winds are the northeast trades. As the moisture-laden 
winds strike the mountains and rise, the rain falls on 
the windward, or northeast, side. The leeward, or south- 
west, side is dry, — a condition which we have discovered 
in many places where winds pass over mountains and 
descend. On the dry side of the island irrigation is 
necessary to assure full and regular crops. The rainy 
season is in summer, when the equatorial rainy belt 
moves northward 
with the appar- 
ent movement of 
the sun. 

Products and 
Occupations. The 
chief product is 
sugar, of which 
the island exports 
each year approx- 
imately 500,000 
tons. It consti- 
tutes over 50 per 
cent of all the 
products exported 

(Fig. 174). Cotton, coffee, tropical fruits, and tobacco are 
among the other products (Fig. 175). Some of the fruits, 
especially pineapples, are canned before they are shipped. 
Great quantities of vegetables are raised on the lowlands of 
Porto Rico. They ripen during the winter months and are 
sent directly to the markets of the United States.. 

Although most of the people in Porto Rico are engaged 
in agriculture, there is a little manufacturing. Cigars and 
cigarettes are made. Large numbers of them are used 
by the Porto Ricans, but a great many are exported. 

In some ways the United States is fortunate in hav- 
ing possessions in the tropics and in having commercial 
relations with many other tropical countries, for from 
those lands we secure products which we cannot raise in 
abundance at home. 

Railways. Since the United States took control of 
Porto Rico, over 1000 miles of roads have been im- 
proved, and about 300 miles of railway constructed. The 
main line of travel is on the lowlands about the margin 
of the island. See map between pages 117 and 120. 

Uodeiwood A Uoderwood 

Fig. 176. San Juan was a sleepy old Spanish town 

until 1898, when Porto Rico became a United States 

possession. Now it is a busy modern seaport. Can 

you explain the change ? 



Cities. The two largest cities 
are San Juan (Fig. 176) and Ponce. 
San Juan, the capital, is on the 
north side, and Ponce is on the 
south side. They are now con- 
nected by a railroad which runs 
around the west end of the island. 

Government. The governor of 
Porto Kico is appointed by the 
president of the United States, 
but most of the local affairs are 
entirely under the control of those 
living on the island. The citizens 
over twenty-one years of age, both 
natives and Americans, who have 
lived there for a year, have a 
right to vote. The voters elect 

most of their local officials and a commissioner to the 
United States, who represents Porto Rico in Congress. 


The Virgin Islands, which the United States purchased 
from Denmark, lie about 50 miles east of Porto Rico and 
have a combined area of 142 square miles. Compare this 
with the area of the smallest state in the Union and 
with the area of Porto Rico. 

These little islands are in the belt of the northeast 
trades, where it is always warm. When the winds strike 
the mountains, rain falls, so that the northeast sides, as 

in the case of the 
other islands in 
the West Indies, 
are well watered. 
Most of the rain 
comes in summer 
and early fall. 

The islands are 
the tops of moun- 
tains, but near 
the coast there is 
enough low land 
for large crops of 
sugar and cotton, 
which are the two 
leading products. 
Trade is increas- 
ing constantly be- 
tween the islands 
and the United 
States. The pop- 
ulation of these 

© L. >\. Newman 

Fig. 177. This is a typical negro family of Porto Rico. 

Their little house is built of boards and thatched with 

straw. Back of the house is the banana patch from which 

they get most of their food 

^^^r 4MW ^^^^ft^Vl 


S^^S^ aJ^^^HHH^i^P^^w|^'-  Y 

'i.»«'V«- BJI^^^^^g^^^ .'-ii^^a^^ ^B§ j- 

islands is about 32,000. Of the 
three islands, St. Thomas is the 
most important commercially. 
This is due to its advantageous 
position. The island is located 
directly on the sailing route be- 
tween the ports of Europe and 
the entrance to the Panama 
Canal, and also on the Hne of 
communication between North 
and South America. Its one town, 
Charlotte Amalie, is beautifully 
located on the lower slopes of 
three mountains, overlooking one 
of the best harbors in the West 
Indies, and it is the port from 
which the agricultural products 

of the surrounding islands are shipped to other parts 

of the world (Figs. 178, 179). 

St. Croix and St. John, the other two islands of the 

group, have rich soils on which excellent crops of sugar, 

cotton, coffee, tobacco, and tropical fruits are raised. 

Fubluihcra' Pliotu ScTTiue, luo. 

3 Publiaheri' Photo tSerrice, Idc. 

Fig. 178. This is a street of steps in Charlotte 

Amalie. The city is built on the slopes of three 

mountains overlooking the harbor, and the steep 

streets climb straight up the hillsides 

Fig. 179. This is Charlotte Amalie, the port of St. Thomas, one of the three 
Virgin Islands which the United States bought from Denmark in 1917 for 
$25,000,000. Charlotte Amalie has a landlocked harbor large enough to shel- 
ter 200 vessels. Why are the Virgin Islands valuable to the United States ? 

Problems and review questions. 1. How did the United States 
come into possession of Porto Eico ? of the Virgin Islands ? 
2. Why should these islands have warm climates with plenty of 
rainfall for agriculture on the northeast sides? 3. Why should 
they be drier on the southwest sides ? 

4. Should you expect the mountainous portions to be forested ? 
See map on page 124. Ty. Why are the native Indians and the 
negroes very useful on the islands ? 6. At what season of the 
year should we find a visit to Porto Rico most enjoyable ? 

7. What foods should you probably find in abundance through- 
out the islands ? 8. Of what advantage i9 it to the United 
States of America to have island possessions in the tropics ? 
9. What are the chief articles that the people on these islands 
wish to purchase from us ? 





& ' £ " 



.^ -^ 1 


W ^. 

., "si^m 

>l fubliL- Wurks, ManiU 

Fig. 180. These Filipino girls are grinding corn Fig. 181. Some of the people of the Philippines Fig. 182. This is one of the beautiful little horses 

in a simple hand mill made of two stones. The live in tree houses like this. They climb up to for which the mountainous province of Abra, in 

corn is ground while it is fresh, for the people of the house by a ladder which they pull up after northern Luzon, is famous. These horses are 
the Philippines do not like it dried them for greater safety rather small but very sturdy and strong 


The Philippines are the tops of mountains which rose 
from the sea bottom until their summits were out of 
water. In places the great folds in the earth broke open 
and volcanoes came into existence. Along the cracks and 
fissures in the mountain masses little slips take place 
from time to time, causing earthquakes. These moun- 
tains are therefore young and are still growing. Many 
of them now rise from 8000 to 10,000 feet above sea level. 
Between the larger ranges there are broad valleys suitr 
able for agriculture. There are over 3000 islands in the 

Climate. The climate in the Philippine Islands has a 
greater influence upon the activities of the people than 
any other geographical factor. 

The islands are near the equator and are surrounded by 
sea water. The temperature is never very low, but there 
is a noticeable change from day to night. The nights 
are commonly cool and the days are warm. During the 
winter, except on the windward sides of the mountains, 
there is little rain, but from June to September there is 
a rainy season throughout the islands. Under such weak- 
ening climatic conditions people do not become industri- 
ous. White people from the temperate zone, who have 

group. The largest, Luzon, is about the size of Kentucky, lived most active lives, soon stop working hard if they 

live in such a tropical land. There 
is an abundance of fruit for food, 
and one needs but little clothing 
and shelter. There is therefore no 
necessity for hard work. 

Native people. There are over 
8,000,000 people living on the Phil- 
ippine Islands. Among the native 
people there are many groups, each 
with a distinct language. Most of 
them are peaceful and industrious 
(Figs. 180, 183, 185, 186), but in 
the mountains away from the sea- 
coast there are yet many wild and 
some savage tribes (Fig. 181). 

Occupations. Gold, copper, and 

silver have been found in the 

mountains, and mining has been undertaken. Along the 

coast there are fisheries, and farther inland there is some 

cattle-raising. Lumbering is important in Mindanao. 

The second largest is Mindanao. 

Review questions and map studies. 

1. Near what lands are the Philippine 
Islands ? 2. Judging from the latitude 
and position in the ocean, describe the 
climate of these islands. 3. Judging from 
the products, name the chief occupations 
of the people. 4. What is the chief sear 
port ? On which island is it located ? 

5. What are the chief products ex- 
ported from Manila ? 6. Do the imports 
and exports suggest that this is a manu- 
facturing country ? Why ? 7. What have 
you seen that came from Manila ? 8. Why 
does the temperature remain about the 
same in summer and winter in these 
islands ? 9. What foods do these islands 
produce ? 10. Why do the natives of the 
Pacific Islands work less than the people 

of the United States? 11. Which is farther from the equator, 
Guam or Manila ? 12. What part of the Philippine Islands is in 
about the same latitude as Panama ? 13. What part of the Philip- 
pine Islands is in about the same latitude as the City of Mexico ? 

Courtea; uf Bureau of Agriculture, Manila 

Fig. 183. Manila hemp is made from the sheathlike 

layers of the trunk of the abaca tree. This man is 

busy pulling ofi the layers, one by one. When he has 

finished, most of the trunk will have been removed 

B Fu^how 180° 


^^^^^ WITBAYAT I. 

C Sh«ngh«i« BATAN IS. 

. B alinjang 

F 'Seoul 129° 





ln» ^ Zf"^ Chnn\id 




I'V Longitude 170° SO' B'wt /rom 170° Grttnwicii W»°»0 


r'ANUU I. 


Scale, three times that of main map 

rolslNA I. :«^^LOSENGA I. 
>*-^<t»*WTAU I. 

South Pt. 

kbra B.C C,.'.. .  ' -. 

ndonf ^"-1 ~^Bo^rto(r 

San FernaiJo K Mi.Pv/oa .„ . - 

-'- >, : ' ^ySii. , I Ecnagi 


Wil/b ^ * -' 


San !,:.,„„ , 

San Narciscol. " "'-' 





r9 ^4»JOHALlG I. 


rinio^ Bay . j^calagoa IS. 

IfondajTua -/■"'> 

■■,.,,-■ , , W" yW(./.,,r--. r 

144'' 30' Ea»t J'rom Gremn\^^^wieK 

Ritidian Pt. 

13 30 

Scale, three times thatof main map 



Ml.M'OKC* Q.«j 


^Sibuyan Sea \ ■> j f 

rifcfco 1 


» Virac 

'■'"to/, Gulf 

4ATAN 1. 

Scale of statute miles 

10 30 SO too IfiO 

Scale of kilometers 

95 bO 100 aoo 

jfcaWIBLON I. 


UNAPAQA.?((| f>> 

> SanJcs. 



New Was! 


luYAN .'Vror' 

, •"'^laocia Bilinih* ' ,,^^. 



Chief seaports 

Railroads ==^=^^^= Navigable rivers 
I I Lowlands 


1 Young, rugged 

Puerto Princess 

•It. ' ' ' a ' (Polutaii 

^9|r, Cuyo« SanJosej riofio 

« J ,V^ ,*^ de Boenavistal 

^V^ X bi MARA.s' I Dao4 'ci 














^ Mambamo 

0,0 Catarn^ 

^, Bulinu. 


% <^olVx 

,.„„,j IL/iiigW. 

CimivlTcitllley^— .*t£'!' 

I L.Imhuo 



rman Pt. 


Mora Gil If 



, 7"^^^^^ - -' JONQUIL I. 

L E B E S 

E A Tlnaca pt,^j 

C.San Agustin ^y 





C hongitudt 122° Eatt J) /rom 124° Gretnwich E 


I GIdu and Coiiii>aii^ 



) Publuberi' Photo SerTioe, Ine. 

Fig. 184. The mountain rice fields are cut out of the steep slopes, like great 

steps one above another. Each field is protected by a high stone wall, 

which keeps the soil from sliding down the mountain. The water is 

brought to the fields by a system of irrigation ditches 

The lowland plains have rich soils, for the streams 
have brought fine material from the mountain slopes and 
spread it out on the lower lands. Sugar, cotton, rice, 
tobacco, and many kinds of fruit are raised, for the 
most part on these lowland areas. In many places 
irrigation is practiced, so that crops are not entirely singing and laughing after 
destroyed during the dry season. The lower slopes of the long day in the field 
the mountains are also used for agriculture (Fig. 184). 

Rice culture. The cultivation of rice has several very 
interesting stages. The fields have dikes about them, so 
they may be flooded. When the rains begin to fall, these 
dikes keep the water from running off, so the dry, hard 
earth becomes a mud. In certain fields men are at work 
plowing and harrowing the wet, muddy ground. In this 
work the water buffalo, one of the 

pull the seedlings, and the women and. older children 
transplant them. Later the waters are drained off the 
fields, and the grain begins to ripen. 

By the first of November the harvesting of the earliest 
crop begins. This is a period of great merriment, the 
happiest time of the year. At three o'clock in the morn- 
ing on harvest days lights are seen in every house. Long 
before daybreak groups of 
men, women, and children 
start walking over the 
dikes to the harvest fields. 
Each one carries a flat- 
bottomed basket, large or 
small according to the size 
of the worker. They work 
on shares ; sometimes it 
is a fifth of all that the 
worker has cut, sometimes 
a fourth or a third. Each 
one makes a separate heap 
of grain, and at the end 
of the day the owner of 
the field gives him his 
share. Then the workers 
tie up their bundles of 
grain and start for home. 

Fig. 185. This man is stripping abaca 

sheaths by pulling them under a 

sharp knife. After this the strips 

will be dried in the sun 

few animals that will work well 
in mud, is very helpful. After 
the plowing and harrowing, the 
seeds are scattered broadcast. 

In about three weeks, or at 
the beginning of June, the seed- 
lings are nearly a foot high and 
are ready to be transplanted. 
Everyone who is old enough to 
work in the field must help, for 
the transplanting must be done 
quickly. Most of the men and 
boys continue the plowing of 
new fields, but a few help the 
women and girls in the trans- 
planting. The experienced men 

Coiirtesj of Uir 

Fig. 186. This Filipino farqily is threshing and winnowing 
rice. The men separate the grain from the stalks by pounding 
them on a stone. The women winnow the rice by tossing the 
grain into the air. As It falls the wind blows the chafi away 

Manila hemp is the best-known product of the Philip- 
pines. The rich volcanic soils of the lower mountain 
slopes, with the abundant rainfall, give just the right 
conditions for the growth of the abaca tree, from which 
the fiber comes (Figs. 183, 185). The Filipinos take excel- 
lent care of their abaca trees. Each year they cut only 
those which are full-grown. The long, white fibers are 

bound in bundles and shipped 
in large quantities from Manila 
to Europe and the United States, 
where they are made into strong 
rope and twine. Some rope is 
manufactured in the Philippines. 
Foreign trade. Manila is the 
chief seaport and the seat of gov- 
ernment (Fig. 189). The popu- 
lation of the city is over 200,000. 
Large quantities of raw hemp, 
sugar, and tobacco are shipped 
from Manila to the United 
States. Copra, the dried meat of 
the coconut, from which coconut 
oil is extracted, is also exported 
in large quantities. 



Government.. Since 1898, when we paid Spain twenty 
million dollars to give up all claim to these islands, the 
government has been under the direction of the United 
States. The native people, however, have been given 
practically complete control of local affairs. They have 
a legislature of their own and send two commissioners to 
our national Congress. We are helping in every possible 
way to educate the people and to train them to establish 
and maintain a good goVernnu^nt. 

Home work. Find out about how long it takes to go from San 
Francisco to Manila. 


The island of Guam is only thirty-two miles long 
and from four to ten miles wide. It was ceded to the 
United States by Spain in 1898, after the close of the 

Spanish War. It is now 
used as a naval station, 
ind the island is under 
the control of the Navy 
Department of the United 

Guam has a wireless 
telegraph plant and cable 
connections with all parts 
of the world. The native 
people raise rice, maize, 
sweet potatoes, coffee, co- 
coa, and sugar. 


i:.iuru-sy ol l(ur. au i.f Sni.'iioe. Manila 

Fig. 187. After it has been threshed 
and winnowed, the girls pound the 
rice in a hollowed-out log of hard wood. 
This pounding husks the rice grains 

For years Great Britain, 
Germany, and the United 
States liave been interested 
in the Samoan Islands and 
have made various treaties regarding their rights in the 
islands. At present the island of Tutuila and a number 
of smaller islands near by are among our possessions. 

These islands owe their importance to the fact that 
they lie on the direct steamship route from San Francisco 
to Sydney. They serve as naval bases and as coaling 
stations for vessels. 

The native people in the islands held by the United 
States have control of most local affairs, but the presi- 
dent of the United States apjxjints a governor, who holds 
the highest office. 

Tlie Samoan Islands are volcanic. Some of the vol- 
canoes are no longer active, btit many of them erupt 
from time to time, and earthquakes are common. For 
the most part the islands are thickly wooded and the 
soils are fertile. 

These islands are so near the equator that the climate 

Fig. 188. These carts, drawn by carabaos, are carrying the rice harvest to 

market in Luzon. The roads here are good and are lined with coconut palms. 

Rice is the largest single crop in the Philippines, but the people do not raise 

all they need. From what country do they import it ? 

is always warm, and they are in the midst of the Pacific 
Ocean, where the temperature is about the same in summer 
as in winter. At times they suffer from severe hurricanes. 
The native }:)eople gather the coconuts that grow in 
abundance on the islands and dry the coconut meat to 
make copra. On most of the islands the natives pay 
their taxes in copra, which is the only product that is 
sufficiently abundant to export. In addition they raise 
for their own use breadfruit, yams, and a great many 
tropical fruits, such as pineapples, oranges, and bananas. 

Fig. 189. Manila is located at the mouth of the Pasig River on the island 
of Luzon. This view shows the river, which is deep enough for the smaller 
steamers and lighters. The larger ships must either anchor in the open water 
or come to docks in the new harbor formed by the breakwater beyond the city 




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After studying the different parts of the United States 
and its possessions, we should consider the nation as a 
whole and see how important a part the geographic con- 
ditions have played in the settlement of the country and 
in the development of industrial and commercial life. 

Early settlements. The first permanent settlements 
in the United States were on the Atlantic coast (Fig. 190). 
In the days before there were any railroads the Appala- 
chian Mountains held the people near the Atlantic sea- 
board. The mountains were a liarrier that made travel 
to the westward difficult. Moreover, going beyond the 
mountains to live meant cut- 
ting off all easy commvmica- 
tion witli the settled portion 
of this country and also with 
England. Until manufactur- 
ing plants were established in 
America the colonists depended 
upon the trade with England 
for many of the things they 
needed. Perhaps the presence 
of Indians Avest of the moun- 
tains influenced some people to 
stay in the East. However, the 
fact that they did stay together 
led to the development of great 
strength in tlie colonies which 
united to make this nation. 

15. What states include a part of the Rocky Mountains ? 
16. What states include a portion of the great plateau between 
the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
Mountains? 17. At what place in the United States do four 
states come together ? 

18. What states are crossed by the Colorado River ? 19. In 
what state is Great Salt Lake ? 20. To what state should you 
go to see the Grand Canyon of the Colorado? 21. What 
mountain ranges border the great plateaus on the west? 
22. What states border upon Mexico ? 

2-3. Between what two states does the lower part of the 
Columbia River flow ? 24. What large tributary does this 
river receive from the southeast ? 25. Round the state in 
which you live. 20. 

Fig. 190. This map shows the distribution of population in the 
United States in 1790, and the westward movement of the center of 
population since that time. Near what cities was the population 
densest in 1790 ? Trace the progress of the center westward. Near 
what city was the center in 1870 ? in 1910 ? 


Ree map hctwern pages 95 and 98. 1. What states border the 
Atlantic Ocean ? 2. What states border the Gulf of Mexico ? 
3. What states that do not border the Atlantic Ocean or the 
Gulf of Mexico include a part of the Coastal Plain ? 4. What 
state is north of Long Island ? 

5. Of what state is Long Island a part ? 6. What two 
states are separated by Delaware Bay? 7. Into what two states 
does Chesapeake Bay enter ? 8. Between what two states is 
the Savannah River? 

9. Locate Mobile Bay. 10. In what state is the delta of the 
Mississippi River? 11. What state is separated from IMexico 
by tlie Rio Grande ? 12. What states border on Lake Erie ? 
on Lake Michigan? on Lake Superior? 

LS. The banks of a river are named "right" and "left" 
as one would see them looking downstream. Name the states 
on the west, or right, bank of the Mississippi River. Name 
those on tlie l(;ft bank. 

14. You have named the row of states on the right bank 
of the Mississippi. Next to them on the west is a row whose 
ea.stern jiarts are in the Central Plains and whose western parts 
are in the Great Plains. Name these, beginning at the north. 

Bound the United States. 27. What 
states border on the Pacific 
Ocean ? 28. What states border 
on Canada? 29. Are the rail- 
roads more numerous in the east- 
ern or in tlie western half of the 
United States ? Why ? 

30. Lay out a route of travel 
from Boston to Los Angeles 
by way of New York, Albany, 
Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, St. 
Paul, Glacier National Park, 
Seattle, Portland, San Francisco. 
What railroads should you use? 
What states should you cross ? 

31. Return from Los Angeles 
to Chicago by a route that will 
take you by a side trip to the 
rim of the Grand Canyon and 
through Denver. What is the 
name of the railroad used and 

the names of the states cros.sed? 32. Make a list of the chief 
seaports ; the chief lake ports. Put the population opposite 
each city name. See Appendix. 33. What are the ten largest 
cities in the United States? Arrange them in the order of 

34. What is the difference in the standard time of New York 
and Chicago? of New York and San Francisco? of Wash- 
ington, D.C., and Denver, Colorado? 35. What large cities 
in New England are in about the same latitude as Rome, 
Italy ? 36. What part of our 'country is in about the same 
latitude as Palestine, where Jerusalem is located ? 

37. What large cities in the United States are in about the 
same longitude as Bogota, the capital of Colombia? 38. Which 
is farther west from Greenwich, — the capital of Texas or the 
capital of Mexico ? 39. Com[)are the latitude of San Francisco 
with that of Peking and also with that of Tokyo. 

Home work. 1. On an outline map of the United States, print 
in from memory the names of the states. If necessary, correct 
your map and try it again. Learn to do this perfectly. 2. On the 
same outline map, locate and print in from memory the names 
of five important seaports, five large lake ports, and five large 
river cities. 3. How many state capitals can you name and locate 
correctly from memory ? Test yourself on an outline map. 



Westward expansion. The westward expansion was 
laijj;ely controlled by geography. The trails used by the 
pioneers followed the easier 
routes of travel. See map on 
pages 2 and 3. On the north 
the Great Lakes and on the 
south the Gulf of Mexico 
formed natural boundaries. 

Later, by a series of pur- 
chases and treaties (Fig. 191), 
the wide stri^ of land stretch- 
ing from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific was acquired by 
the United States. In time 
Alaska, the Panama Canal 
Zone, and various islands in 
the Pacific and Atlantic oceans 
came into our possession. 

As pioneers pushed into 
all parts of the territory 
acqmred by the United States, trails were built and small 
settlements were established. During the period of active 
railroad construction, which fortunately came when this 
country was being opened up, these settlements were 
joined together by a great network of roads. To-day it is 
relatively easy to reach almostany partof the United States. 

Discovery of natural resources. With the expansion, 
the increase in settlements, and the 
construction of railroads, more and 
more of the natural resources of this 
vast country have been discovered 
and utilized. 

We are fortunate in having rich 
soils, broad, level lands, and abun- 
dant rainfall, so that sufficient food 
may easily be raised. In this country 
we have only begun to test our ability 
to produce food. We have never had 
a great famine, and it is hard for us 
to believe that in some parts of the 
world millions of people have died in 
a single year for want of food. 

Next in importance comes the great 
group of resources which furnish man 
with power, such as coal, oil, gas, 
and streams. These sources of power 
have increased the amount of work 
man can do and have led to the 
remarkable development in manu- 
facturing which has taken place in the United States. 

Fig. 191. This map shows the steps by which the United States has 
expanded from the territory of the original thirteen states to its 
present size. How many of our present states are included in the 
original territory ? List the different additions in order of the dates 
of their annexation 

Fig. 192. This view shows the special cut, or 

blaze, on the trees, by which the national forest 

trails are marked. In what ways are the national 

forests a benefit to our country ? 

The forests are always of importance ; the fish, the 
waterways, and the harbors have all been important in 

the growth of the nation. 

Conservation of natural re- 
sources. Almost everyone in 
the United States is interested 
in developing or using great 
natural resources. It has taken 
millions of years for the de- 
posits of coal, iron, gold, silver, 
and other minerals to form, 
and perhaps as long for the 
accumulation of natural oil 
and gas. It has taken a long, 
long time for the formation 
of the soils. Many of these re- 
sources can be used but once 
and can never be replaced. 

Agriculture is dependent 
upon the fertility of the soils 
and upon rain or other water supply. Raw materials are 
essential to our industrial and commercial development as 
a nation. In this country we have come to know that 
from this time on the mineral wealth must not be 
wasted, the forests must be protected, the fertility of 
the soils maintained, the water-power developed, and 
many of the dry lands irrigated. Fish and game should 
be allowed to increase in numbers. 
The spreading of injurious animals 
and insects should be prevented, 
while other animals, and especially 
the birds, should be protected. The 
birds not only destroy large num- 
bers of insects but add much to the 
pleasure of the people. 

These facts are sufficient to con- 
vince one that the natural resources 
must be conserved if this country is 
to continue for all time to be an 
attractive place for people to live in. 
Our government is making a great 
effort to conserve all valuable re- 
sources. The Reclamation Service is 
adding large areas to our agricultural 
lands by irrigating the dry places and 
by draining the wet parts ; the Forest 
Service is engaged in maintaining the 
national forests (Fig. 192); the Bureau 
of Mines is teaching men how to ex- 

tract the rich mineral ores from the earth most econom- 
Then come the mineral resources, such as iron, cop- ically ; and the Department of Agriculture is helping 
per, gold, silver, lead, and zinc. ' the fanner to raise larger and better crops. 



Education. The American colonists had high ideals easy routes for transportation, and a number of large 
of education and very early established schools and col- industrial and commercial lake ports have developed. 

leges. A school was opened for each new settlement in 
this country, and as prosperity came these schools were 
improved. Thousands of high schools have been estab- 
lished. An effort has been made to give each American 
child and all those who have chosen to come to this 
country from foreign lands a good education. 

Most of the states now have a number of normal 
schools and a university, and many of the states have 
established agricultural colleges, either associated with 

Fig. 193. Here is a great ocean liner lying at anchor off the coast of Japan. This is one of the large 

ships which run across the Pacific Ocean, carrying freight and passengers between the western 

ports of the United States and Canada and the eastern ports of Asia. What are some of the goods 

carried on its westward trips ? on its eastward trips ? 

the universities or as independent institutions. There 
are also numerous special schools of medicine, dentistry, 
pharmacy, mining, and engineering, so that everyone 
who wishes may find a place to go for higher training 
in the profession of his choice. 

Geographic factors which affect the growth of the nation. 
When a land is divided by mountain ranges into small 
natural regions, many distinct nations are apt to be 
developed. Here large natural regions and broad, level 
stretches of fertile lands have led to the development 
of a unified nation. The great railroad systems have 
helped to bind the people together. The breadth of view 
and the daring of the American people are in some 
degree due to the extent of its territory, its broad, open 
expanse of prairie lands, and its wonderful natural 

The location of the United States on the shores of the 
Atlantic is of great importance to the country. It makes 
possible a close association with other progressive nations 
of the world. On the north the Great Lakes provide 

On the south direct access to lands in the tropics is 
afforded by the Gulf of Mexico, which, with the Carib- 
bean Sea, forms an American Mediterranean. Its waters 
touch Central America, Mexico, the United States, and 
the West Indies, and reach the northern shores of South 
America. The United States now holds a prominent 
place in the commerce which crosses the American 
Mediterranean, and in the future it will undoubtedly 
occupy a still more important position. 

The Pacific coast gives us access to 
the oriental countries, and leads us to 
take a great and very direct interest in 
the development of Asiatic nations 
(Fig. 193). The addition of Alaska has 
given us land which is rich in mineral 
wealth and fish. It has a supply of coal 
which will become of importance to 
commerce on the Pacific. The islands 
of Hawaii, Samoa, Guam, and the Phil- 
ippines are all important stations in 
the midst of the Pacific Ocean. They 
form a chain joined by cables and by 
the routes of travel followed by the 
great steamships crossing the Pacific. 
The Panama Canal is of immeasurable 
commercial value, and our islands in 
the West Indies give us additional land 
in the tropics where certain food suppUes 
may be produced. 

The temperature in the United States 
varies from summer to winter and in general stimulates 
thought and develops energetic people. The seasonal 
changes make life more interesting and force people to 
look ahead and provide for the future. The weather 
conditions are not so severe that progress is impossible, 
and yet they are not so mild that everyone becomes lazy. 
The climate of the United States has therefore been a 
factor of fundamental importance in the development 
of a strong, progressive nation. 

All of these large geographic facts have been of im- 
portance in the development of the nation and have led 
not only to great internal strength and great wealth 
but to an ever-increasing interest in the other nations of 
the world. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Where were the first English 
settlements in the United States ? 2. Why did the Appalachian 
Mountains serve as a barrier to migrations westward ? 3. Describe 
the routes most commonly used in crossing the Appalachian 
Mountains. See map on pages 2 and 3. 

4. How did rivers affect the movements of pioneers ? 5. How 
have' railroads helped in the settlement and industrial life of this 





country ? 6. What natural resource is of the greatest importance 
to the United States ? 7. Name the natural resources that furnish 
power. 8. What metal is most useful to man ? Explain. 

9. How may the fertility of soils be maintained ? 10. Why 
should water power be used ? 11. How far do you know electrical 
power to be transmitted ? 12. How may we conserve fuel re- 
sources ? metals ? forests ? 13. What institutions for higher 
education are maintained in your state ? 

14. How have the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts proved 
beneficial to the nation ? 15. Where may we expect our commerce 
to increase greatly in the next fifty years ? 16. Why should a 
variable climate with large seasonal change be favorable to a 
progressive civilization ? 

Government. The thirteen orig- 
inal colonies became the first states 
in the Union. For some time the 
newly acquired territories were 
large but thinly settled. As the 
number of people increased, the 
new territories acquired were di- 
vided and local governments were 
established. Each division was in 
time admitted into the Union, until 
there are now forty-eight states. 

The national Congress is com- 
posed of a Senate and a House 
of Representatives. Each of the 
forty-eight states elects two sena- 
tors, but the number of repre- 
sentatives elected by each state 
varies with the population. At 
present there are four hundred 
and thirty-five members in the 
House of Representatives in Con- 
gress. The people in the terri- 
torial possessions send delegates 
to Congress. 

structures. Large buildings have also been constructed 
as headquarters for most of the departments. 

Each foreign nation has a representative or a group 
of representatives in Washington, and it is an everyday 
experience to those living in the capital to meet people 
from various parts of the world. The larger foreign 
nations have buildings of their own in the city. 

Recently a large building has been constructed in 
Washington for the Pan American Union. The efforts 
of all those associated with this organization are 

C'dijif i.'.'i'' 

I rl ingtun-' 


Fig. 194. This is an aeroplane drawing of Washington. The extent of the District of Columbia, which 

corresponds with the city limits, is shown by the darker shading. To what states does the adjoining 

land belong ? George Washington selected this site for the national capital in 1790 and made the first 

plans for the city. Describe the capital and its surroundings from what you can see in this view 

The President is elected by the citizens of the United directed toward bringing about a closer and better 

States to serve for a term of four years. He appoints, relationship between the countries of North and South 

subject to the approval of the Senate, the members of America. 

his Cabinet, who take charge of the great departments The National Museum is a place of great historic and 
of public affairs. At present the members of the Cabinet scientific interest, the Red Cross organization has a 
include secretaries of State, the Treasury, War, the beautiful home in Washington (Fig. 196), and the head- 
Navy, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, quarters of the National Geographic Society are here, 
an Attorney-General, and a PostmasterrGeneral. Internal development. Wlien the thirteen colonies 
Washington and the District of Columbia. The seat of came together to form a nation, they had a total popula- 
govemment for the nation is the city of Washington, tion of about 1,000,000 people. To-day there are about 

: situated on the banks of the Potomac River (Fig. 194). 100,000,000 people in the United States. We have had 

Washington has become a most attractive city, of which a period of most prosperous internal development. The 

' every citizen of the United States may well be proud, growth of cities, the construction of railroads, and the 

It was established as a seat of government and is not establishment of all kinds of educational institutions 

an industrial center. The chief business in Washington have been remarkable. The nation has grown strong 

pertains to the conduct of national affairs. The Capitol and powerful. This was most wonderfully demonstrated 

 (Fig. 195) and the Congressional Library are magnificent in our participation in the great World War. 



Fig. 195. The National Capitol at Washington is a very beautiful building made of white stone and 
marble. The dome is surmounted by a statue of Liberty, representing the great ideal of the American 
nation. In one of the wings is the chamber where the United States Senate meets, and in the other 
is the Hall of Representatives. The Supreme Court has its room in the main building of the Capitol 

Maritime expansion. To-day we are moving rapidly 
to a more and more important position in the commerce 
of the world. Our great factories need raw materials 
from distant lands. They also need additional markets 
where their ever-increasing number of products may be 
sold. Other nations wish to carry on an exchange of 
commodities with us. The United States, with the hun- 
dreds of new vessels built during the World War and 
the many which will be built each year in the American 
shipyards, will certainly develop a large international 

The United States in world affairs. Each time that we 
acquired a possession in the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean 
we assumed the responsibility of governing or assisting 
in the government of other people. This responsibility 
has led our government officials to make a careful study 
of the people living in the Hawaiian, Samoan, and 
Philippine Islands. We have also the problem of under- 
standing the people in the West Indies and the native 
people of Alaska. In each of these countries the geo- 
graphic conditions that affect the lives of the people 
are different from those in the United States proper. 

As the great industries of the United States have 
developed, the manufacturers have needed more men and 
more raw materials. Millions of people have come from 
foreign lands to live in this country, and vast supplies 
of materials are being imported. These factors have in- 
creased our interest in the other countries of the world. 

With our growth in international commerce and the 
part which we found it necessary to take in the great 
World War our interest in world affairs has increased. 

It has become, therefore, more and 
more important that each citizen of 
the United States should know the 
geography of foreign countries. 

More men must be sent from the 
United States to foreign lands to repre- 
sent our business houses. We must 
have diplomatic and consular represent- 
atives in all parts of the world, and 
the number in this service must be 
increased. We are interested not only 
in the welfare of the people within the 
United States and our various posses- 
sions ; we are interested in the welfare 
of all peoples and must continue to do 
our part to preserve peace in the world. 
Individuals cannot live happily or lead 
the most useful lives in a community 
unless order is maintained there, and 
the different nations cannot continue 
their growth, and civilization cannot ad- 
vance, unless peace and order are maintained in the world. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Who is the highest public 
official in your home town or city ? How was he elected ? For 
how long ? 2. How is your state represented in Congress ? Who 
are the senators ? Who is the representative from your district ? 

3. Who are the members of the Cabinet ? 4. Where is the 
District of Columbia ? 5. How does Washington differ from all 
other large cities in America? 6. What places should you like to 
visit in Washington ? 

7. About how much larger is the population of the United 
States now than it was at the time of the Revolutionary War? 
8. Why should we be interested now in developing foreign 
commerce ? 9. Why should we be interested now in helping to 
maintain peace not only at home but throughout the world ? 

Fig. 196. This building is the headquarters of the American Red Cross in 

Washington. The Red Cross is an organization to which every boy and girl 

in the United States should belong, for its chief object is to relieve the 

suffering that follows great disasters in all parts of the world 



Fig. 197. St. John, the chief city of New Brunswick, has a deep, sheltered 

harbor on the Bay of Fundy. The tides in the bay are very swift and strong, 

and at St. John the tide rise is twenty-five feet. This view shows part of 

the harbor at a time when the tide is high 


Our neighbor on the north, with land which extends 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and north- 
ward into the Arctic Ocean, is the Dominion of Canada. 
It is part of the British Empire. 

Most of the people in Canada are of British descent. 
A large proportion of them live along the southern 
border, near the United States. 

The political divisions of Canada correspond to our 
states, but they are called provinces. The three farthest 
east are the Maritime Provinces. 

Climate. Use map on page 124. Most of Canada has 
sufficient rainfall for agriculture. The moisture-bearing 
winds from the Pacific Ocean give up rain on the moun- 
tains. There, on the coast ranges and Rocky Mountains, 
dense forests flourish and glaciers are formed. 

On the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains, and 
in the Far North, there is little rainfall. In those parts 
there are great extremes in temperature, but the dry air 
and bright sunshine are bracing and healthful. The 
whole interior of Canada has what is known as a con- 
tinental climate, which means that there is a great 
change in temperature from summer to winter and only 
moderate rainfall. 

The air becomes cold as it travels far to the north, 
and it gives up most of its moisture before it reaches 
the tundra area on the northern margin of the continent. 
In that part of Canada the winters are so long and so 
severe that very few people live there. Bee map oppo- 
site page 124. 

In the valleys of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers 
cold winters are followed by warm and delightful sum- 
mers. In the Maritime Provinces, which are nearly 
surrounded by water, there is much less change in 

Fig. 198. This is the same spot when the tiae is out, and the boats that 

were afloat are now aground on the reddish-brown mud flat. Why is the 

harbor of St. John never icebound in winter ? Why is it foggy in summer ? 

Explain the great rise of the tide here 

temperature from season to season than there is farther 
inland. The climate of these provinces is therefore 
much like that of New England. 


Beginning at the east {see map, p. 122), the first 
natural region is part of the Appalachian Highlands. 
It includes most of the land to the southeast of the 
St. Lawrence River, as well as the islands in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. The mountains in this part are old 
and worn down. They are rounded, smoothed, and 
forested. The rest of the land is either plateau-like or 
forms a part of the Coastal Hilly Belt which we studied 
in connection with the New England region. 

New Brunswick has a sunken coast with good harbors, 
and those on the Bay of Fundy are always free from 
ice (Figs. 197, 198). Fishing is the chief occupation of 
the people. This province is partly covered with spruce 
forests, and that has led to the grinding of wood into 
pulp, which is also an important industry. Dairy-farming 
and agriculture are spreading throughout the area 
where the forests have been cleared away. 

Prince Edward Island is a hilly land with an irregular 
coast. The chief occupations of the people are fishing, 
fruit-growing, and dairy-farming. Cheese and butter are 
made for export, and the skimmed milk is given to pigs. 

Nova Scotia. The irregular peninsula southeast of the 
Bay of Fundy, together with Cape Breton Island, form 
the province of Nova Scotia. There are many excellent 
harbors along the coast, because the shore line is sunken 
(Fig. 199). Halifax has the best harbor on the mainland, 
and Sydney the best harbor on Cape Breton Island. 

Bordering the Bay of Fundy are rich orchard lands and 
many excellent farms. Apples are grown and exported 



in large quantities. Lumbering is carried on, and the 
wood-pulp industry has been established ; and where the 
forests have been cleared away, farming has been begun. 

Fig. 199. This is the harbor of Yarmouth, one of the most prosperous towns 

of Nova Scotia. It is situated on a small bay at the Southwestern end of 

the peninsula and is the chief shipbuilding center of the province. The 

lake country back of Yarmouth is much visited by tourists 

Nova Scotia is fortunate in having a large supply of 
coal. It produces each year about half of all the coal 
mined in Canada. Iron is secured from Newfoundland, 
and these two natural resources give promise of a great 
commercial and industrial future for Nova Scotia. There 
are foundries at Sydney, where the Newfoundland iron 
ore is used in the manufacture of steel rails. 

Home work. 1. On aii_ outline map of Canada locate and name 
the chief seaports, the capital of the Dominion, and three impor- 
tant inland cities. 2. Classify your pictures of Canada by natural 
regions. 3. Read about Amundsen's and Stefansson's travels among 
the islands of the Arctic Archipelago. 4. Read and report on the 
government of Canada. 5. Read and report on the tides in the 
Bay of Fundy. 6. Read about the building of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. 


Northwest of the St. Lawrence River, north of the 
Great Lakes, and extending far into the Arctic Ocean 
is the Laurentian Upland. See map on page 122. This 
vast area varies in elevation up to about 2000 feet above 
the sea. At the extreme northern end of Labrador, in 
the region east of Ungava Bay, mountains have been 
reported which rise to a height of 6000 feet above sea 
level. The far northern part of this natural region is 
but little known. 

The Laurentian Upland is a very old land. Indeed, 
it is probably as old as any land in North America or 
any other continent. The rocks have been exposed to 
the weather, broken up, and formed into soils. Rivers 
have worn down the lands, and the great continental 
glaciers that formed in this region have assisted in the 
work (Fig. 14). The Laurentian Upland extends into 

three of the provinces of Canada — Quebec, Ontario, 
and Manitoba — and into the Provisional Districts of 
Keewatin, Mackenzie, and Franklin. 

Throughout the region there are numerous lakes, 
swamps, marshes, and ponds. Rivers usually connect 
the small bodies of water, and thus canoe journeys may 
be planned through most of this country ; in fact, that is 
the usual method of travel in the country beyond the 
railroad lines. 

The province of Quebec has the advantage of a shore 
line on each side of the St. Lawrence and on Hudson 
Bay. The best soils are in the St. Lawrence Lowlands 
and on the narrow terraces, or benches, which border the 
St. Lawrence River. Most of the settlements are therefore 
located near the river. The farms are principally on the 
south bank. Each farm has a little frontage on the river 
and extends back for some distance to the higher land. 

In the region of the lower St. Lawrence the majority 
of the people are of French descent and speak the French 
language. In their homes, schools, churches, and town 
organizations they live much as their forefathers did who 
came to this coast from France hundreds of years ago. 

Nearly all the streams draining from the uplands 
toward the St. Lawrence have falls in their courses. In 
this region there is a fall line such as we found along the 
east margin of the Piedmont Belt in the United States. 
The water-power along that line should lead to the 
growth of manufacturing towns. 

On the south side of the St. Lawrence there are 
remarkable deposits of asbestos, which provide nearly 
all the world's supply. This material is found in great 
cracks in the rocks. It is sometimes called mineral wool. 

Fig. 200. OuuJos, li iuoated on a bold headland overlooking the broad 
St. Lawrence River. The Upper Town is partly walled and has an ancient 
citadel. This view shows Dufierin Terrace and the Lower Town. Locate 
Quebec on your map. It has been called the " Guardian of the Gateway to 
Canada." Can you tell why ? 

The city of Quebec is a wonderfully attractive place 
with special historic interests. The city is built in part 
on the heights above the St. Lawrence and in part on 
the lowland bordering the river (Fig. 200). The city 



was founded as a fur-trading post, and the site was 
chosen because it was an easy place to defend. The 
estuary of the St. Lawrence ends at the city, but the 

Fig. 201. Montreal occupies part of a low island at the junction of the 
Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers. The Ottawa River opens up the forested 
district to the north and west, and the lumbering there has led to the build- 
ing of pulp mills at Montreal. What are the other industries of Montreal ? 

tide runs for 90 miles farther upstream. Formerly 
Quebec was the chief seaport of Canada, but the deep- 
ening of the river has allowed ocean-going vessels to 
continue upstream to Montreal. 

Home voork. Find out all the uses you can for asbestos. 

Montreal has a wonderful situation. It is a thousand 
miles from the Atlantic and is on a great navigable 
river which is the outlet of the Great Lakes. But for 
one handicap it might rival the greatest Atlantic ports. 
That handicap is ice, for from the middle of December 
to near the end of April the river is frozen. The Ottawa 
River encircles the city, and logs are drifted down 
that river from the forested areas to the northwest. 

Montreal is now the metropolis of 
Canada, an important railway center, 
and the terminus of many steamship 
lines (Fig. 201). Large harvests of 
wheat come to Montreal from the 
West, in part by way of the Great 
Lakes and in part by rail. Lumber and 
wood pulp are made of the logs that 
are sent down the Ottawa River. The 
grain coming into the city has led to the 
establishment of flour mills and brew- 
eries. The route to the south through 
Lake Champlain and the Hudson valley 
to New York City is only 420 miles 
long. Large trans- Atlantic vessels bring 
European goods directly to Montreal 
and take away the raw materials which 
Canada sends to the Old World. 

These geographic advantages explain why Montreal 
has come to have a population of half a million people, 
— a large number when we remember that the total popu- 
lation of Canada is not much more than eight million. 


At the southern end of Hudson Bay there is a small 
coastal plain. See map on parje 122. This is a land of 
clay soils. It is forested now, and there is an abundance 
of game in the forests. Some day the trees will be 
cleared away and this lowland region will probably 
become an agricultural district. 


North of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie there is a small 
portion of the Central Plains, a natural region which 
we studied in connection with the United States. See 
map on page 122. 

This land is sometimes called the Lake Peninsula 
because it is bordered on the south, east, and west by 
lake waters. It is one of the most favored parts of 
Canada. The soils are rich, and it was formerly a wheat- 
producing area. Now that wheat is grown more cheaply 
on the Great Plains of the West, dairy farming and the 
raising of swine have become important. 

Oil has been discovered in the rocks underlying 
these plains, and this should lead to greater industrial 

The province of Ontario includes the Canadian exten- 
sion of the Central Plains, a portion of the Hudson Bay 
Lowland, and some of the Laurentian Upland. In the 
Laurentian Upland silver, iron, copper, and nickel are 
obtained. Near Sudbury, an important railway center, 
are some of the richest nickel mines in the world. 

Fig. 202. The harbor at Port Arthur on Thunder Bay in take Superior is lull ol lake freighters, 

some west-bound for Duluth, and others east-bound for ports on the other Great Lakes. Port Arthur 

and Fort William are receiving and shipping centers for the grain from the prairies. The building 

of passenger vessels and grain carriers is an important industry at Port Arthur 



OO CO 4) 



Fig. 205. This is the railroad bridge over the North Saskatchewan River at Edmonton, the capital 

of Alberta. Two transcontinental railroads pass through Edmonton, making it a very important 

commercial center. Beyond the bridge you can see the city and the Provincial Parliament buildings. 

The trappers from the north bring their furs to Edmonton for sale and exchange for supplies 

Indians (Fig. 206). They collect furs, 
hunt the caribou, and fish in the 
rivers and lakes. There are no towns 
in this part of Canada, but only 
small trading posts. The white people 
here are chiefly interested in secur- 
ing furs. 

Home work. 1. From the Appendix find 
out what are the five largest cities of 
Canada. 2. Locate these cities on an outline 
map. 3. Learn to name and locate these 
cities accurately from memory. 4. Find out 
one important thing about each of these cities. 


which we studied in connection with North Dakota and 
Minnesota. It has a deep, rich soil containing hardly 

a stone. The mountain and plateau part of Canada is a region of 

Manitoba includes a part of the Hudson Bay Low- wonderful scenic beauty, with high mountains, hundreds 

land, some of the Laurentian Upland, and in the south of glaciers, beautiful mountain lakes (Fig. 208), and deep 

a part of the Great Plains. canyons. A great part of this region is yet almost 

Winnipeg is the third largest city in Canada. In the untouched by man. 

early days it was a small fur-trading post, but the location British Columbia. Much of this province is heavily 

was favorable to the growth of a large city. It is only 
400 miles from Lake Superior, in the midst of a pros- 
perous farming country and halfway between Montreal 
and Vancouver. To-day it is the largest grain and fur 
market in the British Empire. It contains one of the 
largest grain elevators in Canada and is coming to be 
a great manufacturing center. 

Saskatchewan and Alberta. These provinces are for 
the most part within the Great Plains. They include 
with Manitoba the great wheat and oat-producing lands 
of Canada. Regina is the chief city in Saskatchewan, and 
Edmonton (Fig. 205) is the chief city in Alberta. The 
transcontinental railroads 
have made possible the 
rapid settlement and devel- 
opment of this part of 

Provisional districts of 
Keewatin, Mackenzie, and 
Franklin. Relatively little 
is known of this part of 
the country. It is a wilder- 
ness. Exploring parties 
have found their way be- 
tween the northern islands 
and passed from Baffin 
Bay to Bering Strait. They 
have found a few Eskimos 
living on the Far-Northern 
islands. Most of the peo- 
ple on the mainland are 

Fig. 206. This is a wandering Indian family of northern Canada. They 

roam over the cold, treeless plains, living by fishing and by hunting caribou 

and musk oxen. Why do they not raise crops ? Why are they constantly 

moving about ? What is their tent made of ? 

forested, and in the mountains mining has been under- 
taken. The chief city of British Columbia is Vancouver, 
which has an excellent harbor and is the western ter- 
minus of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Vessels start 
northward from there along the coast for Alaska, and 
others leave for Japan, China, Australia, and other 
parts of the Pacific. See map on page 107. 

Vancouver exports wheat from Alberta, and salmon 
caught in the cold streams of British Columbia. Min- 
erals from the mines of British Columbia and lumber 
from the wonderful forests of giant Douglas fir are also 
exported (Fig. 209). Opposite this seaport, on the island 

of Vancouver, there are coal 
mines which supply western 
Canada. Many of the steam- 
ships which cross the Pacific 
secure their fuel from these 

The island of Vancouver 
has a delightful chmate with 
but slight changes in tem- 
perature. The mountain 
scenery and the lakes and 
forests add beauty to the 
country. In the fertile 
valleys are many comfort- 
able homes. Victoria, at the 
southern end of the island, 
is the capital of British 
Columbia and an important 
Canadian port. 



Yukon. Those who go to the Yukon country usually 
follow the coast route to Skagway, Alaska, and then 
cross the mountains on a railway to the headwaters of 
the Yukon River. The Yukon country is for the most 
part mountainous. The famous Klondike Gold Field is 
located on one of the tributaries of the Yukon River near 
the city of Dawson. The climate in that part of Canada 
is severe, with long, cold winters and short, cool summers. 
Few people would ever go there if it were not for the 
gold which is found in the stream gravels (Fig. 207). In 
the mountains there are many mines, and we may expect 
mining to be further developed in this province. 


Canada's great wealth lies in its natural resources, and 
the future of the country depends chiefly upon the way 

in which the re- 
sources are used. 
To safeguard 
against waste of 
natural resources 
Canada created 
a Commission of 
Conservation in 
1909, This com- 
mission, like our 
own in the United 
States, is subdi- 
vided into differ- 
ent departments. 
There are depart- 
ments of land, 
forest, mineral, 
fuel, game, and 
water-power conservation. It is the duty of the officers 
of each department to make a study of the natural 
resources for which that department is responsible. 

For example, those who have charge of the conserva- 
tion of minerals have not only made a business of dis- 
covering what possibilities there are in Canada of greater 
mineral development but have found out how the differ- 
ent minerals can be most economically mined. Each of 
the departments aims to make its services just as valu- 
able to the nation as possible. 

It often happens that the work of one department is 
a help to another. Thus, when the committee on minerals 
discovered rich deposits of phosphate in the Rocky 
Mountain Parks, this discovery was of great value to 
the department of agriculture because it provided a 
source of fertilizer for the farmers. 

The work done by the Commission of Conservation 
will be of great help in the development of Canada. 

Fig. 207. This man is a gold prospector. He is 

sifting the river sands and gravels in his pan to 

find out whether they contain enough gold to 

make mining worth while 

Fig. 208. These horsemen are riding along the shore of Lake Louise, one of 

the most beautiful sheets of water in the Canadian Rockies. The lake is 

more than a mile above sea level and is surrounded by high, snow-covered 

mountains. What part of the United States is similar to this region ? 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why do most of the people 
in Canada live near the southern margin of the country ? 2. What 
winds bring moisture to British Columbia ? 3. Why is it dry in 
the Great Plains region ? 4. How does the Labrador Current 
affect the climate of the east coast ? • 

5. What section has the greatest annual range in temperature, 
or difference between the hottest season and the coldest season ? 
6. What is the general influence of the oceans on the temperature 
of the lands near them ? 

7. How does temperature change with latitude? with altitude? 
8. What are the chief products of Nova Scotia ? 9. What condi- 
tions made possible the steel industry at Sydney ? 10. What is 
the chief occupation of the people of New Brunswick ? 

11. What is the usual way to travel in the northern wilderness 
of the Laurentian Upland ? 12. What use is being made of the 
forests of the Laurentian Upland ? 13. In what part of Canada 
is the French language commonly spoken ? 14. Why should 
Montreal have become a larger city than Quebec ? 

15. What is the capital of the Dominion of Canada ? 16. Where 
are the prosperous farming districts of Canada? 17. Where are 
the chief mining districts of Canada ? 18. What geographic con- 
ditions favored the growth of Winnipeg ? Vancouver ? Dawson ? 

Fig. 209. The western slopes of the mountains in British Columbia are 

covered with great forests, and lumbering is very important. The rainfall 

here is the heaviest in North America. Can you explain this fact ? See map 

on page 124. Why are oxen used here for hauling the logs ? 



industry of St. Johns. In the spring the fishing boats start for the Grand 
Bank, which swarms with cod and other fish during the summer months. 
In the late summer the fishermen return with their catch. The fish are then 
carefully dried and prepared for export. To what countries are they sent ? 

Home work. 1. About how far is it from St. Johns, Newfound- 
land, to Liverpool ? Use Plate B in Appendix. 2. Compare that 
distance with the distance from New York to Liverpool. 3. Find 
out what fraction of an iceberg appears above the water. 4. Make 
a drawing of an iceberg, in the proper proportion, showing how 
much is above and how much is below the surface of the water. 

Labrador is separated from Newfoundland by the 
Strait of Belleisle, which, is 12 miles wide. Politically 
ber of deep fiords, long peninsulas, and high chffs, and it is a part of Newfoundland, but local affairs are left 
producing several excellent harbors. to those who live in Labrador. 

' Most of the life in Newfoundland is near the coast. Both Labrador and Newfoundland have been covered 
Fishing is the chief occupation. Offshore there is an area, by glacier ice, so the rock hills are rounded and smoothed 
larger than the island itself, where the sea water is less off, and there are many glacial moraines and bowlders 
than 600 feet deep. This forms the Grand Bank, which on the surface. There are long, deep fiords and rocky 

Fig. 210. St. Johns, the capital of Newfoundland, is situated on one of the 
finest harbors in America. The harbor is landlocked and deep, offering 
anchorage to the largest ships even at low tide. It can be entered only by 
way of a narrow channel guarded by high cliffs. Fishicp; is the chief 


Newfoundland is about the size of Maine and New 
Hampshire combined. It is the northeastern terminus 
of the Appalachian Highlands. The western portion is 
mountainous, and the rest of the island is hilly, with 
small areas of level land in some of the valleys. The 
eastern coast of Newfoundland has sunk, forming a num- 

is one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. 

In the interior, where there are forests, the manufac- 
ture of paper from wood pulp has been undertaken. 
Coal, iron, copper, gold, and nickel 
have been discovered on the island, 
and these deposits have been worked 
to some extent. 

The capital of Newfoundland is 
St. Johns, on the east coast of the 
island (Fig. 210). 

Where the cold Labrador Current 
passes Newfoundland and meets the 
warm water of the Gulf Stream, 
fogs are formed, which often make 
travel in that part of the ocean very 
dangerous. Great icebergs from the 
arctic regions drift southward in 
the Labrador Current and are often 
seen by vessels passing from North 
America to Europe. The icebergs 
are frequently surrounded by dense 
fogs, and the captains of the vessels 
must use great care to avoid hitting them. Even large 
ocean liners have been sunk by collisions with these 
great masses of floating ice. 

Fig. 211. Nine tenths of the people of Labrador 

depend upon the fishing industry for their living. 

These men are spreading out the cleaned and 

salted codfish to dry on the wharf 

headlands along the coast. 

About 400 Eskimos make up most of the permanent 

population. They live chiefly by fishing (Fig. 211); and 
when there is a poor season, there is 
danger of a famine. Missionaries 
have introduced the reindeer as an 
additional source of food and cloth- 
ing for the people of this bleak 

Problems and review questions. 1. AVhafc 
is the political relationship of Labrador to 
Newfoundland? 2. To what empire do 
they both belong ? See map on page 107- 
3. What is the chief occuijation of the 
people in these countries ? 4. What min- 
erals have been found in Newfoundland ? 
5. Why should there commonly be a fog 
around an iceberg ? 

6. Why should there commonly be fogs 
off the coast of Newfoundland even if there 
are no icebergs there ? 7. Explain the long, 
deep fiords on the coast of Newfoundland 
and Labrador. 8. Why is the Grand Bank 
an excellent fishing ground ? It is one of 
the three greatest fishing grounds in the world. The other two 
are the North Sea and the Japanese waters near Asia. 9. Why is 
the Grand Bank a dangerous fishing ground ? 



Fig. 212. This is the beautiful cathedral of the City of Mexico. It was 

built by order of one of the kings of Spain, and although it was started in 

1667, it was not completed for more than a century. Its two great towers, 

200 feet in height, rise above all the buildings of the city 

Fig. 213. The view southeastward from the cathedral towers is very beau- 
tiful. The city, with its low, solid buildings of Spanish architecture, 
spreads out over the flat-floored Plateau of Mexico. In the distance are the 
snow-capped volcanic peaks of Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl 


Mexico is a Spanish-American country with nearly 
15,000,000 inhabitants. The white people, who make up 
only a small part of the population, are chiefly of Span- 
ish descent. Most of the inhabitants are native Indians 
or people of mixed descent, resulting from the marriage 
of the white people with the natives. Spanish is the 
official language. 

This is a country of great variety. In the plateau and 
on the west coast it is very dry, and in the high moun- 
tains and on the east coast it is very wet ; there are low 
plains, high plateaus, and high mountains; there are 
dense tropical forests, grassy plains, and sagebrush 
deserts. Near sea level it is always very hot, at inter- 
mediate elevations there are temperate climates, while 
some of the mountain tops are always snow-covered. 
Such geographic conditions present many opportunities 
for the Mexican people and many interesting problems 
for us. 

Gulf Coastal Plain. See maps hetweenpages 117 and 120. 
Bordering the Gulf of Mexico is a coastal plain which is 
an extension of the Gulf Coastal Plain that we studied 
in the United States. In Yucatan the plain widens and 
takes in most of ^hat peninsula. 

Eastern Sierra Madre. Rising abruptly from the western 
margin of the Gulf Coastal Plain is the Eastern Sierra 
Madre, a young and rugged mountain system which is a 
continuation southward of our Rocky Mountains. These 
mountain."} contain rich deposits of minerals. Their east- 
em slopes are clothed with dense tropical vegetation. 

Mexican Plateau. Traveling westward, we cross the 
Mexican Plateau, a region of broad, flat areas and low 
mountain I'anges. All but the southern portion of this 
plateau is a semidesert, containing many extremely dry 
places. In the north is a region of inland drainage like 
that in our Great Basin region of the United States, 
where the streams descending from the mountains sink 
into the sandy soil or flow into salt lakes. 

Western Sierra Madre and Sonoran Desert. Moving 
still farther west, we come to the Western Sierra Madre, 
which is also a young, rugged mountain system. These 
mountains contain deposits of very valuable ores. On 
the eastern slopes, toward which the moisture-laden 
winds blow, they receive a heavy rainfall ; but the rain 
clouds cannot pass over the summits, and on the western 
side the land is dry. The Sonoran Desert consists of a 
foothill belt and a narrow coastal plain bordering the 
Gulf of California. 

Lower California is a part of Mexico. It is a rugged 
land made by the continuation southward of the Pacific 
Coast Ranges of California. Most of it is a desert. 

High volcanic peaks. A range of lofty, snow-clad, 
volcanic peaks bounds the Plateau of Mexico on the 
south. The three highest peaks of this range are Ori- 
zaba, the Star Mountain ; Poix)catej)etl, or Smoking 
Mountain', Iztaccihuatl, or WJiite Wmnan (Fig. 218). 

Rainfall. Most of Mexico is in tlie belt of the north- 
east trade winds. As those winds blow toward the equa- 
tor they become warmer and warmer, and so tend to 
take up moisture. In blowing over water surfaces they 
may become very moist, but unless they are forced to rise 



Fig. 214. These Mexican women are making the 

beautiful drawn work for which their country is 

famous. Where does their thread come from ? 

Fig. 215. These men are water peddlers in the 

City of Mexico. Notice the size of their water jars 

and the curious way in which they are carried 

Fig. 216. This ship is being loaded with mahog- 
any logs at a Mexican port. Where will these 
logs be sent, and what will they be used for ? 

or some cold object intervenes, no rain will fall. Both Within a few hours one may pass by rail from sea- 

ranges of the Sierra Madre force these winds to rise, and level, where the heat is very oppressive, up through the 

so act as condensers ; rain falls abundantly on their wind- temperate zone and into the cold zone in the high moun- 

ward slopes. The streams from the western mountains tains. The people of Mexico have the products of the 

are used to irrigate portions of the dry plateau region. 
The southern portions of Mexico receive rains in summer, 
when the sun appears to come northward. 

Zones of altitude. Because of the great differences in 
elevation in Mexico, there are three distinct zones which 
have special Spanish names. The tierra caliente, or hot 
land, extends from sea level up to 3000 feet. The tem- 

torrid, warm-temperate, and cool-temperate zones near 
at hand. 

Natural resources. Mexico is very rich in natural 
resources. The mineral wealth consists of silver, gold, 
copper, lead, and many other metals. Mexico is also fortu- 
nate in having a large supply of petroleum and some ex- 
cellent water-power sites (Fig. 217). The fertile lands 

perature in this zone varies from 75 to 80 degrees, though in the lowlands and on portions of the plateau furnish 

it sometimes rises to 100 or 105. The winters are warm, 
but the summers are hot. The eastern coastal plain of 
Mexico and a part of the adjoining mountain slope are in- 
cluded in this zone. It is a land of rich foliage, beautiful 
flowers, and many fruit trees. Along the coast are man- 

foods, and the forests yield ebony, mahogany (Fig. 216), 
and rubber. There are also extensive grazing lands. 

Millions of dollars have been invested in the natural 
resources of Mexico by people in the United States. 

Occupations. Mining produces the greatest wealth of 

grove swamps, and farther inland there are coconut palms, the country (Fig. 219), but agriculture is the occupation 

mahogany trees, and rubber trees. In the forests there which most of the people must follow in order to earn a 

are gorgeously colored birds and butterflies, monkeys, living (Fig. 218). The grasslands on the plateau support 

and prowling beasts that make their homes in jungles, millions of cattle, sheep, horses, and goats. Leather has 

The next zone, extending up to 
5000 or 7000 feet, is called tierra 
templada, or temperate land. Here 
the thermometer will reach 60 or 70 
degrees, the temperature many peo- 
ple enjoy in their homes during the 
winter. The Mexicans like to call 
this the land of " perpetual spring." 
This zone includes part of the moun- 
tain slopes and some of the great 
plateau. The third zone, called tierra 
fria, or cold land, is still higher. 
Evergreens and some deciduous trees 
grow here. The high mountain tops 
are very cold, and they rise above 
the timber line. 

5 Ee;st«n« View Co, 

Fig. 217. The great Juanacatlan Falls of the 
Santiago River are often called the "Niagara of 
Mexico." Hydroelectric power is developed here 
for manufacturing and for use at Guadalajara, 
twenty miles away 

long been one of the chief products 
of this country, and the Mexicans 
are experts at ornamenting the arti- 
cles made from it. 

The great mass of laboring people, 
who are chiefly Indians and half- 
breeds, are called peons. They work 
for very small wages in the mines, 
in the fields, and on the plains where 
they care for stock. They are learn- 
ing to work in some of the factories. 

Home work. 1. On an outline map of 
Mexico locate and name the chief natural 
regions, the capital, and two seaports. 
2. Read about the life of the peons. 3. What 
Spanish explorers reached Mexico ? 



Cities. Tampico and Vera Cruz have the best of the poor 
harbors along the Gulf coast. The waters are shallow, 
with offshore bars and reefs. Commerce with the United 
States and Europe is carried on through these ports. See 
map betiveen pages 117 and 120. Tampico has been helped 
by the development of oil wells in Mexico. Vera Cruz 
has been the leading port since the days of Cortez. 

The City of Mexico, the capital of the republic, is situ- 
ated at the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and is 
nearly surrounded by high mountains (Figs. 212, 213). 
Puebla is near the City of Mexico, and because of water- 
power and a supply of raw materials it has become a 
center for the manufacture of cotton. Guadalajara, San 
Luis Potosi, and Monterey are important inland cities, and 
Mazatlan is the chief seaport on the west coast. 

In the center of a Mexican city is a plaza, or open 
park, about which many of the most important build- 
ings are placed. At one side is a cathedral; opposite 
the cathedral may be a national or city bank and other 
public buildings. The chief shops and places of amuse- 
ment are built on the edge of the plaza whenever this 
is possible, and the public markets are near by. 

A city home is usually built around a patio, or central 
garden, which the family enjoys in private. Instead of 

Fig. 218. Here are the coffee-drying yards on a Mexican plantation. The 

coffee beans are spread out to dry and are then raked up into piles ready 

to be put into bags for shipment. What other products do the Mexican 

planters and farmers grow ? What products are exported ? 

More well-trained white people are needed to develop 
the natural resources, and living and working con- 
ditions for the laboring classes must be improved. 
Higher standards of education should be estabUshed, 

and arrangements should be made so that a larger 
having a front yard, as many homes in the cities of the ^^^^er of Mexicans may own homes and ranch lands. 
United States have, the houses m Spamsh cities are ^ ^^^^^^g ^„^ j^^^ government must be maintained, 
built out to the sidewalks and have the yard hidden 
from the street. 

Government. The thirty-one states and territories in 
Mexico are united to form a federal republic, with a 
constitution modeled after that of the United States. 
The states have a degree of local self-government, and 
they unite in the election of a president and other 
national officers, as we do. The great mass of poor, 
ignorant, uneducated peons, however, make it difficult 
to conduct public affairs satisfactorily. In a free country 
it is important that all citizens become well educated. 

Future. The remarkable wealth of natural resources 
may bring pros- 

perity to Mexico. 
Mining should be 
promoted and agri- 
culture extended 
by means of irri- 
gation. Probably 
Mexico will never 
become an indus- 
trial nation, be- 
cause the people 
show little abil- 
ity in mechanical 
arts or invention. 

Fig. 219. This is a modern copper-smelting plant in Mexico. The rich copper ore is mined 
near by and then brought to the smelting works, where the metal is separated from the rock. 
The production of copper is a very important industry in Mexico and is carried on mostly by 
American and European companies. In what parts of Mexico is copper found ? What other 

metals does Mexico produce ? 

Problems and review questions. 1. What European nation early 
became interested in Mexico? 2. What is the official language 
of Mexico ? 3. What natural regions in the United States extend 
southward into Mexico ? 

4. What are the prevailing winds of Mexico ? 6. Where is the 
rainfall heavy ? Why ? 6. Why is the Mexican Plateau dry ? 
7. Explain the Sonoran Desert. 8. What reasons are there for 
thinking of the mountains as young? , 

9. Explain and descrite the zones in altitude. 10. What are 
the chief natural resources of Mexico ? 11. Name the capital and 
chief seaports. 12. Describe the plaza of a Mexican city and the 
patio of a Mexican home. 

13. Name the mountain ranges in Mexico. 14. Locate the 

three highest moun- 
tain peaks. Find the 
elevation of these 
peaks in the Appen- 
dix. 15. Explain how 
it is possible for the 
people of IVIexico to 
have both torrid-zone 
and temperate-zone 
products nearat hand. ' 
16. Account for the 
lack of prosperity in 
Mexico. 17. What 
remedies can you 
suggest for this lack 
of prosperity ? 



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Fig. 220. This is a view on a banana plantation in Costa Rica. The men 

have cut the bunches of bananas from the trees and are loading them upon 

the ponies' backs. The ponies will carry them to the freight cars in which 

they will be sent to the place of export 


Between Mexico and South America there are six small 
republics, — Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, and Panama. Five of these countries extend 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, across the narrow neck 
of land which is called Central America. Salvador, how- 
ever, is entirely on the Pacific side. 

Besides the six republics there is British Honduras, 
the only European possession in this part of North 
America. It is a small, mountainous country located 
on the Gulf of Honduras, south of Yucatan. 

