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Full text of "New Hampshire as it is. In three parts. Part I. A historical sketch of New hampshire. Part II. A gazetter of New Hampshire. Part III. A general view of New Hampshire. Together with the constitution of the State"

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Ex Libris 

Katharine F. Richmond 


Henry C. Fall 

































Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of New Hampshire. 




The present work was undertaken with the de- 
sign of furnishing as great an amount of reliable 
and important information 'coneerning the past 
history and the present condition of New Hamp- 
shire as the means at our command and the limits 
assigned us would allow. 

In the Historical Sketch we have aimed to 
give a brief synopsis of the leading events in the 
history of our state, from its first settlement to the 
adoption of the federal constitution. In this we 
have generally followed Dr. Belknap, not, however, 
without reference to other authorities, among which 
may be mentioned Barstow's History of New 
Hampshire; the New Hampshire Historical Col- 
lections ; Adams's Annals of Portsmouth ; together 
with various histories of the United States. 

The Gazetteer was prepared entirely by George 
Ticknor, Esq., of Claremont, to whose preface we 
would refer the reader for further information con- 
cerning that part of the work. 

The Third Part embraces a variety of subjects, 
which we deem it unnecessary to mention in detail. 
The principal authorities whicli we have consulted 




in its preparation are Farmer and Moore's New 
Hampshire Gazetteer ; Hayward's United States 
Gazetteer ; Dr. Jackson's Geological Report ; 
Oakes's White Mountain Scenery; New Hamp- 
shire Compiled Statutes ; Life of Eleazar Whee- 
lock, founder of Dartmouth College ; Rev. N 
Bouton's Historical Discourse ; New Hampshire 
Annual Register, for the last forty years ; United 
States Census Report for 1850 ; together with 
various pamphlets and periodicals. To our friends 
and correspondents who have aided us in our labor, 
we tender our sincere thanks for their kind assist- 
ance and cooperation. 

The department of Biography is not so full as 
we could have wished ; yet to have given even a 
brief sketch of all deserving such a notice, would 
have increased both the ^ize and the price of our 
volume far beyond their prescribed limits. 

It has been our aim to form the plan of the 
work and to arrange the materials furnished us 
in such a manner as to produce an harmonious 
whole ; and though, from the nature of the case, 
we can lay no claim to literary merit or to origi- 
nality, yet we trust that our eftbrts to make a 
judicious selection and arrangement have not been 
wholly unsuccessful. With these remarks, the 
work is respectfully presented to the public. 

E. A. C. 

Haybrhill, N. H., Fdyruary 1, 1865. 





Introduction. — Captain John Smith's Exploration. — The Virginia Company. 

— The Plymouth Council. — Gorges and Mason. — Grant of Mariana and 
Laconia. — Settlements at Portsmouth and Dover. — "Wheelwright's Pur- 
chase. — Mason's new Patent. — New Hampshire. — Upper and Lower 
Plantations. — Neal's Expedition to the White Mountains. — Survey oi 
Portsmouth and Dover. — Discouragements. — Surrender of the Charter ol 
the Plymouth Council. — Death of Mason. — Reflections 9 


HeUgious Intolerance. — Antinomiau Controversy. — Banishment of Wheel- 
wright. — Settlement of Exeter. — Formation of a Government. — Settle- 
mant of Hampton. — Affairs on the Piscataqua. — Wiggin visits England. 

— Erection of a Church. — Burdet's Exploits. — Morton abandons Ports- 
mouth. — Underhill's Administration. — Knollys and Larkham. — Dover 
and Portsmouth form Governments. — Union ■with Massachusetts. — 
Wheelwright flees. — Laws of Massachusetts and Character of the early 
Settlers. — Persecution of the Quakers. — Witchcraft 16 


Mason's Efforts to recover his Estate. — The King sends Commissioners to 
New England. — Their Reception, Treatment, and Proceedings. — Jealousy 
of the Indians. — Passaconnaway. — Commencement of King Philip's War. 

— Attacks on various Places. — Death of Lieutenant Plaistcd. — The In- 
dians make Peace. — Death of King Philip, and Renewal of Hostilities at 
the East. — "tValdron seizes the Refugees at Dover. — The Mohawks are 
solicited to assist the English. — Captain Swett is defeated. — Conclusion 
of Peace. — Omens 24 




Mason's renewed Efforts. — Randolph visits New England. — New Hampshire 
is erected into a royal Province. — The Commission is published. — Meeting 
of the Assembly and making Laws. — Waldron succeeds President Cutts. — 
_ Cranfield is appointed Governor. — His arbitrary Proceeding. — Gove's Re- 
bellion. — Mason institutes a Suit against Major Waldron. — "Weare is sent 
to England. — Persecution of Moody. — Fresh Usurpations of Power. — 
Resistance of the People. — Cranfield obtains Leave of Absence. — Barefoot 
succeeds him. — Treaty with the Indians 31 


The Charter of Massachusetts forfeited. — Dudley appointed President of New 
England. — Succeeded by Andros. — His tyrannical Proceedings. — Revo- 
lution in England. — Temporary Union with Massachusetts. — Allen ap- 
pointed Governor and Usher Lieutenant Governor. — King William's War. 

— Attack on Dover. — Salmon Falls. — Expedition to Canada. — Temporary 
Peace. — Attack on Oyster River. — Conclusion of Peace. — Usher's Admin- 
istration. — Partridge supersedes him. — The Earl of Bellamont is appointed 
Governor, and visits New Hampshire. — Allen's Efforts. — Dudley appointed 
Governor 38 


Dudley holds a Conference with the Indians. — They commence Hostilities. — 
Various Attacks. — Defence of Durham. — Expeditions against Port Royal. 

— Death of Colonel Hilton. — Attempted Reduction of Canada. — Appoint- 
ment of Shute and Yaughan as Governor and Lieutenant Governor. — The 
latter is superseded by John Wentworth. — Progress in industrial Pursuits. 

— Settlement of Londonderry. — Incorporation of new Towns. — Governor 
Shute returns to England. — More Trouble with the Indians. — Causes of 
their Hostility to the English. — Attempt to capture Ralle. — Attack on 
Dover and other Places. — Expedition to Norridgewock and Death of RaUe. 

— Adventures of Captain Lovewell. — Ratification of Peace.... 45 


Controversy with Massachusetts. — Grants of Townships. — A new Assembly 
is chosen. — Burnet's short Administration. — Belcher succeeds him. -^ 
Death of Wentworth and Appointment of Dunbar. — Party Strife. — Set- 
tlement of the Boundary. — War with France. — Siege and Capture of Lou- 
isburgh. — Project to invade Canada. — Approach of a French Fleet. — 
Indian Hostilities. — Defence of Charlcstown. — The licit of Mason sells 
his Claim. — Controversy between Governor Wentworth and the Assem- 
bly. — Proposal to settle the CoOs. — Jealousy and Resentment of the In- 
di&DS 66 



The "Old French War." — Indian Hostilities. — Expeditions against Crown 
Point. — Massacre at Fort Edward. — Rogers's Expedition against the St. 
Francis Indians. — Conquest of Canada. — Grants. — Settlement of the 
western Boundary. — The Stamp Act. — Meserve is appointed Distribu- 
tor. — His Resignation. — Demonstrations of the People. — Benning Went- 
worth is superseded by John Wentworth. — Taxes. — Dartmouth College. 
— Division of the Province into Counties. — The Tea sent to Portsmouth is 
reshipped. — Convention at Exeter. — Seizure of Gunpowder and Arms at 
Fort William Henry. — Attempts of Wentworth to maintain Peace. — 
Close of his Administration 63 


The Revolutionary War. — Forces raised by Nev/ Hampshire. — Preparations for 
Defence. — Treatment of the Tories. — Formation of a temporary Govern- 
ment. — Expedition to Canada. — Declaration of Independence. — Battle of 
Bennington. — Surrender of Burgoyne. — Sullivan's Expedition against the 
Seneca Indians. — Close of the War. — Adoption of a State Constitution. — 
Troubles with Vermont. — Distress and Rebellion. — Formation and Adop- 
tion of the Constitution of the United States. — Conclusion. 71 



Page 85. 









LAKES, 461 

RIVERS, 463 









BANKS 666 






Introduction. — Captain John Smith's Exploration. — The Virginia Company. 
— The Plymouth Council. — Gorges and Mason. — Grant of Mariana and 
Laconia. — Settlements aft. Portsmouth and Dover. — Wheelwright's Pur- 
chase. — Mason's new Patent. — New Hampshire. — Upper and Lower 
Plantations. — Neal's Expedition to the White Mountains. — Survey of 
Portsmouth and Dover. — Discouragements. — Surrender of the Charter of 
the Plymouth Council. — Death of Mason. — Reflections. 

The discovery of America in 1492 by Christopher Co- 
lumbus was one of the most remarkable events in the his- 
tory of the world. In itself considered, it was wonderful 
that an entire continent should now, for the first time, be 
made known to the civilized nations of Europe ; while the 
effects of this discovery on the destiny of the human race 
are incalculable. On these shores, untrodden as yet save 
by the wild son of the forest, multitudes of every rank and 
condition sought a home. Hither came the needy adven- 
turer, too idle or too proud to labor with his hands, hoping 
that by some turn of fortune he should amass wealth or 
gain power. Here, too, the stern, unyielding, yet upright 
Puritan sought a dwelling-place where he might worship 



his God agreeably to the dictates of his own conscience. 
Those bereft of all hope of bettering their condition at 
home deemed the wilds of the new world a fitting place 
to hide their sorroAvs in solitude or to attempt to retrieve 
their ruined fortunes. The lawless outcast, compelled "to 
leave his country for his country's good," could find no 
more congenial spot than the newly-discovered continent. 

At this time, too, there was an unusual degree of intel- 
lectual excitement among the nations. Europe, for centu- 
ries buried in a universal night, began at length to arouse 
from her torpor and to exhibit new signs of vitality. The 
invention of the art of printing, of gunpowder, and the mar- 
iner's compass were among the results of this activity. It 
is not strange that, under such circumstances, a spirit of 
adventure should pervade the public mind, and that any 
bold leader could induce many to follow him, either for 
conquest or discovery. 

But it Avas not until a considerable time had elapsed that 
New England attracted any great share of public attention. 
The tide of emigration, that commenced flowing almost at 
the first announcement of the discovery, took a more south- 
erly direction. The first thing sought for was the precious 
metals ; and these, being found more abundant in southern 
latitudes, drew thither the eager crowd of adventurers. 
And besides, a mild and genial climate and a fertile soil 
offered far more inducements than the bleak shores of the 
north. But in 1614 the renowned Captain John Smith, so 
well known from his connection Avith the early settlement 
of Virginia, explored the Atlantic coast from the Penob- 
scot to Cape Cod, trading Avith the natives. During this 
voyage the RiA'cr Piscataqua, Avith the harbor at its mouth, 
was discovered. On his return to England he presented a 
map of the country to the Prince of Wales, afterwards 
Charles I., who called it Ncav Enghuid. 


In the year 1606 King James had granted a charter, lim- 
iting Virginia between the tliirty-fourth and forty-fifth de- 
grees of north latitude. This large territory was divided 
between two companies ; the southern part being assigned 
to London adventurers, the northern to certain persons in 
Bristol, Exeter, and Plymouth. The members of the 
northern, or Plymouth Company, finding themselves liable 
to be encroached upon by their neighbors, petitioned for a 
new charter, which was granted in 1620. The corporation 
thus instituted was composed of forty " nobles, knights, 
and gentlemen," and Avas called " The Council established 
at Plymouth, in the County of Devon, for the planting, 
ruling, and governing of New England in America." 

Among the most enterprising members of this council 
M'ere Sir Ferdinando . Gorges and Captain John Mason. 
The former had been an officer in the navy of Queen Eliz- 
abeth and companion of Sir Walter Raleigh, and was 
withal a man of most daring and adventurous spirit. The 
latter was originally a merchant of London, afterwards 
governor of Newfoundland, and was scarcely inferior to 
his rival in enterprise and boldness. He soon procured 
from the council a grant of the land between the river of 
Naumkeag — now Salem — and the Merrimack, and ex- 
tending back to the head waters of each. This he called 
Mariana. The next year, 1622, he and Gorges conjointly 
obtained a grant of the territory extending from the Mer- 
rimack to the Sagadahock,* and back to the great lakes 
and the river of Canada — the St. Lawrence. This was 
named Laconia. These two grants comprise nearly all the 
present territory of New Hampshire, together with portions 
of the adjoining states and Canada. The same year they 
formed the "Company of Laconia," for the purpose of col- 

* The Ivenncbeck. 


onizing their new possessions ; and in the spring of 1623 
they sent over David Thompson, Edward and William 
Hilton, with several others, to carry out their designs. 
Thompson, with one division, landed near the mouth of 
the Piscataqua, on the southern shore, at a place to which 
they gave the name of Little Harhor. Here they erected 
salt works and established a fishery. The Hiltons went 
eight miles farther up the river, to Northam, afterwards 
called Dover. These were the first settlements M'ithin the 
present limits of New Hampshire. Thompson, however, 
became dissatisfied with his situation, and in about one 
year removed to an island in Massachusetts Bay afterwards 
called by his own name. But it does not appear that this 
place, Avhere he had erected salt works and dwellings, was 
entirely deserted. 

For several years these colonies on the Piscataqua pro- 
gressed but slowly. Unlike those who landed at Plymouth 
to seek a home where they might enjoy civil and religious 
liberty, the first settlers of this state were seeking gain. 
They hoped, by establishing fisheries and carrying on trade 
with the natives, to secure an abundant requital for all their 
labor. Influenced by such feelings, they for a time neg- 
lected agriculture — the only sure resource of a new country. 

Thus time passed away, presenting but few incidents 
worthy of note. No remarkable events occurred ; at least 
none have been recorded. Doubtless in their own little 
circle these pioneei's of the wildei'ness experienced the 
usual variety that falls to the human race. But what toils 
and suflTcrings they endured, neither history, nor tradition 
informs us. 

In 1629 Rev. John Wheelwright and others of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay colony purchased of the Indians, for what 
they deemed a valuable consideration in " coats, shirts, and 


kettles," a considerable tract of land between the Piscata- 
qua and the Merrimack. The deed was signed by Passa- 
conaway, the chief sagamore of the Indian tribes in this 
part of New England, though exercising immediate juris- 
diction over the' Pennacooks living on the Merrimack in 
the vicinity of Concord. It was also signed by the chiefs 
of several other tribes. This land had been before granted 
to Gorges and Mason by the Plymouth Company ; but it 
must be admitted that the right conveyed by the original 
owners and occupants of the soil was f;ir better than that 
of a self-constituted company in a distant land or of a for- 
eign monarch claiming it by the right of discovery. 

Very soon after, Mason obtained a new grant from the 
Plymouth Council of this very same territorj' ; whence it 
has been conjectured that he and Gorges had made a mutual 
agreement to divide Laconia and take out new patents. 
This, from the county in England in which he had former- 
ly resided, he called New Hampshire. EdAvard Hilton 
also obtained a deed of the land occupied by himself and 
his associates in the vicinity of Dover. His patent includ- 
ed Dover, Durham, Stratham, and part of Newington and 
Greenland. The London adventurers, or those settled near 
the mouth of the river, secured a grant including Ports- 
mouth, Newcastle, and Rye, with part of Newington and 

Thus we find that in 1631 there were two settlements, 
entirely distinct and independent of each other, commonly 
called the Upper and Lower Plantations ; the one composed 
chiefly of " west country adventurers," the other of those 
from London. Of the former. Captain Thomas Wiggin 
was appointed agent ; of the latter. Captain Walter Neal. 
Between the two, quarrels sometimes arose about disputed 
territory ; but they were finally settled without bloodshed. 


A desii-e to discover gold pervaded the minds of the col- 
onists. New Hampshire, being a mountainous region, was 
deemed likely to abound in the precious metals. Thus, 
though ostensibly formed for " trade, fishery, salt making, 
building, and husbandry," the companies early began to ex- 
plore the wilds in search of metallic treasures. Fabulous 
stories of beautiful lakes and rivers abounding in fish, of 
fertile i.-ilands with most delightful climates', were freely cir- 
culated, and to a great extent believed. At length Captain 
Neal started on foot, with one or two companions, on an 
expedition to discover these fair lands in the interior of La- 
conia. The El Dorado was not found ; but in the course 
of their journey they saw the White Mountains ; and, find- 
ing something there resembling crystal, they called them the 
Crystal Hills. For want of provisions they Avere compelled 
to retux'n, but not until they supposed they were within 
one day's journey of the wished-for spot. 

In 1633 Neal and Wiggin surveyed their respective pat- 
ents and laid out the towns of Dover and Portsmouth. 
They agreed with Wheelwright that his proposed town at 
Swampscot Falls should be called Exeter. Hampton was 
laid out the same year ; but neither of the last two places 
was settled until some time later. 

But in the mean time Avant, privation, and hardship were 
producing their accustomed effects. Agriculture, as al- 
ready observed, was neglected: while the hopes of valuable 
discoveries proved Mlacious. Vines were planted, but 
eamc to nothing. There was not a mill in the colony ; but 
" bread was either brought from England in meal or from 
Virginia in grain, and theii sent to the windmill at Boston 
to be ground." Iron mines were discovered, but not 
wrought. The chief sources of income were trade and the 
fisheries ; but even these yielded no return to those who 
had advanced capital. Meanwhile new supplies of pro- 


visions, clothing, and other necessaries were frequently sent 
over from the mother country. But, under such circum- 
stances, it is no wonder that many abandoned the enterprise. 
Some sold their interests to Gorges and Mason, who, more 
sanguine than the rest, persevered, with the hope of future 
success, and finally became almost the sole proprietors. 
They appointed Francis Williams goveruor, who is repre- 
sented as a discreet, sensible man, and very acceptable to 
the people. 

The Virginia Company had always viewed the Plymouth 
Council with jealousy and dislike, and in 1635 complained 
of their charter as a monopoly. Gorges appeared in person 
before the Parliament to defend it, but in vain. The char- 
ter was surrendered ; though Gorges and Mason secured for 
themselves a considerable interest in the territory. Mason 
had gained New Hampshire, and also purchased of Gorges 
a tract north-east of the Piscataqua, three miles in width ; 
but hi» death, which happened the same year, put an end 
to all his projects. Had he lived, it is not improbable that 
he might have recovered at least a part of the capital he 
had expended. 

Thus it will be seen that the objects which Gorges and 
Mason had in view in sending colonists to this state were 
never realized. No vast mineral treasures were found ; no 
flourishing vineyards enlivened the landscape. After years 
of toil, after expending vast sums of money, they had failed 
to accomplish what they desired and hoped ; but they laid 
the foundations on which others built; they sowed the 
seed while- others reaped the harvest. And, though we 
may perhaps regard them as having mistaken views of the 
true sources of national prosperity, we cannot too much 
honor the memory of the mcrchimt adventurers who labored 
so long and so perseveringly to colonize the infant state. 


Religious Intolerance. — Antinomian Controversy. — Banishment of Wheel- 
wright. — Settlement of Exeter. — Formation of a Government. — Settle- 
ment of Hampton. — Affairs on the Piscataqua. — Wiggin visits England. 
— Erection of a Church. — Eurdet's Exploits. — Morton abandons Ports- 
mouth. — Underhill's Administration. — Knollys and Larkham. — Dover 
and Portsmouth form Governments. — Union with Massachusetts. — 
Wheelwright flees. — Laws of Massachusetts and Character of the early Set- 
tlers. — Persecution of the Quakers. — Witchcraft. 

Most of the early settlers of Massachusetts had been drir- 
en from then* native land by the intolerance of their rulers ; 
but, when they were once freed from their depressed situa- 
tion and placed in authority, they allowed no such liberty 
to others as they had claimed for themselves. Indeed 
they did not seem to understand the true principles of re- 
ligious freedom. Believing themselves to have attained 
perfect truth, they could see nothing but error in the creeds 
of all who differed from them in opinion ; and this they 
could not conscientiously tolerate. The strong arm of the 
law was invoked to check the spread of doctrines which 
they believed would be dangerous to the best interests of 
the state. It was this spirit — the fault of the times rather 
than of the men themselves — that drove "Wheelwright, al- 
ready mentioned as having purchased land of the Indians 
at Swampscot Falls, to establish a new settlement. He be- 
longed to a party of the church called Antinomians, and 
for a time was engaged in a very bitter and violent contest, 



in which the principal men of the colony participated ; but 
being at length overpowered, he, with several others, was 
banished from the territory of Massachusetts. At the time 
of making liis purchase he stipulated that a settlement 
should be commenced within ten years ; and, as this time 
was drawing to a close, he proceeded at once to establish a 
colony at Exeter. This was in 1638. As there was no 
general government in New Hampshire to which they 
could appeal for protection, they formed an independent 
system of their own. Their laws were based on the Bible. 
They had one chief magistrate and two assistants, chosen in 
an assembly of the people, and holding their offices one 
year. They were sworn to discharge their duty faithfully, 
while the people were sworn to obedience. The laws were 
enacted in a general assembly ; and in fact the whole organ- 
ization presents an example of a purely democratic form of 

About this time the Massachusetts colony empowered 
Richard Dumnier and John Spencer to commence improve- 
ments and to build a house at Hampton, called by the In- 
dians Winnicummet. What they most valued was an ex- 
tensive salt marsh, which bade fair to produce a supply of 
hay for their cattle. Soon after some persons from Norfolk 
county, England, had leave to settle here. The whole 
number was now fifty-six. The house first erected was 
long known as the Bound House. 

We must go back a little in the order of time to relate 
the condition of affairs on the Piscataqua. Portsmouth, 
having by the death of Mason lost her principal patron, 
was struggUng with difficulties. Nor was Dover entirely 
exempt from discouragements. In 1633 Captain Wiggin, 
the agent of the latter plantation, visited England to obtain 
new supplies. On returning, he brought with him from 
o * 


the west of that country several families of considerable 
property and " of some account for religion." Among 
the number was William Leveridge, a pious and devoted 
clergyman. They proceeded to lay out a compact town on 
Dover neck, trade being their principal object. On an in- 
viting part of the eminence they erected a church, which 
for greater security they surrounded with an intrenchment 
and flankarts ; but, on account of insufficient support, Lev- 
eridge was compelled to seek a more favorable locality. 
After this they had a number of ministers, some of whom 
proved unworthy of their high calling. The first of ihese 
was one Burdet, who came among them in 1634. He was 
at length elected governor, to the exclusion of Wiggin ; 
but, being detected in some criminal acts, he made a precip- 
itate flight to the Province of Maine, whence he never re- 

After the death of Mason, his widow and executrix sent 
over "William Norton as her agent, with full jDOwer to man- 
age her affairs at the Portsmouth plantation ; but after re- 
siding there some time, finding the expenses far exceeding 
the income, he abandoned the whole and gave up the im- 
provements to the tenants. Some removed, carrying pflF 
their goods and chattels ; wliile others remained, claiming 
the houses and other property as their own. But several 
of the buildings had been destroyed by fire ; so that at 
length nothing remained for the heirs of Mason excepting 
their interest in the soil. These events took place between 
1638 and 1644. 

Captain John Underbill was banished from Boston during 
the Antinomian controversy, and took refuge at Dover. 
Having been elected governor in place of Burdet, he formed 
a church, and placed one Knollys over it. Afterwards 
Thomas Larkham came and preached, and by his superior 


eloquence gained the favor of the people, so that they chose 
him as their minister in place of KnoUys ; but, as he ad- 
mitted persons of immoral character to the church, and also 
assumed civil authority, they restored Knollys. Dissen- 
sions and strife arose between them, and finally Knollys 
returned to England ; while Underbill went back to Boston, 
and, on making a confession, was restored to favor. 

The people of Dover and Portsmouth had as yet no set- 
tled form of government, having no authority from the 
crown to form one. It will be .recollected that the first 
settlements were mere private enterprises managed by 
agents ; but, finding this system insufficient to meet their 
present wants, they formed a combination at each of these 
places like that at Exeter. At Dover, in 1640, a written 
instrument was drawn up and signed by forty-one persons, 
agreeing to abide by the laws of England and those enacted 
by a majority of their own number until they should learn 
the royal pleasure. The exact time at which a similar ar- 
rangement was entered upon at Portsmouth is unknown. 

We have thus briefly traced the rise and progress of the 
first four settlements made within the present limits of New 
Hampshire. Each was independent of the other, there be- 
ing no union between them save that arising from similar 
circumstances and common dangers. At length a proposal 
was made to unite with Massachusetts. To this the lattei 
colony Avas by no means averse. Indeed they already laid 
claim to a great part of the territory of New Hampshire, 
though they had never tried to enforce it. Accordingly 
Portsmouth and Dover put themselves under the jurisdic- 
tion of Massachusetts in 1641 ; and Exeter did the same 
about one year later. Hampton was considered as a part 
of that colony already. Wheelwright, being still under 
sentence of banishment, removed with some of his foUow- 


eis to Wells, (Maine,) but was afterwards restored or 
making some slight acknowledgment. He subsequently 
preached at Hampton. 

On consummating this union the people of New Hamp- 
shire were allowed one remarkable privilege, considering 
the intolerance so prevalent at that time — which was, tha/ 
they might act in a public capacity without regard to thei," 
religious professions ; though by a previous law of Massa 
chusetts none but church members could vote on town af 
fairs or hold a seat in the General Court. 

For thirty-eight years, from 1641 to 1679, the history 
of New Hampshire becomes merged in that of the colony 
of which she became a constituent part. 

The laws of Massachusetts, which now took effect in our 
own state, were in many respects peculiar. Their social 
customs, too, were modified by their religious belief and by 
the circumstances in which they were placed. Inhabiting 
a new country, surrounded by a fierce and deadly foe, com- 
pelled to labor with all their poAver to supply their wants 
and to 'protect themselves from danger, they had but little 
inclination or opportunity to cultivate the :nilder graces 
and refinements of life. Every thing that had the appear- 
ance of levity was discarded. Their general design was to 
form a government with laws based on the Bible, and mod- 
elled, to a considerable extent, after the Jewish common- 
wealth. Their laws had reference to many things not 
usually regarded as coming under the jurisdiction of the 
civil magistrate. To quote Dr. Belknap,* " The drinking 
of healths and the use of tobacco were -forbidden j the for- 
mer being considered as a heathenish and idolatrous practice, 
grounded on the ancient libations, the other as a species of 

♦ History of New Hampshire, vol. i. p. 67. 


intoxication and waste of time. Laws were instituted to 
regulate the intercourse between the sexes and the advances 
towards matrimony. They had a ceremony of betrothing 
which preceded that of marriage. Pride and levity of be- 
havior came under the cognizance of the magistrate. Not 
only the richness, but the mode of dress and cut of the hair, 
were subject to state regulations. Women were forbidden 
to expose their arms or bosoms to view. It was ordered 
that their sleeves should reach down to their wrist and their 
gowns be closed around the neck. Men were obliged to 
cut short their hair, that they might not resemble women. 
No person not worth two hundred pounds was alloAved to 
wear gold or silver lace or silk hoods and scarfs. These 
pious rulers had more in view than the political good. 
They were not only concerned for the external appearance 
of sobriety and good order, but thought themselves obliged, 
so far as they were able, to promote real religion and en- 
force the observance of the divine precepts." 

But, notwithstanding some gloomy and forbidding traits, 
there is much in the character of the Puritans to command 
our admiration — much that is Avorthy of our approval and 
emulation. None could be more conscientious than they 
in the performance of what they regarded as duty. Their 
morals were of a high order. Intemperance and profanity 
were almost unknown. They early attended to the educa- 
tion of their youth, and for this purpose founded a college 
at Cambridge within a few years after their first settlement. 
They purchased land of the Indians which had already been 
granted by the crown. They regarded slavery as inconsist- 
ent with the natural rights of mankind, and by law forbade 
the buying and selling of slaves excepting those taken in 
war or reduced to this condition for crime. In 1645 the 


General Court ordered a negro who had been kidnapped 
from Africa and sold at Portsmouth to be sent back. 

But their great error was in confounding ci"sdl and reli- 
gious authority — a fact to which we have already alluded. 
Their ministers took part in the public assemblies, while 
the civil magistrates had a controlling voice in the churches. 
Toleration was regarded as " the firstborn of all abomina- 
tions ; " and the right of the magistrate to employ force 
against heretics and unbelievers was strongly insisted on. 
The Quakers especially suffered the weight of their ven- 
geance. At first they were banished ; but this punishment 
proving insufficient to check them, they were whipped, im- 
prisoned, and in some instances put to death. In the win- 
ter of 1662 three Quaker women were sentenced to be 
publicly whipped through eleven towns, with ten stripes 
apiece in each town. The sentence was executed in Dover, 
Hampton, and SaHsbury ; but at the latter place they were 
fortunately released through the agency of Walter Bare- 

The witchcraft delusion prevailed to some extent in New 
Hampshire. There is still on record an account of the trial 
of "Goodwife Walford " at Portsmouth in 1658. The 
complainant, Susannah Trimmings, testified as follows : * 
*' As I was going home on Sunday night I heard a rustling 
in the Avoods, which I supposed to be occasioned by swine ; 
and presently there appeared a woman, whom I apprehend- 
ed to be old Goodwife Walford. She asked me to lend 
her a pound of cotton. I told her I had but two pounds 
in the house, and I would not spare any to my mother. 
She said I had better have done it, for I was going a great 
journey, but should never come there. She then left me, 

* Adams's Annals of Portsmouth. 


and I was struck, as with a clap of fire, on the back ; and 
she vanished towards the water side, in my apprehension, in 
the shape of a cat. She had on her head a white linen 
hood, tied under her chin ; and her waistcoat and petticoat 
were red, with an old gown, apron, and a black hat upon 
her head." Several other witnesses were examined ; but 
the case was not then decided, and was probably droi^ped 
at the next term of the court. Mrs. Walford afterwards 
brought an action for slander against Robert Coutch for 
saying that she was a witch and he could prove her one. 
The verdict was in her favor — five pounds and costs. These 
trials arc curious as illustra|ing the spirit of the times, as 
well as the kind of evidence on the strength of which the 
accused were often condemned. Some other cases occurred 
in New Hampshire ; but none were ever convicted. 


Mason's Efforts to recover his Estate. — The King sends Commissioners to 
New England. — Their Reception, Treatment, and Proceedings. — Jealousy 
of the Indians. — Passaconnaway. — Commencement of King Philip's War. 
— Attacks on various Places. — Death of Lieutenant Plaisted. — The In- 
dians make Peace. — Death of King Philip, and Renewal of Hostilities at 
the East. — Waldron seizes the Refugees at Dover. — The Mohawks are so- 
licited to assist the English. — Captain Swett is defeated. — Conclusion of 
Peace. — Omens. 

The civil dissensions that prevailed in England at this 
time prevented the making of any determined efforts by the 
heirs of Mason to recover the possession of the New Hamp- 
shire plantations. In 1652 Joseph Mason came over to look 
after the interests of the family, and commenced an action 
against Kichard Leader, who was occupying some of the 
lands at Newichwannock. The case Avas finally brought 
before the General Court, which caused a survey to be 
made. By this it was found that the charter of Massachu- 
setts included all that had been granted to Mason and 
nearly all that hud been granted to Gorges. The court 
decided that " some lands at Newichwannock, with the riv- 
er, were, by agreement of Sir Ferdinando Gorges and oth- 
ers, apportioned to Captain Mason, and that he also had 
right by purchase of the 'Indians, as also by possession and 
improvement." The agent left soon after, making no effort 
to recover the rest of the estate. 



The first heir named in Mason's will died in infancy ; and 
Bobert Tufton, grandson of Captain John Mason, succeed- 
ed to the inheritance. The family had always been at- 
tached to the royal cause, and consequently had nothing to 
hope for during the protectorate of Cromwell. But on the 
restoration of Charles II., Tufton, Avho now took the sur- 
name of Mason, petitioned the crown for redress. The 
king referred the matter to his attorney general. Sir Geof- 
fry Palmer, who reported that Mason had a legal title to 
New Hampshire. Here the matter rested for some time ; 
but in KxG-i the king appointed four commissioners to visit 
the New England colonies and to examine and determine 
all matters of dispute. This was very offensive to the peo- 
ple of Massachusetts, as they regarded it as interferlng'tvith 
their liberties ; and accordingly they received the commis- 
sioners with great coldness. The latter, in their progress 
through the country, came to Portsmouth, but mad^ no 
settlement of the controversy. They told the citizens of 
that place that they would release them from the jurisdic- 
tion of Massachusetts, and took some measures to bring 
about such a result ; but most of the people preferred to re- 
main as they were. The commissioners returned, greatly 
incensed at the treatment they had received. For some 
time after this the foreign affairs of England so engrossed 
the attention of the royal government that they took no 
further action in regard to the claims of Mason. 

But now a greater danger threatened the colonies — 
which was an attack from the Indians. For many years the 
natives had been watching the growth and prosperity of the 
infant states with feelings of stifled jealousy. They saw 
their best hunting grounds encroached upon day by day ; 
they saw their new neighbors rapidly increasing in numbers 


and wealth ; until it became evident that the white man, if 
not speedily checked, would become the sole possessor of 
the land which had been theirs from time immemorial. But 
for a time fear kept them in ' restraint. An English gen- 
tleman who was present . gives an account of a dance and 
feast held by the Pennacooks in 1660. The aged Passa- 
connaway, famed far and wide for his wisdom and cunning, 
reputed as a sorcerer, with power to make water burn and 
trees dance, was present, and made his farewell speech, ad- 
vising them to cultivate the friendship of the English. He 
warned them that it would prove their o^wn ruin should 
they take a contrary course. His counsels had so much 
effect that his son and successor, Wonolanset, on the break- 
ing out of the war fifteen years afterwards, withdrew to a 
remote part of the country to aA'oid being da-awn into the 

Pliilip, of Mount Hope, son of the " good Massasoit," is 
commonly regarded as the instigator of this first general 
war; and it is supposed that he drew manj- of th.e neighbor- 
ing tribes into a combination to exterminate the English. 
The first attack was made on Swansey,* in June, 1675. 

The eastern Indians had some causes of their own to im- 
pel them to war. The wife of Squando, a noted sachem 
dwelling at Saco, was one day met by some sailors Avhile 
passing along the river in her canoe with her infint child. 
They had heard that the Indian children could swim as 
naturally as the young of beasts, and overset the canoe to 
try the experiment. The child was rescued by the mother, 
but died soon after, and its death was imputed to the treat- 
ment it had received. Squando now became a most bitter 
foe of the English, and used all his influence to excite a 

* Bristol county, Massachusetts. 


war against them. After the commencement of hostilities 
at Swanscy the war spread to other parts of the country. 
In September of the same year they made an incursion 
against Oyster llivcr, now Durham, where they burned 
two houses, killed two men, and carried away.two captives. 
They also killed one man, and took another prisoner, be- 
tween Exeter and Hampton. Soon after they attacked a 
house at Newichwannock in which fifteen women and chil- 
dren had taken refuge ; but a girl of eighteen saw them 
approaching, and stood against the door until they chopped 
it down with their hatchets. In the mean time all but two 
children escaped to a place of safety. The bold heroine 
was knocked down and left for dead, but finally recovered. 
The enemy now made their appearance on both sraes of 
the Piscataqua, burning houses and killing all ^\ ho fell in 
their way. Some young men of Dover took the licld 
against them and succeeded in killing two. All the Ifettle- 
ments of New Hampshire were now filled with alarm, and 
business was suspended. On the 16th of October an at- 
tack was made on Salmon Falls. Lieutenant Roger Plais- 
ted sent out seven men to search for the enemy ; but, foil- 
ing into an ambush, three were instantly killed, and the 
rest retreated. Plaisted then sent to Major Waldron for 
assistance, which the latter could not grant consistently 
with his own safety. The next day he ventured out with 
twenty men and a cart to bring in the dead bodies of the 
slain ; but, falHng into another ambush, his men deserted 
him. Plaisted himself, disdaining to yield or fly, was slain 
with one of his sons, while another son was mortally wound- 
ed. The gallant behavior of these men caused the Indians 
to retreat. 

The enemy still continued their predatory incursions^ 


plundering and burning wherever they found the people 
off their guard. They made their appearance opposite 
Portsmouth, but were dispersed by a few cannon shot. 
In this way the autumn was passed until the close of 
November, when the whole number of the slain exceeded 

The Massachusetts colony, being fully occupied in de- 
fending their southern and western borders, could afford no 
seasonable aid. Finding the necessity of vigorous action, 
the colony resolved to send a force against the head quar- 
ters of the enemy ; but the winter, setting in early and 
with great severity, prevented. But this circumstance in- 
clined the Indians to peace, as they were now pinched with 
famflBH*" Accordingly they came to Major Waldron, ex- 
pressing their sorrow for what had been done and promis- 
ing j^ be quiet and friendly. Through his influence a 
peac^was concluded with the eastern Indians, which con- 
tinued until the next August. The captives 'which they 
had taken were restored. 

In August, 1676, King Philip was slain, which put an 
end to the war in the southern quarter. Some of his fol- 
lowers took refuge among the Pennacooks, others with the 
eastern Indians — the Ossipees and Pequaketts. Hostili- 
ties were renewed through the influence of these refugees, 
and at length two companies were sent from Boston to Do- 
ver. Here they found a large number of Indians at the 
house of Major Waldron, whom they regarded as their 
friend and father. The Boston companies had orders to 
seize all Indians who had been engaged in King Philip's 
war, and, recognizing such among the number, would have 
fallen upon them at once had they not been dissuaded by 
Major Waldron, who proposed to have a training and sham 


fight the next day in order to take them by stratagem. 
This having been done, they were all seized and disarmed. 
A separation was then made ; the Pennacooks and those 
who had made peace the autumn before were set at liberty ; 
while the refugees — the strange Indians, as they were 
called — were retained as prisoners to the number of two 
hundred. Seven or eight who were convicted of having 
killed Englishmen were executed. The rest were sold into 
slavery in foreign parts. After this two or three expedi- 
tions were made into the wilderness, but without producing 
any important results. 

In 1677 an effort was made to induce the Mohawks to 
take part against the eastern Indians. But they made no 
distinction between the friendly and hostile t]-il)^^"knd 
consequently they did more harm than good to the ]^^sh. 
In June of the same year. Captain Swett, of H^^Bon, 
went to the Kennebeck River with two hundred ^Jlian 
and forty English soldiers, but was defeated and slain with 
many of his men. The savages then took some twenty 
fishing vessels, the crews not apprehending any danger. In 
the month of August, Andros, the governor of New York, 
sent a sloop with some forces to build a fort at Pemaquid. 
The Indians then appeared friendly, and continued peacea- 
ble during the autumn and winter. In the spring of 1678 
three commissioners were appointed to treat with Squando 
and the other chiefs of the eastern tribes. A treaty was 
concluded at Casco, now Portland, which put an end to 
this harassing war of three years' duration, of which the 
whole burden and expense were borne by the colonies 
themselves. They neither asked nor received any assist- 
ance from the royal government. 

The historians of that day have recorded many signs, 


omens, and predictions. Some imagined they heard guns 
and drums in the air ; others saw fiery swords and spears 
in the heavens. Even an eclipse was regarded as the fore- 
runner of some great event ; and, in short, every unusual 
appearance was considered as ominous. All this doubtless 
resulted from superstitious fear as well as from ignorance 
of the laws of Nature. 



Mason's renewed Efforts. — Randolph visits New England. — New Hampshire 
is erected into a ro)'al Province. — The Commission is published. — Meeting 
of the Assembly and making Laws. — Waldron succeeds President Cutts. — 
Cranficld is appointed Governor. — Plis arbitrary Proceeding. — Gove's Re- 
bellion. — Mason institutes a Suit against Major Waldron. — Weare is sent 
to England. — Persecution of Moody. — Fresh Usurpations of Power. — 
Resistance of the People. — Cranfield obtains Leave of Absence, —j^j^f^pot 
succeeds him. — Treaty with the Indians. 


While the colonists were engaged in the India^Bar 
Mason again petitioned the king for redress. Sir WSHm 
Jones, his attorney general, and Sir Francis Winnington, 
his solicitor general, to whom he referred the matter, re- 
ported that Mason ''had a good and legal title to the 
lands." This was in 1675. Edward Randolph was then 
sent over to make inquiry into the state of the country. 
He reported on his return that he found the whole country 
complaining of the usurpation of the magistrates of Boston, 
though the people both of Dover and Portsmouth had pe- 
titioned that they might " continue in possession of their 

•rights lender the government of Massachusetts." The l^t-1; 

■^ colony sent two agents to defend their, claims. Aft(5Mr 
RHl hearing before the lords chief justices of the King's 
Bench and Common Pleas, in 1677, it was decided that 
Massachusetts had no right of jurisdiction over New Hamp- 
shire, and that the four towns — Portsmouth, Dover, Exe- 
ter, and Hampton — did not belong to the former colony. 


They also denied the right of go^^ernment to Mason. No 
opinion was given as to the right of the soil, there being 
no court in Ensjland that had cognizance of it. 

All this paved the way to a separation from Massachu- 
setts ; and accordingly, in 1679, a commission Wis issued, 
forming New Plampshire into a royal province. The gov- 
ernment was to be administered by a president and council 
appointed by the king. Laws were to be enacted by an as- 
sembly of representatives chosen by the people. The pres- 
ident was required to appoint a deputy to succeed him in 
case of his death or absence. The king reserved the right 
to discontinue the assembly of the people if inconvenience 
should arise therefrom. The form of government was sim- 
p^H^i, with this exception, as liberal as could have been 

Tnus a union that had subsisted for thirty-eight years 
wa|pdissolved, to the great regret of the people of New 
Hampshire, being satisfied as they were with the govern- 
ment which they already enjoyed. In order to make the 
change more acceptable, the king appointed some of the 
most popular men of the colony to office. The president, 
John Cutts, was a highly-esteemed merchant of Ports- 
mouth. William Vaughan, John Gilman, and Richard 
Waldron were of the council. 

The royal commission was brought to Portsmouth on the 
1st of January, 1680. The persons therein named accept- 
ed their offices with great reluctance, and only through fear 
/^t, if they refused, others might be appointed wh<f avou 
not regard the interests of the colony. They publis! 
the commission and took the oaths of office on the 2!2d 
January. They issued writs calling an assembly, which 
met on the 16th of March. At the time of this election 
there were two hundred and nine voters in the four towns. 




The assembly immediately returned thanks to the Massa- 
chusetts colony for their former protection, and expressed 
their regret for the separation. They then proceeded to 
form a code of laws. Among the capital offences, which 
were fifteen in number, were reckoned idolatry, blasphemy, 
man stealing, treason, and witchcraft. The president and 
council, with the assembly, constituted the Supreme Court, 
and tliree inferior courts were formed. The militia was 
organized and put under the command of Richard Wal- 

The enforcement of the acts of trade and navigation 
caused some difficulty. Edward Randolph was appointed 
surveyor and collector of the customs throughout Ngw 
England. He sometimes acted in a violent and ar 
manner ; while the people, on their part, most strenu! 
resisted any assumption of authority. In the executio 
his commission he seized a ketch belonging to Portsmo 
and, having been brought before the council on complaint 
of the master of it, he behaved with such insolence that the 
court compelled him to make a public apology and ask for 
pardon. His deputy, Walter Barefoot, was fined ten 
pounds for his arbitrary proceedings in the matter. 

In the latter part of 1680 M^son came from England, 
empowered by the king to take a seat in the council. He 
soon endeavored to compel the people to take leases of 
him ; but the council to which they appealed for protection 
forbade such proceedings, and stated their intention of 
transmitting the grievances of the people to the king.»^ 
After this he refused to sit in the council, and soon re- 
turned to England. Meanwhile President Cutts died, and 
was succeeded by his deputy. Major Waldron. Under his 
administration affairs went on much as before, tjjt 

Mason, finding he could accomplish nothing under the 



circumstances then existing, labored to bring about a change 
of government ; and at his solicitation the king appointed 
Edward Cranfield lieutenant governor and commander-in- 
chief of New Hampshire, who accepted the office with the 
hope of gain. To insure this. Mason engaged to pay him 
one hundred and fifty pounds annually, and mortgaged 
the province for security. By his commission, which was 
granted in May, 1682, he was vested with new and extraor- 
dinary powers. He could suspend members of the coun- 
cil, veto laws passed by the assembly, dissolve the same at 
his pleasure, erect courts, and pardon criminals. He soon 
showed his tyrannical disposition by suspending two mem- 
bers of the council, Waldron and Martyn, but restored 
thgHfen the meeting of the assembly. Hoping to concil- 
ia^BSm, the assembly voted him a present of two hundred 
ad|Rifty pounds. But his good humor was shortlived. 
Armhe next session they refused to pass a bill which he 
presented them for the support of the government ; and he 
dissolved the assembly, having previously suspended Stile- 
man, a member of the council. 

This arbitrary proceeding excited the resentment of all 
the people. The excitement rose to such a pitch that sev- 
eral persons of Exeter and Hampton, headed by Edward 
Gove, a member of the dissolved assembly, declared for 
** liberty and reformation," and endeavored to bring about 
a revolution. But the project was so rash and dangerous 
that the principal men not only discountenanced it, but 
also aided in apprehending Gove and his followers.' A 
court was immediately held, and he, with several others, 
was convicted of treason. All but Gove were soon set sit 
liberty. He was sent to England, imprisoned in the Tower 
of London.for three years, when he was pardoned and his 
estate restored. 


On the 14th of February, 1683, the governor called on 
the inhabitants to take leases of Mason within one month. 
This they refused to do ; but some of the principal land- 
holders proposed to refer the matter to the governor, that 
he might state it to the king. Mason objected to this, say- 
ing he would have nothing to do with them unless they 
would acknowledge his title. 

Cranfield suspended several members of the council, and 
appointed in their places those who would be more sub- 
servient to his own wishes. Things being thus prepared. 
Mason took out a writ against Major Waldron for holding 
lands and selling timber to the amount of four thousand 
pounds. The latter challenged the jury as interested per- 
sons, some having taken leases of Mason, and all Hi 
upon lands which he claimed. But the trial went on, 
judgment was rendered against the defendant. Suits ^We 
instituted against others, with similar results ; but as 
son could find no purchaser of the lands, and was unable 
to keep possession of them himself, they continued to enjoy 
them as before. 

The governor, with his council, had now usurped the 
whole legislative power, so that the people were compelled 
to make a stand for their liberties. Staving raised money 
by subscription, they appointed Nathaniel Weare to make 
complaint to the king. 

In the mean time Cranfield was disappointed with regard 
to the accumulation of wealth. Having abused the people 
so much, he could expect nothing from their favor. He 
attempted to raise money by pretending fear of foi-eign in- 
vasion ; but the assembly refused to pass the bill, and he 
• again dissolved them. 

Mr. Moody, the minister of Portsmouth, being a strong 
advocate of the cause of the people, was the object of his 


peculiar vengeance. Soon after the dissolution of the as- 
sembly, he signified to Moody his intention to partake of 
the Lord's supper on the next Sabbath, and required him 
to administer it according to the liturgy. As Cranfield 
had foreseen, he refused to do so, never having been episco- 
pally ordained. An action was commenced against him, 
and he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment, but was 
released at the end of three weeks on condition that he 
should preach no more in the province. He went to Bos- 
ton and remained there for several years, but afterwards 
returned to Portsmouth. 

Cranfield now undertook to tax the people by the aid of 
the council without the consent of the assembly. But the 
council, though composed principally of his friends, re- 
fuM|id to adopt this measure until the rumor of a plot among 
thoi'^indians to renew hostilities in the spring aroused their 

Warrants for the collection of the taxes were issued in 
the summer of 1684 ; but the constables every where en- 
countered great opposition. At Exeter forcible resistance 
was made to the sheriff.* Mason ordered out the troop of 
horse under his command to assist in enforcing the laws; 
but not a man appeared on the day appointed. 

The agent who was sent to England had been waiting a 
long time for depositions from home. Cranfield retarded 
the business by refusing to summon and swear witnesses. 

* " History wijl justify us in boasting somewhat of Old Exeter. We find 
her people ever ready to resist oppression in every form. When the royal gov- 
ernor, Cranfield, undertook to impose taxes on the people of New Hampshire 
without their consent, at Exeter, his officers who were sent to collect the tax 
were beaten off" with clubs by the men, and attacked by the women, with true 
Antinomian spirit, with boiling water, whenever they attempted to enter their 
houses." — Speech of Henry C. French, Esq., at the " Second New Ilampahirt 


and also by denying access to the public records. Weare 
at length made out his complaint in general terms, which 
was referred to the Board of Trade, who summoned Cran 
field to make his defence. When the evidence was all pre- 
sented, new articles of complaint were drawn up. After a 
hearing, their lordships made a report censurhig the course 
of Cranfield. He had before applied for leave of absence ; 
which was now granted, and he sailed for Jamaica. Wal- 
ter Barefoot, his deputy, succeeded him, and continued in 
office until superseded by Dudley as president of New Eng- 
land. During his administration a treaty of friendship was 
concluded with the Pennacook and Saco Indians. Hagkins, 
a chief of the former tribe, having heard that the Mohawks 
were coming to destroy them, besought the protection of 
the English. It was stipulated that personal injuries -on 
either side should be redressed ; that information of approach- 
ing danger from enemies should be given ; that the Indians 
should not remove without giving due notice ; and that, 
while these articles were observed, the English should 
assist them and defend them against the Mohawks and all 
other enemies. The peace continued about four years. 


The Charter of Massachusetts forfeited. — Dudley appointed President of New 
England. — Succeeded by Andros. — His tyrannical Proceedings. — Reyo- 
lution in England. — Temporary Union with Massachusetts. — Allen ap- 
pointed Governor and Usher Lieutenant Governor. — King William's War. 
— Attack on Dover. — Salmon Falls. — Expedition to Canada. — Tempora- 
ry Peace. — Attack on Oyster River. — Conclusion of Peace. — Usher's Ad- 
ministration. — Partridge supersedes him. — The Earl of Bellamont is ap- 
pointed Governor, and visits New Hampshire. — Allen's Efforts. — Dudley 
appointed Governor. 


The British government was becoming more and more 
oppressive while Charles II. occupied the throne. Fre- 
quent complaints of the New England colonies were made 
to him, to which he gave a ready ear, even then fearing the 
rising spirit of liberty which existed among his distant sub- 
jects. Some time before his death he declared the charter 
of Massachusetts forfeited. His successor, James II., issued 
a commission, appointing Joseph Dudley president of New 
England — thus bringing New Hampshire under the same 
government with Massachusetts. He managed affairs with 
comparative moderation, in order to bring the new system 
into operation without exciting the resentment of the people. 
But in a few months he was succeeded by Sir Edmund An- 
dros as captain general and governor-in-chief of New Eng- 
land. Andros entered upon the duties of his office with 
the fairest professions, but soon showed himself a rapacious 

tyrant. He appointed only such to the council as were 



willing to aid him in his oppressive schemes. The liberty 
of the press was restricted. The people were allowed to 
hold a town meeting only once a year, and then for the 
choice of officers. To prevent complaints being carried to 
England, he forbade any one to leave the colony without 
his express permission. 

While the colonies were suffering such oppression, the 
report of a revolution in England reached them. William 
III. ascended the throne in 1688 ; but, before the news 
was well authenticated, the people assembled and im- 
prisoned Andros. A committee of safety was organized 
to assume the reins of government until they should re- 
ceive orders from England Andros was sent home as a 

In the mean time t^.e people of New Hampshire were 
left without a government. They waited for orders from 
the mother country, but none came; and in 1690 they held 
a convention of deputies chosen from each town. This 
assembly petitioned to be admitted under the jurisdiction 
of Massachusetts ; which was granted, and delegates were 
sent to the General Court of that colony for two or three 
years. Their own wish was to become a constituent part 
of Massachusetts ; but the king refused to grant a charter 
to that effect. 

Mason had made some unsuccessful attempts to recover 
his estate during the administration of Andros. He died 
in 1688, leaving two sons, John and Robert, heirs to the 
claim. They afterAvards sold their title to the New Hamp- 
shire lands to Samuel Allen, of London, who soUcited the 
king for a commission as governor. Notwithstanding the 
desire of the people to be annexed to Massachusetts, the 
king gave him the appointment, with John Usher as his 


lieutenant, with power to act in his absence. TJsker ar- 
rived and entered upon his duties in 1692;. 

While the colony was suffering the embarrassment at- 
tendant on a change of government as Avell as the claims 
of the Masonian proprietors, a fresh war with the Indians 
broke out, commonly called King William's war. The 
Bai'on de St. Castine, a French nobleman, had chosen the 
rude life of an Indian trader, and was now living at Penob- 
scot. Being connected with some of the chiefs by mar- 
riage, he had great influence with the natives. In 1688 
Andros plundered his house and fort. Justly indignant 
at this base act, he urged the Indians to war. They, too, 
had some real or supposed injuries £o avenge ; and it 
proved no difficult matter to arouse a sanguinaiy conflict. 

Thirteen years had passed since the seizure of the In- 
dians at Dover ; but they still remembered it, and longed 
for vengeance. Some of those who had been sold into sla- 
very had returned to excite their brethren. Wonolanset, 
however, still regarded the prophetic injunction of his fa- 
ther, and kept aloof from the contest. 

The first outbreak was at North Yarmouth, Maine, 
where they killed some cattle. Several were takea prison- 
ers ; but Andros, hoping to conciliate the natives, ordered 
them to be set at liberty. This clemency not proving ef- 
fectual, he led an army into the wilderness, but saw no In- 
dians. After he was deposed, those who managed affairs 
tried to prevent the renewal of hostilities, and sent messen- 
gers and presents for this purpose ; but, though the savages 
made fair pi'omises, they were ready to break them at the 
first opportunity. 

On the evening of the 27th of June, 1689, two squaws 
applied at each of the garrisoned houses in Dover for lodg- 


ing. The people, fearing no danger, readily admitted 
them. jNIesandowit, one of the chiefs, was entertained at 
Major Waldron's. *' Brother Waldron," said he, with his 
usual familiarity, while they were at supper, "what would 
you do if the strange Indians should come ? " "I can as- 
semble a hundred men," was the reply, " by lifting up my 
finger." With this fital confidence they retired to rest. 
When all was quiet, those within opened the gates and 
gave the signal. The savages rushed in and began their 
bloody work. Waldron, though eighty years of age, seized 
his sword and drove the assailants back through two doors, 
but was stunned by a blow from a hatchet. He was then 
put to death with the most cruel tortures. Twenty-three 
persons were killed in this attack and twenty-nine taken 
prisoners. The captives were carried to Canada and sold 
to the French. 

Several expeditions were now made against the enemy, 
but without success — the most that they could do being to 
destroy their corn. In the winter of 1690 the Count de 
Frontenac, governor of Canada, despatched three parties to 
lay waste the English settlements. One party attacked 
Salmon Falls ; and, though the inhabitants fought bravely, 
they were overpowered, with the loss of thirty killed and 
fifty-four prisoners. Their buildings were consumed, with 
the cattle which were in the barns. A number of men col- 
lected from the neighboring towns pursued them. A sharp 
conflict ensued ; but the Indians, having the advantage of 
situation, escaped. 

After this predatory excursions were frequently made. 
Some were killed at Newington and at Exeter. Two com- 
panies which were out scouting came up with the enemy at 
Wheelwright's Pond, in Lee, where a bloody conflict took 


place. Fifteen of the English, including Captain Wiswal, 
were killed, and several wounded. 

The colonies now resolved to make an expedition against 
Canada, which was regarded as the source of their troubles. 
In 1690 an army of two thousand men was raised, and the 
command given to Sir William Phipps ; but they did not 
reach the vicinity of Quebec until October. The troops be- 
came sickly and dispirited ; and this, in connection with the 
lateness of the season, compelled them to return without 
having accomplished any thing. But fortunately the In- 
dians desired a cessation of hostilities ; and peace continued 
until the next summer, when they attacked AVells, in 
Maine, but were repulsed. Soon after several persons 
were killed at Rye. But the colonists had become accus- 
tomed to Indian warfare, and were well prepared for de- 
fence. They kept out ranging parties to guard their fron- 
tiers and save them from surprisal. This kept the enemy 
so much in subjection that but little mischief was done ; 
and in 1693 they sued for peace. They agreed to deliver 
up all their captives, to become subjects of the English 
government, and to observe perpetual peace. They might, 
perhaps, have kept their promises ; but the French urged 
them to renew the war. The very next year, Villicu, who 
was the commander at Penobscot, accompanied by a French 
priest, led a force of two hundred men against Oyster Riv- 
er, then a part of 'Dover, but noAv Durham. There were 
twelve garrisoned houses, of which five were destroyed ; 
the rest were successfully defended. Between ninety and 
one hundred persons were killed or taken prisoners. From 
this time until 1697 the inhabitants of New Hampshire 
continued to suffer from the incursions of their savage foe, 
though but few events occurred worthy of note. Among 
the victims was the widow of President Cutts. In 1696 


they made an attack at Portsmouth plain and killed four- 

After peace was concluded between the English and 
French governments, Count Frontenac told the Indians 
that he could no longer assist them, and advised them to 
bury the hatchet and restore the captives. They hesitated 
for a time, "but finally made a treaty of peace. Most of the 
captives were restored. Thus terminated this distressing 
war with a cruel and treacherous foe. 

Meanwhile Usher was managing the civil affairs of the 
colony. Somewhat imperious and overbearing in his man- 
ners, his conduct by no means pleased the liberty-loving 
sons of New Hampshire ; and the fact that he was in the 
interest of one who laid claim to their lands was enousrh 
to excite a prejudice against him, and to render his admin- 
istration, though devoid of any remarkable occurrences, a 
scene of petty strife. 

In 1697 William Partridge, of Portsmouth, received a 
commission appointing him lieutenant governor in place of 
Usher. One of his first acts was to restore several mem- 
bers of the council who had been suspended by his prede- 
cessor. But the next year, the Earl of Bellamont, having 
been appointed governor of New York, Massachusetts Bay, 
and New Hampshire, came to New York, where he re- 
mained the first year after his arrival. During that time 
Allen came over and assumed the command. His short 
administration was marked by continual altercations be- 
tween himself and the people. But in the spriug of 1699 
the Earl of Bellamont set out to visit his eastern colonies, 
and assumed the government of New Hampshire, to the 
great joy of the people. Partridge, who had withdrawn 
on the arrival of Allen, now returned and resumed his 


office. The eaii departed in about eighteen days, leaving 
Partridge in command. 

Allen now attempted to obtain possession of the territo- 
ry which he had purchased of the Masons. But the judg- 
ments of the courts previously rendered in favor of the 
claimants could not now be found, and he was compelled 
to commence anew. The courts of the colony having de- 
cided against him, he appealed to the king. Failing in the 
proof of some important points, he lost his case, though the 
royal council gave him permission to begin new suits in the 
New Hampshire courts. But at length, wearied out with 
continued disappointment and delay, he proposed to make a 
comj^romise with the people ; but his sudden death pre- 
vented its consummation. 

In the mean time the Earl of Bellamont died ; and Queen 
Anne appointed Joseph Dudley governor of Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire. This was in 1702. The next year 
Usher was again-appointed lieutenant governor. 

After the death of Allen his son and heir renewed the 
suit ; but the jury rendered a verdict against him. He ap- 
pealed to the queen ; but the ministry suspended the final 
decision ; and at length his death ended the contest 


Dudley holds a Conference with the Indians. — They commence Hostilities. — 
Various Attacks. — Defence of Durham. — Expeditions against Port Royal. 
— Death of Colonel Hilton. — Attempted Reduction of Canada. — Appoint- 
ment of Shutc and Vaughan as Governor and Lieutenant Governor. — The 
latter is superseded by John Wentworth. — Progress in industrial Pur- 
suits. — Settlement of Londonderry. — Incorporation of new Towns. — 
Governor Shute returns to England. — More Trouble with the Indians. — 
Causes of their Hostility to tlie English. — Attempt to capture Ralle. — At- 
tack on Dover and other Places. — Expedition to Norridgewock and Death 
of RaUe. — Adventures of Captain LovewcU. — Ratification of Peace. 

Dudley, on assuming his office, had some fears of an In- 
dian outbreak ; and to prevent this, if possible, he called 
together the chiefs of several tribes and with them con- 
firmed peace, which they made the most solemn promises 
to maintain inviolate. But, notwithstanding their fair pro- 
fessions, urged on by the French, they soon renewed hos- 
tilities. The first attack was made in August, 1703, — only 
a few months after the conference, — upon the eastern set- 
tlements of Maine. From this time until peace was de- 
clared, in 1713, the inhabitants of the frontiers were kept 
in constant fear. Yet no very memorable actions were per- 
formed; and the history of this war, commonly called 
Queen Anne's war, so far as it relates to New England, 
presents little else than individual instances of suffering 
and cruelty. 

At Hampton village the savages killed five persons; 



among Avliom was the widow Mussey, a speaker among the 
Friends. A winter expedition was undertaken against 
them, but resulted in nothing. In the spring of 1704 they 
renewed hostihties and attacked the settlements on Oyster 
and Lamprey Rivers. Colonel Church soon after sailed 
alonar the eastern shore and did the enemy considerable 
damage. In 1706 they attacked the garrison at Durham. 
The men were all absent ; but the women, putting on hats 
and disguising themselves as much as possible, defended 
the place so valiantly that the enemy fled. The next win- 
ter Colonel Hilton succeeded in surprising eighteen of the 
savages ; wliich, on account of the difficulty of finding the 
enemy, was regarded as a great victory. The same year 
an expedition was fitted out against Port Royal,* in Nova 
Scotia, the capital of the French settlements. On landing, 
they fell into an ambuscade of the Indians ; but Walton 
and Cheslcy, at the head of the New Hampshire troops, 
pushed on and put the enemy to flight. But disagreements 
arose among the officers ; and finally the army returned 
sickly and dispirited, but without having suffered any great 

For a considerable time but little was done on either side. 
The Indians were still prowling about, ready to fall upon 
any whom they might find off" their guard. In 1710 a 
new effort was made to reduce Port Royal, which proved 
successful. While preparations were being made for this, 
and before the officers were appointed, New Hampshire 
was called to mourn the loss of the brave Colonel AVinthrop 
Hilton. He had gone out with several others to a consid- 
erable distance from home to peel the bark from some trees 
which had been felled. While engaged in this the Indians 

* Now called Annapolis. 


rushed suddenly upon them and killed three, one of whom 
was Colonel Hilton, and took tAvo prisoners. The rest 
fled, unable to make any defence, their guns being wet. 
Thus fell this gallant man, to the great grief of the colony. 

In 1711 the English government sent over a force to aid 
the colonics in attempting the conquest of Canada. To 
this New Hampshire contributed one hundred men. The 
army consisted of more than six thousand men, well sup- 
plied with the munitions of war. They set out with the 
fairest prospects of success ; but in one fatal night their 
hopes were blasted. A part of the fleet was wrecked in 
the St. Lawrence, and a thousand men perished : the rest 
returned. This failure emboldened the Indians, who re- 
newed their attacks at Exeter, Oyster River, and Dover. 
But in 1712 the news of the peace of Utrecht was received, 
to the great joy of the people. Hostilities were then sus- 
pended ; and not long after a formal peace was ratified with 
the Indians. A vessel was then sent to Quebec to ex- 
change prisoners. By this many were released from what 
had seemed a hopeless bondage and restored to their home 
and friends. Some, however, had become so attached to 
the life of the Indian that they preferred to remain rather 
than to return to civilized life. 

On the accession of George I. to the throne of England, 
in 1715, a change of government was expected; and, 
though the assembly petitioned for the continuance of 
Dudley, their request was not granted. Samuel Shute 
was appointed governor of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire, and George Vaughan lieutenant governor of the lat- 
ter province. As Dudley was in daily expectation of his 
successor, though not then actually superseded, he gave up 
the command of New Hampshire to the lieutenant ; so that 
for a year Vaughan had the sole management of affairs. 


He attempted to establish the land tax of Great Britain in 
Ids province — a procedure which greatly offended the 

Governor Shute arrived and published his commission in 
1716. On assuming his office he removed several of the 
councillors, and appointed citizens of Portsmouth in their 
places. This gave offence to the other towns of the colony, 
as they feared the preponderance of the trading interest. 
In the mean time a controversy arose between the govern- 
or and his lieutenant — the latter claiming the right to ex- 
ercise the command whenever the former was absent from 
the province. As Shute resided most of the time in Bos- 
ton, tbis would have given Vaughan almost the exclusive 
administration of business ; but, having disobeyed some of 
the instructions of the governor, he was complained of to 
the king, who removed him, and appointed John Went- 
worth in his place. 

During the long and di-tressing war with the Indians it 
required all the energy of the people of New Hampshire to 
bave themselves from utter destruction. But the glad re- 
turn of peace brought with it a desire to develop the re- 
sources of the infant state. The noble Avhite pines of the 
forest were well adapted to the use of the royal navy ; and, 
to preserve those suitable for masts, a surveyor was ap- 
pointed to mark all such with a broad arrow, and a law 
was enacted forbidding any person to cut a tree thus re- 
served except at the direction of the surveyor. But the peo- 
ple sometimes violated the law, which their acquaintance 
with the woods enabled them to do, often with impunity. 
They complained, too, that the surveyor neglected to mark 
the trees, and then prosecuted those who ventured to use 

There were also in some localities many pitch-pine trees 


from which tar and turpentine Avere manufactured. A 
company of merchants attempted to monopolize the manu- 
facture of these articles ; but, when a large number of trees 
were prepai-ed for use, they were destroyed by unknown 

The raising of hemp was commenced, but not prosecuted 
to any great extent, as there was no more land under cul- 
tivation than was needed for other purposes. Encourage- 
ment was given to the manufacture of iron — the ore being 
abundant in several localities. For the further encourage- 
ment of the colonists, as well as for the benefit of the 
mother country, lumber was admitted into England free of 

In the spring of 1719 the province received an accession 
of inhabitants from the north of Ireland. They were the 
descendants of Scotch Presbyterians who had settled in the 
counties of Antrim and Londonderry for the sake of great- 
er religious fi'eedom ; but as some penal laws were still in 
force, and as they were compelled to pay tithes, they deter- 
mined to seek a home in the new world. One hundred 
and twenty families embarked for America ; of whom a part 
landed at Boston, the rest at Portland. Sixteen families 
selected a place then called Nutfield* as their future home. 
Soon afler their arrival at this place a sermon was preached 
under a large oak, which was long regarded with peculiar 
veneration. As soon as they were settled they called Mc- 
(jrregore to be their minister, who remained with them un- 
til his death. He is said to have been "a. -wdse, affection- 
ate, and faithful guide to them both in civil and religious 
concerns.'' In the mean time they received additions to 
their number; and in 1722 their town was incorporated 

* On account of the large number of walnut ^d chestnut trees growing there. 



under the name of Londonderry — from a city in Ireland 
memorable for its defence when besieged by the army of 
King James, Some of their number had suffered the hard- 
ships of this siege. 

These settlers were conscientious, frugal, and industri- 
ous, and, as might have been expected, rapidly increased 
in wealth and influence. Their descendants emigrated to 
various places in New England, and now number many 
thousands. Among them are reckoned some of the most 
distinguished men of our country. 

The way was now paved for the settlement of other un- 
occupied lands; and in 1722 four townships — Chester, 
Nottingham, Barrington, and Rochester — were chartered 
and incorporated. The signing of these charters was the 
last official act of Governor Shute. Though the people of 
New Hampshire were well satisfied with his management, 
he encountered so much opposition in Massachusetts that 
he returned to England. Lieutenant Governor Wentworth 
then took the command. 

Again was the colony called to endure the hardships of 
an Indian war. Again the war whoop of the savage was 
heard, while the smoke of burning dwellings marked his 
destructive progress. 

There were various causes which operated to bring on 
this war. The English had always treated the Indians as 
subjects of the royal government, and, as such, endeavored 
to control them ; while the French permitted them to re- 
tain their savage independence. The royal governors at 
the north did not endeavor, like William Penn, to gain 
their good will by kind and just treatment. They some- 
times purchased land of them, but generally for an incon- 
siderable price. Even when a purchase was made, the In- 
dians, having no records, soon forgot the transaction, or 


thought that bargains made by their ancestors were not 
binding upon themselves. They complained, too, of the 
traders, who often took advantage of their ignorance. At 
first they were not aware that the building of dams and the 
cultivation of the soil would lessen their supplies of fish 
and game ; but when they found this to be the case they 
determined to check the further progress of the English. 

The Jesuits had, at an early period, established mission- 
ary stations among the eastern Indians.* One of these 
was at Norridgewock, on the Kenn check, under the care 
of Sebastian Ralle. By his gentle, condescending deport- 
ment, and by his kind treatment of the natives, he had 
gained their confidence and good will to such an extent 
that he possessed almost unlimited influence over them ; 
but the English regarded him as the chief instigator of 
strife, and determined on his capture. For this purpose a 
party was despatched under Colonel Westbrook ; but Father 
Halle escaped. This was in the winter of 1722. The In- 
dians could not suffer such an attempt against their spirit- 
ual father to remain long unrevenged. Before this they 
had been troublesome to the settlers in the eastern towns — 
burning their hay, killing their cattle, and the like ; but 
now they prepared for more desperate measures. The 
next summer they took several prisoners at Merry Meeting 
Bay, and soon after destroyed Brunswick. The govern- 
ment then decided upon hostilities ; and a formal declara- 
tion of war was issued at Boston and Portsmouth. 

The first appearance of the enemy in New Hampshire 
was at Dover ; their next at Lamprey River ; and soon after 
they attacked the settlements at Oyster River, Kingston, 
and Chester. There were several families of Quakers at 

* Called by the French the Aheneqais. 


Dover, who refused to use any means of defence, believing 
the use of arms unlawful. The savages marked the house 
of John Hanson for their prey. While Hanson, two of his 
sons, and his oldest daughter were absent, they entered the 
house and took his wife, with four of his children, prison- 
ers. Mr. Hanson afterwards went to Canada and redeemed 
his wife and three of the children. The other, a daughter, 
he could not obtain. He started a second time, hoping to 
procure her release, but died at Crown Point while on his 
way to Canada. 

In 1724 a second expedition was made against Norridge- 
wock. Father Ralle and a large number of the Indians 
were killed. The victorious party destroyed the chapel, 
and brought away the plate and furniture of the altar as 
trophies of the battle. Ralle was then sixty-eight years of 
age, and had been a missionary among the Indians for thir- 
ty-one years. 

The colonial government offered a reward of one hun- 
dred pounds for each Indian scalp. This, together with 
their hatred of the enemy, induced many parties to go out 
as volunteers. One of these companies, vmder the com- 
mand of Captain John Lovewell, of Dunstable, was much 
distinguished, at first by success, and afterwards by misfor- 
tune. In the first excursion they killed one and took a 
boy alive. Returning to Boston, they received the prom- 
ised reward and several presents in addition. This success 
increased the number of the company to seventy. They 
started on a second expedition ; but their provisions fell 
short, and thirty of the number were dismissed. The re- 
mainder went on, and in the town of Wakefield surprised 
ten Indians asleep, whom they killed. A third time they 
set out, intending to attack the villages of the Pequaketts 
on the upper branches of the Saco. One of the men falhng 


sick, they built a stockade fort on the west side of Great 
Ossipee Pond. Here they left the surgeon and several of 
the company for a guard. The number was now reduced 
to thirty-four. Marching north some twenty-two miles, on 
the morning of the 8th of May, 1725, they saw a solitary 
Indian standing on a point of land projecting into a pond 
near which they had encamped.* Apprehending that he 
was placed there as a decoy, they concealed their packs 
among the trees and proceeded with great caution. In the 
mean time two parties of Indians, under Paugus and Wah- 
wa, came upon their track and pursued it until they came 
to the place where they had left their packs. Counting 
these, and finding the number of the English less than their 
own, they placed themselves in ambush near the spot. 

Lovewell's company, having met the Indian who was 
first seen, killed and scalped him. Seeing no others, they 
returned to the place where they had left their packs. 
While looking for them, the Indians rose and commenced 
firing. Captain Lovewell and eight of his men were killed 
on the spot. The rest, under Lieutenant Wyman, reso- 
lutely defended themselves ; and towards night the savages 
retired. Paugus was slain. 

On assembling the remnant of the company, it was found 
that nine were unhurt, and eleven wounded, but able to 
march. Their chaplain, Jonathan Frye, Ensign Robbins, 
and another were mortally wounded. These they were 
compelled to leave. They made the best of their way to 
the fort where the guard had been left ; but, to their sur- 
prise, it was deserted. In the beginning of the action one 
man had fled from the field and informed them of the de- 
feat of Lovewell. From this place they set out for home. 

• This pond is in Fryeburg, Maine. The scene of action is stiU pointed out 



One or two perished of their wounds ; the rest returned in 

The colonies now sent commissioners to complain to 
Vaudreuil, the governor of Canada, of the aid he had given 
the Indians. This produced a favorable effect ; and in the 
latter part of 1725 a treaty of peace was made at Boston, 
and ratified the next spring at Falmouth. 


Controversy with Massachusetts. — Grants of To^vnships. — A new Assembly 
is chosen. — Burnet's short Administration. — Belcher succeeds him. — 
Death of Wentworth and Appointment of Dunbar. — Party Strife. — Set- 
tlement of the Boundary. — War with France. — Siege and Capture of Lou- 
isburgh. — Project to invade Canada. — Approach of a French Fleet. — 
Indian Hostilities. — Defence of Charlestown. — The Heir of Mason sells 
his Claim. — Controversy between Governor "Wentworth and the Assem- 
bly. — Proposal to settle the CoOs. — Jealousy and Resentment of the In- 

A CONTROVERSY now arose with Massachusetts respect- 
ing the boundary line between the two provinces. That 
colony claimed all the land to a line commencing at a point 
three miles north of the mouth of the Merrimack, thence 
running west and north parallel with the river to a point 
in the present town of Sanbornton, thence due west. To 
strengthen this claim by gaining possession of the disputed 
territory, several grants were made and new settlements 
commenced. The Indians had mostly disappeared from 
New Hampshire ; and now the fertile lands on the Merri- 
mack, once the dwelling-place of the Pennacooks, were 
taken possession of by emigrants from Massachusetts. The 
settlement of Concord was commenced in 1727. Town- 
ships were also granted to the descendants of soldiers who 
had been engaged in the wars of the previous century, and 
to the survivors of Lovewell's company. This aroused the 



New Hampshire government, which the same year granted 
several townships. 

On the death of George I. the assembly, which had sub- 
sisted five years, was dissolved, and a new one called in 
the name of Geoi'ge II. On meeting, an act was passed 
limiting the dui'ation of the assembly to three years. The 
house then attempted to remodel the courts ; but the coun- 
cil resisted. A contest sprang up between them, which the 
lieutenant governor terminated by dissolving the assembly. 
This gave offence to the people ; but in the mean time 
William Burnet arrived and published his commission as 
governor of New Hampshire and Massachusetts. He died 
within a few months after his arrival, and Jonathan Bel- 
cher succeeded him. This was in 1730. 

Governor Belcher, having taken offence at some of die 
proceedings of Wentworth, treated him with great coldness 
and deprived him of a large part of his salary. The latter 
died soon after ; but his friends resented th5 affront and 
formed a party in opposition to the governor. David Dun- 
bar was appointed the successor of Wentworth, and imme- 
diately joined the opposition. 

Whatever were the alleged grounds of the controversy, 
it is evident that Governor Belcher and his friends had pro- 
jected the union of New Hampshire with Massachusetts ; 
while the opposing party demanded a distinct governor, who • • 
should reside in their own province. The chief obstacle 
in the way of this was the want of adequate means of sup- 
porting him ; and to remove this, it became their object to 
enlarge their territory and to fix its boundaries. In 1731 
a committee of both provinces met at Newbuiy, but 
through the influence of Massachusetts failed to come to 
an agreement. The representatives of New Hampshire 


then appealed to the king, and appointed John Rindge, of 
Portsmouth, to present the petition. The matter was re- 
ferred to the Board of Trade, and at length it was ordered 
that the settlement of the line should be made by a board 
of commissioners chosen from the councillors of the neigh- 
boring provinces. The board met at Hampton in 1737. 
The commissioners fixed upon the present eastern bounda- 
ry, but made no positive decision as to the southern line. 
Both parties then appealed to the king, who, in 1740, ter- 
minated the dispute in favor of New Hampshire, giving 
her a tract of land fifty miles in length by fourteen in 
breadth more than she had claimed.* 

In the mean time the opponents of Governor Belcher 
were laboring strenuously to procure his removal, and were 
finally successful. He was succeeded in Massachusetts by 
William Shirley, and in New Hampshire by Benning 
Wentworth ; thus giving the latter colony what she could 
now, with her enlarged territory and increased resources, 
more justly claim — a distinct government. 

In 1735 New England was visited by a severe epidemic | fiijj^^^JT 
known as the throat distemper. Its first appearance was at 
Kingston, New Hampshire, whence it spread in every di- 
rection. The number of victims in this province alone ex- 
ceeded one thousand, most of them children. This fatal 
scourge proved a great check to the progress of the colony. 

In 1744 England declared war against France. As was 
expected, the colonies were soon involved in the conflict. 
The French governor of Louisburgh, on Cape Breton Isl- 
and, surprised the garrison of Canseau, an island north-east 
of Nova Scotia, which was a place of resort for the English 

* New Hampshire claimed that her southern boundary should be a line com- 
mencing three miles north of the mouth of the Merrimack and running due 


fishermen. The prisoners were detained for some time and 
them dismissed on parole. The account which they gave 
of Louisburgh turned the attention of the English to that 
stronghold, and at length the bold project of attempting 
its reduction was formed. According to some accounts, the 
plan was originated by William Yaughan, of Portsmouth. 
Certain it is that he Avas one of the leading spirits in the 

Governor Shirley laid the matter before the General 
Court of Massachusetts ; and early in 1745, though reject- 
ed at first, it was finally carried by a majority of one vote. 
Vaughan immediately hastened to Portsmouth with a copy 
of a circular which had been prepared, asking for assist- 
ance. The assembly caught his enthusiasm, and without 
delay voted to raise men and money. • Some of the other 
colonies also rendered assistance. William Pepperell was 
appointed commander-in-chief 

All things being prepared, the forces, to which New 
Hampshire contributed, about five hundred men, sailed for 
Causeau, which had been appointed as a place of rendez- 
vous. Here they remained three Aveeks, waiting for the 
ice around Cape Breton to dissolve. On the last of April 
they came in sight of Louisburgh. Yaughan, who held 
the rank of a lieutenant colonel, but without a regular com- 
mand, volunteered to lead the first column to invest the 
city. During the whole siege the New Hampshire troops 
were brave, active, and laborious. For fourteen successive 
nights they were engaged in dragging the cannon over a 
morass ; and as the wheels sank in the mire, Colonel 
Meserve constructed sledges on whicli to draw them. 

The governor of the city, finding his supplies cut off yid 
preparations making for a general assault, his troops being 
at the same time sickly and dispirited, resolved to surrender. 


which he accordingly did on the 17th of Juue. Thus this 
fortress, with the exception of Quebec the strongest in 
America, fell into the hands of the English. 

Shirley now projected the conquest of Canada, which the 
British ministry encouraged. In the summer of 1746 New 
Hampshire raised eight hundred men as her quota. But 
no orders came from England, and consequently the troops 
were kept in a state of suspense and inaction. Towards au- 
tumn the country was alarmed by the approach of a fleet 
from France. Preparations were immediately made for de- 
fence. A new battery was placed at the entrance of Piscat- 
aqua Harbor, and another at the point of Little Harbor. 
But in a few weeks the French, weakened and dispirited 
by shipwreck and sickness, departed without having accom- 
plished their designs. After this the New Hampshire re- 
giment took up their quarters near Winnipiseogee Lake, 
where they spent the winter. 

While the expedition against Cape Breton was in prog- 
ress, the frontiers suffered much from the Indians. They 
first appeared at Great Meadow,* and then at Upper Ash- 
uelot,t killing one man at each place. In the spring of 
1746 they took three prisoners at Number Four, J and 
soon after laid a plan to surprise the fort at Upper Ashue- 
lot. A large party concealed themselves in a swamp at 
night, intending to rush in the next morning ; but a man 
who chanced to go out very early discovered them and 
gave the alarm. He defended himself against two Indians 
and escaped to the fort ; but two other persons were slain, 
and one was taken prisoner. At New Hopkinton^ eight 
were carried away captive. Other places suffered from the 
ravages of the enemy ; and at length the Massachusetts gov- 

• Now Westmoreland. t Now Keene. 

J Now Charlcstown. { Now Hopkinton. 



. eminent sent troops to aid these exposed towns. Captain 
Paine came to Number Four, where a part of his men fell 
into an ambush. A skirmish ensued, in which five men 
were killed on each side, and one of the English was taken 
prisoner. Not long after this there was another engagement 
at the same place, in which the enemy were repulsed with 
considerable loss. Every spot was full of danger. Busi- 
ness was, to a great extent, suspended. If the people 
wanted bread, they were obliged to go to the mills with an 
ai'med guard. Even the lower towns did not escape. 
Several Avere killed at llochester. The enemy appeared 
both at Pennacook* and Contocook,t killing, some and 
taking others prisoners. 

Some of the people of Massachusetts thought it inexpe- 
dient to defend a territory which was out of their jurisdic- 
tion, and at length prevailed on the assembly to withdraw 
their forces from the western frontier of New Hampshu'e. 
The inhabitants were then compelled to leave their homes. 
But the assembly of Massachusetts soon decided to resume 
the protection of these places. In the spring of 1747 Cap- 
tain Phineas Stevens, with a company of thirty rangers, 
came and took possession of the fort at Number Four, On 
the 4th of April he was attacked by a large body of French 
and Indians, but defended himself so resolutely that the 
enemy retired. + 

During the next two years the same scenes were enacted 
in various quarters. The Indians hovered about in small 
parties, ready to fall upon the unwary. Yet it is worthy 
of remark that they treated their captives with far more 
kindness than in previous wars. This was doubtless owing 

• Now Concord. t Now Boscawen, 

J See gazetteer, under " Charlestown." 


to the high price that was paid for the ransom of prisoners. 
lu 1749 peace was established. 

In 1746 the heir of Mason, availing himself of some le- 
gal defect in the sale to Allen, sold his interest in the soil 
of New Hampshire to a company of twelve gentlemen in 
Portsmouth. They quitclaimed all the towns which had 
been previously granted and settled within the limits of 
their purchase, and also made new grants on fair and equi- 
table terms, so that the prejudice which was at first excited 
against them gradually died out. 

When the extension of the boundary lines brought Fort 
Dummer* within the limits of New Hampshire, the gov- 
ernor, wishing to maintain it, caused six new members to 
be elected to the assembly from towns which were supposed 
to favor that project ; but the house excluded them, and 
the governor, being engrossed with the expedition against 
Louisburgh, yielded the point. On the return of peace, 
having received fresh instructions from the royal govern- 
ment, he called a new assembly, with members from those 
towns whose representatives had before been rejected. The 
assembly again resisted, and for three years no public busi- 
ness was transacted. The recorder's office was closed, the 
soldiers Avcre unpaid. But in 1752 a new assembly was 
called, which came together with a spirit of moderation, 
and proceeded to the transaction of business. 

During the same year it was proposed to plant settle- 
ments on the rich meadows of Coos — at Haverhill and 
Newbury. But a deputation of the St. Francis Indians 


• In Hinsdale. The town was originally called by the same name. The 
New Hampshire assembly refused to assume the expense of supporting this 
fort, for the reason that it was fifty miles distant from any settlement made by 
the people of their own state. The Massachusetts government continued its 
support of this place, as well na of Number Four, until 1757. 



came to Number Four and remonstrated against it, threat- 
ening hostilities in case it should be pursued, so that the 
plan was abandoned. A party of the same tribe surprised 
four young men who were hunting on Baker's River. Two 
were taken prisoners, one escaped, and one was killed. 
One of the prisoners was John Stark, then sixteen years of 
age. The Indians, admiring his bold bearing, adopted him 
into their tribe ; but he was soon ransomed. This early 
captivity fitted him to be an expert partisan in the succeed- 
ing war. 

Two warriors also of the same tribe, named Sabatis and 
Plausawa, came to Canterbury, where they were cruelly 
murdered. A present was made to the tribe, intended " to 
wipe away the blood." The murderers were apprehended 
and brought to Portsmouth, but an armed mob released 
them before the day of trial. Rewards were oflfered for the 
apprehension of the rioters ; but no discoveries were made, 
as the people regarded the action meritorious. Afterwards, 
when a conference with the Indians was held at Portland, 
the St. Francis tribe refused to attend, but sent a message 
to the effect that the blood was not wiped away. They stiU 
remembered the injury, and were ready to avenge it. And 
it was not long before they had an opportunity. 


The "Old French War." — Indian Hostilities. — Expeditions against Crown 
Point. — Massacre at Fort Edward. — Rogers's Expedition against the St. 
Francis Indians. — Conquest of Canada. — Grants. — Settlement of the 
western Boundary. — The Stamp Act. — Mcserve is appointed Distribu- 
tor. — His Resignation. — Demonstrations of the People. — Benning Went- 
worth is superseded by John Wcntworth. — Taxes. — Dartmouth College. 
— Division of the Province into Counties. — The Tea sent to Portsmouth is 
reshippcd. — Convention at Exeter. — Seizure of Gunpowder and Arms at 
Fort William Henry. — Attempts of Wentworth to maintain Peace. — 
Close of his Administration. 

France now resolved to connect her distant settlements 
in Canada and Louisiana by extending a line of forts from 
the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. She also wished to 
extend her limits to the east, in order to command naviga- 
tion in the winter. This encroachment upon territory 
claimed by the English led to war. At the first report of 
hostilities the Indians renewed their attacks upon the fron- 
tiers of New Hampshire. In August, 1754, they surprised 
the family of James Johnson, at Number Four, and carried 
away eight prisoners. 

In the spring of 1755 an expedition was undertaken 
against Crown Point. For this New Hampshire raised five 
hundred men. General Johnson, the commander of the 
forces, posted this regiment at Fort Edward, while he was 
encamped near Lake George. On the 8th of September 
he was attacked by a body of French and Indians. A 



detachment, sent out from Fort Edward on the same day, 
took the baggage and ammunition of the enemy, and seri- 
ously annoyed them in their retreat. After this the New 
Hampshire forces were employed as scouts. Another regi- 
ment of three hundred men was raised and employed for 
the same purpose. 

The next year Governor Shirley planned another expe- 
dition against Crown Point, but he was superseded by the 
Earl of Loudon. At the request of the latter, three com- 
panies of rangers were formed from the New Hampshire 
regiment, and the command given to John and William 
Stark and Robert Rogers. But the season passed away, 
and but little was accomplished. The campaign of 1757 
opened with a new expedition against Crown Point. New 
Hampshire, as usual, contributed her share of men. A part 
of the regiment was posted at Fort "William Henry with 
other forces. General Montcalm invested this fort with a 
large body of French and Indians ; and on the sixth day 
the garrison, having expended their ammunition, capitulat- 
ed. They were allowed the honors of war, and were to be 
escorted to Fort Edward. But the Indians, enraged at the 
terms of surrender, fell upon them as they were marching 
out unarmed, plundered them without restraint, and mur- 
dered all who made any resistance. The New Hampshire 
troops happened to be in the rear ; and out of two hundred 
men eighty were killed or taken. 

When William Pitt was placed at the head of the British 
ministry, affairs were prosecuted with new and increased 
vigor. The strongholds of the French were taken one 
after another. Quebec, the strongest city in America, 
yielded to the victorious arms of Wolfe in 1759. The 
same year, Rogers, with two hundred rangers, was de- 
spatched to destroy the Indian village of St. Francis. He 


halted at night within three miles of the place, Avhich was 
visible from the top of a tree. In the evening he entered 
the village in disguise, accompanied by two of his officers. 
He found the Indians engaged in a grand dance. Having 
posted his men to the best advantage, he made an attack 
just before day, when the savages were asleep. But little 
resistance could be made. Some were killed in their 
houses, others were shot or tomahawked as they fled. The 
light of day disclosed the sight of several hundred scalps 
of the English elevated on poles. The assailants found the 
place enriched with plunder from the frontiers and by the 
sale of captives. Having set fire to the village, they com- 
menced their retreat, intending to rendezvous at the Upper 
Coos. They kept together for about ten days, passing on, 
the east side of Lake Memphremagog, and then, being short 
of provisions, separated into small parties, that they might 
gain subsistence by hunting. They were now reduced to 
the extreme of suffering. Some perished in the woods, 
some were cut off by the Indians, and others at last reached 
Number Four. 

The conquest of Canada was completed in 1760, which 
put an end to the Indian depredations. Many captives re- 
turned. From this time forth the people of New Hamp- 
shire were freed from the attacks of their savage and relent- 
less foe. 

During the war, troops were continually passing through 
the territory now known as the State of Vermont, and had 
observed its fertility. Governor Wentworth claimed this 
as belonging to New Hampshire, and at once proceeded to 
make grants, and with such rapidity that in 1761 no less 
than sixty townships were granted on the west and eigh- 
teen on the east side of the Connecticut. This was a great 


source of emolument to the governor, as, in addition to his 
fees, a reservation was made for him of five hundred acres 
in each township. 

But New York claimed as far east as the Connecticut ; 
and finally the matter was submitted to the royal decision. 
An order was passed by the king in council, declaring the 
river to be the boundary line between the two pro\'inces. 

Great Britain, burdened with an immense national debt, 
now entered upon a course of oppressive measures, designed 
to increase her revenue, by taxing the American colonies. 
The first enactment that produced decided and active op- 
position was the celebrated stamp act, which was passed in 
1765. The effect of this act was to require all notes, 
bonds, and other legal instruments in the colonies to be 
executed upon stamped paper, on which a duty was to be 
paid. This produced great excitement throughout the col- 
onies ; and the stamp officers were generally compelled to 
resign, to save themselves from the violence of the popu- 

George Meserve was appointed distributor of stamps for 
New Hampshire. He was in England at the time of his 
appointment, but soon after came to Boston. Before he 
landed he was informed of the opposition of the people to 
the act, and was requested to resign, which he readily did. 
He was then welcomed on shore. On his arrival at Ports- 
mouth, he was compelled to make a second and more formal 
resignation before going to his house. Soon after the 
stamped paper designed for this colony was brought to Bos- 
ton and lodged in the Castle, there being no person author- 
ized to receive it. 

The stamp act was to take eff'ect on the 1st day of No- 
vember. On the last day of October the New Hampshire 


Gazette * appeared with a mourning border. The next day 
a funeral ceremony was held over the Goddess of Liberty. 
On depositing her in the grave some signs of life were dis- 
covered, and she was borne off by the rejoicing multitude. 
By such exhibitions the spirit of the people was kept up, 
and the opposition to arbitrary enactments strengthened. 

It was rumored that Meserve intended to distribute 
stamped paper, notwithstanding his resignation. The Sons 
of Liberty took the alarm, and, having assembled in force, 
compelled him to give up his commission and instructions, 
which they carried off in triumph. ]\[eserve took an oath 
before a justice that he would neither directly nor indirect- 
ly attempt to execute his office. Ilis commission was sent 
to the agents of the province in London. 

During these proceedings Governor Wentworth remained 
silent. His fiiiling health, his advanced age, and his ample 
fortune were all averse to his taking an active part in the 
contest, or using his authority, as the royal governor, to 
crush the spirit of the people. For a time it was doubted 
whether the courts could go on with their usual business 
without the stamped paper, and some hoped to be freed 
from the payment of their debts. But voluntary associa- 
tions were formed at Portsmouth, Exeter, and other places, 
to aid in enforcing the laws and to support the magistrates. 
The stamp act itself proved a dead letter, and in 1766 was 
repealed, to the great joy of the people. 

In 1767 Governor Wentworth was superseded by his 
nephew, John Wentworth. This appointment was very 
acceptable to the people, by whom Wentworth was held in 
great esteem. He had used his influence to procure the 
repeal of the stamp act, Avhich rendered him still more dear 

♦ Established at Portsmouth in 1756. 


to them. He had a taste for agriculture, and encouraged 
the cultivation of the soil both by precept and example. 

■ An act of Parliament, passed in 1767, laying a tax on 
glass, paper, painters' colors, and tea, revived the bitter 
feelings wliich had been allayed by the repeal of the stamp 
act. But the personal popularity of Governor Wentworth, 
together with the influence of his friends, prevented the 
adoption of a non-importation agreement in Portsmouth. 
" We cannot depend on the countenance of many persons 
of the first rank here," wrote the Sons of Liberty to their 
brethren in Boston, "for royal commissions and family 
connections influence the principal gentlemen among us at 
least to keep silence in these evil times." 

The establishment of Dartmouth College was among the 
events of this administration. It was founded by Eleazar 
Wheelock, in 1769. About the same time the province 
was divided into five counties, named by the governor after 
some of his friends in England — Rockingham, Strafford, 
Hillsborough, Cheshire, and Grafton. 

The duties were soon repealed on all articles excepting 
tea. The trading towns passed resolutions not to allow this 
article to be landed or sold. This proved eSectual. In 
some instances it was sent back in the same vessels which 
brought it. At Boston it was destroyed. 

The first cargo brought to Portsmouth was landed and 
stored in the custom house. A town meeting was called, 
and a proposition made to the consignee, Mr. Parry, to re- 
ship it, to which he assented. It was then peaceably sent 
to Halifax. A second cargo sent soon after to the same 
person caused some disturbance. Mr. Parry's house was 
attacked and his windows broken. He applied to the gov- 
ernor for protection, who summoned the council. But in 
the mean time the committee of the town prevailed on the 


consignee to send this cargo also to Halifax, which ended 
the difficulty. This was in 1774. 

The assembly which met in the spring of the same year 
appointed a committee of correspondence. The governor, 
who had labored in vain to prevent this, now dissolved the 
assembly ; but on a summons from the committee the mem- 
bers came together again. The governor entered their 
meeting, declared it illegal, and ordered them to disperse. 
After he retired they adjourned to another place, and wrote 
letters to all the towns in the state, requesting them to send 
deputies to hold a convention at Exeter. They also ap- 
pointed a day of fasting and prayer, which was observed 
with due solemnity. The convention met in due time, and 
chose Nathaniel Folsom and John Sullivan delegates to the 
Provincial Congress at Philadelphia. 

An order was passed by the king in council forbidding 
the exportation of gunpowder to America. The news of 
this reached Portsmouth at a time when a ship of war was 
expected from Boston to take possession of Fort William 
and Mary, at the entrance of the harbor. The committee 
of the town, with all possible despatch and secrecy, raised 
a party, which assaulted the fort, and, having confined the 
captain and five men, who were the entire garrison, carried 
off one hundred barrels of powder. The next day another 
company removed fifteen of the lighter cannon and all the 
small arras. These articles were secreted in the different 
towns. Major John Sullivan and John Langdon were lead- 
ers in the enterprise. Immediately after its accomplish- 
ment the Scarborough frigate and the sloop-of-war Canseau 
arrived with several companies of soldiers, who took pos- 
session of the fort. 

Eai'ly in 1775 a second convention met at Exeter to con- 
sult on the state of affi\irs and to choose delegates to the 


next General Congress, to be holden on the 10th of May. 
Sullivan and Langdon were appointed. 
^ On the 19th of April the first blood of the revolution 
was shed at Lexington. The people of New Hampshire, 
as well as of the other colonies, then flew to arms. Yet 
the governor still hoped "to plant the root of peace in 
New Hampshire." The assembly met in May, and he 
urged conciliatory measures. The house desired a recess, 
to consult with their constituents, which he reluctantly 
granted. In the mean time a convention met at Exeter, in 
which the province was fully represented. They passed a 
vote of thanks to those who had taken the powder and arms 
from the fort the preceding Avinter. They also instructed 
the assembly how to proceed at their next meeting. The 
house met, pursuant to adjournment, on the 12th of June. 
Their first act was, in obedience to the instructions of the 
convention, to expel three members whom the governor 
had called from new towns on account of their devotion to 
the royal cause, while older and more populous towns were 
unrepresented. The governor then adjourned the assem- 
bly. One of the expelled members, having censured the 
proceeding, was assaulted by the populace, and fled to the 
governor for protection. The people demanded him, and, 
to enforce it, pointed a gun at the governor's door, upon 
which the oflender was given up and carried to Exeter. 
Wentworth retired to the fort, and his house was pillaged. 
When the assembly met again he sent a message, adjourn- 
ing them to the 28th of September ; but they met no more. 
In September he came to the Isles of Shoals, and issued a 
proclamation adjourning the assembly to the next April. 
This was the closing act of his administration. The British 
government, which had subsisted ninety-five years in New 
Hampshire, was now at an end. 


The Revolutionary "War. — Forces raised by New Hampshire. — Preparations for 
Defence. — Treatment of the Tories. — Formution of a temporary Govern- 
ment. — Expedition to Canada. — Declaration of Independence. — Battle of 
Bennington. — Surrender of Burgoyne. — Sullivan's Expedition against the 
Seneca Indians. — Close of the War. — Adoption of a State Constitution. — 
Troubles with Vermont. — Distress and Rebellion. — Formation and Adop- 
tion of the Constitution of the United States. — Conclusion. 

It is not our purpose to give a detailed account of the 
revolutionary war, but only to relate the part performed by 
our own state in that momentous struggle. On receiving 
the news of the battle of Lexington, twelve hundred men 
went from New Hampshire to join their brethren who were 
encamped in the vicinity of Boston. From these, two regi- 
ments were formed, and the command given to Colonels 
James Reid and John Stark. The latter was working in 
his sawmill when he heai'd of the commencement of hos- 
tilities. He at once dropped the implements of his labor 
and proceeded to the scene of action. These regiments 
were present at the battle of Bunker Hill, where they be- 
haved with great bravery. Soon after this battle a tliird 
New Hampshire regiment, under Colonel Poor, joined them. 
The whole were posted on Winter Hill, under the immedi- 
ate command of General Sullivan. 

In the autumn it Avas suspected that the British intended 
to attack Portsmouth, General Washington thereupon sent 
General Sullivan to take command of the militia and defend 




the Harbor of Piscataqua. Some fortifications had already 
been erected. These were strengthened, and other prepara- 
tions were made for defence. A company of artillery was 
stationed at the forts, and a company of rangers on the 
Connecticut River. The mihtia was divided into twelve 
regiments, out of which fom- regiments of minute men were 
enlisted — so called because they were to be ready to march 
at a minute's warning. When called into ser\dce, they 
were allowed the same pay as soldiers of the continental 

While most of the people of New Hampshire espoused 
the cause of liberty, there were some who still clung to the 
royal government. Against these — who were called tories 
— a most violent resentment was excited. Some were im- 
prisoned ; others fled to Nova Scotia or to England, or 
joined the British army at Boston. Others who remained 
were restricted to certain limits and their motions watched. 
Jealousy, hatred, and revenge were um-estrained. Al- 
though many lamented these excesses, there was no effect- 
ual remedy. The courts of justice were closed, and all the 
restraints of former authority were broken. Yet much 
was accomplished in the maintenance of order by the ex- 
ample of the leading men and by the moral sense of the 

The convention which assembled at Exeter in May, 1775, 
was chosen for a period of six months. During this time 
they established post offices, and appointed a committee of 
safety, which was considered as the chief executive. Be- 
fore their adjournment they called a new convention, agree- 
ably to the recommendation of Congress, designed to secure 
a more general representation of the people. This conven- 
tion met on the 21st of December, and proceeded to form 
a temporary government. Having assumed the name of 


House of Representatives, they chose twelve persons to be 
a distinct branch, called the Council, with power to elect 
their own president. It was ordained that no act should 
be valid unless passed by both branches ; that all money 
bills should originate with the House of Representatives ; 
that the secretary and other public officers should be chosen 
by the two houses ; and that the present assembly should 
continue one year ; and if the dispute with Great Britain 
should continue, precepts should be issued annually jto the 
several towns, on or before the 1st day of November, for 
the choice of councillors and representatives, unless Con- 
gress should direct otherwise. No pi'ovision was made for 
an executive branch ; but during their session the two 
houses performed the duty of this department of govern- 
ment. At their adjournment a committee of safety was ap- 
pointed to sit in the recess. The president of the council 
was president of this committee. To this responsible office 
Meshech Weare was annually elected during the war, and 
was also appointed judge of the Superior Court. Such was 
the confidence of the people in him that they did not hesi- 
tate to invest him with the highest legislative, executive, 
and judicial authority at the same time. 

Congress having ordered several vessels of war to be 
built, the Raleigh, a frigate of thirty-two guns, was launched 
at Portsmouth, and, after some delay, was completed, and 
joined the fleet under Commodore Hopkins, 

Two thousand men were raised for the services of 1776, 
and formed into three regiments, under the same officers as 
in the preceding year. A regiment, under Colonel Bedell, 
was also raised in the western part of the state, to be ready 
to march into Canada. The three regiments under Gen- 
eral Sullivan were sent into Canada to meet and succor the 
army which had been despatched against Quebec the pre- 


vious year, and was now retreating before a superior force 
of the enemy. Sullivan met tkem at the mouth of the So- 
rel, and took the command — General Thomas, the com- 
mander-in-chief, having fallen a victim to the small pox, 
which had broken out among them. Sullivan conducted 
the retreat with great prudence. It was computed that 
nearly one third of the New Hampshire soldiers perished by 
sickness. The remainder joined the army under Washing- 
ton, and took part in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. 

The declaration of independence* was hailed with joy 
by the people. Within fourteen days it was published by 
beat of drum in all the shire towns of the colony, which 
now took the name of the State of New Hampshire. 

For the campaign of 1777 three regiments were raised 
in this state, and put under the command of Colonels Jo- 
seph Cilley, Nathan Hale, and Alexander Scammell. The 
officers were appointed by Congress for the war, and the 
men were enlisted either for that time or for three years. 
They rendezvoused at Ticonderoga, under the immediate 
command of Brigadier General Poor. They remained at 
this place until the approach of the British under Burgoyne 
rendered it advisable for them to retreat. Hale's battalion 
was ordered to cover the rear of the invalids, which brought 
him seven miles behind the main body. On the second 
morning he was attacked by a party of the enemy at Hub- 
bardtown. A skirmish ensued, in which Major Titcomb was 
wounded ; and Colonel Hale, Captains llobertson, Carr, 
Norris, and three other officers, Avith about one hundred 
men, were taken prisoners. The main body of the army 
retreated to Saratoga. During their progress a skirmish 

* This was signed, in behalf of New llauipskire, by Josiah Bartlett, Wil- 
Uam Whipple, and Matthew Thurntun. 


took place at Fort Anue, iu Avhich Captain Weare, sou of 
the president, Avas mortally wounded, and died soon after 
at Albany. 

The approach of Bm-goyne compelled the people of Ver- 
mont to ask for assistance. The committee of safety at 
Exeter, to whom they had applied, called together the as- 
sembly, and in three days decisive measures were taken for 
the defence of the country. The militia of the state was 
formed into two brigades — one commanded by William 
Whipple, the other by John Stark. A portion of each was 
ordered to proceed at once to the western frontier. Stark 
joined the Vermont forces under Colonel Warner, then as- 
sembled twenty miles north of Bennington. Burgoyne, 
leai-ning that the provincials had a large quantity of pro- 
visions at Bennington, despatched Colonel Baum, with 
about fifteen hundred men, to seize them. Some of the In- 
dians who preceded the main body being discovered about 
twelve miles from Bennington, Stark sent Colonel Gregg, 
with two hundred men, to oppose them. Hearing that a 
body of regular troops was advancing, he marched with his 
whole brigade to support Gregg, whom he met on the re- 
treat. When he came in sight of the enemy he drew up 
his men in full view, but they declined an engagement. 
He then withdrew about a mile and encamped. The next 
day being rainy he kept his position, but sent out detach- 
ments to skirmish with the enemy. On the morning of the 
16th of August his force was increased by a company of 
militia from Berkshire county, Massachusetts. He had now 
about sixteen hundred men. In the afternoon he moved 
to the attack. After two hours' hard fighting, the enemy 
were completely routed. While the militia Avere dispersed 
in search of plunder, the reenforceiuents sent to the aid of 
Baum arrived and attacked them. Fortunately Colonel 


"Warner, with his regiment of Green Mountain Boys, met 
the enemy. Stark rallied his forces, and the victory was 

In the arrangement of general officers for the preceding 
year, a junior officer had been promoted over Stark, who 
thereupon retired from the army, and was now acting un- 
der the direction of the New Hampshire assembly. When 
the news of the victory reached Congress, although they 
had previously censured his movements as destructive of 
military subordination, they passed a vote of thanks to him, 
and promoted him to the rank of a brigadier general. 

The army under General Gates was increased by the 
mihtia of the neighboring states. Colonel Whipple, with 
a large part of his brigade, joined him ; while volunteers 
from every part of the state flocked to his standard. In the 
battles of Stillwater and Saratoga the New Hampshire 
forces took a conspicuous part. The surrender of Bur- 
goyne with all his army soon followed.* 

The scene of war was then transferred to the south. In 
the battle of Monmouth a part of tlie New Hampshire brig- 
ade, under Colonel Cilley and Lieutenant Colonel Dear- 
bom, were closely engaged, and behaved with such bravery 
as to receive the particular approbation of Washington. 
The following winter they were encamped at Reading. 

In 1779 General SulHvan was appointed to the command 
of an army of four thousand men designed to go up the 
Susquehannah River and attack the Seneca Indians. The 
New Hampshire brigade formed a part of the forces. The 
expedition was carried on with great judgment and intre- 
pidity. Several engagements took place, in which the In- 
dians were worsted. After their return they rejoined the 

• October 17, 1777. 


main array, and passed the winter at Newtown, Connecti- 

In the following year the New Hampshire regiments 
were stationed at West Point, and afterwards marched to 
New Jersey, where General Poor died. The winter was 
spent in a hutted cantonment near the Hudson River, at a 
place called Soldier's Fortune. At the close of the year 
the three regiments were reduced to two, which were com- 
manded by Colonels Scammell and George Reid. In 1781 
a part of them went to Virginia, and were present at the 
capture of CornAvallis. Here the brave Colonel Scammell 
fell. They were afterwards quartered at Saratoga and on 
the Mohawk River, until the return of peace secured the 
independence of the United States. 

The temporary constitution adopted at the beginning of 
the war had so many defects that in 1779 a convention of 
delegates, chosen for this purpose, drew up a new system 
of government. It was submitted to the people, and reject- 
ed. Another convention met in 1781, and continued for 
two years. They at length proposed a constitution, which 
was adopted June 2, 1784. The essential features of it 
are retained in our present constitution. 

Sixteen towns in the western part of the state refused to 
send delegates to this convention, on the ground that the 
war had dissolved all allegiance to a superior jurisdiction, 
and that each town had a right to govern itself as an inde- 
pendent municipal corporation. They petitioned to the as- 
sembly of Vermont to be admitted into their state, which 
was granted. This led to a long controversy, which was 
finally settled by Congress. Vermont was required to give 
up her claim to the revolted towns as a requisite to her ad- 
mission into the Union. This was done, and the people 
returned to their former allegiance. 


The revolutionary war left the country deeply in debt. 
Congress had no power to establish a system of imposts, 
and consequently heavy taxes were levied on polls and es- 
tates. This, in connection with other circumstances, pro- 
duced a season of distress and suffering, from which New 
Hampshire did not escape. The assembly did what they 
could to relieve the people, and urged them to diligence 
and economy as the only effectual remedy. But this seemed 
too slow a process to those who were suffering the combined 
ills of excessive taxation and poverty. Some imagined that 
the establishment of a paper currency would free them from 
all their embarrassments, and for this they became clamor- 
ous. As the numerical strength of the party increased, 
they increased their demands. Some went so far as to re- 
quire an abolition of debts and an equal distribution of 
property. The excitement rose to such a pitch that in 
1786, while the assembly was sitting at Exeter, about two 
hundred persons assembled at Kingston, and proceeded to 
the seat of government, armed with guns, swords, clubs, 
and scythes, and demanded an answer to their petitions. 
The president, General . John Sullivan, stated the reasons 
why the assembly could not comply with their wishes. 
Meanwhile the members of the assembly were held as pris- 
oners, the mob having placed sentries at the doors, and 
threatened death to any one who should attempt to escape 
before their demands were granted. But early in the even- 
ing some of the citizens of Exeter beat a drum at a dis- 
tance, while others cried, '< Huzza for the government ! 
Bring out the artillery! " The insurgents then fled in dis- 
order. The next morning the militia were assembled from 
the neighboring towns, and took about forty of the rioters 
prisoners, of whom all but six were dismissed. These, 
with two others who were apprehended afterwards, were 


required to recognize for their appearance at the next su- 
perior court, Avhen their bonds were discharged. The firm 
and prudent course of the government had its desired effect, 
and thenceforth no active opposition was made. 

