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churcha tad cwuwfki , a tup of Some, of At 
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Sold by M. Hale, English Reading Room 

and Circulating Library, 

Piazza di Spagna n. 1. 











In publishing a new Guide of Rome 
and of the environs » i" have not omitted 
to point out or to illustrate the impro- 
vements that have taken place of late 
years in a city called by some the city 
of remembrances and which , after the 
lapse of ages, continues to be the seat 
of the fine arts. 

Nor is there , at the present day , 
any want of those noble minds who find 
a delight in seconding the efforts of 
genius , or of distinguished artists whose 
works form no disparagement to those of 
the period of roman greatness. 

Among the former the name of your 
Lordship stands preeminent: To you and 


to your illustrious relatives , our city 
pays a just tribute of admiration and 
gratitude for the liberal encouragement 
constantly shown to architects , sculp- 
tors, and painters of the past and present 
generations, in the improvements made for 
the public utility, and in your own 
princely possessions. 

In presenting to that portion of my 
readers , by whom the name of your 
family is so highly appreciated, a work 
treating in detail of the curiosities of 
ancient and of modern Rome, I cannot 
but indulge ahope that under your enlight- 
ened patronage it will meet with a fa- 
vorable reception. 


With sentiments ofthemott profound 
respect , I have the honour to be 

My Lord Duke 

Your Lordship's 

Most obliged 

and obed. servant 


Rome Oct/ i5. 1845. 




I wording to the opinion most generally admit- 
ted Rome teas founded by Romulus, a descendant 
of ./Eneas and. of the Alban kings,in the 763 year 
before the Christian era. T-fie city was originally 
limited to the Palatine hill, the Capitoline was ad- 
ded after the rape of the Sabine women and then 
the valley , separating those two hills, became the 

Numa i the successor of Romulus, enclosed a 
part of the Quirinal within the city. After the des- 
truction of Alba by Tullius Hostilius, ofTellene, 
Ficana and Politortum by Ancus Martins , the 
Caltan and Aventine hills formed part of the city, 
and were peopled by the inhabitants of those towns. 
A wooden bridge, called the Sublician, celebrated 
for the valour of Codes, was thrown over the ri- 
ver, and a citadel was built on the Janiculum by 
Ancus Sfartius. Servius Tullius enlarged the city 
by enclosing the remainder of the Quirinal as well 
as the Viminal and the Esqutline hills\ he surroun? 
ded it with walls composed of square blocks of vol- 
canic tufo , fortified it with an agger , or rampart^ 
extending from the Quirinal to the arch of Gallic- 
nus on the Esquitine; the seven hills and a small 
part of the Janiculum were thus enclosed within a 
circuit of about eight miles. 

Though the city had greatly increased in the 
period (hat elapsed from Servius to Aurelian, the 
circuit of the walls remained the samt^but this Em- 
peror,with the view of repelling foreign invasions x 


raited a new line of walls wkick was completed 
under Probas in 276. Vopiseus , a contemporary 
writer , asserts that these walls were 50 miles in 
circuit, an extent which would appear exaggera- 
ted if we did not take into consideration the size 
of the city, and the dense population which natural- 
ly occupied the capital of the world;and in fact,the 
ruins of the public buildings alone cover so large 
a space of ground that within the pretent enclosure 
it would be impossible to find room for private 
houses to receive the large population of the an- 
cient city. Of the walls of Aurelian no traces re- 
main ; those of the present day embracing 1 6 i/j 
miles in circumference are of a period posterior to 
that Emperor;their most ancient part does not go 
beyond the time of Honorius in 402. 

On the right bank of the Tiber the walls are 
altogether modern, the Vatican not having been 
enclosed until 852 by Leo IV, to defend the church 
of S. Peter's against the Saracens . The spaee 
occupied by the modern city is about one third of 
that enclosed within the walls; the other two thirds 
consist of kitchen gardens, vineyards and villas. 

Of the twelve gates of the modern city eight 
are on the left bank of the river viz;the Flaminian 
or del Popolo , Salara , Pia , 5. Lorenzo, Mag-* 
giore , S. Giovanni, S. Sebastiano, and S. Paolo. 
On the right bank -are the Portese andS. Pancra- 
sio, Cavalleggieri and Angelica. Eight of the most 
ancient gates are closed, viz; the Pinciana, f'imi" 
nalis , Metronis , Latina, Ardeatina, Pertuta and 

The Tiber passes through Home in a direc- 
tion from north to south. There are four bridges, 
the JElian or S. Angela, Janiculetise or Sisto, Fa- 
brician or Quattro Capi, and that of Gratian or 


S. Bartolomeo, Three are in ruins; the Vatican, 
Palatine and Sublician. 

Servius Tullius divided Rome into four guar' 
ten or regionev. the Palatina, Suburrana, Esqui- 
lina and Collina. Augustus into 1 4 viz: I, Capena 
II. Coelimontana, III, Isis and Serapis , IV. Via 
Sacra , V. Esquilina , VI. Atta Semitai VII Via 
Lata, VIII. Forum Bomanum, IS. Circus Flami- 
nius, X. Palatinum; Xl.Circus Maximusjtll, Pi- 
scina publico, XIII. jiventine and XIV, Trant- 

The present city alsois dividedinto MRioni, 
viz: Monti, Trevi, Colonna, Campo Marzo, Ponte, 
Parione, Regola, S.Eustachio, Pigna, Campitelli, 
S. Angela, Ripa, Trastevere andBorgo. 

The population of the city and its suburbs 
amounted, according to the census of 183.8 , to 
i 56, 903 souls. 

Though plundered and burnt at different pe- 
riods Rome has always risen like the phanix out 
of her ruins. The obelisks , columns , statues and 
other masterpieces of art, the remains of ancient 
temples , triumphal arches , theatres , amphithea- 
tres , therma , tombs and aqueducts are the unri- 
valled ornaments of this metropolis. 

Many of the modern edifices are not inferior 
in magnificence to those of antiquity; at every step 
are sumptuous churches , extensive palaces , con- 
taining valuable collections of painting andsculp- 
turc , fountains, villas filled wih ancient and mo- 
dern works of art. In two public museums are 
united master pieces of Egyptian,Etruscan, Greek 
and Roman sculpture. Bramante,Baphael,Michel- 
angelo and other eminent artists have embellished 
the city with their works. 

Monuments of all ages collected here have 


rendered Rome the teat of the fine arts. In the 
number of her literary establishment* are the 
University or Sapienza, founded in the XIII. cen- 
tury, the Roman college and Seminary;the Naxa- 
reno, Doria, Clementino, Propaganda, English, 
Irish and Scotch colleges. Among the academies 
are those of S.Luca for the fin* arts^of the Catholic 
religion for theological subjects; the Linceian for 
the mathematical and physical sciences; the Ar- 
cheological for antiquities: the Tiberina and Arca- 
dian for the Italian language and literature. 

Camei, mosaics, sculptures, paintings, engra- 
vings , silks , cloth , artificial pearls , strings for 
musical instruments, beads etc. constitute theprtn- 
cipal objects of trade. 

Charitable establishments abound in Rome 
independently of those supported by foreigners for 
the use of their countrymen. The sick are recei- 
ved, according to the nature of their complaints, 
in the hospitals of S. Spirito, S. Giacomo, the Con- 
solations , S. Giovanni Laterano , S. Gallic am 
and S. Roch. Of the numerous asylums for the 
poor the principal are S, Michele, the Pio Imtiiuto 
dt Caritd, the Conservatorio of the Mendicanti for 
females and the house of the orphan boys.(i) 

At Rome the catholic religion displays all 
her splendour and majesty. In no city can the ce- 
remonies of the holy week, of Easter, of the Cor-' 
pus Domini, of S.Peter and of Christmas, vie with 
those of the Vatican. 

(i) On the charitable institutions of this city 
the reader m-iy consult the writings of moosignor 
Morichini, or the Reminiscences oi Rome, and on 
the Papal ceremonies their origin and meaning, the 
publications of the very Rev. Monsignor Baggs en- 
titled the papal chapel , the ceremonies of toe holy 
week and the pontifical mass sung at S. Peter's. 




Octavinn Augustus founds the empire after lite 
victories of Philippi and Actium 3 years before the 
Christian era , and aj his death , after a reign of 44 
years , leayes Tiberius as his successor A. D. XIV. 
A. D. 

1 4 Tiberius, 

3 7 Caligula. 

4i Claudius. 

54 Nero. 

68 Galba. 

69 Otho. 

79 Titus. 

oi Domilian, 

96 Nerra. 

98 Trajan, 
117 Adrian. 
i38 Antoninus Pius. 
161 Marcus Aurehus , Lucius Verus. 
181 Commodus. 
193 Perti n ax. 

Hi dins Jul! anus. 
Septimius Severn s. 
198 Anlonius Caracalla , Geta. 
217 Macrimis, 
ai8 Heliogabalus. 
aaa Alexander Severus, 
a 3 5 Maximinius I. 
a37 Gordianus I and Gordiaiius II. 

Maximus , Balbinus. 
a38 Gordianus 111. 
a44 Philip , father and son. 
349 Deems. 
a5i Callus and Volusianos. 


Chronology of the romaa tmperors. xin 

a53 Kmiliamis. 


G allien us. 
268 Claudius II. 
iJO Aurelian. 
276 Tacitus and Florian, 
376 Probus. 
283 Garus. 

283 Carinas and Numerian- 
9.84 Diocletian. 
386 Maximian. 

3o5 Conslanlius Chlorua and Maximian. 
3o€ Constanline the great. 

3o8 Maximinius II. 

337 Constanline II , Constance and Conslanlius. 
36 1 Julian. 

363 Jovian. 

364 Valentinian I and Valens. 
367 Gralian. 

3j5 Valentinian II. 
379 Theodosius I. 
383 Arcadius. 
3g3 Honorius. 
4oa Theodosius II. 
43 1 Constance II. 
4»5 Valentinian HI. 
45o Marclan. 
455 Avitus. 
457 Majorat! and Leo. 
461 Lucius Sevcrus. 
467 Antliemus. 
470 Olybrius. 

473 Glycerins. 

474 Nepos and Zeno. 

47$ Romulus or Auguslulua, dethroned the following 
year by Odoacer king of the Heruli. With August 
tulus ended the Western empire- 2 




A. D. 

5^ S.Peter oFBeihsais in Galilea established tl, e 
see at Rome. 

65 Lin. Tuscan. 

78 Anaclet. Athenian. 

qi Clement. I. Roman. 

96 Evariste. Greek. 
108 Alexander I. Roman. 
1 19 Sixtus I. Roman. 
128 Tbelesphore. Greek. 
i3q Hrein. Athenian. 
1*2 Pms I. Aquileia. 
1 58 Anicet. Syrian. 
1G8 Soter. Campania. 
177 Kleuthere. Greek. 
iq3 Victor I. African, 
aoa Ztfphyrin. Roman, 
2)8 Callixlus I. Roman. 
saS Urban I, Roman. 
a3o Pontianus. Roman. 
a35 Anlheres. Creek. 
a3G Fabian. Roman. 
af>o Cornelius, Roman. 
a5a Luce 1. Lucca. 
a53 Stephen I. Roman. 
a5n Skins II, Athenian. 
a5q Denis, Greek. 
aCg Fells I. Roman. 
371 Kutychinn. Tuscan. 
2.83 Cains. Dalmatia. 
3o6 Marcellinus. Roman; 
3o8 Marcel I- Roman. 


Chronology of the popes. 

3io Eusebius. Greek. 

Melchiade. African. 
3i4 Silvester. !■ Roman. 

336 Marcus I. Roman, 

337 Julias I. Roman. 
35a Liberiiu. Roman. 
355 Felix II. Roman. 
366 Daraasus I. Spaniard. 
385 Sirice, Roman. 

3g8 Anasiasiua I. Roman. 

4oi Innocent I. Albano. 

Jl? Zostmus I. Greek- 

4io Boniface I, Roman, 

4M Celeslinaa I. Campania. 

Wa Sixtus III. Roman. 

«» Leo I. the great. Tuscan. 

461 lUrio. Sardinia. 

468 Simplex. Tivoli. . 

483 Felii HI. R om a n . 

492 Gelasius I. African. 

496 AnostasiuB II. Roman. 

«8 Symachiia. Sardinia:. 

»'4 Hormisdas Frosinone. 

"3 John I. Tuscan 

S16 Felix IV. Samnile. 

»o Boniface II. Baaaa. 

"a John II. Roman. 

j35 A.eapitl. Roman. 

S36 Silvering. Campania. 

»8 Vigil. Rom „. P 

S5S, I. Kom,». 

M» John III. Roman. 

m Benedict I. Roman. 

S78 Pelagua II. Roman. 

090 Gregory I. or the great. Roman. 

»«4 S.bfnian. Blere. 

&7 Bonilace III. Rime. 

600 Boniface IV. Marae' 


xvi Chronology of the popes. 

61 5 Deutdedit. Rome. 
619 Boniface V. Naples. 
62b Honoring I, Campaaia. 

640 Severinua. Roman. 
John IV. Dalmath. 

64 1 Theodore. Greet. 
649 Martin I. Todi. 
655 Hngeniiisl. Roman. 
65; Vitalian.Segni. 
673 Aileodatus. Roman. 
676 Domnus I. Roman. 
678 Agalhon, Sicily. 
682 Leo II. Sicily. 

684 Benedict II. Ronun. 

685 John V. Syria. 

686 Gonon. Sicily. 

687 Sergiu* I- Syria. 
701 John VI. Greek. 
7 o5 John VII. Greek. 
708 Sisinus. Syria. 

Const a Mine. Syria. 
7i5 Gregory II. Roman. 
73i Gregory III. Syria. 
j4i Zaccharinh. Greek. 
?52 Stephen II. Roman. 

767 Pawl I. Roman. 

768 Stephen III. Sicily. 
772 Adrian I, Roman. 
?9& Leo III. Roman. 
816 Stephen IV. Roman. 
81 7 Pascal I. Roman. 
8a4 Eugenius II. Itoman. 

837 Valentine, Gregory IV. Roman. 

844 Sergius II. Roman. 

847 l ,eo IV. Roman. 

855 Benedict III. Reman. 

858 Nicholas I. Roman. 

867 Adrian II. Roman. 


Chronology of the popes. xvn 

872 John VII). Roman. 

882 Marin 1 or Martin II. Tuscan. 

884 Adrian III. Human. 

885 Stephen V. Roman. 
891 Formose. Roman. 

896 Boniface VI, Slephen VI. Roman. 
§97 Roman I. Tuscan. 
89S Theodore II. Roman. John IX. Tivoli. 
900 Benedict IV. Roman. 

903 Leo V. Ardea, 
Christopher. Roman. 

904 Sergius III. Roman. 
911 Anastasius III. Roman. 

913 Laudon. Sabine. 

914 John X. Ravenna. 

928 Leo VI. Roman. 

929 Stephen VII. Roman. 
931 John XL Roman. 
936 Leo VII. Roman. 

939 Stephen VIII. German.. 

942 Marin II. or Martin III. Roman. 

946 Agapit II. Roman. 

936 John XII. Roman. 

964 Leo VIII. Roman. 

965 John XIII. Roman. 
972 Benedict VI. Roman. 

974 Domnus II. Roman. 

975 Benedict VII. Roman. 
983 John XIV. Italian. 

985 John XV. John XVI. Roman. 

996 Gregory V. Roman. 

999 Silvester II. Aavergno. 
1003 John XVII. Rowan, 
John XVIII. Romas. 
1009 Sergius IV. .Roman. 
1012 Benedict VIII. Roman. 
1024 John XIX. Roman. 
1033 Benedict IX. Roman. 


xvm Chronology of the popet y 

1046 Gregory VI. Roman. 

1047 Clement II. Saxon. 

1048 Damasus II. Bavaria. 

1049 Leo IX. German. 

1055 Vielor II. German. 
1053 Stephen X. Lorraine. 
1058 Nicholas II. Burgundy. 
10-ii Alexander II. Milan. 
1073 Gregory VII. Tuscan. 

1056 Victor 1IL Benevenlo. 
1088 Urban II. Lagery. 
1099 Pascal. II. Tuscan, 

1118 Gclasius II. Gaeta. 

1119 Callislus II. Burgundy. 
1124 Monorius II. Bologna. 
1150 Innocent II- Roman. 

1143 Celeslin II. Tuscan. 

1144 Luce II. Bologna. 

1145 Eugenius III. Pisan. 
1150 Anaslasius IV. Roman. 

1154 Adrian IV, Brtakspeare. England. 

1159 Alexander III. Siena. 

1181 Luce III. Lucca. 

1185 Urban III. CrivelU. Milan. 

1187 Gregorius VIII. Benevento. 

Clement III. Roman, 
1191 Cclcsliu III. Roman. 
1198 Innocent III, Conti. Anagni. 
1216 Honorius HI , Saeelli. Rome. 
1227 Gregory IX , Conti, Anagni. 
1241 Celcstin IV. Milan. 
1243 Innocent IV , Fieichi. Genoa. 
1254 Alexander IV , Conti. Anagni. 
1261 Urban IV. Trove*. 
1264 Clement IV , Foucautd. Languedoc. 
1271 Gregory X. Piacenza. 
12J6 Innocent. V. Savoy. 

Adrian V , Fietch*. Genoa. 


Chronology of Ike pope* six 

John XX or XXI. Portugal. 

127? Nicholas III , Oram. Roman. 
1281 Martin IV, Montpellwr. 
1235 Hooorius IV , Savelli. Boman. 
*287 Nicholas IV. Ascoli. 

1292 Ceieslin V. Neapolitan. 

1293 Boniface VIII , Gaetam. Anagui. 
1303 Benedict XI, Boccatini. Treviso. 
1305 Clement V , He Goulh Gascon*. 
1316 John XXII, D'Euse. Quercj. 
1334 Benedict XII. Foix. 

1342 Clement VI. Limousin. 

1352 Innocent IV. Limousin. 

1362 Urban V , De Grii$ae. Gefaudan. 

1370 Gregory XI, Limousin. 

13; 8 Urbano VI, Prignani. Naples. 

1389 Boniface IX , Tomacelli. Naples. 

1404 Innocent VII , Meliorati. Abbruzii. 

1406 Gregory XII , Cor&rio. Venilian. 

1409 Alexander V , Pkilargo. Crete. 

1410 John XXIII , Cossa Naples. 
1417 Martin V, Colonna. Borne. 

1431 Eugenius IV , Condolmere. Yeniliao. 

1«47 Nicholas V. Sarzaua. 

1455 Cailixius III , Borgia. Spain. 

1458 Pius II , Piccohmini. Siena. 

1464 Paul II, Barbo. Venilian. 

1471 Sixlus IV, De la Rovere. Savons. 

1484 lunocent VIII , Cibo di Melfi. Genoa. 

1492 Alexander VI , Lenxoli Borgia Spain. 

1503 Pius III , Piccolomini. Siena. 

Julius II, De la Rovere. Savona. 
1513 Leo X , Medici. Florence. 

1522 Adrian VI. Holland. 

1523 Clement VII , Medici. Florence. 
1534 Paul III, Farnese Borne. 

1550 Julius III, Del Monte. Borne. 
1555 Marcel II , Cervin. Fano. 


xx Chronology of the poptt 

Paul IV, Caraffa. Naples. 
1559 Pius IV , Medichim. Milan. 
1566 Pins V , Ghittitri. Liguria. 
1572 Gregory XIII, Buoncompagni. Bologna. 
1585 Sixtus V. Peretti. Harca of Aocona. 

1590 Urban VII, Ciutagna. Genoa. 
Gregory XIV, Sfronda*. Cremona. 

1591 Innocent. IX, FacchtwUi, Boiogua. 

1592 Clement VIII, Aldobrandini. Floreaoe. 
1605 Leo XI , Mtdiei W Ottoiano. Florence. 

Paul V , Borghtte. Siena. 
1621 Gregory XV, Ludovisi. Bologna. 
1623 Urban VIII, Borbirim. Florence. 
1644 Innocent X, Pamshili. Rome. 
1655 Alexander VII, Chigi. Siena. 
1667 Clement IX , Rospigliosi. Tuscany. 
1670 Clement X, Altieri. Rome. 
167p Innocent XI , Odeieolehi. Milan.- 
1689 Alexander VIII , OUoboni. Venice. 
1691 Innocent XII, Pignattellu Naples. 
1700 Clement XI , Album. Urbino. 
1721 Innocent XIII, Conti. Rome. 
1724 Benedict XIII, Omni. Rome. 
1730 Clement XII, Coram, Florence. 
1740 Benedict XIV, Lamberttm, Bologna. 
1758 Clement XIII, Resonico. Venillaa. 
1769 ClementXIV, Ganganelli. S. Angelo in Vado. 
1775 Pius VI, Brascki, Cessna. 
1800 Pius VII, Chiaramonti. Cesena. 
1823 Leo XII , Delia Gent/a. Spoleto. 
1829 Pius V11I, Castigltoni. Cingoli. 
1831 Gregory XVI, Cappttlari. Belluno. 
1846 Pius IX, Mattai. SinigaJlia. Born tbe 13 May, 

1792, raised to tbe Papal see tbe 17 June 

1846, crowned the 21 Jane. 







B\rth Death 

ia3o Cimabuc. Florence. i3oo 

ia76 Giotto. Florence. »336 

i4oi Magaccio. Florence. >44a 

■ 43i Bellini. Venice. >5oo 

iliflh Giovanni Bellini. Venice. i5i4 

i4Jo Mantt-gna. Padua. '5o5 
>4i6 Pietro Vanucci , il Perugino. Citta della 

Pieve. i5a4 

■45a Leonardo da Vinci. Tuscany. i5 iq 

i454 Pblnricchio. Perugia. iRla 

i46g Fra BartMomeo di S.Marco. Florence. i5i* 

l4?i Albert Durer. Nuremberg. '5a8 

i4?4 Michael Augelo Buonarott'i. Florence. i564 

1477 T 'l'an Vecelli. Venice. i5?6 

1478 George Barb are Hi, il Giorgione.Caslelfranco.i5n 
■479 Gioranni ttazei , il Sodonia. Vercelli. 1 554 
'48i Ballhasar Pern mi. Sieni 1 536 

Bcnvenuto Tifi , il Garofolo. Ferrara. 1 55q 

'483 Raphael S . Urbino. 1 Sao. 

'4*4 Gio. Licinius , il Poiden one. Venice. i54» 

'465 Sebasliano del Piombo. Venice i54? 

i486 Gio. Frano. Penni , il Fattore. Florence. i5ao 

Andrea del Sarto. ' 53o 

'4no Francesco Primaticcio. Bologna. i57o 

■493 Giulio Pipni , il Romano. 1 536 

'4g4 Antonio Allegri , Correggio. i534 

Mathurin. Florence. *5aS 

Gio. Nannl Udine. ' jt > > 


XXII Catalogue of the artists. 

i4g5 Polydoro Cnldari. Caravaggio. i54a 
i 5oo Pietro Buonacorsr , Pit-rin del Vaga. Tuscany. i 5/(7 

Daniel Ricciarelli. Volierra. i5!>7 

Giacomo Pal ma , il Vecchio. Venice. '568 

j So i Angelo Bronzino. Tuscany. .'^70 

i5io Giacomo Bassano. *5g2 

Francesco Salviati. Florence. i5^3 

i5ia Giacomo Robusti , ilTinloreito. Venice. I ->^)-\ 

Giorgio Vnsari. Areiio. i57£ 

1B28 Frederic Bnroccio. Urbino. 1612 

Jerome Mutinn. Acqiialredda. i5£o 

■ 539 Taddeo ZuCCari. Urbino. I 566 
i53a Paolo Caoliari , il Veronese. iSgg 

■ 643 Frederic Zuccari. Urbino. '609 
tS44 Giacorno Palma , il Giovano. Venice. 162.6 
i55o Scipio Pulsoni. Gaeta. i588 

Domenico Passignani. Florence. 1638 

Francesco Bassano. 1 5g*> 

ia55 Luigi Garacci. Bologna. 1610 

1 556 Paul Brill. Antwerp. i6»6 

i557 Fra Cosimo Pi area. Castelfraneo. 1611 

Ventura Salimbeni. Siena. 16 13 

1 558 Agosiino Garacci. Bologna. i6or 

■ 56o Michael Angelo. Caravaggio, '^°*5 

Annibale Garacci. Bologna. t6o9 

Giuseppe Cesai-i , il Gav>liere d' Arpino. 16S0 

G10. De Vecchis. Florence. 16:0 

i563 Raphael. Kcgeio di Modeoa. i6»o 

i565 Francis Vaoni. Siena. i609 

1670 Bartolomeo Schedoni. Modeos. i6i5 

1&75 Guido Reni. Bologna. i64» 

i5y 7 Pierre Paul Rubej.s. Cologne. i64o 

l5(li DomeoicoZampieri,iiDomenicliino Bologna. 16/j [ 

Gio. Ltd franc. Parma. 16^7 

■ 585 Massimo Slanrioni. Naples. i656 

Carlo Saraceni. Venice. i6a5 
i588 Giuseppe Ribera, lo Spagnofetlo. Xalira. i65q 
1B90 Gio. Franc. Barbieri , il Gnereino. Cento. 1666 


Catalogue of the arlitU. xxiu 

i iig'j Gerard Hontorst , Gherardo dalle Nolti. 

Utrecht. i66x 

a5g4 Nicholas Poussin. Des Aodelys. i665 

1 S96 Fietro Berrettini. Cortona. 1669 

1399 Antoine Vandyck. Aulwerp. i64i 

1600 Andrea Sacclii. Nettuno. 1661 

Claude Gellee. Loraine. 1680 

Pierre Valentin. France. i63a 

1603 Michel An»clo Cerquoxzi. Rome. 1660 

1606 Rembrandt. Leydeo. 1674 

1610 Jean Both. France. 1630 

1613 Pietro Franc. Mola. Lugano. i(i6» 

Luca Giordano. Naples. 1 -ol 
i6i3 Gaspar Duquet, Caspar Pousain. Home. 1675 

Matthias Prett , il Calabrese. '699 

161 5 Salyator Rosa. Naples. 1673 

1616 Benedetto Casligljone. Genoa. 1670 

1617 Pietro Testa. Lucca. 1633 
Gio. Franc Romanelli. Vitetbo. ifiSa 

1618 Bartolomeo Murillo. Siviglia. 168a 
i6ai Jacques Courtois, Burgundy. 1676 
i6'„3 Giacinto Brand!. Poli. 170! 
i6a5 Carlo Maralta. Camerano. 171} 
1638 Carlo Cignani. Bologna. r 7'9 
i634 CiroFerri. Rome. 1689 
i638 Luigi Garzi.Pittoia. 1731 
i643 Pierre Molyu , il Tempesla. Haarlem. 1701 
a656 Fraoe. TreYtsani. Rome. 1 j[fi 
i5St Franc. Solimena. Naples. '747 
i658 Gio. Gaulli , il Bacictio. Genoa. 1 709 
1684 Marco Benefiale- Rome. 1764 
4699 Pierre SuMeyras. Uzes. 1747 
1 70U Pompeo B:ittuni- Lucca. 1787 
1 738 Raphael Menge. Saxony. 1 779 
1791 Antonio Cavallucci. Sermons-la. 179S 
1776 Giuseppe BoBsi. Arsizio. 1814 


xxiv Catalogue of the artists. 


Donatello. Florence. 

Sirnone , his brolher. Florence. 
i47 i Michel Angelo BonaroUi. Florence, 
i477 GiacomoTatti. Sansovino. 
1487 Baccio Baodinelli. Florence. 
i5oo Benvenuto Cellini. Florence. 

Gnglielmo dells Porta. Milan. 
i5a4Gio. Bologna. Dooai. 
i&5i Pielro Paolo Olivieri. Rome- 
1 55y Amhrogio Bomicino. Milan. 
1 56a Pielro Berr.ini. Sesto. 
l567 Nicholas Cordier. Lorraine. 
■ S69 Paolo Gui Jotto. Lucca. 
J 376 Stefano Maderno. Lotnbardy. 
i58o Franc. Mocclii. Monterarchi. 
1590 Jacques Sarat-in. JNojon. 
1 594 Francis de Queanoy, Brussels. 
i598 Gio. Lorenzo Bernini. Naples. 
1603 Gmliano FinellL Carrara. 

Ali'ssaudi-o Algardi. Bologna. 

Jean Theudon. France. 
]6o5 Andrea Bulgi. Carrara. 
1608 Lazzaro Morelli. Ascdi. 
1610 Ercolo Ferrata. Pelsoito. 
1614 Paolo Naldini. Rome. 
I (in) Gioromo Fancelli. Rome. 
1624 Antonio Raggi. Milan* 
i6a8 Domenico duidi. Massa. 
l644 Giuseppe Mazzuoli. VolteiTa. 
1 656 Pierre Legros. Paris, 
iC58 CamilloRusconi. Milan. 

Pierre Nonot. Orcham. 
1671 Angelo Rossi. Genoa. 
1705 Michel Ange Slodtx. Paris. 
1740 Houdon. Paris. 
1757 Antonio Cano^a. Possagno. 


Catalogue of the artists. xxv 


iagi Stefnno Muncclo II. i38g 

"3oo Taddeo Gaddi. Florence. i35o 

"3 77 Filippo Bnmelleschi. Florence, i 1.J4 
i3qtt Gio. Batlista Alberli. Florence. 

'4o7 Giuliano De Majano. Florence. 1477 

Bernardo Rowel I in i. Florence. 

Baccio Pinlelli. Florence. 
i435 Fra Giocondo. Verona. 

i443 Giuliano Giamberli. Saneallo. i5ij 

■ 444 Bramanle Lazzeri. Urbino. i5 ( 4 

Antonio Picconi. 3angullo. i5A(J 

1 454 Simone PalUiuolo, Florence, 1 S09 

■ 4do Andrea Gontncci. Monte Sanaovino. i5a9 
l4?4 Michel Angelo Bnonarotti. Florence. 064 

■ 476 Girolamo Genga. Urbino. 1 S21 
i4"9 Giacomo Tall! , or Sansovino. Ttucany. 1570 
i48i BaldasaarPemzzi. Siena. i536 

Sebastiano Seilio. Bologna. i5->a 

"583 Raphael Sanzio. Urbino. 1630 

"484 Michele Sammicheli. Verona. i55t) 

'4ga Giulio Pippi , or Romano. Rome. i54o" 

PyrrhoLigorio. Naples. 1 5tf 

>5o 7 Giacomo Barozzi. Vignola. i* ? 3 

i5ii Bartolomeo Ammannti. Florence. l586 

i5i8 Bartolomeo Genga. Urbino. 1558 

Andrea Palladio. Vicenw 1 58o 

Francesco di Volterra. i588 

i5 3a PelWro Pellegrioi. Bologna. i5ga 

i54oGio. Fonlana. Como. 161 1 

> 543 Domenico Fonlana. Como. 16*17 

Giacomo della Porta. Borne. 

1SS1 Pieiro Paolo Olivieri. Rome. i5qq 

i55a Vincenzo Scamozr.i. VioeoH. 16IG 

1556 Carlo Maderno. Bisso near Como. 1669 

Martino Longhi. Milanese. 

i55y Carlo Lombard i. Arezzo. 1G20 


xxvi Catalogue of the artittt. 

i55g Luigi Cai-Ji. Cingoli. i6i3 

Flaminio Ponzio. Lombardy. 

i56fj Onorio Lunghi. Milanese. 1619 

1570 Girolamo Rainaldi. Rome. i65S 

Martino Lunghi. Milanese 1657 

1 53 1 Gio. Baltista Soria. Rome. >65i 

1696 Pietro Berrellini. Cortona. "669 

1598 Gio. Lorenzo Bernini. Naples. > 680 

1599 Francesco Borromini. Bisso near Como. 1667 
1 602 Algardi. Bologna. 1 654 
1611 Carlo Rainaldi. Rome. i64l 
i6i3 Claude Perranlt. Paris. 1688 
1616 Gio. Ant De Rossi. Rome. 1695 
1 634 C ailo Fontana. Como. 1 7 1 4 
1637 Matthias He Rossi. Rome 169S 
i64a Andrea Poszi. Treoto. "709 
i653 Antoinc DesgodeU. Paris. 1728 
1659 Francesco Gaddi Bibiena. Bologna. '7^9 
1677 Girobmo Teodoli. Rome. 1 766 
1681 Antonio Canisvari. Rome. 

1691 Alessandro G alii lei. Florence. 1737 

1699 Ferdinando Fuga. Florence. 

1 689 Nicholas SaUi. Rome. 1 75' 

1700 Luigi Vanvitelli. Rome. 1773 
1 708 Paolo Posi. Siena. 1 776 
■ 7^7 Antonio Canova. Possagno. iQza 




used in noNB 

Palmo architectural yiz = 1 2 ounces 

tes = 0, 6877 of the Paris foot. 

The fof.t = 0. 

firaccio = 2, 

Slaiolo = 3, 954. 

Passo = 4, 585. / < - f' 

Canaa = 6, 877. " '" ' """ 

Catena = 39, 54. 

The mile = feet 4584. 

The ancient roman mile was divided into 1000 step* 

or £000 feet, and was the 75lh part of a 

Since 1320 the french system has been in practice; 

the metre is called the canua architettonica. 

Quartnccio = 0, i 1 30, 8 of the french acre. 


= 0, 2262. 


= 0, 5170. 


= 0, 9047. 


= 3, 619. 


= 0, 2090. of the Paris ell. 


= 0, 7141. 


= 1, 674. 


xxviii Weights, measures and monies. 


Barrel=32bocali,=128 foglielte,=1,i3/i8 roman 
cubic foot. 
= 47, 80 pints of Paris. 
Hogshead = 1 6 barrels, = 764, 9 pints. 


Bocalo = 4 foglictle,= 16 quartucce , =1, 992 

Barrel «= 28 bocali, = 2 i/t 18 cubic feet, ='55,77 



Quart arella = J, 5/£scorzo,= 2,631 bushels. 
Quarla = 5, 262 bushels. 
Rubbio = 640 roman pounds, = 10, a/18 cu- 
bic feet, 

= 21, 05 bushels. 


The pound=12 ounces, = 24 deniers , = 576 

= 0, 6929 Paris pound. 
Decina = 1 pounds, = 7, 077 french pounds. 


According to a government regulation of 10 
January 1 835 the following proportion has been es- 
tablished between gold and silver. 

A pound of gold is worth 216 piastres, 22 ba- 
joccliiand 9 denari. 


Weights, nuaiuret and monies, xxix 

A poasd of silver 1 3 piasters, 73 bajocchi, 9 
denari and o/\ o. The monies of the country are ba- 
sed on (he decimal system. 


5 = 1 



5 = 1 



10 = 1 



100 = 1 


copper monies are. 


= 0,01 0* 

a franc. 


= 0,054( 

or 5 




5 bajocchi = 0, 




= 0, 




= 1, 





» = 1, 



i/» Piastre 50 

= 2, 





= 5 t 




Gold monies are divided into two classes, those 
decreed by Governement in 1 836 called the new 
wins are divided into pieces of 1 0, 5 and 2 ■/> dol- 
lars. The old coins were also originally decimal but 
(heir value has been successively changed; the sequin 
is now worth 2 dollars and 2 pauls , the doppia dol- 
l*w 3, 21. Compared with french money their va- 
lue is: 

'/a Sequin coined since 1758= 6, 
Sequin d. =12, 024. 

'ADoppia » 1755 = 8, 7452. 

Doppia * » = 16, 7998. 


xxx Weights, measures and monies. 

The foreingn coins current in the state are. 

Germany Dollars = 0, 95 bajocchi. 
Austria » s 1, 04. 
Grown of Milan = 0, 83. 
New d. = 0, 95. 
Spain. Colo no a to } . 

V ,/* Culonnato { Bam0 Talue M romaocoT0 ' 
France. Ecu de 6 livres = 1, 06. 
5 francs piece = 0, 92. 

Parma. 5 livres = 0, 92. 

Piemont 5 » =0, 92. 

Naples. Piece of 120 grana = 0, 93. 
Tuscany. Francescone = 1, 02 i/i 


Germany. Ducat of different states=2, 1 6. 

Austria. Hungary 






Sequin of Milan 



Spaiu. Pezzeila before 1786 


» after 



Doubloon before do. 



o after 



France. Louis d' or before 1 785 









Parma. Piece of livres 20 



Portugal. Lisbonina. 



Piemont. Pistole of Genoa. 

= '» 





Piece of livres 1 



Naples. Ounce from 1818 



Tuscany, Sequin. 







i. At 1 o high mass in the Si Kline chapel in presence of 
the pope, the cardinals »nd the pontifical court. 

5. Vespers id the same chapel at 3 P.M. 

6. epiphany! At io high mass as above; at 4 procession 

in the church of Aractcll 
i j. Festival of S. Antonio at his church near S. Maria 

Mangiore. Blessing of horses and other animals. 
ife\ Chair ofS. Peter; at loponlificalchapelalS. Peter's. 


3. Purification of the Madonna. At io pontifical chapel 
in the Apostolic palace in which the candles urn 
blessed and distributed. - During lent pontifical 
chapel at the Vatican every Sunday; on ash wed' 
nestlar the blessing and distribution of ashes. 


7. Festival of S. Thomas Aqutnas at the Minerva; the 

holy college of cardinals is present nt high mass. 
9 Festival of S. Franceses Romana at her church near 
the arch of Tilus, 


XXXU Ecclesiastical ceremonies. 

a5. Annunciation of the B Virgin. The pane and car- 
dinals are present at high moan at the Minerva) pro- 
cession of young girls who have received a dowry 
from the fraternity of the Annunciation. 


Palm Sunday. The pope blesses and distributes palms 
in the bixtine chapel ■ high mass. The ceremony 

b at 1/2 past 9. 
Wednesday . About 5 Miserere in the Sixtine chapel. 
Tluirsday. High mass in the same chapel ; the pope do- 

f loses the holy Sacrament in the Paolina chapel ; 
irom the balcony of the Vatican he reads the bull 
in Coena Domini, gives his blessing to the people; 
washes the feet and serves at table twelve poor 
priests of different nations. At 5 o' clock Miserere 
in the Sixtine chapel. Alter sun set the pontifical 
altar in S. Peter's is washed. 
Friday. At 1/2 past 9 the ceremony takes place in the 

Sixtine chapel in presence of the pope and cardi- 
nals. In the afternoon the office and Miserere as on 
the preceding days. In many churches and oratories 
is celebrated the three hours agony in commemo- 
ration of the three hours that Christ passed on the 

Saturday. At the church of S. John Later an baptism of 
Jews and Turks newly converted; holy orders 
granted to those who are destined to the ecclesias- 
tical profession. Houses blessed. 

Raster. The pope himself celebrates mass at S. Pe- 
ter's at 10 o clock, at 12 he gives his blessing from 
the balcony of the facade. 

Monday, tuesday and Sunday following, pontifical cha- 
pel in the apostolic palace. 


Eecchsiastical ceremonies. xxxm 


^5. Festival of S. Mark llie evangelist , at his church 
palaizo <li Yenezia. At 8 o'clock a procession of all 
the clergy repairs from this church to S- Peter's to 
implore the pardon of sins , for this reason it is 
colled Lilanise maiores. 


3. festival of S. Athaoasias, bishop of Alexandria and 
doctor of the church. High mass according to Hie 
service of the greek church at S. Athanasiiu vis 

26. Festival of S. Filippo Neri the apostle of Home 
Pontifical chapel at the Chiesa Nuoyn; tho pope 
and sacred college ire present. 

On Ascension day the pope repairs to S. John Lateran 
and after mass gives his blessing to the people. 

At Pentecost papal chapel at 1 o at the apostolic palace 
or at S. Maria Maggiore. Id the afternoon females 
are permitted to visit the subterranean church of 
S. Peter's at the Vatican. 

Corpus Domini, at 8 o' clock commences the proces- 
sion of the holy Sacrament attended by the pope, 
the cardinals and all the clergy at Rome. During 
this and the following days processions take place 
in different parts of the town; those of S. John 
Lateran the following Sunday and thuraday, or of 
octave, are attended by tho pope and cardinals. 


a4- Festival of S. John Baptist. High mass at 10 
o'clock at S. John Lateran in presence of the pope 
and cardinals, 


xxxiy Eeccltsiasttcat ceremonies. 

38. Eve of the festival of SS. Peler and Paul. Al 6 

pontifical vespers at S. Peter's. The subterraneous 
church is opened to the piety ofthe faithful. 

i/i- Chapel of cnrdinabj at the Santi Apoatoli, in honour 

of S. Bonaventure. 
3 1 . Grand festival at the Geaii in honour of S. Ignatius. 


1 . Festival at S. Pietro in Vincoli. At the church on the 
Esijuiline the chains of S. Peter are exposed du- 
ring eight days to public veneration. 

i5. Assumption of the B. Virgin. High pontifical miss 
at S. M. Major followed by the blessing from the 


8. Nativity of the B. Virgin. High mass in presence of 
the pope and cardinals at S. Maria del Popolo- 


1. Pontifical mats at the Vatican at 10 o' clock. At 3 
vespers for the deceased. 

a. Tins day, sacied in the catholic church to the memory 
of the deceased, the pope and cardinals are present 
at high mass in the SUtine chapel. On the 3d and 
5th functions are celebrated at the palace for the 
deceased popes and cardinals- Passages from scri- 
pture or frost ecclesiastical history analogous to 
the subject , are represented in wax in different 
churches, particularly at S. Maria in Trastevere, 
at the hospital of Santo Spin to, the Consolation e, 


Ecclesiastical ceremonies. xxxv 

at the church of la Morte in via Ginlia and 
S. John Lateran. 
/|. Festival of S. Carlo Borromeo; the pope and cardi- 
nals repiiir lo the church of S.Carlo in ihe Corso- 
where high mass is celebrated at 10 o'clock 


The first Sunday of Admit, papal chapel at the Vati- 
can at 10 o'clock. After the service the pope car- 
ries the holy Sacrament in profession and exposes 
it in the Pauline chapel which is illuminated with 
wax candles. 
Each snnday of Advent papal chapel at the apostolic 

8. Conception of the B. Virgin- High mass in the papal 
chapel- At 4 o'clock procession from the church nf 
Aracoel'i which crosses a part of the forum. 

i!\. Christmas eve. Vespers in the papal chapel. About 
8 in the evening midnight mass is celebrated in 
presence of the pope and cardinals. 

a5. At 3 in the morning high mass commences at S. Ma- 
ria Magoiore and the holy cradle is exposed all day 
ou the high altar. At io high mass by the sove- 
reign pontiff either at this church or at S. Peter's. 
From this day till the ist January the birth of 
our Saviour is represented in figures in dfferent 
churches ; that of Aracrehis the most interesting, 

s6. Papal chapel at io in honour of S. Stephen. 

37. Th:> same in honour of S. John the evangelist. 

39. Festival of S. Thomas bishop of Canterbury at 

his church near the palazzo FarneBe. 
Grand vespers at the Vatican in the Sixtine chapel. 
At the church of the Gesii a solemn Te Deutn is 
sung "in presence of the holy college and magistrates 

,. Google 

bankers — The oldest banking establishments 
for English and American travellers in Rome are ; 
Hess. Torlonia and G. Piazza di Venezia. 
Mess. Freeborn and C. No. 7. Via Condolli. 
agents for packing and forwarding works 
of art. etc. 
Mess. Freeborn and C Mo. 7. Via Condotli. 
Mr. W. Jackson No. 38. Via del Babuino, Agent 
of Mr. Cbinnery No. 67. Lower Thames Street; 

language masters — For the Italian lan- 
guage and literature Sig. G. Brocchi,Sig. L. Rossi, 
Signore Kuseltj and Rinaldini; — for the French 
Mr, Bcssiere , Mad. Riualdini; — for the German 
Mr. Hofler. 

These are the professors recommended and 
to be beard of at Monaldini's Library. 

wine merchants — Sneid and 0. No. 7. 
Via Condolli. Wine Depot in the court yard. 


The mails arrive on mon Jays, tueadays, thursdays, 
fndays and Saturdays and letters are delivered between 

The departures take place the same days; the post 
office is open for the receipt of letters until 3; on Sa- 
turdays until 5 o'clock. 

The Vatican and Capitol galleries are opsn to lite 
public < n monduys aod thursdays at the ao Italian hour 
viz: i o'clock in winter and 4 >n summer. 

Tickets are necessary for admission to the egyptian 
and elruscan galleries at the Vatican ; these are ob- 
tained by application to the respective ministers and 
consuls or to the director of Monaldini's Library. 

The private galleries are open daily to the pu- 
blic (festivals excepted) from lo till a o'clock. 




/xpproacbing Borne from Viterbo on the 
ancient Cassian way, or from Civita Caatellana 
on the Flaminian , the Tiber is crossed on a 
bridge called « Ponte Molle » about two milea 
distant from the city . In ancient times it 
was called Motrins , or Milvius . The modern 
name is evidently a corruption of the word Mot- 
rins , the name of an adjacent hill. By som« 
writers it is said to hare been built fry Emi- 
lias Scaarus and that the word Milrias is' de- 
rived from vEmilius , bat it is known that lb.> 
bridge existed a century before Scauros and (hat, 
according to Pliny , the population flocked to 
it in the middle of the VI century of Rome, 
to meet the messengers who brought tidings of 
the victory gained by the Consuls over Asdra- 
bal at the Metaurus, which may be consider- 
ed as haying put an and to the second Panic 


2 First day 

war. It is not, however, improbable lhat the 
bridge was subsequently restored by Scaurus. 

The arrest of the Allobrogi Envoys implica- 
ted in Catiline's conspiracy , and the battle 
fought in its vicinity , between Constantino and 
Maxentius, have given to it a certain celebrity. 
A part of the bridge is ancient. In the mid- 
dle of the XV century it was restored by Pope 
Nicholas V, and in 1 805 by Pius VII, when the 
statues of S. John and of the Conception were 
erected on the side towards Rome. Those re- 
presenting our Saviour and S. John Baptist were 
raised subsequently. The old tower was redu- 
ced to the form of a Roman arch, by Valadier. 
On the left of the road leading to Rome is 
a small round temple decorated with a statue 
of S. Andrew, and built by Pius D on the spot 
where he received that apostle's bead when 
it was brought to Rome from the Peloponesus. 
A mile further on is the church built by 
Julius III in memory of S. Andrew, and of the 
Pope's liberation from the Imperialists in 1 527. 
It is by Vignola , and its architecture is con- 
sidered as one of the best of modern Rome. 
The Casino called Papa Gtulio , was also built 
by Vignola. 

In the larger palace to the left are some 
fine fresco paintings by Zuccari. Under Leo XII 
it was used as a veterinary school ; the vicis- 
situdes of the times, the state of neglect in which 
the building was left during several years, have 
caused great injury to its various ornaments. 
Adjoining it is the " Arco Scuro"; a mi 
and a half distant is a spring of mineral wa- 
ter called s Acelosa » from its acid flavour; a 


,. Google 



First day 3 

building was raised on the spot by Alexander VII 
on the designs of Bernini. 

Further' on- to the. left is the villa for- 
merly of Prince PoniaLosky with a casino built 
by Valadier. -'■ 

Approaching the gate is the Villa Borghese, 
the entrance to which is through an elegant 
structure by » Carina , » imitated from the 
Temple of Minerva j at Priene. 


When the Emperor Honorius .rebuilt the 
'alb in 402, a gate was opened in this direct- 
ion and called the Flaminian gate. It was on 
the top of the hill in a strong bul ; inconvenient 
position. Between the VI and VIII century , it 
was transferred to its present spot and in the XV 
century it assumed the name of Porta del Popolo 
from the adjoining church of St.Maria del Popolo. 
Under Pius IV in 1 561 the external facade was 
decorated by Vignola on the designs of Michael 
Angelo Buonaroti - This decoration consists of 
four doric columns two of granite, and two 
of veined marble i between the columns are the 
statues of S. Peter and S, Paul of inferior sculp- 
ture by b Hochi » The internal facade was 
reduced to the present form in 1655 under 
Alexander VII by ■ Bernini , when queen Christi- 
na of Sweden entered Rome - It leads to the 


/? This large and splendid Piazza announces 
to the traveller his entrance into the metropo- 

,. Google 

4 First day 

lis of religion, of arts, and of the ancient Ro- 
man world. 

Between two large semicircles stands a su- 
perb Egyptian Obelisk; on the sides are four 
buildings of the same style of architecture; on 
the right the Custom house, the exposition room 
of the fine arts, the barracks behind which is the 
public slaughter house. On the left the August- 
iniau convent ; the other two are private hou- 
ses , all built by Valadier. The semicircles are 
embellished with fountains furnished by the 
aqueduct of the acqua Vergine , and adorned 
with groups by Ceccarini, one representing 
Rome between the Tiber and the Anio; the other 
Neptune between two Tritons; ou the four pe- 
destals which terminate the semicircles, are tha 
seasons: Spring by Gnaccarini; Summer by La- 
boureur; Autumn hy Stocchi; Winter by EainL 
In front of the gate, between two churches 
of a similar design , and adorned with a telra 
style pronaus, three spacious streets lead to the 

The obelisk is placed on a quadrangular 
base with four lions of modern work in 
the Egyptian style at the angles, which poor 
water into four cups. It is of red granite co- 
vered with hieroglyphics, and with the pedestal 
is 145 palms high, without it 108. It was ori- 
ginally raised by Rhamses , the Sesostris of (he 
Greeks , at Heliopolis in Lower Egypt, to serves 
as a decoration to the temp% -of the Son to 
which the obelisk itself was dedjj&led. After the 
battle of Actium and the conquest of Egypt, Au- 
gustus ordered it to be carried to Rome and 
placed on the spina of the Circus Haximus, re- 


First day 5 

■owing its dedication to the Son as we read on 
the pedestal. In 1 587 Siitus V excavated it from 
the ruins of the Circus where it was found bro- 
ken in to three parts, and after its restoration 
raised it in its present place under the direction 
of the architect Domenico Fontana. As Rome 
is the richest city in these kinds of monuments, it 
is not unnecessary to observe that obelisks were 
erected by the ancient kings of Egypt prior to tbe 
conquest of that country by the Persians under 
Cambyses ; the example of the Pharaohs was 
followed by the Ptolemies and the Romans; these 
monuments may thns be ascribed to three 
different periods. Of those existing at Rome three 
only are of the first period : (hose of the Piaz- 
M del Popolo , of Hootecitorio and of the La- 
teran; these are easily recognized by the deli- 
cate work of the hieroglyphics, by the names 
which are inscribed on them and which , after 
the late discoveries, are no longer an enigma; the 
obelisks without hieroglyphics never belonged 
to tbe period of the Pharaohs, . they are gener- 
ally the work of the Romans. 


K According (o the generally received tradi- 
tion' this church, was built about 1099 by Pope 
Pascal II to liberate the people from the 
phantoms and nocturnal visions attributed in 
'hose limes of ignorance to the dead body of 
Nero which , -according to SvetOnius , was 
Wied on the collis hortulornm now the Pin- 
f*», in the tomb of the Domitii. In 1227 it 
■ Mid to have been rebuilt by the Roman peo- 


6 First day 

pie from whom il derived the appellation subse- 
quently extended to the adjoining gate and piaz- 
za. The facade was raised under Sixtus IV by 
Baccio PintelH. Agostino Ghigi and others deco- 
rated this church which maybe considered as one 
of the most important in Rome particularly for the 
sculptures and carvings of the XV and XVI cen- 

The interior is divided into three naves. In 
the first chapel from the right entrance, dedi- 
cated to the Virgin and to S. Jerome by Cardi- 
nal Domenico delta Boverc, the paintings by Piti- 
turicchio are remarkable by the lightness and 
delicacy of the contours. The second , the Cibo 
chapel, was built in the shape of a greek cross, 
the vestibule in front has rendered it a latin 
cross. It contains sixteen corinthian columns of 
Sicilian Jasper, and is lined with Phrygian and 
Thessalic marble and with alabaster. It is one 
of the richest chapels of Rome, and was built 
by Cardinal Alderano Cibo who died in 1700; 
his tomb is on the left side , the architecture is 
by Foutana.The painting on the left represents the 
martyrdom of S.Lorenzo by Morandi,on the right 
that of S. Catherine by Daniel; over the altar 
Carlo Maratta has represented the conception of 
the Virgin with S. John, S. Gregory, 5. August- 
ine and S. Ambrogio. The cupola , of a fine 
proportion , was painted by Gozzo. 

The third chapel built by Sixtns IV and 
dedicated to the Virgin and to other Saints 
was painted by Pinturicchio ; it has an elegant 
balustrade. On the altar of the fourth chapel 
is a basso rilievo of S. Catherine with S. An- 
tonio of Padua and S. Vincent, a well execa- 


Firtt day 7 

ted work of the XY century. The ancient pic- 
ture of the Virgin placed over the high altar is 
one of those that are said to have been painted 
by Si Luke. 

The painting under the cross of the choir 
is by Piuturicchio ; the two fine marble tombs 
ornamented with statues and fine earrings by 
Saiisoyino , are considered to be the best spe- 
cimens of modern ornaments in Rome , both iu 
tbeir design and execution. The assumption in the 
following chapel is a fine work of Annibal Ca- 
racci ; the side paintings representing the cru- 
cifixion of S. Peter and the conversion of S. Paul, 
are by Caravaggi; those of the roof designed by 
the same artist, are by Taccooi and Novarra. 

The chapel of the crucifixion, belonging to 
the Soderini family, suffered so much from damp 
and neglect that the fine frescoes, on the walls 
had nearly disappeared. They hare beeu resto- 
red in 1825 when the chapel came into pos- 
session of the Soderini, and represent the dis- 
covery and exaltation of the cross. 

The Chigi chapel was designed by Raphael 
who made the cartoons for the mosaic of the cu- 
pola, the paintings of the freize,and the picture 
over the altar which was begun by Sebastian del 
Piombo and finished by Francesco Salviati who 
painted the remainder of the chapel, excepting 
the David aqd Aaron in the lunettes, which were 
coloured by Vanoi. These paintings have been 
greatly injured by damp. In the angles of this 
splendid chapel are four statues : Daniel in the 
lion's den, Abacuc and the angel; the tombs of 
Agostino and Sigismondo Chigi are by Bernini. 
The statue of Elias, that of Jonas seated on the 


8 First day 

whale, by Lorenzelto; (he Jonas is highly esteem- 
ed from having been modelled by Raphael 
and executed tinder his direction. On the right 
pilaster of the adjoining arch is the tomb of 
the -Princess Odescalchi Chigi, designed by Paolo 

This church contains many curious sepulch- 
ral monuments of various epochs. Near the 
right door one with two portraits in oil 
by Rosa; Opposite the Gibo chapel that of the 

Sainter Gaspard Celio, with a portrait of Car- 
inal Albani, the sculpture by Valsado ; in the 
third chapel that of Alberloni; in the left nave 
that of Monsignor Rondanini designed and exe- 
cuted by Domenico Guidi; that of Erraola Bar- 
baro a distinguished scholar of the XV century. 
Near to the left door that of Gislemi a painter and 
architect by Quaranta; within the transept those 
ofCardinals Lonato and Podocatario. 

Near the entrance door of the convent are 
various monuments of the XV and XVI centu- 
ries; one of Bernardino Anglona Helvino minister 
of Paul III said to be by Guglielmo della 
Porta. In the sacristy is a painting on wood of 
the school of Giotto, found iu 1810 in excavat- 
ing the Pincio , and several other monuments 
of a fine style of sculpture. 

races introduced under Paul II; it is the prin- 
cipal street of Rome and forms a atraightline 
a mile in length to (he foot of the Capitol. It has 
been embellished under Leo XII, Pins VIII, and 
the present Pope Gregory XVI. 


Pint day f 

The eutrance to it is between two churches 
of the same style of architecture by .Rainaldi. 


*VThis church and the one opposite were be- 
gun hi i 662 by order of Alexander VU and finished 
by Cardinal Castaldi under the direction of Ber- 
nini , on the designs of Rainaldi. 

Iu the first chapel there formerly existed 
four line paintings by Salvalor Rosa ; the two 
largest represented Christ in his agony and Ha- 
bacucco with the angel, which had been placed 
here by Rossi, the intimate friend of that distin- 
guished painter. They hare disappeared and fonr 
modern very inferior pictures nave been substi- 
tuted in their place. The stucco works are by 
Papaleo, a Sicilian. In the third chapel is a holy 
family by Nicholas Berettoni a pupil of Marat te. 

The stuccoes are by Naldini. On the sides 
of the high altar are the busts of Popes Alex- 
ander VII, Clement IX, Innocent XI, placed by 
Cardinal Gastaldi as a mark of his gratitude to 
(hose pontifis ; they are by Lucenti. 

In the third chapel to the left is a picture 
representing S. Francis and S. James before the 
Virgin , the work of Carlo Maratte ; the side 
paintings are by Gazzi and Daniel; the following 
chapel is adorned with paintings relative lo the 
history of S. Maddalena dV Pazzi, by Gemignani; 
the stuccoes were modelled by Carcani , the 
picture oyer the altar is by Puccini. 


10 First day 


This church, designed by Rainaldi, was built 
under the direction of Carlo Fontana. 

The picture representing S. Anthony on the 
left entrance is by Gaascard. The four angels 
supporting the picture of the Madonna are by 
Raggi. The bronze busts on the Gastaldi tombs 
are by Lucenti, the two rirtues, hope and pru- 
dence , and the genii supporting the Gastaldi 
arms, are by Razzi. 

The statues of faith and charity by Lucenti. 
The ceiling was painted by Michel Aagelo of 
Malta; that in the adjoining chapel represent- 
ing S. Rosalia, by Sottino of Palermo. 

Following the Corso,to the right is the Ron- 
danini palace which once contained a fine col- 
lection of ancient monuments some of which are 
still in the yard and on the stair case. On the 
left is 


'/Built in 1640 by the reformed Augnstinians 
on the designs of Carlo Milanesi and finished by 
Monsignor Bolognetti , bishop of Rieti , under 
the direction of Rainaldi who raised the facade, 
and filled the interior with line marbles and 
gilt stuccos which render it one of the richest 
churches of Rome. It contains several tombs of 
the Bolognetti family. The painting over the high 
altar and those on the ceiling, are by Brandi. 
In. the sacristy the altar piece and frescoes are 
by Lanfranc. 


First day 


]\ So called from the adjoining hospital. It was 
founded, together with the hospital, in 1 33S by 
Cardinal Colonna when the name « in Augusta» 
was added from the neighbouring Mausoleum of 

It was rebuilt in 1600 by Cardiual Salviati 
or the designs of Francesco da Tolterra and fin- 
ished by Carlo Maderoo. la the second chapel 
on the right is a bas relief by Legros represent- 
ing S. Francis de Paule praying to the Virgin 
for the cure of some sick person; this work is 
well executed though of indifferent composition. 
The paintings near it represent subjects rela- 
ting to the same saint by Passeri. 
[ In the adjoining Ticolo S. Giacomo, is the 
•'! studio once occupied by Canora who contri- 
i bated so much to the restoration of sculpture. 
i The studio now belongs to bis pupil Bihaldi , 
| a distinguished artist. Following the Corso, on 
■ the left is the via Vittoria in which is the Ur- 
suline church and convent built in 1 684 by Laura 
Duchess of Modena , and enlarged about the 
middle of last century by Benedict XIV. Female 
children arc educated by the ladies of this 

Returning into the Corso', on the right 
is the 


X Commenced in 1612 by the Lombards on 
the designs of Lunghi. At bis death it was con- 

■„■ Google 

12 fir it Jay 

firmed by his son , and the interior finished 
by Pietro da Cortona. The front was built by 
Menicucci and Canepina a capuchin, to the ex- 
clusion of several architects one of whom was 

The interior is composed of three naves di- 
vided by corinthian pilasters and ornamented 
with paintings and gilt stuccoes. 

The chapel to the right under the cross 
built by Poli is the finest, being decorated with 
marble , gilt bronze works , and sculptures. 
The picture over the altar , representing in 
mosaic the conception of the Madonna, is a 
copy from theCarloMaratta in the church of S.Ma- 
ria del popolo. Tbe statue of David on the right 
is by Pacilli, the Judith on the left by Lebrun. 
These works have all the defects of the period 
and when placed in comparison with (hose of 
Canova, the merit of this great artist cannot be 
too highly appreciated in having brought the art 
back to its true principles in the midst of such 

I The high altar piece representing S. Char- 

les presented by the Madonna to our Saviour is 
also by Maratte and is considered as one of his 
best works. 

The paintings of the large nave , of the 
tribune and chapel, are by Brandi. 

The celebrated Italian writer Alessandro 
Verri the author of the « Notti Romane » is bu- 
ried in this church on the left of the middle 

In the small nave behind the tribune is an 
altar containing the heart of S. Charles. 

Tbe paintings on the ceiling are by Ascenzi 
and Bonocore. 


first day 1 3 

Or«r the altar of the oratory is a depo- 
sition frith, two Sybils standing beneath , tha 
work of Giacomo della Porta. 


This palace was built for the Ruccelbn 
family on tbe designs of Ammanati. It shortly 
afterwards came into the possession of Cardi- 
nal Caetani who made the balcony, the cornice, 
and the grand stair case which forms the 
principal ornament of the palace. It now be- 
longs to the Ruspoli family. 

The stair case consists of 1 1 5 steps, each 
of a single slab of white marble. 

The gallery is 80 feet in length, 26 in 
height and 1 1 1/2 in breadth. 

The ground floor now forms tbe largest 
coffee bouse in Rome . These rooms were 
painted by two french artists Leonardo and 

Opposite this palace is the via Gondotti , 
so called from the acqueducts that pass under 
it.Nuar the entrance from the Corso is tbe church 
dedicated to the most holy Trinity built in 1741 
by Rodriguez a Portuguese , and finished by 
Hermosilla a Spaniard. It is of the elliptic form 
and contains seven chapels with paintings by 
good artists. 

On the right in this street is the Nunez 
palace , now the property and residence of Don 
Marino Torlonia , Dnke of Bracciano. 

Oa tn* left that of the order of Malta. 


14 Fir it day 

fietarning into the Corso , and near the 
Huspoli palace is the 


X Which probably derives its appellation from 
its proximity lo the ancient Terentium in which, 
according to Zosinius , sacrifices were offered 
to the Lacine gods. 

This church is said to have been built in 
435 under Sixtus III bnt though no proofs 
are given of such antiquity it is certain that it 
existed in the VI century. It was restored by 
Benedict II in 685 , by Adrian I in 780, and re- 
built in 1196. 

Paul V gave it to the minori regolari by 
whom it was restored under the direction of 
Gosimo of Bergamo. 

The paintings on the ceiling are by Greater 
a Neapolitan ; others in the church are by Spa - 
darino and Piccione. The S. Lorenzo in the first 
chapel, dedicated to S. Anthony of Padua, was 
designed by fiainaldi. The principal figure of 
the saint is by Stanzioni a Neapolitao.The church 
contains some very fine marbles and four columns 

, of nero antico. 

! Over the high altar is Gnido's celebrated 

1 picture representing the crucifixion, left to this 

' church by the Marquis Angelelli. 

The following chapel, dedicated to S. Mar- 
gherita di Gortooa and to S. Francis, was paint- 
ed, according to general opinion, bj Marco Be- 

Amongst the artists who were buried' in this 
church the celebrated Poussin claims a partku- 



firtt day 1 5 

lar notice ; the monument erected to bis mem- - 
ory at the expense of Monsieur de Chateau- 
briand, placed near the second chapel to the 
right, was designed by Lemoyne, a living artist 
who made the bust. The bas relief represents the 
discovery of Sappho's tomb in Arcadia, a subject 
treated also by Poussin. 

The palace adjoining this church belongs to 
the Ottoboni, dukes ofFiano. Between this pat- 
ace and the corner of the via della Vile for- 
merly existed the triumphal arch of the Empe- 
ror Marcus Aurelius , ornamented with bas re- 
liefs and verde antico columns. As it embar- 
rassed the Gorso , Alexander Til ordered its 
demolition. The bas reliefs belonging to it were 
placed in the Capitol , on the second flight of 
steps in the palace of the Conservatori, The col- 
umns were transferred to the Corsini chapel 
at S. John Lateran , An inscription in the 
street commemorates this alteration made by 
Alexander VII. 

Following the Corso, to the left is the via 
delle Convertite and 


Called « in Capite » to distinguish it from 
others dedicated to the same saint, on account 
of the venerable relic it contains of the head 
of S. John Baptist. It is said to have been built 
i« 261 , bat it existed in the VII century and 
was restored about the middle of the following 
century by Pope Paul I. It was restored anew 
in 1236 , and assumed its present form in 1690 


16 Fir it thy 

under the direction of the architect De Rossi; 
The paintings on the ceiling which represent 
the assumption of the Virgin , S. John Baptist, 
S. Silvester and other saints , are by Braudi ; 
those under the arches by Boncalli, those of the 
tribune by Gemignani; the paintings of the other 
chapels are very inferior excepting that of Iht 
crucifixion. On the right baud returning into 
the Corso is the 


** This palace was built by Lunghi. It once 
contained a fine collection of ancient sculptures 
some of which are now in the Vatican , but 
it still preserves the celebrated fresco paintings 
of Albano representing the planets and hours 
finely composed and executed and which have 
been frequently engraved. 


This magnificent palace was begun on Ih* 
designs of Giacomo delta Porta , continued 
by Carlo Madcrno, and finished by Delia Greca 
for the residence of the nephews of Alexan- 
der VII. The vestibule is grand, the yard large 
and handsome. 

A magnificent stair case leads to the first 
apartment in which are four rooms filled with 
paintings by celebrated artists. 

At the entrance of the second slory is a 
dog in marble, similar in size and style to those 


Firtt day 1 1 

of the hall of animals at the Vatican. la the 
room to the right are two marble works of 
Bernini representing life and death in the form 
of a skull and sleeping child placed on two 
marble cushions. This room contains the follow- 
ing pictures: one of the X century represent- 
ing the graces; S. Francis hy Bacciccio. S. Peter 
caring the lame man , Carlo Veneziano ; A 
sketch by Titian; Joseph in prison explaining 
the dream, Joseph sold by his brothers, Cer- 
quozzi. A perspective with nymphs at the bath, 
of the flemish school; A small landscape bjr 
Agostino Tassi; Two small Flemish pieces; Two 
battle pieces , school of Borgognone; Two dogs 
and a negro by Baglioni. 

. . In the adjoining room are three fine antique i 
statues: a Venus with an ancient greek inscript- 
ion slating that it is the work of Menophan- 
tes taken from the original which existed at 
Troy. It was found on the Cteliau hill facing, 
the Palatine in the Cornovaglia gardens. It is of 
Parian marble and of the finest execution. The 
second is a Mercury with the wand. 

The head , which is modern, is in plaster 
and instead of legs it terminates in a square 
block. It appears to be one of those berunes 
called a Attic » by Pausanias. The drapery is 
rery beautiful and the work in all its details 
belongs to the most flourishing period of art. 
The third statue , also of Parian marble, repre- 
sents Apollo with the laurel and the serpent; 
It is well designed and executed bat cold in 
expression, and may be attributed to the time 
of Hadrian. 

In the same room are some fine paintings. 
S. Anthony , S. Paschal and S. Cecilia by Ben- 


1 3 Firtt day 

venuto Garofolo. S. Francis , Guercino. S. John 
Baptist drinking at a spring , Caravaggio. The 
Ascension, Garofalo. S. Bruno, Mola. A Magda- 
len , Guercino. S. Barthlemy and S. John , 
Dossi Dosso. S. Cecilia in the manner of Gnido. 
A Nativity and bambocciata by an unknown 

Third room : A fresco painting of the Vir- 
gin , Filippo Lippi. The portrait of Mantegna , 
by himself. The infant Jesus in fresco , Lippi. 
A copy of the portrait of Baphael by one of his 
school. A guardian angel, Pietro da Gorlona. 
A Madonna and infant said to bo by Giro Ferri. 
S. Peter and Christ , Annibal Garacci. Theadul- 
tress, Carlo Veneziano. Samson killing the lion 
a sketch by Gennari , or according to others by 
Andrea Sacchi. A battle between the Romans 
and Veientes, another between the Horatii and 
Curiatii , d' Arpino. A sacrifice to Bacchus, Ro- 
manelli. A battle , Salvator Rosa. The Virgin 
with saints by Proccacini. An infant Jesus , 
with angels holding the emblems of his passion 
by Albani. A Madonna and two angeb Paris of Pe- 
rugia. A holy family , Beccafumo. The blessed 
Bernardo Tolomei , Andrea Sacchi. A standard 
with S. Francis on both sides by Annibal Ga- 
racci. The adoration of the Magi , an excellent 
painting by Mazzotino of Fcrrara. Jesus at the 
column , Lnini. A portrait supposed to be that 
of Laura , Paul Veronese. A small picture with 
Venus and Cupid of the Parma school. On the 
front of the windows Joseph and Putiphar by 
an .unknown author. A picta , Elisabeth Sirani. 
A cupid , Baglioni. a portrait of Barocci by 
himself. A. magdalen by Spagnoletto.. The genius 


First Jay 19 

of painting, Baglioni, and Susan, unknown. Be- 
yond the room containing the portraits of the 
Chigi family and in the large gallery over the 
door is a Basiccio. On the right our saviour 
showing a niece of money to the Pharisee by 
Titian, badly restored; A madonna of Carlo 
Maratte ; On the opposite side the procession 
of the ark by Palma the younger. An Archi- 
medes , Galabrese ; Joseph explaining dreams 
Caravaggio ; A roman charity, the Cavalier 
d' Arpino ; Oar Saviour and S. Thomas , 
Antonio Caracci; A madonna and child , Albani. 
A magdalen of the lombard school; the portrait 
of Pietro Aretino by Titian. 

A satyr disputing with a philosopher , by 
Salvator Rosa.Helchesedeck receiving loavosfrom 
the priests, Ercote of Ferrara; A holy family, 
Poussin; Three infants , by the same ; the con- 
version of S. Paul, Domeoichino; A female por- 
trait , Tintoretto. Joseph 's dream of the flight 
into Eygpt , Lnca Giordano; A deposition, Pa- 
dbvanino; A glory with several saints, Giacomo 
Palma; repose in Egypt , Lnca Giordano ; de- 
position , Poussin ; S. John Baptist preaching, 
by Luca d' Olanda; The toilette of Venus by 
Albano; a flagellation in the manner of Guer- 
cino; An assumption by the same; A small por- 
trait Tintoretto; another by Titian. The facade 
finishes with a sketch by Andrea Sacchi repre- 
senting divine wisdom: on the sides of the win- 
dows, Venus and Endymion of the french school. 
A bishop distributing alms by Carlo Veneziano; 
A Madonna of Ghirlandaio; S. John the baptist 
by Barocci; The marriage of S.Catharine, Sodoma. 
S. Peter by Lanfranc. The infant Jesus, school 


20 Firit day 

of Guercino ; a S. Jerome, by Asealdas. Ttw 
repose, of the infant Jesus, Guido. The last sup- 
per , Rqmaaelli. A hoi; family by Pieria del 
Vaga. Ad assumption by Zenian, a Madonna of 
the florentine . school. 

On the second floor is a cabinet containing 
original drawings by Giulio Romano, Bernini , 
Sacebi and .an ancient mosaic represenling va- 
rious birds. The library contains several greek, 
' latin, and Italian manuscripts. A permission is 
requisite to visit, the gallery and the library. 


st .On this piazza , which is supposed to oc- 
cupy a part of the ancient Antonine forum, still 
exists the column raised by the senate and ro- 
mau people in honour of Marcus Aurelius An- 

The baa reliefs represent the victories of 
Marcos Aurelius over toe Marcomanni and other 
German nations , and the image of Jupiter Plu- 
vial to whom the Pagans attributed the 
marvellous rain obtained from the trne God 
by the Christian soldiers of the fulminating 
legion. The bas reliefs are inferior in merit 
to those of the Trajan column of which 
they are an imitation; the statue of Marcus 
Aurelius in gill bronze was placed on the top 
of the column; the modern inscription on the 
pedestal that « Marcus dedicated ibis column to 
his adoptive father Antoninus Pius» is altogether 
erroneous , since it was raised after the death 
of that philosophic Emperor, and the inscription 
of Pius rat found in the last century near the 


,. Google 


Firtt Jay 21 

home of the Missions, and its pedestal with the 
dedication of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Yeros 
is now in the Vatican garden. An inscripton 
found near the column and now existing in the 
Vatican museum records a rescript of Septimins 
Sererus in favour of Adrastus , a freedman and 
beeper of this column; it gives it the name of 
column of Divus Marcus and thus removes all 
doubt on the subject. 

The column of the doric order is compo- 
wd of 28 blocks of while marble ; a winding 
ilair case in the interior leads to the top. It 
consists of 1 90 steps lighted by 41 apertures. Ill 
diameter is 17 1/2 palms its height 217 as fol- 
lows: the base of the pedestal under ground 
at the ancient door 16, the pedestal 33 1/2 
the base of the column 3, the column with base 
and capital 129 , the pedestal and base of the 
statue 1 7 , the statue 1 9. Having suffered from 
fire and lightning it was restored by Siitus V 
and the pedestal lined anew under the direct- 
ion of Domenico Fontana when it was de- 
dicated to S. Paul and the statue of the apostle 
■n gilt hrooze was placed on the top. The in- 
tcriptions on the pedestal are modern. 

In front of the column near the Gorso is 
a fountain of the acqua vergine placed there 
under Gregory XIH on the designs of Giacomo 
delta Porta. The cup is of tho antique marble \ 
called porta santa. 

The sides of the Piazza are formed by tho 
Chigi, Piombino and Brancadoro palaces and 
that of the Administration of posts restored in 
1 839 ; the columns forming the portico were 
fonnd at ancient Veii. 


22 Fint day 

Adjoining the Chigi palace is 


^<i The hillock by which this piazza is for- 
med is not natural ; it arises principally from 
the ruins of the amphitheatre built by Slatil- 
ins Taurus and from earth dag up in building 
the neighbouring houses. The word « Gitorio » 
may be considered as a corruption from Tau- 
rus or Toro , the name of Stalilius. 

In the XIII century it was called « accept- 
orius » the etymology of which it is difficult to 

A great ornament to this piazza is the solar 
obelisk of Augustus raised on the spot where 
the pedestal of the Antonine column existed and 
which was placed there by Benedict XIV. It 
was transferred in 1 789 to the Vatican garden 
by order of Pius VI who, under the direction 
of Giovanni Antinori, erected this obelisk of red 
granite with hieroglyphics; it is 98 palms high 
without the pedestal which forms 1 9 , and on 
it is an inscription copied from the obelisk at the 
Popolo that it was deicated by Augustus to 
the snn. The pedestal is on a double base of 
white marble 1 3 1/2 palms high, giving an ele- 
vation from the earth of 1 30 1/2 palms without 
the bronze globe at the top. 

This obelisk was in the origin erected at 
Heliopolis by Psammeticus as appears by the 
hieroglyphic cartouches and not by Sesostris, 
king of Egypt as stated by Pliny. It was brought 
to Rome by Augustus who placed it in the 
Campus Hartias where it served as a gnomon to 


Ftrtt day 23 

the meridian marked in a bronze quadrant en- 
closed in marble , and thus it was called the 
solar obelisk. Some pieces of marble were dis- 
covered in renewing the foundations of the 
sacristy of S.Lorenzo in Lncina , the quadrant 
having formerly been placed there. The obelisk 
was found near the Impresa where an inscription 
records the discovery , and was dog up under 
Benedict XIV in 1784, but being broken into 

five pieces it was neglected until the pontificate 

of Pius VI. 



-~ On- the remains of the amphitheatre of 
Statilius Taurus this large building was begun 
by Innocent X on the designs of Bernini, out 
not having been finished it was purchased by 
Innocent XII who completed it under the di- 
rection of Carlo Fontana and having established 
here the courts of law called it the Curia Inno- 

On the facade is a belfry with a clock 
destined to regulate all those of the city. The 
yard is of a semicircular form ; at the bottom 
is a fountain with a cup of red granite found 
in the ruins of Porto. On the left towards the 
«Missione° lies a large column of cipollino found 
nnder ground in 1778 in the piazza di Cam- 
po Harzo. 

On the ground floor are the offices of the 
Notaries of the Udilore della Camera and of 
their substitutes; on the first story their apart- 
tments and those of the Uditote della Segnatnra. 
on the second those of the Tesortere or Finance 
Minister. — -. 


24 Firtt day 



■-,' This house, belonging to ibe congregation 
of the missionary priests founded by S. Vincent 
Ae Paule, was built in 1 €42 by the Duchess 
d' AiguilioQ. The priests by their institution are 
sent into the different parts of the Papal stales 
lo instruct the secular students who aspire to 
holy orders in the lithurgy and church pract- 

The church is dedicated to the most holy 
Trinity. Il was rebuilt in 1741 by Cardinal Lan- 
fredini on the designs of the superior of the 
establish e men t named Torre, The paintings in 
the chapel are by Vien, Bottani, Gonca, Milam, 
Monosilio and Perotti. 

In the garden annexed to the house was 
found in 1795 the column raised by Marcos 
Aurelins and Lucius Verus to Antoninus Pius their 
adoptive father. It was of red granite with a 
white marble pedestal and high reliefs repre- 
senting military deeds and the apotheosis of 
Antoninus and Faustina with the following epi- 




The column was 63 palms in length and 
25 in circumference. As it was used lo repair 
the obelisks erected by Pius VI, the pedestal 
that had been placed on the Piazza Monteci- 
torio by Benedict XIV was , as already stated 
carried by order of Pius VI to the Vatican garden. 


First day 25 

A street opposite the obelisk leads to the 
piazza di Pietra on which stand toe remains 


.V, The plan of this magnificent structure clear- 
ly indicates that il was a temple, while its 
proximity to the other buildings of the Aiito- 
nines , its style and a part of the original in- 
scription found in the XV century, were strong 
arguments to prove that it was dedicated to the 
Emperor Antoninus Pius by the Roman senate 
and people , when other discoveries confirmed 
this opinion. 

On the north side of the temple there still 
remain eleven large columns which support their 
white marble architrave. Both this and rest of 
the entablature being greatly damaged , were 
restored with stucco by Borromini in the XVII 
century , and the joints being no longer visi- 
ble it was said to be formed of a single block 
of marble. A fragment of the original cornice 
is enclosed in the portico leading from the piaz- 
za del Gampidoglio to the Tarpeian rock. The 
columns are corinthian bat greatly damaged by 
fire. They are 6 palms 2 inches in diameter, 
58 palms in height. The base is attic, and the ca- 
pital adorned with acanthus intermixed villi 
olive leaves. In the yard are several large blocks 
of the cella which was divided into squares. 

These columns now form the facade of the 
Custom house. 


26 JRri* day 


; This palace was built on the designs of 
Flaminio Ponzio , except the gale in travertine 
said to be by Antonio Labacco, and which cer- 
tainly does not deserve the praises bestowed 
«n it. 

On tha first story is a collection of pict- 
ures considered as one of the finest in Rome. 

First room : a fine copy of the Transfi- 
guration of Raphael, attributed by some to Va- 
lentin , by others to Carlo Veneziano. The sa- 
crifice of Abraham, Gherardo delle Nolti; S. Au- 
gustin distributing alms by Carlo Maratte. The 
holy family, Innocenza da ImmoLa , a Madonna 
and child, Giovanni Bellini; Cleopatra, Lao- 
franco. S. Peter healing a sick person , Ro~ 
manelLt. Madonna , fiorentine school ; a por- 
trait , Venitian school ; decollation of S. John 
Baptist , Valentin. Virgin with two saints school 
of Pielro Perugino; S. Barbara , Pietro di Cor- 
tona, Ecce homo , Cav. d' Arpino ; portrait of 
Cardinal Barberini, Carlo Maralte. S. Franceses, 
Carlo Veneziano. S. Fabian , Vovet ; descent 
from the Cross , Bassano. 

Leading to the second room, Rome trium- 
phant with the Tiber and the Tigris, Valentin, 
the Samaritan , Garofolo ; a Madonna , Tinor- 
ni; a picture painted on both sides, attributed 
to Carlo Dolci, on one side Christ on the cross; 
on the other the prayer, in the garden. The 
murder of the Innocents , Bassano. A holy fa- 
mily , Siena school. 


First day 27 

In the next room is A collection of land- 
scapes. In the middle a small Salvator Rosa; 
the rising and setting son , Claude Lorraine. 
Vesuvius , Venetian school ; water fall , Both. 
the one below, Paol Brill, the others by Oriz- 
lonte and Lacatelli ; three by the brother of 
Both ; facing the window the interior of the 
Gesii church, by Galiano , the figures by An- 
drea Sacchi. 

Of the six on the side walls the two above 
by Orizzonte; two by Lncatelli; two fine Boths; 
Opposite the adjoining front a S. Matthew by 
Nicholas Poassin; beneath S. John baptizing onr 
Saviour in the Jordan, Breughel; the other two, 
Claude; the others flemish. 

On the right of the above named Poussin 
Ihe Castle of Naples, Canaletlo; over it a small 
Salvator Rosa ; the others by Lncatelli, Oriz- 
zonte , and school of Claude ; on the sides of 
the window the two above of the flemish school, 
those beneath by PanI Brill. 

In the adjoining room the first picture on 
the left is of the flemish school ; a Calvary , 
school of .Buonarotti ; the nuptials of Cana, Po- 
raarancia ; over the door the profaners of the 
Temple; attributed to Bassano; to this artist 
are also attributed the prayer in the garden, 
the departure from Egypt, and the three pict- 
ures over the doors ; a deposition by Barocci; 
a Virgin and child Francesco Franoia ; Circe 
transforming the companions of Ulysses into beasts, 
Benvenoto Garofalo ; two small pictures repre- 
senting a chase , and a battle piece , Tempus- 
la ; a charity, Elisabeth Sirani; Christ in agony, 
flemish school ; a Madonna , child and saints, 


28 Firtt day 

Andrea del Sarto ; a flagellation , Scarsellmo; 
a holy family , school of Michael Angelo ; a 
vision , Gaudenzio Ferrari; a holy family, Scar- 
scllino. A S. Pcler , preaching, Carlo Maratta. 
On the opposite facade a landscape attri- 
buted (o Brenghel ; a « Noli me tangere » , 
Benvenuto Garofalo; Samson, Coriselli; Moses, 
Guido; a Madonna by Albano ; a Garofolo re- 
presenting the vestal Claudia dragging ihe vessel 
containing the image of Selinuntes; a Tenicrs; 
a madonna , school of Coreggio ; a copy of 
Raphael's Fornarina attributed to Giulio Romano, 
a holy family, Carlo Maralte; a painting , author 
unknown. On the window sides , the adoration 
of the angels , Luca Kraualh ; two landscapes , 
unkwown; the three ages, Yovet; adoration of 
the Magi , Garofalo ; two small flemings and 
two Teaiers. 

In the last room to the left the evangelical 
parable of the wheat and chaff, a fine painting 
by Schidone; a Virgin, fra Bartolomeo del Piom- 
bo; Dido, Scarsellino ; two evangelists, Gnercino. 
Arcadia by Schidone ; the violin player, portrait 
unknown, but supposed to be the celebrated 
'febaldeo, by Raphael, painted in 1518, as seen 
by the original inscription; Uerodias receiving 
the head of S. John , Giorgione, 

The departure of Aeneas, Scarsellino ; two 
small flemish pictures , one the prodigal child = 
the other, the Apocalypse of S. John; conjugal 
love, Agostino Caracci. Venus ordering arms for 
Aeneas , Breughel ; the Samaritan, Albano ; the 
temptation of S. Anthony, Breughel. The Game- 
sters, a celebrated work of Caravaggio. Modesty 
and Vanity , Leonardo da Vinci. Orpheus in 


First day 29 

the palace of Pluto , Breughel. A Magdalen , 

On the adjoining wall a small landscape by 
Breughel ; a small Giotto, well preserved ; a por- 
trait , Bronxino ; the family of Titian painted by 
himself; S. Sebastian by Pietro Peragino ; the 
martyrdom of S. Erasmus, in reduced proportions 
of the painting by Nicholas Ponssin existing in 
the Vatican gallery; the celebrated picture of the 
« Bella » of Titian, by Titian ; S. James, Gocr- 
cioo ; the death of the Virgin, attributed to Al- 
bert Dnrer; S. Jerome by Guercino ; between 
the windows the other Magdalen of Goido, Gner 
perhaps than the one already described, of which 
it appears to be a repetition with little change, 
lit an excavation made in this piazza in 1641 
to the depth of 23 palms , the ancient pavement 
was discovered. Opposite the arco di Carbognano 
sundry fragments of columns were found , with 
an inscription relative to the Emperor Claudius 
dow in the Barberini palace , and a gold medal 
having his effigy on one side , and an arch with 
in equestrian statue on the reverse. This disco- 
very, united with others made in the preceding 
century in the time of Pius IV and some re- 
mains still existing , have confirmed the opinion 
that the triumphal arch erected by the senate 
and people to Claudius for the conquest of Britain 
and of the Orcades was situated at the arco di 
Carbognano. The inscription of Nardini, as filled 
up by Ganges di Goze , is as follows. 


30 First day 

ti . cLAvrfio drusi f. eaisari 
A.VGVsto germanico pio 
PONTjFtci max. trib. Pol* IX. 
cos. v. mperatori XVI. patri patriai 
senatus. FOPvhisque romanus quod 
reges. SRitannice perduclles tine 
villa ucrvra celeriter caiperit 
gentesq. txtremarum orchadum 
PRJttYS. INDICIO facto imperio adjtcirit 
I. p. q. r. 

On the corner of the piazza Sciarra is iIm 
chapel instituted by padre Caravita, a Jesuit, in 
1611 , in which devout spiritual exercises are 
practised every evening. Adjoining it is 


y this church, dedicated to S.Ignatius ofLoyola, 
was begun in 1626 by Cardinal Ludoviso Ludo- 
visi , the nephew . of Gregory XV ; two designs 
were made by Domenichino from each of which 
padre Grassi , a Jesuit, selected the one that 
was adopted. The facade is by Algardi ; it is of 
travertine stone with two orders of columns, Co- 
rinthian and composite. 

The interior is divided into three naves by 
large Corinthian pilasters. The paintings of the 
ceiling, that on the Erst altar to the right 
which is adorned with two line giallo antico 
columns , are by padre Pozzi a Jesuit. The finest 
altars those of Ihe cross are by the same padre 
Pozzi. They are decorated with fine marbles , 
gilt bronzes , and four superb twisted columns 
covered with verde antico. In the right (be one 


Fint day 31 

belonging to the Lancellotti family , is a Las 
relief by Legros representing S. Lewis Gonzaga, 
of great merit in the execution. Within the urn 
covered with lapis lazzuli the body of the Saint is 
preserved. On the altar opposite i< the annun- 
ciation of the Madonna in has relief by Valle. 

Near the entrance door is the splendid 
tomb of Gregory XV also by Legros. 

The ashes of the Pope are in a verde antico 
0m, the two fames are by Monnot , the four 
italnes in the niches by Rusconi ; under the 
Pope's tomb is that of his nephew and a fine 
porphyry urn. 


•-/ This extensive building was raised in 1 582 
by Gregory XIII on the designs of Ammanato. 
Hound a spacious court , with two ranges of 
porticoes , are the halls in which the latin, greek 
and hebrew languages, humanity, rhetoric, phi- 
losophy and theology are taught by the Jesuits. 
In the large building annexed , is an observa- 
tory, a library and the museum formed by padre 
Kircher, which contains many marble, bronze and 
terra cotta antiquities ; a collection of (he 
roman assi formed by Cardinal Zelada and many 
objects of natural history. 

Returning to the corso to the right is the 
palazzo Simone«i,uow Piombino, built by Specbi 
and opposite is 


y Accordingtotheancient tradition this church 
was built originally on the house of S. Lucina 


32 First day 

a roman matron , about the commencement of 
the IV century , and dedicated to S. Marcetlns 
who died here. It was restored by Adrian I and 
in 1 369 was given by Gregory XI to the Ser- 
rites who still officiate in it; it was finally built 
in 1579 on the designs of Sansovino, except the 
facade by Carlo Fontana, in the beginning of the 
XVIII Century, 

The most esteemed paintings in this church 
are those on the roof of the fourth chapel to 
the right , representing the creation of Eve , a 
beautiful work of Pierin del Vaga. The S. Mark 
and S. John, except the head and naked arms, 
the two angels holding a candlestick are also 
by the same artist ; the remainder by Daniel di 
Vol terra who , with the aid of Pellegrino of Mo- 
dena. , terminated the work on the designs of 

j Pierin del Vaga. The doors of the crucifixion 
are by Garzi ; the tomb of Cardinal Gonsalvi by 

I Rinaldi ; the celebrated traveller Pierre Gilles, 
who died in 1555, is buried in this church. 

In the left lane which corresponds to the 
ancient « Vicus Isidis » was a temple of Isis, 
sumamed « Exorata >. 


So called from the ancient Via Lata region 
near the limit of which it is situated; this church 
is said to be bnilt on the spot where S.Paul resided 
with the centurion who , according to the acts of 
the Apostles, conducted him to Rome by order 
of Feslns. It is supposed that the spring still visi- 
ble in the subterranean church arose for the 


Pint day 33 

baptism of those whom S. Paul had converted 
to Christianity. 

Over the altar are the portraits of S. Peter 
and Paul, by Faocelli; under ground the spring 
already mentioned. The church was first built by 
Pope Sergins I in the year 700 ; it was re- 
built by Innocent VIII in 1485, when a trium- 
phal arch near it , supposed to he that of 
GordianlU, was demolished. In 1662 the church 
was renewed on the designs of Cosmo of Ber- 
gamo and Pietro di Cortona. The latter built 
the portico and the facade, Cosmo the interior 
with three naves , divided by cipollino columns 
and lined with Sicilian jasper. In the first chapel 
on the right is a S. Andrew kissing the cross, 
by Brandi , in the style of Gnercino. Annexed 
to this church is 

pC.This palace formerly belonging to the Pam- 
nhili , was built at different periods; the part 
on the Corso by Yalvasori , that opposite the 
Collegio Romano by Pietro da Cortona , except 
the vestibule which is by Borromino ; the wiog 
on the piazza di Venezia by the last Prince 
Pamphili on the designs of Amati. It now be- 
longs to the Doria family one of the most an- 
cient and most celebrated in Italy who have 
inherited, the property of the Pamphili bouse. 
Entering by the gate opposite the Roman 
college the vestibule leading to the great stair- 
case is remarkable for the construction of the 
roof which is flat, and is supported by columns 
of oriental granite ; the marble staircase is so- 
lid and spacious . The apartments to which it 


34 First day 

leads are welt distributed, aad filled with a rich 
and splendid collection of paintings by the great 

la the first room is a collection of oil paintings 
by Poussin ; four over the windows by Rosa , 
three between the windows of the Neapolitan 
school;, tho others by Poussin . S. Euslachius , and 
the Samaritan ; Christ going to Emaus . Oppo- 
site the windows and over the doors are two sea 
pieces by Monpair; a Turkish woman on horse- 
back , Castiglione ; the otbers by Poussin ; 
the Lucano bridge on Ihe road to Tivoli; S. John 
in the desert surrounded by animals of various 
kinds , probably Orpheus playing on the lyre. 
S. Augustin ; S. Maria Egyziaca , Cain kil- 
ling Abel , Eve offering the apple to Adam . 
The triumph of David , Moses saved from the 
waters by the daughter of Pharaoh are 
unknown ; the birth and rape of Adonis by 

In a room to the left is a collection of land- 
scapes in water colours by Gaspar Poussin, three 
by Francesco Napoletano , three by Rosa , the 
one opposite the windows by Nicholas Poussin. 
Second room. The marriage of S.Catherioe 
by Scipio Gaetaui ; S. Dorothea , Lanfranc . 
holy family, school of Andrea del Sarto ; the 
deluge , venitian school; landscape by Both ; As- 
sumption of the virgin , Caracci school; two 
landscapes over the windows, Poussin , sea piece 
Tempesta; landscape, flemish school. 

On the adjoining wall a snow piece by Bar- 
tolomeo; a flemish piece between two landsca- 
pes of Both ; a large picture by Castiglione re- 
presenting a Turkish horseman , an imitation of 


First day 35 

the one in the first room; S. Eustache , Albert 
Durer; a child seated on a lion by Titian; a Trans- 
figuration , school of Lanfranc; two landscapes , 
Ponssin ; three pictures by Bassano representing 
Christ driving the dealers ont of the temple ; 
the flight of Jacob ; the temptation on the 
rock ; the conversion of S. Paul , Zuccari ; 
the sacrifice of Noah after the deluge , Bas- 
sano ; the virgin , school of Perugino . Venn* 
surrounded by the seasons, Filippo Lauri; a game 
piece , Castiglione ; over the door , a landscape 
by Ponssin ; the madonna , child and S. John, 
Bellini; the apparition of Christ to the disciples in 
Emaus , Bassano. Galatea , Lanfranco. Above a 
flower piece , unknown. An ecce homo r NoarTs 
ark and the prodigal son , Bassano ; A sea 
storm , Molini ; a small Giorgione representing 
two half sized figures ; a S- Sebastian , Agoa- 
tino Caracci ; over the door a landscape by- 

Third Room. Beginning at the left from (he 
entrance a holy family , Benvennto Garofolo; 
,a portrait , Giorgione ; a Virgin , Mola; a por- 
trait , Titian. Deposition from the cross , Panl 
Veronese'; a portrait of Macchiavelli, Bronzino; 
S. Joseph half size Guercino ; a female por- 
trait, Van Dyk; another, Gaetani. Over (he win- 
dows , Jesus worshipped by angels , author on 
known ; two parts of the world, Soiimene ; the 
four game pieces over the windows , Galli sur- 
named the Spadarino . Between them a land- 
scape by Monpair ; the portrait of a nun of 
the flemish school ; the sermon of Jesus , also 
flemish • The upper portrait , by Panl Verone- 
se; the lower one that of Donna Olympia the 


36 Pint day 

niece of Innocent X unknown ; the death of 
Abel , Salvator Rosa ; portrait of a young man, 
unknown. Christ bearing the cross , Frangipa- 
ne; a portrait by Titian. The portraits of Bar- 
tolo &ud Baldo , wrongly attributed to Baphael. 
lansenius , by Titian. Icarus aud Dedalus , 
school of Andrea Sacchi; a deposition from 
the cross , Giorgio Vasari ; a graceful figure 
by Pierin del Vaga; landscape with the appa- 
rition of Emans , by Both ; a female head by 
Titian ; a Pieti , an excellent work by Annibal 
Garacci ; over this a landscape by Monpair ; a 
picture by Simon of Pesaro. Agar sent away , 
Neapolitan school; a holy family Pietro Pe- 
rugino. landscape by Both , a head with a tnr 
ban , copy from Rubens. 

In the gallery and opposite the windows is 
a very line Rubens , representing Diana and 
Endymion; beneath two portraits: one , school 
of Vandyk , the other of himself; at the angle 
two others , the one above by Titian, the other 
by Vandyk representing his widow. Narcissus at 
the fountain, Gaido Cagaacci. Agar and Ismaet, 
attributed to Garavaggio; Christ at the sepulchre, 
Mazzolino. A fine flemish landscape; a Bron- 
rino , Christ and Simon Ginereau ; portrait of 
his wife by Rubens; Noah's ark, Bassano ; the 
landscape above , unknown ; the sacrifice of 
Abraham , Castiglioue. Repose in Egypt , Lnca 
d' Olanda; landscape , school of Claude. S. Je- 
rome , Annibal Garacci. 

Fo&rth room, portrait of a woman, on the 
left , Rubens ; another by Gonca. The following 
picture represents the celebrated Admiral 
Andrea Doria , by Dosso Dossi , of Ferrara . 


First day 31 

Another the same subject, by Sebastian del Piom- 
bo ; the two sea pieces above , unknown ; two 
portraits , one by Rubeos, the other , by Conca; 
the landscape near the window , Eremiti. the 
murder of the Innocents , Gemignani ; the wife 
of Holbein , by Holbein ; two half figures by 
the Genoese priest; our Saviour paying the tri- 
bute , Calabrese ; Proserpine and Orpheus at- 
tracting animals to the sound of the lyre, Bas- 
sano. Holbein painted by himself with a parse 
and flower in his hand , a half figure of an 
old nun by the Genoese priest; a prophet by 
Andrea Sacchi. Having passed the door there is 
a very fine portrait of the flemish school]; the 
two following portraits are not deserving of 
observation. Of the two pictures between the 
windows the lower one is a fine landscape by 
Swanevel ; the other representing Semiramidis 
seems to be of the Caracci school ; finally an 
Archimedes by an unknown author , and two 
portraits of the flemish school. 

Fifth room, the flight of Jacob , Bassano. 
S Jerome , Spagnoletlo. Icarus and Dedalus , 
Albano; Bersabea in the bath , Bronchurst ; a 
presepio , Bassano. Magdalen , school of the 
Caracci. Lazzaras and the rich Epulon , Lnca 
Giordani. Jupiter and Juno , Gnido Cagnacci. 
S. Antonio Abbate , Brandi; above- a holy fa- 
mily , a fine work by Luigi Caracci ; on the 
sides a fishmonger and fruiterer , Garavaggi ; a 
small picture beneath in the style of Salvator 
Rosa; the one above . of an ancient style of 
painting; the Christ and rape of the Sabine women, 
unknown ; two of the side pictures below Gas- 
paro « dcgli occhiali » ; two , style of Salvator 


38 First day 

Rosa; a roman charity , Valentin-, a holy fami- 
ly , Garofolo ; four small round pictures , Mi- 
chael Angelo , S. Jerome , Spagnoletto ; on the 
right S. Jerome by Palma and two by Cara- 

This room leads to the gallery, the most 
splendid in Rome. On the left the first small 
picture represents Christ disputing with the doct- 
ors of the law , by Dossi of Ferrara ,* the fe- 
male by Holbein. S. Philip , Barocci; two small 
pictures , unknown ; a small picture by Maz- 
zolino. two battle pieces, Borgognone ; the Mag- 
dalen , Calabrese ; Autumn , Romanelli ; the Vi- 
sitation , Garofolo ; two small oval landscapes 
by Domenichino; two landscapes , Breughel ; a 
Madonna , Sassoferrato ; landscape by Domeni- 
chino ; Spring by Romanelli. 

Beyond the arch a franc iscao friar , by 
Rubens, said to hare been his confessor; a Scar- 
sellino;a magdalen , Titian; six fine semicircu— 
lar landscapes by Annibal Caracci representing the 
flight into Egypt , the visitation , assumption , 
Christ taken to the sepulchre , the birth of Christ, 
and the adoration of the Magi. 