The young, rugged mountains that border the Pacific 
Ocean in North America continue through Central 
America and South America. On the east, in Central 

America, there is a very narrow coastal plain, but on 
the west the mountains come to the seashore. 

Climate. Central America lies between the tropic of 
Cancer and the equator, and therefore the winters are 
almost as hot as the summers. The heaviest rainfall 
comes dvu-ing the summer, and more rain falls on the 
east coast than on the west coast, because the prevailing 
winds are the northeast trades. See map on j)(ige 124. 
At Colon, on the east coast, there is a yearly rainfall of 
127 inches, and at Greytown the rainfall is 259 inches a 

PubUsbera' Photo SerTioe, Ino. 

Fig. 221. These oxcarts are used a great deal in Costa Rica and other 
Central American countries. Notice the heavy yokes on the oxen, the solid 
wooden wheels, and the rude framework which supports the canopy. What 
products do you suppose are hauled in these carts? What are the canopies for? 

Fig. 222. The docks at Limon have steam conveyors which take the bananas 

right from the cars to the holds of the vessels. The conveyor is an endless 

chain of canvas pockets. Each pocket holds one bunch of bananas. To 

what countries are the bananas of Costa Rica sent ? 

year. Such abundant rainfall in a tropical region means 
dense forests, where there are sure to be gorgeously col- 
ored birds, many insects, and the germs of dangerous 

Central America, like Mexico, has three zones of alti- 
tude, — tierra caliente (hot land), tierra templada (tem- 
perate land), and tierra fria (cold land) (p. 112). 

Products. On the lowlands and in the valleys among 
the mountains immense quantities of bananas are raised 
(Figs. 220, 222). Tobacco and coffee grow on the hill 
slopes, and cattle, horses, and hogs are raised. In the 
mountains gold and silver are mined (Fig. 225) ; these 
are exported to Europe and the United States. The 
forests are rich in mahogany. 

People. The white people in these countries are of 
Spanish descent, and the Spanish language is spoken 
almost entirely. In addition to the native Indians there 
are many negroes in these countries (Fig. 223). Many 
people from the United States have become interested 
in developing the coastal lowlands and have gone there 
to live. In the interior the Spanish-American homes and 
customs still prevail. 



The trade of Central America is now largely with the 
United States. The countries border the " American 
Mediterranean," and their development is of immediate 
interest to the people in North and South' America. 
They produce many useful articles and foods which we 
i cannot secure in our own country. 

Such hot, moist lands are not adapted to very active 
work. Nowhere in the world do we find much manu- 
fiictui'ing in the tropics. The imports as shown on the 
map between pages 117 and 120 indicate clearly that the 
people send to the countries in the temperate zones for 
cotton goods, machinery, and other articles made in fac- 
tories. Wheat cannot be raised in Central America, and 
wheat foods and flour must therefore be imported. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Name the countries in 
Central America. 2. Why is the heavier rainfall on the northeast 
of the mountains ? 3. What foreign language should you find 
mgst useful in traveling in the countries of Central America ? 

4. What kinds of food are exported ? 5. What are the chief 
imports ? 6. With what country is most of the trade ? 7. In what 


Fig. 223. The natives of Guatemala build their houses by first putting up 

a few columns made of rough stones plastered together, and then filling the 

spaces between with thin sticks of wood. The high, pointed roofs are 

thatched with straw. What do these people do for their living ? 

j>art is the influence of the United States most clearly shown ? 
8. To what part of Central America should you go to see the 
S[)anish or Spanish-American type of home and life? 

Home work. 1. Kead about volcanoes in a good reference book. 


The West Indian Islands are arranged in a curve from 
tlie peninsula of Yucatan eastward and then southward 
to the northern coast of Venezuela. They are the tops 
of a young and rugged chain of mountains. The water 
about them is 20,000 feet deep in some places ; and if 
the sea were withdrawn, there would be, in place of 






IHir- ^^M 






C^uiieij uf tUe Pan American Unioa 

Fig. 224. Pineapples are grown very widely in the 

western part of Cuba. One crop can be raised each 

year, and each plant bears one apple. What other 

fruits does Cuba raise ? 

the islands, one 
of the greatest 
systems of moun- 
tains to be found 
in the world. 

Bordering the 
shores of Cuba 
and Porto Rico, 
and in places on 
the other islands, 
there are coastal 
lowlands, but for 
the most part the 
West Indies are 
distinctly moun- 
tainous. Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, and Porto Rico are called 
the Greater Antilles, and the smaller islands which form 
the eastern end of the curve are called the Lesser Antilles. 
Near them are the Leeward Islands and the Windward 
Islands. The Bahamas are a low group of coral islands 
north of Cuba. See map between pages 117 and 120. 

The West Indies form the northeastern margin of the 
"American Mediterranean " and are convenient stopping 
places for vessels passing from Europe or the United 
States through the Panama Canal to Pacific coast ports. 
The passageways between the islands are rapidly be- 
coming great thoroughfares for modern traffic, and the 
islands prove convenient coaling stations for the various 
navies of the world. 

Climate. Most of the West Indies lie between the 
tropic of Cancer and the equator. The temperatures are 
therefore hot during the summer and warm during the 
winter. The latitude of these islands brings them into 
the belt of the moisture-laden northeast trade winds. 

\iiirrieftn Utilua 

Fig. 225. These boys are sorting ore at the Rosario mine in Honduras. Thi» 
mine is near the capital of Honduras, and has been worked continuously for 
thirty years. It has produced millions of dollars' worth of gold and silver. 
What are the other important products of Honduras besides its mineral ores ? 



Fig. 326. This is a sugar-cane field in Cuba. The cane grows in single 

stalks and when full grown it stands from eight to twelve feet high. As 

soon as it ripens, the cane is cut by hand, stripped of its leaves, loaded upon 

carts, and hauled to the sugar mills to be crushed 

) Publishers' Pboco Service, lae. 

Fig. 227. Here the cane is passing up a belt conveyor into the mill, where it 

is crushed between great rollers to squeeze out the juice. Then the juice is 

crystallized, and the raw sugar is ready for export. Cuba is the world's 

largest exporter of sugar. What countries buy Cuba's sugar ? 

The southwest, or leeward, sides of the ranges are much 
drier than the northeast sides. Where there is abundant 
rainfall, tropical vegetation grows luxuriantly, and such 
fruits as pineapples, coconuts, and bananas are grown. 

Products. On the lowlands bordering the coast there 
are large sugar and tobacco plantations. Coffee is also 
grown on these islands. The agricultural products are 
exchanged for manufactured goods made in the United 
States and Europe. See map hehoeen jyages 117 and 120. 

The royal palm, which grows luxuriantly in the "West 
Indies, is a valuable tree to the native people. It reaches 
a height of from 60 to 80 feet and is covered with great 
green leaves. A medicine is distilled from the roots, the 
trunks are used as timber for building houses and furni- 
ture, and the leaves are often used to thatch houses. 
The stems of the leaves are made into baskets ; hats 
and a certain kind of cloth are woven from the fibers 
of the leaves. The seeds are excellent for fattening 
hogs, and the bud found at the top of the tree is eaten 
as a vegetable. 

Kome work. Read about the uses of other kinds of palm trees. 

Cuba is the largest of the West Indies, and is an in- 
dependent republic. Through the center of the island 
is a mountain range, and the plantations are near the 
coasts. Habana, the capital and chief city, is located on 
an excellent harbor (Fig. 228), and from that port ves- 
sels leave for Europe and the United States (Fig. 230). 
Santiago also has a good harbor. It is situated on the 
south side of the island, near the eastern end. Iron has 
been discovered near by, and this is shipped to the 
United States. 

The chief products of Cuba are sugar (Figs. 226, 227) 
and tobacco. Nearly half of the cultivated land is planted 
with sugar cane. More tobacco is raised in Cuba than 
in any other of the West Indian islands. The tobacco 
raised here is grown on the sheltered southern slopes of 
the mountain ranges and is valued especially for its fine 
flavor. Large numbers of cattle, horses, and mules are 
also raised in Cuba. The forests contain valuable supplies 
of mahogany and cedar. The cedar is used in the manu- 
facture of cigar boxes, which are filled at Habana with 
cigars made from the tobacco grown on the island. 




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Fig. 228. This is part of the city of Habana as it looks from the Cabanas 
fortress. The narrow strait in the foreground leads into the harbor. Habana 
is the capital and chief port of Cuba. More merchandise enters and leaves 
Habana than any port of the United States except New York. When Cuba 

5 PubUshers' Photo Servlco, Ino. 

was taken by the United States in 1899, Habana was a dirty, unhealthful 
city, because the Spaniards had no care for sanitation. The Americans 
cleaned the city thoroughly, and to-day it is a big modern port, with large, 
fine buildings, good streets, and excellent docks. Locate Habana on your map 



THE WEST INDIES (Between Pages 117 and 120) 

1. With what countries is the chief commerce of Mexico ? 
2. Is Mexico noted for its industrial life or for its mining and 
agricultural life ? 3. Wliat climate should we expect to find 
in countries whose products include sugar, cotton, bananas, 
coffee, and rubber? 

4. What climatic factors prevent many of the Mexican 
people from being ver}' industrious ? 5. What is the chief 
kmd of cloth used by the Mexicans? 6. Why do they not 
buy more woolen clothes ? 7. What are the chief mineral 
resources of Mexico? 

8. What kinds of fuel are found in Mexico ? 9. Name the 
two most important seaports. 10. In what kind of region is 
the capital of Mexico located, — mountain, plain, or plateau ? 
11. Name and locate seven other important cities in the in- 
terior of Mexico. 

12. From what ports in Central America do great quanti- 
ties of bananas come ? 13. What other food supplies come to 
the United States from Central America? 14. What Euro- 
pean nation possesses land in Central America? 15. What 

) Publishers' Phow Service. Inc. 

Fig. 229. Here is an oxcart such as many Cubans use on their farms. This 

farmer raises sisal hemp, which you can see beyond the oxen. The sisal 

looks like a century plant, and its fiber is used to make rope and twine. 

It is a cheaper rival of Manila hemp 

countries of Central America extend from the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean ? 16. What are the 
chief food supplies that we receive from the West Indies? 
17. What supplies go from these islands to Europe? 

18. Do the people of the West Indies do most of their 
own manufacturing, or do they import manufactured goods? 
19. Which is the largest of tlie West Indies? 20. Which of 
tliese islands belong to the United States ? 21. What other 
countries have possessions among these islands? 

22. What are the principal seaports of the West Indies? 

23. What great ocean current passes betweenCuba and Florida? 

24. Wliich side of the islands is the better watered? See map 
on page 124. 2.5. What winds bring the rains ? 

26. What large city in Pennsylvania is in about the same 
longitude as the city of Panama ? 27. What large cities in 
the United States are about as far west from Greenwich, 
England, as the city of Guatemala? 28. Which is farther 
from the equator, — San Juan in Porto Rico or Bombay in 
India? 29. What capital city in South America is almost 
directly south of New York? 

Courtesj of Uia V^a AmeiicftQ tuioa 

Fig. 230. Ships from all over the world come to Habana, and as many as 

a thousand of them can anchor in the harbor at one time. The docks are 

always crowded and busy. The carts in this picture are loaded with Cuban 

products for export. Name some of these products 

Jamaica is a British possession. Most of the natives 
are negroes, but there are some English, some Chinese, 
and some Hindus living on the island. The exports 
are like those from many of the other tropical countries, 
— bananas, coconuts, sugar, and coffee, — and here, as 
in other tropical countries, cotton goods and flour must 
be imported from the northern countries. Most of the 
trade is now with the United States. 

Bahamas. About twenty of the islands included in the 
Bahama group are inhabited, but there are many more 
that are uninhabited. In the waters near the islands 
sponges and turtles are obtained. On the land pine- 
apples, oranges, and large quantities of the sisal plant, 
valuable for fiber, are raised. Some of the pineapples 
are canned for export. Many of the native people are 
skillful in weaving the sisal fiber and in making 
tortoise-shell goods from the shells of the turtles. 

£» PublLben' Pliun. Servlc*. Inc. 

Fig. 231. This is the main street of Kingston, the capital of Jamaica. In the 
distance is the broad, sheltered harbor. Kingston was destroyed by a terrible 
earthquake in 1907, but it has been rebuilt and is a busy, prosperous city. 
The new buildings are made of steel and concrete. Can you explain why ? 




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Fig. 232. This is a view of Port au Prince, the capital of the Republic of 

Haiti. It is located at the head of a deep bay on the western side of the 

island and is the chief port and commercial center of the republic. What 

are its exports and imports ? 

Haiti. The island of Haiti is divided into two negro 
republics. The Dominican Republic, in the east, is a 
Spanish-speaking country, with Santo Domingo as its 
chief seaport ; the Republic of Haiti, in the west end of 
the island, is a Fr^ch-speaking country; Port au Prince 
is its chief city and port (Fig. 232). These countries 
have suffered much from misgovernment. The principal 
occupation of the people in these two republics is agri- 
culture. Haiti raises coffee of excellent quality for export. 
Other products are cacao, tobacco, and cotton, but none 
of them are raised in large enough quantities to be 
important commercially. 

Home xoork. 1. Find out how sponges are obtained and prepared 
for the market. 2. Find out what you can about the Gulf Stream. 


This island is a British possession located just off the 
coast of Venezuela. The moist, warm, tropical climate is 
favorable to the growth of sugar, coconuts, and the cacao 
tree. The seeds of the cacao tree are used in the prepara- 
tion of cocoa and chocolate, and the oil in the seed is 
called cocoa butter (Fig. 233). 

Trinidad is, however, remarkable for a very unusual 
lake. It is a lake of nearly solid asphalt. A crust 

(0 Publiihera' Photo Seirice, Inc. 

Fig. 233. Trinidad has many cacao plantations. These boys are plantation 

bands at work husking cacao pods. They cut open the pods with their long, 

sharp knives, and scrape out the seeds, which are allowed to ferment for a 

while and are then dried in the sun. What other countries raise cacao ? 

Fig. 234. These men are digging asphalt from the great pitch lake on the 

island of Trinidad. The lake covers 90 acres and is at least 100 feet deep. 

Its surface is covered with a crust of asphalt ; but when this is removed, 

the liquid pitch oozes out. Of what use is asphalt ? 

forms on the asphalt, which is broken up and shipped to 
many countries of the world, where it is tised in paving 
streets (Fig. 234). 


This group of low coral islands is located in the Atr 
lantic Ocean, about 600 miles southeast from New York. 
They are British possessions and are used as a naval 
station. Corals grow here in the warm, shallow sea 
water on a platform which is probably part of an 
ancient volcano cut off a little below sea level by wave 
action. The coral skeletons have been broken by the 
waves and ground into sands, and at a time when the sea 
water was lower, such coral sands were blown into dunes. 

The soil of the Bermuda Islands is not very fertile, 
but it is used for gardening the year round. Fresh vege- 
tables from Bermuda are supplied to the United States 
markets during the northern winter season. 

These islands are a very attractive winter resort. On 
days when the sea is calm one may go out in a glass- 
bottomed boat and see the living corals. Their homes 
appear like a fairyland, and swimming in and out among 
the delicate coral forms there are hundreds of the bril- 
liantly colored fish that also like to live in warm waters. 



Problems and review questions. 1. If 

the sea waters were withdrawn, what 
would the West Indies appear to be ? 
2. What is the origin of most of the 
West Indies ? 3. How were the Bahama 
Islands made ? 4. What winds bring 
rain to these islands ? 5. What foods 
do we secure from the West Indies ? 
6. What uses ai-e made of the royal 
palm ? 

7. Which of the West Indies belong 
to the United States ? 8. What Ian 
guage is most commonly spoken in these 
islands ? 9. What nations now have 
possessions among them ? 10. For 
what is the island of Trinidad most 
famous ? 

11. How far are the Bermuda Islands 
from New York ? 12. To what country 
do they belong ? 13. Of what value are 
they to that country ? 14. Why is it 
possible to raise vegetables the year 
round in the Bermuda Islands ? 15. At 
what season of the year should you 
most enjoy visiting Bermuda? Why ? 

Fig. 235. Telluride, Colorado, is typical of the many pros- 
perous mining towns which have grown up in the young, 
rugged mountains of western North America because of the 
wealth of mineral ores which they contain. Can you describe 
the life of the people here ? 


Now that we have traveled into the various portions 
of North America and studied the life in each nation, 

factories and for making f umitm-e 
and many other useful articles. 

Alaska, British Columbia, our 
western states, Mexico, and Cen- 
tral America have all benefited 
from the rich stores of gold, cop- 
per, silver, lead, zinc, and many 
other minerals near the western 
margin of the continent (Fig. 235). 
The water-power in many parts 
of North America suggests great 
possibilities for the future. 

Farming and grazing lands. All 
the lowlands except those in the 
extreme northern latitudes are 
agricultural lands (Fig. 236). A 
nation in the temperate zone, 
with a large, well- watered plain 
where there are fertile soils, is 
fortunate. Both Canada and the 
United States have broad ex- 
panses of such fertile lands. 
Mexico and Central America are less fortunate. 

Most of the nations in North America have excellent 
pasture lands. The irrigation of semiarid lands is open- 
ing up vast areas to settlement and making it possible 

LnJsrwoud j( Lti'Ierwciod 

we can make a more intelligent study of the continent for the people to raise larger and larger supplies of food. 

Life in the Far North. The extreme northern parts of 
North America are in the north frigid zone, and most 
of the people who live there are Eskimos. Life is very 
difficult in this cold region, where food is often scarce 
(Fig. 237). These people must depend largely upon game 
and fish for their food, but some of them are fortunate 

and Mexico, through the great interior of the continent, now in having herds of reindeer, which furnish them 

as a whole. This will be in some ways a summary. 

Physical features. The map on page 122 shows the 
arrangement of the natural regions. All of the old, 
worn-down mountains are in the eastern section. In 
the west there are young, rugged mountains and high 
plateaus. Along the Atlantic coast in the United States 

and on a portion of the Arctic coast, there are lowlands. 

The Atlantic coast has been depressed. This has 
raused islands, deep inlets, bays, and estuaries, and has 
ixiven the coast many excellent harbors. North of San 
Francisco the Pacific coast has been depressed, and 
another series of inlets with harbors has been the result. 

Natural resources. In the mountain regions and in 
some of the neighboring plains and plateaus of the east- 
1 rn part of North America are some of the large sup- 
plies of coal, iron, oil, and gas. These resources, with 
w ater-power, waterways, and railroads, have made possi- 
l)le a gi-eat industrial development near the Atlantic sea- 
l)oard. The iron and copper of the Lake Superior region 
have played a very important part in the development 
of industries in Canada and in the United States. The 
coal, oil, gas, lead, and zinc of the Mississippi Valley 
liave been immensely valuable. The forests have fur- 
nished lumber, which was used for building houses and 

with food. In addition the skins of the reindeer are used 
by the Eskimos for clothing and for making their huts. 

Fig. 236. These men are harvesting oats on one of the lowland plains of the 

United States. Why is such a region particularly favorable to agriculture ? 

What zone is the most fortunate location for such plains ? Why ? What 

North American country has the greatest agricultural possibilities ? 

Giiin and Company 



Life in the Far South. A part of Mexico, all of Central 
America, Panama, and most of the West Indies are in 
the torrid zone. The climate here is very hot, except in 
the mountainous regions. Food plants grow in abun- 
dance, and the inhabitants can make 
a living with little effort (Fig. 238). 
As a result most of the native people 
do not work hard, and the white 
people who migrate to these lands 
soon learn to take life very easily. 
On the windward sides of these lands 
the heat and moisture are so exces- 
sive as to produce conditions un- 
attractive to white people. 

Life in the temperate zone. Most of 
North America is in the temperate 
zone, where the climate is variable. 
The cold winters and warm summers 
quicken the thoughts and actions of 
the people. In this zone it is neces- 
sary to provide warm homes and to 
store up food for the winter season. This helps to make 
the people industrious. The comforts of life are more 
readily obtained than in the arctic countries, and yet 
life is not so easy that the people become lazy. Work 
must be done, but there is time for recreation and 
pleasure. The beautiful lakes, the mountains, and the 
seashore draw the people away from city homes during 
their vacations. 

Future. As yet much of North America is not densely 
populated, though most parts have been explored. There 
are places in the deserts, among the 
high mountains, and far to the north 
where white men have never been, 
but such places will not be needed 
until the other lands are much more 
crowded. Forests may be cleared 
from vast areas, and thus more agri- 
cultural lands may be secured. Thou- 
sands of acres may yet be brought 
under inngation and made attractive 
for settlement. More swamp lands 
will be drained. With a greater 
knowledge of soils and crops a much 
larger protluction to the acre will be 
secured. More mines will certainly 
be opened, larger factories will be 

Fig. 237. This Eskimo, wlio lives in the Far 
North, is harpooning a seal. Notice his fur cloth- 
ing. Contrast his everyday life with that of the 
people shown in Fig. 238 

Fig. 238. These are natives of the Far South, 

where life is easy. They live out of doors most of 

the time, and their clothing consists of simple 

cotton garments 


I. Where are the young, rugged mountains of North 
America? 2. What are the chief ranges of young, rugged 
mountains? Make a list, beginning at the north. 3. What 

are the names of the plateaus between 
the western mountain ranges? Make a 
hst of the great plateaus, beginning at 
the north.' They have hills and moun- 
tains rising above the general plateau 
level, and in places there are very deep 
canyons. See map opposite page 134. 

4. Where are the old, worn-down 
mountains of North America ? 5. Name 
and locate the coastal plains of this 
continent. 6. Jjfi what country is the 
greater part of the Central Plahis region 
located ? 7. Into what countries do the 
Great Plains extend? 8. What country 
in North America has the most extensive 
lowlands ? 

9. Why are there so many lakes in the 
northern part of the continent? See 
Fig. 14. 10. Explain the islands and the 
irregular coast of British' Columbia and Alaska. 

II. If you were approaching Greenland, what kind of 
scenery should you expect to see? 12. What cape in- North 
America is nearest to Asia? 13. What land connects North 
and South America? 14. Along what part of the Atlantic 
coast are there clear signs of sinking of the land ? 

15. Where are the best harbors of North America? 16. Be- 
ginnmg in Alaska and following around the continent, select 
the five largest rivers in North America. Look in the Appen- 
dix and see if you have chosen the right ones. 

17. What is the longest tributary to the Mississippi River? 
See tables in Appendix, 18. Where is 
the north magnetic pole? 

19. Where is life for the native people 
very difficuh? Why? 20. Where is 
life for the native people very easy? 
Why? 21. Why do white people prefer 
the temperate climates ? 22. How may 
North America he made more suitable 
for an increasing population ? 

23. Where are the well-watered farm- 
ing lands in North America? 24. Where 
has farming been made possible by means 
of irrigation ? 25. What cape near 
Boston is in about the same longitude 
as Cape Horn ? 20. What country in 
North America is in about the same 
latitude as the Sahara Desert ? Is any 
part of that country a desert region ? 

kiilt, seaports will be improved and commerce increased. See map opposite paqe 124. 27. What n,ountain peaks in the 

Ihe continent offers white people unusual opportunities United States are about as far north of the equator as Mt. 

for the advancement of civilization, and with good Vesuvius in Italy ? 28. What point in Alaska is about as 

governments these nations should continue to grow in near the north pole as North Cape, Norway ? 29. Through 

strength and prosperity. what countries in North America does the arctic circle pass ? 



I I Under 10 inches 
r~1 10 to 20 " 
fTl 20 to 40 •• 
40 to 80 '• 
^H Over 80 
y^/^ Prevailing coast winds 

Lanqit\i^€ Wfni 100° /rom Oreftiwieh 

Average annual rainfall in North America 


1. What is the annual rainfall on tlie Atlantic and Gulf 
Coastal Plain ? 2. Why should the Appalachian Mountains 
be covered with forests, in contrast to many of the western 
and southwestern mountains ? 

3. What is the annual rainfall in the Central Plains ? 

4. Why should there be so many rivers in the Central Plains ? 

5. What occupations do the geographic conditions in the 
Central Plains favor? 6. In going from Lake Michigan to 
the Rocky Mountains, what large rivers must be crossed ? 

7. Why do the plains become semiarid near the mountains ? 

8. What places in the United States seem to be most favor- 
able for crossing the mountain area to the Pacific coast ? 

9. Which would take you through the drier districts, the 
northern route or the southern route ? 

10. Why is there so little rainfall in the Great Basin ? 
11. Explain the presence of forests among the Rocky Moun- 
tains of the United States. 12. What is the average rainfall 
along the Pacific coast of British Columbia ? Why is it so 
heavy ? The prevailing westerly winds bring moisture to 
this coast. 

13. When is the rainy season on the Pacific coast ? 14. Why 
do the trees not extend to the northern edge of the continent ? 

15. Explain the extent of the tundra. 16. Asiatic wolves 
have been seen in Alaska. How do you suppose they reached 
there? 17. Why are there not more extensive forests in 
the interior of Alaska ? 18. Explain the presence of glaciers 

Distribution of people in North America 

© Ginn and Compsny 

in Alaska. 19. Why is the route from Hudson Bay to Europe 
open only a few months in the year ? 20. Where is the rain- 
fall in Greenland the heaviest ? Why ? 

21. Explain the dry condition of the Mexican Plateau. 
22. Why should the forests of Central America and the 
northern portion of South America be different from those 
of our southern states ? 23. What winds bring rain to Central 
America and to the West Indies ? 

24. The relief and vegetation map represents summer con- 
ditions. If a map had been made for the winter, what bodies 
of water should have been shown as frozen ? About how far 
south should a covering of snow have been shown? 

25. Does any part of the United States remain green in 
winter ? 26. In what parts do people live out of doors in 
winter ? Where are the winter resorts in this continent ? 
27. The rainfall is in general heaviest near the coasts. 
Explain this. 

28. What prevents the moisture-bearing winds from getting 
into the northwestern interior ? 29. Which winds would com- 
monly have moisture in them, those that start over the ocean 
and move toward the land or those that start over the land 
and move toward the ocean ? Why ? 

30. What parts of North America are too dry for agricul- 
ture without irrigation ? 31. Where is the growing season 
too short to encourage agriculture ? 32. Why should certain 
places have a dense population ? Give examples. 33. Why 
should certain places have a sparse population ? Give ex- 
amples. 34. Explain each of the areas of dense population. 


Scale of miles 

too 40O , 600 

Water less than 500 feet deep 

Floating ice 

Glacial ice 



Temperate forests 

Tropical forests 

'i Deserts and barren mountain 
■^ slopes 

Fig. 239. The great falls of the Iguassii Riyer, on the boundary between of these falls will be used for industry. When that time conies, Brazil and 

Brazil and Argentina, are often called the Niagara of South America. They Argentina will have to make some international agreement about the use 

are nearly two miles wide, and their height varies from 208 feet on the of the water, just as the United States and Canada have agreed about 

Brazilian side to 176 feet on the Argentine side. Some day the water-power Niagara. Locate these falls on your map. Where does the Iguassu rise ? 



South America to-day is a land of great opportunities. People. On Plate A in the Appendix find the part of 

It is a land with varied resources, with many products South America where Columbus landed, the countries 

which the world demands, without a dense population, that the Spanish explored, and where the Portuguese 

and with much land awaiting settlement. There are first came to settle. Many of the native peoples of South 

rich resources of gold, silver, copper, iron, and nitrate. America are uncivilized as yet, and very few have been 

Some coal and oil have been discovered, and more will educated. There are many negroes, especially in the 

probably be found. Most of the people there live near tropical countries. They were brought from Africa in 

the seacoast, much as people did in North America one the early days of European colonization to work on 

hundred and fifty years ago. the sugar plantations of Brazil. The white people are 

In order that South America may be fully developed, descended from Europeans, — for the most part from 

harbors must be improved, more railroads must be built the Portuguese who first settled Brazil and from the 

into the interior, harmful insects must be killed off, Spanish who colonized the rest of South America. In 

greater use must be made of the wonderful hard woods the last thirty years thousands of Italians and Germans 

of the forests, and more people must go to live there as have emigrated to South America. There are many 

miners, farmers, or stock-raisers. people of mixed blood in South America, for some Eirro- 

The people of the United States and Europe are be- peaus married the native Indians in the early days of 

coming more and more interested in South America, settlement, and in the tropical countries the negro blood 

and many are studying Spanish and Portuguese, so that is mixed with the European and Indian. The white 

they may understand and trade with the people there. 

Trade routes. The eastern ports are about as near to 
Europe as they are to New York ; but now that the 
Panama Canal has been opened, the western ports are 
quickly reached by steamer from our eastern cities. 
Plans have been made for a great railroad to go from 
the United States through Mexico, Central America, 
and South American countries as far as Chile. It will 
follow the high plateaus between the ranges of the 
Andes. Certain sections of this road have been built. 
Turn to Plate B in the Appendix and note the position 
of South America, and see how the trade routes connect 
South America with all other parts of the world. 

people and those of mixed descent have charge of affairs, 
and they are rapidly improving the social, political, and 
industrial conditions in the different countries. 

Governments. South America is a land of ten repub- 
lics and three small colonies, British, Dutch, and French 
Guiana. The form of government in each of the repub- 
lics is somewhat like that of the United States. 

Physical features. The natural regions of South 
America are arranged like those in North America. See 
map on paf/e 120. In the west there are bold, rugged 
mountains that are very youthful. Between the moun- 
tain ranges there are plateaus, although , they are not 
so extensive as the great plateaus of western North 


^""f, C f^ y^rSoi~ p /^\ i>XH iftude D West from 50° Greenwich E" gf^"„'g|"' 40° 

80° Lona'Bitttde 70° West C from 60° GreenJiwich 50 

) Giua and Compaay 



• ■a*«'^ 

■•^?.;>'r'/.  .  -^y 'Jf-.'^iSS^ 

CounMj of Um Pad Antri«fta Ubka 

Fig. 240. The Strait of Magellan is bordered by high, snow-capped 
mountains which descend 'abruptly into the sea, making some of the most 
beautiful scenery in South America. The strait is very dangerous for 
navigation, and many ships are wrecked here. How should you travel 
from New York to Valparaiso? 

America. In the east and northeast, just as in North 
America, there are areas of old, worn-down mountains ; 
and between the mountain regions, extending north and 
south for the full length of the 
continent, there are lowlands. 

The west coast is bold and 
rockv like the west coast of North 
America. Far to the south the 
coast ranges have sunk and now 
form an archipelago and irregular 
coast, just as the coastal ranges 
of British Columbia and Alaska 
have sunk and formed groups 
of islands and wonderful inlets 
(Fig. 240). 

Climate. Most of South Amer- 
ica is between the tropics of Can- 
cer and Capricorn, where there 
are hot winters as well as hot 
summers. The most densely set- 

6. Which continent has the more irregular coast line, 
North America or South America? Which has more good 
harbors ? 7. What is the general elevation of the plateau of 
Bolivia? of the great lowland areas? of the Brazilian and 
Guiana highlands ? 

8. Between the high mountain ranges of Ecuador and Colom- 
bia there are narrow, plateau-like areas too small to show on 
the map. 9. Name five of the higher peaks of the Andes Range. 
10. Name five of the larger rivers of South America. 11. Give 
the names of the three great lowland areas. 

12. In which country is the Pampa? 13. Locate on the 
map the Fulls (Fig. 239). 14. Where is the highest 
lake in the world which is navigable for commercial purposes ? 
15. Locate two large deltas and one estuary. 16. Which coast 
has the better harbors ? 

17. What is the name of the land connecting South America 
with North America ? 18. Trace the route of Magellan around 
the southern end of this continent. See Appendix, Plate A. 

19. Fix in your mind the name of the 
southernmost cape in South America. 


Natural Regions 

Andes Mountains. The giant 
ranges of the Andes are at the 
western margin of the continent. 
Many of the peaks rise to 14,000 
feet above sea level, and a few to 
more than 20,000 feet (Fig. 242). 
The highest peaks are volcanoes, 
and in the region of the vol- 
canoes and throughout most of 
the length of these young, rug- 
ged mountains, earthquakes are 
common (Fig. 243). Volcanoes 
and earthquakes are signs of 
tied portion, which is progressive and developing rapidly, youth in mountains, and they usually mean that the 
is in the temperate zone. No part of the continent except mountains are still growing. 

near the tops of the high mountains has a long period of Brazilian Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands are a 
frosts. In the equatorial belt the rainfall is heavy, and great forested tableland, from 2000 to 5000 feet high. 

Keystone View Co. 

Fig. 241. This is the Laguna del Inca, one of the beautiful 

lakes high up in the heart of the Andes, on the line of the 

Trans-Andean Railway 

it is also heavy where winds from over the oceans blow 
against mountains or highlands. On the lee side of 
mountains there are deserts or semideserts as in northern 
Chile, in Peru, and in southern Argentina. See maps on 
and opposite page 156. 


1. How have the rivers assisted in the exploration of this 
continent? 2. Where are the young and rugged mountains 
of South America? 3. Give the names and locations of the 
old, wom-<lown mountains. 4. Why are the Brazilian High- 
lands so different from the Andes? 

5. Compare the general distribution of mountains and low- 
lands in North and South America. Where are the old and 
the young mountains in each continent? Where are the 
lowlands of each continent? 

The rivers of this region have carved wonderful gorges 

Couri«8j o£ Waiit 

Fig. 242. The peak of Aconcagua (22,812 feet), on the boundary line between 

Argentina and Chile, is the highest mountain in the two Americas. The 

Trans-Andean Railway, which crosses the great wall of the Andes not fat 

from this point, was completed in 1910 



Lowlands. The great plains of South America are 
the largest in the world. Long ago there was a sea 
between the Andes on the west and the highlands on 
the east. The rivers which flowed down from the moun- 
tains into this interior sea carried fine materials, deposit- 
ing them on the sea bottom until finally the sea was 
filled up and transformed into a broad area of wonderful 
lowland plains. Parts of the lowlands are to-day just 
about at sea level, and during the rainy seasons the 
rivers overflow and flood these areas. 

The Orinoco Lowlands in the north are grasslands called 
the llanos. Here thousands and thousands of cattle are 

Fig. 243. Along the Andes in Ecuador are several snow-capped volcanic 

peaks. This is Chimborazo, which rises nearly four miles above the level 

of the Pacific Ocean, from which it can be plainly seen. Chimborazo has 

not erupted within historic times, and its crater has entirely disappeared 

and developed beautiful waterfalls. In some places the 
land rises abruptly from the Atlantic coast, and in others 
it is bordered by a narrow coastal plain. 

The southeast trade winds bring an abundance of rain 
to these highlands, and on their slopes there are forests 
and large areas of mixed grasses, where horses, cattle, 
and mules may graze. In some parts there are rich soils 
that yield excellent crops. 

Guiana Highlands. The Guiana Highlands are also old, 
worn-down moimtains. There is one peak which rises 
to over 11,000 feet, but most of the area is only from 3000 
to 4000 feet above sea level. These highlands are also 
forested, and, like the Brazilian Highlands, are similar 

C«urteaj ot U. B. Koorbacb 

Fig. 245. Along the Amazon, from its mouth to Iquitos, Peru, are little trad- 
ing stations like this. Here the river steamships call on their way upstream 
to deliver the manufactured goods which the natives need. On their way 
back they stop again to pick up the products of the country for export 

raised. During the rainy season much of this country is 
under water; the people go about in boats, and their 
cattle leave for the hills. The homes near the rivers must 
to "the Lauren tian Upland and some parts of the Appa- be built on piles to prevent them from being flooded, 
lachian Highlands of North America. There are deep The Amazon Lowlands form a vast, flat plain, most 
canyons in the Guiana Highlands. The region is well of which is covered by the most luxm-iant tropical forest 
watered and large areas are covered with grass. For in the world. The tree- tops and vines are so thick that 
this reason it is used chiefly for the raising of cattle, it is dark, or twilight, in the depths of the forest even 

when the sun is shining. The trees re- 
main green throughout the year. Even 
such trees as shed their leaves in the 
fall in the temperate zone keep sending- 
out fresh green leaves in this forest. 
The constant warmth and moisture help 
the trees to grow all the time. 

Thousands of strange animals live in 
this tropical forest, such as the jaguar, 
alligator, anteater, and huge snakes. 
The howling monkeys, that have a 
leader called a chief howler, live here. 
One sixth of all the kinds of birds 

Fig. 244. Lake Titicaca, which forms part of the boundary between Peru and Bolivia, is the known in the WOrld have been found 

highest body of water in the world which is navigated for commercial purposes. It is one hundred , ■, r nf thpm havp mnst 

and forty miles long, and its surface is nearly two and a half miles above sea level. A line of '^^'^^i ^^^ many OI inem Have mobt 

steamers runs between the railroad terminals at Puno and Guaqui at opposite ends of the lake brilliant plumage. 



A A 

• . 




^^ -*Jf^ 

. / 

. .... -d 


Fig. 246. Many of the natives of the Amazon Lowlands make a business of 

gathering Brazil nuts, which grow on a very tall tropical tree. The men in 

this view are washing the nuts and putting them into their boats, in 

which they will take them to the nearest Amazon trading station 

! U I  i, 


Fig. 247. When the river boat calls at the trading station, the Brazil-nut 

traders put their crops aboard to be carried down to Belem. There the nuts 

are reshipped to other countries. What other products do the Amazon River 

boats bring out to Belem from the interior of the continent ? 

The great butterfly collections in the museums have 
been made largely in the Amazon forest. Insects are 
innumerable, and eighteen hundred kinds of fish have 
been found in the streams of the lowlands. 

The northeast and southeast trades carry much mois- 
ture inland from the Atlantic. As they rise to cross the 
Andes they are cooled, and they are forced to give up their 
moisture on the east side of the ranges. Over eighty 
inches of rain falls there each year. The Amazon Low- 
lands are near the equator, where there is always a heavy 
rainfall and where the air is always very hot. Hot, 
damp conditions cause dense tropical forests and make 
it almost impossible for white people to live there. 

When people go to live in this dense tropical forest, 
they find plenty of fish and game to eat, but vegetable 
foods are scarce (Fig. 248). A part of the forest must be 
cleared away and a garden planted. Little wheat can 
be raised here, but the natives make a flour from the 
roots of the manioc plant. 
Manioc bread is the com- 
mon food of the natives in 
Guiana and Brazil. The 
roots of the manioc plant 
are gathered when they are 
one or two years old. They 
are washed and grated, and 
after the moisture is pressed 
out, the flour is roasted, and 
then it is retuly to be used. 
Tapioca is made from this 
same plant. 

The Parana Lowlands are 
farther south and mostly in 
the temperate zone. Here 
the rainfall is a little less, 

Fig. 248. These Brazilian natives have jaat returned from a turtle hunt. 

The sand banks of the Amazon and its tributaries are inhabited by great 

numbers of turtles, which the natives catch and use for food. From the 

eggs they make a butterlike substance which is very popular 

and instead of great forests there are extensive grass- 
lands, sometimes called savannas. See map opposite 
page 156. The Pampa, or great grassland of Argentina, 
is within this region. The lands of southern Brazil, 
of Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina, in the temperate 
zone, are best suited to white people. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why do so many people 
from Europe and North America want to go to South America ? 

2. Name two languages commonly spoken in South America. 

3. What European nations have recently sent many settlers to 
South America ? 

4. Why do most of the people i:i South Amsrica live near the 
coast ? See map on page 156. 5. Is it shorter from Rio de Janeiro 
to London or to New York? See Aiyperulix, Piute B. 6. What is 
the best route from New York to Valparaiso ? 7. Plan out a trip 
to South America that you would like to take. 

8. In what zone is most of South America located ? 9. In 
what zone in South America is the population most progres- 
sive ? 10. How many republics are there ? 11. What countries 

are not independent ? To what 
European nations do they be- 
long ? See map on page 126. 

12. On what part of South 
America did Columbus land ? 
13. Name and locate the chief 
mountainous regions. 14. Name 
and locate the three large low- 
land regions. 15. Describe briefly 
each of the above regions. Use 
the map on page 126 and also 
the map opposite jiage 156. 

16. Explain the formation of 
the islands on the Chilean coast. 
17. Locate the Strait of Magellan, 
Cape Horn, ahd Punta Arenas, 
the southernmost city of the 
world. 18. Cape Horn rises 1400 
feet above the sea. Is it on the 
mainland or on an island ? 



Courtesy of.U. B. Rootbaob 

Fig. 249. These men are rubber gatherers of the Amazon Valley. Each day 

they tap the wild rubber trees and collect the sap. On the rack in front of 

them are the brownish-black balls of rubber which have been made by 

thickening the sap and curing it over a smoky fire 


Extent. This is one of the largest countries in the 
world. In an east-and-west direction it extends as far 
as from New York City to San Francisco, and in a north- 
and-south direction as far as from the arctic circle to 
the Gulf of Mexico. It is larger than continental United 
States and contains more than half of all South America. 
It touches every other country on the continent except 
Chile and Ecuador, and has 6000 miles of seacoast. On 

For 250 miles upstream from the mouth this river is 
50 miles wide, so that it looks like a broad bay 
rather than a river. The main stream and the twenty- 
nine large tributaries have 27,000 miles of navigable 
waters, which is more than any other river system in 
the world. The northeast trades, which blow with 
greater force by day than by night, help the sailboats 
up the Amazon. The boatmen travel upstream by day, 
but when they want to come downstream they travel at 
night, so that they will not have the strong wind against 
them, and the current will take them along faster. During 
the rainy season 
the main stream 
rises from 20 to 
50 feet, over- 
flows, and be- 
comes a chain of 
lakes. The trib- 
utaries frequent- 
ly overflow their 
banks also and 
flood the country 
near them. This 
is the reason why 
so many of the 
houses near the 
rivers are built 

the physical map (p. 126), we see that the Brazilian High- on piles. 

lands, the Plateau of Central Brazil, and most of the vast 
Amazon Lowlands are in this country. 

Rivers. The Amazon River is the largest in the 
world ; it is not the longest, for the Missouri-Mississippi 
River is longer, but it contains more water than any 
other river in the world. The amount of fresh water 
brought to the mouth of this river is so great that for 
more than 100 miles out to sea the water is fresh. The 
Amazon is about 4000 miles long, which is 600 miles 
more than the distance from New York to Liverpool. 

I PubUabera' Pboto Serrioe, Ido. 

Fig. 251. In addition to the wild rubber trees, 

Brazil has many rubber plantations. This view 

shows the way in which the plantation trees are 

cut to make them bleed 

Fig. 250. This is one of the great coffee plantations which cover the upland districts of Sao Paulo, 

where the rich red earth and abundant rainfall provide perfect conditions for the coffee trees. The 

plantations often cover thousands of acres. The trees bear clusters of berries which look like dark 

red cherries. Inside each berry are two seeds, which are the coffee beans of commerce 

Boats may go 
up the Madeira, 
the largest tribu- 
tary, for nearly 

500 miles to the lower end of the falls. There is a 
railroad from the lower end to the upper end of the 
series of falls and rapids, — a distance of about 200 
miles, — and farther upstream one may again travel 
by boat far into the interior of Bolivia. 

People. If the Indians are counted, there are over 
twenty million people in Brazil. The 
Portuguese claimed this country by 
right of discovery. When they came 
to South America, they found many 
native tribes of Indians. To-day most 
of the Indian people live in the interior. 
Many of them have house-boats and 
live on the rivers part of the time, but 
they also have small villages, where 
they have cleared away the dense tropi- 
cal forests. The population of this re- 
public now includes many people from 
nearly every European nation, as well 
as some from Asia. Most of the white 

t ^^D American Cnion 



people live in the larger cities 
along the eastern coast or 
in the farming country of 
southern Brazil. 

Resources. In the high- 
lands gold, copper, lead, 
iron, some coal and oil, and 
a remarkable number of dia- 
monds have been discovered . 
The highlands have rich 
soils and are well watered. 
The Central Plateau is a 
great grassland where cattle, 
horses, and mules are raised. 
The Amazon Lowlands are 
overgrown with a tropical 
forest where there are thou- 
sands of rubber trees. There 
are also mahogany, rose- 

CoUTtesj of the PftQ American Uoioa 

Fig. 252. These are the yards where the coffee seeds are spread out to dry 
in the sun after being separated from the pulp of the berries. While drying 
they are stirred frequently with wooden rakes. When thoroughly dried, the 
seeds are peeled and the beans sorted, graded, and put into bags for shipment 

crude rubber which the na- 
tive Indian people brought 
in from their little camps 
in the forest (Figs. 249, 251). 
On the southern slopes of 
the Guiana Highlands and 
on the grasslands south of 
the tropical forests grazing 
has become the principal 
occupation of the people. 

In the Brazilian High- 
lands near Sao Paulo and Rio 
de Janeiro there are wonder- 
ful coffee-producing lands, 
where four fifths of the 
coffee produced in the world 
is grown (Figs. 250, 252). 
Until a railroad was con- 
structed \ip the mountain 

wood, ebony, and cacao trees, besides many trees which wall from Santos to Sao Paulo it was very difficult to 

yield valuable drugs, and others which yield Brazil nuts get the coffee to the port. Now there is a remarkably 

(Figs. 246, 247). The soils of the lowlands are very rich, well-built and well-equipped railroad that climbs 2500 

Climate. Most of Brazil is in the lowlands of the feet in a short distance and connects the seaport with 

torrid zone. That means high temperatures. We learned the great producing area. More coffee is carried over 

on pages 128 and 129 that the rainfall is heavy in the that road than any other road in the world. There are a 

Amazon basin and on the eastern slope of the Brazilian few other railroads that start from the coast and, after 

Highlands. In the upper basin of the Sao Francisco reaching the highland surface, branch off in several 

River, which is shut off from the Atlantic Ocean by directions into the interior. 

highlands, there is an area of light rainfall. See map on 
page 156. Here irrigation is necessary for agriculture. 

South of the tropic of Capricorn the temperatures are 
lower than near the equator, and there is less rainfall. 
That is a country of excellent grasslands. 

Occupations. What have the people who came to 
settle in Brazil done with the great natural resources? 
Along the lower Amazon River, and on cleared pafrts of 
the lowlands near the eastern coast, they established 
great plantations of sugar, rice, and tobacco. After a 

Mining is becoming important in the Brazilian High- 
lands, and some day that industry will be much more 
developed. There are immense deposits of high-grade 
iron ore in the old, worn-down mountains, which the 
world is certain to need. Then more railroads will be 
built into the mountains, and, as the mining increases, 
it is likely that more ores will be discovered. Prosper- 
ous mining camps will undoubtedly be established in 
the highland area. The southern part of this region 
also contains bituminous coal, but the quality is so 

time they learned to go far up the rivers and gather the poor that at the present time it is not worth mining. 

Fig. 253. This is Santos, the world's greatest center of coffee export. The 

S3o Paulo coffee district is covered by a network of railroads which bring 

the coffee to SSo Paulo, whence a single line takes it to Santos. Locate Santos 

on the map on page 145. To what countries is the coffee sent ? 

Fig. 254. Sao Salvador, the center of Portuguese rule in Brazil in colonial 

days, was the leading Brazilian port as long as sugar was the chief export 

of the country. Why is it no longer the leading port ? Notice the escalator 

which connects the lower (old) city with the upper (new) 



Fig. 285. The Marine Depot at Rio stands on one of the many islands near 

the entrance to the harbor. Here the harbor master has his headquarters 

and can easily oversee the shipping which passes in and out. What are 

the chief reasons for the commercial importance of Rio ? 

Toward the south, near Paraguay, the land is low and 
excellent for farming. Here the people raise a great 
deal of yerha mate, which is used 
in making a drink which is some- 
what like tea. 

Home work. In some good reference 
book read about the life of the natives who 
prepare the crude rubber for market. 

Cities. Rio de Janeiro, the capital, 
with over a million people, is the 
largest city in Brazil and the second 
largest in South America. Buenos 
Aires is the largest. Rio is located on 
the most beautiful harbor in the 
world, where the largest vessels may 
anchor safely (Figs. 257, 259). This is 
a place where the land sank and let 
the ocean waters come in. Over a 
hundred little islands in the harbor 
are hills or low mountains with only 

Courte.'j uf the Pan American Vnl^n 

Fig. 256. The port of Recife is protected by a 

breakwater built on a reef which fringes the shore. 

Without the breakwater ships could not anchor at 

Recife safely. Explain why 

sac Salvador, which used to be known as Bahia, is the 
capital of the state of Bahia. Coffee, cacao, and cotton 
are the most important products raised in Bahia, and 
these products form the chief exports. 

Recife, which is the capital of the state of Pemambuco, 
is situated on the fertile coastal lowlands of Brazil. 
Recife is one of the chief sugar centers in Brazil. 

Both Sao Salvador and Recife are important seaports. 
See Figs. 254 and 256 and the maj) on jMge 135. 

Belem, sometimes called Para, is at the mouth of the 
Amazon, about a degree and a half south of the equator. 
It is an important rubber port. 

From Belem large ocean vessels go up the Amazon to 
Mandos. Although situated nearly a thousand miles in- 
land, Manaos has become a thriving city with many 
modern conveniences. The growth 
of Manaos is due partly to its loca- 
tion at the junction of the Negro 
and Amazon rivers and partly to the 
wonderful supply of rubber found in 
the neighboring forests. 

Home work. Read about the work on a 
coffee plantation. 

Summary. Without doubt you will 
always remember Brazil for its rubber 
and its coffee, but do not forget that 
Brazil is a large country, that grazing, 
farming, and mining are all very 
important, and that lumbering has 
great possibilities. A start has been 
made in manufacturing. There are 
cotton mills in Brazil, but they do 

their tops out of water. The city of Rio de Janeiro is not produce nearly enough cloth to satisfy the needs of 

built on narrow plains between the hills. In the older 
part, which is the business district, the streets are narrow. 
In the newer part there are wide avenues bordered by 
rows of beautiful palms, feathery bamboos, and tree 
ferns (Fig. 258). The homes in this part of the city 
are modern, and many of them are set in gardens of 
flowering tropical plants. 

Santos is the port for Sao Paulo, the second largest city 
in Brazil. Santos is one of the busiest places in South 
America. Over 2000 vessels enter and leave the port 
each year, and about 15,000,000 bags of coffee are shipped 
annually (Fig. 253). 

Sao Paulo is about 2000 feet above the sea and has a 
delightful climate. The air is warm during the summer 
days but cool at night. In winter there are sometimes 
slight frosts. The climate seems to help to produce 
vigorous men. There are excellent modern factories, 
where electricity and the best of machinery are used. 

the people, and so cotton cloth and cotton garments are 

© E. M. Neinnmn 

Fig. 257. The Bay of Botafogo is part of the harbor of Rio. The avenue 
which encircles it was built on made land where there was formerly a man- 
grove swamp which caused terrible epidemics of yellow fever in Rio. 
Cleaning it out, draining, and filling have freed Rio from the fever 



It f • 


■^ J^ 

"IBS r . 

Cuurte«j ol Um Put AtnehcAD Uoioa 

Fig. 258. The Avenida Rio Branco is the finest street in Rio and is the 
center of Brazilian art and culture. This view shows, on the left, the 
mosaic sidewalk and the Municipal Theatre, and on the right the Conserva- 
tory of Music, the National Library, and the Art Museum 

imported into nearly every city. If someone should find 
more coal or oil, or if the people should use more of the 
water-power to make electricity, Brazil nught undertake 
more manufacturing. 

The waters from the Brazilian Highlands are carried 
off by the Uruguay, Parana, and Sao Francisco rivers. 
These streams have many falls which offer opportunities 
for the development of water-power which should furnish 
electricity for cities, factories, and railroads (Fig. 239). 

Future. One of the future problems for this large 
republic is the building of railroads into the interior. 
This work has already been started, and in time it will 
be possible to go by 
rail from Rio de 
Janeiro into any of 
the states of Brazil. 

The development 
of railroads will in 
turn soon lead to 
the establishment of 
cities and to the 
spread of population 
into the interior. 

With the estab- 
lishment of inland 
cities another prob- 
lem must be faced. 
The tropical forests 
are full of insect 
pests and danger- 
ous animals, which 
must be killed be- 
fore people can live 
safely in this part 
of Brazil. Finally, 

through education and the use of scientific knowledge 
the spread of tropical diseases must be prevented. When 
these things are done, more people will wish to live here 
and help to develop the wonderful natural resources. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Compare the size of Brazil 
witli that of the United States ; with the continent of South 
America ; with the contineiit of Europe. 2. Name three large 
tributaries of the Amazon River. Which tributary is the largest ? 
3. In what country does the Amazon- rise ? 4. How should you go 
from Belem, in Brazil, to Sucre in Bolivia ? 5. To what nation did 
the early settlers of Brazil belong ? 6. In what part of the country 
are they found to-day ? 7. Why have so many jieople from the 
nations of Europe come to live in this republic? 8. Where do 
most of these people live ? Why ? 9. What is the official language 
of Brazil ? 10. How do you explain this ? 11. Name and locate 
the capital and four other large cities. 12. What fact should 
you associate with each city named ? 

13. What are the chief products shipped from each seaport? 

14. What should you remember about the Amazon Lowlands ? 

15. Which city in Brazil is very near the equator ? 16. What is 
the chief export from that city ? 17. What city on the Amazon 
River can be reached by large ocean-going vessels ? 18. For what 
is the Central Plateau of Brazil valuable ? 

19. Why is it difficult to live or to travel in the tropical forest ? 
20. What things will help the development of Brazil ? 21. What 
country in South America does not border on Brazil ? 

Home work. 1. On an outline map of South America color the 
boundaries of each country. Print in the names of the countries. 
2. Locate and name the capitals. 3. Locate and print in Belem, 
Valparaiso, Callao, Guayaquil, Santos, Sao Paulo, Manaos, Rosario, 
Sao Salvador, Recife, La Guaira, Santa Marta, Buenaventura, 
Punta Arenas, Cdrdoba, Porto Alegre, La Plata, Villa Rica. 

(^ <jinu and Cwb)>uij 

Fig. 259. This is an aeroplane drawing of the country bordering the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. Explain the irregularity of the 

coast line here. Why is such a coast line favorable for Rio ? Describe the land surface on which Rio is built. What is the 

vegetation here ? See map oppos'te page 156. Why has Rio become a more important port than Belem, Recife, or Sao Salvador? 

What are its chief exports and imports ? With what countries does Brazil trade most ? Can you explain your answer ? 



5^ <J so 



where it furnishes a pleasant contrast to the green of 
the abundant foliage which almost surrounds it. 

Dutch colony. On the lowlands bordering the coast 
there are several low, parallel ridges which indicate old 
shore lines. The sea has slowly withdrawn from the 

Fig. 261. The docks at Georgetown are always busy. Workmen constantly 

come and go, unloading the goods which the foreign ships have brought or 

loading them with sugar, rice, and other products. British capital and 

energy are making British Guiana more important every year 

land and left a number of long marshes. In the marshy 
region the people have built dikes, just as they did in 
their home country, Holland, to keep out the sea. These 
lands, when drained, have wonderfully rich soils, and 
great crops of fruit are raised. Far back in the hills 
there are mineral deposits. Gold has been found and 
mined, but there is a shortage of labor, and raiboads 
are greatly needed to help develop the natural resources. 
Paramaribo is the chief city of Dutch Guiana and is 
located on the coast (Fig. 262). 

French colony. Most of the people of this colony live 
on the coastal lowlands. In the south, in the highland 
portion of the country, there is gold in the stream gravels, 


The name "Venezuela" means Little Venice. The 
country was so named because the houses in the low- 
lands, like those of Venice, were built on piles. The 
native people who live along the banks of the streams 
have their houses built in that way so that they may 
occupy them even during the rainy season, when the 
river rises and overflows its banks. 

In the southeast the country is hilly, and in the north 
and northwest there is a portion of the great range of 
the Andes. 

The southern highlands are known to contain gold, 
copper, iron, and coal, in addition to the large supply 
of timber. Much of this part has not yet been explored, 
as there are no convenient means for reaching the 

The climate. The northeast trades that bring so much 
rain to the Guianas also bring an abundance of water 
to Venezuela. The wet season lasts from about the 
middle of April until September, and the rest of the 
year is dry. During the dry season there are heavy 
dews. The temperature is always warm in the lowlands 
and usually cool in the mountains. 

The easterly breeze is a great comfort to the people of 
Venezuela who live near the coast. Every morning at 
about four o'clock this breeze begins to come in from 
the sea. Sometimes it is very strong. It sweeps away 
the mists that hang over the swamp lands, dries out the 
vegetation somewhat, and helps to purify the air. At 
about eleven o'clock it suddenly dies away and there 
is a very hot period. Almost everybody goes to sleep. 
Even the leaves cease to move. Not a sound is heard, 
unless some traveler from a northern country is here, 
who has not yet learned to keep still during this part 
of the day. At about two o'clock the birds are again 

and some day placer mining, like that practiced in Cali- 
fornia and Alaska, may become an important occupation, heard in the forest, and the leaves begin to rustle ; the 
There is a great shortage of labor, and 
travel is difficult. The French people 
have tried the plan of sending to this 
colony convicts who have long terms to 
serve in prison, and have arranged to 
have them work out of doors. There are 
several thousand such men in French 
Guiana now, but the amount of work 
they do is not very great. Cayenne is 
the capital of French Guiana. 

Problems and review questions. 1. About 
how large are these colonies ? 2. To whom do 

they belong ? 3. What kind of climate have ^^ 262. Paramaribo is the capital and chief port of Dutch Guiana. Its spotless white buildings, 

they ? 4. Is the climate favorable to white dean streets, and many canals remind one of Holland. The population, however, is made up largely 

people ? 5. What are the chief occupations of negroes and laborers from the Dutch East Indies, who work on the sugar, rice, and cacao planta- 
of the people ? 6. What have they to sell ? tions. This is because the hot, moist climate makes it very hard for white people to live here 
































(Cj Fubliihera' Pboto S«rTice, Inc. 

Fig. 263. The railroad between La Guaira and Caracas has to climb 3000 feet 

from the port to the capital. The straight distance is only 8 miles, but the 

railroad zigzags up the slopes of the mountain range, covering 23 miles. 

A British company constructed this railroad and still owns it 

breeze is starting, and it will continue to blow during 
the rest of the afternoon, and even until sunset. 

At La Guaira, the chief seaport, the air is moist and 
very warna, but at Caracas, the capital, the climate is cool 
and pleasant (Fig. 265). The temperature at Caracas 
seldom rises above 85 degrees or falls below 60 degrees. 
There is not a stove, nor a fireplace, nor a chimney in 
the town. The cooking is done in out-of-door ovens. 

Occupations. Most of the white people of Venezuela 
live in the mountain area in the north (Figs. 263, 264). 
This is because the hot, moist lowlands, like those in the 
Guianas, are unattractive to white people. Between the 
ranges in the north, in a broad, valley-like belt from 
70 to 100 miles wide, coffee, cacao, and sugar are raised. 
These products are exported in large quantities to the 
United States and Europe. 

The lowland valley of the Orinoco is an excellent 
pasture land, on which great herds of cattle graze. The 
cattle must often be driven long distances to reach points 
on the river for shipment. Here they may wait for days 
for a boat. Better shipping conditions are needed in 
order to make the most of these pastures. 

Large steamers go for 260 miles up the Orinoco, and 
there, at the head of tidewater, is the city of Ciudad 
Bolivar. In certain of the tributaries of the Orinoco vast 
numbers of turtles live, and each year the natives collect 
thousands of turtle eggs, from which they extract an 
oil. The shells of the turtles are often used as dishes 
in the houses of the natives. 

Although the mountains contain coal, iron, copper, 
.silver, gold, and other minerals, as yet there is little 
mining. Some gold is produced and exported. Along 
the coasts there are valuable pearl fisheries. 

Future. Some day railroads will be built far into the 
interior of Venezuela, and then it will be possible to 

© I>ubliali«r8' Pbttlo SoiTk«. Inc. 

Fig. 264. The railroad carries the passengers and express freight, but the 

pack-train donkeys are used to carry the slow freight. Here is a group of 

them, heavily laden, plodding along the road from La Guaira to Caracas, 

a distance of 25 miles. Why are the donkeys used for this purpose? 

bring the cattle and other products more quickly to 
the seaports. Farming may also become important, and 
thus this country may be much more prosperous. Some 
think that Venezuela is more promising than any other 
country of equal area in South America. As yet there 
are too few white people in the country, and the Indians 
and black people are lazy. This country is within such 
easy reach by water from the United States that many 
people in North America will probably take part in the 
development of its natural resources. 

Problems and review questions. 1. "What winds bring mois- 
ture to Venezuela and to the Guianas ? 2. Could these winds 
have helped Columbus to discover America and reach the mouth 
of the Orinoco? 3. What kind of ships did he have? 4. Where 
do most of the white people of Venezuela live ? 5. What do 
they raise to sell ? 6. Of what value are the great Orinoco Low- 
lands ? 7. What does this country need in order to develop its re- 
sources ? 8. With what disadvantages must the people contend ? 


^BnT'i^LlK^^fc^^&^^P .^<-i- .^^^^^^^^B 



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5" ^ 

Fig. 265. This is tlie paUu, ui open court, of the capitol at Caracas. The 

Capitol is a large building, divided by the patio into two parts. One part 

is occupied by the president, and the other is used for the meetings and 

business of the legislature 




Colombia is fortunate in having an Atlantic and a 
Pacific coast line. It is one of the countries that should 
be greatly benefited by the opening of the Panama Canal. 

Vaitntoodt Undenruud 

Fig. 266. Colombia has very few railroads, and the Magdalena River is 
the great commercial highway through the country. The flat-bottomed 
boats which are used on the river burn wood for fuel and are propelled 
by a great stern wheel. Whenever they need wood, they load it from one 
of the many wood stations along the river 

Vessels may now easily reach either shore or go from 
Colombian ports directly to other Atlantic or Pacific ports. 

Natural regions. On the coastal lowlands in the north 
there are dense jungles. In places these have been cleared 
for plantations of sugar cane and cacao. Farther south 
along the western portion of the country are the moun- 
tains and plateaus, where the climate is cool and delightr 
ful. Nearly all the cities and towns are located in the 
higher part, and most of the people live and work there. 
The eastern slopes of the Andes and the great eastern 
lowland area of Colombia are as yet little known. 

To reach the plateau district among the mountains one 
must sail up the Magdalena Eiver (Fig. 266). Rapids 
prevent the boats from going more than 600 miles, so 
after four or five days' travel one must change and go 
by rail around the rapids, and then return to the river 
in order to go farther into the interior. 

Cities. A railroad climbs to the plateau where Bogota, 
the capital of Colombia, is located. This city is between 
8000 and 9000 feet above sea level, and, like many other 
South American cities, is built in a fashion similar to 
those of Spain. The houses stand on either side of the 
narrow streets. They have no front yards, but are built 
around private gardens, or patios, which are hidden from 
the street. The walls of the houses are so thick that they 
keep out the sun's heat, and most of the buildings are 
only one story high. 

Puerto Colombia (the port for Barranquilla) and Santa 
Malta are the chief seaports on the Caribbean Sea, and 
Buenaventura is the chief Pacific port. 

Resources. Colombia is a land which produces coffee^ 
gold, silver, bananas, and hides. A great deal of platinim 
is also mined for export ; in fact, Colombia produces more 
platinum than any other country in the world (Fig. 267). 
More emeralds are found in the mountains of Colombia 
than in any other country. 

The forests on the east slopes of the Andes contain 
thousands of rubber trees and undoubtedly many other 
valuable trees. 

Future. The rich soils, the mineral resources (which 
as yet have been little developed), and the forests, all 
point to this country as another region where progress 
will be rapid as soon as more railroads and more capital 
are provided. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief exports 
from Colombia ? 2. In what part of the country do most of the 
people live ? 3. Is this a warm or a cold country ? 4. What does 
this country chiefly need in order to make possible greater develop- 
ment ? 6. Where is the capital ? 6. How is the capital reached ? 
7. How may the Panama Canal benefit Colombia ? 


Land of the equator. This is a small country on the 
equator, famous for its panama hats, for its cacao, and 
for the vegetable ivory from which most of our buttons 
are made. It is a land of volcanoes and has almost 
every variety of climate. 

Natural regions. Ecuador is easily divided into three 
parts: (1) the Pacific slope, where there is some flat 
land and a coastal range of old, worn-down mountains ; 
(2) the high mountains and plateaus ; and (3) the eastern 
slope, where some of the headwaters of the Amazon rise. 
The eastern slope passes into the great Amazon Low- 
lands and is covered with a dense forest growth. The 

Courtesy of the Pan American Union 

Fig. 267. This is a new platinum-mining town near the Pacific coast of 
Colombia. Here the platinum grains are washed out of the sands brought 
down from the mountains by the rivers. What other mineral resources 
has Colombia ? In what countries does Colombia find a market for its 
mineral products ? 



western slope also has forests, and it is an excellent 
grazing countrj' for cattle (Fig. 268). 

Climate. If we were in Ecuador and at sea level, we 
sliould find it very hot all the time and with enough 
rain for agriculture. If we went up to an elevation of 
one mile above sea level, the temperature and vegetation 
would change as much as if we traveled 1500 miles north 
or south. If we climbed to a height of two miles, the 
change in temperature and vegetation would be about 
the same as if we traveled 2500 miles north or south. 
If we climbed from sea level to the tops of the highest 

i _ 







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iiT f 


^''^^f&WWf ii • 




CooTtaj of Um Pan Amerieui Unioa 

Fig. 268. Here is one of the comfortable estancias, or ranch homes, in 
the lowland region north of Guayaquil. The head of the family raises 
cattle, and all, even the women and children, ride about the country on 
horseback. Why can the products of every climate in the world be grown 
somewhere in Ecuador ? 

mountains in Ecuador, it would be somewhat like 
traveling from the torrid to a frigid zone. The different 
altitudes explain the variety in climate and vegetation. 

Resources. On the Pacific Lowlands there are rich 
soils, and wonderful crops of sugar and cacao beans are 
raised. The toquilla plant grows here and fmniishes the 
straw used in the manufacture of panama hats. Here 
also grows the plant that yields the vegetable ivory 
(Fig. 2tj9). The native people make great use of the 
century plant. The broad leaves are used for paper and 
for thatching huts. The sirup obtained from the leaves 
is used in making soap. The fibers of the leaves and the 
roots are woven into sandals and sacks, and the sharp 
spines are used for needles. In the mountains there are 
mineral resources yet to be developed. 

Cities. Guayaquil is the only seaport of Ecuador. 
The people in this city have recently learned a wonder- 
ful lesson in sanitation from the work that was done in 
the Panama Canal Zone. They have cleared away old 
buildings, put in sewers, paved their streets, and exter- 
minated many of the insect pests, thus making their 
city much more healthful. 

From Guayaquil there is a railroad into the plateau 
district. At 9000 feet above sea level and almost at the 
equator is Quito, the capital of Ecuador (Fig. 270). 

Courtwj of ttie Pmn Ameiicui Untua 

Fig. 269. The tagua palm, which grows abundantly in Ecuador, has nuts so 

hard and white that they are commonly called ivory nuts. Ecuador exports 

millions of pounds of them every year, to be made into buttons. This view 

shows the great round burrs in which the nuts are inclosed 

Future. Ecuador has been slow to develop its 
resources. We may expect mining to be increased, rail- 
roads to be constructed, the rubber trees in the forests 
of the eastern slope to be tapped, and many more 
plantations to be established in the narrow plateau belt 
between the lofty ranges of the Andes. The climate, 
especially on the lowlands, is not favorable to hard 
work, and as yet there are too few white people in 
Ecuador to make it progressive. 

Problems and review questions. 1. State five interesting and 
important facts about Ecuador. 2. How can you explain tlie 
backwardness of the country ? 3. What is the capital ? 4. AYhat 
is the one seaport ? 5. What portion of the country is most 
attractive to white people ? 6. Explain the presence of gla- 
ciers in Ecuador. 7. What are the chief exports ? the chief 
imports ? 8. What is the meaning of the Spanish word ecuador ? 

C'>uMe.y ul tt). fin Am.rlcwi Vw 

Fig. 270. This is the main plaza, or square, in Quito, the capital of Ecuador. 
Around it are grouped the public buildings, of typical South American archi- 
tecture. Quito is nearer the equator than any other national capital, yet it 
has a delightfully temperate climate. Can you explain this ? 