The articles of confederation adopted by Congress in 
1778 were found inadequate to meet the wants of the 
United States. In 1787 a convention of delegates met at 
Philadelphia for the purpose of forming a new constitution, 
in which all the states were represented except Rhode Isl- 
and. After long and careful deliberation, the results of 
their labors were imbodied in the instrument, which, with 
some slight amendments, forms the present basis of our 
national government. 

When the new constitution was presented to this state 
for adoption, various objections were raised. A conven- 
tion was called at Exeter to consider it, in February, 1788. 
After a debate of ten days, they adjourned for four months. 
In the mean time the proposed constitution had been freely 
discussed among the people, an4 had continued to gain 
their approbation. At the second meeting of the conven- 
tion, it was ratified at the close of a session of three days. 
New Hampshire was the ninth state which accepted it ; 
and thus the number necessary to put it in operation was 

Having brought our "Historical Sketch" down to the 
time of the adoption of the federal constitution, we leave 
the subject. From that time New Hampshire has steadily 
progressed in wealth, population, and all that adds to the 
comfort of civilized life. That she may ever prosper, must 
be the fervent wish of every true son of the Granite State. 










■ BT 

8 (81) 



The design of this portion of the present work is 
to give as minute, accurate, and reliable a descrip- 
tion of all the cities and towns in the State of New 
Hampshire as the marked and constant changes 
incident to rapid increase of population in some 
places, and the ever-varying tide of business in its 
almost innumerable departments, every where, will 
admit. The geographical position of each town, its 
geological features, as well as w^hatever is interest- 
ing in its mineralogy, have been as carefully and 
fully described as the means at our command would 
enable us to do. From several towns we have had 
no reply to inquiries which we have made at differ- 
ent times. It would not be surprising, therefore, 
if in such cases we may not have succeeded in giving 
as full an account as actual facts might warrant. 
To undertake to enumerate every styore, tavern, grist 
mill, saw mill, and shop would be useless and unim- 
portant. We have not specified the various officers, 
physicians, attorneys, and clergymen in the several 
towns, because information of all these facts, annu- 
ally corrected, is given in Lyon's very valuable 



Register, to which we have frequently resorted for 
aid in our labors. For the description of the towns 
in Hillsborough county we are greatly indebted to 
Mr. J. R. Dodge for the free use of his " Hillsbor- 
ough County Records." We have also referred to 
Jackson's Geological Report of New Hampshire, 
Farmer and Moore's Gazetteer of New Hampshire 
for 1822, Historical Collections, and the Reports of 
the treasury and other state departments. 

A general view of the several counties, including 
the history and topography of each, with statistical 
tables, containing a variety of important and useful 
matter, is also given in a subsequent part of this 

We take this opportunity to express our sincere 
acknowledgments to our correspondents generally, 
many of whom have furnished us with the matter 
sought for at no slight sacrifice of time and expense. 
In a work of this kind, a claim to the merit of 
originality would be simply absurd. Diligence 
and care in arranging in proper order what has 
already been before the public eye in some form, 
together with the material furnished us from va- 
rious sources, are perhaps more than should be 
awarded to us. 



[The population and general statistics of the state are given according to the 
census of 1850. The population of the several towns -will be regarded as 
given according to the same census unless the particular year is mentioned. 
The statistical account of each town is given for the year 1852 — which is 
the latest inventory made by state authority — unless a different period is 


New Hampshire is bounded north by Canada East, east 
by Maine, south-east by the Atlantic Ocean and Massachu- 
setts, south by Massachusetts, west and north-west by Ver- 
mont. It is situated between 42° 40' and 45° 16' north 
latitude, and 70° 35' and 72° 27' longitude west from 
Greenwich, or 5° 30' and 6° 15' longitude east from Wash- 

Its extreme length is 168 miles ; greatest width, 90 
miles ; which is from the easternmost point in the town of 
Rye, due west, to Connecticut River. North of latitude 43° 
it gradually decreases in width, and at its northern extrem- 
ity is only 19 miles wide. This state includes an area of 
9280 square miles, or 5,939,200 acres, about 100,000 acres 
of which are covered with water. 

The State of New Hampshire is divided into 10 coun- 
8 (85) 



ties and 232 towns, including Hart's and Wentworth's Lo 
cations, besides several grants and the public lands. Of 
the towns, 3 were incorporated in the reign of Charles I., 

1 during the reign of Charles II., 2 under William III., 

2 under Queen Anne, 15 under George I., 37 under George 
n., 86 under George III., and 86 under the state govern- 
ment. The average ratio of increase of population, from 
1790 to 1850 inclusive, is about 15 per cent., as will be 
seen from the following table : — 

1730 10,200 

1740, 15,000 

1755, 30,000 

1767, 52,000 

1775 82,000 

1790, 141,855 

1800, 183,858 

1810, 214,460 

1820, 244,161 

1830, 269,633 

1840 284,574 

1850 317,964 



Atres of land improved in year 1850, 2,251,388 

Value of fanning implements and machinery, 52,314,125 

Value of live stock, ^8,871,901 

No. bushels wheat raised 185,658 

" Indian corn, 1,573,670 

pounds of wool 1,108,476 

butter, 6,977,056 

" cheese 3,196,563 

" maple sugar, 1,292,429 

tons of hay, 598,854 



Capjtel invested in year 1854 ,911,950,600 

No. establishments in operation, 66 

Bales of cotton used annually, 93,026 

No. hands employed — males, 3,511 ; females, 10,711, 14,222 

Average wages per month — males, ^26,00 ; females, §13,47, ;S39,47 

Value of products, §9,830,619 

Yards sheeting, Ac, 116,106,247 




Capital invested 52,437,700 

No. establishments in operation, 61 

Pounds of wool used, 3,604,103 

Value of raw material 51,267,329 

No. hands employed — males, 926; females, 1,201, ....2,127 

Average wages per month — males, 522,87; females, 14,63, 537,40 

Value of products 52,127,745 

Yards of cloth manufactured 9,712,840 

Founds yam, 165,200 


No. establishments in operation 1 

Capital invested, 52,000 

Tons ore used, 500 

Value of raw material, fuel, &c., 54,900 

No. hands employed, 10 

Average wages per month, 518,00 

Tons pig iron made, 200 

Value of products, 56,000 


No. establishments in operation, 26 

Capital invested, 5232,700 

Tons pig iron, 5,673 ; do. old metal, 500, 6,173 

Tons mineral coal, 1,680; do. coke and charcoal, 20,500 22,180 

Value of raw material, fuel, &c., 5177,060 

No. hands employed, 374 

Average wages per month 533,05 

Tons castings made 5,764 

Value of products, 5391,910 


No 36 

Amount of capital invested, 53,416,000 

Bmtibb statb valuation, 5113,627,285 



AcwoRTH, Sullivan county, 13 miles south from New- 
port, and 44 west from Concord. Cold River, which takes 
its rise from Cold Pond, in the north-east part of the town, 
is the only stream of any note. It affords several good 
inill seats, which are used mainly in the manufacture of 
^uch articles as are needed for home consumption. The 
soil is strong, and in general well cultivated. This town 
is somewhat celebrated on account of the large crystals of 
^][)eryl which have been found within its limits. Specimens 
of these are to be found in almost every mineral cabinet 
throughout the world. Dr. Jackson informs us that one of 
these beryls, 8 inches in diameter, was shown him in the 
imperial cabinet of Vienna, and was highly valued. 

The town was granted, September 19, 1766, to Colonel 
Samuel Stoddard and 64 others. In 1768 it was settled 
by William Keyes, Samuel Hooper, and John Rogers, who 
removed thither with their families. During the first years 
of the settlement its progress was but feeble, and it was not 
until 1771 that there were inhabitants enough to fill the 
usual offices of a town. 

A Congregational church was organized March 12, 
1773. First settled minister. Rev. Thomas Archibald, 
who was settled November 11, 1789, and dismissed June 
14, 1794. Rev. John Kimball succeeded, and was settled 
June, 1797 ; dismissed May, 1813. 




Population iu 1850, 1251. Number of polls in 1852, 
278. Amount of inventory, $411,041. Number of sheep, 
^317. Do. neat stock, 1542. Do. horses and mules, 314. 

Albany, Carroll county. Bounded east by Conway, 
south by Tamworth, west by Waterville, north by ungrant- 
ed lands. Distance from Concord, 75 miles. Its principal 
stream is Swift River, which passes through the town in a 
westerly direction, and empties into the Saco in Conway. 
There are numerous small streams, which evidently were 
inhabited in great numbers by otter and beavers. It in- 
cludes many lofty hills and mountains, the highest of which 
is called Chocurua, from an Indian of that name, who was 
killed on its summit by a party of white hunters who had 
chased him liither. Before he was killed he pronounced 
the curse, well known in song, upon his pursuers, their 
posterity, habitations, and possessions. 

The prosperity of the town has been considerably retard- 
ed by a remai'kable disease, which almost entirely prevents 
the raising of neat stock. Its peculiarities are a loss of ap- 
petite, costiveness, contraction of the abdomen, followed in 
a few days by powerful evacuations, by which the animals 
are rapidly reduced and soon die. Superstition and tradi- 
tion point to the curse of Chocorua as the cause ; but the 
better supposition is, doubtless, that it is owing' to certain 
properties contained in the water, or perhaps the soil. 
Science will, we trust, ere long, point out the cause of the 
evil which so much injures and atflicts man and beast. 

This town was granted in 1766 to Clement March and 
others, under the name of Burton. Population, 455. Num- 
ber of polls, 95. Amount of inventory, $68,927. Num- 
ber of sheep, 178. Do. neat stock, 383. Do. horses aad 
^mules, 42. 



Alexandria, Grafton county. Bounded north by He- 
bron, east by Bristol, south by Hill, and west by Danbury. 
30 miles north from Concord. A small portion of New- 
found Lake is within the limits of this town. Smith's and 
Fowler's Rivers are the principal streams. This town con- 
tains about 2000 acres of valuable interval land, which 
bears every appearance of having been once covered by 
Newfound Lake. Beneath the soil, which is from 1 to 
20 feet in depth, is a layer, or stratum, of white sand 
and coarse gravel, embedded in which are found stumps, 
and even whole trees, in a state of almost perfect preserva- 
tion. Also at this depth are discovered traces of beaver 
dams. In the more elevated portions of the town the land 
is generally moist, and possesses a strength and fertility of 
soil well adapted to the growth of wheat, potatoes, and the 
grasses. In the westerly part of the town is Cardigan 
Mountain, which forms the boundary between Alexandria 
and Orange. Its base and sides are compact, rugged, and 
covered with a heavy growth of timber of various kinds. 
Its summit is divided into two peaks, consisting of granite, 
and destitute of vegetation. Its elevation is 5000 feet 
above the level of the sea. Another curious geological fact 
is the appearance at the outlet of Newfound Lake. About 
20 feet above the present bed of the stream are distinct 
marks of the bed of a former stream, which can be traced 
to Pemigewassctt River. This town was granted, March 
13, 1767, to Joseph Buttcrfield, Jr., and others. It was 
incorporated November*23, 1782. It was first settled in 
December, 1769, by Jonathan Corliss, John M. Corliss, 
and William Corliss. In 1821 its territorial limits were 
diminished by the annexation of a large tract to New Ches- 
ter, now Hill, A Congregational church was formed in 
the year 1788. Rev. Enoch Whipple was the first settled 
minister. He was dismissed in 1794. 


Population, 1273. Number of polls, 267. Amount of 
inventory, $280,055. Number of sheep, 1691. Do. neat 
stock, 1278. Do. horses and mules, 166. 

Allenstown, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Epsom, east by Deerfield and Candia, south by Hooksett, 
west by Pembroke. Distant from Concord 1 1 miles. The 
land is generally of an ordinary quality, though there are 
some excellent farms. It was formerly well timbered with 
oak and pine, considerable quantities of which yet remain. 
The town is well watered by numerous small streams. 
Great Bear Brook furnishes the principal water power. 
Prom Catamount Hill, the highest land in town, are ob- 
tained large quantities of fine granite. At the east end of 
the hill is a precipice of 70 feet, nearly perpendicular. At 
the foot of the precipice is a cavern of considerable depth. 
This town, although granted at an early period in the set- 
tlement of New Hampshire, was not incorporated until 
1831. The first settlers were John Wolcott, Andrew 
Smith, Daniel Evans, Robert Buntin, and others. In 1748 
Mr. Buntin and son, in company with James Carr, while 
at work on the west bank of the Merrimack River, nearly 
opposite the mouth of the Suncook, were surprised by a 
party of Indians. 

Carr, attempting to escape, was immediately shot down. 
Buntin and his son made no resistance. They were taken 
through the wilderness to Canada, and sold to a French 
merchant at Montreal. Here they remained about eleven 
months, when, a favorable opportunity presenting itself, 
they made their escape, and reached home in safety. The 
son, when the revolutionary war broke out, enlisted in the 
army, and died in defence of his country at White Plains, 
in October, 1776. 



Population, 526. Number of polls, 114. Amount of 
inventory, $146,531. Number of sheep, 226. Do. neat 
stock, 325. Do. horses and mules, 63. 

Alstead, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Acworth, 
east by Mario w, south by Gilsum, and west by Walpole. 
It is 12 miles south-east from Charlestown, and 56 west 
from Concord. It is well watered by several small streams. 
Cold River passes through the north-west part, and some 
of the branches of the Ashuelot take their rise here. War- 
ren's Pond, a beautiful sheet of water, abounds with pick- 
erel, perch, and several other kinds of fish. The soil is 
strong and fertile. There are 5 meeting houses and 1 
academy in this town. A paper-mill establishment, with a 
capital of $7000, does a flourishing business. 

There are several small manufacturing establishments of 
various kinds ; all of which are in prosperous operation, and 
give an air of business and enterprise to this pleasant vil- 
lage. Alstead was formerly called Newton, and was grant- 
ed, August 6, 1763, to Samuel Chase and others. In 1771 
there were 25 families, besides 10 bachelors who cultivated 
their lauds and prepared their own meals. The first Con- 
gregational church was organized in 1777. Rev. Jacob 
Mann, the first pastor, Avas settled in February, 1782 ; dis- 
missed in 1789. Rev. Samuel Meade was settled in 1791 ; 
dismissed in 1797. 

General Amos Shepard, for many years a member of 
the General Court of New Hampshire, and president of 
the Senate seven years, was a resident of this town, and 
was one of its most prominent citizens from 1777 to the 
time of his decease in 1812. Upright and just in all his 
dealings, he secured the respect and confidence of all who 
knew him. Industrious, persevering, and economical, he 


acquired a handsome fortune, which enabled him to pass his 
last days in ease and quiet. 

Population, 1425. Number of polls, 336. Amount of 
inventory, )^529,420. Number of sheep, 5731. Do. neat 
stock, 1384. Do. horses and mules, 348. 

Alton, Belknap county. Bounded north by Winnipi- 
seogee Lake, east by New Durham, south by Barnstead, 
west by Gilmanton. 22 miles north-east from Concord, 
and 25 north-west from Dover. The surface of the land is 
rough and uneven ; the soil is hard and rocky, but produc- 
tive. The timber growth is principally oak, beech, maple, 
and pine. There are still a few lots of the latter, but the 
enterprise of the lumber dealer is fast lessening the quan- 
tity of salable pine. The principal elevation is Mount 
Major. There is a large swell of land called Prospect 
Hill, affording excellent grazing nearly to its summit, from 
which, in a clear day, the ocean may be seen. There are 
several small ponds Avithin the limits of the toAvn. Merry 
Meeting Bay, a part of Lake Winnipiseogee, extends south- 
erly about 2000 rods into the town, where it receives the 
waters of Merry Meeting River. There are at present 7 
stores, 3 hotels, 5 shoe manufactories, from which about 
300,000 pairs of shoes, boots, &c., arc sent annually to mar- 
ket. It also contains 2 grist mills, 7 saw mills, 2 of Avhich 
are propelled by steam power. Cars run from this place 
to Dover, Boston, &c., 3 times a day, and connect with 
steamboat on Winnipiseogee Lake. This town was former- 
ly called New Durham Gore. It was settled in 1770 by 
Jacob Chamberlain and others. It was incorporated Janu- 
ary 15, 1796, and named Alton, by one of its principal pro- 
prietors, from a town of the same name in England. A 
Freewill Baptist church was formed here in 1805. 


Population, 1795. Number of polls, 564. Amount of 
inventory, $618,583. Number of sheep, 1407. Do. neat 
stock, 1947. Do. horses and mules, 309. 

Amherst, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
New Boston, east by Merrimack, south by Hollis, west by 
Mount Vernon. 28 miles from Concord, 47 from Boston. 
Area, 22,432 acres. It is the shire town of Hillsborough 
county, and is situated on the Souhegan River, a tributary 
of the Merrimack. There are also several small streams 
and ponds in various parts of the town. The soil is, in 
some portions of the town, of an excellent quality. There 
are some fine hill farms. The county buildings and several 
of the dwelling houses of the village arc situated on a plain 
extending about one half mile north and south, and the 
same distance east and west. 

There is a chalybeate mineral spring about one and a half 
miles east of the meeting house, which is resorted to occa- 
sionally by invalids. Bog iron ore is found in considerable 
quantities in this tOAvn. There is also a bed of limestone 
of a valuable quality. Amherst is underlaid by granite, so 
far as can be observed around the margin of the valley in 
which the village is situated. This valley seems to be 
formed of a deposit of silicious sand derived from an an- 
cient drift from the north, the valley itself presenting the 
appearance of having been once a great basin. A printing 
press was established here, in 1795, by Nathaniel Coverly. 
The first weekly newspaper, called the Amherst Journal 
and New Hampshire Advertiser, was published from Janu- 
ary, 1795, to January of the following year. The Village 
Messenger was commenced January 6, 1796, and discontin- 
ued December 5, 1801. The Farmer's Cabinet was first 
published November 10, 1802, and has continued to the 


present time. The publication of the Hillsborough Tele- 
graph commenced in January, 1820, and continued about 
a year and a half. 

This town was granted by Massachusetts, in 1733, to the 
persons then living, and the heirs of those not living, who 
had served in the Narraganset war of 1675. It was first 
named Narraganset Number Three, afterwards Souhegan 
West. Several of the proprietors were natives of Salem, 
Massachusetts. The first settlement was in the year 1734, 
by Samuel Walton and Samuel Lampson. In 1741 the 
settlement consisted of 14 families. It was incorporated 
January 18, 1760, under the name of Amherst, as compli- 
mentary to Lord Jeffrey Amherst, an English general in 
America during the French war. A Congregational church 
was organized here September 22, 1741, and on the follow- 
ing day Kev. Daniel Wilkins was ordained and settled as 
pastor. Rev. Nathan Lord, D. D,, president of Dartmouth 
College, was ordained as a colleague with Rev. Mr. Bar- 
nard, May 22, 1816. 

Among the citizens of Amherst worthy of notice may 
be mentioned Hon. Moses Nichols, who held the rank of 
colonel under General Stark in the battle of Bennington. 
He was one of the councillors under the new constitution. 
Hon. Samuel Dana, a graduate of Harvard and a classmate 
of the renowned statesman and patriot John Adams, was 
judge of probate several years in the county of Hillsbor- 
ough, was state senator, and an eminent lawyer. Hon. 
William Gordon was state senator in 1794, representative 
to Congress in 1796, and attorney general in 1801. Hon. 
Robert Means, a native of Stewartstown, in Ireland, came 
to America in 1764. By his industry and close applica- 
tion he soon acquired a large fortune. He was three years 
a representative to the General Court, was state senator the 


saitie number of years, and in 1786 was councillor for' 
Hillsborough county. Hon. Charles H. Atherton was a 
son of Hon. Joshua Atherton, graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1794, was eminent and successful as a lawyer, held 
the office of register of probate for the county of Hillsbor- 
ough 39 years, was a representative to Congress in 1815 
and 1816. He was a man of more than 'ordinary talent, 
was upright and honest, and was highly esteemed by his^ 
•countrymen. Through the confidence reposed in him by' 
the public, as well a^ by reason of his untiring industry and 
application, he accumulated a large property. Hon. Jede- 
diah K. Smith filled the offices of councillor and state sen- 

Population, 1613. Number of polls, 318. Amount of 
inventory, |549,728. Number of sheep, 398. Do. neat' 
stock, 1271. Do. horses and mules, 278. 

Andover, Merrimack county. Bounded north by Hill, 
east by Franklin, south by Salisbury, west by Wilmot. 
Distance from Concord, 21 miles, north-west. Area, 
29,883 acres. The Blackwater is the principal stream in 
this town. There are several ponds, the largest of which 
ar6 Loon and Chance Ponds. The water comprising these 
ponds is remarkably pure, and the scenery about both, es- 
pecially Chance Pond, is picturesque and charming. A 
beautiful view may be had of this pond in passing over the 
Northern Railroad some two miles above Franklin village. 
Perch and pickerel are taken in great abundance here. 
The surface of the town is uneven, and in some parts rocky 
and sterile. The soil in many localities is strong, aild, with' 
careful cultivation, is productive. Ragged Mountain, in 
the north part of the town, is an eminence well described 
by its name. There is a flourishing academy in this to-wn, 


which, from its healthy and quiet location, affords excellent 
advantages for the student. 

Andover was granted in 1746 to Edmund Brown and 
others. It was first called Ncav Breton, in honor of the 
captors of Cape Breton in 1745. In 1779 it was incorpo- 
rated under its present name. The first inhabitant was Jo- 
seph Fellows, who moved into the place in 1761. In 1782 
a Congregational church was organized, under the Rev. Jo- 
siah Badcock as pastor. Dr. Jacob B. Moore, a poet of 
some eminence, was a resident of this town. The famous 
juggler and necromancer. Potter, was a citizen of Andover. 
The place where he resided may be seen at the " Potter 
Place," a station on the Northern Railroad. 

Population, 1220. Number of polls, 300. Amount of 
inventory, $378,272. Number of sheep, 222. Do. neat 
stock, 325. Do. horses and mules, 63. Value of im- 
proved and unimproved lands, $125,466. 

Antrim, Hillsborough count}'. Bounded north by 
Hillsborough, east by Deering, south by Hancock, and 
west by Stoddard. 30 miles south-west from Concord. 
Area, 21,743 acres. Contoocook River passes through the 
easterly part of the town, in the vicinity of Avhich are valu- 
able tracts of alluvial land. The town is generally hilly, 
though the soil is productive and well cultivated. Upon 
North Branch River, a stream formed by the confluence of 
several smaller streams from ponds in Stoddard, are some 
excellent mill seats, and along its course are small tracts of 
interval. The western portion of the town affords a fine 
range for grazing. The town derives its name from a town 
of the same name in Ireland. It was first settled by Dea- 
con James Aiken, in 1768. Four years passed away before 
another person moved into the place. During these years 


of solitude he suffered many privations and hardships, ow- 
ing to the want of neighbors. This town was incorporated 
March 22, 1777. Population, 1143. Number of polls, 
278. Amount of inventory, 1384,209. Number of sheep, 
980. Do. neat stock, 1415. Do. horses and mules, 268. 
Value of improved and unimproved lands, $229,534. 

Atkinson, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Hampstead, east by Plaistow, south by Haverhill, Massa- 
chusetts, west by Salem. 30 miles south-west from Ports- 
mouth, and 36 south-east from Concord. Area, 6839 
acres. The surface is uneven, but the soil is superior. 
The apple has for many years been carefully cultivated, 
and fruit of the most delicious quality is produced. This 
town comprises a portion of the lands conveyed November 
15, 1642, to the inhabitants of Pcntuckett, (New Haver- 
hill,) by the Indians. The deed was signed by two sa- 
chems, Possaquo and Saggahew, with the consent of their 
chief, Passaconnaway. When the dividing line between 
this state and Massachusetts was settled, the tract compris- 
ing Plaistow fell within the limits of this state, and Atkin- 
son, on account of difficulties respecting the location of a* 
meeting house, was set off from Plaistow, and incorporated 
September 3, 1767, under its present name, in honor of 
Theodore Atkinson, a large land owner, and for many years 
secretary of state. 

The first settlement was made about 1728 by Benjamin 
Richards, of Rochester, in this state, and Jonathan and Ed- 
mund Page and John Dow, from Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
The academy is one of the oldest and most respectable insti- 
tutions in the state, having been incorporated in 1791. The 
buildings belonging to this institution are situated about 
two miles from the Boston and Maine Railroad. The 


grounds of the location are very elevated and pleasant, the 
village healthy and quiet. In a large meadow in this town 
is an island, containing six or eight acres, which has been 
said to exhibit phenomena of a remarkable nature. When 
the meadow is overflowed by means of a dam, the island 
has been known to rise in the same degree as the water 
rises, which has been as high as six feet. The fact of such 
a floating island was noticed by Dr. Belknap, and has since 
been certified to by reliable persons. 

Popxdation, 600. Number of polls, 151. Amount of 
inventory, $210,151. Number of sheep, 44. Do. neat 
stock, 499. Do. horses and mules, TO. Value of im- 
proved and unimproved lands, $144,106. 

Auburn, Rockingham county. Bounded north by Can- 
dia, east by Chester, south by Londonderry, and west by 
Manchester. It is about 5 miles distant from the latter 
town, 23 from Concord, and 42 from Boston. It was 
originally a part of Chester, and was incorporated in 1845. 
Massabesic Pond is the largest body of water in the coun- 
ty, comprising an area of about 1500 acres. It consists of 
two nearly equal divisions, each about 3 miles in length 
and from 200 to 400 rods in breadth, each part being imit- 
ed by a strait some 250 rods in length, and in some places 
very narrow. The soil in general is strong and productive, 
especially the large swells of land. There is in this town, 
on the westerly side of " Devil's Den " Mountain, a large 
cave, extending into the hill in a northerly direction, near- 
ly to the centre. The entrance is about five feet in height 
and two and a half in width. It is divided into numerous 
apartments, several of which are 14 feet square. It varies 
in height from 2 to 15 feet. This has been explored on 
several occasions ; and those who have been more minute 


in their examinations report that, after having gone Us far 
as possible, there is still another opening, too small to ad- 
mit the body of a man, which communicates with a large 
apartment, from which openings are discovered leading in 
various du'ections. The rocks which compose the walls of 
this cave seem to consist mainly of gneiss, and in some 
places possess a slight taste of alum. In the summer sea- 
son, the Massabesic Lake, or Pond, furnishes a pleasing and 
attractive resort for the pleasure seeker as well as the quiet 
student of Nature. The scenery around is varied and de- 
lightful. The lake is interspersed with numerous islands, 
some of which are covered with a thick, heavy growth of 
pine timber, affording no slight inducement to the hunter ; 
while the waters abound with pickerel, perch, and trout. 
Lumbering is carried on to a considerable extent in this 
town. There are 10 sawmills, which in the aggregate fur- 
nish annually about 1,600,000 feet of lumber. The shoe- 
making business is also quite extensive, 45 being engaged 
constantly in this department of industry. There is also 
an edge-tool manufactory, with a capital of $10,000, giv- 
ing employment to 10 men; also a steam mill, which em- 
ploys 6 hands. 

Population, 810. Number of voters in 1854, 210. 
Amount of inventory in 1852, |237,009. Number of 
sheep, 310. Do. neat stock, 588. Do. horses and mules, 
107. Value of improved and unimproved lands, $157,460. 

Barnstead, Belknap county. Bounded north by Alton, 
east by Strafford, south by Pittsfield, and west by Oilman - 
ton. 20 miles north-east from Concord. Area, 26,000 
acres. The land lies principally in large swells, furnishing 
ejteellent grazing; while tlie soil is easily cultivated, and 
yields a rich reward to the industrious husbandman. There 


axe several ponds in to^vn, the largest of which are the 
Suncook, the Brindle, and Half Moon Ponds. These wa- 
ters abound with fish. Plumbago, bog iron ore, and yel- 
low ochre are found in various localities throughout the 
town. Specimens of basaltic trap rock are also discovered 
near the way from this town to Pittsfield. This town was 
granted, May 20, 1727, to Rev. Joseph Adams and oth- 
ers. Settlements commenced in 1767. A Congregational 
church was organized, August 5, 1804, with Rev. Enos 
George as pastor. Elder David Knowlton was settled 
over the Freewill Baptist society in 1804. The "Social 
Library" was incorporated in 1807, and still continues to 

Population, 1848. Number of polls, 525. Amount of 
inventory, $590,979. Number of sheep, 1360. Do. 
horses and mules, 330. Value of improved and unim- 
proved lands, $397,032. 

Barrington, Strafford county. Bounded north by 
Rochester, east by Madbury and Lee, south by Notting- 
ham, and west by Strafford. Distance from Concord, 30 
miles east. Surface broken and rocky ; soil generally a 
gravelly loam. There are, however, several elevations, 
termed oak ridges, which contain a rich, sandy loam and 
hazel mould, and are easily tilled, as well as productive. 
There are within the limits of this town 13 ponds, each of 
considerable magnitude, from which flow streams affording 
many very good water privileges. In Isinglass River is a 
perpendicular fall of 30 feet, which furnishes a constant 
supply of water for an extensive manufxctory. The rock 
in this town is principally granite, in which quartz predom- 
inates. In some of the rocks beautiful and perfect speci- 
mens of quartz crystals, and in others tourmaline, are 



found. Bog iron ore may be obtained in considerable 

There is, about two miles from the centre of the town, a 
cavern of some note. The entrance, upon the side of a 
hill, is large enough to admit a person in a stooping pos- 
ture. You pass along about 5 or 6 feet in a horizontal di- 
rection ; after which you descend about the same distance, 
at an angle of 45 degrees, through sj)ace barely large 
enough to admit a common-sized man. Having forced 
yourself through this narrow passage, you find yourself in 
a capacious hall, 60 feet in length, from 12 to 15 in height, 
and from 4 to 10 in width. Leading from this are several 
other fissures, of too small compass to admit of exploration. 

There are in this town three meeting houses — one Con- 
gregational, one Freewill Baptist, and one Methodist. 
First settled minister, Eev. Joseph Prince, in 1755. The 
town was incorporated May 10, 1722. Settlement com- 
menced 10 years after. It originally included the town of 
Strafibrd in its limits, comprising an area of 54,380 acres. 
In 1820 about 29,120 acres, somewhat more than half the 
town, was taken to form the town of Strafibrd. 

Population, 1754. Number of voters in 1854, 475. 
Amount of inventory, $517,075. Number of sheep, 1041. 
Do. neat stock, 1633. Do. horses and mules, 254. Value 
of improved and unimproved lands, {j^ 3 18, 142. 

Bartlett, Carroll county. Bounded north by Jackson, 
east by Chatham, south and west by ungranted lands. 
Latitude 44° 4' north. Distance from Lancaster, 45 miles, 
south-east, and from Concord, 75, north-east. It lies at 
the foot of the White Mountains, and contains about 13,000 
acres. The surface is uneven, and in some places rocky. 
The soil is various ; on tlie Saco River, which winds 


through the middle of the town, it is very good. This 
town was incorporated June 16, 1790, and received its 
name in honor of Governor Bartlett. It contains numerous 
small streams, in which trout are abundant. Baldface 
Mountain, a rugged eminence in the north-east part of the 
town, is said to contain inexhaustible quantities of iron ore 
of the best quality, from which steel of a fine quality, suit- 
able for cutlery, miglit be manufactured. The surrounding 
country is densely covered with hard wood, suitable every 
way for the manufacture of charcoal, insuring an abundant 
supply for smelting the ore. 

Population, 761. Number of polls, 163. Amount of 
inventory, $150,613. Value of lands, improved and un- 
improved, $91,138. Number of sheep, 661. Do. neat 
stock, 712. Do. horses, 82. 

Bath, Grafton county. Bounded north by Lyman, east 
by Landaft", soul^ by Haverhill, and west by Ryegate, Ver- 
mont. Distance from Dartmouth College, 42 miles, north- 
east ; from Concord, 82, north-west. This town is pleas- 
antly situated in the valley of the Connecticut River, be- 
tween the Green ]\Iountains on the west and • the White 
Mountains on the east, and thus protected from high winds 
and long storms. The Ammonusuc River waters the south- 
erly part of the town, affording numerous and excellent 
water privileges. At Bath village is a bridge across the 
Ammonusuc, 372 feet in length. The Wliite Mountain 
Railroad passes under the west end of this bridge. At the 
south-west corner of the town, Gardner's ]Mountain rises in 
bold ascent from the confluence of Connecticut and Am- 
monusuc Rivers, and extends in a northerly direction 
through the whole toAvn, thus separating the inhabitants, 
who find communication almost impossible, excepting 


through a single pass in the mountain. On this mountain 
are traces of argentiferous galena in very small veins. 
The rocks are principally granite, argillaceous slate, and 
flint. In several localities large veins of copper ore have 
been opened -within a few years, which appear to be abun- 
dantly worthy of being wrought. The soil on the hills is 
a reddish loam, resting upon a bed of marl. In the valleys 
the soil is alluvial. Brick clay, of excellent quality, is 
abundant. About one sixth pait of the town consists of in- 
terval land. Bath is one of the best agricultural towns in 
the state, much and careful attention having been devoted 
for many years to that department of labor. There is in- 
vested in factories and mills of various kinds from $12,000 
to $15,000. 

Bath was granted, September 10, 1761, to llev. Andrew 
Gardner and 61 others. The conditions of this charter not 
having been complied with, it was rechartered in March, 
1769, to John Sawyer and others. Tho^ first settlement 
was made in 1765 by John Herriman, from Haverhill, 
Massachusetts. In the succeeding year Moses Pike and 
Sawyer commenced settlements. A Presbyterian church 
was formed in 1778, and dissolved in 1791, when a Congre- 
gational church was organized, embracing 19 members. 
Rev. David Sutherland, a native of Edinburgh, was in- 
stalled in 1805. The present number of members is 126. 
Pastor, Thomas Boutelle. 

Population, 1514. Number of polls, 363. Amount of 
inventory, $464,531. Value of improved and unimproved 
lands, $255,434. Number of sheep, 4348. Do. neat 
stock, 1830. Do. liorses and mules, 384. 

Bedford, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Goffstown, east by Merrimack Kivcr, which separates it 



from Manchester, south by Merrimack, and west by Mount 
Vernon and New Boston. Distance from Concord, 21 
miles, south ; from Manchester, 8. Area, 20,000 acres. 
In the west part of the town the land is uneven and strong ; 
but the soil, though hard, is warm and productive. The 
eastern part is a rich interval of the Merrimack. In the 
westerly part of the town is a gulf and precipice, which are 
regarded as interesting curiosities of Nature. A small riv- 
ulet plunges over the precipice, falling 200 feet in a dis- 
tance of. 100 yards. Excavations in solid stone are found 
here large enough to contain several persons. Apparently 
there are three ponds in this town ; though their Avaters are 
probably united beneath an extensive bog, which floats upon 
the surface, and rises and falls with the water. This town 
abounds in mineralogical specimens. Several varieties of 
uon ore are found here. Plumbago, pyritous copper, 
schorl, hornblende, epidote, talc, crystallized quartz, &c., 
are also found in various localities. 

Bedford was granted by Massachusetts, in 1733, to the 
officers and soldiers and the surviving heirs of those de- 
ceased who had served in the Narraganset Avar. The num- 
ber of grantees was 120. It was originally named Souhe- 
gan East. The first settlement Avas made in 1737 by Kob- 
ert and James S. Walker. In the folloAving year Colonel 
John Goff'e, MatthcAv Patten, Esq., and Captain Samuel Pat- 
ten were added to the settlement. ScA'eral of the early set- 
tlers emigrated from the northern portion of Ireland. The 
first child born in this town was Silas Barron, son of Moses 
Barron, A. I). 1741. The toAvn AA'as incorporated by Gov- 
ernor Wcntworth in 1750. In its early history Bedford 
was a favorite resort of the Indians. In 1745, one James 
McQuade and Robert Burns had been to a neighboring 
town to purchase corn, and on theii' return McQuade was 


killed by a party of Indians concealed in a thicket by the 
path. Burns, by running in a zigzag course, confused the 
enemy, and escaped — arriving in safety to his family. 

On tke bank of the river, near Goffe's Falls, is a plot of 
ground, about 10 rods in length by 4 in width, which is 
supposed to have been an Indian burying ground. The 
surface is level, and about 40 feet above the river. Human 
bones have been washed from the bank by the river. In 
1821, Dr. Woodbury, in company with others, exhumed 
parts of three skeletons from this ground. They seem 
to have been deposited in bark, pieces of which still 
remained. One appeared to have been buried in a sitting 
posture. Their heads lay towards the south. Upon 
the head of one, the hair, which was in complete preserva- 
tion, was fastened in a bunch behind, similar to the manner 
observed by the female Indians of the present day. A 
Presbyterian church was formed here in 1757. About the 
same time Hev. John Houston was ordained as the pastor, 
who occupied this position until 1778. 

Population, 1906. Number of polls, 423. Do. houses, 
315. Do. families, 346. Do. farms, 226. Value of lands, 
$527,642. Stock in trade, $16,305. Valuation, $756,512. 

Bennington, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Deering, east by Francistown, south by Greenfield, and 
west by Hancock and Antrim. This is a small township, 
taken from Deering, Francistown, Greenfield, and Hancock 
in 1842, This village is provided with better manufac- 
turing facilities than almost any of the neighboring towns. 
The manufacture of cutlery in its varieties is carried on to 
considerable extent by Samuel Baldwin and Amos and Alfred 
Whittemore, who employ 14 hands. The land is generally' 
uneven, and the soil moderately productive. 


The people are industrious and enterprising. Manu- 
facturing in its various departments constitutes the chief 

Population, 541. Number of polls, 117. Do. houses, 
109. Do. fiimilies, 121. Do. farms, 31, Value of lands, 
$63,098. Stock in trade, $4800. Factories, $10,100. 
Valuation, $1(35,229. Number of sheep, 426. Do. neat 
stock, 375. Do. horses, 88. 

Benton, Grafton county. Bounded north by Landaff, 
east by Woodstock, south by Warren, and west by Haver- 
hill. 70 miles north-west from Concord, and 12 east from 
Haverhill. Area, 33,290 acres. This town is watered by 
the Oliverian Brook and the Wild Ammonusuc River. In 
the south-east part of the town is one of the most consider- 
able elevations in Grafton county, — • Moosehillock Mount, 
— which ranks among the highest mountains in the state. 
Sugar Loaf and Owl's Head Mountains are also considerable 
elevations. There is a large quantity of valuable timber in 
this town, ^^hich, however, is being rapidly manufactured 
into lumber. The town presents generally a rough and 
mountainous ajjpect, and the land in many portions is not 
capixble of cultivation. There are, notwithstanding, several 
well-cultivated and productive farms. On Black Mountain 
is a quarry of stone very much resembling Italian marble, and 
is excellent for building. The Boston, Concord, and Mon- 
treal Railroad passes through the south part of the town. 
Benton was granted in 1764 to Theophilus Fitch and 
others, under the name of Coventry. There was no settle- 
ment, however, until after the revolutionary war. In 1790 
the number of inhabitants was 80. 

Population, according to the late census, 478. Num- 
ber of polls, 131. Amount of inventory, $110,795. 


Value of land, $52,620. Number of sheep, 883. Do. 
neat stock, 485. Do. horses, 92. 

Berlin, Coos county. Bounded north by Milan, east by 
Success, south by Shelburne, Gorham, and Kandolph, and 
west by Kilkenny. 140 miles north from Concord, and 
20 east from Lancaster. Area, 31,154 acres. Here are 
several small ponds and streams. The Androscoggin, pass- 
ing through the east part of the town, and the Upper 
Ammonusuc through the west, are the largest streams. The 
former stream descends some 200 feet in a mile or two : and 
the principal fall, worn through a solid rock, is a remarkable 
curiosity. There are 3 large sawmills in this town ; 2 
furnishing employment for 50 or 60 hands, the third 
about 40. There are several others, employing from 5 to 
10 men. The surface is broken and mountainous. From 
some of the elevations distinct and beautiful views of the 
White Mountains may be obtained. 

This town was granted in 1771 to Sir William Mayne, 
baronet, Thomas, Robert, and Edward Mayne, and others, 
from Barbadoos. Its original name was Maynesborough. 
It was incorporated in 1829 under its present name. 

Population, 173. Number of polls, 51. Valuation, 
$48,984. Value of lands, .$22,890. Number of sheep, 
207. Do. neat stock, 194. Do. horses, 25. 

Bethlehem, Grafton county. Bounded north by White- 
field, east by Carroll and ungrantcd lands, south by Fran- 
conia and Lisbon, and west by Littleton. Area, 28,608 acres. 
100 miles north from Concord. It is watered by Great 
Ammonusuc and Gale Rivers. The principal mountains 
are the Round and Peaked. The soil produces good crops 
of grass, grain, and potatoes. Specimens of magnetic and 


bog iron ore are found in various localities. This town 
was settled, in 1790, by Jonas Warren, Benjamin Brown, 
James Turner, Thomas Hatch, John Hatch, Nathan and 
Amos Wheeler, and others, and incorporated December 21, 
1799. A Congregational church was organized October 15, 
1802, a Baptist church in 1800, and a Freewill Baptist in 
1813. At present there is no Baptist church. A Meth- 
odist church was formed a few years since. 

Population, 950. Number of polls, 191. Amount of 
inventory, $199,285. Value of lands, improved and un- 
improved, .*^ 110,206. Number of sheep, 884. Do. neat 
stock, 888. Do. horses, 148. 

BoscAWEN, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Salisbury and Franklin, east by the Merrimack River, 
which separates it from Canterbury and Northfield, south 
by Concord and Hopkinton, and west by Warner. Area, 
32,230 acres. 8 miles from Concord, and 68 from Boston. 
This town is well watered. Merrimack Iviver touches its 
eastern border, and the Blackwater runs through the whole 
extent of the town from north to south, parallel with, and 
about 5 miles distant from, the Merrimack. The latter 
stream furnishes numerous water privileges. The soil is 
deep, productive, and well cultivated. There are many 
farms in a high state of cultivation. Much fruit of excel- 
lent quality is raised here. The intervals on the Merrimack 
are of considerable extent. The plains bordering on the 
intervals have a soil somewhat lighter and less fertile. 

Great Fond lies near the centre of the town. It is about 1 
mile in length, and the same in width. Long Pond, in the 
west part of the town, is about 2 miles in length, and half a 
mile in width. There are 2 villages, the principal of which 
is in the easterly section of the town, known as Boscawen 



Plain. It is a pleasant village, containing some elegant 
residences. The principal street, nearly 2 miles in length, 
is well shaded, and in a hot summer day presents an invit- 
ing appearance. Here are 2 meeting houses, an academy, 
and 2 hotels, besides several stores. The other village is 
in the westerly part of the town, situated in more elevated 
land. It possesses all the charms of a quiet rural district, 
where peace and comfort prevail. 

Much attention is paid to the interests of education, owing 
in a great measure, no doubt, to the untiring and successful 
labors of the late Samuel Wood, who fitted between 80 and 
90 young men for college, 31 of whom became ministers 
of the gospel. This town was granted in 1733, by Massa- 
chusetts, to John Coffin and 90 others, who held their first 
meeting in May 2 of thiat year. 

The proprietors gave to the new township the name of 
Contoocook, from the Indian name of the river. In 1760, 
when incorporated, it received its present name in honor 
of Sir Edward Boscawen, an English admind then on duty 
in this country. The first settlement was made early in 
1734, by Nathaniel Danforth, Moses Burbank, Stephen 
Gerrish, Edward Emery, and a few others. Abigail, 
daughter of Mr. Danforth, was the first white child born in 
this town. To protect themselves against the inroads of the 
savages, these families erected a log fort, 100 feet square 
and 10 feet in hei:=^ht, near the meeting house on King 
Street. For more than twenty years this proved a sate 
and commodious garrison for all the inliabitants. In 1746 
the Indians made an attack upon the settlement, killed one 
Thomas Cook and a colored man, and seized and carried 
away captive to Canada Elisha Jones, where he died. 

In May, 1754, Nathaniel Melvon and family, consisting 
of himself, wife, and five children, were taken captive and 


hiurried away to Canada, from whence they escaped after a 
servitude of more than three years. In August of the 
same year, a party of Indians came to the house of one 
Philip Call, where they killed his wife. They were pur- 
sued, and, secreting themselves in ambush, rushed out upon 
their pursuers, and took Enos Bishop. Timothy Cook at- 
tempted to escape by plunging into the river, but was shot. 
In 1756 Ezekiel Flanders and Edward Emery were killed 
while on a hunting excursion to Newfound Lake, in Nel- 
son. The island lying at the mouth of Contoocook River, 
within the limits of this town, named Dustan's Island, was 
the scene of the heroic deeds of Mrs. Hannah Dusfan, 
which may appropriately be noticed here. Mrs. Dustan, 
her inflint babe, only a week old, and her nurse were 
taken captive by the Indians at Haverhill, March 15, 1698. 
The mother, still confined in bed, was forced by the sav- 
ages to rise and accompany .them. The infant, showing 
signs of uneasiness, was despatched by an Indian, who 
dashed its head against a tree, before the party had pro- 
ceeded far from the place of capture. They conveyed the 
mother, feeble and exhausted, and the nurse up the Mer- 
rimack, and halted at the island mentioned above. Here 
they rested for a while, intending soon to proceed on their 
way, a considerable distance farther up the river, to an In- 
dian town, where the captives were informed that they 
would be compelled to run the gantlet through the village. 
Aware of the cruelties that awaited her, Mrs, Dustan 
formed a determination to exterminate the whole party, 
should an opportunity present itself Her companions con- 
sisted of her nurse, and an English boy who had been 
taken from "Worcester. She prevailed upon them to assist 
her in this daring enterprise. 

The wishcd-for time was close at hand. The Indians 


having refreshed themselves ou this island, being still tired 
from the long and rapid march, and apprehensive of no 
danger, lay down, and quickly sank into a profound sleep. 
Mrs. Dustan, viewing the circumstance as favorable to 
her deliverance, seized upon it at once. By the aid of the 
nurse and boy, with the deadly Aveapous of her brutal cap- 
tors, she despatched ten of the number. Of the remaining 
two, a woman made her escape, and a boy they intentionally 
left. Taking the scalps of the slain, and one of their birch 
canoes, she returiied down the river to Haverhill in safety, 
to the joy and astonishment of her friends. 

The precise time when the church was formed in this 
place has never been ascertained. Eev. Phinehas Stevens 
was ordained October 8, 17-40, and died January 19, 1755 ; 
Rev. Robie Morrill v/as ordained December 29, 1761, and 
dismissed December 9, 1766; Rev. Nathaniel Merrill was 
ordained October 19, 1768, and dismissed April 1, 1774 ; 
Rev. Samuel Wood, D. D., was ordained October 17, 1781, 
and continued in charge of the chiu'ch for more than fifty 
years. Many of the inhabitants of Boscawen took an ac- 
tive part in the war of the revolution. 

There is in operation at the present time 1 cotton mill, 
furnishing employment for about 60 hands ; 1 woollen fac- 
tory, which produces annually about 100,000 yards of 
cloth. An extensive business is carried on in the manu- 
facture of saws of various descriptions, which have thus 
far proved to be of superior quality. About 450 persons 
are engaged in the manufacture of shoes. This town has 
a fund, for the support of common schools, of f 1733. 

Population, 2063. Number of polls in 1854, 558. 
Amount of inventory, $737, 147. Value of lands, improved 
and unimproved, $449,500. Number of sheep, 6095. 
Do. neat stock, 1585. Do. horses, 300. Value of shares 


in banks and other corporations, $13,900. Value of facto- 
ries and their machinery, $26,000. Value of mills and 
carding machines, $10,000. 

Bow, Merrimack county. Bounded north by Concord, 
east by Merrimack River, which separates it from Pembroke, 
south by Dunbarton, and west by Ilopkinton. This town 
is situated on the Concord and Nashua Railroad. 8 miles 
south-east from Concord. Area, about 10,000 acres. The 
surface is uneven ; the soil hard, but productive. Turee 
Pond is the only body of water of any considerable size. 
Turkey River dischai'ges into the Merrimack at Turkey 
Falls, in the north-easterly part of the town. Bow Canal 
is situated on the Merrimack, 3 miles below Concord. It 
was originally constructed at a cost of $13,860. The 
first church organized in this town was of the Baptist 
denomination, in 1795. Two years after, Rev. Benjamin 
Sargent was ordained as its pastor. This township was 
granted. May 20, 1727, to Jonathan Wiggin and others, and 
was originally laid out 9 miles square, including a large 
portion of the territoiy which now belongs to Concord and 

Population, 1055. Number of polls, 218. Valuation, 
$335,116. Value of lands, $223,274. Number of sheep, 
422. Do. neat stock, 946. Do. horses, 133. 

Bradfoki), Merrimack county. Boimded north by 
Newbury and Sutton, east by Warner, south by Henniker 
and Hillsboro\igh, and west by "Washington. 28 miles 
west from Concord. Area, 19,000 acres, nearly 500 of 
which are covered with water. It is watered by several 
small streams which issue from ponds, the largest of 
which is Todd's Pond, lying partly in, Bradford and partly 


in Newbury. In this pond are several floating islands, 
which are truly objects of curiosity. Bradford Pond, about 
550 rods in length by 150 in width, lies in the east part 
of the town. It communicates with Warner River by an 
outlet at its northern extremity. This pond is studded 
with numerous small islands, which, with the rugged de- 
scent of the eastern bank, the clear waters below, the dwell- 
ings and variegated fields on the western shore, present, 
in the summer season, a wild and charming scenery. Many 
parts of the town are rough and hilly. A large portion, 
however, consists of a valley, about 3 miles in width. 

The terminus of the Merrimack and Connecticut River 
Railroad is in the village of this town. Near the Sunapee 
Mountains is an extensive plain, more than 1 mile in length, 
and about half a mile in width. The soil is various. In 
some places it is a rich loam ; in others, light and sterile. 

In the easterly part are valuable stone quarries. This 
town was first settled, in 1771, by Deacon William Presbury 
and his family, consisting of his wife and ten children. It 
was incorporated September 27, 1787, and included a part of 
Washington. The Congregational church was organized in 
1803. In March, 1805, Rev. Lemuel Bliss was ordained 
and settled as its first minister. 

Population, 1341. Number of polls, 307. Amount of 
inventory, $404,376. Value of lands, improved and un- 
improved, $'166,433. Value of mills, &c., |5466. Stock 
in trade, $8000. Number of sheep, 3096. Do. neat 
stock, 1529. Do. horses, 302. 

Brentw^ood, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Epping, east by Exeter, south by East Kingston and King- 
ston, and west by Poplin. Area, 10,465 acres. 32 miles 
south-east from Concord, and 4 east from Exeter. The 


soil is well adapted to the growth of grass ; and, by careful 
cultivation, good crops of most of the cereal grains may be 
produced. Exeter River runs through the entire length 
of the town on the southerly side. There are 2 other 
small streams within the town ; one called Little River, and 
the other Deer Hill River — so named from a hill in its vi- 
cinity which Avas a favorite resort of deer. At Pickpocket 
Falls, on Exeter River, are several saw and grist mills and 
1 large paper manufactory. In a few localities, consider- 
able quantities of iron ore have been discovered. Vitriol, 
combined in masses of sulphur, has also been found. 
This town was incorporated June 26, 1742. A Congrega- 
tional church was established here in 1752, and Rev. 
Nathaniel Tuck Avas ordained about the same time ; de- 
ceased in 1789. Rev. Ebenezer Flint was his successor, 
who continued in charge until 1811, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Chester Cotton. A Baptist society was 
formed here in 1775. 

Population, 923. Number of polls in 1854, 218. 
Valuation, $310,576. Value of lands, $149,042. Num- 
ber of sheep, 672. Do. neat stock, 983. Do. horses, 130. 

Bridgewater, Grafton county. Bounded north by 
Plymouth and Hebron, east by Pemigewasset River, which 
separates it from Iloldcrness and New Hampton, south by 
Bristol, and west by Newfound Lake, which divides it from 
Alexandria. 30 miles north from Concord. The soil is 
well adapted to grazing, and in this respect is excelled by 
few, if any, towns in the vicinity. The first settlement 
was made in 1766, by Thomas Crawford, Esq., when the 
tract included all of Hill, Bridgewater, and Bristol. A 
Congregational church was organized here in 1817. Previ- 
ous to this time, the inhabitants who were inembers of that 


body attended public worship in Hebron. There are also 
societies of Baptists, Freewill Baptists, and Methodists. 
The inhabitants are mainly devoted to agriculture, and 
are an industrious and sober community. This town 
was incorporated February 12, 1788. 

Population, 670. Number of polls, 145. Amount 
of inventory, $144,378. Value of lands, improved and 
unimproved, $79,529. Number of sheep, 1580. Value 
of neat stock, $13,890. Do. horses, $3956. 

Bristol, Grafton county. Bounded north by Bridge- 
water, east by Pemigewasset River, which separates it from 
New Hampton, south by Hill, and west by Alexandria. 
It is 90 miles from Boston, 30 north from Concord, and 16 
south fiom Plymouth. Area, 9000 acres, exclusive of 
ponds. The surface is liilly and uneven, but the soil is 
in general very good. Newfound Lake, 7 miles long 
and 3 wide, lies partly in this town, and partly in Bridge- 
water. Its waters are drained by a river of the same 
name, about 2 miles in length and 100 feet in width, 
into Pemigewasset River. The village is situated near 
the confluence of these two rivers. Smith's River, which 
forms the southern boundary between this town and Hill, 
also unites with the Pemigewassit near this place. There 
are some excellent water privileges on these streams, near 
the village, upon several of which manufacturing estab- 
lishments of various kinds, and generally with a moderate 
capital, have been erected. 

The village is situated on a plain somewhat irregular. 
The neighboring hills arc broken, and in some instances of 
steep and rugged ascent, presenting to the view a charming 
and romantic landscape. The village itself presents an 
appearance not ,only pleasing and attractive, but also 


thriving and prosperous. Here is the terminus of the 
Franklin and Bristol Railroad, which connects with the 
Northern at Franklin. Graphite (plumbago) has been 
discovered here in considerable quantities and of superior 
quality. Bristol was taken from Bridgewater and New 
Chester, (now Hill,) and incorporated June 24, 1819. The 
first settlement within its present limits was made in 1770, 
by Colonel Peter Sleeper, Benjamin Emmons, and others. 
A Methodist society was incorporated and a church organ- 
ized in June, 1818. There are at present Congregational, 
Methodist, and Freewill Baptist societies and churches in 
this to^v^l. About 90 persons are employed in the various 

Population, 1103. Number of polls, 300. Amount 
of inventory, f 277,057. Value of improved and unim- 
proved lands, ^157,180. Value of mills and carding 
machines, $6900. Value of factories, $1/300. Number 
of sheep, 869. Do. neat stock, 719. Do. horses, 134. 

Brookfield, Carroll county. Bounded north by Wolf- 
borough and Wakefield, east by Wakefield, south by Mid- 
dleton, and west by Durham and Wolfborough. Area, 
13,000 acres. 45 miles north-east from Concord. This 
tract was originally a part of Middleton, from Avhich it was 
taken and incorporated in 1794. The soil is deep and 
strong. Cook's Pond, about 1 mile long and three fourths 
of a mile in width, forms the source of the next branch of 
Salmon Fall lliver, and is the only body of water of note in 
the town, excepting a small pond, covering about 15 acres, 
which is situated directly on the top of Moose Mountain. 
The water is clear- and cool, and the quantity is always about 
the same. The fii-st settler was Nicholas Austin. The pre- 
cise date of his settlement is not knoAvn, though it was some 


time before the town was incorporated. Eichard Hanson, a 
few years after the settlement of Austin, erected the first 
framed house in the town. 

Population, 553. Number of polls, 118. Amount of 
inventory, $131,184. Number of sheep, 344. Do. neat 
stock, 691. Do. horses, 105. 

Brookline, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Milford, east by Hollis, south by Townsend and Pepperell, 
in Massachusetts, and west by Mason. Area, 12,664 acres, 
240 of which are covered with water. 43 miles north 
west from Boston, 35 south from Concord, and 7 south from 
Amherst. The Nisitissit is the only river in this town. 
This stream rises in the north-east part of Mason, and runs 
in a southerly direction to Potanipo, or Tanapus, Pond. 
This pond is situated near the meeting house, and is about 
1 mile in length and one third of a mile in width. This 
town possesses but few natural resources for its advance- 
ment in wealth and population. Agriculture is the chief 
employment. The soil in some parts is good ; but it is 
often hard, sterile, and unproductive, unless cultivated wit!" 
great care. 

This town formerly belonged to Massachusetts, and was 
included in the Dunstable grant. It was incorporated 
Maich, 1769, under the name of Eaby. By a legislative 
act, in 1798, it received its present name. A Congrega- 
tional church was organized here in 1797. Kev. Lemuel 
Wadsworth was the fii-st minister. 

Population, 718. Number of polls, 186. Amount of 
inventory, $268,333. Number of sheep, 78. Do. neat 
stock, 457. Do. horses, 113. 

Cambridge, Coos county. Bounded north by Errol s^id 


Umbagog Lake, east by the State of Maine, south by Suc- 
cess and Milan, and west by Dumraer. Latitude 44° 57'. 
Area, 23,160 acres. 143 miles north-east from Concord, 
and 35 north-east from Lancaster. This township, granted^ 
in 1793, to Nathaniel Rogers and others, is still but 
thinly inhabited. The surface is uneven ; but a large 
portion might be easily cultivated. The soil is good. 
Several streams rise in this town and fall into the An- 
droscoggin. The land is mostly covered with a dense, 
heavy growth of wood, a large part of which is maple ; 
though pine, spruce, and hemlock grow in considerable 

Population, 33. Number of polls, 10. 

Campton, Grafton county. Bounded north by Thorn- 
ton, east by Sandwich, south by Holderness and Plymouth, 
and west by Rumney. Area, 27,892 acres. 50 miles 
north from Concord, and 14 from Plymouth. The sur- 
face is broken and uneven, abounding with ledges, and 
high, rocky hills. Moimt Prospect, situated in the souther- 
ly part of the toAvn, is a considerable elevation. From its 
summit a delightful view of Winnipiseogee Lake is ob- 
tained, as well as a large portion of the southern part of 
the state. There are very few positions from whence so 
good a view of the lake can be had. The distance from its 
summit to Plymouth depot is only 4 miles. .There is 
in the easterly part of the toAvn a range of mountains 
designated by a variety of names, the most common of 
which is Morgan Mountain. Pemigewasset River runs in 
a southerly direction nearly through the middle of the 
town, and receives the waters of Mad, Beebe, and West 
Branch Rivers on the east, and Bogbrook on the west. 
The soil in the valleys is gcuerally good. There is also 


considerable good interval. The high lands, where they 
are not too rocky, are excellent for grazing. The forest 
trees are generally deciduous ; though there are some hem- 
lock, spruce, and pine. Livermore's Falls, in Pemigewasset 
River, near the south part of the town, present appearances 
of a striking character. The formation of the rocks in the 
bed of the river, at this point, bears conclusive evidence of 
volcanic eruption. Several specimens of a substance bear- 
ing close resemblance to lava have been found in this re- 
gion. In the easterly part of the town plumbago is found 
in large quantities and of good quality. Iron ore is found 
in a few localities, but of rather an inferior quality. On 
the top of the mountain range referred to, very fine speci- 
mens of crystallized quartz are found. From 20 to 30 tons 
of maple sugar are manufactured in this town annually. 
Campton and Rumney were included in the same grant 
to Captain Jabez Spencer, of East Haddam, Connecticut, 
in October, 1761 ; but in consequence of his death before 
any settlement was made, his heirs, with others, obtained a 
new charter in 1767. The first settlement was made, in 
1765, by two families of the names of Fox and Taylor. 
This town derives its name from the fact that the first 
proprietors, when they went to survey the two townships 
of Campton and Rumncy, built a camp within its limits 
This town furnished 10 soldiers for the army in the revo- 
lutionary- war, 5 of whom died in the service. A Congre- 
gational church Avas organized here in 1774. Rev. Selden 
Church was ordained and settled as pastor in October, 
1774 ; dismissed in 1792. Rev. John Webber was in- 
stalled in February, 1813; dismissed March 12, 1815. 
Rev. Amos Brown was ordained and settled January 1, 
1817 ; dismissed in 1822. At present there are 3 meeting 
houses in the town, belonging respectively to the Con- 


gregational, Baptist, and Freewill Baptist denominations. 
There is 1 woollen factory, giving employment to about 
25 persdns. There are also 2 shoe establishments, fur- 
nishing labor for 30 or 40 persons. The amount of capital 
invested in the various manufacturing departments in town 
is estimated at $45,000. 

Population, 1439. Number of polls in 1854, 350. 
Amount of inventory, $335,096. Value of lands, im- 
proved and unimproved, $183,334. Number of sheep, 
2484. Do. neat stock, 1525. Do. horses, 280. 

Canaan, Grafton county. Bounded north by Dorches- 
ter, east by Oi-ange, south by Enfield, and west by Hanover. 
Distance from Concord 40 miles, north-west ; from Haver- 
hill 25, south-west. The principal stream is the Mascomy 
River, which, rising in the north-west part of Dorchester, 
by a meandering course of 8 or 10 miles, discharges its 
waters into Mascomy Pond, in Enfield. Heart Pond, so 
named from its peculiar form, lies in the centre of the 
town, and upon such an elevation of land that at a distance 
it has the appearance of a sheet of water on a hill. It is 
about 500 rods in length and 200 in Avidth, and is nearly 
surrounded by a bank, or rnound, of earth from 4 to 5 feet 
in height. From the regularity of its formation and its 
uniform height, it has every appearance of a work of art ; 
but, from a series of observations, it is found to be produced 
by the drifting of ice in the spring. On the west side is 
the village known as Canaan Street — a very pleasant place. 
The Northern Railroad passes through the south-easterly 
portion of the town. In the vicinity of the depot, quite a 
thriving village has been built up within a few years. 
There are two or three stores here, which do quite an 
extensive business. The land throughout the town pre- 


sents a surface more even aud regular than that of several 
of the adjacent towns. The soil is generally deep and 
fertile, producing excellent potatoes and grass, as well as 
the cereal grains. Goose, Clark, Mud, and Bear Ponds, 
Ijing in different parts of the town, are favorite resorts of 
the fishermen, while numerous brooks are well stored with 

Canaan was granted in 1761 to 62 persons, all except 10 
of whom were from a town of the same name in Connecti- 
cuty The first permanent settlement was made in the 
winter of 1766, by John Scotield, who conveyed thither 
all the property he possessed on a hand sled, a distance of 
14 miles, on the snow crust. Others of the first settlers 
were George and Joshua Harris, Thomas Miner, Samuel 
Jones, and Samuel Meacham. 

The first church organized in town was of the Baptist 
denomination, and. was formed in 1780. In 1783 Rev. 
Thomas Baldwin, D. D., was ordained and settled over it. 
He continvied in the pastoral charge of this church until 
1790, when he removed to Boston. Many difficulties were 
encountered in the establishment of this church, and in 
some instances violent opposition was manifested. Dr. 
Baldwin had frequent occasion to visit Concord, and often 
performed the journey on foot through the wilderness. It 
was during one of these solitary walks that he composed 
the familiar and beautiful stanzas commencing with, — 

" From whence doth tliis union arise ? " 

A Congregational society was incorporated here in 1820, 
and Rev. Charles Calkins ordained as pastor. There is 
also a respectable Methodist society in this town. Jonathan 
Dustan, a native of Haverhill, Massachusetts, and a grand- 
son of the heroine Mrs. Hannah Dustan, was for some 


time a resident, and died here July 4, 1812, aged 93. 
There is an academy pleasantly located in Canaan Street, 
which from its healthy location, and the general quiet and 
order of the village, together with a competent board of 
teachers, affords good inducements to the real student. 

Population, 1682. Amount of inventory, $453,498. 
Number of polls, 389. Value of mills and carding 
machines, $8150. Value of stock in trade, $11,960. 
Amount of money at interest or on deposit, $21,450. 
Value of lands, improved and unimproved, $276,753. 
Number of sheep, 4810. Do. neat stock, 1456. Do. 
horses, 256. 

Candia, Rockingham county. Bounded north by Deer- 
field, east by Nottingham, south by Auburn and Chester, 
and west by Hooksett. Area, 15,360 acres. Distance 
from Concord 15 miles, south-east ; from Exeter 20, west. 
It is situated on the height of land between Merrimack 
River and the ocean. The soil is naturally of hard culti- 
vation, but the energy and industry of the inhabitants have 
rendered it highly productive. From its elevated position, 
it commands an extensive view of the beautiful scenery of 
the country for many miles around, including within the 
range of visioii the White Hill's, the Wachuset, several 
other mountains, the lighthouses on Tlum Island, and the 
ocean. It is a very healthy town, owing in a great meas- 
ure, probably, to its elevation. Farming is the principal 
employment. There are many excellent farms, from which 
much produce, including considerable fruit of excellent 
quality, is raised, for which a ready market is found in 
Manchester. This town raises annually the sum of 
$1000 for the support of common schools. As a result 
of this liberal provision in behalf of the elements of 


common school education, Candia sends out a large num- 
ber of well-educated young men and ladies as teachers, 
who usually rank high in this truly useful and laudable 
calling. There is a large shoe manufactory in this town, 
where 150 persons are constantly employed. 

The first settler within the limits of the town was Wil- 
liam Turner, who came here in 1748. In 1755 John 
Sargent and others commenced settlement here. It was 
incorporated in 1763. It received its present name from 
Governor Banning Wentworth, who was once a prisoner on 
the Island of Candia, in the Mediterranean Sea, the ancient 
Crete. The people of this town were active in the war 
of independence. The names of 69 soldiers are found on 
the town records, 

A Congregational church was first established here in 
1771, and Rev. David Jewett settled as its pastor ; removed 
in 1780 ; succeeded in 178l'2 by Rev. Joseph Prince, who 
was succeeded in 1790 by Rev. Jesse Remington, who 
died in 1815. There is also a society of Freewill Bap- 

Population, 1482. Number of polls in 1854, 450. 
Amount of inventory, ^409,394. Amount of money at 
interest or on deposit, ^39,333. Value of lands, improved 
and unimproved, !iJ5242,830. Number of sheep, 342. Do, 
neat stock, 1246, Do, horses, 195, 

Canterbury, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Northfield and Gilmanton, east by Gilmanton and Loudon, 
south by Loudon and Concord, and west by Merrimack 
River, which separates it from Boscawen, A high ridge 
of land, extending along the line between this town and 
Northfield, affords a fine prospect of the surrounding 
country. Canterbury is 8 miles distant from Concord, 


and contains an area of 26,345 acres. The surface is 
uneven, the more hilly portions being excellent for pas- 
turage. The soil is generally good. There are no streams 
of importance in the town ; but several ponds supply small 
streams, which are used to some extent for manufacturing 
purposes. For a long time during the early period of the 
settlement, the inhabitants were sufferers from the encroach- 
ments of the Indians. The husbandman cleared and culti- 
vated his grounds under protection of a guard ; and often, 
while pursuing his daily toil, he was reminded of his 
danger by the sudden report of firearms in the hands of 
the secret, lurking foe. In 1738 two men, named Blan- 
chard and Shepherd, having proceeded a short distance from 
the garrison kept in town, were surprised by a party of seven 
Indians, who suddenly rose from behind a log within a few 
ieet of them. All the Indians at once fired, but without 
effect Blanchard and his companion returned the fire 
upon the savages, but to no purpose. Shepherd then 
made his escape ; but Blanchard was taken. The Indians 
wounded and mutilated him so badly that he survived but 
a few days. During the French and Indian war, frequent 
attacks were made upon the inhabitants of this town. On 
one occasion they broke into the house of Thomas Clough, 
and, finding no one within, plundered it of its contents. 
Finding a negro servant of Clough, with a boy named 
Jackson, at work in a field not far distant, the Indians took 
them to Canada, where they remained until the close of 
the war in 1749. In the spring of 1752 two Indians, 
named Sabatis and Christi, came into the settlement, where 
they were kindly entertained by the people for several 
weeks. At length they left suddenly, forcing away with 
them two negroes, one of whom soon succeeded in making 
his escape, and returned. The other was taken to Crown 



Point and sold to a military officer. The following' y^it 
Sabatis returned with another Indian, named PlausaWa, 
V^hen, on being reproved for his former misdemeanor, he 
and his comrade behaved in an insolent and threatening 
manner. Doubtless this misconduct was caused in a great 
measure by the use of strong drink, with which, by some 
thoughtless persons, they had been freely treated. While 
in this condition, such was their conduct that strong and 
bitter feelings were excited against them. Soon, however, 
they took their leave, when a certain person followed them, 
and, taking advantage of their now almost helpless con- 
dition, killed them. By the assistance of another person 
the Indians were immediately buried, but so slightly that 
their bodies were dug up by wild beasts, and their 
bones were soon after discovered scattered about on the 
ground. These two men, shortly after the discovery, wet^ 
arrested, and taken to Portsmouth for trial. A bill being 
found against them by the grand jury, they were confined 
in irons for trial; but in the night previous to the time 
appointed, a mob from the country, armed with axes and 
bars, forced open the prison and carried them off in 
triumph. So imbittered were the feelings of the people 
against the Indians, by reason of their wanton and brutal 
depredations, that it was difficult, and almost impossible, to 
award them justice, even in cases of undisputed right. 

This town was granted in 1727 to Richard Waldron and 
others. This grant also included Northfield and Loudon. 
It was settled soon after the grant was obtained. There 
"M^as no regular church organization until 1761, although 
tliere was occasional preaching from the first settlement. 
In the year just mentioned Rev. Abiel Foster was ordained, 
and labored as pastor until 1779, after which he was 
called to discharge the duties of magistrate and legislator. 


In 1783 he was chosen to Congress, and for three years 
filled that office under the old confederation. He was 
seyeral times returned as member of Congress until 1804. 
Rev. Frederic Parker was ordained in 1791, and contin- 
ued in charge until 1802, when he deceased. Rev. William 
Patrick was ordained in 1803, who has, until within a very 
few years, discharged the arduous duties of his sacred trust, 
and now labors in connection with a colleague. There is 
also a Freewill Baptist society in the town. 

Population, 1614. Number of polls, 369. Amount 
of inventory, $595,493. Value of lands, improved and 
unimproved, |396,260. Number of sheep, 2604. Do. 
neat stock, 1850. Do. horses and mules, 250. 

In the south-east part of this town, situated on an ele- 
vated and beautiful site, is the neat and quiet, though busy, 
village of the Shakers — a sect of Christians first known in 
this country about the year 1774, when the founder, Ann 
Lee, came to New York from Liverpool. The organisa- 
tion of this society commenced, in the autumn of the year 
1782, through the instrumentality of two ministers, Eben- 
ezer Cooley and Israel Chauncey, from New Lebanon, in 
New York, where a society, the first in America, had been 
formed about two years previous. The village is about 11 
miles north-east from Concord. It is remarkably healthy ; 
which is owing partly, no doubt, to the regular and simple 
habits of the people, and partly to the location. The soci- 
ety own not fiir from 2500 acres of land, nearly all of 
which is under improvement, although there is still forest 
enough left for the supply of wood and timber for several 
years. The land is regarded as devoted to the Lord, as well 
as all their property, which they enjoy in common. They 
readily pay their just proportion of the public taxes, and 
share aU the burdens of government except the performance 



of military duty, which they deem at variance with the 
doctrines of the gospel ; and, in return, they ask of govern- 
ment that protection only which is guarantied to other citi- 
zens. Although this society, in connection with others in 
the vicinity, embraced their present faith in the years 1782 
and 1783, they were not gathered into a compact body or 
church, in order to possess a community of intei'est, until 
the year 1792 — about ten years after they first embraced 
the faith ; but the members of the society continued in a 
separate family capacity, and each member retained and 
managed his ov/u property and other temporal affairs pertain- 
ing to himself according to his own judgment and discre- 
tion. In the beginning of the year 1792, under the super- 
intendence of Elder Job Bishop, from New Lebanon, the 
members of this society adopted the order of a joint union 
and interest in all they possessed, being governed by no 
other spirit or influence than that which governed the prim- 
itive Christians or church at the day of Pentecost. Nor 
has the instance been knoAvn, from tlie day of the forma- 
tion of this society to the present, wherein a member has 
claimed for his exclusive use or control a cent of what he 
or she had thus consecrated, or even to hint that aught of 
the things once possessed were in any sense entirely his 
own. However, this sacrifice or surrender is not required 
of any one contrary to his own faith and voluntary choice. 
There are at the present time some, who are held in union 
as members of the society, who have never consecrated 
their property or devoted it to the joint interest. Such 
usually constitute an order or family by themselves, ren- 
dering their time and service, together Avith the use of their 
property, for the mutual support and benefit of such family. 
In the year 1782 there were about 30 families who re- 
ceived the testimony, exclusive of other individuals, the 


whole number amounting to perhaps 140 or' 150 members. 
Since that time there has been a slow but gradual increase, 
so that the society consists of nearly 300 members. They 
do not boast of numbers or offer crowds as a test of the 
soundness of their Christian faith and doctrine, or as an 
infallible guide to the narrow Avay that leads to eternal life ; 
neither do they regard large numbers or powerful associa- 
tions as any evidence in favor of the " good and the right 
way ; " but, on the contrary, " Strait is the gate and nar- 
row is the way that leadeth unto life ; and few there be that 
iind it." (Matt. vii. 14.) Neither is it their aim to accu- 
mulate property ; but what they acquire by honest industry, 
more than is sufficient for their comfortable support, they 
bestow to charitable purposes. 

The whole number of buildings belonging to this society 
in Canterbury is about 100. Among these is a meeting 
house, where the members resort once a week, on the Sab- 
bath, for public religious worship. There are 15 dwelling 
houses, mostly of Avood, painted with light yellow, and are 
3 and 3 stories in height. In each family there are rooms 
in some of the dwellings appropriated exclusively for the 
trustees of the society, where all its financial business is 
transacted. There are also, in some of these buildings, 
apartments fitted for the accommodation and comfort of the 
aged and infirm. There are other large and convenient 
buildings, constructed of wood or brick, which are occupied 
;is workshops, store houses, granaries, wood houses, barns, 
Sec, which are spacious, convenient, and in all respects 
perfectly adapted to the purpose for which they were de- 
signed. There is also one school house, where the boys are 
instructed during the three winter months, and the girls 
the same length of time during the summer. To any one 
who has had the pleasure of visiting this school, the order, 


metliod, and careful attention to the minutest details, as 
well as the more comprehensive data of elementary studies, 
axe both readily apparent and striking, and furnish an exam- 
ple eminently worthy of imitation. The studies pursued 
are those usually taught in most country schools ; but the 
learner is not suffered to rest with merely a superficial ac- 
' quaintance with the subject of study, as is often the case. 
Correct and thorough knowledge, even though to a limited 
extent, is deemed of far greater benefit than a partial and 
indistinct glance at every branch and department of learn- 
ing. There are 6 mills — 1 for carding and spinning ; 1 
gristmill, in Avhich is also a sawmill for timber, shingle 
machines, planing machines, &c. ; 3 turning mills for 
wood and iron ; 1 for weaving, coloring, fulling, and for 
the knitting of shirts and di-awers. These mills are all sit- 
uated on one stream and at the head of six artificial ponds. 
The water of these is collected in reservoirs at a distance 
of 3 miles from the village, and is conducted from one 
to the other through ditches. The various articles of man- 
ufacture in this community consist principally of brooms, 
pails, tubs, sieves, flannel and knit shirts and drawers, An- 
gola shirts and drawers, &c. 

The raising of garden seeds and medicinal herbs and 
roots constitutes an extensive branch of business. Corbett's 
compound sirup of sarsaparilla is manufactured here. The 
distillation of the various essential oils, such as checkcrber- 
ry, rose, peach, &c., and the preparation of the various me- 
dicinal herbs and extracts for almost every market in the 
region, are to a large extent carried on and furnished by this 
society. These are sold not only through the United States, 
but are also transported in great quantities to the Canadas, 
Cuba, Australia, and other places. The use of alcoholic 
drinks is never indulged in or allowed except in cases of 



sickness. Tn their business transactions with others, they 
never solicit credit cither for hirge or small sums. Their 
secular concerns are conducted with a degree of probity, 
uprightness, and perseverance which has rendered them 
proverbial for industry, justice, and benevolence. The pe- 
culiar doctrines of this sect are noticed under the head 
" Religion," in another part of this volume. 

Carrot,!,, Coos county. Bounded north by Jeflferson, east 
by the White Mountain territory, south by ungranted land, 
and west by Bethlehem and Whitefield. It lies at the base 
of the White Mountains, and presents a rugged and dreary 
appearance. The surface is uneven ; the soil in some places 
is strong and deep ; the scenery is Avild and romantic. It 
is yet considerably covered with a dense forest of maple, 
as well as pine, hemlock, and spruce. There are numer- 
ous small streams within its limits, which swarm with 
trout. Its area consists of 24,640 acres. Pondicherry 
Mountain is situated in the northern part, between this town 
and Jefferson. John's and Israel's Rivers receive several 
tributaries from this place, and the head streams of the 
Ammonusuc from the neighboring mountains unite in pass- 
ing through this town. Carroll was oi-iginally named 
Bretton Woods, and was granted, in 1773, to Sir Thomas 
Wentworth, baronet. Rev. Samuel Langdon, and 81 others. 
It received its present name in ISS'i, when it was incorpo- 
rated. Distance from Concord, 113 miles, north. 

Population, 299. Number of polls, 77. Valuation, 
$94,194. Number of sheep, 253. Do. neat stock, 270. 
Do. horses, 65. 

Centre Harbor, Belknap county. Bounded north-east 
by Moultonborough, south-east by Meredith, south-west by 


New Hampton, and north-west by Holderness and Squam 
Lake. Area, 7550 acres. Distance from Concord, 40 
miles, north; from Boston, 116. Measley Pond and 
Squam Lake are partly in this town. In the latter are 
found considerable quantities of fine trout. This is a beau- 
tiful sheet of water, 6 miles in length, and studded with 
islands, some of which are mere dots upon the waves, while 
others contain an acre or more, and in summer are bright 
with verdure, or later in the season are smiling with the 
gifts of Ceres. From lied Hill the view of this lake is 
enchanting, and awakens in the mind of the beholder 
thoughts of some fairyland which mortals sometimes may 
catch a glimpse of, but can never approach. The soil in 
this town is mostly a rich loam. The town is pleasantly 
situated, and its location probably gave rise to its present 
name. It derived its name originally from that of one of 
the first settlers who came here in IT 67. 

The first settlement was made in 1765, by Ebenezer 
Chamberlain. A Congregational church was organized 
here in 1815, over which Rev. David Smith was settled in 
1819. Centre Harbor is widely known as one of the most 
pleasant summer resorts in the country. Far from the noise 
and bustle of crowded city and the petty annoyances of 
village gossip, the man of leisure or the man of business 
may each find an asylum adapted to his wants. From its 
pure and invigorating atmosphere the city invalid may re- 
new the decaying springs of his own vitality, while bud- 
ding beauty shoots forth still more beautiful. In the vil- 
lage at the north-western extremity of the lake is an excel- 
lent hotel, kept by Mr. Coe, which for many years* has 
been celebrated for the order, quiet, and liberal attention 
kept and maintained in all its arrangements. Here the 
traveller will find all the elegance, style, variety, and lux- 


ury of a first-class city hotel. Sail boats, row boats, fishing 
tackle, horses, carriages, «&c., may be obtained here for the 
accommodation of visitors. 

Travellers from New York will secure a direct route to 
this place by taking the Norwich line of steamers on Long 
Island Sound; thence over the Norwich and Worcester 
Railroad to Worcester ; thence over the Worcester and 
Nashua Railroad to Nashua; thence over the Concord 
Railroad to Concord ; thence over the Boston, Concord, and 
Montreal Railroad to Wier's Landing, at the outlet of Lake 
Winnipiseogee. From thence by steamboat, a delightful 
ride of 10 miles on the lake brings you to your journey's 
end — the Senter House. From this place the route is 
easy and agreeable to Franconia, leading through a section 
of the state remarkable for its cool and reviving breezes 
and its wild and beautiful scenery. In this section there is 
also much to attract the attention of the geologist and the 
lovers of science generally. In many places there are 
strong marks of the existence, at some former period, of a 
volcano in the vicinity. 

Population, 544. Number of polls, 124. Valuation, 
$138,790. Number of sheep, 438. Do. neat stock, 616. 
Do. horses, 78. 

Charlestown, Sullivan county. Bounded north by 
Claremont, east by Unity, Acworth, and Langdon, south by 
Langdon and Walpole, and west by Springfield, Vermont. 
Distance from Concord, 51 miles, west. Area, 21,400 
acres. The only rivers in this town are the Little Sugar 
and the Connecticut, which latter flows along its western 
limits for a distance of 13 miles. The town is very narrow, 
and its eastern line is very irregular. In Connecticut Riv- 
er are 3 islands, which constitute a part of Charlestown, 


the largest of which (Sartwell's Island) contains about 10 
acres, and is in a state of high cultivation. The other two 
contain about 6 acres each, and are composed of a rich, 
loamy soil. Little Sugar Kiver passes through the north 
part of the town. The soil is various. West of the road 
leading to Walpole there are 1500 acres of interval, of a 
deep, rich, and loamy soil, favorable to the production of 
most of the varieties of grass and grain ; in the east and 
north-east portions of the town the soil of the uplands is 
strong and productive. A ridge of land in the westerly 
part of the town extends nearly through its entire length, 
the surface of which is hard, uneven, and stony, and is 
considered of but little value. 

Charlestown village is one of the most pleasant and de- 
lightful in the state. It is situated on a plain, about half 
a mile from Connecticut River, and nearly parallel with it. 
The main street is about a mile in length, is quite broad, 
and the highway is adorned on each side with rows of ma- 
jestic elms. The houses are mostly of two stories, neat and 
substantial, — many of them built in the style and on the 
liberal scale so common among country gentlemen fifty or 
seventy -five years ago, — with spacious grounds. Others 
are elegant modern cottages. The Sullivan Railroad passes 
through this village and through the village at North 
Charlestown, at both of which places is a depot. There is 
a deposit of bog iron ore about 2^ miles ^outh-east of the 
village, covering an area of 5000 yards. In the midst of 
this deposit a chalybeate spring rises, strongly impregnated 
with iron. Yellow ochre, in great abundance and of a qual- 
ity suitable for paint, is obtained here. On the summit of 
the hill, above the deposit of bog iron ore, is a bed of 
conglomerated quartz pebble. 

Charlestown was granted, December 31, 1735, by Mas- 


sachusetts, under the uame of Number Four, to 63 persons. 
The first meeting of the proprietors was holdeu at Hatfield, 
April 5, 1737. The first settlers were several families by the 
names of Parker, Farnsworth, and Sartwell, from Groton, 
Massachusetts. They were soon followed by a family named 
Hastings, from Lunenburg, and another named Stevens, from 
Rutland. In 1743 a fort was built in this place, under the 
direction of Colonel Stoddard, of Northampton. Mills were 
first erected in 1744. It was in this year that the Cape 
Breton war began. Charlestown, being more than 30 miles 
from any settlement, was, during this period, the scene of 
much suffering and privation. In the spring of 1746 a 
party of Indians suddenly appeared, and took John Spaf- 
ford, Isaac Parker, and Stephen Farnsworth, as they were 
driving their teams. Tlieir cattle were soon after found 
dead, with their tongues cut out. The men were carried to 
Canada, .and after some time returned to Boston under a 
flag of truce. In May following the Indians again made 
their appearance at Number Four. About evening some 
women went out to milk their cows, attended by Major Jo- 
siah Willard and several soldiers as a guard, when eight 
Indians, who were concealed in a barn, fired on them, and 
killed Soth Putnam. While they were scalping him, Wil- 
lard and two of his men fired on them and mortally wound- 
ed two of them, when the Indians retreated, carrying theu" 
dying companions with them. A few days after, as Cap- 
tain Paine, with about 20 of his men, were going out to view 
the place where Putnam was killed, they fell into an am- 
bush. The enemy rose up from the bushes, fired, and then 
endeavored to cut off the retreat of Paine and his compa- 
ny. The noise being heard at the fort, Captain Phinehas 
Stevens, witli a party of men, rushed out to their reUef. 
A warm skirmish followed, in which five men were killed 


on both sides, and one of Paine's party was taken. The 
Indians were at length compelled to retire, and in their 
haste left behind several of their guns and blankets. 
About a month after, another engagement happened at the 
same place. As Captain Stevens and Captain Brown were 
going into the meadow to look for their horses, their dogs 
discovered an ambush, which put the men on their guard, 
and gave them the advantage of the first fire. After a 
short but close encounter, the Indians were driven into a 
neighboring swamp, drawing away some of their dead. In 
this action only one white man was lost. Several blankets, 
hatchets, spears, guns, and other things were left by the 
Indians, which were sold for £40, old tenor, which 
was reckoned " a great booty for such beggarly enemies." 
During the early part of the summer of this year, the In- 
dians destroyed the mills in Charlestown by fire. In Au- 
gust a man named Phillips was killed ; and as the people 
were carrying him into the fort they were fired upon, but 
happily none were injured. Having burned a few build- 
ings, and killed and maimed some cattle, the Indians took 
their leave. In November the settlement was deserted, 
excepting that six men were left in charge of the fort, 
who kept it until winter set in, when they also left. In 
the latter end of March, 1747, Captain Phinehas Stevens, 
who commanded a company of rangers consisting of 30 
men, came to Number Four, and finding the fort deserted, 
but in good condition, determined to keep possession of it 
He had been there but a few days when he was attacked 
by a party of 400 French and Indians, under command of 
M. Debellne. The dogs, by their continued barking, ex- 
cited the suspicion that the enemy Avere lurking about, 
which induced the inmates of the fort to keep the gates 
closed. A single man ventured out to make a discovery. 


and was immediately fired upon ; but he succeeded in re- 
turning to the fort with only a slight wound. The enemy, 
finding that they were discovered, now arose from their con- 
cealment and poured in their volleys upon the fort from 
all sides. The wind being high, they set fire to the fences 
and log houses, and in a few moments the fort was sur- 
rounded by flames. Captain Stevens was on the alert, and 
ready at every point with means to avert impending dan- 
ger. He kept every vessel within the fort full of water, 
and caused trenches to be dug under the walls, so that a 
man might crawl through and extinguish any fire which 
might catch on the outside walls. The Indians, bent on 
the destruction of the fort and all within it, kept up a 
continued stream of flaming arrows against the fort, but 
fortunately without effect. The fire of the fences did not 
reach the fort, so that all attempts at destruction by confl-a- 
gration were providentially of no avail. 

This attack, accompanied with hideous shouts and yells, 
was kept up incessantly for two days. Infuriated at the 
obstinacy of the besieged, the savages next prepared a 
wheel carriage, loaded with dry fagots and bushes, which 
they pushed behind them towards the fort. Feeling cer- 
tain of success, before they carried this plan into effect, 
they demanded a cessation of arms till sunrise ; which was 
granted. In the morning, Debeline advanced towards the 
fort with 50 men, bearing a flag of truce, which he stuck 
in the ground. He demanded a parley, which was agreed 
to. A French officer, with a soldier and an Indian, then 
came forward and proposed that the garrison should bind 
up a quantity of provisions in their -blankets, and, having 
laid down their arms, allow themselves to be conducted as 
prisoners of war to Montreal. Another proposal was, that 
the two commanders should meet, and that an answer 


should then be given. Stevens met the French com- 
mander, Avho, without waiting for an answer, began to 
enforce his first proposal with the threat that, if not im- 
mediately acceded to, he would storm the fort, and put 
every man within it to the sword if they should refuse 
his terms or kill one of his men. Stevens, seeing that to 
treat upon honorable terms was out of the question, reso- 
lutely replied, that he would listen to no terms until the last 
extremity — that he was intrusted with the defence of the 
fort, and was determined to maintain it till he should be con- 
vinced that Monsieur Debeline, with his forces, could ac- 
complish what he had threatened. He added, that it was 
poor encouragement to surrender if they were all to be 
slaughtered for killing one man, when it was certain they 
had already killed many. The Frenchman, with insolence, 
replied, " Go, see if your men dare fight any longer, and 
give me a quick answer." Stevens went into the fort, and 
asked his men whether they would fight, or surrender. It 
was at once and unanimously resolved to fight. This was 
immediately communicated to the enemy, who thereupon 
resumed their shouting and fighting, keeping it up all that 
day and the night following. On the morning of the third 
day they demanded another cessation for two hours. Two 
Indians then came forward and proposed to Stevens that, 
if he would sell them provisions, they would withdraw. 
He answered, that to sell an enemy provisions for money 
was contrary to the law of nations ; but he would pay them 
five bushels of corn for every captive for whom they would 
give a hostage, until the captive could be brought from 
Canada. After this reply the enemy fired a few more 
guns, and then disappeared. In this brave defence against 
great odds and a starving, savage foe, no lives were lost 
within the fort, and only two men Avcre wounded. An ex- 


press was immediately despatched to Boston, and the news 
was there received with demonstrations of joy. Commo- 
dore Sir Charles Knowles was so highly pleased with the 
conduct of Captain Stevens that he presented him with an 
elegant and valuable sword. From this circumstance the 
township, when it was incorporated, July 2, 1753, received 
the name of Charlestown. 

This charter was granted by Governor Beuning Went- 
worth to Joseph Wells, I'hinehas Stevens, and others, who 
were purchasers under the old grantees. In 1754 the 
French war began, and the inhabitants were once more 
obliged to resort to the fort for safety. From infancy the 
settlers had been trained to scenes of hardship and danger 
unknown to their descendants. When they attended pub- 
lic worship, or cultivated their lands, they proceeded forth 
from the fort armed for battle, and worshipped or toiled 
under protection of a sentinel. In their depredatory ex- 
cursions, the Indians preferred prisoners to scalps, and 
generally killed but few excepting those who were likely 
to escape or appeared too formidable to be encountered 
with success. On the 29th of August, 1754, the Indians, 
early in the morning, attacked the house of James Johnson, 
who, with his wife, her sister, and three children, and two 
men, Peter Labaree and Ebenezer Farns worth, were taken 
prisoners. On the second day of the journey, about 15 miles 
from Charlestown, in the wilderness, ]Mrs. Johnson was 
delivered of a child, who, from the peculiar circum- 
stances attending its birth, was named Captive. The In- 
dians halted one day on account of the woman, and on the 
next day took up their march, carrying her in a littej 
which they made for that purpose. During the march, 
being distressed for want of provisions, they killed the 
only horse they had, and the infant was nourished by suck- 


ing pieces of its flesh. When they had arrived at Mon- 
treal, Johnson obtained a parole to return and solicit funds 
for the redemption of his family and himself. He applied 
to the Assembly of New Hampshire, and at length secured 
£150 sterling ; but the season was then so far advanced 
that he did not return to Canada until spring opened. He 
was then charged with having broken his parole ; a great 
part of his money was taken from him by violence ; and he 
was shut up with his family in a prison, where they took 
the small pox ; but fortunately they all survived. After 
18 months, Mrs. Johnson, with her sister and two daughters, 
was sent in a cartel ship to England, and thence returned 
to Boston. 

Johnson was still retained in prison for three years, and 
then, with his son, returned and found his wife in Boston. 
His eldest daughter was retained in a nunnery in Canada. 
The daughter who was born on the journey, as related, after- 
wards married Colonel George Kimball. In 1756 Lieutenant 
Moses Willard, the father of Mrs. Johnson, was killed. 
He was at work within sight of the fort with his son 
Moses. The Indians, having despatched the father, pur- 
sued the son, and wounded him with a spear. He how- 
ever made his escape, dragging the spear with him into the 
fort. In 1757 the Indians again burned the mills which had 
been rebuilt, and took Sampson Colefax, David Farnsworth, 
and Thomas Adams prisoners. In 1758 Ashahel Stebbins 
was killed, and his wife, Isaac Parker, and a soldier were cap- 
tured. In September, 17C0, Joseph Willard, his Avife, and 
children were taken prisoners. After they had proceeded 
on their journey a few miles, the Indians, "finding that the 
infant child gave signs of imeasiness, and fearing that it 
might impede their progress, took it aside and beat out its 
brains. This, it is believed, was among the last depreda- 


tions committed by the Indians in New England. The 
prisoners taken from Charlestown were all conveyed to 
Canada by way of Lake Champlain and sold to the French. 
Nearly all were sooner or later redeemed by government 
or by their friends. The first child born in Charlestown 
was Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac Parker. She was born in 
1744. Charlestown has been, and still is, favored with not 
a few men of eminence and ability. 

Captain Phinehas Stevens, of whom mention has already 
been made, was one of the fii'st settlers. He was a native 
of Sudbury, Massachusetts, from whence his father removed 
to Rutland. At the age of 16, whil-e his father was making 
hay, he, with three little brothers, followed him to the 
meadow. They were surprised by the Indians, who killed 
two of his brothers, took him prisoner, and then made prep- 
arations to kill his youngest brother, a child four years old. 
By signs, he made the Indians to understand that, if they 
would spare the little fellow, he would carry him on his 
back. They spared him, and he carried him on his back to 
Canada. He died, in November, 1756, in the service of 
his country. Samuel Stevens, Esq., son of Captain Ste- 
vens, was the first representative of the town to the General 
Court, and, at the age of 87 years, discharged the duties 
of register of probate for the county of Cheshire, which 
post he had occupied for several years. Colonel William 
Heywood was one of the ten males who formed the Congre- 
gational church in 1761, and filled the office of town 
clerk 42 years. Colonel Samuel Hunt, who was an active 
military officer during the French and revolutionary wars, 
settled in this town in 1759, and was sheriflf of the 
county until his death in 1779. Hon. Simeon Olcott 
and Hon. Benjamin West were men whom posterity 
will not forget, Hon. Heniy Hubbard has filled the re- 


sponsible offices of representative and senator in Congress 
and governor of iSTew Hampshire. Hon. J. J. Gilchrist, 
chief justice of the Superior Court of Judicature in thi* 
state, is a citizen of Charlestown. 

Charlestown is not remarkably well situated for a manu- 
facturing town or a place of extensive business of any kind. 
It has but little water power, and affords but few facilities 
for trade. Still it is a flourishing town. The Connecticut 
River Bank in this town has a capital of $90,000. There 
is a shoe establishment, employing 50 hands. The railroad 
machine shop gives employment to 12 or 15 hands. The 
first settled minister was Rev. John Dennis, who, on ac- 
count of the Indian war, was ordained in Northfield De- 
cember 4, 1754. He was dismissed in 1756. Rev. Bulkly 
Olcott was ordained May 28, 1761 ; died June 26, 1792. 
Rev. Daniel Foster supplied the place of settled minister 
from 1796 to 1809. Rev. Jaazaniah Crosby was ordained 
October 17, 1810. He preached and maintained the doc- 
trines of the Congregational creed for several years, when 
he, with all, or neai'ly so, of his congregation adopted the 
Unitarian fliith. This is, at the present time, a large and 
flourishing society, still under the charge of Mr. Crosby. 

Population, 1644. Number of polls, 349. Amount of 
inventory, .f 793,664. Value of shares in bank, |70,500. 
Value of lands, improved and unimproved, $442,412. 
Number of sheep, 5806. Do. neat stock, 1415. Do. 
horses and mules, 296. 

Chatham, Carroll county. Bounded north by the 
White Mountains, east by Maine, south by Conway, and 
west by Bartlett and Jackson. Area, 26,000 acres. 91^ 
miles north-east from Concord, and 40 north from Ossipee. 
This town was granted, in 1767, to Peter Livius and 


dthters. There are several ponds in this town, and a few 
streams of considerable size. The surface is mountainous 
and rocky, and the soil, though in some places good, is yet 
so scanty as never to support a dense population. Be- 
tween Chatham and Jackson, Carter's Mountain rises so 
high as to prevent the opening of a road between the two 
towns ; so that, in their intercourse with the people of Coos 
county in adjoining towns, the inhabitants are obliged to 
pass through part of the State of Maine. There is a large 
quantity of excellent wood and timber in this town, and 
the time will doubtless come when want and enterprise 
will find a market for it. A large quantity of maple sugar 
is produced here annually. 

Population, 516. Number of polls, 115. Valuation, 
$107,975. Number of sheep, 542. Do. neat stock, 503. 
Do. horses, 70. 

Chester, Rockingham county. Bounded north by Can- 
dia and Raymond, east by Poplin and Sandown, south by 
Derry, and west by Auburn. 123 miles south-east from 
Concord, and 17 west from Exeter. A branch of Exeter 
River, called " the Branch," is the only stream of impor- 
tance. A considerable portion of this town contains an ex- 
cellent soil, and some of the large, rich swells are surpassed 
in fertility by none in the state. There are also several 
large and valuable meadows. Plumbago, of good quality 
and in considerable abundance, is found in this town. Sul- 
phur is also found in small qiiantities, embedded in tremo- 
lite. Granite and gneiss arc the prevailing rock. Chester 
formerly included the present town of Auburn, which was 
set off and incorporated in 1845. In October, 1719, about 
80 persons, chiefly from Hampton and Portsmouth, having 
associated together for the purpose of obtaining a grant of 


a township in the " chestnut country," stationed three men 
upon this tract to keep possession until they should secure 
the grant. After considerable difficulty, they obtained a 
grant of land 10 miles square. 

The settlement was immediately commenced by several 
persons from Rye and Hampton, among whom were Samuel 
Ingalls, Jonathan Goodhue, Jacob Sargent, Ebenezer Dear- 
born, Eobert Smith, B. and E. Colby, John and S. Hobie, 
who, by their activity and perseverance, contributed largely 
to the success and permanence of the entei'prise. From 
1722 to 1726 the progress of the settlement was somewhat 
interrupted by an Indian war, called the Three Years' war, 
or Lovewell's war. The Indians committed no depreda- 
tions here, excepting that, in June, 1724, they took Thomas 
Smith and John Carr, and, after carrying them about 30 
miles, bound them, and lay down to sleep. During their 
nap, which proved to be pretty sound, the captives made 
their cscaj)e, and in three days arrived safe at a garrison in 
Londonderry. Several garrison houses were kept in this 
township until the peace of 1749. On the 8th of May, 

1722, the township which had hitherto been called Cheshire 
was incorporated under its present name. By the charter, 
it comprised more than 120 square miles of territory. 

The first meeting under this charter was held March 28, 

1723. Until 1728, the town meetings were usually held 
in some old town within the province, and nearly all the 
town officers, though proprietors, were not inhabitants of 
the town. Until 1735, the business of the town and of the 
proprietary was transacted at the town meetings. After 
this time, separate meetings were held. In 1729 the town 
voted to build a meeting house, which was so far completeij 
that the town meetings were afterwards holdcn in it. In the 
following year, Rev. Moses Hale was settled as pastor. In 


this year, the first settlers, who were Presbyterians, formed 
a society, and settled Rev. John Wilson, after the rules of 
the kirk of Scotland. In 1738 this society erected a 
meeting house. They resisted every attempt to set- 
tle a Congregational minister ; and after Rev. Ebenezer 
Flagg, a minister of that profession, was settled, many of the 
Presbyterians refused to pay the taxes assessed upon them 
for his support. Two of them, James Campbell and John 
Tolford, were arrested by the collector and lodged in jail in 
Exeter. After a long and tedious lawsuit, in which not a 
little of bigotry was manifested on both sides, the party 
arrested obtained a decision in their favor ; and in 1740 
the two societies were clothed with corporate powers, and 
authorized to hold meetings separately. 

Rev. Mr. Flagg, of the Congregational church, died No- 
vember 14, 1796. Rev. Nathan Bradstreet was his suc- 
cessor, and so continued until 1818. Rev. Joel Arnold 
was settled March 8, 1820. Rev. Mr. Wilson, of the 
Presbyterian church, was born in the county of Ulster, in 
the north part of Ireland. He came to this country in 
1729, and preached 45 years. After his death, the church 
was vacant 24 years. In 1803 Rev. Zaccheus Colby was 
ordained, and was succeeded by Rev. Clement Parker in 
1817. A Baptist society was organized in 1819. At 
present there is a Congregational and a Methodist society. 
In 1750 the south-west part of the town, with a portion 
of Londonderry, was set off to form the present township 
of Derry. In 1763 that part of the town called Chann- 
ingface was incorporated by the name of Candia. In 1765 
another portion was cut off, and incorporated under the 
name of Raymond. In 1822 another portion was cut off, 
to form, with other tracts, the town of Ilooksett. In 1845 
that portion of the town known for many years as Long 


Meadows was incorporated under the name of Auburn. 
For some time after the occupation of this territory by the 
whites, the Indians had a settlement of some 10 or 12 
wigwams on an island in Massabesic Pond, vestiges of 
which still remain. The first child born in Chester of 
white parents was a daughter of Samuel Ingalls, who 
lived to the age of 90 years. John Sargent was the first 
male child born of English parents in this town, who lived 
to be nearly 80 years of age. This town is finely located, so 
far as health and longevity are considered. It is situated 
about 20 miles from the ocean, which, on a clear day, can 
be distinctly seen from the more elevated portions. The 
sea breezes are agreeable and exhilarating. 

Population, 1301. No. of polls, 296. Amount of in- 
ventory, $359,892. Value of improved and unimproved 
lands, $237,959. Number of sheep, 619. Do. neat stock, 
916. Do. horses, 149. 

Chesterfield, Cheshire county. Bounded north by 
Westmoreland and Keene, east by Keene and Swanzey, 
south by AYinchester and Hinsdale, and west by Brattlebor- 
ough and Dummerston, Vermont. Area, 29,437 acres. 62 
miles south-west from Concord, and 11 south-west from 
Keene, with which it is connected by railroad. This town is 
mostly upland, well adapted for grazing and most of the cereal 
grains. Few towns on Connecticut River have so little inter- 
val. Although its western border is washed by this river 
for a distance of six miles, nearly all this space is occupied by 
hills which rise up from the river side. Spaflford's Lake, 
in the northern part of the town, is indeed a charming 
sheet of water. It is about 10 miles in circumference, 
covers a surface of about 600 acres, and is fed by springs in 
its bosom. Its waters are remarkably clear and pure, its 


bed consisting of a white sand. In this lake is an island 
containing about six acres, a favorite resort of the students 
of the Academy in tliis town as well as others. On its east- 
erly side a stream issues forth, of sufficient size to carry 
the machinery of a cotton mill, employing 20 hands ; two bit 
and auger factories, emplopng the same number ; a peg 
manufactory, a large tannery, several saw mills, grist mills, 
and other works. 

West River Mountain (Wantastiquel) lies partly in this 
town and partly in Hinsdale. It bears strong marks of 
having once been subject to volcanic eruption. Near what 
is supposed to have been the crater, lava is now to be found 
in considerable quantities. It is said, by those who live near 
the mountain, that a trembhng motion is often felt and a deep 
rumbling is heard in its bowels. During the early period of 
the settlement of the town, the inhabitants, having discovered 
the crater, and believing that it led to a silver mine, procured 
a lease of it. By the terms of the lease, the lessees were re- 
quired to dig at least three days in each yeai\ For a long 
time this condition was faithfully observed ; and in the prog- 
ress of labor an excavation was made, folloAving the course 
of the crater downwards about 100 feet, principally through 
a solid rock. 

At the centre of the town is a pleasant village. Here 
is located the Academy, m hich was opened in 1794, and for 
many years was the only academy in Cheshire county. Its 
advantages are good, and the course of instruction pursued 
has hitherto met with general approbation. 

Chesterfield was granted, Febi'uary 11, 1752, to 12 per- 
sons of the name of Willard, and 52 others. The first set- 
tlement was made, November 25, 1761, by Moses Smith 
and William Thomas, who, with their families, sailed up the 
Connecticut River in a canoe, and made their first " pitch " 


on the banks of the river. Their chief subsistence for 
some time consisted of shad and salmon, of which there 
was a great abundance in the river, and deer, which were 
numerous in the forest. The first rehgious society formed 
in town was Congregational, in 1771. Rev. Abraham 
Wood was ordained December 13, 1772. A Baptist 
society was incorporated here in 1819, and a Universalist 
society in 1818. Mrs. Hannah Bayley died in this town 
in November, 1822, aged 104 years and 3 months. 

Population, 1680. Number of polls, 429. Amount of 
inventory, $487,596. Value of lands, improved and unim- 
proved, |379,400. Number of sheep, 683. Do. neat 
stock, 1935. Do. horses, 255. Amount of shares in cor- 
porations, money at interest, &c., $50,940. 

Chichester, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Pittsfield, east by Pittsfield and Epsom, south by Pem- 
broke, and west by Loudon and Concord. Area, 11,978 
acres. This is an excellent farming town, and yields abun- 
dantly the various kinds of produce raised in this region. 
There is no waste land, and no elevation of importance ; 
so that, although small in extent compared with most other 
towns, it nevertheless contains a large amount of easily 
cultivated soil. Bear Hill, in the north part of the town, 
is the only considerable eminence. This is under high cul- 
tivation. The east part of the town is watered by Suncook 
River, which affords a few mill seats, and flows through 
some excellent interval. The inhabitants are chiefly en- 
gaged in agricultural pm-suits. Traces of Indian settle- 
ments are often discovered, such as chisels, axes, &c,, of 
stone. The Pennacooks, once a powerful tribe, resided in 
this vicinity, and their plantations were on the banks of 
the Suncook River. This town was granted, in 1727, to 


Nathaniel Gookin and others, but was not settled until 
1758. In 1791 a Congregational society was formed, and 
Rev. Josiah Carpenter ordained. At present there is one 
Congregational society, one Methodist, and one Freewill 
Baptist in town. 

Population, 999. Number of polls in 1854, 261. 
Inventory, $279,886. Number of sheep, 889. Do. neat 
stock, 1108. Do. horses, 164. Value of lands, improved 
and unimproved, $158,449. 

Claremont, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Cor- 
nish, east by Newport, south by Unity and Charlestown, 
and west by "Weathersfield, Vermont. Area, 25,830 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 47 miles, west. This town is 
watered by Connecticut River on its western border, and by 
Sugar River, which flows in a westerly direction, winding 
in its course through broad and fertile meadows, until it 
reaches the village in the central part of the town, when 
its fall is very rapid till within about a mile of the Con- 
necticut, into which it is discharged. Red Water Brook 
waters the north-east part of the town. There are, be- 
sides, several other small streams in various parts of the 
town. The soil consists mostly of a rich gravelly loam, 
very deep. The surface is generally undulating. A large 
poition of the town consists of interval, or meadow, the 
soil of which, in many places, is very deep. The upland 
farms are generally easily and well cultivated, and highly 
productive. The town is mostly surmounted by high 
hills, which, to some extent, ward off high and bleak winds. 
Vegetation is several days earlier here than in the sur- 
rounding towns. Claremont enjoys the reputation of being 
the best farming town in the state. 

The only eminences of note are Green Mountain, in the 
13 * 


easterly, aud Barbour's Mountain, in the westerly, part of the 
town. Green mountain is based on a mica slate founda- 
tion. The mountain itself consists of quartz rock, ap- 
parently of regular stratification, but really of crystalline 
structure. On the sides of the mountain are found large 
crystals of staurotide, some of which are very beautiful. 
From the summit of this mountain the Connecticut River 
can be seen for many miles, permeating through its broad 
and luxuriant intervals, dotted here and there with a 
radiant islet, and gliding quietly by villages and farm 
houses scattered along its shores — the whole presenting a 
landscape which, for variety and beauty, is seldom sur- 
passed. The rock composing Twistback Mountain, a small 
eminence, consists of micaceous slate, interstratified with 
small beds of blue limestone, somewhat impure. Barbour's 
Mountain is a beautiful swell of land, containing some of 
the best cultivated farms in the town. 

The hills are generally sloping acclivities, easily culti- 
vated on all sides, together with their summits. The vil- 
lage of Claremont, situated about two miles east of the Sul- 
livan Railroad depot in this town, presents a thriving and 
attractive appearance. Scattered over a large surface, it 
includes an agreeable variety of plain, terrace, and gentle 
declivity. There are five houses of religious worship, 
each spacious, and exhibiting a different, and in some in- 
stances a beautiful, style of architecture. In the " West 
Parish " are two churches — one Episcopalian, the other Ro- 
man Catholic. This is a quiet and romantic spot. The 
mercantile business of this town is considerable. There 
are in the village 46 stores — milliners', jewellers', tailors', 
druggists' shops, and grocers'. There ai'e two banks — the 
Claremont Bank and the Sullivan Savings Institution. 
There are two large shoe manufactories here — one fur- 


nishing employment for 40 males and 36 females, owned 
by G. N. Farwell & Co., and furnishing 25,000 pairs of 
ladies' shoes annually ; the other, owned by Silas E. Noyes, 
employing 12 males and 20 females, and furnishing 12,000 
pau's of shoes per annum. 