Over the flight into Egypt is a celebrated 
picture by Claude Lorraine called the windmill; 
a S. John Baptist, Valentin; a repose in Egypt, 
Caravaggi;a country feast, Brandeberg. Christ 
going to the calvary , Brill; S. Anthony tempted 
by devils , Mantegna; a landscape , Both ; vir- 
gin and child, Albert Durer. S. Francis dying, 
supported by two • angels , Annibal Caracci; the 
supper at Emaus , Lanfranc. Christ at dinner in 
the house of the Pharisee, Tintoretto. Loth with 
hu daughters , Gherardo deile Nolti; qn Albert 


First day 39 

Durer ; a S. Francis , Annibal Garacci; the flight 
of Jacob , a copy from Bassano;lwo landscapes , 
Both. S. Louis distributing alms , Mantegna ; a 
straggle between cnpids and the genii of Bacchus, 
Gessi; the death of Tancred , Guercioo. S.Roch, 
Schidone ; a magnificent landscape by Claude Lor- 
raine representing a sacrifice to Apollo at the 
temple of Delphi ; a youth, Guercino; a sketch, 

The second wing is splendidly adorned with 
gilt stuccos, and fine looking glasses. The roof is 
painted in fresco by Milani. It leads to the apart- 
ment consisting of four rooms containing lands- 
capes by Potusin , Orizzonte , Rosa , and Tor- 
regiani ; sea pieces by Manglard ; views by 
Gasparo degli occhiali ; paintings by Breughel, 
Guido , Guercino etc. 

Returning to the gallery at the beginning of 
the third wing is a splendid landscape of Claude 
representing the repose in Egypt the figures 
of which were painted by Lauri. Christ praying 
in the garden , school of Michael Angelo ; a half 
figure of a female , Murillo ; holy family , Ga- 
rofolo; a head by Rubens ; a Magdalen , Feti , 
the murder of the Innocents , Luca Giordano, 
two small landscapes and S. John writing 
the Apocalypse , the other a Luca d* Olanda ; a 
landscape by Brill ; two other landscapes , one 
a Breughel , the other flemish. Juno potting the 
eyes of Argus in her peacock feathers, Saraceni, 
the prodigal son , Guercino ; a landscape, Tor- 
reggiani ; two landscapes by Claude Lorraine a 
Magdalen by Anuibal Garacci ; a S. Agnes, Guer- 
cino ; a Pharaoh painted on stone by Tempesta 
» placed between a Breughel and a Ma- 


40 First day 

donna of Garofolo; a Virgin by Guido ; a por- 
trait of Innocent X , Velasquez; a Virgin, Par- 
meggiano ; Marsyas and Olympus , AooibaL Ca- 
racci; a Parmeggiano; a S. John Baptist drawing 
water , Guercino ; the birth of the Redeemer , 
Passignani; a landscape , Torreggiani ; the mar- 
riage of S. Catherine , Garofolo . four flemish 
landscapes; a Judith supposed . to be by Guido, 
the Virgin , child , and S. Joseph , Sassoferrata; 
a small S. Eostache, Albert Durer ; the Virgin 
aod saints , Luigi Garacci. 

Above this picture, Belisarins, Salvator Rosa. 
Christ in the desert attended by angels , 
Both. S. John , Schidone; two by Luca d'Olanda; 
the portraits of Luther , Calvin , and Catherine 
copied from the original of Giorgione in the Pitti 
palace at Florence; a Madonna by Sassoferrata, 
another with several saints , Luigi Caracci , a 
Garofolo representing the birth of Christ, SJohn 
the Baptist, S.Francis and the Magdalen; a Ma- 
donna and two saints , Francia : an old Faun 
in the style of Rembrandt; a picture represent- 
ing an assembly of Muses , by the Antwerp 
farrier; a Madonna , school of Guido; a figure 
holding a skull , Luca Giordano. 

Fourth wing. AnEccehomo, Luigi Carac- 
ci; a holy family, copied from Raphael. Erminia 
and the shepherd Pietro di Cortona ; a Ma- 
donna , Carlo Maratte ; another by Bronzino; a 
holy family and two angels fra Bartolomeo; Mars 
and Venus , Paris Bordone ; a landscape , Do- 
me uichino ; a picture on slate by Luigi Caracci, 
representing the virgin , child , S. Joseph and 
two saints ; the Madonna , child and S. John , 
Schidone. Susan , Annihal Garacci ; the four ele- 


First day 41 

meats , Breughel , a landscape , Domenichico. 
Samson, Guercino ; Noah's ark Bassano; two lands- 
capes by Both: S. Peter visited by the angel , 
Lanfranc ; repose in Egypt , Simon di Pesaro . 
S. Peter weeping , Lanfranc; a Magdalen, Luca 
Cambiagi; S. Paul, Guercino; Christ on the cross, 
Michael Angelo Buonaroti. S, Catherine , Garo- 
folo; the sacrifice of Abraham, Titian; a bamboc- 
ciata , Reichert ; the holy face by Barocci. S. 
Joseph, school ef Goercino: two small pictures , 
Monpair. S. John Baptist , Caravaggio; a splen- 
did Teniers representing a country festival at a 
marriage ; two small Gherardo delle Notti; two 
landscapes , Both; a Sybil , Massimi; a female , 
Gherardo delle Notti; a poet , by Titian. S.Peter 
disputing -with Simon Magus , by Tearino ; a 
Magdalen , Caravaggio; Queen Jane the younger, 
Leonardo da Vinci ; a copy of the celebra- 
ted antique painting known as the « Noize 
Aldobrandine » , Poussin; a duke of Ferrara , 
Tintoretto ; a portrait by Titian ; a deposition 
from the Gross, Padovano; a Virgin, child , S. 
Joseph and Catherine , Titian ; two small pict- 
ures by Gherardo delle Notti ; S. Jerome by 

Opposite theDoria palace is one which for- 
merly belonged to the French Academy , now 
to the order of Malta ; the architecture is by 

Along the Corso is the Piazza di Venezia. 
on the right hand the palazzo Buonaparte, built 
by Rossi , on the left 


42 First day 


V This palace was built on the designs of Carlo 
Fontana for the Bolognetti family ; it was pur- 
chased at the beginning of the present century by 
the late Duke Torlouia and has been greatly 
embellished by the present Prince Alexander. It 
contains a choice- collection of paintings by 
celebrated artists and some fine works of [ancient 
and modern sculpture ; amongst the latter the 
celebrated colossal group of Hercules Lycas , 
by Ganova, Opposite is the 


i This magnificent building once belonged to 
the Venitian Republic and has given its name 
to the piazza at the end of the Gorso, It was 
built in 1 468 by Gaetano da Majano, who em- 
ployed in its construction blocks of stone that 
had fallen from the Colosseum. It has been the 
residence of several Popes , and was inhabited 
by Charles VIII king of France in 1494 when 
on his way to the conquest of the kingdom ol 
Naples. It was ceded by Clement VIU to the 
Venetian Republic who made it the residence 
of their Ambassador, to the Holy See , and is 
now occupied by the Austrian Embassy. Within 
the palace is the 


Built in 336 by Pope S. Mark and after 
various repairs renewed from its foundations in 


Firtl day 43 

883 by Gregory IV. In 1468 Paul U, a Vene- 
tian, leaving intact the ancient mosaic tribune, 
rebuilt it under the direction of Majano. It 
was afterwards restored and embellished with 
paintings and stuccos at the expence of Cardinal 

The body of S. Mark is in an urn of grey 
antique granite under the altar. The balustrade 
and steps are of the finest marble. 

Over the portico gate of the piazza is an an- 
cient piece of sculpture of the XIII century 
representing the Evangelist S. Mark. The church 
is divided into three naves; the centre support- 
ed by twenty Jonic columns of Sicilian jasper , 
the stnccos, representing the history of the apos- 
tles, were modelled on the designs of Orlandi. 
At the tribune are four porphyry columns, and 
i fine candlestick for the Paschal candle formed 
of a column of rare breccia corallina The mosaic 
represents the Saviour and the emblems of the 
Evangelists. On the right S. Felician, S. Mark, 
Pope Gregory IV holding the church in his hand 
without a glory denoting that it was built in 
bis time. On the left , Pope S. Mark, S. Agapit 
and S. Agnes. On one side Bethlent , on the 
other Jerusalem. 

The paintings representing battles are by 
padre Casino a Jesuit ; the frescoes round the 
portraits of Popes , Ibe sybils in the lunettes , 
are by Bernardino Gagliardi. 

The paintings in the first chapel by Gentili,in 
the third, Carlo Maratte; the other by Gagliardi. 

The S. Mark in the chapel at the end of 
the nave by Pietro Perngino. On the sides, Bor- 
gogoone. In the tribune of the high altar are 


44 First day 

three pictures, the middle one Komanelli, the two 
others , Borgognoni. The altar piece near the 
sacrislv, Giro Ferri. On the following altar, Mola. 
The has relief of the Barbarigo chapel by d'Este. 
Near Macel de' Corvi , and on the left of 
the via di Marforio , are the ruins of 


V By the inscription on this very ancient se- 
pulchral monument it appears that the spot on 
which it is raised was granted to Cajus Pabli- 
cius Bibnlas , cdile of the people , in conside- 
ration of his services. 

G . POBUCIO . L . F . BIBVLO . .ED . PL. 






It was originally out of the walls of Servian 
Tullius on a cross road leading to the Porta 
Ratumena since the inscription , which is en- 
tire on the west front, was repeated an the south 
front , and some remains of it are still to be 
traced. When the circuit was extended, with 
several monuments of the kind it was inclosed 
within the walls particularly with that suppo- 
sed to be of the Glaudian family , from which 
it is little distant. 

The tombs of Bibnlus , of the Scipios , of 
Gajns Gestius, Cecilia Metella, and of Servilios 
Quartos having all preserved their inscriptions, 


Ftnt day 4S 

may be considered as (he five sepulchral monn- 
meals the most remarkable in Rome or in the 

Toat of Bibulus is in travertine; It has four 
pilasters which support a fine cornice and these 
are curious as they decrease from the. middle 
upwards. The tomb consisted of two orders, the 
first of which is now underground. 

Returning to the piazza di Yeneria is the 
paltzzo Ercolani built, by Arcucci, now belonging 
(0 the Grazioli family. 

> Adjoining it is the palazzo Allien , one of 
tse finest and largest of Rome. Il was built by 
Be Rossi at the time of Clement X of the Al- 
lien family. It is on the piazza del Gesu, and 
opposite is the Petroni , now Bolognetti palace. 


t This church , one of the richest and most 
splendid in Rome , belongs to the Jesuit order. 
It was begun in 1575 by Cardinal Alexander 
Famese on the designs of die celebrated Vignola, 
and continued by Giacomo della Porta who added 
the cupola and front, ornamented wilh two orders 
of Corinthian and composite pilasters. The in- 
terior is decorated wilh composite pilasters, gilt 
stnecos, marble sculpture and fine paintings. 

The chapel of the cross to the right was 
bail! on the designs of Pietro di Cortona. It 
contains some fine marbles , four columns and 
a picture by Carlo Maralte representing the death 
of S. Francis Xavier. The high altar by Giaco- 
nto delta Porta has been renewed, and is ador- 
ned with fine marbles and four giallo anticd 


46 First day 

On the side of the altar is the monument 
of Cardinal Bellarmino with various marble fi- 
gures by Bernini. The fresco paintings over the 
tribune of the great cupola and of the ceiling 
representing the ascent of S. Francis Xavier into 
heaven, byBacicci. In the transept is the sum- 
ptuous ehapel of S. Ignatius , by padre Pozzi , 
a Jesuit , one of the richest and most magnifi- 
cent of Rome. It is decorated with four superb 
columns lined with lapis lazzuli , and threaded 
with gilt bronze, the base and capitals being of 
the same metal. The pedestals of the columns, 
the cornice , the front supported by these co- 
lumns are of verde antico. In the centre is a 
marble group representing the most holy Trinity 
by Bernardino Ludovisi, excepting the figure 
ot' our Lord which is by Otlone. The globe in 
the hand of the Eterual is lined with lapis laz- 
zuli. The portrait of S. Ignatius over the altar 
is also by padre Pozzi. Behind it is placed the 
statue of the saint in stucco liued with silver 
ihe mantle of silver and covered with precious 
stones. The body is preserved under the altar 
in a splendid urn of gilt bronze , adorned with 
precious stones, and bas relief of gilt bronze, 
and marble representing several facts connected 
wilh S. Ignatius. On the sides of the altar are 
two marble groups , one faith adored by the 
most barbarous nations by Tendon, the other, Re- 
ligion with the cross overcoming and destroying 
heresy , expressed under the emblem of a man 
holding a serpent , and that of a decrepit old 
woman. These works are by Legros. 

The paintings in the chapels are worthy of 
observation ; the S. Andrew apostle by Ciampelb 


First day 47 

the 5. Francesco Borgia, by padre Pozii. In that 
of the Virgin , S. Charles by Romanelli , who 
painted the side walls. The paintings at the top, 
Pomarancia. In the little round chapel near the 
high altar, is the image of the Madonna «. della 
Strada » ; the angels by Pozzi, a Milanese, the 
wl paintings under the cornice by padre Vale- 
nano , a Jesuit. 

The accompaniyng chapel opposite near the 
high altar is dedicated to S. Francis of Assisi, 
designed by Giacomo della Porta. The side pain- 
tings by various flemish artists. 

Annexed to the Church is the residence of 
the Jesuits and of their General. This extensive 
building was raised by Cardinal Odoardo Far- 
nese on the designs of Rainaldi. 

The church possesses on organ answering in- 
ternally, a complicated work of a new mecha- 
nism t invented and made by the Serrazzi bro- 
thers , of Bergamo. It is considered to be the 
finest at Borne. 

The sacristy is fall of valuable objects: the 
painting is by Ciampelli ; the pictnre over th* 
altar possesses merit. In it are the rooms once 
inhabited by S. Ignatius the founder of the Jesuit 
order , now reduced to sacred purposes , and 
before them are several perspective views pain- 
ted by padre Pozzi. Here are instituted various 
congregations ; that of the Conception is on 
the designs of Nicoletti ; the altar piece by Cae- 

The street on the left of the church pre- 
sents a prospect of the Capitol which will shoi- 
tlj be described. At its base is a spacious stair- 
case consisting of 1 24 steps, formed of pieces 


48 First day 

of Various kinds of white marble taken from 
ancient edifices, and not solely from the temple 
of Qairinus , on the Quirinal , as erroneously 
asserted. These stairs were built under the di- 
rection of Lorenzo , a Roman artist , in i 348 
as appears by a contemporary inscription on the 
left of the principal door of the Aracccli church. 





y X his hill , one of the moat celebrated of 
ancient Rome , has had different appellations at 
different epochs. In the most remote times it was 
called Saturniut , from Saturn who built a city 
on it called Saturnia. In the times of Romulus, 
Tarpeitts , from Tarpeia , a Roman girt , the 
daughter of Sparing Tarpeius who was killed by 
the Sabiaes. Under Tarqninias Saperbas, Capi- 
tolium, or Mont Capitalisms from a man's head 
found in digging the foundations of the temple 
of Jupiter, considered as an omen of the future 
greatness of Rome. From the ancient word Ca- 
pitolium is derived, by corruption, the present 
word Campidoglio. 

This bill is of an oval form; at the extre- 
mities are two elevations separated by a valley. 


50 Second day 

That to the north was denominated Capitoltum 
from the temple of the Capttoline Jove. That 
to the south Arx or fortress being the citadel 
of Rome. The intermediate valley, Inter montium. 
The circumference was 4400 ancient feet ; the 
height above the level of the sea, 46 metres. 

In describing these different parts , accor- 
ding to the notices lhat have come down to as 
through the writers of antiquity , I shall con- 
fine myself to the most essential, so great is the 
number of buildings and monuments that once 
existed on this hill. 

On the northern summit, where the church 
of Aracceli now stands, little space remains be- 
yond what was occupied by the temple of Jupiter 
which was begun by Tarquinius Priscus, finished 
by Tarquinius Superbus, and dedicated by Mar- 
cus Horalius. This primitive temple was proba- 
bly of Etruscan architecture, surrounded by por- 
ticoes with pilasters. Having been destroyed by 
fire , it was rebuilt by Sylla , who added to it 
the columns of the temple of Jupiter Olympus, 
at Athens. This second temple was dedicated by 
Catulus , whose name appears in the inscription. 
It is ascertained , from Dionysius Halicarnassus 
who saw it complete , lhat it formed nearly a 
perfect square , there being a difference of only. 
1 5 feet between its length and breadth , the 
laugth being about 200 feet and the breadth 
185. In front there were three orders of columns, 
on the sides , two , the facade turned towards 
tbe south, that is towards the Forum and Aven- 
tine. The back part had no portico , but was 
joined to the Gapitoline walls. The interior was 
divided by .three naves with three ■ edicoli » 


Second day 51 

at Hie end; (be central one was consecrated to Ju- 
piter , the right to Minerva, and the left to 
Juno. It was burnt anew during the war between 
Vespasian and Vitellius , and rebuilt by Vespa- 
sian, It was again destroyed by fire, under Titus 
but rebuilt with still greater splendour by Do- 
mitian, who, by Plutarch's acouunt, brought from 
Athens the columns of Pcntelic marble, lis ma- 
gnificence and riches it would be no easy task 
to describe ; it is sufficient to say that the tem- 
ple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the principal tem- 
ple of the City , then the queen of nations. 

In the Intermontium , besides the Asylum 
established by Romulus, which occupied a part 
of the present piazza del Campidoglio, was the 
Tabularium or the archivium of the Slate where 
the Senatus eonsulti , the plebisciti and other 
public acts were preserved on bronze tables. When 
Vespasian decided on reestablishing those which 
had perished in the Vitellian conflagration the 
inunber , according to Svelonius , amounted to 
three thousand. The Tabularium and its wall 
were built by Q. Lutatius Gatulus ; the latter 
slit! exists under the Senatorial palace , with a 
part of the inferior portico, on the side of the 
Forum, It was arched with half columns, and 
made with Gabine stone , the entablature and 
capitals in travertine , of the dorlc order which 
are still visible being enclosed in the modern 
walls and those of the middle ages. The upper 
portico was composed of fluted travertine Corin- 
thian columns, behind which was the Archivium. 
The pedestals of these columns found some years 
since were covered with stucco, which was pro- 
bably added in the successive repairs. 


52 Second day 

On the citadel stood the houses of Romu- 
lus, Tatius, Manlius Capitolinus the latter changed 
into the temple of Juno Moneta. The Curia Ca- 
labra , from which the pontiles, annoanced the 
new moon to the people, and the temple of Ju- 
piter Fcretrius dedicated by Romulus to the pre- 
servation of the Spolias opimte. To obtain the- 
se it was necessary that the Roman General should 
have killed with, his own hand, the leader of the 
enemy's troops . Of this three instances only 
occur in Roman history. Romulus who killed Aero 
king of Cenina. Cornelius Gassus, Polumnius chief 
of the Veiientes, M. Claudius Marcellus, Virio- 
damar , the Gallic chief. Augustus restored and 
enlarged this temple which however was always 
of limited dimensions. 

The citadel was separated from the other 
parts of the Capitol by walls and towers which 
were rebuilt after the defeat of the Gauls by 
Camillus. Of these some remains are visible under 
the palazzo Caflarelli ; they consist of quadri- 
lateral blocks of a peperino » or albau stone. With- 
in the palace and in the garden are remains 
of the citadel in large square blocks of the Alban 

i On the Tarpeian rock from which were 
thrown Manlius and all those convicted of con- 
spiracy, is also seen a fine remnant at the piazza 
delta Consolazione about 50 feel high. Conside- 
ring the encrease of the valley below, the di- 
minution the rock has undergone in the course 
of ages , it may , without exaggeration, be cal- 
culated as having been upwards of a 1 00 feet 




Second day 53 

At present several roads lead to the Capitol. 
Three only existed in ancient tiroes , all three 
by IheForum.The first by the hundred steps of the 
Tarpeian rock which began near the Mammer- 
tiue prison, behind which it passed, and reached 
the Citadel on the side of the rock nearly in the 
direction of the street to the west of the Ta- 
bnlarium which continues to Monte Tarpeio or 

The second road was by . the hill called 
CUvut Capitolinus : from the Forum where it 
commenced, it divided into two branches , one 
under the arch of Tiberias near the hospital of 
(oe Consolazione , and the other near the Arch 
of Septimius Severns passing between the Tem- 

Cles of Fortune and Jnpiter Tonans. These two 
ranches nnited at the Temple of Fortune near 
the Tabnlarinm whence the Clivus Capitolinus 
led to the temple of Jnpiter in crossing the 

The third ascent was under the Arch of 
Septimius Severns and called CUvut Sacer, CU- 
vut Asyh which, following the direction of the 
present flight of steps, led to the Intermontiam 
though not in a straight line but between these 
steps and the prison, where it reached the base 
of the temple. By this road passed the Ge- 
nerals honoured with- the triumph. The other 
parts of the Capitol were all rocks and crowned 
with walls. ■ - 


s ' Differs altogether from the ancient ; in 
stead of a severe and formidable grandeur it 


54 Second day 

presents light and pleasing objects which render 
il one of ihe finest spots in Rome. The modern 
decoration is by Paul III who raised the two 
lateral buildings on the designs of Buonaroli , 
the new facade of the senatorial palace, opened 
the street towards the west, and the steps which 
lead to the ascent. 

The two Egyptian lions of black granite 
placed at the base by Pius IV. were found be- 
fore Ihe church of « S. Stefano in Gacco » and 
probably served as an ornament to the temple 
of Serapis which existed on that spot. 

On the top of the steps are two colossal 
statues of Castor and Pollux , of pentelic mar- 
ble , standing beside their horses ; they were 
found under Pius IV near the Synagogue of the 
Jews and placed here under Gregory XIII. The 
two trophies , called the trophies of Marius , 
are supposed by some to have been raised in 
honour of the Dacian victories of Trajan; their 
sculpture is not of the same style as the Tra- 
jan column , but seems to belong to the early 
times of Septimius Severus. They served origi- 
nally to decorate the large fountain of the acqua 
Julia, on the Esquiline, built by the same Em- 
peror , and remained there tilt transferred to 
this spot by Sixtus V who also placed here the 
statues of Conslantine and Constantino Augustus, 
which were found on the Quirtual in the thermae 
of Cons tan tine. On the balustrade are two co- 
lumns ; the one near the « palazzo dei Con- 
servator! » is the military column which by num- 
ber I indicated the first mile of the Appian way; 
the hall on the top, though antique, does not 
belong to it. It has been asserted that this bronze 


Second day 55 

ball is the same tliat was placed in toe hand 
of Trajan and contained his ashes on the statue 
of the column, but this assertion has been con- 
tradicted by Victor and Eulropius who affirm 
that the Emperor's ashes were placed under the 
column , that is in the room now closed which 
is under the large pedestal. The column on the 
opposite side is modern. 

The principal ornament of the piazza del 
Campidogiio which forms a perfect square, is 
the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. It was 
found on the piazza S. John Laleran and erect- 
ed there by Sixlus IV. Under Paul HI it was 
brought to this piazza and placed on a large 
pedestal of a single marble block taken from the 
Forum of Nerva. This is the only equestrian 
bronze statue that remains of all those of an- 
cient Rome. It was greatly praised by Michael 
Angelo under whose direction it was erected. 

Of the three edifices on the Capitol the 
one facing the steps is 


Built in the form of a rock, by Boniface IX 
on the ruins of the Tabularium. The facade of 
the corinthian order with pilasters was begun un- 
der Paul III by Buonaroti, and finished on the de- 
signs of Giacomo della Porta. Tbe large double 
stair case leading to the palace is decorated with 
a fountain in which are three statues , the 
centre statue of white marble and draped with 
porphyry representing Minerva , was found at 
Cora, where still exists a beautiful marble altar 
sacred also to Minerva, ornamented with Me- 


56 Second day 

dusas and ram's beads. Though the character 
of the head, and the large shield leave no room 
to doubt (hat the statue represents the daughter 
of Jove , (he moderns have thought proper to 
call it Rome. The recumbent colossal statues 
represent the Nile and the Tiber ; they were 
found on theQnirinal in theColonna gardenwhere 
the j belonged to the Sera pen m. 

The hall on the first story is the Senatorial 
Tribunal. It contains the statues of Paul III, Gre- 
gory XIII , and of Charles of Anjou king of Ma- 
ples , who was Senator of Rome in the XIII 
century. The top of the palace commands a fine 
view of the city, and environs; on it stands the 
statue of Christian Rome holding the cross; the 
height is 290 feet and a half above the level 
of the sea. 

The other two palaces were built by Buo- 
naroti. The one on the right of the Senator's 
palace contains. 


-, This Museum, containing splendid monu- 
ments of antiquity , was begun by Clement XII, 
continued by his successors Benedict XIV, Cle- 
ment XIII , and completed by Pius VII. In gi- 
ving a description of it I shall confine myself to 
the most remarkable objects. 


'• In the centre is the celebrated statue of 
the Ocean, known under the name of Marforio 
from the forum of Mars and Augustus , near 


Second day 57 

which it was situated. On the sides of the statue 
ate two Satyrs , in the form of cariatides, for- 
merly in the palazzo Yalle, found on the piazza 
of the Satyrs near the theatre of Pompey. On 
the walls are several busts of little value and 
sundry inscriptions of the Pretorian Guards found 
near the Villa Albani in the vineyard of the 
del Cinqae family which seems to have been 
their cemetery. The two sarcophagi on the right 
and left were found in the catacombs; they are 
both of coarse work but the cover of the one 
to the left is interesting from the dress used in 
the Chase with arms and nets. 


On the left entrance are worthy of obser- 
vation a semi colossal trunk found at Beva- 
gna. A Minerva , found in the present walls of 
Rome , near S. John Lateran , where it was 
placed either as a material or as a protecting 
Goddess. A Gippus supporting a statue of Apollo; 
on the Cippus is an inscription relatire to Cains 
Cestius found near his pyramid on which are 
the names of his heirs ; it proves that Cestias 
lived at the time of Augustus; four Consular fa- 
sces within a gate a large pedestal representing 
in has relief a Roman province ; it was found 
with many others in the piazza di Pietra, where 
they probably belonged to the fornm of Anto- 
ninus Pins. The word « Ungaria » written on it, 
is probably modern. On the pedestal is a Co- 
lossal head of Gybele found at Hadrian's Villa 
at Tivoli. Opposite the gate is the fragment of 
the lower part of the statue of a Captive King , 

■* Google 

58 Second day 

of pavonazzello marble, formerly belonging fa 
the arch of Constantine. Another inscription re- 
lative to Gains Ges-lins , found near his tomb. 

On the right side of the atrium is a fine 
statue of Diana, remarkable for its drapery. Ano- 
ther of Diana , of colossal size. On the oppo- 
site side the Cyclop Polyphemus ; and a statue 
of Adrian offering a sacrifice found near S. Ste- 
lano Rotondo. 

Opposite the stairs a colossal slalue found 
on the Aventine , supposed to he Mars , whose 
cuirass is of the purest style. At the end of the 
atrium, Hercules killing the Hydra, found near 
S. Agoese on the Nonienlana way. Adjoining it, 
a valuable fragment in porphyry of a female 
draped statue. 

On the right is the Chamber of urns 

In this room there were formerly several 
works of the Egyptian style found in the ruins 
of the Canopus, at the Villa Adriana, and which 
are now in the Vatican. It still contains a square 
ara representing the labours of Hercules of the 
finest Greek style and was brought from Al- 
bano to Borne about the middle of Jast century. 

The walls of this room are covered with 
122 Inscriptions , in marble or terra cotta, de- 
posed in chronological order relative to the Em- 
perors , Empresses , Caesars and Consuls, from 
Tiberius to Theodosius, There are few inouutoonis 


Second day 59' 

of sculpture in this room. The most remarka- 
ble is the large marble urn found in the rigna 
Ammendola , on the Appian war on which is 
represented the battle between the Romans and 
Gauls, in year 355 before the Christian era , 
which we know from history to hare taken place 
near Telamone , in Tuscany , celebrated by 
the death of AttiliusRegulus, the Roman Con- 
sul, and the Gallic chief Ancorestus who died by 
his own band. The barbarian warriors are re- 
markable for their resemblance to the celebra- 
ted statue called the dying gladiator not only 
in the roughness of the hair but in the nudi- 
ty of the limbs and form of the arms. Towards 
the left window is the sepulchral Cippus of A- 
tilius Aprus, near which are various architec- 
tonic instruments and the measure of the ancient 
Rom in foot divided into sixteen inches. 


The large sarcophagus, called that of Alexan- 
der Severus , forms the principal ornament of 
this room. It was found about three miles from 
Rome on the modern Tusculan way. The names 
of Alexander Severus and of Hammaea were 
given to the two recumbent figures on the co- 
ver which are unknown portraits. Within the 
sarcophagus a glass vase was found containing 
ashes. It was formerly in the Barberini palace 
and is now in the British Museum to which it 
was presented by the Duke of Portland; this is the 
celebrated Portland vase. The front and sides 
of the sarcophagus are of a very fine execution, 
the back part, having been turned towards the 


60 Second day 

wall , is in a rough state. The first side repre- 
sents the anger of Achilles when Agamennon 
threatens to carry away Briseis ; the subject of 
the first book of the Iliad. It contains the figures 
of Agamemnon, Nestor, Ulysses , Diomed, and 
Calcas ; Achilles is represented at the moment 
when he is stopped by Minerva. 

On the side towards the window are re- 
cognized Licomedes, Deidamia , and the depar- 
ture of Achilles from Sciros. On the opposite 
side the Grecian chiefs supplicating Achilles to 
return to the war. On the back part Priam on 
his knees offering a ransom for the body of 

On the wall to the right of this monument 
is a marble with mosaic ornaments and a pi- 
cture of porphyry in the centre, around which 
in a semi barbarous style of sculpture are seen 
the deeds of Achilles from his birth till the 
moment of his revenge on the dead body of 
Hector. This monument was found in the Ara- 
cueli church. Near it is a small mosaic repre- 
senting Hercules conquered by Cupid and dres- 
sed as a female. It was found in the woods of 
Antinm. It is followed by a Greek Palmyrene 
inscription on bas-relief of the Sun and Moon 
revered in Palmyra under the names of Agli- 
bolas and Malachbelus , and by another bas 
relief of a square form representing an arcfai- 
galfas or priest of Cybeles, with symbols of the 
goddess, found at Givita Lavinia; near the door 
is a small statue of Jove , and one of Pluto , 
found under the Thermc of Titos. 

Along the walls of the stairs are fragments 
of the ancient plan of Rome found in the tem- 


Second day 01 

n' ■. of Remus on the Via Sacra. Amongst these 
gments particular attention is due to those 
which hare preserved entire or in part the plan 
of the Sura baths mentioned by Dio , of the 
portico of Octavia , the vEmilian Basilic , the 
Grocoslasis , the Julian , and Uipian Basilica , 
the theatres of Marcellns , and of Pompey. 

This room leads to the long gallery filled 
with statues. The first to the right is the 


- So called from the various bronze works 
it contains. The bronze vase at the entrance was 
found in the sea , at Aiitium , and was a gift 
of the celebrated Hitridates , king of Pontus 
to the gymnasium of the Eupatoristi, as appears 
by its Greek inscription. The greater partof the 
boats are unknown. Those particnlary worthy of 
observation are a Hecate, or triple formed Dia- 
na in bronze , which still preserves the traces 
of its ancient gilding. On its left is the Iliac 
table representing the events of the Trojan war. 
On the other side a bronze table with an in- 
scription relative to Septimins Severus , Julia 
his wife, and Caracalla , with their portraits. 
An ancient balance found beyond tbe Salara gate. 
A fine sarcophagus representing Diana and En- 
dymion on which is placed a mosaic with masks 
found in 1 824 on the Aventine. A fine bronze 
statue of one of the twelve Gamilli , ministers 
of the sacrifices. 

The sarcophagus opposite the other window 
is badly carved but is interesting for the subject 
as it shows the doctrines of the latter Plaloni- 


62 Second day 

ciaas on the formation and destruction of man. 
Above it is the mosaic of the doves, found in 
Villa Adrians, the Guest monument of the kind 
that has come down lo us. It is a copy or imi- 
tation of the mosaic made by Sosus of Purgamus 
and recorded by Pliny. 


-.Opposite the stair case are the basts of 
Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus well pre- 
served. On the walls, several inscriptions of the 
freedmen of Livia, found in 1726 on the Ap- 
pian way. On the left a statue of drunkenness 
found on Via No men tana; opposite the first win- 
dow a sarcophagus representing the rape of Pro- 
serpine , as described in the poem of Glaudian. 
The statue of a wrestler falling in (he fight ; a 
colossal head of Juno; the statue of oneNiobes 
sons ; the bust of Jove ; the Nile placed on a 
sarcophagus on which is represented the infant 
Bacchus delivered into the bauds of Ino. After 
various other objects is the bust of Scipio Africa- 
nus , and a fine Hermes with the head of Am- 
nion. On the opposite side after the group of 
a Muse with a Genius is a head of Tiberius. On 
the left side the bust of Adrian in different kinds 
of alabaster. A Marcus Aurelius in his youth, 
and a statue of Pallas from the original now 
lu Paris. On the left Domitius Eoobarbus , the 
father of Nero. A splendid vase of Pentelic mar- 
ble found near the tomb of Cecilia Metella. It 
stands on an antique ara of while marble , of 
the early Greek style, and represents the twelve 
great Gods, Jupiter, Juno Minerva, Venus, Ye- 


Second day 63 

sta, Hercules, Apollo, Diana, Mars, Mercury, 
Neptune and Vulcan. It is said to hare been 
found at Ne.ttimo, though doubted by Wiokolmau- 


So called from the collection of portraits 
of the Emperors and of tbeir families. The most 
interesting bas reliefs are the hnnl of the Ga- 
lydonean boar by Meleager. Perseus liberating 
Andromeda. Endymion sleeping. The first was 
found in the foundations of the Mali palace; theEn- 
djminn on the Aventine. Over the door leading 
to the hall of the philosophers is a very rare 
has relief of Ida carried away by the Nymphs, 
In the middle of the room is the so called statue 
of the elder Agrippina , the wife of Germani- 
cus, and mother of Caligula. 

Of the imperial statues, disposed in chro- 
nological order, those well acertained and most 
remarkable for merit will alone be mentioned. 
Xbe series commences from above on the right 
of the door. The most remarkable, are Tiberius, 
in alabaster ; his brother Drusus , the father of 
the Emperor Claudius. Antouia , the wife of 
Drnsus. Caligula , in basalt. Messalina, Agrippi- 
na the younger , wife of Claudius, two busts of 
Nero , one in his youth , the other in maturer 
years; his wifePoppea, found at S. Lorenzo out 
of the walls. Galba, Olho, and Vitellius, rare. 
Julia , the daughter of Titos. Plotina , the wife ' 
of Trajan , Marciana , his sister , and Matidia, 
his daughter,two busts of Adrian. His wife Julia 
Sabiua , in alabaster, and Elms Csssar his adop- 
ted son who died before coming to the Empire, 
it Cirila Layinia. 


64 Second day 

Under the basis forming the beginning of 
the series ; Gommodns , his wife Crispins, Per- 
tinax , Didius Julianas , Pescenius Niger ; two 
fine busts of Seplimiua Severus. Macrinus, Dia- 
dumenianos. Maximian and his son Decios. Ju- 
lian surnamed I he apostate.FLavios Valens.Ontside 
the window is an antique Solar clock. 


This room derives its appellation from the 
philosophers , historians , poets and other lite- 
rary persons whose portraits it contains. Of f he 
has reliefs on the warn the most remarkable are 
those representing the body of Hector carried 
to the funeral pile accompanied by Hecuba and 
Andromache in tears. A sacrifice to Igla in rosso 
antico. The fragment of a Bacchanalian festival 
with the name of Callimachus a celebrated scul- 
ptor mentioned by Pliny and Paosanias. In the 
middle of the room is the statue of Marcellus, 
the conqueror of Syracuse). 

The series of portraits begins on the left 
near the entrance with three heads of Socrates, 
one of Alcibiades; those bearing the name of 
Plato down to no 18 are so many heads of Bac- 
chus , not having the slighest resemblance with 
the celebrated philosopher in the Florence gal- 
lery , but being identic with the terminal Her- 
mes of Bacchus; a head of Theophrastns; Marcos 
Anrelins; Diogenes, the Cynic; Archimedes; the 
celebrated physician Theo , a Platonician; Apu- 
leius; Demosthenes ; two busts of Sophocles, one 
improperly called Pindar. Aratus. Three heads, 
of Euripides. 


Second day 65 

The baste opposite the window are unknown. 
In the series below are four basts of Homer, Thu- 
cjdides, Epicurus and Metrodoms , a double 
headed hermes found iu building the portico of 
S. Maria Maggiore. Pithodoros , a victorious 
athlet. Antisthenes the founder of the sect of 
Cynics ; two heads of Julian. A fine bust, called 
a Cicero but resembling the portraits of Mecav 
uas. The last , a bast of Gabriel Faerno a di- 
stinguished writer of Cremona of the XVI cen- 
tury , by Buonaroti. 


V Two fine porta Santa columns 1 7 palms high 
have been substituted to the two in giallo anti- 
co about 22 palms in height which have been 
placed in the nuovo braccio of the Chiaramonti 
Museum. The two winged victories supporting 
the arms of Clement XII belonged to the arch 
of Marcos Aurelius on the Flaminian way near 
the Fiano palace. In the middle of the room are 
fire fine statues: a Jupiter, an Esculapius, both 
of yellow black marble found at Antium. Two 
fine Centaurs, of the same marble found in the 
Villa Adriana , at Tivoli with the names of the 
Kalptors Arisleas and Papias of Aphrodisium. 
A young Hercules found on the Avenline- This 
statue is placed on a square ara with a fine bas 
relief of the birth , life and apotheosis of Ju- 
piter. On the part facing the niche is a recumbent 
Rea , in the pains of childbirth. Bea saving the 
life of Jupiter by offering a stone wrapped in 
linen to Saturn. Jupiter sucking the goat Amal- 
tbea. The Corybantes dancing to drown bis cries 


66 Second day 

Jupiter in the assembly of the Gods. This ara was 
found at Albono. The other statues most deser- 
ving of nolkc in this room are: Marcus Aurc- 
tius , a wounded Amazon ; a group commonly 
called , Coriolanus and Veluria, both unknown 
portraits under the forms of Venus and Mars 
found in the « Isola Sacra »; Minerva; Apollo; 
a colossal bust of Trajan with an oaken crown; 
Adrian ; a female draped statue of Julia Pla , 
the wife of Scptimius Scverus. A bronze gilt 
Hercules nearly colossal found in the XV century 
near the church of Bocca della Verita, A Gymna- 
siarch from Adrian's Villa , at Tivoli. Hecuba 
weeping for the death of Polydorus aud Poli- 
ienes; a colossal bust of Antoninus Pius; a hunter, 
by Politimus Liberlus. Harpocrates, the god of 
silence , found in the Villa Adriana. 


. So called from the rosso autico Fann, fonnd 
in the Villa Adriana , and placed in the middle 
of this hall. Of the inscriptions it contains, the 
most remarkable is the one in bronze , com- 
monly called the « lex regia » being a part of 
the law decreed by the Senate which confers 
on Vespasian the Imperial authority such as it 
was granted to his predecessors Augustus, Ti- 
berius, and Claudius. This interesting monument 
had been placed at S. John Lateran by the ce- 
lebrated Nicola di Bienzi. 

On a sarcophagus to the left are represen- 
ted Diana and Endymion. Over it , a head of 
Tideus , in high relief. An ara consecrated to 
{sis op which are the mystic Cista, Anubis and 


Second day nJ 

Arpocrates. A child playing with a masque ; ano- 
ther with a swan , a copy of the one in bronze 
by Boetus a Carthaginian , recorded by Pliny. 
An ara consecrated to the Sun with a lalin 
and Palmyrenc inscription and a magnificent 
sarcophagus representing the war between the 
Amazons and Athenians; the has reliefs are fine- 
ly executed and in high preservation. The grief 
of the captive Amazons carved on the lid of the 
tarcophagus , is admirably expressed .This monu- 
ment was found near the springs of the * Acqua 

In the centre is the celebrated statue ot 
the so called dying Gladiator , a monument of 
ancient art which, for the beauty of the work, 
aad its preservation , may be ranked with the 
most splendid statues ; it represents a subject 
far more noble than that of a gladiator, a class 
of men not known in Rome before Commodus, to 
which period it would then be necessary to assign 
this statue ; but (he work is pure Greek and 
far anterior to that epoch. 

By an attentive observation of the head, (he 
mustachios , the collar , tnc torques of the an- 
cients , the rough flowing of the hair , and all 
the other accessories, no doubt can remain that 
it represents a Gaul and in all probability it 
formed part of a group alluding to the inva- 
sion and defeat of the Gauls in Greece, 

Qn the left side are a semi-colossal statue 
of Juno , but which represents a Muse , of a 
majestic pose and elegant drapery. A line head, 
of Alexander the great, An Amazon drawing the. 



68 Second day 

bow ; a fine head of Ariadne; a Scefora , hol- 
ding the vase with offerings to the Manes,perhaps 
Eleclra carrying libations to the tomb of Aga- 
menon; a statne of the Lycian Apollo found near 
the Sollatara, on the Tiburtine way. Zeno, the 
Grecian philosopher found at Civita Lavinia. A 
-roung girl playing with a dove. A copy of the 
"aun of Praxiteles from the Villa Adrians; the 
celebrated Antiaons. Flora , a beautifully dra- 
ped slatne from the Villa Adrians. A statne of 
Isis; a rare bust of Marcus Brutus who hilled 
Cffisar. The columns of oriental alabaster, nero 
antico , and breccia traccagnina are worthy of 


'"'Contains three celebrated works of art. 
The Capitoline Venus , in Parian marble , of 
excellent work and well preserved found near 
San Vital*. The beautiful group of Cupid and 
Psiche found on the Aventiue in the last cen- 
tury , and another statue of Venus. 

The building opposite the Museum called 
the palace of the Conservator! will be described 
hereafter. Under the portico to the right is 


For upwards of two centuries it was 
customary to place in the Pantheon the mo- 
numents and portraits of the illustrious men 
of Italy, but the nnmber having greatly en- 
creased Pius VII dedicated to this object sundry 
rooms in the Capitol to which were transferred 


Second day 69 

(be busts existing in the Pantheon, and those 
that may be judged worthy of this honour will 
be placed here in future. 

In the first room is a long latin inscrip- 
tion with the statutes of the establishment 
divided into six sections. No. 1. this place 
is destined to perpetuate the memory of the 
Italians. No: 2. it is to contain not oulj the 
basts iu the Pantheon , but others that may be 
deemed proper. No 3. none can be received bnt 
of men of the highest order of talents , and 
never before their death. No. 4. The three 
» Conservator! * of Borne will receive propo- 
sals of admission, aud take the opinion of the 
sundry academies ; the decision to be reserved 
to the sovereign who in case of difference of 
opinion will select judges. No. 5. The portraits 
can be no other than busts and hermes ; the 
former on the dimensions of that of Leonardo 
da Vinci; the latter on that of Galileo; and to be ex- 
clusively of statuary marble j No 6 ; the » Con- 
servator! * are charged with the keeping of 
the place and with the execution of the sta- 
tutes from which they cannot in any manner 

In the first room are the portraits which 
existed in the Pantheon of some celebrated 
foreigners who passed the greatest part of their 
lives in Italy. Joseph Swee , Nicholas Poussin , 
trench painters, Mengs , Winckelman and An- 
gelica Kanflman. 

II. Room. Men distinguished in Music and 
in arms of the XVII and XIX Centuries. Em- 
manuel Philibert Duke of Savoy. Saccbini, Co- 
relli, Marceilo, Zingarelli, Paisiello, celebrated 
musical composers. 


70 Second day 

III. Room. Besides the portrait of Leo XII 
Mm room contains several of other distinguished 
personages. Cimarosa , by Canova. De Marchi , 
a Bolognese Engineer by Biglioschi; Mantegna 
by Rinaldi. Morgagni , the anatomist , by Ta- 
dolini , presented by Alessandro Manzoni. Do- 
naletto the florentinc sculptor , by Ceccarini , 
presented hy Canova , with the hemes of the 
Blessed Angetico of Fiesole. The following were 
also executed at the expense of Canova. Tira- 
boschi the historian , by d' Este. Masaccio, by 
Finelli. Correggio, by Albacini ; Tortpiato Tasso, 
by d' Este. Palladio , the Architect, by Biglioschi. 
Titian by d' Este. Dante Alighieri , and Giotto. 
Galileo Galilei is by Manera. Buonaroti by d'Este. 
Ariosto by Finelli . Christopher Columbus by 
Trcntanore. Muratori by Tadolini . Pietro Pe- 
rugino, by Trcntanove; Petrarch by Finelli. 

Raphael is by Naldini , at the expense of 
Carlo Maratta. The last bust is that of Canova. 

IV. Room. Artists who flourished in the 
XIII, XIV, XV, and XVI Centuries. Brunelleschi, 
by d' Este. Paul Veronese and Manera at the 
expense of Canova who executed himself the 
bust of Pius VII. Leonardo da Vinci. Nicola di 
Pisa sculptor and architect, Andrea Orgagna , 
Gbiberti and the other portraits down to the 
architect Sammichele were made at the expen- 
se of Canora. Bramante. Fra Bartolomco di San 
Marco. Luca Signorelli. Andrea del Sarto. Giu- 
lio Romano. Sammichele 

The following series represents FlaroinioVac- 
ca ; Pierin del Vaga ; Gaiofolo ; Ghirlandaio ; 
Nanni , of Cdine , the three last at the expense 
of Canova ; Taddeo Zuccari ; Baronino, the ar- 


Second day 71 

f liilect; Marc 1 Antonio tlie engraver; Polidor Ca- 
ravaggio, and Fra Sebastiano, these three pre- 
sented by Canova. 

*- V Room Artists from the XVI to the XIX 
century. Rusconi , a Milanese Sculptor ; Pietro 
Bracci ; Annibal Caracci , the bead of the Bo- 
logna school, at the expense of Carlo Maratle; 
Domenico Zampieri, called Domenichino, at the 
expense of Canova ; Pietro Berettini , of Cor- 
tona ; Marco Benaliel a Roman painter ; Pira- 
nesi , the sculptor and engraver, at the expense 
of Canova ; Raphael Stern, a Roman architect, 
who made the uuovo braccio of the Museo Chia- 
ramonti at the Vatican ; Pickler , an engraver 
in pietra dura; Rapiui, an Engineer. 
~ i In the VI room are the bust of Trissino , 
a poet of Vicenza ; Viltorio Al!ieri, at the ex- 
pence of Canova ; the chemist Saluzzo; Ridol- 
iino Venuli , an antiquarian of Cortona; Anni- 
bal Caro by D' Este , at (he expense of the Du- 
chess of Devonshire; the Jesuit Bartoli ofFer- 
rara ; Bodoni, the celebrated typographer; Bee- 
caria. Verri , the author of the Notti Romane; 
Padre Cesari , of Verona ; Goldoni , at the ex- 
pense of Canova ; Metastasio by Ceracchi. 

The VII room contains the monument de- 
creed to Canova by Leo XII , and executed by 


So named from the Conservator! of Rome 
who hold in it their sittings. On the right en- 
trance of the portico is the slatae of Julius Cae- 
sar , the only one known of that great man in 
Rome. On the left, one of Augustus with a ro- 

,. Google 

72 Second day 

strum v at bis feet , ia allusion to the battle 
of Actiam, and Dear it the figure of a Bacchante. 
Around the yard are various fragments and other 
antique monuments. 

On the left a colossal head of Domitian 
placed on a pedestal representing a province , 
found towards the close of the XVII century 
near the Antonine temple. A sepulchral Cippus 
of Agrippina , the wife of Germanicns , with a 
fragment of a statue. A bronze colossal hand 
and head , ascribed to Commodos though diffe- 
ring essentially from his head on medals; fra- 
gments of two porphyry columns joined in one 
supporting this hand found on the south side of 
the so called temple of Peace. 

At the bottom of the yard are Barbarian 
chiefs in grey marble and a sitting statue of Ro- 
me placed on a marble pedestal in which is in- 
serted the remnant of a triumphal arch proba- 
bly of Trajan's as may be argued by the style 
on which is represented a conquered province, 
perhaps Dacia. 

On one of the sides is a fine group dama- 
ged by water of a lion ripping open a horse ; 
found in the Almone, a stream out of the Porta 
San Paolo. The restoration is attributed to Mi- 
chael Angelo. The colossal feet and hands, and 
other fragments formed part of a seated statue, 
altogether different front the one to which the 
head of Domitian belonged. The large pedestal, 
with an inscription in honour of Adrian , pro- 
bably supported his statue. 

On the stair case is a modern copy of the 
rostral column of the Consul Duilins who gained 
the first naval victory over the Carthaginians , 


Second day 73 

in the year of Rome 492. The original was co- 
vered with metal rostra taken from tbe enemy's 
ships. Beneath is a part of the ancient marble 
inscription to Duilius , a carious monument of 
the old latin language. It was found in the Fo- 
rum , near the arch of Septimius Severus. 


V On the first flight of steps between two ni- 
ches are statues of Urania and Thalia. On the 
walls four fine bas reliefs relative to Marcus 
Aurelius: A sacrifice before the temple of Jupi- 
ter Capitol inns; the Triumph; in the third tho 
Emperor on horseback with the praetor on lib 
left asking peace for tbe Germans who are in 
tbe act of kneeling; in the fourth Rome offe- 
ring him a globe, the symbol of Imperial power. 
These bas reliefs were formerly in S. Luke's 

A small bas relief on the wall represents 
Melius Curtius . the Sabine , passing the marsh 
in the forum during the combat between Talius 
and Romulus. This work of ancient style was 
found near S. Maria Liberatrice. Opposite is an 
interesting inscription recording the taking of 
Milan by Frederick II. 

On the wall of the following flight of steps 
are the bas reliefs of the arch near the Fiano 

Glace in the Corso, already mentioned. In one 
trcus Aurelius is in the act of haranguing the 
people ; the other represents him seated and the 
younger Faustina carried up to heaven, in al- 
lusion to her apotheosis. 


74 Second day 


>-/ In the first room the cavalier d' Arpino has 
painted several subjects of Roman history. Ro- 
mulus and Remus found hj Faustulus, the shep- 
herd , at the foot of the Palatine , under the: 
Ruminal fig tree;Romulus,tracing with the plough 
the circuit of Rome ; the rape of the Sabine 
women; the sacrifice of Noma and the Vestals; 
the engagement between the Veientes and Romans; 
the combat of the Horatii and Curialii, 

This room contains statues of Leo X, of 
Urban VIII by Bernini ; Innocent XI in bronze 
by Algardi; the portraits of Christina of Sweden; 
of Maria Casimir ; two unknown busts and a 
sturgeon in bas-relief; of the sturgeons caught 
in the Tiber exceeding this measure the upper 
part indicated by the cut over the neck was 
given by right to (he Roman Conservator!. 

In the first antechamber are fresco pain-? 
lings by Laurcli of other Roman historical sub- 
jects. Mulius Scevola burning his right hand in 
presence of Porsena. Brutus condemning his sorts. 
Horatius Codes repulsing alone the Etruscan 
army on the Subliciaq bridge. The battle at the 
Lake Regillus gained by the Dictator Aulus Po- 
sthumius , which destroyed all hopes in the Tar- 
quins of returning to Rome. 

This room also contains several statues of Ge- 
neral of the Papal troops. Marc' Antonio Colonna 
who defeated the Turks at the battle of Lepanto: 
Tommaso Bospigliosi , Francesco Aldobrandini , 
Alexander Farnesc, distinguished in the Flemish 
wars and Carlo Barberini the brother of Urban 
VJil. On a cvlnmn of verd' antico is a head of 


Second day 75 

Trajan. A Inmachella bas-relief of the wolf with 
Romulus and Remus. On another verd' antico 
column a head of Septimius Severus. 

The third room contains a fine bas-relief 
by Daniel da Volterra, representing the triumph 
of Marius after the defeat of the Cimbri. Romu- 
lus and Remus suckled by the wolf, an antique 
bronze , found under the Palatine, between the S. Maria Liberalrice and S. Theodore, 
near the Huminal fig tree where this work was 
placed in the year 458 of Borne by Cueius and 
Qoiutias Ogulni Curule ediles, which Livy and 
Dionisius mention as having existed in their time; 
it cannot therefore be the same monument which 
existed in the Capitol at the time of Cicero prior 
to the conspiracy of Catiline, which was struck 
and rent by lightning. The present monument is 
worthy of notice from its state of preservation, 
the two children are modern. The apparent marks 
of lightning are no proof that it was the mo- 
nument mentioned by Cicero , as besides other 
proofs alledged, Cicero speaks of the Capitoline 
wolf as no longer existing in his time « fuitie 
meminiiti. » 

In this room is a graceful bronze statue of 
■ young man appearing to lake a thorn from his 
foot commonly called the shepherd Martins ; 
probably the puerum distrigentem *e praised by 
Pliny which was in the baths of Agrippa; a half 
sized figure of Adonis; a Diana; a bust of Poppea; 
one in bronze of Lucius Junius Brutus , the first 
Consul ; two unknown female busts in niches; a 
pretended bust of Caesar ; that of Adrian : On 
the wall a has relief of an ancient sarcophagus 
in which between the genii is the door ot'Ailes 


76 Second day 

or Orcus half open. Two fine pictures , ome the 
Saviour , by Piazza ; the other , Santa France- 
sea Rom an a by Romanelli. 

The fourth room contains the Gapitoliae 
fcisti , found in the XVI century near S. Maria 
Libera trice , and some of them in the beginning 
of the present century. These fasti were pro- 
bably placed in the Comitium or in the Curia 
Hostilia; the modern inscriptions relate to .the. vic- 
tories of Marc* Antonio Golonna and to those of 
Alexander Farncse ; the paintings are supposed 
to be of the school of Pietro Perugino; over the 
door is a fine bead in basso rilievo, supposed to 
represent Mitridates King of Pontus; basts of 
a Bacchante , of Pallas , and two boys holding 
birds' nests. 

lit the audience room a frieze representing 
Olympic games; busts of Scipio Africanos and 
of Philip King of Macedon; Tiberius; Socrates; 
Appius Claudius in rosso antico; Buonaroti by 
himself, the head in bronze, the bust in black 
inarbie ;' a head of Medusa , by Bernini ; two 
bronze ducks ; a picture of the holy family by 
Julio Romano. 

In the following room , called that of the 
arras works, Annibal Caracci has represented the 
exploits of Scipio African us. The « arazzi » were 
made at S. Michele , an establishment of cha- 
rity at Rome and represent Rome triumphant. 
The Vestal Tulia ; the wolf sucking Romulus 
and Remus ; the chastisement of the Faliscian 
school master; the portraits of Caesar, Pompe j , 
Emilias, Scipio Africanus, and Camillus; in the 
angles are two unknown busts and those of Aria* 
dne and of Flora. 


Second day 77 

In the last room are various Works of seal-' 
ptnre , statues of Consols, those pretended to be 
of Virgil and Cicero; those of Polymnia, Ceres, 
and Cybele. The fresco paintings by Pietro Pe- 
ragino relate to sundry deeds of Roman history 
at the time of the Panic wars. 

In the adjoining chapel are several good 
pictures. The altar piece representing the Vir- 
gin , on slate , is by Nucci ; the Evangelists in 
the four angles are by Caravaggio. The Eternal 
lather and others , school of the Caracci. S. Eu- 
stacfae , S. Cecilia, S. Alessio, and the Blessed 
Louisa Alberloni are by Bomanelli. The Madon- 
na to (he left is by Pinturicchio. 

The adjoining rooms contain the fasti of 
the modern 'Conservator! and an ancient inscri- 
ption of the time of Commodus to whose name 
has been substituted that of Pertinax. There is 
also on a large pedestal an inscription in hononr 
of Adrian by the heads of the * Vici » of (he 
fourteen regions of Rome; the names of five of 
these « Vici » exist; it is a valuable monument 
of ancient topography* In the angles are the nor- 
mal measures of wine , corn and oil used in the 
XIV century. 


These rooms were built by Benedict XIV 
who formed the collection , and some changes 
were introduced under Pius VII.- The works are 
umbered and begin by the side on the left en- 
trance. The first picture is a female portrait by 
Giorgione. A Madonna and saints, a copy from 
Paul Veronese, by Bonatlif angels appearing tu 
4 * 


7» Seiorid day 

the shepherds , Bassano ; the sacrifice of Ipbi- 
genia , Pielro da Cortona; portrait of a female, 
Bronzino ; & Lucia , Benvenufo Garofato , odo 
of the painter's best works; portrait of a man 
of the Venetian school ; a Madonna , Garofalo ; 
tbo adoration of (he Magi, Scarsellino; a por- 
trait of Guido, by himself; the baptism of our 
Saviour, school of the Caracci ; S. Jerome, Gui- 
do; tin; espousals of S. Catherine, Garofolo; a 
Virgin in repose , a copy of Titian , by Pielro 
da Gortona ; a holy family , Agostino Caracci ; 
another holy family with S. Jerome, Garofalo ; 
a portrait, Velasquez; The coronation of S. Ca- 
therine , Garofalo; a Virgin and Saints, Boiii- 
celli; the adoration of the Magi, Scarsellino; 
a holy family , school of Raphael ; S. Francis-, 
Ludovico Caracci; a landscape with the martyr- 
dom of S. Sebastian, by Douienichino; the ado- 
ration of the Magi, Bassano; Urban VIII, Pielro 
da Gortona; Orpheus playing on the lyre, Potts- 
sin; a Madonna , Gaudenzio of Ferrara; a man 
caressing a dog , Ludovico Caracci ; the Sama- 
ritan , Palma Vccchio ; the triumph of the cross, 
Domenico Palembourg. 

On the second wall a copy of the Judith 
of Guido , by Carlo Maralte ; Agar and Ismael 
quitting Abraham's house , Mola ; Christ dispu- 
ting , of the Ferrara school ; another by Dosi 
of Ferrara ; a charity, Aunihal Caracci; Bac- 
chus and Ariadne by Guido or by one of his 
best imitators ; the celebrated Sibilla Persica of 
Guercino ; the Virgin, S. Cecilia and a Carme- 
lite, by Annibal Caracci; a Virgin and S. Fran- 
cis , by the same ; a holy family ' by Garofalo 
behind which is a sketch of the circumcision, by 


Second day Jg 

(lie same artist ; a miniature representing the 
repast of our Saviour with the Pharisee, by 
Subleirag; the marriage of S. Catherine , a Ma- 
donna by Albano, a work highly esteemed; a Ma- 
gdalen, Tintoretto; David with the head of Go- 
liath at his feet , Romanetli ; Esther by Mola ; 
a sketch by Anoibai Caracci of the Communion 
of S. Jerome , at Bologna ; a holy family, Sehia- 
vone ; the espousals of the Madonna , in the old 
manner of the Ferrara school. 

On Iho third wall are S. John Baptist, by 
Daniel de Vol terra; Christ disputing with the 
doctors , Valentin ; The Cumean Sybil , Dome- 
nichino, inferior to the same Sybil by the same 
artist in the Borghese collection ; Herminia and 
the shepherd , Lanfranc ; Jacob and Esau Baf- 
fael del Garbo j a view of Nelluno near An- 
tiam, Vanvilelli; the Magdalen, Guido; The ado- 
ration of the golden calf, Luca Giordano; Flo- 
ra on a triumphal car , Poussin ; view of Grolta 
F errata , Vanvilelli; S. John Baptist, Guercino; 
Joseph' sold by his brothers , Pietro Testa ; a 
landscape with the Magdalen , Caracci; a Mag- 
dalen , Albano ; the triumph of Bacchus , Pie- 
tro di Cortona; an horizon, Vanblfemcn ; S. Ce- 
cilia, Rom an ell i ; Moses striking water from the 
rock, Luca Giordano; Madonna and Saints, school 
of Corrcggio; the beatification of the soul, by 

Fourth wall. A portrait by Dosi of Fer- 
rara ; one by Domenichino ; an architecture in 
chiar'oscuro , Polidore Caravaggio ; a sketch of 
ike soul's beatification , Guido ; the Virgin , S. 
Anne and angels, Paul Veronese ; Romulus and 
Remus sucking the wolf and found by Faustu- 


80 Second day 

luS, Rubens; a portrait Giorgione ; Rachel, tj* 
and Laban , by Ciro Ferri ; a bishop , Giovan- 
ni Rellini; the Vine dressers , Feti ; Circe offe- 
ring a beverage to Ulysses., Sirani; portrait of 
a monk, Giorgione; a Madonna, Venetian school; 
S. Sebastian, Bellini; the dispute oE S. Catherine, 
Giorgio Vasari ; The Virgin, in adoration before 
her divine son, Pietro di Cortona ; another Ma- 
donna , Francia; a portrait, Bronzino; a picture 
with two portraits, Titian^ » Meleager in chia*- 
roscuro, Polidor Caravaggkr; The coronation of 
the Virgin with S. John., unknown. 


Beginning on the left and following the num- 
bers are the Holy Ghost, by Paul Veronese; the 
Madonna, child and S. Joseph, Giorgione; a copy 
of the Galatrca of Raphael, Pietro da Cortona; 
the Ascension , Paul Veronese ; the Virgin with 
S. Jerome and a saint , Campi of Cremona; an 
allegorical picture of the Capacci school; the ado- 
ration of the Magi, Garofalo; a stable Gauden- 
zio ; the banquet of the rich Epulon , Cairo- ; 
Christ disputing in the temple, Lippi; the Ma- 
donna in gloria, Garofalo; two landscapes of 
Claude ; the nativity of the Madonna , Albano; 
views of moute Cavallo and Ponte Sislc, Van- 
vitelli; a flemish kermesse , Breughel; the tem- 
ple of Vesta , the two bridges of the Isola Ti- 
herina , the Tiber at Ripelta , S. Giovanni de' 
Fioreutini , the Castle S. Angelo, the meadows 
behind the castle , and the broken bridge, are 
all by Vanvitelli; a landscape, Crescenzo ; a 
young man , Caravaggio ; a Cupid, Gtiido; the 


Second day 87 

crown of thorns , Tintoretto. Christ bearing the 
cross and meeting Veronica , Cardona; S. John 
tbe Evangelist, Caravaggioj two sketches by GuU 
do , one a half sized female figure , the other 
the Virgin; a holy family Girolamo da Carpi; 
a battle piece , Borgognoue ; an Ecce homo , 
Baroecio ; portrait of Pope Julias II, unknown; 
a young man , in the Caravaggio style; a battle 
piece , Borgognone ; Christ and the adulteress , 
Tilian; Bambocciata, Cerquozzi; a portrait An- 
tubal Caracci ; Europa , Guido ; the defeat of 
JJarius at Arbelai , one of the best works of 

£ Pietro da Cortona ; a view of the alum mines, 
Cortona; a portrait by Titian; Polyphemus, Gui- 
de ; a landscape , Crescenzo ; a female figure , 
half size, school of Raphael; Judith , Giulio Ro- 
mano; the^ presentation of Christ, a fine pain- 
ting attributed to fra Bartolomeo di S. Marco; 
a holy family , Andrea Sacchi; the journey to 
Egypt , Scarsellino ; the Madonna with two 
franciscan saints , Garofalo; a manger, Gauden- 
rio ; the Annunciation , Garofalo ; S. John Ba- 
ptist , Parmigiano ; S. Francis , Annibal Carac- 
ci; two small flemish pieces, representing an old 
woman and a peasant; the following piece is 
by some attributed to Domenichino , by other* 
ta Caracci; a landscape, by Claude; a Madonna, 
Cignaai; the manger, Garofalo; Christ bearing 
the cross , Florentine school ; The Virgin, child 
and S. John , Garofalo ; the judgment of Solo- 
moo , Bassano. 

X The second front is almost entirely, filled 
by the large picture of Gnercino , which was 
formerly in the Vatican ; the style is grand, the 
pencil masterly ; it represents the death, of & 


82 Second day 

Petronilla. On the left of this classic picture is 
an allegory, by Profeta; the transit of the Ma- 
donna , the assumption, by Cola; a Magdalen, 
school of Guercino ; the birth of the Madonna, 

../ Albano. - 

The third wall contains the baptism of 
Christ by Titian , his own portrait is introdu- 
ced in profile ; S. Francis , Ludovico Caracei ; 
Christ and the adulteress , Gaudenzio ; Simeon 
the elder , Passignani -, a holy family, Ludovico 
Caracei; a gypsy and a young man, Caravaggio; 
a Madonna , child and two angels , Perugino ; 
S. Matthew , Guercino ; S. Bernard , Giovanni 
Bellini ; a soldier sealed , galvator Rosa; S. Je- 
rome , Faccini ;■ a portrait ,■ Giovanni Bellini ; 
e landscape , Domenicbino -, a fine portrait of 

-/. Michael Angelo , by himself ; a Madonna, An- 
nibal Caracei; Giovanni Bellini, painted by him- 
self ; the Virgin and S. Francis , Annibal Ca- 
racei ; Christ and S. John, a sketch by Guido; 
a Spanish priest, Giovanni Bellini ; a magician 

/ Salvator Rosa ; a flower piece, unknown ; The 
flagellation, Tintoretto; Christ in glory, Bassano; 
a S. Sebastian, Ludovico Caracei; Innocence hol- 
ding a dove, Romauelli ; a Madonna, manner 
of Correggio ; a portrait , Bassano ; Cleopatra 

>-ia .-presence of Augustus , Guercino ; Eudymion, 
Mola ; S. John Baptist , Guercino ; a head, style 
of Titian; Diana in a hunting dress, Cav. <T Ar- 
pino ; the baptism of Christ , Tintoretto; Christ 
driving the dealers out of the temple, Bassano; 
S. Sebastian, by Guide ; flower piece, a boy 
sealed , Si rani ; tbe marriage of S. Catherine , 
Calvasi ; two portraits , flemish school -. Lucre- 
tia , a sketch by Guido ; a manger Mazzolinq 


Second day S3 

of Fcrrara ; the fall of S. Paul,Scarsellino; tfaa 
workshop of Vulcan or rather a tinker's shop , 
Basaano ; a holy family , Mantegna; S. Barbara, 
a beautiful half sized figure attributed by some 
to Annibal Caracci , by others to Domenichino: 
S. Sebastian , Garofalo ■, a holy family, Parmi- 
giano ; flemish portraits ; a female bead, Vene- 
tian school ; S. Cecilia , Lndovieo Caracci ; a 
sketch of Guido's Cleopatra. 

The last side contains two philosophers, by 
Calabrese , a work of the Venetian school , a 
Madonna by Liberi ; The Magdalen kneeling , 
Paul Veronese ; S. Sebastian , Caracci school ; 
Nathan and Saul, Moia ; Christ with the Pha- 
risee , Bassano ; The rape of Europa , a fine v 
work by Paul Veronese-, a S. Francis, by Gior- 

Behind ibis edifice was the Ars. or ancient 
citadel mentioned when treating of the Capitol; 
We the Archaeological institute holds its sittings. 


' This church was built in the early ages on 
the spot where the celebrated temple of Jnpi-> 
ter Capitolinns once stood , and was called S. 
Maria de Capitalio ; when and for what reason 
it was called Aracoeli is nnknowu ; Till 1 252 
it was a Benedictine abbey when Innocent IV gave 
it to the Franciscan friars. In 1 464 it was restored 
by Cardinal Olivicro Caraffa , and having suffe- 
red mnch in 1798, it was repaired in the be- 
ginning of the present century. 

On the ground before the principal entrance 
i* the tomb of Flavio Biondo of Forli, the first 


84 Stcond day 

who wrote on Roman antiquities in the XV cen- 

The church is divided into three naves by 
" 22 columns of various diameters and of different 
work all of Egyptian granite except three which 
are of marble. It is therefore not correct to saj 
that they were taken from the ancient temple 
of Jupiter since these, according to Plutarch , 
were of pentelic marble. It appears that the pre- 
sent columns were taken from different places; 
on the third, near the entrance bythe great door, 
is the following doubtful inscription. 


The first chapel on the right of the large 
entrance dedicated to S. Bernardino of Siena , 
formerly belonged to the Buffalini family ;The fres- 
coes relative to the life of S.Bernardino are consi- 
dered as the best works of Pinturicchio. They 
have been restored under the direction ofCa- 
muccini. In the adjoining chapel the oil pain- 
ting is by Marco di Siena, the others by Poma- 
rancio. In the following chapel is a S. -Jerome 
by Giovanni deVecchis. After the fourth, which 
contains nothing worthy of observation, is the 
one dedicated to the apostle S. Matthew whose 
actions were painted by Muziano. The S. Pietro 
Alcantara in marble, and the other works in the 
following chapel are by Maille; the stuccoes by 
Cavallini, and the paintings on the walls by 
Marc' Antonio , a Neapolitan. The paintings of 
the following chapel dedicated to S. Diego and 
the altar piece by Nucci, and Strada, are spoi- 
led. The altar piece in the chapel of S. Pascal 


Second day 85 

Baylon is by Vitloria of Valencia; the walls were 
painted by Soiles , the stuccoes are by Cavallini 
and the decorative parts by Stanghellini. The 
ehapel in honour of S. Francis was rebuilt in 
1727 under Benedict XIII. It belonged to the 
Savelli family and contains several of their mo- 
numents ; the altar piece is by Trevisaui. Tbe 
Fainting in the adjoining chapel dedicated to S. 
fiosa di Vitcrbo is by an unknown author. The 
adjoining chapel of S. Francesco -Solano was built 
on the designs- of Antonio Gherardi , who pain- 
ted the altar pieces -, the Madonna and four half 
figures are by Ghezzi. Ou the right of this cha- 
pel is that of S. Carlo BorromeJ, with two verde 
anlico columns. Over the high altar is an an- 
cient picture representing the Madonna , which, 
in the times of S. Gregory, was carried in pro- 
cession during the plague , a circumstance re- 
corded in a small painting by Giovanni de Vecchi 
on the pilaster opposite the altar of S. Charles. 
In the choir is a fine painting of tbe school of 
Raphael , probably by Giulio Romano, which has 
often been taken for that of the Madonna of 
Foligno, It represents the Virgin with S. John 
Baptist and S. Elisabeth. On the left is the tomb of 
Giovanni Battista Savelli , by a scholar of San- 
sovino. On the left of the high altar the picture 
representing the espousals of the Virgin is in the 
Bassano style. In tbe following chapel, that of 
the knights, the Madonna , with S. Gregory and 
S. Francis, by Seraenza. The holy chapel near 
the sacristy is supported by eight broccatello 
columns; it was demolished in 179$, and re- 
built by the Archiconfraternity of the Gonfalon e 
in 1832. 


86 Second day 

On the other nave is the chapel of the Ma- 
donna di Loreto ; the frescoes by Marzio are 
nearly destroyed , the altar piece is by Ganas- 
sini. The following chapel is dedicated to S. Mar— 
gherita di Gortona -, the principal painting by 
Barbieri , those on the walls by Evangclisli re- 
late to the conversion and death of the saint. In 
the chapel dedicated to S. Michael ihe tomb of 
Cardinal Mancini is by Francesco of Bologna. 
The Ascension in the next chapel by Muziaoo 
the others by Niccola da Pesaro. In the chapel 
dedicated to S. Paul is another painting by Mti- 
ziano and in that of S. Antonio of Padua the 
lunette is by the same artist, and the others are 
by bis school. The transfiguration in the adjoining 
chapel is by Girolamo of Sermoneta. Tbe last 
chapel was painted .by Niccola di Pesaro. 

A miraculous image of the infant Jesus ador- 
ned with many valuable jewels is preserved in 
this church , and is exposed to public venera- 
tion in a scenic rcpresentaliou of the stable, from 
the 25 December till the 6 January. At the sa* - 
-me time the images of Augustus and the Sybil 
are shown in memory of the prophecy, this ima- 
ge of tbe infant is kept in a little chapel con- 
tiguous to the sacristy , which contains the sta- 
tue of S. Francis , the first statue raised to this 
saint in Rome. 

Annexed to the church is the Franciscan 
Convent in which is one of the principal libra- 
ries of Rome. In the refectory is a painting of 
the marriage of Cana in Galilee and others by 
fra Umile of Foligno. 

From the Capitol to tbe Forum the steps 
are in the direction of the Clivus Aiyli already 


Second day 87 

mentioned; under the Senatorial palace are re- 
mains of the Tabularium consisting of large blocks 
of Gabine stone. On the left is the 


\ This building , which was not in the Forum 
bat Gear it , as related by Pliny , was erected 
by Ancus Martins , and from him called the 
Mamertine prison «Mamers » and a Mamerlios « 
in the ancient language of Laliuoi , having 
the same signification as Mars and Martins. 
According to Varro , it was encreased by a 
stronger prison under Servius Tullins , and 
called the Tullian prison. This dark building is 
composed of large tuflb blocks linked together 
without cement , nine Roman feet in length and 
two and a half in depth. The front towards the 
Forum though not in a direct line is 45 feet 
long and 18 deep, the remainder being un- 
der ground. 

According to the the inscription on the front 
travertine block the prison was restored by a 
decree of the Senate in the 22. year of Tiberius, 
by the Consuls G. Vibius., G. F. Rufinus.,M. Coc- 
ceios Nerva. The building , as seen by its pre- 
sent form, was divided into the upper and 
lover prison. The descent in the upper prison 
» by two modern flights of steps , as in ancient 
times no steps existed , the prisoners being let 
down by the opening in the middle. The first 
prison was of a quadrilateral form 27 feet long, 
20 wide and 1 6 in height. Towards the north are 
remains of the loop boles through which the 
light penetrated. 


88 Second day 

The lower prison is of a semi elliptic form 
2 i feet long, the steps are also modern, formerly 
the prisoners were let down through the round 
opening above. This is the Tullian prison, men- 
tioned by Sallust , in which, according to Plutarch, 
Jugurtha died of hunger, and according to Sal- 
lust, Lentulus and Cetiiegos , the accomplices of 
Catiline , were strangled by order of Cicero . 
These prisons are so very narrow that it may 
be conjectured that the upper one extended to 
the site where the altar now stands. The ascent 
was by steps which finished at the Tarpeiao rock 
and these were called the Seal® Gtmonue from 
.the lamentations of the prisoners whose bodies 
.were dragged through the Forum to the Tiber. 

This building is now dedicated to the 
Apostle Peter , from the tradition that be Was 
confined, in it , and that be caused a spring to 
rise for the baptism of Processus and Martinian 
the keepers of the prison. This spring is still 
visible in the under prison , together with the 
column to which it is said the apostle was 

Over this building is the church called San 
Giuseppe ii Falegnami from Us belonging to the 
confraternity of carpenters. It contains « painting 
by Carlo Maratta , representing the nativity of 

Towards the west of this church and near 
the arch of Severus , is the 


v Till latter times this edjGce was supposed 
to be a remnant of the temple of Concord , built 

,. Google 

Second day 89 

by Camillas, and restored by Tiberias , although 
the position, style, and inscription were opposed 
to this opinion -, the Temple of Concord was 
turned towards the Forum and the Comitia , 
according to Dio , circumstances that are not 
applicable to Ibe temple in question; in addi- 
tion to which the style of the columns , all of 
different diameters , that of the capitals which 
are of a bad taste, clearly show that this edifice 
belonged to the period of the decline ; finally 
it is attested by the inscription on the frontis- 


that it was restored after a fire , while another 
inscription found in the XVI century assert* that 
the real temple of Concord was restored , Ve- 
ttutata collapsum so that it cannot be the Ibe tern* 
pie destroyed by fire. 

The real temple of Concord having been 
discovered in 181 J , it has been supposed that 
the one now mentioned was that of Juno Moncta, 
hot this was situated on tbe citadel on the site 
of the house of Manilas. Others have made it a 
temple of Vespasian ; others a second temple of 
Concord without reflecting that the passage in 
Plutarch relating to the temple of Concord built 
by Camillas , declares that the front was turned 
towards the Forum T which does not accord 
with the position of the present temple , and 
there exist no traces of two temples of Concord 
under the Capitol. 


90 Second day 

Of late years an opinion has arisen that it 
was tbe temple of Saturn but Ibis is contradicted 
by passages of Tacitus , Svetoniua, and Plutarch 
.relative to the death of Galba , which prove 
that this temple was near the church of the 
Consolazione towards the western angle of the 

The most probable opinion respecting this 
temple is that of Nardini , who judged it to be 
that of Fortune , since it is known that a tem- 
ple to that goddess existed on the slope of the 
Capiloline hill, near the temple of Jupiter Tonans, 
according to tbe Preuesline verses , which tem- 
ple . was burnt , . as slated by Eosimus , in the 
time of Maxenlius, and was rebuilt either then, 
or under Gonstantiue by the Senate , and the 
style belongs precisely to that period. 

This temple had six front columns, all of gra- 
nite , of different base and diameter some 5 iA 
feet ancient measure in diameter end 45 high.Tne 
base, capitals and cornice are of white marble , 
the capitals Ionic, of bad taste ; of the internal 
ornaments around the frieze some which are 
remains of the primitive temple may be ascri- 
bed to the first century of the Empire ; others 
are coarse and of the period of the restoration ; 
the whole building stands' on a fine travertine 
basis which was lined with marble , opposite 
were the steps loading ro the temple. 

The three beautiful fluted columns adjoi- 
ning it are remains of 


'■That the temple of Jupiter Tonans was situs- 





Second day iff 

ted on theClivus Capitolinnsjis asserted by Victor; 
Svetoniusrelateslhe motive forwbichitwasbuilt. 
Augustus was travelling in tlis night during ihe 
war in Spain when his lelliga was struck by 
lightning and one ©f bis servants was killed. 
On bis return to Rome the Emperor raised tbh 
temple to the' thundering Jove and it was subse- 
quently restored by Scptimiu* Severus and bj 
Caracalia , as appears by the fragment of tbe 
inscription. . . ESTITVER existing on tbe frieie 
which is of a very different style Irom the cor- 
nice , architrave , capitals and columns , since 
the cornice , loaded with ornaments , and of 
a harsher style betrays the Septimian era , while 
the remainder is known at first sight as belonging 
to the times of Augustus. The front towards the 
Forum consisted of six eolumns , of which two 
alone remain with one of the lateral columns. 
These are of white Loni marble , fluted Corin- 
thian of about four and a half ancient feet in dia- 
meter ; tbey were excavated of late years when 
it was discovered that the rtcps were placed 
between the columns. In the subsequent excava- 
tions of the Glivo Gapitotino it was found that 
this building , on account of the irregulari- 
ty of the ground and the narrow spot - on 
which it was built, was raised on- a substruction 
covered with marble and supported by small 
pilasters two of which still remain. The edifice 
is highly ornamented ,thc coniice finely wrought. 
On the side frieze are carved several instruments 
of sacrifice , amongst which the galerus , struck 
bj lightning a species' of helmet or cap worn 
by the Flamen Bialis , one of the chief priests 
of the pagan Religion. 



92 Second day 

A branch of the Clivo Capitolmo passed 
between this temple and that of Fortune , the 
pavements of which was formed of large poly- 
enes of basaltic lava found in 1817. 

Between these temples and under the ta~ 
bularium is a half broken « Edicola » in which 
a votive ara dedicated to Faustina , the wife of 
Marcus Aurelius , was found in 1 824. 


Between the facade of this temple and the 

slope leading to the Tarpeian rock several 
rooms were found in 1 834 with a portico of 
cipollino columns of the corinthian order and 
capitals ornamented with trophies and victories. 
The capitals and work of the columns evidently 
belong to the comencement of the III century 
the time of Septimius Severus ; the side cons- 
tructions and several marks on the bricks bear 
the date of the reign of Hadrian from which 
circumstance it may be concluded that the ori- 
ginal building was raised under Hadrian and 
restored under Septimius Severus. It is known 
from history , and particularly from Orosius, 
that this part of Rome suffered by fire under 
Commodus, a catastrophe that induced Septimius 
Severus to repair this building and the temple 
of Jupiter Tonau*. An inscription over the por- 
tico iudicates that these rooms contained statues 
of the_« Dii Consenti»wMch were replaced by Pre- 
testatus , the Prefect of Rome in the year 368 
of the Christian era. The « Dii Consent! » were 
the twelve great Gods placed by Euuios in the 
following order. 


Second day 93 

Juno , Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, 
Mars ,■ Mercury , Jupiter , Neptune , Vulcan f 
Apollo. It is probable that some other restora- 
tion was made by. Pretestatus , particularly in 
the pavement. 

On the left of the temple of Jupiter Tonans 
are (he remains of the 


These ruins so interesting, for the history and 
topography of ancient Borne were discovered Id 
181 7 , with four inscriptions allusive to Concord. 
The temple was built by Camillus to commemo- 
rate the concord established between the pa-; 
tricians and the plebeians, was rebuilt by Tiberius, 
burnt under Vitellius, restored and ornamented by 
Vespasian. It was preserved till the middle of 
tie XII century, (hough from the VIII it apr 
pears to bare been ruined , since a part of the 
building was occupied by (he church of S.Sergius 
and .Bacchus which was demolished by Paul III 
when Charles V came to Rome. It was in . tltt 
temple of Concord that Cicero assembled (lie 
Senate during the conspiracy of Catiline. 

In the last excavations four votive inscri- 
ptions to: Fortune were found, all of the limes 
of Augustus and Tiberius; of these the most re- 
markable is that of Marcus Anlouius Geminiis , 
the legate of Augustus , and prefect of the mi- 
litary treasury. The real situation of this tem- 
ple is proved not only by inscriptions but by 
the authority of ancient writers; these ruins are 
near the prison , as stated by Dio , are turned 
towards the Forum and the Comitium , accor< 


t)4 Second day 

ding to Plutarch, and finally are between the 
Capitol and the Forum , according to Festus. 

Besides the inscriptions are the remains of 
(he eel) a which extended on one side to the 
temple of Jupiter Tonans and on the other to 
the steps. It is lined with giallo antico or Nu- 
midian , by pavonazzetto or Phrygian marble ; 
the pavement with these and with African mar- 
ble. Over the threshold composed of a single block 
of porta santa is the sigi of a wand which must 
hare been of bronze, the symbol of the deity to 
whom it was consecrated. Several columns were 
also found of numidian and phrygian marble which 
belonged to theiuterior,anduumerousfragmentsof 
architecture of an admirable execution and of the 
finest style of sculpture, together with fragments 
of colossal statues , but these and others were 
consumed or calcined by fire which prove that 
the temple of Coucord was burnt in the middle 
ages. Among the fragments of the plan of ancient 
Rome is one of a part of the temple of Concord 
showing that owing to the narrowness of the 
site, the front of the porticoes was smaller than 
the cella of the temple; the best preserved fra- 
gments of the interior of this temple and of that 
0/ Jupiter Tonans are placed in the Tabularium. 
On comparing those of the temple of Concord 
with the cornices of the temple of Jupiter Tonam 
the difference is easily perceived. 

the ro.vjn fouvm •/ 

The most celebrated spot of ancient Borne 
was the Forum , .called Romanum , either from 
its antiquity, the period of the alliance between 




Second day 95 

theBomaos and Sabincs under Romulus andTatiai, 
or from the splendour of ils buildings. The ety- 
mology of the word Forum is derived by the 
ancients, <> a ferendo, » bringing things for sale, 
the Forum having been in the origin a market 

The celebrity of this spot, the most classic 
of ancient Rome , induced the antiquarians du- 
ring the last four centuries to trace the limits 
and fix. the situation of the buildings by which 
it was surrounded. Till later times Nardini seems 
more than any other to have come near the truth, 
and if he has extended his limit two far to 
the east , it must be borne in mind that in his 
time, the middle of the XVII century, it was 
extremely difficult to form any idea , the soil 
being choked up and disfigured with towers and 
small houses, both modern and of the middle ages. 
Without any assistance he was guided solely 
by the authority of ancient writers ; his sy- 
stem was consequently the most probable , but 
the excavations undertaken by Government since 
1327 have established facts which limit the axe 
of the Forum towards the east; these howerer, 
do not affect Nardini's plan respecting the dispo- 
sition and situation of the edifices, which has 
been confirmed by the late discoveries. 

That the existence of the Forum dates from 
the alliance between the Romans and Sabines , 
all antiquarians agree ; when each people occu- 
pied the Palatine and Capitoline hills, exclusi- 
vely , it was necessary that a point of contact 
should exist , and this naturally presented itself 
in the species of isthmus which, commencing on 
the sides of the Tarpeian rock , joined the Pa- 


96 Second day 

Uline near the north angle of the hill. This isthmus 
bathed in the right and left by marshes was, ac- 
cording toHaHcarna5Sus,an unequal wooded valley 
partly covered with water. It is seen by the "re- 
cent excavations that, notwithstanding the. ame- 
liorations made in the height of the Roman power, 
the soil has a sensible slope to the west in the 
direction of the Vela brum and of S. Martina , 
and consequently that at me remote period of 
Romulus and Talios, when the two people amoun- 
ted together to about 2000 souls, they naturally 
profited of the valley that presented the least 
ililflcullies to be reduced to a regular form; (he 
trees were then felled which encumbered the 
isthmus ; the springs filled up , and a more re- 
gular form given to the ridges which , to the 
right and left , were covered with woods, and 
terminated in the extensive marshes of the Ve- 
labrnm and of the « Acqnn L&utolo » which 
stretched towards the QuirinaL 

In turning back to the primitive times of 
Rome , it must be acknowledged that the soil 
descended greatly from the granary near the 
column of Pbocas, towards the Forum of Nerva, 
since it appears by the late excavations that, 
even under the Emperors, it was not levelled 
but descended into by steps. At this epoch, be- 
fore the construction of the Trajan Forum it is 
known, by the testimony of Dio, and by the 
inscription on the pedestal of the Trajan column 
that theQuirinal and Capitol approached so nearly 
that it became necessary to cut the side of the 
Quirinal; it is thus evident that a hollow was 
created between these two hills and the Pala- 
tine , which received the springs and rains un- 
til they could be carried into the Velabrum. 


Second day 97 

Uniting ihese facts lo ibe authority of Die— 
nysius who openly declares that the Forum was 
situated between the Capitol ami lite Palatine it 
may be asserted that the primitive eastern limit 
of the Forum is determined by the steps lately 
discovered to the west of the Fhucas column the 
area of which is out or the limits of the Roman 
Forum , but wbilhiu those of the addition made 
to the Forum by Julius Casar , called the Fo- 
rum of Ca?sar. A passage in Varro which seems 
lo have escaped the notice of anterior topogra- 
phers declares that in lib time, before the addi- 
tiou made by Ciesar , the extent of the Roman 
Forum was seven jugera , each according to 
Columella being equivalent to a quadrilater 120 
feet by 240, consequently the area of the Forum 
was 201 600 square feet. The Forum .was not howe- 
ver square but quadrilateral , since Vilruvius 
eipretsly says that the « Fori » of the Italian 
cities were of an oblong form, generally iu the 
proportion of 2 to 3 , when the ground offered 
do obstacle. We may (hen assert that the Hu- 
man forum was 550 feet long and 366 broad, 
a small extent , but it is to be borne iu mind 
that the city was small, and when it began to 
encrease , the forum was at first reserved solely 
lo public affairs, to legal matters, excluding 
dealers , and not being sufficiently large it was 
extended in after limes towards the east and 
north by Cxsar, by Augustus, by Domitiau, Narva 
nod Trajan, by whose names the new Fori were 
called. The limits of Ca?sar's Forum , and that 
of Augustus , were situated lo the west of the 
Vhocas column and of the church of 5, Mar- 
tina near the arch of Seplhuius. 


98 Second day 

From the excavations made at different 
epochs , and in various spots, it has been ascer- 
tained that the Forum , including the additions 
of Ctesar , of Augustus etc : existed in the be- 
ginning of the VII century of (he Christian era, 
and that it was ruined principally by Guiscard 
in 1080 , who destroyed and burnt ail this part 
of Rome while supporting the interests of S. Gre- 
gory VII ; from that period it was deserlcd and 
served as a deposit for tilth and rubbish which 
in the course ofagesencreased to a depth of 24 
feel. Many excavations were made under Paul HI 
in 1547 , with the solo view of pillage, which 
eaused new devastations even in the material 
parts and no designs were taken. It afterwards 
became a cattle market particularly for oxen 
and in past times its name was degraded into 
that of « Gampo Vaecino » but the ancient de- 
nomination has of late years been resumed. 

The limits of the Roman Forum properly 
called are thus determined by the church of the 
■ Consolazione, » by that of S. Theodore formerly 
the temple of Vesta , by the three columns near 
S. Maria Liberatrice, and by the temple of For- 
tune. The Phocas column , (ho arch of Severus 
were comprized in the forum of Cawar. 'f he church 
of S. Martina , probably built on the ruins of 
the temple of Mars the avenger, was in the Fo- 
rum of Augustus and three large remnants of 
it are still visible in a yard at the beginning of 
the u Salita di Marforio. » 

Although the Forum has been stript of its 
ancient splendonr , the remains still existing of 
its primitive magnificence, the remembrance of 
the events of which it has been the scene , its 


Second day 
Is of art , rei 

■uiereaiiiig »pui vl 110 me. 

Before describing what it still contains we 
think it necessary to premise tbe general indica- 

splendid fragments of art, render it the moat 

intents ling; spot of Home, 

lion of 



In the centre facing the Capitol were, the 
■ rostra » or tribune from which the people 
were harangued , they were so called from toe 
bronze rostra taken by the Romans from the 
ships of the « Antiali » ; Cessar transferred the ro- 
ttra , according to Dio , to the angle towards 
the Velabrum. Near the rostra were exposed the 
heads of the proscribed as happened to Cicero. 
Behind the rostra stood the curia Hoatilia; 
on the right tbe Comitium and the Graecostaais. 
Between this edifice and the temple of Antoninus 
and Faustina and opposite tbe arch of Severos 
was the Fabian arch situated on the via Sacra 
which passed by the eastern side of tbe Forum. 
This arch derived its name from Fabius the cen- 
sor , the conqueror of the Allobrogi. Near this 
arch and the Comitium , without the Forum , 
were the temple of Concord and the Basilica of 
Opimius. The basilic was of a form similar to 
the Christian basilic and served for commercial 
and judicial affairs. They consisted of three and 
Gre naves , three times longer than broad with 
a tribune at the end. In tbe Roman Forum and 
its vicinity besides that of Opimius were the Por- 
tia, Sernpronia , Julia and Emilia basilica. 

Beyond the curia towards the Velabrum were 
the Juturna spring, and the temple of Castor 


100 Second day 

and Pollux of which Caligula made the vesti- 
bule of liis palace. This temple was erected ou 
this spot in memory of the two youths who , 
covered with perspiration, gave drink to their 
horses at ihe fountain. They brought news of 
the victory gained by the dictator Aulus Poslbu- 
mius over the Latins and o;her allies of the 
Tarquins at the lake Hegillus; they disappeared 
and were supposed to be the twin gods. The 
same occurence happened during the war with 
Perseus when two similar youths announced ihe 
victory of Paulus Kmilius over the Macedonians. 
This temple of Castor and Pollux was rebuilt 
by Tiberius. 

Near it and under (he Palatine were the 
temple and sacred wood of Vesta, not far from the 
Jutunia fountain. In the temple were preserved 
the sacred fire cf Vesta , the Palladium, a sta- 
tue of Pallas brought from Troy by .^Eneas 
placed by Ascanius in Albalunga, and transfer- 
red to Rome by Tullus Hostilius. This image 
was never shown to profane eyes. The Vestal 
Virgins were attached to the service of Ihe tem- 
ple and to the preservation of (he sacred fire; 
their residence was annexed ; they enjoyed the 
privilege of burial within the sacred precincts 
of the wood, as proved by the twelve mortuary 
inscriptions found near S. Maria Libera trice. The 
palace of Numa was near the temple of Vesta; 
these edifices closed the southern side of the 
Forum towards the Yelabrum; tbe west side was 
occupied by the temple of Julius C<esar , the 
Julia basilic, the area of Saturn. 

On the side under the Capitol were .- the 
temple of Saturn and the Erarium ; Ihe arch 


Second day 101 

of Tiberias at the « Consolazioue » ; the tem- 
ple of Vespasian ; the « Schola Xanlha , » a 
notarial office and residence of the heralds of 
the curuie cdiles , found in the XVI century 
and so called from its founder Aulus Fabius 
Xaulbus ; finally the arch of Septimius Sever us. 

On the last side were the « Sccretarium 
Sonatas » where the senate gave their decisions, 
the basilic of Paulus Emilius , a still more an- 
cient basilica Emilia , and the « Tabernae » 
where Virginias seized the knife with which he 
killed his daughter. 

The centre of the Forum formed a piazza 
decorated with statues and other monuments ; 
the rostral column of the Consul C. Duiljus , 
raised in memory of his naval victory over the 
Carthaginians ; the miliary column on which we- 
re marked the distances of the principal towns 
of the empire; ibopila Horalia, a pilaster sup- 
porting the spoils of the Guratii ; the column 
of C Menius, the conqueror of the Latins; that 
of Julius Caesar , of Claudius the Goth , and 
that of Phocas. 

The Curlian marsh was also in the Forum, 
and though filled up it stilt preserved its name 
from Melius Curtius the general of the Sabine 
cavalry who was enveloppod in it. It is said by 
others to have been so called from Curtius a 
Soman knight, who threw himself into it with 
his horse. On this spot stood the equestrian bronze 
statue of Domitian described by Statius. 

After this general indication of the buil- 
dings in the Forum we will proceed to descri- 
be the present state of the monuments that 
•till exist. 


102 Second day 


About the year 205 of (he cbrislian era 
(bis triumphal arch was raised by (he Roman 
senate and people in honour of the Emperor 
Seplimius Severus and of his sons Caracal la aod 
Gela for the victories gained over the Parlhiaiis, 
Arabians, Adiabcui and other eastern nations, 
as stated in the inscription : at the end of the 
third line, and in all the fourth, was the phrase 
which was effaced after the death of Geta by Ca- 
racalla who substituted the following P. P, 
arch is of pentelic marble with three arcades , 
eight composite and fluted columns, bassiriiievi of 
middling style, consumed by time, in these the bat- 
tering ram is seen in two places. Under each arch 
are roses divided into square compartments. The 
bas-reliefs represent eastern wars, and although 
tbe sculpture and architecture show a decay 
of art yet being an imitation of more ancient 
monuments (his arch conveys a grand idea of 
Roman magnificence. 

A marble stair case in the interior leads 
to the upper plan on which was a car with 
Septimius seated between Caracalla and Geta , 
with six horses in front, two foot and two horse 
soldiers on the sides , as seen in the medals of 
Severus and Caracalla. This monument was half 
underground and was opened in 1 803 by Pius VII; 
the excavations having been renewed since 1830 
the form and disposition of the monument have 
been belter ascertained. On tbe left is 




Second day 103 

1 J. LBKE S 

This church , one of the most ancient in Ro- 
me, was restored by Alexander IV in 1256, 
■od dedicated to S. Martina. In 1588 it was gi- 
Ten by Sixtus V lo the academy of painters , 
and was rebuilt tinder Urban VIII on tbe de- 
signs of Pietro di Gortona and dedicated to S. 
Lake the Evangelist, Tbe picture in the right 
chapel representing the martyrdom of S. La- 
zarus a by Lazzaro Baldi ; that over the high 
altar representing S, Luke painting the Madonna, 
is a copy by Grauimalica , a scholar of Raphael, 
of Raphael's original preserved in tbe large hall 
of the academy; on the same altar is the statoe 
of S. Martina by Menghino. The subterranean 
church deserves particular notice for the rich 
chapel built by Pietro di Gortona at his own 
expense ; under the altar ornamented with 
precious stones and gilt bronze , reposes lh» 
body of S. Martina. Here were found tbe four 
fine bas rcliefe of the time of Marcus Aurelius 
which are now in the Conservatori palace at 
Ibe Capitol. 

The house adjoining the church is the aca- 
demy of S. Luke founded by Sixtus V; it is 
composed of painters , sculptors , architects 
and amateurs of (be fine arts. It has the direction 
of tht arts of design now established in tbe 
Roman University. On the walls of the aca- 
demy are portraits and pictures the works 
of the academicians , and paintings by celebra- 
ted artists of past ages ; two landscapes by 
Gaspard Poussin ; a S. Jerome , by Salvator 
Rosa; a flemish portrait ; Christ with the Pha- 


104 Second Jay 

risee, Titian; Fortune, Guido; Lucretia, Guido 
Cagnacci ; a Sybil , Ghcrardo ; profane lore , a 
fresco painting of Gucrcino transferred to can- 
vass; Diana discovering Callisto in the bath, 
Titian; a line fresco, Raphael; Sisara, Carlo 
Haratfe ; S. Luke painting the Virgin by Ra- 
phael who has introduced his own portrait ; 
3. Jerome, Spagnoletto ; a holy family* Al- 
bano; several drawings and terra colla models 
of artists who have obtained prizes. 


The facade of this building is ancient , 
though of the period of decline as seen by its 
construction. The wall in terra cotta was plas- 
tered with stncco ; some remnants are still ■ 
risible; the bronze door of a good style was 
taken by Alexander VII to S. John Laleran where 
it now stands. Though called by some the temple 
of Saturn , by others the Emilian basilica , the 
style of this building shows that it belongs to 
the V century. It appears by an inscription found 
in the XVII century thatGaviniusVettiusProbia- 
nus Prefect of Rome in 37S had placed a statue 
in the basilic , but this is no proof since the 
inscription was on a marble employed in the 
materials ; as to the temple of Saturn the an- 
cient writers agree in placing it under the Ca- 
pitol near the Tarpeiaq rock , « in faucibns clivi 
capilolini » , that is at the angle of the forum 
near the Consolaziooe. Nearly opposite is 




Second day 


Before the late excavations this. monument 
was supposed to be the temple of Jupiter Cm- 
los, or the bridge of Csltgula, though it is af- 
firmed by ancient writers that the former was 
situated on the Capitol" and the latter destroyed 
by Claudius. In 1813 it was ascertained that it was 
a column erected 10 the Emperor Phocas in 608 
by Sraaragdns , Exarch of Italy , as seen by the 
inscription on the pedestal; the name of Phocas 
was erased after his death by He radius his 

When the excavation was renewed in 1817 
the column was found to stand upon a pyra- 
mid of steps many of which have preserved 
their place , and the level of the Forum was 
here 10 palms lower that at the arch of Se- 
verus ; several ancient inscriptions, half greek 
half latin , to the Dii Averrunti , to Minerva 
Averruaca , and one to Marcus Cispius the son 
of Lucius the prffitor , are worthy of notice. 
The inscription on the column has been recently 
restored and is as follow.*. 