£. M. Newmiin 

Fig. 271. This is one of the plateau towns of southern Peru, situated on 

the high, level land between the mountains. The land is used for raising 

grain, and this view shows the mud walls, often five or six feet high, which 

separate the fields. Can you explain the climate here ? 


Much of our interest in Peru comes from the stories of 
Spanish explorers, or from the history of the wonderful 
Inca civilization. The Incas were the rulers of the native 

Fig. 272. Paita has a fine sheltered harbor and is one of the ports at which 

steamers from Panama call, on their way down the South American coast. 

The houses of Paita are made of split bamboo, sometimes covered with 

plaster. Why is this material used ? Locate Paita on your map 

the Pacific Ocean. Such winds become warmer and collect 
moisture instead of giving it up, so the long western 
seacoast of Peru is a desert. The rainfall in a year is 
usually less than five inches. In some places rain comes 
only about once in seven years. See map opposite jjage 156. 

Indian people who lived in the high plateau portions of Narrow strips of the coastal lowland are watered by 

Peru and Bolivia when the Spaniards first visited these 
countries (Figs. 274, 276). 

When the Spaniards came to Peru, they found that 
the Inca people had vast quantities of gold and silver 
which were used to ornament their temples and public 
buildings. This led the invaders, who had a great 
advantage because of their firearms, to conquer the 
Incas and take the treasures of gold and silver back to 
Spain. For many years the Spanish people controlled 
this country, but in 1821, at about the same time that 
Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia secured their 
freedom, the Peruvians also obtained 
independence and founded a republic. 

The natural regions of Peru are 

(1) a desert strip along the coast; 

(2) a high plateau with lofty moun- 
tain ranges, known to the natives 
as the sierra (Fig. 271); and (3) the 
eastern slope and lowland, known as 
the montana. Peru is in the earth- 
quake belt, and all the houses are built 
low and very strong, so that they 
may not be shaken down. When 
young, rugged mountains grow, little 
but sudden slips of a few inches, or at 
most a few feet, take place along great 
cracks, or fissures, in the earth, and 
these movements shake the earth. 

The dry coastal belt is on the lee- 
ward side of the high mountains. After 
.the southeast trades have crossed the 
Andes, they begin their descent toward 

Fig. 273. These are Indian workeii planting 

sugar cane in one of the irrigated valleys of 

the coastal region of Peru. How is the water 

obtained for irrigation in this arid region ? 

streams from the mountains, and near these streams 
there are settlements where irrigation is practiced 
(Fig. 273). 

Cities in the coastal belt. Callao and MoUendo are the 
chief seaports of Peru. See map on page 135. Callao is 
the port for Lima, for the central portion of the coastal 
belt, and for much of the plateau country. MoUendo 
serves the southern portion of the Peruvian plateau 
and the plateau of Bolivia. Both of these ports are 
connected by rail with the high lands of the interior. 
Paita (Fig. 272) is the city from which the petroleum 
of northern Peru is exported. 

Inland, but still on the Pacific 
slope, is Lima, the capital of Peru ; it 
is located on a river and has a good 
supply of water. In colonial days 
this city was the center of Spanish 
authority in South America and was 
the home of many wealthy and well- 
educated people. 

Arequipa, the second city of Peru, 
is 6000 feet above sea level, and there- 
fore has a cool climate. Like Lima, 
it is situated on the banks of a small 
mountain stream which provides 
power for a number of cotton and flour 
mills and a few chocolate factories. 
They are smaller than the mills and 
factories in the United States, but 
have modern machinery. On Mount 
Misti, near Arequipa, is located a 
famous astronomical observatory. 



The ascent to the plateau. The railroad that runs 
from Lima to the plateau is one of the highest in the 
world. When it reaches the great western range of the 
Andes, it climbs to an elevation of 16,000 feet and then 
passes through to the other side in a tunnel. Most 
people cannot go quickly to such great altitudes without 
becoming sick. The higher air is thinner than the air 
near sea level, so each breath taken in has less oxygen 
than a breath taken at a low altitude. To avoid sick- 
ness and fainting, passengers are supplied with tanks of 
pure oxygen, from which they breathe in the oxygen 
through rubber tubes. 

The mountain and plateau region. Most of the people 
of Peru are in the high mountain and plateau region 
(Fig. 271). There, where the Incas led their strange and 
marvelous life, the Peruvians of to-day have made their 
greatest progress. Mining has been developed on a large 
scale in the plateau region. Copper, silver, tin, and gold 
have been found, and there is coal near by. To-day 

copper is the most 
important of the min- 
eral products of Peru 
(Fig. 275). Cerro de Pasco, 
at an elevation of over 
14,000 feet, is one of the 
greatest mining camps 
in the world. 

Cuzco was once a large 
city. It is located in 
one of the high valleys 
in the plateau, and was 
the chief city of the 
Incas. They obtained 
gold from the mines 
and stream gravels of 
the region, but there is 
much less gold-mining 
there now. 

Grazing. In the pla- 
teau region grazing is 
next to mining in 
importance. The chief 
domestic animals are 
the llamas and the alpacas, which wander about on 
the plateau and on the mountain slopes to the east and 
west. The owners of the flocks have great estates that 
are called haciendas. The native people serve as herders 
and laborers for the owners of the large estates. 

The llama (Fig. 279) is really a species of camel, and 
stands about 4 feet 6 or 8 inches high. The males are 
trained to carry burdens. They will carry about 
100 pounds, but if more is put on their- backs they 

v.. M. Newmu 

Fig. 274. This old water-carrier of Cuzco 

ia a descendant of the great Indian race 

which, under the Incas, controlled all 

Peru before the Spanish conquest 

Fig. 275. This is a great copper-smelting plant on the high plateau of 

Peru. It is 14,000 feet above sea level and is reached by a railway from 

the coast. Where is the copper sent from here ? What other metal ores are 

found in Peru ? Why is copper the most important ? 

will lie down, and no power on earth will move them 
until the extra load is taken off. They travel from 
10 to 12 miles a day. They must be allowed to feed 
before night comes, because they will not graze when 
it is dark. They always walk slowly, gazing on every 
side and holding their long necks arched. The Indian 
masters become very fond of them and treat them 
kindly. Their hair is used to make cloth. 

The llama is often spoken of as the most useful animal 
in South America. It is to the native what the reindeer 
is to the Eskimo, the camel to the inhabitants of great 
deserts, and the yak to the people of the high plateau 
of Tibet. The alpaca and the llama are both domesti- 
cated forms of the wild guanaco. Here in South 
America the guanaco lives in the high mountains and 
among the foothills east of the southern Andes, and is 
hunted as wild game, but the alpaca and llama Uve with 
the people just as our sheep and cattle do. This is a 
very surprising fact, for most of our domesticated animals 
are descended from wild breeds that disappeared long ago. 

The alpaca is smaller than the llama, standing a 
little over 3 feet high. The fleece of the alpaca is white 
or black, and it is beautiful, soft, and very long. 

Another wool-bearing animal of Peru is the vicuna. 
This animal, like the llama, alpaca, and guanaco, belongs 
to the camel family. The vicuna runs wild at high alti- 
tudes; in fact, it is not found below an elevation of 
13,000 feet. In its habits the vicuna resembles the wild 
guanaco. It is small and fleet-footed and lives in herds. 
Because the vicuna lives so high up in the mountains, it 
has not been domesticated, and for this reason the supply 
of wool obtained from this animal is scanty. 

Home work. 1. Look up the history of the Incas. 2. Read and 
report about the llamas, alpacas, vicufias, and guanacos. 



Fig. 276. This is part of an old Inca palace on Xiticaca Island. It was 

built nearly a thousand years ago^by the first Inca. The huge stone blocks 

were hewn and set without any machinery, and they fit so exactly that 

it is hardly possible to get a knife blade between them 

The eastern slope of the Andes. This region of Peru 
consists of the lower slopes and foothills on the eastern 
side of the Andes. Here the rainfall is very heavy, and 
there is a dense tropical forest like that near the Amazon 
River in Brazil. The forest is wonderfully rich- in rubber 
and hard woods. Rubber is being exported from Iquitos, 
which is nearly 3000 miles from the mouth of the Amazon 
and at the head of navigation for ocean-going vessels. 
Wild native people live in the forests, but the few whites 
who live in eastern Peru stay near the towns which are 
located on the banks of the rivers. 

Future. Peru has been much more prosperous in the 
past than it is to-day. In 1884, as the result of an un- 
fortunate war, Peru lost to Chile the southern part of 
her country, where there were rich deposits of nitrate. 
In that transfer Peru lost the greatest source of her 
prosperity. There remained, however, the rich metal 
ores of the high plateau region, which have always been 
mined extensively. Peru will undoubtedly continue to 
be an important mining district. Grazing may be still 
further developed, and the great forests of the eastern 
slope should some day be of much greater value to the 
people than they are to-day. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the three natural 
regions of Peru ? 2. What are the rainfall conditions in each 
region ? See map on page 156. 3. Explain the scanty rainfall in 
tlie coastal belt. 4. Where do most of the people live ? Why ? 
What do they do ? 5. What are the chief products for export ? 
6. What do the Peruvians import ? 7. From what countries do 
the imports come ? 8. Why is Peru not a manufacturing country ? 

9. Name the capital and chief seaports. 10. What route should 
you follow from New York to Callao ? to Iquitos ? 11. How 
should you travel from Lima to Rio de Janeiro ? 12. What kind 
of business might take you to Cerro de Pasco ? 13. Why might 
you like to visit Cuzco ? 14. Of what value is the llama to the 
Peruvians ? 15. Of what value is the alpaca to the Peruvians ? 

Fig. 277. These boys are poling their balsas on Lake Titicaca. The boats 
are made of rush straw plaited and tied together, and are often fitted with 
straw sails. Before the steamer line was established on the lake, all trans- 
portation was by balsa. Why are the boats not made of wood ? 


About half of Bolivia is a high plateau surrounded by 
lofty mountains ; here Lake Titicaca is located (Figs. 244, 
277). The other half of Bolivia is a lowland. See 77iap on 
jjage 135. The plateau is between 12,000 and 13,000 feet 
above sea level, and in elevation it is second only to the 
great plateau of Tibet. 

Bolivia is now one of the two countries in South 
America without any coast line. The coastal portion of 
Bolivia was taken by Chile after a war in which Chile 
defeated Bolivia and Peru. 

Life in the high plateau. In the mountains great 
supplies of gold, silver, tin, and copper have been found. 
Bolivia ranks second in the world in the production of 
tin, the Straits Settlements, in the region of the Malay 
Archipelago, being first (Fig. 278). See Appendix, Plate B. 
Most of the tin from Bolivia is shipped by way of the 
Panama Canal to New Jersey. 

The people who live on the plateau use Mollendo in 
Peru and Antofagasta in Chile for their seaports. These 

Fig. 278. The dry, barren highlands of Bolivia are very rich iu minerals, 

and mining is the principal industry. This is one of the tin-mining centers. 

In late years tin has replaced silver as the chief export of Bolivia. How 

is the ore taken to the coast ? To what countries is it exported ? 



coast cities are connected by railroads with the largest 
settlements ou the Bolivian Plateau. 

In some parts of the high plateau there are small 

farms where wheat, com, barley, and potatoes are raised. 

Irrigation is usually necessary. Many of the people who 

live on the plateau care for sheep, llamas, alpacas, and 

I goats (Fig. 279). 

There is very little wood on the plateau, either for 
building material or for fuel. The houses are therefore 
made of stone or mud. The people use out-of-door ovens, 
where they burn brush, cacti, and moss. They plan to 
bake once a week. If someone should discover coal in or 
near Bolivia, it would be a great help to the people. 

Eastern lowlands. The larger part of Bolivia lies to 
the east of the crest of the Andes. This section of the 
country is a great lowland area which merges with the 
Amazon Lowlands in the north, and which extends 
south to the plains of Paraguay and Argentina. 

The northern part of this lowland area has developed 
faster than the southern part. Here are forests of 
rubber trees and many varieties of tropical hard woods. 
Besides the forest lands there are great areas of rich 
agricultural lands. Coffee and cacao are the chief prod- 
ucts. This part of Bolivia has access to the Atlantic 
Ocean by way of the Amazon River. By using the rail- 
road which has been built around the Madeira Falls, 
connection can be made with the Amazon, and thus 

) E. M. .Nfwiaan 

Fig. 280. This view of La Paz shows its location in a deep pocket between 
the mountains. In the background is snow-capped Illimani, one of the 
highest Andean peaks. Locate La Paz on your map. What is the climate 
here ? Why is La Paz better suited to be the capital of Bolivia than Sucre ? 

railroads must be built from the river port of Asunci6n 
in Paraguay to points in eastern Bolivia, or, better still, 
direct from Rosario or Buenos Aires in Argentina. 

Cities. Potosi is one of the principal mining centers 
for both silver and tin. The city is located so high that 
the air there is always cool, or even cold. Oruro is an- 
other mining city on the plateau and the terminus of 
one of the railroads. Sucre is the legal capital of Bolivia, 
but La Paz, which has a railroad connection and is an 

important business center, is used as the seat of govem- 
cargoes of rubber can be transported down the river ment. La Paz is the largest city of Bolivia and is two 
to Belem. and one half miles above sea level (Fig. 280). 

The southern part of Bolivia, a region of great rolling Future. The future of Bolivia is somewhat uncertain, 
plains, has as yet no means of communication with the About half the population is Indian, and native Indians 

outside world. Before much progress is possible here. 

Fig. 279. Oraxing is important on the high pl&teaus of Bolivia and Peru. Here is a flock of young 

alpacas and, in the center, one white llama. They are grazing on a treeless upland pasture 1S,000 

feet above the sea. The alpacas are raised for their soft, thick wool, which is used to make the 

finest woolen fabrics. The male llamas are beasts of burden in this part of South America 

are the only people there who can work at high altitudes. 
There is a scarcity of labor. The mines 
might well be further developed, for 
in mineral resources Bolivia is very 
wealthy. The lack of a seaport is an- 
other great disadvantage, and the lack 
of railroads to the east is holding back 

Problems and review questions. 1. Divide 
Bolivia into two natural regions. 2. Which of 
these regions has most of the people to-day ? 
3. What are the chief occupations ? 4. What 
seaports Serve Bolivia ? 5. Name the largest 
lake in South America. 6. Why should there 
be little rainfall on the plateau? 

7. With little rain falling on the plateau, 
how do you account for the large lake there ? 

8. What would help Bolivia most to increase 
its po{)ulation and promote industries ? 

9. Name the official capital of Bolivia. 

10. Where are the government meetings 
held ? 11. Name an important mining city 
in Bolivia. 



























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Fig. 283. This is Taltal, one of the nitrate ports of Chile. The coast is 

rugged, barren, and forbidding, and the nitrate export is the only reason 

for the location of a city at this point. What are the other nitrate ports? 

Why is there so large a demand for Chilean nitrate ? 

east of the mountains in southern Argentina is dry. The 
dry belt in South America crosses the mountains in cen- 
tral Chile, passing from the west coast to the east. See 
maps on and opposite page 156. 

A remarkable resource. The most valuable natural 
resource of Chile is found in the desert at the north. 
It is a nitrate of soda which is used in almost all the 
countries of the world to fertilize soils. This resource 
has made Chile rich and famous. Railroads have been 
built into the desert, and hundreds of men are at Avork 
producing nitrate for market. Everything they use 
must be brought in. All the building material for their 
houses and the mining plants, all the food, and all the 
water are brought from a distance. Sometimes the water 
must be brought more than a hundred miles to supply 
the men and horses and to use at the nitrate works. 

The nitrate is found in the earth. Great lumps of this 
mineral are dug out of the ground and placed in tanks 
of hot water (Figs. 281, 282). The nitrate is dissolved, 
and later the water, with the nitrate in it, is allowed 
to cool, and the pure nitrate comes out. It looks a good 

Courtesy (.f til'- i' !!■ Air t n. .ui Lulun 

Fig. 285. This is a small seaport town south of 
Valparaiso. The farmers of the surrounding agri- 
cultural country bring their products into town 
on the backs of sturdy little donkeys 

& JLIftwiaMi 

Fig. 284. The man at the plow is a Chilean farmer of the central valley. 

He makes a good living on his little farm, and provides a comfortable home 

for his wife and children. What products does he raise ? In what months 

of the year are his planting and harvesting seasons ? 

deal like coarse salt. It is then put into bags and sent 
off to one of the seaports to be loaded on vessels and 
taken to various parts of the world (Fig. 283). 

Now that we understand that water will dissolve the 
nitrate of soda, we can understand why the Chilean 
people do not want it to rain in the Atacama Desejrt. 
If rain fell abundantly, the water would sink into the 
ground, dissolve this valuable mineral, and little by little 
take it away . to 
the ocean. It is 
because of the 
exceedingly dry 
condition of the 
soil that these de- 
posits have been 
left here. 

Almost all the 
world's supply of 
nitrate is pro- 
duced in the Ata- 
cama Desert of 
northern Chile. 
The government 
places a heavy 
tax on all of the product that is sent out of the country. 
Because of these export taxes the Chilean people have 
very few other taxes to pay. 

In addition to the great natural resource of nitrate of 
soda the Chilean people have discovered large deposits of 
copper ; they have also extensive forests and some rich 
soils in the valley belt. Nitrate mining is, however, the 
chief occupation. 

Life in the central valley of Chile. The central valley 
of Chile is from 600 to 700 miles long, and is very much 
like the rich valley of California. Here the people have 
made a good start at farming (Fig. 284). Many tropical 
fruits and some sugar cane, cotton, and rice are raised, 
and this valley is becoming famous for its vines and the 
wines that are made from the grapes. Wheat and corn 
are also raised here. The forests yield timber, and lumber 
is an important product of export. 

Cities. Santiago, the capital of Chile, is situated 1800 
feet above sea level. It is a very attractive city with 
a delightful climate, beautiful parks, and a rapidly 
growing industrial life. In Santiago, as in other South 
American cities, almost no chimneys are seen, but be- 
cause of its high elevation more and more of the people 
are having heating plants put into their homes. 

There are no good harbors on the Chilean coast, but 
at very great expense improvements are being made 
offshore at Valparaiso, so that vessels may anchor and 
unload cargoes into small boats (Fig. 287). 



The journey from Valparaiso to New York, a distance 
of about 4600 miles by way of the Panama Canal, now 
takes two weeks. The route is very near to a north-and- 
south line. The distance fiom Valparaiso eastward across 
the Andes to Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, is 
900 miles. The journey was formerly a very difficult one, 
and rather than cross the high mountains most travelers 
went around Cape Horn or through the Strait of Magellan. 
To-day there is a railroad connecting the two cities, with 
excellent modern equipment for the passenger trains. 

Punta Arenas, a Chilean port on the Strait of Magellan, 
and the southernmost city in the world, ships wool, hides, 
whale oil, and furs to Europe and the United States. It 
is a coaling station, and has shops where repairs may be 

made for steam 

Summary. The 
present prosper- 
ous condition of 
Chile is largely 
due to its one 
great natural re- 
source from the 
Desert of Ata- 
cama. This one 
resource affords 
employment for 
a large number of 
people in Chile. 
Some of them 
are engaged in 
mining the ni- 
trate, others in 
preparing it for 
market, and still 
others serve as 
carriers and take 
provisions and water to the workers in the mines. 

Chile is mining and exporting the nitrate at an ex- 
travagant rate. Although it has been estimated that the 
present supply is sufficient to last from thirty to one 
hundred years longer, the day will come when the nitrate 
deposits will be exhausted. Then Chile must depend 
upon other resources for its prosperity. 

Because Chile extends so far north and south, it is a 
land of many and varied resources. In the Central Valley 
farming has already been well established, and the value 
of the agricultural products is increasing each year. 
Many cattle, sheep, and goats graze on the fertile grass- 
lands, and the people who are not engaged in tilling the 
soil are occupied in stock-raising. One of the greatest 
future resources of southern Chile lies in the rich forest 

Fig. 286. This is the " Christ of the Andes," the 

great statue erected on the boundary line between 

Argentina and Chile as a pledge of everlasting 

peace between the two nations 

Courw.j i>f (Le Fat 

Fig. 287. The harbor of Valparaiso is open to the north and west, 
and heavy gales often make anchorage very dangerous. Therefore the 
government is planning to build a great breakwater and to improve the 
harbor in other ways. What are the exports and imports of Valparaiso ? 
With what countries does Chile trade most ? 

lands which have as yet been little used. The discovery 
of coal and the presence of water-power may lead to the 
development of manufacturing. If that happens, Chile 
may become, like the New England region, an industrial 
district, and her manufactured goods may be sold in 
Argentina, a great agricultural country, or in Peru, a 
great mining country. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief occupa- 
tions of the Chilean people ? 2. What is their chief seaport ? 
their capital ? 3. Why is the northern part of the coast dry and 
the southern part wet ? 4. Explain why the Chilean people do 
not want it to rain in the Atacama Desert. 

5. Why should they develop farming and manufacturing ? 
6. What advantages has Chile for promoting manufacturing in- 
dustries ? 7. Where could Chile expect to sell manufactured 
gootls ? 8. Describe the routes of travel from Valparaiso to Buenos 
Aires ; from Valparaiso to New York. 

9. Why was Valparaiso so named? 10. Describe the process of 
nitrate mining. 11. Why does Chile put a tax on all its nitrate 
exports ? 12. What other mineral is found in Chile ? 13. What 
effect has the Panama Canal had on the trade of this country ? 


1 —  ', , 

Fig. 288. This is the main plaza of Santiago, laid out by the founder of 
the city in 1S43. Santiago is situated in a beautiful valley where semi- 
tropical plants and trees grow in great abundance. East of the city rises 
the snow-capped wall of the Andes, separating Chile from Argentina 



Courtegjr of Walter S. Toner 

Fig. 289. The Argentine Pampa is a vast, unbroken expanse of level plain, 
covered, except in the cultivated parts, with long, luxuriant prairie grass. 
There are no trees, and one can travel a thousand miles without finding a 
single natural variation of the monotonous flatness. The Pampa has long 

been a great grazing area. This is a typical herd of Argentine cattle on thfr 
Pampa. They are splendid specimens, and the breed is being constantly im- 
proved by the importation of foreign stock. The Pampa is nearly as large as 
England and France combined, yet it forms only about one fourth of Argentina 


Argentina is the second largest country in South 
America and has the largest population, about 8,000,000, 
It is a vast, rich land which offers great opportunities. 

Natural advantages. Turn to the maps on pages 145 
and 156 and notice the natural advantages of Argentina. 

(1) Most of the Parana Lowlands belong to Argentina. 

(2) Over much of the country there is enough rainfall 
for grazing and farming. If the rainfall were notably 
heavy, there would be a dense forest ; if there were much 
less rainfall, the lowland would be a semidesert like the 
region farther south. (3) This country is in the temper- 
ate zone, so it is not too cold or too warm for white 
people. (4) There are good harbors in the estuary of the 
Plata River and farther south at Bahia Blanca. (5) There 
are great navigable rivers in the northern portion, and in 
certain of the rivers there are opportunities for developing 
water-power. (6) Gold, silver, copper, and iron have been 
found in the plateau portion at the northwest. (7) The 
levelness of the land surface makes railroad building easy. 

Occupations and products. These great natural advan- 
tages have given the country a wonderful start. Argen- 
tina is one of the great producers of cattle, horses, and 
sheep (Fig. 289). Wheat and corn are produced in great 
quantities (Figs. 297, 299). 

In the northern and northwestern parts of Argentina 
there are forested areas which are being developed 
more and more. Lumbering has become an important 
industry. Many of the woods are extremely hard, and 
one is known as quebracho, which means ax-breaker 
(Fig. 290). The wood of the quebracho is so heavy that 
it will not float. Besides being valuable for timber the 
tree has been found to yield tannin, which is used in 
making leather. 

In the plateau region at the northwest the life is quite 
different from that in the lowland region. There the 
people are interested in mining. Formerly the ores were 
sent on the backs of mules over the high mountains and 
across the desert of Chile to the Pacific coast. Now there 
is a railway into the district, by which most of the met- 
als are taken to Rosario for shipment to other countries. 

tuunes; o( Walter B. Tower 

Courtesj of Walter S. Xowar 

Fig. 290. These cars are loaded with logs of the quebracho tree, which grows 
in northern Argentina. Quebracho is a very hard wood, useful for cabinet- 
making, railroad ties, and paving blocks. The quebrachos are being cut so 
fast that laws must soon be made to conserve the supply 

Fig. 291. This is a little village in arid San Juan Province, where the 

people earn their living by gathering the woody roots of drought-resisting 

bushes, which they dig out of the ground. The sticks in the foreground 

will be used to make charcoal or sold to the railroads for fuel 



Near the mines many people are engaged in raising 
Tegetables and fruits for the use of the mining popula- 
tion. Peaches, figs, pears, grapes, and oranges are pro- 
duced. Some wheat also is raised here, but not in such 
large fields as in the lowlands. 

El Gran Chaco. West of the Pai-aguay River and ex- 
tending through a part of northern Argentina, across 
western Paraguay, and into Bolivia there is a vast area 
called El Gran Chaco, of which little is known. Indian 
tribes live there, and a few of the rivers have been ex- 
plored. Railroads have been planned to cross it. At the 
western margin, where there are streams from the moun- 
tains, some agriculture has been started. In places cattle 
are raised (Fig. 293), and from the forests in the south 

Courtesy of Walter 8. Tower 

Fig. 292. This is a typical town ui iiuiiiivvestern Argentina, barricaded on 

the west by the barren ridges of the Andes, and open on the east to the 

great Argentine plain. The days are always sunny here, and irrigation is 

needed for agriculture. Why is there little or no rain ? 

fjuebracho wood and tannin are secured in large quanti- 
t ies. The quebracho wood and tannin exported each year 
are worth more than ten million dollars. Over 4000 men 
are now engaged by one company in this business. 

The Pampa. The greatest single natural resource of this 
country is the extensive lowland area of rich soils called 
the Pampa, west and southwest of Buenos Aires. 

The term " pampa " comes from the Indian language, 
and means any flat country, whether it is high or low, 
dry or wet; but the term "the Pampa" seems most 
appropriately applied to the great rich lowland coun- 
try of Argentina, stretching from the Salado River 
on the north to the Negro River on the south, and 
from the Parana and Paraguay rivers to the base of 
the Andes Mountains. 
p The Pampa is one of the most remarkably flat places 
in the woi'ld. The soils of which it is composed were 
washed from the mountains into an interior sea by 
rivers, and spread out eastward in the form of delta 
deposits. Little by little the sea disappeared, leaving 
the broad delta plains exposed as dry land. 

The Pampa is the wonderful wheat land of South 
America, and the land where millions of sheep and 
cattle roam as they feed on the tall, waving grasses of 

CwjrtMj of Walter 3. Tower 

Fig. 293. These men are herdsmen of the Argentine Chaco. They wear 
enormous stiffened leather guards to protect them from the dense under- 
growth as they ride through the forests. How does the plain of the Chaco 
differ from the plain of the Pampa? Do the Pampa herdsmen have to 
wear leather guards ? 

the fertile plains. There are railroads which run in 
perfectly straight lines for miles and miles across the 
Pampa. In many parts no bridges, no tunnels, no rock- 
cutting or filling were necessary in constructing the rail- 
roads. Over broad areas there are no hills or elevations 
of any kind as far as the eye can reach (Figs. 289, 295). 
The largest objects seen may be a few trees around 
some ranchman's home, or possibly a windmill, which 
is the common sign of one of the better homes in the 
country. With these exceptions the horizon is unbroken. 

CourtMj or WsJ(»r S. Tnwer 

Fig. 294. The west central part of Argentina is a semidesert country, 
similar to the desert of Arizona. The picture shows the rough, bowlder- 
strewn ground, the scrubby bush growth, and the twisted locust tree. What 
do you suppose the boy has in the tin can hung from his saddle ? 



Courlesj of Waller B. Towor 

Fig. 295. This great steam plow is breaking rich, new soil on a part of the 

Pampa which has never been cultivated before. The levelness, the fertility 

of the soil, and a sufG.cient rainfall make the Pampa a great agricultural 

region. What are the important crops ? 

Life on the Pampa. The Pampa is a land where every- 
body learns to ride horseback. The ranchmen go on 
horseback to visit the men who care for the great herds 
of cattle or flocks of sheep, and the children soon learn 
to ride the swiftest of horses. 

The weather at times becomes very warm ; and if rain 
fails to come, as it sometimes does, the farmers lose their 
crops. This is especially true through the western portion 
of the lowland ; here conditions are similar to those in 
western Kansas, Nebraska, or Oklahoma, where there are 
occasional dry seasons that make the farmers very un- 
happy. In any country, people who have their farms 
at the margin of the well-watered land and near poorly 
watered land must count on losing a crop every few years 
because of a dry season or because of drying winds. 

Unfortunately there are portions of this lowland region 
where the miserable little ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes are 
so numerous that life is unendurable. Dragon flies, which 
feed on mosquitoes, have been seen flying in. clouds from 
10 to 12 feet thick, so that they even darken the sky. 
There is another very serious pest which the farmers on 
the Pampa dread, and that is the locust. As they pass 

over the country they eat the com and wheat, and some- 
times an entire crop is destroyed in twenty-four hours. 
Such great migrations of the locust do not come every 
year, and some day scientists will learn how to fight 
them and perhaps how to exterminate them. 

Life in southern Argentina. This part of Argentina 
was formerly called Patagonia. It was really " no man's 
land," but in 1881 the southern portion of the continent, 
including Tierra del 
Fuego, was divided be- 
tween Chile and the 
republic of Argentina. 
Since then railroads 
have been built and 
many people have gone 
there to live. The cli- 
mate is dry in summer, 
but by irrigating the 
soils it is now possible 
to raise vegetables and 
fruits. Grazing is the 
chief occupation. 

The native Patagonian 
people are large, strong 
Indians, who still live in 
a primitive way. They 
are great hunters, and 
as yet they do not use 
firearms as white men 

do. Instead, they have holas, which are made of two 
or three small stones covered with skin and fastened 
together by strings or rawhide. They become very skill- 
ful in throwing these about the legs, neck, or body of an 
animal and tripping it up. Even birds are sometimes 
caught in this way just as they are rising from the 
ground. The Indians kill great numbers of the guanacos 

Louneay of Walter S. Tower 

Fig. 296. This is a clump of the tall, 

flowering grass which is known as "Pampa 

grass," but which grows on the hills and 

mountain slopes of Argentina 

Fig. 297. These wagons are loaded with grain raised on the Pampa, and 
are on their way to the nearest market or shipping point. Each wagon 
is drawn by six horses, and some of the traces are attached to the hubs of 
the wheels. Compare the size of the wheels with the horses. These 

Courtesy of Waller S. Tower 

high-wheeled carts are typical of all South America and are well adapted 
for traveling over the muddy roads which are so common in the regions of 
abundant rain. What different kinds of grain might these bags contain ? 
During what month is wheat harvested in Argentina ? See Appendix, p. io- 



for food, and use the skins for clothing and bedding. 
They depend also upon the rhea, or South American 
ostrich, for food. This bird has short wings and cannot 
fly well. It counts on running away from its enemies. 

Home work. 1. Place the chief seaports of South America on 
your outline map. 2. Read about the Patagonian Indians in a 
good reference book. 3. Rea<l atout Tierra del Fuego. See Appen- 
dix, page i, for list of reference books. 

Cities. Buenos Aires, the capital of the republic, is now 
the largest city in South America (Fig. 298). About one 
fifth of the entire population of Argentina live in this 
city. Like Chicago, Buenos Aires is built on flat land, and 
most of the streets cross at right angles. There are no 
hills like those in Rio de Janeiro, and no beautiful islands; 
and yet, like Chicago, the city has a great water front. 
Again, like Chicago, Buenos Aires has the advantage 
of a wonderful system of parks and playgrounds. 
There are seventy-two parks in Buenos Aires, and 
they are being improved and enlarged every year. 

The harbor at 
Buenos Aires was 
not satisfactory, 
and on account of 
this fact a great 
deal of dredging 
has been done to 
deepen the water. 
A very excellent 
system of stone 
docks extends for 
miles along the 
waterfront. The 
Plata River is a 
shallow estuary 
and not like a real river. The land sank and the sea 
water came into the mouth of the river, just as it did 
when Chesapeake Bay was made (Fig. 300). 

British and German people have invested large amounts 
of money in Buenos Aires and throughout Argentina. 
Many of the storekeepers are foreigners ; some are 
Spanish, others Portuguese, others Italian. Spanish is 
the language most commonly spoken ; Buenos Aires 
is, in fact, the lai'gest Spanish-speaking city in the 
world, — larger than any city in Spain. 

Rosario, the second largest city in Argentina, now has 
a good harbor which has been deepened by dredging. 
There are large stockyards and refrigerating plants 
located in the city. Before the days of freezing meats 
cattle were killed chiefly for the hides and tallow. Some 
of the meat was salted, but most of it was thrown away. 
Now the meats are frozen and sent to distant ports, 
chiefly in western Europe. This has meant a great increase 

. Amerieui Unioti 

Fig. 298. The National Capitol at Buenos Aires 

is not unlike our own Capitol at Washington in 

general appearance, but is much more elaborately 

decorated in the typical South American style 









'riTii^mi_^i ,_ 



■IMk' ^'^^Ts^MlHWte 





Counetj ot Wftlter 8. Towv 

Fig. 299. These canvas-covered stacks contain more than two million 

bushels of grain waiting to be shipped to Buenos Aires by rail. Why is 

grain stacked in the open in Argentina instead of being stored in grain 

elevators ? Where will it be sent from Buenos Aires ? 

in profits for those engaged in raising cattle and sheep. 
It has increased the value of the lands, caused railroads 
to be built, and brought many more people to Argentina. 

Farther south along the coast is Bahia Blanca, and 
from there railroads extend to different parts of the coun- 
try. That city has been growing very rapidly, and large 
quantities of wool and wheat are shipped from there to 
the United States and Europe every year. 

Mendoza is one of the most important inland cities. 
Here, by means of irrigation, the people have cultivated 
large vineyards, and a great deal of wine is made. Now 
that Mendoza has a railroad connection -with the Atlantic 
and Pacific coasts, more of the products of this part of 
the country are reaching the larger markets of South 

Cdrdoba is a thriving city on the western margin of 
the richest wheat district in Argentina. It is also in the 
midst of the flax-raising area and has a number of mills 
where the oil is extracted from the flax seeds. 

Tucumdn, another inland city, is the center of the 
Argentine sugar-producing area and has sugar refineries. 

Fig. 800. The docks at Buenos Aires are lined with elevators in which 

grain is stored awaiting shipment. The harbor is man-made, and the port 

one of the best equipped in the world, ranking second among the ports of 

the two Americas. What is the first port ? 



Summary. When thinking of Argentina, remember 
that it is, first, a wonderful farming and grazing countrj^, 
and that the raising of stock has led to meat-packing, 
dairying, and the refrigerating of meat for export. 

If we visited this country, we should see the farmers 
using the same kind of implements and machines as are 
used in the United States; and about their homes and 
in the pastures we should see windmills that were shipped 
from the United States. These are indications of the 
large trade which we are building up with Argentina. 

^1 Walter S. Tower 

Fig. 301. In Buenos Aires tlie milkman drives his cows from house to house, 

milking them for each customer. The little girl in the picture is waiting to 

have her pitcher filled. The boy is the milkman's son. His duty is to hold 

the calf, which insists on traveling with its mother 

The notable contrast with the United States is that there 
is very little industrial life in Argentina. The mechani- 
cal arts have not been developed, and it is not likely that 
Argentina will become a great industrial country. Fuel 
is scarce and the people are not mechanics. Argentina 
imports coal. There are flour mills, sugar mills, and some 
weaving mills, but most of the machinery and manufac- 
tured goods that are needed are brought to Argentina in 
exchange for raw materials. 

Argentina is undoubtedly destined to become a great 
agricultural nation. More and more people will emi- 
grate from the crowded industrial centers of Europe to 
the farming lands of the Pampa. With the increase of 
population, the extension of railroads, and the develop- 
ment of more routes of communication with the markets 
of Europe and North America, Argentina should become 
one of the richest countries of the world. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the great natural 
ad vantages, of Argentina? 2. What are its chief disadvantages? 
3. Make a list of the chief exports ; the chief imports. 4. What is 
the largest city in South America ? 

5. Why is there a great grassland in the Parana Lowlands and 
a dense forest in the lowlands of the Amazon ? 6. Why is a por- 
tion of Argentina a semidesert ? 7. From what country do the 
people import their farming machinery ? 

8. How did the improvements in refrigerating meats help Argen- 
tina ? 9. What does the country need ? 10. What especially in- 
teresting facts about Argentina have you learned from the pictures ? 


Paraguay is a little larger than the state of Missouri, 
and is one of the two countries in South America without 
any seacoast. It is an extensive lowland country, a part 
of the Parana Lowlands, where most of the land is 
from 100 to 500 feet above sea level. 

The Paraguay River divides this country into two 
somewhat distinct parts. In the east there are forests, 
and also large groves of orange trees and many banana 
trees. The forest is broken here and there by open pas- 
ture lands and fields of brilliant flowers. On the west is 
the Chaco, a land of broad, open fields with here and 
there quebracho forests. A few palms are scattered about 
on the plains. In the western part of the country the 
rivers wind about through such long channels that much 

t- Paa Auieiic:.a Lii.^J 

Fig. 302. The forest on both sides of the Paraguay River is rich in valuable 

quebracho trees, and lumbering is extensively carried on. These lumbermen 

are resting while they cook their mid-day meal. The quebracho logs are 

carried down the river in boats, because they are too heavy to float 

of the water is evaporated before the streams reach 
the Paraguay River. It is a region of little rainfall, 
but there is enough to nourish a tall grass that serves 
for pasture. 

The Parana and Paraguay rivers are navigable, and 
shipments may be made down the river to Rosario, 
Buenos Aires, and Montevideo. Boats can sail 1300 miles 
on the Paraguay. 

Occupations. The chief occupation is just what would 
be expected in a grassland region without severely cold 
weather. It is grazing. Lumbering is important and will 
increase as the hard woods of the South American forests 
are used more and more in building (Fig. 302). Many 
people are interested in extracting tannin from the 
quebracho tree, and many others are engaged in selling 
the wood of that tree as lumber. 



Paraguay tea is known in Spanish as yerha mate 
(Fig. 304). It was here that the Indians introduced this 
tea to the Spaniards. The native people and many 
others in South America prefer the mate to coffee or 
to the varieties of tea from Japan or Ceylon that are 
so commonly used in North America and Europe. They 
drink the mate through a little tube. The tea is held 
in a cup made of a gourd, and it is the custom of the 
people to take a little drink of tea every few hours. It 
is a very common sight to see them stand around with 
the gourds and the little tubes through which they draw 

the tea up into their 
mouths. This tea is 
now being exported 
to distant lands. It 
is for sale in the 
larger cities of the 
United States. 

Oranges are so 
common in Paraguay 
that a traveler can 
get a dozen for a 
cent. Almost every 
Paraguayan will suck 
the juice of twenty 
or thirty oranges a 
day. The trees grow 
on the banks of the 
rivers, in the gorges, 
near the ranches, far 
back in the forests, 
— in fact, almost 
everywhere in Para- 
guay. Great carts drawn by three yokes of oxen, each 
cart carrying about 5000 oranges, are used in bringing 
the fruit to the banks of the river for shipment to 
Buenos Aires and Montevideo. The oranges grow in such 
abundance that it is impossible to use all of them. 
Thousands are devoured by birds, monkeys, and other 
animals, and yet each year tons and tons of oranges drop 
to the ground and rot. 

Insect pests. Paraguay is a land where the mosqui- 
toes, fleas, and flies are terrible pests. Scientific methods 
should be used to kill off these insects, so that life here 
may be more bearable. 

Cities. Asunci6n is the capital of Paraguay. It is 
reached by boats that come up the river from Rosario 
and Buenos Aires (Fig. 305). 

Villa Rica, the second largest city in Paraguay, is situ- 
ated on the one important railway in the state. It serves 
as a collecting center for the agricultural products of 
southern Paraguay, 

Ojurteiji ol the Fko Adicmcsh CnioD 

Fig. 303. This Paraguayan woman is at 

work making the fine lace for which her 

country is famous. Where does the thread 

which she uses come from ? 

Councaj ot Utt fui Amtrieaa Unltta 

Fig. 304. These men are Paraguayan mat6 gatherers. The yerba mat6 Is 
South American holly, which grows abundantly in Paraguay and southern 
Brazil. Each day the gatherers pick the leaves and twigs of the mat6, bring- 
ing it in on their shoulders to the camp, where it will be cured over a fire 

Concepci6n is the third city of importance in Paraguay- 
It is situated on the Paraguay River at the head of navi- 
gation for large river vessels and is therefore a commercial 
center of some importance. 

Future. Paraguay will undoubtedly develop its rich 
agricultural lands ; but before it can really become pros- 
perous, more railways must be built and more white 
people must come to live in the country. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Name the two countries 
of South America that are without coast lines. 2. How does 
Paraguay carry on commerce ? 3. How would a traveler 
reach the capital? 4. What two crops are most remarkable? 
5. What product from Paraguay is important to the shoe 
business ? 6. How may living conditions be improved in 
Paraguay? 7. On what does its future progress depend? 

Fig. 305. Asuncidn, the capital of Paraguay, stands at the head of naviga- 
tion on the Parani River. Paraguay has no seacoast, and the ParanA is the 
most important highway into the country. Asuncion is therefore an impor- 
tant river port. What products of Paraguay are sent down the river to 
Buenos Aires for export ? 



Courtesy o£ Walter S. Xowcr 

Fig. 306. This is one of the modern steam threshing outfits in use in 
Uruguay. Although nearly all the land of the republic is suited to agri- 
culture, only about one twentieth of it is under cultivation to-day. 
What conditions throughout the world will cause Uruguay to change 
gradually from stock-raising to agriculture? 


This country is a great pasture land. Like much of 
Argentina, Uruguay is fortunate in its surface features, 
in the richness of its soils, and in its good harbor and 
its one large navigable river. The prevailing coast winds 
are from the southeast, and they bring in an abundance 
of moisture, so that all of Uruguay is well watered. The 
climate is mild and healthful. In January, which is 
the warmest month, the average temperature is about 
80° Fahrenheit, and in July, the coldest month of the 
year, the temperature is commonly about 55°. The 
lowest temperature that has been observed is not down 
to the freezing point. 

Everything that will grow in temperate or subtropical 
climates will grow in Uruguay. The 
grazing of sheep, cattle, and horses 
is the chief occupation of the people 
(Figs. 307, 308), but general farming is 
becoming more and more important 
(Fig. 306). Large quantities of grain 
and fruit are raised. 

Commerce. The grazing has led to 
the establishment of certain industries 
which grow naturally out of the raising 
of stock. Meat-packing and the refrig- 
erating of meat for shipment occupy 
the time of a large number of people. 
Great quantities of beef extract are 
made for export. 

Cities. Montevideo is a modern, 
healthful city with a very pleasant 
climate (Figs. 309, 310). The name 
" Montevideo " comes from the hill, or 
mount, which rises to a height of 505 
feet and is the most prominent feature 

about the city. It can be seen for 12 miles out to sea. 
There is a lighthouse on the mount, and the revolving 
light in the top can be seen for 25 miles. The city is 
built on a point of land between the Atlantic and a 
large bay. 

The people of Uruguay all seem to. want to live in 
Montevideo. The city now has about one third of the 
entire population of the country. Farmers and ranchmen 
either have city homes or look forward to having them. 

Montevideo is the capital of Uruguay, and from its 
harbor ships leave with their great cargoes of wool, beef, 
and hides for ports in the United States and Europe. 

The sea breezes pass through the city from one body of 
water to the other. In the bay there is room for 500 ves- 
sels. Opposite Montevideo the Plata estuary is 64 miles 
wide, and at Buenos Aires, 210 miles farther upstream, 
it is 34 miles wide. There are numerous shoals and sand 
bars in the river, so that navigation is difficult. 

Occasionally the pampero, or storm wind of the Pampa, 
sweeps across this estuary of the Plata with great vio- 
lence and whips the shallow water into a very rough 
sea. At such times vessels are in great danger of being 
driven upon sand bars and wrecked. 

Future. For its size Uruguay is the most fortunate 
country in South America. Its location, climate, soils, 
surface features, and harbor promise a prosperous agri- 
cultural life with an ever-increasing commerce. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief occupa- 
tions of the jjeople ? 2. Name and give the location of the capital. 
3. What has Uruguay to export ? 4. How does the climate of 
Uruguay aifect the occupations ? 5. What are the prevailing 
coast winds ? 6. Why is navigation in the Plata River difficult ? 

Courtesy of Walter S. Tower 

Fig. 307. Most of Uruguay is rolling, grassy country dotted with scattered clumps of trees. The 

soil, temperature, and rainfall are all favorable to agriculture, but at present more than four fifths 

of the total area of Uruguay is devoted to grazing. Sheep-raising is the greatest industry, and 

thousands of flocks like this one graze over the country 




The Falkland Islands belong to the British. They 
are in a very stonu}- part of the ocean; no trees grow 
there, and all the wood which the people use in building 
their homes or in shipbuilding must be imported. Peat 
has been found and is used as fuel. Very httle agricul- 
ture is carried on. A few vegetables are grown, but they 
are poor in quality. Most of the food must be brought 
in from other countries. 

Sheep-raising is the chief industry, and in spite of the 
stormy conditions the sheep thrive remarkably. Some 
cattle are raised ; fish are abundant in the waters sur- 
rounding the islands, but because of the heavy winds 
and stormy weather very little fishing is done. 

These islands 
have long served 
as a repair sta- 
tion for sailing 
vessels that have 
found difficulty 
in rounding Cape 
Horn or in pass- 
ing through the 
Strait of Magel- 
lan. Nowthatthe 
Panama Canal is 
open for traffic, 
fewer vessels will 
go this way. 

Fig. 308. Cattle-raising is second only to sheep- 
raising in Uruguay. These cattle are herded in a 
typical corral, which is very roughly but strongly 
made by using the crooked limbs of trees 



A group of ten islands, 600 miles west of Ecuador 
and H")0 miles southwest of Panama, have appeared for 
years on almost all maps as the Galapagos Islands. In 
1892 they were officially renamed the Colon Archipelago 
in honor of Columbus. These islands belong to Ecuador. 
The Spanish word "galapagos" means turtles. When the 
islands were discovered, there were no people living 
there, but there were many giant turtles, some large 
and strong enough to carry a man. Pirates are supposed 
to have used these islands as a meeting place, and they 
may have buried stolen treasure there. 


1. In wliat part of South America did Columbus land? 
2. Where was the land of the Inca.s? 3. What languages 
are most commonly spoken in South America ? 4. What is 
the commonest form of government in South America? 
5. What South American countries are colonies of European 
nations ? To what nations do they belong ? 


V ■■■— ;^Bi^B*W *■■* 
, 1 

T • ' ' Jli IflL 

1 1 i.' 1 Ib^^AI 

, 1 


^^^■y<--^-'"*"5jg >■ 





-^ i 

[Tik^trffi-if  f^' \ 



Fig. 309. The docks at Montevideo are always busy, for Montevideo is the 
great port of Uruguay and handles three fourths of the exports and imports 
of the country. From what countries have the ships in the picture come ? 
What have they brought to Montevideo ? What will they carry away ? 

6. Where is the greatest coffee-producing area? 7. Where 
are the best grazing lands ? 8. What countries produce large 
quantities of fruit ? 9. In what country are oranges most 
abundant? 10. What is the largest country? 11. Where is 
the greatest rubber-producing area? 

12. What country is famous for its tin? 13. What coun- 
try is famous for its nitrate ? 14. What country is famous 
for its Panama hats? 15. What improvements would be of 
the greatest help to South America? 

16. What country of South America may rival the United 
States? 17. What country sends us wool? 18. What prod- 
ucts do the people living on the lowland plains raise in such 
abundance that they can export them? 

19. What products from the great forests of South America 
are shipped to other countries ? 20. What do the people get 
from the mountains and sell to other people ? 21. What prod- 
uct is raised on the slopes of the Brazilian Highlands and 
shipped from Santos? Where is it sent? See map on page 145. 

® E. M. Kvnua 

Fig. 310. This is one of the plazas in Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. 

Montevideo is the only large city in the republic. Can you account for this ? 

Locate Montevideo on your map. How should you travel from Montevideo 

to Asuncion ? to S3o Paulo ? to Santiago ? 



I t Under 10 inches 

10 to 20 •' ^5' 

I I 20 to 40 •' 
40 to 80 •• 

^B Over 80 

^ / Prevailing coast winds 

90° longitude 75" IKf«f/.-om 60° Qreenwi'^h 45' 30^ 

y Uinn and Comitaiiy 

Average annual rainfall in South America 


I. Where is the great tropical forest of South America ? 
How much raiu falls there each year ? Is it a good place 
for white people to live in ? Why ? 2. Where is the rainfall 
more than is favorable to agriculture ? W^hat winds bring 
such heavy rains ? 

3. Where is the rainfall about right in amount and seasonal 
distribution for agriculture ? Do the people practice agricul- 
ture in these parts ? 4. Where are the extensive grasslands 
in South America ? How much rain do they receive ? 

5. To which coast do the southeast trades come ? 6. To 
what coast do the northeast trades come ? 7. To what coast 
-do the prevailing westerly winds come ? 8. In what months 
does the rainfall of southern Brazil come ? 9. What are the 
summer months in southern Brazil ? 10. Where are the tem- 
perate forests in South America? 

II. How do you explain the very dry conditions on the west 
coast from 5 to 35 degrees south latitude? 12. Why should 
this dry belt cross the mountains at about 35 degrees south 
latitude ? Why is it dry farther south on the east side ? This 
explains why central and southern Chile luive heavy rainfall. 

13. Why should it be very dry on the Bolivian Plateau? 

14. What months are included in the rainy season in Chile ? 

15. What portion of the Pacific coast of North America has 
its rainy season during the winter months ? What months are 
these? 16. What semiarid land in South America is crossed 
by rivers that may be used for irrigating the soils? 


^ »C.Hi>rn 

90' Lon(,iiH<U 75' Wttt from gQ" QrettiwU 

Distribution of people in South America 

i) (jitin and Ct^mpany 

17. Why should there be so heavy a rainfall just east 
of the Andes near the headwaters of the Amazon River ? 
18. Where is the rainfall heaviest in Central America and 
Panama? 19. What winds must bring that rain? 

20. Where do most of the people live, — near the coast or 
inland? in mountains or in lowlands? near or far from rivers ? 
Tell why they choose tliese places to live in. 21. Why do so 
few people live in tlie Amazon Lowlands away from tlie 
main river ? 22. Why do so few people live in western and 
southern Argentina ? 

23. Why are many of the western cities in the high plateaus? 

24. What parts of South America are most densely populated ? 

25. What geographic advantages attracted people to these 
centers ? 26. Where is the population most likely to increase ? 
Why ? 27. How do the people make a living who are in areas 
of less than 10 inches of rainfall a year ? Give examples 
from South America. 

28. Which are the young, rugged mountains of South Amer- 
ica ? 29. How do they differ in genei'al appearance from the 
old, worn-down mountains? 30. What mountains in North 
America do the Andes resemble ? 31. Where are the old, 
worn-down mountains ? 32. What mountain areas in North 
America do the Guiana and Brazilian Highlands resemble? 
33. Name the great lowland areas. 34. Where is the widest 
part of the belt of shallow water (continental shelf) around 
South America ? 35. Are the Falkland Islands on the conti- 
nental shelf ? 36. Where do the icebergs come from that float 
about in the ocean south of this continent ? 

O 'TInn and CAn'P""^ 


The ancient castles suggest at once the historic inter- 
est in almost every European scene. Europe has long 
been occupied by civilized, progressive peoples, and its 
civilization has had a profound influence upon almost all 
the nations of the world. The choicest of the world's 
music, much of its best literature, the finest works of 
sculpture, and the greatest paintings have been produced 
by Europeans. 

The discovery of the power in steam, the invention of 
the printing press, the discovery of the X-rays that have 
made it possible to take pictures through clothing, wood, 
and even through flesh, the invention of wireless teleg- 
raphy, and many other valuable scientific discoveries 
and inventions have been made by Europeans. 

The explorers and settlers who first came to the new 
world were Europeans (see Appendix, Plate A), and now 
every nation in Europe is represented in the population 
of the United States. From the earliest days of settle- 
ment along our Atlantic coast we have maintained com- 
mercial relations with the countries of Europe, and the 
heaviest ocean traffic to-day is between the ports of 
western Europe and those of our Atlantic coast states. 
See Appendix, Plate B. The World War awakened and 
renewed our interest in the people of all the countries 
of the world, but especially in the people of Europe. 
Here new countries were established, and in most of these 
countries a republican form of government was organized. 
The future development of the nations of Europe is of 
very great interest and importance to us. 

People. Europe was peopled for the most part by 
members of the white race who are supposed to have 
come from west central Asia. Some of them migrated 
into the eastern Mediterranean region and then into 
southern Europe. From these people the Italians and 
Greeks have descended. 

Other groups of the white race migrated north of the 
Caspian Sea and moved westward into the great plains 
of central Europe. The Celts, Teutons, and Slavs fol- 
lowed this northern route. From these races came the 
people who now make up the nations of central and 
northwestern Europe. 

The Finns and Laplanders are related to the yellow, 
or Mongolian, race, which populated eastern Asia. The 
Turks are descended from Mongolian invaders who 
swept through western Asia in the thirteenth centvuy, 
and later pushed into the Balkan Peninsula. They now 
live in the area in and about Constantinople. The 
Magyars of Hungary are also descendants of Mongolian 
invaders, but of still earlier days. 

Growth of nations. The subdivision of Europe into 
many peninsiilas and highlands and into lowland areaa 
surrounded by mountains, and the presence of islands 
near the continent, have led to the growth of many 
distinct nations. No other continent has so many 
separate nations. People who are shut off by themselves 
usually have their own language and customs and often 
wish to be independent. Mountain peoples everywhere 
in the world are great lovers of freedom. 




Natueal Regions 

Europe may first be divided for purposes of study into 
five large natural regions : (1) the Northwest Highlands, 
(2) the Central Plains, (3) the Central Highlands, (4) the 
Southern Mountains and Plateaus, and (5) the Southern 
Plains. See map on page 161. Each of these regions 
may be subdivided for the detailed study of any country. 

Fig. 311. This is Ben Nevis, the highest mottntain in Scotland. The Scotch 

word " ben " means mountain and is often used before the name of a peak, 

just as the word " mount " is used in English. Locate Ben Nevis on your 

map. To what natural region does it belong ? What is its height ? 

Northwest Highlands. This is a coastal region where 
fishermen hve, where many men become good seamen, 
where great explorers have been brought up, where excel- 
lent harbors have helped the growth of cities, where, in 
places, coal and iron have led to an industrial life, and 
where commerce has become very important. It is a 
region of cool temperate climate, which makes the people 
energetic. The peninsula of Brittany in France, most of 
the British Isles, and most of the Scandinavian Penin- 
sula are included in this natural region (Figs. 311, 312). 


Use map on page 161. 1. Find the name " Northwest High- 
lands." 2. Are the mountains of this natural region young and 
rugged or old and worn down ? 3. Through what large group 
of islands do the Northwest Highlands extend ? AVhen more 
of the continent stood above the sea, this highland belt was 
a continuous mountain mass extending from the Upland of 
Brittany to North Cape. 

4. What is the general elevation of the highlands in Norway? 
In the mythology of the Norse people this cold region, in 
places almost inaccessible, was supposed to be peopled by 
the frost giants, or Jotunns, and the name " Jotunnheim," 
which means home of the giants, is still used. 

Use maps on page 216. 5. What winds bring rain to the 
Northwest Highlands ? 6. How much rain falls in the dif- 
erent parts of the highlands ? 7. In what part of this natural 
region is the population densest ? Why ? 

Central Plains. Turn to the map on page 161 for the 
location and extent of the Central Plains, and to the map 
opposite page 216 for the surface features and vegeta- 
tion. This is the great food-producing area of Europe 
(Fig. 314). It includes the larger lowlands of France, the 
plain of southeastern England, almost all of the land in 
the low countries bordering the North Sea, all of northern 
Germany, most of Poland, and most of Russia. In the 
densely settled parts it is divided into small farms that 
are cultivated most thoroughly. Where the population is 
sparse there are forests or great tracts of grazing lands. 

The Central Plains extend so far from north to south, 
and so far inland, that there are great differences in 
climate within the region, and therefore great differ- 
ences in the vegetation and in the occupations of the 
people. In the tundra region of the Far North there are 
mosses, lichens, low bushes, and dwarf trees ; some of 
the trees are only a few inches high. The ground is 


. - --- ^ I 

Courtesy of Williams, Bi^ 

Fig. 312. The old, worn-down mountains along the coast of the Scandina- 
vian Peninsula have sunk, allowing the sea waters to enter the valleys, and 
making steep-walled fiords like the one in this view. Notice the location 
of the little village on the narrow strip of lowland by the water 

frozen except for a few months, and as water cannot 
sink into the ground this land is marshy dining the 
summer. Toward the north pole vegetation disappears. 
The reindeer moss is the most valuable plant in the 
tundra; it makes possible the life of the reindeer, the 
animal which provides many people with milk for food 
and skins for clothing. The reindeer is also used as a 
draft animal in arctic regions. 

South of the tundra there is an extensive evergreen 
forest. The timber is used for masts, for building, and 
for fuel. Most of the cutting is done in the winter, and 
in the spring the logs are floated down the streams. 
From the best logs lumber is made ; the poorer material 
is used for matches or wood pulp. This forest extends 
westward into the Scandinavian Peninsula. 



Fig. 313. This is a view in the Central Highlands near the boundary be- 
tween Czechoslovakia and Germany. The mountains here are old and worn 
down. The little towns and villages are located in the open valleys between 
the mountains, where there is enough fertile soil for agriculture. What are 
the chief natural resources of this region ? 

In the grasslands south of the forests there are large 
areas used for raising wheat, rye, oats, and barley. 
Potatoes are grown everywhere except in the very cold- 
est or driest places. The sugar beet is one of the most 
important plants of the plains of central Europe ; peas, 
beans, and other vegetables are raised in abundance. 

In the lowlands of southern France the climate be- 
comes mild like that of the other lowlands in the 
Mediterranean region. Grapes are extensively cultivated 
here, and many other kinds of fruit are raised. 

In the drier portions of southeastern Europe, where 
the winters are severe and the summers hot, stock- 
raising is the chief occupation. Here the lands are 
often called steppes, which means lowland 
plains without trees. The people of the dry 
steppes are tent-dwellers who move about 
with their herds of cattle and flocks of sheep. 
Near the Caspian Sea there is a semidesert 
where very few plants can grow. 


1. Use map on page 161. On what bodies of 
water do the Central Plains border ? 2. What 
is the general elevation of these plains ? 3. What 
old, worn-down mountains are on their north- 
ciistem margin ? 

4. What young, rugged mountains are on the 
southern margin of these plains? 5. What hills above these plains at a distance of about 
200 kilometers northwest of Moscow? 6. What 
highland region, with old, worn-down mountains, 
is south of the western part of the Central Plains? 

7. Use maps on page 216. What is the rainfall on the 
western margin of the Central Plains ? in the central part ? 
in the eastern part ? 8. Why does western Europe receive more 
rain than eastern Europe ? 9. In what part of the Central 
Plains of Europe is the population densest? Why? 

Central Highlands. This part of Europe contains the 
great iron and coal mines that made it possible for cen- 
tral Europe to become an industrial district and for 
Germany and Austria to continue the great World War 
from 1914 to 1918. It is a region having large and 
varied mineral resources, water-power, and many excel- 
lent forests, and is therefore a region of very great im- 
portance to the future industrial life of the nations of 
Europe. This natural region extends into France, Bel- 
gium, Luxemburg, southern Germany, Austria, and 
western Czechoslovakia (Fig. 313). 


1. Use map between pages 181 and 184. Into what countries 
do the Central Highlands extend ? Are the mountains young 
and rugged or old and worn down ? Make a list of the chief 
mountain ranges in this natural region. What mountains in 
the United States do you think they resemble in general 
appearance ? See also map opposite page 216. 

2. What plateaus are included in these highlands ? 3. Be- 
tween what mountains is the lowland plain of the middle 
portion of the Rhine River? 4. Make a list of the chief 
mineral resources found within this natural region. 

5. Use maps on page 216. What is the rainfall in this 
region ? 6. Where is the population densest in this region ? 

Home work. Use figures on page 268. List the January and 
July temperatures for Belgium, Poland, northern Russia, east 
central Russia, and Ukraine. Where is the change in tempera- 
ture from January to July the least? Where is it greatest? Ex- 
plain. Study, in this connection, the ocean-current map on page 275, 

Counei, of Um lulcruatujial Uutc 

Fig. 314. The Central Plains of Russia produce great quantities of wheat and other grains. 
This view shows an American harvesting machine at work cutting wheat in this region. 
Although large numbers of the Russian people still cultivate the soil entirely by hand, 
modern farm machinery is gradually being introduced, making possible a great increase 
in the amount of food that can be raised 



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Southern lowlands. In the valley of the Danube is 
the Plain of Hungary. It is a bi^oad, river-made land 
formed of the fine soil materials washed from the sur- 
rounding mountains. This is one of the best farming 
and grazing regions in the world (Fig. 316). Vast sup- 
plies of food are produced on this plain. 

South of the Alps and north of the Apennines in the 
valley of the Po there is another river-made land. Here the 
soils washed from the neighboring mountains have filled 
in the head of the Adriatic Sea. This is a well-watered 
land with rich soils. Most of it is under cultivation, 
and it supports a 
large population. 

The narrow low- 
lands on the coast 
of Portugal, Spain, 
Italy, and the coun- 
tries in the Balkan 
Peninsula are or- 
chard lands, where 
large supplies of 
subtropical fruits, 
such as oranges, 
lemons, olives, and 
figs, are raised. 


£xcliuiT« Newf Agencj, Ra«huiipton 

Fig. 316. The great plain of the Danube and its tributaries is one of the richest agricultural regions 

in Europe. This view of the river was taken on the frontier between Jugoslavia and Hungary. In 

the distance the level plain extends as far as the eye can see. On the opposite bank is a herd of 

the cattle which are raised extensively in this region 

Use map ; between 
pages 207 and 210. 
1. What mountains 
surround the Plain 
of Hungary ? 2. Into what countries does this plain extend ? 
3. What river drains tlie lowland of northern Italy ? 4. Where 
do narrow coastal lowlands border the Mediterranean Sea ? 

Coast Line 
The North and Baltic seas and the Mediterranean and 

commercial nafions. The peoples of western Europe 
have led the world in seafaring occupations. 

Home tvork. 1. On an outline map of Europe shade or color 
the area that is more than five hundred miles from an ocean or 
an arm of an ocean. 2. Find out what parts of the world are now 
controlled by Europeans or descendants of Europeans. Shade or 
color those parts on an outline map of the world. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why should the people in 

America be especially interested in the people of Europe ? Give at 

least five good reasons. 2. What nations of Europe are represented 

in the population of your school district ? of your city or town ? 

3. How does the size of Europe compare with that of Canada ? 

of Asia? 4. How far 

is Europe separated 
from Africa at Gibral- 
tar '/ Use scale on map 
between jmges 207 and 
210. 5. Why do irreg- 
ular coast lines lead 
men to become seamen 
and explorers ? 

6. To what race do 
most of the people 
of Europe belong ? 
7. What people in 
Europe belong to the 
Mongolian, or yellow, 
race ? 8. Why did so 
many distinct nations 
develop in this conti- 
nent? Give examples. 
9. Give a brief de- 
scription of the five 
large natural regions 
of Europe. 

Influence of the Ice-Sheets 

In studying North America we learned of great ice- 
sheets that formed in Canada. Europe also had great 
ice-sheets during the same glacial period (Fig. 317 ). 
They formed on the highlands of the Scandinavian 

Black seas extend far into the continent of Europe. Peninsula and spread in all directions, advancing east- 

These great irregularities of the coast line, as well as 
the smaller irregularities, are of very great importance 
to the life of the people. 

No part of Europe except central and eastern Russia 
is very far from the coast. The continent is landlocked 
on one side, and still its coast line of about 50,000 miles 
is longer than the coast lines of South America and 
Africa combined, though South America is nearly twice 

ward into central Russia, southward across the Baltic 
Lowland and the plains of Germany to the margin of 
the Central Highlands, and southwestward until they 
invaded the British Isles. 

In all the high mountains there were glaciers, and 
those that remain to-day are but remnants of much 
longer glaciers of the great ice age. 

Over most of the land where the ice was there is a 

and Africa three times as large as Europe. Europe is covering of glacial soils. The deposits left by the ice con- 

fortunate in having many excellent harbors. 

The inhabitants of the lands bordering the seas natu- 
rally became skillful fishermen and sailors. They first 
followed the sea as traders and explorers ; later they 
made good colonists, and in time they developed great 

tain bowlders and look much like the glacial deposits in 
North America. 

Thousands of small lakes in northwestern Europe and 
in the high mountains of southern Europe are in valleys 
blocked with glacial deposits. 



■Climate Jj^ general the mountain areas receive more rain than 

The sm-face waters of the eastern part of the North the lowlands. Far to the north the rainfall decreases, as 

Atlantic Ocean are warmed by the Gulf Stream Drift it does in all countries in high latitudes, because the air 

(see maj}, p. 275), and the winds that blow over those is too cold to carry much moisture, 

waters help to warm the air over the lands of western Europe may therefore be divided into three climatic 

Europe during the winter season. Except in the Far regions : (1) the west, with only slight changes in tem- 

North the countries of western Europe do not have long perature and with rain during all seasons of the year ; 

periods of frosts ; that is, there are no very long periods (2) the east, where the changes in temperature from 

dming which the temperature falls below the freezing summer to winter are great and rain comes chiefly in 

point of water. This is a great advantage to agriculture, the summer ; and (3) the Mediterranean region, with dry, 

In eastern Germany and 
in Poland there are over 
two months of frosts, and 
in eastern Russia there are 
over four months of frosts 
each year. In the bleak 
tundra region bordering the 
Arctic Ocean there are frosts 
for more than six months, 
and the temperature re- 
mains continuously below 
the freezing point for a great 
part of that time. 

In summer eastern Europe 
has a period of between 
two and four months when 
the temperature each day 
rises to over 70° F., while in 
western Europe the winds 
that come from the west 
and have passed over the 

Fig. 317. This map shows the extent to which the continental ice-sheets 
spread over Europe. From what center did they come? Through what 
countries does the line of the southern limit of glaciation pass ? What 
European countries have never been covered by an ice-sheet ? What moun- 
tains of Europe still contain glaciers ? 

hot summers and mild and 
somewhat rainy winters. 

Natueal Resources 

Europe is fortunate in its 
mineral resources, in the ex- 
tent and quality of its forests 
{see map opposite page 216), 
and in the rich soils of the 
lowlands suitable for agricul- 
ture. The waterways, the 
water-power, the harbors, 
and the fish of the shallow 
seas are very valuable. 

The beautiful scenery and 
the places of historic and 
artistic interest are of great 
educational value, and they 
bring thousands of tourists 
to the different European 
countries each year. 

Atlantic Ocean tend to prevent such a long warm period. In each of the countries of Europe the occupations 
The large seas that extend far into the continent help and the prosperity of the people have been determined 

to keep the temperatures of western and southern Em"ope largely by the climate and natural resources of the 

warmer in winter and cooler in summer than they would regions in which they live. 

otherwise be. Changes in temperature are always less 

marked in lands surrounded, or nearly surrounded, by 

ocean waters. 

Home work. Find out in how many months there are frosts 

in your home region. "What part of Europe is similar to your 

home region in this respect ? 

In the Mediterranean lands, except in the high moun- 
tains, the winters are without long periods of frosts, and 
for over two months of the year the daily temperature 
averages more than 70° F. In the extreme south of 
Spain and Italy there are over four months when the 
average daily temperature is 70° F. or more. 