The manufacturing facilities of this town are equalled 
by few, if any, towns Avithin the state. The rapid fall of 
Sugar River furnishes immense water power and numerous 
excellent mill seats, which, with Sunapee Lake as a reser- 
voir, and the right, by an act of incorporation, to draw 
down the lake 10 feet, — though this, as yet, has not been 
found necessary, — insures an abundant and constant sup- 
ply of water during all seasons of the year. The fall of 
this river through the village, a distance of about three 
fourths of a mile, is 150 feet. Each 20 feet of fall fur- 
nishes power sufficient to carry 20,000 spindles. The 
entire fall through the town is 250 feet. These valuable 
privileges are being rapidly taken up. The following are 
the principal works on this stream in the village : — 

The Sunapee Mills, a cotton manufactory, runs 1320 
mule spindles, 1280 warp do., and 60 looms. It consumes 
104,000 pounds of cotton per annum. About 10,000 yards 
of print goods are manufactured weekly. Number of hands 
employed, 50. Capital, $30,000. Benjamin Cozzens 
agent ; J. W. Thompson superintendent and treasurer. 

The Monadnock Mills, a cotton manufactory, in re- 
spect to the extent of buildings, capital, and amount of 
goods annually manufactured, may justly be ranked among 
the first establishments of the kind in the country. The 
entire length of the factory building, with wheel house and 
repair shop included, is 418 feet. The main wings of the 
building are each 124 feet in length, 60 in width, and 
5 stories high, besides spacious attics. Capital stock. 


$200,000. Number of spindles, 15,000. Do. looms, |, 
120 ; |, 41 ; |, 24 ; V' ^2 ; ^2, 74 ; total, 321 — equal 
to 465 I looms. Number of male operatives employed, 
100. Do. females, 300. Amount of stock consumed annu- 
ally, 725,000 pounds. Do. goods manufactured, 2,050,000 
square yards. Do. money annually paid to operatives, 
$75,000. Jonas Livingston agent. 

The Claremont Machine Works — a company engaged 
in the manufacture of engine lathes and planers. These 
machines are finished to the utmost degree of perfection. 
Upon some of them the highest premiums have been 
awarded at the Crystal Palace. Amount of capital in- 
vested, $15,000. Number of hands employed, 25. 

The Home Mills — a cotton manufactory. Capital 
stock, $30,000. Number of spindles, 2600. Do. looms, 
|, 51. Male operatives, 18 ; female, 22. Amount of cot- 
ton consumed annually, 80,000 pounds. Yards of sheeting 
manufactured annually, 363,000, 37 inch. Amount of 
money paid annually to operatives, $7800. Arnold Briggs 

Sanford and Rossiter's Woollen Factory. Thomas San- 
ford agent. Capital stock invested, $40,000. Goods 
manufactured, cassimeres. Number of yards manufactured 
per annum, 45,000. Pounds of wool consumed annually, 
50,000. Number of operatives employed, 30. 

E. E. Bailey's Silver Ware Manufactory. Capital in- 
vested, $5000. 

Claremont Cutlery Company. Manufacture table cut- 
lery mostly. Capital invested, $30,000. Manufacture 
from 2000 to 3000 knives and forks per day. Consume 
annually 30 tons of steel ; 30 do. cocoa ; 20 do. ebony ; 
50 do. hard coal ; 30 do. grindstones ; 2500 bushels 
of charcoal ; and 100 cords of wood. Dimensions of 


main building, 96 by 40 feet. Do. of forge shop, 65 by 
24. 100 operatives are employed, with machinery suf- 
ficient to employ 50 additional hands. Amount of busi- 
ness per annum, .$60,000. The cutlery manufactured at 
this establishment has been considered by large dealers as 
superior to any other manufactured in this country or 

Claremont Manufacturing Company. S. Ide agent. 
Authorized capital, !^500,000. Incorporated 1832. This 
company manufacture and sell paper and books. Amount 
of capital paid in, $100,000. They are now running 
3 mills, with 9 engines. Amount of paper made, about 
250 tons per year. Value, $50,000. Value of books 
manufactured, $;50,000. Number of hands employed — 
males, 40 ; females, 50. 

There are also two weekly papers published in Clare- 
mont — the National Eagle and the Northern Advocate. 

Claremont was granted, October 26, 1764, to Josiah Wil- 
lard, Samuel Ashly, and 67 others. It received its name 
in honor lof Lord Clive, a distinguished English general, 
who then had charge of the British forces in the East 
Indies. The first settlement Avas made in 1762, by Moses 
Spafibrd and David Lynde. The first white native of 
Claremont w^as Elijah, son of Moses SpafFord, born in 
1763. The first settled minister in the town was Rev. 
George Wheatoti, of the Congregational faith. His suc- 
cessor was Rev. Augustine Ilibbard, who was settled in 
1774 ; dismissed in 1785. Rev. John Tappan was ordained 
March 7, 1796 ; dismissed in September, 1802. It is now a 
large and flourishing society. The first minister of the 
Episcopal church in this town was Rev. Ranna Cossitt, 
who took holy orders in England in 1772, and in the 
following year entered upon the duties of his sacred office. 


Kev. Daniel Barber succeeded him in August, 1775, smd 
was dismissed in 1818. Rev. James B. Howe succeeded 
him in 1819. There are two Episcopalian churches in this 
town; the one in the "West Parish" was erected in 1773, 
now under the charge of Eev. H. S. Smith. The number 
of communicants is about 50. The other, Trinity Church, 
was erected in 1852, at a cost of $10,200, and is a splen- 
did edifice of the Elizabethan Gothic style. This church is 
under the charge of the Right lie v. Carlton Chase, D. D., 
Bishop of New Hampshire, and contains about 225 coni- 
ng unicants. 

A Baptist society was formed in 1785, and in the follow- 
ing year Rev. John Peckens was ordained. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John Peake in 1788. This society is now 
in a flourishing condition. 

The Methodist society was formed in 1809. Rev. Caleb 
Dustin Avas the pastor for many years, and was beloved by 
all who knew him. 

The Universalist society was formed in 1826, and for 
several years had only occasional preaching. For some 
time past, however, the society has been under the care of 
a settled minister. 

Hon. Caleb Ellis was a resident of this town. In 1804 
he was chosen member of Congress, which office he held 
two years. In 1813 he was appointed judge of the Superior 
Court, in which office he remained until his death in 1816. 
Hon. George B. Upham, a citizen of this town, was a 
member of Congress in 1801, which office he held two years. 
He was an eminent lawyer, and by his industry and close 
application became, from a poor young man, one of the 
most wealthy men in New Hampshire. He died February 
iO, 1848, aged 79. 

Population in 1854, 4376. Number of polls, 1013. 


Inventory, $2,090,7-12. Value of lands, improved and 
unimproved, $940,256. Number of sheep, 6349. Do. 
neat stock, 2445. Do. horses and mules, 602. 

Clarksville, Coiis county. Bounded north by l^itts- 
burg, east by grant to Gilmanton Academy, south by 
Stewartstown, and -west by Canaan, Vermont. Distance 
from Concord, 150 miles, north. This is almost the north- 
ern limit of the state, there being but one town beyond it, 
with which it is classed, for the election of representative. 
The soil is rugged, and not very productive ; the surface 
is broken and hilly. There arc two ponds — one, Clarksville 
Pond, containing about 100 acres; the other, Carr Pond, 
covering about 30 acres. There are several tributaries to 
the Connecticut within this town, but no streams of con- 
siderable size. This town was incorporated June, 1854. 

Population, 187. Number of polls, 54. Amount of 
inventory, ,$38,571. Value of lands, improved and unim- 
proved, $15,467. Number of sheep, 285. Do. neat 
stock, 257. Do. horses, 41. ■ 

Colebrook, Coos county. Bounded north by Stewarts- 
town, east by Dixville, south by Columbia, and west by 
Vermont. Ai-ea, 25,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 
140 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 35, north. This town is 
watered by Mohawk River and Blue Brook, the former 
containing excellent mill seats and water privileges. The 
soil is rich, and generally easily cultivated. Intervals of 
good quality and of considerable extent stretch along the 
Connecticut ; and the upknds, of moderate ascent, are fer- 
tile. This is a town of considerable enterprise. The 
people are industrious, engaged chietiy in agriculture and 


the manufacture of lumber. There is an academy here, 
with a fund of $1200. 

This town was originally granted to Sir George Cole- 
brook. It was incorporated in 1790. 

Population, 908. Number of polls, 219. Amount of 
inventory, $217,569. Do. money at interest or on deposit, 
$29,485. Value of lands, improved and unimproved, 
$94,548. Do. mills and stock in trade, $11,264. Num- 
ber of sheep, 1586. Do. neat stock, 1194. Do. horses, 234. 

Columbia, Coos county. Bounded north by Colebrook, 
east by Dixville and ungranted lands, south by ungranted 
lands and Strafford, and west by Vermont. Area, 37,822 
acres. Distance from Concord, 135 miles, north ; from Lan- 
caster, 30, north. The surface of the town is uneven, and 
broken by mountains along its southern limits. From these 
elevations descend a number of streams in a westerly direc- 
tion into the Connecticut, yielding an ample supply of water 
for the soil, and affording many excellent water privileges. 
There are several small ponds in this town, the most re- 
markable of which is Lime Pond, situated about two miles 
south-east from Chamberlain's Town, in Colebrook, and near 
the town line, on a small branch of Simm's Stream. This pond 
is 160 rods in length, 50 wide, and of an irregular, ellipti- 
cal shape. Its bottom is covered to a depth of 6 feet with 
white, calcareous marl of great purity, which is formed by 
myriads of shells of the cyclas and planorbis species, im- 
mense hordes of which are still living in the waters of the 
pond, and are generally found collected under loose stones. 
Around the shores considerable quantities of impure blue 
and gray limestone are found. The calcareous matter is 
generally derived from a neighboring peat swamp. This 


marl is readily burned, and converted into excellent lime 
for building purposes. A short distance from this place is 
Fish Pond, the waters of which swarm with trout of fine 
size. At the outlet of this pond, limestone occurs in con- 
siderable quantity. The soil in this town is generally 
strong and productive. Lumber is extensively manufac- 
tured here, and conveyed to market by rafts down the 
Connecticut. Large quantities of maple sugar are also 

This toAvn was granted in 1770, and named Cockburne, 
in honor of Sir James Cockburne, one of the grantees. It 
was incorporated December 16, 1797. It received its 
present name in June, 1811. 

There are two religious societies established here, — the 
Methodist and Baptist, — each of which has a mieeting house 
for worship. 

Population, 762. Number of legal voters in 1854, 175. 
Inventory, $141,187. Value of lands, improved and un- 
improved, $73,178. Number of sheep, 1539. Do. neat 
stock, 997. Do. horses, 168. 

Concord, Merrimack county, the capital of the State of 
New Hampshire, is bounded north by Canterbury and Bos- 
cawen, east by Loudon and Pembroke, south by Bow and 
Hopkinton, and west by Hopkinton and Boscawen. Lati- 
tude, 42° 12' north. Area, 40,919 acres, about 1800 of 
which are covered with water. There are five ponds in 
Concord, the largest of which are Turkey Pond, in the 
south-west, and Long Pond, in the north-west, part of the 
town. The streams flowincr from these afford several valu- 
able mill seats and privileges. The Contoocook enters 
the west comer of the town, and, uniting with the Merri- 
mack on the north-west line, forms at the confluence the 


island celebrated as the spot where IMrs. Dustan effected 
her escape, after slaying a party of Indians who had cap- 
tured her. (See Boscawen.) The Merrimack is the prin- 
cipal stream in this region, and, running nearly through 
the centre of the town, its borders are beautified and 
adorned by rich and highly cultivated intervals. Concord 
is very rapidly increasing in business, population, and 
wealth by the extension of numerous railroads in various 
directions, and its favorable location for securing the trade 
of the surrounding towns, as well as by reason of the 
almost infinite variety of manufacturing and mechanical 
work carried on within its limits. 

Concord is built upon the sandy diluvium of the Merri- 
mack, through which a fine-grained white granite is occa- 
sionally seen, forming low ridges of hills. In the west par- 
ish is a large quarry of this rock, which has been worked 
for many years. Large quantities have been used in this 
vicinity and also in Boston. This town was the favorite 
resort and home of a considerable tribe of Indians called 
the Pennacooks. At the time of the settlement of eastern 
New Hampshire they had been much reduced in numbers 
and strength by their frequent wars, especially with their 
formidable enemies the Mohawks. Tradition, authenti- 
cated by several circumstances, says that their principal 
stronghold was a fortified bluff on the east side of the 
Merrimack, opposite the north end of Main Street. In 
one of the last conflicts between these two tribes, one 
division of the Mohavi-ks advanced down along the west 
side of the river ; and, as the Pennacooks had fled to their 
fort on the east bluff, the former made a show of attack, as 
if about to cross the stream and take the fortress by storm. 
Meanwhile their main body had crossed the river some 
distance above, and, coming down on the east side, rushed 


across the narrow strip of plain land leading to the bluff, 
which was protected on the west by the river, and on the 
north and south by deep ravines. The hostile parties 
meeting on this narrow plain, a bloody battle ensued ; and 
though the Pennacooks kept possession of their stronghold, 
yet it was at immense sacrifice of life. The Mohawks, 
sadly reduced in numbers, retired to their own country — 
New York. Could the details of that bloody scene be 
accurately traced, we doubtless might record instances of 
valor and intrepidity which would equal, or even surpass, 
the noblest efforts of the pale tribes in their more scientific 
and civilized modes of warfare. Hon. J. C. Potter, whose 
birthplace Avas on this battle ground, says that he has 
found undoubted relics of this well-fought field. At the 
time of the first English settlement, a small number of 
Pennacooks remained of all the multitude who once found 
ample subsistence on this their favorite planting, hunting, 
and fishing ground. Rapidly they dwindled away, until 
a few years witnessed the end of the last of the Penna- 

This place Avas first visited by the whites in 1639. It 
was granted in 172o, under the name of the "Plantation 
of Pennacook," to Benjamin Stevens, Ebenezcr Stevens, 
and others, by Massachusetts, who claimed jurisdiction of 
the territory by virtue of the grant in the royal charter of 
the county, extending northerly to " three miles north of 
the IMerrimack River." In 1726, 103 house lots were 
laid out on the river, and about 50 persons* were employed 
during the warm season in building and agriculture. 
The erection of a meeting house and works of defence 
Avas commenced this year, and finished in 1727. The 
dwelling house of the Rev. Mr. "Walker Avas built at the 
same time, and, though somewhat modernized, is yet stand- 



big, and occupied by J. B. Walker, one of liis descendants. 
It is said to be the oldest two-story house between Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, and Canada. Another, built in 1727 
by Edward Abbott, is yet standing, though degraded to 
the station of a barn. It stands on Montgomery Street, 
near Dr. T. Chadbourne's. In this house was born, Feb- 
ruary, 1728, the first child of English parents — Dorcas, 
daughter of E. Abbott, who died in 1797. The first male 
child was born of the same parents in 1730. He died in 
1801. The first town meeting was held January 11, 1732, 
and Captain Ebenezer Eastman was chosen moderator. 
In 1733 an act of incorporation, including a space about 
seven miles square, was passed by the General Court of 
Massachusetts, under which the territory received the name 
of Rumford, from a parish of that name in England. In 
1762, by an order of the king in council, Rumford was de- 
clared within the jurisdiction of New Hampshire. In 
1765 this town was incorporated by New Hampshire un- 
der the name of Concord. 

In 1739, in apprehension of an attack from the Indians, 
the town built a garrison, enclosing the house of Rev. Mr. 
Walker. In 1742 the wife of Jonathan Eastman was 
captured by the Indians and taken to Canada. She was 
redeemed by her friends some time after, and returned to 
them. No serious attacks, however, were made by the 
Indians until the commencement of the war of 1744. On 
the 8th of August, 1746, about 100 Indians from Canada 
stationed themselves near the settlement, with the design 
of destroying it. The same day a company of 40 men 
from Exeter came to the rescue ; making, with the two 
companies already stationed here, a very respectable force. 
The savages hoped by waiting until the Sabbath to surprise 
the inhabitants while at worship. But the people went 


turned, and, having discovered the enemy, inarched against 
them and put them to flight. Despairing of success in 
their original plan, the Indians withdrew and lay in am- 
bush, determined to kill or capture all who might fall with- 
in their reach. On Monday, August 11th, seven of the 
inhabitants, all armed, set out for Hopkinton. One of the 
party, having proceeded farther than tlie rest, sat down, 
about a mile from the village, to await the approach of liis 
friends. The Indians rose from their place of concealment 
and killed him. His companions, among whom ^vas Jona- 
than Bradley, had just gained the summit of the hill when 
the firing took place ; and being deceived as to the number 
of the enemy, Bradley, who was the leader of the party, 
ordered his men to fire and rush upon them. The Avhole 
body of Indians then arose, and, being about 100 in num- 
ber, completely surrounded Bradley and his handful of men. 
Bradley now urged his men to save themselves if possible. 
Flight Avas out of the question. Samuel Bradley was shot 
through the body, stripped of his clothing, and scalped. 
To Jonathan they offered quarter, as some of their number 
were acquainted with hini ; but, scorning their offer, he 
fought his overpowering foe with desperation until he was 
struck down, and, with the knives and tomahawks of the 
Indians, horribly mangled and scalped. Two others, John 
Bean and John Lufkin, Mere killed. Alexander Roberts 
and William Stickney were made prisafiers and taken to 
Canada. As soon as the alarm was given, the soldiers in 
the garrison and several of the inhabitants hastened to the 
place of conflict. At their approach the savages fled, leav- 
ing behind their dead and wounded. The bodies of Bradley 
and his companions were brought in and interred on the 
following day. Six of the Indians were killed and several 
wounded. A granite monument was erected on the spot 



where Bradley and his associates fell, by Richard Bradley, 
Esq., a grandson of Samuel Bradley. 

It is, perhaps, somewhat remarkable that many of the 
descendants of the first settlers are residents in Concord, and 
occupy the same homesteads where their ancestors settled. 
Among these are the Walkers, Bradleys, Eolfes, Stickneys, 
Eastmans, &c. ; and few of the ancient estates have been 
squandered or lost by prodigality. 

Concord became the permanent seat of government of 
New Hampshire in 1805. In 1816 the building of 
the State House was commenced. It was first occupied in 
1819. The centre of the building is 50 feet in front by 
57 in depth. The wings are each 38 feet in front by 49 in 
depth — the whole 126 feet front. The outside walls are 
hammered granite. The grounds extend from Main Street 
to State Street, and contain two acres, beautifully laid out and 
ornamented with a variety of shade trees, and substantially 
enclosed. The entu'e cost of the building and grounds 
was $82,000. In this building is the Ecpresentatives 
Hall, with an arched or dome-shaped ceiling rising 30 
feet from the floor, the Senate and Council Chambers, 
offices for secretary, treasurer, adjutant general, the State 
Library, and rooms for committees. 

With the formation of the county of Merrimack, in 
1823, Concord became the county seat, and the county 
courts have been held here since that time. By an act of 
the legislature, passed in 1852, the Superior Court holds 
its sessions in Concord for all the counties in the state. 

Court House. — As the present ancient structure is soon 
to be superseded by a new and elegant edifice, the erection 
of which is to be commenced this year, (1854,) it is suffi- 
cient to say that it is a relic of antiquity and of uncomely 
proportions. It was occupied many years as a state house, 


and more recently as a town hall and seat of justice. 
The new City Hall and County Rooms are to be construct- 
ed on the most approved style of architecture, commodious, 
and located in the centre of spacious grounds now the prop- 
erty of the city. The whole work is to be completed in 

The County Jail is a new and beautiful edifice, built of 
brick^ and is situated one mile west of the State House. Its 
location is pleasant, and its grounds capacious and taste- 
fully arranged, and in a few years it will be ornamented with 
a growth of shade and fruit trees. 

The State Prison is located in State Street. The central 
part and the south wing were erected in 1812, at which 
time the institution went into operation. In 1833 a north 
wing was added, its form and style corresponding with 
the improvements of the age. In this building are the 
hospital, cook rooms, and a hall, with cells for 120 convicts. 
The hall is warmed by steam and lighted with gas. The 
cooking is also done with steam. The entire expense of 
this building was about $60,000. The yard, including 
nearly two acres, is enclosed by a heavy wall of granite. 
The workshops are well arranged for the accommodation 
of the convicts in their several employments, which con- 
sist of shoemaking, blacksmithiug, and cabinet work. 
There are regular religious services eacli Sabbath, and 
instruction imparted to all such of the convicts as are 
unable to read* or write. There is connected with this 
institution a library of 800 volumes, judiciously selected, 
with a view solely to the moral improvement of the con- 
victs. The prison has for many years been well managed, 
and will compare favorably with any institution of the kind 
in this or other countries. 

For several years the proceeds of the labor of the pris- 



oners have been sufficient to defray all expenses of the insti- 
tution, besides a surplus of $1500 to $3400 as net income. 

Number of convicts in prison, committed, discharged, pardoned, deceased, and 
escaped in each year since the establishmeM of the institution in 1812. 


In Prison 




Pardon 'd 

to Insane 




















































































- 1 































































































































































105 1 








The Asylum for the Insane is situated on a delightful 
eminence three fourths of a mile south-west of the State 
House. The buildings are spacious and convenient. The 
style of architecture is rather with reference to substantial 
purposes than otherwise. The buildings consist of a main 
or central body, 48 by 44 feet, four stories high, erected 
in 1843 ; a north wing, 90 by 36 feet, four stories high, 
erected in 1852 ; and a commodious building designed 
for unsafe and turbulent maniacs. An appropriation of 
$20,000 has been made by the legislature for the construc- 
tion of a south Aving corresponding with the north wing. 
There is connected with the. institution a valuable farm, 
the labor upon which is performed by the inmates of the 
asylum. This institution has an excellent reputation, 
and has continued to increase, not only in the number com- 
mitted to its care, but correspondingly in the number dis- 
charged as wholly or partially recovered. Dr. John E, 
Tyler is at present the superintendent. Its productive 
funds amount to $33,000 — .$15,000 of which was a legacy 
of the late Countess Rumford, and $3000 of the late Mr. 
Chandler. The following table will show the progress and 
success of the institution from its commencement : — 

Statistics from the opening of the asylum to Ju)ie 1, 1854. 




























































































































Whole number ever admitted, 1199. 


The Rolfe and Rumford Asylum for widows and orphans 
was founded by the late Countess Rumford, who gave her 
beautiful country seat, situated about one mile south from the 
State House, and the sum of $20,000, as a fund for its 
endowment. It has not yet been put in operation. 

The Methodist General Biblical Institute. — The prin- 
cipal building of this institution was built for and occupied 
as the Town Meeting House. It was erected in 1751, and 
until 1820 was, with the exception of a small Quaker 
meeting house, the only house of worship in Concord. 
It is beautifully located in the north part of the city, at 
the junction of Main and State Streets. It was repaired 
and changed in its internal arrangements to a very con- 
venient edifice, and opened for its present uses, in the fall 
of 1846. Since that time it has enjoyed increasing pros- 
perity. During the present year there have been in attend- 
ance 90 students. The property of the institution is ap- 
praised at $50,750 50. The students have maintained an 
excellent reputation with the citizens, and are very useful 
— supplying many churches in the neighboring towns with 
preaching in the temporary absence of the stated preacher, 
and otherwise advancing the cause of religion. Faculty : 
Rev. John Dempster, D. D., Rev. S. M. Vail, A. M., and 
Rev. J. W. Merrill, D. D. 

Education. — There is a high school, taught by G. S. 
Barnes, A. M., and four select schools. There is no incor- 
porated academy. The common schools are well conducted. 
In the populous parts of the city, the school houses are all 
of liberal and commodious construction. Some have been 
built without, at least, a penurious regard for expense. 
These schools arc conducted according to the graduated 
system, including instruction in the first elements, as 
well as the higher branches of English education. 


The whole number of scholars for the year 1854 was 
2300. The amount of money expended, ^5536 — being 
$2,40| to each scholar. 

Incorporated Companies. Banks. — Mechanics' Bank, 
capital stock, $100,000 ; Merrimack County Bank, $80,- 
000; State Capital, $150,000 ; New Hampshire Savings 

Insurance Companies. — New Hampshire Mutual ; New 
England Mutual ; Columbian Mutual ; Equitable Mutual ; 
Union Mutual ; People's Mutual. 

Railroads. — The Concord Railroad extends from Nashua, 
up the ]\Ierrimack, to Concord. Length, 34 1 miles. It 
was opened for travel September 1, 184^. Expense of 
construction, including depot and all running equipage, 
$1,450,000. The depot is a splendid building — large, 
commodious, with a spacious hall, and other convenient 

The Northern Ilailroad extends from Concord to West 
Lebanon, at White River junction. Length, 69 miles. 
The lower section was opened in 1846, the upper in 1847. 

The Boston, Concord, and Montreal Railroad extends 
from Concord to North Haverhill. The first section was 
opened for travel May 10, 1848. It was completed in 
1853. Length, 92i miles. 

The ]\Ierrimack and Connecticut River Railroad was 
opened for travel to Warner September 20, 1849. 

The Portsmouth and Concord Railroad is now com- 
pleted, and is doing a prosperous business. Length, 47 

AH these roads centre in Concord, which add greatly 
to its importance as a place of business. 

Hotels. — The American House is kept by John P. Gass j 
the Eagle Hotel, John P. Gibson; the Phoenix House, 


Dumas & Stickney ; the Union House, Stevens ; the Pavil- 
ion, George Dame ; the Elm House, W. M. Carter ; the 
Columbian House, Norton ; Hotel at Fisherville, Durgin. 

The first of these may be styled as public houses of 
the fii-st class ; all are respectable, and receive a large pat- 

Houses of Worship. — Congregational, 5 ; Methodist 
Episcopal, 2 ; Calvinist Baptist, 3 ; FreeAvill Baptist, 1 ; 
Episcopal, 1 ; Unitarian, 1 ; Universalist, 1 ; Advent, 1. 

Professional Men. Clergymen. — Congregationalist, 
7 ; Methodist, 9 ; Calvinist Baptist, 4 ; Freewill Baptist, 
1 ; Episcopalian, 1 ; Unitarian, 1 ; Universalist, 1 ; Ad- 
vent, 1. Of the ministers, one Congregationalist is ed- 
itor of a paper, and one chaplain of the Insane Asylum ; 
of the Methodists, one is a bishop, three professors in the 
Theological Institution, and one chaplain of the State Pris- 
on ; of the Baptists, one is agent for the Education Society. 

Physicians. — Allopathic, 1 1 ; homoeopathic, 3 ; hydro- 
pathic, 1 ; botanic, 1 ; dentists, 3. 

There are in Concord 28 lawyers. 

Newspapers. — There are published the New Hamp- 
shire Patriot, New Hampshire Statesman, Congregational 
Journal, Independent Democrat, State Capital Reporter, 
Baptist Observer, and New Hampshire Phoenix. In these 
establishments 60 men are employed. 

Statistics of Trade. — Dry goods and groceries, 50 
merchant tailors, 11 ; hardware stores, 5 ; shoe stores, 9 
tinware and stoves, 4 ; saddle, harness, and trunk, 5 
book stores, 5 ; apothecary stores, 5 ; hat, cap, and fur 
stores, 3 ; millinery, 6 ; confectionery and toy shops, 4 ; 
furniture stores, 3. Total, 109. 

Statistics of Labor. — The number of persons engaged 
in the following pursuits is, carriage manufactory, 340; 


in trade, 300 ; on railroads and depots, 270 ; shoemakers 
estimated at 200 ; makers of musical instruments, 52 ; 
printing and publishing, 60 ; bookbinding, 16 ; on granite 
quarry, 30 ; furnace and iron foundery, 24 ; manufacturers 
of cotton goods, 200 ; woollen do., 50 ; harness and trunk, 
27 ; professional men, 71. 

About 500 men are engaged in the occupations common 
to New England towns. There is a large number of house 
builders, painters, masons, &c. There are in this town 
20 'grist and sawmills. An idle man or a gentleman of 
leisure is a curiosity in Concord. 

Manufacturing. — The manufacture of coaches and car- 
riages has been carried on extensively for several years, 
formerly by the firm of Downing & Abbott, latterly by 
several companies. The fame of Abbott & Co. and Down- 
ing & Co. is widespread. Their work, it is admitted, is 
unrivalled. All kinds of carriages are sent from their shops 
to every state in the Union, to Canada, Australia, Mex- 
ico, and South America. The establishments of Messrs. 
Ingalls, Griffin, & Titcombe are of recent date, though in 
good repute. The number of men employed by Abbott & 
Co. is 200. They manufacture annually 800 carriages of 
all sorts. Amount of sales per annum, $> 150,000. Cap- 
ital invested, $100,000. The number of men employed 
by Downing & Co. is 80 ; by Griffin, 30 ; by Ingalls, 
25 ; by Titcombe, 5. 

The manufacture of boots and shoes is carried on to a 
considerable extent, but mostly by private individuals or 
small firms. The number engaged in this branch of in- 
dustry, as near as can be ascertained, is 200. 

The manufacture of musical instruments is an important 
branch of industrial pursuit in Concord. There are three 
firms engaged in this business — viz., Prescott & Brothers, 


employing 20 men ; Liscombe & Dearborn, employing 14 
men ; Charles Austin, who employs 18 men. 

BooJcbinding. — Messrs. Merrill & Merriam employ 6 
men ; jMonill & Silsby employ 6 men ; Crawford & Co. 
employ 4 men. 

About a mile north from the city is the quarry from 
which Mas taken the stone for the construction of the State 
House. Several grand edifices in our southern cities have 
been constructed of granite taken from this quarry. Means 
have recently been taken to enlarge the business. * 

The nianufactui-e of cotton goods is carried on in the vil- 
lage of Fisherville, in the northern part of Concord. The 
woollen manufactory is in the West Parish. 

Distill (i-uished Men. — Rev. Timothy Walker came 
with the first settlers to Concord — then Pennacook — in 
1726, and was the settled pastor of the Congregational 
church until his death. During the 52 years of his minis- 
try here his labors were attended with abundant success. 
He was possessed of more than ordinary intellectual pow- 
ers — was enterprising and active. Wise in his counsels, 
prudent iu his management, and full of the purest patriot- 
ism, he was eminently the man for his time and place. He 
lived to behold the triumph of American arms ; and when 
the news of the final defeat of the British at Yorktown 
was conveyed to him, he exclaimed, " It is enough ! 
' Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace.' " 

Hon. Timothy Walki^h, son of the llev. Timothy 
Walker, was born in IT-JT, graduated at Harvard in 1756, 
was intrusted with various civil ofiices by his townsmen, 
and in 1776 was one of the committee of safety for the 
state. During the war he commanded a company of min- 
ute men, was subsequently paymaster of the state forces, 
and served in a campaign under General Sullivan. He was 


member of the convention which framed our constitution 
in 1784, was for several years afterwards a member of the 
legislature, and for a long period sustained the office of 
chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Ho died in 

Benjamin Thompson, afterwards known as Count Rum- 
ford, was for many years a resident of Concord, and majr- 
ried a daughter of Rev. Timothy Walker. In 1775 he 
went to England, and was a clerk in the office of an Eng- 
lish nobleman, who, pleased with his fidelity and capacity 
for business, procured for him a colonel's commission. He 
served in the British armies until 1784, when, his philo- 
sophical inquiries having attracted attention in foreign 
countries, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant gen- 
eral of horse in the service of the Duke of Bavaria. Here 
he distinguished himself in effi^cting discipline and econo- 
my among the troops, and in his efforts in the public ser- 
vice accomplished much in behalf of the poor. On leav- 
ing the service, the duke honored him Mith the title of 
count. He afterwards visited England, where he received 
the honor of knighthood. He died in France in 1814. 

Hon. Isaac Hii.l came to Concord in 1808, and com- 
menced life as a journeyman printer. He soon became ed- 
itor of a political paper, and for many years wielded a pow- 
erful influence throughout the state. He filled the offices 
of state senator, senator in Congress, and governor of New 
Hampshire. Pie was an enterprising and benevolent man, 
contributing liberally to the various benevolent and reli- 
gious institutions of his adopted town. He died in 1850. 

Ex-Governor Kent, of Maine, who filled with great 
ability several important offices, was a native of Concord. 

The President of the United States, Fkanklin Piercb, 
had been, for many years previous to the time of his en- 


tering upon the duties of his office as chief magistrate of 
this Union, a resident of Concord, and an active promoter 
of all its interests. 

Population. — Until some eight years past, the increase of 
population was ; but since that time there has been 
a rapid advance, as will be seen by inspecting the census 
returns. In 1840 the population was 4987; in 1850, 
8584 ; in 1854, it is estimated at 10,400. 

In March, 1853, the town of Concord adopted a city 
charter. This was long and violently opposed, principally 
from a belief that taxes would thereby be greatly increased. 
Experience, however, has proved otherwise, and the pru- 
dence of the measure is now almost universally admitted. 
Concord is one of the most healthy towns in the Union. 
Probably there is not another city of the same population 
whose bill of mortality would present so favorable an indi- 
cation of general health and longevity. This is doubtless 
owing to its beautiful location and the enterprise and in- 
dustry of the people. 

Conway, Carroll county. Bounded north by Chatham, 
east by Brownfield and Fryeburg, Maine, south by Eaton 
and Madison, and Avest by Madison and Albany. Area, 
23,040 acres. Distance from Concord, 72 miles, north. 
Swift Iliver, a large and rapid stream, Pequawkett River, 
and a stream flowing from Walker's Pond, discharge them- 
selves into Saco River in this town. Saco River here is 
about 12 rods Avide, and on an average 2 feet deep ; its 
current is rapid and broken by foils. This river has been 
known to rise 27, and in a few instances 30, feet in 24 
hours. The largest collections of water are Walker's Pond 
and Pequawkett Pond ; the latter is about 360 rods in cir- 
cumference. Pine, Rattlesnake, and Green Hills are the 



most considerable elevations in this town, situated on the 
north-eastern side of the river. On the southern side of 
Pine Hill is a detached block of granite, or bowlder, which 
is probably the largest in the state — an immense fragment, 
but which doubtless owes its present position to some vio- 
lent action of Nature. A spring near the centre of the 
town, on the bank of Cold Brook, discharges water strongly 
impregnated with sulphur, which has proved beneficial in 
some cases to invalids. 

Considerable quantities of magnesia and fuller's earth 
have been found in various localities. The soil is interval, 
plain, and upland. The interval along the river varies 
from 50 to 220 rods in width, and was originally covered 
with white pine and rock maple. The plain land, when 
well cultivated, produces abundant crops of corn and rye. 
The upland is rocky and uneven, and to cultivate it with 
success requires long and patient labor. 

There are in this town 5 hotels, 10 stores, 1 lathe man- 
ufactory, and 1 paper mill. The Congregational church 
was established here in 1778. Rev. Nathaniel Porter, 
D. D., was settled in October of the same year. The Bap- 
tist church was formed in 1796. Rev. Richard R. Smith 
was ordained in the same year. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Roswell Means in 1799. There is also a society of Free- 
will Baptists. 

This town was settled, in 1764, '65, and '66, by James 
and Benjamin Osgood, John Dolloff, Ebenezer Burbank, 
and others. On the 1st of October, 1765, Daniel Foster 
obtained a grant of this township on condition that each 
grantee should pay a rent of one ear of Indian corn annu- 
ally, for ten years, if demanded. 

Population, 1769. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
458. Amount of inventory, $423,045. Value of lands, 


hnproved and unimproved, $171,597. Number of sheep, 
1017. Do. neat stock, 1660. Do. horses, 267. 

Cornish, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Plain- 
field, east by Croydon, south by Claremont, and west by 
Windsor, Vermont. Area, 23,160 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 50 miles, north-west; from Newport, 13. This 
town is watered in its western limits by the Connecticut 
River, over which a bridge connects with Windsor. The 
soil is generally fertile, and adapted to the growth of the 
grains, fruits, and vegetables generally raised throughout 
the state. The town is hilly, with the exception of that 
part which lies on the river. On Bryant's Brook specimens 
of silver ore have been found ; also, on the bottom and 
along the margin of the brook, spruce-yellow paint is 
obtained in considerable quantities. Good limestone occurs 
in various locations. Crystals of red oxide of titanium 
have been discovered in this town. These are valued 
highly by jewellers, who sell them under the name of 
Venus hair stone. 

There arc in this town two hotels and two stores. The 
people are generally engaged in agricultural pursuits. Sever- 
al ferms in this town are under excellent cultivation. This 
town was granted, June 21, 1763, to Rev. Samuel McClin- 
tock and 69 others. It Avas settled in 1765 by emigrants 
chiefly from Sutton, Massachusetts. When the first settlers 
arrived they found a camp, known for many years as the 
"Mast Camp," from its having been erected for a company 
engaged in procuring masts for the royal navy. Captain 
Daniel Putnam, a citizen highly esteemed, and for many 
years clerk of the town, cume here in 1764. Cornish was 
one of the sixteen towns that sec^cdod from New Hampshire 
and joined Vermont in 1778. During lliis year a conven- 


tion of delegates from seveval towns on both sides of the 
river met in this town. 

A Congregational church was formed here in 1768. 
Rev. James Welman was the first minister. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1800 by Rev. Joseph Rowell. A Baptist church 
was formed here in 1791, and Rev. Ariel Kendrick was 
ordained in 1801. An Episcopalian society was formed in 
1793. This society was incorporated, in 1795, under the 
name of "Trinity Church." 

Popvilation, 1606. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
386. Inventory, ^584,644. Value of lands, improved 
and unimproved, $274,124. Amount of school fund, 
$580. Number of sheep, 6605. Do. neat stock, 1822. 
Do. horses, 368. 

Croydon, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Gran- 
tham, east by Springfield and Sunapee, south by Newport, 
and west by Cornish. Area, 26,000 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 44 miles, north-west. This town is very hilly 
and uneven, and its surface is in many places covered with 
huge masses of granite. Croydon Mountain stretches 
across the western part of the town, and is the highest 
elevation in Sullivan county. This town is well watered. 
It contains several ponds, the largest of which are Long 
Pond, Rocky Bound, Governor's and Spectacle Ponds. 
The north branch of Sugar River crosses it in a south-west- 
erly direction, dividing the town into two nearly equal 
parts. On this stream and its tributaries are some excellent 
mill seats. The soil, excepting the alluvial bordering upon 
Sugar River, has generally been considered stubborn and 
unproductive ; it, however, produces excellent grass, pota- 
toes, and wheat. This town enjoys the reputation of 
furnishing the very best qualities of butter and cheese. 


Croydon was granted by charter to Samuel Chase, 
Ephrahn Sherman, and 63 others, May 31, 1763. It was 
first settled, in 1T66, by emigrants from Massachusetts. 
When the revolutionary war broke out, the inhabitants of this 
remote and sterile township were not idle and unconcerned 
spectators. No less than 55 of its citizens served in the 
war, several of whom laid down their lives in defence of 
their country. 

A Congregational church was formed here September 
9, 1778. In June, 1788, Rev. Jacob Haven was settled 
as pastor, who faithfully discharged the duties of his office 
until 1834. He died March 17, 1845, aged 82. 

Population, 861. Number of legal voters, 215. Valu- 
ation, $264,520. Value of lands, improved and unim- 
proved, $153,672. Acres of improved land, 13,400. 
Bushels of potatoes, 14,285. Pounds of wool grown, 
15,735. Do. of butter made, 50,970. Do. cheese, 1072. 
Do. maple sugar, 17,120. Capital invested in manufactur- 
ing, $17,700. Number of sheep, 3833. Do. neat stock, 
1297. Do. horses, 188. 

Dalton, Coos county. Bounded north by Lancaster, 
east by Whitefield, south by Whitefield and Littleton, 
and west by Lunenburg, Vermont. Area, 16,455 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 125 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 
8. The Fifteen Mile Falls in Connecticut River com- 
mence in this town, and flow tumultuously along its 
north-western border. This town is also watered by John's 
River and several large brooks. The western and southern 
parts are very uneven and hilly. The land originally was 
covered with a deep, heavy growth of maple, beech, birch, 
and ash. Along the borders of John's River the white pine 
is abundant. The soil on the highlands is deep and fertile, 


and in many places of easy cultivation. Blake's Pond lies 
at the south-east part of the town ; it was named for a 
famous hunter, Moses Blake, who, with Walter Bloss, and 
their families, were the first settlers, and for many years 
were the only inhabitants. 

There are two churches, — one Congregational and one 
Methodist, three hotels, two stores, and two saw mills, — 
one employing 20 men. This town Avas incorporated No- 
vember 4, 1784, and received its name from Hon. Tristam 
Dal ton, a grantee. 

Population, 750. Number of legal voters, 150. Valu- 
ation, 8161,094. Value of lands, $91,877. Number of 
sheep, 889. Do. neat stock, 804. Do. hcr-ses, 141. 

Danbury, Grafton county. Bounded north by Grafton 
and Alexandria, east by Alexandria and Hill, south by Hill 
and Wilmot, and west by Wilmot and Grafton. Area, 
19,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 30 miles, north- 
west ; from Plymouth 16, south-west. The shape of this 
town is that of a diamond. It is generally hilly and un- 
even. Along Smith's River, the only stream of note, is 
some very good interval. The soil is generally cold and 
sterile. The Northern Railroad passes through this town 
near its south-western border. There is in this town one 
Congregational society and one Methodist. There are three 
stores and one hotel. There is also a high school ; average 
attendance, 60. 

This town was first settled in November, 1771. It M'as 
incorporated in 1795. The first settlements were very 
gradual, and made in the easterly part of the town. 

Population, 944. Number of legal voters, 251. Valu- 
ation, $217,031. Number of sheep, 2311. Do. neat stock, 
1052. Do. horses, 146. » 


Danville, Eockingham county. Bounded north by 
Poplin, east by Kingston, south by Hempstead, and west 
by Sandown. Distance from Concord, 33 miles, south-east ; 
from Exeter, 10. Area, 7000 acres. The surface is uneven ; 
the soil generally light, but in some parts excellent. 
Squamscot River passes through the north-west corner of the 
town, and is the only stream of importance. Long Pond 
lies in the east part, and Cub Pond in the west. This 
town was formerly a part of Kingston, and was incorporated, 
February 22, 1760, under the name of Roake, in honor of 
a British admii-al of that name. The first settlements were 
made in 1735, by Jonathan Sanborn, Jacob Hook, and others. 
Rev. John Page was ordained over the Congregational 
church here in 1763. He died of small pox January 29, 
1782, aged 43 ; since that time no minister of that denom- 
ination has been settled. There is at present one Freewill 
Baptist society and one Methodist. This town received its 
present name in 1836. In 1775 it contained 300 more 
inhabitants than at any time since. 

Population, 614. Number of legal voters in 1854, 155. 
Valuation, $196,587. Value of lands, improved and un- 
improved, $89,976. Number of sheep, 304. Do. neat 
stock, 454. Do. horses, 82. 

Deerfield, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Northwood, east by Nottingham, south by Raymond and 
Candia, and west by Epsom. Area, 25,81*5 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 18 miles, south-east ; from Portsmouth, 
30, north-west. This town contains several ponds, which 
abound with fish. Pleasant Pond, a beautiful sheet of 
water, lies partly in this town and partly in Northwood. 
Its waters are very clear. Moulton's Pond, in the west 
part of the town, although small, is noted from the feet 


that it lias no visible inlet ; its waters are supposed to be 
supplied by a subterranean passive. It has several times 
been sounded; but no bottom has yet been discovered. 
The outlets of this pond run in opposite directions — one 
in a northerly direction, discharging into Suncook Pond, in 
Epsom ; the other flowing into a branch of Limprey River, 
near the centre of the town. The surface of the town is 
uneven, diversified by large swells and intervening dales. 
The soil is durable se^^ fertile. The growth of wood con- 
sists mainly of rock maple, white maple, beech, birch, rod 
oak, and hemlock. 

This town took its name from the fact that it abounded 
with numerous herds of deer, many of which, in its early 
settlement, were slain ; and while the petition for the char- 
ter of the town was pending before the General Court, a 
large fat buck was killed, and presented to Governor Went- 
worth by a Mr. Batchelder, and thus secured the act under 
the name of Decrfield. This town was first settled in 
1756 and 1758 by John Robertson, Benjamin Batchelder, 
and others. The Pawtuckaway Mountains, Ipng on the 
line between this town and Nottingham, the summits 
of which are in the latter, consist of three distinct eleva- 
tions, rising somewhat abruptly from the shores of Round 
Pond, in Nottingham, and are known as the Upper, Mid- 
dle, and Lower Mountains. They are based on mica slate, 
which is rapidly decomposing, owing no doubt to the pres- 
ence of large quantities of iron pyrites. The farms on 
which the Messrs. Meloons reside in Deerfield are noted 
for the richness and strength of their soils, which consist 
of the natural deposits of the wash from the mountains. 
The highest of these mountains is 893 feet above the level 
of the sea. Saddleback INIountain, situated on the line 
between Deerfield and Northwood, consists of mica slate. 


and is elevated 1072 feet above the level of the sea. From 
the summit of this mountain, the ocean, which is 30 miles 
distant, may be distinctly seen with the naked eye in a 
clear day. It is a place of resort in the summer and fall 
montlis. Nottingham Movintain, bearing the name of ^le 
town from which Deerfield was taken, lies on the line be- 
tween this town and Epsom. On the southerly side of this 
mountain is a natural formation, foi* many years designated 
as "Indian Camp." It is a cave about 20 feet wide, 10 
feet high, and 14 deep. In the back part is still another 
cavity, called the " Indian Oven," and is a refuge for wild 
animals. The sides of the camp are irregular, and the top 
is covered by a canopy of granite, projecting about 14 feet, 
and affording a shelter from the sun and rain. On the east 
side is a natural flight of stone steps, by which persons 
may easily ascend to the top of the ridge. There is a bed 
of iron ore in the south-easterly part of the town, which 
was formerly worked, but was found inadequate for practi- 
cal purposes. Iron ore, terra sienna, and particles of 
magnetic iron pyrites, disseminated in the rocks, are found 
in various localities, often rendering the management of 
the compass very difficult and perplexing. Near the shore 
of Pleasant Pond have been found fine specimens of black 
lead. In the town of Deerfield, for nearly twenty years 
past, there have been heard certain reports, or explopdons, 
which appear to be subterraneous, and apparently of a vol- 
canic or gaseous nature. Sometimes the sound resembles 
the blasting of rocks or the report of distant cannon ; at 
other times it is more like the rumbling of a carriage 
driven furiously over frozen ground, accompanied with a 
tremulous motion and shake of the ground, and passing 
with the dip of the stratified rock, which is fiRom a south- 
westerly to a north-easterly direction. In the fall of the 


year these sounds arc more frequent ; and sometimes fifteen 
or twenty reports may be heard during a single day, and as 
many in the night. An investigation of the causes of these 
strange phenomena is now being made by the Hon. E. 
Merriam, an eminent geologist from New York. 

The names of eighteen persons from this town who died 
in the revolutionary army are preserved. There are three 
religious societies in this to\^^l. The Congregational was 
formed in 1772, and Rev. Timothy Upham ordained. A 
Freewill Baptist society was formed in 1799. There is 
also a Calvinist Baptist society in this town. All these are 
in a flourishing condition. The sum of $1200 is appro- 
pricited annually for the support of common schools, in 
addition to the proportion of the literary fund. There are 
two hotels, ten stores, eight grain and sawmills. There 
are four shoe manufactories, with a capital of about $12,000, 
in which nearly 300 persons are employed. There is also a 
convenient Town Hall, in which a high school is kept. 

Population, 2022. Number of polls in 1854, 550. Do. 
legal voters, 537. Valuation, $555,251. Value of lands, 
improved and unimproved, $359,531. Number of sheep, 
1345. Do. neat stock, 1974. Do. horses and mules, 368. 

Deering, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Hillsborough and Henniker, east by Weare, south by 
Francestown and Bennington, and west by Antrim. Area, 
20,057 acres. Distance from Concord, 23 miles, south- 
west ; from Amherst, 22, north-west. This town is diver- 
sified with hill and valley; is well watered by numerous 
streams — too small, however, for manufacturing purposes to 
any extent. The soil is strong and productive. Dudley's 
Pond, near the north line, is 140 rods long and 50 wide. 
Pecker's Pond, near the centre of the town, is 180 rods 


long and 65 wide. In the north part of the town is a 
mine of plumbago, and supposed to be very valuable. 

There are one clothing mill, one store, one grist and two 
sawmills, two hotels, and three wheelwright shops. There is 
one Congregational society, established in December, 1789, 
by Rev. Solomon Moore and Rev. Jonathan Barns. Rev. 
Messrs. Gillett, C. Page, and D. Long preached here, but 
were never settled. A second Congregational church was 
formed in 1801, and Rev. William Sleigh ordained the 
same year ; he was dismissed in 1807. There is also a 
Baptist and a Methodist society here. 

This town was incorporated January 17, 1774. The 
name was given by the Hon. John Wentworth, in honor 
of his wife, whose name before marriage was Deering. 
The first permanent settlement was made in 1765, by 
Alexander Robinson. He was soon followed by William 
McKean, William Forsaith, Thomas Aiken, William Aiken, 
Francis Grimes, and others. 

Population, 890. Houses, 179. Families, 194. Farms, 
132. Value of lands, $268,480. Stock in trade, |2000. 
Inventory, |396,510. Number of polls, 208. Do. sheep, 
1089. Do. neat stock, 1499. Do. horses, 183. 

Derry, Rockingham county. Bounded north by Au- 
burn and Chester, east by Sandown and Hampltead, south 
by Salem and Windham, and west by Londonderry. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 25 miles, south-east; from Exeter, 
18, south-west. This is an excellent township for grazing. 
The soil is productive, and well cultivated. This town 
contains some of the best farms in the region. The 
people are remarkable for their industry, general wealth, 
and longevity. The village in this town is pleasantly 
located, and presents a thriving, healthy appearance. Bea- 


ver Pond in this town is a beautiful sheet of water, one 
mile in length by 160 rods in Avidth, nearly surrounded by 
gently rising hills, mostly covered with forest. There are 
in this town two academies — Pinkerton, with a fund of 
$16,000; and Adams Female Academy, with a fund of 
$•4000. There arc three religious societies in town, and as 
many meeting houses — one Presbyterian, one Methodist, 
and one Congregational. The Manchester and Lawrence 
Railroad passes through this town. It was incorporated 
July 2, 1827, and originally formed a part of Londonderry. 
Population, 1850. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
450. Amount of inventory, $608,861. Value of lands, 
1458,453. Number of sheep, 431. Do. neat stock, 1300v 
Do. horses, 278. 

DixviLLE, Coos county. Bounded north by Clarksville 
and grant to Gilmanton Academy, east by Dartmouth 
College grant and Wentworth Location, south by Millsfield 
and nngranted lands, and west by Columbia, Colebrook, 
and Stewartstown. Area, 31,023 acres. 146 miles north 
from Concord, and 40 north-east from Lancaster. This is 
a somewhat rugged and rocky region, but nevertheless con- 
tains some very good land. It is watered by numerous 
streams. Much of it yet remains uncultivated and covered 
with a dense forest. In this town is the Dixville Notch, 
a remarkable gap in the mountains, wild and interesting to 
the beholder ; and when this region becomes more widely 
known, it will constitute one of the most agreeable resorts 
for lovers of picturesque scenery. It is the pass through 
which teams go from Erroll to Portland. The direction 
of the pass is north-east and south-west, and is walled on 
both sides by towering ledges and calumns of mica slate, 
which stand nearly vertical, and rise to the height of 600 


to 800 feet fiom the road. The rock in this region resem 
bles volcanic more than any other found in the state. On 
the north side of this road, some 40 rods distant, is the 
Flume, caused by the decay of a large trap dike. The 
chasm is 20 feet deep and 10 wide, and is the channel of a 
stream of water. 

This town was granted in 1805 to Colonel Timothy Dix, 
of Boscawen, who was the first settler. In 1820 there 
were only two inhabitants. Population, 8. 

DoKCHESTER, Grafton county. Bounded north by Went- 
worth, east by Groton, south by Canaan, and west by 
Lyme. Area, 23,040 acres. 50 miles north-west from 
Concord, and 23 south from Haverhill. The principal 
streams are the south branch of Baker's River, a tributary of 
the Mascomy, and Rocky Branch. There are several 
ponds lying wholly or partially in this town. Church, 
Island, and McCutcher Ponds form the head waters of 
the Rocky Branch ; Little, Norris, and Smart's Ponds form 
the head Avaters of the Mascomy River. Smart's Moun- 
tain, lying partly in this town, is a considerable elevation. 
From its summit a most delightful and extensive view is 
presented of the surrounding country, including the green 
hills of Vermont and the course of the Connecticut River for 
several miles. The soil in some parts is very fertile, espe- 
cially the intervals on the branch of Baker's River. The 
highlands are very uneven, and generally rocky. The 
manufacture of lumber is a considerable branch of business 
in this town. There are 1 1 sawmills, the aggregate capi- 
tal of which is f 28,000, wliich give employment to 40 
or 50 hands. There are connected with several of these 
machinery for the manufacture of clapboards, shingles, 
copperas casks, &c. There is quite an establishment for 


the manufacture of charcoal, with a capital of $4000, giv- 
ing employment to nine hands. On a hill near the centre 
of the town is a granite ledge, which seems to have been 
forced asunder, and the fissure, which is about 16 inches 
in width, is filled with basalt, in which there are impressions 
similar to the tracks of cattle, about five inches in width and 
two and a half feet apart. There are in this town two 
meeting houses — one belonging to the Congregational 
society, the other to the Baptist. The Baptist society 
was formed in 1819. The first two charters of this town 
were forfeited by a failure to fulfil fie conditions reqiured. 
The third was granted May 1, 1772, to 72 persons, about 
which time the actual settlement began. The first settlers 
were Benjamin Rice and Stephen Murch, from Hanover. 

Population, 711. Number of polls, 175. Inventory, 
$165,199. Value of lands, $102,579. Number of sheep, 
2742. Do. neat stock, 674. Do. horses, 100. 

Dover, shire town of Strafford county. Bounded north 
by Somersworth, east by the Salmon Falls River, — which 
separates it from Elliot, Maine, — south by Madbury, and 
west by Rochester. 40 miles east from Concord, and 66 
north from Boston. This is the oldest and one of the prin- 
cipal towns in the state. It is situated at the head of navi- 
gation in the Cocheco River, about 12 miles from the ocean, 
in the midst of a rich and fertile country. Passing through 
the town in any direction, the traveller finds no rugged 
mountains nor sterile plains ; but, occasionally ascending 
gradual swells of land, he beholds spread out before him 
a vast and beautiful picture of village, forest, stream, ver- 
dant dale, and cultivated field. In the south part of the 
town is a neck of land, about three miles in length and half 
a mile wide, between the Piscataqua River on one side, and 


Bellamy, or Back, River on the other. The travelled road, 
from which the land gradually descends in both directions, 
commands an extensive and delightful prospect of bays, 
islands, and distant mountains. On this neck of land was 
commenced the first settlement of the town, in 1623, by a 
company in England styled the "Company of Laconia." 
The purpose of the settlement was to estabHsh a fishery 
around the mouth of the Piscataqua ; to accomplish which, 
Edward and William Hilton, fishmongers of London, were 
sent hither. These two men commenced their operations 
on the Neck, called by the Indians Winnichahannat ; but 
they named it at first Northam, afterwards Dover. For 
many years this spot included the principal part of the 
population of the tovrn. Here was erected the first meet- 
ing house, surrounded with entrenchments and flankarts, 
the remains of which are still pointed out. But in pro- 
cess of time the current of pojjulation began to change 
and settle around the Falls, four miles north of the Neck, 
where is now the beautiful and prosperous village of Dover. 
The descent of the falls in this place is very rapid, being 
32 feet within a short distance. As this water power began 
to be developed a new vigor was added to business, and 
wealth rapidly followed. During the earlier periods of the 
settlement this town Avas much frequented by the Indians, 
and often suffered greatly from their sudden and repeated 
attacks. In 1675, ]\Iajor Waldron, by a stratagem, the 
justice and prudence of which have been questioned, suc- 
ceeded in securing about 200 Indians in Dover, who had 
at times betrayed signs of hostility. Seven or eight who 
had been guilty of some misdemeanor were immediately 
hung, and the rest were sold into slavery. Exasperated by 
this act, as the Indians termed it, of treachery, they swore 
against him unmitigated revenge. In 1689, after a lapse 


of 13 years, they determined to execute their project. 
Previous' to the fatal night, June 27, hints of impending 
danger were thrown out by the squaws, but were not 
heeded. The friendly Indians were suffered to sleep in the 
garrisons with the people as usual. In the quiet of night 
the doors of the garrisons were opened, and at a given 
signal the Indians arose from their secret places and rushed 
upon the unsuspecting and defenceless inhabitants. Major 
Waldron, although 80 years of age, made a gallant defence, 
but was at length overpowered by the superior numbers of 
his assailants, who literally cut him to pieces. In this 
onset 23 persons were killed and 29 made prisoners. In 
1691 a young man in the woods near the settlement was 
fired upon by a party of Indians. A body of citizens went 
in pursuit, and killed or wounded nearly tlie whole party. 
In 169G they again made an attack upon the people as they 
were returning from church : three were killed, and several 
■wounded and taken prisoners. In 1704 one Mark Giles 
was killed, and the* people waylaid on their way from 
meeting. In 1706 William Pearl and Nathaniel Tib- 
betts were killed, and in 1710 Jacob Garland met the 
same fiite. In the spring of 1711 and 1712 this town 
was attacked by Indians, who killed a INIr. Tuttle. In 
August, 1723, the Indians again made their appearance, 
and surprised the house of Joseph Ham, whom they killed, 
and carried off three of his children. 

The first settled minister in Dover was Eev. William 
Leveridge, a Congregationalist preacher, who came here 
October 10, 1633. His support being inadequate, he re- 
mained but two years, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
George Burdet, who was settled in 1637. The third was 
Hanserd Knolles, under whom was organized, in 1639, the 
" First Church," being the oldest but one in New Hamp- 


shire. He was followed in 16-40 by Thomas Larkham, 
■who remained in charge only a few months. Daniel Maud, 
fifth minister, was settled in 1643; died in 1655. John 
Reyner settled in 1655 ; died in 1669. He was succeeded 
in the same year by his son John, who died December 
21, 1676. John Pike was the eighth minister, and was 
settled in 1681 ; died in 1709. Nicholas Sever was 
ordained at Dover in 1711; resigned in 1715. Jonathan 
Gushing was settled in 1717; died in 1769. During the 
last two years of his ministry he was assisted by Rev. Jere- 
my Belknap, D. D., the historian of New Hampshire, who 
succeeded him in 1769. Dr. Belknap was pastor until 1786, 
when he was followed by Robert Gray, whose connection 
as pastor of this church ceased in 1805. Rev. Galeb H. 
Shearman was prdained at Dover May 6, 1807 ; dismissed 
May 7, 1812. Rev. J. W. Glary Avas ordained May 7, 
1812; dismissed August 6, 1828. Hubbard Winslow 
was ordained December 4, 1828 ; dismissed in November, 
1831. David Root was ordained i^^ 1833; dismissed in 
1839. J. S. Young was ordained November 20, 1839 ; 
dismissed September 4, 1843. Homer Barrows was in- 
stalled July 9, 1845; dismissed July 6, 1852. The 
present pastor, Benjamin F. Parsons, was installed January 
12, 1853. An Episcopal church was established here at 
an early period in the history of the town. The Methodist 
society was incorporated in 1819. There is also one Uni- 
tarian society, one Calvinist Baptist, two Freewill Baptist, 
one Universalist, one Gatholic, and one Quaker, or Friends. 

A high school has recently been established on the sys- 
tem of classification. The entire cost of buildings, fur- 
niture, apparatus, &c., is f 15,067. 

The Gocheco Manufacturing Gompany is one of the old- 
est and most extensive corporations of the kind in the 


county. It was incorporated in 1813, and amended in 
1821. It commenced operations in 1822. Its capital is 
$1,300,000. The business of this company is divided 
into two departments — one, manufacture of cotton goods ; 
two, printing calicoes. In the manufacturing departmerit 
there are four mills, containing 47,312 spindles and 1200 
looms. Amount of printing cloths manufactured per an- 
num, 10,000,000 yards — all printed into calico in the 
print works. Number of bales of cotton consumed annu- 
ally, 4300. Do. hands employed — males, 400 ; females, 
800 ; total, 1200. Moses Paul, agent ; George Mathew- 
son, superintendent of print works. 

There is an extensive oil carpet manufactory owned by 
Abraham Folsom. It has been in successful operation 
about- five years. About 1000 yards of carpeting are man- 
ufactured daily. In this work abovit 40 men are em- 
ployed. These beautiful and substantial fabrics are sent 
to various parts of the country and the world. 

On Bellamy River, about a mile south-east from the vil- 
lage, is the Bellamy Machine Shop, where railroad cars, 
engine lathes, &c., are made. 20 men are employed. Au- 
gustus Pickerson, agent. 

F. A. & J. Sawyers's Flannel Manufactory consumes 
60,000 pounds of wool per annum, produces 200,000 yards 
of flannel per annum, and employs 20 hands. 

About one fourth of a mile below Messrs. Sawyers, 
Messrs. Hale & INIoses have erected a factory for making 
flannel goods. It is estimated to do about the same amount 
of business as is done by Mqpsrs. Sawyers. 

Davis & Snow have a steammill, where they manufac- 
ture sashes, doors, &c., and employ 20 hands. * 

There are, besides, several small shops, in which various 
kinds of mechanical and manufacturing labor are per- 


formed. There arc tTv-o hotels and thirty stores in this 
town. The village of Dover is well laid out and well built, 
the houses generally being two stories, neat, and some 
elegant. The houses of worship, the Court House, and 
other public buildings are handsome, and the factories 
massive and imposing in their structure. Dover is easily 
approached by the Boston and Maine Railroad, by the 
Cocheco Railroad, and by the Great Falls and Conway 

Population, 8186. Number of polls, 1660. Valuation, 
$3,267,800. Value of lands, $1,527,500. Number of 
sheep, 413. Do. neat stock, 1557. Do. horses and 
mules, 412. 

Dublin,* Cheshire county. Bounded north by Nelson 
and Hancock, east by Peterborough, south by Jaffrey, and 
west by Marlborough and Roxbury. Area, 26,560 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 50 miles, south-west ; from Keeue, 
10, south-east. Dublin is situated on the height of 
land between Merrimack and Connecticut Rivers. Its 
streams are small. There is a pond near the middle of the 
town, called Centre Pond, about one mile in length, and 
the same in width. A large portion of the Grand Monad- 
nock lies in the north-west part of the town, and near the 
centre is Breed's Mountain. Monadnock was formerly 
covered with small trees and shrubbery ; but numerous 
fires have laid bare its surface, wliich presents an uneven 
mass of ragged rocks. The soil is hard and rocky — 
much bett«fr adapted to grazing than tillage. A handsome 
Congregational meeting house, erected in 1818, stands on 
such an elevation that the rain dropping from the west 

• • Harrisville lies partly in this town. For description, see Nelson. 


roof runs into the Connecticut River, and that from the 
east roof into the Merrimack. There is a Baptist meeting 
house in the north-Avest part of the town. The common 
schools in this town are well conducted. Several years 
since a bequest of $8000 was made by Rev. Edward 
Sprague for the support of the public schools. He also 
left the town $5000, the interest of which is to be applied 
annually for the support of a Congregational minister. 

This town, originally called Monadnock Number Three, 
was granted, November 3, 1749, to Matthew Thurston and 
others. It was incorporated March 29, 1771. The first 
settlements were made in 1762 by John Alexander, Henry 
Strongman, and William Scott, natives of Ireland, from 
the capital of which country this town received its name. 

The Congregational chiu-ch was formed June 10, 1772, 
and Rev. Joseph Farrer ordained at the same time. The 
Baptist church was organized November 5, 1785. Rev. 
Elijah Willard was ordained June 5, 1793. There is also 
a Methodist and Unitarian society in this town. 

Population, 1088. Number of polls, 262. Inventory, 
$454,492. Value of lands, $244,947. Number of sheep, 
2191. Do. neat stock, 1349. Do. horses and mules, 206. 

DuMMER, Coos county. Bounded north by Millsfield 
and Erroll, east by Cambridge, south by Milan, and west 
by Stark and ungranted lands. Area, 23,040 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 140 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 30, 
north-east. The principal rivers are the Androscoggin and 
the Little Ammonoosuc. In the latter are the Dummer, or 
Pontook, Falls. This town was granted, March 8, 1773, to 
Mark H. Wcntworth and others. It was left unoccupied, 
however, for many years. Its progress has been very 
slow, owing perhaps, in some degree, to the rocky and un- 
even surface of tlic land and the coldness of the soil. 


Population, 171. Number of legal voters, 45. Com- 
mon schools, 8. Inventory, ^38,832. Value of lands, 
$24,027. Number of sheep, 206. Do. neat stock, 138. 
Do. horses, 5. 

DuNBARToN, INIerrirc^lc county. Bounded north by 
Hopkinton and Bow, east by Bow and Hooksett, south by 
GoffstoAvn, and Mcst by Weare. Area, 21,000 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 9 miles, south. The situation of 
this town is someAvhat elevated, though there are but few 
hills, and no mountains. Owing to its elevation, the air is 
pure and the water good. The soil is excellent, especially 
for the growth of corn, wheat, and fruit. Some of the 
finest specimens of apples are produced here. The farm- 
ers are generally industrious and successful husbandmen. 
The inhabitants are principally descendants of Scotch-Irish, 
so called from the fact that their ancestors emigrated from 
Scotland to Ireland. Arsenic, in the state of arsenical 
pyrites, is found in this town. Dunbarton was granted in 
1751 to Archibald Stark, Caleb Page, and others, by the 
Masonian proprietors. It was first called Stark's Town, 
ia honor of the principal proprietor. Its present name is 
derived from Dunbarton in Scotland. The first settle- 
ment was made, about 1749, by Joseph Putney, James 
Rogers, William Putney, and Obadiah Foster. Captain 
Caleb Page was one of the first settlers. Archibald Stark 
resided in Manchester. He Avas a man of considerable in- 
fluence, and possessed a large landed property. James 
Rogers was from Ireland, and was father to Major Robert 
Rogers. He was shot in the woods, being mistaken for a 
bear. The Congregational church was formed here about 
1789. Rev. Walter Harris was ordained August 26, 


Population, 915. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
230. Do. common schools, 10. Inventory, |387,984. 
Value of lands, .$250,349. Number of sheep, 1 145. Do. 
neat stock, 1323. Do. horses and mules, 170. 

Durham, Strafford county. Bounded north by Madbury, 
east by Little and Great Bays, south by Newmarket, and 
west by Lee. Area, 14,970 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 32 miles, south-east; from Portsmouth, 11, north- 
west. This town is situated on Oyster River, at the head 
of tide water. This river, so called from the abundance 
of oysters found at its mouth, takes its rise from Wheel- 
Avright's Pond, in Lee, and after winding nearly its whole 
course through Durham, and furnishing in its progress 
several excellent mill seats, falls into the Piscataqua. The 
soil of this town is generally hard and strong. On both 
sides of Oyster River is a deep, argillaceous loam, favorable 
to the growth of grasses, of which very heavy crops are 
cut eveiy year. The farmers devote much of their time 
to the production of hay for the Boston market. More 
than 1000 tens are annually exported. A chain of granite 
ledge extends through the town, which seems to be of 
primitive formation. There was formerly a large erratio 
bowlder of sienitic granite in the south-west part of the 
town, so carefully poised upon two other pieces of the 
same materiiil that it was visibly moved by the wind. This 
town was originally a part of Dover, and included in Hil- 
ton's patent, but soon after its settlement was formed into 
a distinct parish, by the name of Oyster River. This was 
a famous rendezvous of the Indians. The early inhabitants 
were greatly exposed to their assaults and depredations. 
In September, 1675, they made an attack on this place, 
burned two houses, killed several men, and carried away 


two captives. Two days after they made another attack, 
destroyed several houses, and killed two persons. In 1694, 
when a large number of the inhabitants had marched to 
the westward, the Indians, who were lurking in the woods 
about Oyster River, having carefully ascertained the number 
of men in the garrison, rushed upon them as they were going 
to their morning devotions, and, having cut off their retreat 
to the house, put them all to death except one, who fortu- 
nately escaped. They then assailed the house, in which 
were only two boys, besides the women and children. The 
boys kept them off for some time, and Avounded several of 
them. At length the Indians set fire to the house ; but 
even then the boys would not surrender until the Indians 
had promised to spare their lives. They, however, treach- 
erously murdered three or four children, one of whom they 
pierced with a sharp stake in the presence of its mother. 
The women and children were carried captive, but one of 
the boys made his escape the following day. The next 
spring the Indians narrowly watched the frontiers, to deter- 
mine the safest and most vulnerable points of attack. The 
settlement at Oyster River was selected for destruction. 
Here were twelve garrisoned houses, fully sufficient for the 
reception of the inhabitants ; but, not apprehending any 
danger, many of the families remained in their unfortified 
houses, and those Avho Avcrc in the garrison were by no 
means prepared for a siege, as they Avcre nearly destitute 
of powder. One John Dean, whose house stood near the 
Falls, happening to rise very early for a journey, was shot 
as he came out of his door. The attack was now commenced 
with vigor on all points where the enemy were ready. Of 
the twelve garrisoned houses five were destroyed — namely, 
Adams's, Drew's, Edgerly's, Mcader's, and Beard's. The 
Indians entered Adams's house without resistance, where 


they killed fourteen persons, whose graves arc still to be 
seen. Drew surrendered his garrison on promise of safety ; 
but he was put to death. Thomas Edgerly, having hid 
himself in his cellar, preserved his house, though it was 
twice set on fire. The house of John Buss, the minister, 
together with his valuable library, was set on fire and con- 
sumed. In this onset the Indians killed and captured 
between 90 and 100 persons, and destroyed 20 houses. 
In 1703 they made another incursion, and killed one man. 
In 1704 several persons M'ere murdered by them. In 
170o they assailed the house of John Drew, where they 
killed eight persons, and wounded several others. In 1707 
they captured two persons, and murdered two others as 
they were on a journey to Dover. In September, same year, 
a party of MohaM'ks attacked a company of men who were 
at work in the woods under the direction of Captain 
Chesley. At the first fire the enemy killed seven, and 
wounded another. Chesley, with his few surviving com- 
rades, kept up a brisk fire, and for some time kept them at 
bay ; but they at length fell, overpowered by numbers. In 
1724 the Indians made another attack upon this town, and 
killed several persons in ambush. 

The first preacher in this town was the Rev. John Buss, 
who died in 1736, aged 108. There is a Baptist society 
in this town, and one academy. jNIajor General John Sulli- 
van, of the revolutionary army, was a resident of this town, 
and died here January 23, 1795. He was a native of Ber- 
wick, Maine, and was a distinguished commander during 
the war ; was president of the state three years, and after- 
wards district judge of New Hampshire. Hon. Ebenezer 
Thompson was a native of this town. He held several 
offices during the war, and was an efficient legislator. 
Colonel Winborn Adams, of the revolutionary army, was a 


citizen of Durham. Population^ 1500. Number of legal 
Yoters in 1854, 350. Do. common schools, 10. Inventory, 
$485,953. Value of lands, $335,782. Number of sheep, 
417. Do. neat stock, 1000. Do. horses, 182. 

East Kingston, Rockingham county. Bounded north 
by Brentwood and Exeter, east by Kensington, south bv 
Southampton, and west by Kingston. Area, 2120 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 42 miles, south-east ; from Ports- 
mouth, 20, south-west. The surface is moderately uneven. 
The soil is of an excellent quahty, and well adapted to the 
growth of grains and grasses. Powwow River enters the" 
south-west part of this town, having its sources from ponds 
in Kingston. 

There are in tliis town one meeting house belonging to 
the Methodist denomination, two stores, one carriage manu- 
factory, one shoe manufactory, and two tanneries. The sum 
of $2000 was recently bequeathed to the town by the late 
Jeremiah Morrill, Esq., the interest of which is to be 
applied for the benefit of common schools. This town 
was incorporated November 17, 1738. Among the first 
settlers were William and Abraham Smith, who settled 
near the centre of the town. Rev. Peter Coffin was settled 
here in 1739, and was dismissed in 1772, since which time 
the Congregational society has had no regular preaching. 

Population, 532. Number of legal voters in 1854, 150. 
Do. common schools, 4. Inventory, $274,751. Value of 
lands, $186,137. Number of sheep, 236. Do. neat 
stock, 484. Do. horses, 72. 

Eaton, Carroll county. Bounded north by Conway, 
east by Brownfield, Maine, south by Freedom, and west by 
Tamworth. Area, 33,637 acres. Distance from Concord, 


71 miles, north-east; from Ossipee, 22, north. The soil 
of the uplands, which are quite uneven, is good. The 
plains are a sandy loam, and were formerly covered with 
an excellent growth of pine. There are no streams of 
importance in this town. Six INIile Pond is about three 
miles in length and fi-om one half to a mile in width. 
There are several other smaller ponds in this town. Eaton 
was granted, November 6, 17(56, to Clement March and 65 
others. A Baptist church was formed here in 1800. 
There are two Freewill Baptist societies in this town. 
There is a woollen factory, and several small mills for 
various purposes. Iron ore of good quality is found here. 
There is also a vein of sulphuret of lead, of considerable 
value. Zinc in large quantities is to be found here. 

Population, 1751. Number of polls, 308. Inventory, 
$276,227. Value of lands, $1-49,581. Number of sheep, 
1178. Do. neat stock, 1659. Do. horses, 189. 

Effingham, Carroll county. Bounded north by Free- 
dom, east by Porter, Maine, south by Ossipee, and west by 
Ossipee. Area, about 30,000 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 60 miles, north-east ; from Ossipee, 5, north. There 
are several mountains of considerable elevation in this 
town. The Ossipee River is the only stream of note. 
Near this river is a pond, about 400 rods long, and 270 
wide. Province Pond lies between this town and Wake- 

Effingham was settled but a few years before the revo- 
lution. It was first called Leavitt's Town. It was incor- 
porated August 18, 1778. Rev. Gideon Burt was the 
first settled minister, who entered upon his tluties as pastor 
of the Congregational Church in 1803, and was dismissed 
in 1805, since which time the church has been vacant. 


At present there are two Freewill Baptist societies in the 
town. A Baptist society was formed here in 1808. The 
Effingham Academy was incorporated in 1819, and is a 
respectable institution. 

Population in 1TT5, 85 ; in 1850, 1252. Number 
of polls, 244. Inventory, $255,161. Value of lands, 
$109,415. Number of sheep, 407. Do. neat stock, 
1227. Do. horses, 207 

Ellsworth, Grafton county. Bounded north by "Wood- 
stock, east by Thornton, south by Rumney, and west by 
Warren. Area, 16,606 acres. 52 miles north from Con- 
cord, and 12 north from Plymouth. A mountainous terri- 
tory. The most prominent elevation is Carr's Mountain, 
situated in the north part, and extending to the centre of 
the town. A small stream issues from "West Branch Pond, 
in the south-east part of the town, and runs into the 
Pemigewasset, in Camptou. The soil, though in some parts 
sterile and rugged, produces wheat, rye, corn, oats, pota- 
toes, «S:c. This town was granted in 1769, under the name 
of Trecothick, to Barlow Trecothick. Large quantities of 
maple sugar are made here annually. There is one Free- 
will Baptist church and society in this town. There are 
also three common schools, five sawmills, and one gristmill. 

Population, 320. Number of legal voters, 75. Valua- 
tion, $44,344. Value of lands, $18,952. Number of 
sheep, 455. Do. neat stock, 292. Do. horses, 39. 

Enfield, Grafton county. Bounded north by Canaan, 
east by Grafton, south by Grantham, and west by Lebanon. 
Area, 24,060 acres. 42 miles north-west from Concord, 
with which it is connected by the Northern Railroad. The 
surface of this town is diversified with hills and valleys. 


and watered by a variety of ponds and streams well stored 
with fish. Masconiy Pond, Avhich has received from travel- 
lers the name of Pleasant Pond, is indeed a beautiful sheet 
of water, about five miles in length, and on an average 
half a mile in width. Its eastern banks are covered with 
trees, which, with the ascending hill, gradually rise one 
above the other for some distance. Along the eastern 
shore the Northern liailroad extends for a considerable dis- 
tance. Mascomy River, which takes its rise in Dorchester, 
running through Canaan, discharges into this pond. This 
pond is supposed to have been at some former period much 
higher than at present, and the plain and villages south 
are supposed to have been the bed of it. This is evident 
from the ancient shore still remaining around the pond 
and about 30 feet above high water. Logs have been 
found 12 feet below the surface of the plain once flowed. 
Its foil appears to have been sudden, caused by an altera- 
tion of its outlet. On the eastern shore, about half a mile 
from the pond, is a pleasant and thriving village, known 
as North Enfield. There arc several stores and mills here, 
and one extensive tannery. 

This pleasant village has grown up within a few years. 
The soil is generally strong, though requiring considerable 
labor to make it productive. On the south-Avestern shore 
of the pond is situated the Shakers' village. This society 
own the land on the south-west bank, nearly the entire 
length of the pond. The village is located about midway 
between the two extremities of the pond, on an alluvial 
plain of great fertility and under a very high state of culti- 
vation. About 20 acres of this are devoted to horticulture, 
from A\hich large quantities of garden seeds and all the 
valuable varieties of botanic medicinal herbs and roots are 
produced. The buildings are neat and convenient, and 


some on a large and splendid scale. In the village of the 
Middle Family is a large and beautiful stone edifice, four 
stories in height, surmounted by a cupola in which is a 
bell weighing about 800 pounds, remarkable for its sono- 
rousness and sweetness of tone. An immense and costly 
barn for cows has recently been erected. The location and 
•arrangement are admirable. It is built across a gentle 
ravine, opening from bank to bank, and is so constructed 
that teams laden with hay, grain, or straw may enter at 
either gable, precipitate the hay into the bay below, pass 
along, and make their egress at the other end. Such a 
location has enabled the owners to extend a cellar through 
its entire length for the reception of the manures, both 
solid and liquid, which are kept from filtration or otherwise 
escaping downwards by a plank floor laid upon a stratum 
of clay wrought as a bed of mortar. The descent of the 
ground upon the back part of the barn affords a passage to 
and from the cellar both convenient and easy for carrying 
pond mud and manure. The scafiblds above furnish 
space to deposit the littei', which is let down through a 
trap door in the rear of the cows. 

The manufactures of the Shakers consist mainly of 
wooden ware, such as pails, tubs, dry measures, brooms, 
&c. They also manufacture extensively woollen and 
flannel shirts and drawers, cassimeres, flannels, feeting, 
&c. They own about 2000 acres in the vicinity of their 
village, and considerable in adjoining towns. They are 
divided into thi-ee distinct families. The middle, or, as 
they term it, the first order, contains about 120 members. 
The second order, or family, resides about one mile south 
of the first, and contains about 80 members. The north 
family, or novitiate, is situated at the extreme north of the 


vijlage, and contains usually about 60 members. Each of 
the families has one large and commodious building, 
which is called the office, where all the commercial affairs 
are transacted, and where all visitors are entertained. It is 
desirable that all visitors should first call at one of these 
offices. Trustees of the first order, C. M. Dyer and H. C. 
Baker ; of the second, Jason Kidder and William Wilson ; , 
of the north family, A. Bronson. The society in Enfield 
have but little water power ; but by means of artificial 
channels they have about 10 mills of different kinds. 
They usually keep about 100 cows. They take much 
pains in the improvement of stock. They have recently 
imported two small flocks of French merino sheep at an 
expense of .^200 to $500 apiece. The religious peculiar- 
ities * of this society are similar to those of the society at 
Canterbury, which have already been noticed. 

South of the Shaker Village, in the direction of Spring- 
field, are three flourishing villages, known as " North 
End," "Enfield Centre," and "Fish Market." The 
two latter are well supplied with water power, and con- 
tain several stores, mills, a woollen factory, two meeting 
houses, mechanics' shops, &c. In the eastern part of the 
town, situated at the foot of East Pond, — a beautiful 
sheet of water, abounding with pickerel and trout, — is 
Mill Village, a pleasant and thriving place, containing a , 
handsomely-built meeting house, stores, and shops of 
vai'ious kinds. 

This town was formerly called Relham, and was incorpo- 
rated and granted to Jedediah Dana and others July 4, 
1761. First settlers, Nathaniel Bicknell, Jonathan Paddle- 
ford, and Elisha Bingham, Elias, son of the person last 

* See article upon Religion. 


named, was the first male child boru in this town. For th^ir 
first minister the Congregational society had Eev. Edward 
Evans, who was settled in December, 1799, and dismissed in 
1805. A Freewill Baptist church was established here in 
1816. There is also a Methodist society. 

Population, 1742. Number of polls', 376. Inventory, 

► $506,9-l-i. 'Value of lands, ^289,473. Number of sheep, 

8439. Do. neat stock, 1371. Do. horses and mules, 236. 

Epping, Rockingham county. Bounded north by Not- 
tingham and. Lee, east by Newmarket and Exeter, south 
by Brentwood and Poplin, and west by Raymond. Area, 
12,760 acres. The soil in general is very good, and Avell 
adapted to the growth of the various productions of this 
climate. Lamprey River, at the west, receives the waters 
of the Patuckaway, and runs through the entire length of 
the town. Another river runs through the north part of 
the town, and is called North River. These streams af- 
ford a few convenient mill seats, which are occupied by 
three small woollen manufactories, in each of which from 
eight to ten persons are constantly employed. There are 
six stores, two hotels, and three meeting houses — one be- 
longing to the Congregational society, one to the Methodist, 
and one to the Freewill Baptist. There is also a small so- 
ciety of Friends, or Quakers. 

The late Hon. William Plumer, governor of New 
Hampshire, and one of her most distinguished sons, was a 
resident of this town. Hon. John Chandler, formerly rep- 
resentative and senator in the INIassachusetts legislature, 
member of Congress, and brigadier general in the army of 
tho United States in the war of 1812, was a native of Ep- 
ping. The Congregational society was first established 
here in 1747, when Rev. Robert Cutler was ordained. As 


early as 1T69 a (Quaker society existed here. The Baptist 
society was formed here about 1776. A society of Metho- 
dists was established about 1800. 

Population, 16G3. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
354. Valuation, $499,941. Value of lands, $302,803. 
Value of shares in banks and other corporations, $25,150. 
Number of sheep, 954. Do. neat stock, 972. Do. horses 
and mules, 181. 

Epsom, Merrimack county. Bounded north by Pitts- 
field, east by Northwood and Deerfield, south by Aliens- 
town, and west by Pembroke and Chichester. Area, 
19,200 acres. Distance from Concord, 12 miles, east. 
The surface of this town is generally uneven. The prin- 
cipal eminences are called McCoy, Fort, Nat's, and Not- 
tingham Mountains. The soil is generally good, and well 
adapted to grazing or the raising of grain. Great and Lit- 
tle Suncook are the only rivers of any size. There are 
three ponds — Chestnut, Round, and Odiorne's. The min- 
eralogical features of Epsom are of some importance. 
Brown oxide and sulphuret of iron are found in various 
localities. Terra sienna, a valuable material for paint, is 
also found here. Arsenical pyrites, argentiferous galena, 
and hematite associated with quartz crystals, occur in sev- 
eral localities. 

Epsom was granted. May 18, 1727, to Theodore At- 
kinson and others. It received its name from Epsom in 
England. Rev. John Tucker was the first settled minister, 
and was ordained in 1761. Like other frontier towns, Ep- 
som was exposed, during the early period of its settlement, 
to excursions of the Indians ; no serious injuries, however, 
were sustained. In 1747, August 21, Mrs. McCoy was 
taken prisoner and carried to Canada, from whence she re- 


turned after the close of the war. Depredations were after- 
wards committed upon the cattle, the inhabitants having pre- 
viously fled to the garrisons in I^ottingham. 

Major Andrew McClary, a native of this town, a brave 
and meritorious officer, fell, gallantly resisting the enemies 
of his country, at Bunker's (or Breed's) Hill, June 17, 1775. 
Immediately on receipt of the news of the massacre at 
Lexington, he left his plough in the field and hastened to 
the conflict. 

Population, 1365. Number of polls, 281. Inventory, 
i$349,589. Value of lands, $169,267. Number of sheep, 
1122. Do. neat stock, 1350. Do. horses, 187. 

Erroll, Coos county. Bounded north by Wentworth's 
Location, east by Umbagog Lake, — a portion of which is 
within its limits, — south by Cambridge and Dummer, and 
west by Millsfield. Area, about 35,000 acres, 2500 of 
which are covered Avith water. Several considerable 
streams unite here Avith the Androscoggin, which passes 
thi'ough the north-east part of the toAvn. Upon this stream, 
in Erroll, have been expended quite recently more than 
,f 100,000 in erecting dams, &c., for the purpose of hold- 
ing back the Avatcr, so as to enable the company engaged in 
the enterprise to drive logs from the upper lakes to market 
through the Avhole season. There are numerous ponds and 
small streams Avhich abound Avith trout. The soil in some 
parts is very good. A large portion of the toAvn is still 
covered Avith a thick, heavy groAvth of maple, beech, birch, 
and pine. 

Population, 138. Number of legal voters, 41. Com- 
mon schools, 3. Valuation, $44,752. Value of lands, 
$22,808. Number of sheep, 279. Do. neat stock, 178. 
Do. horses. 25. 


Exeter, the shire town of Rockingham county, is 
bounded north by Newmarket and Strathara, east by 
Stratham, Hampton, and Hampton Falls, south by Ken- 
sington and East Kingston, and west by Brentwood and 
Epping. The compact part of the town lies about the 
falls — which separate the tide ^-om the fresh water — of a 
branch of the Piscataqua, called by the Indians Squamscot, 
and now known by the name of Exeter River. On this 
river are several valuable mill privileges, many of which 
are now occupied. 

The town is pleasantly situated on the bank of the river. 
The soil is generally good, though including every variety, 
from the best to the poorest quality. The people are 
largely engaged in agricultural pursuits, in which great 
improvement has been made. Exeter owes much of her 
prosperity to the large number of her enterprising and in- 
telligent mechanics. The Exeter Manufacturing Company 
was incorporated in 18^8. Its capital stock amounts to 
$162,500. Dimensions of building, 175 feet long by 44 
wide, and 6 stories high. It contains 7488 spindles and 
175 looms. Manufacture number 25 cotton cloth, 36 
inches wide. Annual consumption of cotton, 450,000 
pounds. Number of yards of cloth produced per annum, 
1,400,000. Do. operatives employed — males, 45; fe- 
males, 160 ; total, 205. During the past year the build- 
ing was thoroughly repaired. It is now lighted with gas, 
and heated by steam. John Low, Jr., agent and treas- 

Orin Head, carriage manufacturer, has from $30,000 to 
.$40,000 capital invested. In this establishment over 200 
carriages of all kinds are annually manufactured. A sad- 
dlery and harness shop is also connected with this concern. 
In both departments about 60 hands are employed. 

206 ^-E^v Hampshire as it is. 

There arc, besides, a papermill, and several other shops 
of less extent where various articles are manufactured. 

Phillips Academy, a celebrated institution, was founded 
in 1T81 by the liberal donations of John Phillips, D. D., 
who, at his decease in 1795, left a large portion of his 
estate for the benefit of t^^is institution. It is under the 
control of a board of seven trustees, only three of whom 
can be resident in Exeter. A considerable portion of the 
fund is appropriated towards the support of the poorer class 
of students. 

Exeter has, during all periods of its history, contained 
among its citizens eminent and useful men. Some of the 
most distinguished jurists, statesmen, and scholars in the 
country received a part of their mental training in its lit- 
erary institution. Hon. Samuel Tenney was well knoAvn in 
his day as a man of science and learning. General Na- 
thaniel Pcabody was a member of the old Congress, a sen- 
ator in 1792, and speaker of the House in 1793. Hon. 
Nicholas Oilman was a member of the old Congress, a 
senator in 1804, president of the Senate, ^i^d a senator 
in Congress from 1805 to his death in 1814. General 
Nathaniel Folsom was a member of the old Congress, and 
a brave and valuable officer of the revolution. Hon. Jere- 
miah Smith, a native of Peterborough, was one of the first 
representatives under the federal government, was ap- 
pointed judge of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire, 
and in 1802 was chief justice, and continued such until 
1809, when he was elected governor. Hon. John Taylor 
Oilman was an active supporter of the revolution, and for 
fourteen years, between 1794 and 1816, was governor of 
the state. 

The settlement of Exeter commenced in 1638 under 
John Wheelwright and others, Avho formed themselves into 


a body politic, c•ll0^3c their magistrates, and bound them- 
selves by vote to sacred obedience. Their laws were made 
in popular assemblies, thus manifesting the true idea of a 
pure democracy. This organization lasted three years. 

In 1629 Wheelwright had purchased of the Indians the 
country between tlic Merrimack and Piscataqua, extending 
back about fifty miles. By reason of his Antinomian 
opinions he had been banished from the colony of Massa- 
chusetts, and sought refuge here. In 1642 Exeter was 
annexed to the county of Essex, Massachusetts ; and Wheel- 
wright, who was still under sentence of excommunication, 
was compelled and made to flee from the society of re- 
ligious bigotry. The early inhabitants suffered consider- 
ably from the depredations of the Indians. In 1675 one 
person was killed and another made prisoner, and other 
outrages were committed. In 1695 two men were killed. 
In 1697 the town was undoubtedly saved, as it were, by 
accident, from utter destruction. By an unintentional 
alarm, caused by the firing of a gun for the purpose of 
frightening a few women and children who had gone into 
the fields after strawberries contrary to the advice of their 
friends, the people were brought together under arms. A 
large party of Indians had laid in ambush for several days, 
secretly making preparations for a vigorous attack, and 
had fixed upon the following day to begin the assault. 
Hearing the report of the gun, and seeing the people as- 
sembled together, they supposed they had been discovered, 
and made precipitate retreat, killing one person, wounding 
another, and carrying away a child. The Indians gave the 
people no further trouble until 1707, when another per- 
son was killed. In the spring of 1709 William Moody, 
Samuel Stevens, and two sons of Jeremy Oilman were 
captured at Pickpocket Mill, in Exeter. In 1710 the 


Indians killed Colonel Wintlirop Milton, a meritorious citi- 
zen, with two others, and took two prisoners. Soon after 
this they killed one John Magoon, and captured John 
Wedgewood and four children. In April, 1712, a Mr. 
Cunningham was killed, and depredations committed upon 
the property of the inhabitants. 

The first church in Exeter was probably the first formed 
in this state. It was founded in 1638 by Rev. John Wheel- 
wright, a brother-in-law of the celebrated Anne Hutchin- 
son, and a contemporary of Oliver Cromwell at the uni- 
versity. This church, after Wheelwright's banishment, 
was broken up, and a new one formed some time after, but 
at what precise period does not appear. Rev. Samuel 
Dudley was ordained in 1650. The Second Congrega- 
tional Church was formed in 1748, and Rev. Daniel Rogers, 
a descendant of the martyr John Rogers, was ordained. 
There arc at present two Congregational societies, one 
Methodist, one Freewill Baptist, one Calvinist Baptist, and 
one Unitarian. The town is divided into six school dis- 
tricts. In some of the districts are substantial and elegant 
school houses. Much has been done here towards the ad- 
vancement of the common school interest in this town. 

The Granite State Bank has a capital of ^125,000. 
President, Moses Sanborn ; cashier, S. H. Stevens. 

Population, 3329. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
794. Amount of inventory, ^1,265,391. Value of lands, 
1 195, 110. Do. factories and machinery, $48,000. Do. 
mills and carding machines, $20,400. Do. stock in trade, 
$90,356. Amount of money on hand, &c., $177,610. 
Number of sheep, 390. Do. neat stock, 777. Do. horses 
and mules, 228. 

Farmington, Strafford county. Bounded north by New 


Durham and Milton, east by Milton and the State of Maine, 
south by Eochestcr and Strafford, and west by Strafford and 
New Durham. Area, 21,000 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 25 miles, north-east ; from Dover, 18, north-west. 
This township is somewhat broken, and the soil in many 
places is rugged, but very productive when carefully 
tilled. There is but little interval on the Cocheco River, 
which winds through the north-east part of the town. The 
Blue Hill, or Frost Mountain, extending nearly through the 
town in a north and south direction, is the highest eleva- 
tion of land in the county. From the summit of this 
mountain may be seen in a clear day Mount Washington, 
Monadnock, and hundreds of smaller hills in the distance ; 
while the ships in Portsmouth Harbor can be traced in their 
various motions, swayed hither and thither by a slight 
breeze. The Cocheco River ^s the only stream of note. 
A rock, weighing some 60 or 70 tons, formerly so nicely 
poised as to be moved easily by the hand, has within a few 
years been moved from its position by some persons, no 
doubt, wearing out for want of exercise. 

The school fund in this town is $3000. There are 
seven stores, and one hotel. The manufacture of shoes is. 
carried on quite extensively. About 560,000 pairs of 
shoes are manufactured annually. The amount of capital 
invested is $-475,000 ; 650 hands are employed. There is 
a bank in this town, with a capital of $50,000. Farming- 
ton was originally a part of Rochester, but was incorporated 
as a distinct town December 1, 1798. A Congregational 
church was formed here, about 1818, under the care of the 
Rev. James "Walker. There is also a Freewill Baptist 
society here. This town is divided into 16 school districts. 

Population, 1699. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
483. Inventory. 651,335. Stock in trade, $21,530. 


Value of shares in bank, &c., $44,574. Do. of lands, 
$380,920. Number of sheep, 903. Do. neat stock, 1512. 
Do. horses and mules, 260. 

FiTzwiLLiAM, Cheshire county. Bounded' north by 
Troy and Jaffrey, east by Rindge, south by Royalston and 
Winchendon, Massachusetts, and west by Richmond. 
Area, 22,700 acres. Distance from Concord, 60 miles, 
south-west; from Keene, 13, south-east. It originally 
contained 26,900 acres ; but by an act of the legislature, 
June 23, 1815, 4200 acres were taken from it, and now 
form a part of Troy. Camp and Priest Brooks are the 
principal streams. There are several small ponds. The 
surface is hilly; the soil is hard, but very good for graz- 
ing. There is a considerable quantity of meadow land, 
which is very productive. Near the centre of the town is 
a considerable eminence, remarkable for the delightful 
prospect it affords. Gap Mountain lies partly in this town 
and partly in Troy. On its summit is found an excellent 
kind of whetstone. There is also a quarry of granite of 
superior quality, which is extensively wrought. The manu- 
facture of wooden ware of various kinds is a large item in 
the industrial pursuits of the inhabita;its. There are eleven 
different establishments in which this kind of labor is per- 
formed. There are also one carriage shop, one tannery, and 
a factory where enamelled leather is made. In these 
various departments 250 persons are employed. There 
are four stores, one hotel, twelve common schools, one 
Unitarian church, one Congregational, and one Baptist. 

Tliis town was originally called Monadnock Number 
Four, and was granted, January 15, 1752, to Roland Cotton 
and 41 others; but, the grantees having suffered forfeiture, it 
was regranted to Samson Stoddard and 22 others. The 


first settlement was made, in 1760, by James Read, John 
Fassitt, Benjamin Bigelow, and others. It was incorporated 
May 19, 1773, when it was named in honor of the Earl of 

The Congregational church was formed March 27, 1771, 
when the Rev. Benjamin Brigham was ordained. In 1816 
an elegant church was erected at^an expense of $7000. 
On the night of January 17, 1817, it was struck by light- 
ning, and entirely consumed. The Cheshire Railroad 
passes through this town. 

Population, 1482. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
300. Inventory, $468,637. Value of lands, $283,675. 
Stock in trade, $19,530. Number of sheep, 297. Do. 
neat stock, 1093. Do. horses and mules, 232. 

Francestown, Hillsborough county. Bounded north 
by Deering, east by Weare a'nd New Boston, south by 
Lyndeborough and Greenfield, and west by Greenfield 
and Bennington. Area, 18,760 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 27 miles, south-west; from Amherst, 12, north- 
west. The two south branches of the Piscataquog rise in 
this town ; the largest branch from Pleasant Pond, the 
other from Haunted Pond. These two ponds are consider- 
able collections of note ; the former being about 350 rods 
square, and the latter 300 in length by 225 in width. The 
land is uneven, and in many parts stony, but the soil is 
strong and productive. There are some small patches of 
interval which are very fertile. In the western part of 
the town the rock is mostly coarse granite; in the eastern 
it is sulphuric, easily crumbling. There is in the easterly 
part of this town a valuable quariy of soapstone, which 
has been extensively wrought for sizing rollers and other 


purposes. In the north part of the town plumbago occurs 
in small quantities. 

This town was first settled, in 1760, by John Carson, a 
Scotchman. It derived its name from Frances, the wife of 
Governor Wentworth. It was not granted to proprietors, 
as most of the early to"tvnships were. It includes what 
was once called New Boston Addition and a part of Society 
Land, and was incorporated, on petition of the inhabitants, 
June 8, 1772. The titles were derived from the Masonian 
proprietors. A Congregational church was formed here, 
January 27, 1773, under the Rev. Samuel Cotton. Mr. 
James Woodbury was an active soldier in the French war 
of 1757. He was engaged by the side of General Wolfe 
when he was mortally wounded at the memorable siege of 
Quebec. He also belonged to the company of rangers 
under the immortal Stark. 

Population, 1114. Number of houses, 241. Do. 
families, 261. Do. farms, 128. Value of lands, $314,- 
620. Stock in trade, $5050. Inventory, |53 1,982. 
Number of sheep, 1953. Do. neat stock, 1193. Do. 
horses and mules, 240. Do. polls, 244. 

Franconia, Grafton county. Bounded north by Beth- 
lehem, east by ungranted lands, south by Lincoln and 
Landaff, and west by Lisbon. Area, 32,948 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 74 miles, north; from Haverhill, 28, 
north-east. A large portion of the town is mountainous. 
Its streams are branches of the Lower Ammonoosuc, and rise 
in the mountainous tracts on the east. Along these streams 
there is considerable interval — meadow land very fertile 
and productive. Near the "Notch" are two bodies of 
water ; the lower one, commonly called Ferrin*s Pond, is 


half a mile long and q^uaiter of a mile Avide. It is the 
source of one of the principal branches of the Pemigewas- 
set River, and is known as the "Middle Branch." Echo 
Lake, about one mile in length and three quarters of a 
mile in width, lies at the foot of Mount Lafayette, almost 
entirely protected from violent winds by the lofty hills 
which surround it on all sides. The report of a gun fired 
upon its shores may be heard distinctly several times, in 
perfect imitation of successive discharges of musketry. 
The waters of this lake are discharged through the south 
branch into the Lower Ammonoosuc. 

The Notch, a narrow pass between Mount Lafayette and 
Profile Mountain, or Mount Jackson, is thought by many 
not inferior to the celebrated pass on the eastern flank of 
the White Mountain range. Those who visit the White 
Mountain Notch and scenery will not consider their visit 
complete until they have seen Franconia Notch. The 
grand and beautiful are so perfectly blended in its wild 
and rugged features that the visitor can hardly tell with 
which view he is most profoundly impressed. 

The Old Man of the Mountain has been declared to 
be the greatest natural curiosity in the state. On a bold 
and nearly perpendicular part of the rock which terminates 
one of the projecting cliffs of Mount Jackson, at the height 
of 1000 feet, in bold relief against the western sky, and 
surveying in calm majesty the wild and varied region 
stretching towards the south, is seen this wonderful profile 
of the human face, delineated with striking exactness and 
in gigantic proportions, wearing from age to age the same 
undisturbed expression of sovereign dignity and hoary 
wisdom. The profile is produced by a peculiar combina- 
tion of the surfaces and angles of five huge granite blocks. 
As the traveller reaches the point of observation from the 


highway, he is directed to look in k northwardly direction, 
when he discovers in the distance the stern visage of the 
Old Man of the Mountain, 

The Basin is a deep excavation in granite, formed by 
the continual action of the falling waters of the Pemige- 
wasset, together with the whirling and grinding action of 
pebbles and masses of granite swept into the cavity by the 
force of the stream. The diameter of the Basin is about 
thirty feet, and its depth appears to be in such proportion 
as to form a huge bowl, always filled to the brim with 
clear, cold water. 

The Flume is about three fourths of a mile from the 
main road, on the right hand as you go towards Franconia 
Notch. A narrow pathway through woods leads to the 
spot. There are in the passage, numerous small streams, 
over which have been felled trees, which is the only 
bridge to be met with in this wild, romantic walk. " The 
Flume is a deep chasm, having mural precipices of granite 
on each side ; while a mountain torrent rushes through its 
midst, falling over precipitous crags and loose masses of 
rock. During the spring freshets and in early summer it 
is not practicable to walk in the bed of the Flume ; but 
late in the season but little water floWs, and the bottom of 
the river affords a good footpath. One of the most re- 
markable objects in the Flume is an immense rounded block 
of granite, which hangs a few feet overhead, supported 
merely by small surfaces of contact against its sides." To 
the traveller passing in the bed of the stream and under- 
neath this massive block, the appearance is, that it must 
instantly fall upon him. The trunk of a fallen tree lies 
across the top of the river, and furnishes a natural bridge 
for adventurous persons, though extremely dangerous, es- 
pecially for persons unaccustomed to such feats. 


Franconia owes much of its prosperity to the existence 
and working of a rich vein of granular magnetic iron ore, 
the locality of which is within the present limits of the 
town of Lisbon. The ore is blasted out and conveyed to 
the furnace in Franconia. In December, 1805, a company 
was incorporated under the name of the New Hampshire 
Iron Manufactory. The buildings necessary for the prose- 
cution of the enterprise were erected on the south branch 
of the Lower Ammonoosuc, and consist of a large blast fur- 
nace, a cupola furnace, a forge, trip hammer shop, black- 
smith shop, and pattern shop. From 20 to 30 men are 
constantly employed. 250 tons of pig iron and from 200 
to 300 tons of bar iron are produced annually. The ore 
is said to be the richest yet discovered. It yields from 
56 to 90 per cent. A respectable business is also carried 
on in the manufacture of starch from potatoes, about 60 
tons of Avhich are made annually. There is a bedstead fac- 
tory, in which eight men are employed, doing a business 
of about $8000 per annum. 

There are in Franconia three hotels of large dimensions, 
and handsomely finished and furnished, in which special 
regard is paid to the ease and enjoyment of the numerous 
travellers who visit Franconia for pleasure, scientific pur- 
poses, or business. 

This town was originally called Morristown, and was 
granted, February 14, 1764, to Isaac Searle and others. 
The first settlement was made in 1774 by Captain Ar- 
temas Knight, Samuel Barnett, Zebedcc Applebee, and 

There is a Congregational church consisting of 14 mem- 
bers, and a Freewill Baptist church of 138 members. 

Population, 584. Number of polls in 1854, 139. Do. 
legal voters in do., 132. Inventory, $; 174,549. Value of 


lands, $95,226. Stock in trade, $15,945. Number of 
sheep, 567. Do. neat stock, 592. Do. horses and mules, 

Freedom, Carroll county. Bounded north by Eaton, 
east by Parsonfield, Maine, south by Effingham, and west 
by Ossipee. Distance from Concord, 60 miles, north-east ; 
from Ossipee, 10, north. This is an uneven township, but 
contains some excellent land for grazing and tillage. Os- 
sipee Lake lies partly in this town. The only stream of 
importance is Ossipee Eiver, which affiards several excel- 
lent mill seats. The inhabitants are generally devoted to 
agriculture ; and the numerous highly-cultivated farms 
give evidence that labor is not unaccompanied by skill. 
There are two carriage factories, doing business on rather a 
moderate scale ; oue door, sash, and blind factory ; one 
planing and mortising factory ; two blacksmith shops ; 
one bedstead shop ; and four shoe shops. There is a re- 
ligious society of the Baptist faith ; one hotel, one high 
school, and ten common schools. This town was incor- 
porated June 16, 1831, and was formerly called North 

Population, 910. Number of legal voters in 1854, 240. 
Inventory, $225,930. Value of lands, $131,202. Do. 
stock in trade, $3350. Do. sheep, $1916. Do. neat 
stock, $17,295. Do. horses and mules, $8087. Do. 
polls, $53,860. 

Franklin, Merrimack county. Bounded north by Hill 
and Sanbornton, east by Sanbornton and Northfield, south 
by Boscawen and Salisbury, and west by Salisbury and 
Andovcr. Distance from Concord, 19 miles, north. This 
pleasant and thriving town was taken from the towns of 


Salisbur\^ Andovcr, Sanboruton, and NorthfielJ, and was 
incorporated December 24, 1828. It is small in extent, 
comprising probably an area of not more tlian 9000 acres. 
The soil is generally a sandy loam, in some parts very 
rich ; in others, especially the more elevated pine plains, it 
is somewhat sterile. Much attention has been paid to ag- 
riculture here, and some of the farms Avill compare with 
the best in the state. The celebrated Webster Farm, 
through a portion of which the Northern llailroad passes, 
is under high cultivation, and very productive. At this 
place is a way station called the Webster Place. There 
is in this town an extensive peat bog, including about 
thirty acres, which is two feet deep, with a hard clay be- 
neath it. 

The principal village is situated near the confluence of 
the Pemigewasset and Winnipiseogee Rivers, which, by 
their union, form the Merrimack. Its principal street is 
about one mile in length, running parallel with the Pemi- 
gewasset and Merrimack Rivers, at a distance of from 
30 to 80 rods from their channels. The water pov\^er 
in this town is abundant and valuable. On the Win- 
nijiiseogee are several mills and Victories. The Frank- 
lin !R'liIls have recently commenced operations. Feeting, 
woollen undershirts, and drawers arc extensively manufac- 
tured here. The factory building is a large and massive 
stone structure, four stories in height. Connected with 
this are some tAvclve or fifteen tenements for the operatives. 
The method of manufiicturing such goods by machinery is 
comparatively a new enterprise, but promises well for those 
engaged in it. There is also a large paper manufactory, in 
which from 25 to 30 hands are employed. . H. Aiken's 
machine shop, where are manufactured " Aiken's patent 
brad awls " and tools of various kinds, is in this town. 


There is also an iron foundery and a forge shop^ where a 
large business is carried on. 

In the principal village are two meeting houses, two 
hotels, seven stores, and one academy. 

The Northern Railroad passes directly in the rear of the 
principal street ; and the track being elevated considerably 
above a level with the tops of the houses, the traveller sees 
almost beneath his feet a beautiful village, teeming with 
life and activity ; while still farther eastward he beholds 
the noble river whose power gives motion to the greatest 
number of spindles and looms of any stream in the world. 

The two religious societies here are the Congregational 
and the Christian Baptist. 

The cemetery, situated on a plain elevated considerably 
above the village, and some 100 rods easterly from it, is 
indeed a lovely spot. All is quiet around ; and yet within 
its enclosure the visitor, with a siugle glance, may behold 
the distant and gradually rising hills towards the west, and 
the puffing locomotive, with its almost endless train ; while 
a short distance below is the union of the Pemigewasset 
with the Winnipiseogee, and before him the busy village ; 
the whole scenery, with its variety and beauty, presenting 
a striking contrast to the stillness of the sacred grounds, 
and forcibly reminding him that there is but a step between 
the abodes of the living and the city of the dead. 

Population, 1251. Number of polls, 282. Inventory, 
$463,635. Value of lands, $291,560. Stock in trade, 
$16,200. Money on deposit, &c., $37,980. Number of 
sheep, 1497. Do. neat stock, 909. Do. horses, 170. 

Gilford, shire town of Belknap county. Bounded 
north by Winnipiseogee Lake, east by Alton, south by 
Gilraanton, and west by Long Bay and Meredith. Area, 

GA/r.TTi;i:ii or m:\v hampsiiike. 219 

23,000 acres. '.lo miles iiortli-eust from Concord. The 
soil is generally productive and under a high state of culti- 
vation. There are two ponds — Little and Chattleborough. 
Gunstock and Mile's Elvers, rising In Suncook Mountains, 
and flowing in a northerly direction into the lake, are the 
principal streams. Two islands in the lake, belonging to 
Gilford, are connected with it by bridges, one of which is 
30 rods in length. Four bridges across the Winnipiseogee 
connect this town with Meredith. Gilford village and 
Meredith village are connected by a bridge across Winni- 
. piseogee River, and both are called Meredith Bridge ; (for a 
description of which, see Meredith.) The Suncook Moun- 
tains extend in a tOAvering pile tlu-ough the easterly part of 
tbe town, from Gilmanton nearly to the lake. 