106 Second day 

f Optimo . clementis . felicissimocjVE 
principi . domino . a. focae imperatori 









banc . STatvam . maiestans , eivs 

AVttl . SPLEKDOSE . fvlgeilTEM . I1VIC 

svblimi . coLvmsae . ad perennem 




It appears by this inscription that on the 
column was a gilt statue of Phocas , the co- 
lumn itself is greatly anterior to bis time ; the 
style would seem to indicate that of the Ante— 
nines. It is of white marble , corinthian and flu- 
ted , 4 i/i ancient feet in diameter , 47 high, 
the pedestal i 1. Facing this column to the south is 


This ruin of fine ancient architecture can- 
not have belonged either to the temple of Ju- 
piter stalor , or to that of Castor and Pollux , 
since the first , according to ancient writers, was 
more towards the Vela brum and t the Palatine 
and the second towards the Capitol. The passages 
of the ancient writers aqd the plan of this 


Second day 107 

monument agreeing with the fragment of the 
plan in the Capitol on which is the word gre- 
cost leave no doubt that these three columns for- 
med part of the « Grecostasis » , a building erected 
for the reception of foreign ambassadors lroin the 
time of Pyrrhus whose ambassadors were the first 
received in it, and being Greeks it was called the 
Grecostasis, or greek station. It had perished at the 
lime of the elder Pliny ad was rebuilt in a style of 
greater magnificence by Antoninus Pius on the site 
of the primitive Grecostasis and of the Gomhium. 
TheComitium was annexed to the curia and served 
for the promulgation by the Comitii of the so- 
natas consulti and the election of the Flanien 
and Curioni priests. Justice was sometimes ad- 
ministered in this building , near it were found 
in the XVI century the celebrated « Fasti Ga- 
pilolioi » and subsequently other fragments ; the 
facade of the Grecostasis was opposite the temple 
of Antoninus and Faustina. The steps were in 
three directions uniting iu a larger stair case , 
the front was composed of eight columns the 
sides of thirteen or fifteen; it is uncertain 
whether there were any columns on the side of 
the curia; the whole edifice stood on a high sub- 
struction covered with marble and ornaments. 

Of this edifice three columns and the cor- 
nice alone remain ; they are of white marble, 
fluted and corinthian of the justest proportions 
and finest style ; they serve like the Pantheon 
as a model of the corinthian order , their dia- 
nteter is about 4 \fi. ancient feet , their height 
48 comprizing the base and capital, the enta- 
blature they support , though large and majestic, 
is of the most delicate and finished work. 


103 Second day 

The site of this monument is opposed to 
the opinion of those who call it llie temple of 
Castor and. Pollux or of Jupiter Stator; the for- 
mer , according to Svetonius , became (he ve- 
stibule of Caligula's palace and the position of 
these three columns does not admit of their ser- 
ving as a vestibule to the Palatine towards the 
Capitol. It was on the left of the Curia according 
to Cicero in looking towards the Capitol, and 
these ruins arc on the right; still more improbable 
is the opinion that they belonged to the temple 
of Jupiter Stator which was on the skirts of the 
Velabrum and the Forum Boariuui as stated by 
Livy and by Tacitus, it could not thea he in 
the Forum , besides the temple of Jupiter Stator 
was placed by the Regionarii in the X region 
and the Forum Romanum to which this edifice 
belonged was in the VIII region. Proceeding from 
these ruins to the Velabrum are the remains of 

This edifice which served for the meetings 
of the Senate faced the Forum and the Rostra. 
The entrance was by steps from which Tarquin 
precipitated Servins Tullius. In the origin it was 
called curia Hoslilia , having been built by Tullus 
Hoslilius the third king of Rome, and was restored 
by Sylla ; burnt in the limes of Cicero , it was 
rebuilt according to Dio by Augustus, who called 
it Julia from the name of his adoptive father. 
The remains are still visible on the western 
side of the Forum and consist of three liiielj 
built walls which were covered with marble. 





Second day 109 

Ilie front was probably decorated with columns. 
Between Ihe Curia and Consilium was ihu 
famous Ruminal fig tree, so called from ibe word 
«Buma» supposed to signify breast, under 
which Romulus and Remus were nourished by 
(be wolf. Near the Curia and towards the Vc- 
labrum is 


This round building is said to be built on 
the spot where Romulus and Remus were ex- 
posed, but the bronze wolf now in the Capitol, 
dedicated by the cdiles Cneus and Quiutus Ogutni 
near the ruminal fig tree, where the temple of 
Romulus really stood , was found nearer to S. 
Maria Liberatrice and not near the church of 
which we now speak , which occupies the silo 
of the temple of Vesta. When changed into a 
church it seems to have preserved its primitive 
form. A church of S. Theodore existed near 
this spot under Adrian I who restored it in 774. 
It was built by Nicholas V. in 1450, whose name 
is still over the entrance door; the picture over 
the altar is by Zuccari , the two others by Ba- 
cicct and Ghezzi. 

Near this temple was the Lupercal under 
the Palatine , a cavern consecrated by Evander 
to Pan , in which the Lupercal priests celebrated 
sacrifices; beyond the forum is the 


This celebrated way was so called from the 
peace concluded on it between Romulus and 


1 1 Second day 

Talitis. It began on the spot where the Colos- 
seum now stands , crossed the site where Adrian 
built tbe temple of Venus and Rome, followed the 
southern side of the so called temple of Peace 
and passing under the temples of Remus, Antoni- 
nus and Faustina and the Fabian arch it en- 
tered tbe forum ; one branch of it was detached 
to the left on the east side of the Grecostasis 
and went behind the Curia , tbe temples of Ca- 
stor and Pollux , of Vesta , and reached the 
Palatine near' S. Athanasia , uniting with the 
other branch at the via miova, a street which 
commenced at the extremity of tbe forum before 
tbe temple of Vesta and crossing the Velabrum fi- 
nished at tbe Circus Maximus. Tbe first building 
on the left of tbe Via Sacra is 


Erected by the Roman Senate and people 
in honour of the Emperor T. Elius Antoninus 
Pius and bis wife Faustina. Tbe two sides of 
the cella still exist, together with the whole por- 
tico formed of ten large columns, all of one 
piece of caryslian or cipolltoo marble , each 1 5 
feet in circumference and about 47 in height, 
comprizing the base and capital. Tbe splendid 
cornice of large marble blocks is of fine execu- 
tion. The lateral friezes are carved with griffins , 
chandeliers and other ornaments; on the front 
is tbe dedication to Antoninus and Faustina; tbe 
ascent to tbe temple was formerly by 21 steps; 
from the base of the columns at the portico 
to the level of the via sacra there are about 
16 feet. 






Second day 1 1 1 

On the ruins of this temple stands the church 
ol S. Lorenzo in Miranda , so called perhaps from 
the ruins surrounding it. 


1 This temple was built during the decline 

of art as seen by the style and by an inscrip- 
tion found near it, probably about the epoch 
of Constantino ; the only remains are the sella 
and two ftipollino columns at the chapel of the 
via cruris. 

In 527 S. Felix IV built the adjoining church 
of SS. Cosma and Damlane , and used the cella 
of the temple as a vestibule ; some mosaics are 
still over the tribune, the modern pavement is 
supported by four large pilasters ; on it was the 
plan of Borne fragments of which are now in 
the Capitol; -in the subterranean church are the 
high altar , chapels and some paintings ; a bronze 
door brought from Perugia and two porphyry 
columns form the entrance , the two cipoltino 
columns , measuring from the base to the ca- 
pital 33 feet were a part orfhe portico leading 
to the temple of Remus, The three large arcades 
near these columns are remains of the 



These ruins were formerly supposed to be- 
long to the temple of Peace-, it is stated by Sve- 
tonius that Vespasian erected a temple to Peace 
near the forum, which, according to Galenus, 
Dio, and Herodian , was burnt under Commodus 
about the year 191 of the present era, and 


112 Second day 

since (hut period no further mention of it is found 
in ancient writers while Procopius expressly 
says, that in his time it was levelled with the 
ground , having heen destroyed by fire. This 
passage shows thai the temple of Peace was built 
partly of wood, particularly the roof, and 
that after the first conflagration it was not re- 
stored. These large arches have however been 
considered to be ruins of the temple of Peace ; 
on an impartial examination of this edifice is 
appears that it was not that monument, not only 
by the authority of ancient historians but by the 
character of the ruins which are not those of 
a temple, being without either cella or portico. 
The style of building is greatly posterior to the 
time of Vespasian , being composed of irregular 
bricks united by cement , while the carved and 
ornamental fragments found on the spot , the 
stuccoes still remaining , do not belong to that 
epoch , but are proper to the taste and style of 
the era of Diocletian. 

These ruins may then be considered as the 
remains of the basilic of Gonstantine, this opi- 
nion agreeing with the authority of Victor and 
of the Regionarii who place the building in this 
direction. It was raised on the Horrea PIpera - 
taria, or the store houses for spices built by 
Domilian, according to Gassiodorus. 

This basilic was built by Maxenlius as as- 
sarted by Aurelius Victor, and after his death 
dedicated to Gonstantine. In October 1 828 a block 
fell from the roof in which was found a silver 
medal of Maxentius ; the question is thus set 
at rest. It is besides worthy of observation that 
the tiles of this edifice are identic with those 


Second day i 1 3 

of Diocletian's baths and other buildings of 
that epoch. The inscriptions beginning with the 
words ■ Paci jEternfe » said to have been found 
in these ruins were found in 1 547 arcording to 
Gra terns near the arch of Scverus. 

The basilic was formed of three naves, se- 
parated by three large arches , covering the 
whole breadth of the nave. The middle arch 
was subsequently formed into a tribune, and 
the three ornamented with squares and niches ; 
the corresponding arch and the middle nave 
have fallen. On tbe pilasters of the three arches 
are fragments of the marble cornice which was 
supported by eight columns one of which re- 
mained till tbe time of Paul V when it was 
placed at the piazza S. Maria Maggiore. It is 
of tbe corinlhian order , of white fluted mar- 
hie , 1 8 roman feet in circumference , and 48 
in height ; the whole building was about 220 
feet broad and 330 long. This column and the 
three large remaining arches may bear witness 
to its magnificence; it was covered with earth 
which was cleared away in 1812 and il was 
then observed that there was no tribune on the 
side of tbe Via Sacra , but that the principal 
one was opposite the facade that looked towards 
the Colosseum. Tbe pavement consisted of com- 
partments of giallo anlico , pavonazzetto and 
dpollino marble ; it was used in early times as 
a christian church; towards the Palatine there 
was another entrance decorated with four por- 
phyry columns opened after the first construction 
of the edifice; the principal facade , as already 
said , was towards the Colosseum. 


114 Second day 


This church is of a very remote origin. It 
was built by Paul 1, rebuilt under Leo IV, 
restored by Paul V, who made the facade and 
travertine portico; the roof is finely carved 
and the chapels possess some good pictures. A 
double stair case leads to a presbytery , over the 
high altar of which is an ancient image of the 
B. Virgin which , about the year 1100, was 
brought from Troy by Angelo Frangipani on 
his return from Asia. Between the two stairs is 
the tomb of S. Franceses a roman matron of 
the noble family of the Potiziaui now extinct. 
It is enriched with melab , precious stones, and 
jasper columns ; in the tribune are ancient mo- 
saics of the time of Nicholas I. 

On the left of the high altar is the tomb 
of Gregory XI by Olivieri who lias represented 
in the nas relief the return of the Holy See to 
Home under this pontiff in 1377 after an ab- 
sence of 72 years. 

A stone is preserved in the wall on which 
the holy apostles arc said to have kneeled when 
in the act of prayer; the paintings on the side 
of the altar representing their martyrdom are 
by Caniui. In the vestibule of the side door arc 
two monuments worthy of notice : that of the 
Cars Vulcani a Neapolitan who died in 1332 
and of Antonio Rido of Padua, a captain at 
arms and coin maud ant of the castle S. Angelo 
under Eugenius IV. Over the doors of the sa- 
cristy are two fine paintings of the school of 
the XV century both on boards ; that on the 
left is by Sinibaldo Ibi of Perugia a scholar of 


Second day i 1 5 

Piclro Pcrugino ; adjoining it is (he tomb of 
Alamanao dcgli Adimari a Pisan who died in 
1422. la the chapter room of the convent is a 
painting by Pterin del Vaga , representing Paul 
III and Regmaldo Polo. Behind this church are 
the ruins of the 


This edifice was buill on the designs of the 
Emperor Hadrian who directed its constructions, 
and according to Dio who determines its po- 
sition, dedicated it to Venus and Rome each 
divinity having a mutual affinity from the ori- 
gin of yEueas. It was burnt down and according 
to Aurelius Victor was rebuilt by Maxentius. It 
occupied an irea of 500 parjsian feet in length, 
and 300 in breadth , the ascent by the east and 
wosi sides was by a portico of grey granite co- 
lumas many blocks of which 3 i/j feet in dia- 
meter are scattered over the ground; the portico 
was 333 feel long and 160 broad; it had a double 
facade and two rows of columns on each front 
and one on the sides; the two facades were 
composed uf 19 columns of parian marble, the 
■ides of 20 fluted and corinthian about six feet iu 
diameter. In the area between the internal portico 
and the peristyle of the temple were two large 
columns of caryslian marble of the same dia- 
meter, isolated, and supporting statues, as ve- 
rified by medals and by recent excavations. The 
cella was divided into two parts, covered with 
large quadrilateral blocks of parian marble 5 i/j 
feet deep; the portico was also paved with pa- 
rian marble. Tlie roof was corcred with bronze- 

/ .Google 

1 1 6 Second day 

which was taken away under Honorius I and 
served as the covering of the Vatican basilic* 
The ascent to tho vestibule, was by seven, and 
thence to the eel la by five , steps ; the interior 
of the cella , or rather of the two cclle, was 
adorned with porphyry columns two feel two 
inches in diameter, the roof with stucco squares; 
the walls and' pavement were lined with giallo 
antico and serpentine marbles ; of all this magni- 
ficence nothing remains but the foundations and 
the cella walls with the niches occupied by the 
two goddesses. Of the identity of this edifice 
with the temple of Venus and Rome no doubt 
can exist from tbe conformity of its plan to the 
medals of Hadrian, of Antoninus Pius, and its 
topographical situation which perfectly agrees 
with tho assertions of Dio and Prudentius. The 
opinion that it was the temple of Isis and Serapis, 
of the Sun and Moon , is deprived of all founda- 
tion. Near, tho ruins of this temple is the 


It is proved by the inscription towards the 




that it was raised by the roman senate aud 
people in honour of Titus , the son of Vcspai- 
sian as a memorial of the conquest of Jerusalem; 
from tho word DIVUS in the inscription it is 
evident that this monument was erected under 




Second day 1 1 ? 

Domitian, after the death of Tilus , winch opi- 
oioQ is confirmed by the apotheosis under the 
central arch and by the flowery style corres- 
ponding with that or the Palladia u forum begun 
by that Emperor. This arch , the finest monu- 
ment of the kind extant, is of pentelic marble. 
On each side were four fluted columns of the 
composite order, four of which having fallen 
two only remain on either side and those in the 
direction of the forum are not entire. 

The bas reliefs under the arch , though 
greatly injured , may he ranked amongst the 
finest of Rome ; one represents Titus in a car 
drawn by four horses abreast , and led by a 
female figure, emblematic of Borne; the other 
Victory crowning the Emperor , is followed by 
soldiers , citizens , senators and lictors. The has 
relief opposite represents a triumphal march 
with Jewish captives, the golden table, trum- 
pets or silver horns, the gold candlestick and 
other spoils of the temple of Jerusalem.-, in the 
centre of the roof is the apotheosis of Titos 
seated on an eagle; in the angles four fine fi- 
gures representing victory. On the frieze round 
tbe cornice is the remainder of the triumphal 
procession : the Jordan , carried by two men , 
oxen led to the sacrifice, soldiers of the Minerva 
legion bearing round shields with tbe image of 
the Gorgon. 

This monument was restored by Valadicr- 
by order of Pius VII. It is situated on the Via 
Sacra near the ascent leading to. 



Second ddy 

The most celebrated of Rome , having been 
the silo of the city founded by Romulus. It is 
nearly the central point of the other sis hills 
except on the side of the Velabrum , the shape 
is a trapezium with the following limits : S. 
Maria liberatricc , S. Anastasia , the extremity 
of the Circus Maximus, the arch of Constantino; 
the perimeter is 6400 romanfect, about a mile 
and a quarter, its height, over the level of the sea 
52 metres. Amongst the various etymologies as- 
signed by ancient writers, the name of Pala- 
tium is most probably derived from PaUantiutn 
a city of Arcadia, and it was so called by Evan- 
der. The primitive city having been bnilt on the 
hill , it is not surprizing that it was inhabited 
by most of the kings and by many of the prin- 
cipal personages of the republic; that it was in- 
habited by the kings is known from many ancient 
writers, particularly from Plutarch, Solinus , 
Dionysius , and Livy. The house of Romulus was 
situated on the side facing the Aventine near the 
steps which led to the Circus Maximus ; that of 
Nnma , near the temple of Vesta , at S. Theo- 
dore afterwards called Atrium Vetta; those of 
Tullus Hoslilius , on the Velia , overlooking the 
Forum i of Ancns Martius , on the site of the 
temple of Venus and Rome; of Tarquinius Prisons 
on the slope towards the Velabrum ; tbo two 
last kings lived on the Esquiline. In the early 
times of the republic Valerius Publicula wished 
to build his house on the Velian where Tullus 
Hostilius had resided , a point overlooking too 
forum , but the jealousy of the people being 


Second day 1 1 9 

excited it was built at the bottom of the hill , 
« slated by Cicero , Dionysius and Livy. In the 
last centnry of the republic this hill was occu- 
pied by the houses of the Gracchi , of Fulvius 
Flaccus , of Qaimus Calulus , Lucius Crassus 
the orator , (.Indus Octavius , Marcus Emilins 
Scanrns , Quiutus Hortensius, Cicero, Claudius, 
Lucius Catilina , Mark Anthony , Tiberius Clau- 
dius Nero the father of the Emperor Nero, and 
of Cains Octavius , the father of Augustus who 

roe rjiACE of tbe cesars 


The house in which Augustus was born was 
situated in the street called « ad capita Bul- 
imia ■ as proved by Svclonius, in opposition to 
modern writers who pretend that Velletri was 
his birth place. Svetonius distinctly states: JVa- 
tu) est Augustus , M. Tullio Cicerone , et An- 
tonio Consulibus , JX kahndas octobris , paulo 
ante salts exortum , regione Palatii ad Capita 
Bulbula : where , according to the same writer, 
an altar was raised lo him after bis death. He 
afterwards resided near the forum, over the 
analaria steps , in the house that had belonged 
to Calvus the orator , and subsequently retur- 
ned to the Palatine in the house of Hortensius 
which he rebuilt , and united to it that of Ca- 
tiline; to this modest mansion he added a temple 
dedicated to Apollo , with a portico of numi- 
dian columns and a library with a bronze statue 
of Apollo 42 i/i parisian feet in height; this 
palace was subsequently encreascd and called the 
■ Domus Auguslana »■ Under Tiberius it cxten- 


120 Second day 

ded in the direction of the.Yelabrum , when it 
was called the « Domus , Tjberiana », Caligula 
encrcascd it .on the side of l lie .forum , built a 
bridge which united the Palatine: to the Capi- 
tol , but this bridge and the home .built by Ca- 
ligula on the Capitoline hill were . demolished 
h v his successor Claudius. Nero enclosed the plain 
between the Palatine , the Cclian and Esquiline 
hills , and a part of the Esquiline , as appears 
by Tacitus who stales that his palace joined tho 
gardens of Mectenas on the Esquiline, where the 
villa Negroni now stands. This new palace baring 
been destroyed in the great fire of the 64 year 
of the christian era, was rebuilt by Nero in 
such a style of splendour and magnificence that 
it was called the « Domus Aurea ». The columns 
around the portico amounted to 3000 ; the en- 
trance was on the via. sacra towards -the so 
called temple of Peace' and the arch Of Titus. 
In the vestibule was the celebrated colossus 160 
palms high; it contained gardens, baths, an en- 
tensive pond surrounded by so many edifices thai 
ft seemed a sea lined by a (own; innumerable 
halls and rooms were adorned with columns , 
statues and precious stones. The riches of the 
whole empire wore united in this palace ; Se- 
verus and Celcr, who , according to Pliny, were 
the architects , applied all their talents in its 
embellishment. ; Amulius , a celebrated painter, 
employed bis life in painting it. On taking, pos- 
session of the palace Nero said that he was at 
last lodged in a manner suiting a man. It was 
not however completed uuder his reign as 
proved by the following passage of Sretonius 
that Otho, « nee quidquam prt'us pro potestatt 


Setond day 12 1 

mhcripsit quam qut'ngentiet lettertium ad pera~ 
gcttdam auream Domum , fifty millions of ses- 
terces, or 1,250,000 scudi to complete it; but 
his reign was too short , and it is certain that 
Vespasian and Titos demolished or converted 
to another use , those buildings not comprized 
within the Palatine. The baths of Titus , tlio 
Colosseum were in fact bnilt upon these ruins, 
Domilian embellished the whole palace. Trajan 
stript it of its ornaments which he applied to 
the temple of the Capitoline Jove ; his succes- 
sors introduced various changes; after Valcnli- 
nian and Maxiuius it suffered greatly from thu 
ravages of the Vandals ; Procopius asserts that 
Genserie carried away all the bronzes comprizing 
the vases of the temple of Jerusalem. It pro- 
bably suffered also under Totila. It was however 
inhabited by Heraclius in the VII century, and 
in the VIII under Pope Coratantine a great part 
of it still existed. Some ruins of the principal 
rooms and of the foundations alone remain ; 
mingled with the oak, the laurel, the cypress 
the ivy , and the acanthus, they present many 
picturesque points of view , particularly in the 
direction of the forum and circus maximns. A 
part of the palace is occupied by the 



Pope Paul HI , Farnese , built on these 
rains a villa , called the orti Farnesiani, which 
bow belongs to the court of Naples ; the prin- 
cipal gate , opposite the basilic of Constantino, 
with the two doric columns supporting a ba- 
lustrade was designed by Vignola; formerly it 


122 Second day 

was embellished with alleys, groves, and foun- 
tains , statues , bas-reliefs and various marbles 
which have been transferred lo is easy to 
recognize in these grounds the position of some 
of the Augustan buildings , of the palaces of 
Tiberius , of Caligula and of Nero ; the most 
considerable ruins are those that supported the 
external porticoes which had been successively 
strengthened and enlarged as the palace encrea- 
sed , in order to preserve the same level. In 
the upper part are several remnants of the Pa- 
latine library built by Augustus, and of the tem- 
ple of Apollo annexed lo it which was raised 
after the victory of Actium. Towards the circus 
arc the foundations of the theatre of Caligula 
adjoining the front of the house of Augustus. At 
a modern casino near which stood the house of 
Romulus and the temple of Apollo, are two small 
subterranean chambers , supposed to be remains 
of baths known by the appellation of Livia's 
baths , some paintings and gildings of a good 
taste are well preserved ; the denomination of 
these chambers is as uncertain as their primi- 
tive use, it is however certain that they served 
as a foundation to the pronans of the temple of 
Apollo. To the north is a grove of evergreens 
in which are scattered pieces of entablature, frie- 
zes , cornices , ionic composite and corinlhtan 
capitals , all of Luni marble , of Gne execution, 
which were found in the ruins of the Palatine 
library in 1726; it was also called the Apollo 
library. The ornamental parts of the frieze and 
cornice consist of griffins , tridents and dolphins; 
the first allusive to Apollo the second to the 
naval victory ; there are also trophies and figu- 


Second day 123 

res of victor;. To (he right of the Faroese gar- 
dens is 


Built at the beguiling of the XVI century 
by the Maitei family. It afterwads belonged to 
the Spada, Stagnant and Ccloeci families, and 
is now the property of Mr. Mills , an English 
gentleman. Its situation, the beatiful and exten- 
sive views it commands on all sides , the asso- 
ciations of antiquity connected with the spot , 
render it one of the most interesting villas of 
Home. The front part occupies the site of the 
celebrated portico and garden of Adonis men- 
tioned by Philosiratus ; the west adjoining the 
Farnese gardens is situated on a side of the por- 
tico of the Palatine Apollo ; the southern, the 
most agreablc , is ou the ruins of the house of 
Augustus. Nor is it wanting in modern embel- 
lishments; a chamber on the ground floor of the 
modern casino having a small portico with four 
columns of grey granite on which are paintings 
bj Raphael representing on the sides Venus and 
(be Nymphs, on the root, the Zodiacal signs, Mu- 
ses , Apollo , Hercules ; several of these works 
were engraved by Marc' Antonio who has thus 
preserved the remembrance of these productions 
of Raphael which have passed unnoticed by 
his biographers. They had been greatly injured 
through the neglect of the former proprietors 
but have been restored by Gamuccini , and all 
arc preserved excepting one which is irreme- 
diably lost. A convenient flight ofstcps leads to 
the subterranean halls of the house of Augustus 


121 Second dag 

interesting by Iheir size, their preservation, and 
good distribution. These halls and the adjacent 
chambers which never served as baths, as has 
been asserted, were discovered ia 1777 by Rau- 
courcil , who rendered them accessible to the 
amateurs of art and of antiquity. 

On the eastern side of the garden is an oblong 
yard commonly called the Hippodrome though 
without any foundation ; it appears , however , 
to have been used for baths and gymnastic exer- 
cises. In the middle there appears to have been 
a fountain , and the tribune or apsis seen on the 
east side was probably a place of repose. On 
the level with the yard is a hail , the roof of 
which is well preserved. In the adjoining gar- 
den are remains of the galleries of (he palace 
and of the spot from which the Emperor could 
see the games of the circus. It commands a line 
view of the ruins of Rome and of the environs. 

On quitting the Palatine villa at (be arch 
of Titus a splendid view of the Flavian am* 
phitheatre strikes the eye. Near it is the 



This was an ancient fountain which existed 
at the time of Nero , as noticed by Seneca, and 
was rebuilt by Domitian , as staled by Cassio- 
dorus. Its form, though despoiled of ornaments, 
is recognized by medals representing the Colos- 
seum , as that of a mela of the circus or of a 
cone from the top of which water flowed , 
and for this reason it was called the « Meta 
Sudans »; the water fell into a large basin 80 
Roman feet in diameter. Four ancient regions 




Second day 125 

net at this point : the II comprizing the sides 
of ihe Celian; the III, that of the amphithea- 
tre ; the VI , comprizing the « Mela » ; the X 
the Palatine; it is probable that from this cir- 
cumstance the form of Ihe fountain was thai of 
a * Heta », 


When Nero built his immense palace he 
ordered Zenodorus, a celebrated sculptor, to 
execute his colossus in bronze which was placed 
in the vestibule of the « Domus Aurea » ; it was 
transferred by Vespasian to the site afterwards 
occupied hy the temple of Venus and Rome and 
under Adrian it was removed by means of 24 
elephants to the place where ihe large pedestal 
now stands. After Nero 's death , his face was 
changed into that of the Sun , under Commodus 
it resumed its primitive image , and after Com- 
modus it again represented the Sun. It still exis- 
ted at the beginning. of the V century; its height 
was 120 feet. 


The amphitheatres were buildings erected 
fur spectacles , such as those of gladiators and 
wild beasts, games unknown to Ihe Greeks until 
they fell under the Roman power ; thus these 
buildings were not known in Greece although 
the word is taken from the Greek , which si- 
gnifies a round circular or elliptic theatre. The 
theatre is a semi-circular , the amphitheatre an 
elliptic edifice. Although the games of the am* 


126 Second day 

philheatre are of italic institution , the romans 
bad no fixed amphitheatre before Augustus, under 
whom one was built in the Campus Marlins, on 
the spot where Monte Citorio now stands , bj 
Statilius Taurus. Augustus intended to have built 
one in the centre of Borne an idea which was 
followed out by Vespasian who, availing himself 
of the site once occupied by the extensive ponds 
of the golden house of Nero , laid its founda- 
tions two years before his death , it is tho one 
of which we admire the prodigious ruins. It was 
dedicated by Titus, and according to the ano- 
nymous wrilcr of Eccardo , finished hy Domi- 
tiau , and called the Flavian amphitheatre from 
the Flavii 5 many centuries afterwards , it was 
named the Colosseum , the first mention of it 
being in Beda , a writer of the VIII century; 
this appellation does not arise from the colossus 
of Nero which Adrian placed near it but from 
its colossal dimensions , an appellation given also 
to other amphitheatres in the lower ages, and 
particularly to that of Capua. 

It is related by Svetonius and by Dio, that 
the dedication by Titus was sumptuous : The 
games lasted a hundred days , five thousand wild 
beasts were destroyed , several thousand gla- 
diators lost their lives, a naval battle was fought 
in the amphitheatre, a proof that there existed 
means of inundation. Some parts were originally 
of wood which rendered it subject to fires, one 
occured under Macrinns from which time the 
parts consumed were repaired with solid ma- 

The gladiatorial games having been abo- 
lished by Honorios , those of wild beasts were 


Second day 12? 

coutiniicd in the V century , and though the 
amphitheatre suffered greatly from earthquakes 
io 439 and 480, it was always carefolly resto- 
red, nor was it damaged daring the invasions 
under Alaric, Genseric or Odoacer. It was per- 
fect in 523 when the last games of wild beasts 
look place , and that it was entire in the VIII 
century is ascertained from Beda. It was tbe 
barbarism of the following ages that destroyed 
a part of this magnificent edifice. 

In the XI century it became a fortress of 
which tbe Frangipani and the Annibaldi , two ri- 
val families, disputed the possession. J lie latter 
retained it in 1312 when it became public pro- 
perty; in. 1332 it was the scene of a splendid 
tournament but this uew destination soon disap- 
peared and thirty years afterwards it was in 
Each a state of abandonment that it became a 
stone quarry ; in 1381 it was transformed into 
a hospital when the part facing the Gelian hill 
bad already perished. In tbe following century 
it continued to furnish materials for the roman 
palaces ; Paul II built the palazzo di Venezia , 
Cardinal Riario, some years after the Cancelleria 
an example followed by Paul III in 1 540 who bum 
the magnificent Faroese palace and by Clement XI 
at tbe beginning of last century who, with the ma- : 
terials of one of the arches built in 1 JOitheRipetla 
port; the Barberini palace was also built from 
its ruins. Although tbe arena was consecrated 
by Clement X in memory of the holy martyrs 
to the passion of Jesus Christ , yet under the 
same Clement XI above cited , (he outward gal- 
leries were used as a receptacle for rubbish 
and dung. Tbk degradation of [be amphitheatre 


128 Second day 

lasted until the pontificate of Pins VII who not 
only cleared but restored it in several parts, 
and reinforced it towards the east. To Leo Xlt 
we owe the repairs towards the west and south; 
the works were continued by Pius VIII. Under 
these pontiffs , protectors of the arts , the Co- 
losseum has resounded after so many centuries 
with instruments of restoration, which before had 
been heard only for its destruction, and iu our 
days no expense is spared for the preservation 
of what remains of this magnificent and imposing 
monument. Its plan is an ellipse 2416 palms 
in circumference ; the external facade , composed 
of large travertine blocks , though ruined to the 
west and south , is preserved in the remainder 
and shows that the decoration was formed of 
superposed orders 232 palms high ; each ex- 
ternal order corresponding to a story or in- 
ternal passage leading to the steps. The three 
first orders were formed of eighty arches sup- 
ported by half columns, doric, ionic and Corin- 
thian. The fourth order instead of arches had 
windows each of which corresponded to_two lower 
arches ; eighty arcades were separated by inter- 
mediary columns. The arches of the first order 
being #o many entrances are numbered ; that 
between numbers XXXVIII and XXXIX cor- 
responding to the minor axis of the ellipsis to- 
wards the Esquiline , is without any number 
and it is supposed that the other three now wan- 
ting were entrances depending directly on the 
public authority. These entrances, probably pri- 
vileged , were more richly ornamented , as in 
that towards the Esquiline there are traces of 
two fine marble veined columns which formed a. 


Second day 129 

kind of propjleum. This arch is besides wider 
than the others , and leads to a splendid inter- 
nal hall lined with stucco, of which some parts 
are visible and to one of the first places on the 
podium. It may be considered as one of the en- 
trances to the imperial seal which seems to 
bare been on the minor axis of the arena from 
the EsquiHoe , Palatine and Celian as the parts 
perfectly correspond. In the external cornice 
arc apertures between every five square palms 
corresponding with travertine stands below ; 
ibe former served to contain , the latter to sup- 
port the bronze beams of the awning which 
sheltered the spectators from the sun. In the in- 
terior , nothing can give a better idea of the 
size and magnificence of this monument than by 
examining it from the second story which can 
be reached wilh the utmost facility the arches 
oaring been propped up and the pavement cleared 
of rains. These excavations were made in 1312, 
when arriving at the primitive level of the are- 
na , which had been filled wilh substructions 
in the lower ages , the secret passage was dhw 
covered in which Gommodus was attacked by 
the conspirators ; numerous fragments of marble 
columns , of statues, has reliefs and inscriptions 
were also found; the most remarkable inscriptions 
are those ofLampadius and Basilius Prefects of Ho- 
me the former in 430, (he latter in 480 under Theo- 
doric; it appears by that ofLampadius that be re- 
stored the arena, the podium, the doors and the 
seats; in that of Basilius that he rebuilt the arena 
and podium thrown down by an earthquake. The 
two entrances into the arena were by the grea.1 
axe; the arena was the spot where the, 


1 30 Second day 

were celebrated , it was so named from the sand 
which covered the soil, the length/was 420 palms 
and the width 268 , a circular wail of suffi- 
cient height to prevent the beasts getting up it , 
with openings at intervals closed by iron gales 
tbrocgh which the gladiators and wild beasts 
entered the arena , was called (be « Podium »; 
on this were placed the seats of the emperors 
and of the imperial family, of the senators, chief 
magistrates and vestals. 

Over the podium began the steps for the 
spectators ; the doors leading to them were cal- 
led vomitorii : these steps were divided into three 
rows, called « lneniani » or « precinctioni » ; the 
first of which consisted of 24 and the second of 
1 6 steps both of marble ; the third , the greater 
part of wood , was replaced by Heliogabalus and 
Alexander Severn* by a more solid material after 
the fire under Macrinus. At the end of the steps 
was a gallery composed of 80 columns , first 
built of wood afterwards of marble , suppor- 
ting a roof under which were placed the keepers 
of the awning; the « meniani » were divided 
into sealaria , or small stairs , under the vomi- 
tor it $ there was room on the benches for 87,000 
persons, and in the upper porticoes for 20,000. 
The public garden near the amphitealre was 
opened in 1812. 


'■ This triumphal arch was raised to Constan- 

tino the great, by the roman senate and peo- 
ple in commemoration of bis victory ad saxa 
rubra over Maxenlins ; it consists of three arches 




Second day 131 

with eight fluted eorinlhian giallo anlico co- 
lamns and has reliefs of different periods, some 
of the time of Constanline , others , as seen by 
the style , were taken from the arch of Trajan; 
those below represent an allocution to the sol- 
diers , the taking of Verona, the victory at Poole 
Molle ; the lunettes under the arch represent 
the sun and moon ; the victories on the pedes- 
tals , the four figures of fame are of a coarse 
style; the arts at the time of Gonstanline being 
in a state of great decay. Eighteen are of a fine 
style there are ten long bas reliefs on (he attic, 
eight round ones on the small arches , these 
were taken from one of Trajan's. arches -, the po- 
sition of Trajan's arch despoiled by Constantino 
is not known ; it was certainly not that of bis 
brant which was entire long after that period. 
The four bas reliefs on the side of the Co- 
losseum placed in the attic between the statues, 
represent the triumphal entrance of Trajan iuto 
Home ; the restoration and enlargement of the 
viaappia ; the audience with Par lomasiris , king 
of Armenia and his dethronement ; the two bas 
reliefs on the attics of the side are the most 
magnificent , they were formely of a sole piece • 
they represent the battle , and the victory gai- 
ned by Trajan over Decebalus king of Dacia ; 
the Emperor declaring Partomaspatus , king of 
the Parlhians , the conspiracy of Decebalus 
against Trajan , an address to the army, and the 
Suovetaurilia sacrifice. The rounds over the small 
arches represent a chase and sacrifices to Apol- 
lo, Mars , Sylvanus and Diana , the two under 
the middle arch. , though superior to those of the 
time of Conslantine , are greatly inferior to those 


132 Second day 

of the lime of Trajan and are probably of an 
intermediary epoch. 

To (lie arch of Trajan belonged the eight 
giallo antico columns , a part of the entablature 
tbc seven Dacian prisoners in Phrygian marble 
whose heads arc said to hare been taken away by de' Medici and carried to Florence ; 
the other figure of a prisoner in white marble 
is modern, the ancient statue being broken into 
fragments was placed in the capiloline Museum 
by Clement XII who formed upon ancient models 
the beads tbat had been taken from the other 
statues ; there is a void in the attic and on the 
upper plan stood the triumphal car with four 
bronzy horses ; the frieze of the arch and the 
squares containing the eight round has reliefs 
were lined with porphyry of which there are 
Hill some remains. 

The soil of Rome having been raised , a part 
of ibis arch was underground; in 1304 under 
Pius Til ilwas cleared and encircled with a wall 
which was removed under Leo XII ; the arch 
is now restored to its primitive magnificence. 
On a fine road opened from this arch between 
the palatine and celian hills stands the 


' t S. Gregory the great , of the ancient and 

noble Anician family , had his paternal mansion 
on Ibis spot , which he converted in 584 into 
a monastery of friars ; he lived in it prior to 
bis election to the papacy and built a church 
in honour of S. Andrew (he apostle which 
still exists. After his death a church was built 


Second day 133 

in his honour to -which Cardinal Scipio Borghese 
added in 1633 the facade and double portico 
on the designs of Soria ; the architecture of the 
church was renewed in 1734 by the Camaldo- 
lesc monks to whom it now belongs ; it is com- 
posed of three naves with 1 6 columns chiefly gra- 

The painting on the roof is by Plaeido Cos- 
tanzi ; the first altar piece on the right repre- 
senting S. Silvia ll»e mother of S. Gregory , 
is by Parker, an english artist; S. Damian, on 
the second altar , by Mancini; S. Bomnald in 
his agony, by Fernandi , the line painting in 
the chapel at the end of the nave represen- 
ting S. Gregory , is attribntod to Andrea Sac- 
chi; the altar is remarkable for its fine scul- 
ptures and a painting by Signorelli. The picture 
over the high altar is by Balestra ; that of the 
conception in the following nave by Mancini ; 
the Madonna with several caraaldulese saints is 
considered as one of the best works of Battooi; 
the blessed Michael is by Bonfreni. 

At the end of this nave is the chapel de- 
dicated to S. Gregory the great who is repre- 
sented over the altar piece; it is a copy, by an 
nnknown hand , of the original by Annibal Ca- 
racci which is now in England. The chapel was 
designed by Daniel da Volterra and finished by 
Carlo Madcrno ; the paintings of the cupola arc 
by Bicci. 

Adjoining this chapel is a terrace offering 
a fine view of the ruins of the imperial palace; 
the three ancient chapels standing on it were 
rebuilt by Cardinal Baronio ; the first is de- 
dicated to S. Silvia whose statue placed ever 


134 Second day 

the altar between two porphyry columns, is by 
Gordieri, a scholar of Buonarotti; the paintings 
of the roof are by Guido Heni, they were ordered 
by Cardinal Borghese in 1608; the second chapel 
is dedicated to S. Andrew , the painting over 
the altar between two verd' anlico columns is 
by Roncalli surnamed Pomarancio; the S. Peter 
and S. Paul are by Guido. 

On the walls of this chapel are the two 
frescoes by Domenicbino and Guido. The one 
representing the flagellation of S. Andrew is by 
Domenichino ; the other the saint kissing the 
cross while led to martyrdom , by Guido. 

In the last chapel, that of S. Barbara, there 
is a statue of S- Gregory, begun by Buonarotti 
and finished by Gordieri. The marble table in 
tbe middle of this chapel is the same on which 
S. Gregory used every morning to feed twelve 
poor pilgrims. 



This hill the longest and most irregular 
of the seven roman hills having a circumferen- 
ce of 16100 ancient feet, was originally called 
Querquetulanus, as asserted by Tacitus from the 
oak wood which covered it; under Romulus 
or Tarquiuius Priscus it assumed its present name 
from Celes Vebeuna, an Etruscan chief who came 
to the assistance of Borne. The height on which 
stands the church of S. Gregorio was called 
Celiolius the little Celius. The Celian was ad- 
ded to the city by Tullius Hoslilius the third 
king of Borne who assigned it as an habitation 
to the Albans brought to Rome after the de- 


Second day 135 

slraclton of Albalunga. A fire broke oat here un- 
der Tiberias, as related by Tacitus, and the place 
laving been rebuilt by that emperor it was 
called Augustus; having been destroyed by fire 
and sword by Robert G-uiscard in 1080 it was 
no longer inhabited. Under the arch way to the 
right on quitting S. Gregorio is the church of 

'~ Built on the house of those martyrs by S.Pam- 
macbius , a monk , in the IV century. It belon- 
ged to various religions orders till the time of 
Clement XIV who granted it to the « Passio- 
nisti », The portico , which is ancient , is sup- 
ported by six granite joaian , and two marble 
columns of different orders ; the interior divi- 
ded into three naves by 1 6 granite columns was 
boilt by Canevari. The pavement is a species of 
mosaic composed of various coloured stones mi- 
xed with porphyry serpentine etc. taken from 
ancient buildings , forming what the ancients 
termed an Opus Alexandrinum from having 
been carried to perfection under Alexander 
Severus ; it is seen in all ancient churches. The 
orn , under the high altar , is also of por- 
phyry. The best pictures are those of the tri- 
bune by Pomarancio , and that of Benaliel re- 
presenting S. Sebastian in the last chapel of the 
right nave. In the passage leading to the sacristy 
are the busts of Innocent VII and of Cardinal 
Paolncci , by Pietro Bracci. 

To the left on quilting the church is a large 
travertine building commonly called the Curia 
Hostilia , but this edifice , as already seen, was 



136 Second day 

in the Roman forum , and do author speaks or 
two curia; Hostilite. This building is supposed 
to have belonged to the vivarium , where the 
wild beasts were kept for the use of the Co- 
losseum , being of a contemporaneous style. It 
was more probably an ornament of the Nym- 
phamm of Nero , and of the temple of Claudius 
which was situated in the garden of the Pas- 
siouisti. This portico formed a double archway 
(he lower order of which is still underground; 
on these arches the church belfry was subsequent- 
ly raised. Behind this building is an extensive 
ancient 18101914 , or tufa lithoid quarry. 

Opposite the church are ruins said to be 
those of the house of Scaurus , in contradiction 
to ancient writers who place it on the Palatine. 
They appear rather to have belonged to the 
Maeeltum Magnum , a large meat and fish mar- 
ket which was on the Celian. The people seem 
to have a tradition of its primitive use as they 
still designate it by the name of « Pescaria Yeo- 
chia ». Following the road opposite the church is 


Built of travertine in the X year of the 
Christian era by the consuls Publius Cornelius 
Dotabella , and Caius Junius Silanus , who was 
also Flamea Martialis , as stated in the inscri- 
ption on the eastern facade ; his title of Sila- 
nus has led to the supposition that the arch for- 
med an entrance to the Campus Martialis where 
the Equiria , or equestrian games in honour of 
Mars , were celebrated when the Campus Mar- 
tini was inundated by the Tiber. This field is to 


Second day 137 

the left of the arch , towards the west side if 
a pari of the Nymphreum of Nero and of the 
temple of Claudius. The arch of Dolabella was 
used by Nero as a supporter of bis acqueduct 
the arch of which still remains. To this acque- 
duct belong the arches extending between the 
Ceiian and S. John Lateran. 


*T This very ancient church called in Domnica 
corresponding to the greek word kiriakt was 
built on the spot once occupied by the house 
of S. Ciriaca a Roman matron. It is now called 
(he Navicella from a small marble vessel placed 
by Leo X before the church which was resto- 
red od the designs of Raphael. In the interior 
are 18 granite and two porphyry columns. The 
freiie was painted in chiaroscuro by Giulio Ro- 
> and Pierin del Vaga ; the altar pieces are 
by Lazzaro Raldi; at the angles of the absis are 
two porphyry columns. 

Between this church and that of SS. Quatlro 
were the quarters of the foreign soldiers , the 
Gattra Ptregrina as ascertained from numerous 
inscriptions. Ghonodomar king of the Alemanni, 
who was taken prisoner by Julian at the battle 
of Argenloratnm near the present city of Stras- 
bourg , finished his days in these barracks , as 
related by Ammianus. 

Adjoining this church is the villa Mallei 
filled with fragments of all sorts of -antiquities; 
in the middle of a large meadow is a small 
Egyptian granite obelisk of two pieces on the 
upper part of which are ancient- hieroglyphics. 


138 Second day 

In the portico are two large pedestals with ins- 
criptions relating to the V Cohort of the vigili, 
whose quarters were between the villa and the 
navicella. Sundry mosaics, a double headed her- 
mes of Socrates and of Seneca , identifying the 
features of the latter, were found on the grounds. 
On the right of the road leading to the La- 
teral is the church of 


*■ This edifice , situated on the road called 
Caput Africa has been considered by antiqua- 
ries as a temple of Bacchus, of Faunus, of Clau- 
dius ; by others as a Macellum. It is merely a 
church of the V century built by Pope S. Sim- 
plicius in honour of S. Stephen , as related by 
Anaslasius , whose authority agrees with the ir- 
regularity observed in the base , the diameter, 
the orders and capitals of the fifty sis interior 
columns , nearly all granite which are spoils of 
more ancient buildings^ils denomination is derived 
from its round form. It formerly had a double 
spheric peryslile but at its restoration under Ni- 
cholas V the first row of columns was enclosed 
and thus a wall was formed by the outward cir- 

It contains paintings by Pomarancia and 
Tempesta representing the martyrdom of seve- 
ral saints which have been restored in latter 
times; two have been repainted by Manni, a Si- 
cilian artist. 

Over the altar, in the centre of the church 
is a tabernacle of curious design and execution 
by a Swedish baker. Following the line of Ne- 


Second day 139 

ro's arches, on the left is the church of SS. Quat- 
tro Coronati rebuilt by Pasqual II ; it contains 
eight middle sized granite columns, supporting 
eight smaller ones and some paintings of Gio- 
vanni da S. Giovanni in the choir. On the main 
street leading to S. John Lateran is 



This church is said to be built on the house 
of S. Clement , one of the early successors of 
S. Peter j his remains and those of S. Ignatius, 
bishop of Antiochia , arc under the high altar. 
It is known that it existed in the V century as 
Pope Zosimus here condemned Celestius in 41 7. 
It was restored by Pope Adrian I and Nicho- 
las I, the choir was rebuilt by John VIII, the 
absis or tribune by cardinal Tomasio who ad- 
ded the mosaic still existing. Under Clement XI 
it was completed in its present state. 

This church is one of the most interesting 
of Rome being the only one preserving the form 
of the primitive churches. The vestibule is on 
the modern piazza di S. Clcmente having a small 
portico supported by four columns , a work of 
the IX century ; the atrium surrounded by por- 
ticoes leads to the interior which is divided into 
three naves by two rows of columns taken from an- 
cient edifices. In the middle nave is a species of 
marble enclosure with the monogram of John VIII 
IOHANNES similar to that found on the coins 
of this pope which determine the period of its 
construction. This enclosure was used as the 
choir in ancient churches ; on tho sides are the 
Unbones or pulpits from which the epistles 


140 Stcond day 

/and gospel were read to the people. Farther 
' on is the Sanctuary which is isolated and con- 
tains the confessional , seats for the bishop and 
for the assisting priests. Besides the paintings 
by Conca , Grecolino , Odazzi , Ghiari , and 
Cfhezzi , the chapel of the Passion contains some 
( fine fresco works by Masacci , one of the ear- 
ly restorers of the art ; they represent our Sa- 
viour on the cross and deeds of S. Catherine 
the martyr. The evangelists on the roof , the 
only works that hare not been retouched , are 
also by Masacci. Near the high altar are the 
tombs of Cardinals Rarerdella and Yenier offte- 
eanati , the former is a white marble sarcopha- 
gus of fine design and execution of the XV 
century. The convent of S. Clemente is now occu- 
pied by Irish Dominicans. 






JLd the middle of this piazza is the obelisk 
raised at Thebes by Thoutmos III as ascertained 
by the cartouches. It is related by Ammianus that 
by order of Constantine it was conveyed down 
the Nile to Alexandria for the purpose of sen- 
dins; it to Rome, bnt that in consequence of that 
Emperor's death this project was suspended , 
and that subsequently it was erected in the Cam- 
pus Martins by Constantins his successor. 

After the ruin of this circus the obelisk 
remained' under ground at a depth of 34 paints 
until it was excavated nnder Sixtus V, and being 
broken into three parts it was restored and raised 
on this spot by Domenico Fontana. 

The lower part was repaired with granite 
and the traces of the latin inscription which is 


142 Third day 

E reserved in the Vatican library are still visi- 
le. It is of red granite covered with hierogly- 
phics ; the height , without the base and pedes- 
tal , being 1 44 palms , and the width at the 
lower part \ 4. Adjoining it is a statne of S. John 
the Evangelist. 

The piazta is occupied by two hospitals 
for women , by the Basilic and the Lateran pa- 
lace where the Roman Pontius resided in early 
times ; it was enlarged and embellished until they 
transferred their residence to the Vatican, the 
proximity of which to the castle 5. Angelo of- 
fered them a retreat and refuge. It suffered and 
fell to decay during the residence of the holy 
see at Avignon. In 1585 Sixtus V entrusted the 
rare of its restoration to Domenico Fontana 
who built two sides ; the third was completed 
by Alessandro Galilei under Clement XII The 
rooms were painted in fresco by Nogari, Groce, 
Ventura , Salimbeni , Bicci , Andrea d' Ancona, 
the first artists of that day. It was occasionally 
the residence of Sixtus V, but after his death 
it was again abandoned and remained in a state 
of neglect until its restoration under the pre- 
sent Pope Gregory XVI whose views were ably 
seconded by Cardinal Tosti the Finance Mini- 
ster , and under the direction of the architect 
Poletti it has resumed its former splendour; the 
paintings and gildings have been restored and 
this palace is now destined to form the third 
Museum of Rome. 

The rooms on the ground floor contain va- 
rious monuments of early christian antiquities, 
casts of the bas-reliefs of the Parthenon , now 
in London , of the Egina marbles now at Mu- 


Third day 143 

nich. la the third room is the mosaic represen- 
ting gladiators found in the baths of Caracal ta; 
in the first to the left sundry fragments, a slag 
in grey marble and a cow. In ihe second, statues 
of Germanic us , Drusus , Agrippina , a fine ci- 
nerary urn. In the third a statue of Aristides ; 
in the fourth one of Bacchus found in the Villa 
Adriana at Tivoli. In Ihe last a mosaic repre- 
senting our Saviour , S. Peter holding the keys, 
and S. Paul. 

The rooms of tha third wing contain frag- 
ments of sculpture : a statue of Cato ; a captive 
king from the arch of Gonstantine ; two casts 
of the statne of Aristides one from the original 
existing in the second wing , the other from that 
at Naples; two small columns of pavonazzetto 
marble lately found in the Tiber. 

The first story is destined to form the gal- 
lery; in the second room are various old pain- 
tings on boards, a fine copy by Silvagni of the 
martyrdom of S. Andrew , by Domenichino, exis- 
ting in Ihe church of S. Gregorio ; the paintings 
on the roof are by Zuccari. In the third room 
are two Madonnas with saints by Parmegianino; 
the baptism of S. John , Ccsare da Sesto ; two- 
draperies representing S. Peter and S. Panl co- 
Eied by the students at S. Michele; two pictures 
y Barlolomeo di S. Marco. In the following 
rooms are cartoons by Giulio Romano, Camuc- 
cini , and sundry mosaics found out of the porta 
S. Sebastiano ; the annunciation by the Gav. d' 
Arpino ; the portrait of George IV by Lawrence; 
a copy , by Brnni , of the assumption of the 
Virgin from the original by Guercino now in 
Russia. A superb mosaic found in the absis of 


144 Third day 

the wrestling place at the baths of Caracalla , 
considered to be the finest monument of the 
sort that has come down to us from antiquity. 
Under the arches of the loggie are several land- 
scapes by Paul Brill 


U is said that Constantino built this sumptuous 
chapel in order to receive baptism from Pope 
S. Silvester ; it is known that it existed in the 
V century and that in the IX it had the form 
and columns it possesses at the present day. It 
was despoiled of its ornaments and mined in 
the frequent pillages of the city hot was res- 
tored by Gregory XIII and by Urban YUI. 

The baptismal font , formed of an antique 
basaltic urn with a bronze gilding , is placed 
in a circular spot lined with marble to which 
the descent is by three steps. Here on the Sa- 
turday of holy week the Jews , the Turks and 
others converted to the faith receive baptism. 
Around this fount is an octangular balustrade 
covered with a cupola supported by a double 
row of columns ; the first eight of porphyry sup- 
port a cornice composed of antique fragments; 
the others are of while marble ; between the 
pilasters of the second row are eight large pictu- 
res relating to the acts of S. John , painted by 
Andrea Sacchi; the frescoes are by Gcmignani, 
Camaasei , Carlo Maratta , Mannoni j in the cha- 
pel dedicated to S. John are tvo columns of ser- 
pentine ; in the one opposite , that of the Evan- 
gelist , are two of oriental alabaster , tbe sta- 
tues of both these saints are of bronze , the for-. 




Third day 145 

mcp by Laigi Valadicr, the laller modelled by 
Gin : delta Porta; the two porphyry columns on 
the wall supporting a cornice of antique frag- 
ments formed the ancient entrance to the Bapt- 



This temple , the first of Rome and of the 
Catholic world , is denominated Eccleiia Vrbit 
et Orbis , Mater et caput Eeclesiarum , it is also 
called Constantiniana, from Constantino the Great 
its founder ; Lateranense from the site of the house 
of Plautius Later anus |who was implicated in 
the conspiracy against Nero ; of the Salvulort 
to whom it was dedicated by Pope S. Silvester ; 
jiurea, from the rich gifts it contained and fi- 
nally Basilica S. Giovanni, having been subse- 
quently dedicated to the Baptist and the Evan- 
gelist ; it is the cathedral of I he sovereign Pon- 
tiff who , afler his elevation to the Papacy , 
takes solemn possession; it has bees the seal of 
twelve councils , either general or provincial. 
This basilic , preserved during leu centu- 
ries by the successive restorations of sundry 
Popes was totally destroyed by fire, together with 
the palace , in 1 368 under Clement V, when 
the apostolic see was at Avignon; it was rebuilt 
with the funds sent by the Pope , embellished 
by Urban V , Alexander VI , and Pius IV who 
made the gilt ceiling and the lateral facade to 
which Sixtus V added the double portico on the 
designs of Domenico Foutana ; the arabesques 
are by Salimbeni , the bronze statue of Henry 
IV of France by Cordieri , erected by the chap- 


146 Third day 

tcr to the benefactor of the basilic ; Clement 
VIII rebuilt the upper nave on the designs of 
Giacomo delta Porta , and Innocent X the large 
nave on those of Borromini. 

At length Clement XII completed the temple 
and added the principal facade by Alessandro 
Galilei; it is in travertine , decorated with four 
half columns and six composite pilasters suppor- 
ting a cornice and balustrade on which arc pla- 
ced ten colossal statues of various saints with 
that of our Saviour in the middle ; there are 
live balconies, the central one, which has four 
granite columns , is destined to the Papal be- 
nedictions; at the end of a splendid portico sup- 
ported by 24 marble composite pillars, is the 
colossal statue of Constantino the Great, found in 
his thermae ; the central door was taken from 
the Emilian basilic in the Roman forum , and 
was placed here by Alexander VII; the walled 
door to the right is the « porta santa ■> opened 
only in the year of the great Jubilee. The bas- 
reliefs over the doors represent S. John the Bap- 
tist announcing the coming of (he Bedecmcr 
by Maini ; S. Zaccariah naming S. John by Lu- 
dovisi ; the death of the Baptist by Valle ; S. 
John reproaching Herod with bis passion for He- 
rodias by Bracci. 

The interior is composed of five naves with 
six pilasters on each side , the centre one was al- 
tered by Borromini who covered the columns with 
six large pi laslers forming five arches correspond- 
ing to the same number of chapels ; two fluted 
p lasters of the composite order support the cor- 
nice ; within these aro twelve niches with two 
vcrde antico columns each , containing the co- 


Third day 147 

lossal .statues in marble of the apostles execu- 
ted by the best artists of that day , S. James 
the elder, S. Matthew, Andrew and John by Rus- 
coni, S. Thomas and Bartholomew by Legros; 
S. Thaddeus , by Lorenzo Ottoni , B. Simon , 
Moratti; S. Philip, Mazzuoli; S. James the young- 
er de' Rossi; S. Peter and Paul byMonot; tho 
slucco has reliefs , executed on the designs of 
Algardi , represent various passages of the old 
and new testament. In the ovals over these bas 
reliefs are painted the greater prophets: Nahum, 
the first near the right entrance by Muratori ; 
Michea , the one opposite , by Ghezzi ; Jonas by 
Benafiel ; Abdias by Chiari ; Amos by Masini ; 
Joel by Garzi ; Oseas by Odazzi ; Daniel by Pro- 
caecini; Ezechkl by Melchiorri; Barueh by^ Tre- 
visani; Jeremiah by Conca ; Isaiah by Luli-, the 
ceiling of this nave was made by Pius IV of tho 
bouse of Medici, the design is attributed to Hi- 
i chad Angelo. 

! The Corsini chapel , the first near the left 
I entrance , is one of the richest and most mag- 
nificent in Rome ; it was built by Clement XII 
in honour of S. Andrea Corsini , his ancestor , 
on the designs of Alessandro Galilei who deco- 
rated it with columns of the Corinthian order , and 
lined it with the finest marbles. Over the altar 
between two vcrde antico columns , is a mosaic 
portrait of S. Andrea Corsini , copied from a 
painting by Guido ; on the front are the figures 
of Innocence and Penitence by Pincellotti ; the 
bas relief represents S. Andrea Corsini protect- 
ing the florentine army at the battle of An- 
gbieri; in the large niche supported by two por- 
phyry columns is the tomb of Clement XII , 


14S Third day 

with the antique porphyry urn formerly in the 
portico of the Pautheon ; the bronze statue was 
modelled by Maini ; the marble statues by Mo- 
naldi. On the tomb of cardinal Neri Corsini, the 
uncle of Clement XII, is the cardinal's statue, 
with a child and a seated figure of Religion, by 
Maini -, in the four niches are statues represen- 
ting the four cardinal virtues , surmounted by 
marble bas reliefs : Temperanc e by_Val!e_; Force 
by Busconi ; Prudence oy Cornicchiui ; Justice 
by Lironi. The corresponding bas reliefs arc by 
Benaglia , Anaslasio , Bracci , Adami. The cu- 
pola is ornamented with gilt stuccoes , the pa- 
vement with choice marbles, the balustrade with 
gilt bronze. Over the altar is a fine group re- 
presenting a dead Christ supported by his mo- 
ther ; under the chapel are the tombs of the 
Corsini family. 

In the large nave near the high altar is a 
bronze monument of Martin V Colonna who 
died in 1431 the work of Simon the brother 
of Donatello ; in the large arch of this nave are 
two columns of red oriental granite 50 palms 
high. On the high altar of the transept four gra- 
nite columns support a golhic tabernacle con- 
taining, among other remarkable relics, line 
heads of S. Peter and S. Paul. 

On (he right nave are the tombs of Paolo 
Millini who died in 152V, and of Giulio Acqua- 
viva created a cardinal by Pius VI when only 
20 years of age. 

The second chapel , dedicated (o S. John Ne- 
pomucene, is now undergoing various improve- 
ments on the designs of Baimondi , and will 


Third day 149 

be splendidly decorated at the expense of the 
Torloaia family. 

In the fourth chapel arc the tombs of car- 
dinal Rusponi who died in 1675 the figures by 
Filippo Romano , and that of cardinal Martini 
of Chaves in Portugal placed here in 1 447. In the 
second nave the tombs of Silvester erected in 1 003 
by Sergius IV ; of Alexander III in 1 181 , who 
held the council of Lateran ; of his nephew Car- 
dinal Bandinelli ; of Pope Sergius IV who died 
in 1013; and the cenotaph of Cardinal Farnesc 
executed by Valsoldo, od the designs of Vtgnola. 
In the first chapel to the left dedicated to 
S. Ilario whose portrait was executed in fresco 
by Guglielmo Borgognone , is a door leading to 
the ancient cloister which contains several cu- 
rious monuments remarkable by their design and 

In the Lancellotti cbapel is the tomb of car- 
dinal Casanate by Legros. 

HI Chapel , the Christ over the altar by 
Civoli , or by Slefano Maderno; the tomb of car- 
dinal S. Severino , by Pinelli of Carrara , 'and 
that of Cardinal Valeriano. 

IV. The fresco representing the assumption, 
S. Domenick , S. Filippo Neri was begun by Odaz- 
zi and finished by Hern. Below is a painting of 
the Giotto school representing the death of the 
Virgin, (he tombs of cardinals Aotonelli and Ca- 
wccioli are of the XIII century , that of cardinal 
Annibaldesi of 1240. 

Along the second nave are those of Port! , 
Lancinti , Garimberti, Burgio, of cardinal Sasso 
and of Elena Savelli by Delduca, a pupil of 


150 Third day 

On the roof of the absis is a large mosaic 
of 1291 by fra Jacopo da Turrita who was as- 
sisted by Ira Jacopo da Camerino , both artists 
being represented in small proportions on the 
sides , and the name of the first is above. After 
the death of Turrita the work was completed 
by Gaddo Gaddi; between the Madonna and S. 
Francis is Pope Nicholas IV on bis knees. Over 
the central arch of the tribune a fine painting 
by Agricola bns recently been placed at the 
expense of tbe Torlonia family; it represents the 
Saviour, S. John the Baptist and the Evangelist. 

At the end of the transept , renewed on 
the designs of Giacomo della Porta by Clement 
VIII in 1600, is tbo splendid altar of tbe most 
holy Sacrament; the tabernacle is adorned with 
fine marbles and four verd' antico columns, the 
architrave and front are supported by four flu- 
ted columns of gilt bronze, of the composite 
order 1 3 palms in circumference. Some antiqua- 
ries assert that these columns arc formed of the 
bronze taken in the Egyptian vessels at the battle 
of Actium which was deposited in the Capitol 
by Augustus. The four marble statues completing 
the altar represent Eliai , Moses , Melchisedech, 
Aarom these, together with the respective bas 
reliefs , were executed by Mariani, Vacca, Egi- 
dio , and Silla ; tbe ascension of our Saviour is 
by d' Arnino whose tomb is behind the tribune 
near that of Andrea Sacclii ; the other subjects 
arc : Constantino presenting the sacred vases to 
the basilic, by Baglioni ; the apparition of tbe 
Saviour by Paris Nogari; (be triumph of Con- 
stantino, by Cesari; Inc apparition of the Apost- 
les by Nehbia , S. Silvester on Mount Soracte 


Third day 151 

bj Pomarancio ; the building of the basilic by 
Nogari ; its consecration by Ricci ; the angel* 
are by Mariani, Buzi, Cordieri, Valsodino, Stc- 
fano Maderno. In the sacristy is a fine painting ' 
of the « Annunziala » by Venusli made on tb« 
designs of Buonaroti. 

In the chapel of the choir is the tomb of 
Lucrclia Tomacclli the wife of Philip Colonna, 
by Theodore della Porta. The columns are of 
paragone marble ; the bronze works are by Laa- 
renziani ; the altar piece representing the Baptist 
and the Evangelist, is by the Cav. d'Arpino; 
the roof by Crocc , the portrait of Martin V by 
Scipio Gaetani. 

In the chapel of the Presept the subjects are 
painted with much skill by Tromelta ; SS. Peter 
and Paul by d 1 Arpino; the monument to Car- 
dinal Rczzonico is by d Este. Two giallo antico 
fluted columns support the organ ; they are 40 
palms in height and are the first known of this 
kind of marble; the basilic also contains a paint- 
ing by Giotto represenling Boniface VIII pro- 
claiming the first Jubilee of the holy year in 1 300, 
it is on the wall behind the first large pilaster 
on the right of the chief entrance. 

The small semicircular nave behind the tri- 
bune was formerly an open portico built pro- 
bably by S. Leo 1; in it is preserved part of lb* 
table said to have been used at the last sapper 
of Christ and the apostles; the ancient tomb* 
arc those of Gio : Muti Papazzuri , Gabriel Fi- 
lippncci , executed by Gamelli and designed by 
Gostanzi; on the altar behind the tribune is an 
ancient crucifix and some statues on the side. 
Opposite are the tombs of Alessandro Galilei, of 


1 52 Third day 

the duchess of Ascoli who died in 1496 ; of Eli- 
sabeth Sforza; of the poet TeobaLdo ; of de-Rossi 
a Roman ; of Scannarolo wlio died in 1636 and 
finally two ancient mosaics. The ancient door lead- 
ing to the sacristy was placed here hy Celestin III 
in 1 1 96. Over the altar , under which arc the re- 
mains of Flavio Orsini a literary character of (ho 
XVI century is a painting of the « Assunta » by Ve- 
nusti, designed by Ruonaroti. The small picture 
of the Magdalen is of the old school; thai of (he 
Trinity by Ciampelli ; S. John led by the disci- 
ples to the care is by d' Arpiuo ; the vocation 
of the Apostles, unknown; the walls are lined 
with inscriptions to various Popes the benefact- 
ors of the basilic. 

In the sacristy of the canons are represented 
various acts of Pope S. Clement, painted by Ciam- 
pelli. Over the altar the Virgin and S. John 
of the old Florentine school; in the small sa- 
cristy to the left a picture by Malurino da Ca- 
ravaggio and a cartoon of a holy family attributed 
to Raphael; amongst other sacred vestments a 
cope of the V century is deserving of notice. 
Nearly opposite the palace is 


When Sixtus V rebuilt the Laforan palace 
and a part of the Triclinium ofS. Leo III which 
had not been injured in the conflagration of 
the ancient building the part extending to Ibis 
spot underwent no change. A portico was by 
the Pope's orders raised in front of the chapel 
by Uomenico Fontana with Jive stair cases, lea- 
ring in the middle the holy stair cose formed 


Third day 153 

of 28 marble sleps, formerly in the bouse of Pi- 
late, which bad been brought to Rome; this glair 
case is called holy from having been sanctifi- 
ed hj the blood of Christ who ascended and 
descended it several times at (he period of his 
passion -, it is therefore held in great veneration 
by the faithful who ascend it only on their knees 
and descend by the lateral stairs ; so great has 
been the concourse of christians to this spot 
that in the lapse of ages the steps sank, in and 
to prevent further degradation the whole was 
covered with wood which , for the same motive , 
has been frequently renewed. 

Within the chapel at the lop of the step* 
is a very ancient image of Ihe divine Saviour 
7 palms high which is held in great venera- 
tion. S. Leo placed under the altar a box of 
cypress containing three smaller ones filled with 
relics, and inscribed Sancta Sanctorum , an ap- 
pellation given to the chapel , which contains 
many other relics; a spot inspiring veneration and 

To the south of this sanctuary is a tribune 
to which Benedict XIV transferred the mosaics 
destined by Leo HI as an ornament to his tri- 
clinium in the Lateran palace; this monument 
was restored by Gamuccini and Valadier. The 
ancient arches on the piazza di S. Giovanni are 
rains of Nero's acqueducl which brought the acqua 
Claudia to the Celian hill. 


This gale was substituted by Gregory XIU 
to the ancient porta Asinaria which is closed. 


1S4 Third day 

It was so named from the Via Asinaria having 
been opened bj some person named Asinius. Tbe 
modern name is derived from (he basilic ; the 
architecture is by Giacomo delta Porta. It was 
through this gale , opened by the Isaurian mer- 
cenaries , that Totila , according to Procopius, 
entered Rome. At a distance of two miles the 
high road is intersected by the Via Latina along 
which are ruins of tombs one of which is well 
nreserrcd ; a little further on is a little temple 
supposed to have been erected to female For- 
tune on the retreat of Coriolanus which was res- 
tored by the younger Faustina ; but the style 
of building is not of that period , and the dis- 
tance from Rome does not correspond to that 
of this celebrated edifice which was situated near 
the hamlet called « Roma vecchia » on the via 
latina at the fourth mite from the ancient Ca- 

S;na gate where , according to the testimony of 
ionysius and other ancient writers, Coriolanus 
pitched his tents and yielded to the supplication* 
of his mother and wife. 

At a distance of 2 i/a miles is the « acqua 
sauta » , a spring of mineral water held in some 
estimation in cutaneous cases ; within the gate 
a road to the right under Ihe walls , fortified 
in (he V century , leads to the basilic of 


This church , one of the seven basilica of 
Rome , was built by S. Helena , Ihe mother of 
Conslanline, on the site of the Variant gardens, 
the residence of « us » and of "Alexan- 
der Sereruss his successor. The palace was cal- 


Third day <55 

led Sessortum , and the basilic Seitoriana. S. 
Helena having deposited here the third part of 
the holy cross which she had found at Jerusalem 
the church assumed the deoomiuatioo of Santa 
Croce in Gerusalemme. It was consecrated by 
Pope S. Silvester and restored at various pe- 
riods by other Popes ; Lucius II rebuilt it in 
1 1 44 ; Pins IV granted it to the cistertian monks 
of the congregation of Lombardy. It was resto- 
red by Benedict XIV who built the facade and 
portico, supported by pilasters and columns, tout 
of which are granite. 

The interior is composed of three naves 
divided by pilasters and by eight large egyptian 
granite columns ; the high altar is isolated; the 
■ baldacchino » supported by four fine breccia 
cor all in a columns. Under the altar a basaltic 
urn with four lions' heads contains the bodies 
of the martyrs S. Cesarius and Anastasius; the 
frescoes over the tribune are by Pinturicchio , 
those in the subterranean chapel dedicated to 
S. Helena by Pomarancio , the mosaics by Pe- 
ruzzi. At the entrance to the chapel is an an- 
cient inscription in honour of S. Helena. 

In the next chapel is a Pieta in marble ; 
the paintings on the roof are by Nappiand Nanni; 
the library of the monastery contains several 
manuscripts and various pictures that were once 
in the basilic; a statue of Benedict XIV by Map- 
chionni and paintings by Pannini;a small picture 
of the Virgin, the child and S. Joseph by Mancini. 
la the vineyard marked N. XI to the right of 
this church are remains of 


Third day 

It is slated by Frontinus that the arches of 
Nero began ad spetn veterem a spot probably 
so called from some monument erected to Hope 
in ancient times. In the quarter ad spem vete- 
rem Lampridius , who wrote the lives of Helio- 
gabalns, and Alexander Severus, places the «horti 
Variant » so called from the family name of 
Heliogabalus , the son of Sextos Varius Mar- 
cellus ; as the arches of Nero begin in the vine- 
yard annexed to the Santa Croce basilic , the 
site of the ad spem veterem is evident, and con- 
sequently we most recognize as ruins of the Va- 
riani palace ail those existing both in this villa 
and in the adjoining villa Conti now without 
the walls ; nor is the style of building opposed 
to this supposition as it evidently is not anterior 
to the times of Garacalla , the repnted father 
of Heliogabalus. In the garden is the ruin of an 
absb which , from its size , must have belonged 
to some large edifice ; of this absis nothing re- 
mains but the large niche and portions of the 
lateral walls the remainder having been demol- 
ished to provide materials for the facade of 
the basilic. 

This ruin was supposed to have been the 
temple of « Venus and Cupid » a statue of a 
female with a boy at her feet having been found 
here which is now in the Vatican Museum ; 
but it has been ascertained to be the portrait 
of the wife of Alexander Severus and the stylo 
of building is very different from that of a tem- 
ple ; it was rather a hall or a basilic, such per- 
haps was the Seuorium which the ecclesiastic 


Third day 1 57 

writers and the scholiast of Horace placi in lliis 
direction , nor are the arguments adduced suf- 
ficient to prove that this was the lemptc of Ve- 
nus and Cupid. 

Near it is a tine remnant of the Claurtiuu 
acqueduct communicating with the porta Mng- 
giore; the Nerouian acqueduct of a very line 
construction branches oil' at (his point and con- 
voys a part of the acqoa Claudia lo the Celiau 
bill. In the Villa marked N. XIV are the ruins 
of (he 

From what remains of lliis amphitheatre it 
is evident that the exterior was composed of a 
double row of columns , one half corinthian , 
the other corinthian pilasters. In the origin it 
was out of the walls of Servius Tuiiius hut 
was enclosed when the arches were filled up 
under the Emperor Honorius. The exterior is 
visible when going out of the porta S. Giovanni, 
the style of the columns proves that the con- 
struction is of the first century of the christian 
era ; of the first row nothing now remains hut 
a pilaster and part of an arch \ the amphithe- 
atre was called « Castrense * from the martial 
exercises , the combats of the soldiers against 
wild beasts , and the military games practised 
within the precincts. In the excavations made in 
the arena, the bones of huge animals were found 
together with an Egyptian statue inscribed with 

Beyond the walls and in the vicinity of tbe 
amphitheatre and Claudian acqueduct was a cir- 


15S Third day 

cus, probably that of Heliogabalus on which w« 
found the obelisk now erected on the Pincian 

Between the amphitheatre and the porta 
Maggiore was the Vivarium , a square building 
used for the wild beasts destined for the public 
games. It appears by the ancient inscriptions that 
the Vivarium was entrusted to the care of the 
l*retorian guards. 

The first road to the right of the Santa 
Croce basilic, passing under the fine arches of 
the Neronian acqueduct, leads to the 


As it was customary among the ancients to 
give an imposing aspect to those parts of the 
acqueducts which crossed the public roads, the 
Emperor Claudius raised at this spot a building 
in the form of a triumphal arch. It has three 
inscriptions : the first « that this great work was 
,» completed by the Emperor Tiberias Claudius 
» the sou of ibrusus , who, by means of two 
» separate channels , brought to Rome the acqua 
» Claudia derived from the Ccrulian springs , 
.» from the Curtia , and that called the Anio 
» novus ». The second inscription records the 
» restoration of the acqueduct by Titus » , the 
third that of Vespasian ; the city walls having 
been enlarged by Honorius, this building served 
to establish the Prenestine and Labican gates so 
named from the respective roads ; on the La- 
bican gate now closed was the inscription * that 
» in 502 Honorius repaired the walls ». The Prc- 
uesline which remains open was called Porta 


Third day 159 

Msggiore either from its being stronger than the 
others, or from its leading to S, Maria Maggioro 
the gate having been so called in the lower ages. 

The monument of the acqua Claudia is one 
of the Guest of ancient Rome. It is composed 
of large blocks of travertine andpeperino united 
without cement , supported by two large arches 
in which the gales were placed. It was very 
solid bat was weakened by the opening made by 
Sistus V for the passage of the « acqua Felice ■ ; 
in (he early ages this monument was disfigured 
by numerous buildings which of late years have 
been cleared away. On this occasion an ancient 
sepulchre was found within the wall of a tower; 
it belongs to the latter times of the republic 
and bears an inscription to Marcus Yirgilius Eu- 
rysaces a bread contractor. Many fragments found 
at (he same time are placed on the right side 
of the gale. The arches on the left were' chan- 
nels of the Julia, the Tepula, the Marcia waters; 
a few feet distant and on a level with the ground 
is that of (be « Anio vc(us » brought to Rome 
by Curius Dentatus and so called to distinguish 
it from that of Claudius. 

Of' these six acqueducts (he Anio Novus was 
the largest; it began at a distance of 43 miles 
from Rome ; its course was 62 miles. 

The Claudia on a lower level was formed 
of the Cerulea and Curtia springs , 3S miles 
distant and having a course of 45; both were made 
by Claudius who followed out the project of 
Caligula his predecessor. 

The Julia built by Agrippa in (he year 
70S of Rome under his edileship was inferior 
in level only (o the « Anio vetus » and the " Clau- 


16Q Third Jay 

dia -. It began 12 miles from Rome a couple 
of miles distant from ihe via Latioa near ihe 
modern « ponte do' squarciarelli » and had a 
course of 1 5 miles. Two miles distant from the Ju- 
lia were the Tepnla springs brought to Rome by 
Gnaeos Servilius Cepio and Lucius Gassius Lon- 
giuus in the year of the city 627. 

On a lower level was the Marcia which com- 
menced 33 miles from Rome with a course of 
60 miles; it was tbe most salubrious of all Ihe 
waters and was conveyed (o the city in the year 
608 by the praetor Q. Marcius Re. 

Ihe Anio veins acquednct was constructed 
in the year of the city 482 by Manlius Ciirius 
Dentatus who did not live to see it completed. 
Its course was 43 miles ; it brought the waters 
of the Aoio from a distance of 20 miles; accor- 
ding to Frontinns it was erected with the spoils 
of Pyrrhus king of Macedon which added to 
its interest. Its direction near the walls could 
still be traced in 1834 but these venerable 
ruins have disappeared through the ignorance 
of those who preside over these works, a loss 
still more to be regretted as it was ail that 
remained of Ibis acqueduct near Rome. Three 
roads branch off from the porta Maggiore, the 
one to the right follows the line of the 


This road led to Labicura, a town ofLatium 
mentioned by Livy and by Virgil the position of 
which corresponds to the modern village called 
Colonna, A mile aad half on the right of the 
gate are ruins of an ancient acqueduct which , 


Third day 161 

from Ihe style and direction , are ascertained 
lo be the acqueduct of ibe « Acqua Alexandri- 
aa » ; ibis water, coinciding with the present 
acqua Felice , was brought to Rome hy Alexander 
Sever us for the use of bis thermte and of the 
Variani gardens ■, Ihe spring is at the XIII mile 
from Rome about a mile lo the left of the road 
where a part of the ancient acqueduct is still 
visible ; the acqua Felice has been placed on 
a higher level and three other springs have 
been added to it comprizing that of the Pan- 
tanelle hills near Golonna. At the distance of 
about another mile , at ihe place called « Tor 
Pignatf ara » , are ruins near the road all de- 
cayed excepting those of Ihe mausoleum of S. 
Helena in which stands the little church of SS. 
Peter and Marcellinus , built by Clement XI to 
perpetuate the memory of the ancient basilic de- 
dicated to those saints in the environs of the 
Mausoleum ; ihe fine porphyry urn in ihe Va- 
tican museum, known under the name of S. He- 
lena's tomb, was found in these ruins. At the 
end of the forty ninth step are ancient cata- 
combs the burial place of these f wo saints which 
also contain a small chapel with funeral in- 
scriptions relative to the Equites Stngulares , a 
choice troop in Ihe times of the Emperors; some 
are on the walls of the mausoleum and of the 
church , and having been found in the environs 
ibis was probably their place .of sepulture as 
Ihe Gelian is supposed to have been that of their 
residence. Returning to the porta Maggiore the 
road to the left of Ihe via Labicana joins the 

11 " 


1 62 Third day 


This road , called the Gabina in Livy , «S 
it led both to Gabii and to Prencsle ( now 
Palcstrina ) commenced , like the Labicana , at 
the Esquiline gate of Servins , near the arch of 
Gallicnusi about three miles distant are the ruins 
of the villa that belonged to the Gordians which , 
according to the Augustan history , was de- 
corated with porticoes , basilica , and ther- 
mae. Many of the ruins are still visible: reser- 
voirs for walcr,two bathing rooms half destroyed 
one still preserving some stucco ornaments , 
a temple with a round cella now called « Tor 
de , Schiavi ». It seems to* have been both a tem- 
ple and a mausoleum destined for the sepulture 
of the members of the Gordian family. The third 
road on quitting the porta Maggiore lo the left 
of the Prenestina way leads to the 


On the spot called Campo Verano was a 
cemetery belonging lo S. Giriaca , a Roman Ma- 
tron , on which Cooslantine is said to have built 
this church in 330; it was rebuilt by Pelagius 
II, and under Honorius III about 1214 it was 
extended from the present door lo Ihe confes- 
sional when the level of the church built by 
Pelagius 11 was raised and formed into a presby- 
tery closing the primitive door which was tur- 
ned to the east , the modern door being towards 
the west. After many restorations in the XV 
and XVI centuries, in 1647 it assumed its pre- 
sent form. It is one of the seven basilica of Rome; 


Third da*} 163 

the portico is decorated with six antique co- 
lumns of the period of decay , with frescoes of 
sundry deeds of S. Lorenzo the martyr , and 
of Pope Honorius III who crowned in ibis church 
Pierre de Courtenay Count d' Auxerre and Em- 
peror of Constantinople, when he passed through 
Borne to take possession of the empire in 1216. 
The interior is divided into three naves se- 
parated by 22 columns the greater part of oriental 
granite ; this part was added by Honorius HI. 
Near the great door is an antique sarcophagus 
with a bas relief representing a Roman mar- 
riage now the tomb of Cardinal Ficschi. In the 
middle nare are two marble pulpits called in 
latin Ambones used , like that in the church 
of S. Clemeute , for chaunling the gospels and 
the epistles ; in the tribune, which is the church 
built by Pelagius II is an ancient pontifical 
chair covered with mosaic figures; in this tri- 
bune are twelve antique fluted columns ofpa- 
vonazzetto marble the greater part of which 
have remained under ground since the elevation 
of the pavement under Honorius III; the capi- 
tals are corinlhian and support a large corniee 
formed of pieces all of a different kind of line 
ornaments. Upon the cornice are twelve smaller 
columns ten of pavonazzello and two of green 
porphyry , behind the tribune is a sarcophagus 
of the lower ages with figures of Bacchanalian 

The high altar is isolated , the marble hal- 
dacchino supported by four porphyry columns. 
Under this altar is a chapel called the confessional 
of S. Lorenzo in which the body of this saint is 


1 6 1 Third day 

preserved with lhat of the ptotolflarlyr S. Ste- 

Near (he small oave to the left in the sub- 
terranean chapel which enjoys many indulgences 
arc two monuments designed by Pielro da Corto-' 
na, and the bust of Guglielmi by Duquesnoy, 
the Iteming. This chapel leads to the catacombs 
of S. Ciriaca. 

Adjoining the basilic is the great cemetery 
of modern Rome which was consecrated by (be 
Cardinal Vicar in 1834; it contains some fine 
monuments. Returning into the city by the Ti- 
burline way , at the distance of half a mile is the 


The inscription over the gate states lhat 
it was built by the Emperor Uonorius in tbo 
year 402 and was called « Tiburlina » from 
the Tivoli road; it was also called * Collalina», 
i from « Collatia » now « Castel dell' Osa » the 
i residence of Collalinus where Lucretia died , 
now Porta S. Lorenzo from the name of the 
Basilic It stands against the monument of this 
Marcia , the Tepula , and the Julia 
cls ; the inscriptions allude to the restorations 
made by Caracalla. Sixtus V profited of ibis 
arch for the conveyance of 'the Acqua Felice to 
the fountain at Termini; the road to the left wi- 
thin the walls leads to the church of S. Biiiiana , 
near which , in a vineyard to the right marked 
number I is the pretended temple of 


Third day 

The term « Galluzzc » applied to Litis quar- 
ter led some writers of the XVI century to suppose 
■bat this edifice was the basilic of Cuius and 
Lucius raised by Augustus ; others for the same 
reason tbat il was the temple of Hercules Cnl- 
Laicus founded by Brutus. After the discovery 
of the fine statue of Minerva with a serpent at 
her feet, (now in thenuorobraccioof the Vatican 
Museum) it was supposed to be the temple of 
■ Minerva Medica » , cited by the Regionarii ; 
the form is not that of a temple but rather 
of a hall , and the construction corresponding 
with the epoch of Diocletian it probably formed 
part of a building erected in the gardens of 
Licinius which were in this direction. The ser- 

Ssnt at the feet of Minerva has no relation to me- 
icine being particularly sacred to that goddess, 
as the eagle to Jupiter and the griffin to Apollo 
as the tutelary gods of cities ; the •> Minerva Po- 
lias» of Athens; « the Minerva of the Parthe- 
non » , were represented by Phidias with the ser- 
pent at their feet ; thus H cannot be pretended 
that these statues were representations of mo- 
dicine , nor were any of the kind found in these 
rains , with the exception of an EscoLapius , to 
which the term could be applied ; it may then 
ha concluded that the Minerva in question merely 
served as an ornament to the Liciaian palace. 

The edifice is of the decagon form ; tlut 
distance between the two angles being 33 palms 
the circumference was 330 ; it had ten windows 
and nine niches for statues , the tenth niche for- 
nting the door. Besides (be "Minerva* and r &- 


166 Third day 

culapius » the statues of Pomona , Venus , Faun, 
Hercules , Anti-nous together with other marble 
works found in these ruins , arc proofe of the 
magnificence of this edifice which offers on all 
«ides picturesque points of view. 

Between these ruins and the porta Maggiore 
•re two Golombari one of Lucius Aruntius , con- 
ml under Augustus , who built it for his freed- 
tnen ; his name is over the entrance. It cod- 
■ists of two small rooms now underground, one 
with small cinerary urns , the other with soma 
paintings and stucco ornaments. 

The second columbarium , a single room , 
was destined for sundry plebeian families* Near 
the peasant's house in the vineyard are remains 
of a reservoir which probably belonged to tW 
Claudia or to the Ankt Nuovo waters j a few 
steps te the. left is the 

cavitCH of i. BiBtAVJi 

• On tbis spot, anciently called « ad ursum 
Pileatuni » , Olytupia a Roman matron is said 
to have built this church in 336 which was con- 
secrated by Pope S. SimpHcius in honour of S. 
Bibiana who had resided in the palace. It was 
restored by Hoaorius III is 1224; the facade 
by Berniui and the paintings were added by 
Urban VIII. The three naves are separated by 
eight antique columns sis. of which are of gra- 
nite ; the frescoes in the middle nave represent 
the history of S. Bibiana , those to the right arts. 
by Giampelli, to the left by Pietro da Cortona; 
the latter have been restored by Camuccini. Over 
the high altar is the statue of S. Bibiana one of 


Third day 163 

[be best works of Bernini and under the altar 
a valuable antique urn of oriental alabaster con- 
tains the remains of SS. fiibiaaa , Demelria 
and Dafrosa their mother , all three martyrs. 
On the road to the west are ruins of an arch of 
the acqueduct which conveyed water to a large 
fountain now called the 


'■' — Although many antiquaries bare supposed 
that this monument belonged to the acqua Marcia 
the observations of Piranesi have proved that 
its level can only be attributed lo the acqua 
Julia ; by recent discoveries it would appear that 
instead of having been a reservoir it was a large 
fonnlaiu that furnished water to this part of the 
city. As already staled it was brought to Bom* 
by Marcus Agrippa who profited of the arches 
of the Acqua Marcia. 

The building was known under the name 
of the « Trophies of Harius » from the marble 
trophies found in its niches which are now on 
the balustrade of the Capitol. Though supposed 
to be raised to Marius iu commemoration of bis 
double victory over theCimbn and Teutons they 
seem , on an attentive examination of the sty- 
le , execution and construction of the building, 
lo be coeval with Septimins Severus who restored 
the acqucducts and other ancient monuments. 

This fountain forms the original section of 
the Labicana and Prenestina ways which passed 
through the Esquiline gate of Servius near the 
gardens of Mecsnas and of Lamia. On the site 
of the Esquiline gate is the 


168 Third day 


Erected , as seen by ihe original inscription 
in honour of the Emperor Gallienus and bis wife 
Salonina by Marcus Aurelius Victor. 

This arch bad four pilasters with a double 
buttress formed of large travertine blocks of a 
middling style of architecture. Till lately part 
of a chain was suspended to (he arch with the keys 
of the Porta Salsicchia of Viterbo captured by 
the Romans in the XIII century; the inscription 
is as follows : 







Near this arch is tbe church of S. Vilo in 
« Macello » so called from (he Liviaoum fish 
and meat market near which site it stands; tbe 
word «Macelio» added to the name of (he church 
gave rise lo the opinion that the martyrs were 
put to death here , and it is sometimes called 
« Macello Marlyrum ». 


Is said to be buill on the bouse of the saint 
to whom it is dedicated in which the Emperor 
Constanlius died of hunger. It was already ti- 
tular under Constaotine the great; the painting 
ou the roof representing S. Euseuius surrounded 


,. Google 


Third day f69 

by angels is one of the best works of Mengs ; 
the high altar is by Onorio Lunghh, the paint- 
ing by Croce. Leo XII granted the church with 
the house annexed to the Jesuits. 

In the gardens were found rooms with paint- 
ings of a good style and a spiral alabaster 
column now in the Vatican library. 

Near it is a kind of granite column sur- 
mounted with the cross and figure of the Ma- 
donna , a monument erected, in 159$ by Cle- 
ment VIII in memory of the absolution given to 
Henry IV king of France; 

The church of S. Antonio Abate is said to 
be built on the ruins of a temple of Diana or 
on the basilic of. Sicinius. 

On the piazza-S. Maria Maggiore is a white 
fluted corinlhian column taken from the prin- 
cipal nave of Constant ine's basilic ; it is 24 palms 
in circumference and 64 in height without the 
pedestal and capital. It was raised here in 1614 
by Paul V under the direction of Carlo Mader- 
no ; the bronze gilt statue of the Madonna on 
the top was modelled Ivy Barlholot. 

This church is on the part of the Esquiliuc 
called CUpius not far from the ruins of the tem- 
ple of Juno Lucina. It was built about the year 
352 under the pontificate of S. Liberius in con- 
sequence o* a vision that he and John the Pa- 
trician had the same nighi and which was con- 
firmed the following morning, the 5 August, by 
a miraculous fall of snow which extended over the 
space the church was to occupy; for this reason it 


170 Third day 

was called & S. Maria ad Nives » and Basilica 1 
Liberiana. It is now named S. Maria Maggiore 
from being the principal church dedicated to 
the most holy Virgin , and is one of the four 
basilics having the porta sanla; it is served by 
a chapter of canons the chief of whom is always 
a Cardinal. 

It was enlarged by S. Sixtns III in 432 , 
restored and embellished by sundry Popes, par- 
ticularly by Benedict XIV who decorated it with 
marbles , stuccoes and a facade which has two 
rows of columns jonic and Corinthian, a double 
portico and several statues in travertine: the low- 
er portico is formed of eight granite columns, 
various pilasters of white marble, four bas re- 
liefs , a bronze statue by Lucenti of Philip IV 
king of Spain , a benefactor of the basilic. In 
the upper portico is the loggia for the Papal 
benedictions containing the mosaic of the for- 
mer facade by Gaddo Gaddi, a contemporary of 

The interior is composed of three naves with 
36 fine jonic columns of white marble proba- 
bly taken from the temple of Juno , and four 
of granite supporting tne large arches of the 
principal nave. Near the entrance arc the tombs 
of Clement VII by Guidi and of Nicholas IV by 
Leonardo of Sarzana. 

The baptismal font has been embellished 
by Leo XII ; its principal ornament is the fine 
antique porphyry vase which was formerly ia 
the Museum at the Vatican. 

The cbapet of the holy sacrament , built 
by Sixtns V on the designs of Fontana, is lined 
with line marbles and decorated with paintings 


Third day 171 

and coriathian pilasters. On the right is the 
tomb of Sixtns V with his statue bj Valsoldo; 
it has four verde antico columns , various bas 
reliefs, a statue of S. Francis by Flaminio Vacca, 
one of S. Anthony of Padua by Olivieri. 

Opposite is the tomb of Pius V whose re- 
mains are preserved in a fine verd' antico urn , 
adorned with gilt bronze ; the tomb is decora- 
ted with columns , bas reliefs and marble statues; 
that of Pius V is by Leonardo of Sarzana. 

In the centre of the chapel is the altar of 
the sacrament with a tabernacle supported by 
four angels of gilt bronze. Beneath it is the al- 
tar dedicated to the nativity of the Redeemer , 
containing the objects in which he was wrapt up 
in the stable. The paintings in the chapel are 
by Pozzo , Ercolino, Arringo, Nogara, Andrea 
of Ancona , Nebbia , the sacristy contains some 
landscapes by Paul Brill. 

The high altar is isolated and formed of 
a large porphyry am covered with a marble slab 
and supported by four angels in gilt bronze. Over 
the altar is a baldacchino placed. by Benedict 
XIV resting on four porphyry corihthian columns; 
the angels abore are by Bracci ; the painting at 
the end of the tribune by Hancini; the mosaics 
are by fra Giacinto of the lime of Nicholas IV; 
those over the arch and above the columns of 
the large nave, which represent various passages 
of the old testament and some actions of the 
Madonna, are works of the year 434 under S. 
Sixtns III. 

Opposite the chapel of the sacrament is tbe 
one dedicated to the Madonna, and built by Paul V 
of the Borghese family , on tbe designs of Fla- 


172 Third day 

minio Ponzio. It is of the corinthian order , li- 
ned with line marbles , and filled with good 
pictures. The lomb of Paul V supports a statue of 
that pontiff by Silla ; the has relief Lo the right 
is hy Stefano .Under no , the one to the left by 
BaoDvicino ; the centre one above .by Buzj; the 
one to the right Valsoldb , the one to the left 
by Stali. In the niches are the statues of S. 
Basil and of S. David , by Cordieri. 

The tomb opposite is that of Clement VIII 
Atdobrandiiii ; the statue by Silla, the bas reliefs 
by Buonvicino, Mochi , Buzi and Pielro Bernini. 
In the niches arc the statues of Aaron and S. 
Bernard by Cordieri. 

The altar of the Madonna is decorated with 
four fluted columns of oriental jasper ; the base 
and capitals in gilt bronze support a cornice 
with a rich agath frieze , the pedestals of the co- 
lumns are also of agath; in the centre, on a 
ground of lapis lazzuli , is an ancient image of 
the Virgin enclosed with precious stones , and 
supported by four angels of gilt bronze repre- 
senting the miraculous snow ; the paintings are 
by d' Arpino; those of the cupola hy Civoli , those 
near the windows over the tombs and upper ar- 
ches are by Guido Reni. 

The adjoining sacristy was built by Flaminio 
Ponzio , .the paintings are by Passignani. The 
chapel is under the patronage of the Borghese 
family and the service is performed by a college 
of chaplains. 

The first cbapel in the right nave is that of 
the «Patrizi » the basilic having been founded by 
Giovanni Patrizio ; the picture representing his 
dream is by Baslaro ; the holy family by Ma-= 


Third day 173 

socci ; the Beato Albergati by Pozzi ; the an- 
nunciation by Battoni. Near the crucifix are 
ten porphyry columns and pilasters ; this cha- 
pel contains the holy cradle , consisting of five 
boards which formed part of the Presepio' in 
which the infant Jesus was deposited ; this 
precious relic is enclosed in a fine silver urn , 
substituted in the present century to the an- 
cient urn which had been given in 1606 by 
Margaret of Austria , the wife of Philip III 
of Spain. Near this chapel was buried in 1 590 
the painter Muziano over whose tomb was 
placed the picture representing the resurrection 
of Lazzarus , now in the Vatican. 

At the end of the nave is the lomb of Car- 
dinal Gonsalvo who died in 1299 and his re- 
cumbent statue , the ancient mosaic above by 
Cositnali represents the Madonna, S. Matthias 
and S. lerome. 

In the opposite nave are the tombs of Mer- 
lini by Borromini and of Platina the biogra- 
pher of the Popes. 

In the left nave the first chapel is that of 
Sforza , by Buonaroli , now used as the choir. 
The assumption and portraits are by Sermoneta, 
the other paintings by Nebbia ; S. Francis by 
Pfacido Gostanzi , the Virgin and S. Leo by Cec- 
carini, the altar piece by Sermoneta represents 
the martyrdom of S. Lucia ; the marriage of S. 
Catherine is by Cessi ; SS. Peter and Paul by 
Novarra ; the dispute by Canini. On the tombs 
of cardinals Gessi are two fine urns of paragone 
marble , the bronze recumbent statues were mo- 
delled by Guglielmo della Porta. At the bot- 
tom of the nave the tomb of Monsignor Favo- 
12 * 


1 74 Third day 

rili is by Gcmignani, the slatucs by dirc.nm, the 
busls near the tomb of Scgardi arc by Algardi; 
above is the mausoleum of cardinal Toledo, the 
paintings in the nave over tbe mosaics are by 
Ferracc, Croce, Salimbcni, Ricci, Andrea d* Au- 
cona and Gcnlileschi. 

The facade behind the tribune ordered by 
Clement IX and Clement X is by Carlo Rainal- 
di. On the piazza stands an Egyptian obelisk said 
to have been brought to Rome by tbe Emperor 
Claudius ; this obelisk and that of Monte Cavallo 
were placed before the Mausoleum of Augustus; 
Six t us V under the direction of Fontana erected 
the latter which is of red granite , without hie- 
roglyphics , 66 palms high without the pedeslal 
which is 30. 


Built in 882 by S. Paschal I , restored 
and embellished by S. Carlo Borromco ; it has 
three naves divided by 26 granite columns ; (he 
high altar is isolated and decorated with a baU 
dacchino supported by four porphyry columns; 
i he ascent to the tribune is by a double stair- 
case the steps of which arc of rosso antico; the 
blocks arc the largest known of this quality of 
marble; the most remarkable chapel is the one 
over the altar on which is a large remnant of a 
column bronght from Jerusalem to Rome iu 1223 
by Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, on which it is sup- 
posed that our divine Redeemer was bound and 
flagellated ; the well situated in the middle of the 
great nave is the same in which S. Prassede col- 
lected the blood of tbe holy martyrs. Id the sa- 


Third day 175 

cristy is a fine picture by Gialro Romano repre- 
senting Christ at (he column-, this church is of- 
ficiated by the monks of Vallombrosa, 

]& the presbytery are two small choirs ; 
under (he great arch six tine fluted columns of 
white marble; in the tribune the mosaics are of the 
IX century of the lime of Paschal I; the mosaic 
under the arch represents the holy city with the 
elect and guarded by angels as described in the 
Apocalypse. Over the absis is the mystic lamb lo 
which the 24 ciders offer homage , on the absis 
the Saviour with several saints. The painting in 
the middle is by Dom. Muratori; under the altar 
is a small chapel containing many relics, amongst 
others the body of the titular saint , the angels 
at the ciborium are by Busponi , the paintings 
of the roof, representing the apostles Peter and 
Paul are by Bicchierai; it was erected by Pa- 
scal I in honour of S. Leo I , adorned on ad 
sides with rich mosaics which still exist and ce- 
lebrated by Iheir antiquity being of the year 
819. Over the altar on which are two fine 
columns of oriental alabaster is an ancient mosaic 
image of the Virgin. At a short distance from 
this church is that of 

>• It is said that at the time of Constantino 
Pope S. Silvester built a church on this spot over 
which Pope S. Sim mac us raised the present one 
abont the year 500, which was restored in 1650 
by Pietro da Cortona; it was further embellished 
at the end of the last century and is now one 
of the most elegant churches of Home. 


176 Third day 

It consists of three naves separated by 14 
antique eorinthian columns of different kinds of 
marble ; the landscapes on the walls of the small 
nave by Gaspard Poussin , the figures by Ni- 
cholas , are highly esteemed ; the two near the 
altar of S. Maddalena de* Pazzi were painted by 
Gio : Francesco Bolognese , and represent acts 
in the life of the prophet Elias from whom the 
carmelite order derives its origin. The chapel at 
the end of the lateral nave , dedicated to the 
Madonna del carmine, contains fine marbles and 
good paintings by Gavallacci who was buried 
near it; the high altar was painted by the same 

Some marble steps under the high altar 
lead to another altar under which are the bo dies 
of Popes S. Silvester, S. MarLino and other saints. 
This spot was ornamented wilh columns by Pietro 
da Gortona. The subterranean church is said to 
be the one founded by Constantiue , in which the 
council of Rome was held in 324. It consists of 
three naves ; the ground is paved with coarse 
while and black mosaics , over the altar is an 
image of the Madonna also in mosaic of the 
period of decay. 