The winds from the Atlantic bring rain to the western 
lands each month of the year. As they pass on eastward 
they have less and less moisture to give up, so the rain- 
fall decreases as we go from west to east across the 
continent of Europe. See map on page 216. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief occupa- 
tions of the i)eople who live in the Northwest Highlands of 
Europe ? 2. Why do the mountains of northwestern Europe differ 
from those of southern Europe ? 

3. How may the hills of England, Ireland, and Brittany be 
explained ? 4. Where did the great continental ice-sheet of Europe 
form ? 5. How did the ice change the surface of the country 
that it invaded ? 

6. What are the chief occupations of the people in the different 
parts of the Central Plains, — (a) in the tundra district ? (h) in the 
great forests ? (c) in the grassland areas ? (d) in the dry steppe 
region ? 7. What part of Europe has the shortest period of frosts ? 
Why ? 8. How do the inland seas affect the temperatures of the 
neighboring lands of Europe ? 

O.'In what natural regions of Europe are there large supplies 
of coal and iron that have led to the growth of industries ? 10. Why 
do great numliers of tourists visit Switzerland ? 11. How does 
the life in the high mountains differ from that on the plains? 
12. Where are the chief lowland plains of southern Euiope? 



Court«8j of Joseph W. Wortheo 

, Urown, ftnd Earl* 

Fig. 318. This isthehomeof George Washington's Fig. 319. In England there are many beautiful Fig. 320. Many of the farmers of the lowland of 

ancestors in England. The quaint old house was homes like this, which are often called manor England live in low, thatch-roofed cottages like 

built several hundred years ago and stands in the houses. Such a house is usually the home of the this. Study the map on page 171 and name some 

midst of a fertile farming country owner of the estate, or manor of the products which they raise 


mouths, like those of the Thames and Mersey, are wide 
and bordered by lowlands. They are called bays. In the 
The British have become a great industrial and com- north, where the river mouths are narrow and bordered 
mercial people. In the early days of active geographic by hills or mountains, they are called firths. The bays 

exploration their mariners were among the most daring 
and adventurous. They visited almost all the lands of 
the earth, and to-day the British Empire is the largest 
and most widespread in the world. 

Physical features. The British Isles consist of Great 
Britain and Ireland and nearly 5000 smaller islands 
near by. They are often called the United Kingdom. 
Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales. 
The total area of all of these islands is about 120,000 
square miles, which is nearly twice as much as the area 
of the New England states. 

The shallow sea around the British Isles is nowhere 
over 600 feet deep. If the sea bottom should rise 
300 feet, the British Isles would be connected with 
Europe. Formerly they were a part of the mainland, 
but the western portion of 
Europe sank, and the sea, 
advancing over the lower 
portions of the land, sepa- 
rated the British Isles from 
the rest of the continent. 
There is now a plan to con- 
nect England with France 
by a tunnel under the Strait 
of Dover. At the narrowest 
place this strait is about 
20 miles wide. 

Coast. The shore lines of 
the British Isles are very 
irregular, owing to the sink- 
ing of the land (Fig. 321). 
The mouths of the rivers are 
drowned. Some of the river 

Fig. 321. This view on. the coast of southwestern England shows the 
irregularity of the coast line. How do you explain this irregularity ? Of 
what advantage is it to the nation ? Notice the level land at the head 
of the little cove in the foreground, and on the upland. For what purposes 
may these level stretches of land be used ? 

and firths allow vessels to go far inland with raw 
material, and have therefore become very valuable in 
the industrial and commercial growth of Great Britain. 
Some of the drowned river mouths have been bridged, 
and in large cities like London tunnels have been made 
under the rivers. 

Highlands. Most of the British Isles are a part of 
the Northwest Highlands. See map on page 161. In 
northern Scotland there are low, picturesque mountains 
and many beautiful lakes (Figs. 322, 323). In southern 
Scotland, in Wales, in southwestern England, and in 
Ireland the upland hilly districts are all that is left 
of an old mountain region. 

Lowlands. The lowland of England, which extends 
from Birmingham to Liverpool, is a busy industrial dis- 
trict and the most produc- 
tive part of the country. In 
central Ireland the lowland 
area, which covers about a 
third of the whole island, 
is an agricultural land. The 
lowland extending across 
Scotland is located in a belt 
where the land dropped 
down, forming a deep valley. 
This is an industrial district, 
but there are many culti- 
vated fields here. The south- 
eastern lowland plain of 
England is a part of the 
Central Plains of Europe. 
It is a grazing and agricul- 
tural region. 



Influence c-f the ice-sheet. The portion of the European 
ice-sheet (Fig. 317) which moved south westward from 
Scandinavia crossed the area where 
the North Sea now is and invaded the 
British Isles. In time the ice covered 
almost all of these islands. When 
later the climate became warmer, the 
great ice-sheet melted away, but the 
deposits of bowldera, the many lakes, 
and the glacial markings on the rocks 
remain as proofs that the ice was 
once there. 

Climate. There is some variation 
in temperature in the various parts 
of the British Isles because of the 
differences in latitude and in eleva- 
tion ; that is, in general it is colder 
in the north and on the small islands 
north of Scotland than it is in the 
south of England and Ireland, and 
colder in the highlands than in the 
lowlands. The presence of the sea, 
however, prevents any great extremes of temperature. 

No part of this land at sea level has a temperature as 

Fig. 322. This is a view of Loch Lomond, one of 
the beautiful lakes in the Scottish Highlands. To 
what type of mountains do these highlands be- 
long ? About how high are they ? 

Natural resources. The irregular coast line of the 
British Isles affords many excellent harbors. The shallow 
waters about the coast abound in fish, 
and the British fisheries are now 
among the richest in the world. 

In the British Isles there are many 
rivers which have been of great im- 
portance in the industrial growth of 
the islands. Large ocean vessels can 
go fifty miles up the Thames to 
London. The Clyde is also navigable, 
and ocean vessels pass upstream as 
far as Glasgow (Fig. 324). There are 
many smaller streams throughout the 
British Isles which, because the rain- 
fall is heavy and much of the country 
is hilly, furnish good water-power. 

In the ground men have found 
coal, iron, lead, copper, and tin. Coal 
is the most important mineral prod- 
uct ; and becavise of the nearness of 
the coal to the ports, Great Britain 
exports more coal than any other country. The tin has 
been largely worked out. The finding of iron and coal 

low as 32 degrees F. even during January, which is the close together {see map, j}- 171) has made possible the 

development of mannfacturing in England, southern 
Wales, and southern Scotland. Such big industries as 
the shipbuilding of the Clyde have developed because of 
the presence of coal and iron in the same locality. 

Excellent building stones have been found, including 
marble and slate. These building stones are next in 
importance to coal and iron. In southeastern England 
there is a formation of chalk which is used in making 
cement. There are also excellent deposits of clay in 
England, which have led to the manufacture of pottery. 

Fig. 323. A broader view of Loch Lomond shows how beautiful the scenery is 
in the Scottish Highlands. The lakes are surrounded by low, wooded moun- 
tains and dotted with islands of different shapes and sizes. On account 
of its beauty this region is visited every year by large numbers of tourists 

coldest month of the year. The warmest part is around 
London, and the temperature there during July is about 
1 degrees F. The seas about the British Isles never freeze, 
and the rivers seldom freeze. When snow comes, it remains 
but a few days, except on the higher lands in the north. 
The prevailing winds are from the southwest. They 
bring an abundance of moisture, and fogs and mists are 
very common. The rainfall is heaviest on the western 
slopes of the higher lands. See map on page 316. 

Fig. 324. The Firth of Clyde, near Glasgow, is lined with wharves where at 
any time great ocean-going vessels may be seen loading and unloading their 
cargoes and taking on coal and supplies. Locate Glasgow and the Firth of 
Clyde on your map. Why has Glasgow become the leading port of Scotland ? 



Fig. 325. The men in this picture are Scotch 

fishermen whose home is on the northern shore 

of the Firth of Forth. The old man is mending 

one of their wicker fish-baskets 

Fig. 326. These fishing boats are being towed out 

to the'fishing banks from one of the Scottish ports 

on the North Sea. What different kinds of fish 

will be found in their catch ? 

Fig. 327. This is the fish market on the wharf at 
Aberdeen, where the fishermen bring their catch 
to be sold. Why has Aberdeen become an impor- 
tant center for the fish business ? 

Occupations. The lowlands invited the early inhabitants and other raw materials began to be imported. More 
of these islands to undertake farming. In many places the ships were built and more and more of the British people 
land is still under cultivation. At 
the present time more and more 
of the agricultural land is being 
used for manufacturing plants. 

Fishing was also one of the 
earliest occupations and has con- 
tinued to grow in importance as 
the population has increased. 
Large quantities of cod, herring, 
mackerel, and sole are brought 
in by the fishermen (Figs. 325, 
326, 327). 

From the earliest days the 
highlands and uplands have been 
used for the grazing of cattle 
and sheep, but for a time the 
people sent the wool from their 

Fig. 328. The Manchester Ship Canal connects the city of 

Manchester with the mouth of the Mersey River. It is deep 

enough to allow large ocean vessels to reach the city, making 

Manchester an important port 

entered commercial life. In time 
the manufacturing industries 
and commerce became the chief 
occupations in the British Isles. 

Home tvork. On an outline map of 
the world, name and color the differ- 
ent parts of the British Empire. See 
pages 168 and 169. This will bring 
- out clearly the interest which the 
British people naturally have in all 
parts of the world. British commerce 
has been developed largely with the 
British colonies. See Appendix, Plate B. 

Cities. At the eastern base 
of the Pennine Mountains are 
Leeds and Bradford, where woolen 
goods are manufactured. Water- 
power was first used to run the 

flocks over to Flanders, and the busy looms of Bruges mills, but now coal is brought from the neighboring coal 
and Ghent manufactured most of the English wool, fields. Manchester, connected by canal with the sea, is also 

During the time of religious 
persecutions in northern Europe 
many skillful weavers sought 
safety across the Channel, and 
weaving soon became a very 
common occupation in England. 
Large quantities of wool are now 
produced in the British Isles and 
manufactured in the home mills. 
England supplies many other 
countries with a high grade of 
woolen cloth. 

With the great increase in 
population, and with the dis- 
covery of coal and iron, the 
manufacturing plants increased 
in number and size, and cotton 

Fig. 329. The landing stages at Liverpool are always busy' 

and are often crowded with people. Liverpool is the leading 

port of Great Britain for the trade with America. What are 

its chief exports and imports ? 

a manufacturing center (Fig. 328). 
Cotton brought here in large 
quantities from our Southern 
states and from other parts of 
the world is manufactured into 
cloth. The dampness of the air 
on the western side of the 
Pennine Range is favorable to 
this industry, for the cotton fiber 
can be made into cloth more 
easily if it is a little moist than 
if it is dry. 

Liverpool, the coast city nearest 
to this remarkable manufactur- 
ing district, is one of the greatest 
ports in the world and does a 
tremendous business (Fig. 329). 



Sheffield is famous for its iron-and-steel industry. Coal 
is near at hand, and when the industry first started there 
was a supply of ii'on. This is now largely exhausted, but 
iron is imported from other countries. Excellent grind- 
stones are made near Sheffield; they are very important 
in the manufacture of cutlery. Birmingham, centrally 
located in England, is in another manufacturing dis- 
trict. It has an abundance of coal, and its iron-and-steel 
industries occupy the time of many thousands of people. 

advantage, for the commerce with the countries of westr 
ern Europe naturally comes to this port. The river is 
lined for miles with docks, and yet there are not places 
enough for the vessels that are in this port at one time. 
It is commonly reported that London is the largest city 
in the world, but that is not true unless the population 
of a very large suburban district is taken into consider- 
ation. The population of London proper is now a little 
smaller than that of New York City. See Appendix. 

Fig. 330. This is an aeroplane drawing of London and its surroundings. 
The numbers show the location of the following places of interest: 
1, Regent's Park ; 2, Kensington Gardens ; 3, Hyde Park; 4, Buckingham 
Palace ; 6, British Uuseum ; 6, National Gallery ; 7, Trafalgar Square ; 

London, the seat of the British government, is located 
at the head of the estuary of the Thames. It is one of the 
most interesting cities in the world (Figs. 330, 831, 833). 
Its location was first determined by some high ground 
on the banks of the Thames, where a bridge could be 
built across the river. Modem London has grown up 
around this bridge. The city is far inland and is sur- 
rounded by plains. Easy means of transportation has 
been one of the great natural advantages of its location, 
and it has become a railroad and manufacturing center. 
Its position on the eastern side of the islands is a natural 

^C^ (linn xDii Cotnji^Dy 

8, Charing Cross ; 9, Westminster Abbey ; 10, Houses of Parliament ; 
11, St. Paul's Cathedral; 12, London Bridge; 13, Tower of London; 
14, Victoria Park. At Harrow-on-the-Hill is a famous school for boys which 
was founded fifty years before the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth 

Picture study. Fig. 330 shows the city of London and its sur- 
roundings. Study this figure carefully and answer the following 
questions : 1. On what river is London situated ? 2. In what 
direction is the river flowing ? 3. Describe the country around 
London. 4. Notice the large number of railroads. Why is London 
such an important railroad center ? 5. Find London Bridge. This 
is near the spot where the first settlement of London was made. 
6. Find the Greenwich Observatory. What meridian of longitude 
passes through Greenwich? See mop on page 171. The Green- 
wich Olservatory was built in 1675, and all English-si>eaking 
people measure longitude by the number of degrees eiist or west 
of it. 7. Find the location of the Houses of Parliament. This is 
where the House of Lords and the House of Commons. meet. 



Fig. 331. This is the Tower Bridge in London, so named because it spans 
the Thames near the famous old Tower of London. Notice the way in 
which the parts of the bridge are raised to allow the boats to pass through. 
Name some of the raw materials which are brought to London by water. 
From what places do they come ? 

Aberdeen, in Scotland, is a university town. It is also 
an important fishing port (Fig. 327) and the center of a 
manufacturing district. There are important granite 
quarries close by. 

Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is beautifully situ- 
ated about a picturesque crag on the margin of the 
Scottish lowlands, and its busy seaport, Leith, connects 
this region with the North Sea and the European ports 
(Fig. 332). It is best known for its advanced methods 
in banking and insurance and for its excellent medical 
school. A trip from Edinburgh to Glasgow takes one 
through the lake region of Scotland. Glasgow is located on 

the Clyde River, 
in the lowlands 
of Scotland, near 
rich coal and iron 
fields. It is in the 
midst of one of 
the greatest ship- 
building regions 
in the world. As 
a commercial cen- 
ter Glasgow ranks 
first in Scotland 
and second in the 
United Kingdom. 
Since the Clyde 
has been deep- 
ened Glasgow has 
become a great 
modern port, and 

Fig. 333. This beautiful church is Westminster Jt is also an im- 
Abbey in London. It was built more than seven _+ i. *■ f 

hundred years ago and contains many monuments PO^tant center lOr 

to famous men. Find its location in Fig. 330 railroad traffic. 

Fig. 332. Princes Street is the principal thoroughfare in Edinburgh. In 
the foreground of this view are the beautiful public gardens. Beyond the 
gardens is the tall monument erected in honor of Sir Walter Scott, the great 
Scottish writer. On the hill at the left is the castle which used to be the 
home of the Scottish kings 

Belfast, in northeastern Ireland, has developed a large 
ship-building business. There is an abundance of labor 
and excellent facihties for launching vessels at this port 
(Fig. 336). Iron, steel, and coal are easily brought by 
water from Great Britain. Belfast is also the center for 
the manufacture of the wonderful Irish linens. Flax 
thread is usually kept moist 
during the process of spin- 
ning and weaving, and the 
climate of Belfast is most 
favorable to this industry 
(Fig. 335). Much of the flax 
used in the manufacture of 
the linen is grown in north- 
em Ireland, but large quan- 
tities are imported from 
Belgium, Russia, and the 
Baltic countries. 

Dublin, the capital of Ire- 
land, is near a deep bay 
facing England. It is situ- 
ated on the east margin of 
the central plain of Ireland, 

and the produce of this region is brought by way of 
canals to Dublin for shipping. This city has also be- 
come a center for the manufacture of silk and wool. 
Cork, an important city on the south shore of Ireland, 
is the port from which are shipped the cattle and dairy 
products of southern Ireland. 

The British Empire includes (in Europe) the United 
Kingdom, Gibraltar, and Malta (Fig. 337) ; (in Asia) 
India, Cyprus, Aden, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, Feder- 
ated Malay States, Borneo, Hongkong, and a few other 
small areas of lesser importance ; (southeast of Asia) 

i)£ejsU)DO Tiflw Co. 

Fig. 334. Blarney Castle is a pictur- 
esque ruin near Cork in Ireland ; it is 
visited by large numbers of tourists 



Australia, Papua, New Zealand, Fiji, the Tonga Islands, 
the Solomon Islands, and the Gilbert Islands ; (in Africa) 
St. Helena, Nigeria, Gold Coast, Sieri-a Leone, Gambia, 
Soraaliland, East Africa, Uganda, Nyasaland, Union of 
South Africa, Rhodesia, Bechuaualand, Egypt, Anglo- 
Egyptian Sudan, and other areas in Africa of lesser 
importance; (in America) Canada, Newfoundland and 
Labi-ador, British Honduras, British Guiana, Bermuda, 
British West Indies, and the Falkland Islands. Since the 
World War (1914-1918) the British people have control 
and direction of affairs in most of the former colonies of 

The British colonies have been, and continue to be, of 
very great value to the people living in the British Isles. 
They have served as countries to which British people 
could emigrate, and where British capital could be in- 
vested. Foods and large quantities of raw material are 

Fig. 335. The man in this picture is spreading out linen on a bleaching 

green near Belfast. Here the linen will grow white as it lies on the grass 

in the sun. Why is the Irish linen industry located in the neighborhood of 

Belfast ? Where do the linen manufacturers get their flax ? 

imported from the colonies, and manufactured goods are 
sent in return. A serious defeat at sea would mean dis- 
aster to England's industries, and possibly starvation to 
her people. 

The great merchant marine, the cables, wireless teleg- 
raphy, and the habit of travel have helped to hold the 
different parts of the empire together. 

Government. The British government is a limited 
monarchy. The king inherits his position, but his 
power is limited. The executive power is in the hands 
of a Cabinet headed by a Prime Minister. Parliament, 
which controls most of the affairs of the nation, consists 
of a House of Lords and a House of Commons. The 
members of the House of Lords inherit their positions, 
])ut the members of the House of Commons are elected 
by the people. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What great explorers came 
to America from the I5ritish Isles ? 2. What countries are in- 
cluded in Great Britain ? 3. What is meant by the United King- 
dom ? 4. How wide is the strait between England and France ? 

Fig. 336. This is a view in one of the shipbuilding yards at Belfast. The 
hull of a great ocean liner has been completed and it is ready to be launched. 
When the signal is given, it will slide off backward into the water. After 
it is afloat the workmen will install the machinery and build all the upper 

parts of the ship 

6. What natural regions extend into these islands ? 6. What 
is the highest mountain in Scotland ? See Fig. Sll. 7. Why should 
there be heavy rainfall, with many mists and fogs, in these islands? 
8. Why are the changes in temperature during the year less thaa 
on the mainland ? 

9. W^hy did manufacturing become so important in these islands ? 
10. What have you seen that was manufactured in England ? in 
Ireland ? 11. What natural advantages has London ? Liverpool ? 
Sheffield? Belfast? 

12. Of what value are the colonial possessions to the people 
living in the British Isles ? 13. What advantages are there for 
the colonies in belonging to the great British Empire ? 14. What 
city is the capital of the British Empire ? 15. About how long does 
it take to make the ocean voyage from New York to Liverpool ? 

PubiiatMn' Pboto 8«nl«e, Ibo. 

Fig. 337. This is the harbor at Malta. See map on page 161, H 8. Tho 
large ship in this picture has stopped here to take on coal. It is on its way 
from England to Sydney in Australia. Turn to Appendix, Plate B, and 
trace its route. How long does this voyage take ? What products will this 
ship bring back to England ? 



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At Trondhjem during two 
of the summer months the 
nights are light. The sun 
goes below the horizon about 
midnight, butnotfar enough 
to cause absolute darkness. 
During two of the winter 
months the days are dark, 
for the sun is below the 
horizon except for a short 
time about noon. 

Natural resources. 1. Turn to 
the map opposite page 216 first. 
Where is the tundra of Scan- 
dinavia ? 2. Is there any other 
part of Scandinavia without 
forest ? 3. Turn to the maps on 
pages 171 and 201. AVhere are 
there iron deposits ? 4. What 

Fig. 339. Here is a family of Laplanders whose home is in the northern 
part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Notice the shape of their house. Of 
what materials do you suppose it is made ? At the left are two reindeer. 
What other people who keep herds of reindeer have you studied about ? 

lowland area near the coast, 
where there are a number of 
settlements. The Swedish 
people live chiefly in the 
southern portion of their 

Occupations in Sweden. On 
the Baltic Lowland of Swe- 
den agriculture is carried on. 
The chief crops are oats, rye, 
barley, potatoes, and sugar 
beets (Fig.- 340). A small 
amount of wheat is raised. 
Much of Sweden is good 
pasture land, and a large 
part of the population is 
engaged in caring for the 
cattle and in dairying. 

Both of these occupations are increasing in importance. 
Lumbering and the manufacture of woodenware and 

kinds of fish are found in the shallow waters of the Baltic ? 
5. Where in the vicinity of Norway are cod and herring found? 

6. From a study of the two maps referred to, where should ' , • • , , • t, » n t 

you expect to find the best agricultural lands? 7. Where is- 'P^P^^ ^^« '^^^^ ^" importance to agriculture. A Swede 
water-power likely to be abundant ? 8. From a study of the ; named Lundstrom mvented friction matches, and the 
maps make a list of the natural resources of the Scandinavian "^ manufacture of matches has become an immense indus- 
Peninsula. 9. How may the beautiful scenery of Norway be made try in Sweden. Logs are imported from Finland and 

a valuable natural resource ? 

Distribution of people. In the Far North tribes of Lap- 
landers wander about with their herds of reindeer or live 
in small fishing villages. During the winter they often 
travel southward into the forested region, and some- 
times a few of them even reach Stockholm (Fig. 339). 

The mountainous portion of the Scandinavian Penin- 
sula is but thinly populated. Most of the Norwegian 
people live in cities or villages near or at the heads of 
the great fiords. In southeastern Norway there is a little 

Russia to supply the need of wood in the match factories, 
and thousands of tons of matches are exported each 
year. Many of the Swedish people are engaged in the 
herring fisheries of the Baltic Sea. 

Large numbers of workmen are needed at the iron 
mines. The iron ore is so valuable that a railroad has 
been built across the Kiolen Range of the Northwest High- 
lands to a point on the Norwegian coast where the harbor 
is never ice-bound. Much of this ore is shipped to England 
to be smelted, because of the lack of coal in Scandinavia. 



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Fig. 340. These women are weeding a field of 

sugar beets in the southern part of the Baltic 

Lowland. What kind of soil is found here ? What 

other crops are raised in this region ? 

Fig. 341. The passenger and freight boats steam 

far up the Norwegian fiords, stopping here and 

there at the little fishing villages. Describe the 

life of the people in these villages 

Fig. 342. This Norwegian farmer has been cut- 
ting hay in the mountain valley above his home. 
The bundles of hay are fastened to a trolley and 
allowed to slide down to the barn 



Fig. 343. The city of Bergen has grown up at the head of a deep fiord which 
forms an excellent harbor. Locate Bergen on the map on page 171. What 
is its latitude ? How does its climate compare with that of the east coast 
of North America in the same latitude ? What are the leading exports ? 

Occupations in Norway. About 70 per cent of Norway 
is barren, and about 20 per cent is forested ; therefore 
the occupations of the people are chiefly connected with 
the sea. Life along the fiords makes the people thor- 
oughly familiar with the water. Everyone there knows 
how to use a boat, and nearly every man knows how to 
build one. Here shipbuilding is a very important industry. 

At the heads of many of the fiords there are small 
areas that are cultivated. Here vegetables and a little 
grain and hay are raised. In the small lowland area in 
the southeast there are good farms. High in the moun- 
tain valleys some hay is made, for it is very important 
to provide fodder for the cows (Fig. 342). 

Many Norwegian fishermen go each year to the Arctic 
Ocean to engage in seal and whale fishing, and others go 
to the North Sea for cod and herring 
or to the waters around the Lofoten 
Islands to fish for cod. Norway has 
furnished many excellent seamen, 
and Norwegian ships are seen in 
all ports of the world. The beauti- 
ful coasts and wonderful mountain 
scenery bring thousands of tovtrists 
to Norway, and the care of these 
people has become an important 

Cities. Nearly all the cities of the 
Scandinavian Peninsula are along 
tlie coast. Christiania. the capital of 
tlie kingdom of Norway, is in the 
most fertile part of that country, on 
Christiania Fiord. Bergen, the next city in size, is an 
important fish-curing center. Enormous quantities of 
fish are shipped from this port (Fig. 343). In the north 

Fig. 345. This is a view in a Swedish peasant's 

home. The beds are built into the walls like 

berths, and are hung with curtains. Notice the 

fireplace and the old grandfather's clock 

Fig. 344. Stockholm is an important port and shipbuilding center. This 
is a view of the shipping district of the city. At the left is the railroad. 
Along the water-front are the business buildings and warehouses. Why is 
the location of Stockholm less ;f ortunate for a port than that of Bergen ? 

are Hammerfest and Tromso. The chief interest of these 
cities lies in the whale and seal fisheries. 

Stockholm, the capital of the kingdom of Sweden, is 
located on Lake Malar. It is built upon islands and 
is sometimes called " The Venice of the North." It 
has wide streets, large buildings, and many bridges 
(Fig. 344). The palace of the king is on one of the 
islands. Upsala, the former capital, is a university town. 
Gdteborg, the chief port for exports, is connected with 
Stockholm by canal and rail. Its harbor is rarely frozen, 
while the Baltic ports are blocked with ice for three or 
four months each year. Norrkoping, where there are 
cotton, woolen, and flour mills, is the chief industrial 
center of Sweden. Machinery is also manufactured at 
Norrkoping. The port of Malmo is a busy railway center. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What 
part of Norway should you most like to 
visit? 2. When should you prefer to go 
there ? 3. What should you expect to see ? 
4. Why has Norway not become a great 
manufacturing country ? 6. Why is Swe- 
den more of an agricultural country than 
Norway ? 

6. Why has Sweden a drier climate than 
Norway ? 7. Why should the ports of 
Sweden freeze, while those of Norway re- 
main open throughout the winter? 8. What 
industries have the Swedish people devel- 
oped ? 9. Locate Lapland on the map on 
page 201. What are the chief occupations 
of the Laplanders ? 10. How is the rein- 
deer valuable to the Laplanders ? 

11. Why are there no large inland cities 

on the Scandinavian Peninsula ? 12. What 

is the capital of Norway ? of Sweden ? 13. Why have so many 

Norwegians become seafaring people ? 14. What natural resource 

of great importance in manufacturing is almost lacking in Sweden? 




lacking. There are also large plants where engines and 
The kingdom of Denmark comprises the peninsula of steel ships are built, and factories where gloves are made. 

Jutland and a group of islands lying at the entrance to 
the Baltic Sea. The islands, which are more thickly 
settled than the mainland of Denmark, are close to the 
most densely populated portions of Norway and Sweden, 
and the people of the three countries have many interests 
in common. 

Physical features. Denmark is a lowland country. 
See map on page 171. Most of the coast is sandy, and 
bordering the shore the waters are very shallow and there 
are lagoons shut in 
by shifting sand 
bars. There are, 
therefore, no very 
good harbors here. 
The harbor at Co- 
penhagen is the 
only one that can 
be entered by the 
largest ocean-going 
vessels. The sur- 
face of the land 
is a gently rolling 
plain dotted with 
marshes and ponds . 

Almost every- 
where the soils 
consist of glacial 
deposits left by 
the melting of the 
great European ice- 
sheets (Fig. 317). 

Fig. 346. This is a view of the harbor of Copenhagen. Study the location of Copenhagen on the 
map on page 171, and notice how near it is to Malmo in Sweden. Trains from Stockholm are 
ferried across the water between Malmo and Copenhagen. Why is the location of Copenhagen 
favorable to commercial growth ? What things have the ships in this view brought to the city ? 

What will they carry away ? 

Climate. Cold, raw, misty winds bring an abundance 
of moisture to Denmark, and there is sufficient rainfall 
for agriculture and stock-raising. 

Natural resources and occupations. Four fifths of Den- 
mark is farm land, and about one half of this is being 
used for pasture. Dairy-farming is the chief occupation 
of the people. Cooperative creameries have been estab- explains why the Danish explorer, Eric the Red, who 

Denmark has a large commercial fleet, and many of 
the people are engaged in the shipping trade. 

Copenhagen (trading haven), the capital and the only 
large city of Denmark, is located on the narrow sound 
which separates Denmark from Sweden. It commands 
the important trade route from the Baltic to the North 
Sea (Fig. 346). 

Colonial possessions. Greenland and the Faroe Islands 
are possessions of Denmark. The Faroe Islands supply 

the home country 
with wool and 
mutton, as well as 
with large quan- 
tities of fish. 

Greenland is an 

ice-capped island. 

The interior is a 

vast plateau of ice, 

9000 feet high in 

some places. The 

ice is probably 

thousands of feet 

thick, and moves 

outward toward 

the shore, where 

in some places it 

breaks off and 

forms icebergs. It 

is like the great 

ice-sheets which 

were formerly on 

the North American continent and on northwestern 

Europe. About the shore of Greenland there is a 

fringe of old, worn-down mountains. Off the east coast 

there is a cold current, making the climate so severe 

that the east coast is not inhabited. On the west coast 

there is a narrow belt of green tundra country, which 

hshed by the farmers, and they are carried on most sys- 
tematically. Large quantities of butter are exported. 
The skim milk is used for fattening hogs, which are later 
sent to cooperative packing-houses. The productive land 
is Denmark's greatest resource, and farming will always 
be of first importance to the country. 

The fishing grounds near Denmark furnish an addi- 
tional food supply and a profitable occupation for a 
large number of men. A supply of clay, some of which 
is of fine quality, is the only valuable mineral resource, 
and it has led to the manufacture of pottery. The peat 
of the marshes provides some fuel, but coal is entirely 

discovered this land, gave it the name " Greenland." 
The native people are Eskimos. They fish and hunt the 
seal, walrus, and other fur-bearing animals. The largest 
settlement is Julianehaab, which has a population of 2500. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Describe briefly the physi- 
cal features of Denmark. 2. Why are there not many good har- 
bors ? 3. Where is the best harbor in Denmark ? 4. With what 
countries do the Danish people naturally trade and have many 
interests in common ? 5. Why should there be an abundance of 
moisture in Denmark ? 6. Why has dairy farming become the 
chief occupation of the people ? 7. What other occupations are 
followed ? 8. What is the capital and largest city of Denmark ? 
9. What colonial possessions has Denmark ? 



Fig. 347. Scattered along the shores of the fiords of Iceland are little fishing 

Tillages like the one in this view. Nearly all the people of these villages 

depend upon fishing for their living. Except for a few small vegetable 

gardens they do no farming, but most of them own a little live-stock 


Iceland was for a long time a colonial possession of 
Denmark, but in 1919 the mother country granted inde- 
pendence to the people of this island. It is a very large 
mountainous island with a coast indented by fiords 
except on the south side. It rises to an elevation of 
6400 feet, and the greater part is covered with snow or 
ice. In the southwest there is a very small lowland area 
where the few inhabitants live. There are over one hun- 
dred volcanoes on the island and many geysers and hot 
springs. The country is too cold for agriculture, but 
there are rich pastures where sheep, cattle, and ponies 
are raised. Fishing also is an occupation followed by 
many of the people (Fig. 347). Large quantities of down 
are seciu-ed from the eider duck. The capital of Iceland 
is Reykjavik, which is on the western side of the island. 

Fig. 348. This is a typical scene on the polders of the Netherlands. In the 
distance are the Dutch windmills. In the foreground are a few of the many 
cattle which feed on the grasses of these fertile meadow lands. Find out 
what the word "nether" means, and explain why this country is called 

the Netherlands 


The Kingdom of the Netherlands is also known as 
Holland. It is a small country, about the size of Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut combined, but commercially it 
is ver}' important. 

Physical features. The low, marshy lands are the delta 
of the Rhine. Tidal currents coming from the north and 
south along the west coast meet opposite the mouth of 
the Rhine. The water here is therefore almost quiet, 
allowing the sands and silts brought by the river to 
settle and make a delta. Elsewhere about the shores of 
the North Sea the tides rush into the mouths of the rivers 
and then out again, clearing away the sands and silts. The 
Rhine has the only large delta in this part of Europe. 

Reclaiming the 
land. A large part 
of the Nether- 
lands was of little 
real value to man 
until the Dutch 
people constructed 
strong dikes and 
'sea walls which 
keep the sea out. 
They drained por- 
tions of the wet 
meadow land by 
cutting drainage 
canals that car- 
ried the waters 
to lower swamps 
and to lagoons. 
A number of the 
meadows were in- 
closed with dikes, 

and by pumping the water out they made these meadows 
fit to cultivate. Little by little Holland has been made 
into a fertile country, three fourths of which is very 
productive. Thousands of windmills are still used in 
pumping the water from the low meadows, or polders 
(Fig. 348), but electric pumps are rapidly replacing the 
large, picturesque Dutch mills (Fig. 349). 

Although the reclaiming of land from the marshes 
and lagoons has steadily continued, more food-producing 
land is needed. The privations which resulted from the 
great World War have spurred the Dutch nation to renew 
their efforts to drain a large part of the Zuider Zee. The 
Zuider Zee is an inland body of water so nearly inclosed 
that it looks like a lake. Plans are now being made for 
work that will cover a period of thirty years and will 
reclaim 400,000 acres of land for farming and grazing. 
See map on 2)age 171. 

C'ourteaj of Williamo, Browa, and £uU 

Fig. 349. A nearer view of a Dutch windmill 

shows how large these mills are. Compare the 

size of the mill with the buildings beside it. 

What use is made of these windmills ? 



Floods. At times the 
storm waves have succeeded 
iu breaking through the 
line of dunes that border 
the coast, and terrible floods 
have resulted. In many 
places, however, the sand 
dunes, where they form a 
sufficiently broad belt, serve 
as natm-al dikes. 

Natural resources and oc- 
cupations. About two fifths 
of Holland is pasture land, 
and dairy farming* has very 
naturally become the lead- 
ing occupation (Fig. 348). 
Butter and cheese are 
among the chief exports. 

Courtesy dI Jusepli W. Wfrttiea 

Fig. 350. Along the shores of the Zuider Zee are little Dutch fishing 

villages. The fishermen build their trim little houses along the water-front 

and moor their boats close by. What kinds of fish do the Dutch fishermen 

catch ? Why is the North Sea such an excellent fishing ground ? 

and chocolate have become 
important in the industrial 
life of Holland. Great mills 
for making woolen and cot- 
ton goods and for manu- 
facturing linen have been 

The lowlands contain ex- 
cellent clays, and Dutch 
pottery, especially delft- 
ware, has become famous 
throughout the civilized 
world. The loose, rich soil 
is excellent for raising 
flower bulbs, which are ex- 
ported in large quantities. 

Fishing and shipbuilding 
are also important occupa- 

Excelleut breeds of cattle are raised, and large quantities tions of the people of Holland (Figs. 350, 353). 

of cottonseed meal and corn are imported to feed the Colonial possessions. The Dutch early realized that 

cattle. In this portion of Europe the climate is always they had no great natural resources in their country, 

mild, and the pastures remain green throughout the year, and many of them followed the sea or became fishermen. 

There are no coal or iron deposits in this country,* When the overland routes through Asia Minor to the 

and yet, since Holland is so favorably situated in the Orient were closed on account of troubles with the Turks, 

midst of the densest populations of Europe, manufac- 
turing has become important. Windmills are used to 
run the machinery in many of the factories and saw- 
mills. Coal and iron are imported from England and 

the Dutch traders undertook to go around Africa to 
reach the lands where spices, sugar, and rice could be 
obtained. They followed the routes of Portuguese ex- 
plorers and established several colonies among the East 

Belgium, and raw materials are brought in large quan- Indies. See Appendix, Plate A. These islands are now the 
titles from the Rhine valley and from the Dutch East most valuable Dutch possessions, and four fifths of their 
Indies. Sugar refining and the manufacture of cocoa trade is with the mother country. See map on page 2G0. 

Courteaj o( WiUiams, Brown, and £arle 

Ctiuriesj of Joseph W. WortLea 

Fig. 351. This boy is a Dutch street merchant. 

He harnesses his faithful dog to a little cart, loads 

it with the baskets containing his wares, and goes 

through the streets selling them 

Fig. 352. These Dutchmen are wearing the pictur- 
esque native costumes which are now seen only in 
the small villages. In the cities the people wear 
clothes very much like our own 

Fig. 383. The boys and girls in this picture live 

in a Dutch fishing village. Their fathers are all 

fishermen. Notice their wooden shoes and tho 

white caps worn by the little girls 



Fig. 354. Rotterdam is a city of many canals. The larger canals are deep 

enough to allow the passage of the heavily laden ships from the Dutch East 

Indies. What tropical products do these ships bring to Rotterdam ? To what 

countries are these products exported ? 

Fig. 355. Amsterdam is also a city of canals. The land on which it is 
situated is so low and so water-soaked that all the houses are built on piles 
to keep them from sinking. The canals divide the city into nearly a hun- 
dred islands, all connected by bridges 


The Dutch also hold a few islands in the West Indies 
and have a colony on the north coast of South America. 

Through their efforts to own other lands they now Belgium has twenty times as many people per square 

control an area sixty times as great as that of their mile as has the United States, and ii^ the most densely 

home country. populated country in Europe. With England's busy 

Cities. Rotterdam is the leading commercial city of mines and factories to the west, the industrial por- 

Holland. Some manufacturing is done there, and the tions of Germany and northern France to the east and 

excellence of the shipping facilities makes it one of the south, and commercial Holland to the north, Belgium is 

busiest ports in Europe. A great part of the foreign in the heart of industrial Europe. 

trade of Rotterdam consists in re-exporting the products Physical features. This country is smaller than either 

which come from the East Indies, such as spices, sugar, Holland or Denmark. It contains about 11,700 square 

coffee, and rubber. In addition to its 
vast overeeas commerce it is the 
natural. outlet for the valley of the 
Rhine (Fig. 354). 

Amsterdam, the village built on 
the dike of the river Amstel, was for 
three centuries a port of the Zuider 
Zee and commanded much of the 
commerce of the Baltic. Its harbor 
began to fill with sand, and dredging 
was found to be of no avail, so a 
ship canal was cut to the North Sea. 
The Zuider Zee lost its commercial 
importance, and Amsterdam became 
a North Sea port (Fig. 355). It is an 
important banking and manufactur- 
ing center and is particularly noted 
for its diamond-cutting industry. 
Between Rotterdam and Amsterdam 
is The Hague, the capital of the king- 
dom. Leiden has a large publishing 
trade. Utrecht, the chief inland town, 
is an important railroad junction. 

Fig. 356. The city ball at Brussels faces the 

market place. The part of the building which can 

be seen in this view was completed nearly fifty 

years before Columbus discovered America 

miles, which is a little less than the 
area of the state- of Maryland. 

Along the coast there is a belt 
of sand dunes, and offshore the 
waters are shallow. The lowland 
of Belgium is a part of the Cen- 
tral Plains of Europe, which widens 
southward into France and eastward 
into Germany. It is an agricultural 
land. The upland area in the south- 
east is a part of the Central High- 
lands. The elevations here reach to 
about 2000 feet, and on the hills 
there are pastures and forests. 

Climate. The climate is much like 
that of southern England, with cool 
summers and mild winters. Since 
the hills are on the eastern side, the 
effect of the moist winds from the 
ocean is felt throughout Belgium, 
and the rainfall is greater than that 
of Germany and the countries farther 
east (m the continent. 



(E> Rejewae View Co. 

Fig. 357. The rich pasture lands of Belgium have 

made it possible for the people to raise the finest 

draft horses in the world. What other kinds of 

live-stock do the Belgians raise ? 

) Underwood k Uoderwood 

Fig. 358. These men are putting bundles of flax 

to soak in the river Lys. This soaking process, 

which is called retting, separates the flax fiber 

from the softer parts of the stalk 

Fig. 359. Belgian dogs are wonderfully intelli- 
gent. This dog is his mistress's faithful helper, 
drawing her cart through the streets every day as 
she delivers milk to her customers 

Natural resources. The soils of the lowlands and the Cities. Antwerp, near the mouth of the Scheldt, is the 
timber and pastures of the uplands are valuable resources, great seaport of Belgium and is connected by railroads 
Belgium is also fortunate in having a remarkable network and canal systems with all parts of the country (Figs. 

of navigable streams connected by canals. 

The coal located near the French border is the princi- 
pal mineral resource. Farther east, iron and zinc have 
been found. The local iron supply is nearly exhausted, and 
iron is now imported for the modern industrial plants. 
There are beds of excellent sands along the seacoast, 
which have led to the growth of large glassworks. 

361, 363). Brussels, the capital of the kingdom, located 
in the central part, is a city of beautiful buildings and 
modern streets (Figs. 356, 362). It has become the lead- 
ing market for the laces and gloves made in Belgium. 
Near the eastern margin of Belgium is the city of 
Li^ge. It is the chief industrial center of Belgium. 
The most important manufactured articles are firearms, 

Occupations. The farms of Belgium, although usually cutlery, glass, and many kinds of machinery. Ghent is 

small, are very carefully cultivated. The principal crops the center of the textile industries. Large quantities of 

are grains, flax, hemp, fruit, and sugar beets. Sheep- cotton and woolen goods are manufactured here, 
raising is a second important occupation of this country. Colonial possessions. Belgian Kongo, in central Africa, 

More than half of the people are engaged in farming is a state of Belgium and a very valuable possession. It 

or in the care of stock (Fig. 357). It 
is impossible, however, to produce in 
Belgium enough food for so large a 
population, and large numbers of 
people are engaged in commerce in 
order to bring the necessary food 
and raw materials into the country. 

Coal-mining and the manufactur- 
ing of cotton, wool, linen, iron, 
steel, and glass occupy the time of 
another very large portion of the 

Belgium produces much of the 
world's best linen. Some of the flax 
is grown at home, but much of it is 
imported. The waters of the Scheldt 
and the Lys have been found excel- 
lent for retting and bleaching the 
flax (Fig. 358), and the moist climate, 
due to the westerly winds, is espe- 
cially favorable for handling the flax 
in the process of spinning. 

Fig. 360. This is the tamous old belfry at Bruges, 

in Belgium. It is older, even, than the City Hall 

of Brussels. In the belfry are some beautiful 

chimes which visitors always wish to hear 

exports each year great quantities 
of gold, copper, and other minerals, 
as well as large supplies of crude 
rubber, palm nuts, palm oil, and 
ivory (p. 229). 

Problems and review questions. 1. De- 
scribe briefly the physical geography of 
Holland. 2. Tell how the Dutch have re- 
claimed for agriculture lands that were 
covered by the sea. 3. How do the people 
of Holland make use of the winds ? 4. Why 
should dairy farming be so profitable in 
the Netherlands ? 

5. Explain how Holland has become 
an important manufacturing country. 
6. Where are the colonial possessions of 
the Dutch people ? 7. What are the im- 
portant seaports of Holland? 8. What is 
the capital of Holland ? 

9. Describe the physical features of 
Belgium. 10. Why has Belgium become 
an important industrial center ? What are 
the chief manufactures ? 11. Name the 
capital and the chief seaport of Belgium. 




The duchy of Luxemburg is located in the Central 
Highlands of Europe and just southeast from Belgium. 
It is a small country of about 1700 square miles. Iron 
ore is abundant, and this has led naturally to mining, 
smelting, and some manufacturing. The hilltops are in 
part forested, but in the valley bottoms and on the lower, 
gentler slopes the lands are cultivated. 

Luxemburg is the capital and chief city of the duchy. 

i) ExcliuiTe ^ewB Ageaoj. Koebampton 

Fig. 361. This is a view along the wharves at Antwerp. At the right is 
the old castle of Antwerp, called the Steen. The mouth of the river Scheldt 
has been deepened to admit large ocean vessels, making Antwerp one of 
the chief ports of Europe. What are the exports and imports of Antwerp ? 

(^Use map between pages ISl and 184) 

1. Prepare the following table, which shall have four col- 
umns: In the first column place the names of the countries 
entirely included within the area of this map ; in the second 
column, opposite the names of the countries, write the names 
of their chief seaports ; in the third column, opposite the 
names of the chief seaports, place the name of the river on 
which each por>-is located ; in the fourth column write the 
name of the capital of each of the countries. 

2. What seaport serves Paris ? 3. With what countries is 
most of the trade of that port carried on ? 4. Judging from 
tlie exports from Bordeaux, what should you think are the 
leading occupations of the people in soutlieni France ? 

6. In which country is a part of the land below sea level 
and not covered by water? The dotted area northeast of 
Amsterdam shows the land that the Dutch people are plan- 
ning to reclaim from the Zuider Zee. 

6. Judging from the products in the Netherlands, what 
should you think are the chief occupations of the people in the 
country districts ? 7. In what portion of Germany are the 
coal and iron deposits ? 8. Where are the supplies of potash 
in Germany? 9. What seaport serves Berlin best through- 
out the year? 10. Describe the location of the Kiel Canal. 

t Soma AijeDcj, KocLampton 

Fig. 362. This is the Palais de Justice (Palace of Justice) in Brussels. It is 

a very large modern building, in contrast to the many very old buildings 

which the city contains. Judging from its name, what use do you think is 

made of this great building ? 

11. What inland water route could you follow from Rotter- 
dam to Marseille ? 12. Describe an inland water route from 
Havre to Bordeaux by way of Lyon. 13. Describe the inland 
water route from Rotterdam to Vienna. If you went on down 
the Danube, what capital cities should you pass ? To what sea 
should you finally come ? 

14. Describe an inland water route from Hamburg, through 
Berlin, to Warsaw. 1 5. Judging from the products of Poland, 
what must be the occupation of most of the people ? 16. In 
what part of Poland is there a supply of coal? 17. What 
geographic advantages has the location of Prague ? 18. What 
resources are found in the mountains of Austria ? 

19. Judging from the chief products of Hungary, what 
should you think is the principal occupation of the people in 
that country ? 20. What advantage can you see in the loca- 
tion of a seaport as far inland as ocean vessels can go? 
21. What seaports in Europe clearly illustrate this advantage ? 




M ^ 



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*■* ^i*!*, 

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' -m 

Fig. 363. The Cathedral of Notre Dame at Antwerp is the largest and most 

beautiful church in the Low Countries. It contains many beautiful paintings. 

Among them are the original works of some of the greatest European 

painters. For many years Antwerp has been the center of Belgian art 



Fig. 364. This is a view of part of the harbor of Dunkirk on the northern point for the manufactured goods of this district. How should you describe 

coast of France. Dunkirk has extensive wharves and docks and has become the surface of the land here ? Locate Dunkirk on the map on page 171. 

the chief importing center for the raw materials that are needed for the In what natural region is it situated ? Explain how the geographical 

industrial district of northern France. It is also the principal exporting location of Dunkirk has influenced its development as an industrial port 


Physical features. Use map on page 161. There is no 
natural division between Belgium and France ; it is a 
purely political line. The lowland plain of Belgium con- 
tinues southward, widening to include the Paris Basin, 
and farther south widening again in the valley of the 

The uplands of southeastern Belgium continue into 
northern France and are connected by a narrow upland 
belt with the Central Plateau of France. 

The Upland of Brittany is a hilly region. It is an old, 
worn-down mountain country. The Vosges Mountains 
in eastern France are an old, worn-down range. Farther 
east are the rich lowlands in the valley of the Rhine. 
The part of these lowlands that is west of the Rhine 
belongs to France. South of the valley of the Garonne 
are the young and rugged Pyrenees Mountains that form 
the boundary between France and Spain. In the south- 
east beyond the valley of the Rhone are the Jura and Alps. 


1. Use map between pages 181 and 184. Locate the uplands 
of Brittany. 2. Locate the lowland of the SaSne-Rhone valley. 
3. Where are the Jura Mountains of France ? 

4. The boundary line between France and Italy is along 
the crest of what mountain range ? How high is Mt. Blanc ? 
In what country is it located ? 5. The boundary line between 
France and Spain is on the crest of what mountain range ? 

6. Locate the Vosges Mountains and determine whether 
or not they are forested. See map opposite page 216. These 
mountains rise over 5000 feet above sea level, and yet they 
are only the stumps of mountains which were formerly 
lofty peaks. 

7. Locate the Central Plateau of France. In this region 
great volcanoes broke forth many years ago and built up 
cones, some of which rise to elevations of 6000 feet above 
the sea. Floods of lava have come from these volcanoes and 
flowed out over the surrounding country. 

8. What part of the lowland of the middle Rhine belongs 
to France ? 9. What river systems have been connected by 
canals? More than half of France is less than 600 feet in 
elevation. This has made the building of roads, canals, and 
railways relatively easy. 

10. The sinking of western Europe, which also affected Eng- 
land and Scandinavia, caused the drowning of the mouths of 
the French rivers which flow into the English Channel and 
the Bay of Biscay. Make a list of the large estuaries along 
these shores. 11. What state in the United States is of 
about the same size as France ? 

Climate. The winds from the Atlantic Ocean bring 
moisture and also help to prevent great extremes in 
temperature in France. Since the higher lands are not 
near the coast, the effect of the winds is felt far inland. 
In no part of France except on the high mountain peaks 
is there a long period of winter frost, and only in the 
south, Avhicli has a Mediterranean climate, are the sum- 
mers very hot. 

The annual rainfall over most of France is about 30 
inches, which is enough for agriculture. The heaviest 
rainfall, about 70 inches, is received in the western part 
of the Pyrenees. In the higher parts of the Central 
Plateau and in the Vosges Mountains about 60 inches 
of rain falls each year. Western and northern France 
receive rain during each month, but in the area border- 
ing the Mediterranean the summers are dry and the rain 
comes during the winter. 




Underwood A Undenrooil 

Fig. 365. This French f^lrmer and his boys have Fig. 366. This French woman of Brittany is busy 

harvested their wheat and brought it in from the mending one of her husband's fishing nets. What 

fields. One by one the bundles are put through the kinds of fish are caught in these nets ? What are 

threshing machine, which is turned by hand other occupations of the people of Brittany ? 

Fig. 367. Along the Brittany coast many acres 

of tidal flats are used for raising oysters. The flats 

are divided into square beds where the oysters are 

planted and grown for the Paris market 

Natural resources. France is a land of much variety 
but without great wealth in mineral resources. There 
are coal and iron fields in the north along the Belgian 
border and in Lorraine, and France owns the coal mines 
in the Sarre valley. See map on page 171. There is also 
a good supply of coal and iron in the eastern part of the 
Central Plateau near St. Etienne. These resources have 
naturally encouraged manufacturing and have given 
rise to important industrial centers. Water-power from 
the Vosges, the Jura, and the Alps is of great value 
in the industrial development. The soils are fertile, 
and the broad lowland areas have helped to make 
France an agricultural country. 

The rivers have furnished an easy and cheap means 
of transportation, and France's position, bordering on 
three important seas, affords distinct advantages for 
the development of foreign commerce. 

Home work. 1. Find out all you can about the life of the 
French peasants. 2. Ask some acquaintance who was a soldier 
ill France to tell you of the country and of his experiences with 
the French people. 

Occupations. The mining and manufacturing in north- 
ern France have led, to the growth of several industrial 
centers. In Lille, Valenciennes, St. Quentin, and Amiens 
woolen, cotton, and linen goods are manufactured. 
Dunkirk is the French outlet for this industrial district 
(Fig. 364). On the coast are the fishing towns of Calais 
and Boulogne ; these towns are also stations for the 
channel boats 

In the vicinity of the Vosges, where there is water- 
power and easy commimication with coal fields, the 

manufacture of cotton has been promote^. Lorraine is 
the leading cotton-manufacturing center of France. 
Much of the cotton is brought from the United States 
and carried far up the Seine and thence by canals to 
the manufacturing towns. 
1 Some of the cities located on the larger navigable 
streams of the lowlands (notably Paris and Rouen) are 
important manufacturing centers. Raw materials and 
coal are easily brought to those cities. 

The broad, open lowlands of the Paris Basin are used 
for agriculture. Here it has been possible to raise a 
large part of the wheat needed by the French people 
(Fig. 365). Many other cereal crops and large quantities 
of sugar beets and flax are also raised here. 

Over half of the population of France is engaged in 
agriculture. Those who do the farming commonly own 
their farms but do not live on them. They live in small 
villages and each morning walk out perhaps two or three 
miles to work. They are a happy people, who enjoy their 
work in the fields and also the social side of village life. 

In the uplands of Brittany the soil conditions "are not 
very favorable to agriculture. Dairy-farming, market- 
gardening, and sheefhraising are commonly carried on. 
Along the coast fishing is the usual occupation of tho 
people (Figs. 8(5(), 3G7). In the highlands the quarrying 
of granite, for use as building stone, is of importance. 

The Central Plateau is far enough south so thai the 
lower slopes can be used for the cultivation of i^rapes, 
and the manufacture of wine is carried on ui re. The 
high tracts of poorer land are used for tlie grazing of 
cattle, sheep, and goats. 

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Fig. 368. This is a thriving silk-manufacturing town southeast of Lyon. 
It is situated on the western edge of the highlands. The long, low buildings 
in the foreground are the silk mills. Why has this district become an im- 
portant silk-manufacturing center ? Where does the raw silk come from ? 

Near Limoges, on the western slope of the plateau, there 
are excellent clays, which have led to the manufacture 
of china. In the eastern part of the Central Plateau, 
between the Loire and the Rhone, where coal and iron 
have been found, there is an industrial center. The best 
French steel is produced in the region of St. Etienne. 
Large quantities of raw silk are easily brought from the 
Rhone valley, and silk goods and ribbons are manufac- 
tured here on a large scale. A little farther north, in 
the valley of the Loire, is a center for the manufacture 
of cotton and woolen goods. 

The lowland of the Garonne valley is another agri- 
cultural district where wheat and maize are raised. The 
grapevine flourishes in this warmer climate, and great 
quantities of wine are shipped from Bordeaux to various 
parts of the world. 

Southern France has the Mediterranean climate, and 
here, in addition to the grape- 
vine, the people cultivate the 
olive, plum, walnut, and, in 
some parts, orange and lemon 
trees. The mulberry is raised 
for the silkworm, and Lyon 
has become one of the most 
important centers in the 
world for the manufacture of 
silk goods (Fig. 368). Some 
of the silk used at Lyon is 
produced in the Rh8ne valley, 
but the home supply is not 
nearly enough. Great quanti- 
ties of raw silk are imported 
every year from Italy, China, 
and Japan. 

In the Alpine district the soils are poor, the fields are 
very limited, and the climate is not suitable for growing 
cereals ; but cattle, sheep, and goats are raised, and manu- 
facturing has been undertaken. Water-power, which the 
French call white coal, is abundant in this part of the 

Fig. 370. The wharves at Marseille are always crowded with freight. 

Some of the goods are imports which will be sent by train to different 

parts of France. Others are exports ready to be loaded on ships for 

various parts of the world. Name some of these goods 

OooHMj of Juaepb W. Wunhi-ii 

Fig. 369. The building with the two towers is the Cathedral of Notre Dame 
in Paris. It is situated on the small island in the Seine where the first 
settlement of Paris was made. Find its location in Fig. 371. The construc- 
tion of this cathedral was begun over seven hundred years ago 

country and has helped the cities near the high mountains 
to develop into manufacturing centers of importance. 
Principal rivers and cities. The navigable rivers of 
the world have always been great highways of travel, 
and most of the large cities of the world have developed 
near those rivers. By far the greater nvmiber of the 
large cities of France are located on the waterways. 
Paris, the capital of the French republic, is a very 
beautiful city, with broad boulevards and numerous 
buildings of unusual interest (Figs. 369, 371). In its 
great museums are many of the world's most precious 
works of art. This city is located on the Seine and is 

in the midst of a rich agri- 
cultural country. It is also on 
the highway of travel from 
the Mediterranean countries 
northward through the valley 
of the Sa6ne-Rh8ne system 
and down the valley of the 
Seine. Paris is an important 
railroad center and is also a 
port for the smaller ocean- 
going vessels. 

Many different industries 
were established here because 
it was easy to bring in raw 
material and to distribute 
manufactured goods from 
this center. 



Picture study. Fig. 371. 1. On what river is Paris situated ? 

2. How should you describe the country surrounding Paris ? 

3. What river joins the Seine southeast of the city ? 4. What can 
you tell about the Marne ? 6. Notice the ring of forts which sur- 
rounds Paris. How many forts are there ? These forts, like the 
wall, were built many years ago, when it was believed that every 
great city should be strongly protected against attack. To-day they 
have no military value. 6. Find the Bois de Boulogne. " Bois " 
is the French word for forest. The Bois de Boulogne (Forest 
of Boulogne) is a beautiful wooded park. Among the Parisians 
it is a favorite spot for walking, driving, and horseback riding. 

Bordeaux is another city at the head of an estuary. In 
addition to being a port for the shipment of wine it is 
an important manufacturing center. 

Lyon has been referred to as a leading city in the 
manufacture of silk ; it is one of the important cities 
on the Rhone. At the mouth of this river is Marseille, 
one of the largest ports on the Mediterranean. It is an 
ancient city which has grown so rapidly of late years 
that its harbor facilities have been greatly increased to 

Fig. 371. This is an aeroplane drawing of Paris and its surroundings. The 
numbers indicate the location of the following places of interest: 1, Hont- 
martre ; 2, Arc de Triomphe ; 3, Avenue des Champs Elys^es ; 4, EiSel Tower; 
6, Champ-de-Mars ; 6, Place de la Concorde; 7, Palais des Tuileries; 8, Louvre; 
9, Palais du Luxembourg ; 10, Notre Dame ; 11, Jardindes Plantes; 12, Place 

Rouen, below Paris on the river Seine, is a center for 
cotton-manufacturing. The largest ocean steamers ascend 
the river to this point. At the mouth of the estuary is 
Havre, the " haven," or port, of Paris. Here there are 
over eight miles of quays, and a flourishing trade is 
carried on with the chief seaports of the world. 

Along the Loire, which is the longest river in France, 
Orleans, Tours, and Nantes are located. Nantes is at the 
head of the estuary of the Loire and serves as a seaport. 
Orleans and Tours are small manufacturing cities. 

On the banks of the Garonne are Toulouse and Bor- 
deaux. Toulouse is in the midst of good farming country. 
It is connected by a canal with the Mediterranean Sea. 

Gtan tod CompuiJ 

de la Bastille. The first settlement of Paris was made on the island in the 
Seine where the Cathedral of Notre Dame now stands. Notice the wall 
which surrounds the city. It was built many years ago in the days when 
cities were walled for safety against the attack of enemies. It is now being 
torn down, and in the future its site will be marked only by a boulevard 

accommodate the vessels which come there (Fig. 370). 
Grenoble, the largest city in the French Alps, is an 
industrial center and the market for the gloves manu- 
factured in many of the neighboring villages. 

East of Marseille, on the Mediterranean coast, is Toulon. 
The coast beyond there is commonly known as the Riviera; 
it is a region of great beauty, with a delightful winter 
climate. The city of Nice is a noted health resort on the 
Mediterranean coast (Fig. 373). At Grasse a large part 
of all the flowep perfumery used in the world is made. 
On the hillsides roses and other flowers are raised, and 
the perfumery is made from the oil which is pressed 
from the blossoms. 



UuderwouU ii Underwood 

Fig. 372. Strasbourg is the chief city of Alsace, one of the provinces lost 

by France in a war with Germany many years ago, and restored to France 

at the end of the World War in 1918. This view shows one of the public 

squares in Strasbourg. In what lowland is the city located ? 

Colonial possessions. Like most of the countries of 
western Europe, France has sent expeditions to various 
parts of the world and helped to colonize distant lands. 
Her possessions now include Corsica, Algeria, Tunis, 
and Morocco, a large part of the Sahara and the Sudan, 
Upper Nigeria, and the country north of the Kongo, the 
island of Madagascar, a part of Somaliland, the island of 
Reunion in the Indian Ocean, five cities in India, French 
Indo-China, and French Guiana. The islands of St. Pierre 
and Miquelon off the shore of Newfoundland, a few 
small islands in the West Indies, and a few in the Pacific 
Ocean also belong to France. Several of the colonies 
send representatives to the French parliament, and 
Algeria is treated in many ways as a part of France. 

The colonies furnish markets to which the manufac- 
tured goods from the French factories can be sent, and 
in return the French receive large quantities of raw 
material and certain tropical foods which they cannot 
raise in their own country. 

Home work. 1. On an outline map of the world, color in the 
colonial possessions of France. 2. Mark the chief lines of travel be- 
tween these colonies and the home country. See Appendix, Plate B. 

The Sarre Basin is a small area lying southeast of 
Luxemburg and northeast of France in the valley of 
the Sarre River. Although small in size, this area is 
very important because of the rich beds of coal which it 
contains. For many years before the World War this 
basin with its valuable coal mines belonged to Germany. 
France now owns the coal supply, but in 1934 a popular 
vote is to be taken to decide whether the people wish 
to become a part of France or to be under the political 
control of Germany. Until that vote is taken the gov- 
ernment of the Sarre Basin will be directed by a 
commission appointed by the League cf Nations. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What natural regions of 
Europe extend into France ? 2. What advantage is it to the coun- 
try to have the highlands and mountains in the east rather than 
in the west ? 3. In what part of France are the chief coal fields ? 
4. In what part is the water-power most abundant ? 

5. On what seas does France border ? 6. Why should farming 
be one of the chief occupations of the French people ? 7. In what 
parts of France are the growing of grapes and the manufacture 
of wine especially important ? 8. From what port is much of 
the wine shipped ? 

9. Of what advantage to France is a Mediterranean seaport ? 
10. Name five large cities in France and explain the location and 
growth of each. 11. Explain why so many of the larger cities are 
on the rivers. 12. In which continent are most of the colonial pos- 
sessions of France located ? 13. Of what value are they to France ? 

iiroHii. luiij hftrle 

Fig. 373. This is a view of the harbor of Nice on the Riviera coast of France. 
Besides being a popular health resort Nice is also a port of some importance. 
Here on the wharf are barrels of olive oil and wine ready to be shipped away. 
Many people from northern Europe go to Nice each winter to enjoy the mild 

cUmate and the clear blue skies, just as people from the cooler parts of the 
United States like to spend their winters in the warmer parts of the coun- 
try. Locate Nice on the map between pages 181 and 184. Can you explain 
the mildness of the climate in the winter months on this Riviera coast ? 




In the high mountains east of France and south of 
Germany, among most beautiful surroundings, live the 
Swiss, a strong, brave, 
liberty-loving people. 
Their land is with- 
out large mineral re- 
sources, without broad 
fields for agriculture, 
and without any coast 
line; yet Switzerland 
has become one of the 
most prosperous of the 
small nations. Because 
of the wonderful moun- 
tain scenery afforded 
by the Alps, Switzer- 
land is probably vis- 
ited by more travelers 
from foreign lands than 
any other country in 
the world. 

Physical features. 

Fig. 374. This is a view among the high summits of the Alps, where there is snow 
throughout the entire year. Can you explain why the snow does not melt here in summer ? 
Are the Alps old, worn-down mountains or young, rugged mountains ? What other moun- 
tains of Europe are of the same type as the Alps ? What is the highest peak in the Alps ? 

At the same time that the continental ice-sheet melted 
away, the mountain glaciers became shorter. They left 
sand, gravel, and bowlders strewn on the surface where 

they had rested. Some 
of this material blocked 
the drainage and thus 
formed beautiful lakes 
high in the mountains 
(Fig. 375). A number 
of the rock basins 
which were gouged out 
by glaciers also contain 
lakes. Almost all of 
the soil of Switzerland 
is of glacial origin. 

Climate. Because of 
the altitude of Switzer- 
land there are heavy 
rains and heavy snow- 
falls and no very warm 
weather. The slopes 
that face to the south 
are much warmer than those that face to the north. The 

The Jura mountains extend into 

the northwestern part of Switzerland, and in the south- summer climate attracts many visitors who are looking 

east are the lofty peaks of the Alps. Between these two for a cool region, while the winter climate calls those who 

mountain ranges there is a narrow plateau belt where enjoy the brisk, cold air and the skating, tobogganing, 

there are many hills and many beautiful lakes (Fig. 375). and skiing. 

The Alps rise to elevations of from 10,000 to 15,000 feet Natural resources and occupations. There is not much 

above sea level. Among their summits snow remains agricultural land in Switzerland, but the small areas 

throughout the year, and little 
by little the snow-fields become 
so thick that ice forms at the 
bottom and moves down the 
valleys as glaciers (Fig. 374). 
These Alpine glaciers freeze about 
the stones and loose material be- 
neath them on the canyon floors, 
and shod with such sharp tools 
they deepen the canyons and 
gouge out great basins as they 
move forward. Stones and soil 
rattle down the mountains and 
come to rest on the top of the ice. 
When northwestern Europe was 
covered by a great ice-sheet, the 
glaciers in Switzerland were much 
longer than they now are. They 
extended through the canyons 
in the mountains to the plateau 
country northwest of the Alps 
and southward beyond Switzer- 
land to the plain of northern Italy. 

Fig. 375. Lake Geneva is one of the several beautiful lakes 

which occupy the plateau between the Alps and the Jura 

Mountains. This view was taken from the hill overlooking 

Montreuz, a city located at the eastern end of the lake 

that are suitable for agriculture 
are cultivated intensively. The 
steep, sunny hillsides are terraced 
and used for raising grapes. Many 
of the Swiss people have taken up 
dairying, and each summer they 
send their cattle, sheep, and goats 
high into the mountains in order 
to save the grass which grows in 
the valleys for hay (Fig. 376). 
The young boys of the family 
often go with the stock to these 
high pastures, called alps, and 
remain there until fall, caring 
for the animals and making the 
butter and cheese (Fig. 379). The 
flocks and herds are brought to 
the lower lands for the ^\inter, 
and the return to the home is 
accompanied by great rejoicing. 
It is a festival time, when friend- 
ships are renewed after a long 
period of separation. 



Di^oalil MuLouh, Loudaa 

Fig. 376. This Swiss farmer is hauling home a 
load of hay which he has cut in one of the moun- 
tain valleys. The hay will be used to feed his 
cattle during the winter months 

Fig. 377. The Swiss wood-carvers are very skill- 
ful. This man is carving little models of animals 
from solid blocks of wood. Why have the Swiss 
developed so many home industries ? 

Fig. 378. Here is a Swiss peasant with his alpen- 

horn. Years ago these great horns were blown to 

sound the charge in battle, but now they are used 

to call the cattle from the pastures 

Besides the butter and cheese made from the milk of 
the cows and goats the Swiss people produce large quan- 
tities of condensed milk and manufacture milk chocolate 
for export. The skins of the goats and kids are used in 
the manufacture of gloves. 

Coal is not found in Switzerland, but the forests yield 
abundant fuel and also huge logs for timber and for 

or trails. Hotels and resting places have been built high 
among the mountains, and every arrangement is made 
for the comfort of the traveler. Special guides are su}> 
plied to those who wish to cross the glaciers or climb 
the high peaks. 

Government. The Swiss have a republican form of 
government, and each of the twenty Swiss cantons, 

building homes (Fig. 380). Most of the forests are na- which are political divisions somewhat like our states, 
tional reserves, controlisd by the government as the sends representatives to the national congress. Switzer- 

national forests in the United States are. The plentiful 
supply of hard wo'^ds has led many of the people to take 
up the art of wood-carving, for which they have ample 
time during the cold winter months (Fig. 377). 