This is a thriving town, and the village connected with 
the Meredith side is one of the most flourishing and pleas- 
ant villages in New Hampshire. This town, which was 
incorporated June IG, 1812, was formerly a part of Gil- 
manton. It was settled in 1778 by James Ames and S. S. 
Gilman. The Freewill Baptist society, formed in 1798 
under Elder Richard Martin, was the first religious society 
established in Gilford. Elder Uriah Morrison was ordained 
over a Baptist society in 1808. Elder William Blaisdell 
was ordained over the Christian Baptist society in 1809. 
There are at present one Calvinist Baptist and three Free- 
will Baptist societies in this town. 

Population, 2425. Number of polls, 594. Inventory, 
$604,333. Value of lands, $357,148. Stock in trade, 
$9460. Value of mills and machinery, ,$7200. ]Money 
at interest, $29,407. Number of sheep, 2209. Do. neat 
stock, 1716. Do. horses and mules, 257. 

GiLMANTOX, Belknap county. Bounded north by Gil- 


ford and Alton, east by Alton and Barnstead, south by- 
Canterbury and Northfield, and west by Sanbornton and 
Great Bay. Area, 63,500 acres. 25 miles north-east 
from Concord, and 8 south-west from Gilford. This town 
is watered by the Winnipiseogee, Suncook, and Soucook 
Kivers. The source of the Suncook is a pond on the top 
of one of the Suncook Mountains, 900 feet above its base. 
The water of this pond falls into another at the foot of the 
mountain, about one mile in length and half a mile in 
width ; flowing through this, it falls into another, covering 
about 500 acres, from which it winds through the town, 
receiving several streams in its course. Gilmanton is very 
hilly and rocky. The north part bounds upon Suncook 
Mountains, from which a chain of hills extends in a south- 
erly direction. The soil is hard, but fruitful, and has been 
brought to a very high state of cultivation. No part of 
the state presents a more pleasing and picturesque appear- 
ance to the eye of the agriculturist. Quartz crystals of 
considerable size are found near Shell Camp Pond. For- 
merly bog iron ore of a good quality was taken in large 
quantities from the bottom of Lougee Pond by means of 
long tongs. Porcupine Hill is a remarkably abrupt preci- 
pice of granite, gneiss, and mica slate rock, which form, by 
their overhanging strata and deep ravines, a pleasant and 
favorite resort of the students of Gilmanton Academy — an 
old and highly respectable institution of learning. Below 
this steep precipice is a deep and shady dell, thickly clad 
with dark, evergreen foliage of forest trees ; while the rocks 
are wreathed in rich profusion by curious and beautiful 
lichens, or mosses. Wild plants are abundant and various. 
Gilmanton Academy was incorporated October 13, 1762. 
This town was granted. May 20, 172T, to 24 persons named 
Oilman, and 152 others. The settlement was delayed and 


interrupted by the frequent depredations of the Indians. 
In December, 1761, Benjamin and John Mudgett, with 
their families, settled here. Dorothy Weed, the first child, 
was born here October 13, 1762. A Baptist church was 
organized here November 16, 1773. Elder Walter 
Powers was ordained June 14, 1786 ; dismissed in 1806. 
The Congregational church was formed November 30, 
1774, and Eev. Isaac Smith ordained. There are also 
Methodist and Freewill Baptist societies in this town. 
Hon. William Badger, formerly governor of this state, was 
a native and citizen of Gilmantou. 

Population, 3282. Number of polls, 704. Inventory, 
1983,253. Stock in trade, $13,256. Value of lands, 
$556,600. Number of sheep, 3507. Do. neat stock, 
3920. Do. horses and mules, 546. 

GiLSUM, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Alstead, 
east by Stoddard and Keene, south by Keene, and west 
by Surrey. Area, 9456 acres. 46 miles south-west from 
Concord, and 9 north from Keene. The surface is gener- 
ally uneven and stony. The soil is fertile ; and in many 
parts good arable land, free from stone, is to be found. 
Ashuelot River runs through this town, and aiFords several 
excellent Avater privileges. There is a small body of water 
in the north-east part of the town called Cranberry Pond. 
Near the house of Mr. Samuel Bingham there is a huge 
block of loose granite resting upon the crushed edges of a 
strata of mica slate. This immense bowlder has received the 
name of Vessel Rock, and appears to have been stranded 
upon the mica slate ledge, whither it was driven and depos- 
ited by the powerful drift current which passed over the 
country in ancient times. A large piece of this rock was 
split off from the mass by some external force in the winter 


of 1817. The pnncipal block measures 26 feet long by 
24 in width and 26 in height. 

There are in this town two stores, one hotel, and two 
woollen factories. In one, owned and occupied by Eben- 
ezer Jones, about 15,000 yards of choice broadcloth are 
manufactured annually. The number of hands employed 
is 20. Capital invested, ,^15,000. Ebenezer Jones pro- 
prietor. In the other are manufactured about 40,000 yards 
of flannel per annum. Number of hands employed, 12. 
Capital invested, $9000. There is also a factory for 
making bobbins, a chair factory, and a large tannery. Gil- 
sum was first granted, December 8, 1752, to Joseph 
Osgood, Jacob Farmer, and others, and was called Boyle. 
It w&s regranted, July 1-3, 1763, to Messrs. Gilbert and 
Sumner, and others. From the union of the first syllables 
of these two names is derived the name Gilsum. First set- 
tlement in 1764, by Josiah Kilburn. The Congregational 
church was established in 1772 ; incorporated in 1816. 
There are now two meeting houses — one owned by the 
Congregational, the other by the Methodist, society. 

Population, 666. Number of legal voters in 1854, 157. 
Inventory, $187,030. Value of lands, $76,531. Num- 
ber of sheep, 1413. Do. neat stock, 531. Do. horses 
and mules, 94. 

GoFFSTOWN, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Dunbarton and Hooksctt, east by Ilooksett and Manchester, 
south by Bedford, and west by New Boston and Weare. 
Area, 29,170 acres. 16 miles south from Concord, 12 
north from Amherst, and 6 north-west from Manchester. 
Merrimack River forms part of the eastern boundary. 
Piscataqua River runs through its centre. There are 
two considerable elevations in tliis town, which bear the 


Indian name of Uncannunuc. Excepting those elevations, 
Goffstown is less broken and hilly /than the adjoining towns. 
On the rivers are large tracts of valuable interval. Back 
from the rivers are extensive plains, not so rich in soil, but 
easily and carefully cultivated. From the plains the land 
rises in large, but gradual, swells, rocky in some parts, but 
excellent for grazing. A Congregational society was formed 
here in 1771 ; a Baptist church was organized in 1820. 
This town was in early times a favorite resort of the In- 
dians, who found ample support in the abundance of fish 
in its limits. It was granted by the Masonian proprietors, 
in 1748, to Bev. Thomas Parker and others, of Dracut, 
Massachusetts. At present the Baptists are the only so- 
ciety who have a settled pastor. There arc nine sawmills 
ajid four gristmills, two hotels and eight stores, one factory 
for the manufacture of batting, one shoe manufactory, in 
which are employed 100 hands, two sash and blind facto- 
ries, two wheelwright shops, and six blacksmith shops. 

Population, 2270. Number of houses, 416. Do. fami- 
lies, 441. Do. farms, 272. Inventory, |658,509. Value 
of lands, $457,175. Stock in trade, $16,212. Number 
of sheep, 700. Do. neat stock, 1644. Do. horses and 
mules, 283. Do. polls, 424. 

GoRHAM, Coos county. Bounded north by Berlin, east 
by Shelburne, south by the northerly base of the White 
Mountains, and* west by Rtrndolph. Area, 18,140 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 96 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 
20, east. It was formerly called Shelburne Addition. It 
is a rough, cold, and unproductive township. Several 
streams, swarming with trout, descend from the mountains 
into the Androscoggin River in this town. 

Population, 224. Number of polls, 51. Inventory, 


$65,230. Value of lands, $40,744. Number of sheep, 
115. Do. neat stock, 100. Do. horses, 48. 

GosHEX, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Sunapee, 
east by Newbury, south by Washington, and west by Unity 
and Newport. Area, 12,023 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 42 miles, north-west ; from Newport, 10, south-east. 
From Sunapee Mountain, lying in the east part of this 
town, spring numerous small streams, which unite in form- 
ing Sugar River. Rand's Pond is in the north-east part 
of the town. The soil is particularly adapted to the growth 
of grass. Large quantities of maple sugar are manufac- 
tui'ed here annually. A plumbago vein of considerable 
extent and richness is wrought here. The varieties of rock 
are mica, slate, gneiss, and granite. A Congregational 
church was formed here in 1802, and a Baptist society in 
1803. There is also a society called Christians. There 
are two stores and five common schools in this town. Go- 
sWi was formed of territory taken from Newport, Suna- 
pee, Newbury, Washington, Lempster, and Unity. It was 
incorporated December 27, 1791. The first settlement 
was made in that part then called Wendall, now Sunapee, 
by Captain Benjamin Rand, William Lang, and Daniel 
Grindlc, whose sufferings and hardships were very great. 
Their cro]is were often greatly injured, and sometimes en- 
tirely cut off, by early frosts. In such cases they were 
obliged to go to Walpole or Charlestowif for grain. Dur- 
ing a winter of great scarcity Captain Rand went to Wal- 
pole after grain ; and being detained by a violent snow storm, 
his family were obliged to live six days without provisions, 
during which time Mrs. Rand sustained one of her chil- 
dren, five years of age, by milk from her breast, her infant 
child having died a short time before. 


Population, G59. Number of legal voters in 1854, 166. 
Inventory, $181,372. Value of lands, $92,476. Num- 
ber of sheep, 2744. Do. neat stock, 824. Do. horses, 143. 

GosPORT, Rockingham county. One of the Isles of 
Shoals, formerly called Af)pleton, and afterwards Star Isl- 
and. It contains about 150 acres. Gosport was early in- 
vested with town privileges. In 1728 the inhabitants paid 
£16 as their proportion of the province tax of £1000. 
Subsequently a meeting house and a fort were built on its 
west point. Since those times its business has been con- 
siderably diminished. "Within a few years, however, it has 
revived somewhat. The inhabitants are principally engaged 
in fishing. In this pursuit 50 men are engaged. The 
amount of capital invested in the cod fishery is $2000, 
mackerel fishery $2500, herring fishery $500. 

There is a school, which is kept most of the time during 
the year. There is a religious society of the Christian 
sect. There is also a large and convenient hotel on ^s 
island, constructed for the accommodation and comfort of 
pleasure seekers, visitors, and travellers generally. The 
Isles of Shoals are places of fashionable resort in the warm 
seasons, and are very healthy summer residences. 

Population, 103. Number of legal voters in 1854, 35. 

Grafton, Grafton county. Bounded north by Orange, 
east by Alexandria and Danbury, south by Springfield, and 
west by Enfield and Canaan. Area, 21,993 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concojd, 36 miles, north-west ; from Haverhill, 
60 miles, south-east. Smith's River, a tributary of the 
Merrimack, i-uns throusfh this to^vn in a south-easterly di- 
rection. There are five ponds ; the largest, covering fi'om 
200 to 300 acres, is called Grafton Pond. Isinglass 
Hill, in the north-west part of the town, contains a vein of 


mica, which is wrought during the summer season, and 
yields nearly 50,000 pounds of mica suitable for commerce. 
The view from this hill is picturesque. An abrupt preci- 
pice, too steep for ascent, on its north-east side, descends 
into a dark copse of woods ; while to the south is an exten- 
sive, and variegated picture of fountains and undulating 
hills, covered with green forest, and interspersed with a few 
cleared and fertile valleys. Beryls of large size are ob- 
tained from John's Hill, an eminence about one mile south- 
west from Glass Hill. There are two meeting houses — 
one belonging to the Freewill Baptist society, and the other 
to the Union Religious Society. 

Grafton was granted, August 14, 1761, to Ephraim 
Sherman and others. The first permanent settlement was 
made in 1772, by Captain Joseph Hoyt, from Poplin. A 
Baptist church was formed here in 1785. The Freewill 
Baptist chui'ch was formed in 1817. 

Population, 1259. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
300. Inventory, $289,490. Value of lands, |166,390. 
Number of sheep, 2955. Do. neat stock, 1361. Do. 
hprses, 177. 

Grantham, Sullivan county. Bounded north by En- 
field, east by Springfield and Croydon, south by Croydon, 
and west by Plainfield. Area, 24,900 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 40 miles, north-west ; from Newport, 12, 
north. There are seven ponds, the largest of which is 
called Eastman's Pond, covering nearly 300 acres ; another, 
near the centre of the town, covers about 200 acres. The 
surface is broken and hilly in some parts. The soil is pro- 
ductive, and some of the farms «,long its southern and 
western borders are highly cultivated. Croydon Mountain 
extends in a direction from south-west to north-east through 
this town. Upon the summit is a pond, covering about 80 


acres. The more hilly parts are excellent for pasturage. 
It is well watered by numerous brooks, many of which 
abound with trout. In the north-west corner of the town 
is found in large quantities a substance which, being 
clarified, produces a paint similar to spruce yellow, or, 
being burned, to Spanish brown. Grantham was granted 
July 11, 1761 ; but the proprietoi-s not fulfilling the con- 
ditions of the charter, it was forfeited. In 1767 it was 
regranted to Colonel "William Symmes and 63 others 
under its present name. " The name was afterwards changed 
by the prefix "New," which was in a few years after 
dropped. The inhabitants upon the west side of the 
mountain are closely connected with Meriden parish, in 
Plainfield, in matters of general intercourse and business. 
On the eastern side of the mountain is a Methodist meeting 

Population, 784. Number of polls, 183. Inventory, 
$261,739. Value of lands, $150,053. Number of sheep, 
5636. Do. neat stock, 1110. Do. horses, 186. 

Greenfield, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Bennington and Francestown, east by Francestown and 
Lyndeborough, south by Lyndeborough, and west by 
Peterborough and Hancock. Area, 16,904 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 38 miles, south-west; from Amherst, 14, 
north-west. The surface is rough; the soil is various; 
the hills are generally good for grazing, and the valleys for 
tillage. A part of Crotched Mountain rises from the north 
part, and part of Lyndeborough Mountain from the south 
and east sections of the town. There are a few valuable 
meadows. In one of them have been found many Indian 
rehcs, thus indicating that this must have been a favorite 
resort of the sons of the forest. There are five ponds; 


one about a mile in length, and one third of a mile in 
width. There are no streams of importance. The industry 
of the people is almost entirely agricultural. The first 
settlement was made, in 1771, by Captain Alexander 
Parker, Major A. Whittemore, and others. It was incorpo- 
rated June 15, 1791. Its present name was given by Major 
Whittemore. A Congregational church was formed in 

Population, 716. Houses, 149. Families, 160. Farms, 
80. Value of lands, $180,691. Inventory, $248,483. 
Number of sheep, 863. Do. neat stock, 910. Do. horses, 
166. Do. polls, 171. 

Greenland, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Green Bay and Newington, east by Portsmouth, south by 
North Hampton, and west by Stratham. Area, 6335 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 45 miles, south-east; from Ports- 
niouth, 5, west. The soil is remai'kably good, and under high 
cultivation. The orchards and gardens are valuable, and 
yield large profits to the farmers. Greenland is celebrated 
for its excellent fruit. This was originally a part of Ports- 
mouth, and was incorporated in 1703. Settlements com- 
menced early, and in 1705 there were 320 inhabitants. 
Kev. William Allen, the first minister, was ordained July 
15, 1707; died September 8, 1760, aged 84. Rev. Samuel 
McClintock, D. D., a learned divine, active in the cause 
of his coimtry, and a chaplain in the revolutionary army, 
was a colleague of Mr. Allen, and his successor. The 
Methodist church was formed in 1809. There is a fund 
of $5000, the income of which is applied to the support 
of a Congregational minister and for missionary enter- 
prises. The Eastern Raihoad passes tlu'ough this town. 

Population, 739. Number of polls, 175. Inventory, 



$344,379. Value of lands, $225,830. Shares in corpo- 
rations, $20,602. Number of sheep, 469. Do. neat stock, 
580. Do. horses, 121. 

Groton, Grafton covinty. Bounded north by Went- 
wprth and Rumney, east by Hebron, south by Orange, and 
west by Dorchester. Area, 16,531 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 45 miles, north-west ; from Plymouth, 10, west. 
The northerly part is watered by Baker's River ; and the 
southerly has several small streams, which flow into New- 
found Lake. Spectacle Pond lies about a mile, north-east, 
from Groton meeting house. There are ten sawmills, two 
gristmills, besides shingle and clapboard machines; there 
is also one store, and one meeting house. The Unive1:salist 
society is the largest of the religious societies. This is a 
somewhat cold, though healthy, township. The surface is 
uneven, but the soil is strong. Corn and potatoes are the 
principal crops. This town was granted, July 8, 1761, to 
George Abbott and others, under the name of Cocker- 
mouth; afterwards regranted to Colonel John Hale and 
others. The first settlement was commenced in 1770 by 
James Gould, Captain E. Melvin, Jonas Hobart, Phinehas 
Bennet, and Samuel Farley. In 1779 a Congregational 
society was formed, and Rev. Samuel Perley was ordained. 
He was succeeded, in 1790, by Rev. Thomas Page. 

Population, 776. Number of legal voters in 1854, 180. 
Inventory, $176,936. Value of lands, $100,112. Num- 
ber of sheep, 1979. Do. neat stock, 1008. Do. horses, 

Hampsteat, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Sandown and Danville, east by Kingston and Plaistow, 
south by Plaistow and Atkinson, and west by Derry. Area, 


8350 acres. Distance from Concord, 30 miles, south-east; 
from Exeter, 12, south-west. This town lies partly on the 
height of land between Merrimack and Piscataqua Rivers. 
Most of the waters descend through Spiggot River, which 
flows from Wash Pond, near the centre of the to^vn. 
Angly Pond hes in the north-east part of the town, and 
is drained by the Powwow River. Island Pond contains a 
valuable farm of 300 acres. Hampstead is an irregular 
shaped town, its contour being varied by about 30 angles. 
The soil is haid and stony. The tract comprising this 
town was considered as a part of Haverhill and Amesbury, 
Massachusetts, until 1741. About 1728 Mr. Emerson 
made a settlement in the south part, near a brook ; and at 
that flme only a Mr. Ford and two Indians lived in the 
place. It was granted by Governor Penning Wentworth, 
January 19, 1749, and named by him after a pleasant vil- 
lage five miles north of London, in England. In the early 
settlement of the town a dispute arose between Kingston 
and Hampstead respecting certain grants made by Ames- 
buiy before the state line was established, which was settled 
by Hampstead papng £1000, old tenor. 

About 1750 a meeting house was erected, and Rev. 
Hemy True (Congregational) was ordained June 3, 1752 ; 
he was succeeded by the Rev. John Kelly in 1792. Hon. 
Jolin Calfe, for twenty-five years a justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and for the same number of years clerk of 
the House of Representatives, was a native of this town. 
There are eight common schools, one hotel, three stores, 
two blacksmith shops, four wheelwright shops, and one 
establishment for the manufacture of tools of various kinds. 
About 120 persons are engaged in making shoes. A lai-ge 
gristmill is in process of construction. 

Population, 789. Number of legal voters in 1854, 221 



Inventory, f 302,974. Value of lands, |207,819. Num- 
ber of sheep, 89. Do. neat stock, 480. Do. horses, 107. 

Hampton, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
North Hampton, east by the Atlantic, south by Hampton 
Falls, and west by Exeter. Area, 81^0 acres, 1800 of 
which are salt marsh, and 650 sand banks between the 
marsh and high-water mark of the ocean. Distance from 
Concord, 50 miles, south-east; from Exeter, 7, east. The 
surface is generally level, gradually descending towards the 
sea. The soil is excellent, well adapted to tillage and 
mowing, but there is not pasturage sufficient for grazing 
to any extent. It is pleasantly situated, its numerous 
eminences affording delightful views of the pcean. Isles of 
Shoals, and the sea coast from Portsmouth to Cape Ann. 
Hampton Beach has long been a celebrated resort for inva- 
lids and seekers of pleasure. There is an excellent hotel 
at this place for. the accommodation of visitors. Boar's Head 
is an abrupt eminence, of singular shape, which extends 
into the sea, and divides the two beaches, which otherwise 
would be continuous. At this point, a little distance from 
the shore, fishing is excellent, and cod are frequently taken 
in great abundance. Ship building is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent here. The Indian name of this town was 
Winnicummet. It was first settled, in 1638, by emigrants 
from the county of Norfolk, England. The first house 
was erected in 1636. Hampstead was incorporated in 
1638, and then included North Hampton, Hampton Falls, 
Kensington, and Seabrook. In the same year a Congrega- 
tional church was estabUshed here, which was the second in 
New Hampshire. The first pastor. Rev. Stephen Bachelor, 
was ordained 1638. A Baptist society was incorporated 
in 1817. During the early period of its settlement, Hamp- 


stead was the scene of Indian depredations. On tlie 1 1th 
of August, 1703, a paity of Indians killed five persons, 
among whom was a widow Mussey, celebrated as a preach- 
er among the Quakers. There is a fund here of $12,000, 
the interest of which is devoted to the support of a Con- 
gregational ministet. 

Population, 1197. Number of polls, 287. Inventory, 
$494,613. Value of lands, $362,070. Stock in trade, 
$6860. Number of sheep,. 384. Do. neat stock, 842. 
Do. horses, 143. 

Hampton Falls, Rockingham county. Bounded north 
by Hampton, east by the Atlantic, south by Seabrook, and 
west by Kensington and Exeter. Area, 7400 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 45 miles, south-east ; from Exeter, 7, 
east. The soil is similar to that of Hampton, of which it 
originally formed a part. It was incorporated in 1712, 
and the same year the Rev. Theophilus Cotton, the first 
minister, was ordained. There is also a Baptist and a 
Unitarian society here. 

Population, 640. Number of polls, 131. Inventory, 
$281,219. Value of lands, $187,690. Number of sheep, 
392. Do. neat stock, 854. Do. horses, 79. 

Hancock, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Antrim, east by Bennington and Greenfield, south by Pe- 
terborough, and west by Nelson. Area, 19,372 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 35 miles, south-west ;* from Am- 
herst, 22, north-west. The soil is various ; sandy, clayey, 
and rocky in the north and west, with fine meadows along 
the Contoocook River, which forms its eastern boun- 
dary. The west part of the town is mountainous, and 
affords excellent pasturing, besides some very good tillage. 



There are two ponds of considerable size — on«^ near the 
centre of the town, is called Norway Pond ; and the other, 
from its shape, is called Half Moon Pond. 

The meeting house is situated near the centre of the 
town, on a handsome plain, in a thriving and pleasant vil- 
lage. This meeting house was built in 1820, and the 
pews were sold in one day, at auction, for ^7000. The 
town bears little of the impress of change in opinions or 
customs. It is emphatically one of those good jald farming 
towns where any one would be proud to point out the 
home of his ancestors. The postmaster here has not been 
removed since his appointment forty-two years ago. The 
Congregational society has had but three ministers since 
its formation. Rev. Reed Page settled September 21, 
1791 ; Rev. Archibald Burgess in 1822 ; Rev. Asahel 
Bigelow in 1850. Hancock was incorporated November 
5, 1779. It was named in honor of Governor Hancock, 
of Boston, who was one of the original proprietors. The 
first settlement was begun in May, 1764, by John Grimes. 

Population, 1012. Number of polls, 199. Do. houses, 
212. Do. fiimilies, 226. Do. farms, 35. Value of lands, 
$241,660. Inventory, $387,130. Stock in trade; $5430. 
Number of sheep, 1112. Do. neat stock, 1390. Do. 
horses, 245. 

Hanover, Grafton county. Bounded north by Lyme, 
east by Canaan, south by Lebanon, and west by Norwich, 
Vermont. Area, 27,745 acres. Distance from Concord, 
52 miles, north ; from Haverhill, 30, south. There is in 
this town no considerable stream or river excepting the 
Connecticut. Mink Brook, Slate Brook, and Goose Pond 
Brook are the principal streams. Neither of these is suf- 
ficient for mill privileges. There are several small islands 


in Connecticut River within the Kmits of Hanover, the 
largest of which is Parker's Island, containing about 20 
acres. The original growth of wood is maple, beech, 
birch, ash, bass, hemlock, spruce, and pine. When the 
town was first settled the largest proportion of forest trees 
was hardwood. The surface of Hanover is agreeably 
di^•^rsified with hills and valleys, and nearly all is very 
easily cultivated. The proportion of waste land is prob- 
ably less thjn in any other town in Grafton county. Some 
of the farms are. under a high state of cultivation. The 
soil is generally fertile. MoQse IMountain is a considerable 
elevation, extending across the town from north to south, 
at a distance of about five miles from Connecticut River. 
The principal village is in the south-west corner of the 
town, on a beautiful and extensive plain, about half a 
mile from Connecticut River, and 180 feet above the level 
of its waters. Vegetable substances have been found, in 
diflFerent parts of this plain, 50 and 80 feet below the 
surface. The Common, or Park, is a square, level area of 
about six acres, shaded by rows of thrifty maples, and sur- 
rounded by .streets of considerable width. On the north 
side is the residence of the president of the College, the 
residence of the late Hon. Mills Olcott, and the meeting 
house and chapel ; on the west is a street containing many 
beautiful residences and gardens; on the south is Dart- 
mouth Hotel, several stores, and the Tontine, a brick build- 
ing 4 stories high and 150 feet in length, besides several 
dwelling houses j and on the east is the College Yard, a 
spacious ground, including the college buildings, which, 
with the Observatory, are five in number. On College 
Street, a few rods north from the Park, is the Medical 
Building, a brick structure some CO or 70 feet in length 
and 3 stories in height. The College and Medical Build- 


ings are spacious, convenient, and present a handsome and 
imposing appearance. 

This is one of the most desirable locations for the prose- 
cution of study in New England. The uniform tempera- 
ture of the climate, the pleasantness of the village, the 
healthiness of the situation, the beautiful and romantic 
scenery, the quiet which generally prevails, the seclusion 
from the bustle and confusion of city life, the many pleas- 
ant resorts, — all contribute to render it, in ever^ essen- 
tial, a seat of literature and science. Pine Grove, and 
the charming view from it of the majestic Connecticut, 
gliding its waters in placid stillness by verdant meadows 
and well-cultivated fields, and the gradually rising Green 
Hills of Vermont seen in the distance, furnish a picture not 
soon forgotten by those who have frequented the spot. 
For a more particular description of the College, see an- 
other part of tliis volume. 

Hanover was granted by charter, July 4, 1761, to 11 
pel-sons of the name of Freeman, and 52 others, princi- 
pally from Connecticut. The first settlement was made in 
May, 1765, by Colonel Edmund Freeman, from INIansfield, 
Connecticut. In 1766 Benjamin Rice, Benjamin Davis, 
Gideon Smith, and Asa Parker settled here. In 1770 
Dartmouth College was established by Dr. Whcelock. 
The Congregational church was organized in 1771. The 
first settled minister was Rev. Eden Boroughs, Avho was 
installed in 1772. There is a Baptist society and also an 
Episcopal chiu'ch here. 

Population, 2352. Number of polls, 451. Inventory, 
$698,996. Value of lands, |456,164. Stock in trade, 
$15,015. Money on deposit, &c., $33,125. Value of 
shares in corporations, $10,150. Number of sheep, 
12,168. Do. neat stock, 1526. Do. horses and mules, 


Haverhill, Grafton county. Bounded north by Bath, 
east by Benton, south by Piermont, and west by Newbury, 
Vermont. Area, 34,340 acres. Distance from Concord, 
70 miles, north-west. This is one of the shire towns of 
Grafton county. It is watered by OHverian Brook, run- 
ning through its southern part and discharging into Con- 
necticut River, and by Hazen Brook, running through the 
centre of the town and falling into the Connecticut near 
the "6rreat Ox Bow" in Newbury. This is a pleasant 
township. The soil is various, adapted to every species 
of cultivation common to the climate. There is consider- 
able interval, covered with a deep, rich loam. The plain 
at Haverhill Corner, which is the principal village, is 
covered mostly with alluvial soil. There is a beautiful 
Common in this village, laid out in the form of an oblong 
square, ornamented with trees, and enclosed by a hand- 
some fence. Around the Common stand the buildings, 
several of which, besides the meeting house, academy, and 
hotel, are large and well constructed. The location is a 
delightful elevation, overlooking the adjacent country for 
many miles in extent. From the street the ground slopes 
gracefully towards the river until it reaches the intervals. 
The county buildings are of brick, and, though not ex- 
pensively constructed, are neat and commodious. 

Haverhill is a thriving town. Its progress was con- 
siderably retarded by an extensive fire some years since, 
which consumed several buildings, besides other property 
of large amount. 

Granite in tabular sheets, of excellent quality and easily 
wrought, is found in great abundance on Catamount Hill. 
Veins of copper and iron pyrites, sulphurets of lead and 
zinc, arsenic, large crystals of garnet, and talc, or soapstone, 
are found here in several localities. About six miles 


north-easterly from the \'illage, on the west side of Black 
Mountain, is a bed of limestone of great dimensions. It 
is of a pure white color, and highly crystallized. It is of 
inestimable value. Bog iron ore of a superior quality ex- 
ists here. The Passumpsic Railroad passes along the 
western border of the town ; and the Boston, Concord, and 
Montreal Railroad passes through in a direction nearly 
north-west and south-east. The Haverhill Academy was 
incorporated February 11, 1794. This town was granted. 
May 18, 1764, to John Hazen aiid 74 others. The first 
settlement was made in the same year by Mr. Hazen, who 
built his encampment on the " Little Ox Bow," near a 
spot where formerly there had been an Indian fort and 
burying ground, from whence numerous skulls and relics 
of the aborigines have been taken. Several of the early 
settlers were from Haverhill, Massachusetts, from which 
place this town derived its name. Its original name was 
Lower Cohos. The first court was held here in 1773. 
The first minister was Rev. Peter Powers, the first male 
child born in Hollis, who was settled over Haverhill and 
Newbury, Vermont, in 1765 ; dismissed in 1784. The 
First Congregational church was organized in 1790. Rev. 
Ethan Smith was ordained January 25, 1792 ; dismissed 
in 1799. Rev. John Smith was ordained December 23, 
1802 ; dismissed in 1807. The first newspaper was 
printed here April 21, 1808, and was called the Coos 
Courier. It has been pubhshed under different names. At 
present its title is the Democratic Republican. Hon. John 
Page, former governor of New Hampshire, a worthy and 
useful man, is a citizen of this town. The late Hon. 
Joseph Bell, a distinguished lawyer, who by his industry 
and abihty amassed a large property, was for many years 
a resident of Haverhill ; and here was the scene of his 
poverty, his labors, and success. 


Population, 2405. Number of polls, 569. Inventory, 
$699,442. Value of lands, |392,091. Stock in trade, 
$14,600. Number of sheep, 5631. Do. neat stock, 2069. 
Do. horses, 603. 

Hebron, Grafton county. Bounded north by Plymouth 
and Rumney, east by Plymouth, south by Orange, and west 
by Groton. Area, 13,350 acres, 1670 of which are cov- 
ered with water. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, north ; 
from Plymouth, 9, west. Newfound Lake lies mostly in this 
tpwn. There are no streams of importance. The people 
are generally engaged in agricultural pursuits ; and although 
the surface is in some parts rough and the soil hard, yet, 
by skill and industry, excellent wheat and potatoes are 
raised in considerable quantities. A large portion of He- 
bron was included in the grant of Hebron under the name 
of Cockermouth. The remainder was taken from Plym- 
outh. It was incorporated June 15, 1792. There is an 
academy, which is open during the spring and fall. There 
are two religious societies — one Congregational and one 

Population, 565. Number of polls, 107. Inventory, 
$122,659. Value of lands, $71,695. Stock in trade, 
$2700. Number of sheep, 1697. Do. neat stock, 564. 
Do. horses, 61. 

Henniker, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Bradford and Warner, east by Hopkinton, south by Weare 
and Deering, and west by Hillsborough. Area, 26,500 
acres. Distance from Concord, 15 miles, west. Contoo- 
cook River passes easterly through the centre of the town. 
Its course is winding, and in many places presents scenes 
of beauty and interest. There are several ponds of con- 


siderable size. Long Pond, nearly two miles in length 
and about sixty rods in width, is situated about one mile 
north of the centre village. Craney Hill is the principal 
elevation, and includes a large trad#on the south side of 
the town. It is mostly under high cultivation. In its soil 
and productions, Henniker is inferior to no town in the 
county. The hills yield good wheat in large quantities, 
and the valleys are suitable for corn and grass ; besides, its 
water privileges are numerous and excellent. The River 
Railroad connects this place with Manchester. A woollen 
factory, where cassimeres, doeskins, tweeds, and satinets are 
manufactured to the yearly amount of 120,000 yards, is in 
successful operation. Name of company, Imri Woods & 
Sons. Agent, Imri Woods. Cost of buildings and ma- 
chinery, $6000. Number of hands employed, 12. There 
are, besides, several other mills, doing business on a mod- 
erate scale. The inhabitants are chiefly devoted to agri- 
culture. Henniker was granted, July 16, 1752, by the 
Masonian proprietors, under the name of Number Six, 
to James Wallace, Robert Wallace, and others. James 
Peters was the first settler, who erected a log hut here in 
1761. It was incorporated November 10, 1768, and re- 
ceived its name in honor of John Henniker, Esq., a 
wealthy merchant of London, and a friend of Governor 
Wentworth, and who was also a member of the British 
Parliament at that time. The Congregational church was 
established here, June 7, 1769, under the charge of Rey. 
Jacob Rice. Hon. Robert Wallace, who filled the various 
offices of councillor, senator, representative, and associate 
justice of the Common Pleas, was one of the earliest set- 
tlers in this to^^^l. 

Population, 1690. Number of polls, 373. Inventory, 


$601,434 Value of lands, $409,000. Stock in trade, 
$6580. Number of sheep, 1724. Do. neat stock, 2037. 
Do. horses, 327. 

Hill, Grafton county. Bounded north by Danbury, 
Alexandria, and Bristol, east by New Hampton and Sanborn- 
ton, south by Franklin and Andover, and west by Wilmot 
and Danbury. Area, about 20,000 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 24 miles, north ; from Haverhill, 44, south-east ; 
from Plymouth, 16, south. It is watered by Pemigewasset 
and Blackwater Rivers, besides several small streams. Eagle 
Pond is the only body of water of note. Ragged Moun- 
tain is a rugged elevation, but little inferior to Kearsarge 
in height. Looking from the summit of the surrounding 
hills, the surface of this town appears to be much broken 
and uneven ; still there arc many highly- cultivated farms. 
The soil is generally good, in some parts very fertile. 
Farming is almost the only employment. Trade, manu- 
facturing, and the mechanic arts are carried on to a very 
limited extent. Hill was granted, September 14, 1753, to 
87 proprietors, who held their first meeting in Chester ; 
and as the greater part were from that place, the new town 
was called New Chester until January, 1837, wh,en it re- 
ceived its present name. The first settlement was made, in 
1768, by Captain Cutting Favor and Carr Huse, Esq. It 
was incorporated November 20, 1778. The Congrega- 
tional society was incorporated December 11, 1816. At 
present there is one Calvinist Baptist society, one Chiistian 
Baptist, and one Methodist. 

Population, 951. Number of polls, 225. Inventory, 
$262,305. Value of lands, $151,065. Stock in trade, 
$3300. Number of sheep, 1532. Do. neat stock, 945. 
Do. horses, 145. 


Hillsborough, Hillsborough county. Bounded north 
by Bradford, east by Henniker, south by Deering and 
Antrim, and west by "Windsor and Washington. Area, 
27,320 acres. Distance from Concord, 30 miles, south- 
west ; from Amherst, 23 miles, north-west. This town is 
well Avatered. Hillsborough and Contoocook Rivers are 
the principal streams. The largest b(?dy of water is Lyon's 
Pond — about one mile in length, and two thirds of a mile 
in width. The surface is very uneven and rocky ; the soil 
is strong and productive. Plumbago is found here in a 
state of extraordinary purity. It occurs in narrow veins, 
which are wrought to a considerable extent. There are four 
meeting houses, five religious societies, sixteen stores, eight 
saAV and gristmills, three hotels, seven blacksmith shops, 
one iron foundery, five tanneries, eight Avheelwright and 
furniture shops, two sash and blind factories, one bobbin 
factory, tAvo harness makers' shops, two clothing stores, 
and one cotton factory. 

In the cotton factory about 20 hands are employed. 
The goods manuflictured consist mostly of yarn and tAvine. 
The village, and in fact the Avhole town, presents a picture 
of thrift and industry seldom equalled. Idleness finds but 
few patrons, contentment many. The two extremes of 
society so often to be observed elsewhere are not to be met 
with here. An elevated spirit seems to pervade the Avhole 
community, Avhich bespeaks not only intelligence, but also 
a high sense of honor and integrity. Hillsborough Avas 
formerly designated as Number Seven of the frontier towns. 
The first settlement Avas made in 1741, by James McCalley, 
Samuel Gibson, Robert McClure, James Lyon, and others. 
The wife of James McCalley Avas the only woman in town 
during the first year of the settlement. When the Cape 


Breton war broke out, in 1744, the settlement was aban- 
doned, and was not resumed until near 1757. In the^ 
mean time the town was granted, by the Masonian pro- 
prietors, to Colonel John Hill, of Boston, from whom it 
received its present name. It was incorporated Novem- 
ber 14, 1772. The Congregational church was organized 
October 12, 1769. In November of the same year Rev. 
Jonathan Barns was ordained. There are now two re- 
ligious societies of that denomination. A Baptist society 
was organized May 21, 1813. There is also a Methodist 
and a Universalist society, neither of which, however, has reg- 
ular preaching. To the town of Hillsborough is conceded 
an additional importance from the fact that, at the present 
time, one of her sons occupies the high position of chief 
magistrate of the United States, while another holds the 
office of governor of New Hampshire. The old farm house 
where President Pierce was born is situated on the old 
turnpike leading from Francestown through Hillsborough 
Upper Village, near the terminus of the Contoocook Val- 
ley Railroad. The old horse shed, in one end of Avhich a 
room was finished for a law office, where the future presi- 
dent first " set up in business," is yet standing, and shows 
from what humble stations the path of honor often starts. 

The birthplace of Governor Baker, like that of most of 
his predecessors, was a lowly farm, house, where green 
fields and growing crops constituted the show of splendor, 
and honest toil was the passport to promotion. 

Population, 1685. Ratable polls, 466. Legal voters, 
423. Number of houses, 363. Families, 320. Farms, 
200. Inventory, $rj()l,U)',]. Value of lands, $351,443. 
Stock in trade, $9075. Factories, $3200. Number of 
sheep, 1353. Do. neat stock, 2120. Do. horses and 
mules, 337. 


Hinsdale, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Ches- 
. terfield, east by Winchester, south by Northfield, Massa- 
chusetts, and Avest by Vernon, Vermont. Area, 14,000 
acres. Distance from Concord, 75 miles, south-west ; 
from Keene, 15, south-west. It is well watered with 
numerous sprin2[s and streamlets. Connecticut River 
laves its western border for a distance of nine and a half 
miles. The Ashuelot River passes through the principal 
village, and discharges into the Connecticut a short distance 
below the great bend called Cooper's Point. There are 
numerous excellent water jDrivileges on the Ashuelot. 
There are several islands in the Connecticut belonging to 
this tOAvn. On the north line of the town is West River 
Mountain, which extends from the bank of the Connecti- 
cut, in an easterly direction, across the entire width of the 
town. The highest peak is called ]Mine Mountain, and is 
about 900 feet above low-water mark. In several localities 
about this mountain are found iron ore, beds of silicate of 
manganese, and other minerals. Several years since there 
were signs of a volcanic eruption in this mountain, attend- 
ed by a discharge of a molten substance resembling lava. 
The intervals here are extensive and fertile. Stebbin's 
Hill is a large swell of land, under high cultivation. Be- 
tween the intervals and hills is a large tract of table land, 
well adapted to the growth of corn and rye. On the point 
of a hill not far from Connecticut River are still to be 
seen remains of an Indian fortification. Tradition, only, 
gives any account, and that uncertain, of this ancient 
structure. This region was evidently a favorite resort of 
the sons of the forest. In its early period this town was 
subjected to the dangers, privations, and depredations of 
Indian wars. The settlers were protected by Fort Dum- 
mer, Hinsdale's Fort, Shattuck's Fort, and Bridgman's 


Fort ; but, not^yithstanding, they were ineffectually shield- 
ed from the hostile incursions of the savages. On the 24th 
of June, 1746, a party of twenty Indians suddenly appeared 
before the last-mentioned fort, and attacked with great fury 
a number of men Avho were at work in a meadow. Three 
persons were killed, two were wounded, and two were 
taken prisoners. One of the captives, Daniel How, in the 
struggle killed one of the Indians. In 1747 they de- 
stroyed Bridgman's Fort, killed several persons, and cap- 
tured others. In October of the same year one Jonathan 
Sawtell was taken prisoner. On the 3d of July they 
made an attack upon a gristmill, whither Colonel Willard, 
with a guard of twenty men, had gone for the purpose of 
grinding corn. Soon after he had stationed his guards the 
enemy commenced firing. The colonel gave such loud 
and repeated orders to make preparations for an onset upon 
the Indians, besides placing several old hats upon sticks, 
and raising them, as if platforms being erected for firing 
within the yard, that they fled with great precipitation, 
leaving behind their packs and provisions. June 16, 1748, 
while crossing from Colonel Hinsdale's to Fort Dummer, 
three persons — Nathan French, Joseph Richardson, and 
John Frost — were killed, and seven others were captured, 
one of whom soon afterwards died of his woimds. In 
1755 they attacked a party at work in the woods, killed 
two persons, and took Jonathan Colby prisoner. In July 
of the same year they killed in ambush Caleb Howe, Hil- 
kiah Grout, and Benjamin Gaffield, as they were returning 
from labor in the field. The Congregational church was 
organized here in 1763. The Ikptist church was formed 
in 1808. There are at this time two churches, in addition to 
those already mentioned — namely, one Methodist and one 
Universalist. There are also two hotels, four stores, with 


an aggregate capital of $12,200; two woollen factories, 
both of which manufacture cashmeretts, one employing 45 
hands, with a capital of $50,000, the other employing 17 
hands, with a capital of $20,000 ; two machine shops, 
with an aggregate capital of $22,000 ; number of hands 
employed in both, 23 ; one paper mill, capital, $20,000, 
number of hands employed, 12 ; one foundery, capital, 
$4000, number of hands employed, 5 ; one tannery, capi- 
tal, $8000, number of hands, 5 ; one edge tool manufac- 
tory, capital, $10,000, number of hands, 15 ; one bobbin 
and spool factory, capital, $5000, number of hands, 9 ; 
one pail factory, capital, $6000, number of hands, 10 ; 
one door, sash, and blind factory, capital, $6000, number 
of hands, 10. 

Population, 1903. Number of legal voters in 1854, 292. 
Inventory, $432,202. Value of lands, $263,587. Stock 
in trade, $14,500. Number of sheep, 289. Do. neat 
stock, 671. Do. horses and mules, 155. 

HoLDERNESS, Grafton county. Bounded north by Camp- 
ton, east by Sandwich, IMoultonborough, and Centre Har- 
bor, south by Centre Harbor and New Hampton, and west 
by Bridgewater and Plymouth. Area, 24,921 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 40 miles, north by Boston, Concord, 
and Montreal Railroad ; from Plymouth, 6, east. The 
soil is hard, and hot easily tilled, but, when carefully cul- 
tivated, produces tolerably well. The Pemigewasset and 
Squam Rivers run through this town, and afford several 
good water privileges. A portion of Squam Lake lies 
along its southeasterly borders. Squam Pond, lying wholly 
in Holderness, is two miles long and half a mile wide. 
There are several large paper and straw board manufacto- 
ries in this town ; also a woollen factory. The route from 


Plymouth through this place to Centre Harbor is delight- 
ful, affording views wild, romantic, and beautiful. 

IJolderness was first granted, October 10, 1751, to John 
Shepard and others ; but the conditions of the charter not 
being complied with by the grantees, it was forfeited. It 
was regranted, October 2-1, 1761, to John Wentworth and 
67 others. The first settlement was made, in 1763, by 
William Piper. An Episcopal church was established 
here about 1770 There is also a Freewill Baptist and a 
Methodist society here. Hon. Samuel Livermore settled 
in this town in 1765. He was one of the grantees, and, 
by purchase, became proprietor of about one half of the 
township. He was a graduate of Princeton College ; in 
1769 was appointed the king's attorney general; was a 
delegate to the old Congress ; in 1782 was appointed chief 
justice of the Superior Court of New Hampshire ; and 
fi:om 1792 to 1802 he was United States senator. 

Population, 1744. Number of polls, 404. Inventory, 
$444,258. Value of lands, $257,866. Stock in trade, 
$6860. Value of mills, &c., $15,500. Number of sheep, 
1321. Do. neat stock, 1530. Do. horses, 242. 

HoLLis, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by Mil- 
ford, Amherst, and Merrimack, east by Merrimack and 
Nashua, south by Dunstable and Pepperell, Massachusetts, 
and west by Brookline. Area, 19,620 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 36 miles, south ; from Amherst, 8, south. 
Nashua River waters the south-east part, and the Nisitissit 
crosses the south-western extremity. Here are four ponds 
and several small streams. The soil is various. On the 
Nashua are some excellent tracts of interval. The uplands 
are moderately fertile. Near the centre of the town, on a 
somewhat elevated site, is a pleasant and thriving village. 


There are two meeting houses — one belonging to the 
Congregational society, and one to the Baptist. There are 
also two stores, four carpenters' shops, cloven saw and 
gristmills, five blacksmiths' shops, three wheelwrights, 
and sixteen coopers' shops. The original name of Hollis 
was Nisitissit ; it was afterwards called the West Parish of 
Dunstable. The first settlement was made, in 1731, by 
Peter Powers. His son, Peter Powers, was the first child 
born in town. This town was incoi-porated April 3, 1746. 
It received its name from the Duke of Newcastle, whose 
name was Hollis. The Congregational church was organ- 
ized in 1743. 

Population, 1293. Number of polls, 330. Inventory, 
$597,993. Value of lands, $370,432. Stock in trade, 
$7118. Number of sheep, 320. Do. neat stock, 1304. 
Do. horses, 219. 

HooKSETT, Merrimack county. Bounded north by Bow, 
Pembroke, and AUenstown, east by Candia and Auburn, 
south by Manchester and Goffstown, and west by GofFstown, 
Dunbarton, and Bow. Distance from Concord, 9 miles, 
south. It is situated on both sides of the Merrimack 
River. Near the centre of the town are the falls known 
by the name of Isle of Hooksett Falls. The descent of the 
water here is 16 feet in a distance of 30 rods. Prom Pin- 
nacle ISlountain, an eminence a short distance westerly, the 
view of the river above and below the fiills, the cultivated 
fields, and far-off hills furnish a view truly picturesque. 
The surface is diversified'with hill and valley. The soil 
is not generally of the most fertile character, though there 
are some excellent farms. Pinnacle Mountain consists of 
an immense mass of broken rocks, rising abruptly to the 
height of 200 feet from its base, covered with scattering 


trees and bushes. At the foot of the mountain, and on its 
western side, is a beautiful pond of water, of a bright- 
greenish tinge, remarkably clear, and of great depth. It 
has no visible outlet, and is supposed to have been the bed 
of the mountain, from which the latter, by some violent 
convulsion of Nature, was upturned. Fine specimens of 
lead and silver ore have recently been discovered here. A 
company has recently been formed for the purpose of 
working the mines, with a fair prospect of success. Hook- 
sett is noted for its numerous beds of valuable brick clay. 
There are seven brickmaking establishments here in vigor- 
ous operation ; about 125 hands are employed, and several 
million of bricks are annually made. There are in this 
town two meeting houses, — one belonging to the Congre- 
gational, and the other to the Methodist society, — two 
hotels, four stores, and one large cotton factory, in which 
170 hands are employed, which is the property of the 
Amoskeag Company at Manchester. It was taken from 
Chester, Goffstown, and Dunbarton, and incorporated July 
3, 1822. 

Population in 1854, about 1600. Legal voters, 300. 
Number of school houses, 9. Inventory, $483,117. 
Value of lands, $287,084. Do. mills, factories, &c., 
$49,900. Stock in trade, .$36,780. Number of sheep, 
342. Do. neat stock, 529. Do. horses, 151. 

HoPKiNTON, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Warner and Boscawcn, east by Concord, south by Bow, 
Dunbarton, and Weare, and w*est by Henniker. Area, 
26,967 acres. Distance from Concord, 7 miles, west. 
Contoocook River winds through' this town in a north-east- 
erly direction, and falls into the Merrimack in Concord, 
in its course it receives the waters of Blackwater and 


Warner Rivers, besides several small streams. The inter- 
val and meadow lands along these streams are valuable on 
account of their fertility. The village is pleasantly situated 
on a gentle eminence, about seven miles from the State 
House in Concord. This is a good agricultural town, and 
is somewhat noted for its delicious fruit. Large quanti- 
ties of lumber are manufactured here, and transported on 
the railroads to various markets. There are six religious 
societies — one Episcopal, one Congregational, one Bap- 
tist, one Freewill Baptist, one Univcrsalist, and one New 
Jerusalem, or Swedcnborgian ; nine stores ; one woollen 
factory, with a capital of $7000, and employing twelve 
hands ; one tannery and curriers' shop, with a capital of 
$6000 ; and nine sawmills. Contoocookville, the junction 
of the Merrimack and Connecticut River Railroad and the 
Contoocook Valley Railroad, is an active and thriving vil- 
lage. Hopkinton was granted by ISIassachusetts, January 
16, 1735, to John Jones and others, and was called Num- 
ber Five, afterwards New Hopkinton. The first settlement 
was in 1740. When the French and Indian war broke 
out the inhabitants were compelled to leave, and did not 
return until the war had closed. The inhabitants suffered 
considerably from Indian depredations. On the 22d of 
April, 174G, six Indians broke into a garrison and took 
eight persons while in their beds, and hurried them away. 
On the loth of April, 1753, while Abraham Kimball, the 
first male child born in town, was going from Kimball's 
Garrison to Putney's, he was seized by the Indians, who 
took at the same time Samuel Putney. On the third day 
after the capture, while the Indians were on the hills west 
of Boscawen plains, they were so unexpectedly attacked 
by some of the inhabitants of Boscawen that they fled, 
leaving Putney behind. Kimball escaped by the help of a 


dog, which seized an Indian while in the act of drawing 
his tomahawk to kill him. In 1756 Henry IMiller and 
others received a grant of Ilopkinton, which was the occa- 
sion of long and bitter disputes. The difficulties were, 
however, settled by an act of incorporation granted Janu- 
arv 11, 1765. The Congregational society was organized 
November 23, 1757. The Baptist society was formed 
May 8, 1771. The Episcopal society was established, 
under the name of Christ's Church, in 1803. 

Population, 2169. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
594. Inventory, $532,505. Value of lands, $402,2 li. 
Stock in trade, $8205. Value of mills, &c., $9070. 
Number of sheep, 2657. Do. neat stock, 2103. Do. 
horses, 332. 

Hudson, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by Litch- 
field and Londonderry, east by Windham and Pelham, 
south by Tyngsborough, Massachusetts, and west by 
Nashua. Area, 17,379 acres. Distance from Concord, 
38 miles, south ; from Amherst, 17, south-east. The land 
is of easy culture, consisting of a rich sandy loam. On 
the river are large intervals of a deep and fertile soil. 
Distant from the river the surface is hilly and uneven. 
There are two ponds, — the Little Massabesick and Otter- 
nick, — both covering about 300 acres. There are three 
religious societies — the Congregational, established No- 
vember 30, 1737; the Baptist, formed in 1805; and a 
Methodist. There are two saw and two gristmills, one 
store, two blacksmiths' shops, and one plane manufactory. 
This town was included in the grant of Dunstable, now 
Nashua, and was settled in 1710. It was incorporated as 
a separate town, July 5, 1746, under the name of Not- 
tingham West, which it retained until 1830. The first 


settlements were made on the banks of the river, where 
the Indians had made cleai'ings for the cultivation of corn. 
The first inhabitants lived in garrisons. A few Indians 
lingered in the vicinity for a short time after the settlements 
began, and, in times of peace, jnade frequent visits here, 
representing that it was once a favorite resort to them and 
their ancestors. Near the old Indian cornfields have been 
found cinders like those produced in blacksmiths' Avork. 

Population, 1312. Number of polls, 269. Houses, 
238. Families, 284. Farms, 153. Inventory, $437,060. 
Value of lands, .$280,043. Stock in trade, $6104. Num- 
ber of sheep, 333. Do. neat stock, 973. Do. horses, 176. 

Jackson, Carroll county. Bounded north and Avest by 
Pinkham's Grant, east by Chatham, and south by Bartlett. 
Area, about 31,908 acres. Distance from Concord, 90 
miles, north. The surface is uneven and rocky ; the soil 
generally rich and productive. Ellis River is the most 
important stream. There are several brooks and rivulets 
in various parts of the town. The principal elevations are 
Double Head, Thorn, Bleak, and Baldface Mountains. 
The latter is situated on the line between this town and 
Bartlett. On this mountain iron ore, of a quality une- 
qualled in this country, exists in inexhaustible quantities. 
Veins of tin ore, of rich quality, and apparently of con- 
siderable extent, were discovered by Dr. Jackson, state 
geologist, on the same mountain. This is considered as 
the first vein of this kind of metal that has been discovered 
in the United States. The ore yields from 30 to 50 per 
cent, of pure tin. Arsenical pyrites are found in several 
localities. Limestone is abundant. Agriculture is the 
chief employment. There is a small fund, the interest of 
which, amounting to $400, is appropriated in equal per- 


tions for the support of the gospel and common schools. 
There are two meeting houses, two stores, and one tavern. 
A Freewill Baptist society was formed here in 1803. This 
town was first settled, in 1779, by Benjamin Copp, who, 
with his family, endured the solitude of the Avilderness 14 
years before any other person settled here. It was incor- 
porated, December 4, 1800, under the name of Adams. At 
the request of the inhabitants, its name was changed to 
Jackson in 1828. 

Population in 1854, about 600. Inventory, $112,888. 
Value of lands, $40,778. Stock in trade, $700. Num- 
ber of sheep, 885. Do. neat stock, 771, Do. horses, 81. 
Number of polls, 119. 

Jaffrey, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Dublin, 
east by Peterborough and Sharon, south by Rindge and 
Fitzwilliam, and west by Troy and Marlborough. Area, 
25,600 acres. Distance from Concord, 46 miles, south-west ; 
from Keenc, 15, south-east. Monadnock Mountain lies most- 
ly in this town. Near the summit, which is about 300 feet 
above its base, only a few dwarfish shrubs grow in the crevices 
of the rocks. Its sides are covered with blueberry, which af- 
ford an abundance of delicious fruit. There are several caves 
in various parts of this mountain, which seem to have been 
formed by large fissures made by extensive strata thrown 
from their primitive position. Several streams issue from 
its sides, the largest of which rises about 100 rods from its 
summit, and forms the principal source of the Contoocook 
River. About one and a half miles from the mountain, in 
a south-easterly direction, is Monadnock Mineral Spring ; 
the waters are slightly impregnated with carbonate of iron 
and sulphuret of soda. Where it issues from the earth, 
yellow ochre collects in considerable quantities. So even 



is the temperature of the water that it has never been seen 
frozen over. It is not affected by drought or heavy rains. 

There are four meeting houses — two Congregational, 
one Baptist, and one UniversaHst ; one academy, with a 
small fund, the interest of which is applied to the purchase 
of apparatus ; four stores ; one hotel ; five saw and three 
gristmills ; two cotton factories, capital ^20,000, number 
of hands employed 80 ; A. Bascom & Co. proprietors ; 
one carding machine ; two wooden ware shops, employing 
10 hands ; and two tanneries. The Monadnock Bank has a 
capital of $50,000. The proprietors of the Mason title 
granted this town, in 1749, to 40 persons. The first set- 
tlement was made, in 1758, by one Grout and John Davi- 
son. It was uicorporated in 1773, and received its name 
from George Jaffrey, Esq., of Portsmouth. Its former 
name was Middle Monadnock, or Number Two. The 
Congregational church was formed in 1780. 

Population, 1497. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
330. Do. common schools, 13. Inventory, $574,542. 
Value of lands, $325,304. Stock in trade, $8094. Value 
of mills, factories, i&c, $22,738. Number of sheep, 1349. 
Do. neat stock, 1514. Do. horses, 254. 

Jefferson, Coos county. Bounded north by Lancaster, 
east by Kilkenny, south by White Mountain region and 
Carroll, and west by Whitefield. Area, 26,076 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 98 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 
10, south-east. The surface is rough and uneven. On 
the south-west side of Pliny Mountain are several excellent 
farms of a rich and productive soil, which command an 
extensive and beautiful view of the White Mountains. At 
its base is fine grazing and tillage land. The western por- 
tion of the town is low, wet, and cold. Cherry and Safety 



Ponds are the largest bodies of water. Israel's River is 
the only stream of note. There are two stores, two meet- 
ing houses, — one Baptist and one Methodist, — two starch 
mills, and eight common schools. It was granted, under 
the name of Dartmouth, October 3, 1765, to Colonel John 
GofFe, and regranted, June 26, 1772, to March H. Went- 
worth and others. It was first settled by Colonel Joseph 
"Whipple, Samuel Hart, and others, about 1773. It was 
incorporated December 8, 1796. During the war of the 
revolution Colonel Whipple was captured here in his 
house by a party of Indians, headed by a white man. By 
stratagem he succeeded in making his escape. The party 
plundered the house and retired. 

Population, 629. Number of legal voters in 1854, 170. 
Inventory, $131,672. Value of lands, .$54,410. Num- 
ber of sheep, 662. Do. neat stock, 680. Do. horses, 

Keene, shire town of Cheshire county. Bounded north 
by Westmoreland, Surrey, and Gilsum, east by Sullivan 
and Roxbury, south by Swanzey, and west by Chesterfield 
and Westmoreland. Area, about 22,040 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 55 miles, south-west. The surface is gen- 
erally level or moderately swelling. The soil consists of 
three varieties — viz., interval, light, sandy plain, and up- 
land. The latter includes the outskirts of the town, 
bovmdlng on the east, west, and north ; the flat, or valley, 
consisting of the first and second varieties. The valley is 
separated into two nearly equal portions by the Ashuelot 
River, and from the unusual extent of level surface which 
it presents, variegated by cultivation, affords a pleasing 
prospect to the traveller. The Ashuelot River has its 
source in a pond in Washington. 


Keene is pronounced by Dr. Dwight. in his travels, one 
of the pleasantest inland towns he had ever visited. The 
principal village is s^ituated on an extensive plain, about 
midway from the Ashuelot on the west, and the uplands 
on the east. The width and uniform level of its streets, 
the beautiful shade trees, behind which many splendid 
residences and beautiful gardens are seen, its large and 
well-constructed hotels, its handsome stores, and general 
thrifty appearance render it both pleasant and attractive. 
The main street extends one mile in length in a straight 
line, and is of uniform width, and almost a perfect level. 
Keene is a place of large business. Its facilities for trade, 
owing, in a great measure, to its location in relation to the 
adjacent toM-ns, are numerous, and secure to its mercantile 
interests valuable advantages. What can be said of but 
few country villages may with truth be said of this — viz., 
that its business has been directly benefited and perma- 
nently increased by the railroad enterprise. 

There are three large and commodious hotels. The 
Cheshire House is a noble structure, its rooms airy and 
convenient, and the internal arrangements are in full 
keeping Avith the inviting appearance of its external form. 
The Emerald House and the Eagle are pleasant hotels, 
and each affords a comfortable home for the traveller. 
The Town Hall is a large and handsome edifice of impos- 
ing structure. The office of the Ashuelot Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company is in this village. 

Manufactories. — A. Davis & Co., iron foundery. Cap- 
ital, $6000. Business per iinnum, $10,000. Employ 12 
hands. '* 

J. M. Reed, manufacturer of patent jack screws and 
boot forms. The screw is used for raising buildings and 
other heavy burdens. One turn of this screw performs 


the same amount of labor that two will in others. Capital, 
12000. Hands employed, 10. 

Falkner & Colony, manufacturers of flannels. Capital 
iiivested, $50,000. Employ 40 hands. $100,000 worth 
are manufactured per annum ; also $6000 worth of lum- 

William S. Briggs (successor to Eliphalet Briggs, who 
carried on the business of cabinet making for 40 years) 
manufactures all kinds of cabinet M'ork. ' 

S. D. Osbum also manufactures cabinet work. 

The Cheshire Railroad Company have a large repair 
shop here, where about 25 hands are employed. 

There is in operation a large sash and blind manufac- 
tory, driven by a 25 horse power engine. 

Foster & Felt, manufacturers of organs, jEolian sera- 
phines, Woodward & Brown's piano fortes, &c., employ 
from 8 to 12 hands. 

H. Pond & Co., hat and cap manufacturers, employ 12 
hands, have several branch stores in this and adjoining 
states, and are doing an extensive business. 

There are two large establishments for the manufacture 
of clothing. 

South Keene. — J. A. Fay & Co., manufacturers of 
planing, mortising, tenanting, sash, sticking, moulding, 
and various other machines ; also an iron foundery con- 
nected. Amount of capital, $40,000. Amount of busi- 
ness, $50,000. Number of hands employed, 50. Build- 
ing, 160 by 40 feet, wood, two stories high, with an ell, 55 
by 30 feet, two stories high, separate from the same, and a 
forge shop and iron foundery building. 

There are two banks — the Ashuclot, with a capital of 
$100,000 ; and the Cheshire Bank, with a capital of $100,- 
000. Also one Savings Bank. 


There arc four meeting houses — one Congregational, 
one Unitariarf, one "Baptist, and one Methodist. The 
Congregational church was organized October 18;, 1738. 
Since that time it has had only six different ministers. 
The present pastor, lie v. Zedekiah S. Barstow, D. D., was 
ordained July 1, 1818. The Baptist church was formed 
in 1816, with Rev. Ferris Moore as pastor. The Uni- 
tarian church was organized on the 18tli of March, 1824. 
This town is divided into 14 school districts. Number* 
1, 2, 10, and the centre districts have united under the 
Somersworth Act, which provides for a graduated system, 
by which the pupil ascends from the simplest rudiments to 
those higher branches usually taught in academies. For 
an historical account of the newspapers published in this 
town the reader is referred to another part of this volume, 
under the appropriate head. Keene was originally granted 
by Massachusetts. Its first settlement began about the 
year 1734, by Jeremiah Hall, Elisha Root, Nathaniel 
Rockwood, Setli Heaton, Josiah Fisher, Nathan Blake, and 
others. Its original name was Upper Ashuelot. It was 
incorporated under its present name April 11, 1753. The 
name was given in honor of an English nobleman, Sir 
Benjamin Keene. In 1736 a meeting, house was erected, 
and two years later a minister was settled. 

Like all other frontier settlements, it received its full share 
of Indian depredations and cruelty. In 1745 the Indians 
killed Josiah Fisher, a deacon of the church ; and in the 
year following they attacked the fort, the only safe retreat 
of the inhabitants. They were discovered by Captain 
Ephraim Dormau just in time to prevent their taking it. 
He was attacked by two Indians, but boldly defended him- 
self against them, and reached the fort in safety. A furious 
assault followed, in v^^hich John Bullard was killed. A 


woman named McKenny, being out of the fort, was brutal- 
ly stabbed, from the effects of which "she soon died. Na- 
than Blake was captured and taken to Canada. He 
remained in confinement two years. The Indians burned 
all the buildings in the settlement, including the meeting 
house. The inhabitants continued in the fort until April, 
1747, when they abandoned the place. In 1753 they re- 
turned and recommenced their settlements. In June, 
1755, the Indians again attacked the fort in great numbers. 
The onset was furious, accompanied by screams and terrific 
yells. By the vigilance and bravery of Captain Syms, they 
were repulsed. After burning several buildings, killing a 
large number of cattle, and committing other depredations, 
they departed. In July they returned and made another 
violent attack upon the fort, but with as little success as 

Colonel Isaac Wyman, an influential man and a brave 
soldier, led the first detachment of men from this town in 
the war of the revolution, and was present at the battle 
of Bunker (Breed's) Hill. This company consisted of 30 
men. The list of the foot company in Keene at this time 
numbered 126 men, the alarm list 45. 

This town is the residence of the Hon. Samuel DInsmoor, 
who was governor of New Hampshire during a term of 
three years ending June, 1852, and was deservedly one of 
the most popular men among all parties who have ever 
filled that high office. 

Keene is connected by the Cheshire liailroad with 
Groton Junction and Boston, and by the Ashuelot Railroad 
with Springfield, Massachusetts. 

Population, 3392. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
767. Inventory, $1,562,228. Value of lands, $809,598. 
Stock in trade, $77,400. Value of mills and factories. 


$26,400. Money on deposit or at interest, $186,697. 
Value of shares in banks and other corporations, $224,100. 
Number of sheep, 1520. Do. neat stock, 1512. Do. 
horses, 370. 

Kensington, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Exeter, east by Hampton Falls and Seabrook, south by 
South Hampton, and west by East Kingston. Area, 7045 
acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, south-east ; from 
Exeter, 6, south. The surface is generally even. There 
is no stream worthy of note, and but one small pond, 
called Muddy Fond, from the turbid appearance of its 
waters. The soil is moderately good. There are two stores, 
one small tannery, and one boot and shoe establishment, 
where 25 hands are employed. There are two meeting 
houses — one belonging to the Universalist society and one 
to the Christian Baptist. A Congregational church was 
established here in 1737. This town was settled at a veiy 
early period, and was originally a part of Hampton, from 
which it was detached and incorporated April 1, 1737. 
It contained more inhabitants at the commencement of the 
revolution than at present. 

Population, 700. Number of legal voters in 1854, 166. 
Inventory, $255,027. Value of lands, $134,200. Stock 
in trade, $2000. Number of sheep, 385. Do. neat stock, 
800. Do. horses, 106. 

Kilkenny, Coos county. Bounded north by Stark, 
east by Milan, Berlin, and Randolph, south by ungranted 
lands and White Mountain territory, and west by Jefferson 
and Lancaster. Area, 15,906 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 120 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 15, north-east. 
This is a poor township — rough, rocky, cold, and sterile. 


Along the southern border of the town is a narrow strip of 
land which is productive and easily cultivated. Pilot and 
Willard's Mountains include a large portion of the terri- 
tory of this town. These eminences are so called from 
the fact that a man named Willard was lost while hunting, 
and his dog Pilot, which he observed left each day, and, as 
he supposed, in pursuit of game; but, being nearly ex- 
hausted with hunger and fatigue, he determined to follow 
his dog at his next departure, and was conducted by his 
faithful companion in safety to his camp. This town was 
granted, June 4, 1774, to Jonathan Warner and others. 
Population, 19. 

Kingston, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Brentwood, east by East Kingston, south by Newton and 
Plaistow, and west by Hampstead and Danville. Area, 
12,188 acres, 800 of which are covered with water. There 
are several ponds in this town, the largest of which is 
Great Pond, whicli covers about 300 acres. Near the 
centre of the town is a large plain, on which is situated 
the principal village. The soil is generally a loam, resting 
on a bed of sand, or coarse gravel. In some parts the 
soil is clayey. The plain land is rich and very fertile. 
The rocks are mostly gneiss and mica slate, intersected by 
trap dikes, containing carbonate of lime. Moulding sand 
of a very fine quality is found here. 

There are three meeting houses,- — one Congregational, 
one Methodist, and one Baptist, ■ — two hotels, four stores, 
four carriage factories, and one large tannery. The inhab- 
itants are mostly engaged in agric\ilture. 

The charter of Kingston was granted, August 6, 1694, 
by Lieutenant Governor Uslier, to James Prescott, Ebene- 
zer Webster, and others, from Hampton. It included East 


Kingston, Danville, and Sandown. Soon as the grant wgp,»'' 
obtained the proprietors erected garrisons and began to 
cultivate the lands. They were, however, discouraged by 
the dangers and difficulties of Indian hostilities. In 1707 
Stephen and Joel Gilinan were ambushed between Exeter 
and Kingston, but fortunately escaped. In 1712 Stephen 
Oilman and Ebenezer Stevens were wounded, and the 
former taken and put to death. In September, 1724, 
Jabez Colman and son were killed while at work in the 
field. Four children were taken at the same time ; one 
escaped, the others were afterwards redeemed. Ancient 
French coins, Indian implements, such as jasper and quartz 
arrow heads, axes, gouges, and hammers of various kinds 
have been ploughed up in the vicinity of the ponds. 

The Congregational society was organized about 1725. 

Distance from Concord, 38 miles, south-east; and 6, 
south, from the Kailroad Depot in Exeter. 

Population, 1192. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
SOO. Inventory, $401,208. Value of lands, |252,622. 
Stock in trade, $7350. Number of sheep, 346. Do. neat 
stock, 682. Do. horses, 135. 

Lancaster, shire town of Coos county. Bounded north 
by Northumberland, east by Kilkenny, south by Jefferson, 
Whitefield, and Dalton, and west by Guildhall, Vermont. 
Area, about 23,480 acres. Distance from Concord, 116 
miles, north. The Connecticut River, which is very deep 
and about 22 rods in width at this place, washes its north- 
eastern border for a distance of 10 miles. Israel's River 
flows through the centre in a north-westerly direction. 
There are also several small streams, which abound with 
trout. There are several ponds, the largest of which is 
Martin Meadow Pond, named from one Martin, a hunter. 


'There are numerous mountains in the neighborhood of 
Lancaster ; but it is not itself mountainous excepting in 
the south-east part, where the surface is hilly and unfit for 
cultivation. The soil along the Connecticut is alluvial ; 
the meadows extend back nearly three quarters of a mile, 
and at the mouth of Israel's River much farther. The 
meadows are bordered by pine lands, varying in width, 
which are easily cultivated, and are highly productive 
when properly tilled. Limestone is found here. The soil 
is peculiarly adapted to the growth of wheat and the 
other small cereal grains, which are produced in great 

The village contains three meeting houses ; the Court 
House, Jail, and other county buildings ; one academy ; 
seven stores ; two hotels ; and two carriage manufactories, 
with a capital of ,^15,000 each. The amount of school 
fund is $600. This is a remarkably healthy as well as 
pleasant location. Lancaster, with several other towns in 
this state and Vermont, were formerly designated by the 
name .of Coos — an Indian name, signifying crooked. It 
was granted, July 15, 1763, to Captain David Page and 
others. He, with his family, Edward Buckman, and Em- 
mons Stockwell, made the first settlement in the autumn of 
the same year. The war of the revolution impeded the 
progress of the settlement. Every person but Stockwell 
left the new town and fled for safety to the older settle- 
ments ; he resolutely determined to stay and abide the 
consequences, and by his example induced others to 
return. The Congregational church was organized in 
July, 1794. There is also a Methodist and a Unitarian 
society here. The Lancaster Bank has a capital of $50,000. 
The Coos County Democrat, a weekly newspaper, is pub- 
lished here. From its first settlement to the present time. 


Lancaster has been advancing with healthy progress in 
wealth and population. 

Population, 1559. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
320. Inventory, $408,521. Value of lands, $242,053. 
Stock in trade, $14,438. Money at interest or on deposit, 
$17,800. Number of sheep, 2843. Do. neat stock, 1543. 
Do. horses, 328. 

Landaff, Grafton county. Bounded north by Lisbon 
and Franconia, east by Lincoln, south by Benton, and west 
by Bath. Area, 29,200 acres. Distance from Concord, 
90 miles, north-west. Wild Ammonoosuc runs through the 
south part of the town, and the Great Ammonoosuc through 
the north-easterly extremity. Landaff Mountain in the 
east part, Cobble Hill in the centre, and Bald Hill in the 
west are the principal elevations. The soil in some por- 
tions of the town is very fertile. In Cobble Hill veins of 
magnetic iron ore have been discovered. The inhabitants 
are chiefly engaged in farming. Large quantities of maple 
sugar are made annually. Landaff was granted, January 
3, 1764, to James- Avery and others; but the grantees 
neglecting to fulfil the conditions of the charter, it was 
declaimed to bo forfeited. It was then granted to Dart- 
mouth College. After the revolution the original grantees 
set up their claim, on the ground that the adjudication of 
the forfeiture was irregular. Several cases were tried by 
the court, and the claims of the grantees were sustained. 

A Baptist church was formed here in 1788. There is 
also a Methodist and a Freewill Baptist society. 

Population, 948. Number of polls, 207. Inventory, 
$247,096. Value of lands, $138,454. Stock in trade, 
$1600. Money on deposit, &c., $21,750. Number of 
sheep, 1900. Do. neat stock, 1086. Do. horses, 220, 


I4ANGDON, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Charles- 
town, east by Acworth, south by Alstead and Walpole, 
^d west by Walpole and CharlestoAvn. Area, 9891 acres. 
Pistance from Concord, 50 miles, west; from Newport, 
18, south-west. The soil is generally productive, and is 
usually under excellent cultivation. The inhabitants 
are chiefly engaged in farming. There is considerable 
fruit of a delicious quality raised here. Langdon has for 
several years been famous for its large, handsome cattle. 
Indeed, nearly every thing from the agricultural department 
of this town bears strong marks of the patient labor and 
the rich rewards of the farmer. A large branch of Cold 
River passes in a southerly direction through the entire 
extent of the town. This town was incorporated January 
XX f 1787, and named in honor of Governor Langdon. 
The first settlers "were Scth Walker, Nathaniel Rice, and 
Jonathan Willard, in 1773. 

A Congregational church was formed in 1792. There 
}& also a Universalist society, consisting of but few persons. 

Population, 575. Number of polls, 131. Inventory, 
$327,665. Value of lands, 1 188,529. Stock in trade, 
$5519. Money on deposit, $51,321. Number of sheep, 
2001. Do. neat stock, 697. Do. horses, 149. 

Lebanon, Grafton county. Bounded north by Hanover, 
east by Enfield, south by Plainfield, and west by Hartford, 
Vermont. Area, 23,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 
65 miles, north-west, by the Northern Railroad ; from 
Dartmouth College, 4, south ; from Haverhill, 28, by the 
Passumpsic Railroad. Besides the Connecticut, which 
laves its western border, it is watered by the Mascomy 
River, which runs in a westerly direction through its 
centre, and affords several valuable mill seats and water 


privileges. Its source is Mascomy, or En£cld, Pond, by 
which a constant supply of water is secured. Its tributa- 
ries are Stony and Great Brooks. Over this river, from 
East Lebanon to White River Junction, a distance of nine 
miles, the Northern Railroad Company have erected four- 
teen bridges. The soil is generally alluvial. The inter- 
vals on the Connecticut are about half a mile in width. 
There is also considerable good interval along the Masco- 
my. On the uplands the soil is strong, deep, and fertile, 
and, with proper care, produces abundantly. Excellent 
fruit, in considerable quantities, is raised here. In the east 
pai't of the town is a small village, called East Lebanon, 
containing a depot, a hotel, a store, and a large sawmill, 
besides dwelling houses, shops, &c. The village at West 
Lebanon, near W^hite River Junction, is indebted largely 
for its present flourishing condition from the fact that it is 
situated at the terminus of the Northern Railroad. Since 
that road was opened, its progress in wealth and population 
has been rapid. There are several large and handsome 
dwelling houses, sevex'al large buildings owned by the 
Northern Railroad Company, several stores, a new and 
elegant meeting house, a public house, a sawmill, grist- 
mill, &c. On an elevated and beautiful location, a few 
rods from the main street, a large brick building is in pro- 
cess of erection, and is designed for a female academy. It 
is named after a Mr. Tilden, a wealthy citizen of New 
York city, formerly of this town, who contributed ^5000 
towards its erection. Its entire cost is estimated at 

The principal village is situated on a plain near- the cen- 
tre, at the head of the Mis of Mascomy River. The depot 
is conveniently located a few rods westerly from the Com- 
mon. The Common is a square, level area, containing 10 


or 12 acres. Several of the houses surrounding it are 
elegant and costly structures. All are handsome, and 
mostly two stories in height. The streets are spacious, 
and shaded with maple and elm. The whole presents a 
picture of neatness, beauty, and thrift seldom surpassed. 
There arc three houses of religious worship, — one Con- 
gregational, one Methodist, and one Universalist, — one 
academy, two hotels, and about twenty stores ; also tai- 
lors', tin M^are, and blacksmiths' shops. 

Tlie manufacturing interest is quite extensive. Some 
of the principal establishments are worthy of particular 

Iron Foundery — Simons, Durant, & Co.. Capital stock, 
about ^20,000. Manufacture stoves, ploughs, mill and 
machinery castings, trimming machines, &c. Number of 
hands employed, 20. 

Phillips, Messer, & Colby — Scythe Factory ; A. S. Mes- 
ser agent. Capital stock, ^5000. Amount manufactured 
per annum, 1600 dozen. Number of men employed, 12. 

M. & J. H. Buck & Co., manufacturers of wood-work- 
ing machinery, mill irons, portable and stationary steam 
engines, and planing and mortising machines. Capital 
stock, about $40,000. Amount manufactured per annum, 
,i^50,000. Number of hands employed, 50. The mem- 
bers of this firm are active, enterprising, and intelligent. 
Their work is widely celebrated. They have received 
orders from the British government for some kinds of ma- 
chinery manufictured by them. 

Sturtevant & Cole, manufacturers of doors, sashes, and 
blinds. Capital stock, about $15,000. Number of hands 
employed, 18. 

The manufacture of chairs and cabinet work is carried 
on to a considerable extent. 


There is also a large gristmill, constructed on the prin- 
ciples of modern improvement. 

The people are enterprising and industrious. Society is 
refined and agreeable. 

The capital of the Bank of Lebanon is $100,000. 

The Granite State Whig, a weekly newspaper, is pub- 
lished here. 

The farmers^ are generally independent, owing much of 
their prosperity to the early introduction of sheep on quite 
an extensive scale, and to careful selections of the best 
grades. This is a remarkably healthy township. Galena 
bog iron ore, arsenical pyrites, brown epidote, and haematite 
iron are found in various localities. 

The fiicilities for trade and mercantile enterprise are sur- 
passed by but few country towns. Notwithstanding its 
extent and variety of business, Lebanon has long been 
noted for its very slight encouragement to gentlemen of 
the legal profession. It was granted, July 4, 1761, to 62 
proprietors. The first settlers were William Downer, Wil- 
liam Dana, Levi Hyde, Charles Hill, Silas Waterman, and 
Nathaniel Porter. It was the first town settled on Con- 
necticut River north of Charlestown. The first settlers 
were a brave, hardy people, tenacious of their rights; many 
of them possessed of strong minds, and well educated. 
The Congregational society was established in 1771, the 
Universalist society in 1813, and the Methodist society 
about 1836. The second Congregational society was or- 
ganized in 1850. Thomas Waterman was the first male 
child born in Lebanon. 

Population in 1854, 2336. Number of legal voters, 
500. Do. school districts, 15. Inventory, $846,608. 
Value of mills and fixctories, $23,000. Stock in trade, 
^25,350. Money on deposit, at interest, &c., in 1852, 


$42,300. Value of lands, $470,788. Number of sheep, 
13, 1 15. Do. neat stock, 1223. Do. horses and mules, 304. 

Lee, Strafford county. Bounded north by Barrington 
and !Madbury, east by Durham, south by Newmarket and 
Epping, and west by Nottingham and Barrington. Area, 
11,625 acres, 300 of which are covered with Avater. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 31 miles, south-east ; from Dover, 
12, south-west. In the north part is Wheelwright's Pond, 
covering 165 acres, and forming the source of Oyster River. 
This pond is memorable on account of a battle fought on 
its shores, in 1690, between a party of Indians and two 
companies of rangers imder Captains Floyd and Wiswall. 
Lamprey, Little, North, and Oyster Rivers are the princi- 
pal streams. The soil is generally hard, and requires con- 
siderable cultivation to render it productive. In some 
parts, however, it is very fertile. Agriculture is almost 
the only employment. This town was originally a part of 
Durham, and was incorporated January 16, 1766. 

Population, 863. Number of polls, 216. Inventory, 
$309,928. Value of lands, $199,660. Stock in trade, 
$1506. Value of mills, &c., $4242. Number of sheep, 
1130. Do. neat stock, 959. Do. horses, 174. 

Lempster, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Unity, 
east by Goshen and Washington, south by Marlow, and 
west by Acworth. Area, 21,410 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 40 miles, west; from Newport, 12, south. The 
surface is mostly uneven, and in the eastern part moun- 
tainous. The soil is moist and cold, and better adapted to 
grass than grain. It is well watered, but by small streams. 
Near the western boundary is a pond, 320 rods long and 
80 in width. Sand Pond, lying in this town and Marlow, 


w 420 rods long and 70 wide. Dodge's Pond, near the 
centre, covers about t50 acres. The surface is hilly, and 
in some parts rocky. It is an excellent growing town. 
There are two meeting houses, one hotel, three stores, and 
a large shoe manufactory, in connection with which is an 
extensive tannery, where common hair-tanned leather and 
patent hair-tanned leather are made. The amount of cap- 
ital invested is $25,000. Number of hands employed, 70. 
Alvah Smith & Sons, proprietors. 

Lempster was granted by charter, October 5, 1761, to 
Richard SparroAv and Gl others. In November of the 
same year a Congregational church was organized. There 
is also a Methodist society here. 

Population, 906. Number of polls, 200. Inventory, 
$292,376. Number of sheep, 2446. Do. neat stock, 
1029. Do. horses, 198. 

Lincoln, Grafton county. Bounded north by Franconia, 
east by Thornton and ungranted lands, south by "Woodstock, 
and west by I«ind;ifF. Area, 32,456 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 70 miles, north ; from Haverhill, 20, east. The 
middle tract of the Pemigewasset passes nearly through 
the centre of the town. There are several ponds, the 
most important of which are Bog, Fish, and Loon Ponds. 
There are many elevations ; Kinsman's Mountain is the 
highest. This is a rough township, and the soil is poor. 
The crops are often injured by early frosts. Wild animals 
are abundant. There are numerous instances of land slips 
in this vicinity. They commence near the top of the 
mountain, and consist of vast avalanches of earth and mas- 
sive rocks, which slide downwards to its base, forcing their 
way against every impediment. This town was granted, 
January 31, 1764, to James Avery and others, but was not 


settled until the close of the revolution. Its population 
has increased but slowly. Many portions of the town 
seem to have been designed by Nature as a residence for 
creatures of habits different from those of man. 

Population, 57. Number of polls, 19. Inventory, 
$21,158. Value of lands, |14,016. 

Lisbon, Grafton county. Bounded north by Littleton, 
east by Franconia, south by LandaiF, and west by Lyman. 
Area, 29,130 acres. Distance from Concord, 89 miles, 
north ; from Haverhill, 20, north-east. It is watered 
through its whole extent by the Lower Ammonoosuc River, 
which runs in a south-west direction, and by several other 
small streams. Mink Pond, in the southern part, affords a 
few good mill seats at its outlet. The interval along the 
Ammonoosuc is very productive. The plain land has a 
light, tliin soil, unproductive unless enriched with frequent 
dressing with manure. The upland is a strong, deep soil, 
aflfording many valuable farms for tillage and grazing. 
Blueberry Mountain is the principal elevation. Most of the 
iron ore which supplies the Franconia furnace is taken 
from veins in the south-eastern part of this town. Lime- 
stone exists in numerous localities, and in great abundance. 
Large quantities of maple sugar are made here annually. 
Lisbon was first granted, August 6, 1763, to Joseph Burt 
and others, under the name of Concord. It was aftcrAvards 
granted to Leonard Whiting and others, November 20, 
17G8, under the name of Gunthwaite. Its former name 
was again resumed, and retained until 1817, when it re- 
ceived its present name. 

Population, 1882. Number of polls, 372. Inventory, 
$436,285. Value of lands, $243,425. Stock in trade, 
$1 1,400. Number of sheep, 2818. Do. neat stock, 1839 
Do. horses, 358. 


LiTCHFiETiD, Hillsborough county. Bounded north and 
east by Londonderry, south by Hudson, and west by Mer- 
rimack Area, 842G acres. Distance from Concord, 30 
miles, south ; from Amhdrst, 8, east. This is a small but 
remarkably fertile township. There is yet remaining con- 
siderable timber land of great value. Farmilig is almost 
the sole employment. The Merrimack washes its entire 
western border. This town was taken from Nashua, (then 
called Dunstable,) and incorporated by Massachusetts, in 
1734. It was chartered by New Hampshire in 1749. It 
was formerly known by the name of Natticott. The set- 
tlement commenced in 1720. A Congregational church 
was formed in 1741. A Presbyterian church was organ- 
ized in 1809, which is, at the present time, the only re- 
ligious society having a settled pastor. 

Population, 447. Houses, 81. ' Families, 89. Farms, 
55. Stores, 1. Mills, 3. Inventory, $229,303. Value 
of lands, $110,516. Stock in trade, $7290. Number of 
sheep, 249. Do. neat stock, 422. Do. horses, 56. Do. 
polls, 96. 

Littleton, Grafton county. Bounded north by Dalton 
and Waterford, Vermont, east by Dalton and Bethlehem, 
south by Libbon and Lyman, and west by Concord, Ver- 
mont. Area, 26,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 100 
miles, north-west ; from Haverhill, 30, north. Connecti- 
cut IJiver extends along the western border for 15 miles ; 
and so rapid is its course that it is impossible to ascend or 
descend in boats with safety. For several miles the water 
rushes almost like a cataract, foaming and dashing with fury 
over its rocky bed. Ammonoosuc River waters its southern 
part ; and along its banks are small patches of excellent in- 
terval. This river affords many very fine mill seats, sev- 
eral of which are occupied. The surface is in many parts 



uneven and rocky, but a large portion of the^town is well 
adapted to tillage or grazing. Black, Iron, Palmer's, and 
Raspberry Mountains are the most considerable elevations. 
Large quantities of limestone are fo^t:! in various locali- 
ties. Novagulite, or oilstone, is found in abundance. The 
oilstones are^'wrought and ground into proper shape, and 
sold for 25 cents per pound. It is a greenish and blue 
compact slate, with a fine siliceous grit. The quarry fur- 
nishes several kinds suitable for sharpening fine instru- 
ments and carpenters' tools of all kinds. It is very exten- 
sive, and of great value. The inhabitants are generally 
devoted to agriculture ; and many fine farms furnish un- 
mistakable proof that this pursuit is attended with skill and^ 

Considerable attention is paid to manufactures. There 
is a large Avoollen factory, in which about 75 operatives are 
employed ; an iron foundery and two machine shops, where 
22 men are employed ; two sawmills, in which 10 men are 
employed ; one chair factory, cabinet, and carriage shop, in 
which IG men arc employed ; one sash and blind factory, 
furnishing employment for 10 men ; and one bedstead fac- 
tory, where 7 men are employed. There are also thirteen 
stores, ten blacksmith shops, one extensive tannery, two 
meeting houses, and three hotels. The White Mountain 
House, recently erected, is a spacious, well-arranged, and 
handsomely finished building. The traveller may rest 
assured that here he will find a comfortable home, ^t is 
commodiously located on the route usually taken by visit- 
ors to the White Mountains and Fianconia. H. S. Thayer 

The territory, including Littleton, was first granted, 
November 17, 1764, under the name of Chiswick. It 
was regranted, January 18, 1770, by the name of Apthorp, 


and included Daltou. la November, 1784, it was divided, 
and the towns of Littleton and Dalton incorporated. A 
Congregational church was organized in 1803. There is 
also a Methodist society, numbering about 125 members. 
The White Mountain Railroad terminates here, and adds 
greatly to the mercantile facilities of this town, as well as 
to its general thrift and prosperity. 

Population in 1854, 2148. NuMpbor of legal voters, 
501. ^'aluation, $472,144. Value of lands, $267,296. 
Stock in trade, !^14,450. Do. mills, factories, and ma- 
chinery, $1G,50Q. Number of sheep, 2081. Do. neat 
stock, 1757. Do. horses, 353. 

LoxDOXDEURY, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Manchester and Auburn, east by Derry and Windham, 
south by Hudson, and west by Litchfield. It originally 
included 64,000 acres ; but several towns have since been 
taken from it. The largest stream is Beavers' River, issuing 
fi'om Beavers' Pond — a beautiful sheet of water, nearly cir- 
cular in form, and about 300 rods in diameter. This town 
contains but very little waste land. The soil is unusually 
fertile and easy of cultivation. There are no high hills, ex- 
tensive plains, swamps, or^tagnant waters of. any consider- 
able extent. Its surface is varied by gentle swells and 
intervening vales. The healthfulness of its location is 
indicated by the longevity of the inhabitants. The village 
is very plcasimtly located on a slight elevation. There are 
three meeting houses, — belonging respectively to the Pres- 
byteriaai. Baptist, and Methodist societies, — six stores, and 
two shoe manufactories. 

This town was settled, in 1719, by a colony of Presby- 
terians from Londonderry, in the north of Ireland, whither 
their ancestors had emigrated from Scotland about tlic year 


1616. Ou the 11th of April, 1719, sixteen families, with 
the Eev. James McGregore, their pastor, took possession of 
this township, which was then called Nutfield. In 1720 
they purchased a tract of land from Colonel John Wheel- 
wright, whose ancestor had purchased the same, together 
with other lands, from the Indians. Although this was 
long a frontier town, the inhabitants were never molested by 
the Indians. The ptoprietors of Londonderry received a 
grant of the tract on Avhich they had located, and a charter 
of incorporation, June 1, 1722. The early settlers were 
generally farmers — intelligent, prudent, and of sound judg- 
ment. None were rich, but most were possessed of suf- 
ficient property to enable them to make an easy start and 
rapid progress in the improvement of their lands. They 
introduced the culture of the potato, a vegetable hitherto 
unknown in New England; and it was not until many 
years after this that, if a farmer laid by three bushels of 
potatoes for his winter stock, he regarded this meagre 
quantity, as wc should now term it, as more than sufficient 
for his wants. They also introduced the manufocture of 
linen cloth, which was for many years a source of no small 

A company of 70 men fi-om tfcis town, under the com- 
mand of Captain George Reid, were in the battle at Bunker's 
Hill ; and about the same number were in that at Benning- 
ton, where Captain David McClary, one of their leaders, a 
brave and noble-hearted officer, was killed. The celebrated 
Major General John Stark and Colonel George Reid, 
officers of the revolutionarj'^ army, Avere natives of this 

Joseph M. Keen, D. ])., the first president of Bowdoin 
College, Arthur Livermore, Jonathan Steele, and Samuel 
Bell, judges of the Superior Court, the latter of whom 


was governor of New Hampshire from 1819 to 1823, 
were also natives of Londonderry. Among the descend- 
ants of the early settlers are Hon. Jeremiah Smith, 
chief justice of the Superior Court ; Generals Miller and 
McNeil, distinguished officers in the war of 1812; Mat- 
thew Thornton, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence; and John Prentice, for several years attor- 
ney general of the state. 

Population, 1731. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
453. Do. common schools, 11. Inventory, ^557,150. 
Value of lands, '^215,055. Stock in trade, $3400. Money 
on deposit, &c., .$29,701. Number of sheep, 328. Do. 
neat stock, 1200. Do. horses, 220. 

LouDOX, Merrimack county. Bounded north-west by 
Canterbury, north-east by Gilmanton, south-east by Chi- 
chester, and south-west by Concord. Area, 28,257 acres. 
Distance from Concord, about 10 miles, north-east. Sou- 
cook River, running in a southerly direction through this 
town, affords several valuable mill privileges. There is 
considerable good interval along its banks. The soil is 
various. The natural growth of timber is maple, beech, 
pine, oak, and chestnut. Soucook village is the seat of 
the principal business. London was formerly a part of 
Canterbury, from which it M'as taken and incorporated 
January 23, 1773. Settlements had been made, in 1760, 
by Moses Ordway and Abraham and Jethro Bachelder. A 
Congregational society was established here in 1784. There 
is also a Methodist and a Freewill Baptist society. 

Population, 1553. Number of polls, 411. Inventory, 
1590,890. Value of land^, $276,741. Stock in trade, 
$4500. Money on deposit, &c., $34,551. Number of 
sheep, 1830. Do. neat stock, 2074. Do. horses, 302. 


Lyman, Grafton county. Bounded north by Littleton, 
east by Lisbon, south by Bath, and west by Monroe. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 90 miles, north ; from Haverhill, 13, 
north. There are several ponds in this town, through the 
largest of which Burnham's River flows. The lower por- 
tion of the Fifteen Mile Falls is in Lyman. The soil 
is generally good for the grains and grass. The inhabit- 
ants are a sober, industrious, and enterprising people. 
This town was granted, November 10, 1761, to several 
individuals, among whom Daniel Lyman was conspicuous. 
From him the township received its name. From the first 
three families that settled here were 20 sons, 19 of whom 
lived to a great age. 

Population, 1442. Inventory, $357,229. Number of 
polls, 305. 

Lyme, Grafton county. Bounded north by Orford, east 
by Dorchester, south by Hanover, and west by Thetford, 
Vermont. Area, 28,500 acres. Distance from Concord, 
54 miles, north-west ; from Haverhill, 20, south. There 
are three small streams passing through Lyme, and dis- 
charging into the Connecticut River, upon one of which 
has been erected within a few years a large and valuable 
gristmill. Scarcity of water is provided "against by several 
large reservoirs, built at great expense, by means of which 
abundance of water is obtained in the dryest seasons. The 
soil is different from that of other towns on Connecticut 
River in the proportion of interval, which is far less, the 
lands adjacent to the river l^eing similar to those of other 
parts of the town. The most considerable elevation is 
Smart's Mountain, in the north-east part. Beds of lime- 
stone, of the granular, crystalline variety, are found in sev- 
eral locations, associated with which are large quantities of 


massive garnet, with crystals of hornblende. Some of these 
beds are six feet in thickness. A very curious mixture of 
granular quartz with carbonate of lime has been discovered. 
It exists in exhaustless quantities, and is highly valuable 
for the manufacture of plate or window glass. Very hand- 
some specimens of black tourmaline, or crystallized sulphu- 
ret of antimony, have been found in different parts of the 
town. Between the east and west villages is an extensive 
deposit of clay marl, of inestimable value for agricultural 
purposes. Lyme is a very fine farming town. It has been 
celebrated for many years for its large wheat crops and its 
numerous and superior flocks of sheep. The people are 
industrious, and generally independent. The principal 
village, which is pleasantly situated, is remarkable for the 
neatness and order which generally prevail. 

Lyme was incorporated, July 8, 1761, and granted to 
Theodore Atkinson and others. It was settled. May 20, 
1764, by Walter Fairfield, John and William Sloan, and 
others. The Congregational church was organized in 1772. 

Population, 1618. Number of polls, .362. Inventory, 
.$591,615. Value of lands, |352,210. Stock in trade, 
$12,650. Value of mills, $7125. Money on deposit, 
$51,615. Number of sheep, 13,176. Do. neat stock, 
1414. Do. horses, 317. 

Lyndeborough, Hillsborough county. Bounded north 
by Greenfield, Francestown, and New Boston, east by 
Mount Vernon and Milford, south by Milford, Wilton, 
and Temple, and west by Temple and Greenfield. Area, 
20,767 acres. Distance from Concord, 35 miles, south; 
from Amherst, 10, west. This is an elevated township. 
A mountain range of considerable height divides it from 
east to west. The soil is stony, but deep and strong. For 
. 24 ^ 


grazing, it is doubtless unequalled by any town in the 
county. The streams are small, originating mostly from 
springs within the town. The village, though small, is 
pleasantly situated on the banks of Piscataquog River. 

Lvndeborough was originally granted, by Massachusetts, 
to Captain Samuel King and 59 others, who were engaged 
in the Canada expedition in 1690. It was then called 
Salem Canada, from the circumstance that many of those 
belonging to the expedition were from Salem. In 1753 
Benjamin Lynde, Esq., purchased a considerable portion 
of the township and adjoining lands. It was incorporated 
April 23, 1764, and received its name from him. It was 
settled in 1750. A Congregational church was formed 
here in 1757. There is also a Baptist society, which has 
occasional preaching. 

Population, 968. Houses, 199. Families, 203. Farms, 
123. Inventory, $385,083. Value of lands, $204,946. 
Stock in trade, $5755. Number of sheep, 483. Do. neat 
stock, 1065. Do. horses, 171. Do. polls, 227. 

Madbury, Strafford county. Bounded north-east by 
Dover, south-west by Durham and Lee, and north-west by 
Barrington. This is a small, triangular-shaped town, con- 
taining about 12 square miles. Distance from Concord, 36 
miles, south-east ; from Dover, 3, south. Its extreme 
easterly point extends to the tidewater of a branch of the 
Piscataqua. The soil is generally productive. In the 
valleys it consists of a proportion of clay, on the uplands 
of a mixture of sand and loam. Bog iron ore and red and 
yellow ochre exist in several localities and in considerable 
quantities. Bellamy Bank River is the only stream of im- 
portance, and Barbadoes Pond the only considerable body 
of water. This town originally constituted a part of Dover, 


but was set off from it and incorporated May SI, 1755. 
Agriculture is almost the only industrial pursuit. 

Population, 484. Number of polls, 117. Inventory, 
$180,978. Value of lands, |120,150. Do. mills, $300. 
Money on depobit, ^c, $11,499. Number of sheep, 338. 
Do. neat stock, 537. Do. horses, 88. 

Madisox, Carroll county. Bounded north by Albany, 
east by Conway and Eaton, south by Freedom, and west 
by Tamworth. Distance from Concord, 64 miles, north- 
east ; from Ossipee, about 20, north. The surface is 
uneven, and in some parts rocky ; the soil is generally 
good. Six Mile Pond is the largest body of water. There 
is one meeting house, which belongs to the Freewill Bap- 
tist society. There are four stores and one hotel. This 
town was formerly a part of Eaton, and was set off from it 
and incorporated December 17, 1852. It is divided into 
nine school districts. 

Population, about 840. Number of legal voters, 200. 

Manchester, Hillsborough county, lies on the east side 
of Merrimack River, which forms its western boundary 
for a distance of nine miles ; Hooksett touches it upon the 
north, Auburn upon the east, and Londonderry upon the 
south. Massabesick Lake lies partly in this town and 
partly in Auburn. This is a beautiful sheet of water, 
studded with islands, and affording some of the finest pros- 
pects in this part of the state. It is divided into two 
nearly equal parts by a narrow strait, which is crossed by a 
bridge ; each of these parts is about three miles long by 
one wide. It is a favorite resort as well with strangers as 
with those living in its vicinity. The soil is generally 
lights sandy, and unproductive. Had Manchester depended 


for its prosperity upon its agricultural resources, instead of 
enjoying tlie honor of having the largest and most flourish- 
ing city in the state within its limits, its rank would have 
been -with the lowest class of towns. But while such 
astonishing progress has been made within a few years 
through the impulse given to almost every department of 
business, that attention which agriculture justly merits, as 
the foundation of every other enterprise, has by no means 
been forgotten. 

The Amoskcag Falls, between Manchester and Goffs- 
town, are the largest on the Merrimack. In the ordinary 
stage of the water, the fall to the foot of the locks is 47 
feet, and the whole fall in the space of a mile is 54 feet, 
furnishing power sufficient to run several hundred thousand 
spindles. This almost incalculable force is the nurse of 
the vigorous city which, though still in its youth, is the 
first in the Granite State ; the largest in population ; the 
most varied, extensive, and prolific in productive industry ; 
and among the cotton manufacturing districts in New 
England, it staiids second only to Lowell. At the head of 
the Amoskeag Falls a stone dam has been constructed, on 
the east side of which guard gates of the most substantial 
masonry are built, through which the water passes into a 
spacious reservoir, or basin, connected with the upper canal, 
for the use of the mills, and with the Amoskeag Canal, 
which was built in 1816 for the purposes of navigation. 
The upper canal is 4950 feet long, 75 wide at the reser- 
voir, from which it is gradually diminished to 45 feet, is 
10 feet deep, and is walled throughout with stone. The 
lower canal, which is the old Amoskeag Canal, is 7500 
feet in length, corresponding in its other dimensions and 
construction with the upper canal. The fall from the 
upper canal into the lower is 20 feet ; from the lower to 


the river, from 20 to 30 feet. The water power thus 
secured is estimated to be sufficient to drive 216^000 spin- 
dles, together Avitli all other machinery necessary to com- 
plete the manufacture of cloth. The rapid fall of the 
river below prevents all obstructions from backwater. 
The falls are truly a curiosity of Nature. The width of 
the river is greatly increased, and is divided into several 
streams by numei'ous small islands. The water rushes 
through the various channels over a rugged bottom with 
great velocity, and the sound it produces is heard at a great 
distance. At the upper part, near the greatest fall, circu- 
lar holes of various sizes have been Avorn pcrjicndicularly 
into the solid rock several feet, some of which are neJlrly 
10 feet in diameter. It is said that the Indians, in time of 
war, concealed their provisions in these holes. Various 
kinds of tools used by the aborigines, such as axes, chisels, 
arrowheads, gouges, &c., have been discovered in the 
vicinity ; also skeletons and parts of the human frame 
have been dug up here, rendering it probable that the 
spot was a frequent resort of the Indians. 

Manchester was incorporated, September 3, 1751, under 
the- name of Derrylicld. It was taken from Londonderry, 
Chester, and a portion of a tract called Harrytown. It 
received its present name in 1810. In 1822 its population 
amounted to 761 ; in 1830, it was 887 ; in 1840, 3325 ; 
in 1850, 13,933 ; in 1854, 19,897. 

The city of Manchester was incorporated in June, 1846. 
Its present mayor is Frederic Smyth ; city clerk, George 
A. French. The city proper is divided into six wards. 
Its coui^il and officers generally are the same as those in 
similar coijiorations. It is laid out in nearly square form, 
being the longest from north to south. The streets are 
24 * 


regular and broad. The western portion is built almost 
exclusively of brick ; while the eastern abounds in wooden 
structures, many of which are elegant and tasteful resi- 
dences. It is situated on a plain, about 90 feet above the 
river, the boarding houses of the corporations occupying 
the slope towards the canals. 'Che pi'incipal street, (Elm,) 
which may be termed the Broadway of Manchester, is 
100 feet in Nvidth, extends more than a mile north and 
south, and presents an attractive and lively aspect. Four 
large squares have been laid out in different parts of the 
city, handsomely enclosed, and decorated with trees. In 
two of them are ponds of considerable size, which serve 
the 'double purpose of ornament and as reservoirs in case of 
fires. More particular notice will be given of the squares 
under the appropriate head. 

The public cemetery, called the Valley, includmg an 
area of 25 acres, and situated a short distance from the 
city, is truly a beautiful spot. Notwithstanding its vicinity 
to the city, yet such is the natural formation of the adjacent 
grounds that a solitude both agreeable and appropriate, 
and which tends rather to impress the mjnd of the visitor 
with a sense of the intimate relations of the departed with 
the living, pervades its charming though sacred walks, 
and, for the time, shuts out from the not unwilling heart 
all consciousness of the bustle and activity of the gay and 
crowded streets. The surface iis somewhat broken, afford- 
ing a pleasing variety of plain, woodland, laM'u, and sloping 
declivity. A deep valley divides the enclosure, at the bot- 
tom of which a running stream winds its way, with gentle 
lullaby, to the busy waters of the noble Merrimacic. It it 
laid out with winding paths and broad avenues, richly 
adorned with shade trees and shrubbery. It is always a 


place of resort, and is justly a source of pride to those who 
have so admirably succeeded in clothing with beauty and 
attraction the last home of mortals. 

Religious Societies. — First Methodist Episcopal society 

— organized in 1829 ; house in Manchester Centre ; Rev. 
Elijah F. Wilkins pastor. Elm Street Methodist society 

— chapel on Elm Street; cost $16,000; Elisha Adams 
pastor. Univcrsalist society — organized in 1839; house 
on Lowell Street; cost $11,000; B. M. Tillotson pastor. 
First Congregational society — incorporated in 18-39; house 
on Hanover Street ; cost $6500 ; C. W. Wallace pastor. 
First Baptist society — organized in 1839; house on Man- 
chester Street ; cost $7000 ; Isaac Sawyer pastor. Free- 
will Baptist society — organized in 1839; house on Merri- 
mack Street ; cost $5000. Unitarian society — organized 
in 1840 ; house on Merrimack Street, corner of Union ; 
Francis Le Barron pastor. Saint Michael's Church, Epis- 
copal — organized in 1841; church on Lowell Street, 
corner of Pine ; L G. Hubbard rector. Franklin Street 
Church, Second Congregational society — organized in 
1844; house on Franklin Street; cost $11,000 ; Samuel 
C. Bartlett pastor. Second Baptist society — house on 
Elm Street ; cost $8000 ; J. M. Coburn pastor. Catho- 
lic church — erected in 1850 ; house on Union, corner of 
Merrimack Street ; cost $16,000. Wesleyan Methodist 
society — organized in 1849 ; meetings in Patten's Hall ; 
Thomas Latham pastor. Free Church — house erected by 
City Missionary Society in 1851 ; cost $2000 ; T. P. 
Sawin pastor. 

Schools. — There are nine school districts in the city, in 
each of which is only one house, except in number two, 
which includes the most thickly-settled portion. In this 
district are four spacious brick edifices, containing fourteen 

284 NEW hampshir:e as it is. 

schools, and six smaller buildings, containing ten schools. 
The board of instruction is divided into four departments 
— the High School, in which are a principal whose salary 
is $1000 per annum, and two assistants ; the South Gram- 
mar School, having a principal whose salary is $600 per 
annum, and two assistants ; the North Grammar School, 
with teachers, a principal whose salary is $600 per an- 
num, and two assistaiits ; and the Intermediate School, 
having teachers, a principal whose salary is $500 per 
annum, and two assistants. There are, besides, two un- 
classed schools, seven middle, and twelve primary. A 
free school is open four evenings in the week, and is at- 
tended by about 200 members. Instruction is given in 
reading, spelling, writing, geography, grammar, and arith- 

Although, in glancing at the educational resources of 
the city of Manchester, we find no richly-endowed acad- 
emies or time-honored seats of literature, yet we discover a 
system which, for vigor and efficiency in reaching the 
masses and scattering the light and treasures of knowledge 
in those dark and obscure places, — scores of which maybe 
found in any city, which a more general, and perhaps, at 
first, more attractive, plan of instruction would entirely 
overlook, — is not only deserving of universal approval, 
but also reflects great credit upon those who were able to 
conceive and carry it to practical results. 

Manchester AthetKCum. — Incorporated in 1844. The 
library contains 3100 volumes. An extensive reading 
room is connected with it. Rooms in Patten's Building. 

The Fire Department consists of a chief, nine assistant 
engineers, six engine companies, two hose do., and one 
hook and ladder do. 

Newspapers. — Manchester American and Messenger ; 


J. Abbott editor, Manchester Democrat ; John H. Good- 
ale editor. Granite Fanner and Visitor. Manchester 
Daily Mirror ; John B. Clarke editor. Dollar Weekly- 
Mirror ; by the same. Union Democrat ; Campbell & 
Gilman editors. 

Railroads. — Nine railroads centre in Manchester — 
the Concord, Northern, Montreal, Vermont Central, (in- 
cluding Vermont, Canada, and Ogdensburg,) Passumpsic, 
Merrimack and Connecticut River, jVIanchester and Law- 
rence, Contoocook Valley, and New Hampshire Central. 
The New Hampshire Central and Concord and Claremont 
are merged into one, under the name of the Merrimack and 
Connecticut River Railroad. 

Banks. — Amoskeag Bank; capital, ^150,000; incor- 
porated in 18-48. City Bank, incorporated in 1853 ; capital, 
$100,000. Manchester Bank, incorporated in 1845 ; cap- 
ital, $145,000. Amoskeag Savings Bank ; amount of de- 
posits January 1, 1854, $153,626. Manchester Savings 
Bank, incorporated in 1846 ; amount of deposits, .f! 100,000. 