Near the ancient church called « S. Lncia 
inselce » some steps to the left lead to the piazza 
delta Suburra , a name derived from the celebra- 
ted quarter of ancient Rome ; the long street 
to the right called the via Urbana agrees in all 
respects with the ancient Vicus Patricias between 
the Viminal and the Esquiline. At the left end 
of this street is 



Third day 177 

raff church of s. pi/dektijka 

It is said thai the house of S. Pudens a Roman 
senator stood on this spot and lhalin it he received 
S. Peter by whom he was converted to the faith 
together with his children Novatus, Timolheus, 
Pudenliana and Praxedes. Others with greater 
probability suppose that here were the thermos 
of Novatus, bnl what admits of no doubt is that 
the church is united to an extensive building 
of the first century of the empire as proved by 
the ruins in the court yard and under the church; 
it is also pretended that Pope Pius I in 164 
built here au oratory which subsequently became 
a church , was frequently restored and finally 
rebuilt by Cardinal Caetani , the titular , in 1 508, 
under the direction of Francesco da Volterra ; 
it is divided into three naves by 14 antique 
marble columns ; the altar piece representing S. 
Pudenliana is by Nocchi; the paintings on the 
roof by Poenarancio; in the chapel to the right 
of the high altar is the altar at which S. Peter 
is said to have celebrated mass ; the delivery of 
the keys by our Saviour to S. Peter is represented 
in marble by Gio: della Porta. The chapel of 
the Caetani family possesses fine marble columns 
and sculptures ; in the well before this chapel 
S. l'it don liana collected the blood of (be holy 
martyrs who, to the number of 3000 , were bu- 
ried in the church. 

Opposite is the BambinGesu a church erected 
by Clement XU together with the adjoining mo- 
nastery; it belongs to the nuns called of the Barn- 
bin Gesu , who direct the education of young 
girls , particularly for their first communion. 


178 Third day 

Returning to the piazza delta Saburra, and 

leaving to the right the via Leonina which leads 
to the Madonna de' Monti and is on (he line 
of the ancient Vices Ciprios , near the via S, 
Francesco di Paola is the church of S. Pietro 
in VJQcoli ; this ascent records one of the most 
atrocious historical deeds of Rome : the tarn of 
the via Leonina, or Vicus Ciprios, was the scene, 
according to Livy , of the execrable deed of 
Tullia who drove her car over the dead body 
of Servius Tullius her father. It was called the 
Virus tceltratut. 

s. pibteo IK rrrrcou. 

V This church was built about the year 442 
tinder the pontificate of S. Leo the great by Eu- 
doxia the wife of Valentinian III Emperor of 
the west to preserve the chain which bound the 
apostle S. Peter in the prison at Jerusalem. It 
was rebuilt by Adrian I and restored under Ju- 
lius II who granted it to the canons of the most 
holy Saviour to whom it still belongs. In 1 705 
It assumed its present form under tbe direction 
of Francesco Fontana. 

This fine church is composed of three naves 
supported by 20 antique fluted columns of the 
doric order each 1 palms in circumference ; two 
larger granite columns support the middle arch. 
Over the first altar to the right is a picture of 
S. Augustin by Guerciuo ; the tombs of cardinals 
Margolti and Agucci were designed by Domeni- 
chiuo who painted their portraits ; the S. Peter 
in prison over the next altar is a copy of the 


Third day 1 Jo 

■■me subject by Domeuichino which is preser- 
ved in the sacristy, 

la the transept is the tomb of Julias II de- 
signed by Michael Angelo Buonaroti and the 
statue of Moses , the master piece of that ce- 
lebrated artist , by Ibe grandeur of expression 
and the trath of its details. The prophet, of a 
colossal form , is seated ; under his right arm 
he holds the tables of the law , casts a haughty 
look on the people as if doubtful of their new 
and apparent resignation. The statues of the ni- 
ches were terminated after Buonaroti's death by 
his pupil Hafaelle di Montelupo. 

The S. Margaret over the altar in the fol- 
lowing chapel is a fine work by Guercino, The 
paintings at the end of the tribune are by Goppi 
a florentine; in the small nave is a 5. Sebastian 
in mosaic of the VIII century , with the costume of 
the time of Diocletian; over the last altar a Piela 
with the three Marys said to be by Pomarancio. The 
large picture on the ceiling is by Perodi , to the 
left of the principal entrance is the tomb of the 
Pollajoli , celebrated bronze artificers of the XV 
century ; near the high altar that olClovio a minia- 
ture painter of the XVI century whose works, or- 
dered by the Dukes of Urbino, are now in the 
Vatican library. 

In the sacristy is the fine picture of the li- 
beration of S. Peter by Domeuichino, possessing 
a surprizing effect of light. The altar in which 
the chain is deposited is a fine work of the XIV 
century; it contains many antique pavements 
from the 


1 SO Third day 


As the3e arc the first ruins of therms yet 
met with in oar itinerary, which constitute so 
interesting a part of Roman ruins , it may not 
be improper to premise by some general notions 
of these sumptuous edifices of ancient Rome. 

In the early times of the republic the Romans 
seem to have had no other baths than the waters of 
the Tiber ; by degrees baths were introduced into 
private bouses and the villas of great personages , 
but these consisted merely of a single room or cella 
if we may be guided by Seneca who describes 
that of Scipio in his villa at Liternum. The ther- 
mal, a word derived from thermos, a warm bath , 
introduced in (he latter times of the Republic, 
encreased considerably under the Emperors, and 
in the limes of Nero they became immense pa- 
laces uniting all that could afford exercise to 
the body and enjoyment to the mind. These edi- 
fices may be divided into two parts: that of 
the baths , that of the exercises : to the former 
belong the calidarium, tepidartum, frigidarium 
which are not to be confounded with the warm, 
tepid and cold bath ; these were called, catida, 
tiepida, frigida lavalto; by the calidarium was 
meant a place of perspiration called a\so .sudatio 
and laconicum , by the tepidartum a room ha- 
ving a tepid temperature , frigidarium a place 
exposed to the open air within the precincts 
of the therms ; these baths formed the Lava- 
Hones , a part of the thcrmse. Annexed to these 
were the apodyterium or dressing room; the elaa- 
thesium. or cella unguentaria , the rooms for 
perfumes and other bathing purposes. 


Third day 181 

In ilia part destined to exercise was the am- 
ftfjor area planted with trees and flowers, the 
stadium an open space in which were seals for 
the spectators wbere tbe people indulged in 
gymnastic exercises , racing , the pugilate , 
the discus and others; they contained the exe- 
dra or tables with marble seats , libraries for 
orators poets and philosophers where they read 
Ihcir works. The pinatotechce were decorated 
with objects of art where the artists exposed 
their works. This notice will suffice to give on 
idea of the uses to which the thermae wcro ap- 
plied, and the sort of edifices they were by their 
decoration; nothing could exceed their splendour; 
statues, columns, foreign and precious marbles, 
paintings , stuccoes, mosaics as seen by the ruins 
discovered up to this day. Although private and 
public baths were previously in use tbe Ibcrmau > 
were not known in Rome before Marcus Agrippa i 
who built one near tbe Pantheon some remains < 
of which, are still visible. According lo'Djo hj 
left these theruiEe with his extensive gardens to 
the people; ihe Laconiaum was for the. first lim.o 
introduced into Some by Agrippa. Nero follow- 
ing his example built new thermae in this vi- 
cinity on a larger and more splendid . scale as 
will be noticed hereafter. 

Titus, availing himself of that part of ilia 
Nero man palace which was near tbe amphithea- 
tre and which , according to Martial, contained 
the gardens , built his thermae on the Esquiliue 
using the substructions of Nero as a foundation 
in order to obtain a plain equal level ou tba 
upper part of lite hill. Although Trajan placed 
his thermae Dear those of Titus, they always rc- 


182 Third day 

raained distinct among the ancients as seen by the 
inscription of Orsus Togatna now in the sacristy 
of the Vatican; they might however be considered 
by their proiiinity as separate parts of (he same 
edifice and were probably provided with water 
by the same acqaeduct. 

The (berate of Trajan appear from the 
inscriptions found to have been situated be- 
tween S. Martino, S. Pietro in Vincoli and the 
setle sale. The thermae of Titus , as related 
by Svetonius and Martial, were bailt in a very 
short time; they were annexed to the palace in 
which, according to Pliny, the celebrated group 
of Laocoon was discovered under Julius II 
between the selte sale and S. Maria Maggiore 
in the villa de Fredis ; the fate of these ther- 
mal in the lower ages is uncertain ; they pro- 
bably served as a place of defence to some 
noble family of Rome perhaps the Conti. On 
the revival of letters and arts at the close of 
the XV century , these subterranean rooms 
were frequented by artists , amongst others by 
Raphael who derived from them (he fine orna- 
mental drawings we now admire in the Vati- 
can loggie, a tradition confirmed by contemporary 
accounts. That after having discovered these fine 
ornamental works he caused the rooms to be filled 
up and closed, is a calumny invented by those 
who sought to sally the fame of that immor- 
tal artist; it is in opposition to his character , his 
love of the arts and of antiquity. It is besides 
well known that the rooms were always ac- 
cessible after his death , in the time of Paul 
HI , in that of the Garacci , and in after times 
as proved by the inscriptions accompanied with 


Third day 1 83 

dates of the visitors of those days but subsequently 
they were forgotten. It was only in 1776 that 
they were reopened and excavated in pari by 
Mirri who published the plan and ornaments. 
The entrance was difficult , being through a 
narrow aperture and by torch light; the paintings 
being seen too near lost a part of their effect 
and were subjected to a continual decay from 
the indiscretion of visiters who carried away 
the best preserved pieces. These abuses were put 
a stop to in 1812 and 1 81 3 when many chambers 
were completely cleared and at present the tra- 
veller , the amateurs of fine art, of antiquity, 
can with every facilitv enjoy the original effect 
of these paintings which nave suffered more 
from the band of man than from the injuries 
of lime. 

A part of the edifice of Titos and the therms 
have perished ; a few walls alone remain in the 
adjoining grounds near the saltpetre works. A 
plan was published by Palladio when they were 
more perfect which has been rectified by the 
architect Ganina who found , amongst the un- 
known fragments of the Ichnography of Borne 
E reserved in the Capitoline Museum , the part 
ulnnging to these thermae; its analogy to these 
ruins was ascertained from the interior and 
the ontward enclosure being separated by an 
area. This area is recognised in the thermae of 
Caracalla and Diocletian, surpassing those of Titus 
in extent and preservation but not in taste. 
By means of the external lines it is easy to trace 
the position of the stadium, of the exedra , or 
tables surrounded by seats and other divisions 
of the interior, a large pile in the great hall , 


184 Third day 

the southern court yard, tho chambers on the 
line of the stadium. The partition walls hare 
been strip! of their ornaments but the con- 
struction of the whole edifice is grand and 

Far more interesting are the walls on -which 
arc paintings; these, in the origin, formed part 
of tlie constructions of Nero and were covered 
with ornaments , but the rooms not being suf- 
ficiently completed to serve as baths , Titus 
stript them of their marbles aud decorations , 
filled up the empty parts, raised in some spots 
the soil and added to their solidity by means 
of the materials which still obstruct them; this 
may explain their present state of obscurity ; 
though the foundations are tilled up the vaults 
are intact ; no paintings are found at Ibe right 
angles or on the axis of the upper building. 
The rooms discovered . in the late excavations 
are without marbles, while amongst the male- 
rials no object worthy of observation has been 
found , either in the rooms designated by Mirri 
or in the long cripto portico. A small staircase 
leads to these rooms; it is situated in the area 
of the stadium, and can be reached by the road 
to the left of the amphitheatre erroneously called 
via Labicana. Tbc first object presented to the 
sight is the fabric of Titus supporting the Ne~ 
ronian walls which give to the upper area the 
form of a semicircle. In one of the passages 
formed by these separate constructions, all the 
fragments found in recent excavations were uni- 
ted , with the exception of a small slatne of 
Pluto which is now in (he Gapitolioe museum; 
these buildings of tbe semicircle do not meet 


Third day 185 

the primitive fabric at right angles, nor do they 
unite , being of a different construction ; nor 
were they ever ornamented or covered with 
stucco, an evident proof that they are posterior 
to tbe limes of Nero and that they served in 
(be upper part of the edifice to the style of 
which they correspond. 

To the left of these ruins [is a chapel de- 
dicated to S. Felicita founded in the VI century 
within one of the ancient chambers. Near it is 
the original entrance to the Thermae of Nero 
containing paintings and other objects worthy 
of the attention of amateurs. The part of the 
Neronian palace hitherto brought to light is , 
by its state of preservation, the only monument 
that conveys an idea of (he disposition, the de- 
corations, the splendour of ancient Roman houses 
of (he period preceding the decay. A plan and 
a description of these subterranean chambers was 
lately published with plates by the architect An- 
tonio Dc Romauis *, it is one of the most inte- 
resting works published of late years on roman 
antiquities. To these ihermte belongs the large 
reservoir called. 



;/ This edifice, of the class of those called by 
the ancients « Piscine, » seemi to be anterior 
to (be baths of Titus , not being on the same 
axis but added subsequently. It consists of two 
siories the first of which is still underground; 
the upper part is divided into nine ^chambers. 
It probably derived Us appellation from being 
situated in the quarter called by the ancients 


186 Third day 

septisolium ; another tradition attributes this ap- 
pellation to tbe number of chambers being ori- 
ginally seven. The construction is very solid , 
the pavement and walls are of a fine terra cotta 
work strengthened by what the ancients called 
the opus signinum adapted to tbe parts of the 
edifice in contact -with water, and in some parts 
a deposit formed by water is visible and has 
the hardness of stone. The communications bet- 
ween the passages are by a diagonal line that 
the vacuum should not affect the strength of the 
walls. Each passage is 17 1/a by 12 palms in 
breadth ; the lengths are unequal; the middle 
passage is 54 palms long , the others decrease 

On the via del Golosseo is the small church 
of S. Andrea in Portogallo, a word said to be 
derived from the ancient street denominated ad 
busta gallica from the funeral piles on which 
tbe bodies of the Gauls were burnt after the 
victory of Camillas. It is certain that in this 
direction was the street called Carina , one of 
the most celebrated of ancient Rome, so called 
from its shape resembling tbe keel of a ship ; 
of this street a slight record remains in the little 
church of S. Maria in carinis. After this church 
is the piazza dclle carretle and the Conti tower 
built under Innocent III in 1 207 over the ruins 
of the temple of Tellus near which stood the 
house of Pompey. On the « piazza delle colon- 
nacce » are the ruins of the 


Third day 183 




ll is stated by Syetonius that a forum near 
that of Csesar was begun by Domitian and de- 
dicated to Pallas bis tutelar deity , that it was 
finished by Nerva from whom it derived its ap- 
pellation. It was also called transitorium by Lam- 
pridius , pervtum by Aurelius Victor, as it served 
as a passage lo the fori of Augustus, of Ctesar, 
of Trajan between which it was situated , or 
rawer from its position near the lower part of 
the city, the Viminal the Qairinal and the Es- 
quiline hills. It was here that Alexander Severus 
pnt to death, by means of the smoke of straw 
and damp wood , one of his favorite courtiers 
named * Velronius Turrinus », condemned as a 
vile adulator who received presents for situations 
he promised in the name of his sovereign; the 
sentence was carried into esecntion amidst the 
cries of Fumo punitur qui vendidit fumum. 

The two columns still existing, called er- 
roneously the ruins of the temple of Pallas, be- 
longed to the enclosure of the forum. The figure 
of Minerva and the bas reliefs still visible on 
the frieze allude to the goddess to whom the 
whole forum was dedicated. These works are 
of the finest execution though not of the purest 
taste and are half underground , the two co- 
lumns that remain are fluted corinthian 14 
palms in circumference and 42 in height ; the 
cornice is richly ornamented, the bas relief of 
tbe frieze of a fine style of composition and 
exquisite execution represent the arts of Pallas 


1S8 Third day 

whose statue is placed in semirilicvo over the 

The temple of Pallas was in the middle of 
the forum towards the west near Ihecharcbof 
S. Agatha. Of this temple seven large fluted co- 
lumns existed in the time of Paul V, together 
with a magnificent cornice bearing the name of 
Nerva who had dedicated it, as seen by various 
old engravings, but Paul V ordered the whole 
to be demolished to provide marbles for his largo 
fountain on the Janiculum, that of S. Pielro in 

The external wall of this forum is remark- 
able for its height and for being composed, 
like other ancient edifices of the kind, of blocks 
of albau stone called peperiuo, united without 
cement and with hinges of wood; the solidity of 
the construction, the direction forming various 
auglcs never connected with the internal edi- 
fices , are sufficient argnmenls to belcive (hat 
it is anterior to Domitian by many centuries , 
and that he and his successors only profited of 
il as a- support to their fabrics. The street to the 
right of this temple leads to the arco dc Pan- 
tani under which are the ruins of 


.; By the testimony of the younger Pliny this 
temple was consecrated by Trajan (o the me- 
mory of Nerva , his adoptive father , and was 
one of the most elegant and most splendid edi- 
fices of ancient Borne, by its incomparable ma- 
gnificence, its excellent style of architecture, and 
tbe splendour of its ornaments. The facade con* 




Third day 189 

sisted of eight columns , tbe sides of eleven , 
placed in an area formed by two semicircles 
with a double row of niches , some parts of 
which are -visible. Of tbe temple itself nothing 
remains but a portion of the western, portico 
consisting of three splendid columns and a pi- 
laster supporting tbe architrave and a pari of 
the cclla formed of large square stones. These 
columns are of white marble, fluted, corinlhian, 
24 palms in circumference, 74 in height; the 
architrave and roof of the portico are richly 
adorned. The front of this magnificent temple 
was towards the romao forum , the back part 
near the wall of enclosure; it was surrounded 
by columns , eighl on the facade , ten on the 
sides , on the back part stood a single pilaster 
from want of space. 

Near the forum of Nerva and the church 
of S. Maria in campo Carlao, are remains of an 
ancient, semicircular terra cotta building suppo* 
sed to bave belonged to. the baths of Paulus 
Emilius. The pari adjacent to. the Quirinal is 
now called monte- magnanapoli said to be a cor- 
ruption of balnea pauli the 'ancient appellation, 
lib probably a construction of Trajan to strenght- 
en the hill and cover the fabrics be destroy- 
ed when he built his forum. At tbe faol of this 
hi'l between the Quirinal and the Capitol is the 

V This forum , built by Apollodofus of Da- 
mascus , surpassed all others in -taste , regula- 
rity and magnificence. In order to enlarge it 
towards the north Trajan cut iho Quirinal bill, 


190 Third day 

which formed an obstacle, to the height of the 
present column , a work justly praised by Pau- 
sanias, Dio, and Ammianus Marcellinus. The late 
discoveries which have conveyed a juster idea 
of (his forum , the fragments found in it prove, 
that the idea formed of it by the ancients was 
not exaggerated. Even S. Gregory the great , 
struck with admiration at its splendour , is said 
to have offered up prayers to the Almighty for 
the salvation of Trajan's son]. 

The site selected for (his forum was a qua- 
drilateral area in the proportion of 1 to 3, the 
length from south to north being 2000 ancient 
feet , (he breadth 600. The south side was pre- 
ceded by a quadrilateral piazza surrounded by 
arched porticoes; a triumphal arch stood in the 
middle of the south side as ascertained from me- 
dals ; this arch was discovered in the XVI cen- 
tury near the church of S. Urbano. Adjoining it 
was (he Ulpian library , a square edifice, in tha 

|| direction of east to west , which like the other 
basilics served for the administration of justice, . 
I for the assemblies of poets and philosophers, and 
i the communication of their works; three doors 
towards the south can still be (raced. The in- 
terior was divided by four rows of columns for- 
ming five naves, the entrance was by five steps 
formed of blocks of giallo antico, the pavement 
divided into compartments of various forms co- 
vered with yellow , africano and pavonazzetto 
marbles. The columns were of grey granite, the 
walls lined with white marble , the interior de- 
corated with pilasters corresponding to the co- 
lumns , the remnants of broken columns have 
been replaced on (he spot where they originally 


Third day 191 

stood. The entablature of the basilic was of 
bronze as related by Pausanias; between the pi- 
lasters of the walls that enclosed the ediGce were 
pedestals supporting the statues of illustrious men; 
those that have been found belong to the IV 
and V centuries , one discovered in the last ex- 
cavation was erected to « Merobandes, another 
to Flavius Eugenius was found in the XVI cen- 
tury. Towards the column the basilic was en- 
closed by a wall lined with marble; the colnmn, 
as seen by the inscription , is a year posterior 
to the southern part of the forum, It was 
erected in the centre of a square court 76 
feet long and 56 broad , covered with marble 
slabs and enclosed towards the southern side 
of the basilic; on the other sides a small portico 
supported a double row of columns some bases 
of which still exist in their place towards the 
ascent to theQuirinal. Near the lateral columns 
to the east and west are the ruins of the tilpiau 
library which was subsequently transferred to 
the thermite of Diocletian. When the forum was 
ealarged to the north by the cut made in the 
hill , the small portico was removed which en- 
closed the part of ground where the column was 
erected; remains of this portico are still visible 
on the level of the soil; at some distance from 
the column a temple was erected to Trajan some 
remains of which are under the imperial palace 
in the piazza SS. Apostoli. On tho space between 
the column and the temple was the equestrian 
statue of Trajan mentioned by Ammianus Mar- 
ceilinus which excited the admiration of the em- 
peror Gostantins; tbe temple was probably am- 
pbiprostyle, to the north was a piazza and arched 


192 Third day 

portico which led to the triumphal arch cor- 
responding to the opposite side of the forum. 

The column may be considered as one of 
the most remarkable monuments of Roman great- 
ness that have come down to us. The pedestal 
was uncovered under Stilus V in 1 590 but the 
column was nearly concealed by modern buil- 
dings which were demolished in 1812 and 1813. 
It stands , as aleady staled , in the centre of 
the forum and was raised to Trajan by the Bo - 
man senate and people in commemoralion of his 
German and Dacian victories. The following in- 
scription, relative to the cut in the bill , is on 
the pedestal. . 








It served as a sepulchre to the ashes of 
Trajan as staled by Kutropius and Cassiodorus 
and it of white marble ; it is remarkable for 
its dimensions and the tine execution of the bas 
reliefs which represent the hrst and secoud Da- 
cian campaigns of Trajan and his victories over 
Decebalus, the full and half sued figures amoun- 
to about two thousand live hundred exclusive 
of horses, arms, machines of war, military en- 
signs , trophies , and a great variety of other 
objects. The invention and desigu of the bas re- 
liefs are by Ibe same artist , the figures by va- 


Third day 193 

rious artists but all of excellent execution and 
each figure about three palms high: these works 
hare always been considered as maslcr pieces of 
sculpture and served as a model to professors 
of the line arts; Raphael, Giulio Romano, Polidoro 
Caravaggio have profited by them. 

The column of the doric order is formed 
of 34 blocks of white marble ; the pedestal , 
adorned with beautiful trophies of 8, the trunk 
of 23, the capital of 1 , the pedestal of the statue 1. 
The total height comprizing the statue is 1 93 >/a 
palms as follow .- the large pedestal 22, base 4, 
column with base and capital 131 ; base of the 
statue 20, statue 16 1/3; the lower diameter 
16 </i palms, the upper 15. Comparing thh 
monument with the Anlonine column, that of 
Trajan comprizing base and capital , exceeds 
it in height by two palms ; the ascent to the 
top is by a winding stair case cut in the marble 
consisting of 185 steps, each three palms and 
two inches long and lighted by 43 apertures. An 
iron railing encircles the top from which the 
riew embraces all Rome. Here stood the bronze 
gilt statue of the Emperor which was replaced 
under Sixtus V by that of S. Peter modelled 
by Tommaso della Porta; the height of the co- 
lumn is equal to that of the Qairioal hill which 
was levelled in this direction to make the forum 
as attested by the inscription on the pedestal 
of the column; Ibis pedestal is ornamented with 
trophies, eagles, garlands of oak leaves finely 
carved and of an excellent style of architecture. 

Two churches have been built on the ruins 
of this forum, one dedicated to the Virgin oit 



1 94 Third day 

the occasion of the deliverance of Vicuna in 1 633; 
the other to 

Of an octagon form , decorated with Co- 
rinthian pilasters and a double cupola , the 
architecture is by Antonio Sangallo ; the only 
objects to remark in this church are the pain- 
ting over the high altar, one of the best works 
of Pietro Perugino , and in the second chapel 
a statue of S. Susan by Quesnoy, called il fiam- 
mingo. u .'-'< ••-- *- - 

> this palace, situated at the base of the 
Quirinal hill , was begun by Martin V Co- 
lonna, completed and embellished at different pe- 
riods by the cardinals and princes of the family; 
though the exterior is without any architectural 
decoration it is one of the principal palaces of 
Borne in extent. 

The apartments on the ground floor were 
painted by Gaspard Poussin, Tcmpesta , Poma- 
rancio, AUegrini , the Cav. d' Arpino and others. 
On the great stair case are a colossal statue 
or a captive king and a head of Medusa in por- 
phyry. In the servants hall a colossal bust and 
in the room contiguous to the gallery two fine 
Titian* representing Luther and Calvin; Eu~ 
ropa by Albano ; a caricature by Annibal Ca- 
racci ; a portrait , Tintoretto ; two other por- 
traits by Titian ; the guardian angel by Guer- 
cino; Christ with two angels, Bassano; S. Charles 


Third Jay 195 

by Daniel Crespi; a portrait of Francesco Co- 
lonna fa; Stall; a Paul Veronese , a boly family 
by Bonifacio ; two portraits by Tintoretto ; a 
Madonna by Guercino; a portrait by the Antwerp 
farrier ; a holy family by Bronzino ; Music by 
Paul Veronese ; a S. Jerome by Gio : Spagna ; 
• large picture in the manner of Titian: a holy 
family Domenico Pulego ; the resurrection of 
Lazzarus by Parmigianino. 

In the restibole of the gallery are several 
landscapes by Poossin and Orizzonle ; two buttle 
pieces of the flemish school ; landscapes by Btr- 
ghem, Svanevelt, Bregaet, Paul Brill ; the death 
of S. Stephen by Flore ; the flight into Egypt 
by Van Everdingen, and a battle piece by Leduc. 

The gallery 209 feet long and 35 broad 
is one of the most splendid in Bome. It con- 
tains an assumption by Rubens; a reunion of 
portraits in one picture by Giorgione; S. Fran- 
cis by Gnido ; another by Muziano ; a pictu- 
re with two portraits , Tintoretto ; the two 
SS. John, Salvator Bosa; Ecce Homo, Albano; 
the martyrdom of S. Agnes , Guercino ; the Mag- 
dalen , A. Carracci ; a picture with portraits , 
Pordenone -, the last supper , S. Peter in prison, 
Unfranc ; S. Jerome , Spagnoietto ; a portrait of 
Frederic Goloana by Suttermans ; a Roman cha- 
rity , Jordaens ; Christ by Bronzino ; Adam and 
Eve , Salviali ; Agar and Rebecca , Mola; a fa- 
oily * Scipio Gaetano ; a holy family with S. Pe- 
ter, Giovanni Bellini; Venns, a satyr and child, 
Bronzino; S. John Baptist, Guido Caguacci ; Lu- 
cretia Colonna by a flemish artist ; a holy family 
ud S. Lucia by Titian ; the portrait of Giacomo 
Sciarra Colonna by Giorgione ; a caricature, Ca- 

■* Google 

196 Third day 

ravaggio ; S. Francis by Muziano ; shepherds 
asleep by Nicholas Poussin; S. Sebastian by Guido 
Iteiii ; the Magdalen in glory A. Caracci ; the 
Sabines and Romans , by Ghirlaudaio. 

In (he upper apartment are several pictures 
by Orizzontc and Vanvitelli ; in the first room 
Parnassus by Gastello ; the four seasons by Mar- 
tin de Ross all described by Lanzi in his history 
of painting. A landscape and animals by Vander 
Does; two Teniers ; an infant by the deaf I*rbi- 
nese ; four landscapes by Gaspar Poussin ; three 
portraits of the Venitiau school -, a holy family 
school of Leonardo da Vinci ; a convivial scene, 
Breughel-, S. Christopher and a presepio, Gia- 
como da Ponte; a Magdalen, Calvart ; several 
flemish pieces; a landscape by Salvator Rosa ; 
(wo Rosa di Tivoli, an alchimislby Wick. In the 
following room four landscapes by Gaspar Pous- 
sin ; a battle , and a robbery by Borgognone ; 
a landscape , Salvator Rosa; tbe portrait of car- 
dinal Pompeo Colanna by Lotto ; S. Charles dis- 
tributing alms by Antonio Caracci ; the portraits 
of the Doge Andrea Gritti and his wife , by Paul 
Veronese j a picture by Miel ; a holy family 
F. Barocci ; S. Francis supported hy an angel, 
Tiarini ; Adam and Eve , Breughel Velour ; a 
grotto and dogs by PielroLaer; other flemings, 

Tbe next rooms contain twenty paintings 
hy Brill; others by Bauer, David Winckembooms, 
tour sea pieces by Manglard, a landscape by 
EUxheimer, and other flemish pieces : two land- 
scapes , Grimaldi ; two Cornelius Bruyn ; a 
John Miel ; two Stembreker ; two battle pieces 
by Borgognone; several marines by Henry Uroonr, 
a sketch hy Rubens; a rape, Rostenhamer , two 

■„ Google 

Third day 1gJ 

landscapes Agostiuo Tassi ; two pictures of ani- 
mals by Undicidita ; two Peter Laer and other 
flemings; a marine by Bonaventura Peters; a Ma- 
donna and child Aldograft ; two Carlo Dujar- 
din; other flemish pieces* 

The apartment containing the spiral co- 
lumn of rosso antico is destined to receire pict- 
ures. The following are already disposed : a cru- 
cilietion by Scarsellino; a & Sebastian of 1400; 
Christ bound to the column, Leonello Spada; a 
holy family , Giulio Romano; S Andrew and S Ca- 
therine .Vasari; S Sebastian of the old Bolognese 
school; a marine, Peters; the calumny of Apelles, 
Gherardi; Moses, Guercino; the death of Abel, 
Andrea Sacchi; several family portraits, Scipio 
Gaetano ; Cardinal Pompeo Coloona, Antonio Ca- 
racci; an allegory, Luca Giordano; the temptations 
of S Anthony, Luca Kranack; Martin V, of his 
time; Coviello, Callotta; a deposition, Salviati- 
another, Bonifacio; a Piela, Palma the younger; 
Ihe ages of the world, Venetian school; two land- 
scapes relative to Erminia , Albano ; a portrait 
of Sophonisbe Angnislrola by herself; a holy fa- 
wny, Procaccini ; a picture by Baguacavallo ; 
a portrait by Cigoli; Susan, Gcnnari; S. Fran- 
cis , Cignoli ; portrait of a man on horse- 
hack , Rubens ; S. Julian , Ponlormo ; a holy 
family, Filippo Lippi ; others by the nan Plaulilla 
Nolls ; the .Madonna and various saints , Tinto- 
retto ,- and several others. 

In the garden belonging to the palace are 
two large pieces of a marble frontispiece of very 
fine execution , commonly, but without any foun- 
dation , supposed to be remains of the temple of 
(he sun ; there are also ruins of the thermuc of 


198 Third day 

Gonslantine. Adjoining the palace is the church of 


One of those said to have been built by 
Con tan tine. It was restored at various periods 
and rebuilt by Martin V but at the beginning of 
last century it threatened ruin when it was re- 
built in a style of greater taste and magnificence 
on the designs of Francesco Fontana who pre- 
served the portico , a work of Sistus IV. On 
the right side of the portico is an antique has relief 
of an eagle holding is its claws a crown of oak. Op- 
posite is the monument of Volpato, a celebrated 
engraver, executed and erected by his friend Ga- 
Bova. The has relief represeutsfriendshipcxpressed 
under the figure ofa female weeping near Volpato' i 
bast. The church has three naves divided by corin - 
thian pilasters which support the roof; in the centre 
is the triumph of the Franciscan order by Ba- 
eiccio, the chapels are decorated with marbles 
and good paintings ; those of the first altar to the 
right by Lapiccola ; the altar by Garquinlo. In the 
chapel of S. Anthony are eight line columns and a 
good picture by Luti, the altar piece represent- 
ing the martyrdom of the Apostles SS. James 
and Philip is by Muratori, over the sacristy is 
the tomb of Clement XIV by Ganova , with the* 
statue of the Pope , and figures of meekness 
and temperance. The chapel ] of S. Francis was 
painted by Chiari ; the tomb of the last Con- 
stable Golonna is by Pozzi. The altar piece of 
the last chapel representing S. Joseph , is by 
Gades. The deposition from tho cross in th* last 
chapel by Mauao. 


Third 4uy 199 

The convent annexed was chiefly built by 
Sixtus V who embellished it with courts and 
fountains. The large marble vase in the first court 
is antique ; of the various monuments preceding 
the cloister the most worthy of observation is 
that of Cardinal Bessarioa and a cenotaph in 
honour of Buonaroti reposing on a bed of an 
antique form on which are placed emblems 
of the various branches of art in which he ex- 

The portrait resembles all those known of 
Michael Angelo; it has even the break in tb» 
nose occasioned by the blow he received from 
Torregiani. The great artist died in the parish 
of the SS, Aposloli the 17 february 1564 and 
for some time bad his sepulture in this church. 
On the piazza delta Pilotta are the barrack* 
of the dragoons: adjoining it the church of lb* 
holy cross belonging to the Lucchesi. In this 
direction were the ancient Forum Suarium and 
Vitus CvrmUui. 





\( J. he most ancient name of this hill , as 
mentioned in Tacitus and Feslus was « Agonalis «, 
* Agonus * and « Egonus » from the numerous 
heights by which it is formed , the word Agonei 
in the sabine tongue signifyng hilts; for the same 
reason it is called by Dionysius « Collimis » by 
other writers collis the bill by excellence. Its 
subsequent name Quirtnal is derived, according 
to Varro and Festus from the Curetes who settled 
on it in the lime of Tatius or of Quirinns. This 
denomination is still preserved though it is com- 
monly called Monte Cavallo from the colossal 
horses and statues that adorn the principal piazza. 
Its narrow oblong shape gives it the resemblance 
of an elbow; it is about 15700 ancient feet in 




Fourth day 201 

circumference , 293 Paris feet 5 inches com- 
prizing the cross over the palace clock, shove 
the level of the sea. 


V' This piazza is one of the finest in Rome by its 
situation and the edifices which decorate it. Its 
principal, ornament consists in two colossal fi- 
gures in the act of laming horses. Tho figures 
of the young men, 25 palms high, are two master 

Eieces of the Greek chisel , and if credit could 
e attached to the latin inscriptions they would 
be the work of Phidias and of Praxiteles; but 
though these inscriptions are ancient , they are 
not anterior to Constantiue who placed these 
colossi in his therms; these inscriptions dating 
from at least seven centuries after the completion 
of the statues and at the period of the decay of 
art, inspire but lilte confidence. The same un- 
certainty prevails respecting the subject they re- 
present , but the opinion that they arc intended 
for Castor and Pollux is the most probable. They 
are certainly monuments of great skill from ihi 
exactness of the proportions , the delicacy of ths 
Work, the grandeur and correctness of the style; 
they wore raised on this spot by Pope Pius V. 

Under Pius VI these groups assumed their 
present direction , and in the centre the obelisk 
was erected which was found near the Mauso- 
leum of Augustus. It is of red granite 66 palms 
high -without the pedestal. Pius VII completed 
the monument with the large basin of oriental 
granite 1 1 1 palms in circumference , found in 
the rowan forum and which receives the wa-> 


202 Fourth day 

tcrs of the fountain placed here by the same 


/About the year 1573 this palace was com- 
menced under Gregory XIII on tbe dasigus of 
Flaminio Ponzio ; it was continued, enlarged and 
completed by Mascherino, Domenico Fontaua , 
Carlo Maderno , Bernini and Fuga. 

Tbe court yard is 442 palms long 240 wide ; 
on three sides is a portico supported by pilas- 
ters , on the fourth side a fagade of the jo- 
nic order ; nnder the clock is a portrait of 
the Madonna in mosaic , from the original by 
Carlo Mara tie. 

A Urge marble stair case richly carved and 
gilt haring a frieze painted by Lanfrane and 
by Carlo of Venice leads to tbe chapel. Over lha 
door, is a bas relief representing the washing of the 
Apostle's feet , by Laadini. This chapel , called the 
Cappella Paolina is of the size and form of tha 
Sistine at the Vatican; in the hall preceding the 
chapel are several paintings worthy of observa- 
tion ; SS. Peter and Panl by fra Barlolomeo , 
S. Jerome, Spagnolelto ; the resurrection of our 
Saviour, Vandyk ; a Madonna by Guido Reni; 
David and Saul by Giicrcino ; Christ disputing 
with tbe doctors of the law , Caravaggio -, the 
frescoes of the chapel representing various acts 
of the Virgin are by Guido , the annunciation 
over the high altar is of singular beauty. The 
rooms besides their rich furniture contain bas 
reliefs in stucco of tbe triumph of Alexander 


Fourth day 203 

by Thorwaldsen ; of the Iriomph of Trajan hj Fi- 
nctti , dow changed into that of Constantine. 

The garden attached to the palace is filed 
with statues , fountains , sod shady walks ; the 
casino in the centre built by Fuga is adorned 
with paintings by Orizzonte , Batloni , Pannini 
and Masncci. 

! This splendid palace was built by Clement 
[ on the designs of Fuga. It is the residence 

of the Cardinal secretary of the Briefs , and of 

the secretary of the Consults. 

XII c 

X. This extensive palace , the architecture of 
Flaminio Ponzio was begun by Cardinal Scipio 
Borghese on the ruins of the Thermae of Con- 
stantine , the last that were built in Rome. It 
subsequently belonged to Cardinal Bentivoglio , 
to the Mazzarini family who completed it under 
the direction of Carlo Madcrno , and is now tbe 
properly of tbe Rospigliosi house. 

The casino at the left entrance and the first 
story of the palace belong to Prince Pallavicini. 
On tbe roof of the saloon is tbe celebrated Au- 
rora of Guido represented by a figure scattering 
flowers , followed by phosphorus holding a torch 
and by the sun under the figure of Apollo seated 
on a car drawn by four horses abreast , and 
snrrounded by seven nymphs dancing , probably 
emblematic of the hours though incomplete in 
number ; by tbe beauly of the composition , 


2M Fourth dan 

the grandiose of design, tbe airs of the heads, 
this painting is allowed by all to be one of the 
best works of Guido. The freize representing 
the triumph of love and of virtue is by Antouio 
Tempest a. This room also contains some lands- 
capes by Panl Brill , an antique statue of Diana 
and a bronze horse. 

In one of the contiguous rooms are : an 
antique bust of Scipio Africanus, a large paint- 
ing by Domcnichino of Adam and Eve in the 
terrestrial paradise , Samson overthrowing tho 
temple by Ludovico Garacci. 

In the next room are the twelve Apostles 
in half size by Rubens; Andromeda delivered by 
Perseus, Guido ; Eve offering the apple to Adam 
by Giacomo Palma ; Christ bearing the cross, Da- 
niel di Volterra; the two lovers, Giorgione; David 
conquering Goliath, Domenichino ; a charity, 
Cignani; a Pieta by Annibal Ciracci; S. Jerome 
by Albert Durcr. 

The second story and the ground floor be- 
long to Prince Rospigliosi, the former aparlement 
contains a collection of choice pictures. In that 
0*1 the ground floor are : a large yerd' artlico 
vase ; several antique busts and statues; eighteen 
large and small fresco paintings , taken from the 
thermae of Constantino. Amongst the pictures 
are a 5. Cecilia and the sketches of the four 
angles under the cupola at S* Andrea della Vails 
by Domenichino ; one of the rooms was painted 
by Brill and by hi* brother, others by Giovanni 
da S. Giovanni. 


Fourth day 205 


This church , which formerly belonged lo 
the Domeuican and Teatin orders , is now tha 
property of the missionary priests. The paintings 
in the lirsi chapel are by Nucci ; the one in the 
second is a highly esteemed work of Glacomo 
Pahna ; the assumption over the left altar is 
painted ou slate by Scipio Gaetani ; the lunettes 
at the base of the cupola in this chapel are by 
Domenichino , they have been restored by Ca- 
uiuccini and represent David dancing before the 
ark; Judith showing the head of Holophernes 
to the Betulians; Esther fainting in presence of 
Assnerus ; the queen of Saba and Solomon seat- 
ed on the throne ; the Magdalen in the adjoin- 
ing chapel is by Alhertinelli ; the paintings on 
the side hy Malaria and Polidor Cararaggio ; 
the one on the roof by d' Arpino. In this church 
are the tombs of cardinal Bentivoglio the his- 
torian of the wars in Flanders in the XVII cen- 
tury and of Farinaccio a Roman jurisconsult. 


This church and the annexed monastery 
were founded by Pius V for the Dominican nuns 
who enlarged it under Urban VIII on the designs of 
the architect Delia Greca ; the facade is formed of 
corinthian and composite pilasters. The paintings 
in the interior are by Mola , Gentile , Cauuli , 
Allegrini and Romanclli who painted in the last 
chapel the Madonna giving a rosary to a nun. 
Opposite is S. Calerina di Siena , a church 
and monastery of Dominican nuns built about 


206 Fourth day 

1563; the pilasters arc marble and of the co' 
rinlhiao order. 

In the yard of the monastery is a large 
brick lower called delle milixici it is said to hare 
been built by Augustas or by Trajan for the sol- 
diers who guarded the fori situated iu the prox- 

It is erroneously called the tower of Nero 
which was placed by Svetonius in the gardens 
of Mecanas on the Esquiline far distant from 
this spot: it bas been ascertained that this buil- 
ding was raised by the sons of Pietro di Alessio, 
partisans of Pandolfo di Suburra , Senator of 
Home in 1210. 

The adjoining villa Aldobrandini contains 
many antique marbles and some paintings. Be- 
hind it is S. Agatha called in Suburra in the low- 
er ages now the Irish College ; to the right 
the church of S. Bernardino of Siena and the 
via de* Serpeoli which forms the opening of the 
Quirinal valley, separating the Quirinat from the 
Viminai hill, and covered at the present day 
with vineyards and kitchen gardens. On the part 
of the former hill overlooking the valley stood 
the temple dedicated to Romulus under the title 
of Quirinns. It was built on this spot as Procnius 
Julius, a roman patrician, declared on bis oath he 
had seen Romulus descend from heaven into this 
valley, and that he had been charged to Announce 
to bis people that Borne would become the ca- 
pital of the world. 


Fourth day 207 

S. riTJLB. 

The origin of this church is very remote 
having been built under Innocent I in 416 when 
it was dedicated. to S. Vitale and his sons Ger- 
rasios and Prolasius, bolh martyrs. After se- 
veral repairs it was renewed and united to the 
church of S. Andrea at Monte Cavallo; the 
frescoes on the facade and portico formed into 
a vestibule and the oil paintings near the high al- 
tar are by Fiammeri ; the Christ in the Tribune 
the angels and lb« two martyrs by Comraodi ; the 
other works chiefly by Ciampelli. Opposite S. Vi- 
tale are considerable remains of ancient waits 
which sustain the sides of the 


The etymology of the name given to ibis 
hill seems to be from the osiers which grew on 
it. It is about 6600 roman feel in circumference;' 
its form resembles a tongue, the roots being com- 
mon to the Esquiline and the Quirinal; on its 
sides are the church and monastery of S Lorenzo 
in Panisperna and the Cimarra palace now a 
barrack . 

*. Paul the first hermit. 

This church was built in the form of a greek 
cross about the year 1 765 on the designs of Or- 
laadi. Over a semicircular portico supported by 
columns is a palm tree with two lions on the 
tides alluding to the saint. The altar piece to 
the right representing S. Stephen king of Hun- 


203 Fourth day 

garj is by Concioli ; the statue of S. Paul od 
the high altar hy Bergondi ; the guardian angel 
over the third altar by Borgognoae. 

s. oiosisio. 

This church and the anneicd monaster; 
'were built in 1619 by some ftencb Iriuilarians ■ 
and restored in 1815. It is now occupied by 
french nans of the order of S. Basil dedicated 
to the education of young females ; the church 
is of a light architecture aud contains some good 
pictures. Over the altar to the right is a work 
by Dasi ; the conception on the high altar and 
the lateral paintings are by Carlo Cesi; on the 
left a miraculous image of the Madonna under 
the appellation of « Buon rimedio » which be- 
longed lo Gregory the great ; S. Denis and g, 
Louis by Lebrun ; the « Ecce homo ■ by Luca 


' This piazza is formed by the junction of 
two long and line streets, one called Felice lea- 
ding from the Trinila de* Monti to S. Maria Mag- 
giore and S. Croce in Gerusalemme, the other 
from Monle Cavallo lo the Porta Pia; it derives 
its name from the fountains placed in the four 
angles, on one of -which is the Albani palace, 
and on the other 


Fourth day 209 


Built in 1640 by Borromini , the church 
sad convent belonging to the Spanish Trinita- 
rians fill the same space as one of the pilasters 
of the cupola of S. Peter's. On the facade is a 
double row of columns, in the interior 16. la 
the court yard of the convent is a double por- 
tico supported by 25 superimposed columns. 

This church was erected in 1678 by Don. 
Camillo Pamfili , the nephew of Innocent X ou 
the designs of Bernini as a noviciate for the Je- 
suits. Tbe facade is of the corinlhian order, the 
•mall circular portico is supported by two jonic 
-columns, the interior of an oval form contains 
fine marble pilasters, four corinlhian columns 
and some good paintings. In the cbapel of S. 
Francis Xavier are three pictures by Baciccio ; 
the crucifixion of S. Andrew over the high al- 
tar is by Borgognonc \ tbe cbapel of S. Stanis- 
las is adorned with line marbles ; tbe picture 
over the altar is by Carlo Maratle; those on tbe 
sides by Mazzanli , on the ceiling by Odazzi. 
The body of this saint, deposited in a rich urn 
of lapis lazzuli , is placed under the altar. 

In the interior of the noviciate the room oc- 
cupied by S. Stanislas has been formed into a 
chapel; the marble figure of the saint in bis dying 
moments is by Legros, the head, hands and feet 
of white, tbe habit of black, the bed of yellow, 

Near the high altar is the tomb of Charles 


210 Fourth day 

Emmanuel IV king of Sardinia who abdicated in 
1802 and retired lo Rome; in 1815 he embra- 
ced the intitule of the Jesuits in which he died 
in 1819. 


One of the round edifices situated al the 
angle to the west of Diocletian's therms,' s up- 
posed to have been a tcpidarium or a calida- 
rtunt, was converted into a church in 1598 hj 
the Countess Sforza who built the adjoining house 
for the monks of S. Bernard. 

The eight large stucco stalues are by Ma~ 
rianni ; that of S- Francis and other marble 
works in the chapel by Fancelli ; in the 
choir are Ibc tombs of cardinals Bona and Ga- 
brielli both belonging lo the order. In the gar- 
den is a chapel dedicated to S. Catherine , a 
martyr , in which are two large pictures by 
Lauresi , a Sicilian artist. 

In the garden there are abo ruins of a kind 
of semicircular theatre or of seals for the spec- 
tators of the gymnastic games practised in the 
baths of Diocletian. Opposite is the fhurch of 
S. Susan. 


This fountain is so called from the name 
of Sislus V who, as already mentioned , muted 
the springs of the acqaa Alexandrina whh those 
near Colonna , and availed himself of the ma- 
terials of the ancient Marcia and Claudia aque- 
ducts. It is in a great measure the same water 

. Google 

Fourth day 2f1 

as the acqua Alexandriua ; the architecture 
of thefouatain is by Domcnico Fontana. It is of 
travertine with four granite columns of (be joins 
order aad three niches; in the middle niche is 
a colossal statue of Moses striking the rock, an 
indifferent work of Prospero da Breccia; the baa 
reliefs representing Aaron conducting the people 
of Israel to the miraculous spring by Gio: dtlla 
Porta; Gedcoo selecting the soldiers who are to 
lead the people over the river by Flamiuio Vacca. 
The waters fall in abundance by three apertures 
into marble basins on the sides of which four 
lions pour water from their mouths. 


Paul V built this church in 1 605 in honour of 
S. Paul the apostle and presented it to thecarmcli- 
tau order; it was called S. Maria della Vitloria from 
the numerous victories obtained by (he catholics 
orer the hereticks and the Turks through (he 
intercession of the image of the madonna which 
a preserved orer the altar piece and is adorned 
with precious stones. The facade by Soria was 
raised at the expense of Cardinal Scipio Borghese, 
in return for the present made to him of tbs 
celebrated sleeping hermaphrodite which was 
found in l he gardens contiguous to the church. 

The interior was lined by Carlo Maderoo 
with marbles and ornamented with pilasters, of 
fine Sicilian jasper, gilt stuccoes, good sculptu- 
res and paintings of merit. The- Magdalen , in 
the first chapel to the right, is by padre Raflaello, 
a capuchin; the S. Francis in lbs second , the 
paintings on Iba walls, by Domenichino, On lb« 


212 Fourth day 

altar of tbo cross between four verd' antico co- 
lumns is the statue of S. Joseph in the act 
of sleeping , with the angel appearing to him in 
a dream ,lhc work of Dome»tco Guidi ; the la- 
teral bas reliefs are b; Mount ; the S. Joseph, 
in glory by Lamberti ; the paintings of the cu- 
pola are by Domenico Perogino ; those of the 
large arcb by Ibe brothers Orazii ; the sum- 
ptuous chapel of S. Theresa was built and de- 
corated at the expense of Cardinal Cornaro On 
the designs of lie mini who executed the Car- 
dinal's bust and the statue of the saint re- 
presented in the exstacy of divine love wbilo 
the angel holding the dart is in the act of pier- 
cing her heart -, this group is considered one of 
the finest works of Bernini ; the. roof of this 
chapel was painted by Abatini ; the adjoining 
chapel contains some very fine marbles ; the 
picture over the altar representing the most holy 
Trinity is by Guercino; the crucifixion , and the 

Kr trait unknown t by Guido fteui; the frescoes 
Francesco Bolognese; the other paintings by 
Niccolai ; the S. Andrew apostle by padre Bat- 


I These baths were built by the emperors 
Diocletian and Maximiaa, and dedicated by their 
successors Galerius and Canstantius- II is stated 
by Olympodorus that 3200 persons cpuld bathe 
here at the same lime; some idea may be formed 
of their extent in considering that within their 
limits were enclosed the church of S- Bernardo, 
the garden and house annexed , the church of 


Fourth day 2(3 

S. Maria degli Angioli with the adjoining mo. 
naslery, (he two ex tease piazze , the granaries 
aud other houses'; the whole circuit amounted 
to about 4275 fee!. They were of a square form 
and at each angle stood a round building; one 
still remains at the gate of the Villa Masaimi , 
the other in the church of S. Bernardo. By soma 
it is supposed that these round edifices served 
as warm or tepid baths; these thermn contained 
numerous porticoes , splendid halls, and all that 
has been narrated of those of Titus. We know 
by Yopiscus that the celebrated Ulpian library 
was transferred here from the forum of Trajan; 
the pinacoteca has been converted into 


V Pius IY wishing to reduce to some sacred 
usage the principal hall of Diocletian's baths 
entrusted the operation to the celebrated Buo- 
naroti who formed the present church on the 
plan of a greek cross, and rendered it one of 
the most magnificent and best proportioned edi- 
fices of Borne. To protect it against humidity 
a new pavement was raised which has left under 
ground the base and part of the eight granite 
columns to which bases of white marhle have 
been adapted. The chnrch has been restored at 
different periods and particularly in 1549 by 
Vanvitelli who made some alterations; the large 
entrance became the altar of the blessed Nio- 
cola Albergati; the lateral door alone remaining 
became tbo principal entrance , the altar of 
the Madonna ibe high altar , and as at the 
nare which first served as the entrance tbera 


214 Fourth day 

were eight large granite columns, to form tbe 
correspondence he raised eight others of brick 
varnished like granite which they resemble. 

The entrance is now by a round vestibule, 
one of the rooms of the thermae , of the size 
,of tbe one changed into the church of S. Ber- 
nardo. In this vestibule are two chapels ; that 
of the crucifixion contains a painting of S. Je- 
rome by a scholar of Daniel da Vollerra , the 
other, oue of Christ and tbe Magdalen by Henry 
the Iteming , tbe tombs of Carlo Maratte , Sal- 
valor Rosa, of Cardinals Parisio and Alciali. The 
transversal nave of tbe church was formerly ih« 
grand hall or the Pivaeottca; the eight granite 
columns are 23 palms in circumference , 62 in 
height comprising capital and base, ihe length 
of the nave 406 , the height 124 palms; for 
the greater embellishment of this splendid tem- 
ple Benedict XIV adorned it with some original 
pictures from S. Peter's, which had been copied 
in mosaic. The crucifixion of S. Peter is by Ric- 
cioliui, the fall of Simon Magna a copy by Vanoi, 
in the chapel of the Blessed Nicholas, a Gra- 
liani , the lateral pictures Trevisani , those on 
the roof Biccberai and Mazzetti ; S. Peter res- 
auscitaling Tahitas , a copy from an original of 
Baglioni in S. Peter's and a fine original by 

In the nave of the high altar is a chapel 
with paintings by Baglioni , and on the walls 
are four large compositions ; the presentation 
of the Madonna at the temple by Bomanelli , 
the martyrdom of S. Sebastian a fine work of 
Domcnichioo , transferred to this spot with re- 
markable dexterity by Zabaglia, the baptism of 


Fourth day 2t5 

our Lord by Carlo Maratta , the punishment of 
Ananias by Pomarancio, restored by Camuccini; 
Over the high altar is an ancient image of iho 
Madonna surrounded by seven angels from which 
the church has taken its name. 

In the transversal nave are: the conception 
of (he Madonna by Bianchi, the picture adjoin- 
ing by Placido Costaozi ; the S. Bruno in Ihe 
following chapel by Odazzi, the lateral paintings 
by Ti-evisani , the evangelists on the roof Pro- 
caccini , the fall of Simon Magus by Pompeo 
Batumi , S. Basilius presenting a chalice to a 
deacon , Subleyras; the roofs of the three large 
altars were painted by Biccherai, those between 
the windows by Bicciolini. 

On the marble pavement of this church a 
meridian was traced in 1701 by nionsignur Bian- 
cbini; the line marked on brass is enclosed within 
two long marble lines on which (he signs of (be 
Zodiac are expressed in various coloured stones. 
In the sacristy are paintings by Odazzi; the 
Cibo chapel is richly ornamented and has a pain- 
ling by Bicciolini. 

Annexed to the church is the cloister of 
the Cistercian monks built on the designs of 
Michael Angelo j it contains a square portico 
supported by one hundred travertine columns with 
four extensive corridors. 

Behind the baths of Diocletian and in (he 
direction of the walls, are some remains of the 
Agger of Servius Tullius consisting, according to 
Dionysius Halicarnassus, of a ditch 100 feet long 
and 30 deep , lined with large blocks of 
luffo forming a hillock , which extended from 
the Collatina to the Esquiline gates, or the angle 


218 Fourth day 

of the Barberioi villa till the arch of Galileans 
on which space of ground its traces are still visible. 
Near the walls were 


Established by Sejanus under Tiberius for 
the quarters of the Praetorian Guards; they were 
demolished by Constantino the great and ibree 
sides were enclosed by Honorius iu the walls ; 
the form of these casira is easily traced on the 
right out of the porta Pia and conveys a just 
idea of a roman camp. On the left of the Porta 
Pia is the villa Buonaparte and opposite that of 

DOS IfARIItO roRtoHu. 

This villa in a delightful position, formerly 
belonged to the Androsilia family and has been 
greatly embellished by its present possessor, on 
the designs of the architect Sarti. The vestibule 
built on the model of that of the Farnese pa- 
lace is composed of four ionic columns on each 
tide supporting a. fine gilt stucco roof. The inte- 
rior contains a fresco by Carta representing Te- 
lemachus and Calypso, another by Capalti re- 
presenting Parnassus , harmony , poetry and 
music , finely executed, and other frescoes by 
eminent artists ; the chapel iu the golhic style 
is painted with great taste by Bromiti. 


This gate was substituted iu 1564 by Pius 
IT to tht Nomentana gale of Honorius which 

,. Google 

* a-* 





Fourth day 21 7 

stood a little to the right aod was so called from 
leading to Noiucnlum a tatiu colony in the Sa- 
bine country about 12 miles from Rome, now 
a small village called Mealaaa ; the interior 
part is on the designs of Buonaroti. 

On the high road are the Patrizi, Bolo- 
gnetti and Massimi villas and at three quarters 
of a mile from the gate 


Many architects, sculptors and painters hart 
been employed of late rears at this villa which 
is at length completed in a style of great splen- 
dour and magnificence. The casino is of the 
style of architecture used in the XV century , and 
on the attic are several ancient statues; the first 
room is painted by Caretti with views of the 
principal cities of Greece and medallions of 
some of her greatest men, the ceiling is covered 
with has reliefs; the frescoes in the second room 
are by Coghetti, on the ceiling are gilt stuccoes, 
the pavement is of fine marble intermixed with 
mosaic works, on the walls are views of Naples 
and above the three Graces by Carta. 

The amphitheatre is smaller than the mau- 
soleum of Augustus but welt distributed ; the 
small broken temple in its vicinity is supposed 
to be sacred to Minerva , the casino has a por- 
tico of eight cipoilino columns and several 
ancient marble busts. At a short distance is the 
temple dedicated to Saturu with a portico of 
eight granite columns and a frieze representing 
human life by Gajassi. 

A Bight of steps supported by four ancient 


21 S Fourth day 

colossal statues leads to the palace which was 
built on the designs of CarretLi. On tbe frontis- 
piece is a terra cotla bas relief by Rinaldi 
representing the return of Bacchus from the 
conquest of the Indies, the entrance is by twelve 
doric columns. 

The ground floor is composed of twelre 
rooms and of a large saloon, the frieze is covered 
with gilt stuccoes intermixed with figures of 
Cupids, Dolphins and other allegorical subjects 
by Caretli , and the triumph of Galatea by 
Paoletti who also executed ibe Dante in the li- 
brary ; the hall of Psiche is by Caret ti. 

The hall of the italian poets and artists was 
painted by Paoletti ; the ball room in which 
are marble columns and pilasters, by Massabd and 
Tojetli. In the lunette is a fine painting by Co- 
ghetti of Apollo on Parnassus surrounded by the 
Muses , the philosophers and poets of antiquity 
and of modern limes , on the pavement is a 
copy of the celebrated Palestrina mosaic. 

On the first floor in three lunettes are Au- 
rora, day, and night by Trabalza ; in the ball 
of Bacchus the birth and expeditions of the God 
were painted by Podcsti; the pavement is filled 
with mosaic figures. In another room Venus 
at (he toilette by Coghetti; in the egyptian room 
the mosaic pavement represents the history of 
Cleopatra ; the walls arc decorated with fluted 
pilasters , the niches filled with marble statues 
representing Apollo and the nine Muses ; the 
frieze is an estimable work of Thorwaldsen; the 
marble pavement is interspersed with mosaic 
figures and on the walls Coghetti has repre- 
sented in fresco the deeds of Alexander tbe Great. 


Fourth day 219 

The chapel dedicated to Pope S. Alexander 
contains the portrait of that saint by Bonibelli 
and some sculptures by Aureli. . 

In an extensive plain stands an obelisk; 
another is situated between two small lakes near 
toe swiss cabin and the ruins of an old castle 
an which is a moorish tower with an hexagon 
room richly decorated in the moorish style; tho 
doors are of coloured glass, at (he entrance are 
two marble lions; the front is painted on a blue 
ground with gold stars in relief , the interior 
lilled with mirrors. 

Tbe field for the tournaments is in the form 
of a parallel logram; at the extremity is the tent 
of the prince of the tournament, the theatre is 
built on the designs of Raimondi, tlie principal 
prospect being closed by a portico of columns ; 
the interior is decorated with great (aste and 
elegance and possesses many objects worthy of 

This church was boilt by Gonstantine the 
great at tbe solicitation of his daughter Constant ia 
over the cemetery of S. Agnes whore the body 
of the saint was found; the descent is by a large 
stair case consisting of 45 steps*, on the walls 
are many ancient sepulchral inscriptions ; tho 
church is formed by a double portico, superior 
and inferior, and by three naves supported by 
16 antique columns , two of granite , four of 
porta santa and two of pavonazzelto marble. 
The upper portico is supported by 1 6 smaller 
columns * over the high altar is a baldacchiuo 


220 Fourth day 

with four very fine porphyry columns ; under 
the altar , composed of precious stones, reposes 
the body of S. Agnes whose statue is cnt out 
of the trunk of an ancient statue of oriental ala- 
baster , the head , hands and feet being of gilt 
bronze ; the work is by Franciosioi. The name 
of 5. Agnes is written on the tribune ; in tbe 
chapel dedicated to the Madonna is a head o 
our Saviour by Buonaroti and an antique marble 
chandelier with acanthus leaves of a very fine 
work. This church mure than any other conveys 
an idea of the Basilica of the ancient Romans. 
In the chapel to the right is the tomb of Cima, 
the chamberlain of Leo XI whose bust was exe- 
cuted by Salviali, Tbe 21 January, the festival 
of S. Agnes , two lambs are blessed by the Pope 
which are entrusted to the care of a nunnery; 
the wool of these animals forms the sacred palli 
used by the Pope, the bishop of Ostia, and the 
archbishops. A few steps distant is 


"This edifice which has been recently restored 
was too inconsiderately attributed in past ages 
to a temple of Bacchus from the figures of boys 
holding leave* and bunches of grapes which are 
on the circular nave ; these symbols were also 
found in bas relief on the porphyry urn disco- 
vered at this spot; the. has reliefs of tbe urn being 
of the same style as these mosaics they may be 
considered of the same period, and as no doubt 
can exist that the urn served for a tomb it was 
natural to suppose that these symbols bad another 
allusion than to Bacchus ; in fact, in the early 


Fourth day 22 1 

christian monuments ihey were symbolic of the 
Saviour, of the church, and of future life. Anas- 
lasius the librarian says that when Constantine 
built the church of S. Agnes he built near it 
a baptistery of a spheric form , in imitation of 
that of S. lohn Laleran for the baptism of the 
two Conslantias bis sister and daughter. That 
this edifice should have been used for (heir se- 
pulchre is proved by the porphyry urn found 
here greatly resembling the one known as the 
tomb of S- Helena found at Tor Pignatarra ; 
they were both placed by Pius VI in the Va- 
tican museum. Ammianus Harcellinus also speaks 
of a sepulchre of Constantino's family existing 
on the via Nomentana. Alexander IV converted 
this splendid mausoleum into a church under 
the dedication of the same SS. Constantia whose 
bodies he took from the urn and deposited under 
the altar; the church is of a spheric form, 100 
palms internal diameter with a modern cupola 
supported by the ancient portico formed of 12 
double granite columns , corinthian and com- 
posite , being the first example of binary co- 

Near the church are some ruins of an an- 
cient oval building supposed to have been an 
Hippodrome of Constantine and forming a largo 
piazza surrrounded with porticoes used for horse 
and military exercises. But no ancient writer 
makes any mention of a hippodrome of Constan- 
tine at this spot and as the construction seems 
to be posterior to Constantine this opinion must 
be excluded on reflecting that the enclosure 1 
united the churches of S. Agues and S. Con- 
stantia x nor can the gravity of the early ages 


222 Fourth day 

of Christianity admit the existence, in such a 

Elace, of profane spectacles. It is then reasooa- 
le to suppose that these walls are merely re- 
mains of the enclosure of the two churches , 
made probably by Honorius I in the VII cen- 
tury , and it is still used as a cemetery. 

In the Rufini vineyard is a columbarium well 
preserved, belonging to plebeian families, disco- 
vered in i 322 ; about a mile beyond S. Agnes 
the Anio, now the Teverone, is crossed on the 
Nomentano called by corruption the Lamtntano 
bridge , which was rebuilt by Narses and re- 
stored by Nicholas V; from the bridge is a riew 
of the celebrated 

It was upon this hill , situated on the right 
bank of the Anio, that in the year of Borne 
261 the people withdrew from the oppression of the 
rich and nobles and that they were persuaded 
to return to Borne by the apologue of the 
human body and limbs used by Menenius Agrippa 
as related by Livj ; on this occasion the tri- 
bunes of the people were created. The second re- 
treat look place after the death of Virginia when 
the tribunate was restablished and a law passed, 
binding the people on oalh never to take up arms 
against the tribunes ; this law was called sacra 
and the bill on which it was promulgated hi- 
therto called ■ Velia » assumed the appellation 
of iucer. 

A mile beyond the Lamentano bridge , bet- 
ween the Nomentama and Salaria ways , was si- 
tuated the Villa of Phaon, a freedman of Nero 


Fourth day 223 

where this Emperor died by bis own hands; 
the ruins of the villa are still visible in the 
farm called the Yigne nuove. Returning to lW 
Porta Pia on the right along the walls is 


When Honorius rebuilt the walls this gale 
was substituted lo the Collina gale of Serviu» 
and called Salaria from the road , a name used 
at the present day. It was through this gate that 
Alaric, king of the Goths , entered Rome in 409 
ia the lime of Honorius, and plundered ihe cily 
and the adjoining gardens of Saliust ; this see nn 
to have been the weakest defence of the city 
as the Gauls had entered previously by the poru 
Collina, and Hannibal himself meditated an attack 
in this direction. About a quarter of a mile from 
this gate is 

TBE rilLA ALBAttt. 

About the middle of last century Cardinal 
Alexander Albani built this villa , ono of the 
most magnificent of Rome. He made the design 
of the casino and villa , and entrusted the 
execution to the architect Marchionsi. The Car- 
dinal collected a prodigious number of statues, 
basts, bas reliefs, urns, columns, inscriptions and 
antique marbles for the embellishment of Ihe 
villa which may be considered as- a rich mu- 
seum of antiquities; in their distribution he was 
assisted by the celebrated Winkelmann , the re- 
storer of the arcbeological science. 

The principal casino is composed of a largo 


224 Fourth day 

apartment under which, towards the garden, is 
a fine portico with columns and statues ; the 
vestibule is decorated with modern stucco bas 
reliefs taken from the antique, with ancient 
statues representing an alhlet , a roman female 
under the form of Ceres, a nymph, a pretended 
Bruins , by some supposed to be Harmodius , 
by others an actor or rather a slave , and with 
the colossal masques of Medusa, Bacchus and 

Near the stairs are a relief of Rome trium- 
phant, sundry bas reliefs, an ancient painting said 
to be Livia the daughter of Octavia sacrificing 
to Mars. 

Along the stairs arc several Bas reliefs ; 
the children off Niobe struck, by lightning by 
Diana ; Philoctetes in the isle of Lemnos , two 
Bacebantes. In the round ball are two fine giallo 
antico columns , a statue of Faun , a bas relief 
of the prisons of a eircos and three cars drawn 
by Cupids. The ceiling was painted by Bicche- 
rai , the chiaroscuri by Lapiccola , the lands- 
capes by Paolo Anesi ; three rooms, containing 
landscapes and arras* works, lead to the gallery 
in which are a smalt bronze statue of Pallas , 
a Diana in alabaster with a bronze head, feet and 
hands ; the Farnese Hercules of Glycon in bronze ; 
another Pallas in alabaster with a bronze head, 
hands and feet ;. a small Diogenes, a Silenus and 
two small Fauns ; an Apollo in bronze, one of the 
finest statues in tlie collection ; the celebrated 
bas relief of the repose of Hercules , several 
small statues, one of esmerald representing Osiris, 
a green basalt Serapis of Canopus with egy— 
ptian symbols ; ten alabaster busts with grey ba- 


Fourth day 225 

sallic beads, various bas reliefs , five alabaster 
vises , and one of porphyry. The paintings in the 
following rooms are by Biccherai; in the third is a 
marble discus representing the combat between 
Apollo and Hercules to recover the tripod. 
Over the chimney is the celebrated bas relief 
of Antinous; the gallery is decorated with pilas- 
ters eigbt of which are covered with mosaics and 
ten are of various marbles. In two bas reliefs 
over the doors are trophies finely executed, but 
some of the Gnest in tbe collection are the Hespe- 
rides , Dedalns and Icarus; Alexander and Bu- 
cephalus ; the temple of Delphi and its sacred 
Erecincts ; Hebe pouring out nectar to Apollo, 
>iana and Latona, of the early Greek style; 
Marcos. Aaretius with Faustina holding a wand; 
statues of Jupiter, and of Pallas. On the ceiling 
is a fine painting by Meags representing Apollo 
and Mnemosioe on Parnassus in the midst of 
the nine muses ; the chiaroscuri works are by 
Lapiccola. In one of the adjoining rooms is a 
basrelief of the early Greek period representing 
Orpheus, Eurydice and Mercury; the paintings 
of the ceilings are by Biccherai . the chiaroscuri 
by Lapiccola. Near the vestibule is the atrium 
called of the Caryatides, decorated with fine 
works with a marble vase in the centre. Besi- 
des the caryatides which bear the inscription 
of the sculptors Grito and Nicolaus of Athens , 
this atrium contains the busts of Marcus Au- 
relius , Vespasian , Titus , Gapaneus in high re- 
lief struck by the lightning of Jove and a co- 
lolossal- masque of Silenus. 

In the long gallery are maoyhermes; those 
best ascertained are Alexander tbe great, Ho- 


226 Fourth day 

mcr , Epicurus , the celebrated Mercury with a 
greek and latin iuscription; a line statue of Faus- 
tina , two of Venus , a Muse , a Faun and a 

The portico of the casino is supported hj 
pilasters and 28 antique marble columns. A sta- 
tue representing one of the hours is in the act 
of dancing ; it contains statues of Juno Lucina, 
Tiberius , L. Verus , M. Aurelius , Antoninus 
Pius, Trajan, Hadrian, six friezes, six. masques 
in the niches , and a pavonazzelto vase. 

The atrium called of Juno , is of the same 
form and decoration as that of the caryatides, in 
the middle is a fine antique rase ; it contains tha 
■tatues of Juno , of two Caryatides, the busts of 
L. Verus, M. Aurelius, Socrates, Perliuax, a 
colossal head of a river placed on a round ara 
with a representation in nigh relief of a Roman 
triumphal dance. 

In the adjoining gallery are several hermes; 
those known are Euripides and Nunta , a statue 
of Hope in' the early greek style , one of Faun 
with an infant Bacchus , of Apollo , Diana , a 
priestess , and finally another Faun. 

The room with an ancient mosaic- pavement 
is decorated with two columns, one very beautiful 
of flowery alabaster found near the ancient na- 
vali in the Cesarini vineyard, two statues of 
Faun, a superb marble sarcophagus with the 
nuptials of Pelops and Thetis and other antique 

In the following cabinets, possessing many 
pieces of ancient sculpture, are busts of Berenice 
in porphyry, with a head of green basalt; those 
of Garacalta , Pertinax, Lueilla in rosso autico; 


Fourth day 227 

Btnong; the bas reliefs the most remarkable arc 
those of Diogenes in his tab discoursing with 
Alexander the great , of Dedalus preparing his 
wings, in rosso antico, several in terra cotla and 
a bust of Serapis. 

Id the II. cabinet eight columns , a fins 
Cupid a copy of the statue by Praxiteles; Atlas 
supporting the twelve signs of the Zodiac with 
Jupiter seated in the centre; a small statue of 
a fisherman placed on a triangular base on which 
are represented the three seasons into which the 
ancients divided the year; a white marble cuy 
32 palms in circumference with a has relief ex- 
pressing the labours of Hercules, found eight miles 
from Rome on that part of the via appia where 
Domitian raised a temple to Hercules. 

III. Cabinet. Six columns and numerous an- 
tique marbles; the most singular a hermes of 
« alabastro fiorito » with the head of Faun in 
rosso antico , a hermes of Priapns , a bust of 
L. Verus, cups of black granite and of africano 
supported by two young slaves , an ancient mo- 
saic representing the inundation of the Nile and 
a small has relief with the rare subject of Iphi- 
genia in Tauris. 

IV. Cabinet. Eight fluted columns and an- 
cient sculptures; an Apollo seated on a tripod , 
Lcda with a swan, on the outside several an- 
cient inscriptions and has reliefs, the most sin- 
gular one representing the combat between Achil- 
les and Memnon, a fragment of the entablature 
of Trajan's temple found in the ruins of his 

At a short distance from the casino is the 
billiard room; the portico is decorated with 14 


228 Fourtk rf«y 

column*, various berates, a bas relief and a chan- 
delier ; in the room are eight columns , an ala- 
baster cap, statues of a greek priest in the ear- 
ly style, of Ptolemy, Gela, Maximus, Bacchus 
and Hyacinth us. In the room opposite a superb 
bas relief of Berenice , the wife of Ptolemy Ever- 
getes , offering her hair in sacrifice for the safe 
return of her husband; the, adjoining room , 
adorned with 14 columns contains a slatue of 
Diana of Ephesus and a Syren; the paintings are 
by Fattori. 

Under the balustrade in the garden is a foun- 
tain with two caryatides and an urn of oriental 
granite sapporled by two greek sphinxes with 
the figure of the Nile in egyplian stone; another 
fountain rests also on caryatides ; near it arc 
the colossal busts of Titus and Trajan ; in the 
middle of tho garden is another fine fountain 
with a beautiful cap of white and black gra- 
nite 60 palms in circumference. 

At the end of the garden and opposite the 
casino is another fine edifice with a semicircular 
portico supported by pilasters and 26 granite 
columns; it contains the statues of Mercury, Achil- 
les , Apollo, Diana , Sappho, Hercules, Bacchus, 
two Caryatides , twenty small statues placed on 
columns and twenty busts or hermes ; those best 
known are jEsop, Crysippus, Hippocrates, Theo- 
phraslus, Isocrates, Horlensius the orator, Ca- 
ligula , Balbinus , Aurelian , and ten antique 

In the centre ot the portico is a large cop 
of Egyptian breccia , on the sides statues of a 
hero and of Jano. In the second vestibule two 
small statues of black egyplian marble,twospbinx- 


Fourth day 229 

es , four small liermes and six statues. A bas 
relief representing Ario , the son of Ceres and 
Neptune; in the gallery an antique mosaic and 
a painting by Lapiccola of a Bacchanalian fes- 
tival from Julio Romano ; the landscapes and 
sea pieces by Anesi, the small pieces by Bicctie- 
rai ; the statue of Juno on an antique mosaic 
representing a school of philosophy and a nymph 
on another mosaic representing Hesione exposed to 
the monster and liberated by Hercules. 

Behind Ibis edifice is another portico con- 
taining a colossal statue of Borne with a bas re- 
lief on the pedestal of Theseus raising the stone 
which concealed his father's sword; tbe statues 
of Augustas , Claudius , an ancient greek priest, 
a caryatides , various bas reliefs and antique 
monuments; out of the portico two captives, two 
bas reliefs and sundry antique marbles. 

In the garden, to the right of this circular 
portico, between two granite columns are a group 
of Pan and Olympus , the statues of Paris, Ju- 
piter, Julia Soemia, Proserpine and of a Naiad, 
and a mutilated statue in a broken edifice in 
imitation of the ruins of an ancient temple. 

The remaining part of the villa contains 
fountains , fish ponds, busts, hermes, sarcophagi, 
cups, urns, aras, bas reliefs , columns, ancient 
inscriptions and other precious monuments. This 
collection, as alreardy staled, was formed by Car- 
dinal Albani and illustrated by Winkelman who 
bas thrown a new light on the science of ar- 
chelogy. At a distance of two mile; and a half 
on the high road is the. 


230 Fourth day 

rosre SJUKIO. 

This bridge, situated on the Anio, having 
been destroyed by Tolila, was rebuilt by Narses 
after the victory be gained over the Goths, as 
ascertained by two inscriptions which existed 
till 1798. It was on this bridge that in the year 
350 before the christian era, the Gallic soldier 
was killed by Manlius who , from this feat took 
the name of « Torquatus » from the latin word 
Torques or collar , an ornament proper to the 
Gauls , which Manlius wore in token of his vi- 

On the right bank of the Anio near the 
bridge was the site of Antemnae one of the old 
est cities of Latium and the first conquest of 
Romulus. It stood on the hills at the confluence 
of the Anio and the Tiber. A quarter of a mile 
beyond the bridge is a tower formed of the blocks 
of an ancient unknown tomb. The tract of coun- 
try extending between the Anio and Fidenae , 
an ancient city placed near the villa Spada, at 
a distance of live miles from the Collina gate, 
together with the adjacent hills on the right , 
is celebrated in the early ages of Rome by ihe 
various combats of which it was the seat and" 

Eiarticularly by the battle between Tnllus Ilosli- 
ius , the Yeicnles, the Fidenates which occa- 
sioned the punishment of Melius Fusetius the 
Alban captain who was quartered in this plain, 
and the destruction of Alba. The site bears 
testimony to the precision of Livy in describing 
the topography of this combat. Returning to the 
city by Ihe porta Salaria on (he right is an iron 


Fourth day 231 

gateway in a vineyard called Mandosia which 
contains rains of 


The celebrated latin historian C. Crispins 
Sallostius , after his government of Africa for 
Julius C«esar , formed these magnificent gardens 
on the sides of the Qairinal, in the valley of the 
latter bill as far the present porta Pinciana. At 
his death they descended by inheritance to a 
nephew on his sister's side who died in the year 
20 of the present era , as related by Tacitus , 
when the whole property reverted to the im- 
perial domain. It is certain that it belonged to 
the Emperors under Nero who occasionally re- 
sided here ; Vespasian preferred these gardens 
to the Imperial palace ; Nerva finished here his 
days ; Aurelian after the conquest of Palmyra 
frequently fixed here his residence ; he used the 
Mill i arum portico for his chariot races , a spot 
*o called either from its length of a thousand 
feel, or for the number of its columns. 

In the year 409 Alaric entered Rome by 
the porta Salaria , fired and laid waste the edi- 
fice and gardens which from that period were 
never restored. It is easy to recognize the 
form of the circus in which the obelisk of the 
Triniti de' Monti was found , of remains of tho 
palace , of a temple probably of Venus men- 
tioned by Rufus, and an ancient inscription as 
existing in the gardens, very different from that of 
Venus Ericine, and magnificent substructions with 
niches supporting the Quirinal grounds. In the 
Parberini gardens which overlook the Mandosia 


232 Fourth day 

villa , the agger of Servius in distinctly seen ; 
here was the campus scelleratus , the sepulchre 
of the Vestals who had violated their vows; the 
walls of Serving Tallius built of large blocks of 
luffo are still visible in the part of the Barbe- 
rini grounds near modern Rome; these ruins by 
their historical certainty are amongst the most 
interesting of the City. 

villa tVDonsr 

This villa built by Cardinal Lodovico Lu- 
dovisi , the nephew of Gregory XV , now be- 
longs to the Duke of Sora Buoncompagni , whose 
permission is requisite to visit it. It occupies a 
part of the gardens of Sallnst in which many 
works of sculpture were found and confines with 
the city walls. 

The villa is composed of three casini , the 
principal one to the left was built on the de- 
signs of DonMnichino; on the facade are statues, 
busts and antique has reliefs. In the second ca- 
sino is a fine collection of antique works of 
sculpture : a bust of Pyrrhus in has relief, sta- 
tues of Esculapius, of Venus, Antoninus Pius, of 
Apollo ; busts of Claudius and Antinous ; a very 
fine head of Juno ; a statue of Mars in repose ; 
ft group of Apollo and Diana , a god Pan; sta- 
tues of Cleapatra , of a seated gladiator, Bac- 
chus , Mercury and one of Agrippina beautifully 
draped ; the celebrated group supposed to re- 
present the youth Papirius pretending to reveal 
to his mother the secret of the senate, though 
more probably Orestes in the act of recognizing 
his sister Electra , a greek work of Mercians, 


Fourth day 233 

the pupil of Stephen , as known by the inscri- 
ption ; another group equally celebrated sup- 
posed to represent Petus ia the act of supposing 
Arria his wife , falling in her dying moments , 
while with the other hand he plunges a dagger 
into his breast; (he third group represents Pluto 
carrying away Proserpine , by Bernini. 

In the third casino , situated in the cen- 
tre of the villa, is the celebrated fresco of Guer- 
cino representing Aurora seated on her car dri- 
ving night before her and scattering flowers. This 
work is considered to be the master piece of 
Guercino. In one of the lunettes is represented 
day break under the figure of a winged youth 
holding in one hand a torch , in the other flowers. 

In the lunette opposite Night appears under 
the figure of a female reading and falling asleep-, 
these works are also by Guercino; in the adjoin- 
sing room are four landscapes in fresco , two 
by Domenichino-, the ceiling of the next cham- 
ber painted by Zuccari contains a large porphyry 
bust of Marcus Anrelius with a bronze head. 

In ihe upper appartment is another pain- 
ling by Guercino representing Fame under the 
figure of a female blowing the trumpet and hold- 
ing an olive branch ; in the same room are six 
marble busts, one by Bernini , throughout the 
villa are statues, busts, bas-reliefs, urns and other 
antique marble works. 


This church was built at the expense of 
Prince Pamphilj in 1.614 on the designs of Baratti 
Cor the reformed Augualimans- On the facade is 


234 Fourth day 

a doable order of columD9 and in the interior 
are some good paintings.- S, Gellrude and S. Lu- 
cretia in the tbird chapel by Guercino ; the S. 
John Baptist by Baciccio ; the high altar was 
designed by Algardi who modelled the statues 
which were executed by two of his scholars , God 
the father by Ferrata, S. Nicholas by Guidi; 
the Garotti chapel , decorated with marble and 
other ornaments was designed by Pietro da Cor- 
Xona who painted the ceiliug and began tbe cu- 
pola which at his death was finished by Ferri. 
The has relief of the altar representing (he 
Madonna of Savona is by Fancelli. The Madonna 
in the chapel was painted by padre Rafl'aelle a 
capuchin, tbe other by Cades; the four columns 
supporting the organ are of a rare quality of 


In ancient limes thecircus of Flora where the 
floral games were celebrated ; the fountains were 
designed by Bernini; the one in the centre consisting 
of four dolphins holding a large shell in which is 
seated Triton blowing a horn and throwing up 
water to a considerable height ; the second foun- 
tain is formed by an open shell with three bees 
throwing water. On one. side of this piazza is 

TBH cuius a db' CJPPUCCI1H 

Built , together with (he convent , at (he 

i expense of Cardinal Barberini, a capuchin friar 

the brother of Urban VIII , (hough plain (lie 

church possesses many line works. In the first cha- 


Fourth day 235 

pel to the right is the archangel S. Michael by 
Guido Iteni; in the third S. Francis in exstacy 
hj Domenichiao , the S. Anthony in the fourth 
by Andrea Sacchi ; the Conception over the high 
altar by BombeUi, a pupil of Camuccini. In the 
following chapels S. Bonavenlura by Andrea Sae-p 
chi , and the nativity of our Saviour by Lnn- 
franc; the Christ in the third chapel is by Ca- 
massei ; the S. Felice in the last but one by 
Turchi 5 S. Paul cured by Ananias in the last 
chapel is one of the most correct works of Pietro 
da Cortona ; over the church door is (he cartoon 
of Giotto which served as a model for the mo- 
saic of the navicella now under the portico of 
the Vatican basilic. In the choir are some paintings 
by good authors, and in the sacristy an Ecce 
Homo, a S. Jerome in cartoon by Muziano, a 
portrait of fra Elia supposed to be by Giacinto 
the Pisan. Near the high altar is the tomb of 
Alexander Sobieski the son of John III king of 
Poland who died in Rome in 1714. 

This church and the annexed convent were 
built, in 1622 on the designs of the architect Ca- 
aoni; they now belong to the Irish osservanli 
of the order of S. Francis ; the paintings in the 
first chapel to the right are by Carlo Marat le 
who also painted the fine picture of the con- 
ception in the chapel to the left of the high al- 
tar; the S. bidore over the high altar is one of 
the best works of Andrea Sacchi, the paintings 
in the last chapel are also by Carlo Maralte. 


236 Fourth day 


i litis palace was built under the pontificate 
of Urban V1H of the Barberini family. It was 
begun on the designs of Carlo Borromini and 
finished in greater part by Bernini. It is one of 
the most magnificent palaces of Rome and con- 
tains some fine paintings. 

On the stairs are several statues and an 
antique lion , the frescoes of the great hall by 
Pietro da Corlona are considered by their in- 
vention , finish and execution as the best work 
of that artist. The subject alluded to is the pon- 
tificate of Urban VIII and the triumph of .glory 
expressed by the attributes of the Barberini 
house; the painter has divided the ceiling into fire 
compartments, with the Barberini arms in the 
centre raised to heaven by the virtues in pre- 
sence of providence, surrounded by time, the 
pares, eternity and several divinities. The first 
picture represents Minerva fulminating the giants , 
the second religion and faith ; on the sides plea- 
sure and Silenus , the third justice and abun- 
dance ; beneath charity and Hercules killing the 
Harpies , an allusion to the chastisement of the 
wicked. In the centre of the fourth, the church 
and prudence, beneath, the forge of Vulcan, and 
peace closing the temple of Janus. 

The apartments contain a fine collection of 
pictures , a portrait by Guido which it is cus- 
tomary to consider as that of Beatrice Gcnci , 
and one said to be the Fornarina. 

The Library which is open to the public 
on noondays and thurdays contains fifty thousand 
volumes and many valuable manuscripts^ 




Fourth day 237 

Id the adjoining gardens stood , it is ge- 
nerally beteived , the old Capitol built by Numa 
I'ompilius , composed of a small temple with 
three « edicoli n dedicated to Jupiter, Juno and 
Minerva. Similar « edicoli » were placed tu the 
temple of the Gapitoline Jove, when this tem- 
ple was called the old Capitol. 


The water furnished ■ by this splendid 
fountain is the celebrated Acqua Vergine so 
called from the springs having been pointed 
out to some soldiers by a young girl ; it was 
brought into Rome by Agrippa for the use of 
his therma; situated behind the Pantheon. The 
springs are about eight miles from Rome between 
the Tivoli and Palesirina roads, in a farm called 
■Salonev; the acqueduct is chiefly under ground, 
its extension about 14 miles; it was restored 
by Claudius and by Trajan. After passing near 
the Nomentano bridge it bends to the left and 
following the declivities of the Pincio passes 
through the villa Borghese, enters Rome by the 
Muro torto , proceeds to the Trinita de' Monti 
where it divides into two branches, one passing 
through the Via Condotti, the other leading to 
this fountain, 

Pius IV after having repaired the acqueduct 
built on this spot forming a trivio , or treble 
way, a fountain with three mouths, and from 
the word trivio it is supposed that the water 
and the fountain took the name of Trevi; Cle- 
ment XII changed the form altogether on the 
designs of Salri and raised the splendid fountain 


238 Fourth day 

that now exists ; the statues and bas reliefs he 
left in stucco were replaced by marble works 
under Clement XIII. 

The fountain , at one end of the Bnon- 
compagni palace , is decorated with four co- 
lumns and with corinlhian pilasters of travertine; 
between (he columns are bas reliefs , over the 
cornice is an attic order with four statues and 
the arms of Clement XII; from a mass of rock 
springs a body of water which falls into a large 
white marble cup. In the great niche supported 
by four columns is a colossal statue of the Ocean 
standing in a car formed of shells and drawn 
by two sea horses guided by Tritons ; In the 
lateral niches are the statues of salubrity and 
of abundance by Valle , over which are bas re- 
liefs of Marcus Agrippa and of the young girl 
who indicated the springs , the works of Bre- 
gondi and Grassi; the four travertine statues on 
the columns represent the abundance of (lowers, 
the fertility of the country , the riches of au- 
tumn and the beauty of the meadows. On the 
piazza of the fountain is the 

cbvucb op ss. rmcsKzo ed axastasio. 

Which was granted by Clement IX to the 
order of the « minori regolari » who attend the 
infirm. It was rebuilt by Cardinal Mazzarini on 
the designs of Martino Lunghi , who decorated 
the facade with corinlhian and composite co- 
lumns ; in the church are paintings by Pietri , 
Procaccini , Francesco Rosa and Tommast. 

As this is a pontilical parish from its in- 
cluding the Quirinal palace, it is customary to 


Fourth day 239 

preserve in a subterranean chapel the interior 
parts of the bodies of the deceased Popes; from 
Sixtus V to Pius Vlll Ike separate inscriptions 
are engraved on stone near the high altar. To 
the right of the fountain is the church of S. 
Maria a Trevi of a very remote origin having 
been built by Belisarius, as stated in the inscrip- 
tion on the external part. It was ceded to the 
« chierici rcgolari degl 1 infermi ■> by Clement XIII 
and under Alexander VII the church was rebuilt 
on the designs of Del Duca. The paintings iu the 
interior are by Bolognese , Gennari , Morelli , 
Scaramuccia , and Gherardi. 

To the left of the church is the piazza Poli 
and the Buoncompagui palace ; in the palazzo 
del Bufalo is a monument of the acqua Vcrgiue 
built by Claudius. 


At the period of its foundation Home was unin- 
habited in this direction and the church derived 
its denomination from the gardens and vineyards 
among which it was placed. The church and 
convent were built by the Bufalo family tor the 
padri minimi of the order of S. Francois de 
Paale , on the designs of Guerra; the cupola and 
belfry on those of Borromini; the chapel of S. 
Francesco di Paola is decorated with line mar- 
bles ; the angels near the high altar are by 
Bernini ; the painting of the martyrdom of b. 
Andrew iu the centre of the tribune of the high 
altar is by Baldi , the picture to the right by 
Tvevisam, the one to the left by Leonardi, those 
of the tribune and cupola by Mariui. Under the 


240 Fourth day 

ailar of the adjoining chapel is a line statue 
representing the death of S. Anne by Pacetli. 
In this church are the tombs of several artists 
distinguished in their day, Angelica KauETman , 
Zooga the archeologisl , and of the painter 
Scbadow. The paintings in the cloister relate to 
acts of S. Francesco di Paola ; at the entrance 
is the tomb of a Morocco prince who died in 
Rome in 1739 where he abjured Islamism; in 
i 733 he had taken up arms against his uncle the 
sovereign of Morocco , fled to Spain and thence 
to Rome. 


y This piazza derives its appellation from the 
palace of the Spanish Legation, and is the part 
ot* Rome most frequented by travellers. In the 
middle is a tine fountain placed by Urban VIII 
commonly called the « Barcaccia » from the form 
of a barque given to it by the elder Bernini. 

Nearly opposite is a literary establishment 
at No. 79 where the present guide is published 
containing reading rooms and a circulating li- 
brary of English and American papers and pub- 
lications. Commissions are received for all 
english and foreign works, there is a book of ad- 
dresses of strangers. Attached to the establish- 
ment is an agency for the packing and shipment of 
works of art at fixed and reasonable rates. At No* 
69 a depot of the costumes of Rome and of 
the adjacent country, engraviugs of the Papal 
functions , and a choice collection of coloured 
views of Rome executed by distinguished artists. 





i 1 


Fourth day 24 J 

At (he extremity of the piazza is the col- 
lege of Propaganda Fide , commenced on the 
designs of Bernini and finished by Borromini. 
It was founded by Gregory XV and by Urban 
VIII for the reception of youths of all nations 
who are instructed in the theological sciences 
and destined to propagate the cathotic faith in 
(he most distant countries. 

What adds to the decoration of this piazia 
is the lioe flight of steps leading (o the Trinita 
de' Monti on the Pincio. It was begun under In- 
nocent XIII at the expense of H. de Gouffier, 
a french gentleman , on the designs of Speech i 
and was finished under Benedict XIIT. 

Tbe piazza di Spagaa is supposed to oc- 
cupy the site of the Nanmacbia of Domitian in 
which naval combats were performed for tbe 
diversion of the people and the exercise of youth 
in maritime warfare. 

Various streets branch off from this piazza; ' 
(he one opposite the steps is called the ■ Con- 
dolti » from the passage of the aequeducls of 
(lie Acqua Vergine. 


About the middle of this street is this 
piazza to form which Don Marino Torlonia, 
Duke of liracciaiso, caused several houses to be 
demolished, and on the designs of the architect 
Sarti built the hotel <T Angle lerrc one of llie 
best and most comfortable in Borne, extending 
along (he via Borgognona , a street which has 
been embellished and in a great measure rebuilt 
by the Duke. 



242 Fourth day 

On the piazza is Ihe palace in which he 
resides , formerly the Nuoez palace , built on 
the designs of Antonio de'Rossi. After belonging 
to Luc i an Buonaparte , Prince of Canino, il was 
purchased by the present Duke of Bracciano. 
One wing extends 
other on the via B 
the piazza. It has ! 
the designs of Sari 
member of the act 
made the fine staii 
on the ground floor • 
culed by able artists 
in fresco , in watei 
with the picture u 

In (he new wing on the side of the via Bar- 
gognona is the chapel with frescoes by Morani. 

Amongst the pictures existing in the palace 
those most distinguished by their merit are the 
following : the interior of S. Peter's by BombelU; 
the church of S. Paul without Ihe walls before 
its destruction by fire, BombelU; Torquato Tasso 
at S. Onofrio, Agrtcola; the entry of Francesco 
Sforza into Milan, Camuccini; the death of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci , Cavallert ; Coriolanus before 
the walls of Rome, Camucciui; the roman ladies 
offering their jewels to (he Consul for the expen- 
ces of the war , Camuccini; a portrait , size of 
life , of the Duke Salvator Gesarini , Agrtcola; 
Tasso and Eleonora by Count Mar tinengo; Lucia 
receiving Cardinal Borromeo , a subject taken 
from the « betrothed lovers » of Manzoni , by 
Coghetti ; Faith by Sigueira a Portuguese ; the 
Crucifixion of our Saviour by lUttxut formerly 




Fourth day 243 

In the Fesch gallery ; an old man mending a 
pen , a Flemiik piece ; a large landscape re- 
presenting « Muzio Altendolo Sforza » (hrowiog 
his hatchet on a tree and as it remained there 
he embraced the career of arms, by Hie Marquis 
if Axelio, the author of many celebrated histo- 
rical romances. The palace is embellished with 
stucco and other ornamental works, and is fur- 
nished in a style uniting elegance to splendour. 
The street towards the north west of piazza 
di Spagna is called Baboino from the statue of 
a satjr disfigured by time placed over a foun- 
tain. At the top of the steps is the 


V This obelisk was raised in 1789 by Pins YI 
Under the direction of Anliuori. It is of egyptian 
granite with hieroglyphics, 65 palms high without 
the pedestal, and formerly stood in the circus 
of the gardens of Sal lust. It was found in a corner 
of the piazza Later ana, having been taken there 
under Clement XII who intended to place it near 
the principal opening of the basilic. 

The church of the Trinila de' Monti so called 
from being situated on the Pincian which was 
not comprized in the seven hills but was origi- 
nally called « Col lis Hortorum » from being oc- 
cupied by the gardens of Sallust, of Lucullus and 
Domilian. The church with the annexed convent 
once belonged to the minimes of ti. Francois da 
Paole but is now the properly of the french 
nans of the Saeri Caur. It was founded by 
Charles VIII king of France at the instance of 
S. Francois do Paolo in 1494 and was conse- 


241 Fourth day 

crated by Siitus V in 1585. The Cardinal de 
Macon adorned it with paintings; about the year 
1793 it was abandoned and was closed till 1816 
when it was reestablished by Louis XVIII king 
of France on (he designs of Mazois; it has been 
subsequently embellished with paintings by the 
students of the french academy.. 

In (he first chapel to (he left is Christ libe- 
rating the demoniac , by Forestier; the frescoes 
representing various acts of the Redeemer's pas- 
sion are by Nebbia. In (he next chapel a gra- 
ceful slalue of the Virgin , a copy of the Ma- 
donna della Seggiola , frescoes of Adam aud Eve, 
and the nativity of Christ by Cesare di Piemontc; 
those on the ceiling by Cedaspe , a Spaniard ; 
between the pilasters a Daniel by Dupre and a 
David ; (he picture in (he third chapel is a copy 
of the celebrated painting of (he deposition from 
(he cross by Daniel da Volterra which is pre- 
served in the sacristy ; this copy is supposed 
to be by Nicholas Poussin; - the frescoes are also 
by Volterra ; the S. Victor over the pilaster to 
the right is by Dupre. In the fourth chapel is 
a fine « Ecce homo » by Biscara. Id tbe follow- 
ing chapel is the apparition of the Redeemer to 
the Magdalen. In the sixth is a large painting 
by Tbevenin representing S. Louis IX depositing 
on the altar (he crown of thorns brought from 
the holy land; the frescoes of the altar by Pterin 
del Vaga represent various acts of (he Madonna; 
the Assumption also in fresco was commenced 
by Taddeo , and finished by Frederick, Zuccari 
who painted (he coronation of (he Virgin over 
(he sacristy door. In (he sacristy is the cele- 
brated picture of (he deposition of Christ , a 


Fourth day 245 

classic work by Daniel da Volterra, to which" 
has been assigned the second place after the 
transfiguration of Raphael ; it has suffered much 
in the colouring bat the design and composition 
are full of merit; the high altar has been raised 
on the designs of Champagne; in the little chapel 
opposite is a repose in Egypt by .Schnetz ; the 
frescoes in the chapel after that of S. Francis 
are by an unknown hand and resemble the ancient 
style; they represent [he resurrection, assumption, 
the coming of the holy Ghost. In the following 
•bapel , the fifth to the right entrance, are fres- 
coes of the school of Raphael, the flagellation 
in the next chapel is by Pailliere, the- frescoes 
by Paris Nogan; the paintings of the last chapel 
but one were executed on the designs of Daniel 
da Volterra by his scholars Alberti, Rosetti etc; 
the picture in the following chapel of Christ 
giving the keys to S. Peter is by Ingres^; in the 
last chapel the baptism of Christ and the frescoes 
are by Naldini. 

At the end of the road to the right of Ibis 
church is the entrance to the public garden made 
under Pius VII by the architect Valadier. In 1 822 
the egyptian obelisk found in the Vatican gardens 
was raised on Ibis spot. 