Water-power is abundant, and Switzerland has long 
been famous for the manufacture of small, light articles 
which can be easily transported, such as jewelry, lace, 
toys, watches, and clocks. The water- 
power is now transformed into elec- 
tricity and used in cotton and silk 

The Swiss have undertaken another 
remarkably profitable industry in 
which they use electricity. They have 
learned to take nitrogen from the 
air and make a fertilizer which is 
sold to the neighboring agricultural 
peoples in large quantities. This was 
very clever of the Swiss people, for 
there is plenty of air, and plenty of 
power, and plenty of limestone, which 
is used in making this fertilizer. 
Other people also make a fertilizer 
in this way. 

The caring for travelers gives occu- 
pation to many of the inhabitants. 
Where travel was at first very difficult 
the Swiss have built excellent roads 

Donald McLeisb, LomJon 

Fig. 379. Here are some of the Swiss dairy cattle 
grazing over an upland pasture. At what season 
of the year do you think this picture was taken? 
Why has dairying become an important Swiss 
industry ? 

land is one of the oldest republics in the world. 

Cities. Bern, the capital, has a picturesque location 
on a bluff, about the base of which flows the river Aar. 
Its old fortifications have been transformed into prome- 
nades, which command wonderful views of the snowy 
Alps. Zurich is the largest city and an important rail- 
road center, where connections are made for France, 
Austria, and Germany, and by way of 
the St. Gotthard tunnel for Italy. It 
is also a center for the manxifacture 
of cotton and silk and of textile and 
electrical machinery. Basel is the 
second largest Swiss city. Its ribbon 
manufacture is important. Merchan- 
dise from all parts of central and 
northern Europe is brought here for 
shipment over the St. Gotthard rail- 
way to Italy and to the Balkan States. 
Geneva, beautifully located at the 
lower end of Lake Geneva and near 
the point where the KhSne enters 
France, is an educational and indus- 
trial center. Jewelry and scientific in- 
struments are manufactured here on 
a large scale. Geneva has long been 
famous for its watches and clocks. 
Formerly these were made by hand, 
but now they are made by machinery. 




Waterways. Germany is 
fortunate in having access to 
the North and Baltic seas 
and in having a remarkable 
system of inland waterways. 
The Rhine rises in the Alps, 
flows through the fertile low- 
land of its middle course and 
the beautiful gorge in the 
Central Highlands, and then 
crosses the open lowlands of 
western Germany. 

The Weser, Elbe, and Oder 
rise in the Central Highlands 
and flow northward across 
the lowland plain of Germany. 
The first two flow into the 
North Sea, but the Oder 
reaches the Baltic. Each of 
these three rivers has a broad 
estuary, or drowned mouth, which has made it possible 
for ocean-going vessels to go far inland. The cities of 
Bremen, Hamburg (Fig. 381), and Stettin, at the heads 
of these estuaries, while enjoying all the advantages 
of inland positions, are thus important seaports. 
There are 1500 miles of canals in Germany (see map 
Europe, which is here often called the Plain of North between pages 181 and 184), and with the rivers they 
Germany ; (2) a large portion of the Central Highlands, make a network of water routes that furnish a cheap 
where there are many old, worn-down mountain ranges ; means of transportation throughout the lowland country. 
(3) some of the rich Middle Rhine Plain ; and (4) a small From the Rhine a boat may pass by means of canals 
portion of the northern slope of the Alps. The coast line into the Danube. From the Elbe it is possible for a 
is low and sandy and offshore the waters are shallow, boat to pass to the Vistula, and then to the Black Sea. 

Problems and review questions. 
1. What t'ouutries border Switzer- 
land ? 2. Name two rivers of com- 
mercial imi)ortance that rise in the 
Alps of Switzerland. 3. What dis- 
advantages do the Swiss people 
have to contend with ? 4. W^hat 
is the local supply of fuel in this 
country ? 

6. Why should water-power be 
so abundant in this country ? 
6. Why have the Swiss people 
engaged in manufacturing small, 
light articles? 7. Tell something 
of interest about each of the four 
leading cities of Switzerland. 

8. How do the many visitors 
to Switzerland help the country ? 
9. What advantages would there 
be in visiting this country during 
winter? during summer? 10. What 
do you suppose the children of 
Switzerland do for recreation? 

^ Exclusife NewB Agcocj, Hoeti&mptoa 

Fig. 380. The streams that tumble down the mountain sides in 
Switzerland provide a large amount of water-power. The waterfall in 
this view is being used to run a small sawmill, where the logs which 
are cut on the mountain slopes are sawed into boards. For what other 
purposes is the water-power used in Switzerland ? 

Home tDork: 1. Head the story of William Tell. 2. Look up the 
names and descriptions of the great tunnels through the Alps. 


Natural regions. Germany includes parts of four natu- 
ral regions : (1) a broad stretch of the Central Plains of 

Fig. 381. This is a view along one of the canals in Hamburg, the second 
city and chief port of Germany. Locate Hamburg on the map on page 171. 
How has its location led to its development as a great commercial city ? 
What landlocked nation of central Europe may use Hamburg as a seaport ? 

Fig. 382. This is Humboldt's Harbor in Berlin. This harbor is part of the 
extensive canal system which connects Berlin with the Oder and Elbe rivers. 
Locate Berlin on the map between pages 181 and 184. In what natural region 
is it situated ? How is its location advantageous for trade and transportation? 



Fig. 383. This i8 a view of the Rhine near Bonn. Notice the terraced hillsides and the location 
of the city on the narrow strip of low, flat land immediately bordering the river. The Rhine is 
a very important commercial highway, and small vessels ascend the river as far as Strasbourg. 
From Strasbourg the Rhone-Rhine Canal connects the Rhine with the Saone-Rhone waterway 
to Marseille. Trace this water route between the mouths of the Rhine and the Rhone on the 

map between pages 181 and 184 

Internationalized waterways. In 1919, by the terms 
of the peace treaty that closed the World War, certain 
navigable rivers that could be used by several nations 
were internationalized, or declared open and free for the 
use of all nations on equal terms. This arrangement 

Lowland plain. This is the most exten- 
sive agricultural region of Germany. It is 
covered with glacial material left by the 
ice-sheet. These glacial deposits, especially 
in eastern Germany, are in places very 
sandy, but even in these light soils pota- 
toes, sugar beets, and rye are important 
crops. Germany has been the greatest pro- 
ducer of sugar beets in the world. Along 
the shores of the Baltic flax and hemp 
are raised. 

In the region bordering Denmark the 
lowlands of Germany are favorable to the 
grazing of cattle, and here dairy farming 
is an important occupation. In the north- 
east German lowlands large numbers of 
sheep and goats are raised. In places the sands of the 
lowlands are used in the manufacture of glass. 

Central Highlands. These highlands consist of very 
old rocks, which contain rich mineral deposits. It is 
the resources found in the ground, such as coal, iron, 
was made so as to give the countries in the interior of zinc, lead, copper, and potash, which have had the most 
Europe an easy means of shipping goods by water and profound influence upon the development of Germany 
engaging in foreign trade. Those people now have the during the last fifty years. The coal and iron ore are 
right to use these rivers just as much as if they flowed usually found together ; this fact has helped the growth 
entirely through their own lands. of great iron and steel manufactures. 

The Rhine is internationalized as far as it is navigable. As the resources were discovered and men invented 
and is a great highway of trade (Fig. 383). The Elbe is machinery western Germany rapidly became one of the 
internationalized upstream to its junction with the Mol- leading industrial districts of the world (Fig. 385). The 
dau River, on which Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia, manufacture of all forms of cutlery, hardware, and 
is located. The Oder is internationalized to the mouth of machinery was actively promoted. Textile industries 
the Oppa. In the south the Danube is internationalized expanded as machinery was invented, and now large 
as far as Ulm. The peace treaty also requires that the quantities of raw cotton, wool, and silk are brought 
Kiel Canal and its approaches shall be maintained free up the German rivers to the manufacturing centers. 
and open to vessels of all nations at peace with Germany, 
on equal terms (Fig. 384). At Hamburg and at Stettin 
free zones have been established and leased to Czecho- 
slovakia so that this inland state may have some of 
the advantages of these seaports. 

Climate. The rainfall throughout Germany is suffi- 
cient for agriculture, but there is more rain in the west- 
ern part than in the east. Because of their elevation the 
higher lands in the south have about the same tempera- 
ture as the lowlands in the north. North Sea ports are 
open all the year, but the bays and inlets of the Baltic 
and the estuaries of the rivers which flow into the Baltic 
are frozen during a part of the winter. That is because the 
Baltic Sea is shallower, less salty, and much more nearly 
inclosed by land than the North Sea. 

We may now consider the resources in each of the ^^2- 38*. The harbor at Kiel forms the e«.uia euuuu.c ,. lu. ...ei Canai, 

, 1  e r^ 1 iio!,.! which connects the Baltic and North seas. See map on page 171, J/l i. The 

natural regions of Germany, and see what effect they ^^^j ^3 gj^y^ne miles long and is deep enough to allow the passage of 

have had on the occupations of the people. good-sized ocean vessels. To what nations is it of the greatest use ? 



Deposits of excellent clay have been found, which is used 
in the manufacture of china and porcelain. Potash is also 
obtained in the highland region. It is used in making 
fertilizers, and thus has helped to promote agriculture. 
The forests in the region of the Central Highlands 
have long received scientific care. The supply of timber 
has led to lumbering and the manufacture of paper, 
woodenware, and toys. On the plateau north of the 
Alps many excellent cattle are raised. Farming is also 
a profitable occupation of the people here (Fig. 386). 

Fig. 385. In spite of the fact that Germany has many great industrial cities 
where manufacturing is carried on upon a large scale, many of the people 
are still engaged in home industries. The members of the family in this 
picture, who live on the edge of the Black Forest, earn their living by 
making rug-beaters from rattan 

The Danube, which rises in the Black Forest only a 
few miles from the Rhine, flows through this highland 
region, receiving several large tributaries from the south. 
At the head of navigation on the Danube is the old 
town of Ulm, where there is a beautiful cathedral and 
many buildings of historic interest. Munich is located on 
one of the tributaries of the Danube not far from the 
north base of the magnificent Alpine Range. It is in the 
midst of a forested region, where the lower slopes are 
used as pasture lands. It is an important railway center. 

The Rhine flows through the Central Highlands in, a 
picturesque gorge, ^oblenz, a very busy river port and 
manufacturing city, is located in this gorge at the point 
where the Moselle joins the Rhine (Fig. 387). Cologne is 
near the place where the Rhine leaves the gorge in the 
highlands and enters the lowland plain of Germany. 

Middle Rhine Plain. The Rhine receives its headwaters 
from the melting snows of the Alps, and turning north- 
ward from Basel flows into a fertile valley from 20 to 
25 miles wide. To the west are the Vosges Mountains, 
and to the east the Black Forest. This lowland portion 
of the middle Rhine is a valley bordered by two great 



wi /fltysts^^ i 


.i;wi^g^s.»ffl.aji- iF*i 


Fig. 386. These high-roofed houses are the homes of German farmers who 
raise hops in the hop district southwest of the Bohmer Wald. The lower 
stories are the living quarters of the families. The floors above are used for 
drying the hops after they have been picked and brought in from the fields 

cliffs. It was formed in the same way as the lowland 
of Scotland, that is, by the sinking of the land between 
the two bordering highlands. The part of this plain 
that is east of the river belongs to Germany, and it is the 
best agricultural land in the country. Cereals, hops, and 
tobacco are the principal crops, but almost any crop 
that can thrive in a temperate climate can be grown 
here. The winters are cold, but the summers are hot 
and the autumns are dry and warm. Fruit is grown, 
and the simny southern slopes of the hills are terraced 
for grapevines. 

Freiburg, on the eastern margin of this plain, is situ- 
ated at the mouth of one of the beautiful valleys of 
the Black Forest. It is a university town with a beau- 
tiful cathedral. Karlsruhe is a manufacturing center; 

Fig. 387. This is a view on the lower course of the Moselle River, where it 

flows through the region of the Central Highlands. This part of the Moselle 

Valley is a famous grape-growing district. In the left foreground of thi* 

view you can see some of the vineyards wlucb cover the hillsides 



Frankfort-on-the-Main is an important trading and bank- 
ing city on a tributary of the Rbine (Fig. 389) ; and Mainz 
is a river port and manufacturing city. 

North slope of the Alps. The Austro-German frontier 
extending eastward from the beautiful lake of Constance 
lies on the crest of the Bavarian Alps, and a small por- 
tion of this rugged mountain region is therefore included 
in Germany. The highest summit is nearly 10,000 feet 
above the sea. The mountain slopes are heavily forested. 
Several swift streams, tributary to the Danube, flow 
across this area (Fig. 388). 

Cities. In this country it will be most interesting to 
follow each one of the large rivers and thus associate 
the important cities with the main drainage lines of 
the country. 

If we start at the headwaters of the Oder and travel 
downstream, the first large city w^e reach is Breslau. 

Fig. 389. Frank£ort-on-the-Main is so called to distinguish it from another 
German city of the same name, Frankfort-on-the-Oder. This view shows 
the river Main with the buildings of the city in the distance. Locate the 
two cities of Frankfort on your map. What is the chief importance of each ? 

industries is the manufacture of the famous Dresden 
china. Leipzig, on a tributary of the Elbe, is a center for 
Not far from the margin of the highlands, it is near one printing and publishing, and Halle, a little below Leipzig, 

of the important coal fields, and the manufacture of 
cotton, woolen, and linen fabrics has been developed 
here. Next is Frankfort-on-the-Oder, which is a sugar- 
manufacturing city in the center of a great sugar-beet 
district. At the head of the estuary is Stettin, also a 
manufacturing center, where many of the largest ocean 
liners have been built. 

The Elbe rises in Czechoslovakia and flows northward 

is an important university town. Magdeburg is another 
sugar-manufacturing center. At the head of the estuary 
of the Elbe is Hamburg, the leading port in northern 
Europe (Fig. 381). Hamburg is connected by canals with 
ports on the Baltic Sea. The Elbe is the most impor- 
tant river of Germany, because it is the outlet for so 
much of the interior country. Near its headwaters are 
several of the mining regions on the northern margin 

through a magnificent gorge in the old mountains bor- of the Central Highlands. The products from eastern 
dering the Bohemian Plateau, and then passes out into Germany are brought by means of the canals from the 
the Plain of North Germany. Dresden is located a little valley of the Oder westward to the Elbe, 
downstream from the gorge. It is a beautiful city with Berlin, the capital of Germany, is located on a tribu- 
art galleries and public gardens. Among its various tary of the Elbe. This is a city of imposing buildings, 

broad streets and promenades, and 
beautiful gardens. Many industries 
have been established here, and manu- 
factured products can be carried by 
canals to the Oder and thence to 
Stettin or down the Elbe to Hamburg. 
The railroads of Germany, which are 
owned by the government, radiate in 
all directions from Berlin, and this 
city has become the greatest railroad 
center of the country (Fig. 382). 

Along the upper course of the Weser 
there are several industrial centers, but 
the city of greatest importance on this 
river is Bremen. This is another city 
at the head of an estuary ; it has the 
advantage of being within easy reach 
of the sea and yet in the midst of an 

Fig. 388, This is a modern castle in Germany, located in the beautiful mountain country on the agricultural district. It competes with 

north side of the Alps. It is much like the old German castles which were built at a time when Hamhnrcr and the norts on the Rhine 
the home of each wealthy nobleman was a strong fortress as well as a dwelling-place. There are v, j e n 

many of these old castles in Germany, especially in the mountainous parts of the country tor the trade 01 westem LrCrmany. 



1 m _;i^=,j,T«7^^^^pp -^ 

^ '■ "^^^'-Tf-*.^, - f  ' 




On the banks of the Rhine just beyond the upland 
belt is Cologne, a city with the largest Gothic cathedral 
in Europe. It is a port to which ocean steamers come, 
making it one of the busiest places in western Germany. 
Essen is on a tributary of the Rhine which rises in the 
highlands and flows through coal and iron fields. Essen 
has become an important center of the iron and steel 

East Prussia is separated from the rest of Germany 
by a narrow strip of land that belongs to Poland, but 
the German people have the right to ship goods across 
this Polish territory. Konigsberg is the capital and sear 
port of East Prussia. 

Government. Beforethe World War Lrermany was organ- 
ized as an empire. At the end of the war the people over- 
threw the imperial government and set up*a republican 
form of government. The people now elect their own 
representatives and control the affairs of the nation. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What natural regions extend 
into Germany ? 2. What is the best agricultural portion of this 
country ? 3. Where are most of the mineral resources ? 4. Why 
do the North Sea ports remain open and the Baltic ports remain 
frozen during the winter ? 

5. Why is there more rainfall in western than in eastern Germany ? 

6. In what part of this country is the grapevine commonly grown ? 

7. Where are the best forests of Germany ? 8. What natural 
resources have led to manufacturing? 9. What are the leading 
manufacturing cities of Germany ? 

10. What rivers in Germany have large cities near their mouths? 
11. What water routes connect Berlin with the sea? 12. What 
rivers have been internationalized ? Why was this done ? 13. At 
what seaports have the people of Czechoslovakia special rights ? 
14. What part of Germany is entirely separated from the rest of 
the country ? 15. What form of government has Germany to-day ? 



WT-? — ?^ 


!P' 1 




■■■k sa 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■H'. J- 

Fig. 390. This is a view in the Austrian Alps. In tlie foreground is one of 

the great glaciers which wind their way down the valleys between the 

Alpine peaks. These glaciers move very slowly, fed by the snow in the 

mountains and always melting at their lower ends 

Fig. 391. These are the government buildings at Vienna, where the laws of 
the nation are made. Vienna is noted for the beauty of its buildings, streets, 
and parks. Locate Vienna on your map. What advantages can you see in its 
location ? What other national capitals are situated on the Danube River ? 


Austria is a small country in central Europe without 
any seacoast. It includes a portion of the Alps and 
a portion of the Central Highlands northeast of the 
Alps (Fig. 390). 

On the lower slopes of the mountains there are forests, 
and in the valley bottoms, especially in the Central 
Highlands, there are fertile soils. The streams from the 
high mountains furnish water-power, and there are mines 
that supply iron, lead, copper, salt, and mercury. 

Lumbering, grazing, and some agriculture are carried 
on, and in the cities there are many industrial plants. 

Vienna is the capital and chief city (Fig. 391). It is 
beautifully located on the Danube River and is laid out 
witii broad avenues that are planted with trees. Just 
below the city the Alps and the Little Carpathians 
come to the banks of the river and form a narrow 
pass known as the Austrian Gate. 

The museums in Vienna have wonderfully valuable 
art and natural-history collections, and this city has long 
been one of the leading musical centers of the world. 

The Danube River is a natural highway of travel from 
east to west, and the railroad routes from north to south, 
connecting Berlin with the Italian and Balkan peninsulas, 
cross the river where Vienna is located. The crossing 
of these routes of travel and trade has led to the growth 
of Vienna as an industrial and commercial center. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What state in the United 
States is about as large as Austria ? See Appendix. 2. What 
natural regions extend into this country ? 3. What are the chief 
natural resources of Austria? 4. What navigable river may be 
used by the Austrian people in trading with other countries ? 
5. What are the chief occupations of the i)eople ? 6. What are 
the reasons for' the location and growth of Vienna ? 7. Where 
is the Austrian Gate ? 8. Why is it so named ? 



















!- ^^!^H 




;) £zcluBiv« News Agencj, KoehamptoD 

Fig. 392. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, is divided by the Danube River 
into two cities, Buda and Pest. This view shows one of the bridges which 
unite the two cities. Locate Budapest on the map between pages 181 and 184. 
How should you describe its location ? What advantages for trade has it ? 


Physical features. Most of this country is included 
in the lowland called the Plain of Hungary. This low- 
land and the surrounding mountains form a basinlike 
area within which the streams from the mountains have 
spread out fine materials and in this way have built up 
a very fertile land. Hungary is a country without a 
coast line, but it has free use of the Danube River. 

The Danube River crosses from the northwest to the 
southeast. Just upstream from Budapest the mountain 
ranges come close to the river, forming in the valley of 
the Danube a narrow pass which is called the Hungarian 
Gate. Farther downstream, where the Danube flows 
through the Carpathian Mountains, is another narrow 
place in the valley, which is known as the Iron Gate. 

Fig. 393. These Hungarian farmers are harvesting hay on their farm in the 

rich, fertile plain of the Danube. About how much rainfall does this plain 

receive during the year ? See map on page 216. Why is it so favorable for 

agriculture ? What are the chief products grown in this region ? 

Climate. In the mountains that surround the Plain of 
Hungary there is abundant rainfall, amounting in places 
to 80 inches a year ; but in the lowland the rainfall is un- 
certain, and there are often long periods of dry weather. 
The rain of the lowland comes chiefly in May and June, 
when the cereal crops, especially wheat, are getting a 
good start. The latter part of the summer is dry, and 
this is favorable to the ripening and harvesting of the 
wheat. Since Hungary is far from the sea, there are 
great changes in temperature. The summers are very 
warm and the winters are very cold. During July the 
range of temper- 
ature is usually 
between 65° F. 
and 70° F., and 
in January, *the 
coldest month, it 
is from 22° F. to 
30° F. 

Resources and 
occupations. The 
fertile soil of the 
lowland of Hun- 
gary is its chief 
natural resource. 
For this reason 
agriculture has 
become the chief 
occupation of the 
people (Fig. 393). Corn is the principal crop of the Plain 
of Hungary, and large quantities of excellent wheat and 
tobacco are grown. Swine are raised in large numbers, 
and dairy-farming and the raising of poultry are also 
important occupations of the people. 

In the east and south there are extensive grasslands 
that have encouraged many to raise cattle and sheep. 
The forests about the base of the mountains have led 
to lumbering. 

Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Buda is located 
on the high western bank of the Danube River, and 
Pest is on the lowland bordering the stream on the east. 
The two cities are joined by bridges (Figs. 392, 394). 
Budapest is located at the margin of the great wheat- 
producing district and has naturally become the center 
for the shipment of grain and the manufacture of flour. 

Problems and review questions. 1. AYhy should farming be the 
chief occupation of the people of Hungary ? 2. Where did the 
fine alluvial soils of the Plain of Hungary come from ? 3. Why 
has the lowland a light rainfall ? 4. What is the chief crop of the 
lowland ? 5. What other products are raised in the lowland ? 
6. What can you tell about Budapest ? 7. What internationalized 
river may be used for commerce by the people of Hungary? 
8. Into what sea does it flow ? 

Fig. 394. This is a view on the wharves at Buda- 
pest. In the foreground is a Hungarian woman 
selling vegetables. On the river are some of the 
boats which carry passengers and freight up and 
down the Danube 



Fig. 395. This is one of the steel-manufacturing centers in Czechoslovakia. 

This country is very fortunate in possessing large supplies of coal and iron, 

and its importance as an industrial nation is sure to increase in the future. 

Locate the coal and iron areas on the map between pages 181 and 184 


This country contains about 50,000 square miles, and 
is therefore about the size of the state of New York. It 
is in central Europe and has no coast line. In the west 
are the mountains and plateau of Bohemia, and in the 
east is a portion of the Carpathian Mountains. 

Climate. The mountains cause variety in the climate. 
The temperature varies with the elevation. The distance 
from the sea causes considerable change in temperature 
from summer to winter. In the mountain areas the 

Fig. 396. Briinn is the second largest city in Czechoslovakia. This view 

shows a public square in Briinn on market day when the farmers of the 

surrounding agricultural country bring their products to the city to sell them. 

What agricultural products are grown in this part of Czechoslovakia ? 

ground up and used in the manufacture of glass ; wood 
pulp is made into paper; hides and skins are made 
into leather ; and in the V?dJey of the Elbe, where there 
is good water-power, cottoii^ woolen, and linen goods 
are made. 

Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia, is situated in 
the most productive part of the country. It has become 
one of the chief industrial and trading centers in central 
Europe (Fig. 397). Prague is on a tributary of the Elbe 
River. Czechoslovakia has free use of the Elbe, Oder, 

rainfall is plentiful, giving rise to many good streams and Danube rivers, and harbor privileges in Hamburg, 

that furnish water-power. 

Resources and occupations. Forests cover much of the 
mountain slopes, and the valley and plateau lands have 
fertile soils suitable for farming and grazing. The Bohe- 
mian district contains rich stores of coal and iron and 
large supplies of high-grade clays that 
are used in making porcelain. The Car- 
pathian Mountains are also rich in min- 
eral wealth. Iron, gold, and silver are 
obtained from the mines in' this range. 

The natural resources of this country 
have led to lumbering and mining in 
the mountains, to farming and grazing 
in the areas of fertile soils, and to manu- 
facturing in the cities. The supplies of 
iron and coal are used in the making 
of steel and in the manufacture of 
machinery (Fig. 395). The clays near 
Karlsbad have made possible the estab- 
lishment of a porcelain industry that is 
known throughout the civilized world. 
Some of the sandstones of Bohemia are 

Stettin, Trieste, and Fiume. 

Briinn is a second industrial city. Its location and 
growth are due to certain rich deposits of coal and 
iron that have helped it to become a leading city in the 
manufacture of agricultural and industrial machinery. 

Fig. 397. This is a view of part of the city of Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia. Prague is 

located on the Moldau River and is a busy industrial city. Its factories include paper mills, 

machine works, sugar-refining plants, and breweries. Locate Prague on the map between pages 

181 and 184. Why has Bohemia developed so many manufacturing industries ? 



Fig. 398. The free city of Danzig is located on the Baltic Sea at the mouth 

of the Vistula River, and is the chief commercial port of the republic of 

Poland. This is a view along the water front at Danzig. Locate Danzig on 

your map. Why is this port the natural outlet for Poland ? 

Pilsen, in the rich grain-growing section of Czechoslo- 
vakia, is famous for the beer brewed from the barley 
and hops which are raised chiefly for this purpose. Pilsen 
is also well known for the manufacture of glassware. 

This country is organized as a republic. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief natural 
resources of Czechoslovakia ? 2. How has each one of the natu- 
ral resources influenced the occupations of the people ? 3. What 
internationalized rivers may be used for transportation ? 4. What 
ports are available ? 5. Name and give the location of the capi- 
tal. 6. Name two other important cities and state the leading 
industries of each one. 7. Will this country become chiefly 
agricultural or manufacturing? Give reasons for your answer. 


This country, now organized as a republic, is located 
between Germany and Russia and has access to the sea 
through the free city of Danzig (Fig. 398). It is a low- 
land area included within the Central Plains of Europe. 
Much of the land is marshy, and there are a great many 
lakes. The lakes and marshes are due to the work of the 

PresB Ulustratin^ Service, Inc. 

Fig. 399. This is the city hall at Warsaw. The city is located at the head 
of navigation for steam vessels on the Vistula, and is also an important 
railroad center. Locate Warsaw on your map. How far is Warsaw from 
Danzig by water ? Why has Warsaw become an important commercial and 
industrial center ? 

) Fr«8s Illustrating Senice, Inc. 

Fig. 400. Many years ago Poland was one of the most powerful kingdoms of 

Europe. The country was much larger than it is now. This building, which 

is still standing in Warsaw, was the palace of one of the kings who ruled 

Poland more than two centuries ago. How is Poland governed to-day ? 

continental ice-sheet that long ago invaded this region 
(Fig. 317). Most of the soils here are of glacial origin. 

The Memel, or Niemen, River, which forms a part 
of the northeastern boundary of Poland, has been inter- 
nationalized as far upstream as Grodno. This river is 
navigable and is an important highway for the transpor- 
tation of farm products. The Vistula is the largest and 
most important river of Poland. 

The rainfall is enough for agriculture, although it is 
less than the amount received in western Germany. 

Resources and occupations. The soils are the most 
valuable of the natural resources of Poland. Most of the 
people are farmers, and large crops of potatoes, rye, oats, 
wheat, and sugar beets are raised. Poultry-raising and 
dairy-farming are also important occupations. Many 
are engaged in raising cattle, sheep, and horses. 

There are excellent supplies of coal in southern Poland, 
and there are mines that produce iron and others 
\vtere lead and zinc are obtained. The mineral re- 
sources, especially the good supply of fuel, have led 
to manufacturing. 

Cities. Warsaw, the capital of Poland, is on the west 
bank of the Vistula, and in the midst of a broad, fertile 
plain (Figs. 399, 400). There are coal fields in the vicinity 
of Lodz, and both Warsaw and Lodz have become im- 
portant manufacturing centers. 



Krakow is the leading city in southern Poland. A few 
miles from this city there are great underground caves 
in salt. Some of the rooms are so large that they are 
used for dance halls. 

Problems and review questions. 1. In what natural region of 
Europe is Poland located ? 2. What is the explanation of the 
numerous swamps and lakes in this country ? 3. What free sea- 
port may be used by the people of Poland ? Is that port open all 
winter ? 4. What internationalized river is available ? 5. What is 
the chief river of Poland ? 6. What are the leading occupations 
of the people ? 7. Name and give the location of the capital. 

Fig. 401. Libau, on the Baltic Sea, is the second largest port of the Baltic 
States. Its harbor is free from ice in winter, which adds greatly to its 
usefulness. This view shows part of the harbor of Libau. What products 
have the Baltic States for export ? What do they need to import in return ? 


The small countries of Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithu- 
ania are on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea south 
of the Gulf of Finland. They are partly forested, and 
timber-cutting is therefore one of the chief occupations 
of the inhabitants. Some of the land is used for grazing, 
and dairy-farming is carried on. Many of the people are 
engaged in agriculture ; flax is one of the chief crops. 

Riga, the capital of Latvia, is located near the mouth 
of the Diina River and is the chief seaport for the Baltic 
States (Fig. 402). The exports of Riga are flax, timber, 
and dairy products. Coal is imported from England and 
cotton from the United States. Reval, the leading city 
of Esthonia, is also an important seaport. Vilna, in 
Lithuania, is a growing industrial center. 


Finland is a hilly country, and among the hills there 
are thousands of lakes and marshes. It is an old, worn- 
down land somewhat like New England, and like New 
England it has been invaded by great ice-sheets. There 
are stony soils, and on the surface are many bowlders. 

The winters are long and the summers are short and 
hot. The rainfall is about 10 inches a year in the north 
and about 25 inches a year in the south. 

Fig. 402. This picture shows the railroad bridge across the Diina River at 

Riga, and in the distance the buildings of the city. Notice the log rafts 

under the bridge. Nearly one third of the area of Latvia is forested, and 

each year thousands of logs are floated down the rivers to the ports 

Forests cover a large part of Finland, and they have 
led to lumbering, to the making of paper, and to the 
manufacture of woodenware. Quarrying is important, 
and there is some mining of copper ; many of the people 
are engaged in fishing and a few in farming. Most of 
the people live in the southern part of the country, 
near the Gulf of Finland or on the shore of the Gulf of 
Bothnia (Fig. 403). Helsingfors is the capital and chief 

Finland is organized as a republic. 

Problems and review questions. Where are the small Baltic 
States located ? 2. What is the chief seaport of this group of 
countries ? Is this port open all the year ? 3. What are the chief 
occupations of the people in the Baltic States ? 4. Describe 
briefly the physical features of Finland. 5. What disadvantages 
must the people of this country contend with ? 6. What are the 
principal resources and the resulting occupations in Finland ? 

Fig. 403. This is one of the locks in the Saima Canal in Finland. The canal 

connects Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland at Viborg, making it possible 

for the people of the interior of the country to send their products easily 

and cheaply to the coast. Locate Viborg and Lake Saima on your mao 



Fig. 404. This is a view of the Volga River as it winds across the level 

plain of Russia. The Volga freezes over in winter and becomes very shallow 

in summer, yet it is an important commercial highway. On the map on 

page 201 trace the route by water from Astrakhan to Petrograd 


Lowlands. Most of Russia is in the vast lowland that 
stretches from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean and from 
the Ural Mountains to the Baltic Sea. Within this great 
lowland there are a few hilly places, and about the margins 
there are several mountain ranges. See map on page 201. 

Mountains. The Ural Mountains and the Timan 
Range, in the northeast, are old and worn down. They 
are like the Northwest Highlands in being the stumps 
of mountains that once were higher. On the southern 
border of the lowland, between the Black and Caspian 
seas, is the young and magnificent range of the Caucasus. 
The lofty peaks of the Caucasus rise to even greater 
heights than the summits of the Alps, and there are longer 
glaciers in the Caucasus Mountains than in the Alps. 

Area below sea level. See map on page 201. The 
southeastern part of Russia, near the mouth of the Volga 
and about the north end of the Caspian Sea, is below 
sea level. It is a part of a former sea floor. The Caspian 
was once part of a great inland sea which included the 
Black and Mediterranean seas and extended northeast- 
ward over the lowlands of western Siberia to the Arctic 
Ocean. Later the lands rose and most of the waters of 
the inland sea drained off into the ocean basins, leaving 
the Caspian Sea without an outlet. Since that time the 
Caspian Sea has been slowly drying up. As its waters 
have evaporated, more and more of its sea bottom, 
which is below sea level, has become dry land. 

Lakes. The numerous lakes in the northern and 
western portions of Russia are due to the continental 
ice-sheet which formed on the Scandinavian Peninsula 
and spread until it covered a large part, of Russia. The 
deposits left by the ice have formed many basins Avhere 

Fig. 405. This picture was taken on the banks of the Dvina River near 

Archangel in the month of October. Notice the snow on the ground. The 

harbor of Archangel is icebound from seven to nine months in the year. 

Locate Archangel on the map on page 201. On what sea is it ? 

rain waters have collected, and in many places streams 
have been blocked so that lakes have been formed. 

Rivers and canals. Several of the larger streams of 
Russia are navigable and of very great value as trans- 
portation routes. The Volga, the longest river in Europe, 
flows into the Caspian Sea (Fig. 404). The Don and the 
Dnieper reach the Black Sea, and the Dvina flows 
northward to the White Sea. Since the land is low, 
many canals have been made, connecting different river 
systems, until now there are water routes from the Baltic 
Sea to the Black Sea. See map on page 201. The water- 
ways were developed before there were many railroads, 
and yet they are still very important in commerce. 

Coast line. Russia is unfortunate in not having more 
good harbors. The ports in the Far North and on the 
Gulf of Finland are frozen for a large part of each year 
(Fig. 405). By means of the long, navigable rivers and 
the railroads the Black Sea ports may be used, for they 
are open throughout the year, but it is a long, indirect 
route from the Black Sea to the great seaports of the 
leading nations of the world. 

Natural resources. Use map on page 201. Russia is 
fortunate in having large areas of most excellent soils, 
extensive forests, and great mineral wealth. Coal is 
found in several places in the lowland and in the foot- 
hills of the mountains. There are also rich supplies of 
oil. One of the leading mining districts is in the Ural 
Mountains, where platinum, gold, copper, and iron are 
obtained. All these metals are very important in modern 
industries. Over 90 per cent of the world's supply of 
platinum comes from the Ural Mountains. Petroleum is 
abundant around the shores of the Caspian Sea. 

The fur-bearing animals of the forests and the fish 
in the streams and seas are also valuable resources. 



Climate. Russia is so far inland and extends so far but agriculture is possible. Timber is cut and flax, rye, 
from north to south that there are great extremes in barley, oats, and large quantities of potatoes are raised 

temperature and great variety in the climate. The rain- 
fall is greatest in the west and decreases to the east and 
southeast until in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea there 
is a large semidesert area. 

In the Far North the ground never thaws for more 
than a few inches below the surface. There are frosts for 
six months of the year, and all the streams and harbors 
are frozen over in winter. In the extreme south the 
climate is very warm. For several months the tempera- 
ture averages 70 degrees or over. This means that dur- 
ing the warmest part of the day the temperature will 
be much above 70 degrees. In the central part, and 
especially near the eastern boundary of Russia, the 
winters are cold, more like those in the northern part of 
the country, and the summers are warm. Here the ex- 
tremes in temperature during the year are the greatest. 





lb '■ i 

Fig. 406. The city of Petrograd was founded more than two hundred years ago 
by a Russian emperor who wished to have a great Russian city on the Baltic 
Sea. Locate Petrograd on your map. Why is the location of Moscow more 
favorable for the capital of the nation ? What are the exports of Petrograd ? 

Home work. 1. In the best reference book available read about 
the peasant life in Russia. 2. Find out all you can about the 
present government of Russia. 

Occupations. The occupations of most of the Russian 
people are directly dependent upon the climatic condi- 
tions. In the tundra of the Far North, fishermen, hunters, 
and reindeer herders live a wandering life. On the south- 
em margin of the tundra belt there are low, stunted 
trees ; farther south is the great evergreen forest. Here 
timber is cut and wild animals are trapped for their furs. 

South of the evergreen forest, where the climate is less 
severe, is the forest of broad-leaved trees. Here frosts 
are common for from two to four months of the year. 

where the forest has been cleared away. 

The famous black-soil belt of Russia, where immense 
crops of wheat are raised, is south of the forested area. 

Fig. 407. In the foreground of this view is the Moskva River, on which Moscow 

is located, and in the backgroimd are some of the public buildings of the city. 

At the left rise the towers of the old fortress which is known as the Kremlin. 

Locate Moscow on your map and explain its commercial importance 

Here the people appreciate the advantages of labor- 
saving devices, and American harvesting machines have 
been introduced. 

The dry steppe country to the southeast is a grassland, 
where the herding of cattle and sheep is the most profit- 
able occupation. Near the shores of the Caspian Sea the 
land is so dry that very little will grow there. 

The mining of metals in the mountains, the discovery 
of coal and oil, and the cutting of timber have led to the 
development of manufacturing in several of the cities. 
The raw materials from the farms and the wool and 
hides that are supplied from the grazing districts have 
also encouraged the manufacturing industries. 

Cities. All the large cities of Russia are on the rivers or 
on the coast. Petrograd, the former capital, is built largely 
on piles in a swampy region at the mouth of the Neva 
River. It is a city with magnificent buildings (Fig. 406). 

Archangel, the oldest Russian port, is on the White Sea. 
It is at the mouth of the northern Dvina (Fig. 405). 

Moscow, the capital of Russia, is much more centrally 
located than Petrograd. It is on one of the tributaries 
of the Volga and in the midst of forests which have 
furnished an abundance of fuel and building material. 
The rivers have made it possible to bring to this center 
raw materials, such as flax and grains from the agricul- 
tural districts. Coal is obtained a little south of the city. 




and Moscow has become a manufacturing center. Cotr 
ton, linen, and woolen goods are made here. This city- 
is also an important trading center and one from which 
machinery is distributed to the great farming regions of 
Russia (Fig. 407). Tula, a little south of Moscow, on a 

At the eastern end of the Caucasus Mountains, on the 
shores of the Caspian Sea, is Baku, in the midst of one 
of the greatest oil-producing regions in the world. Much 
of the oil is pumped through pipes up the valley of the 
Kur to Batum on the Black Sea, and shipped from there 

still smaller tributary stream in the Volga system, is in to various ports of Europe and to Egypt. Some of the 
the midst of a coal field, and by importing iron this city Baku oil is used as fuel on boats in the Caspian Sea. 
has developed industries like those in Sheffield, England. 

At the junction of the Oka and the Volga is Nizhnii 
Novgorod, a city built partly on a hill and partly on the 
lowland bordering the stream. It is famous for its an- 
nual fair, to which come merchants and traders from all 
parts of Europe and Asia, and some from more distant 
lands. Perm is located near the western base of the Ural 
Mountains on a tributary of the Volga and is the center 
of one of the great mining 
districts of Russia. It is on 
the railroad that starts from 
Petrograd and joins the 
transcontinental line across 

Samara is a river port situ- 
ated at a very sharp bend in 
the Volga River, and from 
here another railroad, which 
starts at Riga and goes by 
way of Moscow, crosses east- 
ward and joins the great 
Siberian road. Astrakhan, at 
the mouth of the Volga, is 
the chief port on the Caspian 
Sea and the center of the 
sturgeon fisheries (Fig. 408). 

Fig. 408. These men are Caspian Sea fishermen. They have just brought 
ashore two large sturgeon which they have caught. The sturgeon are valu- 
able chiefly for their eggs, which are salted and packed in oil for export. 
In this form they are known as caviar, a product which finds a large market 
in Europe and the United States 

Problems and review questions. 1. Explain the great difference 
in temperature from north to south in Russia. 2. Explain the 
difference in rainfall from east to west. 3. What portion of this 
country has soils of glacial origin ? 4. What sources of fuel and 
power are there in Russia ? 

5. How does the climate affect the occupations of the people 
in this country ? Give examples. 6. What is the occupation of 
most of the people in Russia ? 7. In what ways have the rivers 
of Russia proved to be of great value to the country ? 

8. What large cities are located 
on rivers ? 9. In what part of 
Russia are there rich mineral 
deposits ? 10. Where are the 
small republics of Georgia, Azer- 
baijan, and Erivan ? 11. What 
disadvantages have the people 
of Russia to contend with? 


1. What European coun- 
tries are shown on this map ? 
2. What navigable river flows 
into the White Sea ? 3. What 
navigable river flows mto the 
Caspian Sea ? 4. Name three 
large navigableriversthat flow 
into the Black Sea. 5. What 
is the chief river of Poland ? 

6. Describe an inland water 
route from the White Sea to 


The people living south of the Caucasus Mountains and 
north of the highlands of Armenia speak many different 
languages and have such different customs that they have 
organized three small republics. These republics are 
called Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Erivan. Georgia includes 
part of the Black Sea coast, and Azerbaijan extends to the 
Caspian Sea. The people of Erivan are Armenians, and 
it is probable that they will join the Armenian republic. 

Here the summers are warm and dry, but the winters 
are cold and rainy. To the north are the magnificent 
snow-covered peaks of the Caucasus that furnish an 
abundance of water to the streams that flow southward 
and then to the Black and Caspian seas. Cattle, sheep, 
and goats are raised on the foothills of the mountains, 
while cereals, cotton, and fruits are produced in large 
quantities on the lowlands. 

the Caspian Sea ; from Danzig to the capital of Ukraine. 
7. What are the chief ports on the Baltic Sea? 8. Describe 
the water route from Odessa to Athens. 

9. What cities appear to be important railroad centers? 
10. From this map locate the chief forest area. Refer to the 
map opposite page 216 to see if you are correct. 11. Locate 
areas where sugar beets are raised ; where wheat is produced ; 
where flax is grown. 

12. Where are the Russian mines that produce metals? 

13. Has Ukraine a supply of oil? Where is it found? 

14. Where does the oil that is shipped from Batum come 
from ? 15. Where are the Russian supplies of coal and iron ? 
16. What is the chief food fish in the Caspian Sea ? 

17. If a canal were made from the Black Sea to the Caspian 
Sea, which way would the water flow ? 18. Is New York or 
Constantinople farther from the equator ? 

19. Is Paris or the capital of Ukraine nearer the north 
pole ? 20. Is London or the capital of Poland farther from 
the equator? 21. What port in northern Russia is in about 
the same latitude as the capital of Ittgland ? 

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In the northwest Rumania is mountainous and in- 
cludes the Plateau of Transylvania. In the east and 
south there is a lowland plain which is an extension of 
the Central Plains of Europe. 

Most of the low country is a wonderfully fertile land, 
and here agriculture is the chief occupation (Figs. 413, 
414). The rainfall is light, and therefore wheat is the 

Fig. 409. This is the Opera House at Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. Kiev is 

a very old city and is the center of Ukrainian art, culture, and religion. To 

the Ukrainians and their neighbors, the Russians, it is a holy city, and 

thousands of pilgrims visit its churches each year 


This republic is east of Poland and north of the Black 
Sea. It is a part of the Central Plains of Europe and 
is the southwestward extension of the very fertile black- 
soil belt of Russia. 

The climate is continental ; that is, the rainfall is not 
heavy and the range in temperature is great. The rain- 
fall is enough for agriculture, however, and almost all 
the people are engaged in farming. Immense crops of 
wheat and other grains are raised, and large quantities 
of grain are exported (Fig. 410). 

^ Ezcliuir« Mews .Ageoc;, Kueiiamiiluu 

Fig. 410. The people in this picture are Ukrainian peasants. The woman has 
come across the fields from her house with water for her husband and son, 
who are at work on their farm. Notice the rude yoke by which she carries 
the water buckets. What products do these Ukrainian farmers raise ? Why 
is Ukraine a rich agricultural country ? 

leading product (Fig. 412). In the drier eastern parts of 
the lowland, where there is an abundance of grass, cattle 
and horses are raised. 

The lower slopes of the mountains are forested, and 
The people of Ukraine are able to raise large amounts near the eastern base of the Carpathians large quantities 

of necessary foods. This makes it 
possible for the population to in- 
crease and for all industrious people 
to be prosperous. There are excellent 
supplies of coal and iron in this 
country, and such resources will 
undoubtedly lead to the further 
development of manufacturing. 

Manufactured goods ^j^je received 
in exchange for the grains exported. 
American agricultural machinery is 
used, and many modem labor-saving 
devices have been introduced. 

Kiev, the capital, is located on the 
Dnieper River and is an industrial 
and commercial center (Fig. 409). 
Sugar-refining is important here. 
Odessa is the chief seaport, and large 
quantities of wheat are shipped from 
this port (Fig. 411). 

Fig. 411. This view shows part of the harbor of 

Odessa, the leading seaport and commercial center 

of Ukraine. Locate Odessa on the map on page 201. 

What are its chief exports ? 

of oil are obtained. There are mineral 
resources in the mountains that await 
development. The plateau district is 
suitable for raising sheep and cattle. 

Bucharest ia the capital and chief, 
trading center. It is a city with all 
modern conveniences, and it has be- 
come the home of the wealthy people 
of Rumania, who control vast areas 
of the farming districts. The great 
mass of the people are peasants who 
live in very simple homes and with- 
out the comforts that come to in- 
dustrious farmers in many other 

Kronstadt is a manufacturing cen- 
ter. Galatz is on the lower Danube 
and is the outlet for most of the 
products of Rumania. Ocean-going 
vessels reach this port. 



IC) frna tilustratiiiK ^arvicc. Inc. 

Fig. 412. At the harvest season the Rumanian farmers take their great 

threshing machines into the fields, and as the wheat is cut the bundles are 

put through the thresher to separate the grain from the straw. Why is 

this part of the Danube Valley so favorable to the growth of wheat ? 

• Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief natural 
resources of Rumania ? 2. How have the resources influenced 
the occupations ? 3. What country is southern and eastern 
Rumania most like ? 4. What navigable river is available ? 
5. Name the capital and chief port. 

Home work. Find out the origin of the naine " Rumania." 


The cotmtries of Europe which we have not yet con- 
sidered occupy three peninsulas extending southward 
into the Mediterranean Sea. In the west is the Iberian 
Peninsula, which is divided between Spain, Portugal, 
and Andorra, the tiny republic which 
is located high among the Pyrenees. 
Italy occupies the long peninsula 
with the curious boot^shaped out^ 
line. The eastern, or Balkan, penin- 
sula is divided into Jugoslavia, 
Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, and the 
area about Constantinople. 

These peninsulas of Europe are 
mountainous regions and, with the 
exception of the Plain of the Po, 
have very limited lowlands. See 
map between pmjes 207 and 210. 

The temperature in the Mediter- 
ranean lands is distinctly warmer 
than in other parts of Europe. This 
is due in part to the latitude and 
in part to the high mountains that 
keep off cold winds from the north. 

The rainfall in this part of Europe 
comes chiefly in winter. This needs 

a special explanation. During the summer, when the 
sun's rays are vertical north of the equator, the belt of 
the northeast trade winds has moved so far northward 
that it includes the peninsulas which extend into the 
Mediterranean. These northeast trades come from over 
the land and contain Kttle moisture. Furthermore, since 
they are blowing toward the equator and getting warmer, 
their tendency is to take up more moisture. The Medi- 
terranean countries therefore have a dry summer, and 
the skies are clear and blue. 

When winter comes, the trade-wind belt migrates 
southward, and the westerly winds, which bring moisture 
from the Atlantic Ocean, prevail in these lands. Clouds 
form and rain falls abundantly in most of the Mediter- 
ranean countries during the winter. The rainfall is 
heaviest on the windward sides of the mountains and 
lightest in the plateau of central Spain, where the moun- 
tains keep off the rain-bearing winds or force them to 
give up their moisture before they reach the interior. 

The peoples in the Mediterranean portion of Europe 
have languages quite distinct from those used in the 
countries farther north. The Spanish, Portuguese, and 
Italian languages are related in origin to the Latin used 
by the ancient Romans. The people who migrated into 
Rumania were from Italy, and their language is much 
like the Italian. The Greek language of to-day is directly 
derived from that of the ancient Greeks, and the lan- 
guages of the various Balkan states show a relationship 
to the ancient Greek and Roman tongues, though the long 
isolation of the people among the mountain valleys of this 
peninsula has produced dialects which are quite distinct. 

Fig. 413. This man is a Rumanian farmer. He is 
pitching hay with a homemade wooden pitchfork. 
What other countries share with Rumania the agri- 
cultural advantages of the fertile Danube Valley? 

(^ PrMB lltuflrftlinc Sntice, loo. 

Fig: 4M. In Rumania, as in most of the other coun- 
tries of Europe, the women work in the fields just as 
the men do. These Rumanian peasant women are 
starting out for their day's work of cutting wheat 



SPAIN sheep and goats are raised. Here many of the sheep are 

Surface features and climate. Most of Spain is in- merinos, which produce a very fine grade of wool. The 

eluded in the Iberian Plateau, which is called the Meseta. southern portion of the Meseta is so dry and the soil is 

About the margin 
of this plateau 
there are moun- 
tain ranges that 
obstruct the winds 
and force them to 
give up their mois- 
ture. The annual 
rainfall is about 
100 inches in the 
Cantabrian Moun- 
tains and between 
60 and 80 inches 
in the Pyrenees. 
The SieiTa Morena 
and the Sierra Ne- 
vada, because of 
their elevation, re- 
ceive a moderately 
heavy rainfall, but 

the central portion of the country, the Meseta, is one 
of the driest parts of the continent of Europe. 

Since the Meseta is so shut in by mountains, it has 
a climate somewhat like that of a land in the interior 
of a continent. The rainfall is light, and there are 
extremes in temperature. At Madrid the average tern- 

[) £icluaive News .Aeenc;, KoebAmpton 

Fig. 416. This is the Puerto del Sol, the largest public square in IMadrid. Eight of the principal 

streets meet in this square, making it the business center of the city. Locate Madrid on the map 

between pages 207 and 210. In what natural region is the city situated ? Describe the climate here. 

Is the location of Madrid a favorable one for the capital of the country ? 

SO poor that little 
but grazing is car- 
ried on in this part 
of Spain. 

Great canyons 
cross the central 
part of the Meseta, 
and they are such 
effective obstruc- 
tions to communi- 
cation that the life 
in the northern 
portion of the pla- 
teau is quite dis- 
tinct from that in 
the south. 

In the valley of 
the Guadalquivir 
River is a fertile 
lowland in which 

large crops of tobacco, oranges, grapes, figs, cotton, and 
sugar are raised by means of irrigation. Wine is pro- 
duced in the vineyards and exported from Cadiz, the chief 
seaport in the south of Spain. This rich lowland region 
also produces excellent horses, bulls, and sheep. 

In the Sierra Nevada there are valuable deposits of 
perature is about 40° F. in the coldest month and about iron, copper, silver, lead, zinc, and quicksilver. These 
75° F. in the hottest month. At the seaports of Spain the resources have led to mining, and Spain now produces 
variation in temperature from the hottest to the coldest more lead and copper than any other European country, 
month is very much less than it is in the Meseta. The lowlands bordering the Mediterranean coast have 

Resources and occupations. In the 
region of the Pyrenees and Canta-- 
brian Mountains there are magnifi- 
cent forests of ash, beech, and cork 
oak (Fig. 417), and the Cantabrian 
Range contains rich deposits of coal 
and iron. These resources have led 
to lumbering and mining. The iron 
ore is exported from harbors on the 
Bay of Biscay to Wales. In the val- 
leys between the mountains there 
are dairy farms. 

The northern portion of the Meseta 
is suitable for the raising of cereals, 
especially wheat, which ripens in a 
dry climate. In places the streams 
that come from the mountains are 
used for irrigating the fields. In 
the poorer grasslands of the plateau 

Fig. 416. This is a very old bridge across the Tagus 

River at Toledo. Locate Toledo on your map. This 

is one of the oldest cities in Spain and was once 

the capital of the kingdom 

a climate much like that of southern 
California, and these lands have been 
carefully cultivated. Even the slopes 
of the mountains are made useful by 
terracing, and all kinds of Mediter- 
ranean fruits are grown. Fresh and 
dried fruits and wine are exported. 
In this region bits of cork are used 
in packing the fresh grapes. The 
cork is very light and does not injure 
the fruit. 

The lowland of the Ebro River, 
which is located just south of the 
Pyrenees, has a poor soil which re- 
(juires irrigation. This lowland is 
shut off from the sea by a mountain 
range, through which the Ebro 
River flows in a deep gorge to the 
Mediterranean Sea. 



Cities. Madrid is the chief city of 
the interior and is the capital of Spain. 
Over half a million people live here, 
but the city is unlike the large cities 
of central and western Europe, be- 
cause manufacturing is not an im- 
portant occupation. The capital has 
become the chief railroad center, 
although it is difficult, on account 
of the deep canyons, for railroads to 
be constructed over the top of the 
Meseta. Madrid has a magnificent 
royal palace and a wonderful art 
gallery. In many respects it is an ex- 
ceedingly interesting and attractive 
city, but the surrounding country is 
an arid waste. 

Seville is an industrial and com- 
mercial center. Iron and coal are 
supplied from the mines in the Sierra 
Nevada, and many products .are brought from the 
lowland of the Guadalquivir River. Large quantities 
of tobacco are manufactured here. 

Barcelona, second to Madrid in size, is the chief sea- 
port of Spain. It is built on a narrow coastal plain but 
has a good harbor (Fig. 418). Wool, cotton, and silk 
are brought to the city to supply its large textile mills. 
Valencia is beautifully situated in a garden region, where, 
in addition to cotton, all kinds of Mediterranean fruits 
are raised. 

Possessions. The Balearic Islands in the Mediterra- 
nean Sea belong to Spain. They have a very mild climate 
and are attracting more and more tourists. The soils 

Fig. 417. These Spanish workmen are cutting 

sheets of cork oak bark into strips. This is one 

of the steps in the process of making corks from 

the bark of the cork oak tree 

are fertile, and tropical fruits are 
easily raised. The Canary Islands 
{see map, p. 227) also belong to Spain. 
In Africa Spain has possession of 
two small areas, Rio de Oro on the 
northwest coast and Rio Muni on the 
Gulf of Guinea. In addition a few of 
the islands in the Gulf of Guinea 
belong to Spain. 

It is interesting to note how few 
foreign possessions remain to Spain, 
the nation which once controlled vast 
areas in the two Americas and sent 
the first sailing vessel around the 

Gibraltar is a bold rock at the ex- 
treme southern end of the Iberian 
Peninsula, joined to the Sierra Nevada 
by a sand bar which is neutral land. 
The rock has been in British posses- 
sion for more than two centuries and is one of the 
strongest fortifications in the world (Fig. 419). 

Problems and review questions. 1. What are the chief mountain 
ranges of Spain? 2. Why is the climate of the central plateau 
of Spain very dry? 3. What are the chief occupations of the 
people who live on the plateau of Spain ? 4. Why has this not 
become a manufacturing or industrial region ? 

5. In what portions of this country have mineral deposits been 
found ? 6. What two minerals has Spain in great abundance ? 
7. Where is irrigation practiced ? 8. What fruits are raised here 
in abundance ? 9. What place in Spain should you like most to 
visit ? Why ? 10. Name the capital and two seaports. 

Home work. Read about the cork oak tree. Find out all you can 
about where it grows and how corks are made from its bark. 

Fig. 418. This is a view of the busy water front at Barcelona. At the left 
is the customhouse where the charges on exports and imports are collected. 
Locate Barcelona on your map. What things do you think the ship in this 
picture may have brought to Barcelona ? What products will it take away ? 

Fig. 419. The rock of Gibraltar guards the entrance to the Mediterranean 
Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Because of its commanding position many 
nations have tried to gain control of it. Since it has been in British posses- 
sion the British people have kept the strait open for the vessels of all nations 



Fig. 420. The city of Lisbon is well located on a group of hills which rise 

above the north bank of the Tagus River. This view shows one of the 

public squares of the capital. The broad mouth of the Tagus gives the city 

an excellent harbor and has led to its development as an important port 


This country is lower than most of Spain, and, since 
it borders the Atlantic Ocean, it has more rainfall and 
a milder climate than Spain. The fertile land is well 
adapted to agriculture, and grapevines are cultivated on 
a large scale. Many of the hillsides are used for pastures. 

Natural regions. In the north the land is hilly near 
the coast but rises inland to mountain ranges. Near 
Oporto and extending southward there is a narrow 
coastal lowland. This lowland is bordered on the east 
by the western margin of the Iberian Plateau. There is 
another lowland area about the mouth of the Tagus River. 

North and south of this lowland area the mountains on 
the western margin of the plateau come to the coast. 
Oporto, the seaport and industrial center of northern 
Portugal, is near the mouth of the Douro River, and the 
wines manufactured in the Douro district, are shipped 
from this city (Fig. 421). There are cotton and woolen 
mills in the city, and it is also the home of many 
fishermen. Farther south in Portugal are the wonderful 
cork forests which have led to an industry of very great 
importance. The United States imports millions of dol- 
lars' worth of cork each year, mostly from Portugal. 

Fig. 421. This man andJiis wife have a vineyard on the warm, sunny slopes 

of the Douro River, wl^ere they raise grapes and make wine. They are 

taking a cask of wine by ox-cart to Oporto, where they will sell it to a wine 

merchant who buys the products of the Douro vineyards for export 

D £xctusi*« >'e*a .\etncj, K«ebaiD[>tOD 

Fig. 422. The men in this picture are threshing wheat in the fertile lowlands 

of the Tagus River. The threshing machine is in the background. Notice 

the nets with which the carts are fitted, to prevent the grain from falling 

off. What other products do the farmers of the Tagus lowlands raise ? 

Wheat, rice, olives, lemons, figs, and grapes are grown 
on the lowlands in the vicinity of the Tagus River 
(Fig. 422). In the hills bordering this lowland there are 
copper deposits. Lisbon, located on the Tagus, twelve 
miles above its mouth, is the industrial center of south- 
ern Portugal and the capital of the republic (Fig. 420). 
It contains iron works, woolen factories, an^ shipbuild- 
ing yards. Sardine factories are common in "this part of 
Portugal. Sardines form one of the chief sources of food, 
and many of the children carry them about in baskets to 
sell. The growth of Lisbon is due to its position on the 
Tagus, its nearness to the cork forests, and the impor- 
tance of the sardine factories. 

Foreign possessions. The Portuguese were once ex- 
plorers and visited many foreign shores. See Appendix, 
Plate A. To-day Portugal has small colonies in Asia 
and larger possessions in Africa {]>. 229) ; the Azores, 
Madeira, and the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast 
of Africa, belong to Portugal. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why does Portugal have 
a milder climate, with more rainfall, than Spain ? 2. How are the 
hillsides in Portugal used ? 3. What is cork ? . 4. Why should 
this country be a good region for raising grapes, lemons, figs, and 
olives ? 5. What are the two chief cities of Portugal ? 6. Where 
are the Portuguese colonial possessions ? 









■ill rii^ '^ "' ■I'J^H 


M 1 - ^ a* HIM. 1 1 \ 








^^^^^^.. ^^^HH 

Fig. 423. Lake Haggiore is one of the most beautiful sheets of water in Europe. 
Locate this lake on your map. To what group of mountains do the peaks in 
this picture belong ? Notice in the foreground the picturesque washing-cart 
which the Italian women push into the water in order to do their washing 


Physical features and climate. The chief lowland of 
Italy is in the valley of the Po. Here the rivers have 
filled in the upper end of the Adriatic Sea with fine 
materials from the bordering mountains and made a 
broad, fertile plain. The summers are warm through- 
out this lowland, but in the west, near Milan and Turin, 
the winters are cold. The presence of the sea causes mild 
winters in the vicinity of Venice and Padua. The rain- 
fall near Milan is about 40 inches a 
year and near Venice about 30 inches. 

The south slope of the Alps belongs 
to I taly . Here there are magnificent 
peaks, great, deep canyons, and many 
beautiful lakes (Fig. 423). The moun- 
tains keep off the cold winds from 
the north, and therefore the valleys 
on thi! south slope of the Alps are 
warmer than those on the north slope. 

The Alps curve southward, and 
at the point where they reach the 
Mediterranean Sea the Apennine 
Range begins. This range follows 
the coast of the Gulf of Genoa and 
then turns southward through the 
central portion of the Italian Penin- 
sula. Tliese mountains commonly 
have elevations of from 5000 to 
8000 feet above the sea. They are 
not high enough, in the latitude 
where they are located, to have an 
extremely cold climate. Their eleva- 
tion is .sufficient to cause the winds 

Fig. 42S. This picture of Mt. Vesuvius was taken 

when the volcano was in eruption. The dark cloud 

which it sends forth is made up of steam, ashes, 

and bits of lava 

Fig. 424. The gardens of the Vatican Palace at Gome are very large and beau- 
tiful. This palace is the residence of the Pope and takes its name from the 
hill upon which it is built. In the background of this view rises the dome of 
St. Peter's, the great Roman church which stands close by the Pope's palace 

to give up moisture, and there is enough rainfall to 
support forests. In the southern portion of Italy the 
temperature seldom falls as low as the freezing point. 
The narrow coastal lowlands on the east and west 
of the Apennine Mountains never have very cold 
weather, and during the summer the temperature is 
usually 70° F. or higher. 

Sardinia, Sicily, and a number of smaller islands in 
the Mediterranean belong to Italy. Sardinia is for the 
most part mountainous, but there is 
a little lowland area in the south- 
western part of the island, and in 
the valley bottoms there are lands 
that can be cultivated with the help 
of irrigation. 

Sicily is an extension of the Apen- 
nine Range and was formerly con- 
nected with the mainland. In the 
narrow Strait of Messina, which 
separates the island of Sicily from 
the Italian Peninsula, there are 
great cracks in the earth where the 
lands often slip a little and thus 
cause earthquakes. 

Mt. Etna, which is an active vol- 
cano, is in Sicily, and Mt. Vesuvius, 
one of the most famous active volca- 
noes in the world, is located near 
the Bay of Naples (Fig. 425). The 
earthquakes and volcanoes which are 
common in this regic^n indicate that 
the Apennine Mountains are young 
and that they are still growing. 

10° QueenstoWD 3 Longitude 5 

Settled boundaries 

Unsettled boundaries 

•'"'J3 Sovereismty to be determined by popular vote 

© (iinn and Company 





(C7se map between pages 207 and SIO") 

1. What continents border the Mediterranean Sea ? 2. What 
three large European peninsulas extend into the Mediterra- 
nean Sea? 3. What is the Atlantic gateway into the Mediter- 
ranean Sea called ? 4. About how wide is that gateway ? 

5. Describe an imaginary journey from the Mediterranean 
to the Hlack Sea. 6. How do vessels p<T«s from the Mediter- 
ranean to the Red Sea ? Describe the landscape seen on that 
journey. 7. Name four navigable rivers that flow into the 
Mediterranean Sea; four that flow into the Black Sea. 

8. Make a list of the countries that border on the Mediter- 
ranean Sea^, of those that border on the Black Sea. 9. Make 
a list of the chief seaports on the Mediterranean Sea. Oppo- 
site each name place the name of the country in which that 
seaport is located. 

10. What are the chief seaports on the Black Sea? 11. Make 
a list of the chief exports from the European cities on the 
Mediterranean Sea. 12. Which of these exports suggest a 
warm climate for southern Europe ? 13. What are the chief 
exports from the Black Sea ports ? 

14. What are the chief products shipped from African ports 
on the Mediterranean Sea ? 15. What port, east of Athens, 
ships large quantities of figs? 16. What important Atlantic 
seaports are shown on this map ? 

17. Where are the great cork -oak forests in Portugal ? 
18. Where are the mining districts in Spain? the grazing 
districts ? the chief fruit-raising districts ? 19. What are the 
chief products of the lowlands in the valley of the Po? 

20. Where in Italy are there vineyards ? marble quarries ? 

21. What does the United States receive from Sicily ? 

22. Judging from the products of Jugoslavia, Greece, Albania, 
and Bnlgiiria, what should you think must be the chief 
occupations of the people in those countries ? 

, 23. What are the chief products of Palestine and Syria ? 
24. Where are the date-producing regions near the Mediter- 
ranean Sea? 25. Trace the meridian of 0° on this map. 
26. Compare the latitude of New York with that of Rome. 

Fig. 426. These Italian boys and girls are picking grapes in a vineyard on 
the slopes of the Apennines, where the dry summers are especially favorable 
to the ripening of the fruit. Why are such large areas in Italy devoted to 
the cultivation of vineyards ? What other products do the Italians raise ? 

Fig. 427. This is one of the quarries at Carrara from which the beautiful 

Italian marble is obtained. Locate Carrara on the map between pages 181 

and 184. In what natural region is it ? Italian marble has been used in the 

construction of many of the finest buildings in the United States 

Home work. 1. Find out all you can about the burial of the ' 
cities of llerculaneum and Ponipeii. 2. ]lead a full account of 
Vesuvius in the best reference book available. 

Resources and occupations. The soils, the forests, the 
marbles in the mountains, and the fisheries about the 
coast are the chief natural resources. Italy is a land 
without great variety in mineral wealth. Sulphur is 
obtained in Sicily. In the islands of Elba and Sardinia 
there are iron mines. Some iron is obtained from the 
Alps. The water-power furnished by the mountain 
streams makes up somewhat for the lack of coal. 

In the north, on the lower slopes of the Alps, olives, 
grapes, mulberries, and figs are raised, and on some of 
the higher slopes there are pastures for cattle, sheep, 
and goats. The lakes in the mountain vallej's of tliis 
part of Italy attract many tourists and many who seek 
rest or health, and the care of such visitors furnishes 
occupation to many people. 

The Plain of tlie Po is the most important agricultural 
and industrial region of Italy, and the most densely 
settled district. The streams from the mountains furnish 
water for irrigation. Wheat, rice, corn, and many other 
crops are raised. The absence of coal and the cost of trans- 
portation to other parts of Europe are disadvantages, and 
yet this region has become an important industrial dis- 
trict. Milan, Turin, and Venice are the principal cities. 

In many places the forests have been cleared from 
the slopes of the Apennine Range, and the hillsides have 
been terraced for agriculture or planted wilh olive, 
orange, or lemon trees. Many groves of chestnut trees 
have been planted, and the nuts from these trees are 
used as a food. Grapevines grow in such luxuriance in 



this part of the country that Italy has 
become one of the leading countries 
in the production of wine (Fig. 426). 
Cattle, sheep, and goats are raised on 
the higher pastures of the range. In the 
Apennine Mountains, at Carrara and 
Siena, there are immense quarries where 
large quantities of beautiful marble are 
obtained (Fig. 427). 

On the lowland bordering the Adriatic 
Sea hard wheat is raised. This wheat is 
used in the manufacture of macaroni. 
The wheat is shipped chiefly to Naples, 
which is the center of the macaroni in- 
dustry, and additional supplies are 
imported from Russia and South Aus- 
tralia. The Italians manufacture about 
six million dollars' worth of macaroni each year, and 
large quantities of it are shipped to the United States. 

In the southern portion of Italy the forests have been 
largely removed, the hillsides are barren, and the popu- 
lation is sparse. Here there are a few fishing centers, and 
many of the native people are engaged in hunting for 
coral and tortoise shells, which they bring back to Naples 
and Genoa to be manufactured into ornaments. 

Fig. 428. St. Peter's Cathedral at Rome stands on the Vatican Hill, and close by, at the right 
in this view, is the Vatican Palace. St. Peter's is a very old church, and like the Vatican Palace it 
contains many beautiful paintings by Michelangelo, the great Italian artist. Locate Rome on your map. 
Why is the population less than it was when the city was the capital of the Roman Empire? 

make their homes in the villages near the coast and go 
into the country each day to work on their farms. 

Palermo is the principal city south of Naples. It is 
the capital dl Sicily and is in the midst of a rich fruit- 
growing district. 