Public Houses. — Manchester House, Elm Street, cor- 
ner of Merrimack, by William Shepherd. Franklin Hotel, 
by J. Goodrich, Manchester Street. City Hotel, by Frank- 
lin Tenney, Elm, corner of Lowell Street. Elm Street 
House, by D. T. Norris, Elm, corner of Concord Street. 
Piscataquog Hotel, Piscataquog, by J. B. Leavitt, south 
end of Main Street. Quimby's Hotel, by Benjamin B. 
Quimby, head of Granite Street. Amoskeag Hotel, by N. 
& J. B. Quimby, in the village of Amoskeag. 

By a recent act of the legislature, the villages of Amos- 
keag and Piscataquog have been annexed to Manchester. 

Squares. — Concord, betAveen Amherst and Concord 
Streets, is laid out with gravelled walks, ornamented with 
trees, and contains a circular reservoir, walled in with stone. 


Area, 4| acres. Hanover contains 4 acres of land, and has 
a large open reservoir. Merrimack, between Merrimack 
and Central Streets, contains a large open reservoir, and 
includes an area of 5| acres. Tremont, between Bridge 
and High Streets, is laid out with gravelled walks, and has 
a covered reservoir. Area, 2^ acres. The Park is a very 
pleasant plot of ground, situated between Park and Cedar 
Streets, and contains 3^ acres. 

The Compajiy^s Reservoir is situated about one mile, in 
a north-easteily direction, from the City Hall. It is a rec- 
tangular cistern, 484 by 234 feet at the top ; depth of 
water, 18 feet; capacity, 11,000,000 gallons. The height 
above the river is 150 feet. The object is to supply the 
mills and boarding houses with water. 

In addition to the ponds and reservoirs mentioned above, 
there are, besides, fourteen other cisterns and reservoirs 
located in various parts of the city. 

Manufacturing Companies. — Amoskeag Manufacturing 
Company ; capital, $3,000,000 ; incorporated in July, 
1831 ; commenred operations in 1837. The business of 
this company is divided into three departments — viz., 1st, 
land and water power ; 2d, manufacturing cotton goods ; 3d, 
machine shop — each department having a separate agency. 
Land and water power — E. A. Straw agent; J. Knowlton 
clerk. Manufacturing department, Amoskeag New Mills — 
David Gillis agent ; Charles liichardson clerk. Four mills 
are in operation. ■Mill number 1 contains 8960 spindles 
and 234 looms : number 2, 8832 spindles and 250 looms ; 
number 3, 20,478 spindles and 545 looms ; number 4, 
24,576 spindles and 63() looms; total, 62,846 spindles 
and 1665 loom ■:. A fifth mill is in process of erection, 
and will be completed, with its machinery, the coming 
winter. This mill will contain 20,000 spindles and 480 


looms for the manufacture of fine goods. This company 
has a mill for the manufacture of batting. They have also a 
mill in Hooksett, containing 8000 spindles. The goods 
manufactured consist of seven descriptions of tickings, a 
great variety of striped denims, drillings, sheetings, and 
cotton flannels. Number of yards produced annually, 
19,000,000. Do. pounds of cotton consumed annually, 
8,000,000 ; do. indigo, 35,000 ; do. potash, 80,000 ; do. 
copperas, 44,000 ; do. madder, 65,000 ; do. tons potato 
starch, 150 ; do. cords Avood, 9000 ; do. gallons sperm 
oil, 10,000. Amount annually paid out at the mills, 
$600,000. Xumber of hands employed — males, 600 ; 
females, 1900 ; total, 2500. To this company was award- 
ed the prize medal at the World's Fair, in London, for the 
best sheetings, drillings, tickings, and cotton flannels there 

There is connected with this department a savings in- 
stitution, where those employed by the company may de- 
posit their surplus earnings, and receive five per cent, 
interest per annum. The amount thus deposited January 
1, 1854, was $153,626.86, payable at seven days' notice. 

Amoskeag Machine Shop — Oliver W. Bailey agent ; 
Edward Kendall clerk. Machinery for cotton and woollen 
mills, locomotives, &c., are manufactured here. There are 
three shops, and one foundery. 500 men are constantly 
employed. There are consumed annually 2000 tons pig 
iron, 800 tons bar iron and steel, 100 tons copper, 40 tons 
brass castings, 250 tons boiler iron, 600 tons Lehigh .coal, 
600 tons Cumberland coal, 4000 bushels charcoal, 4000 
gallons oil, and 700 cords wood. They manufiicture from 
three to four locomotives per month, and pay annually 
$200,000. The average sura paid as wages, per month, is 


$12,000, which is distributed among the workmen at the 
rate of from $40 to $75 per month. 

Manchester Print Works — incorporated in 1839 ; cap- 
ital, $1,800,000. There are two department::. The man- 
ufacturing department consists of two mills. Waterman 
Smith agent; J. S. Shannon clerk. In both mills are 
56,000 spindles and 1450 looms. Number of hands em- 
ployed — males, 400 ; females, 1200 ; total, 1600. Num- 
ber of yards produced per annum, 14,000,000. The goode 
manufactured consist of mousseline de laines, cashmeres, 
Persian cloths, barege de laines, and cotton printing cloths. 
Number of pounds of wool consumed annually, 1,300,000; 
do. cotton, 1,800,000 ; do. cords wood, 2000 ; do. tons 
coal, 1000 ; do. gallons sperm oil, 5000 ; do. gallons olive 
oil, 2000 ; do. pounds oil soap, 80,000 ; do. tons starch. 
60. Amount annually paid out, .$450,000. Printing de- 
partment — Charles II. Dalton superintendent ; A. N. 
Baker clerk. These works were destroyed by fire Septem- 
ber 22, 1853. Loss, $250,000. Rebuilding was com- 
menced immediately. Printing started in the ne\\ works 
June 12, 1854, being 8 months and 21 days from the 
date of the fire. Number of printing machines, 12. Do. 
hands employed — males, 350 ; females, 30 ; total, 380. 
Do. yards printed per day, 45,000, consisting of mousseline 
de laines, cashmeres, Persian cloths, barege de laines, and 
madder cotton prints. Value of drugs consumed annually, 
$400,000. Number of tons of coal consumed annually. 
3000. Pay roll and incidental expenses per annum, 

Stark Mills — i*hineas Adams agent ; William B. Web- 
ster clerk. Incorporated in 1838 ; commenced operations in 
1839. Capital, $1,250,000. There are two mills. Num- 


ber 1 mill contains 21,400 spindles, and 460 looms for 
sheetings, and 126 for seamless bags. Number 2 mill 
contains 19,564 spindles, and 550 looms for sheetings and 
drillings. The goods manufactured consist of sheetings, 
drillings, and seamless bags. Number of males employed, 
200 ; do. females, 950. Amount of money paid at mills 
per month, $30,000. Consume annually 1,000,000 cubic 
feet of gas, 5880 gallons oil, 75 tons starch, 1000 tons 
coal, and 6,000,000 pounds cotton. Manufacture annu- 
ally 1,320,000 bags, 8,000,000 yards sheetings, and 500,- 
000 yards drillings. 

Blodgett Edge Tool Company — incorporated in 1853 ; 
capital stock, $100,000; J. G. Cilley agent. Manufac- 
ture all kinds of edge tools. Employ 125 hands. Dimen- 
sions of building, 160 feet long, 50 wide, and three stories 

Manchester Iron Company. Capital stock, $20,000 ; 
president, J. N. B. Fish ; treasurer, J. T. P. Hunt ; clerk, 
David Hill. Commenced operations in October, 1853. 
The ii.din building is 75 feet long by 50 wide, with an 
engine house, pattern shop, &c., adjoining, 40 feet long by 
60 broad. The engine is of 40 horse power. Located 
near the gas works and the Manchester and Lawrence Rail- 
road. Manufacture all sorts of castings for mills and other 

Blodgett Paper Company. Capital, $300,000 ; manu- 
facture 15,000 rolls .paper hangings per day, 16 tons paper 
per week ; employ 175 hands. Dimensions of building — 
200 feet long by 50 wide, five stories high, with an ell 65 
by 55 : second building — 200 feet long by 30 wide ; all 
brick. An additional building, 100 feet long by 30 wide, 
and three stories high, is in process of erection. 

B. F. Martin's Paper Mill. Dimensions of building, 


50 feet long by 90 in height ; 3 stories high ; built of 
brick. Manufacture 300 tons paper annually. Value, 
$82,500. Number of hands employed, 20. 

Manchester Gas Light Company. Capital, f 90,000. 
President, Robert Read ; superintendent, J. T. P. Hunt ; 
clerk, H. Foster. Incorporated in 1851; commenced oper- 
ations in September, 1852. These works are situated in 
the southerly part of the city, near the Manchester and 
Lawrence Railroad. The main buildings are of brick, with 
slated roofs. The retort house is 105 feet in length, 30 
feet in width, and 18 feet in height. It contains 12 
benches, each having 3 retorts, with a corresponding num- 
ber of coolers and washers. The purifying house is 65 
feet in length by 25 feet in width ; it contains purifiers, 
meters, offices, &c. The gasometer is 87i feet in diameter, 
25 feet in height, and is of sufficient capacity for the sto- 
rage of 150,000 cubic feet of gas. The tank is 90 feet in 
diameter, 25 feet deep, and is substantially built of brick 
and cement, with counter forts. Over the gasometer has 
been erected a building 97 feet square and 27 feet in 
height. The coal shed is so located that the coal is 
dumped from the cars directly through the roof. Ten 
miles of pipe, varying from 14 to 2 inches in diameter, 
have been laid, extending to different parts of the city. 
By means of the works now in operation, the company are 
able to furnish 150,000 cubic feet of gas in every 24 
hours, though the pipes are of sufficient capacity and 
strength to distribute double that quantity. 1100 tons of 
Pictou, Cannel, and Hillsborough coill have been consumed 
during the past year, producing in that time 8,837,000 
cubic feet of gas, about one half of which is consumed by 
the various manufacturing establishments and mills. These 
use 4705 burners, besides 40 street lamps ; diffisrent indi- 


viduals, 2717 burners ; and the city authorities furnish 
25 street lamps. Coke — whicli is coal deprived of its 
volatile principle — is sold at about five dollars per chal- 
dron. About 1500 bushels of the hydrate of lime are sold 
fram these works per annum, at eight cents per bushel, 
which is made from oyster shells, and, by its connection with 
ammonia in the process of purification, becomes far superior 
to common lime for land dressing, and is eagerly sought 
after by agriculturists. The gas is sold at the rate of 
$3.50 per 1000 cubic feet. 

The gasworks were constructed under the direction of 
Mr. J. T. P. Hunt, then and now superintendent ; and, in 
beaiity of architecture, substantial finish, and skilful ar- 
rangement of machinery for the ends proposed, are consid- 
ered as superior to any similar works in New England. 

There are also about 350 stores, groceries, and shops of 
various kinds within the limits of the city. 

The rapidity of the growth of the city of Manchester 
— which is as healthy as it is rapid — is unparalleled, at 
least in New England. Figures and statistics which to- 
day are a true representation of its condition, are not so 
to-morrow ; and it is, indeed, of but little consequence to 
record them, excepting that they may serve as milestones, 
to guide the stranger from the obscure hamlet and the 
times of small things to the flourishing city and the period 
of magnificent prosperity. 

Marlborough, Cheshire county. Bounded north by 
Roxbury, east by Dubliii and JafFrey, south by Troy, and 
west by Swanzcy and Keene. Area, about 13,000 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 55 miles, south-west; from Keene, 
6, south. There are several ponds, which are the sources 
of some of the branches of the Ashuelot. The surface is 


broken ; the soil rocky, but excellent for grazing. Various 
branches of manufacturing are carried on to some extent 
here. There are four pail factories, in which 35 hands are 
employed ; one box and measure factory, eight hands ; one 
machine shop, 16 hands ; one box and tray factory, five 
hands ; one chair factory, four hands ; one earthen ware 
shop, four hands ; one faucet manufactory, four hands ; and 
one yarn factory, five hands. There are also two stores, 
three meeting houses, and one hotel. 

Marlborough was granted, April 29, 1751, to Timothy 
Dwight and 61 others. By reason of the breaking out of 
the French and Indian war the conditions of the charter were 
not seasonably fulfilled ; the first charter was forfeited, and 
a second granted September 21, 1754. First settlers, Wil- 
liam Barker, Abel Woodward, Benjamin Tucker, Daniel 
Goodenough, and one McAlister. 

A Congregational church was formed in 1778. At 
present there is also a Baptist and a Universalist society. 

Population, 887. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
225. Inventory, $321,156. Value of lands, $179,374. 
Stock in trade, $4441. Value of mills, factories, &c., 
$12,225. Money on hand, &c., $40,830. Number of 
sheep, 608. Do. neat stock, 804. Do. horses, 152. 

Marlow, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Acworth 
and Lempster, east by Washington and Stoddard, south by 
Gilsum, and west by Alstead. Area, 15,937 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 45 miles, south-west ; from Keene, 15, 
north. Ashuelot River passes through nearly the whole 
length of the town, in a south-westerly direction. The soil is 
moist, but productive. On the Ashuelot and other streams 
are large tracts of valuable interval. The sm-face is gener- 
ally uneven. This town was gi-anted, October 7, 1761, to 


William Noyes and 69 others. First settlers, Joseph 
Tubbs, N. Royce, N. Miller, Nathan Huntley, Solomon 
Mack, Solomon Gee, Eben Lewis, Samuel and John Gustin, 
and others. The first town meeting was held in March, 
1776. The first inhabitants were Baptists ; they formed a 
church, and settled Eev. Caleb Blood, in January, 1778. 
There is at present only a Methodist society. 

Population, 708. Number of polls, 190. Inventory, 
$290,308. Value of lands, $151,497. Do. mills, fac- 
tories, &c., $4675. Stock in trade, $9423. Money on 
hand, at interest, &c., $45,466. Number of sheep, 1839. 
Do. neat stock, 847. Do. horses, 179. 

Mason, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by Tem- 
ple and Wilton, east by Milford and Brookline, south by 
Ashby, Massachusetts, and west by New Ipswich. Area, 
18,860 acres. Distance from Concord, 43 miles, south ; 
from Amherst, 15, soiith-west. This is a hilly and healthy 
township. There are no swamps or stagnant pools, and 
only one small pond. The soil is good. In the south and 
east parts of the town chestnut and pine abound. Souhe- 
gan River is the principal stream, and affords many fine 
mill sites. It is divided into nine school districts, and 
supports ten schools. Education receives considerable 
attention. There are four religious societies — viz., two 
Congregational, one Christian, and one Baptist. The prin- 
cipal village is situated in the north-west part of the town, 
on the Souhegan. Here are some of the best water privi- 
leges in this section of the state. The water at this place 
falls 80 feet in a distance of 80 rods, and is easily made 
available for manufacturing purposes. There is already a 
large cotton factory in operation, and another is to be 
erected M'ithin a few months. A large portion of the water 


power is yet unappropriated. Natural facilities, together 
with the disposition now evinced to develop them, render 
it highly probable that this will soon be a place of consid- 
erable business. The village is the present terminus of 
the Peterborough and Shirley Railroad. The railroad 
bridge just below the village is one of the most splendid 
and substantial structures of the kind in New England. 
The scenery about the village is beautifully picturesque. 

The Columbian Manufacturing Company, Mason Vil- 
lage — Robert B. Williams president ; Stephen Smith agent. 
Capital stock, $200,000. Number of shares, 200; par 
value, $1000. Do. spindles, 6200. Do. looms, 175. Do. 
hands employed — males, 106; females, 130; total, 236. 
Amount of stock consumed annually, 750,000 pounds. 
Number of yards produced per annum, 1,950,000. Kind 
of goods, colored cottons. Number yarn, 14. 

Asher Peabody, manufacturer of shoes, employs 25 

Amos Scripture, agent, manufacturer of japanned tin- 
ware. First established in 1833. Number of hands em- 
ployed, 12. 

There are two gristmills, five sawmills, two hotels, five 
stores, two blacksmith, and two cabinet shops. 

This town was granted August 26, 1768. It was for- 
merly known by the name of Number One. The first eftbrt 
to settle here was made in 1751 ; and in the following 
year Enoch Lawrence made a permanent settlement. The 
Congregational church was formed in 1772 ; the Baptist 
society was organized in 1786. 

Population, 1626. Number of legal voters in 1854, 335. 
Do. houses, 313. Do. families, 346. Do. farms, 168. 
Inventory, $483,256. Value of lands, $262,606. Stock 
in trade, $17,700. Number of sheep, 254. Do. neat 
stock, 1069. Do. horses, 173. 


Meredith, Belknap county, liounded north by Cen- 
tre Harbor, east by Winnipiseogee Lake, south by a 
river of the same name and Sanbornton, and west by 
Sanbornton Bay and New Hampton. Distance from Con- 
cord, 29 miles, north, by the Boston, Concord, and Mon- 
treal Railroad. It was incorporated December 30, 1768, 
and was first called New Salem. 

This is a very large township, covering an area of near- 
ly 13 square miles. Several pleasant and thriving villages 
are scattered over its limits. At Meredith Village there are 
four meeting houses, five stores, one hotel, and several shoe 
shops. On a small stream which flows through this place 
from Mcasley Pond into Winnipiseogee Lake are a large tan- 
nery, a gristmill, sawmill, and a manufactory the wood- 
work of pianos is prepared, in which about 50 hands are 
employed. At Meredith Centre are u meeting house belong- 
ing to a Freewill Baptist society, one saw and gristmill, and 
three stores ; and about a mile distant is a Baptist meeting 
house. Lake Village, pleasantly situated at the foot of Long 
Bay, which at the Wicrs forms the outlet of Winnipiseogee 
Lake, is a thriving manufacturing district, containing about 
1500 inhabitants. Here is a large cotton warp manuflictory ; 
Robert Thompson agent. Number of spindles, 2200. Do. 
pounds manufactured per annum, 78,000. Do. pounds 
consumed annually, 100,000. Do. hands employed, 30. 

Knitting and Hosiery Manufactory — Lyman B. Pulce- 
fer president. Number of spindles, 500. Do. pounds of 
goods manufactured annually, 25,000. Do. pounds of 
raw material consumed per annum, 40,000. Do. hands 
employed, 12. 

Iron Foundery and Machine Shop — Cale, Davis, & Co. 
Capital stock, $40,000* Manufiicture ploughs, stoves. 


machinery, and castings. Number of men employed, 

Levi Stevens, coppersmith and brass founder. 

There are also three meeting houses, eight stores, one 
hotel, four shoe factories, two carriage shops, and one bed- 
stead manufactory. 

Yarn Manufactory — Moses Sargent president ; J. M. 
Sai-gent clerk. Capital stock, ^7000. Goods manufac- 
tured, knitting and hosiery yarn. Has 1000 spindles. 
Number of pounds of goods manufactured annually, 50,000. 
Value of stock consumed annually, 1580,000. Hands em- 
ployed, 25. There ai'e also connected with this establish- 
ment three sets of woollen cards. 

Meredith Bridge is the principal village. It is connect- 
ed by a bridge over the Winnipiseogee River with Gilford 
Village, and both are called Meredith Bridge. This is a 
flourishing manufacturing village, and the seat of much 
business. On the Meredith side are a large, well-constructed, 
and handsome hotel ; a meeting house, belonging to the Con- 
gregational society ; a large car factory, in which are em- 
ployed about 75 men ; a ptxil and bedstead factory ; a cotton 
mill, in which 70 operatives are employed, the pro][iei"ty of 
which is estimated at $30,000 ; a woollen factory, in which 
30 hands are employed ; capital, |> 10,000. There are 
also ten stores, two jewellers' shops, and two furniture 
warehouses. The county of Belknap has recently pur- 
chased a large farm on the Meredith side, and has erected 
upon it spacious and convenient buildings, at a cost of about 
."$5000, for the support and employment of county paupers. 
A county jail, to be built of granite throughout, is also in 
process of erection on the same grounds. 

The Belknap Gazette and the New Hampshire Demo 
crat, weekly newspapers, are published here. 


On the Guilford side are a large cotton mill, where tick- 
ings are manufactured ; capital, $40,000 ; number of 
hands employed, 60 ; a peg factory, in which 30 hands 
are employed ; a sculptor's shop, a court house, two meeting 
houses, two stores, two hotels, one saw, and one gristmill. 
As a farming town, Meredith is surpassed by but few 
towns in the state. The soil is generally deep, fertile, and 
easily cultivated. Within a few years past, considerable 
attention has been paid to agricidture. In many places the 
scenery is beautiful and romantic. As the traveller passes 
along the road leading through the north-Avesterly j^art of 
the toAvn, he beholds spread out before him a lovely picture 
of Nature. On the east and south-east, the placid waters of 
the largest lake in New Hampshire, with its countless 
islands, arrest the eye, stretching in a south-easterly direc- 
tion beyond the reach of vision. On the north-east, Ossipee 
rises majestically from its rugged base ; while towards the 
north is seen Red Hill — an eminence Avell known to 
travellers. In the vicinity of the lake Indian relics are 
often found. Meredith Bridge is one of the pleasantest 
villages in the state. Many of the houses are large, and 
handsoiup in structure. The cemetery is one of those 
charming spots that always attract the eye and elicit the 
admiration of the stranger. It is beautifully located be- 
side the Winnipiseogee River, and is laid out with taste and 

The population of Meredith, at present, is about 3800. 
Number of legal voters, 929. Inventory in 1852, 
$899,851. Value of lands, $532,972. Do. factories, 
mills, &c., $21,600. Money on hand, at interest, &c., 
$32,972. Value of shares in banks and other corpora- 
tions, $29,600. Number of sheep, 2100. Do. neat stock, 
2133. Do. horses, 376. 


Merrimack, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Bedford, east by Litchfield, south by Nashua, and west by 
Amherst. Area, 19,361 acres. Distance from Concord, 
27 miles, south ; from Amherst, 6, east. Merrimack River 
laves its entire eastern border, and affords communication by 
water with Boston ; which, however, is of but little impor- 
tance, since the Nashua and LoAvell Railroad passes through 
the town, parallel with the river. The Souhegan, after 
winding through this town in an easterly direction, dis- 
charges its waters into the Merrimack, affording in its 
course many valuable mill privileges, some of the best of 
which are unoccupied. 

The surface is generally level, broken by a few moderate 
swells. The soil in many parts is very fertile, especially 
the intervals along the river. Merrimack claims the honor 
of having first discovered the art of making Leghorn bon- 
nets. Some of the first manufacture were sold at the price 
of $50 apiece. The manufacturing interest is here exhib- 
ited on a moderate scale, it being almost wholly confined 
to two carpet factories, which in themselves arc truly de- 
serving of great credit. The energetic spirit which has 
recently manifested itself in efforts for improven»ent and 
progress in education is highly praiseworthy. There are 
four stores, four sawmills, two gristmills, three wheel- 
wrights' shops, four blacksmiths' shops, and two meeting 
houses. This town was first called Souhegan East. It 
was incorporated April 2, 1746, though it had already been 
settled 13 years. 

The first house in town was erected several years before 
any permanent settlement was made, and was occupied as 
a place of traffic with the Indians. It was called Crom- 
well's House, being owned by John Cromwell, from Eng- 
land. For a long time he carried on a profitable trade 



with the Indians in the purchase of their furs, -weighing 
them with his foot in the opposite scale, until the latter, 
having discovered his trick, and chagrined at the deception 
practised upon them, formed the determination to kill him. 
This design was made known to Cromwell, who buried his 
ill-gotten wealth and made his escape. Within a short 
time after his flight a party of the Pcnnacook tribe made 
their appearance, and, not finding him, burned his house. 

The name of the town is derived from the river on which 
it is situated. It was originally written Monnomoke, and 
Merramake, which latter is the term used by the Pennacook 
tribe, and in the Indian language signifies sturgeon. Fish 
of this kind were formerly abundant in this stream. 

A Congregational church was organized here September 
5, 1772. 

Population, 1250. Number of polls, 313. Inventory, 
$501,840. Value of lands, $298,190. Do. stock in 
trade, $34,138. Do. mills, factories, &c., $9150. Money 
on hand, at interest, &c., $22,800. Number of sheep, 
368. Do. neat stock, 802. Do. horses, 141. 

MiCDLETOX, Strafford county. Bovinded north by 
Brookfield and Wakefield, east by Milton, south by Mil- 
ton and New Durham, and west by New Durham. Area, 
9840 acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, north-east ; 
from Dover, 25, north-west. This is a very level township. 
There are no elevations excepting a part of ^Nloose, or Bald, 
Mountain, which separates it from Brookfield. There are 
no ponds or rivers of note. The soil is rocky and sterile. 
There are one meeting house, owned by the Freewill Bap- 
tist sociefy, two stores, and one hotel. It was incorporated 
March 4, 1778. 

Population, 476. Number of legal voters in 1854, 130. 


Inventory, $128,512. Value of lands, $78,305. Num- 
ber of sheep, 273. Do. neat stock, 524. Do. horses, 83. 

Milan, Coiis county. Bounded north by Dummer, east 
by Success, south by Berlin, and M'est by Kilkenny and 
Stark. Area, 31,15-1 acres. Distance from Concord, 150 
miles, north-east ; from Lancaster, 22, north-east. The 
Androscoggin River passes through the eastern part. Its 
tributaries here are the Chickwalneppee, Leavett, and 
Stearns Rivers. There is but one pond of any consider- 
able size, which is called Cedar Pond. The surface is un- 
even, and in some parts rocky, though there are no moun- 
tains. The soil is various. There are seven sawmills in 
this town, in four of which 40 hands are employed; ag- 
gregate capital, $51,000. There are three stores, one 
hotel, and one meeting house, which is owned by the 
Methodist society. It was granted, December 31, 1771, to 
Su- William Mayne and others, under the name of Pauls- 
burg, which name was retained until 1824. 

Population, 493. Number of legal voters in 1854, 153. 
Inventory, .$106,346. Value of lands, $54,416. Do. 
mills, &c., $2400. Stock in trade, $1600. Number of 
sheep, 707. Do. neat stock, 617. Do. horses, 80. ' 

MiLFORD, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Lyndeborough, Mont Vernon, and Amherst, east by Am- 
herst and Hollis, south by HolHs and BrOokline, and west 
by Mason and Wilton. Area, 15,402 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 31 miles, south; from Amherst, 5, south- 
west. Milford lies on both sides of the Souhegan River, 
which runs in an easterly direction, affording tnany fine 
water privileges. The intervals along its course are about 
half a mile in width, and are very fertile. Large quan- 


titles of excellent fruit are produced here annually. The 
surface is moderately uneven ; the soil is productive. On 
account of improvements made in its water power, it has 
recently grown into considerable importance. The inhab- 
itants are noted for sobriety, thrift, and industry. 

The Souhegan Manufacturing Company were incorporat- 
ed in June, 184G. Capital stock, $150,000. Number of 
spindles, 5000. Do. looms, 128, The kind of goods man- 
ufactured is ticking. Number of yards manufactured per 
annum, 1,100,000. Eaw material consumed per annum, 
480,000 pounds cotton. Number of hands employed, 
160. The machinery is driven by steam and water power. 
Moses French agent ; D. S. Burnham clerk. 

The Milford ^lanufacturing Company were incorporated 
in 1810. Capital, $30,000. Number of spindles, 900. 
Do. looms, 30. The kind of goods manufactured is tick- 
ing. Number of yards produced per annum, 250,000. 
Do. pounds cotton consumed, 100,000. Do. hands em- 
ployed, 40. There is also a sawmill connected with this 
establishment,, in which 400,000 feet of lumber are man- 
ufactured per annum. Hiram A. Daniels agent and clerk. 

The Milford Plane Company employ 50 hands. Year- 
ly business amounts to $50,000. The celebrated eagle 
plane is manufactured here. 

There are also two tinware manufactories, one employ- 
ing 15 hands, and the other 2 ; three boot and shoe man- 
ufactories, where about 75 hands are employed ; two car- 
riage shops, one employing 20 hands, and the other 8 ; 
one iron foundery, in which are engaged 35 hands ; two 
tanneries, employing 12 hands ; one manufactory of agri- 
cultural implements, in which 35 hands are employed ; 
one furniture shop, employing 6 hands ; two tailors' shops, 
employing 14 hands ; and one printing and bookbinding 


establishment. There are also seven stores, one hotel, and 
two meeting houses — one Congregational, organized in 
1788 ; and one Baptist, organized September 5, 1809. 

Milford was incorporated January 11, 1794. The first 
» settlers were John Burns, William Peabody, Benjamin 
Hopkins, Caleb Jones, Nathan Hutchinson, Andrew Brad- 
ford, Captain Josiah Crosby, and William Wallace. Cap- 
tain Crosby was a revolutionary officer. 

Population, 2159. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
529. Inventory, |884,960. Value of lands, $493,365. 
Do. mills, fiictories, &c., $75,000. Do. stock in trade, 
$46,750. Money on hand, at interest, &c., $55,493. 
Number of sheep, 139. Do. neat stock, 989. Do. horses, 

MiT.LSFiEi-D, Coos county. Bounded north by Dixville, 
east by Errol, south by Dummer, and west by ungranted 
lands and Dixville. Area, 23,200 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 150 miles, north; from Lancaster, 35, north- 
east. Clear Stream waters its northern extremity, and 
Phillips River and other small streams its other parts. 
There arc several ponds, the largest of which is 300 rods 
long and 140 wide. Its northern portion is mountainous. 
The surface is generally uneven, and the soil strong, but 
, somewhat cold. This town was granted, March 1, 1774, 
to Sir Thomas Mills, George Boyd, and others. 

Population, 2. 

Mii.TON, Strafford county. Bounded north-west by 
Middlcton and Wakefield, east by Salmon Falls lliver, 
which separates it from Lebanon, Maine, and south-west 
by Farmington and New Durham. Area, 25,000 acrea. 
Distance from Concord, 40 miles, north-east ; from Dover, 


20, north-west. Salmon Falls River washes its whole east- 
ern border for a distance of 13 miles. A branch of this 
river passes through its northern extremity. Milton Pond 
lies at the foot of Tencriffe Mountain — a bold and rocky 
elevation, which extends along its eastern section. The soil 
is generally good, the surfice somewhat broken, and affords 
excellent pasturage. The inhabitants are mostly engaged 
in farming. 

Milton !Mills — John Townsend proprietor ; capital, 
$50,000 ; manufacture flannels ; have 18 looms and 1200 
spindles. Amount manufactured per annum, {^90,000. 
Do. stock used per annum, 120,000 pounds wool. Num- 
ber of operatives, 35. 

This town was formerly a part of Rochester, from which 
it was taken and incorporated June 11, 1802. There are 
two meeting houses — one Congregational, and one Chris- 

Population, 1629. Number of polls, 406. Inventory, 
$414,982. Value of lands, $236,265. Do. mills and 
factories, $8500. Do. stock in trade, $10,730. Money 
at interest, &c., $12,939. Number of sheep, 708. Do. 
neat stock, 1264. Do. horses, 189. 

MoxKOE, Grafton county. Bounded north by Littleton, 
east by Lyman, south by Bath, and west by Barnet, Ver- 
mont. This town formerly constituted the western portion 
of Lyman, from which it was separated and incorporated 
July 13, 1854. The surface is broken, and in some parts 
hilly, and affords excellent grazing. The soil is generally 
good, and produces, with proper cultivation, the grasses and 
grains in abundance. The Avestern slope of Gardner's 
Mountain produces excellent grass and wheat. There is 
considerable interval. Within the limits of tliis town are 


the Narrows, at which place the river is only five rods 
in width, being confined by walls of slate. The scenery is 
grand and picturesque. Near the north-Avestern extremity 
of the town, at the confluence of the Connecticut and Pas- 
sumpsic Rivers, the former assumes the shape of a dia- 
mond, its greatest width being about one mile, encircling 
20 islands, and affording a delightful landscape. 

There are several sawmills here, at some of which an 
extensive business is carried on. In one of these, during 
the month of June, 1854, were manufactured 724,141 feet 
of lumber, &c. Number of hands employed, 35. There 
are also a carriage factory and machine shop, where a large 
business is carried on. Bog iron ore and zinc and copper 
ore are found here in various localities. 

There are two stores, one hotel, and one meeting house. 

Population in 1854, about 750. Number of legal 
voters, 156. 

Mont Vernon, Hillsborough county. Bounded north 
by New Boston, east by Amherst, south by Amherst and 
Milford, and west by Lyndeborough. Area, 7975 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 28 miles, south ; from Amherst, 
3, north-west. There is but one stream of any note. It 
rises in the northern part of the town, and passes into Am- 
herst, near the eastern extremity of the plain. That part 
of the stream near its mouth was called by the Indians 
Quohquinapassakessanannagnog. The soil is strong and 
productive — well adapted to the growth of the various 
grasses and grains. The situation is elevated, and the sur- 
face uneven. The village is located upon the highest ele- 
vation, and is healthy and pleasant. It was originally a 
part of Amherst, from which it was scpnrated and incorpo- 
rated December 15, 1803. 


The Congregational church was organized here in 1780. 
There are four stores, two hotels, and twelve shops and 
mills of various kinds. Tliere is a writing desk and fancy- 
box manufactory, owned by Messrs. Bragg & Conant, in 
which 30 hands are employed. 

Population, 122. Number of polls, 1T6. Inventory, 
$262,256. Value of lands, 1 107,026. Stock in trade, 
$7200. Money at interest, &c., $11,764. Number of 
sheep, 86. Do. neat stock, 624. Do. horses, 89. 

MouLTONBOROUGii, Carroll county. Bounded north by 
Sandwich and Ossipee, east by Ossipec, soiitli by Tufton- 
borough and Lake Winnipiseogee, and west by Centre 
Harbor and Squam Lake. Distance from Concord, 50 
miles, north ; from Ossipee, 12, east. The surface is much 
broken by mountains, lakes, and ponds. Great Squam 
Pond lies in the western part, and Squam and Long Ponds 
in the south, the latter of which is terminated by a neck 
of valuable land, extending for some distance into Winnipi- 
seogee Lake. Red Hill, which rises about 2000 feet above 
the level of the sea, is composed of a bcautifid sienite, in 
which the feldspar is of a gray ash color. Near the sum- 
mit, where the ledges of rock arc exposed to the action of 
the air, the rock is of a reddish hue. It is covered with 
uvae ^usi, the leaves of which are turned into a brilliant 
red by the early frosts. Great numbers of visitors, attract- 
ed by the unrivalled grandeur and beauty of the scenery 
of the surrounding country, ascend this mountain in the 
summer months. On a clear day, the vicN\' from its summit 
is extensive. Mountains, lakes, islands, forests, and culti- 
vated fields are here presented in a single vicM'. On the 
south side of the mountain is a spring of pure cold Avater, 
about' sixteen feet in diameter, from the centre of which 


the water, impregnated with small particles of a fine white 
sand, is constantly thrown up to the height of two feet 
above the surface of the spring. It affords water sufficient 
to di"ive saw or gristmills. On the stream, about a mile 
below, is a beautiful cascade and waterfall of 70 feet per- 
pendicular. Descending the mountain on the left of the 
fall, you soon come to a cove, in which charcoal and other 
substances are found, giving rise to the belief that this was 
once a place of concealment for the Indians. Many In- 
dian implements and relics have been found in this town. 
In 1820, on a small island in the Winnipiseogee, was 
found a curiously wrought gun barrel, much decayed by 
rust and age, enclosed in the trunk of a pine tree sixteen 
inches in diameter. About the year 1817, on the north 
line of the town, near the mouth of Melvin Kiver, a gigan- 
tic skeleton, apparently that of a man seven feet in height, 
was found buried in the sand. The Ossipee tribe once 
lived in this region ; and several years ago a tree was 
standing, on which was carved in hieroglyphics a history 
of their deeds and expeditions. 

There are three stores, seventeen common schools, one 
hotel, and three meeting houses, two of which belong to 
the Congregational society, and one to the Methodist and 
Universalist societies, who occupy it alternately. 

This town was granted, November 17, 1763, by the 
Masonian proprietors, to Colonel Jonathan Moulton and 
61 others. The first house of public worship was erected 
in 1773, and was blown down by a violent east wind in 
1819. The Congregational church was formed March 12, 

Population, 1748. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
420. Amount of local funds for schools, $1910. Inven- 
tory, $337,764. Value of lands, $200,078. Do. mills, 


|2115. Stock in trade, $2225. Money at interest, &c., 
|557G. Number of sheep, 1426. Do. neat stock, 1595. 
Do. horses, 208. 

Nashua, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by Mer- 
rimack, east by TJtchfield and Hudson, south by Tyngs- 
borough and Dunstable, Massachusetts, and west by Hollis. 
Area, 18,878 acres. Distance from Concord, 35 miles, 
south by the Concord Railroad, which terminates here. The 
soil has considerable variety. It is easy of cultivation', and 
generally productive. 'J'hc eastern portion of the town 
(now city) of Nashua, lying upon the river, presents a 
very even surface ; the western part is more broken and 
hilly, though by no means mountainous. It is watered by 
Salmon Ihook ; also by the Nashua River — a fertilizing 
stream, which rises in Massachusetts. 

The valley of the Nashaway, or, in modern phrase, 
Nashua, sheltered one of the earliest settlements in New 
Hampshire. The tribe of Indians bearing the name iden- 
tical with that of this river had its head quarters in the 
present town of Lancaster, Massachusetts, through which 
the Nashua flows. The settlement, though commenced 
some years previously, received its charter in 167o. Its 
name was Dunstable, and its territory was much greater 
than the present city of Nashua, embracing in addition 
Dunstable, Tyngsborough, and parts of Groton, Townsend, 
and other towns in Massachusetts, and Hollis, Rrookline, 
Milford, Hudson, parts of Amherst, INIerrimack, liitchiield, 
and sections of other towns in New Hampshire. More 
romance of history clusters around this locality than at- 
taches to most others in the state, filling with poetry the 
memory of those days of "war's alarms," — 



• What time the noble Lovewell came, 

With fifty men from Dunstable, 
The cruel Pequ'at tribe to tame, 
With arms and bloodshed terrible.' 

The names of Lovewell, Weld, Blan chard, Waldo, Cum- 
ings, French, Farrell, Lund, and Coburn are cherished as 
belonging to some of the first inhabitants. For a long 
time it was a frontier town, exposed to Indian depredations, 
and annoyed by wars and sudden onsets of the relentless 
foe. In the spring of 1702 a party of Indians made an 
assault upon the settlement and killed several persons, 
among whom was the Rev. Thomas Weld, the first minis- 
ter. In Lovewell's war, the company from this town, under 
the noble captain Avhose invaluable services give name to 
the campaign, acquired imperishable fame. 

The Congregational church was organized in 1685. 

The village (now city) of Nashua may properly date 
back to 1803, when a post office was established, houses 
built, a canal boat launched, and, with much parade, chris- 
tened " The Nashua," and " Nashua Village " substituted 
for "Indian Head." A tavern, a store, and two or three 
dwelling houses were at that time the principal buildings. 
The following table exhibits the movement of population 
in Nasliua : — 












1850, (and Nashville,; 


The present population is probably something more than 


10,000. It will be noticed that its growth was quite 
gradual until subsequent to 1820, when manufacturing 
enterprises were undertaken upon an extensive scale. In 
1822-1823 the land now owned by the Nashua Manu- 
facturing Company was secured for manufacturing pur- 
poses, in 1824 a charter was obtained, and in 1825— 
1826 the mills went into full operation. The works of 
the Jackson Company went into operation in 1826. 

In 1837 the thriving village so far eclipsed the ancient 
town as to give its name, Nashua, to the old township of 
Dunstable. In 1842, in consequence of the hasty action 
of the legislature, instigated by some of the participants 
in a foolish quarrel about the location of the new Town 
House, (which the majority had located near the bridge, on 
the south side of the river,) that portion of the town 
north of the river, with a small section south of it, near 
its mouth, and north of the Nashua and Lowell Railroad, 
(it including a portion of the property of the Jackson Com- 
pany,) was incorporated with the name of Nashville. In 
1853 a charter was granted and accepted, by which the 
original town became a unit under a city government. 

Nashua, in 1854, presents an aspect gratifying to the 
pride of her sons, and indicative of that indomitable spirit 
of intelligent enterprise for which the descendants of the 
Pilgrims are so distinguished. For variety and perfection 
of mechanical skill she yields the palm to none of her sister- 
hood of the Granite State cities ; and in point of population 
she claims the second rank. Cotton manufacture, though 
important, does less for her than the combined benefits of 
other manufactures. Artificers in wood and iron, in cards, 
paper, and leather ; builders of ponderous or curious ma- 
chines ; makers of edge tools, locks, and shuttles ; forge- 
men, founderymen, and artisans of every degiee and multi- 


farious callings, — together swell the sum of her benefits, 
until the cup of her prosperity runs over. 

Few places of similar growth and pursuits wear so at- 
tractive an appearance. The placid Nashua flows through 
the midst of the city; grateful shade of grand old for- 
est trees is each year thickening in the principal streets ; 
and the hand of taste is yearly becoming more apparent in 
architecture and gardening. 

In morals, like all other portions of " Paradise Lost," 
the" trail of the serpent is visible upon a landscape where 
virtue and charity are ever-blooming floAvers, though 
frail, and far too few. In morals, Nashua will compare fa- 
vorably with the great multitude of New England cities 
of 10,000 inhabitants. 

There are eight religious societies with houses for wor- 
ship. The First Congregational church. Rev. Daniel 
March ; Olive Street Congregational, Rev. Austin Rich- 
ards ; Pearl Street Congregational, Rev. E. E. Adams ; 
Baptist, Rev. D. D. Pratt ; Unitarian, Rev. M. W. Willis ; 
Universalist, Rev. C. II. Fay ; Lowell Street Methodist 
Episcopal, Rev. Elihu Scott ; Chestnut Street Methodist 
Episcopal, Rev. Jarcd Perkins. Prosperous Sabbath 
schools, with ample libraries, exist in each, and the 
amount paid in furtherance of various objects of Christian 
benevolence and philanthropy is quite respectable. In one 
of them, during the past year, between |2000 and $3000, 
in contributions and legacies, have been contributed. 

Few towns in the state have made more substantial prog- 
ress, during ten years past, in the cause of popular edu- 
cation. The schools arc now more systematically and ju- 
diciously graded, furnished with better houses and educa- 
tional helps, and supplied with teachers of more experi- 
ence and success than the great majority of public schools 


throughout the state. The people have been educated, by 
lectmes, and discussions, and by the local press, till a more 
just and discriminating idea of the wants and value of 
right education now prevails. A great revolution in the 
popular miud by such means secured the High School 
House and apparatus, in district number 4, at a cost of 
$15,000. The state may be challenged to produce abetter 
house or better school. The whole number of districts is 
11, occupying 23 school rooms, and employing between 30 
and 40 teachers even in winter, most of whom are females. 

The nucleus of a public library was created by the in- 
stitution of the Union Athena;ura July 23, 1851. It is 
yet in its infancy, numbering but 795 volumes. An annu- 
al course of winter lectures is given under the auspices of 
the Athenaeum. 

The Pennichuck Waterworks have been constructed 
during the present year, (1854.) The Pennichuck has its 
rise in a pond near the north-western boundary of the city, 
is fed by many never-failing springs of soft, pure water, 
and falls into tiie Merrimack. The Avater is taken, at a 
point just above the Concord road, from an artificial pond 
of 26 acres, and forced by a jonval turbine wheel of 
eighty-horse power into a reservoir half a mile north of 
the City Hall, 110 feet above the street level at that point, 
and of a capacity of 1,250,000 gallons. The number of 
hydrants is 32 ; the pipe to the receiving reservoir is eight 
inches in diameter ; from the reservoir the pipe is fourteen 
inches. E. P. Emerson is siiperiutendent of the works, 
and Russell E. Dewey clerk. 

Few places have better railroad facilities. The Nashua 
and Lowell loads to Boston and the east ; the Concord to 
Canada and the western lakes ; the Nashua and Worces- 
ter to Albany and New York ; and the Wilton road pierces 


Hillsborough county north-westwardly. The Nashua and 
Epping, a projected air line to Portland, much needed to 
straighten the route from the British provinces, via Port- 
land, to New York, has already been surveyed. 

Manufacturing Establishments. — Nashua Manufactur- 
ing Company. The following statistics of the Nashua 
Manuflictuiing Company are taken from the County Record, 
published, in the fall of 1853, by Dodge & Noyes : 
Daniel Hussey agent ; John A. Baldwin clerk. Incorpo- 
rated in June, 1823. Capital, 1 1,000,000. Number 1 
mill is 155 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 5 stories high. In 
December, 1824, the machine shop was completed, and in 
December. 1825, number 1 mill went into partial opera- 
tion. It contains 6784 spindles and 220 looms, and man- 
ufactures 30 inch drills and number 14 yarn. Number 2 
mill was built in 1827 ; is 155 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 
6 stories high; runs 12,170 spindles and 315 looms; and 
makes 28 inch printing cloth, 30 inch jeans, and numbers 
20 and 24 yarn. Number 3 mill was erected in 1836 ; is 
220 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 5 stories high ; operates 
9088 spindles and 270 looms ; and produces 37 inch sheet- 
ings and number 14 yarn. Number 4 mill was built in 
1844 ; is 198 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 5 stories high ; 
runs 9408 spindles and 278 looms ; and produces 37 inch 
sheetings and number 13 yarn. Besides these mills, there 
are a machine shop, 308 feet long, and 1 and 2 stories high, 
rented for various purposes ; forty tenements for over- 
seers and boarding-house keepers ; and two brick houses 
for agent and clerk. The company employ 1000 hands 
— 850 females and 150 males. The female operatives 
average from ^2 to ^2.25 per Aveek, besides board. An 
addition to number 1 mill is now in progress — 108 feet 
long, 48 Avide, and three stories high. It will accommo- 



date about 3000 spindles. The company Avill then have in 
operation more tlian 40,000 spindles. 

An operatives' library and savings institution are con- 
nected with this company. 

The Jackson Company employ about 450 hands, use 
4000 bales of cotton, and make about 5,000,000 yards of 
cloth yearly. The present agent is Pliny Lawtou ; R. W. 
Lane clerk. Incorporated in 1830. Mill number 1 has 
6656 spindles and 206 looms, and manufactures number 
14 sheeting, 37 and 46 inches wide. Mill number 2 is 
also employed in the manufacture of sheetings and 30 inch 
shirtings, and runs 5888 spindles and 188 looms. There 
are thirty-seven tenements for boarding purposes and for 
the agent and clerk. The company have an ample saw 
and gristmill connected with their dam, rented by Roby, 
McQuestcn, & Co. An extensive improvement is now 
being made by this company. A new mill, 3 stories high, 
and 284 by 48 feet, is in progress of erection. It is to be 
used for -weaving and dressing. Another building, now 
nearly completed, will be divided into a counting room, re- 
pair shop, and cloth room. It will be 200 by 40 feet, and 
2 stories high. 

The Nashua Iron Company commenced operations in 
1848. Daniel H. Dearborn superintendent ; Franklin 
Munroe clerk. Capital, ^100,000. This company carry 
on the forging business, and manufacture car axles, shaft- 
ing, bowling locomotive tires, and all kinds of wrought- 
iron shapes. Employ 75 hands. 

Edge Tool ( 'ompany — G. W. Underbill superintendent 

of works ; T. G. Banks, Jr., clerk. Manufacture all kinds 

of edge tools. The works are operated by a new wheel of 

100 horse power, called the jonval turbine. Employ 70 

1 27 


hands. Located on Salmon Brook, one mile and a half 
from the City Hall. 

Nashua Gaslight Company. In the autumn of 1853 
the gasworks went into operation. The buildings are sit- 
uated near the Concord Railroad, south of the river. The 
entire works are built in a thorough and substantial style. 
,Capital, 175,000. W. D. Clerk agent ; Henry O. Winch 

Bobbin and Shuttle Manufactory — Josephus Baldwin 
proprietor. Manufacture all kinds of bobbins and shut- 
tles. Number of hands employed, 200. 

Universal Screw Chuck — newly invented, and manu- 
factured by E. B. "White. This is so constructed as to be 
applicable in centric or eccentric work, and is pronounced 
a valuable improvement. 

Machinists' Tools — J. H. Gage, D. A. G. Warner, and 
G. W. Whitney proprietors ; J. P. S. Otterson clerk. 
Manufacture tools, steam engines, &c. Employ 60 
hands. . 

Nashua Iron Company — Williams, Bird, & Co. pro- 
prietors. Commenced operations in 1845. Capital, $40,- 
000. Furnish castings of every description. Employ 60 
hands. Consume 1500 tons of iron and 500 tons of coal 
per annum. 

Sewing Machine Manufactory — T. W. Gillis and A. 
Taylor proprietors. Employ 100 hands. 

Stove Foundery and Tinwai-e Manufactory — Hartshorn, 
Ames, & Co. proprietors. Employ 50 hands. 

Bedstead Manufactory — E. G. Sears & Co. Employ 
S5 hands. 

Plain, Enamelled, Colored, Card, and Fancy Paper Man- 
ufactory — Gage, Murray, &, Co. proprietors. Employ 
f25 hands. 


Door, Sash, and Blind Manufactory — S. N. Wilson & 
Co. proprietors. Employ 35 hands. 

Na'shua Lock Company — Manufacture mortise locks, 
rim locks, door knobs, bell pulls, &c. Employ 110 hands. 

Platform, Scales, and Wrench Manufactory. Employ 
six hands, Alexander proprietor. 

Melodeon Factory — B. F. Tobin & Co. Employ 12 

Machine Sliop — Kclsey, Mack, & Co. Employ \2 

Brush Factory — Joseph Goodwin. 

Paper Staining — Thomas G. Banks. 

Ticking Factory — T. W. Gillis. 

Note Paper Embossing — W. F. Blanc. 

Bed and Mattress Manufactory — Thomas Tolman. The 
largest bedding manufactory in New England. Employ 
40 hands. Capital, $150,000. The spring mattresses 
manufactured here are unequalled. 

Stove and Tinware Manufactory — Reuben Goodrich, 
Employ 10 hands. 

Tin and Sheet Iron Working — Dodge, Boynton, & Co. 

Iron Working — Jonathan Dustin ; Strong & Crafts ; 
E. B. White. 

Steam Sawmill. John D. Kimball — Run saws, plan- 
ing, and shingle machines. Employ 26 hands. 

Doors, Sashes, and Blinds — J. & S. C. Crombie. Man- 
ufacture 1,000,000 feet of lumber per annum. Emjjloy 40 

Palmleaf Hat Manufactory — F. S. Rogers, H. C. 
Rogers, and E. A. Ilaskins. Manufacture 30,000 dozen 
yearly. Employ 1.'2 hands in shop, and 3000 in various 
parts of the state. 

Lumbering and Sawing — Luther A. Roby, Cyrus T. 
Roby, and Samuel McQuesten. Employ 30 men. 


Gristmills — Roby, McQuesten, & Co. ; J. D. Kimball. 

Sawmill — John and James Eayrs. 

Jib Hanks — J. H. Everett. 

Spring Bedstead Factory — Wesley E. Merrill and Free- 
man Tupper. This is a recent invention of the proprie- 
tors, and seems destined, and deservedly, to supersede all 
others. It can be taken apart and put together in a few 
seconds, admits of no retreat for vermin, requires no 
cords, screws, or mortises to hold it together, and stands 
firmly, and is not likely to become loose or rickety. A 
slight examination is sufficient to discover its merits and 

The mechanical department of Nashua is varied and 
extensive, reaching into almost every branch of industry, 
and furnishing unquestionable vouchers for its future and 
peniKinent prosperity. There are besides 202 stores and 
shops of various descriptions. 

Fire Department. — There are five engines, one hook 
and ladder, and one hose company. The reservoirs are 
capacious, substantially built, and conveniently located. 

Hotels. — Pearl Street House, O. Bristol, Main Street; 
Nashua House, A. Longley, Chestnut Street; Little's 
Tavern, J. Little, South Nashua. 

Ncvjspapers. — Three newspapers are published in this 
city — viz., the Nashua Gazette and Hillsborough County 
Advertiser, the New Hampshire Telegraph, and the 

The Cemetery is beautifully located and enclosed. It is 
situated in a quiet and pleasant grove in the rear of the 
Unitarian church, including about two acres. About 
.$5000 have been expended in the purchase of the grounds, 
construction of fences, walks, &c. 

The City Hall is a spacious and splendid edifice, erected 
at considerable expense. 


Many of the residences in this city are fine specimens 
of architectural skill.* 

Nelson, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Stoddard, 
east by Antrim and Hancock, south by Dublin and Rox- 
bury, and west by lloxbury and Sullivan. Area, 22,875 
acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, south-west ; from 
Keene, 8, north-east. Situated on tlie height of land be- 
tween Merrimack and Connecticut Rivers. The surface is 
hilly, but good for grazing. The soil is generally hard, 
but productive. There are seven ponds-, covering a surface 
of 1800 acres. Long Pond, the largest body of water, is 
four miles in length ; from this issues a branch of the 
Contoocook River. Several excellent mill privileges are 
furnished by streams flowing from these ponds. Plumbago 
is found in large quantities here. The mines yield on an 
average 220 tons annually. The inhabitants are princi- 
pally farmers, of industrious habits. Within a few years 
considerable attention has been paid to manufactures, 
which have added much to the growth and prosperity of the 
town. The cotton factory owned by Alvan Munson has 
640 spindles and 12 looms. The capital stock is valued 
at $12,000. Manufacture L^ cotton sheetings; number of 
yarn, 20 ; number of operatives, 20. 

Harrisville, a pleasant and thriving village, is situated 
partly in Nelson, and partly in Dublin. It is named from 
Bethuel Harris, an active and enterprising man, who, in 
1820, commenced business here without funds save his 
energy and perseverance. The village now contains a 
meeting house, school house, a store, public house, and a 
large wooden ware shop. It has a population of 350 

• The valuation, &c., of the several cities in New Hampshire will be given in 
a separate table in a subsequent part of the Gazetteer. 

• . 27* 


inhabitants. The -woollen factory of Messrs. Harris & 
Hutchinson, also that of Milan Harris, Colony, & Sons, 
are widely known for the fine doeskins, of a truly superior 
quality, manufactured here. The capital stock of Messrs. 
Harris & Hutchinson is valued at $20,000 ; number of 
spindles, 300 ; do. looms, 7 ; do. operatives, 18. 30,000 
pounds of fine avooI are consumed annually. Agent, Charles 
C. P. Harris, There is also a chair factory, in Avhich 10 
hands are employed. Besides these already named, there 
are in Nelson two meeting houses, one store, three shoe 
manufactories, one tannery, and one blacksmith's shop. 

This town was foi-merly called Monadnock Number Six. 
It Avas granted by the Masonian proprietors February 22, 
1774. The first settlers Avere Breed Batchelder and Dr. 
Nathaniel Breed, who came here in 1767. The Congrega- 
tional church was organized January 31, 1781. 

Population, 751. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
180. Common schools, 8. Inventory, $252,100. Value 
of lands, $142,296. Do. mills and factories, $6550. 
Stock in trade, $2730. Money at interest, &c., $23,595. 
Number of sheep, 3832. Do. neat stock, 740. Do. horses, 

New Boston, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Weare, east by Goffstown and ]3cdford, south by Mount 
Vernon and Lyndcborough, and west by Lyndeborough 
and Francestown. Area, 26,536 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 22 miles, south ; from Amherst, 9, north. This 
town is watered by several streams, the largest of which is 
the south branch of Piscataquog Biver. 'I'hc soil is strong 
and fertile. The surface is uneven, affording excellent 
tillage and grazing. The scenery is varied and picturesque, 
partaking largely of the alpine character, with rocks piled 


on rocks, and hills on hills. There are two villages, the 
lower and principal of which lies in a deep and narrow 
valley, through which the noisy Piscataquog winds its way. 
Overlooking it, on a level and grassy niche in the steep 
hillside, stands the other village, from wliich a tall church 
spire points skyward. 

There are in this town 18 sawmills, four gristmills, 
three stores, one seraphine factory, one door, sash, and blind 
factory, one edge tool factory, one tannery, two coopers' 
shops, two blacksmiths' shops, three cabinet shops, one 
hotel, and two meeting houses. New Boston was granted, 
January 14, 1736, by Massachusetts, to inhabitants of 
Boston. It was incorporated by New Hampshire February 
18, 1763. It was first settled, in 1733, by persons named 
Cochran, Wilson, Caldwell, McNeil, Ferson, and Smith. 
The Presbyterian church was formed about 1768. There 
is also a Baptist society here. 

Population, 1476. Number of polls, ,'298. Inventory, 
.$561,656. Value of lands, .$379,975. Stock in trade, 
$18,387. Value of mills, $8326. Number of sheep, 982. 
Do. neat stock, 1682. Do. horses, 277. 

Newhury, Merrimack coimty. Bounded north by New 
London and Sunapcc Lake, east by Sutton, south by Brad- 
ford, and west by Goshen and Sunapee Lake. Area, 
19,332 acres. Distance from Concord, 35 miles, west by 
north. A considerable part of Sunapee Lake lies within 
the limits of this town; » Although it is well watered, yet 
there is no stream of noticeable size. Todd Pond, Ijang in 
the south-east part, is 500 rods in length and 60 in width. 
In the western portion the surface is hilly, and well adapted 
to grazing. The land is generally mountainous, and the 
soil hard and rocky. It was originally called Dantzic. In 


1778 it received the name of Fishersfield, from John 
Fisher, one of the first proprietors. In 1837 its name was 
changed to NeAvbury. Zephaniah Clark Avas the first set- 
tler, in 1762. There are tlii'ee Freewill Baptist societies here. 
Population, 738. Number of polls, 168. Inventory, 
$236,630. Value of lands, $154,668. Stock in trade, 
$500. Number of sheep, 2541. Do. neat stock, 1152. 
Do. horses, 161. 

New Castle, Rockingham couniy. A rough and rocky 
island, situated in Portsmouth Harbor, and formerly called 
Great Island. A handsome bridge connects it "svith Ports- 
mouth. It is a frequent resort for fishing, which is pur- 
sued with great success. The soil among the rocks, being 
of good quality, is made to produce abundantly. On this 
island is Fort Constitution and a lighthouse. It was in- 
corporated in 1693, and contains 458 acres. Hon. Theo- 
dore Atkinson, for many years chief justice of the Province 
of New Hampshire, and secretary and president of the 
Council, was born at New Castle, December 20, 1697. 

Population, 891, Number of polls, 167. Inventory, 
$144,919. Value of lands, $12,194. Do. vessels, $21,- 
399. Stock in trade, $2150. Money at interest, &c,, 

New Durham, Strafford county. Bounded north-west 
by "Wolfborough and Alton, east by Brookfield and Mid- 
dleton, south-east by Farmington, ^ind south-west and west 
by Alton. Area, 23,625 acres. Distance from Concord, 
35 miles, north-east ; from Dover, 32, north-west. 

The surface of this town is very uneven, and a portion 
of it is so rocky as to be unfit for cultivation. The soil is 
generally moist and well adapted for grazing. There are 

"' VC 


five ponds, the largest of which — Merry Meeting Pond — 
is about 10 miles in circumference. A copious and perpet- 
ual stream issues from it, and discharges into Merry Meet- 
ing Bay, in Alton. Ela's River flows from Coldrain Pond, 
affording several fine water privileges. Mount Betty, 
Cropple Crown, and Straw's Mountain are the principal 
eminences. On the north-easterly side of the latter is a 
remarkable cave, the entrance of which is three feet wide 
and ten feet high. The first, or outer, apartment is 20 feet 
square. Those adjacent grow smaller, until at the distance 
of 50 feet from the first they are too small to admit of 
examination. The sides of the galleries and the rooms are 
solid granite. There is a fountain, over which a part of 
Ela's River passes, which is regarded as a curiosity. By 
sinking a small vessel into it, water may be obtained ex- 
tremely pure and cold. Near the centre of the town is 
Rattlesnake Hill, the south side of which is perpendicular 
and 100 feet in height. Agriculture is the chief employ- 
ment. Excellent fruit is raised here. 

This town was granted, in 1749, to Ebenezer Smith and 
others. It was incorporated, December 7, 1762, luider its 
present name. A Congregational church was established 
here in 1773. Elder Benjamin Randall, the founder of 
the sect of Freewill Baptists, commenced his labors here in 
1780 and organized a church. 

Population, lO-iS. Number of polls, 269. Inven- 
tory, 1299,284. Value of lands, $176,306. Stock in 
trade, $7263. Value of mills, $7725. Money at inter- 
est, &c., $7250. Number of sheep, 402. Do. neat stock, 
990. Do. horses, 160. 

New Hampton, Belknap county. Bounded north by 
Holderness, east by Centre Harbor and Meredith, south by 


Sanbornton and Hill, and west by Bridgewater and Bristol, 
Area, 19,422 acres. Distance from Concord, 30 miles, 
north-west ; from Guilford, 15, north-west, Pemigewasset 
River is the only stream of magnitude in this town. Over 
it is the bridge which connects with Bristol. There is a 
remarkable spring on the west side of Kelley's Mountain, 
from which issues a stream of sufficient power to carry sev- 
eral mills. It is never affected by rains or droughts. The 
surface is broken and uneven. The soil is generally re- 
-markably fertile, though in some parts it is dry and sandy. 
In tlire south part of the toAvn is a high hill of conical 
shape, which may be seen, in any direction, a distance of 10, 
and even 50, miles. 

The Academical and Theological Institution in this 
town was established, about the year 1820, under the pat- 
ronage of the Baptist denomination. 

The Female Seminary Avas widely known and celebrated 
as one of the best institutions in the county, as well on 
account of its retired and healthy location as for the thor- 
ough and extended course of study pursued, including 
nearly all the various branches taught in our colleges. 

The Theological Institution was finely located on a 
pleasant eminence about half a mile from the principal 
village. Within a short time past, both departments have 
been located in Vermont ; but, through the enterprise of the 
inhabitants, a flourishing and permanent academy has al- 
ready been established. 

The village of New Hampton is pleasantly situated on a 
large plane, surrounded by hills and mountains. The 
scenery, especially in the warm season, is picturesque. 

New Hampton was incorporated November 27, 1777. 
The first settler Avas Samuel Kelley, who moved here in 
1775. The first religious society was the Baptist church. 


formed in 1783. A Congregational church was organized 
in 1800, but was dissolved in 1816. There are three 
meeting houses, four stores, and one hotel. 

Population, 1612. Number of polls, 307. Inventory, 
$382,344. Value of lands, i|244,042. Stock in trade, 
$2350. Money at interest, $11,230. Number of sheep, 
1444. Do. neat stock, 1430. Do. horses, 220. 

Newingtox, llockiugluuu county. Bounded north-east 
by the Piscataqua River, east by I'ortsmouth, south by 
Greenland, and west by Great and liittle Bays. Area, 
5273 acres. The soil is generally sandy and unproductive, 
excepting near the shores, where it yields heavy crops of 
grain and grass. At Fox Point, in tlic north-westerly part 
of the town, Piscataqua Bridge extends over the river to 
Goat Island. This bridge was erected in 1793, is 2600 
feet long, and 40 wide. Its original cost was ,$65,401. 

Newington was formerly a part of Portsmouth and Do- 
ver, and was early settled. The surface is underlaid with 
clay slate, which rests upon sicnitic granite. Large blocks 
of this rock are often found ; and being a handsome and 
durable building material, it is quarried for underpinning and 
other purposes. The centre of the town is about 150 feet 
above the sea. This town m as incorporated in July, 1764. 
Rev. Joseph Adams, the first minister of Newington, was 
oi'dained here in 1715. Since 1810, with the exception 
of occasional preaching, the Congregational society have 
been destitute of a minister. There is a large and flour- 
ishing society of Methodists here. 

This town, like most of the new settlements, was ex- 
posed to the ravages of the Indians. In ^lay, 1690, a 
party of Indians, under a chief called Iloophood, attacked 
Fox Point, destroyed several houses, killed fourteen per- 


sons, and captured six others. They were immediately piu'- 
sued by the inhabitants, who recovered some of the cap- 
tives and a portion of the plunder after a severe conflict, 
in which Hoophood was wounded. 

Population, 472. Number of polls, 129. Inventory, 
.$182,533. Value of lands, $122,532. Money at interest, 
$11,251. Number of sheep, 272. Do. neat stock, 493. 
Do. horses, 76. 

New Ipswich, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Sharon and Temple, east by Mason, south by Ashbumham, 
Massachusetts, and west by Rindge. Area, 20,860 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 50 miles, south-west ; from Am- 
herst, 18, south-west. Souhegan River is the principal 
stream, though it is avcII watered by numerous small rivu- 
lets. The soil is a clayey loam, very productive compared 
with that of most of the towns in the county. The 
water is good, and the water privileges abundant and valu- 
able, supplied chiefly by the Souhegan. A cotton factory 
was put in operation here in 1803, either the first or second 
in the state. 

The New Ipswich Academy, a respectable and flourish- 
ing institution, was incorporated June 18, 1789. 

The principal village is in the centre of the town, in a 
pleasant and fertile valley, containing foiu' meeting houses, 
the Town House, and Academy. The public houses are 
finished in a handsome style. ISIany of the dwelling 
houses are of brick, and present an elegant and substantial 
appearance. There are forty stores and shops of various 
kinds, two hotels, five sawmills, and one gristmill. 

Brown's Ticking Mills have 1952 spindles, 54 looms, 
and furnish employment for 50 operatives. Manufacture 
270,000 yards per annum, and consume 140,000 pounds 
raw cotton. E. Brown proprietor and agent. 


Mountain Mills — Hiram Smith agent. Number of 
spindles, 2232. Do. looms, 54. Do. hands employed, 
66. Manufacture drillings. Number of yards manufac- 
tured, 44,000 per month. Do. pounds cotton consumed 
per month, 12,000. Pay roll per month, for labor, |980. 

Columbian Manufacturing Company — Stephen Smith 

Match Factory — Stephen Thayer proprietor. This es- 
tablishment splits a cord of second growth pine into 
matches daily. 

New IpsAvich Avas first granted by Massachusetts. It 
was settled, before 1749, by Reuben Kiddei', Archibald 
White, Joseph and Ebenezer BuUard, Joseph Stephens, 
and eight others. It was regranted in April, 1750, by the 
Masonian proprietors, and was incorporated September 9, 
1762. This town sent 65 men to Bunker Hill. A Con- 
gregational church was gathered here in 1750. 

Population, 1877. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
408. Inventory, $736,429. Value of lands, $437,546. 
Do. mills and factories, $75,720. Stock in trade, $25,124. 
Money at interest, &c., $24,620. Number of sheep, 208 
Do. neat stock, 1089. Do. horses, 226. 

New London, ^Icrrimack county. Bounded north by 
Springfield and Wilmot, east by Wilmot, south by Sutton 
and Newbury, and west by Sunapee Lake and Sunapee. 
Little Sunapee Pond, in the west part, and Harvey's and 
Messer's Ponds, near the centre of the town, are the only 
considerable bodies of water. The two latter are the prin- 
cipal sources of Warner River, and are separated only by a 
bog, which in many places rises and falls with the water. 
The population of New London is principally concentrated 

on three large swells of land extending through the town in 


a north-westerly direction. On these swells the soil is deep 
and fertile. In the north part the surface grows more un- 
even and hilly. In some localities it is rocky, though there 
is but very little land unfit for cultivation. Its location is 
healthy, and its scenery delightful. The inhabitants are 
chiefly devoted to agriculture, and there are some very 
productive farms. There is a large establishment where 
scythes are extensively manufactured by Messrs. Phillips, 
Messer, & Colby, whose reputation as manufacturers of 
these implements of husbandry is world wide. A literary 
institution has recently been established here under the 
patronage of the Baptists. New London was incorporated 
June 25, 1779, under the name of Heidleburg. A Bap- 
tist church was formed October 23, 1788. A violent 
whirlwind passed through this region September 9, 1821. 
The damage sustained by the inhabitants was estimated at 
$9000. An immense block of granite, 100 feet long, 50 
wide, and 20 high, was rent asunder, the two pieces being 
thrown a distance of 20 feet from each other. 

Population, 945. Number of polls, 236. Inventory, 
|327,957. Value of lands, $194,491. Stock in trade, 
$6350. Money at interest, $30,600. Number of sheep, 
2732. Do. neat stock, 1003. Do. horses, 170. 

New Market, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Lee and Durham, east by Great Bay, south by South New 
Market, and Avest by Epping. Area, 4882 acres. Piscas- 
sick River flows through this town in a northerly direction. 
Lamprey River washes its north-eastern, and the Swamscot 
its south-eastern boundaries. These strcamj aflc)rd numer- 
ous fine water privileges. The surface is generally even, 
and the soil excellent. The pursuits of agriculture are 
crowned with abundant success. The soutL western portion 


is somewhat hilly. The villages are pleasant and thriving. 
The houses are neat — many of them are of handsome 

The New Market Manufacturing Company — John Web- 
ster agent — were incorporated in 1823. Cotton sheetings 
and shirtings are manufactured here. Number of spindles, 
18,000. Do. looms, 52<5. Do. yards of cloth manufac- 
tured per annum, 4,500,000. Do. bales of cotton con- 
sumed per annum, 4000. Do, operatives, 450. 

The manufiicture of machinery of various kinds is exten- 
sively carried on here. New Market is a very busy town. 
Mechanical labor, in its various departments, is quite ex- 
tensively pursued. 

Mrs. Fanny Shute, who died here in 1819, will be re- 
membered, not only for her excellent qualities, but for 
her youthful adventures. When 13 months old, she was 
taken by a party of Indians, carried to Canada, and sold to 
the French. She was educated in a nunnery, and, after 
remaining 13 years in captivity, was redeemed and restored 
to her friends. 

The Boston and Maine Railroad passes through the east- 
ern portion of this town, and connects with the Ports- 
mouth and Concord Railroad at the junction in South 
New Market. 

New Market was originally a part of Exeter, and was 
separated and incorporated December 15, 1727. In 1849 
a large portion of its territory was detached and erected 
into the township of South New Market. 

The Congregational church was established here in 1730. 

There is also a Methodist and Freewill Baptist society, 

each containing respectable numbers. 

»> Population, 1937. Number of polls, 409. Inventory, 

$784,112. Value of lands, $345,806. Do. mills and 


factories, $231,000. Stock in trade, $52,950. Money at 
interest, $45,330. Number of sheep, 344. Do. neat 
stock, 599. Do. horses, 121. 

Newport, shire town of Sullivan county. Bounded 
north by Croyden, east by Sunapee and Goshen, south by 
Unity, and west by Claremont. Area, 25,267 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 39 miles, by the Merrimack and Con- 
necticut River Raih-oad. The central position of this town, 
and its vahiable water privileges, together with the fact 
that it is the county seat, render it a place of considerable 
business and importance. Its surface is diversified with 
hills and valleys. The soil may be classified by three di- 
visions — viz., the alluvial, or the borders of the different 
branches of Sugar River, forming rich and fertile meadows, 
from one fourth to half a mile in width, on either side 
of the streams ; the dry and gravelly, or the low lands in 
other parts of the town ; and the moist and cold in the 
more elevated parts. In general the soil is productive. 
Many farms in this town are under high cultivation. 
Sugar River fiows through the town, its three branches 
uniting near the village, whence it passes through Clare- 
mont to the Connecticut. The village is one of the pleas- 
antest in the state. Its principal street is broad, and some- 
what more than a mile in length. It is nearly surrounded 
by hills, which are themselves overtopped by lofty eleva- 
tions and mountains in the distance, rendering the scenery 
in Avinter wild and sublime, in summer romantic and 

The houses are well built — some are elegant residences, 
adorned with beautiful yards and gardens. The Court 
House is a large brick edifice, standing on a gentle rise a 
few rods from the principal street. The county build- 


ings are conveniently located, and are substantially built. 
There are four meeting houses, all of which are situated 
on the principal street — the Baptist at the northern ex- 
tremity, and the Congregational, a massive brick structure, 
at the southern extremity. The Methodist chapel, a new 
and handsome edifice, and the Universalist meeting house 
are situated in the more central part. There are two pub- 
lic houses, large and convenient, where the best accommo- 
dations are always provided. These houses are a frequent 
resort of travellers iu the summer season, attracted hither 
by the healthiness of the place and the opportunities for 
hunting and fishing afforded by the surrounding country. 
There are also eight stores, some twenty shops of various 
descriptions, three woollen factories, where quite an exten- 
sive business is done, tMO very extensive tanneries, and 
one machine shop, where various articles of merchandise 
are manufactured. At Northville, a busy place a few 
miles from the principal village, are a scythe flxctory and 
numerous other departments of mechanical labor. The in- 
habitants are industrious and persevering ; and as idleness 
is a stranger among them, so is poverty. 

Newport was incorporated October 6, 1761. The first 
effort towards a settlement was made, in the fall of 1763, 
by Jesse Wilcox, Ebenezer Merrit, Jesse Kelsey, and 
Samuel Kurd. 

The Congregational church was formed in 1779. The 
Baptist church was organized the same year. 

The Argus and Spectator is published here ; for history 
of which, see another part o:^ this volume. 

The Sugar River Bank was incorporated January 7, 
1853. Capital stock, $50,000. 

Population, i2020. Number of polls, 479. Inven- 
tory, $682,156. ^'alue of lands, $383,904. Do. mills 



and factories, $13,700. Stock in trade, $21,950. Money 
at interest, $33,050. Number of sheep, 2753. Do. neat 
stock, 2180. Do. horses, 399. 

Newton, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Kingston, east by South Hampton, south by Amesbury, 
Massachusetts, and west by Phiistow. Area, 5250 acres. 
Nearly one third of Country Pond Hes in this town. The 
soil is fertile — suitable for the growth of grain and grass. 
Joseph Bartlett first settled in this town in 1720, and was 
followed in a few months by several others. Twelve years 
previous to his settlement here he had been taken by the 
Indians in Haverhill and conveyed to Canada, where he 
remained four years. A Baptist church was formed here 
in 1755, which is the oldest religious society of that de- 
nomination in the state. A Congregational church was 
organized about 1759. There are four stores, several shoe 
shops, employing nearly one third of its inhabitants, and 
one hotel. The Boston and Maine Railroad passes through 
the town in a north-easterly direction, adding much to the 
prosperity of the town. 

Population, 685. Number of legal voters in 1854, 210. 
Common schools, 6. Inventory, $231,713. Value of 
lands, $115,230. Stock in trade, $1000. Money at in- 
terest, $11,850. Number of sheep, 119. Do. neat stock, 
387. Do, horses, 58. Value of shares in banks, $1250. 

NoRTHFiELU, Merrimack county. Bounded north by 
Sanbornton and Gilmanton, past by Gilmanton, south by 
Canterbury, and west by Franklin. Area, about 19,000 
acres. Distance from Concord, 17 miles, north, by the 
Boston, Concord, and Montreal Railroad. The surface is 
uneven, and in some parts hilly. The soil is generally 


good; thut of the richest quality lies in tl\e two ridges 
extending through the town, on which are several excelleiit 
farms. Chestnut and Sondogardy Ponds arc the largest 
collections of water. It is watered by the Winnipiseogee 
River and several small streams. The New Hampshire 
Conference Seminary, a lail^e and flourishing literary insti- 
tution under the patronage of the Methodist denomination, 
is pleasantly located on a gentle eniinence some 20 or 30 
rods from Winnipiseogee River, and about 50 rods from 
the depot at Sanbornton Bridge. It has a valuable philo- 
sophical and chemical apparatus, and its collection of 
minerals is quite extensive. The first settlement in this 
town was made, in 1760, by Benjamin Blanchard and 
others. A Methodist church was formed here in 1806. 
It now numbers about 500 communicants. There are two 
factories here — one woollen and one cotton. Northfield 
was incorporated June 19, 1780. 

Population, 1332. Number of polls, 285. Inventory, 
■ |428,090. Value of lands, |293,067. Stock in trade, 
$1250. Do. mills and factories, $8000. Money at in- 
terest, &c., $15,114. Number of sheep, 1750. Do. neat 
stock, 1168. Do. horses, 197. 

North Hampton, Rockingham county. Bounded north 
by Greenland, east by Rye and the ocean, south by Hamp- 
ton, and west by Stratham. Area, 8465 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 47 miles, south-east; from Portsmouth, 9, 
south by the Eastern Railroad, Little River rises in the 
low grounds in the north part of the town, and, by a wind- 
ing course, reaches the sea between Great and Little Boar's 
Head. This township formerly con^titutcd the parish 
known as North Hill, in Hampton. On Little River are 
three sawmills and one gristmill. There are two meeting 




houses, two stores, and one hotel in the principal village. 
The settlements here date back to a very early period in 
the history of this state. The first Congregational meet- 
ing house Avas erected in 1738. The early settlers were 
much exposed to the ravages^f Indians. Garrisons were 
erected, to which they resortal in times of danger. In 
the year 1677 several persons were killed within the limits 
of this town. North Hampton was incorporated Novem- 
ber 26, 1742. 

Population, 822. Number o'f legal voters in 1854, 210. 
Inventory, !^3 15,438. Value of lands, $;242,320. Do. 
mills, $1160. Stock in trade, $1050. Money at interest, 
$4751. Number of sheep, 341. Do. neat stock, 723. 
Do. horses, 126. 

Northumberland, Coos county. Bounded north by 
Stratford, east by Stark, south by Lancaster, and west by 
Maidstone, Vermont. Distance from Concord, 130 miles, 
north ; from Lancaster, 7, north-east. The soil along 
the Connecticut is very prfsductive, free from sand and 
gravel, and easily tilled. The original growth of wood 
was butternut. A considerable portion of the upland is 
excellent for tillage. Cape Horn, a rugged eminence, 
which lises abruptly from its base, is situated near the 
centre of the town. Its northern base is separated from 
the Connecticut by a narrow plain, and the Upper Ammo 
noosuc washes its eastern side. Here the meadows are 
extensive, and are annually flowed by the spring freshets, 
presenting the appearance of a large lake. The scenery is 
wild and beautiful. The inhabitants are chiefly devoted to 
agriculture, and are somewhat noted for raising excellent 
stock, although they do not excel in the extent of their 
herds. The first settlers were Thomas Burnside and Daniel 


Spaulding, who, with their families, moved here in June, 
1767. Near the river, on the plain situated north of Cape 
Horn Mountain, are the remains of a fort, erected during 
the revolutionary war, and placed under the command of 
Captain Jeremiah Eames, a man well known for his useful- 
ness and social disposition. This toAvn was incorporated 
November 16, 1779. 

Population, 429. Number of polls, 128. Inventory, 
$146,369. Value of lands, $59,434. Stock in trade, 
$10,325. Value of mills and factories, $3500. Number 
of sheep, 698. Do. neat stock, 628. Do. horses, 142. 

NoRTHWOOD, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Strafford, east by Nottingham, south by Nottingham and 
Deerfield, and west by Epsom and Pittsfield. Area, 17,075 
acres. There are six ponds in this town — Suncook Pond, 
750 rods long, and 100 wide ; Jenners' Pond, 300 rods 
long, and 150 wide ; Long Pond, 300 rods long, and 50 
wide ; Harvey's Pond, 200 rods long, and from 40 to 80 
wide ; and Pleasant and Little Bow Ponds. A part of 
Great Bow Pond also lies in this town. The north branch 
of Lamprey River has its source near Saddleback Moun- 
tain, a high ridge between this town and Deerfield. On 
the east side of this ridge crystals and crystalline spar of 
various colors and sizes are found. Plumbago occurs in 
small quantities, but of superior quality. The position of 
Northwood is elevated, commanding an extensive . and 
delightful view of the ocean and the intervening country. 
The soil is generally moist, and suitable for grazing ; in 
mild seasons excellent crops of corn and wheat are raised. 
A large number of the inhabitants are engaged in the man- 
ufacture of fehoes. There are three meeting houses, seven 
stores, and one hotel. The Baptist church was organized 


in 1119, the Congregational church in 1781. The, Free- 
•vnll Baptist society was incorporated in 1832. Northwood 
originally constituted a part of Nottingham. It was settled, 
March 25, 1763, by Moses Godfrey, John and Increase 
Bachelder, and Solomon Bickford. It was incorporated 
February 6, 1773. 

Population, 1308. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
320. Inventory, .^392,063. Value of lands, $250,765. 
Stock in trade, $8300. Money at interest, &c., $27,050. 
Number of sheep, 634. Do. neat stock, 1079. Do. horses, 

NoTTiXGiiAM, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Northwood and Barrington, east by Lee, south by Epping 
and Raymond, and west by Deerfield and Northwood. Area, 
25,800 acres. Distance from Concord, 25 miles, east; 
from Portsmouth, 20, west. There are several ponds, most 
of which are small. Little River and several small streams 
have their sources in this town, and North River passes 
through it. The centre of the town (Nottingham Square) 
is pleasantly situated on an eminence, about 450 feet above 
the sea level. The northern and north-western parts are 
quite I'ocky and uneven, but in general the soil is well 
adapted to pasturage, and is in a good state of cultivation. 
The Patuccoway Mountains, lying on the line between 
Nottingham and Deerfield, consist of three distinct eleva- 
tions, rising abruptly from the vicinity of Round Pond, 
and arc designated as the ITpper, Middle, and Lower 
Mountains. On the latter is a dike of g3»eenstone trap, 
which crosses its summit, and divides it into two nearly 
equal parts. This dike is columnar, and on the face of a 
bate ledge, inclined about forty-five degrees ; it assumes 
the form of steps, fifteen or sixteen in number, and about 



nine inches in height, and are familiarly called the " Stairs." 
Near the centre of the town is a large ledge of white 
granular quartz, which affords an inexhaustible supply of 
this valuable material. The mountainous parts of the town 
were formerly the haunts of beasts of prey. Nottingham 
was incorporated May 10, 1722, and settled, in 1727, by 
Captain Joseph Cilley and others. A Congregational church 
was formed in 1742. During the last Indian war, in 1752, 
a Mr. Beard, ]Mrs. Folsom, and Mrs. Simpson were killed 
by the Indians. General Joseph Cilley and Hon. Thomas 
Bartlctt were distinguished for their services in the revolu- 
tionary war. General Henry Butler was also an officer in 
the continental army. 

Population, 12G8. Number of polls, 254. Inventory, 
$368,54'8. Value of lands, |248,310. Stock in trade, 
$2505. Value of mills, |10,151. Money at interest, 
$'19,105. Number of sheep, 897. Do. neat stock, 1153. 
Do. horses, 168. 

Orange, Grafton county. Bounded north by Dorches- 
ter, Groton, and Hebron, east by Hebron and Alexandria, 
south by Grafton, and west by Canaan. Area, about 
16,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, north- 
west, by the Northern Railroad, which passes through its 
south-western corner ; from Haverhill, 50, south-east. 
This is a cold, rugged township, affording some excellent 
pasturage and good lumbw. Many mineral substances are 
found here, such as lead and iron ore. In the south-east 
part of the town is a small pond, from which is taken a 
species of paint resembling spruce yellow. Chalk, inter- 
mixed with magnesia, has been found in the vicinity of 
this pond. Yellow ochre, of a quality superior to that 
imported, is found in great abundance in various localities. 

4> {■'-■■ ^ 


Clay, of an excellent quality, exists in different parts of 
the town. On the summit of the elevated land which 
divides the waters flowing into the Connecticut from those 
which flow into the Merrimack, a series of deep pit holes 
occur in the solid rock, one of which, from its great depth 
and perfect regularity, is called the " Well." It is near 
the track of the Northern Railroad. One side has been 
broken away, so that a concave section of a semi-cylinder 
is seen. Measuring from the top on this side to the bottom, 
the perpendicular depth is eleven feet. The stones found 
in it were rounded and polished, indicating a violent action 
of water here at some period in the existence of this planet. 
This summit is about 1000 feet above the waters of the 
Connecticut and Merrimack. The rock is hard, and on its 
surface occur the scratches usually referred to the ancient 
drifl epoch. 

Orange was granted, under the name of Cardigan, 
February 6, 1769, to Isaac Fellows and others. It was 
first settled, in 1773, by Silas Harris, Benjamin Shaw, Da- 
vid Eames, Colonel Elisha Bayne, and Captain Joseph Ken- 
ney. Cardigan Mountain lies in the east part of the town. 

Population, 451. Number of polls, 102. Inventory, 
$98,285. Value of lands, $53,351. Do. mills, $3150. 
Stock in trade, $2550. Number of sheep, 1049. Do. 
neat stock, 364. Do. horses, 56. 

Orford, Grafton county. Boyndcd north by Piermont, 
east by Wentworth, south by Lyme, and west by Fairlee, 
Vermont. Area, 27,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 
62 miles; from Haverhill, 12. This is a valuable farming 
town. The soil is generally fertile. The large interval 
farms on the Connecticut are well tilled, and, with the 
beautiful village, afford a charming and delightful prospect. 


On the west side of Cuba Mountain there are several 
beds of vahiablc limestone, some of Avhich have been 
wrought fof 25 years. The limestone is granular, but does 
not crumble in burning. Specimens of quartz, containing 
acicular crj'stals of oxide of titanium, exist in the region 
of this mountain. Near Sunday Mountain is a bed of tai- 
cose slate, Avhich answers well for soapstone, and is wrought 
to a considerable extent. Copper pyrites, black sulphuret 
of copper, green carbonate of copper, magnetic iron ore, 
sulphuret of molybdena, and galena are found in various 
localities. Kyanitc, in large bladed crystals of a pale-blue 
color, is also abundant. 

The situation of the village is both pleasant and re- 
markable. It stands on a beautiful plain, bordered by in- 
tervals on the west. Here the river seems to recede 
towards the Vermont shore, leaving a rich expansion of fer- 
tile meadow on the New Hampshire side. On both sides of 
the river the hills approach each other near the- centre of 
the expansion, so as to leave only a narrow strip of land be- 
tween them ; and such is the similarity in form of the lands 
at either end of the narrow strip, or neck, that the whole to- 
gether has very much the appearance of the figure 8. The 
greatest width of each division is one and a half miles, and 
the length of each about two and a half miles. On the 
west side of the river there is barely space for the rail- 
road between the waters and the terminus of the bluff, 
which rises almost perpendicularly to a considerable 

T'he village contains three meeting houses, — of wliicli the 
( 'ongregational is a new, costly, and splendid edifice, — 
one aeademy, — which is a large and handsome building 
of brick, — six stores, and one hotel, which is in every 
sense a home for the traveller. The dwelling houses, sur- 
29 . 


rounded by spacious yards and charming gardens, pre- 
sent the appearance of elegance, comfort, and wealth. The 
pursuits of agriculture are crowned with abundant success. 

Orfordville, a pleasant and flourishing village, is situated 
about two miles above the principal village. It contains, 
besides several dwelling houses, an extensive tannery, a 
chair factory, sash, blind, and door factory, starch fac- 
tory, planing shop, clapboard, shingle, lath, and carding 
mills, and one valuable gristmill. There are also ten saw- 
mills in various parts of the town. Orford Mill River 
passing nearly through the centre of the town, furnishes 
most of the water power. 

The religious societies are two Congregational and one 

Orford was granted, September 25, 1761, to Jonathan 
Moulton and others. It was settled, in June, 1765, by 
General Israel Morey, John Mann, Esq., a Mr. Caswell, 
and one Cross. The Congregational church was formed 
August 27, 1770. 

Population, 1406. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
347. Do. common schools, 16. Inventory, $631,574. 
Value of lands, $389,088. Do. mills and factories, 
$13,600. Stock in trade, $18,190. Money at interest, 
$77,296. Number of sheep, 6094. Do. neat stock, 1591. 
Do. horses, 289. 

OssiPEE, shire town of Carroll county. Bounded north 
by Tamworth, north-east by Freedom and Effingham, 
south-east by Wakefield, and west by Wolfborough, Tuf- 
tonborough, Moultonborough, and Sandwich. Distance 
from Concord, 60 miles, north-cast. This is an uneven, 
and, in some parts, rocky and mountainous township, af- 
fording excellent pasturage. The soil is strong and deep. 


Wheat and potatoes of excellent quality are raised here. 
Ossipee Lake, a beautiful sheet of water, lies mostly in this 
town. Its form is elliptical, and covers about 7000 acres. 
Ossipee River is its outlet. Pine and Bear Camp Rivers 
flow through the western and north-western parts. There 
are also several ponds, of which Bear Pond, in the south- 
cast part, has no visible outlet. Ossipee Mountain, situated 
about four miles north-easterly from Winnipiseogee Lake, 
is composed of several distinct peaks, the most lofty of 
which is 2361 feet above the sea level, and is well wooded 
to its summit. The rock is gneiss, covered with numerous 
fragments of trap, of a dull bluish color. Near the foot 
of the mountain is a beautiful little cascade, which attracts 
numerous visitors. Near the Avestern shore of Ossipee 
Lake is a circular mound, about 50 feet in diameter and 
10 feet in height, from which have been taken several entire 
skeletons, hatchets, tomahawks, &c. 

Ossipee was incorporated February 22, 1785. 

Population, 2122. Number of polls, 420. Inventory, 
,f 390,938. Value of lands, |2 11,389. Stock in trade, 
$7570. Value of mills, |4955. Money at interest, $9800. 
Number of sheep, 969. Do. neat stock, 1872. Do, 
horses, 285. 

Pelham, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Windham, east by Salem, and by LaAvrence, Massachusetts, 
south by Dracut, Massachusetts, and west by Hudson. 
Distance from Concord, 37 miles south. Beaver River is 
the principal stream, on Avhich, and its tributaries, is much 
valuable interval. The uplands are good for grazing and 
the cultivation of fruit. The proximity of this town to 
Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, particularly to Lowell, 
which is only six miles distant, affords a ready and conven- 


ie»t market for produce of all kinds. All the varieties of 
fruit common to this latitude are raised here in great abun- 
dance. Granite of a superior quality is found in inex^ 
haustible quantities here. It is taken to Nashua, LoweU, 
Lawrence, and Haverhill, for building purposes. 

There are two meeting houses, one academy, two wool- 
len factories, where 30 hands are employed, two stores, one 
hotel, one wheelwright and carriage shop, three blacksmith 
shops, and one manufactory of pruning shears. 

The first settlements in this town were made in 1722, 
by Jolin Butler, William Richardson, and others. It was 
formerly included in Wheelwright's purchase and Mason's 
patent. The town was incorporated July 5, 1746. At 
the time of the revolutionary war, Pelham contained 700 
inhabitants, and 87 of the citizens were enrolled on the 
li^ts of the army. A Congregational church was formed 
November 13, 1751. 

Population, 1071. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
244. Inventory, $501,279. Value of lands, |33 1,950. 
Do. mills and factories, $10,700. Stock in trade, $4792. 
Money at interest, $39,475. Number of sheep, 218. 
Do. neat stock, 1008. Do. horses, 152. 

Pembroke, Merrimack county. Bounded north-east 
and east by Cliichester and Epsom, south-east and south by 
Allenstown and Hooksett, south-west by Bow, and north- 
w.est by Concord. Area, 10,240 acres. Distance from 
Concord, six miles. This town is well watered. The 
Suncook, on the south-eastern boundary, affords several 
valuable Avater privileges. The main street extends in a 
straight course, nearly parallel with the Merrimack, about 
t\\xe& miles, and,, with its fertile fields and neat residences, 
presents a very handsome appearance. On this street are 


situated two academies, two meeting houses, one hotel, And 
two stores. 

The soil is various, and generally productive. On the 
rivers are small but valuable tracts of interval ; and from 
these the land rises in extensive and beautiful swells, Avhich 
yield abundantly when properly cultivated. It is connect- 
ed with Portsmouth and Concord by the railroad named 
after these towns. 

The Chelmsford Glass Company manufacture glass here. 

Suncook Village, an active and thriving place, is the seat 
of considerable business. Quite recently its growth has 
been much retarded by a destructive fire. 

The Pembroke Mills, situated on the Suncook Riv^r, 
contain 10,985 spindles and 300 looms. 240,000 yards 
of sheetings and printing goods are manufactured annually, 
and 552,000 pounds of cotton consumed in the same time. 
Number of hands employed, 250. 

The Indian name for this territory was Suncook. It 
was granted under this name in May, 1727, by Massachu- 
setts, to the brave Captain John Lovewell and his faithful 
comrades, in consid^ftition of their services against the In- 
dians. The whole number was 60, 46 of whom accom- 
panied Lovewell in his last march to Pequawkett. 

The settlements increased slowly in consequence of the 
frequent alarms from the Indians, who committed many 
depredations upon the property of the inhabitants. James 
Carr, killed May 1, 1748, was the only person in this town 
who lost his life by the Indians. It was incorporated by 
its present name November 1, 1759. This town was deep- 
ly concerned in the tedious dispute maintained by the pro- 
prietors of Bow against the grantees of lands in this vicin- 
ity. A Congregational church was organized here Marcli 
1, 1737. 



Population, 1732. Number of polls, 335. Inventory, 

#583,470. Value of lands, $317,946. Do. mills and 

factories, $62,750. Stock in trade, $13,250. Money at 

interest, $71,240. Number of sheep, 506. Do. neat 
stock, 977. Do. horses, 184. 

Peterborough, Hillsborough county. Bounded north 
by Hancock and Greenfield, east by Greenfield and Temple, 
south by Sharon, and west by JafFrey and Dublin. Area, 
23,780 acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, south- 
west ; from Amherst, 20, west. This town lies in a north- 
east direction from the Grand Monadnock, and is bounded 
on the east by a chain of hills called Pack's Monadnock. 
Contoocook River runs in a northerly direction through the 
centre of the town, affording several valuable water privi- 
leges. The North Branch River, originating from several 
ponds, affords a constant supply of water. On this stream 
are some of the best waterfalls in the state. Above these 
falls are extensive and valuable meadows ; the soil through- 
out the town is highly productive. The surface is beauti- 
fully diversified with hills, vales, meadows, broad swells, 
brooks, rivulets, and rapidly -flowing rivers. The air 
and waters arc pure, and the inhabitants are remarkably 
healthy. Notwithstanding the high rank of Peterborough 
as a farming town, it owes its importance and prosperity 
chiefly to its manufacturing facilities. It has long been a 
manufacturing town, a cotton mill having been put in oper- 
ation as early as 1808. 

The Phoenix Factory was incorporated in 1820, although 
it had already been in operation several years. Capital, 
$100,000. Goods manufactured, drillings and sheetings. 
Number of spindles, 4224. Do. looms, 100. Number of 
yarn, 28 in sheetings, 18 in drillings. Width of sheetings. 


48 to 100 inches. Number of pounds of cotton consumed 
annually, 200,000. Do. operatives, 100. Frederic Lir- 
ingston agent. 

Peterborough Manufacturing Company — incorporated in 
1823. This is the old Peterborough Cotton Manufactur- 
ing Company, which was incorporated in 1808. Capital, 
$50,000. Number of spindles, 1604. Do. looms, 41. 
(ioods manufactured, sheetings ; width, 84 inches. Num- 
ber of yarn, 18. Do. pounds cotton consumed per annum,' 
115,000. Do. hands, 50. This company also have a 
separate mill for making batting. Frederic Livingston 

Union Manufacturing Company — J. W. Little super- 
intendent. Capital, $100,000. Number of spindles, 
2792. Do. looms, 75. Kind of goods, sheetings and 
shirtings. Number of yarn, 40. Do. povmds cotton con- 
sumed per annum, 100,000. Do. hands employed, 75. 

North Factory Company. Capital, 1 10,000. Number 
of spindles, 984. Do. looms, 20. Kind of goods, 
drillings. Number of yards manufactured per annum, 
256,000. Do. hands, 25. Eli S. Hunt agent. 

Woollen Factory, South Village — Noone & Cochran 
proprietors. ^lanufacture flannels. Number of yards 
manufactured per annum, 147,256, principally twilled 
flannels. Capital, |24,000. Number of hands, 24. 
.James Gallop superintendent. 

David Clark, manufacturer of mahogany tables. Num- 
ber of hands employed, 8. Yearly amount of business, 

J. F. Johnson, sash, door, and blind maker. 

Iron Foundery — John Smith, 2d. 

Paper Mill — A. P. Morrison. 

There are also thirty-one stores and shops of various 


descriptions, five meeting houses, one academy, and two 

The Peterborough Bank was incorporated July 15, 
1854. Capital, .$50,000. 

The Peterborough Transcript, a weekly journal, is pub- 
lished in this town. 

This town was granted in 1738, by the government of 
Massachusetts, to Samuel Hey wood and others. The first 
settlers were much exposed to the ravages of the Indians, 
as will appear from the following petition, the original of 
which was found among the Massachusetts state papers : — 

" To His Honour, Spencer Phips Esqu Lieutenent 
Governor, and Commander in Chief in and over his Majes- 
ty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England. 
The Hon^'^ the Council and Hon'''*' House of Representa- 
tives of said Province in General Court assembled at Bos- 
ton September 26 1T50. The Petition of the Subscribers, 
Proprietors and Inhabitants of a Township called Petterboro' 
for themselves, and the. other Proprietors and Inhabitants 
of said Township. Most Humbly Show, That the said 
Township lyes Exposed to the Indians it being a Frontier 
Town and but about Six Miles North from the line parting 
this Government and that of New Hampshire And Several 
Indians have appeared in said Township and last Sabbath 
day some of them broke open a House there and none of 
the family being at home RifHed the same and Carried 
dway many things And the Inhabitants are put in Great 
Fear and Terror of their lives by the Indians, so that they 
must be Obliged to leave the Town, which is now very 
Considerably Settled Unless they can have some Relief 
from the Great Goodness of Your Honours. And for as 
much as the said Township is so Situated That if the In- 


habitants should leave it, Townsend, Hollis Lunenburg 
Leominster and Lancaster would be Exposed to the Cruel- 
ty of the Indians and •would become an easy prey to them 
But if your pet"" can be protected by Your Honours, and 
have a Number of Men sent to their AssisUvnce and a few 
Block houses or a Fort built for them, they make no 
doubt, with the Blessing of God, they shall be able to 
Defend the said Township and to keep the Indians from 
making any Attempts on the Towns aforementioned which 
are all Surrounded by said Peterborough Your pet"" there- 
fore Most humbly pray Your Honours would be pleased to 
take their Distressed Circumstances into Consideration and 
Allow them Liberty at the Charge of the Government to 
Build Block houses or a Fort and supply them with fifteen 
or Twenty men for such men for such a length of time as 
your Honours shall think proper that so they may defend 
the said Township against the Indians and by that means 
Serve the Province by Securing the other Towns aforesaid 
from falling into the Indians hands Or that Your Honours 
would Grant them such other Relief as in your Great Wis- 
dom shall seem meet. And as in duty Bound they will 
ever pray, «S:c. Boston Oct, 4''* 1T50. 

thomas Morrison John white John Hill 

Alexe Babbe James Gordon William Scott 

Jjimes michel John Smith thomas Vender 

william Robb. 
In council, Oct. (J, 1750. Read and Sent down." 

The first settlers were Scotch Presbyterians from Ireland. 
Being wholly unaccustomed to clearing and cultivating 
wild lands, they suftered great privations. Their nearest 
gristmill was in Townsend, a distance of 25 miles ; their 
only road a line of marked trees. Peterborough has fur- 


nished a large number of worthy and distinguished men, 
who have adorned the bench, the pulpit, the bar, the halls 
of Legislature and of Congress, and the chair of state. 
This town was incorporated January 17, 1760. The Con- 
gregational church was organized October 23, 1799. 

Population, 2222. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
494. Inventory, |900,950. Value of lands, |467,651. 
Do. mills and factories, $108,900. Stock in trade, 
$37,030. Money at interest, |107,232. Number of 
sheep, 789. Do. neat stock, 1694. Do. horses, 337. 

PiERMONT, Grafton county. Bounded north by Haver- 
hill, east by Warren, south by Orford, and west by Brad- 
ford, Vermont. Area, 23,000 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 75 miles, by the Passumpsic and Northern Railroads ; 
from Haverhill, 8, south. The surface is somewhat hilly, 
though the soil is strong, affording excellent pasturage. 
The interval on the Connecticut is extensive, and under 
high cultivation. Excellent Avheat is raised in this town. 
The plains adjoining the interval are composed of a sandy 
loam, in which, in some places, marl predominates. Iron 
Ore Hill contains inexhaustible quantities of specular and 
magnetic iron ore, of a very superior quality. The veins 
are from 10 to 15 feet in width. This is now extensively 
wrought. From the summit of this hill a picturesque 
view of the surrounding country is obtained. A layer of 
rocks extending through the town in a direction north and 
south is extensively quarried, and manufactured into scythe 
stones. Peaked and Black Mountains are the principal 
elevations. Eastman's Brook, flowing from a pond of the 
same name, is a large mill stream, on which are three saw- 
mills, one gristmill, two shingle mills, and other works. 
In the principal village are two meeting houses, two stores, 


one hotel, and one tinware manufactory. The inhabitants 
are chiefly engaged in agriculture. Piermont was granted, 
November G, 1764, to John Temple and 59 others. The 
first settlement was in 1770. A Congregational church 
was formed in 1771. There is also a society of Methodists 
and Christians. 

Population, 948. Number of legal voters in 1854, 200. 
Common schools, 13. Inventory, ^334,147. Value of 
lands, $231,350. Stock in trade, $1300. Money at in- 
terest, $12,218. Number of sheep, 4082. Do. neat stock, 
1137. Do. horses, 199. 

Pittsburgh, Coos county. Bounded north by the high- 
lands that divide the waters of the St. Lawrence from those 
that fall into the Connecticut, east by the State of Maine, 
south by Connecticut River, and west by Hall's Stream. 
The area is over 200,000 acres. This is the northernmost, 
as well as by for the largest, town in the state. The soil is 
well adapted to grazing. Indian corn, buckwheat, and the 
English grains are extensively and successfully cultivated. 
The forests are finely timbered with spruce, birch, beech, 
sugar and rock maple, and a small growth of white pine. 
The face of the country is broken and uneven, excepting 
along the banks of the streams, which in many places are 
spread out into large tracts of interval. Indian Stream, 
Hall's Stream, and Perry's Stream are within the limits of 
this town, and in the early part of the warm season, as 
well as in the fall, timber may be floated upon them for 
several miles. Connecticut Lake lies in the north-east part 
of the town, is nearly four miles long and three wide, and 
is the source of Connecticut River. Second Lake lies 
about four miles above Connecticut Lake, and is connected 
with it by a considerable stream. It is about two miles 


and a half in length and one and three fourths in width. 
Third Lake lies about two miles above Second Lake, and 
covers about 200 acres. It is situated near the highlands, 
separating New Hampshire from Canada. Moose, deer, 
and sable, &c., are found here in great abundance. The 
lakes and streams swarm with pickerel, trout, eels, suck- 
ers, &c, while the otter, mink, and muskrat are found 
along the banks. Pittsburg includes that formerly known 
as the Indian Stream Territory, and was the seat of the 
celebrated Indian Stream war. llic jurisdiction of the 
county Avas in dispute between the British and American 
governments, which was settled by the Webster and Ash- 
burton treaty of 1842. It also embraces Carlisle grant, 
Colebrook Academy grant, and about 60,000 acres of the 
public lands belonging to the state. Among the first set- 
tlers were General Moody Bedel, who rendered his coun- 
try faithful service in the war of 1812, John Haines, 
Esq., Rev. Nathaniel Perkins, Jeremiah Tabor, Ebenezer 
Fletcher, and about 50 others, who claimed to hold their 
lands — 200 acres each — by proprietary grants, which, 
however, were repudiated by the state ; but considering 
the hardships and privations endured by these settlers, the 
state reinvested them in their possessions. Pittsburg was 
first settled about 1810. There are two religious societies, 
— Methodists and Christians, — seven common schools, 
one store, one potato starch factory, four sawmills, two 
flouring mills, and one rake manufactory. 

Its present population is about 500. Number of legal 
voters, 100. Inventory, ,^7(5, (503. Value of lands, 
|40,530. Do. mills, $1550. Money at interest, |1700. 
Number of sheep, 662. Do. neat stock, 497. Do. horses, 
69. It was incorporated December 10, 1840. 


PiTTSFiELD, Merrimack county. Bounded north-east by 
Barnstead, south-east by Strafford and Northwood, south- 
west by Chichester and Epsom, and north-west by Loudon. 
Area, 14,921 acres. Distance from Concord, 15 miles, 
north-east. The surface is uneven and rocky, but the soil 
is fertile. Suncook River passes through this town in a 
southerly direction, affording several excellent water privi- 
leges. Catamount Mountain extends across the south-east 
part of the town. It is 1415 feet above the level of the 
sea, which may be seen from its summit. Monadnock, 
Kearsarge, Moosehillock, and the White Mountains, also, 
are visible from its top ; thus rendering the prospect varied, 
extensive, and grand. Berry's Fond, about half a mile in 
length and fifty rods in width, is on this mountain. In 
Wild Goose Pond large masses of bog iron ore have been 
found. A short distance north-east from the village ia 
a chalybeate spring, impregnated with sulphur. Black 
tourmaline and magnetic iron ore are found in a few locali- 
ties. Peat bogs are numerous, several of which have 
been reclaimed, and yield three and a half tons of hay to 
the acre. The village is pleasantly situated, and contains 
three meeting houses, one academy, nine stores, one hotel, 
and one cotton manufactory, with a capital of $160,000, 
where 150 hands are employed. There is a society of 
Friends here, who have also a house of worship. Pitts- 
field was incorporated March 27, 1782. The Congrega- 
tional church was organized in 1789 ; the Baptist church in 
1801. There is also a large society of Freewill Baptists. 

Population, 1828. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
460. Common schools, 10. Inventory, $566,592. Value 
of lands, $359,206. Do. mills, $4675. Stock in trade, 
$13,725. Money at interest, $26,189. Number of sheep 
700. Do. neat stock, 1163. Do. horses, 239. 
30 * 


Plainfield, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Leb- 
■inon, east by Grantham, south by Cornish, and west by 
Hartland, A^ermont. Area, 23,221 acres. Distance from 
Concord, 60 miles, north-west ; from Newport, 17, north- 
west ; from Dartmouth College, 12, south. Connecticut 
Kiver touches its western border, along which are extensive 
tracts of valuable interval. In other parts there are many 
fertile meadows. A small stream, which has its source in 
Croydon jNIountains, waters the town. There is no water 
power of any considerable importance. The surface is 
varied. The soil is generally strong and fertile ; in a few 
localities it is hard and stony. This is an excellent town 
for grazing and the raising of stock. Limestone of good 
quality is found in the western portion, in several places. 

Plainfield Plain is a small but pleasant village, situat- 
ed on the banks of the (Connecticut, and contains two meet- 
ing houses, a post office, two stores, and several shops. 

East Plainfield contains a few houses, and a meeting 
house, erected several years since by the Baptist society, 
but which has been unoccupied for some time. The soil 
in this vicinity is somewhat cold and rugged. 

Meriden is a pleasant and healthy village, situated on a 
gentle eminence, upon the top of which is a handsome 
school house, a meeting house, two stores, a large hotel, sev- 
eral dwelling houses, and Kimball Union Academy, a wide- 
ly-known and distinguished literary institution. It was 
endowed with a permanent fund of $40,000, a liberal 
bequest of the late Hon. Daniel Kimball. Of the income 
of this fund, $150 is annually applied towards the support 
of a preacher ; the remainder in aid of young men wlio 
contemplate entering upon the duties of the ministry. A 
few years since an appropriation of $12,000 was made by 
the widow of Mr. Kimball towards the establishment of a 


female department, and the erection of suitable buildings 
for that purpose. A large, beautiful, and substantial edifice 
was built, upon the lower floor of which are the chapel, a 
spacious and well-finished room, and a reading room. On 
the second floor are recitation rooms, the room contain- 
ing the library and mineral cabinet, and a few rooms for 
the use of students. The upper or third story is divided 
into apartments for students. This new structure is joined 
at right angles with the old building, which is used for 
lecture rooms, laboratory, apparatus room, &c. The board 
of instructors is large, and made up of permanent and ex- 
perienced teachers. The modes of instruction, and the suc- 
cess which has hitherto attended the efforts of the trustees 
and teachers of this institution, are too generally known to 
admit of description. Suffice it to say that no efforts are 
spared to promote the health and advancement, both moral 
and intellectual, of the student. It was incorporated June 
16, 1813. 

On the " Flat," about half a mile east of the Academy, 
is the Baptist meeting house, a handsome edifice, containing 
a bell, which for sweetness and sonorousness is seldom 
equalled. The village contains many pleasant residences. 

Plainficld was granted August 14, 1761, and was settled 
in 1764, by L. Nash and J. Russell. A Congregational 
church was organized in 1765. The Baptist church was 
formed in 1792. 

Population, 1392. Number of polls, 300. Inventory, 
$521,759. Value of lands, $330,710. Do. mills, $1700. 
Stock in trade, $2900. Money at interest, $39,901. 
Number of sheep, 9860. Do. neat stock, 1256. Do. 
horses, 283. 