J . This palace , together with the villa , was 
began by Cardinal Ricui in 1550 on the designs 
of Lippi , excepting the facade towards the villa 
which is attributed (o Buonaroti. It was pur- 
chased by Cardinal Alexander de'Medici* elected 
to (be papacy under the name of Leo XI, who 


246 Fourth day 

embellished it and although within the walls it is 
a mile and a half in circuit; the situation com- 
mands nearly the whole horizon presenting to the 
eye a gallery of landscapes and of architecture. 
The palace and villa having passed into 
tht! possession of France, it is now the academy 
of the line arts founded in Rome by Louis XIV 
in 1 666. The academy is composed of a director 
and of sixteen pensioners selected amongst the 
students who have obtained at Paris the pre- 
miums in sculpture , painting and architecture. 
It contains a collection of casts of the master 
pieces of ancient sculpture scattered in the mu- 
seums and galleries of Koine, and of books treat- 
ing of the fine arts. The pnblic walk of the 
Pincio leads to the piazza and porta del Popolo 
beyond which is the entrance to 

the villa Minr.iiEsf: 

i This villa, belonging to the Bbrghese family, 
was formed under the pontificate of Paul V by 
Cardinal Scipio Borghese on the designs of Van- 
sanzio a fleroing. It was enlarged at the close 
of the last century by the Prince Don Marcan- 
tonio , and has been greatly embellished by his 
sons the Princes Gamillo and Francesco, on the 
designs of Canina the architect. To the first 
epoch of the villa belongs the eastern pari; to 
the second the central, and to the third the west- 
ern part comprizing the splendid entrance near 
the Popolo gate built on the model of the most 
celebrated propilei of Greece and Asia Minor, 
taken from the temples of Athens , of Kleusis, 
Minerva Suniades and Minerva Priensis, and for- 


Fourth day 247 

ming by the elegance of the work a perfect mo- 
nument of the greek style. The carriage entrance 
is through, two fine telrastyle porticoes of the 
doric order with a cella on each side. Over the 
porticoes are an eagle and a dragon, the arms 
of the proprietors, at the end of the large alley is 
a fountain where the road branches off into 
two directions ; on that to the left is a trium- 
phal arch on the model of the antique with a 
statue of Septimins Severus between two slaves; 
behind it is the lake embellished with a telras- 
tyle temple and an antique statue of Escula- 
pius. The road to the right passes through the 
pylon of an Egyptian temple before which are 
two obelisks with hieroglyphics ; these monu- 
ments unite the new villa to that of the Prince 
Hare' Antonio. Near theancient entrance to the 
right, formed on the design of that of the Adrians 
villa , an angle of the Muro Torto is perceived, 
which bad the same bend in the time ofBeli- 
sarius. This wall belongs to the latter period 
of the Republic having been built, together with 
the adjacent substructions , by Domitius Mno- 
barbus to prop up the horti Domitii; to the 
right of the entrance into the middle villa is 
-the casino of Raphael. At a short distance after 
passing the acqnednct of the acqua Alessandrina 
is the temple dedicated te Diana, and the valley 
serving as an hippodrome of tlie same dimen- 
sions' as the piazza di Siena. Opposite, a temple 
in rains- sacred to Antoninus and Faustina, and 
near it a kind of fcndal castle ; on the road 
leading to the villa a fine fountain decorated 
with four horses. 


Fourth day 


The palace was by Cardinal Scipio 
BoTgfaese on the designs of Vaasanzio ; the in- 
terior -was renewed by Don Marc'Antonio who 
formed the museum of ancient sculpture which 
was transferred to Paris in 1 808;a new collect- 
ion has been subsequently made under the 
direction of the architect Canina and of the 
sculptors d'Este and Laboureur. 

The portico 90 palms in length and 20 is 
breadth is divided by five large arches mixed 
with dork pilasters ; the two has reliefs repre- 
senting triumphs belonged to the arch of Clau- 
dius , on the piazza Sciarra ; the colossal torsi 
are finely executed ; a bas relief represents a 
battle between the Romans and the northern bar- 
barians; another is allusive to the origin of Borne; 
a rare monument is that of Orvius and Corvius 
Kasica represen lingua magistrate preceded by three 
lictors, and the figure relating to Julius Miletus 
who designed labyrinths ; to Flavia Variana, the 
daughter of Flavins a freed man of Vespasian and 
Titos , found at Gabii in 1 792 ; the Saloon is 
90 palms long , 60 wide and 76 higbj the cei» 
li*f painted by Rossi in fresco represents th* 
combat between Camillas and Brennos; the fi- 
gures of animals are by Peter , the cameos in 
relief by Pacelti , Monti , Laboureur, Carradoci 
and Salamei; the circular bas reliefs over the 
doors and windows by some of these artists; on 
these have been placed the busts of the twelve 
Cesars, the heads of white marble, the drape- 
ries in antique coloured marbles; eight junk 


Fourth (fey 249 

granite columns of (he Simplou , tbe pedestals 
of which lined with seme santo , a rare brec- 
cia , support figures in relief aud the Borghese 

At the left entrance is a statue of Diana 
to which the restorer has given the head of a 
roman matron and the attributes of Lucina ; 
a fine antique head of Vespasian in pentelic mar- 
ble on a. bust of porta santa ; a fine colossal 
head of Isis with the lotus ; a dancing Faun lar- 
ger than nature on a pedestal with an antique 
Bacchanalian has relief ; the colossal heads of 
bis and of Diana of an exquisite work with 
the ears bored , an indication of the inaurts 
or earrings; a head of Tiberius , an ancient sta- 
tue of Jupiter with the eagle at his feet resto- 
red for a Dorailian and placed on a sepulchral 
ara ; a statue of Meleager in repose of fine exe- 
cution ; one of Caligula wearing the toga the pe- 
destal being -a very fine sepulchral ara of 1'ta- 
via Dafne. Over the door is a bas relief of a Bac- 
chanalian festival and -a figure on horseback res- 
tored for a Curlius, forming part af a larger mo- 
nument, a Gael; draped statue of a priestess on 
a quadrilateral sepulchre on which is an inte- 
resting epitaph in greek verse of a celebrated 
dancer named Musa ; a Faun striking the cym- 
bals, a statue with the toga on a square ara 
representing a sacrifice to Mineiva; a head of Yes* 
pasian in porphyry on a bust of flowery ala- 
baster ; a colossal head of Adrian in fine pre- 
servation , on tbe pedestal an antique bas relief 
of a nereid ; a statue of Bacchus crowned with 
ivy on a pedestal with the bas relief of a sa- 
crifice to Bacchus ; a colossal head of Antoni- 


350 Fourth day 

not of a very fine work and in perfect preser- 
vation ; a head of Adrian and a fine statue of 
Diana. Of CSKES 

This hall derives its name from its princi- 
pal monument : it is ornamented with Anted 
pilasters of the composite order and stuccoes 
modelled on the antique by Pacetti and Penna; 
the ceiling is divided into various grotesque com- 
partments by Marchetti with fifty mythological 
subjects by De Angelis. In the middle of the hall 
is a pentelic marble vase with bas reliefs and 
ivy leaves placed on a triangular chandelier of 
very ancient work, representing Bacchus, Mer- 
cery and Venus; near this vase are two cups of 
porphyry on granite pedestals ; around the hall 
to the left is a very fine greek hermes of Apollo 
in pentelic marble ; a statue of Urania of an 
elegant execution on a round ara covered with 
Bacchanalian bas reliefs ; a statue of Geres in pen* 
lalic marble of exquisite work, the site of oar 
tnrc, which may be considered as the finest known 
at this goddess and one of the most celebrated 
works of sculpture ; a Venus in the act of drop- 
ping the peplon and preparing for the bath , a 
work of the fine period of art placed on a round 
Bacchanalian ara; a bas relief representing a phi- 
losopher followed by an old woman carrying a 
basket of fruit. In the niche a fine portrait of 
Alcibiades larger than life; another bas relief re- 
presents five of the muses before a portico ; 
in the niches busts of Diadnmenianus , of Julia 
Pia, the rape of Cassandra in bas relief; a bust 


Fourth day 251 

of Caracalla in his youth; a Sue bearded bermes 
of Bacchus of the greek chisel ; a female statue 
unknown standing on a fine round ara sacred 
to Jupiter , another veiled female statue ; on* 
of Polyninia, restored as Flora, on a round ara 
representing a sacrifice; the celebrated has re- 
lief of the education of Telephos , an exquisite 
work of the time of Hadrian resembling a ca- 
meo, found in 1760 in the farm of « Torre naova»; 
a head of Seplimins S« verus; two busts unknown; 
a chandelier with leaves , a Venus and Cupid; 
a has relief of Apollo with four muses ; Cupid 
on horseback and an eagle holding a thunder- 
bolt ; two unknown busts and one of Galba. 

II. Hall of Hercules, so called from con- 
taining subjects relative to that hero. It is filled 
with camej separated into compartments by Rt- 
ghi ; on the ceiling is the fall of Phaeton by 
taccianiga. In the centre an Amazon who has 
overcome Hercules and Theseus ; the pedestal is 
modern , the has reliefs placed on it are antique. 
Beginning by the left from the hall of Ceres, a 
head of Antoninus Pius ; in a niche a fine sta- 
tue of Hercules draped tike the Farnese Hercu- 
les ; beneath a large sarcophagus expressing five 
of the labours of Hercules t the death of the Ne- 
mcan lion , the killing the hydra , the Erimant- 
bean boar, the stag with the bronze feet, the 
destruction of the stymphalides. On the lid are 
two large masques and in the centre a rich com- 
position of the arrival of the Amazons to the 
assistance of Troy. A colossal head of Hercules 
•overed with the lion's skin taken from the se- 
pulchral ara of Lucius Eutichianus. In a niche a 
female bust unknown ; a fine vase of phrygian 


232 Fourth day 

marble on a cippns ; a bust of the elder Paul- 
ina ; a hermes of Sylvanus , a sarcophagus with 
Tritons and Nereids ; a fine architectural orna- 
ment ; a bas relief representing ibe three Capi- 
toline divinities between the Dioscuri , the sun 
and moon , a hermes of Faun ; in the niche a 
bust of Sabina , a pavonazzetto vase, a bust of 
Juno veiled and wearing the diadem ; a colossal 
head of Pertinax on the sepulchral ara of Clau- 
dius Felix; within a niche a statue of Hercules 
crowned with ivy , holding in his right hand the 
elava, in his left the apples of the garden of 
the Mesperides. The sarcophagus beneath, by the 
size , execution and subject of the bas reliels , is 
analagoos to the one already described ; it re- 
lates to live other labours of Hercules: tho victory 
over the Marathon bull , over Geryon , the Ama- 
zon , Echidna , and the centaur Nessus ; on tho 
lid two large masques , several figures of gods -, 
in the centre Jupiter holding a spear with a 
globe at his foot and near him Hebe and Gany- 
mede; Thetis taken away from her father Nereus 
to be given in marriage to Peleus. In a niche a 
bast of Alexander of line work , a child on a 
column of red granite; in the niche the bust 
of a female unknown. On the pedestal bearing 
an inscription to Titus Trifonius is a fine statu** 
of Venus ■ on a quadrilateral ara sacred to Apollo 
and Diana having symbols of the crow, (he stag , 
(he lyre and the dog, is a small statue of Diana 
and on a pedestal inscribed to M. Ulpius Eliades 
a statue of Apollo with the lyre ; the last mo- 
nument of this hall is a small seated statue of 
Anacreon crowned with vine leaves , holding in 

,. Google 

Fourth day 253 

his right hand a Lunch of grapes , in his left a 
cup; it is placed on a column of red granite. 
III. Hall of Apollo and Daphne so called 
from the celebrated group of this subject by 
Bernini. It has suffered less than others in its 
decoration and contains many remarkable mo- 
numents of modern sculpture , sixteen pilasters 
and four red granite egyptiau columns on a gra- 
nite basement with capitals of a curious com- 
position; the first landscape by Moore represents 
the celebrated valley of Tempe in Thessaly; the 
second by Labruzzi, Daphne and Apollo in (he 
midst of a fine country scenery ; the paintings of 
animals by Peter are finely coloured and exe- 
cuted. On the ceiling is an oil painting by An- 
geletti of Apollo and Daphne. In the centre of 
the hall is the celebrated group , of a natural 
size, of Apollo and Daphne by Bernini ; if justly 
criticized as mannered and wanting in truth it 
is admired for the perfection of the work ; it 
stands on a pedestal analogous to the monument 
and the inscriptions allude to the subject; one 
is by Barberini who became Pope Urban VIII, 
the other is taken from the metamorphoses of 
Ovid. On the left of the hall of Hercules is a 
modern dark grey figure with while drapery hol- 
ding a dog and caressing a child , a work of 
Ibe XVII century; it stands on an antique chan- 
delier similar by the subject and the work to 
the one still existing in Ihe church of S. Agnes 
without the walls. In the niche is a modern group 
representing jEneas bearing Anchises , his Pe- 
nates, and followed by Ascanius carrying the 
sacred fire , it is undecided whether the work 
is by Bernini or by his father Piclro ; to the right 


254 Fourth day 

and left are a modern and antique gronp of a 
stag and goat. Opposite the group of jEneas is 
an image of sleep under ihe figure of a child 
in nero antico with the attributes of a dormouse 
and a poppy ; a child in pentelic marble hold- 
ing a duck in each hand , an antique work ; a 
fine vase with a bas relief allusive to winter by 
Labourcur who executed the three others re- 
presenting the other seasons ; the two children 
playing wilh a goat are of the XVI century; 
David in the act of lancing the sling at Go- 
liath , a statue praised by Bernini for its expres- 
sion ; a modern group of three children sleeping 
on a nero antico table of the XVII century. A 
fine antique bust of pentelic marble representing 
Lucilla, larger than life, standiug on a red gra- 
nite column , and a lion in alabaster. 

In ihe cabinet a fine granite table wilh an 
alabaster cup; busts of Marcus Aurclius in his 
youth, and of Sabina the wife of Hadrian. 

The Gallery, paralell and equal in length 
to the saloon, is adorned with ten giallo antico 
pilasters with gilt capitals ; between each pilaster 
is an hexagonc cameo of statuary marble on a 
blue mosaic ground ; above are eleven bas re- 
liefs by Carradori , Laboureur , Penna , fiighi , 
Pacetti and Salimboni who also executed the 
camei on the designs of Gonca ; the arabesques 
are by Marchetli , the Galatea by Da Augelis. 
Over the lateral doors arc four has reliefs al- 
lusive to the seasons ; the monuments are placed 
in niches or on cipollino and granite columns; 
those in the niches represent a muse restored 
with a comic masque, two Dianas , two Bacchus , 
and Thetis with the peplon; those on columns 


Fourth day 255 

a small stalne of Telephorus , Bacchus, a young 
faun , a Venus , Paris , a nymph , an infant 
Hercules; another Telesphorus , a bacchante , a 
faun ; a third Telesphorus , Achilles , a priestess 
of Isis, two statues of Venus; a portrait unknown 
of a youth represented as Hercules, a hero with 
the chlamis , a statue unknown, Pallas and Fann, 
several porphyry busts of emperors ; a sarcogha- 
gos in porphyry said to have been found in the 
mausoleum of Hadrian ; four porphyry tables , 
several alabaster vases and cups particularly one 
in ophii a very rare stone described by Pliny. 

cabihet of tbk nsmuPBuooiTt 

So called from the celebrated statue of Pa- 
rian marble found near the church « delta Vic- 
toria ■ under Paul V; the pavement is composed 
of an ancient mosaic with graceful meanders; in 
the centre a fishing boat with two fishermen 
found at « caslello Arcione » on the Tiburtino 
way. The niche apposite the hermaphrodite was 
painted by Marchcili , the oil paintings are by 
Buonviciui , the landscapes over the doors by 
Ultikins. On the left a female statue unknown 
restored with a comic masque ; a Bacchus bet- 
ween two ciipids , one playing with a bird , Ihe 
other weeping from having his legs fettered ; 
a male statue unknown , and in an edicola sup- 
ported by red porphyry columns, the celebrated 
stalne of the hermaphrodite which , though cor- 
roded by earth and deprived of its epidermis , 
stilt preserves tbe greater part of its beauty by 
the truth of the design and execution. Near it 
are an alabaster and a breccia corallina vase , 


256 Fourth day 

copies of the child in the capitol , and of the 
recumbent Venus of the Vatican ; heads of Ti- 
berius , Scipio Africanus , a bust of the genius 
of the Roman people , a hermes of Mercury and 
a richly worked florentine table with rare and 
precious stones on which is a small group of 
Venus and Mars. 

IV. Hall of Apollo j so called from a rare 
statue of that god ; the hall contains sixteen 
pilasters , four massive columns of breccia co- 
rallina 1 6 palms high , with basement of Spanish 
brocalello; the council of the gods is by Pecbeux: 
the has reliefs representing the pyrrhic dance of 
the Corybantes by Pacetti , tbe landscapes by 
Thiers; In tbe centre a large chandelier of Lnni 
marble ornamented with masques , arabesques , 
animals , and leaves ; a statue of Pallas on a table 
of red oriental granite , a fine rosso antico cap 
with three handles between two marble vases of 
nero antico , with handles in the form of eagles' 
beads, and an alabaster vase with dolphins. The 
statue of Apollo holding the griffin in the right 
band and placed near a tripod is of pentelic 
marble, of the early greek style and very im- 
portant for the history of art. Near the windows 
to the north are two splendid nero antico vases 
with serpents for handles ; a colossal head of 
Lucilla on a cipollino column ; a portrait of 
Panl V in bronze has relief; a female recum- 
bent figure, formerly on the lid of a sarcophagus , 
holding poppies ; three alto relief roman portraits 
unknown ; the statue of a nymph holding a cup 
similar to one in the Vatican museum; over a red 
granite table a bas relief representing a festival 
by the fleming ; the infants in nero antico on a 


Fourth day 257 

ground of lapis lazznli ; a Leda finer than the 
one in the Capitol by the style and preservation ; 
a female veiled statue unknown ; a male recum- 
bent statue with the toga on a sarcophagus car- 
Ted with Tritons and Nereids; Eseulapius with a 

V. Or Egyptian hall , the decorations are 
very splendid ; on each side are four red orieu- 
tal pilasters , near the doors leading to the sa- 
loon columns of nero anlico, the « edicole»sup- 
ported by granite columns, the paintings by Conca, 
in the centre a fine group of Faun riding on a 
dolphin , a vase of oriental alabaster on a gra- 
nite cippus , a fine statue of Isis , a rare rose 
alabaster vase , a hermes of Bacchus crowned 
with ivy, (lie head of bronzo , the hermes of 
alabaster; the first side is completed by an oval 
granite cup on a pedestal of colonna granite; 
on a black pedestal is a sphinx in basalt, in an 
■ edicola » a statue of Ceres with a grey mar- 
ble drapery, on the third side an oval cup on 
a granite stand, » Btalue of a draped gypsy a 
work of the XVIII century; a female statue un- 
known of the early greek style between two fine 
alabaster vases. On the last side is a beatifol 
vase of ophix , unique by its rarity, by the exe- 
cution and elegance of the form; it is between 
two porphyry and two alabaster vases, the pa- 
vement contains a mosaic representing the "fa- 
int » of the ancient Italians ; a hermes of Bacchus 
with a bronze bead and bast of flowery alabaster. 

VL Hall of Bacchus so called from a group 

«f the early greek style representing Bacchus 

and Proserpine , a rare monument of the ancient 

Iheognny ;. the has reliefs over the doors are hj 

J t9 ■ * 


258 Fourth day 

Righi , the paintings by Concha , the ornaments 
by Marchetti ; ia tbe centre a chandelier for- 
ming a group of three female figures -with si- 
lenic masques and leaves, standing on an ara of 
victory ; to the left of the egyptian hall a Ceres 
veiled and wearing a diadem, a seated Mercury 
with the pallium , on the pedestal an antique 
bas relief representing two genii and a Triton; 
another bas relief with Polymnia , Thalia, Mel- 
pomene , Euterpe , Erato and their attributes , 
a fine Faun striking the ty tubal , a female bust 
unknown , a faun copied from the statue of 
Praxiteles, Pluto with Cerberus at his feet. Above 
a bacchanalian bas relief; a statue of Antoninus 
Pius , a satyr playing on the bag pipe placed on 
the sepulchral monument of C- Julius Metro- 
dorus ; (he fragment of a bas relief representing 
tbe death of Adonis , a pretended bust of Se- 
neca , the statue of a young female unknown , 
a philosopher sealed; the muses Clio, Urania, 
Erato and Terpsichore in bas relief, portrait of 
a female restored as Tbalia j a head of Scipio 
Africanus , a female statue, a portrait under the 
form of a muse to which the restorer has ad- 
ded the attribute of a patera , a rare group of 
Liberus aod Libera , or Bacchus and Proserpine,, 
a fine statue of Polymnia aod a female bust unk- 
nown under the form of Venus ; a has relief re- 
presenting uereids and cupids riding on Tritons 
carrying a shell, supported by another cupid bet- 
ween whom is Venus holding the torch. 

On tbe second floor are chimoies of ame- 
thyst, rosso antico, porphyry and some fine paint- 
tings , amongst others a portrait of Paul V 
by Cararaggio ; pictures by Peter representing 


Fourth day 259 

animals , others by Gavin Hamilton , statues of 
Paris and Helen by Penna , four bas reliefs of 
giallo-on a porphyry ground by Paeetli; this 
floor commands an extensive view of the envi- 
rons of Rome. To the right of the villa is 


So called from the Pincian hill on -which 
it is situated , and closed as not being requisite 
at the present day. It was originally bnill by 
Honorius and repaired by Bclisarius who called 
it after his own name , but il soon resumed its 
primitive appellation. It has been related that 
this celebrated captain incurred the displeasure 
of Justinian , that blind and miserable he was 
compelled to ask alms, but Mnratori bas long 
since proved by positive documents that this 
tradition is altogether fabulous. 




It is stated in the first day that from 
the piazza del popolo three streets lead to the 
interior of the city ; the one to the right is 
called Ripella from a landing palace on the Tiber. 
Before arming at this spot, in a street to the- 
left , the via Pontcfici , is the Gorrea palace 
containing the ruins of the 

tt j Usui sun or jtraasrvs 

/ Sretooius, speaking of the funeral of Au- 
gustas , determines the position of (his celebra- 
ted monument called a mausoleum from its mag- 
nificence , in imitation of the sepulchre erected. 
by Artemisia to her husband Mausoleus king of 
Caria, Sretonius says that the ashes of Augustus, 
were placed in. the mausoleum he built between 


Fifth day 261 

the via Flaminia and the Tiber in his siith 
consulship, the year 27 of the present era, and 
that he left to the public the woods and walks 
which surrounded it; reliquias hgerunt .... ac 
Mausolea condiderunt. Id opus inter Flaminiam 
viam, ripamqut Tiberit, sexto sua consulate ex- 
truxerat, circumjectasque sylvas et ambulations 
in usum populi tune jam pnblicarat. This pas- 
sage suffices to prove that the ruins in question 
belonged to this mausoleum and Seneca, speaking 
of Claudius who was buried here says « that he 
« descended into the lower regions between the 
« Tiber and a straight fine » indicating the via 
Flaminia of which the present Corso follows ihe 
the direction : et inter Tiberim et viam rectam 
destendit ad inferos. In the lower ages this quarter 
was called « Augusta » from the monument, a 
namo it still preserved in the XVI century , a 
further proof that these are ruins of the mauso- 

Besides Augustus, who died in the year 14 
of the christian era, we know by Virgil that 
his nephew Marcellus was buried in this monu- 
ment shortly after its construction, 23 years B. C; 
by AlbinoYanus that it was the burial palace of 
Agrippa , of Octavia the sister of Augustus 
of Drusus, of Germanicus as stated in Tacitus , 
and of other members of the family , ex- 
cept the two Julia , the daughter and niece 
of Augustus , who where expressly excluded 
according to Svetonius by the order of Augustus. 
Of the Emperors the last interred here was Nerva 
in the year 98 of the present era. The mauso- 
leum became a fortress of the Colonua in 1 1 67 


262 Fifth day 

it was destroyed during a popular cemrootioa 
and since then it has been left in ruins. 

Mutilated by time and by the band of man 
little idea can be formed of its pristine magni- 
ficence without the accurate description left by 
Slrabo , a contemporary of Augustus and Tibe- 
rius. This geographer says ■ that the Mausoleum 
* was worthy of a particular mention, that near 
« the river on a high marble basement rose a 

■ tumulus, planted and shaded with evergreens 
« up to the summit , where the bronze statue 

- of Augustus stood , that under the tumulus 

■ were his own tomb , and those of his rela* 

- lives and servants ; that behind the tumulus 

■ was an extensive wood with fine walks ; in 
« the centre the Ustrinum in white marble 
« where (he bodies were burnt, enclosed within 
"■ an iron railing and planted with poplars ». 
To this description it is necessary to add that 
the entrance to the Mausoleum was towards the 
south , and that like the tombs of the Egyptian 
kings at Alexandria it was ornamented with two 
red granite obelisks without hieroglyphics which, 
not being mentioned by Slrabo were added 
subsequently , perhaps by Claudius. 

At the present day nothing remains hut the 
nucleus of the basement stript of its marble 
blocks ; tbe style is a reticular tufa work , the 
total diameter 200 ancient roman feet. Around 
the circular building were situated the sepul- 
chral rooms indicated by Strabo , found to be 
13 besides tbe one leading into the interior. The 
centre formed a large round hall , 1 30 roman 
feet in diameter , covered by a roof which on 
the exterior was planted with trees; this roof 


Fifth day 263 

fell in and formed a platform on which , at 
the end of last century , steps and boxes were 
built thus rendering the central hall an amphi- 
theatre used for equestrian exercises , scenic 
representations and other spectacles; the sepul- 
chral chambers have become stables ; the obe- 
lisks are at S. Maria Maggiorc and at the Qui- 
rinal. In the excavations made in 1717 on the 
foundations of a house in the Gorso opposite 
the via delta Croce , various blocks of traver- 
tine were found ,' on which were inscribed the 
names of the children of Germanic us, of other 
members of the Imperial family, some with the 
epigraph Ate crematus est , a proof thai the 
Ustrinvm of the Emperors extended to the via 
Flaminia occupying the space between the street 
and the Mausoleum; in this escalation the splen- 
did alabaster cotogoino vase was found which 
is now at the entrance of the cabinet in the 
Vatican museum ; this vase probably contained 
the ashes of the unfortunate children of Ger- 
manicus. On the via Bipotta is the 

cbvucb or s. xocco, 

V Built on the designs of De Rossi in 1645 
by the fraternity of the annexed hospital ; the 
facade by Valadier was finished in 1832 at the 
expense of Vitelli. The altar piece of the second 
chapel representing S. Roch and S. Anthony is by 
Baciccio , that of the high altar by Brandi , and 
of the presepio chapel by Baldassar Pernzzi ; 
the hospital is destined for poor lying in women. 


' .,. Google 

264 Fifth day 


V These steps -were made by Clement XI on 
the designs of Specchi in order to afford an easier 
communication with the banks of the river , and 
ire formed of the travertine of an arch of the Co- 
losseum which fell during the earthquake of 1700; 
it serves as a landing place for the coal, wine, 
oil and provisions brought by the riverfrom fim- 
bria and the Sabine country. At the top. of the 
steps is a fountain between two columns mar- 
king the encrease of the Tiber in its inundations 
the highest point hitherto attained being that of 

Opposite is the church of S. Giovanni de' 
Schiavoni to which nation it was given by Ni- 
cholas V ; it was rebuilt by Martino Luughi 
under Sixtus V, and decorated with paintings 
by Cerulti , Andrea d' Ancona, Viviano, Nogari, 
Guidolti, Nucci , Vang and del Bastaro ; the 
lodge annexed to the Borghese palace, suppor- 
ted by columns and pilasters, is by Flaminio 

7 This palace , one of the most magnificent of 
Home, was begun by Cardinal Dezza in 1590 
on the designs of the elder Lunghi , and finish- 
ed by Pope Paul V Borghese on those of Fla- 
minio Ponzio; the form is that of a cymbal, 
the conrt yard square with a double row of 
arches over which is a corintbtan attic ; these 
arches are supported by 96 doric and corinlhian 
granite columns forming a platform; on the first 


Fifth day 265 

story are two open porticoes with three colos- 
sal statues of Julia Pia , Sabina , and Ceres. 

The apartment on the ground floor contains 
a rich and choice collection of paintings divided 
into eleven rooms. 

I Room; on the left a Trinity by Leonardo 
Bassano ; the Madonna child and two apostles, 
the conversion of S. Paul , Garofolo ; the Ma- 
donna and child , Sassoferrala ; S. Catherine , 
Agostino Caracci , a Madonna addoiorata, Mar- 
cello; the Virgin and child, Ghirlandajo; over 
the doors in two lunettes a holy family by Pol- 
lajolo ; the Madonna, child and S. John, a sketch 
in tfae first manner of Raphael; S. Peter repen- 
tant , Spagnolelto ; the kiss of Judas , the ado- 
ration of the Magi , Giacomo Bassano. 

II. Room beginning by the right; a Magda- 
len, by Agostino Caracci; the Saviour, by An- 
nibal Caracci ; a deposition , Zuccari ; a holy fa- 
mily , the marriage at Caiia, the birth of Jesus 
the deposition from the cross , all four by Ga- 
rofolo ; Christ with one of his disciples, Scar- 
seliino ; S. Francis penitent , Cigoli; S. Jerome , 
Munano ; the Madonna child and S. John, Ti- 
tian ; S. Jerome penitent , the burning of Troy 
Baroccio; Venus weeping for the death of Adonis, 
Scarsellino ; a head of S. Francis , Annibal Ca- 
racci ; the chase of Diana , a celebrated work by 
Domenichino; the Madonna, child and S. John, 
Pierin del Vaga ; a portrait of turret ia, Bron- 
zino; in the middle of this room is a superb 
porphyry urn said to have contained the ashus 
of Adrian and found in his mausoleum , a fact 
not sufficiently proved. 

HI. Room, S. Anthony preaching to the fish, 


266 Fifth day 

Paul Veronese ; the portrait of Pordenone and 
his family painted by himself ; that of Andrea 
Sacehi ; Lacilla surprized by the sea spirit, Lao- 
franc; S. Catherine delta Rota, Parmigiano; S. 
John Baptist in the desert , Paul Veronese ; S. 
Francis hy Annibal Caracci ; a holy family by 
Pierin del Vaga. In the middle of the room a 
fine jasper table with the feet of gilt bronze 
between two antique mosaic tables. 

IV. Room : S. John Baptist from the ori- 
ginal of Raphael by Julio Romano; two apostles, 
Buonaroti; the rape of Europa, d'Arpino; a holy 
family Scipio Gaelani ; deposition from the cross, 
Raphael ; the same subject by Garofolo; the Ca- 
niaean Sybil by Domenichtno ; the visitation of 
S. Elisabeth, Rubens; David by Giorgiooe ; a 
holy family, Garofolo; a half figure, school of 
Leonardo da Vinci, 

V. Room: the adulteress, Venitian school ; 
the four seasons by Aibano 5 a Venus, Pado- 
vaoino ,- a Madonna and child , by Andrea del 
Sarto; four round pictures representing Joseph 
and the wife of Puliphar by Lanfranc ; the Sa- 
maritan, Garofolo; Jesus and the Magdalen, Giu- 
Hanolli; the prodigal child in the first manner 
of Guercino; the resurrexion of Lazzarus, Ag»s- 
tino Caracci. 

VI. Room: Leda, school of Leonardo da Vinci; 
Snsan, Rubens; Venus and Adonis, Luca Gam- 
biasi; the Fornarina of Raphael a fine painting 
by Julio Romano ; the three graces, school of Ai- 
bano ; a Venus and a Satyr, Paul Veronese ; a 
Venus in the sea, Luca Cambiasi. 

VII. Room: filled with looking glasses or- 
namented with paintings by Ciro Ferri. 


Fifth day 267 

VIII. Room: four pictures in mosaic; one 
Paul V Borghese ; a large picture representing 
a gallery by a flemish artist ; the Madonna and 
child, Palma Veccbio; a portrait by Romanelli; 
a Magdalen by Lavinia Fontana ; a portrait , 
Bronzino; sundry small paintings on stone and 
two very fine tables. 

IX. Room : the prodigal child by Titian ; 
the conversion of S. Paul, d'Arpino; a holy fa- 
mily, Innocenzo da Imola ; the deposition from 
the cross , Pietro Perngino ; Cupid and Psiche, 
Dosi of Ferrara ; the adoration of the Magi , 
Giacomo Bassano; a very fine flemish picture ; 
a portrait of Cesare Borgia by Raphael ; the re- 
surrexion of Lazzarus on slate by Agostino Ca- 
racci ; Judith culling off the head of Holopher- 
nes , by Elisabeth Sirani; the Madonna and child 
Scarsellino ; a Cardinal painted by Raphael ; a 
musical concert by Lconello Spada ; a portrait 
of Pordenone; S. Jerome by Spagnoletto ; the 
Madonna and child, Julio Romano; Divine and 
profane love , a celebrated work by Titian; llta 
Madonna and child , Agoslino Caracci ; two sea 
pieces by Paul Brill; a half figure of a young 
man holding a basket of flowers , Michael An- 
gelo Caravaggio. 

X. Room: the return of the prodigal sou, 
by Guercino ; the resurrexion of Lazzarus , Bea- 
venuto Garofalo ; the deposition from the cross 
Mniiano ; a portrait of Cosimo de' Medici , Bron- 
zino ; portrait of a female, Garofalo; a Magda- 
len , by Andrea del Sarto ; a Madonna by Pietro 
Perugino ; Samson bound to the pillar of the 
temple , in ihe first manner of Titian ; two por- 
traits on slate , Bronzino; the Madonna and child 


268 Fifth day 

Scipio Gaetani; tbe three Graces, a celebrated 
picture by Titian ; Jesus ia presence of the Pha- 
risee, Titian. 

XI. Boom: a hoi; family, Scipio Gaetani ; 
the same subject , Andrea del Sarlo ; another 
holy family, Julio Romano ; tbe Virgin and child, 

Giovsasi Se'iUui ; ibu wife of TitLss ssdsr !h« 

figure of Juditb , by Titian ; Loth with his daugh- 
ters , Gherardo delle nolti; a portrait of Raphael, 
by Timoteo da [Jrbino ; a cook by Caravaggio; 
the Madonna and child by Andrea del Sarto. Tbe 
street opposite the palace leads to the palazzo 
di Fireoze which was built by Vignola and con- 
tains paintings by Primaliccio and Fontana of 


"" , This piazza and tbe rionc are so called from 
the ancient and celebrated Campus Martius; the 
same appellation was given in ancient times to 
the whole plain extending from the Capitoline, 
Quirinal and Pincian hills to the Tiber; it was 
consecrated to Martius or Mars after the expul- 
sion of the Tarquins to whom it belonged. 

In the origin this place was dedicated to 
the eiercises of the people and to the public 
meetings for tbe election of magistrates , but 
with the encrease of the city it was covered 
with splendid edifices and in the time of Strabo, 
under the reign of Tiberius , it was divided into 
tbe Campus Martius properly called where the 
public games were continued , and into another 
field covered with such large and splendid fa- 
brics that Rome itself seemed to. form merely an 

,, Google 

Fifth day 269 

accessor;. Amongst the edifices alluded to by 
Strabo were the theatres of Marcetlus, Pompey, 
Balbus , the amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, 
the baths of Agrippa , the Pantheon , the Fla- 
miaian circus, the mausoleum of Augustus etc* 

This church was begun under Clement XII 
by de Rossi and finished by Quadri and Sarli 
who built the facade ; in the chapel of S. Ca- 
millo de LelHs are some fine marbles; the pict- 
ure of the saint over the altar is by Placido 
Costanzi , those of the ceiling by Conca, of the 
lateral walls by his scholars; the picture over 
the high altar representing S. Mary Magdalen , 
by Gherardi ; the lateral bas reliefs by Bracci, 
the S. Nicholas of Bari in the following chapel 
by Baciccio; this church and the annexed house 
belong to the « Ministri degli infermi » whose 
mission is to assist the dying. 


Sereral persons are of apinion that this 
church took the denomination of Aquiri from 
the « Equirian » games celebrated in ancient 
times in honour of Mars in the campus Marlins. 
It is now called degli orfanelli from the house 
annexed in which poor orphans are received. 
This church was built by S. Anastasius about 
the year 400, on the ruins , it is supposed , of 
the temple of Juturna ; it was afterwards rebuilt 
in 1590 by Cardinal Salviati on ilie designs of 
Francesco da Vol terra with the exception of the 


270 Fifth day 

facade by Camporesi at the close of last century ; 
in the chapels are paintings by Carlo Veneziano , 
Nappi , Buoncore and Speranza. 

la the adjoining lane, called « Spada d* Or- 
lando » is a massive Cipollino column, and se- 
veral similar ones in the adjacent houses which 
seem to have formed part of a sumptuous portico , 

(irobabiy that of Agrippa ; some antiquaries with 
iltle foundation attribute them to the temple 
of Julurna. 


After the devastations of Rome this piazza 
was covered with ruins when Pope Eugenius IV 
cleared and reduced it to its ancient level; on 
this occasion he found before the portico of the 
Pantheon the two fine basaltic lions now in the 
Egyptian museum at the Vatican which probably 
served as an ornament Io the portico if they did 
not belong to the adjacent thermae of Agrippa. 
He also found the fine porphry uru now at the 
tomb of Clement XII in the Corsini Chapel at 
S. John Lateran; a head of Agrippa in bronze; 
a horse's hoof in bronze and a fragment of a 
bronze wheel supposed to have formed part of 
a triumphal car probably placed over the fron- 
tispiece of the portico. Gregory XIII made the 
fountain on the designs of Luughi , on which 
Clement XI raised the obelisk of egyptian gra- 
nite covered with hieroglyphics found, with that 
at the Minerva, in laying the foundations of the 
Dominican convent; they bolh belonged to the 
temples of Isis and Serapis situated near thai of 




Fifth day 


y This magnificent temple, the most celebrated 
monument of ancient Rome , both by its style 
and preservation , was erected by Agrippa in his 
third consulship in the year 727 of Rome or 
27th before the christian era. By a passage of 
Pliny it was conjectured that the architect was 
Valerius Ostiensis , but that architect directed 
the works of the games of Libonius 166 years 
before the third consulship of Agrippa. It is 
evident that the circular part of the monument 
is detached from the portico , and that the latter 
was added subsequently , a fact that has given 
rise to serious disputes among the moderns though 
it is indicated by Dio who , while he makes no 
mention of the building of the monument in 7 26 
affirms , that in 729 Agrippa completed the Pant- 
heon , an • expression alluding by some to the 
construction of the portico. At any rate it is 
certain that to Agrippa are to be ascribed both \ 
the circular part and the portico since the for- 
mer is firmly. bound to the thermae of which 
it forms a part, and as these were beyond all 
doubt built by Agrippa so also was the Rolonda 
and that the portico is also his work .is proved 
by the following inscription on the frieie : 

FECIT: thus, though some persist in beleiving 
that the round edifice and the portico are- con- 
structions of two different periods, it is erroneous 
to suppose that the former was erected during 
the republic and the portico only by Agrippa, 


272 Fifth day 

both being the work of that distinguished per- 

By Pliny we learn that this temple was de- 
dicated to Jove Ihe Avenger, and by Dio that 
it contained the images of Mars and Venus who, 
possessing Ihe attributes of several divinities gave 
rise, in the opinions of the latter writer, to 
the name of Pantheon which the edifice slill 
preserves; Dio declares , however, that the name 
was derived from the roof being similar to tbat of 
heaven , so that the common opinion that it was 
called the Pantheon from being consecrated to 
all the gods is without foundation ; the statue of 
Julius Cassar was also placed in it by Agrippa. 
Though of the utmost solidity it suffered from 
fire under Titus and Trajan , was restored by 
Domitian , Hadrian, Antoninus Pius , Septimius 
Severus and by Caracalla ; of the latter resto- 
ration the memory has been preserved in the 
inscription on the architrave by which it appears 
that this lima it was restored , not on account 
of fire bat of its decayed state > 

XI . COS . Ill . P . P . FHOCOS . ET . IMP . CABS . 

This restoration coincides precisely with the 
year 202 of the christian era when Severus en- 
tered upon his third and Caracalla on his first , 


Fifth day 273 

consulship ; all these repairs are proofs of iho 
care taken of this monument bj the emperors. 
After 202 no farther mention is made of (he 
Pantheon till 354 when , according to Ammianus , 
it excited the admiration of Constantios parti- 
cularly bj its cupola. In 391 it was closed like 
all other pagan temples and remained so till 608; 
through the intercession of the Emperor Phocas 
it was consecrated as a church by Pope Boni- 
face IV and dedicated to the virgin and martyrs 
from whom it derived its denomination of S. Ma- 
ria ad martyres. 

At that period the Pantheon was more en- 
lire than at the present day as it preserved the 
bronze tries that covered the roof and capola. 
In 663 Constanlius II Emperor of Constantinople 
came to Some and ordered them to be sent to 
his capital ; he was killed at Syracuse and this 
bronze covering was sent by the Saracens to 
Alexandria. In 713 Gregory repaired this injury 
with sheets of lead. Anastasius IV built a palace 
near it as it then belonged to the Pope and now 
to the Apostolic palace. The temple suffered much 
from the factions of the lower ages ; in 1 400 the 
three columns of the east portico were wanting, 
the roof and capola lost their lead covering , 
and the encrease of soil had buried the base of 
the portico columns. Repairs were made under 
Martin V, continued by Eugenius IV and Ni- 
cholas V whose arms exist on the lead covering 
which he completed. At the beginning of the XVI 
century the angular column wanting was replaced 
by another taken from the ruins; about 1631 
Urban VIII made the capital on which is the 
Barberini bee ; in 1632 the same Pope took down 


274 Fifth day 

the bronze beams under the entablature of the por- 
tico with which be cast the four columns ( the 
ornaments of the confessional of the Vatican ba- 
silic and some cannon for the castle of S. An- 
gelo. Nardini was an eye witness to this spo- 
liation which is further attested by an inscrip- 
tion of Urban VIII on the left of the great door 
of the Pantheon , and yet in the face of such 
documents the fact is still -revoked iu doubt by 
some persons. In 1662 Alexander VII by means 
of two granite columns found in the thermae of 
Nero at S. Louis des Francais completed the re* 
storation of the eastern side of the portico which 
be cleared , and repaired those parts that had 
suffered. On the capitals are hills surmounted 
by a star , the arms of his family. In the middle 
of last century considerable restorations were 
made in the cupola by Benedict XIV who re- 
duced the internal attic to its present form. Under 
Pius VII a great part of the lead covering has 
been renewed and excavations made before the fa- 
cade and on the sides which give a better idea 
of the edifice. 

As the temple has only the front portico it 
is prostyle and having eight columns octostyle. 
The entrance was by an ascent of seven white 
marble steps , now reduced to two very low ones 
in travertine on account of the encrease of soil. 
The front was 1 50 palms, the depth 10; the 
facade is supported by eight magnificent columns; 
on the architrave are the inscriptions of Severus 
and Caracalla ; on the frieze the original one 
of Agrippa , on the tympanum was a bas relief 
of gilt bronze representing probably the battle 
between Jupiter and the giants, and the revenge 


Fifth day 275 

of the god , to correspond with the dedication 
of the temple to the avenging Jove. The pin- 
nacles of the facade supported statues ; in (he 
central one Jupiter on a car in the act of darl- 
ing his thunder ; on the sides those of Mars and 
Venus divinities particularly worshipped in this 
temple. On the sides of the portico are three 
columns and a pilaster , four others in the in- 
terior portico ; these columns of red and grey 
egyptian granite are Corinthian 6 palms 9 inches 
in diameter, 56 in height; the walls were lined 
with marble and divided into compartments on 
which were finely carved and executed the sacred 
utensils, paters , chandeliers ; the external part 
of the portico was also decorated , particularly 
towards the west, on which side are two small 
antique doors loading lo the cupola, now reached 
by one towards the east. 

The great door preserves its ancient jambs; 
on the sides the inscriptions of Urban VIII re- 
cording the spoils of bronze , the use made of 
them , the building of the belfries. Torrjgio who 
was a witness to these spoliations of the bronzes 
affirms that (hey weighed 450, 25i pounds, the 
nails alone 9374 pounds and that the cannon 
made of this metal were upwards of 80. On each 
side of the door in two large niches were the 
statues of Agrippa and Augustus as related by 
Dio ; the door is of bronze and antique , as also 
the grating above , although some moderns sup- 
pose that the original was carried away by Geu- 
seric : the pavement is of African marble. 

The interior , of the circular form , is grand 
and majestic ; the diameter without computing 
the wall encircling the temple, U 194 palms, 


276 fifth day 

the height from the pavement to the summit also 
194 palms ; the thickness of the wall round the 
temple 28 palms; the pavement, as seen by lh« 
base of the columns , was raised when restored 
by Septimhis Severus; the temple receives the 
light from a circular aperture 37 i/a palms in 
diameter; the tribune of the high altar is formed 
by a semi-circle cut in the wall, its arch similar 
to the one at the entrance, is decorated with two 
fluted pavouazzeito columns, lu the interior are 
sis chapels also cut out of the wall , each with 
two pilasters and two corinlhian fluted columns, 
four of pavonaizelto, eight of giallo antico, each 
5 palms in diameter and 40 in height without 
their marble base and capital ; these columns 
and the pilasters support a magnificent white 
marble cornice with a porphyry frieze. Above 
is a kind of attic with 14 rectiline niches and 
a cornice supporting the large roof; this attic 
was restored by Benedict XIV previous to whom 
it was decorated with small prophyry pilasters 
the designs of which are preserved in Piranesi's 
work. It is supposed that instead of columns 
between the niches there were bronze caryatides, 
the work of Diogenes the Athenian, highly praised 
by Pliny ; the roof was divided into five orders 
of compartments which were covered with gilt 
stuccoes and not with bronze as erroneously 

Between each of these chapels are eight other 
altars with corinthian columns supporting their 
frontispiece-, four of these have each two giallo 
antico columns, two of plain porphyry and two 
of plain granite; the walls up to the cornice , 
and the pavement are divided into compartments 


Ftflk day 211 

lined -with various marbles , these and the eight 
altars are attributed to Seplimius Severus ; tbe 
colossal statue of Jupiter seems to have stood in 
the middle of the tribune. The paintings over 
the altars are by Majo , Majoli , Gab bo, Otlonc, 
Labruzzi , Pozzi. 

As there existed in this church a confra- 
ternity of painters , sculptors , architects and 
virtuosi it contained many busls, but these hav- 
ing encrcased to a great extent, were transferred 
to the Capilol in 1821 , leaving however un- 
touched the inscriptions to Raphael and to An- 
oibal Garacci on tbe sides of the altar of the 
Madonna by Lorenzelto ; this Madonna is de- 
nominated del Sasso probably a corruption of the 
word Sanzio the name of Raphael who, by bis 
testamentary dispositions as recorded by Vasari, 
desired to be buried in this edicola of which 
he built the altar, bad the statue executed at 
his expense by Lorenzelto and left an endow- 
ment for the benefit of his soul; the researches 
made in 1833 to find bis body were attended 
with success ; on the 14 September the skeleton 
was found entire, the cranium was formed in 
Ihejuslest proportions; his remains were exposed 
to public curiosiiy and in the evening of the 
18 October were again buried with the honours 
due to so great an artist. Besides those of this 
immortal painter the Pantheon possesses the re- 
mains of 1'cruzzi , Giovanni da Udine , Pieriu 
del Vaga, Taddeo Zuccari, Annibal Garacci and 
of other distinguished artists, This temple ce- 
lebrated for its form, antiquity and architecture, 
is deprived of ornaments either in painting or 
sculpture ; of tbe latter it contains only the 


278 Fifth day 

statue bj LorcBzetto and that of S. Joseph by 
d* Rossi. 

The therma: of Agrippa were annexed le 
the back part of the temple wilh which they 
bad no communication; tbe baths were supplied 
with tbe Acqua Vergine waters brought to Rome 
by Agrippa ; amongst the statues they contained 
was one in bronze by the celebrated Lysippns; 
Pliny relates that it was transferred by Tiberias 
to the imperial palace and that the complaints 
of the people obliged him to replace it in the 
therms, some remains of which are now used as 
the sacristy. 

Many modern writers pretend that these 
thermaj were situated on the spot where Ro- 
mulus , when reviewing the troops , was killed 
by the Senators. Near the Pantheon is the 

'i The obelisk wilh hieroglyphics raised on 
this piazza was found in 1665 in the garden 
annexed to the Minerva convent ; it was placed 
here by Alexander VII but being only 24 palms 
high the architect Bernini conceived the idea 
of raising it on tbe back of an elephant , the 
work of Ercole Ferrala. The repeated discovery 
of monuments relating to the Egyptian worship 
leaves no doubt that the temples of lsis and 
Sera pis , known to the ancients under the names 
of Iseum and Serapeum were erected on tbe 
space of ground between the Minerva convent 
and the monastery at S. Stefano del Gacco. Bes- 
ides the obelises at the piazza del Pantheon and 
the Minerva, the Isiac table at the Capitol was 


Fifth day 279 

Count! in the gardens of Domitia , near S. Ste~ 
fano del Cacco together with the celebrated sta- 
tues of the Tiber and the Nile , the former in 
the museum at Paris , the latter in the Chia- 
ramonli museum at the Vatican ; the name of 
the church, convent and piazza is derived from 
the temple of Minerva erected by Pompey after 
Lis victories. The palace opposite the church 
called the ecclesiastical academy was instituted by 
Clement XI for young men destined to the ec- 
clesiastical career. 

s. mjkij soriu um/snrj. 

This church was ceded to the Domeiiic-i* 
order by the nuns of Campo Marzio about the 
end of the XIV centnry. In the XVII century 
Cardinal Barberino repaired the interior as it 
bow is ; the tribune and choir are by the ar- 
chitect Carlo Maderno. This church by the mo- 
numents of art it contains may be considered 
as one of the most important in Borne. 

In -the chapel «del fonte» near the right en- 
trance is a stucco bas relief by Benaglia; in the 
second chapel S. Luigi Berlrand by Baciccio ; 
on the walls several acts of S. Domenick by 
CeKo ; in the chapel of S. Bosa a painting by 
Baldi ; the martyrdom of S. Peter in the fol- 
lowing chapel by Lamberti ; other paintings by 
Franco Veneziano ; the arch and pilasters, Mu- 
ztaao i the chapel of the Anounxiala was built 
by Carlo Maderno and painted by Nebbia; the 
statue of Urban VII by Buonvicino ; in the fol- 
lowing chapel the altar piece representing-, the 
last supper by Barocci ; the other paintings by 


280 Fifth day 

Alberti ; Ihe statues of SS. Peter and Paul by 
Mariani ; Ihe angels by Buonvicino ; Clement 
VIII by Btizi ; the S. Sebastian, the father and 
mother of the pope , the charities and the second 
S. Sebastian by Cordieri ; Religion by Mariani; 
the iwo children on the tomb of the father of 
Clement Y1I1, Stefano Maderno. In Ihe chapel of 
S. Raimondo a painting by Magni ; the Cruci- 
fixion in the adjoining chapel is supposed to be 
by Giotto. The chapel of the transept is dedi- 
cated to S. Tommaso d' Aquino; (be acts of (he 
Saint by Lippi , the ceiling by Baffaellino del 
Garbo, the altar piece, a work highly esteemed, 
by the Blessed Angelo da Fiesole; (he tomb of 
Paul IV of the CaraQa family , the proprietors 
of the chapel, by Ligorio, a celebrated architect 
and antiquary of the XVI century ; near (ho 
following chapel the tomb of Durante; the pain- 
tings in the chapel of the Rosary expressing tb» 
fifteen mysteries by Vennsti ; the acts of S. Ca- 
therine of Siena by De Vecchi ; the crown of 
thorns, Carlo Veneziano; the Madonna over (be 
altar , by the B. Angelo da Fiesole. In the Al- 
lied chapel a picture by Carlo Maratte repres- 
enting the fire saints canonized by Clement X 
and led into the presence of the Virgin by S. 
Peter. Behind the high altar the tombs of Leo 
X, Clement VII hy Baccio Bandinelli; the epi- 
taphs of Cardinal Casanata and padre Mamaclii; 
before the pilaster to (he right of Ihe high altar 
the statue of Christ with the cross by Buonaroli. 
Near the lateral door the monuments of Car- 
dinals Alessandrino by Giacomo della Porta ; 
Pimentelli , by Bernini ; Benelli , by Rainaldi. 


Fifth day 231 

the epitaph of the Blessed Angelo da Fiesole * 
celebrated painter of the XV century. 

The altar piece of the sacristy is a cruci- 
fixion finely painted by Andrea Sacchi; in (he 
chapel of S. Doweuick, the tomb of Benedict XIII 
Orsini , on the designs of Marchionni ; io the 
chapel of S- Vincenzo Ferrerio an altar piece 
by Gastelli a celebrated Genoese painter; in the 
nave a sepulchral epitaph to Paolo Manuzio, the 
son of Aldo , the typographer of the XVI cen- 
tury ; on the last pilaster the tomb of RaOaelle 
Fahrctii , a distinguished antiquary of the XVII 

The annexed convent possesses the Casanata 
library the most complete in Borne for printed 
works as the Vatican is for manuscripts. It was 
dedicated to public use by Cardinal Casanata 
whose bust was executed by Legros , and is open 
in the morning till 11 ,in the afternoon till one 
hour before sunset. 

Between the Minerva and the Stimulate church 
are the ruins of an ancient round edifice and of 
other rooms in the street called the area della 
Ciambella ; the style is evidently of the period 
of decay nor can they be remains of Agrip- 
pa's baths , but it is probable that they were 
additions made to them in the IV century. At 
a short distance is the 


Built on the designs of Canevari. In the first 
chapel a painting by Mancini; the crown of thorns, 
Mara tori; the flagellation , Benafiale; the other 
paintings by Couca, Caprmozzi, Braadi ; the 

li * 


282 Fifth day 

ceiling by Gazzi , the picture over the high altar 
by Trevisani. 

In a large yard to the south of the slim- 
mate are ruins of thermae of a fine construction 
probably of Hadrian which are known 10 have 
been in this direction. 

After various restorations this church was 
renewed in the course of last century on the 
designs of Cannvari; under the high altar in a 
fine antique urn is preserved the body of the 
titular saint whose martyrdom is represented in 
a painting of the choir, the work of Fernandez; 
the other paintings are by Zoboli , Naldini, Lioni 
and Conca. 

Opposite the church is the Maccarani pa- 
lace built by Giulio Romano; adjoining it the 
Lante palace with various ancient statues in the 
yard ; the one placed over the fountain is sup- 
posed to represent lno suckling Bacchus. On tha 
piazza S. Kuslacbio is. 


Being I he first established in the Roman sta- 
tes it is called the Arckigmnasio Romano, 

The motto over the principal door inilium 
tapicntiat Hmor Domini has given rise to the 
denomination of sapiensa by which the univer- 
sity is generally called. Though deriving its origin 
from Boniface VI11 at the close of the XIII cen- 
tury , the edifice is not anterior to Leo X the 
protector of letters and arts who commenced U 


Fifth day 283 

on the designs of Buonaroli ; it was continued 
by Sixtus V, enlarged by Urban VIII , the church 
and library were added under Alexander VII. 

Tbe plan of the edifice is a parallelogram with 
a quadrilateral court in the centre surrounded 
on three sides by a double storied portico with 
pilasters of the doric and corinlhian orders. On 
the fourth tide towards S. Eustachio is the church 
by Borromini , dedicated to S. Ivo, 

Leo XII a protector of letters and arts 
added to the institution the schools of fine arts 
and of the engineers. By the new organization 
the university is composed of a cardinal arch 
chancellor , a rector and five colleges for the 
classes of theology , law , medicine , philosophy , 
philology; forty eight professors deliver lectures, 
on scripture, dogmatic and scholastic theology, 
sacred eloquence, physics, law, physiology, che- 
mistry , anatomy and other branches of the me- 
dical science and mathematics , architecture , 
mineralogy, archaeology, the greek, hebrew, ara- 
ble and siro chaldtean languages. 

Annexed to the university are the cabined 
of natural history , mineralogy, physics, zoology, 
the halls of anatomy and chemistry. 

On the ground floor are the schools of fine 
arts under the direction of eleven professors, 
members of the academy of S. Luke. 


This palace was built by Catherine de'Me- 
dici before she became queen of France on the 
designs of Mamcelli and was called (he palazzo 
Madama a name which it still preserves. It was 


284 Fifth J«y 

purchased by Benedict XIV for the residence and 
the administration of the governor of Home. 

Ou this spot were the therms of Nero called 
Alexandrine from having been restored and enlar- 
ged by Alexander Severus ; before the new buil- 
dings were erected in the second yard , a large 
arch and other antique walls forming part of 
the baths were still visible ; the smalt church to 
the right of the palace preserves the appellation 
of S- Salva tore in Thermit. Some remains of these 

therms; may be observed in the Inn on the piax 
Kondanini and in a cellar of the via de Cre*- 
cenii where lite columns stand in their origi- 
nal places. The fine marble works found in the 
ruins attest the splendour of these hatha and 
many are now in the 


Built by the Marquis Vincenzo Giusliniaoi 
on the designs of Giovanni Fontana and enriched 
with paintings and statues that formed one of 
the principal galleries ot Rome, but the greater 
part of these valuable works have passed into 
other hands ; there still however remain some 
good pictures by Caravaggio, Guercino,, Guido 
and Gherardo delle notli. 


In 1 589 the french nation built this church 
on the designs of Giacomo della Porta ; on the 
facade in travertine are two rows ef doric and 
«oriuthian pilasters and four niches with statues 
byLestache; the interior is divided into three 


Fifth day 285 

naves by io Die pilasters lined with Sicilian jasper; 
the frescoes of the roof by Naloire , in the second 
chapel near the entrance to the right are (wo 
superb frescoes by Domcnirhiuo injured by damp 
and by restorations ; on one side S. Cecilia dis- 
tributing her garments to the poor , on the other 
the saint in her dying moments , on the third 
side crowned by angels ; in the following chapel 
a painting by Parocel of S Giorasna Fermiot; 
over the high altar the assumption of the Madon- 
na by Francesco Bassano ; in the chapel dedica- 
ted to S Matthew (wo fine paintings by Caravag- 
gio ; the ceiling of the same chapel by d'Arpino. 
In the last chapel the tombs of Cardinal de Bernii 
by Laboureur, of Madame de Montmorm by Ma- 
rin . Id the sacristy a small picture of the Virgin 
a beautiful work attributed to Correggio. 

s. jGosTtiro. 

This church was built in 1483 by Pintelti 
at the expense of Cardinal d' Estouleville mi- 
nister of France at Rome. It was restored in 
the last century by Yanvitelli ; the facade is 
plain but majestic and tbe cupola is the first 
that was raised in Rome. 

Near the right entrance is the statue of the 
virgin and child by Sansovino which , being an 
object of especial veneration , is enriched with 
precious donations. 

The interior is composed of three naves. 
The S. Augostin over the altar in the right 
transept and the lateral paintings are by Guer- 
cino; ibe high altar is decorated with Gne mar- 
bles and four Angels modelled by Bernini ; the 


186 Fifth day 

Madonna is one of those images attributed to 
S. Lube which was brought to Rome by the 
Greeks after the fail of Constantinople. Over the 
altar forming the cross is a Gne marble group 
of S. Tommaso di Villauova distributing alms , 
by Ferrata ; the adjoining tomb of Cardinal 
Imperiali by Guidi; in the last chapel bat one 
a tine group of the Virgin , child and S. An- 
drew by Sansovioo; tlie Madonna di Loreto ia 
the last chapel by Caravaggio ; over the third 
pilaster the celebrated Isaiah by Raphael painted 
In imitation of the prophets of Michael Angelo 
in the Sis tine chapel , a work greatly admired 
by Buouaroti. 

Among the monumental tombs the most 
deserving of notice are : those of Panvinio da 
Rimini ; of Cardinal Norris whose portrait is by 
Maretta of Mantua; Monsiguor Eusanio , the 
bust by Ruscoui ; of the wife of Calabrese the 

in the annexed convent is a public library 
ceiled Angelica from the- name of the founder 
and opposite 


This church was built by the Portugucze 
-nation about the year 1695 on the designs of 
Marlino Langbi the younger and embellished 
with fine marbles, gilt stuccoes and paintings J*y 
Calandracci,FrancescoGraxiani,and Agricola who 
painted the S. Elisabeth queen of Portugal over 
the altar to the right of the cross; the paintings 
in the chapel of lite Virgin are by Conctoli, l£a 
church is beautifully ornamented with Sicilian 


Fifth day 287 

jasper and. under the altars of the transept are 
two urns of a fine bat uuknown quality of 


Tim church was built by Adrian I in 772 
and rebuilt by Benedict XIV on the designs of 
Fuga; it is decorated with a vestibule containing 
a fountain and a chape! to the Madonna ; on 
the altars are statues of S. Ignatius by Marchiou- 
ni , of S. Francois Xavicr by Legros; the pain- 
tings are by Zoboli, Gennari, Cosianzi and Poxzi. 

On the high altar adorned with line mar- 
hies is an image of S. Apollinare in the act of 
being consecrated Bishop of Bavenna by S. Peter, 
a work of Ercole Graziani. 

sEitisjaio mttJtfo. 

Leo XII having; restored to the Jesuits the 
Collegio Romano where the Seminario ofRome 
was situated transferred the latter to this buil- 
ding for the education of youth dedicated to 
the ecclesiastical profession ; it is under the di- 
rection of the cardinal vicar. 

Opposite is the palazzo Altemps built by 
Martin Lunghi the elder , the porticoes were 
added by B. Peruzzi ; the palace contains some 
antique statues, line marble columns and a chapel 
in which is preserved the body of Pope S. Ani- 
cet, a martyr in 168. 

On the facade of a house to the left , at 
a short distance from the palace, Polidoro Ca- 
ravaggio painted the fable of Niobe which has 


288 Fifth day 

recently been retouched and consequently in- 
jured. Near it is the Lancellotti palace began by 
Francesco da Vollerra and finished by Carlo Ha- 
derno j it contains a double portico supported 
by granite columns ; on the upper portico and 
in the yard are statues . busts and bas relief*. 
In the -via de* Coronari is 


This church , bnilt on the designs of Mas- 
diorino , was granted by Clement X together 
with the annexed college, to the inhabitants of 
a |a Marca » who dedicated it to the Madonna 
di Lorelo ; (he interior contains 34 columns , 
chapels with paintings by Ghezzi, Turchi, Pietro 
da Cortona , Perugini, Grammatics; in the por- 
tico is the tomb of Pope Eugenius IV. 

On the left of the Via Coronari is a house 
which once belonged to Raphael; being rebuilt 
in 1705 Carlo Maralle painted bis portrait on 
the facade in chiaro scuro, but it is nearly de- 
stroyed. On the piazza di castel S. Angclo an 
arch was erected by the Emperors Gratianus, Va- 
lentinian and Xheodosius as an ornament to a 
magnificent portico which led to the Vatican ba- 
silic , it is probable that many verd' antico co- 
lumns and other line marbles found in laying 
the foundation of the churches of SS. Celso and 
Giuliaao belonged to this arch of which mention 
is made as late as the XIII century. The archi- 
tect of this church was do Dommicia , the pi- 
cture over the high altar is by Pompeo Baltoni, 
the others are by Tigra , Cacciaoiga and Ranucci. 
Near it is the palazzo Cicciaporci of a fin* style 


Fifth day 289 

of architecture by Giulio Romano. Opposite tbo 

Niccolini palace by Sansovino and tbe banco S. 

Spirito built on tbe designs of Bramaote. 

It belongs to the Hospital of S. Spirito, and 

receives deposits of money without paying any 

The street beside the banco leads to tbe 
Chiesa Nuova and to Monte Giordano so called 
from Giordano Orsini whose palace, now belon- 
ging (o Prince Gabrielli , contains some good 
paintings and a fine library. 


This church was built on the designs of Mar- 
tin Lunghi the elder by S. FilippoNeri with the 
assistance of Gregory XIII and of Cardinal Cesi; 
the facade is adorned wilb Corinthian and com- 
posite columns; the interior divided iuto three 
naves and decorated with fine paintings, gilt stuc- 
coes , chapels with rich marbles designed by 
Pietro da Corlona who painted the great tribune. 

The first chapel to the right contains a pi- 
cture by Scipio Gaetani; in the following is a 
copy of a dead Christ one of the best works of 
Caravaggio now in the Vatican ; in the third , 
one byMaziano; the coronation of the Madonna 
over the altar, d'Arpino; the two statues F la- 
minio Vacca; in the chapel under the organ 
built by Fontana and adorned with eight columns 
of rare marble and three pictures, the one over 
the attar representing S. Charles fiorromeo and 
S. Ignatius invoking the Madonna by Carlo Ma- 
rat te; on the high altar four porta santa colu- 
mns, a ciborium of gilt bronze wilh precious s to- 


290 Fifth day 

ncs in the midst of two angels modelled by Ciro 
Ferri ; three pictures by Rubens , the one over 
the altar a Biadouua with angels in glory ; on 
tlie sides S. Gregory and S. Papia a martyr; 
S. Domililla , SS. Nereo and Achilleo. The cha- 
pel under the second organ where his body is 
deposited , is dedicated to S. Filippo Ncri ; it is 
covered with precious stones ; his portrait in 
mosaic is taken from an original by Guiilo pre- 
served in the annexed house , the acts of the 
saint by Pomarancio. On the following a fine 
picture by Baroccio representing the presenta- 
tion of the Madonna at the temple ; over the 
altar in the sacristy a statue of S. Philip by Al- 
gardi and a fine painting by Pietro di Gortona. 
In the lateral chapel a fine picture by Guerct- 
no; the room inhabited by S. Philip contains 
some of the furniture he used , and he is re- 
presented in prayer by Pietro di Gortona ; his 
original portrait by Gruido is in a small chapel 
where he celebrated mass. 

Reluming to the church in the second cha- 
pel to the right is the visitation of the Madonna 
to S. Elisabeth by Federigo Baroccio ; the pain- 
tings of the last chapel, d'Arpino , the archi- 
tecture of the oratory with its facade and that of 
the house annexed by Borromini; in the oratory is 
a plain roof 83 palms long, 53 wide on the model 
of the solar cella in the baths of Garacalla . In 
the street to the left is the palazzo Sora built by 
Bramaote , now a barrack. 


Fifth day 291 


This church , built on the designs of Bac- 
cio Pintelli , -was dedicated to S. Maria della 
Pace by Sixlus IV to return thanks for the 
peace reestablished among the christian princes. 
Under Alexander VII it was restored by Pietro 
da Cortona who made the semicircular facade 
Supported by doric columns ; this church and 
the house annexed which formerly belonged to 
the canons of S. John Lateran , were granted 
by Pins VII to the Irish Dominicans who have 
restored the convent , the cloister of which is 
an elegant work by Bramanle. 

The interior consists of a nave and of an 
octagon cupola of good taste; in the first chapel 
to the right a bronze has relief of the deposi- 
tion from the cross by Fancelii by whom are 
& Catherine and the children ; over the arch 
of this chapel a fresco by Raphael, lately restored, 
•f the Cuma:au, Persian, Phrygian and Tibur- 
tine Sybils ; the paintings over the cornice by 
De Rossi. Under the cupola the visitation of 
S. Elisabeth by Carlo Maratte ; the Madonna in 
Ike temple , a master piece of Baldassar Pe- 
Cnzzi ; the nativity of the Madonna, Vanni; the 
death of the Madonna , Morandi. On the high 
ahar , built by Carlo Maderno, four verd' an- 
tico columns, sculptures and a painting by Fran- 
cesco Albano ; the painting in the last chapel 
by Baldi , those above by Peruzzi. 

In the Ponzelti chapel subjects from the 
old and new testament by Baldi, the large figu- 
res by Peruzzi , who painted the fresco lately 
discovered on the altar which Baldi had co- 


292 Fifth day 

vercd over with the figure of S. Ubaldo ; this 
fresco represents the Madonna , S. Brigida and 
Ferdinando Ponzetti the founder of the chapel 
kneeling before them; on the sides are tombs 
of the Ponzetti family, one of Beatrice and La- 
vinia children of 6 and 9 Tears of age who died 
the same day of the plague in 1505. In the 
lower portico of the convent which was finish- 
ed by Olivier! CaraEfa are several sepulchral 
monuments , one to Bocciccio Bishop of Mo- 
dena who lived in the times of Sixtus IV. 


This church was begun in 1 400 with funds left 
by a flcming named Giovanni Pietro and was en- 
larged in the XV century by the Austrian nation; 
(he doors of the facade are attributed to Sangallo ; 
it is divided into three naves and is decorated 
with marbles and paintings. In the first chapel S Be- 
none by Saraceni; in the following the Madonna 
and S Anne by Gemignani ; those of the third 
chapel by Sermoneta; in the fourth a pieta in 
marble, a copy fromBnonaroti by Bigio; the Ma- 
donna and saints over the high altar by Giulio 
Romano. The sepulchre of Adrian Vlin the chapel 
of the high altar by Michael Angelo of Siena 
and Tribolo of Florence on the designs of Peruzzi; 
the marble figures on the tomb of Cardinal An- 
drea by Riviere ; the sepulchral monument of 
Luca Holstenius ; the chapel of the dead Christ 
was painted by Salviati ; the frescoes relative 
to the history of S. Barbara and those of the 
chapel dedicated to the Madonna are by Cellier, 
the nativity and circumcision by Basset ti ; the 


Fifth day 293 

altar of the last chapel , Carlo Vcneziauo , the 
frescoes , Mielle. la the sacristy are several 

Sictnres ; at the entrance the tomb of the Duke 
e Cleves with a bas relief of Gregory XIII de- 
livering him a sword by Nicola de Alas; of the 
paintings in the sacristy , built by Marucclli , 
two by Morandi are relative to the Madonna, 
two others by Bonatti and Alet , the fresco by 

Nearly opposite is the chnrch of S. Nicho- 
las of Lorraine built by Carlo Fontaua , lined 
with fine marbles and adorned with paintings 
by Niccolai and Giaquinlo who painted the high 
altar , the cupola and the ceiling. 


piazza ttjror/j 

his large piazza, one of the finest in Rome, 
occupies the site of the ancient circus either 
made or restored by Alexander Severus whose 
thermal were in the vicinity, the piazza still 
preserves the form of a circus the houses being 
built on the seats. It is said to have been (he 
circus Agonalis , so called from the Agonaliaa 
festivals a word derived from the greek, Agon 
signifying combat, as in addition to the chariot 
races it served for the gymnastic games, but these 
games were common to every other circus. 
It is probable that the word Agon by which 
it was known in the lower ages was derived by 
tradition from the agoualian games , and that 
in modern times an agonalian circus was sap- 
posed to have existed on this spot and that 
it gave rise to the appellation Navoua which it 
bow bears; it is certain that a circus of Alex- 
22 • 


294 Fifth day 

ander is mentioned by writers of antiquity bnl 
no circus Agonalis. 

Tbe piazza was ornamented with two foun- 
tains by Gregory XIII one near S. Appollinare , 
tbe other near ibe Braschi palace ; the former 
provides a large body of water , the latter is 
composed of two cups one over the other ; 
in the centre of this fountain is a Triton by Ber- 
nini holding a dolphin by the tail and distri- 
buting water in the shape of a tan; on the bor- 
ders of the second cup are four large masques 
aad. four Tritons pouring water from the mouth; 
these works are by Flaminio Vacca , Sarzana , 
Siila and Landini. In the centre of the piazza 
is the fountain ordered by Innocent X Pamphili 
and executed by Bernini consisting of a round 
spacious bason 106 palms in diameter with a 
large perforated rock on the four sides 60 palms 
high on which, amidst a copious supply of water 
is on one side a sea horse, on the other a lion, 
the work of Lazzaro Horelli. On the top of the 
rock is a granite pedestal 23 palms high sup- 
porting a red granite obelisk covered with hie- 
roglyphics 72 palms in height which was brought 
from Egypt and placed in the cirens of Romu- 
lus, the son of Maientius, beyond the S. Sebas- 
tian gate where it was found. At the angles of 
the rock are four colossal statues modelled by 
Bernini representing the principal rivers of four 
parts of the world ; the Ganges holding an oar, 
by Adam; the Nile by Fancelli; the Rio della 
Plata by Baratla ; the Danube by Andrea the 
Lombard ; these statues throw a large body of 
water into a marble cup; in addition to these 
another fountain is remarkable by its large mar- 


Fifth day 295 

bte shell of a single piece found near the palaoe 
of the Cancelleria. 

Every Wednesday a market for the sale of 
vegetables aod other articles is held on this 
piazza which being inundated in August on Satur- 
days and Sundays forms a lake in which car* 
riages circulate from noon till sunset. 

' When Innocent the X was raised to the 
Pontificate he built this church and rendered 
it one of the most sumptuous in Rome ; tha 
facade is in travertine atone with columns of 
the corinthian order according to the designs of 

In the interior, forming a greek cross, are 
eight corinthian columns liued with marble; the 
architecture up to the cornice is by Rainaldi, the 
cupola by Borromini. In the four arches forming 
the greek cross are the principal door and three 
chapels with bas reliefs and statues by able art- 
ists ; the paintings on the cupola are by Giro 
Ferri and Corbellini ; those beneath by Baccio- 
cio , the S. Alexis on the first altar to the right 
by de Bossi ; the bas reliefs on the following 
altars by Fcrrata and Baggi ; the S. Sebastian 
in the chapel of the cross was an ancient statu* 
changed into this saint by Gampi ; the bas re- 
lief over the last altar hy Ferrata , the tomb 
of Innocent X near the great door by Maini. 

To the left is a stair case leading to a sub- 
terranean chamber formed by the part of tha 
ancient circus of Alexander which served to 
support the steps. It is here according to a pious 


296 fifth day 

tradition that S. Agnes was exposed , a subject 
represented in a bas relief over the altar by 

The baa relief on the high altar represent- 
ing the Virgin with her divine son , S. John , 
S, Joseph, S. Joachim and several angels is by 
Domenico Gnkli, a scholar of Algardi; the altar 
is adorned with four verd* antico columns two 
of which , according to Venuti , were formed 
out of ono (hat belonged to the arch of Marcus 
Aurelius in the Corso demolished by Alexander 
¥11; bnt Canceilieri is of opinion that two were 
taken from the arch which were applied to the 
high altar , for which 2000 scodi were paid by 
Prince Pamphilj who completed the church after 
the death of Innocent X. 



\Buill at the end of last centory on the 
designs of the architect MorcLli is one of the 
finest of Home by its style, by the marbles and 
rich ornaments it contains, the stair case is re- 
markable by its precious marbles, its columns , 
and pilasters of red oriental granite; in the grand 
apartment is a statue supposed to represent Gin- 
cinnatns , another Julia Augusta the daughter 
of Drusns , a Diana , two large enps of rosso 
antico, a sarcophagus with a bas relief of a 
Bacchanalian festival and other antique marble 
works. One side of the palace is on the 


Fifth day 297 


' So called from the antique statue , greatly 
injured by lime , placed at the angle of the Braa- 
chi palace; the denomination Pasquino is derived 
from a tailor of that name who amused him- 
self in jesting and making satyrs on those who 
passed by his shop. At his death in the begin- 
ning of the XVII century, an excavation was 
made on the spot, when this statue was found 
and being situated where it was discovered, it 
took the tailor's name; since then satirical com- 
positions were placed on it which were called, 
Pasquinades. This ancient statue represents Me- 
nelaus supporting the body of Patroclus who was 
killed by Hector ; though injured by time it is 
considered by what remains as one of the Gnest 
statues in Rome ; in the Vatican and at Flo- 
rence are other pieces of sculpture belonging to 
the same group. 



'" This church was hnilt by Honorins III in 
1216 , and was granted hy Gregory XV to S. 
Giuseppe Galasanzio the founder of the reli- 
gious order of the Scuole Pie , instituted for 
the instruction of youth in reading , writing , 
(he first rudiments of latin and arithmetic. It 
was rebuilt on the designs of De Rossi except 
the facade made by Valadier at the expence 
of the Duke Torlonia. Under the high altar is 
a superb porphyry urn containing the body of 
S. Giuseppe Galasanzio represented in a bas re- 
lief over the altar by Acquisti. Near the door 


298 Fifth day 

the monument of Borelli , a celebrated mathe- 
matician , and the tomb stone of the daughter 
of Brancaleone one of Ihe XIII Italian champions 
of the celebrated challenge at Barletta, 


J The two palaces contiguous to each othei 
belonging to the Masstmi family are of a fine 
style of architecture by Baldassar Peruzzi of Siena 
who , on a narrow apace of ground , has found 
room, for a portico composed of six dor ic co- 
lumns , and for three yards in the first of which 
II an elegant fountain. 

In the grand apartment are sundry pictures 
aid a superb ancient statue representing a Dios- 
cobuhis found in 1781 in the Palombara villa 
on the Esqnilioe with various other marble works; 
like the similar statue in the biga hall at the 
Yalican it is a copy of the bronze statue by the 
celebrated Miro , of the greek chisel , of a very- 
fine style and well preserved ; Ihe chiaro scuro 
paintings on the facade corresponding to the 
piazza Navona are by Daniel da Volterra; m the 
house adjoining the palace the first printing pre** 
was established in Rome about 1467 by Sweyav- 
beym and Panartz. 


A church belonging to the Theatitte order 
and so called from the neighbouring palace. To- 
gether with the annexed convent it was begun 
in 1 591 by Cardinal Gesualdo on the designs of 
Olivieri, continued by Cardinal Moutallo on those 


Fifth day 299 

of Carlo Hsderno , and finished by Cardinal Per- 
netli; the facade by Rainaldi is in travertine with 
a double row of corinthian and composite co- 

The interior is decorated with paintings many 
by great masters; the cupola which is 74 palms 
in diameter by Lanfranc, is one of his best works; 
the four evangelists at its base , the paintings of 
the tribune allusive to S. Andrew are admirable 
compositions of Domenichioo ; the three Urge 
pictures relative to the martyrdom of the saint, 
by Calabrese. The S. Gaetano and S. Sebastian 
by Guidi ; S. Andrew the apostle , S. Andrew 
Avellino by Ferrata ; the two statues over the 
door, Fancelli. 

The first chapel to the left designed by Ba- 
glioni and built at the expense of Cardinal Bar- 
bcrini , afterwards Urban VIII , contains the 
assumption, the presentational the temple, the 
visitation; in the lunettes , actions of the Ma- 
donna ; in the triangles , prophets and angels , 
all by Passignani; the statues of S. Martha , by 
Mocchi ; S. John the evangelist, Buonvicino; 
S. John Baptist , Pietro Bernini ; the Magdalen 
by Slati; on the left a S. Sebastian painted by 
Passignani; opposite are the profiles of the father 
and mother of Urban V11I whose tombs are adorn- 
ed with verd'antico columns. 

In the following chapel the altar piece , de- 
corated with breccia and pavonazzetto columns , 
is by the B. Maninoni ; the S. Sebastian chapel 
contains paintings of the school of the XVI cen- 
tury, the one over the altar of the cross by Ca- 
massei ■ the chapel of the virgin near the sacristy 
door was designed by Lanfranc $ that of the cru- 


300 Fifth day 

cifn possesses fine marbles ; the S. Andrea Avel- 
lino by Lao franc , S. Charles by Biagioli ; the 
annexed chapel belonging lo the Strozzi family 
designed by Michael Angelo is adorned with mar- 
bles ; over the altar is a bronze copy of the 
original by Buonaroli in S. Peter's; the bronze 
statues of Rachel and Lia are copies from Rat 
faelle di Montelupo. The last chapel , that of the 
Ancellotti , built by Carlo Fontana, is covered 
with marble and adorned with light verd'antico 
columns; the bas relief on the altar represents 
the flight into Egypt by Raggi , the other works 
by Rondoni. In the middle nave near the small 
doors of the church are the marble tombs of 
Pius II and Pius III of the Piccolomini family 
by della Guardia and Pietro di Todi ; iu the left 
nave that of Monsignor Guriani of Beneveulo, 
the epitaph of Pietro Vetluri , a literary cha- 
racter and the tomb of Count Rieni ofVicenza 
by Domenico Guidi. 

In the vicinity of this church stood the cu- 
ria of Ponipey where the senators assembled 
when the games were celebrated in the adjoining 
theatre. It is here that oo the 1 5 March 44 years 
B. C. Julius C;esar was killed by Brutus and Cas- 
sius. A part uf this church is on the ruins of 


■ This magnificent theatre occupied the whole 
space between the Palazzo Pio at Campo de'Fiori 
and the via Chiavari and Giupponari ; the scene 
was in the direction of the via deChxavari begin- 
ning near the tribune of S. Andrea della valle; 
the centre of the ark is now occupied by the 


Fifth day 301 

palaszp Pio where the temple of victory or of 
Venus victrix stood. Under the palace some re- 
mains are still visible and it was the first perma- 
nently erected in the city ; Lhe portico formed 
of a hundred columns , served as a refuge to 
the people against the inclemency of the weather. 
On the other side of the church is the 


This magnificent palace formerly belong- 
ing to the CaiTarelli family , afterwards to Car- 
dinal Stoppaoi and now the property of the Vi- 
duni was built on the designs of Raphael d* Ur- 
bioo. At the foot of the stairs is an antique statue 
of Marcus Aurelius , above many fragments of 
the Verrian calendar found last century at Pa- 
les trina, relative to the months of January, March 
April aud December. It was placed in a sepa- 
rate room by Cardinal Stoppani who discovered 
it; the late Cardinal Vidoni had the fragments 
cleaned and charged Professor Nibby to supply 
the parts thai were wanting; thesQ fragments 
being filled up were published by the Cardinal 
in black and red letters to distinguish the an- 
tique from the modern; this work is now very 
rare. At a short distance from the palace are 
the little churches of the Sudario , S. Giuliano, 
and S. Niccolo ai Cesarini. In the convent an- 
nexed to the latter are four fluted tufa columns 
wliieh formed part of a circular temple supposed , 
on good grounds , to be that of « HarcuLesCus- 
tos » built by Sylla near the prisons of the Fla- 
mioian Circus which was in this direction; the 


902 Fifth <fay 

simplicity of {he materials is a sufficient itnli- 
-cation that 'it 4s a 'work of the Republic. 


— ■/ This palace , of a fine style of architecture, 
was built by the Duke Asdrubal Mattei on the 
designs of Carlo Madcrno ; the vestibule and yard 
are adorned with antique bas reliefs , busts and 
statues; along the stairs two marble seals found 
on the Celian near SS. Giovanni and Paolo, a 
-bas relief of a chase of (he Emperor Commodes, 
-the statues of Pallas, Jupiter and Abundance with 
inndry busts and bas reliefs. 

Of the bas reliefs in lhe portico 'the most 
interesting are: a consul indicting punishment; a 
Bacchante proceeding to the temple ; the 4a- 
critice of a goat to Priapus ; statues of Apollo 
and of a muse ; sundry busts Amongst which 
that of Alexander the great over the hall door. 
In the yard the chase of Meleager , the rape of 
Proserpine , the three graces , Peteus and Thetis , 
the sacrifice of Eseulapins, the busts of Anto- 
ninus Pius, -Hadrian , Marcus Aurelius ,-Severus, 
Lucius Verus , Commodus. 

Seven rooms of the apartments are deco- 
rated with good pictures. In the servants hall 
-six representing feudal properties of the Mattei 
by Paul Brill ; the passage of the red seafey 

I. Room four pictures the subjects taken 
from scripture by 'Paul Brill; a portrait by Da- 
vid , another by Vandyk, S. Bonaventura, Tin- 
toretto; the paintings on the ceiHng , Ponwranoio. 


Fifth day 303 ' 

II. Boom , two seasons , Paul Brill : Ma- 
donna and child, Scipio Gaetaai; a Madonna child 
and S. loscph , Caracci ; sundry children , Alba^ 
no; four fine pictures of people selling meat and 
fish by Passerolti. 

III. Boom: two other seasons, Paul Brill; 
S. Francis , Muziano ; six pictures with animals, 

IV Boom : two pictures by Brill ; the sa- 
crifice of Abraham, Guido ; two Bregucl ; the 
paintings ob the roof, Lanfranc. 

Jn the gallery the ceiling by Pietro dt Car- 
tons; the sacrifice of Abraham, Lanfranc; the 
BWivity of our Saviour, Pietro di Gottona; the 
taking possession of Clement VIII and the entry 
of tharlet V into Bologna, 'fempesta. 

In another apartment consisting of three 
roams , the ceiling of the first painted by J}q- 
menichieo , of the second by Albanu; the, third 
ell in chiaroscuro by Dwue nichino. 

On the space of ground extending between, 
the Mattel and Ginnasi palaces , the. piazza Pa-i 
ganica and the monastery of Tor de* SpeceJti 
was the 


"">£, This circus was built by the ee.nsn.1 C. Fla- 
nainiua who made the Flaminien way and who 
was killed in the battle at the lake of Thrasy- 
mcne; the area extended in length between the 
modern piazze dell' OlntQ and Mar-gana. Around 
the circus were several temples , that of Be|lqpa 
at the foot of the capilol built by Ihg con- 
sul Apphu Claudius in the year of Rome 437 ; 


304 Fifth day 

before this temple stood the columna Bellica from 
which the consul hurled a dart towards the na- 
tion to which the senate had declared war. 
Near the Mallei palace is the beautiful 
V « Tartarnga » fountain designed by Giacomo della 
' Porta ; tbe bronze figures were executed by Tad- 
deo Landini a florentine. 


Several frescoes in the principal apartment 
are particularly deserving of attention; Hercules 
directing his dart against Nessus who has car- 
ried away Dejanira , by Alba no; Apollo on Ms 
car , and time discovering truth , a celebrated 
work by Domenichino ; Rioaldo sleeping on at? 
car drawn by two dragons and guarded by Ar- 
mida , of a fine colouring and in the first man-* 
Rer of Guercino. In the gallery Venus and Cu-* 
pid with other gods by d' Arpino ; justice and,; 
peace said (o be by Lanfranc ; Arion od the 
dolphin and a vessel filled with mariners by Ko- 
maneili. . 


"■\ The appellation dc Funari given lo this 
church is derived from the rope manufactory 
at one time existing in the arena of the Flaminian 
circus on the ruins of which the church is built. 
At the principal entrance are two fine pavonaz- 
xetto columns; over the altar a S. Marguerite, 
a fine copy of a picture by Annibal Garacci re- 
touched by that artist , who painted the coro- 
nal ton of the- Madonna in the first chapel. Over- 


Fifth <f«y 305 

the third alisr a fins work of Scipio Gactani 
representing the assumption of the Virgin ; the 
other paintings by Muziaui , Frederick Zuccari. 
Venus ti, Nanni, 


i This church was built in 1 658 oo the designs 
of Bainaldi at the public expense for the pre- 
servation of a miraculous image of the Madonna 
and was granted to the congregation of Lucca , 
the regular ckieriei of the mother of God ; on 
ihe travertine facade are two rows of Corinthian 
and composite columns : the interior is decora-* 
ted with pilasters and 22 fluted columns of the 
corinlhian order. 

Over the high altar is an image of the Vir- 
gin in gold profile placed in a saphir or some 
sabstance resembling that gem ; on the cornice 
toe portraits of SS. Peter and Paul , and on the 
cupola a piece of cotognino alabaster , forming 
a transparent cross , found in the portico of 

In the first chape) the archangel S. Michael 
by Conca; the magnificent chapel of S. Anne 
by Luca Giordano ; to the left a chapel built 
by de Rossi with a painting over the altar by 
Giraigniuii , the two angels in marble by Carca- 
ni ; the chapel of. S. John Baptist was painted 
by Baciccio , the two angels are by Mazzoli ; in 
the Altieri chapel built on the designs of Cipria- 
ni is a bas relief on the altar by Ottoni; the 
tombs by Mazzoli in Ihe form of a pyramid are 
supported by two lions of rosso antico ; tb* 
paintings above by Passeri. 

23 " 


306 Fifth day 

In a modern built boose situated in tf« 
lane to the left of this church are three largo 
fluted columns with composite capitals ; these are 
rains of the temple of Juno, which like that of 
Jupiter were comprized within the portico of 
Octavia and together with the portico seem to 
have been restored by Septimius Scveras and Ca- 
raealla, the stylo of these capitals appearing not 
to be anterior to that reign. 


Oct avian Augustus after baring erected a 
theatre in honour of Mareelios his nephew i* 
order to afford a place of shelter against the 
weather to those who attended the spectacles 
built a magnificent portico in which be enclosed 
the temples of Juno and Jupiter both built by 
Metellus the Macedonian and called it by the 
name of Octavia his sister. Its form was a large 
parallelogram with a double row of columns said 
to have amounted to 270 ; an adequate idea mar 
be formed of this portico by the fragments in 
the ancient plan existing in the capitol. 

According to Pliny it contained fine statues 
and paintings , and the celebrated statne known 
as the Venus de' Medici was found in these ruing; 
the edifice was restored by Septimius Severns and 
by his son Caraealla as seen by the following 
inscription on the entablature. 


Fifth day 30? 




IMP . XI. COS. Ill, PP. ET . IMP. CAES. 



Tbe fire alluded to in (his iuscriptioo is pro- 
bably the same which occurred under Titus and 
reached the portico of Octavia as stated by Dio. 

The rains still existing formed one of the 
principal entrances, the one exterior, the other 
interior, each having four white marble fluted 
columns and two corinthian pilasters supporting 
a circular cornice terminating in a large facade. 

Several carvslian or cipollino columns of 
the portico are still visible in the walls of iho 
houses in the strada di Pcscaria, 

Behind the portico is the church of S. An- 
gelo called « in pescaria » from being situated in 
the fish market; the street to the left leads to the 


This theatre built by Augustuswas the second 
permanent theatre raised in Rome for scenic spe- 
ctacles 4 the structure is so perfect that modern 
architects have adopted it as a model of the dork 
and ionic orders and of the proportions of these 
orders placed one over the other. The semicir- 
cular part on the exterior is supposed to have 
been decorated with three orders of architecture ; 
of the upper part no vestige remains , of the 
lewer a portion only on the side of the piazza 


308 Ft f tit dan 

Montanara which formed, round the theatre, por- 
ticoes composed of arcades with doric and ionic 
columns ; the diameter was 540 palms , it was 
formed of large travertine blocks and contained 
30,000 spectators. 

In the lower ages it served as a fortress 
to the Pierlconi , who were succeded by the 
Savelli ; a residence for the Massimi was built 
on it by Baldassar Peruzzi which now belongs 
to the Orsini , Dukes of Gravina. 

About the middle of the Vicolo del Bufalo 
near the piazza Montanara was the ancient porta 
Carmentalis, so called from Garments,, lb* mo- 
ther of Evander. 


i The Ohra or vegetable market wm held 
in the piazza now called « S. NicceU in Car- 
cere » from a church built about the IX cen- 
tury on the ruins of three very ancient temples; 
one in travertine of the doric order , the re- 
mains of which are on the left before entering 
the church ; this was the smallest. The middle 
temple on which the church was principally 
built was the largest ; in it were fluted ionic 
columns of peperino of which there are some 
remains near the left entrance within the church; 
the third temple on the right was also ionic 
the ruins being visible within the cherch and 
in the ascent to the belfry, these three edifices 
connected with each other were beyond a doubt 
the temples of Piety , Juno Matuta and Hope 
known to have been situated near the porta 
Carmentalis without the gate on the forum Gii- 


Fifth day 309 

torium and beside each oJ^er. It is proper to 
distinguish this temple <>( Piety, built by Aei- 
lius Glabrio , from the temple raised in memory 
of the young female who supported her father 
With her ow milk in the prison of the De- 
cemviri ; by the testimony of the elder Pliny 
it is ascertained that this prison of the Decem- 
viri and the temple erected over it to Piety 
were situated on the spot where the theatre of 
Marcellns was subsequently built and (hat it no 
longer existed in his time. 

' A This church was restored in 1 599 under 
Ibe direction of Giacomo della Porta and again 
in 1308. The three naves are divided 4>y 14 
ancient columns of different diameter ; under 
the high altar is a fine porphyry urn ornament- 
ed with a head of Medusa, and over the altar 
a' baldacchino supported by four yellow African 
columns ; the frescoes in the tribune are by 
Geotileschi ; the supper with the apostles on the 
altar of the Sacrament by Baglioni; the acts of 
S. Niccola by Mantegna. 
v A little to the left in the same street is S. 
Mam della Cousoiazione a church built by 
Martin Lunghi the elder ; the facade was com- 
pleted in 1825 under the direction of Belli, in 
the first chapel to the right are some fine pain- 
tings by Taddeo Zuccari executed in his 26th 
year which have been recently restored. An- 
nexed to the church are two hospitals one for 
wounded men , the other for females. At a 
short distance is the church of S. Giovanni 


3tO Fifth day 

decollato » erected by the Florentines about 
(be year 1495. It contains some fine paintings; 
one in the first chapel by Giacomo Zueca, in 
the second S. Thomas touching the ribs of Christ , 
by a scholar of Vasari; the visitation, Roncalli; 
the six saints painted in fresco round the area 
of the large chapel by Gosci ; the decollation 
of S. John , Vasari ; S. John in the chaldron 
a picture containing many figures , by Naldint; 
the paintings of the third altar , del Conte; the 
baptism of Christ , Monanni ; S. J»hn Baptist 
preaching, Cosci ; over the altar in the oratory 
the deposition from tht cross by del Conte-, SS. 
Andrew and Bartholomew, Francesco Salviati; 
S. Zaccariah , S. John preaching , the baptism 
of our Savionr , by del Canto ; the Baptist in 
prison by Franco da Venezia ; the sapper of 
Herod , the hall of Herodias , Pietro Ligorio, ; 
the visitation and birth of S. John , Satvialk 

This church is in the ancient fish market 
situated in the quarter denominated the Vstabrwm 
bv which begins the VI day. 



•89SVB a&v 




The space between (he sides of (ho Palatine, 
the Avenline and the left bank of ibe Tiber was, 
in Lhc origin, a marsh formed by the overflow- 

.iugs of the river -and the springs constantly is- 
suing from was called the Velabrum 

.a veh&ndis rati&us according to the ancient gram- 
marians from dragging boats across it ; others 

■ give a different etymology , far less probable , 

. from the vslt or awnings extended over the way 

. during the .passage to the games of the circus. 

•It seems more natural to derive that appellation 
from the greek aspirated word helos, palude , 

.being more analogous to the locality. The marsh 
was drained. under the Jast kings of .Rome by 
means of the Cloaca Maxima and the embank- 


313 Sixth day 

moat of the river , but the locality has preserved 
its primitive name. There are sevsral interest- 
ing monuments in this quarter ; the first ilia 


Of the arches caHed quadrifronti from Hav- 
ing four fronts which were placed in every re- 
gion and in all the fori of Home , this is the 
ouly one that remains ; there were also the ii- 
fronti and trifonti arches which served as a shelter 
from rain and the sun. The present arch served 
for the dealers in the forum Boarium. This mo- 
nument opened of late years is composed of large 
white marble blocks , the pilasters it forms re- 
posing ou a square base ; each side is 1 05 palms 
in length ; around the interior the cornice is 
preserved , on the outside destroyed ; on each 
facade are twelve niches placed between small 
columns supported by the base , those of the 
first and second order by the entablature which 
sustained the first order , a proof that the arts 
were declining when this edifice was erected; this 
decoration , so opposed to simplicity and true 
grandeur , is used in the thermae of Caraoalla , 
profusely employed in the buildings of Diocletian 
and Congtanline , and seem to prove that this 
arch is not anterior to Septimius Severos. The 
holes observed in this and in sundry other an- 
tique monuments were made in the lower ages 
to take away the iron and bronze hinges that 
connected the blocks ; a brick tower placed on 
this arch in the middle ages by the Fraogipani 
who made it a fortress hasbeen lately pulled down.. 


Sixth day 


This church, founded in the VI century was , 
according to Anaslasius , rebuilt by Leo II in 
634 in honour. of ibe martyrs S. George and S. 
Sebastian ; it was subsequently restored by Pope 
S. Zaccaria. It consists of three naves divided 
by 15 columns , eleven granite and four fluted 
pavonaztetto. The portico was built in the XII 
century by Stefano ex Stella, prior of the church 
as seen by its inscription! 







-liter of strTiMivs ssyems. 

-A" This small marble arch of a square form 
and with a single aperture was raised by the 
bankers and cattle dealers of the forum boarium 
and dedicated to the Emperor Septimins Seve- 
ns , to Julia bis wife , and to Garacalla as 
appears by the ancient inscription. 






314 Sixth day 





la the origin the Dame of Gela was com- 
prized in the dedication but was effaced after 
his death in this and in other monuments; traces 
of it are visible in the fourth and sixth lines of 
the inscription and in the bas reliefs which are 
of an inferior style of sculpture ■ and greatly 
consumed by time. On the sides of the inscrip- 
tion is a figure of Hercules , in the wall within 
the church one of Bacchus , tutelary divinities, 
as ascertained by medals, of the family of Sept- 
imius Severus. The pilasters of the arch are 
decorated with military eagles , the images of 
Severus and Garacalla. Under the arch Severus 
offering a sacrifice with Julia who holds the 
wand ; opposite a sacrifice by Garacalla , an 
empty space where Geta was represented ; va- 
rious bas reliefs of the sacred utensils ; on the 
right the lituum , prtfericulum, the patera and 
gacred knives ; on the left the vase containing 
the lustral water, the malleum, the patera and 
acerra. On both sides sacrifices of bulls -, op* 
posite the arch two prisoners accompanied by 
Roman soldiers and men driving oxen, alluding 
to ouc of the trades that raised this monument. 


Sixth day 31 5 


That this forum was situated on this spot 
is proved by the inscription on the arch ; it 
was called Boarium not only from the cattle 
market but from the celebrated bronze cow of 
Miro brought from the island of Egina. In this 
forum was an altar erected by Hercules to himself 
after he had killed Cacus, who had robbed 
and hid his oxen in a grotto of the Aventine; 
here also was the round temple of Hercules 
Victor , discovered in the XV century and des- 
troyed , to which belonged the statue of Hercu- 
les in gilt bronze , now io the Gapitoline Mu- 
seum. At the forum boarium Romulus began the 
furrow of the city walls. The lane opposite to 
this arch leads to 


7 No people before the Romans conceived the 
idea of constructing subterranean channels for 
the coarse of waters or for the cleaning of the 
eity : the first to pat them in practice was Tar- 
fluinios Priscos to drain the Velabrum by unit- 
ing the waters thai arose from the springs of 
the neighbouring hills, one of the causes of the 
marsh. This work was completed and extended 
to other parts of Rome by Tarquinius Superbus. 
These channels derived their name of Cloaca 
from cloere , cloire , cluere signifying to cleanse 
in the ancient language of Lalium, and in fact 
by carrying off the pluvial and perennial waters 
they cleansed the city of its filth ; the seven 
bills were perforated in every direction with 


316 Sixth day 

ibese canals which , in the process of time and 
with the cncrease of the population, were greatly 
multiplied ; the greater part carried their waters 
to the principal canal that of the Tarquins which, 
being the largest , was called the Cloaca Max- 
ima a part of which , a quarter of a mile long 
is entire between the Velabrum and the river 
into which it empties itself near the temple of 
Vesta, in ancient limes it began at the Romas 


This canal was arched and about 1 8 palms 
high , two thirds of which are choked up by 
rains and tilth ; the construction was of qua- 
drilateral tufa blocks each 7 palms long, 4 deep, 
united at every 16 palms by travertine Mocks 
of the same size; at the month, the large arch 
is formed of three superposed layers of square 
blocks of the Gabii stone. The utility and gran- 
deur of these works justify the observation of 
Dionysius Halicarnassus and of Strabo, that the 
greatness of the Roman people shone in the 
cloacke, the aqueducts, the roads , and in the 
edifices. By its perfect level and solidity the 
great cloaca still serves to carry away the sur- 
plus waters at a period of twenty three cen- 
turies and a half after its construction. 