Rome is the capital of the kingdom of Italy. It is 
located on low hills near the Tiber River and on the 
inner margin of a small coastal plain. In the days of the 
Sicily. The climate and surface features of Sicily are ancient Roman Empire this city had a population of at 

much like those of southern Italy, and therefore the 
crops resemble those of the mainland. Some wheat is 
grown, the grapevine flourishes, and orange and lemon 
trees are cultivated. The sulphur mines of Sicily are on 
Mt. Etna, where a part of the sulphur gas, coming out 

of the earth, 

cooled quickly, 

forming a solid. 

Cities. Naples 

the largest 


Fig. 429. This is a typical scene in the old quarter 

of Genoa, where the streets are narrow and the houses 

are set close together. What are the exports and 

imports of Genoa ? 

least a million, and the bordering lowland was all under 
cultivation. Today the population is about 500,000. 
The surrounding plains are almost deserted, for they are 
unhealthful places where malaria is easily contracted. 

In the city there are many beautiful residences and 
several magnificent buildings. St. Peter's Cathedral, the 
largest church in the world, and the Vatican, the home of 
the Pope, are in Rome (Fig.428). Many of Michelangelo's 
most beautiful paintings are in the Vatican. 

Florence is an inland city in a district where large quan- 
city in Italy, titles of silk are produced and manufactured. Mosaic 
It is located work and the plaiting of straw are also important in- 
dustries here. Some of the most valuable art treasures 
in the world are in the museums of Florence. The 
Italians are an artistic people and may^ justly be proud 
of their work in architecture, painting, and sculpture. 
Their museums are all great storehouses of art, and many 
of their manufactured goods are distinctly artistic. 

Milan and Turin are the industrial and trading centers 
in the western portion of the northern lowland. They 
are on the highways of travel east and west and north 
and south. Large quantities of silk cloth are manufac- 
tured in Milan. 

Genoa, the chief seaport in northern Italy, is the outlet 
for many of the products raised or manufactured in 
the valley of the Po. It is the birthplace of Columbus. 

near a fertile 
lowland where 
a very dense 
population is 
supported. The 
climate is warm 
in this lowland 
area, and most 
of the people 
lead an agri- 
cultural life. 
Nearly all of 
the inhabitants 
of this region 



Fig. 430. This is a view in the harbor of Trieste. This city came into the possession of 

Italy at the end of the World War in 1918, and is one of the most important ports on the 

Adriatic Sea. Locate Trieste on the map between pages 207 and 210. Compare the east 

and west shores of the Adriatic Sea. Why has Italy so few Adriatic ports ? 

Venice, Trieste (Fig. 430), and Fiume (Fig. 431) are sea- 
ports at the head of the Adriatic Sea. Venice is a city 
built on more than one hundred islands. Centuries ago, 
when barbarian hordes were invading Italy, a group of 
people fled to these islands for safety. Later their sailors 
proved to be so skillful and their business men so enter- 
prising that much of the travel and commerce between 
Europe and Asia went through Venice, which thus grew 
to be a prosperous and wealthy city. There are over one 
hundred canals in the city and over four hundred bridges. 
The canals take the place of streets, and boats are used 
instead of wagons or automobiles (Fig. 432). 

Government. Italy is a limited, or constitutional, mon- 
archy, and the ruler is a king. The people elect a large 
number of the members of the parliament and are thus 
directly represented in the government of the nation. 

Fig. 431. Fiume is another busy seaport on the eastern side of the Adriatic 

Sea. The city is under the control of Italy, but the port and the railroads 

leading to it are governed in such a way as to make it possible for the people 

of Jugoslavia to make use of it in their trade by sea with other nations 

Foreign possessions. Eritrea, Italian Somali- 
land, and Libia, which are in Africa, are pos- 
sessions of Italy (p. 229). Italy also administers 
the affairs of a small region on the northeast 
coast of the Mediterranean Sea. 

San Marino is the smallest and oldest repub- 
lic in the world. It contains thirty-two square 
miles and is located east of Florence near the 
Adriatic Sea. See map betiveen pages SOT and 
210, F 2. 

The people of San Marino are engaged chiefly 
in the cultivation of vineyards, the raising of 
cattle, and the quarrying of stone. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Where are the 
lowlands of Italy ? 2. What mountains are there in 
Italy ? 3. Name two active volcanoes in Italy. Where 
are they located ? 4. In what part of Italy is irriga- 
tion practiced ? 5. What large islands in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea are a part of the kingdom of Italy ? 

6. Is the rainfall heavier on the mountains or on the lowlands ? 
Why ? 7. Why is it never very cold in Italy except in the 
mountains ? 8. Why have most of the people of Italy become 
farmers ? 9. What other occupations are followed ? 

10. What mineral resources are there in Italy and the neigh- 
boring Italian islands ? 11. What trees are commonly raised 
in this country ? 
W^hat tree furnishes 
food for the silk- 
worm ? 12. In what 
product does Italy 
lead the world ? 

13. What food 
manufactured from 
wheat is shipped 
in large quantities 
from Naples to the 
United States? 

14. From what 
countries is wheat 
imported by Italy ? 
16. What are some 
of the other imports 
of Italy? 16. What 
fruits are raised in 

17. W^hat form 
of government has 
Italy? 18. Name 
live Italian cities 
and tell something 
of interest about 
each one. 

19. What foreign possessions has Italy ? 20. How are the 
hillsides in Italy used ? 21. What places in Italy are of special 
historic interest ? Why ? 

Home work. 1. Read a description of the Colosseum and one 
of the Forum in Rome. 2. Read a description of the destruction 
of Pompeii by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. 

, lirowD, anil Karle 

Cyunesj ut Willia 

Fig. 432. This is one of the canals or water streets 

of Venice. At the left are some of the boats known 

as gondolas, which are used by the Venetians in 

going about the city 




"Jugoslavia" means the home of the Southern Slavs. 
These people speak several different dialects, but they have 
many customs and interests in common. They are organ- 
ized as a limited monarchy and have a king for a ruler. 

The Dinaric Alps extend into Jugoslavia, and most of 
the land is rough or even mountainous. In the valleys 
there are some lands suitable for agriculture, and in such 
places rye, oats, barley, and com are raised. The hill- 
sides are used for planting the grapevine and for grow- 
ing olive, lemon, orange, and mulberry trees. The oak 

Fig. 433. This is one of the public ,parks in Belgrade, the capital of Jugo- 
slavia. At the right are the buildings of the University of Belgrade. At the 
junction of what two rivers is Belgrade situated ? What advantages for trade 
can you see in its location ? What are the products of the surrounding country? 

and beech also grow on these hills, and hogs are fattened 
on the nuts that fall to the ground. On the higher slopes 
of the mountains sheep, goats, and cattle are allowed to 
graze. Some of the herdsmen take their flocks and herds 
to the higher pastures in summer and bring them into 
the valleys for the winter. 

The forests have made lumbering possible. Coal, iron, 
lead, silver, and gold have been discovered, but as yet 
little mining is done. 

Belgrade, located on the south bank of the Danube 
River, is the capital and chief city (Fig. 433). Monastir 
is the principal city in the southern part of Jugoslavia. 

By means of the Danube River, trade may be carried 
on very easily with the people of Austria, Hungary, 
and Rumania. The valleys of the Morava and Vardar 
rivers form the best north-and-south route of travel, and 
a railroad follows this route. From Belgrade there are 
railroad connections with Constantinople and northwest 
to the Atlantic and North Sea countries. Trade with 
the more distant parts of the world is carried on by 
way of the Black and Mediterranean seas. 

Fig. 434. These Jugoslav boys and girls are dressed in their national cos- 
tumes for the celebration of a holiday. The official name of their country is 
the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, from the three principal 
groups of people which make up the nation. But since they are all Jugo- 
slavs (Southern Slavs), their country is commonly called Jugoslavia 

The land bordering the Adriatic Sea is mountainous. 
Fiume is the largest city on this coast ; and although it 
is not within the boundaries of Jugoslavia, the Jugoslavs 
may make use of it in promoting their foreign commerce. 
It gives them a good outlet to the Mediterranean Sea. 

These people do very little manufacturing and there- 
fore must exchange their fruits, grains, and the products 
from their flocks and herds for manufactured goods. 


This is a small, mountainous country on the east coast 
of the Adriatic Sea and south of Jugoslavia (Fig.. 435). 
The mild climate leads to the cultivation of the fruits 
that grow in the Mediterranean region, and to the rais- 
ing of some grain. Durazzo is the capital. 

Many of the people have cattle or sheep and spend 
their time out on the hillsides with their flocks or herds. 

Fig. 435. This is a view on the rocky coast of Albania. This country is so 
mountainous that agriculture is possible only in the sheltered valleys be- 
tween the hills. Are the mountains of Albania young and rugged or Old and 
worn down ? What are the occupations of the people ? 




This country extends so far south into the Mediterra- 
nean Sea that the climate is always mild. During the 
hot summer season much of the vegetation withers, and 
irrigation is necessary to secure regular crops. On the 
western side the evergreen trees of the Mediterranean 
region grow, and olive, orange, lemon, fig, and mulberry 
trees are grown. The grapevine grows luxuriantly in this 

Fig. 436. Most of the large rose gardens of Bulgaria are located on the shel- 
tered southern slopes of the Balkan Mountains. The women in this picture 
are Bulgarian peasants at work picking the roses. What use is made of 
these roses ? What are the chief agricultural products of Bulgaria ? 


The Balkan Mountains extend from east to west 
through the central portion of Bulgaria. To the north 
of the mountains the land is hilly but is used for raising 
wheat and sugar beets. Much of the mountain country 
is forested, and this has led many to engage in lumber- 
ing. Cattle, sheep, and goats are allowed to graze on 
the hillsides and in the mountains. 

South of the Balkan Mountains the climate is very 
mild, and large quantities of roses, grapes, and plums 
are raised. The rose gardens are among the largest in 
the world, and the blossoms are used in the production 
of attar of roses (Fig. 436). 

Sofia and Philippopolis are on the railroad from Vienna 
to Constantinople. Sofia is the capital of the kingdom of 
Bulgaria, but Philippopolis, on the Maritza River, is the 
largest city and a busy industrial and commercial center. 
Varna is the chief seaport. Large quantities of wheat 
and other grains are shipped from Varna each year. 

Fig. 437. This is a street scene in the city of Corfu, on the island of the same 

name. The man at the right is a pottery merchant. He piles up his wares 

in the street and sells them to the passers-by. Locate Corfu on the map 

between pages 207 and 210. To what country does the island belong ? 

) Pubiiahera* Photo Service, too. 

Fig. 438. The flat-topped hill which rises above the modern city of Athens 

is called the Acropolis and was the citadel, or fortress, of the ancient city. 

This yiew of Athens was taken from the Acropolis. At the left you can see 

the ruins of one of the beautiful old Greek temples 

part of Greece. Small, seedless grapes are produced in 
abundance, which, when dried, are known as currants. 

The irregular, indented coast line and the many 
islands of Greece favor free communication between the 
peoples of this peninsula and those of the other coun- 
tries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The ancient 
Greeks carried on a peaceful commerce, and by exchang- 
ing products and ideas they developed into a nation of 
unusually strong and cultured people. Later they were 
conquered by the Romans, and their civilization had a 
great influence upon the Roman customs. 

Athens, the capital of the kingdom of Greece, is built 
about the base of a tablelike hill (Fig. 438). It was the 
center of the ancient Greek civilization. In the modem 
part of Athens there are wide streets and buildings 
much like those of other European capitals, but the city 
is rich in the ruins of ancient temples. Piraeus, the port 
for Athens, is the city through which most of the foreign 
commerce of Greece is carried on. In the northern part 
of the country is the important port of Saloniki, located 
at the head of the gulf of the same name. Saloniki is 
the southern terminus for the railroad which runs from 
Vienna southward through Budapest and Belgrade to 
the ^gean Sea (Fig. 439). 



3 iUtutrktiDg ^errice. Inc. 

Fig. 439. This is a view of the Greek city of Saloniki. The picture was taken 
from an aeroplane. At the right you can see one of the wings of the aero- 
plane, and far below is the water front of the city. The little white spots 
at the left are boats in the harbor 


Constantinople is a city located on the highway of travel 
by land from Asia to Europe and on the water route from 
the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea (Figs. 440, 441). 
Large numbers of Turks live in this city and in the 
territory immediately surrounding it. In addition to 
the Turks, its inhabitants include many Greeks, 
Armenians, and other foreigners. 

For centuries Constantinople has been the capital of 
the Turkish Empire, most of which is in Anatolia. In 
this way the Turks have controlled the land on both 
sides of the narrow straits which separate Europe from 
Asia. By means of forts located along the shores they 
have commanded the very important water route from 
the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Since tlie 

CnileiW'jod £ L'aderwoMl 

Fig. 440. This is a view of Constantinople from the north. The city is very 

old. It was founded by the Greeks six hundred and fifty years before the 

birth of Christ. Later it was conquered by the Romans, and finally it fell 

into the possession of the Turks 

World War the Turks have been allowed to remain in 
possession of Constantinople, but the Bosporus, the Sea 
of Marmora, and the Dardanelles are no longer under 
their control, and are open to the ships of all nations. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What countries are included 
in the Balkan Peninsula ? 2. Describe briefly the physical fea^ 
tures of these countries. 3. What are the chief natural resources 
and to what occupations have they led? 4. What other natural 
resources await development ? 

6. What products have the people of these countries to export ? 

6. Why are these countries not great manufacturing centers? 

7. In what Balkan country are large quantities of roses raised ? 

8. What city in Greece was the center of an ancient civilization ? 
9. Name and locate the capital of each of the Balkan countries. 

10. What people have possession of the city of Constantinople ? 

11. Why should the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the 
Dnrdanolles be kept open for the use of ships of all nations? 

ama, Brovn, toil Kula 

Fig. 441. The harbor at Constantinople is a very busy place. Steamships 
from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea may be seen loading and unload- 
ing their cargoes. In the small boats are the boatmen who earn their living by 
carrying passengers ashore. Constantinople is located at the meeting point 

of two seas and two continents. What are the two seas ? the two continents ? 
Why is such a location of great commercial importance ? From what Black 
Sea ports may some of the ships in this view have come ? What nations 
depend upon the use of the straits at Constantinople for their trade by sea ? 






Little by little the lands and the waters of the earth Furthermore, those who tried to reach the interior 
have been explored. See Appendix, Plate A. The nations encountered many wild tribes of natives, and in portions 

of Europe wanted more land 
where their people could 
go and settle. They needed 
more raw materials for their 
great factories, and new 
markets for their manu- 
factm-ed goods. Most of 
Africa has now come into 
the possession of European 

Size and position. Africa 
is the second largest conti- 
nent in the world. See map 
on page 275, It is about 
5000 miles long and is three 
times the size of Europe. 
At the Strait of Gibraltar 
Africa is separated from 

Europe by just nine miles of water, and at the Strait of 
Bab-el-Mandeb, or Gate of Tears, it is only 14 miles from 
Asia. The connection with Asia at the Isthmus of Suez 
was complete until the great Suez Canal was constructed 

Fig. 442. This is a sunset view of the southwest tip of Africa near the 

Cape of Good Hope. The cape was discovered in 1487 by the Portuguese 

explorer, Diaz. He met such terrible gales here that he called it the 

Stormy Cape, but later a Portuguese king gave it its present name 

of the country they found 
hot, damp, malarial condi- 
tions. On the north the 
Sahara is a barrier to travel, 
and near the equator is a 
tropical jungle, which is 
one of the most difficult 
places in the world to ex- 
plore. The large animals 
and the many injurious in- 
sects of Africa have also 
helped to make that con- 
tinent the least attractive 
to the traveler, and as long 
as there was opportunity 
for acquiring land in the 
Americas, little was done to 
colonize Africa. 
People. In northern Africa the inhabitants are chiefly 
descendants of Arabian people who migrated westward 
from Asia, or of European people who crossed the Medi- 
terranean Sea to settle in this continent. These northern 

(Fig. 443). Up to that time European ships had to go people, with the exception of the Turks, belong to the 

around the Cape of Good Hope to reach India (Fig. 442). 

Exploration. The location of Africa was known long 
before North or South America was discovered, but the 
two western continents were explored and settled long 
before much of Africa had been even seen by white men. 

Africa is a diffi- 
cult land to ex- 
plore. The coast 
line is regular and 
there are few good 
harbors. See map 
opposite page 230. 
Most of the rivers 
have falls or rapids 
near their mouths, 
which make it dif- 
ficult to get into 
the country, for 
explorers usually 
enter a country 
by the rivers. 

^ I'ubhrtier*' Vli^i'i Hcrrice, Ind. 

Fig. 443. The Suez Canal was cut through the isthmus between Asia and Africa to connect the 

Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. It was opened in 1869 and is ninety-eight miles long. 

To what countries of the world is it of the greatest benefit ? See Appendix, Plate B 


white race. The Turks are of Mongolian descent and 
belong to the yellow race. The native people jof Abys- 
sinia belong to the white race. They are large, strong, 
liberty-loving people, who in their mountain country 
have maintained their independence even to this day. 

Nearly all the 
negro people of 
Africa live in the 
equatorial region 
or farther south. 
The negroes are 
the best laborers in 
the tropical coun- 
tries, for white 
men are not able 
to live and work 
hard for many 
years in the hot, 
damp parts of the 
earth. The negroes 
should be trained 

10° LongtEtude 20° Eaet F from 3()°Grem0twich 40° 

10° Longi'Etude 20° East F from S0° Grem G wich 40° 

© Ginn and Company 



in better ways of living and in modern methods of work. 
They will become more and more important to the country 
as greater development is 

In the grasslands south 
of the Sahara the native 
people have passed beyond 
the hunting stage in their 
development and raise cat- 
tle or cultivate the soil. 
Those who have farms es- 
tablish fixed homes, while 
those who own cattle wan- 
der about. The occupation 
of a people often affects 
their ways of living. In 
this semiarid. region mem- 
bers of the same race be- 
come wanderers if they take 
care of cattle, and become 
settled if they have farms. 

There still remain in Africa several tribes of native 
people who are savages. They inhabit the forests and 
live by hunting and fishing. 

The Pygmies, who are true forest-dwellers, live in 
the Kongo jungle. A full-grown man is about four feet 
high. They are hunters, and because of their small 
bodies can move about in the dense undergrowth, 
hunting big game more easily than larger people could. 
They barter the game for fruit raised by those who dwell 
in the clearings. The Pygmies are related to the Bush- 
men of South Africa, who are also great hunters. The 
Zulus and Kafirs form by far the greater part of the 
native population in the plateau region of South Africa. 

In each of the 
colonies of European 
nations there are 
many people from 
the home country, 
and the number of 
white people of Euro- 
pean descent along 
the Mediterranean 
coast and in South 
Africa is constantly 
increasing. A great 
many French and 
Italian people have 
settled in North 
Africa, but in South 
Africa most of the 
European people are 

Dutch, British, or Portuguese. On the coast to the 
north and east of Abyssinia the Italians have established 

two colonies, and between 
these colonies there is a 
small British colony. 

Home loork. Read about the 

Pygmies, Bushmen, Hottentots, 

report to the 

and Zulus 


Fig. 444. These are the Victoria Falls in the Zambezi River. They are 
twice as high as Niagara, and the amount of water pouring over them is 
much greater. Some day these falls will be harnessed, and the electric power 
from them will run railroads, factories, and mines hundreds of miles away 

Fig. 44S. The Sahara Desert covers two million square miles in northern Africa. Over large 
areas it is a sea of sand, piled by the wind into dunes which look like waves. The sandy 
waste is broken in some places by green oases and in others by bare, rocky hills and moun- 
tains. The desert is crossed only by the camel-train route* 


1. Where does Africa come 
nearest to Asia? 2. What 
is the name of the canal which 
has been cut through that 
isthmus ? 3. Select the three 
largest rivers in Africa and 
describe the country through 
which each one flows. See 
map opposite page 230. 

4. From what highlands do 

many of the headwaters of the 

Nile come ? 6. Explain the lack of tributaries in the lower 

course of the Nile. 6. What mountains are at the northwest 

margin of the continent ? 

7. What is the general elevation of the plateaus of South 
Africa? How do they compare in elevation with the Sahara 
Tableland ? 8. Locate one great delta in Africa. 9. What 
large city is on this delta? 

10. How does the amount of lowland in Africa compare 
with that of other continents ? 11. Name the chief natural 
regions. 12. Where are the highest mountains ? 13. Where 
are the great lakes in Africa? 

Problems and review questions. 1. What nations helped in the 
early exploration of Africa? 2. What nations now have posses- 
sions in Africa ? 3. Of what value are these colonies to European 

nations ? 4. Why was it 
difficult to explore the in- 
terior of this continent ? 

5. Who were the chief 
explorers of the interior? 

6. In what part of Africa 
do most of the native 
tribes of negroes live? 

7. Where do most of the 
white people live ? 

Home work. 1. Look 
up the lengths of the 
Suez and Panama canals. 
When was each one 
opened ? 2. Read about 
Stanley's travels in 
Africa. 3. Read about 
Livingstone's travels in 
Africa. 4. Find out what 
you can about the Cape- 
to-Cairo Railway. 



The plateaus of South Africa have a general elevation 
of from 3000 to 4000 feet. There are parts where the 
elevation is as high as 5000 feet, and small mountain 
ranges in the plateau region rise still higher. On the 
western margin, and well shown on the map opposite 
page 230, there is a bold escarpment, or cliff, bordering 
the coast. To Europeans who intend to become per- 
manent settlers in Africa these plateaus are more 
attractive than almost any other part of the continent. 

) Underwood k Underirood 

Fig. 446. This is Kouinine, an old Saharan town of Algeria. The picture 

is taken from an aeroplane. Beyond the town you can see the groups of 

palm trees which have grown up in the hollows between the sand dunes. 

Far in the distance stretches the sandy waste of the Sahara 

Natural Regions 

Coastal lowlands. Africa has very little lowland. The 
lowland areas are near the coast, and most of them are 
hot and unhealthful. See map on page 218. 

The Sahara Tableland is nearly as large as Europe, 
and it is the largest continuous desert in the world. 
It varies from 600 to 3000 feet above the sea. It is much 
lower in the west than in the east, and the Tibesti Moun- 
tains in the central part of the tableland rise 8000 feet 
above sea level. Much of it is a 
vast, stony waste, but in portions 
sand is abundant (Figs. 445, 446). 
See map opposite page 280. In the 
east the Nile crosses the desert, and 
bordering the river there is a long, 
fertile oasis. Where there are springs 
or wells that furnish waters for irri- 
gating the land there are other oases 
in the desert. 

Besides those people who live on 
the oases in the desert there are many 
who travel from one oasis to another 
as traders. They are chiefly Arabs, 
and they have several well-established 
caravan routes (Figs. 447, 449). 

The Atlas Mountains are much like 
the mountains of southern Europe. 
They are young and rugged. Some 
of their peaks rise to a height of 
over 14,000 feet. They are folded 
mountains with parallel ranges, be- 

Fig. 448. This is the volcanic peak of Mt. Kili- 
manjaro. Locate this peak on your map. What 
is its elevation ? Are the mountains in this region 
young and rugged or old and worn-down ? 

tween which there are rich valley lands where most of When the sun 

the people in this part of the country make their homes, the northern summer, the equatorial rainy belt follows 

Fig. 447. These Arab traders have pitched their tents on the edge of one 

of the oases in the Sahara Desert. They will stay here long enough to d» 

their trading with the inhabitants of the oasis, and then they will move 

on to the nesct one. What do you think they buy and sell ? 

The Abyssinian Highlands and the Southern Highlands. 
The Abyssinian Highlands include a mountainous and 
heavily forested region. Most of the 
summits are from 5000 to 14,000 feet 
high. A little farther south there 
is a group of lofty volcanic peaks. 
Kilimanjaro (Fig. 448) and Kenia are 
in this group. To the north of Lake 
Edward is Mt. Ruwenzori, one of 
the highest peaks in Africa. 

The Southern Highlands are com- 
posed of several small ranges with 
plateaulike areas between the ranges. 
The Drakensberg is the most con- 
spicuous range. 


Most of Africa is too hot for 
white people. It does not extend far 
enough north or south of the equator 
to have much land in the temperate 
zones. The only relief from the con- 
tinuous heat is found in the moun- 
tains or in the higher plateaus, 
appears to move northward during 

Underwood II Uoderwood 



Fig. 449. This caiavan of camels is starting on its journey across the desert. 

The Arabs are very fond of their faithful camels and treat them kindly. 

In the distance are the mountains of Algeria, which border the desert. 

Where do you think this caravan is going, and why ? 

the apparent movement of the sun, and the lands be- 
tween the equator and the Sahara have a rainy season. 

The prevaihng winds in the Sahara are the northeast 
trades. As they come chiefly from land areas, they have 
very little moisture, and as they blow toward the equator 
they become warmer and tend to take up more moisture. 
This is why there is such a great desert in northern Africa. 

When the vertical rays of the sun strike farther south 
and the sun appears to go south, the rainy belt moves in 

The dense tropical forest in the Kongo basin has two 
layers. From the thick undergrowth on the ground, con- 
stituting the lower layer, the tall trees reach up for light 
and air. They have few branches except near the top, 
and there the branches are intertwined with growing 
vines and other clinging plants, until a canopy is made 
so dense that even when the sun is bright the interior 
of the forest is dark. Many of the most brilliantly colored 
birds and butterflies live in this upper story where the 
sun shines, but in the lower story are the huge beasts 
that wander about and prowl into the Sudan to prey 
upon the grass-eating animals. 

The Sudan district, extending east and west just 
north of the tropical forest, is a savanna type of coun- 
try. Cattle-raising and some farming are being under- 
taken here. South of the tropical forest is another 
savanna, and still farther south is another desert. See 
maj) opposite parje 230. 

Natural Resoceces 

Use map on page 227. So vast a land as Africa must 
of course have much in it which is of value to man. 
Those portions that can be cultivated have been found 
to contain rich soils. In the mountains gold, silver, lead, 
tin, and copper have been discovered, and there is coal 

that direction also, and the great Kongo basin, which gets and oil in several localities. Some of the water-power is 

more or less heavy rain throughout the year, is abun- 
dantly watered. Near the equator rain falls nearly every 
day. Even the lands a little farther south receive heavy 
rains. Still farther south, winds bring an abundance 
of rain to the southeast coast, but leave the southern 
interior and southwest coast dry. See map on page 230. 

Vegetation and Animal Life 

being used, but there are many other sites where water- 
power may be developed. In the south (in the plateau 
district) and along the west coast the most brilliant 
diamonds in the world are obtained (Fig. 450). 

The tropical forest, like that of South America, yields 
rubber in great abundance. There are mahogany and 
many other valuable trees in the forest, but the woods 
are not as yet in common use, because it is difficult to 
There is a great likeness between the plants found get them to market. The elephants of the jungle are 

in northern Africa and those found in southern Europe, being killed rapidly by the native people for their ivory 

The continents were formerly connected, and seeds were tusks which form a valuable export product (Fig. -151). 

blown from one land to the other. 

Oaks, olive trees, vines, figs, and 

many of our common cereals are 

found growing here. Farther south, 

beyond the great desert barrier, are 

the savanna lands and the tropical 

forest, where the plant and animal 

life is very different from that in 

the north. See map opposite page 230. 

Among the animals found on the 

savannas are ostriches, elephants, 

zebras, buffaloes, giraffes, antelopes, 

and rhinoceroses. In the jungles 

there are fierce beasts of prey, such 

as the lion, panther, and hyena. 


Fig. 460. Down in the Kimberley diamund mines 
the natives load the diamond-bearing earth into 
little cars. The cars are then hoisted to the sur- 
face, where the gems are separated from the dirt 

^ KejMona Vi«w Co. 

Fig. 451. These ivory tusks are ready for export 
from Mombasa. The elephants are hunted in the 
African jungle, and their tusks brought out by 
native porters. Each tusk weighs about 60 pounds 



Courtesy of Eugene J. Hall 

Fig. 452. Here are three water carriers of Cairo. 

Over their backs are slung the heavy goatskins 

filled with water which they peddle about the 

streets of the city 

Publuhen' Pholo Serrice, lac. 

Fig. 453. Cairo is the chief center of Mohammedan 

teaching. At the end of this old arched street 

you can see the Mohammedan University, which 

was founded in the year 988 

Courte.y of tugenc J. Hall 

Fig. 454. These people are climbing the Great 

Pyramid near Cairo. This pyramid was built 

more than 3000 years before Christ as a tomb for 

a great Egyptian ruler 

Copal, which is shipped from Banana, is a resin that 
comes from certain of the trees of the forest and is 
used in making varnishes. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why is Africa so warm ? 
2. Where are the coolest places ? 3. Explain the little rainfall in 
the Sahara. 4. What conditions produce dense tropical forests ? 

5. In which other continent is there a large tropical forest? 

6. Describe a tropical forest. 

7. What use is made of the grasslands of Africa? 8. Why may 
the Sahara be thought of as a barrier to both plants and animals ? 
9. What are the chief natural resources of the mountain and plateau 
portions ? 10. What useful products are obtained from the forests ? 

Home work. 1. Find out how the native people collect and pre- 
pare the crude rubber. Report to the class. 2. Bead about the way 
the people live who work in the diamond mines near Kimberley 

Publisbera' Photo Service. Ino. 

Fig. 485. This is the great Nile Bridge at Cairo. It is a modern steel struc- 
ture nearly a quarter of a mile long. Automobiles, carriages, trolley cars, 
and bicycles are in common use in Cairo to-day, but many of the natives 
still ride on camels, just as their ancestors did years ago 


The British have control of about one third of the 
continent of Africa. The Egyptian portion of the 
Sudan, which is really the southern part of Egypt, has 
been under British control since 1899, and now northern 
Egypt is a British protectorate. 

Southward, through the high plateau country west of 
Abyssinia, British possessions continue through Uganda 
to British East Africa, and thus to the shore of the 
Indian Ocean. At the extreme south there is the group 
of very progressive countries that have joined together 
and formed the Union of South Africa. See map on 
page 227. The British also have lands on the western 
margin of Africa on the shore of the Gulf of Guinea. 
These are Nigeria, the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and 
Gambia. In addition, several small islands east of Africa 
are British possessions. 

Home work. On an outline map of Africa, shade or color the 
British possessions. Add their names. Use map on page 227. 

Egypt and Egyptian Sudan. Egypt will always be of 
special interest because of its very early civilization, and 
because of the frequent references to the land of the 
Nile in Biblical writings. The early people who hved'in 
the lower valley of the Nile had the advantage of rich 
soils and a warm climate. They were shut off from 
hostile tribes by desert barriers and the sea. In those 
days invading tribes did not travel by water. Agri- 
culture, education, and science were promoted by the 
early Egyptians, and they bmlt the wonderful pyramids 



(Fig. 454). Persian tribes later pushed westward and con- 
quered Egypt, and the Arabians, Greeks, and Romans 
each took a turn at invading this rich land of the Nile. 

Tchday there are over 10,000,000 people living here. 
Almost all of the nations of Europe, and especially those 
of southern Europe, are represented. At the head of the 
great delta of the Nile is Cairo, the largest city in Africa, 
with a population of over 700,000 (Figs. 452, 453, 455). 
Alexandria, with a population of over 400,000, is a com- 
mercial center with many of the modern conveniences 
of large cities. 

The great cotton plantations that have made the Nile 
country famous are on the delta and flood plain of the 
one great river of Egypt. The Egyptian cotton has a 
veiy long fiber and is used in the manufacture of our 
best cotton goods. 

Each year the Nile overflows its banks and waters 
the broad, flat lands bordering the stream (Fig. 450). 

' ^. M. »«wisut 

Fig. 456. This is a view on the delta of the Nile near Cairo. In the distance 

are the pyramids. The ancient Egyptians worshiped the goddess of the 

Nile as the giver of all good things. Can you explain why the Nile was so 

important to them that it became the center of their religion ? 

forests near the coast produce rubber. Farther inland, 
on the plateau, the climate is more agreeable, and grains, 

From these flood waters fine silts settle upon the land, cotton, coffee, and a large variety of crops are raised by 

and thus a layer of new soil is added. The flooding of native laborei-s under European supervision. The rail- 

the Nile is due to the very heavy rains that fall in Abys- road from Mombasa to Port Florence, on Lake Victoria, 

sinia during the northern summer. These rains furnish has greatly helped the development of this possession. 

the headwaters of the Nile 
with an abundance of water. 
The flood usually comes in July. 
Farther south in the Sudan 
district, cotton is raised, and 
ostrich feathers, dates, and 
rubber are brought into the 
chief city, Khartum, for ship- 
ment. This is one of the cities 
of Africa from which the great 
supplies of gum arabic and 
ivory are exported. 

Home work. 1. Look up the sub- 
ject of irrigatioa in Egypt. 2. Find 
out what gum arabic is used for. 
3. Find out all you can about the 
pyramids of Egypt. 

Somaliland. This little pro- 
tectorate on the Gulf of Aden 
is a pasture land. It is a low- 
land, and there is little rain- 
fall, so the people are obliged 
to move a])Out in order to take 
proper care of their stock. 

In British East Africa the 
coastal lowland is a hot, wet, 
nnhealthful place. Only natives 
<Hn work in that part. They 
raise rice, sugar, sweet potatoes, 
and other crops. The dense 

1Q Ulaa UMt Cwag^oj 

Fig. 457. This drawing shows the troughlike valley of the Nile and 
the great fan-shaped delta at its mouth. This valley is the most 
densely populated part of Africa. Why do so many people live here ? 
Contrast their life with that of the desert people to the east and west 

Southern possessions. The 
British possessions in South 
Africa include a large part of 
the interior from Lake Tan- 
ganyika to the Cape of Good 
Hope and all the land south 
of Portuguese East Africa 
(Mozambique) and south of the 
Southwest Africa Protectorate. 
Most of this territory is within 
the high plateaus of South 
Africa or in the Southern High- 
lands. See map on page 218. 

In the north, in what is 
known as Rhodesia, the plateau 
is an extensive grassland which 
is used for the grazing of cattle, 
sheep, and goats. Farther south, 
in the protectorate of Bechuana- 
land, much of the interior of 
Africa is included in the semi- 
desert of Kalahari, where the 
rainfall is so light that little 
vegetation can grow. Here the 
population is very sparse. 

The rains that do come to 
this region come in the sum- 
mer months of November, 
December, and January. Then 
the grasses and flowers spring 



The Southern Highlands and the southeast coastal 
belts receive an abundance of rain, for the southeast 
trade winds that blow over the Indian Ocean reach this 
region and are forced to give up moisture. 

Along the coast sugar cane, bananas, pineapples, and 
rice are raised. On the higher lands tea and coffee are 
grown, and in places among the mountains and on 

Fig. 468. This is Cape Town, the capital of the Union of South Africa. 

In the background the rugged cliffs of Table mountain rise more than 3000 

feet above the city. When the white clouds drift over its summit, the people 

say it has its tablecloth on. The harbor is off to the left 

up so suddenly that the whole landscape is changed as 
if by magic. After the rainy season is passed, the grasses 
dry and the landscape appears gray. The dried grass be- 
comes a standing hay, and much of it about the margin 
of the desert is eaten by cattle, sheep, or goats. 

In the southern part of the plateau, at elevations of 
4000 feet or over, the summer temperature is seldom 
over 90° F. in the shade, while the nights are always cool 
throughout the year. During the winter months of May, the neighboring plateau where irrigation is practiced 
June, and July the nights are frosty and the days are general farming and dairying are carried on. 

Fig. 489. The native Kafirs of South Africa live in beehive-shaped houses. 

They are low and are built of thin poles interwoven with grass. This view 

shows two of these houses. The one without a roof is not a house but a 

corral for the cattle which belong to the family 

warm and clear. 

Here four provinces, the Transvaal, Natal, Orange Free 
State, and Cape of Good Hope, have been joined together, 
and they now form the Union of South Africa. The gov- 
ernment of this Union is similar to that of Canada, 
and the people have about 
as much freedom and inde-- 
pendence as in a repubhc. 

This portion of South 
Africa is well suited to 
white people, and it is the 
part where great mineral 
wealth has been discovered. 
Here the settlers are pro- 
gressive. Railways, trolley 
lines, automobiles, tele- 
phones, telegraphs, elec- 
trical appliances, and all 
modem conveniences have 
been introduced. We may 
expect a more rapid devel- 
opment in this part of 
Africa than in any other 
portion of the continent. 

Fig. 460. Inside the Kafir house you can see the stout poles which support 

the roof, and the round fireplace with its three-legged kettle for cooking 

the family meals. At the back are the sleeping mats, the dishes, and the 

pumpkins which the Kafirs raise and eat in great numbers 

The pastures of the Southern Highlands are used for 
raising cattle, sheep, goats, and ostriches. 

Johannesburg, which is in the Transvaal, is a modem 
city located on the plateau in the midst of the richest 
gold-producing area of the world (Figs. 461, 462). 

Kimberley, a little farther 
south, is famous for the 
wonderfully clear and beau- 
tiful diamonds that are 
found near there. Copper, 
tin, and coal are also found 
near these mining centers. 
Cape Town (Fig. 458), the 
capital of South Africa, is 
a seaport and is the south- 
ern terminus of the railroad 
which, when completed, 
will extend through to 
Cairo. Port Elizabeth is the 
leading seaport of South 
Africa (Fig. 463). 

The Cape-to-Cairo Railroad 
will be nearly 7000 miles 
long. Now that the Union 



of South Africa administers the affairs of the former 
German colony of East Africa, this great railroad may 
soon be completed. The British people now control a 
strip of land that extends from the Mediterranean Sea 
to the Cape of Good Hope. 

Gulf of Guinea possessions. Each of these possessions, 
even if it is very small, like Gambia (4500 square miles). 

Fig. 461. Johannesburg is in the gold district of South Africa. Thirty years 

ago it was little more than a huddle of tumbledown miners' huts. To-day 

it is a prosperous city with broad streets and beautiful buildings. Locate 

Johannesburg on your map. What is the cause of its rapid growth ? 

Fig. 462. This is one of the plants for the refining of gold at Johannesburg. 

The ore, which is mined from the underground layers, or "reefs," is brought 

to the surface, sorted, crushed, and finally reduced to pure gold. Where is 

the gold sent from Johannesburg ? What are its usea ? 


The French control about as much territory in Africa 
as the British, if we include the island of Madagascar, 
but a large portion of the French possessions is in the 

Morocco. The French protectorate over Morocco was 
established in 1912. The Sultan, who formerly had 
supreme power, must now follow the advice of a French 
Resident General in all matters. The climate of most of 

is of real value to the British people. The ports are 
open to vessels from all nations, but very naturally the 

trade with England is greater than that with any other Morocco is delightful, and certainly the best in northern 

coimtry. Africa. Cool breezes come in from the Atlantic, and the 

These lands are inhabited chiefly by negroes. The nmn- snow-capped summits of the Atlas Mountains keep off 

ber of white people is very small, but they hold the im- the hot winds of the Sahara (Fig. 464). 
portant positions and have general control over the colonies. The interior portions of this countiy are as yet 

There are excellent forests here. Palm oil and fiber, unfit for foreign travelers. Neither life nor property is 

rubber, ivory, and some coffee 
are exported. Gold Coast 
was so named because of the 
gold that was found there. 

Problems and review questions. 

1. Where are the chief British 
possessions in Africa ? 2. Of 
■what value are such lands to the 
British people ? 3. Where do 
most of the white people live in 
these possessions ? 4. Where is 
the best cotton raised in Africa? 
5. Explain the floods of the Nile 
in .July. 

6. Do the British control lands 
all the way from Cape Town to 
Cairo ? 7. How would railroads 
lii'lp in the development of the 
A f riean countries ? 8. What 
mineral and what gem is South 
Africa especially noted for ? 

Fig. 463. Port Elizabeth is smaller than Cape Town, but is the chief port of 
the Union of South Africa. It has no real harbor, and this view shows the 
long wharves which run out into the open water, with the derricks for loading 
and unloading vessels. Can you explain the importance of Port Elizabeth ? 

safe here. Where the French 
have full control there has 
been a marked improve- 
ment, especially in means 
of travel. Good roads have 
been made, so that motor 
cars can go quickly far into 
the interior. There are also 
a few modern conveniences, 
such as the telephone and 
the telegraph. 

Many parts of the country 
have rich soil suitable for 
agriculture, but as yet the 
methods in use are primitive. 
Vine-growing is promising; 
cotton has been introduced ; 
fish are abundant along the 
coast ; and in the moimtains 



many metals, such as copper, iron, lead, gold, and silver, 
have been found. The Moors, who live in Morocco, are 
a remnant of the race that once conquered Spain. 

Algeria is divided into 
three somewhat distinct 
parts. In the north' is the 
narrow coastal belt, where 
the soils are fertile and 
where European farmers 
are engaged in raising the 
vine, • cereals, olives, and 

In the interior, the land 
is high and mountainous ; 
it is used chiefly by the 
native people for raising 
cereals and for pasturing 
cattle during the summer. 

Farther south is the 
desert region. Here there 
are oases, where the date 
palms and other trees bear 
fruit in summer and where 
the native people pasture their herds of cattle during 
the winter. Great fortunes are made in the dates from 
these oases (Fig. 467). 

The extreme desert conditions in the south of Algeria 
limit European colonization more effectively than any 
other barrier. 

The climate and vegetation of Algeria are like those 
of southern Europe, but they are a little more nearly 
tropical. The rainfall on the northern slopes of the 
Atlas Mountains is 
about 25 inches a 
year, and on the 
southern slopes it 
is about 20 inches. 
On the border of 
the desert the an- 
nual rainfall varies 
from: 7 to 15 inches. 

Algeria suffers on 
account of the lack 
of any large rivers 
and from a long, 
dry summer season. 
Extensive irrigation 
works have been un- 
dertaken, and many 
deep wells have been drilled 


1. Make a list of the chief seaports of Africa. Opposite 
the name of each port place the name of the country in 

which it is located. 2. Why 

Fig. 464. Tangier, the chief seaport of Morocco, is located on a sheltered 

semicircular bay at the Atlantic end of the Strait of Gibraltar. It is a 

very old city, and at different times has belonged to Portugal, Spain, and 

England. To-day it is the principal outlet for the products of Morocco 

are there so few large cities 
in the interior of Africa? 
3. What is there on this map 
that helps you to determine 
the climate of northern Africa? 
4. What part of Africa is 
best supplied with railroads? 
What explanation can you 
offer for this condition ? De- 
scribe in detail the route of 
the Cape-to-Cairo Railroad. 

6. Make a table with three 
columns: in one write a list 
of the chief foods exported 
from Africa ; in another, the 
chief raw materials used in 
manufacture ; and in the third, 
the chief mineral exports. For 
the exports from northern 
Africa see the map between 
pages 207 and 210. 
7. What animal products are shipped from Africa ? What 

vegetable products ? 8. Name ten products that are shipped 

to the United States. 9. Are the chief imports into Africa 
• foods or manufactured articles? Why? 10. To what island 

near Africa should you send for cloves ? 

11. To what part of Africa should you go if you wished 

to visit a diamond mine ? a gold mine ? a coffee plantation ? 

a rubber plantation ? a cotton plantation ? a date grove ? 

12. Name four large navigable rivers in this continent. 

13. In which of these rivers is navigation interrupted by falls, 

rapids, or cataracts ? 

14. What large city 
in the United States 
is in about the same 
latitude as Cairo ? 
See western margin of 
map. 15. Through 
what countries does 
the equator pass ? 

16. What countries 
in Africa are wholly 
or in part in west 
longitude? 17. Judg- 
ing from this map, 
what parts of this 
continent should you 
think are densely set- 
tled ? What parts 
are sparsely settled? 


m 1 




) PubliaherB' Photo SerT 

Fig. 465. Algiers is the capital of Algeria, the most important French possession in Africa. 

The city is located on the west side of the Bay of Algiers. The harbor works have cost the 

French a great deal of money. This view shows the large number of wharves which have been 

built in order that many ships may load and unload at the same time 

At the southern base of the Why ? 18. Make a list of the European nations that have 
Atlas Mountains there are large supplies of water, which African possessions. Opposite the name of each one of these 
can be obtained by drilling deep holes into the rocks, nations place the names of their African possessions. 

30° ARcyki«Ylk»0° Longi'Btudt 10° Wett C 

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r /* / 'i^» * ^^^'mSmJ'' X'"-. J" ' [^^ Ni[»danie»; / ,-,-•' 

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- '-^^t^ ' . T."0''>= or CANc^B- 

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• TROPio«r.?A'?-?V-ii-\— — • 





Desert (IMl es^ . w »»">" <' iL- — 


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(^ (JiiiTi Biid Coiiipttriy 



Tunis is the name of a country and of a city. The 
city is connected by a canal with the sea. The people 
in this colony are chiefly Arabs, but 
there are many settlers who have 
come across the Mediterranean from 
the countries of southern Europe. 
The Europeans are the agriculturists, 
and they raise wheat, barley, oats, 
and fruits. Many of the grapes are 
used for making, wine. The native 
people do some weaving. They make 
carpets and are skillful in embroider- 
ing leather goods. There are cork 
factories in Tunis, and the cork forests 
might well be further developed. 

Jibuti, ivory and hides are exported. These products 
are brought to Jibuti by rail from Abyssinia. 

Madagascar. In 1896 the entire 
island of Madagascar was placed 
under French control. The popula-, 
tion consists of natives of France, " 
a few other European people, some 
Chinese and Malay people, and 
many native Africans. Agriculture is 
the chief occupation in Madagascar. 
Much rice is grown in the moist low- 
lands, and cattle are raised in great 
numbers on the uplands. 

Home work. 1. On your outline map of 
Africa, shade or color the French posses- 
sions. 2. Find out what different tropi- 
cal products are obtained from the various kinds of palm trees 

Fig. 466. This is a native Arab family of the 

Algerian Sahara. They are traveling, and all 

their possessions are loaded on the backs of the 

two little burros. Can you describe their life ? 

French West Africa and the Sahara. Most of French 
West Africa is a part of the Sahara.. On the southern 
margin of the desert there are grasslands where cattle are 
being raised. In parts of French West Africa there are 
modern improvements, such as good roads, railways, 
telephones, and telegraphs, and a telegraph line is nearly 

completed across the great desert from Timbuktu to and a few white people. 
Algeria. The Ivory Coast and Dahomey on the Gulf of Those parts that are near the equator produce coco- 
Guinea are also French possessions. Rubber and palm oil nuts, coffee, rubber, ivory, and palm oil. In the grass- 

Problems and review questions. 1. Name 
the French possessions in Africa. 2. How 
do the French improve conditions in their 
colonies ? 3. "Why are large portions of 
the French colonies unattractive to white 

people ? 4. What products are shipped from the P'rench colonies ? 

5. What colony has a good supply of cork that should be developed? 


Former German Possessions. Togo, Kamerun, 
Southwest Africa Protectorate, and Tanganyika Territory. 
These colonies are inhabited by millions of native negroes 

are the chief products. 
French Equatorial 
Africa. The name 
" French Kongo" was 
formerly given to this 
country. It is so near 
the equator that the 
climate is exceedingly 
hot and damp.. It is 
estimated that there 
are 9,000,000 negroes 
in this colony, and 
many of the tribes 
are only half civi- 
lized. The southern 
portion is densely 
forested, and to the 
north, on the margin 

', bR 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^■^^^Hl^ZjtS ^^ ^ j^ 3'l^^^^^^^Hl^T 





-^ *'"^"^"""^* . ^ssi^s^. 

of the forest, is 

Fig. 467. The people who live in the green oases along the northern edge of the Sahara 
Desert raise the finest dates in the world. In this view they are packing the dates in 
boxes for shipment. Can you explain the presence of these oasis gardens in the midst of 

the dry, sandy desert ? 

grassland, or savanna. 

Somaliland. On the east coast of Africa, bordering At the present time officers from the French or British 

the Strait of Bal>el-Mandeb, is French Somaliland. colonies in Africa are administering affairs in these 

Some coffee is raised here, and from its only port, areas which were former German possessions. 

land belts north and 
south of the great 
tropical forests, sheep, 
cattle, and goats are 
raised. Many beauti- 
ful diamonds have 
been obtained from 
the sands of the west 
coast, and the miners 
believe they have 
located the old vol- 
cano where these dia- 
monds were formed. 

These colonies have 
been but little devel- 
oped. There are only 
a few miles of railway, 
and the telegraph and 
telephone are just be- 
ginning to be used. 



Portuguese Possessions. Angola. Because of its 
location on the plateau, from 3000 to 4000 feet above 
sea level, Angola has a pleasant climate. It is the largest 
of the Portuguese colonial possessions, and contains rich 
plantations of rubber trees, coco palms, and coffee. The 
trade is largely with Portugal, and in exchange for their 
native products the inhabitants import textiles. There 
are several hundred miles of railroads here, and tele- 
graphs and tele])hones are also in use. 

Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa). About half of 
Mozambique is a low coastal plain, and the southeast 
trades coming to this region bring an 
abundance of moisture. Sugar and 
coconuts are raised, and in the moun- 
tains gold and coal are mined. The 
trade is chiefly with Europe and India. 

The Portuguese also hold Portu- 
guese Guinea, the Madeira and Cape 
Verde Islands, and several other 
small islands near Africa. 

Review questions. 1. Name the Poitu- 
guese colonies. 2. What one is most suit- 
able for white people ? 3. What products 
do the A!igola colonists send to Portugal ? 
4. What are the chief imports of Angola ? 

It.\lian Possessions. Libia. Much 
of the interior of this land is a desert, 
and so the population is confined 
chiefly to the coastal region. Olives, 
lemons, and fruits are raised, and 
esparto grass is grown. Esparto grass 
is used to make ropes, baskets, shoes, 
paper, and cloth. Caravan routes from 
the Sudan lead to Tripoli. Large 
quantities of ostrich feathers from the Sudan, and dates 
from the desert oases, are brought to Tripoli for shipment. 

Eritrea and Somaliland are both populated chiefly by 
negroes, who make their living by agriculture or the 
care of stock. 

Review questions. 1. Where are the Italian colonies in Africa ? 
1'. Wliat jjnxlucts are sliipjjed from these colonies? 3. What is 
'liH chief Italian seajwrt in northern Africa? 4. What products 
;ich Tripoli from the Sudan ? 

Belgian Possession. Belgian Kongo. This is the 
land of the jungles and dense tropical forests described 
on page 221. There are at least 7,000,000 natives and 
about 5000 Europeans in this colony. 

Ships can go 100 miles from the coast up the Kongo 
River. At this ix)int is the little village of Matadi. For 
the next 200 miles there are rapids, and a railroad has 
been built along the side of the river. At the upstream 
end of the belt of rapids is Leopoldville, and from there 

1^^ Lutleniouit A CDdfroutMl 

Fig. 468. This engine is used on the railroad 
which crosses the equator near Stanley Falls in 
Belgian Kongo. What kind of fuel is burned in 
this engine ? Why has the railroad been built 
in this particular place ? See map on page 227 

for 1600 miles the Kongo River is navigable. This brings 
the traveler to Stanley Falls, named in honor of the 
great English explorer. Study the map on page 227 
for products. 

Spanish Possessions. Just south of the Strait of 
Gibraltar is a small area which was once a part of 
Morocco, but which has been left by treaty to the con- 
trol of the Spanish people. A little farther south, on 
the west coast, is Rio de Oro. This is a land with some 
rich soils. It consists chiefly of a coastal plain, but the 
rainfall is not sufficient to make it a good agricultural 
country. The Canary Islands belong 
to Spain, and the governor of the 
islands has charge of the colony on 
the mainland. East of the Gulf of 
Guinea there is a small country 
known as Rio Muni. This and a 
number of little islands in the Gulf 
of Guinea are under Spanish rule. 

Review questions. 1. Where is the Bel- 
gian colony in Africa ? 2. What people 
live there ? 3. What are the products of 
the tropical forest ? 4. How far may boats 
go up the Kongo ? 6. Where are the chief 
Spanish possessions in or near Africa ? 


Liberia. The Republic of Liberia 
was established in 1847 by people in 
the United States as a land for freed 
American slaves. The constitution 
and form of government are modeled 
after those of the United States of 
America, and the flag of Liberia is 
quite similar to ours. The flag has red and white stripes, 
and in the blue field where we now have forty-eight 
stars Liberia has one large star. The people of Liberia 
all belong to the black race. Part of the country is 
populated by the free, or American, Liberians and the 
remainder by the original native tribes. 

The natural resources of this little republic are almost 
wholly undeveloi^'d. Coffee, cactvo, and cotton are pro- 
duced in small quantities. Gold, iron, tin, and copper 
have been mined a little. There are no railroads in Liberia, 
and with the exception of ox-carts there is no means of 
tmnsportation. Monrovia is the capital and chief seaport. 
Abyssinia is the other independent country in Africa. 
It is organized as an empire. Most of the people are 
farmers or are engaged in raising cattle, sheep, or goats. 
The chief exports are hides, coffee, and ivory. Cotton 
goods form the chief import. Jibuti, in French Somali- 
land, serves as the port for Abyssinia. 



I 1 Under 10 inche3 ^Wropjcof 

Sa 10 to 20 ■• Y''''"'"' 

^H 40 to 80 " 
H[| Over 80  
yy Coast Winds in 
'^^ ^ Northern Sununec 
,''*'' Coast Winds in 

O O 

f 30 

Northern Winter 5' Longitude 2o'''^Ea»t from 36' Greenwich 5o'' 

\ 1 Under 2 persons per Bq.[nlle 
r~n 2to2S 
■■l25to2S0 " 


r^rl^°r„1kp*'^rt Eliz.l/eth 
C.of Good Hope^AguHjj 7 

S° Longitude 20" East from 35° Greenwich 50' 

Average annual rainfall in Africa 

10 tiuui tad Compaaj 

Distribution of people in Africa 

© UiDn uid t'cmpaaj 


I. From a study of the three maps before you, describe the 
country through" which the equator passes in Africa. 2. De- 
scribe the geographic features of the Sahara. Are there any 
mountains in tills desert ? Are there any permanent streams ? 
If so, how can that be explained ? What is meant by " wet- 
weather" streams? How can there be wet-weather streams 
in a desert? 

3. Where do people live in this desert ? 4. What is meant 
by an oasis ? 5. How can an oasis be explained ? 6. Can you 
locate any oases on the population map ? 7. How are routes 
of travel laid out across the desert? 

8. How do the Atlas Mountains influence the amount of 
rain that falls on the northwestern coast of Africa? 9. How 
much is the rainfall there ? 10. How does the amount of rain 
on the north coast of Africa affect the distribution of popula- 
tion in that part of the continent ? 

II. Notice that there is very little continental shelf about 
Africa. This means that the great continent of Africa is 
almost all above water. North America and Europe are in 
part under the water and have wide continental shelves. 

12. The number of square miles in each of the continents 
is shown in the Appendix. Which continent is larger than 
Africa? Which continents are smaller than Africa? See 
maiy on page 275. 

13. Name four large rivers in Africa and, from a stud)- of 
these maps, describe the country through which each flows. 

14. What is the most striking difference between the coast 
line of Africa and that of Europe? What disadvantages are 
there in a coast line like that of Africa ? 15. How do the 
mountains of Madagascar affect the distribution of rainfall on 
that island? 16. What winds bring the rain to Madagascar? 
17. What is the annual rainfall in the region where the great 
African lakes are located ? 

18. Explain the location of the tropical forests. 19. What 
is the annual rainfall in these forests ? 20. What products 
should you expect to find in the great tropical forests? 
21. What are the best routes of travel iir those forests ? 

22. What is the annual rainfall in the grasslands north 
and south of the tropical forests ? 23. P^rom these maps what 
should you think the chief occupations of people m these 
belts must be ? 24. Why has the coastal region north of the 
Gulf of Guinea a tropical forest ? 

25. Explain the presence of forests in the Abyssinian High- 
lands. 26. What great valley in South America has a tropical 
forest like that in the Kongo Basin ? 27. Why is there so 
little rainfall in southwestern Africa and on the west coast 
of South Africa ? 

28. In what parts of Africa do most of the people live ? 
29. How in general is the distribution of population in Africa 
related to the distribution of rainfall? 30. How can you 
explain the dense population in the valley of the Nile ? 
31. What winds come to the southeastern coasts ? 32. What 
portions of Africa will prove most attractive to permanent 
white settlers? Why? 

Q Qinn aod Company 

Fig. 469. This is a view in the Himalayas, the highest mountains in the 
world. Notice the steep slopes and the sharp, snow-covered peaks. In the 
center and foreground of this view is a great glacier which is winding its 
way down the valley between the high mountain slopes. The black bands 

in the glacial ice are composed of rock material which the ice has ground ofi 
the mountain sides and is carrying along with it. Locate the Himalayas 
on your map. Are they young and rugged mountains or old and worn- 
down mountains ? Why are their summits always covered with snow ? 


Asia is the largest of the continents. It is a land of there is not sufficient rainfall to support forests, but just 

very ancient civilizations ; Mesopotamia and the plains about enough for grasses ; this has led very naturally 

of India and China were inhabited by civilized races long to the grazing of cattle and sheep as one of the chief 

before the beginning of the great migrations of white occupations of the people. Dry farming and irrigation 

people from Asial into Europe. 

In southwestern Asia, around the eastern end of the 
Mediterranean Sea, there were highly civilized nations 
of white people fi-ora three to four thousand years be- 
fore the birth of Christ. Palestine, Syria, and most of 
the places referred to in the Bible are in this part of the 

To-day more than half the people of the world live 
in Asia. The lowlands of China, Manchuria, and India 
are all densely populated. In the eastern part of China, 
in an area less than half the size of the United States, 

are practiced. 

The Lowland of Turan is the southward extension of 
the Siberian Plains. It is a desert and semidesert region 
between the Caspian Sea and the lofty mountains of 
the Pamir. Here many of the people wander about 
with their cattle and sheep. Some of them make beau- 
tiful rugs and carpets, which they carry to the bazaars 
in the large cities and sell. Near the rivers the lands 
are irrigated, and many different crops are raised. 

The East Siberian Uplands are from 1000 to 2000 feet 
above sea level. This is an old land with rich soils and a 

there are nearly 300,000,000 people ; in the valley of the dense forest, called by the Russians the taiga. The climate 

Ganges and on the coastal lowlands of India there are is so severe in winter that few people live here. Many 

about 300,000,000. wild animals with heavy fur coats inhabit the forest 

India, China, and Japan have recently adopted many and are sought by hunters, 
of the ways of European or Western civilization. Rail- The central mountains of Asia are a continuation east- 
roads are being built, mines are being opened, modern ward of the high mountains of southern Europe. Most 
buildings are being erected, and new governments are of the ranges are young and rugged. They include the 

being established. The industries of these countries are 
developing rapidly, and the United States, as well as 
the nations of Europe, is interested in establishing and 
maintaining commercial relations with these countries. 

Natural Regions 

The Siberian Plains are a continuation eastward of 
the wonderful farm lands of European Russia. See map 
on page 2S2. Tliese Asiatic lands have rich soils, but 
here the climate is rather dry. In much of this area 

highest mountains in the world (Fig. 409). Far to the 
northeast the ranges are lower. They are old and have 
been worn down much like the Ural Mountains and the 
Appalachian and Brazilian highlands. 

The Great Khingan Mountains, just west of the 
plains of China and Manchuria, are chiefly of volcanic 
origin. The East China Highlands are old, worn-down 
mountains rising only from 2000 to 4000 feet above sea 
level. Many of their slopes are forested, and in the valleys 
of that portion of China there is a dense population. 


2 ^--^^vJ. {_ 

JO gmnow° y JO smno w »-< 



* S^ 




Because Asia extends so far from north to south, 
because it is so very large, and because it has such high 
mountains, there is great variety in the climate. The 
tip end of the Malay Peninsula is very near the equator, 
and at the extreme north the lands are within the 
arctic circle. 

When these cold winter winds leave the central part 
of the continent and blow eastward over the plains of 
Manch\iria and China, the temperature falls in those 
countries. This is the reason why such places as Peking 
have very cold weather during the winter. 

Rainfall. Use the map on page 256. The inflowing 
monsoon winds of the summer season bring most of the 

Temperature. The southern part of the continent has rain to Asia. When they reach the coast they begin to 

warm weather throughout the year. In the interior rise ; the air and the moisture in the air become colder, 

the changes in temperature from winter to summer are clouds form, and soon the rain begins to fall. The 

greater than they are in any other place in the world, lowlands bordering the coast are thus well watered, and 

In the Siberian Uplands the tem- 
perature often falls to 70° F. below 
zero in winter and rises to 80° above 
zero in summer. Most of the land 
north of the Himalaya Mountains 
has a temperature below 32° F. in 
January. Only those lands to the 
south and east, near the coasts, are 
free from frosts during the coldest 
months of the year. When summer 
comes, all but the high regions and 
the lands far to the north are warm. 

The Iran and Arabian plateaus are 
the hottest portions of Asia, because, 
in addition to being in the south, their 
climates are very dry. If there were 
more moisture, more of the sun's heat 
would be used up in evaporating the 
moisture, and the temperature would 
not be so high. 

Monsoons. There is a remarkable 
seasonal change in the winds about 
Asia, which can be very clearly un- 
derstood. In summer the great land mass becomes very 
warm, and the warm air over it expands and begins to 
rise. The colder air over the oceans to the north, east, 
and south is heavier, and therefore it settles and flows 
in over Asia. The colder inflowing air forces itself under 
the warmer air and helps to make the warm air rise. 
The inflowing winds coming from the oceans bring the 
rains which fall on the mountain slopes. 

During the winter the land becomes very cold. The 
air over the land becomes even colder than that over the 
oceans, so the movements of the air are reversed. See map 
on page 256. The cold, heavier air over the land area settles 
and flows outward or seaward. Such winds, coming from 
the interior of the continent, cannot have much moisture. 

Winds that blow toward the land in summer and from 
the land in winter are called continental monsoons, and 
these winds have a great influence over the living con- 
ditions in Asia. 

UndetwooU 4 Underwood 

Fig. 471. The bare, rocky peninsula of Sinai is 

one of the driest parts of western Asia. This 

view shows the monastery of the Mount Sinai 

Monks. Can you explain the climate here ? 

as the air continues to flow inland 
the seaward slopes of the mountain 
ranges receive an abundance of rain 
and snow. 

The heavy rains on the mountain 
slopes explain the large rivers which 
make it possible, where it is neces- 
sary, to irrigate the rich soils of the 
lowland plains and thus raise food for 
the millions of people who live there. 
Just over the tops of the moun- 
tains, in the interior of Asia, are the 
desert regions. When the monsoon 
winds descend the leeward sides of the 
mountains and cross the plateaus of 
Tibet, East Turkestan, or Mongolia, 
they have little moisture, and there- 
fore those lands are arid. 

Iran and Arabia do not get strong 
monsoon winds from the ocean. They 
are exceedingly dry. 

Western Turkestan is a semidesert, 
because moisture-bearing winds can- 
not reach it. The tundra portion of Asia has little rain 
or snow, because the air in very high latitudes is always 
cold and cannot have much moisture. 

While the deserts of Asia are among the driest places 
known, no other place in the world receives so much 
rain as the southern slopes of the Himalaya Mountains. 
Equatorial rainy belt. All the way around the world, 
near the equator, there is an equatorial rainy belt. Dur- 
ing the year the rainy belt moves northward and south- 
ward, following the vertical rays of the sun. It goes 
north during the northern summer and south during the 
southern summer. In its belt the air rises and carries 
with it moisture that commonly forms clouds and then 
falls as rain. This is the belt where rain usually falls 
every afternoon. Ceylon, a part of the Malay Peninsula, 
and many of the East Indian islands have two rainy 
seasons, because the equatorial rainy belt passes over 
them twice each year. 



Problems and review questions. 1. Why should there be such 
very different climates in the different parts of Asia ? 2. What 
parts of Asia are the hottest ? 3. Where is there the greatest dif- 
ference between the summer and winter temperatures ? 4. What 
are the monsoons ? Explain them. 

5. In what part of Asia is the rainfall heaviest ? 6. What dis- 
advantages are there in having a very heavy rainfall ? 7. Why 
are the high plateaus of Asia dry ? 8. Explain the coming of 
two rainy seasons in one place in a year. 


One of the most interesting parts of Asia is the por- 
tion between India and the iEgean Sea. It includes 
much rugged, inaccessible mountain country, the two 
extensive desert plateaus of Iran and Arabia, the semi- 
desert plateau of Anatolia, and the rich lowland area of 
the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. 

Three or four thousand years before Christ several 
great nations flom-ished in this part of Asia. They were 
composed almost entirely of people of the white race, 
and their civilizations have contributed a great deal to 
the nations which later grew up about the Mediterra- 
nean shores. In this part of the world the Jewish nation 
passed through its eventful history (Fig. 473). 

In the thirteenth century Mongolian invaders from the 
northeast, of whom the Ottoman Turks are the present 
representatives, swept over these lands and almost oblit- 
erated the civilizations which they found. They adopted 
the worship of Mohammed, which had originated in 
Arabia, and during their rule Mohammedanism became 
the accepted religion in most of southwestern Asia. 
Since the Mongol invasion the Jews have had no coun- 
try of their own, and the Armenians, who have held to 

the Christian re- 
ligion, have been 
crowded into a 
mountain region 
and subjected to 
cruel persecution. 
The countries 
of western Asia 
made very little 
progress under 
the weak govern- 
ment of Turkey. 
Great irrigation 
works were aban- 
doned, few rail- 
roads were built, 
^ i«i„.««i . Li»i.™.«i and many of the 

Fig. 472. The wharves at Smyrna are crowded inhabitants emi- 
with camels loaded down with figs and grain for i A t t-V, 

export. Where will these products be sent ? What g^^tCQ tO Otner 

things do the foreign ships bring to Smyrna ? COUntneS. 

Fig. 473. Jerusalem, the center of the Jewish nation in Biblical times, 
is now a typical oriental city of flat-roofed, whitewashed houses, with a 
mixed population of Jews and Mohammedans. At the left in this view is 
the dome of the Mohammedan Mosque of Omar, and in the distance is the 

Mount of Olives 

Under Turkish administration little was done to in- 
troduce modern methods in agricultural or industrial life. 

During the World War Turkey was overcome by the 
forces of the Alhes, and several distinct and independent 
nations have been established here. 

Turkey retains control of the western part of the pen- 
insula between the Black and Mediterranean seas. Most 
of this country is very rugged. Along the coasts there 
are a few narrow lowland belts, and here the summers 
are hot and the winters warm. On the higher lands of 
the interior, where the Plateau of Anatolia is located, 
the winters are cold, but the summers are hot and drv. 

Some portions of the plateau are dotted with tall 
cypresses and umbrella pines, but most of this region 
is treeless. Where streams come from the mountains, 
irrigation is practiced and agriculture is carried on, but 
in most primitive ways. The soils are rich, and the 
chief products are tobacco, cereals, cotton, figs, and 
many varieties of fruit. The cotton industry is increas- 
ing. The climate is favorable to mulberry trees, and 
many people raise silkworms. 

Sheep and cattle are raised among the mountains. The 
Angora goats which live on the plateau supply the hair 
for mohair cloth. Many beautiful shawls and rugs are 
woven in Anatolia. On the coastal lowlands large quan- 
tities of figs and other Mediterranean fruits are raised. 
Smyrna is the chief ceaport (Fig. 472). 

The narrow straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles 
were under the control of Turkey before the World War. 
They are now governed in such a way as to provide for 
the free passage of the ships of all nations. 



Armenia. This part of Asia is characterized by gloomy 
mountains and fertile valleys. It is very hot in summer 
and extremely cold in winter. 

Fully two million people live in this country. Their 
chief occupations are the care of sheep and goats, the 
cultivation of grapes, and 
the raising of maize, cot- 

ton, and tobacco. It is not 
a country of great possibili- 
ties, but with a strong and 
just government the people 
may live happily in the val- 
leys between the mountain 

Most of the inhabitants 
are Armenians, but there 
are also many Turks living 
here, and Kurdish shepherds 
make their homes in some 
of the mountain 


There are few roads, and 
therefore travel is not easy, 
and it is difficult to main- 
tain a good government. 