Plaistow, Rockingham county. Bounded north and 


uorth-east by Kingston, east by Newton, soutb by Havei"- 
hiil, Massachusetts, And west by Atkinson. Area, 6839 
acres. Distance from Concord, 36 miles, south-cast ; from 
Portsmouth, 30, south-west. The soil is good, being a 
mixture of black loam, clay, and gravel. In the north- 
Avest part the surface is rocky and uneven. Various min- 
eral substances have been discovered in this section. Clay 
of a very good quality is found in great abundance near 
the centre. 

The village is pleasantly located, and contains two 
meeting houses, two stores, and one hotel. The inhabit- 
ants are chiefly engaged in farming, and the many thrifty 
farms attest their industry and skill. 

Plaistow "was formerly a part of Haverhill, and included 
in the Indian purchase of 1642. Its settlement com- 
menced early, but the precise date is not known. Among 
the first settlers were Captain Charles Bartlett, Nicholas 
White, Esq., Deacon Benjamin Kimball, and J. Harriman. 
The Congregational church was organized December 2, 
1730. Deacon J. Harriman is said to have been the first 
man in New Hampshire who embraced the Ikxptist persua- 
sion. After this town was annexed to New Hampshire, it 
was incorporated, February 28, 1749. 

Population, 748. Number of legal voters in 1854, 202. 
Do. common schools, 4. Inventory, $236,878. Value of 
lands, $167,862. Stock in trade, |32e50. Value of mills, 
$1200. Money at interest, $3552. 

Plymouth, one of the shire towns of Graftoh county. 
Bounded north by Ilumney and (Jampton, east by Hol- 
derness, south by Bridge water, and west by Hebron and 
Rumney. Area, 16,256 acres. Distance from Concord, 51 
miles, north, by the Boston, Concord, and Montreal Rail- 


road. This town is well watered by numerous small 
streams in various parts, as well as by Pemigewasset and 
Baker's Rivers, both of which arc of considerable impor- 
tance. Baker's River is about 30 miles in length. The 
surface is beautifully diversified Avith hill and valley, mead- 
ow and plain. The soil is good. Several farms in this 
town are under a high state of cultivation. The village is 
one of the pleasantest in New Hampshire. It is well or- 
namented with trees, and the roads leading towards it from 
various directions are shaded by graceful and venerable 
elms. The dwelling houses are large, and many of them 
elegant in structure. Its facilities for trade, owing to its 
convenient location with respect to the surrounding towns, 
are great and valuable. Especially is this true s-ince the 
construction of the Boston, Concord, and Montreal Rail- 
road. The public house is large and well constructed. 
The ■ grounds around it are beautifully arranged, and the 
whole presents an inviting appearance to the traveller. The 
Court House is a handsome building, of brick. There are 
two meeting houses here, besides several stores and shops. 

Plymouth AAas granted, July 15, 176o, to Joseph Blan- 
chard and others. The first settlement was made in August, 
1T64, by Zachariah Parker and James Hobart. In the 
following autumn they were joined by Jotham Cumings, 
Josiah Brown, Stephen Webster, Ephraim Weston, David 
Webster, and James Blodgett. The Congregational church 
was organized in 1765. A Methodist church was formed 
in 1803. The intervals in this town were doubtless favor- 
ite resorts of the Indians for hunting. At the mouth of 
Baker's River, according to tradition, they had a settle- 
ment. Indian graves, bones, gun barrels, stone mortars, 
pestles, and other utensils have been found here. At this 
place the Indians, it is said, were attacked by Captain 


Baker, with a party of men from Haverhill, Massachusetts, 
who routed them, killed a large number, and seized a great 
quantity of furs which they had collected. 

Deacon Noah Johnson, one of Lovewell's men, died 
here in the 100th year of his age. 

Population, 1290. Number of polls, 297. Inventory, 
$311,658. Value of lands, $172,902. Stock in trade, 
$14,788. Money at interest, $19,448. Number of sheep, 
1106. Do. neat stock, 1047. Do. horses, 182. 

Poplin, — name changed to Freemont in 1854, — 
Rockingham county. Bounded north by Epping, east by 
Brentwood, south by Danville and vSandown, and west by 
Chester and Eaymond. Area, 10,320 acres. This town 
is watered by Exeter River and several small streams. The 
surface is mostly even, and is either plain or rises in moder- 
ate swells. The soil is of a good quality, and in general is 
well cultivated. The chief pursuit of the inhabitants is 
farming, which abundantly repays the efforts of honest toil. 
The superfluities of wealth are not coveted, neither are the 
miseries of poverty endured ; but competency, the happiest 
condition of man, is a blessing widely enjoyed. 

This town was incorporated June 22, 1764. The date 
of its first settlement is not known. A Methodist church 
was organized at an early period. 

Population, 509. Number of polls, 127. Inventory, 
$189,554. Value of lands, $123,652. Stock in trade, 
$2750. Value of mills, $2816. Money at interest, $3700 
Number of sheep, 419. Do. neat stock, 437. Do. horses, 

Portsmouth, seaport, and half shire town of Rocking- 
ham county. In connection with its wealth and other ad- 


vantages, the fact that Portsmouth is the only seaport in 
the state, and its harbor one of the safest and most commo- 
dious in the country, renders it, perhaps, the most impor- 
tant town in Ncav Hampshire. It is situated on a peninsu- 
la on the south side of Piscataqua River, three miles from 
the ocean. Its location is pleasant and healthy — the land 
sloping by a gentle declivity towards the harbor. In 
the central or business part of the city the streets are 
mostly paved. The buildings are of brick, and of a style 
somewhat antiquated ; but there are many well-constructed 
and elegant mansions. " As for antiquity, the city of 
Portsmouth is one of the earliest discovered and first set- 
tled places in New England. In the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, some merchants of Bristol, England, 
having formed a private company for the investigation of 
this country, employed for that service Captain Martin 
Pring, of Bristol, a skilful navigator, and much praised by 
Gorges. They placed under his command two vessels, aus- 
piciously named the Speedwell and the Discoverer. In 
the year 1603 ho set sail for America, and was enabled 
to speed so locll as to be the first discoverer of New Hamp- 
shire. Just 250 years ago (i. c., from 1853) he entered 
the channel of our river, and explored it for three or four 
leagues. He landed on this shore, and doubtless, with his 
companions, trod upon the soil of this city ; for he came 
in search of sassafras, then esteemed in pharmacy a sover- 
eign panacea. The city of Portsmouth, therefore, just- 
ly boasts of her antiquity of 350 years, and of being 
the first soil in New Hampshire that was touched by 
the feet of Englishmen. In 1614 the celebrated John 
Smith, saved from death by the Indian girl Pocahontas, 
examined and extolled the deep waters of the Piscataqua. 
In 1623 the Company of Laconia, in England, consisting 


of Gorges and Mason, and many eminent, noble, and ta- 
terprising merchants of London and other cities, selected 
some choice persons, and sent them to establish a plantation 
on this river. They came here for trade and commerce, 
were high-minded men, and had enlarged views of gov- 
ernment, religion, and religious toleration. They were not 
of the Puritan party, for Gorges and Mason had not the 
same religious views with the Massachusetts planters. 
John Mason, the London merchant, member of the Plym- 
outh Company for the planting, ruling, and governing of 
New England, and first governor of this province, ad- 
vanced a large sum of money for the welfare of this place, 
and may be said to have laid the foundation of its commer- 
cial prosperity. David Tomson, a Scotchman, who seems 
to have been prominent among the planters, who first set- 
tled in this town, built a house at Odiorne's Point, a few 
rods north of the evident remains of an ancient fort. It 
was built the very year of his arrival here, was the first 
house erected on this plantation, and was afterwards called 
Mason Hall. It was not until almost eight years after- 
wards that Humphrey Chadbourne built the Great House, 
which was situated on the bank of the river at the corner 
of Court and AVater Streets. It was afterwards occupied 
by Warnerton and Richard Cutts. The review of their 
ancestry, the contemplation of their enlightened character, 
noble enterprise, and Uberal views cannot fail to awaken 
in the sons of Portsmouth a laudable and elevating pride." 
On the 28th of May, 1653, this plantation, " which was 
accidentally called Strawberry Bank, by reason of a bank 
where strawberries were found," was allowed by the General 
Court at Boston, on the petition of Brian Pendleton and 
others, to be called Portsmouth, " as being a name most 
suitable for this place, it being the river's mouth, and as 


good as any in the land." It was also the name of the 
English city in which John Mason was bom. The number 
of families was then between 50 and 60. •' The line of 
the township was ordered to reach from the sea by Hamp- 
ton line to Wynnacot River." 0ur planters were so indus- 
trious and successful as to be able to send corn to the early 
sufferers at Plymouth. 

The first edifice erected here for public worship was an 
Episcopal church. It was built, at least as early as 1639, 
on what is now called Church Street, and formerly Church 
Lane, northerly of the Court House. A parsonage house, 
erected at the same time, was situated in Pleasant Street, a 
few rods north of the Universalist meeting house. The 
parishioners made choice of Richard Gibson, an Episcopa- 
lian clergyman, as their pastor, being the first minister that 
was settled in this town, and the worship was according to 
the ritual of the English church. In the year 1634, Fran- 
cis Williams was appointed governor of the plantation. 
He was a discreet and sensible man, accomplished in his 
manners, and acceptable to the people. He collected about 
him many valuable men, whose example and influence were 
of the best order. These circumstances gave a high char- 
acter to the town. Its reputation was so great that it was 
always selected, in the days of the colonial government, as 
a most desirable place of residence, and for many years it 
was the home of the royal governors and the king's coun- 
cil. " It has been distinguished for men of patriotism. 
Here lived William Vaughn, who claimed to be the pro- 
jector of the siege of Louisburg, under Pepperell ; Dr. 
Cutter, who was a surgeon in that expedition ; Colonel 
Meserve, who Avas one of its mightiest spirits ; Major Hale, 
who was an officer in one of the regiments ; and the Rev. 
Samuel Langdon who was the chaplain of the New Hamp- 



shire forces. General Whipple, who resided here for the 
largest portion of his life, was one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. Governor Langdon was al- 
ways a devoted friend to his country ; went to Bennington 
as a volunteer in the armyv after the capture of Cornwallis, 
and was at Khode Island with a detachment while the 
British troops were there stationed. He, Avith General 
Sullivan, seized, at the fort in the mouth of the harbor, 100 
barrels of gunpowder, and so promptly conveyed them to 
Bunker Hill that they were of valuable service on the 
memorable 17th of June. He had the honor of presiding 
in the Senate when General Washington was elected presi- 
dent of the United States. He and John Pickering and 
Pierce Long were delegates to the convention for the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, and most thoroughly 
supported it, long commanded a regiment in the revo- 
tionary war, and was a member of the old Congress." 

Portsmouth has enjoyed largely the citizenship of litera- 
ary men, statesmen, scholars, and jurists. She points to a 
Buckminster, a Haven, a Sewall, a Penhallow, a Langdon, 
a Cutts, a Mason, a Bartlett, a Webster, — who here devel- 
oped and published his colossal powers to the world, — a 
Brown, Alden, Pickering, Sherburne, Woodbury, and 
Wentworths, and a host of others, who live in history, and 
whose memories are cherished by the gratitude and admira- 
tion of their posterity. Among the living she points with 
pride to the once penniless orphan, but now eminent schol- 
lar and sweetest of poets, James T. Fields. Its schools have 
always been of a high order, and at present are not sur- 
passed by those of any other city. 

The Athcna^'um, instituted about 37 years ago, contains 
8000 volumes of choice, valuable, and expensive books. 

Portsmouth has long been celebrated for the skill of its 


naval architects, as well as for its abundance of fine white 
oak timber and other materials for ship building. The 
merchant service, as well as the United States navy, is 
supplied from the ship yards here with many of the finest 
first-class vessels. It has always been noted for its enter- 
prise and commercial spirit, and is the immediate centre 
of an extensive trade, which, by reason of its increased fa- 
cilities by railroad communication, is rapidly enlarging. 
Market Square is situated in the central pa^t of the city, 
and is the principal seat of the country trade. 

Portsmouth is remarkable for its noble, safe, and ca- 
pacious harbor. It contains forty feet of water, at low tide, 
in the channel, and is protected by islands and headlands 
from storms. The river opposite the city is three fourths 
of a mile wide ; its current is more than five miles per 
hour ; its depth, at low water, seventy feet. The tide 
rises here ten feet, and is so rapid as to keep the harbor 
free from ice, as well as the river for several miles above 
the town. Its great breadth and its delightful banks, in 
connection with all its other advantages, render it one of 
the most important and interesting naval stations in the 
country. The city is remarkable for the beautiful scenery 
with which it is surrounded. On every elevation is pre- 
sented a magnificent landscape. The rides are charming, 
always presenting objects of interest and delight. The 
climate is salubrious. Great crimes are rarely committed, 
and no execution has taken place since the year 1768. In- 
telligence, sound morality, and excellent manners pervade 
the community. There is also an agreeable harmony 
among the various religious denominations. The fields are 
generally well cultivated, and much attention is paid to 
the study of agriculture. Portsmouth has sufiered much 
from fires. In December, 1802, 102 buildings were 
burned ; in December, 1806, 14, including St. John's 


Church; and in December, 1813, 15 acres of the to-vwi 
were burned over, destroying 397 buildings. Among 
the public buildings in Portsmouth are seven hand- 
some churches, two market houses, an Academy, the 
Athenaeum, and an Almshouse. The Custom House 
is situated at the corner of Penhallow and Daniel 
Streets. There are four lighthouses attached to this 
district — viz., New Castle, White's Back, White Island, 
and Boon Island. Fort Constitution is situated on the 
north-west point of Great Island, and nearly opposite 
is Fort McClay, in Kittery, Maine. It is connected with 
this latter place by a bridge, and also with the Island of 
New Castle. 

The Navy Yard is situated on Navy Island, on the east 
side of the river, within the limits of Maine, and has every 
convenience and facility for the construction of vessels of 
the largest class. It is about three fouiths of a mile south- 
easterly from the city. The territory embraced within its 
limits is about 65 acres, a large portion of which is en- 
closed with permanent quay walls of dimension-split gran- 
ite. At the wharves abundant depth of water is afforded 
for government ships of the largest class. The great ra- 
pidity of the tides has worn the channel very deep, so 
that the formation of bars is improbable, if not impossible. 
On the yard arc three ship houses, one of which is 300 
feet long, 131 wide, and 72 high from floor to ridge; six 
timber sheds, 200 by 60 feet each, built of stone ; mast 
house and rigging loft, also of stone, 250 feet long by 70 
wide ; a machine shop smithery, in which is a steam en- 
gine ; an engine house for woodwork, in which are a saw- 
mill, planing machines, circular saws, &c., of the most 
approved descriptions. In this building is a double steam 
engine of 50 horse power, of excellent workmanship and 
the best material, finished, fitted, and set up by workmen 


in the government shop. Convenient and desirable quar- 
ters are provided for the commander, lieutenant, purser, 
surveyor, and sailing master, and also quarters for boat- 
swain, gunner, sailmaker, carpenter, and ordinary seamen. 
A corps of marines, with their officers, is stationed here, 
for whom barracks are provided. The magazine is a fine 
stone structure, well adapted to the purpose for which it 
was erected. The floating balance diy dock is an in- 
genious and costly piece of work. A basin for moving 
the dock is constructed of stone with hammered face, of rec- 
tangular form, 300 feet in length, 125 in width, the walls 
six feet thick at the base, abating to three feet, and 14 
in height. The floor, as well as the walls, rests on 3000 
piles, driven with a ram weighing 3500 pounds, 25 feet 
run. These piles are three feet from centre to centre, 
capped with timber, "and covered with six-inch plank. 
Five courses of stone are laid lengthwise of the basin, and 
the spaces between them concreted six inches in depth. 
The dock is 350 feet long, 115 in width, and the side 
walls 38 feet in height. These walls are seven feet in 
thickness, in which are partitions forming chambers on 
both sides the entire length of the dock. On these walls 
and amidships of the dock on fcach side are steam engines 
of ten horse power for operating twelve pumps each. 
When a ship is to be received, the dock is floated from the 
basin into deep water, one of the end gates removed, the 
sinking gates opened, and the dock allowed to sink, if 
necessary, 32 feet, by adding to the specific gravity of the 
dock by filling the chambers with Avatcr, for which purpose 
the pumps are put in operation. The ship is then taken into 
the dock, received on the cradle, centred, and shored. The 
process of raising is now commenced. The end gate is 
replaced, the discharging gates opened, and the pumps 


again put in operation, and as the water is discharged the 
dock rises. When the water is removed from the cham- 
bers, the end gate opposite the one before spoken of is re- 
moved, and the dock returned to the basin and moored. 
During this operation some fifty gates are used in sinking, 
raising, and balancing the dock. The pumps by which the 
water is raised are 24: in number, three feet stroke, and the 
boxes 20 inches square. These pumps are capable of dis- 
charging 1,200,000 gallons of water per hour. At the 
head of the dock basin is a railway, on an inclination of one 
inch in ten feet, on which the ships may be draAvn by an 
hydraulic machine, operated by steam. The ship, after 
being drawn upon this railway, is securely shored on a 
stone foundation laid for the purpose. After the ship has 
been duly repaired, she may be put afloat ; and the same 
means are used as in raising, the order of operation being 
simply reversed. The cost of the dock and appendages has 
been about $800,000. 

The facilities for ship building in this yard are not ex- 
celled by any other. The buildings, (some of the most 
important having been above mentioned,) together with 
the location, depth of water, and accessibility at all times 
of the year, — the terms On which competent mechanics 
can be obtained, (whose skill is proverbial in naval archi- 
tecture,) — render this station entitled to more consider- 
ation than it has heretofore received. The sloop of war 
Portsmouth, the steamer Saranac, and the frigate Con- 
gi'css, built here, do credit to the station, to the builders, 
and to the government. At the present time, however, 
more than 400 mechanics are employed in preparing the 
frigate Santee for launching, and reconstructing the ship 
of the line Franklin, which will be a screw propeller, and 
when completed will be the largest war steamer in the 



Table of Vessels built in the District of Portsmouth since 1800. 



































































1810 . 

1811 • 








































































































































































































































































Number of vessels belonging to the district of Ports- 
mouth on the 1st day of October, 1850, 92 — ships, 
17 ; bark, 1 ; brigs, 3 ; schooners, 70 ; sloop, 1. Ton- 
nage, 16,-448. In addition to this list, there are several 
small vessels, from 5 to 20 tons, used for fishing, &c., and 
a number of packets which ply between Portsmouth and 
places at the head of the river — such as Dover, Berwick, 
Exeter, &c. 

Banks. — Eockingham Bank — incorporated ra Novem- 
ber, 1813 ; rechartered December 17, 1852. Capital^ 

Mechanics and Traders' Bank — incorporated in Decem- 
ber, 1844. Capital, $120,000. 

Piscataqua Exchange Bank — incorporated in 1844. 
Capital, $200,000. 

Portsmouth Savings Bank — incorporated in. 1823. 
Amount of deposits, $422,676.55. This institution is es- 
tablished for the benefit of all classes of individuals. De- 
posits are received in sums from $3 upwards, $300 being 
the largest sum that can draw interest. 

Insurance Companies. — Portsmouth Mutual Fire In- 
surance Company — incorporated June 20, 1839. Icha- 
bod Rollins president ; John Salter secretary and treas- 

Railroads. — Eastern Railroad in New Hampshire — 
incorporated in June, 1836. Capital, $500,000. 

Eastern Railroad — incorporated in Massachusetts. Cap- 
ital, $3,850,000. 

Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth Railroad — incorporated 
in Maine, 1841. Capital, $1,500,000. 

Portsmouth and Concord Railroad — incorporated in 
July, 1845. Capital, $800,000. 

Factories. — Portsmouth Steam Factory — William 


Stearns agent. Capital, |530,000. Erected in 1846. The 
present building is 204 feet long by TO in width, and 6 
stories high, with two L's, each 100 feet by 30, and 2 
stories high. It runs 27,000 spindles, 450 looms, and 
manufactures lawns from yarns number 70 and 90. The 
machinery is driven by a high pressure steam engine of 
200 horse power. 2,900,000 yards of lawn are manufac- 
tured annually. 1500 tons of anthracite coal and 395,000 
pounds of cotton are consumed annually. Number of 
hands employed — males, 150 ; females, 230 ; total, 380. 

Bridges. — Portsmouth Bridge — incorporated in June, 
1819. Capital, |64,000. 

Piscataqua Bridge — built in 1794 ; original cost, 

New Castle Bridge — incorporated in 1821. 

Maine Railway — incorporated in July, 1833. Capital, 

Portsmouth Pier Company — incorporated in 1795. 

Hotels. — Rockingham House, 97 State Street, by S. 
A. Coburn. Franklin House, 43 Congress Street, Wil- 
lis Barnabee. Piscataqua House, 9 Pleasant Street, Josiah 
G. Hadley. Market Street House, 114 Market Street, 
Charles W. Walker. 

Fire Department. — The Fire Depaitment of Ports- 
mouth have under their charge six engines, five of them 
(Suction, with apparatus complete, and about 2000 feet of 

Portsmouth Aqueduct Company — incorported in 1798. 
By means of this aqueduct the town is supplied with wa- 
ter from a spring about two and a half miles from Market 
Square, which is conducted through wooden logs into most 
of the streets, and into dwelling houses. 

Newspapers. — New Hampshire Gazette, Daily and 


Weekly Chronicle, Portsmouth Journal of Literature and 
Politics, the Pockingham Messenger, and the American 

Religious Societies. — St. John's Church, Episcopal ; or- 
ganized about 1638 ; rector, Rev. Charles Borroughs, D. D. 

The North Church — Congregational ; organized in 
1671 ; pastor, Eev. Pufus W. Clark. 

The South Congregational Church and Parish — organ- 
ized in 1713 ; pastor. Rev. Andrew B. Peabody. 

Universalist Society — founded, in 1774, by Rev. John 
Murray ; pastor, Rev. S. S. Fletcher. 

Methodist Episcopal Society — incorporated in 1808; 
pastor, S. Kelley. 

Pleasant Street Christian Society — organized October 
12, 1802, under the name of " The First Baptist Society in 
Portsmouth." In 1840 the corporate name was changed 
to " The Pleasant Street Christian Society." 

Middle Street Baptist Church — incorporated July 3, 
1827 ; pastor, William Lamson. 

Hanover Street Chapel — Elder D. I. Robinson, a Second 
Advent preacher. No regular society has yet been formed. 

Cemeteries. — The Auburn Street Cemetery, or "Pro- 
prietors' Burying Ground," is situated on two gentle swells 
of land at the foot of Auburn Street. It covers about 13 
acres. In the centre is a beautiful artificial pond, sur- 
rounded by an extensive lawn, ornamented with trees and 
shrubbery. The remainder of the ground is laid out in 
lots of various dimensions, divided by gravel walks, and 
the whole surrounded by a substantial stone fence, along 
which are rows of elm and maple trees. A large portion 
of the lots which have been taken up is enclosed by 
handsome and durable iron fences, and contains tasteful and 
elegant monuments. H 


Harmony Grove Cemetery is in the rear of, and an addi- 
tion to. Auburn Street Cemetery. 

The city of Portsmouth was incorporated July 6, 1849. 
It is 54 miles north-east from Boston, the same distance 
south-west from Portland, 45 miles east-south-east from 
Concord, and 489 miles from the city of Washington. 
It is situated in latitude 43'' h' north, and longitude 
70° 41' west from Greenwich, or 6° 23' east from Wash- 
ington. The population in 1790 was 4720 ; in 1800, 
5339; in 1810, 6934; in 1820, 7327; in 1830, 8032; 
in 1840, 7887 ; in 1850, 9700. The wealth of the city 
is very considerable, and its present condition decidedly 
prosperous. The cleanliness of the streets, the neatness 
of the houses, the number of trees which ornament the 
streets, and the many fine gardens scattered throughout 
the town, give the place a pleasant and inviting appearance, 
while its quietness and proximity to the sea and neighbor- 
ing beaches render it a delightful summer resort. From 
1623 until 1641, Portsmouth, including Kittery, Dover, 
and Exeter, was an independent republic. It then, with 
Exeter, placed itself under the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts. This connection continued until 1679, when New 
Hampshire was formed into a separate province. It was 
incorporated, with its present limits. May 28, 1643. Area, 
9702 acres. 

Randolph, Coos county. Bounded north by Berlin, east 
by Gorham, south by White Mountains, and west by Kil- 
kenny. This is a cold and rugged township, situated at 
the northern base of the White Mountains. Area, about 
26,680 acres. In some parts the soil is good ; but its pop- 
ulation has increased very gradually. Branches of Moose 
and Israel's Kivers are the only streams of importance, 
though there are numerous brooks well stored with trout. 



The sources of these two rivers are so near that a person of 
ordinary size may lie with his feet on the brink of one and 
drink out of the other. Moose River runs in an easterly 
direction, and Israel's in a westerly. 

This town was granted, August 20, 1772, to John Du- 
rand, and others from London, under the name of Durand. 
It received its jjresent name in 1824. Distance from 
Concord, 120 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 20, south- 

Population, 11-3. Number of legal voters in 1854, 26. 
Do. common schools, 3. Hotel, 1. Inventory-, ^31,670. 
Value of lands, .f 23, 224. Number of sheep, 114. Do. 
neat stock, 95. Do. horses, 17. 

E-AYMOiSfD, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Deerfield and Nottingham, east by Epping and Freemont, 
south by Sandown and Chester, and west by Chester and 
Candia. Area, 16,317 acres. Distance from Concord, 
28 miles, south-east ; from Portsmouth 25, south-west, by 
the Portsmouth and Concord Railroad. The principal 
streams are two branches of Lamprey River, and the 
Patuckaway. The surface is generally ^ven ; the soil is 
various. The meadows are productive, and under high 
cultivation. In the north part of the town, near the sum- 
mit of a hill about 100 feet in height, is a cave, or fissure, 
in a ledge, which, from the appearance of its mouth, is 
called the Oven. It is a regular arch, about five feet in 
height and the same in width, and extends into the hill 
about fifteen feet. 

Raymond was originally that part of Chester called 
Charming Fare. In 1762 it was made a distinct parish ; 
it was incorporated May 9, 1765, by its present name. 

The names of 24 of the inhabitants of Raymond are 
found enrolled among the soldiers of the revolution ; besides. 


numbers of the militia were engaged for short periods. 
Four were killed or died in the service. 

The Congregational church was organized about 1800. 
There is also a Methodist and a Freewill Baptist society. 
There are ten common schools, three stores, one hotel, and 
one shoe manufactory. 

Population, 1256. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
aOO. Inventory, $269,958. Value of lands, $178,928. 
Stock in trade, $1350. Number of sheep, 670. Do. 
neat stock, 931. Do. horses, 139. 

Richmond, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Swan- 
zey, east by Troy and Fitzwilliam, south by Warwick 
and Royalstou, Massachusetts, and west by Winches- 
ter. Area, 23,725 acres. Distance from Concord, 70 
miles, south-west ; from Keene, 12, south. It is w^atered 
by branches of Ashuelot and Miller's Rivers, which fall 
into the Connecticut. The surface is generally level ; the 
soil is favorable for the grains and grasses. Soapstone of 
a good quality is found here in considerable quantities. In 
the quarry from which the soapstone is taken are found 
quartz, felspar, phosphate of lime, pinite, rutile, iron py- 
rites, garnets, calcareous spar, and hornblende crystals. In 
the hornblende rock occur very perfect crystals of black 
tourmaline. lolite of great beauty is found in the quartz, 
rhis is a rare mineral, and is highly valued. 

Richmond contains three meeting houses, three stores, 
one hotel, twelve sawmills, two gristmills, four pail manu- 
factories, one wooden ware manufactory, and in the village 
at the " Four Corners ■ ' is a large steam mill, or shop, 
which is used for various purposes. 

This town was granted, February 28, 1752, to Joseph 
Blanchard and others. The first Baptist church was' formed 



in 1768 ; the second in 1776. There are also societies of 
Quakers, .Universalists, and Unitarians. 

Population, 1128. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
300. Inventory, $308,662. Value of lands, $185,376. 
Do. mills, $7750. Stock in trade, $5716. Money at 
interest, $13,589. Number of sheep, 403. Do. neat 
stock, 1048. Do. horses, 190. 

RiNDGE, Cheshire county. Bounded north by JafFrey 
and Sharon, east by New Ipswich, south by Winchendon, 
Massachusetts, and west by Fitzwilliam. Area, 23,838 
acres Distance from Concord, 50 miles, south-west ; from 
Keene, 20, south-east. The surface is very rocky, but the 
soil is in most parts deep and rich. There are 13 ponds, 
the largest of which are called Manomonack, Emerson, 
Perley, Long, Grassy, and Bullet. The three first discharge 
their waters by Miller's River ; the three last are drained 
into the Contoocook River. These ponds abound with fish, 
and are a fixvorite resort of anglers. There is a small ridge 
of land here, from which the waters issuing from one side 
flow into the Merrimack, and those on the other side into 
the Connecticut. Rindge was originally granted by Mas- 
sachusetts, and was called Rowley, Canada, or Monadnock 
Number One. It received its present name from one of its 
proprietors at the time of its incorporation, August 11, 
1768. It was settled, in 1752, by Jonathan Stanley, 
George Hewitt, and Abel Platts. Rev. Seth Dean was 
ordained over the Congregational church in 1765. 

Population, 1274. Number of polls, 300. Inventory, 
$515,413. Value of lands, $322,542. Stock in trade, 
$15,124. Money at interest, $49,050. Number of sheep, 
415. Do. neat stock, 1164. Do. horses, 194. 

t ■ 


Rochester, Strafford county. Bounded north-east by 
Berwick, Maine, south-east by Somersworth and Dover, 
south-west by Barrington, and north-west by Farmington. 
Area, 22,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, 
east ; from Dover, 10, north, by the Cocheco Raihoad, 
which connects it with the Portsmouth and Concord and 
the Great Falls Railroads. Besides Salmon Fall River, 
which separates this town from Berwick and Lebanon, in 
Maine, the Cocheco River runs nearly the whole length of 
the town in a south-easterly direction, while the Isinglass 
River crosses its southerly corner just before its conflu- 
ence with the Cocheco. Both Salmon Fall and Cocheco 
Rivers aftbrd several valuable water privileges ; on the 
latter is situated the principal village. The soil is gener- 
ally excellent. There arc many fine and well-cultivated 
farms. The surface is uneven, rising in numerous swells, 
the principal of which is Squamanagonnick Hill. Upon it 
are several valuable farms. 

Considerable attention is paid to manufactures and the 
mechanic arts. In the village called Gonic is a large wool- 
len factory, owned by N. V. AVhitehouse & Co. The cap- 
ital stock is $75,000. Kind of goods manufactured, flan- 
nels, printers' blankets, and printers' lapping. Number 
of spindles, 1760. Do. looms, 25. Do. yards manufac- 
tured per annum, 264,400 yards flannels, and 7884 yards 
printers' blankets. Do. pounds mooI consumed per an- 
num, 110,000. Do. operatives, 50. 

The capital of the Rochester Bank, in this town, is 

James Bean, manufacturer of woollen yarn — consumes 
about 1200 pounds wool per month. Number of hands, 6. 

This place makes healthy progress in wealth and popu- 
lation, which is owing, in a great measure, to its valuable 


water power. Rochester was granted by Massachusetts to 
several proprietors, in 127 shares. Its area then consisted 
of 60,000 acres. Since that time 38,000 acres have been 
taken to form other towns. It was incorporated May 10, 
1T22. Captain Timothy Roberts moved into this town 
with his family December 28, 1728, and was the first per- 
manent settler. He was soon followed by Eleazar Ham, 
Benjamin Frost, Joseph Richards, Benjamin Tibbets, and 
others. Until Canada was taken, in 1760, by the British 
and American forces, it remained a frontier town ; the 
people were poor, and often distressed, but not discouraged. 
When war broke out with the Indians they were obliged 
to move their families into garrisons, and to watch night 
and day ; nor could they cultivate their little patches of 
cleared land but at the hazard of their lives, protecting 
themselves with such numbers as they could muster from 
their feeble settlement. The men were bold, hardy, and 
industrious, and their sons were early trained to the use of 
arms. They soon became a terror to the Indians, and did 
not suffer so much from depredations as many other towns 
whose situations were far less exposed. In June, 1746, Jo- 
seph Heard, Joseph Richards, John Wentworth, and Ger- 
shora Downs were killed, and John Richards wounded, 
captui'cd, and carried to Canada, whence he soon returned. 
Jonathan Door, a boy, was also carried captive to Canada. 
In May, 1748, the wife of Jonathan Hodgdon was killed 
on a Sunday morning by the Indians, because she refused 
to accompany them to Canada. A few years after the set- 
tlement of the town a Congregational church was gathered. 
There are also societies of Methodists and Freewill Bap- 
tists. Many of the inhabitants took an active part in the 
revolutionary war. The names of Captains John Brewster 
toad David Place, Colonel John McDuflfee, Hon. John 


Plummer, James Knowles, Dr. James How, and John 
P. Hale, Esq., •will not soon be forgotten by the people of 

Population, 3006.. Number of polls, 664. Inventory, 
$934,860. Value of lands, |502,902. Stock iu trade, 
139,860. Value of mills and factories, $26,550. Money 
at interest, $56,002. Shares in banks, |93,700. Num- 
ber of sheep, 1264. Do. neat stock, 1810. Do. horses, 

RoLLiNSFORD, Strafford county. Bounded north by 
Somersworth, east by South Berwick, Maine, and south and 
west by Dover. Distance from Concord, 45 miles, south- 
east ; from Dover, one mile, by Great Falls Railroad, which 
connects it with the Portsmouth and Concord and the Co- 
checo Railroads. This is a very small township, taken from 
Somersworth, and incorporated July 3, 1849. Salmon Fall 
River washes its western boundary, and affords many val- 
uable water privileges. The soil is excellent, and well 
adapted to the various kinds of grain and grass. The 
Great Falls Bank, in this town, has a capital of $150,000. 
Manufacturing is carried on quite extensively. 

Population, 1862. Number of polls, 345. Inventory, 
$792,459. Value of lands, $291,956. Stock in trade, 
$51,400. Value of factories, $260,577. Money at in- 
terest, $30,138. Number of sheep, 113. Do. neat stock, 
430. Do. horses, 96. 

RoxBURY, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Sulli- 
van and Nelson, east by Nelson and Dublin, south by 
Marlborough, and west by Keene. Area, about 6000 
acres. Distance from Concord, 50 miles, south-'west ; from 
Keene, 5, east. This is a small but fertile township, the 


surface of which is rough and uneven, rising into consider- 
able swells, and affording excellent pasturage, besides the 
various productions common to the climate. The north 
branch of the Ashuelot, which forms il^e boundary between 
this town and Keeue, is the principal stream. Roaring 
Brook, on which are several valuable meadows, waters the 
south part, and affords a few moderate water privileges. 
The inhabitants are chiefly devoted to agriculture, although 
the mechanic arts, in the several branches, are pursued to 
some extent. It formerly constituted a part of Keene, 
Marlborough, and Nelson ; from which towns it was dis- 
annexed, and incorporated December 9, 1812. A Congre- 
gational church was formed August 15, 1816, 

Population, 260. Number of polls, 58. Inventory, 
$95,873. Value of lands, |61,599. Do. mills, |600. 
Money at interest, ^8565. Number of sheep, 1311. Do. 
neat stock, 334. Do. horses, 58. 

RuMNEY, Grafton county. Bounded north by Ells- 
worth, east by Campton, south by Plymouth, Hebron, 
and Groton, and west by Wentworth. Area, 22,475 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 51 miles, north-west; from Plym- 
outh, 8, north-west. It is connected with both these 
towns by the Boston, Concord, and Montreal Railroad. It 
is watered by Baker's River and its tributaries. Stinson's 
Brook is the outlet of a pond of the same name. The 
pond is in the north part of the town, and is 400 rods long 
and 200 wide. The surface is uneven ; the soil is gener- 
ally fertile. There is much excellent farming and timber 
land here, the value of which has been greatly increased 
since the construction of the Boston, Concord, and Mon- 
treal Railroad, which passes through the southerly par* 
of the town. The principal elevations are Rattlesnake 


"Webber's, ancl Stinson's Mountains. The latter received 
its name from the fact that, on the 28th of April, 1752, 
Daniel Stinson, while on a hunting excursion with General 
Stark and others, was killed here by the Indians. From 
this lamentable occurrence, the brook, pond, and mountain 
will long perpetuate the name of Stinson. Rumney waa 
granted first to Samuel Olmstead ; afterwards, on the 18th 
of March, 1767, to Daniel Brainard and others. It was 
first settled in October, 1765, by Captain Jotham Cum- 
n»ngs, Moses Smart, Daniel Brainard, James Heath, and 
others. A Congregational church was organized here Oc- 
tober 21, 1767. A Baptist church Avas formed in 1780. 
At present the Congregational church is destitute of a 

Population, 1109. Number of polls, 234. Inventory, 
$303,562. Value of lands, |158,292. Do. mills, $3485. 
Stock in trade, |6200. Money at interest, $44,933. 
Number of sheep, 1200. Do. neat stock, 1060. Da 
horses, 174. 

Rye, Rockingham county. Bounded north and west by 
Portsmouth, and south by North Hampton. Its eastern 
border for a distance of six miles is sea coast. Area, 7780 
acres. Distance from Concord, 50 miles, south-east ; from 
Portsmouth, 6, ^outh. The soil is naturally hard and 
stubborn ; but, by considerable pains in enriching and till- 
ing, it has been made quite productive. There is a small 
harbor near Goss's Mill, into which vessels of 70 or 80 
tons burden may enter at high water. Fishing is carried 
on to a considerable extent, and with fair profit. On the 
shore are three large and pleasant beaches, — Wallis's, 
Sandy, and Jenness's, — which have become widely cele- 
brated as places of summer resort. About a quarter of a 


mile from the meeting house, in the midst of a white pine 
grove, is an extensive granite quarry, from which abundant 
supplies are taken for building and other purposes. 

Breakfast Hill, in the western part of the town, was so 
named from an incident which occurred on its summit at 
the time of the Indian invasion of 1696. The savages had 
been down to the sea shore for the purpose of fishing ; and 
returning to the top of this hill, they sat down and pre- 
pai'ed their morning meal. While thus engaged they were 
surprised by a party of rangers, and captured. The inhai)- 
itants .suffered much in early times from the Indians. In 
1694 John Locke was killed while reaping grain in his 
field. In 1696, at Sandy Beach, 21 persons at one time 
were killed or captured by them. 

In the French or Canada war 14 persons belonging to 
this town were killed or died in service ; and in the revo- 
lutionary war 38 of its inhabitants lost their lives in service 
at sea or on the land. 

Rye was taken from Portsmouth, Greenland, Hampton, 
and New Castle.' It was settled as early as 1635, but was 
not incorporated until 1719. 

A Congregational church was organized July 20, 1726. 
There is at present a Methodist and a Freewill Baptist 

There are also four stores and five* hotels, viz., the 
Ocean House, the Atlantic, the Washington House, the 
Union House, and the Sagamore House ; all of which are 
opened for the accommodation of visitors in the warm 

Population, 1296. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
300. Inventory, $388,736. Value of lands, $257,364. 
Stock in trade, $450. Value of mills, $795. Money 
at interest, $13,698. Number of sheep, 234. Do. neat 
stock, 900. Do. horses, 149. 



Salem, Rockingham county. Bounded north by Derry, 
north-east by Atkinson, east and south by Lawrence, Mas- 
sachusetts, south-west by Pelham, and west by Windham. 
Area, 15,600 acres. Distance from Concord, 40 miles, 
south ; from Exeter, 20, south-east. Spiggot River, pass- 
ing through this town in a southerly direction, receives in 
its course numerous branches, and affords several excellent 
mill privileges. The surface is uneven, affording a fair 
proportion of interval and upland. The soil is fertile. 
Th^re are several factories, mills, mechanics', and machine 
shops. The inhabitants are intelligent, industrious, and 
enterprising. Salem was incorporated May 11, 1750. The 
Congregational church was formed about 1740. There 
aie also societies of Methodists and Freewill Baptists. 

Population, 1555. Number of polls, 341. Inventory, 
|523,335. Value of lands, $366,204. Stock in trade, 
$9170. Value of mills and factories, $25,125. Money 
at interest, $17,300. Number of sheep, 107. Do. neat 
stock, 956. Do. horses, 186. 

Salisbury, Merrimack county. Bounded north by An- 
dover and Franklin, cast by Franklin, south by Boscawen 
and Warner, and west by Warner. Area, about 26,000 
acres. Distance from Concord, 16 miles, north-west. 
Blackwater River waters this town, flowing nearly through 
the centre. The surface is uneven ; the soil of the upland 
is strong, deep, and loamy. The more hilly portion affords 
some fine tracts for tillage, but is mostly excellent pas- 
turage. On Blackwater River is considerable very fertile 
interval. The prevailing rock is granite. A considerable 
portion of Kearsarge is within the limits of Salisbury. 
The prospect from the summit of this mountain is magnifi- 
cent and beautiful. Salisbury will always be celebrated 



as the native town of the late Hon. Daniel Webster. On a 
pleasant eminence, near the centre village, stands the house 
in which he was born — a humble edifice, and somewhat 
dilapidated. The late Hon. Ichabod Bartlett, Hon. Thom- 
as H. Pettingill, and Hon. Charles B. Haddock, for many 
years professor in Dartmouth College, and present charge, 
d'affaires to Portugal, were, natives of this town. It was 
originally granted by Massachusetts, and was known as 
Bakerstown. It was afterwards granted, October 25, 1749, 
by the Masonian proprietors, and called Stevenstown. • It 
was incorporated by New Hampshire under its present 
name March 1, 1768. It was settled, in 1750, by Philip 
Call, Nathaniel Meloon, Benjamin Pettingill, John and 
Ebenezer Webster, Andrew Bohonnon, Edward Eastman, 
and others, mostly from Kingston. 

The early settlers suffered much from the inroads of the 
Indians. On the 16th of May, 1753, Nathaniel Meloon 
was captured, with his wife and three children. They 
were taken to Canada, where himself and Avife weie sold to 
the French in Montreal. The children were kept by the 
Indians, one of whom returned after an absence of nine 
years. In August, 1753, the wife of Philip Call was 
killed, and on the same day Samuel Scribner and Robert 
Barber were captured and taken to Canada. 

The Congregational church was organized November 
17, 1773. The Baptist society was formed May 25, 1789. 

Hon. Ebenezer Webster, the father of the " illustrious 
Daniel," was one of the first settlers, a patriot of the revo- 
lution, an officer of the militia, for several years senator in 
the legislature, and a judge of the Court of Common 

Population, 1228. Number of polls, 254. Inventory, 
$433,101. Value of lands, $270,793. Do. mills, $2100. 


Stock in trade, $10,400. Money at interest, $35,841. 
Number of sheep, 6337. Do. neat stock, 1321. Do. 
horses, 191. 

Sanbornton, Belknap county. Bounded north by Mere- 
dith, east by Gilford, south by Gilmanton, Noithfield, 
Franklin, and Hill, and west by New Hampton. Distance 
from Concord, 17 miles, by the Boston, Concord, and 
Montreal Railroad, which also connects it with Meredith 
Bridge. The bays and rivers encircling this town ^neas- 
ure 30 miles in extent ; the bay between Sanbornton and 
Meredith is three miles in width. The Winnipiseogee 
runs along its eastern and southern limits, affording many 
excellent mill seats. It is the only stream of note. Sal- 
mon Brook, passing through the north-west part, affords 
sufficient water power to drive one or two sawmills and a 
gristmill during a portion of the year. The surface is gen- 
erally uneven, but not mountainous, the highest hills, with 
one or two exceptions, being suitable for cultivation. The 
soil is almost universally good, and well rewards indus- 
trious toil. Two or three miles from Sanbornton Bridge, 
on the " Gulf Road," is a gulf extending nearly a mile 
through very hard, rocky ground, 38 feet in depth and 
from 80 to 100 feet in width. Such is the corresjiondence 
of the sides, that the beholder is strongly impressed with 
the belief that they were sundered by some natural con- 
vulsion. In the declivity of a neighboring hill is a cavern, 
which may be entered in a horizontal direction some 25 or 
30 feet. 

This town was once the residence of a powerful tribe of 
Indians, or, at least, a place of common resort. At the 
head of Little Bay are still to be seen the remains of an an- 
cient fortification. It consisted of six walls — one extend- 



ing along the river and across a point of land into the bay, 
and the others in right angles, connected by a circular wall 
in the rear. Within the fort have been found numer- 
ous Indian i-elics, such as implements of war, husbandry, 
cooking utensils, Sec. When the first settlers of Sanborn- 
ton arrived, these walls were breast high, and within the 
enclosure large oaks were growing. 

Sanbornton Square was the first settled part of the town. 
It contains two meeting houses^ and several dwelling houses. 
For Several years, however, the business of the town has 
been confined to Sanbornton Bridge, a pleasant and thriv- 
ing vilhige, situated on the northerly side of the Winnipi- 
seogec River, and about three and a half miles south-west- 
erly from Little Bay. This village is partly in Northfield 
and partly in Sanbornton. It contains two meeting houses, 
four common schools, the New Hampshire Conference Sem- 
inary and Female Collegiate Institute, five stores, one sati- 
net factory, employing 32 hands, one tweed do., employing 
30 hands, one cotton do., employing about 50 hands, one 
box manufactory, in which 10 hands are employed, and 
one piano-forte do., employing 15 hands. There is also one 
hotel, situated but a few rods from the depot. It is large, 
commodious, and Avell managed. 

The Citizens Bank was incorporated in 1853. Capital, 

There are in the town of Sanbornton eight meeting 
houses, two of which belong to Congregational, three to 
Baptist, two to Freewill Baptist, and one to Methodist, 
societies. There are also twenty-eight common schools, 
eight stores, and two hotels. 
. This town was granted by the Masonian proprietors, in 
1748, to several persons by the name of Sanborn, and was 
settled in 1765, by John Sanborn, David Duston, Andrew 


Rowen, and others. It was incorporated March 1, 1770. 
About this time the Congregational church was organized. 
The first Baptist church was formed in 1793. 

Population, 2(J95. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
712. Inventory, $823,423. Value of lands, |5 13,403. 
Stock in trade, $10,215. Value of mills and factories, 
$17,600. Money at interest, $45,005. Number of sheep, 
3326. Do. neat stock, 2636. Do. horses, 373. 

Sandown, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 
Chester and Freemont, east by Danville, south by Ilamp- 
stead, and west by Derry and Chester. Area, 8532 acres, 
200 of which are covered with water. Distance from 
Concord, 31 miles, south-east; from Portsmouth, 26, 
south-west. The surface is uneven, but the soil is produc- 
tive. Phillips's Pond, lying in the south part, is 340 rods 
long and 200 wide. It is the largest body of water in the 
town. Swamscot River flows from this pond, and pursues 
a level course for nearly two miles, when another stream 
unites with it. From this point, whenever the waters are 
raised by sudden freshets, the current runs back towards 
the pond with great force. 

The settlement of this town was commenced in 1736, by 
Moses Tucker, Israel and James Huse, and others. A 
Congregational church was organized in 1759. A Meth- 
odist church was formed in 1807. 

Sandown was originally a part of Kingston, and was in- 
corporated April 6, 1756. 

Population, 566. Number of polls, 125. Inventory, 
$236,629. Value of lands, $123,760. Stock in trade, 
$1650. Value of mills, $4150. Money at interest, 
$20,310. Number of sheep, 257. Do. neat stock, 461. 
Do. horses, 81. 


Sandwich, Carroll county. Bounded north by Water- 
ville, east by Tamworth, south by Moultonborough, and 
west by Holderness, Campton, and Thornton. Distance 
from Concord, 52 miles, north ; from Ossipee, 22, north- 
west. Area, 64,000 acres. It was originally granted by 
Governor Benning Wentworth, October 25, 1763, and 
contained an area of six miles square. In September of the 
following year, an additional grant was made called Sand- 
wich Addition. The Sandwich Mountains are a lofty 
range, extending in a north-eastei'ly course, and terminat- 
ing Chocorua Peak in Albany. Squam Mountain extends 
from Holderness, though a corner of Campton, into Sand- 
wich. Bear Camp and Red Hill Rivers are the largest 
streams. About one fourth of Squam Lake lies in the south- 
west corner of this town, and in connection with the sur- 
rounding and distant mountains affords a beautiful prospect. 

Sandwich is a fine farming town ; its mountain pastures 
are excellent, and are seldom affected by drought. It is 
celebrated for its fine horses and cattle. Great efforts are 
constantly made to improve the stock. 

There are two hotels, eight stores, and quite a number 
of shoe manufactories, two Congregational, one Methodist, 
and two Freewill Baptist meeting houses, and a large 
society of Quakers or Friends. It has one academy and 
twenty-one common schools. (^1658 have been expended 
the present year for scliools. 

Population, 2577. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
710. Inventory, $503,425. Value of lands, |262,824. 
Stock in trade, $6770. Value of mills, $3610. Money 
at interest, $16,803. Number of sheep, 1975. Do. neat 
stock, 2772. Do. horses, 384. 

Seabrook, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 


Hampton Falls, east by the Atlantic, south by Salisbury, 
Massachusetts, and west by South Hampton and Kensing- 
ton. It is located in the south-east corner of the state, 
15 miles south from Portsmouth, 8 south-east from Ex- 
eter, and about 45 south-east from Concord. It lies on 
the great eastern route from Boston to Portland. The 
Eastern Railroad passes nearly through the centre of the 
town. The southerly part was formerly included within 
the limits of Massachusetts. The old line from the " Bound 
Rock," at the mouth of the river, on Avhich is yet observ- 
able the inscription, "A. I^. 1657, H. B.," can still be 
traced to a rock near the " Brick School House," marked 
*' B. T.," thence inland. The remainder of the territory 
was a part of " Old Hampton." 

The west part of the town is undulating. The middle and 
eastern portions are comparatively level. The soil is light, 
but productive. Extensive tracts are covered with a heavy 
and valuable growth of wood and timber. Theie are also 
large plains of salt marsh. Cam's Brook, rising in Salisbury, 
Massachusetts, passes through the south-east part of the 
town, and affords a few water privileges of moderate power, 
which are occupied by saw and gristmills. Near its mouth 
is a valuable tide mill, formerly known as Walton's — now 
Robbins's — mill. Several small streams risinsr in this and 
adjacent towns, and uniting in the broad marsh along the 
eastern border forms Seabrook River, which, in its course to- 
wards the ocean, unites with Hampton River. The beach is a 
favorite resort in the warm season. Titcomb's Hill, partly 
in this town and partly in South Hampton, and Grape liill, 
in the south-west part of the town, lying partly in Massa- 
chusetts, are fine elevations, which afford extensive aa.4 
beautiful prospects of the surrounding country. A portion 
of the inhabitants are engaged in agricultural pursuits, 


whose highly cultivated farms yield abundaiit crops. Boat 
building is carried on more extensively here than in any 
other town in the state. Several of the inhabitants are 
engaged in seafaring pursuits. The fishing business is very 
lucrative, though laborious. The manufacture of shoes is by 
no means a small item in the industrial accouut of this town. 

Dearborn Academy, founded in 1851, is located in Sea- 
brook. A substantial brick edifice, 54 feet by 40, was 
erected in 1853. An endowment of $15,000 was made 
by the late Dr. Edward Dearborn, an eminent physician 
and a distinguished citizen. It has a pleasant and salu- 
brious situation in Seabrook Village, commanding exten- 
sive views of neighboring villages, distant mountains, and 
the broad Atlantic. 

There are four meeting houses in this town. The Old 
South meeting house, near the centre of the town, was 
erected in the year 1763, and was occupied by Presby- 
terian and Congregational societies. The Friends' meeting 
house was built about 1765, and is situated in the north 
part of the town. The Methodist chapel was built in 
1835. The Evangelical Congregational meeting house 
was dedicated July 6, 1836. A fund of $4000 was left 
by the late Dr. Dearborn, the income of which is to be 
used for the support of the gospel forever in this place. 

The early settlers of this town were mostly from Massa- 
chusetts. They suffered considerably from the depreda- 
tions of the Indians. On one occasion a man by the name 
of Dow, living near a swamp thickly covered with trees 
and shrubs, observed to his brother that he was fearful that 
the Indians were lurking near by, being satisfied that they 
had been prowling about his house the night previous. He 
was advised to go into the bushes and watch. He did 
so, and soon perceived them making their way from the 


swamp. He then ran through the street, crying, "In- 
dians ! " A Mr. Gove, who lived in the house now owned 
by David Gove, hearing the cry, jumped upon a stump, 
and counted thirty-two, as they issued from their place of 
concealment, crawling upon their hands and knees. They 
first killed a widow named Hussey, who was passing by 
the swamp ; they led her into the bushes, and beat out her 
brains with a tomahawk. She was greatly lamented by the 
society of Friends, among whom she had been very prom- 
inent as a speaker. An earthen vessel which she Avas then 
carrying is now in the possession of Jonathan Gove. They 
next killed Thomas Lancaster, who was on his way to 
mill. His cries were heard by some men who were build- 
ing a garrison near by ; they ran to his assistance, but 
finding the Indians superior in numbers they fled. A 
friend who was with Lancaster stopped, on his way, at the 
house of the late EdM'ard Gove, to " drink a syllabub," and 
thus escaped. They next slew Jonathan Green, beating 
his head ^\"ith the buts of their guns, and mangling him 
in a horrible manner. A widow, living where the house 
of Benjamin Brown now stands, left her child with two 
young women while she went into a field to pull flax. 
When the Indians came the girls fled, leaving the child 
behind, which followed after ; but, while endeavoring to 
climb over a fence, an Indian seized it, and dashed its head 
against a plough standing near. They killed and scalped 
Nicholas Bond in his own house. 

Among the early settlers were Christopher Hussey, Jo- 
seph Dow, and Thomas Philbrick. Meshech Weare, the 
first chief magistrate of New Hampshire after the revolu- 
tion, settled, it is believed, within the limits of this town. 
His grandfather, Nathaniel "Weare, was an agent for the 
colony, and spent considerable time in England to prose- 


cute the complaints of the colonists against the royal govern- 
or, Edward Cranfield. His son, Nathaniel Weare, father 
of Meshech Weare, was much engaged in public business. 
Both lived within the present limits of Seabrook. 

Edward Gove distinguished himself by his opposition to 
the British government. He was at length arrested, con- 
victed of high treason, and confined in the Tower of Lon- 
don. After three years of imprisonment he was released, 
and returned to his home in New England. The order 
for his pardon is still preserved, of which the following is 
a copy : — 

** James E.. 

" Where as Edward Gove was neare three years since 
apprehended, tryed & condemned for High Treason in our 
Colony of New-England, in America, and in June 1683 
was committed prisoner to the Tower of London, we have 
thought fit hereby to signify our Will and Pleasure to you, 
that you cause him, the said Edward Gove, to be inserted 
in the next general Pardon that shall come out for th« 
poor Convicts of Newgate, without any condition of trans- 
portation, he giving such security for his good behavior 
as you will think requisite. And for so doing, this shallbe 
your Warrant. Given at our Court at Windsor the 14 day 
of September 1685, in the first year of our Reign. 
" ]3y his Maj. his command. 

" Sunderland. 

*' To our Trusty and Welbeloved the Recorder of our 
Citty of Jjondon, and all others whom i|; my concerne. 

" Edward Gove to be inserted in ye General Pardon." 

The following letter, directed to him during his confine- 
ment, is interesting on account of its antiquity at least : — 


Superscription : " for my honoured father Edward Gove. 
In the tower or elsewhere. I pray deliver with Care." 

" From hampton The 31 of ye first month 1686. 
" deare and kind father, througli gods good mercy hav- 
ing this opportunity to send unto ye hoping in ye Lord 
yt ye art in good health — deare father my desire is yt 
God in his good mercy would bee pleased to keep ye both 
in body and soul. Loving father it is our duty To pray 
unto god That hoe would by his grace give us good hearts 
to pray unto him for grace and strength to support us so 
yt ye Love of our hearts and souls should bee always fixed 
on him, whereby we should Live A heavenly Life while 
wee arc upon ye earth so yt gods blessing may be with us 
always, as our Savior Christ says in ye world ye shall 
have Troubles but in mee ye shall have peace so in ye 
Lord Jesus Christ ye true light of yee world There is 
peace & joy & love and strength and power & truth to 
keep all those yt trust in him. so deare father I hope god 
in his good mercy will bee pleased to Bring us together 
Againe to his glory and our good. — intrcet ye Let us heare 
from ye all oppertunities as may bee — for it is great joy 
to us to heare from ye father. I have one Little daughter 
— my husband is troubled with a could — hee Remembers 
his duty to ye — So no more at present. I Eest thy duti- 
ful son and daughter 

" Abraham Clements & 
" Hannah Clements." 

Seabrook was granted, June 3, 1768, to Jonathan "Weare 
and others. Settlement commenced here in 1638. 

The society of the Friends Avas formed in 1701. A 
Presbyterian church was organized in 1764. 

Population, 1393. Legal voters in 1854, 325. Inven- 


tory, $312,168. Value of lands, $136,520. Money at 
interest, $18,050. Number of sheep, 65. Do. neat stock, 
474. Do. horses, 70. 

Sharon, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by Pe- 
terborough, east by Temple, south by New Ipswich and 
Kindge, and west by Jaffrey. Area, 10,000 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 48 miles, south-west ; from Amherst, 
18, west. The surface is uneven, and in some parts moun- 
tainous. It has no village, no tavern, and no store. There 
is in the south-easterly part of the town a spring strongly 
impregnated with iron and sulphur, and is in high repute 
for its medicinal virtues. Sharon was incorporated June 
24, 1791. 

Population, 226. Inventory, $124,885. Value of lands, 
$73,114. Stock in trade, $1300. Number of sheep, 
87. Do. neat stock, 401. Do. horses, 46. Do. polls, 45. 

Shelburne, Coos county. Bounded north by Success, 
east by Riley and Gilead, Maine, south by White Moun- 
tain region, and west by Gorham. Area, 18,140 acres. 
Ameriscoggin River passes through the centre of this town, 
into which fall the waters of Rattle River and several small 
streams. The soil on both sides of the river is excellent, 
producing grain, grass, and potatoes in abundance. A 
short distance from the river the land becomes broken by 
mountains, and is unfit for cultivation. Mount Moriah, an 
elevated peak of the White Mountains, lies in the south 
part of the town. Moses' Rock is a huge mass of granite, 
60 feet high, 90 long, very smooth, and rising at an angle 
of 50°. In 1775 David and Benjamin Ingalls commenced 
a settlement here. In August, 1781, a party of Indians 
visited this town, killed one man, captured another. 


plundered the houses, and returned to Canada in triumph. 
The Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad passes through 
the southern part of the town. 

Shelburne was incorporated December 13, 1820. 

Population, 480. Number of polls, 70. Inventory, 
$101,832. Yalue of lands, $65,130. Stock in trade, 
$980. Value of mills, $200. Money at interest, $4400. 
Number of sheep, 541. Do. neat stock, 415. Do. 
horses, 70. 

SoMERSWORTH, StrafFord county. Bounded north-east 
by South Berwick, Maine, south by Rollinsford, south-west 
by Dover, and north-west by Rochester. Distance from 
Concord, 45 miles, east ; from Portsmouth, 12, north-west. 
Since the separation of Rollinsford, this town is very small 
in area, including only about 5760 acres. It is situated on 
the Salmon Fall River, and is one of the most important 
towns in the county of Strafford. Here centre the Great 
Falls and ConAvay Railroad, a branch of the Boston and 
Maine Railroad, the Great Falls and South Berwick Branch 
Railroad, which connects with the Eastern Railroad. Here 
also is the terminus of the York and Cumberland Rail- 
road. Most of the inhabitants of this town reside in the 
village of Great Falls, which has grown up since 1823. 
Prior to that time the only buildings in the vicinity were 
a saw and gristmill, and two dwelling houses. In 1823 
the Great Falls ^lanufacturing Company was chartered, and 
commenced operations, with a capital of $500,000. This 
company have now upwards of 75,000 spindles, and are 
now erecting another mill, which will increase the number of 
spindles to 83,000, being a larger number than are in oper- 
ation by any other corporation in the United States. The 
goods manufaptured are cotton, consisting of sheetings, 


shirtings, and drillings, the number of yards manufactured 
annually amounting to 17,000,000, valued at $1,300,000. 
About 5,000,000 pounds of cotton are consumed in the 
same time. Number of operatives, 2000. Amount paid 
monthly for labor, $33,000. There are also consumed per 
annum 100 tons of starch, valued at $9000 ; 3500 cords 
of wood, $14,000; 300 tons of coal, $3000; 300,000 
feet of lumber, $4000 ; 6000 gallons of sperm oil, $9000 ; 
200 tons of iron, $1750; leather for belting and other pur- 
poses, $3000. This company also have a bleachery, where 
8,000,000 yards of cotton cloth are bleached annually. 

The Great Falls Machine Company employ 80 men ; 
consume 4,500,000 pounds of iron per annum, and 600 
tons of coal ; manufacture machinery, gas pipe, stove and 
all other kinds of castings. Value of products per an- 
num, about $150,000. 

There is also a machine shop owned by several individ- 
uals, whose annual business is $50,000. 

The Great Falls Bank has a capital of $150,000. 

Somersworth Savings Bank — deposits $175,000. 

The Great Falls Gaslight Company — capital, $60,000. 
The streets and principal buildings are lighted with gas. 

The town of Somersworth has recently purchased a 
tract of 40 acres, about a mile from the village, for a cem- 
etery. The sum of $3000 has already been expended in 
enclosing, laying out, and ornamenting the grounds. The 
location is retired, but inviting and beautiful. 

Great efibrts have been made in this town for the .ad- 
vancement of common schools. The Somersworth Act, 
so called, which provides for the union of several school 
districts for the purpose of establishing high schools, on a 
graduated system, had its origin here. The excellence of 
this system has been most satisfactorily proved in this and 


other towns. The school house in this village is in all 
respects one of the best constructed in the state. Here the 
scholar may obtain as complete an education as is general- 
ly acquired in the academies of New England. Number 
of scholars in the high school, 80. Do. in all the depart- 
ments, 800. 

The Manufacturers and Village Library Association has 
3500 well-selected books. There are five meeting houses 
— one Congregational, one Baptist, one Freewill Baptist, 
and two ]Methodist. The village is named from the im- 
mense waterfall in Salmon Fall River at this place. Its 
descent within a very short distance is 100 feet, furnishing 
some of the most valuable mill privileges in the countiy. 

The various departments of industry, especially the me- 
chanical and mercantile, are actively pursued, and impart a 
healthy vigor to the whole community. 

Somersworth was settled between 1650 and ITOO, by 
William Wentworth, John Hall, William Stiles, and others. 

On the 7th of October, 1675, George and Maturin Rick- 
er were surprised and killed by a party of Indians lying 
in ambush about half a mile north-cast from Yarney's Hill. 
They were then stripped of their arms and garments. 
In 1724, Ebenezer Downs, a Quaker, was taken by 
the Indians, and carried to Canada. He was grossly in- 
sulted and abused because he refused to dance with the 
other captives for the amusement of the savages. He was 
redeemed in the following year. Jabez Garland was killed 
in the summer of 1710, on his return from public worship. 
Gershom Downs was killed by the Indians in 1711, in the 
marsh between Varney's and Otis's Hills. The first meet- 
ing house was erected in 1729. 

The present population of Somersworth is about 
6000. Number of legal voters, about 1200. Inventory, 


$1,726,253. Value of lands, $212,579. Stock in trade, 
$101,390. Value of mills and factories, $591,000. Money 
at interest, $43,592. Money in banks, &c., $112,200. 
Number of sheep, 96. Do. neat stock, 404. Do. horses, 172. 

South Hampton, Rockingham county. Bounded north 
by East Kingston and Kensington, east by Seabrook, south 
by Amesbury, Massachusetts, and west by Newton. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 50 miles, south-east ; from Portsmouth, 
18, south-west. The surface is uneven, but not rough. 
The land rises in moderate swells, and affords excellent 
pasturing and tillage. The inhabitants make but little pre- 
tensions, excepting in their skill in agriculture ; and their 
enterprise, industry, and success justly entitle them to 
greater credit than they claim. 

Powow River passes through the western portion of the 
town, affording a few mill seats. The most valuable priv- 
ileges on this stream are in Amesbury, Massachusetts. There 
are, one meeting house belonging to the Baptist society, one 
hotel, two stores, and an academy, with a fund of $4200, 
a bequest of the late Hon. Benjamin Barnard, for the es- 
tablishment of an English High School, free to all the chil- 
dren in the town over seven years of age. 

This town was incorporated May 25, 1742. A Congre- ' 
gational church was organized in 1743. 

Population, 472. Number of legal voters in 1854, 115. 
Inventory, $268,496. Value of lands, $201,018. Stock 
in trade, $3445. Money at interest, $7150. Shares in 
banks, &c., $13,500. Number of sheep, 223. Do. neat 
stock, 422. Do. horses, 69. 

South Newmarket, Rockingham county. Bounded 
north by Newmarket, east by Strathara, south by Exeter, 


and west by Epping. Distance from Concord, 36 miles, 
south-east ; from Portsmouth, 12, south-west. This was 
originally a part of Newmarket, from which it was sev- 
ered, and incorporated June 27, 18-i9. Its territory is small, 
comprising not more than 6000 acres. It contains two 
meeting houses, — one Methodist and one Congregational, 
— four stores, and one hotel. 

The Swamscot Machine Company employ 90 men ; man- 
ufacture gas pipe, steam boilers, steam engines, and ma- 
chinists' tools of all descriptions. Capital $52,000. 

There is also an iron foundery, in which 30 men are em- 

The junction of the Portsmouth and Concord and the 
Great Falls Branch Railroads is in this town. 

The principal streams are the Swamscot and the Piscas- 
sic Rivers, which afford several valuable mill privileges. 
The soil of this township is good and well cultivated. 

Population, 516. Number of legal voters in 1854, 166. 
Inventory, $104,556. Value of lands, $120,244. Stock 
in trade, $13,460. Value of mills and factories, ,$3516. 
Money at interest, $16,172. Number of sheep, 200. 
Do. neat istock, 309. Do. horses, 66. 

Springfield, Sullivan county. Bounded north by 
Grafton, east by Wilmot and New London, south by New 
London and Sunapee, and west by Croyden and Grantham. 
Area, 28,330 acres, 2300 of which are covered with water. 
Distance from Concord, 38 miles, north-west ; from New- 
port, 13, north-east. A branch of the Sugar River has its 
source in this town, also a branch of the Blackwater Riv- 
er, the former discharging into the Connecticut, and the 
latter into the Merrimack. There are several ponds scat- 
tered through the town. The land is rough and stony, but 


not mountainous. The soil is strong, and produces -well. 
There are two meeting houses belonging to societies of 
the Christian order, thirteen common schools, three stores, 
one planing mill, and several factories. There are still 
large tracts of excellent wood and timber land here. In 
the east part of the town is an excellent quarry of granite. 
Population, 1270. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
300. Inventory, ^269,591. Value of lands, $146,714. 
Stock in trade, $1500. Value of mills, $3325. Money 
at interest, $12,857. Number of sheep, 4637. Do. neat 
stock, 1326. Do horses, 166. 

Stark, Coos county. Bounded north by Stratford and 
uugranted lauds called " Odell," east by Dummer and Mi- 
lan, south by Kilkenny, and west by Northumberland, 
Area, 20,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 135 miles, 
north ; from Lancaster, 10, north-east. In the north-east 
part of the town, the north and south branches of the 
Ammonoosuc form a junction. Nash's Stream falls into this 
river, in the north part of the town. The surface is much 
broken and hilly. In the valleys are some valuable farms. 
Near Mill Mountain is a ledge, which on its southern part 
breaks abruptly into a precipice of nearly 300 feet, while 
on the north cattle may be driven to its top. 

This town was settled in 1788, by Caleb and Benjamin 
Smith. It was incorporated December 28, 1832. Previ- 
ous to this time it was called Piercy. 

Population, 418. Number of polls, 93. Inventory, 
96,213. Value of lands, $50,935. Do. mills, $3075. 
Stock in trade, $220. Money at interest, $5615. Number 
of sheep, 648. Do. neat stock, 579. Do horses, 62. 

Stewaetstown, Coos county. Bounded north by 


Clarksville, east by Dixville, south by Colebrook, and. west 
by Canaan, Vermont. Area, about 23,040 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 150 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 
40, north-east. Connecticut Kiver passes along the west- 
ern border. It is also watered by Bishop's Brook, Dead- 
water, and Mohawk Rivers. Little and Great Diamond 
Ponds are the principal ponds ; both of these are well 
stored with salmon trout. In the north-east part of the 
town is an extensive tract of land, unsettled, Avhich fur- 
nishes great quantities of excellent timber. There are five 
sawmills in operation here. 

There are in this town two meeting houses, — one Con- 
gregational and one Christian, — one hotel, three stores, 
one woollen factory, one gristmill, one iron foundery, 
and one starch factory, at which a very large quantity of 
starch is annually manufactured. 

Stewartstown was incorporated in December, 1T99. It 
was settled prior to the revolution, but after the war broke 
out it was abandoned. The original grantors were Sir 
George Cockburn, Sir George Coleman, John Stewart, and 
John Nelson. During the war of 1812, a blockhouse or 
fort was erected here, and occupied until 1814. On the 
site of this fort the American and British surveyors and as- 
tronomers met to ascertain the 45th degree of north lat- 
itude, between the two nations, according to the terms of 
the treaty of Ghent. 

Population, 747. Number of legal voters in 1854, 180. 
Inventory, $153,598. Value of lands, $74,940. Do. 
mills and factories, $3775. Stock in trade, $2200. 
Money at interest, $8235. Number of sheep, 1385. 
Do. neat stock, 1148. Do. horses, 167. 

Stoddard, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Wash- 


ington, east by Windsor and Antrim, south by Nelson and 
Sullivan, and west by Gilsum and Marlow. Area, 35,925 
acres, 1100 of which are covered with water. Distance 
from Concord, 42 miles, south-west ; from Keene, 14, 
north-east. It is situated on the height of land between 
the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers. Such is the loca- 
tion of some of the houses, that the rain falling upon one 
side of the roof runs into the former river, while that fall- 
ing upon the other side runs into the latter. The soil is 
deep, underlaid with clay. It is well adapted to grazing. 
The south branch of Ashuelot River has its source near 
the centre of the town. Long Pond, lying partly in this 
town and partly in Washington, is a pleasant sheet of 
water, abounding with various kinds of fish. Island Pond 
includes about 300 acres, and is studded with small islands. 
Branch River affords many valuable mill privileges. 

There are in this town two hotels, three stores, five saw- 
mills, one gristmill, five shingle and clapboard mills, and 
one pail factory, furnishing employment for 20 men. 
There are two glass factories, each of which contains eight 
pot furnaces, which are kept constantly heated during six 
months in the year. The value of products amounts an- 
nually to about $10,000, and consists of window glass and 
glass ware of various kinds. The whole number of hands 
employed in the glass works, including both sexes, is 200. 
There are also tlii'ee rake manufactories, two extensive tan- 
neries, and three blacksmiths' shops. Granite of a very 
fine grain is abundant, and is used largely for building and 
other purposes. 

There are two religious societies — one Congregational 
and one Universalist — about equal in numbers and wealth. 
The former was organized September 4, 1787. The late 
Isaac Robinson, D. D., was ordained January 5, 1803, and 


continued his labors here until July 9, 1854, the time of 
his death. He was a man of remarkable mental powers, 
of untiring energy and perseverance. Although he en- 
joyed but very slight advantages for education, yet by close 
and unremitted application he became a sound and learned 
divine, as well as a scholar of unusual attainments in the 
various departments of science and literature. He was 
universally beloved, and his death was deeply regretted. 

This town was formerly called Limerick. It was incor- 
porated November 4, 1774, when it received the name of 
Stoddard from Colonel Samson Stoddard, to whom, with 
others, it was granted. It was settled in June, 1769, by 
John Taggard and others. The hardships of the first set- 
tlers were very great. 

Population, 1105. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
250. Inventory, $399,408. Value of lands, $242,936. 
Stock in trade, 1 13,006. Value of niiJls, $3200. Money 
at interest, $36,348. Number of sheep, 4107. Do. neat 
stock, 1056. Do. horses, 200. 

Strafford, Strafford county. Bounded north-east by 
Farmington, south-east by Barrington, south-west by 
Northwood and Pittsfield, and north-west by Barnstead. 
Area, about 29,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 30 
miles, north-east ; from Dover, 15, north-west. The sur- 
face is uneven, and in the north-west part mountainous. 
The soil is generally good. Bow Pond lies in the south- 
west part of the towu, is 650 rods long and 400 wide, 
and is the source of one of the principal branches of Isin- 
glass River. "Wild Goose Pond lies between this town 
and Pittsfield, and Trout Pond is west of the Blue Hills, 
which cross the north-west part of the town. The inhab- 
itants are chiefly engaged in agriculture. Great attention 


is paid to the raising of stock. Straflford furnishes some 
veiy fine horses and cattle. There are two Freewill Bap- 
tist societies here, one Christian and one Methodist. Straf- 
ford was originally a part of Barrington, and was severed 
from it and incorporated June 17, 1820. 

Population, 1920. Number of polls, 470. Inventory, 
$491,505. Value of lands, $302,661. Stock in trade, 
$3-1:00. Value of mills, $3608. Money at interest, 
$12,510. Number of sheep, 1460. Do. neat stock, 
2092. Do. horses, 333. 

Stratford, Coos county. Bounded north by Columbia, 
east by imgranted lands, called " Odell," south by Stark and 
Northumberland, and Avest by Brunswick, Vermont. This 
is a large township, extending along the Connecticut River 
a distance of ten miles. The intel*val is very fertile, and 
varies from one fourth to one mile in width. The soil, 
except along the river, is rocky, gravelly, and cold. The 
" Peaks," two mountains of a conical form, situated in the 
south-east part of the town, are seen at a great distance. 
There are several streams, the largest of which are Bog 
Brook and Nash's River. Stratford was incorporated No- 
vember 16, 1779. First settlers, Isaac Johnston, James 
Curtis, James Brown, Josiah Lampkins, and Archippus 

Population, 552. Number of polls, 183. Inventory, 
$146,233. Value of lands, $71,603. Stock in trade, 
$3788. Value of mills, $2770. Number of sheep, 517. 
Do. neat stock, 678. Do. horses, 204. 

Stratham, Rockingham county. Bounded north and 
east by Greenland and North Hampton, south by Exeter, 
and west by Exeter and Great ]3ay. Area, 10,120 acres. 


Distance from" Concord, 43 miles, south-east ; from Exeter, 
3, north-east. The land is even, and well calculated for 
agricultural purposes. Fruits of all kinds are raised in 
greater abundance here than in any other town in the state. 
Stratham is celebrated for its extensive nurseries of fruit 
trees. From the summit of Stratham Hill, in this town, 
a beautiful and extensive prospect is afforded of the 
surrounding country, including the White Mountains, 
Great Bay, and the ocean. This toAvn was a part of the 
Swamscot Patent, or Hilton's Purchase. In 31697 there 
were 35 families in the place. It was incorporated March 
20, 1716. 

A Congregational church was organized at a very early 
date. First settled preacher, Rev. Henry Rust, ordained 
in 1718. There are at present two Baptist societies, and 
one Congregational. 

Population, 843. Number of legal voters in 1854, 200. 
Inventory, $378,629. Value of lands, $185,137. Stock 
in trade, $150. Value of mills, $2330. Money at inter- 
est, $26,257. Number of sheep, 659. Do. neat stock, 
735. Do. horses, 134. 

Success, Coos county. Bounded north by Cambridge, 
east by Grafton and Riley, Maine, south by Shelburne, and 
west by Berlin and Milan. Area, about 30,000 acres. 
This is a rough and rugged township. In the south part 
it is mountainous. The soil is hard and difficult of cul- 
tivation. It was granted, February 12, 1773, to Benjamin 
Mackay and others. Distance from Concord, 143 miles, 
north-east ; from Lancaster, 30, east. 

Sullivan, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Gilsum 
and Stoddard, east by Stoddard and Nelson, south by Rox- 


bury and Keene, and west by Keene and Gilsum. Area, 
12,^12 acres. Distance from Concord, 43 miles, south- 
west ; from Keene, 6, east. The south-east part of the 
town is watered by Ashuelot River. There are two small 
ponds, the one called Bolster, the other Chapman's Pond. 
The surface is generally even. The soil is very produc- 
tive, and well cultivated. The inhabitants are chiefly 
formers, and are intelligent, industrious, and, for the most 
part, independent. In 1854 there was not a person as- 
sessed for his poll vv'ho was not taxed, besides, for property 
of more or less value — a circumstance, at least, of rare 
occurrence. There is one religious society — the Congre- 
gational. Sulhvan was incorporated September 27, 1787, 
and received its name from President Sullivan, the chief 
magistrate of New Hampshire at that time. 

Population, 468. Number of legal voters in 1854, 107. 
Inventory, $213,718. Value of lands, 1 135,776. Stock 
in trade, $1605. Value of mills, $2500. Money at in- 
terest, $23,704. Number of sheep, 2784. Do. neat stock, 
714. Do. horses, 101. 

SuNAPEE, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Spring- 
field, east by NeAv London and Newbury, south by Goshen, 
and west by Newport and Croyden. Area, 15,666 acres, 
3000 of which are covered with water. Distance from 
Concord, 35 miles, north-west ; from Newport, 7, east. 
By far the larger portion of Sunapee Lake lies within the 
limits of this town. It is a beautiful sheet of water — 
abounding with fish — which, with the surrounding country, 
afibrds a charming prospect. This is the principal source 
of Sugar River, which flows through the centre of the 
town, through Newport and Claremont into the Connecti- 
cut, affording in its course numerous excellent water privi- 



leges. The surface of the to^vn is uneven, and in some 
parts rocky and mountainous. The soil is strong and pro- 
ductive, if carefully cultivated. It was granted, November 
7, 17(58, to John Sprague and others, under the name of 
*Saville. It was settled, in 177^, by emigrants from Rhode 
Island, and was incorporated April 4, 1781, when it re- 
ceived the name of Wendell from one of the principal pro- 
prietors, John Wendell. It received its present name in 
1850. A Congregational society was incorporated June 
24, 1819. There are at present two religious societies — 
one Christian and one Methodist. 

Population, 787. Number of polls, 191. Inventory, 
$203,533. Value of lands, $125,451. Stock in trade, 
$1550. Money at interest, $4770. Number of sheep, 
1402. Do. neat stock, 1061. Do. horses, 13^. 

Surrey, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Walpole 
an<l Alstead, east by Gilsum, south by Keene, and west by 
Westmoreland and Walpole. Area, 12,212 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 52 miles, south-west ; from Keene, 
6, north-west. This town is watered by Ashuelot River, 
along which there is a valuable tract of interval extending 
nearly the whole length of the town from north to south. 
On the east side of the river is a steep mountain of consid- 
erable height, upon the top of which is a pond of water, 
three acres in extent and about 25 feet deep. Surrey was 
originally a part of Gilsum and Westmoreland. It was in- 
corporated March 9, 1769. The first settlement was made 
in 1764, by Peter Heyward. He began clearing land and 
cultivating it in the summer preceding, making his home 
at the fort in Keene. lie was accustomed to go to his 
farm in the morning, and return to the fort at night, guard- 
ed only by his dog and gun, though the savages were at* 


that time lurking in the woods. A Congregational church 
was organized June 12, 1769. There are two meeting 
houses in this town, but there is no regular preaching in 
either. There are foiu- common schools, two sawmills, 
one gristmill, two hotels, and one store. 

Population, 556. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
117. Inventory, $179,201. Value of lands, $93,633. 
Do. mills, $900. Stock in trade, $950. Money at inter- 
est, $15,200. Number of sheep, 2130. Do. neat stock, 
493. Do. horses, 95. 

Sutton, Merrimack county. Bounded north by New 
London and Wilmot, east by Wilmot and Warner, south 
by Warner and Bradford, and west by Newbury. Area, 
24,300 acres. Distance from Concord, 25 miles, north- 
west. The southerly branch of Warner River enters this 
town on the south, and the northerly branch passes nearly 
through the centre from north to south, and affords many 
valuable mill privileges. It is skirted by large and fertile 
meadows, which produce grass and grain abundantly. A 
lai'ge branch of Blackwater River has its source in this 
town, near the western base of Kearsarge Mountain, a large 
portion of which is in this town. It is visited by hun- 
dreds, who climb to its summit, attracted by the rich and 
charming prospect it presents. There are several ponds ; 
the largest is Kezar's Pond, which is about 190 rods square, 
and Long Pond, which is 350 rods in length and 70 in 
width. At the foot of King's Hill clay of a superior qual- 
ity exists in great abundance. Oranite of a fine quality, 
and of great value on account of the large blocks, free from 
seams, which can be obtained, is found here. Plumbago is 
obtained in considerable quantities. The surface is diver- 
sified with hills and valleys, and is in some parts rough and 


mountainous. The soil presents all the varieties of fertil- 
ity and barrenness. 

This town was granted by the Masonian proprietors in 
1749. It was called Pcrrystown, from Obadiah Perry, one 
of the principal proprietors. It was first settled in 1767, 
by Daniel Peaslee, who was soon followed by several oth- 
ers. The first settlers found many traces of the Indians, 
such as hearths skilfully laid with stone, gun barrels, ovens, 
stone pestles, mortars, and tomahawks. An Indian burial- 
place was also discovered near the west bank of Kezar's 

A Baptist church was organized here in April, 1782, 
and a Freewill Baptist about 1818. There are at present 
three meeting houses, none of which is owned or occu- 
pied by any particular religious denomination, but all are 
occupied promiscuously by Baptists, Freewill Baptists, 
Methodists, Universalists, and Second Adventists. There 
are four stores, and several sawmills, where quite an exten- 
sive business is carried on in the manufacture of boards, 
shingles, laths, timber, &c. There are three considerable 
villages in this town, in one of v/hich is a very large 

Population, 1387. Number of legal voters in 1854, 360. 
Do. common schools, 14. Amount of school fund, .$1800. 
Inventory, $407,438. Value of lands, $232,901. Stock 
in trade, $5175. Value of mills, $5059. Money at 
interest, $23,935. Number of sheep, 4047. Do. neat 
stock, 1800. Do. horses, 258. 

SwANZF.Y, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Keene, 
east by Marlborough and Troy, south by Richmond and 
Winchester, and west by Winchester and Chesterfield. 
Aiea, 28,057 acres. Distance from Concord, 60 miles. 


south-west : from Keene, 6, south. The principal streams 
are the Ashuelot and the South Branch Rivers, on both of 
which are valuable water privileges. The surface of the 
town is diversified with hills, valleys, and swells of upland. 
Nearly one third part is level, and consists of nearly equal 
T)roportions of plain and interval. The soil consists of the 
interval, plain, and upland. The first yields grass abun- 
dantly. The plains produce excellent crops of corn, rye, 
&c. The soil of the upland is strong and deep, and affords 
good pasturing, orcharding, and woodland. Great Pond 
and Lock's Pond, lying in AVest Swanzey, are each about a 
mile long, and 270 rods in Avidth. Hyponeco Brook 
abounds with trout. There are three meeting houses, — a 
Baptist and a Universalist in West Swanzey, and a Congre- 
gational in Swanzey Centre, — three hotels, five stores, and 
four sash, door, and blind manufactories, with an aggregate 
capital of ^10,000, where 25 hands are employed; four 
bucket and pail manufactories, employing 80 hands, with a 
capital of |)40,000 ; one box manufactory, employing 7 
men ; one steam mill, employing 6 men ; six blacksmith 
shops, besides several other shops, for the manufacture 
of various articles of merchandise. There are four vil- 
lages, — one called Factory Village, another Swanzey Cen- 
tre, another West Swanzey, and another West Port, — all 
of which are thriving and prosperous. The Ashuelot 
Railroad passes througli the two latter villages. The in- 
habitants are industrioiis and enterprising. 

Swanzey was first granted by Massachusetts, in 1733, to 
64 persons. After the settlement of the divisional line, it 
was granted by New Hampshire, July 2, 1753. Until the 
latter date it had been called Lower Ashuelot, from the 
Indian name, Ashaelock. From 1741 to 1747, the inhab- 
itants suffered greatly from Lidian depredations. Several 


were killed, and many were taken prisoners. Massa- 
chusetts, under whose jurisdiction the town of Swanzey 
remained for 13 years, at this trying period withdrew her 
protection, and left the settlers defenceless and exposed to 
the fury of the savages. They abandoned the settlement, 
and having collected together their furniture and household 
goods, concealed them in the ground, covering them with 
leaves, bushes, trees, &c. Scarce had they turned their backs 
upon the desolate dwellings before the Indians sot fire to 
them. Every house except one was consumed. About 
three years afterwards the former settlers returned. The 
first Congregational church was organized in 1741. 

Population, JilOG. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
477. Inventory, $579,921. Value of lands, $354,840. 
Stock in trade, $16,175. Value of mills, $22,341. 
Money at interest, $30,197. Number of sheep, 1065. 
Do. neat stock, 1416. Do. horses, 311. 

Tamworth, Carroll county. Bounded north by Albany, 
east by Madison, south by Ossipee, and west by Sandwich. 
Area, 28,917 acres. Distance from Concord, 60 miles, 
north. The surface of this town consists of ridges and 
valleys, generally veiy rocky and fertile, thus rendering it 
one of the best grazing towns in the state. There are no 
mountains lying wholly within the limits of this town, 
though on the north are the mountains of Albany, and a 
portion of Ossipee Mountain is included within its southern 
border. The principal streams are Bear Camp, Swift, and 
Corway Rivers, on which are many valuable water privi- 
leges. Lead ore and argentiferous galena are found in sev- 
eral localities. 

Tamworth was granted, October 14, 1766, to John Web- 
ster, Jonathan Moulton, and others. It was settled in 


1771, by Eicliard Jackman, Jonathan Choate, David Phil- 
brick, and William Eastman. The early settlers endured 
great hardships and privations in consequence of an early 
frost, Avhich cut off nearly all their crops, and reduced 
them almost to utter starvation. They were a brave, 
hardy, and enterprising company, and amidst all their dis- 
couragements firmly resolved not to abandon the settle- 
ment. Fortunately they killed now and then a deer, or 
bear, or some other wild animal whose flesh was palatable, 
and thus sustained themselves until they were able to se- 
cure permanent relief. 

The Congregational church was organized about 1792. 
There is also a flourishing society of Methodists. 

Population, 17G6. Number of polls, 354. Inventory, 
$287,875. Value of lands, .^142,405. Stock in trade, 
$3000. Value of mills and factories, |3350. Money at 
interest, $11,950. Number of sheep, 1341. Do. neat 
stock, 1881. Do. horses, 279. 

Temple, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Greenfield and Lyndeborough, east by Lyndeborough 
and Wilton, south by Mason and New Ipswich, and west 
by Sharon and Peterborough. Distance from Concord, 40 
miles, south-west; from Amherst, 12, west. Area, 13,400 
acres. Temple Mountains extend along its western and 
north-western border, among which are the sources of 
numerous small streams. From the summits of these 
mountains the prospect towards the east and south is ex- 
tensive and beautiful. The surface is generally rocky and 
uneven. The soil is of ordinary strength and fertility, and 
may be profitably improved cither for tillage, grazing, or 
woodland. This town is the easterly portion of what was 
formerly called Peterborough Slip. It was incorporated 


August 26, 1768. A Congregational church was orgaa- 
ized October 2, 1771. There is also a society of Univer- 
salists. There are two stores, two sawmills, one gristmill, 
one tannery, atd one hotel. 

Population, 579. Number of polls, 119. Inventory, 
$244,614. Value of lands, $165,630. Stock in trade, 
.$1900. Value of mills, $850. Money at interest, $17,- 
500. Number of sheep, 203. Do. neat stock, 906. Do. 
horses, 95. 

Thornton, Grafton county. Bounded north-east by 
ungranted lands, east by Waterville, south by Campton, 
west by Ellsworth, and north-west by Woodstock and Lin- 
coln. Area, 28,490 acres. Distance from Plymouth, 12 
miles, north ; from Concord, 58, north. It is watered by 
Pemigewasset River, which passes through the town in a 
southerly direction, by ^lad River, and several smaller 
streams. On Mill Brook is a beautiful cascade, where the 
water falls seven feet in a distance of two rods, and then 
tumbles over a rock 42 feet perpendicular. The brooks 
are filled with trout, and afford ample amusement for the 
angler and pleasure seeker. The soil is generally fertile. 
The interval on the Pemigewasset is very productive. 
There are several elevations, but no mountains. Large 
tracts of land are covered with a heavy growth of maple, 
from which great quantities of maple sugar are made an- 
nually. The public house on the road from Plymouth to 
Franconia is a handsome and commodious building, and is, 
in all respects, well arranged for the comfort and enjoy- 
ment of the traveller. This town was granted, July 6, 
1763, to Matthew, James, and Andrew Thornton, and 
others. It was incorporated November 8, 1781. It was 
first settled, in 1770, by Benjamin Hoit. A Congreg»- 


tional church was organized August 10, 1780. At present 
the only religious society is the Freewill Baptist, which is 
large and flourishing. 

Population, 1012. Number of polls, 236. Inventory, 
$230,306. Value of lands, $126,249. Stock in trade, 
$5200. Value of mills, $2000. Money at interest, 
$5800. Number of sheep, 1403. Do. neat stock, 1310. 
Do. horses, 187. 

Troy, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Marlbo- 
rough, east by Jaflfrey, south by Fitzwilliam, and west by 
Richmond and Swanzcy. Distance from Concord, 54 
miles, south-west ; from Keene, 12, south-east. This is a 
small township, possessing a variety of surface and soil. 
The inhabitants are industrious, and chiefly engaged in ag- 
ricultural pursuits. There is a small woollen factory, four 
pail manufactories, five clothes pins do., and one rake dp. 
The aggregate number of hands employed in these various 
enterprises is 42. There are six common schools, one 
academy, one hotel, and three meeting houses, belonging 
respectively to Congregational, Baptist, and Unitarian so- 
cieties. This town was severed from Marlborough and 
Fitzwilliam, and incorporated .January 23, 1815. 

Population, 759. Number of legal voters in 1854, 190. 
Inventory, $236,910. Value of lands, $126,452. Stock 
in trade, $7580. Value of mills, $15,200. Money at 
interest, $14,258. Number of sheep, 163. Do. neat 
stock, 642. Do. horses, 95. 

TuFTONBOROUGH, Carroll county. Bounded north-east 
;by Ossipee, south-east by Wolfborough, south-west by 
Lake Winnipiseogee, and north-west by Moultonborough. 
There are several ponds in this town, whose waters are 


discharged into the lake. The soil is various ; the surface 
in some parts even, in others exceedingly rough. There 
are several arms of the lake stretching far inland, and pre- 
senting to the spectator, from the summits of the hills, a 
succession of beautiful and lively views, some of which are 
unsurpassed by those from any other position in this re- 
gion. The inhabitants are industrious and frugal, direct- 
ing their attention chiefly to the care of their flocks and 
herds. This town was originally granted to J. Tufton 
Mason, was settled about 1780, and incorporated Decem- 
ber 17, 1795. Among the early settlers were Benjamin 
Bean, Phinehas Graves, and Xoseph Peavey. A Congrega- 
tional church was organized about 1800. There are Free- 
will Baptist, Christian, and Methodist societies, all of which 
have regular preaching. 

Population, 1305. Number of polls, 277. Inventory, 
$353,405. Value of lands, $222,766. Stock in trade, 
$3884. Value of mills, $6800. Money at interest, 
$15,990. Number of sheep, 1137. Do. neat stock, 1703. 
Do. horses, 325. 

UxiTY, Sullivan county. Bounded north by Claremont 
and Newport, east by Goshen, south by Lempster and Ac- 
worth, and Avest by Charlestown. Area, 24,447 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 50 miles, north-west ; from New- 
port, 9, south. Gilman's, Cold, and Marshall's Ponds are 
the largest collections of water. The latter is the source 
of Little Sugar River. Cold Pond is the head of Cold 
River. From Gilman's Pond flows a branch of Sugar 
River. Perry's Mountain is in the south-west part of the 
town, lying partly in Charlestown. This is an uneven and 
rocky township, and, with its strong, fertile soil, is well 
adapted to grazing and the raising of stock. Unity is cele- 


brated for its excellent cattle. There are numerous locali- 
ties in this totvn of a character highly interesting to the 
geologist and mineralogist. The rock formation consists of 
gneiss and granite, overlaid by strata of micaceous, horn- 
blende, and chlorite slate. The direction of the strata is 
north by east — dip, south, 80^. Near the north-western 
corner of the town the argillaceous slate rocks occur, over- 
lapping the older primary strata. Granular quartz, in 
great abundance, of an excellent quality, "and easily tritu- 
rated, is found here. There is a strong chalybeate spring 
in the eastern part of the town, which is quite celebrated ; 
it is highly charged with salts of iron, and possesses tonic 
properties. From the soil around this spring copperas has 
been manufactured by leaching and evaporation. Bog 
iron ore, in small quantities, is found in various localities. 
Near Little Sugar River is a large and valuable mine of 
copper and iron pyrites. Its location is favorable for 
working, and, from the fact that the vein is one foot nine 
inches in width three feet from the surface, and constant- 
ly widens as it descends, it is believed to contain almost 
an inexhaustible supply. Near this mine a new mineral 
was discovered by Dr. Jackson, and named by him chlo- 
ropliyilite. It occurs in the sienite rocks, which are found 
embedded in gneiss. Crystals of magnetic iron ore, in 
octahedral forms, arc found disseminated in green mica ; 
also garnets and radiated actinolite. lolite, a fine, deli- 
cate, blue-colored stone, which is valued highly by jewel- 
lers, and titanium, valued in the arts of porcelain painting 
and in the manufacture of mineral teeth, are found here in 
considerable quantities. 

Unity was granted, July l.j, 1764, to Theodore Atkin- 
son, Meshech Weare, and 45 others. The first settlers 
were John Ladd, Moses Thurston, Charles Huntoon, Esq., 


and Joseph Perkins. It was called Unity on account of 
a friendly adjustment of a dispute, which had existed for 
a long time, between certain inhabitants of Hampstead 
and Kingston ; each party claiming the same territory 
under different grants. It contains two meeting houses, 
one academy, and one store. The religious societies are 
Methodists and Baptists. 

Population, 961. Number of legal voters in 1854, 200. 
Common schools, 15. Inventory, ^358,993. Value of 
lands, $197,355. Stock in trade, $450. Value of mills, 
$850. Money at interest, $23,860. Number of sheep, 
5994. Do. neat stock, 1225. Do. horses, 218. 

Wakefield, Carroll county. "Bounded north-^est by 
Ossipee and Effingham, east by Newfield, Maine, south- 
east by Milton, and south-west by Middleton and Brook- 
field. Distance from Concord, 50 miles, north-east; from 
Ossipee, 10, south-east. Province Pond, betAveen this 
town and Effingham, is 450 rods long and 400 wide. 
Pine River Pond is the source of a river of the same 
niuue. The principal branch of the Piscataqua River 
takes its rise from East Pond, in the south-eastern part of 
the state. Lovewell's Pond, TOO rods long and 275 Avide, 
and lying in the south part of the town, received its name 
from Captain John Lovewell, who surprised and destroyed 
a party of Indians near its eastern shore. The soil is 
generally good, and is well adapted to grazing. The 
surface is broken and hillv. It was formerly called East 
Town, and was incorporated August 30, 1774. There 
are several very valuable water privileges here ; and along 
the streams there is considerable interval, which is very 
productive, and well cultivated. 

The Congregational church was organized in 1785. 


There is also a Freewill Baptist society, which is large and 

Population, 1405. Number of polls, 299. Inventory, 
$309,165. Value of lands, 1 177,278. Stock in trade, 
$2900. Value of mills and factories, $3550." Money at 
interest, $9837. Number of sheep, 699. Do. neat stock, 
1473. Do. horses, 240. 

Walpole, Cheshire county. Bounded north by Charles- 
town and Langdon, east by Alstead and Surrey, south by 
Siu'rey and Westmoreland, and west by Westminster and 
Rockingham, Vermont. Area, 24,301 acres. Distance 
from Concord, 60 miles, south-west ; from Keene, 22, 
north-west, with which- it is connected by the Cheshire 
Railroad. This town is beautifully diversified with hills 
and vales. The intervals, especially those on Connecticut 
River, are extensive, and afford excellent tillage. The 
uplands are inferior to none in the state. Walpole stands 
among the highest in New Hampshire as an agricultural 
town. Cold River passes through the north part of the 
town, and unites with the Connecticut about one mile 
south of Bellows Falls. Near these falls is a lofty hill, 
800 feet above the surface of the river. The rock com- 
posing this mountain is plumbaginous mica slate passing 
into argillaceous slate on one side, and hard mica slate con- 
taining fibriolite on the other. The principal village is 
situated on a large plain, about four miles south from Bel- 
lows Falls. The main street runs north and south, and is 
bordered on either side with houses, stores, and shops. Its 
common, handsomely laid out and ornamented with trees; 
its broad streets, adorned with majestic elms and maples ; 
its many elegant and costly residences, with their spacious 
and beautiful yards and gardens, and the neatness and 



order which generally prevail, together with the picturesque 
beauty of the surrounding country, render it one of the 
most delightful villages in New Hampshire. This town is 
distinguished for its excellent schools, and its valuable 
efforts to promote the interests of education. It has within 
a few years adopted the Somersworth Act, and has erected 
a large, convenient, and handsome building for a high 
school. The school fund is $1577 50. In the village 
are seven stores, one hotel, three meeting houses, — one 
Unitarian, one Congregational, and one Methodist — and 
about a mile south- east from the village is a meeting 
house owned by the Universalist society. There are two 
shoe manufactories, Avith a capital of iftTTOO, furnishin£ 
employment for 15 hands ; one shirt manufactory, where 
about 250 hands are engaged ; one carriage factory, 
employing 12 hands, besides some 12 or 15 other shops 
for various purposes. At the bridge which crosses the 
river near this place, first erected in 1785, is a most sub- 
lime and interesting view. The river is confined in a 
narrow channel between steep roclcs, and for nearly a quar- 
ter of a mile is forced onward with great impetuosity, and 
loud, deep roaring. The fall is in no place perpendicular, 
the waters falling 42 feet in the distance of 160 rods. 
On the west side of the falls is a canal, with nine locks. 
Around the falls is an interesting locality of minerals. 
The almost incredible effects of the current of the river at 
this place afford striking and beautiful illustrations of the 
science of geology. A channel has been worn into a solid 
rock, or bed of granite, to a depth of 10 or 15 feet; and 
this was in all probability effected while the water was 
pouring over the precipitous hillsides south of the present 
bed, and before the rocks which form the present cataract 
had ever been sprinkled by the foam of the dashing waves. 


Here the effects of the current upon the rocks ai'e still 
more wonderful. Numerous holes are bored perpendicu- 
larly into them with all the symmetry and smoothness of 
the inner surface of a porcelain jar, some of which are 
capable of holding several barrels of water ; and one is 18 
feet deep. All these pot holes lie high and dry above the 
ordinary height of water, and are only reached by high 
floods or freshets. Indian relics of various kinds are 
found in the vicinity of the falls, and upon the rocks are 
chiselled portraits of savages, variously ornamented. Near 
this place are the Abenaqui Springs, whose waters possess 
remarkable medicinal properties. They are highly tonic, 
and efficacious in scrofulous and nearly all cutaneous 
affections. These springs were formerly visited by the 
various tribes of Indians who dwelt in this region, and are 
named after the Abenaqui, or St. Francis Indians. From 
a chemical analysis, one gallon of this water was found 
to contain 13.34 grains of salts, which were decomposed 
into crenate of iron 7.10, crenate of lime 4.11, chloride of 
sodium, sulphates of soda, and lime, and silica 2.13. 

At the base of Fall Mountain, and near the springs, is 
the Fall Mountain Hotel, located in a beautifully romantic 
and retired spot, for the accommodation of travellers, inva- 
lids, and persons of leisure. From the hotel a path leads 
directly to Table Eock, on the summit of the mountain, 
which commands an extensive and delightful view of the 
valley of the Connecticut. About two miles south of Bel- 
lows Falls is a cemeteiy, beautifully situated in a rural and 
quiet spot. Within these grounds a large marble monu- 
ment has been erected to the memory of Colonel Benjamin 
Bellows — who was one of the first settlers of Walpolc — 
by his numerous descendants. 

Drewsvillc, a very pleasant village, is situated on Cold 


Kiver, and contains an Episcopal church, several handsome 
residences, two stores, and several manufacturing establish- 

During the first years of its settlement, Walpole was 
the scene of many skirmishes with the Canadians and 
Indians. In the spring of 1755, an Indian, named Philip 
by the whites, who had acquired the English language 
sufficiently for conversation, came into the town of Wal- 
pole, and visited the house of one Mr. Kilburn, pretending 
that he was on a hunting excursion, and in want of pro- 
visions. He was kindly received, and furnished with every 
necessary, such as flints, flour, &c. Soon after he left, 
however, it was ascertained that he had visited nearly all 
the settlements on Connectiicut River about the same time, 
and with the same plausible errand. Kilburn had already 
learned something of Indian finesse and strategy, and at 
once suspected, as it afterwards proved, that Philip was a 
wolf in sheep's clothing. Not long after this intelligence 
was sent by General Shirley, through a friendly Indian, to 
all the forts, that four or five hundred Indians were collected 
in Canada, whose designs were to destroy all the white 
population on Connecticut River. The reception of such 
news threw a gloom over the weak and defenceless settle- 
ments. What could they do ? To desert their homes, 
their cattle, and crops would be to give up all to the 
destruction of the Canadian savages. Accustomed to all 
the hardships and dangers of the frontier life, they boldly 
resolved to defend themselves and their property, or die on 
their own thresliolds. Kilburn and his men now strength- 
ened tlieir position with such fortifications as their rude 
implements and pressing circumstances would allow, hastily 
surrounding their dwellings with a palisade of stakes 
driven into the ground. Colonel Benjamin Bellows had 


at this time about 30 men under his command at the 
fort, which was about half a mile south from Kilburn's 
house ; but this could be no protection to him while attend- 
ing to his cattle, crops, &c. The enemy were now daily 
expected, and the little band awaited their appearance with 
fearful anxiety. 

On the 17th of August, 1755, as Kilburn and his son 
John, a youth 18 years of age, were returning home from 
work, in company with a man named Peak and his son, 
they discovered the " red legs of the Indians among the 
alders as thick as grasshoppers." They instantly hastened 
home, fastened the door, and made preparations for a desper- 
ate resistance. Besides the four men, there were in the house 
Kilburn's wife and daughter Hitty, who greatly assisted 
and encouraged the men in their efforts to watch the move- 
ments of the enemy, and to provide means of defence. In 
a few minutes the Indians were seen crawling up the bank 
east of the house, and as they crossed a footpath one by 
one, 197 were counted. About the same number remained 
in ambush near the mouth of Cold Iliver. The Indians, 
learning that Colonel Bellows, with his men, was at work 
at his mill about a mile distant, decided that it would be 
best to waylay and destroy them before attacking Kilburn. 
Colonel Bellows and his party, about 30 in number, 
were returning homewards, each with a bag of meal on his 
back, when, on a sudden, their dogs began to growl and 
show signs of uneasiness. Bellows well understood the 
language of the dogs, and immediately took measures to 
thwart the plans of the Indians. He ordered his men to 
lay aside the meal, advance to the brow of the hill, 
crawl carefully up the bank, spring upon their feet, give 
a single Avhoop, and then instantly drop into the fern. 
This manoeuvre had the desired effect ; for, as soon as the 


whoop was given, the savages arose from their ambush in a 
semicircle around the path Bellows was pursuing. This 
gave his men " a fine chance for a shot," which they at 
once improved. The first fire was so well directed that the 
Indians, panic-struck, darted into the bushes without dis- 
charging a gun. Bellows, seeing that their numbers were 
too great to risk an engagement, ordered his men to file off' 
to the south, and make for the fort. The Indians now re- 
turned to Kilburn's house, where the same Philip, to 
whom we have before alluded, came forward, and shelter- 
ing himself behind a tree, called out to the inmates to sur- 
render. " Old John, young John," said he, " come out 
here, tre give you good quarter." ''Quarter!'''' vocifer- 
ated Kilburn, in a voice of thunder, which sent a chill 
of terror through every Indian's breast, and reverber- 
ated among the hills and valleys ; '•' you black rascals, be- 
gone, or we'll quarter you ! " Philip returned to his com- 
panions ; and, after a short consultation, the war whoop 
commenced. Kilburn got the first fire before the smoke 
of the Indian's guns obstructed his aim, and Avas confident 
he saw an Indian fall, who, from his extraordinary size 
and other appearances, must have been Philip. The In- 
dians then rushed forward, bent on the utter destruction of 
the house and its inmates ; and probably not less than 400 
bullets were lodged in its roof and sides at the first fire. 
"The roof was a perfect riddle sieve." Some of them 
fell to butchering the cattle, others were busily employed 
in destroying the hay, grain, &c., while a shower of bullets 
was incessantly falling upon the house. Meanwhile Kil- 
burn and his men were by no means idle. They had 
poured their powder into hats for convenience in loading 
their guns quickly, and every thing was in readiness for ac- 
tive defence. There Avere several guns in the house, and 


these were kept hot by incessant firing ; and as they had 
no ammunition to spare, each one took special care that every 
bullet should tell with fatal effect upon the foe. The 
women assisted in loading the guns ; and when their stock 
of lead was exhausted, they had the forethought to suspend 
blankets in the roof of the house to catch the bullets of 
the enemy ; and these were immediately run into new bul- 
lets, and sent back to the original owners. Several at- 
tempts were made to burst open the doors, but the deadly 
fire from within compelled the savages to desist from this 
undertaking. The Indians, notwithstanding their numbers, 
sheltered themselves most of the time behind trees and 
stumps, thus showing their dread of Kilburn's musketry. 
During the whole afternoon a continual firing was kept up. 
About sunset the Indians began to disappear, and as the 
sun sank behind the Avestern hills, the sound of the guns 
and the cry of the war whoop died away in the distance. 

The result of this conflict proved an effectual check to 
the expedition of the Indians. They immediately returned 
to Canada ; and it is within the bounds of reason to conclude 
that the heroic defence of Kilburn was the means of sav- 
ing the other settlements from the horrors of an Indian 

"Walpole was granted by the government of New Hamp- 
sliire, February 16, 1752, to Colonel Benjamin Bellows and 
61 others. It was first settled in 1749 by John Kilburn 
and his family. Colonel Bellows settled here in 1751. 
The Congregational church was organized in 1761. 

Population, 2034. Number of legal voters in 1854, 435. 
Inventory, $5986,836. Value of lands, |609,278. Stock in 
trade, $17,430. Value of mills and factories, $16,500. 
Moncv at interest, fl29,347. Shares in corporations, 
$28,900. Number of sheep, 12,771. Do. neat stock, 
1538. Do. horses, 370. 


Warner, Merrimack county. Bounded north by Sut- 
ton, Wilmot, and Salisbury, cast by Boscawen, south by 
Hopkinton and Henniker, and west by Bradford and Sut- 
ton. Area, 31,851 acres. Distance from Concord, 17 
miles, by a branch of the Merrimack and Connecticut Riv- 
er Railroad. It is watered by Warner River, a pleasant 
stream, which takes its rise among the mountains in Suna- 
pee, affording many valuable mill privileges. There are 
four ponds — Tom, Bear, Bagley, and Pleasant. The 
latter, whose w^aters are deep, clear, and cold, has no visi- 
ble outlet or inlet, though its banks are overflowed in the 
driest season. The surface is broken ; the soil is excellent. 
The rocks in this town are gneiss and mica slate, the latter 
containing beds of talcose rock and limestone. The gneiss 
contains very finely colored pyrope garnets. The quarry of 
talcose rock, or soapstone, is large and valuable. There 
are several peat bogs here, one of which contains 22 acres, 
and is 25 feet deep. Sticks marked with beavers' teeth 
have been dug out of this bog from various depths, show- 
ing that this spot must have been an immense beaver dam. 

Kearsarge Mountain, a lofty elevation, is mostly situated 
within the limits of the gore now forming a part of War- 
ner. It is composed of mica slate rocks, much corroded 
and deeply furrowed by drift striae. Its sides are covered 
Avith deep forests. Its summit is naked rock. 