On a level with the ground is a small arch 
through which passes a spring of limpid . water 
which , after having been used in the neigh- 
bouring paper works , falls into the Cloaca. This 
spring is said to have formed near the romau 
forum the Juturna fountain , a light and salu- 
brious water now called after tbe church of 
S. Giorgio. ■ 


Sixth Jay 31? 


This church of a very remote origin was 
creeled near the site of the ancient Ara Mavima, 
and after having been restored under- various 
Popes the facade was raised by Urban VIII on 
the designs of Aricacci. New restorations and 
embellishments were made under Pius VII in 
1825; the three naves are divided by fine anti- 
que columns, eight fluted pavonaxzetto , two 
red granite , two africano marble. The S. John 
Baptist in the first chapel is by Mola; the altar 
piece , Trevisani; the sides near the small nave 
by Baldi ; the statue of S. Aaastasia at the 
high altar by Ferrala ; in the following chapel 
a painting by Baldi \ S. George on horseback 
killing the dragon by Ponli ; die ceiling by 

On the sides of the high altar are two tombs 
with two gilt metal basts designed by Mippoli, 
and near that of S. Xorribio having two red 
breccia columns on the wall is the tomb of Car- 
dinal Haeffcliu, Bavarian minister at Rome ; on 
the last altar adorned with two porta Santa 
columns is a S. John Baptist attributed to Mola. 
These spots now occupied by hay lofts , 
gardens and vineyards were, in the flourishing 
times of ancient Rome , covered with splendid 
edifices. In the ancient Mureia or Murtia valley 
between the Palatine and tbe Avenline and op- 
posite tbe palace of the Casus on the spot now 
filled with sundry gardens was 

24 * 


Sixth day 


In the valley where Romulus celebrated 
the eoniuali games in honour of Neptune and 

where the rape of the Sabine women- was ef- 
fected , Tarquinius Priseus founded toe circus 
which , being the most ancient , the largest and 
ihe most magnificent , was subsequently called 
Maximns. The circeases or games of the circus 
formed the grandest spectacle of ancient Rome 
they consisted in races of cars drawn by two 
or by four horses , in the game called Ludut 
Trojte , athletic exercises and other spectacles. 
In (be city and in the environs were other Cirri, 
those of Flaminius , Flora , Salhisl , Cajus or 
Nero , Adrian, Varius, Heliogabalus, Alexander 
Sererus , Romulus the son of Maxentius ; (be 
last being, (be best preserved gives an idea of 
the : parts and distribution of these ediGces. 

The circus of Tarquin was restored and 
enlarged by Julius Oesar who , according to 
Dionysias Halicarnassas , extended k to J 1/2 
stadia on a breadth of four jugera constituting 
a length of 2630 palms by 1 040' and providing 
room for t 50,000 persons; in the centre Au- 
gustus erected the obelisk now at the piazzs 
del popolo. Having suffered in the great fire 
■nder Nero which began in this quarter , it 
was restored and probably encreased by Vespa- 
sian , as PUsy states that in his days it could 
contain 260,000- spectators- It was embellished 
by Trajan who , as stated by the younger P4iny 
rendered it worthy of the Roman people. U 
was again, restored by Constantino the great , 


Sixth <fey i\9 

and by bis son fjonstantius who erected on it 
a second obelisk , the one now at S. John La~ 
teran. At this epoch it is calculated by Victor 
that it could contain 380,000; by Notizia 405,000, 

The circus was of an oblong form , one of 
the ends semicircular, the other a gentle curve. 
At the semicircular end was the grand entrance, 
at the curve were the carceres or starting 
place. In the middle was the spina , a long 
narrow platform covered with two obelisks , 
various statues and columns and sundry small 
temples. At the two extremities were the melw 
which it was necessary to pass seven times to 
obtain the prize. 

A triple line of porticoes placed over each 
other and numerous rows of seats as in the thea- 
tres and amphitheatres were destined for the spect- 
ators. At the foot of the padium , appropriated 
in all places of public amusement to the digni- 
taries of the empire, was a canal 9 feet broad 
' and deep added by Caesar, and called the Eu- 
ripus from its resemblance to the canal that 
separated Eulxea from the- greek continent. 

Although originally destined for the chariot 
races pugilistic games , foot races , the hnnting 
of wild beasts and other manly exercises were 
practised in the circus. It was on this spot , a«- 
cording to Auks Gellius , that Androcles, con- 
demned to fight in the games, was recognized 
by tho lion from whose paw he had extracted 
a thorn in Africa. 

The extensive ruins on the Palatine belong 
to the palace of the Caesars ; the houses , gra- 


320 Sixth day 

Baries , hay lofts around the basis are all built 
on Ihe arches which supported the steps. 

At the angle of the Palatine on the road 
lo S. Gregorio was the celebrated Septizonium 
of Septimius Severns. This edifice is said lo hare 
derived its appellation from seveu rows of co- 
lumns superposed , but this would have been loo 
high and out of all proportion. It was a three 
storied portico supported by columns of various 
marbles serving as a decoration on this side to 
the entrance of the Imperial palace; and was nearly 
entire in the time of Sixtus V but was demo- 
lished by that Pope to supply columns for the 
Vatican basilic. 


Such was the name in the times of the 'Re- 
public of an extensive artificial pond made for 
swimming and other exercises. It is mentioned by 
' Cicero and by Livy , the former in a letter to 
Qatnttis , while Livy proves that it existed at 
the time of the second Punic war. It was drained 
after the construction of the naumachia but the 
quarter preserved the name as we learn front 
Fes t us Ammianus, and the regionarii , and gave 
it lo the XII region which comprized the An- 
tonine therms; and the adjoining hill, on which is 
the church of S. fialbioa erected in the IV cen- 
tury of the Christian era by Pope S. Mark and 
frequently restored. Beyond this church is one 
still more ancient called S. Sabba ; the interior 
is divided into three naves by 24 columns. On 
the sides of the Celian looking over the piscina 


Sixth day 321 

pubblica, and near the angle under the villa Mat- 
lei was 


The position of this gale in the walls of 
Servius was determined wben the miliary column 
was found at the first mile on the Appian way , 
and justified the expression of Strabo (hat the 
separation of the Appian and Latin ways took 
place near Borne; this separation is still visible 
at a short distance from the gate on the piazza 
S. Cesareo; tbe discovery of the site of the porta 
Capena has determined many other positions. It 
took its name , either from the adjoining sacred 
wood and temple of the Camense , or from the 
city of Capua to which it ted both by the via 
Appia and the via Latina which joined the Ap- 
pia at Casilino , the site of the present Capua. 
Its celebrity gave to it the name of tbe first 
region of Rome called the porta Capena. Near 
this gale is 


Situated between the Celian and a hill cal- 
led Haste d' oro on which was the porta latina 
and the annexed cbnrch of S. Giovanni called 
for this reason , ante portam latinam; the posi- 
tion of tbe Capena gate being known it follows 
that the valley between the two hills is the 
Kgeriau valley , where tradition places the meet- 
ings between Noma Pompilius and the nymph 
and where a fountain existed which has disap- 
peared in the changes of the roman soil. The 


322 Sixth day 

modern illustrators of antiquity, in opposition 
to (he authority of Juvenal and particularly of 
the regionarii , bad placed the fountain and val- 
ley at the CafTarella, three miles distant from Rome. 


Antoninus Caracalla began these magnificent 
thermae about the year 212 of the Christian era 
and dedicated them before his departure for the 
expedition into Persia where he died in 217, a 
proof that they were nearly finished with the 
exception of the porticoes which were built by 
Heliogabalns and Alexander Severns. From the 
name of their founder they were called Anto- 
nianc or of Caracalla; their splendour; attested by 
Spartianus, Lampridius, Victor, Eutropius, Am- 
minianus and Olympiodorus, is confirmed by their 
ruins, and by the statues excavated from them 
I in the XVI century; the Hercules of Glycon , the 
1 bull and the Flora now called Farnesiane, from 
I having belonged to the Farnese, form the prin- 
cipal ornaments of the Naples museum where 
they were sent in the last century ; the baths 
were so extensive that not less than 1 600 per- 
sons could bathe in them at the same time; they 
were in use till the V century as tiles were dis- 
covered in recent excavations with the mark of 
Theodoric who restored them : « Regnante Theo- 
dorico bono Rotnte » the precise epoch of their 
abandonment U not known, but it was proba- 
bly during the Gothic war in the early part of 
the VI century, Vitiges having cut the aqueducts 
when he besieged the city; in the lower ages the 
columns served as ornaments to churches and 


Sixth day 323 

private houses, the marbles to make lime; the 
roofs deprived of their supporters , exposed to the 
in temperature of the seasons Yielded, and ia their 
fall trough t down with ihem parts of the edi- 
fice , covered the ground with their ruins and 
buried the ancient pavement at a depth of se- 
veral feet ; abandoned to avarice and private 
speculation (he walls were stript of their ori- 
ginal ornaments; the excavations of the XVI and 
XVII centuries were made with no other view 
than that of liuding statues and precious mar- 
bles. The plan of these therm® forming a square 
1 050 french feet on each sides , the circumfe- 
rence was 4200 feet, in the centre of the square 
is the chief building 690 french feel long, 450 
in its largest breadth and about 2280 in cir- 
cumference. In the whole extension of the square 
there seems to have existed a kind of ground 
floor , except on the eastern front ; it was not 
the grand apartment, no decorations having been 
found in the excavations hitherto made, but the 
upper floor was highly decorated and the cen- 
tral part known as the internal body of the ther- 
ms was isolated by means of an extensive area 
destined to various uses. 

The facade towards the east was reached 
by a fine road flanked by porticoes and called 
the via nuova, on the external part it had the 
aspect of an ample arched portico behind which 
the same number of cells corresponded to the 
external arches; in the interior was a magni- 
ficent palace standing on an eminence of 70 
palms consisting of four doors , eight large and 
other smaller windows , the partition walls 
were covered with .lino marbles to a consi- 


424 Sixth day 

derable height, the remainder with stucco; a 
large cornice terminated this part of the edifice 
over which were terraces lined with black and 
white mosaics , the compartments being varied 
with figures of Tritons and Nereids; the external 
portico is destroyed , the cella remains ; on six 
of these were steps leading to the area around 
the chief edifice , the remainder served as ia- 
bernat or as the habitation of the soldiers or 
slaves attached to the service of tbe baths ; the; 
are supposed by some to have been bathing rooms 
but this conjecture, contrary to the authority of 
Vitruvius who proves that the balks were lighted 
from the west, is opposed to tbe construction and 
form of the rooms and to the late discoveries 
which bave made known the positive locality of 
the baths; this arched portico supported a ter- 
race; over the cella was a second set of rooms 
with the door turned towards the west commu- 
nicating with the area of the internal building. 
This area, which served as a public walk, 
would appear by the' last excavations to have 
been planted with trees , having on the sides 
porticoes of grey and red granite columns about 
3i/a feet which were probably added by Heiio- 
gabalus and Alexander Severus; it is certain that 
the posterior part served as a stadium for races 
and athletic games since, not only ia these ther- 
mal but in those of Titus and Diocletian, there 
exists in the centre of the external building tur- 
ned towards the area or stadium, a kind of thea- 
tre with steps for the spectators; this theatre 
was of a semicircular form ; in these thermae 
the carve is insensible by reason of the adjacent 


Sixth day 325 

hills or some other building may have prevented 
its being of the regular and customary form. 

The entrance to the internal area was bjr 
four gates symmetrically disposed which can to 
still recognized; this symetry is observed in the 
slightest details ; each of these gates was ador- 
ned with two columns supporting a double fron- 
tispiece of which some traces are preserved, these 
are now closed on account of the division of the 
properly; the one on the north angle of the edi- 
fice leads lo a spacious hall divided into three 
parts by means of alabaster columns , adorned 
with statues and a mosaic pavement composed 
of white, portasaola, serpentine and other mar- 
bles; all these mosaic pavements are intermixed 
with porphyry, serpentine , giallo anlico, porta 
santa, white marbles and basaltic lava, producing 
by their variety of colours a very brilliant ef- 
fect. Though covered by the ruins they were 
well preserved and when excavated tbey pro- 
duced, when cleaned by rain, (heir primitive ef- 
fect and added to the idea conceived of the splen- 
dour of the edifice. 

From excavations recently made in the court 
it is evident that on three sides there was a por- 
tico of grey granite columns ; the frieze was 
carved with military weapons , the pavement 
was of mosaic, the different colours alternating 
into scales. The pavement of the area is of the 
same kind of work but in the form of ellipses 
inscribed within parallel iograms , and encircled 
with a long garland of arabesques on a white gro- 
und, on the north side is a large niche which pro- 
bably contained the colossal statue of Hercules , or 
the bull, opposite which was the highest portico, 


326 Sixth day 

the red granite columns of which were of a dimen- 
sion double thai of the olher columns above named 
the mosaic is here coarser the square compartments 
being filled with circles. Opposite (his large niche 
towards the south, is an ample semicircular ext- 
ira which contained the finest mosaic of the 
l hernia*; in the square compartments figures large 
as life, colossal busts of wrestlers , thus confirming 
the opinion indicated by the plan that like (he 
other ball of a similar size it was used for the 
gladiatorial games. 

This northern hall communicates with ano- 
ther, on the side of which are two chambers on 
a double story ; near these is the vestibule of 
the great Piscina the entrance door to which, 
though walled up , may be recognized at the 
eastern area ; opposite is the apodyterium or 
ball for undressing , of a square form with » 
mosaic pavement of quadrilateral compartments 
communicating by a staircase with the terra- 
ces ; this hall now serves as a deposit for the 
objects found in the excavations. 

The vestibule was separated from the pis- 
- rina by two fine alabaster columns ; the descent 
was by seven steps discovered of lale years; the 
t name of Piscina is given to. the .canals, win ch in - 
" troduced the water and to the signina work 
which lined the inferior walls ; the last exca- 
vations have shown that the spot was not co- 
vered, which fully contradicts the opinion thai 
this was the celebrated cella described by Spar- 
tianus, who, in his life of Caracalla, sneaking of 
his works and of the therms? adds « that the 
» cella solearu was of such a construction that 
» the architects maintained that it could not be 


Sixth day 327 

» imitated and that the principal difficulty eonsist- 
» ed in its extent , the roof being altogether sup- 
» ported by superposed bronze or copper railings.* 
Thus if (he cella solearis was a hall with a roof 
of this construction it assuredly was not (he 
piscina in question which never had a roof of 
any kind. Towards the east it was closed by a 
high wall having (wo rows of niches intersected 
by a line of squares which contained bas reliefs; 
towards the west three tribunes communica- 
ted with the central hall. Beyond the piscina is 
another vestibule similar to (he one just described 
the gate of which is in the direction of the ex- 
ternal area , with another hall opposite. Near 
it is the southern palestra similar in sue , plan 
and decorations to the one described ; to this 
palttlra is also attached a large entrance ball. 

The semicircular tribune leads to a square 
hall communicating (o (he room used for un- 
dressing, and by (he yard (o an ancient suda- 
torium in which are (he tubes (hat conveyed the 
vapour, the bathing place , and the prafurniutn 
that heated (he room; the pavement is of black 
itnd white mosaic in the form of scales, towards 
the west are the reservoirs of water. 

The square room leads lo a magnificent cen- 
tral ball oace adorned with red and grey gra- 
nite columns placed alternately, of large dimen- 
sions as seen by (he fragments (hat remain; (he 
pavement is of marble slabs; (he plan and or- 
naments correspond to the ball of Diocletian's 
baths now the church of S. Maria degl' Angeli; 
tiR lately these halls have borne the name of 
Pinacotheea but recent discoveries have shown 
that (hey were used as baths, since the pipes 


323 Sixth day 

thai filled the labri still exist which give a bet- 
ler idea of those parts of the thermae called by 
Vilruvius schola iabri or the hall adjoining the 
baths where the ancients waited before bathing, 
or kepi company with their friends that were in 
the bath. This western room communicates with 
a court from which, and from the lunettes above, 
it receives ihe light ; beyond the court are the 
ruins of a large round ball. A similar square 
hall leads to another court and to the mtdarium 
the reservoirs of which towards the west are like 
those opposite lo the central hall. On tbc sides 
of the internal part of the therms to the west 
are rooms which probably served for literary 
exercises or to enjoy Ihe games of the stadium. 
Returning to the north palestra in the « Vi- 
gna Gatncci » are remains of the north side of 
the external edifice consisting in an octangular 
hall which offered a view of the games of the 
stadium, and of a room having the form of a 
basilic; behind these to the north is an arched 
portico decorated with brick columns the base 
and capitals of which were of marble. Out of 
the enclosure of the thermae is a building with 
large reticular niches forming a support to the 
hill; on the west side besides the ruins of steps 
from which the games were seen , are those of 
various balls and the large cisterns of the An- 
tonine aqueduct. The southern side is demolished 
excepting the octangular hall which is still pre- 
served and by some is called , without any foun- 
dation , the temple of Hercules. In its vicinity 
were found in 1777 the two fine basaltic baths 
which are now in the Vatican Museum. 


Sixth day 329 


This church was built about the year 542 
of the christian era and rebuilt in 1 596 by Car- 
dinal Baronio. It possesses ambones and the mar- 
ble seal on which pope S.Gregory said the XXXIII 
homily which is in part engraved on it ; at the 
confessional are four africano columns. The in- 
terior is divided by several columns into three 
naves; the altars bave each two columns of fluted 
phrygian marble , the frescoes representing se- 
veral acts of the apostles are by Roncalli, a 
scholar of Pomarancio , who painted the S. Do- 
mitilla, the high altar is decorated with four 
fine africano columns ; to the right is a marble 
candlestick with figures partly ornamented with 
gold. At the tribune is an ancient mosaic re- 
presenting the transfiguration of Christ supposed 
to be of the Yin century ; the facade is painted 
is chiaroscuro by Massei. 

Nearly opposite is the church of S. Sisto, 
formerly a Domenican convent, containing the 
tombs of Cardinal Lncini and Orsi. After the 
separation of the Appian and Latin ways , to the 
right on the Appian is 


This church , the origin of which is traced 
to the VI11 century , derives its appellation from 
the adjoining thermic of Caracalla called like 
all olher large edifices iu the lower ages , pa- 
latium. After various restorations it was com- 
pleted by Clement VIII. At the confessional are 
25 • 


330 Sixth day 

four fine brocalello columns and on the sides of 
the altars four of black and white marble. 

On tbe hill behind this church stood the 
celebrated temple of Mars extra Mam; Ibe road 
diverging to the right, and the present road fol- 
lowing tbe same direction , led to tbe temple and 
was called the die us Martis. To the left on tbe 
via Appla in Ibe vigna Sassi is tbe 


^.Y" This monument of tbe Scipios , a branch of 

the illustrious Cornelian family , was discovered 
in 1780 before which period it was supposed 
to have been situated beyond tbe S. Sebastian 
gate opposite the church of Domine quo vadis. 
It was composed of two stories , the first cut 
out of the tufa; of the second nothing remains, 
but it contained niches separated by peperino 
columns in which stood the statues of the family, 
and thai of Enuius as asserted by Cicero ; the 
first monument to the right is that of Publius 
Cornelius Scipio , a Fiamen Dialis as appears 
by the original inscription which, together with 
all those found at the epoch of the excavation., 
were transferred to the Vatican Museum, the sar- 
cophagi were all placed in tufa; the plan of the 
monument , though irregular, may be assimilated 
to a square supported by two large quadrilateral 
pilasters-, the rock being naturally fragile, and 
still more so after the excavation , the original 
plan is not easily recognized. The other inscrip- 
tions are those of Lucius Cornelius the son of 
Cneius Scipio; of L. Cornelius Asiagenus, L. Cor- 
nelius the son of Scipio Asiaticns and nephew 


Sixth day 331 

of Scipio Africanus , Cneins Cornelius Scipio His- 
paaus. The ancient door has (he form of an arch 
roughed out of the tnfa and resting on posts of 
peperiuo , placed on a road communicating with 
tho Appian and Latin ways; the rock , cat per- 
pendiculary , was lined with white stucco and 
ornamented with minium paintings , it was sup- 
ported externally by a cornice of peperiuo over 
which were the onaments of the second story. 
In these tombs were found the sarcophagus of 
peperino with triglyphs and roses finely carved 
stated in the inscription to be that of Lucius Sci- 
pio Barbatus , the conqueror of the Sammies and 
of Lueania , consul in the year 303 B. 0; a pe- 
perino bust crowned with a laurel wreath is 
supposed to represent Ennius , but is more pro- 
bably one of the Scipios. In this monument all 
breathes simplicity and it should be seen, not only 
for its antiquity but for haying been the tomb 
of a family that deserved so well of the Roman 
Republic. In the same vineyard was discovered 
n 1830 the 

*X The columbarium, amongst the ancient Ro- 
mans, was a sepnlchral chamber destined to re- 
ceive the ashes of the families of slaves or of who were generally buried near tho 
city and the tombs of their masters. The word 
columbarium is derived from the resemblance of 
those chambers to those of doves, as they con- 
sisted in many rows of small arched or rectiline 
niches, occupied by cue or more vases of the 


332 Sixth day 

species called ollce containing the ashes and 
hones collected from the funeral pile. In front of 
the niches were small slabs called tituli , recor- 
ding the name and quality of the deceased. Along 
the consular way* and especially along the Ap- 
pian , many of these sepulchres have been found 
at various periods ; this monument , situated on 
a cross road between the Appian and Latin wajs 
is interesting for its state of preservation ; the 
entrance is by the ancient steps opposite which 
is a mosaic inscription to foetus Pomponius Bylai 
and Pomponia Vitaline. The marble urns, the 
stuccoes and paintings are well preserved ; the 
names not being those of a single family and 
the conditions of the persons being various , some 
belonging to the courts of Augustus , Octavia 
and Tiberius , lead to the supposition that il 
was a common sepulchre , or that it belonged 
to some company of which there were several 
in Rome and that it was constructed about the 
beginning of the christian era. Judging by the 
additions and restorations subsequently made it 
probably continued in use even under the An- 

The porta lalina was opened when the walls 
of Rome were extended in the direction of 
the via Lalina , one of the most ancient con- 
sular ways, which traversed all Latium , passed 
through Anagni, Frotinone, Ftrentino and joined 
the Appian at Casilino, the modern Capua, on the 
Vulturous, the porta Lalina was built by Ho- 
Dorios in 402 and restored in 560 under Justinian. 

The ancient church of S. Giovanni 'within 
the gate has been recently restored together 
with the chapel where the apostle was put into 


Sixth day 333 

a chaldron of boiling oil by order of Domitian, 
a festival still celebrated on the 6 May by (he 
catholic church under the denomination of S. 
Giovanni ad portam Latinam. 


Built by the Senate in honour of Nero Clau- 
dius Drusus , the father of the Emperor Clau- 
dius , after his death. It is composed of large 
blocks of travertine, of two columns of African© 
of the composite order , and was restored by 
Caracalla for the passage of the aqueduct that 
conveyed water to his thermae , the arcades of 
which are still visible. 



In extending the city walls this gate was 
substituted to the porta Capena of Servins, and 
having suffered in the Gothic war it was rebuilt 
either by Belisarius or by Narses. It is now called 
the porta S. Sebastiano from the neighbou- 
ring basilic, in ancient times the porta Appta 
from the celebrated way made by the censor 
Appius Claudius in the year 442 of Rome which 
extended to Capua and afterwards to Beneven- 
tom and Brundusium a port where the ancients 
used to embark for the east. The Appia , called 
the queen of ways, was lined with tombs , tem- 
ples , triumphal arches and other monuments, 
the portion which crossed the Pontine marshes 
was restored by Julius Caesar, Augustus, Domi- 
tian , Norva , Trajan and by the Gothic king 
Theodoric , but it remained under water during 


334 Sifxh day 

the lower ages. These waters were drained in 
the latter part of last century by Pius VI who 
thus restored an extensive tract of country to 
. About a quarter of a mile beyond the gate 

I is tbc Atmone , a rivulet formed by various 
springs , the most distant about three miles from 
the city , and falls into the Tiber about half a 
mile beyond the porta S. Paolo where, according 
to Ovid, the priests of Cybele washed every 
year the statue of the Goddess and the sacred 
utensils in its waters. On the left of the road 
is a pyramidal mass of a tomb unknown , and 
the small very ancient church rebuilt in the 
XVII century called Doming quo vadit from the 
pious tradition that S. Peter, having escaped 
from prison here met our Saviour to whom he 
addressed this question -, it is also called S. Ma- 
ria ad pasms and S. Maria delle piante from 
toe mark of the Saviour's feet on the stone which 
is preserved in the church of S. Sebastian. 

In a vineyard opposite are remains of a 
sumptuous tomb supposed before 17&0 to have 
been that of the Scipios. Though stript of its 
ornaments and marbles it is easy to recognize 
that the form was a large square base surmoun- 
ted by a round building with niches for sta- 
tues and that it fiaished in a spheric cupola ; 
by an inscription found in the vicinity it was 
probably the celebrated sepulchral monument 
of Priscilla, the wife of Abascantbns, mentioned 
by Stalius as existing on the via Appia beyond 
the Almone where in fact it is situated. 

The road here divides into two branches ; 
the right the ancient via Ardeatina , the left 


Sixth day 333 

the continuation of the via Appia along which 
arc ruins of tombs. In the first vineyard beyond 
the lane leading to the Caffarella is the round 
edifice built by Cardinal Polo and in the vigna 
Vagnolini are ruins of a large columbarium divided 
into three rooms attributed , on very slight 
grounds , to the servants of Augustus. 

In the Casali villa the columbarium of the 
Volusia was found in 1325, a family of distin- 
ction in the times of Nero. In 1726 a large 
columbarium was discovered in (he last vineyard 
to the left , perfectly preserved and now com- 
pletely destroyed ; it belonged to the servants 
and freedmen of Livia Augusta as ascertained 
by numerous inscriptions now in the Capitaline 

Within the Ammendola vigna in 1820 and 
in the following years several columbarii were 
found of sundry persons which cannot on suf- 
ficient grounds be attributed to any class or 
family , but it is certain that they contained 
many tomb stones, has reliefs, sarcophagi, lamps 
utensils , necklaces and other interesting objects; 
above all a splendid marble sarcophagus of ex- 
quisite work with a representation in bas relief 
of a battle between the Romans and the Gauls 
who are recognized by their Torques, or twist- 
ed collar ;. this sarcophagus is preserved by the 
family of Sig. Ammendola. Along the via Appia 
is the 


■*-. This celebrated basilic, of a very remote 
origin , was built over the cemetery of S. Cal- 


336 Sixth day 

lislus , the burial place of S. Sebastian. After 
having been restored by sundry Pontiffs it was 
rebuilt by Cardinal Scipio Borghese in 1911 on 
the designs of Flaminio Ponzio ; the facade is 
decorated with a portico supported by six gra- 
nite columns , the high altar with four of verd' 
anlico marble. In the cbapel dedicated to S. 
Sebastian , restored on the designs of Ciro Ferri, 
is the statue of the saint executed by Giorgetli, 
on the model of llernini; the paintings over the 
three doors in the interior are by Antonio Ca- 

The last chapel dedicated to the martyrs 
SS. Francis and Pope Fabianus was built by 
Clement XII on the designs of Carlo Fontana ; 
the statue of S. Fabiano is by Papaleo ; the 
painting on the right by Passeri , the one to 
the left by Ghezzi , the tomb on the pavement 
contains the remains of Orazio Albani, tbe bro- 
ther and nephew of Clement XI. Over the high 
altaris a picture by Tacconi a pupil of Annibal 
Caracci. In the oratory is another over the altar 
representing the Madonna , child anil sundry 
pilgrims in the act of adoration , by Albini. On 
the sides of the steps leading to the oratory is 
a fresco of the Virgin with her son. Over the 
altar of a small chapel is a marble bust of S. 
Sebastian supposed to he by Bernini. 

The door to the right of the S. Sebastian 
chapel leads to the Catacombs or cemetery of 
S. Callixlus where the earth is dug out in" the 
form of galleries ; these excavations were made 
by the ancient Romans to procure the pozzalana 
used in tbe fabrics they raised; they were en- 
larged by the christians to whom they served is 


Stxth dan 33 ' 

a place of refuge in times of persecution whj 
Celebrated here their sacred functions and bu- 
ried their dead ; these catacombs are supposed 
to have an extension of sis miles. It is slated by 
ecclesiastical writers that 14 popes and 170,000 
martyrs were buried within them, amongst whom 
S. Sebastian ; they add that ihcy were inhabited 
for some time by SS. Peter and Paul. 

In some vineyards on the left of the road 
beyond the church are several ruins built in Ihu 
eame style , with alternate strata of volcauu: 
stones in the form of parallepipeds and bricks 
with little cement. Those ruins certainly belong > 
to a villa of a style of construction not anterior 
lo the IV century of the present era, and an 
inscription found in the adjoining cirens of Max- 
entius proves that the villa belonged to that 
prince. At the sale of his property after bis 
death it came into possession of the Anicia fa- 
mily , and afterwards into that of Simmacus , 
one of the richest and most distinguished men 
of that period. In fact he describes it as a largo 
ediGce built within narrow limits in the proxi- 
mity of the Appiau way. To this villa belongs the 

This temple , commonly called the ttablet 
ef the circus of Caracalla, is the only one left 
that preserves the sacred enclosure, the identity 
of the construction with that of the circus called 
of Caracalla and with tha ruins of the villa, the 
vicinity , and the gate of communication to the 
circus , leave no doubt that the enclosure is a 
part of the villa, and that it was used as such; 


338 Sixth day 

the plan is that of a temple , being a quadri- 
lateral area surrounded by a vail with an arched 
portico , while in the centre stood the temple 
of which the foundations alone remain. The 
designs made by Palladio prove that it was pros- 
tyle or with a single rectiline portico formed 
by six front, three Bide, columns, and a pilaster; 
the ascent to it was by steps, the cetla round, 
and altogether the plan resembled that of the 
Pantheon; the foundations of the portico are 
well preserved , the wall is about 14 feet deep; 
the diameter of the cella 1 00 feet ; around are 
niches in the wall with little windows or iron 
gratings to give light and air under ground; in 
the centre an octagon pilaster supporting the 
roof; with larger dimensions and a little variety 
in the details this temple resembles the villa 
de (iordiani on the Prcncstiua way known under 
the name of Torre dc Scbiavi . 

It is interesting by its plan and the size of 
the walls which appear to have belonged to ano? 
ther period, but wc know from inscriptions that 
the villa was built by Masentius and that the 
temple communicated with the circus which was 
dedicated to his son Romulus in the year 311, 
and as in the medals struck by the father after 
the son's death there exists on one side a temple, 
or mausoleum to Eroos, the opinion that it was 
both seems to be founded , while the part under 
ground was used as a place of burial , the cella 
to contain the images of great personages amongst 
which was placed that of Romulus; the enclosure 
was called sacred from the procession composed 
of magistrates, assistants at the games, and priests, 
who carried the statues of the gods in whose 


Sixth day 339 

honour tbey Were celebrated, and made the round 
of the circus after completing the ritual sacri- 

Behind the wall to the left of the temple 
b an ancient sepulchre greatly anterior to the 
wall itself bat enclosed within it j it is of an 
elegant structure the plan being a species of 
greek cross surrounded by a circular corridor. 

rat circus of romulus 

i Till the year 1825 tbia circus was supposed 
to be that of Garacalla on three very frivolous 
grounds: the passion of that Emperor for these 
games , a medal with a cirens on the reverse 
the discovery in this vicinity of his statue and 
thai of Julia Pia his mother, but a passion fur 
the games does not imply the building of this 
edifice ; the medal may allude to the circus 
maxim us ; statues are easily transferred from 
one place to another and no reliance can be 
placed on the denomination of portraits in past 
ages. In addition to these reasons the construct*- 
tun with- irregular masses of tufa and brick is 
directly opposed to that of the magnificent An- 
toniuiane therms , a work certainly of Cara- 
ealla , and to other contemporary edifices, while 
these in every respect have the character of the 
IV century. 

Bat all doubt on the subject is removed 
by the excavations undertaken by the late Dnke 
Giovanni Torlonia, the proprietor of the ground , 
who cleared the carceres , the spina and the 
arena when parts of three inscriptions were 
found bearing the name of Maxentius , the one 


340 Sixth day 

best preserved placed , as customary , under (he 
great gate staling that the circa* was consecra- 
ted in tbe year 311 of the present era to the 
divinized Romulus, the son of Maxentius, who 
had been twice Consul. 





T. Din . MAXIMIAIfl . SE"f. 


This discover; serves as an illustration la 
the anonymous author, a contemporary oFMas- 
culius, published by Eccard, who asserts thai 
(his Emperor built a circus in tbe catacombs 
hie ftcit ctrcum in Catacumbis and it is known 
that by catacombs were understood those ofS. 

It may not be amiss lo premise that llio 
form of a circus was an oblong area confined 
within (wo straight , not parallel , lines , united 
at the ends by two curves. In the circus of Ro- 
mulus (his area was 1560 Paris feet long and 
240 broad; these edifices consisted of three parts, 
the; carceres , the spina , and the circus.; from 
the carccres issued the cars divided into four 
factions, tbo alOata or white, russata or red, 
yrarina or green, veneta blue; lite part situated 
towards the west formed a segment of a circle, 
u disposition necessary lo maintain an equal start 
for the cars ; the carceres formed 1 3 arched way* 
communicating together, except the seventh wbich 
served as a passage for the procession. On the. 


Sixth Jag. 341 

Side of the circus they Were closed by iron galea 
ibe binges of. which are still visible , an usage 
confirmed by a bas relief in the villa Albani; the 
terrace over them was reserved for personages 
of the .first rank. At the ends were two high 
towers from which the musicians animated the 
horses by the sound of the tibia. 

The circus was similar in the disposition of 
the scats to the amphitheatre, being divided into 
the podium and prtcincttoni, Iu this circus a 
single precinctione was divided into ten seats 
providing room for 18,000 spectators; four doors 
communicated with the arena , two near the 
towers , one opposite the first meta , the other 
towards the east near the high road which, being 
on a higher level , communicated with lh« 
tbc arena by seven steps ; the opinion that the 
cars entered on this side is thus without foun- 
dation ; to the north east and to the south west 
were distinct places called pulvinaria being co- 
vered with pulvina or cushions , and as Ibe one 
to the north cast communicated direct with the 
villa by means of a gallery, it was probably re- 
served for the Emperor ; the other , having a 
separate entrance, for the magistrates who pre' 
sided over the games . 

The Spina may be defined a slight wall 
dividing the area of the circus into two unequal 
parts , the one to the north being wider than 
the part towards the south , and Hot parallel 
to either but oblique. It was adorned with co- 
lumns , statues and obelisks ; the spina of this 
circus was 857 feet 6 inches long , 20 wide, 5 
deep near the first mtta which were separated. 
On it were reservoirs for the water that w» 
26 * 


342 Sixth day 

occasionally (brown oh the axes of the wheels 
to prevent them from taking fire. Ob a slight 
rise of ground wag a beam with a rope to de- 
termine the end of the races ; ibe meta were 
three cooes lined with marble and grouped to- 
gether, adorned with bas reliefs representing 
the circus races ; they were found in pieces in 
the late excavations and showed the extreme 
decay of the arts, near the meta began the spina 
where remnants of statues and ornamented mar- 
bles were discovered with the traces of their 
pedestals. On the first stood a statue of Venus, 
on the others grey marble columns supporting 
an architrave with dolphins, the symbol of Nep- 
tune the protecting divinity of horses ; of these 
seven dolphins , indicating- the number of races, 
one was taken down as each race was comple- 
ted; there were also fonnd pedestals of the sta- 
tues of the sun , of Paris and beyond a platform 
that used to be planted with flowers that of the col- 
umn that supported tbo statue of victory and 
the foundation of the obelisk raised by Innocent 
X in the piazza Navona ; the first road that 
crossed the Spina was near the platform, the 
second near this obelisk ; the pedestal of the 
statue of Hercules , an edicola containing that 
of Venus with seven eggs on ibe cornice a symbol 
of Castor a protector of equestrian games, and al- 
luding also to the seven circuits of the cars; 
finally , after the third way , pedestals of tliu 
statues ef an Amazon , and of Proserpine ; the 
base of the second meta at this end of the spina 
is lower than the others. - 

The spina was not placed in the middle , 
■rid commenced at a distance much greater from 




Sixth day 343 

llio eafceres than from the eastern gale , as a 
more ample space to the right was necessary 
for the first start of the cars and horses. Re- 
luming to the via Appia is the 


This monument , one of the most magni- 
ficent and best preserved of ancient Rome, was 
raised , as appears by the inscription , to Ceci- 
lia Metella, the daughter of Q. Metellus aid 
wife ef Crassus. 

Q. CRET1CI . F. 

Of a round form and f 32 palms i n diam eter qL • 
it stands on a square base of unequal height 7 
forming a level to the grouud. What is most f ,' 
remarkable in this edifice is the size of its Ira- y.-** ■ ' 
rertine blocks and the extraordinary thickness I. J ,, 
of the walls ; the' small! round chamber in the I 
interior finishes in - the shape of a cone; beneath 
is the sepulchral chamber now underground in 
which was found , under Paul 111 , the marble 
sarcophagus now in the yard of the Farnese. 

The bas relief over the inscription represents 
a trophy and part of a figure of Victory in the act 
df writing on a shield the wars of the father and 
husband ; beyond the figure there must have been 
another trophy with slaves in chains; this bas 
relief forms part of the frieze which is Orna- 
mented with festoons and beads of oxen , the 
origin of the denomination of eapo di But gives 


314 Sixth dag 

to il in the lover ages; (his edifice of (be Utter 
times of the Republic is the most ancient mo- 
nument in which marble was used. 

The wall and battlements on the summit 
were built about 1300 by Pope Boniface VIII 
of the Gaetani family as a place of fortification 
in the civil wars ; at the same period a kind 
of palace and a church , the walls of which still 
remain, were built nearlbe tomb together with 
an enclosure defended by lovers; the arms of 
lite ancient and illustrious Gaetani family are still 
orer the doors. 

At the distance of half a mile is the tomb 
of M. Servilius Quartos discovered in 1808 by 
Canova, and two miles further on is an exten- 
sive possession of (lie Prince Torlonia commonly 
called Roma Vecehia from the ruins of the 

flfSJ DE 1 QUtSTILl, 

; To the excavations made by the late Dulur 
Torlonia we are indebted for our knowledge of 
this ntass of ruins supposed to have been the. 
Pagut Letnonius mentioned by Festus as exist- 
ing near Rome on the latin way ; the style and 
ornaments seem at first sight to belong to the 
last period of the second century of the present 
era, but the lead pipes that conveyed water bear 
(he inscription II. Quintiliorum condini et max- 
imi, or the Quintili , two brothers who pos- 
sessed great riches and were put to death by 
order of Gommodus , as related by Herodian t 
Dio and Lampridios ; their villa became a fa- 
vorite residence of Gommodus, who probably 
added to its buildings; it was evidently cnlar- 


Sixth day 315 

ged and restored at the end of (he III century 
or in the beginning of the IV; amongst (he ruins 
can be traced the amphitoatre, (wo bathing rooms 
various reservoirs, an aqueduct and a fountain 
similar to that of the acqna Julia on the Esquiline. 

The fountain is turned (owards the appiaii 
way in (he direction of a large pyramidal mo- 
nument probably that of Q, Caeeilii (be uncle 
of Atticus the friend of Cicero, who was buried, 
according to Cornelius Nepos , on the via appii 
lire miles from Rome. 

On the opposite side of the road are re- 
mains of a large enclosure built with enormous 
blocks of Alban stone, which calls to mind (ho 
campus racer Horatiorum placed by Martial at 
this part of the via appia , to perpetuate the 
remembrance of the combat between the Horatii 
and Curia ti near the Cluilian fbssi. Returning to 
the Metella tomb and within the Cafarella on the 
top of a hillock is the 



The discovery made under Urban Till in 
the vaults of this temple of a round ara with 
a greek inscription and the Bacchanalian serpent 
calling it the hearth of Bacchus dedicated by 
Apronianus , has determined (he denomination 
of this small temple which is well preserved ; this 
discovery attested by Holtensius in one of his 
letters, completely upset the opinion of those 
who called it the Camena or that of Honour and 
Virtue placed by the ancient writers at the porta 
capena and by the Regionarj within the limits 
of the I region which did not extend beyond 


346 Sixth day 

the Almone al its point of intersection with the 
via appia; the style of this edifice is very an- 
cient, the columns forming the portico were la- 
ken at a later period from some edifice of the 
Antoniues. The Hieropbanl Apronianus who de- 
dicated the altar was probably Lucius Flavins 
Apronianus Asterius a friend of Julian , and a 
zealous supporter of the ancient religion ; be 
was created Prefect of Rome in tbe year 363 as 
proved by Corsini, a situation which he filled 
in 364. 

The four marble Sated corinthian columns, 
by the proportions and style seem to bare be- 
longed to some other edifice, they ar& now en- 
chased in the walls of the facade; at the right 
entrance is the round ara of Bacchus; the cells 
is decorated with a stucco frieze , filled with 
military trophies, the ceiling with stucco squares 
of an octagon form and soma remains of a ban 

The temple , having been changed into a 
church in the lower ages, was adorned with pain- 
tings in 1 01 1 proving by the subjects that tlitt 
church was consecrated by S. Urban; besides va- 
rious passages from scripture they contain allu- 
sions relative to the life of that holy pontiff and 
of S. Cecilia. They were retouched under Ur- 
ban VIII who restored and reconsecrated the 
church , these paintings are important for the 
history of the art. In the GafTarelta beneath the 
temple is tbe 


Sixth day 347 



The passion to give a great name to every 
stone of Borne induced antiquaries of past lim-is 
to call this nymplueum the grotto of Egeri'a 
which we have already proved, on the authorit j 
of Juvenal and Symmachus, to have been situa- 
ted near the porta capena between the Celiaa 
and the monte d' oro. To these authorities it 
may be added that the ancient statue at the end 
of the nymphsum, though deprived of its bead 
is evidently that of a man, nor can il be doub- 
ted from its character and garments that it re* 
presented a river god; this ruin is however a 
nymphieum, a kind of edifice consecrated by the 
ancients to springs, fountains, rivers, and naiads, 
so often met with in the villas of the ancients ; 
tbe statue is that of the local fount , perhaps lh# 
Almone which received its waters. 

This edifice , probably of the time of Ves- 
pasian , is of reticular work and contains eleven 
niches comprizing that of the fount; the pave- 
ment was formed of serpentine, the walls of 
verd' antico, the niches of white marble and red 
cornices ; in the valley half a mile distant from 
the nymphasum is tbe 


A When Hannibal raised the siege of Borne , 
a field and altar were consecrated to the genius 
of return , Dio Redicolo, the position of both was 
determined by the elder Pliny at a spot on the via 
■Appia two miles to the right on quitting the city; 
this temple was consecrated to some other god 


348 Sixth day 

than the Dio Rcdicolo since it is not only very 
far from the Appian way but is also to the left 
on leaving Rome; the edifice is of a fine con- 
struction, it had a portico of four columns now 
ruined ; (he facade being towards the Almo- 
nd which flows nearly at its base has given risl 
lo the opinion that it was consecrated to that 
stream; the bricks are light and well united, yel- 
low on the walls, red at the base, on the pi- 
lasters and ornamental parts. To the south two 
octagon columns are enchased in the wall ,* on 
the opposite side are pilasters; the compartments 
seem to have contained bas reliefs; at the bass 
of. the temple there was a road of which many 
polygone stones remain. 

tJSILIC OF I. iahl. 

Anastastus the librarian affirms , that at tha 
instance of Pope S. Silvester , a church was built 
by the Emperor Gonstanline to the apostle of 
the nations , on a spot of ground belonging to 
Lucina a roman matron , and that S. Paul was 
buried in an ancient christian cemetery situated 
in its vicinilv. It would be difficult to precis* 
the period of the foundation, but by a rescript 
existing in the Vatican archives of the year 368, 
the emperors Valentinian II, Theodosias and Ar— 
eadius ordered Sallust , the prefect of Rome, to 
rebuild the church on a greater extent , a proof 
that a church was already consecrated to the 
apostle. The work was completed by Honoriua 
us staled in the inscription on the large internal 
arch. The confessional of pure silver was built 
about 438 by Valentinian III; the mosaic over 


Sixth day 349 

the arch , a part of which remains is of 440 , 
the time of Pope S. Leo, the church was embel- 
lished by several pontiffs particularly by Stilus V 
and Pius VII. The interior not comprizing the 
tribune was 335 palms long and 203 broad; it 
was divided into three naves by 80 columns , 
and contained in all 132 each 52 palms in height, 
1 6 in circumference, chiefly pavonazzelto , phry- 
gian or parian taken from the Emilian basilic ; 
around the various altars were 30 porphyry co- 
lumns, the pavement was formed of fragments of 
antique marbles; under the great arch was a 
mosaic of 440 representing our Saviour wilh 
SS. Peter and Paul and the 24 elders of the 
apocalypse ; on (be walls of the middle nave were 
paintings of the IX century and the series of 253 
portraits of the Roman pontiffs , from S. Leo I 
down to Pius VII. 

In the night of the 15 July 1 823 it was con-~ 
sinned by fire; its reediiication, begun by Leo XII, 
is pursued wilh activity under the present- so- 

Annexed to the basilic is a cloister wilh 
small columns supporting light arches, and to- 
gether with the exterior entablature covered with 
mosaics. Under the portico are sundry antique 
marbles and on the walls numerous inscriptions 
published in the great work on this basilic by 
the late Monsignor Nicolai; the cloister was begun 
by Pietro da Capua aud finished by Giovanni 
dArdea about the year 1 21 5. 


350 Sixth day 

j. ejoia jiis the voxTJSE. 

Three churches were erected by the early 
christians at the jtquas Salvias ; the owe de- 
dicated to S. Paul on the spot where he died 
was rebuilt in 1590 by Cardinal Aldobrandini 
oo the designs of Giacomo della Porta who de- 
corated it with a facade. In the interior are two 
altars and three fountains which are said to have 
sprung up miraculously at the three places where 
the apostle's head rebounded after his decapi- 

The adjoining chnrch of S. Vincenzo ed Ana- 
slasio built by pope Honorius I about 630, and 
restored by S. Leo III, is formed of three na- 
ves by pilasters over which the twelve apostles 
are represented in fresco on llie designs given 
by Raphael. This abbey is one of the most ce- 
lebrated of Rome or of the environs. 

The third church, S. Maria schaltt cali was 
built over (he cemetery of S. Zeno who , with 
several of his companions , here received the 
palm of martyrdom during the persecution under 
Diocletian. The church was rebuilt in 1582 by 
Cardinals Alessandro Farnese and Aldobrandini 
on the designs of Vignola ; its form is octagon ; 
in the tribune is a mosaic by Zucca considered 
as the first modern work of this kind displaying 
a good taste. 

lu a vineyard near the high road in retur- 
ning to S. Paul's is an ancient bridge formed of 
massive blocks for the passage of the consular 
way over the Almotc which, near this ptaee, falb 
into the Tiber. 




^ Sixth day 351 


At the extension of the city walls this gale 
was substituted to the Trigemiqa , Minucia , Na- 
valis and Layernalisof Servius and called Ostien- 
sis , from being on the road lo Os(ia, or S, Paul 
from the basilic. It was rebuilt by Belisarius 
26 palms higher than the ancient gate. To the 
left before reentering the city , enchased in the 
wall is the '-' - 


^} This quadrangular pyramid was erected in 

330 days to receive the ashes of Caius Cestius 
as appears by lha following inscription on the 






ET • POTH1 . L. 

This mass, lined with white marble a palm 
and a half thick , 164 high., and 130 wide, is 
placed on a travertine base 4 palms deep; the 
blocks are 36 palms thick- on every side, the 
sepulchral chamber 26 palms long, 18 wide, 
19 deep. In the interior, are various compart- 
ments painted with figures of Victory, with vases 
and other ornaments. Cajus Cestius was one of 
the Seplemvirs of the Epnlones who prepared 
the solemn banquets to the gods , particularly 


352 Sixth day 

to Jupiter ; these banquets called LeCtisUrnia 
took place in the temples on the occasion of 
signal victories or when a great calamity threat- 
ened Ibe republic. The pyramid, having suf- 
fered by the injuries of time, was restored by 
Alexander VII; in lowering; the soil which had 
encreased to the height of 24 palms, two fine 
capitals and two small fluted columns were found 
which were restored and placed at the western 
angle of the pyramid together with two bases, 
on one of which was the foot in metal, now in 
the capitoline museum, and belonging to the sta- 
tue of Gestius, as seen by the inscriptions on the 
base; it appears by it that Ostitis lived in the 
time of Augustus. The field before the Pyramid, 
now the protestant cemetery, is filled with tomb 
stones and sepulchral monuments. In building 
the wall of enclosure an ancient plan of Home 
and the pavement uniting the Ostian to the Lan- 
reotina way were discovered. The cemetery has 
been extended of late years on the south side 
of the Pyramid. 


A This hill was formed by quantities of broken 
earthenware united here at an epoch and for 
reasons unknown at the decline of the empire , 
no mention of it being made by ancient writers, 
and many ancient tombs having been found under 
the accumulated mass of their fragments. It is 
known thnt the use of earthen vases was ge- 
neral in Home , that they served to contain wa- 
ter, wine , oil , the ashes of the dead and la 
many other purposes ; it is therefore not extra- 


Sixth day 353 

ordinary that in the course of ages a hill should 
have been formed 240 palms in height and 740 
in circumference around which grottoes have been 
excavated to deposit wine in the summer months 
Opposite Testaccio is the front of a modern 
bastion , a part of the new fortifications with 
which Paul HI wished to cover Rome on this 
side and which were never completed-, other parts 
are near S. Sabba with a finished bastion con- 
necting the city walls between the S. Paolo and 
S. Sebastian gates , known in the history of mi- 
litary architecture as the bastion of Sangallo who 
directed the works- 
Near the cbapel dedicated to S. Lazzarus 
is an arch thrown over the road which shows 
the extreme decay of art at the period of its 
construction ; it seems to have belonged to the 
granaries called by Victor the Horrta Anictti. 
On the piazza lately opened for the discharge 
of marbles are remains of the ancient 

T- ._ The place where the ancients landed goods 
brought by sea to Rome was called the Navalia. 
Livy, speaking of the election of Cincinnatus says 
that tbey were situated on the right bank of 
the Tiber , in other passages , out of the Tri- 
geraina gate. In (be Ccsarini grounds arc nu- 
merous ruins of constructions bearing the type 
of the beginning of the VII century of Rome , 
which seem by their plan to belong to the an- 
cient arsenal. Several rough blocks of line mar- 
ble with the dale of their shipment have been 
discovered here, a proof that they were landed 
27 * 


354 Sixth day 

it this place which gave rise to the modern 
name of the Marmarata applied to this quarter; 
In the lower ages it was called Ihe liipa Graca, 
the opposite bank the Ripa Romana. 

In times of low water it is easy to distin- 
guish the piles of the 


When the city was extended on the right 
bank of the river by Ancus Martins , a wooden 
bridge was built here and from the beams which 
composed it was called the ponte Sublicio; it is 
celebrated by the valour of Horatius Codes who 
defended it against Porsena. In rebuilding it, 
th« beams were not connected by nails or iron 
that it might be more easily taken to pieces. 
Destroyed in an inundation under Augustus, pro- 
bably the same so eloquently described by Horace, 
it was .rebuilt of stone by the Censor M. Emi- 
lius Lepidus , and called the Emilian bridge , 
recorded by Juvenal and by other writers. Res- 
tored by Antoninus Pius , it was destroyed six 
centuries later by another inundation under A- 
drian I; in 1454 the remaining part of the bridge 
was taken down, the piles stript of their tra- 
vertine blacks till the level of the water, to 
convert them into cannon balls many of which 
still exist in the castle S. Angelo. 


This hill, of a pentagon form , is about 1 1 000 
ancient feet in circumference without calculating 
some slight irregularities , a measurement pro- 


Sixth day 355 

viog the exactness of Dionysius Halicarnassus who 
valued it at IS stadia or 1 1 260 feet, the height 
is 42 metres above the level of the sea. Various 
etymologies are assigned to its appellation by an- 
cient writers , gome deriving it from ah adventu, 
the arrival of the Latin people who assisted Ser- 
vius Tullius in erecting the temple of Diana , 
Others from Aoente a^river near Bieti , or ai 
ambus the birds from which Remus took his 
augury; the best founded opinion is that it was 
called after Aventinus , a king of Alba, who was 
buried on it ; its first name was Muraus. 

Enclosed within the walls by Ancus Martins 
it became the residence of the Latins whom he 
conquered , particularly of the inhabitants of Po~ 
lilorium , Tellene and Ficana; it was not com- 
prized within the pomcerinm before the Em- 
peror Claudius, In the limes of the kings and of 
the republic it was covered with sumptuous 
edifices, the armilustrum, the temples of.Diana , 
Juno Regina , Dea bona , Minerva , the atrium 
of Liberty, the palaces of Sura, of Trajan and 
the therms? of Decius. It is now the most de- 
serted of the seven hills , the edifices that ador- 
ned it having so completely disappeared that it is 
difficult by the passages of ancient writers to 
trace , amidst the shapeless ruins , the site of 
these edifices. 

The ascent is by five roads in the direction 
of those nsed by the ancients, and probably ther« 
never were any others as in (hose all the di- 
vergencies unite. The first is opposite Testaccio 
near the ancient porta Navalis , the second leads 
to S. Prisca , the third to the carceres of the 
circus maiimos corresponding to the ancient Cli- 


356 Sixth day 

yus Pnblicius , the fonrlh near S. Anns , the 
fifth corresponding lo (he ancient porta Minuc- 
cia , now closed, begins at the Marmorala and 
leads to 


This church, called*, also the ■> Priorato » 
front its belonging to the knights of Malta, com- 
mands an extensive view over the city and the 
carapagna. At a short distance towards the south 
east was the temple of the Bea bona whose 
mysteries were celebrated by the Roman ladies, 
as mentioned by Cicero in bis oration against 
Clodins; the period of the foundation of this 
church is anterior to the XIH century. It was 
restored by Pius V and by Cardinal Rezzonico 
in 1965 on the designs of Piranesi. An antique 
sarcophagus , now a tomb, representing Minerva 
and the Muses is particularly deserving of no- 
tice. To the left of the casino is 

S. At ESS to 

In this direction was the Armiluttrvm where 
according lo Plutarch, Tatius was buried , a' 
spot so called from the exercices of the soldiers 
and the celebration of games on certain days; 
here was situated the house of Euphemianus a 
senator, the father of S. Alessio. Under Leo 111 
it was a deaconry and became one of the twenty 
abbeys of Rome in 975 ; rebuilt under Honorius 
HI it was consecrated anew in 1217 and restored 
by Cardinal Quirini in 1744. 


Sixth day 357 

The facade consists of a portico of (wo gra- 
nite columns and two to each of the four win- 
dows; (he pavement of the middle nave is formed 
of the Alexandrine work, under (he altar of (he 
confession on whjch are four verd'anlico columns 
are deposited the remains of SS. Bonifacio, Ales- 
sio and Aglae ; the painting over the altar to 
the left is by Ricciolini; the architecture by Mo- 
rena; over the altar dedicated to the Virgin is 
her miraculous image brought from Edessa in 
the X century; it was adorned with fine marbles 
and with two broccatello columns in 1813 by 
Charles IV king of Spain ; the image is said to 
be the same tbat existed in a church of Edessa 
at the door of which S. Alessio stood as a beggar 
during many years , and the wooden stair case 
in the church at the left nave is , according to 
a pious tradition, the same under which S. Ales- 
sio , unknown in his paternal house , lived in 
poverty during 17 years; the most remarkable 
tombs are those of Leone Massimi in 1012 , of 
padri Nerini and Lupo de Olmese, of Cardinal 
Guidi and of Brippioa latin poet of the XV 
century ; in the monastery annexed to the church 
are 28 column* of various marbles. 

This church built on toe paternal house 
of the saint to whom it is dedicated, is situated 
near the ancient temple of Juno Regiua erected, 
after the taking of Veil, by Camillus. Au ancient 
inscription in mosaic over the principal door 
states that it was founded by Pietro, anlllyrian 
priest, in the lime of Pope Gelestine about 425. 


358 Sixth day 

It was restored by Kugenins II in 824 and con- 
secrated anew by Gregory IX in 1238. Other 
embellishments were made in 1541 by Cardinal 
Cesarini and in 1587 by Sixtus V; in the three 
naves are 24 corinthian marble columns. The 
Madonna del rosario in the smallest nave is one 
of the best paintings of-SassoFerrata. 

The paintings of the Tribune are by/ the 
scholars of Taddeo Zuccari ; the picture of S, 
Hyacinth over an altar adorned with four ala- 
baster columns is by Lavinia Fontana, the fres- 
coes by Frederick Zuccari , who painted tbe 
canonization of the saint. S. Domini ck giving 
the habit of big order to S. Hyacinth by Taddeo 
Zuccari ; tbe martyrdom of S. Sabina by Silvani. 
On the altar of the Elci family are fonr fine 
breccia columns, tbe frescoes by Odazzi.The most 
remarkable tombs are those of Cardinal Ausia 
of 1483 , and of the two Bichi; the mosafc in 
the central nave represents fra Mnnioof Zamora 
the eighth General of the Pndteatori order. The 
portico leading to the convent is supported by 
eight granite and pavonaxzetto columns ; the 
scriptural subjects executed in marble and situated 
near (he chief entrance are line works of the 
XII century. 

Near the church are remains of the wall 
built by Honorius III in the XIII century on 
this part of the Aventine where be resided. 

s.' raise a. 

This church is of a very remote origin; it 
is said to hare been boilt at tbe time of the 
aposlles on the bouse of Aquila and Priscilla and 


Sixth day 359 

consecrated after the death of S. Piisca by S. Eu- 
tichianus in the rear 280. It was restored by 
Adrian I and Gallixtus III; the facade designed 
by Lombardi was added by Cardinal Giusliniani; 
the interior is decorated with 24 aacieat co* 
lumns , with frescoes by Fontebuooi and a pain- 
ting over the high altar by Passigoam. 

Beneath the church is an antique marble 
capital finely carved which is said to have been 
used by S. Peter as a font for the baptism of 
SS. Prisca, Priscilla , and others. On the left 
of the high altar are tbe arms of Gallixtus III of 
the Borgia family with an inscription in verse. 

Opposite the church stood the celebrated 
temple of Diana built originally by Servius Tul- 
lius as the centre of the Latin federation, and 
near it to the south the private house of Trajan; 
a part of the church itself was the house ol Li- 
cinius Sura a celebrated personage and the friend 
of Trajan, to the west are ruins of the GlaudJaa 
aqueduct and of its reservoir. At the fool of the 
Ctieus Publiciui near the carceres of the circus 
maximus are several ways all leading to 


This church was built on the ruins of an an- 
cient temple called by some moderns .}fatuta, by 
others Pudicitia Patricia but without any 
foundation. It is stated in ancient writers , that 
near the carceres of the circus Maiimns, and 
in the vicinity of the river , stood the temple 
of Ceres and Proserpine rebuilt by Tiberius, and 
it is very probable that the ruins existing in 
this church were those of that temple ; the parts 


360 Sixth day 

of it remaining are a portion of the cella for- 
med of large quadrilateral blocks of travertine, 
of eight columns of the external peristyle , five of 
which are enchased in the internal facade of the 
church , one in the sacristy and two on the north 
side; these columns are of while marble , of the 
composite order fluted and 10 palms in circum- 
ference; the beauty of the capitals is a sufficient 
indication that the temple was built or rebuilt 
in the flourishing period of art. 

When changed into a church it was em- 
bellished by Adrian I in. 702 and took the de- 
nomination of Cosmedin from the greek word 
cosmos , ornament; it was also called in schola 
grwca, Gracor urn, from the greek confraternity 
that occupied it, the word schola being used in 
that signilication in the lower ages. It is now 
known under the appellation of « Bocca di Ve- 
rila » from a hugo marble masque, with the eyes 
and mouth wide open , placed under the por- 
tico; a tale is told to children that if they put 
their hand into the mouth they cannot draw it 
out, its concave form seems to indicate that il 
served as a mouth to some cloaca. 

The inlerior is separated iuto three naves 
by 12 marble columns; the pavement is formed 
ot various hardstones; it contains the amboues, 
in the tribune the pontifical marble seal , and 
an imago of tbe Madonna brought from Greece; 
the high altar which is isolated , is formed of 
a red granite cup, aud is decorated with a bal- 
dacchino supported by four red Egyptian gra- 
nite columns. lu the ancient confessional under 
the tribune are many precious relics aud pain- 
tings by Brughi ; it has the form of a small ba- 




Sixth day 361 

silic ; the baptismal font is ornamented with stuc- 
coes, the choir by Mallei , the painting over the 
altar by Maioardi, the -others by Chiari ; in the 
sacristy is a mosaic representing the Madonna, 
the cbild and angels executed by the order of 
John VII in 705 for the Vatican Basilic and pla- 
ced in this church in 1639; opposite is a foun- 
tain and 


Of all the opinions published since the revi- 
val of art respecting this elegant edifice the best 
established appears to be that it was a temple 
of Vesta, not the one in which was the Palla- 
dium situated at the foot of the Palatine, bat one of 
those temples of Vesta that were placed in each 
Curia according to the institutions of Numa. That 
it is a temple of that goddess seems to be pro- 
ved by its round form , by lb* windows, and by 
its dedication in the lower ages to the Madonna 
under the denomination of the sun to whom it 
is at the present day consecrated. From the style 
of tho capitals and the slender proportion of the 
columns it appears to have been either built, or 
rebuilt, iu the time of the Anlonines about the 
decline of the II century. 

The wall forming the circular cella is 
formed of fine white marble squares so well 
arranged that they seem to be but one block ; 
the portico was composed of 20 fluted Corin- 
thian columns of parian marble of which the 19 
remaining are raised on steps and form a cir- 
cular peristyle 231 palms in circumference but 
wanting a column , tha architrave covering 


362 Sixtk day 

and ornaments which rendered it complete ; the 
cells is 4 palgis in diameter, the columns with 
base and capital 47 in height. To the right is 

rax Tfurtx or fortuxa rutins. 

One of the most ancient in Borne; Servius 
lulling, grateful to Fortune which from a slare 
bad raised him to the rank of a king, built on 
the banks of ihe Tiber a temple to Virile For- 
tune which must not be confounded with that 
to Fortuna Forlii. The former, supposed to have 
been the one we are about to describe, was burnt 
and restored in Ihe time of the Republic. Its 
form is a parallelogram composed of travertine 
and tufa covered anciently with a fine hard 
stucco to conceal the porosity and various co- 
lour of the stoues, and of 18 external traver- 
tine columns; the six forming the portico and 
the four in front are entire , the others are 
only half columns placed along Ihe cella wall ; 
they are fluted jonic 34 palms high ; Ihe inter 
columns of the portico were enclosed in a brick 
wall when the temple was changed into a church, 
the columns sustaining the large cornice are also 
of travertine, the frieze being decorated with 
festoons held by children and interwoven with 
candlesticks and skulls of oxen, all stucco or- 
naments much consumed by lime. The temple 
was raised on a high base , lately uncovered , 
to which the ascent was by steps of the width 
of the portico facade. 

About 872, under the pontificate of John VIII 
it was changed into a church and dedicated to 
tbe Madonna j it was granted lo the Armenians 


Sixth day 363 

by Pius V and restored in 1830. The painting 
over the high altar representing S. Maria Egi- 
ziaca is one of the best works *f Frederick Zuc- 
cari. In the church is a model of the holy se- 
pulchre of our Saviour as it exists at Jerusalem. 
Opposite the church is an old building co- 
vered with ornaments taken from ancient edi- 
fices ; though bearing the denomination of the 
bouse of Pilate it is ascertained by the inscript- 
ion over the door , that it was built by Nic- 
colo the son of Crescentius and of Theodora, who 
lived in the XII century ; in the XVI it is sup- i 
posed to have been occupied by Niccolo di Lo- ,■ 
renzo known under the name of « Cola di Ri- 1 
enzo » the celebrated Tribune of the Romas 
people in 1247. On the other side of the street 
are remains of the 


In the early times of Rome there were only 
two bridges, the Sublician and Palatine, the 
latter being the first that was built of stone. It 
was begun by the Censor Marcus Fulvius, and 
terminated by Scipio Africaous and Lucius Mum- 
ming also Censors, it was restored by Pope Ho- 
noring III about 1227, b^ Julius 111 and some 
years later by Gregory XIII. In 1 593 one half 
of it was carried away daring an extraordinary 
rise of the river, and it has never been repaired* 

A lane to the left leads to the banks of the 
river at which are the mouth of the Cloaca 
Maxima , and remains of a wall formed of large 
blocks of volcanic stone . 





We will now cross the Tiber to a part 
of Rome offering many interesting objects to the 
cariosity of strangers. The Trattevtre quarter 
was added and fortified by Ancns Martins to serve 
as a barrier against the incursions of the Etrus- 
cans, and its first inhabitants were the Latins 
whom Ancus had subjugated. In the times of Au- 
gustus it was the quarter assigned to the soldiers 
of the fleet stationed at Ravenna. 

This bridge was built in the year of Borne 
690 by L. Fabricius curator of the roads , as 
staled by the ancient inscriptions on each side 


Seventh day 365 

of the great arches; it took the modem name 
of quattro capi from four heroics of Janus qua- 
drifrons that were formerly placed on it; one is 
now opposite the church of S. Giovanni Galabita, 
another at the entrance of the bridge and two 
in the vicinity. It is the most ancient bridge of 
Rome that remains entire. 

ism. a TiBsurrj. 

-• . After the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, 
the Senate gave his property to the people, who 
oat of hatred to tyranny threw into the Tiber 
the bundles of corn that had been collected in 
one of his fields near the river, which was con* 
secrated to Mars and called the Campus Marlius; 
these bundles accumulated to such a degree that 
they choked up the current and uniting with 
some sand banks formed, in course of time, as 
island that was. subsequently inhabited. 

In the year 462 of Borne the plague raged 
with violence and the Senate , after having con- 
sulted the sybilline books, seat ambassadors 
to the celebrated temple of Esculapius at Epi- 
daurus who obtained one of the serpents which, 
as living symbols of the God , were fed in the 
temple, and brought it to Rome, but when lan- 
ding it was lost in this island on which occasion 
the Senate built a temple on it; the island was 
fortified with square stones and reduced in the 
form of a vessel in memory of the one which 
had brought the serpent ; the bust of Escala- 
pins with lib symbol engraved on the vessel still 
exists under the garden of S. Bartholomew. In 


366 SevenA day 

the centre was raised an Egyptian obelisk ia 
imitation of the mast of a vessel. 


- / Ibis church was built in 903 on the ruins 
of Ibe temple of Esculapius ; it was rebuilt by 
S. Gelasius II in 1118 and restored by Cardi- 
nal Sanlorio under tbe direction of Martin Lun- 
gbi who added four columns to tbe facade, the 
interior is divided into three naves by 24 co- 
lumns chiefly granite , supposed to have belon- 
ged to the ancient temple of Esculapius. 

The fresco over tbe high altar representing 
8. Bartolomew whose remains are deposited . 
beneath il in a porphyry urn, is by Francesco 
Manuo; the paintings in tbe chapels dedicated to 
S. Antonio di Padua, to the Madonna and to 
tbe Passion are by Antonio Caracci; the Blessed 
Cinlhia Castellani is by an unknown author. In 
the chapel dedicated to S. Carlo Borromeo the 
altar piece represents the saint on his knees gi- 
ving the communion to those affected with, the 
plague; on tbe other liberating a person from the 
evil spirit, and distributing alms. All the pain- 
tings in this chapel are by Antonio Caracci. The 
S. Francis io the following chapel is by Carlino 
of Siena , the side pictures by Sermoneta ; in the 
chapel of the Sacrament are frescoes relating to 
tbe history of the Madonna by Mercati. Near 
the altar is a well with has reliefs of the XII 
century, serving as a tomb to the saints who 
were buried in this church. Besides the temple 
of Esculapius there existed on this island those 
of Fauu Aai. of Jupiter Licaouiusi 


Seventh day 367 

CBVRca OP S. GlorjKIfl DI DIO 

This church, once a Benedictine monastery, 
was built in 1640 by the religions order of S. 
Giovanni di Dio called the Ben fralelli , on the 
area of the ancient church where they disco- 
vered the body of their founder S. Giovanni Ca- 
Iabrita which they placed under the high altar. 
The facade by Barattoai was renewed on the 
designs of Carpeccbia, a pnpil of Carlo Fonlana; 
the interior is decorated with line marbles , stuc- 
coes and gildings; in the first chapel a an imago 
of the Virgin ; in the second a picture repres- 
enting S. Giovanni Galabrita by Leonard! ; the 
one over the high altar by General! , the tri- 
bune and the S. Antonio Abbate by Giaquiulo. 
Annexed to the church' is a hospital served by 
the monks of S. Giovanni di Dio whose atten- 
tions to the sick are incessant. 


" By the inscriptions on the parapets and on 
the external front it appears that this bridge 
was built about the 365 year of the Christian 
era by Simmacus , prefect of Rome under the 
Emperors Yalenlinian and Gralianus , and de- 
dicated to the latter on the testimony of Am- 
mianus Siarcelimus. It is now called the ponte 
S* Bartolomeo. 

The second lane to the left leads to the 
• Ponte Rotto >> already described as presenting 
a picturesque view of the Aventine, of the temple 
of Vesta , the mouth of the Cloaca maxima and 
the Marrana. 


368 Sevan A day 


This church is said to have been built on 
the spot once occupied by the house of & Ce- 
cilia , and was consecrated about the year 250 
by S. Urban L The monastery was built by the 
Benedictines to whom the church was granted 
by Urban VIII; it has been recently restored and 
embellished by Cardinal Giorgio Doria. In the 
court is an ancient marble vase remarkable lor 
its size and form , the portico is sustained by 
four columns, two being of red granite. 

The interior consists of three naves sepa- 
rated by pilasters. On the high altar is a mar- 
ble ■ bald scchinO" with four antique, black and 
white marble columns, and near it the tomb of 
& Cecilia, ornamented with alabaster, lapis laz- 
snli , jasper , agath and gilt bronze ; the re- 
cumbent statne of the saint is by Slefano Ma- 
derno. Around the tribune are ancient mosaics; 
adjoining the chapel of the crucifixion is the 
chamber in which it is supposed that S. Cecilia 
suffered martyrdom ; it certainly served as a 
vapour bath as the pipes that conveyed the hot 
water still exist. The altar piece of this room 
is by an unknown author ; the landscapes are 
by Paul Brill. 

The paintings of the middle nave are said 
to be by Conca , those in the smaller naves by 
Torin and Tarquinio. On the left side is the 
tomb of Cardinal Fortiguerri of tbe year 1473; 
on the right that of Cardinal Adam of Hertford, 
perpetual administrator of the bishopric t of 
London who died in 1397; over the altars near 
the confessional are paintings by Nauni and Ba- 


Seventh day 369 

gliooi, on the first altar of the small Dave de- 
dicated to S. Stephen arc two porphyry columns 
and a painting by Ghezzi ; near il the tomb of 
Cardinal Magaiotti, on the second altar a S. Be- 
nedict also by Ghezzi ; the chapel at the end 
of the nare , adorned with two verde antico 
columns and dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, 
is by Baglioni. In the right nave a bas relief of 
the Madonna executed in the XV century and 
a painting of the sepulture of S. Cecilia of the 
DC century. The Mary Magdalen beyond the Fer- 
roni tomb is attributed to Baglioni, the chapel 
of the relics was painted by Vanvitelli, the S. 
Andrew by Biagioli, the one dedicated to the 
crucifixion is oil the XV century. 

nirj GRANDS 

V The custom house for mercandize brought 
by sea was built by Innocent XII on the designs 
of do Rossi. 

It was near this spot that Mutios Scevola 
entered the camp of Porsena with the design 
of killing him , and having failed in his object 
burnt his hand in the king s presence; the whole 
ground occupied by the camp was given to Sce- 
vola and called the Prat* Must. It is here also 
that Clclia and her companions crossed the rivet 
on horseback. 

.' This extensive edifice was commenced by 
Innocent XI in 1686 on the designs of De Rossi 
and enlarged by Clement XII and Pins VI; the 


370 Seventh day 

object of the institution is to instruct young 
boys in various trades and in the liberal arts; 
there is also a conservatory for young females, 
and a retreat for aged invalids of both sexes. 
The establish me nt which takes its denomination 
from the church dedicated to S. Michael the 
Archangel is under the special protection of 
his Eminence Cardinal Tosti. 


■ This gale was substituted to the ancient 
porta portuemi* when Urban built the walls 
round Trastevere; it was called Portuensit from 
its leading to the Roman port and built t as 
appears from the inscription, by the Emperors 
Arcadius and Honoring. Between the ancient and 
the modern gate opposite the Navalia were the 
fields of Cincinnatus. 

s, FKjircBsca 

This, church was granted in 1229 to S. 
Francis of Assisi and rebuilt by Cardinal Pal-, 
iavicini on the designs of De Rossi. 

Beginning by the left side the 1. Chapel 
contains the Conception by Martin de Vos, the 
Nativity by Vovet , the assumption by Cornia , 
and the tomb of Giacomo Mo la. The II the An- 
nunciation , Salviati ; the otber paintings by Na- 
vera , the tomb of Monsignpr Faravicini by Rus- 
coni. The III , belonging to the Mallei family , 
a painting .on boards representing a dead Christ 
and the Madonna ; the tomb of Laura Mattel 
by Passarelli , the bast of Menghini. The IV. a 


Seventy day 37 f 

Madonna the child and S. Anne by Baciccio , 
the statue of Lodovico Albertoni by Bernini, the 
tomb of Paravicini by Ferrata, the high altar 
was designed by Rinaldi ; on the lateral pilas- 
ters the images of S. John Baptist and S. Lo- 
renzo by Guidolli ; in the choir S. Francis in 
exstacy by d' Arpino , the other paintings by 
Novera. In the first chapel beyond the high altar, 
S. Pietro d' Alcantara , S. Pasquafo Baylon by 
Chiari ; the Madonna and S. Joseph by Legnami, 
tfae other paintings by Passer i; in (he following 
S. Giovanni Capislrano and the side pictures by 
Maria Muratori ; in the last a Crucifixion in 
relief by fra Diego over the Bicci tomb; in the 
middle nave a fine modern sepulchral monu- 
ment to Gioacchino Costa. 

The annexed convent belongs to the Fran- 
ciscan order , and many relics are deposited in 
the room once inhabited by S. Francis. In (he 
large street opposite is the church of the SS. 
Qnaranta , and at thti end that of 


Supposed to occupy the site of (he ancient 
- Taberna Meritoria », a kind of military hos- 
pital for invalid soldiers who had served with 
distinction. Having subsequently become an inn 
S. Callixtus in 221 obtained permission from 
the Emperor Alexander Severos to erect on the 
spot a small church, the first that was made 
public in Rome. After frequent repairs it was 
rebuilt in 1189 by Innocent II and restored by 
Nicholas V on the designs of Rossellini; the por- 
tico, sustained by four granite columns , was 


372 Seventh day 

added by Clement XI, and contains several in- 
teresting ancient inscriptions; the mosaic on the 
facade is of the lime of lonocenl II. 

In the years of the Juhilee , as happened 
in 1623 under Urban VIII when the plague was 
spread in Rome , and under Leo XII in 1825 
after the destruction of S. Paul's, the large door 
of this church served as the porta Santa. A 
frieze , a stucco has relief representing the as- 
sumption , and a freseo by Cavallini , existing 
under the portico, merit observation. 

The interior of this church is divided into 
three naves by 25 large granite (and 4 of anoth- 
er quality ) columns with jonic and corinthian 
capitals -, the jonic , of a very rich style , must 
have belonged to a temple of Isis and Sera pis 
as the figures of these two Egyptian divinities 
and that of Harpocrates are represented in the 
volutes and flowers. The pavement of the opus 
altxandrinum is formed , as customary, of por- 
phyry, serpentine and other marbles. In the mid- 
dle of the ceiling, richly carved and gill, is the 
assumption of the Madonna , a very fine work 
by Dome n ic hi no , who furnished the designs of 
the chapel at the end of the small right nave 
and represented on the ceiling a young child 
scattering flowers. The high altar is isolated , 
the baldacchino sustained by four fine porphyry 
columns; the upper mosaic of the tribune re- 
presenting the Virgin and sundry saints is of the 
year 1 143; the one below of the Madonna with 
the twelve apostles is of a later date. Among 
the sepulchral tombs are those of La n franc, Giro 
Ferri, and Monsiguor Bollari, a distinguished 
literary character, of Giuseppe Ario, a Canon 


Seventh day 333 

of the basilic , on whose bust are three round 
stones of those that were lied to the feet of 
martyrs; near it ami under the small nave art* 
ancient images of the Madonna aud child in fresco 
but injured by time. 

On the side of the high altar is a small 
column of white marble used for the paschal 
candle ; around the organ , which is finely carved 
and gilt , are five small pictures representing 
angels , by an unknown author. On the Tauri- 
nelti monument is a marble bas relief of the 
Annunciation said to have been designed by Mi- 
chael Angelo , and over it an ancient mosaic re- 
presenting the sea, barques and dolphins, and other 
aquatic birds, both highly esteemed works. The 
Corradini tomb near the lateral door , decorated 
with marble of sundry colours and of a fine style 
of architecture is by Filippo Valle. A large mo- 
nument under the organ with corinthian fluted 
pilasters contains, in niches, the statues of SS. Lo- 
renzo and Francesco , and above it one of God 
the father. Over an urn is a recumbent statue of 
Armellino surmounted by those of the Madonna 
and child. Nearly opposite another urn with the 
portrait of Cardinal Francesco Medici and a paint- 
ing of the virgin ■, the tomb of Cardinal Stefano 
dcgli Anibaldi with his statue extended on a 
marble chest covered with fine carvings of the 
XV century by Paolo, a Roman sculptor by whom 
is the tomb of a brother of Philip the fair, king 
of France. In the tribune are the tombs of Car- 
dinal Osio who died in 1S?9 surmounted by his 
bust , and opposite that of Roberto Altemps , 
first Duke of Gallese. The white marble « Ci- 
borium » in the sacristy is by Nino da Ficsole a 


374 Seventh day 

celebrated sculptor, and Ihe painting over the 
altar representing the Madonna , S3. Koch and 
Sebastian , by Pictro Perugino. 


This church , supposed to have been built 
in the time of Constantine the great , was re- 
stored in 740 by Gregory 111. In 1623 it was 
renewed by Cardinal 3cipio Borghese on the 
designs of Soria who added the portico sustained 
by four doric columns of red granite. 

The three naves are formed by 22 large 
granite columns taken from ancient edifices, the 
capitals are modern ionic. The great arch of the 
tribune rests on two Corinthian of porphyry , Ihe 
baldacchino of Ihe high altar on four alabaster, 
columns. In the middle of the richly carved gilt 
ceiling S- Crisogono is represented at the mo- 
ment of being carried up to heaven in a picture 
copied from a beautiful original of Guercino in 
his first and most spirited manner; the painting 
of Ihe Madonna and child over the high altar 
is by d'Arpino. The tomb of Cardinal MUlo, the 
datario of Benedict XIV, was executed by Piclro 
Bracci on the designs of Marchionni. 

Beyond the piazza S. Maria in Trastevere 
is the church of S. Maria della Scala , built by 
Francesco da Volterra. On the high altar is a 
rich tabernacle composed of precious stones wilh 
1 6 small columns of oriental jasper, the paintings 
iu the choir are by d' Arpino. To the left is 


Seventh day 


This hill was called after Janus king of the 
Aborigenes who is said lo have built on it his 
(own of Anlipolis at the period when Saturn 
inhabited the Capitoline; (he part extending to- 
wards the Vatican was united to Rome by An- 
cus Martins who enclosed it with walls for ils 
defence ; at its base , according lo Livy was (he 
sepulchre of Numa Pompilius where two Stone 
chests were fonnd each bearing inscriptions: one 
(hat Numa was buried here 635 years previous 
to finding his tomb ; (be second , tbal (he books 
composed by Numa were deposited in the other 
chest where (bey were found, seven were in latin, 
and seven in greek written on papyrus; these books 
were burnt by order of (he senate under the 
pretest that (hey contained pernicious doctrines. 
This hill, on account of its yellow sand, is now 
called Mont or io. 


- This church, said to be founded byGonstan- 
tine the great, was erected in honour of the 
apostle S- Peter on the spot where he suffered 
martyrdom. Abont the end of the XV century 
it was rebuilt at the expense of Ferdinand IV 
king of Spain, on the designs of Baccio Pintelli 
and was restored at the beginning of (he pre- 
sent century. 

Over (he high altar is a copy of (he mar- 
tyrdom of S. Pe(er. 

The first chapel to the right was painted 
by Sebastian del Piombo; in the second is an 


3*6 Seventh day 

image of (he « Madonna delta lettera » with 
l wo angels in white marble of modern work, la 
(he chapel after the high altar the monument 
to Cardinal del Monte was designed by Vasari; 
the frescoes were painted by Ammanato who also 
made the statues of Religion and Justice standing 
in the niches. The chapel of S. Francis of As- 
sisi containing a marble slab on which are re- 
presented S. Francis and other saints bj Bolgi 
was built by Beruiai, who executed the statues 
and bas reliefs; the fresco paintings are by Kon- 
calli; the tomb of the Archbishop of Ragusa near 
the door by Dossio. 

The celebrated picture of the Transfigura- 
tion, now in ibe Vatican, formerly decorated 
the high altar of this church. The paintings in 
the chapel of S. John Baptist are by Daniel di Vol- 
terra and by Milanesi his scholar ; the balustrade 
is of a fine giallo antico made from columns 
fonnd in the gardens of Sallust ; the beautiful 
paintings of the following chapel are supposed 
to be by Vanderstern , but there remain only one 
in the lunette , another on the lateral wall. The 
picture of S. Francis over the last altar was de- 
signed by Buonaroti and painted by de'Vecchi. 

In the cloister of Ibe convent is a small 
round temple with a cupola sustained by i 6 grey 
granite columns raised by Bramante by order of 
Ferdinand IV of Spain, on the very spot where, 
according to an ancient tradition, the prince of 
the apostles was crucified. This is the first church 
in Rome, after an interval of XII centuries, built 
neither in the rectangular nor in the basilic form, 
and it is the first edifice that imitates the an- 
cient style of architecture. In its construction 


Seventh day 377 

Bramanle nover lost sight of the temples of Vesta 
and of the Sybil. Under the porticoes are acts 
alluding to S. Francis by Delia Marca and Po- 

Near Iho tribune of S. Pielro in Monlorio 
are two slabs with inscriptions to the O'Neill , 
Earl of Tyrone, and O' Donncl, Earl of Tyrconne 
who died in Rome, (he latter in 1608, Dungan- 
non , the eldest son of Tyrone! in 1609. The in- 
scriptions record the efforts of these Irish Prin- 
ces to maintain the rights and religion of their 
country, their emigration, the high estimation 
in which they were held at Rome, and the uni- 
versal regret occasioned by their premature death. 
Tyrone died at the age of 24, Tyrconnel in his 
3 J year ; the eldest brother Hugh O'Donnel had 
previously retired to Spain. 

It was near the high altar , at the foot of 
the celebrated picture of the Transfiguration by 
Raphael now in the Vatican, that Beatrice Cenci 
requested, in her last will, to be interred. The 
beauty of ibis young girl occasioned the destruct- 
ion of the noble family of the Cenci; the story 
is related by Muratori in his Annals as follows: 
« Francesco Cenci , a wealthy nobleman of Rome, 
o after his second marriage , treated with the 
» utmost cruelty the children by his first wife, 
» and not content with having had two murdered 
» by banditti, uniting lust to cruelly, he com- 
» milted by fraud a violence on the person of his 
n beautiful daughter. Beatrice with the consent 
-» of her mother in law revealed the horrible 
» fact to her relatives and sought to obtain pro- 
it teclion from Clement VIII , but her reclamat- 
v ions seem to have been concealed from the 
29 * 

,. Google 

378 Seventh day 

» Pope; it is added that the father continuing 
» bis course of violence, she agreed with her 
» brother Giacomo to rid the world of a mon- 

■ sler; the unhappy children when put to the 
» rack confessed their offence and the Pope con- 

• demned them to death. It was in vain that 
» the learned Jurisconsult Farinaccio endeavour- 
» ed to obtaiu a mitigation of the sentence , by 
» representing in lively colours , the depravation 
- of the father. About this period a matricide 

• occurred in another noble family, and the Pope 
> irritated by this succession of murders, gave 

• orders that the sentence of death against the 
» Ccnci should be carried into execution. On 
» the ii September 1599 Beatrice and her mo- 
» iher in law were beheaded on the piazza bc- 
» fore the S. Angelo bridge ; Giacomo was put 
'» to death by the manolata , and the younger 

■ brother was spared on account of his lender 

■ years. •> In the Rarbcrini palace there exists a 
portrait of Beatrice which is attributed to Guido, 
and an authentic account of her misfortunes and 
death has been left by Farinaccio. 



/ A This fountain, the largest of Rome and sop- 
plied with the greatest body of water , was built 
in 1621 under Paul V with materials taken 
from the forum of Ncrva , by the architects 
Giovanni Font ana and Stefano Maderno. It is 
adorned with six ionic columns of red granite 
and live niches over a marble basin. This water 
was brought to Rome by Trajan for the use of Tra- 
steycre and called the acqua Trajana as seen by 


Seventh day 379 

bis medals ; afterwards Sabatina from its origi- 
nating in (he environs of Sabate, now Brace i a no 
a distance of 25 miles, and when Paul V restored 
the acqucducls and added new ones, the acqua 
Paola. In the inscription over the fountain it is 
called the acqua Alseatina which is a very great 
error , as the Alseaiina water was brought to 
the city by Augustus from the Alsealino or Mar- 
liniano lake, (he lowest, while the present is 
the highest, level, of all the aqueducts. 

The garden to the right was destined by 
Alexander VII as a botanic garden, and Clement 
XI built the Casino on the designs of Cunlini, but 
it was abandoned in 1820 when a new Botanic 
garden was formed at the palazzo Salviati on 
the Lungara. At the top of the bill is the 



I. This gate was substituted by Honorius to 
that of ihc walls of Servius which il is believed 
was the Janicular gate , and called the Pran- 
cratianafrom the church of S. Pancrazio by which 
it was known in the time of Procopius ; the gate 
was restored by Urban VIII when he enclosed 
Trastevere within ihc walls. 

The villa Cristaldi is built in the form of 
a ship , a kind of construction without example 
in architecture; the apartments are more regular 
and commodious than they appear to be from 
the exterior. 

The casino of the Corsint villa was built 
by Clement XII on the designs of Salvi. It contains 
an entrance into the cemetery of S. Calepodius 
or the catacombs of S. Pancrazio. 


Seventh day 

s. rjsciLtzio, 

Tbe origin of this church is attributed to 
Pope S. Felix I in 274 who built a small ora- 
tory over the cemetery of S. Calepodius which 
was enlarged into a basilic after the free pro- 
pagation of Christianity. In this church Innocent 
III crowned Pedro , king of Arragoo , and John 
XII received Louis, I he king of Maples. la 1609 
Cardinal Torres rebuilt it with three naves se- 
parated by pilasters , and Alexander VII gran- 
ted it to the Carmelite order who receive stu- 
dents destined for their missions in the Levant. 
It contains the tomb of Cresccnlius the Roman 
Consul, the chief of the Crescenzii, a powerful 
family of Rome in the X and XI centuries. On the 
road to (he left which is the ancient Via Aurtlia 
is the villa Torlonia and beyond the arch of the 
Paolina aqueduct 



This villa, one of the most magnificent of 
Rome , was built by Prince Pamfili at the time 
of Innocent X under the direction of Algardi, 
it is about live miles in circumference and con- 
tains spacious alleys, woods, gardens, fountains 
and a lake io which there are various water 
falls. In the centre of an hemicycle around which 
are niches with fountains , statues and antique 
bas reliefs , is a round chamber containing a 
Faun who plays on tbe flute by means of wa- 
ter set in motion by a kind of organ. The casino 
is adorned with statues, busts and bas relets; 


Seventh day 381 

it was buili by Algardi who executed (he bust 
of Donna Olimpia, the niece of Innocent X. 

Near the entrance to the right several co- 
lombarj were discovered in 1 8 1 8 containing many 
inscriptions; these tombs indicate the direction 
of the Aurelian way and are interesting from 
tbeir style of construction and Ibe funeral cus- 
toms of the ancients. Near Ibe porta S. Pan- 
crazio , at the foot of the Janicule is the porta 
Setlimiana so called from the F.mperor Scplimius 
Severus ; it was rebuilt by Alexander VI, but was 
closed when Urban VIHunilcd the walls of Tra- 
•tevcre to those of the Vatican. In the long 
spacious street called ibe Lungara is the 

PALAZZO consist. 

V This magnificent palace, which once belong- 
ed to ibe Riario family , was the residence of 
Queen Christina of Sweden wbo died in 1639. 
It was purchased and considerably encreased 
on tbe designs of Fuga, by Pope Clement XII, 
it contains a gallery of paintings , many by the 
great masters. 

In the second antechamber an antique mo- 
saic, a copy in mosaic of a picture by Guido, 
a sarcophagus with has reliefs of Tritons and 

In tbe gallery the celebrated « Eccc Homo ■ 
by Guercino, a female by Turini , S. Peter in 
prison , Lanfranc; a nativity, school of theCaracci; 
a holy family, Barocci; S. Jerome, Guercino; 
8. Peter, Mola ; the Virgin, Caravaggio \ sun 
rise, Berghem; portraits said to be of Luther and 
bis wife, Holbein ; two small landscapes , Pous- 


382 Seventh day 

sin ; a holy family, fra Barlolomeo ; the Sama- 
ritan , Guercino; the toilette of Venus, Albano; 
a holy family, Garofalo ; the presentation at tba 
temple, Paul Veronese; two Teuiers; portrait of 
Julius II, a copy from Raphael , that of Philip 
II king of Spain by Titian. Id the centre of the 
room a marble seat with bas reliefs found at 
S. John Lateran. 

In the adjoining room a small picture re- 
presenting a rabbit by Albert Durer ; Christ car- 
ried to the tomb, Lodovico Caracci; S. Fran- 
cis by BeneKale; some players by Cigoli; a soldier'i 
life in 12 pictures by Gallot -, eight in crayon 
by Luli ; the Madonna and child , Sassoferrala; 
the same subject by Andrea del Sarto ; a coun- 
try feslirai , Breughel ; two small Vandeverlt ; 
two gothic perspectives Peter NefF; portrait of 
a female, Julio Romano; the Annunziala , school 
of Boonaroti; some studies by Partnigiaarao ; 
Venui with Cupid and the graces, Albano; the 
Madonna, child and S. Joseph, Pierin del Vaga; 
a study by Rubens ; portrait of Paul III when 
a Cardinal; S. Jerome, both by Titian; a noli 
me tangere, Baroccio ; the crucifixion of S. Pe- 
ter, S. John Baptist, both by Guido ; the An- 
nunciation in two small pictures, Guercino; the 
celebrated painting of Herod i as by Guido, Christ 
in presence of Pilate , Vandyk ; a hunt of wild 
beasts, Bubens. 

In the following room S. Peter by Lnca 
Giordano ; Justice by Gennari , Christ by Dol- 
ci; a round picture, Dolci ; two Madonnas, Sas- 
soferrala; a holy family, Schidone ; the Mag- 
dalen, Carlo Manilla; the Virgin, Vincenzo da 
Imola ; a painting, school of Buonaroti : an Ecct 


Seventh day 383 

Homo , a S. John and (he Virgin both by Gui- 
de The nest room is Tilled with portraits: Ful- 
vio Testi by Mola; a young man, Holbein, three 
by Vandyck; a Doge of Veuice , Tintoretto ; a 
Cardinal by Albert Durer ; three cardinals , one 
by Scipio Gaelani , two by Domenichino; Inno- 
cent X ) Valasquez ; one by Giorgione. 

la another chamber a view of the itorro- 
mean islands by Vanvitelli ; a battle piece , Ru- 
bens , a portrait Domenichino ; the dispute with 
the doctors, Luca Giordano , a landscape , Orii- 
zonte ; a Gaspar Poussin ; S. Sebastian by Ru- 
bens ; Seneca in the bath , Caravaggio ; the Mag- 
dalen by Mnrillo ; two battle pieces by Burgog- 
none- In the last room a celebrated picture by 
Salrator Rosa. 

The library, occupying eight large rooms , 
contains a collection of books and engravings 
of the XV century forming four hundred volu- 
mes. Annexed lo the palace is a villa situated 
on the declivity of the Janicule which com- 
mands an extensive view over the city, it is sup- 
posed to occupy tbo site of tbe villa of Martial 
m speaking of which tbe poet says; Bine septem 
dominos vidtre monies , et totam licet wstimar* 
Jtamam. This spot was selected by Giuseppe Vasi 
the celebrated engraver, for his design of the 
general view of Rome which he engraved in 12 
plates. It communicates with the 


Built about 1 524 by Julio Romano for Bal- 
dassar Turrini, the datario of Leo X, and one 
of the most distinguished prelates of the court 


384 Seventh day 

of Clement VII. Turrini was the intimate friend 
of Raphael and his testamentary executor as 
seen by the inscription in the Pantheon. The 
villa was remarkable not only for its delightful 
situation but for the fine stucco ornaments and 
beautiful frescoes of Julio Romano or of his 
scholars. The subjects alluded principally to the 
life of Numa from the tradition that he was 
buried on the sides of this hill. It contained 
also paintings of the history of Venus and Cu- 
pid , of Apollo and Hyacinth, by Julio Romano, 
which have been frequently engraved and par- 
ticularly by Marcantonio Raimoudi and Agosliuo 
of Venice, celebrated artists of the XVI century. 
It suffered considerably from the troops of 
the Emperor Charles V, and at the death of 
Turrini passed into other hands. In the lust cen- 
tury il belonged to the Laole family, in 1824 
to Prince Borghese who removed the paintings 
lo his Pincian villa , and is now the properly 
of the institution of the Sacre Caur. 


This casino was built , under the direction 
of Baldassar Peruzzi , by Agostino Chigi, at the 
time of Leo X, who accepted in it a solemn 
banquet offered to him by the proprietor. 

Having formed pari of the Farnese properly 
it now belongs to the king of Naples and is par- 
ticularly interesting by the fresco paintings it 
contains , the work of Raphael, and of his scho- 
lars, under the immediate direction of thai great 


Seventh day 385 

Hie frescoes in the saloon allude lo the 
fable of Cupid nod Psiehe, the principal subjects 
being represented in the sqares at the lop of 
the deling. In the first Venus and Cupid slate 
their reasons lo Jupiter in presence of the Gods; 
in the second the nupliab of Cupid and Psiehe 
are celebrated in heaven. 

The accessories of the fable are represented 
in the following subjects : Venns giving orders 
to Cupid to inflame Psiehe with a passion for 
the vilest of mortals in order to avenge the 
insult she had received; Cupid soliciting tbe three 
graces , ihe companions of Venus, in favour of 
the beautiful girl ; this part is in a great mea- 
sure by the hand of Raphael , particularly the 
back of one of the graces which is admirably 
painted. In the third painting Venus separates 
in anger from Juno and Ceres who speak in fa- 
vour of the unhappy Psiehe; mounted on her 
car drawn by four doves , she directs her course 
towards Jupiter lo supplicate him lo send Mer- 
cury in pursuit of the fugitive; on her return 
from the regions below Psiehe, borne through 
the air by three Cupids , holds Ihe vase of paint 
given her by Proserpine lo appease the anger 
of Venus , Cupid complaining lo Jupiter of his 
mother's cruelty and soliciting bis marriage with 
Psiehe; Psiehe conducted into heaven by order 
of Jupiter. 

These subjects are intermixed with fourteen 
triangular pictures representing the genii of all 
the gods , or rather yonng Cupids , bearing in 
triumph their attributes in the form of spoils, 
in allusion to the mighty power of love. 


386 Seventh day 

In the chamber contiguous is the Galatea 
by the hand of Raphael. The nymph stands on 
a sea shell drawn by two dolphin* , preceded 
and followed by a ncreid carried by tritons. 
Diana on her car drawn by (wo oxen and the fa' 
ble of Medusa on the ceiling , are by Daniel 
da Volterra and Sebastian del Piombo; the figu- 
re* in chiaroscuro, which appear real has re- 
liefs , are by Bald ass ar Peruzzi; (he line head 
drawn with charcoal on one side of this room 
is by Buonaroti; it was not intended as a re- 
proach to Raphael for the lightness of his figu- 
res , but served as a pastime while waiting for 
Daniel bis scholar whose works he had come to 
see. Two rooms of the upper apartment are 
painted in fresco; the architectural parts of the 
lirsl by Peruzzi ; the workshop of Vulcan over 
the chimney and the friezes by (he scholars ol 
Raphael. In tbe second room , Alexander the 
great presents a crown to Roxana; tbe frescoes 
of the middle facade are by Sodoma, the olhers 
by scholars of Raphael. 

In tbe Lungara are the churches of S. 
Giacomo , the Madonna , S. Francois de Sales , 
S. Maria Regiua Caeli, S. Joseph. 

In (he palazzo Salviati , built on the de- 
signs of Nanno Bigio , is (he Botanic garden '■ 
after the easier, holidays, lectures on this science 
are delivered by Sig. Donarelli one of (be most 
distinguished professors of (he Roman university 
and director of the establishment. A street near 
(he Salviati palace leads to the Janicule on 
which is (he church of 


Seventh day 387 


7 this church was built in 1 439 by the Bles- 
sed Niccolo da Forca Palena , in the diocese of 
Salmons , as a refuge for the hermits of the 
congregation of S. Jerome. The frescoes relating 
lo that saint , the beautiful Madonna and child 
over the outward entrance door, are by the ce- 
lebrated Domenichioo. The two Sybils are by 
Baglioni , the interior is ornamented with mar- 
bles ; over the high altar is a picture by Fran- 
cesco Bassano representing the birth of the Re- 
deemer; tbe sepulchral monument of the founder 
of the order, who died in 1499, is a fine work 
of that period. 

In the chapels to the right are a Madonna 
di Loreto by Annibal Garacci, and a S. Jerome 
by Ghezzi; the paintings beneath the high altar 
are by Peruzzi, those above by Pinturicchio. 