Erzerum is the leading 
city of Armenia. 

Syria and Palestine . Syria 
is a tableland bordering the 
Mediterranean Sea and slop- 
ing gently eastward into the 
Syrian Desert. The south- 
ern portion of this table- 
land is called Palestine or 
the Holy Land (Fig. 47i). 

Near the coast the people 
raise olives, oranges, lemons, 
and grapes. They also pro- 
duce large quantities of 
silk, most of which is sent 
to France. Farther inland 
there is some agriculture, 
but the farming methods are 
very old-fashioned. Large 
numbers of the people in these lands are shepherds. 

Most of the people in Syria are Arabians, and in 
Palestine the inhabitants are Arabians and Jews. 

Mesopotamia, or the land between the rivers, was once 
the "Garden of the World." It was the site of the rich 
and powerful Babylonian Empire, but for hundreds of 
years this fertile land was almost abandoned. Ruins 
now mark the sites of the ancient cities of Nineveh 
and Babylon. 


Scale of miles 
10 20 30 

© flinn and Company 

Fig. 474. Relief drawing of Palestine. Locate the great trough in Palestine. 
What river and what seas are in this trough ? Compare the elevation 
of the surface of the Dead Sea with that of the Mediterranean. Describe 
the location of Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Damascus. What are the chief 
occupations of the people on the western plains ? on the heights of Judea ? 

Bagdad, familiar to us in the Arabian Nights, lies on 
both sides of the Tigris River, which is crossed by a 
bridge of boats. It has a population of about 200,000. 
This country has need of a strong government and men 
with capital and energy to construct and maintain irri- 
gation works. The waters 
of the Tigris and Euphrates 
could reclaim the lands of 
Mesopotamia, and a large 
population could be sup- 
ported here. Great Britain 
now administers the affairs 
of this country. 


1. Make a list of the coun- 
tries that border on tlie east- 
ern end of the Mediterranean 
Sea ; on the Black Sea ; on the 
Caspian Sea ; on the Persian 
Gulf; on the Red Sea. 2. Why 
are there so few navigable 
rivers in this part of the 
world ? 

3. Where do the larger riv- 
ers shown on this map get 
their water? Give at least 
two examples. 4. What be- 
comes of some of the rivers 
that flow from the mountains 
into the deserts ? 

5. Judging from the loca- 
tion of the cities, do most of 
the people live near the coast 
or inland ? How should you 
explain the distribution of set- 
tlements ? 6. Why are there 
so few railroads in this part 
of the world ? 

7. How do people travel in 
these lands where there are 
no railroads and no navigable 
rivers? 8. How should you 
explain the location of settle- 
ments at the base of moun- 
tain ranges ? 9. Judging from 
the products and natural resources, what should you think 
are the chief occupations of the people in these countries ? 

10. What products from these countries reach the I'nited 
States? 11. Should you expect manufacturing to become a 
leading industry in these countries? Why? 12. Locate 
the Holy Land on this map. 

Home work. 1. Locate on an outline map Smyrna, Damascus, 
Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Mount Ararat, Bagdad, the Dead Sea, tlie 
river Jordan, the Suez Canal, and the Bosporus. 

A ts" B 

SO'tPetroirad C 36° 

D 40° . Archangel E 45 Long. T East 60 from 6 Green 66 wick H 

TsaritF" 'ifi^'..-. 

«6° K 

«tJjL,, 7a.„, WsBl AC 


-A > 


\ Deir 


^^^ r. .^ort Said > J"f;!,*'-"s#irm 


5 m 

''*' %k.,y^^ '^'^ ^ 11 A M M A R 

\ ! \  \ • 'fuua . ^ 

Hail" ^ 



imanshah . 'V, 

\ .Kaahan ^ 

•< Ispahan^ 
Chusht^ ^'^ 

S iJl F P o r-Afc-coSX-^""**, ' - 

S ^ E E P DAtES^'U .^4^^ (^^. s |„ , E K 

25 ^__ 

^'^'".*>^K,„^j^ K,Aiat\ 

LSt ^JCoweit I .BushireSi 

C A M E LSI ^i^oweit I ' .Bushire 


Bereide • . "" , 

HORSES .Anuyzah 


E. D •''' 4Iof a 


I"'' Cataract 


■,C. Elba ,>J r V , 


Er Riad 

El Hauta* 


^1 J?h A^ *«* nfifTiaCe>ic/ 1 / 


liut^. i 

'V^«d iS-ort Sudan I- V 





-,\Suakin -^ I \\(^,? 'l * I 

Kunfuda I 


. Gb Selail 

,ih\ . ,. ^ 7f spi I 
THE NEAR EAST^ToJS^h^'"* ""<> 


Scale of (tatuta miles 
fto too aoQ ^, aoo 

Scale of kiU 

ftO too 900 900 J 

Oil li II II 

Dear rl ot 
A h k a f 

Shuj.-m, pB^ 


* Capital cities 

DAI ti 

• Chief aeaporti 
Principal railroads . — i— ' .' Navisrable rivers 

1 Uplands > ^O 

^^^ ^» « — .V. _,..., land plateaus 

^'■'■'/,y/,^^ Land below sea level 
I I Lowlands 

"ICld. worn-dow 
-J mountains 

"TTo »Lourcnco/, 
^^ Marq uea v 

Yountr, rugged mountains 
  .hi. ,«.. 

iJ Zanzibar • 40 /. 


A^RA^i ^^ 

S\E A 

> (Br.) 

*• T 

iNDlX^ oci:A 

K  /rem 46 Greenwich F Tananarivo 60" 





H Mauritius 60 

Settled boundaries 

Unsettled boundaries 

^^ Sovcreisnty to be determined by popular vote 

G Qinn And Company 



Fig. 475. This is a street scene in Yanbo, one of the coast towns of Hejaz. 

Of what materials are the buildings made ? Why are they not built of 

wood ? Notice the camels in the background. Of what use are the camels 

to the Arabians ? What other animals do they raise ? 

Problems and review questions. 1. For what reasons are the 
lands in western Asia especially interesting ? 2. What are the 
chief occupations of the people ? 3. Why is this a good region for 
raising silkworms ? 4. Why are there no large cities ? 5. Why is 
there little manufacturing ? 6. What are the chief disadvantages 
of these lands? 

7. What do these countries most need to attract more settlers ? 
8. Describe the great, deep valley of the Holy Land. 9. What 
religions were founded in this part of the world ? 10. Where did 
the Mongolian invaders who belonged to the yellow race come 
from ? 11. How were the rich soils of Mesopotamia formed ? 
12. How could the lowlands of Mesopotamia be again reclaimed 
for agriculture and made to support a large population ? 

Arabia is a country without a strong or well-organized 
central government. Most of the people have their 
homes in the cities or towns in the small and somewhat 
independent states about the margin of the country 
(Fig. 475). Those living in the vast desert interior 
usually follow a nomadic, or wandering, life (Fig. 476). 
Where springs or wells occur in the desert, there are oases, 
and in each oasis date palms are grown. The wandering 
Arabs drive their sheep, cattle, goats, and donkeys from 
one pasture to another. They ride beautiful horses, 
which are famous for their speed. 

Thousands of the Arabian people make annual visits, 
or pilgrimages, to Mekka and Medina. Mekka was the 
birthplace of Mohammed, the founder of their religion. 
Every Mohammedan wishes to visit Mekka at least once 
during his lifetime. There is now a railway from Da- 
mascus to Medina to help these pilgrims on their journey. 

In the extreme south of Arabia the mountain slopes 
have been terraced, and large crops of coffee are raised, 
which are exported from Mokha. Sea fogs help out the 
scanty rainfall of this coastal belt. 

Fig. 476. These wandering Arabs have pitched their tent just outside the 

walls of an old fort in one of the desert oases. Can you describe the life 

of these people ? How does it differ from that of the Arabs in the villages 

and towns ? How do these people earn their living ? 

Hejaz. The people of this country are Arabians. 
In 1916 they threw off the Turkish yoke and established 
a kingdom. A national flag was then adopted and a 
national army formed. Hejaz includes the cities of 
Mekka and Medina, and is the most progressive of the 
independent Arabian countries. 

Aden and Oman. The British have a small possession 
at the southwest corner of the Arabian peninsula, called 
Aden, which they use as a coaling station. Oman, at 
the southeast comer, is a small independent state bor- 
dering on the Persian Gulf. It has become known 
for its pearl fisheries. Some of the largest and most 
beautiful pearls in the world are found in the waters 
of the Persian Gulf. Maskat is the seaport of Oman. 

Persia occupies the western part of the Plateau of Iran 
and the mountain ranges to the north and south. Most 
of the plateau is so dry that few people can live there. 
Grazing is the chief occupation, and the shepherds must 
wander about to find pasture for their sheep and goats. 

Many of the mountains are of limestone, into which 
the rain water sinks easily and flows underground. 
Wherever an underground river, which may have started 
in the mountains, comes to the surface, there is a spring, 
and that means an oasis. In desert places the people 
can sometimes secure water by digging deep wells. To 
convey the water long distances without loss by evapora- 
tion under the hot sun, they have dug underground 
channels called kanats, into which the water is turned 
when it is drawn up from the wells. These channels 
may be traced many miles by the mounds of earth 
thrown up in excavating them. 

Trees that need dry air for their tops and water at 
their roots grow to perfection in parts of Persia. The 



date palm is an excellent example ; it seems to flourish 
in a scorching sun if its roots are wet. Its fruit is 
spoiled by a single shower. The Persian apricot and 
mulberry are regarded as the finest in the world. Since 
good mulberry leaves can be raised, the Persian people 
have developed a flourishing silk industry. Persian rugs 
and tapestries are famous. Many of the Persian rugs 
are named after the places where they are made. 

Teheran is the capital and lies at the southern base 
of the Elburz Mountains, in sight of their snow-capped 
summits (Fig. 477). 

Afghanistan. In the northeastern corner of the great 
desert plateau of Iran, and extending into and a little 
beyond the rugged Hindu Kush Mountains, is Afghan- 
istan. Early each summer, when the snows melt in the 
mountains, the streams bring rich alluvial soils to the 
lower lands. Near the rivers there are irrigated fields 
and a few small settlements, but the inhabitants can 
do little more than raise enough food to live on. Some 
cattle, sheep, and goats are raised. 

Kabul is the capital and is located on the Kabul 
River, which flows to the Indus. This valley is part of 
the overland route to India, but in its lower course it is 
impassable, and travelers must go through a very narrow 
notch in the mountains, known as Khyber Pass. 

Problems and review questions. 1. What makes it diflBcult to 
live in Arabia, Persia, and Afghanistan ? 2. Why do so many 
people want to visit Mekka? 3. What is Mokha famous for? 

4. What articles from Persia are found in American homes ? 

5. What do most of the people on the Plateau of Iran do for a 
living ? 6. Locate from memory Mekka, Medina, Mokha, Teheran, 
Aden, and Maskat. 

Home work. 1. Read a sketch of the life of Mohammed. 
2. Find out some reasons why the camel can live on the desert. 


The central part of western Asia contains a number 
of small states which were part of the Russian Empire 
before the World War. They occupy the semidesert 
lowland of Turan. Here the streams from the moun- 
tains flow to inland seas. They never reach the ocean. 

Transcaspia is north of Persia and east of the Caspian 
Sea. It is a very dry district, where the wandering life 
of shepherds is about all that is possible. It is a thinly 
settled province. 

Bokhara is a prosperous state which has long been 
somewhat independent. It is famovis among Americans 
and Europeans for the beautiful Bokhara rugs which 
are woven there. It also produces large quantities of 
corn, fruit, silk, tobacco, and cotton. 

The city of Bokhara is a center of Mohammedan 
learning, containing over one hundred colleges and no 
less than three hundred and sixty mosques. 

Khiva is a small state, west of Bokhara, where cotton 
and silk are produced in large quantities, and where 
beautiful rugs are made. 

Western Turkestan extends northward from Bokhara 
to the southwestern boundary of Siberia. It is a land 
of broad, dry steppes, crossed here and there by rivers. 
Along the rivers are narrow strips of irrigated lands where 
the water brings many crops to perfection, gives rise to 
settlements, promotes trade, and leads to the growth of 
wealth. Tashkend is the capital of Western Turkestan. 
Samarkand is a second important city. In the bazaars 
of these cities the merchants sell the goods brought 
by camels over the long caravan routes, as well as the 
carpets, rugs, and skins brought in by the steppe- 
dwellers, and the products from the irrigated farm lands. 

Fig. 477. The government gate at Teheran is a very fine example of Persian Fig. 478. This is a formal Persian dinner party. The guests are seated on 

architecture. Its decoration shows the same beauty of design which is found beautiful oriental rugs, and the dishes are set on mats of Persian tapestry, 

in the Persian rugs. Locate Teheran on your map. Why is the Persian capi- The servants stand in the background, ready to attend to their masters' 

tal less important commercially than Tabriz, the chief city of the country ? needs. All the men wear close-fitting caps, according to the Persian custom 




The completion of the railway from European Russia 
to Vladivostok marked the beginning of modern Siberia 
(Fig. 480). This great railway is between 5000 and 6000 
miles long. It crosses a land of great opportunities. 

For convenience in study Siberia may be thought of 
in four divisions : 
(1) the tundra far to 
the north ; (2) the 
taiga, or great for- 
ests, just south of 
the tundra; (3) the 
steppes, or grassy 
plains, in the west ; 
and (4) the high- 
lands in the south. 

Tundra. In the 
tundra belt in Asia, 
just as in the belts 
of similar latitude 
in Europe and North 
America, there are 
two seasons, — a 

Fig. 479. This is a picture of Nizhnii Kolymsk, one of the little villages of the Siberian tundra. 

The photograph was taken at noon on a winter day. Can you explain why it is so dark in the 

middle of the day ? Study the extent of the Siberian tundra on the map opposite page 256. How 

much rainfall does this region receive ? What are the occupations of the people ? 

work in the forest. Here the wolf, bear, silver fox, sable,, 
and squirrel live ; and since it is a very cold country^ 
these animals have heavy coats and yield many of the- 
best furs in the world's fur market. 

Along the southern margin near the railway there- 
are small clearings, and as the population increases, the 

forest will prove to- 
be a valuable source 
of timber, and the 
cleared land will 
undoubtedly prove 
good for farming^ 
(Fig. 482). 

Steppes. Large 
areas of the Sibe- 
rian grasslands, or 
steppes, are good 
agricultural lands. 
In the district cen- 
tering about Omsk 
there are extensive 
wheat fields, where 

modern American 
long, dark winter, when temperatures fall many degrees harvesting machinery is being used (Fig. 483). Much of 

below zero, and a short summer, with almost unbroken 
daylight (Fig. 479). The frozen ground thaws out in 
the spring after the snow has disappeared, but the melt- 
ing extends less than two feet below the surface. 

The tundra is overgrown with mosses, lichens, and 
many dwarf plants. Red berries are abundant on the 
low bushes, and brilliant Alpine flowers bloom there. 

the grassland serves as a pasture for dairy cattle, and the 
rich cream produced is used for making butter. This 
is the most flourishing of Siberian industries, and ship- 
ments of butter are made to points as far away as England. 

The drier parts of the steppes are suitable for grazing 
sheep and goats. 

Highlands. In the southern part of Siberia there are 

There are also swarms of mosquitoes, and many birds young, rugged mountains, and in the east a series of old. 

that fly far to the north. 

The native people of northern 
Siberia have domesticated the rein- 
deer, and they live partly upon rein- 
deer milk. For food they gather 
berries, catch fish in the rivers, and 
kill some of the game birds. These 
people are wanderers, and as they 
move southward on the approach of 
winter they take many of the rein- 
deer with them. 

Taiga. Stretching east and west 
across Asia south of the tundra belt 
is one of the greatest forests in the 
world. For the most part it is a dark, 
cold wilderness about 4000 miles long 
and from 1000 to 2000 miles wide. 
A few native huts are scattered along 
the stream courses, and in winter 
there are hunters and trappers at 

Fig. 480. This view shows a group of Chinese 

coolies at work on the eastern end of the Siberian 

I^ailroad. Trace the route of this railroad on your 

map. Explain its importance 

worn-down mountain ranges. See map 
' on page ^32. The mountains contain 
rich stores of minerals that have not 
yet been worked, and they furnish 
pasture for stock during the summer 
season. The eastern and northeast- 
ern portions are heavily forested. 
The forests include many varieties 
of fir, oak, pine, and spruce which 
have a high commercial value. 

Rivers. In Siberia there are three 
very long rivers which rise in the 
central mountains, where the melt- 
ing of the snows furnishes water, and 
flow northward to the Arctic Ocean. 
To the west is the Ob ; next, to the 
east, is the Yenisei ; and farther east 
is the Lena. Their mouths are north 
of the arctic circle, and during the 
winter their lower courses freeze. 



As summer advances, the snows 
anelt in the high mountains to the 
south before the ice has left the 
mouths of the rivers. The waters 
come down the valleys until they 
reach the ice ; there ponds are formed, 
and as the waters rise vast areas 
are flooded. During that time travel 
east and west by land becomes almost 
impossible in northern Siberia. 

These great rivers are used as 
highways of travel in summer and 
winter. During the summer, when 
the streams are all open, it is pos- 
sible to go east or west across 
northern Siberia in boats, using the 
tributaries and certain canals. In 
winter the tx-avelers use sledges. 

The Amur is a large and impor- 
tant river highway in the east, and 
forms the boundary between Siberia 
and Manchuria. 

Cities. The four most important cities in Siberia along 
the route of the Siberian Railroad are Omsk, Tomsk, 
Irkutsk, and Vladivostok. The ending sk on a name 
means that the city or town is on a river of similar 

Fig. 481. The Russian Cathedral at Omsk is the 
center of the religious life of the city. Locate 
Omsk on your map. Why is it important com- 
mercially ? What are the products of the country 
surrounding Omsk ? 

Irkutsk is the chief city in the 
Yenisei Basin and one of the largest 
cities in Siberia. The smelting of 
gold ores has become an imjx)rtant 
industry here. 

Vladivostok, the eastern terminus 
of the Siberian Railroad, is a very 
important city. It has an excellent 
harbor and is protected by a fortress. 
There are flour mills, factories where 
machinery is made, and plants where 
bricks are manufactured. The city 
has a large export and import trade, 
although the harbor is icebound for 
three months of the year. 

Future. The future of Siberia lies 
in developing its wealth of natural 
resources. There are rich beds of 
coal and iron, deposits of gold, and 
extensive tracts of forests that have 
as yet been untouched. Before these 
products can be given to the world, 

more people must go to live in Siberia, and means of 

transportation must be improved. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Describe briefly the physical 
features of Siberia. 2. Where do most of the people live ? 
3. What are the leading occupations ? 4. What resources as yet 
remain undeveloped ? 5. What are the four leading cities ? 

6. Why is Siberia a land of great opportunities ? 7. What does 
it need, to hasten settlement and development ? 8. Name three 
large rivers of Siberia. 9. What use is made of the mountain 
streams when they have become rivers in the lowlands ? 10. What 
products has Siberia for export ? 

Home work. 1. Read an account of a railroad journey across 
Siberia, 2. Find out about the building of the Siberian Kailroad. 

Fig. 482. This is a view in one of the many small villages which are found 

along the southern edge of the taiga. The wooden houses in these villages 

are nearly all alike. The sledge is the common means of transportation 

in the winter. Can you describe the life of the people here ? 

name. Thus Omsk is situated on the Om River, Tomsk 
on the Tom River, and Irkutsk on the Irkut River. 
Omsk is in the center of a wheat-producing district 
and good grazing country. Very naturally, it has be- 
come an important center for dairy products, and the 
farmers bring their butter and cheese here to be sold. 
Omsk is also a junction for the east-and-west traffic on 
the railroad and the north-and-south traffic on the river 
(Fig. 481). Tomsk is in a gold-mining district. It has 
a university and many other excellent institutions. 

Fig. 483. This man is a progressive Siberian farmer of the southern steppes. 

He has purchased an American mowing machine, and by harnessing his pair 

of camels to it he can cut his grain in a much shorter time than he could 

when he mowed by hand. What kinds of grain does he raise ? 



Fig. 484. Shanghai is the largest port of China and a city of a million 
people. This view shows Soochow Creek at Shanghai, with public build- 
ings and factories in the distance. What things are being made in these 
factories ? What are the exports and imports of Shanghai ? 

Fig. 485. This is the government technical institute at Shanghai. It is 

a modern school of the best kind, where the young Chinese students are 

trained to be scientists and engineers. Many of the teachers in this school 

have received part of their education in the United States 


China is entering the industrial and commercial life 
of the world, and with its large population, which gives 
China is one of the countries that the world will watch it wonderful man-power, it is destined to play a very 
with the greatest interest during the next fifty years, important part in the affairs of the world. 

The people belong to the yellow race ; they are patient, 
careful, and very industrious ; they have been very slow 
and unwilling to change their customs, but wonderful 
changes are now taking place in the country. It is a 
land shut in on the west by high mountains and deserts, 
which have prevented easy intercourse with other people 
by land. It is bordered on the east by the Pacific Ocean, 
which until recent times has been a barrier to travel. 
Thus the Chinese people have been 
isolated and have developed a civi- 
lization quite different from that of 
the Europeans, who could easily 
mingle with other peoples. 

In many ways their early civili- 
zation was remarkable. Its records 
go back more than two thousand 
years before Christ was born. They 
invented paper, gunpowder, and the 
art of printing, and learned to make 
and use silk. They were keeping 
historical records before civiliza- 
tion had begun in Europe. Now the 
Chinese are beginning to open up 
their great stores of coal and iron. 
Railways and steamships have been 
built, modern schools and universi- 
ties have been established (Fig. 485), 
and the larger cities begin to look 
like the cities of western Europe 
and North America (Fig. 484). 

Fig. 486. The great Chinese Wall is 1600 miles long 
and was built two hundred years before Christ to 
defend the empire against invaders. Trace this great 
wall on your map. Does it form the northern boundary 
of China to-day ? 

Home work. 1. Compare the size of China with that of the 
United States. Which is the larger ? 2. Look up the lengths of 
the three longest rivers of China. Where do they rank in a list 
of the ten longest rivers of the world ? 

Climate. The lowlands on the east receive rains from 
the southeast monsoon winds dui-ing the northern sum- 
mer. See map on page 256. The summer monsoons are 
warm, and so help to increase the temperature of China 

during the growing season. When 
winter arrives, the winds are fitojn 
the northwest, or interior of the con- 
tinent, where it is very cold in win- 
ter. These winds bring cold weather, 
especially to Manchuria and the 
northern part of the Plain of China. 
The high mountains to the west 
have heavy snowfalls, and the 
melting snows provide water for 
the rivers. The plateau portions of 
China are so shut in by mountains 
that they receive very little rain- 
fall, and they are all deserts or 

Rivers. The Yangtze is the long- 
est river in China (Fig. 490). After 
leaving the mountains, where it 
flows through a deep canyon, it 
crosses the broad lowland plain to 
the East China Sea. " Yangtze " 
is the Chinese word meaning tea. 



The Hwang, or Tellmo, river is 
80 named from the great amount 
of yellow mud that it carries. It 
has been called "China's Sorrow"; 
for when it overflows, thousands of 
people are drowned and vast areas of 
crops are destroyed. In 1887 a great 
flood occurred and a million people 
were drowned. The Amur is another 
very long river. The rivers of China 
brought the fine materials from the 
mountains and made the lowlands. 

For nearly four thousand years 
the rivers were the chief highways 
of travel in China. Even to-day 
there are but few railroads for so 
large and so densely populated a 
country, and the rivers therefore 
continue to be of great importance 
in the domestic, or inland, commerce 
of the nation (Fig. 490). 

Natural resources. The rich soils of the lowlands are 

UDd.rwood k Underwood 

Fig. 487. At this point an opening has been made in 
the ancient wall around Peking, to allow the railroad 
to enter the city. China has more than 6000 miles of 
railroads. Why are they necessary to China's progress? 

Occupations. Where there are so 
many people the great problem is 
to raise enough food, and therefore 
most of the Chinese are farmers 
or gardeners. The farms are very 
small indeed, commonly but three 
or four acres. Millions are engaged 
in raising rice (Fig. 489) ; many 
work on sugar plantations ; others 
raise wheat, tobacco, or hemp ; the 
gathering of tea employs many 
hands, and likewise the care of 
gardens. Rice, wheat, the large and 
small millet, and the soya bean are 
so important to the life of the 
Chinese that they are sacred plants 
and no one may injure them. Millet 
is a coarser grain than wheat and not 
as nourishing. Chinese people raise 
a great many hogs, for those animals 
eat coarse food, which is cheap. 

While agriculture remains the most important of all 
China's greatest natural resource, and it is the industry occupations in China, in the last few years there has 
of the people and their care of the soils that has made been a notable increase in manufacturing, and we may 
it possible for so many people to live in the country for look forward to a great industrial development in the 
centuries. In the south valuable forests cover parts of cities of northern China. 

the mountain area. Unfortunately, large areas of China 
have been stripped of their forests. In those areas much 
of the soil has been washed away, floods have occurred, 
and the lands are of little use. Along the seacoast there 
are several good harbors. 

Cities. Peking is a very ancient city. It was the cap- 
ital of the Kingjlom of China for three thousand years ; 
for over eight hundred years it served as the capital of 
the Chinese Empire ; and now it is the capital of the 
Republic of China. The history of this city reflects the 

China has large supplies of coal and iron. Coal seams history of the nation through a long period of time, 

40 feet thick have been reported. Natural oil, or petro- during which the people have secured more and more 

leum, has been found, and deposits of gold, silver, and freedom. About the city there is a wall sixty feet in 

many other minerals have been located. Mining is certain height. The gates in that wall were formerly locked 

to develop very rapidly in China during the next few years, at night, as was the custom in other walled cities of 

i „ . - - The mule litter is often used for travel 
In China, where good roads are very rare. The 
passenger sits cross-legged under the canopy, and 
tbe little mules trot safely over the narrowest paths 

Fig. 489. This man is plowing his rice fields with 

a rude wooden plow drawn by a water buffalo. 

The fields are flooded during the planting season, 

because rice grows best if planted under water 

Fig. 490. These boats are Chinese freight junks 
sailing down the Yangtze River to Shanghai. What 
products are they carrying ? Why are the Chinese 
rivers of such great importance to the country? 



Kiaochow is a seaport on the east coast of China and 
was formerly a German possession. Japan now holds 
that port and a large part of the neighboring Shantung 
peninsula, but the Japanese have promised to return 
that territory to China. 

Manchuria is a large province in the northern part of 
China. It is a part of the Republic of China but has a 
large degree of independence. The western part of the 
country is dry, and little but grass grows there. The 

Fig. 491. The broad, steep-walled harbor of Hongkong is one of the best in 

the world. It is a British naval base and a great commercial center. What 

do you think is the business of the different boats in the harbor ? Why is 

Hongkong a very valuable British possession ? 

Asia and Europe. The wall about Peking has now been 
broken, and a modern railroad comes into the city 
(Fig. 487). _ 

Tientsin is the port of Peking and the outlet of a large 
part of Manchuria. It is also the northern terminus of the 
Grand Canal. Hankow is the great tea market of China. 
Shanghai, the port of the Yangtze River, is an important 
commercial city (Fig. 484). The increase in foreign trade 
at Shanghai has been due largely to the British. Canton, 
located on the delta of the Si River, is the chief sea- 

£. M. Newman 

Fig. 492. These stone elephants guard the avenue leading to the tombs of 

the kings at Nanking. The stones on their backs have been tossed there by 

passers-by to find out whether their wishes would come true. If the ston» 

stays on the elephant's back, it is a sign of good luck 

eastern portion is well watered and suitable for agri- 
culture ; it has become very prosperous. In the high- 
port of southern China. It is the largest city in China lands rich deposits of gold, copper, and lead have been 
and an important manufacturing center (Fig. 493). found. Many Chinese farmers live in Manchuria, where 

The island of Hongkong (Fig. 491) is a possession of they raise millet, wheat, and beans. Mukden is the capital. 

the British nation. 
Victoria is the cap- 
ital. This little 
island is located 
at the mouth of 
the Si River and 
is about 90 miles 
south of the city 
of Canton. The 
British people who 
live here have 
established mills 
for cotton spin- 
ning and sugar 
refining, and ship- 
building and re- 
pairing are also 
carried on. The 
Chinese silk and 
tea trade is con- 
trolled to a great 
extent by Hong- 
kong merchants. 

£. H. Neinuui 

Fig. 493. The Si River at Canton is crowded with boats of all kinds. Many of the junks serve as 
homes for the poorer Chinese families, especially those whose daily work is connected with the river 
in some way. When the children play on the decks, they are tied with long ropes, and each has a 
strange sort of life-preserver strapped to his back. If he falls overboard, the life-preserver keeps 
his head above water until someone pulls him out by the rope 

Mongolia. West 
of Manchuria is a 
vast territory, not 
very well defined, 
which is known 
as Mongolia. It 
is chiefly a desert 
country, because it 
is surrounded by 
high mountains. 
There are oases at 
the foot of the 
mountains, where 
springs are located 
or where streams 
from the moun- 
tains make it pos- 
sible to irrigate 
the land. Many 
of the people raise 
sheep and horses, 
which they must 
drive from place 



to place to find good pasturage. Urga, the largest town, 
is the holy city of the northern Buddhists. 

Mongolia has been quite independent in its govern- 
ment, and many Russians came into this territory to help 
develop its resources. Recently, however, Mongolia has 
asked for a closer association with the government of 
China proper, and the request has been granted. 

Sinkiang. Just east of the Pamir is a dry region known 
as Eastern Turkestan or Chinese Turkestan. This land 
and some adjoining districts form the Chinese province 
of Sinkiang. This province is so shut in by mountains 
that rain-bringing winds do not reach it. For the same 
reason it is difficult for people to reach this land. The 
little towns are near the base of the mountains, where 
oases are found and water is available. Kashgar and 
Yarkand are two walled cities, each located in an oasis. 

Fig. 494. This woman is tishing with her trained water birds, called cormo- 
rants. At her command they dive, catch the fish, and fly back with them 
to the boat. About each cormorant's neck is a ring or piece of string to keep 
him from swallowing the fish. Why are fish so important to the Chinese ? 

Tibet is a large, semi-independent province of China. 
It includes the highest plateau in the world. Tibet is 
completely surrounded by high mountains, and on the 
south are the magnificent Himalayas (Fig. 4G9). Lassa, 
the capital, is a picturesque city with many beautiful 
temples. The temples are gilded and the roofs of the 
buildings are very commonly red. Lassa is the center of 
the Buddhist religion and is considered a sacred city. 

There is a short, dry summer and a long, cold winter 
in this plateau country, and therefore little use can be 
made of the rich soils. The people raise yaks, sheep, and 
goats. The yak is as important to these people as the 
reindeer is to the people of the tundra, or the camel to 
the people of the desert. It has a thick, woolly coat, and 
the hide is used in various ways, sometimes for clothing, 
sometimes for making tents or utensils. The people use 
the milk of the yak and have trained these animals to 
be beasts of burden. The yak is one of the few animals 
that can work as beasts of burden at great heights. 

Fig. 495. The sacred Temple of Heaven near Peking is a beautiful triple- 
roofed tower standing on the highest of three marble terraces. Once a year 
the emperor used to go to the temple to make a sacrifice to heaven. Since 
China has become a republic the president stiU observes this custom 

Home work. 1. Read Sven Hedin's description of his travels 
in Turkestan and Tibet. Get one of his books from some library. 
2. Look up Peking in some good reference book and learn about 

the Forbidden City. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why should the people of 
the United States be interested in China ? 2. What trade have we 
now with China ? 3. What have you seen that surely came from 
China ? 4. What have you eaten that may have come from China ? 
5. What have you worn or seen other people wear that probably 
came from China? 6. From what American seaports are vessels 
sent to China ? 7. What are the chief seaports of China ? 8. What 
is the capital of the Republic of China ? 9. What is the largest 
city ? 10. What is the British port on the east coast of China ? 

11. What are the 
chief natural re- 
sources of China? 

12. What prevents 
the Chinese from 
migrating into the 
less crowded parts 
of their country ? 

13. What is the 
chief food of the 
poorer people of 
China? 14. Kama 
three large rivers 
of China. 

15. What river 
is called " China's 
Sorrow " ? Why ? 
16. What are the 
occupations of the 
people in the high 
mountains and pla^ 
teaus of western 
China? 17. What 
does China need 
most at present? 

£. U. Newmu 

Fig. 496. These Chinese children spend part of 
each day in school. After school they cannot play 
until they have collected wood enough for the 
family to burn the next day for cooking and boil- 
ing water for their tea 



















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) H. C. White Co. 

Fig. 600. These Japanese laborers are setting out 

young rice shoots in even rows in the mud and water 

of an irrigated field. Here the rice will grow until 

it is ready to harvest 

Climate. The 
spring and au- 
tumn are the 
most desirable 
seasons to make 
a trip through 
Japan. June is 
the wet month, 
and July, Au- 
gust, and the 
first weeks of 
September are 
very hot in the 
lowland areas. 
In general the 
climate of the 
islands is mild 
throughout the 
year. This is 
because Japan is surrounded by a great ocean, and 
weather changes are not so extreme or so sudden as 
in the interior of great land areas. 

Occupations. The population of Japan is very dense, 
and in order to provide food for the people the soil is 
cultivated in a most intensive way. Even the mountain 
slopes are terraced, and walls are built to prevent the 
earth from sliding. The Japanese produce many varieties 
of rice, which is the chief food for most of the people 
(Figs. 500, 501). The tea from Japan is famous (Fig. 502). 
Indigo, cotton, hemp, flax, and tobacco are also raised. 
Very. few animals are kept on the islands, because ani- 
mals use large quantities of food. There are abundant 
fish in the shallow waters around the islands, and fish 
is one of the chief foods of the 
Japanese people. 

Mulberry trees are grown to pro- 
vide food for the silkworms. Japan 
supplies about 30 per cent of the 
total amount of silk raised in the 
world, and more than half of all 
that we receive in the United States 
(Figs. 497, 498, 499). 

The manufacture of paper, matr 
ting, pottery, metal goods, and 
straw braids has long been carried 
on in Japan. The spinning indus- 
try is rapidly becoming H^pre and 
more important. Silk is manufac- 
tured around Tokyo, and large cot- 
ton mills are located at Osaka. 
The raw cotton is imported mostly 
from India and the United States. 

Cities. Tokyo is the capital of the empire, with a 
population of over 2,000,000 (Fig. 504). It is one of the 
foremost cities in the Orient. It has electric cars, modern 
stores, and excellent train service. The beautiful imperial 
palace, the home of the emperor of Japan, is in Tokyo. 
The imperial university is also located in this city, and 
there are numerous parks, temples, and shrines here. 

Fig. fiOl. The Japanese thresh rice by drawing it 
through wooden rakes. The rice grains drop into the 
baskets, leaving the straw in good condition for thatch- 
ing roofs and making hats, baskets, sandals, and mata 

Q) K. M. Newman 

Fig. 602. The tea pickers in Japan are mostly women and girls, who 
work on the hillsides plucking the tender green leaves from the bushes. 
After they are picked, the leaves are wilted over a fire, rolled to squeeze 
out the sap, dried, sorted, and packed for export. Why is tea grown on 
the hillsides in Japan ? 

Yokohama is the port of Tokyo (Fig. 503) and has an 
excellent harbor with protected waters. It is the first port 
reached by trans-Pacific liners from America. In the 
harbor of Yokohama the traveler will see vessels from 
America, China, Australia, India, and Europe. Osaka 
is the largest commercial center and 
one of the most progressive indus- 
trial centers. Its population is over 
1,000,000. The harbor at Osaka is 
poor, and most of the trade of this 
city is carried on through the neigh- 
boring port of Kobe, which has an 
excellent harbor. Nagasaki is an in- 
dustrial center and a very old port, 
where vessels commonly stop to get 
a supply of coal. Kyoto, the former 
capital of Japan, is an important 
manufacturing city and one of the 
chief railway centers. 

There are three densely populated 
areas : the first near Tokyo and 
Yokohama, the second in the vicin- 
ity of Kobe and Osaka, and the third 
near Nagasaki. See map on page 256. 



Chosen (Korea). This part of 
the Japanese empire is chiefly 
an agricultural land, but the 
methods of cultivating the soil 
are backward and primitive. 
Rice, wheat, beans, tobacco, and 
cotton are the more impoi-tant 
crops. In the mountains gold 
mining is carried on, and copper, 
iron, and coal are known to be 
abundant. The means of com- 
munication are poor, and this 
condition is delaying industrial 
development. Keijo (Seoul) is the 
largest city and Fusan, on the 
southern coast, is the chief port. 

The Koreans belong to the 
Mongolian race but form a 
nationality distinct from that 
of the Japanese or Chinese. 

Formosa was ceded to Japan by China in 1895. There 
are dense forests on this island, and some of the forest 
tribes are still uncivilized. Camphor is the chief prod- 
uct, and nearly all the camphor in the world comes from 
this island. On the lowlands bordering the coast the 
inhabitants raise large crops of rice and sugar cane. 

Uiul«rwou<] & Uoderwowl 

Fig. 503. This is a street scene in Yokohama. Notice the curious 

signs over the shops and the jinrikishas which the Japanese 

use for riding about the city. What is the population of 

Yokohama ? Can you explain its commercial importance ? 

as years go on it is likely that 
a larger and larger proportion 
of the Japanese people will be 
engaged in industiial work. 

Problems and review questions. 

1. Why do Japanese young men come 
to our universities for an education ? 

2. What are the chief occupations of 
the Japanese ? 3. What does Japan 
most need ? 4. What industries have 
the Japanese undertaken ? 5. Name 
three important cities. 6. What winds 
bring rain to Japan ? 7. What land 
on the continent of Asia does Japan 
possess ? 8. Where does the emperor 
live ? 9. What cities are leading in- 
dustrial centers ? 


, i.. AL tiemo&a 

Fig. 504. Many of the streets in the i  a ol Tokyo have a very 

modern appearance. The ofSce buildings, stores, electric-car lines, and 
telegraph poles are not unlike those of an American city. Locate Tokyo 
on your map. How does its population compare with that of the largest 
cities in the United States ? 

Future. There is every reason to believe that Japan 
is destined to become one of the world's great industrial The only settle- 
nations. The Japanese people have already proved them- ments are near 
selves very skillful in the industrial arts, and the 
amount of manufacturing increases every year. Power 
is provided by the coal fields, the natural oil, and the 
many streams, some of which are already harnessed to 
produce hydroelectric energy. Agriculture will always yield bamboo and 
be important in such a densely populated country, but other woods. 

Indo-China comprises a group 
of small countries between the 
South China Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The countries 
on the east are under the protection of France. Siam is 
an independent kingdom, and Burma is a part of India 
and so under British rule. 

French Indo-China. In the northern part of French 
Indo-China there are several mountain chains, and the 
rivers which flow southward bring rich soils to the low- 
lands. In the mountains the rainfall is heavy because of 
the monsoon winds of the summer months. Most of the 
people live on the lowlands, where many of them are 
engaged in raising rice, fruit, cotton, and sugar. These 
are just the prod- 
ucts that would 
be expected on a 
warm, moist low- 
land. Coffee and 
tea are the chief 
products raised on 
the higher lands. 
Some fishing is 
carried on in the 
lakes and streams 
of the deltas and 
along the coasts. 

the rivers. These 
villages are shut 
in by dense tropi- 
cal forests which 

© tQ.i«rw<Md « Uodtrwood 

Fig. 605. A Korean house is built by weaving a 

latticework of grass ropes between wooden posts 

and beams, and building against it a wall of stones 

held together by mud plaster 


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4^ I'ubliahera' Photo Serrice, Inc. 

Fig. 507. These are Hindu pilgrims at the ghats, or bathing places, of 

Benares. Many of them have come from distant parts of India, for Benares 

is theii holy city, and every good Hindu must bathe at least once in the 

sacred waters of the Ganges to wash away his sins 


The Indian Empire includes the great peninsula of 
India and those adjacent lands which are directly or in- 
directly under British control. Burma on the east, Balu- 
chistan on the west, and the small state of Sikhim in 
a pass to Tibet are thus parts of India. 

People. There are many British people in India. Most 
of them are government officials or soldiers, but some 
are tradesmen. The king of Great Britain and Ireland 
has the title of " Emperor of India," and he appoints a 
governor-general, or viceroy, of India, who usually serves 
for a term of five years. 

About 70 per cent of the inhabitants of India are 
Hindus (Fig. 50 7), who belong to the white race and follow 
in their religious beliefs the teaching of Brahma. This 
religion teaches the doctrine of caste, or class distinctions. 
Some are born in a high caste, others in a low caste or in 
some intermediate caste. Those who are members of one 
caste cannot associate with members of another caste, or 
class. This doctrine is quite opposed to our belief that 
all men are born free and equal. Brahmanism has helped 
also to keep many superstitions alive among the people. 

Tropical jungles. In the great jungles of India there 
yet remain many tigers, leopards, bears, and elephants. 
There are poisonous snakes here, too, and thousands of 
people and millions of animals die each year from snake 
bites. The cobra, one of the most dangerous snakes in 
the world, is a sacred animal. The native people, because 
of their religion, would not kill an animal, but they like 
to have other people kill this snake. The cow and the 
monkey are also sacred animals in India. 

There are numerous insects in this hot, moist land, and 
they carry disease just as they do in all tropical regions. 

Climate. When the monsoon winds of the summer 
season strike the high Himalaya Mountains, they cause 
heavy rains. Forty inches of rain falling in one day has 
been recorded at one place on the southern slopes of the 
mountains. The rainfall during a year on the southern 
slopes of the Himalaya Mountains measures from 400 to 
500 inches, and in very wet years it has been known to 
reach 600 inches. Such heavy rains mean that in places 
all of the soil is washed from the mountain slopes, leav- 
ing them so bare that nothing can grow there. The 
soils washed from the Himalayas are spread out over 
the lowlands of northern India. 

The heavy rains on the mountain slopes explain the 
large rivers which make it possible to irrigate the rich 
soils of the plains and thus raise food for the millions 
of people who live there. During the summer season 
rains fall on the higher parts of the Plateau of India. 
Before the people of India learned to store the water 
and to irrigate the lands, terrible famines often occurred. 
Famines are not so bad now, because of the reservoirs 
and because more railroads have been built and help 
can be sent to the people. 

The part of India which lies south of the Himalayas 
is never very cold, because its latitude is low and it is 
sheltered from the cold north winds by the mountains. 
It is never so hot, however, as the plateaus of Iran and 
Arabia, because of the sea breezes which always help to 
moderate a climate. Above 7000 feet the climate in 
India is suitable for Europeans and Americans. 

Natural regions. The natural divisions of India are 
very clearly defined. In the north are the bold and 
rugged slopes of the Himalaya Mountains. These are the 
highest mountains in the world, and they rise abruptly 

Fig. 508. The oxcart is a common sight in the streets of Bombay, where 

the humped oxen are used very generally as draft animals because of their 

great strength. Notice the modern public buildings in the background of 

this view. How does Bombay rank in size among the cities of India 7 



from the broad lowland plain of 
northern India. This fertile and 
very densely populated lowland plain 
extends fi'om the base of the Hima- 
laya Mountains southward to the 
Plateau of India, spreading out eastr 
ward to the mountains of Burma 
and westward to the highlands of 

The three great rivers of India — 
the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and 
the Indus — rise in the Plateau of 
Tibet and, after leaving the Hima- 
laya Mountains, cross this lowland 
plain to the sea. 

In the portion of the plain made by 
the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers 
the climate is sufficiently moist to 
permit agriculture, but irrigation is 
practiced to supplement the rainfall. 

(jy PuhljjlirM' Pt.oto btniet, lac. 

Fig. 509. This man is at work at his bench carving 

an elephant out of ivory. The people of India have 

been famous always for their delicate carving and 

exquisite metal work 

The seaward portion of the Plain of the Indus is dry, 
and as great quantities of food cannot be raised there, 
this district is not so densely populated as the Plain (Fig. 509), and others who do beautiful work in embroid- 

of the Ganges, ery and in making fine silk and cotton cloth. Excellent 

articles. Next in importance is the 
pasturing of stock. Forestry also 
furnishes employment to a great 
number of men. Nearly two hun- 
dred and twenty-five million people 
engage in agriculture, stock-raising, 
or forestry. That is more than twice 
the number of people living in the 
United States. 

In plowing and cultivating the 
soil the water buffalo and humped 
cattle are generally used. Elephants 
do the heavy work, much as horses 
do in some countries. Horses are 
used for riding, and cattle are used 
almost entirely as draft animals or 
as beasts of burden. The buffalo is 
the common draft animal in the 
very wet places, but the camel is 
used in the very dry places. 
There are many people in India who have learned the 
decorative arts. There are those who do carving in ivory 

fuLliBliCt*' PbuUi Serii«e, laa> 

The vast Pla- 
teau of India, or 
the Dekkan, as 
it is often called, 
forms the greater 
part of the pen- 
insula of India. 
In some parts of 
this plateau the 
surface is flat, but 

Fig. 510. These elephants, which belong to the 

sacred temple at Kandy, Ceylon, are having their 

afternoon bath. The elephants in India are trained 

by the natives to do many kinds of hard work 

Natural resources. The rich soils 
washed from the highlands by the rivers and spread 
out to make the lowlands are the most valuable of the 
natural resources of India. 

Coal, gold, and petroleum are the three most impor- 
tant mineral resources. There are, however, many other 
minerals in this country. The forests of India are also 
very valuable. 

Occupations. The cultivation of the soil is of first 
importance and occupies the time of most of the people. 
The raising of large quantities of sugar, rice, tea, wheat, 
and cotton makes it possible for so many people to live 
here. Jute fiber made from the jute plant is used in man- 
ufacturing burlap, twine, paper, and many other useful 

carpets are also made in India. The cotton and jute 
mills employ half a million people. Most of the arts 
have been conducted in a very primitive way, but to-day 
machinery is being introduced. 

Cities. Calcutta is the largest city and the most im- 
portant seaport (Fig. 511). Until 1911 it was the capital 
of India, but Delhi is now the capital (Fig. 512). Bombay- 
is a very busy cotton-manufacturing center (Fig. 508). 
The cotton comes from the lowland northwest of the 
Dekkan. Madras, which is located on the eastern side of 

in many places the peninsula, serves as the port for southeastern India. 

it is broken by 

rugged ridges of 

bare rock. 

that have been 

C«urte«j of Wiillaou. Bruwu it Eiitt* 

Fig. 511. This is one of the beautiful parks in Calcutta. In the background 

is the temple, built in the elaborate style which is characteristic of the 

native Indian architecture. Calcutta was formerly the capital of India and 

is noted for its fine buildings. What is the present capital of India? 



D Pubtishers' Photo 15«rTioe, Inc. 

Fig. 512. This is a street in Delhi, the capital of India. In the background 

are the domes and minarets of the famous Jama Masjid Mosque, said to be 

the oldest mosque in the world. In summer the residence of the government 

is moved from Delhi to Simla. Can you explain why ? 

Burma. Burma is a land of narrow valleys and heavily 
forested mountains, with, a population of about twelve 
million people. Far back in the mountains there are un- 
civilized tribes and wild beasts like those in the forests 
and jungles of other parts of India. Teak, rubber, and 
rice, but chiefly rice, are the leading products of Burma, 
and rice is the chief export. The lowlands are hot and 
moist, and near the coast the rainfall is from 100 to 200 
inches a year. See map on page 256. 

Baluchistan. The plateau portion of western India is 
a part of the Plateau of Iran ; it is a stony desert, frozen 
in winter and very hot in summer. There are a few 
oases near the base of the mountains, and each oasis is 
marked by palm ti'ees. Where the land is well watered, 
excellent crops are raised. Large quantities of dates are 
produced and packed for shipment. 

Sheep and goats are cared for by the native people, 
who drive them from place to place in search of grass. 
Both Burma and Baluchistan have prospered under Brit- 
ish rule. Railroads have been built, irrigation works 
improved, and disease and famine checked, and the 
populations have increased. 

Ceylon. The island of Ceylon has a small lowland 
in the north where the climate is tropical, and rice, 
rubber, cacao, and coconut palms are raised. The cen- 
tral and southern parts of the island are occupied by 
a mountainous plateau. On the southwestern slopes of 
the plateau are great tea plantations. The abundant 
rainfall on these slopes is so favorable to the growth of 
the tea that the leaves can be gathered every two weeks. 
The plateau is also rich in minerals and precious stones. 
The chief mineral is graphite, and Ceylon is the leading 
graphite-producing country of the world. Colombo is the 
principal city of Ceylon (Fig. 514). 

Problems and review questions. 1. In what part of India do 
most of the people live ? 2. What are the chief foods ? 3. What 
are the chief products for export ? 4. When is the rainy season ? 
Why does it occur then ? 5. Why are there very heavy rains on 
the south slopes of the Himalaya Mountains ? 

6. In what part of India is it best for Europeans or Americans 
to live ? 7. What are the chief occupations of the people in India ? 
8. Why are there famines in India? 9. How could they be 
avoided ? 10. Name the capital and the leading seaports. 

11. Why is it never very cold in southern India ? 12. What 
have you ever seen that came from India ? 

Home work. 1. Read " Kim," by Rudyard Kipling. 2. Find 
out how sago grows ; how the native people prepare it ; how we 
use it in the United States. 



Nepal is an independent kingdom in the Himalaya 
Mountains, 500 miles long and 150 miles wide. The 
inhabitants are a very busy people. They raise cattle, 
wheat, rice, tobacco, and spices. They export some of 
these products and take in exchange sheep, goats, sugar, 
oils, and manufactured goods. 

Bhutan is another independent state among the 
Himalaya Mountains which is closed to Europeans. It 
has wonderful mountain peaks and glaciers and a great 
variety of vegetation. 

It is very interesting to find in the highest moun- 
tains of the world small groups of people who would 
rather be independent than to belong to a large and 
powerful nation. 

Home work. Find other examples of liberty-loving people 
who have established independent nations in mountain countries. 

Courtea/ of Wiliiftma, Diijwu, & Eulo 

Fig. 513. This is the market place at Quetta in Baluchistan. Quetta is a 

strongly fortified British military station and is connected with the port of 

Karachi by a railroad. Locate Quetta on your map. What things should 

you expect to find on sale in the bazaars of the market place ? 




Most of the islands southeast of the Malay Peninsula 
and north of Australia belong to the Dutch people. 
See map on page 250. 

The islands are mountainous, and most of the moun- 
tains are of volcanic origin. The forests yield rubber 
and spices, and are the homes of very primitive tribes. 
On the narrow lowlands, where it is always warm, the 
people are more civilized ; in many places they grow 
the sago palms from which they get a large proportion 
of their food. People who live on islands naturally be- 
come traders. They are good boatmen, and they love to 
migrate from place to place. It has not been uncommon 
for them to add piracy to their occupations. 

The island of Java is the most advanced in the group. 
The soil is very fertile, and every tropical and temperate 
crop can be grown on the island if land high enough 
above sea level is selected. Coffee and cinchona are the 
most important products, but spices, sugar, rubber, and 
cotton are cultivated. 

The capital of Java is Batavia (Fig. 515). 

It is always hot and moist in this part of the world, 
and Europeans do not enjoy the climate. A few, how- 
ever, must Uve here to direct the native laborers. 

Review questions. 1. What European nations hold possessions 
in the East Indies ? 2. Describe the physical form, or relief, of 
the islands. 3. Describe and explain the climate. 4. What are the 
chief occupations ? 6. What are the chief exports ? 

Home work. 1- Make a list of the common domesticated animals 
of Asia, and indicate what each one is valuable for. 2. Bring 
your pictui'es of Asia to school and plan a picture exhibit. 

tf 1 ^ * ^PH^I 


gn^^. ^^^B^^^^r wN^fl^a^ 

'- -iri^^^is 


- ' ""^^^i>-; ''^^'OiSS 

.^ LiHicOinj.1 ft Un 

Fig. 614. This is the passeogei landing and customhouse at Colombo. 
Beyond is the harbor, which is protected by three great breakwaters. The 
southwest one breaks the force of the waves in the southwest monsoon 
Mason. In what months is this ? What are Ceylon's exports ? Where are 
most of them sent ? What are its imports ? 

Fig. 515. This is a canal in Batavia, the capital of Java. Batavia is the 

great trading center for the Dutch East Indies. Its canals are full of little 

boats laden with the products of the other islands, waiting to be exported. 

What are some of these products ? 


1. What is the most nourishing cereal grown on the steppes ? 
2. What conditions are favorable for raising rice? 3. Where 
is the taiya ? 4. What palm thrives in rainless regions but 
needs water at its roots ? 5. What part of Asia lias conditions 
favorable for raising grapes, olives, and figs ? 

6. Rice, wheat, the large and the small millet, and the soya 
bean are the five sacred plants in what country ? 7. In what 
country are cows, monkeys, and the cobra sacred ? 8. On the 
leaves of what tree are silkworms fed? 9. What country 
produces most of the silk sent to the United States ? 

10. What is the most important animal on the tundras? 
on the richer 8t«ppes? on the poor steppes? in the high 
mountains ? in the desert ? on the high Plateau of Tibet ? 
11. What animal can bear extreme cold ? What one can bear 
extreme height ? What one can bear extreme drought ? 

12. What animals can best bear intense heat? 13. What 
are the two chief occupations of the people of Asia? 14. Ex- 
plain the oases in the deserts. 15. Name and locate five impor- 
tant seaports. 16. Why are there so few large interior cities? 
17. What countries have good industrial prospects ? 

18. What parts of Asia will remain unsettled? Why? 
19. What winds are most helpful to agriculture in Asia? 
Why? 20. Where do the greatest extremes in temperature 
occur ? Why ? 21. Where are the highest mountams in the 
world ? 22. Where is the " Roof of the W^orld " ? 

23. Name and locate five long rivers in Asia. 24. In what 
country is there coal and iron in abundance and plenty of 
cheap labor ? 25. In what countries of Asia are beautiful rugs 
made ? 2G. What European nations have large possessions in 
Asia? 27. What country owns of the East Indies? 

28. Where is nomadic life common? 29. Where are the 
chief settlements in Siberia? 30. Wliat are the chief prod- 
ucts that the United States imports from Asia ? 31. From 
what part of Asia does most of the world's tin come ? 

32. What will be of the greatest help to Asiatic countries 
in their industrial and commercial development? 33. From 
what American ports do vessels start for Asia ? 





The Victorian Highlands extend in an east-and-west 
direction near the southern end of the East AustraUan 
Australia, the smallest of the continents, is part of the Highlands, and just south of the Victorian Highlands is 

British Empire and a land from which we receive large 
quantities of wool, hides, skins, and copper. It is the 
only continent, except uninhabited Antarctica, which is 
entirely within the southern hemisphere. Study each of 
the pictures from Fig. 516 to Fig. 520. 

People. Most of those who have gone to live in 
Australia are English-speaking people, and they have 
discouraged the importation of negroes from Africa and 
of laborers from 
India and China. 
More help is needed 
in order to develop 
the great natural 
resources of the 
country, but the 
white inhabitants 
prefer to develop 
them less rapidly 
and to keep the 
country for those 
who use the same 
language and have 
similar ideals of 
social, industrial, 
and political life. 

In central and 

western Australia 

there are many tribes of native people who live in most 

primitive ways. Their relation to the native peoples of 

New Zealand, of the islands of the Pacific, of Asia, and of 

Africa is not known, but they are usually classed with the 

black race. 

Natural Regions 

Australia is easily divided into a few distinct natural 
regions. See map on page 2.58. 

Fig. 616. Australia raises more sheep than any other country in the world. This view shows a group 

of the famous merino rams which are pastured there. The thoroughbred merinos have the longest, 

finest, and heaviest fleece of any breed of sheep. Such rams as these yield from thirty to forty 

pounds of fine wool each. Why does Australia lead the world in the production of wool ? 

the broad, rich Valley of Victoria. 

The Great Plains, with a general elevation of from 
500 to 1000 feet above sea level, occupy a central posi- 
tion in the eastern half of the continent. Fine materials 
have been washed from the higher lands and spread out 
on these plains, so that now there is a rich alluvial soil 
in this region. 

When white people first came to Australia, they found 

a scanty growth of 
poor grass on the 
plains; but most 
of this land has 
been planted with 
European seed , and 
now a great part 
of the Great Plains 
region is an excel- 
lent pasture land 
(Fig. 516). Over 
this region graze 
flocks of merino 
sheep, which yield 
the finest wool in 
the world. Much of 
this fine wool is 
used in the mills 
of England and 
America. Dairy farming is being rapidly developed in 
the southern portion of these plains (Fig. 517). 

The plains have a native plant, the saltbush, that is 
very valuable in stock-raising. The plant contains so 
much salt that the animals eat it for their salt supply. 
This bush is being introduced into the United States in 
the dry sheep-raising lands of the Southwest. 

In the northern portion of the plains it is possible to 

The East Australian Highlands are made up of a series get water by drilling deep wells. Several wells reach 
of low mountain ranges that are heavily forested. The as far as 5000 feet below the surface, and the waters 
Great Dividing Range, the New England Range, and the secured are used for irrigating the lands. In the southern 

Blue Mountains are included within this highland region. 

The mineral resources and the water-power of this 
region encourage mining and manufactviring, and have 
led to the great industrial development of New South 
"Wales, Queensland, and Victoria. 

Most of the white people of Australia live in this por- 

portion of the plains, which is shut off from the south- 
east rain-bringing winds by the highlands, ii-rigation is 

The South Australian Highlands are low mountains 
from 1000 to 2000 feet high. They are old and worn 
down, and contain, considerable quantities of gold, silver. 

tion of the continent, and it is rapidly becoming more lead, and copper. One of the country's chief seaports, 
and more densely populated. See map on page 265. Adelaide, is on the southern margin of this region. 



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Fig. 521. These Maori girls do not need stoves to cook their food. They 

live on North Island, New Zealand, where there are geysers, hot springs, 

and boiling pools. At any time they can put their pots and kettles over 

the steaming cracks and cook all they wish 

New Guinea. A portion of New Guinea belongs to the 
Commonwealth of Australia. See map on page 260. Like 
most of the islands between Australia and Asia, it is 
mountainous, and the mountains are young and rugged. 
The interior of New Guinea has not been explored on 
foot, but very recently airplanes have been used to assist 
in the examination and mapping of the island. 

Since New Guinea is so near the equator, the climate 
is very hot and the rainfall is heavy. The narrow low- 
lands near the coast, and also the mountain slopes up 
to a height of 6000 feet, are covered with forests. On 
the slopes above the forests there are grasslands. 

The island is rich in minerals, but as yet little mining 
has been done. Plantations of sugar cane and rubber 
trees have been introduced, and the vanilla bean is 
also raised. Such industries are under the direction 
of Europeans, but labor is scarce and it is difficult to 
get work done. 

The western half of New Guinea belongs to the Dutch, 
and the northern part of the eastern half was formerly 
a German possession. It is now under British control. 
The native people of the island, who make up most 
of the population, are Papuans. 

Tasmania is also part of the Commonwealth of Aus- 
tralia. This island is the southern continuation of the 
eastern highlands. It is mountainous, and in the moun- 
tains there are rich deposits of coal, tin, silver, and 
other minerals. Sheep-raising is the chief industry of 
the uplands. In the fertile valleys fruit is raised, and 
Tasmanian apples are famous for their flavor. 

Cities. Sydney, the oldest town in Australia, is the capi- 
tal of New South Wales and its chief seaport (Fig. 520). 
It has an excellent harbor and the supplies of coal and 
iron close by have greatly increased its importance. 

Melbourne is the capital of Victoria and one of the 
principal seaports. This city has become an important 
manufacturing and railroad center. The country about 
Melbom-ne produces the finest merino wool in the world. 
Melbourne is the city from which the great butter 
exports of Australia are sent to New York. 

Brisbane is the capital and chief port of Queensland. 
It is 25 miles from the coast at the head of navigation 
on a small river. This city is near certain of the great 
supplies of coal and gold; railroads on the north and 
south connect it with other important centers. 

Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, is nearer Europe 
than the other eastern capitals and has a large export 
and import trade. 

Perth is the capital of Western Australia and the port 
of export for the gold of the state. 

Government. The Commonwealth of Australia con- 
sists of six states : New South Wales, Victoria, Queens- 
land, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. 
British New Guinea is called the Territory of Papua. 

In the Commonwealth there is a Federal Parliament 
consisting of a Governor-Genefal, who represents the 
king, a Senate, and a House of Representatives. Each 
of the states elects six senators for terms of six years. 
The number of representatives depends, as in the 
United States, upon the population in each state. They 
are chosen for three years. Equal suffrage prevails in 

Problems and review questions. 1. Name the four chief natural 
regions of Australia. 2. What mountains in North America do 
you think may be like the eastern and southern highlands ? 
3. Where did the rich soils of the Great Plains come from ? 

4. Why is most of Australia warm throughout the year? 

5. What breed of sheep furnishes the finest grade of wool? 

6. Of what value is the saltbush ? 7. Why is it dangerous to 
cross a great desert ? 8. Of what empire is Australia a part ? 

Fig. 522. Here is a group of native Maori men in front of one of their 

curious carved houses. They are dressed for a war dance. Fifty years ago 

the Maoris were cannibals, but since the. coming of the English to New 

Zealand they have become civilized citizens of the British Empire 




New Zealand consists of North Island, South Island, 
and Stewart Island. Together with a number of the 
smaller islands in the Pacific Ocean, they form a Brit- 
ish possession known as the Dominion of New Zealand. 
Most of the inhabitants are English-speaking people. 

Physical features. The islands are mountainous, with 
small lowland areas in a few places near the coast. In 
North Island many of the mountains are active or ex- 
tinct volcanoes, and in that region there are geysers 
and hot springs like those in Iceland and Yellowstone 
National Park (Fig. 521). In South Island are the 
beautiful Southern Alps, which rise to a height of over 
12,000 feet. There the scenery is magnificent. There 
are waterfalls and swift mountain streams with rapids. 
On the western coast are long, winding fiords as beau- 
tiful and remarkable as many of the fiords of Norway ; 
these fiords were once filled with glaciers. 

Climate. Since the mountains are so high and these 
islands are in the belt of the prevailing westerly winds, the brown-skinned people (Fig. 522), came to New Zealand 

Fig. 524. Auckland is one of the leading seaports of New Zealand. Like 

Sydney it has an excellent harbor, and the largest ships can anchor at its 

wharves. With what countries does New Zealand chiefly trade ? Can you 

find any points of likeness between New Zealand and the British Isles ? 

rains fall chiefly on the western slope. When the winds 
descend on the east, they tend to dry up the country, 
though not enough to make it a desert. This is another 
case of a mountain range with a wet windward slope 
and a dry leeward side. At the weather station of New 
Zealand which reports the least rainfall there is usually 
about 23 inches in the year, while in the mountain areas 
the rainfall amounts to as much as 200 inches during 
some years. 

in great canoes. They probably came from other islands 
in the Pacific Ocean, and finding no other inhabitants 
they decided to stay. Many of the natives have now be- 
come civilized and are well educated. They are allowed 
a representative in the government. 

Pasture lands. New Zealand is a pasture land. When 
you look at the map (p. 260), notice that some product 
from the sheep is being exported from each of the large 
seaports. The sheep have no natural enemies on these 

Except in the high mountains the temperature in islands, and it is not necessary to have the flocks watched 

New Zealand is mild and without great changes from 
summer to winter. 

Native people. Hundreds of years ago a group of 
people, known as the Maoris, who were tall, handsome, 

Fig. 523. New Zealand is especially well fitted for the raising of cereals, and there is not one 

variety which will not grow in some part of the islands. This is a harvest scene on South 

Island. New Zealand cannot compete with Canada, the United States, Argentina, or Russia in 

supplying the European grain market. Can you explain why ? 

day and night, as in our western mountains, where there 
are bears, mountain lions, and coyotes. 

The eastern side of the islands was overgrown by 
coarse, wiry native grasses, but little by little the British 
people who have settled there have 
plowed up the land and sown the seeds 
of better grasses. 
^ Cities. The chief cities are Auckland 
■J/^^M and Wellington, which have the best 
^^H harbors. Auckland is the largest city 
" (Fig. 524), but Wellington is the seat 
of government. Both are u{>to-date 
cities with all modem conveniences. 
Christchurch, on South Island, is the 
third city in size. 

The outlook. Gold, coal, and some 
silver have been found in the moun- 
tains, but as yet mining is not much 
developed. Some day, when there 
are more people living in New Zea- 
land, manufacturing industries will 



Fig. 526. North of Australia, in the tropical seas, are hundreds of volcanic 
islands. This is Gunong Api, which means "fire mountain." It is an 
active volcano, rising straight out of the sea as an almost perfect cone. 
During the last three centuries Api has erupted many times, causing 
terrible destruction 

undoubtedly be developed . Most of the people live near the 
coast, and with their available water-power, and with good 
supplies of coal, timber, wool, and hides, electrical plants 
and such industries as shipbuilding and the manufacture 
of woolen and leather goods may easily be developed. 


We have considered the Aleutian, Hawaiian, Japa- 
nese, and Philippine Islands, the Dutch East Indies, New 
Zealand, and many other islands in the Pacific, and still 
there are hundreds of islands in this ocean that we have 
not mentioned. Most of them are the forested tops of 
volcanic peaks (Fig. 525). Many are surrounded by fring- 
ing or barrier reefs built by corals (Fig. 526), and some 
have been made entirely by corals. A fringing reef is 

built at the coast line, but a barrier reef is far enough 
out to sea to leave a lagoon between the mainland and 
the coral reef. See map opjyosite page 265. Some of the 
islands that are made entirely of coral are circular in 
form, and in the center of the cii'cle there is a lagoon of 
shallow water. Such coral islands are called atolls. 

The volcanic islands have the richer soils, and sugar 
and tropical fruits are raised there. The coconut palm 
is abundant on these islands and is very widespread, for 
the coconut, when washed into the sea, will float for a 
long time and may drift to some distant island and 
there start a new tree. 

Most of the natives of these islands belong to the 
brown race. They are good fishermen and clever sailors. 
Of late years many Chinese and Japanese have gone to 
the small islands of the Pacific to work on plantations. 

Great Britain, France, Japan, and the United States 
are the countries chiefly interested in these islands. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Of what nation is New 
Zealand a part ? 2. What prevailing winds come to these islands ? 
3. In what part of New Zealand is the rainfall greatest ? 4. In 
what part of New Zealand is the rainfall least ? 6. What is the 
chief occupation of the people ? 6. What are the chief exports ? 
7. How far is New Zealand from Australia ? 

8. What three countries in the world have geysers ? 9. Ex- 
plain the presence of glaciers in New Zealand. 10. What resources 
in these islands encourage settlers to go there ? 11. Why is 
New Zealand a good country in which to raise sheep ? 12. What 
industry may be develoi^ed ? 

13. Name the two largest cities of New Zealand. 14. What is 
the explanation of many of the small islands in the Pacific Ocean ? 
15. Why are coconut palms abundant on these islands ? 16. Of what 
value are the island possessions to the great nations of the world ? 

Fig. 626. This island is the top of an old volcanic peak. It is partly 
forested, but here and there the bare volcanic rock stands out in steep cliSs. 
The slopes of the volcano have been cut away by the waves, leaving the 
top resting on a platform covered by shallow water. The steep sides of 

the volcano drop abruptly to the depths of the ocean. On the outer rim of 
the platform the corals have built a fringing reef, which is broken only 
in one place (at the left). This is the only passage by which ships may 
enter the lagoon and reach the small village which is on the inner island 



PW;uitai)ti bj DuualJ MaoMUl^i 

l1 Hisn^rj 

Counesj til i,<i 

Fig. 527. This is a picture of the MacMillan exploring party on the ice near 
Etah, Greenland. Locate Etah on the map on the opposite page. Trace Mac- 
Millan's route of exploration. Can you describe the type of country which 
he found in crossing Ellesmere Island ? Why did he travel by dog team ? 