This town was granted, in 1735, by the government of 
Massachusetts, to Deacon Thomas Stevens and 62 oth- 
ers, under the name of Number One. It was next called 
New Amesbury. It was afterAvards regranted to 62 per- 
sons, by the jNIasonian proprietors, between whom and the 
former grantees controversies arose w^hich were not set- 
tled until 1773. It was incorporated September 3, 1774, 
under its present name. It was first settled in 1762, by 


David Annis and his son-in-law, Reuben Kimball. The 
Congregational church was organized February 6, 1772. 
There has also been a Freewill Baptist society here for 
several years. The village of Warner is pleasantly located 
on a plain, surrounded by hills, and is a flourishing place. 
The railroad passes a few rods in the rear of the principal 

The Warner Bank has a capital of ^50,000. 

Population, 2038. Number of polls, 465, Inventory, 
$604,010. Value of lands, $334,803. Stock in trade, 
$14,780. Value of mills, $5500. Money at interest, 
$47,360. Shares in corporations, $28,638. Number of 
sheep, 4048. Do. neat stock, 2000. Do. horses, 256. 

Warren, Grafton county. Bounded north by Benton 
and Woodstock, east by Woodstock and Ellsworth, south 
by Wentworth, and west by Piermont. Area, 27,720 acres. 
Distance from Concord, 65 miles, north-west ; from Haver- 
hill, 14, south-east. This town is watered by Baker's Riv- 
er, which runs in a southerly direction nearly through its 
centre. In the south-east part the surface is mountainous. 
The other portions, though uneven, are generally easily 
cultivated. The soil is strong and deep,- and well suited to 
mowing and pasturage. There are several valuable beds of 
copper and tin ore, besides galena and iron in considerable 
quantities. Tremolite, black blende, and crystallized epi- 
dote are found in various localities. A large portion of 
the town is woodland. Maple sugar in considerable quan- 
tities is made here. Warren was incorporated July 14, 
1763. The only religious society is the Methodist. 

Population, 872. Number of polls, 243. Inventory, 
$204,866. Value of lands, $96,928. Stock in trade, 
$3700. Value of mills, $2220. Money at interest. 



),675. Number of sheep, 1437. Do. neat stock, 985. 
Do. horses, 248. 

Washington, SulHvan county. Bounded north by 
Goshen, east by Bradford and Windsor, south by Stod- 
dard, and west by Marlow and Lempster. Area, 30,765 
acres. Distance from Concord, 35 miles, west ; from New- 
port, 16, south-east. This is a hilly, but not mountainous 
town. The soil is deep and moist, affording excellent 
mowing and pasturage. Clay is abundant, and peat is 
plenty in the swamps and low grounds. This town is re- 
markable for its numerous ponds, of which there are 21 ; 
most of them are well supplied with fish. It also abounds 
with springs and rivulets, upon some of which are valuable 
mill privileges. The village is pleasantly situated. Tubbs's 
Union Academy is a flourishing institution, and has a fund 
of $1500. There are in tliis town four meeting houses — 
one Baptist, one Congregational, one Universalist, and one 
Chi'istian. There are also four stores, one hotel, one card- 
board manufactory, two washboard factories, two bobbin 
do., and one woollen do. 

Lovewell's Mountain, lying in the southerly part of the 
town, received its name from Captain Lovewell, who was 
accustomed to ascend it for the piu'pose of discovering the 
wigwams of the Indians, and who, on one occasion, killed 
seven Indians near its summit. 

Washington was granted by the Masonian proprietors to 
Reuben Kidder, Esq., under whom it was settled in 1768. 
From its settlement it was called Camden until December 
13, 1776, when it was incorporated under its present 
name. The Congregational church was organized May 18, 

Population, 1054. Legal voters in 1854, 280. Com- 


mon schools, 11. Inventory, $356,746. Value of lands, 
$209,768. Stock in trade, $8152. Value of mills and 
factories, $7030. Money at interest, $31,776. Number 
of sheep, 1973. Do. neat stock, 1177. Do. horses, 185. 

Water%t[lle, Grafton county. Bounded north by un- 
granted lands, east by Albany, south by Sandwich, and 
west by Thornton. Distance from Concord, 60 miles, 
north. This is a wild, rocky, and mountainous township, 
formerly known as Gillis and Foss Grant. The principal 
streams are Mad and Swift Rivers, which swarm with 
trout. The scenery here in many parts is grand and sub- 
lime. It is mostly a dense forest of pine hemlock and 
gigantic maple. It was incorporated June 29, 1819. 

Population, 40. Number of legal voters in 1854, 12. 
Inventory, $22,926. Value of lands, $18,930. Number 
of sheep, 50. Do. neat stock, 47. Do. horses, 10. 

Weare, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by Hen- 
niker and Hopkinton, east by Dunbarton and Goffstown, 
south by New Boston, and west by Francestown and Deer- 
ing. Area, 33,648 acres. Distance from Concord, 14 
miles, south-west ; from Amherst, 17, north. This is a 
large, populous, and thriving town, with abundance of 
water power well occupied. The stream is the north-west 
branch of the Piscataquog. There are three ponds of 
considerable size. The surface is broken, but not moun- 
tainous.^ The soil of the uplands is strong and deep. The 
land is generally cultivated with care ; and the spirit of 
enterprise, which imparts energy to the numerous depart- 
ments of business followed here, manifests itself in no 
slight degree among the farmers. 

There are in this town seven religious societies, viz., 


two Freewill Baptist, two Baptist, two Quakers, and one 

There are also two hotels, six stores, two tanneries, five 
sawmills, one gristmill, one Avoollen factory, where 30 hands 
are employed; one cotton do., employing 30 hands; one 
iron foundcry ; six blacksmiths' shops ; one hay cutter 
manufactory, yearly business ^10,000 ; one hollow augers 
and screw plates do. ; one bobbin factory ; and one sash, 
door, and blind do., besides several other small factories 
and shops. The whole town presents a picture of activity 
and industry which betokens wealth and prosperity. 

Weare was granted by the Masonian proprietors to Ich- 
abod Robie and others September 20, 1749. It was incor- 
porated September 21, 1764, and received its name in 
honor of Hon. Meshech Weare. 

Population, 2436. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
660. Common schools, 24. Academy, 1. Inventory, 
$718,218. Value of lands, $421,231. Stock in trade, 
$28,084. Value of mills and factories, $14,654. Money 
at interest, $39,846. Number of sheep, 3680. Do. neat 
stock, 2225. Do. horses, 332. 

Wentwortii, Grafton county. Bounded north by "War- 
ren, east by Rumney, south by Dorchester, and west by 
Orford. Area, 23,040 acres. Distance from Concord, 67 
miles, north-west, by the Boston, Concord, and Montreal 
Railroad, which passes through the town in direction 
north-west and south-east. It is connected with Haverhill 
and Plymouth by the same road. It is situated on Baker's 
River, on which is a fall of twenty feet, affording excellent 
water privileges. The village is pleasantly situated near 
the falls, and is a thriving and prosperous place. The sur- 
face is moderately uneven, in some parts quite elevated, 


which, with its strong and fertile soil, renders it an excel- 
lent grazing town. A portion of Carr's Mountain lies in 
the east part of the town, from which a fine species of 
granite is quarried in great abundance. In the western 
part of the town is a part of INIount Cuba, which contains 
inexhaustible quantities of the best limestone. Iron ore is 
found in various localities. Wentworth was granted No- 
vember 1, 1766, to John Page, Esq., and others. It re- 
ceived its name from Governor Benning Wentworth. The 
first settlement commenced a few years prior to the revo- 
lutionary war. The religious societies are the Congrega- 
tional, Freewill Baptist, and Methodist. 

Population, 1197. Number of polls, 262. Inventory, 
$280,589. Value of lands, $152,830. Stock in trade, 
$67-40. Value of mills, $4510. Money at interest, 
$19,400. Number of sheep, 1434. Do. neat stock, 1236. 
Do. horses, 139. 

Westmoreland, Cheshire county. Bounded north by 
Walpole, east by Surrey and Keene, south by Chesterfield, 
and west by Putney, Vermont. Area, 22,426 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 65 miles, south-west ; from Keene, 
10, west, with which it is connected by the Cheshire Rail- 
road. This is a very excellent farming town. It is 
watered by numerous small streams, which are discharged 
into the Connecticut. That flowing from SpafFord's Lake, 
in Chesterfield, is the largest, and affords the principal 
water power. The surface is less varied by hills, valleys, 
and mountains than the neighboring towns. There is con- 
siderable fine interval, and the uplands are generally fer- 
tile and easily cultivated. Fluor spar, crystals of quartz, 
Bulphuret of molybdena, deposits of nodular bog manga- 
nese, felspar, and milk quartz are found in various locali- 
ties. The rock is gneiss, granite, and mica slate. 


There are in this town three stores, one hotel, one large 
carriage factory, where an extensive business is carried on, 
thirteen common schools, and four meeting houses, viz., 
two Congregational, one Methodist, and one Christian. 

Westmoreland was first granted by Massachusetts under 
the name of Numbej^ Two. It was afterwards called Great 
Meadow. It was incorporated by the government of New 
Hampshire, February 11, 1752, imder its present name. 
The first settlement was made in 1741. The early settlers 
were frequently annoyed by incursions of the Indians, but 
no great injury, save in one or two instances, was com- 
mitted. In one of their plundering expeditions they killed 
William Fhips, and in another carried Nehemiah How 
captive to Canada, where he died. 

Population, 1677. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
300. Inventory, $570,458. Value of lands, $.329,806. 
Stock in trade, $7954. Value of mills, $1850. Money 
at interest, $86,154. Number of sheep, 1940. Do. neat 
stock, 1788. Do. horses, 301. 

WiiiTEFiELD, Coos county. Bounded north by Lancas- 
ter, east by Jefferson, south by Carroll and Bethlehem, and 
west by Dalton. Area, 20,800 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 120 miles, north ; from Lancaster, 12, south-east. 
The soil is naturally good, like all the upland in the vicin- 
ity of Lancaster. Several farms in this town are highly 
cultivated, and are very productive. In the north part of 
the town low spruce swamps abound. There is a large 
quantity of excellent pine timber land here, besides exten- 
sive tracts of maple and beech. John's River is the prin- 
cipal stream. Blake's, Long, Found, and Little River 
Ponds are the chief collections of water. Whitefield was 


ihcorporated July 4, 1774. It was first settled by Major 

Population, 857. Number of polls, 233. Inventory, 
$223,091. Value of lands, $109,966. Stock in trade, 
$11,075. Value of mills, $6825. Money at interest, 
$14,950. Number of sheep, 1264. Do. neat stock, 909. 
Do. horses, 176. 

WiLMOT, Merrimack county. Bounded north-east by 
Danbury and Hill, east by Andover, south by Warner and 
Sutton, south-west by New London, and north-west by 
Springfield. Area, 15,000 acres. Distance from Concord, 
30 miles, north-west. The streams which form the Black- 
water River take their rise within the limits of this town, 
some of which afibrd good water privileges. The surface 
is rough and uneven. Some parts of the town are cold 
and rocky, while others afi'ord some good farms. The 
summit of Kearsarge Mountain forms its southern boun- 
dary. Beryls of a large size, felspar of an excellent qual- 
ity, and crystals of mica are found here. The felspar found 
in this place has been successfully used in the manufacture 
of mineral teeth, which are said to be of the finest and 
most durable quality. 

There are in this town a small woollen factory, in which 
eight hands are employed, and a large tannery, in which 
ten hands are employed. There are also three stores, thir- 
teen common schools, and three meeting houses, which 
are occupied by Congregational, Baptist, Freewill Baptist, 
Methodist, and Universalist societies. 

Wilmot was incorporated June 18, 1807. It received 
its name in honor of Dr. Wilmot, who, for a time, enjoyed 
great celebrity as the supposed author of the famous Junius 


■ Population, 1272. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
326. Inventory, $264,191. Value of lands, $-131,049. 
Stock in trade, $6490. Value of mills and factories, 
$3050. Number of sheep, 4156. Do. neat stock, 1311. 
Do. horses, 192. 

Wilton, Hillsborough county. Bounded north by 
Lyndeborough, east by Lyndeborough and Milford, south 
by Mason, and west by Temple. Area, 15,280 acres. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 40 miles, south-west ; from Amherst, 
9, south-west. The principal stream is the Souhegan 
River. The surface is generally uneven and rocky, but 
not mountainous. The soil is strong and productive, con- 
taining a large proportion of agricultural substance. Good 
brick clay is abundant. There are several valuable quar- 
ries of granite, which aie extensively wrought. The facil- 
ities of this town for manufacturing are good, and are rap- 
idly being occupied. There are a sash and blind factory, 
in which 15 hands are employed, and two furniture man- 
ufactories, one employing seven, the other three hands. 
The Wilton Manufactuiing Company make woollen yarn 
for carpets — E. G. Woodman superintendent. Machine 
Shop — E. Putnam & Co. — employ 22 hands. There 
are also one shoe manufactory, employing 12 hands, one 
tannery, one knob manufactory, four sawmills, four saw 
and grist mills, five stores, and two hotels, besides 14 other 
shops where various kinds of mechanical labor are carried 
on. The terminus of the Nashua and Wilton Railroad is 
in this town. 

There are three religious societies — one Congregational, 
one Unitarian, and one Baptist. The first settlement was 
made, in 1738, by three families from Danvers, Massa- 
chusetts. Wilton was incorporated June 25, 1762^ and 


derived its name from Wilton, a manufacturing district in 
England. The Congregational church was organized De- 
cember 14, 1763 ; the Baptist, April 7, 1817. 

Population, 1161. Number of polls, 325. Inventory, 
$511,048. Value of lands, $321,136. Stock in trade, 
$15,580. Value of mills and factories, $27,900. Money 
at interest, $28,950. Number of sheep, 500. Do. neat 
stock, 1146. Do. horses, 193. 

WiNCHESTiji, Cheshire county. Bounded north by 
Chesterfield and Swanzey, east by Swanzey and Richmond, 
south by Warwick, Massachusetts, and west by Hinsdale. 
Area, 33,534 acres. Distance from Concord, 65 miles, 
south-west ; from Keene, 13, south-west. Ashuelot River 
is the principal stream, and affords extensive water power. 
It receives the waters of Muddy and Broad Brooks, besides 
those of smaller streams. Humphrey's Pond, in the north- 
east part, is 300 rods long and 80 wide ; it is the largest 
collection of water in the toAvn. The surface is various. 
In the southerly part of the town it is level ; the other 
portions are more or less uneven. The soil is generally 
good. On either side of the Ashuelot are broad tracts of 
interval of rare fertility. There are two pleasant and 
thriving villages in this town, both of which are situated 
on the Ashuelot River, and are connected with Keene and 
the Connecticut River by the Ashuelot Railroad. There 
arc extensive tracts of wood and timber land in this and 
adjacent towns, which have been rendered easy of access 
since the opening of the Ashuelot Railroad. 

There are in this town two woollen factories, in one of 
which are employed 40 hands, in the other 15, two pail 
manufactories, employing 10 hands each, a friction match 
factory, eight stores, two druggists' shops, two hotels, two 
sawmills, and one linseed oil manufactory. 


Considerable expense has recently been made in con- 
structing a canal from Ashuclot River, to be applied to 
manufacturing purposes on a large scale. 

The capital of the Winchester Bank is $100,000. 

Within the last few years the village in the centre of the 
town, as well as that in the western part, called Ashuelot, 
has grown rapidly. The vast amount of water power in 
both villages, and the readiness and comparatively slight 
expense with which it may be applied to practical pur- 
poses, render it highly probable that at tio distant period 
they will be manufacturing places of considerable impor- 

Winchester was first granted by Massachusetts, and was 
named Arlington. It was granted by New Hampshire, July 
2, 1753, to Josiah Willard and others, who settled here in 
1732. During the wars with the Indians which followed, 
the meeting house and all the private buildings of the 
settlement were burned by the enemy. In the summer of 
1756 Josiah Foster and his family were taken captives by 
the Indians. Some efforts were made to locate Dartmouth 
College in this town, but, owing to the opposition of Josiah 
Willard, the principal landholder, they proved unavailing. 

The Congregational church was organized November 
12, 1736. There are also Methodist and Univcrsalist 

Population, 3296. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
600. Common schools, 21. Inventory, $716,536. Value 
of lands, $411,362. Stock in trade, $20,125. Value of 
mills and factories, $25,950. Money at interest, $13,423. 
"Shares in banks, &c., $70,500. Number of sheep, 1037. 
Do. neat stock, 1583. Do. horses, 305. 

Windham, Rockingham county. Bounded north by 


Londonderry and Derry, east by Salem, south by Pelham, 
and west by Hudson and Londonderry. Area, 15,744 
acres. Distance from Concord, 34 miles, south ; from 
Exeter, 30, south-west. Policy, Cabot's, Golden, and 
Mitchell's Ponds are the principal collections of water. 
Beaver River is the principal stream, upon which is con- 
siderable meadow land. The soil is generally good. 

There are two stores ; one woollen factory, where frock- 
ing is made — capital, ,f 5000 — number of hands, 8 ; one 
mattress manufactory — capital, $4500 — number of hands, 
4 ; one hotel ; and seven common schools. School dis- 
trict number two has a fund of $1000. There is one re- 
ligious society, — the Presbyterian, — which is the only 
church ever organized in the town. It was formed in 

On one of the most lofty eminences in town, seated upon 
the out-cropping surface of a ledge of mica slate, is an 
immense granite boulder, 20 feet in height, its sides 
measuring 16 or 18 feet. In appearance it is erratic, there 
being no rocks of a similar kind in the neighborhood. 
The rock upon M^hich it rests seems to have been fractured 
or crushed by the contact or pressure of the incumbent 
mass. In its under side is a cavity, or basin, the sides of 
which are perfectly smooth, showing that it must have 
been worn by the grinding action of pebbles and rapidly 
flowing water, and also that the present position of the 
boulder is exactly the reverse of what it once was. Wind- 
ham was formerly a part of Londonderry, from which it 
was severed, and incorporated February 25, 1739. 

Population, 818. Number of legal voters in 1854, 
203. Inventory, $274,058. Value of lands, $199,828. 
Stock in trade, $2525. Value of mills, $3300. Money 
at interest, $3775. Number of sheep, 355. Do. neat 
stock, 711. Do. horses, 142. 


Windsor, Hillsborough county. Bounded north-east 
and east by Hillsborough, south by Antrim, west by Stod- 
dard, and north-M'est by Washington. Area, 5335 aci*es. 
Distance from Concord, 30 miles, south-west; from Am- 
herst, 27, north-west. Its surface is varied with hills and 
vales. The soil is strong, and well adapted to grazing. 
Black Pond is the principal collection of water. It was 
formerly called Campbell's Gore, and was incorporated 
under its present name in November, 1798. 

Population, 172. Number of polls, 34. Inventory, 
$68,329. Value of lands, $45,293. :Money at interest, 
$6480. Number of sheep, 283. Do. neat stock, 224. 
Do. horses, 46. 

WoLFBOROUGH, Carroll county. Bounded north-cast by 
Ossipee, south-east by Brookfield and New Durham, south- 
west by Alton and Lake Winnipiseogee, and north-west by 
Tuftonborough. Area, 28,600 acres. Distance from Con- 
cord, 45 miles, north-east ; from Ossipee, 8, south-west. 
The face of the country is generally level ; the soil is 
somewhat rocky, but strong and productive. Smith's 
Pond, six miles in length, is situated in the east part of 
the town, and is the source of a river of the same name. 
There are also four other ponds of considerable size — 
Crooked, Rust's, Barton's, and Sargent's. At the foot of 
a hill near one of these ponds is a mineral spring, which is 
a place of considerable resort. Wolfborough is a good 
farming town. Its mechanical and manufacturing business 
is also considerable. The Lake Bank was incorporated 
July 15, 1854 ; capital, $50,000. Within a few years 
this town has become celebrated as a healthy and delightful 
summer residence. Situated on Lake Winnipiseogee, 
which touches its south-western border, while the lofty 


mountains of Ossipee and the rugged hills of Tufton- 
borough rise up in the rear like impregnable "walls of a 
gigantic fortress, its whole scenery presents a view at once 
picturesque and sublime. The trip across the lake from 
Centre Harbor to Wolfborough Bridge, especially in a 
pleasant summer evening, is truly delightful. At sunset, 
when the evening shadows begin to fall upon the distant 
mountain tops, presenting their rugged outlines in bold 
relief, and the stars, gliding into the firmament, kindle up 
their brilliant fires in the depths of the clear blue waters, 
the excursion seems like a journey to the Elysian Fields. 
At this hour of the day the breezes on the lake are highly 

Wolfborough Bridge is a pleasant village, situated on 
two beautiful slopes of land rising from a bay in the lake. 
Since steamboats have plied these waters it has grown 
quite rapidly. Visitors to the White Mountains and Fran- 
conia now consider their tour incomplete unless they spend 
at least one night here. Accommodations of the best kind 
are provided for visitors. The Pavilion, a spacious, 
elegantly furnished, and well-conducted hotel, is fully 
entitled to the rank of a first class house. From its cupola 
and piazzas charming views of the lake and surrounding 
country are obtained. The situation of the Lake House 
commands extensive and delightful views of this romantic 
region. This house also furnishes excellent accommoda- 
tions. Horses, carriages, boats, and attendants are always 
at command at either hotel. Copple Crown Mountain, five 
miles from the village, is easily ascended, and commands a 
varied, extensive prospect. The view from its summit is 
thought by many to be fully equal to that from Eed Hill. 
The mountain scenery is more distant, but not less distinct. 
The prospect embraces an excellent view of the lake, aud 


some thirty diiFerent sheets of Nvater in New Hampshire 
and Maine can be counted. Mount Washington, the Isles 
of Shoals, and vessels on the ocean may also be discerned. 

It was in this town that General John Wentworth erect- 
ed a splendid mansion, about five miles east of the bridge, 
for a summer residence. Wolfborough Academy has a 
fund of $5000, and is a respectable institution. Great 
attention is paid here to improvement in common school 
training and instruction. This town was granted, in 1770, 
to General John AVentworth, Mark 11. Wentworth, and 
others. Among the first settlers were Benjamin Blake, 
James Lucas, Joseph Lary, and Ithamar Fullerton. A 
Congregational church was organized October 25, 1792 ; 
at the same time a Freewill Baptist society was formed. 
There are at present two Congregational, three Freewill 
Baptist, and one Methodist societies. 

Population, 2038, Number of polls, 472. Inventory, 
$553,199. Value of lands, $319,566. Stock in trade, 
$12,800. Value of mills and factories, $14,813. Money 
at interest, $28,662. Number of sheep, 1247. Do. neat 
stock, 2287. Do. horses, 376. 

Woodstock, Grafton county. Bounded north by Lin- 
coln, east by Thornton, south by Thornton, Ellsworth, and 
Warren, and west by Warren, Benton, and LandafF. Dis- 
tance from Concord, 62 miles, north ; from Plymouth, 20, 
north. Area, 33,359 acres. Pemigewasset River passes 
through its eastern section. It is well watered by brooks 
and rivulets, which supply the town with numerous mill 
privileges. The principal ponds are Hubbard's, Elbow, 
Russell's, and Bog. The surface is uneven, diversified by 
hUls, valleys, and mountains. In many parts the scenery 
is picturesque and sublime. The brooks swarm with trout, 


and afford rich amusement to the angler and tourist. On 
Moosehillock Brook is a beautiful cascade, where the water 
glides smoothly on a glassy surface of rocks, or tumbles in 
foaming cataract, a distance of 200 feet. Grafton Mineral 
Spring is situated in this town, near the road leading to 
Franconia. Its waters are strongly impregnated with sul- 
phur and other mineral substances, and are in great repute, 
on account of their medicinal qualities. Near the base of 
Summit Mountain is a cave, extending under ground 
several feet, and spacious enough to hold many hundred 
people. It communicates with various apartments. Its 
sides and the partition walls are of solid granite ; and from 
the fact that ice, of the greatest purity, may be obtained 
here through the entire warm season, it is called the Ice 
House. A large portion of this town consists of extensive 
tracts of wood and timber, including pine, spruce, and 
ash. During the winter season 150 men are employed by 
the Merrimack River Lumbering Company in cutting and 
hauling timber to the Pemigewasset, whence it is trans- 
ported during the spring freshets to Lowell. 

There are in this town nine saw, shingle, and clapboard 
mills, with an aggregate capital of about ,^15,000. There 
is also an extensive tannery here, Avhere 20 hands are em- 
ployed ; capital, $15,000. There are two meeting houses, 
— one Baptist and one Freewill Baptist, — six common 
schools, and one store. 

Woodstock was granted, September 23, 1763, to Eli 
Demeritt, under the name of Peeling. It was settled, in 
1773, by John Riant and others. It received its present 
name in 1840. 

Population, 418. Number of legal voters in 1854, 120. 
Inventory, $113,950. Value of lands, .$54,006. Do. 
mills, $14,304. Stock in trade, $1150. Number of 
sheep, 271. Do. neat stock, 398. Do. horses, 84. 



Rockingham County. Incorporated in March, 1791. 
Bounded north by Strafford county, east by the Atlantic 
from the mouth of the Piscataqua to the line of Massa- 
chusetts, south by Massachusetts, and west by Hillsborough 
and Merrimack counties. Its greatest length is 34 miles ; 
greatest breadth, 30 miles. There are 38 towns in this 
county, which were incorporated — two in the reign of 
Charles I., one in the reign of Charles II., two in the reign 
of William and Mary, two in the reign of Queen Anne, 
seven in the reign of George I., thirteen in the reign of 
George II., eight in the reign of George III,, and three 
by the government of New Hampshire. Shire towns, 
Portsmouth and Exeter. Valuation, ^19,685,157. Pop- 
ulation, 49,204. Number of farms, 3811. Do. manufac- 
tories, 984. This county was named by Governor Penning 
Wentworth, in honor of Charles Watson Went worth. Mar- 
quis of Rockingham. 

Strafford County. Incorporated March 16, 1791. 
Bounded north by Carroll county, east by the State of 
Maine, south by Rockingham county, and west by Belknap 
county. Shire town, Dover. It contains 13 towns, one of 
which was incorporated in the reign of Charles I., two in 
the reign of George I., three in the reign of George II., 
and five under the state government. Although a large 
portion of the territory of this county was taken to form 
the counties of Belknap and Carroll, yet by its immense 
hydraulic power, it makes rapid progress in population and 
wealth, and loses none of its former importance or influ- 
ence. It was named in honor of William Wentworth, 


Earl of StrafFord. Valuation, $10,237,058. Population, 
29,364. Farms, 1844. Manufactories, 394. 

Belknap County. Incorporated December 22, 1840. 
Bounded north by Carroll county and Lake Winnipiseogee, 
east by Strafford county, south-west by Merrimack county, 
and west by Grafton county. Shire town, Gilford. It 
contains eight towns, two of which were incorporated in 
the reign of George I., two in the reign of George III., 
and fbur under the state government. There are many 
beautiful lakes and ponds within its limits. Its surface is 
uneven, and in some parts mountainous. The soil is gen- 
erally productive. Its water power is considerable. The 
lakes, mountains, and valleys in this county present a great 
variety of sublime and picturesque scenery. It was named 
in honor of Dr. Belknap, the historian of New Hamp- 
shire. Valuation, $5,372,199. Population, 17,709. 
Farms, 2438. Manufactories, 163. 

Carroll County. Incorporated December 22, 1840. 
Bounded north by Grafton and Coos counties, east by the 
State of Maine, south by Strafford county, and south-west by 
Lake Winnipiseogee. Shire town, Ossipee. It contains 17 
towns, eight of which were incorporated during the reign 
of George III., and nine under the state government. The 
scenery afforded by the variety of lofty mountains, deep 
vales, lakes, and rapid streams, is beautiful. Much of the 
land is rocky and mountainous, and although somewhat 
cold, is yet excellent for grazing. Valuation, $4,344,743. 
Population, 21,565. Farms, 2805. Manufactories, 135. 

Merrimack County. Incorporated July 3, 1823. 
Bounded north by Grafton and Belknap counties, east by 


]^ckingham county, south by Hillsborough county, ari3 
west by Sullivan county. Shire town. Concord, the 
capital of New Hampshire. It contains 24 towns, four 
of which were incorporated in the reign of George I., two 
in the reign of George II., seven in the reign of George 
III., and eleven under the state government. Greatest 
length, i36 miles ; greatest breadth, 26. Surface uneven ; 
soil generally very fertile. Kearsarge is the highest eleva- 
tion, being 2400 feet above the sea level. Merrimack River, 
the principal stream, winds through nearly the middle of the 
county, and affords a large amount of water power. It was 
taken from Hillsborough and Rockingham counties. Val- 
uation, $14,780,293. Population, 40,339. Farms, 3220. 
Manufactories, 215. 

Hillsborough County. Incorporated March 19, 1771. 
Bounded north by Merrimack county, east by Rockingham 
county, south by Massachusetts, and west by Cheshire 
county. Shire towns, Amherst and Manchester. It con- 
tains 31 towns, ten of which were incorporated in the 
reign of George II., twelve in the reign of George III., 
and nine by the government of New Hampshire. This is 
not a mountainous region. It is well watered, and pos- 
sesses an immense water power. Its facilities for manufac- 
turing are excellent, and are largely improved. It received 
its name from the Earl of Hillsborough, one of the privy 
council of George III. Valuation, $25,406,014. Popu- 
lation, 57,477. Farms, 3675. Manufactories, 399. 

Cheshire County. Incorporated March 19, 1771. 

Bounded north by Sullivan county, east by Hillsborough 

county, south by Massachusetts, and west by Vermont. 

Shire town, Keene. Greatest length, 31 miles; greatest 



breadth, 26 miles. It contains 22 towns, eight of which 
were incorporated in the reign of George II,, ten in the 
reign of George III., and four under the government of 
New Hampshire. The surface is diversified with mountains 
and plains. Connecticut River waters its western border, 
and the Ashuelot passes through it in a south-westerly di- 
rection. Along the latter river are extensive plains, pos- 
sessing various degrees of fertility. The Grand Monad- 
nock is the highest elevation, being 3450 feet above the 
sea level. It received its name from one of the counties in 
England. Valuation, $11,245,179. Population, 30,143. 
Farms, 2805. Manufactories, 3TT. 

Sullivan County, Incorporated July 5, 1827. 
Bounded north by Grafton county, east by Merrimack 
county, south by Cheshire county, and west by Vermont. 
Shire town, Newport. It contains 15 towns, one of which 
was incorporated in the reign of George II., nine in the 
reign of George III., and five under the state government. 
Croydon Mountain is the highest elevation. Along the 
streams, particularly the Connecticut, the soil is very fer- 
tile, and the uplands are generally productive. Sugar Riv- 
er affords abundant water power. It is well watered by 
numerous small streams, many of which afford good mill 
privileges, Sunapee Lake, a beautiful sheet of water, is 
the source of Sugar River, and is the largest collection of 
water in the county. It was named in honoi of Hon. 
John Sullivan, one of the presidents under the new con- 
stitution. Valuation, $7,492,942, Population, 19,375. 
Farms, 2129. Manufactories, 141. 

Grafton County. Incorporated March 19, 1771. 
Bounded north by Coos county, oast by Coos, Carroll, and 


Belknap counties, south by Merrimack and Sullivan coun- 
ties, and west by Vermont. Shire towns, Haverhill and 
Plymouth. It contains 38 towns, 23 of which were 
incorporated under the reign of George III., and 15 un- 
der the state government. Its greatest length is 58 miles ; 
greatest breadth, 30. It is watered on its west and north- 
western borders by Connecticut River. Lower Ammonoo- 
suc, Pemigewassett, and Mascomy Rivers are considerable 
streams, and afford good water power. Squam, Newfound, 
and Mascomy Lakes are the principal collections of water. 
The surface of this county, as well as the soil, is greatly 
diversified. A large portion is hilly and mountainous, 
though comparatively but little is unfit for cultivation. In 
the north-eastern part is a large ti-act of ungranted lands, 
which probably will never be thickly inhabited. It is most- 
ly a sterile, rocky, and mountainous region. The hilly por- 
tions afford excellent pasturage, while its extensive and fer- 
tile meadows and intervals produce abundant crops of grass, 
grain, and all the fruits common to this climate. The first 
settlement was made in Lebanon. Grafton county received 
its name in honor of Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of 
Grafton. Valuation, $12,318,351. Population, 42,343. 
Farms, 5063. Manufactories, 424. 

Coos County. Incorporated December 24, 1803. 
Bounded north by the highlands which separate the waters 
which flow into the St. Lawrence from those flowing into 
the Connecticut, east by Maine, south by Carroll and Graf- 
ton counties, and west by Vermont. Shire town, Lancas* 
ter. It contains 26 towns, five of which were incorpo- 
rated in the reign of George III., and 21 by the state 
government. This is the largest county in the state, being 
76 miles in length, and on an average 20 miles in width. 


Its area is estimated at 1,000,000 acres. A great portitm 
is mountainous, and unfit for cultivation. The White 
Mountain region occupies the southern portion, and in- 
cludes little else than "rocky vales and lofty piles." The 
mountains extend about 20 mUes from south-west to north- 
east, being the more elevated parts of a range reaching 
many miles in that direction. Their base is about 10 miles 
in extent, covering an area of about 200 square miles, or 
128,000 acres. Mount Washington, the highest peak, is 
6226 feet above high water mark in Portsmouth. Besides 
these gigantic piles, there are other considerable elevations 
in different parts of the county. Most of the ungranted 
lands, the grants to Dartmouth College, and Gilmanton 
and Atkinson Academies, Wentworth's Location, Crawford's 
Grant, and the tract called Odell, ai'e within its limits. 
Three of the principal rivers of New England — the Con- 
necticut, Androscoggin, and the Saco — take their rise here. 
There are extensive tracts of fine interval and upland in 
various parts of this county ; and, although the husband- 
man may not, in every location, feast his eyes on fertile 
plains and cultivated hills, yet the lover of Nature may 
admire the majestic splendor and the impregnable founda- 
tions of her strongholds. Coos is the Indian name of the 
Connecticut, and signifies crooked. The first settlement 
was made at Lancaster in 1763. Valuation, $2,782,946. 
Population, 10,445. Farms, 1439. Manufactories, 69. 


The City of Manchester. Incorporated in June, 
1846. Mayor, Frederic Smyth. Valuation, $6,795,682. 
Value of factories, $2,544,100. Stock in trade, $510,990. 


Population in 1820, 761; 1840, 3235; 1850, 13,933; 
1854, 19,877. 

The City of Portsmouth. Incorporated July 6, 1849. 
Horton D. Walker mayor. Valuation, $5,206,972. Val- 
ue of factories, |244,100. Stock in trade, $941,510. 
Population in 1820, 7327 ; 1840, 7887 ; 1850, 9739 ; 
1854, 9942. 

The City of Concord. Incorporated July 6, 1849. 
City charter adopted in 1853. Mayor, Joseph Low. 
Valuation, $3,168,065. Value of factories and mills, 
$74,100. Stock in trade, $182,150. Population in 
1820, 2838 ; 1840, 4903 ; 1850, 8584 ; 1854, 10,000. 

The city of Nashua. Incorporated June 27, 1853. 
Mayor, Josephus Baldwin. Valuation, $3,809,416. Val- 
ue of factories, $834,000. Stock in trade, $546,634. 
Population in 1820, 1142; 1840, 3600; 1850, 8972; 
1854, 10,462. 


















The situation, boundaries, and area of New Hampshire 
have already been given.* The surface of the state is 
greatly diversified, ha^^ng eveiy degree of elevation, from 
the gently undulating plain to the lofty cloud-capped 
mountain. Its extent of sea coast is about eighteen miles. 
For twenty or thirty miles back from the sea the country is 
tolerably level. The first mountain range is called the 
Blue Hills. Beyond this are numerous elevations, some 
of which are of considerable height. Still farther to the 
west is a lofty ridge, which separates the waters of the 
Connecticut from those of the Merrimack, commonly called 
the Height of Land. The highest elevation in this part 
of the state is the Monadnock Mountain. The same ridge 
extends north, separating the tributaries of the Connecticut 
from those that flow eastwardly, until it terminates in the 
lofty summits of the White Mountains. The country north 

* See page 85. 

38 (445) 


of these mountains is generally hilly and mountainous, and 
for the most part but thinly inhabited. 


The climate of New Hampshire is very various and 
fickle. Although one of the coldest states in the Union — 
its mean' yearly temperature being not far fi-om 44° — 
there are yet few in which the thermometer ever rises 
higher than here during some of our hot summer days, 
and very few iu which the mercury ever falls so low. The 
whole range of the temperature of the state, from the 
extreme heat, when the thermometer stands at near 100°, 
to the extreme cold, when the mercury is frozen at a tem- 
perature of more than 40 degrees below zero, is something 
over 140 degrees, a yearly range almost unparalleled in 
any district of similar dimensions. And the daily varia- 
tions are hardly less remarkable, sometimes amounting to 
40 degrees, or even more, within twenty-four hours ; the 
mean daily range, however, is about 17 degrees. 

The range of the barometer also, though not quite so 
excessive, still deserves notice. It amounts in all, at any 
one place, to about 2.5 inches ; and more than one inch of 
this variation sometimes occurs in twenty-four hours, dur- 
ing the progress of one of the great storms. It should 
be observed that this range is greater near the level of 
the sea. 

The amount of precipitation (that is of rain, and snow,* 

• The tables published by the Smithsonian Institution reckon the snow as 
one tenth water, so that ten inches of snow are reckoned equal to one inch of 
rain. Of course, ten inches of very heavy snow are more than equal to one 
inch of rain, and ten of very lif^ht snow are less ; but the ratio given is a fair 



reduced to watei-, added together) for the whole year is 
from 35 to 55 inches, varying, of course, in different years, 
and different places. The amount of snow is much less 
constant, varying from less than a foot during the whole 
"winter, as sometimes happens near the sea, to 10 or 12 
feet, as sometimes among the mountains. Usually there is 
more, both of rain and snow, inland than on the coast, 
although the number of cloudy and unpleasant days is less. 
The proportion of pleasant days to the whole number of 
days in the year is about one third, and there are not quite 
as many in which some snow or rain falls ; the rest are 
variable days, not actually stormy, but only more or less 
dark and cloudy. New Hampshire storms are not generally 
of great violence, or long duration, unless near the sea, 
but, as every one knows, differ much in these respects. 
The larger storms almost invariably move from the south- 
west to the north-east. They are usually preceded by a 
calm atmosphere, and a high elevation of the barometer. 
They commence with easterly winds, and a depression of 
the mercurial column, often very rapid, which reaches its 
limit at the crisis of the storm. Sometimes, especially in 
exposed situations, they are followed by strong westerly 
gales ; but these are selflom violent enough to do any 
damage. These storms, especially in the winter, not unfre- 
quently recur at periods of a week or eight days, whence 
the old saying, 'that if the first Sunday of a month be 
stormy the rest will be like it.' 

Thunder storms are quite common in the summer 
months ; sometimes very violent. In their number differ- 
ent years differ greatly, as may be seen by referring to the 
table at the end of this article. They seem to be more 
frequent away from the ocean. There are a few, but very 


few, instances recorded of lightning seen in the winter, 
and in only one or two of these accompanied by thunder. 

Whirlwinds and tornadoes are very rare, yet not un- 
known. The aui'ora borealis has been seen lately, about 
a dozen times in the course of the year on an average ; and 
when we consider how many nights are moonlight, and 
how many cloudy, we may look upon it as quite a common 
phenomenon. The frequency of it is exceedingly variable 
in different years, and, indeed, it is considered by some in 
a measure periodic. It is pretty certain that for some 
ninety years after 1625, there were very few seen in 
England, for there are but two on record, while in the 
twenty years that followed they were remarkably frequent 
and brilliant. So also at Dartmouth College, in the six 
years 1835 to '41 inclusive, there were observed 134, of 
which 30 are marked "very brilliant," thus giving an aver- 
age of 22 per annum for those years. Of late years, as 
mentioned above, this phenomenon has been by no means 
so common. Occasionally, but of course rarely, we have 
very beautiful, and even magnificent, exhibitions of this 
splendid meteor. 

These general remarks, of course, need some modifica- 
tions and additions to make them' strictly applicable to all 
parts of a state which differs so much in its different dis- 
tricts. For instance, the White Mountain country is much 
colder than either the Connecticut valley or that of the 
Merrimack, and still more than the seaboard. It is at 
Franconia that the maximum of cold has been observed. 
In this region also falls the greatest quantity of snow and 
rain. Here the spring is later, and the fall earlier, by full 
three weeks, than in the southern part of the state. The 
summer is short and the winter very long, so that it 



is not uncommon to have more than twenty weeks of 

In the Connecticut valley, extending as it does north 
and south for .so great a distance, there is more variety. 
While in the north the climate is not far different from that 
of the White Mountains, in the southern extremity of the 
state it is much warmer, and more like that of Massachu- 
setts, so that peaches, chestnuts, &c., arc found, although 
not so abundant as in the corresponding part of the Merri- 
mack valley. Along the bank of the river morning fogs 
are very common in the months of August and September ; 
but they seem to have little of the chilling and depressing 
effect of the ocean fogs, that sometimes occur on the coast, 
especially, perhaps, because the river fogs generally precede 
fair days, and are dispersed by nine or ten o'clock in the 
morning, while the latter last whole days, and are often 
accompanied by raw east winds and drizzling rains. 
These east winds arc very rare in the Connecticut valley, 
where 75 per cent, of the winds observed are westerly, 
and only 25 per cent, easterly; and of this 25 per cent, 
full 17 are from the south-east, not an uncomfortable quar- 
ter, leaving only about 8 per cent, from the east and north- 
east. And, if M'e except an occasional day or two in March, 
those damp, murky days, when the air is filled with a rain 
so fine that it resembles mist, — such days as are not un- 
frequent near the salt water, — are wholly unknown in the 
western part of the state. Among the White INIountains 
and in the ^Merrimack valley there arc more east winds, 
and yet not a large proportion, while they are as common 
as any on the coast. The valley of the Merrimack is not 
very different from that of the Connecticut, but yet is 
somewhat warmer, forming a kind of mean between it and 
the seaboard, where the temperature, though not on the 


average a great deal higher, is much more uniform, the 
very cold and the very hot days fewer, the cloudy and 
stormy ones more numerous, the snow not so deep, and 
the winter not so long ; so that the fifteen weeks' sleighing 
of the interior is reduced to six or seven here. It is also 
more windy, because of the more level and exposed charac- 
ter of the country. As compared with other states, New 
Hampshire is one of the coldest, though part of Maine and 
Vermont, with Northern New York and Iowa, and other 
more westerly regions of the same latitude this side of the 
Rocky Mountains, are not very different. Its mountainous 
and diversified surface causes the great variety of tempera- 
ture which has been noticed. The quiet, deep-lying valleys 
become in winter basins of stinging cold, while in summer 
they are sometimes heated like ovens ; but the more level 
portions nearer the ocean, although they enjoy a more 
equable temperature, have far less of that clear blue sky 
and bracing air so peculiar to New Hampshire hills. And 
who can doubt that this extreme and ever-changing climate 
has had its due effect in moulding the energetic, self-pos- 
sessed, and versatile character of our New Hampshire 
men ? It certainly is ill adapted for the nurture of idle- 
ness or effeminacy, since the short summer requires a 
correspondingly vigorous exertion to secure the timely 
fruits of the earth, and the long, cold winter necessarily 
bestows on all who come under its influence a great power 
of sturdy endurance. 

Subjoined is a table giving some of the principal results 
of the meteorological observations, from the year 1844 to 
1853 inclusive, taken at Dartmouth College, which place 
may be considered a pretty fair type of the Connecticut 
valley. Its latitude is approximately 43° 42' 28"; its 
longitude about 72° 17', west of Greenwich, and its eleva- 

CUM ATE. 461 

tion 530 feet above the sea level. The mean tempera- 
ture of Dover and Concord is a little warmer than that of 
Hanover, yet not more than one or two degrees. Their 
mean yearly range is from 10 to 15 degrees less. The 
mean temperature of Franconia, on the other hand, is 
lower by a somewhat greater difference, and its range also 

The greatest amount of rain which has fallen in any sin- 
gle month is 9.46 inches, in August, 1849. The mean yearly 
range of temperature is 118.4°; the extreme yearly range 
is 125" ; and the range for the whole ten years 129°. The 
mean daily range is 16.3°. The extreme range of the 
barometer is from 28.250 inches to 30.500 inches, or 2.25 
inches. The change in the relative number of the winds 
for the last three years, as given in the table, results from 
a change of observers, and the method of observation. 




















































Maximum Tern. 


























































Uinimnm Tem- 



























































































Amount of Bain. 


































Amount of Snow. 





































Whole Precipi- 































Thunder Storms. 








Days when Bain 







or Snow fell. 














































































































































































Weeks of Blel»h- 







A correct knowledge of the geological formation and 
mineral resources of the several states which constitute our 
confederacy is now deemed of the utmost importance. Nor 
is this surprising when we consider the amount of hidden 
treasure thus brought to light, or the vast amount of wealth 
expended with the expectation of realizing hopes which 
the least knowledge of the science of geology would have 
shown, at once, to be utterly vain. The first settlers of 
Virginia are not the only persons who have rejoiced at the 
sight of a mass of yellow mica or iron pyrites, supposing that 
they had found " the land of Ophir, where there is gold." 

Until within a very few years the whole subject of 
mining, metallurgy, and mineralogy was involved in ig- 
norance and superstition ; and the only wonder is, that 
man, amidst such gross folly and error, really accomplished 
so much. 

All knowledge is so remarkable, each new fact is so sur- 
prising, and every new science discloses so many wonders, 
that for a time it is condemned as false. Such, in a re- 
markable degree, has been the fate of the science of geol- 
ogy. Sharp has been the conflict and severe the ordeal 
through which it has passed before it could be received 
into the inner temple of the older and accredited sciences. 

Until within a recent period there was no information 
concerning the geological structure and the mineral charac- 
teristics of New Hampshire, excepting that which was col- 
lected by private and individual research, and which was, 
of course, limited and defective. But in June, 1839, a 
law was passed, authorizing the governor to appoint a state 
geologist, in order to make " a thorough geological and min- 
eralogical survey of this state." The state geologist, "by 


and with the consent of the governor and council," was re- 
quired to appoint an assistant for the purpose of analyzing 
such rocks, ores, soils, and other substances as should be 
presented to him for that purpose. The sum of $2000 
annually for three years was appropriated to carry out the 
provisions of the law, and in 1842 an additional sum of 
$3000 was voted to continue the survey. Agreeably to 
the provisions of this act. Governor Page appointed Charles 
T. Jackson, Esq., of Boston, state geologist, under whose 
directions the survey was commenced in 1840, and com- 
pleted in 1843. The final report was made in 1844. 
This report imbodies a large amount of useful and impor- 
tant information, and has served to diffuse much light in 
regard to the agricultural and mineral resources of New 
Hampshire ; Avhile, at the same time, it has checked ex- 
travagant hopes and a spirit of la^dess speculation. 

Probably no portion of this continent, (or perhaps of the 
world,) of equal area, furnishes more numerous or more 
convincing illustrations of the principles of geology than 
the " Granite State," having a formation peculiarly its 
own, while those of the states both east and west of it are 
different, and similar to each other. The anticlinal axis 
passing nearly north and south through the entire state 
proves conclusively a remarkable upheaval to have taken 
place in this region at some time during the countless ages 
of the past. This, moreover, is confirmed (did it indeed 
need confirmation) by the fact that the rock is almost en- 
tirely granite, long since proved to be one of the lowest 
primitive rocks, only appearing upon the surface in conse- 
quence of being forced up through thousands of feet of 
superincumbent strata. From its granitic formation, in- 
deed, does the state derive its appellation of "Granite 
State," although, in the southern portion, the mica slate 


predominates in several of the mountains, and also, to more 
or less extent, in other parts of the state. 

The many and great changes which the surface of this 
state has evidently undergone have given a varied, wild, 
and picturesque appearance to its mountains and mountain 

The drift epoch has left its witness in almost every part 
of the state, scratches being found upon the surface of the 
rocks, and extending usually in a direction nearly south, 
showing that the great flood of waters, fiom Avhatever 
source it might arise, had its origin in a direction almost 
due north. But, besides these, a discovery was made a 
few years since which is accounted of great value to the 
science of geology. 

In the construction of the railroad from Concord to 
Lebanon it was found necessary to make a deep cut in the 
town of Orange, near what is termed the Summit, it being 
the highest land between the Connecticut and Merrimack 
Rivers, over 900 feet above the bed of those streams, and 
dividing the streamlets Avhich flow into them. On this 
height of land were discovered, in the solid granite, pot 
holes over four feet in diameter at the top, two feet at the 
bottom, and eleven feet in depth. These were worn 
smooth, like those at Bellows Falls, and in them stones 
rounded and polished similar to those found in pot holes 
formed in our own times. One of these, which is now in the 
museum at Dartmouth College, is over two feet in length, 
and nearly in the form of an egg, worn and polished very 
smooth. Now, there can be but one solution to this prob- 
lem. These pot holes must have been formed by a great 
stream of water flowing for centuries. But in order that a 
stream should flow through this gap, there must have beea 
an entirely different configuration from that which now 
exists, and this region must have been, at least, one thou- 


sand feet lower than at present, compared with the beds of 
the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers ; since which time 
it has been elevated by subterranean causes. The time re- 
quired for the forming of these can hardly be estimated. 
" The rock is as hard as that at Bellows Falls, where it is 
rare to find pot holes more than three feet deep ; and yet 
those falls have been in operation from a period long an- 
terior to the creation of man." 


As might be expected in a formation like that of New 
Hampshire, minerals in great variety and abundance are 
found in almost every part of the state. These are val- 
uable generally rather for utility than for their rarity, and 
are consequently an important item in the wealth of the 
state ; while the mineralogist will find ample scope for in- 
vestigation and research. Some of the principal minerals 
found in this state are the following : — 

Granite is, of the quarry stones, the most, abundant, 
and is indeed so common that but little value is attached 
to it, though its value is now rapidly increasing with the 
increasing facilities for transportation. Excellent quarries 
are found in almost all parts of the state. 

SiENiTE, which is a building stone about equal to gran- 
ite, abounds in Diuham, Moultonborough, and Sandwich. 

Gneiss, which is very similar to granite, is extensively 
used in building on account of its splitting more easily in 
one direction than another. 

Mica Slate is composed of parallel layers of mica, in- 
termixed with fine granular quartz, and is highly valued, 
when it splits true, for certain economical purposes. It is 
scattered throughout the state, and most of the minerals 
occurring here are found in this rock. 



Talcose Rock, or Soapstone, is an invaluable material 
for certain purposes, being wrought into a great variety of 
useful articles. The principal quarries are in Francestown 
and Orford, the most valuable quarry in this country 
having been accidentally discovered in the former place ;n 

AiiGiLLACEOUS Slate is found on the borders of the 
Connecticut River, on the western, and at Portsmouth, 
Somersworth, and Bartlett, on the eastern side of the state. 
The compact variety has been wrought for tombstones in 
the north-west corner of Unity, in Claremont, at Dalton, 
Cornish Flat, and several other places. 

Granular Quartz, on account of the facility with which 
its grains may be separated by the crushing wheel, or even 
by the stones of a common gristmill, is used for sandpaper, 
polishing powder, and many other purposes of like charac 
ter ; also in the manufacture of common window glass 
It occurs most abundantly in Acworth, Unity, and Win- 

Limestone is found in beds apparently inexhaustible, 
especially in Haverhill, Lisbon, and Lyme, where quarries 
have been wrought with great success. 

Novaculite, or Oilstone, is abundant in the town of 
Littleton, and of a veiy good quality. It is quarried and 
wrought extensively. 

Felspar is one of the components of granite, and 
abounds throughout the state, but is most easily obtained 
from the mica quarries of Alstead, Grafton, Springfield, 
and Wilmot. 

Mica abounds in the towns of Alstead and Grafton, 
where it is quarried extensively for the market. 

Fluor Spar, used for etching on glass and on agate, 
occurs in Westmoreland and in Jackson. 


Sulphate of Barytes i« found in Piermont in the 
specular iron ore. 

Beryl is found in Grafton, Orange, and Danbury in its 
purest form, some of the crystals being almost equal, in 
transparency and brilliancy, to the diamond. The largest 
crystals are found in Acworth, but are distinguished rather 
for their size than their piirity. 

Garnet. — The principal locations of this mineral are 
Haverhill, Amherst, and Planover. 

Black Lead, or Graphite, is of considerable value, the 
most extensive and profitable mines being in Goshen and 

Iron. — The ores of this metal are scattered throughout 
the state ; but the two most valuable localities, all things 
considered, are probably in Piermont and Bartlett. 

Zinc. — An important vein of this metal occurs in 

Copper. — The most important localities of copper ores 
are in Warren, Bath, and Unity. 

Lead. — The principal locations arc in Eaton and Shel- 
burne, where it is also associated with silver in consider- 
able quantities. 

Tin occurs in Jackson, its discovery a few^ years since 
being deemed of considerable importance, as the ore was 
before unknown in the United States. 

Silver is found in nearly all the lead ores of New 
Plampshire in sufficient quantity to warrant its extraction 
from the reduced lead, especially the ores of Eaton and 

Gold is found in very small quantities in Grafton and 

Molybdenum occurs in great abundance in the town of 


Manganese is found in various parts of the state, es- 
pecially in Gilmanton, Grafton, Winchester, and Hins- 

Chrome is found in minute quantities in the soil of 

Titanium is a rare ore, but found comparatively abun- 
dant in Merrimack and Unity. 

Cadmium is found in all the ores of zinc, but most abun- 
dant in the black blende of Shelburne. 

Cobalt is found in Franconia, but is rare. 

Arsenic is very abundant, both native and in the state 
of arsenical pyrites. In Haverhill it is found in the former, 
and in Jackson, Epsom, and Dunbarton in the latter 

Tungsten is found in the tin ores of Jackson. 

Uranium occurs in Westmoreland, but is very rare. 

It will be seen by the above list that New Hampshire 
has a remarkable variety of minerals, containing a greater 
number of metals than any other state in the Union. Iron, 
zinc, lead, copper, and silver are the most important, and 
the mining of these may yet become a leading branch of 


The soil of New Hampshire is not generally distin- 
guished for its fertility, though by patient industry it is 
made to yield very abundant and valuable products. As 
the soil is formed from the detritus of the rock, — the 
granite, in general, greatly predominating, — much labor is 
required for. successful cultivation, though in the south- 
ern portions a lighter and more fertile soil is found upon 
the slate formations ; and upon the banks of the large riv- 
ers, as the Connecticut and the Merrimack, the alluvial de- 


posit has formed some of the finest and most fertile meadow 
lands in the world. The peat bogs, which abound es- 
pecially in the towns of Dublin, Littleton, Northumber- 
land, Lancaster, Rochester, Warner, and Franklin, are of 
immense advantage to the farms upon which they are 
found. Many of these by draining become excellent grass 
meadows, while all furnish an almost inexhaustible supply 
for enriching the upland fields. It is to be hoped that 
greater attention will be given to this subject, leading to 
an analysis of such accumulations wherever found, and to 
a more general use of this natural deposit, which, being 
composed of vegetable matter, partially disorganized and 
decomposed, becomes, when mingled with lime, a valuable 
fertilizing agent. 

Agriculture is the leading pursuit of the people of New 
Hampshire, and most of the products common to v the lati- 
tude are successfully cultivated. Wheat, Indian corn, oats, 
rye, &c., are raised in large quantities. The most common 
fruits are apples, pears, plums, and cherries. Peaches are 
also raised to some extent in the southern part of the 

Some of the principal forest trees are the birch, beach, 
chestnut, sugar or rock maple, oak, hemlock, pine, cedar, 
and spruce. A part of these are used for building pur- 
poses and cabinet work ; others are chiefly valuable for fuel. 
A variety of the maple, called birdseye maple, is much 
prized for its beauty. The white pine is still abundant, 
though vast quantities of it have already been sent to the 
market. The largest and best of these trees are used for 
the masts of vessels. From the rock maple large quantities 
of sugar are made annually. 

LAKES. 461 


Connecticut Lake, the principal source of Connecticut 
River, is situated in the ungranted land in the northern 
part of the state. It is about five and a half miles in 
length and two and a half in width. A few miles above 
this is a smaller body of water, commonly called the Sec- 
ond Lake, and still farther north is the Third Lake. The 
latter is about five miles from Canada line. 

OssiPEE Lake is situated in the townships of Ossipee 
and Effingham. It is of an oval form, having an area of 
about 7000 acres. Its waters are clear and beautiful. 
The scenery in the vicinity is remarkably fine! The Ossi- 
pee Indians are supposed to have had their head quarters 
in the neighborhood of this lake. 

Squam Lake, in Holderness, Sandwich, Moultonbor- 
ough, and Centre Harbor, is described as " a splendid sheet . 
of water, indented by points, arched with coves, and stud- 
ded with a succession of romantic islands." Its length is 
about six miles ; its greatest width about three. Its area 
is estimated at from 6000 to 7000 acres. Its w^aters are 
discharged into the Merrimack by Squam River. 

Sunapee Lake borders on New London, Newbury, 
and Sunapee. It is about nine and a half miles in length, 
and from one half to one and one half miles in width. Its 
outlet is Sugar River, which empties into the Connecticut. 
It was once contemplated to unite the Connecticut and 
Merrimack Rivers by a canal passing from the mouth of 
Sugar River to the head waters of the Contoocook. A sur- 
vey was made in 1816, by which it was found that this lake 
is 820 feet above the level of the sea, and consequently 
that the proposed canal was impracticable. This lake is 


situated so near the height of land that a slight excavation 
would carry its waters to the Merrimack. 

Umbagog Lake is situated partly in Maine and partly 
in the township of Errol. Its form is quite irregular. Its 
outlet is the Androscoggin River. 

WiNNiPiSEOGEE Lake. — This is the largest body of wa- 
t€r in New Hampshire. It is situated in Belknap and 
Carroll counties, environed by the pleasant towns of Moul- 
tonborough, Tuftonborough, Wolf borough, Centre Harbor, 
Meredith, Gilford, and Alton. Its form is irregular. At 
the west end are three large bays ; on the north is a 
fourth, and at the east end are three others. The greatest 
length is about 25 miles ; the width varies from one to ten. 
Its height above the level of the sea is 472 feet. Its out- 
let is the river of the same name. In the summer, steam- 
boats, sloops, and smaller vessels navigate its waters, and 
in the winter it presents a beautiful icy expanse. The 
.Indian name — Winnipiseogee — is said to mean "the 
smile of the Great Spirit." Doubtless the aborigines were 
not insensible to the charms of Nature, here so profusely 
exhibited. The waters of the lake are clear and pellucid, 
and in some places of great depth. Its surface is studded 
with islands, which, like those of Lake George and Casco 
Bay, are said to be three hundred and sixty-five in number. 
Some of them arc of considerable size, and possess soil of 
great fertility. 

The faciUty with which this beautiful lake is reached by 
the various routes from the large cities on the sea coast 
causes it* to be much frequented during the summer months. 
Steamboats connecting with the railroads ply regularly be- 
tween the principal places bordering upon it. The follow- 
ing extract, from a description written many years since by 
Dr. Dwight, may not be uninteresting : — 

" The prospect of this lake and its environs is enchant- 

RIVERS. . 468 

ing, and its beauties are seen with great advantage from a 
delightful elevation a little distance from the road towards 
Plymouth. The day was remarkably fine. Not a breath 
distuibcd the leaves, or ruffled the surface of the waters. 
The sky was serene and beautiful. The Winnipiseogee 
was an immense field of glass, silvered by the lustre which 
floated on its surface. Its borders, now in full view, now 
dimly retiring from the eye, were formed by those flowing 
lines, those masterly sweeps of nature from which art has 
derived all its apprehension of ease and grace, alternated, 
at the same time, by the intrusion of points, by turns rough 
and bold, or marked with the highest elegance of figure. In 
the centre, a noble channel spread out 22 miles before the 
eye, uninterrupted even by a bush or a rock. On both sides 
of this avenue a train of islands arranged themselves, as if to 
adorn it with the finish that could be given only by their 
glowing verdure and graceful forms. That the internal and 
successive beauties of the Winnipiseogee strongly resemble 
and nearly approach those of Lake George, I cannot enter- 
tain a doubt. That they exceed them seems scarcely 
credible. But the prospect from the hill at the head of 
Centre Harbor is much superior to that of Fort George. 
The Winnipiseogee presents a field of at least twice the 
extent. The islands in view are more numerous, of finer 
forms, and more happily arranged. The shores are not 
inferior. The expansion is far more magnificent, and the 
grandeur of the mountains can scarcely be rivalled." 


Ammonoosuc River. — There are two rivers of this 
name, distinguished as Upper and Lower. The Upper 
Ammonoosuc has its source in the town of Milan, and 
empties into the Connecticut, near the centre of Northum- 


berland. Its course is somewhat circuitous, but generally 
in a westerly direction. Its length is about fifty miles. 
Its most considerable tributary is Phillips River. 

The Lower Ammonoosuc rises on the west side of the 
White Mountains, near the Notch, flows in a south-wester- 
ly direction about fifty miles, and falls into the Connecticut 
in the southern part of Bath. Two miles from its mouth 
it receives the Wild Ammonoosuc, a rapid and turbulent 
stream, especially when swollen by freshets. 

Androscoggin River receives the waters of Umbagog 
Lake, and also of the Magalloway River, which unites 
with it about two miles below the lake. From this junc- 
tion it pursues a southerly course, until it reaches the 
vicinity of the White Mountains, where it passes into 
Maine. It then bends to the east and south-east, passes 
over the falls at Brunswick, not far from Bowdoin College, 
and finally empties into the Kennebec. 

AsHUELOT Ri\t<;r has its source in a pond in Washing- 
ton. It flows in a south-westerly direction, and falls into 
the Connecticut in Hinsdale, three miles from the state 

Connecticut River. — The principal sources of this 
river are among the highlands in the northern part of the 
state. It extends along the western border of New Hamp- 
shire about one hundred and seventy miles, its western 
shore forming the boundary between this state and Ver- 
mont. Its general course is south. Passing through the 
western part of Massachusetts and tlj^ centre of Connecti- 
cut, it empties into Long Island Sound ; its total length 
oeing about four hundred and fifty miles. There are many 
rapids in the Connecticut, the most celebrated of which are 
Bellows Falls, in Walpole. 

The most important tributaries of the Connecticut 

• RIVERS. 466 

in New Hampshire are the Upper and Lower Ammo- 
noosuc, Israel's, John's, Mascomy, Sugar, and Ashuelot 

The intervals arc generally spread out on one or both 
sides of the river, and extending from one half a mile to 
five miles in breadth, tliough in some places the banks are 
rocky and precipitous. The valley of the Connecticut is 
justly admired for the unsurpassed beauty of its scenery, 
while the river itself is unquestionably the finest in the 
Eastern States. The ancient orthography of the Indian 
name was Quonehtiquot, signifying Long River. 

CoNTOOcooK River Avaters most of the towns in the 
western part of Hillsborough county. It has its origin 
from several ponds in Jaffrey and Rindge. In its course 
northward it receives numerous tributaries. In Hills- 
borough it takes a north-east and easterly direction, and, 
after meandering through Concord, falls into the Merri- 
mack between Concord and Boscawen. 

Hall's Stream rises in the highlands that separate this 
state from Canada, and forms the north-western boundary 
of the state from its source to its junction with the Con- 
necticut at Stcwartstown. 

Israel's River, in Cods county, receives the waters 
from the northern part of the White Mountain range, and, 
fiowing north-west, empties into the Connecticut in Lancas- 
ter. It received its name from Israel Glines, a hunter, 
who, with his brother, frequented these regions long before 
the settlement of the country. 

John's River, named from John Glines, has its princi- 
pal source in Pondicherry Pond in Jefferson. It falls into 
the Connecticut in Dalton. 

Magalloway River rises among the highlands near the 
boundary line between New Hampshire and Maine, and. 


after receiving the waters of Dead and Diamond Rivers, 
empties into the Androscoggin two miles from the outlet 
of Umbagog Lake. ^ 

Mascomy Rn^ER is composed of several branches which 
have their sources in Lebanon, Enfield, and Canaan. 
These unite and fall into Mascomy Lake in Enfield. 
From thence the river pursues a westerly course thi'ough 
Lebanon, and empties into the Connecticut. 

Merrimack River is composed of two branches. The 
north branch, called the Pemigewasset, has its sources 
among the White and Franconia Mountains, and flows 
south, receiving the waters of Baker's and Mad River, 
until it unites with the Wiunipiseogec in Franklin. The 
latter branch is the outlet of Winnipiseogee Lake. From 
this junction the river is called the jNIerrimack, originally 
written Merramacke and Monnomake, which in the Indian 
language signifies a sturgeon. The river pursues a south 
course seventy-eight miles to Chelmsford, INIassachusetts, 
and thence flows east twenty-eight miles, emptying into the 
sea at Newburyport. Some of its principal tributaries are the 
Contoocook, Avhich empties into it near the north line of Con- 
cord ; the Soucook in Pembroke ; the Suncook, between Pem- 
broke and Allenstown ; the Piscataquog in Bedford ; the Sou- 
hegan in Merrimack ; and a beautiful stream called the Nashua 
River in Dunstable. The Merrimack, whose fountains are 
nearly on a level Avith those of the Connecticut, is much 
shorter than the latter, and, of course, has a more rapid 
descent to the sea. Hence the intervals bordering on it 
are less extensive, and the scenery less beautiful, than on 
the Connecticut. It is, however, a noble river; and on its 
borders are some of the most flourishing towns in the state. 
Its width varies from fifty to one hundred rods, and at its 
mouth it presents a beautiful expanse of water, half a mile 

RIVERS. 467 

in •width. This river, with Lake Winnipiseogee as a reser- 
voir, affords an immense water power, which has given rise 
to several flourishing man uflxcturing villages and cities. 

PiscATAQUA River, the only large river which is wholly 
in New Hampshire, is formed by the junction of several 
streams, which unite in a broad channel, hollowed out 
partly by them and partly by the tide. The names of the 
tributaries, beginning at the north-east, arc Salmon Fall, 
Cocheco, Bellamy Bank, Oyster, Lamprey, Swamscot, and 
Winnicut Rivers. The last five unite their waters in Great 
Bay, which resembles a lake more than a river, lying be- 
tween Durham and Greenland. The waters from this bay 
unite with the Salmon Fall and Cocheco Rivers a few miles 
below Dover. After this junction they proceed in a direct 
course to the south-east, and join the ocean a short distance 
below Portsmouth, imbosoming several islands in their 
course, and forming one of the best harbors in the country. 
Although the Piscataqua makes an imposing appearance, 
most of its tributaries are small ; the Salmon Fall furnish- 
ing more water than all the rest. This river is called 
Newichawannock from the falls in Berwick to its junction 
with the Cocheco. 

Saco River rises near the Notch of the White Moun- 
tains, within a few rods of the sources of the Lower Am- 
monoosuc. It flows in a south-east course, receiving 
several tributaries from the mountains, the principal of 
which is Ellis's River, and passes through Conway into 
Maine, and from thence to the ocean. Its whole length is 
estimated at one hundred and sixty miles. This river rises 
and overflows very suddenly in rainy weather, and subsides 
rapidly on the cessation of the rain. Its ordinary rise in 
the spring freshets is from ten to fifteen feet, but in some 
instances it has been known to exceed twenty feet. 

• « 


Sugar River is the outlet of Sunapee Lake. It flows 
west, and empties into the Connecticut in Claremont. In 
Its rapid descent it affords a large amount of water power, 
which is now improved to a considerable extent. 

WiNNiPiSEOGEE RivER. — See Merrimack River. 


Blue Hills is the name commonly applied to a range 
of mountains in the eastern part of the state, commencing 
in Nottingham, and extending in a northerly direction 
through Strafford, Farmington, and Milton. The several 
peaks are known as Teneriffe, Saddleback, Tuckaway, &c. 

Camel's Rump. — This mountain is situated near the 
boundary line betAveen New Hampshire and Canada. It 
was ascended, in 1840, by Messrs. Whitney and Williams, 
the assistants of Dr. Jackson in the geological survey of 
the state. They estimated its height at 3615 feet above 
the sea level. "Its geological character is peculiar. The 
specimens wdiich we obtained from the mountain consisted 
of amorphous masses of horustone, of various hues of 
color, from a light apple-green to almost black. The 
mountain is covered with a low and tangled undergrowth, 
with stunted fir-balsams and spruce. Although the ascent 
was difficult, we were amply repaid by the magnificent 
extent of the view which was displayed before us. In the 
north, a series of high hills, stretching beyond each other 
for five or ten miles, divides the waters flowing into the 
St. Lawrence from those of the Magalloway and Connecti- 
cut, beyond which, as far as the eye could reach, lay the 
extended table lands of Canada, unbroken by any abrupt 
elevation ; to the east, the lofty granite ranges of Maine, 
Mount Bigelow, and Mount Abraham ; farther south, the 


numerous large lakes near Umbagog, and the Diamond 
Hills ; while in the farthest distance were seen the lofty 
peaks of the "White Mountains ; and to the west lay the 
lakes and tributary streams of the Connecticut, and the 
rolling ranges of the Green Mountains." 

Cape Horn is an abrupt mountain of about 1000 feet 
in height, situated near the centre of Northumberland. 
Its north base is separated from the Connecticut by a nar- 
row plain, while the Upper Ammonoosuc passes near the 
eastern base. 

Cardigan Mountain is situated in the eastern part of 
Orange. It is composed of porphyritic granite. Its height 
is about 1500 feet. 

Carr's Mountain is in Ellsworth. It is composed of 
granite, overlying mica slate. Its height is 3381 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

Carter's Mountain lies between Jackson and Chat- 

Catamount Hills. — The highest of these hills, situat- 
ed in Pittsfield, is 1415 feet above the level of the sea. 

Chocorua Mountain is in Albany. Its height is 3358 
feet above the level of the sea. 

Gunstock Mountain, in Gilford, consists of three dis- 
tinct peaks, the highest of which is 2447 feet above the 
level of the sea. From the most southerly peak there is a 
magnificent view of Winnipiseogee Lake. 

Kearsarge Mountain is a conspicuous elevation in 
Warner. Its sides are thickly covered with trees, which 
renders the ascent difficult, but the top is a bare rock. It 
is composed of mica slate. The height of the mountain is 
3067 feet above the level of the sea. 

Mount La Fayette is a lofty conical mountain of gran- 
ite in Franconia. The view from its summit is regarded as 


not infeiior to that from Mount Washington. Its height 
is 5 067 feet above the level of the sea. 

MoxADXOcK Mountain, commonly called the Grand 
Monadnock, is situated in JafFrey and Dublin, 22 miles 
east from Connecticut River. Its height is 3718 feet 
above the level of the sea. The rocks near the summit 
consist of a hard variety of gneiss. The plants are gener- 
ally of an alpine character ; only a few dwarfish spruce 
trees grow in the crevices of the rocks. The scenery, as 
viewed from the top of the mountain, is extremely fine. 
The surrounding country appears like a level plain, studded 
with numerous villages and ponds. Of the latter, some 
thirty are visible, some of them of considerable size. It is 
said that evidences of volcanic action have been observed 

MoosEHiLLOCK is a noble eminence in the south-east 
part of Benton. Its height is estimated at 4636 feet above 
the level of the sea, thus giving it rank among the highest 
mountains in New England. 

Moose INIountain is the name given to an elevation 
in Hanover, and to another between Brookfield and Mid- 

OssiPEE Mountain, in Ossipee, is about four miles from 
the eastern shore of Winnipi'seogee Lake. It consists of 
several distinct peaks, the highest of Avhich is 2361 feet 
above the level of the sea. It is well wooded to the sum- 
mit. The rock is gneiss. 

Pequaket Mountain is situated in Bartlett. Its height 
is 3367 feet above the level of the sea. The view of the 
surrounding country from its summit is truly magnificent. 

Pilot Mountain. — See Gazetteer, Kilkenny. 

Profile Mountain. — See Gazetteer, Franconia. 

Ragged Mountains, so called from their rough appeal"- 


ance, are situated between Andover and Hill, extending 
about ten miles from the Pemigewasset to the vicinity of 
Kearsarge. It is a bleak and precipitous range. The 
northern portion is about i3000 feet in height. 

The White Mountains. — The White Mountain range 
is in Coos county, and extends about twenty miles from 
south-west to north-east. The width of the range is 
various, but hardly exceeds in any place more than nine or 
ten miles. Here arc found the highest elevations in New 
' England, and, with a single exception, the highest in the 
United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The unsur- 
passed magnificence and grandeur of the scenery attract 
multitudes of visitors annually, and give to New Hamp- 
shire the well-deserved appellation of the " Switzerland of 

According to Dr. Belknap the Indian name of the 
mountains was Agiocochook. An ancient tradition pre- 
vailed among them that a deluge once occurred, which 
swept away every human being except a single Powwow 
and his Avife, who fled to the mountains, and were there 
preserved. From them the earth was repeopled. They 
had, moreover, a superstitious dread of ascending the sum- 
mits, which their imagination peopled with invisible beings, 
who sometimes manifested their power in storms and tem- 
pests, over Avhich they were supposed to hold absolute 
control. But though the savages never attempted the 
ascent, believing success impossible, they frequented the 
surrounding country and the mountain defiles, and propa- 
gated many marvellous tales of what they alleged could 
there be seen. Among other things, they gave accounts of 
immense carbuncles far up the steep and inaccessible sides 
of the mountains, which shone in the night Anth the most 
brilliant and dazzling splendor. 



The first visit of white men to these regions was made 
by Neal, Jocelyn, and Field in 1632. They were urged 
partly, no doubt, by curiosity, and partly by the hope of 
finding mineral treasures. They gave a glowing account 
of their adventures, and of the extent and grandeur of the 
mountains, which they called the Crystal Hills. vSince 
then they have frequently been visited by hunters and 
men of science ; and within a few years they have become 
one of the most fashionable places of summer resort in the 
United States. 

The geological characteristics of the White Mountains 
are chiefly interesting from the fact that they exhibit the 
operations of Nature on a grand scale. The rock is gener- 
ally granite, sometimes capped, as ou the summit of Mount 
Washington, with coarse mica slate. No minex'als of much 
value or rarity have been found here, and no evidences 
of volcanic action have been discovered. It is altogether 
probable that the mountains have for ages exhibited the 
same unvarying appearance. 

The sides of the mountains, as well as most of the sur- 
rounding country, are thickly covered with trees, which in 
autumn present a most beautifully variegated appearance. 
The summits of the higher elevations are destitute of vege- 
tation, excepting a few mosses and plants of alpine spe- 
cies. For eight or ten months in the year they are covered 
with snow, giving them thyt bright and dazzling appearance 
from which they derive their name. 

Many of the finest rivers of New England originate 
among these highlands. The Saco flows from the east side 
of the mountains, the tributaries of the Androscoggin 
from the north, the Ammonoosuc and other branches of the 
Connecticut from the west, and the Pemigewasset from the 
south. The fountain of the latter is near that of the Saco. 


The height of the mountains has been variously estimat- 
ed. The Rev. Dr. Cutler, who, with several others, visited 
the mountains and made a series of observations in 1784, 
fixed the height of Mount Washington at 10,000 feet, 
which Dr. Belknap supposed would prove too low an esti- 
mate. Other and later computations have given results 
much less than this. Dr. Jackson, while engaged in the 
geological survey of the state, made a series of observa- 
tions under favorable circumstances, from which he calcu- 
lated it to be 6226 feet above the high water mark in 
Portsmouth Harbor. The height of several of the other 
summits is estimated as follows : Mount Adams, 5759 feet ; 
Mount Jefferson, 5657 ; Mount Madison, 5415 ; Mount 
Monroe, 5349 ; Mount Franklin, 4850 ; Mount Pleasant, 

Of these Mount Washington is easily known by its su- 
perior elevation, and by its being the southern of the three 
highest summits. Mount Adams is known by its sharp ter- 
minating peak, and by its being the second north of Mount 
Washington. Mount Jefferson is situated between these 
two. Mount ]\ladison is the eastern peak of the range. 
Mount Monroe is the first south of Mount Washington. 
Mount Franklin is the second south, and is known by its 
level surface. Mount Pleasant is known by its conical 
shape, and by its being the third south of jNlount Wash- 

The ascent of the mountains, though fatiguing, is by no 
means difficult or dangerous. There are two or three 
points from which the summit of Mount Washington can 
be ascended by horses. The prospect from Mount Pleas- 
ant, over which one of these routes passes, though inferior 
in extent and grandeur to that from Mount Washington, 
is in some respects more satisfactory, as the objects viewed 


are generally nearer and more distinct. The top of this 
mountain is smooth, and gradually slopes away in every 
direction from the centre. It is every where covered with 
short tufts of grass, interspersed here and there with moun- 
tain flowers, which give life and beauty to the scene. From 
this point the summit of Mount Washington is in full view 
to the north-east, being distant about three miles in a 
straight line. To the north-west are seen the settlements 
in Jefferson ; Avest, the courses of the Ammonoosuc, as 
though delineated on a map ; to the south-west the Moose- 
hillock and Haystack are visible ; south, Chocorua Peak ; 
south-east, the settlements and mountains in Bartlett; while 
to the east are seen only dark mountains and forests. Pass- 
ing from this place over Mount Pranklin and the eastern part 
of Mount Monroe, the traveller reaches a plain of consid- 
erable extent at the foot of Mount Washington. There 
are here several ponds and springs, the largest of which is 
a beautiful sheet of water of an oval form, covering about 
three fourths of an acre. The waters are clear and pleas- 
ant to the taste. The pinnacle of Mount Washington, ele- 
vated 1500 feet above this plain, stands in majestic gran- 
deur, like an immense pyramid, or some vast Kremlin in 
this city of mountains. 

The view from Mount Washington has been well de- 
scribed by a traveller as follows : — 

" From the summit, if the day be clear, is afforded a view 
unequalled, perhaps, on the eastern side of the North 
American continent. Around you in every direction are 
confused masses of mountains, bearing the appearance of a 
sea of molten lava suddenly cooled whilst its ponderous 
waves were yet in commotion. On the south-east horizon 
gleams a rim of silver light ; it is the Atlantic Ocean, 65 
miles distant, laving the shores of Maine. Lakes of all 





sizes, from Lake Winnipiseogee to mere mountain ponds, 
and mountains beneath you, gleam misty and wide." Far off 
to the north-east is Mount Katahdin. In the western hori- 
zon are the Green Mountains of Vermont, and to the south 
and south-west are Mount Monadnock and Kearsarge, while 
the space between is filled up with every variety of land- 
scape — mountain and hill, plain and valley, lake and river. 

The Notch of the White Mountains is the name applied 
to a very narrow defile extending two miles in length be- 
tween two huge cliffs, apparently rent asunder by some 
convulsion of nature. The mountain, otherwise a contin- 
uous range, is here cleft asunder, affording a passage for 
the waters of the Saco. Through this defile a road has 
been constructed, following the course of the stream. At 
the so\ithern extremity the mountain Avails on each side are 
regular and parallel, but towards the north they become 
irregular and much lower. The road gradually ascends 
from the south, and the passage grows narrower until it 
terminates at its northern extremity in the Gate of the 
Notch. The distance between the perpendicular rocks on 
each side of the chasm at this point is only 22 feet, af- 
fording barely sufficient room for the river and the road. 

About half a mile below the northern entrance of the 
Notch is seen a most beautiful cascade, issuing from a 
mountain eight hundred feet above the subjacent valley, on 
the right as you ascend from the south. The stream passes 
over a series of rocks nearly perpendicular, with a course 
so little broken as to preserve the appearance of a uniform 
current, and yet so much disturbed as to appear perfectly 
white. When swollen by rains it presents a magnificent ap- 
pearance. It was called by Dr. Dwight the Silver Cascade. 
Further up on the road, to the left, is a smaller branch 
of the Saco, falling over three precipices some 250 feet. 




The Notch was once the scene of a fearful catastrophe, 
which resulted in the destruction of an entire family. The 
old Notch Tavern, now called the Willey House, stood on 
the westerly side of the road in the Notch, at the foot of 
an abrupt elevatiou 2000 feet in height. Adjoining the 
house were a barn and wood house, in front was a beavitiful 
little meadow, and along the eastern precipice flowed the 
Saco. This house was occupied, in 1826, by Captain Sam- 
uel Willey and his family, consisting t)f his wife, five chil- 
dren, and two men named Nickerson and Allen. In the 
month of June an avalanche, or slide, came down from the 
mountain, and crossed the road, a few rods north of the 
house, which led Captain Willey to prepare a place 
of refuge to which they might flee in case there should 
be signs of another slide. On the 28th of August, af- 
ter several successive days of rainy weather, there were 
closing showers, in which the rain poured down in tor- 
rents, raising the rivers to an unusual height, and caus- 
ing numerous slides among the mountains. A traveller, 
passing through the Notch a day or two after, found the 
house deserted. An immense slide, coming down directly 
in the rear of the house, had been divided by a huge block 
of granite about five rods distant, and passing on each side 
of the house had again united in front. The barn and 
other out-buildings were destroyed ; the house alone es- 
caped unharmed. But the family had left this, the only 
place of safety, and in attempting to flee were overwhelmed 
by the moving mass. The bodies of six of them were dis- 
covered not long after. The house which they occupied 
is still standing, in a good state of repair. The meadow 
was covered with stones and gravel, and the road, together 
with the valley, was elevated for a considerable distance. 
The course of the river was changed. 



1. Boston, Concord, and Montreal Railroad. — This 
railroad, with its various connections at Concord, presents 
a favorable route to those who Avish to enjoy the beautiful 
scenery in the vicinity of Lake Winnipiseogee. Leaving 
the cars at the Weirs, thirty-three miles from Concord, 
visitors take the steamboat " Lady of the Lake," and pro- 
ceed ten miles, to Centre Harbor. From this place the 
distance to the White Mountain Notch, via Conway, is 
sixty-two miles. The route from Centre Harbor to Con- 
way by stage is extremely pleasant, commanding a view of 
much fine scenery. At the latter place is a first-class hotel, 
called the " Conway House," under the charge of Mr. 
Fabyan, proprietor of the "Mount Washington House." 
Twenty-four miles from Conway is the " Mount Crawford 
House," or "Old Crawford's," the late residence of Abel 
Crawford, the " Patriarch of the Mountains," who died 
here at an advanced age in 185 L The house is kept by 
Mr. Davis, who married a daughter of Mr. Crawford. It 
is a favorite resort of anglers and sportsmen. Horses can 
be obtained here to ascend Mount Crawford, and from its 
summit, over a range of hills, to the top of Mount Wash- 
ington. Six miles farther on is the " Willey House," a 
large and well-conducted hotel, located near the. old " Notch 
Tavern," previously described. The " Crawford House," 
or " Tom Crawford's," is two miles from this place, near 
the Gate of the Notch. From this place is a bridle path to 
the summit of Mount Washington, passing over Mount 
Pleasant, &c., as mentioned in the preceding article. This 
house is admirably conducted by Mr. J. S. Gibb. It com- 

• Se« White Mountain GvitU. 


mands a view of the Notch, and of most of the principal 
mountains in the range. Fabyan's well-known " Mount 
Washington House " is four miles farther on. It is a large, 
well-conducted, and spacious hotel, commanding an impos- 
ing view of Mount Washington, which is ascended from 
this point, there being two bridle paths a part of the way. 
White's Hotel is a neat and comfortable public house, half 
a mile distant, where horses and a guide may be obtained 
to ascend the mountains. 

Those who wish to pass through Franconia before visit- 
ing the White Mountains can take the cars for Plymouth, 
fifty-one miles, and from thence by stage twenty-four miles 
to the "Flume House," an excellent hotel, kept by Mr. 
Taft. In this vicinity are the " Flume," " Pool," and " Ba- 
sin." Six miles farther on is the "Lailiyctte House," a 
good hotel, kept by Mr. Cobleigh, in the immediate vicinity 
of which are the Profile, or " Old Man of the jNIountain," 
and Echo Lake. The hoiise is romantically situated • near 
the entrance of the Franconia Notch. At this place, as 
well as at the Flume House, horses can be obtained t© 
ascend Mount Lafayette, which is only some five hundred 
feet loAver than Mount Washington. For a description of 
these curiosities, see Gazetteer, under Franconia. 

The distance from Gibb's to Fabyan's is about twenty 
miles, the road, passing through Bethlehem. 

2. Connefiticut and Passumpsic River and White Moun- 
tain Railroads. — Visitors passing up the valley of the 
Connecticut by the former road and its connections take 
the cars of the White ^lountain llailroad, at Wells River, 
and proceed to Littleton. The remainder of the distance 
— to Fabyan's — is accomplished by stage. The road 
follows the course of the Ammonoosuc. 

3. Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad. — Visitors from 


Portland and Boston by way of this route usually stop at 
the "Gorham Station House," a large, commodious, and 
well-managed house, kept by Mr. J. R. Hitchcock. From 
this place a road has been laid out to the summit of Mount 
Washington, on the north side of the mountain. 

4. Cocheco Railroad and Winnipiseogee Lake. — There 
is a route from Dover to Alton Bay by the Cocheco Rail- 
road, from thence to Wolfborough by steamboat, from 
that place to Conway by stage, and so on as in the first- 
mentioned route. 


Common School System. — The people of New Hamp- 
shire early turned their attention to the subject of educa- 
tion. The General Court of Massachusetts passed a law, 
in 1647, establishing a system of public schools. This 
law extended to the inhabitants of NeAv Hampshire, which 
was then united to that colony. It does not appear that 
the interests of learning were ever lost sight of, though the 
poverty and distress of the people, occasioned, or at least 
increased, by their many severe conflicts with the Indians, 
prevented the full accomplishment of their laudable de- 
signs. The first law relating to schools passed by New 
Hampshii'e after it became an independent province was 
enacted in 1693, in the midst of a bloody struggle with 
the French and Indians. This law provided for the estab- 
lishment of a school in every town, subjecting those to a 
penalty of ten pounds which should fail to comply with its 
requirements. Other laws relating to this subject were 
passed from time to time, as the exigencies of the public 
seemed to demand. 

" The old laws of New Hampshire," says Dr. Belknap, 


writing in 1792, " required every town of one hundred 
inhabitants to keep a grammar school, by which was meant 
a school in which the learned languages should be taught, 
and youth might be prepared for admission to a university. 
The same preceptor was obliged to teach reading, writing, 
and arithmetic, vmless the town Avere of sufficient ability to 
keep two or more schools, one of which was called a gram- 
mar school, by way of distinction." But these laws were 
not always carried into effect. Sometimes the frontier 
towns, on account of the great exertions they were com- 
pelled to make for self-defence, were exempted, by a special 
act of the Assembly, from the obligation to maintain a 
grammar school ; and instances were not wholly unknown 
in which there was a culpable neglect of duty on the part 
of other towns, either by evasion, or by direct violation of 
the statutes. Still, when we take into consideration all the 
circumstances of the case, the small number of inhabitants, 
their poverty, their exposed situation, and their numerous 
contests with a deadly foe, we are the more astonished that 
they should have accomplished so much. 

The present public school system of our state is well 
devised, and is calcidated to give every one an opportunity 
to acquire a good common education. The laws require 
each town to raise at least "one hundred and thirty-five 
dollars for every dollar of the public taxes apportioned to 
said town, and so for a greater or less sum," which is to 
be appropriated to the purpose of supporting the schools 
of the town. Each town may divide itself into school 
districts, and apportion the money among them according 
to its own pleasure. The town is also required to elect at 
its annual meeting a superintending school committee, con- 
sisting of one or three persons, whose duty it is to exercise 
a general supervision over the schools of the town, to 



visit and examine them, and to examine teachers. No 
teacher is allowed to commence a school until he shall have 
been examined and approved by the superintending com- 
mittee. The district is required to choose a prudential 
committee, whose duty it is to employ teachers, and to 
exercise a general supervision over the interests of the dis- 
trict. The branches ordinarily taught in the common 
schools aie reading, writing, English grammajf arithmetic, 
and geography. 

Any district wishing to support a higher grade of 
schools can do so by adopting the " Somersvrorth Act," * so 
called. This takes the control of the school entirely from 
the hands of the town committee, and gives the district 
power to choose their own superintending as well as pru- 
dential committee — the former to consist of not less than five 
nor more than seven persons. Any district adopting this act 
may establish and maintain one or more high schools, and 
if they have not less than one hundred scholars, may raise ■ 
money at their discretion for the support of such schools. 

Any two or more contiguous districts may unite for the 
purpose of supporting a high school or schools, or any sin- 
gle district in which the number of scholars exceeds one 
hundred, may establish such schools. This last provision 
is not intended to interfere with those which may adopt 
either of the other acts. In large districts much advantage 
is derived from a suitable gradation and classification of 
the scholars, even though a regular high school may not be 

In addition to the amount raised by a public tax for the 
support of schools, every banking corporation in the state 

• A law passed in ISiS, a;iviiig a certain district in Somersworth power to 
establish a hi^li school, and aftcrward-s amended so as to apply to any district 
which should adopt the same. 



18 required to pay to the state treasurer a sum equal to one 
half per cent, of its capital stock, for the same purpose. 
This is called the Literary Fund, and is divided annually 
among the several towns, according to the number of schol- 
ars reported as having attended school, during the year 
preceding the time of division, not less than two weeks. 

The several towns are required to appropriate a sura 
equal to three per cent, of the amount by law required 
to be raised for the support of common schools, which is 
to be expended bj the county cojnmissioner for the support 
of Teachers' Institutes within the county. 

The governor and council are required to appoint annu- 
ally a commissioner of common schools in each county in 
the state, who, in their associate capacity, constitute a 
board of education, with power to choose a chairman and 
secretary. It is the duty of each commissioner to spend 
not less than one day in the course of the year in each 
town in his county, for the purpose of advancing the in- 
terests of education, by addresses, inquiries, and other 
means that circumstances may require. It is also his duty 
to take charge of any Teachers' Institutes that may be lield 
in the county, and to make report of his doings to the sec- 
retary of the boai'd. 

The board of education have power to recommend 
school books, and methods of instruction and discipline 
suitable to be pursued in common schools. They are re- 
quired to make a report annually embracing such infor- 
mation and suggestions as may seem to them useful. From 
the report for 1854, made through the secretary, Hon. 
Hall Roberts, the following statistics are copied : — 

Number of school districts reported, 2294. Do. schol- 
ars, 87,825. Average monthly wages of male teachers, 
exclusive of board, $16.42 ; do. females, $7.18. Number 


of male teachers in the summer schools, 43 ; ilo. females, 
2077. Number of male teachers in the winter schools, 
1153 ; do. females, 1127. Amount raised by taxes for 
schools, $166,973.88 ; do. contributed in board, fuel, &c.. 
$12,376.68; do. of income from school funds, $8519.53 ; 
do. of railroad tax for schools, .$4827.68 ; do. of literary 
fund, $15,576.23; do. raised for Teachers' Institutes, 
$4050.00. Total raised for schools during the year, 

Academies and Private Schools. — The number of 
incorporated academies in the state, as reported by the 
board of education, is 46. Many of these arc in a flour- 
ishing condition and well sustained. The oldest, and one 
of the most prosperous, is Phillips Academy at Exeter, 
founded and endowed by Plon. John Phillips, LL. D. It 
was incorporntod in 1781. Some of the most distinguished 
men which our country has produced received their early 
training at this institution. Its funds amount to $70,000. 

New Ipswich Academy was incorporated in 1789. It 
has received large donations from the late Hon. Samuel 
Appleton, and is now called, in honor of him, the New 
Ipswich Appleton Academy. 

Kimball Union Academy, established at Plainfield in 
1813, has funds amounting to $40,000, principally the 
donation of the late Hon. Daniel Kimball, the income of 
which is devoted chiefly to the support of indigent young 
men preparing for the ministry. 

Gilmanton Academy, at Gilmanton, incorporated in 
1794, has a fund of $7000. 

The New Hampshire Conference Seminary, at North- 
field, is under the control of the Methodist denomina- 

The New London Literary and Scientific Institution ha? 


been recently established at New London. It is under the 
direction of the Baptist denomination. 

In addition to these, there is a large number of unincor- 
porated institutions and private schools, many of which do 
good service in the cause of education. Some of them are 
kept in operation the entire year, others only for a short 
period of time. 

Dartmouth College. — This institution of learning was 
founded in 1769, by Eleazar Wheelock, a clergyman of 
Lebanon, Connecticut. Believing that much might be 
done for the Indians by giving them the means of acquir- 
ing an education, he received into his family, for the pur- 
poses of instruction, several native youth, among whom 
was Samson Cecum, of the Mohegan nation. Occum 
proved to be a person of superior abilities, which encour- 
aged Dr. ^Vlieelock to persevere in his efforts to spread 
the gospel among the savages. But finding that it was 
difficult to accomplish this by means of white missionaries, 
he conceived the plan of founding a school at which he 
might receive Indian boys, and prepare them for mission- 
aries and teachers. In pursuance of his design, he re- 
ceived into his family, in 1754, two boys of the Delaware 

The school soon began to attract the attention of the 
public, and to receive the aid of the charitable. In 1763 
the General Court of Massachusetts voted that they would 
bear the expense of the education, board, and clothing of 
six children of the Six Nations for one year. They were 
accordingly selected, and admitted to the school. 

Among the early benefactors of the school was Mr. 
Joshua Moor, of Mansfield, Connecticut, who gave a school 
house and about two acres of land. In honor of him, the 
institution was named Moor's Indian Charity School. 


Meanwhile the school continued to prosper. Many emi- 
nent men and benevolent societies both in Great Britain 
and America made liberal donations to it ; but the increased 
expenses called for new exertions on the part of its friends. 
For the purpose of gaininj^ more assistance, Dr. Wheelock 
sent Occum, with the Rev. Nathaniel Whitaker, of Nor- 
wich, to Great Britain. Occuin was the first Indian min- 
ister who had ever visited that country, and, as might 
have been expected, attracted considerable attention. He 
preached in all the principal cities of England and Scot- 
land with great success. Between 9000 and 10,000 
pounds sterling were collected, and a board of trustees ap- 
pointed to receive the funds, tt) be drawn by Dr. Whee- 
lock, as he should have need. Of this board the Right 
Hon. William Lcgge, Earl of Dartmouth, was president. 

Dr. Wheelock now determined to establish a college in 
connection with his school. But as there was already a 
flourishing institution of that kind in Connecticut, it was 
deemed expedient to locate it elsewhere. Moreover, the 
progress of civilization had driven the Indians from his 
immediate vicinity, and it was thought that by removing to 
the wilderness he might more successfully carry out his 
views. After listening to various proposals, and consult- 
ing the trustees in England, he fixed upon the western 
part of New Hampshire as the most suitable locality for 
the infant college, though he did not then decide upon the 
precise spot. 

The next step was to obtain a charter, which was granted 
by John Wentworth, the royal governor of the province, 
in the name of George III., ordaining "that there be a 
college erected in our said province of New Hampshire, 
by the name of Dartmouth College, for the education and 
instruction of youth of the Indian tribes in this land in 


reading, writing, and all parts of learning which shall 
appear necessary and expedient for civilizing and Christian- 
izing children of pagans, as well as in all liberal arts and 
sciences; and also of English youth and any others." 
This was dated December 13, 1769. In the same instru- 
ment Dr. Wheelock was appointed president. A grant of 
five hundred acres of land in Hanover had been previously 
given to the college, and at this time the entire township 
of LandafF was also granted to it. Other donations, both 
of land and money, were made by various individuals in 
New Hampshire and in the eastern part of Vermont, then 
called the New Hampshire Grants. 

In the spring of 1770,' Dr. Wheelock, with two com- 
panions, set out on an exploring tour, in order to choose the 
most eligible place for the college and school. After visit- 
ing sevei'al proposed localities, he finally selected Hanover ; 
and in the autumn of the same year he removed thither 
with his family and pupils, making in all about seventy 
persons. There were no accommodations, excepting two 
or three log houses. The location was an extensive plain, 
shaded with a growth of lofty pines. Upon a few acres 
the trees had been felled previously to his arrival. They 
immediately set to work to build dwellings, and also a col- 
lege edifice ; but the autumnal rains setting in early hin- 
dered their progress. During the winter they were exjjosed 
to many hardships ; yet it is stated that, " in this secluded 
retreat, and in these humble dwellings, this enterprising 
colony passed a long and dreary winter. The students 
pursued their studies with diligence; contentment and 
peace were not interrupted even by murmurs." During 
the next summer various improvements were made, and 
the wilderness soon began *' to bud antl blossom like the 


The first commencement was held in August, 1771, 
when four young men received the first honors of the col- 
lege. For some years, in addition to Indians in the school 
and college, a number of English youth were supported 
wholly or in part by the funds, with the understanding 
that they should go as missionaries when they had com- 
pleted their course of study. But the difficulties that 
sprang up between America and the mother country pre- 
vented the accomplishment of their benevolent purposes, 
as the Indians relused to admit them to their territory. 
But few of the Indians educated by Dr. Wheelock became 
missionaries, though many of them proved useful as teachers 
and interpreters. 

In the mean time the commencement of hostilities be- 
tween Great Britain and her American colonies seriously 
embarrassed the operations of the college by depriving it 
of its expected support. But in this extremity, Hon. John 
Phillips, of Exeter, made a liberal donation. The Continent- 
al Congress also made a grant of ^500. From these and 
other sources sufficient means were obtained to keep the 
college in operation during the war. But Dr. Wheelock 
did not live to see the return of peace. He died on the 
24th of April, 1779, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. 
He was succeeded by his son, John Wheelock, then a 
colonel in the United States army. 

On the cessation of hostilities President Wheelock re- 
solved to visit England to solicit aid for the institutions un- 
dej: his care. In this he met with a tolerable degree of 
success. In 1785 the legislature of Vermont granted the 
entire township of Wheelock to the college and school. 
The next year a new college building ^vas commenced. 

After the revolutionary war it was found that the title 
of the college to the township of Landaff, which had been 


granted to it by Governor Wentworth, was precarious. It 
had been previously granted to others by a former govern- 
or; but, as they did not fulfil the conditions of the charter, 
it was declared forfeited, and afterwards granted to the 
college. But after the war the first grantees renewed their 
claim, and finally recovered possession of this township. 
The state, however, made other grants to the college, which 
more than compensated for the loss. 

The college continued under the care of President Whee- 
lock until 1815, when he was removed by the trustees, 
with whom he had been having difficulties for a considera- 
ble time. In the mean time a committee had been ap- 
pointed by the legislature to examine into the state of af- 
fairs at the college, and report accordingly. This was done 
in 1816, and an act was then passed altering the charter of 
the college, increasing the trustees from twelve to twenty- 
one, appointing a board of overseers, and changing the name 
of the institution to Dartmouth University. A majority 
of the trustees, however, together with President Brown, 
the successor of John Wheelock, and Professors Shurt- 
lefF and Adams, refused to comply with the requirements 
of the act, and appealed to the judicial tribunals. Mean- 
while the university was organized, and took possession of 
the buildings and apparatus ; but the officers of the college 
continued their instructions in private rooms. In 18 IT the 
case was decided in the Superior Court of New Hamp- 
shire in favor of the university. The case was then car- 
ried to the Supreme Court of the United States, which, on 
the 2d of February, 1819, reversed the whole proceed- 
ings, and declared the act of the state null and void, thus 
placing the college in a firm position by relieving it from 
the fear of legislative interference. 

The New Hampshire Medical Institution was established, 


in connection with the college, in 1797, and is still in suc- 
cessful operation. The annual course of lectures begins on 
the Thursday succeeding commencement, and continues 
14 weeks. 

The Chandler Scientific School was founded by Abiel 
Chandler, Esq., late of Walpole, who bequeathed to the trus- 
tees of the college the sum of ^50,000, in trust, " for the 
establishment and support of a permanent department, or 
school of instruction, in the college, in the practical and 
useful arts of life." This department was organized and 
put into operation in 1852. 

Moor's Charity School was long kept in operation in 
connection with the college, and under the direction of the 
president ; but it is at the present time suspended. 

The institution is now in a prosperous condition. With- 
in the last year (1854) a fine observatory has been erected 
and furnished with instruments, through the munificence 
of George C. Shattuck, LL. D., late of Boston. The va- 
rious libraries connected with the college contain upwards 
of 30,000 volumes. The ilxculty of the institution, in- 
cluding the medical department, consists of the president 
and 14 acting professors. Number of the alumni, 2825. 
Do. medical graduates, 844. Do, undergraduates in 1854, 
252. Do. medical students, 63. Do. in the Chandler de- 
partment, 38. Commencement is on the last Thursday in 

Accessus. Exitus. 

1769. Eleazar Wheelock, D. D., 1779. 

1779. . John Wheelock, LL. D. 1815. 

1815. Francis Brown, D. D. 1820. 

1820. Daniel Dana, D. D. 1821. 

1822. Bennett Tyler, D. D 1828. 

1828. Nathan Lord, D. D. 


We cannot close our brief sketch more appropriately 
than by quoting a few extracts from the speech of Profess- 
or Brown, made at the second festival of the Sons of New 
-Hampshire, celebrated in Boston, November 2, 1853. 
Referring to Dartmouth College, he says,* — 

" She was not founded for New Hampshire alone. Es- 
tablished with no seclusive policy or purpose, and conse- 
crated as she was, from the beginning, to the two great ob- 
jects of being a handmaid of religion and a mistress of 
learning, that both might be diffused, each moving in har- 
mony with the other, she has gathered her sons from various 
regions, and invigorating their bodies by the fresh air of 
the mountains, and their minds by the discipline of her 
studies, she has sent them forth in due time, east, west, 
north, and south, through every state, all over the world. 
She might ask you to accompany her, as with a mother's 
pride she followed one and another in his path through 
life. She would take you beyond the seas, and point you 
to some standing before kings as the representatives of 
their country ; to others on the shores of the Bosphorus, in 
India, in China, and the Sandwich Islands, laboring with a 
man's energy in the noblest of moral enterprises, solving 
the grandest of problems, to make a Christian and intelli- 
gent nation out of a people superstitious, ignorant, and 
degraded. She would point you to still others establishing 
the schools and incipient colleges, and directing the print- 
ing presses of Oregon and California. Leading you back 
from the great circuit, she would pause in every state in 
the Union, and name the writers, the jurists, the senators, 
in whose breeding she had some share ; and, finally, end- 
ing where she began, she would take you, in her sorrow 
and pride, every 24th of October, down to the sea side, 

* Second New Hampshire Festival, p. 96. 

• RELIGION. 4^1 

that you might bend in reverent aflection, and meditate be- 
side the grave of her greatest son." 


The constitution of New Hampshire guaranties to every 
individual the right to worship God according to the dic- 
tates of his own conscience, provided he does not disturb 
the pubUc peace, or disturb others in their religious wor- 
ship. In July, 1819, the memorable act called the tolera- 
tion law was passed by the legislature, which provides that 
no person shall be compelled to join, or support, or be 
classed with, or associated to, any church or reHgious soci- 
ety, without his express consent first had and obtained, and 
that any person may withdraw from a society of which he 
is a member by leaving a written notice with the clerk of 
the same. 

The following notices comprise accounts of all the prin- 
cipal denominations found within the limits of our state : — • 

(Orthodox) Congregationalists* — The organization of 
the first Congregational church in New Hampshire was in 
1638, 18 years subsequent to the landing of the Pilgrim 
Fathers at Plymouth. It is an unsettled question whether 
the first church was that at Exeter, of which the celebrated 
John Wlieelwright was pastor, or that at Hampton, of 
which the Rev. Stephen Bachilor was pastor. Both doubt- 
less were formed in 1638 — the latter in the fall of that 
y^ar. Settlements had previously been begun at Dover 
and Portsmouth. In the former place a meeting house was 
erected as early as 1633, and William Leverich, *' a worthy 
and able Puritan minister," was engaged as a preacher. 

* From Historical Discourse by Ret. Mr. Bouton. 


To him succeeded one Burditt, and then Hanserd Knollys, 
or Knowles, both unworthy men. But a church was not 
formed in Dover till 1639, and no pastor was regular- 
ly settled till 1642. However it maybe a question wheth- 
er Wheelwright of Exeter or Bachilor of Hampton was 
first in the order of New Hampshire pastors, it should be 
acknowledged that the oldest church now in existence in 
the state is that of Hampton, the first Exeter church be- 
ing dispersed on the removal of Wheelwright, about four 
years afterwards, to Wells, in Maine. The only towns in 
the province in which ministers had been settled previous 
to 1670, a half centuiy from the landing of the Pilgrims, 
were Hampton, Exeter, .and Dover. Of the seven that 
had been pastors in those towns, only two Avere then in 
office, viz., Samuel Dudley, of Exeter, and Seaborn Cotton, 
of Hampton. In 1671 a chiu-ch was organized, and Rev. 
Joshua Moody settled the same day, the first minister of 
Portsmouth, though he had preached there since 1658, and 
occasional preaching had been enjoyed since 1640. 

The fifth church organized was at Dunstable, under the 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts, now the first church in 
Nashua, and a minister settled in 1685. Subsequently 
other towns bordering on the sea coast, as New Castle, 
Newington, Stratham, Durham, Kingston, and Rye, had 
ministej-s. Thence, very gradually, settlements were made 
in the interior, and ministers settled, in Londonderry, 
(1719,) Concord, (1730,) Chester, Winchester, Pembroke, 
Hudson, and Keene. In the latter place Rev. Jacob Ba- 
con was settled in 1738, a century after the settlements at 
Exeter and Hampton. He was the 55th pastor in order 
settled in the state. But at the formation of the conven- 
tion in 1747, there were only about 30 ministers living. 
The progress of settlements continued slow, extending into 


the interior, averaging, till after the revolutionary war, 
only about four annually in tlie whole state ; but subsequent- 
ly the growth was more rapid. The number of pastors 
living at different periods in the history of the denomina- 
tion, is as follows : — 

In 1670, 2 ; 1700, 5 : 1747, 30 ; 1776, 65 ; 1800, 76 ; 
1820, 90; 1847, 117. 

At the present time the General Association reports as 
follows : — 

Number of churches, 187. Do. ministers, 158. Do. 
communicants, 20,309. Total value of church property 
in 1850, $527,340. 

The Congregational Journal, a weekly paper published 
at Concord, is devoted to the interests of thi^ denomination. 

Episcopalians. — This denomination was among the 
earliest established in the state. A church -was erected at 
Portsmouth prior to 1638, and Rev. Richard Gibson was 
the first minister, who remained until 1642. 

Number of parishes, 11. Do. rectors, 7. Do. commu- 
nicants, 572. Do. Sabbath school children. 364. Total 
value of church property in 1850, $41,100. 

Christians. — Number of churches in 1850, 24. Ag- 
gregate accommodations, 7240. Total value of church 
property, $30,350. 

Baptists. — The tirst Baptist church in this state — 
indeed, the first north of Boston — was organized in New- 
ton, Rockingham county, in 1755. The members were 
separatists for " conscience sake " from the Congregational 
church, and were the fruit of the " great awakening " un- 
der Whitefield and others in 1740. Walter Powers be- 
came pastor at its organization. The centennial celebration 
will take place in October, 1855, in connection with the 
meeting of the Baptist State Convention. 


The first Baptist communicant known in the state was 
Rachel Thuibiir, of Rehoboth, Massachusetts, who became 
Mrs. Scammon, and moved to Stratham, 1720. It was the 
result of her labors that Dr. Samuel Shepherd became con- 
nected with the denomination in 1770, under whose inde- 
fatigable labors the Brentwood church and its branches 
were organized, in connection with which he lived to intro- 
duce more than 600 members. 

More than a century before any Baptist church existed 
in this state, Hanserd Knollys came to this state, and after- 
wards became an eminent Baptist. Mr. Knollys was grad- 
uated at Cambridge College, England, and ordained by the 
Bishop of Peterborough in 1629. Becoming afterwards a 
Puritan minister, he came to this country, and to Dover, in 
this state, in 1638. He organized the first Congregational 
church in Dover, being the second in the state. In 1641 
he returned to England, and organized a Baptist church 
in London, where he was eminent as a pious and useful 
minister till his death in 1691. A denominational publish- 
ing society exists in London, called by his name. 

Number of Baptist churches is this state in 1755, 1 ; 
1780, 9 ; 1800, 26 ; 1853, 96. Do. ordained ministers in 
1853, 90. Do. communicants, 8376. • 

About ^2000 are annually expended for domestic mis- 

Freewill Baptists. — The first church in New Hamp- 
shire of this denomination was founded at New Durham, in 
1780, by Elder Benjamin Randall. This denomination 
was recognized as a distinct sect by an act of the legisla 
ture, December 7, 1804. 