The remains of two celebrated Italian poets 
Torquato Tasso and Alessaudro Guidi, are pre- 
served in this church ; the tomb of Tasso, who 
died in 1595 in the convent annexed, is near 
the left entrance , that of Guidi in the first 
chapel to the left. In the gallery over the por- 
lico within the convent is a Madonna in fresco 
said ip be by Leonardo da Vinci, 


, This gale , deriving its name from the 
church , was built in 850 by S. Leo IV when 
he enclosed the Vatican within the walls. In their 
reconstruction under Paul III, it was rebuilt by 
Sangallo, and when Urban VIII enclosed Lbc In- 


388 Seventh day 

nicnle,both (his and (he Setlimiana gate remained 
useless. Near il is (he hospital for the insane esta- 
blished under Benedict XIII. 


'■' This church was built by Nol'li who pu- 
blished (he large plan of modern Rome about 
Ibe middle of last century. In the interior are 
the following paintings: S. Niccola di Tolentino 
over the first altar lo ibe left , by Vinccnzo 
Meucci ; S. Francis by Memorelli; over the high 
altar S. Silvester and S. Dorothea by Bucci; S. 
Antonio by Gramiccia ; SS: Gaetano e Giuseppe 
Calasanzio by Martorana. 

, tours sisro 

\ The origin of this bridge is unknown bat 
from its proximity to (he Janicule it was called 
the «Janicular» bridge nnder the Emperors, the 
« Aotouiue » at a later period from restorations 
made by one of (he Angnsti. It is mentioned by 
Victor and in the ads of the martyrs. Having 
been rebuilt in 1474 by Siitus IV on the de- 
signs of Piotelli it assumed its present appellation. 



/\ This foontain , which faces the strada Giu- 
Ha , was made by order of Paul V on the de- 
signs of Giovanni Fontana. It is supplied from 
the Paolina fountain on the Janicule which is 
carried through the pontc Sislo, and is decorated 
with (wo doric columns sustaining an attic; from 


Stventk day 389 

an aperture in the niches issues a body of the 
Paolina water falling into a cap and basin. 

The street opposite the slrada Giulia was 
opened bjr Julius II, the one facing the Poole 
Sislo leads to the 



■his church was built in 1614 by Paolo 
Maggi over the little church of S. Benedetto in 
Areaula ; the facade designed by de Sanctis was 
added by de Rossi ; it is in travertine, and adorn- 
ed with corinthian and composite columns and 
statues of the four evangelists by Ludovisi. 

In the first chapel are figures of the school 
of de Vecchi ; the second is dedicated to S. Fi- 
iippo Neri; the following chapels contain: the 
annunciation and frescoes by Ricci , and a statue 
of S. Matthew by Cope. Over the high altar the 
most holy Trinity , a beautiful painting by Guido 
Reni; the prophets in the angles of the cupola , 
and the angels around God the father , S. Jo- 
seph and S. Benedict in the first chapel on the 
left of the high altar, by Ricci; the tomb of Pie- 
rini by Lorenzetto. II chapel S. Gregory with 
other figures and the souls in purgatory by Crocc. 
Ill; the Madonna with the infant , S. Augustiu 
and' S, Francis by d'Arpino. IV; S. Carlo Bor- 
rooieo and S. Filippo Neri by Corlesi, the fres- 
coes by Ferrari a scholar of Maratte. 

The church and hospital are denominated 
of the « Pellegrini »: poor pilgrims who como 
to Rome are received and maintained for some 
days , as also the convalescents after quitting the 
hospitals: Opposite is the mont de Picle esU- 
30 • 


390 Seventh day 

blished io i 539; the chapel contains works by 
Guidi, Legros and Tendon. 


i This church was built in 4612 by Cardinal 
Lcni on the designs of Rosa ti except the facade 
by Soria who added the corinlhian and compo- 
site columns. 

It contains some fine pictures : the annuo* 
elation in the first chapel to the right by Lan — ' 
franc; the S. Biagio over the altar of the cross 
by Brandi; on the high altar designed by Mar- 
tin Lungbi and adorned with four porphyry co- 
lumns, a picture by Pietro di Cortona repre 
senling the procession of penitence ordered by 
S. Carlo Borromeo on the occasion of the pla- 
gue at Milan ; behind this altar a fresco of 
S. Charles by Guido Rem. 

In the tribune is a painting by Lanfranc , 
representing the Madonna kneeling on clouds 
who carries the soul of S. Charles before the 
throne of the most holy Trinity which is borne 
by angels ; around her are the apostles Peter and 
Paul with other saints, above a chorus of vir- 
gins and martyrs and a luminous abyss filled with 
saints; near the upper arch the three theo- 
logal virtues seated upon the clouds, over the 
doors arc two paintings allusive to S. Charles 
by Calabrese ; the four cardinal virtues in the 
angles of the cupola are beautiful works of Do- 
menichino. In the first chapel near the sacristy 
is the martyrdom of 8. Mario by Romanelli ; 
ihc death of S. Anne on the next chapel is a 
master piece of Audrea Saccbi; to the right is 


Seventh day 39+ 

the sepulchral monument of Cardinal Gerdil the 
author of many works on Christianity ; opposite 
that of Cardinal Fontana , near the door that 
oTGherardo de'Rossi a literary character of the last 
century. Near the piazza « Campo di fiori , » oc- 
cupying the site of the gardens of Pompey,is the 


This palace was commenced by Cardinal Ria- 
rio in the times of Sixtus IV and finished on 
the designs of Bramantc by his executor Anto- 
nio Mont ecav alio. The external facade is by these 
two architects , save the door of S. Lorenzo in 
Damaso which is by Vignola , and the palace gate 
by Domenico Fontana. The travertine materials 
were taken from the Colosseum , the marbles 
from the Gordian arch found near S. Maria iu 
via Lata. The palace is composed of two stories 
the first decorated with binary Corinthian co- 
lumns and arched windows ; on the second, de- 
corated in the same manner , the windows are 
arched and rectangular; (he quadrangular court , 
of fine proportions , is surrounded by a double 
row of arches resting upon doric columns both 
in the ground porticoes- and in the galleries of 
the grand apartment; the granite columns of the 
portico are said to have formed part of the por- 
tico of Pompey which was composed of a hun- 
dred columns. The grand saloon 1 00 palms long, 
SO broad and 50 high contains the history of 
Paul HI painted by Vasari. 


$93 Seventh -day 


This church was built by Pope S. Damaso 
in 380 in honour of S. Lorenzo , and a fund was 
provided for the support of a chapter of ca- 
nons which is one of the most ancient of Rome. 
It is said (o have been rebuilt by Cardinal Ria- 
rio under Paul III and has been restored of 
laic years. 

The interior , of a square form , is divided 
by three naves ; the chapel to the right of the 
vestibule covered with tine marble was designed 
by Salvi ; the Madonna with S. Niccolo di Bari 
and S. Filippo Neri, is by Gonca. In (he chapel 
of the choir is the holy Grucilix which , accor- 
ding to a pious tradition, spoke to S. Brigida 
and the metal bust of Benedict XIII by Gior- 
dan!; in the adjoining chapel a statue of S. Char- 
les Borromeo by Stcfano Maderno; in the sacristy 
a fine picture of the Virgin by Pomarancio, and 
silver statues of S. Lorenzo and S. Damaso by 
Giro Ferri. In the chapel sacred to the archan- 
gel Michael and to the apostle S. Andrew is Ibe 
statue of 5. Hippolylus from the original in the 
Vatican library. Over the high altar designed by 
Bernini , is a painting by Frederick Zuccari. la 
that of the conception the Virgin is of the greek 
style , the cicling by Pietro da Corlona ; (he 
S- Domenick restored by Gonca; the Madonna 
and two angels in the act of adoration by Feti; 
the last chapel belonging to the confraternity of 
the Sacrament is ornamented with marble and 
gilt stuccoes; the principal tombs arc those of 
Cardinal Savolelto, of Valtini by Bernini, of the 
paintor Caccianiga and of Caprara a general of 


Seventh day 393 

the papal troop* under Pins VI of Annibal Caro 
the translator of Virgil. In the lane nearly op- 
posite is a small palace called the Faroes ma which 
is admired by was built by Bra' 
mahle with the travertine blocks of the Colos- 
seum that remained after the completion of the 
Gancelleria palace. 

To the right is the piazza Farnese decora- 
ted with two fountains consisting of large oval 
basins of egyptian granite said to have been 
found in Caracalla's baths. They arc 25 pahm 
long, and 6 deep. On this piazza is the prin- 
cipal facade of the 


y^-By its style of architecture and extent, this 
palace may be considered as the finest of Home. 
It was began by Paul III, when a cardinal, on 
(he designs of Sangallo , and finished by Cardi- 
nal Alessandro Faraese the nephew of that pon. 
tiff under the direction of Bnonaroli and Gia- 
como della Porta ; the latter built the facade 
on the sido of tho via Giulia. The materials are 
travertine blocks taken from the Colosseum ; to 
each of the four facades is a treble row of win- 
dows; the portico leads to a vestibule of 1 2 egy- 
ptian granite columns of the jontc order. Tbe 
court forming a perfect square is decorated with 
three orders of architecture , superimposed, the 
two first doric and jonic composed of sundry 
arches which give light to the porticoes , the 
third corinthiau with pilasters between which 
are the windows. 

This court was formerly decorated with the 


391 Seventh day 

celebrated statues the « Hercules » by Gljcon 
Ihe Athenian, the Flora, the group of Dirce 
known as the Farnesc bull , and many other fine 
works all which are now in Naples; Ihe only 
monument remaining is the sarcophagus of Ce- 
cilia Metella. 

On the first story is the gallery painted in 
fresco by Annibal Caracci; the central pictu- 
re on the cieling presents the triumph of Bac- 
chus and Ariadne sealed on two cars ; that of 
Bacchus in gold drawn by two tigers , that of 
Ariadne , in silver , by two while goats ; around 
the cars are satyrs, fauns, bacchantes preceded 
by Silenus who forms a pleasing episode in the 
picture. The side paintings represent Pan offering 
to Diana the wool of his goats and Mercury 
bearing the golden apple to Venus; the four large 
paintings on the cieling relate to the following 
subjects: Galatea seated on a sea monster gli- 
ding over the waters in the midst of nymphs , 
cupids and tritons; Aurora carrying away Ce- 
phalus ; Polyphemus playing on the bag pipes to 
attract the notice of Galatea , and throwing a 
rock at Acis with whom she elopes. 

The paintings in the centre represent Ju- 
piter and Juno ; Diana and Endymion , and two 
cupids hid in the bush seeming to enjoy their 
victory over the goddess; Hercules and Iofe. Her- 
cules dressed as a female and playing on the 
cymbals , Iole wearing Ihe lion's skin and hold- 
ing the club ; Anchiscs taking the buskin from 
ihe foot of Venus; the two small pictures over 
(he figures of Polyphemus represent Apollo aud 
Hyacinthus, and Ganymede carried away by Jupiter 
under tho form of an eagle. 


Seventh day 39.1 

The eight medallions resembling bronze re- 
present Leander drowning in the Hellespont , 
Siriligi changed into a cane,Hermaphrodilii5 taken 
by surprize by Sal maces , Cupid binding a satyr 
to a tree, Apollo flaying Marsyas , Boreas car- 
rying away Orizia, Eurydice called back to the 
regions below, Jupiter carrying away Europa; the 
four small round pictures allude to the four 

The eight paintings over the niches and 
windows represent Arion crossing the sea on a dol- 
phin; Prometheus animating a statue; Hercules 
killing the dragon of the garden of the Hespe- 
rides ; Hercules liberating Prometheus from his 
chains on mount Caucasus and killing with a 
dart the vulture thai devoured his heart; Icarus 
falling into the sea , Calisto discovered lo be 
pregnant in the bath , and changed into a bear ; 
Phffibus receiving the lyre from Mercury. The 
painting over the door facing the middle win- 
dow is by Domenichino and represents a young 
girl embracing an unicorn , the arms of the Far- 
ncse family; on the side walls of this gallery are 
two large paintings, one of Andromeda bound 
to the rock , her parents in despair and Perseus 
combating the sea monster ; the other Perseus 
with the head of Medusa changing Pbineus and 
his companions into stone. In an adjoining room 
are fresco paintings by Domenichino which once 
existed in a bouse near the palace and having 
greatly suffered were carefully transferred ou 
canvas and restored by Palmaroli, 

In another room painted by Annibal Ca- 
racci was a picture in oil of Hercules, hesila*- 
ting between vice and virtue, which has beeu 


396 Seventh day 

taken away and a cop; substituted in its place; 
the other subjects arc Hercules sustaining the 
celestial globe, Ulysses liberating his companion* 
from the snares of Circe and of the Syrens and 
haying himself bound to the mast of bis ship 
during bis passage through the islands of th« 
syrens ; Anopus and Anphinontus saving their fa- 
tbers from the flames of Etna ; Perseus cutting 
off Medusa's head, and Hercules with the lion. 
The chiaroscuro ornaments are also by Annibat 
Cancel and arc so finely executed that ibey 
appear to be in high relief. 

In the three following rooms arc friezes by 
Daniel da Volterra; the frescoes io the Urge 
hall are by Salviati , Taddeo Zuccari and Va- 
sari. On the facade are expressed (he peace 
between Charles V and Francis I, and Luther 
debating will) Monsigoor Gaetani ; on the other 
facade the expedition of Paul HI against the 
Lutherans , the union of the catholic arms aga- 
inst the Reformers. In the large saloon is a fins 
cast of tbe Hercules of Glycon. 


According to an ancient tradition this church 
is built on the house of S. Paola, a roman ma- 
tron, in which S. Jerome resided in 382. After 
having belonged to various religious orders it 
was granted by Clement VII to a congregation 
of secular priests with whom S. Filippo Neri 
lived during 33 years and founded bis institu- 
tion in 1558. The church was rebuilt in 1660 nn 
the designs of Castelli , the altar piece represent- 
ing the communion of S. Jerome is a copy by 


Seventh day 397 

Carauccini of the celebrated picture by Pome- 
nicbino now in (be Vatican; ibe Spada chapet 
designed by Borrromim, the recumbent statue 
and other works are by Ercole Ferrala; those 
opposite by Fancelli , the paintings in the chapei 
near the high altar by Alberti; the tomb of 
Montauti by Pietro di Cortona , the statue of 
S. Philip by Legros; the S. Charles by Pietro 
Barbieri ; the Saviour in the last chapel by Mu- 


7 -This palace was built by Paul 111 on (ho 
designs of Mazzani , a scholar of DaDiel da Vol- 
tcrra. The facade and walls in the yard are 
covered with stuccoes and bas reliefs, the apartr 
meuls filled with, pictures and ancient marblu 
works. ... 

I. chamber: Ten frescoes of subjects taken 
from the metamorphoses of Ovid, by the school 
of Giulio Romano. In ibis chamber stands the 
colossal statue of Poropey at the base of which]) 
C«sar fell ; it was found about Ibe middle oi/j 
last century in the via Leutari near the Can- 
celleria , was purchased by Cardinal Capodiferro 
and passed , together with his property , into 
the Spada family. ... 

II. Boom: To the nght are several pictures 
and a festival scene by Cerquozzi; David holding 
the head of Goliath , Guercino ; a woman hol- 
ding a compass , Caravaggio ; a portrait by Ti- 
tian ; a sacrifice , by Bassano ; a Pietro Testa 
and a roman charily by Aumbal Caracci. 


39S Seventh day 

ID. Room: Two portraits by Caravaggio , 
ludilh by Guido ; Lucretia , Guido; Christ dis- 
puting with the doctors , Leonardo .da Vinci ; 
a landscape with cupids, Albaoo; a caricature, 
Caravaggio ; (he market of Naples , (he insur- 
rection of Masanit'llo , both by Michel Angelo 
dcllc Bambocciate; the visitation of S. Elisabeth 
by Andrea del Sarto. 

IV. Boom or gallery: S. Anne and the Vir- 
gin by Caravaggio ; Christ in presence of Cai- 
phas, Ghcrardo delle Notli; the Magdalen, Guido 
Cagnacci ; S. John , a copy by Julio Romano , 
the banquet of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra 
by i'revisani ; Dido on the funeral pile, Guer- 
cino ; the Magdalen by Carabiasi ; two small 
landscapes by Salvator Rosa ; portraits by Ti- 
tian, Vandyck, Tintoretto; Christ bearing (he 
cross , Mantcgna ; S. Jerome , Spagnolelto; the 
same subject by Albert Durer. 

V. Room: A perspective by Pannini; (he 
sacrifice of lphigenia, Testa; two beads of che- 
rubims said to be by Correggio ; two landsca- 
pes , Caracci school ; two festival scenes , Cer- 
quozzi ; Christ by Annibal Caracci ; portrait of 
Paul III , by Titian ; (bat of Cardinal Spada , 
Guido; a snow storm, by a flemish author; (he 
Madonna and child , Pietro Perugino; the Mag- 
dalen, Guercino; a female musician, Caravaggio. 
Amongst several valuable works of anti- 
quity united in this palace is a statue , called 
of Aristides , but which in reality is that of 
Aristotle , the celebrated Greek philosopher. On 
the statue is a fragment of his name in greek; 
it bears a strong resemblance to the features 
of Aristotle in other well known portraits and 


Seventh day 399 

nose whatever to those of Aristides; he is seated, 
bis head reclines on bis right hand as if in the 
act of meditation. In the same room are eight 
bas reliefs found in the XVI century at S. Agnese 
without the walls , and in the yard is a porlico 
bnilt by Borromini sustained by doric columns 
which in their gradations make it appear larger 
than its real size ; this portico has been imita- 
ted by Bernini in the grand stair case at the 

In the strada Giulia is the church of S. 
Maria dell* orazione or of la morte, built under 
Clement Xll by Fuga ; the chapels contain a 
holy family by Masucci ; S. Michael Archangel, 
school of Raphael ; the crucifixion by CiroFerri 
and a very ancient image of the Madonna; near 
the high attar is the tomb of Geroso the founder 
of the hospital now transferred to S. Michele ; 
S. Giulia FaLconieri by Ghezzi , the paintings 
over the entrance door and that of the interior 
part of the oratory arc by Lanfranc. 


This church , situated near the Falconieri 
palace in the via Giulia , was built in 1526 by 
the confraternity of Sienesi and adorned with 
fresco paintings by Tintoteo delta Vile a scholar 
of Raphael and by Grammatica. The frescoes of 
the tribuno by Pecheus , a distinguished artist 
of the close of the last century , represent lha 
return of the holy see to Rome to which S. 
Catherine greatly contributed. Over the high 
altar is the picture of the spiritual marriage of 
this saint by Lapis , in the orals of the navo 


400 Seventh day 

acts of her life by Lapis and Pielro Augelelti; 
the painting to the left entrance by Cones ; to 
the right by Morla; over the altars on the left 
a picture by Corbi much praised by Lanzi. Ano- 
ther by Conca , the one opposite by Lapiccola, 
(ha last by Monosilio. 

This church was built by the goldsmith 
company in 1507 on the designs of Bramantc , 
and rebuilt on the same model in 1601. The 
adoration of the Magi and the two figures over 
the arch are by Romanelli, the frescoes by Tad- 
deo Zuccari ; the altar piece by Matleo di Lec- 
tio ; the nativity of Christ by Giovanni de Vec- 
cbi , S. Anironicus and S. Anastasia by Zac- 

The church of the holy Ghost in the via 
Giulia belonging to the Neapolitans was built 
by Carlo Fonlana; over the altars are: an image 
of the Madonna celebrated by its miracles ; a 
painting of a miracle operated by S. Francois 
de Paule, by Lamberli, the holy ghost by Ghezzi; 
the tomb of Cardinal de Luca , by Guidi. A 
celebrated painting by Luca Giordano , S. Tho- 
mas Aquinas by Domenico Muratori. 

Along the via Giulia are the palazzo Bicci 
by Baccio d' Agnolo; the Ghislieri college, the 
little church of S. Filippo Neri, the only one 
dedicated to that saint in Rome, the public pris- 
ons built, by Innocent X and augmented by Alex- 
ander VII and Leo XII ; the churches of the 
Gonfalone , of the SuBragio , of the Breteiaos , 
S. Biagio dcgli Armeni, and finally 


Seventh day 401 

s. iuorjKirt x>*' fiokehtihi 

This church was liuilt in 1488 by a com- 
pany of Florentines on the designs of Giacomo 
delta Porta; the facade and corintbian columns 
were added by Alessandro Galilei under Clement 
XII. The interior consists of three naves , the 
chapels aru adorned with marbles and paintings. 
Over the altar to the right is a fine picture by 
Salvator Rosa representing SS. Cosmo and Da- 
miano condemned la the flames. 

The splendid high altar decorated with fine 
marbles was built by Pietro da Corlona at the 
expense of the Falcouieri family ; the group of 
S. John baptizing Christ is by Baggi, the statue 
of faith by Ferrata , that of charily by Guidi. 
The chapel of the Crucifixion , belonging to the 
Sacchetli family , was painted by Lanfranc; the 
figure, of Christ ascending lo heaven is much 
admired; the S. Mary Magdalen is by Baccio 
Ciarpi. To the left of this church is the 


*■ The period of the construction of this bridge 
is unknown ; it may have been under Caligula 
or Nero to afford a communication with their 
Vatican gardens, but the assertion is not sup- 
ported by any classic document. It seems lo have 
been in a state of ruin in the V century when 
called the Vatican bridge by Victor , the only 
author by whom it is mentioned. By ihe mo- 
derns it has arbitrarily been named the trium- 
phal' bridge from the opinion, altogether un- 


402 Seventh day 

founded , ibat the generals who aspired to the 
triumph camped their troops in the Vatican 
fields and crossed by this bridge to the left bank 
of the Tiber. The remains of walls of the lower 
ages , built on fallen masses which are seen in 
the rirer were partly destroyed in 1813, ia 
order to ameliorate the navigation. 





X o complete oar tour of Rome the Va- 
tican quarter alone remains. The Vatican bill 
forms part of the chain running along lh« 
right banks of the Tiber which it approaches 
more or less in its sinuosities. Its appellation was 
derived by the ancients from the Vaticini , or 
prophecies , rendered on the spot when it be- 
longed to the Ktruscan Veientes from whom it 
was captured by Romulus , but it always re- 
mained without the walls of Rome until 843 
when it was enclosed by S. Leo IV in order to 
protect the Vatican basilic from the incursions 
of the Saracens and called Civitas Leonina. It 
was however considered as not being within the 


404 Eighth day 

city till the latter period of the XV century 
when Alexander VI cut the walls of separation. 
It dow forms a Rione called the « Borgo » , 
established by Sixlus V as the XIV of Rome. 


This bridge was built by the Emperor Adrian 
to form an entrance. U> his mausoleum , to the 
Domilia gardens and to bis circus, some re- 
mains of which were found in the middle of 
last century. From the name of the founder it 
was called the jElia'a and Adrian bridge; in the 
lower ages the Pohte S. Pietro from its leading 
lo the basilic, and now S. Angelo from the castle - 
With the exception of the parapets, some slight 
repairs and a small arch near the- castle , the 
remainder is antique. It is composed of three 
large arches with two small buttresses between 
them serving as a support to statues , and was 
restored by Nicolas V in 1 450 ; Clement VH 
raised on it the statue of S. Peter-executed by 
Lorenzctto, and that of 5. Paul -by Paolo Ro- 
mano. Under Clement IX the, parapet was made 
by Bernini who placed on the buttresses the 
ten figures of angels holding the instruments of 
Christ's passion, the one with the cross by Ber- 
nini , the other by his scholars. 


This monument was constructed by the Em- 
peror Adrian in the Domitia gardens to serve 
for his own sepulchre and that of his descend- 
ed. As Adrian had travelled through all tht 




Eighth day 405 

province; of the empire, it is probable that be 
imitated in this construction the models of the 
most splendid monuments he had seen. The square 
base of the building , originally 253 feet on each 
side , sustained a round edifice now reduced to 
188 feet in diameter. It appears from Procopius 
that the exterior wag covered. with quadrilateral 
blocks of Parian marble, the base ornamented 
with leaves and festoons , and that on the walls 
were inscriptions to the Emperors buried within 
the monument ; the round edifice was pro- 
bably decorated with pilasters. When the en- 
trance door on the side opposite the bridge was 
reopened, a great part of the way was found 
which led to the summit and to the sepulchral 
chambers; this spiral ascent is a commodious in- 
clined plane with a mosaic pavement on a white 
ground , still partly existing. It is further staled 
by Procopios that at the four angles of the base 
were groups of men and horses , and statues on 
(he cornice of the round mole which wore de- 
stroyed and used as offensive weapons by the 
Romans when defending the mole against the 
Goths. To form an idea of the loss thus occa- 
sioned , it is sufficient to bear in mind that the 
arts of sculpture were in their most flourishing 
state under Adrian , and that lha celebrated Bar- 
berini Faun , now in Bavaria , was one of the 
statues that was hurled against the Goths, having 
been found under Urban "VIII in excavating the dit- 
ches of the castle ; it is asserted by modern 
writers that the 24 fine Phrygian columns of the 
basilic of S. Paul on the Oslia road , which have 
also perished , belonged to this mausoleum, but 
their proportions do not in any respect coincide 


406 Eighth day 

with those of Ihe mausoleum , nor is litis tra- 
dition based on an; good authority. Procopius 
describing the stale of the monument in the VI 
century before it had suffered any injury, speaks 
of it in a manner to suppose that do columns 
ever existed on the exterior. 

At Ihe period of the extension of the walls 
under Honorins in 402 this monument was unin- 
jured, but it was fortified prior to the Gothic 
war. In the X century it was converted into a 
fortress by Grescentias , a noble Roman, and 
called Castro di Cresccnxio\ the fortifications were 
eocreased hy Boniface IX, Nicholas V, Alexan- 
der VI and Urban VIII who added the outworks. 
It assumed the appellation of Castle S. Angelo 
from the statue of the Archangel S. Michael 
placed on the summit, executed in marble by 
Kaflaello da Montelupd, to which has been substi- 
tuted one in bronze by Vancbefeld under Be- 
nedict XIV. The fortress communicates with the 
Vatican palace by means of a covered way sust- 
ained by arches made by Alexander VI. 

Behind the castle was the circus of Adrian ; 
in an excavation under Benedict XIV at a depth 
of 14 palms underground, the internal arcade* 
and the vaults sustaining the steps for the spect- 
ators were discovered ; Ihe part of the edifice 
found was 340 feel in length, and 202 in breadth. 


This hospital, the largest of the city, re- 
ceives patients of every nation; there are sepa- 
rate establishements for the insane and orphan 
children; it was founded in 1198 by Innocent 


.Eighth day 407 

III, has been restored and augmented bj Popes 
Alexander VII, Benedict XIV and Pius VI, and 
contains a cabinet of anatomy , a collection of 
instruments of physic and a medical library, 


This church, which is annexed to the hos- 
pital , was rebuilt in 1585 by the architect San- 
gallo and the facade added by Mascherino; in the 
interior are Corinthian and doric pilasters , and 
in the chapels commencing by tbe right are pict- 
ures which represent : the coming of the holy 
Ghost by Fuga , placed between two alabaster 
columns ; tbe assumption by Agresti , the nati- 
vity, Montani ; the circumcision , ISogari ; the 
most holy Trinity , and the two miracles wor- 
ked by Christ , Agresti. In the fourth chapel a 
painting by Capellucci , one on the tribune by 
Zucca, a contemporary of Sixtus V, in which 
he has introduced the portraits of many artists 
and other persons of his day; the ciborium of 
the bigh altar is- supposed to be by Palladio j tho 
angels carved in wood, by Lorenzo. 

In the chapels to the left of the high altar 
are the following works ; The Madonna and S. 
John the Evangelist by Venusti; the dead Christ 
and the others by Agresli ; the deposition from 
the cross, Pompeodeir Aquila; the four Evan- 
gelists over the pilasters by Sitio ; the Redeemer 
with the Blessed Virgin and saints, the cicling 
and the remainder of the fourth chapel by Ce- 
sare Nebbia. The facade over the great door by 
Zucca; tbe subjects in tbe sacristy and deling 
arc painted in chiaro scuro with such ability 


408 • Eighth day 

that they appear to be bas reliefs ; the coming 
of the liolv Ghost placed over the altar is bj 
Lanle da Sermonela; in the street opposite cal- 
led via di (forgo Nuovo , is 


This church was built on the designs of Pa- 
pareili and Mascbcrino , the facade by Giovanni 
Peruzzj. In (he twelve chapels composing the 
interior are (he following pictures, beginning from 
(be first chapel on the right : S. Barbara by 
d' Arpino , the cieling, and her martyrdom bv 
Rosetli. S. Canut by Daniel ; the conception, Mu- 
ziano ; the chapel of the Passion by Gagliardi. 
On the side of the Crucifix, a Madonna and S. 
John , author unknown ; the fifth chapel by Po- 
marancio ; the altar piece representing the Vir- 
gin, the child , S. Magdalen de' Pazzi by Do- 
menico Cerrini , a scholar of Guido Reni. The 
high altar is decorated with marbles gilt me- 
tals and a line tabernacle , under which is an 
image of the Madonna , made on the designs of 
Carlo Fontana ; the two angels in marble are by 
an unknown author ; the four statues of saints 
by Ratli. 

In the chapels on the left side , the painting 
of S. Andrea Corsini by Paolo Melchiorri ; S. 
Angelo a Carmelite , and the cieling by Ricci 
da Novera ; S. Theresa by Calandrucci; SS. Peter 
and Paul by Ricci ; it is a pious belief that these 
princes of (be apostles were bonnd to the two 
columns placed near this picture and beaten be- 
fore their execution. The chapel of S. Antonio 
Abbmle , S. Elias, and the Blessed Carmelite 


B <.',lH»jlk' 


Eighth day 409 

Francesco were painted by Pietro da Cortona, 
the last cbapel contains an ancient and miracu- 
lous image of the Madonna of a good style but 
by an unknown author. Niccola Zabaglia, a per- 
son celebrated for his abilities in mechanics who 
died in 1750 was buried in this church. Near 
the site of the present chapel of the font once 
stood a pyramid which in the lower ages, was 
called the tomb of Romulus j it is however sup- 
posed to have been that of the younger Afri- 
canus (tie destroyer of Carthage; Pope Donus I 
slript it of its square blocks to pave the atrium 
of S. Peter's and Alexander VI destroyed it al- 
together in the XV century. 

In the same street is a piazza decorated 
with a fountain , and the palazzo Giraud now 
the properly of Don Carlo Torlonia , the archi- 
tecture by Bramante ; and beyond the piazza 
Scossacaralli the palazzo de' Converlendi , not 
the one built by Bramante , which was the re- 
sidence of Charlotte queen of Cyprus in the 
times of Innocent VIII and -where the great 
Raphael finished his days the 6 april 1 520. Oppo- 
site at the end of the street is a house of a 
style of architecture said Id be by Raphael; adjoin- 
ing it is the entrance to the 


This piazza forming a magnificent access to 
the Vatican Basilic is surrounded by a sumptuous 
portico of four rows of columns raised by or- 
der of Alexander VII under the direction of 
Bernini , with the obelisk in the centre , and 


410 Eighth day 

the two fountains on each side; the whole presents 
■n imposing aspect. 

The piazza is of an oval shape ; its smal- 
lest diameter , takeu from the external circum- 
ference , is 768 palms; its largest , without in- 
cluding the colonnade 810 palms. U is between 
two other piazze, one 360 palms long aad 304 
wide; the other forming an irregular square from 
the end of the colonnade to the facade of the 
temple is 433 palms long and 532 broad. Thus 
the total length of the three piazze is 1564 palms. 

The portico, formed by two semicircles, 
is composed of284 large travertine columns mixed 
with 88 pilasters and three semicircular ways, 
the middle one affording a convenient passage 
fur two carriages abreast ; the colonnade is of 
Ibc mixed order , the base Tuscan , the column 
doric, the cornice jontc, 82 palms wide, 80 high, 
terminated by a balustrade on which are placed 
192 travertine statues of divers saints , each 14 
palms high , executed by various sculptors under 
the direction of Bernini. The Guest ornament of 
this piazza is 

This superb obelisk was erected in the mid- 
dle of the piazza by Sixlus V; though not the 
largest and without hieroglyphics , it is the only 
one that has remained unbroken. According to 
Pliny it was raised by Nuncorcs king of Egypt, 
the son of Sesostris , in Heliopolis , and by (be 
interpretation of Ardouin it was made in imi- 
tation of the obelisk of Nuncoreus. As it is 
beyond a doubt that the obelisks erected by the 


Eighth day 411 

Pharaohs were never without hieroglyphics , the 
present one may he considered as an imitation 
by the Romans. It was sent to Rome by the 
Emperor Caius Caligula in a vessel, which was 
afterwards stink by Claudius , and served to build 
the light house at Ostia. Caligula ordered it to 
be placed in his Vatican circus where it re- 
mained on the spot where it had been raised , 
the she of the present sacristy of S. Peter "s , 
until transferred in 1586 to the centre of the 
piazza by order of Sixtus V, and erected under 
the supersedence of Domenico Fonlana. Its 
height without the pedestal, is 1 1 3 palms , 1 2 in 
its largest breadth , from the ground to the 
top of cross 1 SO palm?. On two aides is the 
dedication made by Caius to Augustus and Ti- 
berias. The fountain* OB (-he sMss cf lh™ ctz- 
lisk are each 60 palms in height, and raise the 
water 14 palms, which falls into around vase 
of a single piece of oriental granite 72 palms 
in circumference, and thence into a travertine 
vase 120 palms round. 

On the quadrilateral piazza before the tetn- 

Jle are two covered corridors each 524 palms 
ong and 32 broad which terminate at the ves- 
tibules of tli? portico ; between the windows 
are 22 pilasters supporting the same number of 
colossal statues; in the middle a flight of mar- 
ble steps leads to the basilic ; at the two an- 
gles of its base are statues of S. Peter and S. Paul. 


"N A more celebrated or more sacred spot could 
not have been selected for the erecting this sum ■ 


412 Eighth day 

pi nous temple. It is situated in the Vatican fields, 
on the circus and gardens of Nero where , ac- 
cording to Tacitus , many Christians were put 
to death, whose remains were interred in a grotto 
near the circus. The apostle S. Peter having 
soon after obtaiued the palm of martyrdom, his 
venerable body was carried to this cemetery over 
which an oratory was built by Pope S. Ana- 
clelos. In 306 Constantine the great, at the ins- 
tance of Pope S. Silvester, raised on the spot 
a temple in the form of a basilic , consisting of 
five naves, 92 large marble columns, 410 palms 
in length , 235 in breadth, which edifice threat- 
ened ruin at the end of eleven centuries , though 
it had been frequently restored. In 1450 Ni- 
cholas V commenced the new fabric, beginning 
1'V the tribune, on the designs of the architects 
Kosellini and Alberli ; but the work was inter- 
rupted by the Pope's death and remained only 
three cubits above the pavement till it was re- 
sumed by Paul II. In 1503 Julius II ascended 
the papal throne , and to him was reserved the 
merit of continuing this arduous enterprize. He 
examined the designs of various architects , se- 
lected those of Bratnante Lazzari, who conceived 
the idea of placing a large cupola in the mid- 
dle and with this view raised four large pilasters 
to sustain it. At the death of Julius II and of 
Bramante, Leo Xconlided the works to Giuliano 
Sangallo , fra Giocondo and Raphael d'Urbino, 
who strengthened the foundations round the pi- 
lasters judging them too weak to support a cu- 
pola of such a mass. At the death of these ar- 
chitects Baldassar Peruzzi of Siena , was named 
director of the work; Peruzzi, without intro- 


Eighth day 413 

during any alteration in the constructions, chan- 
ged the plan of the basilic into that of a greek 
cross , that of Bramanle being a latin cross, the 
execution of which would have been attended 
with an immense expense, and under Adrian VI 
and Clement VII he finished the tribune begun 
by Bramante. On the accession of Panl III An- 
tonio di Sangallo was chosen as the architect ; 
he followed the first design of Bramanle by a- 
dopling the latin cross ; at his demise Paul III 
entrusted the works to Michael Angelo Buona- 
roti who changed the plan into that of a greek 
cross , extended the tribune , the two arms of 
the transversal nave , and made a new design 
for the cupola which he commenced and which 
was followed by his successors. It was the pro- 
ject of Buonaroti to form the facade of four 
isolated columns on the .style of the Pantheon 
of Agrippa , as appears by the painting in the 
Vatican library and by a model in the ponti- 
fical palace , but Ibis plan was interrupted by 
his death. Under Pius V, Vignola and Pietro 
Ligorio were selected as architects, with injun- 
ctions to follow , in every respect , the designs 
of Buonaroti. Vignola raised the two lateral cu- 
polas ; Giacomo delta Porta was selected by Gre- 
gory XIII and completed the targe cupola which 
Clement VIII adorned with mosaics and gilt stuc- 
coes. Under this pontiff the pavement was co- 
vered with different marbles. This majestic tem- 
ple was finally completed under Paul V by Carlo 
Maderno who abandoned the plan of Buonaroti, 
reduced it into the form of a latin cross on the 
primitive designs of Bramante , and made the 
portico and the facade. Under Alexander VII, Ber- 


414 Eighth day 

nini , having finished the colonnade , added a 
belfry Ml palms high which was taken down 
under Innocent X. Pius VI built the sacristy on 
the designs of Marcbionni and restored tbe gil- 
dings in tbe interior of tbe basilic. 

By tbe enumeration of tbe Pontiffs and ar- 
chitects who have been occupied with this im- 
mense fabric in the space of three centuries and 
a half employed in its construction , a conjec- 
ture may be formed of the expense that it oc- 
casioned from tbe calculation made by Carlo Fon- 
tana; this expense, up to the year 1 694, amounted 
to about forty seven millions of dollars. Since 
llien large sums have been spent for repairs , 
new gildings, mosaic pictures for altar pieces , 
copied from the paintings belonging to tbe ba- 
silic. Every art has contributed to the decora- 
tion of this superb edifice, the most splendid 
monument of modern Rome , on which the most 
celebrated painters, sculptors, and architects have 
employed their talent. 


Is composed of eight columns, four Corinth- 
ian pilasters, five doors, seven loggie , six ni- 
ches and an attic , terminating in a balustrade, 
on which are colossal statnes of Christ and of 
the twelve Apostles. The whole of the facade is 
in travertine stone, and as stated in the inscrip- 
tion on the frieze, was erected in 1612 in ho- 
nour of the prince of tbe Apostles ; its breadth 
is 540 and height 216 palms; the diameter of 
the columns 12, height 128 comprizing base 
and capital; the statues 15 1/2 palms each in height. 


Eighth day 4*5 

The great cupola of Buonaroti , the two la- 
teral ones by Vigoola form , with the facade , a 
pyramid. la (be ball of the great cupola there 
is room for 16 persons; tbe cross is 616 palms 
above the level of the pavement ; when illumi- 
nated at the festivals of Easter and S. Peter bj 
4400 large lamps , and 784 torches the facade 
produces a magic effect* 

The portico b 54 palms wide , 633 long 
comprizing the vestibules, at the extremities of 
which are the equestrian statues of Constantino 
and Gharlemagoe ; the former to the right by 
Berniui , the second by Cornaccbini. At each en- 
trance are marble columns; tbe portico is de- 
corated with pilasters that sustain the cornice 
carved with gilt stuccoes; the cornice and the 
figures are by Algardi. Opposite the principal door 
is a celebrated mosaic representing the barque 
of S. Peter tossed about in a stormy sea , the 
work of Giotto di Bordone in 1298. 

Tbe walled door marked with a cross is 
opened on the day of the great Jubilee and cal- 
led for that reason the Porta santa. The bronze 
door in the centre, ornamented with bas reliefs, 
was made by order of Eugcuius IV for the an- 
cient church, by Philaretes and Simone the bro- 
ther of Donato. The bas reliefs represent the 
martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul, the corona- 
tion by Eugenius, of the Emperor Sigismond , 
tbe audience of the Pope to sundry deputations 
from the East; the mythological subjects are to 
be attributed to the ignorance of the artists who 
took them from the antique, without considering 
how little they were adapted to the spot. In the 
bas relief over Ibis door Bomini has represented 


416 Eighth day 

the Saviour committing the care of his flock to 
S. Peter; at three of these doors are pavonaz- 
zclto columns , al the Porta saiita an antique 
breccia called for this reason porta tanta. 


So great an idea has been formed of this 
basilic thai in entering it, for the first lime, 
it seems smaller than it is in reality; I his arises 
from its proportions and the continual inter- 
ruption of the lines , nor is its size judged of 
till after having been examined in detail, when 
all the objects are found to be much larger than 
al first they appeared to be; the angels for in- 
stance , at the two fonts of holy water, seem at 
first sight to be little children , but on a nearer 
approach they appear of a colossal size. 

II being believed by some thai this church 
is smaller than S- Paul's of Loudon and the 
dome of Milan, we add their respective dimen- 
sions. S. Paul's: length 710, breadth 400 palms 
Dome of Milan, d. 589 — d. 465 — « — 
S. Peter's d. 830 — « 606 — * — 

The breadth of ibe middle nave is 1 23 , the 
height 286 palms; each of the lateral naves 30 
palms in breadth. In the whole extension of the 
middle nave are four large arches leading to the 
same number of chapels ; on the intermediary 
wall are two arches of Anted Corinthian pilas- 
ters 112 palms high inoln ding base and capital, 
and sustaining a large cornice which encircles 
tbe church; between the pilasters are niches one 
over the other, in the lower ones marble statues 
19 palms high, of founders of religious orders, 


Eighth day 4U 

id those above the arches two stucco figures 
37 palms high representing virtues, the sides of 
these pilasters are lined with fine marbles ; in 
each are medallions of popes supported by two 
little boys , while others placed around hold mi- 
tres , keys , the triple crown and other ponti- 
fical attributes; these bas reliefs were designed 
by Bernini, by order of Innocent X, to whose 
arms belongs the dove placed over each pedestal; 
on the cieling of the nave are large roses in 
compartments of gilt stucco; the pavement is 
formed of fine marble. 

The four angels at the fonts are by Livoni 
and Moderati; the stataes of saints who founded 
religious orders by the following artists: S. The* 
resa , by Valle; S. Pielro Alcantara by Yergara; 
S. Vincent de Paule , Bracci ; S. Gamillo de 
Lellis , Pacilli ; S. Filippo Ncri , Maini; S. Igna- 
tius , Rusconi. At the end of the principal nave, 
placed under a baldacchino and on an alabaster 
pedestal , is a statue of S. Peter in a sitting 
posture ; the statue of S. Francesco di Paola in 
the opposite niche is by Maini. 


. Under the high altar and the great cupola is 
the tomb called the « confessione di S. PietrO », 
the prince of the apostles. It is lighted perpe- 
tually by 112 lamps in cornucopia of gilt brass 
disposed round a circular balustrade. At the 
bottom of the steps is a statue by Canova of 
Pius VI in the act of prayer placed near his 
tomb; this spot was decorated by Carlo Maderno 
with choice marbles , angels, festoons and with 


418 Eighth day 

the statues of S. Peter and S. Paul situated on 
the tides of a gilt bronze gate. At the end of 
tbe long niche called the « Confession*, » is an 
ancient image of the Saviour in mosaic; this m- 
ehe , above the oratory built by S. Ajiaclele 
covered with gilt bronze, is the spot where the 
body of S. Peter reposes; within a silver gih 
box placed oo the tomb are deposited the palli 
which the supreme Pontiffs transmit to the arch- 
bishops and patriarchs of the Catholic church. 


This altar placed under a magnificent bat 
dacchino in the centre of the cupola over the 
« Confessions » is isolated , Bad turned towards 
tbe east as was customary in the early times of 
Christianity. The supreme pontiff alone officiates 
at this altar. Tbe baldacchiao is sustained by 
four bronze gilt spiral columns of the compo- 
site order , made by Bernini under Urban VIII 
in 1633; these columns support a cornice; at 
the angles four spiral branches unite in the cen- 
tre and sastain a globe which is surmounted 
by a cross. This large mass is 124 palms high; 
the bronze employed in its construction was , 
as already stated , taken from the Pantheon. 


The Grst idea of Bramante being to erect 
a cupola on larger dimensions than any known, 
he commenced the foundations by four enor- 
mous pilasters of a circumference of 304 palms. 
Michael Augelo pretended in bis designs to sur- 


Eighth day 419 

pass the ancients by raising the Pantfieou of 
Agrippa io the air to a height of 242 palms. 

The internal diameter is 190 palms , two 
less than that of the Pantheon , from the pa- 
vement to the summit the height is 616 palms. 
Around it are 32 double corintbian pilasters 
sustaining a cornice from which the concavity 
of tbo cupola commences; it is decorated with 
gill stuccoes , and mosaic works representing 
the Madonna , Augels , saints and the apostles. 

On the frieze over the four large pillars are 
ibe words of our Saviour to S. Peter : Tu et 
Petrus , et super hanc petram adificabo eccle- 
stam meam , et tibi dabo elaves regni ealorum. 

Or each principal facade of the cupola are 
two large niches , the upper ones in the form 
of balustrades with spiral columns al the sides, 
supposed , without any foundation , to have 
belonged to the temple of Solomon; these with 
four others , formed (he aucieot baldacchino of 
the « Confessions ». In these niches many relics 
are preserved especially in the loggia over the 
statue of Veronica, three of which are in high 
veneration: a part of the holy cross, the lance 
which pierced the sides of Christ , Ibe impres- 
sion of the holy face; these relics are exhibited 
to llie public on the thursday and friday of the 
holy week. In the niches beneath are four mar- 
ble statues 22 palms high, representing S- Lon- 
ginus by Bernini ; S. Helena , Borghi ; Vero- 
nica, Mochi; S. Andrew by the Fleming. Under 
these statues is a balustrade and a stair case 
which leads to the subterranean parts of llie 


420 Eighth day 


Id the upper part of the large nave, ter- 
minating in a semicircle , is the magnificent tri- 
bune which was decorated on the designs of Mi- 
chael Angelo; before it are two porphyry steps, 
at (be end a majestic altar composed of fine 
marbles 253 palms distant from the altar of 
the t confessione »; this part is called the «Cal- 
(edra di S. Pietro ». The four gigantic figures 
support a large chair in which is enclosed one 
that was used by S. Peter and his successors 
in (he celebration of the holy ceremonies. 

These figures 27 1/2 palms high, represent 
on the front side two doctors of the latiu church 
S. Ambrogio and $. Augustin , two of the greek 
S. Anastasius and S. John Chrysoslome, over the 
chair Iwo angels holding (he triple crown and 
two on the sides ■ besides these ornaments the 
majesty of the cattedra is augmented by groups 
of angels and numerous raysof gold around which, 
on a transparent ground of coloured glass, imi- 
tating the light , is an image of the holy Ghost; 
the bronze employed in these works was taken 
from the Pantheon. 

On the sides of the « cattedra *> are two 
line tombs; that of Paul HI Farnese, a highly 
esteemed work of Guglielmo delta Porta under, 
the direction of BuonarotU; the statue of the Pope 
is in bronze , those of Prudence and Justice in 
marble ; the latter was originally naked and was 
covered by Bernini with copper, coloured like 
marble ; the olber tomb is that of Urban VIII 
Barberini who is represented also in bronze with 
the figures of Justice and Charily in marble, all 


Eighth day 421 

executed by Bernini, la the four niches round 
the tribune are statues of founders of religious 
orders ; S. Dominick by Legros , S. Francis of 
Assisi, Honaldi, S. Elias , Cornacchini ; S. Be- 
nedict, Montauti; the cieling of the tribune is 
embellished with gilt stuccoes and three stucco 
has reliefs. 

Besides the great cupola there are ten others 
in the small naves, four round and six oval; 
the columns serving as an ornament to the al- 
tars or as a support to the arches amount in 
number to 96 all of fine marble ; the pictures 
29 in all are in mosaic , copied from works by 
the great masters, each picture of a value of 
twenty thousand dollars and 19 tombs valued 
at twenty three thousand dollars each. 

"'■ The first altar to the left on the pilasters 
of the great cupola has two columns of black 
oriental granite ; the mosaic, representing S. Pe- 
ter curing the lame man , is from the original 
by Mancini; opposite is the tomb of Ottoboni, 
Pope Alexander VH1 who died in 1691 ; his 
statue in bronze , the side ones of religion and 
prudence in marble are by de-Bossi; the has relief 
of a canonization by the pontiff is by the same 

On the following altar, that of S. Leo the 
great, nnder which he reposes, are two columns of 
oriental granite ; tbe bas relief by Algardi re- 
presents S. Leo ordering Allila not to approach 
Rome, and showing the protecting figures of S. 
Peter and S. Paul. Before this altar is the se- 


Eighth day 

pulchro of Leo XII ; its modest inscription web 
composed by himself a few days before bis 

On tbe nest altar is an ancient image of 
the Madonna , called of tbe Colonna , having 
been painted on one of the columns that deco- 
rated the altar of the sacrament in tbe ancient 
Vatican basilic. The mosaics on the cupola and 
the angels are by Lanfranco , Sacchi and Ko- 

A little further on is the tomb of Alexan- 
der VII, Chigi, who died in 1657; though the 
last work of Bernini it recalls to mind the spirit 
and execution of his early days; the door which 
he was obliged to preserve at the base of the 
tomb, to which it seems to lead, is covered 
with a large marble cloth containing a figure 
of death showing tbe lomb , in the other hand 
a clock, indicating that the hour was come. On 
the sides of the pontiff are figures of Justice 
and Prudence , of Charity and Truth. Over the 
altar opposite is represented on slate the fail of 
Simon Magus by Vanni. 


Is a semicircle in the form of a tribune 
and. of the same dimensions as that of the * cat- 
(edra »; it was built by Buonaroli; the bas reliefs 
in gilt stucco on the cieling are by Haini. The 
monument to Pius VII who is seated between tbe 
statues of wisdom and force, is by Tfaorwaldsen; the 
three altars of this tribune have four fine black 
granite and two fluted giallo aniico columns ; over 
the. central one is (he crucifixion of S. Pelcr , 


Eighth, day 423 

from the original bj Guido now in the Vatican 
gallery; ihe altar piece to the left by Spadarino 
represents S. Martial and S. Valeria and the 
miracle related in the legend of tbis saint, that 
after her decapitation she carried her head to 
the bishop while he was celebrating mass. The 
S. Thomas over the third altar is a mosaic copy 
of a painting by Camuccini ; in the niches are 
statues of S. Norberto by Bracci, S. Giuliana 
Falconieri and S. Pietro Nolasco by Campi, and 
S. Giovanni di Dio by Valle. 

To the left an altar piece in mosaic from 
Ihe original by Roncalli , of Ananias and ZalB- 
ra ; opposite is the new sacristy ; the painting 
over the door representing the demoniac libe- 
rated by S. Peter is by Rotnanelli. 


Built by Clement VIII in a style of archi- 
tecture similar to the one opposite; the mosaic 
from the picture by Sacchi , represents a miracle 
by S- Gregory the great, who was interred un- 
der the altar. The mosaics of the cupola are taken 
from Roncalli. On a pilaster of Ihe great cu- 
pola in the small nave is the Transfiguration from 
the original in the Vatican; under the arcade 
the tomb of Leo XI and the bas relief on the 
sarcophagus representing the abjuration of Henry 
IV of France by Algardi; opposite is that of In- 
nocent XI Odescalcbi decorated with statues of 
religion and justice , and a bas relief of the li- 
beration of Vienna , all by Monot. 


424 Eighth day 


It is here (hat the canons of S. Peter's cele- 
brate daily the holy offices; the chapter consists of 
a Cardinal archpriest , 30 canons, 25 benefi- 
ciaries, 4 chaplains and 36 beneficed priests. The 
capola U decorated with mosaics from painting* 
by Ferri and Carlo MaraLta , the bas reliefs and 
ornaments of the chapel are by Giacomo della 
Porta , the altar piece in mosaic from a picture 
by Bianchi of the conception of the Madonna; 
S. Francis , S. Antonio of Padna and S. John 
Chrysostom who was buried under the altar; in 
the following arch is tbe tomb of Innocent VIII 
in bronze by Pollajolo,and two statues of this pope 
who died in 1492; in one he is in the act of 
giving the benediction , in the other recumbent 
on a sepulchral urn; oyer the opposite door is 
the tomb of Pius VIII. It is customary when the 
remains of the preceding Pope are transferred 
elsewhere that those of his successor should be 
deposited here provisionally. 


Tbe mosaic altar piece , placed be (ween two 
fine porta santa columns representing the pre- 
sentation of the Virgin at the temple , is froma 
picture by Romanelli; those on the cupola from 
works of Carlo Maratte. 

Under the arch is the tomb of Maria Cle- 
mentina Sobieski Stuard, Queen of England, raised 
by the chapter of S- Peter's, and executed by 
Bracci; the sepulchral porphyry urn decorated 
with gilt bronze is covered with alabaster. Ore; 


Eighth ifoy 425 

it is a statue of charity, and an angel holding a 
medallion with a portrait in mosaic; the door 
opposite leads to the tipper part of the cupola; 
facing this tomb is that of lames HI her hus- 
band and of their two sons, by Canova. 


The. baptismal font is s Gne porphyry n> 
M palms long, B-i/a broad, adorned with gilt 
motal festoons once the tomb of Olho II who 
died at Rome in 984, and was placed in the 
atrium of the ancient basilica; the mosaics in this 
chapel represent the baptism of Christ by Carlo 
Marat le ; SS. Processus and Marlinianus , the 
keepers of the Maminerliue prison, by Passer* , 
Cornelius the centurion by Procaccini, those on 
the cupola are copied from Trevtsani , Passed, 
Ricciolini. On the right entrance by the great 
door is the 


The chapel' is so named from- the group of 
the * Pieta » by Michael Augclov la one of the 
inside chapels is an' ancient crucifix by Caval- 
Kni and a mosaic representing S. Niccola di Bari. 
In another a column on which our Saviour is 
said to have leaned while' disputing with the doct- 
ors , and an antique marble urn with has re- 
liefs T once the tomb of Probus Anicias r Prefect 
of Rome , and afterwards a baptismal font in. 
this Basilic; the deling of this chapel was painted 
by Lanfranc , the mosaics of the cupola are co- 
pied from pictures by Ferri and Pietro di Cov- 


426 Eighth day 

tona ; over the * porta Santa » is a mosaic of 
S. Peter from tho original by <T Arpino. 

Under the arch leading to the second cha- I 
pel on this nave which, like the others, is de- " 
corated with four cottanello columns, is the tomb j 
of Leo XII, by Fabris , erected by the present 
Pope. Opposite is that of Christina , queen of 
Sweden, who died at Rome in 1689, erected by j 
Innocent XII on the designs of Carlo Fontana; ! 
the bas relief, by Tendon, represents her abju- 
ration of Lutheranism at lnnsptuck in 1665. 


The martyrdom of S. Sebastian in mosaic 
represented over the altar between two porta 
santa columns, is taken from the celebrated pict- 
ure of Domenichino now at S. Maria degli An- 
gioli , and the mosaics of the cupola from works 
of Pielro di Cor tona. 

At the adjoining arch is the tomb of In- 
nocent XII who died in 1700; the statue of the 
pope , with those of justice and charity , are by 
V all e. Opposite is situated the tomb of the Count- 
ess Hjthilda whose remains were brought from 
the Benedictine convent near Mantua , and pla- 
ced in this tomb by order of Urban VIII; the 
design and the bust are by Bernini ; the bas re- 
lief by Speranza represents the absolution in I 
presence of Mathilda, of Henry IV, who had been 
excommunicated by Gregory VII. 


Eighth day 427 


The deling of this splendid chapel is de- 
corated willi ornaments and gilt stucco bas re- 
liefs , and with a mosaic in the centre of the 
marble pavement. Over the altar is a ciborium 
of gill bronze inlaid with lapis lazzuli in the 
form of a round temple and cupola , in imi- 
tation of the one by Bramante in the cloister 
of S. Pietro in Montorio. 11 is 28i/a palms high, 
has two bronze angels on the sides , and was 
made on the designs of Bernini; the fresco of 
the most holy Trinity over the altar is by Pie- 
tro da Gortooa. 

On the left side of the chapel is another 
altar with two columns from the ancient con- 
fessione ofS. Peter; over it aS. Maurice paint- 
ed by Bernini. Near it the tomb of Sislus IV 
in bronze with bas reliefs by Pollaioli : here also 
Julius II is interred whose tomb by Buonaroti 
at S. Pietro in Vincoli has been described; the 
mosaics of the cupola are copied from Pietro 
da Cortona. 

Under the following arch are: the tomb of 
Gregory XII by Rusconi , the statue is placed 
between figures representing religion and force; 
the bas relief alludes to the reform of the ca- 
lendar under this pope who died in 1585; the 
second is the tomb of Gregory XIV. At the end 
of Ibis nave is a mosaic copy of the celebrated 
communion of S. Jerome by Domeniehino now 
in the Vatican. 


428 Eighth day 


St was erected by Gregory XIII on the de- 
signs of Buonaroti. On the altar, decorated with 
fine marble, is an ancient image of the Madonna 
called « del Soccorso » Under the altar a gra- 
nite ura containing the remains of Gregory Na- 
zianensis , the mosaics of the cupola are copies 
from Muziano. On the right the tomb of Be- 
nedict XIV, Lam-berlini; the statue of the pope is 
by Bracci, (hose of Wisdom by the same artist; Di- 
sinterestedness by Sibilla ; the mosaic over (he 
altar of S. Basil is taken from a picture by 
Subleyras, now at S. Maria d*gli aogioli. 


Is in the form of a tribune and has three 
altars decorated with columns on (he first, de- 
dicated to S. Wenceslaus, is a mosaic of this 
taint from a painting by Caroselli; the mosaic 
over the second altar of SS. Processo and Mar- 
tinianus , from Valentin ; the one representing 
S. Erasmus, from Nicholas Poussin; the origi- 
nals of the two last pictures are in the Vatican. 
In the niches are statues of S. Joseph Calasan- 
zio by Spinazzi , of S. Bruno by Slod« , of 
S. Jerome by Emiliani, S.- Gaetano, Monaldi. 

Over the left altar is a mosaic from Lanfraneo 
of S. Peter walking on the waves at the call of 
his divine master. Opposite is the tomb of Rez- 
zonico, Clement XIII, a celebrated work by Ca> 
nova, consisting of three large figures - the Pope 
kneeling in prayer, Religion leaning on the cross, 
a figure- full of majesty; the genius of death, 


Eighth day 429 

Mated near the urn holding a torch downward* ; 
the has relief on the urn represents Force and 
Charity, at the base are two lions, symbolic of the 
pope's strength of mind; they are the finest works 
of the kind that have been produced in modern 
times. In the chapel of S. Michael Archangel is 
a mosaic copy of Guido's original in the Capu- 
chin church; the cupola, like those of all ilia 
other chapels , is also adorned with mosaic from 
the original paintings by Sacchi , Romanelli and 
Benefiale. In this chapel is another mosaic by 
Cristofori , the finest of all those in S. Peter's, 
a copy of the celebrated S. Petronilla of Guer- 
cino in the Capitoline gallery. The tomb of Cle- 
ment X, the statues of clemency and goodness, 
are by Afatlia de' Rossi ; the has relief repre- 
senting the opening of the porta santa is by Re.ti. 
The mosaic ofS. Peter ressusci Sating Tahita is 
a copy from Placido Costanzi. 

Near the statue of Veronica a small stair 
ease leads to tha 


As the basilic erected by Constantino- co- 
rered the site occupied by the Vatican grottoes, 
or (he cemetery of the Christians put to death 
by order of Nero , and particularly the spot 
where & Peter was interred , the sovereign pon- 
tiffs, when building the new temple, ordered the 
architects to leave the portion of the pavement 
that core-red the ancient grottoes? a new pave- 
ment was made over the ancient basilic, 1 6 palms 
high , sustained by means of arches and pilast- 


430 Eighth day 

crs , and in this manner the grottoes were pla- 
ced between the two pavements. 

At the pilasters of the great cupola are four 
altars designed by Bernini , with mosaic pictu- 
res from the originals of Andrea Sacchi. In the 
circular gallery is the chapel of the « confes- 
•ione * placed under the altar of the new ba- 
silic , and decorated by Clement VIII with fine 
marbles , gilt stuccoes and has reliefs in bronze, 
allusive to divers acts of SS. Peter and Paul. 
The ancient images of these saints, painted on 
silver , are placed on this altar , which is held 
in high veneration from its proximity to the 
niche containing the body of the prince of the 

These sacred grottoes contain the tombs and 
sepulchral urns of Charlotte , queen of Cyprus 
and Jerusalem ; of queen Christina of Sweden; 
of the Emperor Olho 11, of Adrian IV, of a grand 
master of Malta , of Boniface VIII, Nicholas V, 
Urban VI, Paul II, and Pius VI, together with 
bas reliefs of the universal judgment , of the 
creation of Eve , the refurre&ion of Christ , 
aud a large sepulchral urn of greek marble with 
bas reliefs of subjects taken from the old and 
new lestameol ; this urn was once the sepul- 
chre of Junius Banns , prefect of Rome; por- 
tions of a bull of Gregory HI carved on mar- 
ble , and of a council held by Ibat pope. On 
all sides ancient inscriptions , mosaics , (paint- 
ings, marble figures, bas reliefs and other sa- 
cred monuments that formed part of the an- 
cient basilic and which now give a religious and 
historical interest to these grottoes. 


Eighth day 

Was built under Pius VI by Carlo Mar- 
ehionni ; in the vestibule is a statue of the apost- 
le S. Andrew placed between four fine co- 
lumns and pilasters of red oriental granite. In 
the -gallery are several others of grey antique 
marble and pilasters of verde africano , many 
ancient and modern inscriptions and various busts 
of popes. 

The central sacristy , which communicates 
wbith (hat of the canons and of the beneficia- 
ries , is of an octagon form 70 palms in dia- 
meter and is decorated with eight fluted pillars 
of grey antique marble; under the four arches 
are eight giallo antico pilasters at the angles , 
a large and small cupola covered with stuccoes, 
at the chapel four fluted bardiglio columns. 

In the chapel of the canons are several 
carved chests of fine Brazilian wood , on tbe 
altar two alabaster columns, and a picture re- 
presenting the Madonna , child, S. Anne , SS. 
Peter and Paul, a highly esteemed work by ibe 
Fattore , a scholar of Raphael ; another oppo- 
site of the Madonna, child and S. John by Gin- 
lio R'lmano, and two over tbe windows by Ca- 
vallucci , a distinguished painter of last century. 

In the chapter room is a large marble sta- 
tue of S. Peter placed in a niche made of Brazil 
wood; to the right a deposition from (be cross 
by Snbatiui on the designs of Buonaroti. On (he 
left three pictures representing Pope S. Clement 
and his martyrdom , by Ghezzi. 

The sacristy of the beneficiaries possesses 
a fine painting by Muziano, of Christ delivering 


432 Eighth day 

tbe key* to S. Peter ; an ancient image of tbe 
Madonna called « delta febbre » ; two by Ca- 
xallucci. The vases used in the celebration of 
the ceremonies are preserved in tbe adjoining 

On tbe upper part of the stairs leading to 
the street , is the statue of Pius IV by Penna, 
and within lbs church , near the tomb of the 
Stuarts, is tbe ascent to tbe 


An ascent to the summit conveys a real 
idea of tbe vastness of the Vatican temple, and 
is easily made by a convenient winding stair 
case consisting of 1 41 steps; at tbe top are se- 
Tcral inscriptions in honour of those sovereigns 
who have visited the spot in latter times-, over 
the church are six oval and four octangular 
cupolas besides the large one which, from this 
base to the extremity of tbe cross, is 420 palms 
high. Around this extensive site which appears 
to be a piazza , is a balustrade with statues on 
the part towards the facade; these statues seem, 
from tbe piazza , of the natural size, but near 
they excite surprize by their extraordinary size. 
A stair case of 28 steps leads to the cor- 
nice of the great cupola, tbe external part of 
which is surrounded by a double line of tra- 
vertine columns; from a gallery round the cu- 
pola its interior can be approached , when the 
Savement of the cburcb appears very distant. 
Hher steps lead to the little cupola and to the 
bronze ball which can contain sixteen persons. 


Eighth day 433 

An iron stair case on the outside of the ball 
leads to the top of the cross. 

Having considered all that relates to the 
finest basilic of the universe we will now pass to 

Tax yjrtcjs PALACE 

It is asserted by some writers that Cons- 
tantino, after erecting the ancient basilic, added 
a palace for the residence of the supreme pon- 
tics , while others attribute its foundation to 
S. Liberius or to S. Simmacus about the year 
498. It is certain that it existed at the time of 
Charlemagne since it served as his residence 
when he was crowned Emperor by S. Leo HI. 
The restorations were commenced by Celestinus 
III, continued by Innocent HI who enlarged the 
building and by Nicholas III in 1258. The apos- 
tolic see having returned from Avignon to Rome 
in 1378, the palace was inhabited by Gregory 
XI and a conclave was held in it, for the first 
time , at his death. Amongst the popes who suc- 
cessively enlarged and embellished it, Julius U 
deserves particular mention from having brought 
from Florence Raphael of Urbino whom he cotn- 
misioned to paint the four chambers known by 
the name of (bat immortal artist. Leo X built 
the triple porticoes- of the court of S. Damaso 
on the architectural designs of Raphael and fur- 
nished those of the admirable paintings on lh« 
second story called the loggie which were exe- 
cuted by his scholars under his direction. 
Pant HI and Pius IV made many improvements; 
Siitus V built another palace on the east- lido 
of the S. Damaso court; various embellishments 


434 Eighth day 

"have been made by other Pontiffs, in particular 
by Pins VI in the Pio Clementino, and by Pius 
VII in the Chiaramonli , museums. 

The circumference of this extensive edifice, 
formed of several palaces with gardens, is 809600 
palms, about 24 rubbia of ground. Its archite- 
cture is neither symmetrical nor regular, having 
been built at different periods , but it is the 
production of the celebrated architects, Bramante, 
Raphael, Sangallo, Ligorio, Domenico Fontana , 
Carlo Madcrno and Bernini. It consists of three 
stories containing numerous apartments , large 
walls , splendid galleries and chapels , a fine 
library , a vast museum and an extensive gar- 
den , of twenty principal conrt yards, eight large 
and two hundred, small staircases. 

The principal of these, forming the en- 
trance to the palace , is in the vestibule of (be 
portico near tbe equestrian statue of Constan- 
Itne, and is decorated with ionic columns by 
Bernini. It leads to the sala Regia erected by 
Paul HI on the designs of Sangallo , the orna- 
raeulal parts are by Picrin del Yaga and Daniel 
da Volterra ; the paintings , representing the 
acts of various popes by Giorgio Vasari , Som- 
macbini , Taddeo Zuccari , Salviati and Scrmo- 
»cia. At the top of the great stair case are the 
Siitinc and Paolina chapels. 


Was built by SUlus IV on the designs of 
Racco Pintelti , and is dedicated to the cele- 
bration of the ceremonies in the holy week. It 
is in this chapel (hat Michael Aogelo Baonaroli 


Eighth day 435 

painted ibc last judgement , a master piece of 
the pictorial art. Christ with the Virgin at his 
right , and surrounded by the Apostles and a 
multitude of saints , is represented at the mo- 
ment when various angels bear in triumph the 
instruments of his passion ; in the middle of 
tbo painting a group of angels sounds the last 
trumpet to awake the dead and call them to 
judgment ; to the left arc various persons re- 
suming their flesh , some exerting themselves to 
quit the earth , others ruing in the air to re- 
ceive judgment. But what adds greater force and 
expression to the work are the angels assisting 
the dead in Iheir ascent to heaven, the demons 
who drag ihetn down to bell, and particularly 
the combat which arises on the occasion. At the 
right is the poetic episode of Charon receiving 
the condemned into his boat in order to carry 
them to the infernal regions , in the manner 
expressed by Dante in his "divina commedia». 
This stupendous painting has suffered through 
damp and neglect. Before commencing this work 
Buonaroli , by order of Julius II, had , in the 
space of only twenty months and without any 
assistance, painted ou the cicling the creation of 
the world , various passages of the old testa- 
ment , prophets , sybils and other subjects, all 
of beautiful invention and of an incomparable 
perfection of design. The twelve works on the 
cornice are by Signorelli , Filippi, Roselli, Pie- 
tro Perugiuo. and other artists. 



id Eighth (fay 


This chapel , built by Paul III on the de- 
sign! of Sangallo , serves in the holy week for 
the function called (he « 40 ore » aod the expo- 
sition of the holy sepulchre. On the altar is a 
splendid crystal tabernacle with gilt ornaments. 
On the walls are three large fresco paintings 
separated by pilasters , the first and third from 
the right entrance by Frederick Zuccari , the 
Crucifixion of S. <Peter in the centre by Bnona- 
roli, the side ones by Lorenzino, Hie cieling and 
friezes by Zuccari ; these paintings are nearly 
destroyed by the smoke of the wax candles used 
during the ceremonies above stated. 

The door opposite the Sixtine chapel leads 
to the dncal hall in which are arabesque pain- 
tings by Lorenzino and RaBaellino. The steps 
leading to the library communicate with 


'■' These loggie, built by Leo X under the 
direction of Raphael , consist of three stories 
each of three sides , the two first arched 
and decorated with pilasters , the third having 
columns which sustain a wooden architrave. The 
arabesques of the first story are by Giovanni da 
Udine , a scholar of Raphael; the other sides 
subsequently added by Gregory XIII and Sixtus 
V were painted by" the younger Pomarancio. 


Eighth day 437 


Are so called from haying been built by 
Alexander VI , who commenced ibc paintings 
which were completed under Leo X.' These rooms 
have of late years been filled with antique frag- 
ments and other sculptures. 

I. Chamber. The length of this room is 56 
feet , tbe breadth 36 ; on the cieling are gra- 
ceful stuccoes and fine paintings by Giovanni da 
lidine and Pierin del Vaga , representing the 
seven planets. Jupiter seated in a car drawn by 
eagles, Venus by doves , Mercury by cocks, the 
San by horses, Saturn by dragons, the Moon by 
females , Mars by wolves; the constellations re- 
presented are the great bear , the dog star, and 
other stars. In the centre of tbe room is a fine 
cap of Phrygian marble, around it various ca- 
pitals , antique fragments of sculpture and ar- 
chitecture , and a line chimney piece of the XVI 
century. On the walls are two hne bas reliefs, 
one of Trajan surrounded by lictors and other 
personages which was found in his forum ; the 
second representing the gladiators Daretus and 
Exlellus was found near the arch of Gal- 
ienus in the early part of the XVI century; these 
figures were copied by Raphael and engraved 
by Marc' Antonio; Opposite are two pieces of 
tbe frieze of the Ulpian library of a splendid 
composition and admirable execution represen- 
ting arabesques, Cupids and Chimeras. 

II. Chamber. The cieling, in the middle of 

which are the Borgia arms, was painted by Pin- 

taricchio with representations of prophets , of 

tbe ascension of Christ, the resurrection in which 

34 ' 


436 Eighth day 

be has introduced Alexander VI; the other sub- 
jects by the same artist are the annunciation of 
the Virgin , the assumption and the descent of 
the holy Ghost. The sculptures in this chamber 
are a large round ara called the Giusliniani 
well , round which is a Bacchanalian festival. 
On the walls are bas reliefs of Hippolytus taking 
leave of I'hedra, by some called Telepbus and 
Augias , Mars and Rhea Silvia, Diana and En- 
dymion , another fragment of a frieze from the 
Trajan forum , a bas relief of the education of 
Jupiter , aad two small basts of children one 
playing , the other stealing grapes. 

HI. Chamber. The paintings by Pinturicchio 
on the cieling represent the martyrdom of S. 
Sebastian , the visitation of S. Elisabeth, S. Eli- 
sabeth , S. Antonio abbate visiting S. Paul the 
first hermit , S. Catherine in presence of Max- 
imian , S. Barbara , S. Julian of Nicomedia , 
the Virgin and child. In the middle of the room 
is a fine antique tripod but the chief ornament 
is the celebrated antique painting known as the 
cnozze Aldobrandineo supposed to represent the 
nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, which was found 
in 1606 on the Esquiline near the arch of Gal- 
ienus ; it was formerly in the possessiou of the 
Aldobrandini family. When discovered this pain- 
ting was reputed the finest that remained of an- 
tiquity , a rank it preserved until the discovery 
of Pompeia and Hercalanom. It had been badly 
restored bat has been recently cleaned , and 
although it has suffered in its colouring the 
drawing is the same as when it came out of 
the artist's hands. Owing to these restorations 
the copy by Nicholas Poussiu in the Doria gal- 


■Eighth day 439 

lery, and tlie engravings previous to liio last 
restoration , do not in many parts resemble the 
original. It is supposed to represent llic nuptials 
of Pelous and Thetis a subject celebrated in the 
greek mytology ; by others those of Stella and 
yiolaulilla celebrated by Stalius, or of Manlius 
and Julia recorded by Catullus, but these sub- 
jects , essentially ronian , bear no affinity to 
the greek costume of ibis painting. Other anti- 
que paintings of an inferior style were found ia 
1810 near the via Nomentana in the S. Basilio 
farm ; the fine veil known Ggures of Grecian 
mythology, Pasiphae, Scilb, Phedra, Mirra, Ca- 
naccs , were discovered each with the inscri- 
ption of their name on the walls of the villa 
of Proculus aear the Ardea way , in the farm 
of Tor Marancio , two miles beyond the S. Se- 
bastiano gate. 

In the IV and last chamber are frescoes by 
Pinturicchio relative to the virtues , arts and 
sciences. It contains also several fragments , 
terra cotla works , presented to the Museum 
by d'Agincourl and by Canova. To the left is 
the corridor of Bramante the first part of which 
is called the 


This collection of ancient tombs was clas- 
sified by M onsignor Marioi by order of Pins VII. 
On the right side are inscriptions of the ancients, 
excepting those on isolated monuments which arc 
generally of the same character but covered will* 
christian tombs, taken in great part from the 
catacombs. These inscriptions are highly impor- 


440 Eighth day 

tanit by the Christian symbols they present, sack 
as Ibe monogram, ibe Tine, grapes, fish, Noah's, 
ack , the dove , the anchor , tbe good shepherd, 
and still more by (he riles , the sepulchral for- 
mulas of the early Christians', the consular fasti 
of the IV and V centuries of the present era, 
the errors of orthography and mutations of the 
final letters, an indication of the indistinct pro- 
nunciation of some letters and of the corrup- 
tion of the latin language. Tbe first inscriptions 
relative lo the ancients are those of priests , 
emperors, civil and military officers, toe arts, 
trades , and persons of minor- importance; along 
the walls are numerous tombs , sarcophagi, fu- 
nerary ara , cippi and cinerary urns , archite- 
ctural fragments of a fine Btyle found chiefly in 
excavations at Ostia; the niche with emblems al- 
lusive to Neptune was discovered at Todi; over 
it is the small facade of an cdicola found in the 
Prelorian camp which was dedicated to the gen- 
ius of the centuria in the third consulship of 
Commodns and Burrhus in the year 181 of Christ. 
The bas reliefs on the cippus of Lucius Atimetos 
represent, on one side a caller's shop, on the 
other a manufactory; one of the partitions unites 
all the monuments with the epigraphs found at 
Ostia in the beginning of the present century ; 
several of these relate to the Mitnriac worship. 

tbk rjTicjir UBRjttr. 

This library is one of the most celebrated 
of Europe by the number of greek, latin, Italian, 
oriental works add by the rare works and editions 
of the XV century which it contains; the foun- 



Eighth day 441 

dation is attributed to Pope S. Ilario in the year 
465 who placed it at S, John Lateran; it was 
augmented bj several popes and transferred by 
Nicholas V to the Vatican where a larger build- 
ding for it was erected by Sislus V. ■ 

The first room contains works in the la- 
tin, greek, hebrcw, arable, siio-caldaic languages; 
the hall, forming the principal body of the li- 
brary, designed by Domenico Fonlana, is 317 
palms long and 69 broad, divided into two na-- 
ves by six pilasters ; the paintings are by Vi- 
viani , Baglioni, Salviati , Salimbeni , Gaidotti, 
Nogari, Nebbia and Nucci. 

On (he right entrance is a portrait of Six.- 
tus V by Gaetani receiving from Fontana the 
plan of the library; over the cornice the prin- 
cipal works of that pope ; beneath, views of the 
most celebrated libraries. On the pilasters are 
the portraits of the inventors of printing cha- 
racters in various languages with their respect- 
ive inscriptions; on the wall various general 
councils. Near the pilasters are forty six chests 
which contain the rarest codes on several of which 
are fine miniature paintings; above are the vases 
forming, with those in other rooms, the Vatican 
collection of the Italo greek or Etruscan works; 
a magnificent Halo greek vase between the pi- 
lasters represents the fable of Ceres and Xripto- 
letnus ; another Achilles and Ajax playing at dice 
which was found in 1834 at Vulci. 

On the last pilaster is the Russian calendar 
in the form of a cross painted on wood , pre- 
sented by the Marquis Capponi , and behind the 
pilaster a marble sarcophagus found beyond Iho 
porta Maggiore containing a sheet of amianthus, 


442 Eighth rfay 

now in pieces, in which the dead bodies Were 
burnt and their ashes collected, the cinerary urns 
are ornamented with bas reliefs; the spiral co- 
lumn of oriental alabaster was found near S. Eo* 

The two transversal galleries 400 paces long 
at the end of this ball, contain manuscripts from 
tbe libraries of the Elector Palatine, of the dukes 
of Urbtno, Queen Christina, of the Capponi fa- 
mily which hare been successively united to that 
of the Vatican. 

Amongst various paintings in the left wing 
relative lo Si&tus V two are deserving of do* 
lice ; (be facade of the Vatican as projected by 
Uicliael Angelo; the machinery invented by Fou- 
lana to erect the- Vatican Obelisk. At the bot- 
tom of the third room are two sitting statues; 
(ho one lo the left represents Aristides of Smyrna 
(not the Athenian) a celebrated sophist whose 
name is at tbe base; the second S. Hippolytus, 
Bishop of Porto, on whoso episcopal chair is 
engraved the celebrated Paschal calendar; this 
slatue was found in the catacombs of S. Lorenzo. 
In the fourth chamber is a collection of Chris- 
tian antiquities. On the walls arc sacred inscrip- 
tions, various bas reliefs; mixed with Christian 
sarcophagi found in the cemeteries; and in (ho 
light wood cases, crosses, sacred vases, paintings 
and many other monuments; the subject on the 
cieling is (be church and religion by Stefano 

The « papyri » room is decorated with 
while, red and black granite, a porphyry frieze, 
aud a line marble pavement. The painting on 
(he cieling is by Mengs; the central subject is 


Eighth day 443 

history writing on the wings of time, and fame 
blowing the trumpet; the two sealed figures op- 
posite the door representing Moses and S. Pcler 
were also painted by Mengs; the four genii near 
these figures, those in the lunettes arc gicatly 
admired. In the cabinet are the medals, in oth- 
er rooms unling with the Borgia chambers , 
the printed works- Near that of the papyri the 
•objects relative to Samson were painted by Gui- 
do, and it contains the rare and extensive col- 
lection of engravings formed by Pius VI. 

The right wing of the library is composed 
of five rooms separated by arches and columns, 
six of which are of porphyry. In tbc two first 
are paintings by the school of d' Arpino , the 
cases are filled with the Italo greek vases. On 
the two porphyry columns are two statues of 
emperors of the period of decline. In the last 
room are numerous camei, small statues, bronze 
utensils and other rare objects, amongst which 
heads of Nero, of Balbinus aod of a child with 
an Etruscan inscription ; the door in (he iron 
railing communicates with the principal staircase 
of the Pio Clementino Museum. 



This collection of statnes and monuments 
of antiquity was formed by Pius VII as an ap- 
pendix to the Pio Clementino Museum; it may 
be divided into three parts , the Chiaramonli 
corridor , that of the inscriptions or the nnovo 
braccio , the hemicicle of the Belvedere. 


444 Eighth da$ 


At a complete catalogue of these monument! 
would extend to too great a length , it will be 
sufficient to point out (he most interesting ones. 
The entrance is between two marble columns 
found at Oslia ; the corridor is divided into sun- 
dry compartments -, the first to the right rcpre- 
presents a seated Apollo found in the last ex- 
cavations of the Colosseum ; the female recum- 
bent slalae with the attributes of autumn, ap- 
pears to have been the lid of a sarcophagus; i( 
was found near Pratica; on the front of the sar- 
cophagus is a has relief with the busts of a hus- 
band , wife and child and deserves notice from 
the bulla which is suspended to tho neck; this 
monument was found at acqua traversa on the 
via cassia three miles from Rome; opposite is 'i 
bas relief representing the games of the circus 
of an inferior style of sculpture but interesting 
by the subject. Near this fragment is one in the 
early greek style of Minerva preceded by a 
male divinity; a bas relief with several figures of 
gladiators ; a recumbent statue with the attri- 
butes of winter probably the lid of a sarcopha- 
gus; these two monuments seem to be posterior 
to the times of Adrian. 

In (be second compartment to the right tbt 
male statue wearing the toga is of the Antonio* 
period; it stands on a square ara dedicated, at 
appears by the greek inscription , to the Gods; 
that on the opposite side by Cains Pomponini 
Turpillianus, the provider of oil to the granaries 


Eighth day 445 

of Galba, erected to bis , Serapis and the house- 
bold gods for the safe return of Antoninus Pius 
and of his family. In the third compartment to 
the right is the fragment of an elegant arabesque 
ornament; a bust of Septiraius , of Antoninus 
Pius, of Marcus Aurelius in his youth, a hemes 
of those called Plato , of Sleep, and of Bacchus 
but which is the portrait of a personage un- 
kiiflwn, the hair being arranged in a particular 
mode; opposite is a has relief with genii riding 
on a sea monster holding the trident, of a gra- 
ceful composition, the small double headed he r- 
mes is interesting as being the sole monument 
uniting Bacchus in his youth and old age known 
in the orgies under the names of Zagreus and 
Dionysius, the former haYing bull's horns ; the 
bust said to be that of Agrippa bears no resem- 
blance to the portraits existing on medals. In 
the fourth compartment is the statue of a Muse, 
opposite is the door of the 


This gallery which by its magnificence may 
emulate the pinacotechse of the ancient palaces, 
was erected in 1 81 7 by Pius VII on the designs of 
the architect Baffaelle Stern who died before it 
was finished; it was opened for the first time to 
the public in 1822 , and is 313 palms long, and 
93 i/a broad; the cieling is ornamented with 
stuccoes, the gallery decorated with eight fine 
carystian columns , two of a rare black egyplian 
granite taken from the portico of the church of 
S. Sabina , two numidian or giallo antico found 
near Cecilia Metella 's tomb; at the entrance 


416 Eighth day 

and at line heniicycle are other fine columns sus- 
taining busts; all the busts in the gallery arc 
on line red sienile granite columns ; the walls 
are lined with stucco bas reliefs copied from 
those of the Trajan and Anlonine pillars or from 
triumphal arches; at the left entrance are the 
following monuments : a hermes with a greek 
inscription relative to the sculptor Zeoo publish- 
ed by Winckclman, and illustrated by Nibby in 
1819; a bust unknown but without any resem- 
blance to Julia , the wife of Seplimius Severus 
to whom it had been attributed ; a statue of 
Mercury found in the Quirinal gardens , one of 
Domitian formerly in the Giusliuiani palace; the 
mosaic on (he pavement was discovered in the 
villa of Proculus out of the S. Sebastian gate; 
a fine bust in the egyplian style, a colossal bead 
of a barbarian of the period of Trajan , found 
in his forum ; in the following niche the statue 
of a Discobolus, above a bust of Apollo , a 
portrait with (he gabine belt, attributed to the 
Emperor Philip, bears no resemblane to bis me- 
dals , a line statue of Lucius Verus ; on the pa- 
vement a mosaic of Ulysses escaping from Scilla 
and the Syrens , a bust of Commodus found al 
Ostia ; a Faun imitating the altitude of the fcos- 
pigliosi statue by Praxiteles, in the niche a Clau- 
dius; the mosaic on the pavement, like those of a 
similar design , is from the Procula villa at Tor 
Marancio; an anonymous bust, erroneously called 
a Titus, totally unlike his medals ; the statue of 
Minerva Medica in parian marble found in the 
ruins of the temple so called ; by the compo- 
sition and beauty of the proportions , the de- 
licacy of the contours and of the drapery, it may 


Eighth day 447 

without exaggeration be considered as one of 
the linest statues of ancient sculpture. Its appel- 
lation of Medica is derived, from the serpent at 
its feet, but it is known that this reptile was 
the attribute of Minerva , as the eagle of Jove, 
the dog of Diana, the panther of Bacchus; the 
celebrated Minerva of Phidias in the Parthenon, 
which had no direct relation to medicine, had 
also a serpent at its feet , and it is very pro- 
bable that this statue , which is altogether of a 
greek type, is either by Phidias himself or by one 
of his best imitators. 

In the adjoining niche is a fine statue of 
Julia, the daughter of Titus, found in 1S2S with 
that of her father near the Laleran baptistery; 
jo the middle of the gallery is a basaltic vase of 
an elegant style and finished execution. At the 
entrance to the semicircular cxedra, near the 
two black granite columns which were formerly 
at S. Sabina , is the colossal statue of the Nile 
on which are sixteen children, symbolic of the 
sixteen cubits, the requisite height of the river 
to inundate the lands of Egypt ; on the plinth 
are bas reliefs of the plants that grow on its 
banks, and of the animals that inhabit its waters; 
this statue , indicating by its style and fine fi- 
nish , the period of Adrian was found near 
the church of S. Stefano del Cacco , the site of 
the temple of Serapis; the composition records 
the similar subject described by the elder Pliny 
as existing in the temple of Peace, with the sole 
difference of the materials , the latter being of 
' hard basalt i at the angles of this exedra are 
four granite pillars sustaining colossal masques 
of Medusa of a graud and correct style ; the 


448 Eighth day 

two in marble were found in excavating the 
temple of Venus and Rome , the other two ace 
casts. Id the niches of the hemicyele are five 
statues of gladiators, the two first were found in 
the villa of Quinlilius Varus at Tivoli ; the third 
at Circeii in a villa of Lucnllus ; the fourth at 
Tivoli; the last was in the Ruspoli palace; at 
the left end of the hemicyele is a statue crowned 
with sheafs of corn which , from the character 
and costume, may be recognized as one of the 
hours or seasons, probably summer; the portrait 
of Pius VII is by Canova ; the mosaic on the 
pavement with a figure of Diana of Ephesus , 
was found in the Sabine territory. 

Returning to the long gallery there is a 
graceful statue of Venus; in the niches one of 
a greek philosopher resembling Homer ; busts 
of Lucius Autonius brother of the Triumvir , of 
Sallust, a female statue of Fortune discovered 
at Ostia , one of Diana of inferior composition; 
above are bnsts ofPallas,of Adrian, of a female sta- 
tue finely draped , two fine portraits unknown; in 
the niche a statue of Anlonina, the mother of Clau- 
dius , found by Prince Caniuo iu the ruins of 
Tusculum ; the statue of Mercy is one of the 
best in the nuovo braccio , two busts one re- 
sembling Ptolemy the son of Juba', an Amazon 
in the act of unbending the ark ; Caracalla in 
his youth, statues of Demosthenes and of Abun- 
dance though the latter more properly re- 
presents Fortune' the attributes of the globe 
and rudder being lost ; a roman lady sap- 
posed to be Julia the daughter of Titus ; the 
Euripides of the following niche is a beautiful 
greek work and full of character; a fine Diana 


Eighth day 449 

contemplafiag Endymion , a bust of Trajan , a 
Caryatides of pen te lie marble formerly in tha 
villa of Sixtirs V. The Amazon in (he following 
niche is of a grand expression and well execu- 
ted, the Faun was found near the lake ofCir- 
ceii. In Ibis arch is a recumbent Faun between 
two hippocampi each rode by a Nereid , and 
two silling Fauns used as ornaments to fountains, 
found m the ruins of the villa of Varus at Ti- 
Toli ; in the niches an Isis, two Fauns, Silenus, a 
graceful statue of Ganymede with the name of 
the greek sculptor Phenimos , found at Ostia. 

In (he long gallery is a superb statue of 
Titus wearing the toga , found in 1828 near the 
Lateran , a Pallas discovered at Yelletri, not to 
be mistaken for the Pallas Velilerna now at Paris; 
the Emperor Nerva , a statue finely, draped and 
executed, a nymph and a bust of Claudius dis- 
covered at Piperno ■; the Esculapios is evidently 
a copy of some bronze statue ; in (he following 
niche Antinous under the form of Vertumnus; 
Silenus crowned with ivy and holding Bacchus 
in bis arms ; the bust of a Daciao captive , a 
statue of Commodus, and a caryatides taken from, 
the Pandrosium at Athens. 



la the fifth- compartment to the right is a 
fragment representing the carceres of a circus, 
and opposite a bas relief with- masques; a statue 
of Clio , a large pedestal with an inscription to 
Aurdius Bassos, found atLanrentana; in the se- 


450 Eighth day 

Tenth compartment fragments of bag reliefs, one 
representing a rural subject , another the nuptial 
banquet of the Leucippides to which Castor and 
Pollux were invited. These fragments , though 
of an indifferent work , are interesting in point 
of erudition. Amongst the busts that of Rome de- 
serves notice , the haughty character of the head 
distinguishing it from that of Minerva who al- 
ways appears serious; the fragment of a statue 
of Pallas of the early greek style ; the female 
statue without the head attributed to Diana, 
lo Ariadne and Niobe, probably the latter , was 
in the villa Adriana; opposite is a Marcus Anre- 
lius. In the ninth compartment there are seven! 
interesting fragments on the wall; a has relief re- 
lating lo Perseas, another to the combat of Her- 
cules with the Amazons , the semicolossal bust 
of Pallas in greek marble found at Pratica , 
seems to have once been painted; opposite is the 
large sepulchral cippus of Telesina , the daughter 
of Cajus ; the statue of a greek philosopher with 
the name of Lysias but without foundation; a frag- 
orient of Apollo on a square sepulchral ara of 
the flourishing period of sculpture; a fine masque 
of the Ocean placed on a votive altar of Dio- 
medes, adjoining it a small well draped statue 
of Polvmuia. 

Amongst the monuments collected in the 
XI compartment is a head of Niobe or of 
Sappho; the figure of a boy , though broken , 
calls lo mind the same graceful subject in the 
Capitoline gallery lifting up a masque, but it is 
not a Silenus as supposed. Opposite a small male 
statue wearing the diadem ; Alcibiades ; the 
Hercules was found in 1802 at Oriolo: a statue 


Eighth day 451 

of Tiberius holding the cornncopcia. In the XIII 
compartment are fragments of a good style re- 
lating to the bailies against the Amazons, be- 
neath is a leopard found in the villa Adriana; 
a gladiator fighting with wild beasts and falling 
after having thrust his sword into the body of a 
Hon ; a recumbent tiger; a half colossal figure 
of phrygian marble representing a barbarian. In 
the XV compartment two fragments, one with 
roman soldiers wearing cuirasses , the other an 
early greek work j the figures of the following 
bas relief are of a good style; a bust of Annia 
Faustina the wife of Heliogabalus, a sitting statue 
of Tiberius , his colossal bust and that of Au- 
gustus excavated at Veii in 1818. In the XVII 
compartment the fragment of a bas relief with a 
four wheeled car ; a bust of Augustus in his 
youth, one of the finest at (he Vatican for ex- 
pression , design , and delicacy of work; it is said 
to have been found at Ostia. Near it is a very 
rare bust of Cicero , the only authentic one in 
Borne , bearing a perfect resemblance (o the me- 
dals of Magnesia and agreeing with the parti- 
culars preserved by ancient authors , in his own 
writings, and in those of Dio; thesis fragments 
opposite are of a good style and execution; near 
them are the busts of Alcibiades and of Clodins Al- 
bums the rival of SeptimiusSeverus; statues of 
a warrior and of Gsculapius. In the XIX com- 
partment a fragment in <■ alabaslro fiorito - , a 
pig in nero anlico , a mylhriac group, a swan 
of very fine execution , a phoenix , a dog , and 
other animals , two satyrs and other figures. 
Amongst the chief objects of the XX compart- 
ment are a statue of Cupid in fragments, and a 


452 -Eighth <% 

soinicolossal one of Tiberius found at Plperuo; 
the resemblance, the grandeur and tranquillity 
Of the pose, the drapery, the folds, render it one 
of the finest monument!) of roman sculpture; the 
sarcophagus was found in the Ameudola villa on 
(he via Appia, it is placed on a sepulchral mo- 
nument representing the process of the ancients 
in making oil; to the left a gl»lue of ALropos, 
one of the Pares, from the villa Albani. In the 
compartment are busts of Niobe , Antoninus Pius 
crowned vritb oak, of Meleager , Adrian, of 
Venus in marble of Paros from Diocletian's baths. 
In the XXII Silenus, a colossal bust of Isis from 
theQuirinal gardens, a 'statue of Sabia the wife 
of Adrian represented as Venus genitrix; one of 
Diana Lucifera. In (be XXIII an architectural 
ornament , a bust with the names of Pompej 
and of Nerba- but unknown; Pallas, a beau- 
tiful bust supposed to be Trajan's father, Au- 
gustus; one unknown though resembHng Aris- 
totle. On the wall opposite a bas relief of a 
figure supposed to represent Eos , a gnostic di- 
vinity; on the sides a milhriac bas relief. In the 
XXIV, a statue of Venus and one of Mercury 
found near the monte di Pieta; a Claudius pla- 
ced between a statue of the genius of death found 
in the villa of Cassius at TivoU and that of Sal- 
lustia Ortiana represented as Venus, from the 
forum of Prenesle. In the following compartment 
a fine head of Faun-, one of Sylvan us crowned 
with pines , a Neptune and the younger Agrip- 
pina; busts of Marcus Brutus, of llie elder Agrip- 
pina and a small statue ofTyphon in (he roman 
egyplian style; in the XXVI compartment: a Ce- 
res finely draped placed on an ara formerly in 


Eighth day 453 

the villa Aldobrandini ; on the sides , Apollo and 
Diana ; Mars and Mercury ; Fortune aod Hope; 
Hercules and Sylvanus; the fragment of a bas 
relief said lo represent Juno and Thetis and two 
other bas reliefs of the most perfect style, a 
small statue of Alys, beloved by Cybele; the in- 
fant Hercules strangling the dragons; two small 
Ganymedes with the eagle; the bas relief repre- 
sents a city surrounded with walls near the sen 
or a river. In the XXVIII compartment a well 
draped statue of Rome , Hygeia in pentelic mar- 
ble and part of a group of an unknown subject; 
an Esculapius , Venus, and a young girl carrying 
tbe mystic sift used in the mysteries of Bacchus. 
In the XXIX compartment a fine head unknown 
found in the ruins called Roma vecchia ; a child 
carrying a vase on his shoulder ; a colossal head 
of Antoninus Pius from Ostia; a small rare sta- 
tue of Ulysses as he is represented on the me- 
dals of the Mamilia family; a fragment of a dan- 
cing Fano , a bust of Sabina ; fragments of a 
Faun in black basalt ; a hermes of Jupiter Ter- 
minus, the busts of Julia , of Isis, of a Centaur 
erowned with vine leaves, of Bacchus in giallo 
anlico, a semiculossal recumbent statue of Her- 
cules , two hermes, one unknown, the other with 
the name of Solon; the grotesques on the cieling 
of the stairs are by Daniel da Vollerra. 

The monuments in the first five rooms most 
worthy of observation are the busts no. 788 , 789 
and 791 placed on the left side of the second room 
and representing Manilla, Lucius Manilius, and 



451 Eighth day 

Manilius Faustus which were discovered on the via 
Appia within the S. Sebastian gate; the bust 790 
is of the same style but without any name; thej 
are not anterior to the third century of the 
present era. 

In the semicircle adjoining the fifth room 
is a collection of the egyplian monuments par* 
chased by Pius VII. It consists of tea silling 
black granite statues representing lsis or Athor, 
the primitive Venus of the greeks; in the centre 
a male mummy, on the walls several hieroglyphs 
and a coplhic epitaph stating, after an invoca- 
tion to God , that it belonged to the tomb of 
Chalaf, the son of Hossein, nephew of Ibrahim 
and grand nephew of Ahmed, named Rum, who 
died on the seventh of the month of sceval 454 
of the Hegira or 14 October 1 062. Opposite are 
many figures in bronze , wood and porcelains; 
Dtensits, mummies of sacred animals and objects 
used by the ancient Egyptians. These monuments 
were discovered prior to 1819 in tbe ruins of 
Thebes and in the tombs of Gournah on the right 
bank of tbe Nile. The three last chambers coat- 
ain the casts from tbe Parthenon; in the first 
those of the frieze, on the north side of tbe cells, 
allude (o the celebrated Panalbea procession at 
Athens, the subjects are explained by tbe follow- 
ing letters: A the llissus a river near Athens; 
B Hercules in his youth; G Cupid; D the upper 
part of a figure of Neptune; Geres and Proser- 
pine; F tbe bead of a horse in the car of tbe 
setting sun, tbe high reliefs of the metopes in 
the third room represent the fight between the 
Lapitbat and the Centaurs, the letter H is sup- 
posed to represent the risiog sun or tbe Ocean, 


Eighth day 455 

to this subject belong the heads of horses of the 
letter I; the subject of the central group is un- 
known. With the exception of the Cupid in (he 
first room, which is believed to be of the lime 
of Alexander, the other subjects were all desi- 
gned by Phidias, and executed by bis own band, 
or under his direction. It is needless to add (hat 
they are the finest pieces of greek sculpture. 


Some of the principal statues of Rome, the 
Apollo , the Laocoon , the Mercury and other 
works of sculpture bad been united in the Va- 
tican in the Belvedere court , but the museum 
owes its origin chiefly to Clement XUI, Clement 
XIV and Pius VI who formed the immense col- 
lection now called the l J io Clementino Museum. 
It was greatly augmented by Pius VI, not only 
by the acqoisilioo of a great number of monu- 
ments , but by the construction of magnificent 
balls which emulate the splendid edifices of an- 
tiquity. To this Pontiff we are indebted for the 
hall of animals , a part of ihe gallery , the ca- 
binet, the ball of the muses , the round hall , 
the vestibule in the form of a greek cross, the 
hall of the biga, and the magnificent staircase; 
the architecture of these parts added by Pius 
VI is of a pure style , and the collection con- 
tains objects that oiler a high degree of interest 
to artists , connaisseurs and archaeologists. 