Fig. S28. This picture shows Amundsen, the discoverer of the south pole, 
on the ice in Ross Sea. When did Amundsen reach the south pole ? How 
long was that after Peary discovered the north pole ? If explorers were 
planning to visit Ross Sea, from what port would they probably sail? 



At the north pole there is a shallow ocean, and the 
water becomes so cold that in winter it is frozen over. 
Salt water does not freeze at 32 degrees Fahrenheit, but 
there the temperature of the ocean waters falls to 30 or 
even to 29 degrees and then freezes. 

During the summer the ice is broken into great cakes 
that float about, and when these floating masses strike 
against each other, the ice is crushed and piled up in ridges 
ten, twenty, and even fifty feet high (Fig. 527). 


1. Through what countries does the arctic circle pass? 
2. What ocean is witliin that circle ? 3. Name four of the 
larger islands in the north polar region. 4. Name a large river 
that empties into the Arctic Ocean and there forms a delta. 

5. Through what body of water may a vessel pass from the 
Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean ? 6. This map represents 
summer conditions. How diiferent should a winter map 
appear? 7. In what countries bordering the Arctic Ocean 
are there tundras ? 

8. About how far is it in miles from the arctic circle to the 
north pole ? 9. How far is it from the north shore of Grant 
Land to the north pole? 10. When and by whom was the 
north pole first reached? 11. Name five men who have led 
exploring expeditions into the arctic zone. 

12. What explorer left Norway, followed the north coast 
of Russia and Siberia, and from New Siberia started north- 
ward but failed to reach the pole? 13. What explorer left 
Norway and followed the north coast of Russia and Siberia and 
then passed through Bering Strait into the Pacific Ocean ? 

14. The northernmost permanent settlement in the world 
is shown. It is an eskimo settlement. Give its latitude. 


At the south pole there is a continent larger than 
Australia and. nearly as large as South America. Most 
of this great land mass is covered with ice, as the north- 
em part of North America and the northwestern part of 
Europe were during the Glacial Period. 

The Antarctic ice-sheet moves slowly toward the sea, 
and there large blocks of ice break off and float away. 

The north pole is at sea level, but at the south pole 
the elevation is 10,500 feet above the sea. 


1. Compare the scale of this map with that of the north 
polar region. 2. About how far is it in miles from the antartic 
circle to the south pole? 3. What other continent comes 
nearest to Antarctica? 

4. How far is it in miles from Cape Horn to Graham Land ? 
5. How far is it from Cape Horn to the south pole ? 6. What 
ocean surrounds Antarctica ? 7. What is the greatest diameter 
of the ice-sheet which covers this southern continent ? 

8. If one edge of that ice-sheet were placed in New York 
City, how far west would that mass of ice extend ? 9. Who 
located the south magnetic pole in 1912 ? He found it in a 
different place from where it was in 1909. Both the north 
and south magnetic poles change position from time to time. 

10. What two famous explorers reached the south pole? 
11. This map represents summer conditions. How different 
should a winter map appear ? 12. There are no people living 
on the continent of Antarctica. 

13. The southernmost city in the world is shown. Give its 
name and latitude. How much farther is it from the south 
pole than Etah is from the north pole? 14. Contrast the 
conditions at the north and south poles. 


Water less than Floating ice Glacial ice Tundra Grasslands Temperate forests Semideserts Deserts and barren 

500 feet deep mountain slopes 

©Giliti Hiid i. otulwiiy 


"We have studied all the great continents of the world, native people living in Mexico and Peru who gained some 
and this has required some study of each of the oceans, knowledge of both North and South America. Among the 

Little by little our information re- 
garding the earth has increased. 
The time has come for us to consider 
some larger questions. We may now 
see how widely geographic conditions 
have influenced the life and occupa- 
tions of the people. 

The most interesting way to ap- 
proach the study of the earth as a 
whole is through the history of the 
ideas which people have had regard- 
ing the earth. 

Early ideas of the world. The peo- 
ples who developed the remarkable 
civilizations about the shores of the 
eastern Mediterranean long before 
the birth of Christ knew little about distant lands. Many 
thought the earth was flat, and that if one traveled far 
enough he would find a great flowing stream called the 

Fig. 529. The early Hindus represented the earth 
as a hemisphere upheld by four elephants standing 
on the back of an immense tortoise. The tortoise 
was said to be floating on the surface of a univer- 
sal sea, and the elephants were symbolical of 
the four winds 

Pacific islands the more adventurous 

tribes found theu' way from one group 

of islands to another. The nations of 

western Europe sent out expeditions 

which were remarkably successful, 

and the people from those nations 

have come to control most of the 

lands in the temperate zones, except 

that portion which is in eastern Asia. 

The journeys of Marco Polo in Asia, 

and of the Arabs who followed the 

shores of the Indian Ocean, aroused a 

new interest in geography ; and when 

the caravan routes to the East were 

closed by the Turks (p. 17G), and 

European merchants were deprived 

of the goods brought overland, the desire for a new 

route to India became intense. In 1492 Columbus made 

his famous voyage, in the belief that India could be 

ocean. They believed the ocean encircled the earth, and reached by sailing westward from Spain. When Colum- 

that if one went beyond its edge he would fall off. 
small inset maps on Plate A in Appendix. 

The celebrated Greeks Homer, Herod- 
otus, and Aristotle, and, later, Ptolemy 
the Egyptian, became very much inter- 
ested in the shape and size of the earth. 
The astronomers of those early times 
reasoned, quite correctly, that since the 
North Star appears to rise when one 
travels northward, and to fall if one goes 
to the south, the earth must have a curved 
surface. A degree of latitude was measured 
on the earth's surface. Ptolemy, who 
believed that the earth was spherical, fig- 
ured out what he thouglit its size must be. 
Most people were unwilling, however, to 
believe that the earth was round, and 
hundreds of years passed before its true 
shape was known. 

Early geographic explorations. The de- 
sire to open up trade with people in 
other lands led to many exploring expe- 
ditions. In the Far East were the Chinese 
and Japanese, whose explorers pushed 
westward into Asia and, eastward along 
the islands in the north Pacific toward 
America. There were very intelligent 

See bus set sail, 

Fig. 630. This is Marco Polo's map 
of the earth. Notice that the east 
(Oriens) is at the top of the map and 
the west (Occidens) is at the bottom. 
Notice also that Europe, Asia, and 
Africa (the known world of Marco 
Polo's time) are represented as form- 
ing one continent in the northern 
hemisphere, and that the southern 
hemisphere was supposed to contain 
another world (alter orbis) or (seu) 
Antichtonia. The name"Antichtonia" 
comes from two Greek words meaning 
an opposite world 

few people believed that the earth was 
round, and, indeed, this belief did not 
become general until Magellan had made 
his voyage around the earth. 

It should be remembered that several 
hundred years before Columbus was bom, 
Eric the Red, a daring Norseman, had 
sailed westward to Iceland, and later had 
reached Greenland and points on the 
continent of North America. The rest of 
the world, however, knew nothing of his 
voyages until centuries later, and the 
discoveries of the Norseman therefore 
had little influence on later exploration. 

Home work. Eead an account of Marco Polo's 
journey through central Asia. 

Later explorations. After Columbus's 
voyage, further discoveries followed fast. 
The Portuguese, Spanish, English, and 
French all sent out expeditions. The main 
outHnes of the continents soon came to be 
known, and the settlement of the Western 
Hemisphere progressed rapidly. In the 
middle and latter part of the last century 
Stanley and Livingstone undertook the 
exploration of the interior of Africa, 



which, being unknown, was so long called the Dark Early explanation of days and nights. When it was 
Continent, and Nordenskjold sailed from the Atlantic to believed that the earth was flat, some explanation had 
the Pacific Ocean along the north coast of Europe and to be given for the sun's rising and setting each da3^ 
Asia. Later Nansen followed the Nordenskjold route as Among the ancient Roman myths is the story of Phoebus 

Apollo, who each morning brought the 
golden chariot of the sun around to 
the east, and carefully guided his fiery 
steeds across the skies during the day. 
There are many other myths or legends 
to explain the coming of the day. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Have you 

ever noticed anything that made you believe 
that the earth's surface is curved ? 2. What 
objection is there to believing that it is 
flat ? 3. Why did men start o£E on exploring 
expeditions ? 

4. Who were some of the early explorers ? 
Where did they go ? 5. What nations were 
especially active in exploring the distant 
parts of the world ? 6. About how long is 
the diameter of the earth ? 7. What is the 
circumference at the equator ? 

8. What means have we in this country 

for determining the direction north on a 

clear night ? What means may be used 

during the day ? 9. How would the position 

of the North Star appear to change if one traveled from the 

equator to the north pole ? 10. What seems to be the simplest 

explanation of the rising and setting of the sun each day? 

11. What is the highest temperature shown on the maps, 

Figs. 531 and 532 ? What is that temperature in Fahrenheit and 

in centigrade degrees ? 

12. What is the lowest temperature shown on these maps ? 
What is it in Fahrenheit and in centigrade degrees ? 12. If the 
degree marks were erased from your thermometer, how could you 
fix and mark accurately the freezing and boiling points again ? 

Kg. 631. The heavy lines with figures near them connect places where the average temperatures 

are the same in January. Where are the hottest places ? Is the belt where the temperature is 

80° F. or above mostly north or south of the equator ? Why ? Why do the temperature lines curve 

northward west of Europe and west of South America ? See also ocean map on page 275 

far as New Siberia and then turned northward and tried to 
reach the north pole, but failed. More recently the remark- 
able journeys of Peary, Amundsen, and Scott in the polar 
regions have been made. See maps opposite page 2GG. 

Shape and size of the earth. We now know that the 
diameter of the earth is nearly 8000 miles and that 
the circumference at the equator is about 25,000 miles. 
The way a ship disappears below the horizon at sea 
proves that the earth has a curved surface, and the 
shadow of the earth on the moon is 
always part of a circle and proves that 
the earth must be spherical. 

The earth is not a perfect sphere, 
for in the polar regions the surface 
is somewhat flattened. The distance 
through the earth from pole to pole 
is 27 miles less than it is through the 
earth at the equator. 

Directions. Early explorers knew that 
they could determine the directions at 
night, in the northern hemisphere, by 
an observation of the North Star. Dur- 
ing the day they could tell what direc- 
tion was north by the shadow of the 
sun at noon. Later they learned to use 
the compass. Sea captains and all ex- 
plorers and surveyors must understand 
the reading of a compass perfectly. 

' 110' 160' 180' lliO' 111)* 12(1' 11)0' 80' 00' 40° au° 0' 20' <0° 60' 80° 100' 120' 110* 

120° 140° 160' 180° 160* 140* 120' 100* SO' 60° 40' 

0° 20° 40° 60° SO' 100° 120° 140° 

Fig. 532. The temperature lines on this map and on the map in Fig. S31 are called isotherms. This 

map gives the average July temperatures. Where are the hottest places ? Is the belt where the 

temperature is 80° F. or over mostly north or south of the equator ? Why has this belt shifted from 

where it was in January ? Why have the centers of greatest heat shifted ? 











Rotation of the earth. We how know that the earth is 
round and is turning on its axis, and so we have a very 
different explanation of days and nights. Hundreds of 
years passed before anyone proved that the earth turned 
on its axis. The fact that the earth moves at all has 
been one of the hardest things for men to believe. Noth- 
ing seems so natural as to think that the earth stands 
still and that other heavenly bodies do the moving. 

Galileo, who was a wonderful scientist, dropjjed weights 
from near the top of the leaning tower of Pisa in Italy. 
He knew that if the earth stood still, the object dropped 
would follow the plumb line directly toward the center 
of the earth. He found, however, after 
many experiments, that the objects he 
dropped struck the earth east of the point 
where the plumb line met the earth. 

This proved not only that the earth was 
rotating, but that it rotated from west to 
east, for it could not have happened unless 
the top of the building had moved forward, 
or eastward, faster than its base, just as 
the rim end of a spoke in a moving wheel 
moves faster than the hub end. The weight, 
while falling, had kept its forward motion 
as a person does in stepping from a mov- 

I I Revolution and inclined axis. Much later 

came the discovery that while the earth 
is rotating on its axis every twenty-four 
hours, it is going on a long journey around 
the sun (Fig. 538). This takes a year to 
accomplish. It was also discovered that 
the axis of the earth, the imaginary line 
on which it rotates, is not vertical but is 
tipped 23i degrees to the plane of its orbit (Fig. 539). The 
orbit of the earth is its path around the sun (Fig. 538). 
The amount of inclination of the axis is shown by the 
fact that on one day of the year, June 21, the rays 
of the sun go 23| degrees beyond the north pole and 
fall 23^ degrees short of the south pole. The positions 
of the arctic and antarctic circles are thus fixed. At that 
time the vertical rays of the sun strike 23| degrees north 
of the equator (Fig. 538). This fixes the position of the 
tropic of Cancer. On December 21, when the north pole 
is turned away from the sun, the vertical rays strike 
23^ degrees south of the equator. This fixes the posi- 
tion of the tropic of Capricorn. At that time the i-ays 
of the sun go 23 J degrees beyond the south pole and 
fall 23 i degrees short of reaching the north pole. 

Home work. Make a series of diagrams showing where the rays 
of the sun strike the earth vertically on June 21, December 21, 
September 21, and March 21. 


Fig. 534. Xbe circles drawn on a globe parallel 
to the equator are called parallels. All the- 
places on any one parallel are the same dis- 
tance from the equator, or in the same latitud» 

Fig. 533. What 
are the freez- 
ing and boiling 
points on the 
centigrade and 
Fahrenheit ther- 
mometers ? 

Latitude and longitude. Lines are drawn parallel to 
the equator on globes and on maps representing the 
earth, to show the „.„^ 


degrees of latitude, 
or distance north and 
south of the equator 
(Fig. 534). Distance 
east or west on the 
earth is called longi- 
tude, and a number 
of half circles drawn 
from pole to pole and 
called meridians are 
used in measuring 
it (Fig. 535). 

people usually begin 
to count degrees of 
longitude from the 
meridian that passes 

through Greenwich, England. Greenwich is just out- 
side of London and is the site of a famous observatory 
(Fig. 330). If we call the meridian that passes through 
Greenwich the prime meridian, and number it 0, we 
can count 180 degrees east or west of Greenwich. See: 
Aiypendix, Plate A. 

Longitude and time. Each place on the earth in mak- 
ing one rotation passes through 3G0 degrees of longitude. 
Since we make one rotation in twenty-four hours, we 
pass through 15 degrees of longitude in one hour. 

When the meridian on which we live passes under the 
sun, it is noon for us, and for people living 15 degrees 
west of us it is 11 a.m. One hour later their meridian 
will pass under the sun, and it will then be noon for them 
and 1 P.M. for us. Each 15 degrees of longitude betweerk 
places on the earth means one hour's difference in time. 

The people east of 
us see the sun before 
we do ; therefore their 
time is later than ours. 
The time in the eastr 
em part of the United 
States is always sev- 
eral hours later than 
that in the western 
part. When the armis- 
tice which stopped the 
figliting in the great 
World War went into Fig. 535. ah places on any of the north- 
effect at 11 a.m. VjV and-south lines have midday at the same 
T-t • . . •. 1 time. These lines are therefore called 

Pans time. It was only „^y^„,_ ^^^^^ „,,„, „,y^^^ ,^„ ^ati- 

6 A.M. in W ashington. tude and longitude are measured in degrees. 



l:'iiutugr&pli bj Donald MkuMiilaa 

Courtesj of tlie Aui 

a ul >uturat Uisturj 

Fig. 536. This is an unusual photograph of the midnight sun, taken near 
Etah, Greenland, in the month of July. The photographer exposed the 
plate every twenty minutes from 11 p.m. to 1.20 a.m., thus showing the 
path of the sun in the arctic region during the season when it is above 
the horizon night and day. Which view of the sun shows true north? 

Problems and review questions. 1. Do you believe that the earth 
turns on its axis ? Why ? How long does it take to make one ro- 
tation ? 2. Why, at a given moment, is it later at Washington, D. C, 
than at San Francisco ? 

3. About how much difference in time is there between Paris 
and the city of Washington ? 4. How do we know that the earth 
rotates from west to east on its axis ? 5. How long does it take 
the earth to revolve about the sun ? 

Zones of latitude. Between the tropic of Cancer and 
the tropic of Capricorn is the torrid zone, extending 
23 1 degrees north and south of the equator. North and 
south of that zone are the temperate zones, and around 
the poles are the north and south frigid zones. 

Seasons and length of day and night. If the axis of 
the earth were upright, there would always be twelve 
hours of day and twelve hours of night everywhere on 
the earth except at the poles, where the sun would 
always appear at the horizon. Since the axis of the 
earth is inclined and the north pole is turned slightly 
toward the sun during a part of the year and away 
from it during another part (Fig. 538), the day and 
night are not of equal length in any place except at 
the equator. During the northern summer, when the 
sun's rays strike vertically north of the equator, the 
days are longer than the nights in the northern hemi- 
sphere. At that time the southern hemisphere is having 
winter, with short days and long nights. When winter 
comes to the northern hemisphere, the nights are longer 
than the days, while in the southern hemisphere the 
people are having summer, with long days and short 
nights (Fig. 538). 

On the arctic circle there is a short period of each 
summer when the sun stays above the horizon for twenty- 
four hours. Those who live still nearer the north pole 
may see the sun above the horizon day and night for 
weeks or even months, and at the pole itself the sun 
stays above the horizon for six months. The same gen- 
eral facts hold for the region about the south pole dur- 
ing the southern summer. When winter comes within 
the arctic or antarctic circle, the days become shorter and 
shorter, and for a time the sun does not rise above the 
horizon. When the nights are long in one polar region, 
they are short in the other. The winter seasons in the 
frigid zones are so long and so severe that living condi- 
tions become very difficult. 

Throughout the torrid zone the day and night do not 
differ much in length, and at the equator the day and 
night are always equal in length. This is because just 
half of the equator is in darkness all the time. The tem- 
perature in the torrid zone does not change much from 
season to season, and the hot, moist climate of that 
zone is weakening to all people. 

In the temperate zones a few hours mark the differ- 
ence between the length of the winter day and the length 
of the summer day. As the days in the north temperate 
zone become shorter those of the south temperate zone 
become longer. The changes in seasonal temperature 
are not so marked as they are in the Far North or in the 
Far South, but there is sufficient change to give great 
variety to the climate. That variety has been very bene- 
ficial in the development of civilized people ; it has led 
them to build good homes and to store up food, clothing, 
and fuel for the winter. They have found it necessary 
to look ahead and provide for the cold season. 

Angle of the sun's rays. The higher the sun is above 
the horizon, the more nearly vertical are the rays of heat 
and light. Oblique rays of heat must pass through more 
atmosphere, which takes out some heat, and they also 
spread over more surface than vertical rays (Fig. 537). 
Since a bundle of 
vertical rays warms 
a smaller area of 
the earth than an 
equal bundle of ob- 
lique rays, it warms 
that area more. 
This is one reason 
why the summer, 
when the sun's rays 
are nearly vertical Fig. 637. Two equal bundles of the snn'E rays 
overhead is much ^'^ ^^^^ shown striking different parts of the 
, , , . earth's surface. As many rays strike over the \ 

warmer than tne ,jjjg g ^g ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ where win the tem- 

winter season. perature be the higher, over A or over B ? Why? 



Problems and review questions. 1 Between what circles is the 
torrid zone ? 2. What circles limit the temperate zones ? 3. Where 
are the frigid zones ? 4. Why are the days longer in summer 
than in winter at points north or south of the equator ? 5. Where 
are the day and night always equal in length ? 

6. Describe the different seasons in the north polar region. 
7. Why is it warm at sea level in the tropics throughout tlie 
year ? 8. What difference have you observed in the temperature 
when the sun is high above the horizon and when it is low ? 
9. Durnig what month at your home is the sun highest at noon ? 
During what month is it lowest ? 

Home work. 1. IMake a diagram with the axis of the earth 
upright. 2. How would that position affect the length of day and 
night ? 3. Where would the rays of the sun strike the earth verti- 
cally all the time ? How would such a 
position of the axis affect the seasons ? 

Winds of the world. Often, in 
our study of the different coun- 
tries of the world, we have re- 
ferred to the prevailing westerly 
winds in both northern and south- 
ern hemispheres, and we have 
referred to the northeast and 
southeast trades. These great 
wind belts extend around the 
earth (Fig. 539). Where the air is 
greatly heated, as in the equato- 
rial region (Fig. 539), it expands 
and rises. In that region there 
are few winds, and it is therefore 
known as the belt of equatorial 
calms. When air rises slowly, we 
are not conscious of any motion. 
The air on either side of the 
equator in the trade-wind belts 
moves in toward the equatorial calm belt and then begins 
to rise, helping to force the air in the calm belt upward. 

The other two calm belts, one about 30 degrees north 
of the equator and the other about 30 degrees south of 
the equator, where the air descends (Fig. 539), are known 
as the horse latitudes. From these belts of calms the 
trade winds start toward the equator, and the westerlies 
start toward the poles. 

Monsoons. In connection with the study of Asia, 
Australia, and some of the islands of the Pacific, special 
mention was made of monsoon winds, and on page 234 
they were explained. 

Land and sea breezes. About the shores of all the con- 
tinents and islands there are land and sea breezes. Dur- 
ing the day, when the land becomes warm, the colder 
air over the water flows inland, making what is known 
as a sea breeze. At night, when the air over the land 

known as a land breeze. In each case the colder and 
thus heavier air moves in under the warmer and 
lighter air and forces the warmer air to rise. 

Uses of the winds. The winds are of very great im- 
portance to man. They are carriers of rain ; they help 
to equalize the temperature of places near the shore ; 
they hasten evaporation and dry the land after a rain. 
Wind power is now utilized to some extent, and it may 
be used more fully when new devices are invented for 
storing up the energy as electricity. The winds have 
a most beneficial effect in purifying the air, and have 
always been of the greatest significance in navigation. 

Problems and review questions. 

1. Where are the calm belts ? ^Vhat 
are they called ? 2. What winds blow 
from the horse latitudes toward the 
equator ? 3. In what parts of the 
world do the prevailing winds come 
from the west ? See Fig. 539. 4. Ex- 
plain land and sea breezes. 5. How 
do the winds help in commerce ? 6. In 
what other ways are the winds helpful 
to the activities of man ? 

Ocean currents. The prevailing 
winds of the world set the sur- 
face waters of the seas in motion. 
The trade winds on either side 
of the equator blow the waters 
on the surface toward the equa- 
tor and in a westward direction. 
See maji on page 275. 

In the Atlantic Ocean the 
equatorial stream flowing westr 
ward reaches Cape St. Roque 
and divides. The northern part flows through the Carib- 
bean Sea, and some of it follows the shore of the Gulf of 
Mexico. The surface water that leaves the Gulf through 
the Florida Strait and starts northeastward is called the 
Gulf Stream. As it crosses the north Atlantic Ocean, 
helped along by the prevailing westerly winds, it spreads 
out, moves more slowly, and is called the Gulf Stream 
Drift. When this current approaches Europe, its waters 
divide ; some flow to the northeast by Scandinavia, and 
some turn southward and rejoin the equatorial current. 
The part of the Equatorial Current that flows south 
from Cape St. Roque is known as the Brazil Current. 
When it reaches the belt of the westerlies in the south- 
em hemisphere, it turns eastward, but a part of the water 
circles northward along the west coast of Africa as the 
Benguela Current and joins the equatorial current again. 
In both the north and south Atlantic, therefore, there are 
cools more rapidly than the air over the sea, the wind great circling masses of water called eddies. In one the 
is reversed. It moves from the land to the sea and is motion is clockwise and in the other counterclockwise. 

Fig. 839. Which way does the air move in the belt of equa- 
torial calms ? in the calms of the horse latitudes ? Does 
the upper air over the trade winds move toward the poles or 
the equator ? Those upper air currents are called antitrades 



"Waters that flow from the equator toward the poles 
are warm currents, because they carry warm waters 
iucO regions where the water is cold. The waters that 
flow from the polar regions toward the equator are 
cold currents. When the Gulf Stream flows northward 
into the arctic regions, it must return by such ways as it 
can find. Some comes back as the Greenland Current, some 
as the Labrador Cvurent, and some through Bering Strait. 

In the Pacific Ocean there is an Equatorial Current 
which flows westward and divides when it reaches the 
islands between Asia and Australia. The part which 
taras north we call the Japan Current, or the Kuro 
Siwo. It crosses the Pacific to the northeast with the 
prevailing westerlies, and 
divides when it reaches 
North America. The south- 
em part follows the coast 
of California and is known 
as the California Current. 
The northern part is known 
as the Alaska Current. 

The'portion of the Pacific 
Equatorial Current which 
turns southward and flows 
between New Zealand and 
Australia is known as the 
East Australian Current. 
When it reaches the belt 
of the westerlies, it turns 
eastward, and these winds 
help it along. As this 
current approaches South 
America part of it turns northward and is known as 
the Peru Current, which in time joins the Equatorial 
Current and thus completes the South Pacific eddy. 

During the days of sailing vessels the ocean currents 
were of very great importance in commerce. The cap- 
tains chose to travel with the currents, and thus had the 
advantage of moving with the winds and the water. 

The traders in the north Atlantic during the early 
colonial days would start out from New England with 
their cargoes and sail for England. From there they 
would coast southward by France, Spain, Portugal, and 
the Canary Islands, stopping perhaps in Africa, and on 
their return westward they would head for the islands 
of the West Indies. There they might exchange some 
of their cargoes and secure additional articles for trade 
with the Atlantic coast colonies when they returned. 

The great ocean currents will always remain of some 
commercial importance, although they do not affect the 
movements of the great steamships as much as they do 
the movements of sailing vessels. 

Fig. 540. This picture was taken from the top of Mt. Washington and 

shows the appearance of the cloud-banks which often surround this and 

other mountain peaks. Can you explain why clouds gather about the slopes 

of mountains in this way ? 

The greatest importance of the currents is their effect 
upon climate. We have frequently noted that the winds 
from over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream make the 
climate of western Europe much milder than that in 
the same latitude on the western shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean. The Alaska Current, which comes from the 
Japan stream, always carries warmer waters to the coast, 
and the air from over those waters blows inland and thus 
keeps the climate warmer than it would otherwise be. 

Owing to the cold current on the west coast of South 
America the air near the coast of Peru is cool, although 
Peru is in the equatorial region. The Labrador current 
chills the water and air along the northeast coast of 

North America. Sea bath- 
ing northeast from New 
Hampshire is not enjoyed 
by many, because the water 
is cold ; but the cold waters 
abound in fish. 

Rainfall of the world. 
Even Aristotle and Plato, 
the great philosophers of 
ancient Greece, believed 
that the waters of the sea 
must be connected in some 
way with the waters of the 
land. They noticed that the 
rivers were constantly flow- 
ing toward the sea, and they 
thought there must be some 
return from the sea to the 
rivers. They believed that 
the waters of the sea came back through the ground, 
rising in great cracks, or fissures, through the earth. 
In that process the sea waters were supposed to have 
lost their salt. 

Centuries passed before the true process was understood. 
As we now know, the waters from the seas are evapo- 
rated. They pass up into the air as an invisible vapor. 
This vapor cools and condenses. If the temperature 
where the vajior condenses is below 32° F., tiny particles 
of ice form, which may fall as snow. If the vapor con- 
denses at a temperature above 32°, it forms tiny globules 
of water, and when they fall we have rain. Thus the 
cycle between the waters of the sea and the waters of 
the land is completed by the moisture passing through 
the air instead of through the ground. 

Over and over again we have studied rainfall condi- 
tions. They have a controlling influence upon life in all 
parts of the world. When we j^ut all the facts together 
and look at the rainfall chart of the world, certain facts 
stand out very sharply. First, the heaviest rainfall is 



near the equator. This is where it is always hot, where 
the air is rising and taking much moisture with it. 
In the hot belt, where there is abundance of rainfall, the 
great tropical forests are found. Vegetable growth is so 
dense that we think of those regions as countries of plants 
rather than as countries for men to live in. The largest 
tropical forests are in the valley of the Amazon and the 
valley of the Kongo, but the East Indies also have exten- 
sive tropical forests. See maps opposite pages 156 and 230. 

To the north and south of the belt of heavy equatorial 
rains are belts of lesser rainfall, where there are grass- 
lands. In South America, north of the Amazon jungle, 
are the grasslands of the Orinoco, and south of it are the 
grasslands of the Parana. In Africa, north of the tropi- 
cal forest of the Kongo, are the grasslands of the Sudan, 
and south of the Kongo basin are the grasslands of the 
southern plateaus. In Australia the great central plain 
is a grassland, and in Asia the lowlands of India and 
Siam are in part grass-covered. 

The next most striking general fact is that the. wind- 
ward side of all high mountains has heavy rainfall. 
Prove this by an example from North America; from 
South America ; from Europe ; from Asia. Now look at 
the distribution of the great deserts of the world. Many 
of them are on the leeward side of a mountain range. 
The great desert belt which stretches through northern 
Africa, across Arabia and Persia, and into central Asia 
is a land which moistm-e-bearing winds do not reach. 

In the far northern country within the arctic circle 
the amount of rainfall is light. That is because the air, 
being chilled in its northward journey, gives up its mois- 
ture before it gets so far north. The temperature is so 
low, and there is so little moisture, that the growth of 
vegetation is stunted. Mosses, grasses, shrubs, and trees 
a few inches high make up the vegetation of the tundra 
country. See map opposite page 2G6. 

The temperate zones are the most favored. They have 
variety in temperature from summer to winter, variety 
in vegetation from place to place, and variety in rain- 
fall, so that almost all kinds of crops can be raised and 
nearly all occupations can be followed. There are deserts 
in the temperate zones, but most of the land in these 
zones is well watered. 

The civilized nations of the world have come to occupy 
the lands of the temperate zones. They seem to have 
chosen those lands, but it is also true that the climatic 
conditions in the temperate zones favor the advancement 
of civilization. 

The geography of a country, including climate, phys- 
ical features, and natural resources, determines the 
activities of the people, and in part the degree of 
civilization which they may attain. 


Rainfall of the world. On the map on the opposite page, 
showing the distribution of rainfall, the continents are repre- 
sented in their correct relative sizes. 1. Which is the largest? 
Which is the second largest? Which is the smallest? See 
Appendix, page viii. 

2. Where are the most extensive desert lands of the world? 
Give the names of these deserts. 3. Are the tundras of the 
world, as shown on the various relief maps in this book, in 
wet or in dry regions ? 4. Is the rainfall heavier near or far 
from the equator? 

5. Where there is very heavy rainfall at a distance from the 
equator, what special explanation is there ? 6. In general, is 
the rainfall heavier near the margins of the continent or in 
the interior? Give examples. 7. In general, is the rainfall 
heavier in mountainous regions than in lowland regions? 
Give examples. 

8. Which continents have the larger areas of heavy rainfall ? 

9. Are those places of very heavy rainfall densely populated ? 

10. What is the general average amount of rainfall in the re- 
gions of the world that are most densely populated ? 11. Select 
three or four places where grazing is an important occupation. 
What is the usual amount of rainfall there ? 

Oceans. The map on the opposite page, showing the ocean 
currents, is drawn so that the oceans appear in the correct 
relative sizes. 1. Which ocean is clearly the largest ? 2. Esti- 
mate how many times larger the Pacific Ocean is than the 
Atlantic. See Appendix, page v. 

3. Which way do most of the surface waters move in the 
equatorial regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans? 4. What 
winds cause these currents ? 5. Compare the surface circulation 
in the north Atlantic Ocean with that in the south Atlantic. 

6. Which motion is clockwise? Which one is counterclock- 
wise ? 7. Is the general circulation in the north and south Pacific 
like that in the north and south Atlantic ? 8. The monsoon 
winds in the northern part of the Indian Ocean change the 
direction of the surface currents from season to season. 

9. Compare the temperature of the surface waters on the 
east and west sides of South America in the latitude of Buenos 
Aires. Why is it warmer on one side than on the other in the 
same latitude ? 

10. Compare the surface temperatures of the water near 
Newfoundland and in the same latitude on the w^est coast of 
Europe. Why is there a difference ? 11. In what part of the 
north Atlantic west of Europe is the temperature about the 
same as it is at the surface near Newfoundland? 

12. What is the name of the cold current that comes south- 
ward along the northeastern coast of North America, and 
reaches to the New England states ? 13. What current affects 
the climate of Alaska and British Columbia ? 14. Where are 
the surface temperatures of the sea the greatest ? 

15. How warm is it in those places ? 16. How does that 
temperature compare with the temperature of the water which 
you would use for a warm bath ? 17. What is the temperature 
of the water near Cape Horn ? 18. What is the temperature 
of the water near the southern tip of Africa? 19. How caa 
the difference in these temperatures be explained ? 

ti««»dt't iBMrrvfUd UaaalagnfUc Fioj — ( ton 

UiiiD uiii Compftoj 

Average annual rainfall of the world 

O wii»'> lalwiiyml aoa.ti9iT*iitia FiojMtM* 

<Q) Uian Md Caayuj 

Ocean currents and the temperature of the surface waters 




We have learned that the earth is a spherical body 
floating in space. It is not a perfect sphere, for it is 
flattened at the poles, and the diameters that pass 
through the earth at the equator are not all equal. 
We know that it rotates on an inclined axis each day 
and revolves about the sun each year. 

The moon travels with the earth in its annual journey 
about the sun, and once each month the moon goes 
around the earth. There can be no life on the moon, 

The fixed stars. Beyond the solar system, far, far off 
in space, are the fixed stars. They are suns shining by 
their own light, as our sun does. The millions and 
millions of stars that we see on a clear night are so 
far away that it takes years for their light to reach us, 
although light travels 186,000 miles per second. If you 
look at the North Star to-night, remember when you see 
it that the light which enters your eye started from the 
star forty years ago. 

Shooting stars. Sometimes a fragment of a distant 
star flying through space comes into our atmosphere. 

for it is without an atmosphere and without water By friction in the air it becomes white-hot, and then we 
(Fig. 541). Its light is all reflected from the sun's rays, see it and call it a shooting star. Most of the shooting 

and the temperature at the surface is 
very low. 

Eclipses. When the moon is between 
the earth and the sun, and the shadow 
of the moon strikes the earth in the part 
where we live, we have an eclipse of the 
sun ; that is, we cannot see the sun, be- 
cause the moon is in the way. When the 
earth is between the sun and the moon, 
and the shadow of the earth falls on the 
moon, there is an eclipse of the moon. 

The planets. There are eight planets, 
and they revolve about the sun. Named 
in order from the sun, they are Mercury, 
Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, 
Uranus, and Neptune. To those living 
upon the earth the seven other planets 
appear as stars. Because of their move- 
ments about the sun they do not always 
appear in the same part of the heavens. 
They are wanderers. Mercury is small and difficult to 
see, for it rises and sets near the time when the sun 

Fig. 541. The five-day moon as it looks 
through the telescope 

stars burn to dust, but a few fragments 
reach the earth and are picked up and 
exhibited in museums. Such fragments 
of stars are called meteorites. 

Natural sciences. The study of geog- 
raphy leads to an interest in many 
sciences. Physics deals with the great 
physical forces of nature ; chemistry 
deals with the changes that take place in 
matter; zoology takes up the study of 
animals ; botany leads to a knowledge 
and understanding of plants ; geology 
deals with the history of the earth ; but 
the science that can stretch our imagi- 
nation most is astronomy. This treats 
of all the bodies in the universe, of the 
immense distances between heavenly 
bodies, of whirling nebulse, of comets 
with their fiery tails millions of miles 

long, of shooting stars, and of many 
other wonderful and inspiring phenomena of natiu'e. 
One of the most remarkable things is that all these 
does. Venus is a beautiful star and appears either just heavenly bodies are controlled by definite laws. The 
before. sunrise, in the east, as a morning star, or just appearance of the planets as morning or evening stars, 
after sunset, in the west, as an evening star. Mars is the eclipses, the return of comets, may be figured out 

redder than most of the stars. There is a snow-field 
about the polar region of Mars, and this snow-field 
grows larger in the winter season and smaller in the 
summer season. Jupiter is a very brilliant star with 
several moons. Saturn appears as a star, but if looked at 
through a telescope it is found to be quite unlike the other 
planets in having two brilliant rings and several moons. 
The solar system. The sun, the planets with their 
moons, and a number of smaller bodies that we can- 
not see, in the space between Mars and Jupiter, make 
up the solar system. This great system is floating in 
space. The sun is at the center, and all the other mem- 
bers of the system move about the sun and receive heat 
and light from it. 

and predicted hundreds of years ahead of their coming. 
All the great natural sciences lead us to realize 
that the forces and laws of nature are far beyond the 
powers of -man to control. We may look forward to dis- 
covering more and more of these laws, and, through our 
knowledge and will, to improving the living conditions 
on this earth. The study of the sciences leads us, how- 
ever, to recognize that there is a power in the universe 
much greater than that in human beings. 

Home work. 1. Make a diagram o" .^constellation Ursa Major, 
or Great Dipper, and show how those stars lielp one to locate the 
North Star. Find the Great Dipper in the northern sky and locate 
the North Star. 2. Make two diagrams to show how eclipses of 
the sun and moon occur. 





We have now studied all the countries of the world. 
The people are nearly everywhere engaged in producing 
and distributing food and in providing shelter, fuel, 
clothing, and other comforts. Most people, however, 
find some time for recreation. 

Certain countries are densely populated. Some have 
acquired great wealth and become world powers. In a 
very short period in the history of the nations the 
United States has become one of the leading powers in 
the world. Millions of people have migrated from the 
Old World to the New World. Why have they done so ? 

travel and the transportation of goods on land and water 
have been made easy, and travel and the transportation 
of small articles in the air are becoming more common. 
The submarine cables, the telephones, the telegraphs, 
and the equipment for wireless telegraphy have made 
it possible to communicate quickly with almost any 
part of the world. 

We have not discovered any way to modify the 
climate, and yet men have learned how to live in comfort 
under various climatic conditions. Homes are warmed 
artificially, and they may also be cooled artificially. We 

Will people continue to leave the Eastern Hemisphere and change the weight of our clothing from season to season. 

come to live in the Western Hemisphere ? Most of om: 
foreign commerce is now with the people of western 
Europe. Will that continue to be true ? It is important 
for every American citizen to know why this country is 
so attractive to settlers and how the United States 

Clothes may be dried regardless of the weather. Hot- 
houses are built, where vegetables may be raised at all 
seasons. Rivers are diverted to water desert lands. 

The scientific study of the air has led to the predic- 
tion of weather conditions. This is of very great value to 

becamp a wealthy and powerful nation. It is important man. Tlie foretelling of frosts, floods, and storms, and espe- 

that we appreciate the leading position we have come to 
hold in the world, and the responsibilities that now lie 
before us. 

In our earlier study of the United States we learned 
that the life and occupations of the people in each of 
the natural regions depended chiefly upon the climate, 
])hysical features, and natural resources in that part of 
the country. We cannot greatly modify the physical 
features, but the remarkable work of engineers has made 
it possible to overcome many difficulties that physical 
features once presented. Great rivers are bridged, canals 
are made, tunnels are driven beneath rivers and throu_!:;h 
mountains, wet lands are drained, dry lands are watered, 

cially storms at sea, is a wonderful step forward in the 
conservation of life and property. Men will continue to 
invent ways of overcoming some of the disadvantages 
that come with the changes in the weather from day 
to day and with the changes in the climate from season 
to season. 

In the development of our natural resources there are 
almost limitless possibilities. Here the activities of men 
are of very great importance, and therefore the more we 
know about the natural resources the better it will be 
for us and for the nation. The industrial and commercial 
prosperity of the United States depends largely upon 
the proper use and conservation of these resources. 






The most valuable of all the natural resources in this 
country are the soils. They form a layer, or mantle, of 
loose material that covers most of the land surface. 
When an excavation is made in this loose material, we 
usually find that the upper part, which contains decayed 
vegetable matter, has a darker color than that below. 
That upper, darker part is the soil, and the more com- 
pact material just below is the subsoil. In many excava-. 
tions men have gone below the subsoil and come to the 
solid rock of the earth. 

Cultivated land in the United States. The amount of 
cultivated land in this country has been rapidly increas- 
ing until now there are nearly 320,000,000 acres that 
yield crops (Fig. 542). In almost any part of the United 
States where there is good soil and sufficient rainfall, 
farming may be profitable. In many other places where 
the soils are fertile but where the rainfall is very light, 
irrigation is practiced and excellent crops are obtained. 
We have under cultivation 3.5 acres for each person 
in the country, while most European countries have from 
1 to 1.5 acres of cultivated lands for each of their inhabit- 
ants. In the United Kingdom the land yielding crops 
amounts to less than half an acre for each person. The 
only countries where more acres per person are culti- 
vated than in the United States are the sparsely settled 
countries such as Argentina and Canada. 

The table in the next column indicates the percentage 
of land that is cultivated in those states where the amount 
is over 25 per cent of the total area of the state. Iowa 

now stands at the 
head of the list. 
More than 80 per 
cent of the whole 
area of this state 
is under cultiva- 
tion. Nearly all 
the states in the 
upper portion of 
the valley of the 
Mississippi rank 
high, while those 
states that are 
in mountainous 
or dry regions of 
the west are so 
far down in the 
list that they do 
not appear in 
this table. 

U. 8. D«pt. of Agriculture 

Fig. 543. Each dot on this map represents 5000 acres which are devoted to 
the raising of com. Notice that most of the corn is grown where the summer 
rainfall (June, July, and August) amounts to more than eight inches, and 
where the average summer temperature is over 66° F. What are the chief 
corn-producing states ? 


State Per Cent 

Iowa 82.9 

Illinois 78.2 

Ohio 73.7 

Indiana 73.4 

Kansas 57.1 

Delaware 56.7 

Missouri 55.9 

Kentucky 55.8 

Maryland 52.5 

Nebraska 49.6 

New York 48.7 

North Dakota 45.5 

Pennsylvania 44.2 

Tennessee 40.8 

Oklahoma 39.5 


State Per Cent 

Virginia 38.3 

Minnesota 38.0 

New Jersey 37.5 

West Virginia 35.& 

Michigan 34.ft 

Wisconsin 33.7 

Georgia 32.7 

South Dakota 32.2 

Connecticut 32.0 

South Carolina .... 31.2 

Mississippi 30.4 

Alabama 29.5 

North Carolina .... 28.3 

Vermont 28.0 

Rhode Island 26.1 

V. S. D«pt. of Agriculture 

Fig. 542. There are 1,903,000,000 acres of land in 
the United States. This diagram shows how the 
land is being used. Notice that about one fourth 
of the land is improved. This means that it is cul- 
tivated. Much of the forest and woodland can be 
improved and used to produce farm crops 

This country's very great extent of cultivated land 
with a good yield per acre assures Americans a large 
food supply. The United States produces more food per 
person than any other country with a large population. 
This is one of the most important facts in explaining 
the comfort and well-being of the people in this country 
and the immigration of people to the United States. 
More food is produced in the United States than is 
needed by the population, and that makes it possible to 
ship large quantities to foreign countries. 

Our leading food crops. Com is our largest crop, and we 
use most of the corn we produce. Of the 2,700,000,000 
bushels produced, on the average, each year from 1910 to 
1914 only 41,000,000 bushels were exported. During that 
same period we produced, on the average, 1,100,000,000 
bushels of oats, and exported each year only 10,000,000 
bushels. We should remember, however, that corn and 
oats are largely fed to live stock, and that we export 
large quantities of meat each year (Fig. 543). 



"Wheat is one of the most important food crops in 
the world, and we produce so much wheat that we can 
export over 100,000,000 bushels a year. The United 
States is one of six countries that have a larger amount 
of wheat than they need (Fig. 544). The others are 
Russia, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and India. In 
Russia and India the people do not use as much wheat 
per person as in other large wheat-producing countries. 

The chief countries that import large quantities of 
wheat are the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, 
Italy, France, and the Netherlands. A large part of the 
wheat exported from the United States goes to the 
United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Belgium. 

The United Kingdom is our largest customer for food 
crops, and the Netherlands is second ; but much of the 
food shipped to the Netherlands is reshipped to other 
countries in continental Europe. 

Large quantities of fruit and vegetables are now being 
raised in the United States. Near each of the cities 
there are areas devoted to intensive truck, or garden, 
farming, and throughout the country almost every farmer 
has a vegetable garden. More and more land is being 
used for orchards. 

Our chief food imports. As a nation we use each year 
more coffee, sugar, and rice than we produce. These 
are brought from other countries. We depend also upon 
foreign countries for tea, olive oil, cocoa, and bananas. 

The people of the United States could easily produce 
more rice, more sugar, and more olive oil, for the geo- 
graphic conditions in southern California, in the Southern 
states, and in our island possessions are favorable to their 
production, and the crops are usually increased each year. 
We shall without any doubt always depend upon foreign 
countries for most of our coffee, tea, cocoa, and bananas. 






i^ r - 






4i 'f£ 

\^^ ) 


:ar cane 

U. S- Dapt. of Acnvulturs 

Fig. S44. E^ch dot on this map represents the production of 100,000 bushels 
of wheat. What states are evidently the chief producers of wheat? Very little 
wheat is raised in the southeastern states that border on the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Atlantic Ocean, for the climate there is too moist. Why is so little 
-wheat raised in New Mexico ? Arizona ? Nevada ? Wyoming ? New England? 

L. S. Depl. of Agncullurt 

Fig. 545. Each dot on this map represents 1000 acres of land which are 
devoted to sugar crops. Notice that there are three distinct belts of sugar 
crops: in the southeast, especially on the delta of the Mississippi River, 
sugar cane is raised ; farther north and west sorghum cane is grown ; and 
still farther north and west are the fields of sugar beets 

A small amount of coffee is raised in Porto Rico and 
Hawaii, but three fourths of our coffee is imported from 
Brazil, and most of the remainder from other countries 
in South America or Central America. In the United 
States we use, on the average, 9.4 pounds of coffee per 
person each year. That is a tremendous amount of coffee 
and represents a very large import business. 

Most of the tea used in the United States comes from 
Japan and China. We use, on the average, about one 
pound per person each year. 

A high grade of olive oil is now being produced in 
this country, but we still import large quantities from 
both Italy and France. 

We produce in this country, on the average, 7.4 pounds 
of rice per person, but we use 9.6 pounds. That means 
a large import trade. Japan and China furnish nearly 
all the rice we need to import. The production of rice 
on the low lands of our Southern states might well be 

As a people we consume a very large amount of 
sugar. The amount produced in the States, in Hawaii, 
and in Porto Rico is not enough to satisfy the demand, 
and large quantities are therefore imported, chiefly from 
Cuba. We might, however, greatly increase our produc- 
tion of beet sugar in the United States (Fig. 545). 

We receive most of our cocoa from the West Indies 
and South America, and the bulk of our supply of 
bananas comes from Central America and the West 

From this summary of food imports it may be seen 
that the United States depends upon foreign countries 
for very few articles of fopd that are of real importance, 
and that most of those are supplied by countries in the 
Western Hemisphere. 



Fig. 547. This man is testing the soil to find out how much moisture it con- 

tains. In this way he can judge what crops can best be grown on the land, 

and whether irrigation or dry farming will be necessary. Can you explain 

what dry farming is ? Of what value is it ? ■, 


in the West that could be irrigated if necessary. That is 
about double the present amount of irrigated land. It 
should be noted, however, that there are more lands all 
ready to be irrigated in several of the national irrigation 
projects than people are willing to buy at present prices 
(Fig. 548). 

4. Use of stony lands. Many of the stony pastures and 
hilly regions may in time be used for raising crops. These 
are located chiefly in the well-watered Eastern states and 
include some of the so-called abandoned farms of New 
England. Much of this land is suitable for orchards. 

5. Dry farming. Methods of dry farming may be 
farms of 160 acres each, it would provide 1,250,000 such improved, and more semidesert land can then be profit- 
farms. That would be an addition of about 20 per cent ably used in this way (Fig. 547). 

to the number of farms now in the United States. 6. More intensive cultivation. By practicing more in- 

2. More land to he drained. The Department of Agri- tensive cultivation, by using greater quantities of ferti- 

culture has made the estimate that there are at least lizers, and by taking advantage of scientific discoveries, 

Fig. 646. This is a deep-tillage machine for use on land that must be plowed 

especially deep. The use of agricultural machinery, in place of hand labor, 

is one of the means by which the production of food crops in our country 

may be increased. What other ways can you suggest ? 

Can we increase the production of food crops ? This 
will be the important question in the United States as 
the population increases. Most of the better farming 
land is now in use, but there are several possibilities 
before us. 

1. More land to he cleared. There are some forested 
areas, some woodlands, and some cut-over areas that are 
suitable for cultivation and could best be used as farm 
lands. The United States Department of Agriculture 
has estimated that there are about 200,000,000 acres of 
such lands that could be used for raising food crops 
after they are cleared. If this land were divided into 

60,000,000 acres of swamps and other wet lands that 
can be drained and made suitable for the production of 
food crops. These lands could all be cultivated, and they 
might be divided into 160-acre farms and thus make 
375,000 more farms in the United 
States. These lands are located largely 
in the great flood plain of the Missis- 
sippi River and in the flood plains of 
other rivers, chiefly in the Gulf Coastal 
Plain. There are also wet lands and 
peat bogs in the Northeastern states 
and in those states near the Great 
Lakes that were invaded by the con- 
tinental ice-sheets. 

3. More land to he irrigated. There 
are probal)ly 30,000,000 acres of land 

Fig. 548. This dreary-looking desert region can 
be transformed into good farming land if it is 
properly irrigated. Describe the changes that 
would come to such a region through irrigation 

the production of food crops per acre can be increased. 
This means a better use of the better lands. Many of 
our farmers have been very successful in increasing the 
production per acre on their lands, but the average 
yield per acre in the United States is 
below that in several of the older 
countries. For example, while we pro- 
duce on the average a little more than 
15 bushels of wheat per acre, Belgium 
produces nearly 40 bushels per acre, 
and in fact nearly all the countries 
of western Europe produce more per 
acre than we do. There are great 
possibilities in increasing the produc- 
tion per acre of the leading food crops 
of the United States (Fig. 546). 



Problems and review questions. '?i'K«»«^a»i% ?'*«?!>«'*' pp-*r~ 
1. How does the amount of 
cultivated land in the United 
States compare with that in 
other large countries ? 2. Why 
is the cultivation of the soil 
so important to the welfare of 
a nation ? 

3. What are our chief food 
crops? 4. Which of the food 
crops are so large that we have 
some of the raw material to 
export ? 5. What nation is our 
largest customer for foods ? 
6. What are the chief foods 
imported by the United States ? 
From what countries do most 
of them come ? 

7. Which of the foods imported in large quantities come from 
the Eastern Hemisphere ? 8. How may the amount of land avail- 
able for farms be increased ? 9. How may the production of food 
crops per acre be increased ? 

Home work. 1. What kinds of soil are there in the vicinity 
of your home ? How thick are they ? Have they been fertilized ? 
If so, how ? 2. What are the chief products from the soils in the 
vicinity of your home city or town ? 

Conservation of soils. Plants receive much of their 
nourishment from the soils, and the animal life of the 
world depends upon the plant life. It takes but a 
moment's thought to make us realize that we are abso- 
lutely dependent upon the soils from which most of our 
food and all of the raw materials for our clothes come 
directly or indirectly. Human beings could not live on this 
earth if there were no soils here, and the prosperity of a 
nation usually depends chiefly upon the extent and quality 
of its soils. Therefore the preservation of the soils and the 

Fig. 649. The low flood plains along the rivers are among the richest agri- 
cultural lands in our country. They are flat, extremely fertile, and easily 
cultivated. Such lands must be protected against the spring floods which 
wash the seeds out of the ground and make it necessary for the farmers to 
plant their fields a second time 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ To preserve the soils we 

must see, in the first place, 
that they are not washed 
away (Fig. 549). The rivers 
are very active, and each 
year they gather up millions 
of tons of the very best of 
soil-making material and 
carry it to the ocean or to 
the lakes. In some places 
in our country, where 
the forest or other native 
vegetation has been re- 
moved from steep slopes 
and the land cultivated, 
the soils have been washed away in from ten to fifteen 
years. That is a great mistake. China has ruined 
thousands of acres of good land in that way, and we 
should not be guilty of such foolishness. Slopes that 
are too steep to hold their soils when cultivated should 
be left forested or should be used as pasture land. 

In plowing lands that are not level or nearly so, care 
should be taken not to have the furrows run with the 
slope. When they run with the slope, rain water col- 
lects and flows in the furrows, increasing in amount 
and speed until streams form which carry away the soil. 
On lands that have even a gentle slope, that is, from 5 
to 15 degrees, contour plowing should be practiced. In 
contour plowing the furrows follow around or along the 
hillsides. Each furrow is at a definite level. Such fur- 
rows do not make runways for the rain water, and the 
soils are not washed away. In addition to saving the 
soils, contour plowing forces more of the rain water 

maintaining of their fertility are the most important of to sink into the ground, and that water is absorbed by 
the problems of conservation that are before this nation, the plants and helps to produce larger or better crops. 

Fig. 5S0. Among the mechanical inventions of recent years none has been 
more useful to the farmer than the motor tractor. This tractor is driven by 
an automobile engine and is used to draw the different farm machines over 
the fields, thus doing the work which formerly was always done by horses 

Fig. 561. This man is spreading lime on his farm land before planting. 
Lime is an important fertilizing substance. By mixing it with such soils 
as need it the farmer can increase the amount of crops which his land will 
yield per acre. What would happen if farmers never fertilized their land ? 




Fig. 552. Here is a Kentucky hemp field after the harvest season. The hemp 
is stacked up to allow the straw to decay enough so that the fiber can be 
separated easily. This process is called retting. Hemp-growing in the 
United States is not important as compared with the European industry 

Slopes that are steeper than 20 degrees should ordi- 
narily be used for forests or some tree culture. Orchards 
may be planted on such hillsides. If a field is not used, 
it should have some protective covering, such as clover 
or soy beans, to help hold the soil and to enrich it. 

To maintain the fertility of the soils we must follow 
the advice of intelligent, experienced farmers, of trained 
students of agriculture, and of other scientists who have 
made special studies of this problem. 

The air, water, and soil contain in abundance most of 
the food elements needed by plants. There are, however, 
three elements — nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus 
— that plants use up very rapidly ; and if we wish to 
use the lands continuously in farming, we must assist 
in returning these elements to the soil (Fig. 551). 

Nitrogen. Certain plants such as the grains, cotton, 
and tobacco take large quantities of nitrogen compounds 
from the soil. After such crops have been raised, other 
plants that help to restore nitrogen to the soil should be 
planted. A group of plants that include clover, alfalfa, 
peas, and beans have little nodules on their roots, where 
bacteria live. The bacteria take nitrogen from the air 

and combine it with other elements to make compounds 
called nitrates. The nitrates are stored in the roots, 
stalks, and fruits of those plants. The farmer who 
"plows under" such a crop will therefore enrich his 
soil with nitrogen. 

By choosing wisely and changing the crop on a field 
each year, the fertility of the soil may be maintained or 
even improved. The practice of changing the crop on 
a given field each year is called the rotation of crops. 
Repeating the same crop on a given field year after 
year will result in poorer crops and in injury to the soil. 

By using electricity nitrogen may be taken from the 
air and combined with other substances, such as lime- 
stone, to make fertilizers. This is now being done. 
Certain nitrate deposits in Chile are imported and used 
to fertilize worn-out soils, and manures are also used ou 
the fields so as to return nitrogen compounds to the soil. 


Fig. 653. Many boys in Ohio and southwestern Pennsylvania have learned 

to take care of sheep. This district, with its good pasture lands, has 

become famous for its pure, high-bred stock. See map, Fig. 556 

D. S. Dept. of Agricuttut* 

Fig. 554. Each dot on this map represents 5000 acres of land where cotton 
is raised. Very little is grown where there are less than 200 days without 
frost or less than 23 inches of rainfall each year. The places where the dots 
are thickest have very rich soils. The shaded areas in California and Arizona 
are places where the especially fine Egyptian variety of cotton is being raised 

Potassium is another important element in the food of 
plants that we must help to keep in the soils. Potas- 
sium salts are sometimes imported for use as fertilizers. 
Kelp, which grows in large quantities on the surface of 
the Pacific Ocean west of North America, has been used 
to produce potassium compounds, and some deposits of 
potassium salts have been discovered in the western 
part of our country. 

Phosphorus is the third food element of plants that is 
important for us to assist in returning to the soils. 
Phosphate rock has been found in large quantities in 
Florida, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Wyoming, 
and Idaho. More phosphate rock is quarried in Florida 
each year than in any other state. The rock is ground 
up and used in the manufacture of a very good fertilizer. 

Phosphorus compounds are made from the bones of 
animals and other by-products from the great slaughter- 
houses. Those compounds are returned to the farmers 
as fertilizers. 

Manures also contain phosphorus compounds and are 
therefore doubly valuable as fertilizers. They contain 
both nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. 



V. B. Depi. o( A^rtcultur* 

Fig. 555. Each dot on this map represents 5000 cattle. In what states are 

the largest numbers raised ? Explain the clear spaces in northern Uaine, 

northeastern New York, southern Florida, southern Nevada, southeastern 

California, and western Arizona. Why is cattle-raising more general in the 

eastern half of the United States than in the western half ? 

U. S- Dtpt. of Arrleulttm 

Fig. 556. Each dot on this map represents 10,000 full-grown sheep. Most 
of the sheep in the United States are in the Rocky Mountains and the semi- 
arid or mountainous parts of the states on the Pacific coast. The hilly pas- 
ture lands of Ohio and the neighboring parts of Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia are also used for sheep-raising (Fig. 553) 

Other uses of the land aside from the production of portions of Iowa and Illinois, in New York State, in 

food crops. The crops of cotton, flax, and hemp are also eastern Pennsylvania, and in the New England states, 

of great importance to the people of the United States. About half of the cheese factories in the United States 

The cotton is used for making cloth, and the cotton seeds are in Wisconsin, and over one fourth are in New Yox-k 

yield an oil that is being used more and more as a food. State. Dairy farming is most prosperous in regions with 

It is taking the place of olive oil in many ways, and it rich pastures near large markets (Fig. 557). 
is used in making soap. After the oil has been ex- Hogs are produced chiefly in the corn belt, although 

tracted, the rest of the seed is used as a food for cattle they are common throughout the more thickly settled, 

or sometimes as a fertilizer (Fig. 554). 

Flax is used in making linen, and the seed furnishes 
linseed oil, which is used in the making of paints, oil- 
cloths, and other useful things. The chief use of hemp 
is in the manufacture of rope (Fig. 552). 

Live stock could not be raised if it were not for the 
grasses and grains that are supported by the soils. 
Horses, mules, cattle, sheep, 
and goats are needed in 
large numbers. Many of the 
lands that are semiarid or 
have soils too poor to be 
cultivated are used for graz- 
ing. Among the mountains 
there are excellent pasture 
lands for sheep and cattle 
(Figs. 555, 556). 

Dairy cattle are raised 
very generally throughout 
the country to supply local 
needs. Near each of the 
larger cities there are many 
dairy farms. Creameries are 
very common in the south- 
em parts of Minnesota and 
Wisconsin, in the northern 

Fig. 657. These are dairy cows. They are tended with great care, so that 

they may produce rich, pure milk. After the morning milking'they are 

turned into a good pasture to graze. Toward evening they are driven into 

a barn, where they are milked ; then they are turned out for the night 

well-watered portions of the United States east of the 
Great Plains. 

Poultry-farming is also an important industry, and 
near each of the large cities the poultry farms are 
numerous and cover considerable areas of land. 

Problems and review questions. 1. Why is it of the greatest 
importance to the nation to maintain the fertility of the soils ? 

2. How do the plants secure 
their food ? 3. What food ele- 
ments needed by the plants 
should we help to keep in the 

4. What kinds of fertilizers 
do you know of ? 6. What 
plants help to restore nitrogen 
to the soils ? 6. What is meant 
by rotation of crops ? 7. Aside 
from the production of food 
crops, what uses are made of 
the land ? 8. What industries 
are directly dependent upon the 
raisingof cotton, flax, and hemp? 
9. What industries depend 
directly upon the raising of 
animals? 10. What arguments 
can you now give in supjwrt of 
the statement that the soils 
are the most important of the 
natural resources of the nation ? 




Original extent. The original forests of the United 
States were among the most valuable in the world. 
They covered a large area and contained a great variety 
of useful trees (Fig. 558). 

and those who are engaged in building houses have not 
always been careful to use up the small pieces of lumber. 
The old-fashioned way of tapping certain pine trees 
to get the sap, or resin, from which turpentine is made, 
usually killed the trees within five years. If modern 
Destruction of our forests. Nearly half of the more methods are used, the trees will live much longer and 

valuable timber in this country has been cut. We have 
been a most extravagant people in the use of wood. It is 
estimated that on the average we now use per person ten 
times as much wood as the people in France and about 
twenty times as much as the people in Great Britain. 

even more resin will be secured. 

Forest fires have been one of the chief causes of loss. 
Some of the fires have been unavoidable, such as those 
caused by lightning, but many have been due to careless- 
ness. It is of the greatest importance that campers should 

In the early days of settlement in the eastern half of not leave fires burning. Everyone who visits our forests 
the country the forests were often considered objection- should take care not to cause a forest fire, and should 
able. It took a great deal of hard work to clear the fields volunteer, if possible, to help put out such a fire. 

forcultivation. Manytimes 
there was no market for 
the wood, and great piles 
of logs were burned. With 
the rapid increase in our 
population came a very 
large demand for lumber. 
More wood was used as 
fuel than in any other way ; 
but millions of homes were 
built, great factories were 
constructed, and fences, 
barns, furniture, and thou- 
sands of useful articles were 
made of wood. Of late 
years large quantities of 
wood are being used in the 
manufacture of paper. 

In some places where the 
forests have been destroyed 

© Amerivaii Ueographjoal Sflcietj of New York 

Fig. 558. This map shows the forest areas of the United States. Originally 
the forests were almost unbroken from the Atlantic coast to the eastern margin 
of the Great Plains. To-day much of this great area has been cleared. Where 
are the evergreen forests ? Where are the hardwood forests ? Why are there 
80 few trees in the Great Plains and the Western Plateaus ? 

Lumbering districts. The 

forests in New England 
were the first center of the 
lumbering business ; later 
Michigan became the lead- 
ing producing region ; and 
as settlement pushed west- 
ward Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota each had a turn at first 
place. When the Northern 
forests had been largely 
used, those in the Southern 
states were turned to, and 
then the forests of the 
Northwest. To-day Wash- 
ington produces more lum- 
ber than any other state, 
and Oregon ranks third. 
Each one of the states 
bordering upon the Gulf 

the soils have been washed away, and that has increased of Mexico is a large producer of lumber. Mississippi 

the danger of river floods. The forests bind the soils, 
and the soils help to retain the rain-water in the ground, 
or allow it to flow away slowly and evenly. If our 
forests had not been removed, the flow of many of the 
streams in this country would be more uniform, and that 
would make the streams more valuable in developing 

Waste in the use of wood. While we have used wood 
freely and for the most part for excellent purposes, we 
have been guilty of wasting large quantities of very 
valuable timber. Many times, when the trees were cut 
during the winter and heavy snows were on the ground, 
high stumps were left. Thousands of trees that have 
been blown down have been left in the forest, and many 
undersized trees have been taken for lumber. Each tree 
should be allowed to mature and thus gain its full size 
before it is cut down. Men in sawmills and in factories 

stands fourth of all states in production (Fig. 559). 
A permanent supply of lumber. It is of real impor- 
tance to us to have, here at home, a permanent supply 
of lumber that will meet our needs. Most of the Euro- 
pean countries import wood. Russia, Sweden, Norway, 
Czechoslovakia, and Austria are the only countries in 
Europe with wood to spare. Those countries are cutting 
more each year than can be grown ; their surplus will 
therefore become less, and undoubtedly it will all be 
needed in Europe. The countries of Africa, South 
America, Central America, and Mexico have little but 
tropical woods, which are more difficult to work than the 
softer woods of the temperate zone. Canada is now 
selling some lumber to us, but it cannot help very 
much. China, Australia, and India now have less lum- 
ber than they need. Siberia has the one large unexplored 
and almost untouched temperate forest in the world. 



2 3 

1 Washinston 

2 Louisiana 
8 Oregon 

4 Hiasiasippi 

5 Arkansas - 
8 Texaa 

T California 

8 Wisconsin 

9 Alabama 

10 North Carolina 

11 Uinnesota 

12 Florida 

13 Michigan 

14 Virgfinia 
U Idaho 

16 West Virginia 

17 Maine 

18 Tennessee 

19 South Carolina 

20 Pennsylvania 

21 Geortria 

22 New Hampshire 

23 Kentucky 

24 Montana 

25 New York 

26 Missouri 

27 Indiana 

28 Ohio 

29 Oklahoma 

80 Massachusetts 
31 Vermont 

All other states (17) 

Fig. 859. This table shows the order of importance of the states in the pro- 
duction of lumber. A board foot of lumber is a piece of wood 12 inches square 
and not over 1 inch thick. How does your state rank in lumber production ? 
If its name does not appear, explain why its production is so small 

There are, however, several ways by which we may 
help to provide a good permanent supply of lumber in 
this country. 

1. So far as possible we must stop the various wastes 
already mentioned. 

2. Burned-over areas should be reforested. 

3. Many areas where the forests have been cut off 
have soils too poor to cultivate. Such areas should be 

4. Many forests are not fully stocked with trees. In 
such places more trees should be planted. No soil is too 
poor and no slope too steep for trees if 
they can get hold with their roots and 
receive enough moisture throughout 
the year. Experiments have shown 
that a mixed forest will produce more 
cubic feet of wood per acre per year 
than a forest of only one variety of tree. 
Some trees are very eager for the sun, 
and others do fairly well in partly 
shaded places. This is illustrated in 
the natural forests of Washington and 
Oregon. There the great Douglas fir is 
the tall tree, and with it are the much 
lower hemlock and red cedar. By study 
and experiment we must learn how 
to secure the maximum production 
of wood per acre, just as we strive 
to secure the maximum production of 
wheat per acre. 

5. The life of much of the timber that we use may be 
extended by dipping it into creosote. That is a tarry 
liquid which will fill the pores of th^wood and prevent 
water or insects from entering and causing decay. Posts, 
railroad ties, paving blocks, shingles, and the wooden 
piles of wharves and bridges, when properly treated with 
creosote, last many years longer than they otherwise 

6. "We must keep up a constant battle with the insects 
that injure and may kill the trees. 

7. In many cases substitutes for wood may be used. 
This is being done on a large scale. Natural stones, 
bricks, concrete, terra cotta, tiles, and steel are now 
commonly used in building. Steel cars are taking the 
places of wooden ones, and steel furnishings in offices 
and libraries are in use. These substitutes for wood 
also offer a great advantage in reducing the losses by 
fire. That helps in the conservation of resources. 

The public and private forests all need to be carefully 
guarded, and men must be trained for this work. Scien- 
tific forestry must be promoted. It is a profession that 
offers great opportunities to young men. 

Problems and review questions. 1^ What portions of the United 
States were originally forested? 2. Why were there no forests 
in the other parts ? 3. How have the forest trees been used ? 
4. How have the timber resources been wasted ? 6. Where are 
the chief lumber-producing regions to-day? 

6. How may we plan to have a sufficient permanent supply 
of lumber in this country ? 7. Why is it very important that we 
maintain forests in the United States ? 8. State some of the 
problems that scientific forestry may solve. 

Home work. 1. Find out the retail price of one thousand feet 
of pine lumber. 2. What kinds of trees grow in your home 
region ? 3. How are wood substitutes used in your home city ? 


3 < 

5 6 


1 Yellow pine { 

2 Douglas fir 
8 White pine 
4 Oak 

6 Hemlock 

6 Western yellow pine 

7 Spruce 

8 Maple 

9 Gum 

10 Cypress 

11 Redwood 

12 Chestnut 

13 Birch 

14 Larch 

15 Beech 

16 Yellow poplar 

17 Cedar 

18 Tupelo 

19 White flr 

20 Basswood 

21 Elm 

22 Cottonwood 

23 A