The following statistics are given as reported in the 
Freewill Baptist Register for 1854 : — 

Number of churches iu New Hampshire, 132. Do. 


ordained ministors, 1S5. Do. licentiates, 12. Do. com- 
municants, 9751. Amount contributed for missions dur- 
ing the year, $1644.28. 

The Freewill Baptist printing establishment is located at 
Dover, by which are issued The Morning Star, a weekly 
paper, and The INIyrtle, a semi-monthly Sabbath school pa- 
per. The profits of the publications of this establishment 
are devoted to the interests of the denomination. 

Friends, or Quakers. — The Friends made their appear- 
ance in New Hampshire at an early date, and at first suf- 
fered severe persecution. They have now several small 
societies, but no regular ministers. A society was formed 
at Seabrook in 1701. 

Number of churches in 1850, 15. Aggregate accom- 
modations, 4700. Total value of church property, 

Methodists. — In July, 1791, Jesse Lee preached the 
first Methodist sermon in New Hampshire, at Portsmouth. 
On the 26th of August of the same year he preached in a 
private house in Greenland. Two weeks after this time 
he again preached in Portsmouth, standing upon the Court 
House steps. He also visited, the same year, Rindge, 
Marlborough, Chesterfield, Dublin, and some other towns. 
In 1794 Joshua Hall was appointed to preach in New 
Hampshire, but the folloAving year the appointment was 
withheld. On the 1st of January, 1795, Mr. Lee again 
visited Portsmouth, and preached to an audience of four 

The first Methodist society in New Hampshire was or- 
ganized at Chesterfield, in the latter part of 1795. At 
the conference of 1796, this society reported 68 members, 
and became a regular circuit. Philip Wager was the first 
stationed preacher, and reports his circuit " more than fifty 
miles square." 


The number of members reported in the state in 1797 
was 92 ; in 1798, 122. The Methodists were recognized 
by law as a distinct religious sect June 15, 1807. 

The New Hampshire Conference was organized and held 
its first session at Barre, Vermont, June 23, 1830. The 
Vermont Conference was separated from the New Hamp- 
shire Conference in 1845. The New Hampshire Conference 
Seminary, at Northfield, was established the same year. 
The Methodist General Biblical Institute went into opera- 
tion at Concord, April 1, 1847, having an endowment of 

In May, 1854, Methodism reports itself as follows : — 

Preachers' appointments, 102. Travelling preachers, 82. 
Superannuated preachers, 24. Local preachers, 98. Mem- 
bers in society, 9352. Probationers, 1782. Number of 
Sabbath schools, 123. Do. Sabbath school teachers, 1487. 
Do. Sabbath school scholars, 9683. Do. Bible classes, 498. 
Do. scholars in infant classes, 512. Raised for benevo- 
lent objects, (i. e. missions, Bible classes, &c.,) $5119.78. 
Total value of church property in 1850, $175,590. 

Roman Catholic. — Number of churches m 1854, 4. 
Aggregate accommodations in 1850, 1450. Total value 
of church property in 1850, $20,000. 

Unitarian. — Number of churches in 1850, 13. Ag- 
gregate accommodations, 8380. Total value of church 
property, $72,800. 

Umversalists. — The Universalists were recognized by 
law as a distinct religious sect June 13, 1805. The first 
society of this denomination was formed at Portsmouth as 
early as 1781. 

Number of societies, 70. Do. meeting houses, 56. Do. 
preachers, 27. Total value of church property in 1850, 


Shalcers. — " New Hampshire contains two societies of 
those curious and interesting people called Shakers, or 
United Believers — one situated in Canterbury, Merri- 
mack county, and the other in Enfield, county of Grafton. 
These two societies contain usually from 250 to 350 mem- 
bers each. 

" There are now in the United States eighteen societies 
of these people, containing about 7000 members. An epit- 
ome of the principal features of the two societies in New 
Hampshire will give a very general representation of the 
whole, as their religious opinions and practices, as well 
as their internal regulations, are identical,, whether in Ken- 
tucky, New York, or New Hampshire. 

*' They are the followers of Ann Lee and her associates, 
who came to this country from England in 1774. 

" The religious and domestic polity of this singular 
order of people presents many peculiar and highly distin- 
guishing characteristics. Their church government may 
be called Episcopal, or vested in bishops and elders, after 
the order of the primitive church. The central or lead- 
ing spiritual authority devolves upon a succession of min- 
istry, or order of bishops, residing alternately at New Leb- 
anon and Watervliet, in the State of New York. 

" In New Hampshire, the religious princijjles, as first 
inculcated by Ann Lee, were adopted by several families 
in the before-mentioned and several of the surrounding 
towns in 1782 ; but in 1792 these families associated them- 
selves together in a joint interest, in all their temporal and 
spiritual concerns, under the supervision of a ministry, or 
order of bishops, appointed by, and subject to, the head 
authority in New York. The societies in New Hampshire 
have continued under the episcopal jiuisdiction of a suc- 


cession of ministry alternately residing at Canterbury and 

" The most striking of their peculiar religious dogmas 
are the following : — 

*< That the Deity is composed of two great and funda- 
mental essences, viz., povver and wisdom, or male and 
female principles. For proof of this they quote Rom. 
i. 20. 

" That Christ has made, not only his first, but his sec- 
ond appearing. That these are both to be considered as 
emphatically spiritual manifestations ; the first as seen in 
and through the mission of Jesus of Nazareth, and the 
second as seen in the same manifestations through Ann 
Lee. Through these two manifestations they recognize a 
spiritual parentage, or the father and mother of the new 

" That the object of these two appearings of Christ — 
first in the male, and secondly in the female — was to 
make an end of sin, and to bring in everlasting righteous- 
ness ; to make an end of the world, or order of the flesh, 
perfected in the first Adam and Eve, that all who would 
might come into the order or dispensation of the new 
creation, through regeneration, or the spiritual parentage 
of the second Adam and Eve. Through this agency, they 
believe a new heavens and a new earth are being insti- 
tuted, as seen in their order. Hence celibacy is rigidly 
and tenaciously observed in every instance. 

" That the resurrection concerns the soul or spiritual 
body only, and can have nothing to do with the natural. 

" In short, the above leading points of doctrine would 
seem to indicate a foundation, with no borrowed material, 
since Christ, or the declension of the primitive church. 

" However objectionable these dogmas may appear to 


the casual observer, the foot cannot be disguised, that this 
doctrine, as a foundation for practical holiness, possesses 
many decided advantages. And that the isolated position 
in which they stand to the world without should expose 
them to much scandal and reproach, is not astonishing. 
But when scandal and reproach become the cause of re- 
ligious persecution, they should become a source of uni- 
versal regret. Indeed, several unsuccessful attempts have 
been made to procure legislative enactments, in New Hamp- 
shire, ostensibly and specially designed to oppress this 
peaceable and quiet class of people, and tending to destroy 
many of those sacred privileges now so faithfully guaran- 
tied to every good citizen by our constitution. May 
special legislation, and every species of religious intoler- 
ance, never find a stronger foothold in the old Granite 
State than they already possess, 

" The Shakers take no part in political affairs, believing 
themselves subjects of another kingdom, although they 
cheerfully yield all their constitutional obligations for their 
privileges secured in return. 

" That they constitute the only successful attempt for an 
institution, or association, for a community of joint inter- 
ests, and that they have gained for themselves a character 
for honesty, industry, temperance, neatness, and sobriety, 
have become universally proverbial. Their villages pre- 
sent a spectacle of thrift, order, and cleanliness nowhere 
else to be found. 

" At Enfield, for 61 years, or since the society there 
was first founded, they have had but 201 deaths. The 
average age of all these lives has exceeded, a trifle, 52 
years. The society at Canterbury, in these particulars, is 
very nearly the same. This is worthy of great consid- 


" Agriculture, horticulture, and the various mechanic 
arts claim their constant attention, all of which they pursue 
with much profit and success. By means of their indus- 
try and frugal habits, their honesty and punctuality in all 
their business transactions, they have accumulated a respec- 
table property; and after bestowing much for charitable 
purposes, they live quiet, peaceful, and happy lives." 



The family of Daniel Webster was of Scottish origin, 
though it was established in America at a very early peri- 
od. Thomas Webster, the remotest ancestor in this coun- 
try, settled at Hampton, New Hampshire, in the year 1636, 
or sixteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plym- 
outh ; and from him the descent has been definitely traced 
in the records of Hampton, Kingston, and Salisbury. 

Ebenezer Webster, the father of Daniel, is represented 
as having been a man of " striking personal appearance," 
tall, erect, and athletic, a man of great energy of character 
and indomitable courage. He rendered important services 
both in the French war and the revolution ; was at West 
Point at the time of the discovery of Arnold's treason ; at the 
battle of White Plains, and at the battle of Bennington, be- 
ing, in the latter, a major under General Stark. After the 
decease of his first wife he married Abigail Eastman, who 
became the mother of Ezekiel and Daniel Webster, like 

• See plate. 

rilOfcfllAPHICAL SS^ErfCHES. 5^1 

the tfibthers df most men of distinction, she was possessed 
of superior intellect and great energy of character. She 
lived, like every true mother, for the good of her children, 
and looked forward to the time when they should rise 
above the humble position in which their lot was cast. 
The distinction which they afterwards attained is no doubt 
attributable, in a great measure, to her early precepts and 

Daniel Webster was born on the 18th of January, 1782, 
In Salisbury, New Hampshire, a place at that time on the 
very borders of civilization, and subject to all the diffi- 
culties and dangers of a frontier settlement. In this place 
he passed the days of his childhood, receiving his first im- 
pressions from the wild and picturesque scenery which 
there abounds, and his first instructions from his pious and 
devoted mother, who, on account of his feebleness when a 
child, always treated him with special kindness, and proph- 
esied even then that he would become eminent. 

Yes, New Hampshire was the place of his birth, the 
birthplace of so many men of renown. In this, indeed, 
she acknowledges no superior among her sister states. Of 
her it may be said, as Homer said of Ithaca, " Rugged is 
her surface and unprolificis her soil, but she is the nursing 
mother of great men." Here was he born who was ap- 
pointed to be the guardian of the Union, the great ex- 
pounder of the constitution, as Mount Washington seems 
keeping guard over the land of his birth. Here he im- 
bibed that dignity, that freedom of thought, and that in- 
tellectual vigor which left so indelible a mark on his ora- 
tory and his public career. 

** It may well be supposed that his early opportunities for 
education were very scanty." He was obliged to walk two 
and a half miles to school in midwinter, when quite youngs 


His first masters were Thomas Chase and James Tappan, 
whom he always regarded with the most profound respect 
and esteem. In the year 1796 he was taken by his father 
to the Academy in Exeter, where he remained for a few 
months only, but sufficiently long to give his mind a most 
powerful impulse. 

Strange as it may seem, there appear to exist in all 
possessed of true genius a spirit of distrust, a want of 
confidence in their own ability to perform that for which 
they appear, in after life, to have been specially created. 
Perhaps this arises from a greater appreciation of excellence, 
and a consequent shrinking from attempting any thing 
which must at first Ml so far short of it. Be that as it may, 
it is a fact attested by Mr. Webster himself, that he found 
declamation the most difficult of all his exercises. He 
says, " I believe I made tolerable progress in most branches 
which I attended to while in this school. But there was 
one thing I could not do. I could not make a declama- 
tion. I could not speak before the school. The kind 
and excellent Buckminster sought especially to persuade 
me to perform the exercise of declamation like other 
boys, but I could not do it. Many a piece did I commit 
to memory, and recite and rehearse in my own room, over 
and over again ; yet when the day came, when the school 
collected to hear declamations, when my name was 
called, and I saw all eyes turned to my seat, I could not 
raise myself from it." 

By determined will and repeated trials, he, however, at 
length overcame this extreme diffidence, and began very 
soon to be distinguished for his oratorical powers. 

The following anecdote is related of him while connected 
with this school. After a month his instructor, Mr. Nich- 
olas Emery, said to him one morning, " Webster, you will 


pass into the other room, and join a higher class ; " at the 
^ 'Same time adding, addressing his classmates, " Boys, you 
will take your final leave of Webster ; you will never see 
him again." 

He remained here but a few months, when "he was 
placed by his father under the Rev. Samuel Wood, the 
minister of the neighboring town of Boscawen," with 
whom he remained from February till August, 1797. He 
was now fifteen years of age, and it was on their journey 
to Mr. Wood's that his father first disclosed to him the de- 
sign of sending him to college. Says Mr.- Webster, " I 
remember the very hill which we were ascending, through 
deep snows, in a New England sleigh, when my father 
made known this purpose to me. I could not speak. How 
could he, I thought, with so large a family, and in such 
narrow circumstances, think of incurring so great an ex- 
pense for me. A warm glow ran all over me, and I laid my 
head on my father's shoulder and wept." Many a son of 
New England, many a poor New Hampshire boy, who, 
when looking on the spires of old Dartmouth, has turned 
away and wept because poverty forbade him to be num- 
bered in those halls, can appreciate his emotions at that time. 
After remaining six months with Mr. Wood, he entered 
college. That his preparation was imperfect there is no 
doubt. That it was far superior to that of many a child of 
wealth and luxury who has spent years in irksome study, 
there is also no doubt. Spurred on by the threefold incen- 
tive, poverty, duty, and ambition, what is not the human 
mind able to accomplish ? It has never yet been tasked to 
its capacity. The example of perseverance amid difficulties 
which Daniel Webster has left to the youth of our country 
is alone sufficient to render his name immortal. 

There is a great disposition on the part of the indolent 


Students in our literary institutions to prove tlfet idleness 
and dulness in college have distinguished most men of 
genius ; and this is said of Daniel Webster. A greater 
mistake could not be made ; and certainly in this pai'ticular 
ca$e a greater falsehood could not well be told. 

Professor Shurtleff, who alone survives of the faculty 
connected with the college when Webster was a student, 
declares that no one was more diligent and studious than 
he, and that he even then stood preeminent among his 
classmates, as he has since among men. 

Graduating in August, 1801, he immediately entered the 
office of Mr. Thompson, near his father's, as a student of 
law, where he remained until 1804, with the exception of 
teaching an academy in Fryeburg, jVIaine, for a season, for 
^e purpose of obtaining money to prosecute his own profes- 
sional studies, and to assist his brother Ezekiel in his college 
course. " In July, 1804, he took up his residence in Bos- 
ton. Before entering upon the practice of his profession, 
he enjoyed the advantage of pursuing his legal studies for 
six or eight months in the office of the Hon. Christopher 
Gore." He first commenced the practice of his profes- 
sion in Boscawen, near his father's residence ; but in Sep- 
tember, 1807, he removed to Portsmouth, where he be- 
came at once associated with the most distinguished law- 
yers of New England. Here he commenced that brilliant 
career which so soon placed him at the head of his profes- 
sion. It is said that, when asked why he chose the profes- 
sion of law, and if he was not aware it was already crowd- 
ed, he replied, "There is room enough up high." His 
style of pleading at the bar was peculiarly his own. Leav- 
ing the minor technicalities of the law, he soared aloft, and 
grasped the great principles of eternal truth and justice, of 
which the written law is but a feeble and partial im- 


bodiment, and in arguing a single case decided a hun- 

The commencement of Mr. Webster's pubHc life was in 
1813, when he first took his seat in Congress ; and his maid- 
en speech was on the 10th of June, upon a series of res- 
olutions moved by himself relative to the repeal of the 
Berlin and INlilan decrees. This is said to have taken the 
house by surprise ; and it is declared by a person present 
that " no member before ever riveted the attention of the 
Louse so closely in his first speech." 

His history, from this time forth, " the world knows by 
heart," and the speeches of him who once dared not de- 
claim in a small school are familiar as household words to 
every boy in our land. Though beyond question one of 
the first of orators, his style was different from that of any 
other man that ever lived. He had not the fire and energy 
of Demosthenes, nor the brilliancy of Cicero, but a certain 
measured, logical progress, which no power could resist or 
gainsay. And yet his language was by no means destitute 
of ornament ; nothing more beautiful, indeed, can be found 
in the English language ; but the embellishments are like 
the structure itself — ricli and massive, intended for all time. 

The following comparison between the two great states- 
men. Clay and Webster, drawn by Mr. Preston, of Ken- 
tucky, in his eulogy upon Mr. Webster, will probably give 
a very just idea of his style of oratory : " Clay — bold, 
brilliant, and dashing, rushing at results with that intuition 
of common sense that outstrips all the processes of logic — 
always commanded the heart and directed the action of his 
party. Webster seemed deficient in some of these great qual- 
ities, but surpassed ]fim in others. He appeared his natu- 
ral auxiliary. Clay — the most brilliant parliamentary lead- 
er, and probably unequalled, save by the Earl of Chatham, 


whom he resembled — swept with the velocity of a charge 
of cavalry on his opponents, and often won the victoiy be- 
fore others were prepared for the encounter. Webster, 
with his array of facts, his power of statement and logical 
deductions, moved forward like the disciplined and serried 
inii\ntry, with the measured tread of deliberate resolution, 
and the stately air of irresistible power," 

Mr. Webster removed to Boston in 1816, that he might 
find a wider field for his professional pursuits, and in 1822 
was elected to Congress from that city by a large majority, 
and in 1827 he was first elected a member of the United 
States Senate. On the election of General Harrison to the 
presidency, he was appointed secretary of state, but resigned 
this office soon, after the commencement of President Ty- 
ler's administration, and in 1845 returned to the Senate. 

His speeches, both in the Senate and on special occasions, 
are among the most remarkable and most valuable produc- 
tions, not only in this country, but of any age or country. 
Men may differ with regard to his political views and pub- 
lic measures, but all must acknowledge him the greatest 
intellect of his age. Nor was he less esteemed in private 
life than honored in public station. Kind and cheerful in 
the domestic circle, he won the affection of all who knew 
him ; and when, on the 24th of October, 1852, he peace- 
fully departed this life, in the seventy-first year of his age, 
the nation mourned his loss. 

His last words, " I still live," are true throughout the 
civilized world, and so they shall remain while history 




This distinguished gentleman was b#rn in Rindge, New 
Hampshire, September 22, 1798. He was the eldest child 
of Samuel Locke Wilder, Esq., a worthy merchant and 
farmer in that town, and its representative several years in 
the legislature of this state. His father moved there, in 
early life, from Lancaster, Massachusetts. His paternal 
ancestors performed important services in the Indian and 
revolutionary wars, in the suppression of Shays's rebellion, 
and in the organization of the state and national govern- 
ments. " Of all the ancient Lancaster families," says the 
Worcester Magazine, " there is no one that has sustained 
so many important offices as that of the Wilders." 

Having given him the advantages of the common school, 
his parents sent him, at twelve years of age, to New Ips- 
wich Academy, and subsequently placed him under the 
instruction of a private teacher, for the study of the clas- 
sics. When he had nearly completed his preparation for 
college, they discovered that his inclination was not for 
sedentary, but for active life. Partly for the confirmation 
of their own opinion, and partly also for the exercise of 
his sense of personal responsibility, they gave him his 
choice, either to continue his studies and prepare for one 
of the learned professions, to enter the store with his 
father and fit himself for mercantile pursuits, or to go on 
to the farm with the workmen and become an agricul- 

At first he chose the latter ; but Providence soon called 
him from the farm to the store, where he served an ap- 

• See plate. 


prenticeship till he reached his majority. Then he was 
admitted into the firm, called S. L. Wilder & Son. In this 
connection he transacted a large and lucrative business for 
several years, andj^in addition, discharged the duties of 
postmaster in that place. 

His first marriage was December 31, 1820, to Miss 
Tryphosa Jewett, of that town, by whom he had six chil- 
dren ; and his second August 29, 1833, to Miss Abby 
Baker, of Franklin, Massachusetts, by whom he also had 
six children. Of his offspring, seven still survive, and 
five are not, for God has taken them, together with his 
two wedded companions. 

In 1816, when he was only eighteen years of age, he 
exhibited a partiality for military tactics, and received an 
appointment in the staff of the twelfth regiment of New 
Hampshire militia, in connection with which he remained 
till 1820, when he took command of the Eindge Light 
Infantry, a new independent company, raised and equipped 
mainly by his exertions. After two years he was promoted 
to the office of lieutenant colonel, and the next year to that 
of colonel of the regiment ; but he resigned the office the 
succeeding spring, on account of his removal to Boston, 
being then in the line of rapid promotion to the highest 
military honors. 

Upon the transfer of Mr. Wilder's family and trade to 
Boston in 1825, he engaged in the West India goods busi- 
ness as a wholesale merchfyit, and subsequently as an im- 
porter ; but in 1827 he entered a large commission house, 
in which he still continues. The firm is at present called 
Parker, Wilder, & Co., and sustains the reputation of one 
of the most active and reliable houses in New England. 
It owns and transacts the business of a large number of 
cotton and woollen mills. 


He and his senior partner, Isaac Parker, Esq., brother 
of Hon. Joel Parker, late chief justice of this state, rank 
among the merchant princes of Boston. They sustain 
official relations to several monetary institutions of that city. 

Upon the death of Mr. Wilder's first wife, he sought 
the retirement of the country, and moved into his present 
residence in June, 1832. It is the first house in Dor- 
chester on the road from Eoxbury to Milton Hill. It is 
called " Hawthorn Grove," standing back from the street, 
and surrounded Avith shades and hedges in variety. All 
its buildings are convenient and tasteful. On either side, 
and in the rear of the house, are gardens and nurseries. 
His conservatories rank among the best in the country. 
Amateurs pronounce his collection of trees and plants the 
best that can be found. Plis library contains the most rare 
and valuable works on his favorite art. 

He usually devotes the morning and evening to study ; 
the rest of the day to the superintendence of his workmen 
at home, and to his mercantile business in Boston. This 
plan, long continued, has enabled him to make large and 
various literary acquisitions. 

He was one of the early members of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, of which he was elected president 
in 1840. He had previously submitted to that body a 
resolution, which separated from it the Mount Auburn 
Cemetery Association, and which secured the annual pay- 
ment, by the latter to the former, of one quarter of the 
receipts from the sale of lots, in consideration of the soci- 
ety's relinquishment of its claim to those consecrated 
grounds. This arrangement has proved, in a high degree, 
beneficial to both organizations. It has enabled the asso- 
ciation to adorn its grounds, and to erect its beautiful 
temple and observatory, and also the society to offer more 



liberal premiums, to make numerous and important ad- 
ditions to its library, and to construct its commodious hall 
in School Street in Boston. 

During Mr. Wilder's presidency of that society, it 
greatly increased its funds and its number of members. 
At the laying of its corner stone, and the dedication of its 
hall, he delivered appropriate addresses, reported in its 
Transactions and in the periodicals of that day. Under his 
energetic and wise administration, its triennial festivals 
rose to the highest rank among the gala days in Massachu- 
setts. They assembled the refined and fashionable of both 
sexes, from city and country, who crowded the old Cradle 
of Liberty to its utmost capacity. On these occasions 
Faneuil Hall was tastefully decorated, and its tables were 
crowned with flowers and fruits in abundance and in 
variety. Mr. Wilder's sentiments and speeches at these 
festivals, together with the responses of the distinguished 
cultivators and of the chief masters of eloquence, fill a 
large space in the society's Transactions. 

In 1848, when he resigned the office, the society acknowl- 
edged its obligations to him in a vote of thanks, accom- 
panied Avith magnificent pieces of silver plate, and inscribed 
with his name and in testimony of his " zeal and success in 
the cause of horticulture and floriculture." During this 
period of eight years he also did much for the promotion 
of pomology, by large annual importations of fruit trees, 
by the growth of seedlings, and by his encouragement of 
nurserymen throughout the country. 

On the termination of his official relation to that society, 
he headed a circular for a national organization foi a 
kindred purpose. This is now known as the American 
Pomological Society, and Mr. Wilder was elected its first 
president — an office which he now fills. 



At the biennial meeting of this association in 1852, he 
delivered, by appointment, a eulogy on the life and charac- 
ter of Andrew Jackson Downing, Esq., Avho perished by 
the conflagration of the steamer Henry Clay on the Hud- 
son. He closed with these graphic words : " Downing 
is dead ! But the principles of artistic beauty and pro- 
priety, of rural economy and domestic comfort, which he 
revealed, await a more full and perfect development ; and 
as they advance towards a more glorious consummation, 
grateful millions will honor and cherish his name. His 
memory shall live for ever. ^^ 

At the late meeting of this society in Boston, he deliv- 
ered a scientific and yet practical address on pomology,* 
which called forth the strong and unqualified commenda- 
tion of its members. Its session of three days closed with 
a levee, which he gave at the Revere House, and with a 
vote of thanks for his " able lecture," for his sumptuous 
entertainment, and for the dignity and fidelity with which 
he had presided over their deliberations. 

Mr. Wilder 's knoAvledge of horticulture well qualified 
him for a leader in enterprises for the promotion of agri- 
culture. He commenced his operations in this department 
in his own county of Norfolk, IMassachusetts, where he 
joined in a call for a convention, that organized an agri- 
cultural society, of which he was elected and still con- 
tinues president. At its first exhibition in Dedham, Sep- 
tember 26, 1849, he delivered an address on agricultural 
education. He was followed by Governors Briggs, Lin- 
cold, Reed, and Hill, by Hon. Daniel Webster, Edward 
Everett, Robert C. Winthrop, Horace Mann, Charles F. 
Adams, Josiah Quincy, and others, in a strain of kindred 

• Tr.insactions for 1854. 

r > 


Then and there commenced a new era in the history of 
American agriculture. Kindred associations sprang up m 
other sections, and the cause was subsequently advocated 
by him in lectures before the agricultural societies in Berk- 
shire, Bristol, and Hampshire counties, and before the agri- 
cultural society in this state. 

Before the latter of these bodies, he closed with this 
beautiful apostrophe : " My country, let the eagle of thy 
liberty, which so lately stood upon the cliff of thine At- 
lantic coast, but which stands to-day upon the lofty height 
of thy rocky mounts, stretch her broad wings from shore 
to shore, and continue to shelter the happy millions of thy 
sons. And from those wings, from year to year, may her 
young eaglets fly to other lands, till the reign of universal 
freedom shall introduce a universal jubilee. My country, 
MY COUNTRY ! glorious prospects are before thee — union, 
wealth, and power ; intelligence, virtue, and immortal re- 
nown ! " 

In 1850 Mr. Wilder was elected from his county to the 
Senate of the commonwealth, a body of which he was 
chosen president, and during its session submitted a plan, 
which was cordially adopted, for a. board of commissioners 
to examine and report to the next legislature on the con- 
dition and the means of promoting agriculture in that state. 
Of this commission he was chairman, and, with Rev. Dr. 
Hitchcock, of Amherst College, submitted an elaborate 
and invaluable report. From this body arose the Massa- 
chusetts State Board of Agriculture as a distinct and per- 
manent department of the government — a board of which 
he is still an acting member, which has its secretary and 
commodious rooms in the capitol, and which promises to 
do for agriculture what the board of education has ac- 
complished for the system of instruction in that common- 


Mr. Wilder uext undertook the formation of a kindi*ed 
national society. In the spring of 1851 he headed a call 
for a convention of delegates of state agricultural socie- 
ties at Washington, District of Columbia, June 24, to con- 
cert measures for their mutual advantage, and for the 
promotion of American agriculture. This convention was 
fully attended by gentlemen from all parts of the country, 
and by members of Congress. It organized the United 
States Agricultural Socj^ty, Avhich elected him for its 
president — an office which he still holds. 

It held its first exhibition, which was confined to that 
noble animal the horse, in Springfield, Massachusetts. It 
was attended by twenty thousand people, and many thou- 
sand dollars were awarded in premiums. Never before 
were so many rare specimens of the different breeds of 
that noble animal brought together. The sight of them, 
mounted or driven in the vast amphitheatre, was truly a 
sublime spectacle. 

The second exhibition of this society was held in Spring- 
field, Ohio, and confined to neat cattle. In this depart- 
ment it was a scene of equal interest with the former. 
Many thousands of dollars were distributed in premiums. 
The speeches of Mr. Wilder, on each of these occasions, 
are fully and faithfully reported in the society's Trans- 

In the autumn of 1819 an association Avas formed in 
Boston, called the Sons of New Hampshire. It consists 
of the many hundreds of emigrants from that state in and 
around that commercial metropolis of New England. Of 
this body Daniel Webster was the first president, and 
the subject of this narrative the second. At its first 
festival, ^Ir. Wilder renders this grateful tribute to their 
native state : " She has raised men, great men ; and had 


she performed no other service, this alone were suificient 
to associate her name with that of Sparta and of Athens 
in the history of mankind. Her Stark was a modern 
Leonidas, and among her orators [pointing to Mr. Web- 
ster] none would hesitate to point out a Demosthenes/^ 
(Great applause.) 

The death of Mr. Webster he noticed on four different 
public occasions. On the first of these, when he met the 
New Hampshire legislature and executive at the Fitchburg 
Depot, at the head of the Sons of New Hampshire, to re- 
ceive them as their guests, on the occasion of his obse- 
quies, he said, " The loss to us, to the country, and to 
the world is irreparable. The whole nation mourns." On 
the second of these occasions he closed with this apos- 
trophe : " Sainted patriot ! there, in those celestial fields, 
where the sickle of the great reaper shall no more cut 
down the wise and the good, we hope at last to meet thee 
— there, in those pure realms where the rainbow never 
fades, where thy brilliant star shall shine with pure efful- 
gence, and where the high and glorious aspirations of thy 
soul shall be forever realized." The third was when he 
was elected to fill the place of Mr. Webster as president 
of the association, and the fourth was at the second festi- 
val of that voluntary society. 

Mr. Wilder is yet in the vigor of his manhood, and on 
the flood tide of success. He has, we are informed, works 
in the course of preparation on his favorite arts, which 
promise to be of great value to the world. His numerous 
Bpeeches and addresses, if collected* and published in a 
uniform edition, would make a handsome and valuable 
royal octavo volume. None have contributed more to 
promote American horticulture and agriculture. His affa- 
ble, yet dignified manners, his appropriateness on all occa- 


sions, and his long and valuable services render him a 
favorite with the common people, and also with the elite of 
society. Long may he live to serve his generation and his 


Although Mr. Burke is not a native of New Hampshire, 
yet his long residence in this state, the important offices 
which he has filled, and the high position which he occu- 
pies as a public man and citizen, entitle him, in our judg- 
ment, to a place among our sketches of the eminent public 
characters of our state. 

The subject of this sketch was born in the town of West- 
minster, Vermont, on the 23d day of January, 1809. His 
father was a farmer, not wealthy, but possessed of a com- 
petency quite sufficient for the support of himself and a 
numerous family. His circumstances, however, required 
that he should labor with constant industry, — the lot of 
most New England farmers, — and bring his family up to 
the same habits of active toil. The subject of this notice 
was not exempt from the salutary training and discipline 
in the habits of robust and health-giving labor, from which 
but few of the sons of the tillers of the soil are exempt. 
He labored with his father from the time his age and 
strength would permit until he was fifteen years of age, 
gping to the common school of the village in which he was 
born, during the summers in the tenderer years of his life, 
and during the winters when he had arrived at an age 
when his services were valuable and necessary upon the 
farm. At the age of fifteen, his father, unable to give him 
an academical education, but desiring that he should have 
every advantage in his power to give him a respectable 
position in society, proposed that he should make an effiart 


t© become a member of one of the learned professions, 
oflfering to give him his time, and promising to extend to 
him such aid as might be in his power, if he would ac- 
cept the generous offer of his parent. He readily em- 
braced the opportunity, and immediately commenced the 
study of Latin, with the view of pursuing the study of 
the law. He continued the study of that language with 
great industry for six months, under the tutorship first of 
William F. Hale, Esq., formerly of Bellows Falls, Ver- 
mont, and recently a clerk in one of the departments at 
Washington, and subsequently of Henry A. Bellows, Esq., 
now of Concord, in this state ; and at the end of that time, 
being then in his sixteenth year, he entered as a student 
at law in the office of the Hon. William C. Bradley, of 
Westminster, then and for a long time one of the most 
eminent counsellors and jurists of the state. Mr. Bradley 
was also distinguished as a politician as well as lawyer, 
and possessed conversational powers of most remarkable 
eloquence and brilliancy. It is not strange that he should 
insinuate his opinions and principles (which were of the 
democratic school of politics) into the mind of a susceptible 
and impressible young man. To this circumstance, and 
also to the hereditary principles of his family, enforced 
by the precept and example of his father, who was a de- 
voted disciple of the Jeffersonian school, and was also a man 
of extensive reading for one in his station in life, and pos- 
sessed of a strong mind, Mr. Burke undoubtedly owes the 
very decided political cast of his character. 

Plaving followed his professional studies during the 
period of nearly five years, the term required of students 
who had not the advantage of graduation at a college, Mr. 
Burke was admitted to the bar of Windham county, in that 
state. He was soon after admitted in Cheshire county, in 


this state, and in the spring following (April, 1830) he 
emigrated to Coos county. He first settled in the town 
of Colebrook, but subsequently removed to Whitefield, 
where he made a permanent location. Mr. Burke le- 
mained in Whitefield, in the practice of his profession, 
until the fall of 1833, when he removed to Claremont, in 
Sullivan county, in order to take the editorial charge of a 
newspaper published in that town, called the Argus. It 
is proper here to remark, that Mr. Burke has been often 
heard to obsei-ve that he never spent three years of his life 
so profitably as those he spent in the town of Whitefield. 
He says he went into Coos county with the impression that 
the people were less informed than those who lived in re- 
gions longer settled ; but he soon found his error. On the 
contrary, he says he has never met with a community of 
men generally more intelligent, more imbued with strong 
common sense, more patriotic in sentiment, and more gen- 
erous in their feelings than he found in Coos county. 
Among these people he laid in a large store of practical 
knowledge both of men and things. 

But to resume the thread of our narrative. His connec- 
tion with the Argus was Mr. Burke's first introduction to 
the editorial profession, and perhaps the foundation of his 
subsequent political career. Of course, the Argus, under 
his control, was a political paper, democratic in its poli- 
tics, and of very decided character. After publishing the 
Argus in Claremont till the autumn of 1834, Mr. Burke 
was induced to remove with his paper to the neighboring 
town of Newport, where, with the exception of a residence 
of five years at Washington, District of Columbia, he has 
ever since resided, and now resides. A short period after 
his removal, the Argus was united with the New Hamp- 
shire Spectator, another democratic paper pubhshed in 


Newport, the new paper assuming the title of Argus and 
Spectator, and being also under the editorial control of 
Mr. Burke. Our space Avill not permit us to comment 
particularly on Mr. Burke's career as an editor while in 
charge of the Argus and Spectator. It is sufficient to say, 
that, under his control, that journal advocated with great 
zeal the radical doctrines of the party to whose interests it 
was devoted, and, Ave believe, to the very general satisfac- 
tion of its patrons. It is due to Mr. Burke to say, that 
he started some doctrines in the columns of the Argus and 
Spectator which were regarded by some of his own sup- 
porters as rather novel and startling at the time, but which 
have since become cherished articles of faith in the demo- 
cratic creed. 

So industriously and ably had Mr. Burke conducted his 
paper, that at the end of three years he had acquii-ed a 
reputation as a political writer, which induced the late 
Ex-President Polk and the late Felix M. Grundy, then 
United States senator, of Tennessee, to oifer Mr. Burke 
the editorship of the Union, the leading democratic or^an 
of that state, published at Northville, at a high salary. 
Mr. Burke accepted the offer, and published his valedic- 
tory in the Argus and Spectator, preparatory to his mi- 
grating to Tennessee. But many of his patrons, hearing 
of his intention, proposed to him to remain ; and as an in- 
ducement, they offered him the nomination for Congress, 
then, by the usages of his party, due to Sullivan county. 
This high and ^unexpected compliment an aspiring and 
ambitious yoimg man could not decline. He accordingly 
permitted his name to be used, and succeeded in obtaining 
the nomination. This was in the summer of 1838. In 
the election of March, 1839, Mr. Burke, with his col- 
leagues on the democratic ticket, was elected a representa- 


tive for New Hampshire iu the twenty-sixth Congress of 
the United States, being then but thirty years of age. He 
took his seat in that body at the commencement of the 
session of 1839—40, and was subsequently twice reelect- 
ed, making, in the whole, a congressional terra of six 

In referring to his congressional career, we think we do 
Mr. Burke no more than justice to say that it was credit- 
able to himself and honorable to the state. He was a true 
party man, and the few speeches made by him while he 
was a member were devoted to the support of the prin- 
ciples and measures of the democratic party. They secured 
to their author great popularity with his party. His speech 
upon the independent treasury, and also his speech upon 
the tariff, are monuments of intellectual labor, of which 
any man may be proud. They bear the marks of profound 
and critical research. But there is one speech, delivered 
by Mr. Burke while a member of Congress, which com- 
manded the applause of all his constituents, without dis- 
tinction of party. We allude to his eloquent and beautiful 
defence of our state against the rude and unprovoked at- 
tack of a Mr. Arnold, a member from Tennessee. We 
have seldom read a retort so condensed, conclusive, and 
overwhelming. This effort alone entitles Mr. Burke to 
the gratitude and praise of every true son of New Hamp- 
4 shire, and fully justifies his claim to the high regards of 
the native-born citizens of the Griuaite State. While a 
member of Congress he was also an active, industrious, and 
efficient member of important committees. 

At the close of Mr. Burke's congressional career, which 
was in the spring of 1845, his party having been successful 
in the preceding presidential election, he was, without so- 
licitation or knowledge on his part, tendered, by Mr. Folk, 


the new president, the office of commissioner of patents, 
which he accepted, and upon the duties of which he en- 
tered on the 5th day of May, 1845. He continued to 
perform the duties of that office until the accession of Gen- 
eral Taylor to the presidency, when he was superseded by 
Mr. Ewbank, of New York. In the discharge of the du- 
ties of this office, Mr. Burke displayed the same indefat- 
igable habits of industry, and the same close and critical 
research which had distinguished him in other positions. 
His reports, while commissioner of patents, embraced a 
vast amount of valuable information, gathered from a wide 
field of investigation, and presented in a form which made 
them both acceptable and popular with the country. Under 
Mr. Burke's administration the patent office assumed a 
position and importance which it had never before enjoyed, 
and contributed its full share to the popularity of Mr. 
Polk's administration. 

But while Mr. Burke held the office of commissioner of 
patents, his labors were not altogether confined to the mere 
duties of his office. During that period he wrote those 
papers upon the tariff" entitled the Bundelcund Essays, 
originally published in the Washington Union, but subse- 
quently in pamphlet form, and circulated by tens of thou- 
sands in every state in the republic. Eeferring to these 
papers, a writer in the Democratic Review says, " After 
the close of the session of 18-14 and 1845, when some of 
our timid friends began to express doubts as to the pro- 
priety of attempting to carry out the ])ledge of the Balti- 
more Democratic Convention upon the question of the 
tariff, Mr. Burke, appreciating the danger which this hesi- 
tation threatened to the policy of the democratic party, 
boldly stepped forward as its champion, and contributed to 
the columns of the Union the well-known series of essays 


on, or rather against, the protection system, published over 
the signature of Bundelcund. Nothing before emanating 
from his fruitful pen had so served to spread his fame ; 
for they were immediately republished, wholly or in part, 
in nearly every democratic paper in the Union, and from 
their appearance until the final vote on the tariff in 1846, 
were the object of incessant and virulent attacks from the 
opposition. The democratic party, with few exceptions, 
planted themselves firmly on the principles there laid down 
by Mr. Burke, which, being adopted by the committee of 
ways and means of the House of Representatives, and by 
the treasury department, were made the basis of the rev- 
enue law so triumphantly passed on the 30th of July, 

After Mr. Burke retired from the patent office, he 
formed a connection with the late celebrated Thomas 
Ritchie, by which he became a joint editor of the AVash- 
ington Union. He remained connected with the Union 
one year, during which he contributed a large amount of 
the editorial matter Avhich appeared in its columns. He 
had also, while he was at the head of the patent office, 
been a liberal contributor to that paper, as well to its edi- 
torial columns as in the shape of communications. And 
we may truthfully add, that he has, for the last twenty 
years, been an industrious and fertile writer, as the col- 
umns of many newspapers can attest, and has achieved, by 
his labors in connection Avith the press, a high position 
among the editorial profession. 

The term of Mr. Burke's connection with the Washing- 
ton Union having expired, he, in the summer of 1850, 
returned, with his family, to his residence in Newport, in 
this state, Avhcre he now remains, in the practice of his 
profession, and employing hiniseU' in those literary pur- 
44* ^ 


suits congenial to a man of taste, and necessary to an active 
mind imbued with a desire for the accumulation of knowl- 
edge. Mr. Burke is now in the very vigor of his facul- 
ties, and we trust has many years of active and useful life 
in store for him. 

In conclusion we will add, that Mr. Burke is truly a 
self-made man. In the outset of his career, he had no 
friends possessed of wealth and influence to aid him. He 
had to depend upon himself alone. The writer of this 
has heard him remark that he graduated at a common 
village school, having never attended an academy or col- 
lege a day in his life, and having had no other assistance 
or tuition than that which he received while acquiring a 
sufficiency of Latin preparatory to entering upon his legal 
studies. And he has informed us that he ceased to attend 
the village school at the age of fourteen, having never at- 
tended any school subsequent to that period. His success 
in life is a bright example of industry, perseverance, and 
energy, which we commend to the youth in humble cir- 
cumstances who has the ambition to aspire to the higher 
positions of usefulness and honor in society. 


Hon. Charles G. Atherton was born in Amherst, July 
4, 180-4. His father was Hon. Charles H. Atherton, Avho 
had served as representative to Congress in 1815 and 
1816, and for many years held the office of register of pro- 
bate for the county of Hillsborough. 

The subject of this sketch entered Harvard University 
at the age of fourteen years, and graduated with high 
honors in 1822. Immediately after his admission to the 
bar in 1825, he took up his residence in Dunstable, now 


Nashua. la 1827 he was appouited solicitor for Hillsbor- 
ough county. In 1831 he was elected representative to the 
state legislature from Dunstable, and again four years in 
succession, (183-3, ''i4:, 'So, and '36,) in each of which years 
he was elected speaker. In 1834, at his election as speaker, 
he had all the votes cast in the house except thirteen ; in 
1835 he had them all but five ; and in 18136 all but three. 
In 1837 he was elected representative in Congress from 
New Hampshire, and held his seat in the house for three 
terms in succession. In 18-13 he was elected by the legis- 
lature United States senator, which office he held till March 
4, 1849. In 1850 he was elected a delegate, from the late 
town of Nashville, in the New Hampshire Constitutional 
Convention. At the fall session of the legislature in 1852, 
he was elected United States senator from this state, and 
took his seat on the 4th of March following, which office 
he held at the time of his death. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Athertou had no superior in the state. 
His attainments in the common law, as well as in equity 
jurisprudence, were very extensive and thorough. In the 
management of a case he showed most masterly and con- 
summate skill ; and in presenting the strong points to a 
jury, he had few equals. He was an accomplished advo- 
cate ; in which character he exhibited a power of com- 
manding, at the instant, all the resources of his mind, and 
a dexterity of applying them seldom exceeded. As a sen- 
atorial orator, his claims were of a high order. During 
the administration of Mr. Polk, he was chairman of the 
committee on finance — one of the most important com- 
mittees in the Senate, particularly during Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, which was occupied with the successful con- 
duct of a foreign war. In opposition were Mr. Webster, 
then in the very acme of his intellectual strength, vigor. 


and experience, as well as other formidable opponents. In 
all the contests and opposition which these distinguished 
opponents of the administration brought to bear against the 
policy of the administration, Mr. Atherton, in his defence 
of the financial policy of President Polk, acquitted himself 
with consummate ability, prudence, and skill. 

His literary attainments were of a high order. Few, 
if any, in this country, had a more thorough and minute 
knowledge of American and English history and statesmen 
than he. He was thoroughly conversant with English 
literature and poetiy, particularly with that of Queen 
Anne's time — the golden age of English literature, in 
whose gorgeous and captivating creations he delighted. 
He died November 15, 1853. 


Lewis Cass was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, on 
the 9th day of October, ITiSS. His father. Major Jona- 
than Cass, was a soldier of the revolution, who enlisted as 
a private the day after the battle of Lexington. He served 
in the army till the close of the war, and was in all the 
important battles in the Eastern and Middle States, where 
he was distinguished for his valor and good conduct, 
and attained the rank of captain. He Avas afterwards a 
major in Wayne's army, and, after a life of usefulness and 
honor, died at an advanced age, at his residence near Dres- 
den, in Muskingum county, Ohio. His son, Lewis Cass, 
the subject of this biography, emigrated, at the age of 
seventeen, to the then North-western Territory, and settled 
first at Marietta, in the county of Washington. He was 
thus, as he was recently called by the Convention of Ohio, 
one of the " early pioneers " of that immense western re- 


gion, which has already risen to such a niaguitude in our 
own days, and is destined to attain one so much greater 
hereafter. The country north of the Ohio then contained 
one territory and about 20,000 people. 

Mr. Cass bore his full share in the toils, privations, and 
dangers to which the defence of a new country, and its 
conversion from a primitive forest to the happy abodes of 
civilized man, are necessarily exposed. He read law at 
Marietta, and was admitted to the bar ])efore the close of 
the territorial government. He commenced the practice, 
and, as was the custom then, visited the courts in a large 
district of country, travelling on horseback, and encounter- 
ing many difficulties unknown to the members of the bar 
at the present day. 

In 1806 he was elected a member of the legislature of 
Ohio, and during the session he took his part in the busi- 
ness of the day. He draughted the law which arrested 
the traitorous designs of Burr, and introduced an address 
to Mr. Jefferson, which was unanimously adopted, express- 
ing the attachment of the people of Ohio to the constitu- 
tion of the United States, and their confidence in that illus- 
trious man. In March, 1807, he was appointed by Mr. 
Jefferson marshal of Ohio. 

He took an active part in the war of 1812, and held the 
rank of colonel under General Hull. Just previous to the 
surrender of Detroit by General Hull, Colonels Cass and 
McArthur had been sent, with a small detachment, a few 
miles distant, ostensibly for the purpose of obtaining pro- 
vision, and before their return Detroit was surrendered 
without the firing of a gun. So disgraceful, as well as 
humiliating, did this act appear, in the mind of Colonel Cass, 
that, when ordered to deliver up his sword, he indignantly 
shivered it in pieces, and, strewing the fragments upon the 


ground, declared that in like manner should his body be 
divided and scattered before he would in any way assent 
to so ignoble an act. 

At the battle of St. Thomas he bore a conspicuous part, 
and was highly complimented by General Harrison. In 
1813 he was appointed by President Madison governor of 
Michigan, at that time one of the most important offices with- 
in the gift of the executive. As superintendent of Indian 
aflfairs, he rendered vast and important services to his coun- 
try, having formed twenty-one treaties with various Indian 
tribes, thus extinguishing their title to nearly one million 
acres of land. In 1831 General Cass was called upon by 
President Jackson to take charge of the war department — 
a position for which he was eminently fitted, and the du- 
ties of which he discharged with energy and general satis- 
faction to the country. In 1836 he was appointed minister 
to France, and immediately resigned his position as secre- 
tary of war. The position which he took in 1841 in rela- 
tion to the question of the famous quintuple treaty will 
long be held in remembx'ance by his countrymen. In 1848 
he received the nomination of the democratic national con- 
vention for president of the United States. In 1850 he 
was once more elected senator of the United States for 
Michigan. His long and useful services in .public life have 
rendered him world-renowned as a statesman, while his 
fame as a scholar is scarcely less limited. Plain and un- 
assuming in his manners, kind and social in his intercourse 
with his fellow-men, he will always stand prominent in the 
records of history as a true patriot, an able statesman, and 
a worthy citizen. 



Levi Woodbury, the eldest son of Hon. Peter Wood- 
bury, was born in Francestown, New Hampshire, in the 
early part of the year 1790. His ancestors were among 
the first settlers of Salem, Massachusetts, which Avas one 
of the earliest plantations of that colony. From his child- 
hood he was trained to those habits of industry and rigid 
economy which so generally characterize the people of New 
England. His early education was acquired at the district 
school in his native village during the winter months, when 
the labor of agriculture is suspended. While but a mere 
boy, he distinguished himself for his unremitted application 
to study, and even then exhibited that zeal in the pursuit 
of knowledge, readiness of apprehension, sound sense, and 
decision of character which so emphatically marked the 
whole course of his life. 

At nineteen years of age he graduated at Dartmouth ^ 
College, with a high reputation for talents and acquire- 
ments, and immediately applied himself to the study of the 
legal profession. He passed one year at the law school in 
Litchfield, Connecticut, and divided the residue of his pre- 
paratory term between Boston, Exeter, and his native town. 

In 1812 he was admitted to the bar. By diligent atten- 
tion to the duties of his profession, he soon obtained an 
extensive and reputable practice, and acquired for himself 
a rank at a bar at which lawyers who are among the most 
distinguished in the Union have practised. 

Even while a student, Mr. Woodbury's ardent tempera- 
ment would not suffer him to remain an inactive spectator 
of the political struggles that then agitated the country 

• See plate. 


with more intensity, probably, than at any other period 
of its history ; and, accordingly, we find him mingling 
in the strife, and taking part upon the side of democ- 

In 1816^ the political character of the state became 
changed. Mr. Woodbury was invited to the seat of gov- 
ernment, to discharge the duties of secretary of the Senate, 
and at the commencement of the following year was ap- 
pointed judge of the Superior Court. 

Promoted to a seat in the highest judicial tribunal of the 
state at an earlier age than any former precedent, some ap- 
prehension was felt lest his legal learning and experience 
should prove inadequate to the creditable discharge of its du- 
ties. The result, however, more than realized the expecta- 
tions of his most sanguine friends. His patience, firmness, 
familiarity with legal principles, and suavity of manners 
made him a most acceptable and popular judge in jury 
trials, and the first two volumes of the New Hampshire Re- 
ports bear ample testimony to the diligence, great research, 
and accurate discrimination which he brought to beax in 
the preparation of his judicial opinions. 

In 1819 Mr. Woodbury removed to Portsmouth, where 
he resided during his life, except while a member of the 
cabinet under the administrations of Jackson and Van 

In 1823 he was elected governor of the state, and the 
year following he resumed the practice of his profession. 
Plis legal erudition and forensic talents secured him clients 
from all parts of the state, and placed him at once in a lu- 
crative practice. 

His fellow-citizens were not content, hoAvever, to suffer 
him long to remain in the quiet of professional life ; and 
in 1825 they sent him a representative to the legislature of 


the state ; and ut the commencement of the session, having 
never befo/c been a member of a legislative body, he was 
chosen speaker of the house, and at the close of the session 
was selected to fill a vacancy in the United States Senate. 

His reputation for learning and talents had gone before 
him, and on taking his seat in the United States Senate, 
Mr. Woodbury was regarded as the principal organ for the 
democracy of New England in that body ; and during the 
administration of President Adams, on more than one oc- 
casion he stood* forth in bold and able vindication of his 
party and its principles, from the attacks of the opposition, 
particularly in the discussion upon Foot's resolution re- 
specting the public lands. 

At the second session of Mr. Woodbury'^ term, his 
name appears as chairman of the committee on commerce, 
and as member of several other important committees. 

In the course of his senatorial career, many able reports 
emanated from his pen, and his speeches upon a variety of 
subjects are fine specimens of varied learning, comprehen- 
sive reasoning, and sound logic. 

During the vacations his time was occupied in the care 
of his family, and in the management of important causes 
in the Superior Court of his own state. But the annual ab- 
sence from his family, and his professional duties, exposed 
him to great sacrifices, and at the expiration of his term 
he transmitted a letter to the governor, declining a reelec- 
tion. A few days after he was chosen L^tate senator ; and 
ere the reorganization of the cabinet in April following, the 
office of secretary of the navy was tciidered to him and 

His industry, and his prompt und methodical manner of 
doing business, were soon felt in this department of the gov- 
ernment, and the general satisfaction which he gave in the 

^0, Ng^ ^4^PSHIRE A8 IT IS. 

^isfliarge of its various and perplexing duties is suJSicieiit 
e'^idence of the ability with which they were performed. 

In 1833 the nomination of Mr. Taney for secretary of 
the treasury by President Jackson having been rejected 
by the Senate, Mr. Woodbury received the nomination, and 
was confirmed without opposition. 

Placed at the head of the financial affiiirs of the country, 
in the heat of that fierce struggle Avhich grew out of the 
mismanagement of the national bank, and the consequent 
removal from it of the government deposits, Mr. Wood- 
bury found himself in a situation which the most masterly 
abilities seemed inadequate to sustain. The i;equel, howev- 
er, affords another proof of the consummate knowledge of 
human nature and accurate estimate of character displayed 
by President Jackson in the selection of his officers. 

The indomitable energy, the never-failing firmness of 
purpose, the comprehension, sagacity, and unwavering 
fidelity to the public interests which had previously charac- 
terized Mr. Woodbury, shone nov/ even more conspicuously, 
and triumphantly sustained him for the period of seven 
years in the discharge of the arduous duties of this office. 

The official reports of Mr. Woodbury during this period 
are replete with important statistical information and able 
reasoning upon the various subjects of national policy. , 

In 1838, when the labors of his department were bear- 
ing heavily upon him, the office of chief justice of 
the Supreme Court of his native state was tendered him. 
Not insensible to this honorable tribute from those who 
best knew him, Mr. Woodbury was not the man to consult 
his ease when duty reqiiTred him to remain at the post of 
public labor, however onerous it might be, and therefore 
waived his own predilections for that dignified station, and 
d,pclined it. 


At the expiration of Van Burcn's administration, he re- 
signed his office of secretary, and on the following day 
took his seat in the United States Senate, to which he had 
been elected by the legislature of Ne\V Hampshire. 

Soon after the inauguration of President Polk, it is gen- 
erally understood, Mr. AVoodbury Avas invited to represent 
our government at the court of St. James ; but family con- 
siderations led him to decline the honor. A vacancy hav- 
ing occurred on the bench of the Supreme Court by the 
death of Judge Story, the appointment Avas offered to Mr. 
"Woodbury and accepted, which office he continued to hold 
until his death, September 4, 1851. 


Was born in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, November 
23, 180-1. At the period of his birth, Hillsborough county 
could reckon among its sons many who had already attained 
the highest distinction, besides nuuiy others who were des- 
tinigd to occupy the highest lanl; in public life. General 
Stark, Daniel Webster, Levi Woodbury, Jei-emiah Smith, 
General James Miller, General McNeil, the late Hon. Charles 
G. Atherton, were natives of this county. General Ben- 
jamin Pierce, father of the subject of this sketch, was one 
of the first settlers of the town of Hillsborough, and con- 
tributed much to the growth and prosperity of his adopted 
town and county. He was born in Chelmsford,' now Low- 
ell, Massachusetts, iu the year 1757. When the news 
of the battle of Lexington reached him, he was laboring 
at the plough ; and immediately loosening the ox chain, 
leaving the plough in the furrow, he took his uncle's 
gun and equipments, and hastened to the scene of action. 

• See plate 


He at once enlisted in the army, was present at the battle 
of Bunker Hill, and after serving through the whole revo- 
lutionary war, after an absence of nearly eight years, re- 
turned to his home a thorough soldier, and commander of 
a company. In 1785 he purchased a fifty acre lot in the 
present town of Hillsborough, and in the spring of the fol- 
lowing year built a log hut, commenced clearing and cul- 
tivating his tract, and in 1787 was married to Elizabeth 
Andrews, who died within a year after their union. In 
1789 he married Anna Kendrick, who bore him eight 
children, the sixth of whom Avas the future president of 
these United States. At the opening of the war of 1812 
Franklin Pierce was nearly eight years of age. Two of 
his brothers were connected with the army, and Major 
McNeil was about this time married to his eldest sister, 
the daughter and only child of the first wife, Elizabeth 
Andrews. His fiitlier was active and energetic in his sup- 
port of the war, and engaged with patriotic zeal in the 
discussion of those exciting questions which then wholly 
absorbed the public mind. . His son Franklin was a fre- 
quent and earnest listener to these discussions. No mode 
of education could be better adapted to imbue him with 
the principles of true democracy, the nature and spirit of 
republican institutions. His father had felt through life 
the disadvantages of a defective education, and determined, 
if possible, that his children should enjoy more largely of 
these blessings than had fallen to his lot. Franklin was se- 
lected as the one to receive a collegiate education. Accord- 
ingly we find him, while a mere boy, at the academy in Han- 
cock; next at that in Francestown ; and in 1820, at the age 
of 16, a student in the freshman class of Bowdoin College 
in Brunswick, Maine. Duiing the first two years of his 
college life he was so inattentive to his studies, that, at the 
commencement of the junior year, he found his position in 


scholarship below that of any of his classmates. Deeply 
mortified by this humiliating proof of self-injustice, he de- 
termined to close his college career at once, and according- 
ly absented himself from all recitations for several days, 
hoping that suspension, or even expulsion, might be the 
result of such continued and systematic neglect. The fac- 
ulty, however, wisely, as well as leniently, paid no atten- 
tion to this conduct ; and at lust, stimulated by reflection, 
and moved by the earnest entreaties of a few college 
friends, he resolved to return to his duties, observing to his 
companions, "If I do so, you shall see a change." There 
was indeed a change. For three months afterwards he 
rose at four in the morning, and closely applied himself to 
his studies, allowing himself only four hours for sleep. He 
never suflfered himself after this to go into the recitation 
room -without a thorough knowledge of the subject in con- 
sideration ; and notwithstanding the low standard of his 
scholarship during the first half of his college course, he 
at last graduated as the third scholar in his class. In this 
rigorous discipline he acquired that full command over his 
intellectual faculties, that power of concentrating all his 
mental energies at once upon the object to be gained, and 
that perfect self-control, so essential to success, which have 
since characterized, to say the least, ail his greater eflforts, 
both as a lawyer and politician. He commenced the 
study of law in the oflSce of the late Judge Woodbury, 
the last two years of professional study being spent at the 
law school in Northampton, Massachusetts, and in the of- 
fice of Judge Parker, in Amherst. In 1827 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and began the practice of his profession 
in his native town. Here, also, his first effort was, as is 
generally expressed, a failure. In more appropriate terms, 
he was unsuccessful so far as the interest of his cUent was 


involved. This defeat, however, only served to arouse hi« 
latent energies, and, on the whole, was doubtless more 
beneficial to him than the most brilliant success would have 
been. That* he was possessed largely .of that firmness and 
perseverance which overcomes all obstacles, and welcomes 
disappointment in a worthy cause, as a noble incentive to 
vigorous and unwearied action, is evident in the reply to a 
friend who, fearing lest he might be discouraged, sought to 
raise his spirits with bright prospects in the future. " I 
do not need that," he answered; "I will try nine hun- 
dred and ninety-nine cases, if clients will continue to trust 
me, and, if I fail just as I have to-day, will try the thou- 
sandth. I shall live to argue cases in this court house in a 
manner that will mortify neither myself nor my friends." 
It was not, however, until after several years of toil that he 
attained a position of eminence at the bar. His progress 
was gradual, but sure. In 1829 he was chosen representa- 
tive to the state legislature from his native town. He was 
a member of that body four years, the two latter of which 
he was speaker of the house. He was endowed, in an 
eminent degree, with capacities adapted to the arduous du- 
ties and responsibilities of that station — courtesy, firmness, 
accuracy of judgment, clearness and quickness of percep- 
tion, that readily separated truth from error, and unravelled 
the complicated texture of long and exciting debate. His 
merit as a presiding oflflcer was generally acknowledged. 
Pie was elected a member of Congress in 1833, at the age 
of 29 years — young indeed for the station, as he always has 
been for every public position which he has occupied. His 
congressional life, though destitute of brilliant but empty 
show, was full of labor and usefulness. He was a member 
of the judiciary and other important committees Avhere the 
most valuable services are generally attended with the least 


display. He was ardently attached to President JackitfOftj 
;md entered with zeal and ability into the support b!f 
the administration. He was a member of the House m 
Representatives four years. In 1837, when he scarce had 
attained the age required by law for such elevatidn^ hfe 
was elected to the Senate of the United States. Afe thfe 
youngest member of that body, he took his seat among 
the greatest of American statesmen, orators, and scholart. 
Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Benton, Silas Wright, WoodbOry, 
Buchanan, and Walker were his peers. 

In that august body Iiis counsels were characterized hf 
so thorough a knowledge of human nature, by so much solid 
common sense, and by such devotion to democratic princi- 
ples, that, although the youngest of the senators, it was 
deemed important by the leaders of his party to submit 
their plans to his judgment. In 1842 he resigned his seat 
as senator for the quiet, but to him attractive scenes of 
private life, in the circle of his old friends and neighbors, 
and in the bosom of his home. In 1838 he removed frotli 
Hillsborough, and took up his residence in Concord, thfe 
capital of New Hampshire. On retiring from the Senatfe 
he returned to the practice of law, which soon became 
very extensive. As an advocate he was unrivalled. Courts 
listened to him with admiration, and juries hung with iscp- 
ture upon his lips. The earnestness with which h6 eAi- 
gaged in the cause of his client, his complete success ih. 
making it his own, his honorable bearing, his ability' tb 
.convince the hearer of his earnest desire to arrive at &ii& 
establish the truth, are doubtless the secret of his powtft. 
His labor, also, in the preparation of his cases was unretnJf- 

In 1846 he was offered, by President Polk, the officfc df 
attorney general of the United States, Which offer he f^ 


spectfully declined, alleging, as the chief reason, his 
** fixed purpose never again to be voluntarily separated 
from his family for any considerable length of time, except 
at the call of his country in time of war." The existence 
of the Mexican war he regarded as such call, and at once 
laid aside his long-cherished plans of spending the remain- 
der of his life in a private station. He enrolled himself 
among the first in a company of volunteers raised in Con- 
cord, and went through the regular drill as a private. 
Soon after he received the appointment of colonel of the 
ninth regiment, and in March, 1847, was commissioned 
brigadier general in the army, his brigade being made up 
of regiments from the extreme north, the extreme west, 
and the extreme south of the Union. He was present at 
the battle of Contreras, and all those severe contests which 
preceded the entry of General Scott, with his victorious 
army, into the city of Mexico ; and although, in the battle 
of Contreras, he suffered a severe and painful injury by the 
felling of his horse, yet he acquitted himself with so much 
ability as to gain the full confidence of his distinguished 
leader and afterwards unsuccessful rival in the presidential 
campaign. After the battle of Churubusco, Santa Anna 
having sent a flag of truce with proposals for negotiating 
for peace, General Pierce was appointed, by the commander- 
in-chief, one of the commissioners to arrange the terms of 
the armistice. Among officers and soldiers he Avas re- 
spected and beloved for his humanity, his independence, 
firmness, and promptitude, and his readiness to encounter 
any danger, or submit to any exposure of life or sacrifice 
of personal comfort. After his return to his native state, 
in accordance with an act of the legislature, he was pre- 
aented with a valuable sword, as a testimonial of his valor 
and warlike conduct. 



In June, 1852, the Democratic National Convention 
met in Baltimore to select a candidate for the presidency, 
and continued its session during four days. Several gen- 
tlemen of known and distinguished ability were prominent 
before that body, and received the zealous and unflinching 
support of their respective friends. Thirty-five ballotings 
were held, and it noAv became certain that no one of those 
hitherto supported could receive the nomination. At the 
thirty-sixth ballot the name of General Franklin Pierce 
was first brought forward in that convention by the dele- 
gation from Virginia. At the forty-ninth ballot the votes 
for General Pierce were two hundred and eighty-two 
against eleven for all other candidates. In November fol- 
lowing he was elected to the highest office within the gift 
of the i:)eople by an overwhelming and unprecedented ma- 
jority. At the time of his election he was forty-eight 
years of age, lacking a few days, being younger than any 
of his predecessors. The news of his election was received 
throughout the country with unusual demonstrations of 
joy and satisfaction. And even among his political oppo- 
nents in New England, and especially in his native state, 
not a few were proud to acknowledge the distinguished 
elevation of one of New Hampshire's most favorite sons. 
The condition of things at home and abroad render it 
quite probable that his present term of office will be one 
of the most eventful and important of any that has yet 
transpired. It is but just to hope, that in the records of 
history, as well as in the estimation of posterity, his name 
may stand high among those of his illustrious predecessors,, 
as well as of those who mav come after him. 



Major General John Stark was born in Londonderry, 
New Hampshire, August 28, 1728. His father was a na- 
tive of Glasgow, in Scotland, and removed to this country, 
it is believed, about the year 1719. In 1736 he settled in 
Derryfield, now Manchester. In 1752 young Stark, while 
on a hunting expedition, was captured by a party of St. 
Francis Indians, known also as the Abenaqui, and carried 
to Canada. He was redeemed, by a friend in Boston, for 
the sum of one hundred and three dollars. To pay this he 
went on another hunting expedition on the Androscoggin. 
During the French and Indian war, he served in Rogers's 
company of rangers, and was appointed captain in 1756. 
Hearing the news of the battle of Lexington, he immediate- 
ly repaired to Cambridge, where he received a colonel's 
commission, and on the same day enlisted eight hundred 
men. He fought bravely at the battle of Bunker Hill, 
his regiment forming a portion of the left of the American 
line — its only defence being a rail enclosure covered 
with hay. 

He went to Canada in the spring of 1776, and in the 
attack at Trenton commanded the van of the right wing. 
He was also in the battle of Princeton, where he exhibited 
that coolness and daring so peculiar to himself, and whicli 
never failed to inspire his men with indomitable courage. 
In March, 1777, he resigned his commission, and retired 
to his farm. This was owing to the fact, that, when prep- 
arations were making to form a new army in the Eastern 
States to resist the progress of Burgoyne, Congress had 
promoted several junior officers, while he was left out of 
the list. The aggravation of this neglect was greatly 
heightened by the dcgiading position in which he knew he 



Iftttat be placed in the eyes of liis brother officers, as well as 
the soldiers. The main army had gone into winter quar- 
ters in Morristowu, and Avhile many of the officers were 
enjoying their ease, he returned to New Hampshire to pro- 
cure recruits ; and having filled his regiments, he returned 
to Exeter to await orders. Although he chose to be 
wholly divested of military authority rather than suffer the 
mortification of supersedure, he nevertheless determined 
not to desert his country in the hour of peril. lie was 
active and popular, and the Assembly of New Hampshire 
regarded him as a pillar of strength in upholding the con- 
fidence and courage of the militia of the state. The As- 
sembly, notwithstanding the provisions of Congress, offered 
him the command of its oAvn forces, which he accepted, 
and once more girded on his sword, and marched to the 
battle field, stipulating, however, that he should not be 
obliged to join the main army, but that he might hang 
upon the wing of the enemy on the borders of his state, 
strike Avhen opportunity should offer, according to his own 
discretion, and be accountable to no one but the Assembly 
of New Hampshire. Joy pervaded the hearts of all when 
it was known that he had been appointed to the command. 
The militia cheerfully flocked to his standard, which was 
first raided at Charlestown, and then at Manchester, twenty 
miles north of Bennington. There he met General Lin- 
coln, who had been sent by General Schuyler to conduct 
him and his recruits to the Hudson. Stark positively re- 
fused to go, and exhibited the written terms upon which 
he had consented to enter the field in any capacity. His 
refusal was communicated to Congress, and that body re- 
solved that the instructions of the Assembly of New Hamp- 
shire were " destructive of military subordination, and 
highly prejudicial to tlie common cause ; " and the Assembly 


ij^Vas requested to "instruct General Stark to conform him- 
self to the same rules to which other general officers were 
subject whenever they were called out at the expense of 
the United States." The Assembly, however, and Gen- 
eral Stark, remained Jirm in the position they had taken ; 
and the sequel proved that what had been termed military 
insubordination was productive of great benefits to the 
country. General Stark was acting under no selfish mo- 
tives. He had been long experienced in the sudden and 
unlooked-for movememts of frontier war ; he was perfectly 
familiar with the country ; he knew better than Congress 
possibly could what measures, under the circumstances, 
were most conducive to the public welfare ; and all his 
acts were regulated in strict accordance with such knowl- 

The battle of Bennington was fought on the 16th of 
August, 1777. During the day previous, the fain had 
fallen in torrents ; but at the dawn of this eventful day, 
the clouds dispersed, and all nature lay smiling in the 
warm sunlight of a fresh summer morning. Early in the 
morning both armies were in motion. General Stark had 
arranged a plan of attack, and, after carefully reconnoi- 
tring the enemy at the distance of a mile, proceeded to act 
upon it. A body of two hundred men, under Colonel 
Nichols, was sent forward to attack the enemy's left in the 
rear, while another detachment of three hundred, under 
Colonel Hcrrick, Mere directed to fall upon the rear of the 
right wing, and to effect a junction with Nichols before 
making a general attack. Another body was ordered to 
march toAvards the right front of the enemy, in order to 
draw the attention of Colonel Baum, the commander of 
the British forces, to that point. The action commenced 
at three o'clock in the afternoon, by Colonel Nichols, who 



marched up through a deep-wooded ravine, and fell vigor- 
ously upon the rear of the enemy's left, which consisted of 
a body of Hessians strongly intrenched. At the moment 
of the first firing from Nichols's detachment, the other por- 
tions of the American army advanced to the attack, and 
General Stark, who, with the main body, was awaiting the 
movement of Nichols, now threw himself upon his horse, 
and shouted to his men to advance. They at once pressed 
forward towards the hill, where a body of tories was in- 
trenched, and having gained its summit, the whole field 
of action was within their view. The heights were wreathed 
in the smoke of the cannon and musketry, and along the 
slopes and upon the plain the enemy was forming into 
battle order. * It was at this moment that General Stark 
uttered that laconic speech, so familiar to all our readers. 
" See there, men," said he ; " there are the redcoats. Be- 
fore night they are ours, or Molly Stark miist be a widow." 
These words brought forth a mighty shout of applause from 
the eager troop, which greatly disturbed and terrified the 
loyalists in their works below. The Americans displayed 
the most undaunted courage. With their rusty firelocks, 
scarce a bayonet, not a single piece of cannon, they ven- 
tured to attack five hundred well-trained regulars, fur- 
nished with two pieces of artillery, in an advantageous 
position, completely equipped, and aided by one hundred 
Indians. Scarce had the Americans gained tlie field before 
a reenforcement of the British arrived, and again the con- 
flict was renewed. But success followed the American 
arms. Seven hundred of the enemy were captured, among 
whom was Colonel Baum, their leader. Four pieces of 
brass cannon, two hundred and fifty dragoon swords, several 
hundred stand of arms, eight bass drums, and four ammu- 
nition wagons were taken. Two hundred and seven of the 


British were slain. Of our men, one hundred were killed, 
and about as many Avounded. The horse of General Stark 
was killed under him, but himself was not injured. The 
total loss of the enemy, in killed, woiinded, and prisoners, 
was nine hundred and thirty -four, including one hundred 
and fifty-seven tories. 

This victory was hailed with joy throughout the country. 
It was an effectual check to the boasted progress of Bur- 
goyne, weakened his strong arm, and revived the spirits of 
the Americans. The conduct of General Stark was fully 
vindicated. He had earned the reputation of a wise, able, 
and successful commander. The voice of the country was 
loud in his favor, and even forced Congress to bestow upon 
him the honors which had heretofore been, at least, un- 
wisely withheld. On the 4th of October a vote of thanks 
to him and his brave army was passed, and he was ap- 
pointed a brigadier general in the army of the United 
States. He also served in Rhode Island in 1778 and 
1779, and in New Jersey in 1780. In 1781 he had the 
command of the northern division of the American army. 
In 1818 Congress voted him a pension of sixty dollars a 
month. He died May 8, 1822, aged ninety-three. He was 
buried in Manchester, and a costly monument now marks 
the place of his rest. He was a true patriot and a worthy 
citizen. When his country was out of danger, he sheathed 
his sword, and quietly retired to the private walks of life, 
refusing all public offices and employments ; thus teaching, 
by his example, that the spirit of patriotism and military 
greatness does not necessarily seek political eminence and 



Horace Greeley was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, 
on the 3d day of Februai-y, 1811, and therefore is now 
about forty-four years of age. Like many Americans, he 
is of mixed descent. His father's ancestors were English, 
and his mother, whose maiden name was Mary Woodburn, 
was a descendant of a Scotch-Irish family, the head of 
which, John Woodburn, settled on a f^vrm in Londonderry, 
New Hampshire, about A. D. 1720. The Scotch-Irish 
wei*e descended from Scotch Presbyterians who had settled 
in Ireland, and were of that party which opposed James 
II., and vigorously defended the town of Derry against the 
Stuart forces during the civil commotions which attended 
the English revolution in 1788—9. The early days of 
Horace Greeley, like those of the great body of American 
children, were passed in toil. His father was poor, and 
could not afford " the luxury of idle children." The con- 
sequence was, that Horace enjoyed but very few advantages 
for education. After he had attained his seventh year, he 
was a constant laborer upon the not very productive farm 
of his father, attending the common school two or three 
months of the year during the winter season. " As a stu- 
dent, he never saw the inside of any academy, seminary, 
or select school." But in spite of these disadvantages, 
young Greeley, when at the age of fifteen he entered a Ver- 
mont printing office, was probably far better fitted for the 
calling than most boys who have enjoyed the privileges 
of a regular education. By his own exertions he had sur- 
mounted difficulties which to many would have seemed 
insuperable. At the age of eleven he made application to 


"be admitted, as an apprentice, in a j^rinting office in White- 
hall, New York, but was refused on account of his youth, 
and lack of strength adequate to the position. Four years 
later he became an apprentice in the same business in 
Poultney, Vermont, where he remained until June, 1830, 
when the paper was discontinued. In August, 1831, then 
a i'ew months short of his majority, young Greeley arrived 
in the city of New York, where, in the course of a few 
vears, he was destined to play so important a part in the 
great drama of life, the closing scene of which is by no 
means yet enacted. Few who saw the raw and indigent 
youth, poor and coarsely clad, with but a few pence in his 
pocket, as he landed from a towboat at the foot of Broad 
Street, would have imagined that they were looking at 
one who was to control great parties and masses of men, 
over whose writings myriads of people were daily to pore, 
and whose opinions and suggestions were to be matters of 
the greatest consideration to presidents, cabinets, senators, 
authors, and all who aim at playing leading parts in the 
game of life. It is not often that fame and wealth have 
stajted from smaller or more humble beginnings. 

For about eighteen months he worked as a journeyman 
printer in the city of New York. His labors were un- 
steady, for it was not his good fortune to find constant em- 
ployment. In the spring of 1833 he went into the printing 
business with another young printer named Storey. In a 
short time after Storey Avas drowned, and his place was 
supplied by a Mr. Winchester. The business, under this 
firm, was very successful. In 1834 Mr. Greeley added to 
the establishment a newspaper called the New Yorker. 
Though it commenced with only ten subscribers, it in 
time reached to a circulation of nine thousand. Mr. Gree- 
ley's political life may be said to have commenced in 1834, 


when the country was convulsed by the difficulties and 
embarrassments which grew out of the removal of the de- 
posits from the United States Bank. In the discussions 
of these all-absorbing topics, Mr. Greeley bore a prominent 
part ; and although himself a radical of the most decided 
stamp, yet his views were conservative on this as well as 
— until recently, at least — upon all political questions. 
When the great contest of 1840 was opened, Mr. Greeley 
was found among the foremost in the formidable phalanx 
of whig laborers. 

To a weekly paper, the publication of which he com- 
menced in New York, he gave the name of the Log Cabin. 
Considering all the elements which entered into the spirit 
of this contest on either side, no better name for a "cam- 
paign paper " could have been devised. It had an im- 
mense circulation, and its influence was almost unbounded. 
In the spring of 1841, just as the whig party had estab- 
lished their leader in the chair of state, Mr. Greeley 
resolved to commence the publication of a cheap daily 
journal in New York city. The first number of this paper, 
styled the New York Tribune, was issued on the 10th of 
April, 1841 — by a singular coincidence, the very day which 
was observed as one of public mourning in New York on 
account of the death of President Harrison. From that 
time to this the circulation of this paper has been immense, 
so that it now justly stands as one of the leading journals 
cf the world. In 1848 Mr. Greeley was an ardent sup- 
porter of Henry Clay for the presidential nomination, and 
came into the support of General Tayloi", who received 
that nomination, with a good deal of reluctance. In the 
autumn of that year he was chosen a representative to Con- 
gress, to fill a vacancy which had occurred in the district 
of which he was a resident. His efforts at reform, especially 


on the mileage question, were too direct and earnest to se- 
cure to him great popularity, insomuch as legislators are 
generally conservative upon all questions of retrenchment. 
In social matters Mr. Greeley is thoroughly radical, and 
subscribes to some of the views of the celebrated Charles 
Fourier, respecting the division of labor, &c. The great 
moral reforms of the day have found in him a sincere and 
zealous advocate ; and it would Hot, indeed, be surprising 
if, at times, his zeal should overpower his discretion — a 
failing common to men who to honesty of purpose unite 
warmth of head and heart. The amount of labor which 
he performs from week to week is almost incalculable, as 
will readily appear to any who knows any thing of the New 
York Tribune — to say nothing of the large portion of his 
time taken up in lecturing in various parts of the country, 
in attending great political meetings, &c. To pass a final 
judgment upon his peculiar views or writings at the pres- 
ent time, when great and unforeseen changes are the fixed 
law of social existence, would be as unfair as to submit a 
case to the jury without giving the defendant an oppor- 
tunity to state the grounds of his defence. To judge of 
this man correctly, his mission must have been fully closed, 
his pen must have written its last word, and the immortal 
must have separated from its mortal habitation. 


John P. Hale was born in Rochester, New Hampshire, 
on the 31st day of March, 1806. His father bore the 
same Christian name, but was born in Portsmouth, Rock- 
ingham county, just previous to the declaration of inde- 

* Sec plate. 



pendence. He held a lieutenant's commission in the army, 
at the hands of General Washington, 'I'he middle name, 
Parker, came from his father's maternal progenitors. His 
mother was Lydia Clarkson O'Brien, only child of William 
O'Brien, an immigrant Irishman, who died a prisoner of 
war at the early age of twenty-three. He was of the 
heroic stock from which sprang William Smith O'Brien. 
William O'Brien and his brother will bo found honorably 
mentioned in Cooper's Naval History, as performing a 
daring feat of volunteer heroism in the capture of a Eiitish 
vessel, which had seized a lot of lumber at Machias, Maine, 
and Avhich it was carrying off without leave or license. In 
1834 the subject of our sketch was united in marriage 
with Lucy H. Lambert, by Avhom he has two living chil- 
dren, both daughters. 

John P. Hale, the father, was a lawyer. He died at 
Rochester, in the height of his professional usefulness, at 
the early age of forty- four. Fortunately, the mother of our 
subject survived her husband, and was permitted to watch 
over and direct the development of her son, until she had 
the pleasure of not only seeing him enter successfully upon 
a career of professional usefulness, but also into political 
life, under circumstances well calculated to gratify maternal 
ambition, as the subsequent facts of our sketch will indi- 
cate. She died in 1832, at the age of fifty-two years. 

Mr. Hale's primary education was partly obtained at the 
common schools of New England — those nurseries of a 
natural democracy, in which the children of the rich, from 
reading the same lesson from the same book, seated side 
by side in the same unostentatious school room, come to 
regard the children of the poor as the equals they really 
are in a common fatherhood, and to retain that regard in 
after years. 


Subsequently, and after the death of his father, Mr. 
Hale entered Exeter Academy, then under the charge of 
Dr. Abbott, "who died in 1838, after occupying that position 
of usefulness for fifty years. 

Thus prepared, he entered the venerable college of Bow- 
doin, where he graduated in 1827. Among his college 
mates were Franklin Pierce, now president of the United 
States, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, the biographer of the 
nation's chief, and consul at Liverpool. He studied law 
at Rochester and Dover, in his native state, finishing his 
studies at the latter place, in the office of Daniel M. Chris- 
tie, who stands among the ablest lawyers of the state. 
Young Hale soon found himself in a large and agreeable 
practice, the more welcome because affording him frequent 
opportunities for the display of a degree of power before 
juries in criminal trials, which showed itself, in the prog- 
ress of the celebrated government cases in Boston, known 
as the " Shadrach trials," to be of rare attainment. But 
he was not less successful iu the department of civil law, 
especially when before the jury, where his remarkable 
keenness in discerning the points at issue, and his adroit- 
ness and promptitude in meeting them, were early dis- 
played to great advantage. Among those with whom he 
occasionally met, either as associates or opponents, was Mr 
Pierce, who also has enjoyed a fine reputation in New 
Hampshire as a jury advocate. 

Mr. Hale entered political life in 1832, as a member of 
the New Hampshire House of Representatives. He was 
called into it by an independent workingman's movement 
— an incident which may be regarded as a presage of his 
future services in the same direction ; for his congressional 
speeches and votes will clearly indicate that his fellow- 
citizens did not mistake their man in choosing him as the 


champion of their neglected interests. The same year he 
* was selected as a member of the nominating state con- 
vention of the democratic party, and thenceforward he be- 
came distinctively identified with tlieir organization. In 
1834, though only twenty-eight years of age, he had al- 
ready attracted the attention of the then president, General 
Jackson, in a way Avhich induced his appointment tp the 
responsible position of United States district attorney for 
New Hampshire. 

In 1843 he was elected to Congress on a general ticket, 
with Messrs. Burke, Norris, and Reding. It was during 
this Congress that the Texas struggle began. Mr. Hale 
took a fearless stand against annexation, and immediately 
addressed a letter to his constituents, fully and candidly 
explaining his motives, and denouncing the project as, in 
his opinion, a scheme for strengthening slavery by extend- 
ing it into territory from which it had been excluded by 
the laws of Mexico. This bold step was censured by 
the state convention assembled in February, 1845, where 
his nomination for reelection, previously made with una- 
nimity, was reconsidered. In 1846 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the state legislature from Dover, and at once made 
speaker of the House of Representatives. During this ses- 
sion he was chosen United States senator for the term of 
six years dating from March 4, 1847. On returning to 
the Senate chamber, he found himself associated with four 
members of that body who had been pupils at Exeter Acad- 
emy, viz., Daniel Webster, Lewis Cass, Alpheus Felch, 
and John A. Dix, all of whom had been trained under the 
venerable Dr. Abbott, who often observed, with apparent 
self-gratulation, that he had " five boys in the Senate, and 
pretty good boys, too." Mr. Hale's career in that august 
body is too well known to his countrymen to need descrip- 


tion here. Suffice it to say that he on. all occasions showed 
himself a fearless champion of liberty, according to his 
views, and an uncompromising foe to the encroachments of 
slavery, manifesting the utmost patience and good humor 
under all the severe, and sometimes violent attacks made 
upon his pecuUar principles by political opponents. In his 
replies to his " pitted antagonist," Mr. Foote, occur many 
passages which, for eloquence, wit, and good nature, yet 
withering sarcasm, are seldom surpassed. As a public 
speaker he is prompt, energetic, and direct. He is never 
profound, but eminently practical, forcible, and methodical 
in his own way, which is founded neither upon established 
rules nor precedents ; the attempt to follow which would 
involve any one but himself in inextricable difficulties. 

His oratorical powers are unquestionably great. He 
gains that cont)ol over his audience which changes aversion 
into breathless attention, and the antipathy which, at the 
outset, would denounce him as a fanatic, into generous sym- 
pathy. He Avorries his opponent into petulance and con- 
fusion, and at the same time shoAvs toAvards him the utmost 
kindness and good Avill. 

The firmness, constancy, and ability Avith which he de- 
fended his position against his southern opponents, gained 
for him the confidence and esteem of the " free soil " par- 
ty ; and at a convention held in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, on 
the 11th day of August, 1852, he Avas unanimously nomi- 
nated for the presidency of the United States, notAvith- 
standing his positive refusal to stand as candidate for that 
high office. At the close of his senatorial term, in March, 
1853, he removed to Ncav York city, Avhere he still resides, 
and is now actively engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion, in company with a distinguished gentleman of the 
New York bar. 



Our limits will allow us to make mention of but few 
of the various literary and benevolent societies which are 
found in our state. The following are the most important 
of those of which we have been able to obtain reliable in- 
formation : — 

New Hampshire Medical Society. — This society was 
incorporated February 11, 1791. It was formed for the 
purpose of diffusing a knowledge of medical science in 
this state, and for discouraging empiricism and quackery. 
It has a library of considerable value, which is divided 
among the district societies. This society has a close con- 
nection with the Medical School^t Dartmouth College. Its 
influence upon the profession has been most salutary. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. — This society was 
incorporated June 13, 1823. The library and cabinet are 
located in the hall over the Merrimack County Bank, at 
Concord. The society has published six volumes of col- 
lections, containing a large amount of interesting and val- 
uable matter. 

New Hampshire Bible Society. — The object of this so- 
ciety, as set forth in its constitution, is " to promote the 
more extensive distribution of the Holy Bible, by procur- 
ing and distributing gratuitously among the needy and des- 
titute, or selling at reduced prices, according to the dis- 
cretion of the board of directors, Bibles and Testaments in 
the English language." It was established in 1811. The 
total amount of receipts from that time to the present is 
$110,986.22. The receipts for the year ending August 23, 
1854, were $6947.49. 

New Hampshire Missionary Society. — This society wm 


instituted in September, 1801. It was designed "to fur- 
nish preaching and religious instruction to destitute 
churches in New Hampshire." The total amount raised 
in the state from 1802 to 1851, inclusive, was |170,403.18. 
Of this sum upwards of .^141,000 were expended in New 
Hampshire and vicinity, and the remainder in the great 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. — The first lodge of 
the order in this state was instituted at Nashua, September 
11, 1843, under the name and title of Granite Lodge No. 1. 
The Grand Lodge of New Hampshire now embraces under 
its jurisdiction forty subordinate lodges. There are also six 
Encampments and a Grand Encampment. The following 
abstract of the returns made by the subordinate lodges for 
the year ending June 30, i854, will exhibit the condition 
of the order at that time : — 

Number of contributing members, 2240. Amount paid 
for relief of brothers, $2674.42 ; do. widowed families, 
$75.04 ; do. burying the dead, $667.51. Total amount 
paid for relief, $3416.97. 

Free and Accepted Masons. — This order reports in 
New Hampshire one grand chapter, one grand lodge, four 
royal arch chapters, and twenty-four subordinate lodges, 
with 931 members. Number initiated during the year 
ending June, 1854, 191. 


The Ashuelot Railroad extends from Hinsdale to Keene, 
23j miles. It is at present leased to the Connecticut River 
Railroad Company, which keep it in repair, and pay a year- 
ly rent of $35,000. Whole cost of the road, exclusive 
of its equipments, $499,681.17. 


The Atlantic and St. Lawrence lliiilroad extends from 
Portland, Maine, to Island Pond, Vermont, entering this 
state just north of the White Mountains, and following the 
courses of the Upper Ammonoosuc River until it reaches 
the Connecticut. The length of that part of the road 
which is in this state, is 54^ miles. 

The Boston, Concord, and Montreal Railroad, incorpo- 
rated in 1844, extends from Concord to Wells River, Ver- 
mont, 92| miles. The first section was opened in 1848. 
Whole cost of road and equipments, $'2,313,286.78. 

The Boston and Elaine Railroad, incorporated in 1835, 
extends from Boston, through Exeter, Dover, and other 
places, and unites with the Portsmouth, Saco, and Portland 
Railroad. Whole length, 14^ miles, of which 37f miles 
are in this state. Whole cost of- construction and equip- 
ments, .$4,180,960.91, of w^hich the sum of $825,660.68 
was expended in this state. 

The Cheshire Raihoad, incorporated in 1844, extends 
from Fitchburg, Massachusetts, to Bellows Falls, Vermont, 
53i miles, 43 miles of its entire length being in this state. 
Whole cost of road and equipments, .$3,119,510.03. 

The Cocheco Railroad extends from Dover to Alton Bay, 
at the southern extremity of Winnipiseogee Lake, 28 
miles. Incorporated in 1847. Total cost of road and 
fixtures, .$767,360.93. 

The Concord Riiilroad, incorporated in 1835, extends 
from Nashua, up the Merrimack, to Concord, 34j miles. 
Opened for travel September 1, 1842. Cost of the road, 
including equipments, $1,412,576.91. 

The Contoocook Valley Railroad, incorporated in 1849, 
extends from Contoocookville, in Ilopkinton, to Hillsbor- 
ough Bridge, 14^ miles. Total expenditures, $259,609.62. 

The Eastern Railroad, incorporated in 1836, extends 


from Boston to Portsmouth, 54 miles ; 16| miles in New 

The Great Falls and Conway Railroad, incorporated in 
1844, extends from Great Falls to Milton, 12^ miles. 
When fully completed, it will extend to Wakefield line, 8 
miles farther. Total expenditures up to April, 1854, 

The Manchester and Lawrence Railroad extends from 
Manchester to Lawrence, Massachusetts, 27 miles. In- 
corporated in 1847. 

The ^lerrimack and Connecticut River Railroad, incor- 
porated January, 1853, includes the New Hampshire Cen- 
tral and the Concord and Claremont Railroads. Distance 
from Manchester to Hillsborough Bridge, 33 miles ; from 
Bradford to Concord, 25. 

The Nashua and Lowell Railroad extends from Nashua 
to Lowell, Massachusetts about 15 miles. Incorporated in 
1835. Cost of the road and furniture, $651,214.88. The 
corporation have leased the Wilton Railroad for five years 
fnvn April 1, 1853. 

The Northern Railroad extends from Concord to West 
Lebanon, 69 miles. The lower section was opened for 
travel in 1846. Incorporated in 1844. The Franklin and 
Bristol Railroad, running from Franklin to Bristol, 12^ 
miles, is now united with this. The latter was incorporated 
in 1846. 

The Peterborough and Shirley Railroad, from Groton, 
Massachusetts, to Mason Village, in Mason, 23 miles. 

The Portsmouth and Concord Railroad extends from 
Portsmouth to Concord, 47 miles. Incorporated in 1845. 
Cost of road and equipments, ^1,075,575.56. 

The Sullivan Railroad extends from Bellows Falls to 
Windsor, Vermont, 26 miles. Incorporated in 1846. 


The White Mountains luiih-oad extends from Wells 
River to Littleton, about 20 miles. 

The Wilton Railroad extends from Nashua to Wilton, 
Ibj miles. It is leased to the Nashua and Lowell Railroad 

The Worcester and Nashua Railroad, from Worcester, 
Massachusetts, to Nashua, 45 miles, of which distance only 
6^ miles are in this state. Total cost, $1,352,045.79.. 
Expended in New Hampshire, $116,058.51. 

S V 




Of the condition of the several Banks in New Hampshire, as they existed on 
the first Monday of December, A. D. 1854, as furnished by the Secretary 
of State. 




Belknap County, 





Connecticut River, 


Carroll County, 



Granite State, 

Great Falls, 

Indian Head, 





Merrimack County,. . . . 


Mechanics & Traders,., 



New Ipswch 

Piscataqua Exchange,. 




Salmon Falls, 

State Capital, 


Sugar River, 



White Mountain, 




Meredith Brida 


Claremont, .. . 
Sanbornton, . . 
Charles town,.. 

Dover , 





Somers worth,. 


Lancaster,. ... 







New Ipswich,. 
Portsmouth,. . 


Rochester,. .. . 
Portsmo\ith,. . 





























3 B ? 

a fi 















" The NcAV Hampshire Gazette," Portsmouth. The 
first number of this paper was issued in October, 1756, by 
Daniel Fowle, who owned and published it until 1784. 
It was the pioneer newspaper in New Hampshire, and is 
the oldest existing one in the United States, having contin- 
ued the even tenor of its way, without interruption, for the 
space of one hundred years. Fowle was succeeded by 
John Melcher, who conducted it until 1802, when he sold 
out his interest to N. S. and Washington Pierce. The 
subsequent proprietors were Messrs. Hill and Gardner, 
Hill, Hill and Pierce, William Weeks, Beck and Foster, 
Beck and Greenleaf, Laighton and Greenleaf, Virgin and 
Moses, S. W. Moses, William P. Hill, and Gideon H. Rund- 
lett. The present editor and proprietor, Mr. Edward N. 
Fuller, commenced its publication in 1852. It is demo- 
cratic in politics. 

" The Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics." 
The publication of this venerable journal was commenced 
June 4, 1793, under the title of " The Portsmouth Ora- 
cle," and was issued semiweekly, by Charles Peirce editor 
and proprietor, until January, 1796. It was then enlarged 
and published weekly. Its subsequent proprietors were 
W. Mason and Daniel Treadwell, who sold their interest 
in the establishment, September 25, 1813, to Charles Tu- 
rell, when it received its present title. In July, 1821, it 
was transferred to N. A. Haven, Jr., who conducted it un- 
til July 1, 1825, when it was purchased by T. H. Miller 
and C. W. Brewster. In July, 1832, Mr. Brewster be- 
came sole proprietor, by whom it has been owned end pub- 
lished from that time to the present. 

" The New Hampshire Sentinel " was established in 


March, 1799, in Keene, by John Prentiss, and was managed 
by him as editor and proprietor until the close of the year 
1847, a period of 48 years. In January, 1848, John W. 
Prentiss became proprietor, and conducted the paper until 
June, 1853, when it passed into the hands of Albert God- 
frey, who is the present editor and proprietor. The Sen- 
tinel was " federal " in politics, and advocated the doc- 
trines of Washington, the elder Adams, and John Taylor 
Gilman, and maintained its character as a federal paper 
until the period of Monroe's administration, Avhen party 
names fell into disuse. It supported John Quincy Adams, 
and has been devoted to the interests of the whig party 
since its formation to the present time. 

"The Parmer's Cabinet" was established at Amherst, 
November 11, 1802, by Joseph Gushing, Esq., and was 
managed by him until October 10, 1809, when he removed 
to Baltimore, and was succeeded in the establishment by 
the present senior editor, Richard Boylston, Esq., who has 
been connected with it for 45 years. During most of this 
long period the paper was under his entire charge ; he was 
unaided by a single '•' dollar's worth " of hired or gratuitous 
editorial. He labored constantly with his own hands in 
preparing the paper for the press, in directing the printed 
sheets for delivery, besides attending to the transient job 
work of the office, keeping the accounts, and attending a 
bookstore — an example of industry worthy to be followed 
by some of his younger brethren of the quill. In January, 
1849, the proprietorship was assumed by Edward D. Boyl- 
ston, his son, who has since been its principal manager, 
although the name of the father has been associated as co- 
editor. In politics the tone of the paper is mild ; it is 
chiefly devoted to moi;al and religious subjects. 

" The New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette." This 

NEWSPAVEr..s. 559 

journal was established in Concord, in i809, by Isaac Hill, 
and was managed by him several years. It is now published 
weekly by William Butterfield, This for many years had 
an extensive circulation in New Hampshire, and is one of 
the leading democratic papers in the st.ate. 

** The Congregational Journal," a religious paper, pub- 
lished in Concord, was established in 1819, and was at first 
called " The New Hampshire Depository," afterwards " The 
New Hampshire Observer," and " The Fanoplist." The 
present editor is Rev. Benjamin P. Stone, D. D. 

" The Dover Enquirer," a whig journal, established in 
Dover, was first published in February, 1828. Editor and 
proprietor, George Wadleigh. 

" The Dover Gazette and Strafford Advertiser," a demo- 
cratic paper, published in Dover. The first number was 
issued December 14, 1825. Editor and proprietor, John 
T. Gibbs. 

" The Exeter News Letter," a weekly paper, published 
in Exeter, was established in 1831. Editor, Franklin 
Lane, M. D. 

"The Democrat" was first published in April, 1843. 
It is established in Manchester, and is an advocate of '^ free 
soil " principles. John H. Goodale editor. 

" The Cheshire Republican," a democratic paper, pub- 
lished in Keene. It was ^rst established in "Walpole, 
about 30 years ago. Horatio Kimball editor. 

" The IManchester Daily Mirror," established at Man- 
chester, October 28, 1850. John B. Clarke editor and 
proprietor. " The Dollar Weekly Mirror " is published at 
the same oftice, under the same editorial charge. The first 
number was issued February 1, 1851. Both papers are 
independent in politics. 

" The Daily Chronicle " was established in Portsmouth, 


August 2, 1852. " The Weekly Chronicle " was first is- 
sued January 1, 1853. Both papers are mdependent in 
politics and religion. Published by Millers and Gray. 

" Nashua Gazette and Hillsborough County Advertiser," 
founded upon the " Nashua Constellation," a whig paper, 
started in 1827, by Brown and Wiggin, and afterwards 
published by Thayer and Wiggin, and by Andrew E. 
Thayer. It then passed into the hands of Israel Hunt, Jr., 
who changed its politics, and assumed for it its present name. 
It has since been published by Merrill and Dinsmore, C. 
P. Danforth, W. H. Hughes, W. Butterfield, and B. B. 
and F. P. Whittemore. It is now under the successful 
management of the Messrs. Whittemore. 

" The New Hampshire Telegraph " was founded in 
1832, by Alfred Beard, who was succeeded by his brother, 
Albin Beard, the present publisher. This paper is whig 
in politics, enjoys a well-earned reputation and extensive 

" The Oasis " was established in January, 1843, by O. 
D. Murray, and A. I. Sawtelle. During the same year 
Mr. Sawtelle sold his interest to Horatio Kimball. In 
1849 Mr. Murray was succeeded by J. E. Dodge ; and in 
1851 Mr. Kimball retired, giving place to S. H. Noyes. 
Since January, 1851, it has been conducted by Dodge and 
Noyes. It early attained the largest local circulation as 
an independent family journal, and commands a respectable 
and increasing patronage. 

" The New Hampshire Statesman," Concord. This is a 
weekly journal, and was established in January, 1823, 
by Luther Roby, who conducted it for several years. It is 
now published by Messrs McFarland and Jenks. It is the 
leading whig paper in the state, and aside from its politics, 
contains a large variety of agricultural, moral, and religious 


"The National Eagle." This paper was established in 
Claremont, in October, 1834, under the direction of a 
committee chosen at a whig convention for Sullivan coun- 
ty, the year previous. The first number was issued by 
John H. Warland editor, and Samuel L. Chase printer. 
In 1830 the establishment was purcliascd and managed by 
Messrs. Warland and Joseph Weber. In 1843 Mr. Weber 
became sole proprietor, and conducted the paper until Oc- 
tober, 1846, Avhen Messrs. Charles Young and John S. 
Walker purchased the entire establishment, Mr. Walker 
taking charge of the editorial department. In 1849 Mr. 
Walker sold his interest to Mr. J. H. Brewster, who man- 
iged the paper in connection with Mr. Young, until April, 
1854, when the establishment passed into the hands of Mr. 
Otis F. R. Waite, its present proprietor. It is devoted to 
the interests of the whig party. 

'* The Farmer's jNIonthly Visitor " was first published in 
Concord, January 15, 1839, under the charge and propri- 
etorship of the late Governor Hill. After his decease the 
establishment was sold and located in Manchester, under 
the editorial charge of C. E. Potter, who continued its 
publication during the years 1852 and 1853. On the 1st 
of January, 1854, this paper was united with " The Granite 
Farmer," under the title of " The Granite Farmer and Vis- 

" The Coos County Democrat," Lancaster, was estab- 
lished September 11, 1838, and was published about two 
years and a half by James M. Rix and James R. AVhitte- 
more. Afterwards Mr. Whittemore became sole proprie- 
tor, and so continued until April 5, 1842, when James ^I. 
Rix purchased the establishment, and has continued sole 
editor and proprietor xmtil the present time. The paper 
is democratic in politics. 


"The New Hampshire Argus and Spectator," Newport. 
This paper is now in the 31st volume of its pubHcation. Its 
predecessors were "The Newport Spectator " and " The New 
Hampshire Argus," both of Avhich journals were merged 
into one under the title above given. " The Spectator " 
was originally established in Claremont, in January, 1823, 
by Cyrus Barton, but was soon after located in Newport, 
-Vrhich town was about to be made the county seat of the 
new county of Sullivan. A short time after the removal 
to Newport, Mr. Dunbar Aldrich became a partner vv'ith Mr. 
Barton. Afterwards the partnership consisted of Messrs. 
Barton, Benjamin French, and Cyrus Metcalf. Subse- 
quently, the paper was conducted by Messrs. French and 
Metcalf during the space of a year or more, when Mr. 
Metcalf retired, and was succeeded by Simon Brown. " The 
Argus " was established in Claremont in 1833, removed to 
Newport in 1834, and was edited by Edmund Burke. 
The papers 'Were united in July, 1835, and managed by 
Mr. Burke until January, 1838, when he was succeeded 
by H. E. Baldwin and William English. Mr. English, 
soon leaving, was succeeded by Samuel C. Baldwin, and 
the establishment thus continued until 1840, when it was 
transferred to Messrs. Carlton and Harvey, its present ed- 
itors and proprietors, who have conducted the paper for 
nearly sixteen years. It is democratic in politics. 

" The Belknap Gazette." The publication of this paper 
was commenced by .Charles Lane, at Meredith Bridge, Au- 
gust 5, 1840, as an organ of the democratic party. March 
1, 1847, the establishment was purchased by a company of 
gentlemen, when the politics of the paper midcrwent a 
change. Since that time it has been devoted to the inter- 
ests of the whig party. The present editor and proprietor 
is R. C. Stevens, Esq. ■' The Belknap Gazette " was the 


only whig paper in the state which openly sustained the 
views of Mr. Webster in relation to the compromise meas- 
ures of 1850. 

" The Granite State Whig," established in Lebanon, 
about the year 184G. It was formerly called " The White 
Mountain JEgis," and was published in Lancaster. It 
was afterwards establislied in Haverhill under the title 
of the "Whig and ^gis." From this place it was re- 
moved to Lebanon, when it received its present name. 
George S. Towlc editor and proprietor. It is whig in pol- 

" The Northern Advocate," Claremont, established in 
1848. Joseph Weber editor and proprietor. Politics, 

" The Rockingham Messenger," published in Ports- 
mouth. First number issued October 7, 1847. Politics, 
free democratic. Thomas J. Whittemore editor. 

" The Union Democrat," Manchester. A democratic 
paper, first issued in 1851. Campbell and Gilmore pub- 
lishers ; J. M. Campbell editor. 

" The Great Falls Weekly Journal " Avas established at 
Great Falls in 1847. Independent in politics. James T. 
Furber editor and proprietor. 

" The Morning Star," a religious journal, published in 
Dover, by the Freewill Baptist Printing Establishment. 
It was first published in Limerick, Maine, and was located 
in Dover in 18o4. William Burr agpnt. 

"The New Hampshire Phoenix," established at Con- 
cord, January 1, 1854. Devoted to temperance, educa- 
tion, and news. Rev. Daniel Lancaster editor and propri- 

" The American News," published in Keene. Devoted 
to temperance, education, agriculture, and general miscel- 


lany. In politics, republican. S. Woodward editor and 

" The New Hampshire Democrat " was established at 
Meredith Bridge, January 1, 1849. It was published by 
Messrs. Keach and Seaver, and edited by the late Jere- 
miah Elkins, Esq. Mr. Elkins continued in the editorial 
department but a short time. May 23, 1850, Mr. Seaver 
sold out, and Mr. Keach became sole proprietor. January 
1, 1851, the establishment was purchased by Mr. Samuel 
C. Baldwin, who conducted the establishment alone until 
November 12, 1851, M'hen David A. Farrington purchased 
half the establishment. It is democratic in politics. 

" The Ammonoosuc Reporter," Littleton, established 
in July, 1852, by F. A. Eastman, who conducted it until 
September, 1854, when it passed into the hands of Messrs. 
Bass and Churchill, its present proprietors. Politics, dem- 

" The Semi- Weekly State Capital Reporter " was estab- 
lished in Concord, by Cyrus Barton, January 1, 1852. In 
May, 1853, Amos Hadley was associated with Mr. Barton, 
and in July, 1853, " The Weekly Reporter " and « The 
Old Guard " were united, and Hon. Edmund Burke be- 
came an extensive contributor. In politics this paper is 
democratic, though it is opposed to the administration of 
President Pierce. 

" The Baptist Observer," established in Concord, in 
April, 1852, by Ervin B. Tripp publisher and proprietor, 
and Rev. Edmund Worth editor. Until January, 1853, it 
was issued semi-monthly. It was afterwards enlarged, and 
issued weekly. In March, 1854, Messrs. Norton and 
Crawford became proprietors and publishers, and in October 
the firm was changed to Crawford and Chick. The pres- 
ent editor is Rev. William Lamson, of Portsmouth. 


" The Independent Democrat," established in Concord, 
in May, 1845, as an independent democratic paper, in op- 
position to the annexation of Texas. From its commence- 
raent to the present time it has been under the editorial 
charge of George G. Fogg, Esq. 

" The Democratic Republican," Haverhill. This paper 
vras established in July, 1828, by Hon. John R. Reding 
editor and proprietor. It was first called " The Democrat- 
ic Republican and General Advertiser," the latter portion 
of the title being dropped after a year or two. Mr. Red- 
ing continued in charge of the paper until April, 1841, 
when he was succeeded by Mr. H. AV. Reding, the pres- 
ent editor and proprietor. It is devoted to the interests of 
the democratic party, 

" The American Ballot," a weekly journal, established 
in Portsmouth, in the summer of 1854, and devoted to the 
interests of the American party. 

" The Stars and Stripes," established in Manchester, 
in October, 1854, under the charge of Messrs. Tenney 
and Stevens. An organ of the American party. 




AsiTCLE 1. All men born free ; all govern- 
ment originates from the people. 

Art. 2. Natural rights of men. 

Art. 3. Natural rights when surrendered. 

Art. 4. Some rights unalienable, as those 
of conscience. 

Art. 5. Religious freedom recognized. 

Art. 6. The support of the ministry. 

Art. 7. Sovereignty of the state. 

Art. 8. All officers are servants of the 

Art. 9. No office to be hereditarj-. 

Art. 10. Government for the benefit and 
under the control of the people. 

Art. 11. Freedom of elections. 

Art. 12. Rights and duties of citizens. 
Property taken for public uses. Laws 
when binding. 

Art. 13. Exemption from bearing arms. 

Art. 14. Every person ought to find a 
certain and speedy remedy at law. 

Art. 15. Rights of persons prosecuted for 

Art. 16. No jierson to be tried after ac- 
quittal for the same offence, nor for a 
capital oflence except by a jury. 

Art. 17. Trial to be in the county where 
offence committed. 

Art. 18. Penalties to be proportioned to 

Art. 19. ReRul?.tion of search and seizure. 

Art. 20. Trial by jury regulated. 

Art. 21. Jurors to be carefully selected 
and fully paid. 

Art. 22. The liberty of the press. 

Art. 23. Retrospective laws prohibited. 

Art. 24. Importance of the militia. 

Art. 2o. Standing armies dangerous. 

Art. 26. The military subject to the civil 

Art. 27. Soldiers, how quartered. 

.\rt. 28. All taxes to be levied by the 

Art. 29. Laws suspended by the legisla- 
ture only. 

Art. 30. Freedom of speech and debate. 

Art. 31. Object of the assembly of the 

Art. 3-?. Right of the people to assemble. 

Art. 33. Excessive bail and fines and cru 
el punishments forbidden. 

Art. 34. Martial law, when exercised. 

Art. 35 The judiciary system. 

Art. 36. Economy enjoined. 

Art. 37. The executive, legislative, and 
judicial powers to be kept separate. 

Art. 38. Recurrence to fundamental prin- 


1. Declaration of sovereignty. 


2. Legislative power, how vested 

3. Meeting of the legislature. 

• The fonner constitution, having been approved by the people, was established by coi 
vention, SIst October, 1783, and took effect on the first Wednesday of June, 1784. 




4. Power fo constituto courts. 

5. Power to establish lawfi. 

6. Valuation, when and how taki^n. 

7. No member to be of counsel. 

8. Doofd of galleries to be open. 


9. Representation to b« equal. 

10. Towu'^ may be classed. 

11. Special iMjtliority may be given. 
rj. Election to be held in March. 

13. Qualification of voters. 

14. Q.ualificutions of rcpre^sontaiivefe'. 

15. Members to bo paid. 

16. Vacancits, how filled. 

17. Power of inipeachitiont. 

16. Money bills to ori|;iiiatc in house. 

19. Power to adjourn. 

20. What is a quorum. 

21. Exeniptiuu from arrest 

i2. House to be judge of its own proceed- 

23. Imprisonment for contcnipi. 

'24. Journals and laws to b