456 Eighth day 


On the right side is a recumhcnt sepulchral 
statue of a matron of the natural size with two 
genii, one at her feet preparing the quiver, the 
other holding a wreath of flowers near her head. 
Opposite are the monuments discovered in "i 730 
in the tomb of the Scipios which consist of a 
neperino sarcophagus , ornamented with imita- 
tions of roses and triglyphs of a fine design, the 
inscription in very old latin stales « that this 
» is the tomb of Cornelius Lucius Scipio Bar- 
» balus, Consul in the year of Rome 456; Censor 
» and Edile who took Samnium and Taurasii 
» Cisauna and subjugated all Lncania» Over 
this sarcophagus is the bust of a young man 
with a laurel wreath said to be Ennuis whose 
portrait was placed , according to Cicero , in 
the tomb of the Scipios, but it is more proba- 
bly one of the family, relating to which several 
inscriptions line the wall. In the centre of this 
hall is the celebrated fragment of a statue of 
Hercules called the « Torso di Belvedere » , of 
such beauty and perfection that it has always 
excited admiration ; it contributed to form the 
grandiose style of Michael Angelo. By its greek 
inscription it was (he work of Apollonius , the 
son of Nestor an Athenian , and was found in 
the baths of Caracalla. 


' In the centre is a marble enp of excellent 
tasle; in the right niche a fragment of a male 
statue , one of a female finely draped. Outside 


Eighth day 457 

of the window is an antique Anemoscopiam 
found in 1779 near tbe Colosseum, having the 
names of the winds in greek and latin. Tbe 
extensive view from the balcony over Rome and 
its vicinity has given to this spot the appellation 
of Belvedere. 



The chief ornament of this room is the 
celebrated statue of Meleager found , in the 
opiaioo of some antiquaries, on tbe Esquiline , 
according to others out of thePortesegate; though 
tbe draper; is mannered it is one of the finest 
statues that has come down to us. On its right 
is a bus relief representing the apotheosis of 
Homer by the Muses. Another opposite is inte- 
resting by the subject, as it represents a sea 
port, and was found on the via Appia in the 
Moiraga villa. Beneath in high relief the frag- 
ment of a roman hireine vessel with soldiers in 
Ihe act of combating , and a colossal bust of 
Trajan. Behind the Meleager is an antique tra- 
vertine inscription recording the deeds of Mum- 
mius , the conqueror of Corinth , a monument 
of importance in Ihe latin paleography, and ser- 
ving as a link to tbe inscriptions of (he Scipios. 


This portico , of an octagon form , is sus- 
tained by 16 granite columns and various pi- 
lasters alternating with the same number of plain 
and round arches. In the yard are some mo- 
numents of little interest. 


459 Eighth day 

To the right within the portico is a Urge 
white marble sarcophagus with sculptures in 
high relief , representing a dance of Satyrs and 
Bacchantes; it was discovered in laying the foun- 
dations of the Vatican sacristy. A sarcophagus 
with a greek and latin inscription, stating tbal 
it is the sepulchre of Sextos Varus Marcellus, the 
father of the Emperor Heliogabalus. Opposite 
the sarcophagus of the Bacchantes is a superb 
basaltic urn used for bathing r found in the 
last century, near the thermae of Caracalla. 

The first cabinet is decorated with the sta- 
tues of Perseus, and of the gladiators Creugnan- 
les and Damossenus , by Canova, In the niches 
under the opposite arch are statues of Mercury 
and Pallas. To the right in the open space a 
sarcophagus representing Bacchus and bis at- 
tendants meeting Ariadne in the island of Naxos; 
on the bas relief of another sarcophagus is the 
figure of au old maa in the barbarian costume 
who , with other captives , implores the cle- 
mency of the conqueror. In the following niche 
a statue larger than life of Sallustia BarbiaOr- 
biana the wife of Alexander Sevorus, under lae 
form of Venus with Cupid , and inscribed on 
the base 



This group was found near S. Croce in Ge- 
rusalemme. Near it is a large sarcophagus with 
the figure of Achilles supporting Pcnthesilea, 
Queen of the Amazons, whom he bad wounded. 

la the niche of the II cabinet the statue 


Eighth day 459 

of Mercury known as (lie Anlinons of the Bel- 
vedere ; on the walls a bas relief with a repe- 
tition of Achilles and Penlhesilea ; lo the left 
an Isiac pomp formerly in the Matlei palace, 
under the arch statues of the god of gardens , 
of an infant Hercules holding a cornucopeia; 
sarcophagi with the genii of the seasons , and 
Nereids bearing the arms of Achilles, a bas re- 
lief representing the gale of Aides half open, an 
allusion to death. 

On the sides of the arch are two verd* 
antico columns with composite base and capi- 
tals , and two bull dogs of a fine style of scul- 
pture; avound the portico are other sarcophagi 
with has reliefs representing the battle of the 
Amazons, the Bacchanalian genii , and on the 
iid of an ancient sepulchre a female deceased 
holding a serpent, the symbol of immortality; 
near the arches are two thermal urns of granite. 

The following cabinet contains the celebra- 
ted group of Laocoon and his sons found under 
Julius linear the ScttcSalc, between the churches 
of S. Martina and S. Pielro io Vincoli. This 
group is unrivalled in the delicacy of forms, the 
expression of pain in tbe countenances, and the 
cootorsions of body occasioned by the two large 
serpents sent by Minerva. According to Pliny 
this admirable group was* executed by three 
sculptors of Rhodes , Agesander , Polidorus and 
Atbenodorus. The bas reliefs on the walk re- 
present a Bacchanalian festival and tbe triumph 
of Bacchus after bis conquest of the Indies. In 
the niches statues of Polyinnia and of a Nymph 
found near the pretended temple of Peace, 

Amongst the monuments at the end of the 

,. Google 

460 Eighth day 

portico are bas reliefs of Hercules and Bac- 
chus with their attributes ; a sarcophagus with 
genii bearing arms , a large granite urn and a 
bas relief of Augustus preparing for the sacrifice- 
In the niche a statue of Hygeia; a bas re- 
lief with the figure of Rome following a victo- 
rious general probably the fragment of a triump- 
hal arch ; a targe granite urn and a sarcophagus 
with Nereids and Tritons, and two large blocks 
of ■ pecorella » alabaster, found at Porto in 1 S25. 
The last cabinet contains the « Apollo of 
tho Belvedere » the most perfect work of the 
sculptural arl, uniting the « beau ideal « a no- 
ble attitude , and the majestic aspect of a deity. 
It was found at Antium in the latter part of 
the XV century; the bas reliefs on the wall re- 
present a chase, and Pasiphae with the bull; iu the 
niches are statues of Pallas and of Venus Vin- 

At the first entrance to the portico are two 
sarcophagi, one with a figure of Ganymede, the 
other of Bacchus with a Faun and a Bacchante; 
a thermal urn of green basalt found also in the 
baths of Caracalla; the marble columns with lea- 
ves and arabesques are from the villa Adxiana. 


This hall, divided into two parts by pilas- 
ters and four granite pillars is paved with an- 
tique mosaics. It contains marble works of 
sundry animals; at the entrance a wolf, in the 
centre , between various birds and arabesques , 
an oagie devouring a bare, and a tiger. 


Eighth day 461 

The monuments in this important collection 
are placed on marble slabs and antique pedes- 
tals ; lo the left a group representing a Triton 
carrying away a nymph; Hercules with Cerberus 
in chains; a horse , a naked colossal statue un- 
known; Hercules killing Geryon , found with the 
Cerberus al Ostia ; the group of a lion devour- 
ing a horse ; a milhriac group, a stag in « ala- 
bastro fiorito » a small lion in porta santa mar- 
ble; Hercules and the Neroean lion, the group 
of Hercules and Diomed king of Thrace both 
excavated al Ostia; a Centaur; Commodus on 
horseback in the act of throwing the javelin re- 
markable by the horse being shoed; a tigress, 
a lion in yellow breccia , a large lion of grey 
marble , a grifiin of alabastro liorito. 


Beginning by the right the most remarkable 
statues composing this splendid gallery arc the 
following: Clodius Albinus clothed in mail; a half 
sized Cupid of Parian marble ; a naked figure 
unknown; Paris; Minerva pacifera, a bronze hel- 
met in the right, an olive branch in the left 
band; a rare statue of Caligula found at Otri- 
coli; a superb figure of an Amazon in the act 
of drawing the bow, a female holding a patera, 
perhaps Juno, and a Diana in bas relief on the 
pedestal. A small statue of Urania ; at the left 
of the entrance two very fine sitting statues of 
Menander and Posidippus , greek comie poets , 
found nearS. Vitalfl in the Quirinal valley, a sea- 
ted Apollo, the portrait of Nero, Septimius Se- 
vcrus, Neptune, Adonis wounded ; Bacchus, the 
36 * 


402 Eighth day 

graceful group of Esculapius and Hygeia, Venus 
with i vase at her fcet supposed to be a copj 
of the celebrated Cnidian Venus of Praxiteles, 
being ia the same altitude as on the medals of 
Onidus; a recambent statue with the inscription 
* Pbenias Nicopolis j = a Dauaid with a cup, 
the symbol of her punishment; Diana as a hun- 
tress with her dog. 

In the small vestibule is a vase of alabaster 
cotogoino, rare by its size, which contained the 
ashes of the children of Gerinanicus; it was found 
near the mausoleum of Augustus; a line recum- 
bent statue of Adriudae abandoned bj Theseus 
in the isle of Naxos; on the pedestal a bos re- 
lief representing the batllo of the Titans with 
Jupiter and tbe other Gods; two fine candelabri 
from tbe villa Adriana, tbe statues of Mercury 
and of Lucius Verus. 


This hall forms three divisions separated 
by arches and sustained by columns lined with 
gialio antico and fine breecia pilasters. In the 
first part a Domitta, Titus, Marcus Aurelins An- 
toninus , Julia Mammtea , a female head on a 
bust of alabaster, Alexander Severus, Augustus; 
a head of Mcnciaui, tbe younger Philip, in por- 
phyry , an old woman of a very line style ; a 
group of Nymphs, probably the hours, dancing 
round a column. 

In the second division, busts of Septimios 
Severus, Antoninus Pius, Jupiter Serapis, Ti- 
berius, Nerva, Claudius, Antinous, Sabina, Adrian, 
Didtus JulUous. 



Eighth day 463 ; 

la the third a veiled Isis crowned with ser- 

Jcuts ; Silenos , Faun; in the niche a statue of 
apiter with the eagle at his feet holding the 
sceptre and the thunderbolt; an antique celestial 
globe presented to the Pope by Cardinal Zac- 
chia; a bust of Marcia Otaiiia, wife of the eider 
Philip; a Flamcn priest, the bust of a Barbarian 
captive found near the arch of Constantino. Bey- 
ond a loggia containing several antique busts 
and statues is 

It is decorated with eight marble columns 
and pilasters of alabaster from Monte Circeio, a 
frieze with bas reliefs of children in festoons , 
and four seals of large entire slabs of porphyry 
with bronze gilt stands. The pavement consists 
of line mosaics found in tho villa Adriana sur- 
rounded with a frieze of vine leaves, fruits, and 
garlands admirably executed; the mosaics form 
four squares separated by graceful ornaments , 
three representing various antique masques, one 
a landscape with goats and shepherds, tltc paint- 
ings by dc Angelis relate to the five following 
subjects: Ariadne and Bacchus, Paris presenting 
the apple to Venus; Paris refusing it to Minerva, 
Venus and Cupid, Diana and Endymion, 

Over the door a bas relief of four of the 
labours of Hercules ; in a niche a faun in rosso 
anlico from the villa Adriana j a priest of Mithra, 
restored as Paris, on the wall a bas relief with 
arches and columns, representing various deeds 
of Hercules; a statue of Pallas fouud with those 
of the Muses in the villa of Cassius at Tivoli, a 


464 Eighth day 

superb quadrangular cup and seat of rosso tn- 
lico. Between the columns a statue of Ganymede 
wearing the Phrygian cap with the eagle at his 
side , well preserved and executed; a bas relief 
with deeds of Hercules; in the niche a very fine 
etatnc of Cupid or Adonis, another bas relief of 
the labours of Hercules ; a statue of one of the 
hours in the act of dancing, placed on a cippus 
inscribed Licinice Cram etc. A has relief repre- 
senting the sun and fortune , the capitoline and 
other divinities. In the niche a superb statue of 
Venus in the bath found near the springs of the 
acqua vergine, and on the wall a bas relief of 
the aposlheosis of Adrian; between the column* 
a statue of Diana ; on the wall another bas re- 
lief with one of (he hours. 

Beyond the iron gate opposite the one at 
the entrance, a statue of Diana, a bas relief re- 
presenting three conquerors in the games with 
palms, vases, and their names; in a niche a sta- 
tue of a dancing Faun. 

This hall forming an octagon contains 1 6 Luni 
columns with their antique capitals; the mosaic 
pavement found at Lorium relates to theatrical 
representations, in the centre is a head of Medusa, 

At the right entrance a hermes of Globu- 
lus, a Diogenes, a statue of Silenus; on the bas 
relief the dance of the Corybantes , a rare her- 
mes of Sophocles , one of Epicurus. 

Around the hall are several hermes and the 
statues of the muses found with the hermes of 
the sevcu sages of Greece in the villa of Gassius 


Eighth day 46$ 

at Tivoli. The first, Melpomene, licr head which' 
is of a beautiful style, crowned with vine leaves, 
the masque and dagger distinguish her as the 
tragic muse; a hermes of Zeno the philosopher; 
Thalia with the masqac and pastoral stick, the 
symbols of comedy and of pastoral scenes; the her- 
mes of Eschineswith his name written in greek 
the only portrait known of this orator; Urania 
the fliose of science and of astronomy; a bas re- 
lief of the combat between the Lapilhaj and the 
Centaurs ; a hermes of Demosthenes, the orator; 
a ■ statue of Calliope, (he epic muse ; the hermes 
of Antisthenes with a greek inscription to the 
founder of the cynics ; Polymnia crowned with 
flowers and envelopped in a mantle, the muse of 
memory , fable and pantomime. 

A hermes of Aspasia, with a greek inscrip- 
tion at the base of the pilaster, the only por- 
trait of her that is known; a sitting statue said 
to be Sappho, a very rare hermes of Pericles with 
a helmet on his head and a greek inscription 
on the breast, the first that has made as acquaint- 
ed with the physiognomy of this celebrated 
Athenian; it was found in the villa of Cassias at 
Tivoli. Under the architrave an armed statue of 
Minerva, in the niche opposite that of Mnemos- 
yne, the mother of the muses, with a greek in- 
scription at the base. 

Near the door , are hermes with the greek 
names of Pitthacas of Mitylene, and Biantes of 
Priene, two of the seven sages of Greece; a sta- 
tue of Lycurgus, the legislator, a hermes of Pa- 
riander of Corinth , another of the Sages ; the 
bust of Alcibiades, the statue of Erato the muse 
of lyric poetry, and a hermes with the eyes clo- 


466 Eighth day 

sed, supposed to be Epimenides. A statue of Clio 
the muse of poetry , a hermes of Socrates with 
(he name in greek, a beautiful statue of Apollo 
Cilheriades in long robes , crowned with laurel 
and the cetra on which is a bas relief of Marsyas. 
On the wall the battle of the Centaurs, a her- 
mes of Tbemislocles, a statue of Terpsichore (he 
muse of the dance, a hermes of Zeoo of the sect 
of Epicurus , a statue of Euterpe holding the 
tibia, a hermes of Euripides the tragic poet, and 
a statue of Bacchus under the disguise of Diana. 
On the wall a dance of the Cory bantes , a has 
relief of Mercury recieving Bacchus front tlw 
thigh of Jupiter , a hermes of Thales with the 
greek motto found in the Tibartine villa of Cassias. 

$41,4 hotqnda. 

This hall, 80 palms in diameter, is sustained 
by ten fluted pilasters of Luni marble, the por* 
phyry columns support colossal busts , the 
mosaic on the pavement , one of the target 
known , was found at Otricoli , the one of a 
black and white ground at Scrofano. The Otri- 
coli mosaic of various colours is divided into 
compartments by beautiful meandering festoons 
and contains in the centre a head of Medusa t 
on the sides the combat of the Lapithe and 
Centaurs, sea monsters and Tritons. In the middle 
of this ball is a magnificent cop of porphyry 
62 palms in circumference placed on four gilt 
feet made in the antique style. 

Near the entrance are two large hermes 
from the theatre of the villa Adriana , the ono 
to the right Comedy , the other Tragedy. Before 


Eighth day 467 

(he first right pilaster a beautiful head of Ju- 
piter found at Otricoli; in the niche a colossal 
statue of Comrnodus represented as Hercules. 
II pilaster a bust of the elder Faustina the wife 
of Antoninus Pius , in the niche Augustus , or 
his protecting genius. HI pilaster , a colossal 
head of Adrian from his mausoleum. In the nicha 
a statue of Antoninus Pius on a pedestal with 
a has relief of the games of the circus. IV pi- 
laster, a colossal head of Ocean, the beard com- 
posed of dolphins , the breast is covered with 
waves , the face with shells. In the niche a sta- 
tue of Nerva. V pilaster , a colossal bust of 
Jupiter Sera pis from which seven rays emanated; 
a statue of Juno found on the Viminal. VI pi- 
laster, a bust of the Emperor Claudius , from 
Otricoli , wearing a civic crown of oak leaves; 
a Juno Soipita or Lanvvia armed and covered 
with a goat's skin. VII pilaster, the bust of Ju- 
lia Pia , in the niche a statue of Bacchus. VIII 
pilaster a colossal bust of Pertinax. 


This bait was also erected by Pius VI to 
form the chief vestibule to the Museum ; the 
door is 26 palms high, the breadth 1 3, the jambs 
and columns on the sides are of red oriental 
granite. On these are two Egyptian images of 
red granite with vases on the heads in the form 
of caryatides which sustain the architrave. On 
the granite frieze in letters of gilt bronze are 
the words museum pium. On the cornice cor- 
responding to the two Caryatides are two large 
granite vases and in the centre a has relief of 


468 Eighth day 

gladiators fighting with wild beasts ; the pave- 
ment is of antique mosaic, the part near the 
door was found at Fallerone , and the central 
part at Tusculutn. 

In the niche to the right is a statue of 
Augustus , and on an antique table resting on 
two swans an Egyptian statue in black marble 
foimil , with that of Lucius Verus , at Tivoli ; 
near the window is the large porphyry urn of 
a single piece with a has relief of boys gather- 
ing bunches of grapes ; it contained the ashes 
of Gonstantia , or Constantina the wife of GaW 
lus, and was found in the monument of the Con- 
stantino family near S. Agnese; in the niche a 
muse which probably decorated the theatre at 
Otricoli. On the pilaster an Egyptian, statue of 
black marble from Tivoli , beneath a sphinx in 
red granite ; on a cippus a statue of Venus a 
repetition of the celebrated Cnidian Venus of 
Praxiteles. On the wall a has relief of three 
muses , before the door a large sphinx in white 
and black granite ; a bas relief of two boys 
and two lion's heads, a bacchanalian scene with 
three figures ; another colossal sphinx ; Erato 
holding the lyre, three muses, an Egyptian sta- 
tue found at Tivoli, a muse sealed on a cippus. 
Under an inscription relative to (he thermae of 
S. Helena is the other large porphyry urn found 
in the monument of the Conslantiue family on 
the Nomentano way ; the sculptures represent 
horse soldiers and captives; the lid, festoons and 
lions in repose. A statue in the act of haran- 
guing found at Otricoli ; in the angle, au Egy- 
ptian statue in black granite found also at Ti- 
voli; one veiled and wearing the toga, at Otricoli. 


Eighth day 


Is sustained by 22 columns of oriental gra- 
nite; the steps formed of while uiarble, the ba- 
lustrades, the architrave aud cornice of intaglios; 
on the first steps are two recumbent statues of 
rivers , one unknown , the second in grey mar- 
ble represents the Nile; in a niche Ceres holding 
sheafs of corn ; the principal door decorated 
with two cipollino columns communicates by four 
intornal arches with the Museum, garden, street 
and the gallery of archives. 



This hall of a round form is decorated with 
eight marble fluted columns -, iu the centre is an 
antique marble biga, on the right a statue of Per- 
seus, in the niche one with the name of Sar- 
dauapalus though more probably a Bacchus; an 
Alcibiades , the foot reposing on a helmet , a 
veiled statue finely draped in the act of offering 
a sacrifice ; Apollo with the lyre, a Discobulus, 
a greek warrior and a sarcophagus representing 
the games of the circus. The statue near the Dis- 
cobulus is a copy of the one by Miro found on 
the Appian way ; the statue of a charioteer in the 
games of the circus, a greek philosopher resem- 
bling Apolloirius of Teane, the tripod with figu- 
res in high relief alluding to the mystic Her- 
cules was discovered uu the via Appia. 


470 Eighth day 

gallemj m cjndelabki 

This gallery , divided by arches which are 
sustained by marble columns , contains a large 
collection of vases, cups, candelabri and has 
reliefs. In the third part are deposited the objects 
found in the Procttla villa on [he Ardea way, 
which were presented to the museum by the 
Duchess do Chablais. In the niches are four sta- 
tues; two of Bacchus, one of a Bacchante and 
the other unknown; the mosaic on the floor pro- 
bably belonged to a triclinium or to a kitchen 
as fish , fowl , dates and asparagus are repre- 
sented on it ; the Baccbic bermes with a triple 
head is curious by the subject. On the nails are 
eight paintings of a good style of Fauns and 

This Museum has been formed by the pre- 
sent Pope Gregory XVI to contain the numerous 
monuments of art found of late years in the an- 
cient cities of Vutci, Tarquinii, Cere, Toscanella 
and in other spots scattered over that part of 
ancient Etruria which extends from the Tiber 
to the river Fiora. To these monuments have 
been added those of Egypt which were hitherto 
in the Capitol or in other public mnseums. 

In the first vestibule are three reclining fi- 
gures , two male and one female , originally pla- 
ced over tombs, which are remarkable by the 
ornaments with which they are adorned. 

The horses' heads of a good style of scul- 
pture were found over a sepulchral door at Vulci. 


Eighth day 471 

Several cinerary urns made of alabaster of 
Volterra and votive offerings were discovered at 

The adjoining room contains a large sar- 
cophagus on which are represented the funeral 
rites of the Etruscans , and urns found at Ca- 
stel G-andolfo of a style similar to those of Etruria. 

The works in terra colla are united in the 
hall of Mercury, so called from the highly finished 
statue of that god found at Tivoli. 

The following room contains the vases with 
black figures on a yellow ground of (he most 
ancient style. The vase of Bacchus is particularly 
admired tor its execution ; the figures arc not 
mere outlines but painted , (he different colours 
imitating the flesh , the vestments and accesso- 
ries; the subject represents Mercury consigning 
to Silenus the infant Bacchus; three nymphs em- 
blematic of the seasons , which formerly were 
three in number, are celebrating with their songs 
the birth of the son of Jove. 

The chamber of Apollo is so called front 
the vase in high preservation, representing Apollo 
seated on the tripod , singing to the sound of 
the lyre ; this urn is perfect both for its com- 
position and its workmanship. It is placed in the 
midst of several others which are highly inte- 

In the hall of the hronzes is the military 
statue discovered at Todi , a monument unrival- 
led as offering a type of the national art, the 
celebrity of which is encreased by the epigraphs 
engraved on it (o which various interpretations 
have been given. In this room are domestic uten- 
sils differing in form, style and size, chandeliers 


472 Eighth day 

nscd also in the sacred rites , the tripod and 
casket , beautiful bronzes found at Vulci , mi- 
litary weapons at Bomarzo , fragments of figu- 
res larger than life at Chinsi , the colossal arm 
in the port of Civitavecchia s the etruscan car 
so singular for its ornaments and style , the chest 
engraved with athletic combats are worthy of 
observation : the walls and tables are covered 
with mirrors and inscriptions useful in advancing 
the knowledge of the etruscan language. In two 
closets are deposited a great number of small 
utensils , light fragments and vases ; the large 
vessels, utensils and arms on the walls; the mask 
used in scenic representations and crowned with 
ivy, are finely executed. 

The works in gold arc . beautiful and ele- 
gant whether we consider the invention, the form 
or their state of preservation: the ornaments of 
men are the distinctive signs of dignities, the 
premiums of victory , the gifts of athletic conv 
'bals , the civic and trinmphal crowns of ivy and 
myrtle, the gold works cut with the chisel, not 
only manifest the taste of the artists but convey 
an idea of the scientific knowledge of the nation. 
From all these objects an idea may be formed 
of the riches , the flourishing slate , and the 
degree of splendour attained by the Etruscans 
when objects of such value were buried with the 

A passage , the walls of which are lined 
with etruscan inscriptions , leads to a large room 
round which are copies perfectly resembling the 
original paintings existing on the tombs of Vulci 
and Tarquinii , monuments of the highest im- 
portance in the history of national art as they 


Eighth day 473 

represent the public games and banquets which 
took place at the funerals of illustrious indivi- 
duals ; the vases and sculptures of this room are 
marked with etruscan inscriptions. 

Near the passage to the cinerary urns of 
alabaster of Vollerra is an imitation of a small 
etruscan cemetery and tomb brought from Vulci, 
the door of which is guarded by two lions pla- 
ced as in their original position. In tho interior 
are disposed the funeral beds and vases which 
are usually found in these tombs. 


■ Is filled with cups of the most delicate work- 
manship that has come down to us from the 
ancient schools. Of various and beautiful shapes 
the design is generally of the lightest character; 
the artists , pleased no doubt with the elegance 
of their compositions , have frequently inscribed 
their names on the vases with short and witty 
jests expressive of joy, happiness, invitations to 
drink, to pass life merrily, expressions which 
may appear to bo discordant with the figures 
represented , but for which there exists a reason 
which it is not always easy to penetrate as they 
afford a field for extensive research. These ar- 
guments may be particularly applied to the ar- 
cheology of the line series of argonaatic vases 
found in the necropolis of Agilla and in that of 
Cere which are united in this museum. 

This celebrated maritime expedition of the 
heroic ages was hitherto considered as having 
afforded a subject of fiction amongst the greek 
and latin poets, nor did any monuments exist in 


474 Eighth day 

support of their assertions , bat in this collection 
is an ample development of the Thessalian storj 
which gives a new , a belter and a different idea 
of that celebrated event. On one of the vases 
the principal chiefs who partook of the dangers 
and glory of the enterprise are preparing for their 
departure and putting on their armour ; the at- 
tendants obliged to serve and follow their lords 
prepare the shields each of which is distinguished 
by an emblem ; on one a lion , on another a 
bull , on others a throne or a branch full of 
leaves ; not only does this vase prove the an- 
tiquity of heraldry bat the mantles worn by the 
personages show their degrees of Tank, and the 
same ornaments that cover the mantle of the 
chief appear on those of his attendant. 

On other vases are represented the calami' 
ties which befel the royal house of jEson and 
Pelias ; the lamentations of Lemuos , the ven- 
geance of Medea, are expressed in a manner dif- 
fering altogether from the accounts of the greek 
and latin stage , or from the epic poetry of those 
nations. The hand of these ancient artists was 
guided by narrations, now lost, as appears on a 
vase placed in the centre of these described, on 
which (be final catastrophe of the conquest of 
the golden fleece is expressed in a mode hitherto 
unknown ; Jason, when nearly devoured by the 
dragon, is drawn ont of his jaws by Minerva; the 
name written in clear purple letters near the 
figure of the chief leaves no doubt on the subject. 

After the argonaatic vases come those which 
.represent the deeds of Hercules and the myste- 
ries of Dionysius, forming a series of subjects 


Eighth day 4J5 

difficult to explain , the traditions and opinions 
of the learned being frequently at variance. 

A design of the utmost perfection and pa- 
rity of style , with an expression suited to the 
subject, is that of OEdipus in his travelling dress 
deeply meditating on the enigma proposed by the 
sphinx, who appears on the summit of a rock in 
those mixed fantastic forms of a lion and a young 
female under which she is represented in the 
monuments of art. On another vase the artist 
without regarding the design, ridiculed this sub- 
ject by representing a man with an enormous 
head in the same pensive attitude as OEdipus 
and a monkey in lien of the sphinx. 

The vases relative to the ancient systems of 
theogony, to the homeric descriptions, to the 
public games, banquets and other usages of those 
times open a wide field for research, whether 
we consider the beauty and excellence of the 
design which , in the gymnastic scenes often 
reach perfection , or the fight Ihey throw on the 
classic authors and other monaments of antiquity. 

In one of the closets are vases of a smaller 
size but highly interesting from the variety of 
their forms and caprice of invention , particu- 
larly in those used for drinking; some have the 
form of a ram , others of the humble animal 
that carried Silenus , the face of an Ethiopian 
and of Silenus who expresses joy on receiving 
the gifts of his disciple. This closet also contains 
howls and vases of various forms of the most 
finished workmanship. 


476 Eighth day 


■ Several statues and colossal figures contem- 
poraneous with their prototypes are united in this 
museum. The colossus of queen Twea, the small 
statue of Menephtah I sealed on a throne , the 
fragment of the throne of Rhamscs III are of the 
period of the dynasty that reigned between the 
year 1822 and 1274 before the christian era. 
Without entering into a detail of all the monu- 
ments representing the human form, animals, va- 
ses or other objects, we shall arrest our attention 
on the most remarkable; the two lions next to 
the colossus of Twea, though the last of the works 
executed under the Pharaohs which are known 
to us, bear testimony to the latent of the eg y- 
ptian sculptors even at the decline of that empire. 

The torso of king Nectancbo placed in the 
hall of lions is not less worthy of attention for 
the beauty of its form, nor can we avoid no- 
ticing another torso in the same hall represent- 
ing one of the ministers of slate ; it is executed 
in alabaster of Gournah. 

Continuing our review of this museum we 
shall find a new, though indirect, proof of the 
errors hitherto committed in judging of egyptian 
art when it represented the human form. In the 
large hall, contiguous to that of the lions, fitted 
up in the egyptian style, are the monuments of 
imitation or those produced in Rome in the egy- 
ptian manner at the period of the emperors, the 
greater part of which were found in the villa 
Adriana near Tivoti. To an imitation of the works 
executed under the Pharaohs and without at- 
tempting to correct the original taste prevailing 


Eighth day 477 

during so many centuries in Egypt, these artists 
added the softness and finish which distinguished 
the greek school at Rome. An example is obser- 
ved in the Antinous, a statue placed in this hall, 
which from the beauty of its form has been na- 
med, by artists, llie egyplian Apollo. If imitation 
has produced a work of such merit how can we 
doulit of the perfection which sculpture had at- 
tained in Egypt? not that all egyplian statues 
could serve as models , but several dispersed 
throughout Europe are equal in beauly to the 
Antinous. The works of imitation representing 
animals are not less useful in judging of egyptian 
art; in comparing the works of the Egyplian and 
Roman artist, if the former is not superior ha 
certainly is not inferior ; the egyptian , in the 
representation of animals always possessed the 

Greatest degree of skill as is evidently proved 
y the lions of king Nectanebo, by the prodi- 
gious quantity of volatile*, quadrupeds, reptiles 
and scarabiei abounding in (his museum, whoso 
resemblance to nature is so perfect that they 
might serve for the study of naturalists. 


In order to complete the egyptian collec- 
tion in the Vatican of works of art in its pri- 
mitive state, the only monuments wanting were 
those of architecture; the works preserved till 
the present day in Egypt attest the boldness of 
imagination and power of execution shown by 
that nation in tbb art, and excite a sentiment of 
regret in those who have not had an opportu- 


478 Eighth day 

nily of observing the monuments spread along 
the banks of the Nile. 

The Vaticao museum possesses a small but 
valuable remnant of this nature: a capital from 
Thebes of the second order of architecture, for- 
med of sand stone in the shape of an expanded 
lotus; that it is genuine is attested by the vest- 
iges of yellow colour which originally covered 
it, as it was customary amongst the Egyptians 
to paint (hose species of stone which did not 
admit of polish. This small remnant placed in 
the gallery of mummies may be found useful 
in comparing the greek style with the original 

We shall nut dwell on the various product- 
ions of the mechanical arts abounding in this 
collection, on the fabrication of papyri, the weav- 
ing of cotton in ihe bandages of mummies, nor 
uo the admirable art of preserving for thousands 
of years the remains of the mortal frame, nor on 
the sandals varying in shape , or the works in 
bronze and sycamore wood on which are re- 
presented figures of the gods or of embalmed bo- 
dies, or cases containing animals reduced to mum- 
mies, and those in which writings have been de- 
posited. One in the gallery of mummies is par- 
ticularly interesting as it represents on its four 
■ides hieroglyphic inscriptions relative to the fom 
genii, the companions and assistants of Osiris in 
the regions below, who appear in their respect- 
ive characters. In this collection are numerous 
small vessels of various substances , containing 
the ointment used in painting the eyelids, others 
were destined to preserve balsam or perfumes. 


Eighth day 479 

Such is [he valuable collection of monu- 
ments bearing testimony to the knowledge of tbe 
Egyptians, of that knowledge which Moses, hav- 
ing imbibed, became powerful in acts and words 
(acts of the apostles chapter VII). Such are the 
resources laid open to the learned in this mu- 
seum by order of ihe reigning pontiff Gregory XVI, 
and due to his incessant zeal to promote the 
interests of religion. Here the theologian will find 
the vestiges of the primitive traditions which pro- 
ceded the revelation written by Moses and the 
prophets ; here sacred philology derives informa- 
tion for the explanation of oriental biblical texts; 
bow many points of contact exist between tbe 
customs of the two nations, the people of God 
and that of Egypt, whose history is so closely con- 
nected; what a new light is shed on a multitude 
of hebrew idioms and forms of language arising 
from the similarity of a great number of scrip- 
tural phrases with the forms of the ancient egy- 
ptian langnage preserved in the hieroglyphic in- 

To the student of sacred writ it will be 
gratifying to see the portrait of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus under whose auspices, and doubtless pro- 
videntially, was undertaken the version of ihe 
scriptures from hebrew into greek , called the 
septuaginl. The civilised nations of that lime were 
thus enabled to read the sacred code and pre- 
pared to receive the first glimmerings of the doc- 
trines of tbe unity of God and of the redemp- 
tion which was approaching; the statues of Pto- 
lemy and Arsinoe are placed near that part of 
tbe library which contains Ihe celebrated ma- 
nuscript of this inestimable i 


480 Eighth dwy 

Id the egyptian moanments collected in this 
museum a distinct history is traced of sculpture 
and architecture ; we shall now examine writing 
aiid painting. 

The primitive slate of the egyptian charact- 
ers ii proved by the vestiges that remain of 
the earliest kinds of writing; the first was thai 
of the simple representation of the idea, the 
second was at once symbolic and phonetic, the 
third the plain alphabetic expression , at least 
in greek and roman names ; the union of these 
systems constitutes the beanty of the writing cal- 
led hieroglyphic. 

The written papyri, some in the hierogly- 
phic , others in the hieratic and demotic cha- 
racters , amount to about thirty two ; these line 
the walls of the fourth room after the gallery 
of mummies. 

In the fifth are disposed inscriptions rela- 
ting to history and in the left angle that of 
queen Amense illustraded by Bosellini near which 
is the precious scarabtcus called that of Memnon, 
or Amenoph III, engraved in honour of that 
king to celebrate his marriage with queen Taia 
and the happy slate of Egypt at thai period. 
On the fragment of a pilaster of brown stone 
is an interesting inscription indicating that Egypt 
was governed by a female in (he absence of a 
male heir to the throne. 

A valuable historic monument in the hall 
of statues is that of a priest whose tunic is co- 
veted with a long inscription purporting that 


Eighth day 481 

fire kings had reigned successively during hit 
ministry; three egyptian, Apries, Amasis, Psam- 
macheriles and two persian, Cambyses and Da- 
rius. We shall not dwell on the numerous de- 
dicatory and funeral inscriptions of other mo- 
numents in granite , alabaster , basalt existing 
in this collection, as several have not vet been 

The pure hieroglyphic characters are pre- 
served in the inscriptions on the two lions of 
king Nectanebo and in the sarcophagus of a 
priest of the goddess Pascht , named Psamme— 
ticus , in the hall of urns. In thai of the lions 
are other hieroglyphics in profile on the throne 
of Ramses HI , those on the cover of the sar- 
cophagus of Imoiph in the gallery of mummies 
and around the sarcophagus of Manes in the 
hall of urns are of Ihe most elegant execution. 

Of the third class of plain outlines are the 
hieroglyphics on the scarabcei , amuletB and fu- 
neral vases. Of the fourth called linear are the 
inscriptions on the mummy cases. The fifth com- 
prises those painted as ou the monuments of 
Ramses X and of the daughter of Takelloihis. 
The great advantage derived from the knowledge 
of these characters is their application to chro- 
nology and history, and whenever on the mo- 
numents of Egypt any royal name is written , 
it is easy to assign the period to which it be- 
longs, as one of those names generally corres- 
ponds to a certain date. The Vatican collection 
embraces chronological dates indicated by royal 
names twenty eight in number according to the 
following series: 


482 Eighth day 

1. Henoubka one of the most ancient kings 
of the XVI dynasty who lived about the lime 
of Abraham. This monument was found in the 
tombs of Gonrnah , the name is written on the 
necklace or collar, 

2. Amenoph I written on the mummy case 
(hall of urns) and unless this be the title of a 
divinity its date would be the year 1 832 before 

3. 4. Amense and Amenenhe the former 
reigning queen of the XVIII dynasty, the latter 
her husband, 1750 years before Christ. 

5- Thnlmes IV the fifth king of ibe pre- 
ceding dynasty succeeded to bis mother Amense 
and reigned from the year 1749 to 1727 B. C 

6. 7. To the same dynasty belongs Amenoph 
III the eighth king ; the scaraWus above men- 
tioned bearing his name and that of his wife 
Taia belongs to the year 1690 B. C. The six 
colossi of the goddess Pasct , two of which are 
in the hall of lions, the others in the hemicycle, 
were executed under this king. 

8. Menephtah I. The museum possesses in 
the egyplian ball an elegant statue of this king 
who reigned from 1604 to 1579 before the pre- 
sent era , and was father of the great Sesostris. 

9. 1 0. Twea and Concheres ; the first the 
wife of the above named king and the mother 
of Sesostris, is represented in a colossus of black 
breccia placed in the hall of lions ; the other 
represented on the pilaster of the colossus was 
probably the wife of Sesostris. 

11. Ramses III, the Sesostris of the greek 
writers who reigned from 1565 to 1494 B. C. 
His name is frequently repeated on the fragment 


Eighth day 433 

of his sealed statne to the left in (be hall of 
lions and on the colossus of queen Twea. 

12. Siplitah also belonged to the XVIII 
dynasty but Ibe period of his reign is uncertain. 

13. Ramses V second king of the XIX dy- 
nasty , in the XV century B. C. is mentioned 
in a hieratic papyrus XII, letter C 

. 1 4. Ramses X founder of the XX dynasty 
belongs to the XIII century before the present 
era , his name appears on a small painted sand 
sloue placed in the fifth chamber. 

15. Osorchon the son of Takellothis who 
reigned eight centuries before the christian era. 
This prince is represented on painted wood in 
the fifth room in the set of offering a sacrifice 
to the god Phre. 

16. Pnammeticus I, fourth king of the XXVI 
dynasty, who reigned between 354 and 609 B. 
C. The museum possesses several monuments of 
this king found at Sab his native place. His 
name is inscribed on two statues in the hall of 
egyptian figures , on a sarcophagus and on a 
demotic papyrus XII, letter A. 

1 7 Apries of the same dynasty 588 years 
before the present era whose second name is 

18. Amasis bis successor. 

19. l's am mac he rites who succeeded Amasis. 

20. Cambyses the persiao king , oppressor 
of Egypt 525 years B. C. His name appears on 
the same stalue. 

21. Darius the successor of Cambyses. 

22. Nectanebo of the XXIX dynasty three 
centuries and a half B, C. and the last of the 
Pharaohs. To this period belong the two lions, 


484 Eighth day 

master pieces of art, and the beautiful torso 
which represents this king. 

23. Ptolemy Philadelphus who reigned 284 
years B. C His colossal statue is in the centre 
of the hall of lions. 

24. Arsinoe , the wife of the above named 
king , whose statue is on the right of that of 
Ptolemy ; both statues bearing inscriptions on 
their pilasters. 

25. Ptolemy Philopator whose name is on 
the papyrus iu the demotic characters , dating 
from the third year of his reign or the 21 9 B. 
G. No. XI, letter E. 

26. Arsinoe his sister and wife. 

27. 28. Ptolemy Evergetes and Berenice 
his wife , the parents of the preceding. 

The numerous monuments, not included iu 
the above list, might furnish documents of the 
reigns of the roman emperors. The space of sis- 
teen hundred centuries comprised within the 
dates which have been already indicated and 
inscribed on the monuments, the authenticity of 
which reposes on the authority of historians and 
chronicles, particularly on that of Eusebius, and 
rectified on the armenian text which is far moreex- 
act than the greek of Scaliger, is sufficient to show 
the rich mine of historical knowledge opened 
by the egyptian writing. Its material construc- 
tion offers a large field for discussion on the 
first essays of writing as an art , while it fur- 
nishes also a means of advancing the progress 
of oriental philology. 


Eighth day 485 


Although in remote times painting was not 
distinct from writing, as several arguments attest 
respecting Egypt , we shall consider tbem as 
independent of each other in the monuments of 
that country. Painting as it was thirty or forty 
centuries ago, here exists in its original slate and 
excites surprise. When judging of this art in 
Egypt allowance must be made for the harsh- 
ness of the lines and the want of perspective. 
The facility of the inventions and tbe spirited 
composition are the striking points of these mo- 
numents. An example of these is seen in the 
painting on the case placed in the hall of urns, 
in which was preserved tbe mummy of Giot- 
mut, the mother ofChousHierogrammatcus priests 
of Amman at Thebes; one side represents the fu- 
neral procession moving towards the Theban 
necropolis ; on the other the deceased supplica- 
tes six of the gods in order to obtain a free 
passage to [he celestial regions ; these he has 
finally attained as represented in the interior 
part of the case , in company of his mother 
whose inscription is on one of the paintings of 
the interior. The colouring and the various sce- 
nes possess a high degree of interest. It was an 
eslabli.hod doctrine amongst the Egyptians that 
tbe souls of the just enjoyed an unalterable re- 
pose when they believed that assistance might 
be derived from the remembrance of the living; 
for this reason the mother is seated near her 
son expressing joy at tbe offerings and prayers 
of tbe surviving relatives k a remnant of the 
primitive traditions of the human race relative 
38 * 


486 Eightk day 

to a future Btate and to Ibe assistance the fir- 
ing may render lo the dead. Each of these re- 
presentations is accompanied with analogous 
hieroglyphic inscriptions. 

Ol the paintings on wood that of the son 
of Takcllothis is remarkable for the vivacity of 
its colouring ; the figures and various scenes 
which cover the papyri represent the rites and 
circumstances that precede and follow the judg- 
ment that Osiris is supposed to pass on souls ; 
nor is the melancholy sight wanting of the pu- 
nishments suffered from fire and the furies , so 
accurately was the tradition preserved relative 
to the destiny of souls when separated from 
the body. The representation on paintings VII, 
loiter A , VIII and XIV relate lo these subjects. 


The political events of 1815 having resto- 
red to Rome the master pieces of ancient and 
modern art , Pius VII decided on forming a gal- 
lery of classic pictures , which was completed 
by the present Pope under the direction of Ca- 
muccini. The collection at present consists of 
the following works : a Doge of Venice by Ti- 
tian ; S. Gregory the great, Andrea Sacclii; the 
deposition from the cross Caravaggio, taken from 
the chiesa nuova ; the Vision of S. Romuald by 
Andrea Sacchi formerly in the church of that 
name ; the Communion of S. Jerome by Dotne- 
nichino once the altar piece of S. Girolamo dells 
cartta ; the martyrdom of Erasmus by Nicholas 
Poussin formerly in S- Peter's ; the Madonna , 
S, Thomas and S, Jerome by G-uido Rent; lh« 


Eighth day 487 

burial of our Saviour by Manlegna ; the Mag- 
dalen by Guercino once in the church of that 
name in the Corsoi S. Thomas also by Guercino; 
the martyrdom of S, Peter , once in the Vati- 
can basilic , by Gnido Reni ; the coronatioo of 
the Madonna , Pinluriccbio ; the resurrexion of 
Christ by Perugino , who has introduced his 
own portrait and lhat of Raphael; the transfi- 
guration by Raphael formerly at S. Pielro in 
Moulorio; the nativity of Christ, by Perngino; 
the coronation of the Virgin by Raphael; the 
Saviour in glory said to be by Correggio, for- 
merly in the Marescalchi palace at Bologna ; 
the Madonna, SS. Sebastian, Francis, Anthony, 
Peter , Ambrogio and S. Caterina by Titian , 
purchased at Venice by Clement XIV; the B. 
Michelina painted by Baroccio for the church 
of S. Francis at Pesaro ; S. Helena by Paul Ve- 
ronese ; the three mysteries by Raphael ; S. Be- 
nedict , S. Costanza and S. Placido by Perngino, 
the Madonna di Foligno , and a picture in chia- 
roscuro of the three theologal virtnes , by Ra- 
phael ; a landscape by Paul Potter , the Madon- 
na and various saints, Perngino; the miracles 
of Niccola di Bari, by the B. Angelico da Fie- 
sole , and (be annunciation by Barocci ; oppo- 
site the Madonna di Foligno is a fresco painting 
of Sixlus IV giving an aodience to several per- 
sons, by Mezio Forti , detached from the wall 
of the old Vatican library , the gallery commu- 
nicates with the corridor of geographical maps 
of various parts of Italy and leads to the cham- 
bers of the « arazsi » so called from having con- 
tained the arazzi made at Arras on the cartoons 
of Raphael; on the cieling is a painting by Gutdo 


488 Eighth day 

Beni which represents (he coming of the holy 



These chambers were already painted and 
the works were being continued hy Pictro del 
Sorgo , Bramante of Milan , Pictro della Fran- 
ceses , Luca Signorelli , and by Pietro Perugino 
when at the recommendation of Bramante of 
Urbino, Julius II called Raphael from Florence 
to paint the subject of theology or the dispute 
of the holy sacrament. The Pope was so delighted 
with this composition that he ordered the other 
works to be suspended, and those that: were 
already finished to be destroyed; had entrusted 
the whole to Raphael who would not permit 
any alteration in a cieling painted by Pietro 
Perugino , the holy sacrament , the first pain- 
ling of Raphael of these four chambers is in 
the second , bat for greater regularity we shall 
begin with the first room representing the 

Or- the fire that occurred in the borgo S. 
Pictro andcr S. Leo IV in which Raphael seems 
to have imitated the burning of Troy, various 
episodes being introduced such as a group of 
figures resembling Mneas carrying on his shoul- 
ders Anchises and followed by Creusa , Ibis group 
was painted by Giulio Romano. 

The painting opposite represents the justifi- 
cation ofS. Leo III in presence of Charlemagne, 
the Cardinals and Archbishops; on the third fa- 


Eighth day 4SS 

Cade the victory of S. Leo IV over the Saracens 
at Ostia by Giovanni da Udine ; the last the 
coronation of Charlemagne by S. Leo III by Pte- 
rin del Vaga. 

The cieling is by Pietro Perngino, the base 
of the room divided into i 4 parts was painted 
in chiaroscuro by Polidoro Caravaggio ; the six 
figures are portraits of princes who had deser- 
ved well of the Holy See. 


The painting on the wall to the right of this 
room represents the dispute of the holy Sacra- 
ment which is placed in an ostensorium over the 
altar. Above are the holy Trinity, the Virgin and 
S. John Baptist; on each side the four doctors 
of the church, various holy fathers and saints of 
trie old and new testament, discussing this pro- 
found mystery; the poet Dante is introduced 
amongst the theologians. 

The finest painting in this room , and one 
of the grandest works of Raphael, is the school 
of Athens, or of ancient philosophers; the scene 
is in a portico decorated with fine architecture; 
on the steps Plato and Aristotle announce by 
tbeir grave and majestic aspect the masters of 
greek philosophy , their disciples form a circle 
around them. On the other side of the steps 
Socrates is reasoning with Alcibiades , beneath 
Pythagoras is placed amidst his scholars, one of 
whom holds a board on which the musical no- 
tes are inscribed. On the second step is Dio- 
genes a book in one hand and a bason near him. 
Amongst the sages represented in this work Bap- 


490 Eighth dag 

hael has introduced the portraits of several per- 
sons who flourished in his lime. The one bent 
towards the ground , representing Archimedes 
describing a hexagon with the compass , is the 
architect Bramante Lazzeri; the young man knee- 
ling in the act of observation is Frederick II, 
Duke of Mantua; the two on the left of Zoroas- 
ter who holds a globe , are the portraits of Pte- 
tro Perugioo and of Raphael himself. In this su- 
perb work, containing fifty two figures, the in- 
comparable artist has left a real painting which 
has always been a subject of study and admiration. 

The third picture represents Mount Par- 
nassus , with the group of the nine muses and 
Apollo placed in the centre ; the other groups 
scattered over the mountain are those of ancient 
and modern poets. Homer, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, 
Ennias, Tibullus, Catullus, Propertius, Sappho, 
Sannazcar, Bocaccio and Tibaldeo. 

Over the opposite window the artist has re- 
presented Jurisprudence under the form of the 
three virtues that accompany Justice; these are 

frudence , force and temperance. On one side 
ostinian delivers the Digests to Trebonianus; on 
the other Gregory IV presents the decretals to 
a concistorial advocate; these four paintings are 
by the hand of Raphael. 

The cieling of this room is divided into nine 
squares with chiaro scuro ornaments on a gold 
ground. In the middle several angels support the 
arms of the church, the four rounds represent 

J ihilosophy, justice, theology and poetry; the other 
our, fortune, the judgment of Solomon, Adam 
and Eve tempted by the Devil, and Marsyas fla- 
yed by Apollo; the four small pictures are by 


Eighth day 491 

Poossia , Ibe angels sear the figure of Justice 
by Masaccio. The base of this room is adorned 
with chiaroscuro paintings divided into several 
parts and executed on the designs of Raphael by 
Polidoro Garavaggio, the other chiaroscuri are by 
Giovanni da Udine. 



The first picture in this room represents He- 
liodorus, the Prefect of Seleocus king of Syria, 
who was sent to take possession of the treasure 
existing in the temple of Jerusalem. In his at- 
tempt to commit this sacrilege , Heliodorus is 
attacked by a man on horseback and by two 
angels who drive him out of the temple. Not- 
withstanding the anachronism the Pope is intro- 
duced as being present at the scene. The work 
was designed, and the first group executed, by 
Raphael ; the one composed of several females 
was painted by Pietro da Cremona, a scholar of 
Correggio , the remainder by Giulio Romano. 

The painting opposite represents S. Leo I 
meeting Attila, king of the Huns, who was on 
his march to Rome and the apostles SS. Peter 
and Paul with drawn swords defending the pon- 
tiff; Attila, at the sight of these two Apostles, 
ordered an immediate retreat. 

The third picture represents the miracle 
which happened to a priest at Bolsena who, doubt- 
ing of the real presence of Christ in the con- 
secration of the host , saw blood shed on the 
corporal. Raphael has introduced Julius II also 
in this work, together with several other figures. 


492 Eighth day 

Opposite is the imprisonment of S. Peter, 
liberated by the angel who loosens his chains; 
the effect of light is admirable bj the combi- 
nation of that which emanates from the angel 
within , and out of the prison , from the moon 
in the midst of clouds and from a torch held 
by a soldier which produces a striking effect 
upon his armour. This work was executed by 
Raphael before Ghcrardo delle Notli ever came 
to Borne. 

The cbiaroscuri around the basement of 
these paintings are by Pterin del Vaga ; the 
yellow bas reliefs by Polidoro Caravaggio. 

Ou tbe cieling are four subjects of sacred 
history by Raphael: God in the bush speaking 
to Moses ; God promising Abraham a posterity 
a* numerous as the stars ; the sacrifice of Abra- 
ham and the angel holding his arm that he 
should not kill Isaac; the dream of Jacob ; the 
whiaroscuri are by Poussin. 


\ After having completed the outlines of the 
paintings in this room, Raphael began tho vict- 
ory of Constantino over Maieutius at Ponte 
Molle , and had finished in oil the figures of 
justice and of meekness when he died. By or- 
der of Clement VII the work was continued by 
Giulio Romano in fresco , without touching the 
two oil paintings of Raphael; the eight ponlifls 
dividing the large pictures are also by Giulio 

On the wall opposite tbe entrance door is 
represented the apparition of (he cross to Con 


Eighth day 493 

stautioe when haranguing his army prior to the 
engagement with Mai o alius , a work executed 
also by Giulio Romano. 

In the third picture the baptism of Cons- 
tantino by S. Sylvester; this painting by Penni 
called « il faltore », is inferior to the others. 

On the fourth wall is the donation. of the 
city of Rome made by Constantino to Pope S. 
Sylvester, painted by Raflaelle del Colle. 

Amidst various ornaments and gigantic fi- 
gures on the cieling is the representation of a 
temple , dedicated first to Mercury and afterw- 
ards to the most holy Crucifix placed in the 
centre as a symbol of the exaltation of the faith, 
a work executed by order of Gregory XIII; the 
paintings around the cieling are by the two 
Zuccari, the ehiaroscuri at the base of the pict- 
ures by Polidoro Carayaggio, retouched by 
Carlo Maratte. The paintings in the chapel of 
.. Nicholas V , dedicated to S. Stephen , are by 
- Angelo da Fiesole a scholar -of Masaccio. 



In treating of the first story it was sta- 
ted that the west side of tbe logge was built 
by Raphael who made the designs of the in- 
ternal ornaments of painting , sculpture and 

- stucco works. The execution of these designs 
was entrusted to Giovanni da Udine, Pierin del 
Vaga and other artists under the direction of 
Raphael , by whose name these logge are known, 

: and whose bust by d' Este is placed at the en- 
trance. It is to be lamented that these logge 
should not have been preserved with the atten- 


494 Eighth day 

lion which the merit of the works required, as 
they bare greatly suffered from the intempera- 
ture of the seasons. The western wing consists 
of thirteen arches sustained on eaeh aide by 
pilasters and coonterpilasters, the former ador- 
ned with stucco has reliefs of an exquisite taste 
from medals of the best times of Rome , and 
representing divinities with other allegorical 
subjects; the counter pilasters and walls were co- 
vered with arabesques , the subjects being taken 
from the antique , and chiefly from the balks 
of Titus. Over each of the compartments of the 
cieling are four small pictures relative to bib- 
lical subjects. The one near the entrance re- 
presents the separation by the Almighty of dark- 
ness and light and the dissolving of Chaos; tbe 
figure of the Creator appearing amidst clonds 
and lightning, occupied in tbe great work of the 
creation, conveys an idea of his unlimited power 
and majesty. The other wings were built under 
Gregory XIII, Sixtus V etc and were painted 
by Marco da Faenza , Mascherino, Baffaelle da 
Keggio , Nogari , Naldioi , Tempesta, and Lan- 

Instead of arches this story has , on the 
outside, travertine columns which sustain a woo- 
den architrave ; it was built in part under Leo 
X and completed by Pius IV, Gregory XJJI and 
Clement X; the grotesques and other orftameuls 
of the roof and walls, are by Giovanni da Udtne; 
the geographical charts by padre Danti who su- 
perintended the arabesques and paintings by 


Eighth day 495 

Pomarancio, by Paris Nogari, Gio. della Marca, 
at Ihe time of Gregory XIII ; (he landscapes 
•re by Paul Brill , the costumes by Tempests. 

This institution , to which we are indebted 
for the mosaic pictures in S. Peter's, and for 
the progress of this branch of art in Rome, has 
been placed of late years in this spot once the 
palace of the inquisition, which was built by S. 
Pius V. This studio is deserving of notice not 
only for the works it produces , but for the 
collection of tmalti of various tints amounting 
to about 10,000.. 

__\— T.BB rjTHJJt^QJRDX!/ . 

The vestibule blading to this garden, built 
by Simonetti under Pius VI , corresponds with 
the hall of the higa; the part of Ihe garden 
called of the Pigna was begun by Nicholas V and 
enlarged by Julius. II under the direction of 
Bramante , who designed the three facades that 
surround an extensive piece of ground planted 
with flowers. In the niche of the principal fa- 
cade is a bronze pine flower which is said to 
have stood on the top of the mausoleum of 
Adrian , or on the cupola of the Pantheon. The 
casino in the adjoining garden built under Pius 
IV by Ligorio contains columns , statues , and 
sundry paintings by Baroecio, Zuccari and Titi. 
In the garden of the Pigna is the pedestal of 
the column of Antoninus Pius , erected in his 
forum by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Venur; 


496 Eigktk day 

it it ornamented with bas reliefs and is 18 1/1 
palms high. On one aide is a modern bronze 
inscription corresponding to the antique, on die 
opposite side tbe apotheosis of Antoninus Pius 
and of bis wife Faustina who are carried up 
to heaven on tbe shoulders of a winged genius 
holding & globe on which is the figure of a 
serpent. The allegorical figure at the feet of 
the genius holds an obelisk , the emblem of 
immortality ; the sitting figure opposite repre- 
sents Borne with her left hand leaning on a 
shield on which is expressed tbe wolf nourish- 
ing Romulus and Kern us. On the two other 
•idea are some fine sculptures in semi-relief, 
representing armed colours On horseback , with 
the military ensigns which it was customary to 
bear over tbe funeral pile of the Caesars* 

The exterior part of the basilic near the 
garden , showing the imposing architecture exe- 
cuted by Viguola on tbe design of Buonaroti, 
is adorned with aa attic and with Corinthian 
pilasters .of travertine. The piaxia S. Harta,so 
called from tbe church built by Paul in, and 
restored by Clement XI , contains a S- James 
with S. Anthony and a S. Orsola, both paint- 
ings of Lanfranc ; the holy crucifix in the last 
chapel is by Algardi. Near the church is the 
seminary of & Peter's, founded by Urban THE, 
for the young men destined to the service of 
tbe basilic. 

I. MJIUJ IK c j tiro SJXTO 

This church , erected by S. Leo IV , is 
called in Campo Santo from the cemetery near 


Eighth day 497 

it in which a quantity of earth brought from 
Jerusalem was deposited; the deposition from the 
cross over the high altar is said to be a work 
of Caravaggio , the side paintings are by Hasse 
of Antwerp , whose tomb by Fiammingo is si- 
tuated on the right pilaster near the altar. The 
picture in the following chapel is by Scarselliao 
of Ferrara , the frescoes by Polidor Caravaggio- 
In the chapel to the left is a painting by Ge- 
mignani representing the martyrdom of S. Eras- 
mas; the epiphany by Scarsellino , S. Charles, 
the flight into Egypt by the Fiammingo , S. 
John Nepomucene by Iguazio Stem. In the little 
chapels round the cemetery the subjects relate 
to (he passion of our Saviour. 

The street to the right leads to the house 
of the Inquisition, and to the "porta Turrioni» 
aow «Cavallegieri» which does not appear to 
be anterior to the XV cenfury ; its primitive 
appellation is attributed to Ibe neighbouring 
round tower and the present one to the quarter 
for the light horse troops established here under 
Pius IV, It was by the wall near tbc present 
Vatican sacristy that the Imperialists entered 
Rome in 1527 , and that the Constable de Bour- 
bon , their commander , was killed, as/related 
by Benvenuto Cellini , an ocular witness , in 
bis memoirs. On the other side of the piazza 
di S. Pietro is the porta Angelica built by Pius 
IV , and so called from his christian name , 
designated by the angels sculptured in bas re- 
lief. Beyond this gate is 


498 Eighth day 


This church , so called from (he terra 
cotla works near it, was rebuilt in 1683 on the 
designs of Multo. On the altar to the right is 
a statue of S- John Nepomueene by Maini; the 
paintings are by Scaramuccia ; those in (he se- 
cond chapel by Avellino. In the others are a 
S. John by Fusi , the Madonna by Alet, a holy 
family by Chiari , the nativity of our saviour 
by Ricciolini , the flight into Egypt by Pietro 
Bianchi , the lunettes by Benelial and those of 
the Utile cupola by Petri. 


This church , situated near the Angelica 
gate and belonging to the hermits of penitence, 
was erected in 1588 by Rossi , a hermit of Ca- 
labria , and was restored in 1618 by Cardinal 
Lante. It derives its appellation from an image 
of the Madonna which was brought from the 
holy land by the founder of the Institution in 
1586 ; the picture representing S. Francis is by 
Puccini , the assumption of the Virgin by an 
unknown author. 


The ancient name of this hill is unknown 
but the road leading to it was called the Cli- 
vut Cinna. In the lower ages it was called 
Monte Male , and Monte Gaudio ; the modern 
appellation was derived from Mario Millini who 
built on the summit a villa now the property 


Eighth day 499 

of the Falconicri family. On the side of this 
h ill is the villa Madam a, belonging to the kins 
of Naples , in which is a casino commenced 
on Ibc designs of Raphael and finished by Giu- 
lio Romano who , with the assistance of Gio- 
vanni da Udine, painted the whole portico, the 
frieze and cieling of the principal room. 

All this hill is of a marine formation , the 
Crustacea, in infinite numher,and disposed in strata 
are perfectly preserved. 


This church , situafed on the monte Mario 
was restored by Clement XI in 1215 , and has 
been improved by the present Pope, the facade 
is composed of four ionic pilasters ; in the cha- 
pels are an ancient image of the Virgin and child 
painted on boards, and two pictures represent- 
ing miracles operated by S. Dominick ; under 
the high altar reposes the body of the martyr 
S- Colomba; the painting in the first chapel to 
the left represents the Madonna offering a ro- 
sary to S. Dominick and S. Catherine of Siena by 
Cerutti ; those in the other chapel , expressing 
the assumption, the flight into Egypt, the mar- 
riage of the Madonna and the death of S. Jo- 
seph are by unknown authors. 





iVs the environs of Home excite interest from 
the beauty of their situation , the associations 
of history , and the remains of their antique; mo- 
numents, a short description is given of the prin- 
cipal places Vii: Tivoli, Paleslrtna, Frascati, Al- 
bano and Vcii. 


About a mile from the porta S. Lorenzo 
is the basilic of that name which has already been 

At the fourth mile is the Aoio , uow called 
Teverone , which separates Latium from the Sa- 
bine territory and unites with the Tiber near 
the Salarian bridge, three miles from the city. 

At the tenth mile are remains of the Ti~ 
burtine way formed , like the other romaa 
roads , of large polygonal blocks of basaltic lava. 

About the 12lh mile is the tarlaroas lake, 
an appellation derived from the quality of its 
tartarous and calcareous waters which petrify 



The waters that pan under this little bridge 
are of a bluish colour and exhale a strong soV 
pboreons smell. These waters called albufre by 
Sirabo, Pausanias and Martial, issue from a lake 
about a mile from the road , which was formerly 
a mile in circuit , bat at .the present day its 
average diameter does not exceed 450 feet. The 
bituminous substances formed by these waters 
are condensed on their surface , and give rise to 
different shaped bodies called floating islands* 
In the neighbourhood- of the lake were the ther- 
nueof Agrippa of which some remains still exist. 


Ibis sepulchral monument was raised by 
the Plautii, one of the great roman families 
under the republic and the empire. It is built 
of travertine stone in a round form and has 
half columns on the exterior with inscriptions, 
two of which remain , one of M. Planting Sil— 
vanus consul and VII vir of the epulones , dis- 
tinguished by his exploits in Illyria ; the other 
of T. Plantius Silvanas who accompanied Clau- 
dius in his expedition to Britain. The construct- 
ions at the lop prove that in the middle ages 
it was converted into a tower of defence. 

rilLA JBtUASd. 

. The emperor Adrian , having visited the 
different parts of the empire , decided on imi- 
tating in this villa all those buildings that had 



pleased him most ia his travels* The 1 yceiuu , 
academy , pry taneum and psecile of Athens, tbe 
valley of Tempe , the canope of Alexandria , 
tartarus, the elysian fields. 

In the middle ages the villa was greatly 
injured. Under Martin V some of its marbles 
and statues were broken and used as mortar. 
Excavations among the rains have , however , 
at all limes produced classic monuments now 
the principal ornament of the museums and 
galleries of fiome. Tbe villa was about seven 
miles in circumference. Its chief remains are 


Which is the best preserved of the three 
that existed here; we may slill trace a part of the 
scena, tbe corridors and the place of tbe steps. 

Annexed to tbe theatre on the west are re- 
mains of a large square court which was sur- 
rounded with porticoes. 

Neai the modern house , built of ancient 
substructions, is a passage en the roof of which 
are stuccoes and paintings of exquisite taste. 

Paasanias informs us that the psecile of Ath- 
ens was a portico decorated with paintings re- 
lative to Athenian exploits. The portico of the 
villa was an oblong parallelogram in the centre 
of which was a Urge court. A wall still entire, 
which was between a double row of pilasters, was 
probably painted like the buildings at Athens. 



To the south of this wall is what is called 
the temple of the stoics, said to have been li- 
ned with porphyry, and further on is a round 
edifice with a mosaic pavement representing sea 
monsters ; this place was used for swimming exer- 
cises. To the left are the rains of the library. 

The imperial palace situated on an deration 
is composed of two stories. On the ground floor 
are several remains of paintings , on (he upper 
story is a large quadrangular portico communi- 
catiug with the palace. 

A number of rooms called the « cento came- 
relle » served formerly as barracks for the Pre- 
torian guards. On the exterior were galleries rest- 
ing on pilasters or columns; the communication 
with each room was by means of the gallery as 
in the convents of the present day. 

This building, so called from the city of Ca - 
nope in Egypt, contained a temple of Sera pis ; 
several rooms and a painted gallery are still 

On the right are remains of the Academy 
and of a theatre. The four subterranean cor- 
ridors, forming a rectangle, were a part of the 
infernal regions. In the vicinity were the Elvsian 
fields, the valley of Tempe and the Peneus. 

This town , the foundation of which is at- 
tributed to Tibur , Coras: and Catillus of Argos 
was built 462 years before Borne after the ex- 



pulsion of the Siculi from the territories which 
the; then occupied. It was called Tibur from the 
name of the Argean chief, was allied with, though 
sometimes opposed to, the Romans, in the early 
limes of the republic ; subsequent!; under the 
Romans it was a municipal town. 


Y This ancient edifice of a fine style of ar- 
chitecture is of a circular form 12i/» feet in 
diameter; its columns are 1 8 feet in height with- 
out the capital which is ornamented with leaves 
of the acanthus. It had originally 18 columns of 
the corinthian order in travertine 1 of which 
remain. Its situation on the top of a rock, on 
the border of an extensive valley, is bigly pict* 
uresque. Adjoining it is the temple of the Tibur- 
tine Sibyl, built of travertine, with four jonic co- 
lumns in front. It is now the church of S- Giorgio. 

Opposite these temples is the new emissary 
perforated in the Monte Catillo 294 metres long 
and 25 broad at its month; the waters pass through 
this channel and on the brink of the valley form 
a beautiful cascade. 

In the picturesque grotto of the Sirens the 
waters disappear for a time in a subterranean 

The grotto of Neptune, since the deviation 
of the course of the Auio , no longer receives 
any supply of water. 



The streams of the Anio are used in the 
iron, copper and other works which are carried 
on at Tivoli, and precipitate themselves from a 
height of 100 feet into the valley below, win- 
ding over rocks bounded with trees and meadows 
that produce a most picturesque effect. 

Opposite, and bordering the path leading to 
the valley, are the villa of Catullus, the church 
of S. Antonio built on the ruins of a villa said 
to have belonged to Horace, and half a mile fur- 
ther on the chapel of Quintiliolo, dedicated to 
the B. Virgin. It stands on the remains of the 
villa of Quintilins Varus , in which were for- 
merly found statues , columns, and a variety of 

Crossing the Aquoria, a rivulet at the bot- 
tom of the valley , over an ancient bridge in 
good preservation, and the Anio over a wooden 
bridge , the return to Tivoli is by the ancient 
via Tiburtina. 


Among the ruins it is easy to distinguish a 
large square court which was surrounded with 
half columns of the Doric order and arcades com- 
municating with a portico and a double row of 
chambers looking over the valley. These are bnilt 
over a Large subterranean hall called the stable , 
but supposed to have been a reservoir. A rapid 
torrent passes through a canal and in its fall from 
the mountain contributes to form the cascades. 



From the terrace the view embraces Rome anil 
the Campagna. 

In a neighbouring vineyard is an edifice cal- 
led the Tempio delta Tosse adapted as a church 
in the middle ages. It appears to advantage in 
tbe midst of trees and vineyards. 

Near tbe Roman gale is the villa d 1 Este, 
built by a cardinal of the D'Este family in 1 549, 
formerly one of the most splendid villas of Italy. 
It contains frescoes by Zuccari , Muziano and 
other artists of those days, allusive to ;be hist- 
ory of Tivoli. 

At a distance of ten miles on the Valerian 
way , is Vicovaro or Varia the ruins of which 
consist of remains of an ancient bridge over which 
passed the aqua Claudia and of large travertine 
blocks forming the walls of the city. Five miles 
. further on is Licenza, the ancient Digentia near 
which was the Sabine farm of Horace celebrated 
' in bis verses. 

Twelve miles from Tivoli and twenty from 
Rome is 


A city founded according to Virgil by Cajculos 
the son of Vulcan, according to others by Prs> 
nestus son of king Latinus prior to the Trojau 
war. Its elevated situation and good air rendered 
it a point of attraction to the ancient Romans. 
It was celebrated also for its temple of Fortune 
restored and enlarged by L. Sylla, which occu- 
pied tbe whole site of the present town. 

Paleslrina was destroyed in tbe XV cen- 
tury but was rebuilt on the ruins of this tem- 



pie , when a mosaic pavement was discovered 
which is now in the Barberini palace at Pa- 

This celebrated work represents sundry ani- 
mals and plants, a tent with soldiers, cgyplian 
figures playing on musical instruments , others 
occupied with tbe labors of agriculture. Of 
the interpretations given of this work the most 
probable is that tbe subject alludes to tbe fest- 
ivals established in Egypt under tbe Greek kings 
at the period of the inundation of the Nile. 

Near la Colonna eight miles from this town, 
is a lake said to bo the Regillus where the bat- 
tle look place between the Latins and Roman* > 
which decided the fate of Tarquin. 

Some miles distant, in the farm called Pan- 
tano,is the lake of Castiglione, formerly Gabi- 
buj , near the ancient city of Gabii discovered 
in 1 792. The only remains are tbe cell* uf the 
temple of Juno and square blocks of the local 
volcanic stone which formed the walls of the 


This townowes its origin to the destruction of 
TuseulambytheRomans in H91;lhe modern town 
contains nothing remarkable, but the numerous 
villas in its environs and the excursion to the 
ruins of Tusculum are highly interesting. 

The most splendid of these villas are the 
Aldobrandini and Mondragone belonging to the 
Borghesi, the Rufinalla to the qneen of Sardinia, 
theConti and Falconieri. Tusculum, said to have 
been founded by Telegonus a son of Ulysses and 



Circe, was a favorite residence of the Romans 
in the latter times of the republic. In an derated 
position are the remains of a theatre, baths, an 
aqueduct and walls ; several statues, busts and 
other works of art fonnd in the excavations at- 
test its ancient splendour. 

Grotta Ferrata is a small village with a 
church in which Domenkhino has represented in 
fresco several acts of S. Bartholomew and S. Ni- 
lus who retired to this spot about the year 1 000. 
The painting over the altar is by Annibal Caracci. 
Two miles from this village is Marino, for- 
merly Castro masnium, an ancient city of Laliam 
mentioned byDionysitis ofHalicarnassus and Pliny. 
The church of S Barnabas possesses a painting of 
the martyrdom of S. Bartolomew in the Erst 
manner of Guercioo. That of tbe holy Trinity 
one by Guido. The Albano gate leads to the Fe- 
rouLino ralUy , bo called Iron the goddess of 
that name , where tbe people of Latiutn held 
their national assemblies before their subjugation 
by the Romans. 


Is agreably situated on (he lake of that name 
which, in very remote times, was the crater of 
a volcano. Its circuit is abont six miles, its depth 
480 feet. On the occasion of an extraordinary 
swell of the waters 394 years before the chris- 
tian era , the Romans, then occupied with the 
siege of Veii, sent deputies to Delphi to consult tbe 
oracle of the pytbian Apollo who answered that 
Veii could not be taken unless the waters of this 
lake were reduced to their leve l. Having decided 


on perforating. (he mountain, the work was car- 
ried on with sack activity that within- a year 
they completed the canal which is a mile long, 
3i/s feet wide and six high. It is chiselled out 
of the- rock and has never required any repair. 

Alba Lunga is said to have been built about 
400 years before Borne by Ascanius the son of 
Macas,. between the mountain and the lake in 
the direction of the- present Palazzola; it was 
destroyed by Tullius Hostilius. During, the se- 
cond punic war a camp, protecting the Appian 
way, was established on the site of Albano which 
became a city at the decline of the empire. 

On the left of the via Appia before entering 
the gale, is a large tomb slripl of its ornaments,, 
containing a room 1 1 feel long and 7 wide. It 
is commonly called the tomb of Ascanius , but 
being- situated on the grounds that formed the 
villa of Pompey it is more probable that it was 
raised by lhat general to receive the ashes of 
Julia his wife, the daughter of Ca-sar. according 
to Plutarch it was also the tomb of Pompey. 

Near the church of ihe Madonna della Stella 
is another large tomb raised on- a square base 
55 feet in circumference. In the centre was a 
pedestal serving as the base of a statue and at 
each angle a round pyramid. It was imagined 
that this tomb had been raised to the Horalii 
and Cnriatii, but it is- related by Livy thai they 
were buried ou the spot where they fell between 
the Latin and Appian ways at a distance of about 
five- miles from Home.- The architecture of this 
40 " 



monument is of a far more remote period; it 

was probably raised to Aruns the sou of Por~ 
senna who was killed near this spot when at- 
tacking Aricia in the year 217 of Borne, or 60S. 
before the christian era. 

A mile from Albano is the village of Aricia 
preserving the name of the city built in the plain 
by Archilochus t400 years before our era. Some 
of its ruins may be seen in a vineyard called 
Orto di mezzo, on the via Appia; they consist 
of the cella of the temple of Diana , of walls, 
formed of irregular blocks, of the emissary com- 
municating with the citadel and remains of baths* 

Dionysius Halicarnassns observes in the II 
book of his roman antiquities: * The third war 
which he (Romulus) sustained was against a city 
then one of the most powerful of the Etruscan, 
nation called Veii, distant from Home about 100' 
sladj ; it is situated on a steep rook and is of 
about the same size as Athens. » 1 00 stadj are- 
t2i/a miles. In another passage the same author 
adds that this was one of the Etruscan cities, 
the nearest to Rome; that it was on the via Cas- 
sia or Claudia is proved by the Pentigeriau chart 
which thus disposes the stations on this road r 
Roma ad pontem III, ad Sex turn III, Veios VIr 
a distance corresponding exactly with that of 

At a mile to the east of la Storla over a 
bill separated from the plaiu by two rivulets 
which united form the Cremera was situated 
Veii, as was- proved by the excavation made ia 



1810 when & tomb and several fragments of 
statues were found. The citadel and one of the 
wings of the town occupied the Isola Farnese , 
a fortress in the middle ages , now a farm. The 
softness of the rock explains the work of the 
mine which decided tbe fate of the place after 
its ten years siege. 

The Isola presents the appearance of a des- 
erted village with a population of about 40 souls. 
At the gate called tbe portonaccio are various 
fragments of sculpture. The church of S. Pan- 
craxio divided into three naves is of tbe XV 
century. Many square stones found in the castle 
probably belonged to the walls of the ancient 

A path, which from the fragments of Ms 
pavement appears to be antique, leads on Ibe 
right to the ancient town; on tbe left are sleep 
rocks , on tbe right a deep precipice formed 
by the rivulet called (lie Fosso dell'isola which 
about half a mile further on forms a cataract 
ef about 50 feet in a most picturesque situation. 
Beyond this cataract an ancient road of the 
etruscan Veii , six feet broad , leads to an ex- 
tensive plain where fragments of worked mar- 
ble and of bricks indicate the spot , once inha- 
bited , enclosed in the etruscan city; the roman 
Veii was situated near the forest where the late 
discoveries were made ; this spot presents nu- 
merous fragments of vases painted with varnish 
on a black and red ground and of a very fine 
clay probably the work of the primitive Veientcs. 
Of the buildings found in tbe last excavations 
one deserves observation, an ancient roman Co- 
lumbarium , called by tbe peasants the cemi- 



ferio , composed of three rooms one of which 
only is open. It contains several tombs and fu- 
nerary inscriptions-; near the columbarium were 
discovered the statue of Tiberius now in the 
Vatican , that of Germanicus 9 palms high, many 
busts , fragments of architecture T 24 columns 
belonging to the same edifice probably a basilic, 
near which was the forum, as Vitruvius informs 
us that such was their relative position in the 
Italian cities. It has been ascertained from ins- 
criptions that at Veii there was a temple of 
Mars, and from the excavations that Castor and 
Pollux , Piety , and the Genius of the city were 
honoured at Veii.. 

In its primitive state and before its capture 
by Camillas the city must have extended to 
ponte Sodo ; the forest now covers its ruins. 
In proceeding to this bridge and before* arriv- 
ing at the Creraera, the remains of a road which 
at intervals is intercepted by scruare masses of 
tufTo indicate the ancient walls of the city and 
lead to the Cretnera called the fosso di For- 
mello and fosso del Valca which unites with 
the Tiber. Beyond the Crcmera is the ponte 
Sodo, so named from its solidity, being cutout 
of the rock , a work, of the etruscan. Vcienles. 

Without returning to the isola il is- easy to 
reach the via Cassia al the Osteria del fosso 
after having crossed the Cremera by following 
a direction to ihe west near the spot where the 
late excavations have been made. On the right 
of the road many etruscan tombs are seen in 
the rock in which small vases painted on a dark 
ground are continually discovered. 



This town, at a distance of 24 miles from 
Rome by the ancient Via Claudia , contains about 
2000 inhabitants. It is situated in a pleasant 
position on the edge of the crater of the Brao 
ciaoo lake , and was held for a long period by 
the Orsini family, first with the title of Counts 
and afterwards with that of Dukes , having been 
made a Dntchy by Paul IV in 1 564. It remain* 
ed in the possession of the Orsini till the latter 
part of the XVI century when it passed into the 
Odescalchi family , and together with the fief 
it now belongs to Don Marino Torlonia who 
derives from it his title of Duke of Bracciano. 
The feudal privileges are in full force: the hall 
.of justice is still shown at the summit of the cas- 
tle, where the duke has the power of sitting in 
judgment on his vassals. 

The Baronial castle, surrounded with walls 
and towers of the XV century , still in high 
preservation, is generally considered to he the fi- 
nest of the kind in Italy; it has the form of a paral- 
lellogram , the eastern side being occupied by 
the feudal castle built in the XV century which 
sustained a long siege in the war of the Colonna 
and the Duke of Calabria against the Popes 
Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII. According to Mu- 
ratori it was taken and plnndered by the Co- 
lonna the 20 July 1435. 

From the piazza before the rock several 
roads branch off which are lined with well built 
houses'; the one leading to the capuchin convent 
forms a' straight line a mile in length. Don Ma- 
rino Torlonia , the present Duke , has made 



considerable improvements in the town and neigh- 
bouring country ; the monastery has been enlar- 
ged , the church decorated ana iron works have 
been established at a short distance from the 


The latter appellation is said to be derived 
from the city of Sabate which , according to 
Sozio , once stood on its banks and was submer- 
ged , but the origin of (be word is more pro- 
bably Sa6ai , an Italian divinity mentioned in 
(be Eugubian tables. The fish of this lake was 
praised by Columella particularly the Lucei and 
the regine , or as called by him the luj>os t au- 
rata» which , even at the present day , form its 
chief riches. The lake , the crater of an an- 
cient volcano forms an ellipse of about 22 miles 
round and 300 metres deep. The Trajan water 
which Paul V purchased of the Orsini in 1 607 
to the amount of about 1 1 00 inches , collected 
from various- springs near the lake, unites in 
the Paola aqueduct with 1000 inches of the 
lake water bought in 1 673 by Clement X; the uni- 
ted volume of these waters forms the fountain 
of S- Pietro Montorio, passes nnder the adjoin- 
ing buildings , after having supplied the paper 
mills and cloth manufactory , into the Vatican 
fountains and other places described in this work. 



Academy, Ecclesiastical 279. 

of France 245. 

S. Lake 1 03. 

Acqiia Acetosa 2. 

Claudia 158. 

Felice 210. 

Ginlia 158. 

Marcia 158. 

Paola 378. 

Santa 154. 

Tepula 1 58. 

Vergine or Trevi 237* 

Aqueduct Aniene Nuova 158, 
- Vecchia 160. 

Claudia 1 58. 

Felice 210. 

Giulia 158. 

Marcia 158. 

Paola 378. 

. Tepula 158. 

Aggere of Serrius Tullius, 21 5, 231. 

Alba Lunga 509. 

Albano 509. 

Almone the river 334. 

Amphitheatre Castrcnsis 157. 

, „. . Flavio or the Colosseum 125. 

Slatilius Taurus 23. 

Anio 500. t 

Archiginnasio Romano or 'the UniTersilj ^82. 



Arch of Claudius 29. 
— — Constanline 130. 
— — Dolabella 136. 

- Drusus 333. 

Galienus 163. 

- Gordian 33. 

Gralian 288. 

■ i Janus quadrifrons 312. 
— — Marcus Aurelius 15. 

Septimius Seterus in the forum 102. 

.... —in the Velabrum 313. 

Tiberius 101. 

Titus 116. 

Archeological Institute 83. 
Arid a 510. 

Banco S. Spirito 289. 

Monte di Pieta 389. 

Baptistery of S. Constantia 221. 

— Costantine 144. 

Basilica of Constanline 111- 

— — Santa croce in Jerusalem 154. 

Emilia 104. 

i S. John Lateran 145. 
— — Julia 100. 
— — S. Lorenzo, extra muros, 162. 

S. Maria Maggiore 1 69. 

- . Opimia 99. 

S. Paul 348. 

- S. Peter at the Vatican 41 1. 
, S. Sebastian 336. 

Baths of Livia 1 22. 

Paulus Emiiius , see ihernwe. 

Borgia rooms in the Vatican 437. 



Braccio nuoro Ghiaramonti at the Vatican Mu- 
seum 445. 
Bridges. S. Angelo or Elian 404. 

S. Bartolomeo or Gratiau 367. 

Molle 1. 

Nomenlano 222. 

Qualtro Capi or Fabrician 364. 

Rotto or Palatine 363. 

Salarian 230. 

Sislo 388. 

Sublicio 354. 

Vatican 401. 

Campus Martins 268. 

of the Praetorians 216. 

Scelleratus 277. 

Chapel Paolina at the Vatican 436. 

Sblina 434. 

Caravita 30. 

Capitol 53. 
Capitoline Gallory 77. 

Carccri Nuove or public prisons 400. 
Castel S. Angelo 404. 

Gandolfo 508. 

Castra Pretoriana 216. 

Peregrina 137. 

Catacombs. S. Sebastian 336. 

— S. Pancratio 379. 

Cemetery 164. 

Cenci Beatrice 377. 
Churches. S. Adriana 104. 

S. Agues , Piazza Navona 295. 

S. Agnes , extra muros 219. 

S. Auguslin 285. 

S. Alessio 356. 




Churches. S. Anastasia 317. 

— — <S. Andrea della Valle 298. 

a Monte Cavallo 209. 

. .. near Ponte Molle 2. 

out of the Popolo gate 2. 

— delle Fratte 239. 

— — S. Angelo in Pescheria 307. 

S. Antonio de' Porloghesi 286. 

SS. XII. Apostoli 198. 

S. Apollinare 287. 

Aracceli 83. 

S. Balbina 320. 

Bambin Gesn 177. 

S. Bartolouieo 366. 

- S. Bernardo alle Terme 210. 

S, Bibiaaa 166. 

- ■ de' Cappuccini 234. 

S. Carlo al Corso 11. 

alle quattro fontane 209. 

ai Calenari 390. 

S. Cateriua de'Funari 304. 

- di Siena 399. 

S. Cecilia 368. 

— — S. Cbrysogon 374. 

S. Clemente 139. 

S. Cesareo in palalio 329. 

S. Cosmo e Damiano 111. 

S. Costanza 220. 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme 1 54. 

S. Dionisio 208. 

SS. Domenico e Sisto 205. 

Domine qoo vadis 334. 

S. Dorotca 388. 

S. Eligio 400. 

S. Eusebio 168. 


Churches. S. Etutacchio 282. 

S. Franceses Rom ana 114. 

S. Francesco a Bipa 330. 

■ — -■ Gesu 45. 

Gesu e Maria 1 0. 

■ S. Giacomo 11. 

S. Giorgio in Velabro 315. 

S. Giovanni Decollato 309. 

6V Fiorentini 401. 

in Fonte 144. 

'■— in Laterano 1 45. 

di Dio 367. 

— — SS. Giovanni e Paolo 135. 

S. Girolaino dolla Garita 396. 

de Schiavoai 264. 

S. Giuseppe de' Falegnami 88. 

S. Gregorio 132. 

- S. Grisegona. 379, 

S. Ignazio 30. 

S. Isidoro 235. 

S. Lorenzo in Luciua 14. 

in Miranda 111. 

■ ■ " • - exlra mnrot 162. 
in Damaso 392. 

S. Loca 103. 

S. Luigi de* Francesi 284. 

S. Marcello 31. 

• S. Marco 42. 

' S. Maria degli Angeli 213. . 

dell'Anima 292. 

■ in Aquiro 269. 

in Carapitelli 305. 

— . in Campo SanLo 496. 

della Consolazione 309. 

. in Gosmedin 359, 



Churches. S. Maria in Domnica 137. 
- — di Loreto 194, 

Maddalena 269. 

Maggiore 169. 

■ ■ i ad Martyres o della Rotonda 27 I. 

Sopra Minerva 279. 

do'Miracoli 10. 

— di Monte Santo 9, 

i i . della Navicclla 137. 

— della Pace 291. 

■ del Popolo 5. 

del Priorato di Malta 356. 

della Scala 374. 

Scala Cadi alio 3. fontanc 350. 

— TraspoDtina 408. 

in Traslevere 371. 

a Trevi 238. 

ia Via Lata 32. 

. la Viitoria 211. 

. S. Martino 175. 
■ la Missione 24. 
. la Morte 399. 

- SS. Ncrco ed Achilleo 329. 

- S. Niccola da Tolentino 233. 

in Garcere 309l 

- Nuo»a 289. 

- S. Onofrio 387. 

- S. Paolo primo Eremita 207. 

- S. Pancrazio 380. 

- S. Pantaleo 297. 

- S. Paolo extra muros 348. 
... alle Ire fonlane 350. 

- S. Pietro ia Montorio 373. 

- S, Pietro and Marcellino 161. 
in Garcere 88. 


Churches, S. Pie'tro in Vatieano 411. 

in Vincoli 1/8. 

S. Prassede 1 74. 

S. Prisca 358. 

S. Puden liana 177. 

— — SS. Quattre Corenati 1 39, 

S. Rocco 263* 

S. Sabba 320. 

S. Sabina 357. 

S. Salvalore in Lanro 288. 

S. Sebastian extra muros 335. 

S. Silvestro a Monte Gavallo 20$. 

■ in Capita 15. 

- S. Sisto 329. 

- Santo Spirilo 407. 

■ S. Stefano Rotondo 138. 

- deile Stimmate 281. 

■ S. Theodoro 109. 

■ dei Trinitari 13. 

- della Triuita dei Monti 243. 

de* Pellegrini 389. 

- S. Yincenzo ed Anastasio 238. 
alle 2 FoaUne 350. 

S. Vitale 207. 

Circus of Adrian 406. 

- — Alexander Scveras 29*. 

Heliogabalus 158. 

Flaminius 303. 

Flora 234. 

Maximus 318. 

Nero 412. 

Romulus son of Maxentius 339. 

Sallust 231. 

Cloaca Maxima 315. 

41 ' 


Collegio di Propaganda Fide 241. 

Romano 31. 

Columns of Antouiuus Pius 24. 
Phocas 105. 

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 20. 

S. Maria Maggiore 169. 

- Trajan 192. 

Columbarium of Cn: Pomponius Hjlaa 331. 

L. Aruulius 166. 

of Livia Augusta 335. 

Colossus of Nero 1 25. J^ 

Colosseum 125. 

Corridor of Inscriptions in Ihe Vatican palace 430. 

Chiaramonti 1. pari. 444. 

Chiaramonti 2. part. 449. 

Curia Hostilia 103. 

Calabra 52. 

of Pompey 300. 

Custom House 25. 

Edifices of the Forum 99. 

Fountain of the Acqoa Acetosa 2. 

Barcaccia 240. 

Felice 210. 

- Piazza Colonna 21. 

Pantheon 270. 

Paoliua 378. 

Ponte Sisio 388. 

delle Tarlarughe 301 . 

di TrcTi 237. 

del Tritone 234. 

■ at S. Peter's 411. 

Piazza Farncse 393. 

. — Nayona 294. 


Forum Boarium 31 5. 

of Nerva 187. 

. Olilorium 308. 

Palladium 187. 

Roman 94. 

Trajan 189. 

Transiloriam 187. 

Frascali 507. 

Gates Angelica 497, 

Capena 321. 

Carmentalis 308. 

CaTallegieri -497. 

S. John or Asinaria 153. 

Latina 332. 

S. Lorenzo 164. 

Maggiore or Labicaoa 158. 

S. Pancrazio 379. 

S. Paul or Ostia 351. 

Pia or Nomentana 216. 

Pinciana 259. 

Poriese 370. 

- Popolo or Flaminiaa 3. 

- Prenestina 158. 

Salaria or Collina 223. 

S. Sebasfian or Appia 333. 

. Settimiana 381. 

S. Spirito 387. 

Garden, Botanic 380. 

of Sallnst 231. 

Farnesiani 1 21 , 

Varianus 1 55. 

Galleries, see palaces 
Gallery Vatican 486; 
Gnecoslasis 106. 

,. Google 


Grotta of Egcria 347. 
i ■ of Neptune 504. 

of the Syrens. 504. 

Grotta Ferrata 508. 
Grottoes of the Vatican 429. 

Halls of the Cooservatori 74. 
Hcmicycle of the Belvedere 453. 
Hospitiam ofS. Michele a Hipa 369. 
Hospital of the Consolazione 309. 
■ S. Giacomo 11. 

S. Giovanni 142. 

Pellegrini 389. 

S. Rocco 263. 

S. Spirilo 406. 

Houses of Augustus 119, 1 23 

- Agrippa 119 

Gatilina 119. 

Romulus 52, 118. 

Nero 120. 

Rlenzi 363. 

Isola Tiberina 365. 

Joturna, spring of, 99. 

Lake of Albano 508. 

of the Floating isles 501. 

Regillo 501. 

of the Tartari 500. 

- of Bracciano 514. 
Library of S. Auguslin. 286. 

Rarberini 236. 

Chigi 20. 

Gorsini 383. 


Library of the Collegio Romano 31. 

of llie Minerva 281. 

Vatican 440. 

— — MoDaldini 240. 
Loggie of Raphael 436. 
Lupercal 109. 

Mammcrtine prison 87. 
Marino 508. 

Mausoleum of Adrian 404. 
Augustus 260. 

S. Helena 161. 

Mela Sudanto 124. 
Missione, House 24. 
Mount Aventine 354. 

Gapitoline 49 

— — lanicnle 375. 

- Mario 498. 
Palatine 118. 

Celian 134. 

Esquiline 1 69. 

- Quirinal 200. 
Gilorio 22. 

- Pincio 246. 

Sacro 222. 

Testaccio 352. 

■ Viminal 297. 

Vatican 403. 

Monument of the acqua Claudia 1 58. 

- i — Aniene Nuoya 158. 
— — Marcia 158. 

Tepula 158. 

Julia 158. 

— Vergine 239. 

Muro Torto 247. 



Museum Gapitolino 56. 
■ Chiaramonte 443. 

Egi/io 476. 

Elrusco 470. 

■ ■ ■ Gregoriano 470. 

Kircheriano 31. 

— — Lateral! 142. 

- Pio Clemenlino 455. 

of the Vatican 443. 

Navalia 352. 

Nymphffiuui of Egeria 347. 

Obelisks of the Lateran 141. 
• . S. Maria Maggiore 174. 

Minerva 278. 

Monte Citorio 22. 

Pantheon 270. 

Popolo 4. 

Piazza Navona 294. 

■ Quirinal 201. 

• Trinita de* Monti 243. 

Orli Farnesiani 121. 

Sallustian 231. 

Palaces. Altieri 45, . 

Albani 208. 

■ Allemps 287. 

Barberini 236. 

Bolognetti 45. 

Borgbese 264. 

Braschi 296. 

Buonaparte 41. 

— . — Caocelleria 391. 

of the Caesars 119, 

Cbigi 16. 


Palaces. -Colonna 194. 

of the Conservatori 71. 

Corsini 381. 

—— Costaguli 304. 

of Ihe Consulla 203. 

yDoria 33. 

- Ercolani now Grazioli 45. 
*-.'Farnese 393. 

■■; Farnesma 384. 

■ ■■' French Academy 245. 

Giraud now Torloaia 409. 

Giustiniaoi 284. 

— <~ Laleran 142. 

Madama 283. 

— — -Massimi 298. 
-yMattei 302. 

Monte Gitorio 23. 

Orsini 307. 

Quirinal 202. 

— — , Rospigliosi 203. 
Ruspoli 13. 

Salviati 386. 

Sciarra 26. 

Spada 397. 

of the Senator 55. 

Torlonia (Prince) 42. 

.Torlonia ( Duke ) 242. 

Vatican 433. 

Verospi 16. 

■ Vidoai 301. 

-■ Venice 42. 

Palestrina 506. 

Papa Giulio, Casino 2. 
Pantheon 271. 



Piazza Catnpo Marzo 268. 

Farnesc 303. 

-—- Barberini 234. 

Campidoglio 54. 

- Culoana 20. 

Laterao 141. 

- S. Maria Maggiore 169. 

Monte Gavallo 201. 

Minerva 278. 

Monto Ci'orio 22. 

Navona 293. 

Popolo 3. 

Pasquino 297. 

Pantlieon 270. 

S. Piclro 409. 

,.-- Quattro fontane 208. 
— — Spagna 240. 

Trajaaa 192. 

- Torlonia 241. 
Venezia 41. 

Pyramid of Cains Cestins 351. 

Piscina Pubblica 320. 

Post Office 21. 

Porlico of the Dii consenli 62 

Octavia 306. 

Protomolcca Capitolina 68. 

Raphael house 288. 

chambers 488. 

villa 247. 

Ripa Grande 369. 
Ripelta 264. 
Rock, Tarpeian 52. 
Rostra 99. 


Sacristy of S. Peter's 431. 

Sancta Sanctorum 153. 

Scala Santa 152. 

Scale Gemonin 88. 

Schola Xantha 101. 

Scalinata of Trinila de* Monti 241. 

Seminary, Roman 287. 

Sette Sale 185. 

Septizonium 320. 

Solfatara 501. 

Tabularium 51. 

Theatre of Marcelhu 307. 

— Pompey 300. 

Temple of Antoninus Pins 25. 

■ ' ' Antoninus and Faustina 110. 

■ - - Bacchus 345. 

— Bramante 376. 

«■ Castor and Pollux 99. 

■'■— Ceres and Proserpine 359. 

Concord 93. 

Dio Bedicolo 347. 

— Esculapius 366. 
Hercules Coslos 301. 

' ■■ Fortune Capiloline 88, 
'I ■! ik. * ■ " Mnliebris 154. 

— — Prenestina 509. 

■ Virilis 362. 

' Jupiter Capitolinos 50. 
■ ■■■ ■ Feretrius 52. 

Stalor 108. 

— — Tonans 90. 

■ Juno Moneta 52. 

- Juno 306. 

- Isis 32. 



Temple bis and Serapis 27ff. 
— — Macs 330. 
Ma tut a 359. 

— Minerva 278. 

■ i Minerva Modica 1 6.5- 
Nerm 18S. 

Panlbeon 271.. 

— Peace- 1 11 . 

— Pallas. 188. 

— Piety. 308. 
— - PudiciLia 35%. 

.Romulus and Remus 11 1* 

— — ffbmutns, son of Ma.xen.tiu3 337. 

Sybil 504. 

— — delta Tdsse 506. 

i Venus and Cupid 1 56. 
, ■ ■ in the gardens. oE Sallust 231i. 
i ■- — .and Rome 115. 

Vesta on (he Tiber 361.. 

— — in the Forum. 100. 
———at Tiroli 504. 
Thermn An toman* 322. 

Agrippa 237. 

— — . Alexander Severus 284'. 

— Caraeafla 322. 
Coostantiue 203. 

i Diocletian. 212. 

Nero 185. 

— — Titus 180. 

Tomb of. Adrian 404. . 

■ Augustus 260. 

— — Bibulus (Cains Publfcias ) 44. 

C. Cestins 351. 

Cecilia Metella 343. 

of the Plaulian family 50.1 . 


Tomb LiVy (freedmen of) 335. 

Lucius AruntLas ibid. 166* 

1 Numa Porapluiis 375. 

Prisci'la 334. 

— — Ser villus 344. 

Scipios (of the ) 330. 

Ttvoli 503. 

Torre de'Conli 186. 

delle Milizic 205. 

Pignattara 161. 

de* ScliiavL 162. 

Traste»ere 364* 
Triclinium Laleraticnsis 153. 
Trophies of Marius 167. 
Tusculom 507. - * 

Valley of Egiria 321'. 
Vatican 433. 
Velabrum 31 1. 

Vestals- 100. 

Via Appia 329. 

— Ardeatina 334. 

— AureRa 380. 

— Babnibo 243. 

— Condolli 13. 

— Corso 8. 

— Flainlnia 1. 

— Labicana 160. 

— Latioa 154. 

— Noroentana 216. 

— Qslionsis 351. 

— Prcnestina 162. 

— Sacra 109. 

— Salaria 223. 

— Tiburlina 164. 


5,2 haCU % bUttr J 

2.0. II. &L 
Villa Adrians 501. p i ■ — i 

Albani 223. [XJffrKxtiawl 

Aldobrandini 206, J 

— — Bolognetti 217. 

—— Borghese 3, 246. 

— — Cooti , now Duke Torlonia 507. 

Corsini 379, 383. 

— . Cristaldi 379. 

— d'Este 506. 
— — Falconieri 507. 

— of Iho Gordiaits 162. 

— of Horace 505. 

Lante 383, — Ladorisi 232. 

— — - Madama 399. 
«— Massimi 217. 
• Mattel 137. 

— of Maxentius 337. 
— — of Mecrenas 505 

Medici 245. 

Millini 498. 

— — Mills 123. 

— ■ Mondragone 507. 

— — Palatine 123, — Pampbili 380. 

Palrizj 21 7, — Poniatoslty 3. 

of Quintilius Varus at Tivoli 344. 

— — de' Qiiintili 344. 

i ■ Tusculana of Cicero 507. 

— — Torlonia (Duke) 216. 

Torlonia (Prince) 217. 

Vivarium 168. 

IMPRIMATUR. -Fr. D. BatUomO. P. S. P. A. H. 

IMPRIMATUR. - J. Canali Archiep. Col<w». Vice»j. 

. o 4 y